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The Ontario Institute 
for Studies in Education 

Toronto, Canada 

L S B R A R Y 


FOR ^:t ; r-"S V^f ^'OUCATION 

1 '\DA 

j FEB 25 1958 . 


IN-- ' 

' 'c..*^^^~^ 




Part II 

144 pages. 2s. 6d. net 









Revised and Edited by U. B. and C. H. 

With an Introduction by 


And a Memoir of W. H. Herford by 
C. H. HERFORD, Litt.D. 




Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., 1 Amen Corner, E.C. 

And at Bath, New York and Melbourne 


Printed by Sir Isaac Pitman & 
Sons, Ltd., London, Bath, New 
York and Melbourne . 1916 


The present volume is a re-issue of a collection of 
representative passages from Froebel's chief work, 
Menschen-Erziehung, made and translated by the 
late William Henry Herford, and published in 
1893. The text is substantially reprinted from 
the first edition, but the translation has been 
carefully revised. 

In view of the death, in 1908, of the original 
translator and editor, it appeared opportune to 
prefix to the new edition some account of the 
personality of one who devoted the best energies 
of a long and vigorous life to the furtherance in 
England of the Froebelian and Pestalozzian 
educational ideals. The editors desire to express 
their grateful acknowledgments to Professor 
M. E. Sadler, of the University of Manchester, 
who has written an appreciation of his educa- 
tional work, and to Professor C. H. Herford 
(nephew of the translator), of the same University, 
who has contributed a memoir. 

D. B. 
C. H. 



Introduction (Prof. M. E. Sadler) . ix 

Memoir of W. H. Herford (Prof. C. H. 
Herford) 1 



Introduction 37 

I. The Nursling 60 

II. The Child 63 

III. The Boy 83 

IV. School 

A. Preliminary . . . . 102 

B. Subjects of Teaching . . .103 

1. Instruction in Religion . . 104 

2. Study of Nature . . .107 

3. Study OF Form AND Mathematics 111 

4. Language 

(a) Preliminary . . .117 
{b) Writing and Reading . 121 

5. Art 123 

C. Home and School 

{a) Preliminary . . . .126 
(b) Means of Education in Common 129 

Retrospect 136 

Conclusion 140 



" Man, Christian, and Citizen. All for others, 
nothing for himself," are among the words cut 
in the niche above the grave of Pestalozzi at 
Birr in Aargau. None would more fitly keep 
in remembrance the personality and the self- 
devotion of William Henry Herford. He was 
of the succession of those who have breathed 
a new spirit into Western education. 

In Herford there converged three streams of 
thought and teaching, English, German and 
Swiss. As a student at Manchester College, 
he had been touched by the living tradition 
which John James Tayler, Charles Beard, and 
James Martineau handed down from Joseph 
Priestley, Philip Doddridge, Richard Frank- 
land, Edmund Calamy and Richard Baxter. 
As a student at Bonn, he had been admitted 
into the inner life of German learning by Ernst 
Moritz Arndt, August Wilhelm Schlegel, F. C. 
Dahlmann and Wilhelm Ihne. And, thirdly, 
as tutor to Lady Byron's son, Ralph King (who 
was himself of the family of Locke), Herford had 
lived at Hofwyl under the influence of Wilhelm 
von Fellenberg, whose father was one of the 
spiritual successors of Pestalozzi. 

No other Enghsh teacher in the nineteenth 
century received (so far as my knowledge goes) 
a preparation so significant as this. What 



Professor Legros has been to English Art, Herford 
was to Enghsh Education. He planted new ideas 
among us. He set up a new and more exacting 
standard of the teacher's skill and duty. He 
linked together in a new unity of practice three 
precious traditions. His giving up of himself 
was his greatest gift to England. But he also 
wrote what seems to me by far the best present- 
ment of the educational doctrine of Froebel, 
in the work here reprinted and revised. And, 
beyond this, in his little book The School : An 
Essay towards Humane Education, he gave us one 
of the five masterpieces of English educational 
writing in the nineteenth century. In that 
book, as in his work as a teacher, it was the 
spirit of Pestalozzi which shone out again. 
For, much as Herford honoured Froebel, there 
was a different note in his voice when he spoke 
of some " golden word of our master's master, 

" Never, if you can help it, deprive the child 
of its sacred right of discovery." These were 
the words of Pestalozzi, profound, pregnant and 
revolutionary, upon which Herford based his 
teaching and upon which he loved to dwell. 
It was in the spirit of Pestalozzi that he wrote : 
" The method of going straight to the child's 
mind ; — giving it, whenever practicable, ' the 
sacred right of discovery ' ; always calling upon 
it for judgment, by comparison or association — ; 
never fails to produce a glow of interest and a 
readiness to take pains. Results beyond this 
painstaking interest must be left to faith. No 


other immediate results can be reasonably looked 
for in any teaching of children. This is the ' one 
thing needful.' The danger is — over-haste ; or, 
to speakmore plainly yet, the extremest difficulty 
is to maintain sufficient slowness." 

Herford held (and confirmed his view by years 
of practice) that true education, " virtual, essen- 
tial Education," as he called it with his quaint 
preferences in typography and punctuation, 
" works not for Information, or Skill, which show 
immediate results ; but to enlarge Capacity, 
to augment Power ; in order that Childhood — 
Youth — Maturity ' may have life, and have it 
more abundantly.' " So too taught Pestalozzi in 
The Song of the Swan, which was written in a 
Pisgah view when death was already drawing 
near. And one factor in this unfolding of the 
powers of heart, of mind and of character is 
religious and moral training, not omitting the 
exercise of the humbler virtues of care and 
exactitude. " The habit of careful performance, 
which, like all plants good or ill, when well- 
planted will spread, is one of the best of good 
habits." Yet it is not in the pupil only but in 
the teacher also that character must grow and 
deepen if the work of the school is to bear fruit 
in fuller, worthier life. " The conclusion of 
the whole matter," said Herford, "is for the 
teacher to try for ever-widening sympathy 
with children's mental difficulties, and to set 
down — infinite patience — within human limits 
— as the first, second and third quahfications 
of a Teacher. One may parody Danton ! De la 


patience ! Encore de la patience ! Toujours de la 
patience ! " 

William Blake, who spoke to England on behalf 
of children as Pestalozzi spoke to Switzerland 
and Germany, twice shocked the rather conven- 
tional Crabb Robinson by denying the value 
of any kind of education except that which lies 
in cultivating the imagination. " Imagination " 
is a hard word, but not harder than Pestalozzi 's 
" Anschauung." We have an instinct which 
tells us what both words mean, though philoso- 
phical definition may fail us. And Herford who 
(like Pestalozzi) made Anschauung his ' word of 
power,' saw (like Blake) in the spiritual experience 
which ' imagination ' and ' Anschauung ' alike 
connote, a witness to the depths of the human 
soul, be it in adult or in child. All the highest 
learning is vision. And vision is made possible 
by love. 

M. E. Sadler. 

The University of Manchester. 
Feb., 1911. 

William Henry Herford 


" . . . Gladly wolde he levne, and, gladly teche." 

The educational idealist has rarely been held of 
much account in England. If he confines himself 
to expounding his ideal scheme, he is dismissed as a 
visionary theorist ; if he sets himself deliberately 
to give it practical shape, he is looked on askance 
as transgressing the good old English plan of bit- 
by-bit reform. If, in addition, his ideal is un-English 
in origin and character, and if he himself has had 
to work with slender private resources, without any 
sort of public support or recognition, and with few 
of the showy gifts which compel widespread atten- 
tion, only with a rare endowment of insight, patience 
and faith — he is likely to live and die in an obscur- 
ity which is not his due. The subject of the following 
Memoir was one of the principal pioneers of the 
Pestalozzian and Froebelian School in England, 
When the history of English education in the nine- 
teenth century comes to be written, the story of the 
gradual naturalisation of these new conceptions of 
child-training will not, if rightly handled, be the 
least fascinating chapter. It will have both socio- 
logical and psychological interest in a high degree ; 
for these ideals, profoundly German at bottom, had 
to contend with prejudices which were often rooted 
in deeply ingrained instincts of the English race. 



The career of William Herford, himself sprung from 
an unequivocally English stock, was thus, with all its 
piquant individuality, symptomatic of much that was 
going on under forms less sharply accentuated and 
defined, in the English society of his generation. The 
attempt has therefore been made, in what follows, 
to provide not merely a chronicle of events but, if 
one may venture to put it so, a document pour servir 
d Vhistoire — a contribution, however modest, to the 
material on which that unwritten chapter must 
some day be based. This design will explain, and 
it is hoped justify, the apparently disproportionate 
minuteness with which especially the earlier phases 
— the Bildungs - and Lehrjahre — have been told. 

William Henry Herford was the fourth son of 
John Herford, of Coventry, who, in 1822, gave up 
his business there and established himself in Man- 
chester as a wine-merchant. What little can be 
gathered about the Herford (or, as some of them 
wrote it, Hurford) ancestry, points to an English 
yeoman stock, with " gentle " connections ; men of 
powerful, somewhat rugged, build of character, 
strong-willed, hardy, practical, thrifty ; but not 
conspicuous for intellectual originality, imagination, 
or gift of expression. Tenacity of conviction was 
deeply ingrained in them ; and it was almost a family 
idiosyncrasy to be tenacious of profoundly different 
convictions. Through several generations, at least, 
a sharp cleavage of opinion asserted itself : one sec- 
tion of the children becoming pronounced Churchmen 
and Tories, the other no less pronounced Noncon- 
formists and Reformers, who cherished a traditional 
connection with Bradshaw the " regicide." Family 
" two-mindedness " commonly produces, here and 


there, " two-minded " individuals, who hesitate 
between the two types, or comprehend them both ; 
but neither irresolution nor catholicity seems to have 
interfered much, in the Herfords, with the free play of 
opposite dogmatisms ; they accepted their differences 
in the English way, without bitterness, and with the 
English inability to understand each other's point of 
view. John Herford stood in this kind of contrast 
with his elder half-brother, Lewis. The latter early 
entered the army, and became known as an officer of 
much social charm and some " gaiety," fought in the 
Peninsular War, and won his colonelcy at Talavera. ^ 
John was throughout life a hard-working man of 
business, a staunch Liberal, and a convinced 

In 1812 John Herford married Miss Sarah Smith, 
a woman of fine gifts of brain and heart, highly 
cultured, witty, an accomplished artist, and, as her 
portrait attests, of a noble yet singularly sweet and 
gracious presence. She came of an able and public- 
spirited Birmingham family, several members of 
which had won, or were later to win, high distinction 
in various fields. ^ With her there entered the 
Herford home certain intellectual idealisms, — an 
enthusiasm for culture, an eagerness to learn and 
also to teach, a passion for bettering the world with 
or without its consent, — which are not known to have 
hitherto so distinctly emerged in the Herford lineage. 
In most of the eight children of this marriage ^ 

1 In the next generation, sons both of Col. Herford and 
of John Herford commanded companies and took part 
in actual warfare, the latter falling before the Maori 
intrenchments in 1864. 

* Excluding living persons, it will suffice to mention 
Toulmin Smith (d. 1869), author of a treatise still classical, 
on Trade-Guilds, and one of the staunchest English friends 
of the Hungarian patriot-refugee, Kossuth. 

^ A ninth, the first-born, died young. 

«— (957) 


idealisms of this kind, of various shades and degree, 
were unmistakable ; but the stubborn strength of 
the paternal stock persisted in them too, giving the 
more spiritual elements a tenacity of grain and fibre 
which — at some expense of flexibility — immensely 
increased their practical force. The four elder sons 
were all strenuous fighters in various fields of social 
service, as the fifth was in actual war ; and the self- 
sacrificing devotion which they brought to their 
extremely different, and mostly unpopular, causes, 
was assuaged in all by some measure of sheer joy in 
battle. All four in different ways set their mark 
upon the civic and social Hfe of Manchester, where, 
during the sixties and seventies of the last century, 
they lived and worked. William, like his next elder 
brother Charles, ^ served causes exceptionally remote 
from popular interest and sympathy, and neither 
attained the wide repute of their brothers Edward^ 
and Brooke. ^ But in the quality of his idealism ; in 
the capacity to fight single-handed, year after year, 
with embattled stupidity unperturbed ; to walk 
serenely through perplexed ways, assured of the 
light within his own breast ; here he stood second 
to none of the four. 

William was bom at Coventry, on 20th October, 1820. 
His early home, after the removal to Manchester, 
was a substantial old-fashioned house at Altrincham, 

1 One of the first to put in practice the Boarding-out 
System for pauper children ; a worker for the repeal of the 
CD. A., and for Anti-vivisection. 

* City Coroner of Manchester, and one of the most vigorous 
Anglican champions of the Free-seat system ; the one point, 
William Harford used to say, on which all four brothers were 

^ Unitarian preacher in Sheffield, Manchester, Boston 
(U.S.), and Hampstead, author of The Story of Religion in 


a few miles south of the city, where his mother had 
established a thriving school for girls. ^ He and his 
elder brothers attended a school of some distinction 
kept by the Rev. Charles Wallace, the Unitarian 
minister of the place, in the old-fashioned (and still 
hardly altered) village of Hale Barns. William was 
a somewhat delicate boy, and his mother's anxiety 
for him drew them into a peculiarly close and tender 
companionship. She would playfully say he was 
" like her little dog." And the chivalrous reverence 
for womanhood which marked him as a man had one 
of its roots in the deep impression made by " her 
beautiful presence, serene thoughtfulness, and natural 
nobility of mind " (his own words), upon the sus- 
ceptible child. But in 1831 the mother died. William, 
shortly before, had been sent to Shrewsbury, then, 
under Butler, one of the most famous schools in the 
kingdom. Charles Darwin, its most illustrious pupil, 
had finished his course there some six years before. 
Here he spent the next three and a half years of 
boyhood, laying a solid foundation of Greek and 
Latin, and fortifying under the severe discipline of 
classical teaching as there practised a naturally 
keen instinct for scholarly precision. ^ In other 
respects, for better or worse, he imbibed little of the 
" public-school spirit " ; partly because he was some- 
what early withdrawn, and partly because he attended 
the school as a day-boy or " oppidan." The house 
where he boarded — chosen, it may be, for greater 
security against the contagion of orthodoxy — was 

^ The quality of the teaching may be fairly argued from 
the fact that, in spite of the distinct Unitarian complexion 
of the management, a number of Church families sent their 
daughters to it. 

* In later days he looked back with bitter vexation to 
the time spent in the mechanical study of the classics, and 
especially in the manufacture of verses ; in which, however, 
he acquired much fluency. 


that of a Mrs. Case, widow of the late minister of 
the Unitarian Chapel at Shrewsbury, and mother 
of several children afterwards distinguished in the 
educational world. That homely place of worship, 
which the boy attended, had had one memorable 
moment in its history. It was in its pulpit that 
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, one January morning 
thirty-three years before, had stood up to deliver 
the discourse which young William Hazlitt, who had 
trudged ten miles through muddy roads to hear it, 
described as " like a steam of rich distilled perfumes," 
and the "meeting of Poetry and Philosophy."^ 

William's own destination to the Unitarian ministry 
must have been decided on at latest within a year or 
two of his leaving Shrewsbury. After passing two 
years at the Manchester Grammar School he was 
placed with Dr. J. R. Beard to be prepared for entry 
at the ministerial college at York. Dr. Beard, a 
learned and somewhat formidable divine, was one of 
the most impressive figures in the Unitarian world 
of his day, and the younger members of congrega- 
tions were apt to look forward to his massive dis- 
courses with some alarm. But he knew how to reach 
young minds when he chose ; and William Herford 
long afterwards paid a high tribute to his teaching 
power. " I was never at a bad school, or under 
a bad master. Yet I realised sufficiently that many 
ways and means of education needed amendment. 
At about fifteen, when a pupil of the late Dr. Beard, 
I first learnt by experience that ' lessons ' might be 
made interesting to scholars." 


In the autumn of 1837 William Herford at length 
entered Manchester College at York. The principal, 

^ My First Acquaintance with Poets. 


John Kenrick, was, in spite of the disabilities imposed 
by university tests, one of the most erudite and 
finished scholars of the day ; and his learning was 
freely resorted to by cathedral dignitaries who refused 
to recognise the ministerial status of one not in 
Holy Orders. His edition of the Second Book of 
Herodotus, though since impaired in value by the 
enormous progress of Egyptology, was a classic in 
its day. During the greater part of William Herford's 
three years Dr. Kenrick was absent through illness ; 
but it is worth recording that a short course on Pindar 
given by him was considered by his hearer in later life, 
when he had listened to many famous scholars at 
Bonn, Berlin, and Zurich, to have been " the high- 
water mark in my experience of lectures and professors 
ever since." There was nothing " provincial " in 
the ideals of scholarship upheld in this provincial 
college ; and if the limited number of the students 
precluded some elements of character-training fur- 
nished by the old universities, some of the defects of 
Oxford and Cambridge Hfe and culture were also 
conspicuously absent. Few or none achieved the 
technical command of Greek and Latin requisite for 
a second-class in the Tripos or the Schools ; and 
Wilham Herford, the old Shrewsbury boy, found 
huge amusement, as he used to tell, in the uncouth 
monsters produced, under the name of hexameters, 
by senior comrades whose classical discipline had been 
less severe than his own. On the other hand, the 
intellectual and ethical matter of literature, classical 
or other, was handled at York with a competence and 
a relative cathohcity more easily attained, perhaps, 
by men to whom the history of dogma is only a 
special province of the history of thought than by 
dogmatists of any school. The " divinity " taught 
was still in the main the traditional Unitarianism of 

8 THE student's FROEBEL 

Priestley's time. But the new developments of 
critical theology in Germany were followed with 
interest ; one of the tutors had studied and graduated 
at Gottingen, and during William Herford's second 
session the senior students met regularly to hear him 
translate Strauss's Lehen Jesn (pub. 1835), the great 
sensation of the hour beyond the North Sea. ^ It 
may be doubted whether the book made its way into 
any other British college so soon. To influences from 
the opposite theological camp they were naturally 
less susceptible. The Movement, which had for 
some years been stirring Oxford to the depths, and 
was soon to transform so profoundly religion in 
England, excited no interest at the York college, 
where its burning questions were held to be either 
irrelevant, or as long since finally answered. Of the 
ecclesiastical standpoint in religious matters William 
Herford remained to the end a sharp, even a bitter, 
critic. His habitual prima facie attitude towards the 
clergy, as such, was not unlike that of Milton in 
Lycidas. But, like Milton, he felt the spell of the 
great Gothic shrines, which Milton, indeed, had first 
put in noble words ; and what King's College had been 
for Milton at Cambridge, that, in however inferior a 
degree, the " high-embowed roof " and " storied 
windows " of the glorious Minster were for William 
Herford at York. That, and the river, and the Uttle 
student society in which he first tasted the delights of 
writing and being read, were, he used to say, the three 
great joys of his York time. The Minster grew upon 

^ It was no doubt something of a " sensation " at York, 
too. Among the other students the meeting was known as 
the " Infidelity Club " ; and one of the York " stories " was 
to the effect that one of them, afterwards conspicuous for 
the saintly beauty of his life, set to music for performance 
there Dr. Watts's " Let Dogs delight, etc." which was known 
as the " Infidelity Anthem." 


him year by year ; and in the last weeks of his 
residence he witnessed the tragical splendour of the 
fire which, on the night of 20th May, 1840, partially 
destroyed the roof ; sharing energetically, with his 
fellow-students, in the vain attempt to save it. ^ 

The removal of the College from York to Man- 
chester, the same summer, brought some notable 
new factors. Both students and professoriate 
received large accessions ; the latter being joined, 
among others, by two men of first-rate distinctions, 
Francis Newman and James Martineau, and by a 
theologian less widely known, but of rare personal 
force, whom William Herford later regarded as his 
spiritual father, John James Tayler. In the autumn 
he graduated B.A. at London, and during the next 
months made his first appearance in a Unitarian 
pulpit. A permanent engagement as minister, at 
Lancaster, was presently within his reach, and it was 
naturally assumed that he would forthwith settle 
down to the practice of the profession for which he 
had prepared himself. But now happened one of 
those little things which disclose the deeper currents 
of a man's nature before he is aware of them himself. 
A small scholarship was offered him, by means of 
which he might study for three years in Germany. 
Whether, like Coleridge in similar case, he made up 
his mind to accept " in the act of tying his shoe- 
strings," is not recorded. But he did not hesitate 
a moment, and found much amusement in the naivete 

* The deep concern shown by all denominations — even 
the most heretical — in York at the common calamity was the 
occasion of what has been described as the imluckiest 
Latin quotation ever made. A noble lord, presiding at a 
Town's meeting called to raise funds for the reconstruction, 
and urging the necessity of supplementing the efforts of the 
Church, by an appeal to "our Nonconformist friends," chnched 
his argument with the VirgiUan ; ' ' Flectere si nequeam superos 
Acheronta movebo." 

10 THE student's FROEBEL 

of the good elders, who imagined that he would give 
up such a chance in order to be minister at Lancaster ; 
representing that he " had studied quite enough, and 
had better settle down quietly." In after years he 
came to recognise that this amusement at the idea of 
preaching when he had the option of studying, 
proved his want of inner qualification to preach. 
The true work of his life lay elsewhere ; but the self- 
knowledge which finally led him to it, and the events 
which elicited the self-knowledge, came only gradu- 
ally into his experience. His desire and intention 
to be a minister were perfectly sincere ; but it was 
partly desire to give effect to the cherished wish of his 
mother, partly a taste for the bookish and scholarly 
side of ministerial work. For the pastoral side — 
the duty, as he once sarcastically expressed it, of 
" consoling commonplace people for imaginary suffer- 
ings " — ^he had at no time felt any attraction. And 
now came the offer of a three years' tenure of the 
things that attracted him to the ministry, disengaged 
from the things that repelled him : a crucial experi- 
ment making clear to us, though not as yet to him, 
an ambiguous situation. The inbred Wissensdrang 
— the " gladness to learn " which was very closely 
wedded with his " gladness in teaching " — had its 
way, kindly parents raised no obstacle, ^ and in 
September, 1842, William Herford, with his younger 
brother, Vernon, a boy of fifteen, in his charge, jour- 
neyed slowly, but cheaply, by water up the Rhine to 


The university of Bonn, founded only a quarter 
of a century before (1818), then numbered some 600 
students. The young English graduate carried 

* His father had married again : Miss Helen Ryland, of 


letters of introduction to two of the theological 
professors, Bleek and Brandis ; and besides hearing 
lectures, and overlooking his brother and another 
English lad placed under his care, took full part in 
the pleasant, unpretending, social life of the place ; 
becoming in the process a thorough master of the 
language, which he had begun to learn at York ; — 
incidentally, too, with some help from good-natured 
professors' daughters, an accomplished and enthusiastic 
dancer. The winter of 1843-4 he looked back on as 
the " gayest " of his life. The theological lectures 
were liberal and stimulating. ^ And in the university 
lecture rooms outside his own Fach, he listened to 
two or three men of European fame. Here was 
Ernst Moritz Amdt, the patriot poet of the Libera- 
tion Wars, silenced in the reactionary days, but since 
1840 restored to his chair at Bonn, an old man still 
ardent and eloquent. Here was August Wilhelm 
Schlegel, founder of the Romantik, friend and oracle 
of Mme de Stael, translator of Shakespeare ; now the 
somewhat faded elderly gentleman of fashion whose 
perfume and kid gloves Heine had derisively cele- 
brated in the same place twenty-three years before. ^ 

^ In a memoir of one who relished a good story as keenly 
as William Harford, a lively reminiscence of these lectures, 
which he was fond of telling, may pardonably be quoted. 
The professor of Old Testament theology was the father of 
five daughters, whom the students labelled with the names 
of the five Books of Moses ; the eldest " die Genesis," being 
already a little past her prime. A course of lectures on the 
First Book of Moses was opened by the unsuspecting pro- 
fessor with the words : " Meine Herren ! Die Genesis ist 
nicht so alt wie sie scheint " ; an assurance greeted with 
thunders of applause. 

'^ " A German poet was in old days a man who wore a 
threadbare coat .... How pleasant was my surprise when, 
in 1819, I went to the university of Bonn as a very young 
man, and had the honour of meeting face to face the poet, 
A. W. Schlegel, a man of genius. With the exception ol 
Napoleon he was the first great man 1 had ever seen, and I 

12 THE student's FROEBEL 

Here, too, more interesting, perhaps, to a sturdy 
English Liberal than either, was the great historian, 
F. C. Dahlmann, one of the famous " Seven of 
Gottingen " whose protest in 1839, against the 
quashing of the constitution of Hanover, by its new 
ruler, the Duke of Cumberland (" our Duke of 
Cumberland," wrote William Herford, wrathfully), had 
just cost them their chairs. Dahlmann was, with 
Ranke, the most potent shaper of historical method 
in his generation, the master of the " political his- 
torians." But William Herford probably owed 
more to one of the future historians themselves, a 
brilliant young philologist of nearly his own age, 
Wilhelm Dine. With the future historian of Rome 
he formed an intimate friendship which ended only 
with Ihne's death ; and their talks gave him his first 
clear glimpse into the ways of the amazing German 
workshop in which the edifice of the historic sciences 
was gradually being built up. At York he had found 
solid learning and disciplined scholarship ; but the 
union of precision and grasp, of analytic and organis- 
ing power, which makes all the detail of history 
significant and finds clues to national character in 
a custom or a coin — this was new to him, and per- 
manently enlarged his notion of the meaning of 
scholarship. And it did more. It brought him, 
with some help from the magic of friendship, under 
the sway of the organic and evolutionary conceptions 
which had dominated German thinking since Kant, 

shall never forget that sublime moment. . . . He was 
wearing kid gloves, and was dressed in the latest Paris 
fashion ; he wore the perfume of good society and eau de 
mtllefleurs : he was neatness and elegance in person, and 
when he spoke of the Lord Chancellor of England, he added 
' my friend.' . . . What unheard of things at the lectures 
of a German professor." — Memoirs (trans. Cannan) i, 78. 
He looked the old fop he was," wrote William Herford 
more tersely to the same effect. 


and deeply impressed themselves on every branch of 
German study ; and by which, in particular, the 
religious and philosophical imagination of Schleier- 
macher had transformed the entire fabric of German 
theology. In the theological lecture-room he assur- 
edly encountered them, as in Ihne's talk. In another 
subject, presently to become the absorbing interest 
of his life, he may not, at this stage, have encountered 
them at all. But it is no rash surmise that the two or 
three years' immersion in an inteDectual atmosphere 
imbued with them insensibly dissolved some of the 
more angular saliences of a very English mind, 
and thus prepared it to admit the very un-English 
gospel of one who might not unfairly be called the 
Schleiermacher of education — Friedrich Froebel. 

The two years at Bonn were followed, after some 
holiday weeks in England, by eight months at Berlin. 
They brought many pleasant experiences, but added 
no new factor of importance to his mental growth. 
He had introductions to two famous classical philo- 
logists, Boeckh and Zumpt, but profited more by 
his admission into the family circles of the church- 
historian who called himself Neander, kindliest of 
scholars and of men ^ ; and of the great microscopist 
Ehrenberg. In June, however, an invitation to 
preach during July at Edinburgh, brought his pro- 
longed Lehrjahre to a provisional close. With the 
compunction of the born student at " cutting " six 
weeks of lectures, very little tempered by the born 
preacher's ardour to follow his call, he bade farewell 

1 His family name was Mendel. The Greek equivalent, 
adopted by him in imitation of the early Humanists, was not 
shared by his family. Their English guest created some 
amusement by habitually addressing Neander's sister as 
" Friiulein Neander." She was a woman of much wit, " the 
most remarkable," William Herford thought, " of all the 
persons he met in her hospitable house." 

14 THE student's FROEBEL 

to his good friends in Berlin and Bonn, and once more 
crossed the North Sea. 

It was soon clear that Germany, whatever else 
it had done for him, had done little to make him 
fitter for the Enghsh, still less for the Scottish pulpit. 
He had become, if one may venture to put it so, 
larger and rounder, while the piilpits remained of 
very much their original sizes and shapes. And there 
were disabilities in his own nature, which his humility 
later realised with paralysing clearness. Meanwhile 
the Edinburgh Unitarians found his sermons not 
doctrinal enough, and too short ; and for a divine 
he danced altogether too much, and too well. His 
old congregation at Lancaster then asked him to be 
their minister for a year. He reluctantly accepted ; 
and during the following winter, 1845-6, laboured 
unflinchingly at his post, preaching with aU his power, 
winning general regard, and forming some intimate 
and lasting friendships. But before the year was 
over, an application was made to him which, though 
not immediately fruitful, was destined to lead to the 
most decisive experiences of his life. He was invited 
by Lady Noel Byron, on the recommendation of his 
former professor, James Martineau, to undertake the 
tuition of her grandson. He accepted, left Lancaster, 
at the close of his year's engagement, as he thought 
for ever ; and the eventful year and a half which 
followed was spent mainly in this occupation. 


Lady Byron, the widow of the poet, was now, 
twenty-one years after his death, living a somewhat 
retired hfe. But she had keen social and religious 
interests, and spent large sums in furthering them. 
The preaching of Frederick Robertson at Brighton 
deeply impressed her, and he became one of her 


closest friends. Her daughter, " Ada, sole daughter 
of my house and heart," whose "young blue eyes" 
smiling upon his Byron so poignantly remembered 
when he had left England for ever, ^ — this daughter 
had, some twelve years before, married the Earl of 
Lovelace, and was the mother of three children. It 
was the youngest, Ralph King, a boy of eight, who 
was the object of Lady Byron's concern. At the 
country house of Lord Lovelace in the beautiful 
country near the North Devon coast, William Herford 
spent the autumn and winter months with his charge ; 
not quite escaping the little contretemps which com- 
monly befall a high-spirited young tutor, unused to 
fashionable life and inwardly scornful of " aristo- 
crats," in a noble house ; but finally winning the 
warm regard of both parents. Of the daughter of 
B5a"on he retained some vivid recollections ; one or 
two of which it may be pardonable to record : the 
" dark-eyed . . . woman, with a rose in her hair," 
on whom he called at the outset, in her London 
apartments ; the chatelaine of Ashley Combe, 
later on, not unfriendly, and indulging the tutor, 
whose musical ear was rudimentary, with much 
Beethoven on the harp ; but with flashes of her 
father's ready hauteur. For reasons which need not 
here be entered on, the problem of the boy's educa- 
tion devolved chiefly upon Lady Byron ; and it was 
by her, in conjunction with the tutor whom she had 
herself called in, that the special solution with which 
we are concerned was found. Both were satisfied 
that the boy ought to have educational comrades of 
his own age ; and it was finally resolved to combine 
this advantage with that of tutorial supervision by 
sending Ralph King, under the care of William 
Herford, to the famous School of Hofwyl, near Berne, 
» Childe Harold, c. Ill, 1. 

