(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The street railway review"



! Mil 



mm 



■'-'v^ 






m 



tllf 

mt 



■ 



■ 






\l, \ fe 



Flectrlc Railway Review 

FORMERLY THE STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



The name of this publication was changed with the July, 
1906, issue. This index includes the subjects appearing in 
the Street Railway Review, January to June, 1906, and 
in the Electric Railway Review, July to December, 1906. 



VOLUME XVI 

January to December, 1906 



THE WILSON COMPANY 

Monadnock Block 

Chicago 



GENERAL INDEX 



PAGING BY MONTHS. 

January 1 to 58 

February 59 tn 122 

March 123 to 178 

April 179 to ! 

May 235 to IJ6 

June 297 to : :0 

July 361 to 1 16 

August 447 to 

September 517 to 580 

October 5S1 to 660 

Daily Issues 661 to 8S4 

November 885 to 958 

I »ie<'inl>i-i- 959 to 1022 



Accidents — 

Claim Agents' Convention eS54 

Claim Department and the Public, 

Claim Agents' Convention 745, 758 

Inside Guard Rails as a Safeguard 965 

Low Record, Brooklyn Rapid Transit 

Co 482 

New York Subway 32u. 504 

1 onal Injury Claims. American 

Claim Agents' Convention SCO 

Prevention of. By Fred W. Johnson.. s72 
Fraudulent Accident Swindlers. Con- 
victions of 24 

West Jersey & Seashore e890, 943 

Accounting — 
Accounts and Statistics, Object of. 

By J. L. Burgess 332 

Adding Machine for Labor and Mate- 
rial Accounting, South Chicago City 

Railway 713 

Capital Expenditures, Accountants' 

Convention S04 

Construction Cost 262 

Park .337 

Paternalism in ,;, q 

Scientific. By Seymour Walton 204 

Complete, Necessity for e584 

Proposed Classification of Mohawk 

Valley Co's 175 

Standard Classification, Accountants' 

Convention 7S7 

Adams, II. H. — 
American Convention — 

Address 7S1 

Engineering Convention — 

Address e 693, 707 

Ballast 706 

Control Apparatus 702 

Standardization 730, 731 

Adding Machine, Labor and Material 

A "inting. South Chicago City Rv, 713 

Advertising Hotel e317 

Airbrake Instruction Card, Denver Citv 

Tramway ' +994 

Airbrake Practice. Westinghouse Im- 
provements SSI 

Airbrakes. Improvements in. By Wal- 
ter V. Turner 192 

Air Compressors. National »575 

Portable. General Electric »57s 

Air Line. Chicago-New York e4". 

New York Pittsburg & Chicago 569 

Air Resistance of Cars e364 

Albany (N. Y.i. United Traction Co.', 

Profit-Sharing e449 

Aid Tman, C A. — 

Engineering Convention — 

Ballast 7115 

Ties, Poles and Posts 703. *717 

Alternating Current. Storage Batteries. e365 
Amusements. Twin City Rapid Transit 

CO 279 

Amusements. See also 1 arks. 
Anchors — 

Hercules *172, *516 

Stombaugh Guy "172 

Wapak Guy *294 

Anderson, E. H. — 
Engineering Convention — 

Economy in Car Equipment. Weights 

and Schedules 734, *73S 

Anniston Electric & Gas Co., Parks.... *72 

Annunciator. Aikman "211 

Apparatus, Crocker-Wheeler 721 

Armature Cleaning. Dust Conveyor for..*635 

Armature Coils. Repairing of 55 1 

Armature Shafts. Splicing. Indiana Co- 
lumbus & Eastern Traction 910 

Armature Shafts, Straightening of *531 






Armature Truck .V- Hoist, Dayton & 

Xenia Transit Railway *898 

Arnold, Bi I. Subway P) ms for 1 1. 

cago 407 

Arnold Co 294 

V.ss< 11 iations — 

n Mi ch nic 1 & Ele trical 

fhird An u 1 Conv ntion 1 1 6, 117 

A i> tcan Stri I and Interurban Rail- 
way — 

Committeemen 1 • :, 1 

Convention — 

Accountant's Association Work, W. 

B. Brockway 78] 

Addresses of Welcome — 

Badger, 1 1 witl C 

Bassell. John Y 77S 

Laylin, Lewis C e773. 776 

Attendance e85 1 

Badge *074 

Badges and Uniforms 820, 832 

Banquet .' 816 

Bulletin. Second 431 

Car Wiring 775 

1 lircular 645 

Claim Agents Association Work, 

S. L. Rhoades e774, 793 

Columbus lO.) as Convention City 

e2 in. 220. *675 

Complaints. Public. Handling of. 

I -,, ggg 

Discipline of Trainmen B19,' 863 

Discussion of Papers e890 

Election of Officers son 

Electric Railway and the City 870 

Electric Railways in Sparsely Set- 
tled Communities eS14. 817. "834 

Electric Traction Heavy 817, 824 

Elevated Railways and Their Bear- 
ings on Heavy Electric Trac- 
tion eS14, .817. *S21 

Employes and the Young Men's 

' Ihristian Association S19 

Engineering Association Work, H. 

H. Adams 7.81 

Executive Committee, Report 778 

Freight and Express Service. In- 
terurban e813, M7, son 

Insurance 783. 795, e888 

Leaks Between Passenger a a 

Treasurer e694, 859, 867 

Mail. Compensation for Carrying 8 19 
Manufacturers' Association Work, 

C. C. Peine 782 

Municipal Ownership 859 

President's Address e77:i, 770, 778 

Programme 313. 501. 505. 071 

Public Relations 859 

Rules. Committee on 820 

Secretary's I: port 77.8 

Signs for Car-Stops. Committee on 860 

Standard Code of Rules 854 

Standardization Committee 200 

Standardization of Equipment 7s3 

Subiects 783. 799 

Tickets and Rates ,819. s-jr, 

Traffic Promotion Committee 318 

Traffic. Promotion of e774. 783, 791 

Trainmen, 1 'isciplin i of 819 13 

Trainmen. Selection of 819. 827 

Transportation Electric Evolution 

of 819, 8.;i 

Treasurer's R iori 778 

Uniforms - - ' ' 
E3 ecuth 1 ■ Ci '■ Me-ting of. . . . 90 

Executive Offi *oos 

Histoi V I'm ' v : 30 

Membi rship 070 

Municipal Ow Committee 433 

Plans 133 

Report of 1" 2 11 

American Stre> d Interurban Rail- 

wa e Acci unti 

Classificati I \ ints* e5Sl 

Convention 
Accounting of Capital Expendi- 
tures SOI 

Accounts, Standard Classification 

Address by W. Caryl Ely 927 

Address of Welcome 757 

Depreciation. Address by W Caryl 

Ely e885 

Depreciation as Applicable to Elec- 
tric Railways e813, 820 

Election of Officers 7s7 

Executive Committee, Reporl .... 757 
President's Address ■ 725. 747 



Programme 292, 0,1 

< !ui lo 797. e814 

Etepi irt 757 

Statistics. Use "f Curves in 

7s 7. *792 . 313 

■ 1 teport 7.7 , 

1 il' I I i nig of . . . . 133 

Executivi Officers *668 

Ninth Annual Meeting, Report of... 134 
Ri i rence Numbers Retai led ', 

Tribute to Past Presidents 568 

American Street and Interurban Rail- 
wa v Claim Agents' — 
i 'i invention — 
Accidents, Instructions R warding e854 

Addles.- oi" Welcome 708 

Claim Agent's Work of the fu- 
ture 758. 760 

Claim Department. M thods of 

Management 7SS, 799 

Claim Department and the Public. 

715. 70s 

Election of Officers ,ss 

Employment Committee 7ss 

Personal Injury Claims 900 

President's Address eS9 1 710 

Programme C71 

i n, stion P.ox 758 

Quick or I lei i ' "•! Sill' mail- 

e720. 758 

Statistical Bureau. Relation to 

Claim Agents' Work 857 

Executive Officers *668 

American Street and Interurban Rail- 
way Engineering — 
Constitution and By-Laws, New... 340 
Convention — 

Address of Welcome 701 

Addresses — 

John I Beggs 701 

W. Caryl Ely 7nl 

James H. McGraw 701 

Cables. Underground 7;.: 737 

Control Apparatus i '1 

Economy in Car Equipment. 

Weights and Schedules. .734. *73S 

Election of Officers 1 7 , 

Engineers and Managers e693 

Gas Engines o725. 732. * 7 .", a 925 

Maintena nc ■ ami Inspi ction of 

Electrical Equipment 720 

President's Address eO'.Oi 707 

Programme 671 

Question Box '774. «788 

Secretary's Report 701 

Standardization e725, 729. 75::. 7s7 

Ties, Poles' and Posts 703. «717 

Treasurer's Report 701 

Turbines and Engines, R lative 

Economy of 7::::. 7:'.». »741 

Executive Officers *668 

Standardization Committee 200, i 523 

Standing Committees 241 

American Street and Interurban Rail- 
way Manufacturers' 134 

Address of c. C. I i irce I '..-fore 

Mean Convention 

Exhibit, Columbus Convention... 

Executive Meeting 264 

E?xecu tii Officers "CSS 

Benefit. Request for Information Re- 

I " 

Canadian Streel Railway 133, 1009 

■ '. ' tral Electi c Railway 10 

'I.m g 'S 641 

Standardization of. 

tg 

Fall Mi ting 500. 624 

First Meeting els ins 

Interline Tariff 432 

ling H5. 190 

Aii I I ' is in. By 

Wall, i V. Turner 

Signal- 111 ,k :. By E. J. nulla- I' 1 I 

Ma\- Meeting " ! 

.1 H Ah 1 1 ill Si- I- t try "133 

November Meeting 989 

Colorado Electric Light Power & Rail- 
way — 

Annual Convention 646 

Illinois Si 567 

Indiana Electric Railway — 

Annual Meeting 40 

I - - -l.i Meeting 45 

Intern.- tioi i Congr il 

and Railways Fourti ma \ nnual 
\ - nbly 532 



1 65078 



International Tramway — 

Standardization of Motors 97S 

Iowa Electrical, Annual Convention... 159 

Third Annual Meeting 159, *245 

Massachusetts Street Railway, L82nd 

Mi eting 3G 

Master Car Builders' — 
Convention— 

Brakeshoe Tests *548 

Master Mechanics — 
Convention — 

Electrical Operation 394 

Metropolitan Street Railway. Annual 

Meeting 944 

Montreal Street Railway Mutual Ben- 
efit, Annual Report 419 

Municipal Tramways — 

Annual Conference at Leeds, England — 
Depreciation and Renewals Fund- 

e885, e887, 906 

National Electric Light — 
Convention — 

Power Plant Improvements 491 

New England Street Railway Club — 

Annual Meeting 173. 225 

Economical Maintenance of Equip- 
ment 115 

March Meeting — 

Car Axles 164 

April Meeting 277 

May Meeting 325 

October Meeting 913 

December Meeting. 1005 17 

Northwestern Electrical — 

Annual Meeting -4, 112 

Combined Railway and Lighting 
Plants, Economy of. By E. Gon- 

zenbach *113 

Ohio Interurban Railway — 

Annual Meeting 108 

Decern l" r Meeting 15 

Relations of Local to National e366 

Southwestern Electrical and Gas — 

Second Annual Meeting 164, 340 

Street Railway Association of the State 
of New York — 

Annual Meeting. June 395 

Co-operation with Railroad Commis- 
sioners e583 

Interchangeable Coupon Tickets 402 

January Meeting 22 

March Meeting 164, 221. *605 

Western Railway Club 943 

Wisconsin Electric & Interurban Rail- 
way 945 

Young Men's Christian. By II. O. Wil- 
liams *993 

Atlantic City & Suburban Traction Co., 

Report Sheet *203 

Atlantic Shore Line Ry.. Consolidation of 228 
Aurora Elgin & Chicago Railway — 

Merger 203 

Milk Traffic Incn ases 647 

Third Rail Shoe and Sleet Cutter *165 

Austin Electric Rail— 

Description *83 

Parks 70 

Australia Victorian Railway Co. of Mel- 
bourne, Cars *172 

Automobiles as Feeders e518 

Axles, Car. New England Street Rail- 
way Club 164 



B 



■ 



Babbitting Device. Ridlon 

Badger, Dewitl C 
American Convention — 

Address of Welcome 777 

Badges and Uniforms, American Con- 
vention 820, 832 

Baggage, Uniform Rates for e517, C47 

Baker Street & Waterloo Railway Di 

scription *195 

B l 1 LSt. By C. H. Clark *695 

Ballast, Engineering Convention 

Baltimore. Loudon Park ' Jemetery *23 

Baltimore United Railways 6 Eli trie Co. — 

Car Barns Destroyed 20 

Wage Increase 504 

Bassell, John Y. — 
American Convention — 

Address of Welcome 77s 

Batteries, Storage, Alternating- Curreni e365 

Bay City Traction Co. Parks *72 

Bearing Metals, Testing of e 87 

Bearings. Baltimore 805 

Bearings. Roller. By Thomas W. How IS 

Beeler. John A. — 

Engineering Convention- 
Handling of Public Complaints . 859, 863 
i John I. — 
American Convention- 
Insurance 786 

Mail, Compensation for Carrying...- 859 
Leaks' Between Passenger and 

Treasurer 859 

Promotion of Traffic 783 

' 'i;i hn Agents' Convention — 

Address 70S 

Bell,, Thomas K.— 

Engineering Convention — 

Standardization 731 

Benches, Park. Stafford *121 

Benefit Association, Schenectady Rail- 
way Co *139 



Benghler, H. B.— 

Engineering Convention — 

i : Engines 732 

Benton Harboi -St i- B .!■.. ay & Light 

Co., ' irganization Ill 

Bingharnton Railway Co., New Car 

House and Shops *219 

Bit, Tool Bt< el, Buda *23^ 

Boilers, Firing of, Jones Under-Fed Sys- 
tem *851 

Bond, Quadruple Terminal •119 

Rail, Twin Terminal *771 

Bonding Conductors 33b 

l ;onds, Plastic Plug *711 

Bonds, Testing of. By R. W. Conant.. 248 
tfook R' i ii ws.. . 231, 35s, 494, 899 

Booth, Henry T.. Electric Hallway and 

in- City 870 

Boring Bar, Portable, Underwood *576 

Boston — 
Last Boston Tunnel, Atlantic Avenue 

Station e356, *2S7 

Rapid Transit History. By H. S. 

Knowllon 210 

Boston & Northern Street Railway 

Car House Destroyed by Mre e5b_: 

Description 

.bare Decision e254 

Parks. By R. H. Derrah *S* 

Boston & Worcester Street Railway, Ex- 
press Service 432 

Boston Elevated Railway Co., Washing- 
ton Street Tunnel *463 

Boston Transit Commission, Eleventh 

Annual Report 80 

Bradley, H. C— 
claim Agents' Convention — 
Methods of Management <>t claim 

Department 7**. . 99 

Brake Hanger, Brill *119 

Brake Rigging, Safety Device for *60ti 

i (rakes — 

And Braking. By G. C. Graham *629 

Different Systems. By H. P. Will- 
iams 615 

Needed in England 467 

l '.i akesh' >■■>■ 
Electric Railway. By F. W. Sargent. *6S3 

Keystone *735 

M. C. B. Tests of, 1906 *54S 

Record Blank, Scioto Valley Traction 933 

Standards e523 

Standardization of. Central Electric 

Railway Association 624 

Bridges — 
Brooklyn and Williamsburg, Co] 

tion of tUs 

Concrete. By Daniel B. Luten *229 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction *604 

Niagara River 200 

Steel -Concrete, Elgin-Belvidere Elec- 
tric Railway e450, *45S 

Strauss Bascule and Concrete 706 

Superelevation of, Metropolitan West 

Side Elevated Railway *53S 

Bj inckerhoff — 
American Convention — 

Elevated Railways and Their Bear- 
ing on Heavy Traction. .e814, 817, *s21 

Interurban Freight and Express S19 

Brockway, W. B. — 
Accountants' Convention — 

\ddr- ss e725. 747 

A hum lean Convention — 

Address 7S1 

Brooklyn Rapid Transit — 

Annual Report ,; 1 • 

Brooklvn Bridge, Improvement of Sur- 
face Tracks 646 

Bushwiek Track Lay ait *603 

ii Island Fare Reduction 

e448, .mm. e517, 567 
Improvements on Elevated and Sur- 
face Lines *34l 

Improvement of Brighton Beach Line.*968 

Low < 'asualtv Record 482 

"The Third Rail" 223 

Brooks, F. W.— 
American Com ention ■ 

1 lisi Ipline oi I lii on n 819, 833 

Brown, J. W. — 

Stimulating Summer Travel :;l ; 

Training of Car Service Men on West 

Penn Railways *201 

Transportation Data *47S 

Brushes, Snow Sweeping, Columbia *772 

Buffalo- 
International Railway Co. — 

Car House and Truck Shop *404 

Cars *377 

Shops at Coid Springs *393 

Standard Track Construction *420 

Buenos Ayres — 

Grand National Tramways Co L32 

l roposed Underground Electric Trac- 
tion 166 

Burgess. J. L., Object of Railway Ac- 
counts and Statistics 332 

Burington. P. V. — 

Accountants' Convention — 

Address of Welcome 757 

Burke. E. J.. Blake Signals 

Butte Electric Railway Co. Parks »60 



Cabli Clamp, Kearney *294 

i ion trucl ion Improved Under- 
bid *174 

Cables, I'nderground. Engineering Con- 

w hi .733, 737 

Calumet Electrii Streel Railway, Sale of 343 
Cambridge .Mass.) Subway Bill e367 

I '. : l da 

rio Railway and Municipal Board. 

By S J. Mr-Lean 461 

Quebec, New Water Power Plant 647 

Car Axles — 

New England Street Railway Club 104 

Car Barns. See Cai Ho 

l ■ ai Di sign e963 

Car Diversion e361 

Car ''leaning e584 

Pittsburg Railways Co 432 

Car Equipment, Economy in, Engineer- 
ing Convention 734. *73S 

Car Fittings e961 

Car Houses — 

Bingharnton Ry *219 

Brighton, Cincinnati Traction *612 

Fire Protection. By Joseph K. Fin- 

negan *343 

Illinois Traction System *421 

[nternational Railway *404 

Sectionalize as a Protection Against 

Fire ' 

United Railways and Electric Co. of 

Baltimore, De troyed 20 

York Street Railway Co *348 

Car Mileage Economy e524 

Car Service. By Timothv Connell.e960, 984 

Car Steps. Height of *607 

c.u Wheels. Lathe for Turning *913 

Car Window Sugg istions 973 

B Speer 515 

Cars. See also Name of Road I 

I Ceading "Construction." 
Cars- 
Air Resistance of e364 

Building of, Detroit Ypsilanti Ann 

Arbor & Jackson Railway *633 

Care of Foreign e518 

circuit Breakers, Testing of *S92 

Defective, Report Blanks for 36S 

Double Equipment e962 

Electric. Maintenance of, Engineering 

Convention e694 

Heating of, Indianapolis Traction Ter- 
minal 647 

i tion and Cleaning. By D. F. 

Carver 420 

Lightning Arresters for *627 

Limited Service c317 

Painting of. By L. A. Van Aruam 537 

Signs, Indianapolis Street Railway.... 892 

Sliding Sash Vestibule *S05 

Standard Body and Truck. By Geo. 

H. Tontrup 281 

Ventilation e255 

Whistles for Interurban *51tJ 

Wiring of. American Convention 775 

Cars, Description of — 
i Hosed— 

Charlotte Electric Railway Light 

& Power Co *234 

Lexington Railway "175 

Northern Melbourne (Australia t 

Electric Tramway & Light Co..*1020 
Omaha & Council Bluffs Street 

Railway *958 

Combination Freight and Motor *8 

Combination Passenger and Bag- 
gage— 

Conestoga Traction *53 

Illinois Traction System *178 

Combination Passenger and Smok- 
ing— 
Cleveland & Southwestern Trac- 
tion *49 

Convertible — 

Greenville (S. C.) Traction Co *444 

Syracuse Rapid Transit *658 

Gasoline-Electric — 

Delaware & Hudson Co *79 

International Railway Co. of Buffalo. *377 
Interurban — 

Detroit United Railway *32G 

Philadelphia & West Chester Trac- 
tion Co *360 

Line, Novel Type of, Omaha & Coun- 
cil Bluffs *553 

Observation — 

i oli do Railway & Light 945 

I tpen — 
Consolidated Railways Light & 

Power Co., Wilmington. N. C *95G 

Double-Step, Worcester Consolidati d 659 

Mill Valley & Mount Tamalpais *2S6 

"Fay-as-You- Enter" Type, Montreal 

Street Railway e693 

Private — 

Detroit United Railway *552 

Illinois Traction Co 503 

i; pair— 

Joliet Plainfield & Aurora Railway. .*490 
Semi-' Convertible — 

ral Pennsylvania Traction Co...*S04 

( !i1 v of Mexico *659 

[nterurban— South Bend & Southern 
Mulligan Railway *713 



New York City System *117 

Northwestern Gas *M- Electric Co., 

Walla Walla, Wash *1022 

Rochester Railway *444 

Subway and Interurban Operation. . .*577 
Side Entrance- 
Portland Railway *G3G 

Wilkes-Barre & Hazelton Railway 

Co *356 

Special, Interui ban Railway *160 

Sprinkling, Doubl i-Truck, Rhode Island 

Co *715 

Steel— 
Long Island Railroad. By W. N. 

Smith *46S 

Pressed Steel * !ar Co *7fi3 

Southern Ry *514 

Si roudsburg Passenger Railway *851 

Victorian Railway Co., Melbourne. 

Australia *172 

Carver, D. F.— 

Car Inspection and Cleaning I-' 11 

i !aee, F. E.— 
Engineering Convention — 

Control Apparatus 702, 703 

I latenarj suspension. Test of *25S 

Cement, Testing Laboratory, Philadel- 
phia Rapid Transit Co *466 

Cemetery, An Electric Line in *23 

Centralia & Central City Traction Co 432 

Central Pennsylvania Traction Co., 

Power Plant 296 

Charing Cross En 6 ton & Hempstead 

Railway (London) i 960 

Charlotte Electric Railway. Light & 

Power Co.. Closed Car *23i 

Chattanooga Rys. Co., Merger 223 

Chattanooga Electric Railway Co., 

Parks S2 

( Ihicago — 

Cable Transfer 5«7 

Calumet Electric Street Railway, Sale 

of 343 

Council Has Power to Regulate Cars., 944 

Electrification of Cable Lines 368 

Elevated Railway Traffic 569 

Elevated Railways, Plan to Merge 149 

Freight Service in Tunnels 5»5S 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Rail- 
way. Superelevation of Tracks and 

Bridges *538 

Municipal Ownership — James Dairy m- 

ple's Suggestions e77, 144 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad, Ra- 

vi 'ii synod Extension • Ill 

South Chicago City Railway — 

Waiting Station *910 

Labor and Material Accounting with 

the Adding Machine 713 

Subway- 
Plans for *G19 

By Blon J. Arnold 407 

Suit Against Elevated Railways 432 

The 99-Year Act el44 

Traction Problem , 

318, 390, 504, 645, e886. 1009 

Dalrvmple's Report e77, in 

Ordinance for Solution of 933, 1007 

Status of. By Louis Albert Lamb.. 390 
Chicago & Joliet Electric Railway, Form 

for Reporting Defective Cars 368 

Chi< ago & Milwaukee Electric Railroad — 

Annual Report 2*^4 

Extension and Improvements *9 

Joint Tariff with Illinois Central 944 

Racine Extension 568 

Chicago & Northwestern Ry., Tie Treat- 
ment 475 

Chicago City Railway, Electrification of 

Cable Lines 3GS 

Chicago-New York Air Line e453 

Chii-ugn Lake Shore & South Rend Rail- 
way, Surveys Completed 502 

<hi. i-o Union Traction Company, Elec- 

trification of Cable Lines 36S 

Chippewa Valley. Electric Railroad, Oper- 
ating Schemes 7S 

Cincinnati Traction — 

Brighton Car House **>12 

Coal Handling Plant *596 

Circle Swing — 

Federal Construction Co *56 

Traver *122 

Circuit Breakers — 

Remote Control for Line el42 

Testing of *S92 

City Railway (Dayton, O.). New Build- 
ings *9S7 

I 'laim Department — 

And the Public. Claim Agents' Con- 
vention 745. 75S 

Claim Agent's "Work of the Future, 

Claim Agents' Convention 758, f60 

Fraudulent Claim < tperators 432 

Methods of Management, Claim 

Agents' Convention 7SS, 799 

Quick or Delayed Settlements, Claim 

Agents' Convention e726, 758 

Claremont Railway & Lighting Co., 

Parks 120 

Clark, Chas. H.— 

Engineering Convention — 

Ballast *695, 704, 705 

I Classification of Accounts e5Sl 



i 'i> \ eland — 

Traction Situation 

131, 502, 566, 645, 943, 1007 

l lei eland Elecl i lc Ra Ilv a s 

Ballast »695 

Helping the City Grow . ■ i ■■ 

CI veland Painesville & Ashtabula Rail- 
road Consolidation 313 

Cleveland Painesville & Eastern Rail- 
way, Parks *64 

Cleveland & Southwestern Traction Co., 

Cars *49 

Clinton (la.) State Electric Co., Im- 
provements' 32.", 

Closet Shield, Sanitary, P.mwn *577 

i Hub House, Portland Railway Light & 

Power Co 503 

Clubs. See Associations. 
Coal- 
Fine. Utilization of e588 

Coal Handling — 

Appai-atus . ., I ; 

Cincinnati Traction Co. Plant 596 

Power Plants e517, e581 

Coal Storage — 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co *4S9 

< Joal- Weighing Machine *515 

Coen, F. W.— 
American Convention — 

Tickets and Rates 819, 825 

Coils- 
Armature. Insulating Varnish for. By 

Arthur B. Weeks *328 

i ti Id and Armature, Vacuum Proi i 
of Impi'-^r f i.i ting. Standard Varnish 

Co 756 

Colleges, Engineering, in Railway Work, e31 

Columbus as a Convention City *675 

Columbus Delaware & Marion Railway — 

Parks 64 

Power Equipment *631 

Columbus Railway & Light Co. — 

Description *67S 

Fuel Economizers at Spring Street 

Power Station *761 

Motor-Generator Sets i36 

Pa rks *70 

Commission. Electric Railway Test. By 
Henry H. Norris and Bernard V. 

Swenson 3S1 

Commission, Rapid Transit, Vetoes New 

York Elevated Plans -131 

Commissions, Railroad — • 
i !onnecticut — 
Electric Lines Carry More Passen - 

gers than Steam Roads 503 

Massachusetts — 

Annual Report *3fi5 

Fare Decision e25 1 

New York — 

Helping of e361 

Recommends New Roads 1007 

Traffic Growth in Greater New York, 

First Quarter of 1906 339 

Ohio e961, 1007 

Jurisdiction Over Electric Railways.. 

646, e885 

Vermont — 

Annual Report e959 

Electric Railways Refuse to File Re- 

ports e959 

Illegitimate Railway Promotion... e960 
Wisconsin — 
Jurisdiction Over Street Railways... 

945 1010 

I lompetition, Steam Versus Electric. e447. *483 
Complaints. Public. Handling of, Ameri- 
can Convention 859, 863 

Compound, Insulating, Johns-Manville. . .*295 

Conant, R. W., Testing Bonds 248 

Concrete — 

Bridges. Bv Daniel B. Luten *229 

Mixing Without Water 537 

Reinforced e662 

Paving in Denver •973 

Steel in Electric Railway Work e662 

Conestosja Traction Co. — 

New Cars *53 

Operation by Limit System. By C. E. 
Titzel *235 

I Joney Island, Fair Reduction 

e448, 501. e517, 567 

Conneaut & Erie Traction Co., Crocker- 
Wheeler Apparatus 721 

I '-mi Mr, -tors. Dossert Electrical *734 

Connell. Timothy— 

Practical Street Car Service e960. 984 

Connette, E. G.— 

American Convention — 

Rules. Standard Code 820 

Subjects 783 

Traffic. Promotion of 783 

( tonsolidated Railways I igbt & Potk i i 

Co. Wilmington, N. C. New Cars...*956 
< Consolidations — 

Aurora Elgin & Chicago 203 

t 'liattanooga Railway Companies 223 

Metropolitan and Interborough Com- 
panies 41 

Portsmouth Dover & York and Atlantic 

Shore Line Ry. Systems 228 

1 i ruction — 

\ u st in Electric Railway 83 

Baker Street & Waterloo Rv *195. el98 

Binghamton Rj Car House and 
Shops *219 I 



Boston .v- Northern Street Railway. .. .*985 

I .■■• l<<M Kl< \ ;i l<-.! I! lilu ;i ■., \\ .i IliulM.im 

Str< e1 Tunnel *463 

Boston Tunnel, East Atlantic Avenue 

Station e256, *2.s; 

Brooklj i, i; Lpld Vi li si1 Co *341 

tmprovemenl ol Brighton Beach 

Line *968 

Central Pennsylvania Trad Ion Co., 

Power Plant 296 

Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Rail- 
road Co., Ex i ension and Impri i ■ ■ 

ments *9 

City Railwaj Co., Dayton, O *987 

i 'oal Storage, Philadelphia Rapid Tran- 
sit Co «4S9 

Conestoga Traction Co. By C. E. Tltzel.*235 

Cost Accounting 262 

Danville & Eastern Traction Co 329 

Dartmouth & Westport Street Rallway.*167 
1' nver City Tramway Co., Substation 

at Lust Colfax *991 

Des Moines AVinterset & Creston Rail- 
way 259 

Elgin-Belvidere Electric Railway. e450. *455 
Evansville & Mt Vernon Electric Rail- 
way Co *483 

Fireproof Buildings 403 

Ft. Wtijii" * Wabash Valley Traction, 

Spy lluu Power Plant *596 

Galesburg & Kewanee Electric Railway, 

Power Planl and Shops 389 

Helena Light & Railwav Co *202 

Illinois Traction System »99 

Illinois Traction System, Car House 

and Shop at Danville *421 

Improved Underground Cable Construc- 
tion *174 

Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction, Ex- 
tensions of 540 

International Railway Company, Buf- 
falo- 
Car House and Truck Shop *404 

Cold Springs Shops *393 

Standard Track '. *420 

Key West Electric Improvements. By 

Frederic H. Porter *525 

Lima & Toledo Traction *610 

Long Islan d Rj lilroad. Power Tra ns- 

mission Line and Third Rail Systems. *305 
Madison & Interurban Traction Co., 

Rec< instruction of - l 

Mattoon City Railway *549 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Rail- 
way. Superelevation of Tracks and 

Bridges *538 

Michigan ( "nited Railways *321 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light 

Company, Public Service Building. . .*369 
Milwaukee Electric Railwav & Light 

Co.. Power Plant *384 

Mu nil- & Portland Traction *929 

Omaha & Council Bluffs Street Rail- 
way, Shops *533 

Organization of a Construction Com- 
pany. By George A. Damon *995 

Owosso & Carunna Electric, Concrete 

Stringers for Track *532 

Pennsylvania New York & Long Island, 

Power Station *179 

Tunnels, Manhattan Island *893 

PhiladelDhia Rapid Transit — 

Coal Storage *4s;i 

Elevated and Subwav Track *554 

Office Building *39i> 

ShDps. Sixty-ninth and Market Sts..*4S4 

Substation *479 

Pittsburg Railways Co. — 
Pow *r Plant at Brunots Islam] 
Switch and Transformer House. ... *486 

Portland Railroad Co., Shops *33 

Power Plant e96 l 

Paget Sound Electric Railway *123 

Purdue University Students to Build a 

Railwav 728 

Rail Joints. Cast-Welding of *224 

Scioto Valley Traction, Extensions and 

Improvements *613 

Simplon Tunnel. Electrical Equipment. 

By Franz Koester *Z07 

Southern Michigan Railway *:*'.i 1 

Southwest Missouri Railroad *.">4:: 

Spokane \- inland Railway *550 

Spokane & Inland Empire Railroad. .. .•996 
Substation. Syracuse Rapid Transit Ry.*379 
Syracuse Rapid Transit Co., High-Ten- 
sion Transmission Line of 

Toledo & Chicago Interurban Railway. *589 
Toledo Port Clinton & Lakeside Rail 

way. Extension 

Toronto & Vol k Radial Railway, Pro- 

pi »sed Extension 

Tunnels to Manhattan Island *S93 

T fnited Railwa ys. of St, L< nils, R< ■ 

struction of Track *923 

Walkill Transit Co *208 

West Jersey & Seashore 900 

West Pi mi Railways, New I [ecla 

Route *926 

West Shore Railroad *911 

Western Ohio Railway Co., Lima-Find- 

la > I tjvision *42 

Winona Enterurban Railway *914 

Worcester Consolidated Rj Co., Sec- 
ond Line to Leominster *205 

York Street K.nlu a\ i 'o.. i \ir House, ,*34$ 



Control Apparatus, Engineering Conven- 
tion roi 

Control! i Boxes, Reduction in Size. Lake 

Shore Electric Railway 926 

i tooling I 'ond I 'hiladelphi i Rapid Tran- 
sit ' !o *465 

Coopi r, William — 

i > ■■ ineenng Convention — 

Control Apparatus 703 

Cornel] University, Electrical Engineer- 
ing Course, Changes in 335 

Coeur d'Alene & Spokane Ry., Freight 

Traffic *279 

Crafts, P. P.— 
American Convention — 

Interurban Freight and Express 819 

Locomotive *296 

Crane Car, Schenectady Railway Co *139 

Curtain Fixtures, Curtain Supply Co 

*762, *812, *S50 



Dalrymple's, James. Report on Chicago 

Traction Situation e77, 111 

Damon, George A — 

What ts An Engineer — Constructor?. .*995 
Danville (111.)— 

Illinois Traction System. Car 1 1< iuse 

and Shop *42l 

Danville & Eastern Traction Co., stock- 
holders' Meeting 329 

Dartmouth & Westport Street Ry., De- 
scription *167 

1 >;t\ enport, la. — 

Proposed Consolidation of Railways... 23 
Davies, H. J. — 
American Convention — 

Insurance 7S3. 7x4, ~s<\. 795 

I 'axis. B. B — 
Claim Agents' Convention — 

Address of "Welcome 70s 

i ia \ \< m, O. — 

City Railway Co., New Buildings *987 

Dayton .<: Xenia Transit Railway 

Armature Truck and Hoist *89N 

Dayton, Covington & Piqua Traction 

Co.. Parks 82 

Dayton & Trov Electric Railway — 

Freight Handling *6ll 

Delaware & Hudson. Co. — 

Gasoline Electric Car *7!> 

Growth of e361 

De Mattos, W.— 

Claim Agents' i 'on v. nt ion — 
Relation of Sta i isl ical l Eureau to 

Claim Agents* Work 857 

Denver — 

Municipal Ownership Rejected 433 

Denver City Tramway — 

Air Brake Instruction Card *994 

Substation at East Colfax *991 

Temporary Crossover *986 

Track Construction *973 

Depreciation e452 

Accountants' Convention e813, 820 

And Renewals Funds in Relation to 
Tramways Undertakings. Bv G. W. 

Holford eS87, e888, 906 

I h eat Britain evs7. 906 

i lerallers, Hayes 143 

1 terrah, R. H.— 

Parks of Boston & Northern and old 

Colony Street Railways *88 

Des Moines Winterset & Creston Rail- 
way, Description 259 

Detroit Monroe & Toledo Short Line Ry., 

Folder 159 

Detroit Cnited Railway — 

Franchise Controversy e518 

Franchise Plan Defeal d 945 

New Interurban Cars *326 

Private Car *552 

I letroit fpsilanti Ann Arbor & Jackson 

Railway, Car Building *633 

i U-' tipiine — 

Bv J G. Huntoon 253 

Illinois Valley Railway e361 

Scioto Valley Traction 62i 

Trainmen, American Convention. . .819, 833 
Distribution, Polyphase. By M, A. Sam- 

mett 997 

i oors — 

Fixtures', Wallace 882 

Wood Rolling, Kinnear *S82 

Downs. E. E.— 

l 'etaluma & Santa Rosa Rv *155 

I »05 I . J. S. — 
Engmeei ing Convention — 

Ballast Tim; 

Control Apparatus 701 

Drills — 

Duntley Portable 145 

Four-Spindle. A mei Lean Steel & Wire 

I'-i table Blecti ic, Chicago Pneumatic. *716 

Rail, Moore *36n 

Cook Track *lis 

attachment for C u s, Intel na- 
tional Railway Company *377 

! i ; i 

S Rents' I lonvenl 
Claim Department and the Public... 7T.S 
Dunne. E. .1. — 
Engln- ering Convention — 

P< ■ i I 'osts 704 

1 ■ ■■'■■ ■ for Armature Cleaning. ,*635 



Easl Side Viaduct Railroad Co 326 

i ton Transit Co.. Parks *66 

Economizer, Green Fuel 685, *763 

i; lonomy in Car Eciuipment, Weights and 
Schedules, Engineering Convention. . 

734, *73S 

Electric Pi iwer, Water, Charging for. . . . e364 

Electric Railway. Forecast for 1906 el9 

Electric Railway and the City. By 

Henry Booth 870 

Electric Railway Review e314 

Electric Railway Specialties, Allis-Chal- 

mers *714 

Electric Railway Test Commission. By- 
Henry H. Norris and Bernard V. 

Swenson 381 

Electric Railways arc Railroads 504 

Electric Railways in Sparsely Settled 
Communities, American Convention.. 

eSl-l. 817, *834 

Electric Service Supplies Co *146 

Electric Signs, Federal Electric Co * 1 7>- 

Electric Traction. Heavy, American Con- 
vention SI 7, 824 

Electric Traction Weekly, Publication of. 946 
Electric Transportation, Evolution of. 

American Convention 819 

Electi leal Operation, Railway Master 

Mechanics' Convention 394 

Electrolysis Checked by Bonding 503 

Elevated Railways — 
And Their Bearing on Heavy Electric 

Traction cM4. 817, *S21 

Chicago. Plan to Merge e449 

Metropolitan West Side. Supereleva- 
tion of Tracks and Bridges *53S 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co 505 

St. Louis Proposed 645 

Track Construction, i hilad -Iphia Rapid 

Transit *554 

Elgin -Belvidere Electric Railway — 

Description *455 

Steel Concrete Bridge e450, *458 

Elmira Water, Light and Railroad Co., 

Parks 70 

Ely, W Caryl- 
Accountants' Convention — 

Address on Depreciation e885. 927 

American Convention — 

Address e773, 776, 778 

Cla im Agents' Convention — 

Address 709 

Engineer- Constructor. Term Defined. 

By G \ I "amon *995 

E ninent Domain in Massachusetts e317 

Employes 1 — 
And the Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation 819 

Bonding Conductors 336 

Club House. Portland Railway Right & 

Power Co 503 

Clubroom, United Railways & Electric 

of Baltimore 567 

Discipline. By J. G. Huntoon 253 

Free Uniforms, Topeka Street Railway 

Co 50?. 

High Grade for Limited Cars .■:,■■ ' 

Records e5S2 

Self -Government, Illinois Valley Rail- 
way e36l 

Training of. West Penn Rys. Bv J. 

W Brown *2oi 

Engineering Colleges in Railwav Work..e315 

Engi tring Laboratories, Worcester 

Polytechnic Institute *334 

Engineers and the Managers. Engineering 

< !onvention *693 

Engines, Steam. Economical Rating. . . e855 
1 1 Mm nchester, Tramwa ys A c- 

counts 531 

Erie Railroad Electrical Equipment 446 

Ev*ns. W. H.— 

■ Coi ivf nf ion — 

Stand i rdiza Hon 730 

Evansvilh & M1 '■' r o*i Electric Rail- 
wav T i< ■ ' . , e44 7, *483 

Expe iditures, Cnritnl Accounting of, 

il nts' Convention 864 

Exports of Machinery 619 

■ ■ ;'s Service — 

Aurora Elgin & Chicago 1008 

Boston ,v- Worcester street Railway. . . 43° 
Interurban. Amerean Convention. .eS13, 817 

Pittsburg Railways 1008 

Express and Freight Service. Interurban. 

American Convention M::. S17. 830 



Fa res — 

Collection of. American Convention .... 
859, 867, e693 

1 ecision, Massachusetts Railroad Com- 
mission e254 

HPlf-Rates for Children in Indiana 647 

Mil waul* ■■■ Demands Two-Cent 1010 

New Mil ige 1 took for Ohio and In- 
■ I i ■ ■ 1 1 ■ i Interurban Dines 945 

P nnsylvania Lines Reduce Intersi it'' 
Fares 568 

i delohia Rapid Transit Co , Six 

Tickets ror Twenty-five Cents. .503, e886 

Reduction to Coney Island 

c44S, 501, e517. 567 



Steam Railway Red notions. Effect on 

Electric Roads 943 

i arrell, A, J.— 
Claim Agents' Convention — 

Quick or Delayed Settlements e964 

Feeder Problems on Large Systems e964 

Feeders, Short Circuit on Di vim for Lo- 
cating. By Arthur B. Weeks *8 

Fenders — 

Sevey Folding 503 

Tests of. Portland, Ore 944 

Ferrocarrilles Urbano dc Lima Co., New 

Equipment 166 

Field-Coils, Syracuse Rapid Transit Ry.. 138 
Financial — 

Increased Valuation of Ohio Railways. 941 

Increasing Profits i 520 

Financing Electric Railway Propositions 260 

Financing, Method of e311 

Finnegan, Joseph B., Fire Protection. 

For Car Houses *343 

Kin Protection e366 

Car Houses. By Joseph B. Finnegan. *343 

Importance of e582. e583 

Subway 433 

ii i»i'oof Steel Building Construction... 403 
Fleming, H. B.— 

Ivigineonng Convention- — 

Standardization 731 

Ties. Poles and Posts 704 

Fonda Johnstown & Gloversville Electric 
Railway Co. — 

Shop Practices 228 

Parks *64 

Ford, A. H.— 

American Convention — 

Insurance 785 

Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley — 

High-Tension Switch *922 

I imited Service 252 

Spy Run Power Plant *596 

Fort Worth & Rosen Heights Street 

Railway. Parks 121 

France, Profit Sharing 492 

Freight — 
And Express Service, Interurban, 

American Convention e813, 817, 830 

Classification of eoSl 

Handling of, Dayton & Troy Electric 

Railway *6u] 

Iowa & Illinois Ry. Co *275 

Seek Privilege to Carry in Massachu- 
setts 567 

Toledo & Western Railway *553 

Freight Service — 

American Convention eS13. 817, 830 

Between Fawtucket and Providence, 

R. 1 646 

Chicago Tunnels 568 

Groton A: Stonington Street Railroad.. 646 
Freight Traffic, Couer d'Alene & Spokane 

Ry *279 

Freight Traffic Forms, Iowa & Illinois 

Railway Co *375 

Fuel. Cost of. for Power e959 

Fuel Economizer, Green 6S5. *76i 

Fuel Economy e256, 277, 491 



Gage, Portable Recording. Bristol *293 

Galesburg & Kewanee Electric Railway, 

Power Plant and Shops 389 

Garton, W. R. — 

The Operator and Supply Man 283 

Gas Engines — 

Buckeye *579 

Engineering Convention. e725. 732, *750, 925 

Tests e316 

Gaskets. lead, for Water Tube Boilers. .*600 

Gates on Cars el 9 

General Electric Co., Annual Report.... 339 
General Storage Battery Co . Products of. 294 
Generation. Polyphase Systems. By M. 

A. Sammett . . . -. 997 

Generators — 

Economical Rating e856 

Reversing Direct Current. By H. C. 

i: agan 52 

Gerlach, T. A.— 

Throwing Devices Eor Tongue Switches. *6 
Germany — 

Metal Ties. Use of 600 

Municipal Ownership 377 

Glasgow — 

Municipal Ownership e583 

Tramways Accounts 530 

Tramway Operation e584 

Glass, Jos. D. — 

Summer Parks 82 

Gonzenbach. Ernest — 
American Convention — 

Interurban Freight and Express 818 

Economy of Combined Railwav and 

Lighting Plants *113 

Good enough Walter — 

Engineering Convention — 

Turbines and Engines. Relative 

Economy of 733, 7:14. *741 

Government Ownership, South Australia, 460 

Governors, National Oil- Pneumatic *883 

i : i lenwitz, Alfred — 

Electrical Equipment, SImplon Tunnel.. *621 
Graham, G- C, Brakes and Braking. .. .+629 
Graining of Window Sash, International 

Railway 92S 



Grand Rapids City Railway, Repairing 

Armature Cutis 554 

Grate, Green Traveling Link 715 

i 9-real Bi Itain — 
Electrical Affairs. From Our London 

Correspondent 965 

Municipal Ownership e317 

Great Falls & Old Dominion Railroad, 
Description and Practices of e362 

Great Northern Picadilly &, Brompton 

Railway (London) e960 

Green, Alfred — 
Engineering Convention — 

Underground Cables 733 

Greenville (S. C.,) Traction Co., Full- 
Convertible Cars *444 

Griffin. W. R. W.. Train Dispatching, 

Rochester & Eastern Rapid Ry *135 

Guanajuato Power & Electric Co., 

Change in Transmission Lines ,e44S 

Guard Rails, Inside 965 

H 

Hall. F. D.— 

Engineering Convention — 

Control Apparatus 703 

Ham. W. F.— 

Accountants' Convention — 

Standard Classification of Accounts.. 7S7 
Hanover & McSherrytown Street Rail- 
way Co., P;.rks 64 

Hare. C. Willis- 
Claim Agents' Convention- 
Claim Agent's Work of the Future.. 

758, 760 

Harrington, W. E. — 
American Convention — 

Promotion of Traffic c-774, 783, 791 

Harrisburg. Pa.. Power Plant. Central 

Pennsylvania Traction Co 296 

Harvey, G. A.. Contracting for Use of 
Hydro-Electric Power on Railway 

Systems *416 

Hawken, Thomas — 
Engineering Convention — 

Ties. Poles and Posts 704 

Headlights — 

Combination Arc-Incandescent, Trolley 

Supply Co *56 

Electric *851 

Ruble Attachment 433 

Headway, Recording of, Terre Haute 

Traction & Light Co *353 

Heaters — 

Consolidated Cross-Seat 692 

Electric, with Junction Box Attached. *173 

Helena, Montana, Pi-ogress at *202 

Helena Light & Railway Co., Descrip- 
tion *202 

Hepburn Railway Rate Bill e255 

Herschell. Spillman Co 122 

Hewett, Thomas — 

Engineering Convention — 

Gas Engines 732 

Hild F. W., Gasoline Car for Interurban 

Service *239 

Hippee. G. B. — 

American Convention — 

Interurban Freight and Express SIS 

Hoists — 

Electric. Yale & Towne *292 

Substations e316 

Holford, G. W.. Depreciation and Re- 
newals Funds in Relation to Tram- 
ways Undertakings eSS7. e8S8, 906 

Honolulu Rapid Transit & Land Co., 

Annual Report 336 

Hose, Peerless Rubber Manufacturing Co. 804 
Houston (Tex.) Electric, Double Con- 
ductor System 944 

How. Thomas W., Roller Bearings 319 

Hudson & Manhattan Railroad. Hud- 
son River Tunnel *893 

Hudson Companies' Tunnels, Electrical 

Equipment 647 

Huntoon. J. G., Discipline of Car Service 

Employes 253 

I 

Illinois & Iowa Railway, Express Con- 
tract 646 

Illinois Traction System — 

Car House and Shop at Danville *421 

Cars' *17S 

Description *99 

Parks 82 

Passenger Station 503 

Private Car 503 

St. Louis Entrance by Ferry 646 

Sleeping Cars 1009 

Time Table 204 

Illinois Valley Railway, Co-operation of 

Officials e362 

Discipline e361 

Indiana — 

Electric Railway Map of 504 

Interurban Progress 504 

Laws Favorable to Interurban Roads. 540 

Indiana and Ohio Railways, Schoepf- 

McGowan Syndicate *595 

Indiana Columbus & Eastern Traction. 

Merger Companies 595 

Splicing Broken Armature Shafts 910 



Indiana i Fnion Ti action Co 

Limited Service 252 

Muncie Terminal Station *628 

New Station, Logansport, Ind 911 

Parks *62 

Power Equipment, Re-Arrangement... 623 
fndianapolis & Cincinnati Traction — 

Concrete Bridges and Viaducts *604 

Extensii ins of 540 

Indianapolis & Eastern Traction, Two- 

Way Terminal Connector *92S 

Indianapolis & Western Railway. Com- 
pletion of First Section 567 

Indianapolis Columbus & Eastern Trac- 
tion Co., Service Stripes 239 

Iudiaiuipolis New Castle it Toledo Elec- 
tric Ry., Contracts Awarded 516 

Indianapolis Street Railway. Car Signs.. 892 
Indianapolis Traction & Terminal — 

Concrete, Mixing Without Water 537 

Heating Cars, Method of 647 

Mold for Soldering Bonds *635 

Park 161 

Inland Empire Railway 138 

Inspection and Maintenance of Electric 

Equipment, Engineering Convention. 720 
Insulating Compound. Johns-Manville. . .*295 

Insulating Material, Fin proof 998 

Insulators, Effect cf Moisture on e449 

Insurance — 

American Convention 783, 795. e888 

Mutual Traction 86 

Interborough (New York City) Semi- 
Convertible Cars * 1 17 

Inierborough and Metropolitan Com- 

panies Consolidate 41 

International Railway Company of Buf- 
falo- 
Car House and Truck Shop *40] 

Cars *;;77 

Cold Springs Shops »393 

Graining Window Sash 92P 

Parks «68 

Track Construction *420 

Interstate Commerce Commission — 
Railway Operation, Totals for Fiscal 

Tears 1900. 1905, 1906 e9G2 

Interurban Railway & Terminal Co. of 
Cincinnati, Not Compelled to Give 

Transfers 914 

biter- Suburban Service el 43 

Cnterurbans as' Common Carriers e450 

Inter- Urban Railway Co., Pes Moines, 
la.— 

Special Car *160 

lOV/a & Illinois Railwav Co., Freight 

Traffic. Handling of *275 

Itily, Railway Progress 485. oSRfi 

Ithaca Street Railway Co.. Parks *70 

J 

Jack. Pit. Madison & Interurban Trac- 
tion Co *21S 

Tn.ks for Cable Reels. Pedrick & Smith. 957 

t mese Railway Projects 1009 

Johnson. Fred W.. Prevention of Acci- 
dents 872 

Tojnt. r>oss«rt Cable *734 

Tolipt Plain field & Aurora — 

Parks *66 

Tower Repair Cnr *490 

Toilet & Southern Traction Co *134 

Journal Boxes, Symington , 805 

K 

K"ankake° Electric Railway Co.. Parks.. *62 
Kansas City Western, Power Plant De- 

stroyed 567 

Kapn. g. Standardization of Pirect- 

Ourr.'M TY:o-1 inn Motors 97V 

Kearney Cable Clamp *294 

Kehne M. J. Open-Air High-Tension 

Switch *922 

K N, v. G H — 

Eneineerins * Convention — 

Ties, Pol eg n ,id Posts 701 

K >okuk & Western Illinois Electric Co n 
nanv. Joint Steam and Electric 
Operation e363 

Key West fFIa.) Electric Railwav Im- 
provements, Bv F. H. Porter *525 

Knowlton. II. S , Boston Rapid Transit 

Historv 210 

Kopst er. Fra n 7. — 
Electrical Equipment, Simplon Tun- 
nel *207 

Tramwavs of Lucerne, Switzerland. . .*330 

Kimball. Cbas. S.— 

En^incerinar Convention — 

Cables, T'nderground 733 

Standardization 731 

L 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Rail- 
wav. Trolley Line in Collinwood 

Yards 603 

1 'ii--c Shore Electric Railway — 
Controller Bo ■ R duction in Size.... 926 

V. u Troll, v Wh- el ■' I'i 

1 1 esidpnt Edward W. Moore *163 

Lamb, Louis Alhe't Status of the Chi- 
cago fraction Problem 390 

Ln m ps — 
1 ;u: 1 ids, Benjamin Electric *116 



1 Eigh Efficiency 1 

1 i i'i ilway, Traction 

Engln foi Work Tra In *::"! 

1 arn d, J. M. — 

Eng ing < '< im enl i' m 

Balls I 705 

I . 1 l • x . I i X 

Eng ring 1 Jonventlon — 

Turl - and Engine; . Relative 

Economy of 734 

Underground Cables 7:::: 

Lathe, Wheel-Turning *913 

1 .:i w. By J L. Ri isenberger 

29, 91, L51, 211, 271, I 19 I 17, 493, 557, 
641, 939 mini:;. 
I aws — 

[ndlana Favorable to [nterurban Roads 640 
Lavlin, I, --wis C. — 
A merican Convention — 

Address of Welcome e773, 77'. 

Lead Gaskets for Water Tube Boilers .. *600 
Learned C. E.— 

In 1 iean Convention — 

Selection of Trainmen 819, 827 

Leaks Between Passenger and Tp 

urer, American Convention. 859, 861 e69S 
Legislation, Electric Traction, in Penn- 
sylvania 

■ -ton Railway Co., Closed Cars *175 

Lighting and Railway Plants Combined 

Economy of. By Ernest Gonzenbach.*113 
lightning Arresters — 

( '.lis ■ *627 

Circuit-Breaker Type, Oleson-Willlams '956 

l ocating e887 

Transmission Lines. By C. R. McKay 625 
Lightning Protection. By J. V. E7. TUus.*109 
1 Ima .V- Toledo Traction — 
Armature Shafts, Straightening of....*531 

« ittawa Section *610 

Limited Service e317 

Fori Wayne & Wabash Valley TKU - 

tion Co 252 

Indiana Union Traction Co -- r >2 

! incoln. Neb., Traction Situation 433 

Line Circuit Breakers. Remote Control 

for el42 

Locomotives— 
Electric — 

\n.i Steam. Cost of Repairs. By J. 

1; Muhlfeld c451 

Baldwin *736 

1 ''Miibination Freight and Motor *s 

St Clair Tunnel *50 

Switching, General Electric Co *1021 

Tests of 540 

Westinghouse 710 

Traction-Engine for Work Train *304 

London — 

Hints From el98 

New Tramwavs 646 

Power Plants a Boon e582 

Single-Phase Electric Railway 432 

1 nderground Electric Railways Co... 

*195. el9S 

Signal System *54 

Underground I ines e960 

i ong Island Rn ilroad — 
Automatic Electric Blork Signaling. . .*979 

Car Eauipment. By W. N. Smith *4<iS 

Electrification *305 

1 1 mg island City — 
Pennsylvania New York & Long In- 
land. Power Station *179 

i oomis. B. E. — 
American Convention- 
Insurance 7*4, 786 

! ouisville & Southern Traction Co Parks *62 
1 uci me, Switzerland, Tramways of. By 

Franz Koester *330 

1 mi m, Daniel B., Concrete Bridges *229 

M 

Mc \I tj . W. H.— 

Engineering Convention — 

* 'ontro] App-mttus 702 

McCulloch, Robert— 

AtiK-i ii m C01 '■■ ( 'ii tion — 

Promotion of Traffic 7s:: 

Subjects 783, 799 

Reconstruction of Track, United Rail- 

ways of St. Louis *923 

McDonald. D — 
American Convention— 

Leaks Between Passenger and 

Treasurer S59, 867 

McGivney, John R.— 
America n < !i invent Ion — 

Uniforms and Badges 

McKay, C. R.. High-Tension 1 i- ! ; 

Proti ction 

Mel can. S. J. Muniripul 1 :<■ 11 -i of 

1. 11 io 461 

Madison a- [nteru 1 'o. — 

rn .1.0 k *2is 

R< consl ruction of *1 

Mail, Compens ing — 
Maps 
Boston & Northern Streel Railway., 
Boston El< \ ited R il* "■ 1 '0 . Wash- 
ington si rei r Tunni 1 163 

Chicago .v- Milwaukee Electric Railroad 9 

1 lolumbus, 677 

Con stoga Traction Co 238 

C lidated Railways in Ohio and fn 



(liana 595 

D .... 60] 

El fin i :i h Idi n i llectric Railway I ..". 

i le & Mt Vernon 183 

Illinois Traction Sj e t< m Sh< 

Operating and Proposed Lines 100 

Interurban Railw a ys of the Central 

21 

<S Southi mi Ti acti Pro- 

I Lines 134 

Long Esland Raili i , 305 

■ :■■■■ in & Interurban 1 racl ion Co. ... 2 

■ : igan United Ra ilways Co 321 

Muncie & Portland Tendon 930 

i Sound Electric Railway Show- 
ing Route of Interurban 124 

Rochester & Eastern Rapid Railway. L35 

St. Clair Tunnel 50 

Southern Michigan Railway 298 

Southwest Missouri Railroad 543 

Spokane & Inland Railway 551 

Spokane & Inland Empire Railroad... 996 
Toledo & Chicago Interurban Railway 
Toledo Fostoria & Findlay Railway 

and Connections 141 

Tunnels to Manhattan Island 893 

West Jersey & Seashore Railway 900 

West Shore Railroad 911 

Winona Interurban Railway 914 

Worcester Consolidated Railway Co... 205 
Massachusetts — 

Anti-Merger Legislation 433 

Eminent Domain in e317 

Mat toon City Railway, Description *549 

Memphis, Term. — 
Street Railway Young Men's Chi 

Associations *994 

Mergers. See also Consolidations .. .. 203 
Anti-Merger Legislation in Ma 

chuset ts 433 

Cleveland Paim sville & Ashtabula 
Railroad and I '1- vi l md l 'ainesville 

and Eastern Railroad 313 

Elevated Railways of Chicago, Plan 

for rllll 

Ohio and Indiana Comp unlet Scl 

Ah', fowan *595 

Metals, Delos Bearing lis 

Meter, Victor Combination 514 

Metropolitan and Interborough i !om- 

panies Consolidate 41 

Metropolitan West Side Elevated Rail 
way, Chicago — 

Status of . i 149 

Si perele\ ation of Tracks and Bi idges 
Meyer. Hugo R., Municipal Ownership in 

Germany 377 

Michigan United Railways 49 

Operating Methods *32l 

Mileage, Interchange Lble 

Coupon Tickets 402 

New York Street Railway Assoi 

By J. H. Pardee 220 

Mileage Books — 

io and Indiana Interurban Lines... !)45 
Mileage, Total, in Pennsylvania for 1905 e314 
Mill Va Hey & M t . Tamalpais Scenic 

Railway. Cars *286 

Milwaukee, Wis., Demands Two-Cent 

Fare 1010 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co 

Power Plant *3S4 

Public Service Building *?.W 

Terminal Addition *369 

Minneapolis — 

Third Interurban Line to Si Paul 325 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co., General 

Dei ■ ■ ' 116 

Mobile Lisrht & Railroad Co Parka . .' *66 
Mohawk Valley, Proposed 1 11 - tifieation 

of Accounts 175 

Mold for Soldering Bonds *635 

Monorail, Switzerland 

Monroe, La., Municipal Ownership 

503, 944, 977 

■ al Street Railway — 

Annual Report 967 

Car, "Pav-as-you-enter" Type . . e693 
\Ti ore, A. H. — 
Claim i.g nts" < !oi 1 ention— 

Ouick or Delayed Settlements 7r>s; 

Morn's El — <-.r j-_ Catenary Constructioi 
William L, Pining and Power 
Station S; stems. .*25. *95, *147, *215, 
*2f57. *345, * 123, *407, •661, *637, *!>35, *999 
Motor <^ars — 
Gasoline, for Interurban Sei vice. Bv 
F. W. Hild ' *239 

1 rasolii I ■ Del iwar< & Hud- 

son *7!» 

Si rang 505. *:•:><; 

Motor, Generatoi Sets, National Brake 
& El ctric Co *736 

Motormi n's Spring Seat 

Mi ''< >rs — 

Fri 1 *8 

R tings of e519 

Sine-le- Phase e3R7 

Ptsndardiza ti""m 

Te«=t.jne. of By R. W Conant 24S 

Muhlfeld J. E., Cost of Locomotive Ri 

1 !.. 1 

1 [nd Terminal Station, Indiana 

TTnion Traction *628 

nd Traction, 1 ies*cription.*929 



M Hi i]-al Board of < uitario. By S. J. 

tfcLean 461 

A! unicipal * iwnei ship — 

And Labor e519 

American Street & Interurban Railway, 

mitt' e 

Chii ago, ,1 a nps l talrymple's Sugges- 

<-77, 1 H 

1 !Ii vi land 02 e522 

l »envi r Rejects 433 

Detroit, Mich 502 

Failure of e582 e519 

Germany. By Hugo R, Meyer 377 

Glasgow e583 

Great Bi [tain e317 

Monroe, La 503, 944, !'77 

Seattle, Wash 504, 647 

V< 1 sus l '1 h at' ' >w nership. By F. <:. 

Simmons 541 

Munger, E. T. — 
Engineering Convention — 

Standardization r30 

Muskegon I ighting a' Traction Co., Park 209 
Muskogee Electric Traction Co. Parks. . *75 

N 

Natioi ialance 

Nepot ism e362 

New England Street Railway Club. See 
As 11 iciations. 

\'-\\ Jersey, Public Sei vice < lorporation, 

Improvements by * 329 

New York City — 

Bridge Li "'it Plans 64. r >, 1009 

Congestion of Bridges e448 

i 1 Side \ iadui 1 Railroad Co 

Elevated Plans Vetoed 431, 946 

Met] opolitan and Interborough Com- 
panies Consolidate 41 

Railroad Commission Recommends 

New Roads 1007 

Subway — 

Accident 320, 504 

Extensions' 503, 944, e9fi2 

Fire Protection 433 

Signal System. By J, M. Waldron. . .*257 

1 1 ase Controversy 261 

Ventilation 415. *974 

Traffic Growth First Quarter of 1' 339 

New York & Long Island Railroad. East 

River Tunnel *897 

New York & New Jersey Railroad, Hud- 
son River Tunnel : .v> I 

New York & Port Chester Railway Co., 

Franchise 21 

New York Central & Hudson Ri\er Rail- 
road, First Electric Train 646 

Signal System. Electric Zone *354 

New York New Haven & Hartford Rail- 

I, Sale of Electric Roads 569 

New York Pittsburg .V- Chicago \ir Line. 569 

New Zealand. Electric Tramways *250 

Newton & Northwesl era, Ci intract 
A warded 50 1 

Niagara River. Electric Railway Bridge 200 

Ninety-Nine Year Act, The el44 

Xorns, Henry TT. Electric Railway Test 
Commission ?,s\ 

Northern Indiana Railway, Starters' Rec- 
ord Sheet *539 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co., 

1 ■ ■■ ■ tor :i Trade Mark 28 

Northwestern Elevated Railroad, Rav- 

enswood Extension Ill 

Nuts, Grip 

O 

1 lakland Traction Consolidated Railway 

Plastic fin-: Bonds *711 

:. Shore Railway 122 

Office Buildings. See also Name of Road 

■ ' 1 Heading "Construction 
Office Buildings— 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co *490 

Portland Railway Light & Power Co.. 504 
1 )hio and Indiana. Consolidated Proper- 
ties of *595 

nterurbans Under Jurisdiction of 

ORd Commission 646 

Ohio Railways Increased Valuation of . . 944 

1 m lohn F.. Transfers 290 

Mid Colony Street Railway, Parks, !'■ 

R. H. D uali *SS 

■ ni-Convertible Cars for Subway *577 

Olds. E. W.— 
Engine 'ring Convenl ion 

si 706 

Control Apparatus i02, 703 

Ei onomy in < !ar Equipmenl . w eights 

and Schedules 7H4 

Standardization 729. 787 

O-nahn & Council Bluffs Streel Railway, 

1 Hosed Cars *!>5S 

New Shops *533 

Nov" 1 T ine Car *553 

■ 1 ■■! rfo Powi r Co 161 

Operating: Schemes. Chippewa Valley 

Electric Railr 1 7S 

. ■ Ion — 

ppla of • 960 984 

join* Steam and Electric Keokuk & 

Western Illinois Electric Co e363 

Limil System. By C E. Titzel *235 



Michigan t'nited Railways ('<>. M.-i hmls.*32] 

Practical Street Car Service e960, 984 

Railway, Totals for Fiscal Years 1900. 

1905, 1906 1 962 

Train. Rules for 620 

United Railroads of San Francisco, 

Methods of 320 

Operator. The. and Suppb Alan Bj 

W. R. Garton 283 

Oregon Water Power & Railway Co., 

Parks 68 

Organ, Automatic, Gavioli & Co *174 

Organization of a Construction Company,*995 
Ottawa Electric Railway Co., Annual 

Report 159 

Owbsso & Corunna Electric, Concrete 

Stringers for Track *532 



Page, H. C— 
American Convention — 

Standardization of Equipment 783 

Paint Tests. Philadelphia Rapid Transit 

Co *466 

Painting, Shop Practice. By L. A. Van 

Arnam 537 

Pardee. J H.. Interchangeable Mil-age.. 221 

Park Apparatus. Narragansett Mac] 

Co lis 

Park Attractions- 
Amusement Contracting Co 121 

Boyce Co *58 

Park Lines, Power for e7l 

Park Traffic e76 

Parker. George W. — 
A merican Convention — 

Interurban Freight and Express 817 

Parks — 

\ counting *337 

Anniston Electric & Gas Co *72 

Austin Electric Railway 70 

l:a\ 1 !ity Traction Co *72 

Boston & Northern Ry. R. H. Derrah. *S8 

Butte Electric Railway *60 

Chattanooga Electric Railway 82 

Claremont Railway & Lighting Co.... 120 
Cleveland Painesville & Eastern Rail- 
road Co *64 

1 'olumbus 1 Delaware & Marion 6 1 

Columbus Railway & Light Co *70 

Dayton Covington & Piqua Traction Co. 82 

Easton Transit Co *66 

Elmira Water. Light & Railroad 70 

Fonda Johnstown & Gloversville Rail- 
road *64 

Fort Worth & Rosen Heights Street 

Railway 121 

Hanover & McSherrytown Street Rail- 
way fi4 

Illinois Traction System 82 

Indiana Union Traction Co *62 

Indianapolis Traction & Terminal Co. . . 161 

International Railway of Buffalo "68 

Ithaca Street Railway *70 

Joliet Plainfield' & Aurora *66 

Kankakee Electric Railway *62 

I ouisville & Southern Traction Co **>2 

flobile Light & Railroad *6G 

Muskegon lighting Traction Co 209 

Muskogee Electric Traction Co *75 

Old Colony Street Railway. By R H. 

Derrah *ss 

Oregon Water Power & Railway Co... 68 

Philadelphia & Western 945 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co *fifi 

Phoenix Railway lfio 

Portland & Brunswick Street Railway. *60 
Recommendations of Amusements for.. e77 

Rochester Railway *87 

St. Joseph Railway Light .V- Power Co. *B4 

St. Louis & Suburban Railway 120 

San Antonio. Tex 120 

San Diego Electric Railway *60 

Saginaw Valley Traction Co 75 

Seattl ■ Eli 1 trii Co ., *G8 

Shamokin & Edgewood Electric Rail- 
way 7 1 

Steubenville Traction .t Light Co **12 

Streel & Interurban Railway *59 

Summer. "Bv Jos. D. Glass 82 

Springfield Traction Co *75 

Ti ipeka Ra llway *74 

Toronto & York Radial Railwaj *6f> 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co *R0 

ITnion Electric Co. of Dubuque. la *6S 

White City 117 

Worcester Consolidated Street Railway 117 
Parsons C E.. Water Power, Sale of... 412 
Passenger Stations. Illinois Traction Co.. 503 

I 1 ihio e961, 1001 

Paving, l:- inforced Concrete, in Denver s *973 
Peirce, Charles C— 
American Convention -- 

Address 783 

1 'ennsvlvania — 

Mil. age for 1906 f, ^l ' 

Traction Legislation e256 

Pennsylvania New York & Long Island, 

Power Station *170 

Pennsylvania Railroad — 

Tunnels Under Hudson River and East 

River *893 

Pennsylvania, University of. Engineering 

Buildine *934 

Pensaeola Electric, Damage by Storm... 946 



Personal Injury Claims, Claim Agents' 

Convention si; 6 

Peru. New Equipment 166 

Pestell, Wm.— 
Engineering Convention 
Maintenance and Inspect! t Elec- 
trical Equipment 720 

Petaluma & Santa Rosa Ry. By E. E. 

Downs 155 

Philadelphia — 

Traction Situation 199 

Philadelphia & West Chcstei fraction 

Co., New Intel-urban Cars *360 

Philadelphia & Western. Park 1)15 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co. — 

All-Steel Cars »763 

Cement Testing Laboratory *466 

Coal Storage »4!>'j 

Cooling Pond *466 

Elevated Line 505 

Fares, Regulation of 503, eSS6 

Office Building- "490 

Paint Tests *466 

Parks "66 

Shops, Sixty-ninth and Market Sts....*484 
Six Tickets for Twenty-five Cents. 503, e8S6 

Substation, Sansom Street "479 

Subway and Elevated Stations, Con- 
tract Let 56S 

Track Construction *554 

Turbines, Low Pressure e450, "459 

Phoenix Railway Co. Park 160 

Piping and Power Station Systems By 
Wm. 1.. Morris... »25, *95, «147, *215, 
*267, "315, *423, '497, *561, *637, *935, »999 

Pitard, J. H., Varnish 983 

Pittsburg Railways Co., Annual Report.. 336 

( ' a i- Cleaning 432 

Checking Electrolysis 503 

Power Station at Brunots Island. 

Switch and Transformer House "4S6 

Planer Construction, Fay v<c Egan *576 

Pole Line Consolidations e584 

Pole-Setting Machine *610 

Pole Stops. Location of e255 

Poles, Wooden, Life of 625 

Poles and Posts, Engineering Conven- 
tion 703, »717 

Population in Iowa Increased by Inter- 
urban Service 945 

Population of Terminal Cities, Account- 
ants' Convention eS13 

Porter, Frederic H . K, \ West Electric 

Improvements *525 

'Portland (Pa.) Power Co 72S 

Portland & Brunswick Street Railway 

Co. Parks »60 

Portland Railroad — 

Shops *33 

Side Entrance Cars »636 

Portland Railway Light & Power Co.. 

Club House 503 

New Officeis 504 

Portsmouth Dover & York Railway Sys- 
tems. Consolidation 22S 

Power, Electric — 

Hydro-Electric, Charging for e364 

Park Lines. Supply for • . , 

Sale of. By S. B. Storer «364, «40S 

Power Plants. See also Nan i Road 

under Heading "Construction." 
Power Plants — 

Auxiliaries e964 

Central Pennsylvania Traction Co 296 

Coal Handling e517. e5Sl 

Coal-Weighing Machine, Blake-Deni- 

son *515 

Columbus Delaware & Marion Railway. 

New Equipment for *631 

Cooling Pond. Philadelphia Rapid 

Transit *465 

Construction e961 

Design, Duplication in el 42 

Economizers 685 

Ft. Wayne ,y- Wabash Valley Traction. 

Spy Run Avenue. Ft Wayne. Ind *596 

Galesburg & Kewanee Electric Railway. *3S9 

Improvements in 401 

London (England) e5S2 

Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light 

Company .' *3S4 

Pennsylvania New York ,v- Long Island. *179 
Fittsburg Railways Co.. Brunots Is- 
land, Switch ami Transfer i Hbuse.*486 

Quebec Railway Light & Power Co... 647 

Smoke Prevention eSS9 

Turbines. Low Pressure o450. *459 

Washington. D. C 132 

Waste of Steam and Current e517 

Western Electric Co.. at Hawthorne.. 762 
Station Systems. By Win. L. Morris. 
•25. *95. *117. *215, »267. «343. "423, 
*497, *561, *637, »935. «999. 
Pratt A. Stuart- 
Accountants' Convention — 

I'se of Curves in Statistics .787, *793. eS13 
Priest, E. D. — 

Engineering Convention — 
Economy in Car Equipment, Weights 

and Schedules 734 

Standardization 730 

Profits. Increasing e520 

Profit-Sharing, Lyons, France 492 



Profit siiiiii-- Means of Reducing Dam- 
age ■ i . 1 1 r . , i nited Traction Co., 
Albany, N. V e449 

Promotion Sch mes e962 

Public and the Claim I n part ment, Claim 

'gi ii i Convention 15 

Public Relations 147 

American Convention 

Public Ser\ ici I iullding, Milwaukee I 

trie Railway & Light Co *369 

Public Service Corporation, Improve 

in. hi- 329 

Puget Sound Electric Ry., Description. .*123 

Pumps — 

Boiler F 1 e694 

Vertical Wet Vacuum, Mullan *660 

Puriluo I 'niversity— 

[71, ■•■III Railway Label. it. >r\ . . ■■ 

Students to Build a Railway 728 



Rail Bond, Twin-Terminal *771 

Uail-M ling Tools, Chicago Pneumatic "716 

Rail Joints, Cast-Welding of "224 

Rails, compound Track, Romopac Tram- 
way Construction Company e363 

Rails, inside Guard, a Safeguard Against 

Occidents 965 

Railway and Lighting Plants Combined, 

Economy of. By Ernest Gonzenbach.*113 
Railway Operator and Supply .Man. Bj 

W. R. Garton 283 

Ramsey, Joseph, Jr.. Chicago-New fork 

Air Line 569, 946 

Rate Sheet Toledo Fostoria & Findlay 

Railway Co Ill 

Rati - 

Hepburn Railway Rate Bill e255 

I: Lti and Tickets, American Convention 

819, 825 

Reagan, H. C. — 

Reversing Direct Current Generators.. o2 

Sub-Station Emergency Repairs *150 

Real Estate Values 

Receipts. Where the Nickel Goes 

Record Sheet, Starters', Northern In- 
diana Railway *539 

Reed, Boardman — 

Engineering Convention — 

Underground Cables 733 

Registers — 

Ohmer Recording *955 

Security _■ " ' ' ' 

!:■ I. wal Funds e887, 906 

Report Blanks — 
Atlantic City & Suburban Traction Co '" ■ 

Defective Cars 368 

Passenger Earnings, West Penn Rail- 
ed ■ s *liS 

Rockford & Interurban Ry. Co *2S2 

Resaw. Modern Band *295 

Rhoades. S. L.— 
American Convention — 

Address '-7' I. (93 

Claim Agents' Convention — 

Address ' 

Rhode Island Co. — 

Doulih- Truck Sprinkling Car "715 

Personnel, changes in 163 

Richmond. Va. — 

Street Railway Young Men's Christian 

Association 993 

Richn 1 & Chesapeake Bay Railway. 

Single Phase Equipment 144 

Unbelts. E P. — 
American Convention — 

Electric Railways in Sparsely Settled 

Communities eSl 1. 817, *S34 

Engineering Convention — 

Gas Engines 732 

ii. A. S.. Proposed Inner Ci 
System of Chicago Subway Ter- 
minals *619 

Robinson, II. A. — 

American Convention — 

Insurance '84 

Public Relations - s -'9 

Rochester, N. V-. Street Railway Young 

Men's Christian Associations w ..*993 

Rochester Railway — 

Parks *S7 

Semi-Convertible Cars *444 

Rochester & Eastern Rapid Ry., Train 

Dispatching. Tie W. R. W. Griffin . .»135 
Rockford & Interurban Railway, Report 

Bl mks *282 

Roller Skates. Winslow 

Rolling Mill, Rail Joint Co 772 

Rolston. W. E.— 
Engineering Convention — 

Economy in Car Equipment. Weights 

and Schedules , : l 

lac Tramway Construction Co.. 

Compound Track Rails 

rger, J. I. Recent Electric Rail- 
w.ii DecisiOl - 29, 91, 151, 211, 271, 349. 
127, (93 557, 641, 939. "1003. 

Rossiter, MacGovern & Co M15 

Ross, \v G.— 
Alien.-. ,i Convenl ion — 
Leaks Between Passenger and 

Treasurer 859 

Rules, Standard Code, Americi onven- 

tion 



,.. Valley Trai lion Co Pari 7o 

si i '1 a- T u I, Single- Ph 

Loc i * 50 

si Joseph Railway L ghl & Powi r Co. 

ii.s *61 

SI I .. ns Wo, 

Sm,.,., . ■ .1 , ... .1 i: . . I'' 

. '1 64o 

United Railwa; ' 

T k 

si Louis & Siii.ii. ban R Parks.. 120 

SI Paul, Minn.. Third Interurban to 

Minneapolis 

Sai ii. M. A., P 

Generation, Ti ansn i and I 'is - 

tribution y 97 

s in |,.. ■-., Eli .-ii n- ii tilwai ' '.i en k • ■ *60 

:isco — 

Earthquaki Dis 

United Railroad 



Reconstruction Progress- 505, 1008 

Sargent, F. W.— „„_ 

Electric Railway Brake Shoes "bS3 

Engineering Convention — 

SI ici ii ilization 

Sash Balance National *o2 

Sash Lock. National '118 

s,!,e, lnles 

As Moneymakers c 44 ' 

Economy In — 
Engim tig Convention ..734, (Jo 

1,1 Sin, ,11 Cities e5S5 

Opel it ion of City Cars in Sheboygan. 

wis '162 

, ,,! Railway — 

Benefit Association *139 

' i *139 

Sweeper l*-J9 

Schoepf-McGowan Syndicate *59o 

Mileage Book J*j» 

Offices Moved to Lima --a 

Schn iber, M. A. — 

Engineering Convention — 

Ballast '"-J 

Scrap. Handling of. By W. G. Tubby... 22, 
Valley Traction— 

Brakeshoe Record Blank JJ« 

Extensions 613 

Lead Gaskets for Boilers "600 

Shops and Storage House *o94 

Tii in Operation and Discipline, Rules 

for 620 

Scotland, Glasgow, Tramways A ants 

Municipal Ownership 504, 647 

s, attle Electric Co. Parks *6S 

Ser i,e Stripes. Indianapolis Columbus i: 

Eastern Traction Co 239 

Shamokin & Edgewood Electric Railway 

Parks ■■■■,•-.;• '* 

Sheboygan (Wis.) Light Power A- Rail- 
w a y <~*o — 
S.lo. bibs for Operation of City Cars..*162 
si, M. 111. Robert- 
American Convention — __ n 

Address of Welcome ei ■■ 

Sheo Pi i. 17 •■ if Paintei Bj i A. Van 

Arnam ° J ' 

Shops — 

Binghamton Railway Co -to 

Car Building. Detroit Ypsilanti Ann 

Arbor & Jackson Railway *6S3 

Cleanliness In e 361 

1 -. .inhi li.linstown & i; ' Elec- 
tric Railway Shop Practices 228 

High Speed Steel In e31o 

Illinois Traction System, Danville "121 

International Railway Co.. Buffalo. 

cm Springs *393 

: k * 404 

Omaha .y- Council Bluffs Street Rail- 

way "33 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co *484 

Portland Railroad Co *3o 

, r Plant Repair 

Repair £ 14 f 

...,, Vail, v Ti .lion *594 

Single-Phase Motors for e36< 

Soldering, cautions to be Observe,! By 

Arthur B. Weeks 971 

Short Circuits on r >' i '• wee for 

Locating. By Vrthur B. Weeks *8 

Signal Lamps. Adlake *S00 

Signals — 

'utomatic Electric Block, Long Island 

Railroad *979 

Blake. By E. J. "Hike 

Block, Uniti a S tem *il2 

Eureka *SM 

New York Central & Hudson Rivei *3o4 

■ bway. New York. By J. M Waldron.«257 
Underground 171, ' ric Rail oi 

London * 54 

Signs— 

|. stination '« 

Electric. Federal El I *178 

Simmons, F. G. — 

Engii invention — 

1 

Ties i ' ! 

Simmons. F. G.. Privati ' tfunic- 
ipai ' iwni rship 541 



innel— 
Eli ■ i rica i Equipment 

By Alfred l Sradenwltz *621 

i: i rai ! Koi ster *207 

i i ■■ Drains 923 

i I ■■■ 
Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction.... 540 

London Outei Circle Railway 132 

Motors Cor Shops e361 

Richmond & < 'hi sapi aki I >a ■ Ry 444 

Spok tne & Inland Railway *55o 

Toledo iV- Chicago Interurban Railway. *589 
ington Baltimore & Annapolis 

Railway, Equipment 661 

Sinking Funds e452, e887 

Sleeping Cars, Illinois Traction System. 1009 
Sleet Cutter, and Third Rail Shoe, 

Aurora Elgin & Chicago Ry *165 

Smith. G. J.— 

ring Convention— 

( !ontrol Apparatus 702, 703 

Standardization 731 

Ties, 1 '< ties a rid Posts 704 

Smith, W. N. Car Equipment, Long Is- 

Railroad *468 

Smoke Prevention in Power Plants e889 

Snow Fighting in Wisconsin *283 

Snow Sweeping Brush, Columbia *772 

Soldering. By Arthur B, Weeks 977 

South Bend & Southern Michigan Rail- 
way- 
Semi- Convertible, Interurban Cars. — *713 
South Chicago City Railway — 

Waiting- Station *911 

Labor and Material Accounting with 

the Adding Machine 713 

Southern Michigan Railway, Desci iption.*397 

Southern Pacific, Electrification 1009 

Southern Railway — 

Pressed Steel Cars *514 

Southwest Missouri Railroad — 

Extensions of - - - *543 

Spokane & Inland Railway, Electrical 

Equipmenl of *550 

Spokane & Inland Empire Railroad, De- 
scription *996 

Spokane-Pend d'Oreille Rapid Transit 

Co 516, L020 

Spring, Edwa mi C.- 
Amei ican I Convention — 
Freight and Express Service, Inter- 
urban e813, S17, Ms. 830 

Engineering Convention — 

Address of Welcome 701 

Springfield Traction Co. Parks *75 

Sprinkling Car, Double Truck, Rhode 

Island Co *715 

Staats, Henry A. — 
American ■ Convention — 

Insurance 7S4 

Standard Code of Rules eS54 

Standard St. .1 Works. Burnham. Pa.... 850 
Standardization — 

American Association 200 

Engineering Association 200 

Engineering Convention. .e725, 729, 753, 7X7 

Motors 978 

Standardization of Equipmen i 

American Convention 783 

Stanislaus Electric Power Co 28 

Stanley. A. H. — 
Araei ican Ci invention — 

Leaks Betwe in Passenger and Tre • 
urer 859, 867 

St. hi. tt. M. G.— 
American Convention — 

Car Wiring 77-". 

State Electric Co., Improvements 325 

Stations — 

Atlantic Avenue, East Boston Tunnel. 

e256, *287 

Indiana Union Ti action Loj insport ... '.'! i 
South Chicago City Railway, New 

Waiting *910 

Statistical Bureau, Relation to i he < !laim 
■ s Work, Claim Agents' Con- 

ion 857 

Statistics — 

Object of. By J. L. Burgess 332 

('so nf Curves in, Aeoumta nl s' Con- 
vention 7s7. *793, e813 

Steam Roads, Interchange of Traffic. . . . 

i 149, e450 

Stean ' ectric Interurbans — 

: & Mt. Vernon Electric Ry. 

e447, *483 

St ihbins Thei flore — 
American Convention — 

Evolution of Electric Transportation. 

819, 861 

Steel Alloy, for Shops e315 

St. ubenvilli Traction & i ighl Co. Parks *62 

Stock-Selling Promotion Schemes e962 

Stombaugh Guy Anchor *173 

Storage Batteries and Battery Plates, 

i *957 

..765 
N, W — 
i .■ ■ m i-ri og ( Jonvention — ■ 
Economy in Car Equipment, Weights 

and Schi dules 734 

I ' Sale and Measurement of 

ic Power *408 

I H G.— 
i .■■■ ■ ■ i ig ■ i 'mi v. ni ion — 

Underground Cables 733. 737 

Strang, W. B.. Gasoline-Electric Car....*556 



Street Railway Review, New Owner... e254 
Sul si it ions. See also Name of Road L'n- 

i|i i i I iTiding "Construction." 
Substations— 

i i nver City Tramway at East Colfax. .*991 

Hoisl Ing Facilities e316 

i mpn >\ ement in 

Repairs, Emergency. By H, C. Reagan.*150 

Syi LCUse Rapid Transit Railway *379 

Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., San- 

som Street *479 

Subways — 

lidge (Mass.) Subway Bill 

Chicago 407, *619 

London. Underground Electric Rail- 
ways Co *195, i L98 

New York — 

Accident 320, 504 

Extension 503, *.<44, e962 

Fin Protection 433 

Lease Controversy 2i!l 

Signal System *257 

Ventilation 415, *974 

St. Louis Proposed 645 

Semi-Convertible Cars, < >l«i Col 

Railway *577 

Track Construction. Philadelphia 

Rapid Transit *554 

Traffic Capacity e454 

Supplies and Materials, Railway, Tesi - 

ing of 

Supply Man, The Operatoi and. By W. 

R Carton 2S3 

Sweeper, Schenectady Railway Co *13:> 

Swenson, Bernard V., Electric Railway 

Test Commission 3S1 

Swindlers, Fraudulent Accident, Convic- 
tions Of 24 

Switch and Transformer House, BrunotS 
Island Power Station, Pittsburg Rail- 
ways Co. - .*486 

Switchboard Wiring, Improvements in... e5i 
Switches — 

Magnetic Device for Operating 561 

Car Barn Layout, Indianapolis Switch 

& Frog Co 

Tongue Throwing Devices for, Gerlach *6 
Switz iland. Tramways of Lucerne. By 

Franz Koester *330 

Syracuse Rapid Transit Railway — 

Insulating Field-Coils 138 

New Semi-Convertible Cars *65S 

Power from Niagara Falls 5<>3 

Substation *379 

Transmission Line of *399 

T 

Tariff, Interline — 

Central Electric Railwaj Association. 432 
Tariffs 

Joint Interurban e519 

Joint Steam and Electric e886, 944 

Taxation — 
Michigan — 

High Rate of. Prevents Railroad 

• ' nst ruction 567 

ii Heading el98 

Terminal Connector, Two-Way, Indian- 
apolis & Easti rn Traction *92S 

Termi n.\ I Station — 
Milwaukee Electric Railway & Lighl 

*369 

Muncie, Ind., Indiana Union Traction. *628 
Terminals — 

Capai its of e888 

Handling Passengers ai Ends of Sur- 

Paci i !ai Routes e963 

T. n. Haute Traction & Light Co., 

Headway, R cording of *353 

Testing La boratory. Dearborn Drug & 

Chi mical Works *71ti 

Tests- 
Brake Shoes, M C B Tests of 1906..*548 

Electric Locomotives 540 

Gas Engine !16 

Mat. riils and Supplies for Railways 

St. -(in Turbine *201 

Third Rail— 

Scioto Valley Traction *613 

West Shore Railroad *911 

Third-Rail Shoe, Double-Running *220 

Third Rail Shoe and Sleet Cutter, Au- 

Elgin & Chicago Ry "165 

Three-Phase Versus Two-Phase, Ge 

and Distribution. By M. A. Sammeit 997 
Tickets — 
And Kates. American Convention. .819, $25 

inting Machine, Gibbs 6 

Interchangeable Coupon 402 

Six for Twenty-five Cents, Philadel- 
phia Rapid Transit Co 503, eSSG 

Ties- 
Annual Consumption 938 

"Built-up." Homeland *958 

Engineering Convention 703, *717 

Metal, in Germany 600 

Substitute for Wooden 166 

in atment of. Chicago & Northwest- 
em Ry 175 

Time Recorders, Bristol.. *956 

Titus. J, V. E. Lightning Protection ... *108 
Titzel, c E. Operation by the Limit 

Servi. e *235 

lo & Chicago Int.-Tnii.aii Railway, 
Description *5S9 



Ti iledi < & Indiana Railway — 

Lightning Arresters for Cars *027 

T< dedo & Westei n Railway — 

i n ight Handling *553 

Toledo Fostoria .t Findlay Railway 

Rate si.- .i 141 

Toledo Port Clinton & Lakeside Railway, 

Extension 555 

Toledo Railway & Light- 
Observation Car 945 

Tontrup, George H. Standard Car Body 

and Trui k 281 

Topeka Street Railway — 

i ree Uniforms for Employes 503 

Parks *74 

Toronto & York Radial Railway — 

I arks *60 

Proposed Extension L72 

Wagon, Trenton *1022 

Ji'w nley, Calvert — 
American < Jonvention— 

Heavy Electric Traction SI 7. 824 

Townsend, E. R. — 
Amei Lean C< invention — 

In-in ance 7s.j 

Track See also Name of Road Under 

Heading "Construction." 
Track- 
Concrete Stringers, Owosso & Corunna 

Electric *532 

< Construction, International Railway 

Co., Buffalo *420 

Construction in Asphalt Paved Streets, 

Denver City Tramway *973 

Layout for Bushwick Incline, Brooklyn 

Rapid Transit *603 

Rail Joints. Cast-Welding of *224 

Ri coi sti'in tn»n of, United Railways of 

St. Louis *923 

Superelevation of. Metropolitan West 

Side Elevated Railway *538 

Temporary Crossover ysti 

Trackless Trollej in Italy 619 

Traction, Heavy Electric, American Con- 

\ intion S17, 824 

Traction-Engine for Work Train *304 

Traction News, a New Journal 816 

Trade Mark. Prizes for 28 

Traffic- 
Agreements With Steam Roads 618 

Aided by Maps and Timetables e582 

Capacity of Terminals e8S8 

Capacity of Subwavs and Tunnels. . . .e454 

Collection of Data e447 

Cong?stion e20 

Electric Lints Cai ry More Passengers 
Than Steam Roads in Connecticut... 503 

Elevated Railways -f Chicago 569 

Growth in Greater New York First 

Quarter of 1906 *339 

Interchange with Steam Roads 

e449, e450. e517 

Milk. Aurora Elgin & Chicago fi47 

Park e76 

Ira Tic Promotion — 

A ni' rJean Assiniii i ii>n Convention 

318, e774, 783, 791 

Train Dispatching — 

Petaluma & Santa Rosa Railway *154 

Ro hester & Eastern Rapid Railway. .*135 
Train Service and Its Requirements.... 7.1 
Ti a in men — 

Discipline of, American Convention. S19, 833 
Selection of. American Convention. .819, 827 
Tramways — 
Glasgow — 

Corporation Accounts 530 

Operation e584 

London 646 

Lucerne, Switzerland. By Franz Koes- 
ter *330 

Manchester < 'orporation Accounts 531 

New Zealand *250 

Transfers — 

Interurbans Not Compelled to Give 944 

I iy John F. Ohmer 290 

Transformer House. Brunots Power Sta- 
tion. Pittsburg Railways Co *48G 

Transmission Lines. See also Name of 
Road Under Heading "Construction." 
Ti ii -mission lines — 

Experience with e448 

Lightning Protection on. Bv C. R. 

McKay «25 

Open Air Switch for *922 

Syracuse Rapid Transit Railway Co..*399 

l ; : : ■ Miaat i'.n Derm i t inent. Vain- < >t" 

Comparisons in. By J. W. Brown... *478 
Transportation, Electric. Evolution of. 

American Convention 819, 861 

Travel. Stimulating, Summer. By J. W. 

Brown 313 

i rei Growing by Railroads 611 

Tri-Citv Railway Co.. Proposed Consoli- 
dation of Davenport (Ia.l Railways. 23 
Trollev, Pantagraph Type, Spokane & 

[nland Railway *550 

Trollev Axles, Hollow, for Oiling Trolley 

Wheels e5S4 

Troll v Harp. United Copper Foundry 

Co *120 

Trolley Poles- 
Del ich ible (Bayonei Trolley Harp) - -*658 

Trolley Retrievers, Ridlon *516 

Ti olley Wheels — 

Johns-Man ville *116 

N^ w Type 549 



Richardson Automatic Lubricator for. *955 
Ti ucks — 

Baldwin *736 

Standard. By Geo. II. Tontrup 283 

si tndard Motor *4t::. 850 

Tubby, W. G. Handling Railroad Scrap. 227 
Tunnels— 
Hudson Companies, Electrical Equip- 
ment 647 

Manhattan Island *8yt 

St. Clair. Locomotive and Power 

Equipment *50 

Simplon — 

Electrical Equipment *207, *62I 

Operation of Trains 923 

Traffic Capacity e454 

Washington Street, Boston Elevated 

Railway Co »4-i3 

Turbines — 

Backstrom-Smith *263 

Demonstration of Allis- Chalmers *357 

Low Pressure e450, *459 

Steam. Allis- Chalmers .*714 

Steam. Economical Rating e855 

Steam. Efficiency Tests *201 

Turbines and Engines. Relative Economy 

of, Engineering Convention. 733, 734, *741 
Turner. Walter V., Improvements in Air 

Brakes 192 

Twin City Rapid Transit Co. — 

Amusement Plans 279 

General Passenger Department 116 

Parks *60 

Third Interurban Line. Minneapolis to 
St. Paul 325 

U 

United Railways & Electric Co. of Bal- 
timore — 

Car Barns Destroyed 2" 

Clubroo-n 567 

United Railways of St. Louis — 

Reconstruction of Track. Bv Richard 

McCulloch *923 

Sixtli Annual Report 262 

Underground Cables, Engineering Con- 
vention 733. 737 

Underground Electric Railways Co. of 

London *195. el98 

Signal System *54 

Uniforms, Free to Employes, Topeka 

Street Railway 503 

Uniforms and Badges, American Con- 
vention 820. 832 

Union El ?c trie Co. of Dubuque, la., 

Parks *68 

Union Traction Co., Chicago, Electrical 

Operation 368 

United Railwavs of San Francisco — 

Cars. Pressed Steel *764 

Earthquake Damages' 259 

Operating Methods 320 



Rei eipts *no 

l; construction Work r,u:.. inns 

Strike Ended 568 

United Traction Co., Albany. X. Y.. 
1 lamages Reduced by Profit -Sharing.* 149 



V 
Valves 
Automatic Boiler Cut-off, Lagonda . .*515 

Sal.' i v. WVstinghouse 

Varnish. By J. H. Pitard 

Varnishes, Berry Bros 851 

Insulating for Armature Coils. B3 

Arthur B. Weeks \*:I2N 

Van Arnam, L. A. simp Practice of 
Painter 537 

Will 1l.1t ion — 

Car ■.,., 

New York Subway 415. *:»74 

Vestibule, Sliding Sash, for rinse, 1 Cars.*805 

Viaducts, Concrete, Indianapolis & Con- 
cinnati Traction *601 

Victoi ian Railway Co. of Melbourne, 

Australia, Cars *172 

Voltas for Insulating and Waterproof- 
ing, Electric 1 'able Co 95 S 



W 

Wagi s 

New York City Railway Increases 641 

United Railways Sz Electric Co. of Bal- 
timore. Increase 504 

Waldron, J. M.. Signal Svstem. New 

York Subway *257 

Walkill Transit Rv.. Description *208 

Wallerstedt, H — 

Engineering Convention — 

Standardization < 7^5, 72!). 7.".3 

Wallis, Robert N — 

Accountants' Convention — 
Depreciation as Applicable to Elec- 
tric Railways e813, 820 

Walton, Seymour. Accounting 204 

Warren, James. Wheel-Turning Lathe. . .*913 
Washington Baltimore & Annapolis, Sin- 
gle-Phase Equipment 667 

Washington. Merger of Traction Proper- 
ties in State of 138 

Water- Power — 

Sale of By G. A. Harvev *416 

Sale of. By C. E. Parsons e408, 412 

Weeks, Arthur B. — 
Device for Locating Short Circuits on 

Feeders *8 

Insulating Varnish for Armature Coils. *328 

Soldering 977 

Weh. W- F.~ 

Claim Agents' Convention — 

Claim Department and the Public 

745. 758 



Weights', Economy in, Engin 1 1 

vent I on 734, *7::s 

\v< 1 Jersey & Seashoi e Eli el ric 

1 (rawbri'dge A' 1 Ident e8!»' 

Bl -ti leal Equipmi nl 

( >pera tion "t 

Test Run 

Wesi Pi n ! tailwa ys — 
Car Service Men, Training of B; .1 

w Brown *2ni 

Ni w Heels Rou1 ■ 

'\ i 1 SI ■ Raih oad, Electi ical Equip- 

menl "911 

<Mni. Railway, Lima-Pindlay 

Division *42 

Whistles Interurban Cars *516 

vVilkes-Barre ft Hazelton Railway, Side 

Entrance Cars *35(> 

Williams, 11. F.. Diffei>-ni Systems of 

1 Ei ikes 615 

\\ illiams, ll. O,. street Railway Young 

Men's Christian Associations *993 

Willis, E. M — 
A mei lea n Convention — 

Electric Railway Employes and the 
Young Men's Christian Association.. 819 
Wilmington. N. C. Consolidated Rail- 

I.ight & Power Co., New Cars.*956 

Wilson Co., New Owners 1 ! 

Winnebago Traction Co., Fighting Snow.*2S3 
Winona Interurban Railway, Descrip- 
tion *911 

Winsor, Paul — 
Engineering Convention — 

Ballast 706 

Cables. Underground 7:;3 

Control Apparatus 703 

Gas Engines e725. 732. *750. 925 

Standardization 731 

Ties. Poles and Posts 704 

Turbines and Engines. Relative 

Economy of 734 

Wiring of Cars. American Convention... 775 
Worcester Consolidated Street Railway 

Parks 117 

Second Line to Leominster *205 

Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Engi- 
neering Laboratories *334 

Wrench, Bischman Ratchet *4<i" 



Yanger, Edwin — 

Knginrrring ' 'mn enl ion 
Gas Engines 732 

York (Pa.) Street Railway Co., Car 

House *348 

Young, P. S. — 

Accountants' Convention — 

Accounting of Capital Expenditures. 864 

Ypsilanti. Mich.. Car Building in Shops 
of Detroit Ypsilanti & Jackson Rail- 
way *63S 



PERSONAL 



A 

Abbott W. R 434 

Adams. J. L 285. 505 

Akarman, Jobn N. . . . 

505. 569, »648 

Almert, Harold *112 

Amesbury. B. C 947 

Anderson, A. A 947 

Anderson. A. W 230 

Anderson. F. E 947 

Artingstall, Wm 570 

B 

Backus. J. 649 

Bailey. I. W 285 

Baker. C. A.. Miss... 41 

Baker, C. 505 

Baker. E. H *670 

Baluss, H 946 

Banks. Daniel B 569 

Barber. G. E 1011 

Barbero, Henry 64S 

Barton. Chas. A 946 

Beggs John 1 81, *S59 

Bell, Edward 506 

Bell. R. T 40 

Bender. G. E 285 

B in lure, J. A 285 

Benham, Albert 230 

Benliam. W. L 505. 570 

Bentley. Lorenzo .... 434 

Berg. Max A *146 

Berry. Fred S 648 

Bioghler. E. B 506 

P.I. irk Walter A 946 

Blair, Henrv A 505 

Blakely. Chas 327 

Blakeslee. George G.. 570 

Boehm. F. J 176 

Bonar. W M 176 

Boutelle. F. A... 946. 1010 

Bowen. Frank H 947 

Bower. 1. F *285 

Bowers, G. H 81 



Boynton. Edward C. 648 
Brackenridge, J. C. .. 115 

Bradley, Burt C 569 

Til adv. A. W 285 

Bramlette, John M. .. 327 
Breckenridge. Rich- 
ard 230 

Ureen. Joseph L.230. *2S6 

Brett J. A 41 

Brillerv. P. J 569 

Bristol. J. S 506 

Bristol, Warren P 176 

BrockwaSl W. B »668 

Brown. B. M 506 

Brubaker. G. W. S. . 

285. 648 

Bruce, H. P 506 

Brill. G. Martin *230 

Buck. Richard S 64S 

Bueknell. J. A.. .176. 64S 

Burbank. Albert 946 

Burkhardt. Frank A. 327 

Burrell. E. A 81 

Burrill. Charles W. .. «60 

Bushnell. George 946 

Busliong A. T 648 

Butler. Wm. W. S. . . 
285. 570 

c 

Campbell. R. S 1010 

Carpenter. F. D 176 

Carr. H. H 570 

Carr. Robert F 2S5 

Cassier. Louis 434 

Chambers George . . 570 

Chi ster, G. J 570 

Christensen. N A....*484 

Clark, H. J 64S 

Cole, George M 327 

Coleman. S. W 946 

Collins. C. C 81 

Collins. O. D 434 

Connell. C. C 648 

Connolly. B. A 230 



Consor. Austin 569 

Cook. George C 230 

Cooke. Chas 946 

Cooley. Frank 946 

Cooley. Mortimer E. . 434 

Cory, C. M 434 

Cousins. J. S 434 

Crane. G. G 506. 1010 

Crawford. J. H 285 

Crawford, Norman 

McD 570 

Crocker. H. S 570 

Culver. Abel 1 40 

Cummins, F. S 506 

Currie. Chas'. ...947. 1011 
Currier. G. F 176 

D 

Dalton, Chas. H 434 

Dai-hie, Wm 570 

Davis. Benjamin B..»669 
Davis. Edward J. 506. 327 

Day, R. W 81 

Denton, Wm 947 

Derrah. Robert H.... 177 

Des Jardins, E. L 947 

Deverell, H. E 1010 

Dittenhaver, Robert.. 570 

Dole. Geo. P 327 

Donnellv. John 569 

Doty, Dr. Maurice. . . 230 

Dougan. W. T 505 

I lougl is W. H 1011 

Downs. E. E 177 

Dovle, E. P 327 

Drum. A. t. 285 

Duffv. C. N 17.;, 946 

Dunbar, S. R 41 

Dunham, W R.. Jr. . 570 
Dunlap. George W. . . 
648, *947 

E 

Eaton, W. M 506 

Eberhart, F. S 506 



Ebert. Henry C 40 

Eckels, James H 505 

Edgar. H. T 40 

Edwards. D. G 176 

Edwards. S. C 230 

Eisendrath. W. N 505 

Eldredge. Nathan S.. 946 
Kill. ■..it, Joseph R...*670 

Ellis. T. M 230 

Ely. W. Caryl »668 

Emory. Richard 1011 

Emmons. C. D 176 

Emmons, Wm 64s 

Empey. James 648 

Englund. A H »146 

Erwin, W. E 431 

Evans. J. Whyte.505, 570 



Faber, B. C 

Fairehild. C. B.. Jr. 
Farrii gton, H. E. . . . 

Fast. Robert K 

Faulkner. Herbert A 

Fenton, Jerry 

Feight, J. E 

Ferris. W. J 

!■'. rtig, Willis B 

Finley, John 569 

Forse. W H 

Foster. E. C 

Franklin, C. F 

Franklin. C. J 

Fraser. Harry 

Frazee, A. M 

Freeman. John ..947. 
Fritsch, H. C 



. 230 
1010 
1010 

L'sr, 
176 
.;i^ 
81 
569 
.Its 
648 

1010 
2S5 
947 

HIl. I 
569 
176 

1011 

..14.; 



Gahoury. A 327 

Gallup. H. H 669 

Gardner, William E. . 618 

Garrett. George F 648 

Garretv. Ed 1011 



Gary. John W 505 

Gettings. John J 64S 

Gibb. Sir George 41 

Gibbs, W. A 81. 176 

Gilbert. D. W 1010 

Gilbert, E. R 648 

Gillett. R. D 41 

Girdler, L. T 176 

Goldthwaite. William 

J.. Jr 947. HUH 

Goodwill. Chas. S 648 

Gorenflo. W. F 434 

Gorman. J. J 1010 

Graham. John R i's~> 

Grantham. A. M 434 

Graves. C. M 327 

Griggs. Julian 434 

Grinneil. Robert 327 

H 

Hagerty, H. D 506 

Hamilton, Reginald B. 81 

Hamilton. Thos. W. . 560 

Hamlin. F. W 648 

Hamlin. J. S 41 

Hane. Henrv B 946 

Hanlon, F. J '246 

Harrigan. J. R 81, :'I7 

Harris. R. W M 

Harry. M. L 

Hatt. Dr. W. K ::27 

Hartford. H ... 
Hartzell. D. B... 
Hawkins. A. C. Jr.. . 64S 
rlaynes, J. Manches- 
ter 570 

Healv. F. A Mil 

Hepburn. F. T 327 

Hequembourg, Ken- 
neth D «6G9 

Hester, J. E 648 

Hewitt. F. A 946 

Hicks. J. W 947 

llillery. J. W 505 

I lodge, Hugar L 648 



Hoellman, Joseph B. 947 

Hogshead, C. C 569 

1 [olland, \i 1 1 1 in- 40 

Holland. S. K 589 

Hollenbeck, W. n 506 

Hollidnv, J. \V. . 

Honnold, O. A lull) 

Horton. W. II 946 

Hough. B. K 176 

Hulberl E D .... 605 

Hunt. Daniel T 649 

Hunt, R. B SI 

Hunter. A. J 648 

Huntington, !•'. B. L76, 648 

Hurd, Walter 

134 670, 1010 

Hurlburt. W. II 648 

HustiS. G. II 40 

Hutchins, R. G *670 

I 

Irwin, Wm. G 947 

Ivers, Henry B 506 

Ives, R. S 947 

J 

Jack, Arthur G 506 

-I ; 1 . 1 1 J ■ s, S. R 946 

Jameson, F. H 230 

Jardine, .lames 946 

Jarvis, J. C 506 

Johns, B. B 569 

Johns. S. H 569 

Johnson. H. A 505 

Johnson, L. D 506 

Jolly, E. C 434 

Jones, W. J 648 

Jordan, A. W 570 

K 

Keegan, George *669 

Keeley. Thomas M... 434 
Keilholtz. Pierce C... 506 

Kellv. Robert L 570 

Kelsh. W. J 285 

Kenfield. Hiram J. .. 816 

Kiefer. Carl J 648 

Kinney, James H.... 946 

Kirkpatrick. H. H 2S5 

Kobbe. Philip Ferdi- 
nand 649 

Kruss, .1. (' 1010 

Kuhn. W. S 946 



Lamb, Charles B 946 

Larrabee, W. D 570 



Lavenburg. D. A 434 

Leadley. J. W 327 

I ,eonard, A. W 41 

Leussier. R. A 1010 

Lieb, John W.. Jr 40 

Lightfoot, A A 505 

Linn. M. G 81, 506 

Littell, 11. 11 506 

Littli lie" W 177 

Long, A 'I' 570 

E. S 505 

Lorenz, John 41 

Luxton, William .... 434 



M 



McCabe, C. .W 

.Mei 'artliy. John. . . . 
Macartney, Morton 
McCauley, Murdock 

MoClure, G. W 

McCormick, Ira A. 
McCulloeh, Rich'rd.R. 649 
MacGovern, Frank S.*115 

McGowan, Hugh 41 

McGrath. B. V 64S 

McGraw, James H...*669 

McManenv. R. S 1010 

McMichael. J. G »111 

McNulta, Herbert . . . 434 

MePherson, A. J 946 

McQueeney. James G. 434 

Major, John W 648 

Maloney, W. E 1010 

Mandeville, C. E 569 

Marinan, W. W 505 

Martin, Thomas 434 

Martinez. Eugene D. . 434 

Mason, E. R 177 

Mathias, Robert 81 

Mayer, C. J *146 

Mellinger, Frank H. . 64S 
Meriweather. Richard 434 
Merrill. J. H.«133. 176, 947 

Miller, H. S 230 

Millholland. W. F 947 

Mills. C. V 506 

Milne. James A *81 

Minton. Charles R... 569 

Moore. E. W 81. *163 

Moore, George 946 

Moore. W. E 946 

Mordock, C. T 285 

Morgan, C. E 176 

Morris. Henry C 285 

Morse, F. L 1010 

Morton, H. E 648 

Morton, J. P 505 

Mower. S. Walter *668 

Munger. D. A 434 

Murch. G. H 434 



Musgrave, William. . .1010 

N 

Nash. Louis C 1010 

Neereamer, A. L 506 

Nelson, S. S 648 

News. Edward 569 

Frank D 946 

Noyi H. B 1010 

O 

i Day, Daniel 649 

Osborn, John M 434 

Osborne, L. A 2S5 

Owens, W. II 506 

P 

Page, H. C 947 

Paine, Waldo G 327 

Pardee. J. H 1010 

Partridge. James 177 

Paxton, C. M 434, 506 

Paxton, Osian F 570 

Payne, Will R 946 

Peirce. Charles C «670 

Phillips, Frank R.570, 1010 

Pierce, C. C 505 

I ien e, George W. . . . 648 
Pirrung, Henry C....*669 

Pomeroy. F. T 81 

Porter, J. W «146 

Potter. A. E *164 

Potter, A T *163 

Pratt. James R 81 

Prior, O. F 434 

Puch. O. G 64S 

R 

Rauch, Edgar .1. .505. 648 

Rawson, F. A 505 

Ray. E. K 434 

Ray, Joseph G 434 

Read, W. P 1010 

Reagan, H. C 569 

Redmond. T. B 327 

Reed, W. Boardman. 505 

Reeves. Ira L 648 

Reichardt. E. C 285 

Reist. L. H 41 

Reynolds. Arthur E.. 648 

Reynolds. C. C 81 

Reynolds, D. II 434 

Rhoades. S. L »669 

Rice. Calvin W 434 

Rlcker, C. W 946 

Riddle. Samuel *164 



Rinehart, James 1010 

Robinson, A. D 947 

Robinson. Henry .... 1149 
Robinson, Lawrence 

W 64S 

Rogi rs, G. T 41 

Rogei - John B.. 569. 570 
Rolston, William E... 

434, 1011 

Rood, Frank W 81 

Root, Owen. Jr 327 

Rothery, J. C 41 

Rounds, George W. . . 

946, 1010 

Ryan, Thomas K 1011 

S 

Sakuma. Eitaro 649 

Sampsell. M. E 505 

Sampson. William C.1010 

Sanderson. Chas 569 

Sanger, H. V 1011 

Savage, Ezra E 648 

Saverv. Wm. H 947 

Sawyer, H. E 946 

Saylor. George A 648 

Seanlon, D. A... 431, 1011 

Schenck. S. C 41 

Schlesinger. L. J.434. 1010 

Schroeder. A. V 506 

Schroyer. Walter 1010 

Scofleld. Ira 947 

Searle, R. M 506 

Shealy. Wm. J 946 

Sherman. Jay 569 

Shulwilt, ii. II 569 

Shunk. J Putnam... 946 

Simms, W. H 505 

Simpson. C. 41, 506 

Smith. H. H 505 

Smith, Louis L 41 

Smith, R. R 947 

Spears. E. P 569 

Speyer, Edgar 40 

Spring, E. C •lOS 

Stanley. John J 176 

Starrett, M. G 1010 

Starring, Mason B... 176 

Stearns. R. B 2S5 

Stebbins. Theodore . . 176 

Stein, M 177 

Stephenson, J. E 570 

Stewart. E. K *670 

Stone. Judge C. M... 81 

Street. W. W 648 

Sturgis, Edwin A. 648, 947 

Sturn. Joseph 648 

Swenson. Bernard V.*668 
Svkes. Frank C 434 



T 
Tarkington, W. I'.....*505 

Tatnall, George 649 

Taylor E. B 434 

Taylor, K. C -1011 

Thompson. Henry.... 506 

Thompson, N. A 505 

Thompson, T. T 569 

Titus. J. V. E »146 

Todd, i;.. i»rt i 40 

Tucker. F. A 1011 

U 

Uhlmann. Frederick.. 41 

V 

Valentine. E. II 81 

Valentine, 11 648 

Vandereook. Charles.. 649 

Vanderventer. C O.. 569 

Van Etten. Chas. R.. 230 

Voigt. George 434 

Voss. J. T 285 

W 

Walker, J. M 176 

Walther, A. C 2S5 

Wampler. Frank H... 570 

Waterson, W. W 327 

Webster, C. W 648 

Weeks, B. J 285 

Wells. Gardner F 285 

Wells. Joseph S 1010 

Wheatcroft. Geo. O.. 230 

Wheeler, F. J 285. 434 

Whitcomb. H. J.. Jr. 648 
White. Elmer M..4:i4, «668 

White, L. G 285 

Whitney, W. S 1010 

Whitton, M. V 1010 

Wilcox. John C 569 

Wilcoxen, E. J 947 

Wilcoxen. ('. N 285 

Williams. L. 0...327. 506 

Williams, S. E 176 

Wilson. J. L 9C9 

Wilson, J. T 176 

Winsor. Paul »226 

Wolff. S. E 176 

Wood. James R 648 

Wood, Thomas 

434. 506. 1010 

Wool, Theodore J 946 



Terkes, Charles T... *56 

Toung, C. J 505 

Young. David. Jr....*327 
Young. Harry 176 



Articles marked with an asterisk are accompanied by map?, portraits or other illustrations. 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



Vol. XVI 



JANUARY 15, 1906 



No. 1 



Reconstruction Work of the Madison & Interurban 

Traction Co. 



