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Full text of "Structural and systematic conchology: an introduction to the study of the Mollusca.."

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LIBRARY OF 



R. D. L A C O E . 

For the Promotion of Research in 
PALEOBOTANY and PALEOZOOLOGY 



RETURN TO= 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON, D. C. ^ ^^^^ 



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STRUCTURAL 

AND 

^i^ivJBioii of MoOnribB 
SYSTEMATIC '^^<aa«l Utwrnf 



CONCHOLOGY: 



AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OK THE 



MOLLUSCA. 



VOL. II. 



By GEORGE W. TRYON, Jr. 

CONSKKVATOR OF- THE ( 'ONCHOLOGICAL SECTION OK THK ACADfcMY OK NaTUKAIi 

SCIENCE.S OK Philadelphia. 



PHILADELPHIA : 

PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR, 

Academy of Nataral Scienceg, Cor. 19tli <& }<ace Sta. 

1883. 



Cep/rigbt, 18M, bj George W. T170D, Jr, 



WM. P. KILDARE. PRINTER. 734 & 736 SaNSOM STREET. PHILADELPHIA. PA. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 



Class CEPHALOPODA, 
Order D IBM ANG HI ATA, 
Suborder Octopoda, 

Family OCTOPODID^, . 

Family TREMOCTOPID^, 

Family ARGON AUTID^, 
Suborder Decapoda, 

Family LOLIGINID^, . . 

Family SEPIOLID^, 

Family CRANCHIID^, . 

Family CHIROTEUTHID.E, 

Family THYSANOTEUTHID.E, 

Family ONYCHOTEUTHID.E, 

Family OMMATOSTREPHID.E, 

Family SEPIIDyE, . 

Family BELOSEPIIDJE, . 

Family BELEMNITID^, 

Family SPIRULIDJ^, 
Order TETRABRANGHIATA, 

Family NAUTILID^, 

Family AMMONITID^, . 

Class PTEROPODA, 
Order THEGOSOMATA, 

Family HYALEID.*:, 

Family CYMBULIID^, . 

Family LIMACINID.E, . 

(3) 



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CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 



Order GYMNO SOMA TA, 

Family CLIID^, . . i 'V 
Family EURYBIID^, 

Class GASTROPODA, 
Subclass PROSOBRANGHIATA. 
Ord er PE C TINIBRANGHIA TA , . 
Family MURICID^, 

Subfamily MURIGINM, : AllYUJiaa 
Subfamily PURPURIN^E, 
Family TRITONIDJi], 
Family FUSID^, 
Subfamily FUSING, 
Subfamily FASGIOLARIINjE, . 
Subfamily PTYGHA TRA G TINJ^, 
^VB¥ AMILY PFRISTERNIINjE, . 
Family BUCCINID.F:, 

SUBTAMILY MELONGENINjE, 
Subfamily NEPTUNIIN^, . 
Subfamily P//5'^iV//A^J?, . . 
Subfamily BUGGININjE^ flUdiy^i 
HvBiAMihY E BURNING, 
Subfamily PHOTTNjE, . 
Family NASSID.F, . . . . 
Family TURBINELLID^, M^ni 
Family YOLUTID^, 
Family MITRID.E, .... 
Family MARGINELLID^, 
Family OLIVID/E, . . 

Subfamily OLI VIN^E,:^^[V/.^MX1 
Subfamily ANGILLARIINM, . 
Subfamily HARPING, . 
Family COLUMBELLID.E, . 
Family CANCELLARIID.E, . 



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contents of vol. ii. 5 

Family TEREBRID^, .182 

Family PLEUROTOMID.E, 183 

Family CONID^, 186 

Family STROMBID.E, 189 

Family OYPRJSID^, 196 

Family CASSIDID.E, 199 

Family DOLIID^, 202 

Family MACGILLIVRAYID^ (?), . . . .203 

Family NATICIDJG, 204 

Family CALYPTR^ID^, 211 

Family ONUSTIDJE, . . . ' . . . .215 

Family SOLARIID^ 217 

Family SCALARID^, 220 

Family IANTHINID^ 222 

Family TRICHOTROPID.E, 223 

Family TURRITELLID.E, . . . . .224 

Family VERMETID.E, 226 

Family CECID^, ....... 228 

Family EULIMID.E, 229 

Family TURBONILLID^, 234 

Family PYRAMIDELLID.E, 238 

Family LITTORINID.E, 240 

Family PLANAXID.E, 246 

Family CERITHIID^, 247 

Family MELAXIID.E, 251 

Family STREPOMATID.E, 256 

Family RISSOELLID^, .258 

Family RISSOID.E, 259 

SvBFAMiLY BY THININ^ 260 

Subfamily SKENE IN jE, 261 

Subfamily RISSOININjE, 261 

Subfamily RISSOINjE, 263 

Subfamily HYDROBIIN^, 265 



6 



CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 



Subfamily LITHOGLYPHLNM, 
Subfamily POM A TIOPSINJE, 
Family ASSIMINIID^, . 
Family VALVATID^, . 
Family PALUDINID.E, . 
Family AMPULLARIID.E, 
Family TRUNCATELLID^, 
Family CYCLOSTOMID^, 
Subfamily POMA TIASINjE, 
8VBFAM\LY PUPINE A, . 
Subfamily CYCLOSTOMEA, 
Subfamily CYGLOPHOREA, 
Subfamily GYGLOTEA, 
Family HELICINID.E, . 
Order SGUTIBRANGHIA TA, 
Suborder Podopthalma, 
Family NERITID^, . 
Family LIOTIID.E, . 
Family ROTELLID.E, 
Family PHASIANELLIDiE, 
Family TURBINID^, 
Family TR0CHIDJ3, 
Family STOMATELLID.E, 
P^amily PLEUROTOMARIID^, 
Family BELLEROPHONTID.E, 
Family MACLUREID.E, . 
Family HALIOTID.E, 
Suborder Edriopthalma, 
Family FISSURELLID.E, 
Family PATELLID^, 
Subfamily LEPETIN^, 
Subfamily AGM^INJE, 
Subfamily PA TELLINjE, 



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CONTENTS OF VOL. IT. 



Order FOLYPLAGOPHORA, 
Family CHITONID^, 
Family NEOMENIID.E, . 
Order NUCLEOBRANCHIATA, . 
Family FIROLID^, . 
Family CARINARIID.E, . 
Family ATLANTID^, . 

Subclass OPISTHOBRANCHIATA 
Order TEGIIBRANCHIATA, 
Family PHILINID^, 
Family TORNATELLID.E, 
Subfamily TORN A TELLINM, 
Subfamily RINGIGULIN^, 
Family CYLICHNID^, . 
Family BULLID.E, . 
Family APLUSTRID.E, . 
Family LOPHOCERCID^, 
Family APLYSIID.^, 
Family PLEUROBRANCHID.E, 
Family UMBRELLID^, . 
Order NUDIBRANGHIATA,. 
Suborder Anthobranchiata, . 
Family DORIDID^, . 
Family DORIDOPSID^, . 
Family POLl^CERIDJ^, . 
Suborder Aiolobranchiata, . 
Family TRITONIADiE, . 

Subfamily PROG TO NO TIN^, 
Subfamily DOTONINjE, 
Family ^OLID^, . 
Subfamily GLAUGINJE, 
Subfamily jEOLINJE, . 
Subfamily HER3I^IN^, . 



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CONTENTS OF VOL. TI. 



Family ELYSIID^, . . . 
Subfamily ELYSIIN^, 
Subfamily PLAGOBRANGHIN^, 
Subfamily LIMAPONTIINJE, . 

Family PHYLLIDIIDJ^, . 
Subfamily PHYLLIDIINjE, 
Subfamily PLEUROPHYLLIDIIN^, 
Subfamily PLEUROLEURIN^, . 



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SYSTEMATIC 

CONCHOLOGT. 



Class CEPHALOPODA. 

Head larc^c, connected with the body by a neck, and iuinished 
with complex, sessile or pednnculated eyes ; mouth with a pair 
of mandibles or beaks, resembling those of a parrot, edged with 
fleshy lips, and surrounded l)y a circle of arms. 

As pointed out in the structural portion of this work, the 
Cephalopoda are related to the vertebrata in several particulars : 
in the mode of segmentation of the vitellus, in their internal carti- 
laginous support—a simplified skeleton ; in their circulation fur- 
nished with true capillaries, their blood corpuscles, their more 
highly developed eyes, mandibles, etc. 

Differing from other mollusks by their symmetry as well as in 
the above details, they nevertheless present, Avitli more or less 
modification, the main distinctive features common to other 
classes of the subkingdom Mollusca. 

The Cephalopoda are essentially carnivorous ; their nourish- 
ment is derived from fish, the migrations of which they follow, 
and from i)teropod mollusca. Certain sedentary species eat 
crustaceans, nudibranchiate and bivalve mollusks and bryozoa. 
After their exclusion, the young prey upon polyps, notal)ly on 
those of the family Gorgonidie, so common on the Algerine 
coast, and some of which, perhaps, furnish the mnterial nctcessary 
for the growth or solidification of the cuttle-bone. A little larger, 
they attack with avidity those elegant chaplets of pearls, the 
rainl)OW-hued eggs of Eolis and Doris. 

The num])er of cephalopods of small size is exceedingly great, 
l)ut thev become the prey of a multitude of enemies. On the 
10th Jan., 1858, the Dutch ship Yrii-ndentrouw sailed for two 
hours through dead Loligos, covering the surface of the sea as 
far as the eye of the lookout could reach. Mr. Vrolik found in 
the stomach of a Hyperoodon about ten thousand mandibles ot 
Loligo. 
2 



10 CEPHALOPODA. 

It is the opinion of almost all whalemen, that the sperm whale 
feeds wholly on squid. Capt. Daniel McKenzie, of New Bedford, 
says : " The smaller kind they eat is fonnd near the surface, and 
is from 2 to 3 feet in length; the larger kind, which probably 
have their haunts deep in the sea, must be of immense size. 1 
have seen very large junks floating on the surface entirely shape- 
less." Capt. Francis Post says : " Whales in the agony of death, 
frequently eject from their stomach pieces as large as the bulk 
of a barrel, and these in large quantities. Large pieces of squid 
are often seen floating on the sea, which whalers consider indi- 
cate good whale-ground." — Am. Nafiirolist^ vii, 90, 1873. 

Cuttle-fish are used so extensively for bait at Newfoundland, 
that half of all the cod taken is fished with them. The cuttle 
occurs '• in vast abundance, but at different times on different 
coasts; for example, at St. Pierre in Jul^^, on the southern coasts 
of Newfoundland only in August, and in Bouna Bay first in Sep- 
tember. 'Its vast shoals present a curious appearance, by their 
strongly twisted, compact form. When they approach, hundreds 
of vessels are ready for their capture. At this season of the 
3'ear, the sea on the coast of St. Pierre is covered with from 400 
to 500 sail of English and French ships, engaged in the cuttle- 
fish fisliery. During violent gales of wind, hundreds of tons of 
them are often thrown up together in beds on the flat beaches, 
the deca}'^ of which spreads an intolerable eflfluvium around. It 
is made no use of, except for bait ; and as it maintains itself in 
deeper water than the capelan, instead of nets being used to take 
it, it is jigged — a jigger being a number of hooks radiating from 
a fixed centre, made for the purpose. The cod is in best condi- 
tion after having fed on it. Another method of taking them is 
sometimes resorted to. Fires are made all along the shore during 
the night, when the Loligo, attracted by the light, approaches too 
near for his safety, and is left on the strand by the recess of the 
tide, when the fishermen go to gather them." — Edinb. New Phil. 
Journ., viii, 395. 

In the Polynesian Islands, the natives have a curious contriv- 
ance for catching cuttle-fish. It consists of a straight piece of 
hard wood a foot long, round and polished, and not half an inch 
in diameter. Near one end of it, a number of beautiful pieces 
of the cowrie, or tiger shell, are fastened one over another, like 
the scales of a fish, until it is nearly the size of a turkey's egg, 
and resembles the cowrie. It is suspended in a horizontal posi- 
tion by a strong line, and lowered by the fisherman from a small 
canoe till it nearly reaches the bottom. The fisherman jerks the 
line to cause the shell to move, as if it were alive, and the jerking 
motion is called " tootoofe," the name of the contrivance. The 
cuttle-fish, attracted by the cowries, darts out one of its arms, 
and then another, and so on, until it is quite fastened among the 



CEPHALOPODA. 



11 



openings between the pieces of the cowrie, when it is drawn 
up into the canoe and secured. — LoweW^ Edible Moll n^k^,\^)1. 

Most of the specic^s of octopods and the Nautilus are littoral 
in habit, and have thence beeu conjectured to enjoy but a limited 
distribution ; and this is held to justify the ruultlplication of 
specific names. This reasoning is, however, fallacious, as it is 
well known that many littoral moUusks, not nearly so well pro- 
vided as these with the means of swimming, have become world- 
wide in distribution. So many particular species of Octopus are 
known to inhabit the shores "of distant countries, that a large 
proportion of the species which have been distinguished by slight 
and mutable characters, and by their geographical distrilnition, 
will probably need to be united when sufflciently studied. This 
probable extensive distribution of living littoral species corres- 
ponds with observations made upon fossil species of Ammonites, 
Nautilus and other chambered genera, which are proved to have 
been littoral in habit by their occurrence only in deposits repre- 
senting ancient sea-shores. Not to multiply examples amongst 
these fossils, it may be mentioned that Nautilus simplex occurs 
in Europe, East Indies and Texas ; that Ammonites Rotomagensis 
is found in Europe, East Indies, N. and S. Africa and S. America ; 
and that Bnculites anceps had even a wider distribution. Never- 
theless, temperature has been observed to have some effect upon 
the distribution of the living Octopoda of Europe, similar but 
distinguishable forms or species inhabiting its northern seas, 
from those of the Mediterranean. As in Molluscan life generally, 
the development of specific forms has been greatest in tropical 
waters. 

It is altogether probable that the pelagic cephalopods, highly 
organized, with pow^erful locomotive apparatus, and frequently 
attaining great size and strength, may enjoy a distribution fully 
equal to that of the littoral species : such is known to be the 
case in some species which, normally circumboreal in distribu- 
tion, are found nevertheless extending into temperate latitudes 
in both oceans. 



Order 1. Dibranchtata.— Breathing by a single pair of internal 
symmetrical branchiae or gills. Eyes sessile. Mandibles horny. 
Arms, eight or ten, furnished with rows of acetabnhe or suckers. 
Body sometimes laterally or posteriorly finned. Shell internal, 
or none. 

Order 2. Tetrabranciiiata. — Breathing by two pairs of sym- 
metrical branchite. Eyes pedunculated. Mandibles shelly. Arms 
very numerous, without suckers. Shell external, chambered ; 
capable of containing the animal. 



12 CEPHALOPODA. 

Order I. DIBRANCHIATA. 

Suborder 1. Octopoda. — Arms eight, sessile; no shell. 

(The so-called shell of the argonaut, is the egg-nest of the 
female.) 

Suborder 2. Decapoda. — Ten arms, of which eight are sessile, 
and two (longer) tentacular. Shell internal. 

Suborder I. OCTOPODA. 

{Littoral.) 
Family Octopodid.e. Mantle supported by fleshy bands. No 
cephalic aquiferous pores. Arms subulate, elongated, more or 
less united by webs ; their suckers sessile. 

{Pelagic.) 

Family Tremootopid^ (Philonexid^). Front of mantle sup- 
ported by two cartilaginous buttons at the ])ase of the siphuncle, 
fitting into grooves on the inner side of the mantle. Aquiferous 
pores on the back of the head. Suckers pedunculated. 

Famil}^ Argonautid^. Mantle supported by two buttons 
fitting into grooves at the base of the siphuncle. The two upper 
or dorsal arms ( in the female only) expanding into velamenta 
or broad webs at their extremity, from which an egg-nest (shell) 
is secreted. Cups slightly pedicelled. A pair of aquiferous 
pores at the upper hinder angle of the eye. 

Suborder II. DECAPODA. 

A. Decapoda chondrophora. Internal shell horny. 

a. Myopsidse. Eyes covered by skin: mostly littoral species. 

Family LoLiGiNiDyE. Body rather long ; buccal skin some- 
times armed with suclvers ; tentacular arms only partially' retrac- 
tile ; fins lateral-terminal. Inner shell or gladius as long as the 
back. 

Family Sia'iOLiDiE. Bod}^ short ; buccal skin without suckers ; 
tentacular arms completely retractile ; fins short, in the middle 
of the sides of the l)ack. Gladius only about half as long as the 
bod3^ First pair of dorsal arras hectocotylized in the male ; 
sperniatophores attached around the orifice of the oviduct. 

h. Oigopsidae. Eyes naked : jjelagic species. 

Family Cranchiid^. Body rounded ; mantle united to the 
head by a cervical band, and upon either side connate Avith the 
base of the siphon ; head small, with large eyes ; arms short ; 
tentacles long ; siphon long, not fastened to the head, and with 
or without inner valve. Shell or gladius as long as the body, 
small, lance-like. 

Family Chiroteuthid^. Body rather long ; mantle supported 
on the body by cartilaginous ridges ; sessile arms, long, partially 



CEPHALOPODA. 13 

webbed ; tentacles veiy long, not retractile ; siphon short, without 
attachment to the head, or valve. Shell or gladius small, long, 
lance-like. 

Famil}' Thysanoteuthid^. Body rather long or oval; mantle 
supported b^^ cartilaginous ridges and grooves ; arms free ; 
siphon united to the head by two" bands. Gladius dart-like. 

Family ONYCiiOTEUTiiiDiE. Body long, cylindrical; mantle 
supported by cartilaginous projections ; eyes with a lachrymal 
sinus ; arms or tentacles armed with hooks ; siphon with or 
without bands and valve. Gladius generally lancet-form, with 
an end-conus. 

Family Ommatostrephid^. Body long, cylindrical ; arms short, 
armed with suckers only ; the short tentacular arms non-retrac- 
tile ; siphon valved, united by bands to the head. Shell small, 
lancet-form, with an end-conus. 
B. Decapoda calciphora. Internal shell calcareous, 
a. Sepiophora. Shell blade-like. 

Family Sepiid^. Ej^es covered by skin ; littoral. Bod^-^ oval, 
with long lateral fins, uniting behind ; mantle supported by carti- 
laginous tubercles fitting into sockets on the neck and siphon ; 
arms with suckers, tentacular arms entirely retractile ; siphon 
valved. Shell (cuttle-bone, sepion or sepiostaire) broad, flat, 
thickened internally by numerous plates, terminating behind in 
a hollow, imperfectly chambered apex or mucro, without con- 
necting siphon. 

b. Phragmophora. Shell forming a series of chambers traversed 

by a siphon. 

Family Belosepiid^. (Fossil only.) Shell like Sepia, but the 
walls of the chambers of the mucro pierced by small holes, 
indicating the existence of a connecting siphon. Animal un- 
known. 

Family Belemnitid^. (Fossil only.) Animal, arms with 
hooks. Shell a pen (pro-ostracum) attached to a chambered cone 
(phragmocone), the partitions of which are pierced by a sub- 
marginal, ventrally-placed siphuncle ; at the hinder end the 
phragmocone is enveloped by a rostrum. 

Famil}^ SpirulidxE. Animal, body oblong, with minute ter- 
minal fins ; mantle supported by a cervical and two ventral 
ridges and grooves; arms with six rows of minute cups ; tentacu- 
lar arms elongated ; siphon valved. Shell spiral, whorls on the 
same plane, not in connection, chambered ; chambers connected 
by a ventral siphon, invested by a series of cone-shaped tubes, 
one for each chamber. The shell is placed vertically in the end 
of the bod}', and is held in place by side flaps of the mantle. 

The above succession of families indicates a progression from 
the so-called naked octopods (with the internal shell represented 



14 OCTOPODIDjE. 

by cartilaginous styles), through the cartilaginous-shelled Cir- 
roteuthis, to the decapods with horny pens : — then those with 
calcareous plates and minute initial chambers, the latter of wdiich 
gradually become larger, are siphunculated, curve, become spiral 
and thus form a passage into the fossil tetrabranchiates and the 
externally-shelled Nautilus. It is not impossible that in some 
of the ancient genera, the structure of the animals was such as 
to bridge over the gulf which now exists between the two orders: 
this has been recently maintained by M. Munier-Chalmas, and 
more cautiously by Dr. Paul Fischer. 

Suborder I. OCTOPODA. 
Animal bursiform, body rounded or ovoid ; ej^es fixed ; shell 
usually absent, sometimes represented by internal cartilaginous 
stylets, or externally by a calcareous nest for the eggs, formed 
by the female only ; siphon without valve ; eight arms with fleshy 
suckers (without corneous rings ) on their inner face. Males 
modifying one of their arms for copulation, and frequently 
detaching it during the act. 

Family OCTOPODIDJE. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

a. Arms with two rows of suckers. 

* Body not finned. 

Octopus. Body rounded. Arms long. Suckers sessile. Third 

right arm of male hectocotylized. 
CiSTOPUS. Differs from Octopus in having a small aquiferous 
system, consisting of a bag with a small pore at its lower edge, 
upon the web between each arm. 
ScEURGUS. Body oval, wider than the head ; arms short ; cups 

with narrowed bases. Third left arm hectocotylized. 
Alloposus. Arms united by a web nearly to the ends. 

* * Body finned. 

PiNNOCTOPUS. 

b. Arms with a single row of suckers. 
* Not finned. 
Eledone. Body rounded, without fins. Third right arm hecto- 
cotylized. 
BoLiTiENA. More gelatinous than Eledone ; suckers smaller, 
less developed. 

* * Finned. 
CiRROTEUTHis. Body with two transverse medial fins ; mantle 
united to the head nearly all round, by a cervical band ; arms 
united by a w^eb nearly to their tips. 

c. Arms with three rows of suckers. 
Tritaxeopus. 



OCTOPODID^. 15 

Octopus, Lamarck, 1799. 

Etym. — Octo^ eight ; pons (poda), feet. Poulpe. 

Syn. — Polypus, Leach, 1817. 

Distr. — 44 species. Coasts of temperate and tropical seas. 
0. CavieyH^ cl'Orb. (xxiii,5) ; 0. octopodia, Linn. (xxiii,l). 

Animal with a rounded body, not finned at the sides or 
extremity ; the eight long arms provided on their inner surface 
with two rows of sessile fleshy suckers ; mantle-support fleshy. 
Shell represented by two short cartilaginous stylets enclosed in 
the tissues of the mantle. The third right arm of the male is 
altered for sexual purposes. 

Verany says, that although the Octopus usually hides itself in 
the crevices of rocks, which the elasticity of its body enables it 
to do with great facility, it sometimes frequents sandy bottoms. 
On these occasions, as he has several times observed, it covers 
itself with dehris by means of its suckers, and thus hid, patiently 
awaits its prey. The Poulpes are fished by means of an edible 
morsel, attached to a line and slowly moved about their retreat. 
An individual having enveloped tlie bait in his arms, is gently 
drawn sufficiently near to the fisherman to enter a small hand- 
net. In summer, the young octopods are caught by means of a 
line armed with several hooks garnished with red cloth. By 
quickly drawing in the line, the animals may be captured. This 
is considered a fine pastime for the fine summer evenings at 
Nice. The Octopus retains his vitality for a long time out of 
the water, so that the fisherman is compelled to kill him at once 
with his knife, to prevent escape. 

The meat of the Octopus has a well-marked taste, and is excel- 
lent when young. It is regularly sold by fishermen in the 
markets of Southern Europe. A section of an arm shows a white, 
firm flesh, resembling in appearance steaks of halibut. 

The largest Octopus seen by Verany was over three yards in 
length, and weighed 25 kilogrammes ; it was captured by a fisher- 
man with his hands only, after a fatiguing struggle. 

The action of the suckers of the Poulpe upon the skin, tlie 
serpentine motion and muscular force of its arms, and its hideous 
aspect, have caused to be exaggerated, says M. Verany, the mis- 
deeds of this cephalopod, which is stupid and incapable of harm. 

Mr. Jeffreys, in his admirable "British Conchology," states 
that the Octopus feeds principally on bivalves. The heaps of 
shells around their dens, which are uncovered during the recess 
of spring tides at Herm, are enormous ; in one of tliese heaps, 
more than two thousand shells were counted, principally species 
of Tapes. 

Lord's " Naturalist in British Columl)ia " contains the following 
account of the Octopus : 

" The ordinary resting-place of this hideous sea-beast is under 



16 OCTOPODIDiE. 

a large stone, or in the wide cleft of a rock, where an Octopus 
can creep and squeeze itself with the flatness of a sand-dab, or 
the slipperiness of an eel. Its modes of locomotion are curious 
and varied ; using the eight arms as paddles, and working them 
alternately, the central disk representing a }3oat, octopi row 
themselves along with an ease and celerity comparable to the 
many-oared caique that glides over the tranquil waters of the 
Bosphorus ; they can ramble at will over the sandy roadways, 
intersecting their submarine parks, and converting arms into 
legs, march on like a huge spider. Gymnasts of the highest 
order, they climb the slippery ledges, as flies walk up a window- 
pane ; attaching the countless suckers that arm the terrible limbs 
to the face of the rocks, or to the wrack and sea-Aveed, the}^ go 
about back downward, like marine sloths, or, clinging with one 
arm to the waving algae, perform series of trapeze movements 
that Leotard might view with envy. 

" I do not think, in its native element, an Octopus often catches 
prey on the ground or on the rocks, but waits for them just as 
the spider does, only the Octopus converts itself into a web, and 
a feai'ful one too. Fastening one arm to a stout stalk of the 
great sea-wrack, stiffening out the other seven, one would hardly 
know it from the wrack amongst which it is concealed. Patiently 
he bides his time, until presently a shoal of fish come gaily on. 
Two or three of them rub against the arms : fatal touch ! As 
though a powerful electric shock had passed through the fish, 
and suddenly knocked it senseless, so does the arm of the Octopus 
pai'alyze its victim; then winding a great sucker-clad cable round 
the palsied fish, he draws the dainty morsel to the centre of the 
disk, whei'e the beaked mouth seizes, and soon sucks it in. 

" I am perfectly sure, from frequent observations, the Octopus 
has the power of numbing its prey ; and the sacking disks along- 
each ray are more for the purposes of climbing and holding 
on whilst fishing, than for capturing and detaining slippery 
prisoners. 

" The Indian looks upon the Octopus as an alderman does on 
turtle, and devours it with equal gusto and relish, only the savage 
roasts the glutinous carcase instead of boiling it. His mode of 
catching octopi is crafty in the extreme, for redskin well knows, 
from past experience, that were the Octo])us once to get some of 
its huge arms over the side of the canoe, and at the same time a 
holdfast on the wrack, it could as easily haul it over as a child 
could upset a basket. Paddling the canoe close to the rocks, and 
quietly pushing aside the wrack, the savage peers through the 
crystal water, until his practised eye detects an Octopus, with 
its great rope-like arms stiffened out, waiting patiently for food. 
His spear is twelve feet long, armed at the end with four pieces 
of hai'd wood, made harder bj^ being baked and chan-ed in the 



OCTOPODlDiE. ^' 



fire • these project about fourteen inches beyond the spear-haft, 
each piece having a barb on one side, and are arranged in a circle 
round the spear-end, and lashed firmly on with cedar-bark. 
Havino- spied out the Octopus, the hunter passes the spear care- 
full v through the water until within an inch or so of the centre 
disk, and tiien sends it in as deep as he can plunge it. \N nthing 
with pain and passion, the Octopus coils its terrible arms round 
the haft ; redskin, making the side of his canoe a fulcrum for his 
spear, keeps the struggling monster well off", and raises it to the 
surface of the water. It is dangerous now ; if it could get a ho Id- 
fast on either savage or canoe, nothing short of chopping ott tlie 
arms piecemeal would be of any avail. 

'' But the wily redskin knows all this, and has taken care to 
have another spear, unbarbed, long, straight, smooth, and very 
sharp, and with this he stabs the Octopus where the arms join 
the central disk. I suppose the spear must break down the 
nervous oanglions supplying motive power, as the stabl)ed arms 
lose at once strength and tenacity; the suckers, that a moment 
before held on with a force ten men could not liave overcome, 
relax, and the entire ray hangs like a dead snake, a limi)^ liteless 
mass And thus the Indian stabs and stabs, untd the Octopus, 
deprived of all power to do harm, is dragged into the canoe, a 
oreat, inert, quivering lump of brown-looking jelly." 
"^ Mrs. Lucie L. Hartt .thus relates her experience with an 

Octopus : ^ ., , , 1 1 -T 

" It was during my first visit to Brazil, that one day, while 
busily enoaged in examining a reef at a little town on the coast 
called Gmirapary, my eye fell on an object in a shallow tide-pool, 
packed away in "the crevice of the reef, which excited my curi- 
osity I could see nothing but a pair of very bright eyes ; but, 
concluding that the eyes had an owner, I determined very rashly 
to secure him. I had"^ l)een handling corals, and seemed to have 
forgotten that all the inhabitants of the sea are not harmless. 1 
put my hand down very quietly so as not to ruffle the water when, 
suddenly, to my surprise, it was seized with a pressure iar too 
ardent to be agreeable, and I was held fast. I tugged hard to 
o-et away, but this uncivil individual, whoever he was, evidently 
had as strong a hold on the rocks as he had on my hand, and 
was not easily to be persuaded to let go of either. At last, 
however he became convinced that he must choose between us, 
and so let o(, his hold upon the rocks, and I found clinging to 
my rUrlit hand, by his long arms, a large octopod cuttle-fish, and 
I beoan to suspect that I had caught a Tartar. His long arms 
were"'wound around my hand, and these arms, V)y the way, were 
covered with rows of suckers, somewhat like those with which 
boys lift stones, and escape from them was almost impossible. I 



18 OCTOPODID^. 

knew that this fellow's sucking propensities were not his worst 
ones, for these cuttle-fishes are furnished with sharp jaws, and 
they know how to use them too, so I attempted to get rid of him. 
But the rascal, disengaging one slimy arm, wound it about my 
left hand also, and I was a helpless prisoner. In vain I struggled 
to free myself — he only clasped me the tighter. In vain I shouted 
to my companion — he had wandered out of hearing. I was 
momentarily expecting to be bitten, when the " bicho " suddenly 
changed his mind. I was never able to discover whether he was 
smitten with remorse and retired with amiable intentions, or 
whether he only yielded to the force of circumstances. At any 
rate he suddenly relinquished his hold upon my hands and dropped 
to the sand. Then raising himself on his long, liras}- arms, he 
stalked awa}^ towards the water, making such a comical figure, 
that, in spite of my fright, I indulged in a hearty laugh. He 
looked like a huge and a very tipsy spider, staggering away on 
his exceedingly long legs. 

" Cuttle-fishes are sometimes used for food by the Brazilians, 
and dift'erent species may be seen in the markets, where one 
frequently finds them still alive. Sometimes, as he stoops to 
examine one, its body is suddenly sutfused with a deep pinkish 
glow. Before he has time to recover from his surprise, this 
color fades, and a beautiful blue takes its place as rapidlj' as a 
blush sometimes sutfuses a delicate cheek. The blue, perhaps, 
is succeeded by a green, and then the whole body becomes pink 
again. One can hardly conceive anything more beautiful than 
this rapid play of colors, which is produced by the successive 
distention of sets of little sacks containing fluids of dift'erent 
colors, which are situated under the skin." — America}} Nat- 
uralist^ iii, 25(), 1870. 

" The British Vice-Consul, Green, in a recent report, furnishes 
some novel and interesting particulars as to the fishing and trade 
in cephalopods in the Tunis waters. Octopodia and polypi are 
the trade names under which these cephalopods are known in 
the Levant and Greek markets, where they are solely imported 
for consumption during Lent, the orthodox Church not including 
them in the prohibition against the use of flesh in seasons of 
religious abstinence. 

"They prefer rocky shallows, and visit these waters, coming 
from the open sea in the months of Januaiy, February and 
March. A considerable number of octopodia, however, remain 
permanently^ near the shores ; but it has been observed that when 
their fry, locally called ' muschi,' are numerous from the month 
of June to August, the fishing of the coming season is sure to 
be abundant, whilst the reverse is the case if they appear in 
numbers in November and December. In a good season, the 



OCTOPODID-ffl. 19 

several villages on the Island of Karkenah supply about 3000 
cwts., and the Jubah waters a third part of this quantity. On 
the shores from the village of Luesa to that of Chenies, in the 
Gulf of Khabs, the natives collect from 4 to 5 cwts. of cuttle-fish 
a day, during the season ; but this supply generally serves for 
the consumption of the regency. 

" The Tunisian Government claims a third of all the polypi 
fished upon its coast. The selling price varies from 25 to 50 
shillings per cwt. Polypi are prepared for exportation by simply 
salting and drying them. Malta receives the largest share of 
the Tunisian polypi, but they are only sent to that island for 
ultimate transportation to Greece and other parts of the Levant. 

" Portugal is one of the few countries that competes with Tunis 
in supplying the Greek markets with polypi. In Greece they 
are either sold after being pickled, at from £12. 16s., to £15. 9s., 
the cantar of 176 lbs., or in their original dried state, at £12 to 
£14, but these prices fluctuate according to the results of the 
season's fishing. 

" Polypi are taken in deep water by means of earthen jars 
strung together and lowered to the bottom of the sea, where they 
are allowed to remain for a certain number of hours, and in which 
the animals introduce themselves. Frequently from eight to ten 
pol3'pi are taken from every jar at each visit of the fishermen. 
In less deep water earthenware drain-pipes are placed side by 
side, for distances frequently exceeding half a mile in length, 
and in these also they enter, and are taken b}' the fishermen. 
As they are attracted by white and all smooth and bright sub- 
stances, the natives deck places in the creeks and hollows in the 
rocks, with white rocks and shells, over which the polypi spread 
themselves, and are caught from four to eight at a time. But 
the most successful manner of securing them is pursued by the 
inhabitants of Karkenah, who form long lanes and lab3-rinths in 
the shallows, b}^ planting the butt-ends of palm branches at short 
distances from each other, and these constructions extend over 
spaces of two or more miles. On the ebb of the tide (the fall is 
here about 10 feet) the octopodia are found in the pools inside 
the enclosures, and are easily collected by the fishermen, who 
string them in Inmches of fift}^ each, and from eight to ten of 
these bunches, called ' risina,' are secured daily during the 
season, b}* every boat's crew of four men." — Simmonds, Com- 
mercial Products of the Sea. 

AMPHiocTOPUS, Fischer, 1882. Proposed for 0. viembranaceus, 
Quoy, the bod}' of which is provided with a thin membrane on 
either side, not reaching its extremity. 

PTEROCTOPUs, Fischer, 1882. Arms united to their extremity 
by a membrane. 0. tetracirrhus, Delle Chiaje. Mediterranean 



20 OCTOPODID^. 

CiSTOPUS, Gray, 1849. 

Distr. — Only two species known ; Celebes, India, Patagonia. 
C. Indicus^ Riippell (xxiii, 6). 

Body without fins ; arms with two rows of sessile suckers ; 
upon the web connecting- the arms is a bag opening by a small 
pore between each pair of arras. 

SciEURGus, Troschel, 1857. 

Distr. — Two species ; Mediterranean Sea. 

Body oval, wader than the head ; arms short ; cups or suckers 
with narrow bases. Third left arm hectocotylized. 

As the principal character on which this genus is founded, is 
the hectocotylized arm of the male, it is sometimes impossible to 
ascertain whether specimens belong to this genus or to Octopus. 
It is very probable that some of the species described under 
Octopus should be placed here. 

Alloposus, Verrill, 1880. 

Didr.—A. molHs.YevriW (xxiv, 13). 100 m. S. of Newport, R. I. 

Allied to Philonexis and Tremoctopus. Body thick and soft, 
smooth ; arms united by a web nearly to the ends ; suckers in 
two rows, sessile ; mantle firmly united to head by a ventral and 
two lateral commissures and by a broad dorsal band ; siphon 
short, well forward. Right arm of third pair hectocotylized in 
the male, and developed in a sac in front of the right eye. 

PiNNOCTOPUS, Orb., 1845. 
Finned Octopus. 

Distr. — P. cordiformis^ d'Orb. (xxiv, 12). New Zealand. 
Body like Octojjus but finned ; arms with two rows of suckers. 

Eledone, Leach, 1817. 

Syn. — Polypns, Owen. Moschites, Schneider, 1784. Ozaena, 
Raf!,1814. 

Distr. — Three species ; Norway, Britain, Mediterranean Sea. 
JE. Aldrovandi, Chiaje (xxiv, 11). 

Body rounded, without fins; the arms with a single row of 
suckers. Third right arm hectocotylized. 

U. moschatus inhabits from 10 to 100 metres in depth, rocky as 
well as sandy shores of the Mediterranean Sea ; it appears in the 
markets of Genoa in quairtities from September to May. It is 
able to throw itself out of the water to a distance of 8 or 10 feet, 
and can also eject water from its funnel for over a foot. Verany 
has seen it repeat this jet eight times, taking six to eight respi- 
rations between each jet. 

Notwithstanding its musky odor, this species is largely used 
for food ; some skin it, and others use seasoning to diminish this 



OCTOPODIDJE. 



21 



odor. Its flesh is more tender than that of the Octopus, but it 
has less taste and is not so well liked. It is used boiled, as a 
salad, fried or as a raoout. 

The women of the tribe of M'talassa (^Algiers), anoint their 
hair Avith the l)lack liquid which they collect from this mollusk, 
but whether they use it as a dye or for the sake of its musk-like 
perfume, is not known. The perfume appears to be capable of 
industrial use. — Aucapitaine, Bev. et Mag. ZooL, 3^6, 1862. 

Johnston says of E. octopodia, a species common in Northern 
Europe : " When at rest, this octopod lies prone on the belly, 
the arms spread out in front, with tlieir extremities exposed in 
spirals on the sides. It has in this position a considerable like- 
ness to a toad; and, often raising the back and head, its aspect 
is really repulsive and threatening. It moves quickly, and 
always 'retrograde, playing its arms in a regulated, graceful 
manner, which no one can contemplate without wonder in a 
body so grotesque and apparently so inapt for locomotion." — 
Froc. Beriv. N. H. Club, i, 198. 

BoLiT.ENA. Steenstrup, 1850. 
More o-elatinous than Eledone ; suckers smaller, less developed. 
In the" description of this genus no type is cited. In Wood- 
ward and Keferstein a single living species is mentioned, but 

without name. 

CiRROTEUTHis, Eschricht, 1836. 

Etym. — Cirrus, a filament, tenthis, a cuttle-fish. 

,S'y?,._Bostr3'choteuthis, Agass., 1847. Sciadephorus, Rein. 
andProch, 1846. 

Distr.— C. Malleri, Esch. (xxiii, 7). Greenland. 

Body with two transverse medial fins ; mantle united to the 
head nearly all round, by a cervical baud ; arms united by a web 
nearly to their tips. 

STAUROTEi THIS, A'errill, 1879. Allied to Cirroteuthis, but with 
tlie mantle united to the head all around, and to the dorsal side 
of the slender siphon, which it surrounds like a close collnr, 
leavino- only a very narrow opening around tlie base ot the 
siphon laterally and ventrally. Fins triangular, in advance of 
the middle of" the bodv. Dorsal cartilage forming a median 
angle directed backward. Body flattened, soft, bordered by a 
meinbrane. Eves covered by the integument. Web not reaching 
the tips of the^arms. Suckers in one row. Right arm of second 
l)air is altered, in the male, at the tip. S. Sf/rteiisis, Verrill. 
Near SaVile Island. 

Tritaxeopi;s, Owen, 1881. 

Distr.^T. cormdus, Owen (xxiii, 10). Australia. 

Body not finned ; suckers on the arms three-ranked. 



22. tremoctopid^ — argon autip.*. 

Family TREMOCTOPID.E. 

Tremoctopus, Chiaje, 1830. 

Etym. — Treriiata, pores, and Octojnifi. 

Syn. — Philonexis, d'Orb., 1835. 

Distr. — 6 species ; Mediterrnnean, Atlantic, N. Pacific, Man- 
ritius. T. violaceus, Chiaje (xxiii, 8). 

Body ronnded, head large, band of the neck very small. 
Funnel short. Two aquiferous pores in the neck. Third right 
arm hectocotylized, fringed on the sides, and developed in a 
sack-like aperture on the side of the head. Two first pairs of 
arms united by a web in the female (not in the male), other arms 
free. 

Parasira, Steenstrup, 1861. 

JDiat?: — 2 sp. ; Mediterranean. P. catenidata, Fer. (xxiii, 9). 

Body rounded; head small and short; neck band rather broad. 
Funnel long. No water-pores in the neck, two at the base of 
the siphon. Third right arm hectocotylized, not fringed, devel- 
oped from a pedicelled sack. Male very different from the 
larger female. 

The flesh of this mollusk is tough and unwholesome, and for 
these reasons is not sold in the Italian markets. The Genoese 
fishermen make of the skin of the body a sort of cap, whereof 
the reticulations serve as ornaments. 

Halipiiron, Steenstrup, 1858. 

Arm only known. With bell-shaped cups, having lily-like 
borders. 

Described from a single arm found in the stomach of a shark. 
No species characterized. 

Family ARGONAUTID^. 

Argonauta, Linn., 1756. 

Argonaut^ or Paper Nautilus. Argonautai. sailors of the ship 
Argo. Syn. — Ocythoe, Leach (not Rafin.), 1817. 

Distr. — 9 sp. All warm seas. A. A'' go (xxiv, 18) is found in 
the tropical Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans ; Gulf of Cali- 
fornia, Mediterranean, Cape of Good Hope. Fossil^ 2 species. 
Tertiary of Europe. 

Characters, those of the family (p. 12). The third right arm 
of the male is hectocotylized. 

The shell of the Argonaut is thin and translucent : it is not 
moulded on the body of the animal, nor is it attached by shell- 
muscles ; and the unoccupied hollow of the spire serves as a 
receptacle for the minute clustered eggs (xviii, 15). The shell 



ARGONAUTIDiE. 23 

is pecnliai' to the female : its special function is for the protection 
and incubation of the ego-g. It is not homologous with the 
chambered or internal rudimental shells of other cephalopods, 
but may be compared with the cocoon of the leech, or the float 
of lanthina. Tlie Argonaut sits in its boat with its siphon turned 
towards the keel, and its sail-shaped (dorsal) arms closely 
applied to the sides of the shell It swims by ejecting water 
from its funnel, and crawls in a reversed position, carrying its 
shell over its back like a snail. 

The male Argonauts (xvi, 84, 85), are one inch in length, and 
possess no shell ; their dorsal arms are pointed, not expanded. 
The testis is large, and like that of the Octopus in structure and 
situation; it contains spermatozoa of dillerent degrees of devel- 
opment, and the excretory duct probably debouches into the 
hectocotylus. 

A living Argonaut was captured at Long Branch, New Jersej^, 
by a fisherman, in August, 187(5. It was kept alive for eight or 
nine days and made feeble attempts to swim in its narrow con- 
finement (Am. Nat., xi, 243). Numbers of fresh shells have been 
recentl}^ dredged, about 90 miles south of Narraganset Bay, 
R. I., b}^ the U. S. Fish Commission. 

The occurrence of the Argonaut on the Florida coast, in one 
instance with the animal entire, is mentioned in Am. .Vfli.,xii, 397. 

Dr. H. Miiller observes that the female Argonaut appears 
periodically in great numbers at Messina during the spawning 
season, but at other times her usual habitat is at the liottom in 
deep waters. The male is always very small, and is rarely met 
with: its hectocotylized arm is detached during coition and is 
found in the mantle of the female, where it enjo^-s a prolonged 
separate life, although unprovided with digestive organs. The 
young female an inch in length, has no shell ; it is developed 
later. 

In South Australia, at certain seasons of the year, during the 
prevalence of strong northerly winds, the shells of the female 
Argonaut are washed ashore in considerable numbers. Many of 
these shells contain the animal in a living state ; but they soon 
fall a prey to the sea-gulls, by whom they are greedil}' devoured. 

Suborder II. DEC A POD A. 

Body oblong, laterally finned; arms consisting of eight normal 
(sessile) ones, and two longer or tentacular arms, which are 
contractile or retractile ; suckers provided with corneous rings, 
sometimes armed with teeth, or with hooks ; shell dorsal, internal. 
One or two of the sessile arms are modified for copulation. 



24 loliginid^. 

Family LOLIGINID^. 

LoLiGO (Pliny), Lamarck, 1801. 

Galamary. Syn. — Pteroteuthis, Blainv. 

Distr. — 31 sp. ; all seas, jSTorway, United States, New Zealand. 
L. Pealii^ Lesueur (xxv, 20-22). 

Body long, with posterior rhombic fins united behind ; mantle 
supported by a cervical ridge and by cup-like cartilages on the 
base of the funnel or siphon ; siphon valved, attached by bands 
to the head ; arms with two rows of suckers provided with horny, 
dentated rings ; tentacular arms with four rows of suckers on 
their clubs. Fourth left arm hectocotylized at its extremity. 
Gladius feather-like, its shaft keeled on the ventral side. 

The calamaries are good swimmers ; they are found in all parts 
of the world. Owen mentions that the pens are sometimes 
duplicated in old specimens, several being found packed closely, 
one behind another. The suckers on the margins of the pro- 
jections of the buccal membrane are doubtless additional prehen- 
sile organs very useful in assisting in holding the food to the 
mouth. There appear to be two types of form in the gladius or 
internal shell : that in which the wings are expanded, with convex 
margins, and that in which they are narrow, with nearly straight 
margins. 

The so-called artificial eyes of the ancient Indian mummies of 
Arica, Peru, are, according to Tschudi, the dried eyes of L(Aigo 
gigas inserted in lieu of the natural organs. According to 
Verrill, numbers of the young of the American Loligo Pealii are 
often found in the stomach of the red jelly-fish. Of L. pallida, 
a closely allied or identical species, Mr. Verrill says : " These 
squids are eagerly devoured, even when full-grown, by many of 
the larger fishes, such as blue-fish, black-bass, striped-bass, etc. 
When young they are preyed upon by a still larger variety of 
fishes. It is often taken in the seines in large numbers with 
menhaden, upon Avhich it probably feeds." 

On the 30th of November, 1860, the French steamer Alecton, 
commanded by Lieut. Bouyer, encountered, between Madeira 
and Teneritle, an enormous Poulpe, which was swimming on the 
surface of the water. The animal measured 15 to 18 feet in 
length, without counting the formidable arms, covered with 
cups, which crowned its head. Its color was brick-red ; its eyes 
had a prodigious development and frightful fixity. Its mouth, 
like the beak of a parrot, could be opened to the extent of 18 
inches. Its bod^^ fusiform but much swelled towards the centre, 
presented an enormous mass, the weight of which has been esti- 
mated at more than 4400 pounds. Its fins, situated at the 
posterior extremity, were rounded in two fleshy lobes and of 



TiOLUUNTD^. 25 

very large size. The comniiUKler of the vessel, on perceiving it, 
halted upon his course and made preparations for capturing the 
monster. Guns were charged and harpoons hastily prepared ; 
but at the first discharge of the former, the animal dived under 
the ship and immediately appeared on the other side. Attacked 
again with harpoons, it disappeared two or three times, and, each 
time that it reascended to the surface, its long arms writhed. 
The ship followed or arrested its course according to the move- 
ments of the animal. This chase lasted more than three hours. 
The commander of the Alecton was determined to capture this 
new kind of enemy ; nevertheless he did not dare to lower a boat, 
for a single arm of this cephalopod would suffice to overturn it. 
The harpoons which were launched at it penetrated the flabby 
flesh and came out without success ; several balls traversed it 
also unsuccessfully. Nevertheless it received one of them which 
appeared to wound it badly, causing it to vomit a great quantity 
of frothy matter and blood mixed with viscid matter which 
spread a strong odor of musk. It was at this instant that they 
succeeded in lassooing the animal, but the rope slid along the 
elastic body until arrested b^^ the fins. Attempting to haul their 
prize aboard, the}' had already raised the greater part of the 
animal from the water when its enormous weight caused the rope 
to penetrate the flesh and separate the posterior portion of the 
body — which was drawn on board, whilst the rest disappeared in 
the sea. 

The above is condensed from a letter addressed to M. Moquin- 
Tandon, by M. Sabin Bertholet, consul of France, at the Cana- 
ries, who saw the fragment alluded to, and received the relation 
of the commandant of the vessel. One of the officers made a 
sketch of this animal, which, in conjunction with the description, 
is considered by Messrs. Crosse and Fisher sufficiently exact to 
warrant them in determining it to belong to a new species of 
Loligo, which they name L. Bouycri. The figure and description 
show but eight arras, but the elongated form of the l)od,v, the 
proportional shortness of the arms and the presence of the pos- 
terior fins, show it to have been one of the decapods. Probably 
the tentacular arms were either deficient or were not seen. 

LOLIGUNCULA, Stcenstrup, 1881. Swimming lobes thick, wide 
and very short, forming together a transverse oval ; female 
receiving the spermatophores upon the interior wall of the 
mantle, alongside the left branchia. L. 6ref?*', Blainv. (xxv, 23). 
Characters perhaps insufficient. 

TEUTHis, Gray, 1849. Buccal membrane without suckers. A 
single European species, L. mediri. It Avas known to Aristotle 
and the ancients ; and is highly esteemed for food in Italy. 



26 LOLIGINID^. 

LoLiOLUS, Steeiistrup, 1856. 

Diatr. — 3 species ; Gulf of California, Indian Ocean. L. affinis, 
Steenst. (xxv, 30). 

Body rather long, with posterior round fins united behind ; 
siphon not attached to the head. Fourth left arm hectocotylized 
in its entire length. Gladius feather-like, broad. Otherwise as 
in Loligo. 

Loligo hemipterai L. hrevipinna^ and other Loligines with 
blunt extremity and round fins, may perhaps belong to this small 
group, which is not widely separated by its characters from 
Loligo. 

Sepioteuthis, Blainv., 1824. 

Syn. — Chondrosepia, Leuck, 1826. 

Bistr. — 14 species; West Indies, Cape, Red Sea, Java, Aus- 
tralia, Mediterranean, Madagascar, Sandwich Islands. S. Steno- 
dactyla^ Grant (xxv, 24). S. lunulata, Fer. Orb. (xxv, 25). 

Body rather long or oval, with small lateral fins extending its 
entire length ; siphon attached to the head by muscular bands ; 
buccal skin with seven projections covered with suckers ; a strong 
wrinkle behind the eyes. Fourth left arm hectocotylized at its 
extremity. Otherwise like Loligo. 

Teuthopsis, Deslongchamps, 1835. 

Etym. — Teuthis, a calamary, and apsis, like. 

Bistr. — A few species known, fossil in the lias of France and 
Wurtemberg. T. Bunnellii, Desl. (xxviii, 55, 56). 

Pen or gladius dilated and spatulate behind, its wings curved 
towards the ventral side somewhat spoon-like. 

Leptoteuthis, Meyer, 1834. 

Etyni. — Leptos, thin, and teuthis, a calamary. 

Bistr. — L. gigas, Meyer (xxviii, 51 ). Oxford clay, Solenhofen. 

Shaft of the pen enlarging from a point to a broad blade in 
front, with long, lateral wings starting from the posterior pointed 
end. 

Belemnosepia, Agassiz, 1836. 

Syn. — Belopeltis,Yoltz; Geoteuthis,Miinst.,1843; Loligosepia, 
Qneenst., 1839; Palseosepia, Theodori, 1844. 

Bistr. — 9 sp. Fossil, in the Upper Lias of Wurtemburg, 
Calvados and Lyme Regis. B. lata, Miinst. (xxviii, 63). 

Gladius like Leptoteuthis and perhaps not separable from it. 
The shaft is more triangular, and the lateral wings broader, with 
more rounded outlines. 

Besides the pens of this calamary, the ink-bag, mantle and 
bases of the arms, as well as the horny shells, are preserved. 
Some of the ink-bags are nearly a foot in length, and are invested 



SEPIOLID^. 2*7 

with a brilliant nacreous layer. So indestructible is this fossil 
ink that it is yet capable of use as Sepia. It is difficult to 
understand how it was preserved, as the recent calamaries spill 
their ink on the slightest alarm. 

BEnoTEUTHrs, Miinster, 1843. 

Etym. — Belos, a dart, and teuthis. Syn. — Sepiolites, Miinster. 

Distr. — B. subcostata, Miinst. (xxviii, 58). Upper Lias of 
Wurtemburg. 

Gladius. Shaft lozenge-shaped, pointed at each end, with 
posterior lateral wings. 

Phylloteuthis, Meek and Hayden, 18(50. 

Dist7\ — P. subovata, M. and H. (xxviii, 59). Upper Cretaceous, 
Dakota. 

Gladius thin, subovate, slightly concave below, and convex 
above. From behind the middle it narrows towards the front, 
the outline of the lateral margins being convex, while the 
posterior end is more or less obtusely angular. 

This genus is founded on the impression of the expanded 
part of a gladius in a mass of rock ; it was evidently thin, and 
as no part of its substance remains, is supposed to have been 
corneous. It looks ver}^ like Beloteuthis. 

Ptiloteuthis, Gabb, 1869. 

Distr. — P. foliatus, Gabb (xxviii, 60). Cretaceous, California. 

Gladius elongate, subovate, very thin, anterior end broadly 
angulated, no midrib; surface marked % numerous, irregular, 
small wrinkles, which radiate backwards and outwards, partly 
from the anterior end, and partly from an imaginary median line. 

[ScAPTORRHYNCHUS, Bcllardi.] 
Founded on decapod beaks discovered in the tertiary of 
Piedmont. S. miocenicus, Bellardi (xxviii .75-7*7). 

Family SEPIOLID.E. 

Sepiola, Leach, 1817. 

Syn.— Sepioloidea, d'Orb, 1839. Fidenas, Gray, 1849. 

DiHtr. — 7 sp. European Seas, Japan, Mauritius, Viti Is., 
Australia, Singapore, Coast of Maine, U. S. 

Body short, purse-like, mantle united to the head cervically, 
and ventrally supported by a ridge fitting a groove on the funnel ; 
arms with two or eight rows of pedunculated suckers, the rings 
of which are not toothed, and eight rows of very small ones on 
the tentacular clubs. Fins oval, dorsal. Gladius lancet-form, 
only lialf as long as the body, margins thickened. First left 
arm hectocotvlized. 



28 SEPlOLlDyE. 

Mr. Alder says of S. Sejnola, the common Europoan species : 
•' This is an odd fish, crouching generally at the bottom like a 
toad, with its great goggle-eyes half closed, and sometimes 
crawling along by means of its suckers, putfing the water 
through the funnel all the time. When it does take to swimming, 
it darts very quickl}' through the water, and is difficult to catch. 
When taken out of the water and placed on the hand, it had 
recourse to an odd mode of progression, turning two or three 
somersets in tumbler-fashion, first laying hold witli its arms, 
turning over and laying hold again until it managed to get back 
into the water." It is said l)y Mr. Gosse, to burrow in the sand 
by blowing through its funnel, and using its arms, with their 
suckers, to remove small stones and gravel. They spawn 
towards the end of May or beginning of June. The eggs are 
arranged in the centre of a bluish gelatinous mass, as if around 
an axis, and fifteen to thirty of these masses, each containing 
from forty to one hundred and thirt}- eggs, are united, each by 
a basal stalk, to form a group attached upon some submarine 
body. The fry is hatched in twenty-two to twenty-five days. 
They visit the Algerine coast in numerous troops during the 
month of May, for the purpose of spawning. In the Mediter- 
ranean it is found at depths of 60 to 200 metres, where it lives 
in company with the Eledones. Largeh^ consumed as food in 
Italy ; it is much esteemed for the delicacy of its flesh. 

S. Penar-es, Gray, the type of Gray's genus Fidenaa^ does 
not appear to possess any distinctive characters, except that 
the suckers are long-peduncled,and the peduncles are constricted 
on the upper part. The only specimen is in spirits, and is in a 
mutilated state. 

RossiA, Owen, 1834, 

Dedicated to Capt. John Ross, the Arctic voyager. 

Syn. — Heteroteuthis, Gray, 1849. 

DUtr. — 10 sp. Arctic Seas, Great Britain, Massachusetts 
Bay, Mediterranean. R. Owenii, Ball ('xxv, 27). 

Generally like Sepiola, but the mantle is supported cervically 
by a ridge ; arms with two or four rows of sessile suckers. 
First left arm and middle of first right arm hectocotylized. 
Shell lancet-form, small. 

Owen thinks that the ej'elids discovered in Bossia palpehrosa. 
and from which it derives its name, are a peculiar organization 
designed as a defense for the eyes against the spicular ice 
crystals, which, in the summer season, crowd the northern waters. 

The eggs of Rossia are laid singly, one alongside of another, 
and fixed solely by their viscous surface. 

Sepiadarium, Steenstrup, 1881. 
Bistr. — S. Kochii^ Steenstrup (xxv, 29 . Japan. 



CRANCHIID^E. 21) 

Dorsal luiuiiui or pen absent. Cartihigiuous support wanting, 
the mantle and siphon being- nnited by a muscular ligament ; 
mantle border joined dorsally to the neck. 

Idiosepius, Steenstrnp, 1881. 

Didr. — I. pyginaiKft, Steenstrnp (xxv, 26). Indian Ocean. 

No dorsal lamina or pen, but instead of it there is, under the 
mantle, a singular ring-like tendinous support ; cartilage-button 
oval, with corresponding fosset. 

Stoloteuthis, Verrill, 1882. 

Dist?: — S. leucoptera, Verrill. Olf Martha's Vineyard, Mass. 

Body short and thick, well rounded ; head large, united to 
mantle by a broad dorsal commissure; eyes large, pupils round; 
eyelids free all around ; no pen ; mantle thick, extending farther 
forward beneath than laterally; fins large, lateral ; siphon with 
an internal valve in both sexes; connective cartilages long, with 
a central groove, fitting a linear ridge on each side of the mantle ; 
arras webbed for more than half their length, except between 
the ventral arms ; second pair in the male, and some females, 
with two or three much enlarged suckers near the middle. 

I NiOTEUTHis, Verrill, 1882. 

Distr. — 2 sp. Japan. 

Body, lateral fins, and dorsal commissure of mantle as in 
Sepiola ; lateral connective cartilages of the siphon oblong- 
elliptical, with the groove open behind, fitting a linear ridge on 
each side of the mantle ; e3'elids free below, adherent above ; 
pen absent ; arms webbed only sliglitly at base ; suckers both 
on sessile arms and tentacles, as in Ilossia ; left dorsal arm 
hectocotylized. 

Family CRANCHIID^. 

Cranchia, Leach, 1817. 

In honor of J. Cranch^ naturalist to the Congo expedition. 

Distr. — 3 sp. Congo, Africa; West Indies. 6^ sea6ra. Leach 
(xxv, 28). 

Characters generally those of the family. Body short, rounded ; 
fins very small, rounded, terminal ; buccal membrane produced 
into eight lobes ; arms short, with two rows of suckers ; ten- 
tacular clubs finned behind, with suckers in eight rows. Siphon 
A'alved. 

In C megalopfi, the body is joined to the head bj- a pseudo- 
articulation ; for which Prosch proposes the subgeneric name 
Oivenia, 1847. 



30 CHIROTEUTHID^. 

LoLiGOPSis, Lamarck, 1812. 

Etym. — LoligOj and op.si.s, like. 

Syn. — Leachia, Lesueur, 1821; Taoniiis, Steenstrup, 1861; 
Desmoteuthis, Verrill, 1882. 

Dist7\ — 8 sp., pelagic. Northern Atlantic, Mediterranean, 
Indian and Pacific Oceans, Japan. L. guttata, Grant (xxvi. 35). 

Body long, attenuated behind, with large fins ; siphon not 
valved ; tentacles long and slender. 

PEROTis, Esch., 1827. Sides with rows of acute tubercles ; 
shell with solid tip. 2 sp. ; Indian Ocean, tropical Atlantic. 

Family CHIROTEUTHID^. 

Chiroteutiiis, Orb., 1839. 

Etym. — Cheir, the hand, and tea thin, a calamary. 

Distr. — 2 sp. Atlantic and Mediterranean ; on gulf-weed. 
C. Veranyi, Fer. (xxvi, 31, 32). 

Body long, attenuated ; arms long, connected by a short basal 
web, with two rows of small, long-pedunculated suckers ; ten- 
tacles very long and narrow, covered their whole length with 
scattered suckers, the clubs with four rows of long-pedunculated 
suckers. Pen slender in the middle, slightly winged at each end. 

The great cephalic development of the animals of this very 
restricted genus, the immense length of the tentacles and the 
peculiar armament of their clubs, and the gladius expanded at 
each end, form excellent distinctive characters from the Loli- 
gopsidae. 

CALLiTEUTHis, Verrill, 1880. Body short, tapering to a free tip ; 
fins small, united behind ; siphon united to head by two dorsal 
bands, and having an internal valve ; mantle connected to sides 
of siphon by lateral elongated cartilages and grooves ; arms 
long, free, suckers in two rows, largest in middle of lateral and 
dorsal arms ; eyes large, with oval openings ; buccal membrane 
simple, sack-like; pen broad, lanceolate. C. reversa, Verrill 
(xxiv, 14). New England. 

Brachioteuthis, Verrill, 1882. 

Eistr. — C. Beanii, Verrill. Ofl[' Martha's Vineyard, Mass. 

Allied to Chiroteuthis; differs in having the lateral connective 
cartilages of the siphon simple, long-ovate, and the corresponding- 
cartilages of the mantle in the form of simple, linear ridges ; a 
rhombic caudal fin ; pen with a simple, linear, anterior portion, 
suddenly expanding into a much broader, lanceolate, posterior 
portion, which is naturally infolded ; arms slender, the ventral 
ones not distinctly obliquely compressed ; tentacular club with 
a spoon-like cavity at tip. 



THYSANOTEUTHID^ — ONYCHOTEUTHID.^. 81 

HiSTiOTEUTHis, d'Orbigiiv, 1839. 

Etym. — HisHon, a veil, and teuthis, a calamary. 

Distr. — 3 sp. Mediterranean Sea ; off Nova Scotia. //. Bonel- 
liana^ Fer. (xxvi, 33, 34). 

Body short, cylindrical ; head long ; arms long, the three 
superior pairs connected by a largely developed web, the ventral 
pair free ; tentacles long, with six rows of dentated cups on their 
clubs ; buccal membrane six-lobed. Pen short and broad. 

Family THYSANOTEUTHID^. 

TiiYSANOTEUTiiis, Troschel, 185V. 

Etiim. — Thi/sanos^ a fringe, and teAdhis^ a calamary. 

Didr. — 2 sp. Mediterranean Sea. T. r/^omft^s, Trosch. (xxvi, 
86, 3Y). 

Body with large triangular fins the whole length of each side; 
arms with lateral expansion of the skin, and two rows of pedun- 
culated suckers, from which spring threads which are connate 
with the surface of the lateral expansions. Shell file-shaped. 

Family ONYCHOTEUTHID^. 

The principal character of this family is the development of 
hooks upon the arms, as a means of prehension ; they replace 
the sucking disks to a greater or less extent, according to the 
several genera. A few fossil forms occur. 

GoNATUS, Gray, 1849. 

Didr. — G, amoena, Moll, (xxvi, 38), is found on the coast of 
Greenland. 

Body like Loligo; arms thick, with four rows of small suckers; 
tentacular clubs with many rows of small suckers, and a single 
large basal cup armed with a hook ; siphon not connected to the 
head, without valve. Gladius lancet-form. 

Onychoteuthis, Lichtenstein, 1818. 

Etym. — Onyx, a claw, and teuthis, a calamary. 

Syn. — Ancistroteuthis, Gray, 1849. 

Distr. — 10 sp. Atlantic and Pacific 0., arctic and troi)ical ; 
Mediterranean. 0. Krohni, Fer. et Orb. (xxvi, 89, 40). 

Arms with two rows of suckers, the rings of which are not 
toothed ; tentacles thick, their clubs with two rows of strong 
hooks, and at tlie base a rounded group of suckers, with which 
they are supposed to unite the two tentacles, and use them in 
conjnnction as a point (Vapjiui, where great strength is reipiired 
in capturing their prey. Gladius lancet-form, with a conical 
commencement. 



32 ONYCHOTEUTHIDiE. 

These animals are solitary in habit, frequenting the open sea, 
and especially banks of gulf-weed. Some of the species have an 
immense geographical distribution ; as 0. Banksii^ from the 
Arctic Ocean to the Cape of Good Hope and Indian Ocean. The 
peculiar arrangement of suckers, forming a cii'cle at the base of 
each tentacular club, enabling the animal to use the two clubs in 
conjunction when necessary, give an immense increase of power. 
They suggested the obstetric forceps of Professor Simpson. 

Onychia, Lesueur, 1821. 
^y»._Teleoteuthis, Verrill, 1882. 

Distr. — 2 sp. W. Indies, Coast of Chili, Indian Ocean. 0. 
Caribsea, Les. (xxvi, 41). 

Generally like Onychoteuthis ; tentacles thin, clubs with two 
rows of hooks, two rows of suckers, ancl a circle of suckers at 
the base for supporting the tentacles together. Gladius feather- 
like. 

Enoploteuthis, d'Orbigny, 1841. 

Armed Galamary. Enoplos^ armed, and teuthis. 

Distr. — 5 sp. W. Africa, So. Pacific, Mediterranean. U. 
Smithsii^ Leach (xxvii, 43). 1 fossil sp. Lithographic stone of 
the Upper Oxford, Eichstadt, Bavaria. 

Body long, cylindrical, w4th triangular fins either at the end or 
all along both sides (Ancistrocheirus) ; arms with two rows of 
hooks, and with sometimes (Abraliai suckers at their ends; ten- 
tacles with hooks onl}' ; siphon connected with the head by 
bands; the fourth right or left arm liectocotylized. Shell feather- 
like or blade-shaped. 

ABRALiA, Gray, 1849. Sessile arms with hooks below, and 
suckers at the tips. Distr. — 4 sp. N. Atlantic, Indian 0., Mes- 
sina, Kurile Isles. 

ANCISTROCHEIRUS, Gray, 1849. Fins occupying nearly the whole 
length of the body. Distr. — 1 sp. Indian Ocean. 

Lestoteuthis. Verrill, 1880. 

,S2/^i.— Cheloteuthis, Verrill, 1881. 

Distr. — L. Kamtschatica^ Midd. Kurile Isles. 

Tentacular club wath numerous suckers and a few large central 
hooks. Sessile arms dissimilar ; lower ones with four rows of 
suckers ; upper with two central rows of hooks, and with mar- 
ginal suckers on each side. Pen with a long terminal cone. 

Yerania, Krohn, 1846. 
Named for Verany, author of a work on the Cephalopoda of 
the Mediterranean Sea. 

Syn. — Octopodoteuthis, Ruppell and Krohn, 1844. 
Distr. — Mediterranean. V. Sicula, R. and K. (xxvi, 42). 



ONVCHOTEUTHID^E, 33 

Body cNlindricnl, thin, rounded behind, with fins along nearly 
the whole length ; arms with two rows of small hooks ; tentacles 
thin, shorter than the sessile arms, with small suckers ; siphon 
connected by bands. Shell feather-like. Too close to Enoplo- 
teuthis. 

Octopodoteuthis has priority, but is rejected as inappropriate 
for a decapod. 

Plesioteuthis, Wagner, 1860. 

Distr. — 2 sp. Fossil, in the Solenhofen slate : liassic. P. 
prisca, Wagner (xxviii, 66). 

Body rather long, attenuated behind; arms with hooks. Shell 
small, lancet-form, with a central and two side ridges, and an 
arrow-shaped point. Huxley supposed this genus to belong to 
the Belemnitidie, but the gladius showed neither rostrum nor 
phragmocone. 

DoRATEUTHis, Woodward, 1883. 

I'ype. — D. Sijriaca, Woodward. Cretaceous, Syria. 

Arms furnished with suckers and probably also with minute 
booklets ; the tentacular arms much longer than the sessile ones. 
Pen nearly as long as the body, the shaft marked by three equi- 
distant ridges, one median and tw'o lateral, which converge 
together at the ver}' acute distal extremit}" ; there are lateral 
expansions on each side, corresponding with lateral fins on the 
body of the animal : the latter is also provided w'ith a terminal 
fin 

The form of the pen as well as that of the animal indicates 
resemblance to Ommatostrephes. 

Cel^no, Miinster, 1842. 

Distr. — 2 fossil sp. Liassic formation of Solenhofen. C. 
conica, Wagner (xxviii, 61, 62). 

Body oval ; arms with hooks and suckers. Shell a rounded 
blade, with winged projections on either side of the pen ; nucleus 
central. 

DosiDicus, Steenstrup, 1856. 

Diatr. — The single, unfigured species, was at first believed to 
have been taken at Marseilles, but it is more probably West 
Indian. 

Bod_\ long ; arms with large pedunculated suckers on the lower 
half, and many small ones on the upper, thinner half; clubs of 
the tentacles with four or five hooks. Shell with a large, nearly 
solid end-cone. 

Perhaps. an abnormal specimen, with truncated and partially 
reproduced arms. 



34 0mmat08treph1d^. 

Family OMMATOSTREPHID^. 

Ommatostrephes, d'Orbigny, 1835. 

Sagittated Calamary. Omma, the eyes, and strepho^ to turn. 

Syn. — Cycria, Leach. Todarodes,Steenst.,1880. Illex,Steenst., 
1880. 

Bistr. — 13 sp. Europe, N. Atlantic Coast of TJ. S., W. Indies, 
Cape of Good Hope, Antarctic Sea, Pacific Coast of America, 
Pol^mesia, Indian Ocean. 0. sagittatus, Lam. (xxvii, 44, 45). 
Fossil : pens of 4 sp. in the Oxford clay, Solenhofen (liassic) ; 
1 sp. tertiary. 

liody long, cj-lindrical ; arms short, with two rows of suckers; 
tentacles short, not retractile, the clubs with four rows of suckers ; 
siphon valved, fastened to the head by bands. Shell small, lancet- 
form, with a hollow end-conus. 

These animals are gregarious, frequenting the open sea in all 
climates. Extensivel}^ used as bait in the Newfovmdland cod- 
fishery ; they are also the principal food of the albatross, the 
larger petrels, the dolphins and the cachelots. They are called 
" sea-arrows " or " flying squids " by fisherman, on account of 
their habit of darting out of the water, often to such a height as 
to fall on the decks of vessels. The egg-masses are in large 
clusters, floating on the sui'face. 

Ommatostrephes illecebrosa was observed among the wharves 
at Provincetown, Mass., during the month of July, engaged in 
capturing and devouring the .young mackerel, which Avere swim- 
ming about in schools, and at that time were about four or five 
inches long. In attacking the mackerel they would suddenly 
dart backward among the fish, with the velocit}^ of an arrow, 
and as suddenly turn obliquely to the right or left and seize a 
fish, which was almost instantly killed by a bite in the back of 
the neck, with the sharp beaks. The bite was always made in 
the same place, cutting out a triangular piece of flesh, and was 
deep enough to penetrate to the spinal cord. The attacks were 
not always successful, and were sometimes repeated a dozen 
times before one of these active and wary fishes could be caught. 
Sometimes, after making several unsuccessful attempts, one of 
the squids would suddenly drop to the bottom, and, resting upon 
the sand, change its color to that of the sand so perfectly, as to 
be almost invisible. In this way it would wait until the fishes 
came back, and when they were swimming close to or over the 
ambuscade, the squid, by a sudden dart, would be pretty sure to 
secure a fish. Ordinarily, when swimming, they were thickly 
spotted with red and brown, but when darting among the mack- 
erel, they appeared translucent and pale. The mackerel, however, 
seemed to have learned that the shallow water is the safest for 
them, and would hug the shore as closely as possible, so that in 



OMMATOSTREPHIDiB. 85 

pursuing them many of the squids became stranded, and perished 
by hundreds, for when they once touch the shore, they begin to 
pump water from their siphons with groat energy, and this usually 
forces them farther and farther up the beach. At such times 
they usually' discharge their ink in large quantities. The attacks 
on the 3'oung mackerel were observed mostly at or near high 
water, for at other times the mackerel were seldom seen, though 
the squids were seen swimming about at all hours ; and these 
attacks were observed both in the day and evening. But it is 
probable, from various observations, that this and the other 
species of squids are partially nocturnal in their habits, or at 
least are more active in the night than in the day. Those that 
are caught in the pounds and weirs mostly enter in the night, 
and evidently when swimming along the shore in schools. They 
are often found in the morning stranded on the beach in immense 
numbers, especially when there is a full moon, and it is thought 
by many of the fishermen that this is because, like many other 
nocturnal animals, they have the habit of turning toward and 
gazing at a bright light, and since they swim backwards, they 
get ashore on the beaches opposite the position of the moon. 
This habit is also sometimes taken adA^antage of b}' the fisher- 
men who capture them for bait for cod-fish ; they go out in dark 
nights with torches in their boats, and by advancing slowly toward 
a beach, drive them ashore. — Verrill. Report of U. S. Fish 
Commissioner for 1873, 441. 

The following notice of the Squid of the Newfoundland Banks 
in its relation to the American Grand Bank Cod Fisheries, is 
condensed from a paper by H. L. Osborn in Am. Naturalist, xv, 
866, 1881. 

The bait used in the latter part of the year is the s(iuid 
Ommatostrephes illecehrosa. It first appears on the southern 
points of Newfoundland late in June or early in July. The 
natives and fishermen agree in opinion that the squid migrates 
steadily northward during the season, appearing first in the 
northern harbors two weeks later than in the southern, and finally 
lingering at northern points in the island after they have entirely 
disappeared from those further south. 

The sole mode of capture of the squid is called "jigging," a 
term deriA^ed from and descriptive of the process. The only 
gear is a peculiar hook with a couple of fathoms of mackerel line. 
No bait is employed. The jig is of lead, two inches or there- 
abouts in length, armed at its base with sharply pointed unbarbed 
pins, radially arranged, and curving upward and outward. The 
jigging is conducted in water of from eight to ten feet, usually 
from small boats, but occasionally from the vessel's side. The 
jig is allowed to sink nearly to the bottom, where it is kept con- 
stantly vibrating up and down, till thr stjuid is IV'lt upon it. 



36 OMMATOSTREPHID.«;. 

Frequentl}^ two jigs are managed, one in each hand. The s(|uid 
merely cLasps his tentacles around the jig, and doubtless the pain 
from the sharp pins induces him to escape instantly-, but the 
fisherman, who is constantly jerking the jig up and down, pulls 
in as rapidly as possible, entangling the animal's arms among the 
pins and drawing him through the water so fast that escape is 
impossible. The instant he emerges from the water he contracts 
his body, discharging through his siphon a jet of salt water. 
This is followed bj' a sucking in of the air by successive respi- 
rator}^ acts, till in its middle portion his cylindrical body has 
become almost spherical. By a second contraction the squid 
now ejects from his siphon a stream of his black inky secretion. 
Not unfrequently the luckless fisherman has not the squid 
unhooked before this discharge takes place and may receive the 
inky stream full in the face. The scene when the squid are thick 
is really exciting ; the streams rising here and there, in twenty 
directions at once, point out the rapidity of the catch, and the 
monotonous noise of the squirt is only varied by an occasional 
murmur of discontent from this or that unfortunate as he lifts 
his querulous voice. The squid usually sell at from twenty-five 
to forty cents per hundred. The number used by a single vessel 
in only two months is astonishing. Our vessel, a small one, 
made three " baitings," fishing each time about two weeks and 
used in that time 80,000 of the squid. 

A species of Ommatostrephes is extensively fished in Japan. 
Mr. Arthur Adams relates that oft' Nisi-Bama in the Oki Islands, 
he saw a number of lights moving upon the surface of the water, 
in all directions, which he found were used to attract the cephalo- 
pods to the surface; where they were secured by a jig, an iron 
shank terminated by a circle of recurved hooks. Mr. Adams 
visited a small fishing village near Hakodadi, where he saw hun- 
dreds of thousands of squids, cleaned and stretched on bamboo- 
sticks, suspended on lines to dry in the sun and air. 

HYALOTEUTHis, Gray, 1849. Body transparent, tubercular be- 
neath ; one or two cups on the second pair of sessile arms larger. 
Distr. — The only species is from the West Indies. 

MOROTEUTHis, Verrill, 1882. Pen long, narrow, thin, terminating 
posteriorly in a conical, hollow, many-ribbed, oblique cone, which 
is insertecl into the oblique anterior end of a long, round, tapering, 
acute, solid cartilaginous terminal cone composed of concentric 
layers, and corresponding to the solid cone of Belemnites in 
position and relation to the true pen ; elliptical connective carti- 
lages on the base of the siphon ; nuchal, longitudinal ci'ests three, 
much as in Ommatostrephes ; eyelids with a distinct sinus ; 
cavidal fin large, broad, spear-shaped ; ventral arms with smooth- 
rimmed suckers at the base. Rest of armature unknown. M. 
robusta, Verrill. 



OMMATOSTRKPIITDiE. 31 

STiiENOTEUTHis, Verrill, 1880. (Xiplioteuthis, Owen, 1881.) 
Distinguished by its large caudal fin, and by having a broad, 
membranous web along the lower side of the lateral arms, outside 
the suckers. 0. megajAera, Yerrill, Nova Scotia. 

Architeuthis, Steenstrup, 1857. 

Syn. — Megaloteuthis, Kent ; Dinoteuthis, More, 1875. Mou- 
chezia, Velain, 1878. 

Distr. — 9 sp. N. Atlantic Ocean, Alaska, Indian Ocean. 

A number of gigantic cephalopods, allied to Ommatostrephes^ 
have been described and referred to new genera, as above, prin- 
cipally on considerations of size. Verrill says that Architeuthis 
may be best distinguished from Ommatostrephes by the presence 
on the club of an irregular group of small, smooth-rimmed 
suckers, intermingled with rounded tubercles on each arm, the 
suckers on one arm corresponding with the tubercles of the other, 
so that by them, the two arms may be firmly attached together 
and thus used in concert. 

In the Manual of Conchology ^ vol. i, pp. 74-91, I have given 
detailed accounts of some of the enormous squids found princi- 
pally in the North Atlantic Ocean. The celebrated Kraken, an 
imaginary sea-monster, doubtless originated in tlie marvelous 
tales of an uneducated people who had seen some of these squids : 
so circumstantial and so well-believed was the account of the 
Kraken, that Linnaeus found a place for it in his " Systema." 
Scarcely less marvelous are the well-authenticated accounts of 
some of these monsters encountered in modern times. The fol- 
lowing was published in The Zoologist, June, 1875 : 

Capture of an enormous Cuttle-fish off Boffin Island, on 
THE COAST OF CoNNEMARA (Ireland). — On Monday last, the crew 
of a curragh,* consisting of three men, met with a strange adven- 
ture northwest of Boffin Island. Having shot their spillets (or 
long lines) in the morning, they observed to seaAvard a great 
floating mass, surrounded by gulls ; they pulled out, believing it 
to be a Avreck, but, to their great astonishment, found it to be a 
cuttle-fish of enormous proportions, and lying perfectly still, as 
if basking on the surface of the water. A knife was the only 
weapon on board. The cuttle is much prized as a bait for coarse 
fish, and the crew resolved to secure at least a portion of it. 
Considering the great size of the monster, and knowing the 
crushing and liolding powers of the arms, open hostilit}^ could 
not be resorted to, and the fishermen shaped their tactics difler- 
entl3\ Paddling up with caution, a single arm was suddenly 
seized and lopped ofl". The cuttle, hitherto at rest, became 
dangerously active now, and set out to sea at full speed in a 

* A large kind of coracle made with wooden ribs, and covered with 
taried canvas. 



38 OMMATOSTREPHID^. 

cloud of spray, rushing through the water at a tremendous rate. 
The canoe immediately gave chase, and was up again with the 
enemy after three-quarters of a mile. Hanging on the rear of 
the fish, a single arm was attacked in turn, while it took all the 
skill of the men to keep out of the deadly clutch of the suckers. 
The battle thus continued for two hours, and while direct con- 
flict was avoided, the animal was gradually being deprived of its 
offensive weapons. Five miles out on the open Atlantic, in their 
frail canvas craft, the boatmen still slashed away, holding on 
boldly by the stranger, and steadily cutting down his powers. 
By this time the prize was partially subdued, and the curragh 
closed in fairly with the monster. Such as remained of the ten 
great arms slashed around through the air and water in most 
dangerous but unavailing fashion. The trunk of the fish lay 
alongside, fully as long as the canoe, while in its extremitj^, the 
mutilated animal emitted successive jets of fluid, which darkened 
the sea for fathoms around. The head at last was severed from 
the body, which was unmanageable from its great weight, and 
sank like lead to the bottom of the sea. Of the portions of the 
raollusk taken ashore, two of the great arms are intact, and 
measure 8 feet each in length, and 15 inches round the base. 
The two tentacles attain a length of 30 feet. The mandibles are 
about 4 inches across. The head, devoid of all appendages, 
weighed about G stone, and the eyes wei-e about 15 inches in 
diameter. 

It is evident, from the supine condition of this monster, that 
it was very sick or in a dying condition when attacked ; other- 
wise, it would have escaped capture readily by diving. Certain 
exaggerations in the above account are probably due to the 
ignorance rather than invention of the captors. 

In a further account of this animal,* Mr. A. G. More states 
that : 

The tentacles were 30 feet long when fresh (14 and 17 feet can 
still be made up from the pickled pieces ^,anda short arm measured 
8 feet in length, by 15 inches around the base. The club of the 
tentacle, nearly 3 feet in length, is occupied in the centre of the 
palm by two rows of large stalked su^ckers, nearly 1 inch in 
diameter, fourteen in each row ; an alternating row of fourteen 
smaller suckers (^ in. diara.) occupies the margin on each side 
of the palm ; these outer suckers had each a denticulated bony 
ring of about twenty-eight teeth, pointing inwards (the rings of 
the larger inner suckers had probably been removed or fallen 
out before the specimens were examined). Just beneath where 
the large suckers end, there is a cluster of very small ones 
arranged closely in six transverse rows, and the extremit}^ of 

* Annals an^ Mag, of Wat. Hist., 4th ser., xvi, 123. 



OMMATOSTllEPHIDiE. 39 

the club has also a great number of small suckers, whilst a few 
nearly sessile ones are scattered on the inner surface of the 
peduncle. Most of these had no denticulations on the rings. 
The beak has a wide, strong tooth about the middle of the edge 
of the upper mandible, and a much narrower notch on the outer 
mandible, on each side. These specimens are now in the Museum 
of the Ro^-al Society, at Dublin. 

Several very large cephalopods have been stranded on the coasts 
of Newfoundland and Labrador, within the past few years ; most 
of them have been well described by Prof. A. E. Verrill. 

STEENfSTRUPiA, Kirk, 1882. Large, body comparatively slender, 
cylindrical, very slightly swollen in the middle ; caudal fin small, 
rhomboidal, lateral ; head long and narrow ; eyes large, round ; 
sessile arms small, all of same size ; suckers stalked ; internal 
shell lanceolate, with a hollow conical apex. S. Stockii^ Kirk, 
New Zealand. 

PLECTOTEUTHis, Owen, 188L Folded squid. Suckers upon a 
relatively broader flattened tract than in Ommatostrephes; back 
or dorsal side of the arms also with a broad tract, flanked by a 
thin fold of the integument extending the length of the arm on 
either side. 

Desci'ibed from a single gigantic arm preserved in the British 
Museum. The suckers are as in Ommatostrephes. The ventral 
arms of Architeuthis are similarl}^ fringed, and it is very doubtful 
whether the characters given b}^ Owen are sufficiently distinctive 
even for a subgenus. P. grandis^ Owen (xxiv, 1*7). 

MASTiGOTEUTHis, Verrill. Body elongated, tapering to a point, 
confluent with the caudal fin posteriorl3^ Caudal fin very large 
and broad, rhomboidal, occupying about half the length of the 
body. Mantle fastened to the base of the siphon by an ovate, 
ear-shaped elevated cartilage on each side, fitting into corres- 
ponding deep, circumscribed pits on the base of the siphon. 
Siphon with a bilabiate aperture, an internal valve, and a pair of 
dorsal bridles. Ej'es large, with round pupils ; lids free, thin, 
apparently with a very small anterior sinus. Arms ver}^ unequal, 
the ventral ones much the longest. Suckers small, in two regular 
rows. Tentacular arms long and round, tapering to the tips, 
shaped like a whip-lash. Avithout any distinct club ; the distal 
portion is covered nearly all around with exceedingly numerous 
and minute suckers, which have only a very narrow, naked 
line along the outside. Pen narrow and bicostate anteriorlj-, 
very slender in the middle ; posteriorly much larger, with a long 
tubular cone. 

This remarkable squid is distinguished b}' the character of the 
tentacular arms and suckers, the pen, the connective cartilages, 
and simple eyelids. M. Agassizii, Verrill (xxiv, 15, 16). 



40 sepiidjE. 

Megateuthis, Hilgendorf, 1880. 

Distr. — M. Martensii, Hilg. Japan. 

Differs from Ommatostrephes in the greater length of the 
eight arms, which are longer than the mantle, in the thinness of 
the tentacnlar arms, and in the greater width of tlie pen, which 
is double that of Ommatostrephes, without rib and somewhat 
flabby. 

Founded on portions of two individuals of a very large cepha- 
lopod. The length of one of them, including the outstretched 
tentacles, was about twenty feet, of which the head and body 
measured about seven and a half feet. 

Family SEPIID^. 

Sepia, Linn., 1158. 

Cuttle-fish. Syn. — Pal?eoteuthis, Roemer ; Sepiella, Gray, 1849. 

Distr. — Littoral, world-wide. S. officinalis, Linn, (xxvii, 48, 
49), S. elongata, Orb. (xxvii, 50). 30 species. Fossil: 10 sp. 
Oxford Clay, Solenhofen ; Miocene of Ital}^ 

General characters those of the family (p. 13) ; under the eyes 
a lid-like fold, over them lachr3anal openings ; six aqueous 
pores in the buccal membrane ; arms short ; tentacles long ; 
suckers long-pedunculated ; siphon with very large valve. Fourth 
left arm hectocotylized to its base. 

A few species are known only by the shell (cuttle-bone) ; which 
is a calcareous lamina lodged in the back of the bodj^, ver^^ thick 
in front, concave internally behind ; terminating in a prominent 
mucro. The thickened part is composed of numerous plates, 
separated by vertical fibres, which render it very light and porous. 
It was formerly used as an antacid by apothecaries. 

The cuttle-fishes live near shore, and the mucro of their shell, 
d'Orbigny thinks, is intended to protect them in the frequent 
collisions to which they are exposed in swimming backwards. 

According to Verany, this animal prefers rock}- localities in 
the Mediterranean, where it is fished by means of a dredge called 
a balancelle, and is also taken at night with the trident. During 
the month of March the fishermen use a living female Cuttle 
fastened to a rope, or an imitation of one formed of Avood, and 
made attractive to the male sex by being ornamented with bits 
of glass ; this latter enveiglement is called by the Sicilians a 
Fumedda, and fishing with either of them is ver}^ productive and 
amusing, especially on a moonlight night. These animals may 
weigh several pounds ; their fiesh is mnch esteemed and abounds 
in the Italian markets at all seasons of the j^ear. Out of the 
water the Sepia dies quickly, with violent efforts. At Rome the 
pigment sepia is still manufactured from the ink of this animal. 



SEPTlDiE, 



41 



The chalky thickening of the shell is used as a dentifrice,* and 
also for rnodeling metallic objects, its surface receiving an 
exceedingly accurate impression. Cuttle-bone is a favorite beak- 
sharpener for caged birds. 

The following observations on Sepia officinalis were made by 
Dr. Paul Fischer, in August, 1866, at the aquarium of Arcachon, 
Gironde, France. Besides the usual glass cases, there are here 
vast basins with earth bottoms, and of moderate depth, which 
receive the results of the fishery on the shore itself. Without 
this commodious arrangement, it would be impossible to preserve 
living, the very delicate animals. 

The fishermen gather the young individuals called Casserons, 
for food. When caught for the aquarium, they are at first placed 
in the great basins ; they show themselves very timid, discharge 
inky clouds, and hide under floating objects ; always shaded, they 
remain immobile in the horizontal position, nearly touching the 
earth by their ventral surface. After some days of repose, they 
are transferred to a glass aquarium. 

The normal position of the Sepia is horizontal, the fins undu- 
lating gently, the sessile arms joined at their extremities, forming 
a sort of pyramid or tetrahedon. In this position the appearance 
of the head and arms is very like that of an elephant's head with 
the trunk. The tentacular arms remain contracted within the 
others when in repose; a position difficult to understand, as after 
death they are found to be more than double the length of the 
sessile arms. Sometimes the first pair of arms are raised into a 
vertical position, like antennae, the others preserving their normal 
attitude ; sometimes, also, the fourth pair of arms drop towards 
the earth for a few moments, and much elongate themselves. 

The coloring of the Sepia is eminently variable ; but if the day 
is clear, the dorsal surface and arms are magnificently striped ; 
the edges of the fins are black, and their superior face is orna- 
mented with spots of the same color. On the back of large indi- 
viduals is seen two large obscure spots, which vary in intensity 
and sometimes entirely disappear. The eye is fatigued in fol- 
lowing the incessant variation of coloring caused by the constant 
movement of the pigment cells, and the metallic reflections of 
the head and arms are glorious beyond human skill to reproduce. 
The skin is usually smooth ; but when the animal becomes irri- 
tated, it shows granulations, principally on the head and back. 
This is accompanied by a retraction of the arms, which appear 
both shorter and narrower; the extremities no longer touch, but 
curve slightly. At the same time the colors change, a uniform 
gray tint takes the place of the striped bands. The approach of 

» This manufacture is extensively pursued at Liverpool ; as much as 12 
cwt. of cuttle-bone arriving at one time for this purpose. 



42 SEPIID.E. 

death is equally announced by a change of colors, which orow 
dull. 

The swimming of the Sepia is differently effected, according 
to the speed required. A moderate pi'ogression is equally easy 
forwards or backwards. When the animal moves forward, the 
body remains horizontal ; the tentacles, united and extended in 
front, rest on the fourth pair of arms. The Sepia follows in this 
manner the course of the water, the resistance of which bends 
the extremities of the united arms. A moderate backward move- 
ment is effected in the same manner ; but the tentacles are more 
elongated and their extremities are somewhat parted ; the arms 
are raised to the line of the body. The undulations of the fins 
commence at the front or rear, according to the direction which 
the animal takes. This method of swimming, due entirely to the 
fins, is not slow, for the normal movement of the Sepia is easy, 
elegant and rapid ; but an occasion of disquietude, as the sight 
of an enemy, or a noise, causes a much accelerated, jerky and 
retrograde movement. To effect this the animal spreads its arms 
and suddenly reunites them ; whilst the fins, reduced to inaction, 
are folded upon the ventral face of the body, the posterior 
extremity of one of them covering that of the other. 

This accelerated action is then due to the movements of the 
arms, which cause a series of extremely rapid progressions, in 
which, perhaps, the funnel assists by its discharges. It is erro- 
neous to regard the funnel, as some have done, as the principal 
or only swimming organ of the cephalopods. 

The deposition of the eggs occurs some days after fecunda- 
tion. I have been a witness to the deposition of three or four 
eggs, but I was not able to distinguish the method of the opera- 
tion. A female laid about one hundred eggs, about fifty in a 
coruer of the aquarium, and fifty on the opposite side. These 
eggs were enrolled by their peduncles around the long leaves of 
Zostera marina (xviii, 13, 14). The larger part of the eggs were 
laid in the night, for I remarked them, in the morning for the first 
time ; they were already black. 

When the Sepia is lajang, she embraces the leaf of Zostera 
with her tentacles, and a few instants afterwards the egg is 
attached. The female removed herself but little from her egg«, 
but she appeared to me to be sick, exhausted ; she died three 
days after having commenced oviposition, and only a few hours 
after having attached her last eggs. 

I found the ovary filled with a considerable quantity of eggs 
in all stages of development ; the most advanced were already 
furnished with a white and opaque covering, but none of them 
were black like those attached to the Zosteras. The black color, 
then, is acquired at the moment of deposition, and it is probably 
due to a secretion of the glands which surround the oviduct. 



sepiid.t;. 43 

The coloration of the eggs has not escaped the observation of 
Aristotle, but the explanation which he gives is more than 
doubtful. The ver^^ opaque and very dark skin of the excluded 
egg, later becomes thinner and nearly translucent. At the last 
period of development, if the skin is torn away and the viteline 
sack detached, one can introduce to the world, as I have often 
done, the young Sepia. It swims immediately, and changes 
color with the greatest facility. 

The coloration of the Sepias several centimetres in length is 
more variable than that of the adults. The zebra-like black 
bands are not seen, but the general tint changes instantly from 
gray to wine-brown, to violet, to green. The young Sepias sink 
into the sand, only showing a part of the back and the head ; 
the}' swim like the adults, but ascend and descend more fre- 
quently. 

The eye of the Sepia has a ver^'^ strange appearance ; the dark 
pupil representing exactly a (o. It is furnished with an upper 
lid, colored by chromatophores, and a narrower, whitish under 
lid ; there is also a very distinct palpebral sinus. 

The sea-water destined for respiration enters the cephalic 
extremity of the branchial sack, and leaves by the siphon. The 
alternate movements of the openings of the sack and siphon can 
be readily seen. 

The branchial sack in a number of adult Sepias was dilated 
from seventy to seventy-two times a minute, but in the young, 
about an inch long, the inspirations reached 140 in a minute. 
This result surprised me ; it confirms, for animals of variable 
temperature, the law established for those of fixed temperature, 
that the number of inspirations is in inverse ratio to the age. 

The use of the tentacular arms of the Sepias was absolutely 
unknown to me until I had the satisfaction to see them in motion 
on a morning of the month of August (1861). A case of the 
aquarium had contained for nearly a month a Sepia of medium 
size, which, during that time, had taken no nourishment. I threw 
to it a rather large-sized fish (Caranx), which swam towards the 
retreat of the Sepia — who had hardly perceived it, when, with 
prodigious celerity and precision, he unrolled and launched for- 
ward his tentacular arms, seized the fish and drew it towards his 
mouth. The tentacular arms then retracted and disappeared, 
but the sessile arms wrapped themselves closel}^ around the 
head and anterior portion of the body of the unfortunate fish — 
which never made a movement after it was caught. The Sepia 
swam about easilj' in all directions for about an hour, eating the 
while ; it then let the remains of the fish drop to the bottom of 
the aquarium, having opened the skull and devoured the brain 
as well as a portion of the muscles of the back. 

The use of the tentacular arms is then no lonuer dou1)tfLd ; 



44 BELOSEPIID^. 

they serve for the seizure of food. I have been able to verify 
this fact a second time in examining the Calamaries — whicli pur- 
sued a troupe of little fishes, capturing them with these members. 
Moderate forward or backward progression is not due solely to 
the fins, but is assisted by the expulsion of water from the funnel ; 
if the animal move forward, the funnel is i-ecurved in front, and 
forms nearly a right-angle with the bod}' ; in retrograde move- 
ment the siphon becomes horizontal ; it is placed to the right or 
left when the Sepia would turn, and is strongly' recurved from 
front to back when it would mount to the surface of the water. 

The variations of form of the siphon are indisputable, and one 
cannot doubt their influence upon the direction taken by the 
animal, but the marginal fins are not less useful ; their undulations 
commencing anteriorly when the animal moves forward, and 
posteriorly in backward movement ; they change suddenly as 
the direction may be varied. The same facts were remarked 
with regard to the Calamary. 

SEPiELLA, Gray, 1849. Cuttle-bone weaker, subcartilaginous, 
always without either carina or posterior beak. At the posterior 
part of the bone is a profound subcutaneous pouch, opening by 
a large pore at the posterior extremity of the mantle between 
the fins. 

Hemisepius, Steenstrup, 1875. 

Distr. — H. typicus, Steenst. (xxvii, 46, 47). Cape of Good 
Hope. 

Differs from Sepia by the sessile arms having only two rows 
of suckers ; the ventral surface of the mantle with aqueous pores 
situated in little nipples, and connected together b}^ a longitu- 
dinal groove. The very rudimentary calcareous partitions of 
the inner side of the cuttle-bone only cover a poi'tion of the 
excessively thin plate. 

Trachyteuthis, Meyer, 1846. 

Syn. — Cocoteuthis, Owen, 1855. Glyphiteuthis, Reuss ? 

Distr. — 3 fossil species from the Jurassic of Europe. T. hasti- 
formis, Ruppell (xxviii, 71). 

Shell like Belosepia, thickened ventrally by horny, instead of 
chalky layers. 

The shell resembles Sepia in the dorsal side being granulated, 
but the ventral side is horny instead of chalky ; the posterior 
end has long wing-like expansions. 

Family BELOSEPIID^. 

Belosepia, Yoltz, 1830. 
Distr. — 5 fossil species. European Eocene. B. sepiordea, 
Blainv. (xxviii, 64, 65). 



BELEiMNITID^. 



45 



General characters those of the family. Doubtfully separable 
from Sepia. 

The principal character of the shell or sepiostaire, is the hood 
of chalky plates which covers the posterior end ; these partitions 
are regularly placed and separated by cavities. The rostrum is 
thick, turned towards the back ; the wing-like extensions of the 
shell are chalky. 

Family BELEMNITID^. 

The shell of Belemnites consist fundamentally of :-— 

1. A hollow cone, the phragmocone (ii, 19, 20), with a thin 
shelly wall, termed the conotheca, and which is divided by trans- 
verse septa, concave above and convex below, into chambers or 
loculi ; the chambers are perforated near the ventral margin by 
a siphuncle. 

2. A guard or rostrum more or less extensively enveloping the 
apical part of the phragmocone. " The phragmocone is not a 
chambered body made to fit into a conical hollow previously 
formed in the rostrum, as some have conjectured, but both the 
rostrum and cone grew together ; the former was formed on the 
exterior of a secretive surface, and the latter on the interior of 
another secretive surface." — Phillips. 

The rostrum is composed of calcareous matter arranged in 
fibres perpendicularly to the planes of the lamina of growth. 
Professor Owen describes the fibres as of a trihedral prismatic 
form, and one two-thousandth of an inch in diameter. These 
fibres are disposed concentrically around an axis, the so-called 
apical line, which extends from the extremity of the phragmo- 
cone to that of the rostrum. Indications of a thin capsule or 
formative membrane appear in some Belemnites investing the 
guard ; in those of the Oxford clay it is represented by a granular 
incrustation; in some liassic species it appears in delicate plaits, 
like ridges or furrows; in some specimens of Belemnitella mucro- 
nata froln the upper chalk of Antrim, it is in the form of a very 
thin nacreous layer. 

3. A pro-ostracum, or anterior shell, which is a dorsal exten- 
sion of the conothecah^yonA the end where the guard disappears. 
The surface of the conotheca is marked by lines of growth, and, 
accordino; to Voltz, it maybe described in four principal regions 
radiating^ from the apex; one dorsal, with loop lines of growth, 
advancing forward ; two lateral, separated from the dorsal by a 
continuous straight or nearly straight line, and covered with 
very obliquely arched stria in a hyperbolic form, in part nearly 
parallel to the dorso-lateral boundary line, and in part retiexed, 
so as to form lines in retiring curves across the ventral portion 
nearly parallel to the edges of the septa. There were at least 
three kinds of pro-ostracum in the family Belemnitidce. 



46 BELEMN1TID.45. 

A. In many Belemnites the extension of the conotheca seems 
to run out in one simple broad plate, as in B. hastatus, from 
Solenhofen (ii, 22). 

B. In Belemnites Puzosianus, d'Orbigny, the pro-ostracum is 
very tliin, and apparently horny or imperfectly calcified in the 
dorsal region, supported laterally by two long-, narrow, parallel, 
calcareous plates (B. Puzosianus from the Oxford clay, ii, 20). 
Professor Huxley considers this difference between the pro- 
ostraca of generic importance. 

C. The third kind of pro-ostracum is exhibited by Orthoce7'os 
elongata, De la Beche, the type of the genus Xiphoteuthis, 
Huxley. It is calcareous, and is composed of concentric lamellae, 
each of which consists of fibres disposed perpendicularly to the 
plane of the lamella; the phragmocone is very long and narrow, 
and the guard cylindroidal. 

Professor Huxley suspects that a thoroughly well-preserved 
specimen of Belemnoteuthis will some day demonstrate the exist- 
ence of a fourth kind of pro-ostracum among the Belemnitida\ 

'' The Acanthoteuthes of Munster. so far as they are known 
only by hooks and impressions of soft parts, may have been 
either Belemnites, or Belemnoteuthis, or Plesioteuthis, or may 
have belonged to the genus Celoeno." — Huxley. 

The genus Belopeltis, Yoltz, was founded on the pro-ostraca 
of Belemnites. 

The genus Actinocamax, Miller, was founded on the guards 
of Belemnites and Belemnitella, the upper parts of which had 
decayed, and thus presented no alveolar cavity. — Woodward. 

Belemnites, Lamarck. 

Etymi. — Beleranon^ a dart. 

Syn. — Diploconus, Zittel, 1868 Actinocamax, Voltz, 1840. 
Gastrosiphites, Notosiphites and Pseudobelus, Duval. 

Distr. — 100 sp., fossil only. B. excentricus. Keferst. (xxviii, 12). 

Animal, arms and tentacles with two rows of horny hooks. 
Shell, phragmocone horny and slightly nacreous, with a minute 
globular initial chamber ; two nacreous bands on its dorsal side, 
and produced beyond its rim into sword-shaped processes, 
represent the rostrum, which is fibrous, cylindrical, thickened 
behind, thin in front where it invests the phragmocone. 

These animals, supposed to have been gregarious, from the 
number of their remains found in certain localities, were very 
numerous in species, over 100 having been described from the 
liassic and chalk formations of Europe, from the chalk of South- 
ern India, from the Jurassic of the Himalayas, etc. 

The phragmocone is very delicate, and its preservation is 
usually due to the infiltration of calcareous spar into its cham- 
bers. M. d'Orbigny supposes that the variation of the propor- 



BELEMNITlDiE. 47 

tions of the guard, as compared with the phragmoconc, being 
sometimes only a half-inch longer than the latter, and sometimes 
one or two feet, depends partly on age and sex. 

D'Orbigny has presented the following scheme of sections and 
subsections for dividing the large number of species of Belem- 
nites ; they have been generally adopted. 

Section I. acceli (Bronn.), guard without dorsal or ventral 
gi'ooves. 

Subsection 1. Acuarii, without lateral furrows, but often 
channeled at the extreme point. B. acuarius. 20 species. Lias 
— Neocomian. 

Subsection 2. Glavati, with lateral furrows. B. clavatus. 
3 species. Lias. (Includes the genera Pachyteuthis, Megateu- 
this and Dactyloteuthis, Bayle.) 

Section IL gastrocceli (d'Orb.), guard Avith ventral groove 
distinct. 

Subsection 1. Canaliculati, no lateral furrows. B. canalicu- 
latus. 5 species. Inferior oolite — Great oolite. 

Subsection 2. Hastati^ lateral furrows distinct. B. hastaius. 
19 species. Upper lias — Gault. (Includes the genera Cylindro- 
teuthis, Belemnopsis and Hibolites, Bayle.) 

Section III. notocceli (d'Orb.), guard with a dorsal groove, 
and furrowed on each side. B. dilatatus. 9 species. Neocomian. 
(Genus Duvalia, Bayle.l 

Helicerus, Dana, 1848. 

Bistr. — 1 fossil species (H. Fuegiensis^ Dana, xxix, 87), in 
slate rock. Cape Horn. 

Shell like Belemnites, half-inch in diameter ; guard thick, sub- 
cylindrical, fibrous ; phragmocone slender, terminating in a 
fusiform spiral nucleus. 

Belemnitella, d'Orbigny, 1840. 

Syn. — Atractites, Link, 1867. 

Distr. — 6 fossil species. Cretaceous ; N. Am. and Europe. B. 
mucronata, Sowb. (xxviii, 70^. 

Rostrum with a straight fissure on the ventral side of its 
alveolar border; its surface with distinct vascular impressions. 
Casts of the alveolus show that the phragmocone was chambered, 
had a single dorsal ridge, and a ventral process entering the 
fissure of the rostrum. 

Xiphoteuthis, Huxley, 1864. 
Distr. — X elongata, Beche (xxviii, 68). Liassic, England. 
Rostrum and pro-ostracum calcareous, phragmocone very long 
and narrow. 



48 SPIllULID^]. 

AcANTnoTEUTHis, Wagner, 1839. 

Etym. — AcantJia, a spine, and teuthis, a calamary. 

Sy7i. — Belenmosepia, Desh. ; Belemnoteuthis, Peavce, 1842 ; 
KaliEno, Miinster, 1836. 

Distr. — 17 fossil sp. Oolitic. A. antiqiius, Cunn, (xxviii, 74). 

Animal with ten nearly equal arms with two rows of horny 
hooks and suelcers ; margin of mantle free all around ; fins large, 
medio-dorsal. Shell a phragmocone lil^e Belemnites, a hoimy 
dorsal pen with obscure lateral bands and a thin fibrous rostrum 
with two diverging dorsal ridges. 

CoNOTEUTHis, d'Orbiguy, 1842. 
Distr. — C Dupinianxis, Orb. (xxviii, 69). Neocomian, France. 
Phragmocone slightly curved, chambered and siphunculated, 
with an elongated, slender pen. No protecting rostrum. 

Belemnosis, Edwards, 1849. 

JJi.sfr. — B.plicata, Edwards (xxviii, 86). Eocene, London. 

Phragmocone straight or slightly curved ; rostrum rather 
long, thickened dorsally and obtuse at the hinder end, with a 
ventral opening. 

Beloptera (Deshayes), Blainv., 1825. 

Etym. — Belos, a dart, and pteron, a wing. 

Syn. — Belopterina, Munier-Chalmas, 1872. Vasseuria, Munier- 
Chalmas, 1880. Bayanoteuthis, Munier-Chalmas, 1871. 

Distr. — 4 fossil species. Eocene of Paris and Bracklesham. 
B. belejnnitoides, Blainv. (xxviii, 80). 

Shell straight, rostrum sometimes winged on the sides, ])luntly 
beaked at the hinder end. 

Spirulirostra, d'Orl)igny, 1841. 

IJlst.S. BeUardii, d'Orb. (xxix, 81). Tertiary of Turin. 

Phragmocone commencing with a spiral like Spirula, after- 
wards continuing straight; external spathose layer produced 
posteriorly into a long, pointed end. 

Family SPIRULID^. 

Spirula, Lamarck, 1799. 

tiyn. — Ammonia, Breyn., 1732. 

Distr. — 3 species, all tropical seas. *S'. I'eronii, Lam. (xxvii, 
51-53). 

Body oblong, with minute terminal fins. Mantle supported 
by a cervical and two ventral ridges and grooves. Arms with 
six rows of very minute cups. Tentacles elongated. Funnel 
valvcd. 



SPIRULID^. 4 9 

Shell placed vertically in the posterior part of the bod}', with 
the involute spire towards the ventral side. 

Although thousands of shells of these mollusks are washed 
ashore in all parts of the world, the animal is almost unknown, 
but three perfect individuals, and several others, more or less 
imperfect, having been collected. The U. S. Coast Survey Steamer 
Blake, in 1878, dredged a Spirula with its mollusk, in the West 
Indies, at the great depth of 950 fathoms. Prof. Owen's last 
memoir on the Spirula adds materially to what was heretofore 
known respecting it. (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 5 ser.,iii, 1, 1879.) 
He shows that the mantle terminates posteriorly in two lateral 
flaps which cover the sides of the shell, leaving it parti}' exposed 
dorsall}^ and ventrally. Posteriorly, between the lobes, is an 
elliptical, convex body, with a central depression or disk, flanked 
by a pair of oblong productions, perhaps homologous with flns, or 
at any rate resembling the small lateral-terminal fins of Loligop.sis. 
The terminal disk is, perhaps (as long ago descril)ed b}^ Kum- 
phius), a true sucker, enabling the animal to attach the posterior 
end of its bod}^ to anj' object, leaving the arms free to exercise 
their prehensile power on passing objects of food. This wonderful 
terminal sucking organ is not found in any other cephalopods, 
but may have been possessed by the animal of Ammonites, 
supposing it to have been related to the Spirula rather than 
the Nautilus. The anatomy of Spirula, which is carefully worked 
out and illustrated in Prof. Owen's memoir, shows it to belong 
to the dibranchiate decapod cuttle-fishes, as already indicated 
by previous studies. Whilst Spirula possesses natatory powers 
superior to the Nautilus, in the action of its webbed arms, addi- 
tional to that of the funnel, the former are so small in proportion 
to the size of the animal, and the fins are so rudimentary as to 
indicate sedentary habits. Prof. Owen observes that in Spirula, 
as in Nautilus, '' the shell serves as the poi7it cfappui of the 
retractors of the funnel and of the head with its locomotive and 
prehensile organs. Moreover, the last chamber of the shell in 
Spirula also receives part of the visceral mass, viz., the hind ter- 
mination of the liver, which, covered by its capsule, and this again 
by the peritoneum or a delicate aponeurosis continued from the 
attached shell-muscles, constitutes the hemispheric mass that 
fills the chamber and forms or sends oft" the beginning of the 
membi'anous siphon. . 

In another memoir, Prof. Owen shows that the dorsal portion 
of the animal of Spirula is placed towards the outer Avall of the 
shell, which is the reverse of the relative positions of animal and 
shell in both Nautilus and Ammonites, showing that the spiral 
growth of the shell cone took a contrary direction. He agrees 
that the aptychi are developed on the spadix of Ammonites, and 
are true opercular bodies ; consequently the Ammonite could 



50 NAUTILID^ — AMMONITID^. 

not have been like the Spinila, an internal shell, but mu«t have 
been closely related to Nautilus.* , 

According to some recent investigators, there is a marked 
resemblance between the recent Spirula and the fossil Ammonites, 
particularly in the initial whorl, and a difference in the latter 
character between Ammonites and Nautilus which is thought to 
indicate that the Ammonites should be separated from the tetra- 
branchiate and united with the dibranchiate cephalopods. If 
this should prove to be so, then the Spirula will assume a new 
importance to us as the last vestige of a numerous group, else 
extinct. 

In Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 1880, Prof. Owen describes and 
figures a male Spirula. The ventral pair of arms are modified 
for the sexual purpose, but are not hectocotylized, having lost 
all trace of acetabular organization. 

Order II. TETRABRANCHIATA. 
Family NAUTILID^. 

Septa simply curved, concave on the outer face, sutures 
simple, or undulate or lobed ; mouth simple ; siphonal opening 
nearly central. Shell but little sculptured, or smooth. 

Six living and over 2000 fossil species. 

Family AMMONITID^. 

Septa convex in their median section, sutures complex, lobed, 
ramified or denticulated ; septal tube cylindrical and always 
directed forwards ; siphuncle cylindroid, small, marginal, the 
siphonal investment more or less solid and persistent. Fossil 
only, several thousand species known. 

Nearly 5000 fossil species of cephalopod shells have been 
referred to the tetrabranchiates, although it has been recently 
suspected that at least a large portion of these were internal 
shells like the Spirulas and referable therefore to the dibran- 
chiata. Only a half-dozen recent species are known, all belonging 
to the genus Nautilus. 

The tetrabranchiate shell is essentially an elongated cone, 
divided off into chambers by partitions, and siphunculated. 
These septa have simply curved edges in Nautilus and Ortho- 
ceras, they are zigzag in Groniatites, or foliaceous, forming com- 
plicated lobes in Ammonites. The shell may be straight, curved, 
open or close spiral, and even vary in form at diffei-ent ages, and 
these variations, when well understood, will doubtless cause a 

* Owen, on the Relative Positions to their Constructors of the Cham- 
bered Shells of Cephalopods. Zool. Proc, Q5o, 187S. 



NAUTILID^. 



51 



large reduction to be made in the number of generic forms at 
present accepted. The following synopsis will exhibit these 
variations in some of the more important genera. 



Form op Shell. 



Straight 



Bent or curved . 



Orthoceras. . . . 

Bactiites 

Gomphoceras . 

Cyrtocei'as. . . . 

Phragmoceras 

Discoidal spire and ( lAscoceras 

free wliorls ( jGyroceras 

Ihid. Finally straight' 



Nautilid^. 



Ammonitid^. 



With 

undulating 

sutures. 



or hook-shaped 
Hook-shaped or bent 

upon itself more than 

once, whorls free. . . 
Ibid. Straight portions 

in contact. 

Involute, spiral 



Involute ; last cham 
her detached, hook- 
shaped 

Elongated, spiral, 
whorls in contact. . . 



Lituites , 



Nautilus 

Nothoceras. 



Goniatites. 



Clymenia . 



Spiral, elongated, 

whorls not incontactTrochoceras 

Spiral, elongated, the 
last whorl free, pro- 
duced and recurved. 



Sutures | Sutures 
toothed at complex lobed 
the base. or foliaceous. 



Baculina. 



Baculites. 
Rhabdoceras 



Toxoceras. 



Ceratites. 



Cryoceras. 
Ancyloceras. 

Hamites. 

Ptychoceras. 
Ammonites. 



Clydonites. 



Scaphites. 

Turrilites. 
Cochloceras. 

Helicoceras. 



Heteroceras . 



Family NAUTILID^. 

Orthoceras, Bre3'nius, 1732. 

Etym. — Orthos, straight, and ceras^ a horn. 

Syn. — Actinoceras, Bronn, 1835. Orthoceratites, Bre^ni. Jovel- 
lania, Ba^de, 18T8. Cycloceras and Loxoceras, M'Coy, 1844. 

Distr. — Fossil, 1200 sp. L. Silurian to Triassic; N. America, 
Australia, Europe. 0. subaniiulare ,'Ba.rT. (xxix, 79). 0. planica- 
naliculatum, Sandb. (xxviii, 6*7). 

Shell straight, aperture sometimes contracted. 

Probably the animal was not able to withdraw itself completely 



52 NAUTILlDiE. 

into its shell, as in the Nautilus. Tliat the shell was external is 
indicated by the colored bands preserved on 0. anguliferus. 
These shells sometimes grew to a great size ; a specimen in the 
collection of Mr. Tate of Alnwick, England, must have been six 
feet long when perfect. Newberry, in the Paheontology of Ohio, 
estimates another species, 0. Titan, to have weighed "some 
tons." The aperture is sometimes so contracted that species 
two feet in length have a diameter of only one inch at the mouth. 

CAMEROCERAS, Conrad, 1842. (Melia, Fischer; Sannionites, 
Fischer.) Siphuncle lateral, sometimes very large (simple?). 
Casts of the large siphuncles were called H^yolites by Eichwald. 
Distr. — 27 sp. L. Silurian to Triassic (?) ; N. America, Europe. 

ACTiNOCERAS (Browu), Stolvcs. Siphunclc very large, inflated 
between the chambers and connected with a slender central tube 
by radiating plates. 6 sp, L. Silur. to Carb. ; N. America, Europe. 
0. Richardsoni, Stokes (xxix, 78). 

ORMOOERAS, Stokcs, 1838. Siphuncular beads constricted in 
the middle, so that the septa appear as if united to the centre of 
each. Probably identical with Actinoceras. Disti\ — 3 sp. L. 
Silurian to Devonian ; N. America. 0. Bayfieldi, Stokes (xxix, 
84). 

HURONiA, Stokes, 1823. (Discosurus, Hall, 1852.) Shell ex- 
ti'emely thin, membranous or horny (?). Siphuncle very large, 
central, upper portion of each joint inflatecl, connected with a 
small central tube of radiating plates. Usually the siphuncle 
only is preserved. Dr. Bigsby observed specimens six feet in 
length. Doubtfully distinct from Actinoceras. Distr. — 3 sp. 
L. Silurian ; Drummond Isl., Lake Huron. H. vertebralis, Stokes 
(xxix, 85). 

AULACOCERA*, Hauer. Shell much thickened, longitudinally 
furrowed, with two deep lateral sulcations ; siphon very small, 
marginal, Distr. — 4 sp. Upper Triassic ; Austria. 

BATHMOCERAS, Barraude, 1865. Part of the body-chamber 
occupied by imbricating plates, decreasing in horizontal exten- 
sion from below upwards ; siphuncle a series of superimposed 
funnel-shaped tubes. Distr. — 4 sp. Silurian; Bohemia, Sweden, 
Lake Huron. 

ENDOCERAS, Hall, 1847. (Conotubularia, Troost ; Diploceras, 
Conr.) Shell extremely elongated, c^dindrical. Siphuncle very 
large, cylindrical, lateral ; thickened internally by repeated 
layers of shell, or partitioned ofl[" by funnel-shaped diaphragms, 
Distr. — 12 sp. L. Silurian; New York, Europe. 

TRETOCERAS, Salter, 1858. (Diploceras, Salter, not Conrad, 1856 ; 
Nothoceras, Eichw., 1859.) Founded on 0.bisij)honatum, Sowh. 
(xxx,93), from the Caradoc sandstone ( Silurian \ Brit., in which 
the septa are apparently perforated by two siphuncles ; one of 
which is a deep lateral cavity continuous with the terminal 



NAUTILlDiE. 53 

chamber — the cavity affecting at least seven of the uppermost 
septa, if not the whole. 

THisoA, Montf. Shell ovate-elongate, cucumber-shaped ; appar- 
entl}' two siphons running parallel the whole length of the shell, 
one of which traverses a sort of narrow lateral cavity ; there are 
also a number of false siphons or holes, which do not extend the 
entire length of the shell. T. siphonalis, Serres (xxix, 82, 83). 
Jurassic; France. 

GONiocERAS, Hall, 1847. Shell flattened, with extremely salient 
angles; septa sinuous; section of shell, an extended ellipse with 
projecting angles; siphuncle ventral. G. ancepa, Hall (xxx,94, 
95). L. Silurian ; N. America. 

COLPOCERAS, Hall. This is probably only a siphon of one of 
the larger species of Orthocerata. C. virgatum, Hall (xxx, 9()). 
L. Silurian ; New York. 

DiCTYOCERAS, Eichw., 1859, Is probably an Orthoceras covered 
by a bryozoan or coral. 

TREMATOCERAs, Whitfield, Tube, septa and siphuncle like 
Orthoceras, but with a line of elongated, raised tubercles along 
one side of the shell, which have formed perforations at certain 
stages of growth, probably confined to the outer chamber as 
openings, which were closed as the animal extended the shell, 
and before the septa opposite them were formed. Type 2\ Ohio- 
ense, Whitfield. Upper Helderberg group, Ohio. 

[PoLORTHUs, Gabb, 1861. 
The aggregated mass of specimens forming the tj^pe of this 
genus was originally referred to Teredo ; subsequently, in de- 
scribing the genus, Mr. Gabb referred it to Yermetidaj, and in 
1872 he finally believed it to be a cephalopod connecting the 
Orthoceratidae with Beatriceffi. The aggregate character, the 
long, narrow, irregular tube, the non-moUuscan character of the 
partitions forbid this determination. I am convinced that 
Polorthus is not a mollusk, and Beatrieea itself is now referred, 
doubtfully, to the sponges.] 

Clinoceras, Mascke, 1876. 
JDistr. — C. dens, Mascke (xxviii, 73;. Erratic L. Silurian 
blocks ; Prussia. 

Shell conical (allied to Loxoceras, M'Coy), the siphuncle side 
straight, the others more or less curved ; a constriction below 
the body-chamber. Septal border with an obtuse-angled saddle 
on the siphuncle side, with gently rounded lobes and two slightly 
marked lateral saddles. 

Bactrites, Sandberger, 1842. 

Syn. — Stenoceras, d'Orb, 1850. 

I)isb\ — 13 sp. Silurian to Trias. : Germany, etc. B. gracilis, 
Sandb. (xxxii, 22). Nassau. 



54 NAUTILTDJi:. 

Shell straight, conical ; a small siitural lobe corresponds to 
the marginal siphon. 

PiLOCERAs, Salter, 1859. 

Etytn. — Pilos, a cap, and ceras, a horn. 

Distr. — Fossil, 3 species. L. Silurian ; Canada, Scotland 
(Ideal section, xxx, 9*7). 

Shell broad, conical, subcylindrical or compressed, slightl}' 
curved. The siphuncle and septa represented by a series of 
conical septa, concave to a central point. Closely related to 
Cyrtoceras. 

Cyrtoceras, Goldfuss, 1832. 

JStym. — Curtos, curved, ceras, a horn. 

Syii. — Aploceras, d'Orb., 1850. Campulites, Desh. (part), 1832. 
Campyloceras and Trigonoceras, M'Co}^, 1844. 

Distr. — Fossil, 350 species. L. Silurian to Carb. ; N. and S. 
America, Europe. C. acuticostatum, Sandb. (xxx, 98). 

Shell curved ; siphuncle small, subcentral. 

Seems to ditfer but little from Orthoceras. 

ONCOCERAS, Hall, 1847. (Oncos,ii protuberance, ceras, a horn.) 
Anterior half of the shell inflated, aperture more or less stran- 
gulated. This may possibly = Phragmoceras, Brod. Distr. — 
3 sp. Silurian; New York. 0. constrictuvi. Hall (xxx, 997). 

CYRTOCERiNA, BilUngs, 1865. Shell short and thick, with a 
large siphuncle, placed externally. Distr. — 2 species. Silurian ; 
Canada. 

STREPTOCERAS, BiUings, 1865. Shell like Oncoceras, but the 
aperture trilobed. 2 species. Middle Silurian ; Canada. 

GoMPHOCERAS, J. Sowb,, 1839. 

Etym. — GompJws, a club, and ceras, a horn. 

Syn. — Apioceras, Fischer, 1844. Poterioceras, M'Coy, 1844. 
Mesoceras, Barrande, 1877. Bolboceras, Fischer, 1844. Neli- 
nienia, Casteln., 1843. 

Distr. — 100 sp. L. Silurian to Carb. ; Europe, N. America. 
G. pyriforme, Murchison (xxx, 100). Silurian ; England. G. 
Bohemicum, Barr. (xxx, 1). Aperture. 

Shell fusiform or bottle-shaped, straight, swollen anteriorly; 
aperture contracted in the middle ; siphuncle subcentral ; septa 
simple, concave. 

Sycoceras, Pictet, 1854. 

Distr. — Silurian, Devonian. S. orthogaster, Sandb. (xxx, 21). 

Shell oval or bottle-shaped, straight ; septa simple ; siphuncle 
marginal. 

The position of the siphon varies so much in this group, that 
it is an insufficient character to distinguish the genus from 
Gomphoceras. 



NAUTILIDiE. .^5 

AscocERAS, Barr., 1841. 

Etym. — Ascos, a leather bottle, ceras, a horn. 

Syn.— Cryptoceras, Barr., 1846. 

Distr. — IG sp. L. and U. Silurian ; Europe, Canada. A. Bohe- 
micum, Barr. (xxx, 3). 

Shell flask-shaped ; the terminal chamber not only fills the front 
of the shell, but extends down the dorsal side, nearly its whole 
length, as a deep cavity, which is embraced by the decurrent 
edges of the four or five incomplete septa ; a minute siphuncle 
on the ventral side. 

Glossoceras, Barr., 1865. 
Etym. — Glossa, a tongue, ceras ^ a horn. 
Distr.— '1 sp. M. and IT. Silurian ; Anticosti ; Bohemia. 
Shell like Ascoceras, but the ventral margin of the aperture 
ligulately extended and incurved. 

Aphragmites, Barr., 1865. 
Etym. — A, without, phragmos, a partition. 

Distr 2 sp. U. Silurian ; Bohemia. 

Shell like Ascoceras, but the septa are deciduous. 

Phragmoceras, Brod., 18.39. 

Etym.— Phragmos^ a partition, and ceras, a horn. 

Si/??._Campulites, Desh. (part), 18.32; Phragmolites, Conr., 
1838. 

Distr. — 50 sp. Silurian to Devonian; Europe, N.America. 
Ph. ventricosum, Murch. (xxx, 4). Silurian; England. Ph. 
callistoma, Barr. (xxxi, 6). Aperture. 

Shell compressed on the sides, curved ; aperture contracted 
in the middle ; last chamber large ; siphuncle dorsal, with radia- 
tions ; septa simple. 

Gyroceras, de Koninck, 1844. 

S^n.— Xautiloceras, d'Orb, 1847. Polycronites, Troost (?), 
1840. 

Distr.— iO sp. Silurian to Triassic (?) ; Europe, N. America. 
G. Goldfussii, Arch, (xxxi, 1). Devonian; Eifel. 

Shell planorboid, with separated whorls; septa simple, but 
little curved ; siphuncle excentric, with radiations ; last chamber 
large ; mouth but little contracted. 

NoTHOCERAS, Barr., 1856. 

Distr.— N. Bohemicum, Barr. (xxx, 5 ; xxxi, 8). U. Silurian ; 
Bohemia. 

Shell nautiloid, slightly involute ; septa but little curved, not 
lobed. 



56 NAUTILID.i;. 

Hercoceras, BaiT., 1865. 

Etym. — Erkos, a wall, ceras, a horn. 

Dislr. — 2 sp. Middle Silurian, Bohemia ; Devonian, Nassau (?). 

Shell generally nautiloid, the whorls sometimes separated, or 
CA'en turbinate ; body-chamber with a diaphragm perpendicular 
to the axis of the shell, the concavity of which is opposed to 
that of the last septum, throwing the aperture on the deeply 
excavated dorsal side of the shell ; siphuncle ventral, cylindrical, 
inflated between the chambers, separated from the shell. 

LiTUiTES, Breyn., 1732. 

Etym. — Litaus, a trumpet. 

Syn. — Trocholites, Emmons, 1842. Pala^onautilus and Pahvo- 
cl^'menia, Remele. 

Di?tr. — 28 sp. Silurian ; Europe, North America. L. sim- 
plex, Barr. (xxxi, 9). 

Shell planorbiform, the whorls close or separate ; the last 
chamber produced in a straight or outwardly curved line ; lat- 
eral margins of the aperture extended and curved towards the 
interior of the shell, contracting the aperture into two distinct 
orifices. 

OPHiDiocERAS, Barrande, 186*7. Etym. — Oj^hiodes, serpent- 
shaped, ceras, a horn. Shell with the produced portion very 
short or wanting. Distr. — 7 sp. Silurian ; Norway, Bohemia. 

STROMBOLITUITES, Remele, 1881. Shell commencing as a small 
spiral, expanding into an obconic form. L. Silurian ; Germany. 
ti. Torelli, Remele (xxix, 90). 

HORTOLUS, Montf., 1808. Whorls not in contact. 

DiscocERAS, Barrande, 1867. 

Etym. — Diskos, a quoit, ceras, a horn. 

Distr. — 3 sp. Middle Silurian ; Russia, Germany, Norway. 

Shell planorbiform; produced portion A^ery short or wanting; 
aperture simple, not contracted. 

M. Barrande describes this as a subgenus under his genus 
Lituunculus; of which no species haA^e been observed, but which 
he creates by anticipation with the diagnosis : " Shell like Litu- 
ites, but with a simple aperture," in order that Discoceras may 
hold the same relationship to it that Ophidioceras does to Litu- 
ites ! This is filling up the " gaps" with a vengeance, and could 
scarcely have been predicted of the renowned Bohemian anti- 
developmentalist. 

Pteronautilus, Meek, 1867. 

Etym. — Ptero7i, a wing, and Natdihis. 

Distr. — P. Seebachianus, Geinitz (xxxi, 10). Permian. 

Shell spiral, involute, finally produced, with lateral wing-like 
expansions. 



NAUTILTD-a:. fi7 

SUBCLYMENIA, (I'Orb, 1850. 
Diatr. — S. et'oZw^a, d'Orb (xxxi, 12, 13\ Devonian; England. 
Shell spiral, planorbiform ; sutures of septa sinuous, not 
angular on the sides, but with a single dorsal lobe. 

Trococeras, Barr., 1841. 

Dislr. — 60 sp. L. Silurian to Devonian ; Bohemia, France, 
North America. 

Shell depressed, spiral, nautiloid or nearly discoidal ; whorls 
free ; septa simple. Very closely related to Lituites. 

Nautilus, Breyn., 1132. 

Syn. — Angulites, Montf., 1810; Omphalia, De Haan. 

IHstr. — 6 living species, tropical seas; and nearly 300 fossil 
species, commencing with the Silurian. N. FompiliuSy Linn, 
(iv, 62, 63; xxvii, 54). 

Shell involute or discoidal, few-whorled ; septa concave, simple ; 
siphuncle nearly central. 

Outer surface smooth in the recent species, but corrugated in 
some of the fossil ones. 

Animal placed with its ventral face to the convex (dorsal) wall 
of the shell. 

They are divided into the following groups : 

1. Laevigati. Shell smooth. Permian — Living. 

2. Radiati. Shell ti-ansversely ribbed. Principally cretaceous. 

3. Striati. Shell longitudinally striate. Oolite of Europe, 
and Lower Chalk, India. 

Respecting the habits of the Nautilus very little is kuown : 
the specimen dissected b}- Prof. Owen had its crop filled with frag- 
ments of a small crab. Rumphius states that " when the Nau- 
tilus floats on the water, he puts out his head and all his tentacles, 
and spreads them upon the water, with the poop of the shell 
above the surface ; but at the bottom, he creeps in the reverse 
position, with his boat above him, and with his head and ten- 
tacles upon the ground, making a tolerabl}' quick progress. He 
keeps himself chiefly upon the ground, creeping also sometimes 
into the nets of the fishermen ; but after a storm, as the weather 
becomes calm, tliey are seen in troops, floating on the Avater, 
being driven up by the agitatiou of the waves. This sailing, how- 
ever, is not of long continuance ; for having taken in all their 
tentacles, they upset their boat, and so return to the bottom." 

The shell is com})osed of two layers — the outer one porcellanous, 
the inner pearly ; and the Chinese avail themselves of this circum- 
stance to produce elegant relieved carvings ui)on the pearly 
layer. Specimens are frequently imported for sale. 

During the voyage of the Challenger, a living N. Fompilius 
was dredged in three hundred and twenty fathoms, ofl" Matuka 



58 NAUTILID^. 

Island, Fiji group. It was veiy livel}^, swimming around in a 
tub, in a retrograde direction, by the ejection of water from tlie 
funnel. The tentacles were extended radially from the head, 
somewhat like those of a sea anemone ; but each pair had its 
definite and ditferent direction, which was constantly vnaintained ; 
thus one pair of tentacles was held pointing directly downwards, 
two other pairs, situate just before and behind the eyes, were 
held projecting obliquely outwards and forwards, and backwards 
respectively, as if to protect the organs of sight. 

The natives of the New Hebrides, New Caledonia, and the Fiji 
group of islands, capture the Nautilus, and use it as an article 
of food. They take them in their fish-falls, in from three to five 
fathoms of water ; the bait they use is the echinus. They are 
very fond of them. In some of the islands they make a kind 
of soup of them. At the Island of Ware, about 30 miles from 
New Caledonia, they are roasted, and taste like whelks (Buc- 
cinum). 

The Fijians esteem the Pearl}' Nautilus highly as an agreeable 
viand, and their mode of capturing it for the embers or the pot 
is not a little interesting. When the water is smooth, so that the 
bottom at several fathoms of depth, near the border of the reef, 
may be distinctly' seen, the fislierman in his little frail canoe 
scrutinizes the sands and the coral masses below, to discover the 
animal in its favorite haunts. The experienced eye of the native 
may probably' encounter it in its usual position, clinging to some 
prominent ledge, with the shell turned downwards. The tackle 
consists, first, of a large round wicker-work basket, shaped very 
much like a cage rat-trap, having an opening above, with a circlet 
of points directed inwards, so as to permit of entry, but preclude 
escape ; secondly, a rough piece of native rope, of sufficient 
length to reach the bottom ; and thirdly, a small piece of branched 
wood, with the branches sharpened to form a sort of grapnel, to 
which a perforated stone is attached, answering the purpose of 
a sinker. The basket is now weighted with stones, well-baited 
with boiled cray-fish, and then dropped gently down near the 
victim. The trap is now either closely watched, or a mark is 
placed upon the spot, and the fisherman pursues his avocation 
upon other parts of the reef, until a certain period has elapsed, 
when he returns, and in all probability finds the Nautilus in his 
cage feeding upon the bait. The grapnel is now carefully let 
down, and having entered the basket through the opening on 
top, a dexterous movement of the hand fixes one or more of the 
points or hooks, and the prize is safely hoisted into the canoe. 

The Pearly Nautilus is not found at the Navigator group of 
islands in the South Seas, and the shells form there an important 
article of exchange. They are brought by European vessels from 
New Caledonia and the Fiji Islands as articles of trade, and are 



NAUTILTD^. 59 

bartered with the natives at the rate of four for a dollar or one 
shilling each. I am told it is indifferent to the natives if the 
shells are old or rather damaged, as they use the chambered 
portions for ornament, rubbing them down to suit the various 
purposes to which they apply them. They also make armlets 
and other ornaments from the shell. A vessel arrived at Sydney 
from New Caledonia with several tons of these shells, which were 
disposed of as an article of trade to the Navigator and Friendly 
Islands ; the}^ were sold at Sydney at abovit l^d. each. 

I have seen a very elegant fillet formed of these shells (of 
very small size), brought from the Samoan Islands, the brilliancy 
of which was that of the most highly bitrnished silver. They 
are used by the natives in war, and are highly valued ; this one 
costing twenty dollars. The shells are fixed to a small midrib 
of cocoanut leaf, which supports them on a worked band of 
sinnet ; upon this, under the row^ of seventeen shells, small pieces 
of the same pearly shell were placed to add to the ornamental 
effect. The length of the band was 12 inches (not including the 
tying strings) and the depth 3 inches. — Dr. George Bennett, 
Proc. Zool. Soc, 226, 1859. 

In India elegant drinking cups are made of Nautilus Pompilius, 
the exterior coating being relieved by carving on the inner pearly 
lamina ; or it is sometimes grotesquely painted. Cameo carving 
on the shell of the Nautilus is extensively practiced in England 
and other countries, and shells thus prepared are highl}^ valued 
as ornaments. 

ATURiA,Bronn, 1838. (Megasiphonia, d'Orb., 1847.) Sutures of 
septa with a deep lateral lobe ; siphuncle on the concave or inner 
side of the shell, large, continuous, like a succession of funnels. 
Distr. — 6 sp. Eocene, Miocene ; N. America, Europe, India. A 
zivzac, Sowb. (xxxi, 14, 16). 

DisciTES, M'Goy, 1825. Whorls all exposed; last chamber 
sometimes produced. Diatr. — 5 sp. L Silurian, Carb. 

TEMNOCHEiLUS, M'Cov, 1844. (Eudolobus, Meek and Worthen, 
1866.) Shell carinated, with an open, conical umbilicus. Distr. 
— 5 sp. Carb. limestone N. biangulafus, Sowb. (xxxi, 15). 

TREMATODisous, Meek and Worthen, 1861. Like Temnocheilus, 
but outer side of whorls with revolving angles and sulci, and 
frequently, revolving strife. Distr. — Carboniferous; Europe, 
America. N. trisulcatus, Meek and Worthen (xxxi, H, 18). 
Subcarboniferous; Rockford, Ind. 

ciMOMiA, Conrad, 1866. Septa sinuous, double waved or 
sigmoid, numerous ; siphon small, central. N. Burtoni, Galeotti. 
Lower Eocene. 

HERCOGLOSSA, Courad, 1866. (Aganides, Montf.?) Septa angular 
and linguiform ; apex of the angle or tongue-shaped lobe not 
contiguous with the adjacent septum ; siphon large or moderate, 



60 AMMONITID^. 

situated within the centre, or between the middle and the inner 
margin, and not funnel-shaped, but tubular and gradually 
tapering. Distr. — Eocene, Cret. ; Europe, America. 

A very doubtful group, as Conrad includes species having 
respectively the characters of Aturia and of Nautilus ; the type 
species is N. orbiculatus^ Tuoraey. 

PSEUDONAUTILUS, Meek, 1816. Differs from Hercoglossa in 
the septa being provided with well-defined peripheral and anti- 
peripheral lobes and the siphuncle placed near the outer margin. 
Nautilus Geinitzi, Oppel. 

(•RYPTOCERAS,d'Orb., 1847. (Solenocliilus, Meek and Worthen, 
18*77.) Planorbiform; septa arcuated, without lobes or sinuos- 
ities ; siphon dorsal. Bistr. — 2 sp. Devonian, Carboniferous ; 
Europe. C. i:^ubtuberculatus, d''Orh. (xxxi, 504). 

Beaks of Tetrabranchtates. 
These are found associated with fossil Nautili and occasionally 
Belemnites, but never with Ammonites. The upper beaks have 
been described under the name of Rhyncholites, the lower ones 
as Conchorhynchus. 

B. Astieriana, d'Orb. (xxxv, 74). 
G. avirostris^ Bronn (xxxv, 75). 

C. Oi/^ewn, Bronn (xxxv, 76). 

PELTARTON, Deslongchamps. This was formerly believed to be 
the mandibular armature of tetrabranchiates, consisting of 
circular or transversely-oval calcareous plates, with rounded 
anterior and produced and truncated posterior margins. Through 
the researches of M. Crosse {Jour, de Conch., 3 ser., xv, 57, 
1875), there is no doubt that tliese Peltariffi are opercula of 
fossil species oi' Ner-itopsw; they resemble the operculum of the 
recent N. radula. 

Several species have been described from U. Lias to Coral- 
line Rag. F. bllohatuvi^ Desl. Upper Lias of Normandy. 

Family AMMONITID^. 

Animal contained in the last division of a chambered shell ; 
protected by one or two operculigerous plates (Aptychi); with- 
out ink-bag. 

Shell external, of variable form, composed of two principal 
laj^ers, the inner one of which is nacreous ; sutural line of the 
septa more or less complicated or lobed ; siphon simple, without 
organic layer. 

Initial chamber ovoid, smooth, without exterior cicatrice, con- 
taining a siphonal ciecum free from the inner wall. Embryonic 
shell generally showing an umbilicus at each extremity of its 
axis ; first chamber convex in front. 

The above are the characters given to the order Ammonea by 



AMMONITID.^. 61 

Fischer, who places it botweeii the Dihranchiata and Tetrabran- 
chiata. The principal character which the Ammonitida> possess 
in common with the former is the early development of the shell, 
the initial chamber being without cicatrice ; but, on the other 
hand, the possession of an external shell is abundantly indicated 
by its exterior ornamentation, b\' its opercular plates and by 
other characters. I prefer to consider them tetrabranchiates — 
an opinion powerfully supported by Prof. Richard Owen, so 
lately as 1878. 

The Ammonitida^ became essentially extinct towards the close 
of the secondar}' period, although a few forms are now referred 
to the tertiary-. The geological position of the genera may be 
thus indicated : 

Arcestes, Didymites, Lobites, Pinacoceras, Ptychites,Trachy- 
ceras, Tropites are exclusively Triassic. 

Arietites, Harpoceras, (Ekotraustes, Oppc'lia, Peltoceras, 
Stephanoceras, Simoceras, etc., are Jurassic. 

Acanthoceras, Olcostephanus, Schhjenbachia, Stoliczkaia, etc., 
are Cretaceous. 

Sageceras is Permian and Triassic. ^Egocei'as is Triassic and 
Liassic. Araaltheus, Lytoceras, Phylloceras, occur in Triassic, 
Jurassic and Cretaceous beds. Aspidoceras, Cosmoceras, Hap- 
loceras 'and Perisphinctes are found in the Jurassic and 
Cretaceous. 

