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(^ J^ t^/ / * 

. f . L , o ^ 





Gould's Medical Dictionaries. 

By George M. Gould, A.M., M.D., 

Ophthalmic Surgeon to the Philadelphia Hospital. Editor of "The Medical News." 


The Illustrated Dictionary of Medicine and 

Allied Sciences. 


PHARMACOLOGY, MICROSCOPY, ETC. With many Useful Tables and nu- 
merous Fine Illustrations. Large, Square Octavo. 1600 pages. 

Full Sheep, or Half Dark-Green Leather, net, $10.00; 

Half Russia, Thumb Inde.x, ««•/, $12.00 

The Student's Medical Dictionary. 


MEDICAL LITERATURE. With Tablcs of the Bacilli. Micrococci, Leuco- 
niiiines, Ptomaines, etc., of the Arteries, Muscles, Nerves. Ganglia, and 
Plexuses ; Mineral Springs of the U. S., Vital Statistics, etc. Small Octavo. 
520 pages. Half Dark Leather, $3.25; Half Morocco, Thumb Index, $4.25 

*' One plea.sing feature of the Ixwk is that the reader can almost invariably find the 
definition under the word he looks for, without bein^ referred from one place to another, 
as is loo commonly the case in medical dictionaries. The tables of the bacilli, microci.>cci, 
leucomalnes, anil i)lomaines are excellent, and contain a large amount of information in a 

limited space. The anatomical tablcs are also concise and clear We should 

unhesitatingly recommend this dictionary' to our readers, feeling sure that it will prove of 
much value to them." — The American Journal of Medical Science, 

The Pocket Pronouncing Medical Lexicon. 


Double the Number in any Other Similar Book. Containing all the Words, 
their Definition and Pronunciation, that the Student generally comes in 
contact with; also elaborate Tables of the Arteries, Muscles. Nerves, 
Bacilli, etc., etc.; a Dose List in both English and Metric Systems, etc., 
arranged in a most convenient form for reference and memorizing. Thin 
64mo. Full Limp Leather, Gilt Edges, $1.00; Thumb Index, $1.25 

These books may be ordered through any bookseller, or upon receipt of 
price the publishers will deliver free to the purchaser's address. Full descriptive 
circulars and sample pages sent free upon application, 

P. BLAKISTON, SON & CO., Publishers, Philadelphia. 





GOULD'S Students Dictionary. 

"One pleasing feature of the book is that the reader can ahnost invariably find the 
definition under the H'ord he looks for, without being referred from one place to another, 
as is toe commonly the case in medical dictionaries. Tlie taldes of tiie l^acilli, micrococci, 
leucomainos and ptomuiiies are excellent, and contain a lar^c amount of information in a 
limited space. The anatomical tables are also concise and clear. . . . We should 
unhcsitatmgly recommend this dictionary to our readers, feeling sure that it will prove of 
nmch value to them." — Amerii an Journal of Medial ScL nee, 

"Again and again we have submitted the lxx)k to te>ts, and we have found it reliable 
and full, every pa;^e giving proof of careful editing and research. It is sufficiently large 
to meet the re([ukements of any ordinary practiliont-r. Of course the l>esjx.-ctacled, jx'ly- 
syllabic, home-from- Berlin young man could not take pleasure or feel satisticd in anytiiin^ 
short of a muhi-voluminous work; but, like the Iltathou, he is a law unto himself, and 
may safely l^e left out of calculation in practical thera|x:utics. In addition to the dictionar)' 
pro|x*r we have elaiK)rate tables of bacilli, micrococci, leucomaines and ptomaines, and all 
such infinitesimal creatures as we to-day l;uild laboratories to hatch; tables with analyses 
of American mineral waters, some of which waters will soon, we believe, U^ found in our 
midst; and tables of vital statistics. All this grcat mass of information is excellently 
arranged, so that the reader has no difficulty in at once finding what he wants, and ihe 
type is Ijeautifully clear, there l>eing no blurring, so that reading is a pleasure. As we 
turn over the pages we are grateful for the free trade system tliat admits, free of duty, 
such a useful and desirable book." — The Dublin Journal of Medical S^uncc. 

" We know of no work in which so many important and yet isc»lated facts may l>e 
obtained without great expenditure of time. 'Ilie tables of muscles, nerves, arteries, etc., 
seem to be very complete, and in looking through the dictionary, we were struck by the 
giKKl work, clear ty|xj, and handsome |)apcr, while no one of the many words which it 
occurred to us to look for have l)een found absent." — Therapeutic Gazette. 

" .\s a handy, concise and accurate, and complete medical dictionary it decidedly 
claim-N a very high plac<; among works of this description. In fact, taking handiness and 
cheapness into account, we certainly think this is the general practitioner's model dictionary, 
and we cordially reconnnend it to our readers. The definitions are for the most part terse 
and accurate, and the derivations up to molem lights." — British Medical Journal^ Lon- 

" I find it an excellent work, doing credit to the learning and discrimination of the 
author." — Dr. J. M. Da Costa ^ Prof if Practice of Medicin \ Jcffrrson Mtdical Colli i^e. 

** In (lynacolog)', Ophthalmology f>tolog)'and Larvngologv' ; in I>iol(>g>'. Kml'r\olog>', 
Physiolog}- and I'alhology; in Klectro-lherajHiutics, and in the newly-develoixnl fields of 
Bacteriology, Itonialues and Leucomaines, the aim has Ix-en e\idently to i>sue an authori- 
tative text-lH.K»k, one tiiat should Ix; ample in its vocabulary'. conLi>e in its definition«i, 
compact in its arrang<?ment, and convenient of size for the everj'day use of \ usy practitioners 
and as a handUiok for medical students. The author, in this resj)ecl,is to be congralul.ited 
ujx>n his success, and so far as a careful examination enal)les us to judge, it faithfully 
represents the m(Klical literature of to-day." — Journal of American Medical Association. 

"The work of Dr. (jould claims to be essentially a new work, all definitions l)eing 
framed * by the direct aid of new, standard and authoritative text-lKK)ks.' It certainly 
l)ears very little resemblance to previous works of the kind, in nearly all of which a great 
deal of space is devoted to ol)solete terms. . . . More complete and more up to date 
than any other medical dictionar)' of similar dimensions in our own, or, indeed, as far as 
wc know, in any other language." — London Lancet, 

















• . ^ • • • » . 






Copyrighted, 1890, by P. Blakiston, Son & Cq, 

* • » 

WM. F. FELL A 00., 
Kuo m aiv w w and PRwnNai, 



Throughout the preparation of this Dictionary my work has been shaped 
to meet the following distinct purposes : — 

1. To include those New Words and Phrases created during the past 
ten years — a period rich in coinages — which appeared destined to continuous 
usage. There are certainly thousands of these; and in their compilation I 
have especially endeavored to cover the latest results in the study of Bacteri- 
ology, Ptomaines and Leucomaincs, Electro-therapeutics, Physiology, Path- 
ology, and in the various special branches of medicine, such as Ophthalmology, 
Otology, Laryngology, Gynaecology, Antiseptic Surgery, etc. 

2. To frame all Definitions by the direct aid of New, Standard and 
Authoritative Text-Books, instead of making a patchwork of mechanical 
copyings from older vocabularies. 

3. To omit Obsolete Words not pertinent to medicine, except in a remote 
or factitious sense, while neglecting nothing of positive value. 

4. To make a volume that will answer the needs of the medical student 
and busy practitioner by its compactness and logicalxess of arrange- 
ment, its conciseness of definitions, its elimination of the uself-ss, and 
its CONVENIENCE OF SIZE AND PRICE. It would not have been half the labor 
to make a volume double or treble the size of this one. 

I have to express my appreciation of the services rendered the work 
by Professor Jacques W. Redway, in the compilation of the departments of 
Chemistry, Materia Medica and Physical Science; by Professor A. P. Brubaker, 
with continuous advice and help ; by Dr. Judson Daland, in unreservedly giving 
the results of long study and labor concerning the mineral springs of the 
United States ; by Professor J. W. Holland, Dr. J. M. Keating, Professor Henry 
Leffmann and others. 


//9 Sou/ A Seventeen/ h St.^ Philadelphia, 



ai ana Of each. 

Abdom Abdomen The belly. 

Aba. feb Absente febre When fever is absent. 

Abstr Abstractum Abstract. 

Ad Adde Add. 

Ad lib Ad libitum To the desired amcunt. 

Admov Admoveatur Let it be applied. 

Ad pond, om Ad pondus omnium To the weight of the whole. 

Alt. dieb Alterius diebus Every other day. 

Alt. hor Alterius horis Everv other hour. 

Alv. adstrict Alvo adstricta * The oowels being confined. 

Alv. deject Alvi dejectiones The evacuations. 

Aq Aqua Water. 

Aq. bull Aqua buUiens Boiling water. 

Aq. dest Aqua destillata Distilled water. 

Aq. ferv Aqua fervens Hot water. 

Aq. font Aqua fontis Spring water. 

Aq. mar Aqua marina Ocean water. 

B. A., or B. S Balneum arenae Sand bath. 

Bala Balsamum Balsam. 

Bib Bibe Drink. 

Bis ind Bis in dies Twice daily. 

Bol Bolus A large pill. 

Bull Bulliat Let it boil. 

B. V Balneum vaporis Vapor bath. 

C Congius, Centigrade A gallon ; centigrade. 

c.c Cubic centimeter. 

Cap Capiat Let him take. 

Cm Cras mane To*morrow morning. 

cm Centimeter. 

C. m. 8 Cras mane sumcndus To be taken to-morrow morning. 

C. n Cras nocte To-morrow night. 

Cochl Cochleare Spoonful. 

Cochl. ampl '* amplum A tablespoon ful. 

" infant " infantis A teaspoonful. 

** mag " magnum A tablespoon ful. 

*' med '* medium A dessertspoonful. 

" parv " parvum A teaspoonful. 

Col Cola Strain. 

Colat Colatus Strained. 

Comp Compositus Compound. 

Cong Congius A gallon. 

Contin Continuatur Let it be continued. 

Cent, rem Continuetur remedium . . . . Let the medicine be continued. 

Coq Coque Boil. 

Cort • . . Cortex Bark. 

Crast Crastinus For to-morrow. 

CuJ Cujus Of which. 

Cyath Cyathus A glassful. 

D Dosis A dose. 

Decub Decubitus Lying down. 

De d. in d De die in diem From day to day. 

Destill Destilla Distill. 

Det Detur Let it be given. 

Dieb. alt Diebus alterius On alternate days. 

* tert " tertius Every third day. 

Dil Dilue Let it be dissolved. 

Dilut Dilutus Dilute. 

Dim Dimidius One-half. 

Ditt Distilla Distill. 

Div Divide Divide. 

D. in p. ttq Divide in partes ceauales . . . Divide into equal parts. 

Donee alv. tol. fuerit. . . Donee alvus sol uta tuerit . . . Until the bowels be open. 
D. P Directione propria With a proper direction. 



EJutd Ejusdcm Ofthesame. 

Bnem Enema Enema. 

£xt Extractum Extract. 

Bxhib Exhibcatur Let it be f^iven. 

F Fahrenheit Fahrenheit. 

Feb. dur Febre durante The fever continuing. 

F. ; Ft Fac, Fiat Make. 

Fill Fillra Filter. 

Fid Fluidus Fluid. 

Flor Flores Flowers. 

F. m Fiat mistura Make a mixture. 

Fol Folia; Leaves. 

F. p Fiat potio Make a potion. 

F. pil Fiat pilulae Make pills. 

F. t. a Fiat secundum artem Prepare skillfully. 

Or (iranum Grain. 

Ott Guttse Drops. 

Outtat Guttatim By drops. 

Hor. decub Hora decubitus At bed time 

H. • Hora somni At bed time. 

Inj Injectio An injection. 

Liq Li(iuor Liquor. 

M Misce Mix. 

Mac Macera Macerate. 

Mass. pil Massa pilularum ,. . Pill mass. 

Mod. prescript Modo p^a^scriIlto ' . . In the manner directed. 

Mor. sol More solito In the usual way. 

Muc Mucilago Mucilage. 

No Numero Number. 

Noct Nocte By night. 

O Octarius A pint. 

Ol Oleum Oil. 

Ol. res Oleoresina Oleoresin. 

Ol. oliv Oleum olivse Olive oil. 

O. m Omni mane Every morning. 

Omn. bih Omni bihora Ever>' two hours. 

Omn. hor Omni hora Ever>- hour. 

Omn. noct Omni nocte Ever>- night. 

Ox Uncia . . . . ; Ounce. 

Part seq Partes aequales Kqiial parts. 

P. B Pharmacopeia Britannica . . . British Pharmacopeia. 

P. Q " Germanica . . German Pharmacopeia. 

Pil Pilula • . . Pill. 

Pond Pondere By weight. 

Pot Potassa Potassa. 

Ppt Prcparata Prepared. 

P. rat. Ktat Pro rata artatis In i)roportioii to age. 

P. r. n Pro re nata Whtn required. 

Pulv Pulvis Powder 

1 Quantum libet According as required. 

p *' placeat At will. 

8 " sufficit A sufficient quantity. 

Recipe Take. 

Rad Radix Root. 

R Reaumur Reaumur. 

Rect Rectificatus Rectified. 

Rep Repetatur Let it be repeated. 

8p, Gr Specific gravity. 

8 Signa Lal)el. 

8ig Signelur Let it be labeled. 

8ig. n. pr Signa nomine ]>roprio* .... Label with common name. 

8ing Singulorum Of each. 

8i non val Si non valeat If it do not answer. 

8i op. sit Si opus sit « II requisite. 

8olv Solve Dissolve. 

8p., or Spir Spiritus . . Spirit. 

88 SemifSemissis One-half. 

8t Stet Let it stand. 

8um Sumat Let him take. 

Syr Syrupus Syrup. 

T. d Ter in die Three times a day. 

Tr. Tinct Tinctura Tincture. 

Ung Ungiientum Ointment. 

Vesic Vesicatorum A blister. 

ni Minimum Minim. 

5 Drachma Drachm. 

9 Scrupulum Scruple. 

I Uncia Ounce. 



A., or An. Anode. Kl Klatif^ (Sound). 

A. C. C. . Auudal Closure Contraction. K. C. . . . Kathodal Closing. 

A. D. . . . Anodal Duration. K. C. C. . Kathodal Clusin}>; Contraction. 

A. O. . . . Anodal Opening. K. C. T. . Kathodal Contraction, Tonic. 

A. O. C. . Anodal Opening Contraction. K. D. . . . Kathodal Duration (or Period ol 

C Cathode. Closure of Circuit). 

C. C. . . Cathodal Closure. K. D. T. . Kathodal Duration Tetanus. 

C. C. C. . Cathodal Closure Contraction. Ma. . . . Milliamp^re. 

C. C'. C". . Various Degrees of Contraction. O Opening of Circuit. 

C. O. C. . Cathodal Opening Contraction. Te Tetanic Contraction. 

C. S. . . . Current Strength. R Resistance. 

D Duration. Z Zuclcung (Contraction). 

D Density. + Anode or Positive Pole. 

De. R. . . Reaction of Degeneration. — Kathode or Negative Pole. 

£ Electromotive Force. > Greater than, as, A' > y|. 

K Kathode. < Less than. 


Ace. . . . Accommodation. 

Ah Hyperopic Astigmatism. 

Am. . . . Myopic Astigmatism, 

As Astig^matism. 

cm Centimeter. 

Cyl. . . . Cylinder, Cylindrical Lens. 

D Diopter. 

£ Emmetropia, Emmetropic. 

F Formula. 

H Hyperopia, Hyperopic. 

L. E. . . . Lett Eye. 

M Myopia, Myopic. 


mm. . . . Millimeter. 

CD.. . . Right Eye. 

O. S. . . . Left Eye. 

p. p. ... Punctum proximum, Near Point. 

p. r. ... Punctum remotum. Far Point. 

R. E. . . . Right Eye. 

Sph. . . . Spherical, Spherical Lens. 

V. .... Vision, Visual Acuity. 

+, — , '— . Plus, Minus, Equal to. 

00 Infinity, 20 ft. distance. 

C Combined with. 

o Degree. 


Adj. . 
Adv. . 
A. S. . 
Bot. . 
Celt. . 
Dim. . 

e.g' . 
Elec. . 
Eng. . 
Pr. . . 

Get. . 
Gr. . . 
Heb. . 
It. . . 






Botany, Botanical. 


Chemistry, Chemical. 


Comjpounded, Compound. 


For example. 



Etymology, Etymological. 



Geography, Geographical. 

Geology, C^ologiral. 

GeometiVi Geometrical. 






Lat. . . . 

Masc. . . 

Math. . . 

Med. . . 

Nat. Hist. 







pi. . 



a. V. 



Sp. . 



V. 1. 

V t. 





Medicine, Medical. 

Natural History. 



Ophthalmology, Ophthalmological. 

Pathology, Pathological. 

Philosophy, Philosophical. 

Physiology, Physiological. 



Pronounced, Pronunciation. 

(Quo<I vide) which see. 




Surgery, Surgical. 



Intransitive verb. 

Transitive verb. 

Zoology, Zoological. 



A-, an-, called alpha privative fGr. a, ay, or ant.). The equivalent of our prefix, im-, or in-; denotes, 
an absence or want of the thing or quality expressed by the principal, e.g^.^ adynamia, 
anttrobic^ aphasia, apraxia, apyrfxia, astigmatism, atony, etc. a, is used before consonants, 
an, before vowels, and, rarely, am before d/, or dr. (To be distinguished from ana, below.) 

Amphi- (or amph-) (a^^t) upon both sides, in two ways, as in amphiarthrosis, amphtbia, etc. 

Ana- (ava). L'p, through again, e. f^., anabolism, anasarca, anatomy, etc. 

Anti- (or ant- ) ( avtC). yQ^ainst, opix)5cd to,opposite of, as antaphrodisiac, antipyretic, antiseptic, etc. 

Apo- (awo). Off, away, upon, e.g., aponeurosis, apoplexy, etc. 

Dia- (6ia). Through. Examples: Diabetes, Diagnosis, Diaphragm, Diarrhara, etc. 

Dya- (hvs). Difficult, defective, painful, e. g,. Dysentery, Djfspncea, Dysuria. 

£c-, Ex-, Ecto- (eK, c{, cict(k). Out, outside, away from. As in Ecchymoses, Ecdemic, Eclampsia, 
Exostosis, Exanthema, Ectropion, Ectoderm. 

Ed-, Em- (ei^, c^). In, within. As in Embryo, Embolism, Endemic, etc. 

Endo-, Ento- (ffv5oc, tyro^). Within, internal,, Endatieritis, Endoscope, Entoblast, Entoptic. 

Entero- (crrepor). The intestine. As in Enterocele, Enterostomy, etc. 

Epi- (ciri). Upon, over, above, e. g.^ Epiblast, Epicranium, Epistaxis, Epidemic, etc. 

Extra- (/.a/.). Outside, e. g.. Extravasation, Extroversion. 

Gaatro- (yaanup). The stomach ; relation to the stomach, e.g., Gastrocelet Gastrocnemius, Gas- 
troenterostomy, etc. 

Hcma-, Haemato- or Heme- (otMa). The Blood ; pertaining to the blood. See Hccmatonusis, 
Hipmatuma, Hirmorrhage, etc. 

Hemi- (T)Mt-i)Mt<n/0* Half. As in Hemiachromatopsia, Hemicrania, Hemiplegia. 

Hetera- (ercpov). Different; opi)Osite. e.g., Hetetoinfection, Heterologous, lieteropathy. 

Hydro-, Hydr- (v£wp). Water; resembling or relating to water, dropsy, etc., as m J/ydnrmia, 
Uydragogue, Hydrate, Hydrocephalus, etc. 

Hyper-'(wirfpi. Excess; exaggerated abnormality in amount, size, quality, etc. Site Hypertrs- 
thesia, Hyprrmrtropia, Hyt>erpyrexia, Hypertrophy, and others. 

Hypo- (vvo). Diminution as to'degree, amount, size, quality, etc., or that located under or beneath. 
e. g., Hyposthcnia, Hypoblast, Hypochondriac. Hypodermic, Hypoglossal. 

Hyatera-, Hyatero- (I'arcpa). The uterus or womb ; relation to the same, e.g.. Hysterectomy, 
Hystero-epilepsy, Hysteropexia, etc. 

Im,- In- (In). Privative;' negative, as Imperforate, Incarceration, Insane, Incontinence. 

In- (tv). In, within, upon, by ; as Incubation, Infarction, Inflammation, Inoculation, etc. 

Infra- (Infra). Beneath, Below; e.g., Inframaxillary, Infrascapular. 

Inter- {Inter). Between. See Intercellular, Intercostal, Intertrigo, and others. 

Leuco- (Aeuitov). Whiteness, e.g., Leucharmta, Leucocyte, Leucomaines, Leucorrhara. 

Lith-, Litho- (Ai0<k). Pertaining to stone, calculus, or lithic acid. See Lithctmia, Lithiasis. 
Lithotripsy, etc. 

Macro- (/Lia«po«). Largeness, Hypertrophy, as in Macroglossia^ Macromelia. 

Melano- (ficAac). Blackness, Pigmentation, e.g.. Melancholia, Melano-sarcoma. 

Meso- (Mcaof). The middle. See Mesoblast, Mesocolon, etc. 

Meta- (fterai. With, amidst, e.g.. Metabolism, Metatarsus. 

Micro- (Mt<poc). Smallness. e.g.. Micrococcus, Microi; lossi i , Microscope. 

Men-, Mono- (/noi'o?). Singleness. For example, Alonamme, Monomania, Monorchis. 

Multi- (fuultus). Number, many. e. ^., Multilocular, Multiparous. 

Myelo- (mi'«^o«). Referring to the brain or spinal cord, as in Myeloid, Myelitis. 

Myo- (iiv^). PertMJning to a muscle or muscularity. See Myocarditis, Slyoma, Myopathia. 

Neuro- (vtvpav). Relating to a nerve or neurology. A%, e.g., Neuralgia, uVeuraithenia, Neuri- 
itntpna, JVeuroglia. 

Odonto- (o6ou?). Of tljc teeth, as in Odontology, Odontalgia. 

Oligo- (oAiYo<). Fewness or lack of, as Oltgocythtmtia. 

Opnthalmo- (o<^^aA/uo?). Pertaining to the eye, as in O/hlhalmia, Ophthalmoplegia, 

Oateo- (o«7T«oi). KeffrrinK to bone. See Osteoblast, Osttontyehtis, Osteoplasttc. 

Oxy- (o^rs). Denoting th«: presence of oxygen, or acidity, as in Oxygen, Oxyhfcmoglohin. 

Para- (irnpa). ThrcuKh, near, bv, by the side of, abnormality. Examples : Paracentesis, I'lirirsthe- 
sia. Parent hrnia, Parottti. 

Peri- (n<pi). Alxiut, around. Sec, e. g.. Pericardium, Perimeter, Pt'nn<rum, Perinenplasty, 
Pt't lost en M. 

Poly-, Pol- (jToA»>?). Many, much, e.g., Polvcoria, Polygalactia, Polyuria. 

Prae-, Pre- {Prir). Before, e.g.. Pra-cordia. Prepuce.' 

Pro- (trpo). Before, down, as in Process, Pfocidentia, I'rolapse, Proptosis. 

Pseudo- (i^«i'Ari«». False, s])urious, as in Pseudatthrosis, Pseudocyesis. 

Pyo- {rtvov). Pertaining to pus, or purulency. e.g., I'yoi:enic, Pyosaipinx. 

Pyr-, Pyro- (iri»p). Concerning fire or heat, or inflammation, e'g., Pyrogenous, Pyrexia. 

Retro- (A*«/»v). Backward, behind, e.g., Retroftex^ Retroversion. 

Sub- KSub), Beneath, under; and also Partially or Deficiency of, as, Subclavian, Subluxation, 

Super- (.Vw/<^»). yX hove, upon; excess of. e.g., Supercilium, Supetfecundation. 

Supra- {.Supra). Above, ujion, superior to, as .Supraorbital, Supraspinal us. 

8ym-, Syn- {vw). With, together, same. Sec, e.g.^ Symblepharon, Symphysis, Synalgia, Synchon- 



-KDiia (aifia, blood). Denotes a condition of the blood, or incrredient in the same expressed by 
preceding word, e^g.^ Hydrttmia. Litfutmia, Pytrmia^ Urtemia. 

*agogue (ayw, to bear off, carry away). Signifies an agent stimulating the function of excretion or 
secretion of the product. Thus, Emmenagogue, Hydragoguej Sialagoguet etc. 

-agra (ayoa, an attack, seizure). Denotes an acute attack of pain in the part, as Arikragra, 

-algia (oAyof, pain). Pain in a part, expressed by the chief word. e,g., Cephaialgia, Gasira(gutt 

-atresia (arpi^via). Imperforate, as in Proctatresia. 

-cele (ki)Ai|). a tumor, hernia or protrusion. See Cystocele^ Hydrocele^ Meningocele. 

-ectomy (CKT«/Liyw). Excision, exsection, as in Oophorectomy, Nephrectomy^ ^lenectoww. 

-graph, graphy (ypa^, to write). An instrument; a treatise or description, e.g.^ Sphygmo- 
graphs Demography. 

-itia (iTic). An inflammation, as Gastritis, Otitis^ etc. 

-logv (Aoyof, discourse). A treatise upon, as Bacteriology^ Dermatology^ Pathohgy. 

-mafacia (naAaieof , soft). Abnormal soAness, as in osteo-malacia. 

-mania (fxavia, madness). The chief word denotes the principal symptom of the mental affection : 
* e.g., Erotomania, Kleptomania, etc, 

-Gdynia (oJvio), excessive pain). The principal word denotes the seat of great pain, as Coccyo- 

-Did (cidof, form). Similar in shape, etc., as mChoroid, Cuboid, Sphenoid, Xiphoid. 

•oma (Mfia). -A tumor. See Glioma, Sarcoma. 

-opia (w^). Pertaining to the eye or vision, as in Ambbfopia. Myopia, etc. 

-pathy (va0<K). A condition of disease, ana also a metnod of cure. As, e.g.. Adenopathy, Psycho* 
pathy, Homceopathy, Hydropathy. 

•phobia (9o^of , fear), bxcessive fear or dread, as Agoraphobia, Photophobia. 

-plasty iirAaa-a«a, to form). Surgical plastic operation upon a part, e.g., Blepharopiasty, Rhino- 

-rhapny (pa^i}, a suture). A stitching or suturing of a part, as Enterorrhaphy, Perineorrhaphy. 

•rhagia Kpy^ywyn.^ to burst forth). A Hemorrhage or excessive discharge, e.g., Blennorrhagia, 
Metrorrhagia . 

-rhoea (mm, to flow). An excessive discharge or excretion, as in Blennorrhcea, Diarrhoea, Leucor- 

-•copy (cKowMm). An examination, as Ophthalmoscopy. The instrument by which the examina- 
tion is made takes the termination scope, as in Laryngoscope, 

-tomy (rcfivM, to cut). Incision, e.^.. Laparotomy, Tenotomy. 

-uria (ovpcM, to urinate). Abnormalities of the urine or of urination. As Atbuminuria, Pofyuria, 

The syllable marked with a single acute accent, is the accented syllable. 

Quantity qf Vowels. 

Accented vowels are usually long, except t followed by a consonant and t, at in inhibition, 
imbibition, beneficial, etc. 

Diphthongs are usually long, but in a few words, such as haemorrhage, which are often spelled 
with a single vowel, the e is short. 

In words ending in He, the t is long. 

In words ending in itis, the i of the penult is always long, as bronchitis, neuritis, etc. 

Final i, o, and u are long; final e, unless silent, is long. It is marked with a grave accent if 

A vowel which is obscure in quantity has usually the long sound. 

A vowel before two or more consonants, except as previously noted, is short. 

The f in words ending in ine is short. 

The vowel t at the end of an unaccented syllable is short. 

When in one syllable a vowel is followed by a consonant, the vowel has the usual short English 
sound, as in man, mm, fin, not, stuff, m^tery. e.g., macula, p«t:toral, diploe, lobulus, sarppurate, 

Quality qf Vowels. 

Final a has the Italian sound of a, as \n father. 

In words ending in airie. such as ptomaine, the a has the Italian sound. 

<r and or are pronounced as e. in mete. 

au (diphthong) has the souna of azc' in saw. 

eu (diphthong) has the sound ofew in yew, 

In words of Latin and Greek derivation ch is hard, like k. 

The letters /A. representing the Greek ^, have the sound of/. 
In Greek words th has the soft sound, as 

in thm. 
The combination phth, ^d. has the sound of/ at the beginning of a word. 
Before e,i,y, ae, and a, c has the sound of j. and g. ofj. e.g., coeliac, cephalic, gynecology, 
gio^ymus. In other cases c and g have the hard sound. 


"^■~~ PAGE 

Abbreviations used in General Medicine, . vii 
Abbreviations used in Electro-therapeu- 
tics, ix 

Abbreviations used in Ophthalmology, . . ix 

Abbreviations, sundry, ix 

Prefixes and Suffixes used in Medical 

Terms, x 

Arteries, 53 

Bacilli S 

Ganglia, 169 

Leucomaines, 237 

Micrococci, 263 

Muscles, 280 

Nerves, 299 

Plexuses, 350 

Ptomaines. 367 

Spectacle-lenses, numbering of, 408 

Thermometers, comparison of 437 

Tumors, 447 

Wave-lengths of Light, 464 

Weights and Measures 465 

Weights and Measures — comparative 

scales, 467 

Mineral Springs of the U. S., 473 

Vital Statistics 506 



Medical Words and Phrases 

A (a. av, or a//, without). The Greek letter 
alpha^ called alpha privative, equivalent to 
the prefix un or in. It denotes absence 
or want of the thing or quality expressed 
by the root of the word, a- is used before 
consonant, and an- before vowel sounds ; 
am is sometimes used before bl or be. 
Also, the symbol of anode. 

Aa (avo, of each). An abbreviation, writ- 
ten aa, used in prescriptions to denote repe- 
tition of the same quantity for each item. 

Ab (ab^ from). A Latin prefix signifying 

Abact^us Venter {abigere, to drive out). 
An abortion procured l^ artificial means. 

Abaptis^ton (a, not, PanriaroCy immersed). 
A trephine so shaped that penetration of 
the bmin is impossible. 

Abarticula^tion (ab, from, articuiaHo, 
joint). 5)ame as aiarihrosis, a term more 
frequently used. 

Aba^sia (a neg., ^aai^, a step). Motor in- 
co-ordination in walking. See Astasia. 

Abba's Apochromatic Lenses. See 
Apochromatic Lenses. 

Abbrevia^tions. See List of Abbrevia- 
tionsy p. vii. 

Abdo/men (abdere, to hide). The large 
inferior cavity of the trunk, extending from 
the pelvic cavity to the diaphragm, and 
bounded in fh>nt and at the sides by the 
lower ribs and abdominal muscles; behind 
by the vertebral column, psoas and quadra- 
tos lumboram muscles. It is artificially 
diyided into nine regions by two circular 
2 17 

lines, the upper parallel with the cartilages 
of the ninth ribs, the lower with the iliac 
crests, and by two lines from the cartilages 
of the eighth rib to the center of Poupart's 
ligament. The regions thus formed are, 
above, the right h>'pochondriac, the epigas- 
tric, and the left hypochondriac; secondly, 
the right lumbar, umbilical, and left lum- 
bar; and below, the right inguinal, the 
hypogastric and the left inguinal. Pen- 
dulous A. A relaxed and pendulous 
condition of the abdominal walls. 

Abdom^inal. Pertaining to or connected 
with the abdomen. A. Aorta. See Artery. 
A. Ganglia. See Gangiia. A. Gesta- 
tion. See Pregnancy f Extra-uterine. A. 
Muscles, the Internal and External 
Obliques, the Transversal is, Rectus, Pyra- 
midalis, and Quadratus Lumborum. A. 
Reflex, an involuntary contraction of the 
abdominal muscles when the skin over the 
abdomen is stimulated. A. Regions. See 
Abdomen. A. Respiration, R. carried 
on chiefly by the diaphragm and abdominal 
muscles. A. Ring, External, a triangu- 
lar opening in* the fibres of the aponeurcs!s 
of the external oblique muscle transmitting 
the spermatic cord of the male and the 
round ligament of the female. A. Ring, 
Internal, an oval aperture in the fascia 
transversalis which transmits the spermatic 
cord of the male and the round ligament 
of the female. 

Abdominos^copy (abdomen, CKoneu, to 
examine). Examination of the abdomen 




for diagnostic purposes, by inspection, pal- 
pation, measurement, percussion, etc. 

Abdu^cens (ab^ from, duco^ to lead). A 
term applied to certain muscles, or their 
nerves, that draw the related part from the 
median line of the body. Also, the sixth 
pair of nerves supplying the external recti 
of the eye. A. Oculi. See Muscle. 

Abdu^cent. See Abdu:ens. 

Abduct^or. Same as Abducensy q. v. A. 
Auris. See Muscle. 

Aber^rant (ab^ erro^ to wander). Deviating 
from the normal or regular type, in ap- 
pearance, structure, course, etc. e. g.^ aber- 
rant duct of the testis or liver, aberrant 
arteries, etc. 

Aberra^tion (ab, erro). Deviation from the 
normal, especially mental derangement, 
fcetal malformation, vicarious menstruation, 
escape of the fluids of the body by any 
unnatural channel. In optics, any imper- 
fection of focalization or refraction of 
a lens. A., Chromatic, the dispersion 
arising from unequal refraction of light of 
different parts of the spectrum. The violet 
rays being more refrangible than the red 
rays, are brought to a focus nearer the lens, 
and the image is surrounded by a halo of 
colors. A., Spherical, the excess of re- 
fraction of die peripheral part of a convex 
lens over the central area, producing an 
imperfect focus and a blurred image. 

A^bies. A genus of coniferous plants, in- 
cluding the fir, hemlock and spruce. 

Abiogen^esis (a neg., /i/of, lijfe, yiyvoftcu^ 
to beget). The production of living by 
non-living matter. The older term was 
spontaneous generation. Other synonyms 
of the won! are generatio aquivoca^ 
generatio primaria, archigenesis^ arche- 
btosiSf etc. The theory has been supported 
by Pouchet, Haeckel, Huxley, Bastian 
and others. Those opposed to the doctrine 
are called panspcrmists or heterogenists. 
The dispute is one of the most fundfunental 
in biology. 

Abirrita^tion {ab^ irrito^ to irritate). Di- 
minished tissue irritability, synonjrmous 
with asthenia. 

Ablacta^tion (ab^ from, lactOyio give suck). 
The end of the suckling period. The 
weaning of a child. 

Abla^tion {ablatio^ removal). Removal 
of a part of the body, as a tumor, by am- 
putation, excision, etc, 

Ableph^aron (a, p7.e^pov^ the eyelid). 
Congenital absence of the eyelids. 

Ab^luent {abluo, to wash away). Deter- 
goot. That which cleanses or washes away. 

Ablu^tion. Washing or cleansing the 
body. Separation of chemical impurities 
by washing. 

Abnorm^al (ab, away from, norma, a law). 
A term used to describe anything opposed 
to the natural order or law, as A. Pigmen- 
ta^tion, any excess, deficiency or uncom- 
mon distribution of the natural pigment 
cells in the rete mucosum. Sometimes 
caused artificially either by mechanical 
means, such as tattooing, or by the reduc- 
tion and deposition under the epidermis of 
metallic salts administered as medicine, 
such as nitrate of silver, etc. 

Aboma^sum (ab, omasum, the paunch). 
The fourth, or true stomach of ruminating 
animals, called also the rennet, which is 
used for coagulating milk. 

Abort^ (aborior, to pass away). To mis- 
carry; to expel the foetus before it is 
viable. Also, to prevent the full develop- 
ment of a disease, as in abortive small- 
pox or varioloid, in which the eruption is 
limited to the vesicular stage. 

Abort^icide (abortus, a miscarriage, cado, 
to kill). The killing of the unborn foetus. 

Abortifa^cient (abortm, facio, to make). 
A drug, or agent inducing the expulsion of 
the foetus. Ergot, rue, cotton-root, digitalis, 
etc., are examples. They act by causing 
uterine contractions. See oxytocic and 

Abor^tion {abortus'). The expulsion of the 
foetus before it is viable. By some authors 
expulsion of the ovum during the first three 
months is abortion ; from this time to via- 
bility, it is termed immature delivery ^ or 
viiscarriage, and from the period of viability 
to that of maturity, premature deHzwry. A. , 
Artificial, that produced intentionally. A., 
Criminal, when not demanded for thera- 
peutic reasons. A., Embryonic, up to 
the fourth month. A., External causes 
of, those acting from without to pro- 
duce A., as violence, pressure, injections, 
etc. A., Fcetal, taking place subsequent 
to the fourth month. A., Incomplete, 
when the membranes or placenta is re- 
tained. A., Inevitable, is when the em- 
bryo or foetus is dead, or when there is an 
extensive detachment or rupture of the 
ovum. A., Internal Causes of, are 
those due to abnormal conditions or dis- 
eases of the mother. A., Missed, the 
death of the foetus and not followed with- 
in two weeks by its expulsion. A., Ovu- 
lar, that occurring during the 6rst three 
weeks after conception. A., Paternal 
and Maternal Causes of, those due to 




disease of the father or of the mother re- 
spectively. A., Spontaneous, that not 
induced by artificial means. 

Abouloma^nia (a priv.,/%n;Ai7, will, /Kovta, 
madness). A disease of the mind charac- 
terized by imperfect or lc6t will-power. 

Abrach^ia (a priv., ppaxiuv^ the arm). 
The condition of an armless monster. 

Abra^sion (ad priv. , rado, to rub) . Excori • 
ation of the cutaneous or mucous surface 
by mechanical means. In dentistry ap- 
plied to the destruction of the dentine and 
enamel, or the cutting edges of the teeth, 
whether by mechanic^ or chemical means. 

A^brine. The chemical ferment or poison- 
ous principle of jequirity, erroneously sup- 
posed to be due to a specific microbe. 

A^bnis. Jequirity. The seeds of A. pre- 
catorius, or wild liquorice. Properties are 
thought to be due to the presence of cer- 
tain ferments. Non-stenlized infusions 
applied to the conjunctiva or to any mucous 
surfJEice induce violent purulent inflamma- 
tion with growth of false membrane. It is 
used in fxroducing artificial conjunctivitis. 
A. Infusum : semina iij, aqua dest. Jss. 
Macerate and add aq. ? ss. All unofficial. 

Ab^scess (adscfssuSf a departure or separa- 
tion—of the matter). A pus formation 
within some cavity of the body, the result 
of localized inflammation. According to 
location, abscesses are named Dorsal ^ Iliac, 
Mammary, Ischio-rectal, Peri-typhliticy Re- 
tro-pharyngeal. Urethral, etc. A., Alve- 
olar, abscess in the gum or alveolus. A. 
of Brain, due to local injury, or to suppu- 
rative inflammation near or distant, such, 
especially, as diseases of the ear. The 
symptoms are those of pressure, impaired 
function of the part affected, meningitis, 
headache, optic neuritis, etc. A., Bursal, 
abscess in the bursae, the most frequent 
being in the bursse patelke, commonly 
called Housemaid'' s Knee, A., Chronic, 
or Cold Abscess, one of slow and appa- 
rently non- inflammatory development, usu- 
ally about a bone, joint, or gland. A., 
Congestive, the pus appears at a point 
distant from where it is formed. A., Con- 
stitutional, due to some systemic disor- 
der. A., Critical, occurring at some 
critical period of an acute disease. A., 
Embolic, formed in the clot of an embol- 
ism. A., Fecal, one developing in the 
rectum or large intestine. A., Gangre- 
nous, one attended with death of adjacent 
paits. A., Lacunar, one in the lacunae of 
the nrethn. A., Metastatic. See Pya- 
wna, A , Miliary. See Pyamia, A., 

Milk, or A., Mammary, one in the female 
breast. A., Multiple. See Pyamia. A., 
Perforating, one perforating the cornea, 
the lung or other containing wall. A., 
Phlegmonous, an acute A, A., Point- 
ing of, the point where the abscess tends 
to break through its external confining wall. 
A., Psoas, one arising from disease of the 
lumbar or lower dorsal vertebrae, the pus 
descending in the sheath of the psoas 
muscle, and usually pointing beneath Pou' 
part's ligament. A., Pysemic. See Py- 
amia. A., Residual, about the products 
of some old result of inflammation. A., 
Stercoraceous. See Fecal A. A., 
Symptomatic, one indicative of some 
other affection. A., Thecal, in the 
sheaths of tendons. 

Ab^scess Root. The root of Polemonium 
reptans. Alterative, astringent and ex- 
pectorant. Dose of fld. ex. zss-ij. Unof. 

Abscis^sse (Fr. abscisse). Ine transverse 
lines cutting vertical ones at right angles, 
to show by a diagram the relations of two 
series of facts, as, e. g., the number of 
pulse-beats, or the temperature record in 
given periods of time. 

Abscis^sion (ab, from, scindo, to cut off). 
Removal of a part, as the prepuce, or a 
fractured bone, by cutting. Applied par- 
ticularly to a surgical operation upon a sta- 
phylomatous cornea, in which the bulging 
portion is excised, the parts brought to- 
gether so that the posterior and chief part 
of the globe forms a "stump" for an arti- 
ficial eye. 

Absinthe. See Absinthium, 

Absinth^ism. A disease similar to alco- 
holism, the result of the excessive use of 
absinthe. It is characterized by general 
muscular debility and mental disturbances, 
which may proceed to convulsions, acute 
mania, general softening of the brain, or 
general paralysis. 

Absinth^ium. Wormwood. The leaves of 
Artemisia absinthium. Contains a vola- 
tile oil and an intensely bitter principle, 
Absinthin, C^H^oO^, which is a narcotic 
poison. A. mcreases cardiac action, pro- 
duces tremor and epileptiform convulsions. 
Dose gr. xx-xl. Absinthe^ a French 
liquor, is an alcoholic solution of the oil 
exhibited with oils of anise, marjoram and 
other aromatic oils. 

Absorb^ents {ab, sorbere, to suck). In 
physiology, an organ or part which absorbs, 
withdraws, or takes up. A term applied 
to the lacteals and lymphatics, q.v. In 
materia medica, a name applied to a drag 




or medicine which produces absoq)tion or 
exudation of diseased tissue. In surgery, 
applied to substances which mechanically 
take up excreted matter, as A. Cotton^ 
A. Sponge^ etc, A. Glands. See Lymph- 

Absorp^tion. The permeation or imbibi- 
tion of one body by another. The process 
whereby nourishment, medicines, morbid 
products of tissue metamorphosis, etc., are 
taken up by the lymphatic and venous sys- 
tems. In ophthalmology the process by 
which the lens is disintegrated and carried 
off after the capsule has been ruptured. 
A. Lines or Bands, the lines of the 
spectrum, called Fraunhofer's lines ; they 
are dark lines caused by the arrestation or 
absorption of the ethereal waves of certain 
lengths and rapidities, mainly by vapors of 
the sun's atmosphere. 

Abste^mious (abs, from, tetnctum, wine). 
Abstinence from wine. Temperance, or 
moderation in matters of diet 

Abster^gent [abs, tergeoy to cleanse). 
Cleansing, detergent. See Detergent. 

Ab^stinence (abs^ tineo, to bold or keep). 
Privation or self-denial in regard to food, 
liquors, etc. 

Ab^stract (abstraho^ to draw from). A 
preparation containing the soluble princi- 
ples of the drug eva]X)rated and mixed 
with sugar of milk. It represents twice 
the strength of the drug or its fluid extract. 

Abstrac^tion (abstraho). Blood-letting. 
In pharmacy, tne process of distillation. 
Also, attention to one idea to the exclusion 
of others, (generalization or classification 
of the qualities common to the individuals 
of a group. 

Abstrac^tum. See Abstract. 

Abu^lia (a priv., ^ov/j/, will). Ix)ss or 
defect of will power. 

Aca^cia. Gum Arabic. A nearly white 
transparent gum exuding from several 
species of acath. Soluble in water. 
Used in manufacture of mucilage. C^'on- 
tains Anibin, ^i^^^i-f^w* identical in com- 
position with cane sugar. A. Mucilago, 
acacia 34, water lOO parts ; incompatible 
with alcoholic tinctures. A. Syrup, muci- 
lage 25, syrup, simp. 75. Used in vari- 
ous mixtures, <is a demulcent, and to sus- 
pend insoluble powders. 

Acard^ia (a neg., KapAiGf heart). A mon- 
strosity without heart, developed simulta- 
neously with a normal f<ctus. 

Aca^rus (a neg., Ketpu, to cut [because so 
small]). The mite or tick, a parasite of 
man and animals. A. Autumnalis, the 

harvest-bug. A. Scabiei, the sarcopUi 
scabieif or itch parasite. 

AcceKerans Nerve. A nerve from the 
accelerans center in the medulla to the 
heart, intermediating acceleration of its 

Accelera^tor Urinse. A muscle of the 
penis whose function is to expel the last 
drops in urination, to expel the semen and 
to assist erection. The sphincter vaginae 
is its analogue in the female. 

Acces^sion (a</, to, cadoy to draw). The 
insult, beginning, or onset of a disease, or 
of a stage of the same ; applied especially 
to periodical diseases. 

Acces^sory. A term applied to certain 
muscles, ducts, nerves, arteries, etc., that 
are often inconstant, but always auxiliary 
in function, course, etc., to the principal. 
A. of the Parotid, the socio parotidis. 
A. Willisii, the spinal accessory nerve, 
named after the discoverer. A. Gland of 
the Pancreas, Brunner*s glands. 

Accident^al Hemorrhage. See Hemor- 

Acclimatiza^tion (ad, clima, climate). 
The act of becoming accustomed to the 
climate, soil, water, etc., of a country to 
which a plant, animal, person or a people 
have removed. 