Being a Description of a City System That Has Been in Operation 20 Years, and Has Poetically 

Been Rebuilt During the Past Summer. 



The question of deciding at what time the best financial returns 
will be obtained by reconstructing lines which have been operating 
for some years in cities of medium size, is one of much interest. 
This article, which we are pleased to present, describes such a re- 
constructed line, a road which has been operated by five different 
companies, and also was at one time in the hands of a receiver. 
The present owner of the property came into control less than a 
year ago, and immediately set to work to improve the roadbed, 



for operation. In iqoi Mr. P. L. Spooner and his asstxSates organ- 
ized the Madison Traction Co. and purchased all the holdings of 
the Madison Electric Railway Co. The property was controlled by 
Mr. Spooner until the spring of 1905, when it was purchased by 
Mr. F. W. Montgomery, who organized the Madison & Interurban 
Traction Co., which now owns all the electric railway franchises 
and property rights in Madison. 
The lines were equipped for operation by trolley in October, 1892. 




POWER HOUSE AT MADISON WITH GAS ENGINES fOR DRIVING RAILWAY GENERATORS. 



equipment and general operating system. A large part of this work 
has lately been completed, and during the last few months the 
earnings have substantially proved the wisdom of the added invest- 
ment necessary for reconstruction. 

As early as 1884 the first rails in Madison were laid by the Madi- 
son Street Railway Co., which operated its then small system by 
mule power. This line in 1883 was transferred to the Madison City 
Railway Co., but owing to financial troubles soon went into the hands 
of a receiver, who operated it for three years. The property was 
then deeded to Mr. H. R. Newcomb, of Cleveland. O., and his asso- 
ciates, as trustees. These gentlemen soon organized the Madison 
Electric Railway Co. and transferred the property to that company 



During the last few years the roadbed has been maintained in a 
satisfactory operating condition, but due to its long use was not 
considered sufficiently substantial for economical operation with the 
increased schedules and weight of cars which the traffic now de- 
mands. Realizing this condition, the new management immediately 
set about to rebuild all the track in an especially thorough and sub- 
stantial manner, so that when the present period of reconstruction 
closes the roadbed will be built of heavy rails laid on concrete ami 
broken stone. 

Roadbed. 
The city of Madison is bounded on two sides by the shores of 
lakes which make possible the growth of the city in but two 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. i. 



directions. These physical features are illustrated in the accompany" 
ing map, showing the routes of the electric railway. It will also be 
seen that the peculiar location of the city allows the entire popula- 
tion to be served by a comparatively small amount of trackage. 
At present, there is a total of n miles of roadbed, to which during 
the coming summer will be added 4 more miles. This roadbed is 
I Ji.il l with single track and turnouts 1,000 ft. long. The generous 



much simplified and all schedules are not delayed if the cars on 
any one route are late. 

The roadbed construction in the business portion of the city is 
built according to a design which is especially interesting. The rails, 
which are in 62-ft. lengths weighing 72 lb. to the yard, and of a 6-in. 
high T section, are supported by a continuous concrete arch-shaped 
foundation, combining the trench and flat-bed types of construction. 




MAP OF MADISON. WIS., SHOWING THE LINES OF THE MADISON & INTERURBAN TRACTION CO. 



length of passing tracks materially aids in keeping the cars on time. 
In the center of the business portion of the city is the Wisconsin 
state capitol building, located in a square 800 ft. on a side, the four 
main branches of the city lines approaching this square on radial 
streets. 

The old line was built with double track on three sides of the 
capitol square, leaving the street on the fourth side unoccupied. 
With this arrangement satisfactory operation was best effected by 
using the Y at the northwest corner as a transfer point. When 



The dimensions of this track foundation are shown on an accom- 
panying cross section of the single-track roadbed. The streets in 
which this type of track is built are paved with asphalt, using granite 
blocks adjacent to the rails. The upper surface of the concrete bed 
was shaped by means of portable forms, so that the portion confinci 
by the gage blocks between the two rails is brought up higher than 
the base of the rails, thus forming a substantial concrete sub-base 
for the asphalt and binder between the track rails. Anchors placed 
in the concrete 10 ft. apart and made of two V2 x 10-in. bolts and 





RAILS SURFACED READY FOR CONCRETE BED. 



FORM FOR MOULDING CONCRETE BED. 



planning for the reconstruction of the track about the square it 
was thought best to do away with the double track and build a 
single track on all four sides of the square, and curves at the in- 
tersections connecting with the single-track lines from the four incom- 
ing lines on the radial streets. With the track as it now is on four 
sides of the square, the transfer point is done away with and cars 
are operated from one end of the city to the other, always passing 
around the right-hand side of the capitol square. As the cars on all 
routes pass along two sides of this square, the transfer problem is 



;4-in. plates, are spaced opposite each other. Between the anchors 
the rails are held down to the concrete by ordinary track spikes 
placed 2 ft. apart on alternate sides of the base of the rail. The 
granite paving blocks are all of the same size, 12x5x6 in., and all 
laid as headers, giving a stone-paved surface outside of the rails 
to the limits of the space which the railway company must main- 
tain. 

The three important stages in construction of this track are shown 
in the accompanying illustrations. After the trenches have been ex- 



Jan. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



cavated to the desired dimensions the rails arc mounted on tem- 
porary blocks, tie rods put on and the track brought to line and 
surface. Next the permanent anchors with their clips are hung from 
the base of the rails, the concrete is filled in the trench and hand 



the illustration. This type of roadbed is also used for special work 
in all parts of the city. The rails are of 6-in. T section, weighing 72 
lb. to the yard, spiked to oak ties resting on a crushed stone bed and 
carrying a layer of concrete for supporting the granite blocks and 




CROSS SECTION OF TRACK CONSTRUCTION WITH CONCRETE SUB-BASE. 



tamped up to a level l /z in. above the base of the rails. As the con- 
crete filling-in process nears completion, the portable forms shown 
in the illustration are arranged and the raised center portion 
brought up to form a foundation for the pavement between the 



pavement. The four Y's at the corners of the capitol square and 
the new turnout switches are made of T-rail and built-up Falk spe- 
cial work. 

The overhead construction throughout the entire city has been 




CROSS SECTION OF TRACK CONSTRUCTION WITH STONE BALLAST. 



gage blocks. These forms are built in sections, so that as one por- 
tion of the concrete bed sets the form shaping it can be moved 
ahead to the new work. 

Up to this stage of the construction splice bars are used to make 
the rail joints. When the concrete bed is being placed, space is left 
around the joints. When the bed has set. the fish plates are re- 




RAILS ON CONCRETE BED READY FUR ASPHALT PAVEMENT. 



Each 



moved and the joints cast-welded by the Falk Co's. process, 
joint is made with a pouring of about 125 lb. of iron. 

One of the illustrations shows the upper surface of the concrete 
bed broken away at the end of the special work. This is the fin- 
ished surface ready for the pavement cushion of a 1 to 2 1 /? mixture 
of cement and sand. 

The track construction in the residence portion of the city is built 
with ties on stone ballast, conforming to the dimensions shown in 



rebuilt and a large portion of the old material replaced. The pole* 
in the business portion of the city are of tubular steel set in con- 
crete. These poles carry the ordinary type of span construction 
with one No. o trolley and Ohio Brass Co. fittings. Supplementary 
to the trolley wire are two No. 0000 weatherproof feeders, extending 
2^2 miles from the power house, the outlying portion of the line 
being fed with one No. 00 weatherproof feeder. 




FINISHED TRACK ON CAPITOL SQUARE. 

The return circuit through the rails is made complete at the 
joints in the 72-lb. rails by cast-welding, and also through the 60-lb. 
rails for 1% miles by cast-welding, the remaining portion being 
bonded at each jomt with two No. 0000 solid terminal bonds. 

Equipment. 

In regular operation 11 cars are used to furnish a schedule with 
10-minute headway. The rolling stock consists of 14 open, Airier- 



-165078 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. i. 



ican Car Co's. o and [O-bench cars; two American Car Co's. 20-ft. 
body semi-convertible cars with Brill truck and two G. E. 52 or 54 
motors. These cars are full vestibule and double-ended. There are 
also 14 double-vestibule closed cars, with iS-ft. bodies and G. E. 



partitions. This section is equipped for the offices of the operating 
force and the general repairing of the rolling stock. 

At the rear of the front offices is a conductor's room, connecting 
with the bookkeeper's office by a window. Next in the rear is a 






MADISON TRACTION CO 




VIEW OF FRONT OF THE MADISON CAR HOUSE SHOWING STANDARD CLOSED CARS. 



52 or 54 motors. The auxiliary equipment consists of a double- 
ended snow plow and scraper with closed body, manufactured in the 
company's shop, a combination sand car and snow plow, a sub- 
stantially built tower wagon, a light repair wagon and the neces- 
sary construction wagons. 



room set apart for stores for all departments. Adjacent to the 
storeroom is the carpenter shop, equipped with a planer, wood 
lathe, saws and a boring machine. It is interesting to note that 
this boring machine was made from an old drill-press frame that 
had been thrown aside. The frame was mounted on the carpenter 



^ " ' I 1, ' r ~»n 



-1 — M I" 1 i r v ■ 1 r<—t !■:■'.! r" I I" I I ■-" I " i I — r- ' I r ' '■ i' i r— i 



3_ 



^H 







f 



n 






"MT 



=£ 3 .., M .... ■■■■■■ ... . ... J ^—k 



&9//V7- Srt0£> 



Z^£ 



^E= 



;ji 'i 



L 



/7^C///a'£ Shop 



,9=^^JJBeV V vJS " ' " '' i_ j^^t 



C##P£HTr/? Shop 



— zoo'-o" — 



PLAN OF FAIR OAKS CAR HOUSE AND SHOPS. 



New Car House and Shops. 
The new building for the storage and repair of the equipment is 
located in the eastern part of the city, convenient to the Chicago & 
Northwestern Ry. tracks. The building, as illustrated, is of brick 
and steel construction. 200 ft. long by no ft. wide. One portion of 
the building, 30 ft. wide, is entirely set apart by brick fire walls and 



shop wall and a new shaft inserted with bevel gears connecting with 
the old crank shaft, on which were mounted home-made wooden 
pulleys, so that the boring may now be done by engine power. 

At the end of the carpenter shop is a room for armature work. 
One-half of this room is served by an overhead crane the carriage 
of which is made of old T rails with cast-iron wheels traveling over 



Jan. is, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



a track of similar rail suspended from the roof. The movable car- 
riage supports a chain block which by this arrangement is permitted 
to travel over the entire floor space. With this crane one man can 
handle armatures, lifting them to the repair horses and placing them 
in the bake oven. 

Alongside the armature and carpenter rooms is a paint shop of 
sufficient length to accommodate two cars. This shop is lighted from 
above and by glass windows in the partition between it and the ad- 
joining rooms. Cars are brought into the paint shop on a track 
having reverse curves around the office portion of the building. 
This track extends through the paint shop and into the machine 
shop, which latter room is 30 ft. wide by 40 ft. long. The machine 
shop is equipped with a drill press, lathes, shaper and the usual 
complement of smaller tools. In the center of this room is a post 
and jib crane, which can handle truck parts from the track space 
to the larger tools. 

In one corner of the machine shop is a [2-h.p. gasoline engine 
having two driving pulleys; from the pulley on one side of the en- 
gine a belt drives the line shaft for operating all the tools in the 
different rooms, and on the opposite pulley, which has a friction 
clutch, is belted a 10-kw. 125-volt dynamo for lighting the buildings 

In the rear of the machine shop is a blacksmith shop and boiler 
room. The entire building is heated by steam generated in a steam 
heater set in a pit in one corner of the room. 

That part of the building not occupied by the shops and offices 
contains seven storage and repair tracks, each 200-ff. long 1 he 
southernmost three of these tracks are built with 9 ft. 6-in. centers 
and used entirely for storage. The other four tracks in the center 
bay of the building have 12-ft. track centers and are used for in- 
spection and repair work on the equipment in every day use. One 
of these tracks has a pit under it sufficiently long to accommodate 
two cars. At the rear of this building this same track runs up a 
steep incline onto an elevated repair track, shown in one of the 
illustrations. The center part of this track may be removed so that 
parts of the equipment can be let down to the floor by means of 
jacks. 

At the rear of the car house and shop building are several smaller 
buildings, including a coal and salt storage house, 70x20 ft. in size, 
located convenient to a steam railroad siding; two storehouses, one 



furnish current for the railway operation includes the following 
sets: one 125-h. p. three-cylinder Westinghouse gas engine, direct 
belted to one G. E., IOO-kw., 500-volt generator; one 280-h. p.. three- 
cylinder Westinghouse gas engine, direct belted to one G. ]■'.., 150- 
kw . 550-voIt, generator; one 280-h. p.. three-cylinder, Westinghouse 
gas engine direct belted to one 200-kw., 550-volt Northern Electric 




VIEW OF THE ELEVATED REPAIR TRACK WITH CAR IN POSITION. 

Co. generator. In connection with this generating equipment is a 
240-ampere hour storage battery which was furnished by the Elec- 
tric Storage Battery Co. The output of this battery is regulated by 
a booster designed by the Northern Electric Co., of Madison, Wis. 
In addition to the gas engine-driven units the following equip- 
ment located at a second plant owned by the same company is at 
times utilized for furnishing railway power; one 50-h.p. Russel tan- 
dem-compound engine, operating condensing, direct-belted to two 




INTERIOR OF FAIR OAKS CAR HOUSE. SHOWING ELEVATED REPAIR TRACK AT THE REAR. 



20x30 and one 30x40 ft. in size and a horse barn for the rail- 
way work teams and the storing of track tools. This barn is 50 x 100 
ft. in floor area and two stories high. 

Power for the operation of the road is purchased from the Mad- 
ison Gas & Electric Co., at a fixed rate per car-day for regular 
cars. The charges for extra cars and trailers are based upon a 
rate per car-mile. The power house of the Madison Gas & Elec- 
tric Co. is of especial interest, since the units are operated with 
gas engines using unpurified coal gas from the company's illumi- 
nating gas plant. 

The general appearance of the interior of the new power station 
is shown in one of the illustrations. This building is centrally lo- 
cated, is fireproof, being built of pressed brick with a tile roof. 
The floors and wainscoting are white tile. The equipment used to 



100-kw. and one 62-kw. G. E. 550-volt generators. Steam for this 
engine is furnished by one of two 300-h.p. vertical Hazelton por- 
cupine boilers. 

Other than the reconstruction work which has been described, 
the Madison & Interurban Traction Co. is now making surveys and 
plans for the construction of an interurban road south from Mad- 
ison to Stoughton, 17.25 miles. The officers of the Madison & Inter- 
urban Traction Co. are: F. W. Montgomery, president; Dudley 
Montgomery, vice-president; Warren Montgomery, secretary and 
treasurer; and G. H. Shaw, general superintendent. The Columbia 
Construction Co., Milwaukee, Wis., is engineer for the Madison & 
Interurban Traction Co. and its proposed extensions. This firm 
also designed the new car house and shop and built the new track 
work. 



Throwing Devices for Tongue Switches. 



BY T. A. CERLACH B. S., C. E. 



Throwing devices for tongue switches are, as yet, a very much 
neglected part of the construction of special track work, and it is 
only within the last few years that the necessity of locking the 
tongue in facing switches has been generally recognized. The pur- 
pose of this article is to point out in a general way the various 
cases where throwing devices should be used and to describe and 
illustrate a few practical devices, giving some idea of how they 
should be constructed. 

With the double-truck car and loose 'ongue it frequently happens 
that the tongue is thrown between trucks, causing derailment. This 
is especially noticeable where the switch has been more or less worn 
so that the tongue tits its bed imperfectly and allows the point to 
kick up as the wheel of the car leaves the heel, thus showing the 
necessity of locking facing switches. 

Where the cars always take the same track, as in a diamond or 
side turnout switch, or where a single track branches into a double 
track, a single acting spring box should be used. Where the cars 



A 



:.g 




A l 



f) 




Drain Opening- 



FIGS. I AND 2. 

are operated to the right the switch should be placed on the left 
hand side, so that in trailing through the tongue it does not have to 
carry the weight of the car while the tongue is forced against the 
spring. 

Figs. No. I and 2 show an improved form of a single acting 
spring box which is designed for locations where the drainage is 
poor. It is of the push type of construction, but, having its spring 
enclosed in an oil chamber, its action can not be impaired by the 
presence of ice and mud. This oil chamber with its stuffing boxes 
may be made very simple in construction. The one illustrated 
consists of a piece of gas pipe each end of which screws into a 
malleable or brass sleeve, and each sleeve contains two washers 
between which the asbestos packing is confined. Fig. I shows how 
the oil chamber is held in the iron casing and how readily it may be 
removed whenever it becomes necessary to refill it with oil. The 
sleeve farthest from the tongue rests in the pocket of the casing 
and its lugs bear against the walls of this pocket, being held there 
by the force of the spring. The walls of the pocket have an enlarge- 
ment near the top to prevent the sleeve from turning unless the box 
is forced slightly forward. To remove the box it is pushed slightly 
forward and turned through 90 degrees, which disengages the two 



lugs, allowing the box to slide back, and it may then be taken out. 
The cover in Figs. 1 and 2 has been omitted for the sake of clear- 
ness. 

The cost of the device just described is comparatively small when 
made in large numbers, and it can be used with any height of rail. 




■Pii/otlCosting 

■Rolling 
Friction 



FIG. 3. 

It is suggested that a traction company keep one or more boxes in 
stock, so that in case any of those in service should need repairing 
they may be replaced without delay to traffic. 

In the case of a facing switch used about the same number of 
times in both directions, the lock should be of such a design that it 
may readily be thrown by the motorman. A few traction systems 
have introduced electrically operated devices for throwing the 
tongue and some of them give fairly good results. Within the last 
few years a great many of these electrical devices have been in- 
vented, but most of them are too complicated in construction to 



Q 



Adjustment 



Tnn^,,f. Pnri . Adjustment 

* taxable RU "°>- <"«-, **« mth hand ,ng. 




FIGS. 4 AND 5. 

meet with favor among street railway men. This objection applies 
also to devices operated by hand, most of them being unnecessarily 
complicated and bulky. 

Fig. 3 shows a lock which allows the tongue to be thrown by the 
motorman's bar almost as easily as the ordinary loose tongue. This 
design is simple and compact and can be manufactured at a low cost. 
The bell crank is of malleable iron having a double jaw, one jaw 
connecting with the eye of the spring rod and the other with the 
eye of the tongue rod. The steel pin forming the pivot for the bell 
crank is cast into the box. The spring rod should preferably be of 
cast steel while the box and pivot sleeve may be made of gray iron. 
The two extreme positions of the mechanism are shown by full 



Jan. is, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



lines and dotted lines, respectively. The spring rod slides in the 
pivot casting which sets in a recess cast into the side of the box, 
the spring holding the pivot casting in place. 

A design recently made by the writer is illustrated in Figs. 4 and 5. 
This double acting spring lever throw bears the same relation to 
tongue switches that the ordinary spring stand does to split switches. 
The novel feature of this device lies in the fact that the spring 
throws with the lever and reverses its action when thrown, requir- 
ing only one spring, and a comparatively small box to hold the 
mechanism. Attention is called to the arrangement of the various 



rod is placed somewhat below the center of the lever pivots, and the 
lever rests are so arranged that the spring and lever throw slightly 
less than 180 degrees as is the case in the design shown in Fig. 5. 
The box is sufficiently small to be attached to the switch when 
shipped so that everything is connected up and ready for service 
before the switch leaves the shop. If the rail is less than 6 in. high 
and it is not desired to set the box below the top of the ties, the 
mechanism can be arranged to work in a horizontal instead of a 
vertical plane. 

The advantage to the manufacturer as well as to the street railway 





FIG. 6. 



no. 7. 



parts. The enlarged portion of the spring rod is fastened to the 
connecting rod by means of a pin ; the other end of the rod moving 
in an adjustment sleeve whenever the tongue is moved or while the 
lever is being thrown. The U-shaped lever is pivoted to the sides 
of the box as shown in Fig. 4. The tap hole in the lever which 
engages the adjustment sleeve is of sufficient diameter to allow the 
spring to pass through it, thus, rendering it easy to replace the 
spring if broken. The box, hinge cover (not shown), connecting 
rod, lever, spring rod, and adjustment sleeve may be made of malle- 
able iron. 

This principle of the spring throwing with the lever as described 
has been applied to the design illustrated in Figs. 6 and 7, which may 



company of such a combination spring switch and lock lies in the 
fact that only one kind of box is required for two distinct purposes. 
Furthermore the readiness with which the spring switch may be 
changed from one hand to the other is of great convenience to a 
traction system whenever it becomes necessary to suddenly change 
the direction of traffic. 

There should be mentioned at least one other condition which 
occurs quite frequently in the operation of cars and to which none 
of the designs so far mentioned would be very applicable. In the 
case of a facing switch placed where one of the tracks is seldom 
used, the throwing device should be so arranged that the main line 
is always set for clear. This will save time and avoid accidents. 




figs. 8 and 9. 



be designated as a double acting spring box and switch lock com- 
bined. Fig. 6 shows the tongue set for right hand and Fig. 7 for 
left hand operation of cars, assuming that the switch is right hand 
and that the box is placed adjacent to the traffic rail. The locking 
pin shown prevents the spring from revolving when the switch 
point is thrown slightly more than half way, and is to be used when 
the tongue is to be permanently set one way as in a spring switch. 
By removing the locking pin we have a switch lock and it then per- 
forms the same functions as the design presented in Fig. 3, but it 
has the advantage over such locking devices in that it has no dead 
center, that is, the tongue can not come to rest except in either of its 
extreme positions. 
The center of the pivots of the spring receptacle and connecting 



A motorman approaching such a switch does not use the same pre- 
caution as he does where the traffic is more equally divided, and for 
that reason accidents are liable to take place, especially where high 
speed is required. 

An improved design to meet the condition just stated is shown in 
Figs. 8 and 9. The improvement lies in the fact that the same box 
and mechanism is used both for right hand and left hand switches 
and for right hand or left hand traffic systems, and also in the use of 
a spring and slotted lever, making it possible for the car from the 
siding to trail the switch without the free end of the lever kicking 
up. In facing the siding the conductor is obliged to raise the lever, 
holding it in a raised position until the car has passed, when he re- 
leases it and the switch is again set for the main line. 



8 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol.. XVI, No. 



In making the same box do for either hand the construction will 
be somewhat more complicated than in a one-hand box, yet the 
difference in cost of the two types is insignificant. The construction 
of the box as shown consists of a malleable link pivoted by a steel 
pin cast into the box. This link has a double jaw at each end con- 
necting with the lever rod and tongue rod. The arrangement as 
shown may be considered as being a right hand switch set for a 
right hand system. In a left hand switch and right hand system 
the tongue rod is connected to the opposite end of the link, assum- 
ing the position as shown by dotted lines. 

In conclusion it may be said that within the scope of this article it 
is not possible to mention every condition of traffic where this or 
that throwing device could best be used. It may be said, however, 
that the aim should be in all cases to combine economy of time with 
the safe operation of cars. For this reason all switches in trailing 
should be so arranged that they need no attention on the part of 
the motorman. This feature has been observed in all the devices 
shown. 



A Device for Locating Short Circuits on 
Feeders. 



A Combination Freight Motor. 

The electric locomotive of the Chicago, Harvard & Geneva Lake 
Railway Co., which is here illustrated, presents several inter- 
esting and practical features, being used for a variety of purposes. 
It is a combination freight motor and ballast car, and, on occasion, 
is also pressed into the passenger service. 

The car is 32 ft. long and 8 ft. wide with cabs 8 ft. high. The 
frame is made in four 8-in. steel I-beams. The car was assembled in 
the company"s own shops. It is fitted with No. 28 McGuire trucks. 

The electrical equipment consists of four G. E. 57 motors with 
G. E. No. K-14 controllers. The wiring is placed in a wooden box 
about 8 x 12 in. in section, which tits in between two of the floor 
I-beams. This box has a removable cover so that the wires may 
be easily reached and repaired. The rheostats and air controllers 
are overhead in the cabs. 

The National Electric Co's. air brake equipment is used, with auto- 
matic couplers of the mountain type, arranged to swing so that they 
will remain coupled on curves of short radii. The car is also fur- 
nished with hand brakes and sand boxes. The portion of the car 
body between the cabs is used for carrying ballast and is arranged 




A NOVEL COMBINATION MOTOR CAR. 

to side dump. The car has no roof, a running board about a foot 
wide carrying the two trolley stands. In summer, when the traffic 
is heavy, the motor is used as an open passenger car by putting in 
benches. The motor will haul a train of from four to six gondola 
cars loaded with crushed gravel and sand up a 3 per cent grade, 
negotiating this grade very easily. 



The government of Ontario is considering the establishment of a 
railway commission to deal with the many questions affecting the 
electric railways of the province. It has had under consideration 
the question of the enlargement of the powers of the present rail- 
way committee of the executive council to include electric roads. 



BY ARTHUR B. WEEKS. 



An annoying thing in connection with a large power plant is a 
short circuit on its feeders, especially so if there is no way of 
determining which one of several feeders is affected. If it has been 
necessary to stop the generators, when they are again started and 
the feeder switch to the damaged line is closed, unless the operator at 
the station affected opens his switches as soon as the current is 




ANNUNCIATOR FOR FEED LINES. 

cut off at the main power house, a second shut-down at the power 
plant will be necessary. 

When the short circuit exists between a distant station and the main 
power house, the result is self-evident. If the feeder is provided 
with an automatic oil switch, this switch is supposed to take care 
of such cases; but even these switches have their defects when 
loaded to their capacity, or on short circuit. Fuses and circuit- 
breakers have been depended upon to some extent, but since in 
high potential work the arc holds on and often totally destroys 
the panels and almost everything in sight, such fuses have in most 
cases been done away with, and the alternating-current circuit-break- 
ers have been plugged shut. 

In all of these cases it is necessary to break the fields of the 
alternators, either separately or by locating a solenoid in connec- 
tion with each field circuit-breaker, having one switch operate them 
all. To wait until a report is sent in means a long delay and a 
great loss for all concerned, especially if contracts with tenants 
call for rebates during non-supply of current. 

If the operator should by chance see the indicating instruments 
of the feeder affected, he would of course know which feeder 
switch to leave open when starting up again ; but there are conditions 
under which even this is impossible. 

The annunciator herewith illustrated has been in use ill just such 
cases as are above cited, and on short circuit, the drop falls, at 
once indicating the feeder affected. These annunciators should be 
located in the place most convenient tor operators' inspection; ami 
if collected in a case by themselves, the drops can be lettered 
"Feeder No. 1," etc. They can be wired from a low potential cir- 
cuit, as the wattmeter circuit, for example, one annunciator for 
each phase. A fuse should be in circuit with each annunciator, to 
prevent damage to its coils. Care should be taken that there are no 
loose connections in the fuse block or elsewhere, or there will 
be a constant chattering of the armature, and the fuse may blow 
from poor contact, and the drop fall. Of course where there have 
been no indications of a short circuit, the only thing to do is to 
replace the fuse and reset the annunciator. 

The armature adjustment is made by means of the set screw so 
that the small current constantly passing will not upset the drop, 
and so that it will only drop when the current on the feeder is exces- 
sive, the arrangement being in shunt on the line. The accompany- 
ing cut is self-explanatory. The fiber is intended for the wire con- 
nections to the circuit. The -flat spring which is used to keep the 
armature in its upper position need not be very stiff. Screws from 
below maintain the several posts in position. 

If on trial the coils become too hot, coils having higher resistance 
will be required. 



Extension and Improvements of the Chicago & Milwaukee 

Electric Railroad Co. 



The reconstruction of the property of the Chicago & Milwaukee 
Electric Railroad Co. has progressed rapidly during the last year, 
and since the publication of a history of the extensions and improve- 
ments of the system in the "Street Railway Review" for December. 
1904. many interesting developments have been made. One yeai 
ago the company had just completed its extension from Lake Bluff 
to Rondout, Libertyville and Rockefeller, the reconstruction and 
double-tracking of its entire line from Evanston to Waukegan, the 
installation of new power house and sub-station equipments, ex- 
tensive park and pleasure resort additions and the perfection of 
some of its operating features. 

The work completed since that time consists of building a new 
double track line from Waukegan to Kenosha, a distance of 21.24 
miles, the erection of a sub-station south of Kenosha for feeding 
the new line, a very handsome passenger station at Zion City at the 
cost of approximately $25,000, a number of standard waiting station- 
on both the new and old lines, a handsome office building at High- 
wood, and the development of the freight and passenger traffic 
departments. 

The work now under way and proposed includes the extension 
of the company's system from Kenosha to Milwaukee. Wis., the 
road bed and track construction now being advanced north from 
Kenosha; the erection of a large power station at Waukegan, 
which will supply power for operating the entire system; the erec- 
tion of sub-stations at various points along the new line, and the 
purchase of additional equipment. The specifications call for the 
most modern type of interurban cars, 52 ft. over bumpers ; 9 ft. 
over side sills ; 37-in. seats, 26-in. aisles, seats spaced 34 in. center 
to center, and having a capacity for 56 people. 

It is interesting to note in connection with the many improve- 
ments being made by this company that all work is being carried 
out under the direct supervision of the management of the com- 
pany, track and overhead work is being constructed to standards 



MILWAUKEE 




'I, O. NO. CHICAGO 
V ^LAKEBLUFF 

OCKE- *^^^^*J 
ELLER C<^ LAKE F 



MAP SHOWING ROUTE FROM CHICAGO TO MILWAUKEE. 

designed by the heads of the various departments, and the con- 
struction work being carried out by the company's own construction 
department, a complete outfit of locomotives, steam shovels, con- 
struction cars, etc.. being owned by the company. 

The most noticeable feature of the organization and development 



of this property is that it has been carried out along standard 
steam road practices and that it is a railroad in the strictest sense 
of the word and not an extended street car system. The entire 
line is constructed on private right of way and it is not burdened 
with the usual complications and conditions obtaining where the 




ARTISTIC ENTRANCE TO NEW OFFICE BUILDING. 

road is built on the highways. Thus operation is governed by the 
laws that apply to steam railroad properties, and now that the line 
serves Illinois and Wisconsin, the handling of its business is also 
subject to the laws and rules of the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion. When completed to Milwaukee, which it is expected will be 
done before snow flies in the fall of 1906, it will be one of the 
best built electric railways in the countiy. The service which will 
be offered between Chicago and Milwaukee will compare favorably 
with that offered by its steam railroad competitors, the Chicago & 
Northwestern and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railroads, 
whose rates of fare are twice as much. 

Theofficers of the Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Railroad Co. 
are: President, A. C. Frost; vice-president, H. S. Oakley; secre- 
tary and treasurer, Geo. M, Seward ; general manager, A. L. Drum ; 
chief engineer, F. J. Geraghty ; superintendent, E. L. Des Jardins; 
superintendent transportation, J. P. Nannies; superintendent motive 
power. J. L. Matson ; electrical engineer. C. R. Phenecie ; super- 
intendent overhead lines, J. F. Scott ; superintendent construction, 
C. R. Frederick; traffic manager, C. W. Merrilies; general pas- 
senger agent. W. O. Kilman; auditor. A. A. Davison; claim agent, 
E. H. Vivian. 

New Line, Waukegan to Kenosha. 

The new line of the Chicago X Milwaukee Electric Railroad Co. 

from Waukegan. 111., to Kenosha, Wis., was completed December 

2nd, and an hourly service was then established which, since then, 

owing to the large traffic, has been increased to .1 40-minute service. 



10 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. i. 



This division, which really begins at Lake Bluff, west of the 
Chicago & Northwestern right of way, extends north to Kenosha, 
a distance of 22 miles. The road is built entirely on private right 
of way not less than 100 ft. wide, both in the open country and 
through the cities. A maximum of .4 of 1 per cent grade and of one 
degree of curvature are maintained with only three such curves in 
the 22 miles of double-track road. All culverts are heavy cast iron 
or concrete and all abutments are of concrete and built for four- 



It; 55^ M ,- — M 


Bk^ _.- --" wm jtBux 


iflpnsitalsB 


BB 


BB 1 


m. it ''JLl-'JKr . .^H 


■u ■■■ Wl ' ■ \ 


<< .B- fl 


" — gsr 


.a a B_y 


- 



KEAR VIEW OF OFFICE BUILDING — CHICAGO & MILWAUKEE ELECTRTC R. R. 

track construction, as are also the culverts. The steel bridges are 
capable of carrying a loaded car of 100,000-lb. capacity. 

The right of way of this road was very expensive for the reason 
that it is an air line, and the right of way being 100 ft. wide, it 
was necessary to purchase or condemn 38 buildings, some of them 
costing as much as $16,000. In addition to the right of way, the 
company owns valuable depot grounds and freight yards 

The equipment consists of 60 large double-truck interurban pas- 
senger cars. 4 locomotives, 20 freight cars; the freight business is 
at present handled by locomotives. The old line between Lake 
Bluff and Waukegan, east of the Chicago & Northwestern Ry. 
right of way, has been entirely reconstructed and at large expense 
placed on private right of way. All the new construction is built 
for a four-track road, two for local service and two for fast ex- 
press service. 

For the purpose of avoiding a grade crossing, the tracks of the 
Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Ry. at North Chicago were elevated 13 ft., 
and a subway built at this point. There are a large number of 
standard-type overhead crossings which consist of heavy plate gir- 
der bridges on concrete abutments. 

The roadbed is of standard steam railroad proportions built on 
private right of way 100 ft. wide. The entire line is double tracked 
with 13-ft. centers, 80-lb. T-rail, A. S. C. E. section, laid on white 
oak ties 6x8 in. x 8 ft. in size, spaced 24 in. center to center. 
The track is bonded with flexible mesh rail bonds supplied by the 
Flexible Mesh Rail Bond Co., while all rail joints are of the 
"Continuous" type. All switches are equipped with standard No. 10 
rigid frogs and high semaphore switch stands furnished by the 
Buda Foundry & Manufacturing Co. The track is well ballasted 
with gravel secured from the company's pit at Libertyville. 

The overhead construction consists of 35 and 40-ft. poles support- 
ing spans and carrying the telephone, direct-current feeder and 
high tension wires. The telephone line is carried on the 35-ft. poles 
and the others on the 40-ft. poles. The trolley wire, No. 000, is 
supported at a height of 22 ft. above the rails by a special hanger- 
ear designed by the superintendent of overhead lines of the company. 
The ears are designed to clinch the wire for a length of 12 in. and 
each ear weighs a little less than one and one-half pounds. 

Sub-Stations. 

The sub-station mar Kenosha, serving the road between Wauke- 
gan and Kenosha, is known as the State Line sub-station, and will 
be equipped with three General Electric 500-kw. rotary converters 
and a 640-ampere hour capacity storage battery. At the present time 
two 500-kw. converters and a 320-ampere hour capacity storage 
1 lattery are bring installed. 

The station is an intermediate sub-station and provision has been 



made to carry into and out of the station two 33,000-volt high 
tension transmission lines, i-' wins in all. These lines enter the 
station through a high tension tower, as shown on the plan, in which 
tower are located the lightning arresters, disconnecting switches and 
current transformers. This tower is air tight for the complete 
height of the building from basement to roof. 

The connection from the transmission lines to the bus bars is 
made in this tower and the bus bars run in a high tension pit be- 
neath the oil-cooled step-down transformers. The high and low 
tension leads from the oil-cooled transformers will be carried in 
brass pipe from the transformers to the high tension pit. 

A switch track is led from the interior of the converter room to 
the main line of the road, so that in case of emergency a portable 
sub-station may be run into the station. 

The special feature of the design was to make an ornamental sub- 
station with concealed wiring and at the same time use oil-cooled 
transformers with the high-tension bus bars located in the basement. 

The storage battery plant furnished by the Electric Storage Bat- 
tery Co. is equipped with the new type of carbon regulator. A 35-ft. 
span traveling crane of 10,000 lbs. capacity, built by the Whiting 
Foundry & Equipment Co., is located in the converter room, 
equipped to handle machinery the full length of this room 

Zion City and Standard Stations. 

The Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Railroad Co. is erecting at 
Zion City, the home of Dr. John Alexander Dowie and his fol- 
lowers, a very handsome station building, which will cost, when 
completed, $35,000. The plan and elevation of this new station are 
shown in accompanying illustrations. The building is located on 
the east side of and facing the company's tracks. 

The station is divided into three general sections, the largest of 
which is 60 x 30 ft. in size and is used for the main waiting room. 
On the south of the waiting room is a wing, 18 x 20 ft. in size, half 
of which is used as a ladies' retiring and toilet room and the other 
half for the heating plant and coal storage room. On the north is 
a wing, 42 x 20 ft. in size, which is used for a baggage room, ex- 
press office and men's toilet. The ticket office is located in the 
main waiting room in that portion of the building which forms the 
tower. 

The building is of red paving brick, with window and door ledges 
of stone. The foundations are of concrete and all posts supporting 
the platforms and roofs of the platform shed are set on concrete 
piers. A covered platform 252 ft. long and 28 ft. wide extends 
along the tracks in front of the building. A platform of the same 
dimensions and style is placed on the opposite side of the track. 
A platform, 36 ft. long and 6 ft. wide, is placed at the entrance of 




STANDARD PASSENGER STATION WITH PLATFORMS. 

the building from a rear driveway. Ruberoid roofing is used for 
the platform roofs and red tile for the building roof. 

A handsome brick fireplace will be built at each end of the 
waiting room. These will be 8 ft. wide by S Z A ft. high with an 
opening for the grates, 4 x 3 ft. in size. The building will be 
lighted with incandescent lamps and heated by steam, and when 
completed will compare favorably with the best standard steam rail- 
road stations. The North Shore stations of the steam road which the 
Chicago & Milwaukee Electric R. R. parallels are very substantial 
and artistic and it is expected this new station at Zion City will be 
one of the most attractive along the route. 



Jan. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



11 



In 1903 a very handsome pressed brick station at Libertyville was 
built at a cost of $20,000. The Kenosha station shown is a standard 
type, but is only erected temporarily, as it is intended to erect a 
station similar to the Zion City station, but larger, next year. The 
station building proper is 24 ft. long and 12 ft. wide, and the plat- 
form is 72 ft. long by 18 ft. wide. These standard stations are con- 
structed of Georgia pine and the interior finish is of natural wood. 
The buildings and platforms are well lighted and the more impor- 
tant stations are heated by electricity, "Consolidated" heaters being 
used. With the frequent service afforded it would hardly appear 
necessary to heat these stations, but nothing has been left undone 
by the company to provide every convenience for its patrons. 

A platform corresponding in size to the station platform is 
erected on the opposite side of the tracks. The platform of the 
station building is covered by a roof projecting two feet over the 
ends and is enclosed with a railing. An enclosed incline leads from 
the station platform to the street. The color scheme for painting 
these stations is green body with red roof. Seats are provided both 
in the building and on the platforms. 

Standard stations of the design illustrated are erected at all im- 



in the various offices have a wainscot of burlap about five feet 
high with the upper portion and ceilings tinted. In the halls and 
in the employes' reading and recreation rooms the wainscot is 
natural wood. The woodwork throughout the building is of 
Flemish oak and the various furnishings of the rooms are of the 
same material, the harmony of the furniture and fittings being quite 
noticeable. The entire construction is of a slow burning character 
and ample fire protection has been provided by installing tire ex- 
tinguishers about the halls and offices. 

An accompanying illustration shows the floor plan for the first 
story of this new office building. The basement is given entirely to 



ui 




£| 



FIRST FLOOR PLAN NEW OFFICE BUILDING, CHICAGO 5 MILWAUKEE ELECTRIC R. R. 



portant stops along the entire line. There are in all between 30 
and 40 of these stations, which are cleaned and swept each 
morning. 

Office Building. 
The new office building of the Chicago & Milwaukee Electric 
Railroad Co. is located a few hundred feet south of the power 
house and car barns at Highwood, 111., and was completed and 
occupied about Sept. 1, 1905. The building is constructed of red 
paving brick with concrete foundation walls and gravel roof. The 
floors throughout the building are of hardwood, with the exception 
of the halls and toilet rooms, which are of mosaic tile. The walls 



the use of employes, one half being used as a gymnasium and the 
other half for baths and locker rooms. The gymnasium is fitted 
with the most modern apparatus for physical culture, including 
chest exercisers, rowing machines, punching bags, parallel bars and 
jumping horses. Across the hall are located the toilet-rooms, in 
which have been placed two porcelain tubs and two shower baths. 
each being served by individual dressing rooms. Adjacent to the 
baths is located the trainmen's locker room. Here are installed 100 
metal lockers furnished by the Chicago Builders Specialties Co. 
Motormen are given odd-numbered lockers, while the conductors 
have even numbers, the number of the employe determining the 



12 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. i. 



number of his locker. The lockers are arranged against the walls 
and in two double rows in the center of the room. Portable oak 
benches are placed between the rows of lockers. At the foot of the 
stairs leading to the first floor a bootblacking stand is placed. The 
floors of these basement rooms are of concrete, a number of large 
mats being used in the gymnasium. 

In connection with the gymnasium a portion of the grounds sur- 
rounding the office building has been set apart for the use of em- 
ployes and equipped with a tennis court, trapeze, horizontal bar. 
jumping and vaulting bars, space for shot put, hammer throw, etc. 

On the first floor of the new building are the offices of the general 
manager, superintendent, superintendent of transportation, general 
passenger agent and cashier, and additional employes' rooms. The 
office of the chief dispatcher is also located on this floor in the 
suite occupied by the superintendent of transportation. Dispatching 
is done by telephone, the company having its own system, with tele- 
phones installed in booths at the principal towns along the route. 
Train crews report at terminals and trains are run on schedule 
without orders as long as they are on time. When a train is 
late the crew reports to the chief dispatcher and orders are de- 
livered over the telephone Motormen and conductors carry a 
supply of train order blanks, which are used when taking orders 
from the dispatcher. These blanks are filled in by the crews at the 



ment. Commodious and separate drafting rooms are provided adja- 
cent to the offices of the chief engineer and electrical engineer. The 
drafting rooms are well equipped, and are well lighted by large sky- 
lights and a large number of windows. A well appointed locker and 
toilet room is provided for use of the employes in the offices on this 
floor. The walls of the building which enclose the halls, the vault 
and the stairway on the lower floors extend upward, thus making a 
small third story. Here are located a dark room and blue printing 
room for the drafting departments. The fittings here include a large 
sink, tables, blue printing frames and a Dietzgen cylindrical blue 
printing machine. 

A large vault, 10 ft. 4 in. x 11 ft. 6 in., extends from the basement 
to the roof. That portion of the wall of the vault included in the 
exterior wall of the building is 20 in. thick, while the other walls 
are 17 in. thick. The interior walls of the vault are lined with tilt- 
four inches thick. The basement vault is used for the storage of 
articles found on the cars; the first floor vault for the cashier, pas- 
senger and auditing departments ; the second floor vault for the en- 
gineering department, and the third floor vault for the claim depart- 
ment. 

In addition to "Babcock" fire extinguishers placed in the building, 
the company has a complete water system of its own that serves 
the group of buildings located at Highwood. A number of fire 




■?:| Xfi — ►— I — — 



=j=2B=f 



PLAN AND FRONT ELEVATION OF THE NEW STATION AT ZION CITY. 



telephone booths, repeated to the dispatcher, and turned in with 
their daily reports at the end of the runs. 

The train men's rooms on the first floor consist of a library and 
reading room and a smoking room. A generous number of tables 
and chairs, together with the library book cases make up the library 
furniture, and several tables, chairs and a large desk furnish the 
smoking room. The library consists of some five hundred volumes 
of standard works and fiction. These books are circulated among 
employes by the card system, the same as in any well regulated 
library. A librarian is in charge from 9 a. m. until 11 130 a. m., and 
from I p. m. to 4 p. m.. During these hours practically all reliefs 
of trainmen are made. A complete supply of stationary, includ- 
ing trainmen's reports, is provided at the desk in the smoking 
room, where a majority of the employes find it convenient to pre- 
pare their various reports. An assignment board is also located in 
the room. On this board the name of each motorman and con- 
ductor, printed on thin metal strips, is placed opposite the run each 
is to take. All the various rooms for employes were furnished and 
are maintained by the company without any expense to the 
employes. 

A local ticket office is also maintained in connection with the 
general passenger agent's office. Well appointed locker and toilet 
rooms are also provided for the use of office employes on this floor. 

On the second floor are the offices of the general superintendent, 
the civil and electrical engineering departments, superintendent of 
motive power, superintendent of overhead lines, and the claim depart- 



plugs are placed at suitable points, as are also supplies of hose. 
A fire alarm system has been installed in the various buildings and 
alarm boxes are placed at stations about the buildings and yards. 
An indicator located in the engine room of the power plant advises 
the engineer when an alarm is turned in, so that he can speed up 
the fire pump, which is in continual operation at a slow speed. 
A fire pressure of 124 lb. is attainable. 

The buildings are also served by the local water works system. 
Steam for heating the building is obtained from the power plant, 
as is also the current for lighting the building. All wires, steam 
mains and water mains are carried to the building in underground 
concrete conduits. 

The building is very complete and artistic in every detail and 
the harmony of decorations, woodwork and furniture is especially 
pleasing. The architect for the building was Fritz Foltz . 

Freight and Express Service. 

Freight and express traffic for the entire line is handled in the 
office of the traffic manager at Chicago, where all rates are made 
and where tariffs are published. A large portion of the express 
business is initiated by two suburban express companies, which 
have contracts with the large department stores of Chicago for 
delivering packages as far north as Waukegan. The express cars 
leave Evanston each morning at 3 o'clock and reach Waukegan 
about 6:30, so that purchases made in Chicago up to 5 o'clock in the 
afternoon are delivered at their destinations the following morning. 



Jan. IS, 1906.I 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



13 



The express cars arc only operated under a charter and the railway 
company is under no obligations with reference to delivery of ship- 
ments. The packages are tagged and billed by the various stores 
and an agent of the express company accompanies the cars on their 
trips over the line. 

The regular express business of the railway company is handled 
in express cars that make four round trips per day over the entire 
line. The system of way billing employed for this service con- 
sists of a triplicate ticket issued at the time the charges are pre- 
paid. The original is given to the consignor as a receipt for the 
shipment and for the charges. One copy is forwarded to the auditor 
for his file and the other copy accompanies the shipment as a way 
bill. It is a rule of the company that all charges for shipments 
must be prepaid. 

The crews of the express cars consist of a motorman and con- 
ductor. The conductor acts as express agent for the company, 
except on the chartered cars operated by the suburban express 
companies, which are accompanied by the express company mes- 
sengers. Although the shipments are carried to destination and 
placed on the company's platforms at consignee's risk, the express 
cars are operated on fixed schedules, and as most of the express 
business is regular the cars are met by consignees and shipments 
are taken by them direct from the cars. 

This express business keeps two 34-ft. express cars busy 12 



The freight business of the company has not developed as rapidly 
as the express business, although two locomotives are employed in 
handling freight trains. Connections with steam railroads are made 
at various points on the line as follows: At Rondout with the 
Elgin, Toliet & Eastern; at Libertyville with the Chicago. Milwaukee 
& St. Paul; at Rockefeller with the Wisconsin Central; and at 
Zion City with the Chicago & Northwestern R. R. The freight 
business consists principally of shipments originating at industries 
on the electric line destined to points on connecting lines One of 
the largest items is street material in the form of gravel which i- 
had at a very large gravel pit owned by the company at Liberty- 
ville. A large number of the towns on the line are using this 
material for paving and the revenue derived from hauling it is 
quite large, 2j^ cents per cut. being charged for the haul from the 
pit to any point on the line. The Libertyville trotting track is lo- 
cated exclusively on the line of the Chicago & Milwaukee Electric 
R. R. and the tracks of the company serve the stables. At certain 
seasons of the year the company handles a large amount of stock- 
to and from the race track, which is delivered to it by connecting 
steam lines at Rondout and Rockefeller. Other shipments handled 
by the freight trains include lumber, building material and rails. 
The freight train crews consist of engineer, fireman, conductor and 
one brakeman, whose duties correspond to those of men employed 
on steam roads. Freight rates at present are governed by the 




FLOOR. PLAN OF NEW SUB-STATION NEAR KENOSHA, SHOWING MACHINERY AND BATTERY ROOMS. 



hours per day. In addition to the service provided by these two 
express cars, passenger cars with baggage and express compart- 
ments are operated between Evanston and Waukegan, in both 
directions, at intervals of 1 hour and 20 minutes, while all trains on 
the Libertyville Division carry baggage and express. The trains 
carrying express are so indicated on the time tables published by 
the company. 

Both freight and express tariffs are published by the company, 
the freight rates being based on tariffs published by competing 
steam lines and the express rates corresponding to those of compet- 
ing express companies operating over steam railroads. Special com- 
modity rates are published from time to time and general tariffs 
will be published by the company as soon as the size of the business 
justifies this measure. At the present time express rates are pub- 
lished, together with general rules regarding the handling of this 
business. Where special commodity rates are not published, all ship- 
ments in bags, baskets, cans, crates, etc., containing groceries, dry 
goods, produce, hardware and miscellaneous supplies, are carried at 
the following rates : 

For packages weighing under 25 lb., 15 cents each. 
For packages weighing 25 to 50 lb., 20 cents each. 
For packages weighing 50 to 100 lb., 25 cents each. 
For packages weighing over 100 lb., 25 cents per 100 lb. 

The usual general rules regarding the railroad company's re- 
sponsibility, prepayment of charges, delivery of shipments, etc . are 
included in this tariff. 



Illinois classification, although the opening of the line to Kenosha, 
Wis., will necessitate the use of the Western classification on inter- 
state business. 

Industrial and Publicity. 

The traffic department serves as the industrial department of the 
railway company for the purpose of locating new industries on its 
right of way. This department works in conjunction with the husi 
ness men's associations of the different towns in securing factory 
sites for prospective manufacturers, giving more or less effort to 
securing industries of moderate size. The business men's as 
tions prefer to develop their towns with small factories rather than 
large ones, because the trade and business of a town is nut so much 
subject to fluctuation with the operation of a number of small fac- 
tories as with the operation of one large industry. 

All matters of publicity are also handled in the office of the 
traffic manager. During the summer advertisements are carried in 
the Chicago newspapers and in the local papers of the towns along 
the line. These advertisements include the attractions at Ravinia 
Park and Ft. Sheridan Park, together with a statement concerning 
the frequency of the service offered by the electric line and how to 
reach these parks from Chicago. Billboards are also used t 
vertising the attractions at the parks and metal sign boards two 
feet square are carried on each end of the company's cars. When 
these are not used by the company for Ravinia Park and Ft. Sheri- 
dan Park attractions, the company allows persons who have enter- 
tainments of public interest to use them without charge. 



14 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



I Vui.. XVI. No. i 



A number of very attractive time tables and folders are issued by 
this department from time to time. Such time tables and rates of 
fare for the summer season are published each year as soon as the 
season opens. For the season of 1905 this publication consisted of 
a 12-page folder, on one side of which were printed the time tables. 
On the reverse side were given the rates of fare, train service, 
special cars, and information regarding Ft. Sheridan, Ft. Sheridan 
Park and Ravinia Park, together with a small map of the road. 



Chicago and Milwaukee Electric Railroad 
WEEKLY REPORT OF TICKET SALES 

Thl. Report MUST be made lor each Period endlne (he 7th. Hth. list and the la,1 day < 











s 


NCLE Til 


,p tic* 
















IP TICKETS 










..... 


SNMMj 


•£• 


..,.. 


-- 


_ 


.... 




St**! 


■■•.KM 


.... 


..... 












































































' 1 I 


























1 1 


















T" 


jl Otw Wi 


, ,0 Sornm.r, 






Tf.Hl Round Trip to Summary 








COMMUTATION TICKCTtl 


MILK ll"H. nnn. miscellaneous 




































































Toll) lo Summary 










































I U ■■■*! 


''""""" 


...,.i 


































































Commuutioo 
























Milk 
















































HitMllueoui 










To 




■*•- s— , 








ToUl lor Petiod 









Report ol all Tle.eU Is.ued for Period endlne 



AGENTS REP0R1 OF TICKET SALES. ORIGINAL 



x iy/4 IN. 



Several illustrations of scenes in the parks were also given. An- 
other publication of the company, which is bound in an attractive 
cover, is entitled "A Day's Outing on the Chicago & Milwaukee 
Electric R. R." This pamphlet is also descriptive of Ft. Sheridan. 
Ft. Sheridan Park and Ravinia Park, and includes information re- 
garding the golf clubs, hotels and cafes, educational, state and 
government institutions and lakes reached by the lines of the com- 
pany. 

The government Naval Training Station was located last year 
between Lake Bluff and North Chicago, on a beautiful tract of land 
between the electric tracks and Lake Michigan. Plans have been 
completed for the buildings, which contemplate an expenditure of 
approximately $2,000,000, and when completed it is expected that 
this will be the finest naval station in the country. 

Passenger Traffic Department. 
The traffic department of the Chicago & Milwaukee Electric R. R. 
was organized and has been developed along steam line practice. 



a ticket report at the middle and end of each month. The informa- 
tion included in these reports, as may be seen from the illustra- 
tion, is similar to that found on the steam railroad reports. The sta- 
tion agents also sell tickets for the Ravinia Park theater and report 
the sale of park tickets in the same manner as the railway tickets are 
reported. There is no general admission fee to Ravinia Park when 
the special attraction is in the theater building, but when the enter 
tainment is out-of-doors, such as a band concert, an entrance fee of 
25 cents is charged. 

Tickets. 
The several types of tickets used on the Chicago & Milwaukee 
Electric R. R. are card tickets for single and round trips, blank 
destination coupon tickets, commutation tickets, and mileage coupon 
book as adopted by the several electric railways in Northern Illinois, 
In addition to these there are several special tickets, including a 
coupon book for school children, which is based on a rate of 3 
cents for the usual 5-cent fare, and which is not good on Sundays 
or holidays or during the months of July and August. A special 
ticket is also used for the round trip to Ravinia Park and return. 
including admission. This is the usual card ticket with four 
coupons, consisting of the agent's stub, going and return portions 
and admission to the park. There is no reduction in the fare on 
this ticket and it is issued only for the convenience of patrons and 
to obviate congestion at the park entrance. A special ticket includ- 
ing dinner at the casino is also issued on such occasion as excur- 
sions of various organizations and special parties of large size. 
The latter ticket is similar to the preceding one except that it con- 
sists of five coupons. The five-coupon ticket is on sale only at the 
Chicago office of the company, where contracts are made for 
handling large parties. 

The standard rates of fare are published in the many folders and 
pamphlets issued by the company. These rates appear in the form 
of a table. 

The round trip and commutation rates are based on the single trip 

rates shown in the table and are as follows : 

Where the Round 10-Ride 25-Ride 50-Ride 

Single Trip Trip Good Bearer Good Bearer Good Individual 

1 Year 

$0.90 

1.20 

1.70 

1. go 

2.40 

2.80 

325 

3-50 

No tickets are sold for rides amounting to less than 10 cents, but 
the fare is collected on the trains. During the summer special ex- 
cursion tickets are sold at much lower rates than the regular round 



Ute is 


10 Davs 


$0.10 


$0.20 


■ IS 


•25 


.20 


■35 


•25 


•40 


30 


■50 


•35 


.60 


.40 


.70 


■45 


.80 



Year 


Good 60 Davs 


$2.00 


$300 


2.50 


4.00 


3-50 


500 


4-50 


6.50 


550 


7-50 


6.50 


8.75 


750 


10.00 


8.50 


11.25 



FORM 

Price From 



.moire 

lumber 



DR. 

Opening Closing 

\umlnT Somber 



Report 



Sniuber 

IllDCd 



M. C . R - 

Reporl ' llprnldr: Clo.lnit 



Number 

l..ii.'l 



n . CR. 

Date 

Report ' Opening M .' 



rinmtter 
Issued 






TICKET RECORD KEPT WITH EACH STATION AGENT. ORIGINAL b X 5 IN. 



This department may be said to be divided into four sub-depart- 
ments, as follows : Passenger traffic department, freight and ex- 
press traffic department, advertising department and industrial de- 
partment, all of which are handled under the supervision of the 
traffic manager. Of these sub-departments the passenger traffic is 
the largest and requires the attention of a general passenger agent, 
whose offices are located at Highwood, 111. The general passenger 
agent is also auditor of passenger accounts and has charge of all 
passenger and express tickets, as well as tickets for the company's 
Ravinia Park theater. 

Ticket agents for the company are located in each of the 22 
towns served by the lines. These representatives are in many cases 
merchants whose places of business are near the company's stations. 
An agent is paid a commission upon the amount of business 
transacted at his office. It is required that each agent make out 



trip prices. The company is prepared to handle chartered ears or 
trains for clubs, societies and picnic parties, and special rates are 
made to suit such traffic. 

The train service offered by the passenger department includes 
a 10-minute service on the southern end of the line between Evans- 
ton and Ft. Sheridan, 20-minute service in each direction between 
Evanston and Waukegan and 40-minute service between Evanston 
and Kenosha, Wis., stopping at intermediate points. 

When there are entertainments at Ravinia Park, special trains 
are run to the park from both directions. These trains also leave 
the theater at the close of the entertainment. The schedule for the 
theater trains is printed on the backs of the entertainment pro- 
prams and this schedule is maintained for all performances. The 
object of this service is to furnish convenient transportation for 
park patrons and to eliminate congestion on the regular cars. 



December Meeting, Ohio Interurban Railway Association. 



The Ohio Interurban Railway Association held its December 
meeting at the Chittenden Hotel, Columbus. Ohio, on Decem- 
ber 28th. The meeting was attended by nearly 50 members of the 
association and men prominently interested in the welfare of electric 
railways. An executive session was held early in the morning. 
The regular meeting convened at 10 :30 a. m., and the minutes of 
the November meeting were read and approved. President Spring 
then announced the subjects to be discussed during the day. 

F. J. J. Sloat, of the Cincinnati, Dayton & Toledo Traction Co., 
chairman of the committee appointed at a previous meeting to sug- 
gest improvements in the interline tickets used by the various roads 
in the state, reviewed the discussion at Youngstown. He stated that 
he and the other members of the committee, Theodore Stebbins, of 
the Appleyard Syndicate, and J. H. Merrill, of the Western Ohio 
Railway Co., had previously suggested that the "closed-box" system, 
in which a receipt is issued in duplicate, be adopted, but upon fur- 
ther investigation they had decided that some other form was more 
desirable. In some cases where a large number of stations are 
reached on different roads radiating from one town the closed sys- 
tem would conflict with the local tickets and complicate the duties 
of the agents, conductors and auditors. 

In view of these facts, and after continued careful investigation, 
it was the sense of the committee that the Strondberg multiple- 
ticket system be adopted as official by the association. This ticket 
is similar to the interline tickets now used by the steam roads, and 
bears the names of the principal stations on the various lines. 
In case the destination called for is not given on the form, space 
is left so the agent can supply the name of the town. On account 
of the importance of the question, it was unanimously agreed that 
the ticket question be discussed later in the day. 

When the subject was again taken up in the afternoon a sample 
ticket was carefully considered and the report of the committee 
adopted. After some discussion a few changes in the original form 
were made, and the committee instructed to have samples printed 
and distributed to the members of the association. The suggested 
alterations included a time limit and the combining of the full and 
half fare tickets. This latter detail will be effected by printing a 
circle with a reader, "If half fare, punch here," thus eliminating 
one form. 

The question of inaugurating the multiple-destination coupon ticket 
has long been under contemplation by the association. The ticket 
now used is in the skeleton form, and has been found, since the 
interchangeable agreement was made, to be very troublesome to 
make out and collect. By the use of the new form the routing of 
a passenger will take practically no time and the work of cancelling 
the ticket can be done by a single pressure of the conductor's punch. 
The principal arguments for this ticket were its simplicity and the 
ease with which it can be filled out. 

The adoption of the multiple-station ticket does not, however, 
mean that the skeleton form will be abandoned entirely. Cases were 
cited where skeleton tickets were indispensable, and it was agreed 
that both forms should be official. The question will be discussed 
further at the January meeting and some definite action then taken. 

President Spring next spoke of the arrangements which have 
been made for the annual meeting and banquet to be held at the 
Algonquin Hotel, Dayton, January 25. The programs prepared for 
this meeting and the banquet are to be of especial interest and value 
to traction men. It was announced that W. Caryl Ely. president of 
the American Street & Interurban Railway Association ; H. H. Vree- 
land, president of the New York City Railway Co., and T. E. 
Mitten, president of the Chicago City Railway Co., have promised 
to address the members of the association. The consolidation of 
the Ohio and the Indiana associations will, it is expected, be per- 
fected at the January meeting. 

President Spring stated that after discussing the situation with 
the Indiana association it had been agreed that an alliance of the 
two associations is advisable. A committee, consisting of Presi- 
dent E. C. Spring, F. D. Carpenter, Theodore Stebbins. J. R. Har- 
rigan and J. L. Wilson, was appointed to confer with the Indiana 



association committee of the same number. The two committees 
will meet at an early date and perfect the arrangements for con- 
solidation. If the plans of the committees are ratified, as is ex 
pected, the members of both organizations will unite at the Dayton 
banquet as one association. 

The question of employing a permanent secretary will he dis 
cussed at the annual meeting. The duties have so increased tli it 
now, with but tlie affairs of a single association, the secrets 
devote a large amount of time to association affairs. 

Through Car Operation 

The discussion of the meeting was opened by Thedore Stebbins 
who suggested that some rules be adopted for the running of cars 
from one road over the tracks of another. Attorneys had advised 
that there is no law in Ohio forbidding such operation. He 
favored the adoption of some definite form of agreement, an agree- 
ment which all can depend upon. He also suggested that the asso- 
ciation define whether or not it was the duty of the local company 
to furnish men for handling the visiting cars over the home lines 
This question had been talked over, but on account of its importance 
was held over. At the suggestion of the president the matter was 
again held over. 

In order that no trouble would hereafter be had with cars of one 
company passing over lines owned by another, C. W. Wilcoxon, 
of the Cleveland & South-Western Traction Co., recommended that 
clearance standards be established for the future construction of all 
cars. 

Mr. Stebbins favored such action and suggested that all the de- 
tails, such as flanges, treads, clearances on the right of way. etc., 
should be carefully considered. Instances were cited where visiting 
cars were hindered in their runs by obstructions which did not in- 
terfere with local operation. In planning for such standards it will 
be necessary to take into consideration the franchises of the various 
companies. It is known that in many cities the franchises are not 
too liberal, and it will hardly be possible to alter the track to c m 
form to a given standard. 

F. D. Carpenter proposed, on account of the importance of the 
question, that a committee be named whose duty it shall lie to collect 
information from all the lines regarding their clearances and the 
maximum width of car which can pass freely over their tracks. 
Such information should be tabulated and distributed to the offices 
of all connecting roads. By this means every company can decide 
for itself whether or not its cars can pass over another line without 
trouble, and if not, can make necessary changes in accordance with 
the standards of such roads. 

After further discussion the question was referred to the subject 
committee with instructions to report at a lab 

Advertising — The Proper Method. 

A. L. Xeereamer, traffic manager of the Columbus. Delaware S: 
Marion Ry., opened the discussion on electric railway advertise- 
ments. He said that in his opinion a road can not do too much 
judicious advertising. The daily newspapers furnish the best way 
for reaching the public. He stated that short readers in the "local" 
columns always had brought his road the best results. In getting 
up special advertisements he advised against cheap work, as such 
advertisements are thrown aside and forgotten. Good, substantial 
buttons or calendars bring good results, and attractive time cards, 
posted conspicuously at crossings along the line, are beneficial. 
When advertising a summer attraction the use of billboards is one 
of the best ways of attracting the attention of the public. Much 
care should be taken in placing the boards at popular street corners 
and the boards should be kept in good condition. 

F. J. J. Sloat said that attractive posters bring good results. 

A. W. Anderson believed that most any kind of advertising 
brought results if the company would advertise only those attrac- 
tions that it actually has. 

F. D. Carpenter stated the people are not yet aware they can 
ride long distances on electric lines. He suggested that electric 



16 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. i. 



companies follow the plans of advertising adopted by the steam roads. 
This suggestion was favored by Mr. Sloat, who remarked that a 
large per cent of travel for distances less than 200 miles should be 
by the electric lines. More frequent exchange of time tables would 
afford better advertising for all parties concerned. 

Mr. Stebbins stated that every road should have prints and maps 
of every other road posted conspicuously. 

J. O. Wilson said that the Cleveland & South-Western Traction 
Co. has had better results from folders than from any other kind of 
advertising. Along this road folder racks are placed in all stations, 
so that the patrons can help themselves. Many of the folders are 
destroyed, but the majority of them are used to the advantage of 
the company. 

C. M. Paxton, traffic manager of the Dayton & Troy Electric 
Ry., stated that every paper in Dayton carried a display advertise- 
ment for his company, and these bring good results. In return for 
the advertisements the company carries the papers for the publish- 
ing companies and furnishes them with transportation. Mr. Pax- 
ton does not believe this method of advertising helps to increase 
the freight traffic. 

Secretary Coen stated that he believed the most satisfactory 
method of doing local advertising is to keep the cars and stations 
clean and comfortable and provide good service for the public. 

President Spring said all advertisements should be plain and 
simple, so that the average man can comprehend them. Also that 
good service and clean, comfortable properties are the best adver- 
tisers. Bulletin boards showing maps of roads with which inter- 
change is made are good advertisements. 

Shop Records. 

J. C. Gillette, master mechanic of the Columbus. Delaware & 
Marion Ry., opened the discussion on shop records. His company 
uses the card system, but does not keep a detailed report of work- 
done on each job. By use of the card system, however, the cost 
may be obtained from the material, supply and time reports.. Each 
workman makes out a slip stating the amount of work done each 
day, and the shop foreman makes a daily report of material used. 
When a car is turned in for repairs a 3 x 5-in. blank car report is 
signed in duplicate by the motorman and conductor, one of which 
reports passes through the hands of the barn foreman to the office. 
When a complete overhauling is found necessary, the foreman fills 
out a duplicate report and sends the original to the head office. 

From the train sheet of this road the mileage of each car is 
figured up at the end of each month. When the trucks are shifted 
from one body to another the daily slips show the date of change. 
Accurate account is kept and no trouble is had in determining the 
mileages. By this method it is not necessary to keep a big set of 
books, thereby saving the wages of one man. His company keeps 
the daily detailed report of material used, and at the end of each 
month the average wear and tear on wheels, trolley wheels, con- 
sumption of oil, etc., per 1,000 miles is recorded He stated that 
while this system was, perhaps, not as effective in detail as some 
others used, he could easily determine the average cost of each piece 
nf a car. The cost of brake shoes on this line varies from 50 cents 
to 90 cents per 1,000 miles. 

A. M. Frazee, of the Columbus, Buckeye Lake & Newark Trac- 
tion Co. followed in the discussion. His company maintains the 
standard street railway classification and enters all special work- 
done on a car against that car. By this method the mileage of 
every part of the car, the wheels, axles, journals, journal bearings, 
etc., are carefully recorded. At the end of each month the car 
mileage is totaled. 

L. C. Bradley, of the Scioto Valley Traction Co., said that he be- 
lieved the main reason for keeping records is to get at the cost of 
maintenance. His company carries accounts of 25 different parts of 
the cars. If a car is damaged by accident, the cost is charged to cas- 
ualty and not to maintenance, as most roads do. Cars of one class 
are carried under one head- and in a general wav the average cosl 
per 1,000 miles is kept. 

C. W. Wilcoxon stated that he believes in complete shop records. 
In the case of a small road operating only a few cars the 1,000-mile 
basis may bring too small results to be of value. In order that a 
large road may be able to compute its accounts accurately the shop 
records should be carefully kept. Mr. Wilcoxon favors the card 
system because nf it -^ simplicity. A novel way for keeping trolley 
wheel records is to put a slip of paper bearing the date and hour the 



wheel is put into commission, into the base of the trolley pole, and 
when the wheel is worn out file the slip for future reference. 

Transportation — Employes and Their Dependents. 

Mr. Stebbins outlined the methods used by the Appleyard Syndi- 
cate in issuing transportation to its employes and their dependents, 
After a careful study of the question, he had found that from 15,000 
to 18,000 passes, aggregating from 110,000 to 125.000 miles, are used 
each month mi the six different properties in his charge. With the 
method in use he is able to ascertain who is doing the riding and 
where it is being done. Passes in blank form are issued, and before 
being used they must be signed by the employe in the presence of 
the conductor, who punches the stations between which the pass is 
used. The passes are issued to the different departments in serial 
form, so that by checking up at the end of each month the exact 
distance each department has traveled is easily computed. As each 
pass is turned into the office it is checked up in a manner similar 
to other tickets. So accurate is this system it is possible to tell 
how many miles and between which stations each employe travels. 

Mr. Stebbins stated that his company is liberal with families of 
employes. The passes are issued to the superintendent, who dis- 
tributes them m turn to the foremen. The latter issue them to the 
employes as they are needed. These passes cost the company 35 
cents per thousand and are found to h." cheaper than the perpetual 
card pasess. 

Mr. Coen stated that the Lake Shore Electric Ry. issues passes in 
books of 50 tickets each, which expire with the year. On the back 
of each ticket is printed a list of towns through which the road 
passes. These books are dated and one is issued to each employe. 
By keeping a complete record of the passes it is readily ascertained 
if they are abused. The company is also liberal with its employes' 
families, and thus maintains the good will and friendship of all 
concerned. Trip passes for members of the employes' families arc 
furnished upon request. 

C. W. Wilcoxon said that a company loses nothing by being lib- 
eral in the matter of furnishing passes to employes and their de- 
pendents. The Cleveland & South-Western Traction Co. issues to 
employes a book of passes sufficient for rides to and from work 
for one month. These are sent to the heads ot each department 
with the names of each employe written on the books. The tickets 
are punched between the limits of the employe's work and his home. 
Each foreman carries an extra book to use in case of an emer- 
gency. The company also gives the head of each department 
authority to issue trip passes to an employe's wife as often as re- 
quested, 

A. W. Anderson, of the Dayton & Xcma Transit Co., said that 
employes are frequently asked to do work not especially in their 
line, so in return we feel it our duty to be liberal with them and 
their families. Our pass system resembles the systems described bj 
Messrs. Coen and Carpenter. The trip pass books are renewed ;i- 
often as they are used up. Every man gives up a ticket whenever 
he rides, and these are carefully checked up. When an employe's 
wife, father or mother wishes to ride on the line, we issue a trip 
pass. By this method we have obtained a set of loyal men who 
work for our interest. 

George Whysall said that the Columbus, Delaware & Marion Ry. 
refuses passes over its lines only on Sundays and holidays. Begin- 
ning January 1st a book of trip passes will be issued monthly to 
every employe. 

Other matters of interest were discussed and the following were 
voted to membership in the association : John S. Sawyer, National 
Electric Co.; J. Chas. Ross, general manager Steubenville Traction 
& Light Co. ; E. J. Davis, Columbus, Buckeye Lake & Newark 
Traction Co. ; Geo. Whysall, general manager, Columbus, Delaware 
& Marion Railway Co.; A. W. Jordan, passenger agent, Columbus, 
London & Springfield Railway Co. 

A. W. Anderson was appointed treasurer of the association to 
succeed R. E. De Weese, who, on account of ill-health, is unable to 
attend to the duties of that office. 

The meeting then adjourned until January 25th, when the banquet 
will be held at Dayton. 



The postofiice department at Washington will install a street rail- 
way mail service between Stillwater and South Stillwater, Minn. 
There will be three mails each way daily, with one mail on Sunday. 



Jan. is, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



17 



December Meeting, New England Street Rail- 
way Club. 

The December meeting of the New England Street Railway Club 
was held December 28th at the American House, Boston. The 
speaker was H. W. Young, of the Boston office of the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Co. His subject was "Lightning 
Protection." An abstract of Mr. Young's address follows: 

In planning the installation of lightning protective apparatus for 
railway systems the plans should not be decided upon until the 
location of stations, lines and apparatus has been definitely de- 
termined. It is a most serious mistake to complete plans for power 
stations without any regard for protective apparatus, for this equip- 
ment requires space for insulation, ventilation and accessibility. 
The location of lightning arresters should be such as to provide 
each separate line leaving the building with one arrester having a 
voltage rating slightly exceeding the voltage existing between line 
;.nd ground when one of the wires of the system is grounded. This 
excess rating may in some instances vary from 25 to 100 per cent 
greater than normal. Relatively heavy insulators should be used in 
cases where heavy thunderstorms and strong winds are frequent. 
If high voltage generators supply the line directly, without stationary 
transformers, still greater care becomes necessary in the choice of 
arresters. Since the value of protection afforded in any case is 
directly proportional to the difference in resistance to static charges 
offered by the protective device and the apparatus it is intended to 
shield, preference should be given to those devices offering the 
lowest equivalent spark gaps. These spark gaps should be con- 
siderably lower in value than the impedance of the protected ap- 
paratus. The lowest equivalent air gap is that gap in inches which, 
when placed in multiple with the arrester, will just fail to take the 
discharge. . 

A choke coil impedes the free passage of static discharges, but a 
lightning arrester should offer a very free path. In the absence of 
suitable arresters on a railway line, the static discharge is liable to 
all pass through a motor armature, probably puncturing it near the 
point of entry of the static into the coil, and often followed by a 
line current capable of seriously injuring the armature. The insula- 
tion of old apparatus is much more difficult to protect intelligently 
by arresters than that of new equipment, for there tends to come 
a time when the insulation is so poor that it affords a freer dis- 
charge path than the protective devices themselves. The ideal 
lightning arrester would require an equivalent spark gap of zero, 
allowing a static discharge to pass through it with absolutely no 
opposition. While this condition is not to be obtained in any com- 
mercial arrester, the advances in design tend toward a point where 
the freedom of discharge may be reasonably satisfactory. 

The multigap arrester with series resistance pencils depends for 
its action upon the ability of the resistance pencils to suppress any 
short circuit current which may follow a static discharge. A second 
type is the multigap with non-arcing metal cylinders arranged on the 
"low equivalent" principle. This type has the lowest equivalent 
spark gap of any arrester for the service for which it is designed, 
and an instantaneous current carrying capacity which, while not 
affecting the normal operation of the system, materially aids in 
clearing the line of disturbances. It is specially effective in effacing 
surges due to grounding, short circuits, etc. The discharge also 
takes place too quickly to open the circuit breakers on systems where 
they are tightly set. The low equivalent arrester element consists 
of a number of small series air gaps connected to the line, having 
a certain number shunted by resistance. A second non-inductive 
resistance is placed in series at the lower end and the entire ele- 
ment connected between line and ground. In case a lightning dis- 
charge passes the series gaps, it meets opposition in the shunted re- 
sistance and jumps the shunted gaps, passing freely to earth 
through the non-inductive series resistance. The arc tending to 
follow the discharge is then withdrawn from the shunted gaps by 
the shunt resistance. Once out of the shunted gaps the current 
must pass through the shunted resistance, and this so reduces the 
current that the series gaps and the resistance can both readily 
suppress the arc. The single-pole type is used with the higher 
voltage. In the event of a hold-over with the low equivalent type 
of arrester, the only failure would be in the fusing of the resistance, 
which immediately opens the circuit. 

The horn type of arrester requires some additional resistance to 



cut down the flow of current on short circuits in order to preserve 
its life; even then its action is so slow as to impair its usefu 
in railway work, and for indoor service it is a very undesirable 
type. The resistances so far used with this type have proved to be 
of very doubtful value. 

It is generally agreed that choke coil protection is necessary in 
every progressive installation. Either the static interrupter or the 
simple choke coil may be used in high voltage work. The former 
is applicable only on the terminals of apparatus between the switches 
and the equipment protected ; the latter may be placed directly in 
the line leads or in the terminal leads The placing of coils in the 
line leads does not allow as economical an expansion of the station 
or as good protection against switching strains as when the coils 
are placed in the leads of the apparatus. The static interrupter 
differs from the choke coil in the addition of a condenser between 
the coil and the apparatus protected. The condenser has the effect 
of increasing the speed of a high frequency discharge's entrance 
into the choke coil, with the result that the coil chokes back even 
more violently on account of the increase in its effective impedance. 

It is very important, however, to protect impedance coils against 
side flashes, extending the insulation between layers far enough be- 
yond the wire to form strong barriers. The same construction is 
used with oil immersed choke coils. 

Considering low tension protection against lightning, as in feeders, 
trolley circuits and cars: Arresters should be located so as to pro- 
tect the cars rather than the feeders. Experience shows that S or 6 
arresters per mile will usually be satisfactory. Every car should 
also be equipped, even though the line may be, because any apparatus 
connected to the line shares with the arresters in clearing the line. 
The forms most generally used are the moving plunger type, the 
magnetic blow out, and the fixed coherer type. 

An effective form of arrester for 500-volt station series consists 
of a set of choke coils connected to carbon electrodes immersed in 
a tank of water. This provides a good path to earth, although it is 
the cause of considerable line leakage. 

Mr. Young exhibited slides of special test papers through which 
discharges had passed, and discussed at some length the methods 
employed to obtain paper records of arrester performance in actual 
service. Original test papers of this kind, which had been punc- 
tured under various conditions, were brought to the meeting for 
the inspection of the members. 

Many inherent failures heretofore ascribed to defective protection 
have now been almost eliminated. Although much has been done, 
we are still ignorant of the quantitative measure of the forces to 
be dealt with. This knowledge can be obtained in large measure 
by the co-operation of operating companies at large. On many 
railway systems of the first importance we find lightning arresters 
of the most antique design. In many cases leads are burned off or 
grounds poorly made; bad rail bonding frequently occurs, and this 
where the rails provide the only path of discharge to the earth. 
No regard is given to the system as a whole and the question of 
lightning protection is given a haphazard and indifferent attention 
which does the operator no good and throws most unjust criticism 
on the manufacturer of protective apparatus. Of all disturbances 
to a system, that from lightning is doubtless the most unwelcome. 
It is not present the whole time and varies greatly in intensity from 
storm to storm. Considering the exceedingly moderate cost of 
protection, it is singular that so little is done. Every railway should 
place the matter of lightning protection in the hands of a special 
man, preferably a technical graduate with some experience with 
one of the larger electric companies. His sole duty should be to 
map out the system, locate arresters, see that they are in first-class 
condition, make good grounds, use tell-tale boxes to record their 
operation, etc. He should report to the manager after each storm 
as to the damage done to apparatus, approximate loss of revenue, 
remedies applied, etc. A profit and loss sheet on this score would 
show some surprising results. Considering the losses entailed b. 
armature breakdowns and repairs, the disabling of cars and de- 
rangement of schedules, the initial and maintenance cost of a proper 
lightning equipment would soon be fully warranted by the decreased 
repair bills, increased revenue and better service. 



A trackless trolley is being constructed by the citizens of Melrose. 
Mass., to connect that city with the line of the Boston I 1 
Railway Co. 



18 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI. No. 



THE 



STREET RAILWAY 
REVIEW 

AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF STREET AND ELECTRIC RAILWAYS 



ANNUAL INDEX. 

Accompanying the January number of the "Review" is the annual 
index for the past year. These pages should not be overlooked 
when binding the 1905 volume. 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE 

KENFIELD PUBLISHING CO., 

45-47 Plymouth place, Chicago, III. 

Cable Address: ' 'Winfleld. ' ' Long Distance Telephone, Harrison 754. 



BRANCH OFFICES: 
New York— 39 Cortlandt Street. Cleveland— 302 Electric Building. 

London— Byron House, 82 Fleet St. 

SUBSCRIPTION AGENCIES: 
Austria, Vienna — Lehmann & Wentzel, Karntnerstrasse. 
France, Paris — Boyveau & Chevillet, Librairie Etrangere, Rue de la Banque. 
Italy, Milan — Ulrico Hoepli, Librairia Delia Real Casa. 

New South Wales, Sydney— Turner & Henderson, 16 and 18 Hunter Street. 
Queensland (South), Brisbane— Gordon & Cotch. 
Victoria, Melbourne— Gordon & Cotch, Limited, Queen Street. 

Address all Communications and Remittances to Kenfield Publishing Co-, Chicago, III. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

We cordially invite correspondence on all subjects of interest to those 
engaged in any branch of street railway work, and will gratefully appreciate 
any marked copies of papers or news items our street railwa3' friends may send 
us, pertaining either to companies or officers. 



DOES THE MANAGER WANT ANYTHING? 

If you contemplate the purchase of any supplies or material, we can save 
you much time and trouble. Drop a line to The Review, stating what you are 
in the market for, and you will promptly receive bids and estimates from* all the 
best dealers in that line. We make no charge for publishing such notices in our 
Bulletin of Advance News, which is sent to all manufacturers. 

This paper is a member of the Chicago Trade Press Association. 
Entered at the Post Office at Chicago as Second Class Matter. 



Vol. XVI 



JANUARY 15, 1906 



No. 1 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

Reconstruction Work of the Madison & Interurban Traction Co. 

Illustrated I 

Throwing Devices for Tongue Switches. Illustrated. By T. A. 

Gerlach 6 

Extension and Improvements of the Chicago & Milwaukee Elec- 
tric Railroad Co. Illustrated 9 

December Meeting. Ohio Interurban Railway Association 15 

December Meeting. New England Street Railway Club 17 

A Complete Interurban Map of the Central States. Illustrated. 21 
First Quarterly Meeting of the Street Railway Association of 

the State of New York 22 

Some Recent Convictions of Fraudulent Accident Swindlers.... 24 
Piping & Power Station Systems. — XIII. Illustrated. By W. L. 

Morris 25 

Recent Street Railway Decisions 29 

The New Shops of the Portland Railroad Co. Illustrated 33 

History of the American Street & Interurban Railway Associa- 
tion 36 

Personals 40 

New Lima-Findlay Division of the Western Chin Railway Co. 

Illustrated 42 

December and January Meetings and Annual Banquet of the In- 
diana Electric Railway Association 44 

New Cars for the Cleveland & Southwestern 1 rai tion Co. Illus- 
trated 49 

The Single-Phase Electric Locomotives and Power Equipment 

for the St. Clair Tunnel Co. Illustrated 50 

Electrical Equipment of the West Jersey & Seashore Line of the 
Pennsylvania System 53 



THE CENTRAL ELECTRIC RAILWAY ASSOCIATION. 

One year ago we announced the first meeting of the Indiana 
Electric Railway Association, and if the plans now formulated do 
nut miscarry the January, 1906, meeting which is reported in full in 
this number of the "Review,'' will have been the last session of this 
society as a separate organization. The Ohio Interurban Railway 
Association, which has also done a vast amount of good, will hold 
its last meeting in the near future. From then the work of the 
two associations will he united and increased efforts for advance- 
ment made under the new name. Central Electric Railway Associa- 
tion. The personnel of the new association and the individual 
records of its component societies are sufficient recommendation 
for the future success of this unified organization of railway oper- 
ators. 



HELPING THE CITY GROW. 

So little credit is ever given a railway property for the part it 
plays in expanding the limits of a growing city, that we are pleased 
to reprint the good words recently spoken by "Finance" in describ- 
ing the growth of Cleveland: 

"If one were to write the history of the Cleveland Electric he 
would find upon reviewing his work that he had written the history 
of Cleveland. Wherever the railroad company has extended its 
tracks, wherever it has made improvements, there has Cleveland 
grown and expanded. The great expansion of Cleveland — the fact 
that thousands of our people live in the suburbs, has been made 
possible by the trolley. There is no denying these facts, and while 
it is popular to denounce public service corporations, there is no 
gainsaying the fact that nine-tenths of the talk against the Cleveland 
F.lectric is unfair. As a matter of fact, the Cleveland Electric is 
more fairly conducted in so far as the public is concerned, than are 
nine-tenths of the various other enterprises of Cleveland. 

"It has given them warm, well ventilated cars in the winter time 
and airy open cars in the summer time. It has given just as good 
service as it is possible to give under present conditions. It has 
extended its lines before there were enough people living along the 
extensions to make the extensions profitable. It has done this both 
for Cleveland and for itself, for when Cleveland prospers, so pros- 
pers the Cleveland Electric, and it is the height of folly to think 
that this one corporation, that this one crowd of men, should be 
picked out as a target for politicians: that it should be singled out 
as the only business concern in Cleveland w-hich should not share in 
the growth and prosperity of the city. 

"Do the people of Cleveland realize that their street-car fare is 
the only item of expense they have, which has been reduced in the 
last ten years? You can not buy as much meat for five cents to- 
day as you could ten years ago by 50 per cent, and you can not 
buy as much of anything for live cents as you could ten years ago 
by 50 per cent, except in a street-car ride. In Cleveland to-day for 
five cents you can buy three times the amount of ride that you could 
ten years ago for the same money. And yet the railroad company- 
is picked out as a subject to stir up the people againsf. 

"Some day, however, the people will change their mind. They 
will learn to appreciate the fact that the history of Cleveland is the 
history of the Cleveland Electric and they will learn that their own 
prosperity depends upon the prosperity of the Cleveland Electric." 



ALWAYS ON TIME. 

To hold patronage in any business the organization with some- 
thing to sell must be reliable. _ This statement holds for electric 
railroads as well as it does for any store or manufacturing estab- 
lishment. If we have transportation facilities to sell and want 
crowded cars one essential "talking point" for the road must be 
that its cars are "always on time." Patrons soon learn that if 
they want to catch the ten o'clock car they will not have to stand 
on the corner until ten-fifteen before it comes along and. once learn- 
ing of the reliability of the schedules, will soon boost the road. 
Few things make a man more out of patience than to keep an 
appointment and find the other party late. 



Jan. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



19 



As a rule interurbaii lines operate under nmcli more severe 
schedule-maintaining conditions tlint their steam competitors. The 
interurbaii has no regularly scheduled stops, but must take on and 
let off passengers at road crossings and at other points where it 
is thought necessary to place stations. Unnecessary stops are fre- 
quent and obstructions to traffic more liable to occur than on steam 
roads. Also the distances between stopping points are less. Never- 
theless, as a result of the commendable practice of many roads in 
keeping a record of the percentage of trains on time it has been 
shown in many instances that if proper schedules are used and con- 
scientious effort made to maintain them, electric trains can show a 
percentage of trains on time equal to those of steam railroads. 

Illustrating this is the annual report of the West Penn Rail- 
ways, which shows that during the year of 1905, 97.2 per cent of 
the cars starting from the Connellsville and Unioutown terminals 
arrived and departed on time. When we consider the many causes 
which make for delay in the schedules of this interurbaii road, this 
record is more or less remarkable. 

The territory served lies for the most part, among the foothills 
of the Allegheny mountains. Grades running as high as 12 per cent 
are encountered. The nature of the territory served necessitates 
frequent curves, the amount of tangent between them being in no 
case very great. The country is very populous and the line passes 
through a number of small towns, which calls for frequent stops. 
Also there are several steam road crossings and a number of 
bridges and viaducts. Owing to the hilly nature of the country, 
wash-outs and landslides are not infrequent. 

In the matter of computing the figures given, all cars that do not 
run more than five minutes behind schedule are considered on time. 
A train register is kept at division points and shows the arrival 
and departure of all cars, names of crews and condition of track. 
From these registers, a report is compiled every 15 days, showing 
the proportion of cars on time. It is also of interest to note in 
comparison with an earlier year that the report for the year 1904 
showed the remarkable high schedule observance of 97.1 per cent, 
from which the showing for the year just past varies but slightly. 



THE ELECTRIC RAILWAY IN 1906. 

The beginning of a new year is an event of importance in all in- 
dustries. The widespread custom of attempting to forecast the com- 
ing twelve months in the light of the departing year's experience 
may well be followed in the great industry of electric railroading. 
For there is not the slightest doubt today but that the transportation 
of passengers by electricity is one of the typical great industries of 
the twentieth century, and we believe that this should be the mental 
concept of every worker in the field in 1006. from the track greaser 
to the railroad president. 

All about us signs are apparent that the general public is growing 
more and more to realize its dependence upon electrical transporta- 
tion, and there is little doubt but that the day is near when our 
faithful friend, the steam locomotive, will be withdrawn from active 
service in all of the larger urban communities. The magnitude of 
the terminal improvements at New York is widely realized, but few 
persons appreciate as yet the revolution which the Pennsylvania 
and the New York Central developments will bring about in the 
methods of handling suburban and terminal passenger traffic. We 
are all familiar with the disturbed schedules, slow acceleration, 
smoke, dirt, cinders and general inflexibility of the steam operation 
of heavy suburban service. The inauguration of electric service 
at the metropolis is certain to create an irresistible demand on the 
part of the public for improved facilities elsewhere, and this means 
nothing else but the beginning of the end as far as the steam loco- 
motive is concerned. It is greatly to be hoped that the operation of 
the electric trains of the New York Central will commence in 1906 
as planned, for the time is certainly ripe for electric railway develop- 
ments on a grander scale than ever before. 

The experiences of 1905 will not have been in vam if they stir elec- 
tric railway managers to more vigorous warfare against the falla- 
cies of municipal ownership. The past year has witnessed tremen- 
dous political upheavals and we believe there is a stronger pressure 
upon municipal office holders making for honest administration than 
at any previous time in recent years. But even if graft in all its 
forms could be rooted out of American public life, the wisdom and 
economy of municipal ownership would still be unproved in refer- 
ence to American conditions. The enormous amount of foolish 



legislation which has to be defeated each year by the great street 
railway systems of our larger cities is evidence enough that the 
business of carrying passengers in electric cars is better off in private 
hands, though a reasonable degree ■ 1 tate supervision may be justi- 
fied. The street railway manager who did not realize that the in- 
terests of his companj coincide in large measure with the inter- 
ests of the public could hardly hold his position a single year. 
Some of the more progressive managers have lately formed the 
commendable habit of taking the thinking public into their confi- 
dence by delivering wise and far-sighted addresses upon street rail- 
way problems at various gatherings. If this practice is followed in 
1906 it will do much toward securing that improved public under 
standing of street railway conditions which is indispensable to last- 
ing success in carrying on the industry. 

These broad tendencies toward wider fields of usefulness and a 
more intelligent public appreciation of electric railway development 
and operation in private hands are paralleled by a notable advance 
111 the physical equipment of modern systems and by greatly im- 
proved methods of operating analysis. The evolution of the power. 
station is still under way; the steam turbine for both direct and 
alternating current service is certain to win fresh laurels in the year 
upon which we have entered ; the gas engine is coming more and 
more to the front— witness its adoption in part by the Boston Ele- 
vated Ry„ that long-time champion of reciprocating engine units— 
and both rolling stock and roadbed are being brought up to stand- 
ards far beyond those of even a few years ago. On the score of 
operating economy, the stopping of leaks now engages the earnest 
attention of every progressive department head, and the search for 
higher efficiency in men and materials is sure to be carried farther 
in 1906 than ever before. The creation of traffic by energetic ad- 
vertising is sure to be pushed farther afield in the coming months, 
and there is every reason to believe that when 1907 appears upon 
the calendar the permanent and growing value of electric traction 
will be even better realized by the public at large than it is today. 
We are in the rise of a tide of industrial development which shows 
little sign of falling, and among the great forces which are today 
becoming more and more beneficent in their influence upon modern 
life, the advancing electric railway system of 1906 is certainly of in- 
calculable nrominence. 



THE POPULAR OPINION OF GATES ON CARS. 

One of the leading newspapers of Minneapolis very recently 
started an attack against the use of gates on the cars of the Twin 
City Rapid Transit Co. which operates a system of 320 miles ol 
track and 750 cars in the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul. As a 
means of exciting interest in the question, a popular vote was taken, 
the ballots being sent to the newspaper office where they were 
counted and the results announced through the columns of the 
paper. As many companies throughout the country are at times 
a party in similar agitations, it may not be without interest to relate 
here the history of the controversy in the Twin Cities. 

When the question of gates or no gates was first presented to 
the newspaper readers, it is said that statements were made that 
the gates were put on the cars solely for the benefit of the railway 
company and contrary to the wishes, of the patrons, thus exhibit 
ing on the part of the railway company a spirit of reckless de- 
fiance. It was also said that the duty of the railway to the public 
did not require the use of gates. 

During the time that the newspaper was calling for expressions 
of opinion from its readers and for votes from the population at 
large, the management of the railway took no active part in the 
agitation but awaited the announcement of the count of the votes. 
It was felt that in this way, the true feeling of the public, the patrons 
of the road using the gates, would be found, and so it was. The 
result of the voting clearly demonstrated that the people who ride, 
favor the use of gates. 

In all there were 1,100 votes cast, out of a population of 261,974 
served by the railway, and it is said that fully 30 per cent of 
those voting were in favor of the use of gates as now operated. 
This in contrasted figures means that but 660 people in a population 
of more than a quarter of a million made a positive objection to 
the use of gates. From the general knowdedge of the class of 
people who usually jump at a similar chance to knock the methods 
of operation of any public service corporation, and especially when 
they can get their names in print in doing so, one can feel 



20 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. I. 



quite sure that the use of gates has been highly satisfactory to the 
riding public of the Twin Cities. Directly after the results of the 
voting had been announced, and the newspaper starting the con 
troversy had acknowledged that - public opinion favored the use 
of gates, Mr. C. G. Goodrich, vice-president of the transit 
company, answered, in the newspaper advertising columns, the 
complaining statements earlier given. This official announcement 
contains some arguments and data that may be of assistance tn 
street railway management in other parts of the country, therefore 
we abstract them here. 

The criticism that the gates were put on the cars solely for the 
railway's benefit is true in part. 

The statement that they were put on contrary to the wishes of the 
patrons could not be true as the patrons did not have and therefore 
could not express any preferences about the use of gates. 

The statement that "reckless defiance" was shown in putting 
on gates is absolutely false. Our respect for "public sentiment" 
when it is right is supreme. When it is wrong, or based upon 
erroneous assumption, we frankly admit that we are afraid of it. 
In either contingency, however, our respect for it is entirely too 
healthy to meet it in a "spirit of reckless defiance." 

"Street railway companies, as carriers of passengers for hire, are 
bound to exercise the highest degree of care and diligence con- 
sistent with the nature of their undertaking, and are responsible 
for the slightest neglect. This rule extends to the management of 
the cars and track, and to all the arrangements necessary for the 
safety of passengers as respects accidents from collision or other- 
wise." 

If the placing of gates on street railway cars is an "arrangement" 
which will minimize accidents, and not inconsistent with street rail- 
way business, then it not only was our duty to the public to 
equip our cars with gates but the above ruling of the supreme court 
was tantamount to a mandatory order instructing our company to 
do so. 

It will not be contended that gates to prevent passengers from 
getting on and off moving cars are inconsistent with the work of 
carrying passengers. 

As to whether gates minimize accidents the following figures 
speak for themselves. 

In the year 1894, the year before gates were installed, we had 
1,655 accidents caused by people getting on and off cars. 

In 1904, ten years later, notwithstanding the fact that we handled 
more than twice as many passengers, accidents due to getting on 
and off our cars numbered only 259. These figures include both 
cities. 

If the 1894 percentage of accidents to passengers handled had 
prevailed in 1904 our accidents due to getting on and off cars would 
have been over 3,500 instead of 259. 

If human life and suffering are entitled to any consideration 
then "our duty to the public" would seem to be apparent. We can 
and do understand fully that at times the gates may prove an an- 
noyance, but taking all the conditions into consideration we do not 
believe or at least we do not wish to believe, that anyone familiar 
with all the facts in the case would wish them discarded. 

No consideration of the case will be complete which does not 
take into consideration the fact that fully 65 per cent of our pas- 
sengers are either women, children or elderly persons. 



TRAFFIC CONGESTION. 

The congestion of traffic at the business centers of large cities is 
one of the most serious problems with which the operating engineer 
or manager is confronted. The economic loss caused by the throt- 
tling of rapid transit foots up to a stupendous total each year. The 
fundamental cause of urban traffic congestion is found in the con- 
centration of business interests within a limited area. This tendency 
attains its climax in the modern office building, which frequently 
houses three or four thousand persons during the business day, 
thus equaling the traveling population of a small city. Without the 
high-speed passenger elevator, the present type of office building 
would be a commercial impossibility and without rapid transit lines 
below, on and above the streets, the congestion of traffic at the 
metropolitan business centers can hardly be imagined. 

A secondary cause of traffic congestion is the narrowness of the 
streets which constitute the arteries of maximum travel. To these 
may be applied the old story of attempting to force a pint into a 



gill flask. The density of population is so great in the larger cities 
that in the business districts the sidewalks are crowded to their 
limit and the streets between the curbs are equally crowded with 
vehicles. The most aggravating cause of delay in a city street 
traversed by cross-currents of pedestrians and street cars is without 
doubt the transportation of heavy merchandise in trucks and wagons. 

Here, at these intersections, are the points of congestion and there 
is little doubt but that in the near future restrictions will be placed 
upon vehicular traffic and the time will come when it will not be 
handled in the more crowded streets. The enforcement of municipal 
regulations regarding right-of-way is of immense importance, for 
the truckman who delays, for two minutes, a line of cars carrying 
1,000 people, destroys the equivalent of one man's time for 33 1-3 
hours. 

The custom of laying the blame for traffic congestion upon the 
local traction company is, in most cases, a mistake. Manifestly the 
conditions which make for the smooth handling of traffic are a 
clear track and plenty of power behind the rolling stock. In the 
urban rush hour a clear track is an unknown quantity, but if the 
vehicular traffic is properly handled and kept away from the car 
tracks, the conditions become as favorable for the movement of 
passengers as can reasonably be expected. 

Elevated and subway lines are of vast importance in the relief 
of surface congestion, but if the vehicles carrying merchandise can 
be deflected to the side streets during the rush hours, it is probable 
that the transporting facilities of the surface lines will be increased 
from 25 to 50 per cent. A natural route for merchandise is below 
ground, and it is safe to say that before the end of another decade 
a great deal will have been done to restore the street surface to its 
normal function of a passenger highway. The pneumatic tubes and 
freight tunnels have begun to solve the problem in a few cities. 
The subway systems and elevated lines will probably continue to 
grow in the great cities and there is little doubt that the separation 
of merchandise and passenger traffic, which is sure to come, will 
emancipate the surface lines from the thraldom of blockades and 
permit a reasonable measure of rapid transit at the ground level. 
■ *—*■ ■ 

Car Barns of the United Railways and Elec- 
tric Co. of Baltimore Destroyed by Fire. 

The car barns of the United Railways and Electric Co., of Balti- 
more, at York Road and Carroll Ave., Waverly, were burned early 
on the. morning of Jan. 10, 1906. About 65 of the 100 or more cars 
stored there, most of them open cars, were destroyed and many 
more were damaged before they could be moved from the barn. 
Among them were seven of the new semi-convertible cars which 
the company has recently put into service. The loss is estimated 
at $100,000. 

The fire originated in a mail car in the center of the north build- 
ing and was discovered by the night watchman. An alarm was 
turned in, but before the arrival of the firemen, the employes of 
the company endeavored to extinguish the fire. Being unable to 
check its progress, they turned their attention to the work of saving 
as many of the cars as possible. There were about 30 of the new 
cars stored in the building and all were run out safely with the 
exception of seven. These, it is thought would have been removed 
in time had not one of them jumped the track at a switch, causing 
a blockade. This north building' was only partially consumed, while 
the other two were burned to the ground. 

When the firemen arrived they were handicapped by the fact 
that the fire plugs were frozen tight and it was nearly three-quar- 
ters of an hour before a full stream could be thrown on the blaze. 
The advantage of an effective fire extinguishing system in a car 
barn is thus readily apparent, as the fire could have been checked 
at its outset by the watchman. The fire rapidly gained headway and 
by the time the firemen were able to do effective work, all of the 
three buildings composing the barns were enveloped in flames. 

Although service was interrupted during the time of the fire, the 
company managed to take care of its patrons north of the barns 
on the York Road by making short runs for several cars which 
were at the north end of the line. By eight o'clock in the morn- 
ing, the service was again organized and other cars were being run 
to all points beyond the barns. 

Jas. R. Pratt, assistant general manager of the company, states 
that the loss is fully covered by insurance. 



Jan. is, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



21 



A Complete Interurban Map of the Central 
States. 



For some time past the "Street Railway Review" lias printed up- 
to-date maps showing the routes of the interurban properties in the 
several central states. Each of these maps lias included but a single 
state. During the last few months the Arnold Co., Chicago, 111., 
has sent out to each property in the central group of states a request 
for correct information as to the route of its line. These requests 
have been answered, with few exceptions, and the information trans- 
ferred to a map, 30 x 25 in. in size, including the states of Minne- 
sota, Iowa, Missouri, Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana and 
Ohio. We are pleased to be able to present to our readers a repro- 



Franchise for the New York & Port Chester 
Railway Co. 



After fighting four years for a franchise, first before the 
hi Udermen and then before the Board of Estimate, the New Vork 
& Port Chester Railway Co. has persuaded the Board ot Estimate to 
approve its application. The board adopted a resolution fixing 
terms under which the road may obtain a franchise to operate 111 
the Bronx, but the action is tentative, inasmuch as the terms have 
in be advertised, under the law, for 20 days and also because the 
courts 'have not yet passed on the constitutionality of the act, giving 
franchise-granting powers to the Board of Estimate, instead "f to 
the Board of Aldermen. 




MAP 

ELECTRIC INTERURBAN RAILWAYS 
CENTRAL STATES 

TlIK A RNOLD r OMPAN V 



duction of this map at the time when the two' great net works of 
interurban lines, one in the southern part of Michigan and northern 
Ohio, and the other in southwestern and central Ohio, have been 
joined by the completion of the Lima-Findlay division of the West- 
ern Ohio Railway Co., which is described in these pages. 

It is the purpose of the Arnold Co. to reproduce the map in blue 
print form and furnish copies to those interested in the growth of 
electric railways. 



Directors of the Erie R. R. have decided to parallel a large part 
of the main line in New York state with trolley lines. Plans have 
been announced recently for the construction of a 76-mile line through 
Binghamton and Corning, and it was stated that other lines will In- 
built later through the more populous parts of the state. 



The franchise is to run for 25 years with the privilege of ex- 
tension on a revaluation. For the first five years the company is 
to pay $S,ooo a year to the city, $13,000 a year for the second five 
years, and $35,000 a year for the next 15 years. In addition to these 
amounts the company will have to pay 5.5 cents per lineal foot of 
track per year for the first five years. 7 cents per foot for the second 
five years, and 20 cents per foot for the last 15 years. 

It is further stipulated that the company complete work to the 
value of $1,000,000 within five years from the date of the execution 
of the contract. There are to be no grade crossings, and tin . n 
is to be guaranteed from damage in operation. At least 60 trains 
per day in each direction are to be operated, with $50 penult E01 
each train under that number. The road is to be four-ti 
south to 177th St., and two-tracked down to the Harlem River. 



First Quarterly Meeting of the Street Railway Association of 
the State of New York, Schenectady, January 10, 1906. 



The Street Railway Association of the State of New York held 
its first quarterly meeting; in the Schenectady Railway Benefit Asso- 
ciation rooms at the Fuller St. station, Schenectady, January 
ioth. About fifty members and guests from other states were in 
attendance. Some time ago it was decided that in order to obtain 
the best results meetings more frequent than once a year should 
be held. In accordance with this view and on invitation of the 
officers of the Schenectady Railway Co. it was agreed that the fust 
of these conferences, as they are to be called, should be held at 
Schenectady on January roth. Only men actively connected with 
railway properties were invited. 

The conference convened at g:30 o'clock in the morning and 
remained in session until 4 o'clock in the afternoon. A short recess 
was taken at 12 o'clock for luncheon, which was served by the rail- 
way company in adjoining rooms. There was nothing in the day's 
program to detract attention from the meeting. The subjects cov- 
ered in Accounts Nos. 6, 7, 8 and 9, namely, maintenance of cars 
and equipment, were discussed exhaustively. 

Car Inspection. 

The discussion was opened by D. F. Carver, general superintend- 
ent of the Rochester Railway Co., who read a carefully prepared 
paper on the subject, "Lay-over Inspection vs. Night Inspection." 
Air. Carver went into the subject thoroughly, giving data, making 
comparisons of the two methods and drawing conclusions. Owing 
to the increased expense of operating the lay-over inspection is not 
in general use. His company introduced the lay-over system Jan- 
uary 4th. 

President R. E. Danforth, general manager of the Rochester 
Railway Co., gave recorded data of a Cleveland company which 
finds that the extra-help expense incident to the trip inspection is 
more than offset by the saving in the maintenance of the car equip- 
ment. A letter from Paul Windsor giving the experience of the 
Boston Elevated Railway Co. was read. In part Mr. Windsor 
stated that his company has an inspector who goes over the equip- 
ment at night but as a rule the inspection work is done during the 
day and much better results obtained. Other than at the rush hours 
of the day no trouble is experienced with the lay-over inspection. 

W. R. W. Griffin, superintendent of the Rochester & Eastern 
Rapid Ry., said that his company recently built a pit to be used 
for regular car inspection and as the operating schedule is now 
arranged each car has a so-minute lay-over at the pit every four 
hours. This gives ample time for their inspection. The inspector 
looks after all the equipment and makes out a report for each car 
as it is inspected. All cars are given a complete overhauling four 
times a year. 

Frank P. Maize, master mechanic of the Rochester Ry., de- 
scribed the earlier method used on the Rochester Ry. for keep- 
ing a record of the costs for maintaining the different parts of the 
car equipments, previous to the inauguration by his company, on 
January 4th, of the lay-over inspection. 

H. P. Clarke said that though he is not at present affiliated with 
the inspection department of his company he had for many years 
previous made it a study. The first thing necessary was to ascertain 
whether or not cars were being inspected carefully. There are a 
great many rules laid down for doing this work, but a man has to 
get into the pit to do the inspection work thoroughly, and the man 
in charge must also get under the cars, in order to know positively 
that the work is properly done. In giving his former experiences 
he said that often on going into the pit and looking over the cars 
he had found brakes, chains and other parts in an unsafe condition. 
when from an exterior view they were perfectly safe. In his 
opinion all brake riggings should be taken down and examined every 
30 days. It is not possible to lay down a set rule, however, as every 
manager must be governed by the conditions surrounding him. 

I.. L. Smith, of the Schenectady Ry.. gave some statistics on oper- 
ating conditions and their effect on car cleaning. 



Motor Troubles. 

The subject of flat spots in commutators, their causes and reme- 
dies, was next taken up and discussed briefly. Many instances 
were cited where these defects were caused by poor brush holders. 
and others where they were caused by negligent motormen. A rem- 
edy suggested for the former case is to put on new holders and turn 
the brushes. 

H. A. Benedict, electrical and mechanical engineer of the Albany 
United Traction Co., said that owing to the remodeling and increas- 
ing the weight of some of the cars on this road the 30-h. p. motors 
which are used have proved to be of too small capacity to do effect- 
ive work. He has obtained good results by putting more copper in 
their fields and by putting asbestos in the insulation, thus increasing 
the allowable temperature rise. 

F. H. Lincoln, assistant general manager of the Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit Co., was questioned as to the organization of the 
mechanical forces of his company. The mechanical departments, he 
said, are under the supervision of night and day foremen, who 
report daily each car taken to the shops, giving the cause and extent 
of the trouble. In each case the motorman's number is recorded 
and if it is found that one man has more trouble than is thought 
necessary an investigation is made. By this system the armature 
expense has been greatly reduced and fewer cars are sent to the 
shops. At the end of each mouth a list of the cars brought in in 
poor condition and showing what per cent is chargeable to mechan- 
ical and what per cent is chargeable to accidental expense, is posted 
in the shop. It is found that with this scheme the men become 
interested and try to see who can make the best record. 

Painting. 

Fred Du Boise, master mechanic of the Syracuse Rapid I ransit 
Ry., asked for a remedy for grease "rjin-point" spots which often 
accumulate on the paint of interurban cars. His company washes 
its cars with castile soap but he was not certain it was as good as a 
linseed preparation. Advocates of both materials as a wash were 
free in giving their experiences. Representatives of other roads 
where nothing but water is used in washing exterior work also re- 
ported good results. Costs for keeping cars in an attractive condi- 
tion were given but the question of the proper method of washing 
was left open. 

It was suggested that the color of paint used on the cars had much 
to do with the amount of washing required. This led the assembly 
into a discussion as to the best colors for interurban and city cars. 

T. W. Wilson, general manager of the International Ry., said 
his company has had trouble, in repainting sections of red cars, in 
getting the colors to match, the red, when exposed, changing in 
shade. It has about been decided to adopt a dark green color for 
its city cars similar to that used by a large number of steam roads. 
Already 12 cars have been repainted as an experiment. The inter- 
urban cars will be left with a yellow exterior, as it is believed this 
color aids in lessening the number of run-aways and other accidents. 

President Danforth said that the Rochester Railway Co. had 
found that after three months' wear red cars have a bad appearance. 
His company now uses a yellow paint of its own manufacture that 
has proven durable. It has no noticeable effect on the varnish. Mr. 
Danforth stated further that in his opinion dark colored cars, used 
on city lines, presented a dingy appearance, and as a result the com- 
pany does not get credit for its fine rolling stock. 

Several others gave their experiences with various colored paints, 
some of which thought the fact that steam roads, who have to 
contend with coal dust and soot, use a dark green color should offer 
no precedent for electric companies, that have only dust to care for. 

Lubrication. 
Lubrication was next discussed. During the discussion of these 
subjects recess was taken for lunch. 
President Danforth said that the Rochester Ry. has tried all 



Jan. is, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



23 



kinds of oil cups and improvised an automatic feed for the various 
journal boxes but has not yet found one that is perfectly satisfac- 
tory. W. J. Harvie, electrical engineer of the Utica & Mohawk 
Valley Railway Co., said that his company uses both grease and oil 
and though he has many oil cups on test has not yet found one to 
answer the purpose under all conditions. 

Many others spoke of the different methods used for applying 
oil and grease to journals. 

H. P. Clarke outlined the theory of lubricating and the functions 
of a 'lubricant. In part he said that a lubricant must he chosen to 
suit the conditions. Nearly 50 per cent of all the oil 
used by the average company is wasted. It requires 
only a small amount of oil to do the work effectively, 
if it is properly applied. One of the principal prob- 
lems to solve is to get the desired result without 
using too much oil. Through the free use of oil, he 
said, a great deal of damage is done to sensitive ma- 
chinery near the different journals. Mr. Clarke uses 
oil cups of his own design. 

Trolley Wheels. 

The subject of trolley wheels and the different 
types and makes was next discussed. Figures given 
brought out interesting comparisons between the 
wheels made by different concerns. The life of a 
common 6-in. wheel varies, according to statements 
made during the discussion, from 4,000 to 7,000 car 
miles, depending in part on the kind of trolley sup- 
port used and the tension of the trolley pole spring. 

The relative cost of maintaining different types of 
motors was then discussed. It was stated that a 
Pennsylvania road scraps its worn out motors and re- 
places them with new ones. The cost of the new ones 
is charged to maintenance, and by applying the scrap 
money toward paying for the new motors the equipment is in good 
shape at the end of the year and no great expense has been in- 
curred. This method was thought to be a good one. 

Brakes and Brake Rigging. 