The aptychi or so-called opercula of Ammonites (ii, 33) are 
constantly found associated with (and generally within the aper- 
ture of) the shells of some of the groups. They are horny or 
shelly plates, and have been generally supposed to be opercula; 
if so, they were probably secreted by the disk or hood, which, 
formed b}^ the coalescence of the two dorsal arms, closes the 
aperture of the recent Nautilus, and corresponds to the velamen- 
tous arms of the Argonaut. If the Ammonites were dibranchiates 
allied to Spirula — that is having internal shells — they could not 
have possessed opercula. 

Prof. Waagen has adopted the theory first suggested by 
Keferstein and advocated by Zittel, that the aptychi were con- 
nected with the nidamentai gland ; and he has grouped the 
family according to the presence, absence or peculiarities of 
these bodies as follows : 

A. Nidamentai gland without solid integument or Aptychus : 

Phylloceras, Lytoceras, Arcestes, Pinnoceras, Trachy- 
ceras. 

B. Nidamentai gland with an Apt3^chus. 

1. Gland simple, not divided. 

Aptychus horny : Arietes, yEgoceras, Amaltheus. 
Aptychus calcareous : A. numida, Coq. (shell un- 
known). 



62 AMMONITID^. 

2. Gland double, aptychus calcareous. 

Aptychus furrowed externally : Harpoceras, (Eko 

traustes, Oppelia, Haploceras, Scapliites ? 
Aptychus thin, granulated externally : Stephano- 

ceras, Perisphinctes, Peltoceras, Cosmoceras. 
Aptychus thick, smooth and punctate externally : 

Simoceras, Aspidoceras. 

In the absence of positive knowledge as to the true relations 
of the Aptychi with the shells of Ammonites, and until much 
more extensive observations shall have been made, the groupings 
indicated above must be regarded as simply provisional. 

One of the latest authorities on the subject (Prof. Owen, Zoo/. 
P?"oc., 955, 1878), regards the aptychi as true opercula. 

The following " genera " of Aptychi have been characterized : 

Trigonellites, Parkinson. Shelly, divided into two plates 
by a straight median suture; external surface smooth or sculp- 
tured, inner surface marked by growth-lines. 

Associated with the round-backed Ammonites, and a single 
specimen with Goniatites. Nearly fifty varieties have been 
described. 

Meyer considered them bivalve shells, and described them 
under the name of Aptychus ; Deslongchamps, with the same 
impression, called them Munsteria ; d'Orbigny thought them 
plates of cirripeds, and Deshay'cs believed them to be the gizzards 
of Ammonites ; Coquand compared them with Teudopsie, and 
they certainly resemble in some degree that genus, as well as 
Beloteuthis, Belemnosepia, etc. 

Anaptychus, Oppel. Horny and flexible, in a single piece. 
Associated with the Arietes group of Ammonites. 

The classifiication of the Ammonitidae, and particularly of the 
genera dismembered from the old genus Ammonites, is involved 
in much confusion, partly in consequence of the selection by 
several systematists of different generic characters as of primary 
importance throughout the group, partly owing to the instability 
of some of the most obvious characters. Surface ornamentation 
and even form are now known to change with age ; and on this 
account the following scheme of classification of the genus 
Ammonites, elaborated by von Buch and d'Orbigny, is no longer 
available for the discrimination of the several thousand described 
species. As examples of the extent to which naturalists have 
been misled by these mutable characters, it may be mentioned 
that A. f^plendens, from the greensand of Cambridge, England, 
according to Mr. Seeley, includes fourteen other so-called species 
from the same bed. 



AMMONITIDiE. 



63 



A. Dorsal portion of whorls rounded, not keeled. 

1. Fimbriati. Oolitic. A.fimbriatus, d'Orb. (xxxiii, 45, 46). 

2. Plauulati. Jura, Cluillc. A. annulalus, Sowb. (xxxiv, 47, 48). 

3. Ligati. Cretaceous. A. ligatus, d'Orb. (xxxiv, 49, 50). 

4. Globosi. Alpine Trias. 

5. Heterophylli. Jura, Alpine Trias. A. heterophxjllas^a Orb. 

(xxxiv, 51, 52). 

B. Whorls dorsallij Jiattened. 

6. Capricorni. Jura. ^. caprico?-?? ».s, Schlotli.( xxxiv, 54, 55). 
1. Armati. Jura. A. longispinus, Sowb. (xxxiv, 56, 58). 

8. Coronarii. Jura, Chalk. A. Blagdeni, Sowb. (xxxiv, 57, 59). 

9. Macrocephali. Jura. A. Hervet^i, Sowb. 

10. Compressi. Chalk, yl. 5eawmo»/mni<.s, d'Orb. (xxxiv, 53, 60). 

C. Dor sally channeled. 

11. Dentati. Jura, Chalk. ^. mamiV/oH.s-, Schloth. (xxxv, 61,62). 

D. Dorsally keeled, keel entire. 

12. Arietes. Lias. ^. 6t/Vons, Brug. (xxxv, 63). A.bisulcatus, 

Brug. 

13. Falciforrai. Jura. A. serpentinus, Schloth. (xxxv, 65, 66). 

14. Cristati. Chalk. A. cristatus, Deluc. (xxxv, 67;. 

E. Dorsal keel crenated. 

15. Amalthei. Jura. A. cordatus, Sowb. (xxxv, 68, 69\ 

16. Rothomagenses. Chalk. .4. ro^/io?/ia(7e?i.si.s,Brong. (xxxv,70). 

F. Dorsally sharp-edged. 

17. Disci. Chalk. ^. J/e«ernVc/m, Hauer (xxxv, 7n. 

Prof. Alpheus Hyatt, in his article on " Fossil Cephalopods," 
published in the Bulletin of the i¥useum of Comparative Zoology, 
i, 71, reo-ards the Ammonoids, including all the cephalopods 
with serrated or foliated septa, the Clymeniffi, Goniatites, Cera- 
tites, and Ammonites proper, "as a distinct order from the 
Nautiloids and Dibranchiate Cephalopods :" the typical group 
of this order being the so-called genus Ammonites. This en- 
lar<yed view of the systematic position of the Ammonoids is by 
Prof. Hvatt attributed to Prof. Agassiz, but it is evident that 
von Buch had a glimmering of the same idea, because his groups 
(mainly those I have enumerated above), altliough permitted by 
him to^-emain under the generic name Ammonites, were desig- 
nated as " families." Prof. Edward Suess, also, regarded the 
genus Ammonites as a family, the typical groups of which were 
of generic rank ; and recently Dr. Paul Fischer adopts for them 
the order Ammonea. , „ , , . , ,, 

Prof. Hyatt reverses the use of " dorsal" and abdominal 
in his descriptions of the shells; inasmuch as the animal ot 
Nautilus and Ammonites is placed with its abdominal side to 
the periphery of the shell, he calls this outer side of the latter 
" abdominal,'" and the inner or sutural side " dorsal." I regard 



64 AMMONlTlDyE. 

this reversal of terms as objectionable, inasmuch as their excej)- 
tional use in the shells of tetrabranchiates. must give rise to 
great confusion. He uses also the word " pilse " for ribs, and 
" geniculiie " for the knees of the ribs. 

A clear exposition of the reversed position of the animal of 
the tetrabranchiate, in relation to its shell, may be found in a 
paper by Prof. Owen, Zool. Froc, 955, 1878. 

Neumayr (1875) and Mojsisovics (1879, 1882) proposed sys- 
tematic arrangements of the Ammonitidte which agree in most 
of the main groups, Init differ in details. The former dismisses 
Prof. Hyatt's classification (limited to Liassic species) with 
scant notice, his genera not being even enumerated, " because 
they do not agree with natural groups." I believe that both 
Hyatt and Neumayr would find it difficult to correlate their 
respective genera. The attempt has been made, however, by Dr. 
!Paul Fischer in his excellent " Manuel de Conchyliologie," and 
if the result has not been satisfactory in all cases, it is at least 
far preferable to perplexing the student with three or more sets 
of generic names and diagnoses by presenting the several class- 
ifications in succession. I adopt Dr. Fischer's conscientious 
arrangement for the present, and hope that it will, as soon as 
may be, give place to a better grouping. 

Siphonal neck of the septa directed backwards (Retrosiphonata), 

Goniatitfe. 
Siphonal neck of the septa directed forwards (Prosiphonata). 
No Aptychus, or corneous Anaptychus of one plate (Anap- 
tychidea . 

First saddle of the suture broad (Latisellata). Arcest.e, 
Tropitffi, Ceratitte, Clydonitft. 

First saddle narrow (Angnstisellata). Pinacocerae, Amal- 
there, AmmonitsB, Lytocera;, Phyllocerae. 
Aptychus calcareous, double, or of two valves soldered to-, 
gether (Aptychidea). Harpocerte, Stephanocerse. 

As Dr. Fischer regards the Ammonitidse as an order, he has 
given the family termination to the above names : they will 
here be considered as group-names for assemblages of genera of 
the family AmmonitidfB. The position and appearance of the 
lobes and saddles of the septal sutures are represented and ex- 
plained, ii, 22, 28 ; xxxii, 31 ; xxxiii, 41 ; xxxiv, 51, 52 ; xxxv, 72. 

GoniatUae. 
Shell nautiloid ; siphonal neck of the septa directed back- 
wards. Siphon excentric. First whorls of the spire sometimes 
contiguous and covered as in Ammonites, sometimes not in con- 
tact, as in those of Spirula. 



AMMONlTIDiE. 65 

Ci.YMENiA, Muiistcr, 1834. 

Eh/m. — Clyrnene, a sea-nynipb. 

Si/n. — Endosiphonites, Anstcd, 1840 ; Planulites, Miinst., 1832. 
Bistr. — 37 sp. Devonian ; Germany, England. C iindulata, 
Miinst. (xxxi, 11). Fichtelgebirge. 

GoNiATiTES, DeHaan, 1825. 

Etym. — Oonia, angles. Syn. — Aganides, Montfort, 1810. 

Disfr. — About 320 sp. U. Silurian to Carboniferous ; Europe, 
America, Australia. G. Hensloivi, Sowb. (xxxii, 19). Garb, 
limestone ; Isle of Man. 

Shell spiral, discoidal ; sutures of septa lobed ; siphuncle 
dorsal, its tubes directed backwards ; septa concave ; margin of 
the aperture sinuous. Aptychus a single corneous plate. The 
genus reached its maximum development in the Devonian period. 
The shell of Goniatites being very variable in form and the 
species numerous, Beyrich, Sandberger and others^ have divided 
them into sections, which will probably, as in the case of Ammo- 
nites, form distinct genera hereafter. Sandberger uses the 
characters of the sutural line for his groups, as follows : 

1. Linguati. Lobes and saddles linguiform, rounded. 

2. Lanceolati. Lobes narrow, lanceolate; saddles rounded, 
claviform. 

3. Genufracti. Second lateral saddle greatly developed, 
forming nearly a right-angle with the second lateral lobe ; 
ventral lobe small. 

4. Se7-rati. Lobes and saddles narrow, sharp, like the teeth 
of a saw. 

5. Grenali. Ventral lobe very small ; lateral saddle very large, 
rounded, separated from the rounded ventral saddle by a sharp 
lobe. 

6. Acutolaterales. Ventral lobe simple, a lobe and sharp 
saddle on each side. 

7. Magnosellares. Lateral saddle short and wide, lateral lobe 
rounded, ventral lobe thin. 

8. Nautilini. Ventral lobe narrow; sutural lines simply 
arcuated on the sides. 

In some of the Goniatites the first whorls are not in contact, 
recalling the shell of Spirula. 

Arcestae. 
Shell smooth or with transverse folds, ribs or stria^ ; wrinkled 
layer consisting mostly of linear, interrujited stria' ; impressions 
of the mantle attachment without or with a but slightly con- 
tracted opening always visible on the bod3'-chamber. Anaptychus 
apparently horny in Arcestes. 



66 AMMONITID^. 

Arcestes, Suess, 1865. 

Distr. — 130 sp., Trias ; several sp. Permian, and Carboniferous 
of India ; 1 sp. Trias, N. Caledonia. Arcestes tornatus, Bronn 
(xxxviii, 20, 21). 

Shell, as a rule, smooth, sculptureless, seldom with longitudinal 
striae (Tornati) ; body-chamber long, takirg up one to one and 
one-half whorls. Whorls strongly involute. Aperture usuall}^ con- 
tracted by the border being reflected inwards or by internal ridges. 
Lobes strongly incised (laciniated), so that the saddles merely 
consist of a slender stem with numerous approximated hori- 
zontal branches, which in turn are divided into smaller branchlets. 

Many forms have internal nuclei with an open umbilicus, and 
a terminal whorl with a callous closed umbilicus. 

ARCESTES (restricted). Last whorl of the spire more or less 
modified in form ; umbilicus closed by a callous deposit. 

SPHiNGiTES, Mojs., 18*79. Surface of the last whorl sillonated ; 
umbilicus open. 

CLADisciTES, Mojs., 1879. Section of the whorls subquadran- 
gular, their form not modified in the adults. The character of 
the suture recalls the Pinacocenie ; second lateral lobe deep, 
saddles slender, much divided. 

JOANNiTES, Mojs., 1879. Sutural lines like those of Cladiscites, 
but the other characters those of Arcestes. The sutural line is 
arcuated, lobes and saddles partly divided in pairs, much toothed. 

DiDYMiTES, Mojs., 1873. External form and length of body- 
eliamber same as in Arcestes; shell with sharp lines of growth 
and plicate wrinkles throughout the whole length of the body- 
chamber to the aperture ; on the inner convex surface of the 
shell there is a median furrow ; the last whorl is constricted near 
the aperture. 

The sutural lines of the septa are formed of few-toothed 
saddle pairs, which often alternate with single saddles. These 
saddle pairs, as is shown by projection of the spiral, correspond 
each to two saddles in the other genera of Ammonites. 

Didymites contains but a few Triassic forms. Didymitea 
angustilobatus, Hauer (xxxix, 32, 33). 

Cyclolobus, Waagen, 1879. 

Distr. — C'.OW/iami, Waagen (xxxvi, 93, 94). Pala30zoic ; India. 

Shell spiral, smooth, with a small deep umbilicus ; whorls 
numerous, somewhat compressed, with a broadly rounded exter- 
nal side, deeply embracing each other so as to envelop the 
preceding whorl, entirely covered on the sides with not very 
numerous contractions of the shell (varices), indicating very 
likely the remnants of old apertural margins. The form of these 
varices is somewhat falciform, with a strong bend towards the 
front in the middle of the sides of the whorl, and being bent 



AMMONITlDiE. 6t 

considerably backwards towards the external margin, entirely 
disappearing- on the siphonal side of the shell. The increase in 
height of the whorls is very slow. 

Closely related to Arcestes, of which it may be only a sub- 
genus. 

LoBiTEs, Mojs., 1873. 

Syn. — Coroceras, Hyatt, 187T. Clydonites, Laube, non Hauer. 

Distr. — Nine Triassic species are enumerated. L. delphino- 
cephalus^ Hauer (xxxvi, 92). L. ellipHcus, Hauer (xl, 58, 59V 

In external form and length of body-chamber agreeing Avith 
Arcestes and Didymites. Shell usually with tranverse folds, 
which are frequently crossed by fine longitudinal stria?. The 
body-whorl frequently assumes a form very different from the 
inner ones, and not unfrequentl}' closes the umbilicus with a 
callus. Towards the aperture, however, and always in those 
forms with a closed umbilicus, there is a constriction which 
extends forwards in the form of small, projecting, lateral lobes. 
The sutural lines of the septa consist of entire-margined, high 
saddles, somewhat contracted at their bases, which vary in height 
in such a way that the second and fourth are perceptibly lower 
than would be expected from their position. A high siphonal 
process. 

In many forms there appears, regularly at the end of the body- 
whorl and the one next to it, a portion constricted off the 
"hood;" in other forms the aperture is simple, and only pro- 
longed anteriorly into lobe-like processes at the convex portions, 
and but little or not at all constricted. 

In Lobites the derivation from the goniatitic ancestry is much 
more striking than in any other mesozoic genus, inasmuch as 
the form of the lobes is still completel}^ goniatitic. The ammo- 
nitic stage is indicated in the structure of the lobes only by the 
high siphonal process dividing the external lobe. 

Tj^opilae. 

Shell more or less richly ornamented, provided with radial 
ribs, which almost always support on the edge of the convex 
portion (frequently also on the sides) knobs and spinous pro- 
cesses. Wrinkled layer and impressions of the mantle attach- 
ments entirely absent. 

Tropites, Mojs., 1815. 

Disty\ — 11 Triassic species. Tropites Ramsaueri, Quenst. (xl, 
52, 55,56). 

Body-chamber long, embracing one and three-quarters to one 
and one-half whorls. The strong sculpture is interrujited on the 
convex portion of the shell; fre(|uently a median keel is present 
on the same. At the aperture the convex portitm is prolonged 



68 AMMONITID^. 

into fi broad, short lobe. The last whorl frequently differs in 
form and sculpture from the inner whorls. The lobes are dis- 
tinguished by their broad saddle stalks, with divisions cut in 
obli(iuely, the oblique position of the tips of the lobes, great 
development of the principal lobes, and striking reduction of 
auxiliary ones. 

HALORiTES, Mojs., 1819. Body-chamber and spiral of the 
whorls as in Arcestes. Inner whorls with granulose ribs ; saddles 
elevated, with many narrow lateral branches; lateral lobes 
reduced ; last whorl with a different form and sculpture from the 
others ; aperture a little contracted ; a wrinkled layer present. 

JUVAViTES, Mojs., 1879. Differs from Halorites by its last 
whorl resembling the preceding ones, and its less dentate lobes ; 
the shell bears traces of periodical contractions. 

DiSTicHiTES, Mojs., 1879. Convexity of the shell with a median 
groove, usuall}' bordered by carinee ; inner whorls having the 
ornamentation of T. Jockelyi; last whorl with additional ribs 
intermediate to those which ornament the preceding whorls ; 
body-chamber occupies more than a whorl ; lobes as in Sagenites. 

EuTOMOCERAS, Hyatt, 1877. 

Distr. — E. Laubei, Meek (xxxvii, 6, 7). Trias; Nevada. 

Characterized by its lenticular form, narrow umbilicus, appa- 
rently at all ages very sharp external keel, without furrows or 
lateral ridges, and small regular arched pilae on middle-sized 
specimens, groAving wider, more irregular, less distinct, and 
developing small lateral lobes on the adult, with both nodes and 
pilae becoming obsolete on the larger part of the l)ody-volution. 

Geratitse.. 
Ceratites, de Haan., 1825. 

Hyn. — Haaniceras, Bayle, 1878. 

Distr. — Permian, Trias. The Cretaceous forms referred to 
Ceratites perhaps belong to another group. C. nodosum, Brug. 
(xxxii, 23). 

Shell discoidal, more or less sculptured ; sutural line with 
simple, rounded saddles, and shallow denticulated lobes ; anti- 
siphonal lobe doubly toothed. 

TJROLiTES, Mojs., 1879. Lobes not toothed, or showing the 
commencement of teeth ; second lateral lobe more or less sal- 
ient ; convexity of the whorls smooth, rounded, nearly flat. C. 
Idrianus, Hauer. 

BALATONiTES, Mojs., 1879, Periphery with a tuberculated 
carina. C. Balatonicus, Mojs. 

HUNGARiTES, Mojs., 1879. Shell narrow, with a much elevated 
median carina ; lobes as in Ceratites. C. Zalaensis, Bockh. 

ACROCHORDiCERAS, Hyatt, 1877. This group is closely allied to 



AMMONITlDiE. 09 

Lytoceras and Phylloceras, Suess, and Haploceras of Zittel, 
combining characteristics which are found in all of these, besides 
having peculiar characters of its own, and a diflerent develop- 
ment. The extent of involution is comparable with that of 
Haploceras, but the whorl itself is about intermediate between 
the extreme roundness of L3^toceras and the more flattened sides 
of Phylloceras. Its peculiar characteristics consist in liaving 
large lateral tubercles and exterior pilae, which are united as they 
near the tubercles. The smooth zone along the outer centre in 
the young is also probably of subgeneric value. G. Hyatti, Meek 
(xxxvii, 14). Trias; Nevada. Hyatt makes this a distinct genus 
of his family Physanoidse, but Mojsisovies and Fischer class it 
as a group of Ceratites. 

MEEKOCERAS, Hyatt, 1819. Distinguished from Ceratites by 
having but three distinct lateral cells and two lateral lobes, 
besides the finer auxiliary lobes and cells. The typical Ceratites 
have at least four distinct lateral cells and lobes besides the 
auxiliary ones, and the distinction is slight between the two 
series ; in this genus, on the contrary, the auxiliary series, when 
present, is not divided from the third lateral cell b}" a distinct 
lobe, as in Ceratites, and the aspect of the third lateral cell is 
often like that of a Goniatites. The compi-essed whorls of all 
the species is of course a characteristic which is obvious when 
they are contrasted with t3pical Ceratites, as is also the absence, 
or merely transient appearance, of heavy nodes and ribs, except 
perhaps in the least involute species. C. aplanatiim, White. Tri- 
assic ; S. E. Idaho. 

Xenodiscus, Waagen. 

Distr. — X. plicatus, Waagen (xxix, 91, 92). Productus. 
Limestone ( Carboniferous) ; India. 

Shell flat discoidal, witli compressed whorls, perfectly rounded 
on the siphonal side ; umbilicus mostly large, and the Avhorls 
generally only slightl}' embracing each other; surface smooth, 
or with distant rounded folds which are thickest near the umbil- 
ical margin of the whorls, or with numerous slight plications 
which are straight on the sides of the whorls, and slightl}' turned 
towards the front near the siphonal margin ; the sutures are very 
simple ; the siphonal and two lateral lobes alwaj's well-developed, 
also a sntural lobe generally, but auxiliary lobes are generally 
absent. The lobes are furnished with a slight indentation at their 
termination, the saddles rounded, entire, without any indenta- 
tion ; the internal sutures show only one large antisiphonal lobe, 
which terminates in two long, sharp points; the body-chamber 
occupies not quite one whorl ; aperture simple. 

Trachyceras, Laube, 1869. 
Dif^tr. — 16 Triassic sp. T. bicrenatus, Hauer (xxxviii, 30, 31). 
T. W/w7?ie?/t, (xabb (xxxvi, 81, 89). Trias; Nevada, California. 



TO AMMONITID^. 

Body-chamber short, one-half to two-thirds of a whorl long. 
The sculpture on the convex portion is interrupted ; in the geo- 
logically younger forms a more or less deep median furrow is 
sunken in, at which the ribs terminate in a tubercle. Aperture 
with a short lobate process on the convex portion. Lobes agree- 
ing with Tropites ; much simpler in the geologicall}^ older forms. 

ARPADiTES, Mojs., 1879. Periphery with a deep groove, some- 
times bordered by smooth or nodulous carinations ; ribs numer- 
ous, dichotomous from an umbilical nodosity. The older forms 
have entire saddles ; the more recent ones are toothed to the 
summit. T. Arpadis, Mojs. 

HERACLiTES, Mojs., 1819. Body-chamber only occupying half 
a whorl ; ribs strong, nodulous on the sides ; periphery of the 
last whorl flattened, with two thread-like spiral lines ; lobes 
distinguished by several irregular notches, but deeply truncate. 
T. Foschli^ Hauer. 

SAGENiTES, Mojs., 1879. Body-chambcr occupying half or three- 
quarters of the whorl ; ribs usually not interrupted at the per- 
iphery, crossed by very close spiral lines ; saddles high and 
wide, branched, foliaceous; lobes branched; auxiliary lobes very 
small. T. Giebeli, Hauer. 

Gymnotoceras, Hyatt, 1877. 

Dintr. — G. rotelliformej Meek (xxxvi, 90, 91). Trias ; Nevada. 

The development of Ammonites Blakei, Gabb, and the char- 
acters of its periphery, separate it at once most decidedly from 
any species of Trachyceras. The development generally of a 
keel, or, in some varieties, of a raised periphery, over which the 
pilce do not pass, shows that this is a different genus, character- 
ized by a different mode of development. The septa are quite 
similar to those of Ti'achyceras, but it is Aery evident that in 
the Trachj'^ceroe the septa cannot be looked to for generic differ- 
ences. Great differences also occur in the amount of involution 
of the different species and in the development of their external 
characters. 

Clydonitae. 

Body-chamber short ; sutural line undulated ; lobes and saddles 
simple, not dentate. 

Clydonites, Hauer, 1860. 

Etyni. — Kludon, the surge. 

Distr- — 21 sp. ; Upper Triassic ; Europe, Himalayas. 2 sp. ; 
Upper Cretaceous (described by d'Orb. as Ceratites. Difference 
from Ceratites is the lobes being simple, not crenulated''. C. 
costatus, Hauer (xxxii, 27 \ G. delphinocephalus, Hauer (xxxii, 
28). 

Shell spiral, discoidal, whorls involute, ribbed ; sutures simply 
lobed, the lobes pointed. 



AMMONITID^. 71 

COROCERAS, Hyatt, 18*77. The species all have numerous lohes 
and saddles, with smooth sutures, and a large exterior lobe which 
is very broad and prominent ; they are plicately ribbed and very 
involute, the umbilicus nearly covered ; mouth more or less 
hooded or constricted. G. ellipticus^ Hauer (xxxvii, 8, 9). 

Choristoceras, Hauer, 1815. 

Distr. — 9 sp. Trias, G. 3Iar>'hi, Hauer. 

Shell discoidal; body-chamber short ; ribs interrupted by the 
convexity of the inner whorls, but continuous on the outer. 

HELiCTiTES, Mojs., 1879. Whorls with strong, uninterrupted 
ribs; lobular line undulated, with small, almost microscopic 
denticulations. G. geniculatus, Hauer. 

BADiOLiTEs, Mojs., 1879. Convexity of the whorls narrow and 
carinated ; ribs falciform ; lobes not truncate, undulated, except 
the antisiphonal lobe, which is long and pointed. G. er»/j;,Miinster. 

Rhabdoceras, Hauer, 1860. 

Distr. — B. Suessii, Hauer. Alpine Triassic ; Germany (xxxii, 
20, 21). 

Shell straight, orthoceratoid, strongly sculptured ; septa with 
rounded lobes. 

Rod-like, elongated forms with oblique annular sculpture and 
simple curved lobes ; still very imperfectly known. 

CocHLOCERAS, Hauer, 18G0. 

Etym. — Gochlos, a snail-shell, ceras^ a horn. 

Distr. — 3 sp. Alpine Triassic ; Hallstadt, Austria. G. Fisch- 
erii, Hauer (xxxii, 25, 26). 

Shell spirally elongated, scalariform, strongly sculptured ; 
sutures of septa with several simple rounded lobes. 

The whorls are spirally coiled to the left, with continuous ribs 
and simple curved lobes. 

Pinacocerse. 

Body-chamber short, half or three-quarters of the last whorl; 
shell flattened, discoidal ; sutural line very complex, with three 
groups of lobes adventive, principal and auxiliary). 

PiNACOCERAS, Mojs., 1873. 

Syn. — Megaphyllites and Carnites, Mojs., 1878. 

Distr. — 12 sp. from the Triassic. F. Meltfrnichii, Hauer, 
(xxxv, 71 >. 

Shell narrow, aperture high, smooth, seldom with kiiob-like 
enlargements on tlie surface. Body-chamber one-half to two- 
thirds of a whorl long ; aperture with short lobular process of 
the convex portion. Attachment ring commencing a short dis- 
tance from the aperture and extending to the posterior end of 



72 AMMONITID^. 

the body-chamber. Impressions of the mantle attachment punc- 
tate or striate. Wrinkled layer consisting of broken-up striffi. 
The sutural line of the septa is distinguished by the presence of 
external adventitious lobes. Three groups of lobes may accord- 
ingly be distinguished : 1. The adventitious lobes. 2. The three 
principal lobes. 3. The auxiliary lobes. The adventitious and 
auxiliary' lobes always present a similar structure, whilst the 
ju-incipal lobes frequently present a peculiar form. 

Sageceras, Mojs., 1873. 

Diatr. — 7 sp. Permian and Triassic. Sageceras Haidingeri, 
Hauer (xl, 48, 49). 

Close to Pinacoceras in the form of the shell and length of 
the body-chamber, and differs from it in the structure of the 
wrinkled layer, the form of the lobes and the direction of the 
lines of growth in the concave portion. The wrinkled layer is 
coarsely granular, as iu Nautilus, and does not consist of long 
strife and threads, as in the Aroesta?. Tlie saddles are slender, 
narrow, tongue-like, entire, the lobes symmetrically divided, 
simply or doubly, by simple conical teeth. Three groups of lobes, 
as in Pinacoceras. The lines of growth do not trend backwards, 
as in Pinacoceras, but forwards. 

Sageceras is already fully developed in the Permian formations, 
though in these older forms the siphonal process characteristic 
of the Ammonite stage is wanting. 

NOviTES, Mojs., 1878. Wrinkled layer striated ; an adventive 
saddle not reachingthe height of the first principal saddle; saddles 
narrow, elevated, rounded at their superior extremity ; lobes but 
little truncate; first principal lobe divided. S. Cajjrilensis, Mojs. 

MEDLicoTTiA, Waagen, 1880. Siphonal side (periphery) either 
excavated and rounded on both sides by high and sharp crests, 
or simply flattened, and defined on both sides by angular margins. 
In both cases the high and narrow saddles developed on each 
side of the siphonal lobe are situated exactly below the crests 
or the angulated margins ; these saddles are strongly serrated 
from both sides, and the denticulations of the opposite sides of 
the saddle correspond exactly with each other. M. Wynnei, 
Waagen (xxxix, 43, 44). Productus Limestone (Carboniferous) ; 
India. 

Otoceras, Griesbach, 1881. 

Dixfr. — 0. Woodivardi, Griesb. (xxxix, 40-42). L. Triassic ; 
Himalayas. 

Shell involute, with very deep umbilicus, and rapidly increasing 
outer whorls ; the part nearest the umbilicus bulged out into an 
ear-like shape, giving the section of the shell a more or less 
rhomboidal aspect. It is very probable that in adult individuals 
the last whorl covered and enclosed the entire preceding shell. 



AMMONITID^. 73 

Amalthese. 
Shell generally flattened and cariiuited, the last whorl of the 
spire covering a large part of the preceding ; sutural line with 
several auxiliary lobes. Aptychus simple, corneous, only known 
in the Jui'assic forms. 

Amaltbeus, Montfort, 1808. 

Dist7\ — 68 species. Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous. A. 
margaritatus, cl'Orb. (xxxviii, 20, 27). 

Periphery sharpened or carinate ; ribs when present, absent 
at this part or broken up into tubercles or folds ; the geologi- 
cally older forms with spiral striiv on the external layer of the 
shell, which corresponds to the wrinkled layer of the Arcestse. 
Bod^'-chamber short, one-half to two-thirds of a whorl long; 
margin of aperture simply emarginate, with long, external pro- 
cesses, ending in spoon-shaped extremities, sometimes bent out- 
wards or inwards. Lobes usually strongly incised, siphonal 
lobe shorter than the first lateral, lobular bodies broadly wedge- 
shape. Umbilicus open, with the sides of the whorls exposed 
or only partially covered. 

PLEUROCERAS, H3'att, 1868. (Prionotropis, Meek, 1876.) Per- 
iphery flat, with keel and channels well defined ; keelcrenulated ; 
channels vary from obsolete to deep and well-defined, pihe 
swelling below, tuberculated ; genicular bend prominent. Tuber- 
cles lateral, arranged along the line of envelopment. Umbilicus 
open. Ventral lobe narrow and but slightly deeper than the 
lateral lobes ; the latter unequally divided. Inferior lateral lobe 
small, shallow, equally divided. Superior lateral cell only partly 
exposed on the side, and together with the inferior' lateral, 
unequally divided. Scarcely distinct from Amaltheus. Middle 
Lias, Cretaceous. A. spinatus, Brug. (xxxviii, 24, 25). A. (Prio- 
notropis) Woolgari, Mantell (xxxvii, 10, 11). 

OXYNOTICERAS, Hyatt, 1874. Periphery carinated in the young 
shell, rounded in the adult. A. Guibalianus, d'Orb. (xl, 50, 51). 
Lower Lias. 

PTYCHiTES, Mojs., 1875. Shell covered with undulated radiating 
plications; exterior lobe shallow; exterior saddle but little 
elevated ; first lateral saddle very high ; saddles dentate or 
slightly branched. This group, which corresponds to the Plicosi 
of Beyrich and the Rugiferi of Oppel, may be considered an 
ancestral form of Amaltheus. Six Triassic species. A. Studeri, 
Hauer. 

ScHLOENBACHiA, Neumayr, 1875. 
Dedicated to the geologist, Schloenbach. 
Hyn. — Mortoniceras, Meek, 1876. 
IHstr. — 46 species. Cretaceous ; Europe and United States. 



74 AMMONITID^. 

S. cristata, Deluc. (xxxv, 61). S. (Hortoniceras) vespertinus, 
Morton = S. Texanus, Roemer (xxxvi, 86). 

This genus embraces the very natural group of Cristati ; to 
these may be added Schl. GermarH, Reuss., whose affinity to 
these is indicated, besides other striliing characters, by a toothed 
keel. Shell strongly keeled, usually with sti'ong ribs curved 
forwards on the flanks ; body-chamber two-thirds of a whorl long, 
drawn out at the sickle-shaped aperture into a long, beak-like 
process, which is either prolonged in conformity with the curva- 
ture of the spiral or bent outwards. Siphon very stout, usually 
lying in the keel, which is often cut off from the lumen of the 
shell by a calcareous septum. Lobes not much branched, with 
bodies which are narrower than the saddles ; only one distinct 
auxiliary lobe ; which is wanting in some forms. Siphonal lobe 
usually as long or longer than the first lateral. In some species 
a great reduction in the number of branches of the lobes takes 
place, so that they approach a Ceratitic form. (Schl. senequeri 
and halophylla.) 

Placenticeras, Meek, 1810. 

JDistr. — Cretaceous ; United States, India. A. jjlacenta, DeKay 
(xxxvi, 82). 

Shell with the very narrow periphery truncated, and often 
provided with a row of compressed alternating nodes along each 
margin; volutions about three-fourths embraced by the next 
succeeding outer one ; septa with the lateral sinuses provided 
with more or less branched and digitate terminal divisions ; 
umbilicus small or moderate. 

sPHENODiscus, Meek, 1812. Shell with periphery cuneate; 
umbilicus very small ; volutions each almost entirely embraced 
by the succeeding one ; septa with the first five or six lateral 
sinuses provided with only a few short, nearly simple, obtuse 
divisions ; while the others are simple, and usually broadly reni- 
form at the ends. Cretaceous ; United States, Europe. Amm. 
lobatus, Tuomey. 

Meek thinks that some of the species of Pinacoceras, Mojsi- 
sovics, will fall into this group ; and that that genus is too 
comprehensive. Sphenodiscus equals the Cl3'peiformi group 
of Ammonites. 

NEOLOBiTES, Fischcr, 1882. Shell flattened, sharply carinated; 
lobes and saddles simple, not truncate, resembling those of the 
triassic Lobites. P. Vibrayeanus^ d'OrlD. Cenomanian. 

BucHiCERAS, Hyatt, 1815. 
Dedicated to Dr. L. von Buch, a Grerman naturalist. 
Distr. — Cretaceous. B. Syriacum, Buch. 

Shell ornamented with strong ribs, dichotomous, from tuber- 
cles near the umbilicus ; ribs interrupted at the periphery ; lobes 



AMMONITID^. 75 

shallow, but little truncate and resembling those of Ceratites ; 
saddles not high, rounded, simple or slightly divided ; siphonal 
saddle small ; some auxiliar}- lobes. 

Founded on the cretaceous species of Ceratites, which differ 
from the triassic forms in the characteristics of the sutural out- 
lines : they are not Ceratites at all, but, strictl^^ speaking, 
Ammonites. 

Ammonitae. 

Spire-whorls narrow, exposed, with radiating ribs ; aperture 
simple ; sutural line normal, without accessory lobes, Aptychus 
a single corneous plate. 

Ammonites (Breyn., 1732), Lamarck, 1801. 

Etym. — jimmon. a surname of Jupiter. 

Syn. — Arietites, Waagen, 1869. Coroniceras, Hyatt, 1867. 
Asteroceras, Hyatt, 1867. Arnioceras, Hyatt, 1867. Discoceras, 
Hyatt, 1867. 

Distr. — 40 sp. Jurassic, Liassic. A. {Asterocei'as) obtusus, 
Sowb. (xxxvi, 79, 80; xxxiii, 44). A. (Arnioceras) Kridion, 
Orb. (xxxvii, 100, 1). A. (Coroniceras) bisulcatus, Brong. 
(xxxv, 64). A. (Discoceras ) Ophidioides, d'Orb. (xxxvii, 98, 99). 

Shell discoidal, flattened, whorls exposed, ornamented with 
inflected ribs becoming nodulous at the peripher^^; periphery car- 
inated, with a groove on each side of the keel, and another 
carina outside the groove ; section of the last whorl subquad- 
rangular ; body-chamber ver3^ long, sometimes exceeding a 
whorl ; aperture simple, with a sharp, not inflected peripheral 
prolongation ; sutural line with a ventral lobe longer than the 
lateral superior lobe, the latter higher than all the others ; 
inferior lateral lobe wide ; antisiphonal lobe two-pointed. 

The above diagnosis is of Ammonites as restricted by modern 
naturalists : the ancient genus, before its dismemberment, con- 
tained two or three thousand species, and was divided into sec- 
tions (p. 63), many of which correspond to modern genera. 

CALOCERAS, Hyatt, 1870. (Ophioceras, Hj^att, 1867. Echio- 
ceras, Bayle, 1878.) Ribs not arcuated ; carina of the periphery 
sometimes not very distinct, without grooves. A. torus, d'Orb. 
(xxxvi, 77, 78;. 

EUDiscocERAS, Hyatt, 1877. This type is distinguished b}^ its 
discoid form, open umbilicus, and a keel, bordered by furrows 
and ridges, the latter being interrupted or tubercular ; the young 
with comparativeh' large pihe, growing smaller and more flex- 
uous in the adult, and finally fading away in the larger half of the 
bod3^-volution. JE". (ra66^■, Meek (xxxvii, 4, 5). Trias ; Nevada. 

AGASSiziCERAS, Hyatt, 1874. Ribs slightl}" arcuated; carina 
not bordered by grooves. A. Scipionianus, d'Orb. (xxxviii, 
22, 23). 



t6 AMMONITID^. 

LiLLiA, Ba^'le, 1878. In the young shell the ribs are simple or 
bifurcated, commencing with tubercles at the umbilical region ; 
later the ribs are simple and the shell resembles Agassiziceras. 
Perhaps this group would be better placed near Harpoceras : 
the limit between the latter geniis and Ammonites is very diffi- 
cult to trace, without the aid of the aptychus. 
J^GOCERAS, Waagen, 1869. 

Syn. — Mycroceras, Hyatt, 1867. Androgynoceras, Hyatt, 
1867. Liparoceras, Hyatt, 1867. Deroceras, Hyatt, 1867. Per- 
onoceras, Hyatt, 1867. Platypleuroceras, Hyatt, 1867. Cyclo- 
ceras, Hyatt, 1867. Psiloceras, Hyatt, 1867. 

Di.Htr. — 4 Cretaceous, 54 Liassic species. jEgoceras (Mic7'o- 
ceras) biferum, Quenst. (xxxvii, 96, 97). ^. (Androgynoceras) 
hybridum, Hyatt (xxxvi, 8.3, 84). J^. ( Lyparooeras) Henleyi, 
Sowb. (xxxvi, 85). ^. (Deroceras) Ziphius, Ziet. (xxxvii, 95). 
/??■ (Feronoceras) miiticum, d'Orb. (xxxviii, 13, 14). ^. (Platy- 
pleuroceras) latecostatum, Sowb. (^xxxviii, 19'. ^. (Cycloceras) 
Valdani^ d'Orb. (xxxix, 34, 35). ^. (Psiloceras) psilonotum, 
Quenst. (xxxvii, 2, 3,. 

Shell mostl}^ compressed, composed of many whorls, embra- 
cing but little, sometimes provided with nodose or externally 
bifurcate ribs ; never witli true sickle-like ribs ; not carinate ; 
body-chamber usuall}^ a whorl long, in the geologically younger 
forms somewhat shorter. Aperture simple without lateral ap- 
pendages, wdth very weak external lobes and a constriction ; a 
single corneous aptychus. Lobular line strongly notched, upper 
lateral longer than tlie siphonal, lower lateral not always present ; 
usually with a depending siphonal lobe. Lobular bodies narrow, 
not wedge-shaped ; antisiphonal two-pointed. 

The true ^goceras died out in the middle Lias. 

^goceras corresponds to the group Ammonites Capricorni ol 
Buch. 

SCHLOTHEIMIA, Bayle, 1878. Ribs meeting exteriorly, where 
they form an angle directed towards the aperture. ^. angu- 
laturrij Schloth. 

Lytoceree, 

Body-chamber short, two-thirds of the last whorl ; apertui-e 
simple. No aptj^chus. 

Lytoceras, Suess, 1865. 

Syn. — Th3-sanoceras, Hyatt, 1867. 

Diatr. — 62 species from the Trias, Jura and Cretaceous. L. 
He7ileyi, Sowb. (xxxvi, 85). L. ilforeZe^?', Hauer (xxxviii, 28, 29). 
L. (Thysanoceras) fimbriaivs, Sowb. (xxxiii, 45, 46). 

Shell flattened, discoidal, whorls but little involute or simply 
in contact ; body-chamber two-thirds of a whorl, margin of aper- 



AMMONITlDiE. 



tt 



ture at the coluinellar side produced into a lobe, processes 
wanting at the siphonal side and on the flanks ; lines of growth 
and sculpture parallel to the margin of the aperture, at the suture 
bent forwards ; sculpture feeble, mostly consisting of radial lines 
or interruptions ; sutural line with few lobes, lateral lobes and 
saddles symmetrically divided, columellar lobe two-pointed. No 
aptychus. 

The forms of the Trias diverge herefrom in such a way, that 
in them the lines of growth and sculpture, as in Phylloceras, are 
directed forward at the siphonal side, and that the structure ot 
the saddles is monophyllic. 

Lytoceras corresponds to the Fimbriati group of Ammonites. 

MONOPHYLLiTES, Mojs., 1879. Differs in the saddles being 
monophyllic. L. sphrjerophijllum, Hauer. 

OPHiCERAS, Griesbach, 1881. Compressed; section of whorls 
oval and widening near the umbilicus, the latter large and shal- 
low ; thick, covered with fine wrinkles or growth-lines of sigmoid 
shape, becoming fine ribs in the body-chamber: at irregular 
intervals the shell swells into rounded bumps, largest near the 
umbilical margin ; the periphery is rounded, and the wrinkles 
or folds run across it and join with those of the other side. 
Both in general shape and number and arrangement of the lobe- 
lines, this subgenus closely resembles the Lytoceratite groups 
Monophyllites'and Phylloceras, and it may be said to be an 
earlier stage of those forms. G. Tihe.ticum, Grriesb. (xl, 45). L. 
Trias; Hi malay as . 

Phylloceras, Suess, 1865. 

S]jn. — Rhacoceras (Agassiz), Hyatt, 1861. 

Distr.—17 sp. Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous. P. ocullum, 
Mojs. (xxxix, 38, 39). P. (Rhacoceras) heterophyllum^ Sowb. 
(xxxiv, 51, 52). 

Shell discoidal, involute, with feeble sculpture, sometimes with 
constrictions or varices, lines of growth directed forwards ; 
.body-chamber short, margin of aperture simple with somewhat 
produced lobes on the external side ; no aptychus ; lobes nunaer- 
ous, diminishing regularly in size, laterals without subdivision 
into principal paired branches ; leaves or lobes of the saddles 
ver}^ much rounded ; antisiphonal lobe two-pointed. 

This genus is remarkable for its persistence in the secondary 
strata. The triassic forms are characterized by their less numer- 
ous lobes, and more open umbilicus. Prof. Meek includes a few 
American cretaceous species in the genus. 

Harpoceratae. 
Aperture with more or less developed lateral ear-like prolon- 
gations ; sutural line with accessory lobes ; surface ornamented 



78 AMMONITID^. 

"with straight or curved radiating ribs. Aptychus calcareous, 
grooved, formed of two plates. 

Harpoceras, Waagen, 1869. 

Syn. — Grammoceras, H3?att, 1867. Leioceras, Hyatt, 1867. 
Lioceras, Bayle, 1878. Hanimatoceras, Hyatt, 1867. Ludwigia, 
Bayle, 1878. Phymatoceras, Hyatt, 1867. Pelecoceras, Hyatt, 
1867. Tropidoceras, Hyatt, 1867. Waagenia, Bayle, 1878. 
Sonninia, Bayle, 1878. 

Distr. — 96 sp. Jurassic. Harpoceras (Tropidoceras) Acteeon^ 
d'Orb. (xxxviii, 17, 18). H. (Grammoceras) serpentinum,, Schl. 
(xxxv, 65, 66). H. (Leioceras) complanatum, Brug. (xxxix, 
36,37^ H. (Hammatoceras) insignis, Schloth. (xxxviii, 15, 16). 

External form of the shell variable, outer side always carinate 
or angular; sculpture consisting of more or less distinct sickle- 
like ribs. Margin of aperture sickle-shaped, or with ears, with 
pointed external lobes ; body-chamber embracing one-half to 
two-thirds of a whorl, carinate to the margin of the aperture. 
Apt3^chus divided, thin, calcareous, with a thick, shelly layer, 
more or less folded. 

Lobes mostly not deeply notched, always two lateral lobes 
and almost always auxiliaries. Siphonal lobes ending in two 
diverging branches, usually shorter than the first lateral ; laterals 
not divided into symmetrical halves. 

This genus corresponds to Buch's group Ammonites Falciferi. 

HiLDOCERAS, Hyatt, 1867. Carina bordered on either side by a 
groove. H. bifr-ons, Brug. (xxxv, 63). 

Oppelia, Waagen, 1869. 

Dedicated to the palaeontologist, Oppel. 

Syn. — Neumayria, Bajde, 1878. fficotraustes, Waagen, 1869. 

Distr. — 71 sp. 0. .s-wftradm^a, Sowb. (xl, 57). 0. (Neumayria) 
fulgens, Trautsch. 'xxxix, 88, 89). 

Shell with umbilicus usually narrow, external side either 
rounded only on the body-chamber or on all the whorls. Sculp- 
ture sickle-shaped, body-chamber frequently geniculate, never 
carinate or angular, embracing one-half to two-thirds of a whorl ; 
margin of aperture sickle-shaped or with ears, always with 
rounded external lobes. Siphon stout with calcareous sheath. 
Lobes moderately branched, siphonal mostly shorter than the 
first lateral ; lobular bodies slender with almost parallel edges ; 
lateral lobes divided into two principal symmetrical branches. 
Aptychus divided, calcareous, thick, folded {Apt. lameUosvs)', 
muscles of attachment near the margin in the lower half of the 
shell. 

Oppelia branches off in the lower Oolite with 0pp. subradiata 
from Harpoceras; the last representatives, as far as we know, 



AMMONITID^. t9 

appear in the upper Jura of Stramberg, where a considerable 
number of different forms are found. 

The genus CEcotraustes was created for species of the group 
of 0. genicularifi^Waagen; Neumayria for such species as 0. 
trachynotus and 0. Hauffiana, of Oppel. 

Haploceras, Zittell, 1810. 

Syn. — Lissoceras and Puzosia, Bayle, 18t8. 

Distr. — 76 sp. Jurassic, Cretaceous. H. ligatum^ d'Orb. 
(xxxiv, 49, 50). 

Established for a group allied to Oppelia from the middle and 
upper Jurassic, which is characterized by very feeble or no sculp- 
ture ; also some cretaceous forms, as Hapl. Grusanum,Sire placed 
here ; and with them forms very pronounced wedge- or chisel- 
shaped in section, as Hapl. belies ; finally, species with quite sharp 
external sides, as Hajyl. nisus, Orb. 

In other Jurassic species of Haploceras, there is gradually 
developed a transverse sculpture, which is confined to the external 
side of the body-chamber {Hapl. jungens, Neum., carachtheis, 
Zeuschner). 

In certain upper Jurassic forms, which are allied to Hapl. 
ca7'achtheis, the sculpture gradually passes from the external side 
over to the flanks in feebly undulating ribs, as is shown in Hapl. 
cristiferum, Zitt. ; better developed in Hapl. wohleri, 0pp. ; and 
this feature is repeated in Hapl. difficile, Orb., Cleon, Orb., 
bicurvatum, Leym. 

Finally, species of Haploceras appear which are distributed 
in the cretaceous, with constrictions reaching forwards (Hapl. 
Beudanti, Parraudieri), a peculiarity which does not occur in 
any Jurassic form; the inner whorls here serve as sure guides, 
aside from the agreement of the lobular markings, since they 
represent a typical Haploceras with entirely smooth whorls. 
With these furrows a sickle-shaped undulating radial sculpture 
is gradually combined, and a group of forms results, of which the 
principal tj^pe is Hapl. planulatum, Sow. 

In spite of this great manifoldness, it is very easy to distin- 
guish the representatives of Haploceras from strata which are 
lower than the turonian and downwards, by their whole habitus 
and lobes, yet nothing is more difficult to express in words. 

This genus corresponds with Ammonites Ligati of d'Orb. 
Bayle changed the name to Lissoceras, because Haploceras was 
preoccupied by d'Orbign^^ ; the latter's species is, however, a 
synonym of Cyrtoceras. 

Stephanoceratse. 

Form ver}' variable. Aptychus calcareous, granular, formed 
of two plates, which are sometimes joined at the median line. 
The Stephanoceratae may be subdivided into normal, with regular 



80 AMMONITID^. 

discoidal, spiral shell, and evolute, with discoidal, helicoid or 
straight shell, the whorls unwound partly or entirely. This 
evolution is partly generic, but in some instances is known to l)e 
accidental: thus specimens of Acanthoceras angidicostatum,d''Orh. 
have the whorls slightly embracing, or merely in contact (Lyto- 
ceras), or complete!}' detached (Crioceras). 

a. Normal. 
Stephanooeras, Waagen, 186'.). 

Syn. — Dactylioceras, Hyatt, 186*7. Globites, de Haan, 1825. 
Orbulites, Lam., 1801. Sphteroceras, Bayle, 1818. 

DiHtr. — 41 Jurassic sp. S. (Dactylioceras) annulatum, Sowb. 
(xxxiv, 47, 48). S. Blagdem, Sowb. (xxxiv, 57, 59). 

General form of the shell very variable, external side rounded 
without keel, angle or furrow. Sculpture never sickle-shaped, 
decorated with straight, bifurcating ribs, abundantly provided 
with nodes or swellings. Margin of aperture simple or with ears 
mostl}^ formed of a broad, smooth zone; aperture frequently 
constricted. Body-chamber one to one and one-quarter whorls 
long. Lobes usually deeply divided, siphonal and upper lateral 
lobe usually of the same length ; a stout auxiliary sutural lobe; 
lobular bodies narrow. Apt^^chus divided, calcareous, very thin, 
covered with granules on the external surface. 

Stephanoceras diverges from ^goceras with Steph. pettos in 
the middle Lias ; according to the subdivision into groups, it 
embraces the Liassic Planulata, Coronata and Bullata after the 
exclusion of some heterogeneous elements ; the last represen- 
tatives come from the Oxfordian (Steph. Gollini. 0pp., (jlomu.s, 
pp. ^. 

CADOCERAS, Flschcr, 1882. Shell much swollen; umbilicus 
narrow, carinated ; last whorl entirely smooth, preceding whorls 
with ribs forming an angle directed forwards in the ventral 
region. S. modiolare, Luid. 

PROTOPHYTES, Ebraj^ 1860. Last whorl geniculated, embracing ; 
umbilicus transverse, linear ; ribs interrupted at the periphery ; 
aperture with a peripheral appendage, triangular, wide and thick. 
*S'. Oxfordianum., Ebray. 

CECOPTYCHius, Neuma^a', 1878. Last whorl geniculated, em- 
bracing ; lateral ear-like projections short and narrow ; a cowl-like 
ventral appendage. (E. refractu^., de Haan. 

MORPHOCERAS, Douville, 1880. Whorls rounded with radiating 
ribs uniting in groups of one to three near the umbilicus, which 
is scalariform in the juvenile, and much widened in the adult; 
aperture geniculated, almost completely closed by the expansion 
of the lateral ears, which unite at the median line on one side 
and on the other touch the preceding whorl ; thus there are, so 
to say, five apertures, the peripheral, two small ones, placed eacli 



AMMONITID^. 81 

side of the peripheral, two half-round ones limited partly hy the 
preceding whorl. *S'. pseudo-anceps^ Ebray. 

CcELOCERAS, Hyatt, 1861. 

Distr. — G. centaui-us, d'Orb. (xxxvi, 87, 88). Middle and 
Upper Lias. 

Pilae on the periphery bifurcated ; lateral pihie single or bifur- 
cated with one external row of tubercles, occurring regularly on 
each, or at intervals on widely separated pilae. The young are 
very much flatter than the adults, and the sides consequently 
very narrow. They are smooth for the first one or two whorls, 
subsequently becoming tuberculated. The tubercles almost 
immediately spread, forming the pilae ; they may enlarge and 
remain distinct, or become absorbed and disappear upon alter- 
nate pilifi. The abdomen remains perfetitl}^ smooth for some 
time after the lateral pilae are developed, not acquiring the 
abdominal pil?e until the third whorl is reached. Septa close 
together and very intricate in the adult. Abdominal lobe broader 
and deeper than the superior lateral. The inferior lateral is 
nearly the same in size, and both are unequally divided into three 
shallow, minor lobes. Superior lateral cell lobiform and together 
with the inferior lateral, unequally divided by two minor lobes. 

CosMOCERAS, Waagen, 18G9. 

Syn. — Parkinsonia, Bayle, 1818. 

Distr. — 42 sp. Jurassic. G. Callovieiise, d'Orb. (xl, 46, 47). 

Siphonal side i periphery) mostly with a smooth furrow ; sculj)- 
ture consisting mostly of dividing ribs, directed forwards at the 
periphery, frequently ornamented Avith nodes or swellings ; mar- 
gin of aperture in the 3'oung state frequently with ears, which 
are lost by age ; body-chamber one-half whorl long. Lobes 
moderately divided ; siphonal lobe distinctly shorter than the 
first lateral ; second lateral repeating the form of the first ; one 
or more auxiliaries. Aptychus apparently as in Stephanoceras. 

Perisphinctes, Waagen, 1860. 

Syn.— Ellipsolithes, Montf., 1808. Planulites, Montf, 1808. 
Pictonia, Bayle, 1878. 

Distr. — 161 sp. Jurassic, Cretaceous. Perisphinctes arhus- 
tigerus^ d'Orb. (xli, 60, 61). 

Shell mostly with wide umbilicus, with rounded external side, 
.sculpture consisting mostly of straight, undivided, not nodose 
ribs; margin of aperture simple or with ears, with a constric- 
tion ; also isolated constrictions on the inner whorls. Length of 
body-chamber two-thirds to one whorl, mostly scarceh^ embracing 
one circumference or turn. Lobular line similar to Stephano- 



82 AMMONITID^. 

ceras, usually somewhat more deeply notched, with a dependent 
sutural lobe. Aptychus divided, calcareous, very thin, exter- 
nally granular. 

This group corresponds to the Planulati of Buch. 

SiMOCERAS, Zittel. 

Distr. — 26 sp. Jurassic. S. JooraenMs^ Waagen (xli, 66, 67). 

Shell very flat, discoidal, umbilicus wide, with numerous whorls, 
which increase in thickness A^ery slowly (except in the geologi- 
cally oldest forms) ; external side rounded or grooved ; sculpture 
seldom absent, consisting mostly of straight, simple or forked 
ribs, which are interrupted during most of the lifetime of the 
animal ; interrupted at any rate in the young state on the exter- 
nal side, and which are often ornamented with tubercles or 
strongly swollen on the last whorl ; isolated constrictions directed 
forwards on all the whorls. Body-chamber long, at least three- 
quarters of a whorl, usually attaining a greater length. Lobular 
line not very complicated. Siphonal lobe largest, external saddle 
much developed and broad, laterals one-pointed, xevy small 
in the geologically younger forms. Aptychus (?). 

REiNECKEiA, BaAde, 1878. Shell close to Perisphinctes, but 
with more marked constrictions, and a peripheral groove. S. 
anceps^ Reinecke. 

Peltoceras, Waagen, 1871. 

Distr. — 13 sp. Jurassic ; Europe, India. P. Arduennense, 
d'Orb. (xli, 64, 65). 

Shell when young having the ornamentation of Perisphinctes ; 
Avlien adult, with straight tuberculated ribs ; aperture with per- 
sistent lateral projections. 

AspiDocERAs, Zittel, 1866. 

Syn. — Waagenia, Neumayr, 1878. 

Distr. — 48 sp. Jurassic,' Cretaceous. A. longispinum, Sowb. 
(xxxiv, 56, 58). 

External form very variable, sometimes flat with wide umbil- 
icus, sometimes inflated with a narrow umbilicus ; external side 
rounded or with a broad external furrow, never with a carina or 
angle. Sculpture consisting of one or two rows of tubercles or 
wanting. Ribs, as a rule, preseut only in the young state. Mar- 
gin of aperture simple (Asp. aporiim with ears?), body-chamber 
short, embracing two-thirds of a whorl. Lobular line tolerably 
simple ; siphonal, two laterals, also often (in the geologically 
younger species) an auxiliary lobe. Lobes not much cut (with 
the exception of Asp. Altenense and circumspinosum) ; bodies of 
the lobes and saddles broad. Cellulose aptychi. 

Aspidoceras reaches the highest point of its development in 
the Kimmeridgian, and dies out in the Neocomian. 



AMM0NIT1D.E. 83 

AcANTHOCERAS, Neumayr, 1815. 

Distr. — 36 sp. A. Eotomagense, Brong. (xxxv, 10). 

Shell with a moderately wide umbilicus and not very elevated 
whorls. Margin of aperture and length of body-chamber un- 
known. The sculpture consists of quite straight ribs, Avhich 
become constantly stronger from the suture outwards to the 
external side, which are frequently ornamented with a greater or 
less number of tubercles or nodes', and are most curved in young 
individuals. The development of the external side is very vari- 
able, the middle line sometimes with uninterrupted ribs, some- 
times with a furrow, sometimes with a line of tubercles, the 
elements of which attempt to unite into a keel. Lobular line 
much reduced ; besides the two laterals on the flanks there is at 
most one auxiliary, or a row of two to three extremely small 
deep-lying auxiliaries ; bodies of the lobes and saddles plump 
and broad, the last broader than the first, no branching, but only 
a dentation of the lobes. Siphonal and first lateral usually not 
very different in size, the first often larger than the last ; second 
lateral much smaller than the first, both one-pointed. 

Stoliczkaia, Neuma^^r, 1875. 

Dedicated to Dr. Stoliczka, of the Geological Survey of India. 

Distr. — 8 sp. Cretaceous ; India. S. dispar, Stol. (xli, 62, 62). 

Forms allied to Hoplites diUempleanus, with expanded body- 
chamber, embracing three-fourths (?) of a whorl. Margins of 
aperture curved, produced at the middle of the flanks, slightly 
emarginate at the external side. Inner whorls with radial ribs 
which are not interrupted on the external side, and usually here 
attain their maximum strength ; body-chamber smooth or with 
thickened ribs ; external side without keel or furrow. Lobular 
line branched, consisting of a siphonal, two lateral, and one or 
more less dependent sutural lobes. 

Hoplites, Neum., 1815. 

Syn. — Sonneratia, Bayle, 18t8. 

Distr. — 50 sp. Cretaceous. H. Archiacianus, cVOrh. (xli, 68, 69). 

Derived from the group of forms represented by Ferisphinctes 
involutus, with moderately narrow umbilicus and high whorls ; 
thickness very variable. Margin of aperture and length of 
body-chamber unknown. Sculi)ture consisting of divided and 
curved ribs, which originate near the umbilicus or in the middle 
of the flanks in small, thickened, primary ribs or a tubercle; 
ribs interrupted on the periphery, often separated by a deep 
furrow, or at least feebler at this point ; ribs enlarged at both 
extremities, weaker at the middle of the flanks. Lobular line 
complicated, with branches and numerous auxiliaries; lobular 
bodies not verj' plump ; saddles as wide or (mostly) wider than 



84 AMMONITID^. 

the lobes. First lateral always longer than the siphonal lobe ; 
second lateral strikingly short ; auxiliar^^ horizontal or very 
slightly depending. 

Olcostephanus, Neumayr, 1875. 

Distr. — 33 sp. Jurassic to Cretaceous; Europe, India. O.Bha- 
wani, Stol. (xl, 53, 54). 

Body-chamber only about one-third of the last whorl ; surface 
ornamented b}' ribs which are interrupted at the rounded per- 
iphery ; aperture simple or eared, contracted ; most of the species 
are distantl}' constricted ; sutural line complicated b}^ the pres- 
ence of three auxiliary lobes. 

b. E volute. 

ScAPHiTES, Parkinson, 1811. 

Etym. — Scaphe^ a boat. 

Dialr. — ^i sp. Cretaceous; Europe, America. S. sequalis, 
Sowb. (xxxii, 35). Sussex, England. 

Shell at first closely spiral, involute, at length detached and 
recurved; sutures many-lobed, lobes foliated. 

The Scaphites (with the exclusion of Sc. Yvanii) form a very 
good natural group, very distinctly characterized b}^ the involute 
spiral of the chambered portion of the tube, to which but one 
very short evolute hook is attached, by their aptychus, which by 
its form, its want of strong longitudinal sculpture, and the sur- 
face covered with granules, is allied to the aptychi of Peri- 
sphinctes, and by the appearance of auxiliary lobes, which are 
wanting in all other evolute forms. The form of the aptychus 
decidedly indicates that they are serially to be connected with 
the Perisphinctes-stem, and the form of the inner whorls of the 
geologically old species, which agree entirely in form with Olc. 
Giiastaldi lilts, indicates strongly their connection with Olcoste- 
phanus, which is also confirmed by the form of the aperture. 

DiscoscAPHiTES, Meek, 1876. For forms, the ornamentation of 
Avhich recalls that of Acanthoceras. S. Gheyenriensis, Owen; 
S. Conr-adi, Morton. 

Hamites, Parkinson, 1811. 

Etym. — Hamus, a hoolc. Syn. — Ammonoceras, Lam., 1822. 

Distr. — 150 sp. Cretaceous. H. attenuatus, Sowb. (xxxiii, 40). 
H. cylindraceus, Defr. (xxxiii, 41). 

Shell with the tube unrolled, and variable in ornamentation ; 
sutural line rather simple ; a siphonal lobe, two lateral lobes 
divided into pairs — sometimes symmetrical, sometimes asym- 
metrical In the second lobe ; rarely with auxiliary lobes. 
Aptychus ( ?). 

Hamites may include all the unwhorled Ammonita; of the 



AMMONITIDiE. 85 

Cretaceous, with the exception of Scaphitcs, Tiirrilites and 
Baculites. Neumaj^r has divided them into two groups : Ham- 
ites, applying to the species approaching Lytoceras by their 
ornamentation, and their sutural line having lobes symmet- 
rically divided into pairs; Crioceras, containing the forms 
having the ornamentation of Acanthoceras, with lobes not sym- 
metricall}- divided. Fischer arranges them in the following sub- 
genera or sections, some of which are considered genera by 
other systematists : 

MACROSCAPHiTES, Meek, 1876. Shell with inner turns merely 
in contact, or so slightly embracing as to leave a very large, 
shallow umbilicus ; periphery rounded ; body portion much ex- 
tended from the inner volutions ; surface costate. S. gigas, 
Sowb. 

ANCYLOCERAS, d'Orb., 1842. Shell at first spiral, discoidal 
with separated whorls ; afterwards produced at a tangent and 
then bent back again upon itself like a hook. 41 sp. Infer. 
Oolitic, Cretaceous ; Europe, South America, United States, H. 
spinigerus, Sowb. (xxxii, 33), Gault, Folkestone. 

ANisocERAS, Pictet, 1854, Shell at first spiral, helicoid, whorls 
separated, at length more or less prolonged and reflected ; trans- 
versely ribbed ; sutures of septa with five lobes and saddles, all 
bipartite. 12 sp. Gault to Upper Greensand; p]urope. Creta- 
ceous, Jurassic; India. H. Saussureanui<y Pictet (xxxii, 34\ 

HAMITES, Parkinson (restricted). Shell conical, hook-shaped, 
bent upon itself more than once, the courses separate. 38 sp. 
Chalk ; Europe, S. America. 

HAMULiNA, d'Orb., 1849. Diff'ers from Hamites in being only 
once bent upon itself, not in contact. 20 sp, Neocomiau ; France. 
Gault (?); India. H. trinodosa, d'Orb, (xxxiii, 42). 

PTYCHOCERAS, d'Orb., 1840. Shell bent once upon itself; the 
two straight portions in contact. 8 sp, Neocomiau to Creta- 
ceous ; Europe, India, United States, H. Emericianus, d'Orb, 
(xxxiii, 43). France. 

DiPTYCHOCERAS, Gabb, 1869. Three straight limbs in contact. 
A Ptychoceras iu every respect except that it has an additional 
limb which incurves, enveloping both the preceding to a slight 
degree only. Meek considers it doubtfully identical with Ptycho- 
ceras. 

TOXOCERAS, d'Orb., 1840. ( Toxon, a bow, ceras, a horn.) Shell 
horn-shaped or curved ; the six lobes and saddles of the sutures 
simply crenulated ; last chamber large. Connected with Crio- 
ceras and Ancyloceras by numerous intermediate forms. 20 
sp. Neocomiau ; France. H. hifubercidatus, d'Orb. (xxxii, 32). 
CRIOCERAS, Leveille', 1836. Shell disooidal, whorls not contig- 
uous, but in the same plane. 13 sp. Neocomiau to U, Green- 
sand ; Europe. Some of the species are believed to be merely 



86 AMMONITIDiE. 

incomplete Ancylocerse. H. cristatus, d'Orb. (xxxii, 29). Gault; 
Southern France. 

TuRRiLiTES, Lam., 1801. 

Etym. — Turris, a tower, lithos, a stone. 

Distr. — 37 sp. Gault to Chalk ; Europe. T. costatus, d'Orb. 
(xxxiii, 37). T. Bohlaiji, d'Orb. (xxxiii, 38). 

Shell spiral, depressed to elongate, sinistral ; sutures six-lobed, 
foliated ; aperture often irregular. 

The animal of Turrilites was perhaps dibranchiate hy the 
atrophy of the respiratory organs of one side. 

HETEROCERAS, d'Orb., 1847. Shell like Turrilites, but last 
chamber somewhat produced and recurved. 5 sp. Cretaceous ; 
Europe, United States. T. Emericii, d'Orb. (xxxiii, 39). 

HELicANCYLOCERAS, Gabb, 1869. Spire less elevated, volutions 
less decidedly in contact. 

HELicocERAS, d'Orb., 1842. (Helix [helicos^, a spiral, ceras, 
a horn.) Shell spiral, sinistral ; whorls separate ; annular costse 
passing uninterruptedl}^ over the siphonal side. 11 sp. Inferior 
Oolitic (?) to Cretaceous ; Europe, India, United States. 

PATOCERAS, Meek, 1876. Costse interrupted on the siphonal 
side, leaving a narrow, smooth space along the whole length of 
the same. T. Teilleuxii, d'Orb. (xxxiii, 36). Jurassic. 

Baculites, Lam., 1801. 

Etym. — Bacillus^ a staflF. Syn. — Cyclomera, Conrad, 1866. 

Distr. — 20 sp. Cretaceous ; Europe, Chili, India, United 
States. B. anceps, Lam. (xxxii, 30). France. B. baculoides, 
d'Orb. (xxxii, 31). 

Shell straight, elongated, conical ; suture foliately lobed ; last 
chamber large; margin of aperture dorsally produced. 

The baculite limestone of Normandy is so called from the 
numerous remains of the shells of this animal which it contains. 

Conrad has given the name Cycloceras to a Baculite figured 
by him, but without generic characters ; afterwards, finding that 
name preoccupied by M'Coy, he changed it to Cyclomera, still 
giving no diagnosis. 

Meek divides Baculites into two subgeneric forms, which, he 
remarks, are possibly distinct genera. 

BACULITES, Lam. (typical), a. Shell straight throughout ; 
aperture directed forward ; lip with lateral sinuses directed back- 
ward ; the projection of its siphonal margin, straight, and its anti- 
siphonal margin convex in outline ; interior without regularly 
disposed ridges. B. vertebralis, Lam, 

(?) b. Shell straight posteriorly, but with the non-septate part 
gently arcuate ; aperture a little oblique ; appendage of siphonal 
side of lip arching slightly with the general curvature of the non- 



AMMONITIDiE. 87 

septate part, but not curving over the aperture. B. mcurvatus, 
Dujardin. 

CYRTOCHTLUS, Meek, 1876. Shell straight; aperture opening 
towards the antisiphonal side, and the lateral sinuses of the lip 
excavated in the opposite direction ; projection of siphonal margin 
of lip abruptly arching over the aperture, and the antisiphonal 
margin of same deeply sinuous instead of convex in outline; 
interior Avith regularly disposed ridges, leaving oblique constric- 
tions on internal casts. Hamites haculoides, Mantell = B. obli- 
quatus, Sowb. 

Baculina, d'Orb., 1847. 

Distr. — 2 sp. Jurassic, Lower Chalk ; Europe. B. arcuayHa, 
Quenstedt (xxxii, 24 \ 

Shell straight, point conical ; sutures of septa a row of rounded 
lobes, toothed at base. 



PTEROPODA. 



Class PTEROPODA. 



Mollusk naked, or protected by an external or internal, testa- 
ceous or membranaceous shell of variable form, with or without 
operculum. They are essentially pelagic, furnished with a foot 
dilated on each side into a large aliform expansion suitable for 
swimming ; or having only a rudimentary foot, but with accessory 
locomotive organs, represented by two lateral swimming disks. 
In swimming the body is nearly reversed in position, the abdomen 
being uppermost. The more or less distinct head has one or two 
pairs of tentacles. Mouth terminal or subterminal, with lingual 
armature, and sometimes organs of prehension and of mastica- 
tion. Brauchia?, either external or contained within an interior 
cavity. The sexes are united in the same individuals, but the 
male organ is separated from the female. Carnivorous. 

The pteropods are all small mollusks, some of them even 
microscopic ; they are commonly known as sea-butterflies and 
whale-food. The first of these names has been given on account 
of the form and incessant movement of their swimming lobes ; 
the second because they form a portion of the food of the 
Balffina and other cetaceans, as well as of a great number of 
fishes. The pteropods live at a certain depth beneath the surface, 
and only approach shores by accident, or when carried by storm 
or current. 

The Pneumodermon, Clio and large species of Cleodora usually 
appear at night only, and some only when the night is very 
dark ; and d'Orbigny supposed that it is only when the degree 
of obscurity at the surface approximates to that which the 
animal habitually perceives in its daylight habitation, that it 
rises at all ; certain it is, saj^s he, that so soon as the sun ap- 
pears, not a pteropod is to be seen. Later observers, however, 
have established the fact that specimens may be obtained from 
the surface of the ocean at all hours of the day, although they 
are mainly crepuscular in habit. 

These little animals are eminently sociable, forming consider- 
able masses in the regions which they inhabit. They occur in 
all seas, but most of them are found in temperate and tropical 
latitudes, whilst a few forms are restricted to the Arctic seas. 
Contrary to the usual fact among moUusca, the Arctic species 
are here the most highly colored ; due to the transparence of 
their shell, which partly shows the viscera. 

Pteropods live upon microscopic animals, and possibly small 
mollusks, such as Atlanta and crustaceans. A few of them 
possess organs of prehension, but it is difllcult to indicate the 
means by which the most of them seize their prey. 

Among the pteropods some have an external or internal shell 



HYALEID^. 89 

which is either testaceous or moml)ranaceoiis, whilst others are 
naked. They all possess a heart, composed of auricle and ven- 
tricle, within a pericardium. Their organs of sense are very 
restricted : they have no eyes ; at least the little black points 
formerly considered visual organs, M. Souleyet has ascertained 
to be hearing pouches, having no exterior opening. The mouth 
is more or less developed and is furnished with a lingual ribbon, 
and the olfactor^^ organ has its seat in the tentacles. 

The Cavolina tridentata oviposits at sunset. Its eggs are en- 
veloped in a very smooth and elastic glairy ribbon, presenting a 
series of pouch-like enlargements. The Thecosomoid species, 
Gynibulia Peronii, lays its eggs at any hour of the day: they are 
enveloped in a glairy cylindrical mass, containing a few parti- 
tions or chambers, each of which may include forty eggs ; several 
of these masses may be laid during a day, and thewhole will 
amount to about twelve hundred eggs.— FoL., Archives Zool. 
Exp.^ iv, 1875. 

The larval pteropods are furnished with a velum, which dis- 
appears a short time after the appearance of the adult swimming 
organs. In the earlier phases of their development a shell 
always exists ; even in those genera in which the adult is naked, 
i. e. without shell. 

The Pteropoda are considered b}- some naturalists as a subor- 
dinate group of the Gastropoda, and they are certainly much 
more closel}^ allied to the latter than to the Cephalopoda ; but 
their pelagic habit and organization appear to indicate a distinct 
class. Their geological record does not sustain the views of 
those who look upon them as gastropods arrested in develop- 
ment, for the type occurs in the primordial fauna ; moreover, 
they have a temporar}' velum, so that the wings do not represent 
that organ of the Gastropoda. 

Order THECOSOMATA. 

Etym. — Theke, a case, soma, a body. 

Animal furnished with an external shell, which is sometimes 
cartilaginous ; head indistinct ; foot and tentacles rudimentary, 
combined with the fins ; mouth situated in a cavity formed by 
the union of the locomotive organs ; respiratory organ contained 
within a mantle cavit}^ either dorsal or ventral. 

Family HYALEID^. 

Shell straight or curved, never spiral, globular or needle- 
shaped, symmetrical. No operculum. 

Animal with two large fins, attached by a columellar muscle 
passing from the apex of the shell to the base of the fins ; body 
enclosed in a mantle ; gill represented by a transversely plaited 
7 



90 HYALE1D.«. 

and ciliated surface, within the mantle cavity, on the ventral 
side ; lingual teeth (of Hyalea) I'Tl, each with a strong recurved 
hook (xii, 55). 

Hyalea, Lamarck, 1799. 

Etym. — Hi/aleos, glassy. 

Syn. — Cavolina, Gioeni (not Brug.), 1*783. 

Distr. — 19 sp. Atlantic. Mediterranean, Indian Ocean. H. 
tridentata, Gmel. (xlii, 1). H. quadridentata, Les. (xlii, 2). Fossil, 
10 sp. Miocene; Sicily, Turin, Dax, Azores. 

Shell globular, translucent ; dorsal plate rather flat, produced 
into a hood ; aperture contracted, with a slit on each side ; pos- 
terior extremity tridentate. 

Animal with long appendages to the mantle, passing through 
the lateral slits of the shell ; tentacles indistinct ; fins united by 
a semicircular ventral lobe, the equivalent of the posterior 
element of the foot. 

The long, loose, lateral, pallia! prolongations, which the testa- 
ceous pteropods protrude from the lateral fissures of the shell, 
do not appear to be of much use in guiding or propelling, which 
functions are performed by the wide alar expansions. They may 
assist, however, in extending the surface of the mantle for the 
purpose of aeration. — A. Adams, Na7'r. Voy. Samarang^ ii, 522. 

GAMOPLEURA, Bellardi, 1881. Shell laterally impervious. H. 
Taurinensis, Sismonda. Tertiary ; Piedmont. 

DiACRiA, Gray, 1840. (Pleuropus, Esch., 1825.) H. tri-^pinosa^ 
Less, (xlii, 1, 8.) Shell tricuspidate, the terminal point long; 
with lateral slits opening into the cervical aperture. 

Cleodora, Peron and Lesueur, 1810. 

Syn. — Clio, Linn, (part), Browne, not Miiller. 

Dist7\ — 12 sp. Atlantic, Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, Pacific. 
Cape Horn. C. coniprexsa, Eyd. (xlii, 3). Fossil, 4 sp. 
Miocene — ; Britain. C. infundibulum. Crag. 
, Shell pyramidal, three-sided, striated transversely; ventral 
side flat, dorsal keeled ; aperture simple, triangular, with the 
angles produced ; apex acute. 

Animal Avith tentacles obsolete ; mantle processes short or 
absent ; tins ample, bilobed, united ventrally by a rounded lobe ; 
lingual teeth l-Tl. The transverse bars of the gills, the heart, 
and other organs are visible through the iiellucid shell. 

BALANTiUM (Lcach), Gray, 1847. Shell triangular, depressed, 
transversely^ undulated ; month oblong, oblique, narrow. Animal 
similar to Cleodora. B. recuroum, one of the handsomest of the 
pteropods, swims steadily, instead of flitting about in the lively 
manner of the Hyaloea. C. inflata, Eyd. (xlii, 4, 5). 

FiiABELLULUM, Bellardi, 1871. Shell transversely undulated 



HYALEID^. 91 

and rugose ; dorsal surface longitudinally ribbed ; lateral mar- 
gins rectilinear. 3 sp. Miocene ; nortliern Italy. 

POCULINA, Bellardi, 1811. Surface not transversely undulated ; 
lateral margins slightly convex. 3 sp. Miocene ; northern Italy. 

EucHiLOTHECA, Fischer, 1882. 

Distr. — Cleodoj^a Parisiensis^'Desh. Eocene; Paris. 

Shell narrow, conically subulate, apex subinflated, ovoid, 
mucronate, not septate within ; aperture ovate, horizontal, not 
oblique, margin externally reflected, sometimes bilabiate. 

Hyalocylix, Fol., 1815. 

Distr. — H. ( Cleodoy^a ) striata, Rang. Mediterranean, Atlantic. 

Shell conic, slightly depressed, transversely grooved ; aperture 
oval, not oblique ; summit acuminated. Animal with bilobed 
wings. 

Styltola, Lesueur, 1826. 

Syn. — Creseis, Rang, 1828. 

Distr. — 6 sp. S. subulata, Quoy (xlii, 6). 

Slender, conical, pointed, straight, or curved. Fins rather 
narrow, truncate, with small tentacles projecting from their 
dorsal edges, and rudiments of the mesopodium on their surface ; 
mantle-margin with a spiral process on the left side. M. Rang 
states that he has seen these pteropods clustering round floating- 
seaweed. 

Mr. Arthur Adams has observed them, during a calm in the 
Atlantic towards the decline of day, shining near the surface 
like myriads of glassy spicula ; they often remain posed and 
motionless, and their progression through the water is very 
irregular. 

Barrande has seen a triangular operculum in connection with 
H. striatus, as well as similar bodies with other species. 

CuviERiA, Rang, 1821. 

Dedicated to Baron Cuvier. 

Distr. — 4 sp. Atlantic, India, Australia. C. columella, Rang 
(xlii, 9). Fossil, 4 sp. Miocene and Pliocene ; Turin, Calabria. 

Shell cylindrical, transparent; aperture simple, transversely 
ovate ; apex acute in the young, afterwards partitioned off", and 
nsually deciduous, so that the end of the shell is blunt or 
truncate. 

Animal with simple narrow fins, united ventrally by two small 
lobes; lingual teeth I'Tl. 

VAGiNELLA, Daud, 1802. Shell oblong, with a pointed apex ; 
aperture contracted, transverse. Fossil, 4 sp. Miocene ; Bor- 
deaux, Turin. C. depressa, Daud (xlii, 82). 

The genus Triptera, Quoy and Gaimard, 1824, was founded 
on a fragment of a Cuvieria. 



92 IlYALEID^. ' 

HY0L1THE8, Eichw., 1840. 

Sipi. — Theca, Morris, 1845. Piigiimculus, Barrande, 1847. 
Cleidotheca and Centrotbeca, Salter, 18fi6. 

JDistr. — Fossil, 40 sp. Palaeozoic ; North America, Europe, 
N. S. Wales. H. fasciculatua (xlii, 11). 

Shell straight, conical, tapering to a point, back flattened, 
aperture trigonal. Length, 1-8 inches. 

HYOLiTHELLUS, Billings. Dificrs from Hyolithes in its long, 
slender form and in the peculiar structure of the operculum. 
H. wzca?is, Billings (xlii, 12). Palasozoic ; N.America. It may 
be a Salterella. a represents the rate of tapering of the shell 
on its ventral side, and the included figure its apical portion; b 
is the inner surface of the operculum, enlarged 2-1, showing 
radiating muscular impressions. 

CLATHROCCELIA, Hall, 1879. Shell thinner than Hyolithes, 
interior cancellated by longitudinal strije crossing the arcuated 
septal lines. H. Eborica^ Hall. Devonian ; U. S. 

Pterotheca, Salter, 1852. 

Syn. — Clioderma, Hall, 1861. 

Diatr. — P. transversa^ Portlock. 8 sp. Silurian ; Ireland, 
Wales, Canada, Bohemia. 

Shell bilobed, transversely oval, with a dorsal keel projecting 
slightly at each end ; ventral plate small, triangular. 

CYRTOTHECA, Hicks. Shell with curved apex ; a longitudinal 
ridge extends along the surface of the sides near the centre ; but 
the surface is otherwise tolerably smooth ; mouth funnel-shaped 
with one lip greatly elongated. P. hamula, Hicks (xlii, 13). 
Cambrian ; Gt. Britain. 

STENOTHECA, Hicks. Curved, wide, with the lines of growth 
strongly marked on the surface. P. (Jornucopiae, Hicks (xlii, 14). 
Cambrian ; Gt. Britain. 

SCENELLA, Billiugs. Has a smoother surface. Palaeozoic ; New- 
foundland. 

Phragmotheca, Barrande, 1867. 

Distr. — P. Bohemica^ Barrande. Upper Silurian; Bohemia. 

Shell like that of Pterotheca, but having septa. Differs from 
the cephalopods, which are chambered, in the want of a siphuncle. 

Conularia (Miller), Sowerby, 1818. 

Etym. — Gonulus, a little cone. Syn. — Conulites, Schloth. 

Distr. — Fossil, about 100 sp. Silurian to Carb. ; N. America, 
Europe, Australia. C. Geroldsteinensis (xlii, 15). 

Shell four-sided, straight, and tapering, the angles grooved, 
sides striated transversely, apex partitioned off. The Conularia; 
were the giants of the Pteropoda ; C. inornata, Dana, of Aus- 
tralia, is supposed to have been 16 inches long. 



CYMBULlIDyE. 93 

COLEO PRION, Sanclberger. Shell round, tapering, sides obliquely 
striated, striae alternating along the dorsal line. G. gracilis^ 
Sandb. Devon.; German3^ 

COLEOLUS, Hall, 18*79. Shell tubuliform, straight or slightly 
curved, rather thick, smooth within ; surface more or less 
obliquely grooved, and sometimes longitudinally striate. C. 
aciculusj Hall. Devonian ; U. S. 

Hermiceratites, Eichwald, 1840. 

Diatr. — Fossil, 3 sp. Middle Silurian; Russia. 

Shell cylindrical or semicylindrical, elongated, straight, with 
a dark brown corneous epidermis, furnished with a straight, 
median siphuncle, which does not traverse any chambers. 

Yery doubtful pteropods ; might as well be referred to Ceph- 
alopoda. 

Salterella, Billings, 1861. 

Dedicated to Mr. J. W. Salter, late Palaeontologist to the 
Geological Survey of Great Britain. 

Distr. — Fossil, 3 sp. Lower Silurian ; Canada. 

Shell small, slender, conical, straight, consisting of many cones 
•placed one within the other ; the transverse section of the tubes 
is circular or subtriangular ; the surface is transversely or longi- 
tudinally striated. This is very probably an Annelid ; as is also 
Tentaculites, Schloth. 

Family CYMBULIIDJE. 

Animal oval, with large rounded wings. Dentition ri"l ; the 
central tooth ver}^ large, the laterals wide at the base, unicuspid. 

Shell symmetrical, subinternal, cartilaginous, slipper-like. Em- 
bryos with a caducous, operculated, testaceous, spiral shell. 

Cymbulia, Peron and Lesueur, 1810. 

Etym. — Diminutive of cymha, a boat. 

Distr. — 3 sp. Atlantic, Mediterranean, Indian Ocean. G. 
prohoscidea, Peron (xlii, 17). 

Shell cartilaginous, slipper-shaped, spinous, pointed in front, 
truncated posteriorly ; aperture elongated, ventral. 

Animal with large rounded fins connected ventrally by an 
elongated lobe ; mouth fui-nished with minute tentacles ; stomach 
muscular, armed with two sharp plates. 

Tiedemannia, Chiaje, 1889. 
Named after Fr. Tiedemann. Syn. — Gleba, Forskal. 
Distr. — 3 sp. Mediterranean, Australia. T. Neapolitana, 
Chiaje (xlii, 18). 

Animal naked, transparent, fins united, forming a large rounded 



94 LIMACINID^. 

disk; mouth central ; tentacles elongated, connate ; eye-tubercles 
minute. Larva shell-bearing. 

COROLLA, Dall, 1871. Like Tiedemannia, but with the body 
pendant below, unattached to the pinnse, ovoid, constricted 
above; oesophagus produced, aperture trumpet-shaped, produced 
into two points ; pinnae forming a single disk with reticulated 
muscular bands, separated by a deep sinus from the oral portion. 
No shell. T. spectabilis, Dall. N. Pacific Ocean. 

Family LIMACINID^. 

Shell minute, spiral, sinistral, calcareous. Operculum pauci- 
spiral, vitreous. 

Animal with fins attached to the sides of the mouth, and 
united ventrall}^ by an operculigerous lobe ; mantle-cavity large, 
opening dorsally ; excretor}' orifices on the right side. 

The shells of the true Limacinidte are sinistral, by which they 
may be known from the fry of Atlanta, Carinaria, and most 
other gastropods. 

LiMACiNA, Cuvier, 1817, 

Etym. — Limacina, snail-like. Syn. — Spiratella, Bl., 1824. 

Distr. — 2 sp. Arctic and Antarctic Seas ; gregarious. L. 
Antarctica., Forbes (xlii, 20 . 

Shell subglobose, sinistrall}^ spiral, umbilicated ; whorls trans- 
versely striated ; umbilicus margined. 

Animal with expanded fins, notched on their ventral margins. 

Yalvatella, Morch, 1874. 

Syn. — Planorbella, Gabb, 1872 (not Haldeman). 

Distr. — Tertiary ; Sicily, Denmark, West Indies. V. atlanta, 
Morch. F. iinitans, Gabb. 

Shell minute, vitreous, sinistral, apex sunken as in Planorbis. 
The type, a West Indian fossil, might be taken for a young 
specimen of Planorbis tiHvolvis were it not sinistral. 

Spirialis, Eydoux and Souleyet, 1840. 

Syn. — Heterofusus, Fleming, 1825. Heliconoides, d'Orb. 
Peracle, Forbes. Sctea, Ph., 1844. 

Distr. — 12 sp. Greenland and Norway to Cape Horn, Indian 
Ocean, Pacific. S. (;e??^rzcosa, Eyd. (xlii, 21). Fossil. Eocene; 
Paris basin. Pliocene ; Sicily, Rhodes. 

Shell minute, hyaline, sinistrally spiral, globose or turreted, 
imperforate or narrowly perforated, smooth or reticulated; bper- 
culum thin, glassy, semilunar, slightly spiral, with a central 
muscular scar. 

Animal with narrow, simple fins, united by a simple, transverse 
operculigerous lobe ; mouth central, with prominent lips. 



LIMACINID.^. 95 

The pteropods are infrequent visitors to our coasts; Spirialis 
Flemingii^ however, occurred at Nahant, Mass., in great abun- 
dance during- the summer of 1863. Mr. Alexander Agassiz gives 
the following account of its habits : 

They come to the surfiice of the water about an liour after 
dusk; they do not remain long, and after ten o'clock at night 
were rarely met with. He succeeded only once in finding a few 
isolated specimens during the heat of the day ; while at full tide, 
soon after dark, the}' were very often found in abundance. These 
animals are very easily kept in captivit}', and their habits, which 
can then be carefully watched, may explain in a \Q.vy satisfactor}'' 
manner their sudden appearance and disappearance. They creep 
about b}' means of their wing-like appendages. The}^ but rarely 
left tlie bottom during the day, merely rising a few inches, and 
then falling down again to the bottom of the jar. After dark, 
however, they could all be seen in great activity, moving near 
the surface of the water as fast as their appendages enabled 
them. During the day, they often remain suspended for hours 
in the water, simply by spreading their wing-like appendages, 
and then suddenly drop to the bottom on folding them. When 
the animal is in motion, beating the water like a butterfly to 
propel itself forwards or upwards, the shell is carried at right- 
angles, hanging somewhat obliqueh^ to the direction of the 
movement. — Bost. Proc.^ x, 14. 

HELicoNOiDES, d'Orb., 1839. (Protomedea, Costa, 1861. Em- 
bolus, Jeffreys, 1869.) Shell thin, transparent, discoidal, sinistral, 
axis umbilicated ; whorls smooth ; peristome disunited, notched 
on each side, and with an elongated, arched beak in front. S. 
inflata, d'Orb. (xlii, 22 \ 

EUROMUS, H. and A. Ad., 1858. Shell oblong, not turreted, 
cancellated ; spire short, obtuse, last whorl swollen, much larger 
than the others ; aperture large, elongate. S. clathrata, Eyd. 
(xlii, 23). 

PERACLE, Forbes, 1844. Shell oblong, not turriculated, spire 
rather short, aperture prolonged into a long, curved canal. 2 
sp. European seas. S. physoides, Forbes. 

Agadina, Gould, 1852. 

Distr. — A. cucuUata, Gld. (xlii, 24). 

Shell colorless, pellucid, planorbular, one side showing five or 
six Avhorls,the other a single volution with a large uml)ilical pit; 
aperture oblique, eampanulate, and projecting beyond the last 
whorl like a hood. 

The single species was found floating near an iceberg in 60° 
S. latitude and 106'^ 20' E. longitude. The animal is black, with 
oval appendages, not lobed. 



96 CLIIDiE. 

Order GYMNOSOMATA. 

Animal naked, without mantle or shell ; head distinct ; fins 
attached to the sides of the neck, without intermediate lobe ; 
gills indistinct (Clio), or distinct (Pneumodermon) ; teeth 
numerous. 

The embryos are at first Thecosomous, having a straight shell, 
ovoid at the extremity ; the}- swim by means of a ciliated velum ; 
subsequently, they lose the shell, and the body is encircled by 
rings of cilise (xx, 53, 55), which in turn disappear as the animal 
assumes its perfect form. 

Family CLIID^. 

Body fusiform ; head with tentacles often supporting suckers ; 
foot small, but distinct, consisting of a central and posterior 
lobe. 

Clio (L.), Miiller, 177(3. 

Etym. — Clio^ a sea-nymph. Syv. — Clione, Pallas, 1774. 

Distr. — 10 sp. Arctic and Antarctic Seas, Norway, Mediter- 
ranean, India. 

Head with two eye-tubercles and two simple tentacula ; mouth 
with lateral lobes, each supporting two or three conical retractile 
processes, furnished with numerous microscopic suckers ; fins 
ovate; foot lobed. Dentition 12*1*12. In swimming, the Clio 
brings the ends of its fins almost in contact, first above and 
then below ( Scoresby). 

C. borealis (xlii. 2, 5^ is largely the food of whales; the Clio 
and other pelagic animals are attracted to the large bodies of 
Diatomaceffi which discolor the Arctic seas, and on which they 
feed. The whale in turn lives upon them, and whalers hail the 
appearance of these discolored patches of ocean-surface as indic- 
ative of a good oil-harvest. 

CLioDiTA, Quoy and Gaimard. Head supported on a narrow 
neck ; tentacles indistinct. 4 sp. Cape, Amboyna. G. fusiformis. 

Clionopsis. Troschel. 

JHstr. — C. Krohnii, Trosch. (xlii, 26). Mediterranean Sea. 

Body ovate, head keeled, mouth armed with three jaws ; two 
lateral tentacles ; fins two, oblong, lateral, anterior, with a trun- 
cate intermediate lobe ; a ciliated ring around the hinder part of 
the body. 

The ciliated ring around the base of the head, and similar ring 
around the middle of the body, seen in Trichocyclus (Pneumo- 
dermon), are wanting in this genus. 

Pneumodermon, Cuvier, 1804. 
Etym. — Pneumon, luiig (or gill), derma, skin. 



CLUBJE. 91 

Distr. — 4 sp. Atlantic, Indinn, Pacific Ocean. F. Peronii, 
Lam. (xlii, 27). 

Body fusiform ; head furnished with ocular tentacles ; lingual 
teeth 4-0"4 ; mouth covered by a large hood supporting two 
small, simple, and two large acetabuliferous tentacles, suckers 
numerous, pedicillate, neck rather contracted ; fins rounded ; 
foot oval, with a pointed posterior lobe ; posterior extremity of 
the body truncate, with small branchial processes, and a minute 
rudimentary shell (?). 

In captivity not shj^, but swims actively ; when touched folds 
its fins upon its bodj^ and falls to the bottom, rolled up into a 
little ball. 

SPONGIOBRANCH^A, d'Orb., 1840. Gills forming a spongy ring 
at the end of the body ; tentacles each with six rather large 
suckers. Distr. — 1 sp. P. australis, d'Orb. (xlii, 28). South 
Atlantic (Fry of Pneumodermon ?). S. elongata, d'Orb., is a Clio. 

PNEUMODERMOPSis, Bronu, 1862. Branchioe at the extremity 
of the body. P. ciliatum., Gegenbauer. 

TRiCHOCYCLUS, Esch., 1825. "Head elongated, trunk-like, with 
two lateral tentacles ; two lateral swimming lobes, and an inter- 
mediate lanceolate one ; branchiae in a ciliated ring upon the 
middle of the body ; two similar ciliated rings, one at the base 
of the head, the other at the truncated posterior extremity of 
the body. P. Dumei'ilii, Esch. (xlii, 29). Probably larva?. 

(?) Pelagia, Quoy and Gaimard. 

Etym. — Pelagus^ the deep sea. 

Syn. — Pteropelagia, Bronn, 1862. 

Distr. — P, alba., Quoy (xlii, 30 . Amboina. 

Animal fusiform, truncated in front, rough ; head with two 
tentaculiform tubercles ; neck slightly contracted ; fins small, 
fan-shaped. 

Supposed by Souleyet to be very close to Clio. 

(?) Cymodocea, d'Orbigny, 1840. 

Etym. — Kumodoke, a Nereid. 

Distr. — G. diaphana^ d'Orb. (xlii, 32). Atlantic. 

Animal fusiform, truncated in front, pointed behind ; neck 
slightly contracted ; fins two on each side, first pair large and 
rounded, lower pair ligulate ; foot elongated ; mouth proboscidi- 
form, four-lobed. The animal is translucent, showing the violet 
viscera. 

CiRRiFER, Pfeflfer, 18T9. 

Distr. — C. paradoxus^ Pfeffer. Tropical Atlantic. 

Body oblong, head distinct; superior tentacles small, anterior 
tentacles long, bifid and thickened towards the end. 



98 eurybiid^. 

Family EURYBIID^. 

Animal short, rounded ; head distinct, retractile into a pouch 
formed by a thickening of the mantle ; wings long and narrow. 
Dentition 1*1*1 according to Macdonald, lO'l according to Sou- 
le3^et and Huxle}^ 

EuRYBiA, Rang, 1827. 

Ehjm. — Euryhia, a sea-nympli, Syn. — Theceurybia, Bronn. 

Distr. — 4 sp. Atlantic and Pacific. E. Gaudichaudi, Eyd. 
(xlii,16). 

Animal globular; fins narrow, truncated, and notched at the 
ends, united ventrally by a small lobe (metapodium) ; mouth 
with two elongated tentacles, behind which are minute eye- 
peduncles and a two-lobed rudimentary foot (mesopodium) ; 
bod}^ enclosed in a cartilaginous integument, with a cleft in front, 
into which the locomotive organs can be retracted. 

The animal has no proper a:ill, but Mr. Huxley has observed 
two ciliated circles surrounding the body, as in the larva of 
Pneumodermon. 

PSYCHE, Rang, 1825. (Halopsyche, Bronn, 1862.) Animal 
globular, with two simple oval fins, and no tentacles. F. globu- 
loaa^ Souleyet (xlii, 10). OflT Newfoundland. 



ASPIDELLA, Billings^ a very doubtful fossil from the Huronian 
of Newfoundland, has been referred to the Pteropoda by S. A. 
Miller in his Am. Pal. Fossils. A. terranovica, Bill, (xlii, 19). 



GASTROPODA — PROSOBRANCHIATA, 99 



Class GASTROPODA. 

Head distinct, usually furnished with eyes and tentacles ; body 
mostly protected b}^ a spiral or conical univalve shell ; lower 
surface of animal developing a thickened, expanded, creeping 
disk or foot. 

The following subclasses conveniently separate the immense 
number of molluscan types having the gastropod structure : 

Subclass PROSOBRANCHIATA. Scxcs Separate, in ditlerent indi- 
viduals. Mostly marine animals, provided ^ith a shell and 
generally, an operculum — at least all operculated mollusks 
belong to this group. The animal breathes by gills or branchife. 

Subclass OPiSTHOBRANCHiATA. Marine slugs breathing by arbor- 
escent or fasciculated branchiae, which are more or less completely 
exposed on the back and sides, towards the posterior end 
(opisthen) of the bod3^ A large division of the Opisthobran- 
chiates is shell-less ; another possesses a spiral, conical or 
lamellar shell, partiall}^ concealing the branchiae, and itself more 
or liess concealed by the mantle-lobes. Sexes united. 

Subclass PULMONIFERA. Scxcs United in the same individual. 
Mostly terrestrial ( a portion being fluviatile) mollusks, usually 
provided with a shell, without operculum ; breathing air b}' the 
simplest form of lung, a pouch with external opening, lined with 
a network of respiratory vessels. 

The pulmonifera are closely related to the plant-eating sea- 
snails (holostomata), through C3^clostoma,and tothenudibranchs 
by Oncidium. As a group, they are generally inferior to the 
sea-snails, on account of the comparative imperfection of their 
senses, and the union of the functions of both sexes in each 
individual. 

Subclass PROSOBRANCHIATA. 

The prosobranchiates are typically marine animals, but there 
are many exceptions to the rule ; for not only do we find a 
certain number of genera inhal)iting brackish Avater, but some 
live in fresh water only, and others again are terrestrial. It is 
not without some modification of the breathing organs that such 
diversity of station exists, and this modification is coexistent 
Avith other adaptations. 

Whilst the pulmoniferous mollusks have no operculum, the 
terrestrial and fluviatile sections of the prosobranchiates are 
provided with a very efficient one, completely closing the aper- 
ture of the shell. The canaliculate aperture, the operculum usually 
too small to fill this aperture, and, frequently, the want of an 
operculum are characteristic of the major portion of tiie proso- 



1 00 PROSOBRANCHIATA. 

branchiates — the marine zoophaga, whilst the rounded aperture 
and its efficient operculum belong to the phytophagous groups. 
In going over the genera of marine prosobranchiates another 
general law appears to coexist with the foregoing divisions, 
namely, that the zoophaga are the most active, and are frequently 
deep-sea animals, whilst the phytophaga are necessarily more 
confined to shallow water, between tides, etc., where their food 
is more readily obtainable. Some of the zoophaga prefer a rocky 
station, whilst others affect sandy or muddy bottoms ; the little 
genus Stylifer is parasitic upon echini, etc., immersed in which 
it dwells, and some other genera habitually seek special stations, 
as Pedicularia and Magilus upon corals, certain Vermetidte 
upon other shells, etc. On the other hand, numerous animals 
dwell upon and within the substance of the shells of univalve 
mollusca, including sponges, worms, corals, molluscoids, etc., 
not to mention many of the true mollusca, and especially bivalve 
species. 

Bronn has prepared the following synoptical table of the 
number of genera and species of prosobranchiates occurring in 
each geological formation; aggregating 7123 species: it would 
be largely increased, but its relative proportions probably not 
much changed, by the incorporation of material since made 
known to science. 



r, fSdurian, 164 species, 11 genera. 

Paleozoic. \ -r, ■ oaa n. oa u 

_o^ . ) Devonian, 244 " 20 " 

tt '!.o!.ol!f' 1 Carboniferous, 312 " 26 
Permian, 17 " 



57 genera. 



Secondary. (Triassic, 393 " 36 " 

1764 species. -^Jurassic, 488 " 56 " 

166 genera. (Cretaceous, 883 " 74 " 

Tertiary, 4622 " 179 " 

The relations of the tertiary with the recent mollusca are daily 
appearing to be more intimate. It is probable that a very con- 
siderable proportion of its species will be found to be synony- 
mous with existing forms, and that the more comprehensive 
views of nature which have now obtained (and which are the 
happy result of the development theory — whatever may be said 
of the justness of its ultimate conclusions), will enable us to 
make proper allowances for influences producing vai'iation in 
fossils as we do in recent species. Time has not been the only 
factor : as many of our so-called extinct species are obtained 
from particular local deposits, their characteristics, probably, 
are frequeutl^^ more local and varietal than specific. Hundreds 
of cases might be cited of variations from a known specific type 



rROSOBRANCUlATA. 



101 



of recent mollusks, where the differences are much greater than 
those which paleontologists, seeking distinctive characters for 
their periods or formations, have been accustomed to consider 
as of specific and even generic value. _ 

Bronn has also prepared a table of the number of species ot 
each genus of prosobranchiates appearing in the various forma- 
tions,"with the totals of species, fossil and recent, appertaining 
to each. As in his table just quoted, much allowance must be 
made for increase of species made known since his publication. 
The genera are within the Lamarckian limits. 



102 



PROSOBRANCHIATA. 

Number of Species. 



Chiton 

Patella 

FiSSURELLA 

Emarginula 

Capulus 

P1LEOP8I8 

Crepidula 

Caltptr^a 

sigaretu8 

Natica 

Nerita 

Neritina 

avellana 

Nerin^a 

turbonilla. . . . 

loxonema 

Macrocheilus. . 

scalaria 

turritella 

Phasianella.. . . 

LiTTORINA 

Turbo 

Dklphinula 

euomphalus. . . . 
Solarium 

ROTELLA . . 

Phorus 

Trocbus 

murchisonia . . . 

schizostoma 

Pleurotomaria. 

Cirrus 

Cerithium 

rostellaria 

Pteroceras 

Strombus 

MUREX 

Eusus 

Pyrula 

Pleurotoma 

Fasciolaria. . . . 

Cassis 

buccinum 

Terebra 

Voluta 

Mitra 

Oliva 

CyPR/EA 

C0NU8 

Total.... 





















<a 


















S 





3 



> 


1 



Ph 


1 


1 


1 


1 


.2 

1 


c 
200 




18 




1 


1 






11 


31 


6 


19 


1 




2 


16 


10 


38 


98 


100 




2 










5 


23 


30 


84 












4 


7 


23 


34 


26 


1 


10 






1 






12 


24 


7 


2 


9 
3 










4 


23 
16 
11 
12 


40 
16 
11 
15 


40 

50 
26 


5 


20 




1 


6 


23 


56 


88 


230 


100 


3 


8 








7 


2 


30 


52 


120 




1 








1 
56 


13 

46 


30 


34 
13 
92 


100 




9 




1 








22 


32 




2 


20 




1 










23 




1 


14 


1 


1 










17 






1 








1 


18 


80 


100 


100 


4 


39 


4 


1 


6 


17 


71 


107 


296 


30 




5 






1 


2 


9 


11 


29 


22 


1 


2 


2 






3 


8 


15 


31 


60 


18 


32 


1 


2 


8 


50 


58 


57 


264 


75 




3 








7 


4 


36 


55 


30 


28 


60 








2 






90 














2 


34 


65 


102 


25 




4 








4 


1 
3 


4 
14 


15 

17 


10 

7 


5 


21 


1 


3 


1 


66 


51 


178 


362 


160 


18 


30 




1 










48 




4 


13 














17 




28 


128 




5 


1 


41 


63 


2 


310 


2 




2 


1 






7 


1 




14 






1 


1 








36 


327 


367 


90 










4 


14 
11 


60 

17 

5 


16 
31 


94 

27 
36 


6 
10 
70 












5 


13 


179 


187 


210 




1 






1 


7 


53 


290 


357 


100 


1 


2 








1 


17 
6 

2 


36 

344 

32 

35 


56 

350 

34 

36 


40 

370 

15 

35 




7 


3 




1 


15 


5 


142 


173 


100 












5 


2 

13 

2 

3 


30 
93 
110 
32 
79 


37 

106 

112 

32 

92 


110 
70 
350 
120 
160 










33" 


367 


3 

701 


89 
2783 


92 
4516 


270 
35W 


127 


473 


15 


17 



§a 

231 

198 

114 

60 

31 

40 

56 

61 

41 

330 

173 

134 

13 

92 

32 

23 

17 

200 

326 

51 

91 

339 

85 

90 

127 

25 

34 

533 

48 

17 

312 

14 

457 

100 

37 

106- 

397 

457 

96 

730 

49 

71 

373 

147 

176 

463 

152 

343 

363 



MUBICIDiE. 103 

The prosobranchiates may be divided into tlie following orders : 

Order Pecttnibranchiata. 

The mollnsks of this group have pectiniform branchise ; that 
is, composed of leaflets arranged like the teeth of a comb, in one 
or two series or lines, and situated upon the upper wall of a 
respiratory cavity formed by the mantle, having an external 
opening upon the side of the neck. Sexes separated, in different 
individuals (dicecious). The sliell is spiral. 

Order Scutibranchiata. 

Branchiae pectinated, placed in a cavity in the upper part of 
the neck, or at the inferior edge of the mantle, around the foot. 
Dioecious usually. Shell spiral (globular or pyramidal) or 
conical, holostomate, or with entire margins without anterior 
canal. 

Order Polyplacophora. 

Shell multivalve, consisting of eight separate pieces inserted 
upon the back of the animal and surrounded by a mantle-border. 

Order Nucleobranchiata. 

Pelagic animals, swimming by means of fin-like lobes of the 
foot ; Avith or without a shell, the latter being glass}^, transparent ; 
branchiae partially or perfectly developed, forminga sort of nucleus 
on the posterior part of the back — whence the oi'dinal name. 
Dioecious. 

This small group appears to form a connection with the Nudi- 
branchiate division of the Opisthobranchiata on the one hand, 
Avhilst on the other its specialized swimming organs and the 
consistency of its shell ally it to the Pteropoda. 

Order PECTINIBRANCHIATA. 

Family MURICID^. 

Shell spiral, turriculated, with an anterior canal ; the whorls 
thickened b}-^ varices or nodules at each rest-period in its groAvth. 
Operculum with subapical or lateral and marginal nucleus. Lin- 
gual dentition (x, 17, 19). 

Subfamil}^ muricin^e. Three or more varices on each Avhorl, 
the varices being nodulous, foliated or spinose ; canal long or 
short, but well-marked. 

Subfamily purpurin^. Without varices, but tuberculate ; 
columella flattened or patulous ; basal canal very short or a mere 
notch. 



104 MURICID^. 

Subfamily 31URICINjE. 

MuREX, Linn. 

Spiny rock shell. Syn. — Aranea, Peny. Centronotus, Swn. 
Muricanthus, Swn. MuriciJea, Swn. Haustellum, Klein. 
Brontes, Montf. 

Distr. — 200 sp. World-wide, mostly tropical and subtropical ; 
low water to fifty fathoms or more. M. tenuisjnna, Lam. (xliii, 
1). Fossil, 160 sp., commencing with the Eocene. 

Shell ovate or oblong ; spire prominent ; whorls convex, 
crossed by three or more continuous varices ; aperture ending 
below in a canal, which is generally partly closed. 

Murex erinaceus (xliii, 10) is a well-known depredator on the 
oyster-beds of Europe, and is considered one of the most dan- 
gerous enemies with which the ostreiculturist has to contend. 
So destructive is it in the oyster-pares of Arcachon (near Bor- 
deaux), that it is incessantly hunted by the fishermen, who spend 
whole daj'S in destroying it by removing with a knife a portion 
of the foot and the operculum, after which the animal is left to 
die at its leisure or become the prey of other carnivores. The 
Murex seats itself firmly upon the shell of the 03^ster, and applies 
its rostrum to the surface of the latter, invariably at a point 
near the beak ; after which a regular movement of the body to 
right and left ensues during a term of three or four hours, and 
results in piercing a small, round hole through the o^^ster shell, 
exposing the most essential viscera to the rapacity of the patient 
tunneler. It is believed that the denticles of the tongue are 
applied to the surface to be bored, and then the gyration of the 
animal gradually rasps through the hole ; it has been supposed 
by some that an acid solvent is also used in this operation, but 
this is only conjectural. M. Fischer has observed at Arcachon 
that 3'oang Murices choose young oysters, whilst adults select 
larger oysters. The bored oyster soon dies or else, exhausted, 
opens its valves, when a myriad of other animals — crabs, mol- 
lusks, worms, fishes — hasten to profit by the fruit of the winkle's 
labor. — Jour. Conch., 5, 1865. 

The ancients obtained their purple dj^e from species of Murex. 
The small shells were bruised in mortars, the animals of the 
larger ones taken out. Heaps of broken shells of the M. trun- 
culus, and the caldron-shaped holes in the rocks where they 
were triturated, may still be seen on the Tyrian shore. On the 
coast of the Morea, there is similar evidence of the ancient 
employment of M. hrandaris for the same purpose. 

In the following synopsis of subgenera, the discriminative 
characters used separate widely groups which really appear to 
be closely related : thus, Cerostoma and Pteronotus are inti- 
mately allied, notwithstanding the difference of the operculum ; 



MURICID^. 105 

and Phyllonotus and Chicoreus have the same general facies, 
although they dilfer in the number of varices. Owing to their 
inter-relationships, no attempt to present the groups in succes- 
sion can be other than exceedingly artificial. 

a. Oioerculum with subapical nucleus. 
* VatHces three. 

MUREX (typical). Shell spinous ; spire elevated ; canal very 
long, narrow, nearly straight. 

PTERONOTUS, Swalusou. Shell triangular; varices fin-like or 
foliated ; canal moderate, closed, somewhat curved. M. trigon- 
ulus, Lam. (xliii, 2). 

CHICOREUS, Montf. Shell ovate-pyriform ; varices foliated and 
sometimes spinose ; canal short, curved, wide, nearly closed. M. 
adustus^ Lam. (xliii, 3). 

ODONTOPOLYS, Gabb. Resembles the subgenus Pteronotus in 
having three varices on each whorl, but distinguished by the 
crenulations of the outer lip and b}^ having two transverse plaits 
or folds on the middle of the columella. 31. compsorhytus, Gabb 
(xliii, 4). Eocene ; Wheelock, Texas. 

* * Varices four to ten. 

RHiNOCANTHA, H. and A. Adams. Has the short body-whorl 
and long canal of the typical Murices ; differs in having more 
numerous varices. M. cornutus, Linn, (xliii, 5). 

HOMALOCANTHA, Morch. Whorls rounded and sutures very 
deep; varices foliated, and peculiarly produced into expanded 
digitations ; canal long. M. scorpio, Linn, (xliii, 6). 

PHYLLONOTUS, Swaius. Like Chicoreus, but varices numerous. 
M. radix, Grael. (xliii, 7). 

b. Operculum purpuroid. 
* Varices three. 

CEROSTOMA, Conrad. Varices wing-like ; aperture usually den- 
tate within the outer lip, with a produced tooth near its base. 
Analogous with Pteronotus. It is very difficult to define the 
boundary' between this group and Pteronotus, inasmuch as the 
operculum of several of the species is not known ; moreover, 
the labral tooth does not always appear even in those species 
having a purpuroid operculum. All the species with more than 
one inter-variceal node appear to be true Pteronoti, and the dis- 
tribution of the group is mainly Indo-Pacific ; Cerostoma, on 
the other hand, is North Pacific in distribution, extending from 
Japan northwards to Behring's Straits, and on the opposite 
American coast south to Central America. M. Nuttallii, Conr. 
(xliii, 8). 

* * Varices numerous. 

viTULARiA, Swainson. Shell oblong ; spire short; body-whorl 



106 MURICID^. 

long ; canal very short, wide ; outer lip thickened and dentate 
within. Varices nearly obsolete. M. miliaris, Gmel. (xliii, 9). 

ociNEBRA, Leach. (Muricopsis and Corallinia, Bucq. and 
Dautz.) Spire elevated ; canal more or less closed ; varices 
foliated, sometimes spinose. M. erinaceus^ Linn, (xliii, 10). 

This group, as well as Muricidea, is made by Messrs. Adams 
an omnium r/oi/ferwm, including true Murices,purpuroid Murices, 
Purpurje, Fusidne, etc. Muricidea as defined by them has no 
really distinctive characters from Ocinebra, and Swainson 
included species of Trophon, Triton, etc. I have suppressed 
Muricidea, and retained Ocinebra for a group of small Murices 
with numerous varices and purpuroid operculum ; the species 
having muricoid operculum should be relegated to Phjdlonotus, 
from which they do not differ. 

PTEROHYTus, Courad. Not characterized. The type has lamellar 
varices like Cerostoma foliatum^hnt more numerous than in that 
group, and the outer lip has a tooth. I think it may be safely 
relegated to Phyllonotus, Swains. JSf. umbrifer, Conr. (xliii, 11). 
Miocene ; Virginia. 

Urosalpinx, Stimpson. 

Syn. — Adamsia, Dunker. Agnewia, T.-Woods. 

Distr. — 20 recent species. Atlantic Coast of America, Cai)e 
Horn, Cape of Good Hope, New Zealand, etc. U. Floridana, 
Conr. (xliii, 12). 

Fusiform. No proper varices, which are replaced by longi- 
tudinal ribs. 

Shell elongated oval, or short fusiform, longitudinally ribbed 
or undulated and spirally striated ; aperture with a short canal ; 
outer lip dentate and Urate Avithin. Operculum somewhat like 
that of Purpura, semicordate, with the nucleus at the outer edge 
a little below the middle. Lingual dentition nearly like that of 
Trophon. 

It differs from Troplion in its operculum, and from Ocinebra 
in its smoother shell, want of distinct varices, and open canal. 

Urosalpiiix cinerea occurs upon the Atlantic coast of the 
United States from Maine to Florida. The animal is small, foot 
scarcely covering the aperture, very little dilated at the front 
angles, cream-colored, margined with lemon-color beneath, punc-' 
tured with light drab above ; siphon merely surpassing the tip 
of the canal ; head scarcely protruded ; tentacula nearly united 
at origin ; eyes black, at the outer upper third of tentacula, 
which third is a mere filament, contractile. Motions sluggish. 
Littoral. The eggs are contained in small transparent mem- 
branous parchment-like vases, each of which is attached by an 
expanded foot to some solid substance, usually the under surface 
.of an overhanging rock, a little above low-tide mark. Each 
female deposits from ten or twelve to more than a hundred of 



muricidjE. lot 

these vases, the process of laying occupj^ing several weeks. The 
vases are generally attached in more or less regular rows, cover- 
ing sometimes an area of three or four square inches. In shape 
and size they are like the egg-cases of Purpura, but without the 
slight reddish tinge of the latter. They are flattened vertically, 
and their edges are marked b}^ keel-like ridges. Unlike the vases 
of Purpura, each of which contains several hundred eggs, those 
of Urosalpinx contain only from six to twenty, ten or twelve 
being the usual number. 

SCALASPIRA, Conrad, is certainly closely allied to, if not iden- 
tical with Urosalpinx ; if the latter, it has priority : it would 
scarcel}^ be advisable, however, to reject Stimpson's well-charac- 
terized genus in favor of one having no diagnosis, and only 
known b}^ its t3q)e. Scalaspira striimosa, Conr. Miocene; 
Virginia. 

EuPLEURA, H. and A. Adams. 

Distr. — 5 sp. Atlantic Coast of United States, West Indies, 
Panama. E. caudata, Say (xliii, 13). 

Ranelliform, with a pair of lateral varices, one on either side, 
and intermediate smaller varices ; aperture dentate within. 

The lingual dentition differs entirely from that of Ranella, 
and resembles Murex : the shell also resembles some of the small 
Murices, and particularly Urosalpinx. The geographical distri- 
bution of the group is entirely different from that of Ranella, 

Typhis, Montfort. 

Etym. — Typhos, smoke. 

Distr. — 15 recent species. Mediterranean, Cape, Ind. Ocean, 
Tropical America. T. tetrapterus, Bronn (xliii, 14). Fossil, 8 
sp. Eocene — ; London, Paris. 

Ovate or oblong, with projecting hollow tubes between the 
three spinose varices ; aperture suborbicular, prolonged in front 
into a closed siphonal canal. 

The ascending tube which is the distinguishing feature of the 
shells of this genus is occupied by an extension of the mantle- 
margin of the animal. 

The operculum is ovate, with apical nucleus, like that of 
Murex. 

Trophon, Montfort. 

Etym. — Trophonius^ a mythological deity. 

Distr. — 40 species. Mostly cold seas ; typicall^^ Arctic and 
Antarctic. T. clathratus, Linn, (xliii, 15). Fossil ; Chili, Cali- 
fornia, England, etc. 

Varices numerous, lamelliform or laciniated ; spire prominent ; 
aperture ovate ; canal open, usually turned to the left ; shell 
white, often dark-colored within the aperture. 



1 08 MURICID^. 

The typical Trophon has a fusiform shell, thin and white, the 
whorls with numerous, sharp, laminated varices, the interstices 
smooth, or spirally ribbed; canal open, usually turned to the 
left; no umbilicus; lip thin, smooth within. This group is essen- 
tially boreal in distribution. There is, however, another group 
of species inhabiting the southern temperate and Antarctic zones, 
which, whilst possessing the main features of the type, the laminae 
and the white color, present peculiar characters. These shells 
are usually broadly ovate, shouldered, umbilicate, the aperture 
dark-colored within. They form a transition to Siphonalia, and 
might with almost equal propriety be included in that genus. 
Montfort's definition of the genus Trophon, indeed, does not 
correspond so well with the typical group as now recognized, as 
it does with these Siphonalia-like shells. 

Subfamily PUBPUBINJE. 

The Muricidoe naturall^^ subdivide into two groups, one of 
them ' Murices) distinguished by varices on the shell, operculum 
with terminal initial point, whilst the other (Purpura) has nodules 
but no varices, patulous columella, short canal or mere basal 
notch, operculum with lateral nucleus; yet on the confines of 
these two groups occur forms which partake of the characters 
of either, and the classification of which is entirely arbitrary. 
Ocinebra, species of Trophon, Urosalpinx and Bupleura have 
undoubted relationships with Purpura, yet are classed with 
Murex — partly because the species have usually been considered 
or were described as Murices ; on the other hand, Purpura crin- 
pata and its allies possess the variceal features of Murex. 
Kobelt has, on this account, included them in his catalogue of 
the genus Murex ; but on account of the extreme variability of 
the species (some specimens being without varices) and the 
number of connecting forms between the smoother varieties and 
typical Purpurse, I prefer to retain them in the group to which 
they have usually been referred. 

If the difficulty of defining these two subfamilies is great, 
still greater does it become when we descend to the genera and 
subgenera of either of them. Various authors have attempted 
it, from the " groups " of Kiener's monograph to the genera and 
subgenera of H. and A. Adams. I adopt the latter as a mere 
convenience, premising that nature presents her specific forms 
here (as frequently elsewhere) in such continuous series, that no 
real line of demai'cation can be traced ; the characters selected 
represent simply the high tide of an osculation, which at its ebb 
merges into the next incoming wave. 

Purpura, Bruguiere. 
Syn. — Mancinella, Link. Microstoma. Swn. Thais, Link. 



MURICID^. 109 

Distr.—bl sp. All parts of the world, low water to 25 fathoms. 
P. Pers/ca, Linn, (xliv, 16). Fossil, 40 sp. Tertiary—. 

Shell oblong-oval, last whorl large ; spire generally short ; 
aperture ovate, large, terminating in a very short, oblique channel' 
or notched ; columella flattened ; outer lip simple. 

The animal does not differ essentially from that of Murex in 
Its general external and anatomical characters. The eyes are 
iisually placed near the tips of the tentacles, the siphon is short 
and the foot not large, ' 

This is one of the genera from which the ancients obtained 
dyes; by pressing on the operculum of P. lapillus (xliv, 22), a 
fluid will be obtained which colors a dull crimson. The metrop- 
olis of this form is Northern Europe; the North American speci- 
mens, as well as those from Southern Europe and North Africa, 
being stunted in comparison of size and ornamentation. Its fossil 
distribution ascends as far back as the Red Crag of England. 
It lives gregarious on rocks and stones within the tides, where it 
preys on mussels, limpets, and barnacles. It is especially fond 
of oysters, and is considered a destructive enemy by the culti- 
vators of the bivalve. A single reversed, as well as^a scalaroid 
specimen are recorded by Mr. Gwyn Jefl'reys. He says that " this 
mollusk has a shambling gait and sedentary habits, and seems to 
be always eating or digesting its food. Lister, however, observed 
It early in the morning, at the commencement of June, otherwise 
engaged, viz., in perpetuating its species on a dry rock after the 
tide had receded. It is very destructive to mussel-beds, and is 
said by Linne to eat the dead fish left in fishermen's nets. I 
have seen it busily feeding on Balanus balano'ides, its strong 
proboscis being inserted between the opercular walls of the bar- 
nacle. According to Mr. Osier, it also devours Littorinaj, Trochi, 
Naticas, and even its own kind. From what I have observed of 
the mode by which it perforates the shell of a mussel, I am 
inclined to agree with Mr. A. Hancock, that it uses its tongue. 
I cut off the end of the proboscis of a Purpura while it was 
attacking a mussel ; the part thus lopped still remains in the 
hole, with the front of the tongue exposed. The hole is shaped 
like an inverted cone, and exhibits under the microscope 
extremely fine scratch-like stria?, as if caused bv the rasping 
action of the lingual apparatus. I believe the movement to be 
rotatory, because the sides of the hole are quite even. The 
process is an extremely slow one. Mr. Osier states that, after 
watching for some hours a Purpura attached to a Limpet, he 
found the perforation incomplete; and Mr. Spence Bate and 
Mr. Bretherton noticed that it took two days to get throuo-h 
the shell of a moderate-sized mussel. It does not appear tlmt 
the prey is destroyed by any poisonous secretion of the whelk, 
after it has gained access to the interior. The proboscis is at 



110 MURICID^. 

first thrust into the hole which it had drilled, and the whelk eats 
in that way ; but when, from the death of the mussel or limpet, 
the former gapes or the latter separates from the rock, the Pur- 
pura devours the remainder by the natural opening. 

"According to Mr. Peach, it deposits its spawn all the year 
round, but more actively from January to April. Spawn which 
he collected in January, 1843, was hatched four months after- 
wards ; he took fortj^-seven fry from a single capsule. They 
soon began to assume the peculiar habit of their parents, by 
getting out of the water, where they would remain for hours, 
answering to the period of the ebb and flow of the tide." — Jef- 
freys, Brit. Conch. .1 iv, 219. 

Like all other predacious and voracious beasts, the Purpura 
meets with retribution occasionally ; here is an instance : 

Mr. Henry Crowther, whilst collecting in the shore pools at 
Whitby, England, "noticed a commotion amongst the mollusks 
which was of too brisk a nature for their well-known and char- 
acteristic slowness. When the obscuring sands which they had 
thrown up in the fray had settled, he saw that the shells were 
principally in the possession of hermit crabs, which, under this 
guise, were attacking a Purpura lapillus and dragging it from 
its shell. We caught the whole school at once and transferred 
them to a collecting-bag ; the shells occupied were Nassa pyg7nsea, 
Trochus cinereus, Littorina Wtorea, three sizes, and a P. lapillus, 
the sheik of the party, for he was taken red-handed. We pre- 
sume to think that if their object had not been frustrated, 
there would have been ere long a mutual exchange of crab's 
clothing." 

M. Bouchard-Chantereaux observes that the shells of Purpura 
lapillus, found on the Boulonnais (France) coast are thinner and 
smaller in those situations where they are subject to the influence 
of brackish or fresh water. It is very fond of 3Iytilus edulus, 
Mactra, Donax, etc., the shells of which it bores through in from 
three to five minutes, preserving perfect immobility during the 
operation, and protecting the tongue from contact with the sea 
water by applying the two anterior lobes of its foot closely 
around its mouth. After boring the shell of its victim, the 
mantle is torn away, and the viscera only devoured. — Jour, de 
Conch., p. 124, 1879. 

PURPURA (typical). Shell oblong-oval, last whorl large; spire 
general!}' short ; aperture ovate, large with an oblique channel 
or groove at the fore-part ; columella flattened ; outer lip simple. 

PURPURELLA, Dall. Apcrturc contracted ; outer lip strongly 
dentate within; columella flattened, with one or two distinct 
spiral ridges upon its centre. — P. columellaris. Lam. (xliv, 17). 

TRiBULUS, Klein. Spire depressed, whorls simple, the last ven- 



MURiciD-a;. Ill 

tricose ; aperture wide ; columella arcuated ; inner lip excavated, 
corrugated at the fore-part. P. planospira, Lam. (xliv, 18). 

THALESSA, H. and A. Adams. Spire elevated, whorls spinose, 
angulated at the upper part ; aperture moderate ; columella 
rounded, tubercular in front ; outer lip nodulous internall3^ P. 
hippocastaneuni, Lam. (xliv, 19). 

STRAMONiTA, Schum. Spire elevated, whorls simple or nodu- 
lous; aperture moderate, produced anteriorly; columella rounded, 
simple in front. P. Floridana, Conr. (xliv, 20). 

TROCHiA, Swains. Whorls separated bj^ a deep groove : inner 
lip thickened, convex, striated ; aperture with a verj^ short canal. 
P. cingulata, Lam. (xliv, 21). 

POLYTROPA, Swains. Spire acuminate, whorls foliated or tuber- 
culose ; inner lip flattened ; canal small, oblique ; aperture 
narrowed at the fore-part. P. lapillus, Linn, (xliv, 22). 

CRONiA, H. and A. Adams. Shell ovate ; spire acuminated ; 
aperture moderate ; inner lip callous at the upper part; columella 
straight, simple anteriorl}'. P. amygdala, Kiener (xliv, 23). 

PURPURELLA, Bellardi, 1882. Aperture with a ])osterior canal, 
defined by callous margins. P. canalicidata, Bellardi. Tertiary ; 
Northern Italy. 

TAURASIA, Bellardi, 1882. Aperture canaliculate posteriorly, 
with callous margins; columella with an anterior plication. 
P. subfusiformis, d'Orb., and two other species. Tertiary-; 
Northern Italy. Neither this nor the preceding group possesses 
characters of much importance. 

[SiNUSIGERA, d'Orb. 

Syn. — Cheletropis, Forbes. 

Exaviples. — S. canceUata, d'Orb. (xx, 47). S. Huxleyi, Forbes 
(Ixxxvii, 13). 

Turbinate, imperforate, dextral or sinistral, with a smooth, 
striate or tuberculate surface and frequentl}' , a keeled periphery; 
aperture channeled in front, peristome thickened, reflected, with 
one or two claw-like lobes. 

The animal has four arms, arranged in cruciform manner and 
used for swimming. There are two tentacles, and the eyes, well- 
formed, are situated on the outer side of their bases. Respira- 
tory siphon short, being a simjile fold of the mantle. Foot large 
and very mobile, furnished with a small, thin spiral operculum ; 
unprovided with a float. The dentition (xx, 48) has been sup- 
posed similar to that of the Muricid;^? — and the species have, 
consequently, been referred, as larval forms to that group. 

Dr. Jousseaume has established the identity of a species of 
Sinusigera with Purpura Jiaemastoma, of which it is the larval 
form — his series of specimens of various ages, collected at Ben- 
guela, on the West Coast of Africa, showing a gradual develop- 



112 MURICID^. 

ment of the adult character. The young Purpura shells retain 
the embryonic Sinusigera at the summit of the spire for a con- 
siderable period, but it is eventually lost by erosion. That all 
the species which have been referred to Sinusigera are larval 
forms of various species of Purpura does not follow, from this 
observation ; some of the related genera may be involved Mr. 
Arthur Adams has identified another species of Sinusigera with 
Purpura hiserialia^ and Mr. Craven thinks that his S. perversa 
is the young of a Triforis or of some allied genus in Cerithiidse. 

Sinusigera is pelagic, and is encountered in mid-ocean, in 
tropical seas having feeble currents and where calms prevail. 

Mr. Craven, who has recently monographed the genus, enu- 
merates twenty species.] 

PuRPUROiDEA, Lycett. 

Distr. — P. nodulata, Lycett (xliv, 24). Oolite, England. 

Shell turriculated, ventricose ; summit of the spire sharp; 
whorls convex, with a line of spines or tubercles on the shoulder ; 
columella smooth, rounded, excavated in front ; siphonal notch 
wide, no groove at the posterior junction of lip and columella ; 
outer lip thin. Fossil. 

This fossil genus has been confounded with Purpurina, d'Orb.: 
its typical forms appear to be close to Purpura, and the species 
I figure has some resemblance to the recent P. chocolatum ; 
whereas Purpurina is nearly related, apparently, to Cancellaria. 
The distinctive character from Purpura consists in the close 
junction of lip and columella posteriorly. 

Lysis, Gabb. 

Distr. — L. dupHcosta, Gabb (xliv, 25, 26). Cretaceous, Cali- 
fornia. 

Stomatiform, very oblique ; spire moderate ; whorls costate ; 
aperture narrow, outer lip simple, inner lip straight, concavely 
expanded over the wide umbilicus so as to completely cover it. 

Supposed by Gabb to be nearly related to Stomatia ; I have 
examined avithentic specimens, and do not hesitate to refer it to 
the Purpurse. 

loPAS, H. and A, Adams. 

Distr. — /. sertum, Brug. (xlv, 40). Poljmesia. 

Shell ovate, rugose, last whorl large ; spire acuminate ; aper- 
ture moderate, emarginate and channeled in front ; columellar 
lip covered with a thin enamel, and with a prominent plait-like 
callosity at the hind-part ; outer lip sinuous, crenate within. 

Yexilla, Swainson. 
Distr. — 4 sp. Japan, Philippines, Polynesia. V. tiexillum, 
Chemn. (xliv, 27). 



MURICID^. 113 

Shell purpuriform ; inner lip flattened and depressed, but outer 
lip, when adult, thickened, inflected and toothed ; aperture wide. 

usiLLA, H. Adams, Founded on V./ui^co-nigra, Pense, which 
differs from the t^'pical Vexilla in the spire being acuminate, and 
the aperture somewhat contracted or narrowed. 

Pease (Am. Jour. Conch., iv, 115) adopts the subgenus, and 
adds to it Purpura leucostoma, Desh,, and Flanaxis cingulata, 
Gould. I ver}' much doubt whether the group will stand, as the 
little specimen of Pease's species before me is very suggestive 
of Pisania, and Deshayes' species is a true Purpura, and evidently 
very closely allied to, and as I believe = P. columellaris. The 
opercula of Pease's and Gould's species are unfortunately unde- 
scribed. 

RiciNULA, Lam. 

Etym. — Diminutive of ricmus, the (fruit of the) castor-oil 
plant. 

Syn. — Canrena, Link. Drupa, Bolt. Pentadactylus, Klein. 

Distr. — R. horrida, Lam. (xliv, 28, 29). 30 sp. India, China, 
Philippines, Australia, Pacific, Panama, Red Sea, Natal, West 
Indies, Brazil. 3 fossil sp. Miocene — ; France, 

Shell ovate, solid ; spire short, whorls tubercular or spinous ; 
aperture linear, narrow, contracted by callous projections, with 
a short, oblique, emarginate canal in front ; inner lip tubercularly 
wrinkled ; outer lip internall}^ with plait-like teeth, often digitate. 

siSTRUM, Montfort. (Morula, Montf.) Has usually a longer 
spire, the shell is smaller, more fusiform, the teeth within the 
outer lip not grouped, but single. This separation has its con- 
veniences : nevertheless the characters, as in so many other 
groups, only serve well for the recognition of some of the forms ; 
others must be arbitrarily placed. The dividing line between 
Sistrum and Engina, Latirus and some Pisanoid species is very 
difficult to trace. The group is essentially Pol^-nesian in distri- 
bution, frequenting coral reefs. R. morns, Lara, (xliv, 30). 

MoNOCEROS, Lam, 

Etym. — Monos, one, ceras, a horn. 

Syn. — Acanthina, Fischer. Rudolpha, Schum. Unicornus, 
Montf. 

Distr.— 10 sp. California to Chili. Tertiary of Chili. 31. 
giganteum, Lesson (xlv, 41). M. lugubre, Sowb. (xlv, 42). 

Shell ovate, last whorl large ; spire rather elevated ; aperture 
semilunar; inner lip wide and flattened; outer lip crenated, with 
a prominent tooth at the fore-part. 

PsEUDOLivA, Swainson. 
Etym. — Resembling Oliva. 

Syn. — Sulcobuccinum, d'Orb. Gastridium, Gray. Buccinorbis, 
Conr. Pseudodactylus, Herra. 



114 MURTCID^. 

Distr. — 6 sp. E. Africa. P. plumbea, Chemn. (xlv, 43). 
Fossil. Eocene of America and Europe. 

Shell ovate, solid, subglobose ; spire very short, suture 
slightly channeled, whorls tumid round the upper part ; aper- 
ture oval, canal very short ; inner lip arcuated, with a callosity 
at the hind-part ; outer lip thin, furnished at the fore-part with 
a small tooth or callosity. 

The shell has some resemblance to Monoceros in its tooth on 
the outer lip, and its operculum is purpuroid ; it also resembles 
the Olivancillariae. The animal is unknown. H. and A. Adams 
described a subgenus Macron, in which are included several 
species from the West Coast of America, but this group must be 
eliminated, as the operculum has since been ascertained to be 
unguiculate. P. Australis is now placed among the Eburnse as 
subgenus Zemira. 

Chorus, Gray. 

Dish'. — C. Belcheri^ Hinds (xlv, 43, 44). Japan, California. 

Shell laminately varicose, spinose on the shoulder ; canal 
rather long ; outer lip with a spine as in Monoceros. 

To this group have been referred Ch. monoceros, Desh. 
( = Mouoc. giganteiim, Lesson), Ch. xanthostovia, Brod. 
( = Trophon), and Ch. Belcheri, Hinds. These three species 
are certainly representatives of three distinct genera, of which 
the last only remains to represent this genus. The dentition of 
Ch. Belcheri reminds one of the Buccinidne more than any other 
group, and is nearest to that of the subfamily Photime ; but the 
shell does not bear out this relationship, its spines, peculiar 
varices and long canal suggesting Trophon, from which it is 
distinguished by having a purpuroid operculum and the tooth of 
a Monoceros. A naturalist fond of making systematic groups 
might construct for this species a famil}', to follow, perhaps, 
Ptychatractidae and intervening between the latter and Buc- 
cinidae. In placing it between Monoceros and Pseudoliva and 
Rapana, I think that I have adopted the best alternative to the 
course above suggested. 

PiNAXiA, A. Adams. 

Distr. — P. coronata, A. Ad. (xliv, 31). Pol3'nesia. 

Shell conical ; spire short, acute ; aperture oval-oblong, emar- 
ginate anteriorly ; inner lip flattened, with several transverse 
plaits in the middle; outer lip acute, grooved internally. 

The shell has some resemblance to Pyrida pugilina in form as 
well as in the revolving raised lines within the aperture, but 
differs in possessing plications upon the columella. Mr. E. A. 
Smith has, fortunately, received specimens with the operculum 
in situ ; this is purpuroid, and definitely settles the proper place 
of the genus. The animal is unknown, and a description of it, 



MURICID^. 1 1 5 

and its dentition particularly, is desirable. The plications of 
the columella onl}' appear upon old specimens, and the tubercles 
of the shoulder of the bod3^-whorl are not always developed. 

CoNCHOLEPAS, Lam. 

Syn. — Conchopatella, Chemn. 

Distr. — C. Peruviana^ Lam. (xlv, 45). West Coast of South 
America. 

Shell ovate, last whorl very large, expanded ; spire very short, 
obliquel}^ inclined towards the left side ; aperture very wide, 
slightly channeled anteriorly ; inner lip flattened ; outer lip with 
two small teeth in front. 

The single species has the basal groove of Monoceros and 
Pseudoliva, but its margins are defined by two sulci, giving rise 
to two horns, instead of one, on the edge of the outer lip. The 
immense development of the last whorl gives the shell a some- 
what limpet-like rather than a spiral appearance. In consequence 
of this great enlargement of the aperture the operculum, which 
is purpuroid in its growth, is entirely unfitted to close the aper- 
ture, and, in fact, becomes a useless appendage. The shell is 
used by the Magellanic tribes as a drinking-cup, and \)j the 
Chilians the foot is eaten, being well-beaten to render it tender. 
Large piles of shells around the cabins of the fishermen testify 
their appreciation of this mollusk as an article of food. The 
large foot, like that of the limpets, adheres by suction to rocks, 
and so tightly that the shell is detached from them with extreme 
dilflcultj^, imless suddenly removed before the animal becomes 
aware of danger. 

Mr. A. Adams formed a subgenus Coralliobia for Conch, fiim.- 
briatus described by him in 1852 ; subsequently this subgenus 
and its t^pewere ranged under Leptoconchus in H.and A. Adams' 
"Genera." This latter disposition I consider correct. 

CuMA, Humph. 

Syn. — Cymia, Morch. 

Distr-. — 9 sp. Panama, Indian Ocean, China, West Coast of 
Africa. C. Kiosquiformis, Duclos (xliv, 32). 

Shell pyriform; spire elevated, acute, whorls angular or 
spinose ; aperture oval-oblong ; columella convex, sometimes 
with a strong angular tubercle in the middle ; outer lip acute, 
grooved internally. 

This small group is related by some of its species to Rapana ; 
b}' others, to Khizochilus. 

The genus Cuma of Humphrey is founded u]ion a number of 
species, of which about one-half have been identified and referred 
to other genera, and no species remains which can be certainly 
made to represent the group. Morch, inasmuch as Milne- 



116 MURICID^. 

Edwards has used the name in Crustacea, in 1828, proposed 
Cj^mia for these shells. I am not disposed to disturb a well- 
known name, even under these mitigating circumstances ; be- 
sides, it is not impossible that Milne-Edwards' genus may itself 
be superseded by some other name or dismembered, and nothing 
left of it, as in our old genus Fijrula.. 

Humphrey may not have understood what limit he ought to 
have given to his genus Cuma, and whilst I do not think that he 
has any very strong claim on us for the recognition of any of his 
names, I am unwilling to increase the already confused state of 
our nomenclature by attempting to follow out the absurd and 
impracticable " rule'' of the British Association. Every naturalist 
knows that the names of genera in his specialty are repeated in 
other branches of natural science, and accepted without hesita- 
tion, and that we only follow the " rule" by changing a dupli- 
cated name occasionally. Besides, no one pretends to be a 
general naturalist in these days, and the conchologist will not 
find himself embarrassed by the use of the generic name Cuma 
in any other subkingdom of nature, or in all of them, whilst he 
would be " verj' considerably bothered" upon encountering the 
name Cymia. 

Rapana, Schum., 1817. 

Syn. — Ecphora, Conr. Stenomphalus, Sandb. 

Distr. — 8 sp. China, Japan, Philippines, Australia. R. bezoar, 
Linn, (xlv, 46). 