Accommoda^tion of the Eye (accom- 
mck/o, to adjust), 'lliat function of the 
ciliary muscle and lens whereby objects at 
different distances are clearly seen. It 
depends upon the inherent elasticity of the 
lens, which when the ciliary muscle of an 
emmetropic eye is at rest, is adapted to the 
proper focalization of parallel rays of light, 
or of such rays as proceed from an infinite 
distance, or from the horizon of the ob- 
sener. Objects nearer, to be clearly seen, 
recjuire a greater refracting f)ower on the 
part of the eye because the rays from such 
objects arc more divergent. This addi- 
tional refracting power is gained by an 
incn-asetl antero-i)0.«iterior diameter of the 
lens brought al>out by the contraction of 
the ciliary muscle which occasions a 
loosening of the susjK'nsor)' ligament and 
a thickening of the lens by its own elas- 
ticity. A., Absolute, the accommoda- 
tion of either eye separately. A., Anom- 
alies of, departures from the normal in 
the action of the mechanism of accommo- 
dation. A., Negative, the eye pa.«isive 
or at rest. A., Paralysis of, paralysis of 
the ciliary muscle. A. Phosphenes, the 
peripheral light streak seen in the dark 
•iter the act of accommodation. A., 




Range of, the distance between the punc- 
turn proximum^ or nearest of distinct vis- 
ion, and the punctum remotissimum, or 
most distant point. 

Accre^tion (ad^ to, crescerty to increase). A 
term denoting the manner by which crys- 
talline and certain organic forms increase 
their material substance. Also, the ad- 
herence of parts that are normally sepa- 

Accouchie (Fr. tf,to, cauche, a bed). A 
woman delivered of a child. 

Accouchement {ad^ to, couche, a bed). The 
French term for labor, or delivery of a 
child. The act of childbirth. A. Forci, 
rapid and forceful delivery with the hand 
during severe hemorrhage. 

Accoucheur. A man-midwife. 

Accrementi^tion («//, crescere). A term 
applied to growths in which increase takes 

Clace by interstitial development from 
lastema, and also by reproduction of 
cells by Bssion. 

Accoucheuse. A midwife. 

A. C. E. Mixture. An anaesthetic mix- 
ture, not so depressing as chloroform : al- 
cohol, I part; chloroform, 2 parts; ether, 
3 parts. 

Acepha^lia (a neg., ice^X^, head). A 
monstrosity without a head. The term is 
compounded with others to denote the ab- 
sence of the head and some other part. 
Thus : Acephalobra^chia, without head 
and arms. Acephalocar^dia, without 
head and heart. Acephalochei^ria, 
without head and hands. Acephalogas^- 
tria, without head and belly. Acepha- 
lopo^dia, without head and feet. Aceph- 
alora^chia, without head and vertebral 
column. Acephalothora^cica, without 
head and chest. 

Aceph^alocyst (icuernf, a bladder). The 
bladder-worm. A h^dless, sterile hyda- 
tid, found in the liver and other c^ans. 
A. Racemosa, the hydatid mole of the 

Acerb^ity (acerbitas, sharpness, sourness). 
Acidity combined with astringency. 

Acerv^ulus Cerebri. A term applied by 
Sdmmering to certain concretionary matter 
near the base of the pineal gland, consist- 
ing of alkaline phosphates and carbonates, 
with amyloid matter. 

Aces^cence (acescoy to grow sour). A 
disease of wines, whereby they become sour 
owing to the agency of mycodtrma aceti. 

Acetab^ulum {acetabulum^ a vinegar cup). 
The cup-shaped cavity which receives the 
locket of the hip-bone. 

Ac^etal {acetuffty vinegar). Ethidene di- 
ethylate, a colorless liquid having the 
composition C^Hj^O-, formed by the oxida- 
tion of common alcohol. 

Ac^etate. Any salt of acetic acid. 

Acetan^ilide. See Antifebrin. 

Acet^ic. Pertaining to acetum or vinegar; 
sour. See Acidy Acetic, 

Acet^ic Ac^id and Ferrocyanide Test 
for Albumin. Strongly acidulate the 
sample of urine and add a few drops of 
recently prepared potassic ferrocyanide 
solution. (It precipitates hemialLumose, 
but does not affect peptone.) 

Acetom^etry (acetunty fitrpoVy measure). 
The quantitative estimation of the amount 
of acetic acid in vinegar. Usually made 
by an acetotneter, 

Acetonse^mia (ncetancy aifiay blood). The 
presence of acetone in the organism. It 
may result from a number of diseases, but 
is characteristic of chronic diabetes, and is 
associated with dyspnoea, subnormal tem- 
perature, lowered pulse-rate, etc. The 
patient finally falls into coma. The treat- 
ment consists in increasing the secretions 
and by removing the causes of the disease. 

Ac^etone (accoy to be sour), C^H^O. Di- 
methyl Ketone, Methyl Acetyl. A color- 
less, inflammable liquid prepared by dry 
distillation of the acetates. It is developed 
in the body by the fermentation of organic 
matters, and is found in such diseases as 
diabetes, some febrile diseases, alcoholism, 

Acetonu^ria (acetone y ovpovy urine). 'Ace- 
tone in the urine. 

Acetphenit^idin. See Phcnacetine. 

Acetophe^none. Hypnone. A hypnotic 
and antiseptic. Without satisfactory re- 

Ace^tum. Vinegar. An impure, dilute 
acetic acid produced by acetous fermenta- 
tion of wine, cider or other fniit juice. 
See Fermentation. In pharmacy a solu- 
tion of the active principles of certain drugs 
in dilute acetic acid. There are four official 
aceta^ each of which contains the soluble 
principles of lo per cent, of its weight. 

Ac'etylene. A name given to a series of 

hydrocarbons having the structure Cn Han 

— 2. Also, applied to ethine^ the second • 

member of the series, a gaseous substance 
formed during the incomplete combustion 
of hydrocarbon fuels. 

Ache (axo^t affliction). Any continuous or 
throbbing pain. 

Achei^lia (//, without, ;tf/Aof, a lip). The 

congenital absence of lips. 




Achei^ria (a, without, x^^Pt ^ hand). The 
congenital absence of hands. 

Achei^ms. See Achgiria. 

Achil^lea (Achiiles^ its reputed discoverer). 
Milfoil, Yarrow. The herb A, milUfolium. 
Properties due to a bitter, aromatic, astrin- 
gent, tonic extractive, achillein^ and a vola- 
tile oil. It has long been used as a vul- 
nerary, and has been highly recommended 
for intermittents, and in low, exanthematous 
fevers. Dose of an 5 j to Oj infusion, ad 
lib. ; of the extractive, 3 j- 3 iij ; of the vola- 
tile oil, gtt. v-xv. Unof. 

Achil^les Tendon. See Tendon, 

Achlorops^ia (a neg., x^^poCt green, o^/c, 
vision). Green-blindness. See Biindness. 

Achc/lia (a priv., ;to^J7, bile). Non-secre- 
tion or non-excretion of bile. 

Acho^lous (a, x^^i bile). Pertaining to 
Acholia^ q. v. 

Anchor {ax^Pt chaff, scurf, or dandruff). 
Crusta lactea. A small pustule, followed 
by a scab, upon the heads of infants. 

Acho^rion (ax^^p.) A name given to 
several species of fungous (or fungoid) 
organisms (possibly modified forms of 
PenUilhtm glaucufti)^ found in the skin, 
especially the hair-follicles. A. Kerato- 
phagus, the form causing onychomycosis^ 
q. r, A. Lebertii, the parasite of /inca 
tonsurans, A. Schonleinii, the species 
occurring in ringworm or tinea fai'osa. 

Achroi^a (a, without, XP^^t surface color). 
Same as Achroma^ q. v. 

Achro^ma (a, XP^P^^ color). Alsence of 
color. Pallor. Paleness, from whatsoever 
cause. A., Congenital. See Albinism. 

Achromat^ic (a, XP^P^)- Pertaining to 
achroma ; without color. A. Lens, one 
whose dispersing power is exactly neutral- 
ized by another lens having the same 
curvature but of ««<r^;/a/ refractive index. 
See also Aberration. 

Achro^matin. The substance in the nu- 
cleus of a cell prior to division. .So called 
because not readily stained by coloring 
agents. See Cc// Body. 
Achro^matism (a, xP<^l'o). Absence of 
chromatic aberration. 

Achromatops^ia (a, xP*^P^*^^^CtCyes\ghi), 
Color-blindness, Daltonism, dyschroma- 
topsia. See Blindness. 
Achroodex^trin. A reducing dextrin 
formed by the action of the diastatic fer- 
ment of saliva upon starch or glycc^en. 
Achylo^sis (a neg., x^^^^ juice). De- 
ficient chylification. 
Achymo^sis (a neg. , x^fUKf chyme). De- 
ficient chymification. 

Acic^ular (acus, a needle). Needle-like. 

Ac^id (acerft to be sour). A name loosely 
appliea to any substance having a sour 
taste. A compound of an electro-negative 
element with one or more atoms of hydro- 
gen which can be replaced by electro-posi- 
tive or basic atoms. Acids vary in their 
terminations according to the quantity of 
oxygen or other electro-negative they con- 
tain. Those having the maximum of oxy- 
gen end in -ic ; those of a lower degree in 
'Otis. Where there are more than two com- 
binations the preposition hyper- is prefixed 
to the highest, and hypo- to the lowest. 
Acids which end in -iV, as sulphurir acid, 
form salts terminating in -ate ; those end- 
ing in -ous form salts terminating in -ite. 
Physiologically, acids in concentrated form 
act as caustics; diluted and in medicinal 
doses they check acid-producing and in- 
crease alkaline secretions. A., Acetic, 
an acid solution composed of 36 parts of 
absolute acetic acid, CjH^Oj, and 64 parts 
water. Has strong acid properties. Mis- 
cible with water and alcohol. A., Acetic, 
Glacial, the absolute acid in crystalline 
form. A., Acetic, Dilute, contains 6 per 
cent, of absolute acid. Dose 3J-ij. An 
impure form obtained by the destructive 
distillation of wood is known as wood vine- 
gar, or pyroligneous acid. A., Arse- 
nious, and Arsenic. See Arsenic. A., 
Aromatic, a name applied to certain or- 
ganic acids occurring in the lialsams, resins 
and other odoriferous principles. Also, in 
pharmacy, a dilute mineral acid reinforced 
by aromatic substances in order to modify 
their flavor. A., Boric, ^q Boron. A., 
Butyric [butyrumy butter), an acid, C^Hg 
O2, having a viscid appearance and rancid 
smell. It is obtained commercially by the 
fermentation of a mixture of .sugar and 
butler or cheese in the presence of an alka- 
line carlx)nate, but occurs in various planU. 
Combined with glycerine as glyceryl buty- 
rate it is essentially butter. The ether de- 
rived from butyric acid is the natuml flavor 
of the pineapple. A., Carbolic, ////•/yZ/V' 
alcohol^ or phenol ^ an alcoholic product of 
the distillation of coal tar having the com- 
position CjH^O. It occurs in pinkish 
acicular crystals, highly soluble in water, 
alcohol, ether, glycerine, and oil. It is a 
powerful antiseptic and germicide, and a 
violent poison. Internally it is useful in 
nausea and phthisis. Dose gr. *>^. A., 
Carb., Glycerite, contains acid I, gl." 
cerine 4 parts. A., Carb., Solutions, \ 9X^ 
from I to 5 per cent, in water. A., Carb., 




Unguent, contains acid lo, ointment 
90 parts. A., Chromic, CrO,, used as 
an escharotic for the destruction of syphi- 
litic warts and similar growths. A solu- 
tion of I : 40 is used as an antiseptic wash 
for pmtrid sores and wounds. See Potas- 
sium. A., Citric. See Limon. A., Flu- 
oric, HF, gaseous and soluble in water. 
The dilute acid, i : 200, is used as an in- 
ternal remedy in goitre. Dose n\^xx-xxx. 
A., Formic {^formicay an ant), an organic 
acid, CHfO,, and the 6rst of a series 
formed by the oxidation of alcohols. It is 
secreted naturally by the ant, and is also 
thought to be identical with the venom of 
the bee. A., Gallic, HC^H^O^, an acid 
prepared from nutgalls. Similar in pro- 
perties to tannic acid, q. v. Occurs in fine 
acicular crystals. Astringent and disin- 
fectant. Useful in night sweats, diabetes 
and chronic diarrhoea. A., Gallic, Un- 
guent, benzoated lard 90, gallic acid 
10. A.y Pyrogallic (unoflicial), obtained 
from gallic acid by heating the latter. 
Recommended locally in phagedenic chan- 
cres. A., Hydrobromic, HBr, the dilute 
acid, which is the chief form used, consists 
of 10 per cent, acid and 90 per cent, water. 
A good solvent for quinine. Useful in 
hysteria, congestive headaches and neural- 
gia. Is recommended as a substitute for 
potassium and sodium bromides. Dose 
n\^xx-;5ij. A., Hydrochloric, if/MriVx/iV 
Acidy HCl, a liquid consisting of 32 per 
cent, of HCl gas in 68 per cent, of water. 
Colorless, pungent and intensely acid. Val- 
uable as an aid to digestion. A., Hydro- 
chlor., Dilute, a 10 per cent, solution of 
absolute acid in water. Dose n\^iij-x. A.* 
Hydrocyanic, Dilute, Prussic Acid^ 
HCN, a liquid consisting of 2 p>er cent, of 
the acid with 98 per cent, of water and 
alcohol. Prussic acid is found in the bitter 
almond, the leaves of the peach, and in 
the cherry laurel, from the leaves of which 
it is distilled. It is the most violent poison 
known, death from complete asphyxia 
being almost instantaneous. Valuable for 
its sedative and antispasmodic effects in 
vomiting, whooping-cough, and spasmodic 
affections. Dose n\j-v. The following 
preparations are employed : Aqua Lauro- 
cerasiy water distilled from the leaves of 
the cherry laurel. Dose n\^v-xxx, with 
caution. Scheei^s Dilute Hydrocyanic 
Acidf in 4 or 5 per cent, solution ; danger- 
ous. Amygdala amara^ oil of bitter al- 
mond; used in cosmetics. A., Lactic, 
UC^H|Og, a liquid containing 25 per cent. 

of absolute acid in 75 per cent, of water. 
Produced in the fermentation of milk. 
Generally found impure from subsequent 
fermentation except when freshly made. 
Useful in aiding digestion, in diabetes, and 
as a solvent of false membrane in diph- 
theria. Dose 3ss-^ss. A., Muriatic. 
%t^ Acid Hydrochloric. A., Nitric, HNO„ 
a liquid consisting of about 64 per cent, 
absolute acid in 31 per cent, of water. 
The pure acid is colorless, fuming, and 
highly caustic. A very powerful escharotic, 
used in cauterization of chancres and 
phagedenic ulcers. A., Nit., Dilute, con- 
tains 10 per cent, absolute acid. Dose 
n\^iij-xv,well diluted. A., Nitro-hydro- 
chloric. Aqua Regia^ a golden yellow, 
fuming mixture of 4 parts nitric and 15 of 
hydrochloric acid. A ready solvent of 
gold. Valuable in affections of the liver. 
Dose n\^v-xx, very dilute. A., Oleic, 
HCigHgjO,, a constituent acid present in 
many fats and oils. Obtained in the manu- 
facture of stearine candles. Soluble in 
alcohol, benzol and the essential oils; in- 
soluble in water. Saponifies when heated 
with alkaline bases. A., Osmic, the 
oxide of osmium^ one of the rarer elements. 
Has been recommended for hypodermatic 
use in sciatica, strumous glands, and can- 
cer. A., Oxalic, a colorless crystalline 
solid, C2H.O4, obtained by treating sawdust 
with caustic soda and potash. In ^ gr. 
doses a depressant to respiratory centers. 
In large doses a violent poison. Unof. A., 
Phosphoric, Orthophosphoric Acid, H,- 
PO4, contains 50 per cent, ftft acid and 
water. Of value in strumous affections, 
and thought to be serviceable in dissolving 
phosphatic deposits. Has none of the 
effects derived from free phosphorus or 
the hypophosphites. A., Phosphor., Dil., 
contains 10 p>er cent, of absolute acid. 
Dose n\^v-xxx. See Sodium^ Potassium, 
Calcium , etc. A . , Picric , Ca rbazotic Acid, 
CjH3(NO,)30, obtained by the action 
of nitric on carbolic acid. A saturated 
solution is of some value as a wash in ery- 
sip>elas. An excellent test for albumen and 
sugar in urine. Dose gr. v-xv. A., Pyro- 
gallic. See A., Gallic. A., Sulphu- 
ric, Oil of Vitriol^ HjSO^, a heavy, oily, 
corrosive acid, consisting of not less than 
96 per cent, sulphuric anhydride and 10 
per cent, of water. Of value in lead poi- 
soning. Sometimes used as a caustic. A., 
Sulph., Dilute, contains 10 per cent, 
strong acid to 90 of water. Dose n\^x-xv, 
well diluted. A., Sulph., Aromatic, con- 




tains 20 per cent, acid, diluted with alcohol 
and flavored with cinnamon and ginger. 
Dose n\^v-xv. A., Sulphurous, H,^,, 
a colorless acid containing about 3^ per 
cent, of sulphurous anhydnde in 96^ per 
cent, of water. The gas (SO,) is a very 
valuable disinfectant. The acid is used as 
a spray or lotion in diphtheria, stomatitis, 
and as a wash for indolent and syphilitic 
ulcers. The various hyposulphites are 
mainly valuable in that they decompose 
and give off sulphur dioxide. Dose TT\^v- 
zj. See, also, Sodium^ Potassium^ and 
Magnesium. A., Tannic, Tannin^ €,4- 
HjqO,, an astringent acid obtained irom 
nutgalls, occurring in yellowish, scaly 
crystals. Soluble in water and alcohol. 
Internally it is an antidote in poisoning by 
alkaloids and tartar emetic, and in hem(»'- 
rhoids and catarrh of mucous membrane. 
Useful mainly as an astringent lotion in 
many skin diseases. Dose gr. j-xx. A., 
Tan., Unguent, a 10 per cent, ointment 
of the acid incorporated with benzoated 
lard. A., Tan., Troches, each contain 
I gr. of tannic acid. A., Tan., Sup- 
positories, I part of tannin to 20 of butter 
of cacao. A., Tan., Glycerite, i part 
tannin in 4 of glycerine. A., Tartaric, 
HjC^H^Oj, the acid principle of the grap>e 
and many other fruits. Obtained in color- 
less, transparent crystals ; chiefly employed 
in refrigerant drinks and in baking powders ; 
20 grains neutralize 27 of potassium dicar- 
bonate, 22 of sodium dicarbonate and 15)^ 
of ammonium carbonate. Dose gt. x-xxx. 

Acid-Al^bumin. A derived albumin. A 
proteid, having been acted upon or dis- 
solved in the stronger acids, and yielding 
an acid reaction. 

Acidim^etry {acidusy acid, furpw, a 
measure). Determination of the free acid 
in a solution, by an acidimeter, or by 
chemical reactions. 

Acid Phenyl Sulphate. A solution of 
3 grammes of phenol in 20 c.c. of strong 
sulphuric acid. Used for the detection of 
nitrates in water. 

Ac^idum. See Acid, 

Acine^sia (a, without, laiT/at^f motion). A 
name used to denote loss of motion in 
any or all parts of the body. Also, the 
interval between consecutive throbs of the 
heart. See also Diastole, 

Acin^iform (acinusy a grape). Grape-like. 

Aci'^nus (//. acini). The smallest lobules 
of conglomerate glands; the saccules of 
compound racemose glands; the lobules 
of the liver, etc. 

Acleitocard^ia (oK^jeiroq^ unclosed, Kopdua^ 
the heart). A term applied to the imper- 
fect closure of the foramen ovale, a foetal 
opening between the auricles of the heart, 
which prevents perfect aeration of the 
blood. It is thought to be connected 
with the disease variously known as 
cyanapathy, " Blue Disease," " Blue Jaun- 
dice," etc, 

Ac^me {oKfjoj, a point). The critical stage 
of a disease; the crisis. The highest 
point or degree of anything. 

Ac^ne. Varus. A general term used to 
designate lesions arising from pustular 
inflammation about the sebaceous glands 
and hair follicles. The forms commonly 
distinguished are A. /Rosacea, A. Vari- 
o/ifomiis, and A, Vulgaris, A. Ade- 
noid, a disseminated form of A. Vul- 
garis ^ q. V. A. Adolescentum. See 
Acne Vulgaris, A. Albida. See Mili- 
um. A. Atrophica. See Acne Varioli- 
formis, A. Disseminata. See Acfie 
Vulgaris. A. Erythematosa. See 
Acne Rosacea, A. Frontalis. See 
Acne Varioliformis. A. Hypertrophica, 
Whiskey Nose^ an extreme development 
of A, Rosacea^ q. v, A. Keloid. See 
Dermatitis Papillaris Capillitii. A. 
Keratosa, a form of A. Vulgaris^ dis- 
tinguished by a homy plug in the hair fol- 
licle. A. Rhinophyma, an extreme 
develqmient of Acne Rosacea ^ q. v. A. 
Rosacea, a chronic congestion of the 
skin and subcutaneous tissue of the face, 
attended with seborrhoea, and resulting in 
permanent vascular dilatation. May hyper- 
trophy the tip and sides of the nose 
(A. hypertrophica y "whiskey nose"), or 
expand it into a pendulous tumor (^. 
rhinophyma). A. Sebacea. See Sebor- 
rhoea, A. Varioliform^. See Mollus- 
cum Contagiosum. A. Varioliformis 
(not to be confused with A. Varioli- 

formi), A pustular eruption confined 
mainly to the face and scalp, which 
leaves pitted scars, llie papules and 
pustules are indurated and group>ed. A. 
Vulgaris, stone pock; an inflam- 
mation of the sebaceous glands, arising 
from obstructed or retained secretion. 
Occurs mainly in children or youth. 
May be indurated, punctate or pustular 
in form. 

Acce^lius (a priv., Ktiha^ the belly). 
Without a belly ; applied to those ex- 
tremely emaciated. 

AcoKogy (o*of» remedy, 'Xoyo^^ a dis- 
course). The science of remedies. 




Ace^mia {oKfto^, bald). Baldness. A 
general term applied to the deficiency of 
hair, arising from any cause. 

Ac^onite, or A^conite. 

Acon^itum. The root of Aconitum na- 
pfllus. Possesses a bitter, pungent taste. 
Produces numbness and persistent tingling 
in the tongue and lips. Violently poison- 
ous. Exerts great depression of the heart, 
respiration, circulation and nerves. The 
active principle is Aconititie. Highly bene- 
ficial in fevers, acute throat affections and 
inflammation of the respiratory organs. 
Dose gr. ss-ij. A. Abstractum, has 
double the strength of the powdered drug 
or its fluid ext. Dose gr. %-y A. Ex- 
tractum. Dose gr. yd-Yi- A. Ext. 
Fluid., has a strength of one drop to the 
grain of powdered drug. Dose tT\^j^-ij. 
A. Tinct., contains, aconite 40, tartaric 
acid 04, alcohol 100 parts. Dose nv^^-ij* 
The following are unofficial: Aconitia 
(aconitine), an amorphous solid. Dose gr. 
liff^^V- Aconitin<£^ Oi^aiurn, a 2 percent, 
solution of aconitine in oleic acid. Napel- 
lina. Dose gr. \-\. St. Jacob's Oil, a 
weak aconite liniment. 

Acor^mus (a, Kopymq^ the trunk). A mon- 
ster without a trunk or body. 

Ac^orus. See Calamus. 

Acou^meter, or Acouom^eter (oaouj, to 
hear, furpov^ a measure). An instrument 
for measuring the acuteness of hearing. 

Acous^tic. Relating to the ear or sense 
of hearing. A. Tetanus, the rapidity of 
the induction shocks in a frog's nerve-muscle 
preparation, as measured by the pitch of a 
vibrating rod. A. Nerve, portio mollis 
of the seventh pair. See Nerves. 

Acous^tics. The science of sound. 

Acquired Movements. Those brought 
under the influence of the will only after 
conscious and attentive effort and practice, 
in distinction from reacquired movements, 
those reinstated in their former proficiency 
after injury to the motor regions of the 

Acra^nia (a priv., icpaviov, the skull). The 
condition of a monster with partial or com- 
plete absence of the cranium. 

Acrature^sis (oKpaTeuif without strength, 
ovftrffTtc, micturition). Inability to mictu- 
rate from atony of the bladder. 

Acrodyn^ia (oKpoq^ an extremity, offw^, 
pain). A disease closely allied to {x;llagra 
and ergotism ; attended with acute hy()er- 
aesthesia of the palms and soles, troubles 
of motility, disordered nutrition of the skin 
and mucous membranes, followed by an 

erythematous eruption, with excess of dark 
brown pigmentation. Thought to be caused 
by diseased grain. 

Acro^leine (tfr<rr, sharp, ^/i-i/w, oil). Acrylic 
Aldehyde. A highly volatile liquid hav- 
ing the composition C,H^O ; derived from 
the decom}*osition or the destructive dis- 
tillation of glycerine. 

Acromega^lia (aKpo^, fityoTuoq^ large^. Ab- 
normal develoj)ment of the extremities. 

Acro^mion (axpovy a summit, ouoq^ the 
shoulder). The triangular-shaped process 
at the summit of the scapula, which forms 
the attachment of the deltoid muscle. 

Acrompha^lus {oKfXJv, o/y^a^oc, the navel). 
The center of the umbilicus, to which the 
cord is attached. 

Acro^nyx (eucpcv, ow^, a nail). The in- 
growing of the nail. 

Ac^rotism (a, without, Kporoq^ striking). A 
term used to designate any defective beat' 
ing of the pulse. 

Actin^ic (oktiq^ a ray). Referring to those 
wave-lengths of the spectrum correspond- 
ing to the violet and ultra-violet parts of 
the same which produce chemical changes 
in the haloid salts of silver, and are there- 
fore valuable in photography. 

Actinom^yces (oKT/f, //woe, mucous). 
Vegetable parasites, the origin of the dis- 
ease actinomycosis. Called also the Ray 

Actinomyco^sis (aicrtf, fivKjfg^ a fungus). 
A parasitical, infectious, inoculable dis- 
ease first observed in cattle, also in 
man, due to the presence, in abscesses 
and sinuses, of the Uptothrix-streptothrix, 
The most frequent, and most curable, form 
is when the abscesses form about the jaws 
and teeth. The treatment is prophylactic, 
guarding, by the choice of meat and by its 
proper cooking, against the transference of 
the parasite ; and curative, the evacuation 
and antiseptic treatment of abscesses, sin- 
uses, carious teeth, etc. When the para- 
site has found a nidus in the lungs or di- 
gestive tract, all treatment is so far use- 

Actinospo^ra Charta^rum. A parasitic 
fungus developing on paper and l)ooks. 

Actinozo^a (a«cr/f, l^uov^ an animal). One 
of the two divisions of the C(tlenterata, 
including the sea anemones, stone corals, 
etc. ; called also antho/oa. 

Ac^tion {cigOy to do or perform). In 
physiology, a term used to denote the 
function of an organ. A., Reflex, a 
movement of an organ or part of the body 
resulting from an impression carried by a 




sensory or afferent nerve to a subordinate 
center, and then sent back by an efferent 
nerve to some point at or near the source 
of irritation. 

Act^ive. In medicine, a term applied to 
treatment the reverse of passive, that is, 
where the pathological conditions are 
acted upon directly rather than partly 

Active Insufficiency of Muscles. See 

Act^ual Caut^ery. See Cautery, 

Acu^ity {acuo^ to sharpen). Acuteness or 
clearness of visual power in the percep- 
tion of small or distant objects. 

Acupres^sure {acusy sharp, premo^ to 
press). An operation to stop haemorrhage 
or aneurysm by the compression of a needle 
inserted into the tissues upon either side, 
either above or below the vessel. 

Acupunct^ure (<jr«j, pungo, to prick). 
Puncture of the skin or tissue by one or 
more needles for the relief of pain, the 
exit of fluid, the coagulation of blood in 
an aneurysm, etc, 

Acute^ [acus). Used of disease, and 
signifying rapid and severe onset, pro- 
gress and termination. When applied 
to pain, sound, vision, etc.^ means sharp, 

Acutenac^ulum. A needle-holder. 

Acute^ness. Pertaining to the acute stage 
of a disease. Referring to vision, used as 
a s3monym for keenness or acuity. 

Acyanops^ia. See Blindness, 

Acye^sis (a, without, tnfffaic, pregnancy). 
Sterility of the female. 

Ad (adf to). A Latin prefix of words arid 
terms, signifying /<?, toward, a/, etc. Ad 
deliquium, to fainting. Ad lihitum^ at 
pleasure, or, according to discretion. 

Ad, or Add. A contraction of Adde, or 
Additur, meaning, add, or let there be 
added : used in prescription- writing. 

Adact^ylous (a, without, doKrvkoq, a 
finger). Without fingers. In biology, 
certain crustaceans the arms of which 
are without claws. 

^d^am's Apple. See Pomum Adami, 

Addepha^gia. See Bulimia. 

Ad^dison's Disease^. Melasma supra- 
renale, Dermato-melasma-supra-renale, or 
cutis aerea (" bronzed skin ''), a disease of 
the supra-renal capsules, first described by 
Dr. Addison, and characterized by tuber- 
cular infiltration of the capsules, discolora- 
tion of the skin, progressive anaemia and 
asthenia, ending in death from exhaus- 

Adduc^tion (adduco, to bring toward). 
Movements whereby a part is brought 
toward another or toward the median line 
of the body. 

Adduct^or. Applied to muscles efifecting 

Adelomorph^ous. See Delomarphous. 

Ademo^nia (a, ^fiovta^ trouble, distress). 
Mental distress. 

A^den {aSfpf, an acorn, a gland). A gland, 
a bubo. 

Adenal^gia(a(5i7v,aX7^,pain). Glandular 

Adenecto^pia (adr/v, eKTonog, away from 
a place). A condition in which the gland 
does not occupy its prop>er position. 

Adenemphrax^is {adtjv and e^<^pa^iq, to 
obstruct). Glandular obstruction. 

Ade^nia. See Lymphadenoma. 

Aden^iform (ad^v, forma, resemblance). 
Of the shape of a gland ; glandlike. 

Ad^enine (adifv, a gland, — first discovered 
in pancreatic glandis). A leucomaine, dis- 
covered in 1S85 by Kossel; the simplest 
member of the uric acid group of leuco- 
maines. A relation exists between hydro- 
cyanic acid and all the members of this 
group, and the base Adenine seems to be 
formed by polymerization of hydrocyanic 
acid. It occurs, with other bases, as a de- 
composition proiduct of nuclein, and may 
be obtained from all animal and vegetable 
tissues rich in nucleated cells. It exists 
largely in the liver and urine of leuco- 
cythamiic patients, as a result of the 
breaking up of the nucleated white blood 
corpuscles. It appears to be necessary 
to the formation and building up of 
organic matter, playing an important part, 
together with guanine, in the physio- 
logical function of the cell nucleus. Non- 
nucleated cells, though capable of living, 
are incapable of reproduction ; the nucleus 
appears to be the seat of the functional 
activity of the cell, indeed, of the entire 
organism. Nuclein, the parent of ade- 
nine and guanine, has been credited 
with a direct relation to the reproductive 
powers of the cell. Adenine is not poi- 
sonous. Its physiological action is not 
definitely known. 

Adeni^tis (adrjv and itis, inflammation). 
Inflammation of a gland. See Bubo. 

Ade^no-. A Greek prefix to denote rela- 
tion to glands. 

Aden^ocele. See Adenoma. 

Adenodyn^ia. See Adennlgia. 

Adenog^raphy (ad^v, ypa^, to write). A 
treatise on the glanduliir system. 




Ad^enoid {a^, etSog, resemblance). Re- 
sembling a gland. A. Body, the pros- 
tate gUmd. A. Tissue. See Animal 
Tissue. * 

AdenoKogy (adTfv and Aoyoc, a discourse). 
The science of the glandular system. 

Adeno^ma (adfiv, ofia^ tumor). A tumor 
that has sprung from a gland, or con- 
structed after 3ie type of a secreting 

Adenomyxo^ma (adijv^ f^v^n, mucous). A 
composite growth naving the characters of 
adenoma and myxoma. 

Adenop^athy (adi/f,7ra^, disease). Dis- 
ease of glands. 

Adenophleg^mon (adryVf tpiXeyfiovTf). Sup- 
purative inflammation of a lymphatic gland 
complicating a wound. 

Adenosarco^ma (aSr^, sarcoma). A 
tumor with the characters of adenoma and 

Adenosclero^sis {adipfj sclerosis). A hard- 
ening of a gland, with or without swelling. 

Adeno^ses (adj/v). Chronic abnormalities 
of the glands. 

A^deps. Lard. The fat obtained from the 
abdomen of the pig. G>raposed of 38 
per cent, stearin and margarin, and 62 
per cent, olein. Forms 70 per cent, of 
ceratum, and 80 of unguentum, q. v. A. 
Anserinus, goose grease. A. Benzoa- 
tus contains 2 per cent, of benzoin. A. 
Ovillus, mutton suet. Adipis Oleum, 
a fixed oil expressed from lard. 

Ader^mia {a priv., Aepua, skin). Ab- 
sence or detect of the skin. 

Adhe^sion {adharoy to stick to). Abnor- 
mal union of two surfaces as a result of 
abrasion, inflammation, etc. A., Primary, 
called also Healing by First In/entiony and 
by Immediate Unian^ a method of healing 
of wounds by the production of lymph, 
followed by the vascularization and cica- 
trization of the exudate. A., Secondary, 
or Healing by Second Intention y or by 
Granulation^ is that mode of healing at- 
tended by the production of pus and the 
formation of granulations. A. Plaster. 
See Emplastrum. 

Adhe^sive Plaster. See Resin and Em- 

Adiaphore^sis (a priv., Aia^pewj^ to per- 
spire). Deficient sweat. 

Adiapneus^tia (a, diairvtu^ to perspire). A 
wofd used to denote stoppage of perspi- 

Adiathe^sia (a, Sia^eaiCt condition). A 
term used to denote a condition or partic- 
ular diiease which is not congenital. 

Ad^inine. See Adenitte. 

Ad^ipic Acid. An oxidation product of 
the fatty acids, having the composition 
C0HJOO4. It is dibasic and diatomic. 

Ad^ipocere (adeps^ fat, cera^ wax). A 
wax-like substance formed b^ the expo- 
sure of fleshy tissue to moisture, with the 
exclusion of air, i. ^'., in the earth or under 
water. It consists of the fatty acids in 
combination with the alkaline earths and 
ammonium. Human bodies in moist burial 
places often undergo this change. 

Adipog^enous (adeps, fat, generoy to pro- 
duce). That which produces fat and adi- 
pose tissue. 

Ad^ipose. Fatty. A. Tissue, fat cells, 
united by connective tissue; distributed 
extensively through the body. It is com- 
posed of triolein, tripalmitine and tristear- 
ine, and is liquid during life or at the tem- 
perature of the living body. 

Ad^juvant (adjuvo^ to assist). A medi- 
cine that assists the action of another to 
which it is added. 

Adoles^cence (adolesco^ to grow). Youth, 
or the period oetween puberty and ma- 
turity, usually reckoned as extending in 
males from about 14 to 25 years, and in 
females from 12 to 21. 

Ado^nis Estiva^lis. A plant much used 
in Italy as a cardiac tonic. Similar pro- 
perties possessed by A. Vemalis. Dose 
tablespoonful of oj to J xl. Unofficial. 

Adoscula^tion (adj to, osculor, to kiss). 
Impregnation by external contact without 

Adre^nals {ad^ pev, the kidney). The 
supra-renal capsules. 

Adni^e. Anti-emetic root. The root of Cy- 
perus articulatus. Strongly recommended 
to check black vomit of yellow fever. Dose 
of the fld. ext. gtt. xx-xxx. Unof. 

Adult^ [adolescoy to grow). Mature. 

Adultera^tion {adultero^ to counterfeit). 
The admixture of inferior, impure, inert, 
or less valuable ingredients to an article 
for gain, deception or concealment. Medi- 
cines, wines, foods, etc., are largely adul- 
terated, the latter to a shameless extent. 

Advance^ment. An operation to remedy 
strabismus, generally in conjunction with 
tenotomy, whereby the opposite tendon 
from the over- acting one is also cut and 
brought forward, so that, growing fast in a 
more advanced position, it shall have more 
power to act upon the globe of the eye. 

Adventi^tia {adventitiusy foreign). The 
external covering or coat of the blood- 




Adventi^tious. Accidental, foreign, ac- 
quired, as opposed to natural or hereditary. 

Adyna^mia (a priv., Avva/iog, power). 
Deficiency or loss of vital or muscular 

^dceag^raphy (aiSout^ the generative 
organs, ypa^, to write). A description 
of the generative oi^ans. 

JRdatoyogy (atdouz, ^yof, a discourse). 
A treatise or monograph on the organs of 

^gagro^pili (a/^ [gen. ayioc'], oyptoq^ a 
wild goat, iriy.oqy hair). Intestmal concre- 
tion formed of hair, found in animals and 
occasionally in man. A bezoar. 

Ag^lops (a^, u^b^ eye). Abscess with per- 
foration at the inner canthus of the eye, 
supposed to be a result of lachrymal fistula. 
See Anchyhps, 

Agoph^ony (mf, ^cjwy, the voicej. In 
auscultation, a term meaning a modification 
of bronchophony in which the voice sounds 
sharp and tremulous, like that of a kid. 

^SquabiKiter just^o ma^jor, or mi^nor 
PcKvis. See Pthns. 

A-^Srated (a//p, the atmosphere). Impreg- 
nated or charged with carbon dioxide. 

ASrhsemocto^nia {piftp^ &ir, am.a^ blood, 
KTovoq^ killing). Death by the entrance of 
air into the veins. 

Ai^ro^bia fai;/), air, /?toc, life). The quality 
of living m the presence of oxygen. A., 
Facultative, normally or usually anae- 

• lobic, but under certain circumstances 
acquiring aerobic power. 

Airo'bic. Pertaining to microbes requiring 
oxygen (air) in order to live. 

Aroco^mia Sclerocarpa. A South Ameri- 
can plant, very popular as a remedy in 
leucorrhcea, diarrhrea and albuminuria. It 
is astringent. Unof. 

A<5roxn^eter (a;/^, furpov, a measure). An 
instrument for ascertaining the density of 

Aeropho^bia (o^p, <^i3og, fear). Dread 
of a current of air. A symptom of hydro- 
phobia and hysteria. 

A^eroscope (a^p, gkotziu^ to observe). An 
instrument for the examination of air 
dust. Also, an instrument for estimating 
the purity of the air. 

ASrotherapeu^tics. A mode of treating 
disease by varying the pressure or the 
composition of the air. breathed. 

Aerteriver^sion (a^p, T^peu, to hold, rv;-/^, 
to turn). A method of arresting luvmor- 
rhage by everting the cut end of an artery, 
invaginating the vessel in itself and fixing 
the parts by a needle. 

(^culin. A glucoside in the bark of the 
horse chestnut having the composition 

As^thesin (aurvrfoig^ sensibility). A name 
given by 'lliudichura to an anhydrous 
compound of sphyngosin and neurostearic 
ether occurring in brain -tissue. 

Asthesiom'^eter. An instrument for 
measuring tactile sensibility. 

Asthesod^ic {aiaOffaig, cx$oc, path). Re- 
lating to the gray substance of the cord 
that conducts sensory impressions to the 
brain. Kinesodic parts conduct the motor 
impulses from the centers to the muscles. 

Astua^rium (trstuSf heat). A vapor-bath. 
Also a stove designed to apply warm, dry 
air to all parts of the body at the same 

Aether. See Efhfr, 

AtioKogy. See Etiology, 

Affec^tion (officio^ to affect). A synonym 
of disease. 

Afferent (adj io^/eroy to carry to). A term 
applied to vessels, nerves, r/r., that con- 
vey their contents or impulses from the 
periphery to the center. An efferent 
nerve, impulse or current is in the reverse 

Affin^ity (affinis, akin to). Relationship ; 
a synonym of attraction. A., Chemical, 
the force exerted at inappreciable dis- 
tances, and between definite and invari- 
able weights of two or more combining 
substances, whereby bodies of dissimilar 
nature unite to form new compounds. 
Contradistinguished from cohesion, which 
is an attraction between molecules. A., 
Elective, the preference of one sub- 
stance for another rather than for a third 
or fourth. 

Af ^flux (affluo, to flow toward). The flow 
of the blood or other liquid to a particular 

Affu^sion (affuftdoy to pour uponV Pour- 
ing water upon a substance to cleanse it, 
or upon the Ixxiy in fevers to reduce tem- 
perature and calm nervous symi)toms. 

African Lethargy. A '* sleeping sick- 
ness " affecting negroes of the West 
African coast. Increasing somnolence is 
the characteristic s>Tnplom. Very fatal. 
Death after emaciation follows in from 
three to six months. The cause is un- 
known, and post-mortem examination has 
revealed only hypera^mia of the arachnoid. 
No treatment avails. 

APter-birth. The popmlar designation of 
the placenta, cord and membranes, some- 
times called the seatndinet. 




APter-images. Continued retinml im> 
pressions after the stimulus of the light or 
image has ceased to act A positive after- 
image is a simple prolongation of the sen- 
sation; a negative after-image is the ap- 
pearance of the image in complementary 
colors. After-sensations may be also ex- 
perienced with other senses. 
APter-pains. See Pains. 
Arter-sensation. A sensation lasting 
longer than the stimulus producing it. 
Agalac^tia (a, 70X0, milk). Failure or 
insufficiency oif the mother's milk after 

Agamogen^esis (ay^^"^* without mar- 
riage, yevcai^, generation). Reproduction 
without fecundation, as, e.g., by gemma- 
tion. See Parthenogenesis. 
A^gar-a^gar. A Ceylon moss. A kind of 
glue made from certain mosses, used in 
medicine to make suppositories, and in 
bacteriological studies to make a solution 
in which micro-organisms are bred or kept. 
See Gelose. 

Agar^icine. The active principle of Agar- 
icus aJbus. It has proved useful in the 
night sweats of phthisis, where atropia has 
failed. Dose gr. j^f-^' ^^<^' 
Agar^icus. A genus of the family of 
Agaricini or mushroom. The edible va- 
riety, A. Campestris, is characterized 
by a brownish color, which does not 
change when cut, and an agreeable taste. 
A. Albus, Purging Agaric, unof., a fun- 
gus parasitic upon the European larch; 
contains an alkaloid agaricin and agaric 
acid. Used as a drastic purgative, valuable 
in night sweats. Dose gr. xxx-^j. A. 
Cheirurgonim, a parasitic fungus for- 
merly used for moxa, q. v. Soaked in so- 
lution of potassium nitrate it forms spunk. 
A. Muscarius, a poisonous mushroom, 
containing an alkaloid muscarincy q. t/., 
a power^l cardiac depressant. Dose of 
the alkaloid gr. |^-ij. Muscarine nitrate, 
used hypodermically. Dose gr. -j^J. 
Age. A period of life. The age of 
infancy, up to the third year ; of child- 
hood, from 3 to 12; of adolescence, from 
about 12 to 25 ; of maturity, from 25 to 
50; of decline or senility, from 50 to 
death. The word is sometimes used to de- 
note the last period alone. Other divi- 
sions may be made, as, e. g.^ those of em- 
bryonic life, of immatiuity, of maturity, 
of sterility, etc. 

Agene^sia (a, ycvfmf, generation). A 
term somewhat loosely used to designate 
abnonnal or imperfect development Also 

impotence and sterility. In botany, the 
asexual development of the flower. 

Agens Morbi. See Aforhi. 

Argent (ago, to act, to do). A substiDce 
or force that by its action effects changes 
in the human body. 

Agenesia (o, ynvic, taste). Abolition of 
the sense of taste. 

Agglutina^tion (agglutino, to glue upon 
or to). A joining together ; applied to the 
healing of wounds; it is odled imme- 
diate, if by the first intention ; metiiate, if 
through the interposition of some sub- 
stance in the lips of the wound. 

Agglu^tinatives. Substances with adhe- 
sive properties, fitted to retain the edges 
of wounds in apposition. Such are caout- 
chouc, collodion, etc. 

Aglobu^lia (a negative, and globulus, a 
globule). A decrease in the quantity of 
red blood corpuscles, with corresponding 
increase of serum. 

Aglos^sia (a priv., yTuuooa, the tongue). 
Congenital absence of tongue. 

Ag^minate Glands. See Glands, Peys- 

Ag^nail. Hangnail. 

Ag^a^thia (a priv., yvoBoq, a jaw). Ab- 
sence or defective development of the 

-ago^ga, -agogues (ayLtyoq, one who 
leads). A suffix, denoting agents that 
drive out other substances, as emmena- 
gogues, lithag(^[ucs, etc. 

Agorapho^bia {ayopa, a market-place, 
^^, fear). A symptom of mental dis- 
ease characterized by a morbid fear of 
open places or spaces. 

-ag^a (ay pa, a seizure). A Greek word 
added as a suffix to various roots to denote 
seizure, severe pain ; as podagra, etc. 

Ag^am^matism (a, ypa^ifuj, a word). A 
phenomenon of aphasia consisting in the 
inability to form words grammatically, or 
the suppression of certain words of a 

Ag^aph^ia (a neg., ypadu, to write). In- 
ability to express ideas by writing. In 
some cases not a single letter can l)e 
formed; in others, words, and a numlx!r 
of words, without meaning, can \>c written. 
See Aphijsia. 

A^g^ia (aypto^^ wild). A certain pustular 

Ag^rimony. The root of .4grimoni<i eu- 
patoria. A mild astringent. Dose of fid. 
ext. .^ss-ij. Unof. 

Ag^rjrp^nia {aypio^^ restless, iwvof, .sleep). 
Loss of sleep, sleeplessness, insomnia, q. v. 




A^gue {acutuSj sharp, acute, Fr. aigu). 
Malarial or intermittent fever, character- 
ized by parox3rsms or stages of chill, fever, 
and sweating at regularly recurring times, 
and followed by an interval or intermission 
whose length determines the epithet, quo- 
tidian, tertian, efc. In some cases there is 
a double paroxysm, and hence called, 
double quotidian, double tertian, efc. In 
dumb ague the paroxysms are masked. 
Splenic enlargement follows ague, and is 
called A. -cake. A. -drop, a solution of 
the arseniate of potash, and for which 
Fowler's solution is substituted. 

Ailan^thus. The bark of A. glandulosa^ 
commonly known as Tree of Heaven. 
Properties due to an oleoresin and a vola- 
tile oil. A nauseant and drastic purgative, 
constituting an excellent anthelmintic 
against tape-worm. A., Ext. fid., dose 
n\,x-;5J. A., Tinct., dose TT\^x-3ij. 

Ain^hum (negro word, meaning to saw). 
A disease in Guinea and Hindostan, pe- 
culiar to negroes, in which the little toes 
are slowly and spontaneously amputated 
at about the digito-plantar fold. The pro- 
cess is very slow, does not affect other toes 
or parts, is unaccompanied by any consti- 
tutional symptoms, and its cause is un- 
known. Sometimes attacks the great toe. 