Brake shoes, hangers and kinds of rigging best fitted for general 
purposes were next discussed. Messrs. Graham, Maize, Clarke, 
Harvie and others related their experiences with different brake 
shoes and submitted data of experiments that have been made in 
trying to prolong the life of certain classes of shoes and hangers. 

Mr. Harvie asked for a good method for shopmen to follow to 
make sure that hand brakes, on cars with airbrake equipment, are 
in working condition. It was stated that in Buffalo the hand brake 
is always used from 10 to 11 o'clock every morning and if any of 
the brakes are found to be in poor condition the car carrying that 
brake is sent to the shop at once. Mr. Du Boise said that his com- 
pany has a rule that hand brakes be used on all heavy grades. 

Other subjects discussed were on controller troubles, value of the 
automotoneers, methods of taking care of flat wheels and use of 
sand cars. 

As a direct result of this meeting the urgent need was advocated 
for having the compiled statistics of the various items of mechanical 
records of all roads, which are members of the New York associa- 
tion, gathered and submitted to the members for the purpose of 
making comparisons of the relative costs. It was ordered that a 
committee of five, including the president and secretary of the asso- 
ciation, be appointed to gather such information and place it in form 
suitable for use by any member. Such records will soon be gathered 
trom the different roads of the state and tabulated. 

It is expected that another conference of the New York state 
association will be held early in the spring but the date and the 
place of meeting were not announced. 

A large number of those present accepted the invitations of the 
Schenectady Railway Co., the General Electric Co. and the Ameri- 
can Locomotive Co. and became their guests Thursday and Thurs- 
day night, January nth. During the day the Schenectady Railway 
Co. arranged for special cars over its lines radiating from Schenec- 
tady and many of the guests took advantage of this opportunity to 
inspect the nearby properties. 

■ * « » 

The Interborough Rapid Transit Co., of New York City, is now 
carrying an average of 1,250,000 passengers a day. 



An Electric Line in a Cemetery. 

The opening of a private electric line in Loudon Park Cemetery, 
Baltimore, Md., illustrates another interesting location for trolley 
cars. The line is owned and operated by the Loudon Park Ceni 
etery Co., of which Mr. Henry F. Thompson is president and Mr. 
Frank Primrose secretary-treasurer. The road has been installed 
for the convenience of the cemetery lot-holders. The grading of 
the road was completed on November nth. The mad was formally 
opened on November 15th with a luncheon in honor of the Mary- 




MAUSOLEUM AND CARS IN LOUDON PARK CEMETERY. 

land Funeral Directors' Association, tendered them by the Loudon 
Park Co. 

The road is about a mile in length and will be further extended 
as the needs of the cemetery require. The track starts at the main 
entrance to the cemetery on the Frederick Road and passes directly 
in front of the receiving vault, where a special side track has been 
put in to accommodate the funeral car. Continuing, the route takes 
a southerly direction, following closely a small stream which flows 
through the grounds, through the old portion of the cemetery. 
Thence it runs westerly to the proposed Wilkens Ave. entrance, 
where it is intended to have the line connect with the Wilkens Ave. 
tracks. Switches will be built at convenient points, so that the cars 
can be run to within a short distance of the lots. Connection with 
the Frederick Ave. line will shortly be made, so that the funeral 
car of the United Railway & Electric Co. may be run directly to 
the receiving vault. 

The track is built of 60-lh. T-rail and is ballasted with stone. The 
rolling stock consists of two cars — the Loudon and the Linden — 
shown in the accompanying illustration. The cars were built at the 
shops of the United Railways. They are painted black with gold 
finishings, the inside finishings being of quartered oak, while the 
floors are covered with velvet carpet. They have large windows, 
resembling an observation car. 

The Loudon has large and comfortable cane chairs, while the 
Linden has the side-seat of the regular trolley car. They will each 
seat 20 people and will carry 10 more without crowding. These 
cars will be run daily on a regular schedule and transportation will 
be free to lot-holders. 

Power for the line will be supplied bj the 1'nited Railways & 
Electric Co. 



A New Traction Merger. 



It is stated that the Tri-City RaHwa} C". of Davenport. la.; the 
People's Power Co., of Rock Island and Moline 111., and People's 
Light Co., of Davenport, the Davenport Gas & Electric Co. and 
the Davenport & Suburban Railway Co. will soon be under one 
management. It is also said that the man who has been handling 
the arrangements is George Kobuseb. of St. Louis, president of the 
St. Louis Car Co., and that St. Louis and New York capital is in- 
volved. 



24 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. I. 



Some Recent Convictions of Fraudulent Acci- 
dent Swindlers. 



Through the courtesy of Mr. B. B. Davis, secretary-treasurer" of 
the American Association of Street Railway Claim Agents, we are 
able to publish the following interesting accounts of the conviction 
of fakirs. 

An early result of the unified efforts of members of the associa- 
tion was manifested a few weeks ago when Frank J. Hart, a well- 
known "accident man," was reimprisoned after having been re- 
leased from a three-years' term in the Eastern Penitentiary at 
Philadelphia. He was quickly re-arrested on another charge, con- 
victed, and imprisoned in New Jersey. 

Hart had associated with him his wife, who was known as Bea- 
trice Graham. They were at the head of a gang of some 14 men. 
and made their headquarters in a dilapidated building on Broadway, 
New York. They operated extensively in New York and surround- 
ing cities and once secured a verdict of $10,000 against the Penn- 
sylvania R. R. 

Another conviction brought about by the association, and which 
was described in "The Street Railway Review" for September, 
1905, was that of a trio composed of Edward L. Pape, John Will- 
mott and Joseph Burns. The gang operated in Philadelphia, Buffalo 
and Cleveland. Pape is now serving a term in the Eastern Peniten- 
tiary at Philadelphia, while Willmutt and Burns, preferring con- 
viction on a lesser charge, confessed to highway robbery in New 
York City, where they were convicted and given seven-year sen- 
tences. They were arrested by Mr. H. G. Silcox, of the Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit Co's. detective service. 

Another swindler who was successful in deceiving physicians and 
claim agents is William J. Doran, an acrobat and contortionist, who 
became so skilful in allowing himself to be struck by street cars 
that he was sometimes tossed for a considerable distance. His 
first attempt at "getting hurt" was made in Camden, N. J., and 
brought him $100. 

Doran pursued a rather unique method of operation. He would 
permit himself to be struck and then have himself conveyed to a 
room, where a confederate would be bandaged and put to bed to 
await the coming of the claim agent, leaving Doran free to get 
"hurt" again. One night he was struck three times by trolley cars, 
and upon another occasion managed to keep several men in bed 
doing business with the claim agents. He was finally captured and 
sent to join three confederates in prison. 

Another excellent piece of detective work on the part of Mr. 
Silcox was the conviction of the members of the notorious "Rab- 
bit's Foot Social," of Camden, N. J. This organization, the leader 
of which was a young law student named Partridge, succeeded in 
obtaining $2,500 from a steamship company. In order to gather 
evidence Mr. Silcox joined the "social." Partridge was convicted 
and sent to prison. The others plead guilty, but sentence was 
suspended, and they left for parts unknown. 

Mary Ellen Seivert, alias Mary King, operated in a number of 
Eastern cities and also directed her schemes against the steam rail- 
ways. Her arrest and conviction were due to the efforts of the 
association. 

Mrs. Agnes McKibben was at the head of a notorious gang of 
women in Philadelphia, which included Mary E. Tiernan, Alice 
McDermott, Annie Ralston and two children of Mrs. McKibben. 
They had filed ig claims before they were convicted and the four 
women sent to prison. The same scheme was pursued in all these 
accidents. In boarding or leaving a car, or in standing in the aisle 
as it started, one of the women or children would fall and pretend 
to be badly hurt. Settlement with the company would be effected 
for any sum that could be obtained, varying in amount from $5 
to $75- 

The foregoing comprise a small portion of the many convictions 
the members of the association have brought about. It is not 
thought that this remarkable class of swindlers will long survive 
such vigorous treatment. 

The Metropolitan Street Railway Co., of New York City, has been 
pursuing a vigorous policy of action against these crooks, and 
through the courtesy of Mr. James L. Quackenbush, general attor- 
ney for the company, we are able to present some recent results of 
this action. 

On Dec. 22, 1005. Isaac Bloom was given a sentence of seven years 



in the state prison upon his being convicted of perjury. Bloom 
brought suit against the Metropolitan Street Railway Co., claiming 
that he had been thrown while alighting from a car on Second Ave. 
.011 Dec. 9, 1901, and that he thereby received a shock which caused 
paralysis of one side of his body. Upon the trial of the case the 
attorney for the Metropolitan proved that Bloom had been paralyzed 
a long time before the pretended accident and that no such accident 
happened. The jury found a verdict against him, and he was there- 
upon arrested for perjury upon a warrant sworn out by Mr. 
Quackenbush. 

It further appeared in the case that Bloom's attorney, Henry L. 
Slobodin, lived in the same house with him. Charges have been 
preferred against this attorney and are now pending before the 
Bar Association. Bloom called as witnesses to the pretended accident 
three persons, who, it is said by the representatives of the Metro- 
politan, came from Albany to New York to attend the trial in a 
body. It is further said that some of these witnesses will also be 
prosecuted. 

On Oct. 17, 1905, Albert Woods and Mae Woods, his wife, were 
sentenced to terms of from three to five years in the state prison at 
Sing Sing and from two to three years in the state prison at Auburn 
respectively, upon their pleas of guilty to the indictment charging 
them with perjury in an action against one of the lines of the 
Metropolitan Street Railway Co. 

It appeared that Woods was working on the road under an as- 
sumed name and that he put in a report of an alleged accident to a 
woman by the name of Mae Herbert. She brought an action against 
the road, alleging severe injuries, and another action was brought 
in the name of John Herbert, claiming to be her husband, for ex- 
penses and loss of his wife's services. 

Upon the trial of the case, Mr. Ambrose F. McCabe, assistant 
general attorney of the Metropolitan Street Railway Co., proved 
that the plaintiff, Mae Herbert, was the wife of Albert Woods, and 
the jury found a verdict in favor of the company. The attorneys 
who had brought the action then made a motion to discontinue the 
action for the alleged John Herbert, and this was granted. The 
company did not let the matter rest here, however, but as soon as 
it had secured the necessary evidence, procured the indictment of 
the man and woman, with the result mentioned. 

After their sentence they went before the grand jury, and, upon 
their testimony and other evidence, the grand jury indicted of the 
crime of subornation of perjury Alpheus S. Frank and Frank M. 
Hardenbrook, the two lawyers who had charge of the alleged Her- 
bert case. They have not yet been brought to trial. 



Announcement of the Annual Meeting of the 
Northwestern Electrical Association. 



The fourteenth annual meeting of the Northwestern Electrical 
Association will be held at the Great Northern Hotel, Chicago, com- 
mencing at 9 .30 on Wednesday morning, January 17th. 

An unusually fine literary, business and entertainment program 
has been arranged, and an interesting and instructive time is as- 
sured to all who attend this meeting. The Western and Central 
Passenger Associations have granted a one and one-third round 
trip rate from all points in their respective territories. 

Following are the titles of the papers to be read during the 
sessions: 

The Proper Handling of Consumers' Meters, Geo. H. Barrett. 

Modern Underground Construction, W. D. Burford. 

Suggestions for Increasing the Power Output of Central Stations, 
P. II. Korst. 

Government Tests on Fuel, C. S. Davidson. 

The Organization and Development of New Business Depart- 
ments, George Williams. 

Successful Applications of New Business Methods, John S. Allen. 

The Economics of Combined Railway and Power Plants, Ernest 
Gonzenbach. 

The Effect of Load Factor on Station Costs, R. W. Kimball. 



The Public Service Corporation of New Jersey is operating a 
special car service for theatre parties, weddings, funerals, excur- 
sions, etc. A car has recently been equipped with furnishings which 
assure the company's patrons "Pullman Car" comforts. 



Piping and Power Station Systems. — XIII. 4 



BY WILLIAM L. MORRIS, M. E. 



This same style of valve, Fig. ioo, is used as a governor to main- 
tain a constant pressure higher than atmospheric pressure. The 
spring then is in compression and the valves close in the reverse 
direction from that shown. In other words, the increase of pressure 
under the diaphragm causes the valve to close. The independent 
crank and fly-wheel dry vacuum pump is ordinarily supplied with a 
fly-ball centrifugal governor and a small air cylinder and piston that 
act upon the governor valve in conjunction with speed control, 
as shown in Fig. 101 — (A4-13). 

This same style of governor is also used for air compressors 
working above atmospheric pressure. This style of regulation is 
quite satisfactory, the air cylinder comprising only a partial con- 
trol. There is another feature of governing that will require con- 
sideration in case stack fans and force-draft fans are used. An 
installation of this description brings into consideration numerous 
details that should be dealt with as a whole and not separately. 
For instance, it may be desirable to install an induced-draft and 
fan engine, forced draft for stokers with a separate engine, and 
coal feeding mechanism. It has been customary to place inde- 
pendent governors on each of these three drives and allow any- 
one of them to increase or decrease in speed as determined by its 
own governor. That is, the fan engine may slow down before the 
coal feed or air blast engine and cause furnaces to discharge gases 
out of the fire doors, etc. Again, the coal feed may speed up 
before the air blast, causing a waste of the gases ; or the air 
blast may speed up without coal, causing loss of heat units in 
heating useless air. 

These three elements should have a better system of control 
than a separate governor for each. When one is increased they 
should all three be increased, and vice versa. The governor should 
control all three. One steam governor to increase or decrease 
the pressure for the three would be wholly useless. This is a 
peculiar condition to contend with for the reason that no present 
form of governing will properly meet this condition and it is a con- 
dition that very materially affects the efficiency of the plant. As- 
sume that the pressure is very high and that the three services are 
running at their extreme low speed. Now undertake to adjust the 
induce-fan governor to run the engine at such a speed that it will 
just allow the pressure over the grates to be atmospheric pressure. 





fig. 101 — (A4-13). 



fig. 102 — (.\4-14). 



or say 1-10 in. of water by the draft gage. Note the quantity of air 
and adjust the coal feeder accordingly; there are then the three 
elements working in a most economical manner. Leave the gover- 
nors as adjusted and allow the plant to run up to full capacity 
and then note the conditions again. It will be found that the steam 
pressure is about 10 lb. lower than usual, the blast fan is running 
at a frightful speed, stokers are running at a good speed, and the 



stack fan has not increased as much proportionately as the other 
two. The operating conditions are wretched, showing poor econ- 
omy, furnaces smoking, blast engine fairly pounding itself to 
pieces — and for all, the governors are working "perfectly"; the 
fault lies in the system of governing. 

It is unreasonable to expect three governors, possibly of differ- 
ent size, or make, and for three entirely different services, to "meas- 
ure - ' out the requisite steam. To-day, when running one-quarter 
capacity, the fan engine may want 50 lb. of steam per hour to 
maintain the proper speed to discharge the gases corresponding 
to one-quarter capacity. The blast engine may want 65 lb. and 



■ Sr £■/>/-? /. /a/jt 




7b Sro/fS/p 
/-To ro/fS 



|' '| <5r/tc/c /~/?a/ 

J^A/ff/A'S 



Sa/c/a/S 



•Copyright. 1906, by the Kenfleld Publishing Co. 



FIG. 103— (A4-15). 

stoker drive 20 lb. For one-half load the requisites may be 70. 
90, and 30 lb. respectively, and for full load 85, 115 and 45 lb. Any 
of the three requirements would be varied by tightening the pack- 
ing, or making any other adjustments. 

The ordinary governors are adjustable so that a certain deliverj 
of steam will be obtained at the particular pressure set. For any 
ether pressure the steam discharge may be almost any amount, 
and whatever it is, the operator can not control it in any way. The 
governor, to be suitable for such service, should be so constructed 
that it will permit a flow of a certain number of pounds of steam 
per minute at lowest pressure, and should be adjustable also for a 
certain volume at the higher pressure. Such a governor is not 
on the market. Without it no three machines or even two 111 
chines can be worked economically except at one particular rate 
coal consumption. There are two methods of arranging thi- style 
of governing. One is to arrange the governors so that their range 
as well as their normal pressure can be adjusted. This di 
shown in Fig. 102 — (A4-14). 

Ordinarily the spring "a" would be the spring to balance the de- 
sired steam pressure. By having a counteracting sprint; "b." the 
movement of the valve stem through the range of pressun ■ a 
be varied greatly. For instance, if the tension is taken off spring 
"b," the travel of the valve stem may be '4 in., while steam pres- 
sure is varied between 150 and 160 lb. When tension is put on 
spring "b," additional strain would be required on spring "a." By 
increasing the strain on both springs the travel of the stem for 
10 lb. variation may be reduced to 1-16 in. or even less. 

The other method of governing is as shown in Fig. 103 — (A4-15. 1 
The stack, blast, and stoker motors would each have a rolling type 
of valve with a slotted lever, and a rock shaft which would also 
have slotted levers. The shaft would be rolled by means of a 
standard damper regulator, the shaft being located possibly at the 
upper portion of the boiler front. Each of the three valves can be 
separately set for slow speed and high speed conditions. The speed 
changes would be effected simultaneously on all three valves. I In 



26 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. i. 



damper regulator can lie set so that within 3 lb. variation the en- 
gines may be running from no load to full load. This arrangement 
would be far more reliable and sensitive than separate governors. 
In case natural draft is used instead of a stack fan, then the rock 
shaft would operate the dampers instead of the stack fan engine. 
Counterweights would be placed on the valve levers, keeping all 
lost motion out of the parts, and enabling them to be made in a 
comparatively crude way. 

An accurate system of regulating furnace auxiliaries will save 
not less than 5 per cent of the fuel, and for a plant of 3,000 kw. 



W Cot/A/ r£/? WjT/g/.t 




(A4-16). 



a saving of five tons per day at $1.50, or $2,750 per year would be 
shown. The system shown in detail A4-15, Fig. 103, would cost 
possibly $100 more than independent governors, and would involve 
some study and trouble for the engineer. The valve for this work 
should be of the Corliss type, with the engine lubricator placed 
above it, so that the valve also would be lubricated. The valve 
shown in Fig. 104 — (A4-16) would be very suitable. 




<M£> Cesr//?o/s 

'COI/f/?PZ/?T£S 






-Ll~Jb*~£w<V 



FIG. 105— (A5-I.) 

This valve requires more effort to open than a balanced valve, 
but it closes much tighter, and since there is ample power avail- 
able with the damper regulator, a valve such as is shown in detail 
A4-16, that opens and closes slowly, is much easier to adjust and 
will stay adjusted. Any valve of the globe valve type opens too 
quickly for close regulation. This valve is the standard "throttle 
valve" with a slotted lever instead of a hand lever. The by-passes 
and valves permit any one of the three machines to run temporarily 
at a higher or lower speed, and at the same time the fixed regula- 
tion is not altered. 



PIPING DETAILS FOR STEAM BRANCHES. 

I be steam lines to an under-fed type of stoker should never be 
buried, but may be placed in a trench, as shown in Fig. 105-(A5-i), 
which arrangement is satisfactory if the trench is well drained. 
If the drainage is poor any water such as waste from wetting 
down ashes will collect in the trench and be evaporated on con- 
tact with the live steam pipes, the steam thus formed interfering 
with the work of the attendants. 

The steam pipes for the stokers should not be covered in any 
way and the supports should be such as will permit of free expan- 
sion and contraction. With the trench as shown in the figure a 
set of cover plates as also shown, should be used. The drawing 
shows the cast-iron cover plate supported on angle irons. If there 
is a basement under the boiler room the stoker steam mains can 
easily be supported under the floor. 

To obtain the best results with steam stokers it is advantage- 
ous to arrange the piping so that there will be a downward flow 
from the feed mains to the piston cylinders and through the ex- 
haust. This detail necessitates the placing of the steam-con- 




fic. 106 — (a6-i). 

trolling valve above the steam line to the stoker rams, and the ex- 
haust main below the cylinders. If the same main is used for steam 
and exhaust alternately it should be placed below the cylinders 
with the steam-controlling valve above and the exhaust-controlling 
valve below. To avoid water hammer in the pipe line, the drips 
should at all times have a downward flow and those drips collected 
in the low down main should be discharged at the low point, even 
1 bough the exhaust is made from a higher level. 

In feeding steam to the cylinders of tank pumps it is often 
possible to use the type of pump controller shown in Fig. 106- 
( \o 1 ), which is more satisfactory than a pressure-operated gov- 
ernor. By referring to the illustration it will be seen that this 
type of controller consists of a needle valve, operated by a cable 
connected with a float in the elevated tank. The cable is wound 
around a drum or cable wheel mounted on" the stem of the con- 
trolling valve. If the relative dimensions of an installation similar 
to that shown in Fig. ioo are such that the tank is 6 ft. high and 
the valve requires 3 turns to give the pump full speed, when the 
rim of the cable wheel travels 2 ft. per revolution, then the cable 
wheel will be 8 in. in diameter and have 6 grooves with the end of 
the cable secured in the center one. If the cable is 3-16 in. in 



Jan. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



27 



diameter, the wheel flanges would be 1% in. apart. A 12-in. float, 
combined with a counterweight weighing 17 lb., will give an ample 
pull on the valve of a size ordinarily required for controlling the 
steam to a tank pump. With the arrangement as shown the coun- 
terweight is directly below the float cable and thus the strains on 
the valve stem are not severe. The needle valve used should be 
of the slow-opening type of globe valve. In order to provide for 
operation of the pump independent of the float it is desirable to 
run a by-pass around the controller valve. 

The arrangement of governor construction just described per- 
mits the pump to be run at speeds varying directly with the 
quantity of water or oil in the tank. It also furnishes the de- 
sirable feature of keeping the pump in operation at nearly all times, 
thus preventing interruptions from condensation. The tell-tale 
shows the level of the fluid in the tank, even though the operation 
of the valye and its counterweights is interrupted. For installa- 
tions where the storage tank is located, at some distance from 
the pump, or where the pump is required to deliver water for other 
purposes and at different pressures, it may be found advisable to 
place a float valve at the tank to shut off the supply and use a 
pressure regulator to control the steam to the pump. 

The piping for steam to smoke consumers or oil burners would 
come under class A-7, but these details will not be considered 
here ; a smoke consumer, by reason of the destructive effects on 
boilers, should be used only in exceptional cases ; oil burners are 
installed by their manufacturers and the piping laid out more ac- 
cording to builder's details than general piping designs. 

In arranging the piping for soot blowers, the steam should be 
taken from a separate main and not from the boiler. The inde- 
pendent supply is quite necessary in order to enable the clearing 
of the tubes of a boiler when it is out of service. Openings for 
soot blowers should be provided at the sides of the boilers. The 
detail design and arrangement of the soot blower piping is shown 
in Fig. io/-(A8-i). The branch main for the steam supply to 
the blower should be strongly supported so that it may withstand 
the hard pulls and jerks of the operator. A quick-closing valve, 
located as shown in Fig. 107, will partially relieve the hose of the 
pressure while blowing and entirely cut off the steam when the 
blower is being moved from one part of the boiler to another. 
This quick-opening valve should be attached to the hose and not 
be a portion of the fixed piping; the tight-closing valve as shown 
should be used only as a stop valve, since if it were used as a 
throttle it would soon become leaky. Any slight leakage in the 




fig. 107 — (a8-i). 

balanced-lever valve will not interfere with the operation of the 
cleaner. 

The subject of soot cleaning appears quite simple, but neverthe- 
less there are many plants running on very poor economy because 
they cannot clean soot and deposit from the tubes. It is no un- 
common thing to find 500-h. p. water-tube boilers set with a 3 
to 4-ft. passageway and tiled for vertical passes. The outside 
measurement of such boilers is about twelve feet. Good economy 
can be secured with vertical passes only when ample provision for 
cleaning is provided. Horizontal passes permit the use of long 
blower tubes operated from front and possibly the rear of the 
boiler setting, thus enabling much more thorough cleaning where 
it is necessary to place wide boilers with narrow alleyways. 

A steam by-pass to the exhaust heater or heating system is pro- 



vided to furnish live steam to the exhaust heater when there is 
but little exhaust and high temperature water is desired. The 
valve shown in Fig. 97-1A4-9) can be used for this service with the 
steam flow as shown. Such a valve should be small and have a 
very large diaphram. A light spring should be used to balance a 
pressure of say one or two pounds per square inch on the dia- 
phram. Ordinarily when there are differences in pressure of from 
2 to 160 lb., it is found more satisfactory to use two regulators of 
the same design, one reducing to about 60 lb. and the other to the 
pressure on the heater. 

There is a rather peculiar feature in connection with machinery, 
the back pressure steam from which is used for heating water or 
buildings. When the demand for low pressure steam increases 
the back pressure is reduced, at the same time the amount of steam 




fig. 108 — (A9-1). 

being delivered by the machine is also reduced. When less steam 
is being condensed in the heating system the back pressure rises 
and thus compels the engines to take more steam to perform the 
same work. This wastes steam to the atmosphere. The heater 
control should be such that when the back pressure drops, the 
engine should take more steam and when the back pressure rises, 
the engine should take less steam, this being the reverse of the 
usual practice. In other words, when the back pressure tends to 
rise, the engine should be allowed to exhaust to the atmosphere 
and be relieved of all back pressure, and the pressure on the heater 
should be allowed to drop before the engine exhaust is again dis- 
charged into the heater system. Thus the amount of steam used 
from the engine would be reduced. 

In Fig. io8-(A9-i") is shown a valve arranged to perform these 
duties. When the valve is open to the atmosphere the weight 
exerts a pressure per square inch of say 2 lb. against the heater 
pressure and when the valve is down it exerts a pressure of 4 lb. 
against the port to the atmosphere. This range may be increased, 
say, from 6 lb. back pressure to 1 lb. heater pressure by positioning 
the lever on the valve stem and by varying the location of the 
weight on the lever. Such a valve enables the engine to exhaust 
to the atmosphere all the steam that a heater or heating system 
does not condense. The valve is now on the market, being used 
as an atmospheric valve in connection with a condenser, the con- 
denser taking the place of the heater as shown. The lever should 
roll on a rock shaft similar to that shown, so that the weight will 
neither pass nor stand over the center of this shaft. If this valve 
is adjusted so that it closes against atmospheric pressure at 3 
Hi., then the live steam by-pass should be set to be open only on 
pressure below 2 lb. This will avoid blowing live steam into the 
heater while the engine is exhausting to the atmosphere. 

Whistle connections cause considerable annoyance due to conden- 
sation accumulating in the pipes before the whistle is used. The 
connection shown in Fig. iog-CAio-O will allow condensation to 
accumulate at the top of the valve and requires blowing through the 
whistle before the tone is right. 

The connection shown Fig. i09-(Aio-2') necessitates a hole 
through the roof for the whistle cord and allows considerable con- 
densation of steam in the pipe, which is especially undesirable if 
the pipe is long. 



28 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. i. 



The latter style of whistle connection is quicker to operate and 
produces the correct tone as soon as opened, but for a long run of 
pipe the detail shown in Fig. ioq-(Aio-3) will be found more satis- 
factory as it allows the whistle valve to be placed low down, and 
the upper pipe to be well drained until the steam valve is opened. 
The drain closes simultaneously with the opening of the steam 
valve. 

The steam branch to an ejector vacuum trap is for the purpose 
of breaking the vacuum and discharging the condensation. There 
is considerable mechanism in these devices because they con- 
tain automatic features which permit the steam to blow out con- 
densation immediately following the closing of the vacuum drip 
line to the trap. The piping details of ejector vacuum traps have 
no special piping features. 

The steam required for a heating system would not ordinarih 
be very extensive in a power station, but in case heat is to be pro- 
vided for car shops and neighboring buildings some special arrange- 
ment in station piping system and machinery may be justified so 
that exhaust steam will be available and can be used for heating. 
This will be taken up under the details to be later considered in 
Class C. 

Live steam heating should be avoided wherever possible. The 
high pressure of the steam causes leaks at stuffing boxes, joints and 
similar connections that will give no trouble at low pressures. 
To stand high pressures the heaters must be in the shape of pipe 
coils, and if steam at 160 or 170 lb. be used it is liable to injure 
whatever it comes in contact with. However, for a condensing 
plant there is no other system suitable if there are but one or two 
rooms to be heated. Exhaust steam from auxiliaries, when piped 
to a heater, is not sufficient in amount to maintain a pressure which 
will allow the distribution pipes to be of any considerable length. 
The rooms to be heated are generally the chief engineer's office, 
lavatory, stock room and an oil room. The use of electric heaters 
would not be justified because the cost of their installation would 
equal steam heaters and the cost per B. t. 11. of radiation would be 
possibly 50 times that of steam heating. 

If there are but three or four rooms to be heated there is prac- 
tically no better method in a condensing plant than to use live 
steam. The temperature can be regulated, as shown in Fig. 110- 
(A12-1), by allowing more or less air to remain in the heater. 
The air will lie below the steam and just above the condensation. 
The drips from the heating coils should discharge to the atmos- 




fic. 109 — (aio-i, 2, 3). 



pheric exhaust line. This discharge will save the water of high 
temperature, together with any leakage of steam passing the trap 
and avoid difficulties attendant upon exhausting drips to a sewer, 
which practice not only injures the sewer, but causes steam to 
leak from the catch basins. 

The coils should be laid out so that the pipes will run into a 
corner and return, allowing free expansion and contraction. Such 
expansion is very severe in a stiffly connected live steam heater. 



The corners should be made of pipe bends, but bends for connect- 
ing purposes will necessitate unions at either end of each pipe. 
A simpler method is to use elbows and right and left thread con- 
nections in the short return. 

Another method of regulating the temperature of a live steam 
heater is as shown in Fig. no-(Ai2-2). In this arrangement the 
steam valve is a hand controlled throttle; the drip valve has a very 
small hole drilled through the disc. While in operation the drip 




FIG. 110 — (AI2-I, 2). 

valve is kept closed, the discharge of drips being through the small 
drilled hole. The principle of this detail is more complex than it 
would at first sight appear. For every varied amount that the 
steam valve is opened a balance is established in the heater coil. 
By increasing the opening of the steam valve a greater pressure is 
exerted in the heater, and a greater quantity of drip is discharged 
through the lower valve. The condensation, or air, is discharged 
until the increased heating or condensing surface reduces the pres- 
sure in the heater, simultaneously reducing the drain through the 
lower valve. When the upper valve is further closed the pressure 
in the heater is reduced, the discharge at the lower valve is re- 
tarded until the heating or condensing surface has been reduced 
by increased condensation to the point when the pressure is about 
to raise and increase the flow of drip. 

(To be Continued.) 



Prizes for a Trade Mark. 



Realizing the desirability of having some distinctive emblem to 
characterize its property, stationery and general literature, the 
Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co., Akron, O., has decided to 
adopt an appropriate trade mark. The company has invited the 
public to assist in the selection of this trade mark by suggesting 
designs. Prizes to the amount of $50 will be distributed, $25 for 
the first prize, $15 for the second and $10 for the third. 

By way of example attention is called to the emblems used by 
the various railroad companies — such as the artistic arrangement 
of names, initials and colored designs. The drawings or sketches 
must be simple in design and at the same time the suggestion con- 
veyed must be sharply and comprehensively defined. The drawing 
may be of any size suitable for reproduction, the medium used being 
either ink, wash or oil. No pencil drawings will be considered. 

All suggestion-designs must be submitted by Jan. 18, 1906, and 
any one. is eligible to compete for these prizes. 
« ' » 

The Stanislaus Electric Power Co. 



It is announced that the large hydro-electric enterprise which is 
to be developed by the Stanislaus Electric Power Co. in the central 
portion of California has been financed and actual construction 
begun. 

The project includes the construction of a power plant, the es- 
tablishment of storage reservoirs at the head waters of the river; a 
diverting dam near Sand Bar Flat in Tuolumne County ; a flume and 
ditch system 15^2 miles long, with a capacity of 300 cu. ft. of water 
per second ; a large equalizing reservoir above the power house site ; 
a system of pipe lines, which will deliver the water to the power 
house under a head of 1,500 ft.; a power station, equipped with water 
wheels and electrical apparatus of a capacity of 20.000 kw. ; and 
a transmission system which will provide for the distribution of 
power to a market within a radius of 150 miles of the power house. 

The Knickerbocker Trust Co. of New York i= the trustee for the 
bond issue, which is to be $10,000,000. The engineering and con- 
struction work is to be in charge of Sanderson & Porter, engineers. 
New York City. 



Recent Street Railway Decisions. 



EDITED BY .1. L. ROSENBERGER, ATTORNEY AT LAW, CHICAGO 



(The decisions which have been reported in the Legal Department of tlie "Street Railway He view" sn lsta have Ijc.ii published separately by the Kenneld Publishing 

Co under the title "Street Railway Law," Ave volumes of which have been printed. Vol. I covers the period from January, 1894. to January, 1897; Vol. II from January, 
1897, to July 1899; Vol. Ill from July. 1S99. to April, 1901; Vol. IV from April, 1901 to 1903; Vol. V. from Aprd, ltHj;i. to August, 1906. Price; Bound in sheep; live volumes, 
$12.0): single volume, $3.00. Bound in buckram: live volumes, $8.00; single volume. $2.00.] 



DUTY WHEN STOPPING OF CAR JUSTIFIES BELIEF OF 
INVITATION TO ALIGHT. 



Selby vs. Detroit Railway (Mich.), 104 N. W. Rep. 376. July 24, 
1905. 
When a street car is stopped under circumstances which justify a 
passenger in believing that he is invited to alight, it is a reasonable 
and universal rule, the supreme court of Michigan says, that the 
conductor must not start his car while the passengers are in the 
act of alighting. 



DUTY IN SELECTION OF PLACE FOR LANDING PAS- 
SENGERS. 



Macon Railway & Light Co. vs. Vining (Ga.), 51 S. E. Rep. 719. 
Aug. 4, 1905. 
A charge to a jury that it is the duty of a street car company to 
select a reasonably safe place for landing passengers, wherever it 
may stop a car for that purpose, the supreme court of Georgia holds 
states a sound legal proposition, and is not open to the criticism 
that it impliedly instructs the jury that a failure to perform such 
duty would be negligence per se (by itself). 



PARK COMMISSIONERS CANNOT BE ENJOINED BY 
CITIZENS AND TAXPAYERS FROM PERMITTING 
CONSTRUCTION OF STREET RAILWAY. 



Bancroft vs. Bancroft (Del. Ch.), 61 Atl. Rep. 689. Aug. 25, 1905. 
A resident citizen and taxpayer of a city, the court of chancery 
of Delaware holds, is not entitled, as such citizen and taxpayer, to 
an injunction to restrain the board of park commissioners of the 
city from permitting a street railway company to construct its road 
through park land in alleged contravention of the terms of the 
conveyance to the city that it was to be for the sole use and pur- 
pose of a public park. The court says that it has not been able to 
find a single case in which the right of a taxpayer and citizen to 
bring such a suit as this merely as citizen and taxpayer has been 
sustained. 



FRANCHISE FROM ONE MUNICIPALITY WHEN AN- 
OTHER ENJOINED FROM ACTING PENDING SETTLE- 
MENT OF ANNEXATION DISPUTE INVALID. 



Little Rock Railway & Electric Co. vs. City of North Little Rock 
(•Ark.), 88 S. W. Rep. 826. June 17. 1905. 
In May, 1903, petitions were filed with the town council of the 
town of Little Rock, signed by a majority of the citizens of that 
town and a majority of the citizens of the Eighth Ward of the 
City of Little Rock, praying for the annextion of said ward to said 
town. An election in the affected territory was called for July 
21st. The election was held, but by proceedings begun July 6th 
by the city of Little Rock, its mayor and aldermen and numerous" 
citizens and corporations, including the street railway company, 
the declaration of the result was temporarily enjoined, and North 
Little Rock was enjoined from exercising any municipal function 
over said ward. Moreover, in June, after the election was ordered, 
and before it was held, the council of the city of Little Rock 
granted to the street car company a franchise to build and maintain 
a street railway over certain streets in the Eighth Ward. The fran- 
chise ordinance, however, contained certain conditions, and on 
August 10th, the city council of Little Rock materially amended this 
ordinance, so as to take out the conditions which prevented it 
from becoming at once operative. After the passage of this ordi- 



nance, and before the injunction case was finally determined, the 
street car company began the construction of its line in the Eighth 
Ward, laid considerable track, and spent in all about $27,000 on the 
work, though it was not completed in any part or ready for opera- 
tion when the decision in the injunction suit was rendered by the 
supreme court. The supreme court of Arkansas holds it inequi- 
table to allow rights to be thus acquired, and that neither the city 
of Little Rock nor the street car company could hold rights acquired 
over the streets of the Eighth Ward during the life of the injunc- 
tion. Nor does the court think that under the circumstances the 
case called for an estoppel against North Little Rock on account 
of its permitting the street car company to partially construct its 
lines over these streets, and expend about $27,000, without protest 
or resistance. It says that the decree in the court below allowed 
the street railway company 60 days to dispose of or remove the 
rails, cross-ties, and other material placed by it on the streets, and 
that was as favorable as it could ask on that score. But deciding 
that no rights could be sustained under the ordinance of August 
10th, the supreme court says did not dispose of any rights which 
the street car company might have under the ordinance passed in 
June. 



LIABILITY FOR INJURY DUE TO DEFECT IN HIGHWAY 
BRIDGE. 



Wagner vs. Lehigh Traction Co. (Pa.), 61 Atl. Rep. 814. May 15, 
1905. 
Primarily, the supreme court of Pennsylvania says, it is the duty 
of township authorities to maintain a bridge, being part of a public 
highway, in a safe condition for the use of the traveling public. 
In order to sustain this action, which was to recover damages for 
injuries from a collision of an electric car with a wagon in which 
the plaintiffs were riding, alleged to be due to the company's negli- 
gence in maintaining its tracks over a bridge, the court says that it 
must be shown that it was the duty of the company to maintain the 
bridge, at the point where the accident occurred, in a safe condition. 
If on a trial of the case it appeared that no such duty rested on the 
company, but that the primary duty of the township to maintain the 
bridge at the point of accident still continued, the company would 
be relieved from liability. 



STATUTE NOT CONFERRING IRREVOCABLE CONTRACT 
RIGHT TO IMMUNITY FROM LIABILITY FOR RE- 
PAVEMENT OR EXEMPTION TO LESSEE COMPANY 
—CONSIDERATION FOR GRANT OF EXEMPTION. 



City of Rochester vs. Rochester Railway Co. (N. Y.), 74 N. E. 
Rep. 953- June 6, 1905, 
A statute passed in 1869, referring to the defendant's predecessor, 
provided : "Said company shall put. keep and maintain the surface 
of the streets inside the rails of its track, in good and thorough 
repair, under the direction of the committee on streets and bridges 
of the common council of said city of Rochester; but whenever 
any of said streets are by ordinance or otherwise permanently im- 
proved, said company shall not be required to make any part or 
portion of such improvement, or bear any part of the expense 
thereof, but it shall make its rails in such street or streets conform 
to the grade thereof." This, the court of appeals of New York 
says, certainly did not exempt the company from any expense of 
repavement so long as the statute remained in force, but the ques- 
tion was, did the statute confer upon the company any contract 
right immune from subsequent recall, or was it the mere exercise 
by the legislature of the taxing power, which could at any time 



30 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. i. 



be changed, modified or repealed? The court is of opinion, first, 
that the statute did not constitute a contract between the state 
and the railroad company; second, that if it did, the exemption 
granted by the statute was personal to the defendant's predeces- 
sor in title, and had not passed to it. It says that the statute did 
not grant the franchise. That had been already acquired. An ex- 
emption from taxation or regulation of charges granted by statute 
to be irrevocable must be based on a consideration. Wheo a mere 
gratuity or privilege, it may be recalled at any time. When such 
exemptions are granted in the charter of a corporation, then the 
acceptance of the charter is assumed to be the consideration for 
the grant of the exemption. The true test of whether there was 
any consideration for the exemption granted by the statute is 
whether any acceptance of its terms and provisions was necessary 
to make it effectual. If not, how can it be said that the exemption 
is other than a privilege? Then, the court says that the language 
of the statute is personal, not attached to the property. It enacts 
that "said company,'' not "said company, its successors or assigns." 
shall not be required to bear any part of the expense of repaving 
the streets. 



DUTY OF MOTORMAN SEEING CHILD NEAR TRACK- 
CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE OF PARENTS. 



Jacksonville Electric Co. vs. Adams (Fla.), 39 So. Rep. 183. July 26, 

1905. 
Where the motorman of an electric car, being operated upon the 
streets of a city, should and must have seen a child of tender years, 
unattended, in dangerous proximity to the track upon which the 
car was being operated, it was his duty, the supreme court of 
Florida, division B. holds, to use means "strictly commensurate with 
the demands and exigencies of the occasion" to prevent injuring 
such child, the burden of proof being upon the electric car company 
to show that such means were used; and under such circumstances, 
if such proof is not satisfactorily made, the company is negligent 
and liable for damages. The contributory negligence of parents in 
permitting a child, a boy four years and one month old, to go with- 
out a caretaker upon the streets of a city upon which electric cars 
are operated, cannot be imputed to the child in an action by him 
against the corporation operating the electric cars for damages re- 
sulting to him from the negligent operation of an electric car. 



VALIDITY OF ORDINANCE AGAINST ALLOWING 
WOMEN AND CHILDREN TO LEAVE OR ENTER 
MOVING CARS— DUTY OF CONDUCTORS. 



McHugh vs. St. Louis Transit Co. (Mo.), 88 S. W. Rep. 853. 
June 28, 1905. 
A city ordinance providing that "conductors shall not allow ladies 
or children to leave or enter the cars while the same are in motion," 
the supreme court of Missouri holds, is not unreasonable or void, 
nor does it impose upon public carriers of passengers an unreason- 
able duty toward those under their care and whom they undertake 
to carry safely. Moreover, the court says that where an instruction 
to the jury required of the conductor the exercise of reasonable 
care to prevent the plaintiff from alighting from the car while in 
motion, that was nothing more than his duty anyway, for it is 
common knowledge that it is dangerous for passengers to step from 
cars upon which they are traveling when such cars are in motion. 
No conductor who is regardful of his duties toward his passengers 
would neglect to exercise ordinary care to prevent injury to them 
while getting off or on the car of which he has control. 



CARE REQUIRED OF STREET RAILWAYS AS COMMON 
CARRIERS— RELATION OF CARRIER AND PAS- 
SENGER CONTINUES UNTIL LATTER ALIGHTS— 
MUST HOLD CAR STATIONARY AND EXPECT IM- 
PULSIVE EXITS— CONDUCTOR SHOULD LOOK TO 
CAR BEFORE GIVING SIGNAL TO START. 



Nelson vs. Metropolitan Street Railway Co. (Mo. App.), 88 S. W. 
Rep. 1 119. June 26, 1903. 
Street railways, the Kansas City court of appeals says, are com- 
mon carriers, and as such must employ the highest degree of care 
to avoid injury to their passengers. The relation of carrier and 



passenger continues to the time the latter alights from the train. 
It was not only the duty of the defendant to safely carry the plain- 
tiff, but, when her destination was reached and the car stopped, to 
hold it stationary while she was alighting. The street car con- 
ductor has no means of knowing how many passengers intend to 
alight at a given place, and therefore cannot judge in advance of the 
length of stop required. Regard, also, must be had ipr the habits 
of people patronizing such urban vehicles, who frequently make im- 
pulsive exits therefrom for divers reasons. However long a stop 
may be, due care requires the conductor to look to his car before 
giving the signal to start. 



CATCHING OF HEEL ON RUNNING BOARD NOT RES 
IPSA LOQUITUR. 



Wilbur vs. Rhode Island Co. (R. 1.1, 61 Atl. Rep. 601. May 29, 

1905. 
The plaintiff contended that, as it appeared in the declaration that 
while alighting from the car the heel of her shoe was caught in the 
running board, whereby it was torn off, and she was thrown to the 
ground and injured, and that the car had always been in the ex- 
clusive possession of the defendant, and that she never saw it 
before nor after the time she was injured, and had had no oppor- 
tunity to inspect it, and therefore did not and could not state the 
exact cause of the accident, therefore the case came within the 
class of cases to which the maxim "res ipsa loquitur" (the matter 
speaks for itself) applied. But the supreme court of Rhode Island 
holds that the fact that the plaintiff caught her shoe on the running 
board, and the heel of the shoe was torn off, and she was thrown, 
did not speak as to the negligence of the defendant. Proof of such 
fact would not raise a presumption of negligence, which it would 
be necessary for the defendant to rebut. It would be necessary for 
the plaintiff to go further, and show some circumstance attendant 
upon the accident of such a character as to justify the jury in in- 
ferring negligence as the cause of the accident. 



DUTY TO PERSON RECEIVED AS PASSENGER ON SPE- 
CIAL CAR— WAIVER OF RIGHT TO INSIST ON ONE 
NOT BEING A PASSENGR. 



McCarter vs. Greenville Traction Co. (S. C), Si S. E. Rep. 545. 
July 11, 1905. 
It was contended that the circuit judge erred in charging the 
jury in this case as follows: "If a common carrier receives a person 
on its car, it thereby assumes towards that person all the duties 
incumbent on a common carrier, irrespective of whether the par- 
ticular car happens to be a regular schedule car or a special car; 
the testimony having shown that the car that the plaintiff desired 
to ride upon was a special car, chartered by a particular person, 
and was run that night after regular schedule hours and for a par- 
ticular purpose." But the supreme court of South Carolina affirms 
the judgment of the lower court for the plaintiff. It says that the 
defendant's answer showed that the plaintiff tendered the amount 
of his passage and kept his seat in the special car with the knowl- 
edge and consent of the conductor, who intended to transport him 
to his destination. The defendant, therefore, waived the right to 
insist upon the fact that he was not a passenger at the time when 
he claimed that he was afterwards wrongfully ejected for non- 
payment of fare, the conductor not having been able to change a 
fifty-cent piece. 



LIABILITY FOR JERK OF CAR WHILE A PASSENGER IS 
LEAVING OR CHANGING CARS— PLEADING AND 
• PRESUMPTION OF NEGLIGENCE. 



Georgia Railway & Electric Co. vs. Reeves (Ga.), 51 S. E. Rep. 
610. Aug. 3, 1905. 
If a car is at rest temporarily, and a passenger is lawfully leaving 
it, or passing from it to another car, under the direction of the 
conductor, and while this is in progress a sudden and violent jerk 
or movement of the car is caused by the company's agents, resulting 
in injury to the passenger, it is not necessary, the supreme court of 
Georgia holds, to allege in detail by what particular means they 
caused the jerk to occur. If a car containing passengers is stopped 
while in transit, and the passengers are directed by the conductor 



Jan. 15. 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



31 



to change to another car, which is on a track parallel to the first, 
and if, while they are so doing, the employes of the company put 
out the lights of the first car, and cause it to jerk suddenly, result- 
ing in injury to a passenger who is in the act of making the change 
this would be an injury resulting from the running of the cars of 
the company, within the meaning of the statute, and would also 
be a damage done by a person in the employment and service oj 
the company, so as to raise the statutory presumption of negligence 
against it. 



DUTY TO PASSENGER ON RUNNING BOARD OF 
CROWDED CAR— BURDEN OF PROOF WHERE PAS- 
SENGER IS STRUCK BY ANOTHER CAR AT SWITCH- 
STANDING ALONGSIDE OF CAR NOT CONTRIBU- 
TORY NEGLIGENCE AS MATTER OF LAW. 



Abel vs. Northampton Traction Co. (Pa.), 61 Atl. Rep. 915. May 24, 
1905. 
As a crowded car approached a switch and siding it was struck 
about the middle of the side by a car coming from the opposite 
direction, which had not stopped on the turnout. The supreme 
court of Pennsylvania says of a man who was struck in the col- 
lision that if he was unable to find room upon the first-mentioned 
car, elsewhere than upon the running board, and if the company 
accepted him as a passenger in that position, and was undertaking 
to carry him, be was entitled to protection. If he was thus struck 
and injured by the other car, the burden of showing that the acci- 
dent was not caused by the negligence of the motorman of the 
colliding car was certainly upon the company. But two witnesses 
testified that the man was standing alongside the first car when he 
was struck, and was not upon the running board ; and the trial 
judge instructed the jury that the uncontradicted testimony of these 
two witnesses, if believed, clearly established contributory negli- 
gence. The supreme court, however, holds that in this statement 
there was error. It says that even if the man was standing upon 
the ground at the side of the car, this was not a place which the 
court could say as a matter of law was intrinsically dangerous. 
There was no reason why he should have apprehended that the 
other car would continue to run out from the siding and over the 
switch, and would strike with its front end the side of the first car. 
In any event it was not for the court to say as a matter of law 
that he was guilty of contributory negligence in assuming the posi- 
tion in which he was when struck by the car. Whether or not his 
conduct in this respect was negligent under the circumstances was 
for the jury to decide. 



PLACE OF TAXATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY. 



Detroit, Ypsilanti. Ann Arbor & Jackson Railway vs. City of De- 
troit (Mich.), 104 N. W. Rep. 327. July 21, 1905. 
Section 3831, subdivision 16, of the compiled laws of Michigan 
of 1897 provides that the "personal property of street railroad, 
* * * cable or electric railroad, * * * shall be assessed in 
the township, village or city where its principal business is situated. 
"The office for the transaction of the business of the -complainant 
is required by its articles of association to be kept in the village 
of Dearborn. All of its officers and directors reside in Detroit. 
There its president, secretary, and treasurer each has an office, and 
there it may properly be inferred each of these officers does the 
business pertaining to his office. In Dearborn are kept the records 
of the official and other business of the company. There, as well as 
at Ypsilanti and Jackson, its conductors and motormen make reports. 
Furthermore, from the fact that the company did no banking at 
Dearborn, the supreme court of Michigan infers that the conduc- 
tors did not, with these reports, account for the receipts collected 
by them. FYom the fact that the bookkeeper was in the office at 
Dearborn only about half of the time, and from the fact that noth- 
ing went on the books at Dearborn until it had passed through the 
Detroit office, it infers that there was no custom of the company to 
approve or disapprove these reports from the Dearborn office. 
Under these facts, was the company's property taxable at Dearborn 
or at Detroit? The court holds that the property was taxable in 
the city of Detroit, where its president, secretary, and treasurer 
had their offices, and where they did the duties pertaining thereto. 
It says that while it may be conceded that, if the company had 



principal business offices in each of several townships, cities, or 
villages, it might by designation in us articles of association elect 
in which of said cities or villages said property should be taxed, 
it is equally clear that such designation would be altogether in 
effectual as an election unless it actually maintained a principal 
business office at the place designated. 



EQUIPMENT TO BE RETURNED BY LESSEE TO 
SUBORDINATE COMPANIES. 



Johnson vs. Lehigh Valley Traction Co. (U. S. C. C, Pa.), 138 

Fed. Rep. 601. June 12, 1905. 

A holding company which had purchased a majority or more of 
a number of street railway companies leased all of them to a traction 
company with the assent of the stockholders of the separate com- 
panies. By the terms of the lease the traction company agreed to 
expend $100,000 for improvements within two years and to make 
improvements so that at all times said roads, rolling stock, etc., 
should be of at least equal efficiency and value as at the date of the 
lease, and was required to return to each subordinate company at 
the termination of the lease for any reason the property in as good 
condition as same was at the date of the lease. The traction com- 
pany, after a little more than two years, went into the hands of 
receivers. The United States circuit court, eastern district of 
Pennsylvania, holds that, under the lease, in case of cancelation or 
abandonment, a return of equipment to each subordinate company 
equal in value and efficiency to that which was received was re- 
quired, and that excessive value of cars returned to one company 
could not be set off against a claim of another company for a re- 
turn of cars of equal value and efficiency to it. In other words, the 
court holds that as to a claim for the original equipment, the com- 
panies were entitled to a return of specific cars, sufficient to make 
an equipment for each equal in value and efficiency to that which 
each transferred to the traction company under the lease ; and, in 
case the specific property was not returned, it would seem that 
each company was entitled to an award out of the general fund in 
an amount which would enable them to equip their respective roads 
with cars equal in value and efficiency to those which were trans- 
ferred under the lease. 



INSPECTIONS MUST BE ACCORDING TO CIRCUM- 
STANCES—CARE IMPOSED BY USE OF ELECTRICITY. 



Warren vs. City Electric Railway Co. (Mich.), 104 N. W. Rep. 
613. Sep. 19, 1905. 

The plaintiff, a lad of 11 years of age, was seriously injured by 
coming in contact with a live telephone wire, which lay upon the 
ground in a public street. The proof showed that the telephone 
wire received its dangerous current from a trolley span wire be- 
longing to the defendant railway company, through its being pressed 
down upon said span wire by the limb of a tree, which was broken 
by a severe storm the previous evening, at a considerable distance 
from the point where the wire parted and fell, which was the place 
where the boy was injured. Action was brought against the tele- 
phone company and the railway company, and a verdict and judg- 
ment was returned against the latter; a verdict being directed in 
favor of the telephone company. 

In affirming this judgment, the supreme court of Michigan states, 
among other things, that it could not say as matter of law that the 
inspection proved was reasonable and proper. That was a question 
for the jury, depending as it did upon the condition of the line and 
the nature of the danger to be feared. The frequency and care 
required in inspections depend much upon the character of the 
apparatus, or machinery, or other agent from which danger is to 
be feared, and as its destructiveness and danger is increased the 
duty of care increases. In other words, the degree of hazard attend- 
ing the use of a dangerous article has a direct relation to the care 
which is requisite in its use. Electricity is to be classed with gun- 
powder, dynamite, and other treacherous and destructive agents, 
of whose dangerous qualities the court may take judicial notice, as 
well as of the fact that society recognizes them, and acts accordingly 
No prudent man handles these things with a low degree of caution. 

This court finds it unnecessary to say, as some courts have said, 
that the use of electricity imposes the duty of the greater possible 
care. The circuit judge did nut so charge, but contented himself 



32 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. i. 



with saying that the duty requisite was such as ordinarily careful 
and prudent persons would exercise in dealing with electricity 
under similar circumstances. This was sufficiently favorable to the 
defendant, although it involved the idea, before expressed, that the 
nature of tile hazard is an element in determining the question. 
The frequency and nature of the inspections required depend in a 
measure upon this. Again, the supreme court says that in this 
case the span wire was hot where it was not sn intended to he. 
The telephone wire was pressed upon it when it was not so intended. 
The wire burned in two from the intense heat taken on from the 
span wire, and the ends fell. All of these were things to be antici- 
pated and guarded against. If this was not done to the extent that 
a prudent man would do it, there was a failure of duty, which 
might be a concurring cause of the accident, making the defendant 
liable. 



LIABILITY FOR ACTS OF SPECIAL POLICE OFFICERS- 
ASSAULT BY ONE. 



Foster vs. Grand Rapids Railway Co. (Mich.), 104 N. W. Rep. 380. 
July 21, 1905. 
The public authorities appointed certain deputy sheriffs, with the 
same powers and duties as they would exercise in any other place, 
though they were apparently paid by the railway company, and it 
was the duty and custom for them to preserve order in and around 
certain pleasure grounds, to arrest those engaged in violations of 
law, and to accompany the street cars from the grounds to the 
city, when there were indications that there were rough persons 
aboard liable to cause disturbance. The supreme court of Michigan 
says that when acting purely in their capacity as police officers, the 
company was not responsible for their acts. Only when the com- 
pany, through its authorized agent, had employed or directed such 
police officers to act for it, did it become responsible. If one of 
these officers acted, in his alleged attack upon the plaintiff, solely 
in his capacity as an officer, and not by and under the direction of 
the conductor of the car, the defendant was not responsible for 
his act. When a disorderly person is arrested by a police officer, 
the presumption is that the officer is acting in official capacity, and 
not as an agent for the party who by law is required to pay him. 
Here, however, from the officer's own testimony, and as well from 
that of the conductor, there was no attempt or intention to arrest 
the plaintiff for a breach of the peace, but only to put him off the 
car for the nonpayment of his fare. The only reasonable conclu- 
sion from this testimony was that the conductor either expressly 
or impliedly called upon the officer to assist him in ejecting the 
plaintiff, and that the officer understood that to be a part of his 
duty. Under these circumstances, the officer did not, in his assault 
upon the plaintiff, represent the public, but the company. It was 
wholly immaterial whether any angry words were spoken before the 
officer interfered, or whether the conduct of the parties up to that 
time had been gentlemanly and quiet. 



APPLICATION TO HAVE MODE OF CROSSING A KAIL- 
ROAD DEFINED— MUST SHOW REQUISITE OF 
CONSENTS. 



Mercer County Traction Co. vs. United New Jersey Railroad & 
Canal Co. (N. J.), 61 At!. Rep. 461. June 19, 1905. 
Upon application to the court of chancery under the act of March 
22, 1895, to define the mode in which one railroad may cross another, 
the court of errors and appeals of New Jersey holds that it was 
incumbent upon the petitioner to show it had lawful power to 
construct its road. One of the steps to that end being an ordinance 
of the township committee granting permission to the petitioner 
to construct its road under the railroad act of April 21. [896, it 
was incumbent upon the petitioner to show the jurisdiction of 
the township committee to pass such an ordinance. The written 
consent of frontage property owners required by the street railroad 
' act of April 21, 1896. in order to confer jurisdiction upon the 
township committee for permission to construct its said line ; and 
that municipal permission may be granted for the construction of 
the line of street railway for which application was made to the 
township committee. 

Upon application to define the mode of crossing, under the act of 
March 22. 1895, it was shown to the court of chancery that the 



petitioning corporation had resolved upon the construction of its 
line on May 20, 1903; that on May 21, 1003. it had petitioned the 
township committee for permission to construct its said line; and 
that the ordinance granting said permission was on the same day 
introduced and passed upon its first reading. It further appeared 
that the signatures to the consent of the frontage property owners, 
fjled with the township clerk, were all acknowledged prior to May 
20, 1903. The court holds that these facts failed to show that the 
property owners had consented to the granting of permission to 
construct the line of railroad for which application was made to 
the township committee. 



ABUTTER WITHOUT REMEDY FOR BUILDING OF EM- 
BANKMENT OF FROM 6 TO 15 INCHES IN CONSTRUC- 
TION OF STREET RAILWAY UNDER LOCATION 
SILENT AS TO GRADE— STATUTES CONSTRUED. 



Laroe vs. Northampton Street Railway Co. (Mass.), 75 N. E. Rep. 
255. Oct. 17, 1905. 

This was an action of tort brought by an abutter on a public way 
against the street railway company for building an embankment 
on the way, some 6 to IS inches in height, in the construction of its 
tracks. The damage was caused by turning surface water onto the 
plaintiff's land, and otherwise. He offered to show "that no grade 
was fixed in the location granted to the street railway company ; that 
no grade was defined by the selectmen in the order of location or 
subsequent thereto; that such changing of grade in the process of 
construction was not made by an order or direction of the select- 
men or superintendent of streets; that no authority for raising the 
embankment and raising the grade above the natural surface of the 
street had been given the street railway company, the location not 
having been given any grade lines, and the same not having been 
furnished before construction." He conceded "that the defendant 
had a location to construct a street railway under the statutes," and 
"that in the building of the embankment and the construction of the 
road the work was properly done as street railway construction." 
He owned the fee in that part of the way on which the embankment 
in question was constructed. Upon these facts a verdict was directed 
for the defendant company, and the supreme judicial court of 
Massachusetts, to which the case was reported, decided for judgment 
on the verdict. 

Where the grade of a public way is altered by the grant of a loca- 
tion of a street railway, it is not altered, the court holds, "for the 
purpose of repairing such way," and for that reason no compensa- 
tion is due under the statute which provides that an abutter shall 
have compensation when he has sustained damage by the raising 
or lowering of a public way, or other act done for the purpose of 
repairing such way. In such a case the grade of the public way 
is rightly altered under the authority given to grant locations to 
street railways. The result is that where the grade of a public 
way is altered in the location of a street railway, the abutter is 
without remedy. 

As to what was said in Hewett vs. Canton (182 Mass. 220, 224, 65 
N. E. 42) that, if the abutter in such a case has a remedy against 
the street railway, it is under what is now section 44 of chapter 112 
of the Revised Laws, referring to the clause in effect making .1 
street railway liable (among other things) for loss or injury sus 
tained during construction which results from the carelessness of 
its servants, if notice is given and an action is begun, as provided 
in section 20 of chapter 51 of the Revised Laws; that is to say, as 
provided for actions brought to recover for defects in public ways 
That section manifestly was enacted to relieve towns from liability 
for injuries to travelers in fact caused by the railway, and has no 
application in cases like this one. 

But the plaintiff contended that under this location the grade of 
the way was not rightly altered, and for that reason he, as owner 
of the fee on which the embankment was constructed, could sue in 
tort for the wrongful construction of it on his land. He argued 
that, under a location which is silent as to the grade, the railway 
must be built at the grade in fact existing or lawfully established. 
The court is of opinion, however, that this contention was not cor- 
rect, but that, on the contrary, as matter of construction of the loca- 
tion in question, the grade of the way might be changed within the 
limits in question, if that was reasonably necessary as matter of 
street railway construction 



The New Shops of the Portland Railroad Co. 



The new shops of the Portland Railroad Co., at Portland, Maine, 
illustrate in a marked degree the present tendency toward higher 
production economy in street railway rolling stock maintenance. 
Of late years it has been more and more realized that the reduction 
of expenses is quite as important a factor in the securing of divi- 
dends as the increase of gross earnings. In the <.arly days of street 
railway work the maintenance of the rolling stock seldom proceeded 
along economical lines. The problem of keeping the cars moving 
was so severe and the evolution of equipment so rapid that organized 
methods of repairing were largely out of the question. Although 
rolling stock design is still undergoing radical improvements, the 
general run of car equipment is now reasonably well standardized, 
sufficiently so at any rate for it to pay to maintain car bodies, trucks, 
motors and braking apparatus at high efficiency throughout a con- 
siderable term of years. 

The repair shop problem is therefore a very important question 
on a modern system and the question whether all repairs should 
be carried out in one general shop or divided among smaller shops 
located in different sections of a city has received much discussion. 



The shops occupy an area 204 ft. 8 in. long by 171 ft. wide, and 
serve the maintenance requirements for about 230 cars — the total 
rolling stock of the company. The repair shop area per car thus 
figures 152 sq. ft. A general plan of the new shops with approach 
tracks and their relation to the St. John St. car house is shown 
herewith. It will be seen that each department can be reached by a 
direct line from the ladder tracks which connect with the St. John 
St. tracks through a spur. The new shops are located 92 ft. 
south of the old car house and are supplied with steam heat from 
boilers located in the basement of the latter. The steam main is 
10 in. in diameter and is supported in its 92-ft. span by a lattice 
riveted-steel box beam. The boiler plant consists of three 48-h. p. 
horizontal return-tubular units. These are operated at low pressure, 
from I to 10 lb. being the usual range, but in moderate weather it 
is only necessary to operate with the pressure gauge pointer just 
off the zero mark. The shop building was designed by Messrs. 
Sheaff and Jaastad of Boston, consulting engineers for the Portland 
Railroad Co. 

The primary idea in the layout of the shops was to facilitate the 




**•"**,-: ••■ 






NEW REPAIR SHOPS OF THE PORTLAND RAILROAD CO. 



The present idea favors the concentration of all except emergency 
repairs in one large shop, leaving the lighter work of inspection and 
temporary repairs to division headquarters and car houses. 

This is the practice which has been followed at Portland in the 
erection and equipment of the new general repair shops to be de- 
scribed in this article. The shops are located on the east side of 
St. John St., Portland, about a quarter of a mile south of the 
Union Station, and adjacent to the St. John St. Car House of the 
system. A general view of the exterior is shown herewith. Behind 
the shops rises a hill, on which is located the famous Western 
Promenade of the Portland park system, from which, on a clear 
day the White Mountains can easily be seen. The main line of the 
Boston and Maine R. R. passes the shops a few rods away on the 
west. The St. John St. shops are designed to take care of all the 
regular maintenance work of the company with the exception of 
daily inspection and temporary repairs, which are carried out at six 
car houses on the system. The walls of the new building are of 
brick with concrete foundations, steel trusses and columns being 
used for supporting the roof. Every effort was taken to render the 
shops fire proof. The various departments are separated by brick 
fire walls 16 in. thick, with self-closing, tinned doors, the division 
walls being carried at least 24 in. above the roof. The one-story 
sections are equipped with granolithic floors ; on the second floor 
slow burning wooden construction was used, faced with ?s in. birch. 



handling of cars and material over routes of minimum length be- 
tween departments, and to arrange the departments conveniently. 
From the general plan it will be seen that this has been accomplished. 
On the first floor are located the office of the master mechanic, the 
equipping, paint, carpenter, blacksmith and machine shops, and the 
foundry. Above the machine shop is an upholstery room and an 
armature winding and electrical department, while above the office 
is a storage space and possible stock room. The carpenter shop is 
equipped with a single track; the equipping shop has two full length 
tracks, one of which passes through to the rear of the blacksmith 
shop. The paint shop has three tracks. Each track is supplied with 
an overhead trolley, but at fire doors the trolley is discontinued on 
each side of the wall. On account of the directness of the track 
runs the idle moment of rolling stock and material is very small, and 
these facilities are supplemented by an admirable system of chain 
hoists. Between the blacksmith shop and the machine shop a 2-ton 
hoist is installed to run longitudinally from the extreme end of one 
department to the extreme end of the other, in a line at right angles 
to the car track in the blacksmith shop floor. The girder forming 
the runway for this hoist can be seen in the accompanying view of 
the blacksmith shop interior. This connection with the machine 
shop enables any part of the shops to be reached with ease in the 
handling of heavy pieces, and in addition, large doors are liberally 
provided between the building and out-of-doors. The runway be- 



34 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. I 



! urni the blacksmith and machine shops is carried through the fire 
doors between these two departments, the doors being cut away 
just enough to allow the girder to pass. 

Between the machine shop and the electrical department on the 
second floor the transportation facilities are provided by a Morse- 
Williams electric elevator driven by a io-h. p. 500-Yolt shunt motor. 
The elevator well is 7 ft. by 5 ft. in horizontal cross section, and is 
set in the building so that the blacksmith shop as well as the ma- 
chine shop is served by it. Tinned doors are provided. On the 
upper floor armatures and other parts are carried about by trucks. 
There is no doubt that these excellent transportation facilities will 
prove important factors in the economical operation of the shops, 
tending to reduce the unit cost of repairs through the saving in 
labor and time which they bring about. 

The carpenter shop is 99 ft. long by 60 ft. wide. It is steam heated 
by open coils arranged in sections along the walls, and is lighted by 
three overhead skylights, by ample windows on the west side and at 



current supply is temporarily cut off from the shops the automatic 
release opens the motor circuit and stops the machinery until the 
line potential returns, when it automatically starts the motor, cutting 
nut resistance gradually as the motor speeds up, until the machinery 
is again operating at full speed. 

The shafting in the carpenter shop is hung from wooden stringers 
which in turn are fastened to the girders of the roof trusses. Along 
the west side of the carpenter shop a bench is run beneath the 
windows, for work requiring varnishing, planing and chiselling. 

All the departments are equipped with an automatic sprinkling 
system. The water supply for this system is stored in a 10,000 gallon 
wooden tank supported on a steel tower just south of the old St 
John St. car house, between the new building and the old. The 
sprinkler installation is very complete. The buildings are also pro- 
tected by hand fire extinguishers, a special fire alarm box and liumer-. 
ous hydrants in the yards. The departments of both the car house 
and shops are connected by an inter-communicating teleplmne system 




FLOOR PLAN OF PORTLAND RAILROAD Co's SHOP BUILDING AND CROSS SECTION AT REAR END. 



night by four enclosed arc lamps and incandesceuts arranged on the 
series system with 500-volt circuits. The trolley over the single 
track which serves this room is protected from contact with the 
steel trusses by a wooden trough and the track is provided with a 
pit. The walls are painted a light yellow with a dark green dado 
extending about 5 ft. above the floor. Between the track and the 
wall nearest it a row of 16-c. p. incandescent lamps is hung, one 
from each truss, 9 ft. apart. These lamps are of much help -in 
lighting the carpenter shop passageway and the sides of the cars 
next the division wall. The lighting circuits in the room are con- 
trolled by switches mounted on a wooden panel covered with asbes- 
tos. This panel is mounted upon the wall at the north entrance of 
the room. 

The machinery in the carpenter shop is all driven on the group 
plan by a 30-h. p. G. E. 500-volt shunt motor making 1025 r. p. m. 
At present this motor drives a circular and split saw bench, jointer, 
band saw, cutting-off saw, grindstone, mortising and basing ma- 
chine, shaper or irregular moulding machine, Woods planer, planer 
and a small speed lathe which was made by the Portland Railroad 
Co. The motor is operated by a starting panel of black enamelled 
slate supporting a 100-ampere current indicator, double-pole single- 
throw knife switch, two 600-volt 60-ampere Chase-Shawmut enclosed 
fuses and an automatic starting and release switch. In case the 



of ten stations. From these instruments connection may be had with 
any city telephone. 

One of the noticeable points in the arrangement of the shops is the 
unusually plentiful supply of natural light in all parts of the build- 
ings. Both in sky and side lighting liberal facilities were provided. 
Another noticeable feature is the liberal amount of space in each de- 
partment, both for present needs and growth in the future. 

The machine shop is 60 ft. 8 in. long by 50 ft. wide. At present it 
is not completely fitted up. but contains a 125-ton hydraulic wheel 
press, 24-in. engine lathe, 21-in. engine lathe, one milling machine, 
36-in. upright drill and a 9-ft. bed planer. A 36-in. boring machine 
is soon to be added. These machines are group-driven by a 15-h. p. 
500-volt motor mounted upon the floor near the carpenter shop wall 
and equipped with an automatic release and solenoidal starter. The 
machine shop is lighted by south and west windows, and at night 
by 16-c. p. incandescent lamps, and two enclosed arc lamps. The 2- 
ton hoist previously mentioned is of much help in handling work in 
this room. 

The blacksmith shop is 65 ft. 6 in. by 50 ft. in size, and is very com- 
plete and roomy. It is equipped with three large forges ventilated by 
galvanized iron hoods and discharge pipes, a screw machine, 28-in. 
drill press, a power hammer, driven by line shafts operated by a 10- 
h. p. 500-volt 4-pole shunt motor making T.500 r. p. m. This nmtnr 



Jan. is, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



35 



can be run closed if desired, its capacity then being 6 h. p. The 
air blast for the forges is supplied through a duct located beneath 
the floor. A 25-h. p. 500-volt motor direct connected to a fan blower 
furnishes air pressure. 

The blacksmith shop is lighted by three enclosed arc lamps and by 
incandescents. It is equipped with steam heat and sprinklers. The 
blacksmith shop track is provided with a pit extending practically 
its entire length. The motor which drives the several tools is 
mounted upon a raised platform in one corner of the room to pro- 











Id « VVfS 


^\ 


W*H 


ft 




\\I I r~1 11 11 


^ 

n* 


¥J5 


^IW- 


M 


** 





WOOD-WORKING SHOP. 

tect and keep it out of the way. Part of the wall space is utilized 
by a rack which holds different grades of bar iron, and on the south 
side below the windows is a work bench. The floor is of wood, 
which is less troublesome than concrete when scored arid cut by 
heavy pieces of metal. The longitudinal runway previously men- 
tioned passes overhead in front of the three forges, so that truck 
parts or other equipment can be readily transferred from the en- 
tering track to any forge, or to the drill. 

The equipping shop is 150 ft. long and 42 ft. wide. It has a bay 
at the north end about 60 ft. wide. There are two tracks in this de- 
partment, spaced 18 ft. apart on centre lines, besides a track through 
the bay to the carpenter shop. The two tracks which run all the 
way through the equipping shop each have pits, the bottoms being 
concrete and the sides brick — the usual construction in these shops. 




SOO* 



CONNECTIONS FOR OBTAINING TWO VOLTAGES BY THE USE OF LAMPS. 
WITH "a" UNSCREWED. SOO VOLTS AT "t." 
WITH ".\" SCREWED IN. 110 VOLTS AT "t." 

The floor is of concrete, and the natural lighting is chiefly effected 
through the skylights. Plug sockets are available, however, so that 
the lamps may be carried anywhere beneath the cars when desired. 
This department is equipped with four 4-ton hand hoists on travel- 
lers arranged to sweep the entire area. The travellers are sus- 
pended from wheels which run on longitudinal girders used as run- 
ways. By means of these a car body can be hoisted from the trucks 
without the use of jacks and moved to any desired portion of the 
room. 



In the southeast corner of the building is a room 39 ft. 10 in. by 
25 ft., set apart as a brass foundry. At present the principal 
done here is babbitting, but some brazing ne. I hree Kiciloi 

babbitting devices are in use. The work done by these is sufficiently 
accurate so that the reboring process in the case of axle bearings 
is not necessary ; but motor hearings are reborcd in the machine shop. 
The brazier is equipped with a large galvanized iron hood leading 
upward to the roof through a ventilating pipe. This was made nec- 
essary by the action of the brazier on the sprinkler system. 




BLACKSMITH MIUL' ANL' TOO] S. 

the process of brazing was first tried, the hot air rising from the 
apparatus started the sprinklers, so it became essential to protect 
the latter by a shielding funnel and discharge pipe. 

The paint shop is 150 ft. long and 63 ft. wide. It is provided with 
four tracks spaced 15 ft. apart on centres. One of these tracks is 
provided with a washing pit, and another with a repair or inspection 
pit. In this shop it is planned to paint each car at least once a year. 
The supply of daylight is plentiful, coming from both east windows 
and skylights fitted with ribbed glass. The floor is of concrete. Car 
steps are painted by dipping them bodily into a trough of black 
varnish — a process which saves a large amount of time and labor in 
intricate step patterns. Extra troughs are provided for dripping 




SIGN AND SASH ROOM OF THE PAINTING DEPARTMENT. 

purposes, after the steps have been dipped in the black varnish 
trough. To obviate the raising of dust, brushes fitted with kerosene 
oil reservoirs are used. The oil moistens the bristles slightly when 
the brush is used, keeping them damp and tending toward the ab- 
sorption instead of the scattering of dust. At the south end of the 
paint shop are three rooms. One is used as an office for the head of 
the department. This room is 10 ft. long by 7 ft. wide. The second 
is a sign and sash room 31 ft. 10 in. by 34 ft., and the third is a fire 
proof room 13 ft. by 7 ft. used for the storage of paints and oils. 



36 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. i. 



The sign and sash room has several special features. It is lighted 
by a single enclosed arc lamp, and also, in the daytime by a sky- 
light. In one corner is a sign storage rack of special design, shown 
in the illustration. This rack is built to hold both end and side 
signs, and is unusually compact. It occupies a space only 16 ft. 
long, 32 in. wide, and 7 ft. high and holds no less than 64 signs, 
long and short, or enough for 16 cars. The storage of signs is often 
a troublesome matter in street railway shops and in this instance it 
seems to be accomplished with a minimum of trouble. In this room 
adjustable racks are provided for the storage of window sashes, 
and on one side a complete sink equipment with steam and cold 
water is installed. This sink is wide enough and long enough to 
enable car doors to be laid in it for washing. The two small trucks 
shown in the photograph are interesting labor saving devices. They 
were designed by Mr. H. S. Hovey, the head of the painting depart- 
ment. 

The truck nearer the centre of the photograph is equipped 
with a number of drawers holding paint and other supplies, includ- 
ing in one compartment, a paint press. More than enough paint and 
necessary appurtenances required to paint an entire car can be car- 
ried in this wagon to any point in the shop. This results in the sav- 
ing of a large amount of walking between the job and the stock 
room. The other truck is designed to hold all the window sashes 
used in the largest car of the system. The car is equipped with an 
extension rack to fit different sized windows. It is built strongly 



enough to hold up and transport about the shop a weight of 
2,000 lbs. 

The paint storage room has a high concrete threshold and an air- 
light door. The walls are carried up to a point 4 ft. above the roof, 
the top being capped by a skylight. In the event of a fire it is ex- 
pected that the room would become a chimney and there would in 
all probability be no chance for the flames to spread. 

The winding department is at present equipped with one banding 
machine, one field coil winding machine, and one 22^-in. engine 
lathe, all driven by belt and line shaft from a 5-I1. p. motor making 
1,800 r. p. m. The -motor is fitted with a 10-ampere meter, and a I- 
ton hoist is provided to facilitate handling material to and from the 
lathe. A steam drying oven for armature and field coils will prob- 
ably be installed in the near future. The upholstery room is not as 
yet equipped. The horses used in moving the armatures -»re fitted 
with wheels, and special hand barrows are also employed. Insula- 
tion tests are made by a no-volt circuit and by a 500-volt circuit, 
the conections being changed from one to the other by the simple 
unscrewing of an incandescent lamp bulb as shown in the accom- 
panying sketch. This method was devised by Mr. B. F. Cary of the 
electrical department. 

About 45 men are now employed at the St. John St. shops. Power 
is supplied entirely by the 500-volt trolley circuit of the company. 
The master mechanic is Mr. C. P. Garland and the general manager 
of the company is Mr. E. A. Newman. 



The American Street and Interurban Railway Association. 



Being Its History, Purpose and Work as Described by Messrs. Ely, Swenson and Rugg, at the 
182nd Meeting of the Massachusetts Street Railway Association. 



The Massachusetts Street Railway Association held its 182nd 
consecutive meeting on Dec. 13, 1905. This meeting was held in 
Young's Hotel, Boston, Mass., and occurred on the 23rd anniversary 
of the organization of the American Street Railway Association, 
which took place in Young's Hotel, Wednesday, Dec. 13, 1882. It 
was a remarkable coincidence that the day of the month, the day 
of the week, the location and even the hotel should have been the 
same. 

The guests of honor were Hon. W. Caryl Ely, of Buffalo, presi- 
dent, and Bernard V. Swenson, of New York City, secretary-treas- 
urer, of the American Street & Interurban Railway Association. 

President Ely addressed the association on the general history 
of the American Street & Interurban Railway Association, and the 
reasons for the reorganization. Mr. Swenson spoke on the subject 
of the work of the association now under way and the plans for 
the futu're. Both of these addresses are herewith given in part. 

The meeting was preceded by the usual banquet, after which 
Hon. E. P. Shaw, president of the association, made a few intro- 
ductory remarks. He then asked J. E. Rugg, superintendent of 
transportation of the Boston Elevated Railway Co., to give an 
account of the first meeting. 

Mr. Rugg, who in 1882 was superintendent of the Highland 
Street Railway Co., was instrumental in organizing the association. 
He gave some interesting reminiscences of the early days of the 
association. 

Mr. Rugg's Remarks. 

Twenty-five years ago tonight the first banquet of the American 
Street Railway Association was held, and twenty-three years ago 
today the constitution and by-laws of the association were adopted. 
It was a small beginning. I suppose you are somewhat familiar 
with what caused or brought about this association, but perhaps 
it would not be out of place for me to say in a few words what 
I know about it. In the autumn of 1882, in September, a self- 
appointed committee of three (of which I was one) arranged for 
a vacation trip to go through some of the Western States and meet 
our friends in the street railway business. We went to Buffalo, 
where we met Henry M. Watson and S. S. Spaulding. We also 
stopped at Cleveland, Chicago, Louisville and Cincinnati, but there 
was no real object in our visit, except pleasure and association. 
The association was found to be pleasant, as we were all engaged 



in the same business, and after we got back it was arranged 
through correspondence that there should be an attempt made to 
form an organization. Mr. Littell, of Louisville, issued a circular 
over his own name to all the street railway companies in the coun- 
try, asking them, if they favored the project, to communicate with 
myself in Boston. 

As soon as the circular was sent out there was quite a general 
response. Acklowledgments were received from perhaps a hundred 
gentlemen, managers of street railways from Montreal to New 
Orleans and a very large proportion favored the scheme. There 
were only perhaps six out of all to whom letters were sent who did 
not favor it. It was decided that I should issue a call for a con- 
vention to be held'at Young's Hotel on Dec. 12, 1S82. 

That was the beginning, and you know what the result has been. 
The association has been growing ; it has met the approval of street 
railway managers generally throughout the country, and today it is 
a strong body, officered by very strong and able men. 

Mr. Ely was then called upon by the president, and spoke as 
follows: 

Address of President Ely. 

I was greatly pleased to receive your invitation to be present 
here tonight, because it gave me an opportunity, in the first place, 
of meeting you all ; in the second place, to observe your association 
and its membership; and in the third place, to say something con- 
cerning the American association, concerning which much has 
been done in the last two or three years, but about which some- 
thing may yet remain to be explained and made clear to the satis- 
faction of all. It seems from an examination of the papers that 
the two documents upon which the organization was founded were 
a letter which was in the form of a call signed by Mr. H. H. Littell, 
at that time superintendent of the Louisville City Railroad Co., and 
the acceptance, which was signed by Mr. Rugg, in fixing the date, 
111 Ins capacity as superintendent of one of the Boston railroads. 

Among those actively associated with Mr. Littell in the funda- 
mental work of the organization were Mr. Rugg, Messrs. D. F. 
Longstreet, Thomas Lowry, Walter A. Jones, George B. Kierper, 
Henry N. Watson and Tom L. Johnson. In response to the call 
which was issued by Mr. Littell and the subsequent letter of Mr. 
Rugg, the meeting was held at this hotel on December 12th. It was 
called to order by Mr. Littell, and the Hon. Moody Merrill, presi- 



Jan. is, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



37 



dent of the Highland Street Railway Co. of Boston, was elected 
chairman. Messrs. Woodworth of Rochester and Clegg of Dayton, 
O., were chosen as secretaries. On the following day, the con- 
stitution and by-laws were adopted, and on that day, Dec. 13th, the 
first meeting of the association was held. 

Coming to the objects of the association, they were defined in the 
constitution and by-laws as follows : "The acquisition of experi- 
mental, statistical, and scientific knowledge relating to the con- 
struction and operation of street railways, and the diffusion of this 
knowledge among the members of the association, with the view of 
increasing the accommodation of passengers, improving the service 
and reducing the cost; the establishment and maintenance of a spirit 
of fraternity among the members of the association by social inter- 
course and encouragement of cordial friendly relations between the 
roads and the public." With the exception of the work of the 
special committees and the work of the secretary incidental to the 
printing and distribution of the proceedings, the entire work of the 
organization was performed at the annual conventions. In the early 
days of the association, a good deal of important work was done by 
the special committees, but as time went on the special committees 
became fewer in number, and the work accomplished by them 
(except in certain noteworthy instances, which constituted marked 
exceptions) grew less and less, and in the last few years very little 
of that work was done. So that, aside from the work done at the 
conventions and the work which was performed by the secretary 
and treasurer in collecting dues and assigning space to the manu- 
facturers for their exhibits at the annual meetings, there was very 
little work done by the organization itself. 

The association started with 31 members, grew in three years to 
a membership of 123, and by 1892 the membership had increased to 
201. In 1893, 1894, 1895 there were times of financial stress, and 
there was for some reason a lack of interest in the association, and 
the membership fell off until in 1895 and 1896 very heroic measures 
were taken to rescue the association from what appeared to be 
danger of failure. From that time, within a few years after 1895, 
there was a considerable increase in membership, up to about 200 
members, and with some slight variation the membership has been 
held at about that figure down to the present time. 

During the past ten years of the association the duties of secre- 
tary and treasurer and the performance of the work that was asso- 
ciated therewith have been very faithfully administered by Mr. 
Thomas C. Penington, treasurer of the Chicago City Railway, and 
the financial condition of the association has been good. 

About the year 1893, the exhibit of the manufacturers of mechan- 
ical appliances pertaining to the business, which for some time had 
been assuming form, became the distinctive feature of the annual 
assemblages. This exhibit grew in size until finally it became 
one of the most important features of the annual meeting. It 
became of great importance to the association for the further 
reason that the practice grew up of permitting the association to 
allot to the manufacturers space for their exhibits in the exhibit 
hall, and to charge the manufacturers for that privilege. From that 
practice came quite a large part of the financial support of the asso- 
ciation. 

The dues which were paid by the companies for membership in 
the association were small, and the financial support was derived, 
as you have seen, largely from the sale of space in the exhibit 
hall to the manufacturers and from the amounts contributed by the 
local companies toward the annual expenses of the convention. In 
the meantime there had been organized, some eight years ago, an 
association of street railway accountants, known as the Street Rail- 
way Accountants' Association of America. That association had 
members largely composed of the auditors of the various com- 
panies throughout the country, and it devolved upon the different 
companies some additional expense, and the loss of the time of those 
who attended those conventions, for a period, during each year. 
Soon after there came other subsidiary associations. Two of them 
being formed and others in sight, that matter assumed a phase that 
was very important to the companies. This association had arrived 
at the point where it had its own expenses to pay; it had the sub- 
sidiary organizations and associations to care for, and it became 
apparent to those who had been engaged actively in carrying on the 
organization, and who had happened to be placed in those positions 
by reason of election (possibly not of their own seeking ) at the 
convention from year to year, that something had to be done about 



reforming the method of work, and of financing the organization, 
or the association might possibly find it necessary to discontinue the 
greater part of its work, or possibly be abandoned. 

At that juncture it was decided to hold the convention at Sara- 
toga Springs, and that the association should at that meeting hold 
its expenses down to the lowest notch, and defray all of the 
expenses except such portion as might be derived from the manu- 
facturers. That was the last convention at which the association 
made any charge for the space allotted to the manufacturers' exhibit. 
At that convention the question of reformation, reorganization, 
change in the lines of work and method of carrying on the work 
of the organization was very exhaustively canvassed, considered and 
agitated; and it was determined that it would be better, more dig- 
nified, more conducive to the attainment of proper results, if the 
manufacturers should be formed into an association whose duties 
and objects it should be to install and defray all the expenses of 
the annual exhibit and to divorce that source of revenue from the 
association and leave the association to care for itself and stand 
upon its own bottom in a dignified and proper way. That decision 
was arrived at as the common judgment and opinion of those who 
were present, upon consultation with many important men who 
were absent from the convention. 

It happened that at that juncture I was chosen president of the 
association. I assure you that instead of having been volun- 
tarily instrumental in this matter, it came upon me like a thief in 
the dark, and f was pressed into a service that has taken a great 
deal of time, and of the magnitude of which I had absolutely no 
conception at that time. It is no fad of mine ; it is no fad of the 
men who have composed the executive committees during the last 
three years. An immense amount of painstaking and self-sacri- 
ficing work has been done by those gentlemen throughout the year, 
for the purpose of endeavoring to put the association where it 
belongs, in the first position among the technical societies of this 
country and of the world. 

These gentlemen at Saratoga who took charge of the movement 
for the organization of a manufacturers' association worked hand 
in hand and shoulder to shoulder with the officers of the American 
Street Railway Association, and builded so well that the exhibit 
which has just been held at the Philadelphia convention deserved 
to rank almost as an exposition. Then came the meeting at Phila- 
delphia, at which the measures which have been going on during 
almost three years culminated in the adoption of a new form of 
constitution and by-laws for the association. There was as little a 
departure from the old form as was possible to make and provide 
a new method for the prosecution of the work. It is hoped and 
believed that if all shall work together in the new organization, 
instead of the steady-by-jerks method of procedure which was af- 
forded by simply meeting together once a year and then dis- 
persing and practically letting the whole thing drop until the con- 
vention of the following year, work upon the problems that con- 
front the street railway industry and its foremost members will 
be prosecuted intelligently, coherently, in a centrally-directed way, 
throughout the year by the meeting of the convention and its com- 
mittees, the secretary's office with an incumbent and proper assist- 
ants, and then such other instrumentalities as will be afforded by 
the subsidiary organizations, which will preserve their autonomy, 
but will be controlled and work under the direction of the central 
body. This brief resume brings us to the work as completed at 
the Philadelphia convention. Since that time, the secretary who 
was chosen, Professor Bernard V. Swenson, has entered upon the 
discharge of his duties. An office has been secured at No. 60 Wall 
Street, in New York City, and the headquarters of the association 
has been opened there. 

The secretary, like the officers of the association, did not seek 
his job. The job sought the man, and his qualifications were the 
sole factor that brought about his appointment by the executive 
committee, which looked earnestly and with splendid advisers 
through the field, in its choice of secretary and treasurer. It is 
not my purpose In speak at this time of Professor Swenson and his 
qualifications, but I may say (and perhaps I ought to say) that 
in the judgment of all those who had anything to do with the elec- 
tion and appointment, he is a man admirably qualified for the work, 
and I know I may say, from what I have seen of him, that he is a 
man whose work is in his heart and whose heart is in his work. 
Now we are face to face with the future. The expenses of the 



38 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. i. 



association from now on, if the work is prosecuted in the most 
careful and economical manner, will crowd the sum of $20,000. 
The fixing of the fees to be paid for membership in the organiza- 
tion was a branch of the work that occupied the attention of the 
executive committee for a considerable time, and upon which we 
sought the advice of different ones throughout the country. The 
scale of annual dues given in the new constitution and by-laws will 
le sufficient moneys, if carefully handled, to defray our ex- 
penses, the expenses of the annual banquet being met by those who 
attend the banquet, which has been considered proper should be 
done. As the association was previously carried on, $25 a year was 
paid by each company and in exchange for that $25 the association 
gave out two banquet tickets, which, at $8 or $10 a head (as was 
the charge at certain banquets), almost consumed the entire amount 
of the fee that the company paid for membership. 

There are two classes of membership provided for: the regular 
membership and associate membership. Any one interested in the 
street railway industry may become an associate member of the 
organization, receive its publications and all the* benefits, except the 
privilege of taking part in the discussions upon the floor of the 
convention and voting therein, for the small sum of $5 a year, and' 
it is the hope of the executive committee that during the next year 
at least 1,000 associate members will be secured. 

The American association has in its membership throughout the 
United States, Canada, Mexico and even Porto Rico, questions 
which affect us purely through our state legislation ; purely state 
matters, will of course be best handled in the future as in the past 
by the state organizations. 

I feel that I would not be doing my duty at this time if I should 
fail to congratulate this, the Massachusetts, association upon the 
fact that in the years of its being since 1888, seventeen years, it 
should have been able to hold as many as 182 separate meetings. 
Now, while the work in Massachusetts, in New. England, New 
York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana and the other states, which is 
peculiarly state work, may be best done, undoubtedly by the state 
organizations, still it seems manifest that much can be done by the 
American association in the way of acting in a measure in concert 
with the different state organizations, toward bringing into the 
different localities the benefits which obtain in others, and minimiz- 
ing in each locality the injurious things that obtain. It is a fact 
that in looking at the street railway law and its administration in 
the different stages of this country, one is struck very forcibly by 
the fact that if there had been co-operation among the street rail- 
way men in the different parts of the country, there might have 
been a far greater uniformity not only of the statute law, but of 
the municipal law fixing the rights of the companies in franchises 
and all sorts of municipal and state legislation. 

The American association, it is hoped, through a properly chosen 
committee upon state and municipal legislation, may still be able to 
do much to remedy these things and to iron out these irregularities 
and these inconveniences that are surely present. When you come 
to think of it, gentlemen, this whole thing is yet in a formative 
state. There is no organization in this country so strong or so 
powerful that it can afford to stand alone, when in the same busi- 
ness there are many other organizations administered by capable 
and able men. In co-operation there is strength ; everybody knows 
it : everybody practices it. 

The American Street & Interurban Railway Association and the 
industries which it represents today, has invested in it billions of 
dollars of capital. Hundreds of thousands of men are employed, 
and the operations of the business touch the daily life, comfort, 
convenience, and necessity of all classes of citizens. To society and 
the law we owe duties, and to us society and the law owe duties. 
We are entitled in all parts of this country to fair treatment and 
just treatment. The best way to obtain it is to have a strong 
organization that is supported by a large membership, and that con- 
tinuously through its organization and its method of work devotes 
an intelligent attention to all the problems of the day that confront 
the business. Mention has been made "f some of the more im- 
portant problems that confront us at this juncture, and in the course 
of my remarks at Philadelphia I mentioned the agitation in favor 
of municipal ownership that, at that time had been making such 
progress in this country. Certain well-meaning but misguided rep- 
resentatives of tin press seemed to have taken the idea that the 
principal object of our organization was to combat the principle of 



municipal ownership. No such position as that was assumed at 
Philadelphia, and no such position was advocated there. 

I took occasion to point out certain facts that it seemed to those 
who had been consulted concerning the matter deserved investiga 
tion at the hands of this association, to the end that the truth might 
be known concerning the matter. It was not hinted at as the duty 
of this association to enter into an academic discussion with any 
man, or any set of men. concerning the principles of socialism, but 
it was suggested that we might very properly look into the facts 
which lie at the base of the proposition that municipal ownership 
of street railways in the municipalities of this country will be bene 
ficial to all the citizens of the municipalities. 

The principal thing that is alluded to specially as a reason why 
municipal ownership of street railways in this country would be 
advantageous to the people is the statement that it works well in 
England, where it has been tried, and in other parts of Europe. 
. Now, there are those who have made some imperfect investigations 
concerning the working of municipal ownership in the cities of 
Great Britain and Europe who hold an entirely different view as 
to fact, and hold and entertain the opinion, and stand ready to 
justify it with facts and figures, that municipal ownership of public 
utilities is not working well in Europe. They further adhere to 
the opinion that even though it is working well there and that fact 
could be established, that the conditions are so very different as to 
the communities involved and the service afforded, that it might 
not work so well here, even though it may be working well there. 
Whatever investigation has been made has, as I suggested, been 
very imperfect. There has never been prosecuted any inquiry in 
which those having a special knowledge of the business of conduct- 
ing street railways have taken part. It was suggested that we 
might well devote some time to those facts to the end that the truth 
should be ascertained. 

I believe that it is for us to take some measures at this time to 
ascertain the facts, to the end that if we do no more we will 
contribute those facts to the discussion that is up. Since the Phila- 
delphia convention, in many municipalities in this country the ques- 
tion of the public ownership of the public utilities in the different 
states has been made the principal topic and the principal issue in 
municipal elections. 

The National Civic Federation in the United States has recently 
appointed a committee to make an investigation into municipal 
ownership, both in this country and Europe, and in making that in- 
vestigation to go into everything affecting it, the social conditions, 
financial conditions, and everything that affects the case, both here 
and there, to the end that the Civic Federation maj inform itself 
upon the merits of the case and take whatever action it ma\ deem 
desirable or best. Within the last few weeks there have been some 
conferences on our part with some of the sub-committee of the 
Civic Federation, looking to some kind of co-operative effort on our 
part to work in connection with that investigation. It is believed 
that in some way this could be done, so that we would in a proper 
manner be represented in or about the investigation, which might 
be pregnant with great results, either of benefit or of injury to our 
business. That is about the situation, so far as any action or con- 
templated action on our part, touching the question of municipal 
ownership. 

There are other questions of great importance affecting our busi- 
ness which it would seem ought to be carefully considered from 
year to year by this association, and it is not only upon technical 
matters but upon these broad problems of the day that the work 
of this association should be exerted. Concerning the question of 
statutory law, and the possibility of effort from one part of the 
country being judiciously exerted in another part of the country, 
let me say that within the last three days there has come into the 
secretary's office in New York an inquiry from a very large street 
railway company concerning certain legislation that is proposed in a 
neighboring state. The inquiry will call upon the secretary's office 
for considerable work and considerable information concerning the 
status of statutory grants in this country. I undertake to say that 
there are large financial interests in the city of Boston that would 
have been very materially assisted in their investments in street 
railway properties outside of this state, if there had been uniformity 
of the laws regulating such corporations and granting them their 
rights. There are states where it is impossible to obtain for an 
interurban railroad, no matter how greatly the public need may 



Jan. IS, 1906.] 



STUKKT K \II-W \Y KK\ 1K\Y 



39 



demand it, a franchise for a longer term than 20, or 25 years. 
While that is not the condition in Massachusetts, or perhaps in 
any New England state, there are other things that are present in 
this section of the country not present in those sections, and things 
of hcnefit present there that perhaps may not be present here. Co- 
operation and intelligent investigation in the work must, it seems, 
be of great benefit to all of us. 

I have said that which I came to say; I dp not wish unduly to 
detain you. The new form of organization is afloat ; it must be 
supported, or it will fail. Tts officers have entered upon the work 
of the year with a pledge to you and -to themselves that they will 
do their duty to the uttermost and as best they may ; but we may 
have a secretary's office in New York ; it may be well equipped, and 
it may stay there until doomsday, but it will be of no avail unless 
it has your hearty support. The officers of the association, un- 
aided by a large membership that works hard and earnestly through- 
out the year, can do hardly anything. If we are to have the benefits 
which should come from this organization, all along the line, we 
will only attain them by hard, united work and effort by the mem- 
bers of the street railway fraternity in New England, the Massachu- 
setts association and the New England club, and every form of 
united and co-operative as well as individual work. I thank you 
for your attention, and I trust that we will surely receive the sup- 
port of all who are here, and that the association will receive the 
earnest support of your association and its members. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Ely's address, Mr. Swenson was called 
upon. 

Secretary Swenson's Address. 

With the close of the Philadelphia convention, the work of the 
reorganized association began, and it now becomes my pleasure to 
say a few words as to what the association is doing and what its 
plans are for the future. 

As the name implies, the American Street & Tnterurban Railway 
Association is international in character, its membership comprising 
not only street and interurban railway companies in the United 
States, Canada and Mexico, but also companies which are operating 
such railways in the island possessions of our country. The word 
electric does not appear in the title of the association, as it is an asso- 
ciation of a certain general class of railways, irrespective of the 
means of motive power. The terms "Street" and "Interurban" 
have been considered as covering most comprehensively these classes 
of railways. The term "Street" refers to railways in cities, irre- 
spective of whether they are operated directly on the public high- 
way, on an elevated structure, or in a subway. 

The term "Interurban," as applied to railways operating between 
cities, is quite specific in its usage and relates to the lighter type 
of railways which are now in genera! operated by means of electric 
power. The suburban roads of a city are so closely interrelated 
with the city and interurban lines that they are usually a part of 
one or the other of these systems, so that it was not considered 
necessary to designate them separately. 

The first object of the association, as stated in the constitution, is 
"The discussion and recommendation of methods of construction, 
management and operation of street and interurban railways, and 
of safeguarding the interests of the same." 

The second object is, "The establishment and maintenance of a 
spirit of co-operation among the members, and the encouragement 
of friendly relations between the companies and the public." 

The third object is, "The acquisition of experimental, statistical 
and scientific knowledge relating to the construction, equipment and 
operation of street and interurban railways, and the diffusion of 
this knowledge among the members." 

The membership in the association consists of two classes. The 
active members are the American street and interurban railway 
companies, or lessees, or individual owners of street and inter- 
urban railways. The associate membership consists of individuals, 
co-partnerships and corporations, who are actively identified with 
street and interurban railway interests, and other persons who in 
the opinion of the executive committee have had experience of such 
a nature as to render desirable their connection with the asso- 
ciation. 

The active members must necessarily be considered as primarily 
constituting the association. Tt was for the mutual interests and 
advantages of the street railway companies that the American 
Street Railway Association was formed, and it was primarily for 



the interests of the American street and interurban railways that the 
association was re-organized in September of the present year. 

The associate membership permits of a certain class of indi- 
viduals, co-partnerships and corporations to become connected with 
the association. This is highly desirable, as there are many in- 
stances in which connections of great value to the association and 
to the member companies can be formed in no other way. 

According to the constitution, the headquarters of the association 
is located in the city of New York, and the office of the secretai 
is maintained at the headquarters. This office has been opened 
at No. 60 Wall St., where the association has three rooms on the 
sixth floor, containing 750 sq. ft. of floor area. The representatives 
of the various street railway companies and of the different street 
railway associations of the country will be most cordially received 
at the association headquarters. 

The Accountants' association has been in existence for a pencil 
of eight years and has accomplished much work of importance. 
The Mechanical & Electrical Association was organized three 
years ago. At this year's convention in Philadelphia, its name was 
changed to the American Street & Interurban Railway Engineering 
Association, and the constitution was so altered as to permit of the 
admission of maintenance of way engineers to membership. Tin- 
claim agents' association had its first meeting in St. Louis in 1904. 
and has already performed valuable service. 

The manufacturers' association !s somewhat different from the 
other affiliated associations in that it has no connection with the 
street railway interests directly. Its chief functions are the pro- 
duction of a most commendable exhibit at the annual convention, 
and the establishment and maintenance of mutually advantageous 
relations between the street railway interests and the manufac- 
turers. 

The American Street & Interurban Railway Association is pledged 
to do all in its power to promote the welfare of the affiliated asso- 
ciations which have been organized with its approval to investigate 
technical matters connected with street and interurban railwav 
construction and operation. Each of these affiliated associations 
(this does not include the manufacturers' association') is granted 
financial assistance, and is represented on the executive committee 
of the parent association. In addition, the latter association co- 
operates with the various affiliated associations in the editing, 
printing and binding of their proceedings, and in arranging for 
conventions and suggesting suitable subjects for investigation. It 
also files information for reference and distribution, and in every 
way endeavors to stimulate interest in all of the affiliated asso- 
ciations. 

As in the past, a most important part of the work of the asso- 
ciation will be that done by the various standing committees. These 
committees will consider such questions as are of broad and far- 
reaching influence among the street radway interests of the coun- 
try. A committee of considerable importance in this connection 
will be the committee on papers, which will have the general super- 
vision of all papers presented at the convention. 

The annual conventions will be conducted along the sanir gen 
eral lines as have been prevalent in recent years. The executive 
committee will select the place at which the convention is to be 
held, and will not depend upon the invitation of the local railway 
company to decide this question. 

The various affiliated associations as well as the parent associa- 
tion, have annual reports which this year will each contain from 
300 to 400 pages octavo. The reports of the affiliated associations 
are more or less technical, relating as they do. to the specific fields 
of work for which these associations have been formed. 

The idea of an establishment of an information bureau in con- 
nection with the work of the association, has long been in the 
minds of the members who have been prominent in the work of 
the association. While the companies of greater mileage, for years 
past, have been accumulating information of such value along 
specific lines, the bureau will promote a more general interchange 
of such data between these companies than has been practicable 
up to the present time. Active investigations of such questions as 
insurance, taxation, franchise rights, municipal ownership, accident 
claims, and statutory and municipal laws effecting electric railway 
companies, are either now under way or will soon be taken up. 
The accumulation of data will be immediately available to all mem- 
bers of the association. The companies with greater mileage will 



40 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. i. 



thus be relieved of the constant inquiries of the companies with 
less mileage, and the information thus received, through the secre- 
tary's office, will be of greater value. 

While the comapnies with less mileage can least afford to make 
experiments, they also can least afford to make mistakes. Although 
they may not be vitally interested in municipal ownership, statu- 
tory laws, taxation, and accident claims as are the companies with 
greater mileage, there will be available to them a large fund of 
information resulting from the long practical experience of such 
companies. 

Active work has already been done on the subject of municipal 
ownership. The association will keep in touch with the Municipal 
Ownership Investigating Committee of the National Civic Fed- 
eration. The work of this committee will be most comprehensive 
in its scope, and will be of paramount importance to the electric 
railway interests of the country. 

The subject of insurance is now being considered and the asso- 
ciation has recently co-operated with the Fire Underwriters on the 
revision of the National Electric Code. 

It is the purpose of the association to issue bulletins at frequent 
intervals which will contain information concerning different mat- 
ters of interest to members of the association. These bulletins 
will be the means of disseminating the data compiled at the asso- 
ciation headquarters in connection with the various investigations 
carried on from time to time. 

An important feature worthy of careful consideration is the scale 
of annus 1 dues payable by active members. It is based upon the 
annual gross receipts, and represents the best judgment of the 
reorganized committee. While the new scale of dues is radically 
different from the old method of assessment, it has had the most 
careful consideration of the members of the association. It is be- 
lieved to be fair and equitable to all classes. The association is 
taking its place among similar national organizations and the new 
conditions of operation resulting in increased usefulness, require 
larger expenditures than have been necessary in the past. Calcu- 
lations based on last year's membership, show that approximately 
$20,000 income may be expected the first year. This sum is none 
too large to carry on the important work now under way. 

A number of associations have been organized at various times 
throughout this country and Canada, and many of them are now 
in a flourishing condition and are doing much work that is of great 
value. Prominent among these organizations are the state asso- 
ciations of Massachusetts and New York, the New England Street 
Railway Club, the Canadian association and the interurban asso- 
ciations of Ohio and Indiana. A number of ways may he sug- 
gested in which these associations could co-operate with the national 
organization to the advantage of all concerned. 

A scheme of inter-relation which has worked out most profitably 
among other organizations having mutual interests, is that of an 
association composed of the secretaries of the individual associa- 
tions. By this scheme, the secretaries of the various associations 
meet at stated intervals and discuss various matters of interest to 
the different associations. 

While many ' of the state associations have not yet arrived at 
the point where they have found it advisable to publish their annual 
reports, in many cases this will follow as a natural result of their 
future development. Several of these associations are now pub- 
lishing their proceedings, a notable example being the New York 
State Street Railway Association. A scheme of interchange of 
the publications at the various associations might prove to be of 
great value to the members. 

In order to make the papers of the various associations of greater 
value to electric railway people throughout the country, it would 
be well to have some general committee which would confer as to 
the papers to be presented and discussed at the meetings of the 
various associations. 

Special investigations relating to different problems could be 
delegated to certain state associations which would see that inves- 
tigations were carried out, and that the data obtained would be 
placed in proper form for publication. By means of bulletins, this 
information could be sent to the members of the different asso- 
ciations. 

In connection with the general conference on papers, it could 
be arranged that certain special topics would be considered by the 
various associations at given meetings. To the end that the various 



associations might become more closely related, it would be ad- 
visable for this association to be represented at the annual con- 
vention of each of the other associations. 

In concluding my remarks on the association and the work to be 
done now and in the future, I wish to repeat what has been so 
forcibly brought to your attention by our president ; that the Amet ■ 
ican Street & Interurban Railway Association is now entering a 
sphere of greater usefulness than has heretofore been possible, and 
that it is vitally essentia] that its membership be largely increased, 
to the end that the greatest value and good be received by all com- 
panies. 

The American Street & Interurban Railway Association does not 
belong to any one interest, or to any dozen interests. It is not the 
result of the ideas of one individual or of the ideas of a dozen 
individuals. 

It is not the offspring of the president, although he has given 
much attention to it in the past, and is devoting much valuable 
thought and attention to it at the present period of its existence. 
Neither is it run for the benefit of one interest or set of interests. 

The reorganization of the organization, is the result of the 
labor of many persons throughout a period of more than two years; 
work undertaken and proceeded with throughout as of paramount 
importance to the street and interurban railway profession. Many 
busy men of large affairs have contributed greatly of their valuable 
time, and of their still more valuable experience and judgment. 

The executive committee, the president and all associated with 
them, stand ready to do everything in their power to make the 
work of the association of value to its members, but the success 
of their efforts must depend upon the street railway companies. It 
is your association, it is yours to make successful, it is yours to 
reap the benefits. 



Personal. 



MR. G. H. HUSTIS, formerly auditor of disbursements of the 
Michigan Central Ry., has been appointed general auditor of the 
Lackawanna Ry. to succeed 0. C. Post, deceased. 

MR. R. T. BELL has been made assistant superintendent of the 
Illinois Traction Co., at Urbana, 111. Mr. S. Stuckey has been ap- 
pointed chief engineer at the company's power house in the same 
city. 

MR. ROBERT I. TODD, general manager of the Rhode Island 
Co., which operates the majority of electric trolley lines in that state, 
has resigned to become general manager of the Indianapolis Trac- 
tion & Terminal Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 

MR. ARTHUR HOLLAND, who has for a number of years 
been president of the United Railroads, San Francisco, Cal., has re- 
signed from the company. Mr. Holland has long been an inde- 
fatigable worker for the company's interests. 

MR. ABEL I. CULVER, vice-president of the Delaware & Hud- 
son Co., has recently been elected vice-president and a director of 
the Albany United Traction Co., to fill the vacancy caused by the 
resignation of Francis N. Mann, Jr., of Troy. 

MR. EDGAR SPEYER has been appointed to succeed the late 
Mr. Charles T. Yerkes as chairman of the London Underground 
Electric Rys. Mr. Speyer is a member of the banking firm by that 
name, the parent house of which is in Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
Germany. 

MR. H. T. EDGAR has been made manager of the Northern 
Texas Traction Co., his appointment taking effect Dec. I, 1905. Mt 
Edgar's first official act was a thorough investigation of certain de- 
partments of the road which will lead to a number of improvements 
in the service of the company. 

MR. JOHN W. LIEB, JR., has been appointed trustee of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engineers, to represent the insti- 
tute for a term of three years, upon the board of trustees of the 
United Engineering Society, invested with the care and administra- 
tion of the new United Engineering Building. 

MR. HENRY C. EBERT, assistant to the third vice-president of 
the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., has resigned his 
position to become the president of the Cincinnati Car Co. and 
vice-president of the Ohio Traction Co. Mr. Ebert's connection with 
the Westinghouse Co. dates back about 15 years. He has suc- 
cessively occupied the positions of superintendent of construction, 



Jan. is, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



41 



chief of the correspondence department, assistant to the manager of 
the works, and lastly, assistant to the third vice-president. Mr. 
Ebert enjoys a wide acquaintance among the electrical fraternity. 

MR. J. S. HAMLIN, of the St. Louis Car Co.. has resigned his 
position to become identified with the Ohio Brass Co., of Mans- 
field, O. Previous to his connection with the St. Louis Car Co.. 
Mr. Hamlin was for the greater part of eight years preceding as- 
sociated with the National Electric Co. He will be located at 
Marsfield, O. 

MR. C. O. SIMPSON has been elected general manager of the 
Little Rock Railway & Electric Co., of Little Rock, Ark., to suc- 
ceed Mr. J. A. Trawick. Mr. Simpson has been in Little Rock for 
nearly two months past, and he takes charge of the street railway 
system, thoroughly familiar with all its details. 

MR. S. C. SCHENCK has recently resigned his position with the 
New York office of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., 
where he was connected with the street railway department, to 
accept the position of general manager of the Sterling Varnish Co., 
of Pittsburg, Pa., where he will be located permanently. 

MR. R. D. GILLETT has been elected president of the Western 
Massachusetts and Woronoco Street railways, to succeed Mr. James 
H. Bryan. Mr. Gillett has been connected with the Woronoco com- 
pany since 1885, when he was elected secretary and general manager 
on the consolidation of the Highland and Woronoco companies. 

MR. A. W. LEONARD, manager of the Electric Light & Street 
Railway Co., of Houghton, Mich., has been appointed manager of 
the Minneapolis General Electric Co., to succeed Mr. A. M. Robert- 
son. Mr. Robertson's resignation is announced and he retires imme- 
diately. Mr. Leonard has been with the Houghton companies for 
three years, and has proved himself to be a capable and popular 
manager. 

MR. J. C. ROTHERY has recently resigned his position as super- 
intendent of the Niagara Falls division of the International Rail- 
way Co. and will take charge of one of the properties of the Ohio 
Finance Co. Previous to Mr. Rothery's departure the employes of 
the International Railway Co. presented him with a silver service 
of 78 pieces. Mr. N. P. Baker will succeed Mr. Rothery as division 
superintendent of the International Railway Co. 

MR. JOHN LORENZ, who has for the past three years been 
the general manager of the Jackson Electric Railway. Light & 
Power Co., at Jackson, Mo., has tendered his resignation. Mr. 
Lorenz will become president of the Jackson, Clinton & Western 
Traction Co., which proposes to build an interurban line from 
Jackson to Clinton, Mo. Mr. Lorenz has had a wide experience in 
handling such properties and is a successful manager. 

MR. HUGH McGOWAN has resigned from the management of 
the Indiana Traction & Terminal Co., in order to devote his atten- 
tion to perfecting the merger of nine Indiana and six Ohio interur- 
ban companies, plans for which have been forming for some time. 
Mr. McGowan will act as president of the Indiana companies and 
will also retain his position as president of the Indianapolis Traction 
& Terminal Co., thus keeping in close touch with its affairs. 