Shell ventricose,axis perforated to the apex ; spire depressed ; 
aperture oval, narrowed anteriorly ; canal open, slightly recurved ; 
inner lip reflected, free anterior!}^ ; umbilicus wide, corrugated. 

This well-characterized group includes a few species usually 
found upon coral reefs in tropical seas, and probably living upon 
the coral polyps. 

Fusus quadriooatatus of Say (xlv, 47), a common American 
tertiary fossil and very remarkable shell, is referable to this 
genus : Conrad has formed for it his genus Ecphora. 

LATiAXis, Swainson. Whorls more or less detached, carinated; 
aperture small, trigonal ; canal narrow, rather long, curved. The 
animal and operculum are unknown. R. 3Iawse, Gray (xlv, 48 ^\ 

[PsEUDOMUREX, Mouterosato, | 
An aberrant form, referred by authors to Murex, to Corallio- 
phila and to Latiaxis. I cannot find any good characters by 
which to separate it from Coralliophila. It includes four species 
and numerous varieties, all inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea. 
P. bracteatus, Brocehi. 

Rhizochilus, Steenstrup 
Distr. — 22 sp. Coral Reefs, Pacific, West Indies, 



MURICIDiE. in 

Shell when .young free, resembling Rapana ; when aclult, some- 
times with more or less irregular solid shelly extensions of the 
outer and inner lips, which clasp the axis of coral or the surface 
of neighboring shells, and at length close the mouth with the 
exception of the anterior siphonal canal which is converted into 
a shelly tube. No operculum (?). 

We do not know how many of the species allied to the type 
of the genus may partake of this singular mode of growth ; it 
has only been observed in E. antipathicus (xliv, 33, 34). A large 
number of species have been grouped by Messrs. H. and A. 
Adams in a subgenus Coralliophila, the character of which is, 
that they do not ^are not known to) form this shelly enclosure. 
If this supposed difference of habit should be proved by obser- 
vation, there can be no doubt that the two groups should be 
generically separated. It maj^ be remarked that no lingual 
denticles have been found in the animals of Coralliophila, Lepto- 
conchus or Magilus examined by Troschel. Coralliophila 
possesses an operculum ; I do not know whether the younger 
stage of Rhizochilus has one or not, but the presumption is that 
it has not. 

CORALLIOPHILA, H. and A. Ad, (See remarks above.) A large 
number of specific forms have been described, many of which 
have not been figured. Judging from the extreme variability 
of the well-known species both in form and sculpture, it may be 
anticipated that most of the more recently characterized species 
will prove to be synonyms. R. neritoidea (xlv, 49). 

GALEROPSis, Hupe. I venture to place under this name the 
Rhizochilus madreporarum, Sowb. (xliv, 35), which possesses 
differential characters from both Rhizochilus and Coralliophila. 
The young shell is free, and not unlike a Coralliophila, and in 
this stage it has a small, thin operculum with lateral nucleus. 
The animal has a short siphon which scarcely projects beyond 
the canal. It is sluggish in its movements. As it matures it 
becomes attached to the coral, on which it lies and adheres with 
great tenacity, often allowing the foot to be torn away before 
releasing its hold. The conformation of the lip corresponds 
exactly with the irregularities of the place of adhesion. Upon 
removing the animal, scars will be noticed on the coral, more or 
less worn by the abrasion of the shell, and old specimens will be 
found to have deposited a shelly base. When removed, the 
animal is very timid and never wholly expands. It can only 
partly withdraw behind the columella-shelf, leaving a portion of 
the mantle and foot exposed. The foot is small, of an oval form, 
thick and fleshy. The tentacles rapidly taper to a fine point, on 
which the eyes are sessile a little beyond the middle of their 
length. The foot is tinged with pale orange, dotted with white 
along the upper margins. The mantle is colorless centrally. 



118 MURICID-a:. 

tinged with orange along the margins and dotted with white, the 
dots ci'owded anteriorly and becoming more and more remote 
posteriorly. The operculnm is of a pinkish violet color. The 
foot has a well-developed duplication in front. Such is the 
description given by Mr. W. H. Pease, who places the species in 
Rhizochilus proper ; but it appears to me to differ from that genus 
in the excavated, shelf-like columella, the expanded continuous 
lip of the adult (very like Ooncholepas) and in not closing up 
its aperture with shelly matter when mature. In the expanded 
lip, flattened columella and tooth-like projection of the basal 
margin of the latter it well agrees with Hupe's genus Galeropsis, 
a tertiary fossil. 

Separatista, Gray. 

Syn. — Lippistes, Montf. 

Distr. — 4 sp. Cape, Philippines, Polynesia. ;S'. Chemnitzii, 
A. Ad. (xliv, 36). 

Shell turbinate, subdiscoidal, the first whorls contiguous, the 
last more or less separated ; aperture expanded, slightly angu- 
lated, the margin everted ; umbilicus very wide, infundibuliform 
with the whorls visible to the apex. No operculum. 

The animal is unknown, and the relationships of the genus 
are doubtful. 

Melapium, H. and A. Adams. 

Distr. — 1 sp. East Indies. 

Shell ovate-pyriform, ventricose, imperforate, porcellanous ; 
spire very short, apex papillary; aperture expanded, inner lip 
with a thick, smooth callus at the hind-part, columella twisted 
anteriorly, with a prominent oblique plait ; canal wide, recurved, 
directed towards the left. Operculum unknown. 

This genus was instituted for the Pijrida lineata of Lam. (xlv, 
50) ; the animal and operculum of which are unknown. Its 
systematic position is very doubtful. It has the porcellanous 
texture of Pusionella ; from which, however, it is distinguished 
by its ventricose body-whorl and short papillary spire. 

whitneya, Gabb. This fossil group is said by its author to be 
related, probably, to Fasciolaria, but I agree with Stoliczka that 
its nearest apparent ally is Melapium ; from which I can only 
separate it geologically. M. Jicoides, Gabb. Cretaceous ; 
California. 

Rapa, Klein. 

Syn. — Bulbus, Humph. Rapella, Swn. 

Distr. — 2 sp. Indian Ocean to Polynesia. R. papyracea, 
Lam. (xlv, 51). 

Shell thin, globosely pyriform ; axis perforate; umbilicus 
l>artly concealed by the reflected inner lip ; spire obtuse ; aper- 



MURICID^. 119 

ture oblong, produced anteriorlj' into a wide, subrecurved canal. 
Operculum unknown. 

This, like the preceding genus, has only one properly authen- 
ticated species ; and that is unquestionably very closely related 
to Leptoconchus. The operculum is of the normal purpuroid 
type, but like the shell, very thin, translucent and yellowish 
white. 

Magilus, Montfort. 

Syn. — Carapulotus, Guett. (part). Tubulites, Davilla. Lep- 
toconchus, Ruppell. 

Distr. — 5 sp. Coral Reefs, Mauritius, Red Sea. M. antiquus, 
Lam. (xlv, 52, 53). 

Shell when young, spiral, thin; when adult, white, solid, 
tubular, spiral for three or four whorls, the last prolonged into 
an irregular straight or flexuous tube, solid posteriorly, and with 
a siphonal keel on the left side. Operculum ovate, nucleus sub- 
lateral. 

In the " Genera of Recent Mollusca," the authors, following 
Ruppell, distinguish the species of Leptoconchus from the single 
species of Magilus. They thus describe the animal of the 
former : 

The mantle-margin is greatly thickened and fleshy ; the tenta- 
cles are small, broad and united at their bases ; the eyes ai'e 
small and black, on the outer side of the tentacles, near their 
tips ; the foot is small, short, obtuse and rounded behind, with 
a thin, expanded, disk-like lobe in front, and the siphon is obso- 
lete. The genus difters from Campulotus (Magilus) not only in 
the absence of the operculum, but in the shell never forming a 
long tubular projection of the mouth as in that genus. It com- 
prises but few species, which take up their abode in corals and 
madrepores. 

Deshayes, in his " Conchology of the Island of Bourbon," 
1862, describes a number of species of Leptoconchus as well as 
the anatomy of one of them, confirms the non-existence of the 
operculum and sustains the separation from Magilus. 

On the other hand, that experienced conchologist, Mr. G. B. 
Sowerb}^ in his introductory remarks upon the genus Magilus, 
in Conch. Iconica, xviii, 1872, unites Leptoconchus with that 
genus. He says : 

"The habits of this genus are very curious. The young IV}', 
after a short period of free locomotion, seems to find its way 
into some hole in a growing madrepore, and then to become 
stationary; but as the substance grows around it, it would soon 
become enclosed unless the growth of the shell kept pace with 
that of the madrepore. In order, therefore, to keep its aperture 
close to the surface, the two lips are extended in the same direc- 
tion in the form of an iri'egular tube. The Magilus leaves its 



120 MURICID^. 

shell in the original cavity, and filling it up (with shelly mate- 
rial) so that it becomes solid, occupies only that portion of the 
tube which is nearest to the opening. The walls of the tube are 
thickened, and the portion which represents the canal is consol- 
idated into a thick keel. The species which have not been found 
as yet in an advanced state, and which appear generically to 
resemble the young shells of Magilas antiquus, have been sepa- 
rated by authors under the generic term Leptoconchus ; and it 
is asserted that while the Magilus possesses an operculum, the 
Leptoconchi do not. It is also said that the young shell of the 
Magilus begins to form a thickened and entire edge to its aper- 
ture, as if preparing for the future erratic course of its shell. It 
appears to me, however, that it depends upon the accidental 
conditions of habitat and growth whether and at what period of 
life the shell of a Magilus shall become tubular ; and as for the 
operculum, it is certain that some, if not all, the species enumer- 
ated as Leptoconchus by authors have been found with opercula ; 
notably, L. Lamarckii, Desh. The Isle of Bourbon, the Mauri- 
tius and Sandwich Islands — perhaps most islands with reefs — 
afford homes to the Magili." 

We agree with Mr. Sowerby ; indeed, it would be impossible 
to designate from the shells which species should be referred to 
Leptoconchus and which ones to the juvenile condition of 
Magilus. It is probable that the development of the tube is 
accidental, and it is equally probable that, as in Conns, the oper- 
culum is not always developed. Troschel has not discovered 
any indication of armature upon the lingual ribbon. So irreg- 
ular are the shells of the Magili, and so much is their growth 
influenced by the circumstances of their habitation, that all the 
species that have been differentiated from M. antiquus must be 
regarded with suspicion. When numbers of specimens, from 
different localities, and collected with a view to coalescence 
rather than to diff'erentiation, shall have been compared, we shall 
be able to assign definite places to the species which we are now 
compelled to take on probation, 

Magiltna, Velain. 

Distr. — M. seryuliformis, Velain (xliv, 37, 38 . Indian Ocean. 

Young shell free, formed of a single whorl; finall^^ prolonged 
into a tube which is attached by one side to the surface of sub- 
marine bodies. 

The species which forms the type of this genus is much smaller 
than those of Magilus. The distinctive characters consist in the 
spiral shell having one whorl only and in the fixed adult being 
attached by one side of the tube to the external surface of sub- 
marine objects, instead of growing in their interior. This is a 
great change of habit, and the animal may prove to have no rela- 



TRITONIDiE. 121 

tionships with Magilus but rather M'ith Yermeticlae. I do not 
know how closely it may be related to Nisea. 

NiSEA, Marcel de Serres. 

Distr. — N. simplex^ Serres (xliv, 39). 

Shell composed of a discoidal portion and of two tubes ; the 
last whorl recurved upon itself in the same way as Anostoma, 
in two tubes of variable length and less sinuous than the single 
tube of Magilus. (Fossil.) Relationships ver^^ doubtful. 

Family TRITONID^. 

Shell with varices, which are either few and irregularly dis- 
posed (Triton) or form a continuous row crossing the whorls on 
opposite sides (Ranella). The number of varices does not exceed 
two to each whorl, whilst in Murex the smallest number is three. 
Operculum annular, with subapical or central nucleus. Mantle 
enclosed, siphon straight, foot small. Lingual membrane with 
teeth in seven rows (3"l*3),like the Doliidiie, etc. (The Muricidae 
have the teeth l-l'l.) The dentition is illustrated on Plate xi, 
fig. 33. 

Conchological reasons mainl}^ induce me to place the Tritonidae 
in close connection with the MuricidiB, rather than arrange them 
with the Cassididae and Doliidfc, as indicated by their dentition. 

The Tritonidae first positively appeared in the eocene strata ; 
the genus Spinigera, d'Orb., from the cretaceous, being now 
i*eferred, more correctly I think, to the family Strombidae, and 
Trachj^triton, Meek, also cretaceous, does not belong certainly 
to the family. 

Triton, Montf. 

Etym. — Triton, a sea-deit}'. 

Syn. — Tritonium, Link. Charonia, Gistel. Aquilus, Montf. 
Cabestana, Bolt. Lampusia, Schum. Ranularia, Schum, Colu- 
braria, Schum. Linatella, Gray. Lotorium, Montf. 

Distr. — 105 sp. Tropical seas, world-wide ; low water to fifty 
fathoms. Fossil, 80 sp. Eocene — ; Europe, Chili, etc. t. 
■variegatus, Lam. (xlvi, 54). 

Shell oblong ; spire prominent, whorls with a few remote 
and non-continuous varices ; columella rough or smooth ; canal 
recurved, short or long ; outer lip internalh' crenated or denti- 
culated. 

Operculum ovate, its growth annular either from a subapical 
or subraarginal nucleus. 

Whilst the lingual armature of Triton allies it closel}^ with 
Dolium, etc., among the so-called taenioglossate mollusks, the 
affinities of the animal are on the whole closer, and those of the 
shell decidedly so, to Muricidae. It may be considered a con- 



122 TRITONID.^. 

necting link between the two groups, but certainly cannot be 
safely removed from the vicinity of the latter, to which it is not 
only allied by its operculum (which is entirel}^ different from that 
of Dolium), but so closely by the shell in some instances, that 
the assignment of the generic position is quite arbitrary. 

The Tritons are distinctly tropical in distribution, no species 
inhabiting the colder seas. The species are numerous and beau- 
tiful, presenting a great range of variation in size and color ; 
one species being almost the largest of gn^itropod mollusks, 
attaining a length of one and one-half feet, whilst others, belonging 
to the Epidromoid section, do not exceed one-half inch in length. 
The cancellated forms are chiefly p]ast Indian, and are dredged 
in sand in deep water ; the West Coast of America species, 
covered with a rough epidermis, are obtained in sandy mud at 
from six to thirty fathoms depth. A number of species have a 
world-wide distribution, which is doubtless due to their free- 
swimming or pelagic larvaj. These, unlike the Murices,but like 
the Purpurse, are very different at first from the adult both in 
animal and shell, undergoing a metamorphosis at a period subse- 
quent to hatching. 

I adopt the well-known name Triton in preference to the pre- 
viously given Tritonium of Cuvier, believing that the interests 
of science are best conserved by keeping the nomenclature as 
stable as possible. Triton has been used in other departments 
of zoology, but so have many other generic names, which are 
nevertheless accepted without question. 

Reeve says : " The Tritons are shells of much more solid 
structure than the Murices or Ranellae, and of much more simple 
growth. They are not furnished with any spines nor have they 
any ramified branches like the Murices ; the rude manner in 
which the whorls are convoluted seems rather to indicate that 
their animal inhabitant, though possessing abundant power of 
calcification, is of somewhat sluggish growth. The epidermis of 
Triton is often remarkably thick, hairy and bristly; and is some- 
times accompanied with small tufts of bristles. Another curious 
peculiarity in these shells is the structure of the apex ; it appears 
in numerous instances to be formed of horny substance, thinly 
plated with shelly matter, and it is not an uncommon thing to 
find examples in which the calcareous plating is worn oft' so as 
to expose the horny cast underneath. The columella of the 
Tritons is generally covered with a bright coat of wrinkled 
enamel, and the outer lip becomes thickened in a manner 
exceedingl}' curious ; upon arriving at maturity the lip curls 
under so as to form a deep, broad channel or gutter, and this is 
then filled up to form the thickened lip. The varices are all 
constructed in the same manner, each forming for a time the 
margin of the aperture ; they are destined, it is conjectured, to 



TRITONID^. 123 

protect the lip durins: a season of rest, and it would be extremely 
interesting if it could be discovei-ed what length of time ordi- 
narily elapses between the formation or deposit of the varix and 
the renewal of the operation of growth." — Conch. Icon., vol. ii, 
Triton, 1844. 

Mr. Arthur Adams mentions the adaptation of the Trumpet- 
shell ( T. tritonis) to the purposes of a tea-kettle by the inhabitants 
of the Typinsan archipelago, near the Loo-Choo Islands ; the 
operculum forming the lid, the canal answering the purpose of a 
spout, and the shell suspended hy a wooden hook over the fire. 
Mr. Adams says that this rude vessel was adopted se\eral times 
for the convenience of his party, and answered its purpose 
admirably. — Narrative Voy. Samarang, i, 89. 

Madame Power found T. nodiferus capable of reproducing 
amputated tentacles, etc. The Silicians and Algerians eat this 
mollusk and esteem it a delicacy. At Nice, the fishermen and 
country people make a hole in the apex of the spire and use the 
shell as a trumpet which, Verany remarks, produces a braying 
sound. It is an indispensable instrument in the old-fashioned 
charivari, which he describes as a deafening serenade to signalize 
the marriages of ill-assorted or unpopular couples. 

The species of Triton being numerous, several attempts have 
been made to separate them into generic or subgeneric groups ; 
the most successful being the arrangement of Messrs. H. and A. 
Adams. Two of these groups, however, Simpulum and Cabestana, 
are so closely related that I think Kobelt has very judiciously 
united them. Priene is the connecting form approximating 
Triton and Ranella ; whilst in the latter genus species of the 
group Lampas recall Triton. 

SIMPULUM, Klein. Shell fusiform, whorls nodosely ribbed ; 
outer lip thick, plicate-dentate internally. Operculum with apical 
nucleus. T. chlorostomus, Lam. (xlvi, 55). 

CYMATiUM, Bolten. Whorls triangular ; aperture longer than 
the spire ; outer lip dentated internall3\ Opei'culum with apical 
nucleus. T. tigrinus^ Brod. (xlvi, 56). 

GUTTURNiUM, Klein. Shell pyriform, subturreted, canal long, 
narrow. Operculum with submai'ginal initial point, near the 
middle of the inner margin. T. cynocejyhalus, Lam. (xlvi, 57). 

The shells of this group possess a peculiar polished, porcel- 
lanous outer and inner lip, the latter reflected over the columella, 
together with a short, rounded pyriform body and lengthened, 
narrow, more or less twisted canal. 

EPiDROMUS, Klein. Shell with long, generally curved spire ; 
aperture small and canal very short. Operculum triangular, with 
submarginal nucleus. T. distortus, Schub. Wagn. (xlvi, 58). 

PRIENE, H. and A. Ad. Shell ventrico^e, thin, cancellated or 
plicated ; canal short. Operculum with apical initial point. 



124 TRITONID^. 

W. Coast So. America, northwards to Alaska; Japan. T. scaber, 
King (xlvi, 59). 

This small group contains shells of comparatively large size, 
thin, cancellate, white without any bands or spots of color, usually 
more or less covered by an epidermis ; the operculum has a 
terminal initial point. The species inhabit a somewhat limited 
region, the West Coasts of South and North America, one of 
them recurring on the Japanese coast. The rarity of varices 
and general appearance of these shells indicate a passage into 
the Fusidse, whilst they appear to connect more remotely with 
the a7-gus group of Ranella and with Buccinum. 

The distinctness of the following fossil groups is very doubtful. 

RANELLiNA, Courad. The group was never characterized. The 
type differs from the figure in the varices being partially discon- 
nected, thus showing more affinity to Triton than to Ranella. 
T. Maclu7'n, Conrad (xlvi, 60). Tertiary; Claiborne, Ala. 

PERSONELLA, Courad. Genus not characterized. Scarcely a 
Distorsio,but more like a Gutturnium. T. septemdentatus, Gabb 
(xlvi, 61). Eocene ; Texas. 

TRiTONOPSis, Conrad. The type is a water-worn specimen, 
which Prof. Angelo Heilprin, who has examined the shell, 
declares to be too imperfect to assign to it any reliable charac- 
ters. Has some resemblance to the section Cabestana, like T. 
doliarium, L. T. subalveatus^ Conrad (xlvi, 62). Eocene; Vicks- 
burg. 

TRACHYTRiTON, Meek. Its character appears to be confined to 
the occurrence of internal varices, marking the former positions 
of the lip, and which have not been absorbed when grow th recom- 
menced ; otherwise very like PiHene Oregonensis = cancellatufi. 
The want of a callus on the upper part of the columella, which 
Meek makes a distinguishing character from Priene, also charac- 
terizes the P. Oregonensis^ young, as described by Mr. Redfield. 
T. vinculum^ Hall and Meek (xlvi, 63). Cretaceous ; Dakotah. 

DiSTORSio, Bolten. 

Syn, — Persona, Montf. 

Distr. — 3 sp. Red Sea, China, Polynesia, W. Indies, W. 
Columbia. D, cancelliniiti, Roissy (xlvi, 64). 

Shell subturreted ; whorls distorted ; aperture irregular, con- 
tracted, ringent ; canal recurved; inner lip dilated, lamellar, 
rugosel}^ plicated ; columella excavated, verrucosely plicate ; 
outer lip sinuous, internally plicate-dentate. 

This genus, in its ringent aperture, reminds one of the genus 
Malea in the Doliidae. 

Ranella, Lam. 

Etijra. — Bana, a frog. 



TRITONIDiE, 125 

Sijn. — Bufo, Montf. Bnfonaria, Schum. Gyrinium, Link. 
Apollon, MoTitf. Bursa, Bolten. Semiranella, Gregorio. 

Distr. — 36 sp. Tropical seas, world-wide. Fossil, 23 sp. 
Eocene. B. albivaricosa^ Reeve (xlvi, 65). H. spinosa, Lam. 
(xlvi, 66). 

Shell ovate or oblong, compressed, with two rows of continuous 
varices, one on each side ; aperture oval ; columella arcuated and 
ridged, or crenulated ; canal short, recurved ; outer lip crenated. 

The tentacles are commonly somewhat closer together than in 
Triton, and the head is longer and narrower than in Murex and 
Fusus ; the eyes in some species are nearly basal, but are gener- 
ally placed about the middle of the tentacles on their outer 
sides ; the siphon is short and directed upwards ; the foot larger 
than in Triton, Murex, or Fusus, and considerably dilated both 
before and behind ; the mantle does not appear to be furnished 
with fimbriated processes as seen in some Murices. In some 
species the trunk is enormously developed, whilst in others it is 
not protruded, in the usual condition of the animal. Operculum 
ovate, horny, with a lateral nucleus and semicircular elements. 

The species are inhabitants of warm seas, and principally 
tropical : those of the typical group having winged varices live 
in deep water, whilst the nodose species forming the subgenus 
Lampas, are found at less depth, and prefer coral reefs and 
rocks. The animal is active in its movements. Eupleura, for- 
merly considered a subgeneric group of Ranella, is now classed 
with Muricin», partly on account of the lingual dentition of one 
of its species. 

I have retained the generic name Ranella, in preference to 
Bursa, G3'rinium, Bufo, Rana, etc., all of which have priorit}^, 
but were obscurely published and have never attained general 
acceptance. 

Mr. Macdonald thus describes the larval state of Ranella : 

" I next observed a stout little shell, much resembling a Mac- 
gillivrayna in form, but having the spire more minute and sharply 
marked, and the whorls beset with epidermic spines, disposed 
in close spiral lines. The microscopic examination of the animal 
gave unmistakable proof of its being a Ranella, the lingual 
dentition agreeing, at least generically, with mv figures and 
specimens. On examining the operculum, which in Ranella is 
so very remarkable, exhibiting three successive stages of growth, 
I found that it was quite of the same character, only that it had 
but yet attained the second stage. Finally, on comparing the 
whole operculum, and the little shell respectively, with the 
nucleus of the opei'culum and the apex of the shell of an adult 
Ranella, 1 could detect no points of ditference, even with mag- 
nifying powers ; the conclusion, therefore, is irresistible, that 



12f6 FUSID^. 

the one is but the young state of the other," — Linn. Trans. ^ 
xxiii, 69. 

Mr. Velain remarks that R. proditor (= R. argus) is very 
plentiful at the Islands of Amsterdam and St. Paul, in the Indian 
Ocean, where the skeletons of seals, abandoned on the rocks at 
low-water by the fishermen, were literally covered with lobsters 
and Ranellse at the succeeding tide. They are nocturnal in habit 
and may be readily fished by suspending over-night, in 10 or 15 
metres depth, the body of a bird or fish, 

LAMPAS, Schum. (Colubraria, Schum. Crossata, Tutufa and 
Lampasopsis, Jousseaume.) Shell turreted ; whorls nodose ; 
aperture with posterior channel ; canal very short and recurved, 
R. hufonia, Gmel. (xlvi, CA'^. 

ASPA, H, and A. Adams. Shell ovate, ventricose, smooth ; 
spire very short ; whorls nodulous at the angles ; aperture with 
posterior channel. R. marginata^ Gmel. (xlvi, 68). 

ARGOBUCCiNUM, Klein, Spire elevated ; canal short ; posterior 
channel wanting. R. pulchra^ Gray (xlvi, 69), 

Family FUSID^, 

Shell more or less spindle-shaped, without varices ; the lip of 
the aperture not thickened. 

Operculum ovate, acute, with apical nucleus. 

The animal possesses the essential features of a Murex. 

Dentition (x,8). That of the typical genus Fusus does not 
difl!"er essentially from Fasciolaria ; Stimpson states (Am. Jour. 
Conch., i, 54) that it has the saw-like lateral teeth of Fasciolaria, 
whilst Macdonald (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th ser., ii, 243) found 
another species to possess lateral teeth of the Muricoid type, 
Troschel finds a Fasciolarioid dentition in Fusus Syracusanus, 
and he has accordingly made for it a new genus, Aptyxis ; but 
Schacko has recently found the same dentition in Fusus incon- 
stans, Lischke, a typical Fusus. I think that Macdonald must 
have mistaken some other genus for Fusus. The dentition of 
Sipho, which, according to Troschel, resembles that of Fascio- 
laria, is shown by the more recent investigations of Sars to be 
Buccinoid. Ptychatractus, with evident resemblance to Fascio- 
laria, has a peculiar dentition, approaching Murex, and on this 
character alone Stimpson, followed hy Gill, assigns to it a distinct 
family. 

Neptunea, Melongena, etc., long classed with Fusidre, are now 
brought into more intimate relationship with Buccinum, and 
Busycon, and Tudicla will go into the same group ; on the other 
hand Peristernia,Latirus, etc., formerly included in Turbinellidse, 
have a Fasciolarioid dentition, which, with added conchological 
characters, may suffice for their removal from that to the present 



FUSID^. 127 

family. Stimpson (Am. Jour. Gonch., i, 60) describes and figures 
the dentition of an unknown species of Peristernia from the coast 
of Georgia, which has the essential features of Busycon, and he 
thereupon places the genus in NeptuniiniB ; but it is evident that 
he was in error, as Troschel figures known species, which are 
Fasciolariform in dentition as they are in conchological 
characters. 

Subfamily fusing. Columella not plicate, not tortuous. 

Subftimily fasciolariin^. Columella tortuous with oblique 
plaits or plications. 

Subfamily ptychatractin^i:. Differs from Fasciolariina? in 
lingual dentition, and includes only three small boreal species. 

Subfamily peristerniin^. Columella with transverse pli- 
cations. 

Subfamily FUSING. 

Fusus, Lamarck. 

Syn.—Aptyxis, Troschel. Coins, Humph. Syrinx, Bolt. 

Dislr. — 65 sp. Tropical and Subtropical, world-wide. F. 
Nicobaricus, Lam. (xlvii, TO). Fossil, 300 sp. Bath oolite (?), 
Cretaceous to Eocene — . 

Shell fusiform; spire long, acuminate, many-whorled; aperture 
oval, usually striate within ; outer lip simple ; columella smooth; 
no umbilicus; canal long and straight. Yellowish brown or 
light horn-color, sometimes with red-brown strigae or spots ; 
never banded. Operculum ovate, acute, with apical nucleus. 

The genus, as restricted to the spindle-shaped forms, is sub- 
tropical in distribution— the northern species usually described 
as Fusus by the older conchologists being now more correctly 
referred to the family Buccinidte. 

COLUMBARIA, vou Martcus. Shoulder of whorls spinose, a 
revolving ridge on the lower part of body-whorl. Dentition 
similar to the Pleurotomidae. F. Pagoda, Lesson (xlvii, 71). 

SINISTRALIA, H. and A. Ad. Shell reversed, fusiform ; canal 
long ; whorls rounded. F. Maroccensis, Gmel. (xlvii, 72). 

HADRIANA, Bucq. aud Dautz. Proposed for the European F. 
craticulatus, Brocchi, Avhich unites the closed canal and varices 
of Murex with the simple lip and general form of Fusus. 

EXiLiFUSUS, Gabb. Shell very long, slender, fusiform ; spire 
high ; aperture produced into a long, slender, twisted canal. 

This group differs from the true genus Fusus, as restricted, 
by its twisted, slender canal. In this character it approaches 
some of the Neptuneae, but its high spire and strongly costate 
whorls show that it is more nearly allied to the true Fusus. F. 
Kerri, Gabb (xlvii, 73). Cretaceous ; N. Carolina. 

EXILIA, Conrad. (Exilifusus, Conrad.) Shell very narrow, 
costate, spire subulate, canal long and narrow. F. pergracilis, 



128 FUSID^. 

Conr. (xlvii, T4). Eocene ; Alabama. Scarcely distinct from 
the typical Fussb. 

TURRispiRA, Conrad. Has not been characterized, and does 
not seem to differ from Fusus. F. Salebrosa, Conrad (xlvii, 75). 
Eocene ; Alabama. 

PRiscoFUSus, Conrad. Founded on Fusus geniciilus, Conrad, 
a very poorly preserved or figured fossil ; the type has " been 
lost for twenty years. The species is wholly unrecognizable, 
and should be exiounged from nomenclature. For this rubbish 
Mr. Conrad has proposed a genus Priseofusus, but with neither 
figure nor diagnosis." — Dall, Proc. Calif. Acad., 1871. F. geni- 
culus, Conrad (xlvii, 76). Eocene ; Astoria, Oregon. 

SERRiFUSUS, Meek. Shell short-fusiform ; body-volution large, 
and bi- or tricarinate, with carinas more or less nodose; spire 
and canal moderate, the latter bent and more or less twisted ; 
outer lip broadly but slightly sinuous in outline, between the 
upper carina and the suture. F. Dakotensis, Meek and Hayden. 
Cretaceous ; Dakotah. 

This form so much resembles the recent Fusus (Hemifusus) 
proboscidiferus, Lam., that it might well be considered a fossil 
form of the same group. 

JANiA, Bellardi. Shell subfusiform ; spire elongate ; mouth 
scarcely canaliculate behind ; lip marginate, nodose or plicate 
within ; columella uniplicate anteriorly and posteriorly ; canal 
short recurved. F. a7igulosus^ Brocchi (xlvii, 77). Tertiary; 
Italy. 

MAYERiA, Bellardi. Ovate-fusiform, spire short, but slightly 
acute ; whorls very sharply carinate in the middle ; columella 
smooth, rather straight in front, canal moderate. F. acutissimus, 
Bellardi (xlvii, 81). " Tertiary; Italy. 

ANURA, Bellardi. Shell turrcted, ovate ventricose ; whorls 
convex ; mouth orbicular or suborbicular ; lip somewhat arcuate, 
exteriorly subvaricose in the adult, interiorly margined and 
smooth ; canal scarcely produced ; columella slightly contorted, 
smooth. F. injiatus, Brocchi (xlvii, 79). Tertiary ; Italy. 

MiTR^FUSUS, Bellardi. Elongated, mitrpeform ; spire very long 
and acute; whorls numerous, the last scarcely depressed in front; 
mouth narrow, long ; lip simple ; canal long, produced in the axis 
of the shell, i^. ortZi/!?/^, Bell, et Mich, (xlvii, 80). Tertiary; Italy. 

GENEA, Bellardi. Shell subfusiform, long, narrow; spire long, 
very acute ; mouth long, narrow ; lip simple ; columella smooth, 
but slightly arcuate ; canal very short, wide, straight. F. Bonellii, 
Gen4: (xlvii, 78). Tertiary ; Italy. 

Afer, Conrad. 
Distr. — 2 sp. Red Sea to Manilla, Senegal. A. Blosvillei,'Desh. 
(xlvii, 82). 



FUSID^, 129 

Shell short fusiform, spire and canal moderate, body-whorl 
rather large, shouldered and tuberculate, aperture channeled 
behind, outer lip dentate within. 

Professor Meek (Pal. Hayden's Survey., ix, 344) states that 
the fossil species described by Conrad, are not congeneric with 
the type, the recent Fvsus afer, Lam., and he refers them to 
Conrad's genus Pyrifusus, one of the forms of Neptuniinse. 

Clavella, Swainson. 

,S2/n.— Clavellithes, Swn. Cyrtulus, Hinds. Triumphis, Gray 
Peistocheilus, Meek. 

Distr.— C. serotina, Hds. (xlvii, 83). Marquesas Is. Fossil. 
Cretaceous ; Missouri. 

Shell solid, thick, subfusiform ; spire acuminate; last whorl 
suddenly contracted in front, thickened and rounded next the 
suture; aperture narrow, canal long and straight; columella 
excavated in the middle ; outer lip simple. Operculum ovate • 
nucleus apical. Dentition, unknown. ' 

Only one recent species can be referred properly to this fossil 
genus, which is the C. serotina, the type of Hinds' genus Cyr- 
tulus. The three other recent species referred to it^by H. and 
A. Adams are members of other genera : C. avellana, Reeve is 
a Cronia. C. distorta, Reeve, belongs to the Pisaniinje. C. mb- 
rostrata, Gray, belongs to the Melongeniinte. 

Peistocheilus, Meek, described as a subgenus of Fasciolaria 
appears to be identical with Clavella, as Meek himself subse- 
quently suspected. The columellar plaits are nearly obsolete 
situated so far within the aperture as to be barely vis'ible and in 
many specimens are not seen at all. G. Scarboro'ughi, Meek and 
Hayden (xlviii, 1, 2). Clavella itself occasionally shows these 
adventitious and inconspicuous plaits. The shell is so decidedly 
fusiform that I place it in the Fusinai in preference to the Fas- 
ciolariinas despite these folds. 

BucciNOFUsus, Conrad. 

Syn. — Boreofusus, Sars. Troschelia, Morch, 1876. 

lJistr.—2 sp. North Sea, Spitzbergen. B. Berniciensis, Kino- 
(xlvii, 84). Fossil. Miocene ; U. S. ' » 

Shell ventricose, spirally sculptured ; epidermis pilose ; spire 
produced ; canal moderate in length ; columella smooth. The 
type of this genus is a Miocene fossil, B. parilis, Conr. 

The dentition, only, separates this from Sipho, several species 
of which might be regarded as either indentical, or varieties at 
most. 

Jeffreys thus describes the animal: Body white or cream-color 
with a slight tinge of flesh-color ; mantle sometimes edged with 
broAvn ; pallial tube extensile, occasionally protruded beyond the 



130 FUSID^. 

canal, with an expanded or trumpet-shaped opening; proboscis 
exceedingly long, measuring nearly two inches even Avhen 
contracted after the death of the animal ; tentacles conical, 
rather short, and close together, with bluntly pointed tips ; eyes 
small and black, seated on long stalks, about half-way up the 
tentacles ; foot lanceolate, thick, rounded and double-edged in 
front ; tail either pointed or blunt and somewhat truncated. 

Subfamily -FASGIOLARIIN^. 

Fasciolaria, Lam. 

Etym Fasciola, a band. Syn. — loeranea, Raf. 

Distr. — 14 sp. Tropical and Subtropical, world-wide. F. 
distant, Lam. (xlviii, 85). F. aurantiaca^ Lam. (xlviii, 86). 
Fossil, 30 sp. U. Cretaceous — . 

Shell fusiform ; spire acuminated ; aperture oval, elongated ; 
canal open, moderate in length, nearly straight ; columella 
smooth, with a few oblique plaits at the fore-part; outer lip 
internally crenate. 

The animal of Fasciolaria does not differ essentially from that 
of Fusus, nor do we find very much difference in the shells ; the 
usually shorter spire, more swollen bodj^-whorl, wider and shorter 
and flexuous instead of straight canal, and the oblique plaits 
near the fore-end of the columella, are the chief distinguishing 
characters. Between Fasciolaria and Fulgur the resemblance is 
much closer, and, until the dentition of the two groups became 
known, they were placed close together by systematists ; in 
Fulgur, however, the scarcely apparent folding of the columella 
is single, whilst in Fasciolaria it is double, sometimes triple. 
The Peristerniinj^ have columellar folds, but these are usually 
more transverse, are situated higher on the columella, and the 
shells are much smaller ; indeed one of the characteristics of the 
Fasciolarias is the comparatively large size of the species, F. 
gigantea, of the southern Atlantic coast of the United States, 
attaining a length of nearly two feet — the largest of gastiopods. 
The distribution of the genus is tropical and subtropical, in 
shallow waters. But few living species are known, to which may 
be added some fossil forms, commencing with the cretaceous. 
The operculum is more claw-shaped than that of Fusus, and is 
rather large, filling the aperture. 

I have figured the nidimental capsules of F. tulipa, Linn. 

(xvii, 7). 

TEREBRispiRA, Conrad. Shell of medium size, with spire 
much produced and canal short ; volutions convex, angular, and 
strongly spirally ridged ; plaits of columella not exposed exter- 
nally ; outer lip internally sulcated. F. elegans, Emmons (xlviii, 
87). Miocene ; Alabama. 



FUSIDiE. 131 

MESORHYTis, Meek. Shell agreeing nearly with Peistocheilus 
in form, but with plaits of columella stronger, comparatively 
little oblique, and exposed directly opposite the middle of the 
aperture ; surface with fine spiral stria?, and vertical costffi. F. 
gracilenta, Meek (xlviii, 88). Cretaceous; Yellowstone River, 
150 miles from its mouth. Has the folds of a Mitra, rather than 
a Fasciolaria, and Meek refers it with considerable doubt to its 
pi-esent position. 

CRYPTORHYTrs, Meek. Shell generally under medium size, with 
volutions convex, but constricted above, and provided with 
regular vertical costfe or small folds ; plaits of the columella 
very oblique, not exposed in a direct view into the aperture, and 
occupying a higher position than in the typical group ; outer lip 
smooth within. F. Cheyennensis, Meek and Hayden (xlviii, 89, 
from a cast). Cretaceous ; Dakotah. 

LiROSOMA, Conrad. Subpyriform ; ribbed, beak narrow and 
produced, slightly recurved ; one long, very oblique plait at the 
angle of the columella. F. sulcosa, Conrad (xlviii, 90). Miocene ; 
Marjdand. 

PASCiOLiNA, Conrad. Fusiform ; columella nearly straight to 
the extremit}^ of the beak ; one prominent oblique fold on the 
columella, situated above the middle of the aperture. F. Woodii, 
Gabb. Miocene ; New Jersey. The only figure does not exhibit 
the aperture, but Conrad states that the fold is situated more 
remote from the beak than in any other genus except Cuma. 

Subfamily PTYGHATRAGTINjE. 

This group was distinguished as a family by Stimpson. The 
shell of Ptychatractus unites the form of a Sipho with the folds 
of a Fasciolaria ; its small size, color, and northern habitat 
will distinguish it from the latter, even without taking into 
account the very diverse dentition ; j-et without the latter differ- 
ence it would scarcely have been advisable to have separated 
the single species upon which the genus was founded from 
Fasciolaria. 

Ptychatractus, Stimpson, 1865. 

Distr. — 3 sp. Boreal Atlantic and Pacific. P. ligatus, 
Mighels and Ads. (xlviii, 91). 

Shell fusiform, spirally striated ; aperture with a moderate 
canal ; columella plicated as in Fasciolaria. 

Meyeria, Dunker and Metzger. 
Syn. — Metzgeria, Norman. 

Distr.— 31. alba, Jefi"reys (xlviii, 92). Faroe Is., North Sea, 
Norway. 

Shell elongate-fusiform, longitudinally obtusely plicate ; spire 



132 FUSID^. 

produced ; canal exserted ; columella obscurely plicate. Oper- 
culum irregularly ovate ; apex obtuse ; nucleus inconspicuous. 
The dentition of this moUusk appears to relate it somewhat 
to Ptychatractus, and I prefer to place it in the same subfamily 
with that shell, rather than make a new family for it. Norman 
shows that Meyeria is preoccupied by M'Coy for a genus of 
fossil crustaceans, and he therefore proposes the generic name 
Metzgeria ; but I see no advantage (and much disadvantage) in 
changing names because they happen to have been previously 
used in some other department of zoology. 

Subfamily PERIS TERIIN^. 

Peristernia, Morch. 
• DiHtr. — 30 sp. Pol^ynesia, Philippines, Australia, Indian 
Ocean, Zanzibar, Mauritius. P. nasaatula, Lam. (xlviii, 93). 
P. incarnata, Desh., var. ( xlviii, 94). P. BeJcheri. Rve. i xlviii, 96). 

Shell turreted,not umbilicated; whorls longitudinally ribbed; 
aperture oval ; canal moderate and recurved ; outer lip thin and 
crenulated ; columella with one or two slight plaits anteriorly. 
The want of umbilicus, less distinct columella folds and recurved 
canal are the principal (and not sufficient) distinction from 
Latirus. 

Latirus, Montfort. 

Syn. — Chascax, Watson. Polygona, Schum., 181*7. Plicatella, 
Swains. 

Distr. — 34 sp. Polynesia, Philippines, Australia, Indian Ocean, 
Panama, W. Indies, Madeira. L. infundihulum^ Gmel. (xlviii, 95). 

Shell turreted, fusiform, sometimes umbilicated ; spire pro- 
duced ; whorls nodulous, aperture oval-oblong ; outer lip thin, 
crenulated; columella straight, with two or three small oblique 
plaits in front. Mr. H. Crosse remarks upon the insufficiency of 
the diagnosis of Latirus by Montfort and H. and A. Adams, and 
proposes to relegate the species to Turbinella ; that genus, how- 
ever, may be more advantageously restricted to the forms for 
which the genera Yasum and Mazza have been constituted. 

Swainson's group Plicatella has been adopted by Messrs. 
Adams as a subgenus of Latirus, having " spire moderate, 
whorls angular, concavely depressed around the upper part," 
but these are only comparative characters, and I prefer to sup- 
press the group rather than place in it species having no relation 
thereto, as Messrs. Adams have done. The umbilicus shows 
more distinctly in most of the species of Latirus than in those 
of Peristernia, but in some of them it is not any better marked ; 
Latirus, however, differs in form from Peristernia, the species 
having longer spire and canal, the columella generally straight, 



BUCCINIDiE, 133 

the plications more central, simply because the canal is more 
produced. 

The animals of most of the species that have been observed 
are of a dull red color. 

Lexjcozgnia, Gray. 

Distr. — 9 sp. W. Africa, W. Indies, Panama. L. cingulata, 
Lam. (xlviii, 97). 

Shell oval, subglobose, shouldered ; spire moderate ; aperture 
oblong ; canal short; columella subflexuous, with small oblique, 
unequal plaits ; outer lip subacute, with a more or less prominent 
tooth or tubercle at the fore-part. 

The most prominent character of this genus, when present, is 
the tooth which arises from the fore-part of the outer lip. It 
varies greatly in its development in the different species. In L. 
cingulata^ in which it is always present, it is long, curved and 
tusk-like, so that the species has been erroneously arranged with 
Monoceros, from which it is instantly distinguished by its claw- 
like operculum and columellar plaits. In the other species it is 
sometimes entirely absent in some specimens, whilst well devel- 
oped in others. There is usually a posterior subchannel to the 
aperture. The sculpture does not vary essentially from that of 
the species of Latirus, but the color is usually a chestnut-brown, 
the only ornamentation being lighter or darker revolving bands. 
Usually the species are prominently shouldered. 

LAGENA, Schum., 1817. Whorls rounded above, not shouldered. 
L. smaragdula, Linn, (xlviii, 98). 

Genus Mazzaltna, Conrad, appears to be ver^^ similar to 
Lagena, Schum., if not identical with it. M. pyrula, Conrad 
(xlviii, 100). Eocene ; Alabama. 

Family BUCCINID^. 

Shell ovate, oblong or pear-shaped ; canal moderate or short, 
columella without folds or plications. 

Operculum with terminal or lateral nucleus. 

Dentition I'M. The rhachidian tooth normally three- 
( sometimes as many as seven-) px'onged, the laterals two- or three- 
pronged (x, 11, 12). 

The typical Buccinum is a rather thin ovate shell, uniform and 
dull in color, with the base of the aperture broadly notched 
instead of being prolonged (as in Fusidae) into a canal ; but with 
these have been more recentl}^ associated pyriform shells having 
some resemblance to the latter family. Hemifusus, Melongena, 
Sipho, etc, pretty well bridge the chasm between the two 
families as far as the general form of the shell is concerned, but 
in those species of Buccinidae approaching Fusus there is the 
general distinction that the canal, if long, is wide and open; 



134 BUCCINID^. 

whilst tortuous as in Fasciolaria, it has at most a single fold in 
lieu of the plaits on the columella of that genus. I have arranged 
the subfamilies and genera, commencing with those most closely 
allied to Fusus, and terminating with the truly buccinoid forms. 
Although the range of form is great, it will be seen that the 
transitions are not abrupt; and in this case the lingual dentition 
affords confirmation of the grouping adopted upon conchological 
grounds. 

Subfamily melongenin^. Shell pear-shaped, heav}^ ; spire and 
canal short. 

Subfamily neptuniin^. Shell rather thin, pear-shaped or 
ovate ; canal moderate and twisted. 

Subfamily pisaniin^. Shell small, heavy, costate ; canal very 
short and wide, outer lip thickened, dentate within ; columella 
callous or rugose. 

Subfamily buccinin^. Shell rather thin, costate or smooth, 
ovate, covered with a horny epidermis ; aperture very large, lip 
thin, smooth within, terminating below in a short oblique notch. 

Subfamily ebtjrnin^. Shell thick, smooth, ovate-oblong ; 
deeply umbilicated or umbilicus covered by a heavy callus ; 
outer lip simple acute. 

Subfamily photin^. Shell small, smooth, costate or cancellate, 
ovate or turreted, thick; outer lip striate within; canal short 
and wide, columella twisted below. 

Subfamily MELONGENIIN^. 

Melongena, Schum. 

i^yn. — Cassidulus, Ads. Galeodes, Bolt. Mancinella, Mus, 
Beri. Myristica, Swn. Pugilina, Schum. Volema, Bolt. 

Bistr. — 11 sp. West Indies, Panama, Red Sea, Philippines, 
Australia, Polynesia. M. corona^ Gmel. (xlix, 3). 

Shell pyriform, solid, dark-colored or banded; spire short, 
nodulose, spiny ; aperture oval-oblong ; canal short, open ; colu- 
mella smooth; outer lip simple. Operculum solid, claw-like, 
nucleus apical. 

Kobelt, in his monograph of Pyrula (Conchylien Cabinet), 
adopts that genus, taking as subgenera Cassidulus (= Melon- 
gena), Myristica, Pugilina, Yolema and Hemifusus. These 
groups which (except the last) are too closely related concho- 
logically as well as by their lingual dentition, Troschel also 
places together, but without subordinating them to a higher 
group. Pyrula would, indeed, be an excellent name on account 
of its acceptance years ago for the major part of the species, but 
unfortunately the first and only species cited by Lamarck in his 
original description of the genus is the Bulla Jicus, Linn., which 



BUCC1NID.E. 135 

is a member of the genus Ficula, Swainson, over which it has 
priority, and instead of which it shoukl therefore be adopted. 
Cassidulus, Humphrey, has priority over Melongena, but I 
cannot adopt it as it is a mere catalogue name. 

BULBiFUSUS, Conrad. Not characterized. M. inauratus^ Conr. 
(= Fusus Fittonii, Ijea) (li, 49). Eocene; Claiborne, Ala. 

CORNULINA, Conr. Not characterized. M. armigera, Conr. 
(= Fusus Taitii^ Lea) (li, 48). Eocene. 

LEiosTOMA, Swains, 1840. (Sycum, Bayle, 1880.) Fusiform, 
ventricose in the middle, entirely smooth, almost polished ; inner 
lip thickened and vitreous ; base of the pillar very straight. M. 
bulbiformis, Lam. (li, 49). Grignon. 

A comparison of numerous specimens indicates the very close 
relationship of Bulbifusus, Conr., with this group. Bayle has 
changed the name to Sycum, because Leiostoma is preoccupied 
by Lacepede in Fishes. I cannot concur in such changes, which 
would completely unsettle our nomenclature. 

Hemifusus, Swainson, 1840. 

Syn. — Cochlidium, Gray. 

Distr. — 6 sp. W. Coast Africa, West Indies, Peru, Philip- 
pines, Australia, Indian Ocean. 

Shell subfusiform, uncolored or light yellowish ; spire shorter 
than the aperture, ponderous ; whorls armed with compressed 
spines upon the shoulder ; aperture long ovate, with an ascending 
internal canal at the hind-part, produced into a moderate wide 
canal anteriorly ; columella smooth ; outer lip simple. Oper- 
culum unknown. 

Besides being thinner, the shells of this genus are distin- 
guished from Melongena, by being white (without bands or 
other color-markings) under a light yellowish brown epidermis. 
They differ from Fusus in the flexuous, wider, open canal, which 
is widened gradually into the lower portion of the aperture. 

THATCHERiA, Augas. Shell angularly pyriform, solid ; spire 
prominent, shorter than the aperture, many-whorled, whorls 
flattened above, strongly keeled at the periphery and contracted 
below ; aperture with a broad incurved sinus between the 
extremity of the last keel and the junction of the bodj'-whorl ; 
basal canal wide and open ; columella smooth ; outer lip simple 
below the sinus. T. mirabilis, Angas (xlix, 5). 

That this shell is a scalariform monstrosit}' cannot be doubted, 
but what may be its normal form is not so readily ascertained. 
I saw the single specimen from which the above generic descrip- 
tion was made, in London, in 1877, and was immediately con- 
vinced that the conical form, flattened shoulders and sinus were 
all due to distorted growth. 



136 buccinid^. 

Subfamily NEPTUNIIN^. 

Neptunea, Bolteii. 

Syn. — Chrysodomus, Swains., 1840. 

Distr. — 18 sp. Circumpolar, Pacific and Atlantic, Europe, 
Asia, America. N, antiqua, Linn, (xlix, 6). N. decemcostata, 
Say (xlix, 7). 

Shell fusiform, ventricose ; spire elevated, whorls roimded, 
covered with a horny epidermis, apex papillary; aperture oval; 
canal short ; inner lip simple, smooth. Operculum ovate, nucleus 
apical. 

The shells of this genus are boreal in distribution, and like 
the other cii'cumpolar genera, are nearly destitute of color, being 
white or yellowish, under a light brown or yellowish, rather 
smooth epidermis. The sculpture, when there is an}^, consists 
of revolving strise, ridges or ribs, and the lip of the aperture is 
smooth within or merely modified by the external sculpture when 
the shell is thin. In the genus Siphonalia, the species of which 
are mainly Japanese and Australian, the general form is similar, 
but the shell is nodose, frequently developing longitudinal ribs, 
and the outer lip is more disposed to be crenulate ; the surface 
is more usually ornamented with color, disposed in bands, etc. 
There are some species which can be only arbitrarily placed, 
having characters partaking of either genus ; and in fact geo- 
graphical considerations must sometimes be allowed considerable 
weight in assigning such species to their respective genera. 

Some of the species are apparently very variable, and it is 
difficult to decide whether the conservative views of Gwyn Jef- 
freys and Kobelt, or the more extreme views of Morch, etc., are 
most in accordance with truth. 

Of Neptunea antiqua (xlix, 6^, Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys (Brit. 
Conch., iv, 326) says : 

" This is good bait for codfish, and a favorite delicacy of the 
lower working-classes in London. At Billingsgate it is sold 
under the name of ' almond ' or 'red whelk;' according to Rutly's 
History of Dublin the Irish call it ' barnagh,' the tail (liver) 
being said to be more fat and tender than a lobster. The egg- 
cases or capsules overlap one another in an imbricated fashion, 
each being firmly attached by its base to the underl^'ing capsule ; 
they are deposited in clusters of from a dozen to a hundred, the 
capsules in each cluster being equal in size. Those which com- 
pose one cluster, however, are not half as large as those forming 
another cluster, although in both cases the fry are in the same 
state of matui-ity. When they are dry, the upper or convex side 
shrivels, and is wrinkled or pitted; the under or flat side (which 
by contraction becomes concave) is of a silky texture, and divided 



BUCCINID^. 13t 

across by a few lines ; the opening is a wide slit, 1}' ing just under 
the top which makes a narrow flap. 

" Before leaving the capsule the fry are perfectly foi*med, with 
conspicuous tentacles, eyes, and operculum ; their shell has two 
whorls, the first being smooth, and the other showing a few 
slight incipient stria?. Each capsule produces only from two to 
four fry. The latter end of winter appears to be the spawning- 
season ; on the 26th of January, 1861, 1 examined fresh capsules 
which contained merely eggs immersed in a glairy liquid ; and 
seven days afterwards I found in the other capsules full-sized and 
living young whelks." 

JUMALA, Friele, 1882. (Chrysodomus, in part.) Central plate 
small, quadrangular, unarmed, laterals hooked, with two small 
teeth on the inner margin. N. Turtoni, Bean. The dentition 
forms an insufficient distinction of this group from the typical 
Neptunese. 

voLUTOPSis, Morch. (Syn. — Strombella, Gray.) Shell smooth, 
ovate, ventricose ; spire short, apex bulbaceous ; last whorl rather 
large ; aperture ver^' large, the lip considerably' expanded; canal 
scarcely produced, wndely obliquely truncate. Operculum irreg- 
ularly ovate, with apical nucleus. N. Norvegica, Chemn. (xlix, 8). 

The shells of this division are characterized by their large 
mouths, expanded lips, want of distinctly produced canal, etc. 
The small operculum is (in V. Norvegica) more ovate than in 
the true Neptunese ; the dentition also, varies from the typical 
form. Volutopsis appears to stand between Neptunea and 
Buccinum. 

HELiOTROPis, Dall. (Pyrulofusus, Beck.) Shell thin, sinistral, 
apex mammillated. Operculum relatively very small. 

The essential character of this group is the reversed direction 
of the spire, placing the aperture on the left instead of the right 
side of the shell. The principal species have been considered 
by good conchologists as mere monstrosities of dextral species ; 
thus Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffre3^s regards N. contraria, Linn, (xlix, 9) 
as equivalent to N. antiqua. But of this species it has been 
shown that it has an extensive distribution in Southern Europe, 
where the normal N. antiqua is unknown, and that the so-called 
reversed antiqua is very rare where the normal form is abundant. 

SiPHO, Klein. 

Syn. — Atractus, Agassiz. Tritonofusus, Beck. 

Distr. — 37 sp. Arctic and Boreal, Atlantic and Pacific, Europe, 
Asia and America. S. ventricosus, Gray (xlix, 10). 

Shell thin, pyriform or fusiform, not tuberculate or spiny, 
usually smooth and rounded whorls ; spire moderate ; canal pro- 
duced and recurved. Operculum ovate, nucleus apical. 

10 



13S buccinidjE. 

Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys thus describes the egg-capsules of S. gra- 
cilis, DaCosta : 

"The capsules ai-e solitary, small, membranous, pouch-shaped, 
and attached by a broad base to stones and corallines; their 
surface is microscopically and closely reticulated ; orifice 
extrerael}' large and sometimes having the edge partly stained 
with pink. Each capsule contains only a single embryonic shell, 
which is transparent, and through it may be seen the orange 
liver and two unequal-sized plumes of pale yellow gills." 

NEPTUNELLA, Verrill. Founded on the peculiarly velvety epi- 
dermis and the dentition of S. jjygmaeus. The epidermis is, 
however, no more velvety than in some other species, and the 
description of the dentition given by Verrill applies very well 
to that of Sipho Islandicua. 

siPHONORBis, Morch. Apex depressed, embryonic whorls grad- 
nally diminishing, angigyrous. In the true Siphos the apex is 
mamillar}^ S. ehur, Morch. 

MOHNIA, Friele. Operculum paucispiral. M. Mohnii, Friele 
(xlix, 11, 12). 

SiPHONALiA, A. Adams. 

Distr. — 25 sp. Japan, California, Australia, N. Zealand. S. 
Tasmayiiensis, Angas (xlix, 13 . S. nodosa, Mart, (xlix, 14). 

Shell ovate ly fusiform, sometimes variegated in coloring, 
rather thin, epidermis very thin, fugaceous ; last whorl ventri- 
cose, shouldered, usuall}^ nodosely plicate and spirally ribbed ; 
aperture oval, outer lip thin, columella smooth; canal rather 
short, twisted. Operculum ovate, nucleus apical. Dentition 
unknown. 

This genus is principally of tropical and subtropical distribu- 
tion, and more highly colored than Neptunea : which, nevertheless, 
it approaches very nearly in the form and color of S. Kellettii, 
for instance. The metropolis of the genus is Japan, a few 
forms being found, however, on the opposite shores of the West 
Coast of North America ; some species occur also in Australian 
waters. The shells are usually thin and ventricose, variegated 
in color and destitute of epidermis. The operculum is fusoid. 

AUSTROFUSUS, Kobelt. Shell ovate-fusiform, whorls rounded, 
not angulated at the upper part. »S'. alternata, Phil, (xlix, 15). 

FuLGUR, Montfort. 

Syn. — Busy con. Bolt. 

Distr. — 5 sp. Atlantic Coast of United States. F. carica, 
Gmel. (xlix, 16). Fossil. Tertiary ; Eastern U. S. 

Fear-shaped, thin; spire short, the angle of the shoulder 
spinous ; body-whorl very large, attenuated below into a rather 
long twisted canal ; lip and columella smooth, the latter with a 
single, rather obsolete fold. Operculum ovate, nucleus apical. 



BUCCINIDiE. 139 

Dentition of tj^pieal form ; rhacliidian tooth 5-6 dentate, laterals 
5-6 dentate. 

Animal rather small, retractile with its operculum within the 
shell for about a third of a volution from the aperture. 

The distribution of the genus is restricted to the temperate 
and subtropical waters of the Atlantic Coast of the United 
States, and its manifest conchological position connects Fascio- 
laria with Neptunea. It is not infrequent in our miocene 
deposits, from which several species have been described by Mr. 
Conrad. 

The name Fulgur, meaning lightning, is in allusion to the 
somewhat tortuous longitudinal brown streaks upon the shells 
(of Southern specimens), indicating rest-periods in its growth. 
The animal is used for bait by fishermen, and the trade in the 
shells for garden ornaments and for use as hanging flower-pots 
is so extensive as to have nearly caused the extermination of 
the species upon portions of the New Jersey coast. 

Morch and Adams have used the name Busycon, of Bolten, 
for this genus, but Bolten did not characterize it, whilst the 
later name given by Montfort accompanies a full generic 
description ; I therefore prefer Fulgur. It was included by 
Lamai'ck in the heterogeneous assemblage of species which he 
called Pyrula. 

The late Dr. Jeffreys Wyman, in his valuable memoir on the 
"Fresh-Water Shell Mounds of the St. John's River, Florida," 
mentions two kinds of chisel-shaped tools cut from the shells of 
Fulgur carica and F. jierve7'.^a. These implements were probably 
used by the aborigines for fleshing skins and for the manufacture 
of articles of wood. F. perversa was also used by the Florida 
Indians as a drinking vessel, the interior whox'ls being removed 
to increase its capacity. This same species was extensively 
used and must have been an important article of trade among 
the natives, as it is frequentl}^ found in Indian graves and 
mounds throughout the Southern and Western States and 
Canada. It is probable that, among other uses, it was cut up 
into beads and various small ornaments. The white kind of 
wampum or shell money of the Indians was partially made of 
the axis of the shells of Fulgur, and partiallj^ from Buccinum 
undatum. 

SYCOTYPUS (Browne), Gill. Shell with canaliculate suture, 
periostraca ciliated, nodulous instead of spinous. F. canalicu- 
latus, Ssij (xlix, n, 18). 

I do not consider Browne's description sutricientl>- character- 
istic to meet the requirements of a diagnosis ; moreover, these 
shells are known not to inhabit Jamaica. Gill's diagnosis is, of 
course, accurate, but it mainly repeats the characters of Fulgur; 
the real diflference is in the canaliculated sutures and ciliated 



140 BUCCINID^. 

periostracum. The distinction of "spinous" for Busycon or 
Pulgur, and " tuberculated " for Sycotypus is of little importance 
generically, as tlie Fulgurs are frequently only tuberculate when 
young and become spinous with advancing age ; moreover, the 
miocene series serve to connect the two groups in this respect. 
Under these circumstances I judge it better to make Sycotypus 
a subgenus onl}^, under Fulgur. 

Mr. T. A. Conrad (Am. Jour. Conch., iii, 182) attempts to dis- 
tinguish the embryos of Sycotypus from those of Fulgur by the 
latter having a long fissuie parallel with the columella, whilst 
the columellar region of the former is entire. Mr. Conrad's 
specimens, which are before me, and which I saw him extract 
from the pouches, certainly show this difference, but I have 
since had occasion to examine the embryos of Fulgur several 
times, and from different strings of pouches, none of which show 
the slit columella ; the character was probably pathological. 

TAPHON, H. and A. Adams. Shell dextral, transversely striated, 
whorls rounded ; aperture ovate, fore-part produced into a long, 
slightly recurved canal. F. .striatus, (iray (xlix, 19). 

SYCOPSis, Conrad. Shell tuberculate, not canaliculate. Eocene 
and Miocene. Differs from the genus in having tubercles instead 
of spines on the shoulder. 

Streptosiphon, Gill. 

Dii'tr. — S. jiorphyrostoma, Ads. and Reeve (xlix, 50). Eastern 
Seas, Senegal. 

Shell subfusiform ; spire rather short, apex papillary ; whorls 
angulated at the upper part and tuberculate on the angle ; colu- 
mella concave, with a doul)le very oblique fold on the lower part; 
canal moderately long, twisted ; aperture lirate within. Oper- 
culum and animal unknown. Seems to connect Busycon with 
Tudicla. 

TuDiCLA, Bolten. 

Syn. — Spirilla, Humph. Pyrella, Swn. 

Distr. — 5 sp. Indian Ocean, China, Australia. T. inermiti, 
Sowb. (xlix, 21). 

Shell fusiform ; spire short, apex papillary ; aperture oval ; 
canal very long, narrow, straight ; columella smooth, flattened, 
with a single large, or three smaller transverse folds at the fore- 
part. Operculum fusoid. Dentition unknown. 

PAPiLLiNA, Conrad. Piriform; shoulder angular and spinous; 
beak long, with an obtuse fold on the columella ; three volutions 
from the apex forming a papillated summit. P. papillatus, 
Conrad (li, 58). Eocene ; Claiborne, Ala. 

PERissoLAX, Gabb. Spire depressed; body-whorl patulous; 
canal long ; columella without folds or plaits. Distinguished 
from Papillina by the want of a columellar fold, iind evidently 



BUCCINID^. 141 

intended to be ranged in the Fusinie, but I think its general 
appearance decidedly that of Busj^con or Tudicla. Cretaceous 
to Eocene. P. brevirostris, Gahh (li^5d). Cretaceous; California. 
LEViFUSUS, Conrad, is generally considered synonj^mous with 
Perissolax. It is an uncharacterized Eocene form. P. traheatus^ 
Conr. Eocene ; Alabama. 

FusispiRA, Hall. 

Distr. — F. ventricosa, Hall (li, 50). Trenton Limestone, near 
Green Bay. So far as known, this palaeozoic genus is confined to 
the Quebec, Trenton and Hudson River groups. 

Shell fusiform, imperforate, spire more or less elevated, with 
rounded volutions ; aperture elongate, oval or elliptical, produced 
below, forming a subrimate canal ; columella slightl}^ twisted, 
without folds, peristome sharp. Surface smooth. 

Closteriscus, Meek. 

Distr. — C. tenuilineatus, Meek (li, 51). Cretaceous ; Cheyenne 
Riv., Dakotah. 

Shell thin, fusiform ; spire slender, longer than aperture and 
canal; surface smooth or minutely striate; aperture rhombic, 
outer lip broadly retreating above the middle, thin, excepting at 
irregular intervals, where it became thickened and denticulate 
within, so as to leave internal varices behind as the shell advanced 
in growth ; inner lip very thin, or wanting ; columella smooth (?). 

Pal^atractus, Gabb. 

Distr. — P. crassus, Gabb (li, 52). Cretaceous; California. 

Pyriform, thick ; spire low ; columella slightly twisted ; outer 
lip simple, inner lip incrusted. Surface heavily ribbed or can- 
cellate. 

Pyrifusus, Conrad. 

Distr. — P. subdensatus., Conr. (U, 53). Cretaceous; Mississippi. 

Pyriform ; columella broad, thick, flattened ; body-volution 
transversely oval, compressed dorso-ventrally. 

NEPTUNELLA, Mcck. Body-volutiou rounded ; columella not 
flattened ; spire more elevated ; outer lip broadly sinuous above 
the middle. P. Newberryi., Meek and Hayden (li, 54). Creta- 
ceous ; Dakotah. 

Hercorhyncus, Conrad. 

Distr. — //. Tzpjjana, Conr. (li, 55). Cretaceous; Mississippi, 

Shell fusiform; spire prominent, scalariform, longitudinally 
ribbed and tuberculated, or with tubercles only ; top depressed 
above the angle or shoulder of the last whorl, which depression 
becomes angular at the aperture, emarginating the upper part of 
the labrum ; ,last whorl broad and rather abruptly rounded at 
base ; beak abruptly recurved and produced. 



142 BUCCINID^. 

LiROPUsus, Conr. 
Distr. — L. thoracicus, Conr. = ducussatus, Lea (li, 56). Eocene ; 
Alabama. 

Genus not characterized. 

Strepsidura, Swainson. 

Distr. — S. costata, Swainson = Fusus Jiculneus, Lam. (li, 5*7). 

Widely fusiform ; basal portion of the pillar turned outwardly-, 
with a sharp fold at the base of the aperture ; shell costate and 
subcarinate, body -whorl ventricose. 

ToRTiFUSus, Conrad. 

Syn. — Meganema, Conr. 

Distr. — T. curvirostra, Conr. (li, 60). Miocene; N. Carolina. 

Differs from Busycoji in being without a trace of tubercles or 
spines, and in having prominent regular ribs ; the whorls are 
flattened on top, and slightly canaliculated. 

Pyropsis, Conrad. 

Distr. — P. perlata, Conr. (li, 61). Cretaceous; Tippah Co., 
Miss. 

Spire very short, apex not papillated ; labrum without striae 
within, thick ; columella without a fold. 

Clavifusus, Conrad. 
Distr. — C. Cooperi, Conrad (li, 62). Eocene; Alabama. 
The genus has not been characterized. 

Subfamily PISANIIN^. 

PiSANiA, Bivona. 

Syn. — Pusio, Gray. 

Distr. — 20 sp. West Indies, Mediterranean, Red Sea, Philip- 
pines, Australia, Polynesia. P. pusio ^ Linn. (1, 22). 

Shell oblong ; spire prominent, whorls smooth or spirally 
striated ; canal very short ; outer lip thickened and crenated. 
Operculum ovate, nucleus apical. 

Between t3'pical specimens of this genus and of Euthria "there 
is a distinction with a diflerence," and therefore it may be profit- 
able to retain both groups ; but there are species in which the 
characters become so merged that their generic classification is 
merely arbitrary. 

Euthria, Gra}'. 

Syn. — Evarne, H. and A. Adams. 

Distr — 10 sp. Mediterranean, Cape, N. Zealand, Cape Horn, 
Chili, California, Alaska, Japan. E. cornea^ Linn. (1, 23). 

Shell fusiform, smooth ; aperture oval, produced anteriorly 



BUCCINID^. 143 

into a long recurved canal; inner lip simple: outer lip poste- 
riori}^ sinuated, striate within. Operculum ovate, nucleus apical. 

Metula, H. and A. Adams. 

Dislr. — 4 sp. N. Zealand, Japan. M. clafhrata, Ads. and 
Rve. (1, 24). 

Shell elongately fusiform, finely cancellated ; spire elevated, 
acute ; aperture narrow ; inner lip distinct, smooth ; outer lip 
thickened externally, crenulated within, emarginate posteriorly. 
Operculum unknown. 

Cantharus, Bolten. 

Syn. — Pollia, Gray. Tritonidea, Swn. 

Distr. — 55 sp. All tropical and subtropical seas. C. Tran- 
quebaricus, Gmel. (1, 25). G. distortus, Gray (1, 26). 

Shell bucciniform, more or less ventricose in the middle, 
narrowed anteriorly ; spire and aperture nearly equal ; columella 
generally with a few transverse ridges ; outer lip internally 
crenated, and with a superior siphonal canal. Operculum ovate, 
nucleus apical. 

Swainson described a group Tritonidea, which Messrs. H. and 
A. Adams make a subgenus under Cantharus, distinguishing it 
from the typical form by " Shell tnrreted ; canal lengthened." 
The distinction is altogether arbitrary, as the spire in the different 
species varies considerably from the typical species of Cantharus 
to much higher, but with no considerable break in the series, 
whilst the canal can scarcely be called " lengthened" in any of 
them. 

CANTHARULUS, Meek. Shell with canal moderatel}^ produced, 
rather narrow and twisted ; inner lip smooth throughout, and 
rather well developed ; columella arcuate and twisted, so as to 
form an obtuse, undefined prominence below ; outer lip slightly 
sinuous above. C. Vaughani^ Meek and Hayden (li, 63). Cre- 
taceous ; Upper Missouri River. 

Metulella, Gabb. 

Distr. — M. fuHifonnis^ Gabb (li, 64). Miocene; San Do- 
mingo, W. I. 

Shell fusiform, canal more or less produced ; inner lip covered 
with a thickened plate, continuous posteriorly with the outer 
lip. Interior of both inner and outer lips strongly denticulated 
or transversely striated. Surface cancellate or costate. More 
distinctly fusiform thaji Metula, the columella with a row of 
denticles. 

Agasoaia, Gabb. 

Distr. — A. sinuata, Gabb (li, 65). Miocene; California. 
Subfusiform, spire low, body-whorl long ; canal moderately 



144 BUCCINIDiE. 

produced and slightly deflected ; aperture elongate, labrum 
simple; labium incrusted with a thin, smooth plate; suture 
bordered by an elevated portion of the succeeding whorl as in 
Clavella. It differs from Clavella in the very short spire and in 
the short and slightly curved canal. 

Subfamily BUGCININ^. 

BucciNUM, Linnaeus. 

Utym. — Buccina, a trumpet. 

Syn. — Tritonium, Fabr. Halia, Macgill. 

Distr. — 22 sp. Arctic and boreal seas ; low water to 100 fath- 
oms. B. undatum^ Linn. (1, 27, 28). 

Shell ovate or oblong, covered with a horny epidermis ; spire 
elevated, apex acute ; aperture large, oval, emarginate in front; 
canal wide, very short, or a mere obli(pie truncation of the base 
of the aperture ; columella smooth ; inner lip expanded ; outer 
lip usually thin, smooth internally. Operculum ovate, nucleus 
small near the outer front edge. 

The group of shells to which the generic name Buccinum was 
originally applied, a century ago, by Linnaeus, has been found by 
subsequent investigation to contain many heterogeneous forms, 
and has consequently been greatly subdivided. The name has 
been retained for the genus typified by Buccinum undatum, by 
common consent, and, I believe, in accordance with the best rules 
of nomenclature. It is true that Linnaeus' first species — that 
which is to be selected, as in cases where no t3^pe is distinctly 
specified — is a Dolium. But in the case of Linnaeus' genera, he 
must be considered to have indirectly specified the type, as he 
has expressly stated that, in his view, where it becomes necessary 
to divide a group, formerly supposed to be one genus, the 
original name must be retained for the subdivision containing 
the most common species; in other words, that the most common 
species must be considered as the type of its genus. And he 
must therefore have regarded the B. iiyidatum^ the most common 
of all his Buccinums, as the type of the genus. 

The Scandinavian naturalists have generally retained the name 
Tritonium of Miiller for this genus, but Linnjeus' name has pri- 
ority by many years Tritonium, as proposed, and as frequently 
used since, would include both the Murex and the Buccinum of 
Linnaeus. 

The genus Buccinum is restricted geographically to the tem- 
perate and frigid seas of the northern hemisphere. Geologically, 
the history of the genus commences in the Pliocene formation. 
They are found in the European tertiary deposits of that age, 
even as far south as the shores of the Mediterranean. They 
become very numerous in the Pleistocene deposits, both of 



BUCCINID^. 145 

Europe and North America, but reach their maximum develop- 
ment in the existing seas. 

The shells of the genus Buccinura are peculiarly liable to 
variation in form and sculptiire, and to obsolescence or erosion 
of the surface markings. This variability^, an ordinar}^ charac- 
teristic of Arctic shells, renders the discrimination of species 
extremely difficult. 

B. undatiim (1, 27, 28) is common to the shores of the northern 
part of the United States and Europe. Mr. Gw}^! Jetfreys writes 
about it as follows : 

" American specimens of the common sort are smaller than 
European ; and Stimpson endeaA^ors to show that they belong to 
a distinct species, because of '■a. fades difficult to describe.' If 
the supposed difference cannot be defined by au}- words or delinea- 
tion, and the only substitute offered is the nearly exploded idea 
of representation of species, it is a pity that naturalists should 
be so unnecessarily perplexed. 

"In Scotland and Shetland this common shell-fish is called 
'Buckie,' in the Isle of Man (according to Forbes) 'mutlag,' in 
Holland ' wulk ' (Born), in France 'bouche-aurore ' (Lamarck), 
at Brest 'grosse bigorne,' and at Rochelle 'burgau morchon ' 
(De Montfort\ and in La Manche 'ran' (De Gerville). The 
common generic name in English is 'whelk.' The animal emits 
a thin and copious slime. From its size and toughness it makes 
a good subject for anatomical demonstration — although Cuvier 
has left very little to be known about that part of its history. 
It burrows in the sand like Natica catena ; and its foot is simi- 
larly traversed by numerous canals, which admit of its being 
distended b}' water ; this enters by an orifice at the upper corner 
of the mouth of the shell, and finds its way, through the abdom- 
inal cavity, into the vascular system of the foot. When it burrows, 
the end of the pallial tube or siphon is either exposed or but 
slightl}^ covered by the sand, so as to supply the gills with water 
or air as the case may require. Beudant's experiments show 
that it cannot live in freshwater. The formation of two opercula 
b}^ the same individual appears to be congenital, and not owing 
to an injury of the opercular lobe, which would cause an aborted 
or defective growth ; for in some of these monstrous specimens 
the twin opercula are so large that they are doubled or folded 
inwards, side by side, in order to fit the mouth of the shell. 
This mollusk is very voracious, and is often caught on the fisher- 
men's hooks. Orsted tells us, in his interesting treatise, 'De 
regionibus marinis,' that great numbers of B. undatwm and 
Fusus antiquva are collected in the Cattegat for fish-bait, by 
putting a dead cod into a Avicker basket and letting it doAvn on 
a muddy bottom ; it is soon taken up half-filled with Avhelks. The 
same method is adopted for their capture on the English and Irish 



146 BUCCINID^. 

coasts. The whelk affords an illustration of the lex talionis ; fishes 
in their turn devour it with equal greediness. I have seen 
between thirty and forty shells of B. undatum extracted from the 
stomach of a single cod. After the shell has been cleared out 
and ejected by the fish, it makes a convenient habitation for the 
hermit-crab. Other nations have not quite so great a fancy as 
ours for eating the whelk ; perhaps it is an indigenous taste ; for 
when the Romans were in this country, they seem to have 
acquired it — being one which they could not gratify in Italy. 
Shells of B. undatum^ mixed with those of the oyster, have been 
noticed among the ruins of a Roman station at Richborough. 
At the enthronization feast of William Warham, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, on the 9th of March, 1504, there were provided 
'8000 whelks at 5s. per 1000.' In the shell-Hsh market at Billings- 
gate the present species goes by the name of the ' white ' or 
'common' whelk, in contradistinction to Fusus antiqu us, yvhxch. 
is there called the 'red' or 'almond' whelk. My obliging 
informant, Mr. Baxter, says, ' Wilks must be sold the same day 
we receive them at market in the summer, being the day after 
they are caught ; if the supply is greater than the demand, wc 
boil them, and the}' keep good for several days.' Evidence was 
given before a select committee of the House of Commons in 
the session of 1866, on the 'Whitstable oystei'-fisher}' extension 
Bill,' that the whelk-fishery on a sandy flat in that bay yielded 
£12,000 a year — part of the produce being disposed of in the 
London market for food, and the rest sent to the cod-fishing 
banks for bait. They are seldom eaten in the northern part of 
our Isles. At Dieppe and Nantes they may occasionally be 
seen exposed for sale in the fish-markets. The embrj^ology of 
B. undatum has been investigated by Baster and many other 
writers. Its curious spawn-cells are figured in Ellis's Corallines 
as '■ Alcyonium seu Vesicularia marina of Bauhin ;' they are 
also called ' Sea wash-balls,' because of their being used instead 
of soap by sailors to wash their hands (xvii, 4). Dr. Johnston 
compares this vesicular mass to the nest of the bumble-bee. It 
is composed of nvimerous cartilaginous pouches, of the shape 
and size of a large split pea, piled irregularly one upon another, 
and attached by their edges at the base. Cailliaud counted 544 
of these cells in one of the spawn-masses. Each cell contains 
at first several hundred eggs, which are afterwards so greatly 
reduced in number that only trom fifteen to thirty fry come to 
maturity. The process by which this reduction takes place has 
been disputed by Scandinavian and English physiologists, not 
less as to Buccinum than with respect to Purpura. Koren and 
Danielssen state that the eggs are first spherical, that they after- 
wards separate into distinct portions, and then amalgamate or 
agglomerate and assume a different shape. Sir John Lubbock, 



BUCCINID^. 147 

on the contrary, ascertained that the more advanced embryos 
swallow the other yelks whole, and in such quantities as to 
become greatly distended ; his paper in the ' Report of the British 
Association ' for 1^860 contains a representation of ' a young 
embryo in the act of swallowing an egg.' Before the fry leaves 
its cell, it is furnished with two rounded and ciliated lobes in 
front, a proboscis, eyes, foot, gills, heart, otolites or ear-stones, 
and other organs, besides a perfectly formed shell of two whorls 
and an operculum. The spawning season takes place according 
to the latitude and climate, between October and May ; about 
two months are required for the development of the fry. The 
shells vary exceedingly in thickness ; some are solid and coarsel}' 
ribbed ; others are thin, and their sculpture is very delicate. 
Sometimes the top of the shell is broken otf, and the opening is 
closed b}^ a plug. In young specimens the nucleus of the oper- 
culum is more central than in the adult, the lateral extension of 
growth being inwards or towards the pillar." 

The egg-cases of B. Humphreysianum are separate and hemi- 
spherical, on which account Dr. Jeffreys has proposed to separate 
that species under the generic name Macla, its surface being- 
glabrous. 

BucciNOPSis, Jeffreys. 

Syn. — Liomesus, Stimpson. 

Distr. — 3 sp. Northern Europe, Siberia, Alaska. B. Dalei, 
Sowb. (1, 29). 

Shell bucciniform, smooth or spirally striulate, last whorl 
inflated; aperture obliquely truncate below. Operculum small, 
subtriangular, nucleus apical. 

Dr. Jeffrej's, who places his genus in the family Muricidge, 
remarks that " the principal difference between this genus and 
Buccinum consists in the operculum, the nucleus of which is in 
Buccinopsis terminal, at the inner base of the mouth, the increase 
taking place by semielliptical layers ; while in the other genus it 
is placed within the edge, at the outer side of the mouth, the 
increase taking place by concentric layers. The egg-cases of 
Buccinopsis are separate, and shaped like a well-filled leather 
purse, the opening for the egress of the fty being at the top and 
very wide." 

Neobuccinum, E. a. Smith. 

Distr. — The preceding genera, Buccinum and Buccinopsis, are 
inhabitants of the Arctic sea ; this, of the Antarctic waters. N. 
Eatoni, E. A. Smith (1, 30, 31). 

Shell bucciniform, smooth, thin; aperture obliquely, widely 
notched below. Operculum subspiral. Dentition resembling that 
of Neptunea. 

Mr. Smith founds his genus principally upon the paucispiral 



148 BUCClNIDiE. 

operculum, but the figure given by him shows an operculum 
wliich is no more curved than occurs sometimes in the genus 
Sipho,for example. This, with the dentition, indicates relation- 
ship with Neptunea, but the absence of a canal in the shell, on the 
other hand, relates it to Buccinum. 

VoLUTHARPA, Fischer. 

Distr. — 7 sp. Japan, Siberia, Sitka. V. Perryi, Jay (1, 32). 

Shell ventricose, thin ; spire short, body-whorl and aperture 
very large. Operculum usually wanting ; when present, at first 
with apical nucleus, afterwards becoming annular. 

This little group of mollusks is confined in distribution to the 
North Pacific Ocean, its metropolis being Japan. Three of the 
species were originally described as BuUia, from which genus it 
differs in its simple foot and in possessing eyes as well as in 
dentition. The form and porcellanous texture of the shell are 
like Bullia, and serve to separate it from Buccinum. Mr. 
Arthur Adams says that the animal is like Buccinvim, of a white 
color sparsely sprinkled with black on the head, foot and 
siphon ; the tentacles are broad, close together at the base, and 
rather short, with the eyes on the outer side, near the middle ; 
the siphon is thick and short, and the foot is fleshy and simple 
behind. 

" The ova-capsules of Volutharpa are not at all like those of 
Buccinum, but rather like those of Fulgur, though smaller, con- 
sisting of disk-like capsules, united by one edge to a ribbon or 
stalk. They contain from eight to twelve embryos, which attain 
the length of one-half inch, and a shell of two whorls, which, 
except in the absence of epidermis, essentially resembles the 
adult. The first whorl, however, is whitish and amorphous, and 
very fragile ; it is large for the size of the embryo, and is invari- 
ably lost in shells which have attained maturity. The remainder 
of the embryonic shell is translucent purplish red, or wine-color, 
with revolving lines. I found the embryos on the point of 
escaping from the ova-capsules in September. The disks of the 
capsules are three-quarters of an inch in diameter and two-tenths 
of an inch thick, with the edges perpendicular to the top and 
bottom, and the angles serrate or furnished with slight coriaceous 
projecting points." — Dall. 

Chi/Anidota, Martens. 

Distr. — C. vestita^ Martens (1, 33). Kerguelen's Island. 

Shell subglobose, thin, spirally costate. Operculum with apical 
nucleus. Dentition : middle plate with five teeth, the outer ones 
much smaller, laterals with three teeth, the middle one smallest, 
the outer one somewhat smaller than the inner. 



BUCCINID^. 149 

CoMiNELLA, Gray. 

nislr.—20 sp. Cape, N. Zealand, Australia. G. Hmbosa, 
Lam., var. (1, 34). 

Shell bucciniform, marked or spotted, covered with an epi- 
dermis ; spire short, acute, last whorl large, ventricose, with a 
posterior depressed groove at the suture, producing a contraction 
at the hind-part of the outer lip. Operculum with apical nucleus. 

H. and A. Adams ( Genera, ii, 615) make Adamsia, Dunker, a 
subgenus of Cominella ; the operculum and facies of the type 
show it, however, to = Urosalpinx. 

JOSEPHA, Tenison-Woods. Founded upon the C. Tasmanica, 
which differs from Cominella in possessing a plait upon the 
columella. 

Clea, a. Adams. 

Disfr.—U sp. Fresh water. Borneo, Java, Siam, Cambodia. 
C. nigricans, A. Ad. (1, 35). 

Shell turbinate, covered by an epidermis, aperture ovately 
acute, truncate at base and profoundly sinuate, dextral margin 
regularly arcuate, parietal callus none or thin. Operculum sub- 
trigonal, with apical nucleus. 

First proposed as a genus of the family Melanidse, which the 
shell resembles in its form, epidermis and habitat in fresh waters, 
especially reminding one of the genus Hemisinus. The oper- 
culum with its apical nucleus, no less than the lingual dentition, 
whereof the formula is I'M in Clea, instead of 3-1-3 as in Melania, 
induced Brot to remove the species to Buccinida^ ; and the form' 
and sculpture of the shell do not contravene such a disposition 
of Clea, its fluviatile distribution being really the strongest 
argument for considering it a Melania. 

CANiDEA, H. Adams. Shell small, fusiform or turbinate, covered 
with an epidermis ; spire longer than the aperture, apex eroded ; 
whorls slightly convex, plicate ; aperture elongately ovate, emar'- 
ginated in front ; columella truncate ; lip simple, sinuated in 
front. Operculum small, unguiculate ; nucleus apical. Living 
in fresh water. G. Helena, Meder (1, 36). G. Gambodiensis, 
Rve. (1, 37). 

Eripachya, Gabb. 

Distr.—E. perforata, Gabb (li, 66). Cretaceous ; California. 

Shell short, robust, subovate to subfusiform, spire moderately 
elevated. Aperture broad, terminating in advance in a very short 
canal or a mere notch ; outer lip simple ; inner lip more or less 
heavily incrusted. Surface marked by longitudinal ribs and 
revolving lines. 

PsEUDOBUCciNUM, Meek and Hayden. 

Distr.—P. Nebrascense, M. and H. (li, 67). Cretaceous; 
Moreau R. 



150 BUCCINID^. 

Shell oval, thin, ventricose ; spire very short ; bodj^-volution 
large, not produced below ; aperture large, terminating below in 
a rounded sinus ; outer lip thin and simple ; inner lip very thin, 
smooth, and closely and very broadly folded upon the imper- 
forate umbilical region and body-volution above, so as to form, 
with a low revolving umbilical ridge, a kind of profoundly arcu- 
ate, strongly spiral, false columella ; surface with more or less 
distinct revolving lines and furrows. 

Meek is inclined to believe that Bullia ampullacea is a living 
example of his genus ; if so, Volutharpa, Fischer, will have pri- 
ority over Pseudobuccinum. 

Odontobasis, Meek. 

Distr. — 0. ventricosa, Meek (li, C)S). Cretaceous; Dakotah. 

Shell buccinoid-fusiform ; spire more or less produced ; body- 
volution ventricose, and separated below from the short narrow 
beak, by a sharpl}^ -defined, narrow, revolving sulcus, that termi- 
nates below at the connection of the outer lip with the canal, in 
a small tooth-like projection; outer lip thin, smooth within, and 
nearly straight in outline ; inner lip not thickened, but well- 
defined ; columella a little twisted, slightly flattened, and bearing 
two oblique plaits below, the lower one of which is formed by 
the raised lower edge of the obliquely truncated columella, and 
the other, which is very obscure, or perhaps sometimes obsolete, 
placed a little above the same ; surface ornamented by vertical 
folds and revolving lines and furrows. 

This genus, referred doubtfully to the Buccinidtie by Meek, 
seems to unite characters of several different groups ; the shell 
is Buccinoid in form and sculpture, but the fold and tooth 
remind one of Fasciolarise, whilst the truncate columella recalls 
the Nassae. 

EcTRACHELizA, Gabb. 

DiHt7\ — E. trimcata, Gabb (li, 69). Miocene; San Domingo, 
W. I. 

Shell acuminately oblong, spire elevated (always truncated 
in the only species known). Surface compressed near the suture. 
Inner lip incrusted ; columella sinuous, short ; outer lip produced 
in adA^ance. 

This genus seems to be allied in many of its characters to 
Cominella and Truncaria. Like them, it is compressed adjoining 
the suture. It show^s no trace of umbilicus, as seen in most of 
the Buccinidfe, but its most distinctive character is in its obliquely 
subtruncated columella, which does not reach to the anterior end 
of the shell. 

Brachysphingus, Gabb. 

Distr. — B. liratus, Gabb (li, 70). Cretaceous ; California. 



BUCCINID^. 151 

Shell bucciniforra, short, robust, thick ; spire low ; aperture 
large, notched anteriorly ; outer lip simple ; inner lip incrusted 
with a smooth callus ; surface longitudinally ribbed or striate. 
Allied probably to Cominella or Volutharpa. 

Lacinia, Conrad. 

Distr. — L. alveata, Conr. = Pyrula Smithii, Lea (li, 71). 
Eocene ; Ala. 

Globose; pillar lip widely reflected, with a heav}^ posterior 
callus; basal emargination profound; base dilated; aperture with 
a posterior channel ; outer lip simple. 

This does not diflfer very much from the recent Goniinella 
maculata, Martyn. 

Haydenia, Gabb. 

Dedicated to Dr. F. V. Hayden, U. S. Geologist. 

Distr. — H. impressa, Gabb (li, 72). Cretaceous ; California. 

Shell massive, allied, in general form, to Oliva, spire low. 
Outer lip simple, not thickened nor crenulate ; inner lip incrusted, 
callus marked posteriorly, without teeth or folds ; canal slightly 
recurved ; anterior extremity of the mouth notched, and a small 
sinus at the posterior extremity of the aperture, where the oiiter 
lip unites with the body-whorl. Surface ornamented as in some 
of the Buccinidse. This curious form is probably a link between 
Buccinum and Volutharpa. 

Subfamily EB URNINJE. 

Eburna, Lam. 

Etym. — Ebur, ivory. 

Syn. — Latrunculus, Gray. Babylonia, Schlut. 

Distr. — 14 sp. Red Sea, India, Cape, Japan, China, Australia. 
E. spirata, Lam. (1, 38, 39). 

Shell ovate-oblong, thick, porcellanous, under a thin epidermis; 
deepljmmbilicated ; spire acuminated, whorls more or less convex, 
suture more or less channeled ; aperture oval ; columella arcuated, 
posteriorly callous ; inner lip spreading, often covering the umbil- 
icus in the adult; outer lip simple, acute. Operculum with apical 
nucleus. 

The Eburnae comprise a small, very well defined group of about 
a dozen species, the generic character being unmistakable in all 
of them. The w horls have more or less shoulder ; those of E. 
Zeylandica, showing the least, being a mere slight flattening of 
the contour next below the sutures, whilst in E. spirata there is 
a regular cliannel out of which arises the preceding whorl. The 
species are all largely umbilicate, but in some of them the umbil- 
icus is covered or filled, more or less completely, by the callous 
inner lip ; the umbilical region is defined by a strong rib. A thin, 



152 BUCCINID^. 

dark brown epidermis, sometimes translucent, covers the living 
shell, but cabinet specimens are usually denuded of this, exhib- 
iting upon an ivory-white surface, spots and maculations of 
orange-red. The aperture is usually white, sometimes tinged 
with violet upon the columella. This pattern of coloring is most 
uniform throughout the genus ; but the species are distinguished 
by modifications of the arrangement of the color-spots, as well 
as by the differences of shoulder and umbilicus. None of the 
species are strictly banded, although in some the coloring coal- 
esces into irregular revolving masses. The coloring reminds 
one strongly of Phasianella, whilst the shell, except for the want 
of its characteristic groove and tooth, recalls the genus Pseudo- 
liva — one of the species of which was formerly erroneously 
referred to this group. The surface of the shell is invariably 
smooth, devoid of the sculpture of ribr,, strise, tuberculations, 
etc. The operculum is ample, filling the aperture. The Eburnse 
are natives of the tropical seas of the Eastern hemisphere. 

ZEMiRA, H. and A. Adams. Umbilicus moderate ; outer lip 
with a tooth near the fore-part. The revohang channel near the 
base of the shell, ending in a tooth-like projection on the outer 
lip, has induced Sowerby to class this species in the genus 
Pseudoliva ; it seems nearly related to Eburna, however. E. 
AuHbalis^ Sowb. (1, 40). 

Macron, H. and A. Adams. 

Disl7\ — 4 sp. California, W. Patagonia. M. Kellettii^ A. Ad. 
(1,41\ 

Shell ovate, solid, with a thick epidermis ; spire elevated ; colu- 
mella wrinkled, with a callosity at the upper part ; outer lip thin, 
with a small tooth anteriorly. Operculum ovate, with apical 
nucleus. 

This was originally described as a subgenus of Pseudoliva, 
which it resembles in having an inferior revolving groove termi- 
nating in a small tooth-like projection of the outer lip; the 
operculum, however, is unguiculate like that of the Eburnae, 
whilst that of Pseudoliva is purpuroid. The more decided canal 
and absence of sutural channel, and the rather persistent blackish 
brown epidermis, will distinguish it from the subgenus Zemira 
of Eburna. Its locality. West Coast of America, is also a 
distinctive character; Eburna being East Indian, and Pseudo- 
liva African in distribution. 

Subfamily PHOTINjE. 

Phos, Montfort. 
Etym. — PhoH, light. 
Syn. — Rhinodomus, Swn. Strongylocera, Morch. 



BUCCINIDyE. 153 

Distr. — 20 sp. All tropical and subtropical seas. P. senti- 
cosus, Linn. (1, 42, 43). 

Shell cancellated, oblong, acuminated, usually longitudinally 
ribbed ; outer lip striated internally, with a slight sinus near the 
fore-part; columella obliquel}' grooved, or with a single plait in 
front. Operculum claw-shaped, nucleus apical. 

The animal of Phos has a small head, with the tentacles 
approximating or connate at their base, and eyes near their tips; 
foot dilated, forming an auriculate, shield-like lobe in front, and 
terminating behind in a long, tapering filament. 

The species of Phos bear some resemblance to Nassa, and 
were originally placed in the family Nassid^B ; from which, how- 
ever, they are distinguished by certain good conchological and 
malacological characters. The turreted form, cancellated sur- 
face and grooved interior of aperture are common to Nassa also, 
but the oblique basal fold of the columella is characteristic of 
this genus. The animal differs from Buccinum in the foot, 
ending in a filament behind : Nassa has a bifid posterior termina- 
tion. 

Nassaria (Link), H. and A. Adams. 

Syn. — Hindsia, Ads. 

Dislr. — 10 sp. Indian 0., China, Japan, Philippines. N. 
acuminata, Rve. H, 44). 

Shell ovately fusiform ; spire acuminated, whorls longitudi- 
nally ribbed and cancellated ; aperture ending anteriorly in a 
long recurved canal; inner lip thin, circumscribed, transversely 
corrugately plicated ; outer lip grooved internally. Operculum 
ovate, nucleus apical. 

Animal with the tentacles connate at the base, with the eyes 
near their distal ends ; foot anteriorly produced, ending behind 
in a simple tail without filament. 

This genus partakes of the characters of several recognized 
forms. Its animal, however, differs from that of Triton in the 
approximated tentacles, with the eyes near their ends, and the 
anteriorly produced foot ; from that of Nassa in the tail not 
being bifurcated. In its shell it may be known from Phos by its 
recurved canal ; from Nassa by its circumscribed inner lip and 
elongated canal; and from Triton by its want of irregular varices. 

Cyllene, Gray. 

Distr. — 10 sp. Indian 0., China, Philippines, W. Africa. G. 
lyrata. Lam. (1, 45, 46). 

Shell ovate ; spire short, acute, suture canaliculated ; columella 
concave, smooth or finely grooved ; outer lip with a slight sinus 
at the fore-part, emarginate posteriorl3% grooved internally. 
Operculum with terminal nucleus. Dentition unknown. 

The species of Cyllene inhabit the intertropical coasts of Africa, 

11 



154 NASSID^. 

the Malaysian Archipelago, etc. They live with the Nassas 
along shore-lines and do not appear to inhabit great depths. 
The animal, which is unknown, is supposed, from the sutural slit 
which characterizes the shell, to possess a mantle provided with 
a prolongation or fold occupying the slit, somewhat analogous, 
perhaps, with that of Oliva. The operculum of G. lyrata is 
elongated, rhomboidal, with terminal nucleus, externally con- 
cave, internally convex. 

CYLLENiNA, Bcllardi, 1882. Spire more produced, the last 
whorl about half the length of the shell ; parietal wall of the 
aperture concave, without lip ; columella terminating anteriorly 
in an oblique truncation, which is usually ridged. 12 sp. Ter- 
tiary ; Northern Italy. C Ancillariaeformis, Grat. Appears 
to connect Cyllene with Nassa. 

BucciTRiTON, Conrad. 

Syn. — Sagenella, Conrad. 

Distr. — B. cancellatum^ Lea — sagenum, Conr. (li, 73 ). Eocene ; 
Alabama. 

Genus not characterized. One of the typical specimens of B. 
sagenutn has a single varix on the back of the body-wdiorl, but 
the other specimens are without it, so that its non-absorption 
may be regarded as accidental. B. altum is a ditferent type of 
shell entirely, and looks something like a Truncaria. 

Family NASSID^. 

Shell ovate, spire usually elongated, base of aperture a notch 
or short recurved canal, inner lip usually callous. Opei'culum 
corneous, ovate, nucleus apical, margins plain or serrated. 
Animal having two small processes or tails at its posterior 
extremity. Lingual teeth arched, pectinated; the uncini with 
a basal horn, and occasionally intermediate serrations. Dentition 
(X, 13). 

Many fossil species are known, commencing with the Eocene. 

NoRTHiA, Gray. 

Distr. — 3 sp. Panama, Philippines. N. serrata, Dufresne 
(Hi, Uk 

Shell elongated, turreted, polished ; spire elevated, acuminated, 
whorls depressed and sloping at their upper part ; aperture 
shorter than the spire ; outer lip with the margin serrated. 
Dentition unknown. 

This genus is in its general aspect much closer to Pusionella 
in the family Terebridae than to the genera with which it is here 
(and has been heretofore) associated; the variceal thickening 
at or near the outer lip is, however, a feature which does not 



NASSID^. 155 

obtain in the TerebricUe. Pusionella, moreover, has a concentric 
operculum, with its nucleus near the middle of the inner margin. 
Perhaps the figured operculum of Northia is abnormal ; it has 
that appearance. I think that if these shells had not been 
assigned to the Nassidje or to any other family, I would have 
placed them in Terebridae ; as it is, I prefer to allow them to 
remain here, rather than possibly complicate the subject by 
changing their position. 

Truncaria, Ads. and Beeve. 

Disb\ — 6 sp. Philippines, Panama, L. California. T. modesta 
Powis (lii, t5). 

Shell acurainately oblong, thick ; suture of the spire channeled ; 
aperture anteriorly dilated, posteriorly subemarginated; columella 
arcuated, abruptly truncated in front, with a single anterior fold. 
Dentition unknown. 

BuLLiA, Gray. 

Distr. — 25 sp. S. Africa, Indian Ocean, E. and W. Coast of 
S. America, Taheiti. B. callosa, Gray (lii, 79). 

Animal without eyes ; tentacles long and slender. Foot enor- 
mously expanded, and bifid behind in the typical species. 
Operculum pointed, nucleus apical. 

Shell ovate or turreted ; spire more or less acuminated, sutures 
enameled ; inner lip excavated in the middle, callous posteriorly ; 
aperture oval, moderate. 

BuUia (restricted) has a raised band of enamel round the 
sutures of the whorls, as in Ancillaria. The animal has the 
faculty, according to M. Quoy, of absorbing, through the pores 
of its'foot, a great quantity of water, which it ejects, when dis- 
turbed, in various directions ; it is caught by baiting lines with 
bits of flesh. The genus is Oriental, mostly S. African in distri- 
bution, and reminds one of the Arctic genus Volutharpa. 

In Woodward's " Manual of the Mollusca," BuUia is errone- 
ously made a synonym of Anaulax, Roissy, a fossil form of 
Ancillaria. 

BUCCiNANOPS, d'Orb. Shell with the whorls somewhat angu- 
lated, and with a rounded or nodulous band next the sutures. 
Embraces three species from the southern parts of the Coast of 
South America. They are of rude growth, usually with a flat- 
tened shoulder below the sutures. B. annulata, Lam. (lii, 71). 

PSEUDOSTKOMBUs, Klein. (Leiodomus, Swains.) Shell elon- 
gated, smooth, without epidermis, last whorl ventricose ; spire 
acuminate ; aperture ovate, columella arched, smooth or trans- 
versely striated, outer lip thin. No enamel round the sutures. 
B. polita, Linn, (lii, 78 . 

ADiNUS, H. and A. Adams. Shell subulate, spirally striated ; 
columella abruptly truncated at base ; inner lip corrugated, with 



15(3 NASSlDiE. 

a callosit}- at hind-part ; outer lip grooved internally, externall}' 
marginated. B. truncata^ Rve. (Hi, 16). 

MULOPOPHORUS, Gabb. Short, robust, spire moderately elevated, 
suture bordered by a more or less distinct carina. Surface 
longitudinally ribbed or striate. Aperture obtuse behind, and 
very slightly notched ; outer lip simple, inner lip very slightly 
incrusted, sinuous, anterior notch small, but distinctly defined. 
B. striata^ Qn\)h (,lii, 80). Cretaceous; California. 

[bulliopsis, Conr. Placed b}'^ its author at first as a subgenus 
of Nassa, it was subsequent!}^ removed by him to Melanopsidae. 
It has some resemblance to Bullia,] 

Nassa, Lam. 

Distr. — 131 sp., of world-wide distribution. Fossil, numerous 
species. p]ocene — . N. mutabilis, lAnn, {lii, Si). 

Shell ovate, ventricose, bod^'-whorl variously sculptured ; 
aperture ovate, with a short, reflected, truncated, anterior canal ; 
inner lip smooth, often widely spread over with enamel, with a 
posterior callosity or blunt dentiform plait; outer lip dentated, 
internally crenulated. Margin of operculum serrated or entire. 

The animal of Nassa has a broad head, and a foot quadrately 
expanded in front, with the corners often pointed, whilst behind 
it bifurcates and is prolonged frequently into two subulate tails. 
The operculum is usuall}' serrate on the margin, but is sometimes 
plain. The Nassae are very active, and not at all shy when kept 
in confinement. They may be occasionally seen floating with 
the foot upwards. They are predaceous, feeding on other mol- 
lusks, the shells of which they bore. I ha\e. frequently seen the 
shells of the American species themselves bored, the hole being 
of such a size as to suggest cannibalism. Perhajjs the avenger 
of their misdeeds is a beautiful and very active hermit crab 
which disports itself in the Nassa's shell, immense multitudes 
being seen at low tide in the water near the shore-line. Whether 
begged, borrowed, stolen, or lawfully captured by the red right 
claw, it is certain that, at Atlantic City, New Jersey, the hermit 
inhabits a vast majority of the specimens of Nassa occurring to 
the collector. Although most of the species are littoral, a few 
have been collected at considerable depths ; N. hrychia, Watson, 
was dredged at 620 fiithoms by the " Challenger Expedition." 
Some of them have V)een observed to spring up and tlii'ow them- 
selves over on being suddenly disturbed. Usually they glide 
along the surface of the mud, leaving a track indicating their 
line of march, at the end of which is a small round pellet ; under 
this the creature conceals itself. The fty twist and twirl about 
b}^ means of their ciliated lobes. N. mutabilis is an article of 
food in Italy. The generic name is that of a narrow-necked 
wicker basket used for catching fish, and in such a basket, lob- 



NASSIDiE. 151 

ster pots, etc., the Nassa itself is frequently caught, attracted 
thither by odors savor3^ 

Nassa reticulata is said to be very destructive in the oyster- 
pares of Arcachon (France). It is so numerous that a single 
tide has yielded 14,600 specimens within a space of 40 French 
hectares ( =^ about 100 acres). The adult Nassa will bore through 
the shell of an oyster three years old within eight hours ; but 
the 3'Oung shells are far more destructive, because they select the 
tender shells of the very young oysters, sometimes piercing 
fifteen or twenty in succession before their hunger is satisfied. 
An oyster a month old is destroyed in a half-hour. 

According to M. Lespes, N. reticulata is preyed upon by a 
parasitic Trematode (Gercaria sagitata) which infests its liver. 
Its spawn-cases are deposited on the leaves of Zostera and on 
various other things which are left dry only at spring-tides ; the 
capsules are arranged in rows, and so closely that the}' overlie 
each other " like the brass scales of the cheek-band of a hussar" 
(Johnston). They are compressed pouches, each of the size of 
a large spangle, supported on a very short stalk, with a small 
opening at the top to allow the fry to escape. Mr. Peach has 
given us some amusing particulars of the fry. These behaved 
themselves like the fry of other gastropods, skipping about and 
Avhirling round by means of their ciliated lobes, apparently in 
a state of pleasurable excitement ; but it seems that the exercise 
was compulsory or necessary to prevent the attacks of a swarm 
of infusoria, which made short work of any tired or feeble infant 
Nassa. 

The following " subgenera" may be retained as convenient 
group designations, although the species, varying much in their 
sculpture, cannot always be positively assigned : 

ARCULARiA, Link. (Eione, Risso.j Body-whorl gibbous on 
the back ; spire produced ; callus of inner lip greatly extended 
and covering the spire. N. Thersites, Brug. 'lii, 82, 83). 

NAYTiA, H. and A. Adams. Shell smooth ; aperture with a 
channel at the hind-part continued up the spire. N. glabrata, 
Sowb. (lii, 84). 

ALECTRioN, Montf. (Mouoccros, Fleming.) Spire elevated, 
whorls glabrous, polished or papillary ; inner lip spreading ; 
outer lip denticulate, not variced externally. N. glans, Linn, 
(lii, 85). 

ZEUXis, H. and A. Adams. (Telasco, H. and A. Adams. 
Nassodonta, H. Adams. Zaphon, H. and A. Adams.) Spire 
elevated, smooth, or longitudinally plicate, polished ; inner lip 
with the callus defined, or somewhat spreading; outer lip exter- 
nally variced, sometimes dentate anteriorly. N. canaliculata, 
Lam. (lii, 86, 87). 

AcicuLiNA, H. and A. Adams. Shell turreted, polished, smooth, 



158 NASSIDiE, 

or lougitudinally plicate ; inner lip with the callus sharp, straight, 
defined ; outer lip produced in the middle, variced externally. 
N. maculata, A. Adams (Hi, 88). 

PHRONTis, H. and A. Adams. Spire elevated, acuminate, 
whorls ribbed or nodulous, distinctly shouldered ; inner lip 
smooth, with an extended, thickened callus, outer lip with an 
external varix. N. hdeo^toma, Brod. and Sby. (Hi, 89 '. 

HEBRA, H. and A. Adams. Whorls spinose, muricated or 
sharply tubercular ; inner lip with the callus defined ; outer lip 
with a marginal varix, when adult. N. muricata, Quoy (Hi, 90). 

HiMA, Leach. (Tritonella, A. Ad.) Spire elevated, whorls 
cancellated ; inner lip with a rugose callus, callus defined ; outer 
lip with a marginal varix. A^. Trilonijot^mis, Kiener (Hi, 91). 

NiOTHA, H. and A. Adams. Shell cassidiform ; spire short, 
whorls granulated or cancellated ; inner lip with the callus very 
large and spreading ; outer Hp crenate, not variced externally. 
N. Kieneri^ Desh. i Hi, 92). 

TRiTiA, Risso. (Uzita, H. and A. Adams.) Spire elevated, 
whorls reticulated ; inner lip smooth, with the callus moderate ; 
outer lip simple, not variced. N. frivittata, Say (Hi, 93). 

ILYANASSA, Stimpson. (Csesia, H. and A. Adams. Schizopyga, 
Conrad.) Shell dark olive-brown, reticulated, outer lip without 
varix, striate within, columella covered with a spreading callus. 
Operculum with entire (not serrated) margin. Animal having a 
broad foot, not bifurcated behind as in Nassa. N. obsoleta, Say 
(Hi, 94). 

The characters proposed by Stimpson include an operculum 
without serrated margin, and the animal without posterior bifur- 
cation. Although the operculum is usually serrated in Nassa^ 
Mr. Marrat has enumerated a dozen species in which it has been 
observed to have plain margins, or nearly so ; and Dr. von Mar- 
tens states that the European N. reticulata is found in the mud- 
flats of the Venetian lagunes with the operculum plain on one 
side and somewhat serrated on the other, and that the end of the 
foot is but slightly notched in these specimens instead of being 
deeply bifurcated. Under these circumstances, it becomes very 
doubtful whether the group Ilyanassa ought to stand. I have 
concluded to retain it provisionally, especially as it may include 
several species conveniently separable from Tritia by having 
dark-colored shells. 

The animal of the common American species, N. obsoleta^ Say, 
is variously mottled with slate-color, the tentacula are suddenly 
diminished above the eyes, and become bristle-like. Its move- 
ments are ver}^ active, and it collects in numbers about dead 
crabs and other marine animals, on which it feeds. Inhabits all 
our mudd}^ shores, preferring situations not exposed to the surf 
of the open sea ; such as inlets and extended flats which are 



NASSID^, 159 

drained at low tide. It is found abundantly at the confluence 
of fresh and salt water, where the taste is merely brackish. No 
shell of equal size is so abundant on the whole Atlantic shore. 
The younger shells are most likely to be collected, because the 
old ones become very much eroded and defaced, and a greenish 
mould-like plant vegetates abundantly upon them. Very few, 
therefore, of the shells usually collected, have the lines on the 
interior of the outer lip. The ova-capsules are laid during April 
and May, are of transparent corneous texture, singly attached to 
the inside surface of a valve of Mactra, or the inner face of the 
nidus of Natica ; they are deposited in vast numbers, completely 
covering the object to which they are attached and crowded 
together promiscuously. 

VENASSA, von Martens. Base with a callous spiral deposit 
encircling the indented umbilicus. N. pulvinaris, von Mart. 
Timor. 

PTYCHOSALPiNX, Gill. Shell ovate, buccinoid, whorls regularly 
rounded and ventricose ; spire moderate (about as long as the 
aperture), furnished with equal revolving linear ridges, siphonal 
canal very short, very obliquely twisted and concurrent with the 
siphonal fascicle ; aperture rhombo-ovate, oblong ; labrum entire, 
not sinuous, smooth within ; columella inversely sigmoidal, con- 
cave near the middle, with a very thin callous deposit and with 
a revolving linear plait in front." Dr. Gill refers this group to 
the family Buccinidae, but I agree with the late Mr. Conrad that 
his description indicates (as do the types cited) Nasste. N. 
ficalai<pira, Conrad (lii, 95). Miocene; Virginia. 

PARANASSA, Courad. Differs from Ptychosalpinx in the sub- 
margin of the labrum being slightly thickened within and striate ; 
siphonal canal shorter. Eocene, Miocene ; America and Europe. 
N. granifera, Conr. (lii, 96). Virginia. As one of the two spec- 
imens of the type of Paranassa is striate within the aperture, 
while the other is smooth, probably the distinction from Ptycho- 
salpinx will not hold good. 

TRiTiARiA, Conrad. Elongated, subturreted, labrum not thick- 
ened within. This does not seem to differ generically from the 
true Nassas; it has very little resemblance to Ptychosalpinx. 
N. peralta, Conrad (lii, 97). Miocene ; Virginia. 

Neritula, Plancus. 

Svn.— Cyclops, Montf. Cyclonassa, Swains. Nana, Schum. 
Cycloc3'rtea, Agass. 

Distr. — 3 sp. Mediterranean, Black Sea. N. neritea, Linn, 
(lii, 98, 99 . 

Shell ovate, depressed, axis distorted ; spire flattened, oblique, 
whorls smooth ; aperture depressed ; columella smooth ; inner lip 



1 T) TURBINELLID^. 

callous, spread over the body-whorl, outer lip reflected, not den- 
ticulate or striated. 

In Neritula the last whorl is depi'essed and extends over the 
penultimate whorl, nearly covering and concealing the spire, 
which consequently appears very obtuse. The animal has a bifid 
tail, and operculum similar to Nassa. H. and A. Adams' genus 
Teinostoma was originally placed next to Neritula, in their 
" Genera ;" subsequently they removed it to the Rotellidae. 

Desmoulea, Gray. 

Dist7\ — 6 sp. Senegal, Cape of Good Hope, Japan. D. abhre- 
viata, Wood (lii, 100). 

Shell ovate-globose, covered Avith a downy epidermis ; spire 
short, conical, apex papillary; whorls depressed ; aperture ovate; 
inner lip thickened, with a ridge posteriorly ; outer lip con- 
tracted, thickened externally, plicated internally. Dentition 
unknown. 

Desmoulea is remarkable for its obtuse apex and solid growth, 
much resembling some species of Cassididie ; when in fine con- 
dition, the shell is clothed with a velvety epidermis, but most 
cabinet specimens are denuded of this. The animal is unfortu- 
nately unknown, and therefore the systematic position of the 
genus remains somewhat uncertain — for, whilst some species 
connect closely with Nassa, the revolving sculpture, globose 
form, sunken suture and mouth of others are suggestive of 
Semicassis. 

Family TUKBINELLID.E. 

This group includes a few ponderous tropical species, allied 
in the characters of the mouth, and in general form and orna- 
mentation, to the Peristerniinse on the one hand, whilst in size 
they approach the Volutidae. The plications on the middle of 
the pillar are rather distant, narrow, high, and transverse, whilst 
in Fasciolariinai they are situated lower, are not so prominent, 
and oblique in direction. The epidermis is frequently persistent. 

The animal (of Vasnra) is slow-moving, timid and inactive, 
shrinking quickly within the shell on the slightest alarm. The 
operculum is ovate, acute, with an apical nucleus ; it is very 
thick, claw-like, and pax'tially free at the hind-part. The denti- 
tion (x, 14) resembles somewhat that of the Buccinidai, differing 
in the lateral teeth ; it differs widely from the Nassidse, and 
quite as much from that of the Fasciolariiuiie or Peristerniinse. 

TURBINELLA, Lam. 
Etyni. — Diminutive of tui'ho, a top. 
Syn. — Mazza, Klein. Rapum, Swains. 



TURBINELLlDiB. 161 

Distr. — 4 sp. Indian Ocean, Coast of Brazil. T. pyrum, 
Linn, (lii, 1). 

Thick, obconic, smooth, last whorl large ; spire obtuse, apex 
papillary; aperture oblong, narrow; canal long and straight; 
columella with several strong, transverse plaits in the middle ; 
outer lip thin, simple. Animal unknown. 

The shankli or chank ( Turbinella pyrum) is the sacred shell 
of the Hindoos, and the national emblem of the Kingdom of 
Travancore. The god Vishnu is represented as carrying a chank 
shell in one hand and a chakra in the other. 

The princijjal demand for these shells is for making bangles 
or armlets and anklets, and the manufacture is still almost 
confined to Dacca. The shell is cut or sliced into segments of 
circles, or narrow rings of various sizes, by a rude semicircular 
saw, the hands and toes being both actively employed in the 
operation. Some of these bangles, worn by the Hindoo women, 
are beautifully painted, gilded and ornamented with gems. 

The shell rings are coated inside with plaster to smooth the 
roughness. Filagree-bordered edges of plaster are also added, 
patterns and devices of red, blue and gold are figured on tliem, 
and they are further ornamented with silver or gold tinsel, 
spangles, small colored glass beads, etc. The larger bracelets, 
formed of many segments, are made to open to admit the hand, 
by two spiral pins, which unscrew and let out the piece. These 
bangles are not removed at death, and hence there is a continual 
demand for them, many wearing several, both on the legs 
and arms. 

The mammillary apex of the shell is made into a button or 
bead ; the latter are called krantahs, and necklaces of these are 
so commonly worn by the Sepoys in the British East India ser- 
vice as almost to be deemed a regular part of their uniform. 

CARICELLA, Conrad. Columella-folds decreasing in size from 
above, as in Mitra, base canaliculate and not emarginate. The 
small group of fossils referred to it may be said to resemble 
Turbinella in essential characters, the difference being that the 
folds are situated lower down on the pillar, and that the shell is 
thinner. T. prsefenuis^ Conrad (lii, 2). Eocene; Claiborne, 
Alabama. 

Yasum, Bolten. 

Syn. — Cynodonta, Schum. Scolymus, Swains. 

Distr. — 7 sp. Zanzibar, Brazil, West Indies, Panama, Philip- 
pines, Indian Ocean, Mauritius, Pol^'uesia. V. cornigerum, 
Lam. (lii, 3). 

Shell oval, oblong, solid, tubercular or spinose, with spinose 
fascioles below ; spire short, apex not papillar}- ; aperture 
oblong; canal short, somewhat recurved; columella with several 
transverse folds in the middle ; outer lip thickened and sinuous. 



1 62 VOLUTIDiE. 

Family VOLUTID^. 

Shell turreted, aperture notched in front, columella obliquely 
plaited ; no operculum in the larger species. Animal with 
recurved siphon, foot very large, partly hiding the shell, eyes 
on the tentacles or near their bases. Dentition (x, 7). 

Cymbium, Klein. 

Boat-shell. Syn. — Yetus, Gray. 

Distr. — 5 sp. W. Mediterranean, W. Coast of Africa. C. 
proboticidale, Lam. (liii, 4; i, 15). 

Shell oval-oblong, ventricose, thin ; spire short, nucleus large, 
globular, forming an obtuse papillary apex ; whorls few, forming 
a flat edge around the nucleus; aperture oblong, wide; columella 
with several oblique plaits ; outer lip thin, simple. 

The animal is large, compared to the size of the shell, when 
expanded. The foot partially covers the shell, which is sunk 
into its substance. There is no operculum. Ovoviviparous,the 
young when born being of a large size and covered with a shell 
with a large irregular callous apex. They leave the parent 
when they have attained a length of about an inch, the brood 
appearing to consist of four or five individuals. Adanson 
observes that the high winds of April cast the " yet" up in such 
vast quantities as sometimes to cover the shore, the natives of 
Senegal using them as food. 

Cymbium is separated from Melo by its flat or slightly chan- 
neled shoulder and want of coronal spines. When fresh, the 
epidermis is more or less covered by a thin glaze deposited by 
the enveloping mantle. 

Melo, Humphrey. 

Distr. — 10 sp. Indian Ocean, Australia, etc. M. tessellata^ 
Lam. (liii, 5). 

Shell large, subovate, ventricose, thin ; spire short, apex 
obtuse, papillary, persistent; whorls smooth, the last posteriorly 
coronated; aperture oblong, wide; columella with several oblique 
plaits, the anterior the largest ; outer lip simple, acute, obliquel3'' 
truncate in front. No operculum. 

The apex of the shell is spiral, regular, very different from the 
shapeless apex of Cymbium. This genus, like Cymbium, is 
ovoviviparous, the young ones being arranged in the oviduct of 
the female in a long string, without egg-shells. 

VoLUTA, Linn. 

Syn. — Volutolyria, Crosse. Scaphella, Swains. Scapha, Gray, 

Distr. — About Y5 sp. Indian Ocean, Japan, Alaska, Australia, 

Eastern Polynesia, Atlantic Coasts of Southern South America, 

to West Indies, Southern Africa, etc. No species exist in the 



VOLUTID^. 1 63 

seas of Europe, although they were numerous during the tertiary 
epoch ; V. abyssicola, an African species, is the sole surviving 
representative of the group to wliich most of these small tertiary 
species belonged. Australia is the metropolis of the Volutes, 
and, as M. Crosse remarks, a triangle the respective points of 
which shall include Ceylon, Japan and New Zealand will cover 
the habitat of about 80 per cent, of the species. Fossil, 250 sp. 
Cretaceous ; Europe, Asia, N. America. V. musica, Linn, 
(liii, 6). 

Shell ovate or subconical, thick, solid; spire usually short ; 
shoulder of whorls usually angulated, sometimes nodose or 
spinous ; aperture generally rather narrow ; columella with a 
callous deposit and plaited; lip generally thickened, sometimes 
subreflected. 

Animal having eyes on lobes at the base of the tentacles ; 
siphon with a lobe on each side at its base. Usually no oper- 
culum (there is an operculum in V. musica, Linn.). 

This genus is oviparous, at least the South American species 
are so, and M. Duhant-Cilly has given us some interesting par- 
ticulars concerning them. He noticed the Volutes in clear 
shallow water in Magellan's Straits, and, with the aid of natives, 
procured specimens — which nearly all grasped dead shells of 
Venus exalbida, a common bivalve of that locality. Upon 
examining these shells they were found to contain within the 
cavity- of one of the valves, a round, slightly convex mem- 
brane, comparable for size and transparency with a watch-glass. 
The contents appeared to be merely a milky fluid in some cases, 
but in others, the egg having advanced further in development, 
three or four small, but perfectly formed Volutes could be seen 
swimming in the fluid, which had become transparent. D'Orbigny 
also collected large numbers of these eggs, and in the month of 
February saw the young Volutes, four or five in number, in each. 
The containing membrane, which becomes corneous, he describes 
as 80 to 100 millimetres in length, more than half the size of the 
animal which lays it, and he conjectures that it expands after 
coming into contact with the Avater. 

VOLUTA (typical). Gray. Longitudinally plicate, plicae becoming 
prominent on the shoulder, columella with four or five principal 
plaits, and several smaller ones. Operculum (of V. musica) 
fusoid, narrowly elongated, with terminal nucleus. V. musica, 
Linn, (liii, 6). 

HARPULA, Swains. Shell oval-oonic, spire with a papilliform 
but small summit ; columella with larger plaits below, and addi- 
tional smaller ones above, but less numerous than in the precedino- 
section; exterior lip thickened within, sharp without. V. vex- 
illum, Lam. (liii, 7). 

FULGORARiA, Schumftoher, 1817. Shell oblong-fusiform ; spire 



164 VOLU'^ID^. 

moderately elongated, terminated by a papillary summit with 
the apex lateral, instead of central and vertical as usual in spiral 
shells ; surface plicate longitudinally, crossed by engraved 
revolving lines ; columellar plaits six or seven, or more ; lip 
thickened within, its margin slightly crenulate. V. rupesh-is, 
Gmelin (liii, 8). 

VESPERTiLio, Klein. Shell oval-oblong, more or less ventrieose. 
Spire terminated by a regularly spiral summit, papilliform, but 
having an apparently crenulated nucleus, caused by the presence 
of numerous little tubercles, more or less apparent. Columella 
four-plaited. V. vei<pe7^tilio, Linn, (liii, 9). 

AULiCA, H. and A. Adams. Agreeing with the preceding sec- 
tion in general form and principffl characters, the summit of the 
spire differs in having a completely smooth instead of a tuber- 
culated surface. F. innperialis^ Lam. (liii, 10). 

AMORiA, Gray. Shell fusiform, smooth and polished ; spire 
conical, with a small, more or less pointed nucleus ; sutures 
slightly callous ; columella with five oblique, more or less devel- 
oped plaits. V. undulata, Lam. (liii, 11 '. 

ALCiTHOE, H. and A. Adams. Shell oval-fusiform, spire elon- 
gated, terminated by a papilliform summit; aperture oval- 
elongated, inner lip covered by a callous deposit, outer lip 
expanded and more or less reflected ; columella with four, and 
more rarel}^ five to seven oblique plicae. V. Facifica^ Solander 
(liii, 12). 

CYMBiOLA, Swainson. Shell oval, thin, recalling the form of 
C3nBbiura. Spire more or less elongated, terminated by a slight 
irregular, papilliform summit. Aperture large, the columellar 
side covered with a slight coat of enamel ; columella usually 
with four oblique plications ; outer lip sharp, occasionallj^ 
slightlj' expanded. An American, and principally Antarctic 
group. V. anclUa, Solander (liii, 13), 

VOLUTELLA, d'Orbigny. Shell smooth, subcylindrical, with 
angulated whorls; spire acuminated, polished, and entirelj^ 
covered by an enamel deposit, obliterating the suture-line more 
or less entirely ; columella with three oblique plaits ; lip sharp, 
not reflected. The development of a lobe of the mantle to cover 
the spire is a peculiarity in this animal not shared by the other 
grovips of the genus. V. angulata, Swainson (liii, 14, 15). 

PSEPH^A, Crosse, Shell oblong-fusiform, very finely trans- 
versely striated and furnished with longitudinal ribs, disappearing 
towards the middle of the last whorl. Nucleus (?). Columella 
furnished with two principal plicte, above which there are two or 
three minute ones hardly visible; it presents also this peculiarity 
(in the adult shelL, that these plicee are situated so far within as 
to be invisible when the shell is placed right in face of the 



VOLUTIDiE. 1(55 

observer. Internal margin strongly (jallous ; external lip obtuse 
and thickened. V. concinna, Brod. (liii, 16). 

AusoBA, H. and A. Adams, Spire sliortand obtuse, terminated 
by a papilliform summit ; last whorl coronated. V. cymhiola 
(Chemn.), Sowb, (liii, 17 ). 

VOLUTILITHES, Swaius. Shell oval-fusiform, spire elevated, 
terminated by a pointed summit ; whorls cancellated or longitu- 
dinally plicate ; mouth oval-oblong ; columella with numerous 
rudimentary or obsolete plicie ; lip thin. The group is repre- 
sented by a single living species and numerous tertiary forms. 
V. abyssicola., Adams and Reeve (liii, 18). 

VOLUTOCONUS, Crosse. Oblong, subcylindrical, longitudinally 
and transversely striate ; spire short and obtuse, terminated by 
a rounded summit ; columella with four slightly developed teeth ; 
lip simple, slightly inflected in the middle ; base with flexuous 
striae. V. coniformi^^ Cox (liii, 19). 

CALLiPARA, (Tra}^ Shell oblong, subcylindrical; spire short, 
nucleus small ; columella with two plications. V. bullata, 
Swainson (liii, 20). 

MAMILLANA, Crossc. Shell widel}^ oval, ventricose, rather thin, 
intermediate between Yoluta and Cymbium ; nucleus papilli- 
form, very strongl}^ developed, exeentric and lateral ; columella 
with a few oblique plicaa; lip thin. V. mamilla, Gray (liii, 21). 

PROVOCATOR, Watson, 1882. Shell smooth, fusiform ; having 
the apex of Ancillaria, the enameled suture of Bullia, the pillar- 
folds of Yoluta, and the sinus of Pleurotoma. V. pulcher^ 
Watson. Kerguelen Island. 

WYVTLLEA, Watsou, 1882. Shell ovate, cymbiform, thin, 
rough; spire high scalar; apex mammillate and irregular; suture 
canaliculate ; mouth large, ovate ; inner lip with a wide-spread 
thinnish callus ; pillar perpendicular, with a very slight turn, 
with no teeth, but an abrupt break of the edge about the middle 
of its length. Differs from C3'mbiola in the texture of the shell, 
which is extremely delicate, but rough, in the canaliculate 
suture, and toothless pillar. W. alabaxti'ina, Watson. Marion 
Island. 

The following fossil groups are enumerated by W. M. Gabb. 
They should probably all be considered as subgeneric under 
Voluta rather than as distinct genera. 

VOLUTODERMA, Gabb. Shape similar to Fulgoraria, which it 
also resembles more or less in surface-sculpture ; apex not papil- 
late ; inner lip marked by from three to five well-marked folds, 
not very oblique, and of pretty uniform size. This is a group of 
shells characteristic of the cretaceous rocks and perhaps peculiar 
to them. They are all somewhat slender, and are marked b}^ 
longitudinal ribs ; the columella is always straight or neai'l3' so, 
and the folds are as isolated and distinct as those of Turbinella. 



166 VOLUTID^. 

But the most strongl}'^ distinguishing character is the entire 
absence of the irregularly rounded mass at the apex of the shell, 
one of the best characters of Fulgoraria. Cretaceous of United 
States, Europe and India. V. Navarroensis, Gabb. (liv, 26), 
California. 

voLUTOMORPHA, Gabb. Shell elongate, fusiform ; whorls can- 
cellated by longitudinal and revolving ribs ; columella with one 
very oblique fold, and sometimes one or more smaller secondary 
folds. V. Conradi^ Gabb (liv, 29). A cast. Cretaceous ; New 
Jersey. 

ROSTELLITES, Conrad. Narrow, subulate, with elongated spire, 
numerous subequal plaits on the columella, and the outer lip 
somewhat expanded anteriorly. V. Texana, Conr. (liv, 28). 
Cretaceous ; Texas. 

VOLUTIFUSUS, Conrad. (Megai)tygma, Conr.) Fusiform ; body- 
whorl finely striated or smooth, with the exception of the 
shoulder, which is sometimes tuberculated ; columella plaited, 
folds two to three, sometimes very prominent, oblique ; apex 
papillated ; initial whorl acute, subspiral, narrow ; beak produced, 
recurved or sinuous. Miocene of Europe and America. V. typus, 
Conrad (liv, 29). North Carolina. 

ATHLETA, Conrad. Ovate, Voluta-shaped ; spire short, acute ; 
columella with plaits as in Voluta ; a callus projecting on the 
shoulder, and covering a portion of the spire. Cretaceous; 
Miocene of Europe. V. Tuomeyi, Conrad {liv, SO). Mississippi. 

LEiODERMA, Conrad. Shell largelj^ covered with enamel ; with 
very oblique columellar folds ; outer lip somewhat emarginate 
on the upper part to its junction with the body-whorl ; base 
deeply emarginate. F. Zei'orferrna, Conrad (liv, 31). Cretaceous; 
Mississippi. 

PTYCHORis, Gabb. Differs from Athleta in the want of the 
characteristic callus, in being subglobular instead of subfusiform 
and angulated, with very oblique folds on the anterior part of 
the columella. V. pur jjuriformis, Forbes (liv, 32. Cretaceous; 
India. 

[ficulopsis, Stoliczka, referred by him to the Volutidae, is a 
Ficus with the addition of columellar folds. I agree with Mr. 
Gabb in including it in the Ficulidaj = Pyrulid^.] 

PLEIOPTYGMA, Conrad. Subfusiform ; aperture long ; columella 
with very oblique plaits, numerous, alternated in size, or irreg- 
ular ; the largest being the second one from above. V. Garoli- 
nensis, Conrad (liv, 83). Miocene; South Carolina. 

CRYPTOCHORDA, Mbrch. Shell smooth, Volutiform, enameled; 
columella without plications. Tertiary. Seems to connect 
Voluta with Harpa. V. stromboides, Gmel. (liv, 34). Tertiary ; 
France. 

GOSAViA, Stoliczka. Shell convolute, spire turbinated, last 



MlTRlDiE. 167 

wliorl inversely conical ; aperture narrowly elongate, base emar- 
ginate ; lip sinuate at the suture; columella plicated, anterior 
plicae strongest. Cretaceous ; Europe and India. 

Stoliczka refers this group to Conidae, as he does also doubt- 
fully Imbricaria and Cylindra, which he considers closely 
related. The two latter are known to be in no way closely 
related to Conns, and Gosavia possesses every characteristic of 
a Volute ; indeed I cannot separate it readily from such forms 
as V. musica. V. Indica, Stol. (liv, 35^\ India. 

Lyria, Gray. 

Distr. — 16 sp. W. Indies, E. Africa, Indian Ocean, Japan, 
Australia, W. Coast of Central America. L. Delessertiana, 
Petit (liii, 22). 

Shell ovately fusiform, solid ; spire acuminate ; whorls longi- 
tudinally ribbed ; aperture ovate, rather narrow; columella with 
numerous transverse plaits, two lower ones much the largest ; 
outer lip externally ribbed. Operculate. 

The species are smaller than in Voluta, and Mitraeform, con- 
necting with the genus Mitra. 

EN^TA, H. and A. Adams. Outer lip thickened, inflected and 
bearing an obtuse tooth upon its middle inner margin. L. harpa, 
Barnes (liii, 23). 

MiCROVOLUTA, Angas. 

Distr. — M. Australis, Angas liii, 24, 25). 

Shell small, ovately fusiform, solid, smooth, shining ; spire as 
long as the apertui-e, apex papillary ; whorls simple ; aperture 
narrowly ovate ; columella with four strong transverse plaits, 
the anterior one the smallest; outer lip thin, simple, slightly 
contracted at the base ; base rounded, spout-shaped, with a 
flexuous bend upwards towards the columella, which is a little 
thickened and reflected below the plaits. The deep siphonal 
notch and the toothed projection of the base of the pillar, so 
characteristic of Voluta, are here wanting. 

The above description is drawn up from the only known 
species, and probably many of its characters are of slight 
importance. The animal is unfortunately unknown. 

Family MITRID^. 

The animal has a small, narrow head ; tentacles close together 
at the base ; e3^es near the base or towards the outer middle of 
the tentacles ; proboscis cylindrical, flexible, A'ery extensible, 
mantle enclosed ; siphon simple at the base ; foot small, trian- 
gular, usually truncate in front. 

The dentition of the Mitrida^, (x, 9) presents several distinct 
types ; so that Troschel and Gill have divided the family upon 



168 MITRID^. 

this character. The group Cylindra has the teeth of Marginella 
and is placed near that genus by these authors ; the form of the 
shell also recalls MarginellidjB, and although the preponderance 
of characters accords with Mitra, it may be reasonably con- 
sidered a connecting link with Marginella. Volutomitra has 
been placed in Volutidae on account of the dentition of V. 
Groenlandica, the only Arctic species of Mitra, but I have pre- 
ferred to retain it and its congeners in Mitridae, because we 
know nothing of the dentition of numerous tropical species 
referred to it. Turricula and Strigatella are allied by their 
dentition to the Olividre, and Imbricaria to the Turbinellidas. 

Some of the larger species have no operculum, but it is often 
present, though small and rudimentary, on the foot of the smaller 
species. 

Shell with acute apex, usually well developed spire and 
plicate columella ; for the most part destitute of epidermis, 
which is very thin, smooth and translucent when present. 

Mitra is related on the one hand with Yoluta, on the other 
with Marginella ; it is distinguished from the former by its 
columellar plaits, of which the largest are posterior whilst in 
Voliita they are anterior, by its form, and the apex, which is 
never papillary ; from Marginella it is distinguished by its much 
longer spire, less polished surface, generally larger size and par- 
ticularly by wanting the thick marginal varix of the lip. 

Mitra, Lamarck. 

Syn. — Thiarella, Swains. Mitraria, Raf. Mitrolites, Krug. 
Isara and Ziba, H. and A. Ad. 

Di.str. — Over 200 sp. Tropical and subtropical, but a few 
small species being found in the colder latitudes. Bathymetri- 
cally they range from low-water to eighty fathoms, the smaller 
species being usually found along shore4ines. About a hundred 
fossil species have been described, commencing with the creta- 
ceous period. M. ejnscopalis, Lam. (Iv, 86). 

Shell fusiform, thick; spire elevated ; aperture small, narrow, 
notched in front ; columella transversely, somewhat obliquely 
plicate ; outer lip thick, smooth within, not variced externally. 

The animal of Mitra has in general a very short foot, straight 
and continuous from side to side in some species, but in others 
notched and produced, with a thickened anterior margin. It is 
commonly narrow and rounded, or acuminated posteriorly, and 
it often bears a very small semitransparent horny opercuium, in 
some instances scarcely Aisible. The siphon is mostly directed 
forward, and the somewhat short, tapering tentacles have the 
eyes either situated about half-Avay, or they are placed on the 
outer side of the base. The head is long and very flat, and the 
tentacles are ver3' close together at their bases. The proboscis 



MITRTD^. 169 

is rarely exserted when thej^ are crawling and lively, but as they 
become languid after capture it becomes distended with water 
and protrudes consi(lerabh\ When irritated, some species of 
Mitra emit a purple fluid having a nauseous odor. 

The Philippine Islands would seem to harbor the greatest 
number of these elegant and beautiful sliells, although a great 
many species were obtained by Mr. Cuming in tropical America. 
They appear to be chiefly confined to the equatorial regions, 
scarcely any being natives of cold climates. The transversely 
ribbed species are frequently found in very deep water, and many 
have been dredged in twent}' and thirt^^ fathoms at the Sooloos 
and in the China Sea. 

The Mitridfe inhabit various stations ; many being strictly 
reef shells, where they lurk in holes and crevices under sea- 
weed, but are most generally concealed under stones and blocks 
of dead coral. Others burrow in sand or sandy mud at various 
depths ; some delight in stony ground inside the reefs, where 
they remain concealed under clumps of coral during the day, and 
like the sand species are nocturnal in their habits. 

Although M. Quo}^ has rightl}' termed the Mitra an " animal 
apathique," the small longitudinally ribbed species crawl about 
pretty briskly over the smooth sand among the low coral islands. 
The Mitra episcopalis (Iv, 36), probably on account of the small 
size of its locomotive disk, and the ponderous nature of its 
long shell, is, however, a very sluggish mollusk. Some of the 
Auricula-shaped Mitres that live among the Philippines, in the 
shallow pools left by the receding tide, crawl about the stones 
out of the water, in company with Planaxis and Quo3-ia. The 
Mitres, like many of the large Volutes, prefer, however, to asso- 
ciate together, and may be seen in dozens crawling over the 
sandy mud-flats in shallow water, being most active just as the 
flood-tide makes. When the tide recedes, they bur\' themselves 
superficially in the yielding soil, and are with difficulty dis- 
covered. Some of the small ribbed species cover themselves 
entirely with the sandy mud, and in that disguised condition 
travel about with comparative security. 

MITRA (typical). Mitriform, thick, spire elevated, apex sharp ; 
mouth rather small and narrow, notched in front ; columella 
obliquely plicate ; lip rather thick, smooth within. 

[voLUTOMiTRA, Gray. Separated from Mitra on account of 
the peculiar dentition of an Arctic species, V. Grcenlandica. 
Twenty additional species have been included in the group by 
H. and A. Adams ; they are all Mitras in appearance, and the 
dentition of none has been examined, except that of V. cornea^ 
which decidedly differs from V. Grcenlandica^ and is of the 
regular Mitra t^'pe.] 

.A.IDONE, H. and A. Adams. Shell fusiform, smooth, polished, 

IS 



no MITRID^. 

small ; spire acuminate, as long as the aperture ; inner lip exca- 
vated, with two prominent plaits in the middle ; outer lip thin, 
simple. M. alba^ Pease. 

SWAINSONIA, H. and A. Adams. (Mitrella, Swains.) Oliviforrii, 
smooth, polished, spire nearly as long as the aperture. M. Jissu- 
rata, Lam. (Iv, 37 ). 

SCABRICOLA, Swainsou. Mitre-shaped or pyramidal, granulated 
or scabrous. M. granatina, Lam. (Iv, 38). 

CANCILLA, Swainsou. Shell fusiform, slender ; whorls having 
revolving elevated ridges, and no longitudinal ribs ; outer lip 
thin, not dentate within. 31. filosa^ Lam. (Iv, 39). 

CHRYSAME, H. and A. Adams. Shell ovate, spire and aperture 
usually about equal in length ; whorls encircled by rounded 
ribs ; inner lip with a few strong transverse plaits ; outer lip 
with the margin crenate. M. coronata, Lam. (Iv, 40). 

STRIGATELLA, Swainsou. (Mitreola, Swn.) Shell Columbelli- 
form, smooth, uncolored or with brown longitudinal flames and 
maculations. M. paupercula^ Lam. (Iv, 41 \ 

ziERLiANA, Gray. Ovate or Columbelliform, solid ; spire 
short, acute, last whorl tumid at the hind-part ; columella with 
a posterior callosity; outer lip thick, flattened, lirate-dentate 
within ; a sinus or short canal posteriorly. 3T. rohusta.^ Reeve 
(Iv, 42). 

FUSIMITRA, Conrad. Uncharacterized. M. cellulifera, Conrad 
(Iv, 43). Oligocene ; Vicksburg, Miss. 

CONOMITRA, Conrad. Uncharacterized, M. fusoides, Lea 
(Iv, 44). Eocene; Claiborne, Ala. 

Thala, H. and A. Adams. 