Air (aep, from mj to blow or breathe). 
The chief part of the atmosphere. At- 
mospheric air consists of a mixture of 77 
parts by weight, or 79.19 by volume, of 
nitrogen, and 23 parts by weight or 20.8 1 
by volume of oxygen, with 3.7 to 6.2 parts 
hy volume of CO, in 10,000 parts. 100 
cubic inches weigh 30,935 grains. The 
pressure of the air at sea- level is about 143^^ 
lbs. upon the sq. in. A., Compleinental, 
is that that can still be inhaled after an 
(Mxlinary inspiration. A., Reserve or 
• Supplemental, that that can still be ex- 
haled after an ordinary expiration. A., 
Residual, that which remains in the lungs 
after the most complete expiration possible. 
A., Tidal, that taken in and given out at 
each respiration. A. Vesicles, the 
rounded terminations of the bronchial 
tul)es, the alveoli. See Atmosphere. 

Air-space. A space in tissue filled with 
air or other gases arising from the separa- 
tion, rupture, or absorption of cells. 

Ajo'^wan. Bishop's Weed. The fruit of 
A. Carum. Carminitive and antisep>tic. 
Has been recommended in colic, diarrhoea, 
etc. Dose of the fid. ext. TT\^x-xxx. 

Akanthaesthe^sia (aKavda^ a thorn, ataOrf- 
ai^t sensation). A form of parccsthesia or 

perverted sensation in which there is a 
feeling as of a sharp point. 

Akatapha^sia (a, without, KaTo^ivu^ to 
declare). Inability to utter or to form a 
complete sentence, arising from a syntactic 
distiu'bance of speech. 

Aldn^esis (a neg, Kiveu, to set in motion). 
Absence or imperfection of movement. 
Applied to the heart's diastole. 

Akroposthi^tis {cucpo^^ point, noadia^ fore- 
skin). Inflammation of the foreskin. See 

Akyanops^ia. See Blindness. 

' Al. The Arabic definite article, the. Pre- 
fixed to many words to designate preemi- 
nence, etc.^ as alkali, alcohol. In chemi- 
cal nomenclature it is used as a sufBx to 
denote similarity to or derivation from an 
aldehyd, as chloral, butyral, etc. 

A^lae (pi. of ala, a wing). Applied to 
various wing-shaped parts or appendages. 
A. Auris, the pinna of the ear. A. Nasi, 
the lateral cartilages of the nose. A. 
Vespertilionis, the broad ligaments of 
the uterus. A. Vulvae, the labia of the 
pudendum. Applied also to the armpits, 
parts of the sphenoid, vomer, etc. 

Ala^lia (a neg.^ AdAccj, to talk). Impaired 
OS lost articulation fix>m paralysis of the 
muscles of speech. 

A^lar (a/c7, wing). Winglike. A. Liga- 
ments, lateral synovial folds of the liga- 
ment of the knee-joint. A. Odontoid 
Liganrents, lateral ligaments of the 
odontoid process. Alaria ossa, lateral 
processes of the sphenoid bone. Alares 
musculi, the pterygoid muscles. 

AKbicans (aibicoy to grow white), white. 
Applied to the corpora albicantia at the . 
base of the brain. 

Al^binism (a/bus ^ white). Congenital 
leucoderma, congenital leucopathia, con- 
genital achroma. The congenital absence 
or abnormal deficiency of pigment in the 
skin and other tissues. May be complete 
or partial. 

Albugin^ea (a/bus). White, or whitish. 
A. Oculi, the sclerotic coat of the eye. 
A. Ovarii, and testis, the tunica albu- 
ginea of the ovary and testicle. 

AKbumen (a/bus). The white of egg. 
See Albumin. 

Albumim^eter (albumin^erpov^ measure). 
An instrument for determining the quanti- 
tative estimation of albumin in urine. 

Al^bumin (albas, white). A proteid sub- 
stance, the chief constituent of the body. 
Its molecule is highly complex and varies 
widely within certain limits in different 




organs and conditions. It contains the 
following percentages: Carbon 51.5 to 
S4.5; hydrogen 6.9 to 7.3; nitrogen 15.2 
to 17.0; oxygen 20.9 to 23.5; sulphur 
0.3 to 2.0. Its approximate formula is 
Cj,H,„N,gO^. Albumen, white of egg, 
often call^ albumin, is largely composed 
of it. Other varieties are called after 
their sources or characteristic reactions, 
as acid- albumin, alkali-albumin, muscle-, 
serum-, ovum-, vegetable-albumin, etc. 
A., Circulating, that found in the fluids of 
the body. A., Organic, that forming an 
integrd part of the tissue. See, also, 
Proteids and Native Albumins. 

Albu^minate. The compound of albumin 
and certain bases, as albuminate of iron, 
or of iron and potassium, etc. 

Albu^minoid {albumin^ eiSog, form). Re- 
sembling albumin. Applied to certain 
compounds having many of the character- 
istics of albumin. 

Albu^minoids. Substances resembling 
true proteids in their origin and composi- 
tion. They are amorphous non-crystalline 
colloids, occurring as organized constitu- 
ents of the tissues, and also in fluid fonn. 
Mucin, Nuclein, Keratin, Fibroin, Spon- 
gin, Elastin, Gelatin, Chondrin, etc., are 
the principal members of the group. 

Albuminu^ria (a/bum in and ovpov, urine). 
The presence of albumin in the urine. 
The term is not now used, as it formerly 
was, as synonymous with Bright's disease. 
Albumin in the urine may result from a 
number of causes, e.^.^ mechanical inter- 
ference with renal circulation ; fix>m toxic 
substances in the blood ; from changes in 

-the blood due to various diseases; from 
lesions and diseases of the kidneys them- 
selves, etc. A., Tests of. See Aibumi- 
meter. Acetic Acid and FerrocyanidCy Boil- 
ingy Esbach's Method, Heller y Picric Acid, 
Roberts^ Reagent, Tanret. 

Al^bumoses. The flrst products of the 
splitting up of proteids by enzymes, inter- 
mediate between the food-albumins and the 
typical peptones. After the precipitation 
and filtering off of the para-peptones, e. g.y 
in the peptic digestion of flbrin, the clear 
solution of albumoses thus obtained, treated 
with sodium chloride, yields in precipitate 
form, Proto-albumosey Dys-albuniose and 
Jletero-albumose ; a fourth, Deutero-albu- 
mosCy remains in solution. The Deutero- 
albumose is the nearest to pep>tones. A., 
Vegetable. See Phytalbumoses. 

Al^chemy (Arabic, of doubtful derivation). 
The supposed art of the transmutation of 

metals (into gold) and of finding a remedy 
for all diseases. Modem chemistry is the 
development of this chimerical mediaeval 

Al^cohol (Arab, aly the, koholy finely pow- 
dered antimony). Ethyl alcohol, QH^O. 
A liquid obtained by the distillation of fer- 
mented grain or starchy substance. Used 
in pharmacy as a solvent for resins, and as 
a base for all tinctures. Commercial alco- 
hol contains 91 per cent, of absolute alco- 
hol, with 9 per cent, of water. Is in- 
flanmiable, colorless, and possesses a pun- 
gent odor and burning taste. Sometimes 
used externally as a stimulant lotion. In- 
ternally, it is a powerful cerebral excitant ; 
in large doses a depressant, narcotic poison, 
producing muscular incodrdination, deli- 
rium and coma. A food within the limits 
of 3J-3J P^r ^*yj continued use is 
apt to result in epilepsy, amblyopia and 
insanity. In form of wine, whisky or 
brandy, it is invaluable in diphtheria, ady- 
namic fevers, and poisoning by cardiac 
depressants. A., Absolute, spirit contain- 
ing no water. A., Ethyl. See Alcohol. 
A., Methyl, CH^O, commonly known as 
" Wood Spirit." A., Amyl, C.H,^0, com- 
monly known as ** Potato Spint *' and 
"Fusel Oil." A., Phenic. See Acid 
Carbolic. A., Dilute, composed of equal 
parts each of alcohol and water. 

Al^coholism. The morbid results of ex- 
cessive or prolonged use of alcoholic 
liquors. The term acute A. has been 
used as a synonym for inebriety. The 
chronic form is associated with severe 
lesions or disturbances of the digestive, 
respiratory and nervous systems. Delirium 
tremens is a common result of alcoholism. 

Al^dehyde (a/, the first syllable of alco- 
hol, dehydy fix)m dehydratus). Alcohol 
deprived of two atoms of hydrog^en, or 
acetic aldehyde. It is a colorless, limpid 
liquid, with a characteristic odor, having 
the composition C^H^O. Internally it 
produces intoxication, anaesthesia and as- 
phyxia. A., Benzoic, the oil of bitter 
almonds, C^H^O. Chemically, the alde- 
hydes are bodies containing the group CO, 
associated with a monatomic alcohol radi- 
cal, and with hydrogen. They are easily 
converted into the corresponding acid by 
oxidation, or into the corres|X)nding alco- 
hols by nascent hydrogen. They are 
powerful reducers. 

Ale. An alcoholic beverage brewed from 
malt and hops. It contains from 3 to 7 
per cent, of alcohol. See Malt Liquors. 




Alem^bic (Arab, al^ Q^V-?^^% ^ cup). A 
vessel used for distillation. 

Alep^po Boil, or Evil. See Furunculus 

Ale'tris. Star Grass, Unicom Root, Star- 
wort, Colic Root. The root of A.farinosa. 
Tonic, diuretic and anthelmintic. Formerly 
a popular domestic remedy in colic, dropsy 
and chronic rheumatism. Dose of fld. ext. 
?T\^x-xxx; of alitrin^ the extractive, gr. 
X-iv. Unof. 

Alexan^der*8 Operation. An operation 
consisting in shortening the round ligament 
of the uterus in order to bring the uterus 
into its normal position. 

Alex^ia (a, Af^/c, word). Word-blindness. 
A form of aphasia and a special type of 
psychical blindness, in which the patient 
is unable to recc^^nize ordinary written or 
printed characters. 

Alexipharm^ic (a^^cj, to repel, 0ap/mxoy, 
a drug). A medicine neutralizing a poi- 

Alexipyret^ic (aAffw, Trv/ierof, a fever). 
A febrifuge. 

Aleze^ (aXffw, to protect). A cloth to 
protect me bed from becoming soiled from 
excreta, etc. 

Al^gae (alitor y coldness). A group of 
acotyledonous plants, of simple vegetable 
construction, living mostly in the water. 

Al^garoth (It. Algarotti^ the Veronese phy- 
sician). A name formerly used to desig- 
nate an oxycliloride of antimony. 

Alge^do (a/.yoq^ pain). A name applied to 
severe pain in the generative and extend- 
ing to the urinary organs, sometimes arising 
from a sudden stoppage of gonorrhoea. 

-algia (oA^'of). A suffix denoting pain, 
as odontalgia, neuralgia, tic. 

Algid [al^iJuty cold). Cold, chilly. A. 
Fever, a pernicious' intermittent fever, with 
great coldness of the surface of the body. 
A. Cholera, Asiatic cholera. 

Aliena^tion (alieno^ to withdraw). Men- 
tal derangement, insanity. 

A^lienist. One who treats mental diseases ; 
a specialist in the treatment of insanity. 

Al^iment [alimentum, from ah, to nour- 
ish). Nourishment, food. A substance 
that, acted ujwn by the digestive and as- 
similative organs, yields the sources and 
repairs the losses of heat, force, or the tis- 
sues of the body. 

Aliment^ary. Nourishing. A. Bolus, 
the food after mastication and just prior 
to swallowing. A. Tube, System, or 
Canal, the digestive tube from the lips to 
the anus, with its accessory glands. 

Alimenta^tion. The process of the recep* 
tion and conversion of food into material 
fit for nourishment. 

Al^izarine. The red coloring principle 
occurring in the madder plant, Rubia tinc' 
torium^ and in anthracene, a coal-tar pro- 
duct. Its composition is Ci4Hg04. 

Al^kali (Arab, a/, and kali^ the plant from 
which soda was first obtained). The term 
includes the hydrated oxides of the alkali 
metals; these are electro-positive, are 
strong bases, uniting with acids to form 
salts, turn red litmus blue and saponify 
£eUs. A., Caustic (usually potash), when 
so concentrated as to possess caustic pro- 
perties ; potash and soda are called fixed 
alkalies, because permanently solid ; soda 
is called a mineral, potash a vegetable, 
and ammonia a volatile alkali. 

Al^kali-Albumin. A derived albumin; 
a proteid having been acted upon by dilute 
alkalies and yielding an alkaline reaction. 

Alkalim^eter {alkali^ and fjterpeu^ to mea- 
sure). Alkalimetry, the measurement of 
the amount of an alkali in a substance. 

AKkaloid {^alkali and udoq^ likeness). 
Resembling an alkali. The alkaloids are 
nitrogenous organic compounds, basic and 
alkaline in character, highly complex in 
chemical constitution and usually of vege- 
table origin. Most are solid and crystal- 
lizable ; but nicotin and conein are liquid. 
Most are toxic. A., Putrefactive. See 

Al^kanet (Arab, alkanah^ a reed). The 
root of Anchusa tinctorioy now used in 
medicine as a coloring material. 

Allanti^asis (oXyia^, a sausage). Sausage 
poisoning, due to putrefactive changes in 
imperfectly cured sausages, or in those 
made from bad materials. 

Allant^oin. C4H«N40j. Occurs in 
traces in normal urine, and prepared fh>m 
uric acid by oxidation processes. 

Allant^ois (aP.>-ac, f/doc, like). One of 
the f(Etal appendages or membranes, de- 
rived from the mesoblastic and hypoblas- 
tic layers. Its function is to convey the 
blood-vessels to the chorion. The lower 
part finally becomes the bladder, the rest, 
the urachus. 

Allant^o-tox^icon (a?.?.«c» to^ikov^ a poi- 
son). A name applied to a poisonous sub- 
stance, probably a ptomaine, which devel- 
ops during the putrefactive fermentation 
of sausage, especially that made of blood 
and liver. 

Allen*8 Test for Zinc. A few drops of 
potassium fenocyanide added to boiling 



water slightly alkaline yields a white pre- 
cipitate if zinc be present. 

Allia^ceous (a/Zium, garVic). Resembling 
garlic or pertaining to the same. 

Al^ligator Pear. The seeds of Persea 
gratissimay or Avocado pear. A Mexican 
remedy for intercostal neuralgia, and, in- 
ternally, an anthelmintic (?). Dose, in- 
ternally, of the fld. ext. TT\^xxx-2j. 

AKUum (aA£(j, to avoid). Garlic. The 
bulb of A. sativum. Contains a pungent 
volatile oil (allyl sulphide), which is found 
also in the leek and the onion. The tubers 
of each are used both as a food and as a 
condiment, and are stimulants to digestion. 
A. Syr., contains, garlic 15, sugar 60, dil. 
acetic acid 40 fMuts. Dose 3 j-.^ iv. 

AUocbi^ria (aX/jo^^ other, x^f^Pt hand). 
An infrequent tabetic symptom, in which, 
if one extremity be pricked, the patient 
locates the sensation in the corresponding 
member of the other side. The better 
name, aUasthesia^ has been suggested. 

Allop^athy (aA^, other, Tradog^ affection). 
According to Hahnemann, the inventor of 
the term, that method of the treatment of 
disease consisting in the use of medicines 
whose action upon the body in health pro- 
duces morbid phenomena different from 
those of the disease treated. Opposed to 
homoeopathy. It need hardly be said that 
modem scientific medicine is based upon 
no such theory, or defmition, as that sup- 
plied by homoeopathy. See Regular. 

AUorhyth^mia (aAP^, p^fJ^fKy rhythm). 
Variation in interval of the pulse. See 
Pulse and Pulsus. 

AUotrioph^ag^ {akhrrpioq^ strange, 0ayw, 
to eat). Depraved or unnatural appetite. 
The Italian epidemic disease called pica. 

Allot ^ropism (aAP^, rponoq^ method). 
The term expresses the fact of certain 
elements existing in two or more condi- 
tions with differences of physical properties. 
Thas carbon illustrates allotropism by ex- 
isting in the forms of charcoal, plumbago, 
and the diamond. See Isomeric. 

Allox^an. An oxidation product fC^H.- 
NjO^) of uric acid. Passes into alloxanic 
acid, C^NjH/)^ by the action of alkalies. 
Occurs in the intestinal mucus in case of 

AlKspice. See Pi men/a. 

KV\y\, CjiHj. A non-saturated univalent 
alcohol -radical of the oils obtained from 
alliaceous plants. A. Alcohol, C3I I ^ I lO. 
A. Aldehyde, C^H^O, a synonym o{ Aero- 
Uin, A. Sulphide, (CjHjj^S, the essen- 
tial oil of garlic. 


Airmen's Test. A test for haemoglobin 
or blood in urine. Add to urine freshly 
prepared tincture of guaiacum and ozo- 
nized ether; a blue color indicates the 
presence of blood. 

Al^mond. See Amygdala. 

Al^nus. Alder Bark. The bark of the 
American Alder. A. Semilata, contains 
tannic acid. Decoction of bark and leaves 
is astringent, and used as a gargle and as 
a lotion for wounds and ulcers. Dose of 
powdered bark gr. x. 

Al^oe (aP-0J7, gen. a7joriq). The inspissated 
juice of several species of aloe, of which 
the A. Socotrina^ A. Barbadensis, and 
A. Capensis are most commonly used. 
Prop)erties due to a glucoside, alvtn. A 
tonic astringent, useful in amenorrhoea, 
chronic constipation, and atonic dyspepsia. 
Dose gr. j-v. A. Purificata, the com- 
mon drug purified by solution in alcohol 
and evaporation. Dose gr, j-v. A. Ext. 
Aquosum, prepared by mixing 1 with 
10 parts boiling water, straining and evapo- 
rating. Dose gr. ss-v. A., Tinct., con- 
sists of aloes 10, glycyrrhiza lo, dil. alco- 
hol 100 parts. Dose ^ss-gij. A. et 
Myrrh, Tinct., aloes 10, myrrh 10, alco- 
hol 100 parts. Dose 3SS-3 ij. A., Vin., 
has aloes 6, cardamon I, ginger I, str. 
white wine loo parts. Dose ^j-^iv. 
A., PiL, aloes and soap &d gr. ij. A. et 
Asafcetida, Pil., aloes and asafoetida aa 
gr. \y^. A. et Ferri, Pil., contains gr. j 
each of aloes and ferrous sulphate incorpo- 
rated with confection of roses. A. et 
Mastich, ** I^dy Webster's" pill, contains 
each aloes gr. ij, mastich and red rose gr. 
ss. A. et Myrrh, Pil., contains each aloes 
gr. ij, myrrh, gr. j, aromatic powder gr. ss, 
mixed with syrup. A. et Canellae, Pulv., 
contains powdered bark of Canella alba. 
Dose gr. v-xx. 

Aloin. See Aloe. 

Alope^cia (a?-(..7r//f, a fox). A general 
term to designate all forms of baldness. 
May be congenital, senile, idio{)athic pre- 
mature, or symptomatic premature. A. 
Area^ta, Porrii^^o Dccalvansy linca De- 
calvans. Area Cclsi. A. Circumspecta, 
an atrophic affection of the hair marked 
by the appearance of circumscribed bald 
spots. It sometimes affects the beard, eye- 
brows and pulxjs, and is thought to Ixj non- 
parasitic. A. Pityro^des Universalis. 
See .St-borrhiva. 

Al'^pha-Oxynaphtho'^ic Acid. A deri- 
vative of naphthol. Soluble in glycerine 
and oils only. A disinficianl. Unofficial. 




Alsto^nia Constricta. See Ditta Bark. 

Altera^tion Theory. See Difference 

Al^terative {alter ^ another). A medicine 
that alters tlie processes of nutrition and 
excretion, restoring, in some unknown way, 
and without sensible evacuation, the nor- 
mal functions of an oi^an or of the system. 
It seems to be a necessary or convenient 
term covering our ignorance of the modus 
operandi of certain medicines, as mercury, 
iodine, etc. A. Compound, a domestic 
remedy consisting of bamboo, brier-root, 
stillingia, burdock-root, and poke-root, Aft 
fl. ext. Jiij, prickly-ash bark fl. ext. 5j. 
Recommended by Sims in scrofulous anec- 
tions. Dose 3J-ij. 

Altema^tions of Generation. That form 
of reproduction in which some of the 
members of the cycle can produce new 
beings non-sexually, while in the final stage 
reproduction is always sexual. T«nia or 
tapeworm, is an example. The segments, 
Proglottides^ are hermaphrodite, and are 
evacuated with the faxes. From the egg, 
fertilized after it is shed, is developed 
the embryo, that is swallowed by anodier 
animal, in whose tissues it forms an en- 
cysted stage {^Cy slice re us y Ccenurus, or 
Echinococcus). To undei^o further de- 
velopment the cysticercus must find an- 
other host, where it fonns new seg- 

Althae^a. Marsh-mallow. The peeled root 
of A. officinalis^ a plant of the mallow 
family. Consists about one-third of vege- 
table mucus and starch, together with the 
alkaloids Asparagin and Althein. Em- 
ployed as a mucilaginous drink. A. 
Syrupi, contains 4 per cent, althaea. Dose 
indefinite. Asparagin possesses sedative 
and diuretic properties. Useful in ascites 
and gout. Dose gr. ij-iij. 

AKum or AKumen. See Aluminium. 

Alumin'^ium. Al = 27. Quantivalence 11, 
IV. A silver white metal distinguished 
by its low specilc gravity, about 2.6. A. 
Hydrate, A1.^(11O)0, a tasteless white 
powder, feebly astringent. Dose gr. iij- 
XX. A. Sulphate, Al^(S04),, an anti- 
septic and astringent used as a lotion in 
5 per cent, solution. A. Potassium 
Sulphate, KjAl2(S04)4, alum of com- 
merce, a valuable astringent used in ca- 
tarrh, leucorrhoea, gonorrhoea. Dose gr. 
x-xx. In teaspoonfiil doses, an emetic. 
A. Exsiccatum, alum deprived of its 
water of crystallization. Dose g^r. x-xx. 
Used also as an eschamtic. A. Acetate, 

unof. ; a disinfectant. A. Acetotartrate, 
unof. ; a disinfectant. 

Al^um Root. The root of Hcuchera 
americana. Properties due to gallic and 
tannic acids. Very astringent. Dose of 
fld. ext. gtt. x-xx. Unof. 

Alve^olar (alveolt^j a small hollow). Per- 
taining to the alveoli or sockets of the 
teeth. A. Abscess, a gum-boil. A. 
Arch, the alveolar surface of the jaw. A. 
Artery, a branch of the internal maxillary. 
A. Process, the border of the superior 
maxilla in which the alveoli are placed. 

Alveola^rium (alveus, a bee-hive). A 
name sometimes applied to the external 
meatus of the ear. It is so called because 
the wax of the ear gathers in that place. 

Alve^olez. An extractive fix>m Euphorbia 
heteroiloxay having diuretic properties. It 
is highly recommended as a topical appli- 
cation in cancer. Unof. 

Alve^olus, pi. Alveoli. Tlie bony socket 
of a tooth. A. of the Stomach, or the 
alveolar structures, are depressions, like 
honeycomb cells, found in the stomach, 
intestines and oesophagus. A. of the 
Lungs, are the air cells. A. of Glands, 
the ultimate sacs of a racemose gland. 

Al^veus ((ilveusj a trough). A trough, tube 
or canal, applied to ducts and vessels of 
the body. A. Communis, the utricle. 
A. Hippocampi, certain structures in the 
cerebral hemispheres. 

AKvine (alvus, the belly). Pertaining to 
the belly. A. Discharges, the fxces. 

Al'vus. The belly, or its contents. 

Am^adou. German tinder or touchwood, 
a fungus found on old tree-trunks, used to 
stanch local hemorrhage, as a dressing of 
wounds, etc. 

Amal^gam (a//a, together, yafieu^ to wed). 
A combination of mercury with any other 
metal, used for filling teeth. 

Ama^ra (amants, bitter). Bitters. 

Amaranth^us Spino'^sa. Fresh root of 
the shrub used in India as a specific in 
gonorrhoea. Dose indefinite. Unof. 

Ama^rin. A bitter alkaloid, CjjHjgN,, 
derived fix)m b^ter almonds. 

Amas^tia (a, fia(TTog, breast). The condi- 
tion of being without mammce or nipples. 

Amauro^sis (nftavpoo, to darken). A 
term that, from its vagueness, is happily 
becoming disused, signifying partial or 
total loss of vision. When partial, the 
word amblyopia is now used; when com- 
plete, blindness. The word is still some- 
times used to express blindness when the 
cause is unknown or doubtful. 




Ama^zia. See Amasita, 

Am^ber. See Succinum. 

Am^berg^ease, or 

Am^bergris \amber and Fr. griSf gray). 
A substance excreted by the spenn whaie, 
Physeter macrocephalus. It is not known 
whether it is a pathological product or the 
thickened, insoluble part of the faeces. 
Exhales a fragrant, musky odor when 
warmed. Used in adynamic fevers, chronic 
catarrh and nervous diseases. Dose, gr. 
j-iij. Unof. 

Ambidex^trous iambo^ both, dexter^ the 
right hand). Aole to use both hands 
equally well. 

Amblyo^pia (afifiXv^, dulled, unffy eye). 
Subnormal acuteness of vision, due neither 
to dioptric abnormalism nor to visible or- 
ganic lesion. It may be congenital ; or 
from disuse {exanopsid)\ from the use of 
tobacco or alcohol or other toxic influences ; 
from traumatism'., or it may be hysterical. 
Nyctalopia or day-blindness, and hemeral- 
opia or night-blindness, are other forms; 
it may arise from entoptic phenomena^ such 
as muscct volitantes, micropsia, megalopsia, 
metamorphopsia, etc. It may take the form 
of contracted fields of vision, of color- 
blindness, or amssthesia of the retina, 

Amboy^na Button. See Frambocsia, 

Ambulance {ambulo, to walk about). In 
Europe the term is applied to the surgical 
staff and arrangements of an army in 
service. In the U. S. the word is re- 
stricted to a vehicle for the transference 
of the sick or wounded iroia one place 
to another. 

Axnbus^tion (ambustio, a bum). A bum 
or scald. 

Ame^lia (a neg., fiekoq^ a limb). Absence 
of the limbs from arrested development, or 

Am^elus (a priv., fiekoq), A monstrosity 
without limbs. 

Axne^nia. See Amenorrhea. 

Amenoma^nia [amaenus, agreeable, fxavia, 
madness). A mild form of mania in which 
the symptoms are manifested under the 
form of gayety, fondness of dress, exaggera- 
tion of social condition, etc. 

/^menorrhce^a (a priv., firjv^ mouth, ^rw, 
to flow). Absence, irregularity or sup- 
pression of menstruation when it should 
normally be present. The secretion may 
not take place, or be retained, or l)e sup- 
pressed during menstmation. Primitive, 
is a term applied to tliose cases when the 
catamenia have not appeared at the proper 
time, and secondary, when the discharge 

has been arrested after it has existed, and 
during the reproductive period of life. 

Amen^tia (a neg., mens, mind). Defective 
intellect ; a vague term synonymous with 
idiocy, imbecility. 

Amer^ican Colum^bo. The root of Fra- 
sera carolinensis. Tonic, i^rient; in 
large doses, purgative. Dose of the fid. 
ext. TT\^xx-3J. Fraserin, a concentrated 
extract. Dose gr. j-iij. Unof. 

Amer^ican I^vy. The twigs and bark of 
Ampelopsis quinquefolia. Alterative, tonic, 
astringent and expectorant. Dose of the 
fid. ext. TT\^xxx-5J. Ampelopsin, the con- 
centrated ext. Dose gr. ij-iv. Unof. 

Amer^ican Spike^nard. The rhizome of 
Aralia racemosa. Aromatic, diuretic and 
alterative. Used in rheumatism, dropsy 
and scrofulous affections. Dose of the 
decoction, indefinite. Unof. 

Amertume (/r^/zM). A disease of wine, 
characterized by bitterness, and caused by 
a speciBc bacillus. 

Ametrom^eter. An instrument for meas 
uring ametropia by means of the diffusion 
circles formed by two small flames. 

Ametro^pia [a neg., /icr/xw, a measure). 
Ametropia exists when an imperfect image 
is formed upon the retina, due to defective 
refractive power of the media, or to abnor- 
malities of form of the eye. In myopia 
the antero posterior diameter is too great, 
or the power of the refractive media is too 
great ; hypermetropia (or hyperopia") is the 
exact reverse of the last; astigmatism is 
due to imperfect curvature of the comea, 
or of the retina, or to ine({uality of refract- 
ing power in different ports of the lens ; 
presbyopia is due to the growing inelas- 
ticity of the lens, producing ir sufficient 
accommodation ; aphakia, or absence of 
the lens, produces both insufficient refract- 
ing power and loss of accommodation. 

Am^ides. Organic com|X)unds derived 
from ammonia by the substitution of acid- 
radicals for hydrogen. Most nitrogenous 
animal l)ases are amides. NH,, their 
hypothetical radical, is called amidogen. 

Am'^idin (Fr. amidon, starch). Starch in 
a state of solution, or altered by heat into 
a homy, trans})arent mass. 

Am-'ido-my^elin. See Myelin. 

Amid^'ulin. Soluble starch. 

Amim^ia (o, /i///of, a mimic). An aphasic 
symptom consisting in loss of the power ot 
imitation or of pantomime sfx-ech. 

Am^ines. Basic comjwunds, regarded as 
derivatives of ammonia by the .substitution 
of alcohol radicals. They are called mona- 




mines f diamines ^ triaminesy etc.y according 
to the number of amidogen molecules, 
NHj, substituted for H. The lower mem- 
bers are gases, the higher, oily liquids. 

Ammo^nia. See Ammonium, 

Ammoni^acum. Ammoniac. A gum 
resin obtained from a Persian plant, Do- 
rema ammoniacum, A stimulating expec- 
torant and laxative, resembling asafaetida. 
Employed in chronic bronchial affections. 
Dose gr. x-xxx. A. cum Hydrargyro 
Emplastnim, ammoniac 72, mercury 18 
per cent., with sulphur, acetic acid and 
oil, q. s. A. Emplastrum, 100 parts of 
ammoniac, digested with 140 parts of acetic 
acid, dil., strained and evaporated. A. 
Mistura, a 4 per cent, emulsion in water. 
Dose J^ss-j. 

Ammoniae^mia (ammonia and aifiaj 
blood). The theory explaining the pro- 
duction of urxmia as due to a decomposi- 
tion of urea in the blood, yielding ammo- 
nium carbonate. 

Ammo'^niuin (from the name of Jupiter 
Ammon, because first discovered near his 
temple in Libya). A hypothetical alkaline 
base, having the composition NH^. Exists 
only in combination. Occurs most com- 
monly in the form of ammonia ^as^ NHj, 
which, dissolved in water, is the water of 
ammonia of commerce. Inhalation of gas 
causes suffocation and oedema of glottis. 
The salts first stimulate and then paralyze 
the motor nerves. Useful as a stimulant, 
as an antagonist in cardiac depressants, 
and locally in bites and stings of venomous 
reptiles and insects. Ammonia Aqua, 
water of ammonia, a solution containing lo 
per cent, of the gas in water. Dose n\,v- 
^ss, well dilut^. A. Aqua Fortius, 
contains 28 per cent, of the gas in solu- 
tion. A., Aromatic Spt., spirit of ammo- 
nia, with A. carb., A. Aq., Ol. Lemon, 
I >a vender and Pimenta, Alcohol and water. 
Dose ^ss-ij. Ammonii Acetas Liq., 
dilute acetic acid neutralized with ammo- 
nia. Dose 3J-,?j- A. Benzoate. Dose 
gr. v-xv. A. Bromide. Dose gr. x- 
^ ss. A. Carbonate, a mixture of car- 
l)onate and dicarbonate. Dose gr. v-x. A. 
Chloride, sal ammoniac. Dose gr. j-xx. 
A. Chloridum Trochisi, each lozenge 
contaias gr. ij of the salt. A. Glycyrrhi- 
zate. Unof An expectorant. A. Iodide. 
Dose gr. ij-x. A. Liniment, A. Aq. 30, 
cottonseed oil 70 per cent. A. Spt., 
a 10 per cent, solution of aqua ammonia 
in alcohol. Dose TT\^x- 3 j, diluted. The 
following sails and Uieir preparationt are 

ofHcial : A. Nitrate, used only in preparing 
nitrous oxide. A. Phosphate. Dose 
gr. v-xx. A. Sulphate, used only in the 
preparation of other ammonium salts. A. 
Valerianate. Dose gr. j-v. RaspaiVs 
Eau Sedatif (unof), am. aq. ,!5ij, sodium 
chloride 5ij, spt. vini camph. jiij, aq. 
5 xxxij. For local use. 

Amne^sia (a/zv^vm, forgetfulness). Defect 
of memory. Loss of the memory for 

Am^nion (afivtov, the membrane of the 
foetus). The inner membranous layer 
surrounding the foetus and inclosing the 
liquor amnii^ or amniotic fluid. It is a 
double non-vascular membrane, the inner 
layer or sac derived from the epiblast, the 
outer fix)m the mesoblast. The cavity of 
the inner folds is called the true amnion^ 
that of the outer, the false. A., Dropsy 
of the, excessive secretion of liquor 

Amni'^ota. Animals with an amnion and 
allantois, comprising mammals, birds and 
reptiles. Those without an anmion are 
called anamnia. 

Amnioti^tis. Inflammation of the am- 

Amce^ba {auetfio, to change). A color- 
less, single-celled, jelly-like protoplasmic 
organism found in sea and fresh waters, 
constantly undergoing changes of form, 
and nourishing itself by surrounding ob- 
jects. The white corpuscles of the blood 
perform amaboid movementSy i>., changes 
of form, consisting of protrusions and with- 
drawals of its substance. 

Amcenoma^nia (anurnuSy pleasant). A 
symptom of monomania or partial insanity 
in which the feelings and hallucinations 
are mirthful or pleasant. 

Amorph^ous (a neg., tiop^fj, a form). 
Formless, shapeless, non-crystallized. 
Amorphous quinine^ Quinoidine, its salts 
l)eing non-crystallizable. 

Amor^phus (a, ^np(*>T),^. An acardiacus 
without head or extremities. 

Ampere (a French physicist). A.'s Laws, 
relate to the forces l)etween conductors 
carrying electric currents. Avoa^adro's 
hno^ that e«|ual volumes of a gas when 
under the same conditions, contain the 
same numl)er of molecules, is also called 
Ampere's Law. In honor of Ampere, 
the unit of measurement of an electric 
current is called an Ampere. It is the 
electro-motive force of one volt produced 
in a circuit with one ohm of resistance, 
equal to ^ C. G. S. (Centimetre-Gramme- 




Second) electro-magnetic unit It is suffi- 
cient to deposit .3 grain of copper per 
minute on the plate of a copper voltameter, 
or decompose sufficient acidulated water to 
generate 10.32 c.c. of mixed hydrogen and 
oxygen per minute. A. -Hour, the equiva> 
lent of 3600 coulombs. 

Am^phi- (a/i^y both). A Greek prefix, 
signifying abaut^ on both sides y around, etc., 
as amphi-arthrosis, amphibia, etc, 

Amphiarthro^sis (a/i^/, ap^puaic, articu- 
lation). A form of mixed articulation 
in which the siu-faces of the bones are con- 
nected by broad discs of fibro-cartilage, 
or else they are covered with fibrg-car- 
tilage and connected by external liga- 
ments. Distinguished by limited flexion 
in every direction, as, ^.^., between the 

Amphib^ia (afi^i^ pioc, life). A class of 
the Vertebrata, living during their life both 
in the water and upon the land, as the 
frog, newt, etc, 

Axnphi-cre^atine. One of the muscle- 
leucomaines. In its properties it resem- 
bles creatine, and Gautier thinks it may be 
a combination of creatine with the base 

Amphicreat^inine. A member of the 
creatinine group of leucomaines said to 
have toxic qualities. 

Amphidiarthro^sis (a//^/, SiapOpuaig^ an 
articulation). The articulation of the lower 
jaw, as it partakes of the natiu^ both of 
ginglymus and arthrodia. 

Ampho-pep^tone. See Peptones. 

Axnphor^ic [afupopevCt a two-handled ves- 
sel). A. Resonance, in auscultation, a 
metallic sound like that of blowing into a 
bottle, caused by the reverberation of sound 
in a cavity of the lung. 

Amphoter^ic (a/nporepoCy both of two). 
Substances neither acid nor alkaline, as 
glucose, gums, ete. 

Am^plitude \ampiitudOy the extent of a 
thing). The range or extent, as of vibra- 
tions and undulations, the pulse, etc, 

Ampul^la. A Roman wine jug. The 
trumpet-mouthed or dilated extremity of a 
canal, as of the lachrymal canal, the recep- 
taculum chyli, the Fallopian tubes, mam- 
mary ducts, semi-circular canals, vas de- 
ferens, etc. Chemically, the term denotes 
a large-bellied bottle. 

Amputa^tion (amputo, to cut away). The 
removal of a limb or part of the body, by 
the knife, ligature or other means, or as a 
result of gangrene, constriction (^.^., of 
the cofd, in the Ifcetus) or the disease, 

ainhum. It is termed primary, if done 
very soon after an injury; secondary, if 
after the limb has passed through the stage 
of inflammation. In the circular method 
the division is vertical to the plane of 
the limb ; in the cutaneous, the flaps are 
composed exclusively of the integuments; 
in the flap method, the soft parts are cut 
obliquely and are composed of both skin 
and soft parts. Spontaneous amputatitm 
occurs in the foetus, and in ainhum ; sub- 
periosteal is when periosteal flaps are made 
to cover the cut end of the bone. 
Amy^elus (a neg., //vc/of, marrow). A 
foetal monstrosity, with partial or complete 
absence of the spinal cord. 
Amyenceph^alus {e^Kt^a7.ov^ the brain). 
A foetal monstrosity with absence of the 
spinal cord and \ rain. 
Amyg^dala. Almond. The seeds oi A. 
amara and A. dulcis, containing the 
principle Emulsin or Synaptase. The 
former contains Atftygdalin. The ex- 
pressed oil of the sweet almond is a de- 
mulcent useful in skin affections ; in doses 
of 3J-ij, a mild laxative. That of A. 
amara is used in cosmetics and is poison- 
ous internally. A. Amara, Aq., a i : 100 
solution of the oil in water. Dose in- 
definite. A. Amara, Ol., a volatile oil 
bitter to the taste Contains 3-14 per cent, 
of hydrocyanic acid. Dose n\^X~J- ^• 
ExpresBum Ol., oil of sweet almonds. 
A. Mistura, oil of sweet almonds 6 per 
cent., sugar, water, and acacia q. s. Dose 
iJJ^Sss. A. Syr., contains oil of litter 
almonds 3, sweet almonds 10, syrup 87 per 

Amyg^dalse. A term used to denote the 
Amyg^'dalin. See Amygdala. 
Am^ykos. An antiseptic fluid used in 
Russia and Sweden, composed of boric 
acid' and thymol. Of reputed ser\'ice in 
gonorrhoea and catarrhs. Unof. 
Am^yl. The hjrpothetical radical CjIIi, of 
amyl alcohol, the fiflh term of the series 
of alcohol radicals, CoH^n-i-i. A. Alco- 
hol. See A my lie Ala hoi. A. Nitrite, 
nitrite of amyl, C\H„N(>,, a clear, yel- 
lowish liquid, ethereal, aromatic, volatile ; 
produces vascular dilatation and great car- 
diac activity, and hence is useful in angina 
pectoris, respiratory neuroses, etc. 
Amyla^ceous {amylum, starch). Con- 
taining starch ; starch-like. 
Am Xylene. C^Hjq. A transparent, liquid 
hydrocarbon, having ancx?sthctic properties, 
but dangerous to use. A. Hydrate, a 


tertiary alcohol having hypnotic effects. 
Dose ?T\^xxx-3J. Unof. 

Am^yl Hydrate, or 

AmyKic Alcohol. Fusel Oil. Potato 
Starch Alcohol. Amyl Hydrate. An al- 
cohol having the composition C^H^fi. 
Occurring in the continued distillation of 
fermented grain. The pure substance has 
considerable value as a hypnotic. In large 
doses it suppresses tactile sensibility, and 
produces motor paralysis. It is employed 
with advantage in mental disorders. Dose 
TT\^ 15-75- Unof. It was formerly much 
used to adulterate whiskey. 

Am^yloid {amy/um, starch, e/<5of, form). 
Starchlike. A. Bodies, pathological pro- 
ducts resembling starch grains found in 
the membranes of the brain and other 
nervous tissues, the prostate, etc. A. De- 
generation, waxy, fatty or lardaceous de- 
generation ; a disease occurring in most of 
the organs of the body, and indicative of im- 
paired nutritive function. It is a nitrogenous, 
not starchy body, of uncertain composition. 

Amylolyfic iamylum^ ^ttj, to loosen). 
Pertaining to ferments, like the saliva and 
pancreatic juice, that convert starch into 

Amylop^sin. 55ce Ferments. 

Amylo^ses. One of the divisions of the 
carbohydrates, comprising starch, glycogen, 
dextrin, inulin, gum, cellulose and tunicin. 

Amy^lum. Starch, CjH,^0 5. The internal 
cells of Triticum vulganSy common wheat, 
all other cereals and many tul)ers, piths, 
and roots, such as potato, cassava, rtc. ; 
constitutes nearly the whole of arrow-root, 
tapioca, and sago. Converted into glu- 
cose by l)oiling with mineral acids. The 
most valuable nutrient. Inert medicinally. 
A. Glyceritum, a jelly for external ap- 
plication. Starch 10, glycerine 90 per 
cent. A. lodatum, contains starch 95, 
iodine 5 per cent., triturated with rose 
water and drie^l. Dose 3J-5SS. 

Amyosthe^nia (a neg., /ivf, muscle, 
cT^fi'Of, force). Deficient muscular power 
without obviriijs disease or lesion. 

Amyosthcn^ic. Pertaining to amyosthe- 
nia. Also, a medicine or agent depressing 
muscular action. 

Amyotropb/ic (a, /itf, rpoCtri^ nutrition). 
Muscular atrophy. A. Paralysis, that 
which is due to muscular atrophy. 

Axn^yous (a, without, //t«f). Weak ; 
deficient in muscle or muscular strength. 

Ana iava). A Greek preposition signify- 
ing tnrought up^ again^ etc. In [^Tscrip- 
tions contracted to Aft, meaning of each. 


»i^osis (ara, )3<ou to come to life again^. 
phenomenon 01 a restoration of vi- 


The phenomem 
tality possessed by certain organisms after 
drying, or even after heating to 140° C. 

Anab^olism [avaficuy.u^ to throw or build 
up). Synthethic or constructive metabol- 
ism. Diminished activity and repair of 
function. Opposed to Katabolism. The 
process by which simpler elements are 
built up into more complex. See Aleta- 

Anacar^dium. The oil of the pericarp of 
the cashew nut. Of reputed value in 
leprosy. Unof. 

Anac^rotism {avoKfKirrtu^ to lift up and 
strike together). A peculiarity of the 
pulse-curve, wnen a series of closely- 
placed elastic vibrations occur in the upper 
part of the line of ascent, so that the apex 
ap^ars dentate and forms an angle with 
the line of descent. It takes place in 
dilatation and hypertrophy of the left ven- 
tricle, when extensibility of the arterial 
wall is diminished, in great diminution in 
the velocity of the blood-stream, afler lig- 
ature of an artery, etc. 

Anadicrot^ic {pva^ upward, rf/f, twice, 
KpoTor^ a stroke). Dicrotism of the venous 
pulse- wave occurring in the upward stroke. 

Anae^mia {av neg., atfjOj blood). Defi- 
ciency of blood, or deficiency of the rela- 
tive niunbcr of its red corpuscles, the latter 
being the most generally understood mean- 
ing and use of the term. Idiopathic^ per- 
nicious., essentialy progressive^ malignant^ 
etc., are terms denoting a type resisting all 
treatment and of fatal prognosis. 

Anae^mic (av, aL\La). Pertaining to anaemia. 
A. Murmur, blood murmur, or soft mur- 
mur heard at the base of the heart over the 
great vessels. 

Anaemot^rophy (av priv., m/ic, r/x)^, 
nourishment). A deficiency of blood 

Anaero^bia (a neg., ar}p, air, /?/of, life). 
The quality of living without oxygen. A. 
Facultative, normally or asually living 
in the presence of oxygen, but under cer- 
tain circumstances acquiring anaerobia. 

Anaero^bic. A term used of microorgan- 
isms, leucomaines, ptomaines, etc., that 
are produced or that live in the absence 
of oxygen (or air). 

Ansesthc'sia (avatoBijaia, want of feeling). 
A condition of insensibility or loss of feel- 
ing due to pathological conditions of the 
centres, conducting paths of the nerves, or 
the peripheral terminations of the same, or 
to artificial production by means of ansesthe- 




dcs. A., Bulbar or Central, due to 
central disease. A. Dolorosa, loss of 
touch but preservation of pain in the part. 
A., Local, of a limited part of the body. 
A., Muscular, loss of muscular sense. 
A., Peripheral, depending upon condi- 
tions of the end-organs of the nerves. A., 
Surgical, by means of anaesthetics for the 
purpose of preventing pain, producing re- 
laxation of muscles, or for diagnostic pur- 

Anaesthesim^eter. An instrument to mea- 
sure the amount of an anaesthetic adminis- 
tered in a given time. 