16 THE student's FROEBEL 

in which Lady Byron was already interested. And 
she presently, as will be seen, conceived a still 
more far-reaching plan. 

The school founded by Immanuel von Fellenberg 
at Hofwyl, was still the most considerable existing 
exemplar of the Pestalozzian pedagogic. Wilhelm 
von Fellenberg, who had now succeeded his father, 
carried out Pestalozzic ideas with equal conviction, 
and far superior tact, geniality, humour, and resource. 
Among enlightened educationists in England its 
repute was well known and its value admitted ; 
and English boys had from time to time been sent to 
it. Lady Byron had already sent one of her proteges 
there ; and she was so far impressed with the system 
as to project the foundation of an English Hofwyl. 
The scheme was perhaps suggested, certainly stimu- 
lated, by her discovery of a potential English von 
Fellenberg in the person of William Herford. In the 
spring of 1847 she laid her plan explicitly before him. 
He was to go to Hofwyl, as tutor to Ralph King ; 
there to imbue himself with the Pestalozzian ideas 
and methods, and then, on his return, to become the 
head under her general guidance, of a Pestalozzian 
academy, with Ralph, now a partially finished 
product, as model and mainstay. 

The proposal might well be tempting, and William 
Herford in after years felt it to have been the great 
opportunity of his life ; characteristically qualifying 
this admission, however, when made, by a self- 
disparaging surmise that the great opportunity, had 
he taken it, would, after all, have ended in disaster. 
That he did not take it was due mainly to the counsel 
of his clear-headed but scarcely, in these things, 
far-sighted father, who pointed out that the accept- 
ance of the scheme meant a final abandonment of the 
ministry. For this, William was not as yet prepared. 


Had it been otherwise, Ladybarn House might perhaps 
have been in many respects anticipated by twenty 
years. He accepted, therefore, only the first part of 
the plan, — for himself, as it proved, the vitally impor- 
tant part, — and prepared to set out with his charge for 
the memorable four months at Hofwyl. One glowing 
day in July, 1847, they drove from Basel, where the 
railway then ended, across the Jura, on the box of 
the imperiale of the diligence, refreshing themselves, 
according to the custom of the country, with the ripe 
cherries that plentifully overhung the road. 

By far the most powerful shaping influence upon 
him at Hofwyl was the director himself. In Wilhelm 
von Fellenberg he found a Swiss patrician of the 
finest type, outwardly of a somewhat rustic bonhomie, 
but on nearer acquaintance a man of ripe culture and 
high intelligence. They became intimate with the 
fruitful intimacy, based on mutual trust, of kindred 
spirits, very differently trained, and not quite equally 
mature. The long talks when the day's labour was 
over — as they paced in the summer gloaming up 
and down the lofty esplanade before the great House, 
the Alps in the east, the Jura in the west ; the close 
and frequent observation of the practices and 
methods of the school ; and above all, the actual 
participation in them, as a teacher, to which von 
Fellenberg presently admitted him ; these made 
an educational experience not to be forgotten. 
Nearly forty years later, at the close of his own 
teaching career, he summed up his debt in a passage, 
which we are permitted to quote, of his private 
autobiography : — 

" By conversation with [v. Fellenberg] I learnt, 
or unfolded further, what Lady N. B[yron]'s 
influence had helped me to understand, concerning 
natural training, the Education von innen heraus, 

18 THE student's FROEBEL 

of which, if Pestalozzi was the GaUleo, Fr. F[roebel] 
was the Newton. All ' my own ideas,' afterwards 
realised at Lancaster, of Education along with, 
not against, the child's nature ; of the supreme 
importance of moral training, albeit practised — 
not by preaching, and as little as possible by 
punishment, — but mainly by example and by 
atmosphere, accompanied by arrangements which 
one might call ' spiritually sanitary,' — as, separate 
sleeping arrangements, and genuine association 
between Teachers and Taught, avoiding all 
espionage, but making the surveillance real ; of 
the importance, only inferior to moral, of physical 
training, play — gymnastics — singing — handwork ; 
were learned, or ripened, at Hofwyl. The rational 
language-teaching plan which I have more and 
more developed whatever language I taught, and 
to whatever pupils, .... had its beginning when 
Mr. W. de F[ellenberg] set me to teach German to 
a class of English beginners by the story of Joseph, 
in Luther's Bible. As ' stated Teacher ' I became 
a member of the weekly Conferenz . . . and 
[an attendant at the] morning and evening Ver- 
sammlung ; and his readings and talks at those 
times were always models, to me, of the way in 
which moral subjects should be treated with young 

The innovations in educational method which he 
owed to the Hofwyl school could not be more clearly 
described. And though less expHcitly touched, the 
profounder innovation in spirit which dictated the 
methods, breathes through these sentences from end 
to end. The proposition, so profound in its sim- 
plicity, that the corner-stone of education is reverence 
for the child, and that to this comer-stone aU the rest 
of the building must be framed, this idea became the 


corner-stone of William Herford's own educational 
thought and practice, and rarely has a fabric been 
in completer keeping with its basis. His convictions 
survived the first ardour of discipleship, stood the 
trial of the daily routine of a school and year-long 
encounter with an unsympathetic society, and never 
faltered to the end. 

So instant and complete a discipleship implies, in 
a mind of his fibre, a decided previous set. Nature 
and experience had been silently leading him along a 
path of which the Froebelian teaching, the moment 
it was discovered, was seen to be the goal. It 
might even be not too bold a figure to say that they 
had been slowly building up in him the two conver- 
gent sides of an arch, into which, at the proper 
moment, the Froebelian teaching dropped as a 
perfectly fitting keystone, giving solidity and cohe- 
sion to the whole. William and his brothers and 
sisters, with their tenacious wills and strongly 
marked temperaments, were, as children, unusually 
well qualified to appreciate the principle which makes 
the child the centre of the educational system. They 
agreed with Rousseau in resenting the too intrusive 
disciplines of the old pedagogy. Reverence, for the 
child or man, was, so far, little in their way : but they 
imposed, and were not unwilling to concede, a genuine 
respect. All of them, moreover, with extremely 
little aid from educational philosophy, showed a 
strong practical attachment to the principle of doing 
things for yourself instead of having them done for 
you. William had always " wanted to make some- 
thing " ; and the companionship of his elder brother 
Charles — the only one of his brothers whose influence 
he at any time deeply felt — powerfully stimulated 
his shaping instincts. For Charles, like their younger 
sister Laura, had genuine artistic faculty. Much 

3— (957) 

20 THE student's froebel 

of the abounding energy of his boyhood went into 
the modelling of heads and the carving of figures, 
with tools of his own manufacture ; and the results 
excited more trustworthy admiration than that of 
a hero-worshipping younger brother. ^ His mother, 
too, whose teaching in some points anticipated 
Kindergarten methods, and who was herself an 
artist, encouraged William in many forms of manual 
skill which, later on, stood him in good stead in 
actual Kindergarten work. Such a boynood might 
in any case be expected to provide a soil in which 
the seed of Froebel, once scattered, would readily 
strike root. A dozen years later, the divinity 
student at Bonn was being prepared, in ways less 
palpable but not less real, for the apprehension of 
Froebel on the theoretic side. For Froebelism was 
merely an application to child nature of the historic 
and evolutionary conception of humanity at large 
which permeated, as we have seen, the intellectual 
atmosphere of Germany. The " reverence for child- 
hood," the subordination of external intervention 
to inward growth, appealed to the same intellectual 
temper as the organic apprehension of national life 
which had thirty years before inspired Fichte's 
superb appeal to the German nation amid the ruins 
of the German state ; and which was the most vital 
element in the re-creation of historic science in the 
first half of the last century. It was an atmosphere 
imbued with these conceptions that William Herford 

1 While still a young man these artistic activities of 
Charles Herford were sapped, under the influence of Carlyle, 
by the absorbing interest in the more direct kinds of social 
service to which he devoted most of the scanty leisure of 
his mature hfe. But the distinguished career, as an artist, 
of Laura Herford (who first obtained the opening of the 
Academy Schools to women), and in the next genera- 
tion, of her niece, Mrs. Allingham, indicate a strain of not 
inconsiderable artistic endowment in the family. 


had breathed for three years in the early vigour of 
manhood. The intercourse with Lady Byron, which 
followed, did much to prepare his mind for the 
Froebelian seed ; but it is plain that she thought the 
soil unusually suited to the crop. And then came 
the practical experience of teaching — his responsible 
and stimulating office as tutor. At the moment when 
he first entered the Hofwyl school, he was being daily 
brought face to face with educational problems 
which he had to solve, in the main, single-handed ; 
and what signified still more, that profound sympa- 
thetic insight into the ways and needs of young minds 
was already being elicited, which was to prove his 
greatest and rarest gift. 


The powerful stimulus of the Hofwyl time had no 
immediate result in William Herford's Hfe. He had 
declined the proffered chance of founding an English 
Hofwyl, rather than abandon the ministry ; and to 
the ministry he once more sought to return. The 
congregation at Lancaster were ready to receive him 
back, and there, in February, 1848, he resumed his 
pastorate, destined to last, this time, for twelve 
years. In the following September he married Miss 
Elizabeth Davis, of Evesham, sister of an old college 

Of the wife who for thirty-two years stood by his 
side it would be out of place to speak at large here, 
and difficult to speak adequately anywhere. No 
educationist herself, her companionship was to be 
a vital element in her husband's educational work. 
She brought to it an ideahsm as intense as his own ; 
only what in him appeared as the aggressive and 
sometimes impulsive ardour of the reformer, in her 

22 THE student's froebel 

took the form of a self-effacing devotion, which 
only her intimates divined to be quietly at work in 
the background, removing obstacles, assuaging 
impetuosities, making good mistakes. It was a 
simple household to which he brought his young 
wife, and marriage would not have been possible 
so soon had he not been willing to continue his 
tutorial, side by side with his ministerial, work. 
The ex-tutor of Lady Byron's grandson could not 
readily divest himself of a kind of prestige which 
he would have been the last to encourage ; and 
the son of a wealthy Unitarian in the Midlands 
was presently entrusted to him for a year's tuition. 
But gradually, as he taught, the desire grew in him 
to work out in a less piecemeal and elementary form 
the new educational ideas of which he was now the 
most highly qualified, almost the only, English 
disciple. He felt himself to be failing to pass on the 
torch that had been put into his hands ; and the 
social sense of his maturing manhood concurred with 
the shaping and making instinct which had always 
been his, to brace him for the adventure : the neces- 
sity of increasing a very slender income doubtless 
adding ballast to the resolve. During the course 
of 1849 the plan gradually matured, and in January, 
1850, a school for boys was formally opened, with 
three pupils. For some years it steadily grew, 
acquiring considerable fame in the Unitarian world, 
and attended by the sons of many substantial 
Unitarian families in various parts of England. It 
was, in all essentials, an English Hofwyl ; and any 
modifications of Hofwyl practice that were admitted 
were not in the direction of easy compromise. On the 
contrary, if it fell short, in complete and inspiring 
efficacy, of its model, it was rather because the 
admirable Pestalozzian formulae for mental and moral 


health were applied with a too passionate conscien- 
tiousness, worked out, as it were, to more places of 
decimals than the indocile stuff of English boy nature 
would always conform to. Partly, it may be, from 
causes of this kind, the numbers of the school began, 
about 1856, to decline ; the modest high-water mark 
of twenty-one falling, by 1860, to sixteen or seven- 
teen. With the deep self-distrust which had its root 
in the very ardour of his idealism, WiUiam Herford 
came to the conclusion that the school was failing and, 
under his guidance, was doomed to fail. Most men, 
similarly convinced, would have tried many a re- 
shuffling of the cards before they gave up the game ; 
and very few would have given it up before palpable 
failure was in sight. But William Herford declined 
to falter or to feign ; and in the summer of 1861 he 
gave notice that the school would, at the close of 
the year,, pass out of his hands. Shortly after, he 
also resigned his pastorate, and, in 1861, with his 
wife and their five children, left Lancaster for the 
last time. 

The immediate future was, indeed, provided for ; 
once more in virtue of the fortunate Hofwyl connec- 
tion. A kindly and enlightened friend of the Herford 
family, Miss Montgomery, whose nephew had mar- 
ried a sister of Wilhelm von Fellenberg, invited him 
to take charge of her great-nephew's education at 
Zurich, preparatory to an English university. At 
Easter, 1862, the whole family (with the exception 
of the eldest son) travelled by way of Paris to Zurich. 
The eighteen months which followed were a pleasant 
time, renewing the intellectual and social amenities 
of his early manhood at Bonn and Berlin, but natur- 
ally of less moment for his now ripened mind. Here a 
Uttle daughter died; and a boy, born two or three 
years later, was named, characteristically, after the 

24 THE student's froebel 

doughty and anti-mystical Zurich Reformer, Ulrich 

We need not linger in detail over the years which 
intervened between the return from Zurich in Sep- 
tember, 1863, and the definitive establishment of 
his second school, now well known, even famous, 
under the name of Ladybarn House, ten years later. 
For six of these years he occupied the pulpit of the 
Free Church in Manchester where J. J. Tayler had 
once preached ; only to become finally convinced 
that this was not his true work. He was, during 
these years, steadily acquiring connection and repute 
as a teacher and lecturer in a kind distinctively his 
own. The attraction he exercised, especially upon 
women and girls, certainly owed nothing to popular 
graces of diction, or facile eloquence. But no one 
who cared for study — and be it remembered that, 
in the sixties, before Girton or Newnham was founded, 
and before any university college had opened its 
doors to women, there were thousands eager for a 
culture to which they had little access, ^ — no one who 
cared for study could hear him without understanding 
better what serious study meant. ^ His private 
pupils gained still more. A few lines from one of 

* The opening of the universities to women, which began 
in the seventies, was among his deepest interests. His 
attitude on these questions was founded on a reverence for 
womanhood which was but a part of his reverence for 
humanity ; and therefore, though in a lofty sense chivalrous, 
did not allow of the sex-exclusions and disabilities for which 
" chivalry " is sometimes made the excuse. Few who heard 
it will forget his speech at the memorable meeting, in October, 
1878, which opened the degrees of the university of London 
to women. The debate turned wholly on the degrees in 
medicine, and the resistance, led by a famous physician, was 
able and fierce. Amid the ill-veiled derision of the medical 
graduates, but with an intensity of ethical conviction which 
held the house, he pressed home the doctrine that there is 
but one law of purity for men and for women, and that it is 
neither secured by ignorance nor transgressed by knowledge. 


the many tributes of old pupils written after his 
death, will serve here better than much description. 
" Chiefly, I think, he taught me through our 
conning of Milton's Areopagitica, but also much 
in our Latin lessons, where no slip or slovenliness 
was passed over, and where, from the little hill of 
difficulty of a Phaedrus' fable, he gave us glimpses 
of the fascinating and far-reaching study of the 
growth and origin of languages. He pointed the 
way, but it was our own minds always that served 
to work and to be rewarded by discovery." 
The teaching here referred to was given at Brook 
House, Knutsford, a school which, under the guidance 
of another distinguished educationist. Miss Louisa 
Carbutt, was doing pioneer work in a spirit closely 
akin to his own. Next to his later work with children 
he looked back on his intercourse with these girl 
pupils (from thirteen to eighteen years) as the most 
satisfactory part of all his teaching. Here, too, he saw 
his own ideas being put into practice with a harmo- 
nious ease and sureness, and an unmistakable efhcacy, 
which did more than anything else to restore his 
faith, somewhat shaken by the Lancaster experiment, 
in their direct applicability to English education ; 
to restore also his faith in his own power to apply 
them, and his courage to make the attempt. But 
he felt, too, that to be completely successful they 
must be applied from the outset ; and that the 
key to the right training of the boy and girl was 
the training of the little child. The plan was 
gradually matured, of a school primarily for young 
children from the earliest age at which school- 
attendance ordinarily began. At the beginning of 
1873, the school, later known by the name of its 
second home as Ladybarn House, was opened at 

26 THE student's froebel 


The ten years which followed, ending with his 
retirement, were the most clearly successful phase 
of William Herford's life. In the sense of money 
returns or public recognition the success was modest 
enough. But from the outset a considerable circle 
of enlightened friends, many of them of German 
origin or connections, looked with interest on the 
experiment ; and the vigour of mind and heart 
with which a noble educational ideal was applied to 
the moulding of character gradually won it wide 
attention and repute. Doubtless there were some, 
even among the enlightened friends, for whom the 
originalities of Ladybarn House were too strong 
meat. And William Herford, as we know, was not 
the man to temper the wind of novelty to the shorn 
lambs of precedent. On the contrary, he took a mis- 
chievous delight, compounded of the special satisfac- 
tions of the doctrinaire, the Radical, and the humorist 
— and he had much of all three, — in presenting 
his doctrines and practices with their very sharpest 
edge foremost. The parent who came to him com- 
plaining that his children " learnt nothing at school," 
would be met with the imperturbable but emphatic 
assurance (accompanied by a twinkle in the eye, 
probably lost on him) that if they did learn anything 
in the school something must certainly have gone 
wrong. No concessions to timid convention or 
utilitarian interest were dreamed of, and the moderate 
share of success which the school won under his 
headship was a tribute at once to inflexible convic- 
tions fearlessly carried out, and to the educational 
enlightenment and enterprise which his work gradu- 
ally diffused in his neighbourhood. But his per- 
sonality, whatever temporary rebuffs it might inflict 
or involve was, on the whole, and in the long run, an 


asset, to put it in the meanest terms, of extraordinary 
value. To enter that school, whether as child or as 
teacher, was to learn that the formidable austerity 
of occasional manner covered a profound — nay, an 
unfathomable — tenderness, and the not infrequent 
outbursts of anger an exquisite and irresistible 
gaiety. His extraordinary vivacity of temperament, 
resting as it did upon a solid bedrock of character, 
made him to young and old a delightful companion ; 
and his abounding wit and humour, now a little 
mellowed, but not a whit diminished, with years, 
were contagious and fertilising as well as spontaneous. 
What remains may be briefly told. A career 
somewhat chequered, of high aspirations, often 
frustrated but never resigned, was crowned by a 
serene and beautiful old age. After twelve years' 
direction of the school, he resigned it, in 1886, into 
the hands of his second daughter, with whose name 
it became, during the next twenty years, even more 
closely associated than with his own. In 1880 his 
first wife had died. Four years later he married his 
tried comrade in educational reform. Miss Carbutt. 
Twenty-three years of very perfect union followed. 
Both were still young and fresh enough to enjoy 
foreign travel, and much of the next four years was 
spent in Italy, Switzerland, and Germany. In 1890 
they settled in their last home, on the South Devon 
coast, at Paignton, continuing, however, for some 
years to spend the winters at Florence or elsewhere 
in the South. Here he used his leisure to garner the 
fruit of his long experience and thought in the book 
he called The School ; and to make the translation 
of Froebel, now re-issued. His physical powers 
gradually failed, but nothing could dim the keenness 
of his interest or the alertness of his wit. In May, 
1907, his second wife somewhat suddenly passed 

28 THE student's froebel 

away. But it was only within some six weeks before 
his own end, eleven months later, that his sparkling 
sallies ceased to rejoice the watchers by his bedside 
and the correspondents in distant counties, who 
believed with difficulty that the end of his vigorous, 
noble, and memorable life was as near as it proved 
to be. Among his later sayings was one which 
expresses what he felt to be his greatest, as it was 
his rarest happiness : " Few men have had two such 
mothers, two such wives, and two such daughters." 
And the survivors will pardon a reference which 
forms the fittest parting benediction upon his life. 

Froebers Life and Work' 

Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel was born 
21st April, 1782, in a Thuringian village, Oberweiss- 
bach, of which his father was the hard-working pastor, 
a grave, somewhat stern, but loving-hearted man. 
Losing his mother within his first year, having kind 
elder brothers but no sister, the child was left much 
to himself, with few playmates and little outdoor 
freedom. His father tried to teach him his " rudi- 
ments," and failed. He found the boy dull, and 
placed him in the girls' division of the village school, 
of which he was official superintendent. For this 
irregularity Friedrich was always grateful, and he 
repeated to his dying day the hymns he had learnt 
there. In a short account of his own life, he says : 
" I came to school on a Monday morning while the 
girls were repeating aloud the text of Sunday's 
sermon, ' Seek ye first the Kingdom of God,' and 
to this day (forty years later) the tone of every word 
is fresh in my memory." At ten years of age, his 
mother's brother, Pastor Hofmann of Stadtelm, a 
country town in Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, took 
Friedrich to live with him and attend the public 
Elementary School. Here he learned pretty well, 
preferring the classes on Religion and Arithmetic, 
evincing certainly no precocious wisdom or goodness, 
as we judge by his illustrations of boyish mischief 
[post, pp. 98-9), told with a gravity most unconsciously 

' Taken chiefly from the biography by F. Seidel, prefixed 
to his edition of Froebel's Writings, 1887. 


30 THE student's froebel 

comic. When fifteen (1797) Friedrich returned home, 
and was placed for two years as pupil in Wood-craft 
with a forester, whose neglect of the instruction due 
from him left the lad of rare gifts and character to 
unfold his own powers, unimpeded. Good books 
his master had, so Friedrich worked at Botany, 
studied Mathematics, and made a map of the neigh- 
bourhood. Near the end of 1799, a messenger being 
wanted to take the half-yearly allowance to his brother, 
Traugott, a medical student at Jena, Friedrich 
volunteered for this service, having left the forester. 
When at Jena he begged leave to stay till the Easter 
vacation ; afterwards he returned for a year, and 
devoted himself to hearing lectures. The two broth- 
ers lived most frugally, but found that an allowance, 
spare for one, was not enough for two. After his 
brother's departure, Friedrich, unable to pay their 
joint debts of some £5, or less, was committed to the 
JJni versify prison, where he spent nine weeks, 
mending his Latin, with the help of a fellow-prisoner, 
studying Winckelmann's Letters on Art , and 
writing a mathematical essay. By pledging his 
small expectations, Friedrich was released and re- 
turned home. Next year he worked on a farm, 
but was recalled home by his father's failing health, 
and had the happiness of ministering to his father's 
comfort till his death in February, 1802. Left wholly 
to his own resources, he worked for his bread, as 
clerk — secretary— book-keeper, during three years 
and more, when a small legacy from his paternal 
uncle Hofmann made him think a settled profession 
possible. At midsummer, 1805, he set out for Frank- 
furt, hoping to make himself an architect. On the 
way, he visited a farmer friend, who at parting begged 
from Froebel — in German fashion — a verse or motto 
for his album. " Not knowing what he said " — for 

froebel's life and work 31 

no idea of becoming an educator had then entered his 
mind ! — Froebel wrote : Gieb du den Menschen Broi : 
mein Strehen set, sie ihnen selhst zu gehen, "Be it 
yours to give men bread ; mine, to give them — 
themselves." His call was on the way ! 

When Froebel had already begun work with an 
architect, a Frankfurt friend introduced him to 
Gruner, head of the new Model School, and formerly 
a pupil of Pestalozzi. Gruner said to him : " Let 
architecture alone ; become a teacher." With hesita- 
tion, Froebel accepted a place with him. At once, 
with a class of children before him, he felt he had 
found his hfe-work. Thenceforward all events be- 
came steps towards realising that ideal Education of 
Man by the harmonious development of body, mind, 
and heart, which Froebel conceived more completely 
and vividly than any of his precursors. In August, 
1805, Froebel visited Yverdun, where Pestalozzi had 
his Institute. He was kindly received, and in three 
weeks learned enough to make him wish to come 
again. He taught under Gruner for two years, and 
made his class, of forty girls and boys, the model 
class of the Model School. In method, his great 
achievement was to lay the foundation of Geography 
in " Home-knowledge " ; that is, points of the 
compass, forms of surface, courses of streams, 
roads, etc., learned in country-walks by his pupils' 
own observation. He found his own knowledge, 
when tried by use, defective, and, to better it, left 
Frankfurt. Unable to afford the cost of University 
residence, Froebel accepted the post of tutor to 
three brothers, and kept it for three years. He 
stipulated that he should have them entirely to 
himself, in the country. In 1808 he took his pupils to 
Yverdun, where, for two years, they all shared meals 
and work with Pestalozzi, his teachers and pupils : 

32 THE student's froebel 

learning, his biographer says, " to know both the 
good and the ill sides of Pestalozzi's theory and 
practice." In 181 1 Froebel studied first at Gottingen, 
then at Berlin, eking out by private lessons his scanty 
means. In 1813 the war of liberation from France 
called every German patriot to arms. Among his 
fellow-volunteers, Froebel found two students of 
theology— Langethal and Middendorff — his first con- 
verts, and afterwards his chief fellow-workers. Their 
vows, to work together for the education oi humanity, 
were exchanged by the camp-fire, under starry heaven ; 
while discussion of means and methods, finance and 
philosophy, occupied the hours of weary waiting. 
When the war was over (1814), Froebel returned to 
Berlin, to be Assistant at the Museum of Mineralogy. 
The summons to practical work came (1816) by the 
death of his brother Christopher, pastor at Griesheim, 
whose widow wrote for advice how to educate her 
three boys. Led as by the pointing of God's finger, 
Froebel left Berlin, visiting on the way another 
brother. Christian, a manufacturer with moderate 
means, who gave him his two sons as pupils. So 
Froebel began school in the parsonage at Griesheim 
as teacher of his five nephews. Middendorff obeyed 
the summons to join his friend, bringing with him 
a younger brother of Langethal's as sixth recruit. 
The parsonage had to be vacated, so a small farm, 
Keilhau, was bought, and Froebel married (1818) 
Henrietta Hoffmeister, his true helpmeet for twenty- 
one years, Langethal coming to remove his brother, 
found his old enthusiasm so much revived by what he 
saw that he stayed to throw in his lot with them. 
When new buildings were needed to house new 
pupils. Christian Froebel wound up his affairs and 
settled near them with family and means. In 1826, 
Keilhau held fifty-six pupils. Then came persecution 

froebel's life and work 33 

for " demagogical intrigues." The German people 
were impatient that their princes had not found the 
convenient season for granting Free Constitutions, 
promised when the Nation was summoned to arm 
against Napoleon, in 1813. Froebel was no con- 
spirator, but his training, being humane, was 
suspected. Keilhau was inspected by State and 
Church, and reports were favourable. Parents, 
however, were alarmed, and (1829) the number of 
pupils fell from sixty to five. The storm was weath- 
ered, though the little band of brothers had often 
the utmost difficulty in finding money for daily needs. 
In 1831, Froebel left the Saxon school to his friends, 
having been invited to form one at Willisau, near 
Lucerne. In 1833, he removed to Burgdorf, near 
Berne, where orphan children aged from four to six 
years were received, and training-classes for teachers 
were held. Herein we recognise the rise of the Kin- 
dergarten, not yet so named. In 1839 his wife died. 
In 1840, to commemorate the 400th anniversary of 
the invention of printing, he began the " German 
Kindergarten " : it was to consist of classes, to train 
young women as nurses and teachers, in true methods 
of development, and a school for little children whom 
they should teach. He travelled far to procure 
money for this undertaking, but his success was very 
modest, though at Hamburg, Dresden, and elsewhere. 
Child-gardens were set up. Now and then an 
educationist visited Froebel, and exchanged con- 
tempt for admiration. Diesterweg, for example, an 
excellent writer on pedagogy, avowed his complete 
conversion. A few great ones of the earth did them- 
selves the honour to help and second Froebel's work ; 
but he did not live to hear the chorus of praise, of 
himself and his system, that resounds to-day. But, 
like all voices of earth that rise above a whisper, 

34 THE student's froebel 

this chorus contains many weak notes and false tones. 
In August, 1850, Froebel, then in his sixty-ninth 
year, directed the games, songs and marches of a 
school festival, at which 300 children were entertained 
by the Duchess of Meiningen at her summer-palace, 
Altenstein. Chateau Marienthal was next granted 
him for a training college : and success — by the world 
so called — seemed about to smile. Next year, 7th 
August, 1851, Prussia prohibited the Kindergarten in 
her States, on the ground that it taught children — 
atheism ! This blow certainly depressed Froebel, 
but did not kill either him or his cause. The German 
Teachers' Association, meeting at Gotha, Whitsun- 
tide, 1852, invited his presence, and received and 
heard him with distinguished honour. A few days 
later he fell ill, and on 21st June died. His last words 
were, " I am a Christian man." 

Froebel was both Prophet and Apostle of the 
Kingdom of God. His are the notes : ceaseless toil, 
disappointment, conflict — waged, endured, nay ! 
cheerfully supported, by the consciousness of serving 
God. We are reminded of St. Paul : " Woe is me if 
I preach not the Gospel " : and Luther, " Here I 
stand ! I can no other : God help me ! " A man 
of true genius, if we prefer the term, witness three 
acknowledged hall-marks : (1) " Inward force of 
Idea," working like inspiration, mastering the 
whole man. (2) " Infinite power of taking pains." 
In bringing out this inward force to work on the 
world that needs reforming, he studies every science 
— toils at whatever comes to hand — claims the 
hearing of everyone — fails, only to try again. (3) 
" Turns what it touches into gold." Cheapest, 
commonest materials, old-fashioned games and 
verses, not least the mother's baby-songs and finger- 
plays : — all are worked into a tissue of such strange 

froebel's life and work 35 

power that, while at the best, retained as a whole 
and used as Froebel meant, still every morsel is 
precious, even the travesty of Kindergarten, not 
infrequent, alas ! in the educational market, takes 
the place of something worse, viz. — the Rod and 
the Rote-learning of our ancestors. 

4 — (957) 

Froebel's Education of Man 


In everything dwells and rules an eternal law. 
This law expresses itself, distinctly and clearly, 
alike in what is external to man — Nature ; in 
what is internal to man — the Soul ; and in what J?/sen?°of 
unites these two — Life. Human minds of oppo- Jng'olT^an"^* 
site types perceive this equally : those which le^ng^'ac- 
start from Faith, and are thoroughly possessed by°maM.^'''^ 
by the feeling that nothing else can be than what 
Faith tells ; and those which, with clear intelli- 
gence, behold through the outward that which 
is within, and see that the external grows neces- 
sarily from the internal. As foundation of this 
all-ruling law, exists of necessity a conscious, 
almighty, and eternal Being. All this has been 
recognised from the beginning, and ever will be 
recognised, by every quietly heedful human 
heart, and by every thoughtful human intellect. 

The one Being is God. Everything came p^^^„^^ !„ 
forth from God, and by God alone is governed ; '-•verything 
so that the sole Foundation of all tilings is God. 
In everything, God rules and lives. Everything 
rests and subsists in God. Things exist only 
because God acts in them. The Divine that 
acts in each thing is the Essence of that thing. 

The destination of all things is, by unfolding, Th'^csUna- 
to set forth their Essence, which is the Divine 'Wiigs. 




The educa- 
tion of maa. 