MR. J. A. BRETT, formerly manager of the railway department 
in the Chicago office of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Co., has been transferred to the company's Cincinnati office. Mr. 
Charles W. Regester, formerly in charge of the Cincinnati business, 
has succeeded Mr. Brett in the Chicago office. Mr. Brett has been 
with the Westinghouse company for a year and previous to that time 
was general manager of the Electrical Installation Co., Chicago. 

MR. S. R. DUNBAR, passenger agent of the Indiana Union 
Traction Co., has announced his resignation. In the resignation of 
Mr. Dunbar the traction company loses one of its most efficient of- 
ficials. He has been with the company over three years and during 
that time has surrounded himself with lasting friends who will re- 
gret his departure. It is stated that Mr. Dunbar will associate with 
E. K. Dunbar & Co., of Boston, Mass., which firm does a genera! 
brokerage business in the East. 

MR. LOUIS L. SMITH, who was for several years superin- 
tendent of the Burlington brass foundry, Aurora, 111., has recently 
been placed in charge of the street railway system of Schenectady, 
N. Y., now owned by the Vanderbilt-Andrews Syndicate. Mr. 
Smith was with the Great Western R. R. about seven years ago, 
where he held a responsible position in the company's shops at 01- 
wein, la. A few years later he became master mechanic of the 
New Hampshire Traction Co., at Haverhill, Mass. 



MR. G. T. ROGERS, president and Mr. J. P. E. Clark, general 
manager of the Binghamton Railway Co., were the recipients of 
handsome Christmas presents from the employes of the company. 
Mr. Rogers was presented with an ebony gold-headed cane and 
Mr. Clark with a gold watch. Mr. Rogers and Mr. Clark have been 
with the company for 16 years, and the presentation of the gifts 
expresses the very pleasant relations which exist between these 
gentlemen and the employes of the company. 

MR. L. H. REIST, joint passenger agent of the Dayton & Troy 
and Western Ohio Traction lines, has resigned. Mr. Reist has 
acted in the capacity of passenger agent for these two lines for 
about two years. He was the first passenger agent of any traction 
line in the United States and thus may be accounted a pioneer in 
that work. He has been remarkably successful and has done much 
to build up the through business of these lines. It is Mr. Reist's in- 
tention to go to New York City, where he expects to return to the 
theatrical business. 

SIR GEORGE GIBB. general manager of the Northeastern 
R. R., has been elected deputy chairman and managing director of 
the London Underground Electric Rys. and chairman and manag- 
ing director of the Metropolitan District Railway Co., which offices 
were made vacant by the death of Mr. Charles T. Yerkes. Sir 
George Gibb has been general manager of the Northeastern railroad 
since 1891 and is well known in the financial circles of Great Britain. 
He was a member of the committee on the reorganization of the 
war office in 1901 and of the royal commission on London traffic 
in 1903. 



Obituary. 



MISS C. A. BAKER, who has been associated with the Baker 
Car Heating Co., New York City, since the death of her father, Mr. 
William C. Baker, died December 6th. Miss Baker was for five 
years in charge of the management of the company. 

MR. FREDERICK UHLMANN died December 13th in his 56th 
year, at his New York home. Mr. Uhlmann was president of the 
Brooklyn Elevated Railroad Co. and the receiver of the system dur- 
ing the period of its reorganization and up to the time of its 
merger with the Brooklyn Rapid Transit System. At the time of 
his death he was president of the Hinckel Brewing Co., of Al- 
bany, N. Y. 



Consolidation of the Metropolitan and Inter- 
borough Companies. 



The Interborough Rapid Transit Co., the Metropolitan Street 
Railway Co. and the Metropolitan Securities Co., of New York- 
City, are to be consolidated into a new company which it is said 
will issue securities as follows : Common stock amounting to $90 
and 4V2 per cent collateral trust bonds amounting to $200 for every 
share of the Interborough company's stock; 5 per cent cumulative 
preferred stock amounting to $100 and common stock amounting 
to $50 for every share of the Metropolitan Street Railway Co's 
stock; and common stock amounting to $85 for every share of the 
Metropolitan Securities Co's. stock with $75 per share paid. 

The Metropolitan Securities Co. has a capital of $30,000,000. It 
owns all the stock of the New York City Railway Co., which leases 
the Metropolitan Street Railway Co's. property. The Metropolitan 
Street Railway Co. has a capital of $52,000,000 and it operate- ju 
miles of street railway, including 393 miles of electric railway. The 
Interborough company has a capital of $35,000,000. It operates the 
Rapid Transit Subway in New York and it leases the property of 
the Manhattan Railway Co. It operates 58 miles of electric railway. 

It is believed that the new company will build new subways and 
elevated lines, and that it will bring about an improvement in the 
street car service in New York City. It is already predicted that 
an independent traction company will be formed within a month 
and that it will bid upon the new routes laid out by the Rapid 
Transit Commission. The consolidation means smaller operating 
expenses and this will benefit the stockholders. The New York 
City Railway Co. reported a deficit of $2,796,942 at the end of its 
last fiscal year, while the Interborough company has a surplus of 
some $2,000,000. 



42 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. i. 



New Lima-Findlay Division of the Western 
Ohio Railway Co. 

The Lima, Findlay & Toledo Electric Ry., which is to be operated 
in connection with and under the direct management of the Western 
Ohio Railway Co., a description of which appeared in the "Street 
Railway Review," for March, iQo.1, was opened Dec. 30, 1905. On 
account of the physical location of this line and the direct connection 
it makes with the other railroads of Ohio the beginning of its opera- 
tion is an event of especial importance. 

The new line is 31 miles in length and acts as the direct connect- 



joints are connected with Ohio Brass Co. 7-in. soldered bonds and 
four-hole splice bars. The rails are cross-bonded with No. 0000 
copper bonds every 1,300 ft. and wires of the same capacity are 
used in bonding around switches and other special work. 

In the towns of Bluffton and Findlay are large stone quarries 
which makes it possible to use crushed rock for dressing the road 
at a low cost. Already more than one-half of the roadbed has been 
given its first dressing. The track is in good condition for a new 
line and it is believed a rapid schedule can be maintained over it. 

Regular traffic was opened over the line January I, when a two- 
hour schedule was inaugurated. As soon as the track settles, through 




ing link between the north and south lines of Michigan, Ohio and 
Indiana and through its completion makes it possible to travel by 
electricity to and from nearly all parts of these states. 

The franchises for the road were obtained in the towns through 
which it passes three years ago, but the balance of the right of way 
was not secured until the latter part of the year 1904. Active con- 
struction work was begun in January, 1905. 

In locating the road bed, care was taken in the elimination of 
curves and heavy grades. Outside of the corporation limits there 
are but two sharp curves and the radius of one of these will be 



DESIGN OF CENTER SPANS OF VIADUCT OVER TWO STEAM ROADS NEAR LIMA, 

trains from Toledo to Cincinnati will be operated regularly. In 
order to do this the through cars will pass over five different prop- 
1 in s. All ears on the new road make connection at Lima wi'h t' e 
Fort Wayne, Van Wert & Lima Traction Co. and the Western Ohio 
Ry. and at Findlay with the Toledo, Bowling Green & Southern 
Traction Co. and the Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Ry. 

On the new line the trolley and feed wires are supported on 
3§-ft. chestnut poles with minimum 6-in. tops. They are set 7 ft. 
6 in. from the track center, 6 ft. in the ground, 100 ft. apart on 
straight track and 75 ft. on curves. N.o breast plates are used but 



<i — 



''."^ ^ ' " r ~ > ~l 




js^MIHj M — M" 



73'- &" 



PLAN OF NEW SUBSTATIONS WITH LIVING ROOMS. 



lengthened so as to permit a fast schedule. The grades are all 
below I'i per cent, with the exception of the viaduct approaches 
where the grade is 4^ per cent. Both concrete and timber culverts 
and water passes are now in use but the former will be made stand- 
ard. 

Seventy-pound. A. S. C. F. -section. 30-ft. rails are used. These 
rest on 6 x 8-in. x S-ft. hard-wood ties laid with 2-ft. centers. The 



where it is necessary "dead men" and guy wires are used to keep the 
poles in position. The pine arms which carry the three-phase 
transmission line on 7-in. glass insulators, are 4x5 in. x 6 ft. in size 
and are fastened by a y 2 x 13-in. bolt and braced by two ^xl^x 
24-in. galvanized iron braces. The braces are secured by }i x 2 and 
4 -in. lag screws. The lower arms supporting the 400,000 cm. feed 
wire and the two telephone wires, over which the dispatching 



Jan. 15, [906 I 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



43 



is done, are 4x5111x4 ft. in size and fastened to the pole in a 
manner similar to the longer arm. Standard 4-in. pins are used. 

I he "Christy" brackets ami the soldered hangers ire used ex- 
cept within the corporation limits, where there are span wires. 
The trolley is round No. 00 wire suspended 18 ft. aliove the rails 
The trolley supports on the viaduct described later, are made of 
two inch tubular iron and are set so as to give free passage of cars 
of all widths. 

The substations are similar in general design to those on the 
Western Ohio Ry. The buildings are 74 x 38 ft. in floor area and 
have a front elevation of 24 ft. On the first floor provision is made 



facturing Co., Niles, O., and are equipped with 36-in. Schoen solid 
steel wheels, Peckham trucks, Westinghouse type K 14 conii 
National Electric Co. air brakes and there arc four moti 
50-h.p. capacity each. 

A few months ago the Western Ohio Ry. inaugurated a p; 
freight service on all of its lines. This will immedately be exb 
to the Lima-Findlay route. The plan now followed by the com 
pany and the one the management desires to continue is to confine 
this business to a one trip service. The trains leave the terminals 
early in the morning and make the round trip over each division. 
In order to better handle this traffic two trailers constructed on 




ON THE NEW LIMA-FINDLAY DIVISION — WESTEKN OHIO RAILWAY CO. 



for a ticket office, baggage and waiting rooms, and living apart- 
ments for the attendant. In the machine room, which is 40 x 30 ft. 
in size, are two Westinghouse rotaries with the necessary step- 
down transformers. On the Lima-Findlay & Toledo Ry. there are 
two sub-stations such as shown in the plan drawing. One is lo- 
cated at Beaver Dam and the other at Rawson. Each is built of 
brick on concrete foundations and much care was given to the sym- 
metry of their construction so they might prove attractive to look 
at, as well as serviceable. 

Current is brought to the sub-stations on a three-phase high ten- 
sion line from the Western Ohio Ry. power station located at St. 
Marys. The rotaries are of 200-kw. capacity each. The line pressure 
is 33,000 volts. 

The high-tension wires of copper tun directly from the pole line 
to a strain bracket securely bolted to the brick walls, thence through 
12-in. vitrified brick pipe to the high tension switches just inside of 
the machine room. The switches are of home manufacture and are 
operated from the main floor by means of long wooden levers. One 
direct-current feed wire of 400,000 cm. cross section is tapped to 
the trolley at regular intervals. 

The viaduct over the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Ry. and the 
Columbus, Lima & Milwaukee Ry., located just outside of the city 
of Lima, is one of the interesting engineering features of the line. 
It is 1,500 ft. long. The two steel spans over the steam road tracks 
have a combined length of 130 ft. and the steel structures used in 
connecting the wooden approaches to the bridges have a length of 
32 ft., one either side. The trestle incline on the south side is 
672 ft. long and on the north side 528 ft. The viaduct is one of the 
best built structures in this part of the state. It was constructed at 
a great expense so that a grade crossing with the lines which it 
spans might be avoided. There are 76 wooden bents made of 
12 x 12-in. timbers set on 12 x 12-in. sills, each of which in turn rests 
on 4 concrete abutments. Each bent is sway-braced with 3 x 8-in. 
planks and braced longitudinally by 4 x 8-in. timbers. Long leaf 
yellow pine double stringers, 7 x 18 in., in section, are used under 
each rail as a support for the ties. The sills are fastened to the 
cement pillars by J^-in. bolts, set in the concrete at the time of its 
construction. Six bents with steel posts resting on concrete abut- 
ments support the steel spans. 

The cars on this line are the same as are operated on the other 
divisions of the Western Ohio Ry. They are 52'^ ft. long over-all 
and have separate baggage, smoking and main compartments with a 
total seating capacity of 44 people. The company has a number of 
the old cars which it is enlarging and remodeling into the standard 
52^-ft. size. The new cars were made by the Niles Car & Manu- 



the same plans as the motor cars, are now being built in the com- 
pany's shops at Wapakoneta. These cars, when put into service 
with regular trains, will be side-tracked wherever the freight traffic 
is heavy and loaded and unloaded while the other cars of the train 
continue on the run over the division. The building of new freight 
houses in the principal towns is also under consideration by the 
company. 

The Lima-Findlay & Ohio Railway Co. has the same officers a- the 
Western Ohio Railway Co., which is operating the line. They are 
A. E. Akins, president; L. J. Wolf, 1st vice-president; F. D. Car- 
penter, 2nd vice-president and general manager; M. J. Mandel- 
baum, treasurer; H. C. Lang, secretary. The total trackage now 
under control of the Western Ohio Railway Co. is 112 miles con- 
necting the termini. Findlay, Piqua and Celina. Through a run- 
ning track agreement with the Fort Wayne. Van Wert & Lima 
Traction Co., by which the latter's track is operated over from the 
Lima city limits to the city office, the Lima-Findlay cars connect 
directly with the cars running south to Piqua and there with the 
Dayton & Troy Electric Ry., whose interests are in common with 
the Western Ohio Railway Co. 

The ceremonies incident to the opening of the new line were 
very appropriate and were witnessed by many men prominently con- 
nected with street railway properties in Ohio and adjoining states. 
In the evening the guests of the officers of the Lima, Findlay & 
Toledo Electric Ry. were banqueted at one of the Findlay hotel-. 



The Electric Storage Battery Co., Philadelphia. Pa., has received 
an order for a battery installation to be used on the Spokane & 
Inland Ry., Spokane, Wash., the details of which illustrate the 
flexibility of the storage battery. In this instance the battery is 
installed to regulate the fluctuations of a single-phase railway load. 
Power is purchased as three-phase, 60-cycle alternating current. 
from the Washington Water Power Co. on the maximum demand 
basis, and delivered, through motor-generator sets, to the single- 
phase line. Each motor-generator set will be provided with a direct 
current machine mounted on the same shaft and connected to the 
terminals of the battery circuit. The battery charge and discharge 
will be effected by two boosters in the battery circuit operating in 
parallel with each other, each having a capacity equal to one-half 
the maximum output of the battery. These boosters will he con- 
by the Electric Storage Battery Co.'s carbon regulator ad- 
justed so as to be responsive to fluctuations of the alternating cur- 
rent supply, thus causing the battery to keep the fluctuations within 
narrow limits. 



December and January Meetings and Annual Banquet of 
Indiana Electric Railway Association. 



DECEMBER MEETING, INDIANA ELECTRIC RAILWAY 
ASSOCIATION. 



The December meeting of the Indiana Electric Railway Associa- 
tion was called to order at u o'clock a. m., December 14th. by 
President Henry. The association met in the palm room of the 
Clay pool Hotel at Indianapolis. As announced in notices of the 
meeting previously sent out by Secretary White, a delegation of 
about 20 members from the Ohio Interurban Railway Association 
were welcome visitors at this session. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were first read and approved. 
H. A. Nicholl, general manager of the Indiana Union Traction Co., 
then read the following report regarding the establishing of a 
freight bureau : 

"The second meeting of the representatives of the freight de- 
partments of the various roads was held December nth, at 1:30 
p. m. Present: Messrs. Henry, Reynolds, Nicholl, Hixson, Nor- 
veil, Graston, Fletcher, McNown and White. The following reso- 
lutions were passed: 

"Resolved (1), That a freight bureau be established, but having 
no power or authority to fix rates; (2) that the general managers or 
representatives of the several roads meet and formulate plans and 
rules to regulate the joint freight bureau; (3) that a joint freight 
agency at Indianapolis be established. 

"The following matters to be submitted for consideration and 
regulation to the general manager's committee: 

(1) Joint agency expense; (2) rates, percentage, etc.; (3) inter- 
change of cars; (4) inspection; (5) carload and less-than-carload 
shipments. 

"The chair appointed a committee consisting of Messrs. Rey- 
nolds, White and Graston to submit suggestions for suitable trail 
cars. The general managers' committee, consisting of general man- 
agers and other representatives, to consider the above-mentioned 
matters, will meet in Mr. Henry's office, December 18th, at 1 :^o 
p. m." 

Immediately following this report P. J. Mitten, superintendent 
of motive power of the Indiana Union Traction Co., read a paper 
entitled "A Desirable Car for Interurban Service." (This paper 
was published in full on page 872 of the December issue of the 
"Street Railway Review." — Ed.) In the paper Mr. Mitten outlined 
his ideas of a desirable interurban car which should be 60 ft. over 
bumpers, 8 ft. 6 in. wide over sills, 9 ft. 3 in. from floor to under- 
side of ceiling, 10 ft. from underside of sill to top of roof and 
should stand 3 ft. 6 in. from the top of the rail to the underside of 
the sill. He suggested details for the interior divisions of the car 
and for the mechanical construction of the various parts. 

C. D. Emmons, when called upon, opened the discussion, saying 
that in general he agreed with the type of construction as proposed, 
but noted that the baggage compartment had been left out. He 
thought that the design of interurban car which nearly all roads 
sooner or later must accept would have three compartments, set 
apart as baggage, main and smoking compartments respectively. 
He would place the toilet room at the rear of the car and the 
heater in the baggage compartment at the front, with a pipe railing 
to separate the motorman's space from that used for baggage. He 
remarked that the standard passenger car of the Indianapolis & 
Cincinnati Traction Co. met his ideas very closely with the excep- 
tion that he would desire an unobstructed front view. 

II. A. Nicholl suggested the possible design of a car with center 
entrances constructed after the general lines of the private car 
"Martha" of the Indiana Union Traction Co., saying that such con- 
struction has objections from a mechanical standpoint, but is con- 
venient for operation. The car would be single-ended with a small 
motorman's space in front, then the maip passenger compartment 
and toilet room. The baggage compartment containing the heater 
would occupy the rear end of the interior space and the smoking 



compartment would be placed in the center. Such a design would 
give the passengers an unobstructed view ahead of the car. 

Mr. Emmons thought that an 8-ft. 6-in. car was too narrow and 
therefore the seats uncomfortable, stating that his road, the Ft. 
Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Co., has cars 9 ft. wide which 
are hardly wide enough. In many cases wider car construction is 
limited by narrow devil strips and before cars of a suitable width 
can be operated much track reconstruction will be necessary in 
cities. 

Paul H. White, general manager of the Indianapolis & Martins- 
ville Rapid Transit Co., stated that a desirable car for operation 
on one road would hardly suit the needs of other roads. He 
thought that a satisfactory car should be designed with a seating 
capacity no greater than the average maximum traffic demanded, 
thus making a saving in the constant load on the power house with 
regular schedules in operation. Extra crowds could be handled 
with trailers which are lighter and cost much less than motor cars. 
The use of trailers would not interfere with the regular schedule of 
operation if the equipment on the motor cars was designed with 
this scheme in view. The construction of a 60-ft. interurban car 
must be very heavy or it will rack and twist when passing over 
special work and sharp curves, but a 50-ft. car can be made stiff 
on a proportionately lighter design and seems more desirable since 
there are but few roads with traffic heavy enough to keep 60-ft. cars 
well filled. 

C. C. Reynolds, general manager of the Indianapolis & North- 
western Traction Co., which road operates the longest cars enter- 
ing Indianapolis, said that at times it looked ridiculous to carry a 
few passengers in a 60-ft. car, but at other times cars of this length 
were too small. He thought the first cost and maintenance charges 
varied but little between 50 and 60-ft. cars. The 60-ft. cars of this 
company operate satisfactorily around curves of 36-ft. radius in the 
city of Indianapolis. 

Theodore Stebbins of the Ohio association and general manager 
for the receivers of the Appleyard properties in Ohio, when ques- 
tioned, stated that technically speaking the power used by a car 
should be proportional to its weight, but actual tests have shown 
that the rule is not accurate. He said that the design of car pro- 
. posed by Mr. Mitten would hardly suit the needs in western Ohio 
because the roads there, on account of physical conditions, use 
double-ended cars. He favored the use of a light type of car -and 
more of them, citing the case of a road entering Columbus, O. Tbi^ 
road operates 60-ft. cars, sometimes two in a train, in and out 
through the streets of Columbus with no objections from the 
municipality. 

Mr. Stebbins then outlined the present situation in regard to the 
standardizing of the widths of equipment so that the cars of one 
road may operate over any connecting line. He thought that the 
roads of the two neighboring states should maintain the same 
standards and eventually widen the devil strips until through-line 
operation for large equipments is possible. In dividing the interior 
space of cars, provision must be made for handling baggage, but 
the large side doors of a baggage compartment are unsightly and 
perhaps a car can be designed with a special baggage compartment 
under the floor and between the trucks. 

W. G. Irwin favored the providing of a compartment for light 
express matter, saying that sooner or later the electric roads must 
compete with the express companies operating on the steam roads 
by carrying light express matter on passenger trains. 

F. D. Carpenter said that when the cars for his road, the Western 
Ohio Railway Co., were originally purchased they had but two 
compartments. It has since been necessary to splice on an 8-ft. 
baggage compartment, thus making the rebuilt cars 52 ft. 6 in. long. 
These cars are double ended and suit the physical conditions of the 
property. It has been found that the rebuilt cars ride more 
smoothly now that the length has been increased. 



JAN. 15, I906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



45 



C. A. Baldwin, superintendent of transportation, Indiana Union 
Traction Co., thought that the passenger, freight and express service 
should be kept separate. He suggested that combination cars be 
run every other hour between the cars intended for passenger 
service only except at those times of day when the cars are always 
crowded, as at 4, 5 and 6 o'clock in the afternoon. 

S. H. Knight noted that the lengthening of the car by 10 ft. did 
not increase the total weight in direct proportion to the amount of 
passenger space gained. Neither does the lengthening of a car in- 
crease the air resistance, the power house load or the maintenance 
charge to any appreciable amount. 

President Henry said that the earliest types of interurban cars 
had end doors so that passengers could easily pass from one car to 
another. These cars also had smoking compartments, and their 
general design is still maintained by many roads. While he did not 
favor the smoking compartments, the traffic demanded them and so 
they must be supplied. Baggage compartments are required by the 
traffic of nearly all roads and the express matter can be handled in 
the baggage compartments. In a single-ended car he would put the 
heater at the front near the motorman, thus assuring the warming of 
the coldest part of the car. 

Mr. Henry asked for information regarding the use of advertise- 
ments in cars, saying that he would like to have the money which 
the space earned, but did not care to disfigure the cars with the 
signs. With a single-end car he did not favor a front vestibule. 
The length of the car between certain limits seemed unimportant. 
On a branch of his road between Shelbyville and Indianapolis $669 
worth of traffic was handled by three small cars, last Fourth of 
July. The running of small cars in this instance was made neces- 
sary by the limited power supply, but it showed what can be done 
with small cars. Too much attention cannot be paid to the trucks. 
When Mr. Henry bought the first heavy trucks for the Indiana 
Union Traction Co. he looked about for a satisfactory design, but 
not being able to find one, had a special design made which is heavy 
enough to be perfectly safe and uses steel-tired wheels. In the 
latest design of cars for the Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co. 
he had the partitions placed so that the smoking compartment is as 
small as possible, with the partition itself made of glass. Experience 
had shown him that there is much less rowdyism in a smoking com- 
partment when the smokers are in plain sight of the other pas- 
sengers. These cars have a solid partition between the smoking 
and baggage compartments, because the handling of baggage would 
quickly destroy any glass placed in the partition. He did not believe 
that passengers should be given a clear view through the front end 
of the car, because even though it might add to the pleasure of the 
ride, many passengers would have a tendency to offer objections to 
the methods of operation. He would place the toilet room at the 
rear of the car. The operation of trailers tends to increase the 
schedule, and therefore he would operate motor cars in trains when 
traffic demanded, saying that there are, however, times when it is 
not necessary to maintain schedules and rush traffic can be handled 
with trailers. His suggestions for a satisfactory car were that it 
should be as light as consistent with the work required, have the 
best type of truck, plenty of motor capacity, a baggage room con- 
taining the car heater at the front with the smoking and ladies' com- 
partments in their order at the rear. 

Mr. Mitten brought out a new argument for a clear view ahead 
of the passengers, saying that he had seen instances in which people 
who became car sick from riding at the rear end recovered quickly 
if taken to the front end and allowed to look ahead. He thought 
that the heater when placed close to the front windows might create 
a frost on the glass in front of the motorman. 

Mr. White said that he had found that trailers could be operated 
satisfactorily by his motor cars, which are 47 ft. long and equipped 
with four 50-h. p, motors. 

G. H. Kelsay, superintendent of power, Indiana Union Traction 
Co., said that express matter should be handled each hour and 
trunks should be taken care of. He thought it quite possible to 
design a car with a compartment under the floor in which trunks 
and express matter could be carried, as Mr. Stebbins had suggested. 
He would not add to the motorman's duties by asking him to take 
care of the heater, but would put the heater in the baggage compart- 
ment, where the ashes would be least objectionable. He favored an 
unobstructed front view, since it adds to the pleasure of many pas- 



sengers. Trucks for interurban cars should be very strong mechan- 
ically, as they are most important for safety. 

He would build the car with the front vestibule on a continuous 
frame with the body and with the rear vestibule lowered II' 
thought that the interurban cars should be single ended and that the 
additional cost for double-end cars would offset the construction 
cost of Vs. 

M. H. Evans, master mechanic of the Indianapolis I raction & 
Terminal Co., favored single-end cars heated by hot water. The 
frames should be designed stronger, which might perhaps necessitate 
doing away with trap doors and making the floor construction con- 
tinuous from buffer to buffer. A car thus designed could hardly 
be telescoped. He saw no reason why the vestibules could not be 
closed on one side, thus making the car body stiffer. Standards of 
equipment should be developed, using those of the Master Car 
Builders' Association when applicable, stating, for example, that 
there are no standards for couplers, wheel treads, brake shoes and 
brake heads; in fact, all fittings should be simplified. Interurban 
cars should be equipped with four motors, since it had been demon- 
strated that such equipments are maintained at the least cost. 

On the conclusion of the discussion of Mr. Mitten's paper by Mr. 
Evans, President Henry called upon Edward C. Spring, president 
of the Ohio Interuban Railway Association, to address the members 
present. 

Mr. Spring spoke of the desire of the Ohio association for unit} 
of work in the two state associations. At the request of the execu- 
tive committee of the Ohio association he had come to talk with 
President Henry, who desired that he express his errand directly to 
the assembly. Mr. Spring stated the needs for a permanent secre- 
tary who could care for the mileage books, advertising and publicity 
of the different roads. It was important that the interurban roads 
be given more publicity, and this could be done by a permanent 
officer. A suggestion had been made that each road pay the com- 
bined association $50 per year in installments of $5 per month to 
be used for the maintenance of a permanent office. He would 
suggest following in a way the plan of the New England Street 
Railway Club, and asked that the Indiana association take action on 
the question of uniting with the Ohio association. 

The remarks of Mr. Spring were seconded by F. D. Carpenter, 
general manager of the Western Ohio Railway Co. 

C. C. Reynolds moved that a committee of five be appointed to dis- 
cuss with a similar committee from the Ohio association the ques- 
tion of uniting the organizations. The motion was carried, and at 
the suggestion of the members the following committee appointed : 
Charles L. Henry, C. C. Reynolds, C. D. Emmons, Arthur W. Brad\, 
W. G. Irwin. 

As but two questions had been submitted to Mr. Kelsay. chairman 
of the Question Box Committee, these were not taken up, but were 
given to the members to discuss at the next meeting. 

The association then adjourned until January nth. 



FIRST ANNUAL MEETING OF THE INDIANA ELECTRIC 
RAILWAY ASSOCIATION. 



The first annual meeting of the Indiana Electric Railway Associa- 
tion was held at the Claypool Hotel, Indianapolis, on Jan. 11, 1906. 
The meeting was called to order by President Henry at 2:15 p. m. 
In the absence of Paul H. White, F. D. Norveil, Indianapolis & 
Northwestern Traction Co., acted as secretary. Mr. Norveil read 
the minutes of the previous meeting, which were approved as read. 
President Henry suggested that the election of officers be deferred 
until the close of the meeting, and it was then moved that a nom- 
inating committee be appointed. The committee appointed consisted 
of C. D. Emmons, Fort Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Co.; 
H. A. Nicholl, Indiana Union Traction Co.. and A. A. Anderson. 
Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co. 

President Henry then made a report of the action of the com- 
mittee appointed to confer with the Ohio committee on the subject 
of uniting the two associations. The committee from Ohio is com- 
posed of Edward C. Spring, Theodore Stebbins, F. D. Carpenter, 
Harrie P. Clcgg and J. O. Wilson. The Indiana association ap. 
pointed President Henry, Joseph Irwin, A. W. Brady, C. C. 
Reynolds and C. D. Emmons to confer with the Ohio committee. 

President Henry reported that the sense of the joint committee 
meeting was favorable to consolidation and recommended that a 



46 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. i. 



committee of five he appointed on behalf of the Indiana Association 
with power to act. 

II. A. Nicholl moved to adopt the report of the committee and 
that a committee of five be appointed with power to act. The motion 
was carried. 

A. W. Brady said that the joint committee had canvassed the sub- 
ject of consolidation with much care. The committee was unbiased 
and had decided the question upon its merits. Great advantages 
were to be derived from consolidation. The practical usefulness of 
both associations would be much increased and there would be an 
avoidance of waste in thrashing out the same questions in both asso- 
ciations. lie suggested that the appointment of a permanent secre- 
tary would be "I great advantage to all concerned. The secretary- 
would be subject to the call for information of any member of the 
joint association. The objection to, be found in consolidation was 
that the membership would be made so extensive that the place of 
meeting would be difficult to reach. This did not seem to be great 
enough to counterbalance the advantages to be derived. He sug- 
gested that the meetings be held less frequently, as more effort would 
then be made to attend, and that the joint association should be 
known as the Central Electric Railway Association. 

President Spring, of the Ohio association, suggested that the 
method of government of the new association be by the appointment 
of a president and two vice-presidents, one from Indiana and one 
from Ohio. The presidency to alternate between Ohio and Indiana. 
He also suggested that the executive committee be composed of five 
members from Ohio and live from Indiana. He did not think it ad- 
visable to confine the association to Ohio and Indiana and thought 
that membership could be extended to other adjoining states. He 
said that the Ohio association had authorized its committee to act. 

It was regularly moved that a committee be appointed to confer 
with the Ohio committee and that they be given power to act. The 
motion was carried and the original committee was reappointed. 

President Henry then introduced Charles T. Mordock, superin- 
tendent of power, Terre Haute Traction & Light Co., who read a 
paper on "Turbines." In his paper the author described the func- 
tions of a satisfactory turbine and gave a large amount of data re- 
garding turbine construction and operation. 

In the discussion which followed, Geo. H. Kelsay, superintendent 
of power, Indiana Union Traction Co., said that actual practice 
seemed to show that the turbine has little advantage over the recip- 
rocating engine. Some of the good features in the turbine are its 
high speed, small floor space, uniform angular velocity, simpicity of 
operation and small amour.1 t attendance required, lie said that 
the best result from turbine tests that he knew of showed a steam 
consumption of 11.17 lb- per brake h. p., obtained with 28 in. of 
vacuum and 182 degrees of superheat. The best record for a piston 
engi le was 9 lb. of steam per brake h. p. The efficiency of turbines 
depends largely. on the degree of superheat and the vacuum. A high 
vacuum gives a freer passage of steam through the turbine blades 
with less friction. 

Figures were presented illustrating the effect of various degrees 
of superheat. It was stated that a difference of 23 per cent in 
efficiency was obtained when operating with 25 in. of vacuum and 
no superheat as against 28 in. of vacuum and 125 degrees of super- 
heat. 

In answer to the question of whether a turbine was as efficient 
after running four or five years as when first installed, Mr. Nicho'l 
said that he knew of two on the Cleveland & Southwestern Traction 
Co's. road which hail been running two years and were about as 
efficient at the end of that time as when installed He thought that 
turbines were more economical than reciprocating engines under 
any load put upon them. 

.Mr, Mordock said that he could see no reason why a turbine 
should not be as efficient after running a reasonable period of time 
■is at the beginning, and that result- obtained under his observation 
bore him out in this statement. 

When questioned as to the cost of turbines Mr. Mordock said 
that a 500-kw. turbine cost about $1,900, and that a 1.500-kw. turbine 
cos6> about $4,100 complete. 

Mr. Henry said that the engineer had wandered away, but was 
gradually coming back to first principles. He thought turbines were 
especially adapted to the generating of electricity, one reason being 
that greater armature speed is obtained than with reciprocating 
engines. 



President Henry then announced that the Question Box would 
next come before the meeting. 

Mr. Kelsay read the following question: Is a conductor on an 
electric car liable for embezzlement under the Indiana statutes in case 
he finds a ticket upon the street or in his car and gives it away to 
be used by a passenger? 

Mr. Brady, who had been asked to lead the discussion, said that 
it was his opinion that the conductor in this case would be liable 
for embezzlement. He then read the following question: What 
amount is legal tender for the payment of fare, and has the con- 
ductor the right on receipt of a $20 bill in payment of a 20-cent fare 
to give the passenger an order on the company for $19.80? He 
thought that the conductor was well within his rights in doing this, 
and that if the purpose of the passenger was to annoy the conductor, 
that the conductor had adopted a course to be commended. He said 
tiiat the question of the proper amount to be tendered in payment of 
fare was a difficult one which could only be solved by common 
sense principles. He thought it the duty of passengers to tender 
as nearly as possible the exact amount due, and that the question in 
relation to the interurban road differed from its application to 
street railways in the fact that interurban c impanies charged higher 
rates of fare. 

Mr. Kelsay then read the following question: Have the inter- 
urban and street railway companies become sufficiently numerous 
and wealthy as to make it possible to reduce the important items of 
insurance premiums by the formation of a mutual insurance com- 
pany similar to the well-known factory mutual insurance associa- 
tions which takes care of a certain line of risks? This question was 
referred to Mr. Nicholl. 

Mr. Norveil then made an announcement regarding the banquet 
which was to be held at 6 o'clock. 

President Henry announced that Paul H. White had severed his 
connection with the traction work and gone into other fields of 
labor, and that Mr. Norveil had taken up the work on very short 
notice. 

The committee on nominations then reported the following list of 
nominees: C. L. Henry, president; A. W. Brady, vice-president; 
F. D. Norveil, secretary; W. F. Milholland, treasurer. Executive 
committee, H. A. Nicholl, C. C. Reynolds and G. F. Wells. Finance 
committee, Chas. Murdock and W. G. Irwin. 

The report of the committee was adopted and the secretary was 
instructed to cast a unanimous ballot. 

F. M. Fauvre, Indianapolis & Eastern Railway Co., moved that 
a vote of thanks be accorded to the efficers and members of the com- 
mittees for their work during the past year. The report of the 
treasurer was read. The finances of the association showed a good 
balance. The meeting adjourned at 4 p. m. 

At the close of the meeting the joint committee on consolidation 
went into session and it was then decided that the consolidation be 
effected. The final plans for this action will be arranged at the 
coming meeting of the Ohio association at Dayton, Ohio, on Jan- 
uary 25th. At this meeting the following list of officers for the joint 
association will be recommended; President E. C. Spring, Ohio; 
vice-presidents, F. D. Carpenter, Ohio, and C. L. Henry. Indiana ; 
Measurer, W. F. Milholland, Indiana. It will be further recommended 
that an executive committee of 13 members lie appointed, consisting 
of the president, and the two vice-presidents, ex-officio, the other 
members to he appointed by the joint association. The permanent 
secretary will le selected by the joint organization. 
Annual Banquet. 

At 6 p. m. a very elaborate banquet was served in the ladies' 
dining room on the second floor of the Claypool Hotel. A. W. 
Brady acted as toastmaster-. In his opening remarks, Mr. Brady 
referred to the banquet as the wake of the Indiana association. 
He spoke of the growth of the association and said that it had 
much to be proud of. He then introduced as the speaker of the 
evening the Hon. Chas. L. Henry, whom he referred to as a pioneer 
in Indiana electric railway enterprise. Mr. Henry's address follows: 
President I E-enry's address. 

Mr. Toastmaster and Gentlemen : 

Tonight closes the first year of the organization of the Indiana 
Electric Railway Association. During the year we have lost from 
our midst our first vice-president, J. W. Chipman, of the Indian- 
apolis & Eastern line, the man who more than any other was in- 



Jan. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVJKW 



47 



strumental in bringing about the organization of this association. 
Mr. Chipman was an energetic, capable and earnest officer of his 
company, and very early appreciated the advantages to be gained 
by an association such as ours for the discussion and consideration 
of questions of mutual interest. He was genial in manner, a pleasant 
companion and a safe counseler in all matters pertaining to our 
business. His untimely demise deprived his interurban company of 
an efficient officer and this association of one of its most desirable 
members. 

During the year, also, we have lost, by removal from the state, one 
of our executive committee, Mr. A. L. Drum, who has gone into other 
fields of labor; but to take his place we are fortunate in having with 
us tonight Mr. H. A. Nicholl, who succeeds Mr. Drum with the 
Indiana Union Traction Co. 

And tonight, as the year closes. I deem it wise that we should 
look back, take our bearings, and see what has been accomplished. 

Our organization, itself young in months, represents an industry 
still young in years. The first successful operation of an electric 
railway in this country was in the city of Richmond, Va., in Jan- 
uary of the year 1889. Not long after this the railway in the city 
of Lafayette, Ind., the first in the state, was equipped electrically. 
Soon afterward the Fairview Park line in Indianapolis was operated 
with electric cars, and other electric railway plants followed in 
quick succession. 

While the improvements in and developments of electric lines that 
are purely street railway properties are very interesting and in- 
structive, I shall confine my remarks chiefly to the development of 
the interurban electric railway service. 

I first became interested in electric railways in the fall of 1891 in 
the city of Anderson, and soon thereafter began to contemplate the 
possibilities of interurban electric railways. 

Being quite well acquainted with the situation in southwest Mis- 
souri, my first idea was to connect the cities of Joplin, Webb City 
and Carthage with an electric railway, and in November, 1902, I 
visited those cities with a view to working up the project. I suc- 
ceeded in getting a contract for the Carthage Street Ry., then a 
horse line, but failed to obtain a contract for the Webb City or 
Joplin properties. After several months of vain endeavor to accom- 
plish this, and having the subject strongly impressed upon my mind, 
I took up the idea of interurban service between what were known 
as the Gas Belt Cities in Indiana. 

The panic of 1893 brought everything to a standstill, and for many 
months nothing was done. 

In the winter of 1893-4 I made the first estimate of cost and 
prospective earnings, together with a blue print map covering the 
lines from Anderson to Marion, Anderson to Elwood, and Muncie 
via Anderson to Indianapolis, exactly as they were afterwards built 
except that the line to Elwood was first planned to run througn 
Frankton instead of west from Alexandria as it was finally built. 

Soon after, I commenced securing options on land for a private 
right of way for a line from Anderson to Alexandria, and from 
Anderson to Elwood. The possibilities of the enterprise constantly 
grew on me, but I could not convince any one able to furnish the 
necessary capital that it would be a profitable venture, so that no 
substantial progress had been made when the financial depression 
incident to the great political campaign of 1896 spread over the 
country, paralyzing all business enterprises. 

In the meantime the desirability of interurban electric railway 
service had attracted the attention of many other people. Among 
these was one Noah J. Clodfelter, wdio took up the project of build- 
ing a line from Indianapolis via Anderson to Marion, and was much 
heard of in the public prints during the next few years, and finally 
in the year 189S he did some work toward building a line from 
Marion south to Fairmount, and laid rail in the city of Fairmount, 
which afterwards passed by receiver's sale to the Marion Street Rail- 
way Co. and was used as a part of the line built by that company 
from Marion via Fairmount to Summitville. 

In September, 1897, I organized the original "Union Traction Co." 
and commenced the construction of an interurban line from Ander- 
son to Alexandria, and on the first day of January, 1S98, the first 
interurban car in Indiana ran from the city of Anderson to the city 
of Alexandria, a distance of 11 miles. Early the next year this road 
was extended to Summitville, making a total distance of 17 miles, 
at which point connection was afterwards made by the line built 
from Marion south by the Marion Street Railway Co., a like distance 



of 17 miles, gi\ ing a 1 ontinuous line ol 
Marion, but owned by two different compani 

At this point I desire to call attention to thi Fact, which should 
be known and not forgotten, that it was an Indiana man, Philip 
Matter, of Marion, who loaned me the money necessary to com- 
mence the first interurban line, and that another Indiana man. John 
P. Frenzel, president of the Indiana Trust Co . bought the firsl bonds 
to the amount of $450,000 issued upon the property of the Union 
Traction Co., which then included by consolidation the electric lines 
in the city <>f Andei ion 

Much has been said about outside capital, and much credit is due 
to outside capital in the development of our state, but I take pleasure 
in calling attention to the fact that Indiana men firsl loaned Indiana 
in. ii' \ to commence the development of Indiana interurban railroads. 

The successful operation of the cars on this firsl ction of the 
interurban system induced me to take up with my friend. Georgi 
McCullough, of Muncie, who then owned the electric railway in that 
city, tin proposition of joining our interests and building a line 
from Muncie via Anderson to Indianapolis. 

Fortunate indeed for the future of electric railways in Indiana 
there came to Indiana on New Year's Day. 189-;, that broad-minded 
gentleman, Mr. Hugh J. McGowan. Coming as the representative 
of the Dolan-Morgan Syndicate, which had recently purchased the 
Indianapolis Street Rys., he at once commenced the development of 
that system and soon made it the best city railwaj system in the 
United States. Mr. E. M. Campbell, of this city, introduced me to 
Mr. McGowan soon after he came among us, and to him I presented 
the interurban project under consideration, and later, through his 
introduction, Mr. McCullough and I took up the matter with Mr. 
Randall Morgan, of Philadelphia. 

After a full presentation of the matter, Mr. Morgan had a thor- 
ough inspection of the property made by Mr. David Young, of Jersey 
City, and agreed to join with us in the organization of the Union 
Traction Co., of Indiana, a consolidated company which would 
embrace the electric lines in the cities of Muncie, Marion, Anderson 
and Elwood, and interurban lines connecting, and including the pro- 
posed line from Muncie via Anderson to Indianapolis. The final 
organization of this consolidated company was completed late in the 
month of June, 1899, and work was at once commenced on the con- 
struction of the Muncie-Indianapolis line, and or. the 4th day of 
January, 1901, the line was completed and its first car ran into the 
city of Indianapolis. 

In the meantime the line from Alexandria to Elwood had been 
completed, and the system as planned in 1S93 was at last a reality, 
just 3 years and 3 days from the time the first car ran from Ander- 
son to Alexandria. 

Soon after this, in March, 1901, I sold my interest in the Union 
Traction Co., of Indiana and ceased to be its general manager. 
The subsequent development of the system is a story for others to 
tell. 

Lo iking forward to the completion of the line into [ndi map ilis, as 
early as 1894 I took up the subject of a contract with the local com- 
pany for running cars into this city, and in February, 1S95, I secured 
a contract with the Citizens' Street Railway Co.. then controlled by 
what was known as the McKee & Verner Syndicate, of Pittsburg. 
The contract was executed by Augustus L. Mason as president of 
the city 1 ompany, and by me for the benefit of the interurban com- 
pany thereafter to be organized. It provided that the city company 
should take charge of the cars at the city limits, collect and retain 
the city fares, and re-deliver the cars to our company again at the 
city limits. It also provided fur the handling of mail, express matter 
and freight upon terms as to price to be thereafter agreed upon, 
and upon failure to agree, then to be fixed by arbitration. 

At this point 1 desire to call attention to the fact that the first 
corporation formed for the building of an interurban electric railway 
was the Indianapolis, Greenwood & Franklin Railroad Co., organized 
Nov. 9, 1894, under the steam railroad law, and being prom - 
Henry L. Smith, of this city. The road from Indianapolis to Green- 
wood was afterwards built by this same organization under the 
ownership of Joseph I. and Wm. G. Irwin, of Columbus, Ind., 
who took charge of the company in June, 1899, and it was this 
road that ran the first interurban car into Indianapolis on the 1st 
day of January. 1900. This company was succeeded by the Indian- 
apolis, Columbus & Southern Traction Co.. owned and controlled by 
the Messrs. Irwin. 



48 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. i. 



The building and equipment of the first interurban lines presented 
many interesting questions. Perhaps the most serious in the begin- 
ning was the distribution of power, for at that time the idea of one 
central power station transmitting current at high voltage to various 
sub-stations, where the voltage should be reduced, had not been 
tried. In the power station at Anderson, in order to enable us to 
have sufficient voltage on the Alexandria-Summitville section of our 
road, we installed what was known as a "booster," which was a 
generator developing electric current at 750 volts This we trans- 
mitted by a separate line to the Alexandria-Summitville section, and 
the drop of the voltage by transmission was sufficient to give us ap- 
proximately 500 volts on that part of the line. 

When the Union Traction Co., of Indiana, was formed the great 
central power station at Anderson was erected with sub-stations, a 
sj stem which has since been generally followed. 

The wonderful growth of the electric railway business is illus- 
trated by the fact that the first generator equipment in the Anderson 
station in the fall of 1891 was a 75-h. p. bi-polar Edison machine 
belted to a 125-h. p. corliss engine, operating 2 cars on a 2-mile run 
to North Anderson; and that station has grown from this small 
beginning until today it contains five 1,000-kw. direct-connected gen- 
erators, with a combined overload capacity of 7.500 kw., and op- 
erating an entire system of 220 miles of interurban railroad, together 
with about 50 miles of road in the cities touched by it. 

Our first interurban line was to begin with operated by a block 
signal system, but this caused too many long delays, and not prov- 
ing satisfactory the line was soon equipped with telephone service, 
much the same as is now in use. 

We realized that if high speed with heavy cars was to be attained 
it would be necessary to have a more satisfactory brake equipment 
than that operated by hand. For this reason in the original estimate 
covering the equipment proposition, although such a thing was not 
then made, an electric motor driven air compressor was provided 
for, and its estimated price fixed at $750 per car. Since then this 
system of brakes has been brought to perfection and is now common 
on interurban cars. 

Steel tired wheels were also included in this estimate. 

I invented the word "Interurban" for this class of railroads, and 
though it is not perhaps well selected, it has come into general use, 
although not yet found in any of our dictionaries. One of the An- 
derson newspapers becoming piqued at some act on the part of the 
management relating to free transportation, dignified the new name 
by calling it "Inter-Ruben," and this name in jest clung to the road 
quite a while. 

Since those early days the interurban business in Indiana has de 
veloped rapidly until a recent estimate made bv persons in close 
touch with many of the roads, gives us near 1,500 miles of inter- 
urban roads in the state at this time, representing an actual invest- 
ment of approximately $45,000,000. Nine of these roads center in 
the city of Indianapolis, and all receive and discharge their pas- 
sengers in a beautiful terminal station erected bv the Indianapolis 
Traction & Terminal Co., a station unequaled in beauty and con- 
venience in the United States. 

Rapid progress has been made in other parts of the state, notably 
in and about the two cities of Ft. Wayne and South Bend in the 
north, and Lafayette and Terre Haute in the west. 

During the first year of the existence of our association many 
subjects of vital interest have been discussed, this exchange of views 
resulting in great benefit to all departments of the business. As an 
outgrowth of our organization we now have a central passenger 
agency in the terminal station in this city, and at this time the sub- 
ject of a central freight and express agency is being seriously con- 
sidered. Our organization also has to its credit the adoption, along 
with our sister states of Ohio and Michigan, of the interchangeable 
coupon ticket, good on 33 roads in those three states. 

Nearly all of the roads have embarked in the freight and express 
business, but we all concede that this branch of the business is in 
its infancy. 

What the future will bring we can but conjecture. Certain it is 
that if 70 per cent of all the receipts of the steam roads come from 
freight, the interurban traction roads may reasonably expect that 
their income will be greatly augmented if not doubled by a careful 
development of the freight and express business. 

Looking hack and looking forward, judging the future by the past, 
we have a right to expect that while wonderful progress has been 



made in the last eight years, even greater progress will be made in 
the coming eight years. Open links between the various lines will 
be filled; better tracks and road beds constructed; cars more sub- 
stantial and more comfortable will be built; higher speed and greater 
safety attained; and whereas much has been done, much more will 
be done in the development of the great interurban traction business 
in Indiana. 

This association has accomplished much good in the first 12 
months of its existence, and tonight as we gather round this festal 
board let us look into the future with renewed zeal and increased 
knowledge and go forward to the completion of the great task that 
is set before us. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Henry's address Mr. Brady spoke of the 
importance of uniting the traction interests of Indiana and Ohio, 
which, he said, would aid materially in bringing together the people 
of the two states. He said that they were pleased to have with 
them the members of the Ohio association, and called on Mr. C. A. 
Baldwin to welcome them. 

Mr. Baldwin spoke as follows : 
Mr. Toastmaster, our visitors and members of the Indiana Asso- 
ciation : 

In behalf of the Indiana Electrical Railway Association I have 
been asked to welcome you to our meetings. 

For this association, I am glad to say that the first step by you 
to become better acquainted with your Indiana neighbors will re- 
dound to our mutual benefit in many ways. 

I have visited several roads and I have learned that no matter 
how small the road there is always something noticeable that would 
be profitable for a large road to endorse. 

I hope you will all find some things of interest in this trip, and 
by the time you are to again resume your daily routine of duties 
that you will feel that you have profited by attending this, our 
first anniversary meeting. 

Frequent visits and meetings of this kind will have a tendency to 
broaden our views and teach us to work more in unison, so that 
the traveling public from the Buckeye State to Hoosierdom. or vice- 
versa, will not know but that it is all one system. 

I once heard a story of Cornelius Vanderbilt, who was out look- 
ing over his different properties, and asked his young civil en- 
gineer what was the best and cheapest way to maintain a track and 
roadbed. The young man studied for a moment and answered that 
good drainage would be the cheapest. Mr. Vanderbilt then asked 
the young engineer what would be the next cheapest. The young 
man studied for a moment and said, "More drainage." 

So I think if one visit will prove profitable to you, more visits 
will prove more profitable. 

I hope that arrangements can be made in some way whereby such 
meetings as this can be held frequently, and that our mutual rela- 
tions toward each other, socially as well as in a business way, 
will be noticeably strengthened by them. 

Allow me again to welcome you to our meetings. 

Mr. Brady then called on President Spring, of the Ohio associa- 
tion, to tell of the feeling of the Ohio association toward that of 
Indiana and what he thought the future of the joint association 
would contain. 

Mr. Spring said that when he left home that morning to come 
to the meeting his little boy had said to him, "Papa, where are you 
going?" and on being told that Indiana was his father's objective 
point, asked, "Papa, where is Indiana?" His father told him that 
Indiana was the home of his old Aunt Mary, and then he 
knew where Indiana was. Mr. Spring said that the banquet was a 
great surprise to himself and to Mr. Carpenter and that the kind 
words of greeting from Indiana touched him very deeply. He said 
that the delegates had come from Ohio with fear and trembling, 
but that the fear had been dispelled by the expressions of good 
fellowship extended. He congratulated the Indiana association 
upon its decision to combine with Ohio and in turn congratulated 
Ohio upon having, in the future, such an efficient collaborator. He 
said that the eyes of the electrical world were turned upon Indiana 
and Ohio and that the development of the two states would be 
watched. He hoped that when the committee from Indiana came 
to Ohio on January 25th that a new era would be started with the 
watchword, "Indiana and Ohio, One and Inseparable." 

Mr. Brady then said the large portion of the people for which 
the traction companies work believe that their only idea is to plan 



Jan. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



49 



how many more people they can crowd on one car and just how 
unsatisfactory they could make the service. He <aid that they had 
other work to perform in meeting the supply man. At times they 
were welcome and at other times they were not so welcome. When 
they had something with which the traction people wanted they 
were very agreeable men indeed. He called on Mr. Drake to speak 
in behalf of the supply man. 

Mr. Drake expressed his pleasure in speaking and said that the 
supply man was by way of being a specialist. His duty was not 
to educate the public but to supply them with what 
they require. 

Mr. Brady then said that there were two classes of 
unfortunates who served the great public. That no 
matter how hard they tried, the public reviled them 
both. He referred to the street railway people and to 
the newspaper men. He said that the press of Indiana 
was of the utmost importance in the development of 
street railway interests and introduced as the next 
speaker Mr. Ernest Bross, editor of the "Indianapolis 
Star." 

Mr. Bross expressed his appreciation of the honor 
accorded him and wondered whether it was worse to 
be placed at the beginning of the program when one 
did not know what to say than at the end when every- 
body had said what was in one's mind. He spoke of 
the advantages of combination and protested against 
the tyranny of the old established order of conservatism. 

Mr. Brady then called upon Mr. Thistlewaite of the "Indianapolis 
News," who expressed the best wishes of the "News" for the long 
life and prosperity of the joint association. 

The banquet closed with a toast to the peaceful rest of the Indiana 
Electric Railway Association and to the future success of the Cen- 
tral Electric Railway Association. 

■ <-►♦ 

Several Michigan Properties United. 

A syndicate headed by Myron W. Mills, president of the Lansing 
& Suburban Traction Co., George G. Moore, vice-president, and 
James R. Elliott, general manager of the same company, has re- 
cently purchased from the Railways Company General the property 
known as the Michigan Traction Co. The purchase included a total 
of 54 miles of track in the two cities and connecting them. This 
syndicate now controls the Lansing & Suburban Traction Co., 36 
miles; the Jackson & Battle Creek high-speed, third-rail line, 46 
miles, and the new purchase. It is understood that with these prop- 
erties will be affiliated the Jackson & Ann Arbor line, which it is 
expected will be completed to Detroit at an early date. By this 
combination of routes it will be possible to operate through cars 
from Kalamazoo to Detroit, a direct route extending nearly across 
the state of Michigan. The Mills-Moore-Elliott syndicate now has 
under construction a connecting link between Lansing and Jackson, 
which will physically connect all the trackage now controlled. 
James R. Elliott will manage all the properties, E. S. Loomis will be 
superintendent of the line from Jackson to Kalamazoo, J. J. Martin- 
dale, superintendent of the Battle Creek city line, and T. L. Keely, 
superintendent of the Kalamazoo city line. 



New Cars for the Cleveland & Southwestern 
Traction Co. 

The Cleveland & Southwestern Traction Co. has recently received 
from the St. Louis Car Co. 10 new, 51-ft. combination passenger and 
smoking cars. The car has a width of 8 ft. 7 in. over all. The 
height from the rail to the top of the roof is 12 ft. ij/ in. 

The main passenger compartment has an inside length of 22 ft. 
10 in. It contains 15 stationary seats, covered with green plush 




At a recent meeting of the Woronoco Street Railway Co., the 
following officers were elected: President, R. D. Gillett; vice- 
president, R. B. Crane; secretary and treasurer, C. J. Little; general 
manager, A. D. Robinson; attorney, H. W. Ely; directors, R. D. Gil- 
lett, R. B. Crane, C. J. Little, A. D. Robinson, H. W. Ely, J. A. 
Crane, A. W. Eaton, J. H. Bryan and H. C. Page. 



.NEW ST. LOUIS CAR FOR THE CLEVELAND & SOUTHWESTERN TRACTION CO. 

and having high backs with head roll. The seats are furnished with 
mahogany arms and stationary foot rests. The smoking compart- 
ment has a length of 11 ft. 2'/2 in. inside, and has six seats of the 
same type as those in the main passenger compartment, together 
with a sofa placed against the partition. The baggage compartment 
has an inside length of 10 ft. 5,>4 in. and is arranged with one sliding 
door on each side 3 ft. 4 in. wide. Three drop sash are placed in 
the ends of this compartment. 

The interior finish of the cars is mahogany, decorated with mar- 
quetry lines. The ceilings are of Empire design, painted light green 
and decorated with gold lines. The deck sash are made in three 
sections and are glazed with opalescent glass. The end sections are 
made stationary; the center section is arranged to swing. The car 
windows are arranged to raise and have a combination Gothic 
sash, extending over two lower sash, the Gothic sash being made 
with oval tops and glazed with green opalescent glass. 

The framing of these cars is of the company's standard inter- 
urban type. The side sills are of one piece of yellow pine, 8x5 in., 
reinforced with a 6-in. steel channel throughout. The center sills 
are of 6-in I-beams, filled in with yellow pine on each side. The 
intermediate sills are of yellow pine, 4J4 x 6 in. The cross sills are 
of oak, 3 l / 2 x 6 in. The end sills are also of oak, 8 x 5 in. The 
bolsters are of the trussed-plate type. The side frames are rein- 
forced by a heavy steel plate, back of the letter board, extending the 
entire length of the car and connected to steel angles and channels 
in the corner posts, in both the front and rear end of the car. 

A hot water heater is placed next to the partition between the 
baggage and smoking compartments. The control apparatus is lo- 
cated in the front end of the baggage compartment and a heavy 
pipe guard is used to prevent the baggage falling against the motor- 
man. The cars are mounted on the St. Louis Car Co.'s M. C. B. 
No. 61 trucks, with rolled steel wheels and spiral journal bearings. 
The trucks are machine finished throughout. The car equipment 
also includes air brakes, air sanders, a vertical brake wheel, and a 
toilet room in the main passenger compartment. 



The National Civic Federation, 281 Fourth Ave., New York City, 
has undertaken the investigation of municipal ownership in America 
and Europe and a committee of 21 has been appointed to study the 
subject. This committee includes Dr. Albert Shaw, editor of the 
"Review of Reviews," New York City; Mr. Talcott Williams, of the 
editorial staff of the Philadelphia "Press;" Prof. Frank J. Good- 
now, of Columbia University, New York City; Prof. Edward W. 
Bemis, superintendent of water-works, Cleveland, O., and Dr. Milo 
R. Maltbie, of New York City, formerly editor of "Municipal 
Affairs." The last three are on a sub-committee to fornlulate a 
plan for the investigation. 



The Indiana Union Traction Co. has announced, that beginning 
with the current year it will carry free 150 lb. of baggage and 
charge for excess weight about one-fourth the passenger rate. 



The New Hampshire Electric Railway Co., Haverhill, Mass., in 
response to a general demand for coupon mileage ticket books, has 
placed on sale at various points along its lines such a book, con- 
taining coupons for $6 worth of transportation, which is sold for $5. 
This book is good for the use of any person holding and presenting 
it for fare and for the use of any number of persons and will have 
no limit of expiration. The minimum amount of this transportation 
accepted will be two coupons. The book is good on cars of all lines 
controlled by this company. 



50 



STREET RAILWAY REV TEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. I. 



The Single. Phase Electric Locomotives and 

Power Equipment of the St. Clair Tunnel 

Company. 



An arrangement was recently made between the St. Clair Tun- 
nel Co. and the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. for a 
complete electrical installation to operate freight and passenger 
trains through the tunnel under the St. Clair River, which connects 
the American and Canadian divisions of the Grand Trunk Ry. 

The equipment includes a complete power station, feeder and dis- 
tributing system, bridge and pole lines with catenary trolley con- 
struction, track bonding, transformers for power, light and shop 
auxiliary apparatus and electric locomotives. 

Interest centers largely in the locomotives equipped with the 
series-wound single-phase motors. There are to be six similar 
units designed to meet the requirements of the tunnel service. Each 
will weigh approximately 62 tons and will develop a draw-bar pull 
of 25,000 lb. on a 2 per cent grade at a speed of 10 miles per hour. 
It is of the rigid frame type with driving axle boxes held in the same 
frame that contains the draft gear. It will be mounted on three 
pairs of driving wheels which will sustain the entire weight, dis- 
tributed by equalizer liars similar to those used in steam locomotive 
practice, will have an outside frame supported on semi-elliptical 
springs, and will be equipped with Westinghouse friction draft 
gear, M. C. B. automatic couplings, air sanding apparatus, and bump- 
er steps, front and back. The cab will be of sheet steel mounted 
on a framework of iron which will support both walls and roof. 

The principal dimensions will be approximately as follows: Length 
over end sills, 27 ft. 9 in.; rigid wheel base, 12 ft. in.; width over 



lubrication, and are provided with large openings on the low- 
pressure side, giving a thorough lubrication to the entire bearing 
surface. Oil is fed into the reservoirs through openings separate 
from the waste pockets and therefore reaches the waste from below 
and is thoroughly filtered before entering the bearing. 

The motors are swung between the locomotive frame and the 
driving axles by a flexible nose suspension from two hangers sup- 
ported by a truck transom and passing through heavy lugs with 
helical springs above and below the lug. The motors are held to 
the axle by means of caps which are split at an angle of 35 degrees 
with the perpendicular, so that the greater part of the weight is 
borne by solid projections from the motor frame which extend over 
the axle rather than by the cap bolts. Large openings above and 
below provide access to the commutator and brush holders. 

Within the cylinder of the motor frame there is built up a core 
of soft steel punchings, forming a complete laminated field. The 
punchings are dovetailed into the frame and clamped between end 
rings of cast steel. The field coils are wound with copper strap 
insulated between turns and about the coils by mica and finished 
by taping and dipping, and are impregnated with the best grade of 
varnishes, providing a sealed coil which can withstand the most 
severe internal heat and is practically indestructible under the usual 
conditions of heavy railway service 

In addition to the main coils the field carries a neutralizing wind- 
ing which consists of copper bars placed in the slots in the pole 
faces and joined at the ends by connectors of copper strap, so as to 
form one continuous winding which is connected in series with the 
main field winding and with the armature circuit. The magnetizing 
effect of this auxiliary winding is directly opposite to and neutralizes 
that of the armature winding, thus eliminating the effect of armature 



■.■fflB- 



i""~"~*TlBCL 




MAP AND PROFILE OF ST. CLAIR TUNNEL WHICH IS TO BE ELECTRICALLY EQUIPPED. 



all, 9 ft. 6 in.; height from top of rail to top of cab, 12 ft. 6 in.; 
diameter of driving wheels, 62 in. 

The operating apparatus will be arranged along the sides of the 
cab, leaving a free passage-way 3 ft. 6 in. wide the entire length. 
The cab will be lighted and heated by electricity, arrangement being 
made to screen the instrument lights while the locomotive is run- 
ning. . 

Combination automatic and straight air and "American" driver 
brakes will be used. The air supply will be provided by a two- 
cylinder motor-driven air compressor having, with a 5-in. stroke 
and speed of 190 r. p. m., a capacity of 45 cu. ft. of air per minute. 
Air reservoirs, signal outfits, whistle, bell with pneumatic ringers, 
automatic pump governor, tools, instruments, gages, headlights, 
push poles and other details complete the auxiliary equipment. 

A motor will lie geared to each axle, giving each unit an aggre- 
gate rated capacity "t 750 h. p. The motors will be of the single- 
phase alternating-current, series-wound, compensating type. They 
are to be of the same general character as the motors selected by 
the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad Co. for the opera- 
tion of its line between New Haven and New York. Each motor 
will weigh complete approximately 14.500 II)., the armature weighing 
approximately 5,600 lb. 

The motor frame consists of a steel cylinder cast in one piece 
and enclosed at the end by brackets of the same material, which 
carry the bearings and oil reservoirs. The suspension noses and 
safety lugs form a part of the main casting. Seats for the axle 
bearings are cast solid with the frame. All hearings are of phos- 
phor-bronze lined with babbitt and are divided into two parts. They 
are of exceptionally large dimensions, are arranged for oil-waste 



reaction and improving commutation and power factor. The main 
coils can easily be removed without disturbing the auxiliary winding. 

The armature cores are formed of slotted soft steel punchings 
built up upon a spider and keyed in place. The spider is forced upon 
the shaft with heavy pressure and secured by a steel key. Coils 
of copper strap are embedded in the slots and joined to form a 
closed multi-circuit winding which is cross-connected, like the multi- 
circuit winding of a direct-current generator. The basis of the 
insulation is mica. A preventive winding is connected between the 
commutator and the main coils, introducing a preventive action 
which is effective only when the coil is passing under the brush. 

During operation a forced circulation of air supplied by motor- 
driven blowers enters at the rear, distributes itself thoroughly 
throughout the motor and escapes through the perforated cover over 
the commutator. This system of forced ventilation of both motors 
and auxiliary apparatus forms one of the most interesting innova- 
tions in electric railway construction. It secures a maximum output 
from a given weight of material, and a high ratio of continuous 
output to the one-hour motor rating common in railway practice. 
It also provides effective ventilation while the locomotive is not in 
operation, as the blower may be driven while the locomotive is 
standing at the station or at the end of the line. Motors ventilated 
in this manner are enclosed and are thereby protected from internal 
damage by dirt and water and from mechanical injury. 

These motors are wound for 240 volts and 25 cycles per second 
and have a nominal rating of 250 h. p. each, on the basis of usual 
electric railway practice. 

System of Control. 

The essential elements of the control equipment include the col- 



Jan. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



51 



lecting devices, the auto-transformers, the unit switches, the pre- 
ventive coils, the reverser and master controllers. A multi-unit 
system of control is provided with pneumatically operated switches 
and circuit breakers, low voltage control circuit, and other charac- 
teristics standard in Westinghouse practice. Any unit may be con- 
trolled, from either end, and two or more units may be coupled 
together and operated from a single cab and by a single crew. The 
tractive effort which can he readily applied to a single train is 
therefore limited only by the number of units available, and the 
hauling power is limited only by the mechanical strength of the 
coupling between locomotive and cars. A control circuit is carried 
from one unit to the next by means of connecting sockets and jump- 
ers in the usual manner. 

Speed control of the driving motors is secured by variation of 
the voltage at the motors obtained by means of taps taken from the 
winding of the auto-transformer which receives current from the 



the switch next higher, with the result that the motor voltage is 
shifted up one step. By this arrangement the voltage at the motor 
will be completely under the control of the locomotive driver and 
may be varied up and down at will without opening more than one 
quarter of the load current. Small switches in the circuits to the 
magnets of the reversing switches will enable any motor or combi- 
nation of motors to be cut out without disturbing the others. 

Every one of the seventeen controlling collections provides an effi- 
cient running point. This number is ample to prevent any slipping 
of the driving wheels due to increase of current from one notch to 
another. 

Collecting Devices and Overhead Construction. 

Each locomotive unit will be equipped with a pneumatically oper- 
ated pantagraph trolley to collect current from the overhead lines 
outside the tunnel and throughout the yards. The proportions of 
the pantagraph will be such that, when extended, it will make con- 




VIEW OF SINGLE-PHASE MOTOR MOUNTED ON DRIVER AXLE. 



trolley at 3,000 volts and reduces it to 240 volts or lower, according 
to the tap employed. These taps are connected to unit switches 
from which current is led through the preventive coils to the mo- 
tors. Four unit switches serve to reverse the field of each motor. 
The unit switches are of the manufacturer's standard design. 
The mechanism is such that a rolling and sliding contact is obtained 
when the switch closes and opens. The arc is broken at the taps, 
leaving the contact surfaces smooth. Each unit has a magnetic 
blow-out coil with laminated core. The switch cylinders are con- 
trolled by magnetically operated valves, current for which is ob- 
tained from a 50-volt tap from the auto-transformer. The sequence 
of operation is governed by the master controller in conjunction 
with a system of interlocks which prevents short circuit of the steps 
between taps from the auto-transformer or improper operation of 
the controlling mechanism. At any running point four controlling 
switches are closed. Through the preventive coils approximately 
the same amount of current is drawn from each of these switches 
and the leads to which they are connected. To change to a higher 
voltage on the motors, the master controller is moved to the next 
notch, opening the last switch of the group that is closed and closing 



tact with the trolley wire 22 ft. above the rail, and, when closed 
down, the contact shoe will not extend more than 18 in. above 
the roof of the locomotive. 

A No. 000 grooved overhead trolley wire will be suspended from 
a single 5-^-in. steel strand messenger cable by hangers of varying 
length in such a manner that the trolley wire will be approximately 
horizontal. The messenger cable will be swung from structural 
iron bridges located throughout the yards and are of suitable length 
to span the proper number of tracks. There will also be a small 
section of track equipped with a trolley line swung by catenary 
suspension from bracket arms which are supported on lattice-work 
poles. 

Current-Supply. 

For the operation of the electric locomotives a complete power 
plant will be installed by the St. Clair Tunnel Co., including 
two 1,250-kw., 3,300-volt, 3-phase, 25-cyde, 1,500-r. p. m., rotating 
field, steam-turbine units with the necessary complement of switch- 
boards, exciters, lightning protective apparatus, etc. This station 
will also supply current to light the buildings, yards and tunnel, to 
operate motor-driven centrifugal and triplex pumps which drain the 



52 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. i 



tunnel and approaches and operate the sewage system, to run motors 
in the roundhouses and for other purposes. 
Operation. 

The new equipment will handle that portion of the Grand Trunk 
Railway system which connects the divisions terminating at Port 
Huron, Mich., and Sarnia, Out, on opposite sides of the St. Clair 
river. The tunnel proper is 6,032 ft. long and the line to be elec- 
trically operated measures 19,348 ft. from terminal to terminal. 

A pair of the new units will be capable of hauling a 1,000-ton 
train through the tunnel without division. Mechanical considera- 
tions limit the advisable weight of train in the tunnel to these 
.figures. Heavier trains can be divided or sent through together 
with locomotives in front and behind. The service requires that 
each unit shall take a train of 500 tons through the tunnel block 
from summit to summit in fifteen minutes, under the following con- 
ditions: 

It will be coupled to the train on a level track at a point 1,200 ft. 
from the summit and must accelerate it up to a speed of 12 m. p. h. 
in two minutes, at the end of which time it will have reached the 
summit of the grade leading down into the tunnel. It will then 
run down a grade of 2 per cent to the level track in the tunnel 
at a speed not exceeding 25 m. p. h., continue on the practically 
level stretch under the river, and then draw the train up a 2 per cent 
grade at the rate of 10 m. p. h. to the level track beyond the tunnel 
approach on the other side. It must then gradually accelerate the 
train until a speed of 18 m. p. h. is reached. Each unit must be 
capable of exerting a tractive effort of 25,000 lb. for a period of five 
minutes in addition to the energy required to accelerate the train at 
the starting point and to run with it into the terminal yard, from 
which point it must immediately run back to a position 1,200 ft. 
from the summit, couple to another train and be ready to start 
through the tunnel in the opposite direction. It must therefore 
make a run of the character described every thirty minutes. 

It is expected that the electrical equipment will greatly relieve 
the traffic congestion now existing and due in a large measure to 
the necessity of dividing trains at the terminal points, and to greatly 
simplify the operation of the road. Its opening will mark the 
progress of electrical methods in the railway field under conditions 
which seem peculiarly fitted to demonstrate its practical advantages 
in heavy service. It is interesting to note that the single-phase 
system has been adopted for so important an undertaking. 

The work of installation will be conducted under the supervision 
of Mr. Bion J. Arnold of Chicago, consulting engineer for the tunnel 
company, by whom the plans and specifications were prepared. 



National Sash Balance. 



A device for balancing the weight of window sash, manufactured 
by the National Lock Washer Co., Newark, N. J., is shown in 
the accompanying illustration. This sash balance is a specially con- 




1 he screw-eyes can be raised or lowered '0116 or more turns to 
equalize the belts on each side. If a different tension is desired, 
one belt at a time can be taken off and either wound or unwound 
on the roller. These belts are attached to the eyes by means of 
hooks fastened to the ends of small brass straps, the belting being 
connected to the roller by means of other brass straps locked in 
grooves. These connections are simple and strong and do not 
come in front of the glass where an upper sash is used. The sash 
is thus easily removable and is easy and noiseless in its movement. 
The tension in the belt is readily adjusted and all wearing parts 
are made of sheet brass. The balance takes up little room, is placed 
out of sight, is easily adjusted and is very durable. The advantage 
over the old cord and weight balance, which necessitated the re- 
moval of the sash and a portion of the frame for repairs, is thus 
readily apparent. 

* 1 * 

Reversing Direct Current Generators. 

BY H. C. REAGAN. 



CUT AWAY VIEW SHOWING NATIONAL SASH BALANCE. 

structed spring roller, which is held in brackets at the highest point 
of the sash slide. Two screw-eyes are placed in the top of the 
sash, to which are connected belts from either end of the roller. 



The reversing of compound-wound generators may be occasioned 
by several means, such as low voltage of the reversed machine 
when in parallel with other generators, accidental open circuit of 
the shunt field, slowing down of the engine, or the equalizer switch 
not being thrown in. In any of these cases the direction of the 
current flow in the series winding is reversed, overcoming that of 
the shunt which brings about a reversal of the field polarity. If 
large units are used, this occurrence when handling a heavy load 
calls for quick action as the reversed machine must be taken off the 
line at once. 

It may be of interest to describe an accident of this sort which 
came directly under the notice of the writer. The machines in the 
station were 5,000 h. p. capacity, three direct-current and two after- 
nating-current three-phase generators, each unit driven by a com- 
pound engine. The direct-current generators supplied current to 
one division of the system, the alternating-current to the other. 
The alternating distribution circuit fed several rotary converter 
sub-stations which in turn supplied direct current to the trolley and 
feeders. The trolley and feeders of the two divisions were tied 
together and connected with a steam sub-station on another di- 
vision. Provisions were being made at the time for cut-outs for 
each section. The arrangements in the power station were these : 
The two classes of generators were driven by engines supplied with 
steam from boilers directly connected to each unit, the steam valve 
being closed in the main header between these sections. This 
caused a somewhat unbalanced condition of affairs in the fire room. 
With this situation, it is interesting to note how closely the condi- 
tions were studied by some of the firemen because when the valve 
between the two sections was opened the complaint was made that 
one fireman played on the other which forced him to do more 
work than his neighbor. It happened that the valve between the 
two sections was closed without the knowledge of either of the 
firemen and at a time when the writer was out 011 the line. Steam 
was kept up for a time, but due to a falling off of tne steam pressure. 
the direct-current machines were reversed and the writer was sent 
for. On noting the condition of affairs he quickly corrected the 
reversal of the polarity in the following manner : 

All the brushes on the direct-current machines were lifted from 
their commutators and cardboard inserted so that there was no 
contact. The main switches, with the equalizer left out, were then 
thrown in and direct current supplied by the sub-stations which were 
fed by the undisturbed alternating-current distribution system soon 
restored the machines to the right polarity by flowing through the 
shunt winding. This same current had of course reversed the 
machines at the time when the steam pressure fell off and the 
speed of the engines and the voltage of the direct-current gen- 
erators was lowered. This method of correcting the polarity of 
direct current generators has the advantage that there is no need 
of changing any connections on the board or on the machines, and 
that it may quickly be brought about if proper care is taken that 
the brushes are electrically clear of the commutator bars. 

The boilers in the plant in question were capable of carrying the 
entire load that was put on them at the time of this accident but 
due to the valve in the header being closed, one fireman, who was 
later dismissed, allowed his steam to get uncontrollably low. 



Jan. is, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



53 



Electrical Equipment of the West Jersey & Sea- 
shore Line of the Pennsylvania System. 

The proposed electrical equipment of the 64 miles of the old West 
Jersey & Seashore R. R. from Camden to Atlantic City, N. J., is 
another step forward in the operation of steam roads by electricity, 
and will be watched with the greatest interest. Hitherto the elec- 
trical equipment of steam roads has been confined practically to ter- 
minal facilities and local service over short distances, so that the 
recent decision of the Pennsylvania R. R. to so equip this portion 
of its system, will claim the especial attention of the engineering 
world. 

The Cape May line is to be used as far as Newfield, which line is, 
at present, double-tracked. From Newfield to Atlantic City an ad- 
ditional track is to be laid, making the line double-tracked through- 
out. Over this double-track line an express electric service will be 
established. There is to be a three-car train run every 15 minutes 
and scheduled to make the run from Camden to the coast in 80 
minutes without stops. The speed under electrification is to be from 
55 to 60 miles per hour. There will also be a local service of two- 
car trains between Camden and Millville, 40 miles, run on a half- 
hour schedule, and a ten-minute schedule of single cars between 
Camden and Woodbury, 85 miles. In all, 58 cars will be operated. 
The electrical equipment for the cars will consist of two GE-69, 200- 
h. p. direct current motors. The Sprague-General Electric auto- 
matic multiple-unit system of control will be used on these motors. 

The third rail system will be used throughout except on the sec- 
tions between Camden and Woodbury, and Newfield and Millville, 
where the cars will be operated by overhead trolley, the speed on 
these sections being less than on the main line. 

The power house will be located at Camden. Power for the op- 
eration of the cars will be supplied by three 2,000-kw. Curtis tur- 
bines. These turbines will be of the three-phase, alternating-cur- 
rent, 25-cycle type and transmission will be made to the sub-stations 
at a potential of 33,000 volts. 

There will be seven sub-stations, six situated on the line between 
Camden and Atlantic City and the seventh at Millville, to supply 
the line between Millville and Newfield. The sub-stations will con- 
tain rotary converters providing a total capacity of 11,000 kw. and 
delivering direct current to the third rail at a potential of 650 volts. 
The individual units will have a capacity of 750 kw. each. They 
will be started from the alternating-current end by means of taps 
on the step-down transformer. 

It is expected that this road will be completed in time to take care 
of the coming heavy summer traffic. About $3,000,000 will be spent 
in the work. 



New Cars for the Conestoga Traction System. 

The Conestoga Traction Co., which operates an extensive system 
in southeastern Pennsylvania, the center of the system being at 
Lancaster, has recently added to its equipment a number of groove- 



i he illustrations are of one of the combination cars. This de- 
sign conforms to the standard type which the Brill company builds 
for interurban service, where it is necessary for cars to 
through the main streets of cities and take on passengers from the 
pavement or roadside. 1 If new Conestoga Traction Co. ca 
mounted on the builders No. 27-G type of truck, designed for a 
speed of 30 miles per hour, and yet carries the car body low, so 
that the platform steps are easy to mount. In the illustration of 
the interior of the passenger compartment several windows are 
open at the left side, giving a good idea of the neat appearance of 
the grooveless posts when the sashes are in the roof pockets. Four 
metal window-lock stops are provided in each post, enabling the 





NEW BRILL CAR FOR CONESTOGA TRACTION CO. 

less-post semi-convertible cars built by the J. G. Brill Co. The order 
included straight passenger cars and combination passenger and 
baggage cars. The Conestoga Traction Co. has ordered the present 
lot for a new system known as the Rohrerstown, Landisville & 
Mount Joy Street Ry., which is 35 miles long. The straight pas- 
senger cars recently furnished were for another new division, S.5 
miles long, which has its terminus at Quarrwille. The Conestoga 
Traction Co. has a trackage of 145 miles, with no cars in operation. 



INTERIOR DETAILS OF NEW CONESTOGA CARS. 

sashes to be held at suitable heights. There is no cutting into the 
posts other than for these window-lock stops, and therefore their 
strength is unimpaired by the grooves which were formerly neces- 
sary for the sash runways. The interior of the baggage compart- 
ment is furnished with folding seats for the use of smokers. The 
sliding side door construction and other details are of the builders' 
usual design. 

The cars measure 30 ft. 8 in. over the bodies and 40 ft. 1 in. over 
the vestibules ; the width over sills, including panels, is 7 ft. 10'A 
in. and over posts at belt 8 ft. 2 in. ; height from track to under 
side of side sill, 2 ft. 8% in., and from this point over monitor deck, 
9 ft. 254 in- 1 from top of floor to top of molding on window sill, 
25 in. ; height of window opening, 3 ft. 6$i in. ; width of double- 
door opening at vestibule end of passenger compartment, 40 in.; 
width of sliding door opening at side of baggage compartment, 40 
in.; door openings in partition and at platform entrance of bag- 
gage compartment, 27 in. ; from center to center of body bolsters, 
17 in.; height from track to tread of platform step, i6!-> in.; from 
step to platform, 14^ in., and from platform to car floor, 8 in. ; 
centers of side posts, 2 ft. 8 in.; size of side sills, Afi^ x 754 >n. ; 
end sills, 5J^ x 6"ti in., and sill plates on the inside 
of side sills, 12 x fi in. ; thickness of corner posts, 
3^ in. and side posts, 3J4 in. 

The seats, which are of the builders' manufac- 
ture, have high backs with head rolls, are uphol- 
stered in spring cane and have 36-in. cushions. The 
aisles are 22-in. wide. The interior of the pas- 
senger compartment is finished in mahogany, rubbed 
to a dull sloss. with birch veneer ceilings painted 
robin's-egg blue an'! decorated in gold. The heads 
of the posts are neatly carved and the paneling 
inlaid with a strip of holly. The interior of the 
baggage compartment is painted lead color and the 
ceilings are carline finish. The cars are equipped with channel-iron 
draw bars, sand boxes, platform gongs, signal bells, brake handles, 
angle-iron bumpers, vestibule folding door controllers and other 
patented specialties of the builders' manufacture. The wheel base 
of the truck is 4 ft., and the track gage 5 ft. 2'A in.; diami 
wheels, 33 in. and diameter of axles. 4 in. Four 40-h. p. motors are 
used on each car. 



I he new gasoline-electric cars of the Chicago & Alton Ry. have 
been tested and will soon be put into service. 



54 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol.. XVI, No. I. 



Signal System of the Underground Electric 
Railways Co. of London. 

Rapid progress is being made in carrying out the plans for equip- 
ping the underground railway system of London for electrical 
operation, and in connection with this work there are several fea- 
tures of especial interest. In this article it is proposed to describe 
the signal system adopted by the Underground Electric Railways 
Co. of London (The Yerkes' company) for the control of trains 
on the Metropolitan District Railway. 

The first section of line, that between Hanger Lane Junction and 
South Harrow, has been worked electrically by the District railway 
for considerably more than a year, with results that promise well 
for success on the more important sections of the line. The length 
of this trial section is about five miles of double track, and it is 
divided into block sections, varying in length from 1,400 ft. to about 
3,500 ft. On the District railway generally there are both positive 
and negative insulated conductor rails, the running rails not being 
used for the power current. The space between stations is usually 
divided into two blocks, that is, a "starting" and a "berth" block, 
and the signaling is on the "normal clear" principle. 

The signals themselves are of the ordinary mechanical type, and 



braking power of the trains. The strain on the signalmen, insep- 
arable from such a service, is abolished. 

The principles of the system may be understood by reference to 
the accompanying diagram. One of the track rails is electrically 
continuous through the whole length of the installation, and con- 
stitutes the positive conductor from the generator to the individual 
track sections. The other rail is cut up into block sections by means 
of special rail joints insulated with fiber. All uninsulated rail 
joints are bonded to insure electrical continuity. Current for the 
operation of the system is generated at 65 volts by motor generators 
placed centrally, the negative terminals of which are connected to 
an insulated negative main running the entire length of the system. 
This main is connected to each section of the sectionalized track rail 
at a point near the end of the block at which the train leaves. 
It will be seen, then, that there is a potential difference of approxi- 
mately 65 volts between the continuous positive rail and the in- 
sulated negative main. 

Resistances are interposed in the connections between the negative 
main and the sectioned rail which reduce the potential difference 
between the rails to, in the present instance, from 3 to 6 volts, 
according to the length of the block and various local conditions. 

The circuit for a single block unoccupied by a train is as follows : 




VIEW SHOWING TRAIN STOP, THIRD AND FOURTH RAILS. 



in mi way specially adapted for power or automatic working; con- 
sequently they are being replaced by special arms with Westing- 
house electro-pneumatic signal motors fitted close under them, and 
the ordinary counterweight abolished for one directly on the signal 
arm. The motors are enclosed in cast iron casings, and are not 
affected by climatic conditions. They are controlled by small pin 
valves worked by means of electro-magnets in the local signal cir- 
cuit. Signal cabins are required only at each end of the branch, 
or where there is a cross-over road. 

An automatic stop prevents trains from overrunning home signals. 
This stop, which is shown in an accompanying illustration, consists 
of an iron arm between the track rails actuated by a compressed air 
motor acting in unison with the adjoining signal motor. When the 
signal goes to "danger" this arm is elevated to a position in which 
it engages with a cock on the air brake system of the train ; thus 
the brakes are instantly and automatically applied if, for any reason, 
the motorman should run past the signal. 

No great saving in first cost need be expected from an automatic 
installation, as the intitial expenditure would probably be quite as 
great as that incurred in laying down the mechanical system. The 
working expenses, on the other hand, should be very much reduced, 
the saving in labor being a most important item, and the cost of 
renewals ami repairs trifling. But undoubtedly the greatest advan- 
tage of an automat! tem is its suitability to the requirements of 
a 'very frequent and quick service. The blocks may with facility 
be made as short as is compatible with the running speed and 



The current from the positive brush of the dynamo flows along the 
continuous rail, and thence through the two relays, one at each end 
of the block, and through the ballast between the rails, all in par- 
allel, to the sectioned rail. From this it flows through a relatively 
large resistance to the negative main and back to the machine. 

Suppose a train enters the block. The current now flows through 
the practically negligible resistance of the car wheels and axles from 
one rail to the other, and the relays arc shunted, with the result that 
the signal is allowed to fall to danger. 

The "track battery" resistances connected between the negative 
main and the sections of the sectionalized rail prevent the generator 
being short-circuited when the track circuit is shunted by the axles 
of the train. In fact, these resistances bear such a relation to the 
combined resistance of the roadbed from rail to rail and the two 
relays, all in parallel, that the shunting of the track cuts out only 
a small percentage of the total resistance of the circuit. Thus the 
current increase in a circuit when shunted is not great; this is im- 
portant, as it is advisable to keep the track potential as nearly con- 
stant as possible. An increase of the total current, resulting from 
the blocks being occupied by trains, affects the potential between the 
rails of unoccupied sections, increasing the transmission loss in the 
negative main. The loss in the continuous track rail may generally 
be neglected on account of its large section. 

Another circumstance directly affecting this track potential is the 
variation of the resistance of roadbed according to weather condi- 
tions. Broken stone forms much the best ballast from an electrical 



Jan. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



35 



point of view, and cinders the worst. It may here be mentioned, 
that though on several recent occasions the track rails on this sys- 
tem have been flooded, it is reported that the operation of the sig- 
nals has been in no wise interrupted. 

In the accompanying diagram are shown the circuits of the track 
relays which control the signal circuits. This is a diagram of the 
relay and signal magnet circuits for a single block. The track coils 
of the relays are permanently connected across the rails at that end 
of the block at which the relay is placed. Between the pole pieces a 
polarized armature is suspended from a pivot. This armature bears 
a winding of considerable resistance, and is connected between the 
positive rail and the negative main through a contact, operated by 
the track coil armature, which contact is closed when the track 
coils are energized. To the polarized armature is rigidly connected 
an arm which actuates a contact, the function of which is to open 
or close the local circuit controlling the signal motors. The opera- 
tion of the relays is then as follows: When a difference of potential 
exists in the normal direction between the rails, that is, when there 
is no train on the block, the relay track coils are excited and draw 
up the armature, which closes the circuit through the polarized 
armature. The polarized armature is then attracted to one of the 
poles of the relay, and swinging over, closes the contact in the local 
signal circuit. 

As already mentioned, there are two relays in each block, one at 
each end ; these are duplicates, and operate normally in a precisely 
similar manner, each working a contact in the local signal circuit. 
These contacts on relays A and B are in series, as shown in the 
diagram of circuits, and unless they are both closed no current can 
How through the signal magnet, and the signal will therefore remain 
at "danger" by gravity. 

The position of the apparatus when the block is empty has been 
described ; both relays energized, the local signal circuit closed, and 
the electro-magnetic valve operating the pneumatic signal motor 
consequently open, admitting compressed air to the motor, which 
holds the signal arm "off." As soon as a train enters the block, 
the relays are short-circuited by the car axles and thereby de- 
energized, permitting their armatures to drop, and thus breaking 
the circuit through the polarized armature coils. The polarized 
armatures then swing back from their position in contact with one 
of the track-coil pole-pieces, and in doing so break the signal circuit 
at two points in series. The electro-magnet operating the admission 
and exhaust valves of the pneumatic signal motor is de-energized, 
and the exhaust is opened, permitting the signal to return to 
"danger" by gravity. It is a canon of successful automatic signaling 
that any interfering influence must, if it has any effect at all, cause 
the signal arms to go to "danger," and not bring them "off." 



closest attention on account of the disorganization of the traffic 

which they may cause, but even if they were rare, the [1 

to give false signal indications of safety would forfeit all claim for 

consideration. 

Although in the present system it is possible for the .extraneous 
currents to energize either one or both relays while the train is in 
the block, these latter are so interconnected that it is not possible 





SEMAPHORE AND ELECTRIC MAGNETIC MOTOR. 

for them both to be energized in the normal direction at the same 
time by extraneous currents. 

The various conditions which may occur with a train in the sec- 
tion may be catalogued thus : 

Both relays shunted, no extraneous current. (Normal.) 

One relay shunted, the other energized normally. (Signal circuit 
broken at one point.) 

One relay shunted, the other energized reversely. (Signal circuit 
broken at two points.) 

Both relays energized, one normally and one reversely. (Signal 
circuit broken at one point.) 

The circuit through the signal magnet is designed to be always 
open at one point when a train is in the section, and often at two. 

The only parts of the mechanism which can be described as in 
any way delicate are the relays, and these are enclosed in weather- 




Generat-or 



NEGATIVE MAIN 

DIAGRAM OF CONNECTIONS FOR AUTOMATIC SIGNALING. 



Experience has shown that the greatest obstacle to the success of 
automatic signaling, on electric railways in particular, is the liability 
of the relays being operated by extraneous currents so as to cause 
a false "clear" indication when danger should be shown. The par- 
ticular claim of the system under consideration is that it is impos- 
sible for an extraneous current, from whatever source, to bring the 
signal arm to the "off" position when it should stand at "danger." 

The main source of extraneous currents affecting the signals is 
the 500-volt traction power circuit, and when, as is the case at 
Ealing, the track is not used as a return, the presence on the block 
sections of current from this source is abnormal. Faults in the 
main power circuit occur with sufficient frequency to demand the 



proof boxes, where they can be examined readily at intervals. The 
air pressure used is about 70 lb. per sq. in., which enables compact 
motors to be used for signals, points, stops, etc. It is reported that 
the air motors used, work year in and year out without giving the 
least trouble. The piping is compact, the electrical wires few and 
small, and the alterations to the track of a trifling nature. The sys- 
tem is applicable where track return is used with either third rail 
or overhead trolley wire. 

The signal motors, relays and other special apparatus were manu- 
factured at the London works of the Westinghouse Brake Co. and 
supplied direct to the Underground Electric Railways Co. of Lon- 
don, which installed the apparatus. 



56 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. i. 



The Circle Swing for Amusement Parks. 

The circle swing has proved a popular attraction of many amuse- 
ment parks, and we present herewith an illustration of a swing, a 
description of which may prove interesting to operators of such 
parks. 

The swing presents some new features. The tower is a steel 
structure of gusset plate bridge construction, thoroughly braced and 
anchored to the foundation. Over the top of this structure is tele- 
scoped a six-armed, cantilever, steel crown truss, in such a manner 
that the entire weight of the cars, passengers and crown truss is 



the cover moved away and the arrangement of the incandescent and 
arc lamps. The construction of this piece of apparatus is mechani- 
cally substantial and from previous experience, the design of the late 
type has been perfected so that its operation is highly satisfactory. 
The current consumption of the arc is about 1.5 amperes. In order 
to facilitate the changing from one kind of lamp to the other, two 
positive connection plugs are provided, the negative connection to 
the car circuit being made through the lan.p hangers. Such a change 
can also be effected by the alternative method of using a two-point 
switch, placed in the vestibule of the car. 

As the current can easilv be switched over so as to furnish either 





THE CIRCLE SWING. 



THE CLIMAX COMBINATION HEADLIGHT. 



carried from the under side of the top supports, while the lower part 
of the crown truss, to which the gear wheel is attached, is provided 
with anti-friction roller bearings to guide it while revolving. This 
crown truss with its load is supported on 154 one-inch steel balls 
traveling between two case hardened, ground steel plates. Each 
ball is made to travel in its own individual path, reducing friction 
to a minimum. 

A 36-passenger swing, when loaded, requires but a small amount 
of current to operate it. A 7j4-h. p. motor is located in the top of 
the tower, directly under the crown truss, and is connected by a cut 
gear and rawhide pinion to the crown truss gear. The swing may 
be brought to full speed in less than 60 seconds, and while no brakes 
are used, yet, with the aid of a special controlling device the swing 
may be brought from full speed to a dead stop without a jar in 30 
seconds. 

The structure weighs ll'A tons, and is so designed that the safety 
of the passengers in no way depends upon any part of the ma- 
chinery. The manner of telescoping the crown truss over the 
tower prevents any possibility of accident. The controlling and 
driving mechanism of this swing is self-regulating to the extent that 
110 careless act of an operator, in suddenly throwing on or off the 
current, could in any manner affect the safety of the passengers or 
structure. 

This park attraction is placed on the market by the Federal Con- 
struction Co., Chicago, 111., which claims for it favorable com- 
parison with similar designs in safety, strength, durability, economy 
of power and attractiveness. 

— * ■ » ■ 

A Combination Arc-Incandescent Headlight. 

In choosing a headlight for interurban cars which operate at high 
speeds over private right of way, and at slower speeds through cities, 
there are several points of construction which should be well con- 
sidered. The headlight should be of such design that it will main- 
tain a steady arc and clearly illuminate both rails for some distance 
ahead of the car. When city streets are reached it is desirable that 
the intense light of the electric arc either be dimmed or some less 
powerful substitute used. 

In order to meet these conditions the "Climax" headlight has been 
designed and is furnished to the trade by the Trolley Supply Co., 
Canton, O. We present an illustration of the headlight, showing 



a bright arc light or the less glaring incandescent light, no curtain 
or screen is required for dimming when operating over city streets. 
The reflector which projects the beam of light has a so-called double- 
parabolic shape. 



Charles T. Yerkes. 



Charles T. Yerkes, millionaire traction magnate, creator of the 
Chicago Street Railway system and builder of London's Under- 
ground R. R., died on the afternoon of December 30, 1905, at his 
New York apartments. Mr. Yerkes' death was due to kidney dis- 
ease and heart trouble and had been 
expected for some time, but the end 
was unexpectedly sudden. 

Speyer & Co., the New York bank- 
ing firm which had much to do with 
the local financing of Mr. Yerkes' 
affairs, has made the following 
statement: "The death of Mr. Yer- 
kes is is particularly sad, coming at 
a time when his great work in con- 
nection with the London Under- 
ground R. R. was rapidly approach- 
ing completion and important por- 
tions ot it were being put in opera- 
tion. Mr. Yerkes' failing health had 
warned him and the bankers associ 
ated with the enterprise, that ar- 
rangements should be made for re- 
lieving him of a portion of his work, or for completing and carry- 
ing it on in case of his death. 

Mr. Yerkes was born of Quaker parents in Philadelphia, June 
25, 1S39. At the age of IS he secured a position as an office boy, 
and at 17 he went into the commission business. Four years later 
he started independently as a broker. Mr. Yerkes operated in 
Philadelphia with more or less success until the time of the Chicago 
fire of 1871, which entailed heavy losses in eastern money circles. 
He was forced to make an assignment. 

Before his failure, Mr. Yerkes had speculated in Philadelphia 
street railways and had made considerable money. He organized 
the Continental Passenger Ry. and sent the stock up from $15 




CHARLES T. YERKES. 



Jan. 15, [906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



57 



to $100 a share. Then occurred the Jaj Cooke failure from which 
he cleaned up from the short side 01 the market enough to pay all 
his debts. He resolved to seek a new field for street cat operations 

and in 187s went west. 

At the age of 36, Mr. Yerkes passed through Chicago and finally 
located at Fargo, S. D., where he organized a land syndicate, mak- 
ing and losing considerable money in various speculations He was 
42 years of age when he came to Chicago in 1881 He started busi- 
ness as a stock and grain broker and steadily made money, all the 
time watching for opportunities for investment in street railroads. 

In May, 1886, he secured control of the North Chicago City Ry. 
and organized it into the North Chicago Street Railroad Co. He 
paid for his control of the road with money raised from the mort- 
gage on the property itself, and it has since developed that prac- 
tically he never invested any of his own capital in the enterprise. 

Two years later, he organized the West Chicago Street Railroad 
Co. out of the old West Division Street Ry. in a similar manner. 
Immediately after this he set about expanding the north and west 
side systems to the city limits with trolley lines, later organized as 
the Consolidated Traction Co. By the time of the World's Fair 
Mr. Yerkes was the greatest street railway magnate in the West. 
Several years later he turned his attention to elevated railways, 
gaining control of the Lake St. and then organizing the North- 
western and the Union Loop companies. 

In July, 1889, Mr. Yerkes sold practically all of his interests in 
the north and west side companies to the Union Traction Co. He 
realized from the sale about $20,000,000 besides bonds of the Con- 
solidated Traction Co. to the amount of $6,000,000. In February, 
1901, the sale of his interest in the Lake Street, Northwestern, and 
Union Loop Elevated Rys. was announced for a total sum of 
$4,000,000. In addition he sold to Thomas F. Ryan, representing 
the Whitney-Widener-Elkins syndicate, his remaining interest in 
the Union Traction Co., amounting to $1,000,000. At this period 
Mr. Yerkes moved to New York, where he engaged in the building 
and furnishing of his $4,000,000 mansion. 

In 1902 Mr. Y'erkes went to England to give his whole attention 
to the last great enterprise of his life. His ambition was to get 
possession of the underground transportation facilities of the 
British capitol. A syndicate was formed for a comprehensive un- 
derground system, in which electricity should be the motive power, 
in place of steam. The syndicate bought a franchise for $5,000,000 
and began work on the new system. 

On June 6, 1901, the syndicate secured control of the Metropol- 
itan District Ry. Improvements on a great scale were announced 
at once. New bores were run, and the equipment changed from 
steam to electricity as far as possible. 

Air. Y'erkes was ambitious to become master of the entire Lon- 
don underground field, and in his efforts along this line he became 
engaged in a long and bitter controversy with the Metropolitan 
Railway Board. As the struggle progressed Mr. Y'erkes and his 
syndicate put in more and more electric lines, and the Underground 
Electric Railway Co. was organized to take over several smaller 
concerns. The company had a capital of $25,000,000. There be- 
gan to appear, company on company, bond issue on bond issue, and 
all the bewildering fabric of financial companies. 

Thus the work of Mr. Yerkes now stands in London. It is esti- 
mated that it will take $75,000,000 to complete needed additions to 
the existing systems that were under his control. Mr. Yerkes gave 
the city of London vastly better transportation facilities than it en- 
joyed before his advent. A marvelous amount of work has been 
clone and apparently well done. 

In speaking of the personal traits of Mr. Yerkes, John M. Roach, 
general manager of the Union Traction Co. of Chicago, pays him 
the following tribute : 

"He was always kind, courteous and considerate to his em- 
ployes. He was generous and charitable, but never paraded the 
fact. There was nothing in Mr. Yerkes but good. Anything else 
was forced from him by conditions. Mr. Yerkes was nol ambitious 
to be a millionaire, but he was ambitious to be known as the fore- 
most traction man in the country, and I think he was." 



The Detroit-Bay City Electric Co. is now ready to begin the lay- 
ing of steel on the new line projected from Bay City to Detroit. 
About 10 miles of road have been graded and the construction gang 
is being continually enlarged. 




58 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 



The Modern Amusement Park. 



The interest displayed in the modern amusement park by the 
public from year to year continues, and the returns from the in- 
vestments vary, depending largely upon the selection of locations for 
grounds that can draw the people from the thickly populated sec- 
tions to the park in a convenient and speedy manner. Amusement 
parks offer substantial sources of revenue to the traction companies 
operating them as terminals of their lines. The number of parks 
operated by electric railways is steadily increasing and nearly every 
city of a sufficient size to warrant a street railway system has its 
amusement parks. Such parks are found to contain no objectionable 
features. This is shown by the fact that their patrons include both 
women and children. 

To make resorts of this character pay, considerable thought must 
be devoted to their construction. Among those with wide experi- 
ence in the designing, erecting and operating of amusement parks 
is the Edward C. Boyce Co., of No. 302 Broadway, New York City. 
This firm, of which Mr. Edward C. Boyce is the president, is pre- 
pared to organize corporations and furnish all or a portion of the 
necessary capital to establish these parks throughout the country. 
A large permanent staff of expert superintendents, draftsmen and 
mechanics is maintained by this firm to execute the details of con- 
struction. It has been found by experience that too much attention 
cannot be given to the selection and arrangement of devices, and 
the experience of these men will, undoubtedly, do much to insure 
success and keep the cost of construction at a minimum. 

The firm's services include expert advice and the benefit of ex- 



1 




Ik&k 


&!jte 





GENERAL VIEW OF "THE WHITE CITY. CHICAGO. 

ceptional resources on all questions of this particular line of archi- 
tecture. The general system of operation employed is to lease 
ground for small attractions, the company, or owner, however, oper- 
ating all the larger or principal features. 

During the year just past, the firm mentioned has accomplished 
considerable important work. "The White City," Chicago, at pres- 
ent one of the largest amusement parks in the world, is a creation 
of this firm. It also has constructed parks in Cleveland, O,: Wor- 
cester, Mass.; New Haven, Conn., and Portland, Ore., each known 
as "The White City." Numerous other individual devices through- 
out the country are included in the year's work. 

Some idea of the magnitude and profit of such enterprises may 
be conveyed by the statement that one resort erected by this firm 
during the season of 1905, costing a little over $600,000, returned 
a net profit of about $500,000 as the result of the first season's 
operation. Another, and smaller resort, earned a net profit of 60 
per cent of its gross cost, and brought about an increase of 21 per 
cent in the receipts of the local street railway. 

We quote from a recent interview with Mr. Boyce, who, in speak- 
ing of the marvelous growth of this comparatively new line of 
architectural work, said : "Few understand the magnitude of the 
work of huilding summer amusement parks. It has been stated 
that today there are more than 970 summer amusement parks in 
the country. Each month shows an increase, and scores are being 
-onstructed at the present time. Some of these parks, possibly 



three or four, cost the promoters, irrespective of land purchases or 
leases, not less than $1,000,000 each. Three or four others approxi- 
mate in value $500,000, and twenty or thirty range in value from 
$50,000 to $250,000. 

"The World's Columbian Exposition opened the eyes of the 



- - 'Vt 











GENERAL VIEW OF THE WHITE CITY, CLEVET.Aim 

people, who since then are not content to go to parks that hold out 
for them no attractions other than suburban scenery and rural sur- 
roundings. The people desire to visit the more exciting amusements 
and listen to orchestras and open-air band concerts. And a park is 
far from modern standards if it lacks restaurants and dancing 
pavilions." 

It will surprise many to learn of the great number of parks in 
the country, of the vast sums of money invested in their construc- 
tion, and the likewise large amounts which are spent each summer 
by the amusement-loving men, women and children. When such 
figures are learned, then the magnitude of these amusement de- 
partures is comprehended. 



The Ridlon Babbitting Device. 

A satisfactory device for casting babbitt should be composed of 
but few parts and these of substantial design. The more or less 
frequent need of renewing the babbitting upon bearings calls for 
a device which will accurately and easily mould the babbitt metal 
to a close fit with the journal which it supports. Such a device 
is being placed on the market by the Frank Ridlon Co., 200 Summer 
St., Boston, Mass., an illustration of which is herewith presented. 

The device consists of a center core mounted upon a substantial 
base. Around the center core is placed a form for moulding the 
babbitt metal into a suitable shape. It is provided with a collapsible 




Till kUUJi.N BABBITTING DEVICE. 

arbor, as shown, which is broken down by removing the center 
core. The different parts of the device are fitted with handles so 
that these parts may be re-adjusted for a second use while they are 
still hot. In casting with this device the ends are squared and the 
oil holes and oil ways are finished in the babbitt by the one opera- 
tion. 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



Vol. XVI 



FEBRUARY 15, 1906 



No. 2 



Street and Interurban Railway Parks. 

Being the Description of a Large Number of Amusement Resorts Served by Electric Railways. 




TOBOGGAN SLIDE AND BATHING PAVILION, WILDW00D PARK, WHITE BEAR LAKE, WINN. 



. . - A ■ 


A 
m 


JlV^^ '!1[^ ... 


ih P >_ v 




1 »• ^■^n^ ,. | *W3B3&. 


■ 


ts&Trfc 


l rr -ft 


— 




i 


fStiTr Hal La j ..lAfr^r^H 


' nil " iii^ hiii 1 1 4 iWlfrFTill IP PWBfiM 


■ 


- ■"-'•wpI^^S 


fclpc^-^af =;'-—. . t 




9H 




. 


Pi 

, \ L 








, 4. 


,i ■' u - 



PAVILION, REAR OF BALL GROUNDS AND STREET RAILWAY LOOP, COLUMBIA GARDENS, BUTTE, MONT. 



60 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



Twin City Rapid Transit Co. 



Wildwood is situated cm the shores of White Bear Lake, 12 miles 
from St. Paul and 22 miles from Minneapolis, on a typical Minne- 
sota lake, four miles long and two miles wide. It is conducted on 
the principle that pleasure seekers appreciate a well-governed resort 
free from rowdyism and objectionable features but at the same time 
offering plenty of amusement. Wildwood is a park of 75 acres, 
owned bj the I win City Rapid I ransit Co., and under the manage- 
ment of II. M. Barnet, the le ee 

Fishing, boating, bathing and every form of water sport can be 
had at Wildwood. Eighty row-boats of the most improved pattern 
are in constant commission and, if the pleasure seeker wishes to try 
his luck with the White Bear fish, tackle and bait can be had at the 
Wildwood docks. Near the beach is situated a 260-room bath house 
equipped with the most modern facilities for the comfort of bathers 
and there is also a 100-ft. water toboggan. 

There are eleven buildings on the grounds. In the central build- 
ing, a spacious pavilion, is the dancing ball and a complete cafe and 
soft drink counter. Here the visitor can get everything from a dish 
of ice cream to a course dinner. Back of the pavilion, stretching 
along the grounds, are the amusement features. Among these are 
an eleven-alley bowling pavilion, a laughing gallery, a Katzenjammer 
castle, a Hooligan slide and the ever popular figure-eight toboggan 
with its exciting turns and twists. 

In addition to the permanent features at Wildwood the manage- 
ment offers each year features of a transitory nature. An orchestra 
plays for dancing every afternoon and evening, acrobatic acts are 
occasional features, and during last season firework displays were 
given twice each week. These displays were given under arrange- 
ments with B. E. Gregory of Chicago and included novel and original 
features on the surface of White Bear Lake. They proved the best 
free attraction ever offered at Wildwood. 

Mr. Barnet has not decided what improvements will be made in 
the park this spring or what special features he will offer his patrons 
during the coming season, but it is probable that an old mill will be 
installed as one of Wildwood's permanent amusement devices. 

The success ci Wildwood is due in a large measure to the policy 
adopted by H. M. Barnet when be assumed the management of the 
park. Mr. Barnet believes that the reason amusement parks are not 
more generally successful is found in the fact that too much attention 
is paid to the pavilion feature and that the other devices are neg- 
lected. He believes that with one man in control of a park it can 
be conducted on lines that will merit public patronage and he makes 
it a personal matter to see that picnic parties, especially ladies and 
children, receive courteous treatment at Wildwood. That the plan 
has succeeded is shown by the fact that when Mr. Barnet took con- 
trol of the park, liquor was sold on the premises and the rowih ele- 
ment predominated while now Wildwood has become generally rec- 
ognized as a place where ladies and children may go with perfect 
safety and where the objectionable features of the amusement park 
have been entirely eliminated. 



Butte Electric Railway Co. 



Those who are familiar with the country about Butte, Mont., and 
with the sulphur-laden fumes that come from the great copper 
smelters there will find it bard to realize that a garden or any 
growing plant could be maintained amid such surroundings. For 
this reason Columbia Gardens, while it presents nothing of an un- 
usual nature to the Eastern mind, is particularly attractive under 
the conditions in which it is maintained. The park is located at 
the foot of the main divide of the Rocky Mountains, four miles 
from the center of the city of Butte. It is owned and operated by 
the Butte Electric Railway Co., which has a double-track line be- 
tween the city and the gardens. 

One of the most popular features of the gardens is the hothouse, 
in which a great variety of flowers and plants are grown. There are 
no flowers in the city of Butte for the reason which we have men- 
tioned, and admirers of this form of nature can here gratify their 
tastes. In connection with the hothouse, there is a large pansy 
bed, in which during the past season 15,000 pansy plants were 
grown. Ladies are allowed to pick these flowers every afternoon. 

There is no theater in connection with the park. There is, how- 
ever, a large dance hall, which has a floor 80 x 130 ft. in size, con- 



structed of grained hardwood. The usual amusements are operated, 
including a roller coaster, a shooting gallery, a merry-go-round and 
shoot the chutes. 'I lure are also a well-stocked zoo and a fish hatch- 
ery with a capacity of 1.000.000 trout. Another popular feature of 
the gardens is the band of the Boston & Montana Miring Co., which 
gives well-selected concerts from time to time. Frequently small 
tribes of wandering Indians are engaged, and pitch their tents in 
the gardens, giving their dances and games, which are much en- 
joyed by the public. 

No admission is charged to the park, and twice each week all 
children under sixteen year- of age are carried to the grounds free, 
as the guests of Senator W. A. Clark, the president of the railway 
company. 



Portland & Brunswick Street Railway Co. 



Casco Castle is situated on a high bluff too ft. above the sea and 
300 ft. from the waters of Casco Bay, which surround it on three 
sides. This resort is one of the most popular on the Maine coast, 
and visitors from New York, Boston and other points are attracted 
thither each year by the beauties of picturesque Casco Bay. Al- 
though the grounds upon which the castle is built are operated by 
the Portland & Brunswick Street Railway Co., the resort is rather 
different from the usual type of park controlled by a street railway 
company. 

Casco Castle is a large and handsome hotel equipped with all the 
conveniences of the modern hostelry. The grounds surrounding 
this hotel comprise 50 acres, lying along the seashore, part of which 
is heavily wooded, while the portion in the immediate vicinity of 
the hotel has been further beautified by land-cape gardening. 

Casco Castle is just outside the oid town of South Freeport, 
which is two miles from Freeport and 12 miles from Portland, Me. 
Freeport is reached by the Main Central R. R., connection for the 
Castle being made there with the Portland & Brunswick Street Ry. 
South Freeport is also reached by steamboat lines from Boston and 
Portland, and the sail through the 365 islands of Casco Bay is par- 
ticularly delightful. 

The management conducts its advertising entirely by souvenir 
postal cards, which are sold to visitors and afford a substantial 
revenue for the park. The cards bear a picture of Casco Castle in 
several colors. Last season 37,700 of these cards were sold and 
distributed to all parts of the country, which is an original way of 
combining an advertising and at the same time a money-making 
scheme. 



Toronto & York Radial Railway Co. 



The Toronto & York Radial Railway Co. owns Bond Lake Park, 
which is picturesquely situated among the hills 20 miles from the 
city of Toronto, Canada. There is no theater in connection with 
the park, the natural attractions being depended upon mainly to fur- 
nish amusement. There are baseball grounds, a dancing pavilion, 
swings, good boating facilities and other attractions of a similar 
nature. The company controls all the attractions with the excep- 
tion of the refreshment and boating privileges, which are leased. 
The park is managed by the traffic department of the railway com- 
pany. 



San Diego Electric Railway Co. 

Mission Cliff Park belongs to and is operated by the San Diegj 
Electric Railway Co., and is about three and a half miles from the 
city of San Diego, Cal. The principal attraction of the park is its 
unique situation and the varied and picturesque character of the 
surrounding scenery. It is located along the top and side of a steep 
bluff overlooking Mission Valley, which lies nearly 400 ft. below. 
The view to the north includes the Los Angeles and San Bernardino 
mountains, 130 miles away, while to the west is seen the Pacific, 
with San Clemente Island plainly visible at a distance of nearly 100 
miles. Fifty miles to the eastward is the Cuyamacca range, while 
to the south the mountains of Lower California stretch away bit" 
the distance. 