Ansesthet^ic (a privative, aioBavofxai^ to 
feel). A substance which produces insen- 
sibility to feeling or to acute pain, dimin- 
ished muscular action, and other phe- 
nomena. May be local, general, partial 
and complete, llie following are the sub- 
stances most commonly used : Carbon 
Tetrachloride^ not so irritating to organs of 
respiration, but far more dangerous than 
chloroform. Chloral Hydrate^ action indi- 
rect and incomplete. Rarely, if ever, used. 
Chloroform^ by inhalation. Largely em- 
ployed in general surgery. Fatal 1 : 3000 
in 500 cases. Death by cardiac paraly- 
sis. Cocaine. Ix>cal, and of short dura- 
tion. Used mainly in eye, throat, and 
mucous tissues. ^M/r, by inhalation. Fre- 
quently causes spasmodic action and sus- 
pension of respiratory action. Twenty 
cases (l : 16,000) of death reported from 
its use. Ethylene Chloride^ chlorinated 
muriatic ether; closely resembles chloro- 
form, but less of a cardiac depressant. 
Safer than chloroform, and recovery ftx)m 
the effects prompt. Ethylene Dichloride, 
Dutch liquid; chloric ether. Rapid and 
powerful in its effects. Paralyses respira- 
tory centers. Nitrous Oxide^ by inhala- 
tion, much used by dentists for extraction 
of teeth. Symptoms resemble those of as- 
phyxia. A., Local, an anaesthetic which, 
locally applied, produces absence of sensa- 
tion in the organ treated. Methylene Di- 
chloride. Not much used. Several deaths 
(cardiac paralysis) having occurred from 
its employment. A. Mixtures, those for 
producing anxesthesia. The following are 
considered among the best : A^usshaum" s — 
ether 3, chloroform I, alcohol I ; Vienna 
Gen. Hospital — ether 9, chloroform 30, 
alcohol 9; ^^ Vienna Mixture'' — ether 3, 
chloroform I ; Medico-Chimrgical Soc. of 
London— fUtitx^ 3, chloroform 2, alcohol I. 

Anagal'^lis Arven^sis. Pimpernel. An 
herb having some local reputation on the 

Pacific coast as a remedy for rheumatism. 

Anaku^sis (av, aicixxj, to hear). Nervous 

A'^nal [anusy the fundament). Pertaining 
to the anus. 

Analep^tic (avaP.vV"C> recovery). Agents 
restoring strength after illness, as nourish- 
ing foods and tonics. 

Analge^sia (av, without, d^yogj pain). In- 
sensibility to or absence of pain. 

Analge^sic. A remedy which relieves pain 
either by depressant action on the nerve- 
centres or by impairing the conductivity of 
nerve fibres. 

Analgia. Paralysis of the sense of pain. 

Anal^ogous (awx/.o^of, conformable). Con- 
forming to, proportionate, answering to. 
See, also. Analogue. A. Tissues, mor- 
bid tissues similar to the elementary and 
normal tissues of the body. 

An^alogue. A part or organ having the 
same function as another, but with a differ- 
ence of structure, llie correlative term 
honiologue^ denotes identity of structure 
with difference of function. The wing of 
the butterfly and that of the bird are analo- 
gous, but the wing of a bird and the arm 
of a man are homologous. 

Analysis [cLVcikvui, I unloose). The reso- 
lution of compound bodies mto simpler, 
or constituents. A., Gasometric, the de- 
termination of the constituents of gaseous 
compounds, especially the determination of 
the amount of oxygen in samples of atmo- 
spheric air. A., Gravimetric, the quan- 
titative determination by weight of the 
elements of a body. A., Organic, the 
determination of the elements of matter 
formed under the influence of life. The 
analysis of animal and vegetable tissues. 
A., Proximate, the determination of the 
simpler compound elements into which a 
substance may be resolved. A., Qualita- 
tive, the determination of the nature and 
number of elements which compose a l)ody 
A., Quantitative, the determination of 
the proportionate parts of the various ele- 
ments of a compound. A., Ultimate, 
the resolution of a compound, not into 
its simpler constituents, but its ultimate 
elements. A., Volumetric, the quan- 
titative determination of a constituent 
by ascertaining the volume of a liquid 
which is required to complete a given 

Anamnes^tic (ai'o, again, fti'r^ir^ memory). 
Recalling to mind ; rememl)ering. 

Anam^nia. See Amniota. 




Anapeirat^ic [avaKeipaomu^ to do again). 
A general term for such affections as 
writers' and telegraphers' cramp, or pa 

Anaphrodis^iac (av, cu^podtrrj^ Venus). An 
agent which allays sexual passion. 

An^aplasty {avaTr/MoaUj to form again). 
Operation for the renewal or restoration of 
lost parts, commonly called "grafting,'* or 
a **//£W//> operation.^'' 

Anap^nograph {avaTtvort^ respiraticxi, 
ypa^, to write). Ar apparatus register- 
ing the movements oi inspiration and ex- 
piration, together with the quantity of air 

Anar^thria (avapdput^ want of vigor). Par- 
tial aphasia from partial destruction of the 
paths of the motor tracts of speech. 

Anasar^ca iava^ through, aap^, the flesh). 
An accumulation of serum in the areolar 
tissues of the body. General dropsy. If 
the affection be local it is called cedema, 

Anaspa^dias {^va^ upward, ar^aa^ to draw). 
An urethral opening upon the upper sur- 
face of the penis. 

Anastomo^sis [av(uno^oQ^ to bring to a 
mouth). The junction or intercommuni- 
cation of vessels. Anastomotic arteries 
of the thigh, etc., branches of the brachial, 
femoral, etc., whereby the coiiateraJ circu- 
lation is established after ligature for 
aneurysm, etc. The term has been in- 
accurately used of the junction of nerve- 

Anat^omy {avarefivu^ to cut up). The 
dissection of oi^anic bodies in order to 
study their structure, the situations and 
uses of their organs, etc. A., Compara- 
tive, the investigation and compKuison of 
the anatomy of different orders of animals 
or of plants, one with another. A., Mor- 
bid or Pathological, is a study of dis- 
eased structures. A., Regional, a study 
of limited parts or regions of the Ixxiy, the 
divisions of which are collectively or |)ecu- 
liarly affected by disease, injury, operations, 

Anazotu^ria (an negative, azotum, nitro- 
gen, uria, the urine). A name applied 
to that form of chronic diuresis in which 
urea is deficient or al>sent from the urine. 

Anchie^ta Saluta^ris. Vegetable mercury. 
The root of a violaceous plant growing in 
Bra/il. Highly recommended as an altera- 
tive in syphilitic affections. Possibly iden- 
tical with Afanara, q. v. 

An'^chilops. See Anchyhps. 

Anchyloglos^sia. See Tonipte-tie. 

An'^chylops {avxi, near, u^, eye). Abscess 

at the inner angle of the ejre, prior to 

Anchylo^sis. See Ankylosis. 

Anchylostomi^asis (ayxvAoc, curved, 
ffTOfia, mouth). A peculiar anaemia pro- 
duced by the parasite Dochmius Duode- 
nalis sucking the blood from the walls of 
the duodenum. Especially prevalent among 
brickmakers and other workmen in Europe. 
Called also Brickmakers' Ansemia, Tunnel 
Anaemia, Miners' Cachexia, Egyptian Chlo- 
rosis, Tropical Chlorosis, etc. Male fern 
and thymol expel the worm. 

Anchylosto^mum. A worm found in the 
human intestine. The duodenal variety 
is common in Italy and Egypt. See Anchy- 

An^con (aynuv, the elbow). Originally the 
olecranon process; a[^lied to the elbow 

Anco^nad. Toward the olecranon or 

Ancona^gra. Arthritic pain at the elbow 

Anco^nal. Pertaining to the elbow. 

Ancone^us. A small muscle, an extensor 
of the forearm, inserted into the olecranon. 

Anco'^noid. Resembling the elbow. 

Ancyloglos^sum. See Tongue-tie. 

An^da Assu. The oil expressed from the 
seed of a plant found in Chili. Laxative. 

Andrce^cium [avr/p, a man, otKia^ a house). 
Male spores taken collectively. 

Androg^yna (aw/p, man, ywrj, woman). 
An hermaphrodite ; a female in whom the 
genital organs are similar to those of the 

Androg^ynus. A male with genital or- 
gans similar to those of the female. 

An'^dnim. A form of elephantiasis Arabum, 
characterized by oedema of the scrotum. 

Anelectrot^onus (av neg., T/?.£Krpov, elec- 
tricity, Tovo^, tension). The condition of 
diminished excitability at the positive pole 
when a nerve is traversed by a current of 
electricity. See Electrotonus and Catelec* 

Anemia. See Amentia. 

Anemom''etry (are/zof, wind, fierpov, to 
measure). The art of measuring the ve 
locity and direction of the wind, princi- 
pally by means of the anemometer. 

Anem^onin. The active principle (C,j- 
HjjOg) of the anemone. See Pulsatilla. 

Anenceph^alus (av, without, n'/cf^a^, 
brain). A monster with a rudimentary or 
brainless head, and with an arrest of de- 
velopment of the vertebral column, the 
spinal cord being absent. 




An^eroid Barom^eter. See Barometer. 

Anerythrop^sia (ov neg., epvOpo^^ red, 
orftig^ sight) . Subnormal color perception of 
red. See Blindness. 

An^eurysm (avtvpiKifiay an aneurysm). A 
tumor consisting of a dilated artery or com- 
municating with an artery. In the early 
stages there is expansive pulsation of the 
tumor, and a systolic murmur. In the later 
stages the laminated coagulum increases, 
so that pulsation may be absent, and there 
may be secondary troubles from pressure 
upon adjacent organs. It may be caused 
by the rupture, wound, disease or weakness 
of the arterial walls. Cardiac dilation is 
sometimes spoken of as aneurysm of the 
heart. A., Cirsoid. See Farix, Arterial. 
A., Diffused, follows rupture of all the 
arterial coats with infiltration of surround- 
ing tissues. A., Dissecting, when the 
blood forces its way between the media 
and adventitia. A., False, or spurious, 
indicates a rupture of one or more coats ; 
true, when there is only a dilatation. A., 
Varicose, opens both into a vein and an 

Anfractuos^ity (anfractusy a bending 
round). The furrows or sulci between the 
cerebral convolutions. 

Angeiec^tasis (avyeuiv^ a blood vessel, 
tKToai^j dilatation). Abnormal dilatation 
of a vessel, as in aneurysm, etc. 

Angeioglio^ma (avyeiav^ y/ia, glue, ona). 
A gliomatous vascular tumor of the spinal 

Angei^ograph (ai7'e«w, ypa^y to write). 
A form of sphygmc^^raph invented b^ 

Angeioleuci^tis (avyeiov, a vessel, Afvxof, 
white, iTt^). Inflammation of the lym- 
l^atic vessels. 

Angeiol^ogy {avyeiov, ?^>'of, account). 
A description of the blood-vessels and 

Angeiolympho^ma. A tumor formed of 
lymphatic vessels. 

Angeio^ma. A tumor formed of blood 
vessels. Called also Erectile or Vascular 
Tumor. Cavernous A., with commu- 
nicating alveolar spaces. See Varixy 
Cirsoid. Capillary and venous angeio- 
mata are called Ntn>iy or Mothers' Marks. 

Angeioneuro^sis. A neurosis of the 
blood vessels ; a disturt)ance of the vaso- 
motor system, — a symptom of many dis- 

AngeioparaKysis. Vasomotor |)aralysis. 
Angeiosarco^ina. A vascular sarcoma of 
the ^nal cord. 

An^geiospasm. A convulsive neurosis of 
the blood vessels ; a vasomotor spasm. 

Angel^ica. The seeds and root of Arch- 
angelica officinalis and other species. An 
aromatic stimulant and emmenagogue. 
Dose of the fld. ext. : Seeds ?T\^v--x ; root 
3 ss-j. Unof. 

Angi^na (ango, to strangle). A sense of 
choking or suffocation ; a symptom of in- 
flammatory affections of the pharynx. A. 
Acuta or Simplex, simple sore throat. 
A. Parotidea, mumps, or parotitis. A. 
Pectoris, a paroxysmal neurosis with in- 
tense pain and oppression about the heart. 
The exact cause is unknown. A. Ton- 
sillans, quinsy. 

An^gio-. See Angeio-. 

Angioder^ma Pig^ento^sum. See At- 

Angiograph. See Angeiograph. 

An^gio-myo^ma. See Myoma. 

Angle (angulus). The degree of diverg- 
ence of two lines that meet each other ; 
the space between two such lines. A., 
Alpha, the angle formed by the intersec- 
tion of the visual line and optic axis. 
Cephalic angles, measurements for com- 
paring the skulls of different races. A., 
Facial, that formed by a hori7ontal line 
from the external auditory meatus to the 
alveolar lx)rder of the upper jaw, with 
another from the most prominent part of 
the forehead to the edge of the alveolar • 
border of the upper jaw opposite the in- 
cisor teeth. A. of Incidence and of Re- 
flection (of light or sound), that between 
the incident and the reflected ray respec- 
tively, and the perpendicular to the reflect- 
ing surface. A. of Refraction, that 
made by a ray of light in passing through 
a transparent substance with a line at right 
angles to it. A., Visual, that between 
lines drawn from the extremities of an 
object to the nodal |x>int. The smallest is 
al)out 30 .seconds. 

Ang^licus Su^dor. Sweating 
Fever. A contagious malignant fever, also 
known as Plphemcra maligna^ character- 
ized by t)lack or dark -colored sweat, 

An^gor {angor, a strangling). Synon)Tnous 
with Angina. Applied by .some to epi- 
gastric pain. 

AnguiPlidae (anguilla, an eel). Tlie small 
nematoid worms that live in vinegar and 

sour i»ste. 

An^gular {angulus^ an angle). Pertaining 
to an angle. A. Artery and Vein, the 

terminal branches of the facial artery and 
vein. A. Gyrus or Convolution, the 


~ L the <ni^r:au aad ansersal a- 

tp*3ura» <;t the rx^.aju amii cc the BTKCal 
Angolans Scapolz Msaelc Tse L^- 

Afl^iuta'ra. T^e --ori of CsJfej rms- 
faria. A tfrmn^anf v^cic axhd ftecrifag^ 
Ia Istf;«|^ 'iom *mrrU: Ixfie cc fid. 
ir^3t-xix. L'tvx. 

Anhalor^aiasn Lewin'tL The 
princi^ of the <actx» of Cis 

ninif: in Ktica. L'sfld 
Anbela^tioo -rx^Jj, to pAsc 

Anhidro^sis cv ae;^., ^>xr. sveati. Ab- 
3tnr^ fx 4er>3etic7 o£ sv?ac 
Anhidrodc An ag^tic tint checks 

Anhydrar^mia. The opccsste di hjiinev 

mia, or an ar.or;nnaI decr^a^sr: ia the reis- 

a^*: prorxiTtkA of the water aad aalts of 

the r/iryyL 
Anby'diide ^ av, r^oM), vaser ;. In cfaem- 

atfry, any o^vie, dther tAaic or acid, im- 

crxnfiineri with warer. 
Anhy^droas <Vzr, witboor, tAuo\. In 

chemi-tfrv, a term iL-ied to denote the 

tif'^rnrji fA hydnxjl or of oooatitndooal 

Ani^daos fav ne^., *w?or, formi. Foetal 

mf^ttfT\f innrdesr*, fmn general arrest of 

Anidro/sis. See AnAidrcrji:. 

An^iline 'P^<t. anil, indigo). A thin, 
CfA<ifr\t:\^ lyftjyl al^I^jid, bavin^r the stmc- 
torft ^!gH-\, dfr.v*A from coal -tar. Com- 
Ur«^d wjfh f-hloriwr, the cbkcates and 
hv;x/f.hWjriffr*i^ the vaiVALt aniline dvcs are 
(jrr/lured. I'oL<«ooou.9. L'nof. A.* Red. 
^jt-f Furh'An. 

An^ilism. An acute or chronic 
t^fAtirjtA in workrwirn in aniline factories, 
t/y fbft fX/t-^^nr>u« fumes. 

An^imal (anima^ the spirit, breath or life). 
An (^'j^znic Iff/m'^ having life and power of 
mr/ir/n. Pertaining to the same. The ani- 
mal kingd/^m is compr>sed of the VerUbratn^ 
Af'jlluira, Artirulata and Radiata. A. 
Charcoal, lif/nc-bUck, ivory-black, etc., 
\\ »be \mAwX of calcining bones in close 
vri'-z-U. A. Chemistry, that concerning 
ftvrlf with the c/wnjio>ition of animal Ijodies. 
A. Mac^netism, metmeri^m, hypnotism, 
ele. A. Starch. S«:e Glycogen. 

Animalcule (dim. of animal). An or- 
paiwm fo small zs to re^juire the micra- 
scope for its examination. 

32i3ne «kx 

ATTrmaiSiai^taott tscytAt. v. imnrgce . v 
prmr^cf awnmrarag ix:ii ^ 

Anzzsal ta'sce. A jisKa 
any ci !3e w^s> w^iiiii i:cai 'ife 
Tm**;rj i 'i a m ru e a 'rt rie body. T. 
cr RctiSocnz. a TKXST ct Of: 

or ar^ciar r?riiae ooibC-taUB^ a ve- 

acr ssrr sffp^nniis. T.. Areolar, 

CeXhiIar '^r Coozscctrre:. x riscae of e&iiH^- 

cf ±e boiy x^ieiKT. T..CaztxIa^- 
See c^rrn.-:^-?. T-. Erectile, assoe 
of a ipmizj Tttirgr*, wSa-ri 2? eipaaiea 
woec air^*i w^di i:u:oi or cci&er fcati. T^ 
FibrtOQS, tbe aaes ic raacfg? dsKsce ocvexo^ 
lite booes and t-arrjge. T.. GeLadaoas, 
or Mucoid, a idrni of Usaae ircnd chiedr 
■idie»xnB&. T^ Mizscular. >tt Ms^^U. 
T^Ncrroas. S«eA>rrr. T^Osscoos. 

Anima'tian {jjtcjmsrr^ to have Lie cr ex- 
isteoce!. Tobepcfisessedcc li^f. FonacrlT 
•acd U) denote :be eoetitof :he vi£al priodpie 
by wiuch the f jetas ao:;tx:res the power of 
conrjiaimg its txjsttxkx. A., Saspendcd, 
a ooodkioo marked by cztf errupced lespira- 
tkn and a](i?oc?a7oess; caased by stnngn- 
latkn, the rnhaiaiion of carboo dao\i>V or 
other gases, etc. 

An'ioQ i<no, op, ei:ii^ to go\ A word 
employed in eIectrolT<>*s to designate an 
electro-negaiive element. See /jtt. 

Anirid'ia \ai' neg., /t.). AKence or de- 
fect of the iris. 

Anischu'ria ■. :n neg., i.i-kur:\j). \ word 
s<Hnetinies asfd to denote enuresis or in- 
continence of mine. 

Anisoco^ria. See /-i^.vrrj. 

Anisometrop'ia ic; neg., (OOf, equal, 
furpf/i', a measure. «.»i\ the eyeV A dufer- 
ence in the refraction of the two e>-es. 

Aniaot^ropous \aiiC'yr, unequal, r.vTu, to 
tumi. Pertaining to the power of doubly 
refracting a ray of light, like Iceland spar. 

An^isum. Anise. The fruit of Anisum 
pimpimlia. Properties due to a volatile 
oil. Slightly stimulant to heart action. 
Useful chierty to liquety bronchial secre- 
tions, and is therefore a favorite ingredient 
in cough mixtures. Dose, gr. x-xx. A. 
Aqua, oil of anise I, water 500 parti. 
Dose indetinite. A. Oleum, an ingre- 
dient in tinct. c^ii camph. Dose n\j-v. 
A. Spt., a 10 per cent, solution of the oil 
in alcohol. 

An^le. The joint between the tibia axxl 
fibula above and on the sides, and the 




astragalus. It is a ginglymus joint, with 
three ligaments, the anterior, internal and 
external. A. Clonus, ** foot-clonus," 
"foot-phenomenon," a clonic series of 
spasmodic contractions elicited by putting 
the extensors of the ankle joint on a con- 
tinuous stretch. They are uniform and 
number from six to nine contractions per 

Ankylobleph^aron (ayKv?.rf, a thong or 
loop, pTx^pov, eyelid). The adhesion of 
the ciliary edges of the eyelids. 

Ankyloglos^sia. See Ton^ue-tU. 

Anl^lo'^sis (ayicvXo^, curved). Union of 
the bones, forming a joint resulting in a 
stiff-joint. A., False, or Spurious, is 
due to the rigidity of surrounding parts. 
A., True, or Bony, when the connecting 
material is bone. A., Ligamentous, when 
the medium is fibrous. 

Ankylos'^tomum (aj/crAof, arofia^ mouth). 
A nematoid worm inhabiting the duodenum 
of man. 

Anky lo^tia (ayicvTuo^^ ovf , oroq^ ear) . Union 
of the walls of the meatus auditorius. 

Annat^to. See Annotto. 

Annot^to. Annatto, amotto. A coloring 
matter obtained from the pellicles of the 
seeds of Bixa orellana. Used to color 
plasters. Also employed as an artificial 
color for butter. 

An^nual [annus ^ a year). Yearly. In 
botany, plants that mature and die in one 

An^nular (annulus, a ring). Ringlike. 
A number of ligaments of the joints are 
called annular, as those of the ankle, wrist, 
etc. A. Muscle of MUller, the circular 
fibres of the ciliary muscle. A. Carti- 
lage, the cricoid cartilage. A. Process, 
or Protuberance, the pons varolii. 

An^nulus (dim. of annus ^ a ring). A 
ring-shaped or circular opening. A cir- 
cular or rounded margin. A. Abdomi- 
nalis, the external and internal abdominal 
rings. A. Abdominis, the inguinal ring. 
A. Fibrosus, the external part of the 
intervertebral discs. A. Membrani 
Tjonpani, an incomplete bony ring which 
forms the foetal auditory process of the 
temporal bone. A. Ovalis, the rounded 
or oval margin of the foramen ovalis. A. 
Umbilicus, the umbilical ring. 

An^ode (ai'a, up, o(5of,' a way). The posi- 
tive pole of a galvanic battery. 

Ao^odyne (av, odwrj^ a pain). A medicine 
that gives relief from pain. From their 
tendency to produce sleep they are called 
hypnotics. A., Hoffman's. See Ether, 

Anom^alous (avcj/zaAof, not equal). Ir- 
regular, deviation from the common order. 
A monster is an anomaly, 

Anonych^ia (av neg., ow^, nail). Ab- 
sence or defect of the nails of the fingers 
or toes. 

Anophthal^mos (ov, o^oAfioc, eye). 
G>ngenital absence of the eyes. 

Anops^ia (av neg., o^ic, vision). Disuse 
of the eye, not fix)m retinal or cerebral 
disease, but because of defects of the 
media, strabismus, errors of refraction, etc. 
A. Amblyopia, ex-, amblyopia from 

Anor^chus (av neg., opxtCt the testicle). 
A person in whom the testicles are absent 
or not descended. The adj. is anorchous, 
the condition, anarchism. 

Anorex^ia (av neg., ope^tc, appetite). Ab- 
sence or diminution of appetite. 

Anos^mia (av neg., oajurf^ smell). Partial 
or complete loss of the sense of smell. 

Anosto^sis (av neg., ocrreov, bone). De- 
fective development of boiie. 

Anoves^ical. Pertaining conjointly to the 
anus and bladder. 

Ant-, Anti- (avTi, against). Prefixes tc 
compound words signifying opposed to, 
against, counteracting, etc. 

Antac^id (avriy acidusy acid). A substance 
counteracting or neutralizing acidity; an 

Antag^onist {nvraywioTEq^ counteracting). 
A term applied to drugs that neutralize the 
therapeutic effects of one another. In 
anatomy, mvscles that act in opposition to 
each other. Applied also to diseases that 
seem to exclude each other. See Drug. 

Antal^gic [avrt^ a?,yo^y pain). Remedies 
relieving pain. 

Antal^kaline. An agent neutralizing alka- 
lies, as acids. 

Antaphrodis^iac (avn, aippo6i(na, sexual 
desire). Agents lessening the venereal 

Antarthrit^ic (avri^ apHpiri^y the gout) 
Medicines for the relief of gout. 

Antasthmat^ic [avri, aaff/na, short breath). 
Remedies for the relief of asthma. 

Anteflex^ion (an/e^ before, yf^r/^, to bend). 
A bending forward. A. of Uterus, a con- 
dition in which the fundus sinks between 
the cer\'ix and the neck of the bladder. 

Anten'^nae {antenna, a yard-arm). The 
paired feeler-like appendages of certain 

An-'te Part^um (I^t.). Before delivery. 

Antever^sion (afttCy verto, to turn). A 
turning forward. A. of Uterus, the fun* 




dus is beat toward the sjrmphysis pubis, 
the cenrix toward the sacrum. 
Anthelmin^tic (aiTi, against, r/utv^), a 
worm. A vermicide. An agent either kill- 
ing or rendering powerless intestinal para- 
sites ; a %*ermifu^e expels worms. 
An^themis. Chamomile. The flower- 
heads of A, mobilis. IVoperties due to 
a volatile oil, a camphor and a bitter 
principle. Useful in coughs and spas- 
modic infantile complaints. An excellent 
stomachic tonic. Infusion of J iv to C)j, 
given in doses of 5 J~U- ^*^ ofticial prepa- 
rations. A. OL, the volatile oil of chamo- 
mile. I>ose, T!\^ij-x, in sugar. 
Another (av(^J7^»f, in full bloom). The male 
sexual organ in plants ; the summit and 
essential part of the stamen. It contains 
the pollen or fecundating substance of the 
An^thony's Fire, St. A popular name 

fw Erysipelas. 
Anthracno^sis. Black rot, a fungus dis- 
ease of vines, caused by the Phi ma uvi- 
cola, or Spkacfloma ampelium. 
Anthracom^etry (ai<^/xi^, carbon, firrpov^ 
measure). The determination of the 
amount of carbon dioxide in air. 
Anthraco^sis (az^pof, carbon). CarUm- 
cular disease. An affection of the lungs 
in miners from the inhalation of coal-dust. 
Anthraro'bin, A derivative oi alizarine, 
similar to chrysarobin. A soluble alkaloid 
useful in psoriasis. Unof. 
Anthrax {ai^pa^, a coal or carbuncle). A 
carbuncle; a painful, dark -colored tumor 
of the cellular tissue, ending in mortifica- 
tion of the part and the discharge of a 
foetid, bloody pus. The b^niptant variety 
has no filial consequences. The malig- 
nant, called also malignant pustule, is 
caused by the infection fmn animals suffer- 
ing fix>m splenic apoplexy, and is due to a 
specific bacillus, which, from a single cen- 
ter, may extend over the body and invade 
the intestinal tract, producing in this way, 
or by direct infection of diseased meat, the 
intestinal type of the disease. See Bacillus 
Anthropog^eny (at^ptrrof, man, ')tvvau, 
to produce). The study or science of the 
descent of man. 

Anthropog^raphy (ai^f>uToc, ipa^cif, to 
write ). .\ treati:>e unon the human struc- 
ture or organism. 

An^'thropoid {ai-Opurror, f'<Jof, form). Re- 
sembling man. 
Anthropol^ogy (ai^purroc, ^oyoc, dis- 
ooursc). The science of the nature, physi- 

cal and (isychological, of man and of man- 

Anthropom^etry {ai'^fpurroc, firrpov, a 

measure). The determination of the 

measurement, weight, strength and pco- 

portions of the human body. 

Anthropoph^agy \ai^pLtpo^y^a}(n',Xoeai), 

Anthropopho^ia (oi^/Xi^rof, 6o.3o^^ fear). 
A symptom of mental disease consisting in 
fear o( societv. 

Anti- (sometimes contracted to ant-) (ovri, 
against). A pretix of compound words sig- 
nifying counteraction, opposition, ete. 

Anti-al^bumin. Accoiding to Kilhne, one 
of the preformed substances existing in the 
proteid molecule. The other he calls 
hemi-albumin. Gastric juice first con- 
verts them into anti-albumose and 
hemi-albumose, and these finally into 
anti-peptone and hemi-peptone. 

Anti-albumose. See Anti-albumin. 

Antia'rin (Javanese, antiar or antschar). 
The active principle, Cj^H^Oj -j- 2H,0, 
ci Antiarii toxicaria or L'pas antiar, the 
Javanese poison-tree. It is used as an 
arrow -poison, and is intensely poisonous. 

Antiarthrit^ic (aiT/, ap^pirtq, the gout',. 
A remedy again<t gout. 

Antibra'^chium {anti and brachium, the 
arm). The forearm. 

Antibro'mic r.i^)uj/««c, a stenchV A drug 
that destra\-s offensive smells. A deodorizer. 

Antic'ipating \anticipo, to take before). 
Ajiplied to the occurrence of periodical phe- 
nomena in disease or health, l^fore their 
customary time, as in intermittent fever or 
the catamenia. 

Anti^cus (<7////Vx/.c, that in front). Anterioc. 
in front of. 

An^tidote (a»T/A>rof, from avrt, against, 
dtdijiu, to give). An agent preventing or 
counteracting the action of a poison. A., 
Chemical, changes the chemical nature 
o( the poison so that it l>ecomes insoluble 
or harmless. A., Mechanical, prevents 
absorption by holding the poison in 
mechanical suspension or by coating the 
stomach. A., Physiological, supiplies its 
own peculiar and neutralising effect upon 
the s)-stem. The official A., Arsenical, 
of the German I'harmacopeia is prepared 
by dissolving loo parts of the hydrated 
sulphate of iron ifi 250 parts of water, to 
which add (without heat) 15 parts of burnt 
magnesia and 250 parts of water. A., 
Universal, a mixture of one part of dis- 
solved iron sulphate in two parts of mogae* 
sia water. See £>n^. 




Anti-emet^ic root. See Adnu. 

An^ti-fat. See Fucus Vesicuiosus, 

Antifeb^rile [avri^ ^g^iisif/ebrilis, a fever). 
An agent reducing a fever ; a febrifuge. 

Antifeb^rin. Phenyl-acetamid acetanilide. 
A white, crystalline powder insoluble in 
water, freely soluble in alcohol. An anti- 
pyretic alleged to be more powerful than 
quinine. Effects manifest in one hour, 
passing away in 3-10 hours. Efficacious 
in fevers characterized by high tempera- 
ture. Dose gr. iv-xv. Unof. 

Antigalac^tic (avTi,)a7,ay milk). Agents 
lessening the secretion of milk. 

Antihe'liz (aw/, e/^^, a coil). The semi- 
circular prominence of the external ear, 
opposite the helix, or outer circle. 

Antihydrop^ic (avri, vAptjyji, dropsy). A 
medicine used for the relief of dropsy. 

Antihydrot^ic. An agent lessening the 
secretion of sweat. 

Antilep^sis {avriktr^iq^ a receiving in re- 
turn). The treatment of disease by the 
application of the remedy to a healthy 

Antilith^ic [avrty A/flof, a stone). Agents 
preventing the deposit of urinary calculi or 

Antilob'^ium (ayrLy h}po^, the lobe of the 
ear). The tragus or part of the ear oppo- 
site the lobe. 

Antimo^nium. Antimony. Sb = 122 
quanti valence I, ill, V. A non-metal, 
having a metallic luster. Only the com- 
binations are used in medicine. Anti- 
monial salts are cardiac depressants. I'ro- 
mote rapid excretion of waste products 
of the body ; in large doses produce vomit- 
ing and purging, with symptoms similar to 
those of cholera. Valuable in inflamma- 
tory ailments of the respiratory organs, 
puerperal peritonitis and muscular rheu- 
matism. A. et Potass. Tartrate, tar- 
trate of antimony and potassium, *' tartar 
emetic.'* Dose gr. ^^\. A. Vini, wine 
of antimony, tailing water 60, tartar 
emetic 4, stronger white wine icxx) jMirts. 
A good expectorant. Dose tT\,v-xv. Syr. 
Scillse Comp., Cox's hive mixture, hive 
syrup. Each .^j contains gr. ^ of tartar 
emetic. A. Oxide, SbjCJg, soluble in 
hydrochloric and tartaric acids. Dose 
gr. j-ij. A. Pulvis, |X>wder of antimony, 
James' powder, consists of antimonious 
oxide 33, and calcium phosphate, 67 parts. 
A prom|)t diaphoretic. Dose gr. iij-viij. 
In larger doses, emetic and cathartic. A. 
Sulphide, black sulphide of antimony. 
^^oait gr. ji^-j. A. Sulph. Purificatum. 

Dose gr. ^-j. A. Sulphur atum, the sul- 
phide wiUi a small but indefinite amount 
of the oxide. Dose gr. j-v. A. Comp., 
Pil., Plummer's pills, contain calomel and 
antimony sulphuratum, ftft gr. ss. 

Antiparasit^ics {avri, irapaaiToqy a para- 
site). Agents destroying or preventing in- 
crease of parasites. Insecticides. 

Antip^athy {avri, nadoc, affection). Aver- 
sion. Antifathic is applied to the treatment 
of disease by agents producing symptoms 
of an opposite nature to those of die affec- 
tion. Synonymous with Allopathic. 

Anti-pep^tone. See Peptones, 

Antiperiod^ics. Remedies breaking up 
the periodicity of certain diseases. Qm- 
nine is the best known. 

Antiperistal'^sis. See Peristalsis. 

Antiphlogist^ic (avri^ ^/xr/oxr/c, inflam- 
mation). An agent subduing or reducing 
inflammation or fever. A. Treatment, 
consists in bloodletting, the application of 
cold, administration of antipyretics, etc. 

Antiplast^ic (aiT£, ;r/a(T<7w, to form). Un- 
favorable to granulation or the healing 
process. Also, agents impoverishing the 

Antiprurit^ic (pruritus^ itching). A drug 
which relieves the sensation of itching. 

Antipyre^sis [avriy Trvperof, fever). The 
employment of antipyretics in fever. 

Antipyret'^ic (aw/, Trvprrof). An agent 
reducing the temperature of fever; any 
antifebrile medicine, or febrifuge. Most 
such also reduce the normal bodily tempera- 
ture slightly. They act either by prevent- 
ing oxidation processes, or encouraging the 
radiation of heat. 

Antipy^rin. Dimethyl- oxy- chinicine, 

. C,,II,,N,0. An alkaloidal product of the 
destructive distillation of coal-tar. It is a cr>-stalline j^owder, slightly bitter, 
soluble in water ; adult dose gr. v-x, 
every hour for two or three hours. It re- 
duces the temperature 3-5 degrees in 
fevers, causes sweating, sometimes vomit- 
ing, but no serious result. 

Antipyro'tic (aiT/, Trv/xjtr/f, a biuning). 
Agents curative of bums. 

Antiscorbu^tic {antiy scorbutus ^ scur\y). 
A remedy for or preventive of scur\'y; 
mainly vegetable acids. 

Antisep^tic (aiT/, (tz/tcj, to make putrid). 
Having jxjwer to prevent or destroy putre- 
faction, or, what is the same thing, the 
liacteria u}X)n which putrefaction de|)ends. 
The princi|)al in use are corrosive subli- 
mate, carl)olic acid, imloform, thymol, sali- 
cylic acid, boric acid, etc. A. Gauze, 




open cotton cloth charged with carbolic 
acid, resin, and paraffin. A. Ligature, 
catgut or other material rendered aseptic 
by soaking in antiseptic solutions. The 
antiseptic treatment of wounds looks 
to thorough asepsis and antisepsis as re- 
gards the wound, the instruments, the 
operator's hands, the dressings, etc. See, 
also, lAsterian Method, 

Antisial^ics. Substances that lessen the 
secretion of saliva. 

Antispasmod^ic [avrifaTrafffiogj a spasm). 
An agent allaying or relieving convulsions 
or spasmodic pains, as the narcotics, the 
nitrites, ete. 

Antispas^tic. That which counteracts 
spasm. An antispasmodic. 

Antisyphilif'ic. A remedy directed 
against, or used for the relief of syj^hilis. 
Usually an alterative. 

Antithe^nar (ain-i, deiKip^ the hollow of 
the hand or foot). Op|x>site to the thenar. 
A. Eminence, the l)onicr of the palm 
of the hand from the liasc of the little fin- 
ger to the wrist. A. Muscles, of the toe 
and of the thumb: the adductor pollicis 
{)edis, and the flexor brevis pollicis manus. 

Antitra'^gus (avri, rpayoct ^be tragus). An 
eminence of the external ear o[^x)site the 
tragus. *l"he antttra^icus muscle arises 
from it. 

Antizymot^ic {avriy ^v/turiicngf causing to 
ferment). An agent preventing the process 
of fermentation. 

Ant^lia (antlia^ a pump). A syringe or 
pump. A. Lactea, a pump for drawing 
milk from the lireast. A. Mammaria, 
.same as A. Lactea. 

Antri^tis {antrumy a hollow place, •/'//>, 
inflammation). A word denoting inflam- 
mation of any of the cavities of the body, 
especially the --/. Ui^hntin'ianum. 

An'^trophore. A .soluble, medicated lx)ugie. 

An^trum {ant mm). A physiolc^ical cavity 
or hollow place, especially in a lx)ne. A. 
Ethmoidale, the ethmoidal sinuses. A. 
Highmorianum, Antrum of Highmore, 
a cavity in the superior maxillary l)one. 
A. Pyloricum Willisii, the cavity of the 

Anu^ria (av neg., m^povy urine). Al>sence, 
deficiency, or retention of the urine. 

A'nus {anusy the fundament). ITie ex- 
tremity of the rectum; the lower open in*; 
of the alimentary canal. A., Artificial, 
an artificial opening, the natural for any 
reason being closed. A., Fissure of, 
rupture of the skin at the side, due to pas- 
sage of hardened faeces. A., Fistula o( 

a sinus, or fistulous ulcer opening fix>m the 
rectum into the connective tissue about the 
rectmn, or discharging externally. A., Im- 
perforate, absence of the anus, the natural 
opening being closed by areolar tissue or a 
membranous septmn. A., Pruritus of, 
persistent itchuig of the anal orifice. A., 
Prolapse of, protrusion of the rectmn 
or its mucous membrane. 

Aor^ta {aopTff), The great arterial vessel 
arising from the left ventricle and ending 
with its bifurcation into the two common 
iliacs at the fourth lumbar vertebra. TAe 
archy that extending from the heart to the 
third dorsal vertebra, is divided into an 
ascendingy a transversCy and a descending 
part. The thoracic portion extends to 
the diaphragm ; the abdominaly to the bi- 
furcation. The diseases of the aorta are 
acute aortitisy due to traumatism, throm- 
lx)sis, etc. ; and the chronic form, or athe* 
roma of the aorta ; fatty defeneration ; 
stenosis ; aneurysm. See Artery. 

Ap^athy (a priv., ira^, feeling). In- 
sensibility, want of passion or feeling. 

Aper^ient [aperioy to open). A mild pur- 
gative ; a laxative, or aperitive. 

AperistaKsis. See Pcristaisis, 

Ap^erture (aperturoy an opening). An 

A^pez (apexy the extreme end of a thing). 
The summit or top of anything ; the point 
or extremity of a cone. A. Beat, the 
impulse of the heart felt in the fifth ir ter- 
costal space about 3^^ inches from the 
middle of the sternum. A. Murmur, a 
murmur heani over the apex of the heart. 
Apices of the Lungs, the upper extremity 
of the lungs behind the border of the first 

Apha^kia (a neg., tftcKo^y a lentil, and the 
crystalline lens). Condition of an e>'e 
without the lens, whether the result of con- 
genital defect, luxation, traumatism or cata- 
ract operation. 

Apha^sia (a, 0a<7/c, speech). Partial or 
complete loss of the power of expression 
or of comprehension of the conventional 
signs of language, from no lesion of the 
peripheral organs or nerves, Init from le- 
sions of the cortical centers concerned. If 
sensory, it may be either of two varieties : 
I. IVord deafness, in which spoken words 
are not understood (there is usually some 
parafihasia or im|x.'rfection of speech con- 
nected with this form) ; 2. Word-biindness^ 
in which written or printed words are not 
understood. If motory it may be either — 
I. Motor aphasia^ or aphemia^ co n si s ri a g 




in a loss of language, or inability to ex* 
press thoughts by articulate language ; or, 
2. Agraphia^ or ** aphasia of dbe hand/' 
inability to write. Charcot supposes the 
center for articulate language divided into 
four sub-centers, a visual center for words, 
an auditory center for words, a motor cen- 
ter of articulate language, and a motor 
center of written language. lesions of 
one or more of these centers produce the 
characteristic forms of aphasia above given, 
which have had clinical exemplitications. 
A., Ataxic, loss of speech owing to in- 
ability to execute the various movements 
of the mouth necessary to speech, the mus- 
cles being not paralyzed but not coordi- 
nated, owing to disease of the cortical cen- 
ter. A., Amnesic, loss of memory of 
words. Parapha^sia, inability to connect 
the ideas with the proper words to express 
the ideas. Agram^matism, inability to 
form words grammatically. Ataxapha^sia, 
inability to arrange words synthetically 
into sentences. Bradypha^sia, abnormal 
Slowness of speech, from pathological 
cause. Tumultus Sermonis, a stutter- 
ing manner of reading, from pathological 

Aphe'^mia (a, ^v^, to speak). Motor 
aphasia; inability to articulate words or 
sentences from focal and not from periphe- 
ral disease of the oi^ans of speech (Aiaiia). 

Apho^nia (a, ^cji'//, the voice). Ihunbness, 
due to some peripheral lesion. 

Aphore^sis (a, (popT/ci^^ carrying). Separa- 
tion or ablation of a part, either by excision 
or amputation. 

Apho^ria (a, ^peu , to bear). Sterility of 
the female. 

Aphra^sia. A synonjin for Aphasm, 

Aphrodis^iac (a^porf/ow, venery). An 
agent stimulating the sexual passion. 

Aph^thse (o^a, from ai^ruiy to set on fire). 
The small, white ulcers, spots or vesicles 
of the mouth, characteristic of the infantile 
disease, T/irush, Aphthoid and Aphthous 
are adjectival forms. 

Aphthong^ia (a neg., <pBo}yo^, sound). A 
peculiar form of aphasia due to spasm of 
the muscles supplied by the hypoglossal 

A^pices (plural of tipcx). Summits. 

A^piol. A non-volatile, oily licjuid of acid 
properties, derived from common parsley, 
Petroselinum sativum. Carminative, diu- 
retic, and in larger doses an emmcnagogue. 
Employed in intermittent fever, amenor- 
rfanea and dysmenorrhrra. Somewhat 
Cuhionable as an abortifacient, but worth* 

less. Dose Tiy^iij-x. In doses of 1t\^xxx 
is narcotic. Unof. 

Aplanat^ic (a, TrAavocj, I wander). Not 
wandering ; rectilinear. A. Lens', a lens 
corrected for all aberration of light and 
color. A rectilinear lens. 

Apla^sia (a neg.,7r?.fl<T(Ta>,to form). A type 
of incomplete structure by reason of the 
non -formation of a necessary cell-group 
during the developmental stage. Called 
also Hypoplasia, 

Aplas'^tic (a, TrAoaffw). Structureless, form- 
less. A. L3nnph, one of the products 
of inflammation or disease. A non -fibrin- 
ous material incapable of coagulation or 

Apleu^ria (a, ir7xvpai a rib). A word 
employed to denote congenital absence of 

Aplotoin^ia (an-Aovc, simple, ro/zj/, section). 
Simple incision. 

Apneumato^sis (a neg., nvevfiaTuatc, in- 
flation). Collapse of the air cells of some 
parts of the lung caused by blocking of the 
bronchial tubules, and resulting in a condi- 
tion of non -inflation whereby the lung tis- 
sue is reduced to a condition similar to that 
of atitictasis^ or congenital apneumatosis. 

Apnoe^a (a, Trreo, to breathe). Breath- 
lessness. Difficult respiration ; partial or 
complete suspension of breathing. Sy- 
nonymous with Asphyxia. A. Neonato- 
niin, of the new -horn child, caused by 
difficult labor, pressure upon the cord, etc. 

Apo-. A Greek prefix denoting />-fW*, awayy 

Apocen^osis (aroxfrow, to drain). An 
increased fiow or evacuation of blood or 
other humors. 

Apochromat'^ic Lens (a;ro, from, away, 
off). A lens for microscopic and optical 
purjx)ses, with high correction of spherical 
and chromatic aberrations, and better "de- 
finition." Professor Abl)6, through Dr. 
Schott, of Witten, in Westphalia, as a re- 
sult of extended research, discovered crown 
and flint glass in which the dis|)ersions for 
the different regions of the spectrum should 
approximately possess the same ratio, and 
thus avoid the "secondar)' spectrum." A 
manufactory has been estal)lished in Jena 
for the production of these lenses. 

Apoc'ynum. Canadian Hemp. 'Hie root 
of A. cannabifium. Properties due to 
an alkaloid, apocynin. In full doses an 
emetic and cathartic. Vahiablc in droj)sy. 
Dose gr. v-xx ; of the alkaloid, gr. 1-4 -yi- 
Should not lie confounded with Cannains 
Indie a, Unof. 




A{>f>' " III-.:. -•'-•.. llu* fii'l «>f an 
I 1 1 I-. III.', no i-'Ii- A. Cells, lu-rvc- 

Ap-illiii.i'tit Wjtrr. \ iirjiii.m iilkiiliiie 
Mill III v*i'ii. lii/.lilv ( li.ii'^iil Willi lar- 

I , , I, I iii'i Iv II .III lui ^tiiii. ilu'iima- 

■ i .III • »• • 1/ »■' ' '^ ■' ■ 

A|»>iii tipliH ■'! A|niiiu»i'phine 'ht-i, 

,„ ■ ■ ' ,.' I, ' '.N. "'• ' ■'■' ' ":' *■ 

\,, ,. I ■ I il ill, iliii'l. •!• Mvnl hiMii ni(>r 

,.),.,, Ill .1 ■■ ■ / • • Is ilii- -.ill u-wihI. 

.,,, I . 1 .■! n I .li I \ .1 ilinii- |»i«\\.li'i II i"* il 

. ,,,, III •■ I iin.> ilnf. ll\ ll|Hi|i iIk' 

»...,...,. .1- I. Ill I I . ill ■ iiiii l.r-l. Illit-'l 

, ,.,, ,., I I I." iiiiliMir* «<l -ill |-Illi-Ilv "». 

I .. I 
A| «• 'i-j • ■. Ii"ni. .1 liMI 

I ,., \ I. Ill III iii'o l>>>>M. I' \| •.lllsh III 

,1 ,..:,.■ ,-■, Ml ■ II liiii- Ml II' invi .1 li'N 

,. : . i>i I '■■•I I ili>«\ II iiiiio 

: I ' I .1 • Il 11 I I •■! rMi|x>il 

■ , . ii> III ri-; llir 

,,,,.. Ill -I I Mill '. . ' '. , I 

... ■ . , ■ / H.l ' ■ '• /.».'/ • 

■ ■■ ■ ' '". ■•' ''■■ ■ ■■'■■,■■. 

1.. ).iii Ini'li I. A 

A I • • I ■ ' I / 

/ .■ 

A J- ',' 

,., Ill jini- ' . iif IhiIii* ; 

, .. . J 1. ■ • II il I.;'- ll il « ;illi"'i 

,,' '• ii'fii : " '' '". j ' i"i"fi' I. 