Distr. — 12 sp. Polynesia, Philippines, Mauritius, Panama. 
T. mirijica, Reeve (Iv, 45). 

Small, narrowly fusiform, sculptured or smooth, last whorl 
attenuated and recurved below ; outer lip thickened, straight or 
incurved in the middle, lirate internally, with a slight sinus at 
the hind-part. Dentition unknown. 

MiTROiDEA, Pease. 

Syn. — Mauritia, A. Ad. Mutyca, H. and A. Adams. 

Distr. — 6 sp. Polynesia, Philippines, Mauritius, ll.ancillides, 
Swains. (Iv, 46). 

Shell mitriform, smooth, spire acuminated ; aperture narrow, 
linear; columella with numerous, small oblique plaits, narrowed 
and turned to the left at the base ; outer lip thickened, peculiarly 
truncated and recurved at the base. Dentition similar to that 
of Mitra. — Macdonald. 

Mitroidea is closely allied to Dibaphus, but the latter has a 
shorter spire, and is without columellar folds. 



MITRIDiE. 171 

DiBAPHus, Philippi. 

Distr.—D. Philippii, Crosse (Iv, 47 ). Polynesia, Mauritius. 

Subcylindrical, covered with a thin epidermis, transversely 
sculptured; spire acute; aperture narrow, linear; columella 
without plaits, narrowed and turned to the left at base ; outer 
lip thickened, rectilinear, abruptly truncated and recurved at 
the base. 

Differs from Mitroidea in the columella being without plaits. 
It resembles in general form Conus mitratus, as well as more 
distantly Stronibus terebellaius, and formerly had a position 
between Conus and Mitra, but the animal does not differ from 
Mitra. Like that genus, when plunged living into alcohol it 
yields a fine purple dye. 

TuRRicuLA, Klein. 

Syn.— Callithea, Swains. Vexillum, Bolt. Tiara, Swains. 
Vulpecula, Blainv. 

Distr. — 162 sp. Exclusively tropical and subtropical, its 
metropolis being Central Polynesia. T. pUcaria, Linn. (Iv, 48). 

Shell elongated, turreted, longitudinally plicately ribbed ; 
spire acuminated ; aperture narrow ; columella with numerous 
plaits ; outer lip internall}^ striated. 

COSTELLARIA, Swainson. Shell smaller, with elevated spire, 
body-whorl anteriorly contracted, slightly ventricose in the 
middle, aperture sometimes striated within. T. exasperata 
Chemn. (Iv, 49). 

pusio. Swains. Shell small, ovate, more or less ribbed or 
nodulous, spire usually short, convex, with obtuse apex; outer 
lip sometimes thickened. T. luculenta, Reeve (Iv, 50). 

LAPPARTA, Conrad. Uncharacterized. T. dumoaa, Conrad 
(Iv, 51). Eocene; Jackson, Miss. 

Cyltndra, Schum., 1817. 

Dist7\ — 8 sp. Red Sea, Indian Ocean, China, Philippines, 
Polynesia, Mauritius. G. fenesb^ata, Lam. (\y, 52). 

Shell oliviform, subcylindrical; spire conical; aperture linear; 
columella straight, with several oblique anterior plaits ; outer lip 
thickened, smooth within. 

Imbricaria, Schum., 1817. 

Syn. — Conoelix, Swains. 

IJiHtr. — 9 sp. Philippines, Polynesia. /. marmorata, Ouov 
(Iv, 53'. ^ 

Shell coniform, often covered with an epidermis ; spire de- 
pressed conical, apex mucronate ; aperture linear; columella 
straight, with numerous transverse imbricated plaits in the 
middle ; outer lip thickened. 



172 MARGINELLID^. 

Distinguished by its Conus-like form, the columella with less 
numerous plaits than in most of the species of Cylindra ; some 
species, like Cylindra daclylus, however, appear to connect these 
two forms. 

Family MARGINELLID^. 

Shell porcellanous, polished, usually smooth or with longitu- 
dinal ribs; spire short or immersed, bodj'-whorl ample, aper- 
ture nearly the length of the shell, the outer lip with usually 
thickened margin, smooth or dentated within, the inner lip with 
several distinct plaits on the columella. 

Animal with tentacles close together at the base, the eyes above 
the base or near the middle of the tentacles, mantle with expanded 
side-lobes covering the back of the shell as in Cypraea ; siphon 
elongate, foot large, truncate in front, produced behind. Oper- 
culum none. 

Dentition (x, 6). In possessing rhachidian pieces without 
laterals, the lingual armature of Marginella resembles that of 
Voluta, whilst the shape of the plate and its dentated edge are 
very similar to that of Mitridte — lateral teeth being added in the 
latter famil}^ A single species of Erato (the only one examined) 
possesses three lateral teeth on each side like the Cj'prseidie, and 
on this ground some systematists place Erato in that family. 
Marginella glabella sometimes possesses an operculum, but 
generally does not have it ; some of these operculate specimens 
also have a single lateral tooth on each side of the rhachidians 
on the lingual ribbon. Pseudomarginella, Carriere, is founded 
upon specimens possessing this very different dentition ; the shell 
does not differ at all from specimens of 31. glabella in which the 
dentition is normal. 

The shell being covered by the mantle-lobes receives a polished 
surface and is devoid of epidermis, thus resembling externally the 
Cowries and Olives, whilst the plaits on the columella connect 
the family with Mitridae. 

Erato, Risso. 

Distr. — n sp. Europe, West Indies, So. Africa, Indian 
Ocean, Philippines, Polynesia, Tropical W. America. Fossil. 
Eocene — ; Europe, So. Australia, N. America. E. Isevis, DonoV. 
(Iv, 54). 

Shell obovate, polished ; spire short, conical, distinct ; aper- 
ture linear ; outer lip without varix, but thickened towards the 
middle, and denticulated within ; columella with distinct plaits 
at the fore-part. 

ERATOPSis, Hoernes and Auinger. Shell granular-tuberculate, 
with a longitudinal sulcus on the back of the body-whorl, as in 
Trivia. Includes five living species, and several forms from the 
Austrian tertiary. E. Schmeltziana, Ci'osse (Iv, 55). 



MARGINELLID^. HS 

Marginella, Lamarck. 
Etym. — Diminutive of Marjjo, a rim. 

S:«/n.— Volvarina, Hinds. Eratoiclea, Weink. Egouena and 
Serrata, Jonsseaume. Bullata, Jouss. Granula, Jouss. Canal- 
ispira, Jouss. Balanetta, Jouss. I'orcellanella and Microspira, 
Cour. Pseudomarginella, Carriere, 1881. 

Distr.—'iQO sp. 'Tropical and subtropical ; Caribbean, West 
African, Indo-Pacific, etc. Fossil, 75 sp. Cretaceous (?), Eocene— ; 
United States, Europe, Australia. M. glabella, Linn. (Iv, 56). 

Shell ovately oblong to subcylindrical, smooth, polished, 
sometimes longitudinally ribbed; spire short-conical or con- 
cealed; aperture narrow, elongated, obtuse or truncated in front; 
columella plicate; outer lip with a thick marginal varix,its inner 
margin smooth or crenulated. 

GLABELLA, Swaiusou. Volutiform, spire more or less 'conic, 
well developed, usually longitudinally plaited about the shoulder 
of the body-whorl ; pillar with distinct basal plaits ; lip thick, 
toothed or crenate, rarely smooth within. M. Adansonii, Kiener 
(Iv, 57). 

PRUNUM, H. and A. Adams. Shell smooth, oval, spire slightly 
prominent ; outer lip thick, unarmed, inner lip frequently forming 
a callous deposit; color light gray or yellowish gray, usually 
without distinct bands or spots ; exterior lip-margin sometimes 
orange-l)rown. 31. marginata, Born (Iv, 59, 60). 

CRYPTOSPiRA, Hinds. Shell swollen, smooth, spire very short, 
nearly concealed ; columella five- or six-plaited ; outer lip thickl 
ened, smooth within ; color gray or yellowish olivaceous, usually 
without bands, sometimes interruptedly banded or strigate. 
Nearly related to Prunum, but diifers in having a shorter spire, 
less callous deposit and more columellar teeth or plaits. 31. 
elegans, Gmel. ( Iv, 58). 

VOLUTELLA, Swaiusou. Bulliform, ovate-oblong; spire de- 
pressed ; pillar with four oblique plaits at the fore-part, lip smooth 
within. 31. bullata, Born (Iv, 61). 

PERsicuLA, Schum. Shell Bulliform, spire depressed or sunken ; 
usually banded or spotted ; aperture long, the outer lip generally 
denticulated within, with a posterior channel, inner lip with a 
callosity posteriorly, four plaits anteriorly, with smaller ones 
behind them, becoming obsolete. 31. persicula, Linn. (Iv, 62). 

GiBBERULA, Swainson. Shell suboval ; spire slightly promi- 
nent, outer lip posteriorly dilated and gibbous, not denticulated. 
A group of small species differing from Persicula in the spire 
being slightly prominent instead of sunken. 31. miliaria, Linn. 

CLOSIA, Gray. Spire involute; lip thick, usually dentate 
within ; columella heavily incrusted with callus, the two lower 
plaits very prominent, two upper ones not so prominent,'above 
them there are sometimes false folds or transverse ridges as in 



174 OLIVIDJE. 

Cypraea. The dorsal aspect is much like Cyprsea. M. sarda, 
Kiener (Iv, 63). 

VOLVARIA, Lam. (Hyalina, Schum.) Shell siibcylindrical, 
spire very short or concealed ; outer lip of aperture without 
varix or thickening. M. avena, Gmel. (Iv, 64). M. bulloides, 
Lam. (Iv, 65). 

Family OLIVID^. 

Animal with a recurved siphon and voluminous foot, its lobes 
usually reflexed over the sides of the shell, and fissured on each 
side in front. Dentition (x, 15). 

Operculum corneous, small ; frequently wanting. 

Shell brilliantly colored, porcellanous, without epidermis, the 
columellar lip, sutures and spire more or less covered with a 
callous deposit ; outer lip simple, notched below. 

Subfamily OLIVINjE. 

Head and tentacles more or less concealed ; mantle with a 
tapering lobe in front, and a posterior appendage which reposes 
in the channeled suture. 

Operculum present in Olivella, absent in the typical Oliva. 

Shell solid, smooth, subcylindrical, sutures channeled, inner 
lip more or less plicate anteriorly. 

Olivella, Swainson. 

Rice-shell. Syn. — Olivina, d'Orb. Micana, Gray. 

Diatr. — 31 sp. N. Carolina, AV. Indies, W. Coast of America, 
Senegal, China, Philippines, Australia, Polynesia. 0. undatella, 
Lam. (Ivi, 66). 

Shell polished, small ; spire produced, acute, suture canalicu- 
lated ; aperture narrow behind, enlarged anteriorly; columella 
plicated in front, callous posteriorly. 

Animal without tentacles or eyes, mantle with a large frontal 
lobe; foot not very voluminous, truncate behind, the shield 
narrow, the side-lobes small and acute. 

Operculum hornj^ thin, half ovate, with apical nucleus. 

Olivella is distinguished from Oliva by the small size of its 
shell, its more pi'oduced spire, the presence of a large, thin, 
horny operculum, and the want of eyes. D'Orbigny has observed 
0. Tehuelcha suddenly- expand the lobes of its foot, and using 
them to beat the water like the wings of the pteropods, dart 
rapidly through the element. 

Oliva, Brug. 
Syn. — Dactylidia, H. and A. Ad. Ispidula, Gray. Porphyria, 
Bolten. Strephona, Browne. Dactylus, Klein. Galeola and Car- 
mione, Gray. 



OLIVID^. 175 

Distr. — 55 sp. Subtropical ; East and West America, W. 
Africa, India, China, Polynesia. Fossil. Eocene — . 0. erythro- 
stoma, Lam. (Ivi, 67). 

Shell oblong, siibcylindrical, polished ; spire short, conic ; 
suture canaliculated ; aperture long and narrow, anteriorly widel}^ 
notched ; columella obliquel}- plicate, sulcute or striate in front, 
posteriorl}'^ callous ; outer lip simple. 

Animal with tentacles enlarged at the base ; mantle with a 
posterior filament lodged in the channeled suture of the spire ; 
foot long and acuminate behind, shield with the side-lobes taper- 
ing, acute, small. 

Operculum none, in the restricted group. 

Like most shells enveloped in the voluminous foot of the 
animal, Oliva has no epidermis. The shell has an under layer 
with different pattern of coloring, but this is never exposed 
except in worn specimens, or else artificially by the aid of acids : 
hence it is evident that unlike the Cyprtea, which changes its 
pattern upon becoming mature, the two layers of Oliva are 
simultaneousl}- produced at all stages of its growth. The interior 
volutions are often absorbed till they become of paper-like 
tenuity in order to accommodate the increasing bulk of the 
animal. 

LAMPRODOMA, Swaiusou. (Ramola, Gray.) Spire acuminate, 
elevated, suture canaliculated; inner lip simple posteriorly, but 
regularly, numerously plicate anteriorl}", the plicoe more trans- 
verse than in the typical group. 0. volutella (Ivi, 68 — the only 
species ) is found in vast numbers over many acres on the sandy 
beach west of the cit}^ of Panama. Some time after the retreat 
of the tide, it is found crawling about with much vivacity on 
the wet sand. The shell, while the animal is moving, is wholly 
covered with the foot-lobes, and these are entirely concealed 
with a thick coat of sand. When the first wave of the returning 
tide strikes them, washing off this coating, they instantly bur}^ 
themselves. 

CALLiANAX, H. and A. Adams. (Scaphula, Gray.) Shell swollen, 
ovate, with short conical spire and channeled sutures ; aperture 
wide, effuse in front ; inner lip with a very thick, defined callus, 
and a few frequently indistinct anterior plaits. 2 sp. W. Coast 
of America, Patagonia. 0. hiplicata^ Sowb. (Ivi, 69 \ 

AGARONIA, Gray, (Tortoliva, Conr. Hiatula, Swains.) Shell 
thin, oliviform, but a little effuse anteriorly; spire acuminate; 
aperture rather wide, effuse below; columella not thickened 
posteriorly, tumid, with a few oblique plaits in front. Has a 
small operculum. 0. hiatula. Lam. (Ivi, 70). 

OLiVANCiLLARiA, d'Orb. ( L^triculina, Gray. liintricula, H. 
and A. Adams. Scaphula, Swains. Anazola and Claneoi)hila, 
Gray.) Shell smooth, wide, oblong, last whorl swollen; spire 



176 OLIVID^. 

very short, the sntnre not canaliculated to the apex ; aperture 
rather large and wide, inner lip somewhat tortuous, with a large 
callosity behind, incurved in the middle, and two or three oblique 
anterior plaits. Head and tentacles concealed ; mantle with a 
large, thick, flesh}- appendage behind, partially covering the 
spire; foot very voluminous, truncate posteriorly, shield with 
the side-lobes very large and rounded. Operculum small, half 
ovate, with subapical nucleus. Appears to connect Oliva with 
Ancillaria. Brazil, W. and S. Africa. 0. Brasiliana, Lara. 
(lvi,71). 

PLOCiiEL^A, Gabb. Shell olive-shaped, suture nearly obsolete, 
as in Ancillaria ; spire short ; outer lip internally thickened in 
the middle ; inner lip callous, with several transverse folds, of 
which the upper are smallest ; columella strongly recurved at 
the base, like a Dibaphus. P. crassilahra^ Gabb. Tertiary ; West 
Indies. 

Subfamily ANGILLARIIN^. 

Head concealed ; eyes none ; tentacles rudimentary ; mantle 
with a tapering lobe in front; foot voluminous, bifid behind, 
shield-grooved on the upper surface, side-lobes not much pro- 
duced. Operculum small, ovate, acute, sometimes entirely 
wanting. Shell usually polished ; suture^ covei'ed by callus ; 
whorls smooth ; aperture effuse, the columella variously grooved 
and twisted in front. 

MoNOPTYGMA, Lea. 

Syn. — Not Monoptygma, Gray. Chiloptygma, H. and A. Ad. 

Distr. — Fossil. Eocene ; United States. 3L Alabamensis^ Lea 
(Ivi, 74). One recent species, M. exigua, Sowb., is possibly a 
monstrosity. 

Shell with elevated spire and callous columella, the latter with 
a subcentral conical tooth-like callous projection. Dr. Lea's 
second species of his genus is an Actaeon. 

Ancillaria, Lam. 

Etym. — An cilia, a maiden. 

Syn. — Ancillopsis, Conr. Sparella, Gray. Anaulax, Roissy. 
Ancilla, Lam. Amalda, H. and A. Adams. Sandella Gray. 

Distr. — 17 sp. Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Australia, Japan, West 
Indies. Fossil. Eocene — ; U. S., Eur. A. Tan ke7^mllei, Swa,ms. 
(Ivi, 73). 

Shell oblong or subcylindrical, thick and smooth in the typical 
species ; bod3^-whorl usually swollen ; sutures covered by enamel ; 
aperture broadly effuse below ; columella (typically) not umbili- 
cated, with a few oblique anterior plaits. The revolving basal 
groove ends occasionally in a slight anterior lal)ral projection or 
tooth. 



OLIVlDiE. 177 

OLivuLA, Conrad. Shell decussated by distinct close, longitu- 
dinal and revolving striae ; spire covered by a longitudinally 
striate callous deposit, forming a raised band upon the suture of 
the body-whorl ; aperture posteriorly- channeled. Fossil only. 
A. staminea, Conr. (Ivi, 72). 

ANOLACiA, Gra}'. (Cymbancilla, Fischer.) Shell oblong-ovate, 
thin ; body-whorl swollen, irregularly covered with slight 
revolving striae ; spire very short, callous. Somewhat resembles 
the genus Cymbium. A. Mauritiana^ Sowb. (Ivi, 75). 

DiPSACcus, Klein. Shell solid, polished ; columellar lip twisted, 
separated from the body-whorl b}' a tortuous fissure opening into 
the umbilicus above ; outer lip with a slight tooth in front. A. 
glabrata, Linn. (Ivi, 76). 

ANciLLiNA, Bellardi, 1882. Spire produced, body-whorl rather 
short ; on all the whorls is a narrow channel close to the suture ; 
columella uniplicate. A. pusilla, Fuchs. Tertiary ; Northern 
Italy. 

ANCiLLARiNA, Bellardi, 1882. Shell narrowlj- elongated, sub- 
C3^1indrical, with short spire ; anterior area defined by an oblique 
sulcus which terminates in a tooth on the outer lip. A. suturalis, 
Bon. 2 sp. Tertiary ; Northern Italy. 

Subfamily HARPING. 

Head and tentacles exposed; eyes conspicuous; mantle simple, 
enclosed, without a tapering appendage in front ; foot large, flat, 
not reflexed on the sides of the shell. No operculum. Shell 
large, ventricose, longitudinally ribbed ; columellar lip without 
anterior plications or grooves. Dentition (x, 16). 

Harpa, Lam. 

Harp-shell. 

Syn. — Harpalis, Link. Harparia, Kaf. Lyra, Griffith. 

Distr. — 9 sp. Tropical; Mauritius, Philippines, Ceylon, Poly- 
nesia, West Coast of America (absent from the tropical Atlantic 
O.). Fossil. Eocene — . H. ventricosa, Lam. (Ivi, 77). 

Generic characters, those of the subfamily. 

The figure (x, 16) of the dentition is copied from Troschel, 
and is from a quite young individual. The lingual ribbon is, in 
this genus, very minute compared with the size of the animal. 
Troschel was not able to detect any lateral teeth, but Macdonald, 
who only observed them towards the posterior extremity, records 
that they are very similar to those of Oliva. Other observers 
have not found a trace of lingual armature, and it is possibly 
only developed in the A'oung animal. The animal of Harpa is 
variegated with beautiful colors. It crawls with vivacity. The 
front of the foot is crescent-shaped, and divided by deep lateral 
fissures from the posterior part. Unable to withdraw completely 



178 COLUMBELLID^, 

within its shell, it is said, when irritated, to spontaneously detach 
a portion of this foot. 

siLiA, Mayer, 1876. Ribs deflected, spire short, suture not deep. 
H. Zitteli, Mayer. Eocene. 

HARPOPSis, Mayer, 1876. (Buccinopsis, Bayle.) Shell smooth, 
the last whorl slightly angulated below the suture, A-ery large and 
long ; mouth small, lengthened ; inner lip with thin callus; outer 
lip with slight posterior sinus. H. atromboides, Lam. Eocene ; 
Paris basin. 

Family COLUMBELLID^. 

Shell oval, covered by an epidermis ; spire more or less 
developed, generally short; aperture narrow, elongated, termi- 
nating in a very short anterior canal ; columellar lip usually den- 
tate ; outer lip mostly thick, incurved in the middle and internally 
crenulated. Animal with a large, flattened head ; the foot narrow, 
oval, elongated ; the siphon scarcely longer than the canal of the 
shell. Oi)erculum verv small, lamellar, corneous. Dentition 
(X, 20). 

CoLUMBELLA, Lam., 1799. 

Etym. — Diminutive of columba, a dove. 

Syn. — Columbus, Montf., 1810. Peristera, Rafinesque, 1815. 
Pygmoea (Humphrey \ Morch, 1858. 

Distr. — 300 sp. Mostly subtropical ; Atlantic Coast, U. S., 
West Indies, Mediterranean, India, China, Japan, Philippines, 
Australia, Polynesia. W. Coast of America. Fossil. Tertiary. 
C. mercatoria, Lam. (Ivi, 78). 

Shell strombiform or obovate, smooth or longitudinally or 
transversely ribbed; internal lip excavated in the middle, crenu- 
lated or denticulated in front ; oviter lip inflected and internally 
thickened and crenulated in the middle. 

NiTiDELLA, Swaiusou, 1840. Shell oval, smooth, spire elevated ; 
aperture somewhat eftuse below ; columella with two small ante- 
rior plications, outer lip somewhat thickened. G. nitida, Lam. 
(Ivi, 79 . 

ALIA, H. and A. Adams, 1853. Shell thin, smooth, spire mod- 
erate ; aperture oval ; inner lip finely crenulated, outer lip thick, 
not callous in the middle, striate within. C. iniifaaciata^ Sowb. 
(Ivi, 80). 

MiTRELLA, Risso, 1826. Shell mitriform, smooth, spire elevated ; 
columella smooth or with a few anterior rugosities ; outer lip 
smooth, or crenulated within. C. laclea, Duclos (Ivi, 81). 

ATILIA, H. and A. Adams, 1853. Shell fusiform, longitudinally 
plicate; spire elevated, sharp; last whorl suddenly narrowed in 
front. C.suffusa, Sowb. (Ivi, 82). 

ANACHis, H. and A. Adams, 1853. Shell oval-fusiform, longi- 
tudinally ribbed ; spii'e elevated ; aperture narrow ; columella 



COLUMBELLIDiE . 179. 

straight ; outer lip nearly straight, crenulated within. C. rugosa, 
Sowb. (Ivi, 83). 

SEMiNELLA, Pease, 18<)7. (Cj^tharopsis, Pease, 1867.) Shell 
small, fusiform, longitudinally costate ; lip slightly emarginate 
above. Urate or denticulate within. C. gracilis, Pease (Ivi, 84). 

MITR0P8IS, Pease, 1867. Shell fusiform, longitudinally more 
or less costate or plicate ; aperture narrow ; lip dentate, sinuate 
above; columella callous, plicate. Described as a group of 
Mitridae, but appears to be more nearly related to the Colum- 
bellas. C. fusiformis^ Pease (Ivi, 95). 

CONIDEA, Swainson, 1840. (Pyrene [Bolten], H. and A. Ad., 
1853. Conella, Swainson, 1840.) Shell fusiform; inner lip 
reflected in front ; outer lip crenulated within. G. tringa, Lam. 
(Ivi, 85). C. Philippinarum, Reeve (Ivi, 86). 

META, Reeve, 1859. ( Conella, H. and A. Adams, not Swainson, 
1853.) Shell conoid, regularly attenuated towards the base, spire 
rather short, generally superficially channeled ; aperture elon- 
gated, narrow, interior with revolving short ridges near the 
margin. 6 sp. So. Africa, W. Indies, Java, Philippines. C. coni- 
formis, Sowb. (Ivi, 94 \ 

STROMBiNA, Mcirch, 1852. Shell fusiform, turriculated ; spire 
shaip; whorls gibbous, nodulous; inner lip with a rather thick 
callus ; outer lip thick, sometimes sinuous behind ; anterior canal 
well-formed. C. lanceolata, Sowb. (Ivi, 87). 

AMYCLA, H. and A. Adams, 1853. Shell bucciniform, smooth, 
solid; apertui-e oval ; columella smooth, truncated in front; outer 
lip arcuated, crenulated within. C. dermestoidea, Lam. (Ivi, 88), 

ASTYRis, H. and A. Adams, 1853. Oval-fusiform, smooth or 
transversel}^ striated; aperture oval; inner lip smooth, not 
callous ; outer lip sinuous posteriori}^, crenulated within. C. 
Clausiliseforme, Kiener (Ivi, 89). 

^sopus, Gould, 1860. Shell fusiform, gibbous, broadly truncate 
in front; aperture lunate, with a posterior callus on the body; 
columella smooth, vitreous; suture abnormally arcuate near the 
aperture. Animal white ; foot emarginate in front, obtuse behind, 
bearing a corneous flabelliform operculum; head small; tentacles 
short, broad, eyes in the middle; siphon wide, short. Said to 
be intermediate between Columbella and Mitra. ^. Japonicus, 
Gould. 

Engina, Gray, 1839. 

Distj\ — 45 sp. Tropical ; Indo-Pacific, Polynesia, Panama, 
West Indies, etc. E. tTifaHciata, Reeve (Ivi, 90). 

Shell ovate-conic; spire sharp, with longitudinal nodulous ribs, 

decussated by revolving lines ; aperture narrow, with several 

oblique plications in front ; outer lip rather thick, inflected or 

callous in the middle, crenulated within. 

pusiosTOM a, Swainson, 1840. Shell ovate; inner lip granulose; 



IRO 



CANCELLARIIDiB, 



outer lip greatly thickened in the middle and denticulated. E. 
mendicaria^ Lam. (Ivi, 91). 

Alcira, H. Ad., 1860. 

Bistr. — A. elegans^ Ad. South Africa. 

Shell fusiform, thin ; spire produced ; whorls transversely 
striated ; aperture ovate ; columella truncate, with a single oblique 
fold anteriorly; outer lip thin, smooth internally, expanded at 
the hind-part, and with the anterior margin crenulated. Differs 
from other groups in its expanded lip, which is not thickened, 
and from most others in the columellar fold. 

CoLUMBBLLiNA, d'Orb., 1843. 

Syn. — Zittelia, Gemmellaro, 1870. 

Z)is(,r. — 4 sp. Cretaceous; France, India. C. ornata, d^Orh. 
(Ivi, 92). 1 sp. Recent. 

Shell oval, thick, ventricose ; aperture narrow, flexuous, 
narrowed in the middle, ending posteriorly in a prolonged lateral 
canal ; outer lip much thickened and smooth within. 

COLUMBELLARIA, Rollc, 1861. 

Bistr. — Upper Jura ; Europe. G. corallina, Quenst. (liv, 35a). 

Shell long-oval ; body-whorl rather inflated ; spire moderate ; 
aperture wide below; outer lip rounded, not inflected in the 
middle, with strong revolving ribs within ; columellar callus 
thin, showing the sculpture of the body-whorl. 

Amphissa, H. and A. Ad., 1853. 

Distr. — 2 sp. West Coast of North America. A. corrugata, 
Rve. (Ivi, 93). 

Shell bucciniform, longitudinally ribbed ; spire elevated ; 
aperture rather wide, enlarging below and terminating in a wide 
anterior sinus; inner lip callous, plicate below; outer lip not 
thickened on the margin, plicate within. 

Family CANCELLARIID^. 

Shell ribbed, cancellated by revolving lines ; mouth produced 
or angulated in front; columella plicated, outer lip ribbed within. 
Teeth shaped somewhat like those of the family Conidse, arranged 
in two rows; the head does not seem to be elongated, the ros- 
trum being rudimentary. There is no operculum. 

Cancellaria, Lam. 

Etym. — Cancellatus, cross-barred. 

Bistr. — 70 sp. West Indies, Mediterranean, West Africa, 
India, China, W. Coast of tropical America. Fossil, 60 sp. 



CANCELLARIID^. 181 

Commencing with the Upper Cretaceous. C. cancellata, Linn, 
(Ivii, 96). 

Shell oval, cancellated, reticulated or ribbed ; last whorl ven- 
tricose; aperture oblong, canaliculated in front, canal short, 
sometimes recurved, columella with several large oblique plica- 
tions. 

The CancellarijB are vegetable feeders, ranging from low-water 
to 40 fathoms. 

TRIGONOSTOMA, Blainv. Shell conic-oval, widely umbilicated ; 
whorls angular or babylonic, longitudinally ribbed ; aperture 
triangular, angulated in front. C. tuberculosa, Sowb. (Ivii, 97). 

APHERA, H. and A. Adams. Shell oval, not umbilicated; 
columella and inner margin of aperture widely covered with 
callus. C. tessellata, Sowb. (Ivii, 98). 

EUCLIA, H. and A. Adams. Shell pyriform, not umbilicated; 
spire very short ; whorls smooth ; columella with large anterior 
plications. C. solida, Sowb. ^vii, 99). 

MERicA, H. and A. Adams. Shell oval, spire sharp; whorls 
reticulated ; aperture oblong, not channeled in front ; columella 
with oblique plications ; internal lip callous, exterior lip sharp. 
G. elegans, Sowb. (Ivii, 100). 

NARONA, H. and A Adams, Shell oval, fusiform ; spire elevated, 
sharp ; M^horls sharply ribbed ; aperture oblong, canaliculated 
in front; the columella plicate, posterior rib the largest ; outer 
lip crenulated. C. clavatula, Sowb. (Ivii, 1). 

MASSYLA, H. and A. Adams. Shell oval, turbinated, spire 
obtuse ; whorls transversely striated ; aperture reflected and 
channeled in front ; columella truncated. C. corruqata. Hinds 
(Ivii, 2). 

TuaBiNOPsis, Conr. Columella with a single very oblique fold 
near the basal margin. C. Hilgardi, Conr. (Ivii, 3), 

MOREA, Conrad. Short, elliptical ; aperture much longer than 
the spire ; columella reflexed, concave, with a prominent acute 
fold at the base. M. caiicellaria, Conr. (Ivii, 4). Cretaceous; 
Miss. 

BABYLONELLA, Conr., 1865. Uncharacterized, lisp. Eocene. 
G. elevata, Lea. Claiborne, Ala. 

Admete, Moller. 

Distr. — A.viridula^'F&hT. (Ivii, 5). 

Shell oval, thin, diaphanous, covered by a thin epidermis ; 
spire sharp ; last whorl ventricose ; aperture oval, feebly chan- 
neled in front; columella arcuated, obliquely truncated, with 
rudimentary i)lications ; outer lip sharp. 

This small group represents Cancellaria in boreal seas in the 
same manner that Trophon replaces Murex and Bela does 
Mangelia. 



182 TEREBRTD^. 

ADMETOPsrs, Meek, 1872. Lower fold of columella most 
distinct, whilst the second fold is the most prominent in Admete ; 
inner lip thickened throughout. 3 sp. Cretaceous ; Utah. A. 
gregaria^ Meek (Ivii, 6). 

[Genus Purpurina, Lycett. This group of fossil shells, which 
I have placed in the Purpurinae, is by others referred to Can- 
cellariida?.] 

Family TEREBRID^. 

The Terebi'as are known by their long, narrow, many-whorled 
shells, with small aperture, notched in front, and no true colu- 
mellar plaits. The animal has a foot rounded in front, elongated 
behind ; the head is large, with short, small tentacles ; eyes at or 
near the tips of the tentacles, or wanting ; between the tentacles 
extends a rather long cylindrical trunk. Operculum annular, 
horn}', with apical nucleus. 

Terebra, Lam. 

Auger-shell. 

Syn. — Terebraria, Raf. Acus, Humphrey. Dorsanum, Gray. 
Pyramitra, Coelatura and Terebrifusus, Conr. 

Diatr. — About 200 sp. Mostly tropical ; East Indies, West 
Coast America, etc. Fossil, 25 sp. Commencing with Eocene. 

Shell elongated, turriculated, narrow, solid ; whorls numerous, 
rather flattened, with superficially impressed sutures; aperture 
small, ovate, profoundly notched at the base ; columella oblique. 

SUBULA, Schum. Whorls smooth, aperture not produced. 
T. maculata, Linn. (Ivii, 7). 

abretia, H. and A. Adams. Whorls longitudinall}' ribbed, 
aperture a little produced in front. T. cerithina, Lam. (Ivii, 8). 

HASTULA, H. and A. Adams. Whorls usuall}^ smooth, colu- 
mella simple, a little produced in front. T. strigillata^ Linn. 
(Ivii, 9). 

EURYTA, H. and A. Adams. Shell smooth or slightly ribbed, 
turriculated ; last whorl somewhat ventricose ; aperture large ; 
columella produced in front, a little twisted. T. aciculala^Ijiim. 
(Ivii, 10). 

terebra, Adanson. Shell much elongated, subulate ; whorls 
very numerous, rather flat with a spiral band revolving beneath 
the sutures ; aperture small, canaliculate. T. cingulifera^ Lara. 
(Ivii, 11). 

MYURELLA, Hinds. Shell much elongated, subulate ; whorls 
numerous, ribbed with a band of tubercles below the sutures. 
T. nebulosa, Sowb. 

PusiONELLA, Gray. 

Syn. — Netrum, Phil. 

Distr. — W. Africa, etc. P. nifat^ Adans. (Ivii, 12). 



PLEUROTOMID^. 1 83 

Shell fusiform or turricnlated, oblong-oval, smooth ; aperture 
oval-elongated, large, produced into a twisted canal in front ; 
columella carinated, anteriorly twisted, with a small basal 
plication. 

Family PLEUROTOMIDiE. 

Shell fusiform, canaliculated, outer mai'gin of aperture with a 
slit near the suture. Operculum corneous, annular, not always 
present. Animal with tentacles wide apart, the eyes at their 
outer bases. 

Pleurotoma, Lam. 

Etym. — Pleura^ the side, and toma^ a notch. 

Syn. — Turris, Humph. Cochlespira, Conrad. Gemraula, Weink. 
Eucheilodon, Gabb. 

Bistr. — Over 500 sp. World-wide ; low-water to 100 fms. 
Fossil, nearly as many. Cret. — . P. babylonia, Lam. (Ivii, 13). 

Shell turricnlated, fusiform, terminated anteriorly by a straight, 
more or less long canal; aperture oval, columellar lip smooth, 
straight or sinuous ; outer lip somewhat sinuous, with a posterior 
sinus. 

SURCULA, H. and A. Adams. Turriculated, internal lip obsolete ; 
canal long, narrow, slightly twisted. P. nodifera, Lam. (Ivii, 14). 

SURCULITES, Conrad. Shell with spire and body-volution nearly 
equal ; the latter obconical, rectangular near the top, and flattened 
or concave above from the angle to the suture ; sinus of lip above 
the angle of the whorls, shallow and broad. S. annosa, Conrad. 
Mr. Conrad never characterized it ; but his type-species has the 
characters given above. It seems to be very near to Surcula but 
vaay probabl}' be retained for a group of Tertiary species, with 
obconic body-volutions, usually referred to Pleurotoma, and 
forming a kind of transition toward the Conid* (Meek). 

GENOTA, H. and A. Adams. (Pseudotoma, Bellardi. Cr^'pto- 
conus, Koen. Dolichotoma, Bellardi. Roualtia, Bell.?) Shell 
mitriform ; whorls finely cancellated ; aperture elongated, canal 
short; sinus profound. P. Mitraeformis, Kiener (Ivii, 15). 

BRACHYTOMA, Swains. Shell strombiform ; columellar lip rather 
thick ; outer lip ascending and forming a sinus or narrow canal 
near the suture. P. Stromboides, Sowb. (Ivii, 16). 

CONOPLEURA, Hiuds. Shell coniform ; aperture narrow, sinuous ; 
columellar lip callous ; canal very short ; outer lip sinuous, with 
a profound lateral sinus. P. atriata^ Hinds (Ivii, 17). 

DRiLLTA, Gra}'. (Moniliopsis, Conrad.) Turricnlated ; aper- 
ture oval, oblique ; canal short, twisted ; columellar lip strongly 
callous above. Animal with approximate tentacles and eyes at 
their extremity. P. gibbosa, Kiener (Ivii, 18). 

CRASSispiRA, Swains. Shell somewhat claviform,tubereulated ; 



184 PLEUROTOMID^. 

scarcely any anterior canal ; internal lip with a thick posterior 
callus; external lip thick within. P. pulchra, Gray (Ivii, 19). 

CLAVUS, Montf. Tuberculated or spiny ; aperture rather large ; 
internal lip smooth ; outer lip produced below the sinus. P. 
auriculifera, Lam. (Ivii, 20). 

ANCisTROSYRiNX, Dall. (Candelabrum, Dall.) Shell with the 
posterior surface of the whorls concave, with a broad deep sinus, 
bordered externally by a pectinated elevated frill, directed back- 
wards. P. eleyajis, Dall. West Indies. 

BEL A, Gray. Shell oval, fusiform, thin; spire produced; canal 
short ; sinus small, near the suture ; columella flattened ; oper- 
culum pointed at both ends. Northern. P. turi'icula, Montf. 
(Ivii, 21). 

BELOMiTRA, Fischcr, 1882. Shell like Bela, but with numerous 
plicaj on the columella. B. jMradoxa, Fischer. Atlantic O., G21 
metres. 

LACHESis, Risso. (Anna and Ncssea, Risso. Atoma,Bellardi?) 
Turriculated, with convex whorls and mammillated apex ; lip- 
sinus obsolete ; operculum unguiform. Animal with converging 
tentacles, short siphon and short ovate foot. P. minima, Montf. 
(Ivii, 22). 

CLAVATULA, Lam. (Clavicantha, Swainson. Mesochilostoma, 
Seely?) Subfusiform; spire produced ; Avhorls coronated ; aper- 
ture oval; canal short; columella smooth, sinuous; lip-sinus 
profound. P. imperialis, Lam. (Ivii, 23). 

CLiONELLA, Gray. Shell fusiform, longitudinally ribbed ; last 
whorl usually contracted in front ; a more or less developed 
anterior canal ; and posterior sinus. South Africa. A Melania- 
like shell, usually classed with Pirena, etc., and erroneously sup- 
posed to inhabit fresh waters. The eyes are placed near the tips 
of the tentacles, the foot is broad and very short. Operculum 
subelliptical with the nucleus near the middle of the inner side. 
Dentition, ri'l, P. bucciyioides, Lam. (Iviii, 24). 

PERRONA, Schum., 1817. (Tomella, Swains.) Shell fusiform, 
subclaviform ; spire more or less elevated, smooth or carinated; 
aperture somewhat narrow, terminating in a rather long canal ; 
inner lip callous near the suture. P, lineata^ Lam. (Iviii, 25). 

CLiNURA, Bellardi. Ovately fusiform or turreted ; sinus deep, 
arcuate ; lip greatly produced anteriorly, aliform ; columella 
contorted ; canal rather long, oblique. P. Calliope, Brocchi 
(Iviii, 27). 

CLATHURELLA,Carp. (Defrauoia, Millet. Homostoma, Bellardi.") 
Fusiform or turriculated ; columellar lip without callosity except 
a small posterior tooth. No operculum. The cancellated surface, 
more ventricose form and more evident canal distinguish it 
from Mangelia, the emargin^^tiQH of the outer lip from Clavatula, 



PLEUROTOMlDii;. 185 

the texture and sculpture of the surface from Bela and Daphnella. 
P. linearis, Bhiinv. (Iviii, 26). 

ZAFRA, A. Adams. Acuminately oval, tumid in the middle; 
whorls longitudinally i)licate, the last constricted at the base ; 
aperture linear; inner lip effuse, its margin free; outer lip acute, 
subsinuate behind, subintlected in the middle. P. Pupoidea, 
H. Ad. (Iviii, 28 . 

DAPHNELLA, Hinds. Shell fusiform, thin, fragile, usually 
striated ; aperture elongated oval, canal very short. Small and 
elegant shells of slight thickness, distinguished from Defrancia 
by their elongated body-whorl, tenuity and sculpture. No 
operculum. P. ornata, Hinds (Iviii, 29). 

MiTROMORPHA, A. Ad. Shell small, elongately fusiform ; whorls 
flattened, with revolving lirse, and sometimes longitudinally 
plicate. Aperture narrow ; columella sti'aight, slightly trans- 
versely lirate ; lip acute, smooth within, scarcely sinuated pos- 
teriorly. It is a Mitriform Daphnella, of small size, with lirate 
whorls. Dintr. — California, Japan. M. gracilis, Carp. ( Iviii, 30). 

ciTHARA, Schum. (Mangelia, Reeve [not Leach '. Otocheilus, 
Conr. Cytharella, Monts.) Fusiform, polished, longitudinally 
ribbed ; apei'ture linear, truncated in front, slightly notched 
behind; outer lip margined, denticulated within; inner lip 
frequently finely striated. The animal has the mantle-margin 
slightly dilated on the right side. No operculum. Over 50 
species occur at the Philippine Islands. P. Stroinboides^ Reeve 
(Iviii, 31). 

CYTHAROPSis, A. Ad. Differs from Cithara in having a sub- 
produced recurved canal and cancellated surface. G.cancellata, 
A. Ad. Japan. 

GLYPHOSTOMA, Gabb. Like Cithara, having numerous colu- 
mellar plaits in adult specimens, but with a lengthened canal 
and deep narrow posterior lip-sinus. P. denlifera, Gabb ( Iviii, 
32). A number of recent exotic species have been referred to 
this group. 

MANGELIA, Leach. (Bellaspira, Conr.) Fusiform, mostly longi- 
tudinally ribbed; spire elongated, turriculated, acuminated; 
canal short, more or less truncated; columella smooth; sinus 
near the suture. No operculum. P. ponderosa, Reeve (Iviii, 33). 

TYPHLOMANGELiA, M. Sars. Narrow and elongate, spire pro- 
duced conic, whorls many, nodosel^' angulate in the middle, 
aperture narrow, with distinct sinus, the outer lip simple, arcuate 
and inflexed in the middle. Operculum pyriform. Animal 
without eyes. P. nivalis, Lov. (Iviii, 34). 

spiROTROPis, Sars. Shell elongated, turreted, spire produced, 
the obtuse apex mammilliform, whorls numerous, carinated in the 
middle, aperture narrow, oblique, with a short canal, sinus deep, 

13 



186 CONID^. 

remote from the suture. Operculum ovate-pyrilbrm. P. carinata, 
Phil. (Iviii, 35). 

RAPHiTOMA, Bellardi. Fusiform, turriculated, spirally sculp- 
tured ; canal short ; sinus very small. 22 sp. occur on the Dal- 
matian coast alone, but the cancellated species may be more 
properly referred to Clathurella. There are a number of Italian 
tertiary species. F. i-ingens, Bellardi (Iviii, 36). 

TARANis, Jeffreys. Shell minute, cancellated, whorls angulated, 
slightly exserted at base, aperture pyriform, outer lip thin, simple, 
sinus obsolete, canal short. No operculum. T. Morchii, Malm. 
(Iviii, 37). 

TfiESBfA, Jeffreys. Shell thin, rather smooth, somewhat tumid, 
with a short spire and irregularly contorted apex, aperture 
slightly expanded, the outer lip thin, with distinct sinus, canal 
short, columella simple. No operculum. T.?ia?^a,Loven (Iviii, 38). 

PLEUROTOMELLA, Vcrrill. Shell somewhat turreted, apical 
whorls smooth, others shouldered and ribbed, but with a smooth 
concave band below the sutures ; outer lip very thin, sharp, with 
a wide, deep sinus above. No operculum. Animal without eyes. 
F. Fackardii^ Verrill. N. Engl. Coast. 

BORSONiA, Bellardi. (Oligotoma, Bell.) Shell fusiform, with a 
plication upon the middle of the columella. Miocene; Europe. 
F. prima ^ Bellardi ( Iviii, 39). 

CORDIERA, Roualt. (Scobiuella, Conr. Aphanitoma, Bellardi.) 
Shell fusiform, with two columellar plaits. This and the last 
subgenus should probably be merged in one. Eocene, Miocene ; 
Eur., America. P. Pyrenaica, Roualt. (Iviii, 40). 

Halta, Risso. 

Etym. — Hallos, marine. Syn. — Priamus, Beck. 

Distr. — H. Priamus, Lam. (Iviii, 41). Spain. 

Shell oblong-ovate, ventricose, thin, polished ; spii'e produced, 
apex obtuse, papillary ; columella curved, truncate anteriorl3^ ; 
outer lip simple, thin, effuse, slightly sinuated near the fore-part. 
No operculum. A single species occurs very rarely in collec- 
tions, and was supposed to inhabit the Western Coast of Spain ; it 
occurs in the Italian tertiary. Dr. P. Fischer has examined the 
animal of this singular shell, and finds it to be related to Pleuro- 
toma. Known to science for more than a century, the habitat of 
Halia has remained unknown until quite recently; it is now cer- 
tain that it lives off Cadiz, Spain. 

Family CONID^. 

Te^th subulate, in two series, on a tubular prolongation of the 
retractile proboscis, with a bundle of sharp, subulate teeth at the 
extremity. Head with a produced tubular veil ; tentacles subu- 
late, eyes on bulgings or slight truncatures on the outer side of 



C0NiD-«:. 187 

the tentacles. Mantle enclosed, with an elongate siphon at the 
fore-part. Foot simple, undivided, oblong, with a conspicuous 
aquiferous pore on the middle of the under surface. 

Operculum, when present, rather small, ovate or unguiform, 
with apical nucleus. 

The great family of Cones, characterized b}' the peculiar 
structure of the mouth, no less than by the similarity in the 
form of the shell, are principally inhabitants of the equatorial 
seas. Haunting the holes and fissures of rocks, and the laby- 
rinths of coral-reefs, they lead a predatory life, boring into the 
shells of other mollusks and sucking the juices from their bodies. 
In the Asiatic region the species seem greatly to predominate, 
whilst but two or three inhabit European seas, and about fifty 
the tropical shores of America. Low-water to 30 or 40 fathoms. 

The teeth of Conus (x, 5) serve for attack or defense. Mr. 
Arthur Adams i Voij. Samarang, ii, 356) relates that, at the 
Moluccas, Sir Edward Belcher was bitten by a Cone, which sud- 
denl}^ exserted its proboscis as he took it out of the water with 
his hand, and he compares the sensation he experienced to that 
produced by the burning of phosphorus under the skin. The 
bite leaves a small, deep, triangular mark, which is succeeded by 
a watery vesicle. 

Conus, Linn. 

Diittr. — About 300 recent sp., and nearly 100 fossil forms. 
Cretaceous — . G. marmoreus, Linn. (Iviii, 42). 

Shell thick, obconic, whorls enrolled upon themselves, the 
spire short, or not elevated, smooth or tuberculated ; aperture 
elongated, narrow, the margins parallel, truncated at the base ; 
the outer lip with a slight sutural sinus. The typical group is 
limited by H. and A. Adams to species with regularl}" conic 
shell, short or depressed spire and coronated whorls. 

STEPHANOCONUS, Morcli. Spire elevated, sutures concave. G. 
cedonulli, Linn, (lix, 44). 

PUNCTicuLis, Swains. Spire slightl}' elevated, coronated, last 
whorl ventricose. G. pidicarius, Brug. (Iviii, 43). 

coRONAXis, Swains. Shell a little turbinated, spire elevated, 
convex, coronated. G. vermicula.tus, Lam. (Iviii, 45). 

CYLINDRELLA, Swains. Cylindrically conic, with revolving 
strife; spire elevated, concave. G. sidcatuf<, Brug. (Iviii, 46^. 

NUBECULA, Klein. (Tuliparia, Swains.) Shell light, subeylin- 
drical ; spire short, but pointed at the summit, whorls slightly 
coronated ; aperture etfuse, emarginate in front, columella 
smooth ; outer lip with a wide but not deep notch at the suture. 
M. Quoy observes of this group that the foot is very large, 
and not entirel}^ retractile within the shell, as in other members 
of the family ; the anterior marginal groove conceals a large 
pore, the apeilure of an aquiferous canal ; the tubular veil is 



188 CONID^. 

fringed at the margin, and can sufficiently dilate itself to admit 
the tip of the little finger into the orifice. Operculum small, 
unguiculate, slightly curved. C. tulipa^ Linn. (Iviii, 47). 

DENDROCONUS, Swains. Shell thick, convex-conic ; spiie trun- 
cated, not coronated. G. figulinus, Linn, (lix, 51). 

LiTHOCONUS, Morch. Conical, carinated at the suture. C. 
literatus^ Linn, (lix, 52). 

LEPTOCONUS, Swains. Conical, sometimes striated ; spire ele- 
vated, sharp, concave. The foot of G. miles, says Quoy, is very 
narrow, and the operculum longer than usual ; the tentacles are 
slender and the veil pointed at the extremity. G. nobilis, Linn, 
(lix, 53). 

RiiizocoNus, Morch. Shell conical, smooth ; spire short but 
sharp, last whorl carinated at the suture. G. gerieralis, Linn, 
(lix, 54). 

CHELYCONUS, Morch Spire elevated, last whorl convex near 
the suture. G. spectrum, Linn. (Iviii, 48). 

CYLINDER, Montf (Tcxtilia, Swains.j Shell conic-cylindrical, 
smooth; spire elevated, sharp; last whorl slightly ventricose. 
C. textile, Linn. (Iviii, 49). 

HERMES, Month (Theliconus, Swain.) Subcylindrical, with 
revolving ribs; spire elevated, obtuse, convex. G. tendineus, 
Brug. lix, 55). 

CONORBIS, Swains. Spire much elevated ; outer lip sinuous, 
foi'ming an oblique posterior sinus. Connects Conns with 
Pleurotoma. Eocene ; England, France. G. dormitor, Sol. 
(Iviii, 50). 

The above divisions are partly recognized as genera, partly as 
subgenera, by H. and A. Adams ; but they possess little value, 
as their characters merge one into another. Weinkauff, who 
has recently monographed the genus, casts aside these divisions, 
and in their stead proposes sections, named after certain specific 
t3'pes, as follows : 

1. Marmorei. (Typical Conus.) G. marrnoreus, Linn. 

2. Literati. (Lithoconus in part.) (J. literatus, Linn. 

3. Figulini. (Dendroconus.) G. figulinus, Linn. 

4. Arenati. ( Puncticulus.) C. a/•e?7a^t^s■, Hwass. 

5. Mures. (Coronaxis.) C. wus, Hwass. 
(j. Varii. G. varius, Linn. 

*l. Ammirales. (Leptoconus and Rhizoconus in part. ~> G. 
ammiralis, Linn. 

8. Capitanei. (Rhizoconus in part.) G. capitaneus, Linn. 

9. Virgines. < Lithoconus in part.) C. mV^o, Linn. 

10. Dauci. (Rhizoconus in part.) G. daiicus, Hwass. 

11. Magi. (Phasmoconus and Pianoconus, Morch.) G. magus, 
Linn. 

12. Achatini. (Chelyconus.) G. achatinus, Chemn. 



STROMBIDiE. 1.S9 

13. Asperi. (Hermes and Cylinder in part.) C. asper, Lam. 

14. Terebri. (Hermes.) C. ^ere6ra, Born. 

15. Bulbi. G. bulbus, Reeve. 

16. Tulipse. (Nubecula, and Phasmoeonus in part.) G.tulipa, 
Linn. 

n. Texti. (Cylinder.) C. textile, hinn. 

Family STROMBID^. 

Shell with an expanded lip, deeply notched near the canal. 
Operculum claw-shaped, serrated on the outer edge. 

Animal furnished with large eyes, placed on thick pedicels ; 
tentacles slender, rising from the middle of the eye-pedicels. 
Foot narrow, ill-adapted for creeping. Lingual teeth single ; 
uncini, thi-ee on each side (xi, 28). 

St7'ombi(s gigas (lix, 56) is occasionally used as an article of 
diet ; it sometimes produces pearls ; and the layers composing the 
shell being of ditferent colors, it is extensively used in carving 
cameos. It is also ground to powder for the manufacture of the 
finer kinds of porcelain, 300,0U0 having been imported into 
Liverpool from the Bahamas Islands in one year, and used 
chiefl}^ for this purpose. 

The perfect development of the large, fine, pedunculated eyes 
of Strombus, together with its very elongated, powerful, mus- 
cular body and foot, and claw-shaped, stout, jagged, horny oper- 
culum, constitute it one of the most active and intelligent of 
mollusks. It is, in fact, a most sprightly and energetic animal, 
making extraordinary leaps in its endeavors to escape from 
confinement, planting firmly its powerful narrow operculum 
against any resisting surface, insinuating it under the edge of 
its shell, and, by a vigorous effort, throwing itself forwards, 
carrying its great heavy shell with it, and rolling along in a 
series of jumps in a most singular and grotesque "manner. — A. 
Adams, Voy. Samarang, ii, 493. 

Strombus, Linn. 

Etym. — Strombos, a top. Syn. — Pyramis, Bolt. 

Duir.—Qi] sp. W. Indies, Medit.,"^ Red Sea, Ind. O., China, 
N. Zeal., Polynesia, W. tropical Am. Occurring on reefs, at 

low-water, and to 10 fms. Fossil, a few species. Cretaceous . 

S. gigas, Linn, (lix, 56, 57). 

Shell ovate, turreted or subfusiform; aperture narrow, elongate, 
emarginate or with a short canal in front, canaliculatod posteri- 
orly ; outer lip often lobed and with a deep notch in front near 
the canal. In the young the lip is not expanded, and the shell 
looks like a Conus. 

MONODACTYLLS (Klciu). H. and A. Adams. Outer lip with a 
posterior much produced lobe. S. Pacificus, Swains, (lix. 58). 



1 90 STROMBID^. 

GALLiNULA (Klein), H. and A. Adams. Inner lip not spread 
widely over the body-whorl ; outer lip somewhat restricted ; 
having a long posterior canal, ascending the spire. *S'. suc- 
cinctus, Linn, (lix, 59). 

CANARiUM, Schum., 1817. (Strombidea, Swains.) Inner lip 
restricted, outer lip not dilated, posterior canal short or obsolete. 
S. Luhiianus^ Linn, (lix, 60). 

EUPROTOMUS, Gill. Lip widel}' expanded, ascending the spire 
to its apex, the margins subdigitate, sinus of lip anterior. Most 
nearly related to Pterocera, among the Strombs. S. laciniatus, 
Chemn. (lix, 61). 

ONCOMA, Mayer, 1876. Spire short; whorls convex, keeled or 
tuberculate ; the last very large, keeled behind ; mouth long, 
with short anterior canal ; outer lip wing-like, entire. 8 sp. 
Eocene and Oligocene. S. Fortisi, Brongt. 

Pterodonta, d'Orbigny. 

Dislr. — Fossil, 8 sp. Chalk ; France. P. injlata, d'Orbigny 
(Ixxxviii, 56). 

Shell oblong, ventricose, spire elongated ; aperture oval, lip 
slightly expanded, notched in front, and with a tooth-like ridge 
internally, remote from the margin. 

PuGNELLUS, Conr. 

Distr. — Fossil. Cretaceous onl3^ P. harmdus, Gabb (Ix, 
71,72). 

Shell fusiform in the young state ; in the adult aperture narrow, 
outer lip developed into a massive lobe, notched above and below ; 
canal produced and incurved ; the whole shell enveloped in a 
more or less heavy incrustation, a prolongation of the deposit 
on the inner lip. 

gymnarus, Gabb. Outer lip less heavy and produced posteri- 
orly m a hook ; anterior canal slightlj^ produced and straight ; 
incrustation not covering the entire shell, the back being exposed. 
A single species from the Chico group (Cret.) of California. P. 
manubriatus, Gabb (Ix, 73). 

Pterocera, Lam. 

Etym. — Pteron^ a wing, and ceras, a horn. 

Syn. — Harpago, Millipes and Heptadactylus, Klein. 

Biatr. — 10 recent sp. Indian Ocean and eastern Pacific. 
Fossil. Jurassic, Cret. — . P. lambis^ Linn, (lix, 62). 

Outer edge of mantle digitate. Operculum as in Strombus. 
Shell ovate, spire more or less elevated ; aperture elongate, outer 
lip digitate, with a long, straight or curved anterior canal, and a 
shorter or long posterior canal, ascending and surpassing the 
spire. 



STROMBIDiE. ]91 

When young, the outer lip of the shell is simple, resembling 
tbat of fetroml)us; the claws are gradually formed with the 
growth of the shell and are at first open canals, which afterwards 
become closed and solid, 

Messrs. Adams adopted two of Klein's names for sulvrcnera 
having no good characters; these may be advantageou'^lv re- 
placed by Prof. Theo. Gill's arrangement, as follows : 

PTEROCERA, Lam. (restricted). Anterior canal straioht or 
curved to the right, posterior canal ascending the spire. ° 

HARPAGO (Klein), H. and A. Adams. Anterior and posterior 
canals both curved to the left, the latter at first crossing trans- 
versely to the length of the shell. P. rugosa, Sowb. ( lix, 63) 

PHYLLOciiEiLUS, Gabb, 1868. (Malaptera, Piette, 1879.) Outer 
lip with no digitations, or small ones only; inner lip expanded 
as a thin plate over the front of the body-whorl, and sometimes 
projecting beyond it laterally; both outer and inner lips deeply 
notched anteriorly, near the canal. P. speciom, d'Orb. (Ix, 74). 

ROSTELLARIA, Lam. 
Etym — Rostellum, a little beak. 

Sv;k— Fusus, Humphr. Gladius, Klein. Platyoptera, Conr. 
Kostellum, Montf 

Disfr.—S sp. Red Sea, India, Borneo, China. Rancre, 30 fms 
B. curfa, Sowb. (lix, 64). 

Animal with digitated mantle-margin. Operculum not serrated 
fehell fusiform with elevated spire, whorls smooth ; aperture 
continued into a long, straight or slightly curved anterior canal • 
outer hp slightly thickened on the margin and denticulated' 
ihe (restricted) Rostellarias belong to the present epoch or 
extend at most only into the more recent tertiaries ' 

HFPPOCHREXES, Moutf. Posterior canal extending up the spire 
to near the apex, or curving behind it ; lip much expanded An 
Eocene group; Europe and America. B. macroptera, Lam 
(Ix, 7o). ' 

RIMELLA, Agassiz. Whorls cancellated, posterior canal runnino- 
up the spire, anterior canal short. Cretaceous— recent B cri^- 
pata, Sowb. (lix, 65 . 

LEioRHiNUS, Gabb. Fusiform, spire about as lon<r ns the 
aperture ; columella slightly twisted and with a fold %r thick- 
ening on the edge, extending to the end of the canal ; inner lip 
thickened and with one tooth near the suture ; outer Up thick- 
ened posterior to the edge ; edge thin and incurved, with a small 
emargination posteriorly, and opposite to the tooth on the inner 
lip ; no anterior sinus ; surface smooth or only marked by lines 
of growth. P. proruta, Conrad ^ Ix, 92 ). Eocene ; Ala. Gabb 
placed It in Pleurotomidie, but it was subsequently referred 
here by Conrad and Meek. 



192 strombiDjE. 

isopLEURA, Meek. Longitudinally ribbed, aperture narrow, 
notched in front, outer lip simple, no posterior canal. Cretaceous. 
R. curvilirata, Conr. (Ix, 76). 

CYCLOMOLOPS, Gabb. Smooth, without anterior canal, posterior 
canal long, running up the spire, columellai- lip with a thick 
callus which, continuing around the anterior end of the aperture, 
forms a thickened margin to the outer lip. i?. Icevigata, Mellv. 
(Ix, n). 

ORTHAULAX, Gabb. Shell rounded-fusiform, canal moderate, 
straight and regularly tapering; adult shell enveloped over the 
whole spire by an extension of the inner-lip callus ; posterior 
canal fissure-like, formed b}^ the continued edge of the outer lip 
and running directly to the apex ; outer lip apparentl}' sharp 
and simple, anterior notch oblique and broad. F. in07^nata, 
Gabb. Tertiary ; West Indies. 

CALYPTRAPiiORUS, Conr. Anterior canal long and straight ; 
posterior canal long, appressed to the spire and arching on the 
back ; outer lip moderate, rounded and thickened on the margin 
by a smooth border; young shell showing all the volutions, 
which are hidden in the adult by a polished incrustation covering 
the entire surface, and in some species bearing tubercles. 
Eocene ; U. S. Cretaceous ; India. B. trinodiferus, Conr. 
(Ix, 78). 

S PI NIGER A, d'Orb. 

Distr. — 5 sp. Fossil, in the Oolite of Europe. S. longisjnna, 
Desl. (Ix, 79). S. spinosa, Munst. (Ix, 80). 

Shell elongated, slender, fusiform, with a long, straight 
anterior canal; each volution bearing one or two varices, those 
of successive whorls being arranged continuously as in Ranella, 
and bearing each a long, transverse spine. 

Terebellum, Lam. 

Etym. — DiminutiA^e of terehra^ an auger. 

Syn. — Seraphs, Montf. 

Distr. — 2\ subulatiim, Lam. (lix, 66). China, Philippines. 
Fossil, 8 sp. Eocene — ; London, Paris. 

Animal with e^'es on the ends of peduncles, no tentacles, foot 
anteriorly small and rudimentary. Operculum narrow, denticu- 
late. Shell subulate, spire slightly produced or blunt ; aperture 
narrow, notched in front; outer lip simple, sharp; inner lip 
more or less incrusted, the columella straight and truncate. 

The Terebellum inhabits deep water. In progressing, it 
rolls its shell over and over, performing a series of irregular 
jumps ; when first taken from the water, it will even leap several 
inches from the ground. It is extremely shy and sensitive in 
its habits, poising the shell in a vertical position, and protruding 
the longer telescope eye (for, singularly enough, one eye-pedicel 



STROMBID^. 1 93 

is longer than the other) from the notch in front of the shell; 
it will thus remain perfectly immovable until assured of security, 
when it begins to I'oU over and examine the ground with its 
rostrum. 

TEREBELLOPSis, Leymcrie. Spire very long, A single French 
nummulitic fossil. T. Braunii^ Le^'m. (Ix, 81). 

Aporrhais, Dillw. 

Etym. — Spout-shell, from aporrheo, to flow away. 

Syn. — Chenopus, Phil. 

Distr. — 4 recent sp. W. Africa, Mediterranean, boreal 
Europe and America. Range, 100 fathoms. Fossil. Lias—. 
A. pes-pelecani^ Lam. (lix, Gt). 

Animal with elongated, tapering muzzle; tentacles subulate, 
with eyes at their outer bases ; mantle with outer side expanded, 
lobed, and with a rudimentary siphon in front, bending to the 
right ; foot small, oblong, simple. Operculum lamellar, ovate or 
pointed, nucleus small, apical. 

Shell fusiform, turreted or oblong-ovate, with a short canal in 
front and a posterior canal running up the spii-e ; outer lip of 
the adult expanded and 2-3 digitated, the digitations forming 
carinae on the back of the shell. The rostriform head, sessile 
eyes and rudimentary siphon, together with certain peculiarities 
of the shell, have been supposed to indicate strong affinities 
with the Cerithiidse ; but that these mollusks are most closely 
related to the Strombs (which they certainly resemble in den- 
tition) is scarcely doubtful. 

Ghiropteron semilunare is probably a larval Aporrhais. 

On the authorit}' for the generic name, see Gabb, Am. Jour. 
Conch., iv, 143. 

GONiocHEiLA, Gabb. (Alipes, Conr.) Shell with posterior 
canal extending about half-way up the spire, and not free at the 
end ; expanded outer lip with only one projecting angular 
process, but bearing one or more external carinas in front of 
this that do not terminate in marginal digitations ; canal short 
and strongly incurved ; inner lip thick. A. liratua, Conr. ( Ix, 82). 

ARRHOGES, Gabb. (Monocuphus, Piette. Perissoptera, in part, 
Tate.) Shell with expanded lip, merely terminating in a single 
posterior obtuse lobe-like extension, and having its anterior sinus 
nearl}'' or quite obsolete; posterior canal very short; anterior 
canal also short and obtuse. Roslellaria occidentalis, Beck (^lix, 
68 , the only sj^ecies (recent \ 

CYPHOSOLENUS, Piette, 18TG. Shell turreted, fusiform, with 
longitudinal ribs and numerous revolving riblets ; last whorl 
with a pair of tuberculate carina, forming two digitations ; wing 
subpalmate, tridactylous, not sinuous, the digitations long; 



194 STROMBID^, 

canal produced anteriorly into a long digitation. G. tetracer^ 
d'Orb. Several species. Jurassic; France. 

Anchura, Conr. 

Syn. — Drepanocheilus, Meek. Perissoptera, Tate. Mono" 
dactyles, Piette. 

Bistr. — Jur.jCret. ; America. Species numerous. A. abrupta^ 
Conr. (Ix, 83). A. falciformis, Gabb (Ix, 84). 

Fusiform, anterior canal straight, more or less produced ; no 
posterior canal ; outer lip produced postero-laterally into a lobe 
or process, which is scythe-shaped, or falcate. 

The original Anchura had a falcate process, whilst that of 
Meek's subgenus is single to the end and scythe-shaped, but a 
series of species show every gradation between the two. 

Helicaulax, Grabb, 1868. 

Diatr. — Cret. ; Europe. H. ornata, d'Orb. fix, 85). 

Shell like Anchura, but with a long posterior canal ascending 
the spire to near the apex, usually deflected near its extremity ; 
inner lip usually heavily incrusted, the callus sometimes extending 
some distance up the spire. 

DiMORPHOSOMA, Gardner, 1815. Like Helicaulax, but posterior 
canal short ; a single small, sickle-form wing, only attached to 
the last or last two whorls. H. calcarata, Sowb. 

LisPODESTHES, White, 1875. 

Bistr. — 2 sp. Cretaceous ; N. America. L. linguifera^ White 
(Ix, 86). 

Shell fusiform ; anterior canal straight or slightly curved, and 
more or less produced ; posterior canal extending nearly or quite 
the whole length of the spire, from near the apex of which it 
may be a little deflected ; aperture winged ; wing rather large, 
bearing two processes ; the posterior process spine-like or falci- 
form ; the anterior process either in the form of a lobe or tongue- 
shaped ; inner lip and spire covered with callus. 

Related to Helicaulax, Gabb, of which it may be only a 
subgenus. 

Pereir^a, Crosse. 

Distr. — P. Gervaisii, Yezian (Ix, 81). Tertiary'- of Portugal. 

Whorls all coronated with spiny tubercles except the last, 
where they are replaced by a carina. Lip prolonged in front, 
thick, with two digitations. Columella and ventral portion of 
the shell covered with enamel. 

Dicroloma, Gabb. 
Syn. — Hemicaudes, Piette. Tridactylus, Gardner. 
Dintr. — Lias and Oolite; Europe. D. Lorieri, d'Orb. (Ix, 88). 



STROMBID^. 1 95 

Elongate, fusiform, anterior canal long and straight, or curved ; 
no posterior canal ; outer lip with two long, slender, digitate 
processes. 

Tessarolax, Gabb. 

Distr. — Cret. ; Am., Eur. T. hicarinata^ d'Orb. (Ix, 89). 

Shell subfusiform, spire elevated ; the greater part or whole of 
spire and body-whorl covered by an extension of the inner lip in 
the adult; anterior canal long, curved or straight; i)osterior 
canal long, running up the spire and extending be3'ond it ; outer 
lip carrying two long, slender digitate processes ; the incrusta- 
tion of the adult shells carries one or two prominent bosses or 
tubercles on the bod^'-whorl. 

PTEROCERELLA, Meek. Shell small, thin ; whorls few, rounded, 
smooth or subangulated ; last one not much enlarged. Lip 
greatly extended, and ascending the spire, trilobate — the middle 
lobe much larger and more produced than the others, carinated 
on the outer side. T. Tippana^ Conrad (Ix, 90). Cretaceous. 

Alaria, Morris and Lycett, 1850. 

Syn. — Alaria, sections Yaricifer and Longicaudes, Piette. 

Distr. — Jurassic ; Eur., India. A. armata, Morris and Lycett 
(Ix, 91). 

Shell fusiform, spire elevated ; anterior canal more or less 
produced, straight or curved ; no posterior canal ; outer lip 
digitate, formed at one or more stages previous to the adult age, 
and left behind by the growth of the shell, producing varices or 
tubular spines ; inner lip thin. 

The above description defines the genus as restricted by Gabb. 

DIARTHEMA, Piette. Shell with continuous varices ; a wing- 
like varix opposite the mouth. Lower Oolite ; France. A. 
paradoxa^ Desh. 

CUPHOTIPHER, Piette. The wing-like varix with a strong, 
laterally compressed tubercle, sometimes developing a posterior 
finger. D. ranelloides, Piette. Jura. 

DIEMPTERUS, Piette, 1876. Shell fusiform, winged, with straight 
anterior canal ; whorls with spines or varices ; wing entire or 
digitate ; last whorl with a strong varix opposite the wing, indi- 
cating the position of a former mouth. D. goniata, Heb. Callovien. 

Harpagodes, Gill, 1869. 

Distr. — Cret. and Jur. ; Europe. H.pelagi, d'Orb. (Ix, 93). 

Shell obconic or ovate-conoid, spire moderate, canal prod^iced 
into a long digitation boldly recurved towards the left, labrura 
much alated and produced into spiniform digitations. Whorls 
convex or flat between the angle and suture, spirally ribbed, with 
larger rib-like, angular, median, and anterior fascioles (and some- 
times post-angular), each emitting long spiniform digitations ; 



196 CYPRJEID^. 

and with a siitural canaliculate disjitation accumbent on the spire, 
continued and recurved backwards. 

Ceratosiphon, Gill, 1810. 

Syn. — Ornithopus (in part), Gardner, 1815. 

Distr. — Cret. ; France. C. Moreausiana, d'Orb. (Ix, 94). 

Shell fusiconic, with the spire considerably elevated, the canal 
produced into a long digitation recurved towards the left, and 
the labrum much alated and produced into spiniforra digitations. 
Whorls concave or flat between the angle and suture, spirally 
striated, and with rib-like angular, median and anterior fascioles, 
of which tlie two former, at least, emit spiniform digitations, the 
suture emitting a digitiform canal accumbent on the spire and 
directed backwards. 

Distinguished by the elongated hamiform siphonal canal and 
the posterior canal co-ordinated with the faciea of Aporrhais. 

Struthiolaria, Lam. 

Etym. — Struthio, an ostrich (-foot), from the form of the 
aperture. 

Distr. — 5 sp. Australia, New Zealand. S. nodulosa, Mart. 
(lix, 69). Fossil. Tertiary ; N. Zeal., So. Ama. 

Animal with outer mantle-margin simple, tentacles cylindrical, 
eye-pedicels short, adnate with the tentacles externally, foot 
broad and short. Operculum claw-shaped, with an apical pro- 
jection. Shell turreted, whorls angular, aperture truncated in 
front, columella very oblique ; outer lip prominent in the middle, 
reflected and thickened in the adult, inner lip callous, expanded. 

PELiCARiA, Gray. Shell elevated, turreted ; spire of adult 
covered with enamel ; aperture ovate ; outer lip sinuous, thin, 
inner lip incrusted. A single species, S. scutulata^ Mart, (lix, 10). 

LOXOTREMA, Gabb. Shell elongate, turreted, spire high ; aper- 
ture with a very short canal in front ; outer lip retreating above, 
sinuous below ; inner lip heavily incrusted. *S. tiirrita, Gabb 
(Ix, 95). 

DOLOPHANES, Gabb. Elongate-oval, spire elevated ; umbilicus 
imperforate ; aperture semi-oval, inner lip acute, sinuous, ante- 
riorly terminating in a short, not emarginate canal. S. melan- 
oides, Gabb. Tertiary ; West Indies. 

Family CYPR^ID^. 

Shell convolute, enameled ; spire concealed by the last whorl, 
which is very large ; aperture narrow, channeled at each end ; 
outer lip (of adult) thickened, inflected. No operculum. 

Animal with a broad foot, truncated in front ; mantle expanded 
on each side, forming lobes, wliich meet over the back of the 
shell ; these lobes are usually ornamented with tentacular fila- 



CYPRiEID-iE. 197 

ments ; eyes on the middle of the tentacles or near their base • 

branchial plume single. Lingual ribbon long • rachis 1-toothed • 

uncini 3 (xi, 30). ' 

Cypr^ea, Linn. 

Cowry. Etym. — Ci/pria, a name of Venus, 

^Vw— Porcellana, Rumph. Naria, Gray. CyprtEorbis and 
bulcocypraea, Conr. Peribolus, Adans. 

Distr.— 200 sp. Tropical and subtropical, on reefs and under 
rocks at low-^^ter. Fossil, 100 sp. Cretaceous—; Europe 
India, United States. C. argus, Linn. (Ixi, 96). C. exanthema, 
Linn., young (Ixi, 97). 

Shell ventricose, convolute, covered with shining- enamel • 
spire concealed ; aperture long and narrow, with a short canal 
at each end; inner lip crenulated; outer lip inflected and 
crenulated. 

The young shell has a thin and sharp outer lip, a prominent 
spire, and is covered with a thin epidermis. When full-orown 
the mantle-lobes expand on each side, and deposit a shinino- 
enamel over the whole shell, by which the spire is entirely con" 
cealed. There is usually a line of paler color, which ind'icates 
where the mantle-lobes met. Cypi^aea annulus is used by the 
Asiatic Islanders to adorn their dress, to weight their fishino-. 
nets, and for barter. Specimens of it were found by Dr. Layard 
in the ruins of Nimroud. The money-cowry (C. moneta, Ixi 1) 
IS also a native of the Pacific and Eastern seas ; many tons 
weight of this little shell are annually imported into Enoland 
and again exported for barter with the native tribes of Western 
Africa ; in the year 1848 sixty tons of the money-cowry were 
imported into Liverpool. Mr. Adams observed the pteropodous 
fry of C. annulus, at Singapore, adhering in masses to the mantle 
of the parent, or swimming in rapid gyrations, or with abrupt 
jerking movements by means of their cephalic fins. 

Bruguiere stated, and Lamarck believed, that as the animal 
increased in size, it was obliged to leave its shell, in order to 
make a new and more capacious one. The notion of Sowerby 
and Reeve that Cypra^a can absorb the outer lip and form 
another is not less fanciful. Such hypotheses were founded on 
the circumstance that full-grown shells are often smaller than 
half-grown specimens ; but the difl!"erence of size in individuals 
of the present family is paralleled in many others. 

In their habits the cowries are shy and crawl slowly • as thev 
glide along among the coral reefs, with the lateral lobes' of their 
mantle adorned with showy colors, they present to the eye of 
the naturalist objects of singular interest and beauty. 

LUPONiA, Gray. (Cypneidia, Swains.) Comprises the pyriform 
species, having usually a few strong irregular plaits at the fore- 



198 CYPR^ID^. 

part of the columella. C. lynx, Linn. (Ixi, 98). C. tigris, Linn. 
(Ixi, 99). 

ARiciA, Gray. Characterized by the flattened base and thick- 
ened callous margins of the last whorl, and gibbous back. G. 
Arabica, Linn, dxi, 100). G. moneta, Linn. (Ixi, 1). 

CYPR^ovULA, Gray. Pyriform, oval, ventricose ; surface cov- 
ered with revolving strite. 2 sp. Cape of Good Hope. G. 
Gapensis, Gray (Ixi, 4, 5). 

GASKOINIA, Roberts. (Pseudocassis, Pictet.) Form of Luponia, 
aperture without teeth. One recent species ; and a cast. Cre- 
taceous ; Europe. G. edentula, Sowb. (Ixi, 2, 3). 

Troschel adopts the genera Cypraea and Aricia, and proposes 
the following subgeneric groups, which have not been adopted 
because the species cited as typical may be mostly connected by 
other species having intermediate characters. 
Cypriea — 

Subgenus Talparia. G. talpa, Linn. 
" Tigris. G. tigris, Linn. 
" Lyncina. G. lynx, Linn. 
" Mauritia. G. Mauritiana, Linn. 
Aricia — 

Subgenus Erronea. G. errones, Linn. 
" Erosaria. G. erosa, Linn. 
" Monetaria. G. moneta, Linn. 

TRIVIA, Gray. (Coccinella, Leach.) Small shells with striae 
extending over the back, where they are frequently interrupted 
by an impressed dorsal sulcus. 45 species, one of which inhabits 
the temperate seas of Northern Europe. G. quadripunctata, 
Gray (Ixi, 6, 7). " It is surprising to see with what facility the 
expanded animal of Trivia withdraws itself — foot, mantle, head 
and tube — through the narrow opening of the shell (Clark's 
MS.). Like Buccinum nndatum it continuall}^ discharges an 
immense quantity of clear slime. Couch says that it often gets 
into crab-pots ; so that it seems to be fond of all kinds of animal 
food." — Jeffreys. 

PUSTULARIA, Swainson. Back with rows of pustules proceeding 
from the dorsal sulcus, both lips ribbed clear across. G. pustu- 
lata, Lam. (Ixi, 8, 9 >. 

EPONA, H. and A. Adams. Globular, produced at the extrem- 
ities ; lips more less striated across. G. cicercula, Linn. (Ixi, 
10,11). 

[Erato, Risso. 

This group, which I have placed in Marginellidae (p. 172), may 
belong here ; it is somewhat closel}' related to Trivia, through 
its sculptured species, and (apparently) in dentition.] 



CASSIDID^. 199 

OvuLUM, Brug. 

Syn. — Amphiperas, Gronov. Sininia, Risso. 

Distr — 75 sp. Tropical and subtropical. Fossil. Tertiary — . 
0. pi/riformis, Sowb. (Ixi, 12, 13). 

Shell ventricose, convolute, attenuated and subacuminated at 
both ends ; outer lip of adult thickened and inflected. 

These shells are not ornamented with the rich and varied 
colors of the cowries, having but little pattern-painting; they are 
at once distinguished from them by the attenuated and frequently 
produced ends. 

Simnia was propt»sed for a few species, with sharp aperture- 
margin, which have proved to be the j^oung of typical Ovulae. 

CALPURNUS, Montf. ( Cypraella, Swains.) C3'prjeiform, gibbous, 
with a small tubercle at each extremity. 0. verrucosum^ Linn. 
(Ixi, 14, 15). 

CYPHOMA, Bolten ( Carinea, Swains.) Shell with a transverse 
dorsal rib ; inner lip smooth, outer lip very slightly crenulated. 
G. gibbosum, Linn, (l^i? 16, 17). 

VOLVA, Bolten. (Birostra, Swains. Radius, Montf.) Shell 
ventricose in the middle, both extremities prolonged into canals ; 
lips both without teeth. Animal, mantle-margin with glandular 
tubercles, foot narrow, folded lengthwise on itself, adapted for 
creeping on the narrow, rounded branches of gorgonije and corals 
— on which it is supposed to feed. C. volva, Linn. (Ixi, 18). 

CRiTHE, Gould. Shell ovate with produced extremities, and a 
delicate groove at the summit ; aperture narrow, outer lip 
imarmed ; base of the shell with about eight coarse lamina?, 
passing into the aperture, and having the appearance of denta- 
tions on the inner lip. 0. atomaria, Gld. China Seas. 

Pedicularia, Swainson. 

S,yn.— Thyreus, Phil. 

Di.str. — 9 recent sp. Europe, Polynesia. 1 Miocene sp. Eur. 
P. Sicula, Swains. (Ixi, 19, 20). 

Shell small, limpet-like, irregular, with small, short spire, con- 
cealed Avith the growth, and a radiately ribbed surface when 
young; mouth large, lips simple, irregular. Animal with eyes 
sessile at the outer bases of the tentacles, mantle enclosed, not 
produced into a siphon in front, foot small. Operculum none. 

DENTIORA, Pease. Columella plane or excavated, compressed 
and dentate within. D. rubida, Pease. Sandwich Is. 

Family CASSIDID^. 

Shell solid, subglobular or triangular; spire short, whorls 
sometimes varicose ; aperture terminating anteriorly in a shortl}' 
recurved canal, columella callous, usually plicated, outer lip 
ribbed, dentate within. 



200 CASSIDID^. 

Animal with large bead, and eyes at the exterior base of the 
tentacles, proboscis C3dindrical, extensible, mantle and foot large. 
Operculum corneous, oval or oblong. 

The Cassides are active and voracious, living in sandy locali- 
ties and preying upon bivalve mollusks. 

Cassis, Lamarck. 
Syn. — Cassidea, Brug. Goniogalea, Morch. Galeodaria, Conr. 
Bistr. — 37 sp Tropical; West Indies, Mediterranean, Africa, 
China, Japan, Australia. Fossil, 36 sp. Eocene — ; Chili, France. 
C. 3IadagaHcariensis, Lam, (Ixii, 22) 

Shell solid, thick, with the last whorl very large, varicose ; 
aperture longitudinal, narrow, outer lip with a thickened, reflected 
margin, and dentate within, inner lip rugosely plicate. Oper- 
culum oval, narrow, with median apex (Ixii, 28). 

These shells are well adapted for cameo-cutting, from their 
substance being made up of differently-colored layers, and also 
from a difference of hardness and texture in the various layers, 
some approaching more nearly to the nature of nacreous than of 
porcellanous material. 

The word cameo ^ derived from the Arab word, signifying bas- 
relief, was originally restricted to hard stones, such as onyx, 
sardonyx, etc., engraved in relief; but the name has since been 
extended to gems cut on shell, lava, and other substances. 

In cameos the central layer forms the body of the relief, the 
inner layer being the ground, and the outer the third or super- 
ficial color, which is sometimes used to give a varied appearance 
to the surface of the figure. 

Shell-cameos, some years ago, were a good deal in fashion ; 
and even now a well-executed, artistic Roman shell-cameo is an 
elegant piece of art. Genoa and Rome are the seats of the best 
work, although many common ones are cut in France. In Rome 
there are about eighty shell-cameo cutters, and in Genoa thirty, 
some of whom also carve in coral. The art of cameo-cutting 
was confined to Rome for upward of forty years, and to Italy 
until the last twenty-six years, at which time an Italian began 
cutting cameos in Paris, and now over 3000 persons are 
employed in that city. 

The black helmet (Cassif^ Madagascariensis)^ on account of 
the advantageous contrast of colors in the layers, produces 
very effective cameos, the carved figure of the white upper layer 
being strongly relieved b}' the dark, almost Wack, ground sup- 
plied by the second layer. 

The shell is first cut into pieces the size of the required 
cameos, by means of diamond dust and the slitting mill, or by 
a blade of steel fed with emery and water. It is then carefully 
shaped into a square, oval or other form on the grindstone, and 



CASSIDID^. 201 

the edge finished with oil-stone. It is next cemented to a block 
of wood, which serves as a handle to be grasped by the artist 
while tracing out with a pencil the figure to be cut on the shell. 

The pencil-mark is followed by a sharp point, which scratches 
the desired outline, and this again by delicate tools of steel 
wire, flattened at the end and hardened, and by files and 
gravers, for the removal of the superfluous portions of the 
white enamel. A common darning-needle, fixed in a wooden 
handle, forms a useful tool in this very minute and delicate 
species of carving. The cai'eful manipulation necessar}^ in this 
work can only be acquired b\^ experience ; the general shape 
must first be wrought, care being taken to leave ever}^ projection 
rather in excess, to be gradually reduced as the details and 
finish of the work are approached. To render the high parts 
more distinct during the process of carving they are slightly'' 
marked in black. — ^luyiONDS, Commercial Products of the Sea, 212. 

SEMiCAssrs, Klein. (Cassidea, Swn.) Shell oval, with revolving 
ribs, spire moderate, sharp. C. canaliculatus, Brug. (Ixii, 23 j. 

PHALiUM, Link. (Bezoardica, Schum., 1817.) Shell varicose, 
angular behind, oval, with moderate spire ; outer lip usually 
strongly dentated in front. G. imdatus, Mart. (Ixii, 24). 

■ CASMARTA, H. and A. Adams. Shell smooth, whorls simple or 
subplicate, spire moderate ; inner lip smooth, callous, outer lip 
margined, smooth or slightly crenulated on the inner edge. C. 
pyrum, Lam. (Ixii, 25). 

CASSIDEA, Link. (Cyprsecassis, Stutchb.) Shell ovate, spire 
short; mouth narrow, subcanaliculate behind, columella plicate 
its entire length; varices none or obsolete. No operculum. 
The mantle-margins are reflected over the lips of the shell. G. 
testiculus, Linn. (Ixii, 26). 

LEVENIA, Gra}'. Shell oval, subcylindrical, spire short, conic ; 
aperture narrow, contracted in the middle, columellar lip plicate 
throughout, outer lip without external rib, inflected and dentate. 
Operculum narrow. G. coarctatiis., Graj^ (Ixii, 27). 

Cassidaria, Lam. 

Etym. — Gassida, a helmet. 

Syu. — Galeodea, H. and A. Adams. Morio, Montf. 

Diatr. — 5 sp. Mediterranean. Fossil, 30 sp. Cretaceous, 
Eocene — ; Europe, West Indies. G. echinophora, Linn. (Ixii, 29). 

Shell nodulous, ovate or oval-oblong, somewhat attenuated in 
front to a short, subascending canal; inner lip more or less 
spread over the body-whorl, tuberculated or plicate, outer lip 
reflected, ribbed and plicate within. Operculum corneous, ovate, 
summit median and marginal, outer edge sinuous. 

SCONSIA, Gray. Shell oval-fusiform, with revolving strife and 
a single longitudinal varix ; aperture long, canal very short, and 

14 



202 DOLIID^. 

slightly reflected ; inner lip regularly plicate, the anterior pli- 
cations the largest ; outer lip rather thick, subreflected, plicate 
within. Animal and operculum unknown. A single recent 
species. G. striata^ Lam. (Ixii, 30). Also Tertiary and Cre- 
taceous. 

Oniscia, Sowb. 

Etym. — Oniscus, a wood-louse. 

Syn. — Morum, Bolten. Ersina, Gray. Lambidium, Link. 

Distr. — 9 sp. West Indies, China, Galapagos. Fossil, 3 sp. 
Miocene ; United States, St. Domingo. 0. onhcus, Lam. (Ixii, 31). 

Shell subcylindrical, conoidal, with short spire, and canal 
reflected at the base, surface tuberculated, mouth linear, right lip 
reflected, thickened and plicate within, inner lip plicate. 

These little shells are known by their transversely ribbed 
nodulous whorls, and prominent, recurved siphonal canal; when 
fresh the sui-face is covered with a fine velvety epidermis. 

ONisciDiA, Swains. Oval, tuberculate-cancellate, inner lip 
granulated. 0. cancellata, Sowb. (Ixii, 32). 

Pachybatron, Gaskoin. 

Distr. — 3 sp. Tropical ; West Indies, East Indies. F. Mar- 
ginelloideum, Gask. (Ixii, 33). 

Shell small, subcylindrical, longitudinally striated ; spire very 
short, but with sharp apex ; aperture narrow, very long, the 
inner lip spread over the body-whorl and transversely plicate, 
the outer lip thickened and denticulated within. 

Family DOLIID^. 

Shell thin, with short spire and very large body-whorl, covered 
Avith revolving ribs. 

Animal very large, with a wide head bearing two elongated, 
obtuse, distant tentacles, dilated at the base, where are situated 
the eyes, proboscis cylindrical, greatly developed, extensible 
and flexible, foot oval, very large, lobed and dilated in front, 
with a horizontal groove. No operculum in the adult. Denti- 
tion (xi, 32). 

DoLiUM, Linn. 

Tun-shell. Syn. — Perdix, Montf. Doliopsis, Conrad. 

Distr. — 15 sp. Mediterranean, West Indits, off" Rhode Island, 
Ceylon, China, Philippines, Australia. Fossil, 8 sp. Cretaceous, 
Tertiar}^ ; So. Europe, United States. D. perdix., Ijinn. (Ixii, 
21,34). 

Shell thin, ventricose, inflated, subglobular,with revolving ribs ; 
mouth very large, the outer lip crenulated, columella canalicu- 
lated. The genus Macgillivraya (xx, 44, 46 ; Ixii, 36 ) is founded 
upon the larva of Dolium ; it has four tentacles, and the foot is 



DOLllD^. 203 

provided with a float, like lanthina ; the larval shell has a thin, 
corneous operculum. 

Malea, Valenciennes. 

Syn. — Cadiura, H. and A. Adams. 

Distr. — M. ringens, Swains. (Ixii, 85). M. denticulatum, Desh. 
Pliocene. 

Shell having the form and sculpture of Dolium, but the outer 
lip is thickened, somewhat reflected, and denticulated, inner lip 
with calloused plicate prominences. 

Pyrula, Lam. 

Fig-shell. Etym. — Diminutive of pyrus, a pear. 

Syn. — Ficus, Rousseau. Ficula, Swainson. Otus, Risso. 
Sycotj-pus (Browne), Adams. Ficopsis, Conrad. 

Distr. — 8 sp. West Indies, Philippines, W. Tropical America. 
Fossil. Cret. ; India. Cret. and Eocene ; United States. P. 
decussata, Wood (Ixii, .37). P. ficus, Linn. (Ixii, 40). 

Shell thin, pear-shaped, terminating anteriorly in a moderate 
canal ; lip thin, smooth ; surface cancellated or with revolving 
ribs. 

Animal with subulate tentacles and eyes at their outer bases ; 
mantle produced on each side, covering the shell ; siphon straight, 
elongated; foot simple, thin, produced posteriorly. No oper- 
culum. 

The Pyruhie crawl very rapidly, bearing their light, elegantly- 
formed shells easily, and, with their neck stretched out, their 
siphon exserted, and their foot greatly expanded, present remark- 
able objects of contemplation to the malacozoologist. They 
are generally delicately flesh-tinted, with faint, marbled, crimson 
and pink markings ; their e3^es are large and black, and their 
long flat heads and necks usuall}^ white. 

PTYCHOSYCA, Gabb. Shell shaped like Pja-ula : inner lip with 
one anterior very oblique fold. P. inornata, Gabb (Ixii, 39). 
Cretaceous ; Georgia. 

FicuLOPSis, Stoliczka. Pyriform, attenuated in front, inflated 
behind ; spire very short ; surface spirally and transversely 
striate or costulate ; columella thick, angulated, plicate. P. 
Pondicherriensia, Forbes (Ixii, 38). Cretaceous ; So. India. 



{Macgillivrayidae ?) 
The two following genera are probably larval prosobranchiate 
mollusks. 

Ethella, H. and A. Adams. 

Bistr. — E. Macdonaldi, Ad. (Ixxxvii, 10, ID. Australia. 
Ciliated arms six in number ; creeping disk rudimentary ; 



204 NATICID^. 

operculigerons lobe long, cylindrical, bearing the operculum on 
its truncated extremity. Operculum claw-like, with a spiral 
nucleus situated near the internal or thickened border. 

Shell spiral, turbinate, imperforate ; spire elevated, whorls 
rounded ; aperture oval, produced in front. 

The little animal wields its clawed operculum, apparently as a 
weapon of defense, with great dexterity, and skips and jerks 
about by means of its complex foot. 

Gfmella, H. and A. Adams. 

Distr. — G. hyalina, H. and A. Ad. (Ixxxvii, 12). South Pacitic. 

The foot is not unlike a broad or square-toed shoe in form, re- 
ceiving or bearing the remainder of the animal and the shell. 
The little animal creeps with great rapidity, and by hollowing 
the disk of its foot into a boat-form, like Limnaea, it floats upon 
the surface of the seas. 

Operculum paucispiral, the lines of growth well-marked. 

Shell subglobose, thin, pellucid, not umbilicated ; spire small, 
compressed, whorls few, smooth ; aperture large, entire. 

Family NATICIDiE. 

Shell globular or oval, spire usually short, aperture semilunar, 
without canal or anterior notch, the outer lip sharp, the colu- 
mellar lip callous, more or less reflected over the umbilicus. 

Animal with small tentacles, which are lanceolate, wide apart, 
united by a veil ; eyes usually absent, or very minute and placed 
beneath the tentacular veil; mantle enclosed; foot much pro- 
duced in front, where it is furnished with a fold which covers 
the head and tentacles ; operculigerons lobe very ample, par- 
tially enveloping the shell. Operculum paucispiral, corneous, 
or with an exterior calcareous layer. Dentition, 3*1'3 (xi, 31). 

The nidus of Natica (xvii, 95) is unlike that of any other 
mollusk in form and composition, being built up largely of the 
sand of the sea-bottom, formed into a partly circular form con- 
stricted into a neck above, the walls of which contain the eggs 
arranged in quincunx order. 

Natica, Lam. 

Bisfr. — About 200 recent sp. World-wide, and ranging from 
low-water to 90 fathoms. Fossil, 500 sp. Silurian — ; world-wide. 
N. Alderi, Foi"l)es (Ixiii, 41). N. canreno., Linn. (Ixiii, 42). 

Shell subglobular, spire slightly elevated, aperture half-round, 
a spiral columellar callus entering the umbilicus. 

Animal blind, completely retractile within its shell. Oper- 
culum with an exterior calcareous layer. 

The animals of Natica (typical) move quickly; they arc 
carnivorous and very predaceous, living in sandy places, where 



NATTOIT)^. 205 

they hide under the surface and burrow after bivalves. Range, 
from low-water to 90 fathoms. The colored markings of the 
shells are very indestructible, being frequently preserved on 
fossils. 

STIGMAULAX, Morch. Whorls cancellated or sillonated ; umbil- 
icus with spiral funiculum. Operculum Avith calcareous outer 
layer. N. cancellata. Lam. (Ixiii, 43). 

LUNATiA, Gray. (Euspira, Agass., in part. Globularia, Swn.) 
Shell usuall}- sombre-colored, covered with a dark, thin epider- 
mis ; not so thick as the typical group ; umbilicus open, without 
funiculum. Operculum corneous. Inhabit usually cold or tem- 
perate rather than tropical seas. N. heros, Say (Ixiii, 44). 

NEVERiTA, Risso. (Naticaria, H. and A. Adams.) Shell 
depressed, orbicular, spire conical or flattened ; columella partly 
filled by a tongue-shaped callous process (funiculum) from the 
columella. Operculum horn}'. Animal capable of entire retrac- 
tion within the shell. Inhabits mostly temperate seas. N. 
duplicata, Say (Ixiii, 45). 

ANOMPHALA, Jonas. (Cemiua, Gray. Bulbus, Brown.) 
Globular, imperforate, the columella with heavy callous deposit. 
The animal is bulky, and unable to retract itself entirely into its 
shell. Operculum, if present, quite rudimentary. N. fiuctuata^ 
Sowb. (Ixiii, 46 . 

AMPULLINA, Lam. (Globularia, H. and A. Adams. Ampul- 
linopsis, Conr. Euspira, Agass., in part.) Umbilicus narrow 
(rimate), lined by a thin callus. Operculum with calcareous 
layer. N. Sigaretina, Lam. (Ixiv, 66). 

MAMILLA, Schum., 1817. (Ruma, H. and A. Adams. Nati- 
caria, Svvn.) Shell oval-conic, rather thin, with pointed spire; 
whorls fasciated ; mouth oblong, inner lip narrow, reflected, 
usually brown or black ; umbilicus not funiculated. Oper- 
culum cartilaginous, oblong, narrower than the aperture. 
Animal capable of retraction within its shell. N. maiwa, Lam. 
(Ixiii, 47). 

MAMMA, Klein. (Polinices, Montf. Naticella, Guild.) Shell 
oval or suboval, solid, smooth, spire short, sharp ; aperture 
semicircular, inner lip oblique, callous, the callus extending into 
the umbilicus. Operculum corneous ; animal retractile. N. 
straminea, Recluz (Ixiii, 48). The shell of Mamma is usually 
white, sometimes colored, but not banded or spotted. 

AMAURA, MoUer. (Acrybia, H. and A. Adams. Ptychostoma, 
Laube, ) Shell oval, smooth, imperforate, spire elevated, aperture 
oblong, columella short, simple. Operculum corneous, thin. The 
animal has a small, compact foot, without posterior lobe, anterior 
lobe profoundly sinuous, eyes at the internal base of the loVje. 
A boreal group, comprising a few living species. Fossil ; Jurassic, 
Cretaceous, Tertiary. N. Candida^ Moller (Ixiii, 46). 



206 NATICIDiE. 

AMAUROPSis, Morcli. Shell with canaliculated sutures. Scarcely 
distinct from Amaura. N. canaliculata, Gould (Ixiii, 50). 

AMAURELLA,A. Ad., 1867. Shell small, ovate, imperforate, white, 
shining, apex submammillary ; aperture acuminately ovate ; lip 
arcuate, simple, thick. 3 sp. Japan. N. Japonica^ A. Ad. 

LARINA, A. Adams. (Robinsonia, Nevill.) Shell thin, delicate, 
composed of a few rapidly increasing whorls ; not umbilicated, 
columella simple, lip not reflexed. Epidermis olivaceous. 
Operculum horny, annular. Somewhat resembles Amauropsis. 
6 sp. Indian Ocean, Australia. N. Cei//omca, Nevill (Ixiii, 51). 
This is possibly a fresh-water shell, and perhaps belongs in 
Paludinidffi. 

NATicopsis, M'Coy. (Neritomopsis, Waagen, 1880.) Shell 
imperforate ; inner lip very thick, spreading. Operculum shelly. 
Carboniferous Limestone; Great Britain. N. Phillipsii, M^ Coy 
(Ixiv, 67). 

isoNEMA, Meek. (Section of Naticopsis.) /. humilis^ Meek 
(Ixiv, 71). Devonian; Ohio. 

TRACHYDOMiA, Meek and Worthen, 1866. (Section of Nati- 
copsis.) Surface covered by small regularly disposed tubercles. 
N. nodosa, M. and W. Carboniferous ; Illinois. 

EUSPiRA (Agassiz), Morris and Lycett. (Holopea, Hall, in 
part.) Spire more or less elevated ; whorls few, distinct, angu- 
latedorcarinated. Inferior Oolite ; England. " Euspira presents 
considerable affinities to the Palajozoic genus Scalites, Hall, in 
the lines of growth having the appearance of a slight fissure, 
where the angle occurs in the volution." — Morr. and Lyc. N. 
canaliculata, Morr. and Lyc. (Ixiv, 84). 

Gyrodes, Conrad, 1860. 

Distr. — Cretaceous ; IT. S., Europe, India. G. alveata, Conr. 
(Ixiv, 70). 

Shell depressed-globose ; aperture generally angular or nar- 
rowly rounded below ; inner lip thin ; umbilicus wide, deep, 
without callosity, bounded by a revolving carina which is some- 
times crenate, with occasionally a second small revolving ridge 
within ; whorls shouldered above, the angle generally wrinkled 
or crenate. 

Cloughtonia, Hudleston. 

Distr. — C. ( Phasianella) cincta, Phillips. Oolite; England. 

Shell short, conical and solid, with a widish base; whorls 
about five, flat and angular; body-whorl more or less bicarinated 
with slight depression of the intervening space ; aperture ovate 
to ovate-oblong, rounded anteriorly ; pillar nearly straight, with 
little or no callus. 

This group seems to occupy an intermediate position between 
Natica and Chemnitzia. 



NATICID^. 207 

Tychonia, de Koiiinck, 1881. 

Distr.— T. Omaliana, de Kon. Carboniferous; Belgium. 

Shell somewhat depressed, globular, smooth ; spire short, 
obtuse, sutures shallow; last whorl very large ; mouth semicir- 
cular, outer lip sharp, inner lip somewhat callous ; an umbilical 
fissure. 

SiGARETUs, Lam. 

Syn. — Catinus (Klein', H. and A. Adams. Lupia, Conr. 
Stomatia, Hill. Raynevallia, Ponzi. 

Distr. — 90 recent sp. United States, West Indies, China, 
Peru. Fossil, 10 sp. Eocene — . S. neritoideus, Linn. (Ixiii, 
52). 

Shell ear-shaped, with minute spire and very large aperture, 
externall}^ with revolving striae, color usually white, with some- 
times a thin corneous epidermis. Operculum minute, horny, 
subspiral. Animal with large mantle parti}' or entirely covering 
the shell, anterior foot-lobe enormously developed. 

They live on muddy sand-flats ; in their habits they are 
sluggish and slow-moving, and very timid ; when crawling they 
constantly explore the surrounding surface with the produced 
fore-lobe of the foot, which is also used in burrowing. 

SIGARETUS, Lam. (typical). Shell orbicular, conoidal or convex ; 
mouth rounded ; umbilicus open or covered by a reflection of the 
inner lip; spire short, oblique. 

NATiciNA, Gray. (Lacunaria, Conr.) Shell oval-oblong, thin, 
ventricose ; spire sharp ; inner lip straight, thin anteriorly, with 
a median callus ; umbilicus open or partly covered. S. papilla, 
Gmel. (Ixiii, .53). 

CRYPTOSTOMA, Blaiuv. Shell ear-shaped, flattened; spire short, 
depressed ; mouth ver}- large, oblique ; no umbilicus. S. halio- 
toides, Linn. (Ixiii, 54). 

Velutina, Fleming, 

Etym. — Velutiniis, velvety {from veil us, a fleece). 

Syn. — (?) Catinella, Stache. 

Didr. — 4 sp. Boreal Seas, Europe and America. Fossil. 
Triassic, Cretaceous, Pliocene — . V. capuloidea, Blainv. (Ixiii, 
55). V. laevigata, Linn. (Ixiii, 56^. 

Shell thin, with a velvety epidermis ; spire small, sutures well- 
impressed ; aperture very large, rounded ; peristome continuous, 
thin. No operculum. 

Animal with a large oblong foot; margin of the mantle 
developed all around, and more or less reflected over the shell ; 
head broad ; tentacles subulate, blunt, far apart, with eyes on 
prominences at their outer bases. 

The Yelutinas, although resembling the pulmoniferous genus 
Otina, are strictly marine, being met with sometimes far out at 



208 NATICID^, 

sea ; usually, however, they are found living on stones near low- 
water. 

VELUTELLA, Gray. Shell thin, flexible, pellucid, smooth, mem- 
branaceous ; spire somewhat elevated ; mouth oblong, columella 
flexuous. V. flexilis, Mont. (Ixiv, 86). 

[limneria, H. and A. Adams. (Morvillia, Gray.) Shell semi- 
globose, with wide expanded aperture, sometimes extending pos- 
teriorly beyond the apex ; inner lip oblique, reflexed posteriorly, 
straight and acute anteriorly. V. zonata., Gould (Ixiii, 64, 65), 
which has been referred to the pulmoniferous genus Otina, is a 
typical species.] 

LEPTONOTis, Conrad. Differs from Yelutina in the remarkable 
expansion of the outer lip, and the distance of the apex from 
the margin. V. expansa, Whitfield (Ixiv, 68, 69). Eocene; 
Alabama. 

AMPLOSTOMA, Stoliczka. Subovate, thin, spire short ; whorls 
few, the last large, ventricose, produced in front, widely exca- 
vated at base; aperture elongately ovate, subangulated, pillar- 
lip smooth, outer lip dilated and expanded at the margin ; 
surface neai-ly smooth. Cretaceous; So. India, Europe. A. 
aiiriforme^ Stoliczka (Ixiv, 85). 

Platygstoma, Conrad. 

Distr. — P. Niagar-ensis, Hall (Ixiv, 74). Niagara group. New 
York. 

Shell subglobose ; spire short ; aperture ver}^ large, suborl)ic- 
ular, dilated ; labrum joining the body-whorl at right-angles to 
the axis of the shell. 

STROPHOSTYLUS, Hall. Shell subglobose or ovoid-giobose ; spire 
small, with a large, ventricose body-whorl; outer lip thin, not 
reflected (sometimes slightly expanded ) ; columella twisted or 
spirally grooved within, not reflected ; umbilicus none ; aperture 
somewhat round-ovate or transversely broad-oval. Fossil. Lower 
Helderberg. S. oMusvs^ Hall (Ixiv, 75). In this the columella 
is said to be twisted or spirally grooved within, whilst in Platy- 
ostoma the columellar lip is simply thickened. 

ORiosTOMA, Mun.-Chal., 1876. Umbilicus moderate, circum- 
scribed by a carina ; whorls sometimes partially free. 0. Bar- 
randei, Mun.-Chal. Devonian. 

[lysis, Gabb (p. 112), may perhaps be related to Yelutina.] 

Lamellaria, Montagu. 

Etym. — Lamella, a thin plate. 

Syn. (Larval form). — Brownia, d'Orb. {B. Candei, d'Orb., 
Ixxxvii, 8, 9). Calcarella, Soulej^et ( C. spinosa, Soul., xx, 51). 
Jasonilla, Macdonald. Echinospira, Krohn (E. diaphana, Kr., 
XX, 49, 50). 



NATICID^, 209 

Distr.— 10 sp. Norway, Great Britain, Mediterranean, New 
Zealand, Philippines. Fossil, 2 sp. Pliocene. 

Shell ear-shaped ; thin, pellucid, fragile ; spire very small ; 
aperture large, patulous ; inner lip receding. No operculum. 

Animal much larger than the shell, which is entirely concealed 
by the reflected margins of the mantle; mantle non-retractile, 
notched in front; eyes at the outer bases of the tentacles. 
Lingual uncini 3, similar; or one very large. 

Lamellaria perspicua (Ixiii, 57, 58) lays its eggs in February 
and March ; it hollows out a nest in the colonies of the com- 
pound Ascidians, from which it derives its nourishment. The 
nest is closed by a transparent operculum, presenting circular 
and concentric strife, showing that the animal turns round during 
oviposition. Each capsule contains besides the normal eggs a 
certain number of rudimentary ones, which later serve for the 
nourishment of the embryos. The first shell formed is nautiloid, 
presenting two dorsal and two lateral keels (xx, 49, 50) ; the 
second shell, formed within the first, is more simple, like a Cari- 
naria: the two are united at their apertures by a thin membrane. 
— GiARD, Coniptes Rendus, 736, 1875. 

Dr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys remarks of the same species : 

The mantle, tentacles and foot assume different positions when 
the animal is quiescent and in active motion. It swims or floats 
with apparent ease. The gill-plume (whether single or double 
I could not make out) is of a yellowish brown color. Mr. Daniel 
found constantly in the stomach portions of branched corallines, 
probably indicating that the Lamellaria feeds on Polyzoa. 
According to Mr. Peach the female eats a round hole in a jelly- 
like compound Ascidian (Leptoclinumpiinctaticm) for the purpose 
of making her nest and depositing in it her eggs. This nest is 
pot-shaped, and covered by a circular lid ; it is at first bright 
yellow, which afterwards sometimes fades and changes, becoming 
at last dirty white. As the embryo increases in size the nest 
rises up beyond the surface of tlie Ascidian, having been pre- 
viously covered on all sides. The spawn is deposited from 
February to May ; it arrives at maturity in four or five weeks. 
The embryo, when enclosed and swimming in the glairy matrix 
is of a somewhat triangular shape; the front portion istrilobed^ 
each lobe being furnished with delicate vibratile cilia which are 
in constant motion ; the central portion is granular, and the 
hinder bluntly pointed. On the pot-lid burstino- oi)en and the 
fry emerging, the latter is found to have a pellucid nautiliform 
shell, retaining in other respects the appearance of its foetal 
state, and destitute of tentacles, eyes or foot. Mr. Peach's ex- 
cellent observations were continued regularly for ten years. 
Every season the Lamellaria, as if impelled by the same instinct 



210 NATTCID^. 

wliicli takes the salmon to the river, and the herring to shallower 
water, migrated inshore and sought its proper spawning ground. 

MARSENiNA, Gray. (? Colobocephalus, M. Sars.) Shell opaque, 
with short spire ; animal with mantle fissured clown the back. 
L. depressa, Sutton (Ixiii, 59). 

ONCHiDiopsis, Bergh. Shell entirely enclosed by the animal, 
thin, slipper-like, without spire, margin entire. Animal verru- 
cose, with a lanceolate foot. 0. glacialis^M. Sars (Ixiv, 72, 73,. 
Norway. 

CRYPTOCELLA, H. and A. Adams. Shell thin, pellucid, calca- 
reous ; spire small, mouth very large ; animal with depressed, 
subvei'rucose or smooth mantle. L. tentaculata, Mont. (Ixiii, 60). 
L. lafens, MuW. (Ixiii, 61). 

CORIOCELLA, Blainv. Shell spiral, calcareous, thin,subopaque, 
spire short, whorls rounded, the last large, aperture very large. 
Mantle of animal deeply fissured and bilobed in front, the surface 
depressed and covered with numerous hexagonal tubercles. 
This group was founded by Blainville upon an animal accidentally 
deprived of its shell. L. nigra, Blainv. (Ixiii, 62, 63). 

Vanikoro, Quoy and Gaimard. 

Syn. — Narica, Recluz. Merrya, Gray. Leucotis, Sowb. 

Distr. — 25 sp. West Indies, Nicobar, Philippines, Polynesia. 
Fossil. Gault — ; Europe, U. S. V. cancellata, Chemn. 
(Ixv, 90). 

Shell subglobose, external, white, with sometimes a velvety 
epidermis, striated, costate or decussated, umbilicated, umbilicus 
without a trace of callus. Operculum verj' thin, corneous, not 
spiral. 

Probably most of the Jurassic and triassic species of Neritopsis 
belong to Vanikoro, as certainly do nearly all the species 
described by Miinster and Klipstein from St. Cassian under the 
name of Naticella. There are numerous cretaceous species from 
the old world. 

VANiKOROPSis, Meek. Shell subglobose, thick and solid ; body- 
volution large ; spire depressed ; aperture ovate ; axis imper- 
forate ; outer lip simple, beveled; inner lip closely folded upon, 
and adhering to, the columella and the body-volution, very little 
thickened and not flattened, tootlied, notched, or serrated ; surface 
with distinct revolving lines and furrows, and on the body- 
volution developing strong oblique folds or plications and 
furrows, parallel to the lines of growth. N. Tuomeyana, M. and 
H. (Ixiv, 87). Cretaceous; Upper Missouri River. 

NATicoDON, Ryckholt. Shell globose like Vanikoro, but the 
inner lip usually thickened and always provided with some kind 
of a tooth ; the columella is either slightl}' hollowed out or solid ; 
the surface smooth or ornamented with various spiral or trans- 



oai.yvthjFadje. 211 

verse striae. Palaeozoic. A connecting link between Vanikoro 
and Neritopsis ; the former having the columellar lip smooth, the 
latter insinuated in the middle, or provided with two strong 
teeth, while Naticodon has onl}- one tootli ; as regards the thick- 
ness of the shell this transition seems equally to hold good. N. 
spiratum, Sowb. (Ixiv, 76j. Carboniferous;" Europe. 

Family CALYPTR^ID^. 

Shell limpet-like, with the apex more or less spiral ; interior 
simple, or divided by a shelly process, variously shaped, to which 
the adductor muscles are attached. 

Animal with a distinct head ; muzzle lengthened ; e3es on the 
external bases of the tentacles ; branchial plume single. The 
rostrum is prominent and split, but non-retractile. 

The bonnet-limpets are found adhering to stones and shells ; 
most of them appear never to quit the spot on which they first 
settle, as the margins of their shells become adapted to the 
surftice beneath, whilst some Avear away the space beneath their 
foot, and others secrete a shelly base. Both their form and 
color depend on the situation in which they grow ; those found 
in the cavities of dead shells are nearly flat, or even concave 
aboA'e, and colorless. They are presumed to feed on the sea- 
weed growing round them, or on animalcules; a Calyptraea, 
which Professor Forbes kept in a glass, ate a small sea-slug 
(Goniodoris) which was confined with it. Both Cal3^ptr8ea and 
Pileopsis sometimes cover and hatch their spawn in front of 
their foot. 

The use of the calcareous lamina, which is the first stage in 
the formation of a columella, is to support the viscera and 
separate them from the foot or locomotive organ. 

Galerus, Uumphre3\ 

Syn. — Sigapatella, Siphopatella, Lesson, Mitella, Leach. 

Distr. — Tropical and subtropical. O. Chinensis, Linn. ^Ixvi, 
22, 23). Fossil. L. Cretaceous—. 

Shell depressed subconical, spiral, summit subcentral, aperture 
ver}^ large, basal, with a subspiral broad lamina adhering to the 
left margin. Animal with bilabiate muzzle, buccal appendages 
short, rounded; a slightly developed, plain-edged neck-lobe; foot 
auriculate in front. 

GALEROPsis, Conrad. Spire more elevated. G. excentricus^ 
Gabb. Eocene. 

Infundibulum, Montfort. 

Syn. — Trochita, Schum., 1817. Clypeola, Gray. Trochella, 
Gray. 

Distr. — Mostly tropical and subtropical. I. npirala, Forbes 
(Ixvi, 24, 25). Fossil. Tertiary ; U. S., West Indies. 



212 CALYPTRyEIB^. 

Shell conic, trochiform, spiral ; summit central ; whorls convex, 
plicate, not umbilicated ; aperture large, containing a spiral 
transverse lamina, extending obliquely from the centre to the 
outer margin of the shell. The animal has an oblong foot, 
bilobed anteriorly. 

HALiOTiDEA, Swainson. Shell conic, spiral, the spire excentric, 
whorls convex, smooth, umbilicated. /. dilatata, Sowb. (Ixvi, 26). 

CALYPTR.EA, Lam. 

Cup and saucer limpet. 

Sijn. — Cemoria, Risso. Mitrella, Trochilina, Trelania, Pocu- 
lina. Gray. Mitrularia, Schum, Lithedaphus, Owen. 

Did)'. — Temperate and tropical; world-wide. C. Martiniana., 
Reeve (Ixvi, 27). 

Shell conical, more or less regular, with subcentral, subposte- 
rior sharp apex ; aperture basal, with a central lamina, half cup- 
shaped, attached to the apex and open in front. 

Animal with broad muzzle ; tentacles rather short, lanceolate ; 
eyes on bulgings at the outer bases of the tentacles ; mantle- 
margin simple, sides plain. 

Crucibulum, Schum., 1817. 

Syn. — Bicatillus, Biconia, Swains. Siphopatella, Lesson. Tre- 
lania, Neleta, Gray. 

Distr. — Temperate and tropical; world-wide. G. rudis, Brod. 
(Ixvi, 28). 

Differs from Calyptrjea in the internal cup-shaped lamina, 
which is entire and attached along a line on one side to the inner 
wall of the shell. 

DTSPOT^A, Say. (Calypeopsis, Lesson.) Cup-shaped lamina 
adhering to the whole of one side. C. striata, Say ilxvi, 29). 

CATiLLiNA, Gray. Oblong, conical, radiately ribbed ; the apex 
acute, subcentral, recurved; nucleus regular, spiral; cavity 
conical, with a broad trigonal cup on the left side under, but not 
extending to the apex of the cavity, filled with a callous deposit 
at the tip ; the part of the cup next to the inner surface of the 
shell scarcely thickened and not raised up. Crucibulum conca- 
merata, Rve. (Ixiv, 77). 

Crepidula, Lam. 

Etym. — Crepidula, a small sandal. 

Syn — Crypta, Humph. Sandalium, Schum. Crepipatella, 
Lesson (?). Tjdacus, Lyroscapha, Conrad. 

Distr. — 50 sp. West Indies, Atlantic and Pacific Coasts of 
N. America, Mediterranean, W. Africa, Lidia, Australia. C. 
Peruviana, Lam. (Ixv, 91). Fossil. Cretaceous — . 

Shell oval, limpet-like, with a posterior, generally lateral spiral 
apex ; interior with a shelly lamina covering its posterior half. 



CALYPTttiiilDiE. 218 

Animal. Head large, transverse, depressed ; foot rounded, 
slightly truncate in front. 

Adhering to shells or stones, and modifying their form in 
accordance with their dwelling-place, those species living within 
the aperture of empt^' spiral shells are generally flat and uncolored ; 
others reproduce the ribs of Pecten ; others again attach in 
groups upon the outside of each other's shells. 

GARNOTiA, Gray. Oval, convex, covered by a smooth epider- 
mis ; apex dorsal, median, posterior; lamina inclined. 

lANACus, Morch. Shell depressed, apex posterior, but slightly 
lateral ; lamina mostly concave in front. G. unguiformis, Lam. 
(Ixv, 92 . 

ERG^A, H. and A. Adams. Shell depressed, summit lateral; 
lamina produced in front, its columellar margin subtubular. C. 
plana, Ads. and Rve. ( Ixv, 93). 

NOiciA, Gray. Shell subcircular or oblong, convex, spiral ; 
whorls one and a half or two ; the apex subcentral, subposterior; 
nucleus spiral ; cavit}' concave, deeper imder the apex ; internal 
plate concave, thin, with the fold forming a narrow linear cavity 
open to the apex of the shell. N. Ghinensis, Gray. China. 

SPIROCRYPTA, Gabb. Summit of shell posterior, lateral and 
submarginal, spiral. Internal plate attached to the margin on 
the lower or outer side, curving upwards and inwards and 
uniting with the opposite side at a considerable distance. The 
plate is subspiral, thus approaching Trochita and Galerus. C. 
pileum, G'dhh (Ixiv, 18). Cretaceous; Cal. 

Galericulus, Seeley. 

Didr.—G. alius, Seeley (Ixiv, 79). 

This genus has two separate septa, the larger one originating 
below the incurved apex, and the smaller one at the base. Only 
the cast is as 3^et known ; the upper surface of the shell, which 
has the form of a Helcion, not having been observed. 

Capulus, Montf 

Bonnet-limpet. 

Syn. — Pileopsis, Lam. Actita, Fischer de Wald. 

Distr. — 8 sp. W. Indies, Europe, India, Australia, W. America. 
Fossil, 20 sp. Silurian — . G. Ungaricus, Linn. (Ixvi, 30). 

Shell conical, apex posterior, spirally recurved ; aperture 
rounded ; muscular impression horseshoe-shaped. 

Tongue-mem])rane winged on each side in front, teeth arranged 
in seven series (31'3), central teeth small and broad with the 
apex hooked, the lateral teeth long and hamate. Rostrum 
lengthened ; tentacles subulate, with the eyes on bulgings at 
their outer bases. Mantle simple in front ; gill forming a single 
plume jilaced obliquely across the mantle-cavit^', laminae elongate, 
linear, partly exposed. Foot folded on itself, the sides simple, 



214 CALYPTR^lDiE. 

anteriorly thin and strap-shaped, posteriorly thick, orbicular 
and concave. 

These animals are said to feed on the sea-weed that grows 
around them, and on small marine organisms. They appear to 
have but limited locomotion, being usually adherent and modi- 
fying the margin of the aperture of the shell according to the 
surface on which they live Sometimes they wear awa}' the 
surface beneath their foot, forming shallow excavations, or they 
secrete an imperfect shelly base b}^ means of the same organ. 
The egg-cases are membranous and are attached in a tuft at the 
front of the foot under the neck. 

THYOA, H. and A. Adams, 1854. Shell conical, transparent, 
slightly curved, with longitudinal grooves. Occurs on Asteria. 
C. astericola, Ad. and Reeve. 

BROCCHiA, Bronn. Irregularly conical, apex slightly spiral ; 
left margin with a profound sinus ; posterior half of the margin 
folded. 2 sp. Tertiar3\ A doubtful group. C. siniiosa, Bronn 
(Ixiv, 80). 

Platyceras, Conrad. 

Syn. — Acroculia, Phillips. 

])idr. — Fossil, 50 sp. Silurian to Carboniferous ; TTnited States, 
Europe. P. ventricosum^ Conr. (Ixiv, 81, 82). 

Shell depressed subglobose, subovoid or obliquely subconical ; 
spire small; volutions few, sometimes free and sometimes con- 
tiguous, without columella; aperture more or less expanded, 
often campanulate, and sometimes with the lip reflexed ; peris- 
tome entire or sinuous. Surface striated or cancellated, often 
spirally ridged or plicate, and sometimes strongly lamellose 
transversely, nodose or spiniferous. 

The subglobose species resemble the Velutinae, but there is 
ever}^ degree of variation in form between these and non-spiral 
shells. From among these, two subgeneric groups have been 
rather arbitrarily^ separated. 

ORTHONYCHiA, Hall. Body of the shell straight or curving, 
gradually diminishing above, arched or in some degree spiral 
at the apex, with the last volution or more quite free. Sil. 
to Carb. P. .^pirale, Hall (Ixiv, 83). 

IGOCERAS, Hall. Shell straight, with cancellated surface and 
often with the addition of longitudinal plications. Silurian. 
P. pileatum, Conrad. 

Berthelinia, Crosse. 

Distr. — B. elegans^ Crosse (Ixv, 94, 95). Fossil. Paris basin. 

Capuliform, ver}^ small, microscopic, thin, rather smooth, few- 
whorled, the spire very small and lateral, the last whorl greatly 
dilated with a large aperture. 



ONUSTlDiE. 215 

Spiricella, Rang. 
Distr. — S. ungrwicM/MS, Rang (Ixv, 96, 97). Miocene; France. 
Shell flattened, elongated, with a small sinistrally spiral apex. 
Perhaps as nearly related to Umbrella. 

Amathina, Gray. 

Distr. — A. fricarinata (Ixv, 98, 99). India. 

Shell depressed, oblong ; apex posterior, not spiral, with three 
strong ribs radiating from it to the anterior mai-gin, which is 
produced into three points. 

Head elongated ; eyes sessile on the posterior lateral margins 
behind the tentacles ; tentacles short, obtuse ; mantle-margin 
entire, a tentacular median filament at the hind-part. 

HiPPONYX, Defrance. 

Etym. — Hippos., a horse, and onyx., a hoof. 

Syn. — Cochlolepas, Klein. Krebsia, Morch. 

Distr. — 10 sp. W. Indies, W. America, Indian Ocean, Philip- 
pines, Australia. Fossil, 10 sp. Cretaceous ; United States, 
Europe. H. cornucopias, Lam. (Ixv, 100, 1, 2). 

Shell thick, obliquely conical, non-spiral, apex somewhat pos- 
terior and curved backwards ; muscular impression horseshoe- 
shaped ; base of attachment shelly, secreted by the foot of the 
animal. 

Animal oval or suborbicular, conical or depressed ; foot very 
thin, a little thickened towards the margins ; head globose, 
separated from the body by a neck-like constriction ; eyes upon 
swellings of the tentacles. 

AMALTHEA, Schum.^ 1817. (Sabia, Gray.) Like Hipponyx, 
but forming no shelly base ; surface of attachment worn and 
marked with a crescent-shaped impression. Often occurs on 
living shells, such as the large Turbos and Turbinellie of the 
Eastern seas. H. conica, Schura. (Ixv, 3, 4). 

Family ONUSTID^. 

Shell conical, spiral, depressed, umbilicated, soldering shells 
and stones to its exterior surface. 

Animal. Foot small, cylindrical, used for jumping, not walking, 
having an expanded front, and a tapering hind-jjortion. Oper- 
culum large, horny, subannular, right half free, nucleus lateral, 
dextral ; muscular impression sinistral, semilunar, extending the 
whole length. 

These animals scramble along like the Strombs ; they extend 
and fix the front, dilated part of the foot and draw the hind-lobe 
up to it, throwing forwards the shell at every movement. They 
cannot glide like other mollusks, but the form of the foot is 



2 1 fi ONUSTID^. 

admirably adapted to to the nature of the floor on which they 
live, which is usually composed of the debris of dead shells. 

Onustus, H. and A. Adams. 

Syn. — Haliphffibus and Tugurium, Fischer. 

Distr. — Several sp. Tropical ; East and West Indies. O. 
Solaris, Linn. (Ixvi, 31, 32). Fossil. Devonian — . 

Shell conical, trochiform, depressed, widely and profoundly 
umbilicated ; periphery of the whorls fringed with regularly 
disposed tubular spines or slight projections ; pieces of small 
shells agglutinated upon the whorls at the sutures, where they 
are attached as growth continues. 

EuTROCHUS, Whitfield, 1882. 

Distr. — E. concava, Hall. Carb. ; Ind., Ills. 

Shell conical above, flat or concave beneath, and broadly and 
deeply umbilicated ; aperture very oblique, and the outer angle 
of volutions strongly carinated or expanded ; surface ornamen- 
tation unlike on the upper and lower surfaces. 

Differs from the umbilicated forms of Trochidae in not forming 
a columella ; the lower or basal surface sloping gradually and 
smoothly into, and forming the sides of, the umbilicus, giving an 
obliquely elliptical section to the volution. 

Xenophora, Fischer de Wald. 

Sipi. — Phorns, Montf. Pseudophorus, Meek. 

Distr. — Several sp. Tropical. X conchyliophora, Born 
(Ixvi, 33). Fossil. Devonian — . 

Shell conical, trochiform, whorls flattened, carr3'ijig shells, 
madrepores and stones, miscellaneously arranged and attached 
anywhere upon the exterior surface, so as to completely disguise 
the dorsal aspect of the shell ; lower surface free of extraneous 
agglutinations ; umbilicus narrow, sometimes covered by the 
inner lip. 

The " carriers " inhabit deep water, and are most numerous in 
the Java and China Seas. Each species appears to have its own 
peculiar method of collecting the fragments of shells and stones 
which cover the ground where it lives, and each cements to the 
outside of the shell its particular kind of materials. The adven- 
titious pieces of shell are so disposed as not to curve downwards 
beyond the edge of the shell, so as to impede the progress of the 
animal, but are usually placed with their concave sides upper- 
most, and the purpose of this structure is evidently concealment 
of the true nature of the animal, either for attack or defense, or 
perhaps for both occasions ; as when tricked out with shells and 
stones it may well he mistaken for a refuse-heap. 

ENDOPTYGMA, Gabb, 1817. Differs from Xenophora in having 



SOLAUllU^. 217 

a strong revolving plate inside, nearly midway between the 
umbilical and outer margin on the base. Cretaceous ; Miss, 
and Alabama; described from a cast. X. unibilicata, Tuomey. 

Family SOLARIID^. 

Shell orbicular, depressed or trochiform ; aperture generally 
angular ; umbilicus usually wide and deep. Operculum corneous, 
spiral. 

The animal has folded tentacles, with the suture below; eyes 
sessile on the upper surface of their bases ; gill-cavity divided 
by a longitudinal fold ; proboscis retractile. 

The shells are not pearly like Trochus — which many of them 
resemble. They are numerously represented in fossil deposits, 
commencing in the Trias, and reaching their maximum in the 
Tertiar3\ There are not many living species. Dentition 
(xii,39, 40). 

Solarium, Lam. 

Etym. — Solarium, a dial. 

Syn. — Architectonica, Bolten. Solariorbis, Conrad. 

Diatr. — 25 sp. Tropical; world-wide. Fossil, more numerous. 
Commencing with the Eocene. 8. perspectivum, Linn. (Ixvi, 34). 

Shell depressed conic, angular at the periphery ; aperture sub- 
quadrangular, lip simple; umbilicus wide, spiral, its margins 
crenulated. Operculum horn}-, subspiral. 

TORiNiA, Gray. (Heliacus, d'Orb.) Shell orbicular, elevated, 
granulated, last whorl rounded; moderately but profoundly 
umbilicated. Operculum conically elevated, of numerous volu- 
tions, which are margined by pi-ojecting edges cork-screw 
fashion. S. variegatum, Lam. (Ixvi, 35). 

Distinguished from Solarium by its spirally elevated oper- 
culum, and b}- the rounded periphery of the last whorl. They 
alfect deep water, and are ver}- shy and sensitive when under 
observation. 

PHiLiPPiA, Gray. (Disculus, Desh. ) Shell smooth, subconic ; 
umbilicus with crenulated margins. Operculum flattened, whorls 
numerous. S. luteum, Lam. (Ixvi, 36). 

GYRiscus, Tiberi. Shell turbinated, conic-turriculated, um- 
bilicated, rather obtuse, the summit enveloped. Whorls rounded, 
transversely sculptured. Aperture subcircular, the simple 
margins united b^^ a callous deposit ; columellar lip reflected. 
Operculum corneous, multispiral externall}-, furnished internally 
with a central stj^iform projection. S. Jelfreysianuin, Tiberi 
(Ixv, 5, 6). Mediterranean. 

FLUXiNA, Dall. Shell porcellanous, depressed conical, umbili- 
cate, strongly carinate, with a stout umbilical rib, above which 
the pillar is thin and emarginate ; from the umbilical rib to the 
15 



218 SOLARIID^. 

carina the basal margin of the aperture is deeply flexuously 
emarginate ; above the carina it is again, but less deeplj^, emar- 
ginate, then sweeps forward roundly, and then slightly recedes 
before joining the preceding whorl. This curious form belongs 
in all probability to the Solariidse, representing among them 
Basilissa among the Trochidi^, and recalling Platyschisraa, but 
with a different aperture. When perfect, the margin at the 
carina must project forward like a claw or nail, as in Schizos- 
toma. When adult, the nuclear whorls are filled up with a solid 
deposit of shelly matter, and it is probable that there is a slight 
notch at the end of the umbilical rib. S. hrimnea^ Dall. West 
Indies. 

Platyschisma, M'Coy. 

Distr. — Silurian — ; U. S., Europe. P. Uchtensis, Keys 
(Ixv, 7). 

Shell depressed trochiform, whorls somewhat rounded, orna- 
mented with small transverse ribs ; spire short, whorls few ; 
aperture oblique ; umbilicus small, rounded. 

Architea, Costa. 

Syn. — Trachysma, JelTreys. 

Distr. — A. delicatum, Phil. (Ixv. 8). 

Shell turbinate, but little elevated, thin, widely and deeply 
umbilicated below; aperture rounded, peristome continuous, 
simple. Operculum corneous, pellucid, spiral, flattened and 
smooth on the outer side, the spire slightly prominent in the 
centre of the inner side. 

Straparollus, Montfort, 1810. 

Syn. — Euomphalus, Sowb. Helicotoma, Salter. Pleuronotus, 
Hall. Helicites, Schloth. Centrifugus and Inachus, His. 
Cirrus, Sowb. Phanerotinus, Sowb. (partira). Omphalocirrus, 
Planicirrus, Echinocirrus and Trochocirrus, Ryckholt. Omphal- 
otrochus. Meek. Phymatifer, Kon. Straparollina, Billings. 

Diatr. — 60 sp. Lower Silurian to Trias ; United States, Europe, 
Australia. S. Gualteriatus, Vern. (Ixv, 9). S. calcar, d'Orb. 
(Ixv, 21). 

Shells depressed, whorls angular or carinated, aperture sub- 
quadrangular, umbilicus wide, conical. Opei'CUium shelly, midti- 
spiral. 

It has been proposed by several conchologists to unite the 
genera Straparollus (= Euomphalus) and Solarium in one. 
When, however, we compare the large number of species of both 
these genera, it appears tliat the smooth or at least less orna- 
mented surface of the shell, the constant want of a distinctly 
crenulated margin round the umbilicus, combined with the 
roundish form of the whorls of Stj:apapollus, make its separation 



sor,ARiiDi?=:. 210 

from Solarium very desirable. Of man}' of the palaeozoic Stra- 
paroUi the opercula are known, and they very much resemble 
those of Torinia, being thick and composed of numerous lamellar 
volutions. 

[maclurea, Emmons. Shell diseoidal, sinistral, flattened 
above, rounded below ; surface smooth or transversely striated. 
Probably more nearly related to Bellerophontidae and Haliotidae, 
in the vicinit}' of which it will be more fully described. S. 
magna, Lesueur (Ixv, 10).] 

SCHIZOSTOMA, Bronu. Shell dextral or sinistral, planorbiform, 
the whorls flattened or convex ; aperture triangular or transverse, 
the margins sinuous above and below, uniting in a produced 
point at the periphery. S. Puzosii, Yern. (Ixv, 11). 

CCELOCENTBUS, Zittel. Shell low conical, widely umbilicated, 
with rounded or angular whorls, having one or two series of 
tubercles or hollow spines; aperture round, with entire lip. 
Devonian to Trias. S. Goldfussi, d'Arch. 

EUOMPHALOPTERis, Roemcr. Shell low conical, widely and 
deeply umbilicated ; periphery seamed, with fine radial channels. 
Operculum shelly, concentrieall}' striated and swollen externally, 
showing spiral whorls internally. S. alatus, His. U. Silurian. 

[raphistoma, Hall. (Helicotoma, Salter.) Shell lenticular 
or orbicular, whorls flattened with a carination above ; umbilicus 
moderate ; outer lip with slight sinus at the keel. S. utriatus, 
Hall. See p. 223.] 

Helicocryptus, d'Orb. 

Distr. — H. punllus, d'Orb. (Ixv, 12 \ Corallien. 

Shell depressed orbicular, volutions on the same plane ; the 
outer one nearly embracing the others, so that it shows a small 
depressed spire above, and a narrow umbilicus below. 

Stoliczka places this genus near Rotella; it is perhaps as nearly 
related to that genus as to the Solariidse. 

Adeorbis, S. Wood. 

Distr. — 10 sp. West Indies, China. Low-water to 60 fms. 
Fossil, 5 sp. Eur. A. subcarinatus, Mont. (Ixv, 1;:5). 

Shell depressed orbicular, widely umbilicated ; whorls not 
numerous, smooth or striate, the last sometimes angular ; aper- 
ture rounded, the outer lip arcuated, simple, sharp. Operculum 
shelly, subspiral. 

Omalaxis, Desh. 

DiHtr. — 0. supram'tida, Wood (Ixv, 14). 

Shell subdiscoidal, whorls distinctly carinate, peristome not 
continuous. Operculum elevated, multispiral. 

Homalogyra, Jeffreys. 
<S'///?. — Omalogyra, Jeffreys. Ammonicerina, Costa. 



220 scalaridye, 

Distr. — 2 sp. Europe, Greenland. H. atomus, Phil. (Ixv, 
15, 16). 

Shell planorbiform, with involute spire ; whorls more or less 
angulated ; mouth clasping both sides of the periphery. Oper- 
culum few-whorled, nucleus central. 

Body flattened, tentacles wanting, eyes sessile behind the head. 

Cyrculus, Jeffreys. 
Distr. — C. striatus, Phil. (Ixvi, 31). Mediterranean. 
Shell minute, discoidal ; umbilicus large, profound. Oper- 
culum multispiral, corneous. 

DiscoHELix, Dunker. 

Syn. — Orbis, Lea (not Blainv. or Lacep.). Bifrontia, Desh. 
Ilaira, H. and A. Adams. Platystoma, Homes. 

Distr. — D. zanclea, Phil. (Ixv, H, 18). Fossil. Silurian, 
Liassic, Cretaceous, etc. 

The geniis was proposed for a liassic, discoidal shell, composed 
of quadrangular whorls, carinated and more or less crenulated 
on the upper and lower edges of the back, on which the striae of 
growth are insinuated backwards. 

Ophileta, Yanuxem. 

Syn. — Cyclogyra, Wood. Planaria, Brown. Discohelix, Adams 
and Chemn. 

Shell planorbiform, discoidal, whorls numerous, slender, in 
contact. 

Proposed for a palaeozoic fossil of New York (0. levata, Hall, 
Ixv, 19) ; to which may be added the recent Discohelix foliacea, 
Phil. (Ixiv, 88, 89). 

EccYLiOMPHALUS, Portlock, 1843. 

Syn. — Serpularia, Roemer. Phanerotinus (partim), Sowb., 
1842. 

Distr. — Fossil. Paljeozoic, a few species. E. serpula, Kon. 
(Ixv, 20). 

Shell discoidal, whorls few, in the same plane, widely disso- 
lute ; flattened above, rounded beneath. 

Family SCALARID^. 

Characters those of the only genus. These mollusks are closely 
related to the lanthinaa, of which they may be regarded as 
creeping representatives, on the one side, and to Turritella as 
well, by the form of their shell. Dentition xi, 36-38). 

ScALARiA, Lam. 
Etym. — Scalaris, like a ladder. Wentle-trap. 
Syn. — Sthenorytis, Compsopleura and Scalarina, Conr. 



SCALARIDiE. 221 

Distr. — 150 sp. Mostly tropicul ; Greenland, Norway, Britain, 
Mediterranean, "West Indies, China, Anstralia, Pacific, West 
America. Fossil, nearly 200 sp. Trias — ; Britain, North 
America, Chili, India. S. jyreiiosa^ Linn. (Ixvi, 42). 

Shell mostly pure white and lustrous ; turreted ; many-whorled ; 
whorls round, sometimes separate, ornamented with numerous 
transverse ribs ; aperture round ; peristome continuous. Oper- 
culum horn}', few-whorled. 

Animal with a retractile pi-oboscis-like mouth ; tentacles close 
together, long and pointed, with the eyes near their outer bases ; 
mantle-margin simple, with a rudimentary siphonal fold ; foot 
obtusely triangular, with a fold (mentum) in front. Sexes dis- 
tinct ; predaceous. Dr. Gould fed them on raw beef, which they 
eat voraciously ; tongue armed with numerous simple uncini. 
Range from low-water to 80 fathoms. The animal exudes a 
purple fluid when molested. 

CLATHRUs, Oken. Shell moderatel}' thick, whorls united, 
longitudinal ribs numerous, aperture suboval, umbilicus covered 
b}'^ the left lip. S. communis. Lam. (Ixvi, 38). 

OPALIA, H. and A. Adams. (Psychrosoma, Tapparone-Canefri. 
Compsopleura, Conr. ) Shell turriculated, imperforate, whorls 
united, the last with a spiral rib at the base. S. coronata, Lam. 
(Ixvi, 39). 

AM^A, H. and A. Adams. Shell turriculated, thin, whorls 
united, cancellated, with some thin irregular varices; aperture 
semilunar, interior lip gibbous in the middle, exterior lip thin, 
simple. S. magnijica, Sowb. (Ixvii, 45). 

ciRSOTREMA, Morch. Shell turriculated, solid, whorls cancel- 
lated, with a few irregular thick varices ; mouth circular, outer 
margin of aperture thickened with an externally crenulated lip. 
S. varicosa, Lam. (Ixvi, 40). 

ACIRSA, Morch. Shell turreted, thin, whorls united, varices 
obsolete, outer lip thin, simple. S. Eschrichtii, Holb. (Ixvi, 43 \ 

FUNIS, Seeley, 1861. Shell turreted, thin ; whorls ornamented 
with transverse laminar ribbings and usually also with spiral 
stria?, so as to produce a cancellated surface ; aperture ovate, 
with thin margins, anteriorly subeffuse. S. elongata^ Seeley 
(Ixvii, 46). Fossil. Cambridge Greensand ; England. Inter- 
mediate between Scalaria and Turritella. 

CROSSEA, A. Ad. Shell turbinate, umbilicated, white ; whorls 
convex, cancellated, simple or with varices; aperture roundish, 
anteriorly angular, somewhat produced and canaliculated; umbil- 
icus surrounded and narrowed b}' a callus. 2 sp. Japan. S. 
miranda, A. Ad. ( Ixvii, 47). 

ACRiLLA, A. Ad. Shell moderately thick, with very numerous, 
equal, transverse ribbings, base distinctly keeled at the periphery, 
outer lip thin. S. acuminata, Sowb. (Ixvii, 48). East Indies. 



222 lANTIllNID^. 

CONSTANTIA, A. Ad. Acumiiiately oval, spire elate, whorls 
rounded, the last A^entricose, decussated by thin longitudinal 
plications and revolving elevated lirae ; aperture oval, its con- 
tinuous margin free, acute. S. eJegans, A. Ad. (Ixvi, 41). Korea. 