Science of 

Doctrine of 

.\rt of 

Aim of 





that lives in them, and thus, to reveal God in and 
by what is outward and transitory. The special 
destination of man, as a being endowed with 
perception and reason, is to become fully and 
clearly conscious of his own Essence — the Divine 
that is in him, — and to make it manifest in his 
own life. The education of man is the awakening 
and training of his humanity to consciousness 
and reflection, so that his outward life may be 
an expression of this inward law. 

Recognition of this eternal law, with insight 
into its foundation and the variety of its opera- 
tions, is science — Science of Life : and that law, 
when applied in practice by the thinking creature 
on and by itself, is Science of Education. 

A system of rules issuing from knowiedge of that 
law, designed to enable rational beings to become 
conscious of their destination, and to fulhl it, is 
Doctrine of Education, 

Voluntary application of this knowledge so as 
to develop and train rational beings, in order to 
attain their true destiny, is Art of Teaching. 

The aim of education is to produce a pure, 
faithful, complete, and therefore holy, Hfe., 

Knowiedge and practice united, theory and 
apphcation coalescing into pure, faithful, and 
complete living, is life-wisdom. 

To be wise is the highest endeavour possible 
to man ; it is also the highest result of man's 
self-determining power. 

To educate oneself and others, with conscious 
purpose, is the twofold work of wisdom. This 
work began with the first appearance of man on 





earth ; it was in full action as soon as the indi- 
vidual began to be completely self-conscious ; 
it asserts itself to-day as the necessary claim for 
all human-beings, and as such will by and by 
find hearing and fulfilment. Thus to work is to 
walk on the road which alone " leadeth unto 
life," which guides without fail to the satisfaction 
of man's inward, and not less of his outward, 
needs ; the way, therefore, which conducts, 
through consistent, pure, and holy Hving, to the 
Blessed Life. 

12 The Divine in man, wdiich is his Essence, is The work of 

/ 1 rill 11 1 • • education, 

/ to be unfolded and brought to his consciousness to lead man 

/ . , ^ . , to know 

\ by means of education ; and man himself is to be himsoif, 

. ..... Nature, and 

raised to a consciousness of living up to, and God. 
reahsing in freedom, the Divine which acts within 

13 The Divine as it exists in nature is to be brought 
to man's knowledge by education, which, at the 
same time, is to show that both nature and man 
are governed by similar laws. 

14 Education is to lead man to reahse in his fife the 
truth that nature and man came forth from God, 
are ruled by God, and rest in God. 

15 Education should guide man to the under- 
standing of himself, to peace with nature, and to 
union with God. Education, therefore, has to 
raise the human-being to a knowledge of himself 
and of humanity ; to a knowledge of God and of 
nature ; and to the pure and holy fife which 
follows from this knowledge. 

17 The Essence or Divine part of things, and of Jl'lf^T^T 
man, is known through their outward expression, known'^from 



its outwaxd 
which may 
be mislead- 

The reason 
for obser- 
vant rather 
than inter- 

Hence it must be admitted that the utterances 
[outward effects, or results] whether of man or 
of other creatures, are the matters with which 
training and instruction are concerned. 

So far is undeniable : now comes one of 
Froebel's axioms, which may seem to many 
by no means self-evident. 
The nature of things demands that in every 
relation we infer not directly, but inversely, from 
the outward to the inward, and from the inward 
to the outward. 

His argument is : Great harm in family and 
school, endless misconstruction leading to 
fatal injustice, come from direct inferences 
from outward and visible behaviour to the 
unseen purpose, to the heart. 
A child who seems good outwardly, is often not 
good inwardly : that is, he does not try to be good 
out of love and with self-control, but is contented 
to seem so ; while one who is outwardly rough and 
wilful often has within him a most zealous endeav- 
our to do right ; likewise, an apparently inatten- 
tive child may have within him a steady thought- 
fulness that hinders heeding of things outward. 
Therefore education and instruction should from 
the very first be passive, observant, protective ; 
rather than prescribing, determining, interfering. 
This follows, Froebel sa3's, from the definition 
of education : that education is, simply, 
helping the Divine within us to come forth, 
to act. 
We must assume that the young human being 
aims surely, if unconsciously, at what is best for 





itself, and feels within it power and means to 
attain this. So the duckling hurries into the water, 
a chick scratches on the ground for its meat, and 
the young swallow catches food on the wing. 

These, he says, are fair illustrations. They 
know what they are about ! So does a child, 
when it tests everything, with tongue and 
finger, tries every movement, and reaches 
after every new object. 

21 To young plants and animals we give space, space, tiwe, 
and time, and rest, knowing that they will unfold sary foT^' 
to beauty, by laws working in each. We avoid crea'tures. 
acting on them by force, for we know that such 
intrusion upon their natural growth could only 
injure their development. Yet man treats the 
young human being as if it were a piece of wax, a 

lump of clay, out of which he can mould what he 
will. O men ! as you stroll through garden or 
meadow, field or copse, why do you not use your 
senses to perceive what Nature in her silent 
language would teach you ? Behold the plant — 
you call it weed : when grown under pressure and 
constraint you scarcely guess its natural life and 
purpose. But in open ground see what regularity 
it^hows, how its inward life becomes manifest ; a 


sun, a star blossoms forth from the ground ! 
Your children too, O parents, have it in them to 
become creatures fully developed into beauty : 
but if you early force on them form and put 
them to work unsuited to their nature, they will 
grow stunted and misshapen, through those 
unnatural conditions. 

22 All training and instruction which prescribes 

42 THE student's froebel 

All coercive and fixcs, ' that is, interferes with Nature, must 
may injure tend to Hmit and injure, if we consider the action 
of the Divine, and take man as in his primal 
beauty and original health. 

To borrow a lesson from plant-culture : the 
\nne has to be pruned, but pruning by itself 
brings no fruit ; indeed, by pruning, the vine may 
be killed, or its power of bearing fruit ruined, 
unless the gardener proceed most cautiously, 
heeding the nature of the plant. In the treatment 
of animals and plants, we often take the right 
course, while with human beings we start on the 
wrong road. Yet in all things [animals, plants, 
human beings] powers are working that flow 
from one Spring, and act by similar laws. 
Coercive As a matter of fact, an unspoiled original con- 23 

treatment .... , , ..t. , rn 

may be ditiou IS rarely to be seen m Nature, least ol all 
in man. For that very reason, always, and above 
all in the individual human being, the unspoiled 
condition must be assumed, until the contrary 
be proved : other\\ise, wherever really found, 
it would soon be impaired. When, however, 
we are able to judge with certainty that the 
original condition has been spoiled, then a directly 
coercive mode of treatment is called for. 

Emphasizing the difficulty involved in this 

certain inference, Froebel insists, that when 

wilful naughtiness has to be stopped, even 

then : — 

Doctrine, training, and instruction have to be far 24 

more passive and observant, than interfering and 

coercive, because by needless interference and 

coercion the simple development, and steady 


progress of humanity would be stopped. For 
with freedom and self-determination to realise 
the Divine in man and through man's life, is 
the very goal of all education, the aim of life, 
what man is in the world for. 

If teachers and elders persist in trying to 

force pupils into some form of character and 

work which parents prefer, instead of helping 

them to grow into what God made them for, 

the aim of true education is absolutely 

defeated. Yet with the firmest and strongest 

pronouncement that every form of pressure 

and compulsion should be avoided by all 

who have charge of children, wherever possible, 

and as long as possible, Froebel combines the 

plain admission that false choice, wrong 

deed, on the part of child are not to be 

yielded to or taken as inevitable, but 

resisted and put down — whenever necessary ; 

that is, when through inherited character, 

social circumstances, etc., the passive, waiting 

method having been duly tried, has plainly 


30 In good education, genuine instruction, and 

true teaching, necessity calls forth freedom, law 

evokes self-determination, external constraint 

calls forth internal free-will, hate from without 

evokes love from within. Wherever hatred begets 

hatred, and law calls into being deceit and crime ; 

where constraint produces slavish feehng, and 

necessity, sense of bondage ; wherever pressure 

destroys inward activity, and severity engenders 

rebelhon and falsehood : there all genuine 

44 THE student's froebel 

education, all true working of teaching and instruc- 
tion, is at an end. That this latter state of things 
may be escaped, and the former attained, authority- 
must go to work observantly. This is secured 
when all educators, teachers, instructors, though 
necessarily set in authority, yet bear the in- 
contestable stamp of being themselves subject 
to an overruling law, an inevitable necessity 
which excludes caprice. 
The three lu all true cducatiou every genuine teacher 31 
education has to bc always, in every detail, two-sided : 
^"™' to give and take — join and divide — lead and 

follow — act and bear — manage and let alone — 
be fixed and movable. The child or pupil is to 
be so likewise, and betwixt the two — tutor and 
pupil, demand and compliance — a third term 
rules unseen, to which tutor and pupil are alike 
and equally subject. This third is the ideal 
Best — the abstract right — as it issues from the 
conditions of each case, and expresses itself 
impersonally. The teacher has to express, 
simply and firmly, sometimes even gravely and 
severely, his clear quiet recognition of, and steady 
cheerful obedience to, this third term. The 
pupil, too, has a wonderfully fine feeUng for it. 
A child rarely fails to see whether what parent 
and teacher order or forbid comes from themselves 
— personally, arbitrarily — or is the expression of 
universal and necessary truth, speaking through 
A formula Willing submissiou to this changeless third 32 

for instruc- ° , . , , , 

tion, anda term, whcreto teacher and pupil are equally 
for life. subject, ought to bc expressed in every command 


of the teacher, to the minutest detail. So, the 
universal formula for instruction is : Do this, 
and see, in each particular case, what follows 
from your action, and what knowledge it will 
bring you. And the prescription for life itself, 
for every one — is : Manifest in the world outside 
you your spiritual being, the life that is in you ; 
and see what your nature needs and how it is 

Thus, Jesus says, the divinity of his mission 

is to be known ; " If any man willeth to do [S: Joim 

-^ vii, 17.] 

His will, he shall know of the teaching 
whether it be of God or whether I speak from 

33 The following demand is understood, and the 
method of its fulfilment is given, at the same 
time. The aim of the educator, the purpose of 
teaching, is to make the special universal, and the 
universal special, and prove the existence of both ; 
it is to make the outward inward, to make the 
inward outward, and show the necessary unity 
of them ; it is to consider the finite infinitely, 
and the infinite finitely, and to reahse them both ; 
it is to perceive and behold Divineness in the 
human, to prove the being of man in God, and to 
strive to set forth the union of both in hfe. 

The course prescribed is seen more clearly to 
come from man's nature, and asserts itself more 
positively, the more man contemplates humanity 
in himself, in the rising generation, and in the 
historical development of mankind. 

35 If, then, we realise the infinite by means of 
the finite, the heavenly by the earthly, the Divine 

46 THE student's froebel 

by man and through man's Hfe (thus cherishing 
The child his originally divine nature), and if this comes to 
welcomed as us as iudisDutably the sole end and aim of educa- 

a gift of God. . , • r n 1 -11 1 • 

tion, — then it follows that the human bemg must 
be regarded in this light from the very beginning of 36 
its existence. Every child in right of its soul is 
to be received as something divine appearing in 
human form as a pledge of God's grace, a gift of 
God. Such the early Christians, by the names 
they gave their children, really acknowledged 
them to be. 

Deodatus, Adeodatus, Theodore, Theodotus, 
Theodosius, and their feminines, occur to 
becar'l'd^fo? Evcry chiM ought to be acknowledged and 37 
sLy°cSn-^*' cared for as an essential part of humanity ; and 
aiTpasI^'* th^^ parents, as guardians, ought to feel them- 
Fufure un*-"'^ sclvcs respousiblc to God, to the child, and to 
mLtkind.* mankind. In the same way parents ought to 
regard the child as in necessary connection with 
the present, the past, and the future of human 
development, and bring the child's training into 
accord with the claims of mankind's development, 
as it has been, is, and shall be. 
lus^mfoid-"' Man, as an outward manifestation of humanity, 39 
iTu^minity ^^ ^^ ^^ accouut to bc vicwcd as complete, fixed, 
accomphshed ; but as continuously unfolding 
from one stage of development to another, ever 
growing towards a goal which rests in Eternity 
and Infinity. 

Each successive generation, each individual, 
has to pass through the previous stages of human 
development. If he did not pass through 


them, he would not understand either the past or 
the present, but it must be by tlie hving way 
of self-active growth, not by that of lifeless 
Humanity in every individual ought to be Each human 

/ •' ° being should 

presented m the shape that is his own : so that present 

*. r /^ humanity in 

the nature of humanity and of God, as infinite, i^'s own way. 
eternal, and containing all variety, may be felt, 
and recognised, and ever more distinctly perceived. 

No true, genuine tending and training of Adequate 
mankind can grow, bloom, bear fruit, and ripen Man can 
out of any other root but full and complete know- from'fuii 
ledge of man from the beginning of his being : of Man. 
whatever else needs to be known and used in this 
tending and training will, if earnestly sought, be 
found to come naturally from this knowledge. 

Hence follows plainly what parents ought to The duty o< 
do, and to be, for the sake of their childi^en's 
welfare. They ought to be pure and clean in 
word and deed, to be filled with a sense of the 
worth and dignity of man, to consider themselves 
guardians of a gift of God, to study the function 
and destiny of man, with all the ways and means of 
reaching it. 

Children, members of a family, will best exhibit 
the native gifts, known or unknown, of the 
family, if each child, each member, unfolds himself 
most completely and most originally. So human 
beings, as children of God and members of the 
human family, will best represent the union of 
God and man, which exists really though unper- 
ceived, if each individual unfolds himself as 
completely and originally as possible. 

48 THE student's froebel 

Impartial Therefore from his very birth, from his first 44 

develop- -^ 

mentofthe appearaiicc upon earth, the child should be taken 
powers. for wliat he is, man in germ, and have a free, 
all-round use of his strength. No one limb or 
power should ever be fostered at the expense 
of the rest, the child should not be fettered, 
bound, swathed, nor by and by held in leading- 
strings. The child should learn as early as 
possible to find within himself the centre of 
gravity of all his powers, on this centre to rest, 
and resting on it, to act and move freely. He 
should be taught to grasp and hold fast with his 
own hands, to stand and walk on his own feet, 
to look and see with his own eyes, thus to use all 
his powers equally and evenly. 

Physically — this is, to-day, well known. 

What we want is the like treatment of 

senses, reason, spirit. 
Thefirst The child's first expression is that of activity. 45 

awakening -^ J 

of the child's Xhe exhibition of force calls out counter-force, 

human con- ' 

sciousness. hcuc'fe the child's early crying ; hence it kicks 
against whatever resists its feet ; hence it seizes 
whatever its hands touch. Soon after, or along 
with this, social feeling is developed in the child : 
hence its smile, its evident pleasure at moving its 
limbs in comfortable warmth, bright light, and 
pure fresh air. This is the first awaking of the 
child's human consciousness. 

The mean- The carlicst utterances of the child, that is, 

ing of the ■< r • r i • c 

chud's first the first expressions of human life, are rest 

utterance. -^ . 

and unrest, pleasure and pam, smiling and 
crying. Rest, pleasure, and smiling betoken 
whatever, in the child's feeling, suits the steady 


development of its being, that is, of human hfe 
at the child's stage. To keep these undisturbed, 
all the care which is the earhest form of education 
must be apphed. Uneasiness, pain, and crying 
betoken at first whatever hinders the development 
of the human being at the child stage, and all 
rudiments of education must attend to these, 
trying to find out and remove their causes. 

In the earhest crying, or expression of uneasi- Beginning of 
ness, there is assuredly no wilfulness, but wilfulness ^^'^■'''"• 
springs up very early — we cannot tell when, 
or how — as soon as ever the httle being, the 
human plant only just above ground, begins to 
feel that it has been left, by someone's caprice 
or indolence, to that which causes it uneasiness or 
pain. When this sad feehng has once infected 
the child, wilfulness, first and ughest of faults, 
is alive. 

Even when the right way is taken, there may Man-s first 
be errors in method. It is man's nature and seu-°con"roi. 
destination to be trained up to endure severe 
pains and heavy burdens through the bearing of 
light ones. When therefore parents and those 
in charge are convinced that the child, which 
seems uneasy and even cries, has really got all 
that it needs, and that whatever could hurt it 
has been removed, then they not only may, but 
ought to, leave the child to itself and give it time 
to recover. For if the little creature has but 
once, not to say often, by dint of impatient crying 
extracted from those who have charge of it help 
and sympathy not really needed, they have lost 
thereby much ground not easy to recover. The 

50 THE student's froebel 

little creature has so fine a perception of the 

weakness of those around it, that if they give 

the opportunity, it prefers using its power in the 

easier way of governing them, than in doing or 

bearing anything, for itself. 

The extreme At this stagc thc huuiau being is called a suck- 
importance , . , . , , , . 

of the early ling and lu cveFv seuse deserves the name ; for, 
man, at this stage, does nothing but assimilate 
the variety of things outside him. Hence this 
first stage of human development is inexpressibly 
momentous for the child's present and future 

It is momentous for his present and future life, 
that at this stage nothing unwholesome or mean, 
nothing doubtful or bad, be absorbed. The 
expressions on the faces of every one about the 
child should be pure and firm, awakening and nour- 
ishing trust. The environment should be clean 
and bright : pure air, clear light, open space — 
however scant the furniture. For alas ! the im- 
pressions of youth, imbibed in childhood, are often 
hardly to be overcome throughout life, because in 
earliest years the whole being is surrendered 
[laid open like a sensitive plate] to impressions 
from without. The severest conflicts with self, 
in later years, the most painful moral experi- 
ences, have often had their first causes in 
this stage ; hence the care of the nursling is 
The Child's Mothers know that the first smile makes an 
precio'Ss^to^ epoch iu the child's development, for it is the 
^°epo?h.^^ first expression of self-consciousness — but some- 
thing higher, too. It is a sign of social feeling, 


first between the child and its mother, then 
between the child and its father and brothers 
and sisters, and later between the child and other 
human beings. 

48 This feeling of community, which unites the The first 
child at first with mother, father and family, L°fhi S' 
is the germ of all genuiae religion, of all genuine °* '''"^'°"- 
endeavour after union with the Eternal, with 

God. Genuine religion, true and living, piety True and 
such as will endure through danger and conflict, £sFn^'^ 
in need and adversity, in joy and happiness, chiidh^d. 
must come to the human being when it is a 
nursling. When, therefore, a mother is seen to 
lay her sleeping babe on its comfortable bed, 
with a devout upward look to their heavenly 

49 Father for His protection and loving care, not only 
is the beholder touched, but the act is full of 
blessing for the child. The same, too, when she 

50 takes it up from rest, smiling and happy, her 
lips moving in prayer, as though it were given 
to her anew. If parents desire to provide for their 
children this unshaken prop, this never-vanishing 

52 rallying point as the highest portion _ for life, common 
let them always be visibly, as well as inwardly fam" 
united with their children, when — in quiet cham- Rei\g?on. 
ber, or in the open air — they feel and acknowledge 
themselves to be in union with their God and 
Father, in prayer. Let no one ever say, " The 
children will not understand it," this were to rob 
them straightway of their higher life. They 
do understand it, and will understand it, if only 
they have not already run wild ; if only they are 
not already too much estranged from themselves 

«— (957) 

52 THE student's froebel 

and from their parents. They understand it, 

not by their intellect, but in their inmost souls. 

Piety, so Thus germinating and thus fostered, religion wiU 

indlfir/ed,'' be victorious over all the storms and dangers of 

Tome the' life. The example of reUgious parents, even when 


the child seems not to have heeded or under- 
stood, brings good fruit. The results of the living 
example of parents is equally certain, bad, alas ! 
as well as good. 
Develop- Not alouc for the special growth of the rehgious 53 

ment should ^ , . . i . r i  i i i  • 

be looked icelmg m man, but tor his whole growth, it is 

on as con- . i , i • i i i i i 

tinuous. most important that his development should 
steadily advance from one point, and be always 
viewed and tended as continuously advancing. 
Life being really of one piece, without sharp 
divisions, for the years, like the seasons, melt one 
into another, it is harmful to treat the stages of 
human life — nursling — child — boy or girl — youth 
or maiden — old man or matron — as though they 
were really separated. Yet in common life and 
parlance, they are thus treated. Successive stages 
emphasize their differences so much that their 
common human nature seems forgotten. 

The boy forgets that he was once a child, that 54 
the child will one day be a boy ; the adult has 
forgotten his own earlier stages of development, 
and speaks of child, boy, youth, as beings of 
separate nature and gifts from himself. Now 
this making of divisions and contrasts, as it 
springs from want of early and steady attention 
to the unfolding of one's own life, is false and 
artificial, and cannot but be hurtful in many 
ways which need not be specified. 


55 It would be altogether otherwise if parents Man u not 
did but consider their child in relation to all its u'punur"" 
stages of development, without overlooking any. fuifiuedthr 
If, especially, they would consider that the antewdenV 
vigorous and complete unfolding and improve- tod"mind, 
ment of each succeeding stage of life depends on ^" 
the vigorous, complete, development of every 
preceding stage. This point is too often over- 
looked or unheeded by parents. They assume 
the human being to be a boy if he has attained 
boy's age ; they assume the human being to be a 
man because he has reached man's years. The 
boy is not a boy, or the youth a youth, simply 
because he has attained the age of boy and 
youth ; but by virtue of having lived through, 
first, childhood then boyhood, faithful to the 
claims of his soul, and mind, and body. In 
the same way man becomes a man not simply 
by reaching the average years of manhood 
but by fulfilling the duties of all preceding stages 
of life — childhood, boyhood, youth. Parents 
otherwise able and intelligent, wiU not only 
require a child to show itself already a boy or 
youth, but especially ask the boy to show himself 
a man, thus skipping the stages of boy and 
youth. It is one thing to see and heed in the 
child or boy — in germ, or outline — the youth 
and man, that wiU one day be. It is quite another 
to look upon, and behave to, the actual boy as 
though he were already a man ; to expect child 
and boy to show himself youth and man, and even 
to feel and think, act and behave, as though he 
reaUy were so. Parents who expect this overlook 

54 THE student's froebel 

or have forgotten the processes through which 

alone they themselves have become able parents 

and useful human beings ; for this was by living 

through the very stages of life which they now 

wish their child to skip. 

Neglect of TMs ueglect of the early, especially the very 56 

suges' earliest, stages of development, in reference to 

^erfdiffi- the later, places insuperable obstacles in the way of 

^"th'e the boy's future teacher and trainer. A boy 

Educator. ^^ treated thinks, in the first place, that he may 

entirely omit instruction belonging to an earlier 

The harm of age- Again, thc cffcct is most injurious, and 

spclaiisa- weakening, when a distant aim is set before the 

*'°°- boy too soon, something external to be copied, 

or to be tried for, such as preparation for a certain 

office or career [beyond the child's present 

horizon, however desirable in the possible future]. 

The child, boy, human being at every age, ought 

to have one sole aim : to be at each stage what 

this stage requires. Then each succeeding stage 

will grow like a fresh shoot, out of a healthy 

bud ; and the individual will, with like effort on 

each succeeding stage, be just what that stage 

demands : for the adequate development of the 

human being, on each life stage as it comes, is 

effected by an adequate development of the 

human being on each preceding stage, and in no 

other way. Be this especially noted with refer- 

Theac- ence to unfolding and improving natural activity 57 

len's7and in thc productiou of outward results ; that is, 

n™^aito in fostering industry and love of bodily work. 

SfSnfoided People in general have false notions about manual 

indusuyjn ^oll aud iudustry, about all activity for material 


results, as though it were oppressive and lowering spite of 
— deadening, vulgarising — instead of what it is : prejudice. 
life-waking and life-feeding. It is more than that, 
it bears within it a power to give life. 

59 " God created Man in His own Image, in the [Genesis 
Image of God created He him " ; therefore man 
ought to create and work like God. The spirit 

of man should hover over the shapeless chaos, created in 
and move it ; so that form, and what bears life ne°ss,Vorks 
in itself, may come forth. This is the high mean- nke nfrc.^' 
ing, the deep significance, the great aim, of all havVthe" 
toil and industry ; of all doing and creating, as Hg"^e°'°jf 
we are quite justified in calling it. By means ]^^^J^^^ 
of toil and industry, we become like unto God, 
if our working is accompanied by a clear thought 
— even by the faintest idea — that by our doing 
we present outwardly what is internal, and clothe 
with body what is spiritual ; that we thereby 
put invisible thought into visible forms, and 
give to what is eternal and dwells in the spirit, 
an outward, finite, and transitory existence. 
We thus become truly hke unto God, and rise 
ever more toward the knowledge of him ; thus 
God comes inwardly and outwardly nearer to us. 
Eternally true is the word of Jesus : " The poor [s. Matthew 
[the toiling multitudes] have the Kingdom of'^'^ 
Heaven," if they only knew it, and by industry 
in work realised it. Children, too, possess the 
Kingdom of Heaven ; for they yield themselves 
up wilhngly and trustfully to the active formative 
impulse within them, when not hindered by the 
conceit and false wisdom of their elders. 

60 The notion that man toils and works solely 

56 THE student's froebel 

to support his body — his husk — to earn bread, 

house, and clothes is an error, is lowering ; this idea 

is to be put up with, perhaps, but on no account to 

be spread, for it is not true. Originally and 

properly, man works to realise outside him the 

Thefirst aim spiritual, thc divine, which dwells within him; 

work'^is'to''^ that he may thus learn to know his own spiritual 

vkiwy'the nature, and the nature of God. The bread, 

wkwn dwelling, clothes, which come to him thereby, are 

"*' secondary. Therefore, Tesus says : " Seek ye 

[S. Matthew „ , Tr- 1 r A 1 ., , • • r- 

vi, 33l first the Kmgdom of God ; that is, aim first at 
representing in your life what is Divine, and " all 
the rest," whatever your earthly life needs beside, 
" will be added unto you." Thus, also, Jesus 
says : " My meat is to do the will of God : to act, 
to work, as God hath laid it on me." Therefore 
the lilies of the field, which, in man's view, toil 
not, are arrayed by God more splendidly 
than Solomon in all his glory. Does not the 
lily send forth leaves and flowers ? Does she not 
in her beauty make known the nature of God ? 
The fowls of Heaven, that in man's view sow not, 
labour not, are they not exhibiting in all that they 
do — when they sing, when they build their nests, 
in all their manifold actions — the spirit, the life, 
which God placed in them ? To this end God 
feeds and sustains them. Thus man, from the 
lilies of the field, from the fowls of Heaven, should 
learn to set forth in deed and work, in form and 
matter, the nature given him by God as place 
and time, rank or calling shall decide, whether 
the result appear at the moment small and 
insignificant or great and mighty. 


Now, all spiritual workings, when they turn Resuuof 
into finite phenomena, demand succession in "hfre^lL 
time. If, therefore, a person at any period of of^^'°P.™*°* 
life, early or late, has neglected to exercise a p°^"^- 
power within him, it is inevitable that at some 
time or other he will experience a want through 
not having unfolded that power ; something will 
not be his, which would have been his, had he 
used all his powers. For, by the universal laws 
under which we are living, that neglected activity 
would have had some result, had it not been 

neglected When a want or failure appears 

there is naught for it but to use resignation, 
and zealously to aim by working with thought 
for the future, to avoid such failure. There is 
then a twofold necessity — inward as well as 
outward, whereof the former includes the latter 
— that the growing human being be led to early 
activity in practical work, that is to creative 

The nursling's unconscious activity of senses The need 
and limbs is the first germ, its earliest conscious uve^wo'ik'in 
bodily action is the bud, the first impulse to •^'*"'^"""- 
improve his play, to build and shape, is the tender 
young blossom, and boyhood is the period 
when man must be fertilised for future industry, 
and activity in work. Every child, and later 
every boy or youth, of whatever rank or condition, 
should spend an hour or two daily in productive 
work. Children, and adults also, are far too 
much occupied to-day with what is unformed 
and shapeless, and too little with simple bodily 
work ; yet to learn from life, and by work, is 

58 THE student's froebel 

far easier, more thorough and in every sense, 
more improving. Children and parents, indeed, 
so undervalue the use of bodily work in itself, 
and for their children's future position, that 
schools will have to make it their serious task to 
set this right. The existing home and school 
training leads children to indolence of body, and 
laziness at work, so this phase of human power 
remains undeveloped, and is wasted to an immense 
degree. In schools it would be most beneficial to 
introduce regular hours for craft-work, as well as 
the lessons of abstract instruction, and this will 
have to be done. Hitherto, through its being 
directed solely to outward and trifling ends, the 
true understanding and value of man's bodily 
force has been lost, 
d^'peii'dence Momcutous as is early training in religion, 62 
andwork" ^^^ ^^^^ important is early training in industry 
and genuine work. At an early age, work, 
conducted with due regard to its inner mean- 
ing, confirms and elevates religion. Religion 
without industry, without labour, may become 
empty dreaming, a shadow without substance ; 
in the same way toil, industry, without religion, 
makes of man a machine, a beast of burden. But 
the power of man has to develop and to operate 
not only within himself, as religion and piety, 
and not only outwardly as labour and industry ; 
it has also to be applied to himself in the form 
of self-control, temperance, frugality. 
The out- For one not wholly devoid of self-knowledge, 63 

come of -' o ' 

human fhis ueeds only to be indicated. Wherever these 

force work- -' 

ing within, three — piety, industry, and self-control, which 


in their essence are one — work together in con- 
cord, there is Heaven upon earth, peace, joy, 
health, grace, and blessing. 
64 Thus, man in the child is to be considered 
as a whole ; thus, the life of mankind, and of 
man, in the childhood of both, are to be viewed as 
one ; thus the whole future activity of the man is 
to be looked upon as having its germ in the child. 
But unity can be realised only by particulars, 
and completeness of realisation needs succession 
in time. Therefore the world and hfe unfold 
to the child, and are developed in it, as particulars 
and in succession. Thus the powers, gifts, and 
dispositions of man, his activities of Umb and of 
sense, are to be developed in succession, and 
in the order in which they make their appearance 
in the child. 


fi?stSn^'* ^^^ new-born human being, the infant, is 65 
the'culer* ^^^ ^^ ^^^ outcr world, which though it is 
'^orid- really what it always was, yet to the child's 
perception comes from nothingness — a misty 
shapeless darkness, a confused chaos — so that 
child and outer world melt one into the other. 
By and by, objects step out of this mist, and 
present themselves before the child. This takes 
place chiefly by the help of words, which soon pass 
from mother to child, first to divide, then again 
to unite, child and outer world. They come at 
first singly and seldom, by and by frequently, 
then with more definite meaning ; till at last the 
human being — the child — appears to itself an 
object distinct from all others. Thus in each 
child, in the history of its spiritual unfolding and 
growth to human consciousness and of its ex- 
periences from birth, we see repeated the history 
of the creation and development of all things, 
as told in Holy Writ, up to the point when man 
finds himself in the garden of God ; the child 
has beautiful nature stretched out before it. 
The demand To make what is internal, external, what 66 

of the ex- . . i -i /» -i 

ternai IS extcmal, mternal, and to find a unity common 

object ; its .... 

satisfaction to both I this IS the general formula to express 

senses. the fuuctiou of man. Therefore every external 

object meets the human being with a demand 

to be known and recognised, in its nature and 

connection, and for this end man possesses 



senses, by means of which this demand can be 
satisfied. Each thing is known by connecting 
67 it with its opposite in the same kind, and by 
finding the union or agreement between them, 
and this knowledge comes to pass more perfectly, 
the more complete is the contrast with its opposite, 
and the more complete the discovery of the 
mediating term. 