. . ■ . 1-. ■.-.'. » 111 I 

A,. .,..■ ^ / ■'■.■■ I ll'- -\iii|itiun 

...1 ''-I I' iiiiiiiir- 

. . -. : ..., •■.- i.:-i.%:iii:; "\ a 

' ', . : . ■. . rt- 1 iii'i-'ly 

■.. r 1 !■ M in- ' ■ I'V 

i .,i-.'i ii.i."', ••Mil 

' . .■ ...• I •.iiijif'ilii 

., I'.'^'i aii'i 

. . : .■'..' ■■! i I-iri'4 

.■ ■ ; : : i:.'"i- 

• . ■ . • 1 . ■ 1 I . >• > 

t A., Capil- 

111 • 


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A^r'.^ ''-- 

.-.% « 

'■ ' --i r' .-.11 rlv 

I . . ..' 

•• /■ I. : ■ ■ 
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■ I 

■» . . 

• ' t 


: lua.iu" .^ -AT -.' :2 *•- : ■■-■i- ' 

is >uUlividc<l into pints, the pint into l6 
tluiil ounces, the ounce into 8 fluid drachms, 
and the tluid drachm into 6o minims. The 
folU>wing abbreviations ore used: — 

in, minim. S, unria, an ounce 
Kit. , i^uiia, a dn ip. (4S0 grains). 

ii,s>ru/'u/u.\.a scru- lb. Mta. a pound. 

pic i./o f^raiiis). O., octarius, a pinL 

5, drachma, a f^.,/^ranum, a grain, 

drachm (60 gr*)* ss., semis., one half. 
St'o ll't'ii^/its and Measures. 

Apoth'ecary. A drufrgist. One who pre- 
|uns and sells <lrugs, fills prescriptioas, 
1/ . In lireat I>ritain the apothccar\' is 
aUii il physician, tilling his own prescrip- 
tion^. In the I'nited States it frequently 
li.ip|Kn^ that an authorized practitioner is 
;i1mi an aix>thccar>\ Init without the degree 
nt' M. I >. the practice of mi'<licinc is illegal. 

Apoth'ema irtT«, from, '^^./m, a deposit). 

\ I'rnwn [Hnvder formed by the o|xrn-air 

f\.i|Hira!ii.>n of a vegetal)le infusion ex* 


Apoz'^ema ('/to, Ot^, to boil). A decoc- 

Appara'tus [ijf'/^.na/ufX The instruments 
UMii in any .'^ienco, art or surgical opera- 
tion. .Xn.itotnic.illy the wonl is used to 
di'>ij^nalc colled ivoly the organs ejecting 
any s|>ecilied \vt)rk or action. A. Lfiga- 
mcntosus Colli, Ihi* oeripifo-a xoU lit^a- 
;//.-///, a bnxiil band at the front surface of 
the >pinal ranal. which covers the odontoid 

Appendici'tis. Inllanimation of the ap- 
pin«li\ vi-njiifonnis. 

Append'ix (pi. app^-ndioe.s) (tif*^eniii\ to 
haii;^ uiHin or toi, is accessory to 
rir >i''{>rn>lrni u|Nm another. .\n append- 
a^>-. A. Auricularis, the auricular ap- 
pi M'l.i:^!', a iJfixe^-i of the auricles of the 
iirari. A. Caeci Vermifomiis, a worm- 
shajM-il |)nic«.-ss <if the c.ecum. A. Epi- 
ploicx, |^iuch-Iik<\ fatty pn>ji*c*.itms of 
til'- |i«riiiin«-inn of the lari;;e inte>lini-. 

Ap'perts' Pro 'cess. The pn^^erxation 
I "1 .inning" I of' nuMl. faiil-i and vegetables 
liv f\i lu^inn iif ,rr and irenn"*: ctTected bv 
li'-niir-iii ally MMJitii^ ilie >ub'itance'» in tin a!'!.-r iu-aiin-' tlie conteni> to lio^ tw 

Ap'petite ■ :*'*.'•. toiK-^ire'. 'Hie de-iire 
I'! ri-il: al'i^ M\\ :i do^'re; lu-*!. A., 
Perverted, •ill*, i". r and undi- 
l;- «• i 1" ihiri^-. r>- .u-ni m iii^ea>e and 
{■•■^rii:ry. .//; •. lo^^ ^'^x jpjx-tite; 

/■ .' ;■■; :. 'nja::.!! \\- .i:'».x'?iie : /.':i-'\e'\, the 
-:r"".^' lir-iro .r'.il :•.-. ol i-t" {".^ixl. 

Aprax'ia ■: nej:.. -■.:'—..•. to doi. l>e- 
U-c?:ve liiou^ht an-l memory asM.viaied 




with aphasia ; especially concerns the use 
of objects and methods of doing things. 

A^pron, Hottentot. Artificially elongated 
labia minora. 

Aprosez^ia (a irpo<rex<>>f to give heed). 
A mental disturbance consisting in inability 
to Bx the attention upon a subject. 

Aproso^pia (a, npoaunov, the face). A 
fuetal monstrosity with partial or complete 
absence of face. 

Apselaphe^sia (a, ifn^Xa^ig, touch). Pa- 
ralysis of the tactile sense. 

Ap^titude {aptitudo^ fitness). Fitness, 
tendency. The natural proneness of an 
organism toward certain functions or patho- 
logical conditions. 

Apty^alism (a, without, trnxiki^Li^ to spit). 
A term applied to a condition marked by 
deficiency qk absence of saliva. 

A^pus (a, TTowf, foot). A monstrosity con- 
sisting in absence of the lower limbs, or feet. 

Apyrez'^ia (a neg., nvpeaauy to have a 
fever). Without fever ; especially used of 
the intermission-periods of ague, ^/r. 

A^qua. Water. An oxide of hydrogen 
having the composition H,0. Is a solid 
below 32®, a liquid between 32® and 212®, 
vaporizes at 212® at the sea level (bar. 760 
mm.), giving off vapor of tension equal to 
that of the air. Covers four-6fths of the 
surface of the earth, but is never pure in 
nature, containing from a trace of soluble 
matter, in rain water, to 26 per cent, of 
soluble mineral salts, in the Dead Sea. 
Water is an essential constituent of all ani- 
mal and vegetable tissues. In the human 
body it forms 2 per cent, of the enamel of 
the teeth, 77 per cent, of the ligaments, 
78 per cent, of the blood, and 93 per cent, 
of the urine. Externally, water has a 
stunulating effect upon the skin, either by 
direct or reactionary means. Cold water 
when continued too long may lower the 
general temperature of the body so as to 
produce serious depression of circulation 
and muscular power. Hot water and 
vapor Increase circulation and produce 
diaphoresis. Its too long-continued use 
debilitates. Internally, water is a diuretic. 
It is the most useful of all the solvents 
in pharmacy. The following are the offi- 
cial preparations and forms. A. Bulliens, 
boiling water. A. Communis, conunon 
water. A. Destillata, distilled water. A. 
Fcrvcns, hot water. A. Fluvialis, river- 
water. A. Fontana, well- or spring- water. 
A. Marina, sea-water. A. Pluvialis, 
rain-water. See also Minora/ IVater, 
In phannacy, a solution of a volatile 

soluble substance in water. There are 
15 official aqua^ all of arbitrary strength. 
Also, A. Fortis. See Acid^ Nitric. A. 
Regia, a mixture of hydrochloric acid 3, 
and nitric acid I p»art. A solvent of gold 
and platinum. A. Vits, spirit, q. v. In 
anatomy, A. Labyrinthi, the clear liquid 
existing in the labyrinths of the ear. 

Aqueduct^us (aqua^ water, ductus^ a lead- 
ing). Used of ducts or canals in various 
parts of the body. A. Cerebri, the in- 
fundibulum. A. Cochleae, aqueduct of 
the cochlea. A: Fallopii, the canal of the 
portio dura in the petrous portion of the 
temporal bone. A. Sylvii, the aqueduct 
of Sylvius from the Uiird to the fourth 
ventricle. A. Vestibuli, aqueduct of the 
vestibule of the ear. 

A^queous. Referring to water. A. Cham- 
ber of the Eye, the space between the 
cornea and the lens ; the iris divides it into 
an anterior and a posterior chamber. A. 
Eztract, solid preparations of drugs made 
by evaporation of aqueous solutions. A. 
Humor, the fluid filling the anterior cham- 
ber of the eye. 

Aquocapsuli^tis {aqua^ capsula^ a small 
box). A disused name for what is now 
clawed as Serous Iritis, q. v. 

Ar'^abic Acid. One of the constituents 
(Cj,H„0,i) of acacia, or gum arabic, a 
gummy exudation of Acacia. 

Arachni^tis {apaxi'iov, a spider's web, itis). 
Inflammation of the arachnoid membrane 
of the brain. 

Arach^noid (apaxviov, etSo^, form). Re- 
sembling a web. A. Cavity, the space 
between the arachnoid membrane and the 
dura mater. A. Membrane, the deli- 
cate serous membrane of the brain and 
cord between the dura and pia mater. 
Sub-arachnoid fluid. See Cerebro- 
spinal F/uid. 

Arrack (f/id.). A spirituous liquor dis- 
tilled from rice or cocoanut juice, used in 

Arseom^eter {apnto^, light, thin, fierpov, 
measure). An instrument for estimating 
the specific gravity of Huids. 

Aran^tii. See Corpora. 

Ar^bor Vi^tae. A term applied to the 
arborescent appearance of a section of the 
cerebellum, and also to a similar appear- 
ance of the folds of the interior of the cervix 

Arbu^tin. A bitter glucoside, C^^Hj^Oj^- 
HjO, obtained from M'a ursi, or l)ear- 
berry. It is neutral, cr)*stalline, and re- 
solvable into glucose and hydro<|uinone. 




Aibutin b an efficient diuretic. See Uua 

Arca^num [arcanum^ a secret). A medi- 
cine whose composition is kept secret. 

Arch (L. arcus^ a bow). A term applied 
to the curved shape of several various parts 
of the body. A. of Aorta. See Aorta. 
A. of Colon. See Colon. A., Crural. 
Sec Poupart's Liganutit. A., Palmar, 
the arch formed by the radial artery in 
crossing the bones of the metacarpus. 

Archebi^osis (apxfi, the beginning, Piuai^y 
life). The theory of the origin of living 
organisms from non-living matter. See 
Generation^ Spontaneous^ and Biogenesis. 

Archegen^esis. The same as Archebiosis. 

Archespo^rium (apxHt a beginning, airopa, 
a seed). The cells from which spore 
mother-cells are immediately derived. 

Arch-'ctype (apx^y chief, nmoCf a type). 
A word employed in comi>arative anatomy 
to denote an ideal type or form to which 
other individuals or classes may be com- 
pared. A standard type. 

Archiblast^ic {apxfft the beginning, p2,aa- 
ro(, bud). A term used by His, of the 
three layers of the embryo, in contra- 
distinction to Parablastic cells or ele- 
ments that he thinks wander in between 
the epiblast and hypoblast from the margins 
of the blastoderm, from which are devel- 
oped the blood vessels, blood and con- 
nective tissue. 

Ar^chil. A coloring matter somewhat like 
litmus, chiefly obtained from the lichen 
Rocella tinctoria ; used for staining animal 

Arcta^tion [arcto, to draw close together). 
Contraction or lessening of an opening or 
of the lumen of a canal. 

Arcua^tus (a reus y a bow). Bent or curved 
in an arched form. A. Morbus, a former 
name for jaundice. 

Arc^us {arcus). A bow or arch. A. Den- 
talis, the dental arch. A. Senilis, the 
ring of fatty degeneration of the corneal 
tissue al)out the periphery. A. Zygoma- 
ticus, the zygomatic arch. 

Ar^dent Spiralis. Alcoholic liquors. See 

Ar^dor (ardor^ to bum). Violent heat, 
burning ; applied to fevers and the sexual 
passion. A. Urinse, burning pain in the 
inflamed urethra in micturition. 

A^rea (area^ an open space). Any space 
with boundaries. A. Celsi. See Alopecia 
areata. A. Qerminativa, or Embryonic 
Spot, the oval germinating spot of the 
embryo. A. Pellucida, the light central 

portion of the last. A. Opaca, the opaque 
circle about the same. A. Vasculosa, 
the vascularization of the A. Opaca. 

Are'^ca Nut. See Betel. 

Ar^ecin. An organic base (C^sH^gN^O) 
isomeric with brucin, derived from cinchona 

Arefac^tion [arefacere^ to make dry). Ex- 
siccation or desiccation. The removal of 
structural or constitutional water from a 
substance. Applied to the process whereby 
certain watery medicines may be reduced 
to a dry powder. 

Arena^tion (arena^ sand). A sand-bath. 
The application of hot sand to a limb or 
pert of the body. 

Are^ola (dim. of area^ an open space). 
The brownish space surrounding the nipple 
of the female breast. This is sometimes 
called Areola papillaris. A secondary 
areola^ surrounding this, occurs during 
pregnancy. The pigmentation about the 
umbilicus is. called the umbilical areola. 
A. Tissue, connective tissue. 

Areom^eter (apoiof, thin, light, pxrpmf^ 
measure). An instrument for estimating 
the specific gravity or strength of liquids, 
especially alcoholic liquids. 

Argen^tum. Silver. Ag = io8 ; quanti- 
valence, I. A malleable and ductile 
metal of brilliant white luster. Tarnishes 
only in presence of free sulphur, sulphur 
gases and phosphorus. An excellent sub- 
stance for vessels used in pharmacy, and 
for sutures used in surgery. 'ITie follow- 
ing salts are used : A. Cyanidum, used 
in the preparation of hydrocyanic acid. 
A. lodidum, sometimes used internally in- 
stead of A. nitrate. Dose gr. l^-j. A. 
Ozidum, explosive when treated with am- 
monia. Dose gr. %,-\y A. Nitras, 
" nitrate of silver," argentic nitrate, " lunar 
caustic,*' a powerful astringent and an 
escharotic of moderate strength. Stains 
skin and other tissue black when applied 
in strength. In small doses stimulates 
heart and nerve centers. Too long con- 
tinued, leaves a slate -colored, insoluble 
deposit of silver under the skin i^Argyrid). 
Dose gr. Vt-yi. A. Nitras Fusus, 
" stick caustic." Contains 4 per cent, of 
silver chloride. Used locally. The miti- 
gated or dilute stick is fused with an equal 
weight of potassium nitrate. 

ArgU'^la (a^y/^Aof, potter's clay). White 
or potter's clay, alumina. 

Ar^gol. See Tartar. 

Argyll Robertson's PupU. See Pupil. 

Argy^ria (L. argentum^ silver). A fonn 

• * 

• • 

• » 

% • •• • 
• • t • 

• • • 

•1 • 




of chloasma or discoloration of the skin 
and mucous membrane produced by the 
prolonged administration of nitrate of silver, 
the molecules of silver being deposited in 
much the same position as those of the 
natural pigment of the skin. It may be 
gentral^ from internal administration, or 
local y from its local application. 

Aristolo^chia. See Serpentaria, 

Aristolo^chin. A bitter principle found 
in Virginia snake-root. See S^rpentaria, 

Aristotle's Experiment. The double 
feeling experienced by the fingers when a 
single pebble is placed between the crossed 
fingers of one hand. 

Arm (Sax. Arnty G. Arm^ Lat. Armus). 
That part of the upper extremity from the 
shoulder to the wrist. 

Armamenta^rium (Lat. , an arsenal ). The 
outfit of medicines or instruments of the 
physician or sui^eon. 

Arma^rium. See Armamentarium, 

Ar'mature (armaiura^ equipment). A 
mass of soft iron at the extremity of a 
magnet. Also, the core of iron around 
which coils of insulated wire are wound 
or disposed. 

Ar^nica. A plant commonly known as 
" Leopard*s bane," — A. montana. Both 
flowers and root are used in medicine. 
Properties probably due to an alkaloid, 
tri-meihyl-amint. In small doses a car- 
diac stimulant; in larger doses a depres- 
sant. In toxic doses frequently causes 
death. A popular remedy, when locally 
applied, for sprains, bruises and surface 
wounds. Valuable also in typhus and 
typhoid fevers as an antipyretic. A. 
Tinct., 20 per cent. Dose Tt(^v-xxx. A. 
Infusum, 20 parts flowers, 100 parts 
water. Superior to tincture for local use. 
A. Ext. Radicis. Dose gr. j-iij. A. Ext. 
Rad. Fid. Dose T!\,v-xx. A. Tinct. 
Rad., 20 per cent. Dose TT\,v-xxx, A. 
Emplastrum, contains ext. of root 50, 
lead plaster 100 parts. Tri-methyl-amine 
(unof.). Dose gr. ij-iij in syrup. 

Ar^nicin, C^Hji^^.. A brownish, bitter 
glucoside extracted from the flowers of 
Arnica montana. 

Amot^to. See Anatto, 

Ar(/ma (apo^a, spice). The imponder- 
able fragrant or odorous emanation of 
vegetable substances. 

Aromat'^ic lapufia^ spice). A substance 
characterized by a fragrant, spicy taste and 
odor, as cinnamon, ginger, the essential 
oils, ftc, A stimulant to the gastro-intes- 
tinaj mucous membrane. A. Acids, those 

of the benzine group of hydrocarbons. A. 
Group, a series of hydrocarbons having 
the composition CjoHj,. A. Vinegar, 
any mixture of aromatic oils in vinegar. 
Used as a stimulating agent. 

Ar^rak. See Arack. 

Arrect^or Pi^li Muscle. A fan-like ar- 
rangement of a layer of smooth muscular 
fibers surrounding the hair follicle, whose 
contraction erects the follicle and produces 
cutis-anserina or " gooseskin." 

Arrest^ (a^, to, r«/<», to withstand). Stop- 
page, detention. Arrested development, 
is when an oi^an or organism fails in its 
normal evolution, stopping at the initial or 
intermediate stages of the process. Ar- 
rested head, when in parturition the child's 
head is hindered but not impacted in the 
pelvic cavity. 

Ar^row- Poison. See Curare, 

Ar'rowroot. (Doubtful derivation.) A 
kind of starch derived from Alaranta 
arundinacea of the West Indies, South- 
em States, etc. It is a popular remedy for 
diarrhoea ; widely used as a food. 

Ar^senic, Arsen^icum, or 

Arsen'^ium. As =75; quanti valence 11 1, 
V. A non-metal having a metallic lustre 
and crystalline stmcture. In small doses 
a stomachic and general tonic, promoting 
appetite and cardiac action, and stimu- 
lating mental activity. Of great value in 
irritative dyspepsia. Sometimes used in- 
ternally to blanch and clear the skin. In 
larger doses creates skin eruptions, and 
becomes a violent corrosive poison, acting 
with cumulative effect. Externally, is a 
powerful escharotic, used in cancer. Only 
the salts and oxides are used in medicine. 
A. Acid., arsenious acid, white arsenic, 
" ratsbane," AsjOj. Dose gr. ,Jg— y\j. A. 
Acid., Liquor, a i per cent, solution of 
the acid in hydrochloric acid and distilled 
water. Potassii Arsenit., Liq., Fow- 
ler's solution, contains A. acid I, potass, 
dicarbonate I, comp. tinct. lavender 3, and 
distilled water q. s. ad 100 parts. Dose 
rT\,ij-x. Sodii Arsenias. Dose of the 
dried salt gr. X ^^ . Sodii Arseniat., 
Lfiq. Dose tt\,ij-xv. A. lodid. Dose 
gr. ■^\. A. et Hydrarg^i lod., Liq., 
liquor of the iodide of arsenic and mer- 
cury, Donovan's solution, contains A. 
iodide i, mercuric iodide I, distilled 
water 100 parts. Dose TT\,ij-x. See 
Rcinsch's Testy Marsh's Test and Fleit- 
mann's Test. 

Arte'^ria {aprepm, the trachea). The plural 
was applied to the bronchial tubes. The 




ancients supposed these filled with vital 
spirit during life. See Artery. 

Arte^riogram. See Sphygmogram, 

Arterio^lse Rectae. The small blood ves- 
sels which supply the medullary pyramids 
of the kidneys. 

Arteri^tis (artery and fV^, inflammation). 
Inflammation of an artery. The acute 
form is generally consecutive to tramna, 
thrombosis, or embolism, and may be puru- 
lent in character ; the chronic^ more prop- 
erly endarteritisy arterial sclerosis, leading 
to atheroma or atheromatous changes^ is a 
fre(]ucnt disease of the aged. A. De- 
formans, the result of atheromatous 
changes producing crumpling or irregu- 
larities of the walls. A. ObUterans, an 
increase of connective tissue ending in ob- 
literation of the lumen. 

Ar^tcry (arteri'a^ arfp^ air or spirit, TTfpeu, 
to preserve, because supposed to contain 
the spirit or soul). Arteries are the tube- 
like vessels through which the blood is 
propelled by the heart to the peripheral 
organs. They end in arterioles and capil- 
laries. They are composed of three layers : 
the outer, or tunica adventUia ; the middle, 
or tunica media^ the muscular coat ; the 
internal, or intima, composed of nucleated 
epithelial cells, connective and elastic tis- 
sue. A table of the chief arteries is ap- 
pended (pp. 53, 54, 55). 

Arthral^gia (apOpov, a joint, aXyoc, pain). 
Pain in a joint ; gout ; arthritis ; rheuma- 

Arthri^tis (apdpov, -iriCt inflammation). 
Inflanmiation of the joints. A. Defor- 
mans, chronic inflammation of the bone- 
tissue of a joint with deformity. A., 
Rheumatic, acute rheumatbm of the 
joints with gouty complications. 

Arthrocla'^sia (apOpov, kAocj, to break). 
The breaking down of ankyloses in order 
to produce free movement of a joint. 

Arthro^dia (apOpo<j, to fasten by a joint). 
A form of joint permitting a gliding move- 
ment. See Diarthrosis, 

Arthrodyn^ia (apOpov, odwrj^ pain). See 

Arthroempy^esis {apOpov, tftmnjaiq^ sup- 
puration). Suppuration in a joint. 

Arthrog^raphy {apOfxtVy ypa^iVf to write). 
A description of the joints. 

Arthron^cus (apfipov^ okoc, an eminence). 
The cartilaginous l)ody or bodies which 
occasionally form within the knee-joint. 

Arthropath'^ia (ap^pov, ra(9oc, disease). A 
peculiar disease of the joints similar to 
ifaeimiatoid arthritis, but, according to Char- 

cot, a distmct disease. It belongs to the 
prodromal stage of tabes ; rapidly destroys 
the joint; is painless, without fever or 
inflammation ; prefers the large joints ; and 
is connected with hydrarthrosis and swell- 
ing of the joints. 

Arthro^sis (apOpou^ to fasten by a joint). 
Articulation or jointing. 

Arthrot^omy (apOpov, refivu, to cut). In- 
cision of a joint. 

Ar^tiad (aprui^Uf to be even). In chemistry, 
a term used to designate atoms having an 
even qiumti valence, as oxygen, which is 
bi-, iron quadri-, and sulphur hexivalent. 

Artic^ular (articularis, of the joints). Per- 
taining to an articulation or joint. 

Artic^ulate {articulo, to divide in joints). 
Divided into joints, distinct. A. Speech, 
the conununication of ideas by spoken 

Articula^tion [articulus^ a joint). A joint 
or arthrosis; a connection between two or 
more bones, whether allowing movement 
between the two or not. 'Ilie articulations 
are divided into : I. Syn^ arthroses , immov- 
able^ subdivided into schindyleses^ or 
grooved yoinXs^gomphyses, in sockets, as the 
teeth, and sutu'ra, as in the bones of the 
skull ; 2. Di'arthroseSy or movable joints, 
subdivided into the arthro^dia^ or gliding 
joints, the gingiy musy or hinge-like, the 
en^arthrosesy or ball-and-socket joints ; 3. 
Am'phiarthroseSy or those of a mixed 

Articula^tion. The enunciation of spoken 
speech. Confluent A., the clipping of 
words, or running syllables together — a 
symptom of certain cerebral diseases. 

Articula'^tion Positions. See Consonants. 

Artic^ulo Mortis (Lat.). The moment of 
death. In the act of dying. 

Artifl^cial (artijicialis). Made or imi- 
tated by art. A. Anus, an opening in 
the abdomen to give exit to the fa.>ces ; an 
opening made in case of imperforate anus, 
A. Eye, a film of glass, celluloid, rubber, 
etc.y made in imitation of the front part of 
the globe of the eye and worn in the 
socket or over a blind eye for cosmetic 
reasons. A. Joint, or false joints the non- 
united ends of a broken bone. A. Leech. 
See Leech. A. Vitreous. See Eviscer- 
ation. A. Pupil, removal of a piece of 
the iris (iridectomy y iridodialysisy etc.), to 
allow the light to (mlss through the open- 
ing. A. Respiration, the aeration of the 
blood by artificial means. A method of 
inducing the normal function of respira- 
tion when horn any cause it is temporarily 

















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in abeyance, as in asphyxia neonatorum, 
drowning, etc. IlallsMcthod^ by turning 
the body altemate^r upon the side or face. 
Iloivard's Method^ by pressure upon the 
lower ribs every few seconds. Sylvester's 
Methody chiefly by movements of the 

Aryte'^noid (apvrmi'a, a pitcher, «(5of , like- 
ness). Resembling the mouth of a pitcher. 
A. Cartilages, two cartilages of the 
larynx regulating, by the means of the at- 
tached muscles, the tension of the vocal 
cords. A. Muscle, arises from the pos- 
terior surface of one arytenoid cartilage 
and is inserted into the corresponding |)arts 
of the other. It is composed of three 
planes of 6bres, two (Clique and one trans- 
verse. It draws the arytenoid cartilages 

Aryth'^mic. Irregular; without rhythm. 

Asafoet^ida. Asafetida. A resinous gum 
obtained from the root of Ferula narthex 
and F, scordosoma. Somewhat soluble 
in alcohol, and forms an emulsion with 
water. Properties due to allyl sulphidty 
C*H|qS. a powerful antispasmodic, 
stimulant and expectorant. Very service- 
able in hysteria and bronchial affections. 
Dose gr. v-xx. A. Tinct., strength 20 
per cent. Dose ^ss-ij. A. Emplas- 
trum, asafoetida 35, lead plaster 35, gal- 
banum 15, yellow wax 15, alcohol 120 
parts. A. Mistura, a 4 per cent, emul- 
sion. A. et Mag^esiae Mist., Dewefs 
carminative, magnesium carb. 5, tinct. asa- 
foetida 7, tinct. opii I, sugar 10, aq. dest. 
ad 100 parts. Dose ^^^ss-Jss. A. Pil- 
lulx, contain each gr. iij of asafoetida 
and gr. j of soap. Dose j-iv. A. ct 
Aloes Pil., have gr. \y^ of each ingre- 
dient. Galbani Pil.^ comp. See Gal- 
banum. Ammonia Fatidus Spt.^ con- 
tains asafoetida i%y Y\{\. anmioniic fort. 2, 
spirit 20 parts. Dose Jss-j. Unof. 

Ascar^icide. A medicine that kilb asca- 

Ascaridi^asis. The existence of ascarides 
in the intestine. 

As^caris (plural A scar ides) (aoKapil^Uy to 
jump). A genus of the family Ascarida. 
A class of parasitical worms inhabiting the 
bodies, and especially the intestine, of most 
animals. A. Lumbricoides, is found 
in the ox, hog and man. It inhabits the 
small intestine, especially of children. A. 
Vermicularis (the thread worm), a syno- 
n3ma of Oxyuris Vermicitlaris. A. Mys- 
tax, the round worm of the cat, and A. 
Alata have rarely been found in man. 

Asci^tes (cujKiT'n^y from aaicog, a bagV An 
abnormal collection of serous fluid m the 
peritoneal cavity. There is uniform en- 
largement of the abdomen, fluctuation, 
percussion dullness, ete. 

Ascle^pias. Pleurisy Root. The root of 
Asclepias tuberosa. A popular remedy 
in the Southern States for pleurisy. A 
powerful diaphoretic and a moderate 
emetic and cathartic. The infusion re- 
commended has a strength of Jj of the 
powdered root to J xxxij of water. Dose 
teacupful every 3 or 4 hours. Unoffi- 
cial. Also, A. Curassavica, Blood 
Flower. An herb common to tropical 
America. Astringent, styptic and anthel- 
mintic against the tapeworm. A popular 
remedy for checking capillary hemorrhage. 
Dose of fid. ext. gj-ij. Unof. 

Ascococ^cus (oaKOQy a leather bag, kokko^, 
a kernel). A genus of the family of Coc- 
cacees; with elements united in massive 
colonies surrounded by tough, thick, gela- 
tinous envelopes. A. Billrothii, found 
in putrefied meat; its natural habitat is 
the air. Details of culture, etc., are 

Ascomyce^tes (curxof , fivK^Ct ^ mushroom). 
A large family of fimgi, of which the 
truffles, or Tuberacea:, the ergot of rye and 
mould of dried fruits are exam))les. 

Ascoph^ora Muce^do. A microscopic 
fungus, of which the mould of bread is an 

As^cospore {aoKoqy OTTopOf a spore). A 
spore developed within a sac-like fungus- 

Asep'^sis (a neg., ariTru, to putrefy). The 
condition of non-putrefaction ; absence of 
all septic material or pathogenic micro- 

Asep^tic. Free from contaminating or 
septic matter. TJe antiseptic treatment of 
wounds, including aseptic and antiseptic 
dressings, renders the wound aseptic. 

Asep^tin. This term has l>een given to a 
secret preparation containing boric acid, 
used for preserving articles of food. 

Asep^tol, CjH,S(>„ a reddish liquid, with 
an odor of carlx)lic acid, recommended as 
a disinfectant and antiseptic. Used ex- 
ternally 1 : 1000, and internally in about 
the same dose as carl)olic acid. 

Asit^ia (a, without, airo^y food). The want 
of food. Also a loathing for food. 

Aspar^agin. A crystalline organic princi- 
ple, C^HgNjO^ii, found in asparagus and 
many other plants. It is diiu^tic, and 
sedative to the circulation. See Althaa, 




Aspar^agus. The green root of Aspara- 
gus officinalis, A mild diuretic. Dose 
of fld. ext. T^ ss-j. Unof. 

Aspar^tic Acid. C^HyNOi- A dibasic crys- 
talline substance obtained from asparagin. 
It occurs in the body as a result of the 
action of the pancreatic juice on the fibrin 
of the blood. 

Aspergil^lus {aspergo^ to scatter). An 
order of fungi. A. Auricularis, a fungus 
found in the wax of the ear. A. Glaucus, 
the bluish mould found, e, g.y upon dried 
fruit. A. Mucoroides, a species found 
in tuberculous or gangrenous lung tissue. 

Asperm^atism (a neg., aTzepfia^ seed). 
Non-emission of semen, whether owing to 
non-secretion or non-ejaculation. 

Asper^sion (aspergo^ to sprinkle). The 
act of besprinkling, medicines being some- 
times thus applied. 

Asphyx^ia (aneg.,(r^^/f, ihepulse). The 
effect upon the body of the non-oxygena- 
tion of the blood ; the suspension of vital 
phenomena when the lungs are deprived 
of air. The excess of carbon dioxide in 
the blood at first stimulates, then paralyzes 
the respiratory center of the medulla. Arti- 
ficial respiration is therefore required in 
cases of sudden asphyxia. A. Neonato- 
rum, the inability of new-bom infants to 
begin respiration spontaneously, or to con- 
tinue it. 

Aspidiospex^mine. An alkaloid extracted 
fix)m Quebracho^ q. v. 

Aspid^ium. The rhizome of several spe- 
cies of A., especially A. marginale. FVo- 
perties due to a resin containing filicilic 
acid. Valuable chiefly as a vermicide 
against tapeworm. Dose ^ss-^ss. A. 
Oleoresina, an ethereal extract. Dose 

As^pirates. See Consonants. 

Aspirant ion (a</, to, spiro^ to breathe). 
Used as a synonym of inspiration, also of 
imbibition. The act of using the aspira- 
tor. A method of withdrawing the fluids 
and gases from a wound to prevent con- 
tamination. A. of Cataract Extrac- 
tion. See Extraction of Cataract^ Suc- 
tion Method. 

As^pirator. An instrument for withdraw- 
ing the contents of an abscess, tumor, etc.y 
without the admission of air. 

Assafcc^tida. See Asafxtida. 

Assimila^tion (assimu/o^ to make like). 
The process of transforming food into such 
a nutrient condition that it is taken up by 
the circulatory system, and forms an inte- 
gral paft of the economy; synthetic or con- 

structive metabolism ; anabolism. A., Pri- 
mary, that concerned in the conversion 
of food into chyle and blood. A., Sec- 
ondary, that relating to the formation of 
the organized tissues of the body. 

Associa^tion {associatio). The act of com- 
bining; union with. Associated Move- 
ments, coincident or consensual move- 
ments of other muscles than the leading 
one, and which by habit or unity of pur- 
pose are involuntarily connected with its 
action. Both eyeballs move alike in read- 
ing, though one be a blind eye. Move- 
ment of the normal arm will sometimes 
produce slight motion of the opposite para- 
lyzed arm. An uniformity of innervation 
is usually the cause of these movements, 
and such an example as the rigidity of the 
jaw in lifting a heavy weight should hardly 
be called an associated movement. Asso- 
ciated Paralysis, a common paralysis of 
associated muscles. 

As^surin. A name given by Thudichum 
to a complex substance occiurring in brain* 
tissue. Properties not investigated. 

Asta^sia (a neg., oraaiq^ standing). Motor 
incodrdination for standing. See Abasia. 

Asteato^des (a neg., ffreap, tallow, 6m5w» 
fullness). Deficient or absent secretion of 
sebaceous matter by the sebaceous glands. 

As-'ter. See Karyokinesis. 

Aster^ion. See Skull. 

Astern^al (a neg., arepvov^ the breast bone). 
Not connected with the sternum. A. 
Ribs, the five lower pairs, because not 
joined directly to the sternum. 

Astem^ia. Absence of the sternum. 

Asthe^nia (a neg., o^evof, strength). Gen- 
eral loss or absence of strength ; adynamia. 

Astheno^pia (a neg., aOevoc, cj^, eye). 
Weakness, speedy fatigue of the ocular 
muscles or visual powers, due to errors of 
refraction, insufficiency, over-usc, anaemia, 
c/c. A., Accommodative, due to hy- 
peropia, astigmatism, or a combination of 
the two, producing strain of the ciliary 
muscle. A., Muscular, due to weakness 
or strain of the external ocular muscles, 
most commonly the internal recti — insuf- 
ficiency. A., Retinal, or Nervous, a 
rare variety, caused by retinal hyperesthe- 
sia, anxsthcsia, or other almormality, or l>y 
general nervous affections. 

Asth^ma (anO/ia^ paivting). Paroxysmal 
or intermittent dyspn»i'a, generally accom- 
panied by cough and bronchial secretion, 
a feeling of constriction and suffocation. 
The etiology is obscure, being ascril)ed to 
heredity, nasal disease, gout, exhalations 




of plants and atmospheric impurities, colds, 
etc. It has been thought to be due to re- 
flex neuroses and spasm of the muscular 
tissue of the bronchial tubes. When de- 
pendent upon disease of the heart, the kid- 
neys, stomach, thymus, etc.y it has been 
designated cardiac^ renal, peptic, thymic^ 
etc. A. Dyspepticum, due to nervous 
reflexes through the vagus. A., Nervous, 
from reflex stimulation of the pulmonary 

Astig^matism (a neg., artyfia, a point, 
because rays of light from a point are never 
brought to a point by the refractive media 
of the eye). That condition of the eye 
wherein homocentric rays of light are not 
brought to a focus by the media. It is 
usually due to inequality of curvature of 
the difl*erent meridians of the cornea (cor- 
neal A.), but may be caused by imperfec- 
tions of the lens (lenticular^, unequal 
contraction of the ciliary muscle, or may 
perhaps be due to retinal imperfection. It 
may be acquired or congenital, and may 
complicate hypermetropia or myopia, pro- 
ducing either simple hypermetropic A., 
in which one principal meridian is emme- 
tropic, the other hypermetropic ; or com- 
pound hypermetropic A., in which both 
meridians are hypermetropic, but one more 
so than the other. Complicating myopia, 
we may in the same way have simple 
myopic or compound myopic A. In 
mixed A., one principal meridian b 
myopic, the other hypermetropic. Regular 
A. is when the two principal meridians 
are at right angles to eacn other. I rreg^lar 
A., when diflerent parts of a meridian have 
different refracting powers. 

Astigmom^eter (a, ariyfia, furpov, a meas- 
ure). An instrument for the measurement 
of astigmatism. 

Astrag^alus {aarpayaXo^, a die ; the analo- 
gous bones of the sheep were used by the 
ancients as dice). The ankle-bone, upon 
which the tibia rests. Also a genus of 
leguminous plants from some varieties of 
which gum tragacanth is derived. A. 
MoUis^simus (Loco Plant). The active 
principle of this plant has mydriatic proper- 
ties. Unof. 

Astrapapho^bia {aorpairri, lightning, ^- 
po^y fear). A symptom of mental disease 
consisting in fear of lightning and thunder. 

Astric^tion (ad, to, stn'ngo, to bind). Con- 
stipation or any condition resulting from 
the use of astringents. 

Astrin^gent. An agent producuig con- 
traction of oiganic tissues, or which arrests 

haemorrhages, diarrhoeas, etc. Tannin, 
alum, opium, alcohol, the salts of silver, 
lead, etc., are examples. 

Asy^lum {asylum, a place of refuge). An 
institution for the support, safe-keeping, 
cure, or education of those incapable of 
caring for themselves, such as the insane, 
the blind, etc. 

Asym^metry (a, avfifierpia, symmetry). 
Unlikeness of organs or parts that are nor- 
mally of the same size, etc., es e.g.^ As3rm- 
metiy of the two halves of the skull or 

As3mer^gia (a, awepyia, co5peration). 
Faulty coordination of the diflerent organs 
or muscles normally acting in unison. 

Atac'tic (artwcrof, irregular). Irregular. 
Pertaining to muscular incoordination, es- 
pecially in aphasia. Also used of atypical 

At^avism (atavus, a forefather). The 
reappearance of an anomaly, physical, 
mental or pathological, in an individual 
whose more or less remote progenitors had 
had it, but in whose immediate ancestors it 
had not been shown. 

Ataxapha^sia. See Aphasia. 

Ataz^ia, or 

Atax^y (ara^ia, want of order). The 
word means primarily, irregularity or want 
of order, but is most commonly used to 
express incodrdination of muscular action ; 
an excess or deficiency in contraction of 
the various muscles concerned in a given 
action. Since innervation of many muscles 
is required in a fixed position of the body 
or of a limb, the term A., Static, described 
the failure of muscular codrdination in 
standing still or in fixed positions of the 
limbs, whilst A., Locomotor, expresses 
the same essential phenomenon as regards 
movements, and especially in walking. 
A., Hereditary, Friedreich's Disease, is 
an inherited disease of children and the 
young. See Friedreich's Disease. Both 
static and locomotor ataxy are prominent 
symptoms of tabes or disease of the pos- 
terior columns of the cord, but it is absurd 
to speak of ataxy, as if it were a disease 
itself instead of being only one of many 
symptoms of many diseases. 

Atelec^tasis (oTETji^y imperfect, exrcuTfCt 
expansion). Failure of dilatation of the 
pulmonary air-cells in the new-bom. The 
condition is due not to disease of the 
lungs, but to nerve injuries, weakness, etc. 
In this case the lung has never been 
inflated, whilst in apneumatosis it has 
been. • 




Ateli^a (areXeuif imperfection). A terato- 
logical term for imperfection or failure of 
development of some part of the foetus. 
The word is compounded with others to 
designate the member wanting, as afe/o- 
cardtOf atelocheiliay ateloencephalia^ cUelo- 
myeliay ateloprosopiay etc., expressing such 
a defect of the heart, lip, brain, spinal cord, 
face, respectively. 

Athelas^mus (a, drfkaoftoq, a suckling). 
Inability to give suck, from defect or want 
of the nipples. 

Athero^ma (o^tz/xz, gruel). Primarily, a 
soft encysted tumor ; more commonly, the 
fatty degefieration of the walls of the 
arteries in consequence of chronic arteritis, 
and called atheromatous degeneration. 
Atheromatous «^jr«j,resulting from chronic 
arteritis, is a soft matter beneath the in- 
tima, while an atheromatous ulcer is 
formed by the abscess breaking through 
the intima. 

Ath^etoid. Pertaining to or affected with 
athetosis. A. Spasm, an occasional 
symptom of hemiplegia and after some 
cerebral lesions. 

Atheto^sis (o^Trof, unfixed, changeable). 
A disease characterized by continual change 
of position of the fingers and toes, and 
inability to keep them still. It is due to 
some lesion or functional derangement of 
the brain or cord. 

Athrep^sia (a, Tpe<^, to nourish). The 
sympAom-complex resulting from imperfect 
nutrition in children, from whatever cause. 

At^las. The uppermost of the cervical 
vertebrae. Articulates with the occipital 
bone of the skull. 

Atlod^ymus (arXac, SiSvfJo^^ double). A 
monosomic dual monstrosity with two 
heads and a single l)ody. 

Atmi^atry (or/iof, vapor, larpeia^ medical 
treatment). Treatment of diseases of the 
lungs or mucous membrane, by inhalation, 
fumigation, or by directing a current of 
vapor or gas upon the part. 

Atmom^eter, or Admidom^eter {avfioq^ 
/leTfxWf a measure). An instrument to de- 
termine the amount of water exhaled from 
a given surface in a given time, in order to 
determine the humidity of the atmosphere, 
of a place. 

At^mosphere {avfioCf atpatpa^ a sphere). 
The mixture of gases, vapor of water, and 
other suspended matters, surrounding the 
earth, as an elastic fluid cnveloi)e, to the 
height of alx)ut 200 miles. 

Atmospher^ic. Pertaining to the atmo- 
sphere. A. Moisture, the vapor of 

water mingled with the atmosphere. It 
varies in quantity according to temperature. 
A. Tension, the pressure of the air per 
square inch on the surface of a body. Nor- 
mally, at the sea- level it is about 14.7 lbs. 
per square inch, or equal to that of a col- 
umn of mercury about 30 in. in height. 
It decreases about -j^ in., or ^ lb. per 
square inch for every 90 feet of altitude. 
Above 10,000 feet, the rarity of the atmo- 
sphere is usually noticeable in quickened 
breathing and pulse rate. 

Ato^cia (oroKOf, barren). Sterility of the 

At^om (a neg., refivu, to cut). The ulti- 
mate unit of an element; that part of a 
substance incapable of fiuther division, or 
the smallest part capable of entering a 
chemical compound, or uniting with an- 
other to form a Molecule, — which last is 
the smallest quantity of a substance that 
can exist free or uncombined. Atomic 
Valence, Equivalence, or the Atom- 
icity of an element, is the saturating 
power of its atom as compared with that 
of hydrogen. Atomic Weight, the 
weight of an atom of an element as com- 
pared with the weight of an atom of hydro- 
gen. Atomic Heat of an atom is its 
specific heat multiplied by its atomic 

At^omizer. An instrument for transform- 
ing a liquid into a spray or mist. 

At^ony (a, tovo^, tone). Want of tone. 
Debility. Loss or diminution of muscular 
or vital eneigy. 

Atopomenorrhce^a (aroTroc, out of place, 
fieVf month, peu, to flow). Vicarious 

Atrabil^iary (ater, black, dt'/iSf bile). An 
obsolescent term relating to melancholy and 
hypochondriasis; also referring to the renal 
and supra-renal glands, l^lieved to pro- 
duce black bile, or atrabilis, the cause of 
the gloomy disposition. 

Atre^sia (a neg., rerpaivu, to perforate./ 
Imperforation of an opening or canal, as 
of the anus, vagina, meatus auditorius, 
pupil, ete. The word is compounded with 
the name of the organ affected ; e. g., 
atresocystia^ atresogastria^ afresometria, 
atretcnteriay etc.^ denoting respectively, 
imperforation of the bladder, stomach, 
womb, intestine, etc. 

A^trium (atrium, the fore-court or hall). 
That part of the auricle of the heart into 
which the venous blood is poured. 

At^ropa (arpoTTo^f one of the three Fates, 
who cut the thread of life, in allusion to 




the poisonous effects of the plant). A 
genus of the nat. ord. Solanuceee. A. 
Belladonna, the deadly nightshade, 
whence is obtained atropine. See Bella- 

Atroph'^ia (a, without, Tpo<^r/, nourish- 
ment). Atrophy, ^. v. A term applied to 
various diseases marked by wasting or 
innutrition. A. Cutis. See Atropho- 
derma, A. Cutis Senilis. See Atropho- 

Atroph'^icum Melanc/sis Progres'^siva. 
Sec Atrophoderma. 

Atrophoder'^ma (a, rpo^iiy^ nourishment, 
dtpfia^ the skin). Atrophia Cutis, atrophy 
of the skin, a wasting of the skin due 
to innutrition. A. Pigmentosum, Xero- 
derma Pigmentosum, Angioderma Pig- 
mentosum, Atrophicum Melanosis Prc^^es- 
siva, — a degenerative wasting of the skin 
accompanied i<y a development or gather- 
ing of pigmentary matter in patches. A. 
Albidum, descril)ed by Ka|)osi as con- 
fine<l to the inner parts of the thighs and 
anus. The skin is white, thin, glistening, 
and destitute of pigmentary matter, a con- 
dition remaining stationary throughout life 
(dif from A. Scleroderma). A. Neuri- 
ticum, Glossy Skin, an atrophy of the 
skin in the area of a diseased or injured 
nerve. Occurs most commonly on the ex- 
tremities. A. Senile, Atrophia Cutis 
Senilis, an atrophy of the skin due to old 
age. A. Striatum et Maculatum, Striae 
et MaculiV Atrophica?, a form of the dis- 
ease occurring in streaks and spots. May 
be idiopathic or symptomatic. 