SCALIOLA, A. Ad. Animal with proboscidiform head ; rostrum 
elongated, C3dindrical,annulated ; tentacles filiform; e^'es prom- 
inent, black, at the external base of the tentacles; foot short, 
oval, acuminated behind. Operculum corneous, oval, subspiral, 
with subterminal nucleus. The shell agglutinates to its spiie 
particles of sand, etc. S. bella, A. Ad. (Ixvi, 44). Japan. 

Family IANTHINID^. 

Shell globular-turbinate, thin. No operculum. Animal pelagic, 
sustained by a vesicular natatory apparatus, called the float, 
and to which the eggs are attached (xvii, 99). Dentition (xi, 35). 

Ianthina, Lam. 

Etym. — Ianthina 1 violet-colored. 

Dist?'. — 10 sp. Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. /. comniuni.H^ 
Lam. (Ixvii, 49; xvii, 99 . 

Shell thin, translucent, trochiform ; nucleus minute, styliform ; 
sinistral ; whorls few, rather ventricose ; aperture four-sided ; 
columella tortuous; lip thin, notched at the outer angle. Base 
of the shell deep violet, spire nearly white. 

Animal. Head large, muzzle-shaped, with a tentacle and eye- 
pedicel on each side, but no eyes ; foot small, secreting a float 
composed of numerous cartilaginous air-vesicles, to the under 
surface of which the ovarian capsules are attached. Lingual 
ribbon, rachis unarmed; uncini numerous, simple (like Scalaria . 
Branchial plumes two. Sexes separate. 

The lanthinae, or oceanic-snails, are gregarious in the open sea, 
where they are found in myriads, and az'e said to feed on the 
small blue acalei)hoe i Velella). When handled they exude a 
violet fluid from beneath the margin of the mantle. In rough 
weather they are driven about and their floats broken, or 
detached, in which state they are often met with. The capsules 
beneath the farther end of the raft have been observed ta be 
empty, at a time when those in the middle contained young with 
fully formed shells, and those near the animal M'ere filled with 
eggs. They have no power of sinking and rising in the water. 
The raft, which is much too large to be withdrawn into the shell, 
is generally thought to be an extreme modification of the oper- 
culum ; but M. Lucaze-Duthiers, who has seen the raft formed, 
denies this. It is built up from glutinous matter secreted by 
the foot. 

Recluzia, Petit. 

Etym. — Named in honor of Recluz, a French naturalist. 



THICHOTROPIDiE. 223 

Bistr. — 2 sp. Red Sea, Atlantic, Mazatlan. E. liollandiana^ 
Petit (Ixvii, 50). 

Shell paludiniform, thin, with a brown epidermis ; whorls 
ventricose ; aperture ovate-oblique, slightl}^ effused at the base, 
margins disunited ; inner lip oblique, i-ather sinuated in the 
middle ; outer lip acute, entire. No operculum. 

Animal pelagic, resembling lanthina, and like it provided with 
a vesicular float. 

ScALiTES, Conrad. 

Disti'. — Silurian ; United States. 8. angidatus, Conr. (Ixvii, 51). 

Shell turriculated, whorls flattened above, angulated at the 
shoulder, and convex below ; outer lip sinuous ; umbilicus none, 
or very small. 

RAPHTSTOAiA, Hall. Shell turbinated, depressed, flattened and 
angulated above, convex below ; aperture subtrigonal, columellar 
lip excavated in the middle and produced to the right below. S. 
staminea^ Hall (Ixvii, 52). 

HOLOPEA, Hall. ( C yclora. Hall.) Is a palaeozoic group com- 
posed of incongruous elements. Its first species has been 
referred to Littorinidie, another evidently belongs to Naticidai, 
a third resembles lanthina. The species are mostly casts. 
There appears to be no good reason for retaining the group. 

Family TRICHOTROPID^. 

Shell thin, turbinated, carinated, the ridges with epidermal 
fringes, in fresh or living specimens ; columella obliquely trun- 
cated. Operculum lamellar, nucleus external. 

Animal with a short, broad head ; tentacles distant, with eyes 
on the middle ; proboscis long, retractile. Dentition, central 
teeth single, hamate, denticulated ; nncini three on each side, of 
which the inner is denticulate, the others simple. 

Trichotrgpis, Brod. 

Etym. — Thrix (trichos), hair, and trojyia, keel. 

Syn. — Verena, Gray. Tropiphora, Loven. Ariadna, Fischer. 
Trichophore, Desh. 

Distr. — 15 sp. Circumboreal. T. boi-ealis, Gould (Ixvii, 53). 
Fossil. Cret. — . 

Characters those of the family. 

IPHINOE, H. and A. Adams. Shell widel^^ umbilicate, aperture 
snbtriangular. T. unicarinatua, Sowb. (Ixvii, 54 \ 

ALORA, H. Adams. Shell ovate-fusiform, slightl}' umbilicated, 
thin ; spire elevated ; whorls convex, cancellated with elevated 
spiral ribs and thin lamelhv ; aperture oval, slightly produced 
in front ; inner lip sinooth, rounded, slighth' reflexed at the fore- 
part ; outer lip simple, acute. T. Gouldii, A. Ad. W. Coast 
Central Am. 



224 TURRITELLID^. 

GYROTROPis, Gabb. Cretaceous; North Carolina. Shell thin, 
resembling Trichotropis in form ; spire elevated ; umbilicus 
widely open, funnel-shaped; last whorl angulated above and 
below the periphery ; covered with very thin foliated longi- 
tudinal varices. G. squamosus, Gabb. 

Family TURRITELLID^. 

Rostrum short, broad ; tentacles long and subulate, the eyes 
slightl}^ prominent on their external bases. Mantle with a fringed 
margin, obscurely siphonated at the right side ; branchial plume 
single, very long. Foot very short, truncate in front, rounded 
behind, grooved beneath ; operculigerous lobe simple. 

Shell spiral, not umbilicated, spire very long, of numerous 
whorls, with revolving striae or carinations. Operculum corneous, 
mulli spiral. 

TURRITELLA, Lam. 

Screw-shell. Etym. — DiminutiA^e of turris^ a tower. 

Syn. — Turris, Humphrey. Xylohelix, Chemn. 

Distr. — 73 sp. World-wide. Ranging from the Laminarian 
Zone to 100 fathoms. West Indies, United States, Britain 
(1 sp. \ Iceland, Mediterranean, West Africa, China, Australia. 
West America. Fossil, 172 sp. Triassic — ; Britain, etc., N. and 
S. America, Australia, Java. T. terebra, Linn. (Ixvii, 55). 

Shell elongated, raany-whorled, whorls rounded with revolving 
striifi ; aperture rounded. Operculum many-whorled, with a fim- 
briated margin. The shells are usually brown, with red-brown 
spots or flames. 

TURRiTELLOPSis, Sars. Shell like Turritella, but tlie lingual 
dentition differs. A boreal group, doubtfully distinct. T. acicula, 
Stimpson (Ixvii, 56). 

HAUSTATOR, Moutfort. Whorls flattened, mouth subquadran- 
gular, outer lip sinuous. T. gonioHtoma, Val. (Ixvii. 57). 

TORCULA, Gray. Shell turriculated, usually white or horn- 
color, without markings ; whorls subangular, with a median 
excavation ; aperture subquadrangular, the outer lip with a 
slight median sinus. T. cor/* /ea. Reeve (Ixvii, 58). 

ZARiA, Gray. Shell turriculated, without color-markings, 
whorls carinated ; aperture subquadrangular, outer lip simple. 
T. diiplicata, Linn. (Ixvii, 59). 

MESALiA, Gray. Shell turriculated, of numerous whorls ; aper- 
ture oval, subcircular, slightly produced, with sinuous and 
reflected anterior margin ; inner lip a little twisted and flattened, 
outer lip thin, sinuous posteriorly. T. 7nelanoides, Reeve 
(Ixvii, 60 . 

EGLisiA, Gray. Whorls rounded, with profound sutures; aper- 
ture rounded, rather small, inner lip flattened, callous, angular, 



turritellidjE. 225 

not reflected in front, outer lip somewhat thickened within. 
T. lanceolata, Reeve (Ixvii, 61). 

MATHILDA, Semper, 1865. Shell tnrriculated, apex revolute, 
abruptl}' turned from left to right ; whorls in the typical species 
transversely cingulated and reticulated, longitudinally striated ; 
aperture entire, subrotund,base sometimes subetTuse ; lip acute; 
columella smooth. T. cochlseformis, Brugn. (Ixvii, 62). Med- 
iterranean; and several fossil species. Jurassic — ; Europe, 
United States. 

GLAUCONIA, Giebel, 1852. Shell tnrriculated, subulate ; aper- 
ture small, rounded, peristome continuous, forming a posterior 
angle. Fossil. T. Maraschini, Defrance (Ixvii, 63). 

CASSIOPE, Coquand, 1866. (Omphalia, Zekeli, 1852 [not Om- 
phalius,Phil.], Proto, authors, not Defrance.) Shell thicker, and 
with more rapidly increasing whorls than in Turritella, often 
pupiform ; aperture rounded, continuous ; outer lip notched or 
sinuated by an impressed furrow, which winds round the last 
whorl ; columella usually distinctly umbilicated. There are 30 
cretaceous species. Europe, India and America. G. Henevieri, 
Coquand. 

ARCOTIA, Stoliczka, 1868. Shell turreted, elongated, somewhat 
thickened ; whorls spirally striate ; incremental strife straight, 
not sinuated ; columella excavated ; aperture angulately rounded, 
subeffuse anteriorly. T. Lidica, Stol. (Ixvii, 64 . Jurassic 
and Cretaceous ; India. 

Protoma, Baird, 1810. 

Distr. — P. Kvockeri^ Baird. Whydah, W. Africa. 

Shell turreted, aperture oval, narrowly excised at the base. 
Operculum circular, corneous, multispiral. 

The operculum shows this to belong to the Turritellidae, 
although the aperture of the shell is more like that of Terebra. 

LiTHOTROCHUS, Conrad. 
Approaching Mesalia, but without the produced basis of the 
last whorl of that genus. There is a thickened sutural band, 
with ver}' numerous growth-strije. Has much the appearance of 
an elongated Trochus. Liassic. L. Humboldtii, Buch. (Ixvii, 
65, 66). South America. 

Cochlearia, Miinster. 

Syn. — Chilocyclus, Braun. 

Distr. — 2 fossil sp. Triassic ; Austria. C. carinata, Bronn 
(Ixvii, 67). 

Shell turriculated, thick; aperture rounded, peristome con- 
tinuous, widel}' and flatly reflected all around. 

Zittel considers this a group in the family Scalarida?. 



22b vermetid^. 

Family VERMETID^. 

Animal with rudimentary foot, bead long, with two long 
conical tentacles, and eyes at their outer bases ; proboscis re- 
tractile ; on the sides of the buccal orifice are additional tentacles 
or buccal appendages, also conical. Operculum circular, some- 
times spiral. 

Shell tubular, attached ; sometimes regularly spiral when 
young; always irregular in its adult growth; tube repeatedly 
partitioned off; aperture round. 

The Vermetidse are distinguished from the very similar shells 
of the annelid genus Serpula by the presence of a spiral, nuclear 
shell and of concave smooth interior septa. The shell of Serpula 
is composed of two calcareous layers, that of Vermetidge of 
three. 

Vermetus, Adanson. 

Shell irregularly spiral, or contorted tubular ; free, or attached 
by one side like some of the annelids ; operculate. 

The following subgenera were considered distinct genera by 
Mo'rch : 

VERMICULUS, Lister. (Vermetus of authors, not Adanson.) 
The shell is in its early stage regularly coiled like a Turritella, 
and afterwards with the last whorl uncoiled, variously twisted, 
or more or less straight and prolonged. There is apparently no 
other distinction between the shells of Vermiculvis and Burti- 
nella, except that the latter are coiled in a broad, largely 
umbilicated cone. 15 sp. Carboniferous — living. Tropical and 
subtropical. V. lumbricaliSj Linn. (Ixvii, 68). 

BURTiNELLA, Morch. (Morchia, Mayer.) Adult shell free, 
young affixed, thick, widely conically elevated, trochiform or 
planorboid, usually sinistral, rarely dextral ; whorls regularly 
increasing in size, tubular within, angular without ; the last 
whorl dissolute, more or less prolonged, not constricted ; aperture 
circular, margin continuous. Fossil, 15 sp. Oolitic, Cretaceous, 
Tertiary; Europe, India. B. concava, Stol. (Ixvii, 69, 70;. 

STREPHOPOMA, Morch. Adult shell affixed, solitary or clustered ; 
aperture slightly inflexed above, very obsoletely effused below. 
Operculum arctispiral, furnished with long multifid setae. 
Recent, 4 sp. S. rofiea, Q^oy (Ixvii, 71). The shells are gen- 
erally very small, and usually so tender as to be very rarely 
found fossil in a good state of preservation. Difficult to distin- 
guish from Yermiculus. 

TUBULOSTiUM, Stoliczka. Shell free, planorboid to broadly 
conical, aperture contracted, prolonged in a tube. 4 sp. 
Jurassic ; Europe. Tertiary ; United States. Cretaceous ; 
India. T. caUosum, Stol. (Ixvii, 72, 73). 

siPHONiuM, Browne. (Stoa, M. de Serres.) Shell adhei-ent, 



VERMETIDiE. 221 

irregularly twisted, carinated. Operculum large, smooth, circu- 
lar, concave ; the scar of attachment central, rugose. 23 sp. 
World-wide. M. Rougemont has observed at Naples that the 
S. maximum (Ixvii, 74) emits from its mouth a thin veil-like 
plaited substance, which entangles small natatory animals, and 
is subsequently withdrawn. 

VERMETUS, Adanson. (Macrophragma, Carp. Aletes, Carp.) 
Shell mostly spirall}^ twisted, affixed, usually decussated, colu- 
mella folded. Operculum thin, concave, scarcely spiral. The 
Yermetus of most authors is the Vermiculus of Lister. 27 sp. 
Widel}^ diffused. V. carinatiis, Qi^oy (Ixvii, 75). 

PETALOCONCHUS, Lea. An American tertiar}' fossil. Shell with 
two internal ridges running spirally along the columella, becoming 
obsolete near the apex and aperture. V. sculpturatus, Lea 
(Ixvii, 76). 

THYLACODES, Guettard. (Serpulorbis, Sassi. Lemeutina, Gray. 
Hatina, Gra3\ Cellularia, Schmidt. Cladopoma, Gray. Tetra- 
nemia, Morch.) Shell tubular, irregularly twisted, adherent, 
aperture rounded, columella not plicate. No operculum, or 
minute wiien present. The animal has a truncated foot, pro- 
duced in front into tentacular processes. Many living and 
several tertiary species ; and one cret. ; India. T. arenaria. Quoy 
(Ixvii, 77). 

BivoNiA, Gray. Shell affixed, mostl}^ spiral, aperture contracted, 
circular, with spiral, interruptedly nodulose lira?, and a median 
elevated line ; columella smooth. Operculum small, rudimentary. 
Animal with cylindrical tentacles, pedal filaments subulate or 
setaceous. 7 sp. B. triquetra, Bivona (Ixvii. 80). When the shells 
are not perfect with the mai'gin of the aperture, they are ver}'^ 
difficult to distinguish from Spiroglyphus. 

spiROGLYPHUS, Daudin. Animal forming a groove on the 
surface of shells or stones, covering it over with shelh' matter, 
and forming a tubular case. Many zoologists consider the 
Spirogl3^phus to be an annulose animal allied to Serpula, but of 
this there is no positive proof. The young animal, when first 
hatched, is covered with an ovate, regular shell, consisting of a 
whorl and a half; it soon attaches itself to the surface of some 
stone or other shell, in which it forms a canal, at first shallow, 
but afterwards deeper. S. sjnrorbi.s, Dillw. (Ixvii, 78). 

SiLiQUARiA, Brug. 

Etym,. — Siliqna,a pod. Syv. — Tenagodus, Guettard. 

Distr. — 15 sp. Mediterranean, Australia. Fossil, 20 sp. Ter- 
tiary. The typical species, as well as several others, occur 
imbedded in sponges. S. anguina^ Linn, i Ixvii, 70). 

Shell tubular; spiral at first, afterwards irregular; tube with 
a continuous longitudinal slit. Operculum spiral, like that of 



228 c^ciDiE. 

Torinia, composed of a spiral band ciliated at the margin, forming 
a cjdinder or cone, the axis of which is filled up by a series of 
spiral radiating cells. 

PYXTPOMA, Morch, 1860. Slit closed by a lamella, but not filled 
up outside. S. lacteus, Lam. Australia. 

AGATHiRSES, Moutf., 1810. The band composed of numerous 
isolated holes. Chiefi^^ fossil. S. squamosa^ Lam. 

CRYPTOBiA, Desh. Proposed for a tubular shell, with spiral 
commencement, formerly supposed to be constructed by an 
annelid. It is believed to be related to Pyxipoma by Morch, 
but its true nature is b}" no means clearly established. S. 
llichelini, Desh. Isle of Bourbon. 

Family C^CID^. 

Shell with a fugatious spiral nucleus ; tubidar, regular, minute. 
Operculum horny, multispiral, margin sometimes fimbriated. 

Animal. Lingual membrane short; teeth in two series (2'0"2), 
central denticles none, the lateral uncini with the inner one 
broad and serrulated. Rostrum long and flat ; tentacles short, 
subclavate at the tips ; eyes sessile behind the bases of the 
tentacles. Mantle thick, fleshy, circular, closely embracing the 
neck ; a single branchial plume. Foot short, narrow, truncate in 
front, obtuse behind. Not at all shy, progressing with great 
vivacity. 

C^cuM, Fleming. 

Syn. — Anellum, Carp. Ctecalium, Macg. Odontidium, Phil. 
Fartulum and Elephantulum, Carp. Brochina, Gray. Corni- 
culina, Munster. Brochus, Browne. Odontina, Zborzewsky. 
Dentaliopsis, Clark. Odontidium, Phil. 

Diatr. — 42 sp. Europe, United States, West Indies, Mazatlan, 
Australia, Japan, Mauritius. Fossil, 8 sp. Eocene — . G. cor- 
nuoides (Ixvii, 81). G. pulchellum, (Ixvii, 82). 

Young shell spiral in one plane, afterwards an arcuated tube, 
truncated posteriorly by the loss of the spiral portion, and closed 
there by a convex septum. 

P. P. Carpenter proposed subgenera for species distinguished 
by difl'erences of sculpture, but M. de Folin, who has recently 
studied the Coecidas, points out that these groups are not founded 
on permanent characters, the various species exhibiting a series 
from smooth to ribbed surfaces. 

BROCHINA, Gray. Founded on a single species, and insufll- 
ciently characterized by its convex operculum. 

MiocERAS, Carpenter, 1858. Young shell loosely spiral, not in 
one plane ; adult shell somewhat inflated, aperture oblique ; oper- 
culum externally concave. The species are all smooth, the 
adult resembling in shape the horn of an ox. C. cornucopise^ 
Carp. 



EULTMTD^. 229 

STREBLOCEEAS, Carpenter, 1858. Shell not decollated, the per- 
manent nucleus lying in a plane perpendicular to the adult tube. 
G. cornuoides, Carp. 

PARASTROPHiA Folin. (Moreletia, Folin.) Nuclear whorls sub- 
spiral in one plane, as in the typical group, but persistent ; tube 
inflated anteriorly. 

Family EULIMID^. 

Animal having slender, subulate, simple tentacles, with eyes 
sessile at their outer bases ; mantle enclosed, with rudimentary 
siphonal fold ; foot linguiform, produced in front. 

Shell turriculated or turbiniform, smooth, milk-white, polished ; 
apertui'e oval or rounded, sometimes angular in front ; columella 
without plications. Operculum, when present, corneous, sub- 
spiral. 

EuLiMA, Bisso. 
■ Etym. — Eulimia, ravenous hunger. 

Syn. — Pasithea, Lea (in part). 

Distr. — 49 sp. Britain, Mediterranean, India, Australia, 
Pacific. In 5-90 fathoms water. Fossil, 40 sp. Carb. ? — ; 
Britain, France, etc. E. tortuosa, Ads. (Ixviii, 83 . 

Shell small, white, and polished ; slender, elongated with 
numerous level whorls, spire often curved to one side ; obscurely 
marked on one side by a series of periodic mouths, which form 
prominent ribs internally ; apex acute ; aperture oval, pointed 
above ; outer lip thickened internally ; inner lip reflected over 
the pillar, not umbilicated. Operculum horny, subsj)iral. 

Animal, tentacles subulate, close, with the eyes immersed at 
their posterior bases ; proboscis long, retractile ; foot truncated 
in front, mentum bilobed ; operculum lobe winged on each side ; 
branchial plume single ; mantle with a rudimentary siphonal 
fold. 

The Eulimse creep with the foot much in advance of the head, 
which is usually concealed within the aperture, the tentacles only 
protruding. — Forbes. 

APiCALiA, A. Adams, 1862. Apex more mucronated, spire 
more distorted. E. gibba, A. Ad. Japan. 

EuiiiMOPSis, Brugnone. Shell small, fusifoi-mly turreted, sub- 
acute ; base striate, whorls scarcely convex, with superficial 
sutures; aperture rhombovate, lip sinuous, columella contorted. 
E. (7a>'we?a?, Brugnone (Ixviii, 84). Pliocene; Sicily. 

ARCUELLA, Nevlll. (Bacula, H. and A. Adams.) Differs from 
the typical Euliraa by having spiral striae, and the columella 
twisted back so as to form an acute angle at the base of the 
aperture. E. mirifica^ Nevill (Ixviii, 85). Mauritius. 

lOPSis, Gabb. Differs from Eulima in its faintlj'^ twisted 
columella, which is produced in front so as to form a short. 



230 EULIMID^. 

though not notched canal. E. fuHiforinis, Gabb (Ixviii, 86). 
Tertiary ; W, I. The existence of a sutural band shows this 
group to be properly placed in Eulimidse. 

Leiostraca, H. and A. Adams. 

Syn. — Balcis, Leach. 

Distr. — A few subtropical species. W. Indies, Mazatlan, etc. 
L. subulata, Donov. (Ixviii, 8*1). 

Shell subulate, turriculated, whorls a little flattened, smooth, 
polished, a slight varix on each side of the spire; aperture 
oblong, entire ; inner lip distinct, callous, a little sinuous in the 
middle, outer lip flexuous. 

MUCRONALiA, A. Ad. Shell subulate, straight, pupoidal, the 
apex mucronate ; whorls simple, aperture oblong. Distr. — 5 sp. 
L. exilis^ A. Ad. Japan. 

SELMA, A. Ad. Shell oblong-ovate, subdiaphanous, spire short, 
last whorl large; aperture elongately ovate, columella arcuate, 
obli(iuely subplicate. 1 sp. Japan. 

EucHRYSALis, Laube, 1866. 

Distr. — G sp. Fossil. Jurassic, Cretaceous ; Europe, India. 
E. bisulcafa^ d'Orb. 

Differs from Leiostraca by being pupoid, attenuated towards 
each end and thickened in the middle ; last whorl large, much 
contracted posteriorly, aperture ])roportionally ver^^ small. 
Surface generally smooth ; inner lip somewhat thickened and 
arcuate, outer lip sharp, sinuous. 

[PuTiLLA, Adams. 
Shell turbinate, solid, pellucid ; aperture subquadrate, ante- 
riorly subeffuse, inner lip straight, thickened, columella rimate. 
I have ai'ranged this genus in Rissoidte, but it may belong here.] 

Niso, Risso. 

Syn. — Bonellia, Deshayes. Janella, Grateloup. 

Distr. — China, W. America. Fossil. Cretaceous; Eocene of 
Paris. N. goniostoma, Ads. (Ixviii, 88). 

Shell turriculated, smooth, polished, apex very sharp; umbil- 
icus perforated or wide ; aperture small, angulated above and 
below. 

ORiNA, A. Ad, Shell conoidal, profoundly umbilicated, Avhite, 
thin, smooth, whorls flattened, aperture subquadrate, with a 
single columellar plait. 

PAL^ONiso, Gemm., 1818. Shell long, oval, cylindrical, outer 
lip with a posterior sinus. N. pupoides^ Gemm. Lias. 

CLiMAciNA, Gemm., 1878. Turreted, without umbilicus, first 
whorls scalariform, mouth oval, angular behind, rounded in 
front. N. Catharinse^ Gemm, Lias, 



EULIMID^E. 231 

VOLUSIA, A. Ad., 1861. Shell longitudinall}' ribbed. N. im- 
bricata, Sowb. 

Stylifer, Brod. 

Syn. — Stylina, Gray. 

Distr. — 20 sp. Europe, West Indies, Pol3^nesia, Philippines. 
S. subulatus, Brod. (Ixviii, 89). 

Shell hyaline, pellucid, thin, globular or subulate, smooth, 
polished ; whorls numerous ; apex very sharp, sometimes bent, 
nucleus sinistral ; aperture suboval, angulated posteriorly, 
rounded in front ; inner lip smooth, arcuated ; outer lip slightly 
sinuous, thin, simple. No operculum. 

Tentacles slender, subulate, simple, eyes sessile at their outer 
bases. Mantle enclosed. Foot linguiform, forming an elon- 
gated anterior lobe, rudimentar}^ behind. 

These singular animals are found among the species of Echinus, 
and in the skins of star-fishes, etc., burrowing beneath the sur- 
face, and producing tumors, often of considerable size. When 
removed and placed in water, they do not appear to possess 
much locomotive power, but extend the tongue-shaped foot 
and use it as an exploring organ. The}' were formerly believed 
to be parasitic, but are now thought to receive their food in the 
sea-water. Tongue unarmed. 

The foot of Stjdifer is much more produced anteriorly than 
that of Eulima: the shells have more globose whorls, and are 
generally thinner. 

CYTHNIA, Carpenter. Imbedded in star-fishes like St3difer, from 
which it is distinguished by its normal nuclear whorls, and thin 
concentric operculum. S. lumens^ Carp. 3 sp. W. Coast of N. 
America. 

PLiciFER, H. Ad. Imperforate, ovately subulate, not shining ; 
spire stjdiform, nucleus sinistral, columella plicate; lip flexuous, 
sinuate behind, aperture entire in front. Found by Mr. Hugh 
Nevill on coral, at Ce3don ; in texture resembles the shell of Lep- 
toconchus. P. Nevilli, H. Ad. (Ixviii, 90). Ce^don. 

Entoconcha, J. Miiller. 

Distr. — E. mirabihs, J. Miiller. 

Shell obovate, smooth ; spire short, very obtuse, apex not 
elevated, whorls rapidly' increasing ; aperture transverse, semi- 
lunar, angulated above, rounded below, width almost equaling 
the height, margins disunited, the columellar margin straight. 
Operculum non-spiral. 

Found parasitic on Sijnapta digitata,onQ of the Holothuriidai, 
at Trieste. This is possibly the larval stage of some mollusk. 

Macrocheilus, Phillips, 
Etym. — Macron^ Isirge, and cheilos^ lip. 

Syn. — Polyphemopsis, Portlock. Amaurella, A. Ad. Plecto- 
stylus, Conrad. Macroehilina. Bayle, 1880. 



232 EULIMID^. 

Distr. — Several sp, M. Japonicus. Japan. Fossil, 12 sp. 
Devonian to Carboniferous ; Britain, Belgium, United States. M. 
Schlotheimii, d'Arch. (Ixviii, 91). 

Shell thick, ventricose, buccinoid ; aperture simple, effuse 
below , outer lip thin, inner lip wanting, columella callous, 
slightly tortuous. 

I follow Woodward in making Polyphemopsis a synonym of 
this genus ; but it is a very doubtful fossil, the surface of the 
t3 pe being worn off, 

PASiTHEA, Lea (restricted), 1833. Spire short, last whorl ven- 
tricose. Rather more slender and cylindrical than the typical 
Macrocheilus. 31. Claibornensii^^ Lea. Eocene ; Ala. 

SuBULiTES, Conrad, 1842, 
Distr. — 12 sp. Palaeozoic; N. Am, S. elongata, Conrad. 
Shell smooth, resembling a very much elongated Terebellum, 
but the exact form of the aperture is unknown. If this be really 
rounded and entire in front, the genus may be placed in this 
family ; in the contrary case it may belong to the Fyramidellidai 
or possibly to the Alata. 

Strobeus, Koninck, 1881, 

J)ist7\ — 3 sp. Carb. ; Belgium. 

Shell small, long oval, smooth ; spire pointed, of 5-'7 convex 
whorls ; mouth long oval, outer lip sharp ; inner lip callous, with 
an anterior fold. 

HoPLOPTERON, Fischer. 

Distr. — H. Terquemi, Fischer (Ixviii, 93). China Sea. 

Shell imperforate, elongate-turreted, shining, apex obtuse ; 
upper whorls plain, lower ones with triangular, flat, projecting 
wings on each side ; aperture entire, the margin acute, columella 
without plaits. 

Probably an embrj^onic shell (?). It is only 1*15 mill, long, 

SuBEULiMA, Souverb, 
Distr. — S. Lamberti^ Souverb. (Ixviii, 94), New Caledonia. 
Shell turreted, elongated, whorls numerous, angulated and 
carinated in the middle ; spire tortuous as in Eulima 

ScALENOSTOMA, Deshayes. 

Distr. — S. carinatum, Desh, (Ixviii, 95), Isle of Bourbon, 

Shell in form allied to Pyramidella and Niso, turriculated, 

white, imperforate; columella not plicated; opening subtrian- 

gular, slightly bent in the direction of its length ; margin 

simple, notched near the suture. 

BuLiMORPHA, Whitfield, 1882. 
Syn. — Bulimella, Hall (not Pfeiflfer . Polyphemopsis, Portlock, 
in part. 



. EULIMID^. 233 

Distr. — 3 sp. Carb. ; Indiana. B. bulimiformis, Hall. 

Shell fusiform, spire produced ; volutions convex, the last 
large ; columella bent and truncated at the base, where it is 
separated from the outer lip by a notch, as in the recent genus 
Achatina ; outer lip very slightly notched near the upper end ; 
surface of the shell smooth. 

Chemnitzia, d'Orb., 1850. 

Etym. — In honor of Chemnitz, a distinguished Nuremburg 
conchologist, who published seven volumes in continuation of 
Martini's "Conchyllen Cabinet," 1780-1795. 

Distr. — Fossil only, 250 sp. World-wide. Triassic — . C. 
condensata, Desh. Ixviii, 96). 

Shell comparatively large, elongate-conical ; spire man}^- 
whorled, not reversed at the apex ; last whorl moderately large, 
somewhat produced below ; aperture ovate, sometimes faintly 
effuse at base ; peritreme not continuous ; outer lip sharp, with 
usually a faintl}' sinuous outline near or above the middle ; col- 
umella smooth ; imperforate ; surface with longitudinal costte 
or lines, sometimes crossed by revolving striae — ravel}^ nodular. 

I resti'ict Chemnitzia to the fossil group so known, and which 
appears to have been most neai'ly related to the Eulimidtie. The 
much smaller sized ribbed recent species which have been referred 
to this genus, and which d'Orbigny actually included in his earliest 
definition of it, are distinguished under the name of Turbonilla, 
Risso. The}' do not possess the broad posterior insinuation of 
the outer lip characteristic of Chemnitzia. 

CUEMNITZIA (restricted). Shell lengthened with cross-ribs; 
mouth oval, rounded or angular in front ; spire straight or slightl}'^ 
curved, somewhat callous; outer lip sharp. Ch. similis^ Miinst. 

RHABDOCONCHA, Gcmmellaro, 1878. Whorls striate or ribbed 
longitudinally^ which are sometimes punctate or tuberculate. 
C crassilabrata^ Terq. 

PSEUDOMELANiA (Pictct), Gcmmellaro, 1878. Shell long, thick ; 
whorls smooth, with fine curved growth-lines ; mouth rounded 
or angular in front ; spire straight or slightly curved. Ch. Nor- 
mannia, d'Orb. 

OONIA, Gemmellaro, 1878. Shell egg-shaped, smooth, with 
growth-lines ; last whorl large ; mouth oval, rounded in front ; 
spire slightly curved. Gh. Cornelia, d'Orb. 

MicROSCHizA, Gemmellaro, 1878. Shell usually' Avith cross- 
ribs; narrowl}' perforated; whorls sharp, mostly scalariform; 
mouth oval, rounded in front ; inner lip and spire callously 
thickened. C. Fhilenor, d'Orb. 

LoxoNEMA, Phillips. 
Ehjm. — //Oj;o.s-, obli(iuo, and »tJ77ia, thread ; in allusion to the 
striated surface of many species. 
16 



234 TURBONILLID^. 

Syn. — Michelia, Romer. Holopella, Sandb. (in part). 

Distr. — Fossil, 75 sp. L. Silurian — Trias ; North America, 
Europe. L. costatum, Sandb. (Ixviii, 97). 

Shell elongated, many-whorled ; aperture simple, attenuated 
above, effused below, with a sigmoidal edge to the outer lip. 

Like many other palaeozoic genera, the bad condition of many 
of the species and the variation in form and sculpture render it 
difficult to place it properly in a systematic work ; some of the 
species might go into Turbonillidse, others apjiear closely allied 
to Chemnitzia, and might even be synonymous with it. 

Orthonema, Meek and Worthen, 1861. 

Distr. — Several fossil species. Devonian, Carboniferous ; U. S. 
0. Salteri, Meek. 

Shell elongate, many-whorled ; volutions ornamented with 
revolving carina^, crossed by nearly straight lines of growth ; 
body-whorl not produced below ; ajierture angular above, slightly 
effuse below ; peristome incomplete ; lip simple, nearly straight ; 
axis imperforate. 

Differs from Turritella in its slightly effuse and less rounded 
aperture, disconnected peristome, and straight outer lip. It is 
probably more nearly allied to Loxonema, l)ut has distinct 
revolving carina?, and wants the sigmoid outer lip of that genus. 

BouRGUETiA, Desh. 

Dist?'. — Phasiianella .striata, Sowb., etc. Jurassic. 

Shell large, turreted ; spire long, pointed ; whorls convex, 
spirally striated or grooved; last whorl large; mouth oval, 
angular behind, widened and rounded in front. 

Family TURBONILLID^. 

Animal with a short head, triangular tentacles, and eyes at 
their outer bases ; proboscis long, retractile ; foot truncated in 
front. 

Shell white, slender, elongated, many-whorled, mostly longi- 
tudinally ribbed or spirally striate. Operculum horny, sub- 
spiral. 

The animal differs from that of Eulimidae and resembles that of 
Pyramidellidae, but the shell is, in the recent species, usually 
more slim than Pyramidella, and without columellar folds, or 
with a single small fold. It differs from Eulima in being sculp- 
tured. 

Most of the recent species are of quite small size. 

TURBONILLA, RisSO. 

,S,y/i.— Chemnitzia, d'Orb., 1839, not 1850. Pyrgiscus, Phil. 
Orthostelis, Arad. 



turbonillidjE. 235 

Distr. — 50 sp. World-wide. Range from low-water to 
90 fathoms. Fossil. Cretaceous — . 2\ elegantissima, Mont. 
(Ixviii, 98). 

Shell slender, elongated, many-whorled ; whorls plaited ; apex 
sinistral; aperture simple, ovate; peristome incomplete, colu- 
mella not plaited. Operculum horny, subspiial. 

Animal. Head A^ery short, furnished with a long, retractile pro- 
boscis ; tentacles triangular ; eyes immersed at the inner angles 
of the tentacles ; foot truncated in front, with a distinct mentum, 
operculigerous lobe with a minute conical appendage on each side. 

Comprises a great number of small, graceful white shells which 
have been grouped in a number of genera or subgenera. 

MORMULA, A. Ad. Subulately-turreted, rissoid, solid, thick, 
longitudinally plicate ; aperture large, columella spirally tortuous, 
lip thickened within, margin acute. A few Japanese species. 
T. rissoina, A. Ad. 

DUNKERiA, Carpenter, 1857. (In honor of W. Dunker, a dis- 
tinguished German conchologist. ) Whorls rounded, cancellated. 
Numerous species. Mazatlan, Japan. T. paucilirata, Carp. 
Mazatlan. 

VANESTA, A. Ad., 1861. Proposed for two species resembling 
Melania in external characters, but true marine shells, decussated 
by longitudinal and spiral ridges. T. (rifasciata,8o-wh. China. 

SPiROCLTMAX, Morch. Subcylindrical, pellucid, suture con- 
tabulate, aperture ear-shaped, lip thickened, sigmoidal, sub- 
marginate, inflexed at the suture. 1 sp. West Indies. 

MiROBELi<cus, Sandb. T. inaspecta, Fuchs. 

Streptacis, Meek, 1871. 

Distr.—S. Whitfie.ldi, Meek. Carb. ; Ills. 

Shell small, turreted, smooth; embryonal whorls planorbiform ; 
mouth oval. 

HoLOPELLA, M'Coy, 1852. 

Elym. — ''olos^ entire, and ope, an aperture. 

Distr. — Fossil, 12 sp. Silurian, Trias; Europe, United States. 
H. gregaria, Sowb. 

Shell elongated, slender, of numerous gradually increasing 
whorls, generally crossed by slightly arched striae ; mouth cir- 
cular, with the peristome entire ; base rounded, with or without 
a minute umbilicus. 

The shells of the species composing this genus differ from 
those of Turritella in the continuous peristome and definite 
round margin to the aperture, thus approaching much nearer to 
Sealaria. 

Eulimella, Forbes, 

Dififr. — Eur., Japan. E. Scillae, Scacchi (Ixviii, 1,2). 

Shell elongated, turriculate, solid, smooth, polished, whorla 



236 TURBONILLID^. 

numerous, apex sinistral : aperture subquadrangular, lip not con- 
tinuous, columella straight, not plicate. 

STYLOPTYGMA, A. AcL, 1860. Shell inflated about the middle 
of the spire, thus becoming somewhat pupiform ; smooth, or 
slightly ribbed. E. slylina, A. Ad. Japan. 

Anisocycla, Monts. 

Syn. — Aciculina, Deshayes (not Ads.). 

Distr. — 6 sp. Eocene; Paris basin. A. grocilis, Desh. (Ixviii, 
100). Closely allied to Eulimella. 

Shell small, aciculated ; apex laterally inclined ; whorls 
numerous, convex, smooth ; aperture entire, small, subquadran- 
gular ; columella straight, narrow, cylindrical, and simple. 

AcLTS, Love'n. 

?jtym. — A^ without, ^-/eis-, a projection. 

^^yn. — Alvania, Leach (not Risso). Caelatura, Conrad. Cion- 
iscus, Jeffreys. Pherusa, Jeff'reys. Actoeonema, Conrad. 

Distr. — A. nitidissima, Mont. (Ixviii, 92;. Fossil, 12 sj). 
Devonian — ; Europe, United States. 

Shell minute, like Turritella ; usually spirally striated; apex 
sinistral; aperture oval; outer lip prominent; axis slightly 
rimate. Operculate. 

Animal with a long retractile proboscis ; tentacles close 
together, slender, inflated at the tips ; eyes immersed at the 
bases of the tentacles ; operculum lobe ample, unsymraetrical ; 
foot truncated in front. 

EBALA, Leach. Shell smooth, rimate. A. diaphana, A. Ad. 

HEMiACLis, Sars. Shell glabrous, turreted, rimate, lip arcuate. 
Synonymous with Ebala (f). A. ventrosa,Jeti^reys (Ixviii, 99 ^ 

Rissopsis, Garrett. Shell small, thin, elongate, cylindrical ; 
apex truncate ; aperture subovate, angular above, entire ; peris- 
tome rather thin, somewhat expanded; columella oblique, 
arched. R. typica, Garrett (Ixviii, 3 . Viti and Samoa Isles. 

lOL^A, A. Ad. Resembles Niso, but has a remarkably thin, 
spirall}' sulcated shell. Deep water. /. scifwZa, A- Ad. (Ixviii, 4). 
Japan. 

Odostomia, Fleming. 

Etym. — Odous, sl tooth, and stoma., mouth. 

Syn. — Odontostoma, Phil. Odontostomia, Jeff'reys. 

Distr. — Species numerous, distribution universal, from low- 
water to 40 fathoms. Fossil, 15 sp. Eocene — . 0. nitid a, A\de.r 
(Ixviii, 5.) 

Shell subulate or ovate, tj^pically smooth ; apex sinistral ; 
aperture ovate ; peristome not continuous ; columella with a 
single tooth-like fold. Operculum horny, indented on the inner 
side 



TURBONILLIDiE. 2'M 

Animal elongated, the head large and robust, bearing two 
conical tentacles with e^'es at their bases, foot depressed, trun- 
cated in front. 

Very minute, usually smooth shells, having the habit of 
Rissoae. and like them sometimes found in brackish water. 

PARTHENiA, Lowc, 1863. (P3'rgulina, A. Ad.) Shell thin, 
turriculated, imperforate, usually milk-white under a very pale 
thin epidermis ; whorls ribbed or striate, sometimes cancellate, 
vanishing at the peripher}' of the last whorl. 25 sp. Mazatlan, 
Japan. 0. monocycla, A. Ad. 

MIRALDA, A. Ad., 1863. Solid, ovate or elongated; wdiorls 
flat, plicate behind, transversely lirate in front; lip subangulate 
behind, margin crenate. Several Japanese species. 0. diadema. 
A. Ad. 

MUMiOLA, A. Ad., 1863. Shell thin, elongate or ovate; whorls 
convex, cancellate or granulose ; aperture ovate, lip-margin 
regularl}' arcuate. 3 Japanese species. 0. spirata, A. Ad. 

AURiouLiNA, Gray. Shell oval, thin, bulimi form ; whorls smooth 
or concentrically striate ; columella not plicate. 6 sp. Mazatlan, 
Japan. Fossil, 4 sp. Tertiary; TJ. S. 0. ci/lindracea, Alder 
(Ixviii, 6 ). May possibly be a member of the family Actiieonidoe. 

LIOSTOMIA, Sars. Shell rimate, smooth ; operculum pauci- 
spiral. 2 sp. Norway. L. eburnea, Stimpson ( Ixviii, if, 18). 
Massachusetts. 

CHRYSALLiDA, Carpenter. Shell pupiforra, usually cancellated ; 
peristome continuous ; edge of lip thin ; columella-plait distinct, 
though hidden ; operculum in the typical species radiately coi*- 
rugated. 25 sp. E. and W. Indies, Japan, Mazatlan. 0. com- 
munis, C. B. Ad. (Ixviii, 7).. 

DOLiELLA, Monts. Shell Doliiform,apex immersed. 

Pyramis, Couthouy. 

Sj/n. — Menestho,Moller. Type. — P. Hti'iatus^Gouth. (Ixviii, 8). 

Shell turriculated or elongated, with revolving stria; mouth 
oval, small ; columella with a rudimentary plication, sometimes 
obsolete. 

monoptygma. Gray (not Lea). Having a sinuous columellar 
plication. F. casta, Ads. (Ixviii, 9). 

cAREL^OPSis, Mdrch. Shell turriculated, having the form of 
Garelia Cumingii. 

OSCILLA, A. Ad. 

Distr. — 4 Japanese species. Oheliscus annulatus, A. Ad. 

Shell solid, ovate or p3-ramidally turreted ; imperforate ; whorls 
strongly transversely lirate ; aperture ovate or subquadrate ; 
parietal plication strong, transverse, median. 

Elusa, a. Ad,, 1861. 
Di?tr. — -Chinn. Japan. E. teres, A. Ad. 



238 PYRAMIDELLID^. 

Shell subulate, turreted; whorls longitudinally plicate; aper- 
ture ovate, inner lip with a single plait, outer lip frequently 
lirate within, 

Syrnola, a. Ad., 1860. 

Distr. — 10 sp. Japan. S. gracilUma, A. Ad. 

Shell subulate, straight, vitreous, banded, polished ; whorls 
flat, suture impressed ; aperture oblong, inner lip obliquely 
plicate in the middle, outer lip simple, acute. Thc}^ are readily 
distinguished from the more oval Odostomia — the species of 
which are white and destitute of colored markings. Syrnola, in 
fact, are small slender Obelisci with a single columellar plait. 

AMATHis, A. Ad., 1861. Subulate, smooth, polished, aperture 
dilated, rounded, acute behind, inner lip with a single plication. 
6 sp. Japan. S. Virgo^ A. Ad. 

Syrnolopsis, Smith. 

Distr. — S. lacustris., E. A. Smith (Ixviii, 15, 16). The only 
species, from Lake Tanganjaka, E. Africa (fresh water), is 
yellowish horn-color, banded with white beneath the suture. 

Shell subulate, smooth, imperforate; aperture broadly sinuated 
at the base, outer lip sinuous, slightly thickened, produced 
below, furnished far within with one or two prominent lirae ; 
columella with a distinct plait. Operculum unknown. 

Family PYRAMIDELLID.E. 

Shell turriculated, columella with several anterior plications. 
Operculum corneous, subspiral, the columellar margin sinuated. 

Animal with broad-shouldered, ear-shaped tentacles, connate 
at the base ; eyes immersed at their inner sides ; mantle enclosed, 
with a rudimentary siphonal fold ; foot produced and truncate 
anteriorly, with a fold or mentum in front. Lingual teeth none, 
or rudimentar3\ 

The Turbonillidte, just described, have been usually referi'ed 
to this famil}^, and in fact their distinction is one of convenience 
only, the number of columellar plications or their absence being- 
characters of small importance. 

" The Pyramidellidse present subjects of much interest to the 
student of extinct mollusca ; numerous forms, bearing all the 
aspect of being members of this family, occur among the fossils 
of even the oldest stratified rocks. Man 3^ of them are gigantic 
compared with existing species, and the group, as a whole, may 
be regarded rather as appertaining to past ages than the present 
epoch." — Forbes. 

Pyramidella, Lam. 

Etym. — Diminutive of pyramis, a pyramid. 

Distr. — 25 sp. W. Indies, Australia, Japan. P. plicata^'Laxo.. 
(Ixviii, 11). Fossil. Cretaceous. 



PYRAMIDELLIDiE. 2;>9 

Shell turriculated, spire elevated, longitudinally ribbed ; colu- 
mella with three anterior plications ; outer lip sharp, sometimes 
plicate within. 

The FyramidellaB live in sandy bays and on shallow mud- 
banks, concealing themselves under the surface, and indicating 
their presence bj' the formation of slender raised tracks. 

OBELiscus, Humphrey. Differs from Pyramidella in being 
smooth instead of ribbed. P. maculosa, Lam. (Ixviii, 12). 

TiBERiA, Jeffreys. Shell umbilicated. F. minuscula, Monts. 
Deep Sea. Mediterranean. 

LONCH^us, Morch. Shell imperforate, last whorl with a median 
sulcus. 

TRiPTYCHUS, Miirch. Shell subulate, paueilirate spirally ; aper- 
ture lirate within ; columella with three small anterior plications. 

Nerin^a, Defrance. 

Etym. — Nereis, a sea-nj-mph. 

Syn. — Itruvia, Stolicz. Itieria, Matheron. 

Bistr. — Fossil, 150 sp. Jurassic, Cretaceous; Britain, France, 
Germany, Spain, and Portugal. They are most abundant, and 
attain the largest size to the south ; and usually occur in calca- 
reous strata, associated with shallow-water shells. N. trinodosa, 
d'Orb. (Ixviii, 10'. N. trachea, Desh. (Ixviii, 13). 

Shell elongated; many-whorled, nearly cylindrical ; aperture 
channeled in front ; interior with continuous ridges on the 
columella and whorls. 

NERIN^A (restricted). Folds simple: 2-3 on the columella; 
1-2 on the outer wall ; columella solid, or perforated. Above 
50 sp. 

NERiNELLA, Sharp. Columella solid ; folds simple ; columellar, 
0-1 ; outer wall, 1. 

TROCHALTA, Sliarpe. Columella perforated, with one fold ; 
outer wall simple, or thickened, or with one fold ; folds simple. 

PTYGMATis, Sharpe. Columella solid or perforated, usually 
with 3 folds ; outer wall with 1-3 folds, some of them compli- 
cated in form. 

HALLOYSIA, Briart and Cornet. Shell elongated, turriculated, 
whorls numerous, axis widely perforated, aperture rounded or 
subquadrangular, columella biplicated. H. biplicata, B. and C. 
(Ixviii, 14). Calcaire grossier of Mons, Belgium. 

SoLENiscus, Meek and Worthen, 1860. 
Etym. — Soleniskos, a little channel or gutter. 
Distr. — S.typicus. Upper Coal Measures; Springfield, Illinois. 
Shell fusiform, smooth, body-whorl contracted below into a 
distinct straight canal, with an oblique plait on the columella. 
Agrees with Macrocheilus in its smooth surface and columella- 



240 LITTORINIDiE. 

fold, but differs in its fusiform outline, narrow aperture, and 
distinct canal. In its general appearance resembles Fascio- 
laria, but has only one instead of two or three columella-folds, 
and is destitute of ornamentation, and its outer lip is smooth 
within. 

Cryptoplocus, Pictet and Campiche, 1854. 

Etym. — Ciypto."^, hidden, ploce, a plait. 

Diift?'. — 7 sp, Jurassic and Cretaceous ; France, Switzerland, 
Germany. G. monilifera, d'Orb. 

Shell as in Nerinsea, without columella and labial plaits ; one 
plait on the posterior face of the aperture, a disposition very 
analogous to that in some Cerithiums, such as C. nodulosinn ; 
aperture rounded, not channeled in front ; umbilicated or im- 
perforate. 

Aptyxis, Zittel, 18V3. 

Syn. — Pachj^stylus, Gemmellaro, 1878. 

Diatr. — A. .sexcostata, d'Orb. Jui-assic. 

Shell turreted, nearly c^dindrical, not umbilicated; mouth 
lengthened quadrangular ; inner and outer lips without folds ; 
columella with a median fold-like thickening. 

Family LITTORINIDiE. 

Shell spiral, turbinate or globular ; peritreme entire, interior 
not nacreous. 

Operculum corneous, spiral or paucispiral. 

Animal having a proboscidiform head with terminal mouth, 
and conical tentacles, subulate, with eyes at their outer bases. 

The species inhabit the sea, brackish or fresh water, some being 
amphibious. They are mostly littoral, feeding on algte. Den- 
tition (xi, 26). 

LiTTORiNA, Ferussac. 

Etym. — LittoraHs, belonging to the sea-shore. Periwinkle. 

Syn. — Bacalia, Gray. Isonema, Hall (in part). 

Distr. — 175 sp. L. Uttorea, Linn. (Ixix, 1 9 \ The periwinkles 
are found on the sea-shore in all parts of the world. In the 
Baltic they live within the influence of fresh water, and fre- 
quently become distorted in consequence ; similar monstrosities 
are found fossil in the Norwich crag of England. 

Fossil. Eather numerous ; Miocene — . Probabl}' some of 
the older fossils referred to Turbo, etc., belong to this genus. 

Shell turbinated, thick, pointed, few-whorled ; aperture rounded, 
outer lip acute, columella rather flattened, imperforate. Oper- 
culum paucispiral, lingual teeth hooked and trilobed ; uncini 
hooked and dentated. 



LITTORINID^. 



241 



The foot is divided by a longitudinal line and in walking the 
sides advance alternately. The periwinkle and trochus are the 
food of the thrush, in the Hebrides, during winter. The lingual 
canal of the periwinkle passes from the back of the mouth under 
the oesophagus for a short distance, then turns up on the right side, 
and terminates in a coil (like spare rope) resting on the plaited 
portion of the gullet. It is 2^ inches long, and contains about 
600 rows of teeth ; the part inuse, arming the tongue, comprises 
about 24 rows. 

The species above referred to, L. littorea, is an exceedingly 
numerous mollusk of Northern Europe; it appears to have 
become naturalized on the New England coast, where its area 
is rapidl}' increasing. It is largely consumed as an article of food 
in Europe, not only at the sea-ports and fishing villages, but 
even at the great capitals; 1900 tons of it being sold annually 
in London and employing a thousand persons in gathering it. 
It is also extensively used as bait, and to keep the oyster grounds 
clear of sea-weed — for which purpose the Essex oystermen regu- 
larly distribute many bushels of winkles over their grounds. 

Many of the large species, including the above and the 
American species L. irrorata, Say, are in a great measure amphib- 
ious, living on the rocks along the shore, where they are washed 
by the tide. Several individuals of a West Indian species, sur- 
vived deprivation of water for more than a year in my cabinet. 

MELARAPHis, Muhlfcldt. Shell rather thin, conical, with pointed 
spire; surface with revolving strife, and usually variegated with 
brilliant colors. Tropical and subtropical. L. angulifera, Linn. 
(Ixix, 20). 

NERiTOiDES, Brown. (Neritrema, Recluz.) Shell short turbi- 
nated or subglobose ; spire very short, with obtuse apex ; solid, 
inner lip much thickened and excavated. L. obtusata, Linn. 
(Ixix, 21). 

CYCLONEMA, Hall. Shell somewhat thinner than in the living 
Littorinae. Paljeozoic. 40 sp. II. S., Europe. L. canceUata^ 
Hall (Ixix, 22). 

RAULINIA, Mayer, 18f)4. Shell turbinate, ovate-oblong, rather 
thin, spirally sulcate ; aperture ovate-oblong, margin simple, 
angulate behind, subetfuse in front ; columellar lip wide, arcuate, 
with a central tooth. Fossil. Paris basin. A living Australian 
species. L. alligata, Desh. (Ixix, 23). 



A large number of palseozoic, mostly smooth shells like Platy- 
ostoma, Conr.. Holopea,Hall, Macrocheilus, Phillips, etc., which 
are generally referred elsewhere, may very probably belong to 
Littorinidse. 



242 LITTORINinyE. 

Tectarius, Valenciennes. 

Syn. — Monodonta (partim), Lam. Pagodas, Gray. Pago- 
della, Swains. 

Distr. — Tropical. World-wide. T.pyramidalu, Qi^oy ( Ixix, 24). 

Shell conical ovate or turbinated, surface tubercular or muri- 
cated, frequently angulated or biangulated on the middle of the 
last whorl ; aperture striated within ; axis usually imperforate. 
Operculum paucispii-al, with a broad membranous border. 

ECHiNELLA, Swaius. (Nina, Gray.) Depressed trochiform, 
more or less distinctly umbilicated. Operculum multispiral. 
T. Cumingii, Phil. (Ixix, 25 ^ 

EUCYCLUS, Deslongchamps. (Amberleya, Morris and Lycett.) 
Shell very thin, spire elongated, almost turriculated ; lip semi- 
circular, thin ; columella flattened ; imperforate. 23 sp. Jurassic, 
Liassic ; Europe. E. obeliscus, Desl. Amberleya has priority 
but is insufficiently characterized. 

BRACHYTREMA, Morris and Lycett. Shell small, turreted, 
turbinated ; whorls either costated, nodulated, or cancellated ; 
the last whorl large and ventricose ; columella smooth, rounded, 
twisted near its base, and reflected outwards, forming a short, 
oblique canal ; aperture moderateh^ subovate, its length being 
usually less than that of the spire. Some species, as B. varicosa 
and B. pi/gwaea, acquired at certain arrests of growth thickened 
outer lips or varices, as in Triton. 16 sp. Lias; Europe. This 
form has been referred to the Cerithiidse, but its shape, aperture 
and sculpture all remind one of Tectarius; indeed, I doubt if it 
be really distinct from Eucyclus. 

Modulus, Gray. 

Distr. — 10 sp. W. Indies, W. tropical America, Philippines. 
M. tectum, Gmel. (Ixix, 27). 

Shell top-shaped, spire depressed, ribbed or tubercular, rather 
thin ; narrowly umbilicated ; columella with an anterior curved 
tooth. Operculum spiral. 

Animal with eyes on the middle of the tentacles. 

RiSELLA, Gra3^ 

Distr. — 10 sp. Australia. R. inelanostoma.^ Gmel. (Ixix, 28). 

Shell depressed trochiform, with flattened whorls and keeled 
periphery ; not umbilicated ; aperture rhomboidal, marked with 
brown inside the margin. Operculum paucispiral. 

These shells are distinguished from Trochus, which they 
resemble in form and sculpture, b}^ their non-nacreous interior ; 
the animal hj eyes on the tentacles instead of on peduncles, and 
by the absence of the lateral membranes of the foot. 

PLESiOTROCHUS, Fischer. Shell imperforate; conic-elongate, not 
varicose ; whorls numerous ; aperture subrhomboidal, smooth 



LTTTORINIDiE. 243 

within, not nacreons, prolonged into a short canal below; lip 
subi'ostrated in the middle ; colnmella edentulous. Operculum 
corneous, paucispiral. R. /S'of<fer6za?H/s, Fischer (Ixix, 29). New 
Caledonia. 

LiMNOTROCHUs, E. A. Smith. Shell trochoid, umbilicated, 
without an epidermis, spirally ridged ; aperture non-lirate within, 
with the outer lip oblique, the basal margin broadly sinuated, 
and the columella-edge somewhat reflexed and united to the 
labrum above by a callosity. Operculum horny, paucispiral. 2 
sp. Lake Tanganyika, E. Africa. R. I'hovisoni, E. A. Smith 
(Ixix, 30). Remarkably like the genus Plesiotrochiis described 
above ; indeed it would be difficult to separate them, except by 
the locality ; this, with other ver^^ curious forms imitating marine 
genera, occurs in fresh water, as above. 

MiCRODOMA, Meek and Worthen. 

Dislr. — 31. conica, M. and W. (Ixix, 26 \ 

Shell small, rather thick, conical, imperforate, composed of 
flattened whorls, the last one of which is more or less angular 
around the middle and little produced below ; aperture about as 
high as wide ; outer lip simple, straight and oblique in outline ; 
columella without folds or plications, inner lip thin and slightly 
reflected at the base of the columella. Surface with revolving 
nodular ridges. 

Cyclocheila, Conrad. 

Diati'. — 1 sp. Tertiary ; So. America. 

Pyramidal; aperture circular; labrum expanded, columella 
flattened, subangular at the base; periphery angular; a very 
doubtful little shell, probably fresh water. 

Lacuna, Turton. 

Etym. — Lacuna, a fissure. Syn. — Temaua, Leach. 

Distr. — 16 sp. Northern shores, Norway, Britain, Spain, 
United States. Fossil. Eocene — . L. pallidula, Da Costa 
(Ixix, 31). 

Shell turbinated, thin; aperture semilunar; columella flattened, 
with an umbilical fissure ; operculum paucispiral. 

Animal. Operculigerous lobe furnished with lateral wings and 
tentacular filaments. Teeth 5-cusped ; uncini 1, 2, dentated, 3 
simple. Spawn vermiform, thick, semicircular. Range, low- 
water to 50 fathoms. 

The Lacunar feed upon sea-weed, and Lovdn observes that 
when the fucus is of a brown color, the animals become green, 
but if red, they assume a rosy tint. 

EPHERiA, Leach. Shell thin, with revolving colored bands ; 
spire rather elevated ; inner lip thin, sharp. L. vincta, Turton 
(Ixix, 32). 



244 LITTORTNID^. 

MEDORiA, Leach. Shell conical, solid, with elevated spire; 
peritreme dilated, anteriorly reflected ; inner lip thick, flattened ; 
umbilical fissure obsolete, L. turrita^ A. Ad. Japan. 

ERSILIA, Monts. 1 sp. Mediterranean. 

HELA, Jeffreys. (Cithna, Jeffreys. ) Shell shaped like Lacuna, 
with a simdar operculum ; but it has no epidermis ; apex trun- 
cated or flattened, and instead of an umbilical canal or groove 
there is merely a narrow chink. Tentacles ciliated. L. tenella^ 
Jeffreys (Ixix, 33). Europe. 

Hela being preoccupied in another department of zoology 
Jeffreys changed the name to Cithna — already used by Mr. A. 
Adams for a somewhat similar shell. I restoi'e the original 
designation. Mr. Jeffreys being already honored with a generic 
name in Conchology,! cannot pay him the compliment usuallj^ 
tendei'ed those who apply preoccupied names to new forms. 

STENOTis, A. Ad., 1863. Shell compressed, elougately ovate, 
auriform ; spire short, acute ; whorls flattened, the last solute ; 
aperture oblong, narrow behind, margin continuous, acute; 
umbilicus patulous, its margin angulate. L. laxata, A. Ad. 
Japan. 

LACUNARiA, Courad. Ovate-conoid or subglobose, thin, with 
delicate, close, revolving lines ; aperture entire, rounded or round- 
ovate, angulated posteriorly, margins disunited ; columella 
flattened, with a long groove descending from the umbilicus. 
Eocene ; United States and France. L. Alabamensis, Whitfield 
(Ixix, 34). 

spiRONEMA, Meek. (Callonema, Conrad.) Shell ovate; whorls 
rounded, and separated by a rather deep suture ; aperture ovate, 
lip thin, continuous ; columella not thickened, perforated by a 
very small umbilicus; surface with revolving lines and furrows. 
L. leninlmeata^ Meek and Hayden (Ixix, 35). Cretaceous ; U. S. 

LACUNELLA, Deshayes. Shell oval, thin, pellucid, shining, 
apex obtuse; aperture large, dilated, with thin, expanded 
margin ; columella narrow, thin, concave, divided by a narrow 
channel, scai'cely perforate at the base. L. depressa^ Desh. 
(Ixix, 36). Eocene; Paris basin. 

Cremnoconchus, Blanford. 

Syn. — Cremnobates, Blanf., preoccupied in fishes. 

BiHtr. — 3 sp. India, upon rocks wetted by fresh water. G. 
Syhudrenais^ Blanf. (Ixix, 37, 38). 

Shell perforate, turbinately globose, ribbed ; aperture subovate, 
margin simple, columella scarcely callous. Operculum testaceous, 
paucispiral. 

Animal small, having a short proboscis, two short tentacles 
with eyes on swellings at their outer bases, foot short and 



LITTORINIDiE. 245 

rounded. The dentition corresponds with that of the Littor- 
inidse. 

FossARUS, Philippi. 

{^yn. — Phasianeraa, Wood. Maravignia, Aradas. Megalom- 
phalus, Brusina. 

Distr. — 43 sp., including species of the subgenera. Mediter- 
ranean, W. America, Polynesia, Japan, Red Sea. Fossil, 4 sp. 
Miocene; Europe. 7^. co«te/z/s, Brocchi (Ixix, 39). F. ambiguus, 
Linn. (Ixix, 40). 

Shell perforated, sculptured ; inner lip thin ; aperture semi- 
lunate. Operculum not spiral. 

Animal with two frontal lobes between the tentacles. 

iSAPis, H. and A. Adams. Shell umbilicated, spire elevated, 
cancellated or with revolving ribs, columella with a small median 
tooth (almost obsolete in F. anomala). 4 sp. West Indies, 
Mazatlan. F. anomala, C. B. Ad. (Ixix, 41). 

FOSSARINA, Adams and Angas. Aperture circular, inner lip 
arcuated. 2 sp. Australia. ^.p«^?//a. Ad. and Angas (Ixix, 41 ). 

COUTHOUYIA, A. Ad., 1860. Shell ovate, profoundly and widely 
rimate ; spire acuminate; whorls convex, decussated, with 
impressed sutures; aperture semiovate; inner lip straight, dilated 
in front, outer lip arcuate, simple. Japan. 3 sp. F. deciissata, 
A. Ad. 

coNRADiA, A. Ad., 1860. Shell turbinate, rimately umbilicate, 
spire somewhat elate ; whorls convex, carinated concentrically ; 
aperture round the outer margin fimbriate, inner lip without 
teeth ; umbilicus margined by a semilunar rib. 6 sp. Japan. 
F. cinguUfera, A. Ad. 

GOTTOiNA, A. Ad., 1863. Lirate, solid, imperforate. 2 sp. 
Japan. F. sulcifera, A. Ad. 

CITHNA, A. Ad., 1863. Globosely turbinate, thin, whorls smooth, 
umbilicus margined. 2 sp. Japan. F. glohosa, A. Ad. 

FOSSARioPSis, Laube, 1810. Distinguished from Fossarus by 
the closed umbilicus and the callous expansion of the inner lip. 
F. rugoso-carinata,'K\\\)^i. Triassic. 

TUBA, Lea. Shell conical, umbilicate; whorls rounded, can- 
cellated ; aperture rounded, margin not continuous above ; 
columella thickened and reflected at the base. F. alternata, 
Lea (Ixix, 43). Eocene ; U. S. 

Atresius, Gabb, 1869. 

Distr. — A. liratus, Gabb. Cret. ; Cal. 

Shell elongate, spire elevated ; whorls rounded ; aperture 
ovate, slightly produced in front, outer lip entire, thin ; colu- 
mella not callous, imperforate; surface marked by revolving- 
ribs. Possibly belongs in Cerithiidie. 



24 b planaxid^. 

Family PLANAXID^. 

Shell oval-conic, spire elevated, spirally striate; columella 
flattened, anteriorly truncate ; lip rounded, simple, notched in 
front. Operculum corneous, subspiral. 

Animal with a rather long rostrum, subulate tentacles, and eyes 
on swellings at their base, foot short, plain in Planaxis, with 
tentacular filaments in Litiopa. 

Planaxis, Lam. 

Z>^■s<r. — 44sp. West Indian, Indo-Pacific, Polynesian, Panamic. 
P. sulcatus, Lam. (Ixix, 44). Fossil. Tertiary. 

Shell oval-conic, solid, with elevated spire; usually spirally 
ribbed ; columella callous, flattened, truncate at base, with a 
narrow sinus ; interior of aperture ridged ; base notched. 

Amphibious, crawling on stones near the margins of pools left 
dry by the retiring tide. Some of the species inhabit mangrove 
swamps, and may be seen adhering to the roots above the surface 
of the water. 

HiNEA, Gray. Shell smooth, covered by a yellowish brown 
epidermis; whorls flattened, outer lip thick, sillonated within. 
P. Braziliana^ Lam. (Ixix, 45). 

QTJOYiA, Desh. (Fissilabra, Brown. Leucostoma, Swains.) 
Shell solid, elongated, whorls flattened, spirally striated, apex 
decollated ; mouth small, slightly notched in front, sillonated 
within ; columella smooth, truncate anteriorly, with a sharp spiral 
posterior callus. P. decoUota, Quoy (Ixix, 46). 

KOLCOSTOMA, H. and A. Adams. Shell thin, aperture furnished 
with a posterior canal which extends up the last whorl ; it is 
covered with an epidermis curiously adorned with rows of golden 
bristles. P. pilige-'um, Phil. (Ixix, 47). 

Litiopa, Rang. 

Etym. — Litos, simple ; ope, aperture. 

Distr. — 10 sp. Pelagic. Atlantic and Mediterranean, on 
floating sea-weed, to which they adhere by threads. L. bombyx, 
Rang (Ixix, 48). Fossil. Tertiary. 

Shell minute, pointed ; aperture slightly notched in front ; 
outer lip simple, thin ; inner lip reflected ; operculum spiral. 

The singular little oceanic mollusks which constitute this 
genus have the power of spinning glutinous threads by which 
they occasionally suspend themselves from the stems of floating 
sea-weed, among which they take up their abode; if the thread 
by any chance becomes divided, the animal emits a bubble 
enveloped in a glutinous secretion, which rises to the surface, 
drawing out threads as it ascends, and finally becomes attached 
to the weeds above. 



CERITHIID^. 247 

Alaba, H. and A. Ad., 1862. 

Distr.— 24: sp. Japan, Australia, Mazatlan, West Indies. A. 
tervaricosa, C. B. Ad. 

Shell ovate, conical or elongated, subdiaphanous ; whorls 
plicate or varicose, apex submammillate ; aperture ovate, the 
columella more or less truncate. 

DiALA, A. Ad., 1862. Whorls not varicose, sometimes noduled 
around the middle; columella straightish, not truncated ; labrum 
not thickened. 5 sp. Philippines, Australia, Japan. A. vai'ia, 
A. Ad. 

STYLiFERiNA, A. Ad., 1860. Diaphauous, conical-turreted ; 
whorls smooth, convex ; apex mucronate; aperture subquadrate; 
inner lip straight. 2 sp. Japan. A. orthochila, A. Ad. 

Family CERITHIID.E. 

Shell spiral, elongated, many-whorled, frequently varicose; 
aperture channeled in front, with a less distinct posterior canal; 
lip generally expanded in the adult ; operculum horny and 
spiral. 

Animal with a short muzzle, typically not retractile ; tentacles 
distant, slender ; eyes on short pedicels, connate with the tenta- 
cles ; mantle-margin with a rudimentary siphonal fold ; tongue 
armed with a single series of median teeth, and three laterals"^ or 
unciui. Marine, estuary, or fresh water. 

Cerithium, Bruguiere. 

Etym — Ceration, a small horn. 

Distr.—\Z^ sp. iMarine. World-wide, the typical species 
tropical. Norway, Britain, Mediterranean, West Indies, India, 
Australia, China, Pacific, Galapagos. Fossil, 460 sp. Trias—; 
Britain, France, United States, etc. C.fusiforme (Ixix, 49). 

Shell turreted, many-whorled, with indistinct varices ; aperture 
small, with a tortuous canal in front ; outer lip expanded ; inner 
lip thickened ; operculum horny, spiral. 

Some of the species emit a bright green fluid when molested. 

VERTAGUS, Klein. (Rhinoclavis, Swains. Lampanella, Morch.) 
Canal strongly recurved, columella with an oblique median pli- 
cation. C. lineatus, Lam. (Ixix, 50). 

CERiTHiODERMA, Conrad. Acutely ovate, striate; labrum 
grooved and umbilicate ; columella recurved inferiorly or sub- 
truncate ; aperture patulous, margin obtusely rounded inferiorly; 
beak very short, narrow, recurved. C. prima. Conr. (Ixix, 51)! 
Eocene ; Alabama. 

COLINA, H. and A. Adams. Shell elongated, whorls numerous, 
convex, nodulous, Avith revolving striae ; aperture oval, prolonged 
in front into a short, recurved canal; columella simple, oblique; 
outer lip expanded and reflexed. The middle whorls are gibboue! 



248 CERITHllDiE. 

and the sculpture usually becomes obsolete on the last whorl. 
The few species inhabit deep water, sandy bottom, at the Philip- 
pines, China, etc. G. macrostoma, Hinds (Ixix, 52"». 

CERiTHiELLA, Verrill, 1882. (Lovenella, Sars.^ Shell subulate ; 
whorls numerous, cancellated ; aperture terminating in a short, 
distinct reflected canal. Norway, New England. G. w.eHla, 
Loven (Ixix, 53). 

BiTTiuM, Leach. (Cerithiolum, Tiberi. Platygyra, Mo'rch.) 
Shell elevated, with numerous granular whorls, and irregular 
varices ; anterior canal short, not recurved ; inner lip simple ; 
outer lip not reflected, usually with an exterior rib. Operculum 
four-whorled. Animal : Operculigerous lobe with rudimentary 
expansions on the sides and furnished with a roundish, lanceo- 
late cirrus. Numerous small northern species, low-water to 80 
fathoms. G. reMcidatum, Da Costa (Ixix, 54). 

CERiTHiOPSis, Forbes and Hanley. Shell like Bittium; nuclear 
whorls sinistral. Operculum pointed, nucleus apical. Proboscis 
retractile. Northern. G. rugidosiis, Ads. (Ixix, 55). 

SEiLA, A. Ad. Shell like Cerithiopsis, ti'ansversely lirate. 

CERiTHiNELLA, Gcmm. Turretcd to cylindrical, not perforated ; 
mouth quadrangular, with very short canal ; growth-lines re- 
curved under the sutures. G. Italica, Gemm. Jurassic. 

DiTRETUS, Piette, ISH. Turreted ; mouth oval or rounded, 
with very short, entirely rounded canal ; inner lip spread out, 
callous ; outer lip thickened ; whorls with longitudinal rows of 
tubercles. G. rostellaria, Buv. Jurassic. 

viCARFA, d'Arch, 1854. Turreted; whorls spirally striated, 
with a row of tubercles below the suture; canal short, recurved ; 
inner lip callously thickened ; outer lip with a deep, broad, 
superior sinus. C Verneuili, d Arch. Eocene ; East Indies. 

FIBULA, Piette, 1857. Shell elongated, columella straight, with 
a rudimentary groove near the base; outer lip arched, slightly 
notched at the suture ; base of the aperture forming a slight 
canal, or rounded and entire, depending upon the exact period 
of growth at which the animal perished. The species of this 
genus possess characters intermediate and approximating them 
to Turritella and to Cerithium. Fossil, 21 sp. Jurassic to 
Cretaceous ; Europe, India. F. undulosa, Piette (Ixix, 56). 

EUSTOMA, Piette, 1855. Shell in the young state resembling 
Cerithium ; in the adult the margins of the aperture are much 
expanded and posteriorly united by an indistinct canal ; canal 
elongated.. Several species. Great Oolite ; Ardennes. 

CERiTEiXA, Morris and Lycett, 1850. (Costellifer, Meek. 
Tubifer, Piette.) Shell small, resembling ActiBonina in form, 
the last volution being somewhat ventricose and largest, but 
terminating anteriorly with a short and slightly twisted canal. 
C aow^a, Morris and Lycett (Ixix, 5T). Jurassic. 



CERITHTID.E. 249 

Mesostoma, Deshayes, 1864. 

Distr. — Fossil, 4 sp. Eocene ; Paris. M. grata, Dh. 

Shell elongated, turreted, scalariform; aperture nearly circu- 
lar, dilated, obliquely cut, terminating in front by a semicanal- 
iculated angle; columella slightly concave, cylindrical, obliquely 
truncated, lip simple, and slightly expanded. 

ExELTSSA, Piette, 1861. 

Etym. — Exelisso, to unfold. Syn. — Kilvertia, Lycett, 1863. 

Distr. — Fossil, 14 sp. Mid, Lias to Kimmeridge Clay; 
England and France. Cretaceous, 1 sp. (?) ; India. E.formosa, 
Lycett (Ixix, 62). 

Shell small, elongated subcylindrical, somewhat pupiform, 
many-whorled, perpendicularly costated, tuberculated or spined ; 
last Vhorl cylindrical, contracted at the base, with a tendency 
to separate from the axis ; aperture orbicular, entire, the lips 
elevated, produced, and slightly thickened ; columella solid. 

Includes a large number of very characteristic transversely 
ribbed species. It is uncertain whether there w^as an anterior 
canal or not, and therefore the pertinence of the genus to this 
family remains doubtful. 

Fastigiella, Reeve. 
Distr. — 1 recent sp. ; and an Eocene sp., Paris basin. F. 
carinata, Reeve (Ixx, 64). 

Shell elongated, turriculated, whorls rounded, with revolving 
ribs; aperture prolonged into a short, slightly twisted canal; 
axis rimate. 

Triforis, Deshayes. 

Syn. — Tristoma, Blainv. 

Distr. — 100 sp. E. Indies, Polynesia, Australia, Panama, W. 
Indies, Mediterranean. Fossil. Eocene; Europe. T.pe7'versus, 
Linn. (Ixix, 58). 

Shell sinistral, sculptured, granular; whorls numerous, termi- 
nating below in a small aperture, with tubular anterior canal ; 
opposite this canal is sometimes a second one upon a varix, 
marking the position of a former aperture. Operculum orbicu- 
lar, few-whorled. 

Animal. Tentacles clavate at the tips, united at their bases 
by a sinuated veil. 

INO, Hinds. (Inella, Bayle.) Shell cylindrically subulate, 
elongated, spire sharp-pointed. T. corrugatus, Hinds (Ixix, 59). 

sycfiar. Hinds. Shell elongated, whorls rounded. T. vitreus, 
Hinds (Ixix, 60). 

mastonia, Hinds. Shell acuminated, swollen in the middle. 
2\ vulpinus, Hinds (Ixix, 61). 

LiEOCOCHLis, Dunker and Metzger. Shell turreted ; whorls 
17 



250 CERITHIID^. 

numerous, cingulated; aperture ending- in a twisted, short canal. 
Operculum A^ery thin, indistinctly spiral, with excentric nucleus. 
T. granosus, Wood (Ixx, 65). 

PoTAMiDES, Brongniart. 

Etym. — Potamos, a river, and ides, patronymic termination. 
Fresh-water Cerites. 8yn. — Potomis, Swains. 

Diiiti\ — 50 sp. Tropical and subtropical. Fresh and brackish, 
streams and swamps. Fossil, numerous. Eocene — . P. mamil- 
latum, Kisso (Ixix, 63). P. eheninum, Brug. (Ixx, 66). 

Shell turriculated, whorls angulated and coronated; aperture 
prolonged in front into a nearly straight canal ; outer lip thin, 
sinuous; epidermis thick, olive-brown. Operculum many-whorled. 

BROTiA, H. Adams. Shell fusiform, spire elevated, whorls 
spinulose, the last subrostrate in front ; aperture subovate, pro- 
duced anteriorl}'. Operculum corneous, multispiral. Fluviatile. 
Siam. P. pa(7oc?wZa, Gould (Ixx, 67). The type was described 
as a Melanian, but the operculum at once separates it from that 
genus. 

TYMPANOTOMUS, Klein. Columella twisted ; outer lip broadl}^ 
sinuated anteriorly, and less distinctly so posteriorly. P.fuscata, 
Linn. (Ixx, 68). 

LAMPANiA, CJray. Shell turriculated, whorls numerous, without 
varices ; sculpture not prominent ; aperture truncate below ; 
without canal ; outer lip sinuous. P. zonale., Brug. (Ixx, 69). 

PYRAZUS, Montfort. (Terebralia, Swains.) Whorls with 
revolving striai, not tuberculate ; aperture with a short anterior 
canal ; columellar callosity spiral, oblique ; outer lip thickened, 
expanded, rounded anteriorly, and turning upwards to join the 
inner lip. P. sulcatum, Brug. (Ixx, tO). P. palustris occurs in 
great abundance in the salt marshes of the Eastern Archipelago, 
and is assiduously collected by the natives, who roast them and 
suck the contents of the shell through an aperture made by 
breaking off the tip of the spire. 

Dr. Brot has made the interesting discover}^ that the species 
of this group possess two columellar plicoe, and opposite to 
these, vipon the surface of the outer wall of the shell, are teeth, 
occurring wherever an external varix has been formed. These 
do not approach the aperture, and are only discovered upon 
making a longitudinal section of the shell. They do not occur 
in the related subgenera, but their presence is mentioned by 
Deshayes in some of the fossil species of the Paris basin, and 
they are very characteristic of the fossil genus Nerinsea, which 
may thus connect Cerithium and Pyramidella. 

TELESCOPiUM, Moutfort. (Terebralia, Swains.) Shell pyram- 
idal ; columella with a prominent fold, moi'e or less continuous 
towards the apex ; and a second, less distinct, on the basal front 



MELANIID.1^. 251 

of the Whorls. India, North Australia. P. telescopium (Ixx, 71) 
IS so abundant near Calcutta as to be used for burning into 
lime; great heaps of it are first exposed to the sun, to kill the 
animals. They have been brought alive to England. (Benson ) 
In ±5orneo the,y are eaten by the natives. 

CERiTHiDEA, Swaius. Shell turriculated, longitudinally ribbed • 
whorls numerous; summit of spire more or less decollated nper- 
ture rounded, slightly slit anteriorly, outer lip expanded, thick- 
ened, broadly rounded below and usually produced into a beak 
crossing the sinus to the left. Eye-pedicels long and thick 
connate with the tentacles nearlv to their tips, 'inhabit salt 
marshes, mangrove swamps, and the mouth of rivers • they are 
so commonly out of the water as to have been taken for land- 
shells. Mr. Adams noticed them in the fresh waters of the 
interior of Borneo, creeping on pontederia and sedges ; thev 
often suspend themselves by glutinous threads Distr —India 
Ceylon, Singapore, Borneo, Philippines, Port Essington. P 
decollatum, Linn, (Ixx, 72). P. obtusum, Lam. (Ixx 73) 

PiRENELLA, Gray, 1847. Shell turriculated, whorls granulated 
or with irregular ribs and varices ; aperture rounded ; anterior 
canal short ; inner lip simple, outer lip thin, sinuous. P. mamil- 
latum, Phil. There is a fossil species in the Laramie beds U S 
SANDBERGERiA, Bosquet, 1861. Proposed for a number of'ovate 
species, from the tertiary, having a very broad, shallow, but 
slightly produced canaliculation in front. The operculum is 
said to be paucispiral, and if this be actually the case, the divi- 
sion may be maintained , otherwise the shells are not readily 
distinguishable from Cerithidea. P. antecedens, Stol 

ESCOFFiERTA, Fontannes, 1881. P. Fischeri, Font. Tertiarv 
h ranee. -^ ' 

Family MELANIID^. 

Shell spiral, turreted ; with a thick, dark epidermis ; aperture 
often channeled, or notched in front ; outer lip acute ; operculum 
horny, spiral. The spire is often extensively eroded by the 
acidity of the water in which the animals live. 

Animal with a broad, non-retractile muzzle ; tentacles distant 
subulate ; eyes on short stalks, united to the outer sides of the' 
tentacles; foot broad and short, angulated in front- mantle- 
margin fringed ; tongue long and linear, with a median and three 
lateral series of hooked multicuspid teeth ; gill composed of 
rigid, cylindrical plates. Often viviparous. Inhabiting fresh- 
water lakes and rivers throughout the warmer parts of the world 
(except North America). 

The Melanians are fluviatile mollusks, closely related through 
I otamides, with the Cerithiida?. They possess the fringed mantle- 
margin characteristic of the latter family, and are thereby imme- 



252 MELANIIDiE. 

diately separable from the peculiarly North American group 
Strepomatidse, which they much resemble in the characters of 
the shell. Mainly of Indo-Paciflc, African and Polynesian dis- 
tribution, they number several hundred existing species, besides 
a number of fossil forms commencing with the Jurassic period. 

Paludomus, Swainson. 

Etym. — Palus^ a marsh, and domus, home. 

Syn. — Rivulina, Lea. 

Distr. — 25 sp. Ce^don, India. P. conicus, Gray (Ixx, 74). 

Shell Paludiniform ; columella callous, scarcely planulate. 
Operculum concentric, with spiral, sinistral, subcentral nucleus. 

PHiLOPOTAMis, Layard. (Heteropoma, Benson.) Shell fre- 
quently globose, but spire exserted ; columella callous, scarcely 
planulate. Operculum subspiral ; nucleus basal, dextral, sub- 
marginal. Distr. — 9 sp. Ceylon, Sumatra. P. nigricans, Reeve 
(Ixx, 75). 

TANALIA, Gray. (Ganga, Layard. Serenia, Benson.) Shell 
globose, neritiform ; columella wide, planulate. Operculum 
lamellated, nucleus dextral, median, marginal. Distr. — 7 sp. 
Ceylon. P. loricata^Jieeve (Ixx, 76". 

STOMATODON, Bcusou. Shell globose, columella wide, base 
truncate and furnished with a prominent tooth. Opei'culum (?). 
Distr. — P. Bensoni, Brot. (Ixx, 77). Southern India. 

Melania, Lam. 

Etym — Melania, blackness (from melas). 

Distr. — 400 sp. So. Europe, India, Philippines, Pacific Islands. 

Shell turreted, apex acute ' unless eroded) ; whorls ornamented 
with stria? or spines; aperture oval, pointed above; outer lip 
sharp, sinuous. Operculum subspiral. 

MELANELLA, Swaiusou. Shell ovoid, with elevated spire ; 
aperture large, its base subproduced and rounded. Operculum 
paucispiral, nucleus subspiral. M.glans, von dem Busch (Ixx, 
78). Java. Includes M. Hollandri, Fer., and M. parvula, 
Schmidt; European species, 

ACROSTOMA, Brot. Shell fusiform, subbiconic ; aperture 
angulately produced at the base. Operculum (?). M. HugeMi, 
Phil. Java, India. 

PACHYCHiLUS, Lea. Shell turreted or subfusiform ; aperture 
ovate, its base subproduced, peristome usuall}' thickened. Oper- 
culum three- to four-whorled, with subcentral nucleus. Mexican, 
Central American. M. laevissima, Sowb. (Ixx, 79). 

AYLACosTOMA, Spix. (Aulacostoma, Agassiz.) Whorls cari- 
nated or shouldei'ed near the suture. South America, if. 
scalaris, Spix (Ixx, 80). 

SULCOSPIRA, Troschel. Shell ovately turreted, sulcate-striate ; 



MELANIIDiE. 253 

aperture ovate, base subproduced. Operculum three- to Ibur- 
whorled, nucleus subceutral, rarely subbasal. M. sulcospira, 
Mousson (Ixx, 81). East Indies. 

NiGRiTELLA, Brot. Shell ovoid-turreted, smooth, but slightly 
granosely striate. Operculum subspiral, nucleus submarginal. 
M. decollata, Lam. (Ixx, 82). Africa, Madagascar. 

MELANOiDES, Olivier. Shell turreted, usually large, elevately 
striate and plicate, plicff" usuall}^ tuberciilose. Operculum sub- 
trispiral, nucleus excentric, sinistral. East Indies, Philippines. 
M. asperata. M. variabilis. 31. episcopalis, Lea (Ixx, 83 ;. 

MELANiA, H. and A. Adams. (EUipstoma, Raf.) Shell usually 
subulate, whorls numerous. Operculum paucispiral, nucleus 
submarginal. 31. hastula (Ixx, 84 K 31. 31indoroensis. 31. acumi- 
nata. East Indies, Poljaiesia. 

STRiATELLA, Brot. Turreted, spirally more or less striate, 
sometimes longitudinally plicate, aperture rounded at the base, 
columella a little twisted. M. corporosa. 31. tuberculata (Ixx, 
85). Java, Polynesia. 

PLOTiA (Bolten), H. and A. Adams. Shell medium or small, 
spirally closely striate or lirate ; whorls angulate and spiny above ; 
corneous, strigate or punctate with red. Operculum subspiral, 
nucleus submarginal, basal. 31. spinulosa. 31. bellicosa, Hinds 
(Ixx, 86). 

PLOTiopsis, Brot. Shell like the preceding, but shortl}^ tuber- 
culose (not spinose) at the angle. Operculum subspiral, nucleus 
submarginal. 31. Balonnensis, Conr. (Ixx, 8Y). 

TIARA (Bolten), H. and A. Adams. (Amarula, Sowb. Melas, 
Montf. Melacantha, Swainson. Paramelania, E. A. Smith.) 
Shell usually large, mostly smooth, rarely with elevated cingulse, 
whorls angulated and spinose above. Operculum paucispiral, 
nucleus submarginal. 31. amarula. 31. setosa, Swains. (Ixx, 88). 

TiAROPSis, Brot. Shell medium size, lirate or sulcate ; whorls 
with a single row of nodules or short spines above ; margin of 
the aperture sinuous, iff. Winteri, Busch (Ixx, 89). 

TAREBiA, H. and A. Adams. Shell oblong or ovately turreted, 
granosely decussated ; aperture-margin sinuous. Operculum 
paucispiral, nucleus submarginal. 31. GelebensiH, Quoy (Ixx, 90). 

SERMYLA, H. and A. Adams. Shell Tornatelliform, above lon- 
gitudinally costate, below with revolving line ; aperture-margin 
sinuous. Operculum paucispiral, nucleus submarginal. 31. tor- 
nate.lla, Lea (Ixx, 91). 

ONCOMELANIA, Oredlcr. Shell rimate, turreted, strongly 
ribbed, ribs pellucid; aperture scarcely effuse below, small; 
peristome continuous or connected by a columellar callus, 
widely sublabiate, with an exterior varix. 1 sp. China. The 
operculum is of the normal form. The position of this shell is 



254 MELANIIDiE. 

somewhat doubtful ; it may belong to the Rissoidae. M. Hupen- 
sis, Gredler (Ixx, 92). 

Ptychostylus, Saudberger. 
Diiitr. — P. harpseformis, Dunker. Wealden, Europe, 
Shell egg-shaped, with scalarilbrm, sharp spire; whorls ribbed 

transversely ; mouth small, acutely angular behind, somewhat 

wider and rounded in front ; columella folded. 

DoRYSSA, H. and A. Adams. 

Distr. — 17 sp. Eastern South America. D. brevior, Troschel 
(Ixxv, 93). 

Shell turreted, longitudinally plicate, decussated by revolving 
sulcations; aperture effused at the base, right margin uncinately 
produced. Operculum spiral with sinistral subcentral nucleus (f). 

Claviger, Haldeman. 

Syn. — Yibex (Oken), Gray. 

Distr. — 7 sp. Africa. G. aurita, Lam. (Ixxi, 94). 

Shell turreted, with revolving carina? or tubercles; ai)erturc 
subproduced at the base, subcanaliculate, outer margin sinuous, 
two to four plica within. Operculum paucispiral ; nucleus basal, 
submarginal, sinistral. 

TiPHOBiA, E. A. Smith. 

IHatr. — Lake Tanganyika, Africa. F. i7o/-e?-, Smith (Ixxi, 95). 

Shell subturbinate, spire depressed ; whorls flattened above, 
angulated and spinose ; axis and aperture prolonged into a 
channeled beak. 

Similar in form to the American genus lo. The operculum is 
unknown. It has been referred temporarily to the family Mela- 
niidae, but is quite as closely allied, I think, to the fresh-water 
division of the Cerithiidie, and especially to the Siamese genus 
Brotia. 

Hemisinus, Swainson. 

Syn. — Basistoma, Lea. Tania, Gra3^ 

Distr. — 36 sp. So. and Central America, W. Indies, Seychelles, 
Australia. H. Uneolatus, Wood (Ixxi, 96). 

Aperture canaliculated at the base, columella not callous. 
Operculum paucispiral; nucleus basal, sinistral, marginal or 
submai*ginal. 

VERENA, H. and A. Adams. Shell turbinated, shouldered and 
coronated, spirally striate; aperture subtruncated anteriorly, 
forming a short, wide canal. South America. If. crenocarrna^ 
Moric. (Ixxi, 97). 

Melanopsis, Ferussac. 

Syi}. — Bulliopsis, Conrad. Coptostylus and Campylostylus, 
Sandb. 



MELANIID^. 255 

Distr.—il sp. Mediterranean region of Europe, Asia and 
Atrica, New Caledonia, New Zealand. Fossil, 25 sp. Eocene— • 
Europe, United States. 31. prxrom, Linn. (Ixxi, 99). 

Aperture excised-canaliculate at the base, a thick, tubercular 
parietal callus above. Operculum subspiral or paucispiral 
nucleus sinistral, marginal or submarginal. ' 

CANTHiDOMUS, Swainson. Spire generally short ; whorls cor- 
onated or longitudinally ribbed, last whorl anteriorly obtuse 
M. costata, Fer. (Ixxi, 98). 

LYRCEA, H. and A. Adams. Shell oval-fusiform, whorls 
grooved; inner lip with a large posterior callus; columella sub- 
truncate in front; aperture posteriorly canaliculated. M 
-Uu/ourn, Graells. 

MELANOPTYCHA, Ncumayr, 1880. Columella plicate. Tertiary • 
Austria. M. Bittneri, Neumayr (Ixxi, 100). ' 

Smendovia, Tournouer, 1882. 
Disfr. — S. Thoniasi, Tourn. Tertiary ; Algiers, 
Shell large, fragile, fusiform ; spire acute ; last whorl gibbous 
longitudinally plicate ; columella callous (callus tumid, not pro- 
duced behind), almost straight, anteriorly somewhat produced 
into a recurved canal, which is scarcely margined. 

Stomatopsis, Stache. 

?i^u'~~^' ^^^^*""^'^os^«^«) Stache. Cosinaschichten, Dalmatia. 

Shell thick, long ovate, spire sharp, scalariform, with sharp 
told-like transverse ribs, affecting the sutural line ; mouth rounded 
or oval, somewhat angular, with thickened lip. 

Faunus, Montfort. 

%n.— Pirena, Lam. Faunopsis, Gill (young shell). 

Didr.—i sp. Ceylon, Philippines, Western Polynesia. F 
atra^ Linn. (Ixxi, 1), 

Shell subulate, smooth ; aperture profoundly excised-emargi- 
nate at the base, sinuate above ; columellar lip callous Ooer- 
culum(?). ' 

The species of this genus, which differs from Melanopsis in 
the length of the spire, and in the sinuated, broadh'-expanded 
outer hp, inhabit the beds of tropical rivers and rivulets, wh^re 
they may be seen crawling on the soft mud at the bottom, feeding 
apparently, on decayed vegetable matter, 

Melanatria, Bowd. 

Z)isjr,_5 sp. Madagascar, ilf,/umi?im, Gmel. (Ixxi, 2). 

Shell turreted, smooth or costate, sometimes spinose; aperture 
more or less sinuous at the base and above. Operculum spiral • 
nucleus sinistral, subcentral. ' 

PiRENOPSis,Brot. Solid, turreted,longitudinally ribbed, spirally 



256 STREPOMATID^, 

striate, not spinose ; aperture sinuate above and below, outer 
margin widely arcuately protracted. Operculum acutely ovate, 
subspiral, nucleus basal, submarginal. M. eostata, Quoy. 

Family STREPOMATID^. 

Shell turreted, or ovate, smooth or variously sculptured, 
covered with an olivaceous epidermis ; aperture angulated or 
channeled in front. Operculum subspiral. 

Animal with plain (not fringed) mantle-margin. Oviparous. 
Dentition (xl, 27). 

Except two or three West Indian species, the distribution of 
the family, numbering about 500 species, is confined to the United 
States, and principally to the upper waters of the streams taking 
their rise in the mountains of the middle southern region. 

The oriental Melaniidfe have fringed mantle-margins, and the 
shells have generally a broadly rounded aperture, not produced 
at the base. 

lo. Lea. 

iiyn, — Melafusus, Swains. 

Diittr. — 5 sp. Middle and East Tennessee, W. Virginia. /. 
spinoi^a, Lea (Ixxi, 3, 4). 

Shell fusiform, usually nodulous, with elevated spire; aperture 
produced anteriorly into a narrow, twisted canal ; columella 
smooth, concave. 

Angitrema, Haldeman. 

Si/n. — Fotadoma (part) Swains. Glotella, Gray. Juga (sp.), 
Chenu. Meseschiza, Lea. 

Distr — 12 sp. Indiana, Tennessee, Northern Alabama. A. 
Duttoniana^ Lea (Ixxi, 5). 

Shell spinous ; aperture subrhomboidal, with an anterior short 
canal; columella with a callous deposit anteriorly and posteriorly. 
Meseschiza is founded upon young specimens of A. armigera^ 
Say, in which the growth of the outer lip has been interfered 
with at its periphery, causing a seam and slight sinus ; it is 
undoubtedly monstrous. 

LTTHASi A, Haldeman. (Megara [sp.], H. and A. Adams.) Shell 
ovately fusiform or oval, small, smooth ; aperture not so dis- 
tinctly channeled in front as in the typical Angitrema?; columella 
with anterior and posterior callous deposit. 14 sp. Ohio River, 
Indiana, Kentuck}^ Tennessee, Alabama. A. dilatafa, Lea 

(Ixxi, 6). 

sTREPHOBASis, Lea. (Megara [sp.],H. and A. Adams.) Shell 
like Lithasia, with reti-orse canal. 9 sp. Tennessee, Alabama. 
A. curta, Hald. (Ixxi, 7). 

PLEUROCERA, Rafinesque. (Ceriphasia,Swainson. Telescopella, 
Gray. Trypanostoma, Lea. Megara and Elimia [ep.J.H.and A. 



STREPOMATID^. 5:67 

Adams. Strepoma, Raf.) Shell generally lengthened conical, 
with elevated spire ; aperture moderate, produced into a short 
spout or canal in front ; columella not callously thickened. 
Distr — 84 sp. Ohio, Tennessee and Alabama Rivers and their 
tributaries. P. canaliculata, Say (Ixxi, 8). 

GoNiOBASis, Lea. 

Syn. — Melasma, Juga, Megara i sp.), Elimia, H. and A. Adams. 

Diiitr. — 274 sp. United States, east of the Mississippi River, 
California and Oregon, (r. mp?'essa, Lea (Ixxi, 9). G. Boykin- 
ta/ia. Lea (Ixxi, 10). G. Ft>(/2nica, Say (Ixxi, 11). The genus 
does not occur recent in the elevated region west of the 
Mississippi. Fossil, Laramie beds — ; Western U. S. 

Shell heavy, ovate or elongated ; apertuie somewhat angulated 
in front, but neither notched or canaliculate. 

EURYCiELON, Lea. Shell obovate, heavy, nodosely angled ; 
aperture large, ear-shaped ; columella oval, subtruncate. 10 sj). 
E. Tennessee, N. Alabama. G. Anthonyi, Budd (Ixxi, 12). 

Pyrgulifera, Meek. 

Distr. — Cretaceous; Wyoming T., \J. S. P. humerosa, Meek 
(Ixxi, 13). 

Spire produced ; whorls shouldered and nodular ; aperture 
subovate, faintly sinuous, a little produced, but not notched or 
distinctly angular below ; columellar lip a little callous below, 
thickened throughout. Very closely allied to the Melanian 
genus Tiara, Bolten. Dr. C. A. White considers Paramelania, 
E. A. Smith (= Tiara), synonj^mous ; it includes three species 
living in the African lake Tanganyika. 

Cassiopella, White, 1878. 

Distr. — (7. turricula^ White. Fossil, Laramie beds; Western 
U. S. 

Shell turriculate, the whorls angulated in the middle. Differs 
from Goniobasis in being umbilicated. 

ScHizosTOMA, Lea. 

Syn. — Schizocheilus, Lea. (xyrotoma, Shuttleworth. Mela- 
toma, Anthony. Apella, Mighels. 

Distr. — 26 sp. Coosa River, Alabama. S. babylonicum , Lea 
(Ixxi, 14-16). 

Shell conical or fusiform; aperture large, ovate, obtusely 
angled below ; outer lip with a posterior, sutural sinus or fissure ; 
columella smooth, incurved. 

Anculosa, Say. 
Syn. — Anculotiis, Say. Aucylotus, llcrm. Lci)tuxis (Rufi'), 
Hald. ■ f^v ,: 



258 RISSOELLID^. 

Distr. — 26 sp. Ohio River and southwards to Alabama ; 
Southern Atlantic States. A. tseniata, Conr. (Ixxi, 17). 
. Shell oval, heavy, with very short spire ; aperture entire and 
rounded in front ; columella callously thickened above. 

MUDALIA, Hald. (Nitocris, H. and A. Ad. ) Shell thinner, 
inflated. Potomac and Susquehanna, Kanawha, and Upper Ohio 
rivers. The distribution is thus more northern than that of the 
type group. A. dissimilis, Say (Ixxi, 19). 

Family RISSOELLID.E. 

Shell small, thin, transparent, spire elevated, aperture entire, 
rounded or slightly sinuous anteriorly. Operculum corneous, 
concentric. 

Animal with bilobate rostrum, eyes sessile on the head back 
of the tentacles. 

These curious little animals are found adhering to floating sea- 
weeds, in pools between tide-marks ; their eyes are situated so far 
behind the tentacles that the transparency of the shell seems to 
be essential to the vision of the animal. The bilobate mouth 
and absence of retractile proboscis indicate them to be vegetable 
feeders. In some respects closely allied to Litiopa. 

RissoELLA, Gray. 

Syn. — Jeff'reysia, Alder. 

Dist7\ — 6 sp. Britain. On sea-weed, near low-water. (Alder.) 
There are eight other species in the Japanese seas. B. diaphana, 
Forbes and Hanley (Ixxi, 20, 21). 

Shell minute, translucent. Operculum semilunar, imbricated, 
with a projection from the straight, inner side. Head elongated, 
deeply cleft, and produced into two tentacular processes ; month 
armed with denticulated jaws, and a spinous tongue ; tentacles 
linear, eyes far behind, prominent, only visible through the shell ; 
foot bilobed in front. 

Fairbankia, Blanford, 1868. 

Distr. — F. Bombay ana., Blf. Estuary ; Bombay Harbor. 

Shell imperforate, turreted, with a brown epidermis ; aperture 
suboval, rounded in front; peristome slightly dilated, external 
margin acute, but exteriorly with variciform thickening. Oper- 
culum corneous, subannular with an interior long, transverse 
rib. 

Animal with long filiform tentacles, and eyes sessile at their 
bases; proboscis elongated; foot wide and sinuated in front, 
rounded behind. 

Combines the epidermis, and to a great extent the animal 
of H3'drobia with the peristome of Rissoa ; the- operculum 
approaches that of Rissoella. , It diflers from Barleeia in its 



RISSOlDiE. 259 

epidermis, exteriorly thickened lip, horny operculum, and want 
01 long pointed apophysis. 

Iravadia, Blanford, 1867. 
Distr.—S. ornata, Blf. Brackish water, India. 
The shell has the general form of a Rissoa, but the apex is 
otten obtuse, the whorls are spirally ribbed, covered with an 
epidermis ; aperture ovate, with continuous margins, anteriorly 
, slightly effuse ; outer lip with an external varix. Operculum and 
animal unknown. 

Hyala, H. and A. Adams. 

^^'s'^-— European, ff. vitrea, Forbes and Hanley (Ixxi, 22). 

Shell thin, hyaline, elevated conic; aperture oval, slightly 

emarginated anteriorly ; outer lip thin, simple. Operculum 

thin, corneous, simple, subspiral. The tentacles of the animal 

have bristle-like summits. 

Tatea, Woods. 

Z)z«<r.— Tasmania. T. Huonensis, Woods (Ixxii, 30). 

Shell elongate-pyramidal. Operculum calcareous, with a ver- 
tical, submarginal claw. Animal with truncate foot, and lono- 
tentacles. '^ 

The operculum has the form of that of Rissoella, but differs 
in being calcareous. 

Family RISSOID Ji]. 

Shell small, spiral, turreted or depressed, often more or less 
umbilicated ; aperture more or less rounded, never truly chan- 
neled in front ; peritreme continuous. 

Tentacles elongated, with the eyes at their outer bases. Verge 
(male organ) exserted, situated on the back at a considerable 
distance behind the right tentacle. Gills both pallial ; the right 
or principal one usually rather short and broad, and composed 
of few laminae, which are much broader than high. Foot oblong, 
punctate before, rounded or pointed behind. Operculigerous 
lobe well developed. Operculum horny or partly shelly, ''spiral 
or concentric. Lingual teeth, 3-1-3 ; living in fresh, brackish or 
sea-water, sometimes amphibious. Distribution mundane. 

Stoliczka indicates two principal groups in this family : the 
first including the marine genera, with thick, solid shells, and, 
as a rule, Avith the labrum externally thickened ; the other the 
brackish and fresh-water or amphibious genera, the shells of 
which are usually thin, smooth, with an olivaceous epidermis 
the labrum not externally thickened. The animals of all the 
Rissoidje are very similarly formed, but those living in fresh or 
brackish waters have generally no appendages on the posterior 
portion of the foot, and the operculigerous lobes are less devel- 
oped than in the marine forms. The eye-peduncles are generally 



260 RISSOID^, 

united with the tentacles, but it seems tliat their length increases, 
the more the animal is accustomed to an amphibious life. Thus 
some of the species have the eyes placed near the basis of the 
tentacles, others in the middle, and still others at the tips of the 
same. The diifei-ences are very gradual, which makes it impos- 
sible to regard them as of any important generic value. The 
length of the rostrum also appears to increase in some forms, 
corresponding with their more amphibious habits ; and also, 
while the foot itself often lengthens, its disk at the same time 
becomes smaller. 

Subfamily BYTHININ^. 

Shell small, conical ; peritreme simple or thickened. Oper- 
culum calcareous, concentric. Fresh water. 

Bythinia, Gray. 

^yn. — Elona, Moquin-Tandon. Grayana, Betta. 

Distr. — 50 sp. Europe, Southern Asia, Australia, etc. Fossil. 
Wealden and Tertiary. B. Leachii, Shepp. (Ixxii, 29). 

Shell oval, turbinated, thin, invested with a thin epidermis; 
peritreme continuous. 

The female is oviparous and deposits her eggs in a band, 
attached to stones or the stems of aquatic plants ; with her mouth 
she clears the surface upon which she intends to deposit the ova. 
The young are hatched in three or four weeks, attaining full 
growth in the second year. 

TYLOPOMA, Brusina, 1882. Shell form of Tulotoma (Palu- 
dinidffi ), but smaller. Operculum calcareous. B. avellana^ Neum. 

GABBiA, Tryon. Shell turbinately globose, whorls well rounded ; 
peritreiiie continuous ; axis perforate. Operculum, nucleus sub- 
spiral, afterwards concentric, calcareous. Distr. — B. australis, 
Tryon (Ixxi, 23). Fresh water, Australia. It is possibly synon- 
ymous with Bythinia, from which it only differs slightly in its 
operculum. 

Stenothyra, Benson. 

Syn. — Nematura, Benson. 

DUtr. — Fresh water, India, East Indies. Fossil. Eocene ; 
Paris basin. S. deltse, Benson (Ixxii, 31). 

Shell ovate, smooth. imperforate ; aperture rounded, contracted. 
Operculum testaceous, annular, ovate, thick, nucleus subcentral, 
margin grooved. 

The species are found either attached to the under surface of 
floating leaves, or crawling out of the water on the muddy 
margins of ponds, leaving, as they progress, slender tracks 
behind them. 

NEMATURELLA, Saudbcrgcr. Like Stenothyra, but with longer 
spire ; lip flexuous, forming a slight sinus above. Operculum 
unknown. Pliocene ; Europe. 4 sp. 



RISSOIDiE. 2G1 

EUCHiLUS, Sanclberger. Shell small, elongate-conoidal, smooth, 
rimate ; outer lip expanded. Operculum concentric, calcareous. 
Tertiary ; Europe. 9 sp. E. Deschiensianum, Sandb. (Ixxiii, 4). 

Subfamily SKENEIN^. 

Shell depressed, nearly discoidal. Operculum multispiral, 
corneous. Marine. 

Skenea, Fleming. 

Etym. — Named after Dr. Skene, of Aberdeen, a contemporary 
of Linnseus. 

Syn. — Delphinoidea, Brown. 

Distr. — Northern seas, Norway, and Britain. S. cornuella, 
Straits of Korea (Adams). S. planorbis, Fabr. (Ixxii, 32, 33). 

Shell minute orbicular, depressed, few-whorled ; peristome 
continuous, entire, round. Operculum multispiral. Animal like 
Rissoa, foot rounded behind. Found under stones at low-water, 
and amongst the roots of Co7'allina officinalis. 

Subfamily BISSOININJE. 

Shell ovate or turreted ; with a thick, corneous, or calcareous 
paucispiral operculum provided with an internal process (articu- 
lated). Size small. Marine. 

The genera are well characterized, not only by the form of the 
operculum, but especially by the form of their aperture, which 
is anteriorly effuse or truncate ; the outer lip being peculiarly 
produced either anteriorly or near the middle. 

RissoiNA, d'Orbigny. 

Distr. — About 100 sp. World-wide. H. Catesbyana, d'Orb. 
(Ixxi, 24, 25). 

Shell turreted, whorls numerous, ribbed or cancellated ; aper- 
ture semilunar, lip slightly thickened within, somewhat expanded, 
faintly channelecl anteriorly. Operculum corneous, thick, semi- 
lunar, paucispiral, with an interior process. 

issELiELLA, Ncvill. (Issclia, Semper, preoccupied.) The em- 
bryonal shell is sinistral, and von Martens thinks that it should 
therefore be removed to the neighborhood of Cerithiopsis. The 
shells do not otherwise differ essentially from Rissoa, and I 
agree with Dr. Weinkauff that, while the animal and operculum 
remain unknown, it is better to allow the species to remain in 
Rissoina. B. mii'abilis, Dunker, is the type, and there are sev- 
eral other Polynesian species. 

ZEBiNA, H. and A. Adams. Shell white, solid, opaque, polished, 
smooth or partly striate; outer lip rather thick, with one or more 
internal anterior tubercles. E. tridentata (Ixxi, 26). 

ZEBiNELLA, Murch. Shell costellate, spirally striate. M. elegan- 
tissima, d'Orb. (Ixxi, 27). 



262 RTSSOID^. 

PHOSiNELLA, Morcli. Shell reticulated, aperture ])rofoundly 
sinuated. Operculum with styliform apophysis, denticulate 
posteriorly. R. Sagraiana, d'Orb. (Ixxii, 37). 

SCHWARTZIELLA, Ncvill. Aperture without laasal emargination. 
B. coronata (Ixxii, 34). 

EATONiELLA, Dall. ( Eatouia, E. A. Smith.) Shell rissoid, 
smooth ; aperture subcircular, peristome simple, continuous, 
the labral margin not thickened. Operculum paucispiral, 
nucleus near the base, with an interior rib or ossicle. Differs 
from Rissoina in the absence of the basal, faint channel of the 
aperture and thin lip. Distr. — 8 sp. Kerguelen's Island. B. 
Kerguelenensis^ Smith (Ixxii, 35, 36). 

Mic'RGSTELMA, A. Ad., 1863. Shell turreted-ovate, rimate ; 
spire conic ; whorls longitudinally plicate ; aperture oblong, 
produced anteriorly, subcanaliculate ; inner lip thickened, outer 
lip simple. Dis(7\ — R. dsedala, A. Ad. Japan. 

Barleeia, Clark. 

Etym. — Named in honor of G. Barlee. 

Distr. — Europe, W. America, etc, B. rubra, Ads. (Ixxii, 38). 

Shell conically turbinated ; whorls rounded, smooth or slightly 
striated ; aperture oval, entire, rounded in front ; margin sharp. 
Operculum calcareous, subangular, with an internal rib-like 
process. 

Operculigerous lobe simple ; foot slightly emarginate poste- 
riorly. The tentacles in this genus are short, broad, rounded 
at the tips and not setaceous ; the eyes are large, on inflations 
at the outer bases of the tentacles ; the rostrum is simple and 
not cloven ; the foot is emarginate behind, and the operculum 
lobe is simple. The operculum is subannular as in Rissoella, 
and is fuiniished with a similar internal appendage ; Rissoina 
has a similar appendage, but the operculum in that genus is 
paucispiral. 

Bacula, H. and Adams, 1863. 

Distr. — B. striolata, H. and A. Adams. China Sea, 
Shell resembling Eulima, but without enamel ; whorls spirally 
striated, inner lip thickened, as in the next genus, outer lip 
without a varix, produced either in the middle or somewhat 
anteriorly. The classification of Bacula in this place is only 
provisional. 

Keilostoma, Desh., 1848. 

Syn. — Paryphostoma, Bayan., 1873. 

Distr. — 7 Cret. and 6 Eocene sp. Europe, India. K. eximia, 
Desh. (Ixxii, 39). 

Elongate, turriculated, frequently nearly smooth, aperture 
ovate, oblique, entire, narrow, subcanaliculate behind, truncate, 
subeffuse anteriorly, smooth within ; both lips thickened, the 



RISSOIDiE. 263 

outer one laterally produced, the inner wide, callous ; columolla 
solid. 

Subfamily RISSOIN^. 

Shell ovate or elongated. Operculum paucispiral, not provided 
with a process. Foot of animal without lateral processes. Size 
small. Marine. 

RissoA, Fremenville. 

Named after the French zoologist, Risso. 

Syn. — Rissostomia, Sars. 

Distr. — About 75 sp. Universalh' distributed, but most 
abundant in the north temperate zone. R. costulata, Risso 
(Ixxi, 28). 

Shell minute, white or horny ; conical, pointed, many-whorled ; 
smooth, ribbed, or cancellated ; aperture rounded ; peristome 
entire, continuous ; outer lip slightly expanded and thickened ; 
operculum subspiral. 

The animal has long, slender tentacles, with eyes on small 
prominences near their outer bases ; the foot is pointed behind ; 
the operculigerous lobe has a wing-like process and a filament 
(cirrus) on each side. Lingual teeth single, subquadrate, hooked, 
dentated ; uncini 3 ; 1 dentated, 2, 3, claw-shaped. They range 
from high-water to 100 fathoms, but abound most in shallow 
water, near shore, on beds of fiicus and zostera. 

Rissoa is active and bold, floats like its congeners, and spins 
a bj'ssal thread instantaneously on being detached from a 
crawling position. The incessant play of the cilia that fringe 
the tentacles is ver}- striking ; it appears to be caused b}- the 
action of a double row of muscles in each tentacle, arranged in 
the form of a siphon, which is perceptible through the trans- 
parenc}' of the integument. The pallial filaments probably serve 
the purpose of supplementary^ tentacles to warn the animal of 
impending danger. 

MANZONIA, Brusina. Peristome duplicate. There are 8 Euro- 
pean species. 

ANABATHRON, Fraueufcld. Shell very small, thick, oblong, 
angulate, scalariform, imperforate, smooth; aperture rounded, 
peritreme continuous. Operculum corneous. Australia. R. 
contabulata, Frauenf. (Ixxii, 40). 

PLAGiosTYLA. Fischer. Shell transparent, apex papillary, last 
whorl descending, aperture semilunar, pillar-lip oblique, recti- 
linear. Europe. 

zippoRA, Leach. (Acme, H. and A. Adams.) Shell subcylin- 
drical, smooth or longitudinal!}^ ribbed ; margin of aperture 
reflected. R. Moutonii^ Dupuy (Ixxii, 41). 

PTEROSTOMA, Deshayes, 1864. Shell elongated, turriculated ; 
peristome continuous, circular, very dilated and margined; colu- 



2(U RISSOID^. 

mella very broad, expanded, and continuous with the peristome. 
P. tuba, Desh.(\xxi\, 4:2). Eocene; Grignon, Paris, 

SETiA, H. and A. Adams. Shell thin, oval-oblong or subconic ; 
whorls few, ventricose, spotted ; spire short, apex obtuse ; aper- 
ture suborbicular. Animal with pilose tentacles. B. pulcher- 
rima, Jeffreys (Ixxii, 43). 

CERATiA, H. and A. Adams. Shell subcylindrical, spirally 
striated, white, thin, subpellucid ; whorls rounded, summit of 
spire obtuse ; aperture suboval ; peristome continuous, the outer 
lip thin and sharp. Animal with flattened, mostly short and 
claviform tentacles ; foot bifurcate behind. B. proxima. Alder 
(Ixxii, 44). 

ciNGULA, Fleming. Shell thin, elongated, smooth or spirally 
striate, spotted or banded; aperture pyriformor oval; outer lip 
sharp, with an external varix. B.cingillus, Montf. (Ixxii, 45). 

ONOBA, H. and A. Adams. Shell elongated ; whorls numerous, 
rounded, spirally striate ; aperture oval; peristome continuous, 
thick, simple or slightly reflected. B. striata, Mont. (Ixxii, 46). 

ALVANiA, Risso. Shell oval, turbiniform ; spire short, apex 
sharp ; whorls rounded, usually cancellated ; aperture subcir- 
cular, crenulated within ; outer lip with a marginal exterior 
varix. B. abyi<sicola, Forbes (Ixxii, 41). 

SABAN^A (Leach), Frauenfeld. Shell thick, stout, smooth. 
Australia, Europe. B. fiammea, Frauenf. (Ixxii, 48 \ 

CORENA, A. Ad. Shell elately turbinate, rimate, apex obtuse ; 
aperture circular, with continuous peritreme ; inner lip with a 
thin callous expansion, and acute posterior tubercle ; outer lip 
with duplicated margin, well-reflected. Diatr. — 1 sp. Gulf of 
Suez. 

HEMiSTOMiA, Crossc. Shell subimperfo rated, elongated, thin ; 
spire long, summit obtuse, suture well-marked ; aperture ob- 
liquely semilunar; peristome simple, continuous, almost de- 
tached ; columellar margin very oblique, thickened ; basal 
margin widely rounded. Operculum unknown. New Cale- 
donia. B. Caledonica, Crosse (Ixxii, 49). 

AMPHiTHALAMUS, Carpenter, 1865. Shell rissoid, with a large 
nucleus ; inner lip produced, outer lip joining it subposteriorly, 
suddenly contracted in the adult. Several minute species, 
California, Japan. B. incluxa, Carp. 

FENELLA, A. Ad., 1860. Has the pupoid form of Rissoa, with 
longitudinal and transverse ribs ; the outer lip without a varix. 
May perhaps belong to Fyramidellidae, with which the animal 
nearly corresponds. B. pupoides, A. Ad. Japan. 

DiASTOMA, Desh., 1848. Shell turreted, whorls with numerous 
transverse ribs, and with a few intermediate varices. Inner 
margin of the aperture partially detached from the previous 
whorl ; the aperture itself is strongly contracted posteriorly. 



RISSOlDiE. 265 

As yet only known Ibssil in tertiary deposits, R. variculosa, 
Des'h. (Ixxii, 50). 

Nevillia, H. Adams. 

Dedicated to Mr.GeotTrey Nevill,an Anglo-Indian conchologist. 

Distr. — 2 sp, Mauritius, Isle of Bourbon. N.picta, H. Adams 
(Ixxi, 52). 

Shell imperforate, acutely ovate ; whorls convex, spirally 
Urate, longitudinally striate ; aperture oval ; columella callous, 
toothed; lip acute, smooth within, varicose outside. 

This genus has much the appearance of a minute species of 
Craspedotus, but there is no indication of nacre within the aper- 
ture, and the tooth on the columella is more like that of Bissoa 
monodonta ; in form and sculpture Nevillia approaches Alvania. 

PuTiLLA, A. Ad., 180T. 

Didr. — P. lucida^ A. Ad. (Ixxii, 51). Japan. 

Shell turbinately conoidal, solid, smooth, rimate ; aperture 
suborbicular ; lip thickened, subeff'use in front, scarcely ex- 
panded. Family relationship obscure. 

Subfamily HYDROBIIN^. 

Shell very small, or of moderate size, never exceeding two- 
tifths of an inch in length, globose, ovate, or elongated, generally 
umbilicated or rimate, and covered with a periostraca for the 
most part of an olive-color; whorls moderatelj^ numerous (4-8), 
smooth, or, rarely, ribbed or carinated, never cancellated ; aper- 
ture more or less ovate or rounded, rarely subacute or effuse 
anteriorlj- ; peritreme continuous ; outer lip usually simple and 
acute. Operculum paucispiral, corneous. Tentacles, verge and 
gills as in the diagnosis of the family (p. 259). Foot without 
lateral sinuses, truncate and auricled in front, and generally 
rounded behind ; operculigerous lobe destitute of cirri. Station, 
in fresh and brackish water. 

Like all of the Ilissoidae these little animals are strictly her- 
bivorous. Mofiuin-Tandon remarks that the}' have, connected 
with the stomach, a cartilaginous stylet like that occurring in 
certain bivalves. Something like this stylet Stirapson has 
observed nlso in our American Melanians. 

LiTTORiNELLA, Braun. 
Syn. — Paludinella, Loven (not Pfeitfer >. Littorinidea, Eyd. 
and Soul. 

Distr. — World-wide, brackish or sea-water, in sheltered posi- 
tions. L. minuta, Totten (Ixxii, 53). 

Shell ovate or elongated, thin, smooth, perforate ; whorls 
ventricose ; apex obtuse ; aperture rather ))roadly oval ; inner 
lip not thickened. Operculum corneous. 
18 



2(iB RISSOID^. 

In L. minula the rostrum is rather long, the tentacles very 
slightly tapering, blunt at the end, foot rounded behind. 

Hydrobia, Hartmann. 

Syn. — Paludinella, Loven. Peringia, Paladilhe. 

Disti\ — World-wide, brackish water. H. ulvae, Pennant 
(Ixxii, 54). 

Shell ovate or elongated, smooth, subperforate ; spire conic ; 
whorls flat; apex acute; aperture ovate; inner lip not thickened. 
Operculum corneous. 

Rostrum rather long, tentacles somewhat tapering, but blunt 
at the extremity. Foot somewhat pointed behind. 

Emmericia, Brusina. 

Didr. — Living, 2 sp. Adriatic Region. E. patula^ Brum. 

Shell small, conoidal, rimate, smooth, shining, spire elevated ; 
aperture patulous ; peristome subcontinuous, inner lip adnate, 
the outer lip sinuate, wide, reflected. Operculum corneous, ovate, 
paucispirul, nucleus excentric. 

TOURNOUERiA, Brusiua. Peristome inferiorly evased, simple. 
1 recent, several tertiary species. Europe. 

STALiOLA, Brusina, 1870. Peristome with a strong exterior 
marginal rib. Tertiary ; Europe. 1 recent sp. 

NYSTIA, Tournouer, 1869. (Porbesia, Nj'st.) Aperture obliipie, 
exteriorly swollen, spire truncate. Tertiary; }']uroi)e. E. 
microdovia, Desh. 

BiTHYNEiiLA, Moquiu-Taudou. 

,S'(y/^. — Leachia,Risso. Subulina, Troschel. Paludinella, Frau- 
enfeld. Microna, Ziegler. Thermhydrobia, Paulucci. Frauen- 
feldia, Clessin. 

Did7\ — Fresh water, Europe, America, including California. 
B TOr?'(:Zz8, Mo(iuin-Tandon (Ixxii, 55, 56 \ 

Shell elongated-ovate, usuall}^ somewhat pupiforra, imperforate, 
or simply rimate ; apex obtuse ; aperture oval or rounded ; peri- 
trenie continuous, outer lip slightly thickened. Operculum 
corneous, nucleus moderately large, not very close to the basal 
margin. 

Tentacles tapering, blunt at the tip; foot rather narrow, 
rouuded behind ; verge bifld. 

STiMPSONiA, Clessin. Proposed for the North American species, 
which differ from the European t^'pe in dentition. 

ViTRELLA, Clessin. (Bythiospeum, Bourg., 1882.) Shell small, 
thin, without sculpture ; peritreme continuous, sliarp. Operculum 
paucispiral. Animal blind. Inhabits caves and streams in 
Europe. 15 sp. B. pellucida, Clessin (Ixxii, 57). 

MOiTESSiERiA, Bourg. Shell inoperculate (?), diaphanous, crys- 
talline, very fragile, microscopic, cylindrical, elongated; form of 



RISSOlDiE. 267 

Acicula, but malleated. 6 sp. France. A. Simoniana^ Charp. 
(Ixxv, 35). Is perhaps terrestrial. 

LHOTELLERIA, Bourg. ( Locai'diii, Folin.) Shell elongate- 
conical, apex obtuse, whorls rather convex, with impressed 
sutures; aperture dilated below, columellar margin oblique. L. 
apocrj/pha, FoVm (Ixxv, 3Q). France. 

PAULiA, Bourg., 1882. 2 sp. France. B. Berenguieri, 'Bourg. 

BELGRANDiA, Bourg. ( Stalion, Brusina.) Like Hydrobia, 
but smaller, with longitudinal swellings upon the bod^'-whorl, 
fainter or obsolete on those of the spire. Operculum spiral. 22 
sp. Tertiary to recent. Southern Europe. B. gihha, Drap. 
(lxxii,58). 

MICROPYRGUS, Meek. Shell ver^- small, subcylindrical, imper- 
forate, obtuse at the apex; body-volution small, or less than 
half the entire length ; aperture rhombic-oval, very narrowly 
rounded, and more or less effuse; peristome apparently not 
continuous ; outer lip thin, simple, most prominent below the 
middle. Laramie beds, Dakotah. B. viinulnluH, Meek (lxxiii,3). 

PALUDESTRiNA, d'Orb. (Eupaludestriua, Thalassobia, Fseu- 
dopaludinella, Bourg.) Shell conic, more or less elongated, 
smooth, imperforate or nearl}^ so, apex acute; aperture ovate; 
peritreme continuous, outer lip acute ; inner lip not thickened. 
Operculum corneous. Scarcely distinguishable from H3'drobia, 
except b}' its habitat. Didr. — Fresh water. West Indies, South 
America. B. piscium, d'Orb. (Ixxii, 62). 

Albertisia, Issel. 

Distr. — A. punica, Issel (Ixxv, 31). Tunis. 

Shell very small, C3'lindrical, with sutural cost8e,apex obtuse ; 
peristome continuous, reflected. Operculum unknown. May 
he an inoperculate shell. 

MOHRENSTERNIA, Stoliczka. 

DUtr. — Fossil in brackish or fresh-water deposits. Eastern 
Europe. M. nngidata, Esch. (Ixxii, 59). 

Shell turricuiated, thin, semipellucid ; whorls frequently 
transversely costulate ; columella fissured at the base ; aperture 
subovate, angulated behind, rounded in front; margin very 
little dilated ; outer lip simple, scarcely varicose. Operculum 
imknown. 

This, as well as the succeeding group, may be classed here 
temporarily, although they appear to have been aben-ant members 
of the famil3% at least, if not entirely distinct. 

PoTAMACLis, Sandberger. 
Didr. — 2 sp. Oligocene ; Europe. F. turrilissiina, Forbes 
(Ixxii, GO, 61). 



2(j8 rissoid^. 

Shell very long, with numerous slowly-enlarging, convex 
whorls ; outer lip with a short sinus above. Operculum unknown. 

Tricula, Benson. 

DiHlr. — 1 SI). Fresh water, India. T. Montana (Ixxii, 63) 
inhabits the river Kamaan, in India. 

Shell elongated, smooth, subperforate ; aperture ovate, rather 
narrow ; inner lip thickened. Operculum corneous, nucleus 
very small, close to the base. 

The animal has an elongated proboscis and tiliform tentacles, 
with the eyes at their outer bases ; in its thickened inner lip, 
the shell somewhat resembles Paludomus,but it is distinguished 
by its elongated spire and truncated apex. 

PACHYDROBiA, Crossc and Fischer. Shell imperforate, oblong- 
ovate, rather thick ; spire moderate, with impressed suture ; 
aperture semicircular ; peristome sinuous, continuous, thickened. 
Operculum subovate, thin, corneous, paucispiral. 2 sp. Fresh 
water, Siam, Cambodia. T. paradoxa, Cr. and F. (Ixxli, 64). 

Pyrgula, Christofori and Jan. 

Syn. — Pyrgiscus, Herrmansen. 

Dii^tr. — Mountain streams, Europe, West Indies, South 
America. P. helvetica, Mich. (Ixxii, 65). 

Shell elongated, turreted, imperforate, four whorls, carinated ; 
aperture oval, etl'use anteriorly, outer lip not thickened. Oper- 
culum corneous, with projections on the outer margin corres- 
])onding to the concavities of the carinte of the shell. 

Foot narrow, obtuse, subbilobate in front, somewhat pointed 
behind, tentacles slender. 

DIANA, Clessin. First whorls ver^^ small, last three nearly of 
equal size. F. Thiesseana, Clessin (.Ixxii, 66). 

Paladilhia, Bourg. 

Distr. — t sp. Europe. F. pleurotoma, Bourg. (Ixxii, 67 . 

Shell minute, turreted, smooth ; aperture expanded, peristome 
continuous, sinuous above and below ; axis perforated. 

Rivers of France. Only dead shells have been collected, so 
that the animal and operculum ai'e unknown. The s^^stematic 
position of the genus is doubtful. The Pleurotomoid sinus of 
the aperture is its remarkable feature. 

Lartetfa, Bourg. 

Named after the paheontologist, P]dward Lartet. 

»S//". — Microuielania, Brusina. Goniochilus, Sandberger. 

Distr. — 9 fossil, 10 recent sp. France. L. Bourguignali, 
Palad. (Ixxii, 68). 

Shell solid, spire elevated ; peristome continuous, partly 
detached from the liody-whorl on the left side ; perforated. 



iJissoiD.'i';. 2()9 

BuGESiA, I'ahidilhe. 

Distr. — B. Bourguignati^ Palad. (Ixxiii, 69). 

Shell tiirreted, conic, with revolving grooves, and longitudinal 
costulse ; aperture ovate, slightly- angular below and above, outer 
lip rounded ; columella straight, compressed, not callous, slightly 
truncate at the base ; imperforate. Operculum unknown. Micro- 
scopic. France. 

Baikalia, Martens. 

Syn. — Limnorea, Leucosia, Dybowski. 

Distr. — 20 sp. Lake Baikal; Colorado Desert (California). 

A. AngarenHi>^^ Gerst. (Ixxiii, 70). 

Shell turriculated, whorls usually convex, spire lengthened ; 
aperture slightly angulated below. Operculum corneous, as in 
H^drobia. 

LiOBAiKALiA, Martcus. Whorls of the spire not in contact. 
Form resembling Liogyrus in Valvatidse. B. Stiedice, Dyb. 
(Ixxiii, 71). 

GODLEWSKiA, Crosse and Fischer. Shell having varices. B. 
turriforviis, Tiyh. (Ixxiii, 72). 

TRACHYBAIKALIA, Mai'teus, 1879. Shell Melaniform, longitu- 
dinally costate. B. carinafo-coslata^ Dybowski (Ixxxiii, 73). 

With this group may also be united as a subgenus : — 

TRYONiA, Stimpson. Shell perforate, elongated, turreted, subu- 
late, acute at the summit and rather pointed at the base ; surface 
longitudinally ribbed , plicated or cancellated, not spinose ; whorls 
numerous, more or less shouldered ; aperture small, oblique, 
rhombovate, somewhat pointed, effuse and sinuated at the base ; 
outer lip thin and sharp, projecting below, inner lip appressed to 
the whorl above, peritreme continuous. Operculum and animal 
unknown. Distr. — Fresh water, semi-fossilized. Colorado Desert, 
Southern California. B. clathrata, Stimpson (Ixxii, 74). 

DYBOWSKIA, Dall., 187<i. Ribs covered with a ciliated epidermis. 

B. ciliata^ Dybowski. Lake Baikal. 

PoTAMOPYRGUS, Stimi)son. 

Didr Fresh water, New Zealand, Cu))a. P. CanrJeana, d'Orl). 

(Ixxiii, 75). 

Shell ovate-conic, imperforate, apex acute, whorls coronated 
with spines; aperture ovate, outer lip acute. Operculum cor- 
neous. Rostrum moderate, tentacles very long, slender, tapering 
and pointed ; e^-es on very prominent tubercles ; foot rather short, 
broadest in front and strongly auriculated. 

Pyrgidium, Tournouer. 
Distr. — Tertiary; Austria. 7-*, ToarnoweH, Neum. (Ixxiii, 76). 
Shell small, pyramidal or turreted; aperture ovately pyriform, 



270 RISSOID^. 

subeffuse at the base, angulate above ; peristome continuous, 
thickened, duplicate. 

PROSOSTHENiA, Neumayr. Shell small, ovate-conical or turreted, 
longitudinally plicate ; last whorl coarctate, deflected ; aperture 
ovate, oblique, entire; peristome continuous, thickened, dupli- 
cate, outer lip protracted. Tertiary ; Austria. P. Schwarzi, 
Neum. (Ixxiii, 77). 

FOSSARULUS, Neumayr. Shell small, subglobose, rimate, with 
revolving nodulous ribs, and longitudinal riblets ; aperture 
widely ovate, effuse above and below; peristome continuous, 
thickened, duplicate. Tertiar}^; Austria. P. Stachei, Neum. 
(Ixxiii, 78). 

Amnicola, Gould and Haldeman. 

Distr. — United States throughout, including California. A. 
limosa^ Say (Ixxiii, 79). 

Shell small, turbinatel}' globose, thin, smooth, perforate or 
umbilicate ; aperture broadly ovate, not oblique, outer lip thin 
and sharp, not projecting anteriorly. Operculum corneous. 

Foot rather short and broad, expanded and broadly rounded 
behind; rostrum short; tentacles cylindrical, blunt at their tips. 
Ova-capsules semilenticular, with a laminiform limb, each con- 
taining a single egg. 

ToxosoMA, Conrad. 

Distr. — Tertiary ; So. America. T. eborea, Conr. (Ixxiii, 1 \ 

Shell conical, polished, the aperture projecting, subovate, 
direct ; peristome continuous. Columella concave, with a 
plait or tooth in the middle, not oblique ; base rounded, subum- 
l)ilicated. Mr. Conrad supposed this to be a land-shell; its 
position in the system cannot be accurately defined. 

LiosoMA, Conrad. 
Distr. — Tertiary; So. America. L. curta^ Conr. (Ixxiii, 2). 
Conical, polished ; aperture subelliptical ; columella with one 
plait in the middle ; base entire. Position very doubtful. 

8VBFAMJLY LI THOGLYPHINJE. 

Shell small, globose, spire short, last whorl proportionally very 
large ; lip sharp. Fresh water. 

LiTHOGLYPHus, Muhlfeldt. 

Distr. — Fresh water. So. E. Europe, So. America. L. lopi- 
dum, d'Orb. (Ixxiii, 80, 81). 

Shell globular, thick, smooth, imperforate; spire short; suture 
not impressed ; aperture broadly subovate or nearl}^ circular, 
inner lip callous, outer lip simple. Operculum corneous, 
rounded. 



RlSSOlDiE. 271 

Animal (of L. lapidum). Foot large, longer than the shell ; 
tentacles short, nitlier tapering and pointed. 

BENKDICTIA, Dybowslvi. Shell Faludiniforra, very thin. Oper- 
cnlum spiral, corneons. Distr. — 3 sp. Lake Baikal. L. Baik- 
alenais^ Gerst. dxxiii, 82). 

JULLIENIA, Crosse and Fischer. Peristome expanded, Cam- 
bodia. L. Jullieni, Desh. (Ixxiii, 83). 

GiLLiA, Stimpson. 

Distr. — Fresh water, Eastern United States. G. altilis, Lea 
(Ixxiii, 84). 

Shell rather large, subglobular, thin, subperforate, smooth ; 
si)ire small, suture not impressed; aperture large, broad -ovate, 
obli([ue ; outer lip thin, acute, not projecting anteriorly. Oper- 
culum thin, corneous, regularly ovate. 

Rostrum rather broad ; tentacles tapering, pointed. Ova- 
capsules hemispherical, each containing a single egg ; deposited 
singly or in groups or linear series. Probably a synonym of the 
next genus. 

SOMATOGYRUS, Gill. 

Distr. — Fresh water, central parts of the United States. S. 
depresi<us, Tryon (Ixxiii, 85). 

Shell rather large, globular, thin, smooth, perforate, spire 
small, suture impressed, body-whorl globose, more or less 
shouldered above; aperture large, oblique, rhombovate, nar- 
rowl}' rounded in front and back ; peritreme thin and acute, its 
entire margin uniformly in one plane, the outer lip not projecting 
anteriorly. Operculum rather thick, corneous, subovate, inner 
margin concave above. 

Flumi NICOLA, Stimpson. 

Distr. — Fresh water, Oregon and California. F. Nuttalliana^ 
Lea (Ixxiii, 80). 

Shell comparatively large, obliquel3^ ovate, thick, smooth, im- 
perforate ; spire moderate, obtuse; aperture ovate, inner lip 
flattened, callous, outer lip eflfuse and ]n'ojecting anteriorly, so 
that the peritreme is not continuous!}- in the same plane. Oper- 
culum corneous. 

Rostrum rather large, tentacles tapering, foot broad. 

CocuLiopiA, Stimpson. 

Distr. — Fresh water, California. C. Rowelli, Tryon (Ixxiii, 
87, 88). 

Shell depressedconic ; base concave and carinated ; umbilicus 
large and deep; aperture oblique. Operculum thin, corneous, 
subspiral. Rostrum moderate, tentacles rather long, tapering. 



272 ASSIMINIID^. 

Lacunopsis, Desh. 

Distr. — 3 sp Cambodia. Fresh water. L. Jullieni^ Desh. 
(Ixxiii, 89). 

Shell depressed, solid, neritiform ; base plane, with a sub- 
marginal angle ; aperture small, semilunar ; lip and columella 
greatly thickened. 

SPEKIA, Bourguignat, 1881. Growth-lines oblique, crossed at 
right-angles by striae ; a small obsolete funicule behind the colu- 
mellar lip. L. 2or?«ia, Woodward (Ixxiii, 90,91). L.Tangan- 
yika, Africa. 

Subfamily POMATIOPSINjE. 

Shell and operculum as in Rissoina?. Foot with lateral sinus. 
Amphibious. 

Pomatiopsis, Tryon. 

Syn. — Chilocyclus, Gill. 

Distr. — United States, Central America. P. lapidaria, Say 
(Ixxiii, 92). 

Shell elongated, perforate, smooth, whorls very convex ; aper- 
ture round ; peristome continuous, slightl}' expanded or reflected. 

The animal of Pomatiopsis prefers damp locations in the 
vicinity of streams, but does not, like Amnicola, live habitually 
under water. It is an air-breather, but possessed of a true gill. 
Its locomotion is effected by first protruding and attaching the 
snout, then carrying the front of the body forward, and finally 
drawing the posterior parts after, a motion very like that of 
Assiminea and A^ery different from Amnicola. 

Family ASSIMINIID^. 

Shell small, globose-conical, with sharp lip. Operculum pauci- 
spiral, corneous. 

Animal with eyes at or near the ends of the tentacles as in 
the helices. 

Terrestrial or amphibious. 

Assiminea, Leach. 

Syn. — Syncera, Gray. Optediceras, Leith. Hydrocena, in 
part. 

Distr. — Europe, Asia, America, a few species. A. G7-ayana, 
Leach (Ixxiii, 93). 

Shell not perforated or slightl}^ slit, oval-conic, with moderate 
spire ; aperture rounded-oval, entire ; columellar lip somewhat 
thickened. Animal. Tentacles rather short, the eye-ped uncles 
connate with them to their ends. The Indian species, A. Fran- 
cesise, can often be seen for days together on dry land, walking 
or rather leaping with great rapidity like a caterpillar of the 



VALVATIDi?^. 273 

Geometrid£e. As the animal proceeds, the rostrum and tlie small 
foot are moved alternately. 

PALUDiNELLA, Pfeilfer. Shell turbinated, oval or depressed, 
umbilicated ; whorls rounded ; aperture subeircular, lip simple, 
usually continuous. Amphibious, living in marshes usuall3^ near 
the sea. A. liUorea, Chiaje (Ixxiii, 18). 

ACMELLA, Blanford. Shell ovate, with a corneous epidermis ; 
aperture ovate, the margin obtuse. Operculum corneous, thin, 
paucispiral. Animal like Assiminea, with short proboscis, ten- 
tacles short obtuse, with eyes on their sides, foot moderate, obtuse. 
A. tersa^ Benson (Ixxiii, 94). Damp places, Khasi hills, India. 
A land rissoid allied to Assiminea. 

HYDROCENA, Parreyss. (Georissa, Blanf.) Shell imperforated 
or umbilicated, globosel}^ turbinated ; aperture oval. Operculum 
thin, corneous paucispiral. Dalmatia, India. Terrestrial. A. 
Cattaroensi.i, Pfr. (Ixxiii, 95). 

LAGUNCULA, Beusou, 1856. (Bensonia, Cantraine.) Shell tur- 
binated, subglobular ; apertui-e oblong, large ; outer lip a little 
reflected; umbilicus profound, tortuous. A. pulchella, Henson. 
Chusan. 

Family VALYATID^. 

Shell depressed conical or almost discoidal ; umbilicated ; 
covered by a thin greenish epidermis. Operculum orbicular, 
corneous, multispiral. 

Animal with a produced muzzle ; tentacles long and slender, 
eyes at their outer bases ; foot bilobed in front; branchial plume 
long, pectinated, partially exserted on the right side, when the 
animal is walking. Lingual teeth broad ; uncini 3, lanceolate ; 
all hooked and denticulated (xi, 24). 

Valvata, Midler. 

Syn. — Valvatinella, Betta. Cincinna, Hiibn. 

Distr. — Fresh water, mundane. V. piscinalis, Miill. (Ixxiii, 96). 

Shell depressed conical (in the typical group). Other charac- 
ters, those of the family. 

The species are of small size, living in ponds and ditches and 
slow-running water, principally in North America and Europe. 
When the animal is moving, the delicate, retractile branchial 
plume is projected over the neck. Tlie female deposits her eggs 
in a single, coriaceous, spherical capsule, which is allixed to 
stones or the stems of aquatic plants. 