71 Step by step, with the unfolding ot the senses, 
is developed the use of body and limbs, and this 
in an order fixed by the nature of the body and 
the qualities of external objects. 

72 The objects of the outer world are, (1) near and useofbody 

11 • • 1 /n and limbs 

at rest, and thus mvite us to keep still, or (2) developed 

. . . . f . ' ^ ' through 

they are m motion, increasing their distance, contact with 
and thus invite us to seize and hold them fast, world. 
or (3) they are fixed at distant places, and invite 
us to move toward them, or bring them nearer 
to us. Thus is unfolded the use of the limbs 
for sitting or reclining, for grasping and seizing, 
for walking and jumping. Standing is the most 
perfect sum of the uses of body and limbs : it is 
the finding of the body's centre of gravity. 

73 At this stage of development the growing 
man is still concerned wholly with the use, the 
employment, the exercise of his body, senses, 
limbs ; not at all with what results from, or is 
produced bv, this use. Of effects, he is perfectly puy needi 

^ -^ 111 i.- watching. 

careless, or more precisely, he has no notion, 
hence the child's playing with his limbs. The 
play begins with hands, lips, tongue and feet, with 
eyes, too, and gestures. At first, this has no inner 

74 meaning, for exhibition of the internal in, and by, 

62 THE student's froebel 

the external, belongs to a later stage. But this 
play, as being the child's first utterance, needs to 
be looked to, lest the child accustom itself to 
meaningless movements of limb, especially of 
face, as twistings of the eyes and mouth. Without 
due care, a division may thus arise between 
gestures and feelings, between body and soul, 
between the outer and the inner, from which 
division, one day, dissimulation may grow or 
the body contract movements, which become 
involuntary, and may go with us through life. 
Care for From carlv days, therefore, children ought not 75 

occupation j j ' o 

whueinbed. to bc left to thcmselvcs in bed or cradle, without 
some external object to occupy them. This is to 
avoid weakening of the body, which is sure to 
produce weakening of the mind. To guard, also, 
against bodily delicacy the child's bed should not 
from the first, be too soft. It should be made 
of hay, fine straw, or chaff, at most of horsehair, 
not of feathers. The child's covering too, during 
sleep, should be light, and admit fresh air. 

At first, Froebel suggested that a caged bird 76 
should be hung up in sight of the waking 
child, afterwards he substituted a coloured 
ball, swinging freely, as equally efficacious 
in drawing the child's attention from itself. 


77 When activity of senses, body and limbs chudhood 
is so far developed that the child begins, of its Sse ol"' 
own accord, to represent outwardly what is*^^^''''- 
within it, the stage of infancy in human develop- 
ment is ended, and the period of childhood is 
begun. Up to this stage, the inner being of man is 
uniform and undifferentiated. With language, 
begins expression and representation of the 

inner being of man ; it [the inner being of man] 
begins to be differentiated into means and ends, 
it breaks up into parts, tries to make itself known, 
to announce itself. The human being endeavours, 
voluntarily, to express and to shape its inner 
nature, in and by means of matter, the concrete. 

78 With the stage of childhood .... man's educa- ^he chiid-s 
tion proper, begins : care for the body being '^"' teacher. 
lessened, care of the mind increases. But the 
education of man, at this stage is still wholly 
committed to the mother, the father, the family ; 

to those with whom, by nature, the child still 
forms an undivided whole. 

79 Among the stages of human development 
there is no gradation of rank, as though one were 
of greater value than another. All are, each 
at its own time and place, equally important ; 

T ir • 1 i_ Importance 

except, mdeed, the earlier ones, which must be ofcwidhood. 
more momentous simply because they have more 
results. Childhood is of first-rate importance, 
because in it, that which connects the child with 




and ex- 
from the 

Speech and 
play the 
of child life. 

its environment, that which first tries to appre- 
hend and interpret this outer world, is developed. 
This stage is of greatest consequence, because, 
for the unfolding human being, it is most momen-^ 
tons whether the outer world appear to it noble, 
or base ; low, dead, only to be made use of, 
consumed and enjoyed by others ; or as having 
itself a purpose, high and vital, spiritual, divine. 
It is of the greatest consequence whether the 
outer world appear to it bright, or gloomy ; 
ennobling and elevating, or humbling and depres- 
sing ; whether it sees the world in its true relations, 
or in false and distorted proportions. Therefore 
at this stage the child is first to look at things 
thoroughly, and next to name them aright, 
distinctly and clearly, the objects themselves, 
then their nature and qualities. It should name 
the relations of objects, as to space and time, 
and to one another, correctly ; each one by its 
right word, and each word clearly in all its parts, 
tone, accent, ending. 

At this stage, speech is still one with the human 
being that speaks ; and the child, when speaking, 
does not separate word and thing, any more than 
body and soul. This is specially shown in play, 
when the child likes to talk as much as it can. 
At this stage, play and speech are the elements in 
which the child lives. It believes that everything 
is able to feel, speak, and hear. Just because 
the child is beginning to express outwardly its 
own inner self, it assumes a like power of ex- 
pression in everything around it, stones, pieces of 
wood, plants, flowers, animals. Thus, at this 


stage the child's own life is developiner ; its life Life with 

• T 1 r -I • T r -11 1-1 Nature the 

With parents and family, its hie with that higher centre of 
and invisible power " in whom we live and move 
and have our being " ; and quite especially does 
its life in and with Nature grow, Nature which it 
feels to possess life like its own. Therefore 
life in and for Nature, love of her still, bright 
objects should be fostered by parents, brothers 
and sisters, as the centre of the whole child-life. 
This is chiefly to be done by means of play, by 
fostering the child's play, which at first is just its 
natural life. 

81 Play is the highest point of human development .^J^yj^^'l^^j 
in the child-stage, for it is the free expression of highest pro- 
the child's inner being. childhood. 

Play is at once the purest, and most spiritual, 
product of the human being at this stage ; it is 
a type and copy of all human life, of the inward 
natural life that is in man and in all things, and 
it brings forth joy, freedom, contentment, rest 
within and without, peace with the world. The 
sources of all good are in play, and come forth 
from it ; a child that plays with vigour, quietly 
active, persevering even to bodily fatigue, will 
surely grow up to be a quietly capable, persevering 
man, who will further his own and other's good, 
by self-sacrifice. What sight more beautiful 
can we find in early childhood, than a child at 
play, a child wholly absorbed in its play, a child 
fallen asleep over its play, because so thoroughly 
absorbed ? 

82 Play, at this age, is not mere sport ; it possesses 
high seriousness and deep meaning. Foster it, 



and deep 
meaning of 
child's play. 

of diet. 

O mother ! shield it, protect it, O father ! In 
the self-chosen games of a little child, the inner 
life of its future may be seen by the calm pene- 
trating gaze of one who has studied mankind. 
The games of childhood are the heart of the life 
plant, for in them the whole man unfolds and 
shows himself in his most delicate gifts, in his 
inner being. The individual's whole life, until he 
leaves it, has its sources in this period. Allowing 
for natural talent and dispositions — on the 
individual's mode of life during childhood, may 
depend, whether his future life shall be clear or 
turbid, gentle or rough, active or idle, rich or poor 
in action ; dully brooding or cheerfully toiling ; 
passed in stupid wonder or intelligent insight ; 
bringing concord or discord, peace or war. The 
child's future relation to father and mother, 
brothers and kinsfolk ; to society and mankind ; 
to nature and God, may depend on its manner 
of life at this age. 

This may seem too absolute an utterance, 
but with thought, and with Froebel's abun- 
dant confirmations, the substantial and most 
momentous truth of this oracular saying will 
In these years of infancy and childhood, food 
and nourishment are of special moment, not 
alone for the time, but also for the child's whole 
future life. Through its diet a child may grow 
up to be, in the business of life, idle or industrious, 
dull or lively, weak or strong. Impressions, 
inclinations, desires — tendencies of feeling, ay, 
even of conduct — which the child has contracted 



by its way of feeding, are not easily laid aside even 
when the human being has come to years of 
discretion ; they are become one wdth its whole 
bodily life, and thus grown into the fabric of its 
sensations and emotions, perhaps even into its 
spiritual life. Therefore let the child's food, 
after it is weaned, be simple and frugal ; as 
little artificial and dainty as possible ; above 
all, not tempting or exciting through prominent 
flavour ; not too rich, so as to clog the inner 
-84 organs. Parents, and all who have the care of 
children, should hold fast as a universal truth, 
out of which each special rule proceeds, that 
the simpler and more moderate, the more suited 
to unspoiled human-nature, are the food and 
all bodily surroundings in which the man as child 
grows up, the happier and stronger, the more 
properly creative in every direction, will the 
adult become. 

In a child, that has been over-excited by excess evUs 

/. f 1 . . , 1 • 1 1 arising from 

of food, m quantity too much, or too highly m-co..- 

n 1 1 r 1 • r 1 I- , si.ierod dift 

flavoured, may be often seen desires of a low kind in childhood, 
from which it never gets free ; desires, which if 
they seem to subside, are but slumbering, to return 
with greater violence when opportunity offers, 
and which threaten to rob the man of his dignity, 
and tear him from his duty. Did parents but 
consider, how much not only of future persoucd 
advantage to their children, but of domestic 
happiness, even of civic well-being, would flow 
[from this simplicity] how differently they would 
act ! But in one case the mother is foolish, in 
another the father is weak ; and we see poison 

6— (957) 

68 THE student's froebel 

upon poison given to children, in all shapes and 
ways, coarse and fine. On the one hand, it is 
oppressive quantity, the continual giving of food, 
and the leaving the body no time to digest ; 
perhaps, feeding, just to drive away the ennui 
which comes of want of occupation. On the other, 
it is food of too luxurious a quality, which only 
stimulates the physical life without contributing 
to mental or other higher vitality, and thus 
acts to weaken and wear out the body. Here, 
bodily laziness is looked on as a call for rest ; 
there, restlessness, the result of physical 
over-excitement, is taken for genuine liveliness 
of spirits. 
Thefounda- Simpler, far simpler than we think, is the 85 

tion of r ^ • t r -i • > 

humanity's loundatiou aud progress of humanity s true 

true welfare _ • ttr ^ n t 

i5 far simpler welfare aud happmess. We have all the means 
think. thereto, easy and near at hand, but we see them 
not, or if we see, we heed them not ; because, 
being so simple, so natural, so easily applied, so 
near at hand, they are too cheap for us, we despise 
them, and we seek, afar off, help that can come 
only from ourselves. Thus, by and by, the half or 
the whole of a considerable fortune is not enough to 
procure for our children what, when our insight 
is become clearer, we have to acknowledge is best 
for them. Now they cannot have at all, or never 
fully, what would have come to them as it were 
of itself if we had — not spent more upon them ! 
no, no ! — but expended much less on the care of 
their bodies ! If every young couple could but 
know one sad instance, so as vividly to see the 86 
small and seemingly unimportant cause of results 


which threaten to frustrate all subsequent educa- \ 
tion. A teacher is compelled to meet hundreds 
of such experiences, but his knowledge helps him 
little to repair in future life the consequences 
of early errors, for who does not know the terrible 
power of impressions made in youth ! Yet it is The right 
easy to avoid the wrong course in this matter, to uve ! nol 
it is easy to find the right. Let food be always '*''' *° '^*- 
the means of nourishment, not more, not less ; let 
food never be an end in itself, but solely the 
means to maintain activity of body and mind. 
On no account let the quahty of food, its flavour 
or delicacy, be an aim in itself, but only means 
to the end, that is, to give pure, wholesome 

88 In order that the human being — the child — The chiia-s 
may be unhampered in body and mind, free to '^'°''''"s. 
move about and play, free to grow and develop, 

its clothing must not be tight, or binding ; for such 
clothing will in turn confine and fetter the mind. 
Clothes — their shape, hue, and fashion — must 
never appear an end in themselves, else they will 
soon draw the child away from its true self, 
make it vain and outward, a doll instead of a 
child, a puppet in place of a human being. Cloth- 
ing is therefore by no means unimportant, either 
for the child or for the adult. 

89 Thus, to waken and develop in the human The mother 

, . .... , . , as conscious 

bemg every power, every disposition of mind, teacher of 
to enable each limb and organ to fulfil the demands 
of these inner gifts and powers, is the goal which 
parents must work towards by care of their chil- 
dren, at home in the family circle. Without any 

70 THE student's froebel 

teaching, reminding, or learning, the true mother 
does all this herself. But that is not enough : 
in addition she, being herself conscious, and 
acting upon a creature that is growing conscious, 
should do her part consciously and consistently, 
as in duty bound to guide the human being in 
its regular development. 

With an apology for doing with masculine 
clumsiness, what " the simplest mother " 
would do better, Froebel depicts a mother 
teaching her babe to know, first by touch, then 
by name, all its limbs and senses ; helping 
it to perceive their qualities and differences ; 
arousing its caution towards things hot, 
or sharp ; making every little action — 
washing and dressing, enjoying food — a lesson 
first of things, then of words. 

While admitting that mothers may be 91 
helped by experience of others as to order 
and place, Froebel asserts with much plain- 
ness that to quit for artificial, formal teaching, 
the natural and divine beginnings of all 
human development — in the mother's arms, 
at the mother's knee — is to seek help of 
human wisdom and human wit when we have 
lost God and Nature. 
The ineffi- Artificial, formal training, is a card house 
thTSschfef wherein a mother's instinctive ways find no place, 
trafnin^:"^ and divlue workings no room ; while the slightest 
expression of the child's joy and eagerness over- 
turns it, for if it is to stand at all the child must 
be fettered in mind if not in body. 

Where do we find ourselves then ? In the 


nurseries of word- wise, so-called educated people, 
who have little belief in there being already in the 
httle child something which, if the child is ever 
to thrive, must be unfolded early ; and who are 
yet more ignorant of the fact that the germs of 
all that the child may one day become, are 
already within it. 
92 Let us return where the children's room is The mother 
the mother's room too, where mother and child firstfeacher 
are still one, where the mother does not like to '""^'"*'°"*- 
give up her child to a stranger, and see how a 
mother shows it objects and their movements. 
" Hark ! the .bird whistles. The dog says, 
' bow-wow.' " 

Here Froebel gives examples of the method 

whereby a true mother leads her child from 

sounds to names, gives ideas of motion — 

place — time, which are really germs of 

abstract thinking. What is still more 

important, she awakens feehngs of kindness 

for things that feel, and fosters love for the 

child's nearest and dearest : and all, by 

means of artless lessons, on objects that are 

always present in a healthy child's life. 

95 Besides the social feeling, out of which so importance 

much that is precious develops, mother s love — the '";"*"8 of 

all-comprehending mother heart — seeks to bring 

to the child's own consciousness, the life that is 

in it. This she effects, and the manner is of great 

importance, by regular rhythmic movements, so 

called " dandling " the child on her arm and 

hand, in time to regular rhythmic sounds. Thus, 

a true mother gently follows up the life that 

72 THE student's froebel 

is springing everywhere in her child, strengthens 
it, and thus wakens and unfolds more and more 
the wider life that still slumbers within it. 
Others, formal artificial child-trainers, assume 
a vacuum in the child, and try to put Ufe into it ; 
make it as empty as they believe it to be, and 
give it death. And so this rhythmical movement 
with rhythmical sound comes to nothing, because 
its importance not having been recognised, it 
is not developed in agreement with life and nature, 
and joined to further training. If used as means 
of training in speech and song, it would simply 
and naturally help to unfold what is rhythmic, and 
law-abiding, in all expressions of human life .... 
As teachers we lose much, but the child as pupil 
and as human being, loses more, through disuse 
of such rhythmical orderly movement, in early 
training. Were it retained, the child would more 
easily grasp the orderly proportions of its Hfe ; 
much of caprice, incoherence, and rudeness, would 
disappear from conduct, action, and movement ; 
more accord and measure would appear therein ; 
and by and by a finer taste would develop for 
nature and art, music and poetry. 
First ex- Scusible, thoughtful mothers have remarked 97 

pression of '-' 

sense for likewisc, that little children when quiet, especially 
when going to sleep, often sing to themselves. 
This should be attended to and developed by those 
who have charge of children, as the first germ 
of a sense of melody and power of song. Were this 
done, a disposition for melody would soon show 
itself as it does at present for language. Children 
whose speech-faculty has been naturally developed 


and improved, choose words to express new 
notions, peculiar relations of hitherto unobserved 
qualities, of their own accord. Thus a very 
Uttle girl, who had had a simple training from her 
mother, after long and carefully feeling and look- 
ing at some leaves covered with thick soft hairs, 
cried out joyfully to her mother, " Oh ! how 
woolly ! " The mother could not recollect having 
ever pointed out such a quahty to the child. The 
same child, one starlight night, saw the two 
brightest planets very near to one another in the 
sky. " Father and Mother stars ! " she cried 
out joyously, in the quiet night ; yet her mother 
could not in the least tell how such an idea had 
been awakened in her. 
98 No artificial means should be used to get the The chud 

<-' learns to 

infant to stand, or to walk. The child should "^'^ ^/i^ 

' walk of Its 

stand when it has the strength, voluntarily and o>^" a^-^rci, 
independently, to hold itself upright ; and it 
should walk as soon as, moving of its own accord, 
it can keep its balance without help. The child 
is not to stand till it can sit upright, raise 
itself by means of some tall object near, and thus 
at least, unaided, support itself. It is not to walk 
till it can crawl, raise itself without help, keep 
its own balance, and thus go forward. At first, 
having raised itself on its feet at some distance 
from its mother, it will try to walk back to her 
lap. Soon it feels strength in its own feet, and 
repeats its newly acquired art of walking for the 
pleasure of it, as it did before the art of standing. 
Again, a little while, and it practises the art 

74 THE student's froebel 

McVKe' Now a coloured, round, bright pebble catches 
interests^"* the iufaut's attention, or it may be a fluttering 
morsel of tinted paper, a smooth, regular, three- 
or-four-cornered piece of wood, little right-angled 
blocks for building, a leaf, remarkable in shape, 
or hue. Thus attracted, the child, with its newly 
acquired use of limbs, tries to make them its own, 
to bring like and like together, and to separate 
the unlike. Behold the child that can only just 
hold itself upright, and has to move with the 
utmost caution ; it sees a twig, a straw, fetches 
it toilsomely, like a bird for its nest in the spring. 
The rain dropping from the roof has washed 
little smooth, coloured stones out of the soil, 
and the child's all-heeding sight leads it to collect 
them like bricks for a future building ; and is it 
wrong ? Surely, is not the child gathering 
material for its future life-building ? 
lolfke/up^o Our part as parents, trainers, is — while let- 99 
llefetT ting a little child do all it can, by itself — to help 
to find what it cannot find for itself, to interpret 
for it what is left when it has worked out all it can. 
It is a yearning for this help and sympathy 
which drives the child to us, its elders, who 
think, sometimes, sadly : How can we give 
speech to the objects of the child's life, when to 
us they are dumb ? It is with the most earnest 
desire that we should do this, that the babe 
brings its treasure in clasped hands and lays it 
in our lap. It wants it to get warm there, and 
. then tell him all about itself. To the child 
everything is dear that comes within its small 
horizon, that widens its narrow world ; the 


smallest thing is to it a new discovery. But it 
must not come lifeless into the child's world, it 
must not stay there lifeless, else the small horizon 
is darkened, the young world smothered. 

So the child would hke to know all the proper- Experiment 
ties, the inmost being of its newly-found treasure, cover'^y'^n 
It is for this that a little child twists and turns hood.'''"''' 
the object in all directions, tears it up, breaks it 
into fragments, bites, or tries to bite it, to pieces. 
We blame the child for being naughty and silly, 
it is wiser than we who find fault. The child 
seeks to know the inmost nature of everything. 
It is pressed on to this by an impulse, assuredly 
not of its own giving, the impulse, which rightly 
understood and guided, seeks to know God in 
all His works. God has given it understanding, 
reason, speech ; and the elders around doing 
nothing, where can it, or should it, look for the 
satisfaction of its impulse, but in the thing itself ? 
True — the thing when pulled to pieces is still 
silent ; but at least when thus divided, it shows 
like or unlike parts, whether it be the stone 
broken to bits or the petal-plucked flower ; and 
to the child this is an extension of knowledge. 
Froebel points out that this is but the child's 
form of observation and experiment whereby 
adults learn the qualities of objects, the 
inner constitution of plant and mineral. The 

When the teacher at his desk does this and {o st[cMssfui 
calls on our children to do it, we see its meaning caused by 
and value, but not till then ; we overlook it in atVome^'of 
the child's own doings. Therefore it is that the J^.Vtai"'^'* 
best teacher's clearest words so often miss our^^ntT 

76 THE student's froebel 

children, for the pupils have to learn first at 
school what childhood's years, with a word of 
encouragement and explanation from us, should 
have taught them. It takes very little trouble 
for those around to supply what childhood asks ; 
just to name, to put into words, what the child 
does, aims at, beholds, or finds. Rich is the 
inner life of a child as it approaches boyhood, 
and we see it not ; intense is its life, and we feel 
it not ; adapted to the claims of its destiny and 
vocation, but when a man we guess it not. Fail- 
ing to nurture and develop the inner germs of the 
child's life, we let it sink, discouraged, under the 
burden of its own endeavour, and grow dull ; 
or it breaks loose at some weak point, and then 
we see wrong inclinations and impulses in the 
child, like morbid outgrowths. We should be 
glad now to direct the growth otherwise, but it 
is too late ; the infant life that would have led 
naturally on to boyhood we misunderstood and 
Birth and With woudcrful insight and sympathy, 100 

Dr''aw\ng Frocbel portrays the birth and growth of 

Us ^werTo the drawiug instinct. A little child has found a 

under°sta!!d- coloured stoue, a bit of chalk or red-ochre, apd 

"'^' trying it on the nearest surface, delights first 

in the colour, next in the lines it draws, 
straight, twisted, slanting : by and by it 
perceives that objects about it are apparently 
bounded by lines. 
A new world opens to it within and without, 
for what man tries to represent he begins to 


101 Froebel holds that this use and appreciation 
of the linear soon connects itself with ideas 
of invisible force, direction, motion, a baU 
rolling, a stone falling, water running in 
little channels, make lines. Talking as it 
draws, we soon hear from the little child, 
" There runs a brook ; here flies a bird ; 
my tree has another branch, and another." 
Give the child a piece of chalk, and a new 
creation soon appears for it and you. And 
if papa draws a man or a horse with a few 
strokes, this man or horse of lines will please 
it more than the real ones. 

102 In this matter, how should a mother guide 
her child ? The child will show her the way. 

She wiU see it pass its hand along the edge of 
table or chair ; it is drawing the object on 
itself, and thereby learning to appreciate 
form. Objects of manageable size — a pill- 
box, scissors, its own hand, a leaf — will 
be placed on a flat surface, and travelled 

103 round with a finger. Without the smallest 
artistic talent, a heedful mother can help 
the child to draw straight lines : vertical, 
oblique, horizontal. Froebel insists that all 
the child's doing should be connected with 
words, what it draws should be named, for — 

The sign stands properly half-way between the 
object and the word. 

Drawing is just as natural to a child as speaking, 
and ought to be just as carefully trained. Experi- 
ence shows this in every child's impulse to draw, 
and its pleasure in drawing. 

78 THE student's froebel 

Sense of Helped, Froebel thinks, by drawing, the 

number ^ ^ i • ^ 't->i 

awakes in sense for number begins to awake. The 

with draw- child's figures have two legs, two arms ; 


its table, four legs ; the child itself possesses 

two eyes, five fingers, and so on. From the 

first, the mother should help this development, 

and many examples are given, how she is to 

follow the movements of her child's mind, 

giving just the needed word or hint, never 

forcing aid upon it where it can help itself. 

The seed of Wheu a chiM has been rightly led, and truly 115 

manh^d cared for, to the end of its child life and the 

pra'i'nated eutrauce into boyhood, we find in it a wonderful 

o^chudhS^d wealth and freshness of inner and outer life. 

There is not an object of manhood's thought or 

feeling which has not its root in childhood ; not 

a subject of future instruction and learning but 

its germ is planted there. Speech and Nature 

lie open to the child ; the properties of number, 

form, size ; the knowledge of space, and the 

nature of force. The effects of different substances 

are beginning to open to it, so also rhythm, tone, 

colour and shape, which are specially noticeable. 

The natural and artificial worlds begin to be 

clearly discriminated ; it meets the outer world 

as certainly distinct from itself, and the feeling 

of an inner world of its own arises. 

The child's We have, so far, overlooked an entire region of 

unfolded by chiM-life before it comes to boyhood, the way 

theoccupa- in wliich it follows father and mother, brother 

tions of the . • i i i i • i i 

famuy. or sister, m household occupation, or the employ- 
ment of their calling. The unfoldings of faculty, 
for the child's present and future, that come from 


its sharing the parents' work, are numberless : 
and more would come, if those about the children 
heeded and used these opportunities better 
[not, however, for direct teaching, but for letting 
the children learn]. An unspoiled child, healthy 
in soul and body, leads a true father — and the 
careful father leads the child, who is always 
looking for mental and bodily activity — from 
the country into the town, from nature to art, 
from handicraft indoors to gardening and field 
work. However different be the starting-point 
every one can learn something of another's 
knowledge from, and combine it with, what he 
himself knows. Whatever the trade, handicraft 
or calling of the father, it may form the first step 
on the ladder of all human knowledge. 

The child, your child, O father, has a deep The father-* 
and true feeling of what it may gain and learn from dealing with 
you, if you will let it ! That is why it keeps near dren's 

, , ^ , . questions. 

you, wherever you are, whatever you are domg. 
Do not send it away ungently, do not drive it 
from you, be not impatient of its continual 
questioning : with every cross, repelling word 
you destroy a bud, a shoot of its life-tree. But 
do not answer in words, where it can answer 
itself, without your word. Easier it is, to be 
sure, to hear — perhaps only half hear, and half 
understand — an answer, than to look for, and 
find it, for oneself. But an imperfect answer, 
which the child finds for itself, is worth more 
than half-hearing, half-understanding a grown-up 

As soon as it has strength and experience, 

80 THE student's froebel 

give it the conditions of the question, and let 
it make out the answer, by its own observation 
and reason. 
wuro'^'*^" Let us then quietly consider, we who are 122 
the due to ' fathers, for at this age when the child is rising into 
training":'^ boyliood, he is especially given to the father's 
care and guidance, the joys we should gain by ful- 
filling our fatherly duty. No higher joy, no 
greater enjoyment can come to us from any 
source than comes from guiding our children 
— living for our children. 

Could we but see a father, in the midst of a 123 
healthy, happy family, in a simple home, practis- 
ing in his own way what is here partly described, 
this truth would penetrate us deeply. Such a 
father gives the clue to his actions in very few words : 
" The first and weightiest point in children's 
training is to lead them to reflect ! " To put his 
children early to work would, with such a father, 
go without saying. This motto is a seed, whence 
the whole of life, like a shady evergreen tree, 
will unfold itself, full of fragrant bloom, and ripe, 
wholesome fruits. Let us listen to this — we, who 
let our children move about us, thoughtless, 
with nothing to do, and therefore but half alive. 
This is a hard saying, but it is true. Let us cast 124 
a searching look into our own life and conversation 
with our children. 

In words of deep feeling, which will hardly 
bear translating into our everyday English, 
Froebel points out that average parents 
are so httle alive to nature, so unobservant 
of what goes on in their children's minds and 


hearts, that they cannot give them, in 
practice, the help which he knows could be 
given. Let us then, he exhorts, learn from 
them what they need. 

Truth shines through the severe words in 
which Froebel denounces our common lan- 
guage of social life, as " husks without 
kernel, puppets without life," because it 
has not the basis of intuition, or reality. 
If things always came before words, if our 
speech were the growth of life, made inwardly 
and outwardly rich by seeing and working, 
instead of being " learned out of book, at 
third or fourth hand," then, Froebel says, 
our speech would be warm, not cold, solid, not 
hollow. At present, in our speech, " In- 
tuition of the thing, connoted by the word " 
is lacking, and this, his teaching of things 
by work is meant to supply. 
Let us live with our children, let them live with Let us leam 

• 1 1 Ti r from our 

US, so shall we gam through them what all of us chudren. 
need. Come, parents ; let us give to our children, 
let us procure for them what we ourselves lack ! 
What we no longer possess — the all-animating, all- 
shaping force of child-life — let it flow from them, 
into our own lives ! Let us learn from our 
children, let us give ear to the gentle monitions 
of their life, let us yield to the silent claims their 
feelings make upon us. Let us live for our 
children : thus will our children's life bring us 
peace and joy ; thus shall we begin, ourselves, 
to grow wise, to be wise. 

Hailmann, in a note (pp. 89, 90) to his most 

82 THE student's froebel 

valuable translation of the Menschen- 
Erziehung, has suggested an extension of 
meaning for this noted motto of Froebel 
" lasst uns unsern Kindern leben," which 
may, or may not, be properly contained in 
the German, but is assuredly accordant with 
all the master's principles. He prefers, " Let 
us Uve with our children," which " implies 
on our part sympathy with childhood, 
adaptability to children, knowledge and 
, appreciation of child-nature." 


125 In the stage of human development already chiid-s 
considered, objects of the material world were standing of 

1-1 1 11 J '^^ relation 

mtimately connected with words, and by words between 
again with the human being. Childhood was, object, to be 

r 1 1 • 1 enlarged in 

therefore, specially the season for developmg the the boy 
faculty of speech. Whatever the child did was 
connected with a name, in distinct, simple words. 
For the child, each object, each thing, came into 
existence by means of the word. Though seen by 
the bodily eye, an object did not exist for the 
child until named ; word and thing, hke stem 
and pith, bough and twig, seemed and were one. 
Notwithstanding this intimate union of objects 
with words, and through them with man, each 
object in this stage of development remains 
distinct from others, and each thing is an un- 
divided whole. Now the destination of man 
and of things asks for something beyond this. 

Man is not to consider each thing as a whole, 

one and indivisible, but as organic, with a 

purpose in its existence. 