Though the charm of Mission Cliff Park lies chiefly in the 



Feb. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



61 




£>3rfc—~~ 


IHt*'^^W^ !tt\ 


1 


FF^S 


IT 



ATTRACTIONS AT WILDWOOD PARK, WHITE BEAR LAKE, MINN. 



CHILDREN'S PLAYGROUND, COLUMBIA GARDENS, BUTTE, MONT. 




CASCO CASTLE, SOUTH FREEPORT, ME 





BOAT HOUSE, BOND LAKE PARK, TORONTO, CANADA. 



PAVILION, MISSION CLIFF PARK, SAN DIEGO 



62 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 



natural beauty of the situation, it is not without oilier attractions 
There is a pavilion So x ijo ft. in size, surrounded by a wide 
veranda and containing a dance hall, lunch rooms, etc. The com- 
pany at present provides no special amusements, but places the park 
and pavilion at the service of the public free of charge. Parties 
who desire the exclusive use of the dance hall in the evening pay 
a small charge to cover the cost of lighting. Further improvements 
and the extension of the park boundaries are contemplated by the 
company and will be carried out at an early date. 

A feature which merits special mention is the well-equipped 
ostrich farm, which occupies the eastern end of the park and is a 
source of interest to all visitors. 



Kankakee Electric Railway Co. 



Electric Park is owned by the Kankakee Electric Railway Co. 
and is operated by the lessee and manager, Chas. W. Burrill. It is 
located on the banks of the Kan- 
kakee River, about two miles 
from Kankakee, 111. The park 
now contains a theater seating 
1,000 people, but a new one is to 
be built during the coming sea- 
son with a capacity of 1,500. A 
dramatic stock company has given 
performances at the theater with 
special vaudeville features be- 
tween the acts, and this form of 
entertainment has been found 
very remunerative. There are 
also a dancing pavilion, bowling 
alleys and bath houses, also a 
merry-go-round and other small 
amusements. 

A boat landing will be built on 
the river and steam launches and row-boats will be kept on hand. 
Band concerts are given every afternoon and evening. The lines of 
the Kankakee Electric Railway Co. have recently been entirely re- 
built and new cars added to the equipment, so that transportation 
facilities to the park are of the best. 




CHARLES W. BURRILL. 



Parks of the Indiana Union Traction Co. 



The Indiana Union Traction Co. operates three parks in connec- 
tion with its railway system, which are known as Broad Ripple 
Park, Indianapolis, Ind.; West Side Park, Muncie, Ind. ; and 
Mounds Park, Anderson, Ind. 

Broad Ripple Park is located about seven miles from the city of 
Indianapolis, on the banks of White River. It is now operated 
by an amusement company which is building a "White City" there. 
The park contains a variety of amusement devices, such as the 
figure-eight roller coaster, merry-go-round, etc., and a summer 
theater in which vaudeville is presented. Last season a number of 
special attractions were provided on Sundays and holidays, such 
as balloon ascensions, an elephant on a tight rope and fireworks. 

West Side Park is just outside the city limits of Muncie and 
contains the usual amusement features found in a small park. It 
has a good theater which has proved to be very popular. 

Mound's Park, Anderson, Ind., is a natural park of historic 
interest, having several large "Indian Mounds" of a peculiar con- 
struction which are very unique and interesting. A fine pavilion 
has been built in this park and a number of popular attractions will 
be added later. 



Steubenville Traction & Light Co. 



The Steubenville Traction & Light Co. owns and operates Stanton 
Park, which is on the interurban division, about three miles from 
Steubenville, O. The park contains 85 acres and is located in a 
heavily wooded ravine. A small brook running through the grounds, 
which is spanned by a number of bridges and has a very pretty water- 
fall about half way in its course, adds greatly to the attractiveness 
of the park. The natural beauty of the grounds has been preserved 
as much as possible. The park contains many springs and an artesian 



well has been drilled, which gives an abundant supply of water. In 
the upper part of the park there is a natural amphitheater, in which 
during the past three years the old soldiers of tins region have 
held their reunions. The park is named for Edwin M. Stanton, the 
great war secretary, who was a resident of Steubenville. 

The park is well supplied with attractions, having a summer the- 
ater, roller coaster, merry-go-round, bowling alley, boat swings, 
refreshment stands, etc. Free band concerts are given every Sun- 
day during the summer, but no other attractions are run on that 
day. Moving picture and a variety of other exhibitions are provided 
during the summer season. The theater is located at the entrance 
to the park and will seat about 700 people. During the past season 
it was found that light opera and vaudeville were the best paying 
attractions. 

The lighting of this park has been made a feature, many arc 
lights and incandescents being placed throughout the grounds. No 
intoxicating liquors are allowed on the grounds and the order pre- 
served is always of the best. 



Louisville & Southern Indiana Traction Co. 



The Louisville & Southern Indiana Traction Co. owns a very line 
public summer resort which is called Glenwood Park. The park is 
situated on the company's iine between New Albany and Jefferson- 
ville, Ind., on the eastern bank of a stream tributary to the Ohio 
River known as Silver Creek. It is reached from New Albany 
by a double-track, and from Jeffersonville by a single-track line 
with frequent turnouts, enabling the company to accommodate a 
heavy traffic. With the opening of the coming season the connec- 
tion into Louisville, Ky., will be completed and Louisville patrons 
will be carried across the Big Four bridge over the Ohio River 
through Jeffersonville to the park. The park comprises a 12-acre 
beech grove and a 10-acre athletic field. Nature has made the spot 
particularly attractive and the hand of man has materially aided in 
beautifying the scenery. 

As is the rule in most of the high-class parks of the country, no 
intoxicants are sold in or about the grounds. A supply of whole- 
some water is furnished from two deep wells in the park and also 
from the New Albany water works. Ample fire protection is 
afforded, the park being equipped with two fire hydrants, a reel and 
an adequate supply of hose. 

A variety of entertainment is afforded. There is a fully equipped 
open-air theater with a stage large enough to accommodate quite 
a pretentious performance tnd a seating capacity of 1,200. During 
the past season a number of well known bands were engaged and 
during the coming season a large orchestra will give concerts in the 
park every afternoon and evening. A dam has been built across 
Silver Creek, forming a beautiful lake which has a boating stage 
a mile long and fine bathing accommodations. Bathhouses will lie 
established and bathing suits rented. A 21-ft. naptha launch and 
12, 16-ft. row-boats have been placed on the lake. Other attractions 
include a miniature railway, box ball and bowling alleys, shooting 
galleries and a shoot-the-chutes. A dance hall is located under 
the large beech trees on the hank of Silver Creek and public dances 
are given every Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Saturday nights. 
Tuesday and Thursday nights are reserved for private dances. 

In connection with the park, although under a separate manage- 
ment, is the Glenwood Athletic Field. The grounds are enclosed 
by a high board fence and contain a covered grand stand seating 
several thousand people. The athletic field is open to all associa- 
tions and teams applying, the rental charged being a percentage of 
the gate and grand stand receipts. 

A unique feature of the park is the electrical advertising signs. 
one of which is illustrated. A number of these signs are distributed 
through the park and add substantially to the company's revenue 
at the same time reducing the cost of lighting the park. The com- 
pany is in receipt of a number of letters from firms who have used 
this medium of attracting the public notice, in which they speak- 
highly of the results obtained. The company has leased the park 
for the coming season to an amusement company which will install 
a number of amusement devices including a scenic railway, in 
addition to those already in operation. 

A general admission fee of 10 cents is charged at all times except 
when there is an especially expensive attraction at the park, at 
which time the charge is advanced. 



Feb. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



63 




vT-. v 



k* 1 .iA— IT'- 



SAPINSKY 



SHOOT-THE-CHUTES, GLENWOOD PARK, NEW ALBANY, IND, 



ADVERTISING SIGN, GLENWOOD PARK, NEW ALBANY, IND. 




LOWER LAKE, STANTON PARK, STEUBENVILLE, 0. 





STANTON PARK THEATER, STEUBENVILLE, 0. 



BOAT LANDING, BROAD RIPPLE CREEK, INDIANAPOLIS, IN'D. 



64 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville R. R. 



Sacandaga Park is beautifully situated in the southern foothills 
of the Adirondacks. It is the property of the Fonda. Johnston & 
Gloversville Railroad Co., and is located near the southern terminus 
oi the railway, within half a mile of the village of Northville. The 
park has a frontage of more than a mile on the Hudson River, the 
greater pari of which consists of a wooded bluff, thickly covered 
with trees. It is but a six-h utr journey from New York City, and 
is easily accessihle from all points in the eastern states. The hunt 
ing and fishing in the forests, which lie close at hand, is said to he 
excellent. The grounds of Sacandaga Park were laid out by- 
skilled landscape artists, while the sanitary arrangements, compris- 
ing a complete system of public sewers, and an abundant supply of 
pure spring water, assure the visitor immunity from malaria and 
the mosquito pest. 

A very handsome bote], known as the "Adirondack Inn," is 
located in the grounds and enjoys a wide reputation. It contains 
a large hall room. Bowling alleys, tennis courts and golf links are 
found in the grounds. A distinct feature of Sacandaga Park is 
presented in its advantages as a resort for picnic parties and ex- 
cursions. Spacious grounds have been provided for the use of 
ii.msicnt visitors and outing parties. In the picnic grounds is a 
rustic theater, where first-class vaudeville performances are given 
every afternoon and evening during the season. From near the 
theater a broad pathway leads down to "The Midway," which is 
located directly on the river. "The Midway" contains a varietj of 
amusement features, including a merry-go-round, zoo. water tobog- 
gan and bath houses. 

The company has recently purchased a large island lying in the 
river, near the "Midway," aid connected with 11 by a rustic bridge. 
The island comprises 60 acres and on it has been iaid out a splendid 
athletic field, containing a grand stand with a seating capacity for 
1.500 people. 



ST. JOSEPH RAILWAY, LIGHT & POWER CO. 



Lake Contrary Park is situated about five miles from St. Joseph. 
Mo. on the easl shore of Like Contrary, and has all the natural 
features which go to make an inviting rural retreat It is reached 
by a double-track line of the St Joseph Railway. Light & Power 
Co., has city water and a number of hotels and club houses. It has 
also good facilities for boating, bathing and fishing. 

The season opens May 30th and continues until September 30th, 
during which time all of the many amusement features are in fall 
swing. A well-equipped theater with a seating capacity of about 
j.ooo is open every evening, presenting hijh-class vaudeville. I here 
is also a midway, on which the smaller amusement features are 
operated, and from time to time free exhibitions of a vaudeville 
nature are presented out of doors 

An electric fountain is displayed at night and the Casino Concert 
Band is heard every afternoon and evening. During the summer 
there are several special events, such as races, encampments and 
reunions. The management has issued an advertising booklet con- 
taining some 35 views of the park, which presents the attractions 
of the place iii a very thorough manner. 



Hanover & McShevrystown Street Railway Co. 



This park is the property of the Hanover & McSherrystown 

Street Railway Co. and is under the management of F. M. Grum- 
bine. It is situated on the brow of a hill overlooking the historic 
village of Hanover. Pa., and commands an uninterrupted view of 
the valley of the Conewaga. The grounds have been tastefully 
planned and all improvements which make such a resort attractive 
have been added. A good restaurant is located on the grounds 
opposite the terminus of the electric line. An extensive athletic 
field has been laid out. comprising a baseball diamond, tennis courts, 
croquet and quoit grounds. An observatory has been placed on the 

lop of the hill overlooking II, ver, from which a view oi the 

surrounding country may be obtained. 

I he other attractions at the park include a penny arcade or 
"Electric Vaudeville," shooting galleries, a merry-go-round, cane 
and knife boards and a billiard and pool parlor. There is also a 



well-stocked zoo, containing monkeys, deer, wild-cats and a variety 
of the other inhabitants of the forest and field. 

The dancing pavilion is 100 x 32 ft. in size, with a fine maple 
floor and a good string orchestra in attendance throughout the 
-eason. Substantial tables and comfortable seats are scattered 
throughout the grounds for the benefit of picnickers. 

An efficient police force is maintained and the best of order is 
preserved. No charge for admission is made to the park, and dur- 
ing the summer special attractions are featured, such as vaudeville 
performances and band concerts. 



Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern Railroad Co. 



Willoughbcach Park is operated by the Willoughbeach Park Co. 
of which G. F. Bender. Willoughby, O.. is the manager. The park 
is entering upon its eighth season and has become very popular 
with the people of Cleveland and adjoining towns. It is located on 
the shore of Lake Erie, 17 miles from Cleveland and is access- 
ible by way of the shore line division of the Cleveland, Paines- 
ville & Eastern R. R. Connections can also be made from the 
Collinwood and Euclid Beach cars of the Cleveland Electric Ry. at 
Collinwood, O. The trolley ride to and from the park is par- 
ticularly delightful, large comfortable cars being provided which 
make fast time and maintain a frequent service. 

The park is operated on a strictly tempi ranee basis, no intoxicat- 
ing drinks being sold in or about the grounds, thus eliminating the 
undesirable patronage. Everything has been done which would 
tend to make the park a desirable place for the picnics of churches 
and societies. 

Me park contains modern well-kept buildings and maintains an 
independent water and sewerage plant which makes the sanitary 
conditions particularly good. There is a large pavilion with a pub- 
lic kitchen provided for the free use of visitors, also small summer 
houses, rustic bridges, swings, arbors and a number of lunch tables 
scattered about in well shaded localities. A fine electric riding 
gallery is operated in a building having a capacity of about 500 
people. There are also a fine beach with good boating and bathing 
facilities, a large level field for athletic Raines, and a good base- 
ball diamond. 

The structure containing the dance hall is commodious and has a 
good dining ball in connection. The cafe is in charge of a compe- 
tent caterer and refreshments are served at all times. The dance 
hall is open to the public Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday 
evenings, and Saturday afternoons. Private parties can secure 
exclusive use of the hall on Monday or Friday evening. An excel- 
lent orchestra is in attendance at all times. 

A novel feature is the private depot for the benefit of parties 
chartering special cars. The chartered cars are run to this building 
and the patrons thus avoid the crowd found at the regular depot. 
The park has been thoroughly overhauled during the winter and 
the coming season will find a number of improvements. 



Columbus, Delaware & Marion Railway Co. 



The lines of the Columbus, Delaware & Marion Railway Co. 
reach three parks, known as Glenmary Park, Greenwood Lake Park 
and Marion Park. Greenwood Lake is owned by a separate cor- 
poration and is managed by C. D. Crawford, of Delaware, O. The 
other two parks are owned and operated by the Columbus, Delaware 
& Marion Railway Co. under the supervision of the traffic manager, 
A. L. Neereamer. 

Glenmary Park is situated midway between Columbus and Dela- 
ware. O., and is less than an hour's ride from either point. It is 
located on the north side of Slate Hill, which was formerly known 
as the "Round Stone Hollow." and derived this name from the 
peculiar round stones deposited there during the glacial period and 
which were brought to Columbus in considerable numbers to orna- 
ment the driveways of many of the old-time houses. The park con- 
tains 54 acres, most of which is covered by forest, with ravines and 
occasional stretches of meadow, which adapt the park lo (he varied 
needs of picnics and outing parties. Rustic bridges span the numer- 
ous brooks flowing through the park into Trezevant Lake, a pic- 
turesque body of water artificially formed by closing the ends of a 
broad ravine. 



Feb. is, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



65 





CHARTERED CAR DEPOT, WIU.IIl'GH PEAC II DARK, WILLOUGHBY, 0. 



INTER!' R OF THEATER. LAKE CONTRARY DARK, ST. JOSEPH, MO. 




RUSTIC THEATER, SACANDAGA DARK. 





MINIATURE RACE TRACK, LAKE CONTRARY DARK, ST. JUSEPH, MO. 



PAVILION AND DANCING HALL, WILLOUGHBEACH DARK. WI1 



66 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



A rustic dancing pavilion 15 located among the trees with 6,000 
sq. ft. of floor space. Stationary swings have been set up for the 
children and there are also tennis courts, golf links and a baseball 
diamond. 

Greenwood Lake Park is a wild and rugged pleasure resort of 50 
acres, containing a beautiful lake extending over half a mile follow- 
ing the windings of a deep ravine and covering an area of jo acres. 
The lake is fed by natural springs and dotted with w led islands- 
Excellent fishing is found in these waters and in the shallow pools 
at the head of the lake is a magnificent bed of African lotus. The 
other attractions include boating, howling, dancing, tennis, an open- 
air theater and other outdoor amusements. There is also a well- 
equipped restaurant which can cater to the requirements of a large 
number. 

Marion Park is located nine miles south of Marion and comprises 
30 acres of wood and meadow land stretching along the banks of 
the Scioto River. The river at this point is broad and affords 
ample opportunity for boating. A large dancing pavilion and audi- 
torium is placed in the grove and there are also merry-go-rounds, 
shooting galleries and other attractions. 

The lines of the Columbus, Delaware & Marion Railway Co. also 
reach Olentangy Park, which is described elsewhere in this issue. 



Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co. 



Willow Grove Park is owned by the Philadelphia Rapid Transit 
( '.0 It is situated in Montgomery county. 13 miles from the 
center of Philadelphia, and is the terminus of six direct car lines, 
making it easy of access from all points in and about the city. It 
covers an area of more than 100 acres, containing many natural 
ami artificial beauties. The most popular feature of the park is the 
superior order of the musical attractions. Or.ly the best known 
hands and orchestras in the country are engaged, and the class of 
patronage thus attracted is of a high grade. Last season the 
musical attractions included Sousa's Hand, Victor Herbert's Or- 
chestra, Conway's Ithaca Band, Wheelock's United States Indian 
Hand, and Damrosch's Orchestra. This park was described at con- 
siderable length in the "Street Railwa} Review" for September, 
1905, and we are pleased to refer our reikis to page 540 of that 
issue for more complete informalii 11. 



Easton Transit Co. 



Island Park is situated about fun- miles from the citj of Easton, 
Pa., on an island in the Lehigh River. It is operated by the Easton 
Amusement Co., of which D. E. So (.nine is the manager, and is 
owned b\ the Easton Transit Co. The park contains ,1 good theater, 
which was erected during the past season. It is 37 x 75 ft. in size, 
with three dressing rooms on either side <>f a stage large enough to 
accommodate the average performance. There are 815 reserved 
seats and 1,200 free seats. Only one class of entertainment, namely 
vaudeville, has been tried at the theater. This has given every satis- 
factiein, and it is expected that this same form of amusement will 
be continued during the coming season. 

Other attractions consist of a Penis wheel, a dancing pavilion. 
70 x 117 ft. in size with a 14-ft. promenade around the entire build- 
ing, a gas, .line launch, row-boats, a carrousel, a miniature railway 
and a pennj arcade There is a small midway, along which are 
located various other attractions. A restaurant and a hand stand 
are also included in the equipment. 

The Easton Transit Co. has issued a folder which contains time 
tables and a complete map of the line and some advertising matter 
in regard to the park. The rates of fare from nearbj towns 111 
Pennsylvania are also presented. 



Joliet, Plainfield & Aurora P. R. 



Electric Park is located .-t Plainfield, III. on the Du Page River. 
10 miles from Joliet and 12 miles from Aurora The park is 
Operated b) the Joliet, Plainfield & Aurora Railroad Co. under the 
management of II. A. Fischer, who is also vice-president and gen- 
eral manager of the road. 

The management is erecting for the coming season a theater 



building with a seating capacity of 3,000 people. The auditorium is 
to be circular in. shape, with a sloping earth floor and an ornamental 
front 120 ft. wide and two stories high. This front is to contain 

restaurant I tlis on the first floor and a dining room up stairs. 

'I he stage will be 40 x 30 it. with ample dressing rooms and a full 
equipment for handling ordinary vaudeville shows. The object of 
this building is to not only provide a theater, but also an assembly 
ball for conventions and a Chautauqua. The Will County Chau- 
tauqua will be held in this park during the coming summer. 

\1110ng the other attractions on the grounds are the bowling alley, 
a dancing platform 80 x 140 ft., a merry-go-round, an equipment of 
36 steel row-boats and a gasoline launch, bath houses and a tobog- 
gan slide for the bathers, a baseball park provided with a commo- 
dious grand stand ami .1 miniature railway operated by gasoline 
motor cars pulling trailers. 

This company has recently purchased a tract of six acres imme- 
diately adjoining the park, which has been laid out in a sub-division 
for camping purposes, and on these grounds will be erected 50 
canvas cottages. These cottages are provided with permanent 
floors and roofs and are boarded up on the sides for about three 
feet; the canvas is then used for the balance of the sides and all 
openings and doors are screened. These grounds will be piped for 
city water and gas for cooking purposes, illuminated with electric 
lights and completely sewered throughout. Additional grounds arc 
provided for parties desiring to use canvas tents in place of cot- 
tages. A large water tank and an observation tower will be built 
and a number of small electric fountains will be supplied from this 
tank. 

During the past season the management made a specialty of 
securing military encampments, and for a time the park was the 
camping ground of the Columbus Rifles. It has been found that 
the best drawing card for the park has been the band and orchestra 
concerts provided, and this feature will be enlarged upon the com 
nig season. The management is also considering the installation of 
a pipe organ in the auditorium. 



Mobile Light & Railroad Co, 



'1 he .Mobile Light & Railroad Co., .Mobile. Ala., owns and oper- 
ates a park on Mobile Hay. known as Monroe Park. This park 
contains 40 acres of land, which includes a hall park as well as the 
other park attractions. Monroe Park is situated three miles from 
the center of the city and on the edge of the built-up residence 
district. It is reached by three lines of cars in the summer, only- 
one of which run to the park in the winter. 

The particular attraction at Monroe Park is the gulf breeze. The 
prevailing breeze of the summer time is from the gulf and crowds 
congregate at Monroe Park to breathe the cool air as it comes in. 
'I he improvements at the park consist of a casino, where refresh- 
ments are sold, a skating rink, bowling alley, laughing gallery, car- 
rousel and a theater. 

In the theater the most popular form of amusement is the sum- 
mer opera. This draws greater crowds than any other amusement 
which is given inside the theater and for which an admission fee is 
charged. Every night during the summer moving pictures are 
shown in the open air and have proven a good drawing card At 
times during the season outdoor attractions are engaged, but at 
this park it is not necessary to go to any great expense to draw 
the crowds, as the park of itself is so attractive that people go 
there whether there are any special entertainments on or not. Put 
the amusement devices are not neglected. 

The park has been self-sustaining; that is. the amounts received 
from the concessions sold have paid for all the expense of opera- 
tion. Band concerts are given each Sunday afternoon and night. 
'I he park is used largelj by benevolent associations for the giving 
of picnics. On these nights an admission fee of ten cents is 
charged to the park; on other nights the admission is free. These 
associations give very large picnics, have fireworks, free outside 
shows and in one way and another give attractions that draw large 
crowds to th,. park. 

The season at Monroe Park begins about April 20th and lasts 
until the middle of October It is visited through the entire year, 
but there are no .|in«- of any kind given except between April and 
October. J. II. Wilson is president and manager of th.- Mobile 
Light & Railroad Co. 



Feu. i.S, iyo6.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



67 






_^M— fc. ^"\~,'j— v. <30 L ' 'J 






|^^^^^^^^ 


p^PX*-*** — TSr..^ 



DANCING PAVILION, ISLAND PARK, EASTON, PA. 



( ASINO, MONROE PARK, MOBILE, ALA. 




VIEW OF LAKES IN WILLOW GROVE PARK, WILLOW GROVE, PA. 





THE CASINO, ISLAND PARK, EASTON, PA. 



THE CHUTES, ELECTRIC PARK. IT.AI N'FIEI P. ILL. 



68 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



International Railway Co. of Buffalo. 



Olcott Beach Park is owned and operated by the International 
Railway Co. of Buffalo, N. V. It is situated amid very pleasing 
surroundings, and is reached by trolley from four large cities, being 
37 miles from Buffalo, .57 miles from Niagara Falls, 27 miles from 
Tonawanda and 13 miles from Lockport. The majority of the 
patronage is from Lockport, which is the shorter haul. A large 
and well-planned terminal station, which has been designed for 
the rapid handling of the crowds, is placed at the park entrance. 
The route from the city of Buffalo to the park lies through the fruit 
section of Niagara County, passing many peach and apple orchards. 
At points where the city lines intersect the road to the park transfer 
from these lines to the through cars is made, credit for the transfer 
being allowed by the conductor of the Olcott cars when tickets are 
purchased. 

The park has a rustic theater, which has a capacity of about 800. 
It is leased by theatrical interests, vaudeville being presented and a 
ten cent admission charge being made. The management finds that 
tin- form of entertainment is the most popular, and it will be con- 
tinued. 

A large hotel known as the Olcott Beach Hotel is situated within 
the park. It has 70 moms and a cafe, which will seat 700 persons 
There is also a large casino for indoor theatricals and dancing. 

A number of other attractions are operated, including an electric 
riding gallery, a miniature railway and several smaller features. 



The Union Electric Co., of Dubuque, la. 



The Union Electric Co. has tour parks, all located on what is called, 
the ■'main line." this being a long double track division running 
north and south, paralleling the Mississippi River. 

The first of these is Athletic Park, the home of the Dubuque 
Club of the Three-I Baseball League, and the scene of football con- 
tests and other outdoor sports. The company is the largest stock- 
holder, and in fact the owner, of the baseball club. The club is 
now entering on it^ fourth season, and up to date it has been neces- 
sary for the street railway company to contribute liberally each year 
in order to maintain the team. It has been found that the induced 
traffic on account of the baseball situation warranted the expendi- 
ture and left a small margin of profit. Dubuque is an enthusiastic 
ball town, the report of the secretary and treasurer showing that 
the team took in nearly $17,000 last year. 

The next park on the line is Schuetzen Park, which is owned by 
the corporation, but leased to an individual. It embraces some 50 
or 60 acres, has a fine grove, a large dance hall, bowling alleys, a 
restaurant, a few animals and other small features. 

Last year the lessee of the park and the street railway company 
erected an outdoor theater, the stage, scenery and all settings being 
permanent. Seating accommodations for 1,200 people were afforded 
by benches under the trees, the enclosure being effected by a ten-foot 
canvas wall. The park completely equipped was turned over to 
the local vaudeville manager, who put on the shows and conducted 
the theater as an individual venture. There was an admission 
charge of 10 cents, with an additional charge of 10 cents for re- 
served seats. High grade vaudeville was put on, the cost of the 
shows, v, ith advertising, stage expenses, etc., running from $500 to 
$650 per week. The theater is in fine shape and no doubt will be 
utilized for the same purpose another year. The theater was known 
as the "Bijou White City," and was under the management of 
Jacob Rosenthal. 

A mile further north is Nutwood Park, the home of the Tri- 
State Fair. This is a tract of 75 acres, embracing a fine mile track, 
grand stands, exhibition halls, stables, and a complete equipment for 
the conduct of fairs and cattle shows. 

This property is owned by the street railway company and its 
use donated to the Tri-State Fair Association. Two most successful 
fairs have been conducted and the annual show is scheduled for 
September of this year. Agricultural machinery, live stock, poultry, 
farm products and the usual class of exhibits found at state fairs 
are provided, with a fine racing program, outdoor attractions and a 
line of meritorious paid shows. 

The park in which the company takes the greatest interest is 
Union Park. This is located a mile and half north of Nutwood 
Park and cars in reaching it run through a rugged, rocky gorge. 



There have not been extensive improvements made at this point, 
for nature made such a lavish provision that the company deter- 
mined that the erection of the usual park features would cheapen 
and rob the spot of its greatest charm. There are 100 acres in this 
tract, with unlimited range on till sides, there being no restriction 
by the abutting property holders. The most beautiful wild flowers 
bloom in profusion and at places there are perpendicular reaches (I 
rock with fine forest trees on all sides. 

At present the equipment consists of a dwelling occupied by the 
park keeper, a dance hall, bowling alley, pavilion, refreshment stand, 
band stand, and a large equipment of tallies and benches which 
are used by picnic parties. 

During the past season the company put on a few high grade at- 
tractions, such as band concerts, which met with marked success. 
The plan for the coming season is to reconstruct the present build- 
ings, making them larger and more modern, with a rustic band 
stand among the trees, ample provision being made in the new 
structure to conduct the outdoor entertainments under cover in 
the event of inclement weather. 

The company maintains an ample force at the park to keep up 
the numerous flower designs and maintain a general system of 
order. No intoxicating liquors are allowed on the grounds. 

A feature of this park is an underground tunnel or cave. En- 
trance is effected by a flight of stairs some 60 ft. in height, the ceil- 
ing of the cave being in places 50 ft. in height. It is possible to 
travel a distance of a mile and half in this underground passage. 
The cave is brilliantly lighted by electricity, and the temperature in 
summer, as a rule, is 50 degrees lower than that outside. 



Oregon Water Power & Railway Co. 



The Oregon Water Power & Railway Co. owns an amusement 
park which is called The Oaks. It is located on the Willamette 
River, about three miles from the center of the city of Portland, 
Ore. The park is situated on a point of land projecting into the 
river and is surrounded on three sides by water. A board walk 
1.250 ft. long has been erected along one side of the park with 
suitable boat landings. The railway company operates park trains 
of two or three cars which make the run from the city to the park- 
in 15 minutes. The park is also reached by boats of all classes. 

No theater is operated. A. large and well-equipped restaurant has 
been built out over the river on piling, and a good dancing pavilion 
is also included. The amusement features consist of a circle swing, 
shoot the chutes, the bumps and other devices usual to amusement 
parks. 

The Oaks was operated last season by the railway company, but 
it is expected to lease the park for the coming summer to an amuse- 
ment company which is being formed for that purpose. A new 
water power plant is being established on the Clackamas River 
which will have a capacity of 20,000 h. p. and, in the future, the 
company will develop its own power and lease all concessions to the 
auxiliary company. 

The park is the home of the Oregon Yacht Club, which has its 
club house and docks at one end of the park, and is the scene of 
the club's annual regattas. 



The Seattle Electric Co. 



The Seattle Electric Co. owns and operates three parks situated 
on the west shore of Lake Washington, about three miles from the 
center of the city of Seattle. These parks are excellent examples 
of the results that can he obtained when nature is intelligently aided 
by artificial means. Two of them. Madison and Leschi Parks, are 
reached by cable roads, while the third, Madrona Park, is served 
by an electric line. Practically the same attractions are found at 
the three parks. Certain refreshment and dance hall privileges are 
leased to outside parties, but their control is held by the company 
The special features include band concerts, dancing, canoeing and 
the other smaller attractions which are usually found in any summer 
amusement resort. 

Several years ago theaters were operated at two of the parks, 
presenting vaudeville performances of more or less merit, but in 
both cases, after repeated trials, the venture proved a financial 
failure and was therefore abandoned. The parks are also reached 
by steamboat lines, which have fine docking facilities at the parks. 



Kiiu. is, njo6.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



69 





t^lMfSaS 






RUSTIC THEATER, OLCOTT BEACH PARK, LAKE ONTARIO, X V. 



UNION PARK, DUBUQUE, IA 




A SUNDAY CROWD AT MADISON PARK, SEATTLE, WASH. 




GENERAL VIEW OF MADISON PARK FROM LAKE WASHINGTON, SEATTLE, WASH. 



70 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 



Elmira Water, Light & Railroad Co. 



Rorick's Glen Park is operated by the Rorick's Glen Park Asso- 
ciation, of which Henry Taylor is the manager, and is served by 
the lines of the Elmira Water, Light & Railroad Co. It is located 
hi the hanks of the Chemung River about a mile from the city of 
Elmira, X. Y. The principal attraction at the park is a theater 
with a seating capacity of 2.000 and a full equipment of scenery. 
Light opera, given by a stock company, with a change of bill each 
week, has been found to be the best paying form of attraction in 
this locality. 

The grounds are tastefully laid out and contain some beautiful 
flower beds, which are lighted at night with colored electric lamps 
placed among the flowers. The grounds, theater and flying ma- 
chine, which is another of the popular attractions of this resort, 
are covered with lights, affording a brilliant display after dark. 
The management operates row-boats on the river, which are largely 
patronized. The park is a very popular resort for picnic parties 
from Elmira and the surrounding country. 



Columbus Railway & Light Co. 



Olentangj Park is served by the lines of the Columbus Railway 
& Light Co. It is situated at the northern limits of the city of 
Columbus. O., and four miles from the center of the city. The 
entire park, with all the amusements, is owned and operated by 
The Olentangy Park Co., organized in 1899, with a capital stock of 
$100,000, although much more than that amount is now invested 
in the park. J. W. Dusenbury is president and general manager of 
the company, and Will J, Dusenbury is secretary and treasurer, and 
these two personally manage the park and control the company. 

Ihe park contains about 100 acres of beautifully wooded grounds, 
intersected by deep ravines. The Olentangy River flows through 
the park, affording excellent boating and bathing facilities. Ihe 
main portion of the grounds is situated on a comparatively level 
plateau, which descends abruptly through a distance of about 60 ft. 
lo the edge of the river. This plateau is divided into four main 
parts by three deep ravines which are crossed by bridges. There 
are four of these bridges within the park, the largest of which is 380 
ft. long, 24 ft. wide, and 60 ft. above the bottom of the ravine. The 
buildings and amusement devices, with the exception of the boat 
house and docks, bowling alleys, and the lathing pavilion, are all 
located on the plateau. 

Among the different amusements to he found in the park are 
"Ye Olde Mill." a three-way figure-eight toboggan, Ferris wheel, 
mechanical shooting gallery, pony and camel track, and a palace 
of illusions. In addition to the foregoing there are ball racks, knife 
boards, cane racks. Japanese rolling ball games, a dart gallery and 
other small games. There are also a good restaurant, a palm gar- 
den, in which soft drinks and ice cream are served, and a Japanese 
village. 

Ih. main building in the park is the theater, which is 250 ft. 
iong and 150 ft. wide. It contains a balcony and gallery, the total 
seating capacity living 2,680. The floor is saucer-shaped, having a 
pitch toward the stage from all directions. The seats, interior 
decorations and stage equipment are equal to those of most city 
theaters, and the stage will accommodate the average production. 
The prices at the theater are 10, 20 and 30 cents, and the box seats. 
50 cents. All kinds of entertainments are given in the theater, 
but it has been found that good vaudeville is the most remunerative. 
and attenti in is now confined to that class of entertainment, with 
occasional weeks of musical concerts, such as Creatore's Band. 
Liberati's Band, [line's Land. Ihe Kilties Band. etc. Performances 
are given every afternoon and evening, including Sunday, each per- 
formance lasting about two and a half hours. There is an entire 
j( of hill each week. 

A Zoological Garden occupies about 20 acres at the southern end 
■ if tin' park, and is said to be surpassed only by the zoological 
gardens of the large cities. Steam-heated buildings are provided for 
the animals, accustomed I" .1 warm climate. The animals include 
all the species ol carnivora, such as lions, tigers, leopards, pumas, 
iaguai ocelot ; ei md a number of bears, wolves, foxes and 
oon Then an also ea lions, alligators, birds of many kinds. 
monkeys, camels, ponies, elk, buffalo, nylghau, and a variety of 
deer. The zoo is free to all park visitors. 



The Museum of Ornithology occupies a building, 30 x 70 ft. in floor 
area, which is filled with .specimens of birds of every kind native 
to the region. This is said to be the largest and best collection of 
the kind in the state. This is also free to park patrons. 

There is also a large green house, arranged for a display of tropical 
plants in summer, and in winter is used for propagating and caring 
for the flowers and plants used in beautifying the grounds. It i~ 
found that this not only affords a beautiful and interesting display 
of flowers and plants in the summer, but enables the management 
tu have more flowers on the grounds and at less expense than 
would otherwise be entailed. 

The Japanese Village contains about ten acres and is complete in 
every respsct. some of the structures and many of the exhibits 
being brought from the St. Louis Exposition. The plants and shrubs 
used were imported from Japan and the landscape gardening and 
the construction and decoration of all the buildings were done by 
Japanese workmen. It has been found that the Japanese Village, 
or "Fail Japan," as it is called, appeals particularly to the better 
class of people. There were over fifty Japanese in the village 
last season. 

The main line of the Columbus Railway & Light Co. enters the 
southern end of the park on a loop and unloads and loads its 
passengers at a commodious station within the park. Cars are 
run on this line at all times with intervals of five minutes and 
when the business requires, the cars follow one another with scarcely 
any headway. The attendance averages about 8,000 on ordinary 
days, and from 25,000 to 30,000 on Sundays, holidays and special 
days. The Columbus, Delaware & Marion Ry. runs past the 
park and unloads passengers at the park entrance. Passengers 
from all the other iuterurban lines entering the city as well as 
from the steam roads can reach the park over these two main lines. 

No intoxicating liquors are sold 01 permitted on the park grounds 
All the amusements are said to lie remunerative. With the exception 
of the theater the figure-eight toboggan and "Ye Olde Mill," are 
considered the most profitable. Ihe Japanese Village has also 
proven quite successful. 

Free open-air attractions such as looping-the-loop, leaping-the- 
gap, dog and pony circuses, etc., are frequently introduced. A band 
which gives open-air concerts every afternoon and evening is a per- 
manent feature of the park. 

The company also operates Minerva Park, which is owned by the 
Columbus Railway & Light Co., and is located ten miles from the city 
of Columbus. 

Austin Electric Railway Co. 



Hyde Park is situated a short distance from the city of Austin. 
Tex., and is served by the line of the Austin Electric Railway Co. 
The natural beauties of the park have been added to by artificial 
means and a small stream spanned by a number of rustic bridges 
flows through the grounds, making it a very attractive place for a 
day's recreation. About five acres are included and many shade 
trees are scattered about. 

The chief attraction at the park is a summer theater, which has a 
large stage, six dressing rooms, a complete equipment of scenery 
and a seating capacity of 1.200. Small opera troupes and stock 
companies are engaged and these forms of entertainment are very 
popular. 



The Ithaca Street Railway Co. 



Renwick Beach Park is situated at the southern end of Cayuga 
Lake, the largest of the beautiful chain of lakes that adds so much 
to the picluresquencss of western and central New York. The 
lake is 38 miles long and has a width of four miles in the widest 
part. It is celebrated for the purity and clearness of its water in 
summer and its ice in winter. It is off Renwick Beach that Coach 
Courtney, of Cornell University, trains his victorious crews from 
year to year. The park and beach are two miles from the city of 
Ithaca, N. Y.. and are served by the Ithaca Street Ry., the park 
owner and operator, by the Ithaca & Cayuga Heights Electric Ry., 
and by several lines of lake steamers. The grounds are very attrac- 
tive and contain a theater, band stand, bathing houses, steamboat 
pier and an observation tower, from which there is a beautiful view 



Feb. is, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



71 




THEATER AT OLENTANGY PARK, COLUMBUS, 0. 




BOAT LANDING, RENWICK BEACH TARK, ITHACA, N. Y. 



72 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



down the lake. Ithaca is the home of the popular and widely known 
Ithaca Hand, which gives concerts at the park on week day even- 
ings and Sunday afternoons and evenings. The park theater has a 
stage 20 x 36 ft. in size and a seating capacity of over 700. Musical 
comedies and vaudeville are the principal entertainments. 

The most notable characteristic of Renwick Beach Park is the 
good order which is preserved there. It is policed by veterans 
from the city police force and no intoxicants are sold. Every other 
kind of commodity needed is sold in the various buildings by reput- 
able people, who lease the concessions from the company. Edward 
G. Wyckoff, of Ithaca, is president and principal owner of the 
Ithaca Street Railway Co., and Renwick Beach Park, and Robert 
L. Post, general manager of the company and the park. 



Bay City Traction & Electric Co. 



The Bay City Traction & Electric Co., Bay City, Mich., owns 
and operates Wenona Beach Park. The park is situated on Sag- 
inaw Bay, an arm of Lake Huron, about two miles from the 
Saginaw River and about live miles from Bay City. The company 
maintains a 25-minute schedule between the city and the Beach 



found very profitable. A restaurant is also operated and a first- 
class service is maintained. The dining-room overlooks the baj 
and the diner ma\ enjoy the view and listen to the restaurant 
orchestra while eating his meal. The management issues a very 
attractive illustrated booklet descriptive "f the park which includes a 
schedule of the rate of fare from various points to the park. Spe- 
cial inducements in the nature of reduced rates are offered t" ex 
cursion parties. 1.. W. Richards is the park manager. 



Anniston Electric & Gas Co. 



The Anniston Electric & Gas Co. has operated Oxford Lake Park 
Mine 1K80, and in fact, at that time changed the corporate name of 
the street railway to the "Oxford Lake Line." It was continued as 
such until 1899 when that company was consolidated with the Annis- 
ton Electric & Street Railway Co. and the Anniston das & Light 
Co., under the corporate name of the Anniston Electric & Gas Co. 
The street railway at Anniston, Ala., was originally started in 1884 
as a horse car line, operated between the town of Oxford, three 
miles below Anniston, and Anniston. which even at that time, was 
a larger place than the old town of Oxford, one of the earliest set- 




IESERVATICN Tl WF.H AM 



AFE, RENWIC 



la \i II PARK. ITU \i \, \, 



and the ride makes a very pleasant preface to a day's outing at 
the park. The park proper covers about 27 acres and is lighted 
with 3,000 incandescent lamps arranged to good advantage. Con- 
siderable time ami thought have been expended in the arrange- 
ment of the grounds and the general result obtained is very pleasing. 

A large summer theater, known as the Casino, forms one of the 
principal attractions. The stage has a proscenium opening of 50 
ft, a width of 120 ft. from wall to wall, a depth of 35 ft. from the 
curtain line and a height of 65 ft. from the floor to the gridiron. 
At present, the managemeni is playing nothing hut vaudeville. Five 
acts are given each week and the performance is closed with the 
exhibition of a moving-picture machine, the bill being changed 
weekly. An orchestra of eight pieces and a complete scenic equip- 
ment is maintained and the management has found that the theater 
is an excellent money-getter. The casino has a seating capacity of 
2,500 people and compares favorably with the majority of the 
vaudeville theaters found in the smaller cities. 

Every facility for bathing and boating has been provided. At this 
point on Saginaw Bay, the beach is exceptionally fine and is 
crowded daily. Among the other amusements are included a roller 
coaster, shooting galleries, a penny arcade, a circle swing and an 
old mill. These attractions are largely patronized and have been 



tied towns in the state. The fare to Oxford is ten cents and Oxford 
Lake is one mile beyond. 

As there is no other body of water near Anniston the lake fur- 
nishes the only opportunity for those who like boating to enjoy that 
sport. There are 24 row-boats on t'ne lake, in addition to a launch 
The lake is fed by two bowl springs, having a flow of a million 
and a half gallons daily, and an electrically driven pump distributes 
spring water to all parts of the grounds, to be used for both drink- 
ing and irrigating purposes. The lake has been stocked with fine 
black bass, generally incorrectly called trout and to prevent continu- 
ous fishing by people who would soon reduce the stock, a charge of 
five cents a pound for fish actually caught is made and parties known 
to sell the fish are prohibited from using the privilege. 

Other revenue producing amusements are an electric merrj go 
round ami a swimming pool, with the pool so arranged that it can 
lie divided into two sections so that ladies and children alone can 
use a part, separate and distinct from the men and boys, or the 
whole can be thrown together. This swimming pool has been one 
of the best paying features. When the original pool was rebuilt a 
few years ago, using concrete throughout instead of wood, a portion 
of the pool was made very shallow and a wire netting stretched 
across, so that the smallest children could go in with safety. The 



Feb. is, 1006.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



73 




OXFORD LAKE PARK — ANNISTGN, ALA. 



company itself operates all of the amusement features and rents out 
only the refreshment stands. 

Last summer completed the sixth successful season of vaudeville 
at the summer theater in the park. While this is so open at the sides 
as to be cool and pleasant, it is thoroughly protected from the weather 
and has enabled the management to give performances every week- 
day night without missing a single performance. In the operation of 
the vaudeville, moving pictures have been made a feature and illus- 
trated songs are frequently presented. 

For several years the park had two regular sized howling alleys, 
but last year the building was burned and two box-ball alleys were 



installed in another building. It is intended to replace the bowling 
alleys and house them, together with the box-ball outfit, in another 
building. 

Two large dancing pavilions arc provided, the use of which is 
given to private parties gratuitously. The lighting of these buildings 
is included, but compensation is derived from special cars, for which. 
an increased price is charged if held out beyond the regular schedule. 

None of the smaller amusement devices are included in the park. 
for the management considers that they would soon become an old 
story to the limited population it caters to. Although the park con- 
sists of -o acres and has numerous buildings which must be kept in 




1 r . i I ' 









m _^^| 










^F > A J 


W>4 





! 



WHERE THE FUN BEGINS AT WENONA PEACH PARK, BAY CITY, MICH. 



74 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



repair, it lias been self-supporting for a number of years. All of the 
ed business secured on the line through the ownership and 
operation of the park has hern at no cost for park maintenance. 

Heretofore negroes have been permitted to go to Oxford Lake 
Park and a gallery has been provided for them at the theater. But 
in the Smith the combination of white and colored patronage does 



high order, but 40 acres have been further improved and the park 
compares favorably with anything of its kind in the country. 

Illustrations are herewith presented of the large figure-eight 
toboggan, which was installed by the Philadelphia Toboggan Co., 
and of the band stand, which is in the shape of a large sound shell, 
situated within an enclosure seating 1,500 people. The park also in- 




FIGUBE-E1GHT TOBOGGAN, VINEWOOD l'AHK, IOPEKA, KAN. 



not work at all well and the company has decided to build an ex- 
tension to its line through Hobson City, to a site for a park to be 
used exclusively by negroes, and known as Hobson City Park. A 
large pavilion will be built on these grounds at once, to be used for 
dancing purposes, roller skating and amusements of different kinds. 
The baseball ground will be laid out and free swings, tables, etc., 
provided. This park will be controlled by a stock company capi- 
talized at a nominal amount, the stockholders in which are prominent 
people in Anniston, whose intention is to in turn sell this stock to 
the negroes themselves, that they may acquire the ownership of the 
stock paying for it on the installment plan. 



Topeka Railway Co. 



I he lopjka Railway Co. owns an amusement resort which 1- 
known as Vinewood Park and is located at the terminus of the com- 




cludes a summer theater seating 800 people, a dance hall and a well- 
equipped cafe. For the coming season the owner is contemplating 
further improvements consisting of a carrousel and a number of 
smaller amusement devices. 



Shamokin & Edgewood Electric Railway Co. 



Edgewood Park is picturesquely located among the mountains 
of Pennsylvania. It is controlled by the Shamokin & Edgewood 
Electric Railway Co., and is but a short run over the company's 
line from Shamokih. The park contains So acres of mountain 
forest land including shaded walks, rustic summer houses and well- 
planned flower beds. It is a graceful combination of nature's handi- 
work and the landscape gardener's art. 

A very attractive feature of the park is Edgewood Lake, a sheet 



1 


1 A M it 


I 







ARTIFICIAL LAGOON, VINEWOOD PARK, TOPEKA, KAN. 



BAND CONCERT, AT VINEWOOD PARK, TOPEKA, KAN. 



1 Division, six miles from the city of Topeka. Kan 

imately 275 acres of w Hand are included in the park, 

through which winds a picturesque stream spanned by a number of 
rustic bridges. Two concrete regulating dam- have been built which 
control the water supply. The natural beauty of the place is of a 



of water covering several acres, near the center of which is a little 
flower-covered island. Another interesting feature is the deer park, 
where a large number of these animals are kept. An excellent cafe 
is maintained, which supplies meals and luncheons at all times. 
There is also a fine dancing pavilion, and throughout the season 



Feb. 15, iqooV 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



75 



an orchestra furnishes music during the afternoons and evenings. 
Abundant provision is made for picnic parties who desire to pre- 
pare their own meals. There is an unlimited supply of pure water, 
ice and fuel are furnished free, and a number of rustic tables and 
benches are located under the trees about the grounds. A good 
baseball Held with commodious grand stand accommodations has 
been provided. The electric cars connect with all trains on the 
Pennsylvania and Philadelphia & Reading railroads and run 
direct to the park. 



Saginaw Valley Traction Co. 



The Saginaw Valley Traction Co. owns and operates Riverside 
Park, which is situated on the historic Titibawassee River. This 
region was once the home of many Indian tribes and contains his- 
torical spots which their sojourn here has rendered interesting. 
The park is situated within the city limits and is about four miles 
from the center of the city. The natural beauty of the river bank 
has left little of an artificial nature to be done. The entrance to 
the park is particularly pleasing. From a distance it appears to have 
been cut out of a solid mass of green and the car passes through a 
lane of foliage whose branches are interlaced in an artistic manner. 

A well-equipped theater is operated in connection with the park, 
where high grade vaudeville shows are presented. Attractions other 
than vaudeville have been tried, but it. has been found that the best 
results were obtained from this form of amusement. The theater 
has a seating capacity of 1,500, a stage with 2,700 sq. ft. of floor 
space, well-equipped dressing rooms, a complete equipment of 
scenery and good lighting facilities. The general admission to the 
theater is 10 cents, the reserved seats being sold at 15 cents. 

Among the other concessions is a good restaurant and refresh- 
ment parlor. A variety of amusement devices are operated, includ- 
ing a roller coaster, a circle swing, a roller-skating rink, no x 175 
ft., bowling alleys, a laughing gallery, Japanese box ball and shoot- 
ing galleries. A small zoo is also maintained. 

A private canoe club has its club house located at the park. It 
has a membership of about 150, and from time to time during the 
season gives regattas in which the general public takes a great deal 
of interest. The Saginaw Valley Traction Co. maintains a 40- 
minute schedule to the park on week days and 30 minutes on Sun- 
days. The company distributes some interesting advertising matter 




AMUSEMENTS AT HYDE PARK. MUSKOGEE. T. T. 

relative to the park, which includes the rates of fare, 
ards is the park manager. 



L. W. Rich- 



Muskogee Electric Traction Co. 



Hyde Park, which is leased and managed by A. A. Kinney, is 
located on the banks of the Arkansas River, five miles from Mus- 
kogee, I. T., a growing city of 30,000 population. The park is 
reached over the line of the Muskogee Electric Traction Co., which 
furnishes an excellent park service. The ride to the park is one of 



the principal features in connection with a day's outing there. The 
route is laid over the prairies and through the forests of this pic- 
turesque country and is very attractive. 

The park contains a well-equipped theater with a large stage and 
a seating capacity of 1,500. During the season the management 
presents a variety of entertainment at the theater, including a comic 
opera, melodrama and musical comedy, which have proved excellent 
drawing cards. Facilities for bathing in the Arkansas River are 
provided, and among the other attractions are a skating rink. 




RUSTIC WATERWHEEL, DOLING PARK, SPRINGFIELD, MO. 

dancing pavilion, billiard and pool hall and a merry-go-round. 
Excursion boats are operated on the Arkansas River and run be- 
tween the park and a number of points along the river. A good 
baseball diamond is provided and a feature is a ball team of Creek 
Indians which plays frequently at the park. The Hyde Park 
Band gives daily concerts and there are numerous other attractions. 
The management reports a bright outlook for the coming season. 



Springheld Traction Co. 



Doling" Park is operated b) an independent park company of 
which R. L. Doliny is the manager. 'I he Springfield Traction Co. 
furnishes transportation to the park from all parts of the city of 
Springfield, Mo., and the railway company and the park manage- 
ment work together to their mutual profit. The daily average 
attendance throughout the season is about Soo except on special 
days when it runs well into the thousands. 

Doling" Park comprises 44 acres and is a natural park of some 
pretentions. The grounds are carefully policed, all intoxicating 
drinks and gambling devices arc forbidden and a high order of 
respectability is maintained. The park attractions include a fine 
theater with a seating capacity of 2,500 and a w-ell equipped stage. 
During the season a stock company presents two good plays each 
week, interspersed with special vaudeville features. There is also 
a natural cave extending 1,000 ft. into the earth, through which 
runs a stream on which visitors are carried by boats to a waterfall. 
A novel idea in the operation of park attractions is found in the 
fact that this stream operate- a merry-go-round by means of the 
rustic water wheel shown in the accompanying illustration. 



New cars for limited service on the Indiana Union Traction Co's. 
lines are being constructed in the company's shops at Anderson 
and it is thought that they will be ready for use in the near future. 
The cars will be elegantly finished and will be furnished with 
revolving wicker chairs. 



The Montreal Street Railway Co.'s officials have of late been sent 
several remittances of conscience money. Three letters have been 
received recently, one containing 70 cents and another $2. A let- 
ter was also received from J. W. Cunningham, a clergyman, con- 
taining $20. which Mr. Cunningham says was handed to him to 
forward to the company by a man whose conscience was troubling 
him, because he had "done" the company out of this amount. 



76 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



THE 



STREET RAILWAY 
REVIEW 

AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF STREET AND ELECTRIC RATLWAY5 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE 

KENFIELD PUBLISHING CO., 

45-47 Plymouth Place, Chicago, III. 

Cable Address: ' ' Winfleld. ' ' Long Distance Telephone, Harrison 754. 

BRANCH OFFICES: 
New York— 3g Cortlandt Street. Cleveland— 302 Electric Building. 

London— Byron House, 82 Fleet St. 

SUBSCRIPTION AGENCIES: 
Austria, Vienna— Lehmann & Wentzel, Karntnerstrasse. 
France, Paris — Boy veau & Chevillet, Librairie Etrangere, Rue de la Banque. 
Italy, Milan— Ulrico Hoepli, Librairia Delia Real Casa. 

New South Wales, Sydney— Turner & Henderson, 16 and 18 Hunter Street. 
Queensland (South), Brisbane— Gordon & Cotch. 
Victoria, Melbourne— Gordon & Cotch, Limited, Queen Street. 

Address all Communications and Remittances to Kenfield Publishing Co-, Chicago, III. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

We cordially invite correspondence on all subjects of interest to those 
engaged in any branch of street railway work, and will gratefully appreciate 
any marked copies of papers or news items our street railway friends may send 
us, pertaining either to companies or officers. 



DOES THE MANAGER WANT ANYTHING? 

If you contemplate the purchase of any supplies or material, we can save 
you much time and trouble. Drop a line to The Review, stating what you are 
in the market for, and you will promptly receive bids and estimates from' all the 
best dealers in that line. We make no charge for publishing such notices in our 
Bulletin of Advance News, which is sent to all manufacturers. 

This paper is a member of the Chicago Trade Press Association. 
Entered at the Post Office at Chicago as Second Class Matter. 



Vol. XVI 



FEBRUARY 15, 1906 



No. 2 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

Street & Interurban Railway Parks. Illustrated 59 

Editorial Comment 76 

Some New and Novel Operating Schemes 78 

Plans of the Central Electric Railway Association 78 

An Interesting Gasoline Electric Car. Illustrated 79 

Eleventh Annual Report of the Boston Transit Commission 80 

Summer Parks. By Joseph D. Glass S2 

The Austin Electric Ry. Illustrated 83 

Parks of the Rochester Railway Co. Illustrated 87 

Parks of the Boston & Northern and Old Colony Street Rail- 
way Co's. Illustrated. By R. H. Derrah 88 

Meeting of the A. S. & I. R. A. Executive Committee 90 

Recent Street Railway Decisions gi 

Piping & Power Station Systems. — XIV. Illustrated. By 

W. L. Morris 95 

The Illinois Traction System. Illustrated 99 

Annual Meeting of the Ohio Interurban Railway Association 

and First Meeting of the Central Electric Railway Association 108 

Lightning Protection. Illustrated. By J. V. E. Titus 108 

The Ravenswood Extension of the Northwestern Elevated R. R. in 

The Benton Harbor-St. Joe Railway & Light Co 1 1 1 

Annual Meeting of the Northwestern Electrical Association 112 

The Economy of Combined Railway & Lighting Plants. Illus- 
trated. By Ernest Gonzenbach 112 

The Economical Maintenance of Equipment as Discussed by the 

New England Street Railway Club 115 

General Passenger Department for the Twin City Rapid Tran- 
sit Co 116 

Report nf (lie Third Annual Convention of the American Rail- 
way Mechanical & Electrical Association 116 

New Semi-Convertible Cars for the New York City System. 

Illustrated 117 



PREPARATIONS FOR HANDLINC PARK TRAFFIC. 

It is none too early at this time to map out plans for handling 
traffic during the coming park season, for each year's experience 
teaches the progressive manager what to do toward improving the 
pleasure business of the next season. The expeditious handling 
of large crowds of people without confusion or discomfort is one 
of the most difficult of transportation problems. Few systems have 
been developed to a point where the enormous peak loads which 
follow the closing of a large park in the evening are handled with 
entire satisfaction to everybody, and perhaps it is too much to ex- 
pect that the desire of several thousand people to go home simul- 
taneously can be gratified without excessive crowding on the cars 
at certain points near the park exits. Nevertheless, as far as these 
conditions can be overcome, the resulting satisfaction given to the 
company's patrons is the best form of advertising. 



A. S. I* I. R. A. MEMBERSHIP. 

The executive committee of the American Street & Interurban 
Railway Association has just held a very satisfactory meeting at its 
new permanent office, No. 60 Wall St., New York City. A large 
number of the association officers was present, including President 
Ely and Secretary Swenson. At this meeting the secretary pre- 
sented a report of the work that has been done since the annual 
meeting in Philadelphia. Much has already been accomplished and 
suitable plans have been laid for a successful year's work in the 
strengthening and upbuilding of the reorganized body. 

The membership committee reported that since the fall meeting 
there have been sent out to non-member companies two carefully 
prepared circular letters calling attention to the plans for the future 
work of the reorganized association and urging non-member com- 
panies to signify their approval of the broad co-operative scheme of 
the reorganization and amalgamation of the several associations by 
becoming members. These letters, which were signed by H. H. 
Vreeland, chairman of the membership committee, have been an- 
swered by 49 companies, which as a result have joined the associa- 
tion. The letters have also been the means of initiating a large 
amount of correspondence between Mr. Swenson, the association 
secretary, and the non-member companies. It is to be hoped that 
this correspondence will greatly swell the membership roll. 

There are many reasons why each and every street or interurban 
railway in North America should be a member of the American 
Street & Interurban Railway Association, a few of which it may 
be well to emphasize: 

Active work has already been done on the subject of municipal 
ownership. The association will keep in touch with the municipal 
ownership investigating committee of the National Civic Federation. 
It is stated that the work of this committee will be most compre- 
hensive in its scope, and will be of importance to the electric railway 
interests of the country. Insurance matters are now being con- 
sidered and the association is co-operating with the fire under- 
writers on the revision of the National Electric Code. Such ques- 
tions as franchise rights, taxes, etc., will also be given much atten- 
tion by the association. Investigations of technical problems will be 
taken up at an early date, so that the association will soon be in a 
position to send out information of value along various technical 
lines, all of which reports should be of great interest and value to 
any railway property, large or small. 



PARK TRAFFIC. 

In the past, the trackage facilities at the park entrances and exits 
have often been too limited to give the best results. It is impossible 
to properly handle the peak load at a park unless the local condi- 
tions are improved to the fullest practicable extent. We must 
remember that the peak load at a street railway park differs from 
the rush hour traffic of a large city in that the former case prac- 
tically all the passengers appear upon the scene ready to be carried 
away within a few moments, while in the latter case the abnormal 
load is distributed over a much longer period, say an hour or an 
hour and a half. Hence the methods employed in the one case 
cannot be expected to fit the other conditions. 

One of the fortunate aspects of the problem of handling park 
traffic is found in the time at which the peak load occurs. On 
any system which operates many extra cars in the afternoon rush 
hour there is very little reason why plenty of rolling stock 
cannot be available at ten or ten-thirty in the evening or when- 



Feb. 15, 1906.J 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



77 



ever the park closes. Sometimes a sharp peak occurs at a park 
just before dinner in the afternoon, and if this peak coincides with 
the regular afternoon rush from the business district to the resi- 
dential section, it is simply out of the question to handle the park 
traffic as skilfully as it can be done in the evening. However, the 
great majority of afternoon patrons at street railway parks are 
women and children, and a more moderate movement of the roll- 
ing stock is permissible than as though the facilities were demanded 
by men. 

The installation of loop tracks at the entrances and exits is in 
general preferable to the use of stub tracks and crossovers at these 
points. Small parks can be well taken care of usually by a single 
loop, but large parks require both loop and stub tracks for the 
best results. At large parks stub tracks are essential for the stor- 
age of cars and the loops for the rapid, steady movement of 
traffic as soon as the performance is over. 

As a rule, it is a comparatively simple matter to carry passengers 
to a park, for the arrivals are better distributed than the departures. 
The separation of entrances and exits is desirable in all large park 
layouts, for it is a great advantage to avoid bringing two opposing 
crowds together at the loading and unloading platforms. This 
point is well illustrated by the excellent arrangements at Norum- 
bego Park, near Boston, and the combination of loops and stubs 
at the Minnesota State Fair Grounds in St. Paul presents a good 
example of a layout capable of handling from 15,000 to 20,000 
people per hour without confusion. Every park which accommo- 
dates hundreds or even thousands of patrons should be provided 
with a spur track upon which any disabled car can be run, for the 
blocking of the main line traffic at such times is a serious trouble. 
First class telephone facilities should also be available between 
the park and the various car houses and shops of the system. 



POWER SUPPLY FOR PARK LINES. 

The question of power supply for lines leading to parks is im- 
portant. On an alternating current-direct current system perhaps 
the simplest way out of the difficulties which occur is to install 
a portable sub-station near the point where the heaviest loads 
occur, using the equipment elsewhere in the winter season. The 
use of series boosters at the power house is not an economical 
method of handling distant peak loads, generally, but in some cases 
the traffic gained thereby is so large that the additional cost of 
power is of little importance. Sometimes a floating storage battery 
can be installed at the park to advantage and especially so if it can 
be used elsewhere on the system in the winter season. The same 
reasoning applies, of course, to the purchase of transformers and 
rotaries for park service. Heavy feeder investments are to be 
shunned for any but all-the-year-round operation. Given an alter- 
nating system throughout, with single-phase motors under the cars, 
the problem of supplying power for peak loads at parks grows 
less formidable, for the reason that the cost of stationary trans- 
former sub-stations is far below that demanded by an alternating- 
current rotary-converter system. Sometimes on a simple direct- 
current system special tie lines can be cut in between the park 
routes and other tracks to the lasting benefit of the former. 
By raising the generator voltage at the power station during the 
park rush traffic the situation can be relieved somewhat, pro- 
vided the machines will stand the strain. If the compounding does 
not hold up well, separate excitation may be tried, with good pros- 
pects of success during the half hour when things are at their 
worst. In extreme cases additional copper can be strung for the 
summer work and sold when the season ends. It is all a question 
of what the park earning 1 ; will justify, but hap-hazard decisions 
are to be avoided. 



MINOR CONVENIENCES AT PARKS. 

Money expended in developing and advertising a street railway 
park is generally parcelled out in a good many different directions, 
but the fundamental idea is to make the place attractive to all 
classes of people. Sometimes the natural beauties of the locality 
enable the park to be created without any large expense for land- 
scape gardening; in other cases the entire premises needs skillful 
treatment in order to draw patronage. In either event, there is 
no doubt of the wisdom of putting some of the capital invested 
into minor conveniences for the comfort of the public. 

The larger the park, the more important it is to maintain good 



order, to provide ample toilet facilities, and to foresee emergencies. 
The wooden structures used in many parks are bad fire risks, 
and the installation of chemical extinguishers, sand mid water pails 
should always be thoroughly carried out. No park should be 
without a public telephone station and in cases where thousands 
of people congregate some sort of a retiring room or lodge with 
several cots and an emergency medicine set should be at hand. 
When boats, canoes and swimming sports are enjoyed, there 
should be an attendant within immediate call in case of acci- 
dent. The life saving service at many ocean cities is a pointed 
illustration of the importance of organized anticipation of emer- 
gencies. Mailing facilities are also desirable in the large parks. 
These things cost money, but they add so much to the popularity 
of a resort that their profitableness in the long run is undoubted. 
The rental of books and sale of stationery are not out of place in 
some parks. Concessions of this kind are usually eagerly sought 
after, and the question is often what to eliminate rather than what 
to encourage. Cleanliness, good lighting, free, pure water, good 
quality in food sold on the grounds and a general atmosphere of 
comfort are worth much to any park, and yet these properties are 
often lacking. Thoroughness of detail counts with the patronizing 
public. 



MANAGER DALRYMPLE'S REPORT ON THE 
CHICAGO TRACTION SITUATION. 

Ever since Manager Dalrymple of Glasgow visited Chicago for 
the purpose of examining into and reporting upon the street rail- 
way conditions of the city, and this being at the request of the 
municipal ownership advocates, the general public has shown an 
especial desire to learn the sense of the Scotchman's report. A 
report was formulated and sent Mayor Dunne, but the ideas of the 
visitor have been so jealously guarded that even the Chicago City 
Council was not advised as to whether Mr. Dalrymple reported 
favorably or against an immediate municipal ownership. The Chi- 
cago mayor maintained that Mr. Dalrymple came as a personal 
guest at the mayor's expense and not at the request of the city. 
The aldermen questioned this idea and passed a motion requesting 
that the report be made public. On the refusal of the mayor to do 
this, Manager Dalrymple was advised of the wishes of the Chicago 
council and has made some interesting statements in the Chicago 
Tribune. In discussing the Chicago traction situation the foreign 
manager says : 

"Ever since my visit to Chicago I have closely followed the 
Chicago tramways problem, and can only confirm the opinion ex- 
pressed in my first report submitted to Mayor Dunne that the con- 
dition of the plant of the Chicago railways today, owing mainly 
to the disputes going on between the different companies and the 
city, is in wretched condition. Of course, there has been no induce- 
ment to spend money on bettering the system owing to the uncer- 
tain position of the companies with reference to the continuance of 
private operation. 

"As to the municipalization of the Chicago tramways, I have in 
my letter to Mayor Dunne given my ideas as to the best and 
quickest way of bringing this about under present circumstances. 
Undoubtedly there are difficulties in the way of doing this, one 
of these being the long franchise owned by the companies. 

"I have been following the course of events closely and have 
considered carefully all proposals made by the companies to the 
city with reference to the terms of purchase. In my opinion the 
suggestions made by the companies are fair and reasonable. 

"Of course, I am not saying whether the municipality should 
extend the franchises or not, but if they were not in a mind to ex- 
tend the franchises the proposal of the companies that the city 
should acquire the entire systems is fair on a basis of the mu- 
nicipality gradually getting charge of the different lines and sys- 
tems at stated times. This would surmount the difficulties of the 
long franchises owned by the companies. Therefore. I can see no 
reason why the city should not acquire the roads if it really wants 
them. 

"To take over the railways would cost a vast sum of money, but 
the greatest cost would come in putting the line- and the plant 
in repair. I understand that $75,000,000 is proposed for this pur- 
pose. Well, that sum would just be a starter. The roads 
such condition that enormous sums would have to he spent un them 
to bring them up to what I call efficiency. 



78 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



"I might mention that our entire Glasgow system cost only 
$15,000,000, but, of course, the Chicago street railway system is 
ten times larger than that of Glasgow. 

"As to the question of municipalization itself I can only say 
that it works well here in Glasgow, hut that is because we operate 
the lines just the same as if we were a private company. We are 
not in the least influenced b\ questions of politics. Our main 
concern is to run the lines and make them beneficial to our citi- 
zens and efficiently operated, just the same as they would be by a 
well organized private company, with all the advantages of private 
management, irrespective of public control, political influence, or 
jobbery. 

"Glasgow today has the best paying street railway system in the 
world. Everything in connection with our tramways, both in 
regard to revenue and expenditure, is done as in operation by a 
private company. Whatever surplus we make goes toward the 
improvement of the plant and car service, extension of the lines, 
and increased facilities. We put on two cars in place of one 
wherever we consider it will better the service, and our equip- 
ment and plant are kept up to the highest order of efficiency. 

"Our cost of operation is not any cheaper per car mile than 
the cost in Chicago, for, though our wages are lower, our operatives 
do not work such long hours and our cars are not run so fast 
as in Chicago. If you don't run your cars so fast you don't get 
as much work done. Neither is our revenue per mile much differ- 
ent from the American tramway lines, but our fares to the man 
on the street are cheaper. We have a one-cent fare, and fares 
are graded according to distance up to 10 cents. The revenue 
works out about the same as the American five-cent fare with 
transfers, but we think the one-cent fare, ranging up to four cents, 
suits the largest body of the community. 

"One great difference is that our cars carry almost twice as 
many people as those of the Chicago system. Therefore we can 
give twice as many people seats. We have seats on top of all our 
cars, each car carrying 24 inside and 36 on top. We carry twice 
as many people per car mile as Chicago, and all our people get 
-eating accommodation. One-third of our population pays only a 
one-cent fare, and our average fare is considerably less than two 
cents." 

Air. Dalyrymple's statement, as the newspaper states, goes far to 
explain why Mayor Dunne has so carefully suppressed his report as 
to the difficulties in the way of Chicago going into the street car 
business. 

The $75,000,000 which Mayor Dunne wants to borrow by the 
sale of Mueller law certificates to purchase the existing street car 
properties with, Mr. Dalrymple says, "would only be a starter" in 
the necessary expenditures for this purpose, and Chicago would 
have to go a great deal deeper into its pocket if it is going to 
make the investment. 

This statement is directly opposed to the position taken by the 
mayor and his municipal ownership friends throughout the entire 
discussion, they holding that while $75,000,000 is the sum named in 
the ordinance to be submitted to the people next spring, in fact 
not nearly that amount of money would be needed, and the only 
reason $75,000,000 was named was because some sum had to be 
fixed, and that was as good as any other. It makes it decidedly 
awkward to have Mr. Dalrymple say that $75,000,000 would be 
'only a starter." 

Mr. Dalrymple, it will be noted, also says that the cost of opera- 
tion in Glasgow, per car mile, is as great as in Chicago, in spite 
of the fact that the wages paid in Glasgow are less. This also con- 
tradicts the argument of Mayor Dunne and his advisers, who have 
been claiming that the cost of operation under municipal owner- 
ship, even when the rate of wages is the same, will be less than 
that of privately owned companies 

To have Mr. Dalrymple say that with lower wages in Glasgow 
the cost of operation is as high as it is in Chicago and ascribe it 
to the fact the municipal employes do not do as good work may be 
disconcerting to the Chicago advocates of municipal ownership. 



The Cleveland & Southwestern Traction Co. has improved its ser- 
vice between Cleveland and Wooster. and will also put on a limited 
service between Cleveland and Oberlin. The limited car service 
will cover the distance in one and one half hours. It will give a 
service to Elyria in one hour and five minutes. 



Some New and Novel Operating Schemes. 

In order to increase and maintain the efficiency and to improve the 
service of the electric railroad system and also to endeavor in 
every possible way to satisfy the patrons of its lines, the new 
management of the Chippewa Valley Electric Railroad Co. has intro- 
duced a few innovations in the service. One is the "complaint blank." 
General Manager George B. Wheeler has printed blanks on which 
patrons can write complaints or suggestions, the blanks, when filled, 
to be left at or mailed to the main office of the company. The pur- 
pose of this is to ascertain through the public whether any of the 
employes of the company are remiss in their duty or what improve- 
ments and changes in the present service would prove beneficial and 
popular with the patrons of the road. All employes of the com- 
pany will have some of these blanks which can be procured on ap- 
plication. 

The "no fare" envelope is another idea which will be introduced 
shortly. This will be adopted for the convenience of patrons who 
find themselves without money when the conductor comes around 
for the fares. At the present time, in such a contingency, the fare 
has come out of the conductors' own pocket, and, owing to the 
fact of the conductors being changed from one part of the line to 
another, a person owing the conductor frequently fails to find him 
till the incident is forgotten, and the latter does not like to ask for 
it, and so he is money out. Hereafter in such cases patrons will be 
handed a "no-fare" envelope into which they can later place the fares 
which they were short, and this they can hand to the next con- 
ductor, who will ring the fares up and give them credit therefor. 
A record of these envelopes will be kept at the office. 



Central Electric Railway Association Plans. 

At a meeting of the officers and directors of the newly-formed 
Central Electric Railway Association, held at the Claypool Hotel. 
Indianapolis, Ind.. on February 7th. the following plans were 
definitely determined upon. 

The association will open headquarters in the Traction Terminal 
Building in Indianapolis, the first of March. John H. Merrill, of 
Lima, O., has been appointed permanent secretary of the association, 
and will be in charge of the offices. A bureau of interchangeable 
mileage will be established in connection with the association head- 
quarters. 

Secretary Merrill is well known in traction circles, having 
had many years experience in the railway field. He has been con- 
nected with the Western Ohio Traction Co. as auditor and for two 
years has been chairman of the transportation committee of the 
Ohio Interurban Railway Association. Mr. Merrill is practically the 
father of the interurban interchangeable mileage book of which 
there are now over 1,200 in use. These books are accepted on 35 
Ohio, Indiana and Michigan traction lines. 

The cities of Columbus, Cleveland and Dayton were considered 
for the association headquarters, but Indianapolis was selected, the 
officers thinking it the most central point in view of the fact that 
many of the roads of Illinois and Kentucky have signified their 
intention of joining the Central Electric Railway Association. 

Among those present at the meeting were President E. C. Spring, 
general superintendent; Dayton, Covington & Piqua Traction Co., 
Dayton, O. ; vice presidents, Charles L. Henry, president and gen- 
eral manager, Indianapolis & Cincinnati Traction Co., Indianapolis. 
Ind., and F. D. Carpenter, general mangaer Western Ohio Railway 
Co., Lima, O... and the following members of the executive board : 
H. A. Nicholl, general manager Indiana Lhiion Traction Co., Ander- 
son. Ind.; W. G. Irwin, general manager Indianapolis, Columbus & 
Southern Traction Co., Columbus, Ind. ; C. C. Reynolds, general 
manager of the Indiana properties of the Dolan-Morgan-McGowan 
Syndicate. Lafayette. Ind.; G F. Wells, manager Terre Haute Trac- 
tion & Light Co., Terre Haute, Ind. ; H. P. Clegg, general manager 
Dayton & Troy Electric Railway Co., Dayton, O.; C. N. Wilcoxon. 
general superintendent Cleveland & Southwestern Traction Co.. 
Cleveland, O. ; F. J. J. Sloat, general manager Cincinnati, Dayton 
& Toledo Traction Co., Hamilton, O. ; and J. W. Brown, superin- 
tendent of transportation. West Penn Railways Co., Connells- 
ville. Pa. 

The next meeting of the Central Electric Railway Association will 
be held in Indianapolis, on March 22d. 



Feb. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



79 



An Interesting Gasoline-Electric Car. 

In sparsely settled districts, where the cost of operating a steam 
drawn train is prohibitive and the immediate investment of capital 
for an electric service unwarranted, there has arisen a need for a 




ENGINE ROOM OF THE DELAWARE & HUDSON HASOLI XE-ELECTRIC CAR. 

self-contained car which shall be independent of a feeder system 
and at the same time be cheaper to operate than the ordinary loco- 
motive and train. For this purpose, the General Electric Co., in 
conjunction with the American Locomotive Works, at Schenectady, 



While the car was not designed for high speed, the average running 
time was about 35 in. p. h., and several timi • 1 > attained a 

ipeed "i |n in, p. h. The smooth and rapid acceleration was favor 
ably commented upon by the engineers present. 

rhe equipment consists essentially of a gasoline-driven electric 
generator furnishing current to electric motoi geared 
to the driving wheels and controlled by a method sim 
ilar to that employed in the ordinary electric car equip- 
ment. The car shown in the illustration is divided into 
passenger, smoking, baggage, engine, toilet and motor- 
man's compartments. The car is 05 ft. long over all 
and equipped weighs 65 tons. A complete controlling 
equipment is located at each end of the car. one con- 
troller in the engine room and a similar controller in 
a compartment at the other end. The car has a seating 
capacity of 40 passengers, including seats for 12 in the 
\ Jm smoking room In general il is buill on the lines of a 
standard Delaware & Hudson R. R. passenger coach, 
and is handsomely finished. The Gould pattern 
bumpers and drawbars are provided. 

The gasoline engine for this car was built by the 
Wolseley Tool & Motor Car Co., Ltd., Birmingham, 
Eng., and is considered one of the most powerful units 
yet constructed for this class of work ; it develops 160 
brake h. p. at a speed of 450 r. p. m. The cylinders 
are horizontal opposed, six in number, with 9-in. diam- 
eter and 10-in. stroke. All valves are mechanically 
operated, and the cylinders are water-cooled. Hitherto, 
difficulty has been experienced in starting internal com- 
bustion engines of this size, but in the present case this 
difficulty has been overcome by using shells filled with 
black powder to provide the initial charge in one cylin- 
der. On starting the engine, the shell is fired by a hand 
trigger, the whole being similar to the breech mech- 
anism of a gun. Jump spark and low tension ignition 
are both provided, current being furnished to the latter 
by a small magneto driven from the engine shaft. 

The volatilization of the liquid fuel is produced in 
two carburetors which form an integral part of the en- 
gine. Each carburetor supplies three cylinders and 
is equipped with two float-feed chambers. The 
chambers are identical and are of the usual needle-valve type. Very 
flexible arrangements are provided to govern the air supply so that 
it may be taken from the atmosphere or from the crank chamber, or 
from both, according to the temperature required. The mixture is 




f 



1 







: '. <*.■• ;.iL.VMH» 1/ - 




NEW GASOLINE-ELECTKIC CAR OF THE DELAWARE & HUDSON CO. 



N. Y., has recently completed a gasoline-electric car which present- 
many features of interest. 

The first trial run of this novel car took place February 3rd, 
when a successful trip was made from Schenectady to Saratoga, 
N. Y., and return, over the lines of the Delaware & Hudson R. R. 



heated to the required temperature in a small chamber which itself 
is warmed by the exhaust. In all details the engine is very com- 
plete. The lubrication for the main bearings and pistons is force- 
feed and drip-feed for all other working parts. Gasoline is stored 
in steel tanks beneath the car, and the burnt gases pass through the 



80 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



roof into mufflers, from which they exhaust into the air. The cool- 
ing system for the cylinders consists of radiating tubes located on 
the top of the car. Water for cooling is contained in the engine 
base. For heating the car, a three-way cock is provided which by- 
passes the circulating water through the usual pipe heating system. 

The main current is furnished by a 120-kw. direct-connected Gen- 
eral Electric six-pole generator, designed for 600 volts pressure. This 
generator is provided with commutating poles, which in connection 
with the method of voltage control, permits a very flexible operating 
system. The advantage of commutating poles is evident when it is 
considered that the field excitation at starting is weak, and the large 
current at low voltage is required to give the necessary torque. 
Owing to the peculiar operating conditions of this system, the 
generator while retaining the characteristics of a shunt-wound ma- 
chine, is separately excited by a syi-kw., two-pole compound-wound 
exciter, working at no volts. This is located on top of the gen- 
erator and is driven by a Morse silent chain. 

There are two No. 69 motors of standard railway construction, 
which need no special description. 

For regulating the speed of the motors, as mentioned, voltage 
control is used; in other words, the speed of the car is governed by 
varying the held strength of the generator. With this method the 
speed of the engine remains constant after acceleration. The con- 
troller is semi-automatic, and can be set for any predetermined 
maximum acceleration. It is arranged for series-parallel control, 
the motor connections being changed from series to parallel by the 
reversing handle. This handle has five position; series ahead, par- 
allel ahead, off, series reverse and parallel reverse. Arrangements 
are provided to prevent the motor connections from being changed 
from series to parallel until the resistance is put in the field circuit 
of the generator. 

The trial trip demonstrated the practicability of this car equip- 
ment, and was entirely satisfactory to the engineers so far as the 
tests indicated. The opinion was expressed that this was merely 
a step toward the final electrification of all service. A gasoline car 
would be useful in establishing a passenger traffic, but eventually 
the motive power for operation would be electricity. 

The accompanying photograph of the car was taken after the 
arrival in Saratoga. The group standing in front of the car in- 
cludes many prominent officials of the two companies interested. 
« ' » 

The Eleventh Annual Report of the Boston 
Transit Commission. 

The Boston Transit Commission has recently issued its eleventh 
annual report, which contains an interesting report of the last year's 
progress. 

The Washington St. Tunnel, now in process of building, is a 
two-track structure for the passage of trains and cars north and 
south through the congested portion of the city connecting with 
the elevated structure at either end. During the year work has 
been carried on in five sections of this tunnel and as a result traffic 
on Washington St. has been interfered with somewhat, but the 
provisions of the act which require public streets and places to be 
left open for traffic between S a. 111. and 6 p. m. on each secular 
day have been adhered to and it is believed that the work has 
been prosecuted without unreasonable inconvenience to the public. 
Considering the volume of traffic on the sidewalks and streets in 
connection with the width of those sidewalks and streets it was 
determined in all cases to make the entrances in private property 
and so far as possible, on side streets. As stated in the last an- 
nual report, when the commission selected for the tunnel from its 
southern end to Haymarket Square, the route east of Washing- 
ton Si. 1I1. Boston Elevated Railway Co. appealed from its decis- 
ion to the Board of Railroad Commissioners and that board fixed 
upon Washington St. as the best route but thought it advisable 
to stop at the junction of Washington St. and Adams Sq. To 
secure good alignment and grades for the tunnel from State St. 
north, without interfering seriously with the traffic capacity of the 
present subway, is ,1 very difficult problem. Thus far, no plan has 
been adopted. 

At the date of the last report it is stated that work on the 
connection of the East Boston tunnel with the subway had been 
suspended because of the request of the Boston Elevated Railway 
Co. for a curve of larger radius than it had formerly approved, 



in order to permit the passage of longer and wider cars than those 
now in use by the company, and because of the fact that com- 
pliance with this request would be impossible unless more funds 
were appropriated by the legislature. 

For this reason a communication was addressed to the legisla- 
ture of 1905 which passed an act restoring to the commission the 
balance of the $316,000 for which it asked. Owing to a con- 
troversy between the commission and the Boston Elevated Railway 
Co. with regard to the installation of ventilating apparatus the 
commission has installed the apparatus in order that there might 
be no delay in the opening and operation of the tunnel. After that 
portion of the tunnel which is under the harbor had been com- 
pleted according to the original plans, it was found that the leak- 
age while inconsiderable in amount, spread over the interior wall 
and in such a way as to give an impression of dampness, and was 
not pleasing to the eye. This portion of the tunnel was there- 
fore lined with ribbed tile of fireproof clay, covered with cement, 
so that the face of the wall is now smooth and comparatively dry. 
The total leakage in the tunnel is about seven gallons per minute 
which is much less than in any other tunnel yet constructed under 
similar conditions. On Dec. 29, 1904, the tunnel was officially 
inspected by the Governor of the State, a representative of the 
Mayor of Boston, heads of State and City departments and other 
invited guests. On the next day the tunnel was opened for public 
traffic. Reports for the first three months of use indicate that the 
gross income to the city from the tolls will be at least $80,000 per 
annum. The total cost of the subway is $4,124,686, while the cost 
charged to the Boston Elevated Railway Co. as a basis for rental 
is $4,100,482, giving a difference of $24,204. Of this amount, $23,- 
670 is accounted for in the fifth annual report. The balance, $533. 
while carried on the books of the commission and the city auditor 
as part of the cost of the subway, lias been expended for purposes 
which are not chargeable to the company in determining the cost 
upon which rental is based. 

The report of the chief engineer shows that work on the Wash- 
ington St. tunnel has been in progress during the past season from 
near State St. on the north to the southern limit, not far from 
Oak St. Of the whole length of the tunnel, 50 per cent will be 
straight, 33 per cent will have a curvature of about 500-ft. radius, 
2 per cent of about 1,800-ft. radius and 15 per cent of about 500-ft. 
radius. Forty per cent of the tunnel will be level, the remainder 
varying from a one to five per cent grade. On account of the 
narrowness and irregularity of the street and the frequency of 
station platforms, the cross section of the tunnel is very irregular 
and is rarely uniform for more than a few feet in length. Most 
of the sewer, water and gas pipes and other structures under the 
street require to be moved to a new position and many service 
pipes are to be laid cross-wise to connect with the different build- 
ings. For these reasons, most of the earth from the pavement 
down to the bottom of the tunnel is necessarily taken out. The 
work has been carried on in such a way as to interfere but little 
with the traffic of the street. The paved surface of the street has 
been replaced little by little with heavy planking laid flush with 
the original surface of the paving and supported on timbers, and 
most of the work in the daytime has been done under this bridg- 
ing. The work has been done generally in the following manner; 
Underpining is done where necessary; side walls are built in nar- 
row trenches, one at a time; new sewers are built in or near 
them; interior posts, if any, are placed in a narrow trench; the 
roof is put on; the core is dug out; and finally the invert is com- 
pleted. 

Statistical tables are included in the report regarding the work 
on Washington St., and additional information is given which 
could not readily be tabulated. This is, for the most part, com- 
piled from the reports of the assistant engineers. The report 
also includes a number of drawings and photographs which illus- 
trate the progress of the work. The officers of the Boston 
Transit Commission are as follows : George G. Crocker, chair- 
man ; B. Leighton Beal, secretary, and Howard A. Carson, chief 
engineer. The commissioners are, Chas. H. Dalton, Thos. J. 
Gargan, Geo. F. Swain and Horace G. Allen. The officers of the 
commission are at 15 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 



The car barns of the International Railway Co. were destroyed by 
fire February 12th. A snowplow and 27 cars were burned. 



Feb. is, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



81 



Personal. 

MR. E. A. BURRELL has recently been made manager of the 
Peoria & Pekin Terminal Ry., to succeed Mr. G. W. Talbott, who 
has gone to California. 

MR. F. T. POMEROY was re-elected president of the Cleveland 
& Southwestern Traction Co. at a recent meeting of the board of 
directors. Mr. J. T. Wilson was elected treasurer, to succeed Mr. 
F. L. Fuller, who retires. 

JUDGE CARLOS M. STONE, of Cleveland, Ohio, has recently 
been elected president of the Toledo & Western Railway Co. to 
succeed Judge Luther Allen, deceased. The other officers of the 
company were all re-elected. 

MR. C. C. COLLINS, wdio has been general freight agent for 
the Appleyard lines, has resigned, and will take a similar position 
with a western traction company. Mr. Collins has been with the 
Appleyard lines for several years. 

MR. W. A. GIBBS has tendered his resignation as general man- 
ager of the Zanesville Railway. Light & Power Co., and has ac- 
cepted a responsible position with the H. M. Byllesby Co., Chicago, 
the former owners of the above company. 

MR. R. W. DAY, formerly claim agent for the Wilkes-Barre & 
Wyoming Valley Traction Co.. has been appointed general manager 
of the Northern Electric Street Railway Co., which company is 
about to build a line from Scranton to Factoryville. 

MR. R. W. HARRIS has tendered his resignation as superin- 
tendent of the Michigan Traction Co., and will leave Kalamazoo. 
Mr. Harris thoroughly understands the electric street railway and 
traction business and has made a large number of friends in 
Kalamazoo. 

MR. JOHN I. BEGGS, president of the Milwaukee Electric 
Railway & Light Co., has been re-elected a director of the Laclede 
Gas Light Co., of St. Louis, Mo. At a later meeting of the new 
board of directors Mr. Beggs was unanimously re-elected presi- 
dent of the company. 

MR. FRANK W. ROOD, who since the incorporation and con- 
struction of the Columbus, Delaware & Marion Electric Railway 
Co. has served as auditor of that company, has resigned. Mr. 
Rood will go to New York City, where he will enter the employ of 
a large eastern corporation. 

MR. JAMES R. PRATT has been elected to the newly created 
office of assistant general manager of the United Railways of 
Baltimore. Mr. Pratt has been in the employ of the company 
since 1891, and for several years prior to his promotion has been 
head of the claim department. 

MR. G. H. BOWERS has severed his relations as secretary and 
treasurer of the Peckham Manufacturing Co., of Kingston, N. Y. 
Mr. Bowers, who has an exceptionally wide circle of friends in the 
electric railway field, will have a part in the responsible undertakings 
of the Audit Co., of New York City. 

MR. R. E. HUNT has resigned his position as manager and 
purchasing agent of the Augusta Railway & Electric Co., Augusta, 
Ga. Mr. Hunt will go to Norfolk, Va., where he will take up some 
special work for E. C. Hathaway, vice-president and general 111 in- 
ager of the Norfolk Railway & Lighting Co. 

MR. J. R. HARRIGAN, who for four years has been at the head 
of the Newark interurban lines; general manager of the Columbus. 
Newark & Zanesville, the Columbus, Buckeye Lake & Newark, and 
the Newark & Granville roads, has announced his resignation. Mr. 
Harrigan has accepted the management of the Canton & Akron 
road. 

MR. IRA A. McCORMICK. who was general manager of the 
Cleveland Electric Ry. from 1900 to 1002, has been made general 
superintendent of the electrical division of the New York Central 
& Hudson River R. R. Mr. McCormick has had a varied experi- 
ence as a railroad man and his promotion is regarded with much 
pleasure in railway circles. 

MR. REGINALD B. HAMILTON, who held the position of chin 
clerk to Mr. T. E. Mitten with the International Railway Co. at 
Buffalo, New Y'ork, and later with the Chicago City Railway Co., 
has recently been appointed purchasing agent of the Chicago City 
Railway Co., to succeed Mr. G. T. Bergen, who has resigned after 
having filled that position for 11 years. 

MR. C. C. REYNOLDS has been elected general manager of all 
the merger property in Indiana of the Dolan-Morgan-McGowan 
syndicate. Mr. Charles Murdock was elected first vice-president 



of all the companies. Mr. Reynolds and Mr. Murdock will assist 
Mr. McGowan in the active management and operation of the inter- 
urban lines and will relieve him of the details of work. 

MR. M. G. LINN, who has been assistant general manager and 
purchasing agent for the Illinois Traction Co., has been transferred 
to Bloomington, III, to take up his duties as superintendent of all 
the Bloomington interests of the Illinois Traction Co., and the 
direction of the construction of the Bloomington-Peoria interurban 
line. Mr. W. J. Ferris has been chosen as successor to Mr. Linn. 

MR. E. W. MOORE was elected president of the Lake Shore 
Electric Ry. at a recent meeting of the hoard of directors at Cleve- 
land, O. Mr. Moore succeeds Mr. W. S. Bicknell who resigned the 
position of president January 1st. The road is now in splendid con- 
dition and it is predicted that it will have considerable prosperity un- 
der the presidency of Mr Moore. Mr. Moore will give his undivided 
attention to the property. 

MR. JAMES A. MILNE, who has for a number of years been 
comptroller of the Allis-Chahners Co., has accepted the position of 

general manager of the Allis- 
Chalmers-Bullock, Ltd., Montreal, 
Canada, to become effective on or 
before May 1, 190(1. Mr. Milne is 
a native of Canada, having been 
born at Watertown, Out., in 1S7.'. 
When he had completed a public 
school and collegiate course, he be- 
gan his business career at Toronto 
in 1888. After a general business 
experience he entered the employ of 
the Allis-Chahners Co. as chief 
cost clerk and soon was appointed 
acting comptroller, being formally 
elected to that position in May. 1902. 
Since last autumn. Mr. Milne has 
james a. milne. been one of the directors of Allis 

Chalmers-Bullock. Ltd.. and the fact 
that he still retains Canadian citizenship, and is deeply attached to 
his early associations, has been an important factor in influencing 
him to heed a recall to the Dominion. 

MR. J. E. FEIGHT has been appointed general manager of the 
Dayton & Northern Traction Co.. to succeed Ralph E. De Weese, 
who resigned on account of ill health. During the past year Mr. 
Feight has been superintendent of the Dayton & Muncie road and 
in recognition of his efficient services he has been chosen to look 
after both lines. The two companies will not consolidate but will 
simply be controlled by the one manager, with headquarters in 
Dayton. 

MR. E. II. VALENTINE, president of the Valentine-Clark 
Company, Chicago, has disposed of his interests in that company 
to Mr. E. L. Clark, formerly secretary and treasurer, and wdio now 
succeeds Mr. Valentine as president, the corporate name of the 
company continuing as heretofore. Mr. Clark has been identified 
with the company since its formation, and enjoys .111 extensive ac- 
quaintance with producers ami consumers of poles for power trans- 
mission construction work 

MR. ROBERT MATHIAS, who has been connected with the 
Frank Ridlon Co. and the Chas. N. Wood Electric Co. for the l.i-t 
five years, has accepted a position in the street railway department 
of the Stuart-Howland Co., of Boston, Mass. Mr. Mathias has 
held the positions of station electrician with the New York Edison 
Co. and chief electrician for the Baldwin Locomotive Works, of 
Philadelphia, Pa., hut more recently has devoted In- attention to 
street railway work He is well-known in the electric field and 
should prove a valuable acquisition to the selling force of the 
Stuart-Howland Co. 




The Toronto Railway Co. has r> organi ed its claim department. 
All the work formerly done l>\ detective bureaus at high rates will 
he done In the company. The trial of the new method ha- given 
every satisfaction. 



The United Railway Co. of St. Louis, is making extensive addi- 
tions to its system which Include live 1.000-kw. and three 500-kw. 
rotary converters and a bank of six-phase air blast transformers 
for this group of converters. 



82 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI. No. 2. 



Summer Parks. 



F.Y JOS. D. CLASS, MANAGER, LAKE MINNEQUA TARK, PUEBLO, COLO. 



Today summer amusement enterprises in the United States have 
practically resolved themselves into suburban resorts owned, or 
controlled, and operated by street railway and transportation 
lines. 

In the early history of these ventures the individual who pos- 
sessed landed holdings near a city of sufficient size to boast of a 
"horse-car" or "tramway" would provide "picnic" grounds, and, 
eventually, add improvements by subsidy from the street-railway 
company. 

The germ of this idea has grown until every well conducted 
urban or suburban line has its own park, or else has under con- 
templation such an adjunct for capturing the small change of the 
community during the heated term. 

As a rule, and with hardly a single exception, transportation 
companies do not go into the park business for the profit to be 
derived from the amusement end. but are actuated alone by the 
desire to increase the haul. While occasionally one road may be 
found that reaps a profit from trie new departure ten can be easily 
had who will readily testify to a loss, and for this condition there is 
a well grounded reason. 

A community large enough to maintain a street car system is 
amply large to make profitable a summer resort, but to make it 
profitable from a transportation standpoint it must not exceed in 
cost that sum on which the local bank rate of interest will be 
greater than the net returns from the investment. 

The natural or artificial beauty of a park is not, as a general 
thing, alone sufficient to attract paying crowds, and the elements 
which read success in one resort do not correspondingly spell the 
same in another city of equal size but of a people of different tem- 
perament. 

Some communities are more responsive than others, and often 
expensive features fail to arouse the enthusiasm which makes 
essential the strengthening of the "hold-on" straps. 

Inexpensive amusements are the best attractions and it is an 
established fact that a 10-cent gate admission promotes rather 
than hinders in securing the best behaved and the most liberal 
spenders. 

A few, a very few. amusement devices are desirable in the 
smallest park, but frequently large mistakes are made in the in- 
stallation of expensive ones, the cost of daily maintenance being 
a lax of considerable amount. Occasionally ambitious park build. 
ers and promoters may be held responsible for ill-returns and dis- 
satisfaction on the part of investors. 



Overlook Park. 



The Dayton, Covington .v. Piqua Traction Co. owns and operates 
Overlook Park. The park is situated on a bluff overlooking the 
Stillwater River at West Milton, O. The company owns 80 acres 
of land at this point, which includes some picturesque scenery. The 
park is maintained exclusively as a picnic resort. The only attrac- 
tions provided are a dancing" pavilion, 80 x 100 ft. in size, a dining 
pavilion and a boat landing, with 30 boats including a naptha launch. 

The park is located midway between Dayton and Piqua, 16 
miles from either city. It has been self-supporting by the lease of 
privileges and has proved a source of considerable revenue to the 
company. It contains the Rifle Ranee of the Third Regiment of 
the Ohio National Guard and is also its camping ground for one 
week each summer. The club house of the Dayton Bicycle Club 
is located in one corner of the park and many private dances are 
given during the summer. 

A high standard of order is maintained at the park, no liquor 
being allowed upon the grounds. A mile and a half of boating 
over one of the prettiest stretches of the Stillwater River forms 
one of the most attractive features of the park. The management 
has gone to considerable expense to add to the natural beauty of 
the park and the Glen with its waterfall, winding staircase and 
rustic bridge is a pleasing addition. The view from the park down 
the valley of the Stillwater has been much admired. This beauti- 
ful valley, varying from one to three miles in width, is dotted here 



and there by prosperous looking farms with now and then a village 
half buried among the tri 1 

The park is under the personal supervision and management of 
Edward C. Spring, general superintendent of the Dayton, Cov- 
ington & Piqua Traction Co.. who has demonstrated that a resort 
of this nature can be operated without any expense to the company 
and still add materially to the receipts of the road. 



Olympia Park. 

Olympia Park is owned by the Chattanooga Electric Railway Co.. 
being located about two miles from Chattanooga, Tenn., and is easy 
of access to people from the entire city and suburbs. The park, 
which comprises 50 acres, is reached by three different car lines and 
is operated by the street railway company, of which James A. Dakin 
is the manager. 

A theater seating 1,200 does a most flourishing business throughout 
the season, which begins May 1st and ends September 1st. The form 
of entertainment is not confined to any one line, vaudeville, comic 
opera, stock and minstrel companies have all met with success. 

The outdoor attractions of a permanent nature are figure-eight 
roller coaster, that has done a most profitable business ever sinre 
being installed, a $6,000 carrousel, a laughing gallery, a cave of the 
winds, a house of trouble, and many smaller attractions. The park 
is well provided for in the way of refreshment stands. Many addi- 
tional attractions are being arranged for the coming season, all on a 
percentage basis. This has always been the policy of the compai \ 
and nothing has ever been installed that has not made money. The 
park has 100,000 people to draw from and is the only place of amuse- 
ment near Chattanooga open throughout the summer season. 

No intoxicants are sold or allowed on the grounds. Only the 
strictly recreative amusements are operated on Sunday, no perform- 
ances being given. There are band concerts throughout the season 
and moving picture and illustrated song performances are also given, 
for which no charge is made. Last season the management found 
that exhibitions of fireworks drew very well. 

Ordinarily no admission is charged to the park except on special 
occasions when extra attractions are provided. At such times a 
charge of ten cents is made which usually about covers the extra 
expense. 

In the same enclosure as Olympia Park is a fine half-mile race 
track, where races and other -puts are held. The policy of the 
management is broad and invites propositions at all times from 
amusement people in all legitimate branches. 



Wonderland. 



Wonderland, which is owned by the Illinois Traction System, was 
first operated during the summer of 1904 under the name of Way- 
side Park. At that time the park included several acres of ground 
and contained a small theater. During the summer of 1905 tin- 
park was considerably enlarged, embracing about 15 acres, and was 
operated by the Danville Amusement Co., of which PI. L. Brenig is 
the manager. The name of the park was then changed to Won- 
derland. 

The park is located about two miles southwest of Danville, 111, 
on wli.it is known as the Georgetown division of the Danville. I'r 
bana & Champaign Ry, The old theater was enlarged and re- 
modeled and will now accommodate about 1.000 patrons. It is well- 
equipped for the purposes of such a park, all the seats being on the 
ground floor, and is well provided with exits. In regard to the 
class of entertainment which has proved most remunerative, the 
management considers that such attractions as Rlcry's Band, the 
Fall of Port Arthur, the Castle Square Opera Co. and other per- 
formances of this nature drew the largest crowds. Balloon ascen- 
sions and similar outdoor performances also drew largely, but ap- 
pealed to a rather different element. 

An old mill, a restaurant, a laughing gallery, a small zoo and 
other attractions appropriate for such places of amusement have 
been installed. There is also a ball park in the rear of the grounds. 
which has proved a very desirable feature. 



The name of the Inter-Urban Railway Co., of Des Moines. la., is 
to be changed to the Des Moines & Central Towa Ry. 



The Austin Electric Railway. 



In several recent issues of the "Street Railway Review" there 
have appeared articles descriptive of street railway properties, which 
after periods of successful operation accompanied by the natural 
depreciation, have been rebuilt to conform with up-to-date standards. 
Among such properties may be mentioned the city systems of Topeka. 
Kan., and Madison, Wis. In a class with these two properties is the 
street railway system of the Austin Electric Railway Co., at Aus- 
tin. Tex. 

Each of these roads has passed through a period of natural growth 
and each has been rebuilt during the past year. Topeka, Madison 
and Austin are the capital cities of their respective states and being 
of about the same population can be considered in the same class. 
In each of these cities the replacing of old, though well-kept track 



The substructure for this rail consists of ties -paced with 2-ft. 
centers and half buried in crushed stone ballast which has a minimum 
depth of 6 in. below the bottom of the ties. 

The double-track line on Congress Ave. and the single-track 
branches in the business district are built -with 72-lb. Shanghai T 
rails 6 in. high in 60-ft. lengths standard, anchored to a concrete sub- 
structure, combining the trench and flatbed types of construction. 

Some nf tin- accompanying engravings illustrate the different stages 
in the construction work of this track on Congress Ave. A gen- 
eral view of the avenue with the state capital building in the dis- 
tance shows tlie first stage of the work with the trench gang ex- 
cavating the street to the desired section and depth for the concrete 
sub-structure. Another view shows the completed excavation and the 




ENGINE ROOM, SHOWING .SOO-H. 



ENGINE Willi DIRECT-CONNECTED GENERATOR. 



and overhead and rolling stock with new construction and cars of a 
heavier and therefore more substantial design, has brought about 
such a satisfactory increase in the net earnings of the individual 
properties that the wisdom of the added expenditure for reconstruct- 
ing the system has been clearly proved. 

The lines comprising the Austin city system have a total length of 
16.2 miles and on all the streets with the exception of Congress 
Ave. are built as single tracks with diamond turnouts. On Congress 
Ave., which is an unusually wide street, leading from the front 
of the state capital building through the business district of the 
city, is the double track line which recently has been rebuilt in a 
very thorough manner. As a rule the grades in Austin are not se- 
vere, the maximum grade being 5 per cent for a length of 500 ft. 

Track Work. 
In rebuilding the lines a 55-lb. T rail with single-track construc- 
tion was used throughout the city, except in the business district. 



rail crew placing the steel on temporary blocks in the trenches. The 
next stage is also illustrated showing the rails blocked up to line and 
gage with the tie rods adjusted ready for the concrete crew. In this 
same illustration the track to the right is shown with the mass of 
concrete brought up to its proper surface ready for the sand cushion 
and the Bricklayers. In this type of construction the rails are 
anchored to the sub-structure by special anchors placed in the con- 
crete 10 ft. apart and made of two y 2 x 10-in. bolts and 
plates. Between these anchors, which are hung 011 the base of the 
rail while the concrete is being placed, ordinary track spikes are 
spaced two feet apart on alternate sides of the base of the rails. 

On top of the concrete bed. the mass of which is brought up and 
tamped firmly over the base of the rail, there is placed a sand ci 
one inch deep which supports the paving brick. The method of plac- 
ing the gage bricks is shown in one of the illustrations, where it will 
he noticed that special notched bricks are used. 

The concrete bed, which is 7 ft. 4 in. wide, is from 10 to 12 in. 



84 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



deep under the rails- The concrete was mixed with tola portland 
cement, each car of which was carefully tested before being used. 

The mixture is 1 part cement, -■' 2 parts sand and 5 parts crushed 
rock Extraordinary care was taken to secure the best possible 
materials in making this concrete, which carries not only the street 
railway tracks, but also the paving between the rails and one foot 
.111 ide the rails. The crushed rock was selected after an examina- 
tion of all the quarries within five miles of the city and is the hardest 
material found. Clean, sharp sand was secured by excavating the 




Equipment. 

The passenger equipment includes 10 Brill convertible cars and 
10 closed cars. The convertible cars are ,?o ft. 8 in. long and 7 ft. 
10 in. wide. The closed cars are 29 ft. 5 in. long and 7 ft. 2 in. wide. 
There have recently been received from the John Stephenson Co. 
three 14-bench open trail cars of the type illustrated. 

The seating capacity of the cars is 70 passengers, the scats being 




CONDENSING PLANT AT THE REAR OF THE POWER HOUSE BUILDING. 



DERRICK WAGON USED IN SHIFTING POLE LINE ON CONGRESS AVE. 



sand bars in the bed of the Colorado River. All paving was carefully 
grouted with portland cement and sand mixed half and half. 

All of the switches and special work in the new construction were 
built by the Falk Co., Milwaukee, Wis., of 6-in. 72-lb. Shanghai rail 
with steel-bound frogs, and practically all of the special work in the 
entire system was replaced with new work, employing long radius 
curves and switches. 

In reconstructing the Congress Ave. double-track line, on which 
the trolley wires are supported with center-pole construction, it was 
necessary to shift these steel poles in some instances several feet. 
This was accomplished by the use of the wagon and chain block 
shown in one of the illustrations. Trenches were dug. the poles 
supported by the extending arm on the wagon and then drawn into 
proper position by moving the wagon. The tracks on Congress 
Ave. are laid 11 ft. 6 in. center to center, so as to give ample 
clearance between the cars and the center poles, and avoid accidents 
to passengers by collision with poles. 

That overhead work which is of span construction, consists of a 
single No. o trolley wire supported by steel strand span wires be- 



reversible and of ash and cherry slats. The interiors are finished in 
ash with cherry mouldings. The sashes in the bulkheads are ar- 
ranged to drop into pockets between the seats, and three-bar guard 
rails are used. The curtains may be pulled down to the floor, the 
Brill round-corner seat-end panels which are used being arranged 
in connection with the grooves in the posts so as to permit the cur- 
tains to come down over the post outside of the panels, a continua- 
tion of the grooves of the posts being formed in the exterior sur- 
face of the panel. The cars are mounted on Brill No. 420 trail 
trucks, having a 4-in. wheel base and 24-in. wheels. They are in- 
tended for city and suburban service. 

The cars measure 37 ft. io$i in. over the crown pieces and from 
panel over crown piece, _| ft. Other dimensions are: Width over 
sills, 7 ft. 4L2 in., and over posts at seats, 8 ft. 2 in. ; sweep of posts, 
5 in.; side sills, a,Ya x 7 in., and the sill plates are 8 x 54 in. ; thick- 
ness of corner post, 3.^ in., and of side posts, 2J4 in. 

The equipment of the motorcars includes two 50-h. p. G E -54 mo- 
tors. The climate at Austin is so mild that heaters and snow plows 
are not required. The service given requires 25 conductors and 15 




wiiJM^ 



* 




■ 




STIN, TEX . SHOWING TRENCH CREW AT WORK 



k All 1 KEW PLACING STEEL IN EXCAVATION. 



tween cedar poles. The trolley wires are supplemented by four 
similar wires for a short distance from the power house. From this 
point three feeders extend for a distance of 4.500 ft. as branches 
on the various lines and off these branches are two feeders 2.520 ft. 
long and one 18,720 ft. long which are all of No. 00 or No. o copper. 



motormen for handling the equipment, each class of men receiv- 
ing 16 cents per hour and working for 12 hours each day. 

Car House and Shops. 
The car house is located on the same property with the power 



Feb. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



85 



house and the repair shops. The car house covers a ground area 
of 190 x 55 ft., having a capacity for 25 cars. This huilding is con- 
structed of galvanized iron roofing throughout. It has five main 
tracks, the opening over each track at the end of the harn being pro- 
tected by a rolling steel door. The repair shop at the plant is a brick 



for repairing cars, armatures, etc. An accompanying illustration is 
a general view of the car house ami the nearby repair shop. 

Power House. 
The power statimi 1 uilding as illustrated covers a ground area of 




CAR BARN AND REPAIR SHOP OF THE AUSTIN ELECTRIC UV. 



building with accommodations for three cars. These two buildings 
are located side by side with the power plant at their rear which 
arrangement offers several economic advantages. There are three 
men employed in the car house whose duties consist of inspecting 
equipment and making minor repairs. 



rectangular shape 98 ft. long x 55 ft. wide. The interior of this 
building is so divided that there is an engine room 46 ft. sq. and a 
boiler room 46 x 40 ft. in size. The building is constructed with a 
timber frame supporting galvanized iron siding and a plank and 
gravel roof. The partition wall between the engine and boiler 





ONE TRACK READY FOR CONCRETE AND ONE WITH CONCRETE PLACED. 

The general repair shop for maintenance of the equipment has a 
floor area of 100 x 70 ft. and contains three repair tracks. The 
tools for repair work include three rip saws, one band saw, planer, 
wood lathe, large steel dressing lathe, bed plane, drill press, wheel 
press, portable crane and the necessary equipment of smaller tools 



BRICKLAYING CREW COMPLETING THE PAVEMENT. 

rooms is of brick so that it serves as a fire wall. The interior of 
the building is well lighted by large side windows and by skylights 
with monitors over the peak of the roof. The interior walls are 
wdiite, which a- may be seen in the accompanying illustration, pre- 
sents a very neat appearance. 



86 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



] he boiler equipment consists of three water-tube boilers each of 
1 75 h. p. capacity. Steam is generated at 125 lb. pressure and deliv- 
ered through asbestos covered piping to the engines. It is interest- 
ing to note that lc\as coal is used for steaming purposes being 
brought directly to the power station siding and purchased at a 
price of $1.18 per ton. This coal is known as Rockdale lignite. 

Included in the power plant equipment is a surface condenser and 
the cooling tower shown in the exterior view of the power plant. As 



is consulting and constructing engineer for the Austin Electric Rail- 
..1. < 1, and has had charge of the recently completed construction 
work. 



AUSTIN ELECTRIC RAILWAY CO 




190 This year. Last Year. 


Cars 


LINE 


RECEIPTS 


Receipts this day, - - $ $ 


< ifO 


Main 

Belt . . 


$ 

$ 


Total this month to date, $ $ 


East & West 
Blind Inst., „.. 
Total 

Ticket Sales 




Temperatures (Taken 6 p. m.) 


$ 
$ 


Cash Balance - - - - $ 


Advertising 

s Earnings - 


$ 

i - 


Checks as per reverse side, $ 
Net Cash Balance - - $ 
Remarks 


Moloi 
Trail 


18-hour cars operated. 
r 18-hour cart operated. 



Signed 

lOvsrl 

FORM FOR DAILY REPORT OF OPERATION. (ORIGINAL 6 X 3]/i IN. IN SIZE.) 

will be seen by reference to the illustration the condenser is built 
outside of the power house proper and not enclosed. The piping is 
protected from the sun by a roof with a monitor, but the side walls 
are open, allowing the free circulation of air. The cooling tower of 
the admirality type stands on a concrete foundation close to the con- 
denser. The cooling air for the tower is blown in to the side of 
the shell by belt-driven fans. 

In connection with the boiler equipment is a tall steel stack built 
on an independent foundation outside of the building, and connected 
with the battery of boilers through an underground breeching. 

There are two engines, one of the horizontal-tandem type as il- 
lustrated, direct-connected to a 200-kw. railway generator, the en- 
gine being rated at 300 h. p. Another engine of 200 h. p. drives two 
generators of 80 kw. capacity each. 

The current output of these machines is controlled by suitable 
apparatus mounted on a marble switchboard of three panels. The 
average daily load requires about 43,000 kw. h. output, with .111 
average car mileage of 135.65 miles per day. 

Among the number of printed forms used in the operating accounts 



Mutual Traction Insurance Plans. 




OrEN TRAIL CAR FOR AUSTIN, TEX. 

of the railway is the daily business report reproduced herewith 
This report is printed on a sheet 6 x 3'/, in. in size, both sides of the 
paper being used. On the reverse side from that shown are rulings 
suitable for listing the checks drawn on the company's account for 
the day stated on the front of the sheet. Suitable columns are ruled 
for number, amount, account and to whom payable, with space for 
listing about 12 checks. 