GYRORBis, Fitzinger. (Planorbitina, Betta. Planella, Schliit.) 
Shell discoidal, depressed, widely umbilicated, whorls rounded. 
Europe, America. V. cridala^ Midler (Ixxiii, 97). 

TRuPiDiNA, H. and A. Adams. Shell turbinated, whorls' 
carinated. N. America. V. ft-icarinata, Say (Ixxiii, 98, 99;. 



2Y4 PALIIDINID^. 

LYOGYRUS, Gill. (Heterocyclus, Crosse.) Spire elevated, the 
last whorl becoming detached from the close spiral near the 
aperture. U. S., New Caledonia. V. pupoidea, Gould (Ixxiii, 100). 

Family PALUDINIDiE. 

Shell conical or gloljular, with a thick, olive-green epidermis ; 
aperture rounded; peristome continuous, entire. Operculum 
horny. 

Animal with a broad entire muzzle ; tentacles short and rather 
stout ; eyes on short pedicels, outside the tentacles. Inhabiting 
fresh waters in all parts of the world. Pentitiou (xi, 25). 

Paludina, Lam. 

River-snail. Etym. — Palvs {paludis)^ a marsh. 

tiyn.- — Yivipara, Montf. Viviparella, Raf. 

Distr. — 100 sp. Fresh water, mostly in the Northern hemi- 
sphere, Australia.* Fossil, 75 sp. World-wide. Jurassic — . 
P. BengaJensis, Lam. (Ixxiv, 6). 

Shell turbinated, with round whorls; apei'ture slightly angular 
behind ; peristome continuous, entire. Operculum horn}'-, con- 
centric. Animal with a long muzzle, and very short eye-pedicels ; 
neok with a small lappet on the left side, and a larger on the 
right, folded to form a respiratory siphon ; gilloomb-like, single; 
tongue short ; teeth single, oval, slightly hooked and denticu- 
lated ; unoini 3, oblong, denticulated. The Paludinae are vivi- 
parous ; the young continuing for some time after they are 
hatched within the parent shell. 

PALIJDINA (restricted). Whorls rounded, generally banded, 
rather thin, umbilicated. The Europefin species have three 
bands, those of the United States four bands, whilst the nu- 
merously banded species are Oriental. 

MELANTHO, Bowdicli. Wliorls smooth, flattened around their 
upper portion, generally not banded, solid, nearly or quite 
imperforate. Peculiar to the LTnited States, P. integra, Say 
(Ixxiv, t^. 

TULOTOMA, Hald. Whorls angulated, nodulous, flattened 
around their upper portion. P. bimonilifera^ Lea (Ixxiv, 8). 

MARGARyA, Ncvill. Spire produced ; whorls scalariform, with 
deep suture, sculptured with prominent spiral ribs ; apex obtuse ; 
rimate. Operculum and animal unknown. DUtr.- — P. Melan- 
oides^ Nevill (Ixxiv, 9). Lake Tali, Yunnan. Closel}^ allied to 
the American subgenus Tulotoma. 

NEOTHAUMA, E. A. Smith. Shell with aperture effuse and 
slightly channeled at the base ; outer lip rather deeply, yet 



* There are no So. American species, nor in N, Ani. west of the Rocky 
Mountains. 



AMl'ULLARTIDiE. 'J ( 

widely, sinuated in the middle. P. Taiujaiiyicevsc, Smith 
(Ixxiv, 10). Lake Tanganyika, Africa. 

TANGANYiciA, Crosse. Shell globose, ampullariform, rimate, 
coA^ered by a very thin epidermis ; columellar lip lobed below. 
Operculum at first spiral, afterwards concentric. P. riifo/ilosa, 
E. A. Smith (Ixxiv, 11). Lake Tanganyika. 

MEKONGiA, Crosse and Fischer. Aperture contracted, appear- 
ing like a gigantic Stenoth3'ra. Cambodia. P. JuUieni^ Desh. 
(Ixxiv, 12)." 

Larina, a. Ad. 

Syn. — Robinsonia, H. Nevill. 

Shell imperforate, semiglobose, thin ; spire obtuse, whorls few, 
tumid, covered with an olivaceous epidermis, last whorl large 
and ventricose ; aperture wide, ovate ; outer lip simple, regular, 
acute. Operculum annular, horny, ovate. Moreton Bay, Australia; 
possibly from a stream in the vicinity. 

Adams thinks it is related to Paludina, but it may be a marine 
shell, and I have included it in the Naticidffi of this work (p. 
206). Several Indian species, apparentl}^ of the same genus, 
have been described under the generic name of Robinsonia. P. 
Ceylonica, Nevill (Ixiii, 51). 

Cleopatra, Troschel. 

Distr. — Several species. Egypt and E. Africa. C. hulim- 
oides, Oliv. (Ixxiv, 13 '. 

Shell turbinate, with moderate spire. Operculum subspiral. 
The spire is more elevated than in Paludina, and the operculum 
differs. 

LioPLAX, Troschel. 

Syn. — Haldemania, Tryon. 

Distr. — A few LTnited States species. L. subca7-inala, Sav 
(Ixxiv, 14). 

Shell with elevated spire, very convex, somewhat carinated or 
angulated whorls, and deep sutures. Operculum concentric, but 
with a spiral nucleus. 

LIOPLACODES, Meek. Differs from Lioplax in its more elon- 
gated form, smaller bod}' -whorl, more constricted suture, aper- 
ture angular posteriorly ; peritreme continuous ; umDilicate. 
L. veterna, Meek and Hayden. Jurassic ; TJ. S. 

Family AMPULLARIID^. 

Shell globular, with large bod3'-whorl, and more or less 
depressed spire ; sometimes jjlanorboid. Aperture slightly ex- 
panded. Operculum concentric. 

Animal with a long siphon, formed by the left neck-lappet; 
left gill developed, but much smaller than the right; muzzle 



276 AMPULLARIID^, 

produced into two long tentacular processes ; tentacles extremely 
elongated, slender. Dentition (xi, 22, 23). Inhabits lakes and 
rivers throughout the warmer parts of the world, retiring deep 
into the mud in the dry season, and capable of surviving a 
drought, or removal from the water for several years. In the 
Lake Mareotis, and at the mouth of the Indus, Ampullaria^ are 
abundant, mixed with marine shells. Their eggs are large, 
enclosed in calcareous capsules, and aggregated in globular 
masses around the stems of plants, etc. 

These fluviatile mollusks represent in the ponds and rivers of 
the tropics, the Paludinae of more temperate climates. Although 
distinct gills exist, the respiratory cavity is very large and 
partly closed, so as to enable these animals to live a long time 
out of w'ater; in fact, they appear to be truly amphibious. 

Ampullaria, Lam. 

Apple-snail. Etym. — Ampulla^ a globular flask. 

Sy7i. — Pachylabra, Swains. 

Distr. — 150 sp. Tropical, in fresh water. West Indies, Cen- 
tral and South America, southern portion of the United States, 
Africa, India, East Indies. A. ampullacea, Linn. (Ixxiv, 15). 

Shell globular, with short spire ; epidermis green, polished, 
sometimes banded or spotted ; usually umbilicated. 

Typical. — Aperture slightly thickened within the margin. 
Opereulum with an inner calcareous layer. Oriental exclusively. 

SAULEA, Gray. Shell ovate, subglobose, very thin, parchment- 
like, elastic, dark-colored, variegated, covered with a very thin, 
hard, olive epidermis; upper whorls minutely keeled, others 
rounded; axis imperforate. Operculum thin, shelly, elastic. 
Sierra Leone. A. vUrea, Gray. 

POMUS, Humphrey. Diflers from Ampullaria in the absence 
of a thickened internal ledge of the lip, and in the operculum 
being entirely horny. American exclusively. A. cmialiculata., 
Lam. (Ixxiv, 16). 

POMELLA, Gray. Shell suboval, solid, not umbilicated ; whorls 
striated, the last very large ; spire very short or depressed ; 
aperture very large; peristome thin, expanded. Operculum 
horny. South America. A. neritoides, d'Orb. (Ixxiv, 17). 

AsoLENE, d'Orb. 

Sy7K — Ampulloidea, d'Orb. Am]Hillaroides, Gray. 

Bistr, — South America. A. Platae, d'Orb. (Ixxiv, 18). 

Shell subglobular, spire slightly elevated ; aperture oval ; the 
inner lip somewhat thickened, forming a continuous peristome. 
Operculum corneous, with an inner calcareous layer. Animal 
without a long respiratory siphon. 



TRUNCATELLID^. 277 

Lanistes, Montfort. 

I)istr.—Eaf>t Africa. L. BoHeniana, Chemn. (Ixxiv, 19). 

Shell sinistral, depressed; umbilicated ; peristome simple, 
sharp. Operculum horny. 

MELADOMUS, Swainson. Shell sinistral, oval-conic, not umbili- 
cated. Africa. L.oHvacea, 8owh. (Ixxiv, 20). 

Marisa, Gray. 

Syn. — Ceratodes, Guilding. 

Distr.—A few species. So. America, West Indies. M. cornu- 
arietis, Linn. (Ixxiv, 21). M. Chiquitensis, d'Orb. (Ixxiv, 23). 

Shell flattened or planorbiform, spire depressed or very 
slightly elevated; widely umbilicated; aperture expanded. 
Operculum horn 3-. 

Family TRUNCATELLIDJa. 

Shell subcylindrical or turbinate, with elevated spire, apex 
obtuse or truncate ; aperture oval, entire, peristome continuous. 
Operculum subspiral, 

Anirnal with short, diverging triangular tentacles, and eyes 
at their bases. Amphibious, inhabiting usually margins of 
streams, salt marshes, damp places, etc. The relationship of 
these mollusks with the Rissoids and Assiminife is very close, 
so that they may be considered as terrestial Rissoids ; on the 
other hand, they connect with the typical operculated land-shells 
the C^clostoma?. ' ' 

Truncatella, Risso. 

Looping snail. Syn.— Chovistoma, Crist, and Jan. Erpeto- 
metra, Lowe. 

Bistr.—%2 sp. World-wide, mostly tropical. Fossil. Eocene • 
Paris basin. T. truncatula, Drap. (Ixxv, 24), 

Shell minute, C3'lindrical, truncated; whorls striated trans- 
versely; aperture oval, entire; peristome continuous. Opercu- 
lum corneous, subspiral. 

Animal with short, diverging, triangular tentacles ; eves 
centrally Itehind; head bilol)ed ; foot short, rounded at each 
end. — Forbes. 

The TruncatelUe arc found on stones and sea-weeds between 
tide-marks, and survive many weeks out of the water.— Lowe. 
They walk by contracting the space between their lips and fool 
like the geometric caterpillars.— Gray. Thev are found semi- 
tossd along with the human skeletons in the "modern limestone 
of Guadaloupe. 

TAHEiTEA, H. and A. Ad. Operculum calcareous, radiately 
lamellate. Aperture usually more or less separated from the 
preceding whorl. Pul\ ncsia. T. Viliana, Pease. Viti Isles. 



278 TRUNCATELLID^. 

CECINA, A. Ad., 1861. Shell imperforate, siibcylindrical, epi- 
dermis olivaceous ; apex obtuse, eroded, not truncate ; whorls 
flat, smooth ; aperture ovate, vertical, rounded in front, acumi- 
nated behind ; the continuous lip flexuous and subproduced in 
the middle. Operculum corneous, paucispiral. Tentacles lobi- 
forra, with obtuse apices, the large eyes at their external bases. 
Rostrum elongate, cylindrical, annulate. Foot short, oblong. 
Manchuria. T. Manchurica^ A. Ad. 

Geomelania, Pfeiffer. 

Etym. — Ge, the ground {i. e. terrestrial), and MeloAxia. 

Bistr. — 21 sp. Jamaica. G. Javiaicen.sis, Pfr. (Ixxv, 25). 

Shell imperforate, turreted ; aperture entire, effused ; peris- 
tome simple, expanded; margins joined, basal produced into a 
tongue-shaped process. Operculum oval, pellucid, whorls few, 
rapidly enlarging. 

BLANDiELLA, Guppy. Labrum without linguiform appendage. 
Operculum paucispiral, inner side cai'tilaginous, externally cal- 
careous, rugose. 1 sp. Trinidad, W. I. G. reclusa, Guppy 
(Ixxv. 26, 27} 

CHiTTiA, Livesay. Shell imperforate, conic, cylindrical ; aper- 
ture ovate, moderately eifuse, peristome thickened, sharply 
reflected, not produced, with a sinus on the inner side near the 
axis. C. sinuosa^ Chitty (Ixxv, 28). There is only the type 
species; hut Aciculina emarginata, Desh., an eocene fossil of 
the Paris basin, may also be referred to this subgenus. 

Renea, Nevill. 

Eti/m. — Named in honor of J. Rene Bourguignat. 

Bistr. — 2 sp. Southern France. E. Bourguignatiana, Nevill 
(Ixxv, 29, 30). 

Shell imperforate, elongated -cylindrical, whorls numerous, 
compressed, costulate ; margin of peristome obtuse, thickened 
within, without external marginal vai'ix ; outer lip with a 
pleurotomoid sinus posteriorly ; columella nearly perpendicular, 
slightly twisted above, where it presents a superficial, channel- 
like indentation. 

ToMicniA, Benson. 

Bistr. — India, Japan, So. Africa. T. ventrifosa, Sowb.' 
(Ixxv, 31). 

Shell with elongated spire and generally truncated apex ; per- 
forated ; peristome continuous, double or triple. Operculum 
paucispiral. 

Blanfordia, Ad. 

Etym. — Named in honor of W. T. Blanford. 

Bistr. — 4 sp. Japan, Australia. B. Japoniea., A. Ad. (Ixxv, 32). 

Shell ovately conical, epidermis olivaceous, smooth, apex 



CYCLOSTOM I DyE. 279 

truncated ; aperture elliptical, peristome continuous, thickened 
duplicate, subacute within, subvaricose without. Operculum' 
corneous, subspiral. 

Rostrum elongated, transversely corrugated, emarginate in 
trout ; tentacles very short, triangular, depressed, the eyes at 
their bases ; foot large, divided by a transverse sulcus. 

AcicuLA, Hartmann. 
.S^yn.— Acme,Hartmann. Pupula, Agassiz. Auricella, Jurine 
Distr.— 22 sp. Europe, No. Africa. A spectabilis, Rossm. 
(lxx\', 33 ). 

Shell minute, slender, nearly imperforate ; peristome sli<rhtly 
thickened, margins subparallel, joined by a thin callus. Oper- 
culum very thin, transparent, paucispiral. 

Family CYCLOSTOMID^. 

Shell spiral, rarely much elongated, often depressed, spirally 
striated; aperture nearly circular; peristome simple. Oper- 
culum distinctly spiral. 

Animal with the eyes on slight prominences at the outer 
bases of the tentacles ; tentacles contractile only ; foot rather 
elongated. 

Teeth recurved, hooked, in seven rows, arranged in a semi- 
lunar manner on a narrow lingual band (xi, 21). Mouth probos- 
cidiform, not provided with horny jaws. Respiratory organ 
reticulate, m the form of a sacciform cavity on the back of "Ihc 
neck ; edge of the mantle free from the nape, leaving the respi- 
ratory cavity open. Sexes distinct. Oviparous, for the most 
part terrestrial, and respiring free air. 

The tentacles are simply contractile, and not retractile by 
inversion as in the Helicidie, and the eyes are usually sessile on 
the head near the bases of the tentacles,' instead of beino- elevated 
on peduncles as in that family. '' 

The animal of the Cyclostomid;^ is very like that of the 
periwinkle (Littorina), differing chiefly in the situations it inhabits 
and the medium respired. The operculuni presents many 
beautiful modifications of structure characteristic of the smaller 
groups, which are often peculiar to limited regions, as in the 
Hehcidie. The oldest fossil species arc Eocene. 

I. Pomatiasinse. 
PoMATiAS, Studer. 

JJidr.—SO sp. So. Europe, several in X. Africa and India 
P. obacnriis, Lain. (Ixxv, 38). 

Shell slender, turreted, loniritudinally striated; peristome 
subcontinuous, reflected. Operculum cartilaginous, paucispiral 
composed of two plates and coucamerated between them. ' 



280 CYCLOSTOiVIlD^. 

HAGENMUELLERiA, Bourg., 1882. 2 sp. Algiers. P. Pechaiidi, 
Bourg. 

CARDIOSTOMA, Sandberger. P. trochulus, Saiidb. Eocene ; 
Europe. 

Eealia, Gray. 

Syn — Liarea, Gray. Hydrocena, Auet. (in part). 

Distr. — 25 sp. Mauritius, Philippines, Polynesia. B. egea, 
Gray (Ixxv, 39). 

Shell turreted or turbinate, nearly smooth ; perforated ; aper- 
ture oval ; peristome continuous, straight or expanded. Oper- 
culum paucispiral, thin, corneous. 

cyclomorpha. Pease. Shell turbinate, subglobose, solid, smooth, 
or spirally striate, perforate ; aperture nearly circular ; peristome 
simple, somewhat thickened, connected on the columellar side 
by a thin callus. Operculum paucispiral. 2 sp. Polynesia. 
li.Jlava, Brod. (Ixxv, 40). 

OMPHALOTROPis, Pfeiffer. Shell turreted or globosely turbinated , 
carinated around the umbilical perforation ; aperture oval ; peri- 
stome expanded or simple. Polynesia. B. rubens, Quoy (Ixxv, 
41, 42). 

JAPONiA, Gould, 1859. Globosely conical, whorls contiguous, 
but scarcely impinging ; umbilicus open ; decussated by lamellar 
growth-lines and revolving lirae. Operculum thin, paucispiral. 
3 Japanese species. P. musiva^ Gld. 

SCALINELLA, Pcasc. Shell scalariform, narrowly perforate ; 
whorls rounded, longitudinally costate, suture profound ; lip 
siibcircular, continuous, barel^^ or not in contact, simple. Poly- 
nesia. P. Taheitensis, Pease (Ixxv, 43). 

ATROPis, Pease. Shell elongate, sometimes cylindrical, rarely 
ovate, imperforate, in the species of ovate form narrowly per- 
forate ; aperture ovate, occasionally circular ; peristome con- 
tinuous, sometimes disconnected from the penultimate whorl 
and ver}^ slightly porrected. Last wdiorl frequently obtusely 
angulate on its y)eriphery, of one color, usually pale yellow or 
reddish. Poljniesia. P. (Jaledonica, Crosse (Ixxv, 44). 

II. Pupinea. 
PupiNA, Vignard. 

Syn. — Eupupina, Pfr. Moulinsia, Grat. 

Distr. — 42 sp. East Indies, Japan, Philippines, Australia, 
P. bicanalicidata, Sowb. (Ixxv, 45). 

Shell subcylindrical, usually polished ; aperture circular, 
peristome thickened, notched in front and at the suture. Oper- 
culum membranous, narrow-whorled. 

REGISTOMA, Yau Hasselt. (Rhegostoma, Agassiz). Shell 
])upiform, thin, transparent, smooth, polished; whorls displaced, 
apex papilliform ; peristome reflected, with a narrow channel 



CYCLOSTOMIDiE. 281 

in the middle of tlie columellar side. P. arande. Gray (Ixxv, 
46, 47). ^ ^ V , 

GALLIA, Gra3'. Shell smooth, shining, pupiform ; aperture 
without sinus ; peristome simple, thin. R lubrica^ Sowb. 
(lxxv,48). 

HARGRAVESiA, H. Adauis. (Hyalopsis, Tease.) Shell like 
Pupina, but anterior marginal slit or canal absent, distinctly 
channeled posteriorly. P. polita, H. Ads. (Ixxv, 50). 

PupiNELLA, Gray. 

Didr. — 13 sp. East Indies, Formosa, Philippines, Australia, 
etc. P. pupiniformis, Sowb. (Ixxv, 51, 52). 

Shell oval-ol3long, covered Avith a thin, corneous epidermis; 
aperture circular ; peristome thick, reflected, slit on the anterior 
left side and canaliculate at the suture. Operculum corneous, 
multispiral. 

PUPiNOPsis, H. Adams, 1866. Peristome tubularly prolonged 
on the penultimate whorl, P. Swinhoei, H. Ad. Formosa. 

Raphaulus, Pfeiflfer. 

Syn. — Anaulus, Pfeiffer. 

Distr. — 5 sp. East Indies. P. bombijcinm, Pfr. (Ixxv, 53). 

Shell umbilicated, pupiniform, peristome double, internal 
continuous, external dilated, perforated at the margin by a 
canal ; canal sutural and internal, terminating anteriorly, and 
embraced by the outer portion of the double peristome (it can 
be traced externally along the last whorl), and reaching into 
the concavity of the spire. Operculum very thin, corneous; 
narrow-whorled. 

" The use of the sutural tube seems to be the preservation of 
a communication with the external air when the aperture is 
closed." — Benson. 

STBEPTAULus, Benson. Shell pupiniform, shining, peristome 
circular, not continuous, with a subsutural internal tube, Avhich 
is reflexed at the aperture and runs along the suture externally. 
1 sp. Himalayas. E. Blavfordi, Benson (Ixxv, 54). 

Cataulus, Pfeiffer. 

Jj[st7\ — 17 sp. Ceylon. G. pyramidatus, Pfr. (Ixxv, 55). 

Shell pupa-shaped, with the base keeled, producing a channel 
in the front of the aperture. Operculum circular, horny, the 
whorls easily separable. Represents in Ceylon a group ap- 
proaching Megalomastoma. The whorls of the operculum, when 
macerated, separate and may be unrolled in spiral form. 

TORTULosA, Gray. Last whorl solute. Nicobar. C. to7'tuosa, 
Cheiun. i Ixxv, 5G-58). 

10 



282 CYCLOSTOMID^. 

Megalomastoma, Gruilding. 

Syn. — Lomastoma, Woodward. 

Distr. — 29 sp. W. Indies, E. Indies, India, Madagascar, Mau- 
ritius. Fossil. Eocene — . Paris and Isle of Wight. M. Antil- 
larum, Sowb. (Ixxv, 59). 

Shell oblong or pupa-shaped, scarcely perforated, aperture 
circular. Operculum thin, horny, many-whorled, flat. 

FARCiMEN, Troschel. Lip thickened. W. Indies. M. ventri- 
cosum, d'Orb. (Ixxv, 60). 

MEGALOMASTOMA, Guild. Lip rather thin. W. Indies. 

COPTOCHEILUS, Gould. Narrowly perforate ; aperture slightly 
touching or not touching the body-whorl ; peristome not thick- 
ened, more or less duplicate. E. Indies. Scarcely distinct 
from Megalomastoma (restricted). 31. alhtm, 8owh. Philippines. 

TOMOCYCLUS, Crosse and Fischer. Shell perforate, turreted, 
truncate ; aperture subcircular, small ; peristome duplex, the 
inner margin direct, the outer margin widely expanded, excised 
above. Operculum with a median posterior rounded process, 
margins of the whorls sublamellate. Central America, Guat- 
emala. M. simulacrum, Morel. (Ixxv, 61). 

Hainesia, Pfeiffer, 1856. 

Syn. — Mascaria, Angas. 

Distr. — 4 sp. Madagascar, Siam. H. Myersi, Haines. 

Shell oblong-turreted, whorls convex, withovit epidermis, re- 
sembling Megalomastoma. Operculum angular, paucispiral. 

DACRYSTOMA, Crossc and Fischer, ISII. Whorls flattened, 
with very thin, deciduous epidermis. H. arboreum, C. and F. 
Madagascar. 

DiPLOMMATINA, BeuSOU. 

Distr. — 100 sp. India, East Indies, Australia, Polynesia. 
D.folliculus, Pfr. (Ixxv, 62, 63). 

Shell suboval, costulate, dextral or sinistral, thin, scarcely 
perforated ; aperture subcircular; peristome double, outer margin 
expanded. Operculum horny, multispiral. The eyes are situated 
on the hind-part of the tentacles, at their base, and are composed 
of two lobes, one lobe deeply seated in the tentacle and larger 
than the other lobe, which is a small black point coming to the 
surface on the outer side of tlie larger lobe. The generic name 
is derived from this peculiax'ity of the eyes. 

PAXiLLUS, H. and A. Adams. Shell small, pupiform, sinistral, 
rimate ; spire pointed ; aperture semiovate, ascending on the body- 
whorl ; inner lip spreading, 1-plaited, outer lip expanded, notched 
in front ; umbilicus defined by a rib. D. rubicunda, Martens 
(Ixxv, 64). 

DiANCTA, Martens. Penultimate whorl constricted. D. con- 
stricta, Martens (Ixxv, 65, 66). 



CYCL0STUM1DA\ 28o 

NiciDA, Blanford. Shell smooth or spirally striate, imperforate. 
Operculum corneous, subobsoletely multispiral. D. Niligirica, 
Blanf. (Ixxv, 6Y). 

PALAiNA, Semper, (Pupoidea, Pease.) First two or three 
whorls much smaller than the others (deciduous ?). Operculum 
membranaceous, multispiral. D. scalariformis, Pease (Ixxv, 68). 

CLOSTOPHis, Benson, 1860. Shell subbiconical ; the penultimate 
whorl large, the last descending, solute, subaxial, small; aperture 
with continuous peristome, and parietal tooth. Operculum 
unknown. D. Sankeyi, Benson. Caverns near Moulmein. 

MOUSSONiA, Semper. Peristome nearly continuous with a 
tooth upon the centre of the left margin. D. typica, Semper 
(Ixxv, 69). 

ARiNiA, H. and A. Adams. Shell subimperforated, thin, 
smooth, shining, turriculated, obtuse at the summit, hist whorl 
swollen ; aperture subcircular ; margin nearly continuous ; colu- 
raellar lip angularly dilated in the middle. Operculum thin, 
calcareous, paucispiral. D. minor, Sowb. (Ixxvi, 70). 

Opisthostoma, Blanford. 

Syn. — Plectostoma, Adams. Scoliostoma, Crespigny. 

Distr. — 5 sp, India, Borneo, West Africa. 0. Fairhanki^ 
Blanford (Ixxvi, 71). 

Shell pupiform, umbilicated, with a regular costulated orna- 
mentation ; apical whorls obliquely distorted ; last whorl stran- 
gulated, separated from the others, and applied to the penultimate; 
peristome double, free portion prolonged backwards. Operculum 
horny (?). 

O. De Crespigni, Ada,T[is (Plectostoma), has a conical spire, 
and the apical whorls are not excentric to the axis of the lower 
Avhorls. 

III. Cyclostomea. 

Adamsiella, Pfeiffer. 

Distr. — 16 sp. West Indies. 

Shell pupiform or oblong-turreted ; aperture small, subcircular ; 
peristome usually double, more or less expanded or reflected. 
Operculum thin, rather cartilaginous, whorls few, with subcen- 
tral nucleus. A. mirabilis, Wood (Ixxvi, 72). 

DiPLOPOMA, Pfeiffer. 

DiMr. — D. architectonicum, Gundl. (Ixxvi, 73, 74). 

Shell oblong-turreted. Operculum subduplicate, acutely 
separated at the margin ; inner layer concave, smooth ; outer 
layer inflated, calcareous, paucispiral, nucleus profoundly 
immersed. 



284 CYCLOSTOMID^. 

Ctenopoma, Shuttleworth. 

Bistr. — 26 sp. West Indies. G. bilabiatum, d'Orb. (Ixxvi, 
75,76). 

Shell ovate or cylindrically turreted, truncate ; aperture sub- 
circular ; peristome expanded, mostly duplicate ; umbilicate or 
perforate. Operculum testaceous, rather narrowly spiral, the 
whorls obliquely sulcate, nucleus nearly central. 

Cyclotopsis, W. T. Blanford. 
Distr. — 3 sp. India, Mauritius. G. semistriata, Sowb. (Ixxvi, 
77). 

Shell widely umbilicate, turbinately depressed, spirally lirate; 
aperture subcircular. Operculum multispiral, duplex, membran- 
aceous within, testaceous externall}' with the margins of the 
whorls elevated. 

Choanopoma, Pfeiffer. 

Distr.— 55 sp. W. Indies. G. lima, C. B. Ad. (Ixxvi, 78, 79 ^ 

Shell globular-turbinated or turreted, spire frequently trun- 
cated ; aperture suboval or circular ; peristome usually double, 
reflected. Operculum testaceous, the margins of the whorls 
usually free, ribbed. 

LiciNA, Gray. Last whorl sometimes detached near the aper- 
ture ; peristome subreflected, G. evoluta, Reeve (Ixxvi, 80). 

JAMAICEA, C B. Adams. Shell umbilicated, globular-conic ; 
peristome simple or double, straight or reflected. Operculum 
externally convex, its whorls obliquely striated, sublamellar. 
G. anomala, Ad. (Ixxvi, 81). 

Chondropoma, Pfeiflfer. 

Didr. — 100 sp. West Indies. G. magnificum, Salle (Ixxvi, 82). 

Shell oblong-turreted, or globular-turbinated, frequently the 
apex is truncated ; aperture oval ; lip simple or more or less 
double, nearly direct, a little expanded or reflected. Operculum 
oval, subcartilaginous, flat, paucispiral. 

Cistula, Gray. 
Distr. — 42 sp. West Indies and neighboring continent. C. 
Saulise, Sowb. (Ixxvi, 83). 

Shell globular-conic or oval, or oblong-turreted, apex usually 
truncated ; aperture oval; peristome single or double, reflected. 
Operculum thin, cartilaginous, paucispiral, with rapidly- enlarging 
whorls. 

TuDORA, Gray. 

Distr. — 34 sp. West Indies and neighboring continent. T. 
mumia, Lam. (Ixxvi, 84). 

Shell oval-oblong or turreted ; aperture oval, angular posteri- 
orly ; peristome single or double, expanded. Operculum oval, 



CYCLOSTOMIDiE. 285 

testaceous externally, Hat, paucispiral ; the whorls obliquely sil- 
lonated or striated, nucleus ver\' excentric. 

LEONiA, Gray. Peristome simple, subreflected. Operculum 
oval, calcareous, unispiral, convex externally, nucleus lateral, 
near the columellar lip. T. mamillaris, Lam. (Ixxvi, 85). 
Southern Europe. 

Cyclostoma, Lam. 

Etyni. — Cyclos, circle, and stovia, mouth. 

Distr. — 120 sp. About half in Madagascar, a few in the East' 
and West Indies, two or three in Europe. G. sulcatum, Lam. 
(Ixxvi, 86). C. elegans, Miill. (Ixxvi, 87). 

Shell globular-conic or turriculated, thin, more or less widely 
umbilicated ; aperture subcircular ; peristome single or double, 
straight or slightly reflected. Operculum calcareous, paucispiral, 
flattened, nucleus excentric. 

Animal with clavate tentacles ; sole of the foot divided by a 
longitudinal groove, the sides moved alternately in walking; the 
end of the long muzzle is also frequently applied, as by the 
looping-snails (Truncatellse), and used to assist in climbing. 

TROPiDOPUORA, Troschel. Shell depressed turbinate, widely 
umbilicated or imperforate, with revolving carimie and strife; lip 
reflected, sometimes covering a part of the umbilicus. A group 
of usually large species inhabiting Madagascar. C. Cuvierianum, 
Petit (Ixxvi, 88). 

LiTHiDiON, Gray. Shell depressed, widely umbilicated; aper- 
ture subcircular ; peristome simple, thin or thickened. Operculum 
paucispiral, with a strong subcentral carina. C. lithidion, Sowb. 
(Ixxvi, 89). 

REVOiLiA,Bourguignat,188L (Dedicated to M.Georges Revoil.) 
Shell depressed, discoidal, spirally ridged; umbilicus wide in 
young individuals, but entirely closed in adults b^^a thin dilation 
of the columellar lip ; peristome continuous, dilated-reflexed, the 
lip slightly ascending against the body-whorl above. R. Milne- 
Udwardsi, Bourg. E. Africa. Closely allied to Lithidion. 

OTOPOMA, Gray. Shell subglobose, umbilicated ; peristome 
simple or a little reflected, with an ear-like process covering part 
of the umbilicus. Operculum convex in the middle. 19 sp. 
Socotra, Madagascar, Zanzibar, Mauritius, India. C. Naticoides, 
Reel. (Ixxvi, 90). 

LiGATELLA, Martens. Shell rounded, turbinate-conical, usually 
banded ; peritrerae simple. Cape of Good Hope, Mauritius, 
Madagascar. C. ligatum, Miill. (Ixxvi, 91). 

GEORGIA, Bourguignat, 1882. (Dedicated to Georges Revoil.) 
Umbilical region entirely covered by a callous expansion of the 
inner lip, which is not continuous with the labrum above. Oper- 
culum perforated in the centre, interiorly concave, spiral, covered 
by a mucilaginous membrane, externally convex, four-whorled, 



286 CYOLOSTOMIDiE. 

the whorls rapidly increasing, thickened along the canaliculated 
snture and terminating in a tongue-like, narrow projection, 
appressed to the circurafeience of the last whorl. G. Naticoides, 
Recliiz. Several species. East Africa. 

ROCHEBRUNiA, Bourguignat, 1882. (Dedicated to Dr. Roche- 
brune, of the Museum, Paris.) Inner lip without umbilical 
dilation, so that the umbilicus is open. G. Philipjyianum, Pfeiffer. 
11 sp. East African region. 

IV. Gyclop/iorea. 

Operculum thin, corneous, multispiral. The animals of this 
extensive group are found in the humid parts of tropical forests, 
either concealed among tlie debris at the roots of trees, or in- 
habiting the branches and foliage ; some, however, prefer dry 
and arid situations, while others take up their abode in the 
immediate vicinity of the sea. 

Cyclophorus, Montfort. 

Etyni. — Gyclos, circle, phore us, bearer. 

Distr. — 200 sp. Tropical, mundane. G. volvulua, Miill. 
(Ixxvi, 92). 

Shell depressed, openly umbilicated ; aperture circular ; peris- 
tome continuous, straight or expanded ; epidermis thick. Oper- 
culum horny, many-whorled. 

Animal with long, slender, pointed tentacles ; foot broadly 
expanded, not grooved. 

MYXOSTOMA, Troschel. Shell discoidal, widel}^ umbilicated ; 
peristome double, the internal margin continuous, external 
margin reflected, and produced into a tongue-like form pos- 
teriorly. G. Iroacheli, Benson (Ixxvi, 93). 

THEOBALDius, Ncvill. Shell subdiscoidal, widely umbilicated ; 
peritreme circular, thickened, not much reflected, continuous. 
Asiatic. G. annulatus, Nevill (Ixxvi, 94). 

SCABRINA, Blanford. Shell depressed, subdiscoidal, widely 
umbilicated ; epidermis hispid ; whorls rounded ; aperture 
circular, ])eristome thickened. Operculum thick, corneous, the 
margins of the whorls lamellately elevated. Asiatic. G. calyx, 
Benson (Ixxvi, 95). 

BUCKLEYiA, Higgius. Shell discoidal, widely umbilicated ; 
with revolving carinse, and deciduous epidermis ; aperture 
circular, vertical, margin continuous, adnato, thin, acute. So. 
America. G..Martinezi, Hidnlgo (Ixxvi, 9(i, 97'. 

MiCRAULAX, Theobald. Proposed for planorboid species 
uniting the Myxostoma type with the turbinate Lagocheilus. 

LAGOCHEiLUS, Blanford. Shell conoid-subturbinate, perforated, 
thin; aperture round, with a narrow incision in the posterior 
angle. Operculum thin. Animal with a glandular slit at the 



CYCLOSTOMID^. 287 

upper posterior end of the foot. Indian. G. tomotrevia, Benson 
(Ixxvi, 98). 

DiTROPis, Blanford. Shell subvitreous, translucent, with 
revolving carinte, one of which is on the periphery. Operculum 
with the margins of the whorls raised. Indian. G. convexus, 
Blanf. (Ixxvi, 99). 

ACROPTYCHiA, Crosse and Fischer. (Euptychia, C. and F.) 
Shell globosely turbinate, thin, longitudinally ribbed; aperture 
subovate-circular, the margin shortly expanded ; umbilicated. 
Operculum corneous, paucispiral. 1 sp. Madagascar. G.mefableta, 
C. and F. (Ixxvi. 100, 1). 

Leptopoma, Pfeitfer. 

Distr. — 65 sp. E. Indies, Philippines, Australia. L. perplexum, 
Sowb. (Ixxvi, 2.) L. acutimarginatum,^ Pfr, (Ixxvi, 11). 

Shell turbinated, globular or conic, narrowly' umbilicated ; 
aperture rounded; peristome nearly continuous, single or double, 
reflected. Operculum flattened, membranous. 

DERMATOCERA, H. and A. Adams. Animal with a conical 
epidermal horn on the hind-part of the foot. L. vitreum, Lesson 
(Ixxvi, 3, 4). 

LEUCOPTYCHiA, Crossc. Shell thinly costate longitudinally, 
and with several spiral striae. G. Tissotianum, Crosse (Ixxvi, 5). 

AuLOPOMA, Troschel. 

Distr. — 4 sp. Ce3-lon. A. Itieri, Guerin (Ixxvi, 6). 

Shell depressed, turbinated or subdiscoidal, the last whorl 
anteriorl}^ detached ; peristome free, straight, continuous. Oper- 
culum corneous, larger than the aperture of the shell, and having 
a circular groove to receive the margin of the latter. 

Craspedopoma, Pfeiffer. 

Syn. — Bolania, Gray. 

Distr. — 9 sp. Canaries, Madeira. G. lueidum, Sowb. (Ixxvi, 7). 

Shell subturbinated, rimate, the last whorl subcontracted an- 
teriorly. Operculum round, liorny, externally plane, internally 
concave with a submarginal ridge. 

V. Gyclotea. 

Operculum more or less thick, formed of two lamina, internally 
corneous, externally' calcareous, multispiral. 

CYATnopoMA, Blanford. 

Distr. — 10 sp. India, Mauritius, Seychelles. G. Deccanense, 
Blanf. dxxvii, 8, 9). 

Shell minute, umliilicated, turbinated, or somewhat depressed ; 
epidermis thick, sometimes hispid, smooth, sjurally striated, or 



288 CYCLOSTOMID^. 

lirated. Oijei-ciilum truncate, conoid, concentric, multispiral ; 
internally membranous, externalh^ shelly ; external margins of 
the whorls raised in the form of shelly plates, incurved ; some- 
times sculptured. 

Animal white, with a short oval foot, undivided beneath ; 
tentacles small, black, with ej'es at the base. 

Cyclotus, Guilding. 

Syn. — Poteria, Gray. 

Bistr. — 120 sp. Tropical, world-wide. C. planorbulus, Lam. 
(Ixxvii, 10). 

Shell subdiscoidal, very widely umbilicated ; aperture circular, 
entire ; peristome straight or sometimes reflected. Opei'culum 
orbicular, calcareous, a little concave exteriorly. 

APEROSTOMA, Troschel. Peristome forming a posteriorly pro- 
jecting angle, not reflected. Operculum with ridged whorls. 
C. asperuius, Sowb. 

CYRTOTOxMA, Morch (Adams). Last whorl free, cylindrical ; 
aperture rounded, the left margin dilated, angulated and pro- 
duced posteriorly. C. Mexicanus, Menke (Ixxvii, 12). 

AMPHicYCLOTUS, Crossc and Fischer. Operculum horny, mul- 
tispiral, with a central, wart-like projection inside. Type, C. 
Boucardij Salk'. Mexico. 

Opistuophorus, Benson. 

Distr. — l(i sj). Slam, Java, Borneo, Sumatra. O. hirHiatus^ 
Mouss. (Ixxvii, l'S\ 

Shell depressed, widely umbilicated; suture with a small open 
tube ; peristome double. Operculum calcareous, rather thick, 
double, with concamerations between the two disks, which are 
both concave, the interior one with a corneous epidermis. 

MicHOPOMA, Blanford. Shell turbinate ; epidermis fuscous, 
thick, hirsute ; aperture corrugate within. Operculum multi- 
spiral, calcareous without, corneous within. 2 sp. India. 0. 
hirsutua^ Beddome (Ixxvii, 14). 

Rhiostoma, Benson. 

Et]ini. — Bhion, a promontory. 

Bistr. — 6 sp. Siam, Cochin China. 0. Hatiyhtoni, Benson 
(Ixxvii, 15). 

Shell subdiscoidal, broadly umbilicated ; last whorl separate, 
laterally descending ; aperture free, with an incision at the top, 
and a subtubular prominence crowning the slit. Operculum 
multispiral. 

CYCLOSURUS, Morelet, 1881. Shell with three embryonal spiral 
whorls, then disjoined and becoming tubular ; aperture circular, 
peristome continuous, simple. Operculum corneous, multispiral. 



CYCLOSTOMlD.i:. 289 

The separation of the whorls commenced in Rhiostona, here 
becomes very striking. A sufliciently large number of speci- 
mens were obtained to show that this is a normal form. Syn. — -(?) 
Orygoceras, Brusina, 1882. Distr — G. Mariei, Morel. (Ixxvii, 
16 }• Mayotte Isl. Fossil. Miocene; Dalmatia. 

Pterocyclos, Benson. 

Syn. — Steganostoma, Troschel. 

Distr — 2fi sp. India, China, East Indies. P. anguliferus, 
Souleyet (Ixxvii, 17, 18). 

Shell subdiscoidal, widely umbilicated ; peristome expanded, 
produced into a little wing at the suture. Operculum thick, com- 
posed of a number of calcareous spiral laminas. 

SPiRACULUM, Pearson. Distinguished by the possession of a 
retroverted sutural tube open at both ends, and by a modifica- 
tion of the form of the mantle corresponding to the same. 5 sp. 
India. S. hispiduin, Benson (Ixxvii, 19, 20). 

DIADEMA, Pease. (Garrettia, Pease.) Shell globosel}^ turbi- 
nate, umbilicated; peristome continuous, simple, subcircular, 
free or scarcely adnate. Operculum subcartilaginous, elevately 
spirally lamellar, concave within, widel}- reflected at the base. 
3 sp. Polynesia. B. parva^ Pease (Ixxvii, 21). 

C(ELOPOMA, A. Ad. 

Distr. — C. Japonicum,., A. Ad. (Ixxvii, 22, 25). Japan. 

Shell subdiscoidal, widely umbilicated ; peristome simple, sub- 
angulated above. Operculum elate, conical, concave, corneous, 
spiral. 

Alyc^us, Gra3\ 

Distr. — 54 sp. India, East Indies. A. gibbus, Fer. (Ixxvii, 23). 

Shell conical or depressed ; whorls rounded, with profound 
sutures ; last whorl ventricose, strangulated, and tortuous near 
the rounded aperture; peristome double, the exterior edge 
reflected. Operculum corneous, multispiral. 

Hybocystis, Benson. 

Syn. — Pollicaria, Gould (in part). 

Distr. — 3 sp. Burinah, Siam, Camliodia. IJ. i/ravida, Benson 
(Ixxvii, 24). 

Shell pupiform ; peristome continuous, reflected, with a supe- 
rior process. Operculum multispiral, calcareous, with four or 
five whorls externally, and one and a half whorls internally. 

Family Relations Doubtful. 
Chondrella, Pease. 
Distr. — 3 sp. Central Polynesia. C 7>ari;a, Pease, Taheiti. 
Shell globosely conical, rather thin, striate, imperforate or 



290 HELICINID^. 

rimate ; aperture subcircular ; peristome simple, thin, margins 
widely separated ; columella callously appressed, widely dilated. 
Operculum testaceous, smooth and flat externally, the nucleus 
obsolete, slightly concave and costate within. 

Animal without tentacles, the eyes immersed in the top of the 
head. 

Ferussina, Grateloup. 

Etym. — Named in honor of Baron Ferussac. 

Sijn. — Strophostoma, Desh. 

Distr. — Fossil. Miocene; Europe. F. tricarinata, Braun 
(Ixxvii, 36, 27). 

Shell oval-globular, or subturbinate ; aperture turned upwards 
and applied to the side of the spire, rounded ; peritreme contin- 
uous ; umbilicus open, frequently bordered by a spiral keel. 

scoLTOSTOMA, Braun. Shell turriculated ; aperture rounded, 
turned up upon the spire, entire ; lip thick, varicose, reflected, 
F. megalostoma, Sandb. (Ixxvii, 50). 

Thyrophorella, Greef, 1882. 

Distr. — 2\ Thomensis, Greef. Island of St. Thomas, W. Coast 
of Africa. 

Shell sinistral, thin, transparent, nearly orbicular, with a slight 
yellowish epidermis ; umbilicated ; whorls sharply keeled ; aper- 
ture half-round, with sharp simple margin ; furnished with an 
operculum, connected or hinged to the shell instead of being a 
separate growth of the animal — so that the shell is a true terres- 
trial bivalve ; the operculum being pushed open like a door for 
the exclusion of the anitnal and shutting upon it when withdrawn ; 
the lines of sculpture of the shell are also continued without 
break upon the surface of the operculum. Terrestrial. 

The animal is not described, although the author states that 
two of the five specimens obtained contained the soft parts. 
Not figured. 

Family HELICINIDJE. 

Shell turbinated, subglobose or depressed; columella generally 
very callous ; aperture semilunar, with a thick, simple lip ; um- 
bilicus covered by the columellar callus. Operculum suboval or 
subtriangular, testaceous or corneous, mostly lamellar. 

Lingual teeth with a single central, flanked on each side by 
three laterals (xii, 43). Head proboscidiform ; tentacles subulate, 
with the eyes at their outer bases. Foot elongated. 

The tentacles are more slender and produced and the caudal 
extremity of the foot is more elongate than in the Cyclophoridae ; 
the operculum, moreover, is formed on an entirely different plan, 
and the aperture of the shell, instead of being circular, is semi- 
lunar in outline. In their habits they are very similar to the 



HELICINID^. 291 

animals of the Cyclophoridje, but are considerably more loco- 
motive and lively ; in common with some other mollusks, as the 
Neritidfe and Ellobiidje, they possess the faculty of removing 
the inner septa and columella of the shell. 

Helicina, Lam. 

Syn. — Ampullina, Blainv. Pitonillus, Montf. 

Dist7'. — 350 sp. West Indies, tropical America, Pacific 
Islands, Australian Islands, Philippines. H. variegata, Orb. 
(Ixxvii, 28). 

Shell globose, depressed or keeled, callous beneath ; aperture 
squarish or semilunar; columella flattened; peristome simple, 
expanded. Operculum shelly or membranous, squarish or semi- 
ovate, lamellar. 

OLIGYRA, Say. Shell subglobular or conic, spire and last whorl 
of about equal height, peristome expanded. H. occulta, Say. 
United States. 

PACHYSTOMA, Swainsou. Shell conically depressed, carinated. 
H agglutinans, Sowb. (Ixxvii, 29, 30). 

PCENiA, H. and A. Adams. Peristome subdentate interiorly. 
H. depressa. Gray (Ixxvii, 31). 

IDESA, H. and A.Adams. Peristome simple, sharp. H. rotunda. 
Orb. (Ixxvii, 32). 

EMODA, H. and A. Adams. Peristome simple, thick, obtuse. 
H. /estiva, Sowb. (Ixxvii, 33). 

PERENNA, Guppy, 1867. Shell depressed, whorls lirate and 
carinate. Operculum thin, suboval, concentrically striate, 
nucleus subcentral. H. lamellom, Guppy. Isl. Trinidad. 

DAWSONELLA, Bradley. Aperture small, lip thickened within, 
columella with a wide-spreading linguiform callus covering the 
axis. Carboniferous ; United States. H. Meeki, Bradley 
(Ixxvii, 34). 

Trochatella, Swainson. 

Distr. — 34 sp. West Indies. T. eons/fiZ/a^a, Morel. (Ixxvii, 35). 

Shell trochiform or globular-conic ; aperture subtriangular ; 
peristome simple, expanded ; base not callous. 

viANA, H. and A.Adams. ( Khynchocheila, Shutt. Hapatn, 
Gray.) Shell subcarinated; lip with a superior sinus. T.regina, 
Morel. (Ixxvii, 36 >. 

ScHAZiCHEiLA, Shuttleworth. 

Distr. — 5 sp. West Indies, Central America. ,S'. alata, Menke 
(Ixxvii, 37, 38). 

Shell with spiral epidermal fringes ; peristome profoundly 
incised at the suture. Operculum thin, testaceous, with an intra- 
marginal ril). 



292 IIELICINIDyE. 

AlcadiAj Gray. 

Disfr. — 28 sp. West Indies. A. Br-oivnii (Ixxvii, 39). 

Shell Helix-shaped, often velvety, callous beneath ; columella 
flattened, straight ; peristome slit in front. Operculum shelly, 
semioA'ate, with a tooth-like process adapted to the slit in the 
peristome. 

LuciDELLA, Swainson. 

Disitr. — 5 sp. West Indies. L. aureola^ Fer. (Ixxvii, 40). 

Shell depressed, heliciform, slightly callous at the base ; aper- 
ture triangular, sinuous ; peristome thickened, with superior and 
inferior tooth-like internal laminae. Operculum membranous. 

BouRCiERA, Pfeitfer. 

IHatr. — 2 sp. Equador. B. heMciniformis^ Pfr, (Ixxvii, 
41, 42). 

Shell heliciniform, subglobose; aperture oval; peristome ex- 
panded, produced at the base. Operculum paucispiral, corneous. 

Bourciera absorbs avfuy the inner whorls of the shell, like 
Helicina ; its dentition also agrees with that group. 

Stoastoma, C. B. Adams. 

Etym. — Stoa^ pillared, stoma, mouth. 

Sy7i. — Hemicyclostoma, C. B. Ad. 

Distr. — 83 sp. One in Isle of Opara, Philippines, one in Hayti ; 
all the others in Jamaica. 6'. pisum, C. B. Ad. (Ixxvii, 43). 

Shell minute, globose-conic or depressed, spirally striated ; 
aperture semioval ; peristome continuous ; inner margin straight, 
forming a small spiral keel round the umbilicus. Operculum 
shelly, lamellar. 

KLECTRiNA, Gray. Shell smooth. S. succinea, Sowb. (Ixxvii, 
44), is the onl}^ species. 

wiLKiNSON^A, Chitty, 185T. Shell subdiscoidal, spirally car- 
inated, last whorl much produced. S. Wilkinsoneanuvi, Chitty. 

FADYENiA, Chitty, 1857. Shell with the spire depressed, sub- 
angular on the upper part of the last whorl, subplanate at the 
periphery, subangulated below, and subplanate round the umbil- 
icus. S. Fadyenianum, C. B. Ad. 

METCALFEIA, Chitty, 1857. Shell depressed conic. H. Met calf e- 
ianum, Chitt3^ 

PETiTiA, Chitty, 1857. Shell globose, discoid. S. Petitianum, 
C. B. Ad. 

LiNDSLEYA, Chitty, 1857. Shell globose, conic. S. Lindsley- 
anumn, C. B. Ad. 

BLANDiA, Chitty, 1857. Shell subdiscoidal. S. Blandianam, 
C. B. Ad. 

LEWisiA, Chitty. Shell sidxliscoidal ; aperture semiovate ; 
peristome continuous, with a spiral callus at the base excessively 



NERITIDiE. 293 

developed, usually soldered by its extreme edge to the last 
whorl, and forming over the umbilicus an arch, having the 
opening larger than the aperture of the shell. S. Fhilippiana, 
C. B. Ad. (Ixxvii, 45, 46). 

Proserpina, Guilding. 

Syn. — Odontostoma, d'Orb. 

Distr. — 7 sp. West Indies, Northern So. America. P. depressa, 
d'Orb. (Ixxvii, 47). 

Shell orbicular-depressed, polished, covered at the base by a 
shining callus ; aperture semioval, lip sharp ; columella and 
parietal wall with dentiform lamellae. No operculum. 

PROSERPiNELLA, Bland, 1865. Columellar fold absent ; having a 
single parietal tooth. P. Berendti, Bid. Mexico. 

CYANE, H. Ad., 1870. Columella truncate below. P. Blandiana, 
Ad. Pern. 

Ceres, Gray. 

Distr. — 2 sp. Mexico. C. eolina, Duclos (Ixxvii, 49). Shell 
heliciniform, carinated at the periphery, upper surface rugose, 
epidermis thin, callous at the base ; lip sharp, with spiral laminae 
within the aperture ; columella with dentiform laminse. 

Order SCUTIBRANCHIATA. 

Branchiae pectinated, placed in a cavitj^ in the upper part of 
the neck, or at the inferior edge of the mantle, around the foot. 
Dioecious. 

Shell usually spiral (globular or pyramidal) or conical, holos- 
tomate. 

Suborder podopthalma. Shell spiral. Operculum usually 
present and paucispiral or multispiral. Eyes on peduncles, 
separate from the tentacles. 

Suborder edbiopthalma. Shell conical, not spiral ; no oper- 
culum ; eyes sessile. 

Suborder PODOPTHALMA. 
Family NERITID.E. 

Shell thick, semiglobose, porcellanous ; spire very small ; cavity 
simple, from the absorption of the internal portions of the whorls ; 
aperture semilunatc ; columellar side expanded and fattened ; 
outer lip acute. Operculum shelly, subspiral, articulnted. 

At each end of the columella there is an oblong muscular 
impression, connected on the outer side by a ridge, on which 
the operculum rests ; within this ridge the inner laj-ers of the 
shell are absorbed. 

Animal with a broad, short muzzle, and long slender tentacles; 
eyes on prominent pedicels, at the outer bases of the tentacles ; 



294 neritidjE. 

foot oblong, triangiiljir. Lingual dentition similar to the Turbi- 
nidae. Teeth 7 ; uncini very numerous (xii, 44, 45 \ 

Nerita, Linn. 

Etym. — Nerites, a sea-snail, from Nereis. 

Distr. — Over 200 sp. Nearly all warm seas. West Indies, 
Red Sea, Zanzibar, Philippines, Australia, Central Pacific, West 
America. Many of the American species dwell in the streams ; 
one species at the Philippines sometimes climbs up trees. 

Fossil, (iO sp. Lias — ; Britain, etc. The palaeozoic Nerites 
are referred by d'Orbigny to Tnrbo, Natica, etc. 

N. polita, Linn. N. peleronta, Linn. N. histrio, Linn. N. 
undata, Linn. (Ixxviii, 51-54). 

Shell thick, smooth or spirally grooved ; epidermis horny ; 
outer lip thickened and sometimes denticulated within ; colu- 
mella broad and flat, with its inner edge straight and toothed. 
Operculum shelly. 

Animal with the mantle-margin festooned. Living on rocks 
and stones, and said to be most active during the night, when 
they roam about, feeding on the algae ; their eggs are ovate, 
covered with a horny skin, and attached to other shells. 

PELERONTA, Okcu. (Pila, Klein. Ritena and Tenare, Gra}^) 
Inner lip rugose, outer lip dentate within. N. Deshayeaii^^QcXnz 
(Ixxviii, 55). 

THELiosTYLA, Morch. ( Natei'C, Gray. Dontostoma, Klein.) 
Inner lip granulated or tuberculated. N. exiivia, Linn. (Ixxviii, 56). 

DEiANiRA, Stolicz. Shell subglobose, consisting of few whorls, 
the last of which is the largest, often carinated posteriorly ; 
aperture large, semilunar ; inner lip thick with three folds, the 
posterior one of which is the strongest. Operculum broadly 
oval, calcareous, with a tooth on the inner edge, and a groove 
corresponding to the strong posterior fold of the inner lip. Cret., 
fresh and brackish water deposits of the N. Eastern Alps. N. 
bicarinata^ Stol. (Ixxviii, 57, 58). 

LissocHiLUS, Petho., 1882. Outer lip sharp, not thickened nor 
dentate within, inner lip not dentate. Triassic and Jurassic. 
N. sigaretina, Buv. 

OTOSTOMA, d'Areh., 1859. (? L^-osoma, White.) Shell thick, 
globose ; upper part of bod^'-whorl with somewhat carved folds 
and very fine spiral lines ; inner lip callously thickened, toothed ; 
outer lip obliquely truncate, not thickened within. N. 7'ugosa, 
Hoeningh. Cretaceous. 

Deshayesia, Raulin, 1844. 

Etym, — Dedicated to M. Deshayes, author of " Description des 
Animaux sans Vertebres dans le bassin de Paris," etc. 

Syn, — ^Natioella, Grateloup (non Miinster). Oneochilus, Petho., 
1882. 



NERITIDiE. 295 

Diatr. — 2 sp. Oligoeene and Miocene ; Paris and Bordeaux 
basins. D. Neritoides^ Grat. (Ixxviii, 59). 

Shell subglobose, thiclv, umbilicated ; spire short ; aperture 
entire, semicircular, oblique ; columella oblique ; callosity den- 
ticulated ; umbilicus covered by the callosity ; right lip acute, 
smooth internall}'. 

This genus presents a very remarkable combination of the 
characters of Natica and Nerita, and appears to establish a pas- 
sage between these two genera, types of distinct families. 

Neritopsis, Grateloup. 

Syn. — Radula, Gray. Peltarion, Desl. Cyclidia, Kolle. Pel- 
phinulopsis (in part', Laube. Scaphanidia, Miill. (The last 
three founded on opercula. ) 

Distr. — 1 recent and 20 fossil sp. Triassic — ; Europe. N. 
radula^ Linn. (Ixxviii, 60-62). 

Shell subglobular, neritiform, with the spire a little elevated ; 
columellar lip not dentate, largely excavated or siuused in the 
middle. The fossil opercula of this genus were, until recently, 
believed to be the beaks of cephalopods (Peltarion). 

Neritoma, Morris. 

Distr. — Jurassic ; Europe. N. angulata^ Sowb. (Ixxviii, 63). 

Shell ventricose, thick ; apex eroded ; aperture with a notch 
in the middle of the outer lip ; inner lip excavated in the middle, 
without teeth. Casts of this shell are common, and exhibit the 
condition of the interior characteristic of all the Nerites ; it was 
probabl}' fresh water. 

NERiDOMUS, Morris and L3'cett. Shell smooth, ovately globose; 
spire small, oblique ; the last whorl very large ; apertui-e ovate 
or semilunar ; outer lip thick, inner lip thick, convex and smooth. 
Great Oolite; England. N. hemisphaerica^ Romer (Ixxviii, 64). 

Neritina, Lam. 

Syn. — Neritella, Humph. Lamprostoma, Swains. 

Distr. — 140 sp. Tropical and subtropical ; West Indies, 
Eui'ope, India, Philippines, Polynesia, West America. Fossil, 
20 sp. Jurassic, Eocene — . N. communis^ Quoy (Ixxviii, 65). 

Shell globular, rather thin, aperture-margin thickened ; outer 
lip acute ; inner lip straight, denticulated. Operculum shelly 
with a flexible border ; exhibiting two processes which von 
Martens calls the "rib" and "peg," and in which he has found 
the characteristics of several groups of minor value. Animal 
similar to Nerita. 

Neritina can only be distinguished from Nerita by slight dif- 
ferences in the operculum and by the general facies. 

The NeritinjB are small, smooth globular shells, ornamented 
with a great variety of black or purple bands and spots, covered 



29() NERlTIDiE. 

with a polished horny epidermis. They are mostly confined to 
the fresh waters of warm regions. One species {N. Jiuviatilis) 
is found in British rivers, and in the brackish water of the Baltic, 
Another extends its range into the brackish waters of the North 
American rivers ; and the West Indian N. viridis and meleagrin 
are found in the sea. 

Some are amphibious, clinging to the roots of Nipah palms 
and other trees on the margins of rivers, while a few inhabit the 
foliage of tall trees that overhang the waters. 

NERiTiNA (restricted), Swainson. Shell globular or 6val-conic, 
usually brilliantly ornamented with colors ; inner lip crenulated, 
rarely simple. Philippines, etc. 

THEODOXUS, Montf. (Vitta [Klein], Adams. Puperita, Gray. 
Elea, Ziegler.) Shell transverse, smooth or nearly so ; inner lip 
flattened, simple-edged or denticulated. Operculum, peg rudi- 
mentary. Inhabits the fresh waters of Europe. Kobelt has 
divided this group into neritoqlobus, for species of the form of 
N.fluviatiUii (Ixxviii, 66), and neriticonus, for the conical forms, 
like A^. Mertoniana i Ixxviii, 67). 

DosTiA, Gray. (Mitrula, Menke.) Shell sandal-shaped, solid, 
the apex completely posterior and a little lateral ; peristome con- 
tinuous and free; inner lip septiform, arcuated and denticulated 
in the centre of its margin. Brackish water, East Indies. N. 
crepidularia. Lara. (Ixxviii, 68). 

CLYPEOLUM, Reel. (Neritella "Humph.], Adams.) Shell glob- 
ular, oval or conic; thin, covered by a corneous epidermis; 
aperture semilunar; inner lip straight, flattened, smooth or den- 
ticulated on the margin ; outer lip very full, often produced into 
a tongue upon the spire posteriori}'. Operculum, peg and rib 
well developed, quite separated from each other. Mostly Poly- 
nesian. N. puUigera, Linn. (Ixxviii, 69, 70). 

CLiTHON, Montfort. (Corona, Recluz.) Shell coronated with 
tubercles, or short or long spines, covered with a corneous epi- 
dermis ; inner lip usually denticulated, presenting frequently a 
large superior tooth. Operculum with peg and rib both well 
developed, connected in half their length. The spines that 
usuaJl}^ ornament the whorls are tubular, and sometimes very 
long ; the Clithons inhabit tropical countries ; they crawl slowly, 
and only show during locomotion the tentacles and the tip of 
the muzzle ; they prefer a ston}' bottom, clear and free from 
weeds, where the water is tolerably (^uiet. N. longispina 
(Ixxviii, 71). 

NERiTONA, Martens. Peg of the operculum depressed, almost 
flat, lobate at its tip. N. labiosa, Sowb. (Ixxviii, 72). Fresh water, 
Polynesia. Too close to Clypeolum. 

NERiTODRYAS, Martens. Rib of the operculum deeply furrowed, 
multilobate at the tip, and deeply excavated beneath. Living 



NERITID^. 291 

on damp foliage above the water. Philippines. N. cornea and 
N. Philippinarum are members of this group — which is too 
close to the typical one. 

SMARAGDiA, Issel. (Gaillardotia, Bourg.) Eyes sessile, not 
stalked. N. viridis, Linn. (Ixxviii, 73). 

NERiPTERON, Lesson. Shell flattened, biauriculated posteriorly ; 
spire posterior, lateral ; inner lip septiform, its margin denticu- 
lated. Polynesian. N. vespertina, Recluz (Ixxviii, 74). 

ALiNA, Recluz. Shell flattened, dilated posteriorly, the upper 
end of the exterior lip prolonged upon the spire, transversely'-; 
inner lip finely denticulated. Scarcely different from Neripteron. 
Polynesia. N. latissima, Brod. (Ixxviii, 75). 

Navicella, Lam. 

Etym. — Havicella, a small boat. 

Si/n. — Catillus, Humph. Cibota, Brown. 

Distr. — 33 sp. India, Mauritius, Moluccas, Australia, Pacific. 
N. apiata, Guillou (Ixxviii, 76.) N. Janelli, Reel. (Ixxviii, 77). 

Shell oblong, smooth, limpet-like ; with a posterior, submar- 
ginal apex ; aperture as large as the shell, with a small columellar 
shelf, and elongated lateral muscular scars. Operculum very 
small, shelly, with horny margin, with a lateral apophysis 
(Ixxviii, 78). 

Head large ; foot attached on each side to the visceral mass, 
forming a cavity open behind. The operculum is applied to the 
dorsal side of the foot and is concealed in the cavity which it 
forms with the visceral mass. The species, which are exclusively 
East Indian and Polynesian, are usually found on the banks of 
rivers adhering to floating sticks and to the petioles and roots 
of the Nipah palms and other plants that live near the rivers ; 
thev are also found attached to smooth stones. 

SEPTARiA, Fer. Apex submarginal. N. Entrecafifeauxii, Recluz 
(Ixxviii, 79). 

ELARA, H. and A. Adams. Apex a little elevated above the 
l)osterior margin, laterally recurved. N. Lapeyrousei^ Reel. 
(Ixxviii, 80). 

Dr. Gray has divided the genus from chai-acters derived mostly 
from the opercula, partly from the shells: like the smaller groups 
above noted, these are very unsatisfactory. 

CATILLUS, Humph. (= Navicella, restricted.) Shell elliptical, 
mouth wide ; inner lip flat, shelving, transverse or slightly regu- 
larly arched. Operculum, shelly plate subquadrangular. 

ELANA, Gra3\ Operculum moderate, thin. 

LAODiA, Gray. Operculum moderate, as long or longer than 
broad, thick ; upper lobes subequal, obtuse or acute ; the right 
rib indistinct and separated from the margin by a e:rauular space, 
20 



298 LIOTIID^. 

which is widest in the middle of the edge ; nucleus obscure, 
punctured. 

PARiA, Gray. Shell elliptical, mouth wide ; inner lip flat, 
shelving upwards, produced and truncated in the middle, with a 
roundish notch on each side near the margin of the cavity. 
Operculum, shelly plate subquadrangular, lower edge straight, 
transverse, with a flexible flap, the upper edge with two tobes, 
the marginal lobe elongate, linear. 

STENOPOMA, Gray. Shell elongate; mouth elongate, narrow. 
Operculum oblong-elongate, the horny part triangular, very 
oblique, acute near the nucleus, and rounded at the end ; shelly 
plate elongate, thin, with two elongated ridges on the upper end, 
the marginal one produced into a spine, with a notch on its left 
margin. 

ORTHOPOMA, Gray. Operculum oblong; horu}^ part triangular, 
rather oblique ; shelly plate half oblong, rather narrowed above, 
and rounded at the upper edge, with a very slight fold diverging 
from the nucleus to the left upper margin ; the anterior carti- 
laginous flap large, broad. Shell unknown. 

The characters of all these divisions so run together through 
a series of specimens that they may be regarded as practically 
worthless. 

Velates, Montfort. 

Distr. — Tertiarj^ V. perversa, Linn. (Ixxviii, 81, 82). 

Shell oval-conic, spiral at the apex only ; last whorl greatly 
enlarged, resembling Trochita in shape; aperture basal, semi- 
cii'cular, forming with the wide flat, shelf-like columellar lip a 
circular outline ; columellar lip dentate. 

VELATELLA, Meek, 1878. Cretaceous and Laramie; United 
States. V. carditoides, Meek (Ixxviii, 85, 86). 

PiLEOLUs (Cookson), J. Sowerby. 

Etym. — Pileolus, a little cap. 

Distr. — Marine ; only known as fossils. 

Shell limpet-like above, with a subcentral apex ; concave 
beneath, with a small semilunar aperture, and a columellar disk, 
surrounded by a broad, continuous peristome. 

The secondar}^ species have the basis generally rounded and 
the apex subcentral, while the tertiary species have it more oval 
and the apex terminal ; to the latter, approaching more nearly 
the recent NavicelhTe, Deshayes applies the subgeneric name 
TOMOSTOMA. P. radiatus, d'Orb. (Ixxviii, 83, 84). 

Family LIOTIID^. 

Shell depressed spiral, white, ribbed, sometimes cancellate, or 
nodulous ; aperture orbicular, rarely pearly within. Operculum 
corneous inside, outside having a calcareous coat formed of 
separate, pearl-like, shelly particles placed in spiral lines. 



LIOTIID^. 299 

The animal differs from that of Turbo by the absence of lobes 
between the tentacles, but appendages are present on the outer 
side of these ; median head-lobes are, however, known in Cj^clo- 
strema,the animal of which rather resembles that of Scissurella ; 
the body is cylindrical, tentacles either thick and short or thin 
and prolonged ; foot small, with short appendages, head pro- 
duced, eyes on conspicuously thickened bnlgings. 

LiOTiA, Gray. 

Distr. — Tropical and subtropical. Fossil. Jurassic — . L. 
scalaroide^, Reeve (Ixxix, 8t). 

Shell turbinated or depressed, varicose, perforated or umbili- 
cated; whorls ribbed or cancellated; aperture rounded, pearly 
within ; peristome thick, callously margined. 

AEENE, H. and A. Adams. Whorls muricated, the last sub- 
spinous or angulated ; peritreme more or less angular. L. 
aiistralis, Kiener (Ixxix, 88). 

Cyclostrema, Marr3^at. 

Syn. — Delphinoidea, Brown. Lippistes, Montf. 

Distr. — 23 sp. Mostly Japan and Philippines; Europe, Aus- 
tralia, West Indies. C. cancellata, Marryat (Ixxix, 89). Fossil. 
Tertiary. 

Shell orbicular, depressed, widely umbilicated, spire short; 
whorls transversely striated or cancellated ; aperture round, not 
nacreous ; peristome continuous, simple. 

Animal. E3'e-peduncles very short ; tentacles ciliated ; foot 
with long, curved, linear auricles in front, the sides with three 
ciliated filaments. 

CYNiscus, H. and A. Adams. Umbilicus surrounded by a spiral 
callosity ; wdiorls ornamented by transverse granose ribs ; outer 
lip rather thick, subcrenulated, prolonged posteriorly upon the 
penultimate whorl. C. granulata^ A. Ad. 

MiiLLERiA, Jeffreys. Shell remarkably solid, with strong and 
partly dichotomous transverse ribs ; peristome continuous. 
Operculum calcareous, multispiral. Foot furnished with fila- 
ments. M. costulata^ Miiller. Europe. 

DARONiA, A. Ad. Shell orbicular, discoidal, evolute, spire 
depressly concave; whorls rounded, more or less disunited; 
aperture circular, periti'eme continuous. Philippines, Japan. 
C. spirula^ A. Ad. (Ixxix, 90). 

TUBiOLA, A. Ad. Shell subevolute or loosely enrolled ; whorls 
rounded, simple, concentricall}' striated; aperture subcircular ; 
peritreme continuous, margin acute, entire. Two Japanese and 
one British species {Skenea divisa). C. nivea, Chemn. (Ixxix, 91 ). 

MICROTHECA, A. Ad. Shell globosely turbinate, widely umbili- 
eate, somewhat porcellanous ; radiatel3',rugosely plicate; sutures 
channeled : whorls crenulate at the sutures ; aperture semicircu- 



300 ROTELLIDiE, 

lar ; peritreme continuous, inner lip tliickened and arcuate, outer 
lip with the margin thickened ; umbilicus crenulate. Japan. 
G. crenellifera^ A. Ad. (Ixxix, 92). 

MORCHiA, A. Ad. Shell obliquely ovate, depressed, widely 
umbilicated, convex above, flat beneath ; whorls rapidl}^ 
increasing, the last dilated, ascending and embracing the other 
whorls as far as the apex ; aperture oblong, oblique, somewhat 
horizontal, dilated below, narrowed above; peritreme continuous, 
thickened. Japan. C.obvoluta, A. Ad. (Ixxix, 93). 

ciRSONELLA, Augas. Shell minute, globosely turbinate, smooth, 
narrowly umbilicated ; aperture circular, peritreme continuous, 
slightly thickened. C. australis, Angas (Ixxix, 94). 

Discopsis, Folin. Shell discoidal, depressed, umbilicated ; 
margins of the oblique aperture canaliculately joined upon the 
penultimate whorl. 2 sp. W. Africa. 

Family ROTELLID^. 

• Shell more or less lenticular, polished ; umbilical region covered 
by a large, convex, subvitreous callus. Operculum thin, cor- 
neous, ciliated on the outer edge ; animal with rudimentary 
rostrum ; frontal lobes greatly developed. 

Rotella, Lam. 

Etym. — Diminutive of rota^ a wheel. 

Syn. — Globulus, Schum. Umbonium, Link. 

Distr. — 20 sp. India, China, Japan, Philippines, N. Zealand. 
R. Zelandica (Ixxix, 95, 96). Fossil. Devonian — . 

Shell depressed, lenticular, the spire depressed conical ; aper- 
ture semiorbicular, outer lip sharp ; base with a convex, rounded 
umbilical callus. 

Animal. The lateral fringe of the foot is distinct, with three 
tentacular filaments on each side ; at the front of the right side, 
near the base of the tentacles, it is produced into an oblong, 
fleshy lobe. The right tentacle is the larger and free, with an 
oblong, compressed lobe on its hinder side which has an indis- 
tinct indication of an eye ; the left tentacle is smaller and partly 
attached to the upper side of the left eye-pedicel, which is C3din- 
drical, bearing a very distinct eye, and furnislied with a large, 
membranous expansion attached to the whole of its length on 
its left side, and which is fringed at the edge. This frontal 
appendage, when the animal is alive, is folded on itself to form 
a tube, which has caused it to be mistaken for a siphon. 

ethalia, H. and A. Adams. (Pseudorotella, Fischer.) Whorls 
convex, smooth or transversely striated ; columellar lip termi- 
nating anteriorly in a callosity. Scarcely differing from the 
typical group. R. Guamenae, Q^^oy (Ixxix, 97). 

HAPLOCOCHLIAS, Carpenter. Shell like Collonia, but not pearly ; 



ROTELLIDiE. 301 

aperture circular, varicose ; columella not callous. Animal and 
operculum unknown. Its aflinities may be with Ethalia, R. 
cyclophoreus, Carp. Cape St. Lucas. 

PARKERiA, Gabb. (After C. F. Parker, curator of the Philada. 
Academy.) Shell minute, in form like Rotella, but with the 
shell-substance vitreous and transparent or translucent like 
Vitrinella; inner lip thickened, and the umbilicus covered with 
a not very heavy callus as in Rotella. Miocene ; W. Indies. 1 
recent species. B. vitrea, Gabb (Ixxix, 98). 

TuRBiNA, de Koninck, 1881. 

Distr. — 4 sp. Carboniferous; Europe. 2'. deornatus^ Kon. 

Shell top-shaped, thin and fragile, smooth ; spire of 5-8 convex 
whorls; mouth large, transversely rounded, the margin sharp, 
not thickened, columella not twisted; umbilicus narrow and 
deep, sometimes wanting. 

Plocostylus, Gemmellaro, 1878. 

Distr. — Liassic, Jurassic ; Italy. P. ti/pu.H, Gemm. 

Shell top-shaped, thick, smooth ; spire obtuse ; whorls rapidly 
enlarging, the last very large, rounded ; base more or less flat- 
tened ; mouth round ; inner lip straight, short, ending in an 
anterior fold, forming a tubercle ; outer lip obtuse. 

Teinostoma, H. and A. Adams. 

Distr. — 8 sp. Philippines, Japan, Mazatlan. T. politum^ A. 
Ad. (Ixxix, 99). 

Shell orbicular, depressed, subspiral, polished or spirally 
striated, last whorl rounded, or angulated at the periphery ; 
umbilical region covered with a large, flat callosit}^ ; aperture 
transverse ; inner lip smooth, callous ; outer lip thin, simple, 
not margined or reflected. 

CALCEOLiNA, A. Ad. Shell neritiform, oblong, depressed ; spire 
small ; whorls rapidly increasing, umbilical region callous ; 
aperture semicircular ; inner lip with a large wide callus, covering 
posteriorly the umbilicus ; margin of the callus straight, simple. 
Japan. T. piisilla, Ads. (Ixxix, 100). 

[Cyclora, Hall. 

Distr. — C. minuta,, Hall. Palaeozoic; Ohio. 

Subglobose, thin, small, spire short, consisting of a few whorls ; 
columella smooth, slightly reflected over a minute umbilicus ; 
aperture circular. See p. 223.] 

Anomphalus, Meek and Worthen. 
Distr. — A. rotulus^ Meek and Worthen (Ixxix, 1). Carbon- 
iferous ; Ills. 

Shell depressed, sublenticular, imperforate, smooth, volutions 



302 PHASIANELLTD^. 

somewhat embracing above, and each hiding all the preceding 
ones below ; aperture wider than high ; peristome not continuous ; 
labrum simple, projecting forward above; labium a little sinuous 
and slightly spreading in the more or less impressed umbilical 
region. 

PiTONELLUS, Montfort. 

Syn. — Ptychomphalus, Agassiz. Lewisiella, Stolicz. 

Distr. — Lias, Cretaceous ; Europe. P. archiacianus, d'Orb. 
(Ixxix, 2\ P. conicus, d'Orb. (Ixxix, 3). 

Shell depressed or conic, whorls generally rounded, the base 
with a very strong shining callus; lip simple, sharp. 

Crossostoma, Morris and Lycett. 

Distr. — 2 sp. Oolite; England. C. Prattii, Morris and 
Lycett (Ixxix, 4). 

Shell thick, depressed turbinated, without umbilicus ; aper- 
ture subrotund, entire ; outer lip smooth ; columella toothed 
when yoxmg, tooth concealed by callus in the adult. 

TROCHOPSis, Gemmellaro, 1878. Shell top-shaped, thick, shining, 

imperforate ; outer lip with four inferior tuberculate spiral ribs ; 

inner lip curved, sharply defined by a furrow. C. iJforoi, Gemm. 

Liassic. ' 

Pterocheilos, Moore. 

JJistr. — P/. ^j/"/wi».s' (lxxix,5\ Liassic; England. 

Very thick, small, with the general contour angulated or 
rhomboidal, smooth, spire short, periphery of last whorl cari- 
nated, the carina terminating in a wing-like projection of the 
outer lip ; aperture with a thick, circular peristome, columella 
thick, folded, subumbilicated, greatly extending beyond the 
peristome, and possessing a wide but shallow sulcus towards 
its base. ' 

Pleuratella, Moore, 1861. 

Distr. — p. prima, Moore. Lias ; Europe. 

Shell small, thick, smooth ; spire much depressed ; whorls 
4-5, rapidly enlarging ; last whorl very large, rounded ; aperture 
round or oval ; inner lip straight, with thick lengthened colu- 
mella, having an uml:)ilieus-like groove. 

Family PHASIANELLID^. 

Shell bulimiform, smooth, polished, richly ornamented with 
Vu'ight colors, without epidermis. Operculum oval, calcareous. 

Animal with long ciliated tentacles ; head-lobes pectinated, 
wanting in the minute species ; neck-lobes fringed ; sides orna- 
mented with three cirri ; branchial plume long, partly free ; foot 
rounded in front, pointed behind. 

Distinguished from the Turbinidue by the form of the shell, 



PIIASTANELLTD-iE. 303 

from the elongated species of Trochidte by the calcareous 
opercnluii). 

Phasianella, Lam. 

Pheasant-shell. 

Distr. — 25 sp. Australia, large species ; India, Philippines, 
small species; Mediterranean, Britain, West Indies, very small 
species. Fossil, 70 sp. Devonian — ; Europe. F. buUmoideSj 
Lam. (Ixxix, 6). 

Shell elongated, polished, richly colored; whorls convex; 
aperture oval, not pearly; inner lip callous^outer thin. Oper- 
culum shell}', callous outside, subspiral inside. 

When the animals of this genus crawl, the foot appears to be 
divided longitudinally into halves, which advance alternately ; 
when the right side moves, the left remains stationary, and when 
this in turn is carried forward, the other half remains as a point 
of support ; it may be compared to the amble or canter of a 
horse. In Phasianella proper, the tentacles are ciliated, the 
head-lobes fringed, and the sides of the foot furnished with three 
cirri. In the smaller species, forming the Tricolia of Risso, 
the head-lobes appear to be wanting. The larger species, all of 
which have beautifully variegated shells, are principally from 
Australia, and the smaller ones from the Mediterranean, West 
Indies and South Africa. 

TRICOLIA, Risso. (Eudora, Leach.) Shell thin, spire elevated, 
apex mammillated ; suture profound ; aperture oval. Small 
species, Mediterranean, etc. F. Niciensis, Risso ^^ Ixxix, 7,. 
P. pulla, Linn. (Ixxix, 8 ). 

LEioPYRGA, A. Ad. Shell turbinate, thin, smooth, polished ; 
aperture semicircular, shorter than the spire, inner lip thin, colu- 
mella incurved, excavated. F. picturata^ A. Ad. 

EUCOSMiA, Carp. Shell small, turbinate, solid, smooth, varie- 
gated, not nacreous ; aperture with the margins nearly contin- 
uous, but not callous ; columella slightly excavated ; axis 
umbilicated. 6 sp. West Coast of N. America. P. variegata, 
Carp. 

Alcyna, a. Adams. 

Diatr. — 2 sp. Japan. A. rubra, Pease. 

Shell acuminately ovate, imperforate, spire short, conical, 
acute ; whorls flat, smooth ; aperture oval ; inner lip callous, 
terminating in a strong tooth below ; outer lip acute, smooth 
within. 

Chromotis, a. Ad. 

Distr. — Fhas.neritina, Dunker (Ixxix, 9). Cape of Good Hope. 

Shell ear-shaped, thin, polished ; spire very short; whorls few, 
rapidly enlarging ; aperture oval, columella flattened and solid. 
Operculum calcareous. 



304 tuebinid^. 

Family TURBINID^. 

Shell spiral, turbinated, nacreous inside. Operculum calca- 
reous, paucispiral. 

Animal. Tongue elongate, median teeth broad, laterals five, 
denticulated, uncini very numerous, slender, with hooked points 
(xii, 47). Head proboscidiform ; tentacles subulate, sometimes 
ciliated ; eyes on free peduncles at their outer bases ; two 
more or less developed head-lobes between the tentacles. Gill 
single, long and linear. Sides of the foot with a large neck- 
lappet near the eye-peduncle, continuous with a conspicuous 
side-membrane, bearing on its free margin from three to five 
tapering filaments ; operculigerous lobe often ornamented with 
cirri. Littoral and herbivorous, characterized by the fringed 
lobes and tentacular cirri of the head and sides, their peduncu- 
lated eyes, and by the pearly nature of their shells beneath the 
epidermis and outer layer. They are invariably marine, feeding 
on the sea-weeds which abound along the shore, and are distrib- 
uted in all parts of the globe, being most numerous and of larger 
growth and more beautiful colors in tropical seas. 

The Turbinida^ are distinguished from the Trochidjc generally > 
by the form of the shell, and by the operculum, which is calca- 
reous and paucispiral in the former, corneous and multispiral 
in the latter. The arrangement of the groups of both families 
corresponds with that proposed by Dr. Paul Fischer in his 
excellent monographies of Trochus and Turbo. 

Turbo, Linn. 

Top-shell. Etym. — Turbo, a whipping top, 

Distr. — 76 recent sp. World-wide in tropical seas. Fossil, 
400 sp. L.Silurian — ; universall}^ distributed. T. TnarmOt-' 
atus, Linn. (Ixxix, 10). 

Shell turbinated, solid; whorls convex, smooth or often 
grooved or tuberculated ; aperture large, rounded, slightly pro- 
duced in front. Operculum shelly and solid, callous outside, and 
smooth, or variously grooved and mammillated, internall}' horny 
and paucispiral. In T. sarmalicus the exterior of the operculum 
is botrj'Oidal, like some of the tufaceous deposits of petrifying 
wells. 

TURBO (restricted). Shell smooth, or tuberculate, covered by 
a smooth epidermis; inner lip flattened, more or less produced 
in front ; no umbilicus. Operculum spiral on its inner face, 
convex and smooth or granular (not ridged) externally. 17 sp. 
Indian and Pacific Oceans, W. Indies. 

The " gi'een snail "of the dealers, the Turbo mnrmorafiis, in 
very largely used for ornamental purposes. Slices of this shell 
ground down to a thin surface, are employed for covering or 
inlaying various articles, such as small stamp-cases, fancy boxes. 



TURBlNIDiE. 305 

etc., as well as for buttons, earrings, buckles, etc. The light- 
greenish iridescent play of color of this shell is more ornamental 
than that of the ordinary white mother-of-pearl. Fine large 
shells of this species formed the drinking goblets of the Scandi- 
navian monarchs, and are often still met with, very elegantly 
mounted and set with jewels. The Turk's cap (T. Harmaticus) 
is less extensively used for similar purposes. — Simmonds, Com- 
mercial Products of the Sea, 293. 

SARMATicus, Gray. (Cidaris, Swains.) Shell nodulous. Differs 
from Turbo principally in having a black layer between the outer 
opaque and inner pearly layers of the shell ; it forms a dark zone 
between the edges of the two coats just within the aperture, and 
is frequently exposed on the upper part of the columella by 
absorption of the outer layer. Australia, New Zealand. 

SENECTTJS, Humph. Shell solid, with revolving, squamose or 
spinose ridges covering the whorls ; axis usually narrowly per- 
forated ; aperture usually slightl}^ produced in front, with some- 
times a short channel. 25 sp. Indian and Pacific 0., West 
Indies. T. margaritaceiis, Reeve (Ixxix, 11). 

OCANA, Adams. Shell turbinate, solid, smooth; axis imper- 
forate ; spire short, conical ; aperture subcircular, wider than 
long; inner lip flattened, excavated, scarcely produced anteriorly, 
with an extended thin callus. Operculum with a convex, gran- 
ular spiral rib, axis deeply perforated, onter edge simple. T. 
cidaris, Gmelin (Ixxx, 19). Cape of Good Hope. 

MARMOROSTOMA, Swains. (Lunella, Bolt.) Shell thick, smooth 
or tuberculate; aperture produced in front; columellar callus 
covering the axis, which is umbilicated, however; the umbilicus 
often at the upper end of a curved channel in the callus. Oper- 
culum spiral, with central nucleus, and an indistinct, subcentral, 
external rib. 5 sp. Ind. and Pacific Oceans. T. coronatus, 
Gmel. (Ixxx, 20, 21). 

MODELiA, Gray. Shell rather thin, granular. Operculum gran- 
ulous externally, with a semicircular ridge on the edge. Aus- 
tralia, N. Zealand. T. rubicundus, Reeve (Ixxx, 27). 

AMYXA, Troschel. (Prisogaster, Mdrch.) Shell solid, turbi- 
nated with elevated spire ; whorls with revolving riblets ; aperture 
rounded ; inner lip sillonated ; outer lip black-bordered and sub- 
crenulated within. Operculum as in Modelia. The animal of 
this subgenus, figured by d'Orbigny, appears to be furnished with 
a single, elongated, posterior filament, numerous shorter, anterior, 
tentacular filaments on the lateral membrane of the foot, and two 
conspicuous cirri on the sides of the opercular lobe. 2 sp. 
West Coast of tropical America. T. tnger. Gray (Ixxx, 28). 

CALLOPOMA, Gray. Shell turbinated-elevated, not umbilicated; 
whorls angulated or nodulous; aperture rounded, produced in 
front ; inner lip wide, sillonated. Operculum with a spiral central 



306 TURBINID^. 

rib, and several smaller marginal ribs. 4 sp. W. Coast of 
America, China, Japan. 2\ Jiuctuatus, Gray (Ixxx, 29). 

NiNELLA, Gra}^ Shell turbinated, depressed, rugose, tubercu- 
lated, umbilicated ; internal lip wide, concave, with a longitu- 
dinal nacreous excavation near the columella. Operculum with 
two parallel spiral ribs. Australia, New Zealand. T. torquatus, 
Gmel. (Ixxx, 22). 

coLLONrA, Gray. Shell small, thick, turbinated, with revolving 
ribs or smooth, not umbilicated. Operculum with gradually 
enlarging whorls, a convex external rib and a central pit. 
Recent and tertiary. T. sanguineus, Linn. (Ixxix, 12). 

ANADEMA, H. and A. Adams. Shell conoidal-depressed, whorls 
with revolving series of granules ; umbilicus with a spiral callus, 
which enlarges and joins the outer lip ; columella terminating 
anteriorly in one or two tubercles. T. MacAndrewi, Morch 
(Ixxix, 13). 

The following genera, recently described by de Koninck, 
might be referred, with perhaps equal propriety, to other groups, 

TuRBONiLLiNA, dc Kouinck, 1881. 

Distr. — Devonian, Carb. ; Europe. T. lepidus, de Kon. 

Shell small, depressed orbicular ; umbilicus funnel-like; spire 
short ; whorls convex, finely spirally ribbed ; mouth oval, inner 
li]) not thickened. 

PoRTLOCKiA, de Koninck, 1881. 

Distr. — 10 sp. Devon, to Carb. ; Eur. P. parallela^ThW. 

Turbiniform, imperforate ; spire somewhat elevated ; whorls 
convex, with fine spiral ribs, some becoming stronger on the last 
whorl; mouth oval, inner lip arched, not thickened. 

AccLisiNA, de Koninck, 1881. 

Syn. — Turbonilla, Geinitz. 

Distr. — A. { Murchisonia) striatula, Kon. Carb. 

Small, lengthened-conical, imperforate ; whorls convex, spirall}^ 
striate ; mouth oval, outer lip sharp, columella slightly thick- 
ened, not arched. 

? PiTHODEA, de Koninck, 1881. 

Distr. — 2 sp. Carb. ; Belgium. 

Shell large, thin, ovate, imperforate ; whorls rapidly increasing, 
somewhat dissimilarly, spirally ribbed, with a median smooth, 
transverselj' striated band ; mouth large, ovate. 

TuRBONiLOPsis, de Koninck, 1881. 

Distr. — 2 sp. Carb.; Europe. 

Small, depressed, smooth, umbilicated ; umbilicus surrounded 
by a callous thickening. 



TURBlNIDiE. 30t 

TuRBONiTELLA, de Koniiick, 1881. 

Distr. — Devon, to Carb. ; Europe. T. biserialis, de Kon. 

Shell tnrbiniform, with convex, smooth or nodulous whorls; 
mouth round or oval, inner lip callously thickened, outer lip 
sharp, thin ; a narrow umbilical slit. 

Rhabdopleura, de Koninck. 

Distr. — Monodonta solida, Kon. Carb. 

Conical, height and diameter about equal; whorls 4-5, slightly 
convex, rapidlj^ enlarging, the last more than half the total 
length, striate, and finely spirally ribbed ; aperture transversel}' 
rounded ; inner lip somewhat callous, curved and thickened below. 

Onkospira, Zittel. 

Distr. — 0. ranellatus^ Quenst. Coral Rag. 

Shell thin, lengthened-trochiform, spire pointed ; whorls con- 
vex, spirally ribbed, keeled or clathrate with one or two varices, 
which are continuous, as in Ranella ; mouth rounded-ovate ; 
columella forming an angle with the thickened outer lip. 

Hamusina, Geramellaro. 
Distr. — Lias ; Europe. H. Bertheloti, d'Orb. 
Shell thin, conical-turreted, sinistral, tuberculate, imperforate ; 
spire sharp; body-whorl angular; aperture rounded, inner lip 
callous. 

Platyacra, v. Amnion, 1882. 
Distr. — Rluctian ; Bavaria. P. impressa, Schafh. 
Shell thin, turreted, sinistral, widely and deeply umbilicate ; 
whorls with a nodulous keel ; apex flattened. 

Imperator, Montfort. 

Syn. — Astralium, Link. Tubicanthus, Swn. Canthorbis, Swn. 
Hercoles, Montf. 

Distr. — 50 sp. East and West Indies, W. America, Australia. 
Fossil. Trias — . 

Shell trochiform, depressed conic ; whorls rugose or spinous, 
the latter especially at the sharpl}' angulatcd jjcriphery of the 
last whorl ; aperture subquadrangular, subtriincated in front. 
Operculum calcareous. 

imperator (restricted). Umbilicated. Operculum with a 
subcentral tubercle and a spiral submarginal rib. /. longispina, 
Lam. (Ixxx, 23, 24). 

CALCAR, Mont. (Stella, Klein. Cyclocantha, Swains. Astrea, 
Bolt. Turboidea, Seeley.) Not umbilicated ; spire more ele- 
vated. Operculum externally subspiral, and with a central jiit. 
W. Indies, Indian Ocean. I. steUaris, Gmel. (Ixxx, 25). 

GUii-FORDiA, Gray. Periphery with long spines ; whorls granose. 



308 TROCHID^. 

subumbi Heated, the umbilical region callous. Operculum flat- 
tened, with a depressed marginal line. East Indies. /. trium- 
phans, Phil. (Ixxx, 26). 

UVANILLA, Gray. Shell trochiform, conical, with moderately 
elevated spire; base concave, not umbilicated ; whorls flattened, 
rugose, spinously fringed. Operculum with two convex ribs, 
one nearly parallel to the margin, the other arcuated, subcentral. 
5 sp. Australian seas. /. Jimbriata, Lam. (Ixxx, 30). 

PACHYPOMA, Gray. Like IT vanilla, but base of the shell more 
concave. Operculum oval, subquadrangular, externally convex. 
7 sp. West Indies, Brazil. /. cselata^ Chemn. (Ixxx, 31). 

LlTHOPOMA, Gray. Shell turbinated, not umbilicated, spire 
moderate, whorls with oblique longitudinal ribs and nodules ; 
inner lip concave, subtruncated in front, and with a longitudinal 
shallow channel. Operculum oval, thick, granulous externally, 
and flattened at the margins. West Indies. I. tuher^ Linn. 
(Ixxx, 32.) 

POMAULAX, Gray. Shell trochiform, elevated conic, angulated 
and nodose at the periphery, obliquely ribbed, not umbilicated ; 
inner lip arcuated, with a wide callus, which is channeled, ante- 
riorly truncated. Operculum with three radiating ribs and 
perforated axis. 7 sp. North Pacific, America and Japan. /. 
undosa, Wood (Ixxx, 33). 

COOKIA, Lesson. Shell turbinated, not umbilicated ; whorls 
nodulous ; columellar lip with a wide flattened callus and spiral 
shallow excavation. Operculum oval, flat, smooth, with a large 
suhspiral, submarginal rib. New Zealand. /. Cookii, Chemn. 
(Ixxx, 34). 

BOLMA, Risso. (Tubicanthus, Swn.) Shell turbinated, not 
umbilicated, rugose or tuberculated,with deep suture; aperture 
round ; inner lip wide, callous, concave. Operculum with a 
subcentral tubercle and spiral rib. 3 sp. Mediterranean Sea, 
China, Japan. /. rugosa, Linn. (Ixxx, 35). 

Family TROCHID^. 

Shell usually conical, with flattened base, nacreous inside. 
Operculum corneous, multispiral. 

Animal like that of Turbinidse (p. 304). Diff"ers from that 
family in its conical shell ( usually") and its operculum ; that of 
Turbinidse being calcareous and paucispiral. Dentition (xii, 46). 

Delphinula, Lam. 
Etym. — Diminutive of Delphinus, a dolphin. 
Syn. — Angaria, Bolten. 

Distr. — 20 sp. Eastern tropical seas. D. melacantha (Ixxx, 
36). Fossil. Jurassic — . 

Shell orbicular, depressed; whorls few, angulated, rugose, or 



TROCHiD-a:. 309 

spiny; aperture round, pearly; peristome continuous; umbil- 
icus open. Operculum horny, many-whorled. On reefs at low- 
water. 

Animal without head-lobes ; sides lobed and cirrated. 

ANaARiNA,Bayle. (Delphinulopsis, Wright.) Shell sinistral, 
discoidal, umbilicate, spirally ridged, last whorl crowned with 
spines ; aperture rounded, nacreous within, columellar margin 
not nacreous, D. Lesourdi, Wright (Ixxx, 3t). 

CIRRUS, Sowb. (In part, not Orb. Scaevola, Gemm.) Shell 
sinistral, conical, widely and deeply umbilicated ; spii-e conical, 
sharp ; whorls crossed by longitudinal, nodulous ribs. Liassic. 
D. nodosa^ Sowb. England. Sowerby's genus Cirrus contained, 
besides the above, a Euomphalus and a Pleurotomaria. 

Laxispira, Gabb. 

Distr. — L. lumbricalis, Gabb (Ixxix, 14 \ Cretaceous; New 
Jersey. 

Shell spiral, dextral, partially unwound and the whorls not in 
contact ; aperture simple, lips thin. 

This group is perhaps more nearly related to Vermetidae. At 
first sight it appears not unlike Delphinula laxa^ Say, but the 
latter is a fossil (Caprotinid) bivalve. 

[Trochonema, Salter, 1859. 

Syn. — Trochonemopsis, Meek. 

Distr. — T. tricarinata, Meek (Ixxx, 38). Devon. ; Ohio. 

Has been proposed for a Delphinula-like shell with wide 
umbilicus ; it occurs in the palneozoic formations of Europe 
and North America, and, as in so many other ancient groups, 
embraces a number of widely different forms. Professor Meek 
(MSS.) was disposed to place the genus near Delphinula.] 

Trochus, Linn. 

Etmy. — Trochus^ a hoop. 

Distr. — 250 sp. World-wide. Low-water to 15 fathoms ; the 
smaller species range nearly to 100 fathoms. 

Fossil, 360 sp. Devonian — ; Europe, North America, Chili, 

Shell pyramidal, with nearly a flat base ; whorls numerous, 
flat, variously striated ; ai)erture oblique, rhombic, pearly inside ; 
columella twisted, slightly truncated ; outer lip thin. Operculum 
horn3', multispiral. 

Animal with two small or obsolete head-lobes between the 
tentacles ; neck-lappets large ; sides ornamented with lobes, and 
3-5 cirri ; gill very long, linear; lingual teeth 11, denticulated ; 
uncini 90, diminishing outwards. 

TROCHUS (restricted). Umbilical region excavated, but not 
perforated ; columella spirally twisted above, terminating in a 



olO TROCIIID^. 

point anteriorlv^ 2 sp. Indo-Pacific. T. Niloticus^ Linn. 
(Ixxx, 39). 

ROCHiA, Gray. Shell with a strong fold on the pillar-lip, and 
a deep sinus behind, near the whorl. T. acutangulns, Chemn. 
Philippines, Australia. 

CARDiNALiA, Gray. Conical, whorls flattened, granulated, the 
the last angular, not umbilicated ; columella simple above, a little 
twisted, and terminating in a point below ; outer lip slightly 
toothed basally. T. virgatua, Gmel. (\xkx\, 40). Indian Ocean, 
Philippines. 

TECTUS, Montfort. (Pyramis, Schum., ISIT. Pyramidea, 
Swains.) Shell conical, not umbilicated ; whorls smooth or 
tuberculated, the last angular ; aperture wider than long ; colu- 
mella short, spirally twisted, terminating in a point anteriorly. 
9 sp. Red Sea, Indo-Pacific. T. t7'iserialiii^ Lam. (Ixxxi, 41). 

POLYDONTA, Scluuu., 181V. (Lamprostouia, Swains.) Shell 
conical, not umbilicated ; whorls mostly granular, the last angu- 
lated ; aperture subrhomboidal ; columella spirally twisted, rib- 
like and plicate, forming a false umbilicus ; base of aperture 
rib-like and dentated, joining the columellar dentitions. 17 sp. 
Indo-Pacific, Polynesia. 2\ moculatus, Linn. (Ixxxi, 42). 

PR^ciA, Gray. Shell with the pillar-lip twisted, simple ; axial 
cavity deep, narrow, with a distinct, narrow, central, spiral rib. 
T. elegantulus, Wood, is the only species. 

ANTHORA, Gray. Shell with the pillar-lip twisted, simple ; 
axial cavity moderate, narrow, with several opaque, subspiral 
ridges. T. viridia^ Gmel. 

BELANGERiA. Fisher. No diagnosis published. T. scabrosus, 
Phil. (Ixxix, 15). Indian Ocean. 

INFUNDIBULTIM, Montfort. (Cariuidea, Swaius.) Shell conical; 
whorls flattened, the last angular, base concave ; columella 
without teeth or with the teeth obsolete, fi sp. Indo-Pacific, 
Red Sea. T. c07icavus, Linn. 

OMPHALius,Phil. Shell con vex-trochiform, umbilicated; whorls 
with revolving series of granules, the last whorl bluntly angu- 
lated at the periphery ; umbilicus encircled by a callosity ; colu- 
mellar lip terminated by a tooth anteriorly, below which are 
small tubercles; outer lip usually internally grooved. 11 sp. 
East and West tropical America, West Indies. T. viridutus, 
Gmel. 

iSANDRA, H. and A. Adams. (Eudora, Ad.) Shell polished, 
subconoidal, whorls rounded; aperture subquadrangular ; inner 
lip straight, dentate below, forming an angle at its basal union 
with the outer lip ; umbilicus open, profound, surrounded with 
crenulations. Australia and Philippines. T. coronatus^ A. Ad. 
(Ixxix, 16). 

LIVONA, Gray. (Cittarium, Phil. Meleagris, Montf.) Shell 



TROCHID^. ;^n 

turbiiiiform, solid, smooth, umbilicated ; umbilical region 
strongly callous; aperture rounded, outer lip thin. Animal: 
lateral membrane of the foot with numerous compound appen- 
dages. W. Indies. T. pica, Linn. (Ixxxi, 41). 

TEGULA, Lesson. Shell conical, spire pointed, with revolving 
granulated ribs ; columella spirally twisted, terminating anteri- 
orly in a large obtuse tubercle. 2 sp. W. tropical America. 
T. pellis-serpentis, Wood (Ixxxi, 43). 

CHLOROSTOMA, Swaius. Shell conoidal, profoundly umbilicated, 
or umbilical region covered by a callosity ; whorls smooth or 
subcarinated, the last subangulated at the base; columellar lip 
spirallj^ twisted around the umbilicus ; outer lip angulated at the 
base and sometimes presenting one or two tubercles. 16 sp. 
W. North America, Japan, China. T. argyroHtomus, Chemn. 
(Ixxxi, 44). 

CCELOTROCHUS, Fischcr. Uncharacterized. T. tiaratus, Quo}'. 
New Zealand. 

EURYTROGHUS, Fischer, 1880. Uncharacterized. 4sp. Australia, 
N. Caledonia. T. Lehmanni, Menke. 

MINOLTA, A. Adams. {Etyvi. — Mino-Sina, a Japanese island.) 
Shell globosely conoidal, widely and profoundly umbilicated ; 
whorls rounded, clathrate, suture canaliculate ; last whorl sub- 
solute towards the aperture ; umbilicus perspective ; aperture 
circular, pearly within; ])eristome continuous, thin, acute. 
Distr. — 5 sp. Australia, New Caledonia, Japan. T. dianthus, 
Fischer (Ixxxi, 45). 

MONiLEA, Swains. (Talopia, Gray.) Shell orbicular, depressed, 
widely umbilicated; whorls encircled by grooves, the last rounded; 
umbilicus encircled by a striated callus ; columella terminating 
anteriorly in one or two tubercles. 5 sp. Pacific, Australia, 
New Caledonia. T. cahjculus, Wood. 

LEiOTROCHUS, Courad. Polished, entire, without umbilicus; 
base of columella with two denticles. 4 sp. Miocene ; U. S. 
T. distans, Conr. Described as a subgenus of Monilea. 

soLANDERiA, Fischer. Uncharacterized. New Caledonia. T. 
nucleus, Phil. 

GiBBULA, Risso. (Phorcus, Risso. Steroraphala, Leach.) Shell 
conoidal, umbilicated; umbilicus cylindrical or infundibuliform ; 
whorls frequently tuberculated above and with channeled suture ; 
columella sometimes terminating in a tubercular tooth. 26 sp. 
Tropical, world-wide. T. magua, Linn. (Ixxxi, 46". 

KORKNiA, Friele. Separated from Gibbula on account of 
slightly different lingual dentition. European. 

PRiOTROCHUs, Fischer. (Aphanotrochus, Martens.) Shell like 
Gibbula, but pillar-lip denticulated. 2 sp. Indian Ocean. T. 
obscui'us, Wood (Ixxxi, 50). 

FORSKALiA, H. and A. Adams. Shell baby Ionic with elevated 



3 1 2 TROCHIDiE. 

spire and deep sutures ; whorls angulated at the periphery, where 
they are sulcated. 4 sp. Red Sea. T.fanulmn, Gmel. (Ixxxi, 81). 

LEPTOTHYRA, Carp. (Leptouyx, Carp, and Ads. Homalopoma, 
Carp.) Shell small, turbinated, thick, not umbilicated ; aperture 
circular, slightly angulated anteriorly. The t_ype of this group 
is the California shell identified as conspecific with the Mediter- 
ranean species Turbo sanguineus, Linn. ; the latter, however, 
has a calcareous operculum, and is therefore a true Turbo, whilst 
the operculum of this is corneous, multispiral. 

CALLiOTROCHUs, Fischer. Uncharacterized. T. phasianellus, 
Desh. 

ziZYPHiNUS, Gray. (Calliostoraa, Swains. Conulus, Nardo.) 
Shell trochiform, conical, not umbilicated ; last whorl angulated 
and usually ribbed at the periphery ; aperture quadrangular ; 
columella simple, oblique, often ending in a tooth in front. 28 
sp. Universally distributed. T. zizyphinus, Linn. (Ixxxi, 
48, 49). 

EUTROCHUS, Ad. Zizyphinus-like shells, but umbilicated, the 
umbilicus encircled by a carina. 3 sp. West Indies, Indian 
Ocean, Australia. T. fEutrochu^J jujubinus, Linn. (Ixxxi, 82). 

TURCICA, H. and A.Adams. Shell conoidal,thin, subdiaphanous, 
imperforate, ornamented with revolving granulated ribs ; suban- 
gulated at the peripheiy ; suture channeled ; columella tortuous, 
pointed in front, in the middle spreading into a lamina, with one 
or two teeth on its edge. T. moniliferus, Ads. (Ixxxi, 51 . 

TROCHODON, Seelej^ 1861. Resembling Zizyphinus, thin, 
having on the columella two prominent teeth, = Turcica (?). T. 
cancellatus. Cambridge Greensand. 

PTYCHOSTYLUS, Gabb. According to the characteristics given 
by Gabb, apparently does not differ essentially from Turcica. 
The columella is solid, with two oblique folds, P. caffea, from 
California, is quoted as the type. 

LiscHKEiA, Fischer. Uncharacterized. T. moniliferus, Lam. 
Japan. 

ODONTOTROCHUS, Fisclicr. Uncharacterized. T. chlorostomiis, 
Menke. Australia. 

THALOTIA, Gray. Shell ovate-turriculated, rather thick, not 
umbilicated ; whorls flattened, with revolving ribs, which are 
sometimes granulated ; aperture subrotnnd ; columella tuber- 
culate, truncate in front ; outer lip rather thick, crenulated 
within. 8 sp. Australia, Indian Ocean. T. conicus, Gray 
(Ixxxi, 52). 

ELENCHUS, Humphrey. Shell elevated conoidal, not umbili- 
cated, spire sharp ; whorls rather flat, smooth, polished, usually 
with distant revolving incised lines ; aperture suboval ; colu- 
mella with a tooth-like projection in the middle ; outer lip 
thickened within. 6 sp. Australia. Brilliantly colored shells, 



TROCHIDiE. 313 

like Phasianella, but very pearly inside. T. lineatus, Lam. 
(Ixxxi, 53). 

LESPERONIA, Toumoucr. Shell pearly, imperforate, elongate- 
conical, whorls in the type carinated ; aperture entire, oblique, 
pyriform ; peristome continuous, margined ; columellar margin 
anteriorly expanded. Operculum (?). Distr. — Fossil. Oligi- 
cene ; Dax. T. jrrinceps, Tourn. (Ixxxi, 54). 

CANTiiARiDUS, Moutfort. (Cautharis, Fer. Cantharidium, 
Montf.) Shell ovate, thin ; outer lip acute ; the columella wants 
the conspicuous tooth seen in Elenchus; the whorls are encircled 
by striae and not polished ; interior highly iridescent. 6 sp. 
Australia. T. ^V^■s, Chemn. (Ixxxi, 55). 

FLEMiNGiA, dc Kouiuck, 1881. (Trochella, M'Coy.) Shell 
thin, extehded-conical, pointed; whorls numerous, striate or 
smooth, periphery usually angular; columella thin, slightly 
extended, forming a point below. Sil. to Carb. F. Hisinger- 
ia7uis, de Kon. 

BANKiviA, Beck. Shell subulate, with sharp spire, polished, 
bright- colored ; whorls smooth, flattened, without epidermis; 
aperture subovate, rather large, not nacreous within ; columella 
twisted, truncated in front; outer lip simple, sharp. Australasia. 
T. varians, Beck (Ixxxi, 56). 

TRoCHOCocHLEA, Klein. (Osilinus, Phil. Labio, Gray. Mela- 
graphia, Stentz.) Shell elevated, turbiniform, whorls bluntly 
angled at the periphery, or with revolving carina; outer lip thin, 
smooth within ; inner lip spreading, twisted, dentate below ; no 
umbilicus. 10 sp. Europe, W. Africa, Australia. T. multi- 
carinatus (Ixxxi, 57 1. 

GAZA, Watson, Shell trochiform, peai'ly ; margin of aperture 
callousl}' reflected ; columella mucronately angulated in front ; 
umbilicus with nacreous callus. Operculum corneous, multi- 
spiral, Distr. — T. dsedala, Watson, Fiji Is. 610 fathoms. 
Related in general form to Trochocochlea, but strongly distin- 
guished by its reflected lip. 

CALLOGAZA, Dall. Resembling Gaza, but tlie umbilical callus 
is only partly reflected over the umbilicus, the pillar is straight, 
not mucronate, and the nacreous layer is overlaid hy a thin, 
porcellanous layer and a delicate epidermis. 2 sp. West 
Indies. T. superba^ Dall. 

MicROGAZA, Dall. Shell flattened, rotelliform, resembling a 
Gaza without reflected lip or umbilical callus, brilliantly nacreous 
when fresh, and having a distinctly scalariform umbilicus. West 
Indies. T. rotella, Dall. 

MONODONTA, Lam. (Labio, Phil.) Shell oval or conoidal, not 

umbilicated ; aperture rounded, angulated behind ; columella 

arcuiited, truncated nt the base, nnd (ermiuating in a tooth with 

channeled side; whorls with revolving ribletf% which are usually 

21 



314 TROCHID^. 

tuberculate ; outer lip thickened and denticulated within. 6 sp. 
Indo-Pacific. T. australis^ Lam. (Ixxxi, 58). 

CRASPEDOTUS, Phil. (Otavia, Gray. Olivia, Cantraine. Danilia, 
Brusina.) Shell subconoidal, not umbilicated ; whorls convex, 
tuherculated in spiral series or cancellated ; columella twisted, 
forming- a false umbilicus and presenting a strong tooth entering 
the aperture ; outer lip sillonated within, and having an external 
varix. 2 sp. Mediterranean, N. Caledonia. 

EUCHELUS, Phil. (Aradasia, Gray.) Shell conoidal, turbinate, 
umbilicated ; whorls rounded with granulated revolving ribs ; 
columella lamellarly produced into a central tooth ; outer lip 
thickened and crenulated within. Opercular whorls rather few, 
rapidly increasing. 11 sp. Indo-Pacific. T. canaliculatvs 
(Ixxxi', 59). 

HUTTONiA, Kirk, 1882. Shell turbinated, subglobose ; perforate 
or imperforate ; columella with a deep notch at the anterior end ; 
outer lip thickened and crenated internally. Di.str. — 3 sp. New 
Zealand. T. bella, Kirk. Distinguished from Euchelus by 
having a deep notch instead of a small tooth on the front of the 
columella. 

PERRiNiA, H. and A. Adams. Shell trochiform, with flattened, 
cancellated whorls ; aperture subquadrangular ; columella neai'ly 
straight, with a few posterior tubercles; outer lip subcrenulated 
within. P. angulifera, Adams. 

CLANCULUS, Montfort. Shell conoidal or turbinated, not umbil- 
icated ; whorls mostly granulous; aperture contracted ; columella 
spirally twisted, forming a false umbilicus, plicated throughout 
and terminating in a multidentate varix ; outer lip dentated 
within, with sometimes a larger superior tooth. 32 sp. Indo- 
Pacific, Mediterranean. T. puniceus, Phil. (Ixxxi, 60 . 

CAMJTiA, Gray. Shell depressed, polished, not umbilicated ; 
whorls rounded ; aperture transverse ; columella much twisted 
and produced anteriorly into a lamella, ending in a tooth ; outer 
lip smooth within. T. vifeUimis, Gould (Ixxxi, 61). 

LEUCORHYNCHIA, Crosse. Shell perforated, polished, few- 
whoi'led ; aperture rounded, not pearly ; basal margin callously 
produced across the base of the shell beyond the umbilicus, but 
without closing it. T. Caledonica^ Crosse (Ixxxi, 71). 

OXYSTELE, Philippi. Shell depressed conoidal, smooth, not 
umbilicated ; umbilical region covered by a shining callous expan- 
sion of the columella; columella flattened, curved anteriorly to 
ioin the outer lip. 5 sp. Australian seas. T. merula^ Chemn. 
(Ixxxi, 62 \ 

ATAPHRUS, Gabb. Shell form of Oxystele, but the columellar 
lip anteriorly grooved, the groove terminating in a tubercle 
above. Cretaceous; North Carolina, California. T. A'erri, Gabb 
(Ixxxi, 63). i-.i,- -A-.-. ■ 



TROCHID^. 315 

TROCHiscus, Sowb. (Norrisi.i, B.-iyle.) Shell thick, conoidal, 
orbicular, covered by an epidermis, smooth ; widely umbilicated, 
umbilicus surrounded by the callous extension of the columella; 
outer lip not thickened or sculptured within. Operculum with 
the edges of the whorls elevated, scaly. T. Norrisii^ Sowb, 
(Ixxxi, 64). West Coast of North America. 

DiLOMA, Philippi. Shell conoidal, smooth, not umbilicated ; 
whorls rather few, convex ; aperture subrotund ; columellar lip 
excavated in the middle and expanded over the tirabilical region, 
produced laterally to join the outer lip ; outer lip thin, unarmed. 
12 sp. Pacific. '7'. ^thiops, Gmel. 

PHOTiNULA, H. and A. Adams. Shell orbicular, heliciform, sub- 
depressed, not umbilicated ; spire acute ; whorls with revolving 
lines, smooth, polished ; umbilical region covered by callus ; colu- 
mellar lip thick, outer lip not thickened, smooth within. 2 sp. 
South Seas. T. tseniata^ Wood (Ixxxi, 65). 

CHRYSOSTOMA, Swainson. Shell very thick, globular-turbinated, 
polished ; spire small, body-whorl lai'ge, rounded ; margin of 
aperture thick, especiall}' on the columella ; umbilicus covered 
by a callosity. 1 sp. Indo-Pacific. T. Nicoharicus (Ixxxi, 66). 

LiOTRocHUs, Fischer. Not characterized. T. callosus, Koch. 

Margarita, Leach. 

Distr. — 20 sp. Boreal, under stones and sea-weed near low- 
water. M. helicina, Fabr. (Ixxxi, 67). 

Shell thin, globular-conical, umbilicated ; whorls rounded, 
smooth; aperture rounded, pearly ; lip sharp, smooth. 

BEMBix, Watson. Shell elevated, conical, carinate, base inflated, 
umbilicated, thin, pearl}', epidermis thin, membranaceous. M. 
seola, Watson. Japan. 

MACHiEROPLAx, Fricle. Shell more or less conoidal, distinctly 
umbilicated, unicolored, variously sculptured ; aperture suban- 
gulated, peristome interrupted. Operculum corneous. M. striata^ 
Lench (Ixxxi, 68). 

SOLARIELLA, S. Wood. With large crenated umbilicus. Fossil, 
Crag of England ; recent, one California species. M. peramahilis, 
Carp. 

MARGABiTELLA, Meek and Hayden. Shell subdiscoidal or nearly 
lenticular, thin; nacre of interior bright ; umbilicus large, deep, 
and entirely without crenate margins; volutions narrow, very 
much depressed, the last one sharply angular around the per- 
iphery, and obtusely subangular around the umbilicus; aperture 
transversely rhombic ; lip thin and simple; surface cancellately 
striated in the tj'^pical species. Cretaceous ; United States. M. 
Jle.TtHtriata, Evans and Shumard (Ixxxi, 69, 70). 

ENIDA, Adams, 1860. Whorls ornnmentcd with spiral and 
'o(iuamous stride, sutures canaliculated, last whorl carinated at 



3 1 fi STOMATELLID^, 

the periphery ; inner lip somewhat expanded, and in the middle 
reflexed ; umbilical margin crenulated. The group is founded 
upon three species from Japan ; cretaceous and tertiary species 
occur. It is doubtfully distinct from Solariella. M. Japonica, 
A. Ad. 

UMBONELLA, A. Ad. Shell globosely conoidal, solid, porcel- 
lanous, polished, narrowly umbilicated ; aperture subquadrate, 
the margin simple, a little dilated in front ; umbilicus narrow, 
margin crenulately rugose. M. murrea^ Reeve. Japan. 

YiTRINELLA, C. B. Ad. 

Distr. — 18 sp. W. Coast Centr. Am., West Indies. V. ano- 
mala, d'Orb. (Ixxxi, 12\ 

Shell minute, depressed turbiniform, widely umbilicated; aper- 
ture large, rounded. 

VALVATELLA, Gray. Shell conic ; whorls rounded, with laminar 
periostraca ; axis imperforate ; aperture circular, peristome simple. 
V. Groenlandica, Gray. 

BATHYMOPHiLA, Dall. When young umbilicated like Margarita, 
but the nearly adult has a broad, flattened, minutely granulated 
pillar, with a polished small tubercle at its end ; the adult has 
this tubercle enlarged, forming a blunt tooth, with granulated 
surface. M. eusjnra, Dall. W. Indies. 



? Clisospira, Billings, 1865. 

DMr. — 0. c;/?-msffl, Billings. Silur. ; Canada. 

Trochiform, surface reticulated; aperture widely expanded all 
round in a plane Avhich is at a right-angle (or nearly so ) to the 
longitudinal axis of the spire, the latter conical. The cavity 
occupied by the animal appears to be, at least in the lower part, 
not spirally coiled, as in the ordinary gastropods, but straight 
and central, with the lip spread out all round, trumpet-like. There 
is some evidence that towards the apex of the spire it is spirallj'^ 
coiled. 

Position uncertain ; may be more nearly allied to Trochita. 

Family STOMATELLID^. ■ 

Shell paucispiral, auriform, the last whorl rapidly enlarging 
to the aperture, nacreous within. Operculum, when present, 
corneous, multispiral. 

Animal too large to entirely enter the shell. 

Stomatella, Lam. 

Etym. — Diminutive of stoma, the aperture. 

Distr. — 33 sp. Cape, India, North Australia, China, Japan, 
Philippines. »S'. imbrwata. Lam. (Ixxx,-73). S. (Juminrjii, A. 
Ad. "(Ixxxi, 74). ' 



STOMATELLlDiE. 317 

Shell ear-shaped, regular ; spire small; aperture oblong, very 
large and oblique, nacreous ; lip thin, even-edged. Operculum 
circular, horny, raultispiral. On reefs and under stones at low- 
water. 

Stomatia, Helbing. 

Etym. — Stoma, the aperture. 

Distr. — 12 sp. Java, Philippines, Torres Straits, Pacific. 
Under stones at low-water. — Cuming. Fossil: M. d'Orbigny 
refers to this genus 18 species, ranging from the L. Silurian to 
the chalk. North America, Europe. 

Shell like Haliotis, but without perforations, their place being 
occupied by a simple furrow; surface rugose, spirally ridged ; spire 
small, prominent ; aperture large, oblong, outer margin irregular. 

Animal spiral, too large entirely to enter the shell; frontal 
lobes digitated, foot large, tubercular, greatly produced behind, 
lateral membrane fringed, ending anteriorly on the left side in a 
fimbriated crest under the eye-pedicel, and on the right in a 
slightly projecting fold or gutter leading to the respiratory 
cavity. Operculum, none. 

Stomatia, like Harpa and some nudibranchs, has the power 
of spontaneousl}^ throwing off the hind -part of the foot when 
the animal is irritated, and Gena exhibits the same peculiarity; 
specimens in spirits have the foot usually truncated from this 
cause. Most numerous at the Philippines, on coral reefs, but 
also found under stones at low-water. 

MicROTiNA, H. and A. Adams. (Microtis, A. Ad.) Shell sub- 
orbicular, depressed, spire but slightlj' developed ; whorls with 
two small tuberculated ribs ; columellar lip twisted ; aperture 
transversely oval. No operculum. Animal as in Stomatia, but 
the foot with a deep anterior fissure for the head, and with the 
front edge bilobed. 2 sp. Philippines, New Caledonia. S. tuher- 
culata, Ads. (Ixxxi, T5). 

NiPHONiA, Adams. Shell like Stomatella, but very thin ; colu- 
mellar lip internally thickened, and gradually passing into the 
outer lip. S. pulchella, A. Ad. Japan. 

GENA, Gra3\ Shell subspiral, oblong, auriform, depressed, 
smooth or striated; spire flattened, nearly obsolete; aperture 
very large. No operculum. Animal with the front lobes 
plumose; foot very large, tubercular, posteriorly produced; 
lateral membrane not fringed, more or less extended, and par- 
tially covering the shell. 16 sp. Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Phil- 
ippines, Australia. S. striatula, Ads. dxxxi, 76% 

Phaneta, H. Adams. 
Distr. — P. Everetti^ H. Adams (Ixxxi, 77, 78). Siniwan River, 
Borneo ; attached to submerged logs. 

Shell imperforate, troehiform ; few-whorled, the last carinated. 



318 PLEUROTOMARIIDiE. 

expanded, with depressed base; aperture large, rounded, sub- 
sinuated behind, pearly within ; columella revolute, acute ; lip 
simple. 

Apparently not an operculated shell. The whole appearance, 
especially the pearly interior, reminds one of the Trochidse, and 
Mr. Adams is evidently mistaken in referring it as he does to 
the family Valvatidae. 

Broderipia, Gray. 

Etym. — Named in honor of W. J. Broderip, Esq., the distin- 
guished conchologist. 

Distr. — 3 species. Philippines, Grimwood's Island, South 
Seas. — Cuming. B. iridesceiis, Brod. (Ixxxi, 19, 80). 

Shell minute, limpet-shaped, with a posterior submarginal^ 
non-spiral apex ; aperture oval, as large as the shell, brilliantly 
nacreous. 

A^ELAINELLA, Vasseur. 

Etym. — Named after Charles Velain, a French naturalist. 

Distr. — V. columnaris, Vasseur (Ixxiii, 5). Eocene; Nantes, 
France. 

Shell spiral, dextral, extremely elongated, thick and solid, 
nacreous within ; aperture oval-oblique, peritreme continuous, 
left margin with a slight columellar swelling. 

The nacreous interior brings this into the Trochida^, but it is 
very distinct from any of the jDreceding forms. 

Family PLEUROTOMARIID^. 

Shell more or less conically elevated, turreted or trochiform, 
with a marginal slit in the upper part of the outer lip, or a row 
of perforations in the upper part of the whorl ; aperture pearly 
within. 

Pleurotomaria, Defrance. 

Etym. — Pleura, side, and tome, a notch. 

Distr. — 4 sp. West Indies, Moluccas, Japan. PI. Qiwyana, 
Fischer and Bcrnardi (Ixxxii, 84). Fossil, 400 sp. Cambrian to 
Cretaceous; North America, Europe, Australia. 

Specimens from clay strata retain their nacreous inner layers; 
those from the chalk and limestones have lost them, or they 
are replaced by crystalline spar. Pleurotomariae with wavy 
bands of color have been obtained in the carb. limestone of Lan- 
cashire. In this extensive group there are some species which 
rival the living turbines in magnitude and solidity, whilst others 
are as frail as lanthina. 

Shell trochiform, solid, few-whorled, with the surface variously 
ornamented ; aperture subquadrate, with a deep slit in its outer 



PLEUKOTOMAKIlDiE. 319 

margin. The part of the slit which has been progressively filled 
up forms a band round the whorls. 

PTYCHOMPHALUS, Agass. (Cryptasnia, Desl.) Helieiform or 
trochiform shells, with an almost smooth surface, a thick callosity 
covering the umbilical region and a distinct band on the posterior 
portion of the whorls, terminating at the aperture with a short 
slit, sometimes a simple fokl. The smooth surface and umbilical 
callosity distinguish it from other Pleurotomariae. Species 
numerous. Liassic to Cretaceous. P. atriatus, Sowb. (Ixxxii, 86). 

LEPTOMARiA, Dcsl., 1865. Shell subturbinate, rather thin, gen- 
erally ornamented with very numerous, subequal spiral striae, band 
very narrow, placed near the middle of the whorls, slit in the 
outer lip very deep, axis solid or hollowed out. Mostly creta- 
ceous to tertiarj'. P. amcena, Desl. 

MuRCHisoNiA, d'Archiac. 

Etym. — Named in honor of Sir Roderick I, Murchison. 

Distr. — Fossil, 50 sp. L. Silurian to Permian ; North America, 
Europe. M. intermedia^ Vei-neuil (Ixxxii, 86'. 

Shell elongated, many-whorled ; whorls variously sculptured, 
and zoned like Pleurotomaria ; aperture slightly channeled in 
fi'ont ; outer lip deeply notched. 

The Murchisoniae are characteristic fossils of the palaeozoic 
rocks ; they have been compared to elongated Pleurotomariae, 
or to Cerithia with notched apertures ; the first suggestion is 
most probably correct. 

MURCHisON[ELLA, Morch. A single living species is referred to 
this uncharacterized group. West Indies. 

DISOTEKA, Gardner, 1880. Differs from Murchisonia in having 
two slit-bands. Cret. ; England. 

PoRCELLiA, Leveille. 

Dintr. — 10 sp. U. Silurian to Trias. Europe. P. Puzo, Lev. 
(Ixxxii, 87). 

Shell symmetrical, discoidal or planorbiforra ; periphei'y with 
a deep, marginal slit. 

POLYTREMARIA, d'Orb. 

Syn. — Trochotremaria, Ryckh. 

Distr. — Carboniferous ; Belgium. P. catenata^ Kon. (Ixxxii, 88^. 
Shell turbinated, helieiform, periphery pierced b^' a line of 
non-tubular perforations. 

Catantostoma, Sandberger. 
Distr. — Devonian, Trias. C. clathratum, Sandb. (Ixxxii, 89). 
Shell turbinate, helieiform or bulimiform ; last whorl deflected ; 
the peristome incomplete, irregular, slightly varicose on the last 



320 PLEUROTOMARIID^. 

whorl. At the place where this is deflected thei'e is au elongated, 
kidnej^-shaped perforation surrounded b3^ somewhat thickened 
margins ; another small perforation is found about the centre of 
the basis, but in the outer lip it is likewise surrounded with a 
raised margin. 

? Brilonella, Kayser, 

Distr. — B. serpens^ Kayser. Devonian ; Germany. 

Last whorl unwound and deflected upwards, so that the mouth 
lays upon the top of the spire ; otherwise like Pleurotomaria. 

Odontomaria, Roemer. 
Distr. — 0. eZep/ian^ma, Roemer. Devonian; Eifel. 
Shell not spiral, extended-tubular, somewhat curved ; mouth 
with slit terminating an external band. 

Trochotoma, Lycett. 

Etym. — Troc/ius, and tome, a notch. 

Syn. — Ditremaria, d'Oi'b. Rimulus, d'Orb. 

Distr. — Fossil, 10 sp. Lias to Coral Rag; Britain, France, 
etc. T. Humhertina, d'Orb. (Ixxxii, 90). 

Shell trochiform , slightly concave beneath ; whorls flat, spirally 
striated, rounded at the outer angles ; lip with a single per- 
foration near the margin. 

Temnotropis, Laube. 

Distr. — T. carinatus, Goldfuss. Trias; St. Cassian. 

Shell ear-shaped, with I'apidly enlarging keeled whorls, and a 
very large oval aperture ; outer lip sharp with a deep slit, ter- 
minating a slit-band on the keel. 

Ditremaria, Deslongc. 

Distr. — 2 sp. Great Oolite and Coral Rag ; France and 
Germany. D. quinquecincta, Ziet. (Ixxxii, 91). 

Shell trochiform ; in place of the slit of Trochotoma, there 
are two elongated oval holes united by a transverse fissure; the 
base of the shell presents a large callosity, the umbilicus is deeply 
excavated, and a round tubercle arises from it ; the aperture is 
contracted, and the upper angle of each lip bears a more or less 
distinct tooth. 

ScHiSMOPE, Jeffrej^s, 1856. 

Etym. — Schisme, a slit, and ope, a hole. 

Syn. — Woodwardia, Fischer, 1861. 

Distr. — 4 sp. Mediterranean, Japan. Fossil, 1 sp. Miocene; 
Bordeaux. 

Shell like Scissurella, but the spire is laterally compressed, as 
in Stomatia, and is not so trochiform. The slit in the peristome 



PLEUROTOMARIIDiE. 321 

of the young shell is converted into a foramen in the adult ; it 
does not commence until the animal is half-grown. 

S. striatula, Ph., is a littoral species, whilst all the species of 
Scissurella inhabit deep water. 

Scissurella and Schismope are the analogues respectively to 
Pleurotomaria and Trochotoma, differing only in size ; but in the 
two former genera the shell is translucent, not nacreous, as in 
the two latter. 

Scissurella, d'Orbigny, 

Etym. — Diminutive of scissus, slit. 

iiyn. — Anatomus, Montfort. 

Distr. — Europe, 5 living, 4 tertiary species. S. Bertheloti, 
Webb (Ixxxii, 92). 

Shell minute, thin, not pearly; body-whorl large ; spire small; 
surface striated ; aperture rounded, with a slit in the margin of 
the outer lip ; operculate. The young have no slit. 

Animal like Margarita; tentacles long, pectinated, with the 
eyes at their base ; foot with two pointed lappets and two long, 
slender pectinated cirri on each side. Operculum ovate, very 
thin, with an obscure subspiral nucleus. 

No part of the animal is external to the shell. A living 
example occurred at Hammerfest, in 40-80 fathoms of water ; 
when placed in a glass of sea-water it crawled up the side and 
scraped the glass with its tongue. It w^as pale and translucent 
when living, but turned inky black after immersion in alcohol. 

scHizoTROCHUS, Montcrosato. Operculum very thin ; shell 
trochoidal. S. crispata (Ixxxii, 93). 

Seguenzia, Jeffreys*. 

Distr. — 4 sp. Azores, W. Indies, Pernambuco. 718-1000 fms. 
S. formosa, Jeffrej^s (Ixxxii, 94). 

Shell globular or conical, glossy, without epidermis, exqui- 
sitely sculptured ; upper part of the last whorl deeply and widely 
grooved ; pillar abruptly notched below, and exhibiting a small 
tooth-like process ; base either deeply umbilicated or imper- 
forate. 

Differs from the other genera by having a broad sutural slit, 
instead of on the periphery. Operculum very thin, paucispiral. 

Basilissa, Watson. 

Distr 7 sp. Pacific, W. Indies, Canaries, off La Plata, etc., 

at considerable depths. 7?. lampra^ Watson. 

Shell conical, carinate, umbilicate, pearly, last whorl sinuate 
above ; columella straight, thin, excavated above, angulate but 
scarcely dentate below ; aperture rhomboidal, the margin not 
continuous nor joined by palatal callus. 

The sinus is wide, open, shallow, not deep-cleft as in Seguenzia, 



o32 BELLEROPHONTlDiE. 

and it lacks the sharp tooth on the piilar with strongly marked 
sinus above and below it, of that genus. 

Specimens were obtained by the Challenger expedition at 
depths varying from 390 to 1900 fathoms. 

Family BELLEROPHONTID.E. 

Shell globular, nautiliform, symmetrically convoluted ; per- 
iphery carinated or sulcated, ending in a slit of the middle portion 
of the outer lip. 

A large group of palaeozoic fossils, the natural relations of 
which are very doubtful. They have been placed with the Cepha- 
lopoda, BullidfB, Pteropoda, etc., but the slit shell appears to 
indicate closer affinities with the Pleurotomariidae, and the best 
modern systematists place them in the vicinity of that famih'. 

Bellerophon, Montfort, 1808. 

Syn. — Microceras. Hall. 

])Utr. — 150 sp. Cambrian to Carb. ; North America, Europe, 
Australia, India. B. striatas, d'Arch. (Ixxxii, 95). 

Shell symmetrically convoluted, globular, or discoidal, strong, 
few-whorled ; whorls often sculptured ; dorsally keeled ; aperture 
sinuated and deeply notched on the dorsal side. 

Microceras, Hall, appears to be founded on the embryonic 
volutions of a Bellerophon. 

WARTHiA, Waagen, 1880. Smooth, globular, not umbilicated, 
without slit-band, and having a tolerably deep rounded sinuosity 
on the outer lip ; inner lip only very slightly callous. Fossil, 
Salt Range, India. B. brevisinuata, Waagen (Ixxxii, 96, 91). 

MOGULiA, Waagen, 1880. (ylobular, without well-developed' 
slit-band ; mouth oval, outer lip with a shallow angular emargi- 
nation, inner lip callous ; no spiral sculpture. B. regulariti^ 
Waagen (Ixxxii, 98, 99). Carboniferous; India. Possibly = 
Warthia. 

PATELLOSTiUM, Waagen, 1880. Mouth very much expanded 
and the lips spread out patella-like, the inner lip not being cut 
out where it touches the preceding volution. Bell, macrostoma, 
Proem. Bell, megalosf.oma, Eichw. 

WAAGENiA, L. G. de Koninck, 1882. Shell subglobular, usually 
a little highey than wide, and slightly compressed on the sides ; 
whorls completely embracing, leaving no trace of umbilical 
opening, that region being covered with a callus which appears 
to have been deposited by a special organ, of which the related 
genera ai'e deprived ; slit-band narrow, a little inflated ; surface 
covered with small imbricated plications or tine lines of growth, 
and showing a pattern of coloring. Distinguished from Bellero- 
phon by the umbilical callus. Distr. — 3 sp. Carboniferous ; 
Europe. W. Ferussaci, d'Orb. 



BELLEROPHONTIDiE. 323 

BucANiA, Hall, 1847. 

Syn. — Phragmostoma, Hall, 1862. Centrotheca, Salter. 

Shell planorbiform, the whorls exposed equally above and 
below, with revolving striae ; last whorl much enlarged at the 
aperture. Silur., Carb. B. expansa, Hall (Ixxxii, 100, 1). 

BUCANELLA, Meek. Shell without slit-band. 

TROPiDODiscus, Meek. Strongly- compressed, disciform, widely 
umbilicated, with a high keel and very short incision in the outer 
lip ; callosity on the inner lip very little developed. Silur., Carb. 
B. curvilineata, Conr. (Ixxxii, 2, 3). 

TREMANOTUS, Hall, 1864. (Salpingostoma, Roemer, 1876.) Like 
Bucania, but in place of the slit-band, a row of oval openings on 
the last whorl. Mouth strongly expanded. Silurian. 2\alphei(S, 
Hall. 

TUBiNA, Barrande, 1868. Like Tremanotus, but with three 
rows of openings instead of one, on which long hollow tubes are 
placed. Mouth very little expanded. Silurian ; Bohemia. 

EUPHEMUS, M'Coy, 1844. Umbilicus absent or small, shell 
with spiral folds, not continued on the last whorl, aperture 
slightly contracted, lip sometimes emarginate, no distinct slit- 
band, Carb.; Gt. Brit., Salt Range, India. B. (Euphemus) 
Indicus, Waagen (Ixxxii, 4). 

TROPIDOCYCLUS, Koninck, 1882. T. curvilineatus, Conr. 

STACHELLA, Waagen, 1880. More or less globular, smooth, 
unsynimetrical, mostly umbilicated on one side and with a closed 
umbilicus on the other ; slit-band distinct, but superficial, slit 
shallow. Fossil. Salt Range, India. B. bifrons, Waagen 
(Ixxxii, 5, 6}. 

PHRAGMOSTOMA, Hall, 1861. Mouth much expanded, with the 
slit forming a sinus ; slit-band well marked ; inner lip expanded 
into a septum. Devon.; New York. Is very closely related to 
Carinaropsis, Hall. 

Bellergphina, d'Orb. 

Distr. — Cretaceous; Europe. B. Ftft/'o/yt, d'Orb. (Ixxxii, 7). 

Shell subsymmetrical, globular, the whorls embracing as in 
Bellerophon, but without sinus ; sides slightly unequal, the spire- 
whorls perceptible above, while below the umbilicus is very 
narrow. 

Carinaropsis, Hall. 

Distr. — Fossil, 2 sp. Silurian; America. G . carinato ,Hk\\. 

Shell having a patelloid aspect. Spire usually attenuated ; 
body-whorl expanded abruptly ; cavity shallow, presenting a 
kind of septum as in Crepidula. 

Cyrtolites, Conrad. 
Etym. — Kurtos^ curved, lithos, stone. 

Distr.— Fossil, 13 sp. L. Silur.—, Carb.; N. Am., Eur. C. 
ornatiis, Conrad. 



324 MACLUREID^ — HALIOTID^. 

Shell thin, symmetrical, horn-shaped or discoidal, with whorls 
more or less separate, keeled and scnlptnred. 

CYRTONELLA, Hall, 1879. Shell ovoid, trumpet-shaped; volu- 
tions one or more in the same plane ; apex minute, making about 
a single turn, and rapidly expanding beyond, peristome entire ; 
dorsum angular or subcarinate ; surface sculptured. C. mitella, 
Hall. Devon.; N.Y. 

Family MACLUREID^. 

Maclurea, Lesueur. 

Etym. — Named after William Maclure, the first American 
geologist. 

Disfr. — Fossil, 12 sp. Palaeozoic; North America, Scotland 
(Ayrshire, M'Coy). M. Logani, Salter Ixxxii, 8, 9). M. magna, 
Lesueur (Ixv, 10). 

Shell discoidal, few-whorled, longitudinally grooved at the 
back, and slightly rugose with lines of growth ; dextral side 
convex, deepl}' and narrowly perforated ; left side flat, exposing 
the inner whorls. Operculum sinistrally subspiral, solid, with 
two internal projections, one of them beneath the nucleus, very 
thick and rugose. 

This singular shell abounds in the " Chazy " limestone of the 
United States and Canada ; sections of it may be seen even in 
the pavement of New York. " We are indebted to Sir W. E. 
Logan, of the Geological Survey, Canada, for the opportunity 
of examining a large series of silicified specimens, and of figuring 
a perfect shell, with its operculum in situ. It has more the 
aspect of a bivalve, such as Requienia Lonsdalii, than of a spiral 
univalve, but has no hinge. Many of the specimens are over- 
grown with a zoophj^te, generally on the convex side only,rarel3^ 
on both sides. 

"The Maclurea has been described as sinistral; but its oper- 
culum is that of a dextral shell ; so that the spire must be 
regarded as deeply sunk and the umbilicus expanded, as in cer- 
tain species of Planorbis ; unless it is a case conversely parallel 
to Atlanta, in which both shell and operculum have dextral 
nuclei. The affinities of Maclurea can only be determined by 
careful examination and comparison with allied, but less abnormal 
forms, associated with it in the oldest fossiliferous rocks ; its rela- 
tion to Euomphalus (p. 218) is not supported by the evidence of 
Sir W. Logan's specimens." — Woodward. 

Family HALIOTID^. 

Shell spiral, ear-shaped, with a greatly expanded, flattened 
body-whorl, and large basal aperture ; dorsally perforated in a 



HALIOTID^. 325 

single spiral series ; interior pearly, with a large central muscular 
scar. No operculum. 

Animal with a short muzzle and subulate tentacles ; ej'es on 
pedicels at the outer bases of the tentacles ; branchial plumes 2 ; 
mantle-margin with a posterior (anal) fold or siphon, occupying 
the slit or perforation in the shell. Operculum lobe rudimen- 
tary ; lingual dentition similar to Trochus. 

The species are remarkable for the beauty and variety of their 
shells and are mostly tropical in distribution. One small species 
is eaten by the inhabitants of the Channel Islands (Gt. Britain), 
and others are important articles of diet in China, Japan, and 
among the Chinese settled in California. The shells are largely 
used for the manufacture of mother-of-pearl ornaments and for 
inlaying in papier-mache work. 

Haliotis, Linn. 

Ear-shell. Etym. — Halios, marine, and oi/.s (oto.s), an ear. 