Not only the outer relations of each thing, but 

its inner connections, its inner union with that 

from which it is outwardly divided, have to be 


126 The whole of what surrounds man, the outer- 
world, cannot be recognised at once in its unity, 
but only through knowledge of each object's own 
nature and essence. Separation from an object 


7— (957) 

84 THE student's froebel 

often reveals union and aids understanding. 
Thus, alas ! we know many foreign things — 
foreign countries, foreign times, foreign peoples — 
better than our own neighbourhood, our owti 
time, ourselves. If a man desires to know 
himself truly, he must set himself outside, as 
it were over against, himself. If, then, man is to 
know aright, to enter into the being of each object 
of the world about him as it is meant that he 
should ; if he is, through each thing, to know 
aright, to comprehend, himself ; then, as soon as 
the childhood-stage is past, a new sphere of 
development must open for him, and in an oppo- 
site direction. That earlier stage united man 
and object ; the later separates man from 
object, contrasts man and object with each other 
outwardly, while inwardly bringing them nearer 
and uniting them. This is the stage in which 
language itself comes forth as independent, as 
existing for its own sake. We are now entering 127 
upon this stage. It is by this division of name 
from thing, and of thing from name ; of speech 
from speaker, and vice versh ; moreover by what 
follows later, the giving a visible body to speech, 
by means of drawing and writing, and the treating 
language as something objective that man rises 
from the stage of Childhood to that of Boyhood. 
Boyhood Just as the former stage of human development 128 
acquisition, cousisted iu Hfe for its own sake, and aimed at 
externalising the internal, so the present. Boyhood 
is pre-eminently the stage of intemaHsing the 
external, the stage of acquisition. 

On the parents' side, the nursling stage is 


chiefly the time of care to see that the 
httle being takes no harm. The next age — 
shall we say, from two or three to seven 

129 years ? — is that in which training should 
prevail ; the child is watched and helped to 
express itself ; naturally and not school- 
mastered or taught by force. The stage of 
boyhood is the period devoted to instruction. 

130 Instruction depends not so much on the laws ^f e"je|j"" 
which govern man per se, as on those which on^^u"'versa! 
govern things, man of course among them, — on 

the universal law, which expresses itself in every 
object outside of man, and by conditions inde- 
pendent of man. Instruction, therefore, has to be 
carried on with all attainable knowledge, insight, 
circumspection, and purpose. Such a course is 
School in the fullest sense of the word. 

School is where the human being is led up to. Definition 

, , , r ? • • J °^ School. 

and attams the knowledge of objects outside 
himself ; learns their nature as determined by 
laws special to them, and by general laws. The 
boy at once becomes a scholar. Boyhood 
coincides with school-age, whether the schooling 
be at home or abroad, under the father, 
or some other member of the family, or under a 
teacher by profession. By the word school, 
therefore, we understand neither schoolroom 
nor lesson time, but the conscious imparting of 
varied knowledge, for a conscious end, with 
conscious inner connexion. _. 


131 The development and culture of man that he continuous 

r nature ol 

may attain his destiny and fulfil his vocation, man-s^ 
has always been and still is, a whole, steadily mem. 



Growth of 
the boy's • 
desire to 

advancing, rising unbroken from step to step. 
Out of the social feeling aroused in the nursling, 
grow impulse and inclination in the child ; these 
again lead to unfolding of heart and disposition ; 
and thence, in the boy, grow activity of intellect 
and will. To raise activity of will into firmness, 
to mould and animate a pure, firm, enduring will, 
that it may realise and practise genuine manliness, 
is the chief aim and final goal of the boy's training 
by school and instruction. Thus boyhood's 132 
training rests wholly on the child's training, 
activity of will grows out of heart-activity, 
steadiness of will comes from steadiness of heart, 
and, where this latter is wanting, the former will 
be hard to attain. But the manifestation of a 133 
genuine good heart, of a thoughtful reverent 
mind in the child is the fervent inward endeavour 
to find for the outwardly separated things, which 
it sees around it, the same inner necessary unity 
which it bears within itself, to find for them also 
an all-animating bond of spiritual oneness, like 
that of which it is itself conscious ; a bond and 
law, by which they acquire the significance of 
living things and a significance for life. 

The natural training of man in the child- 
stage is effected, we have seen, by play — 
natural, varied play. 
In play, the child is placed at the centre of 
things, and all things exist only in reference to 
it ; but only in family life can a good heart and 
humbly thoughtful mind be fully unfolded and 
cultivated, and these are unspeakably momentous 
for every succeeding stage of each individual 


life, and for the whole life of humanity. The 
child refers everything to family life, and sees 

134 all things in it as in a mirror. Its own family 
life is regarded objectively, and becomes a model. 

Whatever is done at home, is right : wherein 

others differ, they are wrong ! 
So, as it sees its parents and the elder members 
of the family working, doing useful things ; sees, 
among neighbours, grown-up people labouring, 
creating ; it wants to try and do what it sees 
them doing. That which in the little child was 
action for action's sake, becomes in the boy, 
activity for the sake of doing, producing something. 
The child's impulse of activity has unfolded in 
the boy, into a formative impulse, a desire to 
create ; and this desire becomes the strongest 
visible characteristic of the boy. 

135 At this stage, boy and girl begin to take delight f„^^'^JJJ^° 
in trying to share father's or mother's work : ^jj^'^^jf^g 
not play work, no ! work that calls for exertion, [^g'^*^^,^. 

With yet more earnestness than before, 

Froebel entreats parents to be careful not 

to thwart, not to discourage, this most 

precious impulse. 

Beware of saying, " Go away ! you tease me ! " 

or " I am in a hurry ; let me do it myself." If 

such rebuffs take place but a few times, the boy 

will never again of his own accord offer help. He 

will stand about idling, even where he sees his 

parents at work, in which he could give help. 

Who has not heard parents complain of children 

thus treated ? They say, " When the boy, or girl, 

was small and could do no good, it was busy about 

88 THE student's froebel 

everything ; now, when it has some knowledge 
and strength, it prefers doing nothing." 

The boy or girl does not ask, does not consider, 
why its help was at one time useful, at another 
useless ; it chooses the easiest way, and gives up 
caring to be useful. Therefore, if parents wish 
for their children's help hereafter, let them early 
cherish their children's active instincts ; and 
especially this formative impulse of boyhood, 
even if it do cost them a little self-command and 
sacrifice, like good seed in good soil, it will bring 
forth a hundred-fold. Strengthen, develop, 
confirm it. 
Knowledge jj-^e ^oy wauts to share the home-labour — to 136 

comes to the -J 

f°eech'^°"^^ be lifting, drawing, carrying water, splitting 
wood. He wants to try his own strength on 
everything, that his frame may grow stronger, 
and that he may know what he can do. The boy 
follows his father everywhere, into garden, field, 
and wood, goes with him into the workshop, 
tends the animals, or mends the tools, sharing 
whatever the father has to do. Question upon 
question springs from the boy's heart, which is 
athirst for knowledge. " How ? Why ? When ? 
Whence ? What for ? " And any tolerably 
complete reply opens up to the boy a new world, 
speech brings him into touch with all things, 
de^iighu'n '^^^ healthy boy, simply brought up, never 137 
difficulties, avoids or tries to escape an obstacle, a difficulty : 
he looks for them, he overcomes them. " Let it 
be," cries the lad, when his father wants to move 
a piece of timber out of his way : " let it be, I'll 
get over it." It is hard to get over, but he does 


it ; and with increased strength and courage he 
goes back, chmbs over the obstacle again, and soon 
skips over it, as though nothing were in the way. 
Hence comes his bold, venturesome strength ; 
he creeps into caves and clefts, climbs trees and 
hills, searches heights and depths, wanders in 
woods and fields. The hardest is easy, and the 
most dangerous safe, because the impulse to it 
comes out of the inner nature, the heart, the will. 
138 Alongside with this impulse to use, try, and xhe love of 
measure his own powers, something else drives the'^oy^ *" 
the boy into considerations of height, depth, and 
distance. A need is growing out of his inner life to 
survey the manifold ; to see, as a whole, what is 
divided, especially to bring near what is distant, 
to understand distance, multiplicity, everything ! 
The climbing of a new tree is to the boy the 
discovery of a new world. Seen from above, every- 
thing looks quite different from what it does 
when seen crowded and foreshortened, on the 
level. Could we recall the feelings that widened 
our soul and heart when as boys we saw [from tree- 
top] the narrowing bounds of common view 
disappear, we should not so coldly call out to him 
" Come down : you will fall ! " Ought we not 
— do we not — wish to give our boy this uplifting 
of spirit and mind betimes ? Shall he not, on 
sunUt height, clear his vision, widen his heart, 
by a look into distance ? " But the boy will 
be foolhardy ; I shall never have a moment's 
peace about him." The boy, who, from his first 
years has been led as his strength grew to use it, 
will each time expect from himself just a little 



The boy's 
may be seed 
of futiire 

The boy's 
instinct, and 
need for 
space and 

more than he has already done, and thus, as 
though led by a protecting genius, \\dll come safely 
through all dangers. 

Another boyish taste should be gently 139 
treated — not ruthlessly crushed. This is the 
love of making his way into caves and glens, 
dark grove or wood, " to seek the undis- 
covered, behold the unseen, bring to light 
what was in darkness." He will come back 
with precious spoil of new plants or stones — 
perhaps creatures not found near home. 
Then, numberless questions are asked, and 
every answer widens and enriches his world. 
Parents are warned not to cry out, at sight of 
grub, beetle, or lizard, " Fie ! throw it down ; 
it is horrid, it will sting you." If the boy 
obey, he flings away with it a portion of 
his human strength : for later, when you, 
or his owTi reason, say, " It is a harmless crea- 
ture," he will still shrink from it, and thus a 
portion of knowledge is wasted. You may 
caution him against handling animals that 
he does not know, especially for their sakes. 
But our energetic boy will not be found always 140 
on the heights, or in the depths. The same 
endeavour to get round, over, and in sight of 
things that took him to hill and dale, is with him 
on the plain. See ! there at the edge of his 
father's ground, he makes a little garden ; there, 
in the wheel-rut, or by the ditch, he mimics the 
course of a river ; here, he gets a nearer and 
clearer view of the fall and pressure of water by 
his own little water-wheel ; now he studies the 


floating of a bit of thin wood, or bark, on the 
water which he has banked into a pool. The 
boy at this age, too, is so fond of occupying 
himself with any kind of shapeable matter, such 
as sand or clay, that we might call it a vital 
element for him. Having once gained the feeling 
of power he seeks to rule over matter, to control 
it, everything must submit to his impulse of 
shaping and forming. In a hillock he will have a 
cellar, or a cave, and upon it a garden, or a bench. 
Boards, branches, laths, and poles make him a 
hut ; deep snow is heaped into walls and ramparts, 
for a fortress ; the rough stones on a height form 
a castle. Thus each one shapes his own world, 
for the feeling of strength that is one's own, soon 
requires the possession of a space and material 
that is one's own. The boy at this age, must have 
a real, material centre of his own. Let the 
boy's realm, his province, be a corner of the 
garden, the house, or the room, the space of a 
band-box, a trunk, or a drawer ; let it be a 
cave, a hut, a garden-plot. Best of all let it be 
self-made, or self-chosen. 

When the space to fill is large, the province to to occupy a 

'^ . larger space, 

rule great, or the whole to represent many-sided, co-operation 
a brotherly union of those with like tastes comes 
in ; and when like-minded ones meet and their 
hearts respond, then either the work already 
begun is extended, or a new work is undertaken 
in common. 

Froebel's full description of the work of happy 
boys is omitted for lack of space. Sketching 
what was no doubt before his eyes in his 

92 THE student's froebel 

own " much-used pupil room," he tells us 
of a quiet little boy building a chapel, with 
altar and cross, in one corner ; two others 
raising a castle on a chair, used for a rock, 
while on the plain — the floor — is a village. 141 
They inspect and admire each other's work. 
Another time, one has made a landscape 
with clay and moss ; another a cardboard 
house ; a third has been carving boats out 
of walnut-shells. Apart, they look well ; 
how much better, together ! So the house is 
placed upon a hill, and the boats are set to 
swim on the lake, and the youngest brings 
his shepherd and sheep to pasture by the 
chudren— of At thls agc, it is most desirable that children 142 

school-age — 

should have shouM cultivate gardens of their own ; and for 

gardens to 

cultivate, useful production, too. Thus, first, the 
human being sees the fruits of his own labour. 
For, though subject to laws of nature which he 
cannot control, he sees the results depend much 
on his own activity. Thus the boy's life with 
Nature, his questions about her, his longing to 
become acquainted with her, get fuU and varied 
satisfaction. If the boy cannot have a garden 
of his own, at least a few plants in a box or in 
pots should be his ; not choice or rare flowers, 
difficult to manage, but hardy plants, abundant 
in leaves and bloom, 
im^rtin?" '^^^ pl^y, or voluutary occupation, of this 143 
for mind as school-age docs uot wholly consist of mere repre- 
sentation of objects, many games are simply for the 
trial, comparison, and display of strength. 

for mind ; 
well as body 


Such are — everywhere — running, wresthng, 
sparring, games of war and hunting ; for the 
British boy, boxing, hockey, football, cricket. 
In such games the boy becomes aware of his own 
strength, feels it grow and improve in himself and 
his comrades, and is thus filled with vivid and 
eager pleasure. Nor is it by any means bodily 
strength alone that finds solid nutriment in these 
games ; the mental and moral forces are thereby 
raised, confirmed, even more, if possible, than 
the physical. Justice, moderation, self-control, 
truth, faithfulness, kindness, and strict im- 
partiahty, too, are fostered. Does not every one 
who approaches boys at play [that is, such as 
have had fair chances in infancy and childhood] 
scent the fragrance of these flowers of heart, 
and mind, and will ? Bright-coloured, if less 
fragrant blossoms, too, are there : courage, 
endurance, resolution, presence of mind, along 
with sharp penalty, perhaps expulsion, for the 
too easy-going and lazy. If you love to inhale 
a fresh, a refreshing, breath of life, visit such a 
playground. Nor are yet tenderer blossoms 
absent. Those who know how to look for them 
will find pity, patience, help, encouragement to those 
younger, more delicate in health, weaker by no 
fault of their own, or to those who are new to the 
game. All this ought to be considered by those sociai games 
who scarcely approve, only just endure, that play- social ufe. 
grounds should have a place in the education of 
144 Every parish ought to have a special playground 
for its boy-world ; and the results to the whole 

94 THE student's froebel 

community would be admirable. The games of 
this stage of life are, when possible, social ; there- 
fore they tend to form and unfold social feeling, 
the laws and claims of society. The boy wants 
to see himself in his fellows, to feel himself in them, 
to measure and weigh himself by them, thus to 
know himself by them and in them ; so these 
social games prepare directly for life, they waken 
and nourish many civic virtues. 
Indoor But the scasous and other circumstances may 145 

occupations, j^^j^^j^j. ^j^g ^^y ^ whcu frcc of home and school 

duties, from using his strength in the open air ; and 
the boy is never to be idle on any account. There- 
fore, various indoor occupations make an essential 
part of boy-life and boy-training, especially 
what one calls handiwork : e.g., construction in 
paper and cardboard, etc. 
From the But thcrc is iu man another endeavour, another 146 

des^ire to lougiug, auothcr demand of the heart, which 
the° presr^ is not to bc Satisfied by any or all of these material 
thel)as"t, ° occupations. The present, with all its fullness 
dem"andfor aud wcalth, docs uot sufficc him. From seeing 
htltor^.^^"'^' that something is, to-day, he infers that some- 
thing was, in the past. He would like to know 
the reason, the cause, which is gone, of what 
now exists ; he wants the remains of olden times 
to tell him about themselves, and their causes, 
and their own time. Cannot every one remember, 
that, when in his riper boyhood he saw old 
walls, and towers, the ruins of an old building, 
or memorial stones and pillars upon heights, 
there awoke in him a longing to be told all about 
these objects, their age and meaning, by those 


who must know, his elders ? He wants the 
ruins themselves to tell him stories, to narrate 
their history to him ; and so is developed in the boy 
[and girl] of this age the demand for stories, for 
legend, and by and by, for history. This demand, 
especially at first, is so strong that when not 
satisfied by others, boys try to gratify it for 

We may all have seen a circle of children 
gathered round one whose retentive memory 
and lively imagination makes him a good 
story-teller, listening to him with all their ears. 
147 The present, moreover, in which the boy t^**^^^"'^ 
is living, contains much that he cannot explain song stand 
for himself, and would like to have explained ; ^°y'^ "»'i«^- 
much that seems to him dumb, yet he wants it 
to speak ; much that seems to him dead, and he 
would so like to have it living. He wants to hear 
from others the interpretation of all this ; to 
have the voice of these speechless objects made 
audible ; he desires to hear in words that inner 
living connection of all things which he dimly 
feels. But other people are but rarely able to 
gratify the boy's wishes, and so there unfolds 
in him a longing for fable and fairy-tale. 

Sometimes we find children inventing fairy 

tales for themselves — 

Such self-made stories plainly tell an observer 

what is working, all unconscious to himself, in 

the mind of the young narrator. 

149 Again, what lives in him, what he feels, what 

his mind guesses, what wells up in his heart with 

the joy of conscious strength, or of the beauty of 

96 THE student's froebel 

spring : — all this the boy longs to express in his own 
words, but finding none, he is thankful for the 
utterance of others, especially in song. The boy, 
when cheerful and happy, delights in singing, for 
when singing he feels himself doubly alive, and 
the sense of growing strength makes his merry 
voice sound over hill and valley. 

Thus far Froebel has treated of the ideal life of 

ffi\nd ^^ ^°^ ^^^^ ^^^"^ *h^ ^^^^^ ^^"^ o^ child-life, 125 
their causes, withiu aud without, — which really exists for the 

blessing of mankind, wherever we find a truly 
human training of children, and which is some- 
times seen in real life with greater beauty and 
fullness than is here ideally portrayed — to the 
ordinary life of the majority of children. If we 
look into the real life of children and boys, 
as it shows itself at home and at school, we are 
compelled to say plainly that much, which is 
not ideal, meets us : — self-will, defiance, laziness 
of body and mind, greediness, vanity, and conceit, 
self-assertion and masterfulness, unbrotherly, 
unchildHke, behaviour ; emptiness of mind, 
superficiality ; dread of work, even of play ; 
disobedience ; forgetfulness of God. If we look 
for the sources of these and other faulty examples 
of childish and boyish conduct, the existence of 
which is not to be denied, two occur to us imme- 
diately. On the one hand, the unfolding of certain 
sides of human nature has been wholly omitted ; 
on the other hand, human powers and disposi- 
tions, meant to be good, have been wrongly directed 
and developed, so as to become distorted, that is, 


the natural and necessary development of the 

human being has been thwarted. 

For surely the nature of man is erood, andxheessea- 
, . 1 . . , , . ' . tiai good- 

there are m man qualities and tendencies, good in ness of 

themselves. Man in himself is not bad, nor are nature. 
any human impulses evil in themselves. As- 
suming the destination of man for consciousness, 
reason, and freedom, it follows that man must be 
able to sin in order to be virtuous ; to be truly 
free he must have the power of becoming a slave. 
If man is to do with self-determination what is 
Divine and eternal, it follows that he can and may 
do what is earthly and finite. Since God chose to 
make Himself known finitely, this could be only 
in what is finite and transitory. Whoever, 
therefore, calls the temporal and finite bad, is 
thereby scorning the creation, Nature herself, and, 
in the proper sense of the word, is blaspheming 
153 Beneath every sort of faultiness in man, there is 
a good quality crushed or distorted, a good 
impulse thrust back, misunderstood, or misled. 
Therefore the only but never-failing way to 
abolish all faultiness, all human wickedness and 
depravity, consists in taking pains, first, to seek 
and find the original spring or good side of human- 
ity, out of which — when crushed, perverted, or 
misdirected — the faultiness grew ; and next, to 
nourish and tend, strengthen and lead aright, that 
original spring of good. Thus the faultiness will 
vanish at last after much toilsome conflict, not 
with original evil in man, but with habit and 
custom, unnecessary, however inveterate. 

98 THE student's froebel 

Faults Thus, for instance, it cannot be denied that 

Or" jci Tl O 

from the there exists in the child-world, to-day, too little 
p\%e°tic^ true and gentle childlike feeling, too little tender 
^^^' and brotherly consideration, too little genuine 
religious feeling. On the other hand, there is far 
too much selfishness and unkindness, especially 
rudeness and the like. The cause of all this lies 
in the fact that sympathetic feeling has not been 
awakened in child and boy ; and yet more, that 
it early ceased to exist between parents and 
children. If, then, genuine brotherliness, real 
childlikeness, trustful, loving, pious feeling, con- 
sideration, pity, respect for playmate and fellow- 
man, is to become general, this can be brought 
about only by taking hold of, and most sedulously 
cherishing, from the first, the sympathetic feeling 
which resides more or less in every human creature. 
When that has been done, we shall soon again 
possess, in family and religious life, what we 
now so painfully miss, the genuine, natural, 
childlike character. 
Thoughtless- Another source of boyish faults is precipi- 154 
chief source tatiou, carelcssncss, levity — in one word, thought- 
fauus. lessness. This often means acting from an 
impulse, in itself harmless, even praiseworthy, 
which captures all the boy's activity of senses 
and body. Experience has not yet provided 
him with a knowledge of consequences in the 
particular case, and it never enters his head to 
consider what these may be. Thus a boy, by no 
means a bad one, powdered the wig of an uncle 
of whom he was very fond with plaster of Paris, 
taking the greatest delight in his work, without 


the smallest idea of doing anything blameworthy. 
Another boy found some china basins in a 
large tub of water, and observed that these basins, 
when they fell open-side downwards on the smooth, 
still water, made a sharp sound. This experiment 
gave him pleasure, and he tried it repeatedly, 
saying to himself that the basin would not get 
broken in deep, yielding water. Once, however, 
he let the basin fall from so great a height, and 
so plumb upon the fiat surface, that the air 
enclosed within it could not escape, and caused 
the basin to split into two halves ; the young self- 
instructing natural philosopher stood astonished 
and troubled by this unexpected catastrophe. In 
many other ways, the boy seems incredibly 
shortsighted in following his life-impulse. A 
boy throws stones, perseveringly, at a small 
window in a neighbouring house, meaning to hit 
it, yet never dreaming, still less saying to himself, 
that if the stone strikes the window the glass will 
be broken. The stone hits, the glass is shattered, 
and the boy stands rooted to the spot. 
155 It is certainly a deep truth, the neglect of Educators 

, • , • 1 / 1 1 -11 1 mustbe- 

which IS day by day severely punished, that wareof 
it is most frequently man, often the educator innocent 
himself, who first makes man, as child or boy, bad. lessness as 
This happens when people ascribe to a wrong or 
evil motive what the child does through ignorance . 
or want of thought, even what may have resulted 
from his very acute sense of right and wrong. 
There are, alas ! even among educators, unhappy 
beings who see in the conduct of children and 
boys the work of cunning and malicious imps, 

8— (957) 

100 THE student's FROEBEL 

where others see at most a joke pushed too far, 
or merriment not quite in order. Such birds 
of ill omen, being teachers, make the child guilty, 
when, if not perfectly blameless, it is yet free 
from conscious guilt ; they do this by ascribing 
to him feelings and actions of which, but for them, 
it would know nothing. They are like the good- 
natured little boy who said, " See how tame it is ! " 
when he had mauled the poor fly or beetle till it 
could not stir. Thus there are children very 
faulty in conduct through not seeing or heeding 
matters of real life, of which they can know 
little while they surrender themselves wholly to 
their impulses, who have yet a longing, an inner 
desire to grow up good and useful. Such boys, 
too often become really bad, just because at 
first their inward endeavour failed to be under- 
stood, was indeed misunderstood ; while, had they 
been appreciated at the right moment, they would 
have become one day most valuable men. Yes, 
parents, teachers, and others, very often punish 
children and boys for faults and sins which they 
taught them. Punishment, especially scolding, 
puts faults into children ; brings to their 
knowledge sins of which they never dreamed. 
The vague As already indicated, a guessing and longing, 156 
which a deep significant feeling in the boy's mind at 

pervades the . ^ . " " , 

boy's mind, this period, pcrvades everythmg that he does. 

scious effort All his doiugs have a social character, for he tries 
to find the unity which makes all things and beings 
one, and to find himself in and among all things. 
A boy of this age, naturally brought up, is seeking, 
however weak and unconscious the indications 

THE BOY 101 

may be, the unity which makes all things one, 
the foundation of all things — God. This is what 
he seeks ; not the cause made and shaped by 
human wisdom and human wit, but that One, 
Who is ever nigh to heart and mind, nigh to the 
Uving spirit within ; Who can only be known 
in spirit and in truth, and only thus be sought 
in prayer. The boy, when mature, finds no 
contentment unless he has found Him, Who was 
first felt after in vague yearnings and seekings, for 
only thus has he found himself. 

So far we have seen the free-acting inner 
and outer life of man at the scholar stage, as 
schoolboy. What, then, is school ? 



School School means the endeavour to bring to the 158 

denned. " 

pupil's knowledge and consciousness the being or 
inner life of objects and of himself ; the intimate 
relations of objects, one with another, with man, 
wdth the boy himself, and wdth the living basis 
and conscious Unity of all things, God. 

The boy, when he enters school, leaves behind 
the merely outward view of objects, and enters 
upon* a higher intellectual view. This stepping of 
the child from an outward superficial view^ of 
things to the inw^ard view which leads to know- 
ledge, insight, and consciousness, from the home 
with its own arrangements into the world at large 
with its higher law, makes the boy into a scholar, 
constitutes School. School is not truly such 
by being an establishment for the acquisition 
of a greater or lesser quantity of externalities, 
but by virtue of the spiritual life which animates 
the whole, the intellectual atmosphere in which 
all things move. 

The faith and trust, the hope and anticipation, 159 
with which the child enters school, work wonders. 
For it comes with childlike faith, and quiet hope, 
with a dim presentiment : " Here thou wilt learn 
what cannot be taught thee outside ; here thou 
wilt get food for thy mind and soul, while outside 
there is only food for the body ; here are food and 
drink which quench hunger and thirst." 



160 Let not the wilfulness, the love of mischief, schoolboy 
which boys show at school, be put forward in resuu of the 
contradiction of the above. Through the very fnwlrd °* 
effect of school, through that growth of inward °''"" 
force which is the aim and purpose of school, a 
boy feels himself freer, and moves more freely. 
A genuine schoolboy ought not to be listless or 
lazy, but fresh and lively, vigorous in soul and 
body, and thus, when following his instinct 
too far, so as even to become mischievous, does 
not think of any harm ensuing to others. 

Froebel does not mean that schoolboy or 
schoolgirl mischief is to be submitted to as in- 
evitable, or condoned as blameless. His plea 
is simply, " Grey heads do not grow on green 
shoulders " ; experience cannot be forestalled ; 
therefore, bad intent is not to be absolutely 
inferred from ill effect. Authority, even in 
needful resistance or punishment, must act 
considerately, tenderly, else injustice is done, 
whence lasting harm will result to temper 
and character. 


166 What then is the school to teach? In what ^he^iji,^^^ ^^^ 
is man, the boy, to be instructed ? The boy at ^fn^^i\he 
the beginning of school age, perceives his own °"'*^'- 
spiritual nature, guesses at God, and the spiritual 
nature of all things, and shows an endeavour to 
clear his perception, and to confirm his guess. 
Man at the boy-stage is met by the outer world, 
wearing a twofold expression, first, as conditioned 
and produced by human will and human force ; 

104 THE student's froebel 

secondly, as conditioned and produced by the 
force operating within nature. He is already 
conscious of two worlds, the outer world of body 
and form — nature ; and the world within himself 
— the soul, his intellect and heart. Language 
seeming first to be one with both, gradually 
detaches itself, becomes independent and at the 
same time serves as the link between the two. 
The three- Through Language, the school — instruction — 168 
ledge which sliould Icad the boy to a threefold knowledge, 
must gain, which again is one : (1) to the knowledge of him- 
self in all circumstances, and thus to a knowledge 
of man in general, in his being and relations ; 
(2) to the knowledge of God, the constant con- 
dition, the eternal Foundation and Source of all 
being ; and (3) to the knowledge of Nature — 
the material world, as issuing from, and conditioned 
by, the eternally Spiritual. Instruction is to 
lead man to a life and conduct in complete accord 
with that threefold, yet single, knowledge. Man 
— as boy — is to be led by school, in the way of 
that knowledge from inclination to choice, from 
activity of will to perseverance, thus steadily 
onward till he reach his destination, his calling, 
and attain to the conditional perfection possible 
in this world. 

1. — Instruction in Religion 

Religion Thc effort to lift into clear sight our prevision 169 

TTfe"afiiis of that the soul, the human spirit, is in its origin 

instl^cTion. one with God ; the effort, founded on this sight, 

to be, and live, in union with God, undisturbed 

in every lot of life, unweakened by any event of 


existence : — this is Religion. Religion is not 
something fixed, but an eternally advancing 
endeavour, and therefore something eternally 
170 Religious Instruction seeks to animate, strengthen 
and clear our perceptions of a spiritual self — 
our soul, intellect, and heart — as resting in, and 
proceeding from, God ; to make known the 
faculties of soul, intellect, and heart as depending 
on God ; to show God's necessary being and 
operation ; to exhibit the relation of God to 
man, as it announces itself in each one's heart 
and life, and in all existence, notably in the life 
and history of mankind, as the Sacred Scriptures 
declare it to us. Religious Instruction applies 
this knowledge to all life, and particularly in 
and to each one's own life ; applies it to the 
development and improvement of mankind, to 
show the divine in the human ; and specially 
to the knowing and doing of man's duty, that is, 
what, being man, he must care for ; and finally, to 
exhibit ways of satisfying this endeavour to live 
in union with God, and the means of restoring 
harmony when disturbed. 

Rehgious instruction, therefore, always pre- Religions 
supposes some degree of religious feeling, however necessary 

^^ ° • T 4. *.• tothesuc- 

weak, however unconscious. Instruction can cess of 
only be fruitful, can only lay hold of life effectively instruction. 
in so far as a real, however slight and rudimentary, 
sense of religion is already there. Were it possible 
for a human being to exist wholly without religious 
sensibility, no means could give it. Parents who 
permit their children to grow up to school age 

106 THE student's froebel 

without any endeavour to nourish rehgious 
feeUng would do well to ponder this. 

It is, and for ever will be, true that the divinely 172 
human is mirrored in purely human relations, 
especially in the parental and spiritual ; and in 
those pure relations of man to man we recognise 
God's relation to man, and man's relation to God, 
we attain to the sight of them. 