At^rophy [arixH^ia^ want of nourishment). 
A retrogressive change in parts originally 
well-formed and nouri.shed, consisting in a 
loss of weight, size and function of an or- 
gan or tissue, owing to some disorder of 
nutrition. A., Active, due to the inherent 
inability of the cells of a ti.ssue to assimi- 
late the nutriment brought to them. A. 
of the Bulb, progressive shrinking of the 
eyeball. A., Muscular, affects the mus- 
cles, and may l)e hereditary or acquired, 
simple or prt^jrcssive. A., Passive, 
caused by diminished nutrition .supplied 
the part. A., Pigmentary, .so called from 
a dejxjsit of pigment (yellow or yellowish- 
brown) in the atrophied fat cells. A., 
Serous, that characterized by a transuda- 
tion of serum into the ti.ssue after the fat 
has gone, giving it a gelatinous ap|)car- 
ance. A., Simple, the retrogressive pro- 
cesses and shrinking due to pathological 
causes, allied to the physiological retro- 

gression of senility, but occurring, as it 
were, prematurely. A., Trophoneurotic, 
that dej)endent upon abnormality of the 
nenous supply or control of an oi^an or 
tissue, best illustrated in muscular atrophy 
from injury of the proper nerves of the 
muscle, or in disease of the anterior horns 
of gray matter of the conl. A. of Hair, 
a wasting or deficient growth of the hair. 

Atropi'^na or At'^ropine. A crystalline 
alkaloid, Cj^H^jNOj, obtained from Atropa 
belladonna f and is the active principle of 
the plant. The sulphate is a white powder 
of bitter taste, neutral reaction, soluble in 
water. J/omatropine^ CjgHjiNO,, is a de- 
rivative alkaloid, the hydrobromate l)eing 
used by ophthalmolc^ists as a mydriatic, 
principally because its effects pass off more 
quickly than those of atropine. Atropine 
is an irritant narcotic, a mydriatic, anti- 
spasmodic and anodyne ; in small doses a 
cardiac, respiratory and spinal stimulant, 
in lai^e doses a ]>aralyzer of the cardiac 
and respiratory centers, the spinal cord, 
motor ner\'es and voluntary muscles. It 
produces congestion and drj-ness of the 
mucous membrane of the mouth, nose, 
pharynx and larj-nx, at first lessening the 
gastric and intestinal secretion, to be fol- 
lowed by an increase of the same. It is 
extensively used in ophthalmic practice to 
dilate the pupil, paralyze accommodation, 
and also in various corneal, iritic and 
other ocular diseases. Its therapeutic use 
in general medicine is also manifold; e.g.^ 
in inilammatory affections and pain in 
cerebral and spinal hj'pencmia, atonic con- 
stipation, cardiac failure, hypersecretions, 
etc., and as a physiological antagonist in 
opium poisoning. 

At^tar of Rose. Oil of Rose. The volatile 
oil distilled from the fresh flowers of the 
Damascene rose. Comes mainly from 
E. Roumelia. ( Generally adulterated with 
other volatile oils. Used only as a per- 

Attenuation. The direction of the will or 
thought upon an object or to a particular 
sensation. A. Time. See l^ime. 

Atten^uant [attenuoy to make thin). A 
me<licine or agent increasing fluidity or 
thinness of the blood or other secretions. 

Atten'^uating Medium. See Fractional 

Attenua^tion {attenuOj to make thin). A 
thinning, narrowing or reducing the strength 
or size of a sul)stance. A. of Microbes, 
weakening the pathogenic virulence of 
microbes by successive cultures and other 




methods, so that they may be used as a 
▼accine to confer immunity from future 
attacks of the disease. A., Sanderson's 
Method of, by passing the virus through 
the system of another animal (^.^., guinea 
pig, in anthrax) so that it becomes modi- 
fied in virulency. Toussaint and Chauveau 
showed that heat is a valuable attenuation 
method, while oxygen, sundry chemical 
reagents, exposure to sunlight, etc,^ have 
also been used. 

AttoFlens (attollo^ to raise up). Applied 
to muscles raising or elevating the part, as 
the A. Auris, a muscle raising the exter- 
nal ear. 

Attrac'tion {tUtraho^ to draw to). The 
tendency of one j>article of matter to ap- 
proach another. Affinity. As existing 
between celestial bodies it is termed 
gravitation^ while molecular attraction or 
cohesion expresses the force aggregating 
molecules into masses. A., Chemical, 
the attraction of affinity y relates to the 
attraction of atoms of one element to those 
of others, resulting in chemical compounds. 
A., Capillary, the tendency of a curved 
siuface or a tube to exert traction on a 
liquid. A., Electrical, the tendency of 
bodies toward each other when charged 
with opposite electricities. A., Magnetic, 
the traction of a magnet upon certain 
metallic substances, chiefly iron. 

Attra^hens {attrahoy drawing). Applied to 
muscles, as Attrahens auris, a muscle 
drawing the ear forward and upward. 
Also used of medicines attracting fluids to 
the part, as stimulants, epispastics, etc» 

Attri^tion (attero^ to rub against). An 
abrasion or chafing of the skin. In physics, 
any rubbing or friction which breaks or 
wears the surface. 

Atyp^ic (o neg., n'Trof, a type). Irregular; 
not conformable to the type. A. Fever, 
an intermittent fever with irregularity cf 
the paroxysm. 

Aubemage (Fr.). A contagious disease 
of the vine, called \yy the Italians the Black 
Disease. It is doubtful whether it is due to 
a fungus or a bacterium. 

Audiom^eter {audioy to hear, fierpov, a 
measure). An instrument for measuring 
the acuteness of hearing. 

Aud'^iphone (audiot ^vrj^ a sound). An 
instrument for improving the power of 

Audi^tion. The act of hearing. 
Aud^itory. Pertaining to the act or the 
organs of hearing. A. After- Sensations, 
continuing or occurring after the cessation 

of the stimulus. A. Area, the cerebnd 
center for hearing, location not definitely 
determined. A. Aurae, auditory sensa- 
tions preceding an attack of epilepsy. A. 
Center, same as A. Area. A. Hairs, the 
processes of the crista acustica, at present of 
indeterminate function. A . M eatus (exter- 
nal and internal), the external and internal 
canals or openings of the ear. A. Nerve, 
i\it portio mollis oi the seventh pair. A. 
Ossicles, the chain of small bones of the 
middle ear. A. Sac, the labyrinth pit 
or depression in the epiblast, on both sides 
of the embryological after-brain. When 
cut off from the epiblast it is called the 
vesicle of the lalDyrinth, or Primary 
Auditory Vesicle. 
Au^ra (auy to breathe). A breath of wind ; 
a soft vapor. A sensation like a gentle 
' current ofair rising fn>m the limbs or body 
to the head ; a frequent forerunner of an 
epileptic attack, aura epileptica. Also 
applied to any slight symptom preceding 
an attack of any disease or paroxysm, as 
the aura hysterica^ aura vertiginosa^ etc. 
Auran^tium. Orange. The fruit of Ci- 
trus vulgaris and C. aurantium. Both 
the flowers and the rind of the fruit are 
employed. The volatile oil from the rind 
is aromatic and a mild tonic. Used mainly 
as a flavor. A. Amara, Ext. Fid., bitter 
orange peel, alcohol and water. Used as 
a flavor. A. Amara, Tinct., bitter orange 
peel 20, dilute alcohol, q .s. ad loo. Dose 
,?j~ij* ^* Corticis, Ol., the volatile oil 
expressed from the rind of the orange. 
Dose gtt. j-v. A. Dulcis, Tinct., sweet 
orange peel 20, dilute alcohol, q. s. ad 1 00. 
Dose 3J-ij. A. Elixir, oil of orange I, 
sugar 100, alcohol and water, q. s. ad 300. 
A. Spt.,oil of orange 6, alcohol 94. Dose 
according to quantity of alcohol desired. 
A. Flores, Aq., fresh orange flowers 40, 
water 200. Distill to 1 00 parts. A. 
Florum, Ol., " oil of neroli," a volatile oil 
distilled from fresh orange flowers. Dose 
gtt. j-v. A. Florum, Syr., orange water 
35, sugar 65. A common flavoring agent. 
A. Syr., sweet orange peel 5, alcohol 5, 
calcium phosphate precip. I, sugar 60, 
water, q. s. ad 100. 

Aur^icle {auricula, the outer ear). The 
pinna and external meatus of the ear. The 
auricles of the heart are the two cavities 
between the veins and the ventricles. The 
Auricular arteries, anterior and posterior, 
are branches of the tem{x>ral and external 
carotid supplying the auricle of the car ; 
auriculotemporal nerve^ a branch of the 




inferior maxillary supplying superficial 
parts about the auricle ; auriculo-ventricu- 
lar openingy the opening between the auri- 
cles and the ventricles of the heart. 

Aur^iscope (aun's, the ear, OKoneu^ to 
examine). An instrument for examining 
the ear, and especially of the Eustachian 

Auf'ist (aurts). A specialist in diseases 
of the ear. 

Aur^um (Gold). Au = 197 ; quantiva- 
lence, III. One of the metals character- 
ized as " noble " by the ancients, because 
of its weight and lustre. Has a brilliant 
yellow color and will not tarnish. The 
metal is sometimes used as a plate on which 
artificial teeth are set. The chloride is the 
only salt used. Locally it is an escharotic. 
Internally its action resembles that of , 
mercuric chloride. In small doses pro- 
motes digestion and stimulates the functions 
of the brain ; in large doses it is a violent 
poison. Useful in certain forms of dys- 
pepsia, hypochondriasis. A. et Sodium 
Chlor., soluble in water. Dose gr. -fjr^' 
A. Chloridum (unof.). Soluble. Dose 

Ausculta'^tion (auscuAo, to listen to). A 
method of investigation of the functions 
and condition of the respiratory, circula- 
tory, digestive and other organs by the 
sounds they themselves give out, or that 
are elicited by percussion. It is called 
immediaUj when the ear is directly applied 
to the part, and mediate ^ if by the aid of 
the stethoscope. Obstetrical auscultation 
is practiced in pregnancy to detect or study 
the fcetal heart-sounds, or the placental 
murmur. See Murmur ^ Respiration ^ R&leSy 
RhonchuSy Bronchophony^ Pectoriloquy^ 
ALgophony^ Bruifj Souffle^ etc. 

Aut^oclave (avro^^ self, clavisy key). An 
instrument for sterilizing or killing germ- 
life by steam-heat, the gauge indicating 
automatically the 'pressure, and therefore 
the degree of heat, to which the micro- 
organism is subjected. 

Autodiges'^tion {avroq^ digere^ to digest). 
Digestion of the walls of the stomach by 
the gastric juice consequent upon loss of 
the epithelium, or other gastric disease. 

Autogen^esis (aiTOf, yeveaic^ production). 
Spontaneous generation ; self-production. 

Autog^enous (avrof, yeveaig). Pertaining 
to diseases or conditions self-produced 
and not derived from external or objective 
sources ; to poisons generated in the body 
by its inherent processes, — ^. g., puerpend 

fever has been supposed due to self-gen- 
eration of the septic material. 

Autoinocula^tion (avro^t inoculo, to im- 
plant). Reinoculation by virus obtained 
from the same person. 

Autolar3mgos^copy (avro^y 7japvy^y the 
larynx, fficoTTfw, to examine). The exami- 
nation of one's larynx by himself. 

Automat^ ic {avrofiaTiqu, to act spontane- 
ously). Pertaining to such functions as are 
performed without the influence of the will. 

Auton^omy (avroiy vofioCt law). Self-law ; 
not subject to external rule. 

Autopath^ic (avro^y izaOoq^ suffering). The 
same as Endopathic. 

Autopep^sia (avrof, TreTrrcj, to digest). 

Autoph^agy (avro^y ^y^y to eat). In 
starvation the absorption of the tissues 
themselves for nutrition. Life may be 
thus continued until about half the body- 
weight has l)een consumed. 

Autoph^ony (atTof, (^vrf, voice). In 
auscultation the i)eculiar quality of the 
physician's own voice while listening to 
the patient's chest sounds. 

AutophthaKmoscope. See Ophthalmo- 

Aut^oplas^ty (avrof , ttTjusgo^ to form). A 
method of repairing the effects of a wound 
or lesion involving loss of tissue by graft- 
ing or implanting fresh parts taken from 
other portions of the patient's body, as 
e.g.y rhinoplasty^ keratoplasty^ etc^ refer- 
ring to the nose, cornea, etc., the special 
part operated upon. 

Aut^opsy {avToq^ oV"f» seeing). Exami- 
nation, or seeing one's own self, — self- 
inspection. The word is strangely mis- 
applied to the iX)st-mortem study of the 
body of another. 

Aut^oscope {^avToq^ aKonru, to see). An in- 
strument, e.g. ,the ophthalmoscope, arranged 
for the examination of an organ by oneself. 

Autos^copy. The examination of one's 
own disease l)y means of the autoscope. 

Aut^ositft (avT(^y OLTo^f food). Used to 
designate that member of a double foetal 
monster that nourishes by its own organs 
the life of the other, called the parasite. 

Autosteth'^oscope ( aiTof , oTTjOogf the 
breast, OKoneu, to examine). A stetho- 
scojie so arranged that one may by it listen 
to his own chest sounds. 

Auxocar^dia {av^rj^ an increase, Kapdia, 
the heart). The normal increase of the 
volume of the heart during diastole, in 
distinction from meiocardi^,. the dimina 
tion during systole. 




A^va-Ka^va. See Kava-K<n.*a. 

Ave^na Sati^va. OaL The embryo of the 
seed of the common oat plant Contains 
starch, gluten, a fennent called diastase and 
a small amount of alkaline phosphates. A 
nutritious food. The pericarp contains an 
alkaloid with slight narcotic powers. Unuf. 

Av^ens Root. The root of Geum rrvnU. 
A tonic and astringent Contains gallic and 
tannic acid. Dose of fld. ext 3 ss-j. Unof. 

Avoirdupois Weight (Fr., avoir y to have, 
dupoidSjOi weight). The common English 
weight used for all commodities except 
precious metals, gems and medicines. The 
pound is equal to 7000 grains Troy, or 
453-54 gnunmes, or 16 ounces. The 
ounce b divided into 16 drams, each of 
437.5 grains. See IVeighisznd. Measures. 

AvuKsion (avelioy to clear away). A 
traumatic or surgicU tearing or wrenching 
away of a part, as a polypus, a limb, etc. 

Ax^ial Current. See Poiseuille's Space. 

Axil^la (doubtful derivation). The armpit 

Ax^illary. Pertaining to the axilla. A. 
Artery, the continuation of the subcla\'ian 
artery, extending from the border of the 
first rib to the insertion of the pectoralis 
major muscle, where it l)ecomes the bra- 
chial. A. Glands, the lymphatic glands 
of the axilla. A. Plexus, the brachial 
plexus formed by the last three cervical and 
the first dorsal ner\'es. A. Space, the 
inegular conical space of the axilla. A. 

Vein, a continuation of the brachial, cor- 
responding with the artcr}* and terminating 
in the subcla\ian. 

Ax^is (a^ur, an axletree). An imaginary 
line passing through the center of a body. 
The second vertebra. A., Cerebro- 
spinal, the central nervous system. A. 
Cylinder (of a nerve), the conducting or 
essential part of a nerve lying in the 
centre and surrounded by the sheath, or 
sheath of Schwann. A., Optic, the line 
from the corneal apex to the macula lutea. 
A., Visual, the line from the object through 
the nodal point to the macula, — the two 
last are not identical. 

Axed'^arach. The bark of A. meiia. 
Occurs in cur\'ed pieces or quills, having a 
sweetish taste. The decoction, 5 ij to Oj, 
is a gastro-intestinal irritant and anthel- 
mintic. Unof. 

Azoosperro^ia (a, C<«>^» life, <nrfp/ia, seed). 
Want or deficient vitality of the sperma- 

Az^ote (a, ^urf). A synonym of nitrogen. 
Azotic acid, nitric acid. 

Azotu^ria (azt^um^ nitrx^n, urina, the 
urine). An increase of the urea in the 

Az''ygos (a, ^v^oc, yoke). Applied to 
parts that are single, not in pairs. A. 
Uvulae, a small muscle of the uvula. A. 
Vein, a vein connecting the superior and 
inferior venae cavoe. 


B. In chemical terminology the symbol 

of Boron. 
B. A. A contraction of balneum aqua^ a 

water-bath; also, of balneum arena y a 

B. M. A contraction of balneum maris, 

a sea- water bath. 
B. V. A contraction of balneum vaporis, 

a vapor-bath. 

Ba. The chemical syml^ol of barium. 
Babis Oven. See Oiten. 
Ba^by-farm. An institution for raising 

orphan and pauper infants. 
Bac^chia (Baechus, the god of wine). A 

sjmonym for acne rosacea, often found in 


Bacil^lum (dim. of baculum, a stick). A 
stick ; a cylindrical troche ; an instrument 
for carrying a sponge ; the rods in the layer 
of rods and cones of the retina. 

Bacillus {bacillum, a little rod). The 
most important class pathogen ically of the 
schizomycetes, schizophytes, or bacteria. 
They are microorganisms, cylindrical or 
club-shaped, straight, mobile or immobile, 
and held to Ixi directly or indirectly the 
cause of many diseases. B. of Cancer, 
a form l)elieved to Ihj the s|X!cific cause of 
cancer, though cultures and inoculation 
experiments are not definitive. B. of 
Charbon. Sec H. Anthracis ( Table\ B. 
of Symptomatic Charbon. See B.Chaw 




turi ( Table). B. of Cholera. 5>ee Spirii- 
Jum Cholera. Comma- Bacillus. See 
Spit-ilium Choline. B. of Green Diar- 
rhcea of Infants ; l^sage has isolated a 
species whose pure culture produces in 
animals a disease similar to that of the in- 
fant. B. of Diphtheria. Of a numl)er 
isolated and believed pathogenic, the 
Krebs- 1 artier variety is thought specific by 
Klein. B. of Epidemic Dysentery; 
inoculations u{X)n animals of a B. isolated by 
C' and Widal seemed conclusive 
that it was the specific cause of the disease. 
B. of Glanders. See B. Malleii, Table),— 
proved si)ecificity. B. of Hay, the B. Sub- 
lilis, not pathogenic. B. of Hog Cholera. 
Sec Tiible. B. of Jequirity, does not 
exist ; the ocular irritation being due to an 
alkaloid in the je(iuirity seed. B. Krebs- 
Loffler, sec B. of Diphtheria. B., Lac- 
tic. ^Qt:B.Lacticu5{7abley B. of Blue 
Milk. See B. Syncyanus ( Table). B. of 
Leprosy. Han^n and others have iso- 
lated a H. they l>elieve specific, but inocu- 
lation ex|x.*riments are not conclusive. B. 
of Malaria. I^maire, Klebs and Crudeli, 
and others, have isolated fonns believed by 
them to l)e sjK'cific. I^veran first, and 
Richard and Marchiafava and Celli found 
in the Mood three forms of protozoa, one 
of which jxirticularly produced intermit- 
tent fever by inoculation. B. of Blue 
Pus. See B. Pyocyaneus^ Table\. B. of 
Rhinoscleroma, probably the same as 
Micrococcus Pneumoniic^ of doubtful spe- 
cificity. B. of Measles of Hogs (see 
Tabic), of proved specific nature. B. of 
Syphilis. Lustgarten first, and a number 
of others, have isolated a form Ixilieved 
specific, but no cultures have so far l)een 
successful. B. of Tetanus ; the l)acterial 
origin of this disease seems established by 
many observers, the B. discovered by Xi- 
colaicr being the specific cause. B. of 
Tuberculosis. There seems to l>e no 
reason to doubt the s|x?cificity of Koch's 
B. B. of Typhoid, the typhic B. has 
not l)een isolated from the air, but has been 
isolated, and of its specific quality there is 
little remaining doubt. B. of Whoop- 
ing-Cough. AfanassiefT l^lieves an iso- 
lated form s))ec-ific, and injections in ani- 
mals lends some supjwrt to the view. 

A Table of the chief characteristics of the 
principal B. is herewith api)ended (pp. 

Back- stroke of the Heart. See Diastole. 

Bacte^ria (paKrifpiov, a little staff). A 

generic terai for microorganisms, or mi- 

crobes. According to Cohn (1872), divisi- 
ble into four families, the Spherobacteria, 
Microbacteria, Desmobacteria and Spiro- 
bacteria. The classification of 2^pf ranged 
all forms also in four classes: Coccacees 
(including Streptococcus, Micrococcus, 
Merismopedia, Sarcina and Ascococcus) ; 
Bacteriacees (including Bacterium, Spiril- 
lum, Vilirio, Leuconostoc, Bacillus and 
Clostridium) ; Leptothricees (including 
I^ptothrix, Beggiatoa, Crenothrix and 
Phragmidiothrix); Cladothrice€s (Clado- 
thrix). Mack's classification gives three 
families: the Coccacees (including 4 gen- 
era, the Micrococcus, Sarcina, Ascococcus 
and Leuconostoc) ; Uie Bacteriacees (gen- 
era: Bacillus, Spirillum, Leptothrix and 
Cladothrix) ; the Beggiatoacees (with two 
genera, the Beggiatoa and Crenothrix). 

Bacteria^cees. The second family of the 
order of Bacteria or Schizomycetes ; the ele- 
ments are rod-shaped, sometimes in short 
cylinders or in filaments, but the length 
always exceeding the breadth. Many have 
true endogenous s{X>res. The following are 
the members of the Tamily : The Bacillus^ 
Spirillum^ Leptothrix and Cladothrix. 

Bacte^ricide. See Germicide. 

Bacterid^ia. Davaine's designation of 
the Bacillus. 

Bacterid^ium. According to Davaine, a 
genus of Bacteriacees, characterized by 
immobility of the elements at all periods 
of their existence. The distinction does 
not now ol)tain. 

Bacteriology (fSaKrrfpiov, ?jof}o^f science). 
The science of microorganisms. Bacterio- 
logical investigation consists in the study 
by the micrasco|)e of forms present, the 
artificial cultivation or culture of the same, 
and the study of the effects of pure cul- 
tures upon animals. 

Bacteriopur^purine. The coloring matter 
of Beggiatoa roseo-persicina, isolated and 
studied by Ray Lankester. Insoluble in 
water, alcohol, chloroform, ammonia, ace- 
tic and sulphuric acids, etc. 

Bacte^rium. An individual of the order 
of Bacteria. B. Chauvaei. See Bacil- 
lus Chauvcei. B. Chlorinum. See Ba- 
cillus Chlorinus. B. Janthinum. Sec 
Bacillus Janthinus. B. Phosphores- 
cens. See Bacillus Phosphoreus. B. 
Termo. ^e Bacillus Termo. B.Xanthi- 
num. iye^ Bacillus .Synxaptthtis. (Ta^le.) 

Bag of Waters. The foetal membranes 
enclosing the liquor amnii, projecting 
through the os uteris which usually rup 
tures when the cervix is dilated. 









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Bain- Marie (Fr.). An instrument for 
immersing solutions, microdrganisms, etc.^ 
in water or chemical solutions, thus keep- 
ing them at a desired temperature. 
Bakers' Itch. An eczematous affection 
of the hands, caused by the irritation of 
the yeast 

Bakers' Salt. A synonym for smelling 
salts, or the subcarbonate of ammonia. 
Bal^anic. Pertaining to the gland of the 
penis or clitoris. 

Balani^tis {fioTuavoq^ glans penis, iriCy in- 
flammation). Inflammation of Uie glans 
penis, sometimes called Balano- posthitis. 
Phimosis is a frequent complication. See 

Balanoplas^ty (/^oAavof ; irAa(rcT6),toform). 
Plastic surgery of the glans penis. 
Bal^anus {.^yavoq^ an acorn). The glans 
penis or glans clitoridis. 
Balbu^ties {baibutio^ to stammer). Stam« 
Bald. Wanting hair. A term applied to 
one who has lost the hair of the scalp. 
Bald^ness. Alopecia, whether congenital 
or acquired. When the loss of hair is 
circumscribed it is called tinea decahans; 
when general, it is called alopecia. Senile 
baldness is called calvities. Premature 
baldness is caused by disease. 
Ball-and-Socket Joint. See Diarthrosis, 
Ballotte^ment (Fr. from ballotte, a ball). 
A method of diagnosticating pregnancy 
from the fourth to the eighth month. A 
push is given the uterus by the finger in- 
serted into the vagina, and if the foetus 
be present, it will move up and fall again 
like a heavy body in water. 
Balm {balsamuniy a balsam). A popular 
synonym of balsamum. Any soothing 
apyplication or ointment. B. of Gilead. 
See Balsam. See also Melissa. 
BaKmony. The herb Chelone glabra. 
Cathartic and anthelmintic. Dose of fid. 
ext. gss-j. Chelonin^ the concentrated 
ext. Dose gr. j-iv. Unof. 
BalneoPog^ {^Balneum^ a bath, Xoyof, a 
treatise). The science of baths and their 
effects upon the system. 
Balneother^apy {balneum^ Oepaireiaj heal- 
ing). Systematic bathing for therapeutical 

BaKneum. A bath. See Ba/h. 
BaKsam {Pa^a/iiov). The resinous, vola- 
tile, aromatic vegetable substance, Ii(}uid or 
concrete, obtained from certain trees by 
natural exudation or by artificial extraction. 
Balsams are divided into two classes, those 
with, and those without benzoic and cin- 

namic acids. In general they are mixtures 
of various essential oils, resins and acids. 
B., Canada; a turpentine gathered from 
the natural blisters of the l^k of Abies 
balsamum. It is much used as a mounting 
medium by microscopists. B. of Copaiba. 
See Copaiba. B. of Fir. Same as 
Canada Balsam. B., Friar's. See Ben- 
zoin. B. of Gilead ; the balm of the Old 
Testament, an oleo-resin obtained from 
the Balsatnodendron GiUadense. B. of 
Peru ; the balsam obtained firom Myroxy^ 
Ion pereira, antiseptic ; stimulant to cir- 
culation, and sedative to nervous system. 
Generally a tonic, and expectorant in 
bronchitis. Applied locally is usefid in 
chronic inflammatory skin diseases. Dose 
of the emulsion n\,x-xxv. B. of Tolu- 
tan, or of Tolu, obtained from Myroxy- 
Ion tolufera. Properties due to a volatile 
oil, toluene. Possesses an agreeable odor, 
and is a basis fc^ many cough mixtures. 
A fair expectorant. The tincture contains 
lo per cent, of the balsam in 90 per cent, 
of alcohol. Dose TT\^x-xxx. The syrup, 
balsam 4 parts ; simple syrup 96. Dose 

• ■ • 

Bamboo^ Brier. The root of Smilax 
sarsaparilla. Habitat, Southern States. 
Properties identical with those of sarsa- 
parilla. Dose of the fid. ext. ^ss-ij. 

Banan^a. The root of the common banana, 
Musa sapientum. Said to be a valuable 
alterative, and useful in strumous affec- 
tions. Dose of the fid. ext. n\^x-xxx. 

Band^age. Bandages are usually strips of 
muslin or other material of varying widths 
and lengths used in surgery for the pur- 
pose of protecting, compressing, etc.y a part, 
or for the retention of dressings and appli- 
cations. A simple bandage or roller con- 
sists of one piece ; a compound^ of two or 
more pieces. According to their direction 
they are classed as: i. CYrrwAir, circular 
turns about the part. 2. Figurc-of-S^ the 
turns crossing each other like that figure. 
3. Oblique y covering the part by oblique 
turns. 4. Recurrent^ the turns returning 
successively to the point of origin. 5. Spica, 
the turns resembling the arrangement of 
the husks of an ear of com. 6. Spiral, 
each turn covering one-half of the preced- 
ing. 7. Spiral reverse^ the bandage is re- 
versed in order to better adapt it to the 
part. Bandages are also classed according 
to the part to which they are applied. Of 
Bandages of the head we have : l. CVr^ 




eular, of the forehead^ to retain dressings 
to the head. 2. Circular^ of the eyes, 3. 
Crossed, of the eyes, to hold dressings to one 
or both eyes. 4. Crossed, of the angle of the 
jaw, to support the parts in fracture of the 
angle of the jaw. 5. A'notied, of the head, 
a double-headed roller with compress, to 
make compression in wound of the tem- 
poral artery. 6. Recurrent, of the head, 
single- or double-headed roller, to retain 
dressings to the head. 7. Gibson's, for the 
body of the lower jaw, to support the ports 
in fracture. 8. Rhea Barton's, for the same 
purpose. Of Bandages of the trunk 
there are : I. Circular, of the neck. 2. Fig- 
ure-ofS, of the neck and axilla, to retain 
dressings over the shoulder or in the axilla. 
3. Anterior figure-ofS, of chest, to draw 
the shoulder fon^'ard and to retain dressings 
on the anterior surface of the chest. 4. 
Posterior fgurc-of -8, of chest, to draw the 
shoulders back in fractured clavicle, or to 
retain dressings on posterior part of chest 
5. Crossed, of one or both breasts, to support 
the breasts in excessive lactation or in 
mammary disease. 6. Spica, of shoulder, 
to retain the head of the humerus in place 
after dislocation. 7. Spiral, of the chest, to 
make compression in fracture of the ster- 
num or ribs. 8. Circular, of the abdomen, 
to support the abdominal walls. 9. Spiral, 
of the abdomen, to compress the aJxlominal 
walls or retain dressings. 10. Spica, of one 
or both groins, to compress groin or retain 
dressings. 1 1. Spiral reverse, of the penis, to 
retain dressings to the organ. The Band- 
ages of the hand are: I. llie ^<>^/, 
of the finger, 2. Spiral, of all the fingers, 
or gauntlet, 3. Spiral, of palm, or demi- 
gauntlet. 4. Spica, of thumb — all used in 
cases of fracture or to retain dressings. 
The Bandages of the arm are : i. llie 
Circular, of the wrist. 2. Pigure-ofS, of 
wrist, to compress the joint or retain dress- 
ings. 7^. Figure'of-8,of elbcnv. ^.Circular, 
of arm or forearm. 5. Oblique, ofajfft or 
forearm. 6. Spiral, if arm, to retain dress- 
ings. 7. Spiral fTi'crse, of upper extn'mify, 
to sup|x>rt the arm in dislocations, fractures, 
etc. 'Ilie Bandages of the lower ex- 
tremity are : I. Figure-of-8, of ankle, to 
cover the |xut or retain dressings. 2. Figure- 
ofS, of knee, to cover the same or compress 
it. 3. Figure-of8, of thighs, to compress the 
same after wounds or oj^rations. 4. Spica, 
of instep, to compress die parts. 5. Spiral 
rei'erse, of whole louver extremity, to sup- 
port the limb after fracture, etc. B. of 
scultetus, a compound bandage, similar 

to a spiral reverse in appearance and 
action, used in comix>und fractures, so 
that the short pieces of which it is com- 
posed may be removed without motion of 
the limb. B., Recurrent, for stumps, 
is used after amputations, to support the 
flaps. Velpeau's B. is used to sup- 
port the arm in fracture of the clavicle, the 
neck, or acromion process of the scapula. 
The hand of the injured side being placed 
on the sound shoulder an obli(}ue turn 
is made from the axilla of the sound side 
across the back of the chest to the shoulder 
covering the fracture, down under the 
elbow in front to axilla of soimd side, 
then across the back over the outside of the 
point of elbow to axilla of sound side, thus 
continuing the oblique and circular turns 
alternately and advancing over the^arm till 
it is held fumly. Desault's Apparatus 
consists of an axillary pad held by tapes 
about the neck, a sling for the hand, and 
two single-headed rollers. The forearm is at 
right angles with the humerus, held in place 
by many circular and oblique turns about 
die shoulder and Ixxiy. T-Bandages are 
comjxiund, and resemble that letter; the 
menstrual napkin is an exam()le. Starch, 
Plaster-of Paris, Silica, Dextrine, Tripo- 
lith, etc., etc., are used or recommended 
for making a stiff and immovable dressing 
or bandage. 

Band!, Ring of. The superior limit of 
the cervical canal, in pregnancy at a level 
with the pelvic inlet, marking the bound- 
ary between the lower uterine segment and 
the rest of the uterus. 

Band^oline. See Cydonium. 

Bang or Bangle. See Cannabis Indica, 

Bant^ingism. (From name of the in- 
ventor.) A method {iroposed for the re- 
duction of corpulence, by abstinence from 
saccharine and farinaceous foods. 

Baptis^ia. Wild Indigo, llie root liark 
of B. tinctoria. Properties due to an im- 
pure resin, the so-called Baptisin. Laxa- 
tive and stimulant in moderate doses; 
emetic and cathartic in large doses. Valu- 
al)le in amenorrhfi^a, ty])hus and ty|)h(»d 
fevers. Excellent for lo^al application to 
indolent ulcers and gangrenous sores. B. 
Extract. Dose gr. j-x. B. Ext. Fid. 
Dose n\^ij-xx. B. Tinct. Dose TT\^v-xxx. 
Dose of the resin gr. j-v. All uncif. 

Baptorrhce^a {'^ai^rnq, infected, }x.w, to 
flow). A generic term for any infectious 
discharge from a mucous surfoce. 

Baptothecorrhce^a (/Sanroc, ^7107, vagina, 
fiiiS). Gononrfaoea in woman. 




Banesthesiom^eter {^apogt weight, ata- 
Oijai^, perception by the senses, fierpov, a 
measure). An instrument for estimating 
the sense of pressure in disturbances of 

Bmrba^does Leg. See Elephantiasis 

Bar^berry. See Berberin. 

Bar^biers. A paralytic affection common 
in India. Confounded with beriberi. 

Bar^eg^ne. Colonies of beggiatoa floating 
in the waters of sulphur springs. 

Ba^rium (ftapv^, heavy). Ba = 136.8; 
quantivalence 11. A metal of the alkaline 
group, of pale yellow color, characterized 
by strong affinity for oxygen. Neither the 
metal nor its salts are employed in medi- 
cine ; all are poisonous. B. Carbonate, 
used in the preparation of the chloride. 
B. Chloride, soluble, used as a reagent. 
B. Monohydrate, caustic baryta reagent. 
B. Oxide, baryta. B. Sulphate, used as 
a pigment. All unof. 

Bark. The cortex or covering surrounding 
the wood of exogens. Sometimes used 
as a synonym for cinchona or calisaya 

Bar'^ley (Welsh, dara Uys^ bread-plant). A 
cereal belonging to the order Graminea ; 
the most common variety, Hordeum dis- 
tichotiy is much used as a food, and also 
in the preparation of malt. B., Pearl, 
is the decorticated grain rounded and pol- 
ished. B. Water, decoctum hordeiy a 
decoction consisting of 2 ozs. of Pearl B. 
boiled in i^ pints of water and afterward 
strained. B. Sugar, saccharum hordea- 
turn : practically a glucose. Applied also 
to an amoq)hous mass obtained by melting 
cane sugar. 

Barom^eter (/'Jn/wc, weight, fierfyov, a meas- 
ure). An iastrument for determining 
weight and tension of the atmosphere. It 
consists essentially of a glass tul)e alx)ut 36 
inches long, closed at one end, filled with 
mercury, and inverted in a basin of mer- 
cury. The mercury will sink in the tube 
until it rests at a height of alx3ut 30 inches 
at the sea level, the height varying as the 
atmospheric pressure increases or dimin- 
ishes. B., Aneroid, a metallic box from 
which the air has Ixjen exhausted, the ten- 
sion l»eing indicated by the collapsing or 
bulging of the thin corrugated cover, which 
is connected with a movable index. 

Bar^oscope (/?a/K>{-, (tkotfw, to observe). 
An instrument used for determining the 
loss of weight of a Ixxly in air, comjiared 
with it5 weight in a vacuum. A form of 

baroscope was invented by Esbach for the 
quantitative determination of urea. 

Baros^ma (papoc, oofia^ smell). A plant 
of the order Rutacea^ native to Cape of 
Good Hope and vicinity ; several species 
of which yield the Buchu of commerce. 

Bar'renness. Sterility in the female. 

Bartholi^'ni's Glands. See Gland. 

Barton's Bandage. See Bandage, 

Barton's Fracture. See Fracture. 

Baryglos^sia {flapoq^ yhjjaca, a tongue), 
'lliick, slow utterance. 

Baryphonia (^apog, t^ff, a voice). A 
difficulty of speech. 

Bary^ta, or Bary^tes. See Barium. 

Ba^sal. Pertaining to or located at the 
base. B. Ganglia. See Ganj^/ion. 

Bascula^tion (Fr. basntler^ to swing). 
The movement by which retroversion of 
the uterus is corrected when the fundus 
is pressed upward and the cervix drawn 

Bascule Movement (Fr. ^^jri//4r, aswing). 
The recoil of the heart in its systolic motion. 

Base ((iamc, a foundation). The lower 
part, as, the base of the brain. In chem- 
istry, an element or radical which com- 
bines with an acid to fonn a salt, 'llie 
electro-positive molecule or radical of a 
compound. In dentistry , the plate upon 
which artificial teeth are held. In phar- 
macy ^ the most important part of the pre- 
scription. B., Organic, a term including 
a lai^e number of organic compounds, 
especially nitrogen compounds, which, like 
ammonium, unite with acids to form salts. 
They are commonly called alkaloids. 

Ba^sedow's Disease. An exophthalmic 
bronchocele; called, also, Exophthalmic 
Goitre, and ( i raves' Disease. See Goitre. 

Ba^sham's Mixture. See Ferrum. 

Ba^sic. Having properties the opposite of 
those of acids. An acid capable of uniting 
with a single monad atom or radical is 
called monobasic. One which will unite 
with two monad or one dyad atom or radi- 
cal, etc., is said to l)e dibasic. 'l*his meas- 
ure of the power of an acid is called its 

Basidiomyce^tes (/Jaff/f, a step, //iw>r, a 
mushroom). A parasitic, microscopic fun- 
gus developed on the leaves of grasses; 
the cereal rust. 

Basihy^al. The two lK>nes, one on each 
side, which form the principal Iwnes of the 
hyoid arch. 

Bas^ilar {basilaris). Pertaining to the l)ase, 
usually of" the skull. B. Artery, the artery 
extending along the border of the Pons Va- 




rolii, which supplies the Pineal Gland, and 
the valve of Vieussens. B. Aspect, the 
view of the head looking toward the base 
of the skull. B. Membrane, a mem- 
branous division-wall separating the scala 
vestibuli from the scala t3mipani extending 
from the base to the apex of the cochlea 
and supporting the organ of Corti. 

Basil^ic (^aathKoCy royal). Any structure 
or medicine of importance (obsolescent). 
B. Vein, a large vein of the arm on the 
inner side of the biceps. 

BasiKicon Ointment. An ointment com- 
posed of yellow wax, yellow resin, and 
Burgundy pitch &A I tb., olive oil d. 
~ xvj, to which, when melted, turpentine 
iij are added. Called also the " four 
irug " ointment. There are several other 
ointments bearing this name. 

Ba'^silyst (^001^, a base, Aixrtf, a loosen- 
ing). An instrument for use in crani- 
otomy, designed to perforate the cranial 
vault and break up the base of the skull. 

Basi-occip'^ital (i^aoig, occipitalis os). A 
bone, separate in many of the lower ver- 
tebrate animals, forming the central axis 
of the skull. 

Ba'^sio-glos^sus. That part of the hyo- 
glossus muscle which is attached to the 
hyoid bone. 

Ba'^sion. See Skull. 

Ba^siotribe (/3amc, rp^/^u, to grind or 
crush). An instrument used in craniotomy 
for perforating or crushing the foetid 

Basiot^ripsy. The operation of crushing 
the foetal head. 

Ba^sis. Base, q. v. The Latinized form 
is used to designate the lower or funda- 
mental part of any organ, as B. Cerebri^ 
B. Corda^ etc, 

Basi-sphen^oid. The lower part of the 
sphenoid bone. 

Bass-deafness. Deafness to certain 
bass-notes, the perception of the higher 
notes being retained. 

Bas'^ serin. The active principle of Bas- 
sora gum. It is an inodorous, white, 
translucent substance becoming gelatinous 
in water. Used to adultemte gum traga- 

Bast (Sax. bcest^ a lime tree). The inner 
bark of exogenous plants. The Bbrous 
parts of the bark which are used in mak- 
ing cordage. 

Bath (balfuuni). A bathing place or 
room. The medium in which the body 
is wholly or partly immersed. As thera- 
peutic agents, baths are classified accord- 

ing, as water ^ vapor ^ air, etc. is used; 
according to the temperature, as hot^ tern- 
perate, cold, etc. ; according to the end de- 
sired, as nutritional^ medicinal, stimulant, 
etc. B., Chemical, in chemistry, an ap- 
paratus for regulating the temperature of 
chemical processes by surrounding the 
substance with water, sand, oil or mer- 
cury, through which the heat is communi- 
cated. B., Hot Air, one in which the 
body is surrounded by air at a temperature 
of 1 00°- 1 30° F. Used as a sweating bath. 
B., Medicated, a bath in which medicinal 
substances, as mineral salt, sulphur, etc., are 
dissolved or held in suspension. B., 
Pack, or Sheet, one in which the body is 
wrapped in cloths. B., Russian, one in 
which the air of the room is saturated 
with steam by throwing water upon heated 
mineral or metallic substance, after which 
the bather is rubbed down, finishing with 
a cold douche. B., Sea, a bath in sea- 
water. B., Shower, or Douche, one in 
which a fine spray is projected against the 
body. B., Turkish, one in which the 
bather is placed successively in rooms of 
higher temperature, then shampooed or 
rubbed and finally stimulated by a douche 
of cold water. B., Vapor, one in which 
the body is exposed to air saturated with 
steam at a temperature of I22°-I45® F. 
B., Water, a bath of water. It may be 
cold (6o°-75°) or tepid (85°-95°). 

Bat^tery. A term applied to a number of 
connected Leyden jars or galvanic cells. 
B., Galvanic, one or more jars or cells 
containing a plate of zinc and one of cop- 
per (or carlx)n) suspended in acidulated 
water. When the plates of a cell are 
connected, a current of electricity is gener- 
ated. A current from twelve to twenty 
cells will heat a coarse platinum wire, 
several inches long, to whiteness. In this 
form it is much used for cautery. See 

Bat^tey's Operation. See Oophorectomy. 

Bat^tledore Placen^ta. One in which 
there is a marginal insertion of the cord. 

Bau^hin, Valve of. The ileo-ctcal valve. 

Baun^scheidism. A mode (named from 
the inventor) of treating rheumatism by 
counter-irritation, the latter being pro- 
duced by pricking the exterior, of the 
I>art affected by very fine needles dipped 
in oil of mustard, formic acid or other 

Baycu^ru. The root of a S. American 
plant, Statice Braziliensis. One of the 
most powerful astringents known. Used 




Ibr ulcers of the mouth and glandular en- 
laigements. Dose of the fld. ext., n\,v 
XXX. Unof. 

Bay Rum and Bay, Oil of. See Myrcia. 

Bay Tree. The Laurus nobilis ; also 
Prunus laurocerasus ; commonly called 
the laurel and the cherry laurel. 

BdeKlium (Heb. fdolach). A resinous 
gum exuding from various species of bai- 
samodendron. B., Indian, somewhat valu- 
able as an emmenagogue. 

Bdellom^eter (/JdeAXa, a leech). A me- 
chanical substitute for the leech, consisting 
of cupping glass, scarificator and exhausting 

Beak^er. A wide-mouthed glass vessel 
much used in chemical laboratories. 

Bean. The seed of several species of 
Uguminosa^ especially that of the common 
b«m, Faba vulgaris. B. of St. Ignatius. 
See J^natia. 

Beard. The hair on the lips, cheeks and 
chin of adult men and certain species of 

Bear^ing-down. The feeling of weight 
or pressure in the pelvis in certain diseases. 
B.-d. Pains, uterine j^ain in labor. 

Bear's-foot. Leaf cup. A popular remedy 
for enlargement of the spleen, or the " ague- 
cake "of malarious regions. B., Ext. Dose 
§. ss-j. B., Fid. Ext. Dose n\^iij-x. 
., Infus, .^j of a ,5J to Oj. Unof 

Beat. The pulsations of the blood in the 
arteries, or the impulse of the heart. See 

Bed. The couch or support on which the 
body may rest in sleep ; usually a mattress 
of straw, hair or similar substance. B ., Air, 
a mattress of rubl)cr or leather which can 
be inflated with air. B.-bug an a})terous 
insect, Cinux lectulariuSy which infests 
filthy bedsteads, and at times parasitic 
uix>n the human Ixxiy. B.-case, a form 
of hysteria or illness in which the patient 
persistently remains in bed. B. Sore, a 
sore produced un any projecting |)art of the 
body by prolonged pressure against the 
bed, and by nutritive changes in paralyzed 
parts. B., Water. See Water Bed. 

Bee. A genus of insects belonging to 
the ffynienoptera^ commonly used to des- 
ignate the common I loney Hee, Apis melli- 
Jica. B. Bread, a resinous sulwlance 
with which bees line their hives and fill 
certain cells. B. Poison, the irritating 
secretion discharged through the sting of 
the bee. See Formic Arid. 

Beef. The flesh of domestic cattle. Good 
beef should be of red color, possess firm 

texture, and be free from unpleasant 
smell. Beef consists mainly of water 
73, fibrin 15, gelatin 4, albumen 3, fat and 
other substances 5 per cent. B. Extract, 
the soluble fibrin of lean meat partly des- 
iccated. B. Tea, the soluble extractive 
matter of beef, made by steeping finely- 
cut lean beef with its weight of water, and 

Beer. See Mali Liquors. 

Beer's Cat^aract Knife, a knife with trian- 
gular-shaped blade, for making section of 
cornea in the removal of the crystalline 

Bees'^wax. See Cera. 

Begg^ato'a. A genus of the family of 
Beggiatoacees, whose filaments are not 
enclosed in a gelatinous envelope. B. 
Alba, a very common variety in sulphur- 
ous and stagnant waters, frequently in wells 
and cisterns, forming white mucoid flakes 
that may extend to large masses. Spiril- 
lum volutans may form one part of its de- 
velopmental cycle. B. Arachnoidea, 
also conormon in sulphurous and stagnant 
water ; likewise B. Leptomitiformis. B. 
Mirabilis, common in sea water among 
decomposing algx. B. Nivea, found in 
sulphurous waters. B. Roseopersicina, 
the source of Bacteriopurpuriney common 
in fresh and sea water. 

Begg^atoa^cees. A family of Bacteria, 
comprising the genera Beggiatoa and Cre- 
nothrix. The elements are in rods or fila- 
ments with a basic part, often fixed, and a 
free apex or top. Forms within its articu- 
lations spherical bodies that are probably 
true spores. 

Be^la. The dried, half-ripe fruit of Aeji^le 
marmelooy or Bengal quince. It is a valu- 
able remedy in chronic diarrhoea and 
dysentery.* The r/*^ fruit is slightly laxa- 
tive. Dose .^ss-j. Unof 

Belch'^ing. The expulsion or throwing up 
of wind violently from the stomach. 