Distr. — 75 sp. Britain, Canaries, Cape, India, China, Aus- 
tralia, New Zealand, Pacific, California. Fossil, 4 sp. Creta- 
ceous. H. Midse. Linn. (Ixxxiii, 10). H. gigantea, Chemn. 
(Ixxxiii, 11). 

Shell ear-shaped, with a small flat spire; aperture very wide, 
iridescent; exterior striated, dull ; outer angle perfoi'ated b}- a 
series of holes, those of the spire progressively closed. 

Animal with fimbriated head-lobes ; side-lobes fimbriated and 
cirrated ; foot very large, rounded. Lingual teeth, median 
small; laterals single, beam-like; uncini about seventy, with 
denticulated hooks, the first four very large, 

DERIDOBRANCHUS, Ehrenberg, Shell large and thick, like 
Haliotis, but entirely covered by the thick, hard, plaited mantle 
of the animal. 1). argifs. Red Sea. 

TEINOTTS, H. and A. Adams. Shell depressed, elongated, ear- 
shaped ; spire small, and placed posteriori}^ ; hinder part of the 
foot in the animal stretches far over the shell. 2 sp. East 
Indies. H. asivina, Linn. (Ixxxiii, 12). 

PADOLLUS, Montfort. A strong, rounded, spiral rib within the 
line of perforations, and forming a spiral sulcus inside the shell. 
Form rounded-oval, with rather large, sublateral spire. //. tri- 
costalis, Linn. (Ixxxiii, 13). 

SULCULUS, H, and A. Adams. Very like Padollus, having the 
same dorsal rib, but the form of the shell is more elongated, and 
the spire smaller and subterminal. H. Janns^ Reeve (Ixxxiii, 14). 

Suborder EDRIOPTHALMA. 

Shell conical, not spiral, porcellanous. No operculum. Eyes 
sessile. 



^2(1 FISSURELLm^. 

Family FISSURELLIDJE. 

Shell conical, limpet-shaped ; apex recurved ; nucleus spiral, 
often disappearing in the coarse of growth ; anterior margin 
notched or apex perforated ; muscular impression horseshoe- 
shaped, open in front. 

Tongue with a central median tooth, five denticulated uncini, 
and numerous slender, hooked laterals. Body broad and conical. 
Head with a short, wide muzzle ; tentacles subulate, with the 
eyes on slightly elevated tubercles at their external bases. 
Mantle-margin fissured in front, the free edges forming an anal 
siphon occupying the anterior fissure, or perforation in the apex 
of the shell ; gills two, symmetrical, on the back of the neck. 
Foot dilated, sides with the upper part furnished with a series 
of short cirri or rudimentary filaments. Operculum none. 
Phytophagous and littoral. The nucleus of the shell is always 
spiral, although in the adult the shell assumes a conic form ; in 
some genera there is a rudimentary spire in the young state, 
which disappears in the course of growth. 

FissuRELLA, Lam. 

Etym. — Diminutive of Jissura, a slit. 

Dutr. — 125 sp. Universal, but mostly in warm seas. Fossil, 
30 sp. Carboniferous — . F. picta, Gmel. (Ixxxiii, 15). 

Shell oval, conical, depressed, with the apex in front of the 
ct;ntre, and perforated ; surface radiated or cancellated ; muscu- 
lar impression with the points incurved. 

In very young shells the apex is entire and subspiral ; but as 
the perforation increases in size, it encroaches on the summit, 
and gradually removes it. The key-hole limpets are locomotive; 
returning, however, to their accustomed station, the rocky sur- 
face of which is worn into an impression corresponding with the 
outline of the shell. 

CREMiDES, H. and A. Adams. Surface rugose, muricated or 
cancellated; the lip denticulated. F. nodosa, Born (Ixxxiii, 16). 

nssuRiDEA, Swainson. Shell subconic, capuliform, the poste- 
rior summit narrowly perforated. F. pileopsoides, Keeve 
(Ixxxiv, 30 \ 

LUCAPINA, Gray. Shell oval-oblong, conic, depressed, cancel- 
lated ; summit subcentral, the oval opening surrounded by a 
callus; margin crenulated. F. crenulata, 8ov/h. (Ixxxiii, 1*7). 

Mantle-margin fimbriated, reflexed more or less over the 
edges of the shell. This group includes all those reticulated 
and cancellated forms generally referred to Fissurella, which 
have the margin of the aperture crenulated, and in which the 
perforation, internally, is transversely truncate and sometimes 
slightly concamerated. 



PI8SURELLTD.E. 327 

GLYPHis, Carpenter. (Capiluna, Gray.) Animal with the 
edge of the mantle fimbriated, and covering the margin of the 
shell. Shell with the surface cancellated, the margin crennlated, 
callosity often truncate, sometimes laminated. Young shell 
Rimuliform, with the spire absorbed in the increasing aperture. 
F. insequalis, Sowb. 

CLYPIDELLA, Swainsou. Shell oval, rugose, slightly elevated, 
truncated at the anterior extremity ; perforation large, subcen- 
tral or somewhat anterior. Mantle-margin double, the edges 
scalloped and fringed, covering the sides of the shell; anal 
siphon surrounded b}^ a fimbriated membrane; foot large, fleshy 
and tubercular, with a series of rudimentary, tentacular filaments 
on the sides near the fore-part. F. pustulata, Lam. Ixxxiv, 31). 

FissuRELLiD^A, d'Orb. Shell small relative to the size of the 
animal, depressed ; perforation large, oval, central, with a callous 
border on the inner face ; margin smooth. Mantle greatly devel- 
oped, thickened at the edges and nearly covering the shell ; foot 
very large and elongated. F. hiantula^ Lam. (Ixxxiii, 18). 

MACROSCHiSMA, Swaiuson. Shell square-oval, roughly rayed, 
truncate at the end ; perforation very large, subtriangular, elon- 
gated. Animal large, larviform, greatly elongated, with the 
shell situated towards the posterior end. F. maxima^ Ads, 
(Ixxxiii, 19'. 

PUPiLLA, Gra}'. Shell depressed, nearly smooth ; perforation 
large, subcentral, oblong; margin white. Mantle coriaceous, 
entirely covering the shell, orifice of anal siphon small, oblong, 
at the anterior third ; foot granulated, shorter than the mantle. 
The shell may be readily known by the sharp-edged, white 
border, which is received into the integument of the animal like 
one of the valves of a Chiton. It is an inhabitant of South 
Africa. F. apertura, Born (Ixxxiii, 20). 

RiMULA, Defrance. 

Etym. — Diminutive of rima, a fissure. Syn. — Rimularia. 

Distr. — Several species found on sandy mud at low-water, or 
dredged in from 10 to 25 fathoms. Philippines. — Cuming. 
Fossil, 3 species. Bath Oolite to Coral Rag ; Britain and France. 
a. exquiHita, Ads. (Ixxxiv, 32). 

Shell thin and cancellated, with a perforation near the anterior 
margin. 

PUNCTURELLA, Lowe. (Cemoria, Leach. Diadora, Gray.) 
Shell conical, elevated, with the apex recurved ; perforation in 
front of the apex, with a raised border (septum) internally; 
surface cancellated. Mantle-margin simple, anal siphon promi- 
nent, tubular, with six papillae in front and four behind ; foot 
with a rudimentary opercuiigerous lobe. Dislr. — 6 sp. Green- 
land, Boreal America, Norway, Xurth Britain, Terra del Fuego. 



328 nSSURELLID^. 

In 20 to 100 fathoms water. Fossil, in the glacial formations of 
North Britain, R. Noachina, Linn. (Ixxxiv, 33). 

CRANOPSis, Adams. Fissure about the middle of the anterior 
side ; an internal vaulted chamber over the foramen, resembling 
that of Functurella, Gr. pelex, Adams (Ixxxiv, 34, 35), from 
the China seas, is the type, and one or two additional species 
have been since described. 

SEMPERiA, Crosse. (Named after M. 0. Semper, of Altona.) 
Shell conical, apex posteinorly recurved, anteriorly fissured ; the 
fissure is marginal in the young shell, but in the adult the margins 
grow around it so that it becomes subdorsal, or separated from 
the margin externally, though connected with it internally by a 
channel. Embraces at different growth-stages characters of 
Rimula, Emarginula, Clypidina. 2 sp. Madeira. Fossil ; Paris 
basin. *S'. elegans, Crosse (Ixxxiv, 36). 

Emarginula, Lam. 

Etym. — Diminutive of emarginata, notched. 

Syn. — Nesta, H. Adams. 

Distr. — 40 sp. West Indies, Britain, Norway, Philippines, 
Australia. Range from low-water to 90 fathoms. Fossil, 40 sp. 
Carboniferous — . E. fisaura (Ixxxiv, 3*1 ). 

Shell oval, conical, elevated, with the apex recurved ; surface 
cancellated ; anterior margin notched. Muscular impression 
with recurved points. The nucleus (or shell of the fry) is spiral, 
and resembles Scissurella. The anterior slit is very variable in 
extent. The animal of Emarginula (and also of Puncturella) has 
an i^.olated cirrus on the back of the foot, perhaps representing 
the operculigerous lobe. — Forbes. Lingual dentition (xii, 50), 
median teeth subquadrate ; laterals four, oblong, imbricated ; 
uncini about 60, the first large and thick, with a lobed hook, the 
rest linear, with serrulated hooks. — Loven. 

SUBEMARGINULA, Blainv. (^Hemitoma, Swain. Siphonella, Issel. 
Montfortia, Recluz.) Anterior margin with a slight channel and 
a canal-like prolongation of it proceeding towards the apex, on 
the inside face of the shell. E. octoradiata^ Sowb. (Ixxxiv, 37). 

ZEiBORA, Adams. Shell like Emarginula, with the margin of 
the aperture crenulated and anteriorly deeply fissured, but there 
is posteriorly an internal, flat, semilunar septum present, which 
distinguishes this subgenus from any other Fissurellidge. E. 
7'eticulata, A. Ad, (Ixxxiv, 39, 40 \ 

DESLONGCHAMPSiA, M'Coy, 1850. (Dedicated to Dr. Eudes 
Deslongchamps, the renowned French palaeontologist,) Shell 
patelliform, apex acute, excentric ; with a wide longitudinal 
anterior sulcus, produced into a rounded lobe. Fossil, 3 sp. 
Lower Oolite; England, Normandy, Galicia. D. Eugenei, M'Coy 
(Ixxxiy ;,- 41), 



FISSUllELLIDuE. 329 

Parmophorus, Blainv. 

Etym. — Parme, a shield, and phoreus^ a l)earer. Duck's-bill 
limpet. Sipi. — Scntus, Monti". 

Distr. — 12 sp. East Indies, Philippines, Australia. Fossil, 3 
sp. Eocene; Paris hasin. P. au«^ra/2.s-, Bl. (Ixxxiii, 21 ). 

Shell lengthened-oblong, depressed ; apex posterior ; front 
margin incurved. Muscular impression horseshoe-shaped, elon- 
gated. The shell is smooth and white, and permanentl}^ covered 
by the reflected borders of the mantle. The animal is black, 
and very large corapai'ed with the shell ; its sides are fringed 
with short cirri, and its eyes sessile on the outer bases of thick 
tentacles. Occurs in shallow water, walking freel3^ 

TUGALiA, Gray. Shell cancellated, with crenulated margin. 
P. elegans, Gra_y. 

COCCULINA, Dall. 

Vistr. — 2 sp. New England, deep waters. C. Eathhuni.BaW. 

Shell patelliform, apex posteriorly inclined, with a deciduous 
spiral nucleus ; margin entire. 

Animal blind, with prominent head and muzzle; two tentacles; 
gill single, plumose, asymmetrical, extending between the under 
surface of the mantle and the foot (from a point above and 
behind the head) backward on the right side ; anal opening above 
and behind the head ; mantle-margin plain ; margin of the foot 
without processes, excepting a single filament on each side. 
Radula with a small or moderate rachidian tooth, three incon- 
spicuous and a fourth larger, dentate laterals, uncini numerous. 
The male has a verge permanentl}^ exserted from the inner side 
of the right tentacle. 

The shell resembles that of the Patellidae, but the animal is 
more nearly allied to the Fissurellidse. Mr. Dall has formed a 
family for the two species known. 

Addtsonia, Dall. 

Eti/m. — In honor of I'rof. Addison E. Verrill, of Yale College. 

Bist?: — 2sp. New England, Mediterranean Sea. A.paradoxa, 
Dall. 

Shell ovate, subconical, strongly asymmetrical -nath curved 
apex ; no epidermis ; margin plain. 

Animal with two tentacles ; no eyes ; foot and mantle without 
tubercles or processes ; gill composed of leaflets as in Patella, 
the series starting on the right behind the head and continued 
within the mantle-edge backward, the body of the animal being 
asymmetrically placed with regard to the aperture of the shell 
to afford room for the enormous series of branchial leaflets ; anus 
opening behind and above the head slightly to the right of the 
median line, and indicated by a small papilla. Radula with 
22 



330 PATELLTI)^. 

a large, simple rachidian tooth with, on each side, two large, 
simple, transverse laterals, followed by two rainnte ones, and a 
large outer lateral with a strong tridentate cusp, outside of which 
is a single scale-like flat uncinus, bearing an elongated, thickened 
ridge, but no cusp. 

For this genus Mr. Dall has proposed a new family ; he states 
that it might be incorporated with Cocculinidse, " were it not for 
the differences in the branchiae and in its dentition." 

Family PATELLID^. 

Shell wholly external, dish-shaped, with apex anteriorly 
directed ; animal with two short tentacles, a non-extensible 
muzzle ; branchiee external or none ; renal and anal aperture 
situated above the neck, between body and mantle-edge ; no 
copulatory or external genital organs ; mouth provided with 
horny jaw, and long radula with numerous peculiar black, 
opaque teeth, and pellucid or colored plates or bosses ; meta- 
morphosis of the embryo taking place in the egg, which is fer- 
tilized in the ovary. 

The Limpets have been very thoroughly studied by Mr. Wm. 
H. Dall,* who has proposed an elaborate classification of them, 
including ordinal and subordinal as well as family and generic 
characters. I have mainly followed Mr. Dall's system in the 
diagnoses and sequence of the groups, but without giving them 
the same systematic values : — for example, I have used above his 
characters of the Order Docoglossa for thp family Patellidse, 
thus making the family more comprehensive than in his sense, 
and corresponding more nearl}- in conchological importance with 
the other families in this work. Similarly Mr. Dall's suborders 
correspond nearly with my subfamilies and his family charac- 
ters are here treated as generic. The order Docoglossa is, as its 
name implies, founded upon peculiarities in the arrangement of 
the lingual dentition (xii, 51), but already two forms of limpets 
have been discovered which by their dentition cannot be placed 
in this order. Cuvier united the Patellidre and Chitonidae in his 
order Cyclobranchiata, characterized by the arrangement of the 
gills in a circle surrounding the body, but more recent investiga- 
tors have ascertained a considerable diversity of gill-arrangement 
among the limpets, so that this term will no longer apply to 
them as a whole, although many of them agree with the Chitons 
in this feature. 

SUBFAMTLY LEPE TIN^. 

Animal without branchiae. Embryonic shell spiral. 

* See his papers in Am, Jour. ConcJi., v, vi, and Proceedings of the 
National Museum^ 



PATELL1D>«. 



331 



Lepeta, Gray. 
Sy,i._Cryptobranehia, Midd. pars. Propilidium, Gray, not 
Forbes and' Hanley. Pilidinm, Stirapson, not F. and H. nor 

Midd. , ^. , . 

Shell conical, patelliform, with a subspiral nucleus, which is 
generally lost in early life, the permanent apex being erect or 
anteriorly directed. 

Animal without eyes, without lateral teeth, with a rachidian 
tooth, and erect unc'ini ; muzzle with an entire margin, which is 
extended backward into a tentacle-like filament on each side. 

LEPETA (restricted), Dall. Apex erect. Rachidian tooth tri- 
cuspid, the middle cusp much larger; lateral teeth simply cuspi- 
date. L. caeca, Miill. (Ixxxiv, 42 . 

CRYPTOBRANCHiAf restricted), Dall. Apex inclined anteriorly. 
Rachidian tooth with three nearly equal denticles; imcini 
broadly hooked. L. concentrica, Midd. (Ixxxiv, 43). 

LEPETELLA, Verrill. Shell as in Lepeta. Animal differing in 
having eyes and in being provided with true lateral teeth and 
also with scale-shaped uncini. L. tubicola, Verrill. 200 to 400 
fms., off New England coast. 

PILIDIUM, Forbes. (lotha, Gray. Ergina, Jeffreys.) bhell 
patelliform, apex anterior, generally deep-colored. Mantle 
fringed with cilia; rachidian tooth long, rhomboidal, bearing a 
verv large black cusp with a simple denticle on each side, laterals 
with broad cusps striated beneath and obliquely bent, shafts 
slender. P. fulv am, Yorhes. Northern America and European 
coasts. 

Subfamily AGMMINjE. 

Embryonic shell conical. Animal usually having eyes and 
a plumose, cervical, external gill, with or without a marginal 
cordon ; rachidian tooth rarely present, lateral teeth three in 

number. 

AcM^A, Esch. 

.S-v^.—Tectura, Aud. Patelloida, Quoy and Gaim. Lottia, 
Gray. lothn, Forbes. Patelloidea, Couth. Tectura, Gray. 
Scutellina, Gray. Scutella, Brod. 

DiHtr.—lb sp. Mostly W. Coast of N. America, Europe, etc. 
A. mitra, Esch. (Ixxxiv, 44). 

Shell solid, patelliform; apex erect or anteriorly inclined. 
Animal. Muzzle frilled, produced at the lower anterior corners 
into two lappets or tubercles ; no marginal cordon, the cervical 
gill alone present. 

COLLISELLA, Dall. Muzzlc-friU simple, entire, not produced 
into lappets or tubercles. A. spectrum, Reeve (Ixxxiv, 45, 46). 
A. variabilis, Sowb. (Ixxxiv, 47). 



332 PATELLID^. 

SCUTELLINA, Gray. Shell with a broad margin internally. 7 
sp. Red Sea, Philippines, Pacific, Panama. J.crenulaf.a, Brod. 

Pectinodonta, Dall. 

Distr. — P. arcuata, Dall. West Indies. 

Shell resembling Acmsea, with a blunt subcentral apex. 

Animal blind, with the front part of the head between the 
tentacles and above the muzzle much produced upward and 
forward, extending considerably further forward than the end of 
the muzzle. Muzzle marginated, with lappets at the outer 
corners. Jaw thin, translucent. Gill exactly as in Acmaea ; 
sides of foot and mantle-edge simple, nearly smooth. 

LoTTiA, Gray. 

Syn. — Tecturella and Tecturina, Carp. 

Distr. — L. gigantea, Sowb. (Ixxxiii, 22). West Coast of N. 
America. 

Shell patelliform, depressed, the apex anterior. 

Animal with a single cervical branchia, but also furnished 
with a branchial cordon of laminifi between the mantle-edge and 
the foot, extending as far forward as the adductor muscle on 
each side and continuous behind ; frill of the muzzle without 
lappets. The typical and only species is among the largest and 
most active of limpets, the shell attaining three inches in length. 

ScuRRiA, Gray. 

Distr. — Several sp. West Coast of North and South America. 
S. sew ra^ Lesson (Ixxxiv, 48 ), 

Shell patelliform, conical, elevated, rather thick and of rude 
growth. Branchiae completely surrounding the body, as in 
Patella, but having also the cervical plume of Acmoea ; muzzle 
without lappets. 

scuRRiOPSis. Gemmellaro. Shell with radiating riblets crossed 
by concentric growth-lines. Jurassic. 

Subfamily PA TEL LIN A^:. 

Shell conical, with the apex turned forward ; muscular impres- 
sion horseshoe-shaped, open in front, as in the preceding groups. 

Animal. Gills forming a row of leaflets surrounding the body ; 
no cervical plume-like gill ; radula provided with three lateral 
teeth on each side, and three uncini ; rachidian tooth rarely 
present (xii, 51). 

The continuous series of branchial lamellse forming a fixed 
cordon between the mantle and foot, together with peculiarities 
of their lingual dentition, serve to distinguish this subfamily 
from the preceding one. These animals are strictly littoral in 
habit, living upon the rocks betw^een tide-marks ; they are 
chiefly sedentary, adhering firmly by atmospheric pressure, and 



PATELLID^. 333 

feeding on the sea-weed within reach of their long tongues ; 
during the night-time, however, they malce short excursions, 
indicated b^^ the irregular tracks the}^ form in their movements. 
The}^ possess the power of excavating the surface of the rocks ; 
but whether by mechanical attrition, aided by the hard crystal- 
line spicula with which the foot is strengthened, or by the car- 
bonic acid disengaged in respiration, has not been positively 
determined ; perhaps both agencies are employed, the latter 
being more eftective with limestone rocks, the former when, as 
sometimes occurs, the roosting place is excavated in timber. 

Patella, Linn. 

Etym. — Patella, a dish. 

)S'(/n. — Scutellastra,C3'mbula, Olana, H. and A. Adams. Eruca, 
Tournefort. Patellites, Walch. Patellaria, Ijlhw3^d. Cellana, 
H. Adams. 

Distr. — 150 sp. World-wide. Fossil, lOU sp. Silurian — . 
P. csendea (Ixxxiv, 49). 

Shell conical, more or less depressed, oval at the base ; apex 
subcentral or anterior, from which usually radiate ribs, which 
are frequently nodose ; mostl}' crenulated on the inner margin. 

Animal. Foot smooth, branchial lamellas subequal all around. 

The Patellae or limpets are not eaten in the United States, but 
in Europe, especiall}^ upon the British Coasts, there is a large 
consumption of them ; roasted, boiled or made into soup, they 
are very palatable. They were eaten by primitive man, and the 
shells were formed into ornamental necklaces, occurring in the 
most ancient cromlechs or subterranean burial chambers. They 
are very extensively used as bait also ; in Berwick alone, until 
the suppl}' was exhausted, nearly twelve millions of limpets are 
said to have been gathered annually for this purpose — a process 
requiring alertness and skill, for, as Wordsworth says : — 

' 'And should the strongest arm endeavor 
The limpet from its rock to sever, 
'Tis seen its loved support to clasp, 
With such tenacity of grasp, 
We wonder that such strength should dwell 
In such a small and simple shell.' 

" Bouchard-Chantereaux says that he had often seen limpets 
(Patella vulgafa) crawling, especially just after the tide had 
gone out. The young limpet moves freely about, and shifts its 
quarters ; but after attaining a gi'owth of probably a few days, 
it alHxes itself to a particular spot, which it only quits when, 
covered by the sea, on the return of each tide. If it settles on 
a hard and rugged rock, the circumference of the shell is 
moulded to (it the irregular surface of its abode ; the base of 
attachment is then bleached. Should the rock be soft, it scoops 



334 PATELLID^. 

out, by degrees, with its muscular foot a cavity of a greater or 
less depth. Specimens are not unfrequently found, on impure 
limestone, which are constricted or indented at the edges, in 
consequence of the excavation having been hindered by the 
greater hardness of one side of the spot occupied by these 
limpets. The animal feeds on small, delicate sea-weeds of a 
foliaceous kind, as well as on Melohesia polymor-pha, that encrust 
the rocks at low-water, by means of its long tongue, which is 
coiled spirally, like the main-spring of a watch, set around with 
cogs. This instrument is thrust out from side to side, and when 
charged with food, it is withdrawn into the stomach, unloaded, 
and again put forth. The mark left on the face of a rock, coated 
with a film of the fine sea-weed mentioned above, by a limpet 
after grazing, resembles the track of a sea-worm ; indeed, a late 
eminent geologist had a large slab thus marked cut out of the 
rock, and sent to him with great care, in order to publish the 
supposed discovery of a new Annelidan ichnolite in the old red 
sandstone. Fortunately, the mistake was pointed out to him 
before he proceeded furthei'. Each limpet appears to have its 
own feeding-ground or pasturage ; its tracks are sometimes 
numerous, and deviate in different directions. Mr. Peach has 
ascertained that it does not retire in the winter to deeper water, 
on the coast of Caithness, and that it always returns home before 
the ebbing tide leaves it dry. Its firm adhesion to the rock is 
extraordinary. In order to test the strength of its tenacity, 
Reaumur suspended a weight of 28 to 30 lbs. from the shell of 
a limpet attached to a stone. This weight it sustained for some 
seconds ; less weight failed to overcome its resistance. He 
attributes the adhesive force not to muscular action, but to an 
invisible glue which exudes from the granulated base or sole of 
the foot. It may be also caused by the adaptation of the surface 
of this part of the animal to the frequent, although often minute, 
inequalities of the stone, although the glutinous and viscous 
fluid, which is secreted by numerous glands in the foot, appears 
to be the principal agent." — Jeffreys, British Gonchology. 

PATiNELLA, Dall. Shell solid, porcellanous, with an erect sub- 
central apex. Foot bordered by a scalloped frill, interrupted 
only in front. P. Magellanica, Gmel. (Ixxxiii, 23). 

NACELLA, Schum. Shell with the apex submarginal, anterior; 
pellucid, thin or corneous. Animal with the branchial cordon 
complete before and behind, the laminae persistent but dimin- 
ishing in size before the head ; sides of the foot with scalloped 
lappets. P. rymhularia. Lam. (Ixxxiii, 24). 

HELCiON, Montfort. Shell ovate, radiatel^^ ribbed ' pectinated ) ; 
apex anterior, submarginal ; aperture ovate, edge crenated. 
Branchial cordon interrupted in front; sides of the foot smooth. 
P. pecfDw to. hinn. (IxKxix I bO). . 



PATELLID^. 335 

HELCiONiscus, Dall. Shell solid, heavj^ moderately elevated, 
with a subcentral inconspicuous apex. Branchial cordon inter- 
rupted in front, ending abruptl}" on each side, at the anterior 
ends of the adductor ; sides of foot and mantle-edge smooth ; 
inner uncinus hardly raised above the level of the lingual ribbon, 
second lateral tooth largest. P. exaratui^, Nutt. (Ixxxiii, 25\ 

PATINA, Leach. (Nacella H. and A. Adams, in part. Ansates, 
Sowb.) Shell with the apex subterminal, anterior; smooth, 
thin, seniipellucid or horn}-. Animal with the branchial cordon 
interrupted in front ; teeth with the inner two series parallel, 
third series with a larger denticulate cusp, posterior, three uncini 
on each side the radula. F. pellucida, Linn. (Ixxxiv, ,51 \ 

ANCISTROMESUS, Dall. Shell white, apex subcentral, obsoletely 
radiately ribbed. Animal blackish, with complete branchial 
cordon, the lamellae being long and slender, subequal ; sides of 
foot smooth ; radula with a simple rachidian tooth, the two 
inner laterals on each side anterior to the third pair, which are 
large and quadridentate, uncini simple. 

A. llexicanus, Brod. is the largest living limpet, the shell 
attaining a length of from 8 to 14 inches. It is frequently used 
as a wash-basin in Central America, and inhabits the West Coast, 
extending northwards to Acapulco, etc. 

METOPTOMA, Phillips. (Tryblidium, Lindstrlim, 1880.) Shell 
like Helcion, with a broad but slightly or obsoletely marked 
scar below the apex, truncate or somewhat insinuated on the 
margin. Palaeozoic ; United States, Europe. P. Solaris, Kon. 
(Ixxxiv, 52). 

The following subgenera of Patella occur in the work of 
Messrs. H. and A. Adams. They are not recognized by Mr. 
Dall on account of the insufficiency of their distinctive characters ; 
like him I have placed them in the synonymy — but give their 
descriptions. 

scuTELLASTRA, H. and A. Adams. Shell coarsely ribbed, the 
ribs causing long projections of the margin. P. longicosta, ham. 
(Ixxxiii, 26,27). 

CYMBULA, H. and A. Adams. Shell oblong, laterally com- 
pressed, with radiating striae and recurved apex. P. compressa, 
Linn. (Ixxxiii, 28). 

OLANA, H. and A. Adams. Shell contracted in front ; apex 
obtuse. P. cochlear. Born. (Ixxxiii, 29). 

Lepetopsis, Whitfield, 1882. 

Tiipe. — L. Levettii, White. Carboniferous; Indiana. 

Shell patelliform, more or less regularly round or oval, apex 
subcentral, posterior to the middle and directed backward, the 
nucleuH dextrally coiled ; muscular imprint horseshoe-shaped, 
open (?) in fr-onfe,- consisting of -an irregular '■ftairrow band which 



od6 chitonid^. 

expands more or less at the anterior extremities ; surface of the 
shell marked by six very indistinct radiating lines, two anterior, 
two posterior, and two lateral. 

Order POLYPLACOPHORA. 

Animal symmetrical, with a broad foot ; no eyes or tentacles ; 
head extensible into a proboscis ; mouth furnished with jaws and 
lingual ribbon ; branchijB posterior, marginal, between the 
mantle and foot ; heart median ; intestine straight, anus pos- 
terior ; sexes united in the same individual. 

Shell when present multivalve, consisting of eight separate 
pieces inserted upon the back of the animal and surrounded by 
a mantle-border. 

Family CHITONID^. 

Shell composed of eight separate transverse imbricating 
j)lates, lodged in a coriaceous mantle, which forms an expanded 
margin around them. Dentition (xii,52). 

The following description of the Chitones is illustrated, as to 
the shell, Ixxxiv, 53, 55, 56 ; Ixxxv, 54. 

In all Chitons witli exposed valves, the seven i)Osterior valves 
are divided more or less plainly by lines radiating from the apex 
to the opposite anterior edge. The sculpture of the posterior 
triangular areas (arejie laterales) thus cut off is almost uniformly 
like that of the whole anterior valve and the part behind the 
apex (mucro) of the posterior valve. The central or anterior 
triangles (arete centrales) are sculptured alike, but generally in 
a different pattern from the sides. The arese laterales are usually 
raised a little above the rest. It is very rare that the bounding 
diagonal lines cannot be traced, and they usually correspond to 
the slit in the side-laminae of insertion, which project into the 
zone or girdle, and aie free from the pecnliar porous superficial 
laj'er characteristic of the exposed test in the whole group of 
Chitons. This superficial layer usually projects over the anterior 
and posterior laminfe of insertion or teeth (dentes ) in the first 
and last valves, forming what Dr. Carpenter terms the " eaves " 
(subgrundae). These maj' exhibit the spongy character of the 
layer of which they are formed, or may be varnished over at 
their edges with a thin layer of true shelly matter, as in the 
Ischnoid group. In the typical Chitons they are short, leaving 
the teeth projecting; in the Mopaloids they are hardly 
developed, and in :?ome groups they quite overshadow the 
teeth. 

In manj' groups there is a small portion of peculiar sculpture 
marked otf along the ridge of the median line of the back. This 
is the area jugali, and corresponds to the sinus or space between 
the inner terminations of the two anterior sutural lahiiua? which 



CHlTONIDiE. 337 

pass forward from each of the posterior seven valves under the 
valve in front. The sutural laminae are also destitute of the 
porous la3'er. The sinus is either open, or part of the jugular 
area projects forward between the sutural laminae, forming a false 
apex ; or a keystone-like piece, either solid, or fimbriated like 
the teeth of a comb, ma}' exist between the laminee and partly 
fill the sinus. The sinus posticus is the wave, notch or inden- 
tation which in some genera is found in the posterior edge of 
the posterior valve. In some of the irregular Chitons posterior 
sutural laminae are found, but these are very exceptional. 

In the vast majority of genera, the side laminae of insertion 
have only one slit on each side of the valve ; occasionally a valve 
may be abnormal in a regular species, and the number of slits in 
the anterior and posterior valves may vary within moderate 
limits. 

The girdle (zona), which is distinct from the true maiTtle, is 
variously- ornamented with scales, bristles, spines, down or hairs, 
either singly or combined, which exhibit most beautiful forms 
tolerably constant in generic groups, and worthy of a special 
and exhaustive research. These may be solid or hollow, shelly 
or keratose, single or combined in bunches, and in some forms 
are hollow^ and annulated, precisely like the setse of brachiopods. 
In certain genera they issue from pores, usually at the sutures, 
and these pores have a certain value as a systematic character, 
but much less than has been assigned to them by some authors., 

The Chitons in the adult condition are destitute of ej^es or 
tentacles, and exhibit evidences of degradation anteriorly'. The 
intestine is straight and the anus is always median and posterior; 
on each side of it are the sexual openings or fenestra. These 
may open by several slits or pores directly into the jjerivisceral 
cavity, or form the aperture of a sexual duct. The gills are 
composed of a row of branchiae, starting from near the tail, 
extending a third (posticae), half (mediae), or all the w'ay (ambi- 
entes) towards the head, each leaflet of which corresponds to a 
Avhole branchial plume, such as is found in Acmaea. Each single 
gill is conical, with the lamellte projecting inwards, somewhat 
resembling in outline the shell of Carinaria. The mantle, inside 
the coriaceous margin of the girdle, often forms a lamina of 
fringe. A lappet called the " veil " generally surrounds the front 
of the rostrum, which has sometimes a double veil. The muzzle 
is semicircular, usuall}' plain, and exhibits a tendency to form a 
lobe at the two posterior corners. The radula is always present 
and, as in the limpets, is very long; lingual teeth three, median 
small, laterals large, with dentated hooks, uncini five, trapezoidal, 
one of them erect and hooked. Like the limpets Chitons possess 
a laminated crop l)cfore the true stomach. The nervous system 
beautifully worked, out by 5i"andt in a paper tiingularly over- 



338 CHITONID^. 

looked by most writers, is also comparable with that of Patella 
vulgata, (simultaneously examined, and figured), though by no 
means identical. The cephalic ganglia appear to be suppressed, 
forming another evidence of the degeneration or want of develop- 
ment of the cephalic region of this group. 

The above chai'acters are mostly as given by Mr. Wm. H. Dall 
(Proc. Nat. 3Iu!^., 1, 283), who has very carefully studied the 
Chitons. He has published an elaborate classification of the 
group, mainly based upon characters of the valves and their sur- 
rounding girdle — a classification which is largely founded upon 
the studies of the late P. P. Carpenter. I have adopted the 
groups of these eminent naturalists almost throughout, but not 
usually with the values originally assigned to them, believing 
that most of their genera had better, at least for the purposes of 
the present work, be considered subgenera. The Chitons are 
constituted an order, Polyplacophora, b_y Gill, Dall, etc., the 
main character of which is derived from the divided shell ; this 
is the principal distinction from the limpets, with which these 
mollusks have many points of analogy. Hubrecht forms for the 
Chitons, etc., a class Amphineura, embracing the orders Soleno- 
gastres and Chitones. 

Chiton, Linn. 

Etym. — Chiton., a coat of mail. 

Distr. — More than 250 species are known ; they occur in all 
climates throughout the world ; most abundant on rocks at low- 
water, but frequently obtained by dredging in 10-25 fathoms. 
Some of the small species range as deep as 100 fathoms. 
North and South America, West Indies, Europe, South Africa, 
Australia, New Zealand, and Sitka. Fossil, 50 sp. Silurian — . 
C. ^quamosus, Linn. (Ixxxv, 57). 

The generic description is equivalent to that of the family. 

Mr. Guild ing says of the West Indian species (and his remarks 
will in most particulars apply to others), " They seem to feed 
entirely by night. Though they remain stationary during the 
day, when disturbed they will often creep awa3' with a slow and 
equal pace, often sliding sideways, and creeping under the rocks 
and stones for concealment. If accidentall}' reversed, they soon 
recover their position by violently contorting and undulating 
the zone ; and for defense they sometimes (when detached) roll 
themselves up like wood-lice. Some of the larger kinds, espe- 
cially of Acanthopleura, are eagerl}' devoured by the lower orders 
in the West Indies, who have the folly to call them ' beef;' the 
thick fleshy foot is cut away from the animal and swallowed 
raw, while the viscera are rejected. We have here a large pale 
Chiton, which is said to be poisonous." Ladies who are not 
good sailors, and are fond of trying new preventives against 
sea-sickness, may (if they can) swallow raw Chitons, arid 



CHITONIDiE. 339 

SO imitate the Iceland fishermen, who pretend that the "sea 
bugs " are an effectual remedy against this malady, and also 
that they quench thirst. Perchance the deglutition of these 
strange bolusus might by anticipating the evil rob a sea-passage 
of its horrors. — Jeffreys, British Conchology. 

Section I. — Ghitones Begulares. 
Head- and tail-plates similarly articulated. 

A. Leptoidea. 
Insertion-plates obsolete or, if present, unslit. 

(Extinct Forms.) 

The secondary and tertiary Chitons all belong to recent genera. 
The following are all paheozoic. A large number of the fossils 
described as Chitons (for instance Sulcochitoyi Groiji, Kyckholt) 
are not mollusks ; many of them being valves of Balani or frag- 
ments of isopod crustaceans. 

HELMiNTHOCHiTON, Salter. Shell elongated, regular; mucro 
regular, subcentral ; terminal valves not sinuated ; apophyses 
imknown. Diatr. — 2sp. Silurian,Devonian; Europe. (J.Griffithii^ 
Salter i Ixxxv, 58). 

GRYPHOCHiTON (Gray), Carpenter. Shell elongated ; lateral 
laminae none, suturals small, separated by a wide, simple sinus ; 
mucro incurved like the beak of a Gr^^phsea ; posteriorly and 
anteriorh" strongly sinuated. Distr.—i sp. Carboniferous; 
Belgium. C. priscus, Miinster (Ixxxv, 70). 

CHONECHITON, Carpenter. Shell Leptoidal, the central valves 
like Gryphochiton, the last with posterior mucro, infiindibuli- 
form. Distr. — Carboniferous ; Belgium. G. viseticola, Ryck. 
(Ixxxv, 59). 

PRiscocHiTON, Billings. Leptochiton, with posterior lamina 
excavated within. Distr. — L. Silurian ; Canada. C. Canadensis^ 
Billings (Ixxxv, 64-66 \ 

PTEROCiiiTON, Carpenter. Shell elongated, Leptoidal ; valves 
laterally excavated, posteriorly acuminated ; last valve regular, 
the mucro Ischnoidal ; anterior valve (usually ?) sinuated ; apo- 
physes large, sinus wide. Distr. — 6 sp. Devon. ; Ireland, 
Belgium, etc. G. eburonicus, Ryck. (Ixxxv, 6T). 

LORiciTES, Carp. Related to Lorica, from which it diflfers in 
the absence of laminae of insertion. Fossil. Type, C. concev- 
fricus. Koninck. , 

PROBOL^UM, Carpenter. Shell Leptoidal, elongated, largely 
projecting ; central valve with the central area extending in front 
of the jugum ; anterior valve sinuate, posterior valve (?). Among 
recent forms this comes nearest to Katherina, but the difference 
is still extremely great. Distr. — Devonian of Vilmar. P. vor- 
rugatuvi, Sandh. 



340 CHITONID^. 

CYMATOCHiTON, Dall. Leptocliiton with the valves thrown for- 
ward. Differs from Probolseum in the valves being transverse 
instead of squared, and in the terminal valves being regular 
instead of waved. C. Loftusianus, King (Ixxxv, 68, 69). 

Recent Forms. 

LEPTOCHiTON, Gray. (Lepidopleurus, Risso. Craspedoehilus, 
and Boreochiton, Sars.) Insertion-laminae none; girdle or zone 
minutely sandy; sinus smooth, not laminated. Branchiae sliort. 
Distr. — 10 sp. Northern Seas, Kerguelen's Isl. Type, L. asellus, 
liOwe. L. cancellatus, Sowb. (Ixxxv, 71 '. Only 2 out of the 
25 species cited by Adams really belong here. 

DESHAYESiELLA, Carpenter. Valves curved forwards ; mucro 
planate; zone or girdle spiculose ; insertion-plates none ; sutural 
laminae triangular, raised. G. {Leptochiton) ciu-valun, Cpr. 

HANLEYiA, Gray. Anterior valve with an unslit insertion- 
plate ; other valves destitute of the plates. Distr. — Mostly 
northern ; one from deep waters. Gulf of Mexico. C. debilis, 
Gray. 

HEMiARTHRUM, Carpenter. Insertion-plates present on all the 
valves, but entire without slits. H. setulosum, Carpenter. 

MiCROPLAX, H. Adams. Resembling Chitonellus extei'nally ; 
submerged laminae unslit, entire, fused in an undistinguishable 
manner with the parts which usually constitute the sutural 
laminfe. if. Grayi, Ad. and Ang. 

B. Ischnoidea. 
Insertion-plates sharp, smooth. Assured; with eaves. 

* No pores on girdle. 

TBACHYDERMON, Cpr. (Lcpldopleurus sp., Auct. Craspedo- 
ehilus, Sars.) Insertion-laminae acute, smooth ; valves within 
and without exactly like Ischnochiton ; zone or girdle not porif- 
erous, granulated by very minute scales. Branchiae short. This 
name was originally proposed as a subgenus of Ischnochiton to 
include Gray's second section, "mantle-scales minute, granular." 
In all other conchological characters the group accords with that 
genus, but the animal differs in having the gills either entirely 
posterior or reaching forward from the tail onl}' to about the 
middle of the foot, while in Ischnochiton and Chiton they travel 
to its anterior extremity. These characters indicate a transition 
between the Ischnoid and Leptoid Chitons by means of Trachy- 
dermon and Tonicella. Distr. — Chiefly northern.,, (7. ruber, 
Lowe (Ixxxv, 72). ^ 

TRACHYRAD-iiA, Cpr. Central valve doubly or many-cleft. C. 
fulyetrum, Reeve. 

CALLOCHiTON, Gray. Laminae broken up into very numerous 
teeth rising out of spongy eaves, and having a tendency to 



CHITONIDiE. 341 

become propped outside ; sinus a mere wave in the united bodies 
of the sutural lamina? ; mantle reticulated with peculiar bodies, 
the tips of w^hich appear like diamond-shaped scales, and which 
are unlike the armature of any other Chiton. C. laevis, Mont. 
(Ixxxv, 73). 

STEREOCHiTON, Cpr. Girdle coriaceous, sparsel}^ down}'. S. 
castaneus, Wood. 

TONICELLA, Carpenter. Valves, mucro, laminse and sinus 
usually as in Ischnochiton ; zone as in Tonicia, coriaceous, 
smooth or nearly so. The genus Tonicia, Ads. and Gray, to 
which the species of Tonicella have often been referred, has 
pectinated insertion-plates and ambient gills like the typical 
Chitons, while Tonicella has sharp plates and short rows of 
gills. The two groups also differ in dentition. Dislr. — Mostly 
Northern ; Atlantic, California. T. marmoreus, Fabr. 

scHizoPLAX, Dall. (Tonicia sp., H. and A. Adams.) Shell 
and zone like Tonicella ; central valves with a median slit. 
Branchiae subambient. Distr. — S. Brandtii, Midd. Alaska, 
Siberia. 

LEPTOPLAX, Carpenter. Valves thin, smooth, partly immersed ; 
insertion-laminte acute, terminals few-fissured, but regular; sinus 
not dentate ; mucro median. C. coarctatus^ Sowb. (Ixxxv, 74). 
May be considered a partiall}^ covered Tonicella. 

CH^TOPLEURA, Shuttlcworth. (Acanthopleura, Gray.) Shell 
like Ischnochiton ; insertion-plates regular, branching ; middle 
valve with one, anterior and postei-ior with many slits ; teeth 
sharp, normal ; eaves moderate ; sinus broad, or minute; girdle 
hair3\ Gills encircling. Dis^r.— Several sp. C. Peruviaaua^ 
Lam. (Ixxxv, 75 ^. 

MAUGERELLA, Cpr. Middle valve with two slits ; eaves pro- 
jecting ; girdle with short, striated, shell}' bristles. G. conspicuus, 
Carp. 

SPONGIOCHITON, Carpenter. Valves partly immersed ; larainj^ 
acute, Ischnoid ; sinus large, smooth ; mucro median, planate ; 
zone spongiferous, produced in front. May be considered a 
partially covered Chretopleura. C. productus, Cpr. 

iscHxooHiTON, Gray. (Lepidopleurus, H. and A. Adams.) 
Shell thin ; laminoe of insertion regular, acute, neither pectinate 
nor serrate ; eaves (subgrundae) large ; sinus usually smooth ; 
girdle squamose, the squamae generally striate. Branchife 
elongated. G. longicymha^ Blainv. (Ixxxv, 76). 

The main character of this group, which includes by far the 
largest number of species of any single group of Chitons, consists 
in the row of sharp, smooth insertion-teeth, surrounded by more 
or less projecting eaves, and in the scaly girdle. 

Dr. Carpenter has proposed the following eight subgenera, 
which I retain as sections ; 



342 OHITONIDiE. 

ISCHNOCHITON (restricted). Scales transverse, tiattened, some- 
what imbricated, generally striated. 

ISCHNORADSIA, Cpr. (ex Slinttlew.). Scales striated ; central 
valves with many slits. G. Irijidus, Cpr. 

LEPiDOPLEURUS, Cpr. Scales solid, imbricated, smooth. C. 
Mertensii, Cpr. 

LEPiDORADSiA, Cpr. Similar to the last, with many slits in 
central valves. G. Australis^ Sowb. 

STENOPLAX, Cpr. Bod}^ elongate; scales elongate, chatly, 
striated, irregular and crowded. G. limaciformis, Sowb. 
(Ixxxv, 96). 

STENORADSIA, Cpr. Like Stenoplax, with numerous side-slits. 
G. Magdale7isis, Hinds (Ixxxv, 77). 

iscHNOPLAX, Cpr. Like Stenoplax, but with occasional large 
scales rising above the rest, and a multitude of short striated 
bristles ; mucro I'aised, subposterior. 

HETEROZONA, Carpenter. Bod}'^ elongate ; two kinds of rather 
solid, striated scales. 

CALLiSTOCHiTON, Cpr. Insertiou-platcs regular, branching ; 
middle valve with one, anterior and posterior with many slits ; 
teeth excurved, plumate ; eaves projecting, long ; sinus broad, 
shallow, laminate ; girdle narrow, with small scales ; gills 
encircling. 

* * With girdle-pores. 

CALFJSTOPLAX, Cpr. Shell as in Callistochiton, poriferous girdle 
naked. C. retiisui^, Sowb. (Ixxxv, 78). 

ANGASIA, Cpr. (Hanleyia, Ad. and Angas, not Gra}-.) Shell like 
Chastopleurn, but the eaves small; girdle minutely squamulose- 
pilose, fasciculated at the sutures. A. tetrica., Cpr. 

NEWCOMBIA, Cpr. Insertion-plates regular, branching ; middle 
valve with one, anterior and posterior with many slits ; teeth 
solid, not propped ; eaves short ; sinus rounded, simple; girdle 
fleshy, with long, hairy bristles. 

CERATOZONA, Dall. Shell like Chaetopleura,but the teeth raised, 
eaves short; girdle smooth, fasciculated around the sutures and 
margin. This differs from all other hairy or spiny Chitons, at 
all nearl}' related to it, in the mantle-oinaments not being 
inserted into sockets, but being extensions of its surface. G. 
GuiJdingii, Reeve (Ixxxv, 79). 

PALLOCHiTON, Dall. Like Nuttallina ; zone downy ; central 
laminae unifissured. This section unites in a form resembling 
Nuttallina, some of the features of Middendorfia, from which the 
girdle differs in being spongy and covered with soft hairs 
instead of short shelly bristles. 0. lanuginostis, Cpr. 

C. Lophyroidea. 
Insertion-plates broad, pectinated, projecting backwards 



chitonidjE. 343 

CHITON, Laiu. Girdle covered with distinct scales ; anterior 
and posterior valves with many slits, middle valve with one ; 
teeth blunt, serrate ; eaves short, spongy ; sinus squared, den- 
ticulate ; gills ambient. 

EADSiA, Gray. Teeth in middle valve two or more ; differs 
also from Chiton in having side-slits. C. Barnesii. 

TONiciA, Gray. Anterior and posterior valves with many slits, 
middle with one; teeth sharp, serrate; eaves short, spongy; 
sinus squared, denticulate ; girdle smooth or downy ; gills en- 
circling. C. elegans, Fremb. (Ixxxv, 80). 

FANNETTiA, Diill. luscrtion-plates regular, branching ; middle 
valve with one, anterior and posterior with nine slits ; teeth sharp, 
serrate, long; eaves very short, sinus squared, denticulate; 
girdle smooth, spreading; gills encircling. 

EUDOXOCHiTON, Shutt. Insertiou-plates unfissured ; teeth blunt, 
fimbriate; eaves short; sinus small, laminae united; girdle hair3\ 

CRASPEDOCHiTON, Shutt. Insertiou-platcs regular; middle valve 
with one slit, anterior with five, posterior with eight ; girdle very 
minutely asperulate. The posterior valve is fimbriated in the 
middle. A doubtful group. 

D. Acanthoidea. 
Insertion-plates thrown forward. 

* Plates broad, pectinated. 
SCLEROCHITON, Cpr. Zoue as in Enoplochiton ; laminae obtuse, 

pectinate ; sinus waved, smooth. Most like Enoplochiton, from 
which it difl;ers in the articulation of the tail-plate and the sub- 
central mucro. 

** Plates sharp, grooved outside. 

ACANTHOPLEUB.A, Guildiug. ( Lucia, Gould.) Anterior and 
posterior valves with many slits, middle with one ; teeth blunt, 
grooved; eaves projecting, grooved ; sinus large, waved ; girdle 
with calcareous bristles. C. sjnniger, Sowb. (Ixxxvi, 94). 

FRANCisiA, Carp. Valves partly immersed, planate ; central 
laminae with several slits ; sinus lobed. Bears the same relation 
to Acanthopleura that Fannettia does to Tonicia, with the 
additional peculiarity of Radsioid nicks in the central valves. 
C. spinosus, Brug. (Ixxxv, 81). 

* * * Plates sharp, smooth. 

DINOPLAX, Carpenter, Armor heavy, alate ; mucro not ele- 
vated, submedian ; laminae separate, acute, smooth; last valve 
extending forwards ; sinus small ; girdle coriaceous, spinulose 
in fascicles. G. gigas, Linn. (Ixxxv, 88). 

MiDDENDORFiA, Cpr. (Dawsonia, Cpr.) Armor and girdle as 
in Acanthopleura ; laminae acute, rugose exteriorly ; the sinus 
planate, not laminated. C. Polii, Phil. 



344 CHITON ID.?^. 

BEANELLA, Dall. (Beaiiia, Cpr., not Jolmstone.) Armor and 
girdle intermediate between Aeanthopleura and Ischnochiton ; 
mucro siibmedian ; the laminae acute ; the girdle seal}', subspinose, 
scarcely imbricated. G. Bissoi, Cuming. 

ARTHURIA, Carp. Armor thin ; valves waved ; mucro posterior, 
produced; laminae acute, smooth; last valve extending forwards, 
sinus planate, laminate, smooth ; girdle coriaceous, smooth or 
downy. C. filosus, Cpv. 

NUTTALLTNA, Cpr. (Named in honor of Prof. Thomas Nuttall, 
a pioneer collector of Californian shells.) Shell elongated, valves 
projecting anteriorly ; mucro posterior, elevated ; lamina? acute, 
smooth, elongate ; central valves biflssate ; sinus not laminated, 
planate ; girdle spinose. Differs from Aeanthopleura in the 
smoothness of the sharp teeth, in their great length and Radsioid 
slitting; in the thrown-back mucro, which often projects beyond 
the margin ; in the throwing forward of tlie rest of the shell, as 
in Katherina, and in the deep spongy flat sinus which interrupts 
the sutural lamina^. C scabra, Reeve (Ixxxvi, 85). 

PHACELLOPLEUBA, Guild. Posterior valve thrown forward, 
having six or more slits ; anterior valve with five slits ; middle, one 
slit ; teeth very long, sharp, smooth ; eaves very short ; sinus 
narrow, laminae separated ; girdle thin, downy, wide, with sutural 
pores. G. porphi/riticus, Reeve. 

Section II. — Ghi^ones irregulares. 
Tail-plate abnormal or with a sinus behind. 

E. Schizoidea, 

Tail-valve fissured. 

LORICA, H. and A, Adams. Insertion-plates regular, posterior 
valve slit between two ridges ; anterior valve with many slits, 
middle with one ; teeth blunt, rugose ; eaves moderate ; siniis 
narrow, girdleslit behind, smooth, scaly. G.cimolius (Ixxxvi, 80). 

AiiLOCHiTON (Shuttl.), Cpr. Mucro posterior, slightly sinuate; 
sinus lobed ; girdle covered with small scales, produced in front. 
G. Angasi, H. Ad. 

scHizocHiTON, Gray. Insertion-plates straight forward, deep 
slit, slits many in anterior valve, one to two in middle, few in 
posterior valve ; teeth sharp, long; eaves small; sinus narrow, 
very deep; girdle slit behind, covered with minute spieulae. G. 
incisus. 

P. Placiphoroidea. 

Tail-valve unslit, internally ridged, mucro nearly terminal. 

ENOPLOCHiTON, Gray. Insertion-plates straight forward, flat 
behind ; anterior valve with many slits, middle with one, posterior 
with none; teeth serrate; eaves moderate; sinus deep, lobed ; 
girdle large, with separate scales, and bristles between. G. 
Goqidmhensis, Fremb. (Ixxxvi, 87). 



OHITONlDiE. 345 

ONiTHOC!riiTON, Gray. Insertion-plates res>ular, flat behind ; 
anterior valve with many slits, middle with one, posterior with 
none; teeth serrate; eaves deeply farrowed; sinus moderate, 
lobed ; girdle with chatty hairs. G. Lyellii^ Sowb. (Ixxxvi, 82). 

PLACiPHORA, Gray. Insertion-plates regular, ribbed behind; 
anterior valve with many slits, middle with one, posterior with 
none; teeth slightly propped ; eaves small; sinus small; girdle 
hair}', with regular pore-tufts. C. Carmirhaelis, Gray. 

FREMBLYA, H. Aclams. Valves regular, ribbed behind ; the 
middle with one. anterior with many, posterior with no slits ; 
teeth excurved ; eaves small ; sinus broad, shallow ; girdle hairy, 
with regular pore-tufts. Distinguished bv its excurved teeth. 
C. Collei, H. Ad. 

EUPLAciPHORA, Sliutt. Sinus wide, planate ; girdle set with 
bristles, not fasciculated. 

GUiLDiNGiA, Cpr. Valves partly immersed ; girdle emar- 
ginate behind. C. pefholatus, Sowb. (Ixxxvi, 89). 

G. Mopaloidea. 

Tail-valve with posterior sinus and one slit on each side. 

MOPALIA, Gray. Shell regular ; laminic lengthened ; anterior 
valve with six or more slits, the others with a single slit ; last 
valve sinuate behind ; sinus narrow ; muci'o median, depressed ; 
sutures indented; girdle wide, bristly, sometimes fissured be- 
hind, sometimes projecting anteriorly. G. Blaiyimllei^ Brod. 
(Ixxxvi, 90). 

PLACiPHORELLA, Cpr. The hairs or part of them issuing in 
fas.-iculi from sutural pores. G. velata^ Cpr. 

KATHERiNA, Gray. Armor small ; girdle smooth, much ex- 
panded in the sutures ; laminje greatly projecting anteriorly, the 
posterior valve lobate ; sinus deep, spongy. Branchiae encircling. 
Diatr. — C. funicatus^ Wood (Ixxxvi, 91). W. Coast America, 
California to Alaska, Kamtchatka. 

ACANTHOCHiTON, Lcach. lusertion-platcs thrown forward, 
laminated ; anterior valve with five slits, middle and posterior 
valves each one ; teeth long, sharp, smooth ; eaves small ; gills 
median; sinus deep, broad, spongy; girdle hairy, with long, fas- 
ciculated spicule. C. fasciciilaris, Auct. 

MACANDRELLUS, Cpr. Valves partly immersed ; macro Iseh- 
noidal ; posterior lamina rugosel}^ lobate ; lateral area depressed. 
G. plumens. Cpr. 

STECTOPLAX, Cpr. Valves two-thirds immersed. 

NOTOPLAX, H. Adams. Tail-plate crenate behind ; first valve 
with five, last with two, middle with one slit ; teeth crenate, sharp, 
smooth ; eaves minute ; sinus deep, narrow ; gills crowded with 
spicules, and with sutural pores. 

28 



346 CHITONID^. 

H. Cryptoidea. 

With double sutural laminae. 

CRYPTOCONCHUS, Guildiiig. Insertion-plates regular, variable 
behind ; anterior valve with five slits, middle one, posterior irreg- 
ular; teeth very long, smooth; eaves minute; sinus deep, arched; 
girdle smooth, tufted; valves nearly covered ; gills one-third. C. 
porosus. 

AMicuLA, Gray. (Symmetrogeph3a-us, Midd. Stimpsoniella, 
Cpr.) Shell regular; exposed valves small, mucronate or sub- 
cordate ; posterior sutural laminsK large ; girdle more or less 
pilose, sometimes poriferous. Branchiae median in the typical 
group. G. Pallasii^ Midd. (Ixxxvi, 92). 

CHLAMYDOCHiTON, Dall. Branchiae encircling. The Amiculae 
are provided with pores bearing fasciculi of bristles of a soft or 
horny character, and which, while often irregularly disposed or 
even almost entirely absent (in particular individuals), have a 
tendency to arrange themselves in two rows on each side of the 
median line, one row behind the exposed point of the valve, and 
another near its submerged lateral posterior angle, on each side. 
The mantle is also provided with a coating of fine, chaffy, decid- 
uous scales. C. amiculatus, Pallas (Ixxxvi, 93). 

CRYPTOCHITON, Midd, and ((^ray. Valves entirely immersed in 
the girdle, which is minutely fasciculatel}^ pilose. Branchiae 
encircling. C. Stelleri, Midd. (Ixxxv, 83) is the largest of the 
Chitons, attaining a length of eight inches. The valves are 
entirely covered, so that their outline even is not indicated in 
fresh specimens, although plainly marked in those which have 
been dried. The Aleutit),ps and Indians eat the foot and softer 
parts, in the raw state. 

I. Ohitonelloidea. 
Tail-plate funnel-shaped, lai^iinae thrown forward. 

Ohitqnellus, Blainville. 

Insertion-plates very sagittate; slits in anterior valve 5, in 
middle 0-1, in posterior none ; teeth ver}^ short, except at sutures; 
eaves distinct ; sinus ver}'^ dpep and narrow ; girdle crowded with 
bristles, no tufts ; gills posterior. The species enjoy considerable 
powers of locomotion compared with other groups of the family. 
C./ascmiws, Quoy (Ixxxv, 95). 

CRYPTOPLAX, Gray. Middle valve without slits ; girdle with 
crowded bristles, tufted. 

CHONEPLAX, Cpr. Animal creeping, rathev long; exposed 
valves small, contiguous ; last one infundibuliform ; muero" 
recurved, terminal ; laminae as in Katherina, but obsoletely slit; 
girdle as in Acanthochiton. C. siriatus, Sowb. (Ixxxv, 84). 

CHiTONisus, Cpr. Girdle not poriferous. Based on {J. striatus 



NEOMENIID^. 347 

and C. strigatus, Sowl)., which are figured as without pores. In 
the former the valves are separated, in the hitter they touch. 
The species need examination to confirm the accuracy of the 
figures, but it is probable that there are both poriferous and 
not poriferous. ^ 

Family NEOMENIID^]. 

The characters of the family are derived from those of the 
principal genus. It is one of the lowest forms of mollusks, 
being without many of the organs typifying its order. 

Neomenia gorgoniophila, Kowalewsky, creeps somewhat like 
Nemertes ; it sometimes leaves the water, and advances on a dry 
surface until it dies by exsiccation. When stopped by an 
obstacle, it creeps backwards. 

Neomenia, TuUberg. 

Syn. — Vermiculus, Dalyell. Solenopus, Sars. 

DiHtr. — 5 sp. Norway, Mediterranean. 

Sexes united ; no tentacula, no eyes, no radula, no jaw, no 
shell ; bod}' more or less worm-shaped ; foot long, narrow, 
entirely hidden by the mantle ; gills at the hinder end of the 
animal, retractile ; heart rather developed ; body-cavity entirely 
filled with entrails ; generative organs situated along tiae back, 
above the stomach and intestine ; nervous system composed 
mainly of a suprapharyngeal circle, with cerebral ganglion, and 
of two pedal ganglions. 

Proneomenia, Hubrecht. 

Dislr. — P. Sluiteri, Hubrecht. Nova Zembla. 

Body cylindric, calcareous spicula of the epidermis enveloped 
by a very thick cuticle. A small radula, and distinct salivary 
glands. A gland near the vent, at the hinder end of the animal, 
is considered to be the organ of Bojanus. The lateral glands 
described by TuUberg are probabl^^ oviducts. The glands on 
both sides of the vent seem to be analogous to a byssal gland. 

Order NUCLEOBRANCHIATA. 

Pelagic animals swimming by means of fin-like lobes of the 
foot; with or without shells, the latter being transparent, glassy. 

The respirator}' and digestive organs form a sort of nucleus on 
the posterior part of the back, whence the name. 

The abdomen, or visceral mass, is small, whilst the anterior 
part of the body (or cephalo-thorax, M. Edwards) is enormously 
developed. The proboscis is large and cylindrical, and the 
tongue armed with recurved spines. The alimentary canal of 



348 FIROLID^. 

Firola is bent up at a right-angle posteriorly on the dorsal side ; 
in Atlanta it is recurved, and ends in the branchial chamber. 
The heart is prosobranchiate, although in Firola the auricle is 
rather above than in front of the ventricle, owing to the small 
amount of the dorsal flexure. 

The nucleobranchs.and especially those without shells, "afford 
the most complete ocular demonstration of the truth of Milne 
Edwards' views with regard to the nature of the circulation in 
the Mollusca. Their transparency alloAvs the blood-corpuscles 
to be seen floating in the general cavity of the body — between 
the viscera and the outer integument — and drifting backwards 
to the heart; having reached the wall of the auricle they make 
their way through its meshes as they best can, sometimes getting 
entangled therein, if the force of the heart has become feeble. 
From the auricle they may be followed to the ventricle, and 
thence to the aorta and pedal artery, through whose open ends 
they pour into the tissues of the head and fln." — Huxley. 

Such delicate and transparent creatures would hardly seem to 
need any special breathing organ, and, in fact, it is present or 
absent in species of the same genus, and even in specimens of 
the same species. Carinaria has fully-formed branchiae ; • in 
Atlanta they are sometimes distinct, and wanting in others ; in 
Firoloides they are onl}' indicated by a ciliated subspiral band. 
The larvae are fui'nished with a shell, and with ciliated vela. — 
Gegenbauer. 

The nucleobranchs are dioecious ; some individuals (of Firola) 
have a leaf-like appendage, others a long, slender egg-tube 
depending from the oviduct, and regularly annulated. The larvae 
are furnished with a shell and witli ciliated vela. — Gegenbauer. 

The nervous system is remarkable for the wide separation of 
the centres. The buccal ganglia are situated considerably in 
front of the cephalic, and the pedal ganglia are far behind, so 
that the commissures which unite them are nearly parallel with 
the oesophagus. The branchial ganglia are at the posterior 
extremity of the bod}^ as in the bivalves. The eyes are hour- 
glass shaped, and very perfectly organized ; the auditor^y vescicles 
are placed behind, and connected with the cephalic ganglia; 
they each contain a round otolite, which sometimes seems to 
oscillate. — Huxley. 



Family FIROLID^. 

Animal elongated, cylindrical, translucent, furnished with a 
ventral fin, and a tail-fin used in swimming ; gill exposed on the 
posterior part of the back. No shell. 

The genus Sagitta, Q. and G., sometimes referred to this 
family, is an articulate animal. — Huxley. 



carinariidjB. 349 

FiROLA, Peron and Lesueur. 

Syn. — Pterotrachiija, Forsk. Anops, d'Orb. 

Distr. — 14 sp. Atlantic, Mediterranean, Pacific. F. Quoyajia, 
d'Orb. (Ixxxvi, 97). 

Animal fusiform, elongated, with a long, slender, proboscidi- 
form head ; fin narrowed at the base, usually furnished with a 
small sucker; tail elongated, keeled, sometimes pinnate; nucleus 
prominent; branchial processes numerous, conical, slender ; ten- 
tacles very short and conical ; eyes black and distinct, protected 
by a rudimentary eyelid ; lingual ribbon oblong. The female 
Firohe have a long moniliform oviduct. Anops Peronii, 
d'Orbigny, described and figured as having no head (!), was 
probably a mutilated Firola. " Such specimens are very 
common, and seem just as lively as the rest." — Huxley. 

FIROLOIDES, Lesueur. (Cerophora, d'Orbigny.) Body cylin- 
drical ; head tapering, furnished with two slender tentacles ; 
nucleus at the posterior extremity of the body, with or without 
small branchial filaments ; egg-tube regularly annulated ; tail- 
fin small and slender, ventral fin with or without a sucker. 
Distr. — 6 sp. Atlantic, Mediterranean. F. Gaimardi, Orb. 
(Ixxxvi, 98). 

Family CARINARIID^. 

Animal with pedunculated nucleus, covei-ed by a glassy conical 
shell, from the margin of which project the branchiae. Dentition 
(xii,42). 

Carinaria, Lam. 

Etf/m. — Carina, a keel. Syn. — Tithyonia, Cavolini. 

Distr. — 8 sp. Tropical and subtropical seas. Fossil, 1 sp. 
Miocene ; Turin. G. fragilis, Bory (Ixxxvi, 99). C. vUrea, 
Lam. I Ixxxvi, 100). 

Shell hyaline, symmetrical, limpet-shaped, with a posterior, 
subspiral apex and a fimbriated dorsal keel ; nucleus minute, 
dextrally spiral. 

Animal Ixxxvi, 99) large, translucent, granulated ; head thick, 
cylindrical ; lingual ribbon triangular, teeth increasing rapidly in 
size, from the front backwards ; tentacles long and slender, eyes 
near their base; ventral fin rounded, broadly attached, with a 
small marginal sucker; tail large, laterally compressed; nucleus 
pedunculated, covered by the shell, gills numei'ous, pinnate, 
projecting from beneath the shell. 

They feed on small Acalepha^, and probably on the Pteropoda ; 
Mr. AVilton found in the stomach of a Carinaria two fragments 
of quartz rock, weighing together nearly three grains. The 
sucker on the fin of this and the preceding genus was formerly 
supposed to be characteristic of the male, but it has recently 
been foiiiid Well-developed on female individuals. Mr. Arthur 



350 ATLANTID^. 

Adams, in the fleUghtfnl narrative of the " Voyage of the 
Samarang," says of these animals : 

"When fresh taken, I have seen both the Carinariae and 
Atlanta swim with their bodies in every position, on their sides, 
on their backs, and with the foot downwards. The Carinariee 
are swift and rapid in their movements, and dart forwards by a 
continuous effort, moving their foot and caudal appendage from 
side to side, as a powerful natatory organ, and do not progress 
by sudden jerks, like the Atlanta and H3'al8ea. The true analogue 
of the foot of gastropods in Atlanta and Carinaria is the sucking 
disk, but its use is circumscribed to that of enabling the animal 
to anchor itself temporarily to floating bodies when fatigued. The 
shell of Carinaria covers only a small jjortion of the body, defend- 
ing the more delicate organs, and in this we see a wise provision for 
permitting these pelagic mollusks to move freely about, without 
being encumbered with a dense, heavy skeleton." 

Cardiapoda, d'Orbigny, 
Etym. — Cardia, heart, pons, foot. 
Syn. — Carinaroides, Eyd. and Souleyet. 
Bistr. — 5 sp. Atlantic. G. placenta, ISiyd. (Ixxxvi, 1-3). 
Shell minute, cartilaginous; peristome expanded and bilobed 
in front, enveloping the spire behind. 

Animal like Carinaria, tail simple, acuminate. 

Family ATLANTID^. 

Animal furnished with a well-developed shell, into which it 
can retire ; gills contained in a dorsal mantle-cavity ; lingual 
teeth similar to Carinaria. Dentition .xii, 41), 

Shell symmetrical, discoidal, sometimes closed by an oper- 
culum. 

Atlanta, Lesueur. 

Syn. — Steira, Esch. 

Diatr. — 18 sp. Warmer parts of the Atlantic, Canary Islands. 
A. turriculafa, d'Orb. (Ixxxv, 4, 5). Fossil, 1 sp. Tertiary; 
San Domingo. 

Shell minute, glassy, compressed and prominently keeled; 
nucleus dextrally spiral; aperture narrow, deeply notched at the 
keel. Operculum ovate, pointed, lamellar, with a minute, apical, 
dextrally spiral nucleus. 

Animal three-lobed ; head large, subcylindrical ; tentacles 
conical, with conspicuous eyes behind them; ventral fin flat- 
tened, fan-shaped, furnished with a small, fringed sucker; tail 
pointed, operculigerous. 

'' The Atlanta," writes Mr. Arthur Adams, " is quite a sprightly 
little mollusk, probiitg evej-y object within its reach, by iiieans 



OPISTHOBRANCHrATA. 351 

of its elongated trunk, twisting its body about, and swimmin<r 
m every direction by tlie lateral movements of its verticaf, 
dilated foot. I have frequently seen them descend to the l)ottom 
ot the glass vessel in which they were kept, fix themselves there 
in the manner of a leech, by their sucking disk, and carefully 
_ examine the nature of their prison-house by protruding the front 
portion of the foot in every direction."' 

ii"^^®-^' ^^^"^ ^^^^^ downwards, with sudden jerks, by means of 
tiieir compressed and fin-like foot. 

OxYGYRUs, Benson. 

Syn.—Lndtxfi, Cantraine. Helicophlegma, d'Orb. 

Bisf.r—i sp. Atlantic, Mediterrairean. 0. Keraudrenii, 
Rang (Ixxxvi, 6, 7 ). 

Shell milky, narrowly umbilicated on both sides; nucleus not 
visible; back rounded, keeled only near the aperture; body- 
whoil,near the aperture, and keel cartilaginous; no apertural 
slit. Operculum trigonal, lamellar. 

Subclass OPISTHOBRANCHIATA. 
Branchiiie exposed, or protected by a fold of the mantle and 
situated at the posterior centre of the back, and never in a 
cervical cavity. Sexes united. Some have an internal or external 
spiral or patelliform shell, testaceous or membranous, others are 
without shell. 

1 '^^t V^^^^"^^^^ ^^ *^i^ subclass may be termed sea-sluo-s, since 
the shell, when it exists, is usually small and thin, and wholly 
or partially concealed by the animal. When alarmed or removed 
trom their native element, they retract their gills and tentacles 
and present such a questionable shape that the inexperienced 
naturalist will be likely enough to return them, with the refuse 
ot the dredge, into the sea. Their internal structure presents 
many points of interest ; in some the gizzard is armed with horny 
spines, or large shelly plates ; in others the stomach is extremely- 
complicated, its ramifications and those of the liver being pro- 
longed into the papilla?, which are said to be branches of the 
respiratory organ. The tongue is armed, but the number and 
arrangement of the lingual teeth is exceedingly variable even 
in the same family ; usually the dental membrane is broad and 
snort, with many similar teeth in each row. 

The alimentary canal terminates more in the rear ofthe body 
than in the other univalve sliell-fish. The gills are behind the 
heart, and the auricle behind the ventricle; conditions which 
characterize the embryonic state ofthe mollusca generally. 

Comparatively little is known of the geoirraphical distribution 
ot these animals ; they have been found wherever the requisite 
search hac been made, and are probablv much more numerous 



352 PHlLlNIDiE. 

than at present estimated. Considerable additions, however, 
have been made to onr knowledge on this subject by the re- 
searches of Kelaart in Ceylon and A. Adams in the Chinese seas. 
The shell-bearing- genera flourished in the period when the sec- 
ondary strata were deposited. The living species are chiefly 
animal- feeders, preying on other shell-fish and on zoophytes. 

Order TECTIBRANCHIATA. 

Animal usually provided with a shell, both in the larval and 
adult state ; branchise covered by the shell or mantle. 

Family PHILINID^. 

Shell usually present, sometimes wanting, internal, bulliform, 
but slightly spiral, usually not forming a single whorl ; it is con- 
cealed under the lateral margins of the foot. 

Teeth, central none ; lateral one or two, large, hooked. Ceph- 
alic disk oblong or subquadrate, without tentacular lobes ; eyes 
none, or, if present, sessile on the head ; mantle covering and 
concealing the shell ; foot not produced posteriorly, the sides 
dilated, thick and fleshy ; gizzard armed with calcareous plates. 

Philine, Ascanias. 

Si/n. — Bullfea, Lam. Megistoma, Gabb. Utriculopsis, Sars. 

JHMr. — 20 .sp. West Indies, Boreal Atlantic, Mediterranean, 
p]ast Indies. Fossil, 7 sp. Eocene. P. aperta, Linn. (Ixxxvii, 
14, 15). 

Shell internal, white, translucent, oval, slightly convoluted, 
spire rudimentary. 

Animal pale, slug-like ; mantle investing the shell ; head 
oblong ; eyeless ; foot broad ; lateral lobes large, but not 
enveloping ; tongue with two or four series of sickle-shaped 
uncini ; gizzard with three longitudinal shelly plates. Egg- 
capsules ovate, in single series on a long spiral thread ; fry 
with a ciliated head-veil and an operculated, spiral shell. — Loven. 

The animal is blind, like most creatures that seek their food 
by burrowing. They frequent mud-flats and slim}^ banks at the 
entrances of rivers, which they perforate near the surface, and 
probe with their flattened heads for the small bivalves which 
constitute their prey; these they seize and swallow entire^ 
breaking their shells by means of their testaceous, muscular 
gizzards. 

CHELiDONURA, A. Adauis. ( Hirundella, Gray.) Shell con- 
cealed ; outer lip produced posteriorly into a spur; columellar 
border inflected. Animal with enveloping side-lobes ; mantle 
with two appendages behind, like the lateral processes of Hyahea. 
P. hirundinaria^ Quoy (Ixxxvii, 16, 17). 



PHILINID^. 358 

Phaneropthalmus, a. Ad. 

Syn. — Xantlionella. Gra3\ 

Distr.—P. luteux, Quoy (Ixxxvii, 18, 19). 

Shell oval, convex, pointed behind, columella-margin with a 
curved process. Animal long, cylindrical, head with short ten- 
tacular lobes, eyes in middle of disk, lateral lobes enveloping. 

Cryptophthalmus, Ehrenberg. 

Distr. — C. oHvaceus, Ehr. (Ixxxvii, 20). Red Sea. 

Shell scarcely convolute, fragile, oval, convex, without spire 
or columella. 

Animal semicylindrical, head with short tentacular lobes, eyes 
small, concealed under the lateral margins of the head, mantle 
and lateral lobes enveloping the shell. 

Philinopsis, Pease, 1860. 

Distr. — 2 sp. Sandwich Isles. P. specio.sa, Pease. 

Shell white, fragile, pellucid, with a curved callous apex. 
Head-disk large, oblong-oval or triangular, not extending in 
advance of the foot ; body truncated behind, and the truncation 
sun-ounded by an undulated or crenated crest ; eyes not visible ; 
mouth proboscidiform between cephalic disk and foot, with or 
without one pair of tentacles on sides of the mouth ; foot large, 
rounded and reflected at the sides ; branchial plume near the 
posterior end of the body, and curving around between the 
truncated end of the foot. 

VoLVATELLA, Pease. 

Distr. — V. fragilis, Pease. Sandwich Islands. 

Shell convolute, subpja-iform ; aperture wide anteriorl}', con- 
tracted posteriorly and produced, forming a circular aperture. 

Animal. Mantle concealed ; cephalic disk quadrate ; tentac- 
ular lobes produced from the corners ; anal aperture posterior; 
foot small and triangular. 

LiNTERiA, A. Adams. 

Syn. — Sraaragdinella, A. Ad. Glauconella, Gray. 

Example. — L. viridiH, Rang (Ixxxvii, 21). 

Shell oval, depressed, slightly spiral, greenish ; aperture very 
large, canaliculated behind ; inner lip with a spiral spoon-shaped 
process. 

Animal partially investing the shell ; eyes sessile on the middle 
of the frontal disk ; mantle included within the shell, ending 
posteriorly in a thickened lobe; foot with the side-lobes free, not 
united to the head, enlarged in the form of wings which unite 
behind and cover a portion of the shell. 

Amphibious, living on moist rocks within reach of the spray. 



354 TORNATELLID^. 

and on rocks weeping fresh water near the sea-shore. Both 
animal and shell are of a glancous green color. 

NONA, H. and A. Adams. Shell white, fragile ; outer Up pro- 
duced into a wing behind. jL. ^Zj7w-as (Ixxxvii, 22). 

Scaphander, Montfbrt. 

Etym. — (Scap/ie, boat, a>?er, man. 

Disti\ — 13 sp. United States, Norway, Britain, 1VIedit4rra- 
nean on sandj^ ground, .50 fathoms. I'ossil, 8 sp. Eoeette — . 
S. lignarius, Linn. (Ixxxvii, 23). 

Shell oblong, convolute ; spirally striated ; aperture much 
expanded in front ; spire concealed ; epidermis thick ; lingual 
teeth 1*0-1, crested. • 

Animal with a large oblong head, destitute of eyes ; foot short 
and broad ; lateral lobes reflected, but not enveloping the shell ; 
gizzard with two large trigonal plates and a small narrow trans- 
verse plate. It feeds on Dentalium entale. 

Aglaia, Renier. 
Syn. — Accra, Cuvier. Eidothea, Risso. Doridium, Meckel. 
Bistr. — 3 sp. South Europe. D. membranaceum, Meek. 
Mediterranean. 

Animal oblong, truncated behind, the angles produced and 
dilated or filiform; head ovate-oblong, retuse in front; side-lobes 
expanded, wing-like; mantle investing a rudimentary, mem- 
branous shell. 

Gastropteron, Meckel. 

Di.str. — G. Jleckelii, Bl. (Ixxxvii, 24). Mediterranean. 

Animal oval, with side-lobes developed into wing-like expan- 
sions, meeting and uniting behind; cephalic disk triangular, 
obtuse in front, pointed behind, eyes centrally immersed ; lingual 
teeth 5*1 'S; mantle (?), branchial plume exposed on the right side; 
reproductive orifice in front of the gill, excretory opening behind 
it. Shell almost microscopic. 

[Atla8, Lesueur. 
Referred to this family by several systenuitists, is a larval 
creature, and not of a^mpUusk-;— Macdonald.] 

Animal generally perfectly retractile, but mostly roflatg^ijeize 
when expanded ; foot thick, reflexed on the sides ; Jiead broad, 
very often forming a flat disk, with or without other appendages; 
tentacles broad, thick, united at base ; eyes sessile near the base. 
Dentition, laterals numerous, uniform, in diverging cross series, 
rachidian teeth wanting (xiii, 68). ^i^h"-' ,ij.- 



TOttNATELLlDiE. 355 

Operculum, when present, horny, ovate, narrow, composed of 
few whorls. 

Shell spiral, ovate, convolute or involute, spire more or less 
elevated, surface mostly spirally punctated, aperture usually 
high and narrow, truncate or roundish in front, columella solid. 

The genera and species referred to this family are mostly 
fossil. The arrangement here followed is that of Dr. Stoliczka 
{Pal. Indica, ii, 398), being a modification of the classification 
of Dr. F. B. Meek [Am. Jour. ScL, xxxv, 89, 1863). 

Subfamily TORNATELLIN^. 

Shell ovate, aperture anteriorly rounded, sometimes broacjly 
effuse, outer lip sharpened at the margin, columellar lip twisted 
and often plicated in front. The recent species operculated. 

AcTiEONiNA, d'Orb, 

8yn.- -Trochactfeonina, Meek. Oi'thostoma, Desh. 

Diatr. — 30 sp. Carboniferous to Eocene, A. Lorieriana, iVOvh. 
(lxxxviii,46). 

Shell oval, elongated, conical or fusiform, with I'evolving punc- 
tated strite ; aperture long and narrow, widened in front, entire ; 
lij) sharp; columella thickened, but without plications. 

EucoNAOT^ON, Meek, 1863. (Conactjfton, Meek, 1863.) Shell 
thin, obconic, gradually tapering anteriorly, spire either immersed 
or elevated, aperture very long, equally narrow all through, ante- 
riorly' rounded, columella slightly thickened, smooth. Dislr. — 
Jurassic. A. concava, d'Orb. (Ixxxviii, 47'. 

: CYLiNDRiTES, Morr. and Lye. (Goniocylindrites, Meek.) Shell 
subcylindrical or ovate, smooth, spire sunken or moderately 
elevated, aperture narrow, very high, anteriorly rounded, sub- 
effuse, columella twisted anteriorly' into a distinctlj'^ conspicuous 
fold. Distr. — Triassic and Jurassic. A. cuspidatus, Morris 
(Ixxxviii, 48). 

CYLiNDROBULLiNA, vou Ammou, 1878. Shell small, with ele- 
vated, scalariform spire ; columella with a slight fold. Triassic to 
Liassic. A. fragilis, Dunker. 

TORNATINA, A. Ad. 

Distr. — 24 sp. West Indies, United States, Mediterranean, 
Philippines, China, Australia. On sandy bottoms, ranging to 
35 fathoms. — Adams. Fossil, 13 sp. Tertiary-. T. coarctata^ 
A. Ad. (Ixxxvii, 25). 

Shell cylindrical or fusiform, spire conspicuous, apex sinistral, 
suture channeled, columella callous, 1 -plaited. 

Animal M'ith a broad, trigonal head, rounded in front; tentac- 
ular lobes triangular, with eyiis at their outer bases ; foot short, 
truncated in front. 



35() TORNATELLID^. 

Myonia. a. Ad., 1860. 

Distr. — M. Japonica, A. Ad. Japan. 

Shell ovate, turreted ; white, thin, with slightly convex, spirally 
sulcated whorls ; aperture oblong, a little produced anteriorly ; 
inner lip with an oblique fold. 

LEUCOTiNA, A. Ad. Last whorl ventricose, minutely punctate, 
M. Niphonensis, A. Ad. Japan. 

ToRNATELLA, Lam. 

Syn. — Actteon,Montf. (notOken). Dactylus,Schum. Myosota, 
Gray. 

Distr. — 22 sp. United States, Britain, Senegal, Red Sea, Phil- 
ippines, Japan, Peru. Fossil, numerous. Trias to Lias — , North 
America, Europe, South India. T. fasciata, Lam. (Ixxxvii, 26). 

Shell solid, ovate, with a conical, many-whorled spire, spirally 
grooved or punctate-striate ; aperture long, narrow, rounded in 
front; outer lip sharp; columella with a strong, tortuous fold. 
Operculum horny, elliptical, lamellar. 

Animal white ; head truncated and slightly notched in front, 
furnished posteriorly with recumbent tentacular lobes, and small 
eyes near their inner bases ; foot oblong, lateral lobes slightly 
reflected on the shell. Lingual teeth 12"12, similar, with long- 
simple hooks. 

RiCTAXis, Dall. Shell like Actaeon, but with the columella 
projecting beyond the line of the anterior margin, forming a 
small tooth-like projection, or truncate obliquely. T. puncfo- 
c(h'fnfo., Cpr. (Ixxxvii, 28 . California. 

s(»LTDui;A, Fischer, 1801. (? Buccinulus, Plancus. Tornatel- 
liea, Conrad.) Shell thick, columella with two plaits. A. mlidula, 
Lam. (Ixxxvii, 27). 

NUCLEOPSis, Conrad. Uncharacterized. A. subdivaricatus, Conr. 
(Ixxxviii, 49). 

ACT^ONIDEA, Gabb. Oval, elongate ; aperture narrow, outer 
lip simple, columella with one large transverse fold in the middle, 
and truncated in advance ; surface ornamented by revolving ribs. 
A. oryza, Gabb (Ixxxviii, 50). Tertiary ; W. I. Form of Cylin- 
drites, sculpture of Actaeon. 

Triptycha, Miiller, 1859. 

Distr. — T. Limnaeif or mis .iMxiWer. Ci'et. ; Europe. 

Ovate, almost perfectly smooth, aperture rounded anteriorly, 
outer lip sharp, inner lip with three folds, of which the middle 
one is largest. Onlj^ one fossil species ; perhaps a Marinula. 

Trochact^on, Meek. 
Syn. — Actseonella, d'Orb. lin part). Spiractfeon, Meek. 
Example. — T". A'eneat/dimyia, d'Orb. (Ixxxviii, 51). 



TORNATELLIDiE. 357 

Shell turbinate, more or less involute, last whorl usually higher 
than the spire, with a flattened narrow solid edge along the 
suture; aperture semieffuse, anteriorly rounded, inner lip thick- 
ened, especially in front, and provided with three oblique folds. 

Globiconcha, d'Orb. 
Distr. — G sp. Cretaceous ; France. G. coniformis, Riimer 
(Ixxxviii, 52). G. Fleuriausa, d'Orb. (Ixxxviii, 53). 

Shell globular-conic, spire short, or involute ; aperture narroAv, 
crescent-shaped ; margin acute ; columella not thickened or 
plaited. 

Tylostoma, Sharpe, 1849. 

Etym. — Tulo^, a callosity, stoma, mouth. 

Distr. — 4 sp. L. Cretaceous rocks ; Portugal. T. lorruhiae, 
Sharpe (Ixxxviii, 54). 

Shell ventricose, smooth or punctate-striate, spire moderate, 
aperture ovate-lunate, pointed above, rounded in front ; outer 
lip periodically (once or twice in a whorl) thickened inside and 
expanded, rising slightly; inner lip callous, spread over bod}^- 
whorl. 

Stoliezka refers this genus to Naticidje ; its true aflSnities are 
difficult to ascertain. 

VARiGERA, d'Orb. Shell with lateral varices. T. Bochatiana, 
d'Orb. (Ixxxviii, 55). Cret. ; France. 

Subfamily RINGIGULINJE. 

The shells resemble Actreon except that they have the margins 
of the aperture strongly thickened and externally varicose, the 
canal is twisted or plaited, and always terminates anteriorly with 
a distinct fold, in front of which there is a groove or kind of 
canal in the thickened margin. The other genera proposed may 
well be considered subgenera of Ringicula. 

RiNGicuLA, Desh. • 

Etym. — Diminutive of ringens, from ringo, to grin. 

Sxjn. — Aptycha, Meek. 

Distr. — 75 sp., the recent ones in all warm seas. Fossil. 
Miocene—. R. buccinea, Desh. (Ixxxvii, 29). 

Shell minute, ventricose, with a small spire ; aperture notched, 
columella callous, deeply plaited j outer, lip thickened and 
reflected, iVl. ^a.!^- -, Z, - ■. ^ ; 

RiNOiNELLA, d'Oib. Shell oval, w^ith revolving punctate striae ; 
aperture entire, without channel ; outer lip strongly thickened ; 
inner lip thickened, with anterior plications. Several cretaceous 
species. R. Clementina, d'Orb. (Ixxxviii, 57). 

ERiPTYCHA, Meek. (Eupt3'cha, Meek, preoccupied). Shell 
globose, aperture very narrow, one strong, often bifid anterior 



358 CYLIOHNID^. 

fold ill the inner lip, which is in the middle, flattened and pro- 
jecting in the space of the aperture, being separated from the 
fold b3^ a deep insinuation ; the outer lip is generally somewhat 
produced anteriorly, the anterior canal being distinct. Cre- 
taceous. R. decartata, Sowb. 

? STOMATUDON, Scely, 1861. Described from a cast in the Cam- 
bridge Grreensand. May be a Ringicula. ^. poZi^a, Seely. 

CiNULiA, Gray. -^ ■'''^'^'" ■'■' 

Distr. — 25 sp. Cretaceous; Europe, Uiiited States. (7. 
(jJobidoHa^ Desh. (Ixxxviii, 58). 

Shell globose, spire short, surface spirally sulcated, aperture 
anteriorly produced, effuse, columella terminating with a single 
oblique and twisted fold. 

OMGOPTYCiiA, Meek. Shell with spire much depressed and 
obtuse; outer lip smooth within, and very slightly sinuous at 
the base of the aperture ; inner lip bearing a single, very promi- 
nent, nearly transverse plication or tooth at the base of the 
columella. Actaeon concinnus^ Hall and Meek (Ixxxviii, 59). 

AVELiiANA, d'Orb. Shell globose, inner lip with two or three 
folds, one being anterior, often bipartite, placed at the termina- 
tion of the columella, the other subanterior, separated from the 
fornier by a deep insinuation of the lip ; there is generally a 
third one placed about the middle of the inner lip, and one or 
two posterior, much shorter ones, but these are not constant. 
A. incraf^sata^ d'Orb. (Ixxxviii, 60). 

Family CYLICHNID^. 

Shell external, spiral, more or less cylindrical, usually white. 
No operculum. Animal with depressed quadrangular head ; 
truncated in front ; bilobed behind ; with eyes at the base of 
tentaculiform lobes ; foot rather narrow, truncated in front. 
Teeth, central none, lg,tei*als 6'6, the inner large and hooked, the 
outer small and uniform, rarely wanting. 

Cylichna, Loven. 

Si/n — Bullina, Risso. 

Distr. — 40 sp. Chiefly deep-water shells. United States, 
Greenland, Britain, Red Sea, Australia. Fossil. Triassic — . 
C. arachis. Quoy (Ixxxvii, 30). 

Shell strong, cylindrical, smooth or punctate-striate ; spire 
minute or truncated ; aperture narrow, rounded in front; colu- 
mella callous, with one plait. 

MNESTiA, H. and A. Adams. Shell oval, subcylindrical, banded, 
with revolving striae ; aperture narrow, prolonged into a point 
at both ends. C. ??mrmo?'a^a, A. Ad. (Ixxxvii, 31). 

CY'LicHNELLA, Gabb. Shell subcylindrical, spire sunken ; mouth 



BULLIDiE. 3f)9 

narrow behind, widened in front; columella with two foldaj' ;6'. 
bidentatus, tVOrh. (Ixxxvii, SS\ Tertiary; West Indies. ■>>'•;' 

voLVULA, A. Adams. Shell subcj^lindrical, attenuated to a 
point posteriori}', to which the narrow aperture extends ; spire 
concealed ; outer lip sharp ; columella with an obsolete anterior 
plication. C. acwwj^'nato, Brug. (Ixxxvii, 34). 

ACT^ONELLA, d'Orb. ( Volvulina, Stolicz.) Shell convolute, 
like Yolvula, attenuated at both ends, aperture linear, inner lip 
anteriorly thickened and provided with three folds. The shells, 
which are as yet onl}' known from cretaceous deposits, mostly 
closely resemble the recent Volvula, differing from it merely by 
the pl-esence of three columellar folds on the anterior portion of 
the inner lip. C. <!?rassa, d'Orb. (Ixxxviii, 61). Cretaceous, 

\j-iJi' i--^^':-^-i:ryh ;\nSjrn TJtRICULUS, BrOWn. -Ah-^'IK ,:.-'V ■•.,;: ■ : ., 

•Distr.—i-Noith^rh: 'Several sp. U.Cecillei, Phil, (Ixxxvii, 32). 

Shell subcylindrical, with short spire, and thin epidermis ; 
aperture narrow behind, wider in front ; colnmella not plicated ; 
outer lip thin. h • . :' 

Utriculus is regarded as a distinct genus by Jeffreys, ditfering 
from Cylichna by the tentacles being separate, the eyes distinct, 
the gizzard horny, and tb6' shell having a visible spire with a 
mammillary apex. '; 

^^ , "' ^ i • DiAPiiANA, Brown. 

iSt/>i.— Aiiiptiisphyra, Loven, 

Distr. — A few sp. Northern, TJ, S., Europe. D. deMlis, Gould 
(Ixxxvii, 35). 

Shell thin, transparent, oval-glbbular ; spire very short; aper- 
ture much widened anteriorly ; columella a little sinuous ; outer 
lip thin, sinuous, bx'oadly rounded anteriorly. 

Head-disk broad and short ; tentacular lobes short, conical, 
lateral, wide apart; eyes immersed in their hind bases. Mantle- 
margin slightly thickened. Foot short, bilobed behind. 

In this genus, as in Kissoella, Gray, the eyes are placed far 
back behind the head, so that in order to render the vision of 
the animal distinct, the shell is nearly transparent. The head of 
the animal is very short, and the tentacles wide and far apart. 

Family BULLION. 

Shell spiral, ventrieose, rather thick ; maculated and banded 
in the tj'pical genus, white in others; spire involute; extenial, 
but usually partly covered by the lateral lobes of the foot. 

Bulla, Linn. 
Di$tr.^-50 sp. Universal. B. ampulla, Linn. (Ixxxvii, 36). 
Fossil. .Cretaceous — . 

Shell oval-globular, smooth, spotted, marbled or zoned ; spire 



ofiO BULLTDiE. 

concave, umbilicated ; aperture as long as the shell ; inner 
margin without columella; outei; lip trenchant. 

Teeth, central one, laterals numerous, uniform, in an arched 
series. Animal partly investing, but not entirely covering the 
shell. Eyes consi)icuous, sessile on the middle of the frontal 
disk. Mantle with the outer margin forming a thick, fleshy 
lobe. Foot with the lateral lobes moderate, and the hind-part 
not extending beyond the shell. The species of this genus 
inhabit sandy mud-flats, the slimy banks of river-mouths, and 
brackish places near the sea; at low-water some of them conceal 
themselves in the mud and under sea-weed, exuding large quan- 
tities of mucus to maintain the moisture of their skin ; they 
feed on bivalves and other mollusca, which they swallow whole, 
reducing and crushing them afterwards by the calcareous plates 
of their powerful gizzard. The shells of Bulla, as restricted, are 
rather solid, smooth, and mottled and marbled like birds' eggs. 

Haminea, Leach. 
, Example. — H. hydatid, Linn. (Ixxxvii, 37, 38). 

Shell oval-globular, spiral, ventricose, corneous, thin, covered 
by a slight, smooth epidermis ; spire involute. Ma}^ be distiur 
guished from Bulla immediately by the want of color in the shell. 

Atys, Montfort. 

Example. — A. naiicum^ Linn. 'Ixxxvii, 39). 

Shell rather solid, uncoloi-ed, with a smooth epidermis; 
usually spirally striated ; spire scarcely visible ; aperture longer 
than the inner margin at both ends ; columella with a single, 
m.ore or less obsolete plication. 

The animal is blind, or the eyes are subcutaneous. 

LAONA, A. Ad. Semiovate, thin, strife of growth lamellar, 
spire hidden ; aperture with the inner lip arcuated, outer lip 
simple. A. zonata^ A. Ad. Japan. 

DiNiA, H. and A. Adams. Shell ovoid, subtruncated behind, 
longitudinally striated ; inner lip truncated anteriorly, termi- 
nating in a tooth-like projection. A. dentifera., Ad. (Ixxxvii, 40). 

SAO, H. and A. Adams. Shell pyriform, ventricose in front; 
umbilicated; apex involute; aperture narrow behind, wide in 
fiout ; columellar lip reflected ; outer lip thiti, sinuous. A.pyri- 
formis (Ixxxvii, 41), 

PHYSEMA, H. and A. Adams, Shell small, thin, hyaline, glob- 
ular; umbilicated; very finely longitudinally striated ; columella 
a little arcuated, reflected; outer lip thin, free behind, developed 
in the middle. A. hiemalis, Couth. (Ixxxvii, 42). 

ROXANiA, Leach. Shell ovoid, solid, perforate, decussately 
striate, transversely profoundly sulcate, the sulcations strongly 
punctate ; aperture narrow, dilated in front ; inner lip sharp. 



APLUSTIUD-S;. 361 

truncate anteriorly ; outer lip produced behind. A. Granchii, 
Leach. 

ALicuLA, Ehrenberg, 1831. Shell subcylindrical, transversely 
striate. 3 sp. Japan. A. translucens, A. Ad. Japan. 



LEUCONYX, H. and A. Ad., a supposed new genus of Bullidae, 
is the spatulate hinge process of Fholas costata. 

Family APLUSTRID^. 

Teeth, central none ; laterals numerous, uniform. Head with 
the frontal disk produced into large ear-like tentacular lobes 
folded ov^er the back of the shell, and furnished with bifid labial 
appendages ; eyes sessile at the inner bases of the tentacular 
lobes. Mantle with the inner margin thin and membranous, the 
outer forming a thick, fleshy lobe, curving round the spire of 
the shell ; branchial plume long and single. Foot large and 
membranous, auriculate in front, rounded behind. 

The shell has usually a short spire, the last whorl inflated, 
aperture anteriorlj' distinctly eff'use, columella somewhat thick- 
ened, rarely twisted, but always anteriorly truncated. 

Aplustrum, Schumacher. 

Etym. — Aplustre, a ship's flag. 

Distr — 1 sp. Coral reefs. East Indies. A. aplustre, Linn. 
(Ixxxvii, 43). 

Shell oval, ventricose, highly colored ; spire wide, depressed ; 
aperture truncated in front ; outer lip sharp. 

Differs from Bullina by its smooth, somewhat thinner shell, 
more depressed spire, the columella being very thick, slightly 
twisted and truncated in front. 

Bullina, Fer. 

Distr. — B. lineata, Wood (Ixxxvii, 44). 

Shell oval, rather solid , subumbilicated ; spire distinct ; whorls 
with revolving striae ; columella arcuated, obliquely truncated in 
front ; outer lip crenelated. 

KLEiNELLA, A. Ad., 1860. Shell ovate, thin, umbilicated, can- 
cellated, aperture produced anteriorly, inner lip not plicated. 
Resembles Actaeon, but without columellar fold. Japan. B. 
cancella7-is, A. Ad. 

Hydatina, Schum., 1817. 

Distr. — Recent, several sp. Fossil. Jurassic — . H. physis, 
Linn. (Ixxxvii, 45 ). 

Sliell ventricose, thin, smooth, not umbilicated, with a thin 
epidermis; usually banded ; spire involute; columella arcuated, 
reflected. 
24 



362 lophocercidjs;. 

BULLOPSis, Conr. Like Hydatina with a depressed spii'e and 
inflated body-whorl, inner lip with two close folds. B. cretacea, 
Conr. Cretaceous; Mississippi, 

Etallonia, Deshayes, 1864. 

Etym. — Dedicated to M. Etallon, a French palaeontologist. 

Diatr. — 3 sp. Eocene; Paris basin, Valognes. E. ]jrisca, 
Desh. (Ixxxviii, 62). 

Shell ovate, snbfusiform, resembling certain small Mitres; 
spire short, conical, obtuse, few-whorled ; aperture elongated, 
narrow, base entire, subemarginate ; lip simple, acute, arched ; 
columella thick, cylindrical, twisted in the middle to resemble 
an obtuse plait ; acute anteriorly. 

Family LOPHOCERCIDJE. 

Shell spiral, very thin, subflexible, with epidermis. 

Head with two ear-like tentacles ; eyes sessile on the sides of 
the head ; gill regular, pectinate ; organs of generation close 
together in one tubercle ; male organ on the right side of the 
nape near the tentacle. In Lophocercus, the body is covered 
with papillae, and produced behind into a long, pointed tail ; foot 
with the natator}^ appendages undivided, reflexed and partly 
covering the shell in front and united posteriorly. 

Lophocercus, Krohn. 

Syn. — Icarus, Forbes. Oxynoe, Kaf. 

Example. — L. Sieboldi, Krohn (Ixxxix, 68, 70 ~. 

Shell like Bullaea ; convoluted, thin, ovate, covered with epi- 
dermis, outer lip separated at the suture, posterior angle inflected 
and rounded. 

Animal slender, papillose ; tentacles 2, ear-shaped ; eyes sessile 
on sides of head ; side-lobes reflected and partly covering the 
shell, united behind ; tail long and pointed. 

voLVATELLA, Pease. Shell resembling Lophocei'cus, but more 
convolute. Foot small, mantle concealed, vent posterior, ej'es 
concealed in the fold of the sides of the head. L fragilis. 
Pease. 

Akera, Miiller. 

Etym, — Akeros, hornless. 

Distr. — t sp. Greenland, Great Britain, Mediterranean, East 
Indies, New Zealand. A. soluta, Cheran. (Ixxxix, 6-^). Fossil. 
Eocene. 

Shell thin, flexible, globosely cylindrical, spire truncated, 
whorls channeled ; aperture long, expanded and deeply sinuated 
in front, outer margin disunited at the suture ; columella open, 
exposing the whorls. 

Head-disk greatly elongated, wide and. bifid anteriorly, and 



APLYSIIDiE. 3B3 

narrowed posteriorly ; the hind edsje of th(; mantle is fimbriated 
and projects through the fissured suture of the shell ; foot 
expanded, narrow and rounded anteriorly, broad and truncated 
posteriorly ; by means of the extended lateral foot-lobes the 
animal swims with considerable facility, 

CYLTNDROBULLA, Fischer. Shell cylindrical, bulliform, thin, 
fi'agile, spire very short, suture slit; outer lip incui'ved, closing 
the aperture in the middle. A. Beauii, Fischer (Ixxxix, 63). 

LoBiQER, Krohn. 

Distr. — 4 sp. Atlantic, South Europe. L. Philippii, Krohn 
(Ixxxix, 65, 66). 

Shell oval, transparent, flexible, slightl}' convoluted ; covered 
with epidermis. 

Animal slender, papillose, with two flattened, oval tentacles, 
and minute sessile ej-es on the sides of the head ; shell exposed 
on the middle of the back, covering the plume-like gill ; sides 
with two pairs of rounded, dilated lobes, or natatory appendages, 
foot linear, tail long and slender. 

The four laterally expanded wing-like lobes easily distinguish 
this animal from Lophocercus. 

Family APLYSIID^. 

Shell wanting, or rudimentary- and covered by the mantle, 
oblong, trigonal, or slightly convoluted. 

Animal slug-like, with distinct head, tentacles, and eyes ; foot 
long, drawn out into a tail behind ; sides with extensive lobes, 
reflected over the back and shell ; branchial plume concealed. 
Sexes united. 

Aplysia, Gmelin. 

Etym. — Aplysia (from a and pluo^, unwashable; the Aplysia 
of the Greek fisherman were sponges unfit for washing. Sea- 
hare. Syn. — Siphonotus (gcographicus), Ad. 

Difitr. — 48 sp. West Indies, Norway, Britain, Mediterranean, 
Mauritius, China. Fossil (?). Tertiary ; Sicilv. A. depilans, Ijinn. 
(Ixxxix, 67, 71). 

Shell oblong, convex, flexible, and translucent, with a posterior 
slightly incurved apex. 

Animal oval, with a long neck and prominent back ; head with 
four tentacles, dorsal pair ear-like with eyes at anterior lateral 
bases ; mouth proboscidiform, with horny jaws, lingual teeth 
13"1'13, hooked and serrated, about 30 rows; gizzard armed with 
horny spines ; sides with ample lobes folding over the back, and 
capable of being used for swimming ; gill in the middle of the 
back, covered by the shell and by a lobe of the mantle, which is 
folded posteriorly to form an excretory siphon. 



364 APLYSIIDiE. 

The Sea-hares are mixed feeders, living ehiefl}^ on sea-weed, 
but also devouring animal substances ; they inhabit the lamina- 
rian zone, and oviposit amongst the weed in spring, at which 
time they are frequently gregarious. — Forbes. They are per- 
fectly harmless animals, and may be handled with impunity. 
When molested they discharge a violet fluid from the edge of 
the internal surface of the mantle, which does not injure the skin, 
has but a faint smell, and changes to wine-red. 

" Wonderful tales used to be told of the more than poisonous 
qualities of the Aplysia. Pliuy, ^lian, and especially Aldro- 
vandi, collected all these absurd notions. One was that if the 
animal were touched, even with a walking-stick, the danger 
would be not less than from the look of a basilisk ; another was that 
it caused baldness; and a third that pregnant women miscarried 
at the sight of this horrid creature. Cuvier has satisfactorily 
shown that Aplysia is quite harmless, and that it did not deserve 
the bad character given to it by the ancients ; he says trul^^ that 
fishermen have always had a fancy to attribute mischievous prop- 
erties to those marine animals which are of no use as the food 
of man. I would remark, however, by way of parenthesis, that 
the Aplysia is not quite inoffensive, as an}^ one ma^' be convinced 
by handling it ; the smell is insufferably nauseous. This and its 
slabby appearance are certainly enough to take away the appetite 
of any civilized being. But Mr. Lesson states that one kind is 
eaten raw and esteemed a delicacy by the natives of the Society 
or Friendly Isles. The Aplysi^e secrete occasionally a whitish 
slime. Spawn-case gelatinous, of a pinkish hue, thread-like, and 
irregularly convoluted ; ova white and very numerous, Ij'ing in 
the middle. The embryonic shell is globular ; it becomes the 
apex in after-growth, being persistent, as in Teredo." — Jeffreys, 
Brit. Conch. 

Phyllaplysia, Fischer. 

Distr. — 3 sp. Europe. P. ornata, Desh, (Ixxxix, 69). 

Body flat, neck short, foot broad, natatory lobes small. Shell 
absent or horny (? \ Teeth of radula tricuspid, blunt. Copulation 
re{!iprocal,as in Helix, not in multiple chains, as in true Aplysia. 

Aplysiella, Fischer. 
Distr. — 2 sp. Europe. A. petaUifera, Rang (Ixxxix, T2). 
Aplysia, with the natatory lobes rudimentary as in Dolabella, 
the shell very thin. '^-■"^i, -sm i- t' 

DOLABRIFERA, Grubc. 

Distr. — 4 sp. Indian Ocean, West America.. D. Cuvieri^ 
Ads. (Ixxxix, 73). 

Shell trapezoidal ; side-lob_es not used for swimming. 



APLYSlIDiE. 365 

DoLABELLA, Lamavck. 

Etym. — Dolabella, a small hatchet. 

Distr. — 12 sp. Mediterrauean, Mauritius, Ce^'lon, Society 
Islands, Sandwich Islands. D. Teremidi (Ixxxix, 74, 75). 

Shell hard, calcareous, trigonal, with a curved and callous 
apex. 

Animal like Aplysia, with gill near posterior extremit}' of the 
bodj^ and lateral crests closely appressed, leaving only a narrow 
opening ; ornamented with branching filaments. 

SiPHONOPYGE, Brown. 

Distr. — B sp. West America, Chinese Sea. S. lurida, d'Orb. 
(Ixxxix, 7(;, 77). 

Shell truncated in front ; foot-lobes spread out for swimming; 
posterior part extended beA'Ond the siphon. 

NoTARCHUS, Cuvier. 

Etym. — Notos, the back, archos, vent. 

Syn. — Busiris (griseus), Risso. 

Didr. — 7 sp. Mediterranean, Red Sea, living in floating 
masses of sea-weed. N. ocellatus. Rang (Ixxxix. 78j. 

Animal ornamented with filaments, sometimes dendritic, foot 
narrow, lateral crests united, leaving only a narrow branchial 
slit ; gills not covered by an opercular mantle-lobe. 

Notarchus was long supposed to be without a shell ; it is 
pi-es^nt, however, paucispiral, only a millimetre in diameter, and 
concealed under the mantle at the posterior part of the visceral 
mass. 

AcLESiA, Rang. 

Distr. — Several sp. East Indies. A. rufa, Quoy (Ixxxix, 79). 

Animal elongated, with a pointed posterior termination covered 
with filiform appendages ; four long tentacles ; gills in a branchial 
cavity. No shell. 

BuESATELLA, Blainville. 

Distr. — B. Leachii, (Ixxxix, 80). 

Subglobular, the natatory appendages united together on the 
back, leaving a dorsal cavity containing the anus and a large 
free gill ; four ramified tentacles, and two buccal appendages. 
No shell. Is possibl}' identical with Aclesia, the globular shape 
being due, perhaps, to immersion in alcohol. 

Stylocheilus, Gould, 1841. 

Distr. — 3 sp. New Guinea, on Fuci. S. longicauda, Quoy 
(Ixxxix, 81 '. 

Animal limaciform ; cirrigerous, dilated at the sides, atten- 
uated beliind; neck distinct; tentacles four, long, linear, papillose, 
far apart; lips dilated laterally into tentacular pi'ocesses. 



366 PLEUROBRANCHIDiE. 

Family PLEUROBRANCHID^. 

Shell limpet-like or concealed, rarely wanting; mantle or 
shell covering the back of the animal ; gill lateral, between the 
mantle-margin and foot ; food vegetable, stomach extremely 
complicated. 

The animals of this family have no upper jaw, the lingual 
membrane is armed with numerous short teeth, arranged in a 
quincunx ; there are four stomachs, the second of which is fleshj^, 
and sometimes furnished with bony pieces, and the third is pro- 
vided internally with prominent longitudinal lamellie; the 
intestinal canal is short. The species are tolerably numerous, 
occasionally of large size and adorned with varied colors ; they 
are mostly inhabitants of the high seas. 

Pi.EUROBRANCHUS, Cuvier. 

Etym. — Pleura, side, branchia, giW. 

Syn. — Berthella,Bl. Oscanius, Gray. Haliotinella, Souverb. 

Di.^tr.— 22 sp. South America, Norway, Britain, Mediteria- 
nean. Red Sea, Ceylon. P. citrinvs, Riippell (Ixxxix, 82, 83). . 

Shell internal, large, oblong, flexible, slightly convex, lamellar, 
with a posterior, subspiral nucleus. 

Animal oblong, convex ; mantle covering the back and sides, 
papillated, containing spicula ; foot large, separated from the 
mantle by a groove ; gill single, free at the end, placed on the 
right side between the mantle and foot ; orifices near the base 
of the gill ; head with two grooved tentacles, eyes at their outer 
bases ; mouth armed with horny jaws and covered by a broad 
veil with tentacular lobes. 

Pi-EUROBRANCH^A, Meckel. (Pleurobranchidium, Blainv.) 
Mantle-margin ver^^ narrow, not concealing the gill; dorsal 
tentacles ear-like, oral veil tentaculiforra. P. Mevkelii, Blainv. 
(Ixxxix, 90). 

KOONSiA, Verrill, 1882. ( Dedicated to B. F. Koons, U. S. Fish 
Commission.) Allied to Pleurobranchsea, with which it agrees 
in the character of the head, tentacles, proboscis and gill. It 
differs in having the back swollen and overhanging both on the 
sides and posteriorly, and a distinct mantle-edge all around, 
with a wide groove between it and the foot posteriorly, as well 
as laterally; the foot is narrower and prolonged posteriorly, 
with a specialized glandular area, near the end, beneath, and a 
conical papilla above near the tip. The external reproductive 
organs appeal; less complicated than in Pleurobranchffia. The 
verge is armed with small hooks, liut the spicule, present in the 
latter genus, is not protruded, if present, in the specimens of 
Koonsia ; urinal opening at the anterior root of the gill ; between 
this and the verge, some specimens show a small opening and a 
low papilla, b\it none show the large opening and long flat papilla 



UMBRELLIDiE. 367 

of Pleurobianchsea ; anal opening behind the base of the gill ; 
gill large, bipinnate, fully exposed on the right side, between 
the mantle and the foot. Distr. — K. obesa, Verrill. Atlantic 
Coast, United States. 

PosTEROBRANCH^A, d'Orbigny. 

JDistr. — P. maculata, d'Oi'bign}' (Ixxxix, 91). Coast of Chili. 

Animal shell-less; oval, depz-essed, covered by a mantle 
broader than the foot ; foot oblong, bilobed behind ; branchial 
plume on the left side, projecting posteriorly ; reproductive 
oi'ifice in front of gill, excretory behind ; proboscis covered by 
a broad bilobed veil ; no dorsal tentacles. 

RuNciNA (Forbes), Hancock. 

Syn. — ? Pelta, Quartr. (not Beck). 

Distr. — On Confervas near high-Avater mark, Torbay ; feeds 
apparently on Diatomacese. R. Hancocki, Forbes (Ixxxix, 84 ; 
xci, 44). 

Animal minute, slug-like, with a distinct mantle ; eyes sessile 
on the front part of the mantle ; no tentacles ; gills three, slightly 
plumose, placed with the vent on the right side, at the hinder 
part of the back, beneath the mantle ; gizzard armed ; reproduc- 
tive organs on the right side. Dentition (xiii, 70). 

Neda, H. and A. Adams. 

DUtr. — N. luniceps, Cuv. (Ixxxix, 85 \ South Europe. 

Animal shell-less ; mouth terminating a proboscis, which is 
long and thin; oral veil half-moon shaped, with two lateral 
recurved tentacles. 

SusANiA, Gray. 

DiHtr. — S.teKtudinaria, Phil. (Ixxxix, 86). 

Mantle very large, broadly margining the foot, vesicular, 
deeply notched in front ; frontal veil between the base of the 
tentacles and mouth large and oblong ; foot oblong, rather 
narrow. Shell very small. 

Family UMBRELLID^. 

Shell depressed patelliform, thin, calcareous. 

Tentacles dorsal, ear-like, with plicate cavities at their bases ; 
mouth proboscidiform, retractile, covered by a small oral veil 
with moderate labial appendages, and concealed in the notch at 
the fore-part of the foot. Foot large and thick, deeply fissured 
in. front, the. sides.tubercular. . - ' , '\ 

UMBRfifiEiJ'.JjafOl.tCi: 5 

Chinese umbrella-shell. ' ' "* : ' ''r ' ■ - ' - » ' " ■' "t " 

%/i. — Operculatum, Linn. (part)'. Acardo,Lani. Gastroplax, 

hi ■■- •' ■- '••■•-■ ■•■■'■• -. .-■■■ ■■■ 



368 NUDIBEANCHIATA. 

Distr. — 6 sp. Canaries, Mediterranean, India. China, Sand- 
wich Islands. Fossil, 4 sp. Jurassic — ; United States, Sicily, 
Asia. U. Mediterranean Lam. (Ixxxix, 87). U, Indica, Lam. 
(Ixxxix, 88). 

Shell limpet-like, orbicular, depressed, marked by concentric 
lines of growth ; apex subcentral, oblique, scarcely raised ; 
margins acute ; inner surface with a central colored and striated 
disk, surrounded b}^ a continuous irregular muscular impression. 
It has a minute sinistral nucleus. 

Tylodina, Rafinesque. 

Distr. — 3 sp. Mediterranean, Norway. Fossil, 1 sp. Tertiary. 
T. punctulata, Raf. (Ixxxix, 89). 

Shell limpet-like, depressed, apex subcentral, with a minute 
spiral nucleus. 

Animal oblong, foot truncated in front, rather pointed behind ; 
dorsal tentacles ear-like, with eyes sessile at their inner bases ; 
oral tentacles broad ; branchial plume projecting posteriorly 
on the right side. 

Order NUDIBRANCHIATA. 

Animal destitute of a shell except in the embryo state ; 
branchi^ always external, on the back or sides of the bod}'. 
Sexes united. 

The Nudibranchiate sea-slugs are found on all coasts where 
the bottom is firm or rock}', from between tide-marks to a depth 
of fifty fathoms ; a few species are pelagic, crawling on the stems 
and fronds of floating sea-weed. They have been found in the 
Icy Sea, at Sitka, and in the sea of Ochotsk; in the tropical and 
southern seas they are abundant. They require to be watched 
and drawn whilst living and active, since after immersion in 
spirits they lose both their form and color. In some the back 
is covered with a mantle (viii, 39), which contains calcareous 
spicula of various forms, sometimes so abundant as to form a 
hard shield-like crust. The dorsal tentacles and gills pass 
through holes in the mantle somewhat like the " key-hole " in 
Fissurella. In others there is no trace of a mantle whatever 
The eyes appear as minute black dots, immersed in the skin, 
behind the tentacles ; the}' are well organized and conspicuous 
in the young, but often invisible in the adult. The dorsal ten- 
tacles are laminated, like the antennse of many insects; they are 
never used as organs of touch, and are supplied with nerves, 
from the olfactory gai^iglia. The Doridids are distinguished b}'. 
having a short and wide lingual membrane with numerous similar 
teeth ; the iEolids have a narrow ribbon with a single series of 
larger teeth. In Dendronotus a large central tooth is flanked by 
a few small denticulated teeth. •■ ,^ ' :i,^:r.-- ::-' " - •• - 



DORIDlDiE. 369 

The only Nudibranch with a solid upper jaw, is ^girus 
punctilucens. In other instances the two halves are articulated 
and act as lateral jaws. In ^girus the mouth is also furnished 
with membranous fringes. Ancula cristata has a formidable 
spinous collar. The skin acts as an accessory- breathing-organ ; 
it performs the function entirely in the Elysiadae, and in the other 
families, when by accident the branchice are destro^'ed. The 
water on the gills is renewed by ciliary action. The fry is pro- 
vided with a transparent, nautiloid shell, closed by an oper- 
culum, and swims with a lobed head-veil fringed with cilia, like 
the young of most other gastropods. 

"While the numerous tril)es of Mollusks furnished with testa- 
ceous coverings offer us objects of contemplation remarkable 
alike for their extreme beauty and the durability of their calca- 
reous envelopes, the scarcely less extensive and certainly far 
less known families of naked-gilled gastropods exhibit an aston- 
ishing variety of form, exti'eme delicacy of organization, and 
great diversity of color to captivate the eye and occupy the 
attention of those who wander by the shore or explore the 
depths of the ocean. Clinging to the stems of floating sea- 
weeds, many, like the Anthobranchs, will be seen extruding 
their flower-like gills of surpassing elegance, exploring with their 
foliated tentacles or complex mantle-filaments the plants around 
them, the brilliant hues of their striped or spotted bodies 
glancing through the water ; some will be observed with bodies 
so fragile and pellucid that 3'ou may see the color of their blood 
and count the pulsations of their hearts ; some will be seen to 
have their gills disposed in rows of papillary tubercles on the 
sides of their bodies, like the JEolids, or tree-like and branching, 
like the Tritonias ; the foreheads of some will be smooth and 
simple, while those of others will be found adorned with various 
singular appendages; in others, again, all processes will disap- 
pear, all branchial arrangements vanish, and we shall meet with 
forms almost as simple in their appearance as the Nemertoid 
types among the Annelids." — H. and A. Adams. 

Suborder ANTHOBBANCHIATA. 

The branchiae more or less surrounding the anus upon the 
medio-dorsal line. 

Family DORIDID.E. 

Mantle (nothfeum) large, without marginal appendages; skin 
generally very spiculose ; dorsal tentacles (rhinophpra.i laminate 
and retractile within cavities. Dentition (xiii, 69). 

Doris, Linn; 
Syn, — Argus, Bohadsch. Archidoris, Bergh. 
Difttr. — 167 sp. Universal. D. Johnstoni, Alder and Hftiicotjk 

(xc,92). 



370 PORIDIDiE. 

Body depressed, or subconvex ; inte2:ument spiculose ; mantle 
often tubereulate, covering the head and the foot; branchiae 
plumose or ramose, united at the base, and retractile with the 
anus into a common pallial cavity ; mouth inferior, with two dis- 
tinct oral tentacles (rarely absent); odontophore broad, with 
numerous spines in each transA'erse row, Bergh has proposed 
the name archjdoris for the thus restricted typical group. 

Angasiella, Crosse, 1864. 

Dislr. — A. Edward^i., Angas. Australia. 

Body elongate, rounded in front, attenuated and produced 
into a point behind ; mantle everywhere covering the head and 
foot; dorsal tentacles 2; subclavate; branchiae plumose, few, and 
placed before the anus, a little behind the middle of the back. 

As M. Crosse has told us nothing about the retractility of the 
branchiae or the condition of the oral tentacles, odontophore, 
etc., we cannot be certain of the position of this group. 

Kentrodoris, Bergh, 1876. 

D'istr. — 3 sp. Australasia. K. rubescens, Bergh. 

Mantle broad, soft, with the upper side ever^^where minutely 
granular; rhinophores retractile; tentacles conical; branchiae 
retractile, the plumes tripinnate, podarium broad, the margin in 
front deeply grooved, with the upper lip veliform and deeply 
emarginated ; rounded behind ; no buccal armature ; no median 
tooth, the lateral ones uncinate. Penis armed with a spine. — 
Bergh. 

Chromodoris, Aid. and Hanc, 1855. 

Syn. — Doriprismatica, d'Orb, 1837 (part). Goniodoris, Gray, 
1850 (part). Goniobranchus, Pease, 1866. Hemidoris, Stimpson, 
1855. 

Distr. — 97 sp. Medit., Red Sea, Indian Ocean and A ustralasia. 
C. magnijica, Quoy (xc, 93'. 

Body elongate, subquadrate ; mantle narrow, covering the 
head but not the extremities of the foot ; generally smooth and 
marked with bright colors in stripes or spots ; oral tentacles 
conical or tubercular. Branchiae linear, usually pinnate, retrac- 
tile in a common cavity. Odontophore broad, with numerous 
transverse rows of many close-set plates, each bearing two large 
spines, one in front of the other, the posterior one bearing den- 
ticulations, no central plate ; a buccal collar, formed of two 
broad plates, bearing close minute bifid spines. 

APHELODORis, Bergh. Somewhat like ChromodoriSj butmantle 
and foot narrow ; tentacles truncate, canaliculate ; gills retractile, 
consisting of five tripinnate leaves ; labial disk unarmed. Badula 
without median plate, lateral plates with many hooked teeth. 
Ay Antillensis, Bfygh. ,§L Thom'^SjW._ I. _, 



DORlDlDiE. 311 

HoMOiODORTS, Bergh, 1881. 
Distr. — H. Japonica, Bergh. Japan. 

Form of the body as well as the rhinophores, tentacles and 
branchia as in Archidoris ; prostate large ; vagina armed. 

Pf.telodoris, Bergh, 1881. 

Distr. — P. triphylla^ Bergh. Japan. 

Body subdepressed, the back minutely hirsutely tuberculated ; 
branchial aperture valved ; branchial leaves tripinnate ; tentacles 
short, triangular ; penis unarmed. 

Orodoris, Bergh, 1875. 

Distr. — 0. miamirana, Bergh. Tahiti. 

Mantle (nothteum) somewhat as in Miamira. Keeled above 
with transverse ribs ; no frontal or caudal veils, or lateral lobes 
lamellate beneath. Foot rather narrow. Integument without 
spicules. Armature of the oral aperture as in Miamira — a 
spinous buccal collar. Odontophore as in Miamira ; but the 
rachis is hardened. — Bergh. 

Ceratodoris, Gray. 

Syn — Echinodoris, Bergh, 18T4. 

Distr. — C solida, Quoy (xc, 1 ). Waigiou. 

Form rather depressed ; back everywhere covered with elon- 
gated papillae ; back and papillse spiculose. Rhinophores and 
branchiae retractile. Odontophore with the pleurae multidentate. 
Penis armed at the apex with a series of minute uncini. — Bergh. 

Hexabranchus, Ehr., 1831. 

Syn. — Heptabranchus, Adams. Rhacodoris, Morch (part). 

Distr. — 18 sp. Red Sea, Indian 0., and Australasia. H. 
sanguineus., Riippell (xc, 94). 

Body soft ; integument non-spiculose (?) ; rhinophores sharply 
bent, and with an anterior knee, retractile within marginated 
cavities; branchiae generally small, numerous, ramose, non- 
retractile, arranged in six or eight tufts, Avhich are set in an 
open circle at some distance around the anal opening ; oral 
tentacles large, fleshy, flat, ovoid or leaf-shaped, with crenulated 
edge. Odontophore broad, with numerous lateral simple spines 
in each transverse row ; none median in position. 

Calygidoris, Abraham, 187fi. 

Distr. — C. G iinthe r i, Ahr. Hab — -. 

Body depressed ; mantle ample, covered witli soft papillae ; 
branchiiv simply laminate, arranged like a cup around the anus, 
subreti'actile in a common cavity. Oral tentacles represented 
by a fleshy , laterally extended veiK Odontophore narrow, bearing 



312 hORlDlDJE. 

two bicuspid spines, one each side, in each transverse row ; no 
central spine, spinous collar, or under jaw. 

Lamellidoris, Aid. and Hanc, 1855. 

Syn. — Onchidoris, De Blainv., 1816. Onchidorus, Ferussac, 
182i. Onchidora,Cuv., 1830. Yilliersia, d'Orb., 1837. Oncidio- 
doris, Agassiz, 1847. Oncodoris, Agassiz, 1847. 

Bistr. — 23 sp. E. Coast of N, Am., W. Coast of Europe, and 
New Zealand. L. Leachii, Blainv. ixc, 95). L. scutigera, d'Orb. 
(xc, 96). 

Body depressed ; mantle large ; head with a veil in place of 
oral tentacles ; branchiae simply pinnate, set in an open circle or 
ellipse, non-retractile. Odontophore narrow, with a few spines 
in each transverse row. 

ACiODORis, Bergh, 1879. General form like Lamellidoris, but 
suctorial proventricle simple, and 12-13 lateral teeth on the 
radula ; male organ armed with simple or forked hooks. L. 
lutescens, Bergh. N. Pacific. 

ADALARiA, Bergh, 1879. Like Lamellidoris, but radula with 
small flat (spurious) median plates and a large hook-shaped 
lateral tooth. A. Pacijica, Bergh. 

AoANTHODORis, Grray, 1850. 

Distr. — 4 sp. Universal. A. pilosa, Miill. (xc, 97). 

Body convex ; mantle moderate in size, covered with soft 
p;ipillse ; oral tentacles united in a veil, with free flattened lateral 
ends ; branchijp united at the base, non-retractile. Odontophore 
narrow, with two large spines and several rudimentary ones in 
each transverse row ; none central, usually a spinous buccal 
collar and rudimentary under jaw. 

DicTYODORis, Bergh, 1881. 

Distr. — D. tessellata, Bergh. Pelew Islands. 

Body depressed, coriaceous, smooth above ; branchial aperture 
rounded, with few compound gill-leaves ; tentacles finger-shaped ; 
foot in front scarcely bilabiate. Radula without median plate, 
and with many-toothed pleurae, the teeth hook-like, the external 
pectinate at the tip. No peculiar armature in the lips or penis. 

DiAULULA, Bergh, 1879. 
Distr. — D. Sandiegensis, Cooper. 

Back minutel}' shaggy ; tentacles finger-shaped ; gill-leaves 
tripinnate ; radula without median plates. 

ARTACH.EA, Bergh, 1881. 

Distr. — A. rubida, Bergh. Philippines. 

Body depressed, verruculose above ; tentacles finger-like ; 
branchial leaves tripinnate; foot rounded in front; penis armed 
with hooks. 



DORIDIDiE. 3T3 

Cadlina, Bergh, 1879. 

Distr. — 3 sp. N. Atlantic, N. Pacific. C. repanda, Aid. and 
Hanc. 

Back granulated, gill formed by a few tripinnate leaves; ten- 
tacles flattened, triangular ; lips armed by minute booklets ; 
radula with a median-toothed plate, many-toothed lateral plates; 
male organ armed with booklets, 

JoRUNNA, Bergh, 1879. 

Distr. — N. Pacific Ocean. J. Johnstoni^ Aid. and Hanc. 

Back minutely granulated ; gill-leaA-es tripinnate ; tentacles 
finger-shaped ; radula without median plate; lateral plates many- 
toothed ; male organ armed with a sting. 

Aldisa, Bergh. 

Example. — A. Zetlandica, Aid. and Hanc. 

Back almost shaggy, soft; gills composed of six tripinnate 
leaves ; tentacles wart-shaped. Radula without median plate, 
lateral plates many-toothed, teeth erect, staflf-like, denticulate 
externally. 

RosTANGA, Bergh. 

Example. — Doris coccinea, Forbes. 

Back minutely granulate, gills composed of sixteen bipinnate 
leaves ; tentacles finger-shaped. Radula without median plate, 
lateral plates man}' -toothed, teeth bifid at the tips. 

DiscoDORis, Bergh. 

Distr, — D. Boholensis, Bergh. Philippines. 

Body depressed, rounded or oval, granulate above; branchial 
aperture slightly crenulate or bilabiate ; anterior margin of the 
foot bilabiate, the upper lij) fissured ; labial laminje forming 
minute hooks. 

HoPLODORis, Bergh, 1881. 

Distr. — H. desmo2Mrypha^ Bergh. Pelew Islands. 

Armature of the lips consisting of very small rods ; penis armed 
with several series of conical prominences ; a horn-shaped dart 
and a dart-gland present ; in other respects like Discodoris. 

AsTERONOTus, Ehrenberg. 

Distr. — 5 sp. A. Hemprichii, Ehrenb. 

Body depressed, coriaceous ; smooth above, frequently nodose, 
with a median carina ; branchial aperture stellate ; foot bilabiate 
in front, the upper lip profoundly fissured ; labial armature none. 

SPHiERODORisy Bergh. 
Syn. — Actinocyclus, Ehrenb. 
Diiifr. — 2 sp. Philippines. S. qrnvdijlora, Rapp (xc, 98). 



374 dortdidj?;. 

Body ovate or rounded, cancellate above and set with tubercles ; 
tentacles none ; branchiae simply lamellate ; anal aperture nearly 
central • foot wide, anterior margin strongly emarginate ; labial 
armature of small hooks. 

DoRiDUNCULUS, Sars. 
Didr. — D. echinulatus, Sars. Norway, etc. 
Mantle sliort, broad, with elongate spieula ; two longitudinal 
ridges on its back ; gills not retractile. 

Platydoris, Bergh. 

DUtr. — IG sp. West Indies, Philippines, Mediterranean. P. 
argo, Linn. 

Body flattened, coriaceous, rigid, minutely granulated on the 
back ; branchial opening stellate ; anterior margin of foot 
bilabiate, superior lip profoundl}^ cut ; no labial armature. Den- 
tition : no rachidian teeth, pleurae multidentate, teeth hamate. 

Peltodoris, Bergh. 

Distr. — P. atromaculata, Bergh. Naples. 

Body subdepressed. oval, rather rigid, minutely granulate 
above ; tentacles finger-like ; branchial aperture rounded ; 
branchiae paucifoliate, tripinnated ; labial armature none. 

Crepidodoris, Pagenstecher. 
Example. — C. phimbea, Pagenst. 

Grills twenty-two, most of them arranged in the figure of a 
horseshoe, a few at the end placed more inwards. 

Thordisa, Bergh. 
Example. — T maculigera^ Bergh. 

Form of body and I'adula nearly as in Discodoris ; back almost 
villous ; no labial armature. 

Trippa, Bergh. 

Exaviple. — T. ornata^ Bergh, 

Form of the body depressed, smooth, tuberculate above and 
the tubercles villous; tentacles small; foot wide; no labial 
armature. 

Halgerda, Bergh. 

Example. — H. formosa, Bergh. 

Body subdepressed, subridged, smooth above; branchial aper- 
ture ovate ; branchiae sparsely tripinnate ; tentacles none ; foot 
narrow ; no labial armature. 

Atagema, Grube. 
Distr. — A. carinata, Quoy (xc, 99). New Zealand. 
Mantle with longitudinal ridge on the back ; tentacles clavate, 
retractile ; gills very small. 



DORIDOPSIDi*: — POLYCERIDiE. 375 

Family DORIDOPSID^. 

Doris^-Vike Mollusca, without well-developed spicula in the in- 
tegument, with mouth suctorial, opening on the front margin of 
the foot, with a retractile proboscis, but destitute of odontophore, 
jaws, or spinous collar. 

The absence of an odontophore, so generally possessed by the 
cephalophorous Mollusca, justified Messrs. Alder and Hancock 
in raising this group to the rank of a family. 

DoRiDOPSis, Aid. and Hanc, 1864. 

Syn. — Doriopsis, Pease, 1860. Rhacodoris, Morch, 1863 (part). 
Haustellodoris, Pease, 1871. 

Disi?'. — 72 sp. LTniversal. D. vifidis, Pesise 'xc, \ 00 \ 

Body more or less depressed, ovate or elliptical. Mantle 
ample, covering the head and foot, smooth or with soft tubercles 
and without marginal appendages. Rhinophores laminated and 
retractile within cavities. Head indistinct, generally with two 
small lateral lobes, but without proper oral tentacles. Branchiae 
generall}' ramose, retractile with the anus into a common 
cavity-. 

DORiopsELLA, Bcrgh. Distinct from Doridopsis by its some- 
what rigid and granulated mantle. D. areolata^ Bergh. 

Family POLYCERID^. 

Mantle small or obsolete, generally with marginal appendages, 
integument usually spiculose. Rhinophores various, often lami- 
nated. Messrs. Alder and Hancock divide the Polyceridae into- 
two sections, according as the rhinophores are retractile or non- 
retractile. This gives a convenient arrangement. 

§ A. Rhinophores retractile within sheaths; the odontophore 
broad. (Euryglossse.) 

MiAMiRA, Bergh, 1874. 

Distr. — 31. nobilis, Bergh. Australasia. 

Mantle (nothseum) anteriorly produced into a frontal veil, and 
furnished with lateral flattened lobes, lamellate below, behind 
continued into a caudal veil, above keeled and with transverse 
ribs. Oral aperture armed with a spinous buccal collar. Odon- 
tophore broad, with numerous series of teeth, many of them 
multidentate ; the rachis armed. — Bergh. 

Casella, H. and A. Ad. 

Distr. — 2 sp. Australasia. G. Gouldii, H. and A. Ad. 
(xc, 2). 

Body compressed, elongated. Mantle-margin small, forming 
undulated lobate or erect crests alono- the sides of the back. 



315 POLYCERID^ 

Rhinophores laminated, retractile. Foot narrow. Oral aper- 
ture armed. Odontophore with numerous minute spines, none 
median. 

KALiNGA, Aid. and Hane., 1864. Body oval, subprismatic. 
Margin of mantle most developed in front, where there is a row 
of close-set papillated processes extending over the head ; a few 
similar processes are upon the sides of the back. Rhinophores 
laminated. Oral tentacles flattened. Branchiae non-retractile, 
placed separately in a circle at some distance around the anal 
opening. Odontophore broad, with numerous rather distant 
rows of tricuspid spines. No jaws or collar. Dintr. — G.ornata, 
A. and H. Coromandel Coast. 

Triopa, Johnston, 1838. 

Si/n. — Tritonia, Lam., 1801. Themisto, Oken (part), 1815. 
Euplocamus, Philippi, 1836 (part). Cadophora, Gray, 1840. 

Distr. — 9 sp. Universal. T. claviger, Miill. ixc, 3). 

Body more or less depressed ; mantle small, covering the head, 
the margin with linear subclavate or branched appendages ; 
rhinophores laminated ; oral tentacles cylindrical or ovoid ; 
branchiae few, non-retractile. Odontophore broad, with numerous 
plates, the two or three inner ones with large spines, none 
central. 

Triopa was instituted by Johnston for the Doris clavigera of 
Miiller. Messrs. Alder and Hancock proposed to retain as well 
the genus Euplocamus for E. croceus, Philippi. The differences 
between the two genera, however, appear to be more of degree 
than kind, and serve better for distinguishing sections of one 
genus; moreover the latter name is in general use for a genus of 
insects as well as for a genus of birds. Euplocamus originally 
took in the Idaliae. Oken's Themisto included Polycera quadri- 
lineata and Triopa clavigera. 

LATERiBRANCHi^A, Stcams. Animal like Triopa, with a single 
series of gills on each side, central or subcentral and opposite. 
L. f estiva., Stearns. California. 

Triopella, Sars. 

Distr. — T. incisa., Sars. Norway, 

Distinct from Triopa by the broad mantle, which is bilobed 
behind, and has two longitudinal ridges on the back ; radula like 
that of ^girus. 

Triopha, Bergh, 1880. 

Distr. — T. Carpenteri, Stearns. W. Coast of America. 

Distinguished from Triopa by nodose or shortly ramose dorsal 
appendages and ear-shaped lower tentacles ; five tripinnate 
branchial plumes ; mouth with two strong horny plates. Radula 
with 3-4 lateral and 10-11 external (uncinal) plates on each 

side. . • . - ' • •;•-;•.■ .•-'■■-- 



POLYCERIDii;. 377 

IssA, Bergh. 

Syn. — Colga, Bergh. 

Example. — /. lacera^ Bergh. 

Frontal and dorsal appendages less developed than in Triopa, 
mouth with triangular jaw. Lingual armature consisting of a 
median row of plates, two strong lateral and seven external 
plates. 

Heterodoris, Yerrill and Emerton, 1882. 

Diatr. — H. 7^obu.sta, V.and E. Martha's Vine3'ard, Mass. 

Form and general appearance like Triopa and Triopella, but 
stouter and without any trace of gills ; mantle forming an 
edge all around the back ; surface of the back with scattered 
papilla? ; a longitudinal crest between and behind the dorsal 
tentacles, which are lamellose and retractile, without sheaths, but 
with a prominent fold of the mantle-margin in front of them ; 
head large, rounded, with a free, thin margin, which has a flat 
tentacular lobe on each side; foot broad, rounded in front; a 
large opening, apparently the anus, on the right side between 
the mantle and the foot, behind the middle ; verge, as protruded, 
stout, cylindrical, swollen and rounded at the end, not armed ; 
a short, stout, conical papilla just behind its base, and a lobe 
below it ; farther back, nearer the anal (?) opening, there is a 
small, simple opening, probably urinal. Odontophore broad, 
with very numerous small, strongly hooked acute teeth in each 
row, all similar except a few near the centre, which are less 
curved and not so acute ; no median tooth. 

Thecacera, Flem., 1838. 

Distr — 3 $p. W. Coast of Eur. T. pinnigera, Mont, (xc, 4). 

Body limaciform, smooth ; mantle obsolete ; supracapital veil 
indistinct; rhinophores laminated ; no oral tentacles ; branchije 
non-retractile, with linear or tubercular lateral appendages. 
Odontophore broad, with 12-14 plates ; the two inner on each 
side bearing bicuspid spines ; no central plate. Small lateral 
corneous jaws. 

Crimora, Aid. and Hanc, 1862. 

Distr. — C. pa.pillata, A. and H. Guernsey. 

Bod}' limaciform. Mantle nearly obsolete, forming a supra- 
capital veil with branched appendages, and a papillated ridge 
along each side of the back. Rhinophores laminated. Oral 
tentacles tubercular. Branchiae non-retractile, placed about two- 
thirds down the centre of the back. Tail short, without a dorsal 
carina, Odontophore broad, bearing 26 or 27 spines on each 
side, of three kinds : the inner one is large, hooked, and 
bicuspid ; the next 5 or 6 are short and obtuse, and supported 
on quadrilateral plates ; the rest very long, slender, and minutely 
denticulated on the inner margin. No central spine. 
35 



318 rOLYCERID^. 

PlocaiMophorus, Riippell and Leuckart, 1828. 

Sxjn. — Plocamoceros, Cuv., 1830. Plocamophorus, Gray, 1842. 
Peplidia, Lowe, 1842. Histiophorus, Pease, 1860. 

Distr. — 10 sp. Red Sea, Australasia. P. oceUatus (xc, 5). 

Body limaciform. Mantle represented by a snpracapital veil 
bearing tubercniate or branched appendages on the margin, and 
by two or three tubercular processes upon each side of the back. 
Rhinophores laminate. Oral tentacles flat. Branchiae few, non- 
retractile. Tail dorsally carinated. Odontophore with the 
spines near the middle bicuspid, none median in position. An 
incomplete buccal collar. 

Jj^GiRUS, Loven, 1846. 

Diiitr. — 3 sp. European coasts. ^. panctilucena, d'Orb. 
(xc, 6, 1). 

Body convex, covered with large tubercles. Mantle indis- 
tinct, represented by a snpracapital veil, and by a tubercular 
ridge along each side. Rhinophores linear, smooth or hispid. 
Branchiae non-retractile. Odontophore with simple, curved, 
lateral spines ; no central spine. An upper corneous jaw. 

NoTODORis, Bergh, 1875. 

Distr. — N. citrina, Bergh. Rarotonga. 

Body limaciform (the back not distinct from the sides). 
Rhinophores smooth, retractile in cavities protected by valves. 
No buccal armature. Lingual teeth, none median, the lateral 
ones erect and hook-shaped. — Bergh. 