When the human being knows, consciously 173 
and clearly, that his spiritual self came forth 
from God, was bom in and from God, was originally 
one with God ; knows that he is in constant 
dependence on God, and in uninterrupted com- 
munion with God ; when in this eternally neces- 
sary dependence on God — in the clearness of his 
recognition of it, and in the steadiness and zeal 
wherewith he acts on the knowledge ; when he 
realises that salvation, peace, joy, his vocation, 
his very life, the purpose of his existence depends 
on conduct in absolute unison with this know- 
ledge and conviction — then, verily, he knows God 
to be his Father, himself to be a child of God, and 
he must live in accordance with this knowledge. 
Such is the Christian Religion — the Religion of 
Jesus. Therefore, the only key to the knowledge 
and experience of divinely human relations — the 
relation of God to man, of man to God — is under- 
standing of spiritually human, true fatherly and 
childlike relations. Only in so far as we enter 
into purely spiritual, intimately human, relations, 
and live in faithful accordance with them, shall 
we attain to complete knowledge of divinely 
human relations, and feel them so deeply and 


vividly that every longing of our being will be 
satisfied, recognised at least, and become, instead 
of an unfulfilled yearning, a striving which 
is its own immediate reward. We do not yet 
know, we do not even guess, what is yet so near 
us, one with our own life, with our own self. We 
do not even live up to our own professions. We 
profess to be sons of God, and are not yet true 
children of our own parents. God is said to be 
our Father, and we are far from being true fathers 
of our own children ; we aim to see the Divine, 
and we leave uncared-for the human, which would 
lead us to it. The Christian religion is the clear 
insight, free from all illusion, an insight and 
conviction with firm and eternal foundations — 
life and conduct completely harmonising with 
them — that the manifestation and revelation 
of the one Eternal living Being, shining with his 
own light, God, must be a threefold revelation : 
that God manifests and reveals Himself in His 
oneness as Creator, Preserver, Ruler, as Father 
of all things ; that He manifests and reveals 
Himself, in the present and in the past, in a being 
of highest perfection and completeness, and 
therefore His Son, the only begotten first-born 
Son ; that He has manifested Himself and still 
reveals Himself in all that is and works in life, 
the one life and spirit of all, God's Spirit ; and 
this ever as the One and Living God. 

2. — Study of Nature 
182 What Religion says and affirms, that Nature Nature : a 

, . ... revelation of 

shows and presents ; what is taught by meditation God. 

108 THE student's froebel 

upon God, is confirmed by Nature ; what follows 
from the consideration of the inward is made 
known by the consideration of the outward ; 
what Rehgion asks for, Nature fulfils. For 
Nature, and all that exists, is God's annunciation, 
revelation, of Himself ; whatever is has its founda- 
tion in the revelation of God. Absolutely nothing 
can come to light but bears in itself life and 
spirit ; it bears the impress of that spirit and life, 
of that essence, to which it owes its existence. As 
this is true of man's work, from the highest artist to 
the humblest handworker, from the most com- 
monplace to the loftiest and most spiritual human 
work, from the most lasting to the most transitory 
human activity, so is it true of the works of God 
— Nature, the creation, everything that has come to 
pass. As in a work of human art there dwells no 
material part of the human spirit of its artist, yet 
a true art-work bears in it the whole mind of the 
artist in such a sense that the artist lives in it, 
speaks out of it, so as to inspire others, to awaken, 
develop, form, his spirit in them — so God's spirit is 
related to Nature, and all that exists. God's 
Spirit rests in Nature, lives and works in Nature, 
expresses itself in Nature, communicates itself 
by Nature : yet Nature is not the body of God. 
Study of As Nature is not God's body, so neither does 

gives readi- God dwcll iu Naturc as in a house ; but God's 
the spirit of Spirit lives in Nature, bearing, shielding, unfolding. 
Does not the artist's mind, though but human, 
dwell in his work, shielding and watching over it ? 
Does not the artist's mind give an earthly im- 
mortality to a block of marble, or perishable 


canvas, or even to winged words which perish 
almost as soon as born ? We take pains to learn 
the spirit, life and aim of human works ; we study 
human works, and we do well. The less developed 
man should grow by studying the development 
of maturer human beings : how much more 
should we exert ourselves to know God's work — 
Nature ; to make ourselves acquainted with 
objects of Nature, in their life, according to their 
meaning, that is according to the Spirit of God. 
Moreover, we should feel ourselves drawn to 
Nature, because genuine works of art, works of 
man out of which man's pure spirit, God's Spirit, 
speaks purely, are not always and everywhere 
within reach, whereas man is everywhere sur- 
rounded by pure works of God ; by works of 
Nature out of which the pure Spirit of God speaks. 
195 Therefore, the human being specially in boy- Nature 
hood, should be made intimately acquainted with indispens- 
Nature, not m her particulars, the forms of her education, 
phenomena only, but in her essence, the Divine 
which lives and moves in Nature. The boy feels 
this deeply, and desires it ; nothing binds together 
educator and pupils, with feelings unspoiled, 
like being occupied in common with Nature, 
with natural objects. This parents as well as 
school teachers should look to. At least once a 
week teachers should go out, with each division 
of their school, into the country ; not, as may 
be sometimes seen, driving them like a flock of 
sheep, nor leading them like a company of soldiers, 
but going with them like a father among his 
sons, or a brother with his brothers, bringing 

110 THE student's FROEBEL 

closer to their sight and attention whatever 
Nature has to show at that season of the year. 
of Nature ifl Schoolmasters who live in a village, or in the 
country- country, should not reply : " My school children 
children. ^j-g gj] (j^y ^Qj-^g {^i thc opcu air, and run about in it 
whether I help them, or not." True ! they run 
about, but they do not live in the open air, they 
do not live with nature. Not children and boys 
only, but many adults know no more about nature 
than ordinary people do about the air they live 
in. That is, they scarcely know it as a real 
thing, still less do they know the qualities which 
render air indispensable to the preservation of 
bodily life. In common parlance, air means 
either a draught, or a temperature. In like 
manner, children and boys who are contin- 
ually running about in the open air, may yet see, 
guess, and feel nothing of nature's beauties and 
their operation on the human mind. Just as 
those who have grown up in very beautiful scenery 
often feel nothing of its beauty and influence. 
The im- But — and this is most important — it may chance 

portance of ... , 

old and that the boy, with his own inward spiritual 

young . 

studying sight, does behold, or guess, somewhat of the 

Nflturfi In 

common, life of Naturc around him. If, then, he meets 
with no sympathy from the grown-up people near 
him, that seed of life, just as it is springing, is 
covered over, suppressed. The boy asks from 
the adult confirmation, or correction, of his 
own inward perceptions ; and he has a right to do 
so, from a feeling of what his elders should be, 
from a feeling of respect for them. When he gets 
no response the effect is twofold : he loses respect 


for his elders, and his original inward feeling and 
perception die away. Hence the importance of 
boy and adult walking together, in common 
endeavour to take to themselves the spirit and 
life of Nature, and to let it act upon them. Thus, 
too, much aimless sauntering of boys, that is 
neither play nor work, would come to an end. 

3. — Study of Form and Mathematics 

196 Thus the being and operation of nature as a [j^^'^^p^*" 
whole, nature as an image of God, as a word of Mature by 

' O ' the spirit 

God, communicates and awakens a response to the and by the 

c senses. 

spirit of God ; thus Nature meets, and has always 
met, Man's inward contemplation. But to out- 
ward contemplation she offers herself otherwise. 
To the senses she appears to be a multiplicity of 
particulars, differing one from another, without 
clear, intimate, living connexion ; items, details, 
of which each has its own form, each its proper 
course of development, and each its peculiar 
destiny and purpose. To the outward observation 
there is no sign that all these externally separate 
details are originally connected members of a 
great living organism, a whole, intimately and 
spiritually united, no sign that Nature herself is 
such a whole. 

This outside view of Nature, resting upon The inner 
individual phenomena — natural objects looked on Nature. 
as distinct and separate — is like looking at a tree, 
or any much-divided flowering plant. Each leaf 
seems distinct from every other ; no connecting 
link is seen from branch to branch or within the 
blossom, from calyx to corolla, from these to 

112 THE student's FROEBEL 

stamens and pistil. But, when we look with 
the mind's eye, seeking and finding connections 
for the most obvious particulars working from 
one link to another, at last we discern the unity 
of an inner law working at the heart of the plant. 
The multiplicity of nature leads the thinking 
mind to recognise in all things, as in the plant, 
a deep-lying law. 
m°auer^"'^ Force, wheu appearing is the ultimate ground of 
all things, of every phenomenon in Nature. Be- 
sides force there is a second necessary condition 
of form and substance, namely, matter. 

The individuality and at the same time mul- 
tiplicity of natural forms on this earth, show 
that matter and force constitute an indivisible 
unity. Matter, and spontaneous force, acting, 
from one point equally in all directions, imply 
one another, neither exists, or can subsist, 
without the other, strictly speaking, neither can 
be thought of without the other. 

Here follow lengthy and minute develop- 
ments of Froebel's Study of Forms 
(Formenkunde), the third subject of instruc- 
tion at school. From the ball, or sphere, which 
he assumes to be " universally the first, and 
the last, natural form," he follows the working 
of matter and force as one, through a wide 
variety of crystalline forms, and seems 
without conscious difficulty to step across 
that chasm between the realms of the inor- 
ganic and the organic, as also over that 
dividing inanimate from animate beings, 
before which Science still halts. Froebel's 


saying : " In the whole process of the develop- 
ment of crystalline form, as it appears in 
natural objects, there is a most remarkable 
agreement with the development of the 
human mind and heart," may be prophetic, 
or it may illustrate the ease with which rare 
as well as ordinary intellects accept analogy in 
the light of proof. In any case, as honest 
teachers, we must wait until that near or 
distant day when those who know shall be 
agreed upon the scientific facts, before we 
use them with our pupils as the basis of 
spiritual culture. 
253 Let father and son, tutor and pupil, teacher Parents and 

. , , . Teachers 

and scholar, move together m the great world of feuow- 
Nature. Do not reply — Father, Teacher — " I know Nature 

z54 nothmg of this, yet. It is not only a question boys and 
of imparting knowledge already gained, but of^ 
calling forth new knowledge, which elder and 
younger share. " You, teachers, must observe, 
lead your juniors to observe, and bring what is 
observed to your own and to their consciousness." 

255 In order to perceive the all-pervading reign of 
law in Nature, her unity, technical terms are not 
needed, either for natural objects or the qualities 
of such ; but simple, clear, firm perception of 
these objects and qualities is needed, with distinct 
names for them. The object is to introduce 
the boy to the things themselves, that he may 
learn the qualities which they put forth and 
express ; that he may know the thing to be that 
which, in its form and so forth, it declares itself 
to be. The one thing needful is clear sight, and 

114 THE student's FROEBEL 

recognition of the thing itself. Give the object 
its local name, or if you know none, then any 
name that occurs, best of all a descriptive name, 
even though rather long, until by and by you 
come upon the accepted name. 

Do not say, O country schoolmaster ! " I know 
nothing of natural objects ; I do not even know 
their names." By faithful observation of nature, 
you can acquire for yourself, however humble 
has been your education, far higher and more 
thorough outward and inward knowledge, more 
vivid acquaintance with the particular and the 
manifold, than any books can teach you. More- 
over, the so-called higher knowledge usually 
rests on perceptions of phenomena which the 
simplest person is able to make ; ay, on observa- 
tions which, if we have but eyes to see, we can 
make with little or no expense, better than by the 
most costly experiment ! The country teacher 
must bring himself to this by persevering observa- 
tion ; he must especially let himself be led to it 
by the boys and girls he has about him. 

Father, mother, be not afraid : do not say, 
" I myself know nothing ; how can I teach my 
child ? " That you know nothing, may well be, 
no harm in that, if only you are willing to learn. 
If you know nothing, do as the child does ; go 
to Father and Mother ; be a child with your 
child, a scholar with your scholar ; and with him 
let yourself be taught by Mother Nature, and by 
the Father, God's spirit in Nature. God's Spirit 
and Nature herself will lead and teach you, if 
you will let yourself be taught. Say not, " I 


have not been to college ; I am not learned." Who 
taught the first man ? Go like him to the 
fountain-head ! One great aim of the University 
indeed is, to give sight, to open the inward eye, 
for what is within and without ; but it would be 
sad for the race of man if none could see but those 
who have studied at a University ! And if you, 
parents and teachers, train your children and 
pupils as early as possible to see and to think, 
then Universities will become what they ought, 
and aim to be — schools for learning the highest 
spiritual truths, schools for realising these in 
one's own life and action, schools of wisdom. 
256 From every point of life, from every object Nature a 
of nature, there is a way to God. Only note Earth to 
clearly the starting-point and steadily keep the 
way upwards. The phenomena of nature 
form a fairer ladder from earth to heaven, and 
from heaven to earth, than ever Jacob saw ; 
and not in one place only — in all ! It is not a 
dream thou seest, it abides, it is everywhere 
about thee, it is beautiful, flowers enwreathe it, 
and Angels look from it with the eyes of children ; 
it is solid, it forms lasting shapes, and rests upon 
a crystal world. 

Let the boy's eye and the boy's sense lead Atttude 

■J -J -J towards 

you ; and know for your comfort, that simple, boys-^ 
natural boys have no patience with half truths 
and false pretences. Follow, then, quietly and 
thoughtfully, their questions, these will teach 
you and them, for these questions come from the 
human soul, still childlike ; and what a child 
asks a parent, this a grown man should be able to 

9— (957) 

116 THE student's FROEBEL 

answer. But you say : " Children ask more than 
parents, than grown men, caw answer," and it is so. 
When you cannot give the knowledge they ask 
for, you stand at the frontier of the earthly, 
and at the gate of the Divine. Then speak out 
simply, " I do not know, for it cannot be known," 
and the mind and heart of the child will be satisfied. 
Or you stand only at the limit of your own know- 
ledge, then be not afraid to say, " I know not ; 
others do ; you may, sometime." Take care never 
to speak as though your own boundaries were 
also the limits of possible human knowledge. 

Earlier, Froebel says : " Do you seek a firm 
point of rest, and safe guide, in all the variety 
of Nature ? Number is such a point and 
guide." Viewing number as the simplest 
form, the A B C of Mathematics, he proceeds, 
here : — 
Mathema- Mau seeks a firm point and sure guide to 257 

tics a sure -^ " 

guide to the knowledge of the inner connection of all variety 
variety in in naturc. What can give a surer and more 

Nature. O 

pregnant begmnmg for this study of variety 
than mathematics ? It includes all variety within 
itself, unfolds all variety out of itself, yet 
is the visible expression of obedience to law and is 
law itself. This comprehensive quality gave 
Mathematics its name, the literal meaning of 
which is, theory of knowing, science of knowledge. 
Mathema- How is it that Mathcmatics not only first 258 
man'ind* acquircd and maintained this high rank through 


long ages, but has even surpassed it ? What is 
Mathematics in its essence, growth, operation ? 
As phenomenon of the inward and of the outward 


world, she belongs alike to man and to nature. 
Issuing from pure intellect, from the simple 
laws of thought, being a visible expression of these 
laws, and of thought itself, she finds, already 
existing in the material world outside her, phe- 
nomena, combinations, shapes, figures, that are 
all necessarily governed by these laws ; yet they 
meet her, in Nature, as wholly independent of 
her, and of human intellect and thought. Man 
thus, within himself, in his intellect, in the laws 
of his thought, finds that very Nature, with 
all its variety of phenomena, which had grown 
up independently of him in the outer world. 

Thus Mathematics stands forth as that which 
unites, mediates between man and Nature, 
inner and outer world, thought and perception, 
as no other subject of study does. 

261 Education of man, without Mathematics, Education 
without at least a thorough knowledge of number, some 
and whatever study of form and magnitude is tics is worse 

, . 1 i i 1 than u^!eless. 

practicable and necessary, is no better than 
unsubstantial patchwork ; and instruction, thus 
essentially defective, puts insuperable obstacles 
in the way of the training and development 
whereto man is destined and called. For human 
intellect is as inseparable from mathematics as the 
human heart is from Religion, 

4. — Language 

{a) PRELIMINARY R,,igi„,„ 

262 What then is Language, and in what relation LaSV-: 
does it stand to the other two cardinal points lioTt^ono 
of boy-life, Rehgion and Mathematics ? EduMt'ion. 

118 THE student's FROEBEL 

Wherever true inner connexion, true living 263 
reciprocity, exists and expresses itself, there at 
once appears the relation of Unity, Individuality, 
and Variety. So it is with Religion, Nature, and 

Religion : the heart's life, the life that the heart 264 
demands, finding and feeling the One in every- 
thing ; Nature : the cognition of particulars 
in the outer world, in themselves, and their relation 
to one another, and to the whole, a continuous 
seeking, the demand of the intellect ; Language : 
which represents the oneness in all variety, 
the inner living connexion of all things, a striving 
dictated by reason ; these three are then an 
indivisible unity, and the partial, broken, and 
incoherent training of one without the others, 
necessarily produces one-sidedness, and hence, 
if not destruction, at least disturbance of human 
nature, which is one. 
All these Religion, Nature — with Mathematics, which 

being really . " . 

one, have IS Naturc m man — and Language, these three, 
in all their various relations, have one like aim 
and purpose ; to make known, to reveal the 
inward, the inmost ; to make the internal external, 
and the external internal ; and to show both, 
inmost and outmost, in their natural, original, 
necessary accord and connexion. Therefore, 265 
what is said of one of these three may likewise, 
but in its own way, be said of each of the other 
two. What, therefore, has already been said of 
Religion and Nature (Mathematics), if in itself 
true, will follow concerning Language ; only with 
a difference due to the peculiarities of Language. 

like aim. 


We meet, alas ! in life with the delusion that one 
or another of these three studies may exist alone, 
by itself advance and grow to completeness ; 
Language, without Religion and Nature (Mathe- 
matics) ; Religion, without Language and Nature 
(Mathematics) : Study of Nature {Mathematics), 
without Study of Language and Religion. 

Now this, Froebel says, is a sin against 
humanity one and indivisible, and a great 
hindrance to man's true development. 
As, however, man is meant to know surely and 
see clearly, and to attain complete consciousness, 
it is evident that the education of man necessarily 
demands just estimation and knowledge of 
Religion, of Nature (Mathematics) and of Lan- 
guage, in their inner, living reciprocity. Without 
a knowledge of the inner unity of these three, we 
lose ourselves in limitless multiplicity. 

267 Speech is a copy of man's whole inner and Definition ot 
outer world. As a product of man, speech comes 

forth immediately from his mind ; is representa- 
tion and expression of the human mind, as Nature 
is of the divine mind. The question whether 
language is a simple product of the human mind, 
or grows from imitation of Nature, is due to the 
fact that the spirit of Nature and that of Man, 

268 are ojte ; they have one source — God. 

Admitting that objective proof is yet wanting 
of what he asserts, Froebel pronounces that 
the inner conviction cannot be stifled, that in 

269 every language, inwardly necessary, Laws express 
themselves in the constituents of words ; in 
tones, sounds, endings, also in the letters and 

120 THE student's froebel 

their combinations, which are signs for these. 
The genesis of speech is still undecided, it should 
not be mixed with that of the use of language in 
the education of man. We turn from these 
questions, not yet ripe for answer, to this sentence, 
than which Froebel has few more momentous, 
or of more immediate apphcation : — 
Words and " Wc ourselvcs, and yet more our children, would 282 

objects to be . . ^ 

connected, attam to a far deeper msight into Language, if 
in learning Languages we connected words, much 
more than we do, with real sight or touch of 
the things and objects signified. Language 
would then be to us, not only a combination 
of sounds and words, but a real whole, made up 
of hfe and objects." Our language would again 
become a hfe-speech, born of hfe, and life- 
giving, whereas it threatens, through merely 
external treatment, to grow more and more 
r^ymrand* ^^ ^^ a supreme distinction of Froebel that, hke 
s'Sunds'^n *h^ alchemy of Nature, he turns charcoal into 
be?n^co«r- ^iamouds, dust into pearls. Asserting, what 
^s«<^- all students of language confirm, that rhythm, 

measure, belongs to the infancy of all languages, 
he would recall to attention that language of 
infancy which so evidently delights in rhyme, 
and earlier still, in repetition of measured sounds. 
With genius and sympathy Froebel himself, in 283 
his Mutter und Kose Lieder, gathers and arranges 
provision for that appetite of infancy, whence is 
to be fed and strengthened the taste for poetry 
and song. Here, as elsewhere, the exhortation is : 
" Take what nature, child's nature, offers you, and 


guide it, with your wisdom, along its own way : 
do not try to put in whole, what your grown- 
up wit judges better, fatal instance of new cloth 
upon the old garment. Select and purify your 
nursery-rhymes, not forbid them : tolerate even 
meaningless sing-song — if innocent." 


285 A naturally developed human being finds itself 
as child or boy, in the midst of an outer hfe so 
rich in objects, facts, etc., that it cannot hold 
them all. Its inner life, meanwhile, unfolds yet 
more, and it feels an unconquerable impulse and 
need to snatch from forgetfulness some flowers 
and fruits of this meeting of inward and outward 
life — to preserve them, for itself and others, by 
means of signs. 

This is an historical outline of how " writing " 
arose : first, " picture-writing " of facts and 
ideas ; much later, " alphabetic-writing." 
Picture-writing we see when children en- 
deavour to draw the event that has struck 
their minds. Not infrequently, children have 
been known to form sign-sounds or letters 
for themselves. To wait for this original 
invention would detain us too long. Before 
giving the instruction, however, it should 
be most unequivocally asked for, demanded, 
by the child's nature. 
Instruction must always be connected with oo„'I,hJ,^d' 
a certain need and want of the pupil ; and this |!',s^uppiy*'a"* 
want must have been previously developed, l',',!,'';^/" 
wakened, led up to, in the boy, or he cannot be 

122 THE student's froebel 

taught with advantage, with success. A chief 
cause of many imperfections in our schools, in 
our system of instruction, is that we teach and 
instruct our children without having first awakened 
this want : perhaps when we have already 
destroyed that which was in the child ! How 
can such instruction prosper ? 
iT^ldtnT Reading, and learning to read, sprang neces- 286 
and writing, garily from the wish to render audible to oneself 
and others what had been before written down, 
to recall this to one's memory, as it were, to 
revive it. Through the act of writing and reading, 
which must be preceded by a certain living 287 
knowledge of the language, man rises above every 
other known creature, and approaches the attain- 
ment of his destiny ; man becomes a person 
first by the practice of this art. Thus the en- 
deavour to learn reading and wTiting makes the 
boy into a scholar, first renders school possible. 
The possession of the power of writing and of 
reading what is WTitten gives man the capacity 
of one day becoming self-conscious ; it first 
renders possible true knowledge, which is self- 
knowledge, for it enables man to contemplate 
his own being, placing it as an object before him. 
Writing connects man as present, with the past and 
the future ; with the nearest, completely, and 
with the most distant, certainly. Thus, writing 
gives man the possibility of reaching the highest 
completest earthly perfection. 
Ipse dixit / extremely doubtful. 
Tbej^ant Siuce, thcu, reading and writing are so im- 
cieariy portaut to mau, the boy must be strong enough 

to write and 


and intelligent enough to use them properly. The shown be- 
possibility of becoming conscious must be already i°e%augh?" 
awake in him ; the need of writing and reading, 
the impulse — the necessity — for them should 
have clearly expressed itself, before children begin to 
learn to write and read. The boy who is to learn 
writing and reading with true profit, must him- 
self already be something, else, he tries to be 
conscious of something which he not yet is; 
and all his " knowledge," gained by reading, 
will be hollow, dead, empty, mechanical. When 
the foundation is thus lifeless and mechanical, 
how can life-activity, true life, the highest prize 
of all endeavour, be developed ? How can man 
really attain his destiny, which is. Life ? 

5. — Art 

288 From what has already been said about the 

•^ Art denned. 

aim, centre, and ob]ect of all human endeavour, 
it is clearly seen that it is threefold : 1. Striving 
after rest and life within ; 2. Striving after 
knowing and laying hold of the outward ; 3. 
Striving to represent directly the inward. The 
1st is the endeavour of Religion ; the 2nd, of 
Natural Science ; the 3rd, of Self-representation, 
Self-development, and Self-contemplation. 

Nature (Mathematics) and Language having . 
been already touched on, one thing is still 
manifestly wanting to the complete present- 
ment of man's whole being ; this is the 
presentment of life, inner life itself, what is 
immediately experienced — the heart ; this 


THE student's FROEBEL 


relation of 

Art to 





third, presentment of what is within man, 

the true self of man, is Art. 
All human ideas, one only excepted, are relative, 
in other words, all ideas stand in reciprocal 
relations to one another, and are only distinct 
in their extremes. Therefore, Art has a side 
where it touches Mathematics, the understanding ; 
a second, where it touches the world of Language, 
reason ; a third where, although pure presentment 
of the internal, it seems to be one with the repre- 
sentation of nature ; finally, one where it coincides 
with religion. If Art is viewed only in its ultimate 
unity, as pure presentment of the internal, it occurs 
to us that art-presentments of what lives within 
man — of what forms his proper inner life — will be 
different according to the matter in which they 
have to be imbodied. Art, as presentment by 
pure sound, is Music, especially Song ; as present- 
ment for the sight, by colour, is Painting ; Art as 
presentment in space, by forming and shaping 
of mass, is Modelling, or Sculpture. Drawing 
is a link between the two last, and might be taken 
as presentment by simple lines, while painting is 
presentment by surfaces, and modelling, by 
masses. We have seen that the effort to draw 
appears at an early stage of human development. 
The effort, too, by modelling, and by painting, to 
put forth what is within, appears early ; often 
in childhood, distinctly in early boyhood. We 
conclude, then, without hesitation, that some 
feeling for Art is a general quality and gift of man, 
and ought to be cherished from the first ; at 
latest in boyhood. 


When this feehng is cared for, even though The value of 
the individual have no special gift for Art, so as tn school'."^ 
to grow up an artist, he will become better able 
to understand and value works of Art : and a 
genuine school training will save him from setting 
up for an artist without true inner vocation. 
Singing, drawing, painting, and modelling must 
therefore be early taken into account in any 
general, comprehensive scheme of human educa- 
tion and accomplishment ; they must be early 
treated as serious school matters, not left 
to chance or caprice. Every human being 
should be enabled to develop fully and in 
all directions, faithful to his own nature, 
that each may grow up to recognise the 
many-sided activity of man ; and especially, as 
aforesaid, that every individual may learn to 
appreciate and to estimate the productions of 
genuine art. 

290 Poetic representation is a connecting link with Poetry links 
Art, as Drawing is from another point of view. Language. 
Starting from Language, Poesy is a condensed 
representation of the spiritual inner world ; 

a presentment of eternally moved and moving 
life — at rest. 

291 In everything, in hfe and in religion, so ^^^^ ^^^ 
also in Art, the last and highest aim ofhighest 

. . 1 • 1 /"I • object. >f Art 

representation is man, pure and simple. Lhris- toman. 
tian Art is, or ought to be, the highest Art, 
for she endeavours to display in everything 
the constant, the divine, especially in and by 
Man : for Man is the highest object of Art, 
to Man. 

126 THE student's froebel 
C. — Home and School 


School-life In the home the child grows up to boyhood 293 
hfe shoSd and school-age ; therefore School should be 
notTvld^d. hnked with the Home. To-day, the first and most 
indispensable demand of human development 
and training, complete or tending to complete- 
ness, is that School should be at one with Life — 
that Home-hfe should be one with School-hfe. 

Would that we could perceive what a burden- 
some mass of accumulated, mechanical, far- 
fetched knowledge and training we already 
possess, and are foolishly striving day by day 
to augment ; and, on the other hand, how very 
httle knowledge we have, that has been developed 
out of ourselves, that has grown up in our own 
souls. It would be well for our children, 
and for the saving of future generations, 
if we would but cease to be proud of 
our foreign thinking, foreign knowing, even 
foreign emotions and feelings ; cease to set the 
highest fame and success of our schools therein, 
that they stuff our children's minds and hearts 
with all this far-fetched veneer of knowledge 
and skill ! 

Froebel alludes here to the old complaint of 

German eagerness to borrow and appropriate 

" culture " from strangers. 

Shall we never begin to raise a tree of life 

in our own hearts, a tree of knowledge in our own 

minds, to cherish it unto beautiful unfolding, so 

that it may bloom in health and beauty, and give 


ripe fruits which here must decay, but there will 
spring up again ? Shall we never tire of stamping children 
our children and pupils like coins ; letting them f^Twithin, 
flourish with image and superscription not their ukl Ss^*'' 
own, instead of having them move beside us as 
growths of the law and the hfe planted in them 
by God our Father, with divine features, and 
in the image of God ? The welfare of mankind 
can be restored only from the quiet hidden 
sanctuary of Home. At the founding of each 
new family, our heavenly Father, eternally working 
for the good of mankind, speaks to the parents 
through the heaven He has opened in their 
hearts. The same call goes forth to all mankind, 
to every individual, to represent humanity in 
pure development, man in his ideal form. 
294 Shall we, then, always choke up afresh the ordinary 

iiri-f i-i/->ii T • methods o( 

well of life which God has made to spring up in instruction 
every man's soul. Shall we rob ourselves, our 
children, our pupils, of this unutterable joy, that 
within their hearts shall flow the Spring of Eternal 
Life ? Will you, parents and guardians, continue 
to compel tutors and teachers of your children 
to dam up with rubbish the source of life within 
them, and to hedge it round with a thicket ? 

Perhaps Froebel looks for too much from ordin- 
ary readers, expecting them to understand that 
this " damming-up the spring of hfe with . 
rubbish, and this fencing in with a thicket," 
is meant as an easily intelligible metaphor for 
the ordinary school-work that stupefies in 
place of brightening the scholar ; makes him 
hate learning, in place of finding it " more 


THE student's FROEBEL 

The boy's 
career, and 
later his 
attitude to 
that of his 

musical than is Apollo's lute." He only 
means " that asinine feast of sow thistles 
and brambles, which is commonly set before 
.... our choicest and hopefullest wits " ; 
or was in John Milton's time. 
Parents reply : " Unless thus equipped, our 
sons are good for nothing in the world ; they grow- 
up, and who is to feed them ? Wherewithal 
shall they be clothed ? " Fools ! You shall not 
be answered with " Seek ye first the Kingdom of 
God " ; for that you would not understand, 
estranged as you are from God and yourselves. 
This is the reply : "Do you desire for your 
children a dull brooding life, poor in knowledge, 
deed, and work ? " The human race is to enjoy 
wisdom and intelligence, to possess energy and 
activity, far beyond what we at present guess, 
for who has said to humanity, the child of God, 
" Thus far shalt thou go, and no farther ? " 

The boy must not take up his future business, 
which is now his calling, lazily, slackly, gloomily. 
No ! cheerful and merry he must be ; trusting 
in God, in Nature, in himself ; rejoicing that his 
trade will bring forth manifold blessing and 
success. Quiet, concord, temperance, all high 
social virtues will dwell in himself, and in his home ; 
he will be contented with his sphere and its 
activity. Is not this the prize for which all of us 
are striving ? With regard to his own children's 
future he will not say, either : " My boy shall 
learn any trade rather than mine, for it is the 
barrenest of all " ; or, insist that the trade or 
profession which he has himself followed, with 


profit and advantage, because it suited his tastes 
and powers, shall be pursued by his son, whose 
disposition may be wholly different. He will see 
that the smallest business can be carried on 
greatly, that every trade may be so ennobled 
that its practice is not beneath man's dignity. 
He will perceive that the humblest powers, rightly 
applied to work, will procure him bread, clothing, 
shelter, and in addition, respect. Thus he will 
have no fear for his children's future, because his 
highest anxiety has been to cultivate their souls. 