The officers of the Austin Electric Railway Co. are: Wilber H. 
Young, president and general manager; Franklin II. Watriss, vice- 
president; C. V. Peel, secretary; E. T. Wihnot, treasurer; W. H. 
P.urdett, superintendent of equipment ; Joseph M. Aday, chief engi- 
neer; Julius Eggeling, electrical engineer; C. Ing, superintendent of 
transportation. The Columbia Construction Co., of Milwaukee. Wis . 



During the past two years, a thorough study of the best plan for 
lowering the cost of insurance on electric railway and lighting 
properties has been made by interests centering in Cleveland, O. 
After considering the matter in a careful way, a number of tin- 
leading traction managements have decided that it is nut only 
practicable Inn advisable, for traction companies to perfect an 
insurance organization for safeguarding their properties against 
Imss by fire. With this end in view, there have been organized 
the American Railway Insurance Co. and the Associated Rail- 
way Companies Insurance Co.. each with a capital stock of $200,000 
and a surplus of $300,000. These new companies embody mutual fea- 
tures and their control will he in the hands of a number of important 
traction interests. It is planned to write both "protected" and "unpro- 
tected" risks, taking the present ran- of the stuck insurance com- 
panies as a basis, and granting a reduction in rates where the prop- 
erties are equipped with fire-protection appliances. 

The Traction Mutual Insurance Co. and the Electric Mutual In- 
surance Co., also have been incorporated under the laws of Ohio, 
but will be conducted strictly along mutual lines. The entire capital 
slock and surplus of these companies will be contributed by those 
interested in railway and lighting properties, and the business written 
will be confined exclusively to such properties and kindred risks. 
After paying the actual losses and expenses, it is proposed to return 
all unearned premiums to the policy holders, thus reducing their 
insurance to actual cost. It was not considered wise for the mutual 
companies to begin operating until a total value of $20,000,000 of 
protected risks could be underwritten. For this reason the stock 
companies were organized and will handle risks as earlier men- 
tioned. 

The promoters and incorporators "I the stock companies are: 
Horace E. Andrews, president of the Cleveland Electric Railway- 
Co. ; Henry A. Everett, president, Northern Ohio Traction & Light 
Co. ; A. E. Akins, vice-president, Cleveland & Southwestern Trac- 
tion Co.; Warren S. Bickncll, president, Cleveland Construction 
I'o.; Cbas. W. Wason, president, Cleveland, Painesville & Eastern 
Traction Co. ; C. G. Goodrich, vice-president, Twin City Rapid 
Transit Co.; J. C. Hutchins, president, Detroit United Railway Co.; 
John J. Stanley, general manager, Cleveland Electric Railway Co.; 
11. J. Davies, secretary, Cleveland Electric Railway 
Co., and director of The Factory Mutual Insurance 
Co. ; T. H. Hogsett, attorney and director of The 
Factory Mutual Insurance Co., and Henry N. 
Staats, underwriter and manager of the Associated 
Railway & Light Companies' Insurance Inspection 
& Survey Bureau. The offices of the manager are 
at goi-902 Citizens' Building, Cleveland, O. 

In December, 1004, H. J. Davies. secretary of the 
Cleveland Electric Railway Co., mailed to each 
street railway company in the United States and 
Canada a letter, requesting a report showing the 
amount of money paid for lire insurance during each 
of the past ten years, the amount of losses sustained, 
and the amount actually recovered from insurance 
companies. Reports were received from about 420 
companies, indicating that for the past ten years 
tin total amount of premiums paid by these com- 
panies was $0,040,041 ; losses, $1,071,806, or 32.59 per cent of the 
premiums paid; amount recovered $1,673,336 or a percentage of loss 
to premium paid of 27.66 per cent. A similar compilation was made 
by J. H. Neal, president of the New England Street Railway Club, 
during the same year, but confined to New England companies for 
the same period of 10 years. The results showed that of a total of 
$1,016,524 paid in premiums, but 23.5 per cent or $239,170 was re- 
ceived for fire loss. These investigations have had much weight in 
deciding whether or not mutual insurance can be made successful 
among traction and lighting companies. 



A company is being organized to build an electric line from Cape 
Girardeau to New Madrid. Mo. 



Feb. is, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



87 



Parks of the Rochester Railway Co. 

The city of Rochester, N. Y., is favored with as many pleasure 
resorts as any city of equal size in the United States. Nature, by 
means of the beautiful waters of Lake Ontario. Irondequoit Bay 
and the Genesee River, has made them especially attractive. The 
parks reached by the lines of the Rochester Railway Co. are, Glen 
Haven, Sea Breeze. Windsor Beach, Summerville, Ontario Beach, 
Manitou Beach and the city parks, Genesee Valley and Seneca. 
Glen Haven, Sea Breeze, Windsor Beach and Summerville are con- 
trolled and operated by the Rochester Railway Co.. under the 
special management of B. E. Wilson, the general passenger agent. 

Glen Haven is located at the head of Irondequoit Bay, three miles 
and a half from the city and is reached by the Rochester & Sodus 
Bay Division, of the Rochester Railway Co. The road is double- 
tracked and almost the entire right of way is through a beautiful 
glen. This resort is conducted along the lines of the most modern 



ing lawns, shady groves and picturesque ravines. No pains have 
been spared in assisting nature to make this resort one of the most 
attractive in the vicinity of Rochester. It is owned by the Rochester 
& Suburban Railway Co., which is at present operated by the Roch- 
ester Railway Co. The trolley ride from Rochester to the park is 
eight miles in length, the cars in use being of the large, open, cross- 
seat type. 

Sea Breeze Park is the picnic resort of western New York, and 
from the day the schools are closed until they are opened in the 
fall, the park is the scene of many picnics. The park is so arranged 
that as many as ten large picnics can be accommodated in one day 
and still each picnic is practically by itself. The average number of 
picnics per day for the past season was six. The feature that has 
made the park so popular with picnics has been the free pavilions, 
which have been specially constructed with fully equipped kitchens, 
■ hot and cold water, dishes, ice and an attendant to assist the pic- 
nickers, all of which is furnished free of charge. 




THE CIRCUS MAXIMUS AND KILTIES BAND, AT GLEN HAVES PARK 



amusement parks, and possesses such features as the figure-eight 
toboggan, merry-go-round, Katzen jammer castle, temple of mirth, 
cave of the winds, house of trouble, trip to the north pole, the 
bumps, etc. The possibilities of electricity have not been forgotten, 
and Glen Haven, with its thousands of incandescents. is a brilliant 
sight after dark. 

The park has no theater proper and the forms of entertainments 
that would naturally be given in a theater are given on the Circus 
Maximus, a large open circular stage or platform, backed by a 
series of elevations which make a good band stand. Added to these 
elevations on either side are two artistic towers serving as dressing- 
rooms for the performers. The most successful attractions during 
the past season were band concerts and standard vaudeville, espe- 
cially the big animal acts. Any attraction that pleased the children 
seemed to assure a big attendance at the park. One special feature- 
that has added to the popularity of Glen Haven has been the 
placing of benches in all parts of the grounds. 

Sea Breeze Park is situated on a high bluff overlooking the waters 
of Lake Ontario and Irondequoit Bay and contains 40 acres of roll- 



The ball grounds which are kept in regulation form, add much to 
the popularity of the park. Except the zoological gardens, merry- 
go-round, laughing gallery, pony Hack and photograph gallery, the 
only attractions offered are band concerts. The park is thoroughly 
policed, and good order is demanded. A fine bathing beach also adds 
to the popularity of the park. 

Sea Breeze and Glen Haven, though located at opposite ends of 
Irondequoit Bay, are brought into close relation by an excellent 
service of electric and naptha launches and steamboats. Tickets 
are sold by the railway company, covering transportation in either 
direction on both the Glen Haven and Sea Breeze lines, as well as 
the boats. 

Windsor Beach or the "White City," as it is better known to the 
people of Rochester, occupies a beautiful bluff overlooking Lake On- 
tario and is reached by a 30-minute trolley ride from the 

The entire resort is surveyed into hundreds of cottage lots, the 
streets, as near as possible, all running to the lake front. With the 
exception of a few lots thai have been sold, upon which summer 
homes have been built, the Rochester Railway Co. controls the entire 



88 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



park. Each summer the lots are rented out at a small figure to 
families for camping. The company has installed a waterworks and 
lighting plant, and during the summer months, when the hundreds 
of tent cottages are up, the resort is indeed a "White City." 

Summerville, like Windsor Beach, is a village of cottages and is 
located on the shore of Lake Ontario at the mouth of the Genesee 
River. It is reached by a delightful trolley ride, following a beau- 
tiful boulevard along the east bank of the Genesee River. 

The main attraction of Summerville is the bathing beach, where 
during the warm summer days, hundreds enjoy the excellent surf 
bathing. 

Summerville is directly opposite Ontario Beach, the two resorts 
being separated by the mouth of the Genesee River. Service between 
the two is effected by means of a large ferry boat also controlled by 
the Rochester Railway Co. At Summerville is located the United 




ATTRACTIONS IN DREAMLAND, GLEN HAVEN, N. Y. 

States Life Saving Station which is always an object of interest to 
visitors at Rochester. 

Ontario Beach Park is a large amusement resort which has of 
late gained the title of "The Coney Island of western New York." 
All sorts of amusements are furnished and as a result the park is 
favored with a large patronage. The New York Central Railroad 
Co. during the summer season carries many excursions to this point 
from all parts of the state. 

The traffic arrangements to the park are excellent. The two double- 
track lines operated by the Rochester Railway Co. to this point, to- 
gether with the frequent train service offered by the New York Cen- 
tral Railroad Co., make the handling of large crowds an easy propo- 
sition. 

The hotels at Ontario Beach are specially constructed for the 




LOOP TRACK A\n ENTRANI E TO GLEN HAVEN PARK, ROCHESTER 
RAILWAY CO. 

handling of summer boarders. Two cxhibitons of fireworks weekly 
have proven very strong drawing cards at this park. 

Manitou Beach is a picnic resort, reached by a trolley ride of 
eight miles from Ontario Beach along the lake shore. 

The park system of Rochester embraces approximately 630 acres 
divided among the principal parks. The entire system including the 
city public squares are easily and quickly reached by means of the 



Rochester Railway Co.'s lines. The company has found it very 
profitable to co-operate with the city officials in making the parks 
especially attractive. The company contributes liberally towards 
paying for band cot certs and other amusements that are consistent 

with city park-. _ 

The Parks of the Boston & Northern and Old 
Colony Street Railway Companies. 

HY R. H. DERRAH. 



From twelve to fifteen year- ago when the rate of building sub- 
urban trolley lines was fast increasing a pleasure resort or park was 




SCENE IN HIGHLAND PARK, SHOWING OBSERVATION TOWER. 

considered a very important adjunct to the earning power of the 
road, and at one time no less than 45 of these resorts were 
owned and maintained by the suburban lines of New England, mostly 
in Massachusetts. These natural groves richly endowed by nature, 
were located on the banks of rivers, lakes or the ocean shore, and 
laid out with pretty walks, beds of flowers, and shrubbery. Each 
was equipped with summer houses, a band stand, dancing and dining 
pavilions. The swings and rustic seats scattered throughout the 
shady nooks made them ideal places for picric parties and recreation 
grounds for the masses. Tn several were found rustic theaters where 
entertainments were given afternoons and evenings during the sum- 




ADVERTISING CAR, BROCKTON, MASS. 

mer season. Today, not more than 15 up-to-date street railway 
parks are maintained in the state. This decrease in number was 
brought about partly by the consolidation of the various small roads, 
and also because some of the parks were found unprofitable on ac- 
count of the lack of population to draw from. 

There are few, if any of these parks that can show credit balances 
at the end of the year. The increased passenger traffic without doubt 
offsets in many cases the park deficit figures, nevertheless there is al- 



Feb. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



89 



ways a question whether or not these parks are profitable when the 
expense incurred to obtain the increased riding, is taken into consid- 
eration. 

The Boston & Northern and Old Colony Street Railway lines are 
so located, that their park business is bill a very small portion of 
their summer pleasure riding, and cannot be classed with suburban 
roads that depend principally on the popularity of their parks for in- 
creased business. 

These two companies operate 880 miles of (rack north and south 
of the city of Boston, serving no less than 22 cities and 66 
towns in the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Rhode 
Island. They reach all the rocky shores, the beautiful beaches 
that offer unrivalled facilities for bathing, as well as all kinds of 
amusements, and other sections of the north and south shores of 
Massachusetts Bay that are attractive to the tourist. The lines 
travel along more delightful rivers, and valleys, past the shores of 
more lakes and through more historical cities and towns than can 
be found in any other section of the country, and the pleasure travel 
is increasing wonderfully as these delightful and historical places 
are brought to the stranger's attention. 

The Boston & Northern and Old Colony Co's. do, however, 
own and maintain a large group of pleasure resorts, having no less 
than ten. Seven have well equipped rustic theaters besides the 
usual park attractions, and are under the direct supervision of the 
companies. Six are located within the limits of a five-cent fare 
from the city from which they obtain their greatest patronage. 

Sabbatia Park is but a short distance from the center of Taunton. 
a city of some 31,000 inhabitants; Highland Park is near Brockton, 
the greatest shoe manufacturing city in the country, with a popula- 
tion of 48,000, and surrounded by many small enterprising towns 
which patronize the entertainments during the summer. A 30- 
minute ride out of the mill city of Lowell with its population of 95 - 
000 is Lakeview Park, located on the banks of a beautiful lake, with 
the city of Nashua, N. II.. within a 45-minute ride to draw from. 
Glen Forest is only IS minutes ride from the business center of 
Lawrence, another mill city in the Merrimac Valley, wdiose popula- 
tion of 72,000 will within two years be increased to about 90,000. 
Further down the valley near the city of Haverhill is "The Pines" 
nn the banks of the Merrimac River. Haverhill is another progres- 
sive shoe manufacturing city with a population of 44,000. Long 
Beach is but a 20-minute ride out of the city of Gloucester on 
the Atlantic coast. Westwood Park is located in the town of Ded- 
ham, one hour's run from the terminal of the Boston Elevated R. R. 




ARTISTIC ENTRANCE TO HIGHLAND PARK, BROCKTON, MASS. 

The seating capacity of the theaters in these parks varies from 
1,200 to 3,500. 

The same policy that had been pursued for many years in the at- 
tractions at the parks was carried out here. The parks were opened 
to the public on a certain day with the same obi program consisting 
principally of vaudeville with the results that the patronage gradu- 
ally fell off from year to year. The companies began to realize that 
the public demanded entertainments of a higher order, and in the 



early part of 1905 a radical change was decided upon. The parks 
were greatly improved, the seating capacities of the theatres en- 
larged, and several new attractions such as roller skating, shooting 
galleries, merry-go rounds, etc., were added. An elaborate program 
was successfully carried out on the opening night and brought out 
a record breaking crowd which appreciated tin- efforts of the com- 
pany. The substitution of operas, operattas, farce and musical 




MONARCHS OF THE FOREST AT SABBATIA PARK, STAUNTON, MASS. 

comedies with other additional amusements, for the vaudeville of 
former years increased the popularity of the parks notwithstanding 
the fact that the admission to the theaters had been increased. 

Lowell, Lawrence. Haverhill, and Brockton are all large manu- 
facturing centers and a show favorably received at one place was 
sure of the same reception at the other three. This was not the case 
with Taunton where vaudeville seemed to have the call over all, 
and this they were supplied with. Long Beach and Westwood Park 
were provided mostly with vaudeville. The efforts of the com- 
panies to give better entertainments and run the various resorts on 
a higher plan proved so popular that the increase in attendance at 
one was no per cent over the previous year, another one 75 per 
cent, the third, the most beautiful natural park of them all, never 
showed to better advantage, while the fourth and fifth showed a 
gratifying increase. 

The methods of advertising played no little part in bringing about 
such results. While the straight advertisements in various papers 
did not exceed in cost of those of previous years, they were, how- 
ever, kept up to date and not neglected, and the public was 
posted from day to day of the happenings and attractions through 
generous reading notices. Flyers were also printed and distributed 
from the cars. The five advertising cars (see photograph) were 
kept on the lines afternoons and evenings during the summer 
and certainly did a great deal of good. 

In order to make these resorts popular in the winter a- well a- in 
the summer, toboggan chutes, artificial skating rinks, log cabins, 
and other attractions were installed. Several hockey teams have 
been formed in the different cities, and arrangements have been 
made to have matches between these clubs, speed and fancy skating 
races, and many other ice and toboggan sports, ending up with fan- 
cy dress carnivals at the different parks, but the weather so far has 
certainly not been as propitious for making the resnrts magnel 1 
attraction in the way of outdoor sports, as would be the case if 
the winter were more assertive in manifesting its pre^ 

Additional improvements will be made at the parks the coming 



90 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



spring. Plans have already been made for the construction of a 
large roller coaster at Highland Park and one at Lakeview Park. 
As previously stated it requires a constant change of policy as well 
as entirely different forms of entertainments to interest the public. 
This, the street railway company must do in order to obtain and 
keep the good will of its patrons. 



Meeting of the Executive Committee of 
American Street & Interurban Rail- 
way Association. 



the 



The Executive Committee of the American Street & Interurban 
Railway Association met at the association headquarters. 60 Wall 
St., New York City, on February 6th. Those present were 
Hon. W. Caryl Ely, president Ohio Valley Finance Co., Buf- 
falo, N. Y., John I. Beggs, president .Milwaukee Electric Railway 
& Light Co.. Milwaukee, Wis., James F. Shaw, president Boston & 
Worcester Electric Cos., Boston, Mas,,. \Y. B. Brockway, auditor 
Nashville Railway & Light Co., Yonkers, N. Y., H. H. Adams, 
president accountants' association and superintendent of shops 
United Railways & Electric Co., Baltimore, Md., S. L. Rhoades, 
president Railway Engineering Association and general claim agent 
Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., Philadelphia, Pa., and Bernard V. 
Swenson, secretary and treasurer of the American Street and In- 
terurban Railway Association. 

The meeting was called for the purpose of considering a number 
of important matters relating to the American Street & Interurban 
Railway Association, and the affiliated associations. The secretary- 
presented a report to the committee covering the various association 
matters which have taken place since the convention at Phila- 
delphia in September, 1905. Some of the things enumerated, which 
have occurred since the convention are the following : 

The meeting of the Executive Committee held Sept. 29, 1905, 
at Philadelphia, at which time the secretary and treasurer was ap- 
pointed. The minutes of this meeting were read and approved. 
1 he secretary stated that investigations had been inaugurated imme- 
diately upon the close of the convention, to obtain desirable offices 
for the association headquarters. Temporary offices were obtained 
at 114 Liberty St., and permanent headquarters, at 60 Wall St. The 
secretary spoke of the general office assistance, of the equipment, 
and of the work which has been carried on during the past few 
months. Circular letters in relation to compensation for carrying 
United States mail, together with printed data sheets, were sent 
out in December to all of the electric railways in the United States, 
Canada and Mexico, the total number being approximately 1,200 
Similar circular letters were sent out the latter part of December, 
together with a data sheet relating to the speed of interurban cars 
in towns and cities. Up to the present time, replies from these 
inquiries have been coming in continuously and a large number 
are now on file in the secretary's office. Data sheets relating to the 
nfficial mailing lists of the various member companies have also been 
sent out. 

Personal typewritten letters were sent to the various member 
companies in the latter part of December and the first part of Janu- 
ary, outlining the work of the association, as conducted under the 
new conditions resulting from the reorganization. In answer to this 
communication, the president and secretary have received a large 
number of letters from various railway people connected with the 
companies throughout the country. These letters have universally 
heartily endorsed the work of the association. The association has 
already established a correspondence with over 400 different people 
since the establishment of the office. More than 4.000 letters have 
been written in the ordinary correspondence. 

Membership Committee. 
The membership committee has sent out two circular letters to 
non-member companies, one on September 15th and the other in 
January, 1906. These letters were in all cases signed by H. H. Vree- 
land, chairman of the membership committee. As a result of this 
work. 49 new companies have already joined the association, and 
letti is are still being received in this connection. 

Insurance Matters. 
Some considerable work- has been done on the question of insur- 
ance, much of which has been accomplished by the chairman of 



the insurance committee. This committee consists of H. J. Davies, 
Cleveland, O., chairman, and R. B. Stearns and T. C. Penington of 
Chicago, III. Mutual insurance companies are being formed, and it 
is believed that the insurance question, from the standpoint of the 
street railway companies, will be very materially bettered by the work 
of this committee. 

Annual Report. 
The annual report of the association is still in the printers' hands, 
but will be ready for distribution within a short time. The report 
of the railway engineering association has already been distributed, 
and that of the accountants' association will be ready for distribu- 
tion within a week or ten days. 

Relations with State and Sectional Associations. 

The president and secretary have devoted some considerable at- 
tention to the question of state and sectional street and interurban 
railway associations and their relation with the national association. 
They attended the meeting of the Massachusetts Street Railway As- 
sociation in Boston, on Dec. 13. 1905. This was the 23d anniversary 
of the establishment of the American Street Railway Association 
and proved to be a very interesting and profitable meeting. The sec- 
retary attended the first quarterly meeting of the New York State 
Street Railway Association held at Schenectady on January 10th. The 
president and secretary attended the first annual convention of the 
Central Electric Railway Association held at Dayton, O., on January 
^4th. The attendance at these meetings of the officers of the asso- 
ciation is believed to be conducive to a much closer relation between 
the various electric railway interests of the country. 

Aiming the other important matters which were considered by the 
executive committee, were the following : 

Approval of the constitutions and by-laws of the affiliated associ- 
ations. These constitutions and by-laws were presented at the meet- 
ing and after some discussion, the matter was referred to the presi- 
dents of the various affiliated associations together with the secre- 
tary of the "American" Association, with power to act. W. Bord- 
maii Reed, maintenance-of-way engineer for the New York City 
Railway Co., was invited to attend the meeting to confer with the 
committee on the matter of constitution and by-laws of the Railway 
Engineering Association. 

The 1906 Convention. 
The date and location for the 1906 convention was discussed at 
considerable length. Invitations had been received from At- 
lantic City, Denver. San Francisco, Chattanooga, Atlanta and Put- 
in-Bay. No definite convention city was decided upon, but the 
matter was left to the president, vice-president Shaw, and the sec- 
retary to investigate and report at the next meeting of the execu- 
ive committee. Messrs. Baker and McGraw of the manufacturers' 
association were invited to confer with the members of the com- 
mittee in this matter and were present at the meeting. 

Standing and Special Committees. 

At the Philadelphia convention committees on membership, insur- 
ance and rules for car wiring were appointed. In addition to these 
committees the president was authorized at the meeting to appoint 
a committee on "Papers and Topics." This is a very important 
committtee and it is expected that much work will be done by it 
within the next few months, as it is the desire of the executivi 
committee to have some valuable papers presented at the next con- 
vention. 

In this connection it is to be remembered that according to the 
new scheme of co-operation, many of the technical topics discussed 
at the previous meetings of the "American" Association will now 
be considered before the proper affiliated associations. Other mat- 
ters considered related to the distribution of the proceedings for the 
current year, the binding of the proceedings of past years, and the 
privileges of associate membership. 

■*—*■ 

The Boston & Worcester Street Railway Co. has recently issued 
its winter time table between Boston and Worcester and inter- 
mediate points. Besides the time tables the publication includes 
a map of the system, rates of fare and the usual information re- 
garding special cars, lost articles and tickets. The pamphlet is of 
convenient size for carrying in the pocket and is gotten out by the 
passenger department of the company, of which Mr. A. E. Stone is 
general passenger and ticket agent. 



Recent Street Railway Decisions. 



RDITED BY J. L. ROSENBERGER, ATTORNEY AT LAW, CHICAGO. 



[The decisions which have been reported in the Legal Department of the "Street Railway Review" since 1893 have been published separately by the Kenfield Publishing 
Co. under the title "Street Railway Law," five volumes of which have been printed. Vol. I covers the period from January, 1894, to January, 1897; Vol. 11 from January, 
1897, to July 1899; Vol. Ill from July, 1899, to April, 1901; Vol. IV from April, 1901 to 1903; Vol. V. from April, 1903, to August, 1905. Price: Bound in sheep; Ave volumes, 
$12.00; single volume, $3.00. Bound in buckram; live volumes, $8.00; single volume, $2.00.] 



TRANSFER TICKET MUTILATED BY PASSENGER MAY 
BE REFUSED UNDER RULES. 



Koch vs. New York City Railway Co. (N. Y. Sup.), 95, N. Y. Supp. 
559. Oct. 27, 1905. 
In affirming a judgment for the company, the appellate term of the 
supreme court of New York says that the finding in its favor was 
supported hy evidence that the transfer ticket in question was muti- 
lated after it came into the plaintiff's possession, and thus lost its 
character as a token of his right to passage, within the reasonable 
rules adopted by the defendant. If mutilated when it was given him, 
this ticket would have sufficed, and the defendant could not properly 
have refused it ; but there was evidence to the contrary, and the 
court cannot say that better credit should have been given to the 
interested testimony of the plaintiff. 



CARE REQUIRED IS THAT CONSISTENT WITH THE 
PRACTICAL OPERATION OF THE ROAD. 



Tri-City Railway Co. vs. Gould (111.), 75 N. E. Rep. 493. Oct. 24, 

1905- 
The supreme court of Illinois holds that an instruction to the jury 
was erroneous which did not limit the degree of care required of 
the carrier to such care as was consistent with the practical operation 
of the road. In other words, it says, that part of an instruction 
which told the jury that "the defendant, through its servants in 
charge of such car, was required to do all that human care, vigil- 
ance, and foresight could reasonably do, in view of the character 
and mode of conveyance adopted, to safely carry him as such pas- 
senger," should have read as follows : "The defendant, through its 
servants in charge of such car, was required to do all that human 
care, vigilance, and foresight could reasonably do, in view of the 
character and mode of conveyance adopted, and consistently with the 
practical operation of the road, to safely carry him as such pas- 



SUFFICIENCY OF EVIDENCE THAT CAR WAS NOT 
STARTED SUDDENLY AND CARELESSLY. 



Lincoln Traction Co. vs. Shepherd (Neb.), 104 N. W. Rep. 882. 
Sept. 20, 1905. 
In an action for damages by a passenger against a street railway 
company, where the defendant's liability rests upon the question 
whether or not a street car was suddenly and carelessly started as 
the plaintiff was about to alight therefrom, which is denied, the 
supreme court of Nebraska holds that the defendant is only required 
to furnish sufficient proof to rebut that produced by the plaintiff 
upon this point, and is not required to establish its freedom from 
negligence by a preponderance of the evidence. 



NO LONGER A PASSENGER WHEN CATCHING FOOT IN 
FENDER— MAY LET CAR STAND A REASONABLE 
TIME— RULE REQUIRING MOTORMAN TO STAND AT 
POST UNTIL CONDUCTOR COMES. 



Poland vs. United Traction Co. CN. Y. Sup.), 95 N. Y. Supp. 49S. 
Sept. 26, 1905. 
A passenger after alighting from a car at the terminus of its 
route attempted to cross in front of the car and was injured by 
catching her foot in the fender. The third appellate division of the 
supreme court of New York holds that at the time of the accident 
the company's duty to her as a passenger had ceased. It holds that 



a street railway company has the right, without being charged with 
a breach of duty or unlawful obstruction of the highway, to allow its 
cars to stand upon its tracks for a reasonable length of time. Nor 
does it think that it helps the situation by saying that the motorman 
could have immediately lifted the fender with a hook when the car 
came to a stop. The car was on a downgrade. Inattention to his 
brakes, necessary to the lifting and strapping of the fender, might 
have been much more dangerous to passengers and wayfarers. It 
was not an unreasonable rule which required the motorman to 
stand at his post until the conductor had finished his duties of seeing 
to the alighting of passengers and had come to the front of the car. 



DUTY TO USE BEST AND MOST CONVENIENT APPLI- 
ANCES FOR OPERATION OF ROAD— RIGHT OF RAIL 
ROAD COMPANY TO USE ELECTRICITY AS MOTIVE 
POWER. 



Howley vs. Central Valley Railroad Co. (Pa.), 62 Atl. Rep. 109. 
Oct. 9, 1905. 

In the absence of a limitation upon the power of a railroad com- 
pany to use any appliances, or of a prohibition as to the use of any 
particular one, the supreme court of Pennsylvania says that it is the 
duty of the company to use what, in the light of its observation and 
experience, is best and most convenient for it in the operation of its 
road, having at all times due regard to the safety of the public 
which it was created to serve. In such a case its duty fixes the 
measure of its powers in performing it. What it manifestly ought to 
do in exercising its franchises it may do, unless forbidden by its 
supreme law — the will of its creator as expressed in the words giv- 
ing it life. 

This court has, it is true, designated railroads organized under the 
act of 1868 as steam railroads. But this designation has been 
adopted only as a natural one, to distinguish such railroads from 
street pasenger railways, and in no case in which it has been used 
is there any intimation as to the limitation upon the power of a rail- 
road company in the adoption of its motive power. With the ques- 
tion now before the court as to the right of a railroad company in- 
corporated under the general railroad act to use electricity as a mo- 
tive power, the court is clear that the defendant company is nol pro- 
hibited from using electricity as a motive power, and if, in its judg- 
ment, the same ought to be used for the most efficient exercise of its 
right to operate its railroad, it may be used. 



CARE REQUIRED AND DUTY TO REGULATE SPEED 
WHERE A CAR IS OVERCROWDED. 



Alton Light & Traction Co. vs. Oliver (111.), 75 N. E. Rep. 419. 
Oct. 24, 1905. 
The servants of the company, the supreme court of Illinois says, 
invited passengers to occupy a car beyond its capacity, and know- 
ingly permitted, if they did not induce, passengers to stand on the 
platforms and steps of the car. In such case the carrier assumes 
the duty of exercising, for the protection and safety of the p 
gers, that degree of care that is demanded by the circumstances. 
The obligation of a common carrier, which rested on this company, 
was to do all that human care, vigilance, and foresight could rea- 
sonably do, consistent with the mode of conveyance and the prac- 
tical operation of the road, to convey the passengers in safety to 
their destination. Slight care and foresight only was necessary to 
arouse apprehension that the passengers on the platforms and steps 
of the car would be endangered by any excessive speed, and that 
speed even more moderate than the usual rate of speed was the 



92 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



more prudent and safe course for the safety of such passengers. 
It was the duty of the company to regulate the speed of its car in 
view of the fact that it had encouraged its patrons to overcrowd the 
aisles, platforms, and steps. The high degree of care which the law 
enjoined upon it for the safety of its passengers should have been 
the paramount consideration. The practical operation of the car did 
not require that a rapid rate of speed should be employed. Whether 
it was negligence on the part of the plaintiff, as a passenger, to 
stand on the steps or platform of the car, was a question of fact for 
the decision of the jury, and not of law to be determined by the 
court. 



ATTEMPTING TO DRIVE ACROSS TRACKS RELYING ON 
CAR STOPPING TO PREVENT COLLISION. 



Chicago Union Traction Co. vs. Jacobson (111.), 75 N. E. Rep. 508. 
Oct. 24, 1905. 
If teamsters, generally, may drive across street car tracks between 
street intersections, knowing that a collision will be inevitable unless 
a car is stopped, and intending to take precedence over the car and 
compel those in charge of the car to stop it, the supreme court of 
Illinois says that the rights of a street car company on its track and 
of the general traveling public would be invaded and practically de- 
stroyed. The law does not permit one in such a place to drive in 
the path of a moving car, relying upon those in charge of the car to 
stop it and protect him from injury. 



NOT IN POSITION 10 COMPEL REMOVAL OF SWITCH. 



Taylor vs. Erie City Passenger Railway Co. (Pa.), 61 Atl. Rep. 992. 
June 22, 1905. 
Where township authorities, fearing that by the lengthening of 
sidings a second track would practically be made on the highway, 
obtained a decree of court limiting the length which siding might 
be constructed and requiring the removal of certain ones, the su- 
preme court of Pennsylvania says that they could waive the en- 
forcement of the decree, and did so, by formally permitting the con- 
tinued use of a switch, which was found by the court to be of great 
value to the company in the operation of the railway, of great con- 
venience to the traveling public, and occasioning no damage to the 
trustees under the will of a deceased abutting property owner. But 
more than four years after the township authorities might have in- 
sisted upon the removal of the switch, and more than three years 
after they had consented to its continuance, the trustees brought this 
suit to enjoin its use and compel its removal. Even if there had not 
been an express grant before his death from the property owner re- 
ferred to, authorizing the construction of the switch, with no objec- 
tion to it from him or the trustees until this suit was brought, equity 
would not decree its removal after this great lapse of time and the 
expenditure of large sums of money in improving the tracks and 
system, of which the switch formed a part. To the proceeding by 
the township commissioners these trustees were not parties, and 
they were not in a position to ask for the enforcement of the decree. 
They alleged that the defendants were in contempt of it. This 
question, however, could lie raised only by those who were entitled 
to enforce it. 



UNCONSTITUTIONAL ACT REQUIRING SEPARATION OF 
RACES. 



State vs. Patterson (Fla.), 39 So. Rep. 398. July 29, 1905. 

An act requiring street car companies to provide separate com- 
partments in their cars for the Caucasian and African races, and 
that under penalties prohibits persons of either of said races from 
occupying the compartment of a car set apart for the other race, but 
with the proviso "that the provisions of this act shall not apply to 
colored nurses having the care of white children or sick white per- 
sons," the supreme court of Florida holds violates section 1 of the 
fourteenth amendment to the federal constitution, and is void. The 
court says that it is violative of said section in that it discrimi- 
nately abridges the privileges and immunities of one class of citizens 
of the United States by giving to another class of such citizens 
privileges that are withheld from the class discriminated against. 
It gives to the Caucasian mistress the right to have her child at- 



tended in the Caucasian department of the car by its African nurse, 
and withholds from the African mistress the equal right to have her 
child attended in the African department of the car by its Caucasian 
nurse. It also discriminates between the races, in that it gives to 
the invalid adult Caucasian man or woman, the right to be attended 
in his or her department of the car by his or her colored nurse, and 
withholds from the African invalid the corresponding right to be 
attended in his or her department of the car by his or her white 
nurse. It also gives to the African nurse the right to space in 
either department of the car, and withholds from the Caucasian 
nurse the same privilege, thereby discriminating between the races 
in favor of the African nurse as against the Caucasian nurse be- 
longing to the same occupational class of persons. 



PRIVATE PROPERTY MAY BE CONDEMNED FOR CAR 
BARNS AND POWER HOUSE. 



Eddleman vs. Union County Traction & Power Co. (111.), 75 N. E. 
Rep. 510. Oct. 24, 1905. 
The supreme court of Illinois holds that the company had the 
right to condemn private property for car barns and a power house 
to be used in connection with its railroad, as laid in the public 
streets. It says that this has been settled by Illinois cases in which 
it has been held that the right of a street railway company to diverge 
from the highway and go upon private property depends upon the 
necessities of construction as a question of fact, and that a street 
railway company, under the horse and dummy railroad act of 1874, 
may condemn such private property as is necessary for side-tracks, 
station grounds, power houses, switches, or turnouts necessary to 
render the use of the highway or street practicable and efficient. 



INJURY BY COLLISION TO PASSENGER GETTING ON 
BUMPER TO LET OTHERS ALIGHT— MOTORMAN 
BOUND TO KNOW CONDITION OF RAILS AND DAN- 
GER OF WHEELS SLIPPING— HALLOOING INSTEAD 
OF SOUNDING GONG. 



Chicago City Railway Co. vs. Schmidt (111.), 75 N. E. Rep. 383. 
Oct. 24, 1905. 
A passenger on a crowded car got out on the rear of the car 
after it had stopped in order to let other passengers alight. He 
was injured by the car following colliding with the one he was on. 
The supreme court of Illinois says that if he had voluntarily taken 
the unusual position in which he was injured for the purpose of 
riding as a passenger, he might doubtless have been held guilty of 
contributory negligence. But that was not the case made by the 
evidence, and whether, in getting out of the way of the passengers 
desiring to get off the car, he was guilty of negligence was a ques- 
tion of fact for the jury under all the facts and circumstances of the 
case. The conductor on the second car must be held to have known 
the condition of the rails and the danger of the wheels slipping. The 
jury also had a right, in determining the question of his negligence, 
to take into consideration the fact that he failed to give the usual 
alarm or signal. If he had rung the gong promptly upon discovering 
that he could not stop the car, the one in front might have moved 
forward or the passenger injured might have saved himself by get- 
ting off the bumper. Hallooing was not the usual or proper way of 
giving alarm. The passenger might or might not have heard it, or, 
if he did, failed to understand what was said. The court is of the 
opinion that the evidence, though conflicting, fairly tended to show 
that the rear car was negligently managed, and such negligence 
caused the injury. 



S I REET RAILWAY INCLUDED IN MECHANIC'S LIEN LAW 
COVERING "ANY RAILROAD." 



Egan vs. Cheshire Street Railway Co. (Conn.), 61 Atl. Rep. 950. 
Oct. 6, 1905. 
Section 4140 of the general statutes of Connecticut of 1902 by 
which "any railroad or any of its appurtenances" is included with 
"any building or any of its appurtenances," as subject to the pro- 
visions of the mechanic's lien law, the supreme court of errors of 
Connecticut thinks, makes the claim of any person who has ren- 
dered services as described in said section in the construction of a 



Feb. is, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



93 



railroad structure, such as that in question in this case, a lien upon 
the property described in said section. The court says that section 
4140 is a part of the statute dealing with mechanic's liens. The word 
"railroad" in the clause in question indicates a structure in the 
construction of which services can be rendered and materials fur- 
nished. The clause is directed solely to the protection of the me- 
chanic's claim for the value of his labor and materials which have 
gone into the construction of this structure. Every railroad as well 
as every building, and any railroad as well as any building, in the con- 
struction of which a mechanic has rendered services or furnished 
materials, is subject to the appropriate lien for the security of his 
claim for such materials and services. This particular protection, 
first given to the mechanic in 1871, was not limited by the fact that 
railroads constructed by corporations operating their trains by 
steam were then many in comparison with those constructed by 
other corporations, and that the protection of his labor in the con- 
struction of railroads of the latter kind was then of slight im- 
portance, any more than it is broadened by the fact that, when this 
mechanic's lien law was re-enacted in the revision of 1902, the 
conditions had changed and the protection of his labor in the con- 
struction of railroads used in the movement of trains by power 
other than steam had become of great and increasing importance. 



VALIDITY OF CITY ORDINANCE REQUIRING FENDERS. 



City of Elkhart vs. Murray (Ind.), 75 N. E. Rep. 593. Oct. 10, 1905. 
A city ordinance required the use of a particular fender described 
therein, or some other fender equally as good, to be approved by the 
common council or street committee. The supreme court of In- 
diana, assuming that cities of the class to which this one belonged 
had the implied power to require street cars running within the 
city limits to be equipped with fenders, holds that this ordinance 
was not a reasonable exercise of that power. It says that such 
power, if possessed by the city, must be exercised by ordinance. 
The ordinance must contain permanent legal provisions operating 
generally and impartially upon all within the territorial jurisdiction 
of such city, and no part thereof be left to the will or unregulated 
discretion of the common council or any officer. If an ordinance 
upon its face restricts the right of dominion which the owner 
might otherwise exercise without question, not according to any 
uniform rule, but so as to make the absolute enjoyment of his 
own depend upon the arbitrary will of the city authorities, it is in- 
valid, because it fails to furnish a uniform rule of action and leaves 
the right of property subject to the will of such authorities, who 
may exercise it so as to give exclusive profits or privileges to par- 
ticular persons. The ordinance in question, if valid, vested in the 
common council and street committee an arbitrary discretion, which 
they might exercise or not at their pleasure. They had the power 
to approve a fender for use by one street railroad company, and re- 
fuse approval of the same fender for use by another company, 
under the same circumstances and conditions. They also had the 
power to approve one or more fenders, and refuse approval of other 
fenders equally as good or better, whether made by the street rail- 
road company or some one else, thus arbitrarily discriminating in 
favor of some manufacturers and against others. It was the fact 
that said officers had the power to do this, and not that they would 
do so, that rendered said ordinance invalid. 



RIGHT OF ABUTTER ON PARK TO ENJOIN THE CON- 
STRUCTION OF A STREET RAILWAY THROUGH 
SAME. 



Bayard vs. Bancroft, (Del. Ch.), 62 Atl. Rep. 6. Nov. 6, 1905. 

It is well settled, the court of chancery of Delaware says, that 
a landowner abutting upon land dedicated in any way to the uses 
of a public park is entitled to invoke the intervention of a court of 
equity to prevent the diversion of the said land from the use to 
which it was dedicated ; but the sole ground upon which is based 
his standing in court, the claim which entitles him to ask for relief, 
is uniformly held to be that he will receive some special damage 
from the total or partial destruction of such public use that differs 
in kind from that received by the public at large, by any individual 
as citizen and taxpayer. It is not necessary, of course, that the 
damage should be great; but there must be some injury of the 



tangible, practical kind that courts recognize as damage. The court 
of chancery has never used the tremendous power of the injunction 
process to protect artistic sensibilities. 

It was in evidence in this case that the projected railway, after 
passing down a certain road, curved along the outside of the park, 
just within its boundary line, at a distance of 657 ft. from the 
front of the complainant's house, the abutting property, at its near- 
est point of approach. And during this part of its course, as al- 
leged in an affidavit, it was plainly in sight of the abutting property 
owned by the complainant, and the complainant could by standing 
upon his front doorstep plainly see a large portion of the said 
line of the railway which ran through the parcel of the park afore- 
said. The affidavit then alleged the unsightliness of its poles and 
appurtenances and the marring of a grassy knoll of great beauty 
through which it passed. But the court holds that, however unsight- 
ly and unpleasant all this might be to the complainant, it did not 
constitute such an injury as could he construed by the court to be 
the special damages which must be proved by him to entitle him to 
the relief which he sought. 



NOT REQUIRED TO GIVE TRANSFERS WHERE LINKS 
DO NOT INTERSECT. 



Ketcham vs. New York City Railway Co. (N. Y. Sup.), 95 X. V. 
Supp- 553- Oct. 27, 1905. 
This action was brought to recover a penalty under section 104 
of the New York railroad law for failure to give through trans- 
portation at a point where the company's line on one street ap- 
proached its line on an intersecting street, but where there was an 
intervening space of about 30 ft. between the nearest rails of the 
respective lines of railroad. In holding that the claim to the penalty, 
upon the facts presented, was not within the purview of the statute, 
the appellate term of the supreme court of New York says that, in 
its opinion, the reasonable meaning of this statute is such as to re- 
strict its operation to lines of railroads substantially intersecting, and 
to exclude a case where a passenger has been carried to the known 
terminus of one line. The words "continuous trip," as used in 
this statute, are not satisfied by the mere physical proximity of 
two lines of railroad, with the attendant ease with which a pas- 
senger might walk from one line to the other, where the rail- 
roads are physically distinct and are not operated as intersecting 
lines in one railroad system. If the plaintiff were entitled to a 
transfer at the point in question, it would be difficult to say that 
he was not equally so entitled at a point a block away, where, 
by reason of the divergence of the one street from the other, the 
distance between the lines was greater, but not too great, to be 
covered by a pedestrian with ease and dispatch ; and, upon the same 
line of reasoning, the right of a passenger to transfer from one of 
two parallel street railways upon different streets, which were one 
or two blocks apart, would also, necessarily, be upheld. This 
result does not seem to have been within the contemplation of the 
legislature. 



NOT REQUIRED TO PUT DOWN R ML TO 1'KEVENT PAS- 
SENGER BEING THROWN OUT AT CURVE— FAILURE 
TO EXERCISE HIGHEST CARE SLIGHT NEGLIGENCE 
—MEANING OF "GROSS NELGIGENCE." 



Dolphin vs. Worcester Consolidated Street Railway Co. (.Mass.). 
75 N. E. Rep. 635. Oct. 19, 1905. 
This action was to recover damages for a passenger being thrown 
out of an open electric car by its being driven around a curve 
at high rate of speed, while a wooden rail was up which ran 
along the outside of the stanchions supporting the roof of the car, 
and which was lowered to prevent passengers getting off or raised 
to allow them to do so. It was argued that the injury would not 
have happened if the railing had been down. That, the supreme 
judicial court of Massachusetts says, might be conceded. But that 
was not the question. 'The question was whether it was negligence 
on the part of the corporation to have failed to adopt a rule re- 
quiring the rail on that side of the car, which was on the outer 
side of the curve, to be put down, when one of its cars was going 
around curves like the one in question. The corporation had pro- 
vided by rule for a speed not exceeding three miles an hour on 



94 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



sharp curves. It was manifest that the rails in question were 
intended to prevent passengers from leaving a car on the inner 
side, where there were double tracks. In the court's opinion there 
was no such probability of a passenger's being thrown bodily out 
of his seat while the car was going around a curve as to require 
the corporation, in the exercise of the highest degree of care, to 
adopt a rule which should insure his being held in his seat by phy- 
sical force. 

The trial judge, the court holds, was right in refusing to give a 
ruling that when the duty of exercising the highest degree of care 
is incumbent upon the defendant, any failure upon the part of its 
servants to exercise that degree of care is gross negligence. A 
failure to exercise the highest degree of care, the court says, is slight 
negligence. 

The term "gross negligence," in a case where the degree of care 
due is the highest degree of care, means that there has been a gross 
failure to exercise that degree of care. 



its buildings and structures, or disarrange them and the adjacent 
ground, or deprive it of proper control and economical manage- 
ment of the lands occupied for a park and place of amusement, 
the amusement company had no right to object to the location of 
a right of way through any part of the leased lands. 



RIGHT OF LESSEE OF PARK TO ADMIT STREET RAIL- 
WAY—POWER OF LESSOR UNDER RESERVATION TO 
GRANT RIGHT OF WAY— REQUIREMENTS AS TO 
LOCATION— WHAT EMBRACED IN TERM "STREET 
RAILWAY"— MAY HAVE TERMINUS IN TOWN NEVER 
PLATTED. 



Montgomery Amusement Co. vs. Montgomery Traction Co. (U. 
S. C. C, Ala.), 139 Fed. Rep. 353- July 12, 1905. 
The lessees of certain property for park purposes and a pleasure 
resort, the United States circuit court, in Alabama holds, had the 
right, so long as they exercised it without permanent injury to the 
freehold, to solicit and permit the entrance into the park of any 
vehicle which brought customers into it. They had the same right 
to admit a street car as they had to admit carriages. They had the 
same right to permit the construction of a roadbed into the park for 
a street railway as they had to make driveways for automobiles 
and vehicles drawn by horse power. The lessors could not have 
defeated the exercise of this right if they had objected, provided 
the power was exercised in such a manner as not to permanently 
injure the freehold. And the assent of the lessors to an entry of 
a street railway into the park, not made at their instance, and which 
they could not prevent, could not work a forfeiture of the right 
reserved by them, in a provision in the lease stating: "Nothing 
in this lease shall be so construed as to prevent the parties of the 
first part from granting a right of way by deed or lease, through 
any part of the leased lands for street railway purposes. 

Furthermore, the court says that in Alabama, at least, the mean- 
ing of the phrase "street railway" gradually broadened until it 
included not only surface roads for passengers on streets and high- 
ways, but also what are known as "trolley lines," which reach out 
from cities to the adjoining country, and frequently run off the 
public road — a policy the public authorities now encourage — in 
order to reach points in the vicinity of cities and towns, though 
outside of their boundaries, and off the public highway, wherever 
passenger traffic encourages street railway service. And it holds 
that a street railway of this kind, which at the time this lease was 
entered into had one of its termini ending in a park it bought, 
outside of the city limits, and ended within about a mile of the 
leased premises, clearly, in view of the surrounding circumstances, 
was of the class of street railways, if not the very railway, which 
the parties contemplated might enter the park when the power was 
reserved to grant rights of way for "street railway purposes." 

Another thing, the place had been incorporated as a town, and 
the court says that whatever the anomaly of a town which has never 
been platted, and is wholly without streets, and whose entire ter- 
ritorial limits have, by the act of the proprietors of the soil, been 
surrendered to the possession of a private corporation engaged in 
a wholly private business, the fact remained in law, that the terri- 
tory was in a town, and it was therefore one of the places which 
under the law might be a terminus of a street railway, and the 
traction company had capacity to hold a right of way there. 

The power to locate the right of way under the reservation in 
the lease must take the channels of least injury to both parties at 
the same time it was sought to exercise the power. So long as the 
leased lands were not actually so used that a location for a street 
railway would require the amusement company (lessee) to remove 



GRANT OF FRANCHISE TO INDIVIDUALS VOID— NO 
ASSIGNMENT VALID— NEW CONSENTS NECESSARY 
FOR NEW ORDINANCE— STREET RAILWAY NOT AN 
ADDITIONAL SERVITUDE— ROAD AUTHORIZED TO 
CARRY MAIL, EXPRESS MATTER AND MILK A COM- 
MERCIAL RAILROAD AND ADDITIONAL SERVITUDE 
—COMMERCIAL RAILROAD DEFINED. 



Wilder vs. Aurora, De Kalb & Rockford Electric Traction Co. 
(111.), 75 N. E. Rep. 194. June 23, 1905. 

Where the right to lay down, maintain, and operate a railway 
on a certain street was granted by a city ordinance to four indi- 
viduals, and not to any incorporated company, the supreme court 
of Illinois holds that, under the state statutes, the grant was abso- 
lutely void. And as that ordinance was absolutely void because 
of the grant to individuals instead of a company, it holds that there 
could be no valid assignment of it. Moreover, the ordinance being 
invalid in attempting to confer rights on the four individuals, 
could not be valid because it authorized such individuals to assign 
the franchise or privileges conferred upon them. This, the court 
says, would amount to a delegation of power by the city council 
to the four individuals to license a railroad company to construct 
and operate a railroad in a street of the city. An ordinance at- 
tempting to so delegate power is void. Legislative power conferred 
upon municipalities cannot be delegated. 

Nor could the consent or petition signed by the property owners 
used as a basis for the action of the city council in passing that 
ordinance be used as the basis for a subsequent ordinance con- 
ferring upon a company the same rights as were conferred upon 
the four individuals. In order to invest the common council with 
power to pass the latter ordinance, there should have been a new 
petition by the requisite number of property owners. Another thing, 
the court is not sure that the property owners who petitioned for 
a grant to individuals for 40 years would have been satisfied with 
a grant (some two years later) to a corporation for 38 years. 

If the road to be constructed be regarded as merely a street 
railroad, the court says that it could not be regarded as an additional 
servitude, and the complainant was not entitled to an injunction 
against its construction, even though he was the owner of the 
abutting property and of the fee of the street in front thereof to 
the center of the same. On the other hand, if it was a commercial 
railroad, he was entitled to compensation before it could be built 
over that part of the street opposite his lot, which he owned in fee 
subject to the easement of the public. Now, the road to be con- 
structed was authorized to carry not only passengers and their 
ordinary baggage, and United States mail and express matter, but 
also milk. Again, the ordinance authorized the company to do such 
excavating and grading as it might deem necessary for the proper 
laying of its tracks, thereby failing to confine the laying of its 
tracks to the surface of the street. It also authorized the company 
to connect its tracks with the tracks of any railway company owning 
or operating tracks in the city for the purpose of forming a loop, 
and authorized the use of its tracks in connection with its inter- 
urban tracks, when laid. In the court's opinion the railroad to 
be constructed was what is called a "commercial railroad," and was 
not a street railroad within the definite and fixed meaning of the 
latter term. Being a commercial railroad, it constituted a new and 
additional servitude upon the fee of the property owner to the 
center of the street. Therefore, inasmuch as the complainant was 
the owner of a lot abutting on the street, was an owner of the fee 
of the street in front of his lot to the center thereof, and inasmuch 
as the defendant was about to construct a new and additional 
servitude in the street upon his property without having paid him 
any compensation or instituted any condemnation proceeding, he 
was entitled to an injunction. 

A railroad authorized to carry freight as well as passengers, the 
court says, becomes a commercial railroad, instead of a street rail- 
road. The fact that the road is limited to the carriage of one 
kind of freight does not make it any the less a commercial radroad. 



Piping and Power Station Systems. — XIV." 



BY WILLIAM L. MORRIS, M. E. 



The branch from which live steam is drawn to clean the ac- 
cumulation from storage oil tanks is seldom used and therefore 
should have a stop valve as close to the steam main as possible. 
Steam is used to raise the temperature of the tank cleaning water, 
so that the grease and precipitation can be removed from the sides 



i'Srs/rr; 





fig. in — (A13-1). 



FIG. 112 — (AI3-2). 



and bottom and easily washed out of the tank. The simple method 
of piping for the tank supply is shown in Fig. Ill— A(i3-i). The 
hose is connected to a valve next to the ejector tee which operates 
as a mixer. The cleaner is made of a length of pipe with a wire 
brush attached at the lower end and a nozzle from the pipe ad- 
justed to discharge the steam and water on the brush. This de- 



Steam is often fed to a filter so that more rapid work can be 
done by a filter which is of too small capacity. It is often found 
that oil is very stiff when cool and requires heating in order 
to enable it to pass through the filter. The oil when in this con- 
dition is "too fat," and has been made so by the addition of con- 
siderable cylinder oil returning with the drips. The correct remedy 
for such a condition is to remove the excess fats by allowing 
the oil to stand, when the impurities will precipitate. If the filter- 
ing arrangement is amply large, and the oil is in good condition, 
better results are obtained by keeping the oil as cool as it can be 
freely handled in the pipe lines. The better method is to place the 
filter in a warm place and not use a steam heater in the filter. 
The room where the filter is to be placed should have a temperature 
of 70° F., and the filter bed should be of ample dimensions for 
oil to pass through without forcing. A simple heater, as used for 
filters, is as shown in Fig. 113 — (A16-1). This view shows valves 
at both the inlet and the outlet, but it is somewhat safer to use 
a valve as a throttle at the inlet side only, leaving the other end free 
to drip into the sewer. The coil when placed is pitched slightly 
downward, having the outlet about 2° lower than the inlet. Such a 
coil can readily be removed and is well supported. 

A steam branch is led to the oil drip main for the purpose of 
cleaning it and can be arranged as shown in Fig. 114 — (A17-1). 
The steam line should connect with the drip main through a 
syphon tee with a water connection below. The steam and the 
water should each be controlled by separate valves with the 
syphon tee located somewhat higher than the drip main. The main 
should have two discharge valves, one to a filter and one to the out- 
side of the building. Each engine branch should connect with the 



*Srf/7/? 



D/P/PS F/?orr £s/(?/A/£S 




^=0= 



J\WlL 



lA//fT£/P 



-W 



/?/. TS/P- 



FIG. 114 — (AI7-1). 



vice offers a quick method for loosening and washing the gum and 
grease from the shells of oil tanks. The hose need not be wire- 
wrapped because it is not under very high pressure, possibly 15 
or 20 lb. The brush can be secured to the bent pipe as shown in 
Fig. 112 — (A13-2). The upper portion of the handle should be of 
pipe with its lower end forged solid. 

It is not customary to install a steam blow-off from a header to 
the atmosphere. For this reason it often is necessary to reduce 
the pressure on the header by blowing off through some engine. 
If the header is divided into three sections, each section should 
have a blow-off not less than i x /i in. in diameter run through the 
roof. Repairs to the steam main can be made much more readily 
if there is a means of quickly relieving the pressure on a damaged 
section. 

The steam line which feeds a damper regulator is ordinarily 
designed to transmit the pressure in the main to the weighing de- 
vice of the regulator. This line should be tapped from a drip 
pocket or the bottom of the header, so that condensed water will 
be delivered to the regulator pipe instead of steam. If the valve 
at the regulator were leaking badly at a stuffing box, the small 
pipe would then not be able to condense fast enough to supply 
water to the leak. This would allow live steam to come in contact 
with and injure the rubber diaphragm. Such damper regulator 
diaphragms are made to stand the boiler pressure, but they will not 
stand the temperature of steam at boiler pressure. 

♦Copyright, 1906, by the Kcuficld Publishing Co. 



drip main through a valve. The drip, steam and water branches 
should be sufficiently elastic to allow for free expansion and con- 
traction of the drip main. The end projecting beyond the building 
should be threaded so that the line can be extended when it is to 
be blown out. The drip line should be made of J4-in. pipe and 




fig. 113 — (ai6-i). 

should blow to the atmosphere so that the steam may escape and 
thus avoid blowing the grease and gum into the drainage 
Blowing the drip main to the atmosphere also furnishes a means 
for observing the condition of the wash water. 

WATER COLUMNS AND STEAM GAGES. 
The steam and water connections to water columns will be 
taken as one subject. It is essential that water column connection* 



96 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



for both steam and water be provided with means for easily clean- 
ing and inspecting. The steam connection to the column should 
be well drained, either to the boiler or to the column. If valves 
are used in the connections they should show, in an unmistakable 
way, whether they are open or shut. 

The steam connection to a water column is often made with 
bends and elbows thus providing no facilities for inspection. Even 
though the steam connection is not liable to scale or become 
blocked, it is certainly safer and more in line with good operating 



practice to he able to 




know positively that the steam branch is 
clear. The connection 
shown in Fig. IIS— 
(A18-1) has the steam and 
water connections made 
with cross and plugs. The 
plugs should be long 
threaded and made of solid 
brass. The column shown 
is faced for flanged con- 
nections and for attaching 
a supporting bracket. The 
column manufacturer will 




fig. 115 — (ai8-i). 



fig. 116 — (A18-2). 



furnish the water column faced for flanges and provided with a 
bracket suitable for attaching to the boiler front. For high pressure 
work a flanged connection is the only satisfactory way of attaching 
the water column. By supporting each column free from the pipe 
work a better line is kept, the piping is more secure and pipe can be 
disconnected without disturbing the columns or their connections. 

Such connection pipes as pass through the boiler settings should 
be protected by pipe sleeves two sizes larger than the connection 
pipes. Pipe 1% in- m diameter is generally used for connecting 
water columns, the duty being practically the same for any size 
boiler. If the connections are more than three feet in total length, 
the column should be separately supported, and if separately sup- 
ported the individual connections should not be much shorter than 
three feet. This will provide for the differences in expansion of 
the boiler frame, front and connections. In some localities the use 
of valves between a water column and its boiler is prohibited. 
Such practice should be prohibited in all cases unless valves are 
used which will give an unmistakable warning if they are closed. 

Fig. 116 — (A18-2) shows an ordinary, outside-packed plug cock, 
with stop screw and small port hole through the plug so arranged 
that steam will blow to the atmosphere during the time that the col- 
umn is shut off from the boiler. The amount of steam that this cock 
would blow through its port hole in case it were closed would 
be sufficient to give warning, and at the same time not interfere with 
changing a gage glass, gage cock or such part as might be out 
of order. A valve of this type will also show by the position 
of its hand lever whether it is open or shut. If a gate valve is 
used it should be of the rising-stem type, so that it will show from 
the outside whether or not it is open. The inside-screw gate 
type such as is commonly used for high pressure work should 
not be considered in planning for water column connections. The 
ordinary types of globe and angle valves are not suitable for water 
column work because of the difficulty of cleaning them. 

As shown in Fig. 117 — (A18-3), an extra heavy cross valve can 
be used and serve the purpose as well as any of the usual methods. 
The side plug and the centre of the valve may be removed when 
cleaning the pipe branches to the water column. Due to the fact 
that the stem in a cross valve has such a long travel, it is easily 



seen by the position of the hand wheel whether or not the valve 
is open. The valve bonnets should be square instead of hexagonal 
to facilitate removing them from the valve body. 

If the boiler fronts are quite high, the level of the water in 
the column may conveniently be indicated by a low down mercury 
gage, similar to that shown in Fig. 118 — (A18-4). 

In calculating the proportions for this extension device let the 
distance a-b be 13'A in., when there will be V2 lb. pressure at 
the lower end of the column. A column of mercury about one 
inch high would balance this pressure. If the distance, a, from 
the top of the water in the column to the upper outlet is one-half 
the height of the column, 6J4 m -> tne difference in pressure at 
the bottom of the two long pipes will be r 4 lb- and as the water 
stands at half the height of the column the mercury should also 
stand at the midpoint of the glass "c." The proportions are ar- 
ranged so that when the mercury has just left the glass, there 
will be a column at d, one inch high balancing the water column a-b. 
If c has 24 m - incline in its length, then ^4 in. lengthwise of tube 
d should have the same contents as the entire tube c. The water 
columns below b are balanced and their length does not vary the 
effect on the tubes c and d. This gage can be placed four or five 
feet above the floor line and will be in plain view of the operator, 
the mercury vibrating in the glass in the same manner as water 
would in a water glass. 

Another method of showing the water level conspicuously is by 
the use of a lamp in an enclosed metal casing placed as shown 
Fig. ng — (A 18-5), the casing having a slit in line with the glass. 
With this arrangement the water is well illuminated and the lamp 
is out of sight thus doing away with the blinding effect of a naked 
lamp alongside of the gage glass. The enclosing case ordinarily 
is made of heavy tin with the outside painted and the inside left 
bright to serve as a reflector. The top of the case should be left 
open for ventilation and cleaning. This device can be made by 
any tinsmith, the water gage being standard with a close nipple. 
A coupling is attached between the glass and the column to set the 
glass away from the column a sufficient distance to accommodate the 
lamp in its case. 

Much thought and study has been given toward developing a 
device that will close the valves of a water column when the 
gage glass breaks. The principal feature of nearly all these de- 
vices is a check that falls away from its seat when the valve is 
closed but is free to reach the seat when the valve is open. This de- 
tail is shown in Fig. 120 — (A18-6). 

The difficulty with this check for the gage is occasioned by the 
ball shutting off the gage glass after blow- 
ing out through the blow off lettered "a" 
in Fig. 119 — (A18-5). The trouble neces- 
sary in closing and opening such a valve 
and dropping the ball off the seat is a 
strong argument in deciding against their 
use. 



Jo&^J 




FIG. 11/ — (A18-3). 



FIG. Il8 — (.\l8-4). 



Another type of self-closing water gage is as shown in Fig. 121 — 
(A18-7). This shut-off device is not operated by the steam flow 
through the valves and the glass may therefore be blown out as 
violently and often as desired without danger of closing the valves 
to the boiler. As the water glass is practically the only means 
used for ascertaining the amount of water in the boiler an operator 
should be free to blow it out as often as necessary to satisfy 
himself that the level of the boiler water is shown correctly in 
the column. The gage valves shown in Fig. 121 are of similar con- 
struction to the one shown in Fig. 120, but with the ball omitted. 
The valves have either a very coarse or a multiple thread on the 
stems and have levers attached to the steins instead of hand wheels. 



Feb. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



97 



The levers are connected together and stand in their upper posi- 
tion when the valves are open. A small wire, a, is run around 
the glass and attached to the end of the lever as shown. This wire 
supports the weight, b, which will close the valves should the gage 
glass break. The spring, c, is to relieve the valves of any serious 
strains when the stem closes on its seat. The valves on this gage 
can be closed at any time by detaching the wire from the hooked 
lever. The small wire does not offer any obstruction to the view, 
but should be of sufficient size to denote the desired water level 
which is to be maintained. 

Water columns are often loaded with too many attachments such 
as automatic high and low alarm, boiler feed regulator, self gage- 
closing arrangement and operating chains, gage cocks with chains, 
column valves with chains, counter-weights, etc. Each of such 
devices has points of slight merit but there is a danger in using 
too many safety devices. To evade the use of too many attachments 
the column valves could be similar to that shown in Fig. 120, and be 
provided with a projecting pin at the end of the lever; water gages 
and gage cocks also could have similar pins arranged for operation 
as shown in Fig. 122 — (A18-8 and 9). The rod with which the 
valves would be operated should have a long handle similar to a 
window stick. If the water column to be tended is 16 ft. above 
the floor, the rod should be about 12 ft. long. With a long rod 
the operator can keep out of the way of steam and water, and the 
use of automatic devices and hanging chains is done away with. 

Much trouble is experienced in keeping gage cocks tight and 
many stations do not allow gage cocks to be operated except when 
there is no gage glass in the water column. It is good practice 
to use two water gages and no gage cocks, but if gage cocks are 
to be used they should be of such form that they can be made 
to close as tightly as any other valve and not depend on a small 
weight, spring or boiler pressure to keep them tight. No ordinary 
valve can be kept tight under such severe service. 

Fig. 122 shows a gage cock that is operated by a pole as earlier 
described. A pressure sufficient to flatten out the valve seat is 
possible with this device. It is the general practice in boiler 
rooms to have the chief fireman of each shift, as soon as he comes 
on, open the gage cocks and blow out the columns and glasses 
on all the boilers. He may blow out the glasses again during his 
shift, but not the columns nor the gage cocks. Therefore this 
small amount that gage cocks and water gage valves are used 
does not justify having chains constantly dangling from the col- 
umns. 

There are numerous makes of high and low water alarms on 
the market, the majority used being float operated. On high pres- 
sures, say above 140 lb., much difficulty is experienced with the 
collapsing of floats, and the screeching of whistles is also very 
objectionable. It is, however, good practice to give warnings with 
an alarm column. Such alarms can be given in high pressure plants 




fig. 122 — (ai8-8 and 9). 



fig. 120 — (ai8-6). 



by the apparatus shown in Fig. 123— ( A18-10). the essential 
parts of which include the high and low electric alarm column, 
using a light at each boiler, a bell alarm in the boiler room and a 
"buzzer" in the chief engineer's office. 

One alarm bell will serve for the entire plant, and by having a 
signal lamp at each column, the particular boiler or boilers having 
high or low water will readily be observed. The float, a, is made 
of aluminum and counter-balanced with the weight, b. The porce- 
lain insulator, c, has packing above and below where it is clamped 
to the column and also at the ends where the contactor, d, runs 
through the insulator. The pin in the counter-weight moves free 
of the contact segment, d, and so completes the circuit only at 
high and low waler. The only friction that this device must over- 



come is at the pins, c and f, which are loosely fitted and made 
of brass. There are no dripping or leaking parts to this column, 
all being sealed and tight. An open, low-potential circuit would 
be used with a ground return, the contactors in columns serving 
to ground the circuit. 

The column shown in Fig. 124 — (A18-11) is the simplest form 
of float column now on the market. This device has one lever 
which opens a whistle valve for high or low water by pressing 
either upward or downward on the end of the valve stem. The 
rod, a, slides loosely through the large eye in the end of the lever. 
There are but few moving parts and as long as the float "floats," 





fig. 119 — (A18-5). 



satisfactory operation and a loud noise can be expected from this 
device. 

The connection to steam gages should be made so that there 
will be a sufficient length of pipe to offer condensing surface which 
will maintain water close to the gage and thus care for any ordinary 
leak at a cock, union or otiier joint near the gage. For this reason 
gages are often placed 12 ft. or more below the level of the steam 
line. This arrangement is proper but gages so placed should be 
designed to take into account the 12 ft. of water in the pipe, which 
would ordinarily add 5 lb. to the steam pressure. In other words, 
the pointer should either be set back 5 lb. or the dial should be 
graduated and marked while there is 5 lb. more pressure on the 
gage than readings would show. 

In ordering gages, if a variation in readings is to be avoided, the 
condensation column should be given for each gage. In ordinary 
station construction this water pressure variation is often as high 
as 10 lb. and leads to confusion and misunderstanding of what the 
plant is doing. Apparently there may be a large line loss between 
header and throttle valve as shown by an indicator test, while 
in reality the difference in pressure is almost entirely traceable 
to the condensation column. The steam gage should give steam 
pressure only, not part steam and part water column. This error 
in gages is often overlooked, with the result that several pres- 
sures are indicated in a plant and the gages are often supposed to 
be wrong. 

The ordinary type of cock furnished with the gage is often 
leaky and a cause of much annoyance. 

The small needle valve shown in Fig. 125 — (A19-1) has a 
union on the gage side. This permits the removal of the gage 
with. nit disturbing the valve. The stuffing box with this type of 
needle valve can be made tight and kept so, which is difficult to do 
with the small plug cocks often used, and the needle valve may 
be had for a small additional cost. 

Single-tube gages should be selected for power plant use as in 
such service a gage is quite free from excessive vibration. For lo- 
comotives where the vibration is severe a single-tube gage with 
its higher degree of sensitiveness is not available because of the 
injurious results of the vibration of a long single tube. 

For such plants as are built purely on a commercial basis and 



98 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



where expenditures are not to be made for decorative features, the 
iron back gages with a nickel-plated brass rim are found quite satis- 
factory. Marble gage boards are now out of date, originally hav- 
ing been furnished for engine installations in mills and factories 
where the one engineer would spend his spare moments polishing 
the brass and bright work. In large modern station work there 
are no "spare moments" and what was once polished is now merely 
wiped. Much of the work that was formerly polished is now 
left rough and painted. The tendency now is to get away from 
such decorative features. Light colored marble will show both 
rust marks and oil, and to keep such a gage board clean requires 
time and attention. For all practical and artistic purposes the 
painted plate iron gage board has many advantages. The gages 
may be easily attached to an iron board, heat and water will not 
damage it, and if it should accidentally be damaged the iron gage 
board can be straightened and put back in order. If its surface be- 
comes badly marked, an iron board can be repainted by station help. 
There is but little chance to improve the appearance of an old 
or damaged marble board. 

Such a steel board is shown in Fig. 126 — (A19-2). There 
should be a slit in the floor back of the board through which the 
pipes could pass and back of some or all the gages should be a 6-in. 
hole in the plate to facilitate making the piping connections. The 
tools can be supported by clips attached to the plate by small ma- 
chine screws. The board should have about 6 in. of space be- 
hind it and should be made of about 3-16-in. plate with corner an- 
gles of 2X2-in. angle iron. The shelf should be about 3 ft. high and 
10 in. wide, with the angle iron projecting above the shelf. In the 
shelf should be a 2-in. hole through which dirt could be brushed. 
Round head rivets with the heads perfect on the outside should 
be used. The board could be painted and varnished in harmony 
with the nearby engines. It would also be a good plan to make 
the top removable for inspection or repairs and to enable a light 
being dropped inside. 

The gage board can be illuminated in three different ways : By 
•'lluminated dial gages, by lamp brackets attached to the gage board, 




fig. 125 — (aicj-i). 



fic. 124 — (aiS-ii). 



or by a small head-light set back from the board and directed toward 
the gages. The illuminated dial gage brings into the design many 
details such as light wires behind the board ; a lamp, switch, etc., 
for each gage; and a much more delicate and expensive type of 
gage. It is difficult to place lamp brackets so as to properly il- 



luminate the board and not obstruct the view of the gages. The use 
of a single small headlight is by far the simplest arrangement to con- 
struct, operate and maintain, and the illumination will be found to 
be better than can be secured with side lights and quite as good 
as with the illuminated dial gages. If the gage board is placed 
between the high and low pressure cylinders of one of the en- 




FIG. 126 — (.\19-2). 



FIG. 127— (AI9-3). 



gines, then the small headlight can be mounted on a generator, suf- 
ficiently high so that its light will not cast the shadow of the op- 
erator on the board in front of him. The boiler steam gages should 
be placed as low as possible and care should be taken that they 
are graduated for the known column of condensation. 

In Fig. 127 — (A19-3) is shown a steel gage board placed above 
the floor with a cover channel over the pipes and wire conduit 
leading to it. The anchors for holding the board to the wall should 
be of Yz-'m. wrought iron with polished or nickel-plated nuts. The 
rims of the gages and possibly the name plate and valves would 
look well if nickel plated. The lamp brackets and rosettes should 
also be plated. The board, channel and cases of the gages should 
be painted and varnished the same as nearby machinery. The ex- 
posed rivet heads should be carefully preserved while heading the 
rivets at the back of the gage board. Such a gage board as this 
can be made at small cost and will be found very serviceable and 
attractive, in fact even more attractive than the nearby stairways, 
trusses, building columns and structural work. When erecting the 
station the structural steel contractor could be asked to furnish 
the board and channel, and the steam fitter could erect the board 
and connect the piping. The painting should be done by the same 
contractor who paints the machinery. 



Waverly Park. 



LANSING S: SUBURBAN TRACTION CO. 



The Lansing & Suburban Traction Co. operates Waverly Park, 
which is situated on the shore of the Grand River, about two and 
a half miles from the city of Lansing, Mich. The park comprises 
about 25 acres, which have been improved and artistically laid out. 

The usual amusement features are included and there are also 
a large hotel, a dance hall and an open-air theater with a seating 
capacity of about 1,200. About 50 steel row-boats have been placed 
on the Grand River and 25 donkeys have been purchased for the 
benefit of the children. Vaudeville is presented in the theater 
entirely and has been found to be the most popular form of amuse- 
ment. A good band stand has been built and band concerts are 
given every Sunday afternoon. 

The company also operates a park of about two acres at Pine 
Lake, which is located about eight miles from Lansing. This park 
has a casino 60 x 100 ft. in size with large, roomy verandas, a cafe 
and other features. The company has at this park about 50 new 
steel row-boats and an electric launch. 



The Illinois Traction System. 

Being a Description of the Recent Improvements and Extensions. 



A little more than a year ago there were presented in this maga- 
zine two articles descriptive of the McKinley Syndicate properties of 
central Illinois. There were described at that time the street railway 
systems in the several cities and the interurban lines connecting them, 
all controlled by the "McKinley Syndicate." When the descriptions 
were presented the interurban lines included the system serving 
Champaign, Urbana, Danville and Georgetown and the line then 
just completed from Decatur through Springfield to Carlinville, 40 
miles south of Springfield toward St. Louis. The large power- 
house at Riverton, near Springfield, was illustrated and described in 
detail as were its sub-stations and distribution circuits. 

During the past year the McKinley syndicate has acquired severa' 
city systems in central Illinois and has extended its interurban 
mileage from Carlinville 60 miles to Granite City on the Mississippi 
River opposite St. Louis, also a 24-mile spur from Staunton to 
Hillsboro. An interurban line has been built north from Decatur 
to Bloomington. The uncompleted roadbed of the Springfield & 
Northeastern Ry. has been purchased and early in the year cars 



ington & Champaign Traction Co., Springfield & Northeastern Ry., 
Central Railway Co., Peoria; and the Peoria, Bloomington & Normal 
Railway & Electric Co. The latter three companies are recent pur- 
chases, having been acquired during the past month. 

Recently Built Lines. 

That portion of the Chicago, Bloomington & Decatur Ry., 
between Bloomington and Decatur, is now about completed, and cars 
were recently put in service on regular schedule from Decatur north 
to Clinton, a distance of 20 miles. The entire division is 42 miles 
long. It has a single-track roadbed built on a 60 to 100 ft. wide 
private right of way, with franchises for operating through the streets 
of the towns served. The roadbed conforms to the same standards 
as are used on the St. Louis division, being laid with 70-lb. steel and 
ballasted with gravel. Span-supported overhead work is used 
throughout the entire line. 

During the construction of this division the Illinois Central R. R., 
whose right of way is paralleled by the electric line, put into opera- 




TEAIN OF SEMI-CONVERTIBLE CARS FOR THE ILLINOIS TRACTION SYSTEM. 



will be operating over this line from Springfield to Bloomington. 
The lines now operating include no miles of city track and 236 miles 
of interurban track extending from Danville near the Indiana state 
line to East St. Louis and Granite City on the Mississippi River, 
with the exception of the distance between Champaign and Decatur, 
where rights of way are being purchased for the connecting link. 
It is the purpose of this article to describe in detail the extensions 
and improvements that have been made during the past year and 
also to outline the operating methods used in handling the passenger 
and freight traffic of this extensive system. 

The accompanying map has indicated upon it the operative and 
proposed interurban roads controlled by the McKinley syndicate, 
which also owns and operates a large number of gas, street railway 
and electric lighting properties in the cities near and on its interurban 
lines. The companies controlled by the McKinley Syndicate are as 
follows : Danville Street Railway & Light Co., Danville, Urbana & 
Champaign Railway Co., Urbana & Champaign Railway. Gas & Elec- 
tric Co., Decatur Railway & Light Co., Illinois Central Traction Co.. 
St. Louis & Springfield Railway Co., Urbana Light, Heat & Power 
Co., Jacksonville Railway Co., Consumers' Light & Heat Co., Jack- 
sonville Gas Light & Coke Co., St. Louis & Northeastern Railway 
Co., Chicago, Bloomington & Decatur Railway Co., Peoria, Bloom- 



tion a schedule of interurban steam trains, making stops at all high- 
ways as is customary on most electric roads. It is interesting to note 
that as soon as the electric cars began running, the traffic shifted from 
the steam to the electrically-operated road, and within a short time 
the unprofitable steam interurban service was abandoned. The elec- 
tric cars now operate from Decatur to Clinton on a headway of 
two hours. It is expected in April to double the schedule and run 
the cars over the entire division from Bloomington to Decatur. 

With the opening of the Hue from Decatur north, an increased 
supply of direct current for the operation of the cars to Clinton be- 
Ccinie necessary. When the three lines now being built from Bloom- 
ington to Peoria, Springfield and to Decatur are completed, they 
will be operated by the single-phase alternating-current system, and 
as the opening of the portion of the Bloomington-Decatur branch 
was so far in advance of the construction work on the other two lines 
it was thought best to install a portable sub-station which could 
furnish the necessary direct-current for the use of the present 
standard type of cars until the single-phase equipment is received. 

The portable sub-station, two interior views of which are shown, 
was recently equipped and is now in operation furnishing direct 
current at 600 volts pressure from temporary taps to the 33,000-volt 
transmission line. The apparatus consists of the company's stand- 



100 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



ard sub-station electrical equipment including a 300-kvv. rotary con- 
verter, three air-blast transformers and a marble panel board installed 
in an ordinary box car. 

From Springfield to Granite City the right of way for the major 
portion of the distance is parallel with competing steam railroads. 



chases for the final route will be made at an early date, and con- 
struction work begun. The completion of this line will then make 
possible a service of limited cars from Danville to St. Louis, a dis- 
tance of 220 miles. 

There has recently been completed the Ridge Farm extension 




L 
1 i I Sv 



ILLINOIS TRACTION SYSTEM MONOGRAM. 

Throughout this line, which is 90 miles long, a high standard of 
roadbed construction has been maintained. The track is laid with 
70-lb. rails in 33-ft. lengths. Forty miles of the track is supplied 
with Weber and 50 miles with Continuous joints. From Granite 
City north to Edwardsville the track is ballasted with chats. 

Extensions in Progress. 

The right of way has been purchased for the 40-mile line between 
Bloomington and Peoria. Plans are being completed so that the 
grading work may be started in the spring. A large bridge will be 
built across the Illinois River at Peoria, thus connecting the inter- 
urban proper with the recently acquired street railway system, the 
Central Railway Co., in Peoria. This division will be equipped for 
single-phase operation by a 3,300-volt trolley. 

Since the first of the year the uncompleted property of the Spring- 
field & Northeastern Ry. has been purchased. On this line, 
which will connect Bloomington with Springfield, the grading is 
about half done, and the bridges either placed or on the ground. 
The right of way from Springfield to Bloomington parallels the line 
of the Chicago & Alton Ry. for nearly the entire distance. It is 
expected that this link of the interurban system will be com- 





INTERIOR OF PORTABLE SUE-STATION, ROTARY END. 

pleted early in the coming summer. It will also be equipped for 
single-phase operation. 

An engineering corps is now at work locating a route for the 42- 
mile line between Decatur and Champaign. The right of way pur- 



MAP OF ILLINOIS TRACTION SYSTEM, SHOtt 1 \ 1 I.MING AND PROPOSED 

LINES. 

of the Danville-Georgetown line, which serves the mining communi- 
ties south of Danville for a distance of 18 miles. 

During the past year the holdings of the Jacksonville Railway 
Co., with its electric lighting and gas properties were purchased, and 
plans have been made for a 33-mile interurban line connecting Jack- 
sonville with Springfield. 

Equipment. ■ 

During the past year several substantial orders have been placed, 
and new equipment for both interurban and city lines has been re- 




INTERIOR OF PORTABLE SUB-STATION, TRANSFORMER END. 

ceived of which two types — the following described cars — are 
typical. 

A number of the semi-convertible cars similar to the one shown 
in the illustration on the following page, have lately been fur- 



Feb. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



101 



furnished the Jacksonville Railway Co. by the American Car Co. 
The railway company operates 20 cars in the city of Jacksonville, 
and is a part of the Illinois Traction System. 

The new cars measure 28 ft. over the end panels and 8 ft. 3 l A in. 
over the posts at belt. Forty passengers may be comfortably seated, 
the seats being of spring cane. All the seats are transversely placed 




SEMI-CONVERTIBLE CAR FOR JACKSONVILLE, ILL. 

except four longitudinal seats at the corners. The seats are 36 in. 
long and the aisles are 23 in. wide. The advantages of the semi- 
convertible window arrangement in permitting as little or as much 
air as desired by raising the windows at different heights is too 
well known to warrant a full description. The low window sills, 
the height being 245,^ in. from floor to top of sill, are considered to 
be a decided advantage in a car of this type. As the sills are too 
low to be reached comfortably by an adult person, neat arm rests 
are attached. The lower sash measures 26 l A in. over the frame 
and the upper 1714 in., and both together weigh 17 lb. As there are 
ten windows on a side, there is a 170-lb. weight of sashes when 
raised in each side roof, three quarters of which, bears vertically on 
the tops of the posts. This excess of -weight, though small, is amply 
compensated for in the extra strong construction, including a 
heavier letter board than usual. The interiors of the cars are fin- 
ished in cherry with ceilings of birch. The 
trucks are of the Brill No. 27-G type and have 
a 4-ft. wheel base and 33-in. wheels. 

The length over the crown pieces is 37 ft. 
S in., and from panel over crown piece, 4 ft. 
&'/i in. The width over sills, including pan- 
els, is 8 ft. I in., and over posts at belt, 8 ft. 
3 r A in., while the sweep of the posts is 1^4 in. 
and centers of posts are 2 ft. 8 in. The side 
sills are 4x7^ in. and the end sills are 
4->4 x 654 in. The sill plates are 12 x Y% in. 
and the thickness of corner posts, 354 in-, and 
of side posts, z l A in. The height of steps is 
14 in., and of risers, 1734 in. 

The train of six cars shown was recently 
received from the shops of the American Car 
Co.. St. Louis, for use on the lines of the 
Illinois Traction System. These cars are of 
the semi-convertible, grooveless-post type, 
and ,-.re considered to be among the finest 
productions of this form of car. The interior 
illustration on the following page shows that 
the cars have a smoking compartment with 
seats for 16 passengers, and a passenger com- 
partment with seats for 40. The cars are fin- 
ished in golden oak, neatly inlaid, and the 
ceilings are tinted light green. At the plat- 
form end of the passenger compartment is a toilet room of stand- 
ard steam car character with a hot water "heater in the opposite 
corner. 

The improved method of raising the sashes into the roof pockets 
does away with the grooves, or runways, in the posts and the trun- 
nions on the sashes, which were formerly employed. The sash 
stiles are made of brass and there is a brass tongue-and-groove 
sliding connection between the two sashes so that the lower rides 
upon the upper; when the tops of both sashes are abreast, catches, 
which hold the upper sash in its lowered position, are automatically 



released and both sashes are conducted into the roof pockets by 
means of a pair of bow-shaped steel guides, which extend from the 
top plate to the lower ventilator rail, within the pocket. This is an 
exceedingly simple means of guiding the sashes into the pockets 
and a decided improvement over the former method, particularly as 
it does not require cutting grooves into the posts and reduces the 
width and depth of the roof pockets. The system as 
applied to interurban cars such as these adapts them to 
summer service by providing a means of clearing the 
window openings of the sashes and admitting as much 
air as is desired. Several window lock stops are pro- 
vided so that the sashes may be held at any height 
permitted by the speed of the car or the temperature. 

The window openings are 3 ft. 6*/i in. high and the 
top of the window sills 24.^ in. from the floor. Not 
having window pockets, the side lining is set in be- 
tween the posts and the thickness of the side is but 
2 in. ; the ends of the seats are brought between the 
posts and against the side lining, which saves several 
inches to the aisle. To be specific, the outside width 
of the cars is 8 ft. 6 in. and the interior width 8 ft. 
2 in., leaving the aisle 25 in. wide with i6 l A-in. seats. 
The seats are upholstered in spring cane and have step- 
over backs. 
The general dimensions of the cars are as follows : Length over 
the end panels 3g ft. 8 in., and over crown pieces 49 ft. 8 in. ; from 
panel over crown, 5 ft.; centers of posts, 2 ft. 8 in.; the side sills 
are 4% x 7 Z A in. and the end sills are 4 x 634 in.; sill plates, 12 
x Y% in.; thickness of corner post, 3.54 in., and of side post. .Vi 
in. The cars are mounted on the American Car Co's. "M. C. B." 
trucks, type of truck No. 15, with wheel base of 6 ft. 2 in. and 33 in. 
diameter of wheels. 

The rolling stock for the interurban lines includes the following 
equipment : Fifteen cars with 30 to 45-ft. bodies and four G E -57 
motors, 3 cars with 30-ft. bodies and four G E -1000 motors, 4 cars 
with 40-ft. bodies and four G E -74 motors, 15 cars with 50-ft. bodies 
and four G E -73 motors, 3 cars with 60-ft. bodies and four G E -73 
motors. 

There has been adopted as a conventional sign for use on all 




FORTY-TON FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVE. 

cars the neat monogram shown in the accompanying illustration. As 
it appears on the side of a car in brightly-colored paints the design 
is especially pleasing. A button bearing this monogram is worn by 
many employes. 

Freight Equipment. 

The extensive freight and express traffic which is carried on over 

the entire system is handled by the following equipment: 2 locomo- 

miilar to the one illustrated; 2 motor cars for hauling various 

freight and work trains; [2 express-baggage cars equipped with four 

65-h. p. motors, and air brakes; 60 gondola cars for handling coal; 



102 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



12 center-dump freight cars ; 4 Rodgers ballast cars ; 12 side-dump 
coal cars, and 16 standard steam-road box cars of 60,000-lb. capacity 
for grain and bay traffic. There arc also being built at Danville and 
St. Louis four more express cars which will be equipped with four 
motors each, type M control and air brakes. 

The 40-ton locomotives were built in the Danville shops of the 
Illinois Traction System, and are used for handling the car-load 
traffic of coal, hay, grain and produce. One of these locomotives 
is kept on the eastern end of the line and one on the division between 
Decatur and Springfield. The motor equipment of each locomotive 



Springfield to Staunton 60 miles; 60-minute headway, with limited 
cars making the run in 145 minutes, and local cars 180 minutes. Six 
combination cars are used for this service. 

Staunton to Litchfield, 16 miles to which will be added an eight- 
mile extension to Hillsboro ; 60-minutes headway, running time 50 
minutes, requiring two combination cars. 

Staunton to Granite City, the very recently completed extension 
of 30 miles, 120-minutes headway ; schedule time 105 minutes, requir- 
ing three combination cars. 

As the character of the track from Litchfield to Granite City, a 



IJLLINOIS TRACTION SYSTEM. 



Notice to Agents: 

Daily Report of Express Forwarded from ... ....* 190 

This report must be made daily and forwarded to the General Office, the following morning on first car. 



Date | 


W. B. 

No. Consignee. 


Destination. 


Weight 


1 

Local 
Charges 
to collect 


Advances 


Prepaid 


Blank 


"1 


I 




















1 
1 


1 




















"V.J 


■ SL - "s, .. . x - ■ 


k_ ■""V- - V . 


■ s **^ ,• 










■ •■ ■ 


■ " - 





DAILY REPORT USED BY DISTRICT TRAFFIC AGENTS. (ORIGINAL J l / 2 X 7 IN.) 



consists of four G. E. No. 73, 75-h. p. capacity motors geared to 
about 25 m. p. h. An additional locomotive, weighing 50 tons, 
is now contemplated in order to handle the rapidly increasing freight 
traffic. 

Train Service. 

The passenger traffic may best be described by outlining the 
service offered on each of the different interurban divisions : 

Danville to Georgetown, 12 miles, 30-minute headway; George- 
town to Ridge Farm, six miles, 60-minute headway; Danville to 
Catlin, six miles, 60-minute headway. On these three operating divi- 
sions the schedules stated are maintained with five 48-ft. straight 
passenger cars. 

Danville to Champaign, including a stub to Homer, making a total 
of 39J4 miles; 60-minute headway with every other train limited, 
local time 105 minutes, limited time 75 minutes. These schedules 
are maintained with five combination cars. 




INTERIOR OF ILLINOIS TRACTION SYSTEM CAR. 

Decatur to Clinton 20 miles, with cars every two hours. This 
schedule will be doubled in April, but is now maintained with 
two combination cars which make the run in 75 minutes. 

Decatur to Springfield including a stub to Mechanicsburg, making 
a total of 43 miles, 60-minute headway with two limited trains 
each way per day; local time, 115 minutes; limited time, 85 minutes. 
This schedule is maintained with five combination cars. 



distance of 55 miles, will permit of high speeds, it is proposed to in- 
crease the schedule at an early date and operate limited cars from 
Litchfield to the Mississippi River in go minutes running time and 
local cars in 120 minutes running time. Early in the summer there 
will be inaugurated a through limited service between Decatur and 
Granite City, a distance of 130 miles. Three 60-ft. three-compart- 
ment cars are being built for this limited run, which it is expected 
can be made in 3 hr. 30 min. Three limited trains will be operated 
each way per day. When the Decatur-Bloomington line is com- 
pleted limited service will also be offered from Bloomington to St. 
Louis, over the connecting lines having a total length of 175 miles. 

Ticket Forms. 

The tariff sheets for the passenger traffic of all lines are offered to 

the public in the form of a printed folder. It is the policy to charge at 

the rate of two cents per mile for one-way tickets, and at the rate of 

one and one-half cents per mile for round-trip tickets. Ticket offices 



Illinois Central Traclion Co. 


RETJBH TfilPllCKFT -G0IUG. 


FORM 
R.T.I 


226003 


FROM ] TO 


DATE SOLD. 


SPRING;F<ELD 


Jan. 


1 


11 


sums 




2 




mips 


M«r. 


3 




rive eroN 




( 




eta 








DAW SON 


Julj 


1 




BHF 


mi 


Adj. 


7 




IW 


llllr 


Sept. 


B 




a 


ffifWI 


Oct. 


S 


:: 


hud 


IMS 




19 


LOIS 


>0IN! 




11 




Kill 


III! 


1906 


13 




[II 


SON 
STOWH 


1906 
1907 


i: 
U 


H 

N 


mc'iiES 


1909 


1C 


f.lHjtPW 


1910 


tl 


.1 


Kipa 


HALF FARE. 


Good tor Contlnuo'H Paitfc* 


on Biio 0! Sals 


ViKfrrWXiU^ 



Illinois Csnlral Traction Co. 


RCTUHH TRIP TlCKd-BFJURHINC. 


FORM 
R. T. 


226003 


DATE SOLO. 


mumi 


17 

u 


1 

8 


Fob. 

Mar. 


nrrr 


m 


li 




Apr. 






:: 




H*7 






D 


B 


Juno 






:: 




Jolj 






H 
H 


1 
9 


An*. 
Sept. 
OcL 


■m- 








Not. 






N 


11 


Deo. 




" 


18 


1905 


■■ ii ntJ'jiH 






1906 




a 


li 


1907 
1908 








1909 






IS 


1910 


KELMLli 


HALF FARE, 


Good (or Continuous 


Passsage. 


Tr Pmiiont O 



^ * Illinois jC ^5 ^AcriON ^ 

<^ * ^w^Gjfc^ rOR ONE pAssAGe 

SUBJCCJ TO C0H0IWMSOF COKTRMCT 
WHICH I HAVE HEAD A/ID ACCEPT. 
VOID IF DETACHED. 



Trip N2 39 



From_» 




STANDARD ROUND TKIP TICKET. SOLD AT EMPLOYES TICKET, SHOWING 
TERMINALS AND BY CONDUCTORS. BOTH SIDES. 

are maintained only at the terminals. Conductors are provided with 
round-trip tickets which are sold on the cars, thus giving the patrons 
between the terminals an opportunity for riding at a ij^-cent rate, 
but no round-trip ticket is sold for less than 25 cents. The standard 
form of round-trip tickets is illustrated. Commutation books limited 
to 31 days are sold on a basis of one cent per mile, the standard 
book containing 52 rides. There is also a special book for school 



Feb. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



103 



children containing 44 rides and a book representing $10 worth of 
transportation sold with a time limit for single individuals or 
families, or a stated number of members of a firm, the proper names 
appearing on the cover of the book. This book is sold for $7.50 
net, and when bought by one person is good for a year. If pur- 
chased for a family or business firm it must be used by the several 
people in whose favor it is drawn within six month's time. The 
long strip in this book similar to a steam railroad mileage has indi- 
cated upon it lines representing cents in contrast with the customary 
method of representing miles. As the $10 worth of transportation 
is bought for $7.50, it is seen that in this way the holder of the 
book may ride between any two points on the line at the rate of 
1 Yi cents per mile. 

It is the policy to give the conductor something to ring up and 
turn into the office for every passenger carried. To maintain this 
policy for employes also, single-ride tickets similar to that illustrated 
are given on which the user indicates the stations between which 
he rides and signs his name. 



tically the same as maintained by the competing express companies 
on steam railroads. The electric railroad companies, howe. 
not maintain horses and wagons at any points for delivery, but pro- 
vide warehouses at terminals and small express rooms at all stations 
for the receipt and delivery of shipments. 

Regular agents and assistants are maintained at important termi- 
nals. The agents at the smaller stations are usually interested in 
other business and paid a commission of 5 per cent on both out- 
bound and inbound business. The management consists of a genera! 
traffic manager in charge of all the passenger and express traffic 
on all the interurban lines of the system. Directly under him are 
district traffic agents in immediate charge of the details of a par- 
ticular district, consisting of one or more divisions of the system, 
and varying from 40 to 100 miles of road. 

The district traffic agents have charge of the auditing of the ex- 
press business of their divisions and remit semi-monthly to the audi- 
tors of the separate corporations to which their lines belong. 

The express traffic is handled with a system of triplicate waybills, 



ILLINOIS TRACTION SYSTEM 

EXPRESS DEPARTMENT. 
STATION AGENT'S WEEKLY STATEMENT. 

Statement for Week Ending at 



Station. 



DAILY COLLECTIONS 




UNCOLLECTED LIST. 


„,_- PREPAID 

DATE | FORWARDED 


RECEIVED 
COLLECT. 


ADVANCES 


DATE. 


WAYBILL NO. 


FROM WHOM DUE. 


AMOUNT. 


















I 

















I 


J- 




BULANCE SHEET. 



Uncollected from last Statement 
Total Prepaid Perwarded for week . 
" Received Collect for Week 

" Advances 



Miscellaneous Collections. 
Total 



eash Remitted 

Advanced to Connections. . . 
Uncollected Per Above List 
Miscellaneous Credits 



I HEREBY CERTIFY THAT THE ABOVE IS CORRECT. 



(Signed) 



Agent. 



INSTRUCTIONS.— When you have freight on band settlement .lay show the same as uncollected, takine credit for the same. BDd charge yourself on next 
final settlement sheet with amount for which you took credit on this. When you are notified by the General Office that a correction bas been made on your report for 
any day your copy of daily report mual be corrected a! once, and totals as corrected, shown on above statement. 

This statement must be made Immediately after close of business ou the 7th. Htb. 21st and last day of the month, and forwarded to General Office with daily report 
and remittance at once. 

WEEKLY STATEMENT OF STATION AGENT. (ORIGINAL 8J/2 X 10^ IN. IN SIZE.) 



No baggage is carried free, but is checked at stated rates for each 
<li\isiuii on which it is handled. 

Express and Freight Traffic. 

In the usual schedule of operation express cars leave the larger 
cities at II o'clock each morning, enabling the wholesale dealer 
to receive his morning mail, fill orders and deliver the shipments to 
the express terminals before the leaving time of the train, thus mak- 
ing the delivery of goods upon the same day that the order is 
received. The cars make a single round trip over their divisions, 
varying from 35 to 60 miles in length once each day. 

The rates on express matter are based upon the Illinois Railroad & 
Warehouse Commission classification and mileage tariff, as is the 
general practice on all steam railroads in Illinois. The electric road 
endeavors to give its patrons steam railroad express service at 
standard freight rates. 

The rates for handling express matter on passenger cars are prac- 



the original sheet of one of which is illustrated. These bills are 
numbered consecutively and bound in blocks of convenient si»e. 
The blocks are given to the shippers in sufficient numbers to handle 
the business which they give the road. In this way the shipper 
makes out his own bill before bringing the goods to the warehouse 
which arrangement has several commendable features ; no time is 
lost in making out waybills when a shipment arrives at the ware- 
house as it is only necessary for the agent to insert the proper rate 
and return the shipper his copy; the distribution of waybills for the 
use of the shippers advertises the traffic and relieves the railroad of 
maintaining one clerk at each important receiving station. 

Each agent forwards to the district traffic agent a daily report of 
express shipments received and forwarded. This report has the 
form shown and is made with a carbon copy. Remittances are made 
from the agents to the district traffic agents on the 7th, 14th, 21st, 
and last day of each month. The items of these remittances are in- 
dicated on the weekly statement sheet as reproduced herewith, and 



104 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



the accounts of the agents are balanced thus eacli week. The dis- 
trict traffic agents send in reports of the business of the day to the 
general traffic manager, the auditor and general manager, also keep- 
ing carbon copies for the station offices. Each of these reports is 
made with four carbon copies. 

Carload Traffic. 

The 60 gondola cars of the system are used for coal traffic in the 
winter, being hauled by the locomotives earlier described. 
The 60,000-lb. capacity box cars have M. C. B. draw bars and are 



ules reporting at certain points. The operation of all cars- and 
trains is in the hands of three dispatchers, located at Danville, De- 
catur and Staunton. If trains are off schedule, running orders are 
given to the crews by telephone and are copied in duplicate in small 
books of special order blanks made in a convenient size for the 
pocket. 

By reason of the various classes of service operated, an auto- 
matic block signal system which would block out a limited train if 
a local or a freight train were on the line seemed undesirable. But 
to increase the certainty of operation and permit of flexibility when 



' £Of? S77? r/0n 



C/?3aors c&£osot£- Sr/tw. G#££/v. 



~Z S70l/i./)£O3fl7'J'£"S' %}'P£/tJV£0 £l//1&£f?+ 

IY0O£>. 



3/7 etc or S£#T 



l~G/?OV/VD ££V£L 




SIDE AND END ELEVATIONS AND SECTION OF STANDARD SHELTER SHED. 



of the usual steam railroad box car type, except that they have 
18-in. side bearings and the brakes are hung on the truck bolsters to 
permit the cars to operate around sharp curves. In the winter these 
box cars are used for handling hay, grain and farm produce. In the 
summer a large number of cars is required for shipments of sand and 
gravel from extensive pits owned by the railway company to the 
cities along the line. This material is used for building purposes 




irregularities in schedules occur, an equipment ot the controllable 
semaphores, known as Blake signals has been installed with 15 
signals controlled from each of the three dispatchers' offices. With 
this equipment a dispatcher is able to reach his train crews at 
fixed points along the line, other than those stations at which agents 
are maintained, and it is not essential that crews call up the dis- 
patcher at fixed meeting points, because by the dropping of a signal 
board the dispatcher can announce to the crews that a change in 
orders is necessary. 

Station Buildings. 
As the traffic from the various towns on the different divisions 




A DISPATCHERS OFFICE WITH SIGNAL OPERATING DESK. 



WAITING ROOM AT SOLDIERS HOME, DANVILLE. 



and for the construction of highways in the cities and country 
Quite an extensive through car-load-lot traffic has been built up 
and shipments of grain and coal are made over connecting lines of 
the steam railroad systems. Foreign cars are taken on the electric 
tracks by suitable connecting switches, are unloaded at points on thfe 
electric lines, reloaded and again shipped out. 

Dispatching System. 
The cars on all the interurban lines run according to fixed sched- 



increases, stations and shelter platforms are built at suitable loca- 
tions. These buildings in general conform to two designs, one of 
which is shown in the view at the station in Harristown. There are 
now five such stations between Springfield and Decatur, and 12 more 
will be built within the next few months on the new line between 
Springfield and Staunton. The buildings are 24x40 ft. in floor area 
and are set about 16 ft. from the track. Interior partitions divide the 
buildings into two rooms, one used for express and baggage and the 
other as a waiting room. Such way stations cost about $750. 



Fee. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



105 



At road crossings, where the traffic is not heavy enough to war- 
rant erecting a station building, shelter sheds of the design shown in 
the accompanying line drawing have been erected. The floor of these 
sheds is 12 ft. long by 8 ft. broad. 

The city system of Danville has at the terminus of one of its 
suburban lines a National Soldiers' Home, in which are quartered 
about 3,000 veterans. The tracks enter the grounds and make a loop 
about the waiting station which is illustrated herewith. This 



At Georgetown on the branch south from Danville the company 
has built a terminal station which is even more imposing than the 
one in Decatur. As illustrated, this building is of substantial con- 
struction with heavy walls of paving brick. The design is such that 
the interurban cars pass directly through the center of the building 
offering at all times a dry platform for loading and unloading. 
Above the archway through which these cars pass is a covered 
space which may be used for band concerts or similar purposes. 




TERMINAL STATION AT DECATUR DARK. 



building is constructed of cut stone and brick walls with an orna- 
mental tile roof having broad bracket-supported eaves. 

Another type of station may be seen in the illustration of the 
terminal of one of the branches of a Decatur city line which serves 
Decatur Park. 

In the center of the city square in the business district of Decatur 
stands the terminal station and waiting room which is illustrated. 
This building is of pleasing design, including on the first floor a dis- 



Power and Distribution System. 

Current for the electric lighting systems and for operating the 
city and interurban lines is generated at several stations which will 
be tied together with a system of three-phase feeders. There are 
power stations at Danville, Champaign, Decatur, Bloomington and 
Riverton, and plans are being made for building an 8,ooo-k\v. gener- 
ating station at Peoria. 

The generating station at Riverton, which is a few miles east of 





ARTISTIC STATION BUILDING AT HOMER. 



TERMINAL STATION ERECTED AT GEORGETOWN EV THE RAILWAY CO. 



patcher's office and employes' room, and a general waiting room. 
The second story is open and used as a band stand. This building 
was erected at a cost of $3,600 subscribed by the business men of 
the city of Decatur whose property faces the public square. It was 
erected without any expenditure on the part of the railway com- 
pany, and as all city routes and the interurban through cars pass 
this point, it is of much value from an operating standpoint. 



Springfield, was described and illustrated in the "Street Railway 
Review," Dec. 20, 1904. Since this description was published there 
has been added the generating unit shown in the accompanying in- 
terior view of the power house. This is a Curtis turbine generating 
unit of 1,000-kw. capacity, and is served by the condensing equip- 
ment, a portion of which may be seen under the engine-room floor. 
The pressure-pumps and storage cylinder for the oil service of the 



106 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



step-bearing, are located on the basement floor near the partition wall. 

During the past year the boiler equipment has been increased by 
the addition of two 400-h. p. capacity Babcock & Wilcox boilers of 
the same type as earlier installed, except that the new 
boilers are equipped with chain grate stokers. 

The three-phase alternating current generated at 
this station is distributed on a high tension line to 
seven rotary converter sub-stations between Decatur and 
the Mississippi River, a distance of about 120 miles. In 
each of these sub-stations is a 300-kw. capacity rotarj 
converter supplying the direct current to the trolley 
wire and its supplementary feeders. The trolley wire is 
No. 000 copper. The high-tension line consists of three 
No. 2 hard-drawn copper wires. 

Danville Power Station. 

The generating station at Danville which furnishes 
current for the several interurban lines, the local sys- 
tem, commercial lighting and power, and also steam for 
district heating service, is located within a few hun- 
dred feet of the public square in the center of the busi- 
ness district. The increased demand for the several 
kinds of current on this station has necessitated an 
increase in the capacity. The reconstruction work is 
now about completed and a description of the plant as 
it will be when in complete operation, may be interesting. 

The south wall of the old building was torn down 
2nd a new wall built, thus increasing the floor area of 
the boiler house to an area of 150 x 85 ft. The build- 
ing walls are of brick supporting a steel framework 
with a roof of reinforced concrete. The construction of 
this roof is unique. On the purlins which are supported 
by the roof trusses are jack rafters of an I section, spaced 6 ft. 8 in. 
center to center. These steel rafters support the concrete mass of 
the roof. The forms for molding the concrete were flat and placed 
between the webs of the jack rafters and against the underside of 
the upper flanges. When the forms had thus been placed the re- 
inforcing was laid over the tops of the rafters. For this purpose 



the heads of the jack rafters. The mixture used consisted of two 
parts of cement, two of cinders and three of gravel. 

The two halves of the boiler house roof have been given different 




TRANSFER STATION AT DECATUR. A GIFT TO THE RAILWAY CO. 

waterproof coatings and the results of each in service will be care- 
fully watched. One portion is covered with five-ply tar paper 
protected by pitch and gravel. The half of the roof, with 
a southern exposure, has for its surface a finish coat of one part 
cement and two parts sand, laid one-half inch deep and trowel- 
finished. If cracks develop in this surface it is expected that they 




GENERAL VIEW OF INTERIC 



POW EH HC 



?E UF THE ILLINOIS TRACTION SYSTEM. 



there was used ordinary woven-wire fencing with a four-inch mesh. 
The strips were laid continuous from one end of the building to the 
other and given a lap of about six inches. Over this bed was then 
spread a layer of concrete four inches thick and well tamped against 



can be filled with tar and a waterproof roof thus obtained at a lower 
cost than usual when waterproof coverings are put on concrete 
cost than usual when waterproof coverings of several thicknesses 
of paper with their coats of tar and gravel are put on concrete roofs. 



Feb. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



107 



The boiler house will contain eight batteries of water-tube boilers 
with a total capacity of 6,400 h. p. Each of the 16 boilers is fired by 
a Green traveling link grate. Coal is fed to the stoker hoppers by 
chutes from a series of steel overhead hoppers, comprising a bunker 
of 600 tons capacity. Coal is brought into the boiler house on a 
switch track and dumped from hopper-bottom cars into a crusher 
from the bottom of which a Mead overlapping bucket conveyor 
elevates and distributes it to the bunker. This same conveyor col- 




WAV STATION AT HARRISTOWN. 

lects the ashes from the concrete pit beneath the grates and elevates 
them to a storage hopper over the switch track. The ash hopper has 
a concrete lining to protect the steel work from injury. The 
arrangement of the apparatus is such that when a car of coal 
has been emptied the same car may be refilled with ashes without 
any switching. 

As there is an off-set in the fire wall between the boiler and 
engine rooms, the main steam header is half in one part of the 
building and half in the other, being anchored where it passes 
through the off-set wall. The header is 16 in. in diameter through- 
out the entire length of the building, and is fed with 12-in. branches 
each of which serves four boilers. 

At each of four properly spaced points along the header where 
engine connections are taken off, a special detad of construction 
is used with a view to doing away with the use of separators between 
the main header and the engine leads. The connection between 




present tunnel from the boiler house to the nearby river bank, 
and the construction of a condenser equipment at the foot of the 
bank, which is about 75 ft. below the level of the boilers. 

The engine and generating equipment in this station consists of 
a number of various types which have been added from year to 
year as the load has increased. The present equipment includes the 
following: 

A 300-kw., 250-volt, direct-current generator direct-connected to 
an 18 and 24 x 32-in. Russell engine, close to which unit is a com- 
pensator for balancing the output which is distributed over a three 
wire Edison commercial lighting system; an 800-kw. three-phase, 
2,300-volt revolving-field type generator direct-driven by a 26 and 
48 x 52-in. Hamilton-Corliss engine, the output of this unit is 
used for commercial lighting; a 300-kw., 550-volt railway generator 
direct-connected to a 28 x 48-in. Hamilton-Corliss engine; this en- 
gine also drives, by means of a belt, a rotary converter, which 
is operated as a double-current generator, its output being used 
either for supplying current to the high-tension railway feeders or 
to the direct-current network of the city and interurban systems; 
a 200-kw. railway generator driven by a 20x30-in. horizontal Buck- 
eye engine; three Brush arc machines, two of 125 and one of so-light 
capacity, belted to high-speed engines ; a 300-kw. 2,300-volt, three- 
phase lighting generator, driven by a 26x36-in. horizontal Buckeye 
engine; two 55-kw., 125-volt, 4-pole direct-current generators, belted 
to a 15 x 14-in. high-speed engine; these small units are connected 
so that they may be used as the demand requires either on the 
two sides of the Edison three-wire lighting circuit, or in parallel 
011 the exciter busses. The generators are of the General Electric 
Co's. make. 

The exciting current is furnished by a motor-generator set con- 
sisting of a 125-volt, 360-ampere generator, driven by a 75-h. p., 2,300- 
volt induction motor. 

The oil for the entire plant is filtered and distributed by a 300- 
gallon capacity, Turner gravity oiling system, with pumps and stor- 
age tanks in the basement. 

There are four switchboards for controlling the output of the 
various generating units. Each board is located near the generators 
which it serves. 

Personnel. 
The officer- 111 charge of the various properties are; for the Illi- 
nois Traction Co.: William B. McKinley, president; L. E. Fischer, 
vice-president and general manager; W. J. 
Ferris, assistant manager and purchasing 
agent; G. B. Macaulay, secretary; G. M. Mat- 
tis, assistant treasurer: B. R. Stephens, gen- 
eral traffic manager; H. C. Ffoagland. elec- 
trical and mechanical engineer; J. G. Ches- 
ter, assistant electrical and mechanical engi- 
neer; B. E. Bramble, general auditor: and 
for the other properties John Finley, general 
manager Central Railway Co., Peoria ; and 
the following general superintendents: M. ti 
Linn, Bloomington; M. L. Harry, Decatur; 
J. E. Johnson, Danville; H. J. Pepper, Cham- 
paign; John Glover, Urbana; L. O. Williams, 
Stautjton ; J. P. Doan, Jacksonville. 
■ ■» ■ » 

Request for information 

regarding Benefit 

Associations. 



NEW TURBINE UNIT AT RIVERTON POWER STATION. 

the pipe to the engine and the header at each of these four points 
is made with a large "cross," the steam for the engine being taken 
out of the top-arm of the cross. At the bottom of the cross is a 
4-ft. length of 10-in. pipe which it is expected will act as a reser- 
voir for collecting drips. These drips will be led from the bottom 
of the 4-ft. pipe to steam-trap connections, and then through the 
feed water heating system to the boilers. 
The plans for the new condensing system include the use of the 



The Bureau of Labor is preparing a report 
covering the various systems of workinginen's 
insurance and employers' liability both in this 
country and abroad. In this connection it is 
endeavoring to secure information concern- 
ing the existence in the United States of 
what are usually known as establishment funds — that is, mutual 
relief or insurance funds organized and maintained by the em- 
ployees of an industrial establishment, or relief funds supported 
either wholly or in part by the employers themselves. It is de- 
sired to obtain, wherever possible, copies of constitutions, rules 
and by-laws, blank certificate forms, and any other matter relat- 
ing to funds of this character, which should be sent to Charles P. 
Neil, Commissioner of the Bureau of Labor, Washington, D. C. 



Annual Meeting of the Ohio Interurban Railway Association 

and First Meeting of the Central Electric 

Railway Association. 




The annual meeting of the ( >hio Interurban Railway Association 
was held at the Algonquin Hotel, Dayton, 0., on Thursday, Jan- 
uary 25th. The meeting was an important one, since it marked 
the ending of the Ohio association and the inception of the Central 
Electrii Railwaj Association. The meeting was called to order 
at 2:30 p in. by Mr. E. C. Spring, Dayton, Covington & Piqua 
Traction Co., the retiring president of the Ohio association. He 
said that the first business to come before the meeting was the 
election of a temporary chairman and a temporary secretary. To 
these offices Mr. Spring and F. W. Coen, Lake Shore Electric 
Railway Co., were respectively elected. 