Ceratosoma, Ad. and Reeve, 1848. 

Diatr. — 8 sp. Australasia and Canary Isles. C. cornigej'itm ., 
Ads. and Reeve (xc, 8 . 

Bod}' elongate, prismatic, smooth, ending in a bluntly pointed 
tail ; the dorsal surface passes into a post-branchial flesh protu- 
berance. Mantle obsolete. Rhinophores laminated. Branchige 
with the roots more or less coherent, placed in front of and par- 
tially around the tubular anus, with which they are retractile 
into a common, smoothly margined cavity. Odontophore with 
numerous rows of simple spines, none of which are central. A 
spinous buccal collar. 

Trevelyana, Kelaart, 1858. 

Syn.^Gymnodoris, Stimpson, 1855. Stenodoris, Pease, 1866. 

Distr. — 11 sp. Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Australasia. T. 
Ceylonica.1 Kelaart (xc, 9). 

Body limaciform, rather swollen or raised on the central region. 
Mantle obsolete ; ho appendages ; rhinophores laminated and 



POLYCERIDiE. 3t9 

retractile ; branchije pinnate and non-retractile, placed round 
the anus almost on the centre of the back. Mouth without oral 
tentacles or veil, and without collar or jaws; odontophore broad, 
bearing simple spines. 

Nembrotha, Bergh. 

Bistr. — 6 sp. Pacific. N. niger?'ima, Bergh. 

Body limaciform, back and sides not separated ; tentacles 
short, lobiform ; branchia? not retractile, sparsely foliate, almost 
in the middle of the back; foot narrow; labiaf armature small 
or none ( ?). 

§ B. Rhiuophores non-retractile ; odontophore narrow. (Sten- 
oglosssp.) 

GoNiODORis, Forbes, 1840. 

-SVn.-Doriprismatica, d'Orb., 1831 (part). Pelagella, Gray, 
1850. s , J, 

Disir, — 9 sp. Universal. G. nodosa, Mont, (xc, 10). 

Body rather depressed ; mantle distinct with waved or scal- 
loped margin. Rhinophores laminated ; oral tentacles flattened ; 
branchiffi non-retractile ; odontophore with four plates in each 
transverse row ; the two next the median line bearing each a 
large spine ; no central plate. A spinous buccal collar. 

Aethedoris, Abraham, 1816. 
Distr. — A. Indica, Aid. and Hanc. Madras Coast, 
Alder and Hancock figure in vol. 5 of the Zoological Society's 
Transactions, a form belonging to a new genus '' apparently 
related to Goniodoris." As no specimen came into their hands, 
they could give no description. The most striking character- 
istic seen in the drawing is the expansion of the bilobed head, 
each lobe being semicrescentic, with the apex curved backwards 
and the margin bearing twelve to fourteen conical dentations. 

Idalia, Leuckart, 1828. 

Syn. — Euplocamus, Philippi, 1836 (part). 

Distr. — 8 sp. Europe and China. /. aspersa. Aid. and Hanc. 
(xc, 11). 

Body convex, smooth. Mantle indistinct, the margins bearing 
filaments, generally longest in front. The head is produced 
anteriorly. Rhinophores linear, laminated. Branchise simply 
pinnate, non-retractile. Odontophore with four spines in each 
transverse row, the two middle ones large, no central spines, A 
spinous buccal collar, 

iDALiELLA, Bergh, 1881. Differs in the absence of cirri in 
the middle of the back, and in the lateral lamellae of the booklets 
on the lips. 7. inaeqiialiis, Forbes and Hauley. 



380 POLYCERID^. 

Ancula, Loven, 1846, 

Syn.- — Miranda, Aid. and Hanc, 1847. Drepania, Lafont, 
18Y4. 

Distr. — 3 sp. N. Atlantic O. A. cristata, Aid. and Hanc. 
(xc, 12). 

Body limaciform, smooth. Mantle obsolete, forming an indis- 
tinct ridge near the branchiae, bearing one or more appendages. 
Rhinophores laminate, bearing st^'Iiform basal appendages. 
Head produced at the sides into tentacular processes. Odonto- 
phore with four spines in each transverse row, the two next the 
median line large and broad, with the inner margin denticulated ; 
no central spine. A spinous buccal collar. 

M. Lafont states his Drepania to differ from Ancula in the 
head bearing two elongated tentacles analogous to those of 
Eolis, in the branchiae not being surrounded by linear appen- 
dages, and in the rhinophore carrying but one filament instead 
of two. Unless the lingual character proves to be importantly 
different from that of Ancula, it would seem advisable to unite 
Drepania with the latter genus. 

POLYCERA, CuV., 1817. 

^'yri.— Themisto, Oken, 1815 (part . Cuffea, Leach, 1820. 

Distr. — 11 sp. Europe, Cape of Good Hope, Australasia. P. 
quadrilineata, Miill. (xc, 13\ 

Body limaciform. Mantle indistinct, forming a supracapital 
veil, and a tuberculated ridge on the sides. Rhinophores lami- 
nated. Branchiae non-retractile, with lateral appendages. Odon- 
tophore with twelve to sixteen plates in each transverse row, 
the two near the centre large and bicuspid ; no central spine. 
Lateral corneous jaws. 

PALio, Gray. Frontal veil short, bilobed, tuberculated on the 
edge ; gills branched, with more than one tubercular appendage 
on each side. P. ocellata. 

POLYCERELLA, Ycrrill, 1880. Body elongated-ovate, having the 
the same form as Polycera. Mantle little developed. Dorsal 
tentacles (rhinophores) not laminated and not retractile, without 
sheaths. A row of papillae along each side of the back, extending 
beyond the gills. Gills three, pinnate, situated in the middle of 
the back, nearly as in Polycera. Foot auricled. Odontophore 
with six rows of teeth; median row absent ; inner laterals large, 
curved, with three denticles, two outer rows much smaller, 
simple, hook-shaped. P. Emertoni, Verrill. New England. 

Brachychlanis, Ehrenb., 1831. 

Distr. — B. pantheri7i a, FjhreYih. Bed Sea. 

Mantle very small, forming a dorsal area, with narrow, 
upturned border. Rhinophores laminated, arising in front of 
the_.inantle-margin. Branchiae retractile. Mouth terminal. 



tritoniad^. 381 

Slborder AIOLOBRANGHIATA. 

Branchiic variable, generalh' upon the sides of the back ; not 
as in the last family, in a circle surrounding the anal orifice. 

Family TRITONIADJE. 

Animal with laminated, plumose, or papillose gills, arranged 
along the sides of the back ; tentacles retractile into sheaths ; 
lingual membrane with one central and numerous lateral teeth ; 
orifices on the right side. 

Tritonia, Cuvier. 

Syn. — Candiella, Gra}'. 

Distr. — 20 sp. Northern seas, Polynesia, Red Sea. Under 
stones at low-water to 25 fathoms. T. Hombergii, Cuvier, found 
on the English scallop-banks, attains a length exceeding 6 inches. 
T. plebeia, Johnst. (xc, 14 >. 

Animal elongated ; tentacles with branched filaments ; veil 
fimbriateh^ digitated ; gills in single series on a ridge down 
each side of the back ; mouth armed with horn}' jaws ; stomach 
simple, liver compact. 

MARiONiA, Vayssiere, 1879. Body elongate, sides compressed, 
mantle none ; velum small, ramose, in a dorsal line ; maxillae cor- 
neous ; stomach armed with cultriform teeth. T. Berghi, Vayss. 
Gulf of Marseilles. 

CALiPHYLLA, Costa. Body long, narrow ; tentacles two, folia- 
ceous, longitudinall}' convolute; labial border bilobed; branchiae 
foliaceous, vascular, numerous, in irregular, longitudinal series ; 
anus on the right side behind the genital orifice. Distr. — G. 
Mediterranean Costa. Mediterranean. 

NEMOCEPHALA, Costa. Body Tritoniiform; anterior margin of 
the head semicircular, six-digitate, or divided into six simple, 
cylindrical tentaculiform processes ; tentacles ramose, retractile 
into sheaths ; branchise arborescent, on both sides of the back in 
single longitudinal series. Diff'ers from Dendronotus in the six 
filaments being simple, not branched. Distr. — T. marmorafa, 
Costa. Mediterranean. 

HANCOCKiA, Gosse. Body linear, scarcel}' palliate, head pro- 
duced on each side into a broad, flat, man^'-fingered veil; dorsal 
tentacles with laminated bulbs, retractile within sheaths ; 
branchiffi three pairs, foliate, pinnatifid. infolding, remotel}' 
situated, on the subpalliate margin of the back ; foot linear, 
grasping. Distr. — T. eudactylota, Gosse. 

Tethys, Linn. 

Etym. — Tethys, the sea (personified;. 

Syn. — Fimbria, Bohadsch. 

Distr — T. Jimbriata, L. (xc, 15). Medilerraiiean. Attains a 



382 TRITONIAD^. 

foot in length, and feeds on other mollusks and crustaceans. — 
CuviER. 

Animal elliptical, depressed ; head covered by a broadly 
expanded, fringed disk, with two conical tentacles, retractile into 
foliaceous sheaths ; gills slightly branched, a single row down 
each side of the back ; reproductive orifices behind first gills, 
vent on right side, behind second gill ; stomach simple. 

ScYLL^A, Linn, 

Etyiii. — Scyllsea^ a sea-nymph. 

Distr. — 7 sp. Atlantic, South Britain, Mediterranean, Phil- 
ippines, on floating sea-weed. S. pelagica (xc, 16). S. Grayi, 
Ads. (xc, 17). 

Animal elongated, compressed ; foot long, narrow, and chan- 
neled, adapted for clasping sea-weed ; back with two pairs of 
wing-like lateral lobes, bearing small tufted branchiis on their 
inner surfaces; tentacles dorsal, slender, with lamellated tips, 
retractile into long sheaths; lingual teeth 24-r24, denticulated; 
gizzard armed with horn}- knife-i)lates; orifices on the right side. 

NEREA, Lesson. 10 lines long, with ear-shaped tentacles, and 
3 pairs of dorsal lobes. N. punctata, Lesson. 

Melibe, Rang. 

Syn. — Chiorhsea, Gould. 

Distr. — M. rosea, Rang (xc, 18). M. {Chio^^hsea) leonina, Gld. 
(xci, 19). 

Head unusually large, upper tentacula or rhinophoria retrac- 
tile, perfoliate ; pharynx with a strongly toothed jaw, but without 
radula ; back with unequal leaf-, tree- and club-shaped papillae ; 
no distinct gills. 

Dendronotus, Alder and Hancock. 
Etym. — Dendron, a tree, 7iofos, the back. 

Distr. — Northern ; on sea-weed and corallines ; low-water to 
corralline zone. D. arhore.^cens (xci, 20'. 

Animal elongated ; tentacles laminated ; front of the head with 
branched appendages ; gills arborescent, in single series down 
each side of the back; footnarrow; lingual teeth lO'TIO; stomach 
and liver ramified. 

LoMANOTUS, Verauy. 

Syn. — Eumenis, A. and H. 

Distr — 3 sp. Britain and Mediterranean, on corallines. L. 
Genei, Verany (xci, 21). 

Animal elongated, smooth; head covered with a veil; tentacles 
clavate, laminated, retractile into sheaths ; gills filamentose, 
arranged along the sides of the back, on the wav3^ margins of 
the mantle ; foot narrow, with tentacular processes in front; 
stomach ramified. ~ 



TRlTONlADiE. 383 

BoRNKLLA (Gray), A. Adams. 

Dislr. — 8 sp. Straits of Sunda, on floatinii; weed ; Borneo. 
A. digitata^ Ads. (xci, 22). 

Animal elongated ; dorsal tentacles retractile into branched 
sheaths ; head with stellate processes ; back with two rows of 
cjdindrical, branched, gastric processes, to which small dendritic 
gills are attached ; foot very narrow. 

Subfamily PROG TO NO TIN^. 

BranchiiX} superficial, fusiform, on the sides of the back; ten- 
tacles simple, without sheaths ; tongue broad, teeth man}^ ; jaws 
horny, strong. 

Proctonotus, Alder and Hancock. 

Syn Veniiia, A. and H. Zephyrina, Quatref. 

Distr. — 3 sp. North Atlantic. P. niucroniferus (xci, 23). 
' Animal oblong, depressed, pointed behind ; dorsal tentacles 
2, linear, simple, with eyes at their base, behind ; oral tentacles 
short ; head covered by a small semilunar veil ; mouth with 
horny jaws ; papillfe on ridges down the sides of the back and 
round th6 head in front ; vent dorsal. 

Antiopa, Alder and Hancock. 

Syn. — Janus, Yerany. 

Distr. — 3 sp. Britain, Mediterranean. A. spinolae^ Verany 
(xci, 24). 

Animal ovate-oblong, pointed behind ; dorsal tentacles lamel- 
lated, united at the base by an arched crest ; head with a small 
veil and two labial tentacles ; papillae ovate, placed along the 
lateral ridges of the back and continuous above the head ; vent 
central, posterior, sexual orifice at the right side; lingual teeth 
numerous (?». 

Madrella, Alder and Hancock, 1864. 

Example. — M. ferruginoi<a, A. and H. 

Differs from the other members of the family in the lateral 
position of the anus, and the absence of oral tentacles, unless the 
oral veil be considered such. 

Subfamily DO TONING. 

Tentacles retractile into sheaths; branchife superficial, fusi- 
form, on the sides of the back ; tongue narrow, teeth in a single 
central series. 

? DoTO, Oken. 

Elym. — Doto., a sea-nymph. 

Distr. — 4 sp. Norway and Britain, on corallines in deep 
water to 50 fathoms. D. coronafa, Gmel. (xci, 25, 26). 

Animal slender, elongated; tentacles lineav, retra,ctile into 



384 JEOhWJE. 

trumpet-shaped sheaths ; veil small, simple ; gills ovate, muri- 
cated, in single series down on each side of the back ; lingual 
membrane slender, with above 100 recurved, denticulated teeth, 
in single series ; foot ver}^ narrow. 

The stomach is ramified, and the liver is entirely contained in 
the dorsal processes, which fall off readily when the animal is 
handled, and are soon renewed. 

GELLiNA, Graj'. Head simple ; papillae or gills smooth. D. 
affinis, d'Orb. (xci, 21). North Sea. 

DOTiLLA, Bergh. Distinct from Doto by three rows of plates 
in the radula. 

Hero, Loven. 

Syn. — Cioelia, Loven. Distr. — H.formosa, Lov. 

Animal with no mantle ; tentacles two, linear, simple, non- 
retractile ; veil plain, produced at the sides, gills branched or 
umbellated. Tongue with a large central denticulated spine, 
and two simple lateral spines. Jaws corneous. 

Heromorpha, Bergh. 

Distr. — H. Antillensis, Bergh. West Indies. 

Agreeing with Hero in the general structure of the head and 
especially of the tentacles, but with cup-shaped rhinophores, of 
which the club is simple ; also closely allied to Doto, but with 
simple papillae. 

Family ^OLID^. 

Animal with papillose gills, arranged along the sides of the 
back ; tentacles subulate, sheathless, non-retractile ; lingual teeth 
O'l'O ; jaws horny; ramifications of the stomach and liver 
extending into the dorsal papillae ; excretory orifices on the right 
side ; skin smooth, without spicula ; no distinct mantle. 

Subfamily GLA UGIN^. 
Branchitie papillose, in groups ; foot rudimentary. 

Glaucus, Forster. 

Etym. — Glaucus^ a sea-deity. 

Syn. — Pleuropus, Raf. Eucharis, Peron. 

Distr. — 7 sp. Atlantic, Pacific. Found on floating sea-weed; 
devours small sea-jellies, Porpitoe and Velellae. — Bennet. G. 
radiatus, d'Orb. (xci, 28). 

Animal elongated, slender; foot linear, channeled ; tentacles 
four, conical ; jaws horny ; teeth in single series, arched and 
pectinated; gills slender, cylindrical, supported on three pairs, 
of lateral lobes ; stomach giving off large coeca to the tail and 
side-lobes ; liver contained in the papillae ; sexual orifice beneath 
first dextral papilla, vent behind second papilla ; spawn in a close 
spiral coil. . . . .^, ,^_ _, \.,__ -^ -, ,. ^, : l^..:..:\j:.. 



^OLiDiE. 385 

GLAUcus (restricted). Includes the larger species ; head small ; 
body slender, with long tail ; arms rather short, with the papillae 
in one row ; penis with a horny hook. 5 sp. Atlantic and 
Pacific Oceans. v 

GLAUciLLA, Bcrgh. Size smaller; head strong; bodj'^ bulky, 
with short tail ; arms more prominent, with the papillae in sev- 
eral rows ; penis without hook ; no large urticating threads. 2 
sp. Northern and Southern Pacific. 

LANIOGERUS, Blainv. Elongated, subcylindrical ; thick and 
wide anteriorly, narrower and thinner behind ; having on each 
side a series of smooth, finely pectinated lamella, divided into 
two parts ; four conical tentacles ; generative and anal orifice 
upon the right side. G. Elfortii, Blainv. (xci, 29). 

Subfamily jEOLINJE. 
Foot large ; branchiae in ranks on each side. 

JEoLis, Cuvier. 

Etym. — JSolis, daughter of ^olus. 

Syn. — Psiloceros, Menke. Eubranchus, Forbes. Amphorina, 
Quatref. 

Bistr. — Norway, Britain (33 sp.). United State<*, Mediterra- 
nean, South Atlantic, Pacific. JE. papillona^ L. 

Animal ovate ; dorsal tentacles smooth, oval, slender ; papillae 
simple, cylindrical, numerous, depressed, and imbricated ; mouth 
with a horny upper jaw, consisting of two lateral plates, united 
above by a ligament ; foot naiTow ; tongue with a single series 
of curved, pectinated teeth; spawn of numerous waved coils. 

Found amongst rocks at low-water ; they are active animals, 
moving their tentacles continually, and extending and contract- 
ing their papillae ; they swim readily at the surface, inverted. 
They feed chiefl}^ on sertularian zoophytes, and if kept fasting 
will devour each other ; when irritated they discharge a milky 
fluid from their papillae, which are very liable to fall off. 

FACELiNA, Alder and Hancock. (Acanthopsole, Trinchese.) 
Body rather slender, rhinophores perfoliate ; anterior angles of 
the narrow foot assuming the form of tentacles ; middle part of 
the jaw strongly denticulated. (Nearly identical with Phidiana, 
Graj-. ) F. coronata, Forbes (xci, 30). 6 sp. Kurope. 

PHIDIANA, Gra}'. Labial tentacles subulate; branchiae on both 
sides of the back, composed of cylindrical lobes, forming trans- 
verse rows for the whole length of the mantle ; orifice tubercular, 
on the right side, below the first row of branchiae ; edge of jaw 
with a single row of denticles, and the radula has but few teeth, 
arranged in a single longitudinal row. Penis pointed. P. Inca, 
d'Orb. (xei,32). 

HERMISSENDA, Bergh, 1878. Near Phidiana. but anterior angles 



386 ^OLIDiE, 

of the foot tentaculiform ; jaw with a single row of denticles. 
Radula consisting of one row of plates, their edge serrulate. 
Penis without hooks. H. opalescens, Cooper. California. 

Ji^OLiDiA, Cuvier. 

Syn. — ^Eolidiana, Quatr. Cavolina, Brug., Orb. Montagua, 
Flem. 

Distr — 4 sp. European seas. ^. annulata^ Quoy (xci, 31). 

Rhinophores (upper tentacles) simple; the papillae compressed, 
in transverse, rather distant rows ; anterior angles of the foot 
almost rounded ; middle projecting piece of the jaw not den- 
ticulated. Spawn of one or two coils. 

^OLIDELLA, Bergh. 

Distr. — 4 sp. Europe. 

Form of the body, tentacles and papillae like those of ^olis; 
masticatory edge of the jaw minutely plaited; teeth of the 
radula in one row, comb-like, notched in the middle. 

Flabellina, Cuvier. 

Diiitr. — 6 sp. Mediterranean, Phillipines. i^. corona^a, Forbes. 

Body slender, rhinophores perfoliate; tentacles elongated; 
dorsal i)apilla2 on compressed stalks ; foot angularly produced 
in front ; jaws minutely toothed-margined ; radula uniserial. 
Spawn multispiral 

Pter^olidia, Bergh. 

Dintr. — 1 sp. P. Semperi^ Bergh. 

Rhinophores perfoliate ; lower tentacles elongated ; dorsal 
papillae not caducous, on wing-like, compressed pediments; ante- 
rior margin of foot inflated, tentacularly produced at the sides ; 
jaws toothed ; radula uniseriate ; penis unarmed. 

Ceatena, Bergh. 

Syn. — Cavolina, Brug., part. Example. — C. hirsuta, Bergh. 

Rhinophores simple ; anterior- angles of the foot rounded ; 
middle part of the jaw minutely denticulated. Spawn arranged 
in one or two coils. 

GoNi^OLis, Sars. 

Distr. — 1 sp. Norway. 

Animal with a distinct mantle-border, which gives a square 
form to the body ; tentacles not retractile, dorsal very large, 
labial placed at the sides of a large velum ; dorsal papillae simple, 
scattered on both sides of the back. 

RizzoLiA, Trinchese. 
Example. — B. peregrina, Gmelin. 
Near Cratena and Facelina by the dorsal appendages bieing 



^oLiD^. :i87 

united on low pedicels, and by the simple, non-pertbliated upper 
tentaeula. Armature of the mouth as in Faceliua, radula uni- 
serial, each plate crescent-shaped, with six to ten cuspids on 
either side ; penis unarmed. 

Favorinus, Gray. 

Distr. — F. albuf, Alder (xci, 33). North Sea. 

Animal with slender cephalic tentacles knobbed at the extrem- 
ity ; oral tentacles two pairs ; papillte arranged in several oblique 
rows ; jaws denticulated ; dentition uniserial. 

Spurilla, Bergh. 
Distr. — 1 sp. Mediterranean. 

Rhinophores perfoliate ; anterior angles of the foot almost 
rounded ; middle part of the jaw only, finely denticulated. 

CoRYPHELLA, Gray. 

Didr. — 18 sp. New England, Northern Europe. C Lands- 
burgi, Alder (xci, 84). 

Rhinophores simple ; angles of the foot produced ; middle 
part of the jaw denticulated, lateral teeth of the radula minutely 
denticulated. 

Calma, Alder and Hancock. 

Diatr. — North Sea. G. glaucoides, A. and H. 

Animal sharply angular in front ; foot broad ; papillae simple 
and supported on cylindrical bases ; tentacles small ; jaws 
acutely toothed ; radula triseriate. 

Gal VINA, Alder and Hancock. 

Dist}\ — North Sea. G. tricolor., Forbes. 

Rhinophores simple ; papillae swollen in distant transverse 
rows ; anterior angles of the foot rounded ; middle part of the 
jaw strongly denticulated ; lateral teeth of the radula not den- 
ticulated. 

TRiNCHESiA, Ihering. Near Galvina, but only one plate in each 
transverse row of the radula. Several species at Naples. 

CuTHONiA, Alder and Hancock. 
Distr. — C. nana, A. and H. North Sea. 

Animal with head naked and expanded ; papillae clavate and 
arranged in thick-set rows. 

Hervia, Bergh. 

Distr. — 1 sp. N. Europe. 

Rhinophores simple ; foot angularly produced in front ; back 
papillary in oblique series ; jaws with a single series of teeth ; 
radula unisorial. sparsely dentate. 



388 MOhWM. 

Matharena, Bergh. 
JJistr. — 1 sp. N. Europe. 
Papillae in transverse and oblique series. 

C^ciNELLA, Bergh. 
Distr. — (7. luotuosa, Bergh. Philippines. 

Rhinophores sheathed ; dorsal papillae uniserial ; with pos- 
terior claviform appendices ; radula uniserial. 

Cerberilla, Bergh. 

Distr. — 1 sp. Samoa Islands. 

Upper tentacles perfoliate, under tentacles elongate, dorsal 
papillae situated on short pedicels ; jaw smooth ; teeth of the 
radula in a single row, irregularly denticulated. 

Fiona, Alder and Hancock. 

Syn. — Oithona, A. and H. (not Baird). 

Distr. — 4 sp. Falmouth. Under stones at low-water. — Dr. 
Cocks. F. nobilis^ A. and H. (xci, 35). 

Animal elongated; oral and dorsal tentacles linear; mouth 
armed with horny jaws ; gills (?) papillary, clothing irregularly 
a subpallial expansion on the sides of the back, each with a 
membranous fringe running down its inner side. 

Subfamily HERM^IN^. 

Branchiae papillary ; tentacles non-retractile ; mouth unarmed, 
or with corneous jaws. 

Alderia, Allman. 

Etym — Named after Joshua Alder, one of the authors of the 
" Monograph on the British Nudibranchiate MoUusca." 

Hyn. — Styliger, Loven. 

Distr. — 4 sp. Norway, South Ireland, and South Wales. A. 
modesta, Loven (xci, 36). 

Animal oblong, without tentacles ; head lobed at the sides ; 
papillae arranged down the sides of the back ; vent dorsal, 
posterior, 

Ergolania, Trinchese. 

Distr. — 3 sp. Mediterranean. 

Body subcylindrical ; head small, without velum ; foot narrow, 
with rounded anterior angles ; branchiae numerous, sprinkled 
with whitish globules ; rhinophores long, graceful, very faintly 
canaliculate ; anus in the middle of the back, in front of the 
heart. 

Phyllobranchus, Alder and Hancock. 

Syn. — Lobifera and Polybranchia, Pease. 

Distr. — b sp. Ceylon, Red Sea, Philippines, West Indies, 
Medit. R i)rientalis,Ke[. ■'"■■■'' ^ ■■■' -. . .- •'" 



ELYSIlDiE. 389 

Near Hermaea ; branchiae leaf-like, with distinct foot-stalks ; 
anus lateral ; penis long, without sting. 

Stiliger, Ehrenb. 

Sny. — Calliopa^a, Orb. 

Distr. — 5 sp. Red Sea, Europe, Massachusetts. S.modestus, 
Ehrenb. 

Form of the body like that of Galvina; rhinophores simple, 
tentacles tuberculiform ; dorsal papillae club-shaped; foot 
rounded in front. Penis armed with a sting. 

Herm^a, Loven. 

Distr. — 9 sp. Norway, Britain, etc. H. dendritica^ Alder 
and Hancock (xci, 37). 

Animal elongated, tentacles folded longitudinally; papillae 
numerous, arranged down the sides of the back; sexual orifice 
below right tentacles ; vent dorsal, or sublateral, anterior. 

Cyercb, Bergh. 
Distr. — 2sp. Pelew Islands. CeZe<7a?i6-, Semper. 
Vent dorsal; foot transversely bipartite; penis short, 
armed with sting. 

Embletonia, Alder and Hancock. 

Etym. — Dedicated to Dr. Embleton, of Newcastle. 

Syn. — Pterochilus, A. and H. 

Distr. — 4 sp, Scotland (2 sp.). In the littoral and laminarian 
zones. E. pulchra, A. and H. (xci, 38). 

Animal slender; tentacles two, simple ; head produced into a 
flat lobe on each side ; papillae simple, subcylindrical,in a single 
row down each side of the back. 

Tergipes, Cuvier. 
Example. — T. despectus, Alder (xci, 39). 

Tentacles subulate, smooth ; branchiae in a single row on 
each side, each with a sucker-like extremity ; foot rudimentary. 
Spawn kidney-shaped. 

Filurus, DeKay. 

Distr. — F. dubius, DeKay. 

Foot stunted ; body slender ; tentacles two ; mouth on a loose 
fringe of skin with two small oral feelers ; papillae in two long 
rows down the back. 

Family ELYSIID^. 

Animal shell-less, limaciform, with no distinct mantle or 
breathing-organ ; respiration performed by the ciliated surface 
of the body; mouth armed with a single series of lingual teeth ; 



390 ELYSIID^. 

stomach central, vent median, subcenti-al; hepatic organs 
branched, extending the length of the body and opening into 
the sides of the stomach ; sexes nnited ; male and ovarian orifices 
below the right eye ; female orifice in the middle of the right 
side ; heart with an auricle behind, and traces of an arterial and 
venous system, eyes sessile on the sides of the head, tentacles 
simple or obsolete. 

Subfamily ELYSIINM. 

Body very flat ; front narrow ; tentacles short, mostly ear- 
shaped, the edges rolled up; eyes distant; genital orifice double, 
behind the right tentacle; sides of the back winged, and a peri- 
cardio-renal protuberance as in Placobranchus ; surface of the 
back smooth, except an elevated line branching to the wings ; 
pharynx and radula nearly as in Placobranchus, but usually no 
crop : penis without sting. The genera are arranged as follows : 

Elysia, Risso. 

Syn. — Actffion, Oken, not Montfort. Aplysiopterus, Chiaje. 

Distr. — 7 sp. Europe, Philippines, Pelew Islands. E.viridis, 
Mont, (xci, 40). 

Head rounded ; tentacles of moderate size ; vent anterior, 
latero-dorsal, dorsal wings not much plaited, without bordering, 
not continuous on the neck. 

TRiDACHiA, Desh. (Pterogastcron, Pease.) Wings much 
plaited and vmdulated, continuous in front ; otherwise like 
Elysia. E. crUpata^ Orsted. West Indies. 

THURiDiLLA, Bergli. Head rounded, tentacles of moderate 
size, vent posterior, median. E. ^plendida, Grube. Adriatic 
Sea. 

ELYSiELLA, Bcrgh. Head carinated at the sides; tentacles 
minute, conical. E. puailla^ Bergh. Pelew Islands. 

ALLPORTiA, Tenison-Woods. Body expanded, thin, wholly flat- 
tened anteriorly and posteriorly ; e3'es submarginal. Tasmania. 

DiPLOPELYciA, Morch, 1872. 

Distr. — D. trigonura^ Miirch. Mediterranean. 

Body compressed as in Scyllffia ; tentacles very strong, fan- 
shaped, festooned at the edge ; no rhinophores, jaw or eyes ; 
dorsal lobes with several fin-like processes ; under sides keeled ; 
with similar processes on each side; tail triangular. 

Subfamily PLA COBRANCHINjE. 

Body flat, front large, with short ear-shaped tentacles; eyes in 
the neck, approximate ; double genital orifice near the right ten- 
tacle ; a distinct protuberance behind the neck, containing the 



PHYLLIDIIDyE. 891 

kidney and perioardiuni.and with the vent on its right side ; sides 
of the back produced in lateral wings, usually bent upwards ; 
upper face of the back with parallel longitudinal folds ; foot not 
distinctly separated from the rest of the body, transversely 
bipartite in front. Onl}' genus — 

Placobranchus, Hasselt. 
Distr. — 9 sp. East Indies, Polynesia. P. ocellatus, Quoy 
(xci, 41). 

Characters those of the subfamily. 

Subfamily LIMAPONTIIN^. 

Bod}' slug-like, minute ; head depressed, its sides carinated or 
produced into simple feelers ; eyes separated ; no dorsal wings ; 
foot continuous ; pharj^nx as in Elj'sia ; plates of the radula 
somewhat compressed, with a carinated hook; penis armed with 
a sting. 

LiMAPONTiA, Johnston. 

Syn. — Chalidis, Quatref. Pontolimax, Cr. 

Distr. — Norway, England, and France, between half-tide and 
high-water, feeding on Confervse, in the spring and summer; 
spawn in small pear-shaped masses, each with 50-150 eggs ; fry 
with a transparent nautiloid shell, closed by an operculum. L. 
cserulea, Quatr. (xci, 42). 

Animal minute, leech-like ; head truncated in front, with arched 
lateral ridges on which are the eyes ; foot linear. 

AcTEONiA, Quatrefages. 

Distr. — 2 sp. A. senestra, Quatr. (xci, 43). 

Animal minute, leech-like ; head obtuse, with lateral crests 
proceeding from two short conical tentacles, behind which are 
the e^'es. 

Cenia, Alder and Hancock. 

Syn. — Fucola, Quo}-. 

Distr. — C. Cocksii (xci, 45). 

Animal limaciform, back elevated, head slightly angulated, 
bearing two linear dorsal tentacles, with eyes at their outer 
bases behind. 

Rhodope, Kolliker, 1847. 

Distr. — R. Veranii. Upon algai, Messina. 

Animal minute, similar to Limapontia (?) ; worm-shaped, rather 
convex above, flat beneath; without mantle, gills or tentacles. 
Probably not a mollusk. 

Family PHYLLIDIID.^. 

■ 'Branchia.^ covei-ed or wanting. - 



392 phyllidiid^. 

Subfamily PHYLLIDIINJ^. 

Limaciform ; the branchiae leaf-like, between the mantle and 
the foot. No jaws or tongue. 

Phyllidia, Cuvier. 

Etym. — Diminutive of ^%Z/on, a leaf. 

Distr. — 6 sp. Mediterranean, Red Sea, India, Pol^aiesia. P. 
trilineata^ Cuv. (xci, 46). 

Animal oblong, covered with a coriaceous tuberculated mantle ; 
dorsal tentacles clavate, retractile into cavities near the front of 
the mantle ; mouth with two tentacles ; foot broadly oval ; gills 
forming a series of laminae extending the entire length of both 
sides ; excretory orifice in the middle line, near the posterior end 
of the back, or between the mantle and foot ; reproductive organs 
on the right side ; stomach simple, membranous. 

PHYLLiDiELLA,Bergh. Dorsal tuberclesrounded and in quincunx 
order; vent dorsal; pharynx asymmetrical. 3 sp. Philippines, 
East Indies. P. j)ustulosa^ Cuv. 

PHYLLiDioPSis, Bergh. Yent dorsal, as in Phyllidia, tentacles 
soldered in their whole length to their basis, as in Doridiopsis. 
P. cat'dinalis, Bergh, Tonga. 

Fryeria, Grube. 

Distr. — F. piistulosa, Riippell (xci, 47). South Sea, East 
Africa. 

Excretory orifice on the side of the foot under the mantle, 
which is leathery and watery ; six gills entire length of both 
sides. 

Hypobranchi^ea, a. Adams. 

Diatr. — H. fu.^ca^ A. Ad. (xci, 48). Japan. 

Mantle cuticular ; gills limited to the hinder part of the body ; 
excretory orifices at the side, under the mantle. 

Subfamily PLEUROPHYLLIDIINJE. 

Limaciform ; branchiae in a fold of the posterior margin ot 
the mantle ; tongue armed. 

Pleurophyllidia, Meckel. 

Syn. — Diphyllidia, Cuvier. Linguella, Blainv. Armina, Raf. 
Dermatobranchus, Hasselt. 

Distr. — 14 sp. Norway, Britain, Mediterranean, India. P. 
Cuvieri, Meckel (xci, 49). 

Animal oblong, fleshy; mantle ample; gills limited to the 
hinder two-thirds of the bod}^ ; head with minute tentacles and 
a lobe-like veil ; vent at the right side, behind the reproductive 
orifices; lingual teeth 30' 1-30. ;v -■ - ■ ; ;v 



EXPLANATION OK PLATES. 393. 

tsANCARA, Bergli. ; 

Distr. — 2 sp. Mediterranean, Japan. 

Mantle smooth, not distinctly separated from the body anter- 
iorly ; no carnncula tentacular! s. 

Camarca, Bergh. 
Distr. — 1 sp. Realejo, Central America. 

Carnncula tentacularis low, united with the front of the mantle ; 
this latter without urticating organs. 

Subfamily PLE UROLE URINM. 

Without gills. 

Pleuroleura, Bergh. 

Distr. — P. ornala, Bergh. Philippines. 

Near Pleurophyllidia, but wanting the gills; tentacular shield 
without caruncles ; back broad, its lateral edge with numerous 
urticator}^ pores ; jaws like those of Pleurophyllidia, but without 
masticatory process, and with a smooth edge. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES; VOL. IL 

Plate 23. 

FIGtJKE. PAGB. 

1. Octopus octopodia, Linn 15 

2, 3. Beaks of Octopus, 15 

4. Sucker from the arm of Octopus, . . . .15 

5. Octopus Cuvieri, d'Orl)., Mediterranean, . . .15 

6. Cistopus Indicus ; distal view of portions of arms, web 

and pores. Indian Ocean, 20 

7. Cirroteuthis Mulleri, Esch. Greenland, . . .21 

8. Tremoctopus violaceus, Chiaje. Mediterranean Sea, . 22 

9. Parasira catenulata, Fer. Mediterranean Sea, . . 22 
10. Tritaxeopus cornutus, Owen. Australia, . . .21 

Plate 24. 

U. Eledone Aldrovandi, Chiaje. Mediterranean Sea, . 20 

12. Pinnoctopus cordiformis, d'Orb. New Zealand, . . 20 

1:3. Alloposus mollis, Verrill. Atl. Coast United States, . 20 

14. Calliteuthis reversa, Verrill. New England, . . 30 

15, 16. Mastigoteuthis Agassizii, Verrill. New England, . 39 

17. Plectoteuthis grandis, Owen. Portion of arm, . . 39 

18. Argonauta Argo, Linn. Tropical Seas, . . .22 

19. Argonauta nodosa, Solander. Tropical Pacilic, ,.l. ^,22 

26 ■ ■■--■-'• 



394 EXPLANATION OF PLATES, 

riGURE. PAGE. 

Plate 25. 
20, 21, 22. Loligo Pealii, Lesueur, with pen, and horny ring 

of a sucker. United States, 24 

23. Loligo (Loliguncula) brevis, Blainv. United States, . 25 

24. Sepioteuthis stenodactyla, Grant. Mauritius, . . 26 

25. Sepioteuthis lunulata, Fer. et d'Orb. New Guinea, . 26 

26. Idiosepius pygmpeus, Steenst. Zamboango, . . .29 

27. Rossia Owenii,Ball. Great Britain, . . . .28 

28. Cranchia scabra, Leach. W. Africa, . . . .29 

29. Sepiadarium Kochii, Steenst. Hong Kong, . . .28 

30. Loliolus affinis, Steenst. Indian Ocean, . . .26 

Plate 26. 

31. 32. Chiroteuthis Veranyi, Fer. Mediterranean Sea, . 30 
83, 34. Histioteuthis Bonelliana, Fer. Mediterranean Sea, 31 

35. Loligopsis guttata, Grant. Indian Ocean, . . .30 

36, 37. Thysanoteuthis rhombus, Troschel. Mediterranean, 31 

38. Gonatus amcena, Moller. Greenland, . . . .31 

39, 40. Onychoteuthis Krohni, Yerany. Mediterranean, . 31 

41. Onychia Caribfea, Les. West Indies, . . . .32 

42. Verania Sicula, Riippell and Krohn. Medit., . .32 

Plate 27. 

43. Enoploteuthis Smithsii, Leach. W. Africa, . . .32 

44. 45. Ommatostrephes sagittatus,Lam. Europe, New En- 

gland, . . . . . . . . . .34 

46, 47. Hemisepius typicus, Steenstr. Cape of Good Hope, 44 
48, 49. Sepia officinalis, Linn. Europe, . . . .40 

50. Sepia elongata, d'Orb. ; pen. Red Sea, . . . .40 

51, 52. Spirula Peronii, Lara. Warra Seas, . . .48 

53. Spirula Peronii ; part of the whorl broken away, showing 

the septa and siphuncle, ...... 48 

54. Nautilus Pompilius, Linn. Amboina, . . . .57 

Plate 28. 

55. 56. Teuthopsis Bunellii, Desl. Lias, France, . . 26 

57. Leptoteuthis gigas, Meyer. Oxford Cla3% Solenhofen, 26 

58. Beloteuthis subcostata, Miinst. U. Lias, Wurtemburg, 27 

59. Phylloteuthis subovata, Meek and Hay den. U. Cret., 

Dakotah, ". . . .27 

60. Ptiloteuthis foliatus, Gabb. Cret., California, . . 27 

61. 62. Celaeno conica, Wagner. Lias, Solenhofen, . . 33 

63. Belemnosepia lata, Miinst. Lias, Europe, . . .26 

64, 65. Belosepia sepioidea, Blainv. Eocene, Europe, . 44 

66. Plesioteuthis prisca, Wagner. Lias, Solenhofen, . . 33 

67. Orthoceras- planieanaliculatum, Satidb. Devonian, 

Nassau, . - .- _...:.;.... ;;; . ;:_;,;•. _ .51 



EXPLANATION OF PLATKS. 395 



08. Xiphoteuthis elongata, Beche Lias, England, . . 47 

69. Conoteuthis Dupinianus, d'Orb. Neocomian, France, . -48 

70. Belemnitella mucronata, Sowb. Cret., . . . .47 

71. Trachjteuthis hastiformis, Riippell. Jurassic, Europe, 44 

72. Belemnites excentricus, Keferstein. Oolite, England. . 46 

73. Clinoceras dens, Mascke. L. Silur., Prussia, . . 53 

74. Acanthoteuthis antiquus, Cunnington. Oxford Clay, 

England, 48 

75-77. Scaptorrhynchus miocenicus, Bellardi. Tert., Pied- 
mont, . ^-.; -• : 27 

Plate 29. 

78. Orthoceras (Actinoceras i Richardsoni, Stokes. Pal., 

L. Winnepeg, ........ .52 

79. Orthoceras subannulare, Barr. Sil., Bohemia, . . 51 

80. Beloptera belemnitoides, Bl. Eocene, France, . . 48 

81. Spirulirostra Bellardii, d'Orb. Tertiary, Turin, . . 48 

82. 83. Tisoa siphonalis. Marcel de Serres. Jurassic, 

France, 53 

84. Orthoceras (Ormoceras) Bayfieldi, Stokes. Palaeozoic, 

N.Am., 52 

85. Orthoceras (Huronia) vertebralis, Stokes. L. Silurian, 

Lake Huron, . . . . . . . .52 

86. Belemnosis plicata, Edwards. Eocene, England, . . 48 

87. Heliceras Fuegiensis, Dana. Cape Horn, . . .47 

88. 89. Neumayria fulgens, Trautsch, . . . . .79 

90. Strorabolituites Torelli, Remele. L. Silur., Germany, 56 

91, 92. Xenodiscus plicatus, Waagen. Carbon., India, . 69 

Plate 30. 

93. Tretoceras bisiphonatum, Salter. Silur., England, . 52 

94, 95. Gonioceras anceps, Hall. L. Silur., U. S., . . 53 

96. Colpocera;5 virgatum. Hall. L. Silur., New York, . 53 

97. Piloceras (after Salter). Ideal section, . . .54 

98. Cyrtoceras acuticostatum, Sandb., . . . .54 

99. Oncoceras constrictum. Hall. Sil., New York, . . 54 
100. Goraphoceras pyriforme, Murchison. Silur., England, 54 

1. Gomphoceras Bohemicum, Barr. Silur., Bohemia, . 54 

2. Sycoceras orthogaster, Sandb., . . . . .54 

3. Ascoceras Bohemicum. Barr. Silur., Bohemia, . . 55 

4. Phragmoceras ventricosum, Murchison. Silurian, 

England, ......... 55 

5. Nothoceras Bohemicum, Barr. U. Silur., Bohemia, . 55 

Plate 31. 

6. Phragmocei*as callistoma, Barr. Silur., Bohemia, . 55 

7. Gyroceras Goldfussii, d'Arch. Devonian, Eifel, . 55 



396 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

MQUKK. PAOE. 

8. Nothoceras Bohemicum, Barr. U. Silur., Bohemia, . 55 

9. Lituites simplex, Barr. Silur., Europe, . . .56 

10. Pteronautilus Seehacliianus,Geinitz. Permian, Europe, 56 

11. Clymenia undulata, Miinst. Devon., Fichtelgebirge, 65 

12. 13. Subclymenia evoluta, Orb. Devon., England, . 57 

14, 16. Aturia ziczac, Sowb. Eocene, England, . . 59 

15. Temnocliilus biangulatus, Sowb. Garb., England, . 59 
n, 18. Trematodiscus trisulcatus, Meek and Worthen. 

Subcarboniferous, Indiana, . . . . .59 

504. Cryptoceras subtuberculatus, Orb. Europe, . • 60 

Plate 32. 

19. Goniatites Henslowi, Sowb. Garb., Isle of Man, . 65 

20, 21. Rhabdoceras Suessii, Hauer. Trias, Hallstadt, . 7 I 

22. Bactrites gracilis, Sandb. Devonian, Nassau, . . 53 

23. Geratites nodosus, Brug., ...... 68 

24. Baculinaarcuaria, Quenst. Muschelkalk, Wurtemburg, 87 

25. 26. Gochloceras Fischeri, Hauer. Trias, Europe, . 71 

27. Glj'donites costatus, Hauer. Trias, Europe, . . 70 

28. Clydonites delphinocephalus, Hauer. Trias. Europe, 70 

29. Crioceras cristatus. Orb. Gault, France, . . .86 

30. Baculites anceps, Lam. Gret., France, . . .86 

31. Baculites baculoides, Orb. Gret., France, . . . 86 

32. Toxoceras bituberculatus. Orb. Neocomian, France. . 85 

33. Ancyloceras spinigerus, Sby. Gault, England, . . 85 

34. Anisoceras Saussureanus, Pictet. Gret., Europe, . 85 

35. Scaphites pequalis, Sowb. Gret., Europe, . . .84 

Plate 33. 

36. Helicoceras Teilleuxii, Orb. Jur., France, . . 86 

37. Turrilites costatus, Orb. Gret., France, . . . 86 

38. Turrilites Boblayi, Orb. Gret., Europe, . . .86 

39. Heteroceras Emericianus, Orb. Gret., Europe, . 85, 8('> 

40. Hamites attenuatus, Sowb. Gret., Europe, . . 84 

41. Hamites cylindraceus, Defr. Gret., Europe, . . 84 

42. Hamulina triuodosa. Orb. Neocomian, France, . 85 

43. Tychoceras Emericianus, Orb. Gret., France, . . 85 

44. Ammonites obtusus, Sowb. Lias, England, . . 75 

45. 46. Thysanoceras fimbriatus, Sowb. Jurassic, Europe, 76 

Plate 34. 

47, 48. Stephanocerasannulatum,Sowb. Jurassic, Europe, 80 

49, 50. Haploceras ligatum. Orb. Gret., Europe, . . 79 

51, 52. Phylloceras heterophyllum, Sowb. Jur., Europe, 77 

53, 60. Ammonites Beaumontianus, Orb. Gret., Europe, 63 

54, 55. Ammonites capricornus, Schloth. Jur., Europe, . 63 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 397 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

56, 58. Aspidoceraslonj^ispinum.Sowb. Jurassic, Europe, 82 

57, 59. Stephanoceras Blagdeni, Sowb. Jurassic, Europe, 80 

Plate 35. 
61, 62. Ammonites mamillaris, Scliloth., . . . .63 
,63. Ammonites bifrons, Brug. Lias, Europe, . . .63 

64. Coroniceras bisulcatus, Brug. Lias, Europe, . . 75 

65, 66. Grammoceras serpentinus, Schlotli. Jur., Europe, 78 

67. Scliloenbacliia cristalus, Deluc. Cret., Europe, . . 74 

68, (i9. Ammonites cordatus, Sowb. Jurassic, Europe, . 63 
70. Acantlioceras Rotomagense, Brong. Cret., Europe, . 83 
7L Pinacoceras Metternichii. Trias, Hallstadt, . . 71 

72. Ammonites. Z), ventral lobe ; 7^. superior lateral lobes ; 

Z', inferior lateral lobes ; V, dorsal lobe ; V, its arms. 

73. Helicoceras Robertianus, d'Orb., . . . . .86 

74. Rhyncholites Astieriana, d'Orb., . . . . .60 

75. Conchorli3'nchus avirostris, Broun, . . . .60 

76. Conc'.iorhynchus Owenii, Bronn, . . . . .60 

Plate 36. 

77. 78. Ophioceras torus, d'Orb. Lias, Europe, . . .75 
79,80. Asteroceras obtusus, Sowb. Lias, Europe, . . 75 
81, 82. Placenticeras placenta, DeKay. Cret., U. S., . . 74 
83, 84. Androgynoceras h3'bridum, Hyatt. Liassic, . . 76 

85. Lyparoceras Henle3'i, Sowb. Lias, Europe, . . .76 

86. Mortoniceras Texanus, Romer. Cret., Texas, . , 74 

87. 88. Coeloceras centaurus, d'Orb. Lias, Europe, . .81 

89. Trach3'cei-as Wliitne3'i, Gabb. Trias, California, . . 69 

90, 91. Gymnotoceras rotelliforme. Meek, Trias, Nevada, . 70 

92. Lobites delphinoceplialus, Hauer. Ti'ias, Europe, "^ . . 67 

93, 94. C3'Clolobus Oldhami, Waagen. . Palseozoic, India, . 66 

Plate 37. "'* . :v^''^' ' ' '' 
12. Acrochordiceras Hyatti, Meek. Trias, Nevada, . .69 
6, 7. Entomoceras Laubei, Meek. Trias, Nevada, . .68 
4, 5. Eudiscoceras Gabbi, Meek. .Trias, Nevada, . .75 

8,9. Coroceras ellipticus, Hauer. Trias, Hallstadt, . .. 71 
10, 11. Prionotropis Woolgari, Mantell. Cret., U. S., Engl.', 73 
2,3. Psiloceras psilonotum, Quenst. Jurassic, Eur., . .76 
100, 1. Arnioceras Krldion, d'Orb. Jurassic, France, . 75 

98, 99. Discoceras opbidioides, d'Oi'b. Jurassic, France, . 75 
96, 97. Microceras biferum, Queenst. Jurassic, Europe, . 76 
95. Derocerns zi'phius, Ziet. Lias, Europe. ' . . .76 

Plate 38. 
13,14. Peronoceras muticus, d'Orb. Lias, Europe, . . 76 
15, 16. Hamatoceras insignis, Schl^th. Jurassic, Europe, . 78 



398 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

FIGURE. ' PAGE. 

IT, 18. Tropidoceras Actseon, d'Orb. Jurassic, Europe, . 78 

19. Platypleuroceras latecosta, Sowb. Lias, Europe, . . 76 

20, 21. Arcestes tornatus, Bronn. Trias, Europe, . . 66 
22, 23. Agassiceras Scipionianus, d'Orb. Jurassic, Eur., . 75 
24,25. Pleuroceras spinatus, Brug. Lias, Europe, . . 73 
26, 27. Amaltheus margaritatus, d'Orb. Lias, Europe, . 73 
28, 29. Lytoceras Moreleti, Hauer. Trias, Europe, . . 76 
30, 31. Trachyeeras bicrenatus, Hauer. Trias, Europe, . 69 

Plate 39. 

32, 33. Didymites angustilobatus, HaUer. Trias, Europe, . 66 
34, 35. Cycloceras Yaldani, d'Orb. Lias, Europe, . . 76 
36, 37. Leioceras complanatus, Brug. Jurassic, Europe, . 78 
38, 29. Phylloceras occultum, Mojs. Hallstadt, . . .77 
40, 41, 42. Otoceras Woodwardi, Griesb. L. Trias, Himal., 72 
43,44. Medlicottia Wynnei, Waagen. Carboniferous, India, 72 

Plate 40. 

45. Ophiceras Tibeticum, Griesb. L. Trias, Himalayas, . 77 

46, 47. Cosmoceras Calloviense, d'Orb. Jurassic, France, . 81 
48, 49. Sageceras Haidingeri, Hauer. Trias, Hallstadt, . 72 
50,51. Oxynoticeras Guibalianum, d'Orb. L. Lias, Eur., . 73 

52, 55, 56. Tropites Ramsaueri, Quenst. Trias, Europe, . 67 

53, 54. Olcosteplianus Bhawani, Stol. India, . . .84 

57. Oppelia subradiata, Sowb. Min., Conch., , . . 78 

58, 59. Lobites ellipticus, Hauer. Trias, Europe, .67 

Plate 41. 

60,61. Perisphinctes afbustigerus, d'Orb. Jurassic, France^ 81 

62,63. Stoliczkaia dispar, Stol. Cret., India, . . .83 

64, 65. Peltoceras Arduennense, d'Orb. Jurassic, France,. 82 

66, 67. Simoceras Jooraensis, Waagen. Jurassic, India, . 82 

68,69. Hoplites archiacianus, d'Orb. Cretaceous, France, . 83 

Plate 42. 

1. Hyalaea tridentata, Gmel. Atlantic, Mediterranean, . 90 

2. Hyalaea quadridentata, Lesueur. Tropical Seas, . . 90 

3. Cleodora compressa, Eyd. Tropical Atlantic, . . 90 
4,5. Cleodpra (Balantium) inflata, Eyd. Trop. Atlantic, 90 

6. Styliola subulata, Quoy Tropical Seas, 91 

7, 8. Hyateea .- (Diacria) trispinosa, Lesueur. Tropical 

Atlantic, .90 

9. Cuvieria columella, Rang. So. Atlantic, . . .91 

10. Eur}' bia (Psyche) globulosa, Souleyet. Newfoundland, 98 

11. Hyolitheb fasciculatus. Palaeozoic, . . .- . 92 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 399 

FIOtmE. PAQB. 

12. Hyolithes (Hyolithellus) micans, Billings. Palaeozoic, 

N. Am., . . . 92 

13. Pterotheca (Cyrtotheca) hamula, Hicks. Cambrian, Gt. 

Britain, . ... . . . . .92 

14. Pterotheca (Stenotheca) cornucopia, Hicks. Cambrian, 

Gt. Brit., . 92 

.15. Conularia Geroldsteinensis, Vern. Palaeozoic, Eur., . 92 
16. Eurybia Gaudichaudi, Eyd. So. Pacific, . . .98 

11. Cymbulia proboscidea, Peron. Mediterranean, . . 93 

18. Tiedemannia Neapolitana, Chiaje. Mediterranean, . 93 

19. Aspidella terranovica, Billings. Huronian, Newfound- 

land, . . . . . . . . . . 98 

20. Limacina antarctica, Forbes. Antarctic Seas, 63°-46°, 94 

21. Spinalis ventricosa, Eyd. Atlantic Ocean, . . .94 

22. Spirialis (Helcionoides) inflata, d'Orb. Atlantic Ocean, 95 

23. Spirialis (Euromus) clathrata, Eyd. Pacific Ocean, . 95 

24. Agadina cucullata, Gould. Antarctic, . . . .95 

25. Clio borealis, Brug. Arctic Seas, . . . . .96 

26. Clionopsis Krohnii, Troschel. Mediterranean, . . 96 

27. Pneumodermon Peronii, Lam. Atlantic Ocean, . . 97 

28. Pneumodermon (Spongiobranchia) australis, d'Orb. 

Falkland Is., 97 

29. Pneumodermon (Trichocyclus) Dumerilii, Esh. Pacific, 97 

30. Pelagia alba, Quo}'. Amboina, . . . . .97 

31. Cymodocea diaphana, d'Orb. Atlantic, . . .97 

32. Cuvieria (Yaginella) depressa, Daudin. Miocene, Bor- 

deaux, France, 91 

Plate 43. 

1. Murex tenuispina. Lam. Philippines .... 104 

2. Murex (Pteronotus) trigonulus. Lam. Gambia, . . 105 

3. Murex (Chicoreus) adustus. Philippines, . . .105 

4. Murex ( Odontopolvs) compsorhvtis, Gabb. Eocene, 

Texas, . \ . . " 105 

5. Murex (Rhinocantha) cornutus, Linn. West Coast of 

Africa, 105 

6. Murex (Homalocantha) scorpio, Linn. Moluccas, _■. 105 

7. Murex (Phylloriotus) radix, Gmel. Panama, . ",y':-':- 105 

8. Murex (Cerdstoraa) Nuttallii, Coiir. Ca;lifornia,f ;,.-"". 105 
■9. Murex (Vitula.ria) miliaris,Gniel. W. Coast of.Africa,. 106 

.10. Murex (Ocinebra) erihaceUs, Linn. Mediteri-anigan, -. 106 

"il. Murex (Pteroh3'ti.s)umbi'ifer,Cpnr. Miocene, Virginia, 106 

12. TJrosalpinx Floridaiia,Cohr. Florida, . " '.'.■..".-' • 106 

13. Eupleura caudata, Say. Atlantic Coast,. XJ.S.V . '" . 107 

14. Typhis tetraptcrus, Bronn. Mediterranean,. . . 107 

15. Tiophon clatbratuB, Liiiu., BLoreaL,, . , .. . . 107 



400 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

FIGTJKE. PAQB. 

Plate 44. 

16. Purpura Persica, Linn. Phillippines, .... 109 

17. Purpura (Purpurella) columellaris, Lam. Panama, . 110 

18. Purpura (Tribulus) planospira, Lam. Galapagos Is., . Ill 

19. Purpura (Thalessa)hippocastaneum, Lam. Philippines, 111 

20. Purpura (Stramonita) Floridana, Conrad. Florida, .111 

21. Purpura (Trochia) cingulata, Linn. Cape of Good Hope, 111 

22. Purpura (Poly tropa) lapillus, Linn. N. England, Europe, 111 

23. Purpura (Cronia), amygdala, Kiener. Australia,. . Ill 

24. Purpuroidea nodulata, Lycett. Oolite, England, . .112 

25. 26. Lj^sis duplicosta, Gabb. Cretaceous, California, . 112 

27. Yexilla vexillum. Chemn. Philippines, . . .112 

28, 29. Ricinula horrida, Lam. Philippines, . . .113 

30. Ricinula (Sistrum) morus, Lam. Polynesia, . . 113 

31. Pinaxia coronata, A. Ad. Polynesia, . . . .114 

32. Cuma kiosquiformis, Duclos. Panama, . . .115 

33. 34. Rhizochilus antipathicus. Polynesia, . . .117 

35. Rhizochilus (Galeropsis) madreporarum, Sowb. Poly- 

nesia, . . . . . . . . . .117 

36. Separatista Chemnitzii, A. Ad. Philippines, . . 118 

37. 38. Magilina serpuliformis, Velain. Indian Ocean, . 120 

39. Nisea simplex, Serres. Lower Crag, Nimes, . .121 

Plate 45. 

40. lopas sertum, Brug. Polynesia, . . . . .112 

41. Monoceras giganteum. Lesson. Chili, . . . .118 

42. Monoceras lugubre, Sowb. Lower California, . .113 

43. Pseudoliva plumbea, Chemn. Africa, . . . .114 

44. Chorus Belcheri, Hinds. California, . . . .114 

45. Concholepas Peruviana, Lam. Peru, . . . .115 

46. Rapana bezoar, Linn. Japan, ..... 116 

47. Rapana (Ecphora) quadricostata, Say. Miocene, Md., 116 

48. Rapana (Latiaxis) Mawse, Gray. Philippines, . .116 

49. Rhizochilus (Coralliophila) neritoidea. Polj^nesia, . 117 

50. Melapiura lineatum. Lam. East Indies, . . .118 

51. Rapa papyracea, Lam. China, . . . . .118 

52. 53. Magilus antiquus, Lam. Red Seaj . . .119 

Plate 46. 
54. Triton A^ariegatus, Lam. Philippines, . . . . 121 
55 Triton (Simpulum) chlorostomus, Lam. West Indies, 123 

56. Triton iCymatium) tigrinus, Brod, W, Coast of Centr. 

America, • . . ,123 

57. Triton (Gutturnium) cynocephalus. Lam. West Indies, 123 

58. Triton (Epidromus) distortus, Schub. et Wagn. Polyn.. 123 

59. Triton (Pri-ene) scalier. King,.. GhiU,^.»g^c^^j.;^jfg-,.'5^>Ya-- • ^-^ 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 401 

yiQURE. PAGE. 

60. Triton (Ranellina) Maclurii, Conr. Eocene, Claiborne, 

Ala., 124 

61. Triton (Personella) septemdentatus, Gabb. Eocene, 

Texas, 124 

62. Triton (Tritonopsis) subalveatiis, Conr. Eocene, Vicks- 

burg-, Miss., 124 

63. Triton (Trachytriton) vinculum. Hall and Meek. Cret., 

Dakotah .... 124 

64. Distorsio cancellinus, Roissy. West Indies, . .124 

65. Ranella albivaricosa, Reeve. Java, . . . .125 

66. Ranella spinosa. Lam. Indian Ocean, . . . .125 

67. Ranella (Lampas) bufonia, Gmel. Philippines, . . 126 

68. Ranella (Aspa) marginata, Gmel. E. Coast Africa, . 126 

69. Ranella (Argobuccinum) piilchra, Gray. Philippines, . 126 

Plate 47. 

to. Fusus Nicobaricus, Lam. Philippines, .... 127 

71. Fusus (Columbaria) pagoda. Lesson. Corea, . .127 

72. Fusus (Sinistralia) Maroccensis, Gmel. West Indies . 127 

73. Fusus (Exilifu9Us)Kerri, Gabb. Cretaceous, N. Carolina, 127 

74. Fusus (Exilia) pergracilis, Conr. Eocene, Ala., . 127 

75. Fusus (Tui'rispira) salebrosa, Conr. Eocene, Ala., . 128 

76. Fusus (Priscofusus) geniculus, Conr. Eocene, Astoria, 

Oregon, 128 

77. Fusus (Jania) angulosus, Brocc. Tertiary', Italy. . 128 

78. Fusus (Genea) Bonellii, Gene. Tertiary, Italy, . . 128 

79. Fusus (Anura) inflatus, Brocc. Tertiary, Italy, . . 128 

80. Fusus (Mitraefusus) orditus. Bell, and Mich. Tertiary, 

Italy, 128 

81. Fusus (Ma3^eria) acutissimus, Bellardi. Tertiary-, Italv, 128 

82. Afer Blosvillei, Desh. Ceylon \ 128 

83. Clavella serotina. Hinds. Marquisas, . . . .129 

84. Buccinofusus Berniciensis, King. North Sea, . . 129 

Plate 48. 

85. Fasciolaria distans, Lam. S. Coast United States, . 130 

86. Fasciolaria aurantiaca, Lam. Cape of Good Hope, . 130 

87. Fasciolaria (Terebrispira) elegans, Conrad. Miocene, 

N. Carolina, . . . . . . . .130 

88 Fasciolaria ' Mesofhytis) gracilenta. Meek. Cretaceous. 

Yellowstone R., . . . . ... , 131 

89. Fasciolaria (Cryptorhj'tis) Cheyennensis, Meek and 

Hay den. Cretaceous, Dakotah. . . . .131 

90. Fasciolaria (Lirosoma) sulcosa, Conr. Miocene, Md., . 131 

91. Ptychatractus ligatus, Mighcls and Ads. New England, 131 

92. Meyeria alba, Jetfreys. North Sca,^ . . . .131 



40^ EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

FI9DRE. EAGE. 

93. Peristeinia nassatula, Lam. Polynesia, . . .132 

94. Peristernia incarnata, Desh., var. elegans, Dunker. Viti 

.- Islands, .132 

^5. Latirus infimdibulum, Gmel. West Indies, . . 132 

96. Peristernia Belcheri, Reeve. Indian Ocean, . . 132 

9*7. Leucozonia cingulata, Lam. Panama, . . . • 133 

98. Leucozonia (Lagena) smaragdula, Linrr. Philippines^ 133 

100. Leucozonia (Mazzalina) pyrula, Conr. Eocene, Ala., . 133 

I, 2. Peistocheilus Scarborotighi, Meek and Hayden. Cre- 

taceous, Western U. S., . . . . . .129 

Plate 49, 

3. Melongeua corona, Gmel. West Indies, . . .134 

4. Melongena morio, Linn. West Indies, .... 135 

5. Hemifusus (Thatcheria) mirabilis, Angas. Japan, . 135 

6. Neptunea antiqua, Linn. Gt. Britain, .... 136 

7. Neptunea decemcostata, Say. New England, . . 136 

8. Neptunea (Volutopsis) Norvegica, Chemn. Boreal, . 137 

9. Neptunea (Heliotropis) contraria, Linn. Spain, . . 137 
10. Sipho ventricosus, Gra3^ Newfoundland, . . .137 

II, 12. Sipho (Mohnia) Mohnii, Friele. North Atlantic 0., 138 

13. Siphonalia Tasmaniensis, Angas. Tasmania, . . 138 

14. Siphonalia nodosa, Mart. New Zealand, . . .138 

15. Siphonalia (Austrofusus alternata, Phil. Peru, . . 138 

16. Fulgur carica, Gmel. Atlantic Coast, U. S., . . . 138 

17. 18. Fulgur (Sycotypus) canaliculatus. Atlantic Coast, 

U. S., . ■. 139 

19. Fulgur (Taphon) striatus. Gray. China, . . . 140 

20. Streptosiphon porphyrostoma. Ads. et Rve. Senegal, . 140 

21. Tudicla inermis, Sowb. Singapore, . . . .140 

Plate 50. 

22. Pisania pusio, Linn. West Indies, .... 142 

23. Euthria cornea, Linn. Mediterranean, .... 142 

24. Metula clathrata. Ad. and Rve. Cape of Good Hope, . 143 

25. Cantharus Tranquebarious, Gmel. Tranquebar, . . 143 

26. Cantharus distortus, Gray. Panama, . . . . 143 

27. 28. Buccinum undatum, Linn. Boreal,. , . . 144 

29. Buccinopsis Dalei, Sby. N. Europe, . . . !. 147 

30, 31. Neobuccjnum Eatoni, E.. A. Smithy .KergueLejiIsI,, 147 

32. Volutharpa Perryi, Jay. Japan, . .' V ."~"' '. 148 

33. Chlariidota vestita. Martens. Kerguelen Isl., ' . . 148 

34. Cominella limbosa. Lam., var. lagenaria. Lam. Cape 

of Good Hope, 149 

35. Clea nigricans, A. Ad. Borneo, . . . . .149 

36. Clea (Canidia). Helena, Meder. Java, . . . 149 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 408 

PIGURE. PAGE. 

37. Clea (Canidia » Cambodiensis, Rve. Cambodia, . . 149 

38, 39. Eburna spirata, Lam. Philippines,. . . . 151 

40. Ebnrna I Zemira) Australis, Sowb. Australia, . .152 

41. Macron Kellettii, A. Ad. California, . . . .152 

42. 48. Phos senticosus, Linn. Philippines, . . . 153 

44. Xassaria acuminata, Rve. China Sea, .... 153 

45, 46. Cyllene lyrata. Lam. W. Africa, .... 153 

Plate 51. 

47. Melongena (Bulbifusus) inauratus,Conr. E-ocene, Ala., 135 

48. Melongena (Cornulina) armigera, Conr. Eocene, Ala., 135 

49. Melongena (Leiostoraa) bulbiformis, Lam. Grignon, . 135 

50. Fusispira ventricosa, Hall. Trenton Limestone, Green 

Bay, . 141 

51. Closteriscustenuilineatus, Meek. Cretaceous, Dakotah, 141 

52. Pala^atractus crassus, Gabb. Cretaceous, California, . 141 

53. Pyrifusus subdensatus, Conr. Cretaceous, Miss., . 141 

54. Pyrifusus (Neptunella) Newberryi, Meek and Hayden. 

Cretaceous, Dakotah, . . . . . .141 

55. Hercorhynchus Tippana, Conr. Cretaceous, Miss., . 141 

56. Lirofusus thoracicus, Conr. Eocene, Alabama, . . 142 

57. Strepsidura costata. Swains. Europe, .... 142 

58. Tudicla (Papillina) papillatus, Conr. Eocene, Ala., . 140 

59. Tudicla (Perissolax) brevirostris, Gabb. Cretaceous, 

California, . . .141 

60. Tortifusus curvirostra, Conr. Miocene, N. Carolina, . 142 

61. P^^ropsis perlata, Conr. Cretaceous, Miss., . . . 142 

62. Clavifusus Cooperi, Conr. Eocene, Alabama, . . 142 

63. Cantharus ( Cantharulus) Vaughani, Meek and Hayden. 

Cretaceous, Upper Missouri R., ..... 143 

64. Metulella fusiformis, Gabb. Miocene, S. Domin., W. I., 143 

65. Agasoma sinuata, Gabb. Miocene, California, . . 143 

66. Eripachya perforata, Gabb. Cretaceous, California, . 149 

67. Pseudobuccinum Nebrascense, M. and H. Cret., Nebr., 149 

68. Odontolysis ventricosa. Meek. Cret., Dakotah, . . 150 

69. Ectracheliza truncata, Gabb. Miocene, S. Domin., W. L, 150 

70. Brachysphingus liratus, Gabb. Cretaceous, California, 150 

71. Lacinia alveata, Conr. Eocene, Ala., . . . .151 

72. Haydenia impi'essa, Gabb. Cretaceous, California, . 151 

73. Buccitriton cancellatum. Lea. Eocene, Ala., . . 154 

Plate 52. 

74. Northia serrata, Dufresne. Panama, .... 154 

75. Truncaria modesta, Powis. Panama, .... 155 

76. Bullia ( Adinvis) truncata, Reeve. Habitat unknown, . 156 

77. Bullia (Buccinanops aunulata, Lam. Patagonia, . . 155 



404 EXPLANATION OF PLATES; 

FIGtrRE. PAGE. 

78. Bullia (Pseudostrombus) polita, Linn. Senegal, . . 155 

79. Bullia callosa, Gray. Habitat unknown, . . . 155 

80. Bullia (Molopophorus) striata, Gabb. Cretaceous, Cal., 156 

81. Nassa mutabilis, Linn. Mediterranean, . . . 156 

82. 83. Nassa ( Arcularia) thersites, Brug. Indian Ocean, . 157 

84. Nassa (Natia) giabrata, Sowb. W.Africa, . . . 157 

85. Nassa ( Alectrion) glans, Linn. Philippines, . . 157 

86. 87. Nassa (Zeuxis) canaliculata. Lam. Philippines, . 157 

88. Nassa (Aciculina) maculata, A. Ad. Philippines, . 158 

89. Nassa (Phrontis) luteostoma, Br. et Sowb. Panama, . 158 

90. Nassa (Hebra) niuricata, Qnoy. Philippines, . . 158 

91. Nassa (Hima) Tritoniformis, Kiener. Philippines, . 158 

92. Nassa (Niotha) Kieueri, Desh. Singapore, . . . 158 
9.3. Nassa (Tritia) trivittata. Say. United States, . . 158 

94. Nassa ( Ilyanassa) obsoleta. Say. United States, . 158 

95. Nassa (Ptychosalpinx) scalaspira, Oonr. Miocene, Va., 159 

96. Nassa (Paranassa) granifera, Conr. Tertiary, Virg., . 159 

97. Nassa (Tritiaria) peralta, Conr. Miocene, Virginia, . 159 

98. 99. Neritula neritea, Linn. Mediterranean Sea, . . 159 
100. Desmoulea abbreviata, Gmelin. Cape of Good Hope, 160 

1. Turbinella pyrnm, Linn. Ceylon, .... 161 

2. Turbinella (Caricella) praetenuis, Conr. Eocene, Ala., 161 

3. Vasum cornigerum. Lam. Philippines, . . .161 



Plate 53. 



4. Cymbium proboscidale. Lam. W. Coast Africa, 

5. Melo tessellata, Lam. Indian Ocean, 

6. Voluta musica, Linn. West Indies, 

7. Voluta ( Harpula) vexillum. Lam. Indian Ocean, 
^. Voluta (Pulgoraria I rupestris, Gmel. China, 
9. Voluta I Vespertilio) vespertilio, Linn. Philippines, 

10. Voluta (Aulica) imperialis. Lam. Philippines, . 

11. Voluta (Amoria) undulata, Lam. Australia, 

12. Voluta (Alcithoe) Pacifica, Sol. New Zealand, . 

13. Voluta (Cymbiola) ancilla, Sol. Patagonia, 

14. 15. Voluta (Volutella) angulata, Swains. Patagonia 

16. Voluta ( Psephfea) concinna, Brod. Japan, 

17. Voluta (Ausoba) cymbiola, Sowb. Moluccas, 

18. Voluta (Volutilithes) abyssicola. Ad. et Reeve. Cape 

of Good Hope,' . . . . . . 

19. Voluta (Volutoconus) coniformis. Cox. Australia, 

20. Voluta (Callipara) bullata. Swains. So. Africa, 

21. Voluta (Mamillana) mamilla, Gray. Australia, . 

22. Lyria Delessertiana, Petit. Madagascar, 

23. Lj^ria (Enaeta) harpa, Barnes. W. Coast Cent. Amer., 167 

24. 25. Microvoluta Aubtralis,Angas. Australia,^ . .167 



162 
162 
163 
163 
164 
164 
164 
164 
164 
164 
164 
165 
165 



165 
165 
165 
165 
167 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES, 405 



27. Volutomorpha Conradi, Gabb. Cret., New Jerse}'', 

28. Rostellites Texana, Conr. Cret., Texas, 

29. Yolutifusus typus, Conr. Miocene, N. Carolina, 

30. Athleta Tuomeyi, Conr. Cret., Miss., 

31. Leioderma leioderma, Conr. Cret., Miss., . 

32. Ptychoris Purpuriformis, Forbes. Cret., India, . 

33. Pleioptygma Carolinensis, Conr. Miocene, S. Carolina 

34. Cryptochorda Stromboides, Gmel. Tertiary, France 

35. Gosavia Indica, Stolicz. Cretaceous, India, 

35a, Columbellaria corallina, Qnenst. Jurassic, Europe 

Plate 55. 

36. Mitra episcopalis. Lam. Philippines, 

37. Mitra (Swainsonia) flssurata, Lam. Mauritius, 

38. Mitra (Scabricola) granatina. Lam. (= scabriuseula 

Linn,), .,..,,.. 

39. Mitra (Cancilla) filaris. Lam. Philippines, 

40. Mitra i Chrysame) coronata, Lam. Philippines, 

41. Mitra (Strigatella) paupercula, Lam. Philippines, 

42. Mitra ( Zierliana) robusta, Reeve. Polynesia, 

43. Mitra (Fusimitra) cellulifera, Conr. Oligocene, Miss. 

44. Mitra (Conomitra) Fusoides, Lea, Eocene, Alabama 

45. Thala mirifica, Reeve. Philippines, , , , 

46. Mitroidea ancillides, Swains, Philippines, , 

47. Dibaphus Philippii, Crosse. Mauritius, 

48. Turricula pliearia, Linn. Polynesia, . 

49. Turricula (Costellaria exasperata, Chemn. Philippines 

50. Turricula (Pusio) luculenta, Reeve. Philippines, 

51. Turricula (Lapparia) dumosa, Conr, Eocene, Miss. 

52. Cylindra fenestrata. Lam, Philippines, 

53. Imbricaria marmorata, Quoy. Philippines, . 

54. Erato hevis, Donov, Europe, . , , , 

55. Erato (Eratopsis) Schmeltziana, Crosse. Viti Islands 

56. Marginella glabella, Linn, W, Africa, 

57. Marginella (Glabella) Adansonii, Kiener. W. Africa 

58. Marginella (Cryptospira) elegans, Gmel, Nicobar 

Islands. , , ., , . 

59. 60, Marginella ' Prurium) marginata. Born. W. Inrlies 

61, Marginella Volutella) bullata. Born. Brazil, 

62, Marginella (Persicula) persicula. Linn. West Africa 

63, Marginella I Closia) sarda, Kiener, Mauritius. , 

64, Marginella (Volvaria ) avena, Val. West Indies, 

65, Marginella (Volvaria ) bulloides. Lam, Eocene, France 



168 
170 

170 
170 
170 
170 
170 
170 
170 
170 
170 
171 
171 
171 
171 
171 
171 
171 
172 
172 
173 
173 

173 
173 
173 
173 
174 
174 
174 



406 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 



Plate 5(). 
f)(3. Olivella undatella, Lam. Panama, .... 174 

6T. Oliva erythrostoma, Lam. Philippines, . . .175 

68. Oliva (Lamprodoma) volntella, Lara. Panama, . . 175 

69. Oliva (Callianax) biplicata, Sowb. California, . .175 

70. Oliva (Agaronia) hiatnla, Lam. W. Coast Africa, . 175 

71. Oliva (Olivancillaria) Brasiliana, Lam. Brazil, . . 176 

72. Ancillaria (Olivnla) staminea,Conr. Eocene, Alabama, 177 

73. Ancillaria Tankervillei, Swains. West Indies, . . 176 

74. Monoptygma Alabamensis, Lea. Eocene, Alabama, . 176 

75. Ancillaria t Anolacia) Mauritiana, Sowb. Mauritius, . 177 

76. Ancillaria ' Dipsaccus) glabrata, Linn. West Indies, . 177 

77. Harpa ventricosa. Lam. Philippines, .... 177 

78. Columbella mercatoria, Lam. West Indies, . . . 178 

79. Columbella I Nitidella) nitida, Lam. West Indies, . 178 

80. Columbella (Alia) unifasciata, Sowb. Chili,. . . 178 

81. Columbella (Mitrella) lactea, Duclos 178 

82. Columbella (Atilia suff'usa, Sowb. Philippines, . .178 

83. Columbella (Anachis) rugosa, Sowb. Panama, . .179 

84. Columbella (Seminella) gracilis, Pease. Pol^-nesia, . 179 

85. Columbella (Conidea) tringa. Lam. New Caledonia, etc, 179 

86. Columbella (Conella) Philippinarum,Rve. Philippines, 179 

87. Columbella (Strombina) lanceolata, Sowb. Panama, . 179 

88. Columbella (Amycla) dermestoidea. Lam. W.Indies, 179 

89. Columbella (Astyris) Clausiliforme, Kiener. . . . 179 

90. Engina trifasciata, Reeve. Philippines, . . .179 

91. Engina (Pusiostoraa) mendicaria. Lam. Philippines, . 180 

92. Columbellina ornata, d'Orb. Cretaceous, France, . 180 

93. Amphissa corrugata, Reeve. California, . . .180 

94. Columbella (Meta) coniformis, Sowb. Philippines, . 179 

95. Columbella (Mitropsis) fusiformis, Pease. Polynesia, 179 

Plate 57. 

96. Cancellaria cancellata, Linn. W. Africa, . . . 180 

97. Cancellaria (Trigonostoma) tuberculosa, Sowb. Peru,. 181 

98. Cancellaria (Aphera) tessellata, Sowb. W. Coast Cen- 

tral Am., 181 

99. Cancellaria (Euclia) solida, Sowb. Real Llegos, . 181 
100. Cancellaria (Merica) elegans, Sowb. Philippines, . 181 

1. Cancellaria (Narqna) clavatula, Sowb. Panama, . 181 

2. Cancellaria (Massyla) corrugata. Hinds. Guayaquil, . 181 

3. Cancellaria (Turbinopsis) Hilgardi, Conr. Cretaceous, 

Mississippi, 181 

4. Cancellaria (Morea) cancellaria, Conr. Cret., Miss., . 181 
- - 5. Admete viridula, Fab. Boreal America, . . .181 
- >> G. Admete (Admetopsis) gregaria, Meek^Pret., ¥tah^ . 182 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 40t 

FiGDKK. PAGE. 

7. Terebra (Subula) maculata, Linn. Philippines, . .182 

8. Terebra (Abretia) cerithina, Lam. Polj^nesia, . .182 

9. Terebra (Hastula) strigillata, Linn. Polynesia, . .182 

10. Terebra (Euryta) aciculata, Lam. Acapulco, . .182 

11. Terebra (Terebra) eingulifera, Lam. Philippines, . 182 

12. Pusionella nifat, Adans. W. Africa, . . . .182 

13. Pleurotoma babylonia. Lam. Philippines, . . . 183 

14. Pleurotoma (Surcula)nodifera, Lam. Straits of Malacca, 183 

15. Pleurotoma (Genota) Mitraeformis, Kiener. Gambia, . 183 

16. Pleurotoma i Brachitoma) Stromboides, Sowb. Panama, 183 
IT. Pleurotoma (Conopleura) striata, Hinds, . . .183 

18. Pleurotoma (Drillia) gibbosa, Kiener, .... 183 

19. Pleurotoma (Crassispira) pulchra, Gray, f, W. Indies, 184 

20. Pleurotoma (Clavus) auriculifera. Lam. Philippines, . 184 

21. Pleurotoma (Bela) turricula, Mont. N. Eur., U. S., . 184 

22. Pleurotoma (Lachesis) minima, Mont. N. Eur., . .184 

23. Pleurotoma 1 Clavatula) imperialis. Lam. W.Africa, . 184 

Plate 58. 

24. Pleurotoma (Clionella buccinoides. Lam. . . .184 

25. Pleurotoma (Perrona . lineata. Lam. W.Africa, . . 184 

26. Pleurotoma (Clathurella) linearis, Blainv. Europe, . 185 
21. Pleurotoma (Clinura) Calliope, Brocchi. Ter., Italy, . 184 

28. Pleurotoma (Zafra) Pupoidea, H. Adams. N. Hebrides, 185 

29. Pleurotoma (Daphnella) ornata, Hinds. New Guinea, . 185 

30. Pleurotoma (Mitromorpha) gracilis, Carp. California, . 185 

31. Pleurotoma (Cithara) Stromboides, Rve. Philippines, . 185 

32. Pleurotoma (Glyphostoma) dentifera, Gabb. Tertiary, 

West Indies. . . . . . . . • 185 

33. Pleurotoma (Mangelia) ponderosa, Rve. Philippines, . 185 

34. Pleurotoma ( Typhlomangelia) nivalis, Loven. Norway, 185 

35. Pleurotoma (Spirotropis) carinata, Phil. Norway, . 186 

36. Pleurotoma (Raphitoma) ringens, Bellardi. Tert., Italy, 186 
31. Pleurotoma (Taranis ) Morchi, Malm. Norway,"."' . 186 

38. Pleurotoma Thesbia) nana, Lov^n. Norway, . . 186 

39. Pleurotoma (Borsonia) prima, Bellardi. Miocene, Turin, 186 

40. Pleurotoma (Cordiera) Pyrenaica, Roualt. Eo., France, 186 

41. Halifl Priamus, Lam. Spain,. ..... 186 

42. Conus marmoreus, Linn. Philippines, . . . .187 

43. Conus (Puncticulus) pulicarius, Brug. Polynesia, . 187 

45. Conus (Coronaxis) vermiculatus, Lam. Polynesia, . 187 

46. Conus (Cylindrella) sulcatus, Brug. Polynesia, . . 187 

47. Conus (Nubecula) tulipa, Linn. Philippines, . .187 

48. Conus (Chelyconus) spectrum, Linn. Polynesia, . . 188 

49. Conus ( Cylinder) textile, Linn. Philippines, . . 1&8 
50: Conus (Coiiorbis) dormitow, Sol. Eocene. England. . 188 



408 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGK. 

Plate 59. 

44. Conus (Steplianoconus) cedonulli, Liiiii. W. Indies, . 187 

51. Conns (Dendroconns) figulinus, Linn. Polynesia, . 188 

52. Conns (Lithoconus) literatns, Linn. Ce^don, . . 188 
63. Conns (Leptoconus) nobilis, Linn. Philippines, . .188 

54. Conns (Rhizoconus) generalis, Linn. Polynesia, . . 188 

55. Conus (Hermes) tendineus, Brug. Polynesia, . . 188 

56. 57. Strorabus gigas, Linn. West Indies, . . . 189 

58. Strombus (Monodact3'lns) Pacificus, Swains. New Zeal., 189 

59. Strombus (Gallinula) succinctns, Linn. Philippines, . 190 

60. fc'trombus (Canarinm) Luhnanns, Linn. Philippines, . 190 

61. Strombus (Enprotomns) laciniatus, Chemn. Philippines, 190 

62. Pteroceras lambis, Linn. Philippines, . . . .190 

63. Pteroceras (Harpago) rugosa, Sowb. Society Islands, 191 

64. Rostellaria cnrta, Sowb. Ind. Ocean, . . . .191 

65. Rostellaria (Rimella) crispata, Sowb. Philippines, . 191 

66. Terebellum snbnlatum, Lam. China Sea, . . .192 

67. Aporrhais pes-pelecani, Lam. Europe, . . . .193 

68. Aporrhais (Arrhoges)occidentalis, Beck. Newfoundland, 198 

69. Struthiolaria nodulosa, Martyn. New Zealand, . .196 

70. Struthiolaria (Pelicaria 1 scutulata, Martyn. N.Zealand, 196 

Plate 60. 
71,72. Pugnellus hamulus, Gabb ; 3^oung and old. Cret., . 190 

73. Pugnellus (Gymnarus) manubriatus, Gabb. Cret., Cal., 190 

74. Pteroceras (Phyllocheilus) speciosa, d'Orb. Cret., 

France, 191 

75. Rostellaria (Hippochrenes) macroptera, Lam. Eocene, 191 

76. Rostellaria (Isopleura) curvilirata,. Conr. Cret., U. S., 192 

77. Rostellaria (Cyclomolops) laevigata, Mellv. Eocene, . 192 

78. Rostellaria (Calyptr£ephorus)trinodiferus,Conr. Eocene, 

U. S., . .192 

79. Spinigera longispina, Desl. Oolite, Europe, . . .192 

80. Spinigera spiuosa, Munst. Oolite, Europe, . . .192 

81. Terebellum (Terebellopsis) Braunii,Leym. Nummulitic, 

France, 193 

82. Aporrhais (Goniocheila) liratus, Conr. Eocene, . . 193 

83. Anchuraabrupta, Conr. Cret., U, S., .... 194 

84. Anchura falciformis, (labb. Cret., U. S., . . « . 194 

85. Helicaulax ornata, d'Orb. Cret., France, . . . 194 

86. Helicaulax (Lispodesthes) linguifera, White. Cretaceous, 

New Mexico, 194 

87. Pereirsea Gervaisii, Vezian. Tertiary, Portugal, . .194 

88. Dicroloma Lorieri, d'Orb. Fossil, Lias, . . .194 

89. Tessarolax bicarinata, d'Orb. Cret., France, . . 195 

90. Tessarolax (Pterocerella) Tippana, Conr. Cret., U. S., 195 

91. Alaria armata, Morris and Lyeett. Jurassic, England, 195 



EXPLANATION OP PLATES. 409 



92. Rostellaria (Leiorhinus) proruta, Conr. Eocene, Ala.,. 191 

93. Harpagodes Pelagi, d'Orb. Cret., France, . . .195 

94. Ceratosiphon Moreausiana, d'Orb, Cret., France, . 196 

95. Struthiolaria (Loxotrema) turrita, Gabb. Cret., Cal., . 196 

Plate 61. 

96. Cyprfea Argus, Linn. Ceylon, Idl 

97. Cyprasa exanthema, Linn.; young. West Lidies, . 197 

98. Cypraea (Luponia) lynx, Linn. Ceylon, . . .198 

99. Cypraea (Luponia) tigris, Linn. Pliilij^pines, . .198 
100. Cyprffia (Aricia) Arabica, Linn. East Indies, . .198 

1. Cypraea (Aricia) moneta, Linn. Taheiti, . . .198 
2, 3. Cypraea (Gaskoinia) edentula, Sowb. So. Africa, . 198 
4, 5, Cyprsea (Cyprseovula) Capensis, Gray. Cape Good 

Hope, . . . . ' 198 

6,7. Cypraea (Trivia) quadripunctata, Gray. West Indies, 198 
8, 9. Cyprtea (Pustularia) pustulata, Lam. Panama, . .198 
10, 11. Cypraea (Epona) cicercula, Linn. Isle Annaa, . 198 
12, 13. Ovulum pyriformis, Sowb. N. S. Wales, . . 199 

14,15. Ovulum (Calpurnus)verrucosum, Linn. Philippines, 199 
16, 17. Ovulum (Cyphoma) gibbosum, Linn. W. Indies, . 199 
18. Ovulum (Volva) volva, Linn. Philippines, . . .199 
19,20. Pedicularia Sicula, Swains. Europe, . . . 199 

Plate 62. 

21. Dolium perdix, Linn. West Indies, .... 202 

22. Cassis Madagascariensis, Lam. Madagascar, . . 200 

23. Cassis (Semicassis) canaliculatus, Brug. Philippines, . 201 

24. Cassis (Phalium) undatus. Mart. Philippines, . . 201 

25. Cassis (Casmaria) pyrum. Lam. Australia, . .201 

26. Cassis (Cassidea) testiculus, Linn. West Indies, . 201 

27. Cassis (Levenia) coarctatus, Graj". Panama, . . 201 

28. Cassis; operculum, ....... 201 

29. Cassidaria echinophora, Linn. Mediterranean, . . 201 

30. Cassidaria (Sconsia) striata, Lam. West Indies, . 202 

31. Oniscia oniscus. Lam. West Indies, .... 202 

32. Oniscia (Oniscidia) cancellata, Sowb. China seas, . 202 

33. Pachybatron Marginelloideum, Gask., . . . 202 

34. Dolium perdix, Linn. West Indies, .... 202 

35. Malea ringens. Swains. Pacific, 203 

36. Macgillivraya pelagica, Forbes. Atlantic Ocean, . . 202 

37. P3'rula decussata. Wood. Panama, .... 203 

38. Pyrula (Ficulopsis) Pondicherriensis, Forbes. Cret., 

' India, 203 

39. Pyrula (Ptychosyca) inornata, Gabb. Cret., Georgia, 203 

40. Pyrula ficus, Linn. East Indies, . . . . 203 

27 - 



410 EXPLANATION OP PLATES. 

FGURE. PAGE. 

Plate 63. 

41. Natica Alderi, Foi'bes. p]ngland, .... 204 

42. Natica canrena, Linn. West Indies, .... 204 
48. Natica (Stigmaulax) cancellata, Lam. West Indies, . 205 

44. Natica (Lnnatia) lieros, Say. Atlantic Coast, U. S., . 205 

45. Natica (Neverita) duplicata, Say. Atl. Coast, TJ. S., 205 

46. Natica (Anomphala) fluctuata, Sowb. Philippines, . 205 
4t. Natica (Mamilla) niaura, Lam. Philippines, . . 205 

48. Natica (Mamma) straminea, Recluz. Polynesia, . . 205 

49. Natica (Amanra) Candida, Moller. Boreal seas, . 205 

50. Natica (Amanropsis) canalicnlata, Gould. Newfound- 

land, etc., 206 

51. Natica (Robinsonia) Ceylonica, Nevill. Ceylon, 206, 275 

52. Sigaretus neritoideus, Linn. Straits of Malacca, . 207 

53. Sigaretus (Naticina) papilla, Gmelin. Philippines, . 207 

54. Sigaretus (Cryptostoma) haliotoides, Linn. W. Indies, 207 

55. Velutina capuloidea, Blainv., ..... 207 

56. Velutina Laevigata, Linn. England, .... 207 

57. 58. Lamellaria perspicua, Linn. Europe, . . . 209 

59. Lamellaria (Marsenina) depressa, Sutton, . . . 210 

60. Cryptocella tentaculata, Montagu. Europe, . . 210 

61. Cryptocella latens, Miiller, 210 

62. 63. Coriocella nigra, Blainv., . . . . .210 
64, 65. Limneria zonata, Gould. Northern United States, 208 

Plate 64. 

66. Natica (Ampnllina) sigaretina. Lam. Eocene, Paris, . 205 

67. Natica (Naticopsis) Phillipsii, M'Coy. Carboniferous, 

Great Britain, . . . . " . . . .206 
68,69. Velutina (Ijeptonotis) expansa, Whitfield. Eocene, 

Alabama, 208 

70. G.yrodes alveata, Conrad. Cretaceous, Mississippi, . 206 

71. Natica (Isonema) humilis, Meek. Devonian, Ohio, . 206 

72. 73. Onchidiopsis glacialis, Sars. Norway, . . . 210 

74. Velutina (Platyostoma) Niagarensis, Hall. Niagara 

group, New York, 208 

75. Velutina (Strophostylus) obtusa, Hall. Lower Helder- 

berg. New York, 208 

76. Naticodon spiratum, Sowb. Carb., ICurope, . .211 

77. Crucibulum (Catillina) concamerata. Reeve, . . 212 

78. Crepidula (Spirocrypta) pileum, Gabb. Cret., Cal., . 213 

79. Galericulns altus, Seely. Cretaceous, .... 213 

80. Capulus (Brocchia) sinuosa, Bronn. Tertiary, Europe, 214 

81. 82. Platycei-as ventricosum, Conrad. Young and adult, 214 

83. Platyceras (Orthonychia) spirale,Hall. Pal{eozoic,U.S., 214 

84. Euspira canaliculata, Morris and Lycett. Oolite, Eng., 206 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 411 

FIGUKE. PAGE. 

85. Velutina (Amplostoma) auriforme, Stol. Cret., India, . 208 

86. Velutella flexilis, Mont. Northern Europe, . . 208 
ST. Vanikoropsis Tuomeyana, Meek and Worthen. Cret., 

Judith River, . ' 210 

88, 89. Ophileta (Discohelix) foliacea, Phil. Sicily, . . 220 

Plate 65. 

90. Yanikoro cancellata, Chemn. Philippines, . . .210 

91. Crepidula Peruviana, Lam. Peru, .... 212 

92. Crepidula (lanacus) unguiformis, Lam. United States, 213 

93. Crepidula (Ergsea) plana, Ad. and Reeve, . . . 218 

94. 95. Berthilinea elegans, Crosse. Paris basin, . . 214 
96, 97. Spiricella nnguiculus, Rang. Miocene, France, . 215 
98, 99. Amathina tricarinata, Chemn. India, . . .215 

100, 1, 2. Hipponyx cornucopia, Lam. ; with its shelly base 

(2). Eocene, Paris, '. .215 

3, 4. Hipponyx (Amalthea) conica, Schum. ; with base, . 215 
5, 6. Gyriscus Jetfreysianus, Tiberi. Mediterranean Sea, 217 

7. Platyschisma Uchtensis, Keyserling. Silur., Europe, . 218 

8. Architea delicatum, Phil. Norway, . . . .218 

9. Straparollus qiialteriatus, de Verneuil. Pal., Europe, 218 

10. Straparollus (Maclurea) magna, Lesueur. Chazy gr., 

United States, . . 7 . . . . 219, 224 

11. Straparollus (Schizostoma) Puzosii, de Verneuil. Pal,, 

Europe, 219 

12. Helicocryptus pusillus,d'Orb. Palaeozoic, Europe, . 219 

13. Adeorbis subcarinatus, Mont. Europe, . . .219 

14. Omalaxis supranitida, Wood. Northern Europe, . 219 

15. 16. Homalogyra atomus,Phil. Mediterranean, Norway, 220 
17, 18. Discohelix zanclea, Phil. Pliocene, Europe, . . 220 

19. Ophileta levata, Hall. Palaeozoic, New York, . . 220 

20. Eccyliomphalus serpula, de Koninck. Pal., Europe, . 220 

21. Straparollus calcar, d'Orb. Pal., Europe, . . . 218 

Plate 66. 
22, 23. Galerus Chinensis, Linn. China, . . . .211 
24, 25. Infundibulum spirata, Forbes. W. Coast N.America, 211 

26. Infundibulum (Haliotidea) dilatata, Sowb., . . .212 

27. Calyptra^a Martiniana, Reeve. Philippines, . . 212 

28. Crucibulum rudis, Brod. W. Coast Central America, .212 

29. Crucibulum (Dispota^a) striata, Ssiy. United States, . 212 

30. Capulus Ungaricus, Linn. England, . . . .213 

31. 32. Onustus Solaris, Linn. Malacca, .... 216 

33. Xenophora conchyliophora. Born. West Indies, . '.216 

34. Solarium perspectivum, Linn. Amboina, . . .217 

35. Solarium (Turinia) varicgatum, Lam. Philippines, . 217 



412 EXPJiANATION OF PLATES. 



36. Solarium (Philippia) luteiim, Lam. Mediterranean, . 217 

37. Circulus striatus, Phil. Mediterranean, . . . 220 

38. Scalaria (Clathrus) communis. Lam. Europe, . .221 

39. Scalaria (Opalia) coronata. Lam. West Indies, . . 221 

40. Scalaria (Cirsotrema) varicosa. Lam. Philippines, . 221 

41. Scalaria (Constantia) elegans, A. Ad. Corea, . . 222 

42. Scalaria pretiosa, Linn. China, ..... 221 

43. Scalaria (Acirsa) Eschrichtii, Holb. Greenland, . . 221 

44. Scalaria (Scaliola) bella, A. Ad. Japan, . . . 222 

Plate 67. 

45. Scalaria (Amsea) magnifica, Sowb. China, . . . 221 

46. Scalaria (Funis) elongata, Seelj^ Greensand, Great 

Britain, 221 

47. Scalaria (Crossea) miranda, A. Ad. Japan, . . 221 

48. Scalaria (Acrilla) acuminata, Sowb. Malacca, . . 221 

49. lanthina communis, Lam. So. Atlantic Ocean, . . 222 

50. Recluzia Rollandiana, Petit. Mazatlan, . . . 223 

51. Scalites angulatus, Conr. Silurian, U. S., . . . 223 

52. Scalites (Raphistoma) staminea. Hall. Silurian, U. S., 223 
58. Trichotropis borealis, Gould. Massachusetts, . . 223 

54. Trichotropis (Iphinoe) unicarinatus, Sowb. Japan, . 223 

55. Turritella terebra, Linn. Philippines, .... 224 

56. Turritella (Turritellopsis) acicula, Stimpson. New 

England, Norway, ....... 224 

57. Turritella (Haustator) goniostoma, Val. Guacomayo, 

Central America, 224 

58. Turritella (Torcula I cochlea. Reeve. .... 224 

59. Turritella (Zaria) du[)licata, Linn. Philippines, . . 224 

60. Turritella (Mesalia) melanoides. Reeve, . , . 224 

61. Turritella (Eglisia ) lanceolata. Reeve. Philippines, . 225 

62. Turritella (Mathilda) cochloeformis,Brug. Fossil, Sicily, 225 

63. Turritella (Glauconia) Maraschini, Defrance, . . 225 

64. Turritella (Arcotia I Indica, Stol. Cret., India, . . 225 

65. 66. Lithotrochus Humboldtii, Buch. Liassic, S. Amer., 225 

67. Cochlearia carinata, Bronn. Triassic, Austria, . . 225 

68. Vermiculus lumbricalis, Linn. West Indies, . . 226 

69. 70. Burtinella concava, Stoliczka. Cretaceous, India, . 226 

71. Strepliopoma rosea, Quoy. Polynesia, .... 226 

72, 73. Tubulostium callosum, Stoliczlva. Cretaceous, India, 226 

74. Siphonium maximum, Sowb. Mediterranean, . . 227 

75. Vermetus carinatus, Quoy. Polynesia, . . . 227 

76. Vermetus (Petaloconchus") sculpturatus. Lea. Tertiary, 

U. S., . . . 227 

77. Thylacodes arenaria, Quo3^ India, .... 227 

78. Spiroglyphus spirorbis, Dillw. Cape of Good Hope, . 227 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 413 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

79. Siliquaria anguina, Linn. New Guinea, . . . 227 

80. Bivona triquetra, Bivona. Sicily, .... 227 

81. Caecum cornuoides, Brown. Europe, .... 228 

82. Caecum pulchellum, Stimpson ; and operculum. New 

England, . 228 

Plate G8. 

83. Eulima tortuosa. Ad. and Reeve. China Sea, . .229 

84. E]ulima (Eulimopsis) Cannelse, Brugnone. Pliocene, 

Sicily, 229 

85. Eulima (Arcuella) mirifica, Nevill. Mauritius, . . 229 

86. Eulima (lopsis) fusiformis, Gabb. Tertiary, West Ind., 230 

87. Leiostraca subulata, Donov. England, . . . 230 

88. Niso goniostoma, A. Ads. Philippines, . . . 230 

89. Stylifer subulatus, Brod., 231 

90. Stylifer (Plicifer) Nevillei, H. Ad. Ceylon, . . 231 

91. Macrocheilus Schlotheimii, d'Archiac, .... 232 

92. Aclis nitidissima, Mont. England, .... 236 

93. Hoplopteron Terquemi, Fischer. China Sea, . . 232 

94. Subeulima Lamberti, Souverb. New Caledonia, . . 232 

95. Scalenostoma carinatum, Desh. Isle of Bourbon, . 282 

96. Chemnitzia condensata, Desl., ..... 238 

97. Loxonema costatum, Sandberger. Palaeozoic, Europe, 284 

98. Turbonilla elegantissima, Mont. England, . . . 235 

99. Aclis (Hemiaclis) ventrosa, Jeffrej'S. Norwa}', . . 236 
100. Anisocycla gracilis, Desh. Eocene, Paris basin, . 236 

1, 2. Eulimella Scilla*, Scacchi. Europe, . . . 235 

3. Aclis (RissoiDsis) typica, Garrett. Yiti Islands, . . 236 

4. Aclis (Iola?a)scitula, A. Ad. Japan, .... 236 

5. Odostomia nitida. Alder. England, .... 236 

6. Odostomia (Auriculina) C3'lindracea, Alder. Europe, . 237 

7. Odostomia (Chrysallida) communis, C. B. Adams. West 

Indies, 237 

8. Pyramis striatus, Couthuoy. United States, . . 237 

9. P3^ramis (Monoptygma) casta, Ad., .... 237 

10. Nerinaea trinodosa, d'Orb., ...... 239 

11. Pyramidella plicata, Lam. Philippines, . . . 238 

12. P^'ramidella (Obeliscus) maculosa, Lam. Moluccas, . 239 

13. Nerinaea trachea, Deslong. ; showing the interior. 

Oolite, p]ngland, 239 

14. Ncriujea (Halloysia) biplicata,Briart and Cornet. Cal- 

caire grossier, Mons, Belgium, ..... 239 

15. 16. Syrnolopsis lacustris, E. A. Smith. Lake Tangan- 

yika, 238 

17, 18. Liostomia eburnea, Stimpson. United States, 

Norway, 237 



414 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

PIGUEE. 

Plate 69. 

19. Littorina littorea, Linn. New England, England, 

20. Littorina (Melaraphe) angulifera, Linn. Cuba, 

21. Littorina (Neritoides) obtnsata, Linn. England, 

22. Littorina (Cyclonema) cancellata, Hall. Palaeozoic 

U. S., 

23. Littorina (Raulinia) alligata, Desh, Eocene, Paris 

basin, ......... 

24. Tectarins pyramidalis, Qnoy. New Zealand, 

25. Tectarins (Echinella) Cumingii, Phil. Philippines, 

26. Microdoma conica, Meek and Worthen. Carboniferons 

Ills., 

2T. Modulus tectum, Gmel. Viti Islands, ... 

28. Eiseila melanostoma, Gmel. Australia, 

29. IJisella ( Plesiotrochus) Souverbianus, Fischer. New 

Caledonia, ........ 

30. Risella (Limnotrochus) Thomsoni, E. A. Smith. Lake 

Tanganyika, ....... 

31. Lacuna pallidula. Da Costa. England, 

32. Lacuna (Epheria) vincta, Turton. Europe, . 

33. Lacuna (Hela) tenella, Jeffreys. England, . 

34. Lacuna (Lacunaria) Alabamensis, Whitfield. Elocene 

Alabama, ........ 

35. Lacuna (Spironema) tenuilineata, Meek and Hayden 

Cret., U. S., 

36. Lacuna (Lacunella) depressa, Desh. Eocene, basin of 

Paris, ......... 

37. 38. Cremnoconchus Syhadrensis, Blanf. India, . 

39. Fossarus costatus, Brocchi. Mediterranean, 

40. Fossarus ambiguus, Linn. Mediterranean, . 

41. Fossarus (Isapis) anomala, C. B. Ad. Jamaica, . 

42. Fossarus (Fossarina) patula. Ad. and Ang. Australia 

43. Fossarus (Tuba) alternata. Lea. Eocene, Alabama, 

44. Planaxis sulcatus, Lam. Central Pacific, 

45. Planaxis (Hinea) Brasiliana, Lam. Brazil, . 

46. Planaxis (Quoyia) decollata, ilnoy. Viti Islands, 

47. Planaxis (Holcostoma) piligerum, Phil., 

48. Litiopa bombyx. Rang. Tropical Atlantic, . 

49. Cerithium fusiforme, Sowb. Philippines, 

50. Cerithium (Vertagus) lineatus, Lam. Polynesia, . 

51. Cerithium (Cerithioderma) prima, Conr. Eocene, Ala. 

52. Cerithium (Colina) macrostoma, Hinds. Borneo, 

53. Cerithium (Cerithiella) metula, Loven. Norway, . 

54. Cerithium (Bittium) reticulatum, Da Costa. England 

55. Cerithium (Cerithiopsis) rugulosum. Ads. Jamaica, 

56. Fibula undulosa, Piette. Bathonien, France, 



240 
241 
241 

241 

241 
242 

242 

243 

242 
242 

243 

243 
243 
243 
244 

244 

244 

244 
244 
245 
245 
245 
245 
245 
246 
246 
246 
246 
246 
247 
247 
247 
248 
248 
248 
248 
248 



EXPLANATION OP PLATES. 415 



57. Ceritella acuta, Morris and Lycett. Oolite, England, . 248 

58. Triforis perversus, Linn. Mediterranean, . . . 249 

59. Triforis (Ino) corrugatus, Hinds. Sandwich Islands, . 249 

60. Triforis (Sychar) vitreus, Hinds. Malacca, . . . 249 

61. Triforis (Mastonia) vulpinus, Hinds. New Ireland, , 249 

62. Exelissa (Kilvertia) formosa, Lycett. Oolite, England, 249 

63. Potamides mamillatum, Risso. Mediterranean, . . 250 

Plate 70. 

64. Fastigiella carinata, Reeve, 249 

65. Triforis (Laiocochlis) granosus, Wood. Norway, . 250 

66. Potamides ebeninum, Brug. Australia, . . . 250 

67. Potamides (Brotia) pagodula, Gould. Burmah, . . 250 

68. Potamides (Tympanotomus) fuscata, Linn. W. Africa, 250 

69. Potamides (Lampania) zonale, Brug. Australia, . 250 

70. Potamides (Pyrazus) sulcatum, Brug. China, . . 250 

71. Potamides (Telescopium) telescopium, Brug. India, . 251 

72. Potamides (Cerithidea) decollatum, Linn. East Indies, 251 

73. Potamides (Cerithidea) obtusum. Lam. Malacca, . 251 

74. Paludomus conicus, Gray. India, .... 252 

75. Paludomus (Philopotamis) nigricans, Reeve. Ceylon, 252 

76. Paludomus (Tanalia) loricata. Reeve. Ceylon, . , 252 

77. Paludomus (Stomatodon) Bensoni, Brot. Southern 

India, . ~ 252 

78. Melania (Melanella) glans, von dem Busch. Java, . 252 

79. Melania (Pachychilus) laevissima, Sowb. Mexico, . 252 

80. Melania (Aylacostoma) scalaris, Spix. Brazil, . . 252 

81. Melania (Sulcospira) sulcospira, Mousson. Java, . 253 

82. Melania (Nigritella) decollata, Lara. Madagascar, etc., 253 

83. Melania (Melanoides) episcopalis, Lea. Malacca, . 253 

84. Melania (Melania > hastula, Lea. Philippines, . . 253 

85. Melania (Striatella) tuberculata, Miill. East Indies, . 253 

86. Melania (Plotia) bellicosa, Hinds. Fiji Islands, . . 253 

87. Melania (Plotiopsis) Ballonensis, Conrad. Australia, . 253 

88. Melania (Tiara) setosa, Swains. Fiji Islands, . . 253 

89. Melania (Tiaropsis) Winteri, Busch. Java, . . . 253 

90. Melania (Tarebia) Celebensis, Quoy. Celebes, . . 253 

91. Melania (Sermyla) tornatella, Lea. Philippines, . . 253 

92. Melania (Oncomelania) Hupensis,Gredler. China, . 254 

Plate 71. 

93. Dorissa brevier, Troschel. Guiana, .... 254 

94. Claviger aurita, Lam. Senegal, ..... 254 

95. Tiphobia Horei, E. A. Smith. L. Tangau3aka, Africa, 254 

96. Hemisinus lineolatus. Wood. Jamaica, . . . 254 

97. Hemisinus (Yerena) crenocarina, Mor. Brazil, . . 254 



416 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 



98. Melanopsis (Cantliidomus) costata, Fer. Palestine, . 255 

99. Melanopsis pn>?rosa, Linn. Mediterranean Region, . 255 
100. Melanopsis (Melanoptycha) Bittneri, Neumayr. Ter- 
tiary, Austria, 255 

1. Faunus atra, Linn. Moluccas, ..... 255 

2. Melanatria fluminea, Gmelin. Madagascar, . . 255 

3. 4. lo spinosa, Lea. Tennessee, ..... 256 

5. Angitrema Duttoniana, Lea. Tennessee, . . . 256 

6. Angitrema (Lithasia) dilatata, Lea. Tennessee, . . 256 

7. Angitrema (Strephobasis) carta, Hald. Tennessee, . 256 

8. Pleurocera canaliculata. Say. Ohio River, . . . 25t 

9. Goniobasis impressa, Lea. Georgia, .... 251 

10. Gouiobasis Boykiniana, Lea. Georgia, . . . 25 Y 

1 1. Goniobasis Virginica, Say. Delaware River, . . 257 

12. Goniobasis (Enrycselon) Anthonyi, Budd. Tennessee, 257 

13. Pyrgulifera humerosa. Meek. Cret., Wyoming, . . 257 
14-16. Schizostoma babylonicum. Lea. Coosa River, Ala., 257 
17. Anculosa tseniata, Conr. Alabama, .... 258 

19. Anculosa (Mudalia) dissimilis. Say. James River, 

Virg., 258 

20, 21. Rissoella diaphana, Foi'bes and Hanley. England, 258 

22. Hyala vitrea, Forbes and Hanley. England, . . 259 

23. Gabbia australis, Tryon. Australia, .... 260 

24. 25. Rissoina Catesbyana. Cuba, .... 261 

26. Rissoina (Zebina) tridentata, Philippines, . . .261 

27. Rissoina (Zebinella) elegantissima, d'Orb. Cuba, . 261 

28. Rissoa costulata, Risso. England, .... 263 

Plate 72. 

29. Bithynia Leachii, Moquin-Tandon. France, . . . 260 

30. Tatea Huonensis, Woods. Tasmania, .... 259 

31. Stenothyra deltiB, Benson. ludia, .... 260 

32. 33. Skenea planorbis, Fabr. England, . . . .261 

34. Pvissoina (Schwartziella) coronata, Recluz. Mauritius, . 262 

35, 36. Rissoina (Eatoniella) Kerguelenensis, E. A. Smith. 

Kerguelen's Isl., ........ 262 

37. Rissoina (Phosinella) Sagraiana, d'Orb. Cuba, . . 262 

38. Barleeia rubra, Ads. England, 262 

39. Keilostoma eximia, Desh. Fossil, Paris basin, . . 262 

40. Rissoa (Anabathron) contabulata, Frauenf. Australia, 263 

41. Rissoa (Zippora) Moutonii, Dupu3^ France, . . 263 

42. Rissoa (Pterostoraa) tuba, Desh. Eocene, France, . 263 

43. Rissoa (Setia) pulcherrima, Jetfreys. England, . . 264 

44. Rissoa (Ceratia) proxima. Alder. England, . . 264 

45. Rissoa (Cingula) cingillus, Mont. England, . . 264 

46. Rissoa (Onoba) striata, Mont. England, . . . 264 



EXPLANATION OF TLATES. 417 



47. Rissoa (Alvania) abyssicola, Forbes. England, . . 264 

48. Rissoa (Sabanasa) flammea, Frauenf. Australia, . . 264 

49. Rissoa (Hemistomia) Caledonica, Crosse. N. Caledonia, 264 

50. Rissoa (Diastonia) variculosa, Desh. Fossil, Paris basin, 265 

51. Putilla lucida, A. Ad. Japan, 265 

52. Nevillia picta, H. Adams. Mauritius, .... 265 

53. Littorinella minuta, Totten. Massachusetts, . . 265 

54. Hydrobia ulva^, Pennant. England, .... 266 

55. 56. Bithynella viridis, Moquin-Tandon. Europe, . . 266 

57. Bithynella (Yitrella'i pellucida, Clessin. Germany, . 266 

58. Bithynella (Belgrandia) gibba, Drap. France, . . 267 

59. Mohrensternia angulata, Eich. E. Europe, . . . 267 

60. 61. Mohrensternia (Potamaclis) turritissima, Forbes. 

Oligocene, Europe, . . . . • . . . 267 

62. Mohrensternia (Paludestrina) piscium, d'Orb. South 

America, ......... 267 

63. Tricula montana, Benson. India, ..... 268 

64. Tricula (Pachydrobia) paradoxa, Crosse and Fischer. 

Cambodia,' 268 

65. Pyrgula helvetica, Mich. Switzerland, .... 268 

66. Pyrgula ( Diana) Thiesseana, Clessin. Greesce, . . 268 

67. Paladilhia pleurotoma, Bourg. France, . . . 268 

68. Lartetia Bourguignati, Paladilhe. France, . . . 268 

Plate 73. 

69. Bugesia Bourguignati, Paladilhe. France, . . . 269 

70. Baikalia Angarensis, Gerstfeldt. L.Baikal, . . . 269 

71. Baikalia (Liobaikalia) Stiediae, Dybowski. L. Baikal, 269 

72. Baikalia (Godle'wskia)turriformis, Dybowski. L.Baikal, 269 

73. Baikalia (Trachj'baikalia) carinato-costata, Dybowski, 

L. Baikal, 269 

74. Baikalia (Tryonia) clathrata, Stimpson. Colorado 

Desert, California, . 269 

75. Potamopyrgus Candeana, d'Orb. Cuba, . . . 269 

76. P3'rgidium Tournoueri, Neumayr. Tertiarj', Austria, . 269 

77. P3'rgidium (Prososthenia) Schwarzi, Neuma}^'. Tert., 

Austria, 270 

78. Pyrgidium (Fossarulus) Stachei, Neumayr. Tertiary-, 

' Austria, 270 

79. Amnicola limosa. Say. Pennsylvania, .... 270 

80. 81. Lithoglyphus lapidum, d'Orb. So. America, . . 270 

82. Lithoglyphus (Benedictia) Baikalensis, Gerstfeldt. L. 

Baikal, 271 

83. Lithoglyphus (Jullienia) Jullieni, Desh. Cambodia, . 271 

84. Gillia altilis. Lea. Pennsylvania, . . . . .271 

85. Somatogyrus depressus, Tryon. Iowa,. . . .271 



418 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 



86. Fluminicola Nuttalliana, Lea. Oregon, . . .271 

87, 88. Cochliopa Rowellii, Tryon. California, . . 271 

89. Lacnnopsis Jullieni, Desh. Cambodia, . . . 272 

90, 91. Lacnnopsis (Spekia) zonata, Woodw. L. Tan- 

ganyika, Africa, ........ 272 

92. Poinatiopsis lapidaria, Say. Pennsylvania, . . 272 

93. Assiminea Gra3^ana, Leach, Europe, .... 272 
18. Assiminea (Palndinella) littorea, Chiaje. Europe, . 273 

94. Assiminea (Acmella) tersa, Benson. India, . . 273 
9.5. Assiminea (Hydrocena) Cattaroensis, Pf. Dalmatia, . 273 

96. Valvata piscinalis, Miiller. Europe, .... 273 

97. Valvata (Girorbis) cristata, Miiller. Europe, . . 273 

98. 99. Valvata (Tropidina) tricarinata. Say. U. States, . 273 
100. Valvata (Lyogyrus) pupoidea, Gould. Massachusetts, 274 

1. Toxosoma eborea, Conr. Tert., So. America, . . 270 

2. Liosoma curta, Conrad. Tert., So. America, . . 270 

3. Bithynella (Micropj'rgus) minutulus. Meek. Laramie, 

Dakotah, 267 

4. Euchilus Deschiensianum, Sandberger, . . . 261 

5. Velainella columnaris, Vasseur. Eocene, France, . 318 

Plate 74. 

6. Paludina Bengalensis, Lam. India, .... 274 

7. Paludina (Melantho) Integra, Say. U. States, . . 274 

8. Paludina (Tulotoma) bimonilifera, Lea. Alabama, . 274 

9. Paludina (Margarya) Melanoides, Nevill. L. Tali, 

Yunnan, 274 

10. Paludina (Neothauma) Tanganyicense, E. A. Smith. 

L. Tanganyika, Africa, ...... 275 

11. Paludina (Tanganyicia) rufofilosa, E. A. Smith. L. 

Tanganyika, ........ 275 

12. Paludina (Mekongia) Jullieni, Desh. Cambodia, . 275 

13. Cleopatra bulimoides, Olivier. Egypt, . . . 275 

14. Lioplax subcarinata. Say. Delaware River, . . 275 

15. Ampullariaampullacea, Linn. Borneo, . . . 276 

16. Ampullaria (Pomus) canaliculata. Lam, Florida, . 276 

17. Ampullaria (Pomella) neritoides, d'Orb. Uruguay, . 276 

18. Asolene Plata?, d'Orb. Buenos Ayres, . . . 276 

19. Lanistes Bolteniana, Chemn. Nile, .... 277 

20. Mebdomus olivacea, Sowb. W. Africa, . . . 277 

21. Marisa cornu-arietis, Linn. Rio Parana, . . . 277 

23. Marisa Chiquitensis, d'Orb. Bolivia, .... 277 

Plate 75. 

24. Truncatella truncatula, Drap. Europe, . . . 277 

25. Geomelania Jamaicensis, Pfr. Jamaica, . . . 278 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 419 



FIGUHB. 

26, 27. Geomelania (Bkndielln) reclusa, Guppy. Trinidad 

28. Geomelania (Chittia) sinuosa, C.B.Adams. Jamaica 

29, 30. Renea Bourguignatiana, Nevill. So. France, . 

31. Tomichia ventricosa, Sowb. So. Africa, 

32. Blanfordia Japonica, A. Ad. Japan, 

33. Acicnla spectabilis, Rossm. Croatia, ... 

34. Aeicula (Acmella) Moreletiana, Nevill. Nicobar, 

35. B3^thinella (Moitessieria) Simoniana, Charp. France, 

36. Bythinella (Lhotelleria) apocrypha, Folin. S. France 

37. Albertisia punica, Issel. Northern Africa, . 

38. Pomatias obscurus, Lam. France, 

39. Realia egea, Gra}^ New Zealand, .... 

40. Realia (Cyclomorpha) flava, Brod. Ins. Annaa, . 

41. 42. Realia (Omphalotropis) rubenSjQuoy. I. of France 

43. Realia (Scalinella) Taheitensis, Pease. Tahiti, 

44. Realia (Atropis) Caledonica, Crosse. New Caledonia 

45. Pupina bicanalicnlata, Sowb. Philippines, . 

46. 47. Pupina (Registoma) grande, Gray. Philippines, 
48, 49. Pupina ( Callia) lubrica, Sowb. Philippines, . 

50. Pupina (Hargravesia) polita, H. Adams. Solomon's Is. 

51, 52. Pnpinella pupiniformis, Sowb. Philippines, . 

53. Raphaulus bombycinus, Pfr. Borneo, . 

54. Raphaulus (Streptaulus) Blanfordi, Benson. India, 

55. Cataulus pja-amidatus, Pfr. Ceylon, 

56-58. Cataulus (Tortulosa) tortuosa, Chemn. Nicobar Is. 

59. Megalomastoma Antillarum, Sowb. West Indies, 

60. Megalomastoma (Farcimen) ventricosum, d'Orb. Cuba 

61. Megalomastoma (Tomocjclus) simulacrum, Morelet 

Guatemala, ........ 

62. 63. Diploramatina folliculus, Pfr. India, 

64. Diplommatina(Paxillus)rubicunda, Martens. Singapore 

65, 66. Diplommatina (Diancta) constricta, Martens. Ins 

Ternate, ........ 

67. Diplommatina (Nicida) Niligirica, Blanford. India, 

68. Diplommatina (Palaina)scalariformis, Pease. Polynesia 

69. Diplommatina (Moussonia) typica, Semper. Philippines 



278 
278 
278 
278 
278 
279 
273 
266 
267 
267 
279 
280 
280 
280 
280 
280 
280 
281 
281 
281 
281 
281 
281 
281 
281 
282 
2s2 

282 
282 
282 

282 
283 
283 
283 



Plate 76. 

70. Diplommatina (Arinia) minor, Sowb. Philippines, . 283 

71. Opisthostoma Fairbanki, Blanford. India, . . . 283 

72. AdamsLella mirabilis. Wood. Jamaica, .... 283 

73. 74. Diplopoma architectonicum, Gundl. Cuba, . . 283 
75, 76. Ctenopoma bila])iatum, d'Orb. Cuba, . . . 284 

77. Cyclotopsis semistriata, Sowb. India, .... 284 

78, 79. Choanopoma lima, C. B. Ad. Jamaica, . . . 284 
80. Choanopoma (Licina) evoluta, Reeve. Ha^'ti, . . 284 



420 EXPLANATION OP PLATES. 

FIGURE. PAGE. 

81. Choanopoma ( Jamaicea) anomala, C. B. Ad. Jamaica, 284 

82. Chondropoma magnificum, Salle. Hayti, . . . 284 

83. Cistula Saulitie, Sowb. Jamaica, ..... 284 

84. Tudora mnmia, Lam. Fossil, West Indies, . . . 284 

85. Tudora (Leonia) maraillaris. Lam. Spain, . . . 285 

86. C.yclostoma sulcatum. Lam. Europe, .... 285 

87. Cyclostoma elegans, Mlill. Europe, .... 285 

88. Cyclostoma (Tropidophora) Cuvierianum, Petit. Mad- 

agascar, ......... 285 

89. C^^clostoma (Lithidion) lithidion, Sowb. Arabia, . 285 

90. Cyclostoma (Otopoma) Naticoides, Recluz. Socotra, . 285 

91. Cyclostoma (Ligatella)ligatum,Miill. Cape Good Hope, 285 

92. Cyclophorus volvulus, Miiller. India, .... 286 

93. Cyclophorus (Myxostoma) Troscheli, Benson. Ceylon, 286 

94. Cyclophorus (Theobaldius)aunulatus,Troschel. Ceylon, 286 

95. Cyclophorus (Scabrina) Calyx, Benson. India, . . 286 

96. 97. Cyclophorus (Buckleya) Martinezi, Hidalgo. So. 

America, ......... 286 

98. Cj'clophorus (Lagocheilus) tomotrema, Benson. India, 287 

99. Cyclophorus (Ditropis) convexus, Blanford. India, . 287 
100, 1. Cyclophorus ( Acroptychia) metableta, Crosse and 

Fischer. Madagascar, 287 

2. Leptopoma perplexum, Sowb. Luzon, . . . 287 

3, 4. Leptopoma (Dermatocera) vitreum. Lesson. New 

Guinea, 287 

5. Leptopoma (Leucoptychia) Tissotianum, Crosse. New 

Guinea, 287 

6. Aulopoma Itieri, Guerin. Ceylon, .... 287 

7. Craspedopoma lucidum, Lowe. Madeira, . . . 287 

Plate 77. 
8, 9. C3'athopoma Deccanense, Blanford. India, . . 287 

10. Cyclotus planorbulus. Lam. Java, .... 288 

11. Leptopoma acutimarginatum, Pfr. Philippines, . . 287 

12. Cyclotus (Cyrtoloma) Mexicanus, Menke. Mexico, . 288 

13. Opisthoporus biciliatus, Mousson. Java, . . . 288 

14. Opisthoporus (Michopoma) hirsutus, Beddome. India, 288 

15. Rhiostoma Haughtoni, Benson. India, . . . 288 

16. Cyclosurus Mariei, Morelet. Ins. Mayotte, . . . 289 

17. 18. Pterocyclos anguliferus, Souleyet. Borneo, . . 289 
19, 20. Pterocj'clos (Spiraculura) hispidus, Pearson, Him- 

ala3^as, ......... 289 

21. Pterocyclos (Diadema) parvus. Pease. Pol^aiesia, . 289 

22. 25. Coelopoma Japonicum, A. Ad. Japan, . . • 289 

23. AlycfEus gibbus, Fer. Cochin China, .... 289 

24. Hybocystis gravida, Benson. India, .... 289 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 421 

FIGURE. PAOE. 

26, 27. Ferussina tricarinata, Braun. Miocene, Europe, . 290 

28. Helicina variegata, d'Orb. Cuba, 291 

29, 30. Helicina (Pachystoma) agglutinans, Sowb. Pliil., . 291 

31. Helicina (Poeniaj depressa, Gray. Jamaica, . . . 291 

32. Helicina (Idesa) rotunda, d'Orb. Cuba, . . .291 

33. Helicina (Eraoda) festiA'a, Sowb. Hayti, . . . 291 

34. Helicina (Dawsonella) Meeki, Bradley. Carboniferous, 

Ohio, 291 

35. Trochatella constellata. Morel. Isle of Pines, . . 291 

36. Trochatella (Viana) regina, Morelet. Cuba, . . 291 

37. 38. Schazicheila alata, Menke. Guatemala, . . . 291 

39. Alcadia Brownii, Gra3\ Jamaica, ..... 292 

40. Lucidella aureola, Fer. Jamaica, 292 

41. 42. Bourciera heliciniformis, Pfr. Ecuador, . . 292 

43. Stoastoma pisum, C. B. Adams. Jamaica, . . . 292 

44. Stoastoma (Electrina) succinea, Sowb. Isle of Opara, 292 

45. 46. Stoastoma (Lewisia) Philippiana, C. B. Adams. 

Jamaica, . 292 

47. Proserpina depressa, d'Orb. Cuba, .... 293 

48. Proserpina (Cyane) Blandiana, A. Ad. Peru, . . 293 

49. Ceres eolina, Duclos. Mexico, . . . . . 293 

50. Ferussina ( Scoliostoma) megalostoma,Sandberger. Mio- 

cene, Europe, 290 

Plate 78. 

51. Nerita polita, Linn. New Ireland, .... 294 

52. Nerita peleronta, Linn. ; operculum. West Indies, . 294 

53. Nerita histrio, Linn. Australia, ..... 294 

54. Nerita undata, Linn. Pol3'nesia, ..... 294 

55. Nerita (Peleronta) Deshayesii, Recluz. Panama, . 294 

56. Nerita (Theliost3da) exuvia, Linn. Polynesia, . . 249 

57. 58. Nerita (Deianira) bicarinata, Stolicz. Cret., Europe, 294 

59. Deshayesia Neritoides, Grat. Tertiar}', France, . . 295 

60. Neritopsis radula, Linn. Ceylon, ..... 295 

61. 62. Neritopsis radula, Linn. ; operculum, . . . 295 

63. Neritoma angulata, Sowb. Jurassic, Europe, . . 295 

64. Neritoma (Neridomus) hemispherica, Rtimer. Oolite, 

Europe, . . . 295 

65. Neritina communis, Quoy. Philippines, . . . 295 

66. Neritina (Theodoxus) fluviatilis, Linn. Euroi)e, . . 296 

67. Neritina (Theodoxus) Mertoniana. Philippines, . . 296 

68. Neritina (Dostia) crepidularia, Lam. Cejdon, . . 296 

69. 70. Neritina ( Clypeolumj pulligera, Linn. Moluccas, . 296 

71. Neritina (Clithon) longispina, Recluz. Isle Rodrigues, 296 

72. Neritina (Neritona) labiosa, Sowb. Philippines, . 296 

70. Neritina (Smaragdia) viridis, Linn. West Indies, . 297 



422 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 



14. Neritina (Neripteron) vespertina, Nuttall. Sandwich Is., 297 

1.5. Neritina (Alinai latissima, Brocl. Real Llejos, . . 291 

16. Navicella apiata, Guillen. Fiji Islands, . . . 291 

11. Navicella Janelli, Recluz. Moluccas, .... 291 

18. Navicella; operculum, ....... 291 

19. Navicella ( Septaria) Entrecasteauxii, Recluz. Australia, 291 

80. Navicella (Elara) Lapeyrousei, Recluz. Polynesia, . 291 

81, 82. Velates perversa, Linn. Tertiary, Europe, . . 298 

83, 84. Pileolus radiatus, d'Orb., 298 

85, 86. Velates (Velatella) carditoides. Meek. Cret., Utah, 298 

Plate 19. 

81. Liotia scalaroides, Reeve. Philippines,. . . 299 

88. Liotia (Arene) Australis, Kiener. Australia, . . 299 

89. Cyclostrema cancellata, Marryatt. Philippines, . . 299 

90. C^'Clostrema (Daronia) spirula, A. Ad. Philippines, . 299 

91. Cyclostrema (Tubiola) nivea, Chemn. Japan, . . 299 

92. Cyclostrema (Microtheca) crenellifera, A. Ad., . . 300 

93. C3'clostrema (Moi'chia) obvoluta, A. Ad. Japan, . 300 

94. Cyclostrema (Cirsonella) Australis, Angas, Australia, 800 

95. 96. Rotella Zelandica, Chemn. New Zealand, . . 300 
91. Rotella (Ethalia) Guamense, Quoy. Moluccas, . . 300 

98. Rotella (Parkeria) vitrea, Gabb. Miocene, San 

Domingo, . 301 

99. Teinostoma politum, A. Ad. Philippines, . , . 301 
100. Teinostoma (Calceolina) pusilla, Adams. Japan, . 301 

1. Anomphalus rotulus. Meek and Worthen. Carbon- 

iferous, Illinois, ........ 301 

2. Pitonellus archiacianus, d'Orb. Cretaceous, Europe, . 302 

3. Pitonellus conicus, d'Orb. Lias, Europe, . . . 302 

4. Crossostoma Prattii, Morris and Lycett. Lias, Eng., 302 

5. Pterocheilos primus, Moore. Lias, Great Britain, . 302 

6. Phasianella bulimoides, Lam. Australia, . . . 303 
1. Phasianella (Tricolia) Niciensis,Risso. Mediterranean, 303 

8. Phasianella (Tricolia) pulla, Linn. Mediterranean, . 303 

9. Chromotis neritina, Dunker. Cape of Good Hope, . 303 

10. Turbo marmoratus, Linn. Philippines, . . . 304 

11. Turbo (Senectus) margaritaceus. Reeve. Philippines, 305 

12. Turbo (Collonia) sanguinea, Linn. Mediterranean, . 306 

13. Turbo (Anadema) MacAndrewi, Morch. Mogador, . 306 

14. Laxispira lumbricalis, Gabb. Cret., Haddonfield, N. J., 309 

15. Trochus (Belangeria) scabrosus, Phil. Indian Ocean, 310 

16. Trochus (Isandra) coronatus, A. Ad., .... 310 
11. Trochus (Eurytrochus) Reevei, Montr. New Caledonia, 311 
18. Trochus (Leiotrochus)eborea, Wagner. Tertiary, Md., 311 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 423 

FIGHKE. PAGE, 

Plate 80. 

19. Turbo (Ocjina) cidaris, Gmel. Cape of Good Hope, . 305 

20, 21. Turbo (Mariiiorostoma)coronatns, Gmel. Seychelles, 305 

22. Turbo (Ninella) torqiiatus, Gmelin. Australia, . . 306 

23, 24. Imperator longispina, Lam. West Indies, . . 307 
25. Imperator (Calcar) stellaris, Gmelin. New Caledonia, . 307 
2(3. Imperator ( Guilford ia) triumphans, Phil. China, . 307 

27. Turbo (Modelia) rubicundus, Reeve. New Zealand, . 305 

28. Turbo (Am3'xa) niger. Gra3^ Valparaiso, . . . 305 

29. Turbo (Callopoma) fluctuatus, Gray. W. Columbia, . 306 

30. Imperator (Uvanilla) firabriata, Lara. Australia, . 308 

31. Imperator (Paehypoma) caelata, Chemn. West Indies, 308 

32. Imperator (Lithopoma) tuber, Linn. West Indies, . 308 

33. Imperator (Pomaulax) undosa. Wood. California, . 308 

34. Imperator (Cookia) Cookii, Chemn. New Zealand, . 308 

35. Imperator (Bolma) rugosa, Linn. Mediterranean, . 308 

36. Delphinula melacantha, Reeve. Philippines, . . 308 

37. Delphinula (Angarina) Lesourdi, Wright. Japan, . 309 

38. Trochonema tricarinata, Meek. Devonian, Ohio, . . 309 

39. Trochus Niloticus, Linn. Philippines, . . . .310 

Plate 81. 

40. Trochus (Cardinalia) virgatus, Gmel. Philippines, . 310 

41. Trochus (Tectus) triserialis, Lam, Philippines, . . 310 

42. Trochus (Polydonta) maculatus, Linn. Philippines, . 310 

43. Trochus (Tegula) pellis-serpentis. Wood. Panama, . 311 

44. Trochus (Chlorostoma) argyrostomus, Gmel. Polynesia, 311 

45. Trochus (Minolia) dianthus, Fischer. Australia, . • 311 
4(). Trochus (Gibbula) magus, Linn. Europe, . . .311 

47. Trochus ( Livonia) pica, Linn. West Indies, . .311 

48, 49. Trochus (Zizyphinus) zizyphinus, Linn. Mediter.,. 312 

50. Trochus (Priotrochus) obscurus. Wood. Indian Ocean, 311 

51. Trochus (Turcica) moniliferus. Ads., .... 312 

52. Trochus (Thalotia) conicus, Gray. Australia, . .312 

53. Trochus (Elenchus) lineatus. Lam. Australia, . , 312 

54. Trochus (Lesperonia) princeps,Tourn. 01igocene,Dax, 313 

55. Trochus (Cantharidus) iris, Chemn. Austi'alia, . . 313 

56. Trochus (Bankivia) varians. Beck. New Zealand, • 313 

57. Trochus (Trochocochlea) multicarinatus, Chemn. Aus- 

tralia, . . . . . . . . . .313 

58. Trochus (Monodonta) Australis, Lam. Australia, . 314 

59. Trochus (p]uchelus) canaliculatus, . . . . .314 

60. Trochus (Clanculus) puniceus, Phil. Red Sea, . .314 

61. Trochus (Camitia) rotellinus, Gould (vitellinus, text in 

error). Japan, . . . . . . . .314 

62. Trochus (Oxystele) mcrula, Chemn. Cape Good Hope, 314 



424 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 



63. Troclius (Ataphrus) Kerri, Gabb. Cret., IST. Carolina, . 314 

64. Troclius (Trochiscus) Norrisii, Sowb. California, .315 

65. Troehus (Photinula) taeniata, Wood. Malouin Is., . 315 

66. Troclius (Chrysostoma) Nicobaricus, Gmelin. Philip., 315 
61. Margarita helicina, Fabr. Boreal Seas, .... 315 

68. Margarita (Machoeroplax) striata. Leach. Boreal Seas, 315 

69, 10. Margarita (Margaritella) flexistriata, Evans and 

Shumard. Cretaceous, United States, . . . 315 

11. Troehus ( Leucorhynchia) Caledonica, Crosse. New 

Caledonia, ......... 314 

12. Vitrinella anomala, d'Orb. Cuba, 316 

13. Stomatella imbricata. Lam. Torres Sts., . . .316 

14. Stomatella Curaingii, A. Ad. Philippines, . . .316 

15. Stomatia (Microtina) tuberculata, Ads. Philippines, . 311 

16. Stomatia (Gena) striatula, Ads. Philippines, . .315 

11, 18. Phaneta Everetti, H. Ad. Borneo 311 

19, 80. Broderipia iridescens, Brod. Polynesia, . . . 318 

81. Troehus (Forskalia) fannulum, Gmel. Mediterranean, . 312 

82. Troehus (Eutrochus)jujubinus, Linn. Australia, . 312 

Plate 82. 

84. Pleurotomaria Quoyana, Fischer and Bernardi. West 

Indies, • . . 318 

85. Pleurotomaria (Ptychomphalus) striatus, Sowb. Palae- 

ozoic, England, ........ 319 

86. Murchisonia intermedia, Verneuil. Palaeozoic, Europe, 319 
81. Porcellia Puzosi, Leveille. Carb., Tournay, . .319 

88. Poly tremaria catenata, Koninck. Cai'boniferous, Eur., 319 

89. Catanostomaclathratum, Sandberger. Devonian, Eur., 319 

90. Trochotoraa Hurabertina, d'Orb. Jurassic, Eur., . 320 

91. Ditremaria quinquecincta, Ziet. Coral Rag, Natheim, 320 

92. Scissurella Bertheloti, Webb. Canaries, . . . 321 

93. Scissurella (Schizotrochus) crispata, Flem. England, 321 

94. Seguenzia formosa, Jeffreys. North Atlantic, West 

Indies, etc., . 321 

95. Bellerophon striatus, d'Archiac. Pal., Europe, . . 322 

96. 91. Bellerophon (Warthia) brevisinuata,Waagen. Salt 

Range, India, 322 

98, 99. Bellerophon (Mogulia) regularis, Waagen. Salt 

Range, India, ........ 322 

100, 1. Bucania expansa. Hall. Trenton group. New York, 323 
2, 3. Bucania (Tropidodiscus) curvilineata, Conr. Sil., 

Dev., New York, 323 

4. Bucania (Euphemus) Indicus, Waagen. Salt Range, 

India 323 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 425 

FIOURK. PAOE. 

5, 6. Bucania (Stachella) bifrons, Waagen. Salt Range, 

India, 323 

7. Bellerophina Vibrayi, d'Orb. Cret., Europe, . . 323 

8, 9. Maclurea Logani, Salter. Lower Silurian, Canada. 

Fig. 8 is a side view of the shell, exhibiting the sub- 
spiral operculum ; fig. 9 represents the operculum with 
its internal projections, 324 

Plate 83. 

10. Haliotis Midse, Linn. Cape of Good Hope, . . 325 

11. Haliotis gigantea, Chemn. Japan, .... 325 

12. Haliotis (Teinotis) asinina, Linn. China, . . . 325 

13. Haliotis (Padollus) tricostalis, Lara. Australia, . 325 

14. Haliotis (Sulculus) Janus, Reeve. Philippines, . . 325 

15. Fissurella picta, Gmelin. Straits of Magellan, . . 326 

16. Fissurella (Cremides) nodosa. Born. West Indies, . 326 

17. Fissurella (Lucapina) crenulata, Sowb. West Coast 

North America, . 326 

18. Fissurella (Fissurellidsea) hiantula, Lam. Cape of Good 

Hope, 327 

19. Fissurella (Macroschisma) maxima. Ads., , . . 327 

20. Fissurella ( Pupilla) apertura, Born, . , , . 327 

21. Parmophorus australis, Blainv. Australia, . . 329 

22. Lottia gigantea, Sowb. Panama to Mazatlan, , . 332 

23. Patella (Patinella) Magellanica, Gmel. Sts. Magellan, 334 

24. Patella (Nacella) eymbularia. Lam. Cape Horn, . 334 

25. Patella (Helcioniscus) exaratus,Nuttall. Sandwich Is., 335 

26. 27. Patella (Scutellastra) longicosta. Lam. Cape of 

Good Hope, 335 

28. Patella (Cymbulia)comprossa, Linn. Cape Good Hope, 335 

29. Patella (Olana) cochlear. Born. Cape of Good Hope, 335 

Plate 84. 

30. Fissurella (Fissuridea) pileopsoides, live. Philippines, 326 

31. Fissurella (Clypidella) pustula, Linn. West Indies, .327 

32. Rimula exquisita, Ads. Philippines, .... 327 

33. Rimula (Puncturella) Noachina, Linn N. Europe, . 328 

34. 35. Rimula (Cranopsis) pelex, A. Ad. Japan, . ' . 328 

36. Semperia elegans, Crosse. Madeira, .... 328 

37. Emarginula fissura, Linn. Philippines, . . . 328 

38. Emarginula (Subemarginula) octoradiata, Sowb. West 

Indies, 323 

39. 40. Emarginula (Zeidora) reticulata, A. Ad. Japan, . 328 

41. Emarginula (Deslongchampsia)Eugenii,M'Co3'. Oolite, 

England, ......... 328 

42. Lepeta caeca, MUU. Northern U. S., Europe, , . 331 

38 



426 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 



43. Lepeta (Crj^ptobranchia) concentrica