295 This section contains directions which the ^T"^ "^ 


training of children, in numbers, should take 
in practice. These follow necessarily, he 
holds, from, the development proper to man 
when come to the boy-age ; and answer to 
the inner and outer claims of the child's 
nature, when school-age begins. 

1. To awaken, nourish, and strengthen the 
religious sentiment, which keeps the human 
heart in union with God, and unites it ever more 
closely. In accord with, and as means to this : — 

2. To learn by heart religious sayings, upon 
nature and man and their relations to God, to be 
used in prayer : as a mirror, in which the boy may 
behold his original feelings, guesses, and endeav- 
ours after union with God, and thus hold them fast. 

3. Care, knowledge, and development of the 
body as bearer and instrument of the mind ; this, 
by means of orderly, graduated exercises leading 
to bodily perfection. 

130 THE student's froebel 

4. Observation and contemplation of nature 
and the outer world ; joined to, and starting from, 
what is close at hand ; seeking always knowledge 
of the nearer environment before proceeding to 
the more distant. 

5. Acquirement of short poems representing 
nature and life ; pieces, namely, which give life 
to objects of nature near at hand, and to events 
of home-life, and show the meaning of these, as 
in a bright mirror ; especially with help of singing. 

6. Exercises in speech and language ; setting 
out from observation of nature, and the outer 
world, but passing on to contemplation of man's 
inner world, always keeping chiefly in view 
language and speech as audible means of 

7. Exercises in, and for, material representa- 
tion, by law and rule, proceeding always from 
the simple to the complex. Here belong repre- 
sentations by materials, already more or less 
formed ; as building, and all constructive hand- 
work, in paper, pasteboard, wood, etc. Lastly 
and especially, shapes made out of unshaped but 
shapeable matter [clay, wax, etc.]. 

8. Exercises with lines upon a surface, in 
constant, express and visible reference to the 
vertical and horizontal directions. That is, 
drawing in the network, according to rule. 

9. Perception of colours, in their difference 
and likeness ; with representation of them in 
given spaces, especially forms already practised ; 
painting of pictures in outline, or on paper ruled 
in squares. 


10. Play, that is, voluntary exercises and 
representations of all kinds. 

11. Narrating of anecdotes and legends, fables 
and fairy tales, suggested by events of the day, 
the seasons, real life, etc. 

12. Short journeys and long walks. 

The special point is tliat home-life and 
school-life should work together in the boy's 
training, the foregoing list affording matter 
for both domestic and scholastic occupations. 
Froebel suggests employing the boy in 
errands or messages which will task his 
judgment, and require concentration of 
thought ; perhaps, having him directly 
instructed by craftsmen, or cultivators, in 
their arts. We see here foregleams of that 
beneficent dawn of technical education, 
handwork, Sloyd, etc., which in these last 
years of the nineteenth century pemiits 
sanguine persons to foresee something like 
a national education according to reason 
before the end of the twentieth. 
It is most important for boys, towards the close importance 
of boyhood, to spend at least an hour or two work. 
daily, steadily, in some material occupation, tliat 
is, in occupation that produces something useful. 
Weighty results for their future life would follow ; 
for a most hurlful effect of our present school- 
arrangements, especially of the so-called classical 
schools, is, that the boy when entering them 
leaves behind all home occupations, all useful 
work. Do not reply : " In this period of elder 
boyhood, the boy must apply his whole force to 

io—{gs7) 12 pp. 

132 THE student's froebel 

word-learning, to intellectual culture, if he is 
to reach a certain proficiency in knowledge." 
Not so : genuine experience teaches the very 
reverse of this ; intellectual occupation, alter- 
nating with bodily work, with employment for 
useful production, strengthens not the body 
alone, but yet more the intellect, in the various 
directions of mental activity. After such a 
refreshing Labour-bath — I know no better name 
— the mind will set about its abstract work with 
fresh strength, fresh life. 

Referring to his 5th " Means " — " Learning 

by heart of little poems, which express nature 

and life, especially accompanied by song," he 

says : Nature and human life speak early to 

man in their events : but in so low a tone that 

the boy's unpractised ear can scarcely perceive 

Voices of them, still less put them into his own language. 

&' heard Seasous and day-times come and go : Spring, 347 

h"ood should with its buds and blossoms, fills man, while yet 

be cherished. .^ ^^y^ ^yj^]^ j^y ^^^ jjfg jjjg blood flows faster, 

his heart beats louder. Autumn, with its tints 
and falling leaves, fills even the child with longing 
and wonder ; and stern, bright, constant winter 
awakens courage, strength and a sense of hardship 
to be overcome, which he would sadly miss 
These dim feelings, and many like them, native to 
childhood, are not to be neglected, but recog- 
nised and cherished. We must acknowledge that 
it is the inexhaustible fount of feeling which 
first bursts forth in childhood to which we still 
go for strength, courage and constancy in later 


348 Nature and life speak to man, but that is not The toy-s 
all. Man himself wants to make known thes"eTf?'°' 
emotions, the presentiments, thus awakened j^ ^■^'"'"'*°"' 
him, and as he cannot always find words for 
himself, words should be given him, as his heart, 

and his inner sense, in their unfolding, ask for 

349 them. What binds man to man is not external 
only, nor can it be easily expressed. It is full 
of deep sense and meaning, and its soft chords 
must be early cherished in the boy, but not by 
direct precept, which is apt to fetter and drill, 
rather than give hfe. Suggestion, in the mirror 
of a song, without pointed moral apphcation, 
leaves the boy that freedom of heart and will 
which is needed to strengthen and develop his 
affectional and moral nature. 

404 Upon his 7th " Means," practice of material 

representation in space, according to rule and 
law, proceeding from the simple to the com- 
plex, Froebel says, his expression being 
somewhat condensed : — 
Man is developed and formed for the attain- Develop- 
ment of his true destination, in part by what l^pJot"? 
he, as a boy, receives from without and takes "'^"*' 
into himself ; but, incomparably more through 
what he unfolds and represents out of himself. 
This truth is expressed in tlie very words. Develop- 
ment and Improvement. Experience and History 
both teach that the human beings who have been 
most truly and deeply helpful to the genuine 
welfare of mankind, became so, far more by 
what they produced out of themselves than by 
what they took in from without, 

134 THE student's froebel 

Develop. It is a commoiiplace, that by faithfully teaching, 

d"ing. we advance in knowledge and intelligence ; and 

another, which Nature teaches us all, that by 

every use of strength, strength is both roused 

and augmented. 

As, too, the perceiving and grasping of a truth 
in life and by action is far more unfolding, forming 
and strengthening, than the mere reception of 
it by word and in idea : so likewise in life, the 
handling of matter, doing, connected with think- 
ing and speaking, is far more helpful for man's 
development, and improvement, than is represen- 
tation by ideas and by word without act or deed. 
This 7th "Means" or subject of instruction, 
therefore properly succeeds those already treated, 
observation of external Nature, and exercise of 

The boy's life and action have, we know, but 
one aim : his life consists in this external repre- 
sentation of his inner nature, of his power, especially 
on matter and by means of matter. In that 
which he shapes, the boy sees not so much outer 
forms which would enter into him, he sees in them 
his o\\Ti spirit, the laws and activities of his own 
mind, which cry out for expression, and rightly 
so. The function of teaching and instruction is, 
more and more, to bring out of man, rather than 
put into him. 
the develop- T^^^^^ which can be put into man is already 
^lisibieto *^^ property of mankind. Man knows it, if the 
Humanity, individual does not. Thus it stands for no more 
than each one, as man, b3' and by, through the 
laws of Humanity, may unfold out of himself. 


But what is yet to be developed out of mankind, 
what more Humanity has within it and ought 
to give out, that we know not yet ; that is not 
man's possession ! We only know that hke the 
Spirit of God, it is eternally unfolding. 

This, Froebel continues, would be self- 
evident, if we only observed the facts of our 
own and others' lives. We are, however, 
so incrusted with prejudices and opinions, 
foiTned from without, in no sense the outcome 
of ourselves, that we have almost lost — for 
our children — the meaning of ^^velopment 
and wwfolding, and ought rather to speak of 
envelopment and ^folding. What we really 
desire is to stamp and shape them to our 
mind, from without. Better than that, he 
says, would be to leave them quite to them- 
selves, rather not train at all, than train 
wrong ! This may seem in theory extrava- 
gant, as in practice it would be impossible ; 
but in idea it contains truth, and is full of 
much needed warning. 
The welfare of the individual and of the race 
consists in the complete unfolding of the human 
being and his spiritual forces, according to the 
Laws of Nature and of Reason. 

[§ § 405-600 omitted. Their matter belongs more 
to a handbook for practical teachers than 
to the Theory of Education.] 

lOA— (957) 


Thus far man, in the growth and development 601 
of all stages and conditions of his being, lies 
before us, sketched in outline from the beginning of 
his existence to boyhood : the means, too, for 
bringing about this development, have been 
broadly indicated; means which suit both his 
actual age, and the future claims of his humanity. 
If we consider what has been found out and stated 302 
hitherto, we see that many things the boy has to 
do have no special " measurable " purpose ; 
thus, occupation \\ith colours is not arranged in 
order to produce a painter, or practice in song, 
to make a musician. These occupations aim, first, 
at unfolding in the boy his own Nature, and helping 
him to realise it; they are food for his mind ; 
they are the ether in which the spirit breathes and 
lives, in order to gain strength and force; in a 
word, expansion. The mental gifts of God to 
man, which come forth in all directions with an 
irrepressible necessity, being so various, are to be 
satisfied by variety coming to meet them. Surely, 
we shall one day see that we are hurtfully thwart- 
ing boy-nature, if we repress unduly these neces- 
sarily various directions of mind. We do nothing 
but harm — though we believe ourselves to be 
doing service to God and man, and especially 
to the boy's own future good — by cutting off 
some of his natural tendencies, and trying to 
graft others in their place. God does not graft, 
or bud ; the human soul, which is divine, is not 



to be grafted or budded. God develops what is 
least and most imperfect, in steady progression, 
by eternal, self-evolving laws. Now, likeness to 
God should be man's highest aim in thought 
and action, especially when he stands in parental 
relations to his children, as God to man. We 
should consider, in the education of our children, 
that the kingdom of God is indeed the kingdom 
of the spiritual ; that therefore what is spiritual 
in man, in our children, is part and parcel of the 
Kingdom of God. Thus, we ought to give our 
best heed to the complete development of the 
spiritual, in our children, in other words, to the 
development of what is properly human, of what 
is divine, in each individual. Then, we have 
good right to be fully convinced, that each one, 
having been truly trained to be a man, has thereby 
been educated, as well as is possible, for every 
special duty, for each particular need, of civil 
603 and social life. Now the world says : " This 
is all very true, but it does not apply to our boys. 
For our sons it is too late, the}'' are already in the 
last quarter of their boyhood, what good will 
such abstract and elementary instruction do to 
them ? They must, perforce, get instruction 
to prepare for business, the time for their entrance 
into civil life, when they must think of earning 
their own bread, or helping us in our business, 
is close upon them." True, our sons are already 
old for what they have yet to learn ; why then 
did we not give them what their minds needed, 
while they were younger. Are the boys to lose 
true development, and training altogether ? The 

138 THE student's froebel 

world replies : " When the boys are grown-up, 
they will have leisure to make up for defects in 
their training." Fools that we are ! Our inner 
consciousness contradicts us, would we but listen 
to what it says. Here and there some small 
omission may be supplied, but all-round, human 
development, missed and neglected in boyhood, 
can never be recovered. Let us all, fathers and 
mothers too, be candid for once, and confess 
that we feel mental wounds which never heal while 
we live, hardened spots in our hearts that soften 
no more, dark places in our intellects that will 
never get bright ; and all because noble human 
feelings, and thoughts natural to childhood, were 
in our childhood crushed or lost, through early 
misdirection. It will be a blessing to our children 
if this confession be made and acted on. 

If our sons are already in the latter part of 604 
their boyhood, and have not yet learned, nor 
developed, what properly belongs to the beginning 
of boyhood, it were better to turn back to that 
beginning, to childhood even, than finally to miss 
what could be recovered. Perhaps our sons 
would reach the goal of fitness for practical life 605 
a year or two later : but were it not far better to 
touch — though late — the true goal, than to reach 
the false one earlier ? Consider the words of 
Jesus : " Become as little children." Have they 
not the meaning, " Turn back to your own youth, 
and thus warm and revive the eternal youth 
of your soul." This, which was spoken in the 
time of Jesus as the beginning of a new way of 
life, is now spoken to us, to all mankind, that a 


new and higher stage of human development 
may be reached. It surely means, that if you do 
not provide for yourselves and your children at 
the stage of child and boy whatever man's spirit 
needs, then neither you nor they will ever attain 
what your souls, in the happiest, most hopeful 
moments of your life, desired ; that which has 
moved and filled the hearts of the noblest human 
beings, always. 


If we endeavour to bring to a focus the aim 606 
and amount of development which man has 
acquired, by the unfolding method of education 
and instruction as hitherto described, we distinctly 
see that the boy is come to the knowledge of his 
independent spiritual self, he feels and knows 
himself to be a spiritual whole. The capacity 
has been formed in him to perceive a whole, in 
its unity and variety. There has begun to grow 
in him ability to represent a whole in its necessary 
parts, to express himself — his essence — in its 
unity and in the manifoldness of its being, by means 
of variety external to it. Thus, we recognise 
the human being, at the beginning of boyhood, 
as capable of what is highest and most important, 
the fulfilment, namely, of his destiny, or function, 
which is to realise the divine nature within him. 
The subsequent life of man from boyhood onwards 
is dedicated to making this capacity grow into 
sure skill, into consciousness, into insight and 
clearness, into a life of his own making. 

Froebel hoped, in a second part of his book. 
The Educatio7i of Mankind, to set forth 
practical means for the complete realisation of 
this great idea. In subsequent occasional 
writings he did much towards this end, but 
the book remains a fragment. For witness 
that he spoke truth, and will henceforward 
always speak truth, he appeals to the boy- 
world that was about him when he wrote. 



Out of their works and ways, he avers, the 

book was built. 
Boys of the very age to which this book belongs 
— fresh in spirit, cheerful in mood, joyous in soul, 
happy in life : boys who entered the teaching 
circle while the book was being written — out of 
whom it really grew — who usually surrounded the 
writer while at his task, playing close by, never 
tired of demanding fresh satisfaction and nourish- 
ment for their impulses to life and activity : these 
are sureties, if outward pledges were needed, that 
he has written truth, and will write truth still. 


Prmtiii by Sir Isaac fitman 6r Sons, Ltd.. Balh. I- nulaii'l 




Complete list post free on application 



Q 7 

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The Journal of the Educational Handwork Association, l-'diicd 
by Geo. F. Johnson. Monthly 3(1. Wholesale Agents, Sir Isaac 
Pitman & Sons, Ltd. 


Art Manuals 

Simple Lessons in Colour. (Brushwork.) 

Demy 8vo, cloth, 160 pp., 36 full-page coloured plates. 4s. net. 

By Herbert A. Rankin, Art Master, Silver and Bronze Medallist. 
A Practical Manual suitable for all who would master the elementary 
principles of colour as applied both to animate and inanimate objects, 
and especially useful to elementary and secondary school teachers. 

'Pastel Work, Vol. 1.— Common Objects. 

By the same Author. In demy 8vo, cloth, 160 pp., with 
32 full-page colour plates. Price 4s. net. 

The plates chosen to illustrate the scheme in this manual are of 
such articles as can easily be obtained at any time of the year, so 
that no dii^culty is experienced in making the lessons continuous. 

^Pastel Work, Vol. 2.—FloWers. 

By the same Author. In demy 8vo, cloth, 188 pp., with 36 
beautiful full-page coloured plates. 4s. net. 
The variation and developments necessary in the application of 
colour in dealing with plant life are fully described and clearly 
explained. The guiding principle of the whole selection has been to 
enable it to provide a Seasonal Course of Nature Work with Crayons. 

Pastel for the Standards. 

By A. George Tompkins. With Foreword by Selwyn Image, 

M.A., Slade Professor of Art at Oxford, etc. 

In three books, Junior, Intermediate, and Senior. Each 

volume in demy 8vo, cloth, 2s. 6d. net. Vol. I, 85 pp., 19 

coloured plates ; Vol. II, 87 pp., 21 coloured plates ; 

Vol. Ill, 80 pp., 16 coloured plates. 

These three books contain a carefully graded course of study that 

embraces all sections of the school and thus forms a continuous and 

progressive scheme for six j^ears' work. Commencing with the 

most simple problems in the use of the pastel advance is made along 

original and interesting lines to more difficult studies. 

Pencil Drawing. 

By H. A. Rankin. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 153 
illustrations, 220 pp. Price 4s. net. 

This manual is addressed especially to teachers who are trying to 
learn the art of teaching drawing ; and it should prove of the greatest 
assistance in removing many of the practical difficulties that arise 
in their work, and will also give them considerable insight into 
the principles underlying the rules and conventions of the subject. 
It is confined to points that admit of clear and definite treatment. 

Simple Pictorial Illustration. 

In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 200 pp., with 22 magnificent three- 
colour plates, 9 two-colour plates, and about 60 black and 
white illustrations and diagrams. Price 4s. net. 
By F. H. Brown, A.R.C.A. (Lond.), Silver and Bronze Medallist, and 
H. A. Rankin, Silver and Bronze Medallist. 
A guide to enable the teacher to commence, develop and perfect the 


power of visualising any object or scene in colour. An Introductory 
chapter deals very etfectively with materials, media and the means 
of acquiring proficiency. Among the many subjects dealt with are : 
— The Sky and Clouds ; The Land and its appearance under different 
aspects ; The Sea and colours used in depicting it ; Buildings ; 
Trees ; Animals ; Human beings, etc., etc. 

The Teaching of Colour. 

By H. A. Rankin. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 178 pp., with 
55 beautiful plates in colour and black and white. 4s. net. 
The primary aim of the present volume is to present colour problems, 
especially in the observational exercises, in as simple a manner as 
possible. Many of the exercises are expressly simphfied with that 
object by the omission of various considerations that purely concern 
art. The Scientific Aspect of Colour, The Paint Box, Obser^-ation 
and Rendering of Colour, Harmony of Colour, Analytical Colour, and 
the Use of Nature are all considered. 

Simple Art Applied to Handwork. Vol. I. 

By H. A. Rankin and F. H. Brown, A.R.C.A. In demy 
Svo, cloth, 208 illustrations in colour and black and white ; 
248 pp. Price 4s. net. 

In this e.xtremely interesting book the author describes how the art 
work of the school may be linked with the handwork, to the obvious 
betterment of the art. Using the articles made in the handwork 
lesson as a basis, the decorative work of the scholars is made real 
and practical, not merely academic. The application of the arts 
of brushwork, stencilling, needlework and lettering are all simply 
yet fully described with reference to the majority of the articles made 
in most handwork lessons. 

Needlework, and Domestic 

Needlework for Student Teachers 

By Miss Amv K. Smith, Diplouih- of the Loudon ItistituU for the 
Advancement of Plain Seedlcivork, Specialist under the London 
County Council ; and at the Day Training College, Moorfields : 
Examiner in Dressmaking and Needlcivork to the City and Guilds 
of London Institute ; late of St. Gabriel's College, Keuntngton, S.E. 
With introduction by The Lady Wolverton. 
In demy Svo, cloth, 26U pp., with nearly 200 diagrams. 

Price 4s. net 

Cutting-Out for Student Teachers. 

By Miss Amy K. Smith. Willi Introductujn by The Countess be 


The most comprehensive book devoted exclusively to cutting out yri 

published in this countrv. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 260 pp., with over 3f>() diagrams. 

I'ricc 5s. net. 

Practical Plain Needlework. 

By Annie R. Chamberlain, B.A. (Lond.), Diplofnie of the London 
Institute for the Advancement of Plain Needlework ; Needlework 
Instructress in the City of Nottingham Pupil Teachers' Centre. 
Based on all the latest circulars issued by the Board. 
Foolscap 4to, cloth, 212 pp.. fully illustrated, with diagrams 
in two colours. Price 3s. 6d. net. 

'Blackboard Diagram Drawing for Teachers of 

By Ethel R. Hambridge, Trained Certificated Teacher; Art 
Teachers' Certificate ; Diplomie (Gold Seal) of the London Institute 
for the Advancement of Plain Needlework ; also of the N.T.S.C. in 
Millinery ; and in Dressmaking, Elementary and Advanced ; Teacher 
of Blackboard Diagram Drawing at Northampton Polytechnic Institute. 
Clerkenwell, E.C . 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, with 7 full-page coloured plates and 
nearly 300 black and white illustrations and diagrams. 
Price 3s. 6d. net. 

The diagrams are carefully graded, beginning with the formation 
of simple stitches and culminating in detailed sketches of com- 
pleted garments. This book is eminently adapted to the require- 
ments of candidates preparing for the Blackboard Drawing Section 
of the Evening School Teachers' Certificate granted by the Citj' and 
Guilds of London Institute. 

Notes of Lessons on Pattern Drafting. 

By Josephine Riley, Needlework Lecturer to the Teachers' Classes 
under the London County Council. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 120 pp., with 35 full page illustrations, 
2s. 6d. net. 

A recognised system correlated with art and graduated for the 
Standards on Educational lines. It includes class lessons in Pattern 
Drafting, in cutting out in the material, in the making up of the 
garments according to ability of each class. 

Knitting for Infants and Juniors, 

By Ethel M. Dudley, L.L.A. With Foreword by Miss S. J. Hale, 

Principal of the Edge Hill Training College. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 64 pp., with over 40 plates and 

other illustrations, 2s. net. 

Part I is entirely devoted to the work of Infants and Standard I, 

all patterns being based upon the ordinary plain knitting, or garter, 

stitch. Part II is more advanced, requiring the added knowledge 

of how to work a purl stitch, cind is suitable for all classes of the 

Junior School. 

Knitting and Crochet Without Specimens. 

By Ellen P. Claydov and C. A. Claydon. 

The Modern Book of School Knitting and Crochet. Being a 

complete, detailed, and graduated course of work for each 

class in a girls' school. In foolscap 4to, cloth 204 pp 
with upwards of 150 beautiful descriptive plates. 

T^, . , , Price ;Ss. fid. net. 

ilns book aims at meeting in a practical manner the suggestions with 
regard to knitting made in the recently issued Report on the teachins 
of Needlework. It describes a large variety of articles, carefully 
graded in dilficuity, for every class from Infants to Standard \"II. 

Household Accounts and Management, or Hot) 
to Plan and Regulate Expenditure. 

By Helena He.\d, Pnncipal oj the School of Domestic Science. 
Liverpool; Examiner in Domestic Science to the Manchester aiiil 
Sheffield luliication Connnitlrrs mid the l.tnicashire mid Cheshire 

I ' II ion of I nstiiittes. 

Crown 8\(), limp clotli, 10(S pp. Price 9(1. nt-t. 

\W the same Author. 

In three l)ooks, Junior and Intennediate, each 72 pp., 
in-ice (Sd. ; Senior, 102 pj)., [)rire 8d. Eacji in crown 8v.>. 
limp cloth. 

Mothercraft : or. Infant Management. 

By Mrs. Ellis H. Cii\i)\virK. 

Crown 8vo, hmp cloth, 12G pj)., 9d net. 
The Principles of Health and Temperance. 

l>y Mrs. Kliis 11. (~ii xdwick. 

Crown 8vo, cloth, 180 pp. Is. 3d. 

Homecraft in the Classroom. AScrits of l.tsson> in 
" Home-making," in which the work is brought under the 
usual schoolroom conditions. In crown 8\-o, clotli. 183 pp., 
14 full-page plate illustrations. Price 2s. net. 
By Mary Hill, .\ ('.P., h'm/moor (otinril (I'uiversity DcDioustration) 
School, Sheffield. 

Practical Laundry Work. For Home and School. 

By Louise \\kteiNh,\ll, Teacher oi Trade I.ainidn W'otk at the 
lioroiiiih Polvtei hnic Institute, with illustrations by Ethkl K. 
H.xMr.RiDGK. With a Foreword by Mrs. Bi'KGWIN. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, with 151 photograpliii" and other 
illustrations, 178 pp. Price 2s. (Sd. net. 

Domestic Work for Rural Schools. 

Ik'ing a (oinplile course of ]) instruction lor older 
girls. In crown 8\-o, cloth, 258 p]x, with 35 illustrations. 

2s. 6(1. net. 

By P. H. Arch, .V.C.P., Head Muster of .\,ttt,huni School, l.tiuolu ; 
Member of the County Lecture Stat,', Kesteveii luliication Commtltee, 
With a foreword by Ciikistopiii:k Tuk.nok. Member of the ( .>»i- 
sultative Committee of the Board of luliication. Chairman of the linral 
Education Sub-Committee, Lindscv County Council, 

Outdoor Series. 

School Gardening. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 124 pp. Price Is. 

By W. Francis Rankine. With 75 diagrams and illustrations. 

A verj' readable text-book suitable for scholars' use where tlie 
subject is taught. 

Farm and Field. In crown 8vo, cloth, 104 pp. 

A splendid reader for rural schools. Price Is. 

By Francis Rankine. With diagrams and 19 full-page plate 

This book presents in a popular form the stones of field and hedge- 
row, villace life, and llie operations of the farm. An effort has been 
made to foster observation rather than to supplant it. The emphasis 
that is placed on the relation between cause and effect is a feature 
of this Reader. 

Typical School Journeys. In crown 8vo, cloth, 

140 pp., with illustrations. Price Is. 6d. 

By (t. G. Lewis, Head Master of Kentish Totvn Road L.C.C. School 
and Member of the Executive of the School Nature Study Union. 
The author is well known as one of the pioneers of the School Journey 
movement, and he has in this book described a series of open-air 
lessons which ha\e been actually given to his scholars on Hampstead 
Heath and elsewhere. 

Longer School Journeys. By G. G. Lewis. With 
Introduction by Professor J. Adams, M.A., B.Sc. 

Crown Svo, cloth, 216 pp., with nearly 100 diagrams and illustrations, 
includins; many full-p.ise plates. Price 2s. 6d. net. 

7 he Coutenipoiarv Review says : — " Mr. Lewis, in this delightful 
book, shows the whole macliinery of long school journeys, as well 
as all the physical, mental, moral and spiritual good they do." 

In the Open Air In crown Svo, cloth, 120 pp., and 
14 full-page plate illustrations. Price Is. 6d. 

A series of Outdoor Lessons in Arithmetic, Mensuration, Geometry, 
etc., for Primary and Secondary Schools. By J. Eaton Feasey, 
Head Master of the Ranmoor Couucill School .{Universitv Primary 
Demonstration School), a Lecturer in Education in the University 
of Sheffield. 

Ai^striking and original work which shows how the playground and 
the school garden can with great advantage be utilized for many 
lessons now given in crowded class-rooms. _^ 


In the Garden. In rrown 8vo, cloth, 140 pp.. and 
14 full-page plates and numerous other illustrations 
Price 2s. 

A series of Lessons in Nature Study — mainl\- I'lant Lilc lo l>c 

given in the School Garden. By J.' Eaton Feasey. 

Contains a complete course of outdoor lessons on Plant Life and 
other Nature Study subjects, on the linos advocated bv the Board 
of Education in their Educational Pamphlet No. 12 and thin 
Suggestions on l^ural Education. The volume should be of the 
utmost value to all schools which have a garden, and to all tcachei  
of Nature Study. 

Garden and Playground Nature ytudt^ : or 
Observational Studies in Vlant Life, ' Li^hi, 
Heat, etc. For Primary and Secondary Schools. By J. 
Eaton Feasey. Crown^ 8vo, cloth, 184 pp., with" 65 
illustrations. Price 2s. 6d. net. 

The Schoolmaster sa.ys : — " The author of In the Open An iwwX J n tht 
Garden can be congratulated on his third book. He travels a 

somewhat new road in Nature Study, and the result is refreshing. 

It is a well-written book, profusely and well illustrated b%' photograph 

and line drawings." 

A Scheme of Nature Study and How to Work It. 

By G. G. Lewis. In crown 8vo, cloth, with many 
illustrations by the Author. Price Is. 6d. net. 

In addition to the u.sual plant and animal life, considerable attention 
is devoted to Rock and Weather study as an assistance to intelligent 
geography teaching, and an attempt is made to bridge over the 
gap between " Nature Study " in the lower and " Elementary" 
Science " in the upjier classes. 

The Open Air School. By Hugh Bkolk.hton. B.Sr. 
(Lond.). With Foreword by the Lady St. Hi:i.ii:k. Jn 
crown 8vo, cloth, 188 pp., with hily illustrations, 2s. (Sd. 

This l)Ook describes how children may work, jilay, cat and sleep 
entirely under open-air conditions. The .\utlior lias worked ;il tho 
London County Council Shooters Hill Open-air School since it 
opened in 190S^the success of that School as an agency for making 
weakly children strong and at the same time giving them e<iuipment 
for life, has attracted world-wide attention, resulting m fif.|ucnt 
enquiries as to how it is accomphshed. This book will answer all 
these fjuestions and will he invaluable to members of education 
committees, social reformers, and teachers it is a complete Ruidc 
to building, e<iuipping and working an Open air School. 


Teachers' Handbooks 

Notes of Lessons on History, In two vols. Crown 
8vo. cloth. Price, Vol. I, 176 pp., 3s. ; Vol. II, 208 pp., 
3s. 6d. 

Vol. 1 deals with the Early Period, from British Times to 1603, and 
\'ol. U with the Modern Period from 1603 to the Present Day. 
These Notes of Lessons can be conveniently used in connection 
with any of the schemes of history teaching now in general use, 
whether " periodic," " concentric " or " biographical." 

An Elementary History Source "Book. In crown 

Svo, cloth, 208 pp. Price 3s. 6d. 

By the Author ot Pitman's Notes of Lessons on History. 
Consistmg of extracts from the Original Autlionties of English 
>listory. Intended for use in connection with Pitman's Notes oi 
Lessons on History, or with any sciieme of History teaching 

Notes of Lessons on English. In crown 8vo, cloth, 
208 pp. Piice3s. 6d. 

A comprehensive serus of lessons intended to assist teachers who 
wish to give systematic instruction in English Composition and 
Grammar. Composition is regarded by the author not only as a 
very valuable exercise in mental training, but as the essential lounda- 
tion of all sound language teaching. In these " Notes of Lessons " 
prominence is given to the teaching of general rules for the correction 
of common errors in composition. 

Notes of Lessons on Hygiene and Temperance. 