A. \\\ Brady, Indiana Union Traction Co., secretary of the joint 
committee appointed to arrange for tin- consolidation of the two 

associations, then made a report of 
the proceedings of the committee. 
The minutes of the meeting of the 
committee at Indianapolis on Janu- 
ary nth were read. It was decided 
by the committee that the name of 
the new association should be the 
Central Electric Railway Associa- 
tion. Air. Brady then read the con- 
stitution and by-laws recommended 
for adoption by the new association. 
It is provided in the constitution 
that the meetings of the Central 
Electric Railway Association he held 
on the fourth Thursday of the 
months of January, March, May, 
September anil November, at a time 
and place to he designated by the 
executive committee. Special meet- 
ing- ue provided for at the discretion of the president and execu- 
tive committee. The constitution and by-laws were adopted as read. 
Mr. Brady then read the list of officers put in nomination by 
the committee, which list is as follows: E. C. Spring, Ohio, presi- 
dent; C. L. Henry. Indiana, and F. D. Carpenter. Ohio, vice-presi- 
dents; ami W. F. Milholland, Indiana, treasurer. The executive 
committee to he composed of Ilarrie P. Clegg, Theodore Stebbins, 
F. J. J. Sloat, C. X. Wilcoxon and J. W. Brown, Ohio; H. A. 
Nicholl, C. D. Emmons, C. C. Reynolds, \V. G. Irwin and G. F. 
Wells, Indiana. A unanimous ballot was cast and the foregoing 
officers elected. At a later meeting of the executive committee, 
J. H. Merrill, Ohio. was elected secretary. 

The meeting then took up the election of new members and a 
number of applications were received and acted upon. 

President Spring extended his thanks to the association for the 
honor accorded him and spoke of the achievements of the Ohio 
association and of the future work of the Central Electric Rail- 
way Association. He then introduced J. V. E. Titus, president 
of the Garton-Daniels Co.. who had been invited to address the 
meeting. Mr Titus read the following paper: 

Lightning Protection. 



/ 



E. C. SHUNC 



BY T. V. E. TITUS. 



It is almost unnecessary to say at the start that, however high 
flown the claims manufacturers make in advertising, a complete 
solution of the subject of lightning protection has not been made 
to date. 

I hi progress in this direction during the last few years has 
been considerabh Heretofore the manufacturer of protective 
apparatus has had the burden of the proposition on his shoulders 
alone. The fact that the subject is receiving so much attention 



before different societies and associations, such as this one, prom- 
i>es well for the future. It is onl\ bj the most careful co-operation 
between operating companies and the manufacturer that the most 
rapid progress is made. It is hoped that the operating companies 
will give even greater attention to the subject now that they have 
been properly aroused to the situation that confronts the electric 
railway industry. 

l'.\ a process of "natural selection" the practical method of pro- 
tection has resolved itself to a choice of less than a half-dozen 
forms of lightning arresters. In all of these that have proven 
popular, there is the usual air-gap, over which the normal current 
alone cannot jump, but which offers an outlet to earth for the 
lightning. When the lightning does bridge this air-gap, the nor- 
mal current usually follows. And it is the means provided to 
stop this flow of normal current, that gives the manufacturer a 
chance to tell so many conflicting tales about which of these means 
is the worst. 

Some manufacturers try to prevent the normal current follow- 
ing the discharge at all. Some try to blow out the arc formed 
by the normal current, while some even try to cut it off by means 
of "moving parts." There are other ways used, each one of which 
has its defects. 

All are pretty well agreed, however, that to have the air-gap 
of the arrester small is of great importance. Therefore, remarks 
relating to other features will prove of greater interest. 

I shall first tell of some of the recent developments of the re- 
search and experimental work carried on by the Garton-Daniels 
Co. in the last few years. This work covered practically all types 
of arresters on the market at present, but was devoted almost 
exclusively to the improvement of the company's own product. 
And, as the greater portion of electric railway mileage is oper- 
ated by direct current of 500 to 700 volts pressure, my remarks 
will be confined to this class of service. 

With properly designed arrester-,, properly distributed and with 
good ground connections, no further precautions than careful in- 
spection at frequent intervals can be taken. 

In the design of a lightning arrester there may be all the dif- 
Eerence in the world. It has been easy to make one that will dis- 
charge a circuit freely. It has been easy to make one that will 
prevent a continued. flow of normal current following the discharge. 
But to combine both of thc^e features in the same device has been 
quite a problem. 

It is generally conceded that an electric line is a poor place to 
allow the lightning to linger. Experiments were made, therefore, 
as to the most efficient method of discharging a circuit. Lightning 
may be likened to water in some of its characteristics. When it 
breaks loose it goes with a rush. If a bucket of water were poured 
through a straw, a great deal of it would splash over; if it were 
poured through a large enough pipe, not a drop would be spilled. 
It is something like this with a lightning arrester. The path to 
earth must be as free from resistance as possible. With a high 
resistance path for the lightning, some of it may splash over and 
wet" the machinery or insulation, as the water docs if it is poured 
through a straw. But by making the resistance of a lightning 
path low, a complete and instantaneous discharge is insured. 

Resistance in a lighting arrester may not impede the light static 
discharges to the extent that it does a sudden rush of current 
such as lightning. I believe Alexander J. Wurts. the eminent au- 
thority on lightning protection, has said that discharging lightning 
through a resistance in scries with an air-gap. may be likened to 
the swing of a pendulum. If an empty glass jar is placed in the 
path of the pendulum the glass jar will he broken and the pendulum 
swing onward in its path freely. But if the glass jar is filled with 
water, the pendulum will break through the glass as a discharge 



Feb. 15, [906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



109 



docs the .111- gap of a lightning arrester, but (lie speed of the 
pendulum will be greatly decreased by lis passage through the 
water. The speed or freedom of passage of the discharge, is 
impeded 1 >> the resistance of a lightning arrester in the same wax 
as that of the pendulum is by the water Mr. Wurts therefore 
made his non-arcing lightning arresters for alternating current 
service perfectly free from any resistance aside from that of the 
air-gaps. 

The foregoing remarks are completely confirmed by our research 
work and will establish the desirability of keeping the discharge 
path as free from resistance as possible. Mow this is done will 
follow in my further remarks. But our observation lias been that 
to keep down the resistance in tin- discharge path is of prime 
importance in correct arrester design 

The distribution of a large number of lightning arresters along 
the line, in addition to those on each car and those at the station, 
is rapidly becoming standard practice. Its desirability is apparent 
for many reasons. Lightning shows a tendency to take the closest 
and shortest path to earth that it can find, even though it be of 
high resistance, as shown by the reports from long distance trans- 
mission lines. No arresters are used along such lines, as the 
development of arresters for such voltages has not yet reached the 
stage where they can be hung on a pole, unattended, to battle single 
handed with the most elusive of the elements. As a result, poles 
are frequently shattered by lightning discharges from the line, as 
well as direct discharges from the clouds. This is probably due 
to the inductive resistance of considerable lengths of even per- 
fectly straight wires. This inductance tends to drive the discharge 
through the wooden poles and the insulation to the earth. Thus 
showing most forcibly the tendency of lightning to find an im- 
mediate outlet to earth. 

By placing arresters sufficiently close together, say every 1,000 
ft., or closer, where storms are very severe, the discharges are 
offered plenty of proper paths to earth, without endangering the 
machinery or the insulation. 

In the event of very heavy discharges, such as frequently occur 
on long exposed interurbau lines, it is almost impossible to have 
too many arresters. A large number insures each one doing its 
part of the work, and in this case there is no overplus to go through 
the insulation. 

The nodal or non-discharge point theory has been well estab- 
lished and at such points a discharge will not go to earth. The 
use of a large number of arresters along a line insures a sufficient 
number of them at points where discharges will occur. 

Furthermore, when a storm is of long duration and very severe, 
a certain part of the arrester equipment may be seriously damaged. 
The more arresters there are on the line, when such a storm begins, 
the more there will be at its ending The more arresters used, 
the less service each one has to perform, and the less danger of 
its being overloaded, which shortens its life. 

To insure proper ground connections at all times, we recom- 
mend a connection to the rail as well as to a ground point. There 
air several reasons for this, iirst of all our own. This is that the 
arrester requires a certain How of normal current to properly actu- 
ate the cut-out. If the ground wire is not connected with the rail, 
there may he enough resistance between the rail and the ground 
point, to cut the current down to so small a value that the cut-out 
will not operate properly. 

Vnother reason for the double connection is the probability of 
the static difference of potential existing between the rail and the 
earth — or between the rail and the hue— particularly, if the rail 
is up on a rock ballasted road lied or set in cement or a soil that 
does not offer a good outlet for the discharge. By grounding to the 
rail as well as the earth, the arrester is placed in a shunt path 
around the car motors — under all circumstances — which affords 
them the best possible protection. 

With ground connections to both rail and ground point, any 
corrosion or breakage of (tie of these connections, will leave the 
other intact in all probability, thus insuring at all times a good 
outlet for the lightning 

A regular inspection and lest of all arresters should be made once 
a month and additional inspections after severe storms. At such 
limes the discharge points should be observed and cleaned if neces- 
sary. Dust and dirt accumulated on tin' base should be blown 
away. A small pair of hand bellows is convenient for this work. 



If any evidence "i damagi is shown, the arrester hotikl In taken 

to tlie repair 1 001 1 !■ ' and hauling. 

Many electric railways an making a practice al the pri cnl 
of taking down all pole type lightning arresters during the winter 

mils. These ari given a careful tesl in the shop, particular 

attention being paid to resistance rods, to determine whether or 
not they have increased in re istance try are 

made ill the shop where they should be, in-trad .if mi the hue. 

where the lineman has poor chance of doing careful work, 

It is careful attention to ihe small details of a lightning equipment 
thai brings successful lightning protection, especially if the light 
nun; arresters are oi an efficient and durable design. Ihe fact that 
we are iii this case dealing with such an erratic and practically 
unknown element, should impress us with the need of unfla 
effort to have ihe lightning protective apparatus at all times in first 
class condition. 

While our experimental work covers many of the different arrest 
ers on the market, particular attention was given to our own types 
as previously stated. Service results had conclusively shown that 
while our make of arresters were highly efficient in discharging a 
circuit, that after a season or two of severe storms, the numbei 
id' burned out arresters was disconcerting to say the least. Arrest- 
ers that have been burned out are generally so completely wrecked. 
that it is difficult lo hnd enough partially damaged ones, on which 
to base a report of the real cause of the trouble. But careful 
t observation showed that the 

• ; resistance rods were at the 

bottom of more than Go per 
cent of the bum outs. The 
composition of the rods avail 
able in past years was prin- 
cipally some combination of 
graphite or carbon with kao- 
lin, a line grade of clay such 
as is used in porcelain. I 1 
der the action of lightning 
these rods increased in resist- 
ance, almost beyond reason, 
for instance, a rod of 100 
ohms would often be in- 
creased to 10,000 ohms resist- 
ance after a few storms. This 
high resistance was sufficient 
to choke back the lightning or 
force it to find another path 
to earth, frequently over the 
surface of the arrester base. 
resulting in its destruction, if 
the normal current follow.! this path. This increase of resistance 
seems to lie due to the union of the free carbon and the silicon of 
the material from which the rod was made. The product of the 
union caused by the static discbarge was a film of something like 
carbide of silicon or carborundum. This film existing between 
conducting particles was responsible for the increase in resistance. 
This weakness of resistance rods has been entirely overcome by 
making them with a high percentage of metallic conducting mate- 
rials. The other substances used are carborundum and kaolin to 
give strength and stability. The rods now- produced by our com 
pany are not increased in resistance by the action of the static dis- 
charge. 

Another cause of burn out was found to be the arrangement of 
the parts of ihe arrester on the base. When dust collected and, 
later on. moisture due to sudden changes of temperature, the 
discharge or even the normal current would Hash across the base 
between arrester pails. 'Ibis formed a short circuit an 
suited in the destruction .f the device. 

To avoid the possibility of such an occurrence, the arrester parts 
have been so distributed mi tin- base, that the line connection is at 
one end and the ground connection at the other extremity, a- shown 
in the accompanying diagram. In this way parts of greatest dif- 
ference hi' potential at 1 widely separated. In addition in 

the arrangement of pans, the method of supporting istance 

rod, as shown in the illustration, greatlj increases the di inn-' on 
the surface of the base, between pari, of opposite potential. The 
rod is supported by clamps and brackets. P and E, whicl 
-.'A'-in surface distance between I! and D. The disci 






ft 






s_J 




n 


-c 




T IIP 


-D 




m 










e\ : 


D 









DETAILS or A LATE TYPE OF 
1 11.11 CNING ARRESTER. 



110 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



C is cemented on the upper end of the rod, the other discharge 
point B being mounted on an adjustable bracket. 

A brief description of the method of operation of this new type 
arrester may be of interest. The line connection is at the top of 
the arrester as shown. A discharge entering here passes downward 
in a practically straight path to ground connection. This path is 
indicated by the line in the illustration herewith. It will be noticed 
that the discharge goes through the entire length of the resistance 
rod C-D, the normal current being shunted through the solenoid 
coil H. This energizes the iron armature J, which raises upward 
in the coil, opening the circuit between the lower end of the arma- 
ture and the carbon button M, which is connected with the ground 
binding post N, as shown at the bottom of this illustration. 
This starves the arc formed at the air-gap B-C, so that it is ex- 
tinguished and the normal dielectric of same is reestablished. The 
coil loses its energy and the armature returns by gravity to its 
normal position. The arrester is instantly ready for another dis- 
charge. As the arc is broken between the iron armature J and the 
carbon button M, these two materials cannot stick or weld to- 
gether. And as the circuit is opened inside the tube and the air- 
gap adjustment is always the same, it is possible to use the small 
air-gap standard in this type of arrester, that is, 1-40 in. 

To limit the flow of normal current that can follow the dis- 
charge to ground, the upper section of the resistance rod B is 
used, there being approximately 50 ohms resistance between the 
discharge point C and the clamp D. This resistance keeps the 
current down to a value that is readily broken by the cut out, and 
is not enough resistance to impede the passage of the discharge. 

It will be noticed that the parts of the arrester are readily 
accessible from the front. This allows a lineman to inspect, clean 
or repair the arrester without removing it from its box or the pole. 
It has been my endeavor to avoid technicalities in these remarks, 
as the practical side of the question has resolved itself into the 
important one. What is wanted is results. To this end, compara- 
tive tests, of different types of arresters, should be made in the 
laboratory as well as in the field. No single laboratory test alone 
can establish the efficiency or durability of a certain arrester. 
These tests have been made, however, under all sorts of conditions, 
and the showing is something like that of the old photometric tests 
of incandescent lamps, made by different salesmen. These tests 
were certain to show the best results for the lamp the salesman 
was offering. There are certain test specifications for lightning 
arresters, that must be complied with, to give a fair result. 

There is in New York City, as you are probably aware, a 
laboratory that undertakes just such tests. It's standing is of un- 
questioned character. It seems that its report may be relied upon 
as beyond appeal. It may, at least, to the fullest extent that any 
laboratory test can be. The ultimate test of real value is of course 
the one made in service — under widely varying conditions. 

In the discussion which followed the reading of the paper, the 
question was raised as to the advisability of taking down all the 
arresters for repairs in the winter, since it had been the experience 
of several of the members present that severe storms accompanied 
by lightning were of not infrequent occurrence during the winter 
months. 

Mr. Titus replied that it was not his idea to take all the arrest- 
ers down at once, but to leave a certain number, say every fourth, 
to take care of possible emergencies. 

In reply to the question as to the manner in which the arresters 
should be grounded, Mr. Titus replied that a cheap, durable and 
efficient way was to enclose the wire in a pipe driven eight or nine 
feet into the ground to a point where it will be in # contact with 
moist earth. The pipe should also be extended eight or ten feet 
up the pole to prevent cutting the wire and there should be a 
soldered covering at the top of the pipe to exclude moisture. Sta- 
tion arresters should have for a ground a copper plate imbedded 
in coke or charcoal. Cast iron was suggested as being a possibly 
better material since corrosion resulted in the formation of iron 
oxide, which is a good conductor. 

Mr. Stebbins said that about 17 years ago, he had been appointed 
to visit every electric railway plant east of the Mississippi River. 
In those days there was considerably more trouble from lightning 
than at present. In some cases every motor had been burned out 
by electric storms. He thought that the good insulation of the 
present armature windings was productive of better results. He 
thought the term "Lightning Arrester" a misnomer and suggested 



that "Lightning Diverter" should be used. He considered a good 
ground plate one of the most essential features of an arrester. 

F. J. J. Sloat, Cincinnati Northern Traction Co., thought that a 
great deal of the trouble in regard to lightning arresters resulted 
from the connections to the rail spoken of in Mr. Titus' paper. 
He agreed with the already expressed opinion that a good ground 
was necessary and suggested a copper plate one foot square and 
one-quarter of an inch thick embedded in coke or charcoal. 

In answer to questions regarding the location of arresters on 
single-truck cars and on poles, Mr. Titus replied that in the first 
case he thought the arrester should be placed between the wheels 
and well towards the center of the car body, and in the second case, 
at the top of the pole where they would not present an easily 
accessible target for marksmen. 

President Spring then announced that the banquet would be 
held at 6 p. 111. in the main dining room of the Algonquin Hotel 
and the meeting adjourned at 3:30 p. m. 

Banquet. 

The first annual banquet of the Central Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation was held at 6:30 p. m. in the main dining room of the 
hotel. Some 300 members and guests of the association were pres- 
ent. The decorations and service were very elaborate, and the 
programs bore on the cover a fac-simile of the badge of the 
association. President Spring acted as toastmaster. 

President Spring delivered an address in which he spoke of the 
work of the Ohio association and extended thanks to the associa- 
tion for the very excellent way in which it had supported its of- 
ficers. He said that special thanks were due to Mr. Coen for 
his efficient work as secretary of the Ohio association. He spoke 
of the ending of the Ohio association and of the new Central Elec- 
tric Railway Association and congratulated both states upon the 
unanimity of purpose which had made possible its formation. He 
said that the new association represented an invested capital of 
over $300,000,000. He extended his thanks to the association for 
the honor which it had accorded him in bestowing upon him its 
presidency and spoke of the obligation and responsibility which 
the office carried with it. 

He then introduced as the guest of the evening, the Hon. W. 
Caryl Ely, president of the American Street & Interurban Railway 
Association. 

Mr. Ely thanked the association for its courteous and hearty 
greeting and complimented it upon the high order of intelligence 
and efficiency displayed by its members. He said that he had in a 
way become one of them since he had street railway interests in 
the state of Ohio. The people of Ohio expected much of the 
street railway men in the state. He thought the street railway 
companies were entitled to the protection of the law and to the 
hearty support of the public. The methods used today should be 
fair and open if they were to bring success. They must be fair 
to be safe. He spoke of over-capitalization and its evils and 
thought that the law should be the same for corporations as for 
individuals in regard to liability. Corporations should not be com- 
pelled to issue more stock than they desire to. 

Mr. Ely referred to the state board of railroad commissioners 
which supervises railroad operation in New York State and said 
that the investigations conducted by this board had brought good 
results. He spoke of the growth of the steam roads in the coun- 
try from the year 1850, when their combined length was but 9,000 
miles, to the year 1905, when the total had increased to 300,000 
miles. The increase from 1900 to 1905 alone was 193,000 miles. 
He thought that the interurban railway mileage was increasing 
just as rapidly. 

He spoke of the three-cent fare problem in the West and said that 
they were bothered with no such trouble in the East. He thought 
that publicity was doing more to rid electric railway companies of 
suspicion than anything else. He spoke of long term franchises 
and their advantages and disadvantages under various conditions. 
He also referred to the transfer problem and thought the com- 
panies should be more liberal in their issue. He said that in the 
state of New York, it is a misdemeanor for a person to misuse a 
transfer. 

Mr. Ely then referred to the American Street & Interurban Rail- 
way Association and spoke of its reorganization. He extended to 
the Central Electric Railway Association, the best wishes of the 
American association for its success. 



Feb. is, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



111 



Mr. Coen then read letters and telegrams from H. H. Vreeland, 
president of the New York City Railway Co.; T. E. Mitten, presi- 
dent of the Chicago City Railway Co. ; H. A. Everett, president of 
the Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co. ; W. A. Bancroft, presi- 
dent of the Boston Elevated Railway Co., and W. K. Schoepf, 
president of the Cincinnati Traction Co., expressing their best 
wishes for the future success of the association and regretting 
their inability to be present. 

President Spring then introduced the Hon. Chas. L. Henry, the 
retiring president 'of the Indiana Interurban Railway Association. 

Mr. Henry said that it was a pleasant thing to die and be resur- 
rected again in such a pleasing form as the Central Electric Rail- 
way Association. He spoke of the growth of the Indiana asso- 
ciation and of the work that it had accomplished in the short 
period of its existence. He said that the great strength of the 
interurban line was contained in the fact that it was operated in 
the interests of the common people. He urged the delegates to 
always observe the people's rights. He closed by inviting all to 
attend the next meeting, which will be held at Indianapolis in March. 

Harrie P. Clegg. Dayton Southwestern Traction Co., was the 
next speaker. At the conclusion of his remarks, he presented 
President Spring with a silver decanter, a gift of his business 
associates, who thus expressed their appreciation of President 
Spring's efforts in behalf of the interurban interests. President 
Spring responded briefly, thanking the gentlemen for their gift. 

Henry W. Blake, editor of the "Street Railway Journal," was called 
upon. He said that Ohio is the greatest state in the union in the 
traction interests and that the work of the Ohio and Indiana asso- 
ciations is being watched with interest throughout the entire coun- 
try and in the future the progress of the Central Electric Railway 
Association will be carefully followed. 

Short addresses were made by T. Russell Robinson, of Boston ; 
Judge C. W. Riley, of Detroit; Professor Bernard Swenson, secre- 
tary of the American Street & Interurban Railway Association ; 
Attorneys J. S. McMahon. of Dayton, and A. F. Broomhall, of 
Troy, and Edward W. Hanley, of Dayton. The convention ad- 
journed from the banquet hall at 11:30 p. m. 



The Ravenswood Extension of the Northwest. 
ern Elevated Railroad. 



The Northwestern Elevated Railroad Co., Chicago, 111., has re- 
cently placed a contract with the L. E. Myers Co., of Chicago for the 
building and equipment of three and a half miles of double-track, 
third rail, elevated structure and one mile of double-track, overhead- 
trolley, surface line. This new work is known as the Ravenswood 
extension of the Northwestern Elevated R. R. 

The elevated structure will begin at the main line of the North- 
western elevated between School and Roscoe Sts. and will extend 
to Western Ave., a distance of approximately 3.58 miles. From this 
point there will be a surface extension of approximately .91 miles 
to the terminal yards at Kimball Ave. The line will be built on 
private right-of-way with the exception of the street and alley cross- 
ings. 

The elevated track construction will be similar to that now in- 
stalled on the main line with minor changes in some of the de- 
tails. The tracks of the elevated portion will consist of 80-lb. rail 
with the standard gage of 4 ft. 8}/i in. Tracks will be laid 12 ft. 
center to center. The ties will be of yellow pine and on tangents 
will be 6 x 8 in. in section, 80 per cent to be 8 ft. long and 20 per 
cent, 9 ft. long. They are to be placed so that every fifth tie will 
be 9 ft. long with a one-ft. projection toward the center line of the 
structure. The ties will be spaced 18 in. center to center. Gener- 
ally every alternate tie (except on inclines) is to be secured to the 
top flange of both the longitudinal girders of the track by means of 
hook bolts and washers. Each of the two ties under joints will be 
hook bolted at each end. 

The rails on tangents will be 60 ft. long. The tie plates will be of 
flat steel 6 x 8 x 3-g in. in size. The rails will be secured to the ties 
with steel screw spikes, having cold rolled threads. The screws will 
be 7/$ in. in diameter under the head and S'A in. long. 

The surface work will begin at the western end of the elevated 
structure, near the foot of the incline west of Western Ave. It 
will be laid of 80-lb. rail, the tracks being spaced 12 ft. center to 
center, with portions spaced 24 ft. center to center. The ties are to 



be of sawed or hewn white oak, 6 x 8 in. x 8 ft. in size. The joints 
will be suspended and Continuous rail joints will be used. Crushed 
stone will be used for ballast laid to a depth of 10 in. at the center 
of the ties with a top dressing 6 in. in thickness. 

The plans and specifications have been prepared by E. C. Noe, 
general superintendent, and C. M. Mock, chief engineer of the 
Northwestern Elevated Railroad Co. and are complete and thorough 
in every detail. It is expected that the erection of the steel will 
commence about the first of April. The work will be pushed as 
rapidly as the weather will permit and the contractor will employ a 
full equipment of modern steam machinery in the prosecution of 
the work. 



The Benton Harbor. St. Joe Railway & 
Light Co. 



The traction interests of Michigan have recently been consid- 
erably furthered by the formation of the Benton Harbor-St. Joe 
Railway & Light Co. which was organized to succeed the Benton 
Harbor-St. Joseph Electric Railway & Light Co. The arrangement 
was effected at St. Joseph on January 27th and the new officers have 
been elected and installed. J. G. McMichael, president and treasurer 
of the Atlas Railway Supply Co., Chicago, 111., is the president of 
the new company. The other officers are vice-president, C. K. Min- 
ary ; general manager, H. C. Mason; auditor and treasurer, F. M. 
Mills, all of St. Joseph, Mich., and secretary, L W. Botts, Louis- 
ville, Ky. 

The improvements planned include an extension to Eau Claire of 
about 20 miles, this line to be later 
extended to Dowagiac and Cas- 
sopolis, making in all about 40 
miles. A 52-mile line will also be 
built from Benton Harbor to Kala- 
mazoo, passing through Paw Paw 
and Hartford. In all about 100 
miles of new road will be installed. 
The roadbed will conform 
throughout to high standards. The 
line to Eau Claire will be con- 
structed of 60-lb. rail. On the re- 
mainder of the new work a 75-lb. 
rail will be used. The rail for the 
Eau Claire extension has been or- 
dered and the work will be pushed 
rapidly. It is expected that this 
portion will be completed by June 
next and the other portions later in the year. The company 
is now reconstructing the overhead work of its city lines with No. 
000, Figure-8 wire and also reconstructing the tracks in the city of 
St. Joseph, double-tracking the lines that have heretofore been 
single-tracked. 

The rolling stock at present consists of 16 motor cars. The com- 
pany has recently placed an order with the American Car Co. for 
four new cars to be equipped with the General Electric, GE-67 
motors. 

A power house has been built on the St. Joseph River near Ben- 
ton Harbor and equipment to the value of $25,000 has been installed, 
all of which was furnished by the General Electric Co. The equip- 
ment includes two motor generator sets each consisting of 6-pole, 
375-kw., 600-volt, compound-wound generators, direct connected to 
12-pole, 400-kw., 2,300-volt, 60-cycIe, 3-phase synchronous motors. 
These equipments are mounted on common bed-plates. Exciting 
current is furnished by 8-kw. capacity, 125-volt exciters. Power will 
be furnished by the Chapin Water Power Co. from its plant at 
Buchanan, Mich. This company will furnish cower for the rail- 
way and lighting plants of the cities of Benton Harbor and St. 
Joseph and also for the Eau Claire extension. Including the power 
equipment the company has spent in and about Benton Harbor over 
$100,000. 




J. G. M MICHAEL. 



Grading has been about completed and the concrete work nearly 
all put in for the extension of the Greensburg & Southern Ry. to 
Hecla, Pa. The track laying has been commenced, and it is ex- 
pected that five miles of the road will be in operation in about 60 
days. This property is owned by the West Penn Railways Co. 



Annual Meeting of the Northwestern Electrical Association. 



The Northwestern Electrical Association held its fourteenth an- 
nual meeting in Chicago, January 17th and [8th. Chi sessions 
were held at the Great Northern Hotel and were attended by 
about 100 members. The Electrical Show held at the Coliseum 
in Chicago at the same time proved of considerable interest to the 
visitors. Hie opening session of the convention on Wednesday 
morning was called to order by President Chas. IT. Williams of 
La Crosse, Wis. 

President Williams delivered a short address in which he wel- 
comed the delegab - and outlined the order of business oi the 
convention. 

Secretary Thomas R Mercein said that owing to the press of Ins 
duties in connection with the Electrical Show, he would not be 
able to lie present through the entire session of the convention and 
H. D. Goodwin, official stenographer of the association, was ap- 
pointed to act as secretary. .Mr. Mercein read the report of the 
committee on legislation submitted by S. B. Livermore of La 
Crosse, Wis., the chairman of the committee. The report occa- 
sioned considerable discussion and it was suggested that an at- 
torney lie appointed in each state to take care of the central-sta- 
tion interests. Upon motion the matter was referred to the exec- 
utive committee. 

President Williams then appointed a committee on member- 
ship which was composed of J. H. Harding, of La Porte. 1ml. 
W. H. Winters, of Darlington. Wis., and Irving P. Lord, of 
Waupaca. Wis. 

The first paper of the convention was then read. In the absence 
of the author, Mr. Lord read Mr. Barrett's very interesting paper 
entitled "The Proper Handling of Consumers' Meters." In the 
discussion which followed, Mr. Winters. Mr. Adams and Mr. 
Kimball presented some very interesting information. The con- 
vention then adjourned until 2 p. m. 

The afternoon session was devoted to the reading and discus- 
sion of three papers. The first was that of P. H. Korst, of Janes- 
ville, Wis., entitled "Suggestions for Increasing the Power Output 
of Central Stations." Mr. Korst described the method of charg- 
ing and the rates which should apply. He also devoted some atten- 
tion to soliciting and advertising. 

President Williams appointed a nominating committee com- 
posed of Messrs. Gonzenbach, Lukes and Harding. 

The next paper on the program was that of W. D. Burford, of 
La Crosse. Wis., on "Modern Underground Construction." Mr. 
Burford presented 1 very interesting paper which he illustrated 
by a number of lantern slides. G. B. Springer, of Chicago, dis- 
cussed this paper, also illustrating his remarks by slides 

The last paper of the Wednesday session was that of George 
Williams of Madison, Wis., on the "Organization and Develop- 
ment of a New Business Department." Harold Almert, of Chi- 
cago, read a written discussion of this paper. The meeting then 
adjourned until Thursday morning. 

On Wednesday evening the members of the association attended 
a very enjoyable theater parly at the Great Northern Theater. 

The Thursday morning session of the convention was devoted 
to the reading and discussion of C. J. Davidson's paper entitled 
"Government Tests on Fuels." and John S. Allen's paper entitled 
"Successful Applications of New Business Methods." 

The Inst paper read before the convention on Thursday after- 
noon was that of Ernest Gonzenbach of Sheboygan, Wis., entitled 
"The Economj oi Combined Railway & Lighting Plants," which 
paper we present herewith. 

The Economy of Combined Railway and 
Lighting Plants. 

The above idle i- not particularly novel and the subject is one 
which has been practically settled in many medium and small 
sized cities. If the proof of the pudding is in lie: eating, then a 
large number of combined railway and lighting plants must have 
an agreeable taste in their palates. The subject is, therefore, pre- 




sented not in the light of a new discovery, but rather as a discus- 
sion of what has already been accomplished. 

Electric lighting and railway enterprises are much more closely 
allied than appears on the surface, and it 1- rather strange that 
there are so many plants still operating separately. Both types of 
plants are dependent upon the home marketing of one and the 
same product. The raw material, method of manufacturing and 
distribution of the manufactured product are exactly the same in 

both cases. The only difference 
is in the class of customers. In 
the one case the product in the 
form of electric lighting is mar- 
keted to the upper and generally 
well-to-do classes and in the 
form of power to business 
houses, while in the other case 
the product is marketed in a 
somewhat different form to the 
masses who utilize the cheap 
transportation facilities afforded 
by electric cars. It seems to the 
writer, therefore, that there is 
much more logic in the com- 
bining of railway and electric 
HAROLD ai.miui lighting enterprises than there is 

in the combining of gas and elec- 
tric lighting enterprises. The manufacturing plant and method of 
distribution of the latter two are radically different and invariably 
require separate and distinct organizations. 

It should he understood that in this paper the term "lighting 
plant" covers a system equipped to handle commercial electric 
motor supply, and in all references to such a plant, its load curves 
and load factors, the electric motor load has been given due con- 
sideration and it is assumed that all plants of this nature have 
their due proportion of motors on day circuits. 

It is rather unfortunate that at the present time most of the 
combined railway and lighting plants which are in operation are 
the result of consolidations of two or more corporations which 
originally had independent existences. The natural result is a 
lack of uniformity in the producing plant which time and the 
natural wear and liar of apparatus only can eliminate. We still 
see in too many ease a power station equipped with separate gen- 
erators and engines for lighting and another plant to handle the 
railway load. The two sides are generally combined in the boiler 
room, but some plants have gone so far even as to separate the 
steam generators. This is sometimes necessitated by the excessive 
fluctuations of the railway load, combined with insufficient steam 
piping and inefficient regulating devices. Such an arrangement 
of the plant is unavoidable in many cases when the exigencies of 
business will not warrant the installation of new and uniform 
equipment. On the other hand, such plants are not getting the 
benefits of the lust economy possible by the operation of the com- 
bined service. It is the writer's intention to here discuss a plant 
which is to lie constructed in conformity with modern practice, and 
which shall be interchangeable as nearly as the nature of the two 
clas -i - of service will permit. 

It should be unnecessary to call attention to the economies re- 
sulting in the office work of the combination service. It is. need- 
to say that one executive head will exercise competent super- 
vision over both classes of service, and his assistants may be skilled 
in their respective branches without necessarily possessing the ex- 
ecutive abilit} which would in some manner have to he paid for un- 
der separate operation, line of the little economies which has an 
important bearing in this ease is the fact that in the railway plant 
the heaviest loads occur during the summer months, particularly 
during July ami August, which are the months of least activity in 
the lighting department. It is quite customary for railways to 
require extra office help and maintenance crews during the sum- 
mer season. In the lighting plant the busy season occurs during 



Feb. is, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



113 



the months of November and December, and it is at that time that 
the lighting plant may be compelled to go to some extra expense 
to take care of the increasing business. It is an actual fact that 
in a well organized office the two classe ol .nice work hand in 
hand in such a way that no extra help will he required at any time. 
The lighting force is at liberty to give some help to the railway 
force during the busy summer season, and vice versa during the 
winter season of heavy lighting. 

It is particularly fortunate that the two classes of service have 
their maximum annual peaks at different times during the year, 
and the benefits of this condition arc particularly appreciated in 
the production department, otherwise the power station. It is a 
well known fact that so far nearly every lighting plant in exist- 
ence has a treemndous peak lasting from one hour to two hours, 
and occurring near 5 p. m., during the winter months. 

This peak is particularly high during November and December. 
At such times the load factor of the lighting system is apt to be 
in the neighborhood of 30 per cent, even with a good motor load, 
and all this extra equipment to handle peaks must be installed and 
interest paid on it for the rest of the year. In other words, about 
50 to 75 per cent of the equipment of the lighting plant is earning 







































































' 


n 


■1 


* 




''■\ 


■> 


V 


<f7 


•■, 














































\ 


'1 




-\ 


"r 


-' 


• 




v/t 


c 






























//£X> 


c 


,'l 


•£l 


T£\ 


•- 


'-'. 


A 


■<■■ i 


10 


_-• 


'/ 


A 


8 


9 


.: 


- 


/ 


\ 
























■, 


-•. 


I *J 


' . 


P£. 


,-■-- 


" 





4 


% 


-■. 




.: 


1 


"-' 


\ 




\ 




























V 


■V* 


-J 


£j 


--j 


v>. 


£a 


.. 


-4 


.-•' 


' 


,'. 


lM 


5 


+■•> 




■>. 




\ 






















■■ 


■-.' 


f£ 












■i, 


' '■ 




-.: 




'. ■ 












.' - 






































*T- 


-L- 


H ( 


-■J 


- 




























































1 


I 
































SOO 
























Ye 


f 


\ 


















































'Oj 


70 


* 


■f 


-b. 


Pc 


.4 










, 












































1 








\ 








\ 


















$ 


























1 








1 


























k 

k see 
\ 
































1 










"\ 
















































(1 


1 








Y 


















\ 
























t 






\ 


[i 


,1 






A 


s 


£ 


\ 
























/' 


\ 


^ 










t 






\l 


\ 




1 


A 






\ 






















- 


/ 


V 


K 


















1 




1 








\ 














^400 
























\ 






\ 




1 










1 




\ 








* 




— 












JOG 












1 


\ 






W 


1 








1 






^\ 






\ , 




\ 






\ 


















/" 


\ 






\ 


1 


, 


r-.- 










V 






V 




\ 






\ 




















f 


\ 








\ 


/ 


K-'- 


• 










'•> 


— s 


, / 


\ 








\ 




















1 


\ 








V 


/ 












/ 








\ 








\ 












l/r 


'/* 


V 


1 






k 












y 








/ 










\ 








\ 














4 


h 


K 














/ 








/ 


1 










i] 














O 










b 




















,- 


r 














\i 














.., 


. - 


*« 


■r 




' 












.. 


?* 


& 


--*. 


c? 


■ 


.'. 


5>. 







































































































































































































CURVES OF RAILWAY AND LIGHTING LOADS. 

money only for perhaps 150 to 200 hours during the entire year. 
The rest of the time it is not engaged in anything else except the 
absorption of interest and depreciation. 

In a railway plant the peak loads occur during the summer sea- 
son and particularly on Sundays and holidays. The amount of 
idle investment in the railway power station is not nearly as great 
as it is in the lighting plant, but nevertheless a considerable amount 
of equipment has to be held in reserve to take care of the excessive 
loads which occur on perhaps 15 Sundays and holidays during the 
warm months. It is customary for railway plants to operate with 
a smaller percentage of reserve apparatus than is usually found 
in lighting plants. On account of the very fine regulation de- 
manded by the lighting system it is quite difficult to crowd that class 
of apparatus beyond a reasonable limit. The regulation of rail- 
way apparatus is ordinarily overlooked and the owners as well as 
the public close one eye to its defects. It is. therefore, possible to 
neglect the reserve capacity of the railway station, a fact which is 
taken too liberal advantage of by many existing properties. In 
any case, it is advisable to have some reserve capacity, and it is ■ 
one purpose of this paper to show that this reserve may be ob- 
tained in a combined plant without excessive idle invesment. 

The diagrams shown represent a series of typical local curves 
the characteristics of which are taken from actual daily averages 
of a plant in a small city. The curves approximate very closely 
the true conditions found in any city of between .10.000 and 50.000 
population. The curves may he itemized as follows : 



No. 1 represents .1 typical summer load cu the lighting 

tern. It will be noted that the peal oi thi curve occurs from 
9 to 10 p. m., and amount to 623 kw. This cm 
load facto! of 29 per cent. 

No. 2 repn ents a typical lighting load curve foi the same plant 
taken during a day in the month of December. It will be noted 
thai the peak in this curve falls between 5 and 6 p. m., and amounts 
to 1140 kw. This givi 1 load factor of 40 per cent 

No. 3 represents the railway load curve on a typical winter day. 
It will be noted that the peak occurs at 5 p. m., and amounts to 
500 kw. The load factor of this curve is 44 per cenl 

This winter peak of the railway circuit coincides ver> nearly 
with the winter lighting peak, and the resultant peak will reach 
about 1(100 kw. It is somewhat unfortunate that these two pea 
occur simultaneously but on a broader view of the question the 
disadvantage is not nearfj as great as appears on the surface. 

No 4 represents a typical railway curve on a summer holiday. 
The maximum peak occurs at 2 p. m., and amounts to 950 kw. 
Another peak occurs at 5 p. m., and amounts to 740 kw., and a 
third peak at 8 p. m. amounts to 500 kw. Finally there is a fourth 
peak about 12 midnight. 

These four peaks occur at times when people flock in very large 
numbers to and from parks and amusement resorts. The load fac- 
tor of curve No. 4 is 33 per cent. It will be noted that the 8 p. m. 
peak practically coincides with the peak of curve No. 1 and the 
sum of both is about 1150 kw., which is almost exactly the peak of 
the winter lighting load alone. 

The load factor of the combined summer curves is 53 per cent 
and of the combined winter curves only 28 per cent. 

[At this point the author suggested that the load factor is equal 
to the average load divided by the maximum load and not the aver- 
age load divided by the station capacity, the latter being the station 
factor. — Ed.] 

In the case of railway plants operating a considerable surburban 
or interurban system in addition to the city system, the lighting 
load becomes a smaller fraction of the total load on the plant and 
the load factor will be very much improved. It is not the purpose 
of this paper, however, to consider such cases, but to take an 
abstract example from actual daily service. The railway load 
curve represented in the diagram calls for the operation of X singli 
truck local cars and two double-truck suburban cars. The local 
cars are supplemented between 5 and 6 p. m., by two or more 
extra double-truck cars to take -.are of traffic during the rush 
hours. The lighting load shown in the curve represents a total 
connected number of lights of about 40,000 equivalents of 10 c. p.. 
lamps, and including a large number of stationary motors, as well 
as city street lighting. 

Considering now that the two plants, the railway and lighting, 
are separate and distinct corporations, and each has its own inde- 
pendent plant, it is interesting to calculate what the cost of equip- 
ping the power station will amount to. The lighting plant calls 
for a maximum of approximately 1200 kw-., and it will be neces- 
sary to install that amount of machinery. Furthermore, prudent 
management demands that at least 25 per cent reserve capacity he 
installed in order to meet emergencies. This will call for a total 
power installation of 1500 kw. Regardless of the manner in which 
this station may be subdivided into individual units, we may esti- 
mate a total cost of power station, including engine and boiler 
room and everything else complete at $125 per kw. For the 1500 
kw. power station, therefore, we must make an appropriation of 
$187,300. 

The railway company will also require a power station of its 
own in the case here assumed, and as the total maximum demand 
during the summer months is 950 kw. and 25 per cent reserve 
capacity must again prudent!} be provided, we must assume a 
power station with .1 capacity of T200 kw. in railway generators. 
This, at the same price per kw., will cost $150,000. 

The combined cost of both the railway power bouse and the 
lighting powet bouse will, therefore, amount to $557,500. 

Tf we combine the two plants and operate both the lighting and 
railway loads from one station, with one class of prime movers, 
we will have a maximum demand at peak loads during the wi 
months of moo Kw Ti is in this case also prudent to provide ^^ 
per cent reserve capacity and this will call For a power tati n hav- 
ing 2000 kw. in generatoi . engines and boiler The same cost, 



114 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



$125 per kw., will make this station cost $250,000, a saving of 
$87,500 in the first cost of the plants. Allowing 10 per cent for 
interest and depreciation, the saving on this score alone amounts 
to $8,750 annually. 

Besides this saving in first cost, the saving in cost of operation is 
very considerable. One chief engineer only instead of two is 
required. There are only half the shift engineers required which 
would be necessary under separate operation, and the same rule 
holds true down the line as far as the coal passers. It is safe to 
say that the cost of labor will be about 33 1-3 to 50 per cent less in 
a combined plant than it is under separate operation. In addition 
to the saving in labor the fuel economy is decidedly improved. In 
a lighting plant boilers and engines work under disadvantageous 
conditions, as a rule, during light loads. The engines may be only 
partly loaded, therefore not giving their maximum efficiency. The 
same holds true of boilers. In the combined plant above referred 
to, with a capacity of 2,000 kw. subdivided into, say, four 500-kw. 
units, two of them alternating current, one combination unit of the 
kind referred to below, and one direct-current unit, it is impos- 
sible to so operate the plant that there will always be a full load 
on one or more of the units. This gives the maximum efficiency. 
Data taken from a plant of this kind now in operation shows 
that the saving in labor and fuel economy amounts to about $6,000 
per annum over and above the operating cost of separate plants. 
Add to this the $8,750 saving in interest and depreciation and 
we get a total of nearly $15,000 per annum saving accomplished 
in a plant of the capacity and dimensions referred to. Fifteen 
thousand dollars will pay interest on $300,000 of bonds or it 
will provide a neat little sinking fund or stock dividend. At any 
rate, it is an item which no prudent railway or central station 
manager would care to overlook. 

It may be urged against this plan that it is not practical to 
operate a railway and lighting load from the same generators and 
engines. The best reply to this criticism is that it is not a theory 
which we confront, but an accomplished fact. There are today 
a number of well designed power stations which supply lighting 
and power from one class of generators, and there seems to be 
no reason why the type of units in the power station of this class 
may not be identical at least within the limits outlined above. The 
writer has in mind for a plant of this sort, direct connected units 
operated at 60 cycle. The direct current for the railway opera- 
tion may be supplied through either motor generator sets or 
through one or more combination sets consisting of alternating-cur- 
rent and direct-current generators connected together, and con- 
nected with a clutch coupling to the engine. The latter is a much 
more economical plan, as during light loads the railway generators 
may be operated from the alternating-current machines working as 
synchronous motors, thus reducing the number of prime movers in 
operation and giving a very high demand factor. During peak 
loads the engines may be connected to these combination units 
through the clutch couplings, and both the alternating-current and 
direct-current machines may be used as generators, each doing its 
respective work. In water power stations such an arrangement is 
even more valuable than it is in a steam station. 

Regarding the operation of direct-current railway units from 
synchronous motors taking their current from lighting generators. 
This is a feat which is being accomplished today and will be still 
more in the future than it is at present. It requires careful design 
of the generating units and requires close regulation in both gen- 
erators and the engine governors. A Tyrrill regulator on the 
lighting lines will counterbalance any tendency to fluctuation caused 
by the railway load. A comparatively small storage battery will 
accomplish wonders in the way of regulating the fluctuating demand 
on the railway generators, and will enable both classes of service 
to be furnished from one machine, besides reducing the amount of 
railway apparatus which must be held in reserve. 

In conclusion the writer begs to state that it has been his inten- 
tion not to go into this situation from a technical standpoint. It 
is his idea to bring out some of the commercial and economical 
features of the operation of combined plants for the purpose of 
starting a live discussion of the question at this meeting. 

In the discussion which followed the reading of Mr. Gonzenbach's 
paper, Mr. Korst said that he had been selling power to his local 
street railway as well as supplying current for lighting purposes 
and that he had found the scheme of using one set of ma- 



chines as generators for both classes of service worked very well. 
J. M. Warring, of tin- Electric Storage Battery Co., said that in 
regard to the combination railway and lighting station mentioned 
in Mr. Gonzenbach's paper where the street railway generators are 
driven by synchronous motors, he had in mind a case at the plant 
of the Peoria Gas & Electric Co., where they are operating in this 
way. The direct-current generators in this case are supplying 
power to a 500-volt circuit, but as the load is a fluctuating motor 
load, it is similar to the plant referred to by Mr. Gonzenbach. 
In this case, the power load held on for about one hour, during 
the heaviest lighting peak and a storage battery was installed not 
only to relieve the station of the load fluctuation, but also of the 
entire power load for a period of one hour. 

In combination lighting and railway plants the value of storage 
batteries is often greatly increased by installing them in such a way 
that they are suitable for operation on either the railway or light- 
ing services. In many instances the heaviest lighting loads occur 
during the winter months and the most severe railway peaks dur- 
ing the summer months, so that a combination battery can be 
operated to great advantage throughout the entire year. 

As an illustration of the economies of operation that can be 
effected by batteries, Mr. Warring cited an example in Chicago. 
On one of the large elevated roads a test was made during the 
month of January before the installation of batteries on the sys- 
tem, and a similar test was made during January of the year fol- 
lowing, after batteries had been installed. It was found that due 
to the increased speed, the load had incerased 25 per cent but 
that the boiler load at the power house had decreased approxi- 
mately 10 per cent, due to the battery installation and notwith- 
standing the increased output. 

Mr. Jackson, of Madison, Wis., said that this was a subject in 
which he was greatly interested. He thought the combination of 
railway and lighting plants more satisfactory than the combina- 
tion of gas and electrical paints. He thought that in a medium- 
sized town the combination would be to the advantage of both the 
consumer and the operator, but that in a plant of any considerable 
size the two factors should be operated separately. He had tried 
combination and found that it did not work. The employes were, 
as a rule, not adapted to the combined work. He thought that the 
reduction in the cost of labor of from 33 1-3 to 50 per cent, 
which Mr. Gonzenbach mentioned, was rather excessive. In re- 
gard to the chief engineer for a combined plant, it would take a 
better and consequently a higher priced man to fill the position. 
He said that there were times when the street railway load was as 
high in winter as in summer, such as when the snow plow's were 
used to clear the tracks of snow. He thought that the combina- 
tion of the two plants admirable under proper conditions and cited 
examples. 

Applications for membership were taken up and a number of 
new members elected. The last paper of the convention, that of 
R. N. Kimball, of Kenosha, Wis., entitled "The Effect of Load 
Factor on Station Costs." was read. The nominating committee 
presented the names of the following officers for election : Harold 
Almert, Chicago, president; E. B. Kirk, Oshkosh, Wis., first vice- 
president; Frank J. Baker, Evanston, 111., second vice-president; 
B. Adams, Madison, Wis., secretary and treasurer, Irving P. 
Lord, Waupaca. Wis. : C. H. Williams, La Crosse, Wis., and 
Robert N. Kimball, Kenosha. Wis., directors. 

The secretary was instructed to cast a unanimous ballot for the 
gentlemen named. 

Mr. Almert. the new president, has been for the past three years 
the general manager of the Cicero Light. Heat and Power Co., 
and consulting engineer for several other plants. He has suc- 
fully filled positions with the Chicago Telephone Co. and sev- 
eral well known electrical firms and is well fitted for the duties 
of the office which has been intrusted to him. 

On Thursday evening the members of the association were the 
guests of the managers of the Electrical Show and attended the 
show in the body. A meeting of the Executive Committee on 
Friday morning closed the work of the convention. 
— 4 ■ » 

It is announced that work will be begun immediately in the con- 
version of the West Shore Ry. between Rochester and Syracuse, 
X. Y.. a distance of 81 miles, for electrical operation, and it is ex- 
pected to finish the work by March I, 1906. 



Feb. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



115 



The Economical Maintenance of Equipment as 

Discussed at the New England Street 

Railway Club. 



Mr. Albert B. Herrick, of New York, was the speaker at the 
regular meeting of the Xew England Street Railway Club in 
Boston at the American House, January 25th. The subject was 
"Pointers in the Economical Maintenance of Street Railway 
Equipment." A large number of drawings showing the results of 
the speaker's tests on different roads were exhibited. 

The abnormal maintenance of the street railways east of the 
Mississippi River, between Canada. Kentucky and the Atlantic 
Coast was said to be $17,500,000 per annum. The cost of main- 
tenance varies enormously per car mile on different systems and 
the character of service, grades, curves, stops per mile, etc., appear 
to have nothing to do with the problem. In most cases examined 
by the speaker the lowest maintenance occurred with the most 
severe service. In a special case Mr. Herrick stated that the 
transferring of the car-mile maintenance cost of one road to 
another system would mean an annual saving of $1,000,000. Har- 
mony between the operating and the maintenance departments is 
essential for low maintenance figures and in cases where officials 
visit other roads and learn the best practices away from home the 
resulting maintenance cost is sure to be lower than in the case of 
isolated, provincial lines which do not take account of progress 
elsewhere. The anticipation of defects likely to occur is more 
important than is generally realized. The old motto, "A stitch in 
time saves nine," applies with force to street railway maintenance. 
Mr. Herrick urged the desirability of figuring the fixed charges 
upon power stations in addition to coal, labor, oil and waste in 
determining the exact cos: of generating power. It is purely a 
manufacturing process. 

After thus outlining the importance of maintenance the speaker 
briefly described his autographic test car and the work it is capable 
of doing. About S,ooo miles of track and 2,700,000 rail bonds have 
been tested by this car. Bonds are tested usually with a current 
of about 200 amperes, which is applied to the track through the 
front and rear trucks, the drop being recorded on a moving strip 
of paper through which a high tension discharge passes, the dis- 
charge position being determined by allowing it to pass through 
the paper from a special millivoltmeter needle. Tests are usually 
made with the car running 10 m. p. h. With this equipment feeder 
systems can be investigated copper re-distributed when necessary, 
re-inforcements added, annual losses in overhead lines and track 
determined, the condition of bonds and ground returns plotted, 
defects located and rolling stock performance analyzed. By con- 
necting the equipment to a line of track about a fifth of a mile 
long, but out of sight and knowledge of motormen, an accurate 
line can be secured upon their performance and upon the power 
consumption of many different cars. In this way a car test can be 
made in eight seconds. One of the greatest wastes in the street rail- 
way business comes through poor maintenance. Mr. Herrick cited 
one road which was being held for sale, in which dividends were 
declared without proper maintenance charges. In four years the 
power consumption rose from 1.8 to 3.5 kw. h. per car mile. The 
crux of the maintenance situation is the motor temperature. Mr. 
Herrick measures this by attaching a thermometer to the shell, 
the thermometer being held in place by a magnet. He considers 
the temperature of the shell ten minutes after a shut-down to be 
for, all practical purposes that of the motor as a whole. 

In the discussion which followed the conclusion of Mr. Her- 
rick's address several topics were touched upon. It was brought 
out that the ground resistance varies greatly with the temperature 
near the salt water. A fair average of earth resistance can be 
taken as 40 ohms per sq. yd. of earth against the rail, and 120 
ohms per sq. yd. of concrete. In Mr. Herrick's experience appara- 
tus designed ten years ago shows the lowest maintenance cost. He 
spoke very highly of the Westinghouse 12A motors used in Albany, 
N. Y., on the score of low maintenance. The safe temperature of 
a railway motor in all day service should not exceed 22 degrees C. 
rise above the surrounding air. Ground plates were severely criti- 
cized on account of their rapid oxidation and consequent increase 
in surface resistance. 

Mr. John W. Corning, of the Boston Elevated Railroad Co., 
stated that he had found a regular increase of load on that system 



with decreasing external temperatures. It amounts to seven-tenths 
of one per cent per degree drop, between 70 and 10 degrees Fahren- 
heit. 

Mr. Herrick's opinion of welded joints was asked, and he stated 
that electrically welded joints give the best condition of track, 
electrically. The resistance is exceedingly uniform. Cast welded 
joints are excellent if made at the right temperature, but if the 
joints are welded with a constantly cooling flow of metal, they 
are inclined to grow poor as the temperature of the weld decreases. 
Mechanical bonds need to be put in by first class men if the results 
are to be satisfactory. Damp weather is no time to bond. The 
best bonded track is that in which compressors were used. Sold- 
ered bonds should be mechanically strong and not fall off under the 
jar of continued service. Power consumption of cars is increased 
by the common fault of cutting in the current before the brake 
shoes are released and by operating with brake shoes set too close 
against the wheels. 



A Broader Field for Rossiter, MacGovern & Co. 



The announcement has been made that Rossiter, Mac Govern & Co. 
will engage in engineering and contracting work of a general nature. 
The capital of the company has been doubled and Mr. J. C. Bracken- 
ridge has been elected president. Rossiter, Mac Govern & Co. was 
founded about fourteen years ago for the purchase and sale of elec- 
trical and steam apparatus. Such a satisfactory amount of business 
was handled by this enterprising firm that about seven years ago it 
became necessary to incorporate the company. The amount of busi- 
ness now handled in the electrical field places this company among 





J. C. BRACKENRIDGE. 



FRANK S. MAC GOVERN. 



the foremost firms that sell electrical apparatus other than the large 
manufacturing concerns. Together with the establishment at New 
York City, this firm has a repair shop in Jersey City, and business 
offices in St. Louis and Boston. It is proposed to erect in New York 
City a shop similar to the present one in Jersey City. As announced, 
the personnel of the company will be increased so that its engaging 
in engineering and contracting work will in no way affect the man- 
agement of its branch engaged in buying and selling electrical and 
steam apparatus. 

Mr. J. C. Brackenridge, who has become president of the com- 
pany, is prominent in the electrical field through his association 
with the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., which extended over a period 
of ten years. During this time he was first chief engineer and later 
general manager. It was under his charge that many of the re- 
cent power stations were built and the elevated structure equipped 
for electrical operation. He also was instrumental in extending the 
schedules of the elevated trains across the Brooklyn bridge. During 
the past two years Mr. Brackenridge has been commissioner of 
public works of Brooklyn, which office he held until the first of the 
year. 

Frank Mac Govern will continue as manager of the company which 
has been brought to so prominent .1 position largely through his ef- 
forts. Mr. Mac Govern is vice-president as well as general mana- 
ger and James I\. Floyd, Jr.. is treasurer. The former president of 
the company, Clinton I.. Rossiter, retains his membership to the ex- 
ecutive committee and will be actively engaged in carrying on the 
old and extending the new work. 



116 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI. No. 2. 



A New Lamp Guard. 

Incandescent lamps which are suspended by a cord in places 
where they are liable to bi broken and where their breakage would 
endanger fire, such as in safes and vaults, arc usually protected by 
some form of guard. To meet this need the Benjamin Electrii 
Manufacturing Co has placed upon the market its "Can't Break" 
lamp guard. 

The illustrations show the guard both open and closed, and 
present its details very clearly. It is of simple design and of but 
few parts. The two halves are each pressed from sheet steel, with 





THE "CAN'T LSEAK" LAMP GUARD OPEN. LAMP GUARD I I 

two hinge joints at the top and two !< eking' joints at the bottom. 
The lamp is centered by an auxiliary spring wire, which keeps it 
from striking against the body of the guard. 

The sheet steel forming the guard is pressed up edgewise radially 
with the lamp. There i- consequently little shadow and the loss 
of light is reduced to a minimum. The guard is easily removed and 
as easily readjusted. 



Report of the Third Annual Convention of the 

American Railway Mechanical & 

Electrical Association. 



The American Railway Mechanical & Electrical Association has 
issued its report of the third annual convention of the association 
held in Philadelphia on September 25th and 26th. The report con- 
tains the minutes of the convention in which are included an address 
of welcome by Mayor Weaver of Philadelphia, an address by the 
lion. W. Caryl Ely, president of the American Street & Interurban 
Railway Association, and the annual address of the president. C. F. 
Maker. 

The minutes also include the reports of the various officer, and 
committees and a number of interesting papers including "Power 
Distribution" by C. H. Mile, superintendent of wires, Boston Ele- 
vated Railway Co.. "The Power Station Load Factor as a Factor in the 
Cost of Operation", by Lawrence P. Crecelius, chief electrician of the 
United Railways Co., St. Louis, Mo.. "The Series-Parallel Railway 
Controller" by \Y. A. Pearson, electrical engineer of the New York 
City Railway Co. and papers on the treatment of rail 

joints by G. E. Pellissier, civil engineer for the Holyoke Street Rail- 
0., II. IV Nichols, engineer of way and C. P. Voynow, assist- 
ant engineer of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Co., T. W. Wilson of 
red 1 1 Simmons, superintendent of construction of the 
Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light O There are also included 
titled "The Power Station" by Fred M. Bushnell, chief 
engineer of the Rhode Island Co.. and one by F. F. Bodler, master 
mechanic of die United Railroads of San Francisco, entitled "An 
Track Brake". 

The report com,: 300 pages and is a complete record of 

the transactions of the convention. Much credit is due S. Walter 
of the association, for His efficient work 
in compiling the report. In the future this association will be known 
a- the American Street & Interurban Railway Engineering \ 
tion. 



General Passenger Department for the Twin 
City Rapid Transit Co. 

In line with the popular movement on the part of transportation 
companies throughout the country to spread the idea of "seeing 
America first" among thi public, the Twin City Rapid Transit I 0. 
proposes to do its share of the work by educating the residents 
as well as the transient population of the cities of St. Paul and 
Minneapolis, to see what nature has done for them. To that end 
a general passenger department has just been organized to take 
care of this special traffic. General Manager Willard J. Hield has 
announced the appointment of A. W. Warnock as general pas- 
senger agent. 

'Tlie company will make its plans so attractive that schools, so- 
cieties and private parties will consider it a privilege to make use 
of the lines. Chartered cars are to be advertised and tours are 
to be arranged for parties. Western roads bringing personally 
conducted parties have signified their wish to include the twin 
cities in their itineraries and the street railway company hopes to 
do some good educational work for the twin-metropolis in a way 
that has never been attempted before. 



The Johns. Manville Trolley Wheel. 

Experience shows that in the manufacture of trolley wheels the 
combination with the copper of such materials as arsenic, anti- 
mony, bismuth, tin. lead and spelter should be avoided. These ele- 
ments, however sparingly used, seriously affect the electrical con- 
ductivity of copper and shorten the life of the wheel. They also 
render the copper harder and greatly diminish its ductility, the 
result being that the trolley wheel cuts the wire and both the 
wheels and the overhead construction require frequent replacement. 
To obviate these difficulties, the II. W. Johns-Manville Co., New 
York City, has recently placed on the market a wheel which is 
said to be made of absolutely pure copper, purified and toughened 
by a secret special treatment. These wheels have been subjected 
to the test of service and are said to wear smooth and even and 
not pit. arc or burn. 

In the manufacture of the wheels only the best grade of pure 
lake copper is used. This material is treated chemically, reducing 
to a minimum any ingredients which the copper may contain in its 
crude state. By a further chemical process, the action of the 
atmosphere is excluded and the copper subjected to the action of 
carbon to remove the oxygen and to render the copper solid when 
cast, thus increasing its malleability and durability Another proc- 
ess toughens the metal when hardening it and the wear is reduced 





THE JOHNS-MANVILLE TROLLEY WHEEL. 

to a minimum, the conductivity of the wheel being equal to that of 
the wire. 

These wheels are furnished with the company's special bushings 
which are made from a metal peculiarly adapted to this purpose. 
The tenacity of this metal is said to be equal to mild steel with a 
compressive strength of about 130,000 lb. per sq. in. It is further 
claimed that its ductility and toughness are such that it will not 
crack when distorted by this load and that when subjected to beat, 
it will not harden and therefore is less susceptible to wear. These 
bushings are packed with a specially prepared packing, which is 
not only anti-frictional but also a lubricant of the highest grade 



The American Railways Co. of Philadelphia has recently taken 
over the city and connecting lues of the Scranton Railway Co., 
Scranton, Pa. The American Railways Co. is planning 111.110 ini 
provements in the lines which will be effected in the near future. 



Fed. 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



117 



New Semi-Convertible Cars for the New York 
City System. 

Ten grooveless-post semi-convertible cars built by the J. G. 
Brill Co. recently have been placed on the lines of the New York 
City [nterborough Railway Co. in the borough of Bronx. While 
the I '.rill Co. has furnished a large amount of the equipment E01 
the New York City lines, these are the first ol its patented semi- 
convertible type to be ordered by the company. The cars are for 
operation on lines which connect with the elevated and subway 
systems, and while the lines were laid out primarily as feeders for 
these systems, they handle a large amount of local traffic in the 



.#•—%, 




! 


ii 

1 
1 



INTERIOR OF THE NEW BRONX CAR. 

borough of Bronx as this section of the city is now almost solidly 
built up and has its own business center and shopping district. 

I he spaces between the outlying sections at the northern end of 
New York City north of tie Harlem River and the cities of Mt. 
Vernon and Yonkers, are fast closing up. The excellent transporta- 
tion facilities and the low rate of fares are resulting in the opening 
of streets and the building of houses throughout all this section. 
The system includes the fine suburban towns of Xew Rochelle, 
Mamaroneck, White Plains and Tarn town, with the main lines 
running out the old Boston post road, skirting the Long Island 
Sound, and the historic White Plains post road and a wide, splen- 
didly paved thoroughfare along the Hudson to Tarrytown, which 



the Straight -ides and the fact that the platform an ; ft. long in- 
stead of the usual 4 ft. V-A in. The grooveli 1 1 a 

ible window system is too well known to need description, and as 
the photograph shows the details and general appearance of the 
type, it is needless to repeat them. Attention, however, is directed 
to the long transverse seats and wide aisle obtained in this width of 
car, by the absence of window pocket- in the side walls. The lon- 
gitudinal seats at the corners each take up two windows, a plan 
which is being adopted by many of the large city systems which use 
a transverse seating arrangement. The last cars built by the 
Brill Co. for Philadelphia, Baltimore and Chicago, included this 
arrangement. 

The interiors are finished in cherry stained to a dark color and 
the ceilings are of birch veneer with neat decorations. Brill pat- 
ented specialties are used for the fittings. The trucks are of the 
Brill No. 27-G-1 type with j-ft. 6-in. wheel base and 33-in. wheels. 
The cars are capable of a peed of thirty miles an hour. 



Lincoln Park. 



WORCESTER CONSOLIDATED STREET railway CO, 

The Worcester Consolidated Street Railwaj Co. owns and oper- 
ates Lincoln Park, which is located on the shore of Bake Quin- 
sigamond, a distance of about two and a half miles from the cen- 
ter of the city of Worcester, Mass, The principal attractions arc- 
operated by the company, the smaller ones being leased. They in- 
clude a rustic theater, seating about 2,200 people. Vaudeville is 
the principal form of entertainment provided, although recently a 
few operas and musical comedies have been introduced, as it is 
found that the public demands a variety. There is also a dance 
hall 50x150 ft., which is a favorite attraction, and on pleasant 
evenings it is not unusual to see over a thousand people in and 
about the hall. A skating rink and bowling alley, both of the latest 

and most approved type, have been found to pay a g 1 percentage 

on the money invested. The park is managed by .1. W. Lester. 
who is also treasurer of the Worcester Consolidated Street Rail- 
way Co. 




NEW BRILL (AltS FOR THE RRONX. 

is a continuation of Broadway. Xew York. These line- are con 
neeted with cross lines from the Sound In the Hudson, so that the 
whole section twenty miles beyond the Harlem River is well covered 
and new divisions are constantly being added. Bronx Park, with 
its ime zoological and botanical gardens, and Van Cortland Park. 
with its public golf links and large skating rink, are reached by the 
lines and many persons use the cars for pleasure rides as from many 
points the palisades .if the Hudson may he seen as well as the beau- 
tiful islands and headland- of the Sound. 

The form and dimensions of the bottom framing and upper 
structure of the cars is what the builders consider to be the stand- 
ard for the length of 28 ft oxer the body, with the excepti f 



The White City. 

The cities of Chicago, 111: Cleveland. ().; Worcester. Mass.; 

Xew Haven, Conn., and Portland, Ore., have each an amusement 

park known as "The White City." These parks were all constructed 

and equipped by the Edward C. Boyce Co.. 302 

Broadway, New York City. 

Of these parks, the White City at Chicago is 
probably the largest. It is reached by the bin- ol 
the Chicago City Ry., the Calumet Electric Street 
Ry. and the South Side Elevated R. R. Twenty- 
five hundred people per hour can he handled by 
these lines with ease. The park contains a num- 
ber of amusement devices which include a scenic 
railroad, canals ol Venice, shoot-the-chutes, light- 
ing the flames, a midget city, baby incubators, cir- 
cle swing, the humps, a band stand and several 
smaller buildings. 

A restaurant, which is known as the "( 
Inn." is contained in one of the largest and most 
imposing structures on the grounds and has ac- 
commodations for j.400 people, A noticeable fea- 
ture in connection with the buildings is the quality 
of material and the number of brick lire walls which 
insure safety and permanence of the structures. The sanitary 
arrangements are excellent and the park also includes a well- 
equipped lire department. The cost of constructing this amuse- 
ment resort was over a million dollars and it is one of the finest 
and most complete of its kind in the country. 

♦ ■ ♦ 

The Indiana Union Traction Co. has recently issued its new 
lor the current year. It includes the time tables of the entii 
tern and a handsome map of the company'- lines. The feature of 
the folder which makes it particularly attractive i- a lithographic 
cut of the Mounds Park, near Anderson, Ind. 



118 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 2. 



The National Sash Lock. 



Among the variety of car window sash locks which have been 
placed upon the market, the lock shown in the accompanying illus- 
tration presents some interesting features. The requisites of a 
good car window lock are that it permit the sash to be easily raised 
and when raised hold it securely in place. To those who are 
familiar with the average railway car window, which usually re- 
sists every effort to raise it and. when finally raised, is liable to sud- 
denly fall again, the lock which we are describing should be of 
interest. 

The illustration shows the method of operation very clearly. 
The lock contains two levers at the ends of which are teeth which 
fit into a rack fastened at the side of the sash. It is operated by 
simply compressing and releasing the levers and any jar which 
comes upon the window tends to lock it more securely. The sash 



balls encased in hardened grooves and protected by dustproof caps. 
This method of absorbing the thrust pressure is said to eliminate 
a drill trouble commonly occasioned by the cutting of the thrust 
bearing. It is easily seen that with the friction at the thrust point 
thus greatly lessened, the same amount of power exerted on the 
handles of the drill will be used at the bit point in cutting through 
the rail and not be lost in the drill mechanism. The report of an 
actual test shows that with this tool a %-m. hole may be drilled 
through an 80-lb. rail in 2 min. 4 sec. When especially heavy work 
is being done the point can be fed in at the fast feed and then 
slowed when the heavy cut is reached. In this way the "Premier" 
drill will drill holes up to I^is in. in diameter. 

The feeding device for such a drill has been improved and made 
more positive in its action by means of an ingeniously designed 
slotted lever arm carrying at its ends a pawl which engages with the 
radially flat teeth of a ratchet on the main shaft of the drill. By 
proper adjustments of the parts of this attachment, the feed may 
be varied from fast to slow in the forward position or may be 







THE NATIONAL SASH LOCK. 

may be adjusted to any point in its slide and when so adjusted will 
remain securely fastened. The levers are so arranged that if the 
bottom lever is lifted, the top lever unlocks itself, but if the top 
lever is pulled down, it will not unlock the bottom lever, so that 
to lower the window the bottom lever must be used. If by any 
chance the spring should break, the bottom lever is free and will 
hold the window by gravity. It is claimed for this sash lock that 
it will automatically adjust itself to the swelling and shrinking of 
the wood. The lock is of simple design and has few working 
parts, these parts being strong and durable. 

The lock is placed on the market by the National Lock Washer 
Co., 65-79 Johnson St., Newark, N. J. 



Some New Track Tools. 



There has very recently been placed on the market by the Cook's 
Railway Appliance Co., of Kalamazoo, Mich., a portable rail 
drill which has shown in tests that it is a very efficient tool 
This drill, known as the "Premier," has the collapsible form similar 
to this company's "Standard" drill, but the detail design of the bit 
feeding mechanism has been changed. The thrust of the drill bit 
holder in the "Premier" drill is taken up by a ball bearing with the 




FEEDING ME( IIAXJSM OF PREMIER DRILL. 

reversed so that the drill will be extricated from the hole without 
breaking the point. 

The accompanying illustration is a sectional view of Cook's 
Drill and Tool Grinder in its working position when attached to 
the ordinary portable drill frame in place of one of the crank 
handles. This device consists of a 6-in. emery wheel with its 
train of gears for driving from the portable drill handle shaft. 




TOOL GRINDER AND BIT HOLDER ATTACHED TO COOKS RAIL DRILL. 

The gears and the emery wheel are encased in a malleable iron box 
with a suitable opening and a bracket rest for holding the tool to be 
ground against the side of the emery wheel. The high speed jour- 
nals run in brass bushings and the bearings are internally oiled by 
means of tubes extending from the outer part of the shell. 



Park Apparatus. 



The Narragansett Machine Co., Providence, R. I., has recently 
issued the second edition of its catalog of playground apparatus in 
which it calls attention to the following specially desirable require- 
ments in the design and manufacture of amusement devices. 

The catalog points out that such apparatus is subjected to the 
severest use and abuse and must stand exposure to the weather under 
the worst possible conditions of heat and dust. The device should 
he simple enough to suggest its own use even to a child, should be 
safe in itself and so arranged that it will not collide or interfere 
with any other when in use. The device should also be compact and 



Feb. is, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



119 



the best possible use made of every square foot of land occupied. 
The company has been engaged in the manufacture of these prod- 
ucts for over ten years and the results obtained have been brought 
about by their long experience. The successful device suitable for 
an amusement park which this company manufactures, is its stand- 
ard bowling alley. These alleys are built in the most substantial 
manner from the best material, are durable and present a pleasing 
appearance. The company also manufactures lockers of wood or 
steel which they furnish in any size and finish. 



A Noiseless Brake Hanger. 

A new form of brake hanger, which automatically tightens as the 
bearing parts are worn thus eliminating much objectionable noise 
often caused by loose hangers, has lately been put on the market 
by the J. G. Brill Co. It is known as the Brill noiseless brake 
hanger. Mr. G. Martin Brill, the inventor of this device, has ex- 
perimented with such devices for some time and considers this 
hanger to meet the needs completely. The hanger has been in use 




QUADRUH.E TERMINAL FLEXIBLE HAIL BOND FUR HEAVY WORK. 



A Recent Design of Quadruple Terminal Bond. 

Sometime ago we presented an illustration and description of the 
American Steel & Wire Co.'s new "Twin terminal" rail bond, which 
briefly described, has for its terminals two small studs driven into 
cup-shaped holes in the head of the rail. The principle of the bond 
has been found satisfactory and the company is also promoting the 
sale of a quadruple terminal rail bond, as illustrated. This bond is 
said to have the full current carrying capacity of a 100-lb. rail and 
a joint resistance of less than one foot of rail. Due to the ease 
with which it can be applied it is especially suited for rebonding 
existing track carrying a heavy current. 

The manufacturer furnishes a special multiple-spindle drill for 
boring the holes in the lower outer edge of the ball of the rail into 
which the copper studs arc firmly driven and locked. With this 
gang drill four suitable holes can be bored at once without inter- 
fering with traffic and disturbing the joint plates. The terminals 
may be set in the rail either with the customary compressor or by 
the use of a spike maul. 



Delos Metals. 



Among the several metal mixtures used for electrical work are 
the "Delos Metals," sold by the Elmer P. Morris Co., 51 Dey St., 
New York City. These special mixtures are well adapted for dif- 
ferent uses. 

The White Bronze metal compound is recommended for its 
wearing qualities when used in electric railway motors, trucks and 
journal bearings and such other places where bearings are required 
to withstand great pressure. Its crushing strength is claimed to be 
about the same as cast iron and it will not flow under a tempera- 
ture of 1,200° F. 

The Delos Bronze metal which is used in the construction of 
overhead material has a tensile strength of 64,000 lb. per sq. in. 
and bends under about the same stress as mild steel. It can be 
worked either hot or cold and can be cast in any form desired. 
The metal is a pure copper casting made in forms to meet various 
requirements. By a special chemical process it is made quite hard 
and when used for trolley wheels it is claimed that they will not 
wear the trolley wire. The makers guarantee this metal to be 
08.98 per cent pure copper. 



The Chicago & Milwaukee Electric Railroad Co. has leased 
offices in Racine, Wis., which will be occupied by civil engineers 
and superintendents of construction. Work on the line between 
Kenosha and Milwaukee is being pushed rapidly and it is expected 
that the portion to Racine will be completed by June next. 



on various roads since last July and has proved thoroughly satis- 
factory in each case. 

By reference to the illustration it is seen that the device has few 
parts and takes up very little space. It consists of a hanger with a 
ball and socket joint at each end. The cap socket is always pressed 
firmly against the ball by a wedge-shaped casting and this casting 
is advanced and takes up the wear which is occasioned by the 
friction of the ball, by a pair 
of coil springs wdiich are suf- 
ficiently long to insure the 
proper amount of pressure at 
all times. The wedge has a 
movement of 1 ' _■ in. and ac 
cording to the experience of 
various roads, the socket cast- 
ings will last about two years 
The wear of course is reduced 
by the fact that the parts are 
constantly held closely to- 
gether. The parts are made 
of malleable casting, with the 
exception of the hanger, which 
is forged. In the illustration 
I 1 ) represents the truck tran- 
som ; (2), hanger holder; (3), 
wedge; (4). wedge adjusting 
spring, of which there are 
two; (S), upper socket; 101. 
lower socket, divided; (7 1, 
hanger; (*), brake beam. 

The noiseless brake hanger 
is made for all sizes and styles 
of trucks, and besides the 
form illustrated, is arranged 
to connect directly with a spe- 
cial style of brake shoe holder 
for trucks which have inside- 
hung brakes and where space 
must be economized. The de- 
vice will commend itself to practical railroad men, as it is 
self-adjusting and has no thread to work loose. It is now being 
used on a large number of trucks and was recently specified in an 
order of 100 trucks for an interurban railway in Ohio. 




NOISELESS BRAKE HANGER WITH 
AUTOMATIC TIGHTENER FOR 
TAKING UP WEAR. 



Capitalists at London, Windsor, Chatham ami Sarnia, Out., are 
considering the construction of an electric railway from Sarnir. to 
London and a charter for this proposed c.mpany will be applied 
for at the next session of the legislature. 



120 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vou XVI, No. 2. 



The Balance Spring Trolley Harp. 

Main types of current collecting devices have been tried, lml as 
yet the harp and wheel are standard, and any improvement in the 
design of the parts that will tend to increase the life of trolley 
wheels and Im lung is indeed welcome. The records on different 
roads indicate that the life of wheels can be increased from 4,000 
to 7,000 car miles, depending largely upon the kind of trolley sup- 
port used and the tension of the trolley pole spring. 

The United Copper Foundry Co., 11 High St., Boston, Mass.. has 
recently placed on the market a harp which has shown its value in 





BALANCE SPRING HARP AND BUSHING. 

increasing the life of trolley wheels. 
The new device is known as the Bal- 
ance Spring Harp. As is shown in the 
accompanying illustration, this harp is 
provided with a flexible contact-spring 
washer on either side of the wheel, 
which assures a continuous contact. 
By thus relieving the bushing of carry- 
ing a heavy current, the life of the 
The spring, which is composed of a spe- 
cial metal made by the company, is so arranged that it permits 
both lateral and vertical motions with the vibrations of the wheel, 
thus reducing the jar on the bushing and as the spring is at all 
times in gentle contact with the sides of the trolley wheel it pre- 
vents the usual wear between the wheel and the harp. The spring 
also carries a quantity of oil in its coils, thus assuring thorough 
lubrication. 

The cars of several eastern roads have been fitted with this im- 
proved spring harp and satisfactory results have been obtained 
under severe conditions. 



wheel is prolonged. 



Ramona Park. 



-! I ui is v SUBURBAN RAILWAY CO 



Ramona Park is served by the St. Louis & Suburban Railway 
Co. and is controlled and managed by J. L. Goss, independently of 
that company. The park is located about four miles from the 
city limits of St. Louis. It includes about 60 acres of land and 
contains a lake covering seven acres. 

The park includes the usual amusements operated at such resorts. 
The lake affords good fishing and boating facilities and there are 
also a good restaurant and a large dancing pavilion. These fea- 
tures, together with the other privileges, including the merry-go- 
round, shooting galleries, t tc, are leased each season. The park 
is a popular picnic ground and is largely patronized by the various 
fraternal orders, schools and societies of St. Louis. 



Pine Grove Park. 



CLAREMONT RAILWAY & LIGHTING CO. 



Pine Grove Park is located on the line of the Clareinont Rail- 
way S: Lighting Co. two and a half miles from the town of Clare- 
mont, N. H. It is operated and managed by its owners. M. 11.. S. J., 
and Geo. E. Moody. There is no theater included in the cono 
sions. but a place is provided in the pavilion for vaudeville perform- 
ances and a large theater is contemplated in the near future. A large 
skating rink will also be built. 

The dancing pavilion has a floor 40 x 60 ft. in size and contains 



a cal and lunch counter. There are also a shouting gallery, a 
merry-go-round, box ball alleys and a good baseball diamond. 
The natural beauty of the scenery in thi portion "i New Hamp- 
shire has left little to be done in the u.o <>l artificial additions, but 
enough care has been expended upon the grounds to make them 
very attractive from an artificial as well as a natural standpoint. 



The Circle Swing. 



In view of the increasing popularity and the already extended 
use of the circle swing in amusement parks, W e are presenting a 
description of a type of swing which is being placed on the market 
by the North Penn Iron Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 

file structural parts are of steel, heavily proportioned to give 
ample stability and the entire frame work is galvanized to prevent 
rust. 'Ibe cars are constructed in imitation of air-ships, the seats 
being well upholstered. The fringed canopy top is of heavy canvas 
covered with netting like a balloon and the entire car is finished in 
maroon and silver. A polished brass propeller is attached to the 
rear and revolves as the car moves through the air, which in 
the resemblance to an air-ship. Each car is supported by four steel 
cables, the ultimate strength of which is considerably greater than 
necessity demands. The company is planning many improvements 
to its plants now under construction. 

Each machine is built with a view to the absolute safety of its 
patrons. The company claims that so far not a single case of 
accident to the machines manufactured by it has been reported. It 
is also stated that the average receipts from these swings during the 
seasons of 1904 and 1905 show that the earning capacity of the 
circle swing is, in proportion to its cost, as great as any other 
amusement device on the market. 

This device has a number of pleasing features. The novelty of 
being carried through the air at great speed without the slightest 
jar or jolt is much enjoyed by the amusement-loving public. Its 
advertising qualities are also good, as the multi-colored flags, flutter- 
ing from the cables produce a beautiful effect by day. At night 
500 colored incandescent lamps are lit, forming a six-pointed star 
which gradually opens and closes and presents a display that may 
be seen from a great distance. 



New Pleasure Park for San Antonia, Tex. 



A new pleasure park and summer theater is to be built at San 
Antonio, Tex., by Mr. Sidney H. Weis. Plans have been prepared 
for this new resort, which will be known as the New Electric Park, 
and preliminary arrangements are being made for the construction 
work, which will be commenced in time for completion early next 
summer. Among the many amusement devices that will be installed 
will be a roller coaster, dancing pavilion, bump the bumps, skating 
rink. Mexican village and shoot-the-chutes. I hese will be installed 
along the north side of the park, while on the opposite side it is 
expected to install a carrousal, picture machine, house of troubles, 
penny arcade, museum, restaurant, zoological gardens and summer 
theater. Opposite the entrance and at the extreme end of the park 
an electric tower will be erected and a beautifully illuminated elec- 
tric fountain will be placed in the lagoon opposite the chutes. Two 
beautiful streams will run through the ground from north to south. 
The ground to be occupied by this park is 1,000 ft. deep with a 
frontage of 335 ft. on Nixon St., and 500 ft. on North Flores St. 
The property has already been purchased and work has been com- 
menced for putting the ground in preparation for the new buildings, 
concessions and various amusements. The date set for the opening 
of this resort is April 1, 1906. 



Throughout this number of the "Street Railway Review" are 
many park descriptions, and by reference it will be noted that spe- 
cial displays of fireworks have proved to be good attractions'. B. E. 
Gregory, 167 Dearborn St.. Chicago, III., is a specialist in furnishing 
pyrotechnical displays which are suitable for park attractions. For 
those desiring to give two displays a week, extending over a season 
id" six or ten weeks. Mr. Gregory furnishes at a nominal charge an 
expert capable of directing the exhibitions and making such special 
pieces and designs as would be suitable for the time and place. 



Feb. is. iooiV 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



121 



The Chicago Park Bench. 



With the opening of the park season but a few months away, park 
managers will be turning their attention to the repair and replace 

ment of their park equipment and, at this time, a presentati 

the park settee, which we here illustrate, may not be out of place. 
The bench is placed on the market by the E. 11. Stafford Manu- 
facturing Co., Chicago, 111., and is already in use in a number of 
parks. 

It is made from eight one-inch maple slats attached to irons by 
20 bolts. J4 in. in diameter, placed at each standard. The castings 
are made from new iron and have a black japanned finish, which is 




THE CHICAGO SETTEE. 

baked on. The slats have rounded edges and a hard-oil finish. The 
feet of the standards are drilled for screws with which to fasten the 
bench to the ground. The bench is furnished in lengths from four 
to seven feet and arms may be ordered as desired. The company 
also makes a folding settee in any length up to 12 ft. 



The White City. 



FT. WORTH & ROSEN HEIGHTS STREET RAILWAY CO. 



The White City is situated at Rosen Heights, about three miles 
from the city of Ft. Worth, Tex., and is owned and operated by 
the Rosen Heights Amusement Co. It is a five-cent fare on the 
lines of the Ft. Worth & Rosen Heights Street Railway Co. and 
draws its patronage from a population of nearly 100,000 people. 
The park includes a theater with a seating capacity of 1,000 and 
plays dramatic and operatic productions. There is also a large lake. 
a dancing pavilion that will accommodate 100 couples and a skating 
rink. Other amusement features are operated, including a minia- 
ture railway, a figure-eight toboggan, an aerial swing, a Ferris 
wheel, a "Katzenjammer Castle," a trip to the Alps and an old mill. 



Gee Whiz. 



The above peculiar expression is the name of a new and popular 
attraction which the Amusement Contracting Co., Philadelphia, Pa 
is introducing in a number of amusement parks. 

The machine consists of four steel arms which radiate from a cen- 
tral revolving table at an angle of about 45 with the horizontal, 
each arm carrying a cab accommodating four passengers. The best 
materials are used in the construction of this device and the me- 
chanical parts are very simple. The steel arms carrying the cabs 
are made sufficiently strong to carry many times the load placed 
upon them. The cabs are of ornamental design and finished in panel 
work. An electric motor of about seven horse powei capacitj fur- 
nishes the motive power. The plant occupii - a -pice 50 ft. in diame- 
ter, enclosed by a circular fence. 

The four cabs make 20 trips per hour and with a five-cent fare 
and four passengers to a cab, the machine has an earning capacity 
of $16 per hour. The expense of maintenance and operation is 
about 57 cents per hour. A ticket seller and two attendants are all 
that are required to operate the machine. 




122 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. -'• 



The Circle Swing for Parks. 

Among the numerous amusement devices operated in the various 
pleasure resorts of the country few enjoy wider popularity and 
give greater satisfaction than the "Circle Swing Flying Machine," 
or "airships," as they are generally called. The chief attraction 
of these devices is the pleasant effect produced by the rapid motion 
through the air. A very attractive type of this apparatus, which we 
illustrate herewith, is placed upon the market by the Traver Circle 
Swing Co., New York City It was first brought out in the season 
of 1903, and since that time sixty-eight have been built in many of 
the principal resorts of the country. 

The cars are suspended, as shown, from strongly supported arms 
at the top of the tower by '/i-'m. steel cables. These arms are 
attached to a solid steel shaft which runs to the base of the swing 
where the bottom of it turns in a step bearing. The structure is 
steel throughout and a factor of safety of 20 was maintained in 
designing all parts of the machine. The steel parts of the plant 
are galvanized so as to prevent rust. The cars are built in capaci- 
ties up to twelve persons each. The seats are made of rattan 
stiffened with iron and upholstered with reed-work over a frame 
well supplied with springs. 

The operation of the circle swing is said to be noiseless and 



stopovers permitting visits at the Florida winter resorts, is now 
offered. The Gulf steamers of this line make six sailings each week 
between Florida points and Cuba. 



The Increasing Popularity of Roller Skates. 

The use of roller-skating rinks as park attractions is fast be- 
coming general and the Samuel Winslow Skate Manufacturing 
Co. of Worcester, Mass., advises that large orders for roller 
skates, to be supplied for the 1906 season, foretell the return of the 
roller-skating fad. This company has manufactured skates of all 
kinds since 1873 and is therefore a pioneer in its line. With this 
experience, extending over a period of nearly 35 years, it has been 
possible to greatly perfect the methods and products of its plants. 
1 here are now being manufactured many patterns of skates, each 
one of which is said to be adapted to the particular use for which 
it is designed. The qualities of strength, durability and symmetry 
are prominent in these products. 



The Ocean Shore Railway. 



TRfWER 

CIRCLE 

. SWINC 



A PRACTICAL 
FLYING 

> MACHINE 




THE TRAVER CIRCLE SWING. 

without vibration. The cars start from the ground level and are 
gradually moved faster and faster, increasing the speed and the 
diameter until they have attained their greatest height. Then the 
power is slowly reduced and the car gently lowered to the ground. 
The speed regulation is secured by an electric controller governing 
all the machinery in operation. 

The company has installed swings at Paragon Park. Nantasket 
Beach. Boston, Mass.; the White City, Chicago, 111.; Elitch Gar- 
dens, Denver, Col.; the Chutes, San Francisco. Cab; Forest Park 
Highlands. St. Louis. Mo., and Paradise Park, Ft. George, New 
York. 



The electric line which the Ocean Shore Railway Co. has under 
construction will extend from San Francisco 
to Santa Cruz, a distance of 82 miles. The 
road will be double-tracked throughout its 
entire length. Its train service will be han- 
dled by 43 GE-66 four-motor equipments with 
type M control. It is said that these units 
will be capable of a maximum speed of 60 
m. p. h. The catenary type of line construc- 
tion will be used with a direct current line 
pressure of 600 volts. 

The power house will be located at Balboa 
and will contain two three-phase, 2,000-kw., 
2,300-volt, 25-cyclc, flywheel type generators 
driven by vertical cross-compound engines at 
a speed of 107 r. p. m. The output of these 
generators will be stepped up from 2,200 to 
33,000 volts, the line pressure by seven 1,000- 
kw., water-cooled transformers. The exciting 
current will be furnished by one 90-kw. ca- 
pacity, induction motor driven exciter and 
on 125-kw. engine-driven exciter." There 
will be 10 sub stations, each containing one 
500-kw., six-phase, 600-volt rotary converter 
with the necessary auxiliary apparatus. Eight 
of these sub-stations will be permanently lo- 
cated along the line, one will be installed in 
the generating station and two will be of the 
portable type mounted on cars which can be 
shifted as required to take care of the excep- 
tional load conditions. The electrical cquip- 

conditions. The electrical equipment will be furnished by the 

General Electric Co. 



Out of the Cold. 



Special low rates to the winter resorts of the South are now avail- 
able. W. A. Beckler, northern passenger agent of the Queen & 
Crescent route, whose office is at 113 Monroe St., Chicago, 111., 
advises that winter tourist tickets with generous stopover privileges 
and long time limits are now on sale and that on receipt of notice, 
he will be pleased to forward interesting illustrated booklets and 
particulars regarding the various trips offered. A special rate of 
$69 for the trip from Chicago to Havana, Cuba and return, with 



The Herschell, Spillman Co. 

The Herschell. Spillman Co., North Tonawanda, N. Y., has re- 
cently purchased the plant and assets of the Armitage-Herschell Co.. 
of that city. This means the combining of two large factories which 
have, in years past, supplied a great part of the many riding gal- 
leries, ocean-wave galleries, miniature railways and other attractions 
that have been placed in many outdoor amusement resorts. 
Both plants will be operated by the Herschell, Spillman Co., and 
the combined floor space will be more than 100,000 sq. ft. 

The president of the Herschell, Spillman Co., Allan Herschell. 
has been engaged in operating and manufacturing amusement de- 
vices for 23 years, and the heads of the different departments of this 
company are thoroughly trained in their respective lines of work. 
This combination of men, space and machinery will enable the giv- 
ing of more careful attention to all orders. 



A movement is on foot to secure street railway cars for the col- 
lection of mail in Denver. 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



Vol. XVI 



MARCH 15, 1906 



No. 3 



The Puget Sound Electric Railway. 

Being an Extended Description of Its Physical Features, Equipment, Passenger and Freight Traffic, 

Operating System and Accounting. 



In the extreme northwestern part of the United States there is a 
portion of the State of Washington which attracts the attention of 
the American public because of its favorable climate and the marvel- 
ous growth of its importing and exporting trade. This increase has 



has a population of 170,000. Tacoma, although a smaller city, handles 
more commerce, both in imports and exports, than either Seattle or 
Portland, Ore., and is situated 36 miles south of Seattle. Tacoma has 
a population of 85,000. 




TRACK SCENE AT SIDING BETWEEN KENT AND TACOMA. — PUGET SOUND ELECTRIC RY. 



been especially rapid during the past 15 years, the trading in 1905 
amounting to over $35,000,000. This attractive region is known as 
the "Puget Sound District." Its two chief cities and sea-ports are 
Seattle and Tacoma. Seattle, the great business rival of San Fran- 
cisco, is favored with the trade from Alaska and the Klondike and 



These attractive cities are connected by the Puget Sound Electric 
Ry., with its tracks paralleling the Northern Pacific Ry. for a greater 
part of the distance. As the electrical equipment is capable of high 
speeds, it is interesting to passengers to see the electric trains over- 
take and pass the fast "North Coast Limited'' of the steam railroad. 



124 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 3. 



On the route between Seattle and Tacoma are the cities of George- 
town, 4.000, Kenton, 2.000, Kent, 2,500, Auburn, 1,200 and a large 
number of smaller towns. The road passes through the "Puyallup", 
"White River" and "Stuck" valleys which are the most productive 



and transport a large amount of carload freight consisting of 
coal from the company's mines at Renton and logs from its sawmill 
at Milton, a substantial type of track and roadbed was built. Many 
of the trains are operated at high speeds and the track therefore 




TERMINAL STATION AT TACOMA. 



of any in the slate and serve as feeders of produce, milk, cattle, etc.. 
for a large portion of the freight business of this well-equipped 
railway. 

Track Construcion. 

As the equipment and traffic are of an exceptionally heavy class 




MAP OF THE PUGET SOUND DISTRICT SHOWING THE ROUTE OF THE 
INTERURBAN. 



is maintained in a thorough manner. The general route of the line 
is from the water front at Seattle nearly south to a point from where 
tire line extends westward into Tacoma. As will be noted from the 
illustrations, the general lay of the land through which this roadbed 
has been built is quite rough, but the construction is thorough and 
the track is of such design as will permit of high-speed operation. 
In Tacoma and Seattle there are few grades while on the route 
between the two cities there are grades varying from i l / 2 to 2 per cent. 
Eighty-four per cent of the track between Tacoma and Seattle is 
constructed on tangents and 75 per cent of the curves have a radius 
of 5737 ft. (10 degrees) or more. 

The track is of standard construction with 70-lb. rails in 30-ft. 
lengths laid on fir ties of standard dimensions. The entire line, which 
is 36.5 miles in length, is ballasted with 15 inches of gravel, and 
since the road was first opened, Oct. 5, 1902, the roadbed has needed 
no resurfacing. Power is distributed to the rolling stock through 
a working conductor consisting of a 100-lb. third-rail and auxiliary 
cables. 

There are two grade crossings with steam railroads, one in Seattle 
and one in Tacoma. Each is protected by gates and a flagman. The 
country road crossings are well guarded on account of the presence 
of the third-rail. At all road intersections warning signs are dis- 
played cautioning against trespassing upon the right of way. 
Transmission Lines. 

Current for the operation of the line is supplied by the Puget 
Sound Power Co. from its water power generating station at Elec- 
tron, Wash. This station, as described and illustrated in the "Street 
Railway Review" for Sept. 20, 1904, has an installed capacity of 
20,000 h. p. with an ultimate capacity of 40,000 h. p. 

Three-phase current is generated at 2,300 volts, and is stepped up 
to 55.000 volts for transmission. From the power house two parallel 
transmission lines extend for a distance of 22 miles to Bluffs, a 
station on the line 9 miles from Tacoma and 25 miles from Seattle. 
From Bluffs one line parallels the tracks of the interurban for the 
greater part of the distance to Seattle, and one line extends to Ta- 
coma, also paralleling the electric railway tracks. There is also 
a second transmission line paralleling the track between Seattle and 
Tacoma now operated at 27.000 volts, but designed for operation at 
double this pressure. This latter transmission line is at present used ex- 
clusively for distributing power to the three sub-stations at Milton, 
Kent, and Georgetown, respectively 6.59, 19.63 and 32.53 miles from 
Tacoma, the circuit being looped through each sub-station. Both the 
55,000 and 27,000-volt lines enter the receiving stations at Seattle 
and Tacoma. 

In the original transmission scheme high-tension current was 



March 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



125 



received at die Kent sub-station and distributed to the Milton 
and Georgetown sub-stations. At these sub-stations the arrange- 
ment of the high-tension switches permitted the line being cut 
through from the Tacoma station to the Seattle station. At 



Georgetown sub-station. There is also a 300,000-c. m. feeder extend- 
ing from the Georgetown sub-station to the Milton sub 1 .1 1 ion. 
Passenger I raffic. 
The passenger service between Tacoma and Seattle includes 34 




PASSENGER AND FREIGHT STATION AT KENT. 



present current is received at the Tacoma receiving station of the 
Tacoma Railway & Power Co. at 50,000 volts and delivered to the 
three sub-stations at 27,000 volts. Two 500-kw., 2,300 to 27,000-volt 
transformers at Seattle furnish a relay in case of failure of the 
transformers in Tacoma. When the 27,000-volt line is changed to 
carry 55,000 volts pressure, there will be two independent transmis- 
sion lines from the power house at Electron to Bluffs, and from 
Bluffs to Tacoma and Seattle. 

Sub-Stations. 

As previously stated there are three sub-stations located respectively 
at Milton, Kent and Georgetown. Each sub-station consists of a brick 
generator and transformer building 25x40 ft. in size, and a wooden 
battery room 5ix5_> T j ft. in size. A brick fireproof wall separates 
the transformer and generator rooms. The original equipment of 
each consists of two 180-kw., oil-cooled transformers which step down 
the three-phase current from 27,000 volts to 2,200 and no volts, a 
spare transformer being installed in the Kent sub-station. Recently 
200-kw., 50,000 and 25,000 to 2,300-volt, oil-cooled transformers have 
been substituted for the original transformers in the three sub-sta- 
tions, this change being necessitated by the proposed increase of line 
voltage from 25,000 to 50,000 volts. There is also in each sub- 
station one 300-kw., G. E., induction motor generator set consisting 
of a 450-h. p., 2,200-volt, two-phase induction motor and a 300-kw., 
600-volt, direct-current generator. Each storage battery has 288 type 
"G" chloride accumulator cells with a one-hour discharge rate of 
640 amperes. Eacli battery has in connection with it a differential- 
wound booster. 

A 100-lb. third-rail is used, supported on reconstructed granite insu- 
lators, one insulator to every fifth tie, the center line being at a dis- 
tance of 20 in. from the gage line of the track rail, and having a 
top surface 6?s in. above the top of the track rail The third-rail 
extends from the Race Track, 4.25 miles from the city limits of 
Seattle, to the city limits of Tacoma, a total distance of 28.15 miles. 
Overhead trolley is used from the Race Track to the city limits of 
Seattle and within the city limits of Seattle and the city limits 
of Tacoma. In order to make the cross-section of the conductor 
uniform throughout, two 500,000-c. m. feeders supplement the 
trolley and trolley feeders from the end of the third-rail to the 



trains a day, a train of two or three cars leaving every hour from 
either end of the line. Four of the trains run on a limited schedule, 
making no stops between the two cities. The total distance of 36 
miles is covered in 1 hr. 15 min. The terminals of the route are at 




SUB-STATION ANI> CAR HOUSES AT KENT. 

the center of the business portions ol the two cities and here trans- 
fers arc given over local lines to all points within the limits of either 
city. In Seattle, there are 1.64 miles of track over which trains 
must operate at a slow speed and a similar condition exists in operat- 
ing over 2.36 miles of the route in Tacoma. In the schedules, 15 



126 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 3. 



minutes' time is allowed for running this four miles of track within 
the limits of the two cities, thus leaving 32 miles which must be run 
in 45 minutes in order to maintain the established schedule time. 
From a junction point, 12 miles south of Seattle, there is a branch 



this branch are of the same type. Each train consists of one motor 
and one trailer. 

Freight Traffic. 
The Puget Sound Electric Ry. has given much attention to build- 




BIRDS-EYE VIEW OF THE CITY OF TACOMA, A TERMINAL OF THE PUGET SOUND 



2.2 miles long, serving the town of Renton. On this branch line, 
an hourly service with 33 trains a day is operated. This service 
combined with that of the through line makes a total of 67 passenger 
trains a day operating on 44.8 miles of single track. 

The rolling stock for the main line passenger service consists of 
7 combination passenger and baggage coaches and 8 trailers. For 
the Renton branch 3 motor cars and 2 trailers. These passenger 
equipments were built by the J. G. Brill and the John Stevenson 
companies. The main line passenger cars are 43 ft. long over 
bumpers and 9 ft. wide over all. The motor cars weigh 42 tons 
each when empty, and have a seating capacity of 42 passengers. 
The interiors are handsomely finished in mahogany and have seats 
of the "walk-over" type, upholstered in green plush in the trail 
cars and rattan in the motor cars. The interior arrangement is 
similar to that of a standard railroad coach. The cars are pro- 















,^^^fljft 








*^~^^- 


n 


1 


4#5iaJB 











ing up its freight business against very strong competition by water 
and rail. The results illustrate what can be done by an active freight 
campaign and show that 10,131 cars of freight were handled during 
the year 1905. This does not include express and less than carload 
lot freight, which traffic has grown to large proportions. Owing to 
the excellent service given this class of freight, merchants in 
Seattle and Tacoma have realized that it is to their advantage to 
patronize the electric lines entirely. These advantages also apply to 
the farmers and market gardeners between Seattle and Tacoma who 
make nearly all of their shipments of vegetables and fruit over 
the electric lines. 

At Tacoma and Seattle there are large packing house plants. 
Three to five cars of fresh meat are handled daily to and from these 
points. The refrigerator cars used for this traffic are built with all 
the more recent improvements for handling fresh meat. Special 
tracks are hung from the car roofs so that meat can be run directly 




STANDARD PASSENGER AND FREICTTT DEPOT AT WAY STATIONS. 



FREIGHT DEPOT AT SEATTLE. 



vided with lavatories and are heated by electricity. The motive 
power equipment consists of four GE-66 motors on each car with 
type-M multiple-unit control. The trucks are of the Brill 27-E type 
with 33-in. steel wheels and 6-in. axles. All cars are fitted with a 
Westinghouse automatic air-brake equipment and hand brakes. 

The motor cars for the Rentfcn branch are 42 ft. long and 8 ft. 
6 in. wide. Their interior finish is mahogany and their seating 
capacity is sufficient for 44 passengers. Each car is equipped with 
four GE-57 motors and two K-14 controllers. The trail cars for 



from the packing house into the car and from the cars back into the 
packing house. 

The company's sawmill, which is located at Milton seven miles 
from Tacoma, has a capacity of 50,000 ft. per day. Thr timber is 
brought down to the mill on a logging spur seven miles l„ng. This 
branch is operated with steam locomotives. The output of the 
mill is sold in Tacoma and Seattle and the handling of this carload 
traffic adds materially to the freight traffic. Coal mines owned by 
Stone & Webster are located at Renton. The coal is carried over 



March 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



127 



the electric line and sold at its terminal cities. The freight traffic 
also includes the handling of the outputs of the Renton Clay Co., the 
Seattle Glass Co., a large stone quarrv. the Denny Clay Co. and the 
interchange of outputs between the packing houses in Seattle and 



intendents' Association of American Steam Railroads. This code 
is in general use throughout the country. 

The question might possibly arise as to why the Puget Sound 
Electric Ry. is operated upon this system when it is an electric road 




ELECTRIC RY. — THE TERMINAL BUILDING IS NEAR THE TOWER AT THE LEFT. 



Tacoma. An express milk train operating between the two terminal 
cities, handles about 5,000 gallons of milk daily. 

There are two freight trains each way between the terminal cities. 
All carload freight is handled at night and the express matter is 
handled during the day. The freight equipment consists of 2 freight 
locomotives ; 2 express cars each equipped with four GE-66 motors 
and type-M multiple-unit control; 65 flat cars, 25 coal hoppers, 15 
box cars, 14 gondolas and 5 refrigerator cars. All the freight cars 
are M. C. B. standard with brakes hung from the trucks and 
are equipped with automatic air and tower couplers, thus permit- 
tins the cars to be interchanged with the steam lines. Such an 
interchange of traffic brings to the electric road many carload ship- 
ments which are distributed to points on its lines. One operating 
feature of importance to the merchants and business men of Seattle 
and Tacoma is the interchange of traffic between the Seattle Elec- 




EAGGAGE AND EXPRESS MOTOR CAR WITTT TRAILERS. 

trie Co.'s lines in Seattle and the Tacoma Railway & Power Co.'s 
lines in Tacoma. As the tracks of the three companies are of 
standard gage, cars can be switched to any point where the city 
systems have sidings and yard facilities for handling carload ship- 
ments. 

System of Operating. 
The operating department is conducted upon about the same 
lines as those of single-track, steam railways and has for its code 
the standard rules and regulations, formulated by the General Super- 



connecting but two cities. In answer to this it may be sta*»d that 
it has 44 miles of single track, 67 first-class passenger trains a day, 
to say nothing of specials, freights, work and express trains and is 
operating at a speed of from 45 to 60 miles per hour; there are 23 
stations which are not regular meeting points, but which are used 
to assist trains falling late, and irregular trains, in making up time. 
This cannot be done except by telegraph or telephone, of which the 
former is considered the most reliable. 

For movements of trains not provided- for by the time table, train 
orders are issued by the authority and over the signature of the 
superintendent. They must contain neither information nor instruc- 
tions not essential to such movements. They must be brief and 
clear in the prescribed forms when applicable, and without erasure, 




RAILWAY COMPANY'S SAWMILL AT MILTON. 

alteration or interlineation. Each train order must be given in the 
same words to all trains or persons directly affected. Train orders 
must be given each day, begining with No. 1 at midnight. 

All trains orders are written on the standard forms Nos. 19 and 
31X and the clearance card, which is illustrated. Form No. 31 is 
used for orders restricting the rights of trains. Form No. 19 may 
be used for orders assisting trains of an inferior class or making 
meeting points between trains, in which case they are also sent to the 
operator at the meeting point in addition to being sent to each train 



128 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 3. 



at some preceding office. The clearance card is used to designate 
the number of the "19" or "31" orders that are held by the operator 
for delivery, and cannot be delivered by him to the train addressed 
until he has asked and received from the train dispatcher a clear- 
ance of this form. 



required to pass an examination upon the use of the automatic and 
straight air equipments. 

Conductors and trainmen are uniformed according to specifications 
indicated by the management, and their appearance is regularly- 
inspected. As much care is exercised in the employment of men 




MAKING GOOD USE OF A LARGE NUMBER OF FLAT CARS AS A 



Train orders must' be addressed to those who are to execute them, 
naming the place at which each is to receive his copy. Those for a 
train must be addressed to the conductor and motorman, and also to 
anyone who acts as pilot. A copy for each person addressed must 
be supplied by the operator and a rule adopted by this company, 
which is probably in force on but few roads, is to furnish a 
copy of these orders to the trainmen for the additional safety of 
the train. The conductor has charge of the train and receives and 
signs for all train orders and, upon delivering the motorman his 
copy before the starting of the train from a station, the motorman 
is required to read it aloud in the presence of the conductor, as both 




LONG TRESTLE AT RENT0N. 

motorman and conductor are held equally responsible for the safety 
of the train. 

Conductors, motormen, trainmen, agents, and dispatchers are re- 
quired to pass an examination of 100 per cent upon the rules per- 
taining to the transportation department at the beginning of their 
service and once every six months thereafter. Motormen, con- 
ductors and trainmen are required to pass a prescribed examination 
before the company's physician for vision, color perception, hearing, 
and physical condition at the time of employment. Motormen are 



with good temperaments as is used in inquiring into their capabili- 
ties of handling passengers and trains. 

A time inspector examines the watches of the conductors and 
motormen once every two weeks, marking upon a card held by the 
employe the condition of the watch. The employe signs a sheet 
record when his watch is checked, which is sent to the trainmaster's 
office who in turn checks up those who fail to have their watches 
attended to at the proper time. At the end of six months a general 
examination is made, and a new certificate issued for all watches 
passing the mark. The time inspector also regulates the station and 
standard clocks. 

Sixty-seven first-class passenger trains are operated daily on a 
printed time table. This does not include irregular trains such as 
specials, freights, work and express trains having no rights other 
than those conferred upon them by train orders. The passing of 
all trains, regular and irregular, is recorded upon a dispatchers 
sheet, showing the train number, motor car number and cars, and 
the motormen's and conductors' names. The causes of all delays 
longer than five minutes are reported by the conductor and recorded 
by the dispatcher under the head of "Remarks" at the bottom of the 
train sheet. After twelve o'clock, midnight, a report is made to the 
manager, superintendent, chief engineer, superintendent of power and 
the master mechanic, showing delays to trains by reason of track 
defects, power failures, motor failures, weather condition, accidents, 
etc., during the previous twenty-four hours. 

The following are the various forms of train orders in use: 
Form A : No. 1 will meet No. 2 at Kent. 
Form B: Extra 501, north, will run ahead of No. 64, Kent to 

Orillia. 
Form C: Extra 552, south, has right over No. 3, Milton to Tacoma. 
Form D: Regular trains have right over No. 57, Georgetown to 

Seattle. 
Form E : No. 25 will run twenty minutes late, Riverton to Edge- 
wood. 
Form F: 

506. 
Form G : 



No. 52 will carry signals, Tacoma to Seattle, for motor 
Motor 500 will run extra, Seattle to Renton, on Sunday. 



February 17th, as follows, with right over all trains: 



March 15, 1906.] 






STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



129 



Leave Seattle 9 :oo a. m. 

Argo 9:10 a.m. 

Davis 9:20 a.m. 

Renton Jet. 9 :30 a. m. 

Ar. Renton 9 :3S a. m. 



to the moving of rapid trains in the use of this sj -tern which the 
telegraph has shown itself able to overcome. 

In the 44 miles of road are 28 stations, at which trains can meet 
or pass. Eight of these are each manned by an agent who is a 
telegraph operator and who. in addition to his duties connected with 









J6 




«l 


— 5M 


EJffi 


§ 




1 z 


I— j— » ( 1 1 1 ll 


* 


' * 1 - -- 
I' ■ X — ^ 


te&r '■ ■-■"W l ! 




^WT., 3 n 


:-« — 1 ' — * 





iCIAL TRAIN FOR HANDLING THE CROWDS ATTENDING THE RACES. 



Form H : Motor 503 will run extra, Tacoma to Milton. 

Form K: No. 57, of Sunday, February 17th, is annulled, Tacoma 

to Seattle. 
Form S: Extra 508, north, has right over Extra' 507, south, Tacoma 
to Kent. Waits at Wapato until 12:10 p. m. and at Bluffs until 
12 :30 p. m. for Extra 507. 

For example, should it become necessary to send out a special 
train which is not designated on the time card, Form H would be 
used, and this train would clear the time of all schedule trains be- 
tween the points mentioned in the order, and can go no farther 
than the limits mentioned. Should it also be necessary to send an 
additional train out on the road, which is not indicated on the time 
card, riming in an opposing direction between the points designated 
on Form H, Form A would be used, designating the point at which 
they would meet. 

Form E is used to assist all irregular trains that may be on the 
road at the time "No. 25" has been delayed 20 minutes for some 
reason known only to the dispatcher, which enables all trains receiv- 
ing this order to use the delayed time, thereby keeping all trains 
moving. 

While the explanation of train orders is an interesting subject, it 
would require too much space to explain all of the different forms 
and their uses in emergencies, and it might be of interest to some 
to know that in an examination of the trainmen on the standard 
rules, there are 250 questions. These examples illustrate how all 
trains are kept constantly moving. 

The system of handling trains is by telegraph. The telephone 
is used as an auxiliary, and only called into requisition for train 
orders in cases of emergency, its principal convenience lying in the 
transaction of business between agents and officers of the company, 
and between the superintendent of power and his assistants. The 
dispatching of trains by telephone was discarded for the telegraph 
in the early operation of the road, on account of the great danger 
found in combinations of words and figures on the telephone that 
would cause collisions of trains. The heavy induction on the tele- 
phone lines from the high-tension wires on the same poles caused a 
roar that would transform figures and names of stations into those 
that were not meant. There were many other dangers incident 



the commercial business of the company, handles orders for trains. 
Twenty stations are fitted with telephone booths at which conductors 
can get instant communication with the train dispatcher. Should a 
train become live minutes behind its schedu'ed running time, the 
rules require that the conductor report at the first telephone booth 
for a change of meeting points with opposing trains, unless it should 
be a telegraph station, at which place the orders are always ready, 









■oHB 














9^1 


WSS'' 






^ . 




^Tu^ 




tk 





A VIEW (F GRADE SHOWING HEAVY SIDE-HILL WORK. 

changing the scheduled meet to another point and thus keeping all 
trains moving, overcoming the delays, and enabling the trains de- 
layed to go to their destinations on time. 