Belladon^na. Deadly Night-shade. A 
perennial j)lant of the order Solanacece^ 
indigenous to Southern Euroini and Asia, 
and cultivated in the U. S. IVojxjnies 
due to two alkaloids, atropine and bella- 
donnine, the latter thought to be identical 
with hyoscyamine. Both leaves and flowers 
are employed. A mild narctrtic and ano- 
dyne and a powerful mydriatic. Valuable 
in inflammation of rheumatism, gout and 
neuralgia. Dose of the root and leaves 

S. j. B. Extractum Alcoholicum. 
ose gr. iV~i* ^- I'i'^ct., 15 per cent 




Dose n\j-xxx. B. Unguent., contains 
extract lo, dilute alcohol 6, benzoated 
lard 84 parts. Atropine Sulphate, an 
excellent antidote in opium poisoning. 
See Atropine. Dose gr. xiinV* J^om* 
atropine. See Atropine. 

Bell's Law. The discovery that the an- 
terior roots of the spinal nerves are motor, 
and the posterior sensory. See also IVai- 
lerian Degeneration. 

Bell's Paralysis. Paralysis of the facial 

Belly. See Abdomen, 

Belt. A girdle about the waist. B., Ab- 
dominal, a broad, elastic belt worn about 
the abdomen as a support during preg- 
nancy. B., Magnetic, a belt consisting 
of plates of metal fastened upon a strip of 
felt moistened with dilute acid. It is a 
cure-all largely sold by empirics. 

Beng. Sec Cannabis Indica. 

Benign'' [bcnigntiSy kind). A term applied 
to medicines which are characterized by 
mildness. Used chiefly to distinguish tu- 
mors which are not malignant (^. v.) or 

Benn^ Oil. See Sesame OUum. 

Benzi^num. See Benzol. 

Ben^zoin. A resin obtained from Siyrax 
benzoin^ a tree native to Sumatra and Siam. 
Occurs in tears consisting of several resins 
agglutinated by a l)alsam. Yields benzoic 
and cinnamic acids. Antiseptic and disin- 
fectant. Used mainly as a stimulant ex- 
pectorant in chronic bronchitis. Sodium and 
potassium compounds are sometimes used 
in place of like salicylic acid compounds. 
Adeps Benzoinatus, l)enzoinated lard, 
contains 2 ])er cent, of l)enzoin. B. Tinct., 
20 per cent, of the resin in alcohol. Dose 
3 ss-j. B . Tinct. Comp., Frier's Halsam, 
l)en/oin 12, aloes 2, styrax 8, l)alsam of 
Tolu 4, alcohol, q. s. ad loo parts. Dose 
2 ss-ij. Benzoic Acidy alcohol best solvent. 
A constituent of opii, tinct. camphorat. 
Dose gr. x-xxx. Ammonium Benzoate^ 
water best solvent. Dose gr. v-xxx. Lith- 
ium Benzotite^ dose gr. v-xxx. Sodium 
Benzoate^ water Ijest solvent. Dose gr. 

Ben^zol. A hydrocarbon formed by the 
dry distillation of organic substances. De- 
rived chiefly from coal tar. Composition, 
CjHj. Inflammable and very volatile. An 
excellent solvent for grease. Used inter- 
nally to destroy epizoa. Vapor used in 
whooping-cough. Dose gtt. v-x. 

Beriberis. Harberry. The root of B. 
aquifolium^ or Oregon grape. Ptoperties 

due to an alkaloid, berberine. An astringent, 
bitter tonic. In large doses a cathartic. 
Used locally in conjunctivitis, and inter- 
nally in malarial and typhoid fevers. B., 
Ext. Fid., dose v-xxx. B., Tinct., con- 
tains 20 per cent, of the root. Berberine, 
the alkaloid. Dose gr. j-x. B. Muri- 
ate, an efficient injection in gonorrhoea. 
All unof. 

Berga^mii Oleum. Oil of Bergamot. See 

Bergamot^, Oil of. An essential oil de- 
rived from the rind of the Citrus berganu. 
Composition, C^gHj^. Used mainly as a 

Beriberi, or Beri Beri (Cingalese, beri^ 
weakness). A dropsical ailment charac- 
terized by the appearance of nmltiple 
neuritis, and accompanied by anxmia and 
paraplegia. IVevalent in India and Cey- 
lon. Possibly of microbic origin. 

Bert's Experiment. Bert removed the 
skin from the tip of the tail of a rat, 
stitched it into the skin of the back of the 
animal, and after union had taken place 
the tail was divided at its base. Sensation 
was preserved. Nerve -fit lers were thus 
proved capable of transmitting impulses in 
both directions. 

BestiaPity (bestia^ a beast). Unnatiural 
intercourse with an animal. 

Beta^ine. A ptomaine obtained from both 
animal and vegetable substances. It has 
been found in human urine and in poison- 
ous mussel, but not in putrid mussel. It 
has been procured from beet-root juice 
and cotton seed. It is not poisonous; 
l»elongs to the Choline group. 

Beta-naphthol. See Naphihol. 

Be'^tel. A masticatory used in the East 
A few grains of the nut of the Catechu 
l)alm, Areca C, are rolled up with a 
small amount of ({uicklime in a leaf of 
Piper betel, and chewed. Tonic, astrin- 
gent, stimulant and aphrodisiac. Increases 
lowers of endurance. Dose of fld. cxt. 
3J-iij. Unof. 

Beth Root. The rhizome of Trillium 
erecta. Astringent and tonic. .Dose of fld. 
ext. n\^xxx-,:5J. Trilliin,?^ concentrated 
ext. l)ose gr. ij-iv. Unof. 

Be^tol. Naphthalol. A salicylic ether of 
naphthol. Of alleged value in rheumatism 
and cystitis. Resembles salicylic acid in 
iwoperties. YUxa gr. x-xv. Unof. 

Bezo^ar. .See A'lgagropili. 

Bhang. See Cannabis Indica. 

Bi (bis, twice). A prefix signif3ring " twice " 
or ''two;" as ^t-cuspid, two cusps; ^i-lobed» 




twice lobed; W-valvcd, with two valves; 
^f-Utexal, two-sided, etc. In chemistry the 
prefix </f , is commonly employed. 

Bib^ulous Ufiberey to drink^. Having the 
property ot- absorbing moisture or other 
liquids. B. Lrapis, pumice stone. B. 
Paper, blotting paper. 

Bi^ceps [biit twice, caputs the head). A 
term applied to several muscles, as B, 
brackiu B. extensor, B. /Uxor cruris. So 
called from their double origin. 

Bicip^ital. Pertaining to the biceps muscle. 

Bi-con^cave. See Lens. 

Bi-con'^vez. See Lens. 

Bicusp^id (H and cuspis, the point of a 
spear). Having two cusps, as B . Teeth, the 
fourth and fifUi teeth, which are distin- 
guished by having each two cusps or points. 
B. Valve, the mitral valve of the heart 

Bid^der's Gang^lion. A ganglion situa- 
ted between the auricles and ventricles, 
in the walls of the heart. 

Bien^^nial (^i, two, annus, a year). Every 
two years. In botany, plants that piro- 
duce foliage and a root-stalk the first year, 
fk>wering and maturing the second. 

BFfid {Jbisy iw'ice,yim/o, to cleave). Divided 
in two ; cleft, as the spina bifida. 

Bift/cal. With a double focus. Used of 
a system of lenses or spectacle glasses 
wiA two foci, for the correction of presby- 
opia, when there is at the same time an 
error of refraction for distant vision. The 
distance lens is above that for near work. 
Sometimes called Pantoscopic lenses, and 
also Franklin spectacles, because the de- 
vice was first made by Benjamin Franklin. 

Bile (Lat. bilis, Gr. ;ro/7). The juice 
secreted by the liver. B. is mucilaginous, 
golden brown in man, golden red in car- 
nivora, brownish green in herbivora, and 
green in birds. Composed of biliary salts, 
cholesterin, mucus and certain pigments. 
The princifxil acids are taurocholic and 
glychocolic, both commonly combined with 

Bile Pigments. Bilirubin and Biliverdin. 
B. P., Test for. See Gnulin I/eintz Re- 

Bilhar'zia Haemato^bia. See Distoma. 

BiKiary. Pertaining to the bile. B. 
Acids, Glycocholic and Taurocholic 
Acids, formed in the liver. Tests for B. 
A. in the urine. See Oliver's Test, Pctten- 
kofer's Test, and Hay's Test. B. Ducts, 
the hepatic, the cystic and the ductus com- 
munis choledochus. The firet leads from 
the liver, the second from the gall-bladder. 
The third is a common excretory duct 

Bilicy^anin. A blue pigment obtained 
from bilirubin. 

Bilifus^cin {J>ilis, fuscus, brown). A pig- 
mentary matter occurring in bile, and in 
human gall-stones. 

BiKious. A term popularly applied to 
disorders supposed to arise from a too free 
secretion of bile. B. Fever, a term 
loosely lulled to certain enteric and mala- 
rial fevers. 

Bilipra^sin [bilis, irpaaov, a leek). A pig- 
mentary substance occurring in gall-stones, 
icteric urine and bile. It is bilirubin 
-h H,0 -f O. 

Bilini^bin {bilis, ruber, red). A pigment- 
ary substance found in bile. 

Biliver^din (bilis, viridis, green). A pig- 
mentary substance found in bile. 

Bima^na [bi, two, manus, a hand). An 
order of the division of mammalia in- 
cluding man only. 

Biman^ual. Two-handed. Ambidextrous. 

Bi^nary [binus, a couple). In chemistry, 
compounded of two elements. In anat- 
omy, separating into two branches. 

Binaiu/al (bis, twice, auris, ear). Per- 
taining to or having two ears. 

Bind^er. A wide bandage about the abdo- 
men, worn by women during or after labor, 
to support the abdominal walls. 

Binoc^ular (^i, two, oculus, an eye). In 
anatomy, having, or pertaining to two eyes. 
In optics, an instrument with two eye-pieces 
for use with both eyes at once. B. Vision, 
the faculty of using both eyes synchron 
ously and without diplopia. 

Biogen^esis (/?/oc, life, •)tvtfsi^, origin). 
The doctrine that living things are pro- 
duced only from living things—ihe reverse 
of abiof^enesis. 

Biolog^ical Law. See Phylof;eny. 

BioKog^ {fii(Ki ^W* a discourse). The 
science embracing the structure, fimction, 
and organization of life forms. 

BioKysis (/?/of, Aww, to loosen). The 
destruction of life, ilie devitalization of 
living tissue. 

Biom'^eter (/'?<oc» fJterfxw, measure). Dr. 
Farr speaks of the Life-Table {^.v.) as a 
B., and of equal importance in all in({uiries 
connected with human life or sanitary im- 
provements with the liarometer or ther- 
mometer, etc., in physical research; and 
the keystone or pivot on which the whole 
science of life assurance rests. 

Bioph^ag^s (liu)^, ^i)o, to eat). A mode 
of nutrition of plants, in which the organs 
of the plant seize and dissolve the bodies 
of insects. 




Bi^oplasm (y3«of , n?MafM^ form). Any liv- 
ing matter. A matter possessing repro- 
ductive vitality. See Protoplasm. 

Bi^oplast {fiLo^y^'kaatJi^y to form). A mass 
or cell of bioplasm which is a unit of living 

Bios^copy (/?/of , a/ccwrfo, to examine). Ex- 
amination of the body to ascertain whether 
life be extinct. B., Electro-, examination 
by the aid of the electric current. The 
muscular reaction is lost to Faradic stimu- 
lation in about two hours after death in the 
tongue; 3-4 hours in the extremities; 5-6 
in the trunk. Galvanic reactions persist 
somewhat longer. 

Biot'^ic {flioO- Pertaining to life or to the 
laws of animal and vegetable progress and 

Biot*s Resplra^tion. That occurring with- 
out variation in the size of the individual 
respirations, as, e.g.^ during sleep. 

Bi^ped (^/, ivtOypes^ a foot). With or hav- 
ing two feet. 

Bipc/lar. Having two poles. B. Nerve- 
cells, nerve-cells which have two pro- 
longations of the cell matter. Found 
chiefly in the ganglia of the gray matter of 
the brain. 

Bird's Formula. The two last figures 
of the specific gravity of urine nearly repre- 
sent the number of grains of solids to the 
ounce contained in the urine. The same 
two figures multiplied by 2 (Trapp's Fac- 
tor) give the parts per looo. Hsser's 
Factor is 2.33. 

Bird's-nest Cells. The cells of certain 
forms of epithelial cancer, distinguished by 
the concentric arrangement of their cell 

Bird's-nest, Edible. The nest of certain 
species of swift, used by the Chinese as 
food. Consists of marine algae, Gelidium^ 
cemented by salivary mucus of the bird. 

Birth (Sax. beorth). The delivery of a 
child. B., Plural, the birth of more than 
a single child. B., Posthumous, a child 
bom after the death of its father. B., Pre- 
cocious, the occurrence of natural labor 
in a shorter time after coition than is usual. 
B., Premature. See Labor, B., Still. 
See Still-bom. 

Birth-mark. See Navtis Pignientoms. 

Bis-cara Button. See Furunculm Orien- 

Bisex-ual. Having the reproductive or- 
gans of both sexes. Hermaphrodite. 

Bish^op's Weed. See Ajowan. 

Bis-kra Boil. See Furunculm Orien- 

Bis-muth, or 

Bismu'^thum. Bi = 210 ; quantivalence I, 
III, V. A pinkish- white crystalline metal. 
Not used in medicine in its metallic fonn. 
Commercial salts apt to contain arsenic. 
The insoluble salts of B. are feebly astrin- 
gent. Useful in disordered digestion, 

acne, eczema, etc. B. et Ammonii 
Citras, soluble in water. Dose gr. j-v. 
B. Citras, soluble in water of ammonia. 
Used only for pharmaceutical purposes. 
B. Oxychlorid., pearl white. Unof. 
Used as a cosmetic. B. Subcarbonas, 
insoluble. Best given in emulsion with 
milk. Dose gr. x-^j. B. Subnitras, 
the salt chiefly used in medicine. Used 
also as a cosmetic. Dose gr. x-^j. 

Bis^tort. The rhizome of Polygonum bis- 
torta. An astringent. Dose of fid. ext 
TT\^xx-xl. Unof 

Bist'^oury ( Fr. Bistouri ) . A small ( straight 
or curved) knife used in sui^ery. B.- 
cachi, has the blade concealed for pass- 
ing to the point to be incised, and by 
pressure on the handle the blade is ex- 
posed and the incision made. 

Bit-ter (Sax. bitan^ to bite). A peculiar, 
well-known taste, of which quinine pre- 
sents an example. B. Almond, the nut 
of the Amygdalum amara. Contains 
hydrocyanic acid. B. Apple, the fruit 
of the colocynth. Purgative. B. Bugle - 
weed, the herb Lycopus Europaus. Alter- 
ative and tonic. Dose of fld. ext. ^^M- 
Unof. B. Cup, a cup made of quassia 
wood. Tonic. B. Purging Salt, sul- 
phate of magnesia. B. Root, the root of 
Gcntiana Catesbin. Tonic. B. Tincture, 
tincture of bitter almonds. B. Wine of 
Iron, a solution of white wine, syrup, citrate 
of iron and quinine. Tonic. See Ferrum. 

Bit-ters. Medicines characterized by a 
bitter taste. B., Aromatic, medicines 
that unite the proi)erties of aromatics with 
those of simple bitters. B., Simple, medi- 
cines that stimulate the gastro- intestinal 
tract without influencing the general sys- 
tem. B., Styptic, medicines that add 
styptic and astringent properties to those 
of bitterness. 

Bit-tersvireet. See Dulcamara. 

Bitu'^men (bitumcny Gr. aa^'kroq). Min- 
eral pitch or oil composed of various hydro- 
carbons. In solid form it is usually called 
asphalt; in li(}uid form, petroleum. An 
intermediate form is known as mineral tar 
or maltha. By distillation, bitumen yields 
benzol, naphtha, paraffine, and various 
other hydrocaiboQs, liquid and gaseouflb 




Biu^ret Reaction. A test for proteids — a 
violet color by adding a few drops of Fehl- 
ingfs solution. 

Bi\Kalent. See Quantivalence. 

Biven^tral (^i, two, ventrunif a stomach). 
Having two stomachs. 

Black (Sax. bUec\ Absence of color or 
light. The appearance of an object from 
whose surface none of the spectrum colors 
are reflected. B. Alder. See Prinos. B. 
Antimony, antimonium tersulphide, Sb- 
Sg. B. Kfktiyi}a&\>zx\iQli Fraxinus sambuci- 

folia, a mild tonic and astringent. Dose of 
fld. ext. zss-j. Unof. B. Blood, venous 
blood. B. Cancer. See Melanosis. B. 
Cohosh, ^ice Cimici/uga. B. Death. See 
Plague. B. Draught. See Senna. B. 
Drop See Opium. B. Eye. See Ecchy- 
mosis. B.Haw. Sgq Viburnum. B. Hel- 
lebore. See Hellebore. B. Lead, a form 
of carbon properly known as the mineral 
graphite. B. Walnut, the leaves oi Jug- 
lans nigra, a tonic, alterative and deotetru- 
ent. Dose of fld. ext. n\^xx-xxx. Unof. 
B. Willow, the buds of Salix nigra, a 
bitter tonic with aphrodisiac properties. 
Dose of fld ext. tT\^xv-;5 j. Unof 

Black^berry. See Rubus. 

Black-Tongue. See Glossophytia. 

Blad^der (Sax., blasan, to blow). The 
membranous, sac-like reservoir or recep- 
tacle of the urine. B., Atony of, inability 
to expel the urine, from deficient muscular 
power. B., Catarrh of. See Cystitis. B., 
Extrophy or Extroversion of, absence of 
the anterior wall of the B. , and more or less 
deficiency of the corresponding part of the 
abdomen. B., Fasciculated, the walls 
thrown into ridges by chronic cystitis. B., 
Hernia of. See Cystocele. B., Inflamma- 
tion of. ^e Cystitis. B., Inversion of, 
a protrusion or an invagination of the blad- 
der through the urethra. B., Irritable, a 
condition characterized by constant desire 
to urinate. B., Neck of, the constricted 
portion continuous with the urethra in front. 
B., Paralysis of, the same symptoms as in 
atony, but more marked and due to nervous 
or central disease. If affecting the neck 
alone, there is incontinence-, if the body of 
the organ, retention of urine. B., Saccu- 
lated, pouches formed Initween the hyper- 
trophied muscular fibres. 

Bladder- wrack. See Fueus Vesiculosus. 

Blae^sitas {fi^aiao^, one limping). Stam- 
mering or lisping. Also the condition of 
one with distorted limits. Applied also to 
one having an angular curvature of the 
^liiie. The term is loosely used. 

Blain. A blister; an elevation of the 
cuticle containing serum. 

Bland (blandus, mild). A term applied to 
mild and soothing medicines and applica- 

Blank^et (Fr. blanc, white). A woolen 
covering, so called because originally of 
white color. B., Bath. See Bath, Sheet 
or Pack. 

Blaste^ma {Pjaaravti, to germinate). The 
formative lymph or pabulum of capillary 
exudation. A synonym of protoplasm. 

Blast^oderm {^^TjiaTavu, depfia, skin). In 
embryology, the germinal membrane formed 
by the cells of the morula, lying on the 
internal surface of the vitelline membrane 
of the impregnated ovum. The whole hollow 
sphere, with its siurounding cells, is called 
the blastodermic vesicle, and is formed 
about the tenth day. The ectoderm (or 
epi blast) and the endoderm {entoderm or 
hypoblast) layers are simply due to a pro- 
liferation of the blastodermic cells about 
\}n^ germinal area, whereby the blastoderm 
is doubled, thus forming these outer and 
inner layers. The mesoblast or middle 
layer is developed after the latter, and 
probably from the hypoblast. The BlastO' 
pore is the point where the covering in of 
the germinal area is temporarily incom- 

Blast^omere. See Morula. 

Blasf^opore. See Blastoderm. 

Blast^osphere. The embryonic segmenta- 
tion sphere formed by the union of the male 
and female elements. 

Blat'^ta Orienta'^lis. The powdered body 
of the cockroach. A popular remedy for 
dropsy among Russian peasants. Increases 
the amount of urine and diminishes the 
amount of albumen. Dose gr. iv-xx. Unof. 

Bleach. To make white or pale, to dimin- 
ish the intensity of color. Bleaching 
Powder, chlorinated lime, a mixtuie of 
calcium chloride and calcium hypochlorite, 
containing free chlorine gas. Much use<l as 
a disinfectant. Bleaching Fluid, eau de 
Javelle, a similar comix)sition obtained by 
passing chlorine gas into an emulsion of 
calcium hydrate. 

Blear Eye. See Blepharitis Ulcerosa. 

Bleb. See Ihdla. 

Bleed-'ers* Disease. See Ilamophilia. 

Blennorrha^gia (.?/fiTof, mucus, Ivf^vvfii, 
to burst forth). An excessive discbarge 
of mucus from the urethra or vagina. See 

Blennorrhce'^a (/lAfin-of, ^w, to flow). 
Same as Blennorrhagia. 




Blennc/sis. A generic name for diseases 
of the mucous membrane. 

Blephari^tis l(i?j<papov, the eyelidV In- 
flammation of the eyelids. B. Ciliaris, 
inflammation seated in the hair follicles. 
B. Marginalia, inflammation seated in 
the marginal border of the lids. B. Ulcer- 
osa, a catiurhal or ulcerous inflammation 
of the eyelids, occurring as the sequel of 
catarrhal conjunctivitis. 

Bleph'^aro-adeni'^tis {P^e^pov, aSjjv, 
gland, iTig). Inflammation of the Meibo- 
mian glands. 

Blepharophimc/sis (^fiuatc, a shutting 
up). Abnormal smallness of the palpebral 

Bleph^aroplasty {ir?MiTau, to form). An 
operation for the formation of any part of 
the eyelid destroyed by wound or lesion, by 
ingrafting or transplanting fixnn a contigu- 
ous healthy part. 

Blepharople^gia. See Ptosis. 

Blepharopto^sis. See Ptosis. 

Bleph^arospasxn {oKaafwc). Spasm of 
the orbicularis palpebrarum muscle. 

Bleph^arostat (tart^fii, to standi An in- 
strument for holding the eyelicls apart or 
Arm whilst performing operations upon 
the eyes or lids. 

Blessed Thistle. See Carduus, 

Blight. A partial paralysis of certain 
facial nerves, arising fix>m sudden or 
extreme cold. B. of the Eye, an extra- 
vasation of blood within the conjunctiva. 

Blind (Sax. biind). Without sight. De- 
prived of sight. B. Spot, that part of the 
area of the fundus of the eye where the optic 
nerve enters. 

Blindness. Want of vbion. Color-B., 
subnormal perception of colors. This con- 
dition is found in about 4 per cent, of people, 
is more frequent in men than women, and 
is probably due to non -exercise of the color 
sense. Complete Color-B. is very rare, 
the diflerent cplors probably ajipearing as 
diflerent intensities or shades of white light. 
In Partial Color-B., subnormal percep- 
tion of red is the most fre<|uent, green, 
blue and yellow, respectively, being next in 
order. Tests for Color-B., usually con- 
sist in matching and classifying colored 
yams. Cortical B., R. due to lesion of 
the cortical center of vision. Day-B. See 
Nyctalopia. Moon-B., a rare condition 
of retinal anaesthesia said to be due to expo- 
sure of the eyes to the moon's rays in sleep- 
ing. Night-B. See Henuralopia. Psy- 
chical B., loss of conscious visual sensa- 
tion fiom destructioQ of the central area 

of the visual center; there is sight but 
not recognition. Snovir-B., photophobia 
and conjunctivitis due to exposure of the 
eyes to the glare of sunlight upon snow. 

Blis^ter A vesicle resulting from the 
exudation of serous fluid l)etween the epi- 
dermis and true skin. Also the agent by 
which the blister is produced. B., Fly, a 
beetle, Cantharis vcsicatoria, the body of 
which is used as a blistering agent B., 
Flying, a blister which remains long 
enough to produce only a redness of the 
skin and not vesication. 

Blood. The fluid which circulates through 
the heart, arteries and veins, supplying 
nutritive material to all parts of the body. 
In the human l)eing the blood of the arte- 
ries is bright red ; that of the veins dark 
red. Blood consists of colorless plasma 
in which are suspended the red and white 
corpuscles. When exposed to the air it 
coagulates, forming a red clot, and a yellow- 
ish fluid called serum. Healthy blood 
consists of 79 per cent, of water and 21 
per cent, solids. B. Corpuscles, small, 
circular, biconcave discs floating in the 
blood. Red corpuscles are circular in 
mammals (except the camel], and elliptical 
in birds and reptiles. Tney are al:out 

Ti'av ^°^^ ^^ diameter and ^-^ji^ inch 
thick. White corpuscles are about one- 
third larger in diameter and comparatively 
few. They exhibit a movement similar 
to those of amaba. llie coloring matter 
of the B. is found in a substance known 
as haemoglobin, and is said to be due to 
minute quantities of the salts of iron. B. 
Crystals, crystals of a substance known 
as hsematoidin. B. Heat, a temperature 
varying from 98® to 100° F. B., Loss of. 
See Hemorrhage. B. Plasma, the liquor 
sanguinis y or fluid part of the blood. B. 
Poisoning, a common term denoting any 
ailment arising from the introduction of 
decomposing organic matter or putrefactive 
germs into the blood. See Anthrax ^ Pyte- 
mia rmd Septiarmia, B. Plates, pale, 
colorless, oval, round or lenticular discs of 
variable size, found in healthy normal 
human blood, 18,000 to 250,000 per cubic 
millimeter. Their function is not cer- 
tainly known. Also called (Hayem) hae- 
matoblasts. B. Pressure, the force of 
compression exerted by the blood upon the 
walls of the vessels under the influence of 
the heart's action, the elastic walls, etc. 
Various instruments have been devised to 
estimate the amount of this pressure, the 
HamadynamomettrofPoiseuuU^ Ludw^s 




Kynu^raphf Fick^s Spring Kymography v. 
Bosch's Sphygmomanometer ^ the Gradu- 
ated Sphygmograph^ etc. 

Blood-Islands. A term applied to the 
groups of corpuscles developed in the fowl 
during the first days of embryonic life, 
within the large branched celb of the 

Bloodless Operations. Surgical opera- 
tions, such as amputations, in which the 
member is so bandaged by compresses and 
elastic rings that the blood is expelled from 
the part to be operated upon. 

Bloodletting. The artificial abstraction 
of blood from the body. B., General, 
venesection or phlebotomy ; it acts by re- 
ducing the heart's action and diminishing 
the quantity of blood. Occasionally used 
with excellent results in pneumonia, sun- 
stroke, etc, B., Local or Topical. See 
Cuppings Leeching ox Scarification. Usefid 
in certain inflammatory conditions. 

Blood-root. See Sangttinaria. 

Bloodshot. Extravasated with blood. 

Bloody. Having the nature of, or filled 
with blood. B. Flux. See Dysentery. 
B. Svireat. See Ephidrosis. 

BloviT'^pipe. A short tube bent at one 
end and tapering to a point, used in direct- 
ing the flame of a lamp in a fine conical 
tongue. B., Oxy hydrogen, an appa- 
ratus for producing intense heat by burn- 
ing hydrogen or illuminating gas at the 
end of a mixing nozzle. 

Blue. One of the colors of the spectrum. 
B. Disease. See CyanoptUhy. B. Flag. 
See Iris. B. Gentian, the root of Gen- 
tiana Cateshai^ tonic and stomachic. Dose 
of fld. ext., TT\^x-xl. Unof. B. Gum. 
See Gingival. B. Gum Tree. See Eu- 
calypUts. B. Ointment. See Hydrargy- 
rum. B. Pill. See Hydrargyrum. B. 
Stone. See Copper. 

Boat-belly. See Scaphoid Abdomen. 

Body. The animal frame with its oi^ans. 
Also, a cadaver or corpse. 

Body Louse. See Pcdi cuius. 

Bcet'^tcher's Test. For sugar. First 
eliminate the albumin, if any present. 
Add a small amount of bismuth suimitrate 
to equal amounts, mixed, of susp<*cted 
urine and potassium hydrate; Ixjil; if 
sugar be present the white jwwder turns 
gray, brown or black, from reduction to 
metallic bismuth. 

Boil (Sax. ffyi). A furuncle, — a local- 
ized inflammation of the skin and .sui>cu- 
taneous connective ti.ssue attended by the 
fonnation of pus. B., Aleppo or B., 

Delhi, a peculiar ulcerative affection en- 
demic in India, due to a specific and patho- 
genic microbe. It has been proposed by 
Heydenreich to call this Tropical Boil. 
Other names are Penjdeh Boil and Bouton 

Bonding. The vaporization of a liquid 
when it gives off vapor having the same 
tension as the surrounding air. Most tis- 
sues, animal and vegetable, are softened 
and rendered more or less soluble by boil- 
ing. Albumin and most albuminoids, 
however, are rendered insoluble. The 
temperature of B. water at the level of the 
sea is about 212° F. (100° C.) ; it de- 
creases with increasing altitude. 

Boiling Test. For albumin. Acidulate 
an alkaline urine and heat upper half to 
boiling. Turbidity indicates albumin. 

Bois'^sons (/>*.). Cheap fermented liquors 
made from raisins or ciher dried fruits to 
which sweetened water is added and fer- 
mentation allowed. 

Bo'^la. See Myrrh. 

BoPdo-glu'^cine. An aromatic glucoside 
obtained from B. fragrans and other 
species. A hypnotic in doses of gr. xx- 
3J. Unof. 

Bol'^dus. Boldo. The leaves and stems 
of an everg^en, B. pettmus, native to 
Chili and vicinity. Sometimes used in 
an;i3mia and general debility as a substi- 
tute for quinine. B., Tinct., contains 20 
per cent, of the drug. Dose n\^v-viij. 

Bole (/?w?^, a clod of earth). A trans- 
lucent, soft variety of clay formerly much 
used in medicine, internally as an astrin- 
gent, externally as an absorl)ent. 

Bologn'^a Phos'^phorus. A sulphide of 
Barium, having the property of emitting a 
|)ale, feeble light in the dark. 

Bo'^lus. A mass of medicine exhibited 
in the form of a large pill. 

Bom'^bus {IhfiSoc^ the humming sound of 
bees). A ringing or buzzing sound in the 
ears. Also a sonorous movement or 
rumbling flatus of the intestines. 

Bone. (Sax. fidn). A hanl tissue which 
constitutes the framework or skeleton of 
the body. Composed mainly of tri-calcium 
phosphate and cartilage. A single articu- 
lation of lK)ne usually consists of a compact 
outer mass covered with periosteum^ sur- 
rounding a reticulate<l inner structure 
which encloses a central cavity filled with 
marrow. A transverse section shows l)one 
tissue to l)e comjX)Sed of a numl»er of nearly 
circular /ones, each having a central tul^, 
the Haversian canal, through which the 




blood circulates. Surrounding the H. canal 
are concentrically arranged belts of oblong 
cells called' lacuna. Each lacuna is the 
outlet of a number of canalicuiif through 
which the nutrition is conveyed to all parts 
of the bone. B. Ash, the calcic phos- 
phate remaining after bones have been 

Bone^set. See Eupatorium. 

Bonnet's Capsule. See Ocular {Sheath). 

Boot, Junod*s. See Junod^s Boot. 

Borac^ic Acid. See Boron. 

Bo^rage. The plant B. officinalis. A 
demulcent, mild refrigerant and diapho- 
retic. Dose of fld. ext. gj. Unof. 

Bo^raz. See Boron. 

Borboryg^mus. See Bombus. 

Bo^ric Acid. See Boron. 

Bor^neol. A principle derived from Drya- 
balanops camphora^ a tree native to the 
East Indies. It produces spasms of epi- 
leptiform character. 

Bc^ro-glyc^eride. A preparation made 
by heatmg boracic acid and glycerine. 
Used as a local application in eye and 
skin affections. Unof. 

Bo^ron. B = ii; quantivalence III, v. 
The base of boric acid and of the mineral 
borax. Boracic^ or, more properly, Boric 
Acid, a crystalline substance, H,BO„ 
found native in the volcanic lagoons of 
Tuscany. Occurs in white, transparent 
crystals, soluble in water and alcohol. A 
powerful antiseptic, and much used in 
parasitic diseases of the skin. Borax, 
sodium diborate. Occurs in lacustrine de- 
posits as white, transparent cystals, soluble 
m water, alcohol and glycerine. Used as 
an antiseptic wash for ulcers And indolent 
lesions. Valuable also as an emmenagc^e, 
and in leucorrhoea. All unof. 

Bot (hotus, a belly- worm). The larva of 
certain species of flies of the genus CEstrus, 
which are conveyed into the stomach of 
man, where they hatch. Also the thread- 
worm, Oxyurus vemiicularis, 

BotaKli, Foramen of. The foramen ovale 
of the foetal heart. 

Bot^any [poravTj^ an herb). The science 
of plants — their classification and struc- 

Bothrioceph^alus La^tus. See Tape- 

Bot^r)roid (/3or/wf, a cluster of grapes). 
Resembling the shape of a bunch of 

Bott^ger's Test. See Basttcher's Test. 

Bot^tle {PovTiq, a flask, Fr. bouteille). A 
vessel, usually of glass with a narrow neck. 

B., Feeding, a flat flask with a nipple of 
India rubber attached, used in feeding 
infants. B. Nose, a common name for 
Acne Roseola. B., Specific Gravity, a 
Florence flask graduated to contain 500- 
1000 grains of water, with the weight of 
which any other equal volume of liquid 
may be compared. 

Botulin^ic Acid. An acid asserted to 
exist in putrefying sausages, forming their 
specific poison. 

Bougie (Fr. bougie ^ a candle). A 
slender, cylindrical instrument made of 
waxed silk, catgut, etc.^ for introduction 
into the urethra or other passage, for the 
purpose of dilation, exploration, etc. Some- 
times coated with preparations tliat are 
thus conveyed to the inner mucous sur- 
faces. B., Armed, a bougie with a piece 
of nitrate of silver or other caustic attached 
to its extremity. B., Filiform, whale- 
bone or other bougies of very small size. 

Bou^hou. A name given to a malarial 
disease resembling dengue, which is preva- 
lent in the Sandwich Islands. 

Bou^illon (Fr.). An alimentary broth 
made by boiling meat, usually beef, in 
water. A soup. Also a liquid nutritive 
medium made by boiling meat for the cul- 
ture of microdrganisms. Peptonized bouil- 
lons and solutions of powdered meats have 
also been used. B. of Liebig, made 
by dissolving Liebig*s meat extract, 5 
grammes, in boiling water, 100 grammes, 
neutralizing with bicarbonate of soda and 
filtering. It becomes more nutritive by 
adding glucose. 

Bounc^ing Bet. See Soapwort. 

Bou^quet. The peculiar flavor of wines 
which have been aged, supposed to be due 
to oenanthic ether. 

Bourdon'^nement (Fr. bourdonner, to 
buzz.) Any buzzing sound. The mur- 
mur which is heard when the stethoscope 
is applied to any part of the body. Thought 
to result fix>m contraction of muscular 
fibrillae. See, also, Bombus. 

Boutonni^re Opera^tion (Fr. bouton- 
nierej button hole). An operation for 
urethral stricture. The location of the 
stricture is fixed by a catheter and an in- 
cision is made in front of it ; a probe is 
then passed to the bladder. The stricture 
is then divided. 

Boutons Terminals (Fr.). The enlarge- 
ments of the free ends of certain sensory 

Bow. A bending. B. Leg, a bending 
outward of the lower limbs. 




Bow^els {hotellus^ a sausage). The intes- 

Bowman's Glands. Peculiar tubular 
glands in the olfactory region of the 
nasal distribution of the olfactory nerve. 
B. Probe. See Lachrymal. B. Tubes, 
artificial productions made by forcing air 
or fluids between the corneal lamellae. 

Box Pulse-measurer. An instrument for 
measuring the pulse by its action upon a 
column of liquid when the exposed artery 
is placed within an oblong box communi- 
cating with the column. 

Brach'^ial [brachium^ the arm). Pertain- 
ing to the arm. B. Artery, the con- 
tinuation of the axillary which extends 
along the inner side of the arm. B. Di- 
plegia. See Paralysis. B. Glands, the 
lymphatic glands of the arm. B. Plexus, 
the plexus of the fifth, sixth, seventh and 
eighth cervical and the first dorsal pair. 
B. Veins, the veins of the arm which 
accompany the B. artery. 

Brach^ium {brachium). The arm. An 
extensor process of an organ. B. Cere- 
bri, or B. of Optic Lobes, the bands 
connecting the nates and the testes with 
the optic thalamus. 

Brachyceph^alic ((ipaxv^y short, K£<^hjy 
head). Applied to siculls of an egg-like 
shape, the larger end behind. See Indfx. 

Brachydac^tylous (^/ja;fif, 6aKrv7jo^y 
finger). Pertaining to an abnormal short- 
ness of the fingers or toes. 

Brachymetro^pia. See Myopia. 

Bradycar^dia (.?/5afJif, slow, Kupdia, the 
heart). A term used by Eichhorst to indi- 
cate the phenomena associated with slow 
pulse — the opposite of tachycardia. 

Bradyla^lia ( i/iacJif , /Ji/.ia^ a babbling). 
A slow and disordered utterance. 

Braid^ism. The hypnotic state produced by 
fixation of the eyes u{K)n a shining object. 

Bradypha^sia. See Aphasia. 

Brain (Sax. drar^'^en). The general con- 
tents of the cranium, esjx^cially the cere- 
brum. B., Compression of, may arise 
from injury or disease, from serous exuda- 
tion, blood extravasation, clc. B., Con- 
cussion of, is the result of injury pro- 
ducing symptoms of loss of power and 
function generally. B. Fever, ^ce Mcn- 
injritis. B., Irritation of, follows injury 
and is marked by symptoms of irritability 
and of\en convulsive phenomena. B., 
Little, the cerebellum. B. Pan, the 
cranium. B. Sand, a gri^^ mineral mat- 
ter found in and alx)ut the pineal gland, 
consisting mainly of calcium and magne- 

sium carbonates and phosphates. Its func- 
tion is not known. 

Bran. The epidermis or outer covering 
of the seeds of most cereals. Contains 
woody matter 35, starch 22, albumin and 
gluten 13, water 12, gum 8, other matters, 
including a small amount of silica, 10 per 
cent. It contains, also, a diastatic ferment, 
which converts the starch into dextrine. 
B. Tea, a decoction of bran, used in 

Branch. A name given to the divisions 
or offshoots of blood vessels, lymphatics, 
or nerves, from the trunk or main stem. 

Branch'^iae. The gills of fishes. 

Branch'^ial Openings. See Clefts ^ Vis" 

Bran^dy. See Spiritus. 

Brash (Dutch braaken^ to vomit). / 
common name indicating almost any dis 
order of the digestive system. B ., Water. 
See Pyrosis. 

Brass. An alloy of copper with 25-40 
per cent, of zinc. 

Bras^sica. A genus of plants, Nat. 
Order, Cruci/ercc, including the common 
cabbage. B. Acidulata, sour crout (or 
sauer kraut). B. Asperifolia Escu- 
lenta, the common turnip. B. Cauli- 
flora (or Florida), the cauliflower. B. 
Cumana or Rubra, the red cabbage. 
B. Napus, the rape plant. B. Nigra, 
the black mustard. B. Sativa, the com- 
mon cabbage. 

Braye'ra. Kousso. The female flowers 
of B. anthelmintica. Contains tannic 
acid, a volatile oil and a cr)stalline prin- 
ciple, Koussin. In large doses produces 
nausea and emesis. Valuable mainly as 
an anthelmintic against tapeworm. Dose 
gij-^ss, in infusion of l)oiling water. 
B., fext. Fid., dose 3ij-3J. 

Bread (Sax. bredan, to nourish, Lat. 
paniSy Gr. aproq). A mixture of flour 
and water made porous by carlx:)n dioxide 
and then baked. The flour may be of 
wheat, com, oat or rye. The carl on diox- 
ide may be introduced by decomjxDsing an 
alkaline carlK)nate (sodium or |X)tassium) 
by an acid ("cream of tartar"), or by 
fermenting the starch with yeast. B., 
Browrn, a kind of bread made from 
a mixture of com, r)'e and wheat flour. 
B., Graham, made from unbolted wheat 
flour; it contains more gluten, diastase 
and mineral pho>phates than ordinary 
bread. B., White, bread made from 
Ix^lted wheaten flour, and therefore defi- 
cient in diastase, gluten and mineral phos- 




phates. Other kinds, such as rye (or 
black), com, bran, barley, etc., indicate 
their composition in their name. 

Bread-paste. A culture medium for 
bacteria. Stale, coarse bread is dried, 
ground to powder and made into a paste 
with water. Well suited for the growth 
of moulds. 

Break. See A/aJtf. 

Break-bone Fever. See Dengue. 

Breast. The upper anterior part of the- 
body between the neck and abdomen. 
Also the mamma. 

Breath (Sax. brafh). The air exhaled 
from the lungs. It has lost a part of its 
oxygen and gained a certain but varying 
amount of ammonia, aqueous vapor and 
carbon dioxide from the oxidation of the 
waste matter of the blood. Also applied 
to the air inspired. 

Breech Position. See Position. 

Breeding-season. The period during 
which certain species of animals, Espe- 
cially the lower forms of vertebrates, beget 
and rear their young. 

Breeze. See Head-breeze and Static-breete. 

Brefeld and Nfigele's Method. See 
Fractional Cultivation. 

Breg^enin (Low Ger. bregan^ brain). A 
name given by Thudichum to a soluble, 
cr>'stalline substance found in brain-tissue. 

Breg^ma. See Skull. 

Bren'^ner's Form^ula. The feeble tone 
heard when the anode is opened in gal- 
vanic stimulation of the auditoiy nerve. 
This tone corresponds with the resonance 
fundamental tone of the sound-conducting 
apfMuatus of the ear itself. 

Brick-makers' Anae^mia. See Amhylos- 

Bridge of Nose. A term applied col- 
lectively to the nasal bones. 

Bright's Disease. A name formerly in- 
correctly used as a synonym of albuminuria 
and at present covering several forms of 
disease of the kidney associated with albu- 
min in the urine. May be either acute or 
chronic. Considered by Fothergill as a 
secondary condition arising from a ten- 
dency toward the reversion to that pre- 
anthropic type in which the liver per- 
formed the additional ofHce of excreting 
uric acid. 

Brim of Pelvis. See Pehns. 

Brim^stone. See Sulphur. 

Broad-leafed Laurel. See Kalmia. 

Broad Ligament. See Ligament. 

Bro^mal Hydrate. A fluid of oily con- 
sistence, having a structure similar to that 

of chloral h3rdrate. More iritating and 
narcotic than the latter. Dose gr. j-v. 

Bromid^rosis {Ppofwc, a stench, ISpog^ 
sweat). Osmidrosis. Offensive sweating, 
due to functional disorder of the sweat 
glands or fermentation of the sweat aftet 
excretion. Frequently symptomatic of 
scrofula, rheumatism, unemia, syphilis, etc, 

Bromi'^dum. Bromide. 

Bro^mine, or 

Bro^mum (ppufiog). Br = 80 ; quantivs 
lence I. A reddish-brown liquid, whicl\ 
at ordinary temperatures, gives off a 
heavy, suffocating vapor. In its element- 
ary form it is a very active escharotic, 
and internally a violent poison. The salts 
of bromine are cerebral and cardiac de- 
pressants, and highly valuable as hjrpnot- 
ics. The salts of the alkaline metals are 
those most commonly used. Ammonii 
Bromidum, prismatic crystals. Dose gr. 
y-xx. Calcii Bromidum, granular and 
deliquescent. Dose gr. v-;5J. Ethyl 
Bromide, useful in spasmoKlic coughs. 
Ferri Bromidi, Syr., contains 10 per 
cent, of the salt. Dose ^ ss-j. Lithii 
Bromidi, granular and deliquescent. Dose 
gr. v-xx. Potassii Bromidum, color- 
less, cubical crystals. Dose gr. v-jj. 
Sodii Bromidum, colorless, monoclinic 
crystals. Dose gr. v-zj. Zinci Bro- 
midum, granular, deliquescent powder. 
Dose gr. j^-ij- 

Bro^moform. A bromide, CHBr,, having 
a structure like that of chloroform, CHCl,. 
A powerful anaesthetic. Use not followed 
by vomiting. Causes irritation of con- 
junctiva and respiratory organs. Unof. 

Bronch^i (/3/xw,t<>f» ^^^ windpipe). The 
two tubes into which the trachea divides 
opposite the third dorsal vertebra, called 
the right and the left bronchus. 

Bronchiec^tasis (e/cramf, dilatation). A 
term denoting the dilatation or relaxation 
of the walls of the bronchi, arising from 
inflammation and other causes. 

Bron^chioles (dim. of bronchus). The 
smallest subdivisions of the bronchL 

Bronchi^ tis. Inflammation of the mucous 
membrane which lines the bronchial tubes. 
Usually attended with soreness, coi^h, 
alteration of the voice and febrile symp- 
toms. B., Acute, the initiatory stage of 
the disease, ^gt Capillary, a stage in 
which the minute tubes of the lungs are 
involved. B., Catarrhal, a fbnn at- 
tended with nmco-porulent discharges. 
B., Croupous or Plastic, attended with 




expectoration of the casts of the bronchial 
tubes. B., Mechanical or Potter's, a 
form caused by the inhalation of dust, etc. 
B., Summer, synonymous with ** Hay 

Bronch^ocele. See Goitre. 

Bronchoph^ony (0(.wj7, the voice). The 
resonance of the voice within the bronchi 
as heard and diagnosticated by the stetho- 

Broncho-pneumo^nia. A term applied 
to inflammation of the lungs, which, be- 
ginning in the bronchi, finally involves the 
parenchyma of the lungs. 

Bronchorrhce^a {ptw^ to flow). A form 
of bronchitis attended by profuse expec- 

Bronchot^omy (ppovxog, re/jvoy to cut). 
A surgical operation upon the bronchus, 
trachea, ete. 

Bronch^us. See Bronchi. 

Bronzed Skin. A symptom of Addison's 

Brood-cells. In cell-division, the mother- 
cells enclosing the daughter-cells. 

Broom. See Scoparius. 

Brown^ian Movement. An oscillation 
or agitation observed under the microscope 
in very fine granules, drops, -^/r., when 
suspended in a liquid. The movement is 
not locomotion, and is to be distinguished 
from that of the self-motility of living 
microorganisms. Its cause is not de- 
finitely known, but it may be due to heat, 
light, electricity, osmosis, etc. 