Two volumes. In crown 8vo, cloth, each 180 pp. Price 3b. 
By Mrs. Ellis H. Chadwick. With an Introduction by Professor 
Sims Woodhead, M.A., M.D. 

These Notes of Lessons are based upon the scheme outlined in the 
Syllabus issued by the Board of Education. Few technical terms are 
used, and where experiments are suggested, they are such as can be 
conducted in an ordinary class-room. Vol. I deals with the Hygiene 
of the Person, Food (including Air and Water) and Clothing ; and Vol. 
11 with the Home, Simple Ailments, Sick Nursing and Mother-craft. 

Notes of Lessons on Arithmetic, Mensuration^ 
and Practical Geometry. 

Two volumes. In crown 8vo, cloth. Each 176 pp. Price 3s. 
By C. W. Crook, B.A., B.Sc, Head Master of the Higher Grade School, 
Wnod Green, W 

The auLiioi lid,;. piuviduJ a series of suggestive lessons, by means of 
which the teacher may be enabled to secure the alertness in the pupil 
which IS so properly insisted upon in the Suggestions to Teac)iers. 
The Metric System and Mensuration are treated very fully, and 
Practical Geometry, including graphs, is a feature of the book. 
Each lesson begins with oral work leading up to the subject of the 
lesson, which is next treated practically, and as far as possible from 
the work of the class itself. After each lesson, suggestions are given 
as to various types of problems and other lessons. 

Notes of Lessons on Science. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 208 pp. Price :k. 6d. 
By Robert Bunting, Head Master of the " Acland " Higher 
Elemeufary School, London, AMI'. 

The material of the book is distributed over five sections, the (irsi 
dealing with physical measurements of a general character and 
progressive in arrangement. The last two consider \arious chemical 
and physical forces and their application to industry. While the 
former sections are well adapted to the lower classes of any schnol, 
the latter would suit e.xcellenlly the upper classes of a good school 
in an industrial neighl)Ourhood. 

Notes of Lessons on Music, Sol-fa Notation. 

In two vols, with illustrations, exercises, and songs, each 
crown 8vo, cloth. Vol. I, 188 pp., 3s. 6d. net. Vol. II, 
208 pp., 3s. 6d. net. 

Notes of Lessons on yiusic. Stall Notation. In two 
vols., with illustrations, exercises, etc., each crown 8vo, cloth. 
Vol. I, 208 pp., 3s. 6d. net. Vol. II, 224 pp., 3s. 6d. net. 

By Edward Mason, Mus.Bac, F.E.I. S., L.T.C.L., F.T.S.C. 
Head Master of Rye Croft Council School, N ewcastle-under-Lyme . 
These volumes are dcsignr-d to con^titnlc n cr mplcte and uji-to-datr 
work on the subject of Music m Elementary Schools. Generally 
speaking they follow closely the lines of The Suggestions. The work 
includes lessons on Method^ of Teaching the various divisions of the 
subject in all grades from the infants upwards, lessons on systematic 
ear-training, and lessons on subjects pertaining to musical culture. 
There are three chapters exclusively devoted to the study of Har- 
mony. Copious examples and exercises are provided The Board 
of Education syllabuses and list of songs are included for convenient 
reference, and a section is devoted to the provision of specmien 
songs which are considered suited to the needs of the different classes. 

Notes of Lessons on Geography. Two volunies 
In crown 8vo, cloth. Vol. 1, 176 f))). Price 3s. \V.I II, 
216 pp. Price 3s. Bd. By Eewis Mar'^h, M..\. 
The aim of these books is to indicate a method whereby cffigi iphv 
may be taught ip an cducaiional and scientific manner. The L<-s>.«ins 
are carefully graduated, each depending on those tiiat precede it. 
The ground covered is sullicient to supply the whole geoqrnphical 
teaching of all seven standards of an elementary school. Tiio s< hcmr 
is a combination of those mentioned in the " SuRgeslioiis for 
leachers." and is based on the Code of the Board of I-.diication. 
Volume I consi.sts of Lessons on Elementary Notions. I'lans an<l 
Maps, and the study o( England and Wales. Vol. II crml.ims the 
geographs of Europe, with Scotland and Ireland. 
In the study of countries, tiie regional tiielhod is adopted. It is 
snown how the teaclu-r can tram his pupils to observe the j)hysical 
features of a district, and to deduce from them the political and 
commercial conditions. 


A 'Practical Geography. 

By Edwin J. Orford. With an Introduction by Colonel 
Sir T. H. Holdich, K.C.M.G.. K.C.I. E., C.B., Vice- 
President of the Royal Geographical Society. 
In crown 8vo, cloth, with 150 diagrams and illus- 
trations, 180 pp., 2s. 6d. net. 

In this boo); i)rpcise directions arc given for conducting demon- 
strations, for constructing simple apparatus in wood and in cardh)oard, 
making observations and working out exercises ; and for cases where 
observations cannot for any reason be made, specimen figures and 
other data are supplied. 

Field Work for Schools 

Being a course of instruction in the methods usually em- 
ployed in Map-making. By E. H. Harrison, B.Sc. (Lond.), 
L.C.P.. Mathematical Master, Higher Elementary School, 
Urmston, and C. A. Hunter, Higher Elementary School, 
Urmston, In crown Svo, cloth, 92 pp., with coloured 
frontispiece, and man}- diagrams and illustrations. 

Price Is. 4d. net. 
This book is the result of several years' experience in developing a 
course of lessons in measurement and elementary map-making, 
which can be carried on in the open air. 

OiiserVaiton Lessons tn 'Botany. 

By C. G. KiDDELL, B.A., F.L.S., Sometime Lecturer in Nature Studv 
and Science, under the Herts County Council, and Science Master 
Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Barnet. 

In foolscap 4iu, 17b pp., with 42 pages of illustrations. 

Price 3s. 
The object of this volume is to cultivate the children's powers of 
observation and inference ; few scientific terms are introduced. 

"Practical Object Lessons from the Plant fVorld. 

By Herbert J. Barnell. In crown'Svo, cloth, 172 pp. 
23 pp. of Illustrations. Price 3s. 

The author has kept in mind that the correct method of procedure 
is to lead the scholars toj make their own deductions from the 
obser\-ation of actual objects placed before them. 

Talks with Times > In crown Svo, cloth, 215 pp. 
Price 3/6 

A Series of Lessons for the Babies, with Suggestions at the end of 
each Lesson for Correlated Lessons and Occupations. By Mrs. 
Alyce L. S.'VNDFord, Head Mistress of Rolls Road Council School. 
Camherwell ; late Mistress of Method at S. Marylebone P.T. Centre ; 
Lecturer on Theory of Education at the National Society's School 
of Cookery. 

The book contains over 60 pages of illustrations, which can be 
easily drawn on the blackboard by the teacher, and instructions 
are given with each drawing for correlated work — Colouring, Per- 
forating, IModelling, Stick La\nng, Freehand and Free-arm Drawing, 


4 Year's Work With Mother Mature. 

An Easy Series of Con elated Nature Studies lor 1, it tie 
Children, based on the Seasons. By Mrs. .\lvcl L. 
Sa.vdford. With a Foreword by Lord Avkisirv. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 203 pp. Price 3s. 6d. 
The book contains over 40 pages of illustrations suitable for drawmy 
on the blackboard. The lessons have original songs with piauoloite 

A Second Year's IVork With Mother Nature 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 203 pp. Price 3s. 6d. 
Being another Series of Easy Correlated Nature Studies for 
Little Children, based on the Seasons. By Mrs. Alyck L. 
Sandford. With Foreword by Sir John Cockburn, 
K.C.M.G., and 44 pp. of illustrations. 
The lessons have original songs with pi;inoforte accompaniment. 

Nature Notes and Notions : Being a Third Year's 
Work with Mother Nature. Suitable for Standards I, II, 
and III. By ^Irs. A. L. Sandford. With about 40 pp. of 
illustrations.^ With Foreword by Sir George Kekewich. 
In foolscap 4to, cloth, 204 pp. Price 3s. 6d. 
This is a book of Nature Lessons written on the Herbartiaii plan 
with suggested correlated applications. 

Chats With the Chicks. By Mrs. A. L. Sandford. 
In foolscap 4to, cloth, with 40 j^p. of illustrations. Price 3s. 
This is a book of very simple little Nature lessons in the lorm o) 
" Chats," being absolutely informal and each having as its basis 
the central idea or chief Nature thought of a Nursery Rhyme. 

Talks about Trees. 

By Mrs. Alyce L. Sandford. In foolscap 4to. cloth, 
with 43 pp. of illustrations, 166 pp. Price 3s. 6d. 

This is a series of lessons on the common trees of town and cimiilry, 
written very siniplv. and suitable for Infant-,' School, .md iht 
lower Standards of Hoys' and Girls' Schools. 

Months and Melodies : An Entirely New Sene> of 
Original Stories, Songs and Kccitations. based on the 
months of the year. Bv Bessie Hawkins. Mw^ic bv K. 
W. Hawkins. In (ooUcap 4f(', cloth 128 pi). Price 

2s. 6d. net. 

The book is arranged in three parts, the fust containing a storv for 
each month to be read or told to the children. ICach story is (ol 
lowed by a suitable song set to taking and easy intis.c. I In- second 
Part consists of Nature Study recitations (also arranged to suit the 
months). The Third Part is devoted to a miscellaneous collection 
of children's games and recitations of varymg diHicully. 


A Year of Happy lyays. 

Being a Series of forty-four original descriptive Nature 
Games and Songs, etc., with healthful exercises for Infants 
and Junior Classes. By Alice L. A. Hands. Foolscap 
4to, cloth, 108 pp. 2,. 6d. net. 

This is a delightlul scries of forty-four dubcriptive Nature Games 
and Original Songs, with full Musical Accompaniment. The book 
is in si.x sections ; " Sunset and Dawn, " " Spring," " Summer," 
" Autumn," " Winter," and " Children's Own Games." 

A Cycle of Nature Songs. 

By Florence Steane, F.N. CM., Head Mistress Grange 
Street Council School, Burton-on-Trent. Foolscap 4to, 
cloth, 68 pp. 2s. net. 

The songs are divided into four sections, each conlaining half-a- 
dozen songs for the respecti\'e seasons of the year. The airs are 
gi\eii in Sol-fa and Old Notation, with full musical accompaniment. 

A Child's CasQuet of Song. 

By Florence Steane, F.N. CM., Head Mistress of Crange 

Street Girls' Council Sc/wol, Burton-on-Trent, Composer of 

" A Cycle of Nature Songs," etc. In foolscap 4to, cloth, 

108 pp., 2s. 6d. net. 

Teachers will welcome another delightful series of twenty-five songs 
for children designed on similar lines to the same author's successful 
volume .A Cvtie of Xature Soni;s. 

Sky Songs. 

Words bv Margaret Ashworth, Author of A Child's 
Garland. Music by W. Irwin Hunt. The Songs are in 
three parts, in both notations, and ha\'e a full piano accom- 
paniment. In foolscap 4to, cloth, 76 pp. Price 2s. 6d. net. 

These songs are principally intended for Junior Forms of Upper 
Schools, although some of the simpler ones, taken as solos, will be 
found both attractive and easy for older children in Kindergarten 
or Infant Schools. Written with an eye to simplicity, the songs 
are rather wide in scope, varying from a simple lyrical form to that 
of the plain ballad. 

Little Tunes for Little People. 

By Wilson Manhire. In foolscap 4to, cloth, with music 
in both notations, and full accompaniment. 32 pp. Is. net. 

These little tunes are written specially for Infant Schools. There 
are 30 tunes in all, and these include all the popular nursery rhymes. 


"Golden Days," 

Being Stories based on Nursery Rhymes. With accom- 
panying Notes for Lessons, for Dramatisation and for 
Suitable Games, together with schemes for Correlati\-e 
Expression Work and Co operative Handwork. By 
QuEENiE Clarke, Author of Across the Border, etc. In 
crown 8vo, cloth, 196 pp., with 90 black and white 
illustrations. Price 2s. net. 

These little stories are the old nursery rhymes of our childhood put 
into concrete form and arranged in such a manner as to fit the various 
seasons of the year. 

Nature Stories. 

By Louie Jesse, Head Mistress of Cogun Infants' School. 
Glamorgan. In crown 8vo, cloth, with 25 full page outline 
drawings suitable for reproduction on the blackboard. 
152 pp. Illustrations for Class Use 
PUBLISHED separately IN PACKETS. Price 4d. 

In writing these little stories the object of the author has been to 
raise and stimulate the interest of the little ones in the careful 
observation of Plant and Animal Life around them, leading them to 
the fairyland of Nature through the gate of imagination. 

Across the 'Border. A Geography Story. By Queenie 
Clarke. In crown 8vo, cloth, 180 pp., with 13 full-page 
plates and 77 black and white illustrations. 2s. not. 
This is a geographical story, in which great prominence is given to the 
physical features of England and Wales, and these are illustrated by 
means of the Sand Tray. To each chapter is appended a full and 
complete scheme of expression work whereby the subject-matter is 
correlated with the other subjects of the school curriculum. 77iw 
and the tivo siicceeditt^ volumes will be found especially useful in 
connection with the Board's Circular 833. 

Babyland Abroad. Being a Series of Geography Stories. 
By Louie Jesse. In crown 8vo, cloth, with neady 100 
illustrations suitable for reproduction on the blackboard. 

192 pp. Price 2s. 6d. net. 

In Babyland Abroad the Uttle ones of England are introduced to the 
following babies : Ito of Japan, Mikissoq of Greenland, Teb of 
Jamaica, Olaf of Norway, Wang of China, Betje of Holiaiul, Lona of 
Ceylon, Bunu of Kaffir-land, Hassan of Arabia, the Piccaninny and 
the Wigwam baby and many other fascinating little persons. A 
Special Correlation Scheme post free on application. 
Scholars Books for use with the above, by the same author, are 
published in five books, each in crown 8vo, limp cloth, illus., 48 pp. 
3d • 1 Two Black Babies ; 2, Two White Babies ; 3. Two Brown 
Babies'; 4, Two Yellow Babies; 5, The Red liaby and His Cousm. 


Babyland in History. Being a Series of Stories 
concerning the leading Royal characters in English 
History. By Louie Jesse. In crown 8vo, cloth, with 
about 100 illustrations especially suitable for reproduction 
on the blackboard. 171 pp. Price 2s. net. 

Beginning with the pre-historic Cave Baby, followed by the Welsh 
Baby, the Roman Baby, the Saxon and the Danish Baby, the stories 
lead on to the lives of some of the great heroes and heroines who 
figured so prominently in English History. The stories are told in a 
simple informal manner, and the illustrations are simple, effective, 
and can be reproduced by teachers and children. A Special Correla- 
tion Scheme post free on application. 

Scholars' Books for use with the above, by the same author, are 
published in live books, each in crown 8vo, limp cloth, illus., 48 pp 
Price 3d. 1 , Babies of Long Ago ; 2, Royal Babies of Long Ago ; 
3, Brave Boys of Long Ago ; 4, Brave Girls of Long Ago ; 5, Little 
Pilgrims of Long Ago. 

The Water 'Babies. Infant Teachers' Edition. By 
Charles Kingsley. Adapted and Re-told, with copious 
Natural History Notes, and a Scheme of Correlated Lessons 
and Handwork, by Winifred Howard. In crown 8vo, 
cloth, with 21 full pages of illustrative sketches for repro- 
duction on the blackboard, by Margaret Ashworth. 
158 pp. Price 2s. 6d. net. 

This book contains fourteen more or less self-contained Nature 
Stories re-told from Kingsley's Water Babies. Full and 

reliable notes are given upon the plants and animals mentioned. 

A Child's Garland. 

By Margaret Ashworth. With Music by W. Irwin Hunt. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, 222 pp. Price 3s. 6d. net. 

With 18 original Nature Stories and accompanying full-page illus- 
trations, white on black, and a similar number of original Nature 
Songs with full piano accompaniment, Lessons, Recitations, etc. 
This book is primarily intended for those interested in Kindergarten 
work and contains Nature Lessons, seasonally arranged, upon the 
following flowers and shrubs: — (Spring), Primrose, Daisy, Cowslip, 
Violet; (Summer), Buttercup, Forget-me-not, Dandelion, Honey- 
suckle, Bluebell, Rose; {Autumn), Reed, Heather, Autumn Leaves, 
Apple; (Winter), Grass, Hips and Haws, Holly, Snowdrop. 

Overheard in Fairyland, or the Veter Tan Tales. 

By Madge A. Bigham. With coloured illustrations by Ruth S. 
Clements. In crown 8vo, cloth, 208 pp. 2s. 6d. net. 

This very charming series of Nature Fairy Tales was inspired by Mr. 
Barrie's lascinating play, Peter Pan. 


"Basic Stories. A Complete Connected Scheme of Work for 
Infants. By Bertha Pugh, N.F.U., Head Mistress Evelyn 
Street Council School, Warrington. With Foreword b}' 
George F. Johnson, Inspector of Handwork, Liverpool 
Education Committee. In foolscap 4to, cloth, 184 pp., with 
15 full-page plates. 3s. net. 

This book contains a complete suggestive Scheme of Work, suitable 
for Infants, based on literature ; and the stories chosen are standard 
and are generally well known. A complete suggestive Handwork 
Scheme is also connected with the general scheme for each raontli, 
while ideas for group work in connection with the handwork are also 
given at the beginning of each month's work. 

Work Through Vlay. 

Being the training of the children of the Infants' 
Preparatory Class. By Katharina Schulze, Author of 
" Letter Games " and " Word Building Games." With 
Foreword by E. N. Wix, Formerly H.M. Inspector of Schools. 
In crown 8vo, cloth, illustrated, 100 pp. Price Is. 4d. net. 

This book should prove of real value to Infants' Teachers, inasmuch 
as it shows how the preparatory class in the Infants' School receives 
a most dehghtful training through the medium of games and " make 
beheve. " All subjects are skilfully handled and taught by means of 
games and self-help, and the children are trained to do as much as 
possible for therhselves. 

Storp Telling.— What to Tell and How to Tell it. 

By Edna Lyman. In crown 8vo, cloth, 197 pp. 2s. 6d. net. 

The book is intended for those who, untrained, are required to meet 
the present day demand for stories, and are at a loss where to find 
material or what to select, and who are limited by small library 

A Story of Infant Schools and Kindergartens. 

By Miss E. R. Murray, of the Maria Grev Training College, 
Hampstead. In crown 8vo, cloth, 156 pp. 2s. 6(1. net. 
This book supplies in a readable form what has not previously been 
within reach of the ordinary student, viz., an account of the Kinder- 
garten movement, combined with the story of the rise not only of 
our Infants' Sciiools, but of our system of national education. 

The Folk Dance "Book. For Elementary Schools. 
Class-room, Playground, and Gymnasium. Compiled by 
C. Ward Crampton, M.D. Size Si in. by 11 A in., cloth, 
with illustration'^ and music. Price 3s. 6d. net. 
The forty-three graded dances of Dr. Ward Crampton''; hooP consist 
of songs, music and description, llie mi lodics ami accompanying 
actions being gathered from primitive folk in mai.y laiiua. 


The Festival "Book, or May^day Pastime and 
the May=jJole. Being dances, revels, and musical 

By Jeanette E. C. Lincoln. 

Size 8^ in. by 11^ in., cloth, with many illustrations, 
diagrams and music. 85 pp. 3s. 6d. net. 
"Plays and Games lor indoors and Out. By Belle 
Ragnar Parsons. In demy 8vo, cloth, 254 pp., with 
illustrations. Price 3s. 6d. net. 

This volume, the fruit of much experience in schools, provides 
copious repertory of games, at once instructive and truly recreative 
for children at all stages of development. Its object is to infuse a 
spirit of intelligent play into the regular gymnastic drill. 

Graded Games, Authonstu Edition. By Marion 
Bromley Newton. In cloth, 84 pp., with illustrations 
and music. Price Is. 6d. net. 

Rhythmic Exercises. Authorised Edition. By the 
same Author. In cloth, 56 pp., with illustrations and 
music. Price Is. 6fi. n^t. 

These two books are classified under Games for General Activity, 
Imitation, Sense, Perception, Traditional or Folk-Lore Games, 
Miscellaneous Games of Educational Value, Marches and Rhythmic 
Plays. All are arranged, graded and adapted to the various stages 
of growth in the development of the child. 

Physical Exercises and Games. For Infants and 
Juniors. By J. Lewis, Physical Instructor, Tottenham 
P.T. Centre ; Author of " School Drill," " Drill Cards," etc. 
In crown 8vo, limp cloth, 56 pp., illustrated. 8d. net. 

The Play Exercises are based on everyday scenes and occupations, 
and are full of movement and can be done to musical accompaniment 
or without. 

School Games and Recreational Exercises. 

For use in Public Elementary Schools. By the same 
Author. In crown 8vo, limp cloth, 62 pp., illustrated, 8d. net. 
This book gives over two hundred Games and vanations classified 
according to ages. 

Letter Games for Infants. 

Ba'^ed on Old English Games. By Katharina Schulze. 
In crown 8vo, cloth, 48 pp. Is. 

a series of thirty little games which will make the learning of the 
alphabet both pleasurable and interesting. 

Word='Building Games. 

By Katharina Schulze. With a Foreword by Sir John 
Cockburn, K.C.M.G., M.D. In crown 8vo, cloth, 80 pp. 

Is. net. 

This work sets out strikingly and clearly how handwork and play 
in the Infants' School can be combined with the elements of simple 


reading ; it is, to quote Sir John Cockburn, " a welcome and appro- 
priate sequence to the author's Letter Games for Infants." The 
delights of making models in sand, clay-modelling, drawing, picture 
conversations, singing, etc., are all introduced. 

Language and Sense Training Games for 

By Louie Jesse. Author of " Nature Stones." In crown 
8vo, cloth, 56 pp. Is. net. 

This book contains thirty-seven games suitable for Infants' Schools 
and Junior Standards. 

Number Vlays and Games. Stepping-Stones to 
Visual and Observational Arithmetic. 
By C. Struthers, Head Mistress, Deefdale Road Council 
School, Preston. In crown 8vo, cloth, illustrated, 64 pp. 
Is. 3d. net. 

Nature Games for the Little Ones. 

By Ellen Green Haddon, with IMusic by Tom Pierce 
Cowling. In foolscap 4to, cloth, 40 pp. Is. 6d. net. 

This book is intended to be used in connection with the Nature 
Study Scheme, and the teacher will find that the Games will correlate 
and form a valuable addition to any syllabus. The si.xteen tunes 
are simple and " taking," and are by T. Pierce Cowling, the well- 
known and popular composer of children's songs. 

A Garden of Games. 

Being a Series of Educational and Recreational Games for 

Infants and Juniors. 

By Annie Ingham, Head Mistress, Batley Carr Infants' School, 

Dewsbury, Yorks. Music by John Fearnley. 

In foolscap 4to, cloth, containing seven songs with piano 

accompaniment, and seven full-page photographs. 12'J pp. 

2s. 6d. net. 

This series includes no less than thirty games, and is the result of 
careful study and long j^ractice in the most up-to-date methods of 
Kindergarten teaching. The themes have been drawn from many 
sources, some mythical, others geographical ; a few are introduced 
for the training of the senses on the Montessori principle, whilst 
others provide for the encouragement of Nature study. 

Singing Games. 

A series of twenty-eight original songs and games for 
Infants and Juniors. By Tom Pierce Cowling. Composer 
of " Nature Games for the Little Ones," etc. In foolscap 

4to. cloth, 124 pp., 2s. 6d. net. 

These games will be found rather out of " the beaten track," easy 
to teach and very effective, having been " tried and proven." 
They vary in length and difficulty, and contain no little fund of 
information given in a pleasant and informal manner. 


Athletic Training for Girls. 

Compiled and Edited by C. E. Thomas. Assisted by specialists. 
In crown 8vo, with 36 diagrams and illustrations, 216 pp. 

Price Is. 6d. net. 
Experts in gjmes and physical education give, in every chapter, 
the benefit of their expert knowledge. 

Home Gymnastics, For Young and Old. 

By T. J. Hartelius, M.D. Translated from the Swedish by 
Concordia Lofving. Fifth Edition^ revised. With a Prefatory 
Note by Arthur A. Beale, M.B. 

In crown 8vo, 96 pp., with 31 illustrations. Price Is. 6d. 
Natural History Object Lessons. Price 4/6 

By George Ricks, B.Sc. (Lond.), Inspector of Schools, London 
County Council. 

A Manual tor Teachers and Pupil Teachers. With numerous 
Diagrams, Illustrations, aii<l Specimen Drawings for the Blackboard. 

Nets) Object Lessons (for Teachers' use). 

Profusely illustrated with white line drawings. Price per 

volume, 2i. 6d. 

Vol. I, Animal Life, by F. W. Hackwood. 191 pages. Vol. II, 

Plant Life. By G. Bacon and R. Bunting. Vol. Ill, Earth, Air, 

and Sky, by R. Bunting. 223 pages. Vol. IV, Food, Clothing, 

etc., by R. Bunting 224. pages. 

Each volume contains about 30 Lessons, a coloured irontispiece 

reproduced from a blackboard drawing, and 30 pages of white on 

black illustrations suitable for class teaching. 

The Teacher's Course of Elementary Science. 

By Frank Belton, B.Sc. 

Part I. Physics and Chemistry. 

In crown 8vo. 240 pp. Price 3s. 6d. 
Part II. Plant Life. In crown Svo. 220 pp. Price 3s. 

The numerous illustrations and diagrams are a special feature. 

School Registers 

Attendance Register. Thick Boards. Price 1/4 

Summary Register. Strongly bound in cloth. Price 10/- 

Admission Register. Strongly bound in cloth. Price 10/- 

NeW Attendance Register for "Boys' or Girls' 
Classes. Price 1/4 


Teachers* Report and 
Work 'Books 

Head Teacher's Report "Book and Examination 

Register. Foolscap folio, strongly bound. Price 1/- 

Compiled by J. E. Ellson, Head Master Childcrley Street Central 
School, Fiilham, and E. Bolus, B.A., Head Master Wilmot Street 
Council School, Bethnal Green, London, E. 

Contents. — Course of Work for the Year, pages 2 and 3 ; Syllabus 
of Work and Report on the same for the customary periods of one, 
two, three, or four months, pages 4 to 25 ; Individual Results of 
Periodical Examinations, pages 26 to 31 ; Memoranda — Schemes of 
Work, etc., pages 32 to 40. 

(Specunei! pages of any of these books on application.) 

Class Teacher's Work Book and SvUabus. 

Foolscap folio, strongly bound. Price 1 6 


Printed on excellent paper and bound in extra strong covers. By 
a simple arrangement one entry of subjects serves for the whole year. 
Contents. — Specimen pages, i and ii ; Syllabus of Work for cus- 
tomary periods of one, two, or three months, pages 2 to 12 ; Weekly 
Records of Work done, pages 13 to (SO ; Brief Notes of Oral Lessons 
in History, Grammar, etc., pages 61 to 86 ; Memoranda, pages 87 to 
90 ; Diagrams, Sketch Maps, Press Cuttings, etc., pages 91 to 93 ; 
Class Time Table Form, page 94. 

Vitman's Ideal Syllabus, "Progress, and Report 
"Book (Three Terms), by J. E. Ellson. Price 1/6 

Contents. — Course of Work for the Year, pages 2 and 3 ; Syllal>us 
of Work for the Terms, Weekly Records of Work done, and Head 
Teacher's Reports on same, pages 4 to 15 ; Individual Results of 
Periodical Examinations, pages 16 to 19 ; Memoranda — Schemes of 
Work, etc., pages 20 to 28 ; Brief Notes of Oral Lessons m History. 
Science, etc., pages 29 to 41 ; Diagrams, Sketch Maps, Press Cuttings, 
etc., pages 42 to 43 ; Class Time Table Form, patro 44. 

'Pitman's Ideal Syllabus, Progress, and Report 

"Book (Two Terms). 

By J. E. Ellson. 10 in. by 15 in., 44 pp. Price Is. 6d. 

Pitman's Ideal Syllabus, Progress, and Report 
Book for Infants' Schools (Three Temisi. 
By J. E. Ellson. Pnce I/« 

Pitman's Ideal Syllabus, Progress, and Report 
Book for Infants* Schools ( I'wc rerms). 
By J. E. Ellson. 10 in. by 15 in.. 3(S pp. Price Is. 6d. 

Pitman's Evening School Record - Syllabus 
Book. ^"^'c*^ '/■ 



Paper FloWer Making. A Kindergarten Occupa- 
tion for Girls and Infants. In crown 8vo, cloth, 74 pp., 
with four coloured plates and about 150 illustrations, 
examples, etc. Price 2s. net. 

By Miss F. E. Manchester, Late Head Mistress Council Infants' 
School, Central Hendon, N. W. 

Education. Crown 8vo. 548 pp. Price 6/- 

An Introduction to its Principles, and their Psychological Founda- 
tions. By H. HoLMAN, M.A., formerly Professor of Education 
and H.M. Inspector of Schools. 

Seguin and His Physiological Method of 
Education. By H. Holman, M.A. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 314 pp Price 5/- 

Seguin's Method is adopted by Madame Montessori, and his theory 
is the most scientific, systematic and practical one on Education 
of, and through, the Senses ever yet written. 

Cane Weaving for Children : or an Educa* 
tional Method of Hand Training. Nineteenth 
Edition. In foolscap 8vo, 40 pp. Price 6d. 

By Lucy R. Latter, late Assistant Superintendent of Method in 
Infant Schools under the late School Board for London. 

The Student's Froebel. Crown 8vo. 

Price 2/6 net each Part. 
By W. H. Herford, B.A. Part L— Theory of Education. 152 
pp. Part IL — Practice. 144 pp. 

The two parts together give a full exposition of Froebelian Principles 
and Methods, adapted from Froebel's " Education of Man," and 
followmg the language of the original as far as possible. Part 1 
has just been revised and improved with two valuable additions, 
an Educational Note by Professor Michael Sadler, M.A., LL.D., 
and a short life of W. H. Herford, by Professor C. H. Herford. 

Percentage Tables. 

By Florence A. Yeldham, B.Sc. (Lond.). In foolscap 
thin cardboard. Price Is. net. 

These tables are prepared especially for the use of those teachers 
who have a large number of marks to percentage. 

The Teachers* A.'B.C. Being Ordinary Thoughts of an 
Ordinary Teacher in an Ordinary Schoolroom. 

By Wm. H. Robinson. 

In demy Svo, 84 pp., 6d. net ; cloth. Price Is. net. 

IDictionarp of Educationists. By the Rev. J. E. 
Roscoe. Fourth Edition. In crown Svo, cloth gilt, 
338 pp. Price 5s. net. 


372.218 F925S 1916 pt.1 

C.I Frobel # The 
student's Froebel : adapt 


372. ?18 

Pt. 1 


The students Froebel -J 




Pt. I 

The student's Froebel - Theory of