Accounting. 

The general system of accounting conforms as nearly as possible 
to that outlined by the American Street & Interurban Railway Ac- 
countants' Association, with sufficient changes and additions to admit 
of u thorough accounting of the different tVes collected and mer- 



130 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 3. 



chandise handled. Agents are maintained at all principal stations, 
where both single and round trip tickets are on sale. Conductors 
are provided with round trip tickets for the convenience of patrons 
who do not have time to buy their tickets at the stations and for 



of all freight received and forwarded and send it to the auditor's 
office, where one is checked against the other and the agent notified 
of any inaccuracy or failure to report a shipment. 
All shipments consigned to points where the company has no 




TRAIN OF 12, 30-TON HOPPER CARS EN ROUTE FROM RENTON MINES TO SEATTLE. 



patrons boarding the trains where agents are not employed. This 
form of ticket is illustrated. 

Ohmer registers of the 12-fare type are used, and it is the policy 
to have the conductor register each passenger carried. To this end 
employes are given either a trip or quarterly pass. When a quar- 
terly pass is used the holder thereof is required to sign a receipt, 
which is taken up and registered as a ticket. This receipt is illus- 
trated. 

The company has adopted forms for use in connection with its 
freight business similar to those in use by steam roads. At stations 
where the company has agents the shipper gets a receipt for mer- 
chandise delivered for shipment. \ way-bill is then made out 



agent must be prepaid. Shipments from such stations going "col- 
lect" are way-billed by the conductors, who, at the end of their run, 
send all way-bills, whether received from an agent or made out by 
themselves, to the auditor, who in turn checks them against the 
received and forwarded abstracts. 

All agents make a daily balance sheet and a daily ticket report. 
On the last day of the month these forms are sent to the auditor 
accompanied by a monthly summary, together with a list of the un- 
collected accounts. As a matter of convenience to a responsible 
regular shipper, his account is settled weekly, which makes it neces- 
sary for the general office to keep well informed and allow none to 
run over the date on which settlement should be made. 




PASSENGER TRAIN MADE IT LIT STANUAUD ROLLING -1' I I. 



in triplicate by the agent, the original given to the conductor, one 
copy sent to the receiving agent and the third filed in the office of the 
forwarding agent. The receiving agent expenses all shipments on 
a duplicate form. This agent makes all collections, taking a 
receipt from the consignee and remits to the assistant treasurer daily. 
Each agent and each conductor is required to make a daily abstract 



The revenue, as well as the expenses, are separated on the general 
books so that it is possible at any time to obtain a statement of either 
the passenger or freight business, all passenger expense accounts 
taking the standard schedule and the freight expense accounts being 
designated by the letter "F" after the name of the account. Charges 
such as wages of trainmen and repairs to cars are easily distributed 



March 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



between the passenger and freight accounts, but such items as 
repairs to track, power, etc., have to be divided according to the 
mileage, which is considered equitable. 



131 



of track, 75 passenger, 54 flat and 4 box cars. The machine shop 
has the latest types of tools including a lathe with a 36-in. swing 
suitable for boring wheels and a 200-ton hydraulic wheel press. This 



Stuoe oz Webster Form A 640. 5oM-fr©s. 

EXPENSE BILL 



Car Initials 



. Car jVo. W. B. 



For Charges 

11 11 d Freight from 



Pro. No. - 

Date 

Station 

To PUGET SOUND ELECTRIC RY. 



DESCRIPTION OF ARTICLES 



Consign or 



Freight 



Advances 



The Expense kill Will be detached, and, on payment of charges, delivered to 
Consignee. The receipt for delivery of the goods will bl signed by Consignee. 

Received Payment for the Company, 



EXrENSE BILL GIVEN SHIPPER. (ORIGINAL 8"4x<Pj4 IN.) 



Total 



jfdeiit. 



The repair shops are located in Tacoma and occupy an entire 
block on A St. betwen 13th and 14th Sts. This location is one 



Puget Sound Electric fly. KK * 


O 


1 


04,,!, TOBERETAIHfO UU 

MUD by cinductdr Fill 


■ 




> 


! 


| 


SEATTLE 
ARGO 


O 
O 


O 
O 


i, 




'\ 


1 


GEORGETOWN 


O 







J 




MEADOWS 


O 


O 


Thil 


' t 




' . 


RIVERSIDE 


O 


O 


good 1 


l f 


■\ i>Or- 


FOSTEH 


O 


O 


ta-.ion. 




uJi be 


GARDEN 


O 


O 


detach 


' r 


.jfcor- 


BLACK RIVER 


O 


n 














by Co: 


111 


o||| 


RENTON IUKC 


O 











RENTON 


O 





Exat 




- ffli nt 


ill-ll. LA 


O 





paid b 
to be i 


i H 
liB 


tJH by 


O'BRIEN 








punch 


'T 


oHuc- 


KENT 








tor. 






THOMAS 
















CHRISTOPHER 








H 


J 




r, ' 


AUBURN 
STUCK 









ill 


B| 













BLUFFS 
















EOCEWO00 

MILTCH 
FIFE 










IK* 


| 


C|£T 


WAPATO 














TACOMA 








CASH 


is r 2d , 25 1 30 1 as 


IGOItt 


mo 


70 j 75 f «0 1 Bi 
J10 ttb H11 tpr 


ii» KilBUM- 


1*1* 


MJNTH 


MirlJQUlJoJjIlug'Septl 


lei HoT.nw 


Mr of 


1 |2|3|4|B|S|7|8|BI10IU|L 


2 13 


116 
10.31 




6,1 


111 


1(20 


21122,28,21,3125,2712 


3,28 





I 
O 
I 


*?A A iE Puget Sound. Electric Ry. 


h 


ndturn "pissswiT HH ^ 


O 





SEATTLE 




O 
O 


o 
o 


ARGO 
GEORGETOWN 


NOTE. 


O 
O 

O 



o 
o 
o 
o 


MEADOWS 
RIVERSIDE 
FOSTER 
GARDEN 


This Ticket when 
properly punched 
by Conductor will 
be honored for re- 








o 
o 
o 


BLACK RIVER 
RENTON JUNC 
RENTON 


turn passage be- 
tween stations 
punched. 










o 



o 
o 


ORILLA 
OBRtEN 
KENT 
THOMAS 


Exact Amount 
paid ny passenger 
to be indicated by 
punch of Conduc- 
tor. 





o 


CHRISTOPHER 










o 


AUBURN 
STUCK 


1} Manager. 





o 


BLUFFS 







o 
o 


EDGEWOOD 
MILTON 













o 
o 


FIFE 
WAPATO 


TRAIN TICKET 





o 


TACOMA 




66 1 60 1 55 I 60 1 ■ 1 W 1 35 1 3 
• I « lOttlHOIMOIOSIOOIS 

I,*; Hur Oct Stpl log lull Jum a»j 


i 25 1 20 1 15 1 cult 
5IB0I75I7D MID 

Ipr Mar Feb| las MONTH 


15114113112111110 10 181 7 101 


5:1 1312' 1 Lit cf 


31.30 


202 


! 27,25,26 2( 23,22 21 


atluiiimiMi m,T " 



POUND TRIP TICKET SOLD ON TRAINS. (ORIGINAL, CARD, i, l /2f.Af/l IN.) 

block from Pacific Ave., the principal business street of the city. 
These shops take care of the equipment of the Puget Sound Elec- 
tric Ry. and the Tacoma Railway & Power Co. The latter company 
operates the city and suburban lines of Tacoma which have 86 miles 



latter serves for-pressing on and off the small wheels used in the city 
equipments and the 33-in., 700-lb. steel wheels used with the interur- 
ban equipments. All the armature winding and electrical repairs 
for the city and interurban equipments are made in this shop. 

The blacksmith shop is well-equipped for repairing the rolling 
stock and building special track work. The company maintains a 
sufficient force to build all its own special track work such as frogs, 
switches, crossovers, etc. In the blacksmith shop is an 800-lb. steam 
hammer which has been found very useful. An interesting portion 
of the blacksmith shop equipment is an improved double furnace 



■to... i w>l*ut l.-rit. I 



Puget Sound Electric Railway. 

CLEARANCE CARD. 



l90_ 



Conductor and Motorman No. 

OHDBKSFOK / Form "• 19" 
vouk train are j Form "SI" 



(V urn lUtlt-l f , , 



all unler Sumher* will b» *lieckml 1., .i,..[*tri,iy aud> 



MADE 



BY 



SICNAL IS OUT FOR 



M 



OPR. 



tm. dm* nui [ptorferw nttb'tr DountennRwd nay wdrti lull 
iMndnvt»nitiiiM iljtfifl .J-« r "in ji '■-.'■'■■ u-Btuiiai.irfM. 

t'tJUilUi I'-- M|i| UtllvrtU>u UUat OV'Ia Uatlaj 1 ,;nl SMl U 
\- .'it Kb .re L ILU 



, Lta»l LUIII Utlll kit aaUTrnaUl l*tLf;fea>.a|l 



CLEARANCE CARD. (ORIGINAL SX4I4 IN.) 

10x12 ft. in size. This furnace is especially useful in building trucks, 
tempering springs and doing similar steel work. It is of sufficient 
size to heat at one time the entire side of a truck frame. All the 
brass castings, journal bearings, trolley wheels, overhead switches, 



132 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 3. 



crossovers, car trimmings, etc., are cast in the brass foundry from a 
portion of the scrap copper which accumulates in the different depart- 
ments. 

On account of the high freight rates to the principal car-building 
establishments which are 3,000 miles distant, a carpenter shop has 
been well equipped for doing nearly all of the woodwork necessary. 
Washington fir and oak are used and have been found to be especially 
well adapted to this class of work. In the carpenter shop, passenger 
cars are repaired, overhauled and entirely rebuilt. Street cars for 
city use are built new at this plant, as are also all the flat and box 
cars, gondolas and hopper-bottom coal cars. It has been found 




MOTOR CAR AND LOCAL FREIGHT TRAIN. 

that satisfactory equipment can be built at a much lower cost at the 
company's shops than can be furnished in the East and the freight 
rate paid to the Pacific coast. The trucks for the freight equipment 
are also built in the machine shops. The group of shop buildings 
includes a paint shop 175 ft. long and 40 ft. wide. This shop will 
accommodate 10 cars. 

The Stone & Webster properties on Puget Sound include 140 
miles of track in the cities of Tacoma and Seattle united by the 
interurban road which has just been described. This extensive 
property is under the direct management of W. S. Dimmock who 
has made an especially enviable record in maintaining the high 

Puget Sound Electric Railway 



Train No_ 



Record of_ 



Paee No_ 



U.ed 



From_ 



Signature 
of Holder 



Note:— The signature of the holder of any pass presented and not token 
up must be placed hereon; when the conductor will take up thU blank and 
ring for it upon the register. 

RECEIPT GIVEN BY PASS-HOLDER TO CONDUCTOR. (ORIGINAL J,\2 l A IN.) 



standard of the property and perfecting its operating features. 
During the past four years, Mr. Dimmock has built up a thorough 
organization, in which work, his earlier steam railroad experience 
has been of much assistance. Previous to his connection with 
Messrs. Stone & Webster, Mr. Dimmock was manager of the Rich- 
mond (Va.) Passenger & Power Co. to which position he succeeded 
from the management of the Omaha & Council Bluffs Railway & 
Bridge Co. 

Personnel. 
The officers of the Puget Sound Electric Ry. are : J. Furth, pres- 
ident, Seattle, Wash.; C. D. Wyman, Jr.. vice-president; Henry 
Reed Hayes, secretary; G. E. Tripp, treasurer; Stone & Webster, 
general managers, Boston, Mass. ; W. S. Dimmock. manager ; J. S. 
Simpson, auditor and assistant treasurer; C. J. Franklin, superin- 



tendent; A. H. Mackay, commercial agent; Geo. O. Snider, pur- 
chasing agent; K. Schluss, superintendent of power; W. M. Bos- 
worth, civil engineer, and Wm. Glenn, master mechanic, Tacoma, 
Wash. 



The Bunos Aires Grand National Tramways Co. 



It is reported that there are many reasons for believing that 
the future of the Buenos Aires Grand National Tramways Co. 
will be a prosperous one. In the first place horse traction is 
expensive to work and every tramway which has made a change 
to electrical equipment has been able to show a considerable in- 
crease in business and a decrease in working expenses. It may 
be of interest to review briefly the history of this company. )i 
was formed in 1S89 and took over a concession, granted by the 
municipality of Buenos Aires for about 26 miles of line. The 
concession is for 60 years, at the end of which period the property, 
with the exception of the land and buildings, will come under 
municipal ownership. In 1893 the company entered into an agree- 
ment to acquire a concession from a native company for a further 
jo miles of line. The capital stock of the company is about 
$1,250,000. In 1903 resolutions were passed increasing the com- 
pany's borrowing power by about $3,500,000, of which $3,000,000 
was intended for the electrical equipment of the line. So far, only 
$1,500,000 has been issued. 

In 1900, the Grand National company entered into an agree- 
ment with Buenos Aires New Tramways Co., usually called the 
Nueva Co., wdiereby the former operates the horse section and 
pools its net receipts with those of the Nueva, the proportions being 
one-fourth to the latter company and three-fourths to the Grand 
National. As regards the earnings there has been for some years 
a steady and substantial improvement. In the past nine years the 
gross and net earnings have each been quadrupled, the working 
expenses also declining. 

As regards the future, much is hoped from the proposed elec- 
trical equipment of the line. Satisfactory progress has recently 
been made with the work of converting the joint system for elec- 
trical operation, consisting of the lines of this company and those 
of the Buenos Aires New Tramways Co., Ltd. Certain sections 
electrically equipped were opened to the public on July 1st last, 
making the whole length of the electrically equipped line at that 
date, 15 miles. Since then a further extent of line has been 
equipped, bringing the total up to 24 miles. It will also be remem- 
bered that the complete amalgamation with the Buenos Aires New 
Tramways Co., at present worked by the Grand National, has been 
proposed, and as this will no doubt become in time an accom- 
plished fact, the outlook for the line is bright. 



The New Power House for Washington, D. C. 



The power and lighting facilities in the Capital City will be 
further increased in the near future by the construction of a 19,000- 
kw. capacity power house for the Potomac Electric Power Co., for 
which a contract has been let to the J. G. White Co. The Potomac 
Electric Power Co. is a subsidiary of the Washington Railway & 
Electric Co. operating 650 cars over about 150 miles of the 200 mile? 
nl total trackage in Washington. The remaining 50 miles is operated 
by the Capital Traction Co. 

The new building is to be approximately 166 x 1S3 x 67 ft. in size 
and will cost about $1,500,000. It will be of concrete-steel construc- 
tion. The boiler room will contain four batteries of boilers with 
three chimneys located between the second and third batteries. The 
turbine room will be at right angles to the boiler room and will 
have no basement, its floor lying on about the same level as the 
boiler room basement. 

The first installation will consist of two 2,000-kw. and one 
5,000-kw. Curtis turbines and there is provision for a future installa- 
tion of two additional 5,000-kw. capacity of turbines with their 
steam generators, which will ultimately provide for a capacity of 
19,000 kw. There will be galleries connected by short bridges placed 
around all the units to permit of easy connection between them and 
making in effect a secondary operating floor in the turbine room. 
The turbines will all generate 25-cycle, three-phase current at a 



Mapch 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



133 



pressure of 6,600 volts, at which pressure the current will be deliv- 
ered directly to the sub-stations. Of the 2,000-kw. units two are 
already installed, one of them being equipped with the ordinary 
type of surface condenser. The remaining units will he equipped 
with the latest type of condenser placed in the base of the turbines. 

The intake and overflow conduits for the condensing water, will 
run underneath the turbine room, approximately at the center line. 
There will be a small coal bunker placed over the firing floor of each 
boiler. The main storage room for coal will be outside the power 
house and back of the boiler room. The coal will be delivered from 
the cars to the storage room and then distributed among the bunkers. 

The boilers will carry 175-Ib. steam pressure at a superheat of 
150°. They will be fed by mechanical stokers supplied from the 
overhead bunkers. All of the auxiliary machinery will be steam- 
driven and all the prime movers will exhaust into feed water heaters. 

The controlling apparatus will be entirely contained in the switch 
house adjoining the main generating room and will be distributed 
among three galleries. The ground floor will contain only the 
outgoing feeders and main generator leads. The second gallery will 
contain all the bus-bar compartments, disconnecting switches and 
static apparatus, together with instrument transformers. The third 
floor will contain both alternating and direct current switch boards. 

The number of existing units has not yet been determined, but 
there will probably be two or three in the first installation. In any 
case, a booster battery will be installed with the plant which will be 
capable of furnishing excitation for the entire generator equipment 
for the period of one hour. This is a good insurance against the 
possibility of interruption of service by a breakdown. 



Plans of the American Street & Interurban 
Railway Association and Recent Meet- 
ings of Allied Associations. 



J. H. Merrill, the Secretary of the Central 
Electric Railway Association. 



Mr. J. H. Merrill, the recently elected secretary of the Central 
Electric Railway Association, has entered upon the performance 
of the duties of his new position. His offices are located in the 
Traction Terminal Building, Indianapolis, Ind., and it is expected 
that the work of the association will be greatly furthered by this 
energetic and capable officer. 

Mr. Merrill began his railroad experience with the Lake Shore 
& Michigan Southern Railroad in March, 1889. He was with the 

mechanical department for three 
years and occupied a position in the 
superintendent's office for two years, 
was with the passenger department 
for 18 months, the auditing depart- 
ment for six months and then re- 
turned to the locomotive and car 
departments where he remained 
until March, iooo. 

His technical education included 
a mechanical and electrical engi- 
neering course in the International 
Correspondence School of Scran- 
tun. Pa. After completing this 
course and having served in all of 
the several departments of the 
steam road, Mr. Merrill took up 
the work of electric railway con- 
struction. He first acted in the capacity of superintendent of con- 
struction on the building of a line between Mansfield and Galion, O. 
Upon the completion of this line, it was consolidated with the 12- 
mile line previously in operation between Galion and Bucyrus. 
Mr. Merrill held the position of manager of the consolidated prop- 
erties until October, 1903. when he resigned to accept the position 
of purchasing agent of the Western Ohio Railway Co. He re- 
tained this position until he was appointed to the present one with 
the Central Electric Railway Association. 

Mr. Merrill's duties will consist of the compilation and publi- 
cation of time cards and folders of all the roads of the association, 
the collection and distribution of all valuable operating data, the 
handling of interchangeable transportation matters, the working 
out of through passenger and freight arrangements and work of 
a general nature in the interests of the traction lines. 




H. MERRILL. 



It is announced that the selection of the time and place of meeting 
of the annua! convention of the American Street & Interurban 
Railway Association for 1906, will be made by the committee in 
charge at the next meeting of the executive committee of the 
association which will be held at the New York office of the associ- 
ation the latter part of the present month. In selecting a suitable 
city for the convention, it is necessary to consider a number of 
points of \ ital importance to the success of the convention, in- 
cluding suitable hotel accommodations, commodious exhibition halls, 
convenience of location to hotels and railways and a suitable hall 
adjacent to the exhibition building in which the convention exer- 
cises may be held. 

On account of the rapidly growing prominence of the interurban 
railways in connection with the association work, it is desirable 
to hold the convention in an interurban district. For this reason 
an effort is being made to find a suitable convention city in the 
central states or at some point north of the Ohio and east of the 
Mississippi rivers. The cities now under consideration by the 
committee are Cleveland, Columbus, and Dayton, O., Indianapolis. 
Ind., Louisville, Ky., and Boston, Mass. The members of the 
committee have visited these cities recently and have taken careful 
notes of the advantages which each offers for the accommodation 
of the 2,500 or more men interested in electric railways who will 
attend this year's meeting. 

The affiliated associations of the American Street & Interurban 
Railway Association are all working in unison to make the 1906 
convention more successful than any ever held. At the executive 
meetings of the engineers' association, the claim agents and the 
accountants' associations, all of which were held in New York 
City on February 19th, definite action was taken in arranging the 
program for the convention. Vacancies in the various committees 
were filled, subjects to be discussed were named and the work 
of preparing papers was assigned to various members. 

At these meetings the constitution and by-laws of these sub- 
sidiary associations were drafted in accordance with the reorgani- 
zation of the parent association and in co-operation with the allied 
minor associations. The by-laws and constitution are now in the 
hands of the special committee consisting of W. B. Brockway. 
H. H. Adams, and B. V. Swenson, which was appointed by the 
American Street &• Interurban Railway Association to sanction 
them. 

President W. Caryl Ely has appionted committees to investigate 
and prepare reports on a number of interesting topics among which 
are the following: "Promotion of Traffic"; "Standards"; "Pub- 
lic Relations"; "Municipal Ownership"; "Welfare Work"; "Papers 
and Topics"; and "Heavy Electric Railways." These subjects 
will be investigated in their specific fields and in relation to the 
association's work, by the respective committees. 
Accountants' Association. 

The meeting of the executive committee of the American Street 
& Interurban Railway Accountants' Association was held in New 
York City on Monday, February 19th. There were present, Presi- 
dent W. B. Brockway. first vice-president. P. S. Young, second 
vice-president, Robert N. Wallis, Mr. C. L. S. Tingley of the execu- 
tive committee and Elmer M. White, secretary. 

The resignation of Mr. J. H. Pardee, general manager, Rochester 
& Eastern Rapid Ry., as a member of the executive committee, was 
accepted and Mr. E. F. J. Gaynor, auditor of the Interboi 
Rapid Transit Co. of New York City, was elected to fill the 
vacancy. The resignation of Mr. H. C. Mackay, comptroller of the 
Milwaukee Electric Railway & Light Co., from the commit* 
standard classification of accounts was accepted and Mr. Frank R. 
Henry, auditor of the United Railways Co. of St. Louis, was ap- 
pointed in his place. 

Progress was made on the program for the next convention. 
The Question Box. which has been growing in interest, will be 
continued and blanks will be sent out in a few days on which the 
members ma\ indicate the questions which they wish to have 
answered at the convention. A paper on "Construction Accounts" 
was assigned to Mr. P. S. Young. In the constitution and by-laws 
as adopted, no provision is made for associate members and only 



134 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 3. 



the active members of the American Street & Interurban Rail- 
way Association are members of this association. 
Manufacturers' Association. 

The American Street Railway Manufacturers' Association held a 
meeting in New York City on Friday, February 9th. Mr. Baker 
presided as temporary chairman. There were present at the meet- 
ing Messrs. Baker, Ellicott, ' Garland, (representing Mr. King), 
Huelings, (representing Mr. Brill,) Knickerbocker, Martin, Mc- 
Graw, Nute, Peirce, Randall, Wharton and Williams. There was 
also present by invitation, Mr. B. V Swenson, secretary of the 
American Street & Interurban Railway Association. 

Upon motion, the chairman of the finance committee was in- 
structed to have the annual report printed and a copy sent to each 
member of the association. Messrs. Knickerbocker, McGraw and 
Peirce were appointed a committee with power to act in unison with 
the committee of the parent association in deciding upon a meeting 
place for the 1906 convention. It was moved that a committee of 
live (with three constituting a quorum) be appointed to draft a 
new constitution and by-laws and lay them before the executive 
committee for approval. This motion was carried and Messrs. 
Baker, Ellicott, Martin, McGraw and Peirce were appointed. An 
executive committee meeting is to be called for April 26th to con- 
sider the proposed reorganization, and a members' meeting is to be 
called for April 27th. 

« • » 

The Joliet & Southern Traction Co. 

The recent presentation to the city council of Joliet, III, by the 
Fisher Syndicate of an ordinance providing for street car rights 
over certain streets in Joliet, is the first step in the development of a 
plan that will mean much for the city. The plans of the syndicate 



PROPOSED STSTEM 

JOLIET AND SOUTHERN 

TRACTION COMPANY 




MAP SHOWING THE PROPOSED LINES OF THE JOLIET & SOUTHERN 
TRACTION CO. 

are broad and far-reaching and if carried out according to the 
present intention will go far toward making Joliet an important 
traction center. The map shown herewith includes the proposed lines 
of the Joliet & Southern Traction Co. which is the name of the 
corporation under which franchise rights are being asked for. 

The interurban lines that are projected and on which the syndicate 
is taking up the necessary right of way and franchises, cover a route 
south through the towns and cities of Elwood. Wilmington, Braid- 
wood, Braceville, Godley and Gardener to Dwight, in Livingston 
County, with a branch from Gardener to South Wilmington, and a 



branch extending from Wilmington west through Diamond, Coal 
City and Carbon Hill to Morris. At this point connection will be 
made with the Illinois Traction System for the purpose of bringing 
the traffic from that line into Joliet. This branch will also furnish 
transportation facilities from the southwestern part of Grundy 
County to Morris, the county seat. 

Another line is proposed from Joliet southeast through Manhattan, 
Wilton Center and Peotone, where connection will be made with 
the Chicago & Southern Traction Co. to Manteno, Tucker, Bradley 
and Kankakee. 

Probably the most important of the proposed lines is the one to 
Blue Island which practicaly parallels the Rock Island R. R. At 
Blue Island connection is to be made with the new terminal tracks of 
the Chicago & Southern Traction Co., which will connect with the 
South Side Elevated R. R. at about 74th St, assuring rapid transit 
between Joliet and Chicago. 

The franchise now before the city council of Joliet is intended 
to provide terminal facilities for all of these interurban lines which 
will make Joliet the center of the system with lines radiating as 
shown. It is said that options have been secured on two pieces of 
property in the heart of the city, one to be used for a large 
terminal station and office building, where all of the interurban cars 
of the system will deliver and receive passengers in a manner similar 
to the plan in operation at the terminal station of Indianapolis. It is 
proposed to erect on the other property several large car barns and 
shops. In the future it is intended to build all additional equipment 
required for this system in the company's own shops. Negotiations 
have been opened with a water power development company south 
of Joliet for using a large portion of the electrical energy to be 
required by the traction system. 

The officers of the Fisher Syndicate are : H. A. Fisher, president ; 
F. E. Fisher, general manager, and L. D. Fisher, chief engineer. 
These men have demonstrated, through the building of the Joliet, 
Plainfield & Aurora R. R, their ability to successfully construct 
and operate a system of this nature. 



The Report of the Ninth Annual Convention 

of the Street Railway Accountants' 

Association. 



The Street Railway Accountants' Association of America has 
issued its report of the ninth annual convention which was held 
in Philadelphia on September 28th and 29th. The report contains 
the annual address of President W. G. Ross, managing director 
of the Montreal Street Railway Co, Montreal, Canada, the report 
of the executive committee, the report of the secretary-treasurer, 
the Question Box and remarks by Hon. W. Caryl Ely, president 
of the American Street & Interurban Railway Association. Reports 
of the various committees are contained and include the one on 
the international form of report, the one of the committee which 
attended the convention of the National Association of Railway 
Commissioners, the report of the committee on standard classifi- 
cation of accounts and the discussion on these various reports. 

The following papers are also included : "The Cost of Carrying 
a Passenger," by C. L. S. Tingley, second vice-president of the 
American Railways Co, Philadelphia, Pa. ; "Interurban Fare Col- 
lections," by Irwin Fullerton, auditor of the Detroit United Ry. ; 
"Interurban Ticket Accounting," by J. H. Pardee, general manager 
of the Rochester & Eastern Rapid Railway Co, Canandaigua, N. Y. ; 
"Accounting With Four Departments," H. M. Beardsley, secretary- 
treasurer, Elmira Water, Light & Railway Co, Elmira, N. Y. 

The report contains about 300 pages and reflects much credit 
upon Mr. Elmer H. White, the secretary-treasurer of the associa- 
tion. It is a complete verbatim record of the transactions of the 
convention and includes a number of illustrations in connection 
with the various papers presented. 

■•—*■ 

It is announced that the lines of the Columbus, Delaware & 
Marion Railway Co. will be extended from Marion to Bucyrus, 
Ohio, a distance of 21 miles. A spur six miles in length is to be 
built to Richwood, while in Marion, extensions covering three miles 
are to be put in. A power house is located at Stratford in which 
is being installed three large turbine engines, having a combined 
capacity of 18,000 h. p. 



Train Dispatching on the Rochester & Eastern Rapid Ry. 



BY W. R. W. GRIFFIN, SUPERINTENDENT. 



In presenting this discussion of the method of train dispatching 
on the Rochester & Eastern Rapid Ry., I do not propose to offer 
any freak or startling system, but to describe an old system 
applied to a new situation with a few distinct and possibly unique 
additions. Before entering directly upon the subject of dispatch- 
ing, I wish to review briefly the evolution of electric railroading, 
and also the causes that led up to the ultimate decision of the 
Rochester & Eastern to adopt its present method of dispatching. 

The first steps taken in electric railroading were upon our city 
streets, where in the early days, the electric propulsion was ap- 



// ^A K £ 0/VTA /? / O 
S /J=-J ft 



^ElSTERN 
RlPWflAILim 

and ( owFiTioxy 




MAP OF THE ROCHESTER & EASTERN RAPID RY. 

plied to the then existing horse cars, and as time went on the 
size of the cars was increased until we reached our present city 
standards. On the single track, turn-outs were placed in the 
streets a suitable distance apart to maintain the traffic. These 
turn-outs were almost always in sight of the man handling the 
cars from turn-out to turn-out. Consequently, it required but very 
little direction upon the part of the railway officers to keep the 
cars moving and avoid collisions. In some locations double tracks 
were built. This allowed the movement of cars in one direction 
on one track and in an opposite direction on the other track. 
Thus the problem of keeping the traffic moving was still more 
simplified. 

The dispatching of this class of train work is ordinarily carried 
on by inspectors or starters who are more or less immediately upon 



Form :<17. 10OM. K -05. 



Indiana Union Traction Company. 



the country highways until they connected town and city. The 
tracks still being upon the highways where they had to mingle with 
other traffic, the methods practically remained the same. This 
method of extension gradually led up to a new system of electric 
railroading in which the towns were connected by lines built upon 
private right of way where they did not mingle with other traffic, 
consequently allowing higher speeds. As the speeds increased, 
larger and heavier cars were used. 

When this progress had been made, it was impossible to have 
the operation under the direction of men immediately upon the 
ground, consequently the electric railway people in 
casting about for means of handling their cars, natur- 
ally came to use the telephone. 

Unfortunately, when this time came, the majority 
of the trains were being operated by the same class of 
men that had been trained in city work. They were 
used to personal direction and when they came to 
handle trains by telephone they fell into the same plan, 
directing their train movements by word of mouth, 
with little or no records of such movements. 

A few years ago, I was acquainted with a large in- 
terurban railroad that operated under a system of dis- 
patching which was the outgrowth of what has just 
been outlined, although it did attempt to keep a record 
or train sheet. This road had no written book of rules. 
All rules governing operation were posted in bulletin 
form as necessity demanded. Trains were operated 
under numbers, odd numbers in one direction, and 
even numbers in the opposite direction, with a printed 
time table giving the meeting time at stated passing points. 

The odd-numbered trains were given right of track by direction, 
with a three-minute leeway. In other words, if an odd-numbered 
train reached a regular scheduled meeting point three minutes late 
and the even-numbered train that it should have met there was not 
in sight, the odd-numbered train would continue regardless of the 
other. Should the odd-numbered train be more than three minutes 
late and the opposing train not in sight or on the siding, the motor- 
man was supposed to stop and call up the dispatcher at a telephone 
booth placed at the siding. Then if there were any directions as 
to change of meet necessary, the dispatcher gave his verbal orders. 
The even-numbered train always had to take care of itself and 

FT. WAYNE & WABASH VALLEY TRACTION CO. 

TRAIN ORDER BLANK 
D«te 190... Time 



Order No. 



I ORDER BLAN 



Date 



Order No 

lo Conductor and Motorman, 

Train No Motor No at Siding No . 

Melt Train No Motor No at Siding No. 

Meet Train No Motor No at Siding No . 



Train No Motor No 

Meet Train No Motor No At Siding No. 

Meet Train No Motor No 1/ Siding No. 

and report at Siding No 



Complete . 



CONDUCTOR 


MOTORMAN 


TRAIN 


AT 


O. K.'D BY MSP. 


TIME 







































Dispatcher. 

FIG. I. EARLY FORM OF TRAIN ORDER BLANK, INDIANA UNION 
TRACTION CO. 

the ground. As our city systems enlarged, it became necessary to 
extend the tracks along the country roads into the suburbs. The 
same methods of operation, in the majority of cases, were still 
applied. These same systems were still further extended along 



HANG ON HOOK 

FIG. 2. EARLY FORM OF TRAIN ORDER BLANK, FT. WAYNE & WABASH 
VALLEY TRACTION CO. 

was supposed to be at the regular schedule meeting point strictly 
upon the time given on the time table. .Unfortunately this system 
often led the motorman of the even-numbered train to take advan- 
tage of the time allowance and this oftentimes led him into trouble. 



136 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 3. 



In the checking of these trains by the dispatcher there was no 
time placed upon the train sheet except at the beginning and end- 
ing of the run. If the dispatcher should not hear from a train 
at the starting point, he would naturally enter the regular sched- 
uled time of that tram as its leaving time. If he did not hear 

Blank and Blank Railway Company. 
Order No. Date 190 



At_ 
At 



_to C. 4. M. Traln__ 
to C. 4. M. Train 



Train No ._ 
Car No. 



_to C. 4. M. Traln_ 
Car No. 



_Car_ 

_Car_ 

Car 



will meet train No 



_At Siding No._ 



Received by 


0. K.ed by 




Conductor 


Dispatcher 


Tin,. 





















FIG. 3. FORM OF ORDF.R, BLANK «r BLANK RAILWAY CO. 

from certain trains, the dispatcher would simply place an "x" at 
the siding where these trains were scheduled to meet an opposing 
train, doing this under the supposition that they had made their 
meets correctly and upon time. 

As this was the only kind of train record kept there was no 
way of checking up the dispatcher or the train crews. Whenever 
trouble happened, which was frequently under this system, there- 
was always a chance that one man would claim one thing and an- 
other the opposite. I venture to state that this entire class of men 
knew nothing, or practically nothing, of the dispatching methods 
used by the steam railroads. They were either ashamed or afraid 
to try to learn the same methods, consequently they endeavored 
to handle trains under the name of dispatching, without knowing 
the first principles of such methods. I believe that the majority of 
interurban roads failed in the beginning in a way similar to this. 

This led up to getting out a form of written order, of which 
the train order blank of the Indiana Union Traction Co. is a 
sample. These orders were telephoned to the trainmen and written 
out by them. After being repeated to the dispatcher, the order 
was complete and the train was allowed to proceed. On this 
earlier class of order there is no record showing that the train 
crews really received it. 

The next later orders had the form of those illustrated of the 
Ft. Wayne & Wabash Valley Traction Co. and the Blank & Blank 
Railroad Co. These orders had spaces ruled at the bottom for 
the signature of one or both of the trainmen. These orders were 
received, written and completed by one member of the train crew, 
generally the conductor, on one single sheet and delivered to the 
other member. All orders received by the crews during the day- 
were supposed to be turned into the office and checked. The 
records in a great many cases of this kind were simply duplicate 

Blank and Blank Railway Company. 
Order No. - Date 190 



_to CAM. Tialn_ 
to C. 4 u. Train 



to C. 4. U. Train 



will run extra from 



Received by 


0. K.ed by 




Conductor 


Dispatcher 


Time 















FIG. 4 I ISA ORDER, BLANK 8 Bl \NK RAILWAY CO. 

orders as made out by the dispatcher and placed upon a pin tile. 
All these orders were given for meets. 

The time came when the different companies began to see the 
necessity for dispatching extras and work trains, which were not 
represented upon the time tables and also to see that there should 
be some kind of order for protecting such irregular trains. Some 



of the companies got out additional blank orders similar to the 
sample extra order of the Blank & Blank Railroad Co. By adding 
these different movements the train crews had to carry several 
different forms of blanks and this often led to confusion. 

Another step in advance was represented by the blank consoli- 
dating orders such as is reproduced herewith and used by the 
Rochester & Eastern Rapid Ry. when it first began operating. 
This order was intended to handle all the different movements 
of the regular as well as the extra and work extra trains. I wish 
to call special attention to the one very bad defect in the latter 
order, and in fact this same defect appears in all orders that are 
made out in stereotype, the major portion of which are so printed 
that the train crews are required to simply enter in figures the car 
numbers, train numbers and siding numbers. It will be noted by 
reference to this order No. ioo, that "train 10" "car 8" was ordered 
to meet "train 7" "car 4" at "siding 3." The figures "8" and "3" 
almost invariably fall one above the other and the tendency of 
men in reading the stereotyped forms is to simply glance at the 
place where the number of the siding is supposed to be. Thus 
there was considerable chance of error by mistaking the upper 
figure for the lower one. This would naturally lead to disastrous 
results. 

The Rochester & Eastern made an improvement by adopting the 
form of which No. 162 is a sample. On this blank the position of 
the meeting point space is shifted and each meeting point given a 
name as well as a number. This order produced very good results 
with the exception that it gave no permanent record since the dis- 
patcher made his copy on a duplicate order blank and placed the 
second sheet on a pin file. In case of trouble or when there was 

ROCHESTER AND EASTERN RAPID RAILWAY COMPANY. 
TELEPHONE TRAIN ORDER. , y 

Order No. <QO Date J^ms.jM. 190 Z" 

r\t...^/'^-^-«^< i ^»-y\- to Conductor and Motorman of Train /C7,Car 6 

At toConductor and Motorman of Train ... .Car 

At — to Conductor and Motorman of Train .Car 

Train Ha^jLQ. . Car No. _.*£?. will meet Train No. 7 .Cor No "^ 



..A£e<*^. JZa-JL _..... 



Car No. 

Train No 

Order No 

Received by . 



-~?T!-7*-t^? 



*wf- 



£ 



a i 



^■fr/g 



*/!7>i>-LAJ-rt-<i-4~7lJ\ 



This Order Transferred to and Received by Relieving Conductor. 

at— _ Time 

FIG. 5. BLANK CONSOLIDATING ORDER, ROCHESTER & EASTERN RAPID 
RAILWAY CO. 

any chance of dispute over such orders, it was a very easy matter 
to destroy either of the original orders and write a new one, thus 
making it impossible to determine who was to blame. 

Another defect in the whole system of dispatching that has just 
been outlined is that scarcely any of the roads using these forms 
have rules governing what should constitute an order, consequently 
the chances are great for a receiving man to think that the dis- 
patcher means one thing, while in fact he intends another. 

This condition led to the adoption by the Rochester & Eastern 
of an entire change of method of electric train handling. When- 
ever an electric road is so built and equipped as to be able to 
operate electric cars capable of distancing oarallel steam trains, 
then I maintain that the electric raiiroad has entered fair ami 
square into the realm of steam railroading. 

These conditions do exist and as the steam railroads have spent 
the past 40 years or more in providing a safe method for handling 
their trains on both single and double tracks the electric rail- 
roads can better themselves by adopting these same methods. To 
this end about a year ago the management of the Rochester & 
Eastern Rapid Railway Co. adopted the American Railway Stand- 
ard Code of train operating. This code not only gives definitions 
for all terms used in railroad train operating but prescribes set 
rules governing the use of the time table and the classification and 
movement of trains, the rules governing all movements by train 
orders. It gives proper set forms for wording all orders covering 
particular movements and furnishes each member of all trains 
affected with such order. It also exhibits a copy .of the same 



March 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



137 



worded order and a complete set of train signals to be displayed, 
in order that all trains may know each other by such markings. 
The American Railway Standard Code prescribes certain dis- 
patching orders to be given for any movement of trains other 
than those governed by the regular scheduled time table, and also 

ROCHESTER AND EASTERN RAPID RAILWAY CO. 

TELEPHONE TRAIM ORDER. 

Order No. l& & Date ///// 1904 

At to Conductor and Motorman of Train _ .Car 

AL_*Z^i^ to Conductor and Motorman of Train.^eY-<? ...,Car_^£L. 

At _. to Conductor and Motorman of Train .Car . 

Train No. ^5# ,Car No Si will meet Train No—/ 7 -? .Car No. /a <^ _ 



— ^<J 



RECEIVED BV 


Opi-rator. 


lime 
O. K 


Conductor. 


Tfjlo. 


y/^L^I^*<J-^f^ 




/ez*z*~- 


//3 









CUMI'IETED BV 



%- 



7^'^f- 



/Jk± 



1 



This Order Transferred to and Received by Relieving Conductor . 

at Time _ 

PIG. 6. LATER TYPE OF TELEPHONE TRAIN ORDER. 

prescribes the definite wording of each order. It also prescribes 
that these orders shall not be stereotyped, but written in pencil 
and copied in manifold, the same arrangement and wording being 
given all trains concerned. 

One change in the American Standard Railway Code was neces- 
sary to meet the conditions obtaining on the Rochester 
& Eastern Rapid Ry. The steam railroads transmit 
their orders by telegraph. After receiving the order, 
the operator repeats to the dispatcher the words he has 
written, and if they are found correct the dispatcher 
gives the operator an O. K. and the time when given. 

This order is not considered complete and cannot 
be acted upon by the train crew until signed by one or 
both members of the crew. Their signatures and train 
number must then be telegraphed to the dispatcher 
when he will answer "complete," giving time and 
initials, all of which must be entered on the order by 
the operator before the train can proceed. In the sta- 
tions of the Rochester & Eastern where operators are 
maintained, the method of transmitting orders is the 
same as that in use on steam roads, except that on the 
Rochester & Eastern after the order is received and 
the O. K. obtained by the operator, the telephone is 
used instead of the telegraph. The order is made com- 
plete by being repeated by the conductor to the dis- 
patcher over the telephone, the conductor giving his 
name and train number to the dispatcher. If the order 
as read by the conductor cheeks with the dispatcher's 
copy it is then completed by the dispatcher giving the 
word "complete" and the time when the conductor 
enters his name on the order. 

Since each train carries a telephone instrument and 
direct communication with the dispatcher can thus be 
effected, the standard rules had to be changed to allow 
the transmission of an order direct to the crew. When- 
ever it becomes necessary to give an order direct to the 
train crew, the motorman acts as operator, receiving, 
writing, and getting the O. K. after which the order 
is completed by the conductor in the same way as at 
the stations. 

It will be noted on steam roads that only two 
men actually handle the wording and making of 
an order, whereas under the methods employed by 
the Rochester & Eastern, there are always three men con- 
cerned in this transaction. This adds a greater degree of safety 
as men have been known to have listened to and repeated back 
words other than those they have written. Where the third man 
reads back the order for completion he will naturally read the 
actual words written and thus avoid mistakes. This is one feature 
of the Rochester & Eastern system of train dispatching that is 
distinctly different from the American Railway Standard Code, 



because there is always one member of the train crew who com- 
municates directly with the train dispatcher regarding any order. 
Thus we are always sure that one member of the train crew under- 
stands what he is ordered to do. 

Another distinct feature is the dividing of the line into five 
sections each having six stations, and placing these sections in 
positive blocks. On the map the block stations are indicated by 
arrow points. At three of these block stations, Rochester, Canan- 
daigua and Geneva, a train register is maintained in which the 
train crews must record the arrival and departure of their trains, 
stating the class of the train and whether it is represented on the 
regular time table or is running as a section or an extra. Thus 
any trainman can ascertain positively if any due or overdue train 
has arrived. In the other stations, Pittsford, Victor and Gates, 
the operators maintain a register which shows the position of all 
trains. 

No train is allowed to leave any one of these stations without an 
order. This order must always be obtained for the train .by the 
station operator. If there is any movement to be made by the 
train other than that scheduled upon the standard time table, the 
train is given what is termed a clearance order. This clearance 
order simply allows the train to fulfill whatever movement is 
scheduled or ordered beyond the point from which it is given and 
up to the next blocking point. 

The time table gives each train a definite number, odd numbers 
east-bound, even numbers west-bound, and the meeting points are 
indicated on the time table in half full-faced type, small type being 
used for the number of the train to be met. 

At the bottom of the time table is printed the rule stating that 
trains of the same class have no rights over each other. In 



Dispatcher's Train Order Book. 





/££ 



PM j'./ti 









• . 



fyt, .■> r 










0/r n../-.< 



2ft^'jtc7'hi 7\jfi/*^<fZj - ^<S«j ft' 



W'_J/1, n ! 



OJstA 



flU. &u£t~v 



*^- nu. (i jl^j. 



GLJL>j>, 



&*$& 



£ 






H*. 



FIG. S. SAMPLE PAGE FROM DISPATCHER'S TRAIN ORDER BOOK. 

other words, the trains must positively meet as scheduled upon 
the printed time table unless otherwise ordered by the dispatcher. 
This may look like a backward move in railroading, but it must 
be remembered that with trains running under 6o-minute headway, 
time allowances must be shorter than on steam roads which have 
greater intervals between trains. The Rochester & Eastern gets 
better results from its telephone system than could be obtained 
by Ihe use of the telegraph and does not need specially trained 



138 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 3- 



operators. The train crews can obtain orders directly and thus 
avoid any tie-up. An instrument is mounted in each car and 
temporary connection can be made with the lines by means of a 
pole and contact hooks. 

The records in the dispatcher's office are kept on a train sheet. 
A record of the orders is kept in a book of which the accompany- 
ing illustration is a sample page. Each order as given must be 
written in the same identical words which were received by the 
train crew. The book is ruled and there are spaces for the order 
number, the station name, the operators' names, the time at which 
the O. K. is received, the name of the conductor, the number of 
his train and the time of completion of the order. This order No. 
122 was received by the motorman of car No. "o" at siding No. "8," 
through a car telephone and completed by Conductor Cole. Now 
since that order carried with it rights against a scheduled train, the 
same order was placed in Canandaigua with the operator and 
was. there completed by the conductor of that train and so on with 
all the other orders. 

In connection with the system of operating an electric railroad 
under the American Railway Standard Code, the question natur- 

ROCHESTER AND EASTERN RAPID RAILWAY CO. 

TRAIN CLEARANCE ORDER. 



Rochester & Eastern as a conductor. Thus it will be seen that 
we are reasonably sure of having good railroad men on the front 
platform of all electric trains. 



Order No — Station 

To Conductor and Motorman ol Train No - 
Have no orders for you. 



Date.. 



Car No 



Received by 



-Time 



Operator. 



Train 
Time 



O-Kedby 



Despatcher. 

This order must always be obtained by all train .-few* at following stations ROCHESTER, 
PITTSFORD VICTOR, CANANDAIGUA. GATES SUB-STATION ami GENEVA 

FIG. 7. STANDARD FORM OF TRAIN CLEARANCE. 

ally arises as to how it is possible to properly educate the train- 
men, since electric trains invariably require but two men, while 
steam roads usually have five men, and thus have always ample 
opportunity to gradually educate a portion of this crew. It is 
very true that in order to properly operate a road under the 
American Railway Standard Code, a trainman and especially the 
motorman must be thoroughly familiar with these rules. The 
safety of any train, operated by either electricity or steam, depends 
almost entirely upon the engineer or driver since he is the man 
who must see and interpret all signals and virtually execute the 
orders. Consequently greater care must be used in selecting this 
man than is required for the rest of the train crew. 

The American Standard Code comprises about 254 rules govern- 
ing the movement of trains. The Rochester & Eastern Rapid 
Ry. requires all of its motormen and conductors to pass a written 
examination upon these rules in which they have to answer 276 
questions. These questions are so worded, that even though a 
man should memorize the book of rules, he would still be unable 
to answer them if he had no practical knowledge of their fulfill- 
ment. 

Another thing that the Rochester & Eastern has discovered, since 
adopting the American Railway Standard Code, is that it is able 
to pick up at any time steam railroad trainmen of all classes who 
are thoroughly familiar with the train operations under the stand- 
ard code. We have men now in service who have come from 
the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg, the Lehigh Valley, the New 
York Central, the Erie, Wheeling & Lake Erie, and several other 
roads that are operating under the standard code. We also have 
applications from conductors, locomotive engineers, firemen and 
trainmen, who are now working on these roads, so the question 
of being able to get proficient trainmen simplifies itself. 

One of the rules of the Rochester & Eastern is that no man can 
become a motorman unless he has had at least two years' train 
service on some steam road, is perfectly familiar with the stand- 
ard code service and can pass the examination on it. He must 
also have a good letter from the superintendent under whom he 
last worked, or must spend at least a year in the service of the 



<V Recent Merger of Traction Properties in ths 
State of Washington. 

The recently announced incorporation by J. P. Graves and asso- 
ciates of Spokane, Wash., of the Inland Empire Railway Co., with 
a capitalization of $20,000,000, would seem to indicate that this new 
organization means the building of considerable additional mileage 
in connection with the roads which the company already has leading 
out from Spokane. The new incorporation is a merger of four 
companies, the Coeur d' Alene & Spokane Railway Co., which has 
a line 34 miles long in operation between Spokane and Coeur d' 
Alene; the Spokane Traction Ry., which has an extensive street 
railway system in Spokane ; the Spokane & Inland Railway Co., 
which has a line partially built into the Palouse country from 
Spokane, and the Spokane Terminal Co., which is building a 
terminal station in Spokane for the other three companies. When 
the extensions and improvements of the merger companies have 
been completed, the new Inland Empire Railway Co. will include 
about 200 miles of track. 

Mr. Graves states that the new company proposes to develop 
its own water power by building a dam across the Spokane River 
near the mouth of Deep Creek, about nine miles below Spokane. 
By building this dam the power for a large electrical plant could 
be furnished. To this end, the Spokane & Inland Co. has recently 
secured additional riparian rights to those which it already holds 
along the river. The officers of the new Inland Empire Railway 
Co. are J. P. Graves, president, F. Lewis Clark, vice-president 
and F. A. Blackwell, chairman of the board of directors. 
■*—+ 

A Satisfactory Method of Insulating Field Coils 
as Practiced in Syracuse. 

Some time ago Fred DuBois, master mechanic of the Syracuse 
Rapid Transit Railway Co., devised a scheme for insulating field 
coils that has proven efficient and has since been adopted by some 
of the electrical supply houses. The plan is simple and so inex- 
pensive because of its durability, that the company is now using 
it almost entirely in constructing its field coils. 

The general method of winding the coils is the same as hereto- 
fore, but instead of placing the layers close together and depend- 
ing on the immersion of the coil in asphaltum paint to fill up the 
spaces between the wires, a thin layer of paste, composed of pow- 
dered whiting and Sterling varnish, is applied to each layer of wire 
as it is wound. The paste is applied as thickly as it can be worked 
with a brush, and hardens without being subjected to a great heat. 
When allowed to dry it becomes as solid as cement and unites the 
coils into one mass. After the coil is allowed to air dry for a 
short time the outside tape is wound about it as in the other meth- 
ods. It is then dipped in asphalt paint or varnish and placed in 
an oven for four hours, after which the coil is ready for use. 

The company has been experimenting with this method of insulat- 
ing field coils for nearly three years and during that time has never 
had a short circuit in any coil treated by this method. The paste 
when properly applied forms a cushion for the wires and, being 
hard, prevents them from vibrating. It is found that after the coils 
have been in use for a short time the wires become so securely im j 
bedded in the paste that it is necessary to tear them from the in 
sulation with great force in order to remove them. These coils 
weigh about five pounds more than the ordinary coils and cost 
about 50 cents more per coil. 



A practice on the Aurora, Elgin & Chicago Ry. that is of 
considerable interest is a stop report made by the conductor to the 
motorman. For this purpose a blank 2'/ 2 x 8 in. is provided on 
which are printed the names of the stations. When collecting his 
fares, the conductor marks the stations at which it will be necessary 
to stop to discharge passengers. This he delivers to the motorman, 
who hangs it on a hook provided in the motorman's cab. He is 
with this record enabled to more intelligently regulate the speed of 
his train. 



March 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



139 



Crane Car, Sweeper and Benefit Association of 
the Schenectady Railway Co. 



In addition to its regular equipment of cars, the Schenectadj 
Railway Co. has a useful crane car, which was designed and built 
at its own shops. This car is used for lifting and transferring 
machinery and conveying material to nil points on the lines. The 
car is known as type 46-M. It has a length of 45 ft. 7 in., a 
width of 8 ft. 5 in. and a height of 11 ft. 9 in. It is mounted on 
Brill type 27E-1 trucks, has 33-in. wheels and the usual series- 
parallel K control system. 

The crane has a lifting capacity of five tons. The framework is 



shops is shown in the accompanying line drawing. The sweeper 
has an over all length of 28 ft. 5 in. and an inside length of 24 ft 
5 in. The width is 9 ft. 2 in. and the height from the rail to the 
top of the trolley board is 8 ft. 5 in. It is mounted on McGuire 
trucks having .1 wheel base "i" 6 ft. 6 in. and the diameter of the 
wheels is 33 in. 

Schenectady Railway Benefit Association. 

Through the agencies of benefit associations, street railway com- 
panies and their employes are brought into closer relations, re- 
sulting in a better mutual understanding. The Schenectady Rail- 
way Co., Schenectady. N. Y., has such a benefit association, and as 




CRANE CAR OF THE SCHENECTADY RAILWAY CO. 



made of cast iron with its center placed seven feet from one end 
of the car. The boom has a swing of 10 ft. on either side of the 
car. The bulkhead to which the lifting ropes of the boom are 
attached is nine feet high, and 1%-in. manila ropes are used. The 
ropes work through wrought iron guard blocks and over a 10-in. 
drum with a J4-in. face. The ropes for the hoist are operated 
directly by a separate drum. An accompanying illustration shows 
the detail design of the crane table and bed with their roller bear- 
ings. 

There has been installed on this car a 3-h. p. GE, type-CE slow 
speed motor, operating on 500 volts pressure and geared to the 
hoisting drum. The motor is series-wound with a speed reduction 



its workings have been generally successful, a presentation of its 
plans and methods of operation may be of interest to other elec- 
tric railways contemplating the organization of similar associa- 
tions. 

The objects of the association include the collection and dis- 
semination of interesting matter pertaining to the construction 
and maintenance of street railways and their equipment, as well 
as matter in connection with the manufacture and distribution of 
electric current for lighting and power purposes ; the promotion of 
good fellowship among the employes of the company, and lastly 
the care of its members in times of sickness or disability and, in 
the event of death, the aiding of the beneficiaries of its members, 




DETAILS OF THE CRANE TABLE AND BED. 



of six to one and is equipped with a GE type-R28. 500-volt con- 
troller. The brakes on the drums are so arranged that they 
become automatically released when a load is being lifted. The 
drums revolve with the gear only when it is hoisting. The load 
is raised by the motor and is lowered steadily by friction. The 
accompanying illustrations show the car and the details of the 
floor. 
A very efficient snow sweeper which was built at the company's 



providing such sickness, disability or death is not due to intem- 
perance. 

The Schenectady association has a membership of 325. Each of 
its members, according to the constitution of the society, is an 
employe of the Schenectady Railway Co. and contributes 50 cents 
per month to the association. This amount is deducted from the 
wages for each month preceding the date on which the payment 
falls due. If. at any time, the funds of the association are not 



140 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI. No. 3- 



sufficient to meet nil obligations, the board of trustees has the 
right to levy an assessment equally upon all members, but such 
special assessment cannot exceed SO cents in any one month or 
three dollars in any one year. Should a member of the associa- 
tion leave the employ of the company, his name is at once removed 
from the rolls of the association. Should he leave before the end 




of the Schenectady Railway Co. is, according to the constitution 
of the association, always president of the association. The vice- 
president is elected at the annual meeting by a majority vote of the 
members present ; the treasurer of the railway company is always 
treasurer of the association ; the secretary is appointed by the 
board of trustees. The management of the association affairs is 




POOL AND BILLIARD ROOM. SCHENECTADY RAILWAY BENEFIT ASSOCIATION. 



READING ROOM, SCHENECTADY RAILWAY BENEFIT ASSOCIATION. 



of the month, for which he has paid his dues, a proportional 
amount of the money for the unexpired period is refunded to him. 

Under the benefit clause of this association, members are en- 
titled to payments while totally disabled or unable to labor by 
reason of accident or sickness, receiving one dollar for each day 
after the first seven days for a period not exceeding 90 days in all. 
In case the employe is disabled a second time, within less than two 
weeks after the first recovery, the disability claim is added to the 
prior one in computing the 90 days. In no case is more than $90 
paid to any member during any one year. 

In the event of the death of a member, providing such death is 
not caused by intemperance or immoral conduct, his beneficiaries 
receive the sum of $150. Application for all disability claims is 
made to the division superintendent or to the head of the depart- 
ment of the division on which the applicant is employed. The 
superintendent or head of the department endorses such applica- 
tion and in the event of his questioning the payment, states his 
reason, therefor and forwards them to the secretary of the asso- 



vested in a board of trustees consisting of seven members, of 
which the president of the association is chairman. Three mem- 
bers of the board of trustees are appointed by the president of the 
railway company and three are elected by a majority vote of the 
members present at the annual meeting. In case of a vacancy 
on the board a temporary appointment is made by the president 
The decision of the board of trustees is final on all questions 
relating to the management of the association. 

One business meeting of the association is held each year. 
Other meetings can be called at the request of the board of trustees 
or of 35 members of the association. At these meetings 35 mem- 
bers constitute a quorum. Each member of the association is 
entitled to one vote. 

During the year many social functions are held in the associa- 
tion rooms. Some of these are "smokers." while others are de- 
voted to musical and literary entertainment for the benefit of the 
members' families and friends. At these meetings the uses of 
electricity are discussed and lectures are given on electrical equip- 







PLAN VIEW, SHOWING GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF SNOW SWEEPER. 



ciation. The medical examiner then makes a physical examina- 
tion of the applicant and submits a report. The secretary again 
considers the application and if allowed directs the payment of 
the benefit. In case any application for sick benefit is disallowed 
or payments stopped the member affected can appeal to the board 
of trustees, whose decision in the matter is final. 

The officers of the association consist of a president, vice-presi- 
dent, secretary, and treasurer. The president or general manager 



ment. In the reading rooms of the association all the leading 
technical periodicals are kept on file for the benefit of the mem- 
bers. To aid in supplying the reading matter for the association 
rooms the company gives $100 annually. 

Any member of the Schenectady Railway Co. over 21 and under 
45 years of age is eligible to membership upon payment of one 
dollar as an initiation fee and the 50 cents dues for the first month.- 
It is not compulsory that an employe of the company join the 



March 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



141 



association. All dues paid to the treasurer are placed to the credit 
of the association and used for no other purpose than sick and 
death benefits. All money not needed for benefits is invested 
under the direction of the board of trustees in suitable securities. 




BOWLING ALLEYS, SCHENECTADY RAILWAY EF.NEFIT ASSOCIATION. 

The quarters occupied by the association are located on the 
second floor of the railway company's shops, on Fuller St., where 
the members are allowed to spend their leisure hours at all times 
of the day or night. As is shown in the accompanying illustra- 
tions, the main club rooms consist of an assembly room, a reading 
room, a billiard and pool room and a bowling alley. Locker, 




ASSEMBLY ROOM, SCHENECTADY RAILWAY BENEFIT ASSOCIATION. 

cloak and wash rooms and baths are provided. Each one of these 
rooms is well furnished and arranged for the comfort of the 
members. 

The present officers of the association are : President, E. F. 
Peck ; vice-president, Geo. Stevenson ; treasurer, J. H. Aitkin ; 
secretary, W. F. Stanton. 



The International Railway Co. at Niagara Falls, N. Y., is testing 
the new Maxim Surface Contact System, in which electrical con- 
nections placed between the rails transmit current to the car through 
a shoe carried bv the car. 



The Worcester Polytechnic Institute will erect a large building for 
the exclusive use of an engineering laboratory. The design of the 
building, it is expected, will be suitable for accommodating the Elec- 
trical Railway Engineering Department, which was established at the 
institution a few months ago. Mr. Albert S. Richey, who is well- 
known in the interurban railway field, has charge of the department 
of the institute. 



The New Rate Sheet of the Toledo, Fostoria & 
Findlay Railway Co. 

In the "Street Railway Review" for January, igo6, there appeared 
an account of the opening of the Lima-Findlay division of the 
Western Ohio Railway Co. This was an event of considerable 
importance since the opening of this line makes possible uninter- 
rupted interurban communication between the cities of Cleveland. 
Detroit and Cincinnati. The line of the Toledo, Findlay & Fos- 
toria Ry. forms another link in this chain, connecting the limited 
service of the Lake Shore Electric Ry. at Woodville, O.. with that 
of the Western Ohio Ry. at Findlay, O. 

By reason of this through connection a traffic agreement has 
been entered into by the various lines forming the chain. Gen- 
eral Manager F. W. Adams, of the Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay 




MAP OF THE TOLEDO, FOSTORIA & FINDLAY RY. AND ITS NORTHERN AND 
SOUTHERN CONNECTIONS. 

Railway Co., has recently issued a new rate sheet, containing the 
straight and return rates and routing instructions from Findlay to 
all points on lines to the north. The lines included are the follow- 
ing: The Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Ry., the Lake Erie, Bowling 
Green & Napoleon Ry., the Lake Shore Electric Ry., the Toledo, 
Port Clinton & Lakeside Ry., the Tiffin, Fostoria & Eastern Elec- 
tric Ry., the Detroit, Monroe & Toledo Short Line Ry., the 
Toledo & Indiana Ry., and the Toledo & Western Ry. 

This sheet is arranged on the same plan as those issued by steam 
roads. It is furnished to the agents of all the company's connec- 
tions south of Findlay in order that they may construct through 
rates by adding their rate up to Findlay. The back of the sheet 
bears a map of the Toledo, Fostoria & Findlay Ry. and its northern 
and southern connections, which is illustrated herewith. This map 
shows the lines previously mentioned through which this through 
traffic arrangement has been made possible. 

This is probably the first basing sheet ever issued by an electric 
line. It foretells much for the future and the arrangement will 
no doubt bring about a considerable increase in the freight and 
passenger traffic on this and all connecting lines. 



At a meeting of the stockholders of the proposed Indianapolis Sr 
Chicago Air Line Traction Co., the name of the road was changed 
to Ohio & Indiana Ry. 



142 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 3. 



THE 



STREET RAILWAY 
REVIEW 

AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF STREET AND ELECTRIC RAILWAYS 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY THE 

KENFIELD PUBLISHING CO., 

4.5-47 Plymouth Court, Chicago, ill. 
Cable Address: ' 'Winfield. ' ' Long Distance Telephone. Harrison 754. 

BRANCH OFFICES: 

New York -39 Cortlandt St. London— Byron House. 82 Fleet St. 

SUBSCRIPTION AGENCIES: 
Austria, Vienna — I, oilman & Wentzel, Karntnerstrasse. 

France, Paris— Boyveau & Chevillet, Librairie Etranpere, Rue de la Banque. 
Italy. Milan— Ulrico Hoepli, Librairia Delia Real Casa. 

New South WaN's. Sydney — Turner & Henderson. 16 and 18 Hunter Street. 
Queensland (South), Brisbane— Gordon & Cotch. 
Victoria, Melbourne— Gordon & Cotch, Limited, Queen Street. 

Address all Communications and Remittances to Kenjield Publishing Co-, Chicago, III. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

We cordially invite correspondence on all subjects of interest to those 
engaged in any branch of street railway work, and will gratefully appreciate 
any marked copies of papers or news items our street railway friends may send 
us, pertaining either to companies or officers. 



DOES THE MANAGER WANT ANYTHING? 

If you contemplate the purchase of any supplies or material, we can save 
you much time and trouble. Drop a line to The Review, stating what you are 
in the market for, and you will promptly receive bids and estimates from all the 
best dealers in that line. We make no charge for publishing such notices in our 
Bulletin of Advance News, which is sent to all manufacturers. 

This paper is a member of the Chicago Trade Press Association. 
Entered at the Post Office at Chicago as Second Class Matter. 



Vol. XVI 



MARCH 15, 1906 



No. 3 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

The Puget Sound Electric Ry. Illustrated 123 

Executive Meeting of the American Street & Interurhan Rail- 
way Association 133 

The Report of the Ninth Animal Convention of the Street Rail- 
way Accountants' Association of America [34 

Train Dispatching on the Rochester & Eastern Rapid Ry. Illus- 
trated. By W. R. \V. Griffin 135 

A Satisfactory Method of Insulating Feld Coils as Practiced in 

Syracuse 1 38 

The Benefit Association of the Schenectady Railway Co. Il- 
lustrated 139 

Manager Dalrymple's Suggestions for Municipal Ownership in 

Chicago 144 

Important Developments in the Chicago Traction Situation.... 145 

The Electric Service Supplies Co 1 46 

Piping & Power Station Systems. — XV. Illustrated. By W. 

L. Morris 147 

Sub- Station Emergency Repairs. Illustrated. By H. C Reagan 150 

Recent Street Railway Decisions 151 

The Petaluma & Santa Rosa Ry. Illustrated. By E. E. Down- 155 
The Special Car of the Inter-Urban Railway Co. of Des Moines. 

la. Illustrated ■ ■ 160 

Time Schedules for Operation of City Cars in Sheboygan, Wis. 

Illustrate. 1 162 

Edward W. Moore, the New President of the Lake Shore Elec- 
tric Railway Co -. 163 

Recent Changes in the Personnel of the Rhode Island Co 163 

Car Axles, as Discussed at the March Meeting of the New Eng- 
land Street Railway Club 164 

New Designs of Third-Rail Shoe and Sleet Cutter. Illustrated. 163 
The Dartmouth & Westport Street Ry. Illustrated. 167 



REMOTE CONTROL FOR LINE CIRCUIT BREAKERS. 

The great majority of street railway feeder systems in large towns 
or cities are divided into a number of separate trolley sections and 
each is supplied with power by an independent cable, the several or 
more cables being connected in multiple at the power station bus-bars. 
In order that faults in trolley wires or cables may be localized in 
their effect upon the power station, circuit breakers are, in standard 
practice, installed between the bus-bars and each feeder. The line 
breakers in the trolley wires prevent the effect of a short circuit or 
other serious disturbance in any given section from becoming gen- 
eral throughout the overhead system. 

Unfortunately the use of section insulators in this way often 
prevents the most efficient use of the copper instaljed between the 
power houses and the cars, and the provision of emergency switches 
in street boxes only slightly mitigates the trouble. With the recent 
improvements in relay switches for multiple-unit control it ought 
to be a simple matter to install a few such switches in place of the 
knife switches at locations where the use of feeder sections in 
parallel would greatly improve the regulation and insure a much 
lower copper loss per division. Then by the use of a single small 
wire connecting with the power house the switch could be reset in 
case of an opening, without the loss of time which would be occa- 
sioned if an ordinary circuit breaker or knife switch were installed 
at the insulated joint. The extension of any local trouble through 
adjacent sections would be merely temporary with such an arrange- 
ment, which ought to result in a considerable annual reduction in 
overhead losses at a very moderate first cost. 



DUPLICATION IN POWER PLANT DESIGN. 

The amount of duplicate apparatus which it is desirable to install 
in a modern power plant depends, to a large extent, upon the condi- 
tions prevailing in the territory served, but in general there may be 
observed in the more modern designs a marked tendency to get 
away from the large reserve capacity which characterized many of 
the earlier installations. This means, of course, _that present day 
equipment is, on the whole, better able to operate continuously 
than the apparatus which was developed in the younger period of 
tin electric railway industry. Any one who has followed the devel- 
opment of power station machinery from the early nineties to the 
present day cannot help realizing that . designers are constantly 
trying to impart a more rugged simplicity to their productions. 
Prof. Elihu Thomson well said in an address before the Worcester 
Board of Trade that the development of electricity direct from 
coal would be a great commercial triumph only in case the ap- 
paratus employed is simple, durable and of low maintenance cost 
per annum. 

Duplication of apparatus is of much more importance in a power 
plant made up of a considerable number of small units than in a 
case where three or four machines supply all the power generated. 
The keynote of the problem is the importance of providing for 
continuous service, which simply means the anticipation of all 
except the most extraordinary emergencies. With the larger power 
units of the present day, many of which are from two to four times 
the capacity of whole stations built on the plans considered stand- 
ard ten years ago, the available overload capacity is so great that 
in case a generating unit breaks down it is often possible to tide 
over the emergency without much difficulty and also at high operat- 
ing efficiency. 

To get a better idea of the diminished necessity for duplication, 
let us begin at the coal pile and follow the energy transformation 
through a typical alternating current generating plant equipped 
with four 5000-kw. steam units and 3000 kw. capacity in rotary -con- 
verters for the direct-current bus bar supply at the station. There 
is certainly little need of two coal pockets in a plant of this kind, 
provided that a single structure can be built on the available land 
capable of holding, say, a month's supply of fuel, in round 1111111- 
with four 5000-kw. steam units and 3000 kw. capacity in rotary con- 
but the principle of duplication in the hoisting and conveying 
apparatus does not enter. 

In any plant of this size, mechanical stokers are likely to be con- 
sidered as essential. Here it would seem the part of wisdom to 
install the engines or small motors which operate the moving 
grates, in duplicate, so that the failure of an engine or motor would 
not tie up any section of boilers. The cost of duplicating very 
small apparatus of this kind is. in almost every plant, such a low 



March 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



143 



percentage of the value of the equipment to which it is an auxil- 
iary that the investment and operating expenses are not to be 
considered prohibitive if the apparatus really insures the more 
economical or reliable operation of the station as a whole. 

In a modern power plant, the question of duplication applies per- 
haps with more force to the high-pressure steam piping than to 
any other part of the equipment. A few years ago, the idea was 
widely held that a large part of the high-pressure piping should be 
installed in duplicate, so that in the event of a rupture in any 
important line, another would be at hand to take its place. The 
designing of such systems proved so cumbersome, however, that it 
was not carried out in many of the more important installations. 
The modern practice of installing plants in sections, and tying those 
sections together by one or two headers at one end and by the 
busbars at the other, gives better results, with the advantage of 
reduced investment, fixed charges and maintenance expenses. The 
increasing use of superheated steam makes it necessary to reduce 
as much as possible the number of valves and joints which must 
be kept tight and there is no doubt that the maintenance of tight 
joints in a large system of high pressure piping is one of the most 
troublesome matters encountered in the operation of a large power 
plant. 

In the illustrative case under consideration, therefore, we shall 
adopt the sectional principle in the station layout, connecting each 
boiler to a single steam header, and supplying each turbine from 
that header by a single line of piping. The runs will be as short 
as possible, and in normal operation each battery of boilers will 
supply only the corresponding turbine. The header may be used as 
an equalizing primary receiver if desired, or it may be valved and 
shut down except in case of trouble at any boiler or its steam line, 
in which case any turbine can be fed from any battery. 

Between the turbo-alternators and the switchboard no one would 
think of running duplicate cables, for temporary repairs can be 
made with great rapidity in case of a burnout, and certainly sooner 
than any armature coil can be replaced in the generator. At the 
switchboard the bus-bar problem is a question of flexibility of 
operation rather than of reliability, but a jumper bus is often a 
great convenience in direct current feeder panel supply. In a sense, 
it is doubtless true that the installation of four 5000-kw. units is a 
duplication in design, but in a case of this character it is more 
probable that the designer could in reality confine his duplication 
to the provision of an ample margin in overload capacity, falling 
back upon this reserve power or in some cases upon a storage 
battery in preference to installing an additional unit of equal or 
smaller size. In case one of the 5000-kw. units breaks down when 
the four are operating at full load, it is only necessary to operate 
the remaining units at 33^2 per cent overload to carry the station 
load through the time of the peak. The installation of forced or 
induced draft in a plant of this size would be a help in addition 
to the stack, in the boiler room, if any boiler or battery should have 
to be shut down. 

As for auxiliaries, the provision of extra sources of feed water 
supply, pipe lines, pumps and even heaters, is a small part of the 
total plant cost. The practice is very common, even in the largest 
plants, of installing a single primary feed water heater for the 
whole installation, but it is open to considerable doubt if this is 
not less economical and certainly less flexible than the installation 
of two heaters, and sometimes three, of smaller individual rating. 

Turning to the rotaries, the provision of ample overload capacity 
is probably the simplest method of securing reliability in case of 
trouble. A large number of small rotaries is seldom desirable in 
a plant of this magnitude. The transformers need not be dupli- 
cated, but a spare unit is exceedingly important. If single-phase 
sets are employed with very large three-phase transformers it 
would probably be better practice to keep on hand spare coils than 
to invest in a costly unit which would stand idle a large part of 
the time. Equipment which bears in its cost but a small propor- 
tion of the total cost of a plant should be duplicated without hesi- 
tation, provided it forms a part of the chain of transformation be- 
tween the coal bin and the outgoing lines. Very large and ex- 
tensive apparatus should be provided with liberal overload capacity 
and maintained at a high point of operating efficiency. Sometimes, 
as in the case of the New York Central terminal plans at New 
York, the installation of duplicate power plants is desirable, but 
the general trend of present practice is in the direction of the 



utmost possible simplicity and the minimum idle investment con- 
sistent with operating safety and reliability. 



POWER PLANT REPAIR. SHOPS. 

Almost every electric railway power plant needs faciliti 
making light repairs. In a good many cases it happens th.it the 
general repair shop of the company is located close by, so that 
there is no necessity for fitting up an elaborate equipment within 
the power house walls When the power house is located out of 
easy walking range of the general shop, it would certainly seem 
the part of wisdom to provide some sort of a workshop on the 
immediate power house premises, so that temporary repairs can be 
quickly effected in case of trouble. 

Power house routine always includes a lot of small jobs in con- 
nection with the piping and auxiliaries which can usually be done 

al odd 1 nents and therefore at slight expense by some one of 

the operating staff. If a large generating unit breaks down it 
frequently happens that the necessary repairs cannot be made at 
the power house without the help of the more extended shop 
facilities to be found 111 the department of rolling-stock mainte- 
nance, but this is no argument against the provision of a lathe or 
two, a grinder and a drill press for the general power house use, 
because in a good many cases temporary repairs can be made so 
quickly on the spot that the cost of the tools is little or nothing in 
comparison with the time saved in the end. As a rule, the operating 
man in the power house takes a live interest and pride in making 
repairs of this kind, and it is a fact that the presence of the few 
simple tools needed is a strong incentive toward the production 
of labor-saving contrivances for use in the plant, if the policy of 
the management is such as to encourage inventive ability. 

In planning a small shop for a power house, there should be a 
liberal allowance of space, good lighting facilities and the provision 
of a small motor to drive the entire equipment. There is little ob- 
ject in buying expensive direct-driven machine tools with variable 
speed motor characteristics unless the plant is a mammoth establish- 
ment. Seldom are all the tools used at once in such shops; a good 
deal of the time the whole equipment may be shut down and the 
power cost of the work done is insignificant. The interesting point 
is this: light repairs carried on outside the plant cost more in 
labor and time than those effected on the spot, for when it becomes 
necessary that spare or extra parts be supplied by the main shops, 
just so much delay and expense is added to the regular work of 
rolling stock maintenance, without utilizing the mechanical ability 
of the power house force itself. It may cost three or four hundred 
dollars to install a first-class engine lathe, drill press and grinder 
in the power house, with the motor and shafting necessary to drive 
this equipment, but once it is in, the presence of the tools consti- 
tutes an added insurance against protracted breakdowns and a 
source of real economy in the minor items of power house mainte 
nance. 



INTER-SUBURBAN SERVICE. 

It is a difficult problem to know just how to handle the traffic 
between the various outlying districts of a large city when the 
public detfiands a rapid car service on fairly short headway from 
one suburban community to another. In comparison with the 
total traffic handled the inter- suburban business is of course only 
a small percentage of the total business of any system. Where 
the bulk of the traffic consists of passenger movements inward and 
outward upon lines radiating from the business section to the 
outlying districts, the public cannot reasonably expect as frequent 
or convenient an inter-suburban service as between those suburbs 
and the city. 

At the same time, it is possible to improve the conditions of 
inter-suburban travel considerably in many instances, and thereby 
gain both in traffic and public good will. It is a well-known 
fact that in the stress of handling the ebb and flow of traffic 
between the congested district of a large city and its outlying sub- 
urbs, it is easy to lose sight of the quality of service offered between 
the residential sections themselves. Now, as a mtater of fact, 
the travel between many of these communities, especially in the 
evening hours, is often much larger than the management realizes, 
for the reason that the registers do not separate the inter-suburban 
traffic from the passenger movement between the suburbs and the 



144 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 3. 



city proper. It very generally happens that the inter-suburban 

routes finally terminate in the congested district of the city. The 
result of this is that passengers are obliged to transfer frequently 
in passing between two widely separated suburban points, some- 
times two or three times in a half hour, and as the schedules can- 
not be maintained with anything like the short intervals feasible 
upon the main routes, it is impossible to avoid long waits in making 
connections. In stormy weather there is no doubt that the auto- 
mobile and the cab often reap the reward which would otherwise 
go to the street railway, and then 1 also no doubt but that waits 
of 15 or 20 minutes at transfer points tend to discourage inter- 
suburban travel even on fair nights It often follows that an 
hour is required to traverse the devious routes which connect two 
suburbs only three or four miles apart in air line, and the service 
offered between small cities of the same population as these 
suburban districts over a regular interurban line is usually much 
better. 

We are not aiming these remarks at any single system. The 
argument applies with more or less force to all of the large cities 
in which the residential quarters are considerably separated. Sub- 
urbs are always radial in location from the city to which they are 
tributary, regardless of the configuration of the congested district. 
It would seem that a more thorough study of inter-suburban traffic 
would be well worth while in many cases, particularly in the in- 
stances where it is quicker to go into town and then out again than 
to follow the course of existing routes outside with the transfer 
point delays before mentioned. Such a study might lead to the 
establishment of one or more belt lines over which continuous 
transportation from one suburb to another could be had on a 10 
or 15-minute headway. The cars need not enter the city proper at 
all, nor is it essential to perform a complete circle around the 
suburban territory of the given municipality. 

The establishment of such a service, if properly advertised, 
might often lead to a very considerable revenue. Of course, the 
details depend entirely upon local conditions, for some suburbs 
are as distinctly separated by social and other barriers as though 
they were a hundred miles apart. There is often a tendency to 
relegate the oldest cars to these routes, which is in certain cases, 
worth looking into. In any event, the connections and schedules 
in force between suburbs should be posted at waiting rooms and 
in the cars so that the public can at least plan its inter-suburban 
journeys with reasonable expectation of going through in a pre- 
scribed time. 



THE 99- YEAR ACT. 

In 1865 the Illinois State Legislature passed a law, since known 
as the "99-year act," which has just been interpreted by the United 
States Supreme Court. This interpretation has brought about vit-il 
changes in the Chicago traction situation. The developments lead- 
ing up to this decision are not only historical but interesting: 

In August, 1858, the Chicago common council passed an ordi- 
nance granting to Frank Parmelee and his associates the right to 
lay tracks and operate a street car system on certain streets in the 
south and west divisions of the city of Chicago. A year later Par- 
melee and his associates incorporated the Chicago City Railway Co. 
Shortly afterwards the council gave to that incorporation the right 
to extend its lines over a number of other streets. Each of these 
ordinances provided that "the right to operate such railways shall 
extend to the full time of 25 years from the passage hereof, and at 
the expiration of said time the parties operating said railways shall 
be entitled to enjoy all said privileges until the common council 
shall elect by an order for that purpose to purchase said tracks of 
said railways, its cars, carriages, station houses, station grounds. 
depot grounds, furniture and implements of every kind and de- 
scription used in the construction or operation of said railways, or 
any appurtenances in and about the same." 

Other ordinances were passed by the council for several years, 
practically based in regard to the limit of time upon the first one 
In July, 1863, the Chicago City Railway Co. sold out all its rights 
in the west division lines and in certain east and west lines on the 
south side, to the Chicago West Division Railway Co., which, of 
course, succeeded to the rights and limitations of the Chicago City 
franchises. Thereafter separate ordinances were passed for the 
Chicago City company and the West Side company, most of which 
were mere amendments to the original ordinance. 



On Feb. 6, 1865, the legislature passed a law, which has since 
become quite famous as the "99-year act." The old Chicago 
City Railway Co. had been incorporated for a term of 25 years. 
The act of 1865 extended the term of incorporation of the com- 
pany to 99 years. This the United States Supreme Court now holds 
to have been done legally, but it merely concerns the corporate life 
of the companies, and does not affect their rights to the streets. 
The companies however, maintained that this act not only extended 
their corporate life, but also extended their franchises to the same 
degree. Furthermore, they maintained that the effect of the 99-year 
act was to render null and void all the limitations as to time in 
any further ordinance, so that the right to use the streets must be 
terminated by the corporate life of the company, and not by the 
limitations fixed by the city council. This interpretation of the law, 
if sustained, would have made practically all ordinances in the city 
of Chicago, no matter how or when granted, continue in full force 
until in the neighborhood of 1957. 

Since then the company has retained its South Side independent 
corporate existence; the West Division company has been merged 
into the North Side company under the name of the Union Trac- 
tion Co. ; and both the South Side and the Union Traction companies 
which covered the rest of the city held to their original contention 
that the 99-year act extended all franchises. The city from the 
outset denied this and persisted in putting limitations of time in all 
the ordinances. The contentions were fought out in one way or 
another until finally Judge Grosscup, in the United States Circuit 
Court, rendered a decision which is now overuled by the Supreme 
Court. 

Judge Grosscup decided in favor of the companies in regard to 
all ordinances and franchises in existence prior to May 3, 1875. The 
result of Judge Grosscup 's decision would have been that all fran- 
chises passed up to 1875, expired on or about 1958, and those after 
that time at the dates and on the conditions mentioned in the 
specific ordinances. It was a victory for neither side and was rel- 
ished neither by the city nor the street car companies, both of 
which appealed. The Supreme Court now has declared as to all 
the original lines owned by the Chicago City Railway Co., on the 
south and west sides and transferred to the west division company 
and through that dormant organization to the Union Traction Co., 
that the city now is in a position where it can buy up the property 
and equipment. 



Manager Dalrymple's Suggestions for Munici- 
pal Ownership in Chicago. 

The report of James Dalrymple, the Glasgow traction manager 
who investigated street railway conditions in Chicago with an eye 
to the possibility of municipal ownership, was recently made public 
in Chicago. 

In accordance with Mayor Dunne's request for more detailed in- 
formation certain additional notes were sent by the Glasgow expert 
of which the following is the substance: 

The administration of the street railway department should be 
entirely under the control of the ritv council which should appoint 
a transportation committee and the general manager. The c"~ • 
mittee might, with advantage, appoint sub-committees on finance, 
extension, stores and staff. 

The sub-committee on finance would carry through all financial 
transactions, pass on all accounts for payment, and receive reports 
from the general manager regarding the revenue and expenditure 
of the undertaking. All proposals regarding extensions of the 
system should be remitted to the sub-committee on extension for 
consideration and report. The sub-committee on stores could take 
charge of the drawing out of specifications and schedules for the 
carrying out of any work 'for the department and also for the 
purchase of material and supplies. The sub-committee on staff 
could consider all salaries and wages, hours of labor, and general 
condition of service. 

The general manager should be appointed by and be directly 
responsible to the city council through the transportation com- 
mittee. He should have absolutely no connection with any political 
party and his appointment should be made solely on account of his 
fitness for the position. The city council should give the general 
manager complete control of the whole staff 

Under the general manager and directly responsible to him, 



March 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



145 



there should be three heads of departments ; chief engineer, traffic 
superintendent and financial superintendent. The chief engineer 
will require the assistance of an electrical engineer, a mechanical 
engineer, a civil engineer, and a draftsman. 

The traffic superintendent shall have charge of the car service 
and all the car service employes. 

The financial superintendent shall have under him an accountant. 
with a bookkeeping staff, cashier, pay clerks, purchasing clerks 
corresponding clerks, etc. 

In the organization of a municipal railway department, a great 
deal depends on the arrangements that are made for the selection 
and training of conductors and motormen, and also on the standard 
of efficiency that is set up and maintained. We in Glasgow rarely 
engage a man who has been in street railway work before, and 
we have made it a rule never to re-engage a man who has been in 
our service. We engage all our men with the understanding that, 
after serving for a' few months conducting a car, they must, when 
asked, go through the motor school and learn to drive a car. If a 
man fails to qualify as motorman he has to leave the service. 

The working hours of the traffic staff in Glasgow are, on an 
average, nine hours a day. The staff works any six days out of 
the seven. When we started operations we allowed the men to 
work seven days if they choose, hut we have now a strict rule in 
force that no man is to he allowed to work more than six days 
a week. We find this is a good rule and it is strictly adhered to 
The corporation always pays what is recognized as the trade union 
rate of wages, and where no union rate exists, we pay whatever is 
recognized as a fair rate in the district. 

Our routes are divided into stages of over half a mile each on 
the average. For each one of these stages, a passenger pays one 
cent. If he desires to travel further, he can travel over any four 
consecutive one-half penny stages for two nuts, any six stages for 
three cents, and eight stages for four cents, etc. Whenever a 
passenger pays his fare the conductor punches a ticket in the 
section over which the passenger is entitled to travel. The pas- 
senger is bound, so long as he is on the car, to retain this ticket 
and exhibit it to the conductor and inspector when asked to do so. 

In Glasgow and in several of the other large cities the street 
railway department has its own power station. For our system 
which is designed for about 250 miles of single track and 900 cars 
we have a power station with a total capacity 11,000 kw. and a 
staff of 100 men. We have current at 6,500 volts, converted at five 
sub-stations to 500 volts direct current. 

In order to keep the track in perfect order a large staff is re- 
quired. We have at present rather over 150 miles of single track 
and we have altogether in our permanent way department 650 
men. These men are divided into squads of various sizes, each 
squad being responsible for the maintenance of the lines in a cer- 
tain district. Each squad is under the charge of a separate fore- 
man, the whole being under a civil engineer, who is responsible 
to the chief engineer. 

Another department of the service is the staff charged with the 
erection and maintenance of the overhead equipment. This staff 
is divided into three sections: construction, maintenance ami 
emergency. 

We find that the most suitable size of a car barn is to have 
accommodation for from 150 to 200 cars. In designing your car 
barn you should have, near the entrance gate, a commodious office 
for the accommodation of the motormen, conductors and the traffic 
staff generally. In a car barn holding, say, 200 cars, it is neces- 
sary to have an office measuring 720 sq. ft. There should also be 
a store for the material used by the repair staff, a fitters' work- 
shop, and a room for the cleaners, where the men can store their 
cleaning materials, brushes, etc. 

Ample kitchen, lavatory accommodation and baths should also 
be provided. We have also in our car barns a large recreation 
room, fitted up with gymnastic appliances, tables, chairs, drafts, 
chests, bagatelle, etc. At all our car barns there arc car pits 
almost over the whole barn for convenience in inspecting and 
repairing trucks and motors. Our most recently constructed barn 
has accommodations »for 180 cars, and covers 14,747 sq. yd. The 
cost of the land was $25,000 and the cost of the building was $127,- 
000. 

It is advisable to have one general workshop for the mainte- 
nance of the rolling-stock and all equipment connected with the 



street car service. We in Glasgow have a workshop covering an 
area of over 25,000 sq. yd. In this workshop we not only do 
repair work hut we have built all the 700 cars belonging to the 
department. In addition to the general store which, is adjacent 
to the workshop we have a sawmill, car sh jp, repair shop, paint 
shop, blacksmith shop and fitters' shop. 

Our practice in Glasgow has been to insure against accident 
claims. The private corporation which has taken this work in 
hand has a room in the office of the department and all reports 
and claims are immediately handed over to the insurance officials, 
who investigate such accidents and settle or contest all claims. 
Last year we paid a premium amounting to about $75,000. This 
insured us for claims in connection with any single accident 
amounting to $12,500 and an annual total of $125,000. 

The form of our income and expenditure statement and also 
of our capital account is almost exactly the same as that which 
has been adopted by the street railway corporations of America. 
I think in issuing your annual statement you could not do better 
than to have it prepared on the American form. 

I think you would find it advantageous to inaugurate a society 
among the men belonging to the street railway department. In 
Glasgow we have had a flourishing Friendly society for a number 
of years. Membership is quite optional. Out of a total staff of 
4.400 we have 3.370 members. In Glasgow each member pays 12 
cents per week to the funds of the society and the department 
adds 6 cents. When a member is off for sickness on a doctor's 
certificate he receives 15 shillings, or about $3.60, a week for the 
first six months; 10 shillings, or about $2.40, for the second six 
months, and five shillings, or about $1.20, for the second year 
He also receives medical attendance and medicines free of charge 
Admission lines to infirmaries and convalescent homes are also 
available for members and their families. 

It would be advisable aiso to institute a superannuation fund. 
which can be accumulated so that it will be possible to grant a 
small weekly allowance to members of the staff who after long 
service, may have become unfit for work. We have instituted such 
a fund in Glasgow, and we are accumulating it as speedily as pos- 
sible. To this fund 2 cents per week per member are contributed 
by the members of the society. These two cents are taken from 
the 12 cents contributed to the Friendly society and the depart- 
ment adds another 2 cents. This fund does not come into opera- 
tion until 191 1. A municipality cannot throw off its old and 
infirm servants as a private corporation can do and. therefore, 
it is well to make provision for them 



Program of the March Meeting of the Central 
Electric Railway Association. 

Secretary J. H. Merrill has recently announced the program of 
the next regular meeting of the Central Electric Railway Associa- 
tion which will be held at the Claypool Hotel, Indianapolis, Ind., on 
March 22nd. 

The morning session will be called to order at 10:30 and will In- 
given over to a business meeting and to the reading of a paper on 
"Electric Railway Signals" by E. J. Burke, president of the Blake 
Signal & Manufacturing Co., Boston, Mass. The reading of this 
paper will be illustrated by a working model. 

The afternoon session, which will be called to order at two 
o'clock, will be devoted to the reading of the following papers: 
"Fire Insurance at Cost" by Henry N. Staats. manager of the \- 
sociated Railway & Light Cos.; "Railway Y. M. C. A. Work" by 
E. L. Hamilton, railway secretary. Chicago, 111. ; "Advancements 
and Improvements in Ait Brakes" by \\ . V. Turner, mechanical en- 
gineer for the W'estinghouse Traction Brake Co., Pittsburg, Pa., 
with an introduction by S. D. Hutchins, special representative of 
the Westinghouse Traction Brake Co. The W'estinghouse Traction 
Brake Co. has shipped from Wilmerding, Pa., its large rack which is 
composed of five complete brake equipments, including all the neces- 
sary piping. This will be on exhibition. 

In view of the fact that the meetings of the association are to 
be held but once in every two months instead of each month as 
formerly, and also in view of the elaborate program that has been 
prepared, Secretary Merrill is very desirous that every meml 
the association be present. 



146 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 3. 



Electric Service Supplies Co. 

Among the important consolidations that are from time to time 
announced in these pages ihe following account of the merger of 
several well-established firms will be noted with much interest. 

The Mayer & Englund Co. of Philadelphia. Porter & Berg of 
Chicago, Garton-Daniels Co. and Electrical Devices Co. of Keokuk, 
la., will be consolidated under the name of the Electric Service 
Supplies Co. This name is distinctive, being new and broadly 
descriptive. Railway supplies and materials will continue to be 
the specialties of the new company. 





C. I M WLR. 



II I.M.I 1 . I 



The name oi Mayer & Englimd 1 has stood for many years 
as a synonym for reliability in electric railway supplies. The 
firm of Porter & Berg has enjoyed the largest electric railway 
supply business in the western field and has been a great recognized 
leader. The Garton-Daniels Co. has built up a strong reputation 
for lightning arresters and has long been recognized as the pioneer 
in the controller regulator field. These regulators, known to the 
trade under the name of the "Automotoneer," are manufactured 
by the Electrical Devices Co., also of Keokuk. 

By a consolidation of these interests, the Electric Service Supplies 
Co., will have eastern and western warehouses and sales depart- 
ments and a manufacturing department. The business of each of 
these departments will be continued as at present, and under the 
same management. All correspondence, orders, etc., should be 
sent to the same addresses as in the past. 

The business of Mayer & Englund Co. was founded in 1895 by 
(' J. Mayer and A. II. England, wdio first had offices in the Betz 




J. W. PORTER. 



MAX A. BERK. 



Building, Philadelphia, Pa. In 1897 the business had grown to a 
volume that demanded a larger home. This was found at No. 10 
South 10th St. Here the business prospered rapidly. By 
1901 it occupied the entire five stories and basement at No. 10 
South 10th St. During this year these quarters were entirely 
outgrown and the business was moved to 1020- 102J Filbert St., 
a building of nine stories 60 x 80 ft. in floor area. Here the com- 
pany is now installed with the commodious offices and ware- 
rooms described in the "Street Railway Review" for September, 
1905. These warerooms contain the largest stock of electric railway 
materials and electrical supplies in the East. 



The business of Porter & Berg was established in 1899, by J. 
W. Porter and Max A. Berg. It prospered from the start in its 
quarters on the ground floor of the Manhattan Building, Chicago. 
In 1902 the business was incorporated under the same firm name. 
Larger quarters were found in the Plymouth Building at 303 
Dearborn St., where the entire second floor is occupied as 
offices. Across the street, at 45 Plymouth Place, are the ware- 
rooms, where a complete line of the materials and supplies handled 
by the new company is carried. Practically every electric railway- 
in the west has come in contact with Porter & Berg's progressive 
and dependable methods. It will be welcome news that hereafter 
they will handle and carry in stock at Chicago the same line that 
has been standard with the Mayer & Englund Co. 

The Garton-Daniels Co. is one of the oldest firms in the elec- 
trical field, the business having been founded in 1892 at Keokuk, 
la. This name is almost synonymous with lightning arresters, as 
hundreds of thousands of this company's arresters are in use by 
electric railway, light and power plants, in all parts of the world. 
The management of this business has been in the hands of J. .V. 
E. Titus since 1895, and under his direct control as president since 
1003. The Electrical Devices Co. is an allied company, founded 
in I90t to carry on the development and manufacture of the 
controller regulators sold under the trade name of the "Automo- 
toneer." The sale of both lightning arresters and automotoneers 
has increased very largely in the last 
two years. The plant at Keokuk will 
be available for the manufacture of 
many of the specialties of the Elec- 
tric Service Supplies Co. 

One of the immediate results of 
this consolidation will be the carry- 
ing, in its Chicago warehouse by the 
Porter & Berg department, of a large 
stock of the specialties and standard 
supplies that have been sold hereto- 
fore by the Mayer and Englund Co's. 
agency and supplied from its Phila- 
delphia warehouse. Now, for the first 
time the western trade will be served 
with these desirable lines, without de- 
lay, from Chicago. Both the Phila- 
delphia and Chicago stocks will be 
increased and enlarged to include a full line of all standard electrical 
and mechanical supplies for railway, light, power and mine trade. 

The Garton-Daniels. department will be increased to enable it to 
handle more promptly its largely increased business. The manu- 
facture of other specialties will be turned over to this depart- 
ment in the near future. 

Among the leading specialties manufactured or sold by the 
Electric Service Supplies Co. are the following : Protected rail 
bonds, Keystone overhead materials, Garton-Daniels lightning 
resters, the "Automotoneer," trolley vestibule shades, Nuttall gears, 
pinions, trolleys and trolley repairs, International registers, register 
fittings, enameled badges, Brady Brass Co's. motor bearings, journal 
boxes and check plates, Lyon sheet-steel gear cases, Sterling var- 
nishes, Crouse-Hinds headlights, Locke high-tension insulators and 
pins, Speer carbon brushes, etc. In addition to these there will be 
sold a complete line of supplies for electric railway, light and 
power plants, mines, etc. 

The personnel of the Electric Service Supplies Co. will consist 
of C. J. Mayer, president, J. W. Porter, first vice-president, J. V. 
E. Titus, second vice-president, Max A. Berg, secretary and A. H. 
Englund, treasurer. Each of these officers will have charge of prac- 
tically the same departments of the business as heretofore. The 
result will be that customers will be dealing with the same men as 
in the past. At the same time the resources of the larger company 
will be available to improve the facilities of handling the business. 
When the new organization is completed, it will have sales offices 
in the following cities : Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Pitts- 
burg, Cleveland, Chicago. Atlanta, Birmingham, New Orleans, St. 
Louis, Keokuk, Kansas City, San Francisco and Los Angeles. 




j. v. E. TITUS. 



The gross earnings of the Lake Shore Electric Ry. for the month 
of January show a gain of $11,000. 



Piping and Power Station Systems. — XV.' 



BY WILLIAM L. MORRIS, M. E. 



Piping from Safety Valves. 

In piping safety valves, the most satisfactory method is to run 
the pipe for each valve through the roof. When there are a large 
number of boilers each having two' valves, this will require con- 
siderable cutting of the roof, but as a rule it is cheaper to run 
each pipe to the atmosphere. The increased expense would in all 
probability be justified, because with the separate pipes the operator 
can; by going up on the roof, readily tell which valve blows first, 
which is leaking, the amount of leak, etc. If, on the other hand, 
the pipes are tied together in one main, it becomes difficult to de- 
termine which valve is blowing or leaking. Many plants use a 
short stub and allow the steam to escape into the boiler room, 
whenever the valves blow off. This is wrong, as the firemen have 
enough hardships without having any more, put upon them under 
the plea that if they look after the pressure it will not blow. 
There are times when the pressure can be controlled, but more 
often this is not the case. By allowing the steam to escape into 
the boiler room, the operator will lose money, for no one will stay 
in the room full of steam if he can, by any excuse, get out, and if he 
does stay, he will do nothing until the disturbance ceases. 

In most cases, one valve will open before the others and may 
continue to blow by itself for five minutes. This may be one of 
two valves on a 250-h. p. boiler, discharging say 10 per cent of the 
output of the boiler. The boiler might possibly be using 1,000 lb. 
of coal per hour, hence a 10 per cent blow-off would waste 100 lb. 
of fuel or a loss of 10 cents per hour for coal. If for any reason 
three employes leave the room during the blow-off period, the em- 
ployer will lose at the rate of not less than 60 cents pej hour. 
Thus if he desires that the inside blow-off arrangement be profitable 
he must reduce the number of blow-offs to less than one sixth of 
what it would be if piped through the roof. This is impossible. 

Fig. I28-(A30-i) shows an independent pipe from the safety 




FIC. I2cS-(A30-l) AND FIG. I2O-(A30-2). 

valve passing up through the roof. Where there are a number of 
such pipes the use of cast iron roof collars is justified. These col- 
lars should be about fs in. thick, with the exception of the threaded 
hub of the umbrella which should be about S in. thick. The upper 
portion of the collar is used as a coupling for the two lengths of 
pipe, which should be shipped from the shop in the proper lengths. 
The lower section, or roof sleeve, should be provided with several 



projections which will just allow the sleeve to slip over the pipe and 
at the same time steady it. This roof sleeve should be set after 
the pipes are in position. The roofing felts should be cleared of 
gravel and coated with a hot cement in which the sleeve should 
be firmly bedded and tightly bolted through the roof boards. The 
joints and the tops of the flanges should also be well coated with 
this cement. The sleeve should not be iess than four inches in 
height and there should be at least one-half inch clearance be- 




•Copyright, 1906, by the Kenfield Publishing Co 



FIG. 130-030-3). 

tween the sleeve and the umbrella. Galvanized sheet iron is gen- 
erally used in this work, but this is frail and easily damaged. 
Whenever the safety valves are taken off for repair, the light gal- 
vanized iron work usually becomes so badly injured that it is unfit 
for further use. If the sleeve and umbrella be made of cast iron 
they will stand abuse and furthermore will be inexpensive. 

Attention should be given to the safety valve drain. This open- 
ing should be free to the atmosphere at all times, as much damage 
results if water or condensation is allowed to remain in the valve 
and cause water hammer when the steam is escaping. A rule 
should be enforced that only the discharge from safety valves on 
boilers that are commonly shut down at the same time should be 
tied into a common pipe line. It is quite imperative that this rule 
be observed, as boiler insurance companies will not allow gate 
valves in safety valve branches, and without gate valves in the 
safety valve branch connected to more than one working boiler, 
the operator would be liable to serious injury when making re- 
pairs. If but one boiler at a time is shut down for cleaning, then 
but the two or three valves on that boiler should be tied into the 
one line to the atmosphere. If the plant has a number of boilers 
which are shut down in batteries of two, then the safety val 1 



148 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



[Vol. XVI, No. 3. 



these boilers may be discharged into a common main. In most 
cases it is better to tie in only the discharge pipes from the one 
boiler, and if the roof is not over 20 ft. above the safety valve, it 
will be found less expensive to run separate pipes. The tie should 
be made far enough away from the safety valve to allow for ex- 
pansion, and the side outlet foot tee should be provided with a 
drain as shown in Fig. i2Cj-(A30-2). The foot tee should have a 
substantial support to enable it to carry the weight of the stand pipe 




fig. i3i-(A3i-i). 



and its branches so that a valve can be removed without causing 
any severe strain. 

The arrangement shown in full line in Fig. i30-(A30-3) is not 
considered good practice. The safety valves should not be taken 
off such pipe lines as have just been described or from that por- 
tion of the boiler where steam is on its way to the pipe main. 
They should be placed where there is the largest volume of steam. 
The steam flowing through the pipe line does not flow with a uni- 
form velocity. The variation in pressure at the boiler connection 
may be as much as five pounds when steam is being delivered to a 
large slow-speed engine. This fluctuation of pressure exists in all 
the steam lines as well as in the boiler, but since there is such a 
large steam volume in the boiler, the pressure there is not noticeably 
affected. In the pipe line this variation is very perceptible, and its 
amount may be determined by placing an engine indicator on the 
lines and moving the drum slowly, allowing the pulsations to indi- 
cate a diagram which will resemble the teeth of a saw. When 
the safety valves are subjected to this pulsating pressure they will 
chatter if the pressure is close to the blow-off point. If the safety 
valves are set for a drop in pressure of three pounds, the pulsating 
pressure due to the engine cut-off is sufficient to run the pressure 
up to the blow-off point after which it drops almost instantly to the 
closing point, so that by synchronous pulsation with the engine the 
valve will make from 150 to 200 beats per minute or twice for each 
engine revolution. One minute's wear occasioned by this beating 
is equal, possibly, to a month's wear due to ordinary service. To 
secure the proper wear the safety valves should be separated from 
the steam connection as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 
l30-(A30-3). This may be done if provision is made when the 
boiler contract is let. 

Steam for Heating Purposes. 

Steam connections to heat water for the lavatory should be 
avoided whenever possible, as numerous difficulties are thereby 
occasioned. A coil can be attached to a blind flange at the end of 
a header through which the water to be warmed may pass as is 
shown in Fig. i3i-(A3i-i). In order to avoid generating steam 
when but little water is being used, the water should pass to the 
coil at boiler pressure. After leaving the coil, the water should 
pass through a pressure reducing and a relief valve before reach- 
ing the plumbing fixtures. When high pressure and high tempera- 
ture water is reduced in pressure by passage through a reducing 
valve, it will partially evaporate in the low-pressure line, thus 
causing water hammer and very unsatisfactory water service. 

A very satisfactory method for heating low-pressure water with 
steam of a higher pressure is shown in Fig. l32-(A3l-2). The 
heating coil, a, takes steam through the valve, b, which is con- 
trolled by means of the thermostat tube, c. The thermometer, d, 
shows the temperature of the water, which can be altered by 
changing the set of the valve stem at the sleeve, e. This sleeve is 
similar to a turn-buckle having lock nuts as shown. The post, f, 



is made of a solid bar which assists in hojding the valve securely 
and prevents springing. Water is fed in at g and passes out at h. 
The lower end of the coil is open, which allows the steam drips to 
discharge into the warm-water receiver, j. In case an unusually 
large temporary demand is made on the heater, the steam will flow 
through the coil and into the water direct. In regular operation, 
the coil should be partly filled with water. 

Wherever possible, steam connections should be so arranged that 
conductors will not be exposed to lower temperatures than that 
of the roof. If it is necessary to locate conductors outside of the 
building, this cannot be effected and the only thing to do is to 
supply the conductors with either exhaust or live steam. If the 
plant is operated condensing, it is quite probable that all the exhaust 
steam from the auxiliaries will be condensed in the heater. The 
openings into conductors should be quite small. For this purpose 
about a ->js-in. pipe with the valve inside the wall should be used 
and it should be drained into the conductor as shown in Fig. 
i33-(A32-i). ' The lower section, a, should be of cast iron. The 
upper portion of the conductor may be made of galvanized iron 
and the sewer of tile. The small pipe should pass through a ij^-in. 
pipe sleeve built in the wall. This is a somewhat extravagant use 
of steam but it is less expensive than the frequent renewing of 
conductors. In general the roofs of power stations are quite flat 
and are not exposed to any extent to the wind. For this reason, 
they are usually very warm even in the coldest weather, but con- 
ductors placed on the outside of buildings will usually freeze unless 
heat be admitted to them. Some saving may be effected by the use 
of high temperature drains. A system that will discharge vapors 
into sewers so that the vapors will pass through the conductors, 
will usually cause as much damage by rusting out the conductors 
as would be occasioned by freezing. The best arrangement that 
can be made with outside conductors is to use live steam only when 
needed. 

Live Steam to Low-Pressure Cylinder. 

In many cases, a live steam connection to the low-pressure 
cylinders is furnished by the engine builder. This connection may 
be either a warming pipe or a steam line to the low-pressure side 




FIG. I32-(A3I-2) AND FIG. I33-(A32-l). 

to be used when the low-pressure side is run independent of the 
high-pressure side. There are cases where it is good policy to 
arrange a cross-compound engine so that the low-pressure side 
can be run without the high-pressure side. Ordinarily this detail 
is found necessary when the plant has been arranged with but one 
or two large engines. In such cases there is no reserve provided 
and in order to enable the plant to operate, it is necessary to use 
the half of the engine that is in order. There are also certain in- 
stances where it is good practice to lay out a plant with but one 
or two engines. This would h<> the case when the original installa- 



March 15, 1906.] 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



149 



tion is to be increased within a short time by the addition of en- 
gines of the same size, as by this means the use of small and large 
engines in the same plant is avoided. 

A suitable arrangement of piping is shown in Fig. I34-(A33-i) 
whereby th,e high-pressure side can be exhausted to the condenser 
or to the atmosphere, or the low-pressure side can take steam 
through the reducing valve, a, and be protected by the relief valve, 
b, set at about 25 lb. The small valve, c, is the by-pass for 
warming up the low-pressure side. The valve, d, which shuts off 
the condenser should be motor operated if it is larger than 20 in. 
The atmospheric valve is shown at e and the main steam throttle 
at f. The horizontal valves are used only when changing over these 
connections and should not be fitted with operating stands on the 
engine-room floor as they are not used often enough to warrant 
the additional expense or the extra floor space which they take up. 
The high-pressure throttle, f, the low-pressure throttle, g, the by- 
pass, c, and the electric buttons for the valve, d, are the only oper- 
ating devices which are necessary on the engine-room floor. 

This system of piping to both the high and low-pressure cylinders 
is frequently carried to an extreme. In stations having three or 
more units, it is useless to complicate the piping with the extra 
parts required. If an engine is out of order the operator will 
invariably shut down the entire unit, notwithstanding the fact that 
it may be piped to run on either side. There are many plants 
piped in this manner that have never made use of the arrangement, 
and there are cases where it would seem that they would cer- 
tainly find it to their advantage to use this piping system rather 
than shut down the entire unit. For stations having a large num- 
ber of units, it is the better practice to provide the simplest possible 
arrangement that will insure the best protection of the entire unit 
as a whole. Straight connections from one opening to another 
should be avoided as continuous trouble with the joints is almost 
certain to result. 

F'B- i35-(A33-2) illustrates the "straight-line connection" which 
is used by a number of engine builders. This connection is diffi- 
cult to make and so little provision is allowed for expansion that 
severe strains are placed on the joints under the cylinders. Such 
strains should be relieved as much as possible in order to avoid 
the necessity of frequent renewal. These joints are so situated that 




7b CO/V£>£A'S£/? 



cylinder and through the exhaust valves on both sides of the 
piston. This is possible with any engine having a release connec- 
tion at the end of the valve rods and a lever for rolling the valves 
by hand. When a warming pipe is used, the steam is discharged 
into the intermediate receiver or one of the pipe connections through 
a small pipe, say a 2-in. pipe for a 2,000-h. p. engine, with the valve 
stem run through the floor and fitted with a stand. If the valve 
gear is not provided with a releasing device, it is advisable to run 
a warming line to the intermediate connection between the high 
and low-pressure sides, so that the low-pressure side will have 







fig. i35-(A33-2). 

steam when the engine starts to roll Dver. In case steam is taken 
from the header above the engine having a branch to the throttle 
over the high-pressure cylinder, the low-pressure live steam con- 
nection should be effected from a separate branch from the header. 
This will simplify the piping arrangement. 

Steam connections to engine cylinder jackets are not ordinarily 
required, the general practice being to furnish the engines without 
jackets. Where the jackets are not furnished, the steam to and 
the drips from the jackets are under full boiler pressure and the 
drips are returned to the boiler through a return system similar 
to that used for the other drips in the plant. In order to dis- 
charge these drips together with other drips of boiler pressure the 
jackets used must be of ample size to avoid any perceptible pres- 
sure loss due to the small size of the pipe connections. 

There is but one important requisite in the steam connection to 
the live steam purifier which is to deliver steam to the purifier at a 
pressure sufficient ,to permit water to flow by gravity to the boilers. 
If the purifier is mounted at a sufficient height above the boilers 



-7b /7r/^OS/'/f'£7F , £ 

fig. i34-(A33-i)- 




fig. i36-(A34-i"). 



it is quite difficult to make a connection that will stand ordinary 
strains and therefore when subjected to the strains of the piping 
as shown in Fig. i35-(A33-2) a great deal of trouble will result. 

The use of a warming pipe for low-pressure cylinders is not 
universal with Corliss engine installations. It is possible to send 
steam through the high-pressure cylinders to the receiver without 
the use of a separate warming pipe. Before the engine is started 
steam should be blown through the steam valves in and out of the 



to allow a loss in steam pressure before delivery to the purifier, 
the steam branch may be run from the header. A good method of 
piping when the purifier is placed but a few feet above the boilers 
is shown in Fig. i36-(A34-i). If three or four boilers are sup- 
plied by the purifier, the branches can be run into a main which 
has a single connection to the purifier or the three or four 
branches may be separately run to the purifier with a valve in 
each branch. The water column, a, indicates the head at which 



150 



STREET RAILWAY REVIEW 



IVol. XVI, No. 3. 



water is to be delivered to the boiler. This head must be greater 
than the combined losses of the steam flowing through its branches 
to the purifier, the loss in the head of the water flowing from the 
purifier to the boiler, the loss in the head of the water passing 
through the check valve, and the loss in the head in the main 
steam header as measured at the different boiler branches. These 
losses could scarcely be measured on a gage reading to 165 lbs. of 
steam, but when considered in connection with the head,, a, that 
pressure may be sufficient to prevent a flow to the boiler. When 
a is four or six feet there can be but very slight losses. In fact 




'" " "" rrr ' 






FIG. I37-U36-I). 

the combined losses previously mentioned would be less than three 
pounds per square inch. These losses should be calculated for not 
less than three times as much water and steam flowing as the 
boiler rating would indicate, in order to permit bringing the water 
up to its proper line while the boiler is being crowded. 

An inexpensive and satisfactory method of running supply lines 
to other buildings for driving machineiy, heating, etc., is shown in 
Fig. I37-(A36-i). The piping is run through tile and if a straight 
run cannot be made from the one building to the other, a well is 
placed at the intersection to enable a line that is out of order to be 
disconnected. The lines snould be located so that they can be 
drawn back into the room at least the length of the pipe, enabling 
the removal of the entire line without disturbing the ground. If the 
building, a, will not permit drawing the pipe into it, the line from 
the building a, to the building b, may be drawn through into the 
building b. The steam separators, c and d, are so placed that they 
will take care of the condensation. The pipes in the tile should be 
left bare and the air space closed by a man-hole cover with the end 
openings at the walls plugged with asbestos. The tile should be 
cemented at the joints and, if convenient, the well should have a 
drain to the sewer. What little moisture would work in