Brown Mixture. See Glycynhiza. 

Brow Presentation. See Position. 

Bru^cine. See Nux Vomica. 

Bruise. See Contusion. 

Bru^it (Fr., a noise or report). A term 
used by French physicians to designate the 
various specific sounds of auscultation. 
B. de Diable, a venous murmur, of a 
whistling or rushing character, arising in 
the bulb of the common jugular vein, and 
due to ancemia, lead-poisoning, or other 
specific disease, more common in the 
young, and caused immediately by the 
vibration of the blood flowing from the 
narrow part of the common jugular vein 
into the wide, l)ul1x>us portion of the 
vessel. Sec also Murmur. 

Brunner's Glands. See Ghnds. 

Bryg^mus. Same as Odontoprisis. 

Bryo^nia. Bryony. The root of H. alba ; 
indigenous to Europe. I*roperties due to 
an intensely bitter glucoside. Bryonin^ a 
strong irritant when applied to the skin 
or mucous membrane, often producing 

vesication. A remedy of great value in 
pleurisy, pleuro-pneumonia and rheumatic 
fever. An excellent agent in colds. Dose 
of the root gr. x-xxx. B., Tinct., a lo 
f>er cent, solution of the root in alcohol. 
Dose VC\x-^]. B., Infiisum (unof.), 
has a strength of ^ J ^o the Oj of water. 
Dose Jss-ij. 

Bryoplas^tic (/?/)wv, moss, ttTuoggd, to 
form). A descriptive term loosely applied 
to such abnormal gro^'ths of tissue as re- 
semble vegetable forms. 

Bu^bo (i3wj3<jVf the groin). Inflammation 
and swelling of a lymphatic gland, prop- 
erly and generally of the groin, and usually 
following chancroid, gonorrhoea or syphi- 
litic infection. B., Parotid. See Baro- 
titis. B., Primary, a slight adenitis of 
the groin due to mechanical irritation, 
or other cause; formerly supposed to be 
due to syphilis without a chancre having 
preceded. B., Sympathetic, one caused 
by irritation, fi-iction, injiuy, etc.y and not 
fi-om infectious disease. 

Bubon'^ocele (jiovfiuvy kt/??/, tumor). In- 
guinal hernia when the gut does not extend 
beyond the inguinal canal. 

Buc^cal (fiuccay the cheek). Pertaining to 
the cheek. 

Buc^cinator. The thin, flat muscle of the 
cheek. See Muscle. 

Bu^chu. The leaves of several species of 
Barosma, yielding a volatile oil, to which 
its properties are probably due. Causes a 
sensation of glowing warmth over the 
body, stimulates the appetite, and increases 
the circulation. Useful in urethritis and 
affections of the genito-urinary mucous 
membrane. Dose of the leaves, gr. xv- 
XXX. B. Ext. Fid. Dose n\^x-5J. B. 
Infusum (unof. ) , 5 j to ( >j . I )ose 5 ss-ij. 

Buck^bean. The rhizome of Mcnyauthis 
trifoliata. Tonic, antiscorbutic, and em- 
menagogue. Has Ixicn recommended as a 
vermifuge. Dose of fld. ext. n\,'^^~3J- 

Buck-'eye Bark. The l>ark of ^^.^culus 
f^labra. Astringent and tonic. Senice- 
able in rectal irritation, prolapsus, and va- 
rious uterine derangements. Dose of fld. 
ext. gtt. iij-v. Unof. 

Buck''thom. See Frani^ula. 

Bucnc'ma Tro''pica. See Elephantiasis. 

Bucne^mia (,?oi», increa-se, Kvyiui, the leg). 
A kind of inflammation of the leg character- 
ized by tenseness of swelling. 

Bud^ding. A form of ropnxluction or cell 
division, occurring among the jx)lyj>s and 
infusori.i:, in which a bud is given off" by 




the parent and comes to resemble the latter. 
The bud may remain permanently attached 
or may form a colony, each member ac- 
quiring a differentiation of function, even 
to the formation of male and female ele- 
ments. The process is also called Gemma- 

Bu^gleweed. The herb, Lycopus Virgini- 
cus. Narcotic and astringent Dose of 
fld. ext. 3ss-ij. Lycopin, concentrated 
ext. Dose gr. j-iv. Unof. 

Bu^hach. See Insect Powder. 

Bulb (/?oA^, a bulb). The expansion or 
dilatation of a canal or vessel . B . of Aorta, 
the dilatation of the aorta near its beginning. 
B. of Corpus Cavemosum, the muscle 
beneath the bulb of the urethra. B. of 
Fornix. See Corpora. B. of Rachi- 
dichus. See Medulla Oblongata. B. 
of Urethra, the posterior expanded part 
of the corpus spongiosum penis. B. of 
Vena Jugularis, the dilatation at the 
beginning of the external jugular vein. 

Bulb^ar. A descriptive term applied to 
certain diseases, especially of the medulla 
oblongata or bulbus rackidichus. B. Dis- 
ease or Paralysis, a term applied to 
the progressive and symmetrical paralysis 
of the facial muscles about the mouth, in- 
cluding those of the tongue, pharynx, and 
sometimes those of the larynx. Called 
also Labio-glosso-laryngeal paralysis. 

Bulb^i Vestib^uli. A name sometimes 
given to the glands of Bartholini. 

Bulbous Arterio^sus. Pertaining to a 
stage in the development of the heart, in 
which the upper aortic enlargement is so 

Bulim^ia (/Jov, increase, A///of, hunger). 
Excessive, morbid hunger; frequently 
occurs in idiots and insane persons. 

BuKla (bulla, a bubble). A bleb or " blis- 
ter," consisting of a portion of the epider- 
mis detached from the skin by the infiltra- 
tion of watery fluid. The bulla differs from 
the vesicle mainly in size. B., Hemor- 
rhagic. See Purpura. 

Bun^ion (/3owoc, a hillock). A swelling 
of a bursa of the foot, especially of the 
great toe. 

Buphthal'^mos. See Keratoglobus. 

Burc^quism. See Metallotfrn^apy. 

Bur^dock. See Lappa. 

Burette. (Fr.) A graduated tube designed 
for measunng small quantities of a reagent. 
Usually held vertically in a stand and pro- 
vided with a stopcock. 

Burn (Sax. boeman, to scorch). The de- 
struction or injury of tissue by dry heat or 

Bumper. A common name for a lamp or 
heating apparatus used in laboratories for 
chemical and pharmaceutical purposes. 
B., Argand, uses gas or oil, and contains 
an inner tube for supplying the flame with 
air. B., Bunsen, a form in which the 
gas is mixed with a sufficient quantity of 
air to produce complete oxidation before 

Burs'^se {bursa y a purse). A name used to 
designate small sacs interposed between 
parts which move one upon another. B. 
Mucosae, situated in subcutaneous areolar 
tissue. Bv, Synovial, found between 
tendons and bony surfaces. 

Burs^al. Pertaining to a bursa, sac or 

Bursi^tis. Inflammation of a bursa. 

But^ter (butyrumy butter). The fatty part 
of the milk obtained by rupturing the cells 
of the fat globules by " churning " or 
mechanics^l agitation. Also, various vege- 
table fats having the consistency of butter, 
as B. of Caca'^o. See Theobrofna. 
Also applied to certain chemical products 
having the appearance or consistence of 
butter, as B. of Antimony, antimonious 
chloride; B. of Tin, stannic chloride ; B. 
of Zinc, zinc chloride. See, also, Acid, 

But'^temut. See Juglans. 

But^tocks. The arse. The fleshy part 
of the body posterior to the hip-joints, 
formed by the masses of the glutei 

But^tonbush. The bark of Cephalattthus 
occidentalis. A tonic febrifuge and dhi- 
retic. Dose of fld. ext. ^ ss-j. Unof. 

But^tonhole Operation. See Boutonniire 

But^ton Snakeroot. The root of Liatris 
spicata. A stimulant tonic, diuretic and 
emmenagogue. Dose of fld. ext. 3 ss-j. 

Bu'tyl Chlo^ral. See Chloral Butylicum. 

Bu^tyric Acid. See Acid^ Butyric. 



C. The chemical symbol of Cation. Abbre- 
viation of centigrade. 

c.c. Abbreviation of cubic centimeter. 

cm. Abbreviation of centimeter. 

C. M. Abbreviation of eras mane^ to- 
morrow morning. 

C. N. Abbreviation of eras nocte, to- 
morrow night. 

Cab'^bage Rose. See Rosa Centifolia. 

Cacse'sthesis (icaKoc, bad, atadrfoic, sensa- 
tion). A term used to denote morbid sen- 

Caca^o. See Theobroma. 

Cachex'^ia (xoxof, bad, c^/f, a habit). A 
term used to designate any morbid ten- 
dency, dyscrasia, or depraved condition of 
general nutrition, etc.^ used particularly of 
scrofula, syphilis, cancer, etc. C. Strumi- 
priva, the condition allied to, if not iden- 
tical with, myxoedema, occasionally follow- 
ing the extirpation or arrest of function of 
the thyroid gland. It is a cretinoid state, 
characterized in monkeys by hebetude, mal- 
nutrition, muscular tremor, puffy oedema, 
leucocytosis, and the presence of mucin in 
the blood and connective tissues. C. Vir- 
ginum. See Chlorosis. 

Cacoe'^thes {koko^^ V^oq, a habit). A gen- 
eral term used to designate any bad habit 
or disorder. 

Cacogeti'^esis (/ca/cof, yevEat^, origin). A 
general term expressing a morbid, mon- 
strous or pathol<^cal growth or product. 

Cacot^rophy (/c/i/cof, rpetpu, I nourish). A 
term applied to disordered or defective 

Cada^ver (cadere, to fall). The dead body, 
especially that of man. A corpse. 

Cadav^erine. A ptomaine, isomeric with 
neuridine, and, like it, occurring very 
frequently in decomposing animal tissues. 
Obtained from human hearts, lungs, livers, 
etc., after three days' decomposition in 
ordinary temperature, — also from horse- 
flesh, from putrid mussel, from herring 
and haddock. It is a constant product of 
the growth of the comma l)acillus, irre- 
spective of the medium. It docs not 
occur in cultures from which l)actcria are 
aljsent. It is a thick, water-clear, syrupy 
liquid, having an exceedingly unpleasant 
odor, somewhat resembling that of coniine 
and semen. It is certainly identical with 
so-called "animal coniine." Putrescine 
and cadaverine were both formerly be- 

lieved to be physiologically indifferent ; but 
recent investigations show both bases capa- 
ble of producing strong inflammation and 
necrosis. The necrosis of the intestinal 
epithelium in Asiatic cholera seems due to 
their presence. They also have the power, 
even in small quantities, of preventing 
blood from coagulating, and rendering it 
" laky." Cadaverine is believed by Graw- 
itz to hinder the growth of bacteria. Ca- 
daverine hydrochloride, on dry distillation, 
decomposes into ammonium chloride, NH,- 
HCl, and piperidine, CjHjiN. Whether 
this change, whereby the non-poisonous 
cadaverine becomes a toxic l)ase, can take 
place under the influence of bacteria dur- 
ing putrefaction, is not known. 

Cadaveriza^tion. The passage of a living 
body to the state of a cadaver. Applied 
to the algid and cyanotic stage of cholera. 

Cade. See Juniperus. 

Cad^mium. Cd = XX2 ; quantivalence ii. 
A bluish-white metal resembling zinc in 
its general properties ; only the sulphate 
and iodide are used in medicine. In 
physiolc^cal action it is escharotic and 
astringent, producing in large doses, emesis 
and violent gastritis. C. lodid., used as 
an ointment, i to 8 of lard. C. Sul- 
phas, a valuable astringent in gonorrhoea 
and in corneal opacities ; used in a lotion 
in strength of gr. j or ij to 5J of water. 

Cae^cal. Pertaining to the ciecum. 

Cae^citas Verba-'lis. See Word-blind- 

Cae^cum {carus, blind). The large blind 
pouch or cul-de-sac in which the large 
intestine begins. 

Caesa^rean Operation (nedo, to cut). Ex- 
traction of the fcetus through an incision 
made in the alxiomen. Gastro-elytrot- 
omy, an incision into the vagina (after 
the alxiominal section) instead of into the 
uterus, and if the child cannot l)e extracted 
in this way, the incision of the os uteri is 
made. Gastro-hysterec^toiny. See 
Porros Operation Ih.'1ow. Gastro-hys- 
terot^omy, a general name for the CO., 
according to the l)est modem methods. 
C. O., Improved. See Sanger^ Ixilow. 
Kehrer's Operation consists in a trans- 
verse incision through the anterior convex 
surface of the uterus at the level of the in- 
ternal OS. Laparo-elytrot^omy. See 



'.■:'' '.-' • .».' ■».- : . a'; -jv t . Laparot 'omr, 
a: .■:r..?j -I- im*. *ak ix:Kif.*niiual wal!: iixj- 
.■: ''.T' y u.---'i at £; r-yir.njym any Li. '. 
Porro's Operation -.' niMSb- in C'.nn;ir'.'«?it»i- 
■.«: lit: ■".'-•^■•> iTjfr i? uk- jir'.mi:!'. JL»ii£ri*ud- 
ii... uirz:itT i:j'_i?i n.. aiic th*- T^Tiio^a. (»:' 
•ji- '.iij*':. aiirrr uinci. iht uimL'- ii- iii'i:-- 
uu*. v'f !:it a**-'!''!!!*.'!:, lilt cen^i:. aui :r.iad 
iij:ani»;:i*.f 'j'liimjieU. Tti^ uivru>. luivs and 
t'xari'.- removed. Porro-Mullcr Opera- 
tion, iii*: uit;rinf iiiati- i- rais-fJ 'lu*. 'rf liit- 
ai»'i'ini*'n :n.-k•^^ inci>i:ji: it C. O.. Post- 
mortem. rMni'-imij f.if uif cbiid aii«- 'Jtic 
ni-'-'iv-r ^ o*:ai"T:. Sang:er's Operation. 
;;'i.- :fr.- h\ : !'-r. •;.■ ■ »/._i . >ari j."*' : lE A-irig grtra'Jy 
iTn;irovr-(^ iht i^rLiiui .!ut 'if i:i» r»:»t"a'J:)t-. 
Sigault's Operation, rr Symphyseot'- 
omy. deliven- In- t.:i*- '-'v;^-, it. '.»:" ibt :iu:»ic 
j<j:iii. Thomas' Operation. e-'iii>>isiL'- ixi 
c»:rTaiii inij^rivvinflil? i:: ■..'.'.•'-<^ •."]•.' •.^.■■»«ri. 

CaCsium. '.? .132.0: 'ua-iv^aleDC* i. 
A rare all.aiirit int-.a] p-v.-T^i'-hiij: poTwas- 
siuM. i:j ;»:vm-.;J a-ii '.iivinrjiil ;r<:i:ifniei'. 
C. Chloride, un-if , 'r.-vvtr- pu:?^- ratt and 
ri'. !>•■- an».-r!fc", ;.•:»'- ".u'*- J *'.>^ i!T. i;-v. 

Carfea. '..Vi-r. J'ri- .■.♦*^> *j\ C .Arj- 
i'l a 'J'ri*. cri'.-r: u'l ■ rr.ia<L*-d WL-.-d!- are 
ai'ii'.iSt ur.'^'-'"«^;i''y v.s—'J :rj ::-fu-i':»:: a*- a 
lf«-A 'ra;:*- . {'.i-^r:-:!;- l '•-r'-'inL] -i'lmuliiTit arid 
!>;•.■• riu'. 'J i'. v•^'\• Wiua'-it !ii 7>'o::i'.rt.:n5 

J-f- u*':' } ' ; u> ^ ••'•T'Viv-. ]ii:',j':*i.L.ti'">:j of 

til*, •.'■i'.'" ]'"»:!••-;••■ 'ja*^ tr.. a:. aUial.Dd. 

Cafftin. iri'-"'-.- ' w :■• 7 ' St-e 7tJ. 

J^-.i!* o5 '•.♦ i ". i .'.vi ;;• j-T, C. Citrate. 

' !••.'' J^-.'-' ;•' ■ V. 
C»f'fe;rj. >- '.' ^ > ;. 
CaiJ^'bor. Di^^cjibe. T*.»r '■%-:;.»i'-.m? ^iue 

1 •;,» ••■■ ■."• ' ;■ ■■ -. -.'r-. '.c-i-vri worker-, 
/^' i :■' : • ;• . ; ' " ; ';■■... i r.*.s.:rje-ia 
»^ :j/i;.i'' ■ y" ', }{•»■ '.'."fj:'!'-:!. l"jt 

;». '. ' ■' "« 1' ;• .• ••.♦■ TTi'-T ir; :u'.::t 

■■"■ • ;• "■ '.' vft'Vr rv'unj lo 

«i I ''.r.. . 1 '"'i'.;^".! »•: J:.*: Tia'urc of 

Ca.j^/'j'l] Olfrjm. ';;! of r>:;uput. A 

\', ;. ' ■ */■ ' * ♦ ■] f""; t"' ': I'-av*.-" C-f 

,'i/. ..'. // ■/ t /,,//,</•. ]■■' ^. Tji ]«.-- oii ^-if lur- 
j<« ' • :-■ •: ' ;■■ ■ • ';i' t*\*'\y, U.-jn^j irri- 

wri'fM'i ■••',';.. .., -A/ri :i'.f.',l* rate) j/u':>c. 

Cal'abar H«an. '-• « /''/. ti-ttn. 

CaU^e ^1 f , T. ../ //I.',. A ni'iho'l of 
pr<',olj>]a.MS */r iri :tifi;» ki;i •!( kiK"^.): )-y 
iixaiKiii «i( till- \i-"r:i iiv pillows placed 
U-twiM-n tli«' >^l'irn:i< li aii'l wall of the 
cabin and U'twcen the i^ck and edge 

of 'jilt :>er4i.. the paiias \faxg, npoc the 

51 3e. 
Cai axnuB. Swtf: Fiar The rhizome of 

.1 ,"!/: .-...j:n:u: irirtrTtitir due U- a voia- 

tilt ct;., c. '-.F. . TriT mctt i.- ar. arrqaiaric, 

stoma L':ijc ivir^.ic. aDC a c-nmmoL ingT>f*dicmt 

1:. mai;^ :Ki:>uiar '■ iJin-rs." C. Ext., 

Fid. Iio>i n;^^-^;. 
Ca] ainns Scripto nus a miii ng pen or 

T'.fi .. Tut ^ ):»^ t nr. the ontLTictf wall 

of ihe louni. vfjit-JLi*-. a: the rai of which 

:^ :rj'. Tfum.ii -.if A'aiitixL*.. 
Cajca neum ..;..:. ibt u^A .. .A c-omnxm 

uaTne l.c uie r: .£:..-; cr hrtri :ione. 
Galea 'reous ..?.::. limtsl one .. retaining 

1: x ":i£viiip ibt r^aru't of iimestt'ne . C. 

Degeneration. >•:■< /'.•""«." J '/.w. 
Calcification j:. r. rr.. 10 liercune ■. The 

Q'.':k'»>]: ■:■:' cLlra-e:)U;' or oiher msciiuNe 

cnsLalLne Tna::«- ¥i±:t the u^siie> of the 


Calcina'tion. Thi Troce?* of driving on 
the r..ila:iie rh-.Tnical consututiiis fixmi 
xriO'-iraTjK rvTinTKni:j.i>. The ex]n2l>ion of 
car: ^■ c. di ■: \ i ii •. fri-rr. q^\ k «na: es. 

Calcine. T. s::iara:r the inor^ranic cle- 
mer.t-" of a >u': fSiance Vy suljeciing it lo 
ai: iritt-n?.? bi-al. 

Cal'cium. '."a =: 4c: quantivalencc li. 
A "inlliar:!. *>i!v£T-\ihi:t meta':, the lia>i.- of 
lim* an ; 'iiiii>i:»iir. charaiti rircd l-y strong 
aT.r.ity for cxy^^fr. arii: i^^^aiiid with gnrat'.ty. \W>X k:i.wn in the form of 
..:.■.:;«". ..r.-V. cjick lime; t'. J/\J'att\ 
tlakfi :ir.T. : a:»i C. t J'■.^^»IJ.V, chalk. 
Tlie;iaravi in-^ of limi U'-fd in me«iicine 
are usual'y a!ica'i:ii an.l >lik:hily ai^ringenL 
Ca'cJuir f\>de is a w^crful cscharodc. 
C. Bromidum. St-e /i' •■.«.•:>;/. Calcis, 
Liquor, '.imt uaier. c«:>n:ain<^ aloui x '^ 
jiari5 Mn:c i:. icvo o\ w.itcr. Calx, cal- 
cium cvide. :uiv.k lime, ni* useii iniemallv. 
C. Carb. Precipitatus. in?oJuMe in water. 
\\A T<lr.:> m aci^if. with i ner\-e>cence. 
I»f:Sf p-. v-w. C. Chloridum. soluMe 
in \iatir. I k-se gr. x-x\. C. Chlorinata. 
See Cf:\-nf:r. Creta. naliAe calcium car- 
U-nate. chalk. C. H^-pophosphis. Sec 
P'': sr*.' ru.'. C- Linimentum, cairon 
oil, liniment of hmt-. contains equal )>arts 
li' |uor caki.*- and cf^icn-i<'t-d oil. C. Mist., 
conM>ts of C I'ulv. u'mp. 20, cinnamon 
water 40. water 40. I 'ose 5 ss. C. Phos- 
phas. See /'n.frhr'itj. 'c. Preparata, 
chalk freed fR«m inijnirities by washing 
and elutriation. I »ose gr. v-xx. C. Pulv. 
Comp.« comfwund chalk )x>wder, consists 
of C. prep. 30, acacia 2C, sugar 50 parts. 
l>osegr.v-5J. C. Sulphidum. ^ttSmi- 




phur, C. Syr., saccharated syrup of 
lime, contains 5 per cent, lime, 30 per cent, 
sugar, 65 per cent, water. 

Cal^culus (dim. of calx^ chalk). A cal- 
careous or stone-like concretion found in 
the bladder, kidney, etc, C, Cutane- 
ous. See Milium. C, Lacteal, or 
Mammary, a calcareous nodule some- 
times obstructing the lactiferous ducts. 
C, Mulberry, oxalate of lime yariety, 
resembling a mulberry in shape and color. 
C, Nasal. See Rhinolith. C, Pros- 
tatic, in the prostate gland. C, Renal, 
uric acid calculus found in the kidney, 
producing what has been called nephritic 
colic. C., Salivary, forming in the 
ducts of the salivary glands. C., Vesi- 
cal, may haye originally descended from 
the kidney or formed primarily in the 

Calefa^cient (L., to/iV/mj, warm, and facioy 
to make). A medicine, externally applied, 
which causes a sensation of warmth. 

Calend^ula. Marigold. The flowering 
plant known as the g^arden marigold, C. 
officinalis, C, Tinct. contains 20 per 
cent, of the leaves and stems. Used ex- 
clusively as a local application in wounds, 
ulcers and lesions. 

Ca^lices of the Kidneys. The cup-like 
tubes of the ureter which encircle the 
apices of the Malpighian pyramids of the 

Cal^ico Bush. See Kalmia. 

Califor^nia Laurel. The leaves of 
Umbellaria Cali/arnica, common to the 
Pacific slope. Recommended by Mann in 
nervous headaches, cerebrospinal menin- 
gitis, neuralgia, etc. Dose of fld. ext. gtt., 

Calisa^ya. See Cinchona. 

Calisthen^ics {naTung, beautiful, oHeifoc, 
strength). A term used to express various 
rhythmic movements of the body intended 
to develop the muscles and produce grace- 
fulness of carriage. 

Callos^ity or Callos^itas (L. callus^hard- 
ness). Tylosis, Tyloma, Keratoma. A 
hard, thickened patch on the skin pro- 
duced by excessive accumulation of the 
homy layers. 

Cal^lus (callus). The exudative deposit 
between and alx)ut the fracture of 
a broken bone. C, Permanent, the 
permanent bond of bony union afler the 
re-absorption of the C, Provisional, or 
cartilage- like, plastic material first thrown 
out C. of Skin, induration and thicken- 
ing of same. 

Calm^ative. That which produces a calm- 
ing or depressing effect upon the various 
centres of motor nerves. 

Cal^omel. See Hydrargyrum. 

Calorim^eter (calory heat, fierpovy a mea- 
sure). An instrument for transforming 
the potential enei^ of the food into heat, 
and to measure the number of heat-units 
produced. Two forms are principally 
used, the Water- and the Ice-C. 

Calum^bo. Columbo. The root of C. 
Jateorrhizay native to South Africa and 
parts of E. Indies. An excellent example 
of simple bitters. Is not astringent, and 
may be prescribed with salts of iron. Use- 
ful in atonic dyspepsia, and as a mild, 
appetizing tonic in convalescence. C, 
Fid. Ext. Dose TT\^v-xxx. C, Tinct., 
contains xo per cent, of C. Dose Jss-ij. 

Calva^rium or Calva^ria (r^/z^/Ar, oald). 
The upper part of the skull. 

Calvit^ies (calvus). Baldness. 

Calx. The heel. In chemistry, formerly 
applied to any oxide of a metal, especially 
an alkaline metal. 

Ca'^lyx (Kokv^y a cup). In anatomy, the 
truncated extremities of the ureters in the 
kidneys. C. of Ovum, the wall of the 
Graafian follicle from which it has escaped. 
In botany, the outer envelope of the 
flower, — the sepals taken collectively. In 
biology, that part of a coral or crinoid 
which surmounts the stem. 

Cambo^gia. Gamboge. A resinoas gum 
from Garcinia Hanhuriiy a tree native to 
Southern Asia. Properties due to gam- 
bogic acid. A drastic hydragogue cathar- 
tic, decidedly diuretic. Officially a con- 
stituent of Pil. Comp. Cath. See 
Colocyttth, Dose gr. ij-v. 

Cam^era (KauapOy an arched roof or 
chamber). In anatomy, a chamber or 
vaulted structure. C. Cordis, the en- 
veloping membrane of the heart, the jxrri- 
cardium. C. of Cranium, the chamlxjr of 
the skull. C. Lucida, a four-sided prism 
with sides cut at such an anjjle that rays of 
light entering it are divided, part continu- 
ing in a right line, the remaining rays 
being reflected at an angle of 90°. C. 
Oculi, the chaml)er of the eye. In op- 
tics, the chaml)er or adjustable dark l)ox 
of the apparatus used for photography. 

Cam^phor. A solid volatile oil obtained 
from Cinnamomum camf^hora^ a tree in- 
digenous to P2astern Asia. Yields <<////• 
phoric and catftphrclic aciaSy also C, 
Cymol when distilled with zinc chloride. 
A valuable antispasmodic, anodyne and 




dumboretic. Applied locally, is an ex- 
cellent rubefacient. A moderate cerebral 
excitant. Effectual in cholera, vomiting, 
cardiac depression and affections requiring 
an antispasmodic. C, Aqua consists of 
camphor 8, alcohol i6, distilled water q. s. 
ad looo parts. Dose 3J-iv. C, Car- 
bolated, a mixture of 2^ parts of camphor 
with one each of carbohc acid and alcohol. 
C. Ceratum, consists of camphor liniment 
3, olive oil 12, simple cerate 85. C, 
Chloral, a fluid prepared by mixing equal 
parts of camphor and chloral hydrate. An 
excellent solvent for many alkaloids. Used 
externally. C. Linimentum, has cam- 
phor 20, cottonseed oil 80 parts. C, 
Monobromated, camphor in which one 
atom of hydrogen has been replaced by an 
atom of bromine. Resembles the bro- 
mides in therapeutical action. C. Sali- 
cylate, prepared by heating together 14 
parts of camphor with 1 1 of salicylic acid. 
Used as an ointment. C. Spt., contains 
camphor 10, alcohol 70, water 20 parts. 
Dose n\^v-xx. C. Tinct., Rubini's. 
Unof. A saturated solution of camphor 
in alcohol. Dose TT\jv-xx. Raspail's 
Eau Sedatif. Unof. Contains aq. am 
monia ,^ij, sodium chloride 3ij, camph. 
spt. wine ^iij, water Oj. Used exter- 

Campim^eter. See Perimeter, 

Can^ada Snake^root. The root of Asa- 
rum Canadense, Aromatic stimulant and 
carminative. Dose of fld. ext Tl^xv- t ss. 

Can^adol. A transparent volatile liquid 
resembling benzine in smell. It is an 
excellent local anaesthetic for minor surgi- 
cal operations. Unof. 

Canar , or Canal'^is {canna^ a reed or tube). 
A tulje or duct for carrying the fluids of the 
body. Also a hollow instrument used as a 
splint. C. Arteriosus, the foetal artery 
uniting the aorta and pulmonary artery. C. 
of Cloquet, a tul)e in the vitreous humor 
of the eye, transmitting, in the fcetus, an 
artery to the lens. C. of Corti, a canal 
between the membrana tecloria and lamina 
basilaris of the cochlea. C. of Cochlea, 
the spiral canal of the cochlea or anterior 
part of the labyrinth oX. the ear. C. of 
Pontana, a small canal in the eye of 
lower animals formed l>y the pectiniform 
ligament C, Haversian. See Hcruer- 
Stan Canal. C, Hunter's, an aponeu- 
rotic canal in the middle third of the thigh 
containing the femoral artery. C. of 
Nuck, a sheath surrounding the round 

ligaments of the uterus. C. of Petit, the 
space between the anterior and posterior 
leaflets of the suspensory ligament of the 
lens of the eye. C. of Schlemm, a cir- 
cular canal in the sclerotic coat of the eye 
close to its juncture with the cornea. C., 
Semicircular, three bony canals of the 
ear, the superior, posterior and external, 
eadi enclosing the membranous canals. 
C, Semicircular, Function of. See 
GoUx's StaHcal Theory, C. of StUling, 
the same as C. of Qoquet C, Verte- 
bral, the canal extending longitudinally 
through the vertebral column, which con- 
tains the spinal cord. 

Canalic^ulus (dim. of canalis), A small 
canal; especially that leading from the 
punctum to the lachrymal sac of the 
eye, and in the plural, the minute canals 
opening into the lacunae of bone. See 

CunctX^oVL^ {cancel/us\ Resembling lat- 
tice work. C. Tissue. See Tissue. 

CanceKlus (cancelliy lattice). A term 
used to describe the spongy, lattice-work 
texture of bone. 

Can^cer. See Carcinoma, 

Can^croid Ulcer. See Rodent Ulcer, 

Can'^crum O^ris. Canker of the mouth, 
gangrenous stomatitis, characterized by foul, 
deep ulcers of the buccal surfaces of the 
cheeks or lips. 

CanMlefish Oil. See Eulachoni Oleum, 

Cane Sugar. See Sacchanim. 

Canine^ (canis^ a dog). Partaking of the 
nature of, relating to, or resembling a dog. 
C. Possa. See Fossa. C. Teeth, the 
cuspid teeth next the lateral incisors, so 
called from their resemblance to a dog's 

Canit^ies. (Lat.) Grayness of the hair. May 
be due to old age, or, in young persons, to 
intense emotion, illness, etc, 

Cannab^inon. See Cannabis, 

Can^nabis. Hemp. Indian hemp. The 
flowering tops of C. sativa^ of which there 
are two varieties, C. Indica and C. Ameri- 
cana^ the former being the most potent. 
Contain a resin, cannabin^ an alkaloid, can- 
nabinon (h3rpnotic. Dose gr. j-v), and a 
volatile oil. An antispasmodic, anaesthetic, 
narcotic, and a powerful aphrodisiac. In 
large doses produces mental exaltation, in- 
toxication and sensation of double con- 
sciousness. A valuable h3rpnotic in de- 
lirium tremens. Useful in painful affec- 
tions of the bladder and in functional im- 
potence. Bhangs Churrus and ffaschisck 
are the various Indian names by whidi 




die drug b known. C. Indica, Ext., 
dose gr. ^-j. C. Ind., Ext. Fid., an al- 
cdiolic preparation. Dose TT\J-t. C. Ind. 
Tinct., contains 20 per cent, of the drug. 
Dose n\,xx-3j. Cannabin Tannate, 
the tannate, a glucoside containing canna- 
Inn. Dose as a hypnotic gr. v-x. 

Can^nula (dim. of canna, a tube). A 
suigical instrument consisting of a tube or 
sheath obliquely pointed, and a stiletto. 
Used for tapping and draining tumors and 

Canthar^ides. PI. of 'Cantharis. 

Cantha^ris. Cantharides. Spanish Ry. 
The dried body of a species of beetle, 
C, vesicatoria (nat. ord. CoUopttra). Con- 
tains a powerful poisonous principle, can- 
tharidin. Locally applied, cantharis is a 
rubefacient and vesicant. Internally an 
irritant, causing gastralgia and vomiting. 
In toxic doses produces severe gastro-en- 
teritis, strangury and priapism. Used 
chiefly as an external counter-irritant in the 
form of "blisters.'* C. Ceratum, can- 
tharides 35, yellow wax 20, resin 20, lard 
35, alcohol q. s. C. Charta, cantharides 
I, Canada turpentine I, olive oil 4, sper- 
maceti 3, white wax 8, water xo parts, 
spread on paper. C. cum CoUodio, 
cantharides 60, flexible collodion 85, chlo- 
roform q. 8. C. cum Picis Emplast., 
Burgundy pitch 92, cerat. canthar. 8 
parts. C. Liniment., cantharides 15, 
oil of turpentine q. s. ad loo. C. Tinct. 
contains 5 per cent, of the drug. Dose 

Can^thoplasty (Kavdoq^ the angle of the 
eye, TrAotrffw, to form). A surgical opera- 
tion for increasing the size of the palpebral 
fissure by cutting the outer canthus. 

Canthor^raphy (Kavdoc, ha^n^ ^ seam). A 
surgical operation to reduce the size of the 
palpebral fissure by a suture of the can- 

Can^thus («av^). The inner or outer 
angle formed by the juncture of the eyelids. 

Canutil^lo. See Tepopote. 

Caout^chouc (a Caribl)ean word). The 
concrete, prepared juice of a Hrazilian tree, 
Siphimia elastica. Valuable for its elastic 
qualities. Similar properties are found in 
the juices of other trees. See also Gutta 
Percha^ q. ?'. 

Cap^illary {capillus^ a hair). A minute 
blood vessel connecting the smallest rami- 
fications of the arteries with those of the 
veins. Also a very minute fissure of the 
skull. Also the intercellular biliary pass- 
i^^es. Capillaries, Pulmonary, a name 

used to designate the plexuses beneath the 
mucous membrane, on the walls and septa 
of the lungs. C. Nsvus. See Navus 

Cap^ital (caput y the head). Pertaining to 
the head, or to the summit of a body or 

CapiteKlum (dim. of caput). The rounded, 
external surface of the lower end of the 

Capit^ulum (dim. of captU). A general 
term applied to any protuberance of bone 
received into the hollow part of another 

Cap^re. See Mulatto. 

Caproylam-'ine (Hexylamine). A pto- 
maine found in the putrefaction of yeast. 

CapryKic Acid. An acid combined with 
glycerine, forming a glyceride existing in 
various animal fats. 

Capsel^la. The leaves and stems of C. 
bursa-pastorisj common in temperate cli- 
mates. It is considered by Ehrenwell an 
excellent hemostatic. Unof. See Lycoper- 
dan Gigantea. 

Cap^sicum. Cayenne Pepper. The fruit 
of C. fastigiatunty native to tropical Africa 
and America. Odor and hot taste due to 
a volatile oil, capsicin. Irritant to skin 
and mucous membranes. Internally, a 
stomachic tonic, diuretic and aphrodisiac. 
Useful in atonic dyspepsia, flatulent colic, 
and in intermittent fever. C, Emplas- 
trum, prepared from the olcoresin and 
resin plaster. C, Ext. Fid. Dose n\,v- 
3J. C, Olcoresin, ethereal. Dose 
ny-v. C., Tinct., contains 5 per cent, 
of capsicum . I )ose n\^x - 2J j . 

Cap^sular Lig^ament. The sac or mem- 
branous 1)245 which surrounds every mov- 
able joint or articulation. It contains the 
synovial fluid 

Cap'^sule (dim. of caf>sa^ a chest). A tunic 
or bag which encloses a jxut of the body 
or an or^an. Also, in pharmacy, a 
small spheroidal shell comiX)sed of gly- 
cerine and gelatine, divided so that the 
parts fit tf^ether like box and cover. Used 
for the administration of nauseous and re- 
pulsive medicines. C. -filler, a contrivance 
consisting of a funnel tul>c and plunger, or 
other device, used for intro<lucing medicine 
into capsules. C. of Glisson, the cellulo- 
va.soular membrane envelo|)ing the hejiatic 
ves.«4<*ls. C, Malpighian. See Mulpig- 
hian Binlirs. C, Suprarenal, the duct- 
less glamlular l)otly at the apex of each 
kidney. C. of Tenon, the tunica vagi- 
natisy of the eye. 

■•■■•' f 1' • ■ . . . .■ • \-stz.\\^ L»-:n:i:. :"iian- 

' ■ »■ 

■ .|- • -i' '..' ■-, . . .■ .1 ' .: . ■ ■' ' :• ■ • > .; '. uLi:;rt.»a.' Uasu.. aL-.oxii 

• ■I- • •!. ■•■ .'-'■; '.w... i- V'- ^.lii: cxi:j?iii.ui;oiia 
« ,.|. ..j>.i. * Ml''. ; l'*/iiii: •>* -• • '. ij- w ■ ." 'I'jvr. rr'Ti l k,-!. ii ii.ivin;. 

/ ■ :':•■.■■' .- ■• i. :.j. u : lu.' s-'ver^. i^'iui.' 

• -.j-.i! I ••■ t ...: ..." ii,i . ,i' I. . ;■, j'.i-."'. Lri'jii'.uuji} coIicl aii- 

• .li- * ' iiiiiti.M|'.i>"- •' ' i " it Ciii'-iiiu iTifa /.'..ifc'i'i: . L CTui . fronj apiJl'JT- 

' ■ ■• . ' :••!•< t li.iiti iiiM . inriK/i a:r ' 'J tii' \' !!.>. .'. iiiali^iian'. tunui:. 

■ •••■ ' I- .1 !■ ..ii;"iiii, : 111 .ii».. • ii.i'.i'ii-r: ' f. :i\ a ii'Jtwori. o: coillirciivi 

I I •"' 'I I iitj.ii"' Hj/"!!! ii.N.-«u» V. ii'is.*. ar'-ti;:' ar* lili-d wiUi CfU 

• I • '<.! Iiiii Mi.i.N.v : I'vmiiiiiij' ••jiilii-'iial ct'lis It IJ> 

' •!• I I ' I •■ •iii.iiMii Iff iMi. ;m'mi' I' aii<-':i iii>. iviiijiiiatiL'h C Chixn- 

• ■ ' I .. ill • »i'i'l, Ih>i»ii ii«-3'-bwtcpcrb'. >■• I:vi:h.iiomG. C, 

■ •••' I-,..'' Culluid (Alveolar, ut Gum., afl'.:cb> 

• ..I .■»>.•» .. f ... » iii-|i\ til'- ulii]i'-Tilar\ '.anal. uli:rui». ikti- 

■ ■ • 

« .••i.-i li #\i 1.1 ■ ,, ; .■ f ,-., . I'liiiiiii. /.'. . liii 'ji-ii'jai' {(Min'.-c'iivt tissue 

( ••• I • ' i. . ■|u.tii>i\ii ^M'l|li;l ur< iili' •: wiih C'lJoid matter in 

i> • < '• lilt iiMiii:- III it'll tii- 'It (vs'h C. £ncephaloid, is oi 

I I •!. ' :i..|iMri III \.\\w\ ;;i'>W'.. Sllia'I ailKiu:)! nl StTtUDa, 

■I i ■ • I ,• ■ I I . II ■ I -.1 

• • . I 

III iiki-ii i.ii;-' :i!\i-'i!i. ;in-l I.M '-air: aiiiouiil uf fills 

• >• t Ml - I Hi! 1. I'M -I, ;iii''. i ioff! \i s.v is C-. £pitheliomatous, 

I I -till! .!> til SquuTiiuub-celled. tiiir c''.-!li> rcKini'if 

I. • ••.« I'.i .wl-.\ N,ii:iii'>ti- I jiM'i' !iuii». ivii'i liifv iijvadc the 

I ... ...... • , . I . , i, ■ ,. • ,■ I ,j' j ■ 

. I . 


■ » 

a' t. . i> • I.I M. «>>.;• in a • •■ majincT. C, 

MrdulUrv. Stinc a." -' v. f'.j.'.iJ. C, 

I Amiiirfl . I'm if) Si.)nirus, i<i Hard. iiKr^t ccunmonly in 

! . -I :■! j'.c iii.iv'. !..i.«. a stur.i ijt'riilaTfd 5tr«.ima, 

* i* . *..u ■ ■ .1 .. *" •" i'.«'m',\ juiilxiii \»r':. \:xT-^\ TiUvlia:i"\i cills. 

.... ■ ■ t 1 i /.■.••...';./ li iii^i) . .•/.":»: .".■ i pi*:mcn- 

: ..- li .. . i ' / . .; Ill : •■!.».''. l'.,'.'.u.' J«ipil- 

.- . .» \.i\ ..'. *l.i: x.i::- 1:- 5. tr«Crp:u'.oid 

• V - . . .! i . . ' .iiattcr C. Lcnticulare. C. Me- 

UiuulcN. C. Tuberosum. See y^'^r.-i- 
. 1 .# ■ ' 
C'ui* ino \\\A Cu'tis. «*a:*.::r *■:' i*::e sk-n. 
:**. . ...V. . • ... C. Len;iculare. 

■• 'i ... I * T.ii.>«-i**. >-r, k*\ "• .ni'»» a. • .r?* 
; I . «.H » •.,• -^-.t v. i-.l \ sm^^tr.. ;:'.»>- 
{. . 1 V * ... .»»; .;..s iT r>»>*.aV*. at 

J, > ». .iL ; " .1..* .;,^».».r^ a/.a^rnl 

V . . «. C Mc'.Jir.odes. s.r.'..'.ir i' i.". 

. . : ^. ..■ »..•.. .\ kl&TK . .U*. 

. V .. .■.. . >. wh?»"^ '.VX'&K V.'.K- 

. ^ .. . t . V C T.:>erosuTr:. i: "ar-.r 
. . . * . v; :.j.«tr» '.■.>*» i.i.i 

,v . .. . "^ 

i*;, ..;,■■•.• .v..;v . .t VV- ^ -■.■"* C. 

..... ■■ .'I. ..y.ili'.-. '- 

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. . s' »:;..»r;.«. . i.> 

I. ... V .." i::"^^: »■-> K" "•*! 

\" .ri\:vi:rr. . n. .. . .»'.s:s'.f 
..■!■; V i: . >. . '.^*; v in-.- 

. ■ > ^ \ % Tin*-, vomr. .a'.ia 

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■ ll 

« I 




<^^ 5» glyccriiie 60, dilute alcohol, ^. s. 
ad 1000 parts. Dose 3J-ij. 

Car^damon. See Cardamomum. 

Car^dia (isapdia). The heart. C. of 
Stomach, a name sometimes used to 
designate the cardiac orifice of the stomach. 

Car^diac (luipdia). Pertaining to the heart. 
C. Cycle, the total cardiac movement or re- 
volution. C. Dullness, the region cover- 
ing the position of the heart, as shown by 
percussion. C. Ganglia, lie in the grooves 
and substance — the principal are Remak's 
and Bidder's, the first on the surface of 
the sinus venosus, and the latter (two) at 
the auriculo- ventricular groove. C. Im- 
pulse, the elevation in the fifth left inter- 
costal space, caused by the movement of 
the heart. C. Murmurs. See Murmurs. 

Cardial^gia (Kopdia, aXyo^^ pain). A term 
loosely used as a synonym of gastrodynia 
in general, heartburn, and stomachic pains 
on the left side. 

Car^dinal (cardo^ a hinge). A chief or 
principal part. C. Flower, a common 
name for several species of lobelia. C. 
Points. See Eye. Diagrammatic. C. 
Veins, the venous trunks which, in the 
embryonic stage, form primitive jugular 

Car^diogram (napSuif ypa^^rj^ a line). The 
tracing made of the cardiac impulse by the 
aid of the cardiograph. 

Car^diograph (KopSia, ypcupo, to write). 
An instrument for registering graphically, 
by curved lines, the modifications of the 
pulsations of the heart. 

Cardio-inhib^itory. Pertaining to the 
diminution cf the heart's action. C.-i. 
Center, located in the medulla. C.-i. 
Nerves, the fibres of the spinal accessory 
supplied to the vagus. 

Cardio-pneumat^ic (KapSuZy in'tvfia^ the 
breath). Pertaining to the heart and the 
breath. C.-p. Movements. Those move- 
ments of the air in the lungs which are 
caused by the pulsations of the heart and 
the laiger vessels. 

Cardio-pneu^mograph (Kap^ia^ Trvev/ia^ 
yfxioUf to write). An instrument designed 
for graphically recording cardio- pneumatic 

Car^duus. The seeds of C. ma nanus, 
St. Mary's thistle, and C. benedictus, 
blessed thistle. A decoction of the former, 
^ ij ad Oj, constitutes an old and popular 
remedy in haemoptysis. The latter is also 
a popular cure-all, used mainly as a tonic 
bitters. Unof. 

Car^icin. Sec Papain, 


Ca'^ries (carlo, to rot). A chronic inflam* 
mation of bone with rarefaction or absorp- 
tion of bony tissue, followed usually by 
pus-formation. Called, also, rarefying os- 
teitis. C. Fungosa, when there is great 
rapidity of formation and extension of 
granulation tissue. C, Necrotic, when 
portions of bone lie in a suppurating cav- 
ity. C. of Spine, or Pott's Disease, 
osteitis of the bodies of the vertebrae and 
intervertebral fibro-cartilage producing cur- 
vature of the spine. 

Ca^rious. Pertaining to caries. 

Carmin^ative [carmen, a charm). A 
calming or soothing medicine, chiefly for 
children, that acts by relieving pain from 

Car^mine. A coloring matter extracted 
from cochineal, q. v. 

Carnau^ba. The root of Corypha cerifera. 
Used in Brazil as an alterative. Resem- 
bles sarsaparilla in properties. Dose of 
the fld. ext. n\^xxx-3J. Unof. . 

Camifica^tion {caro, ^t^, fieri, to make). 
A term indicating the alteration of tissue 
to an unnatural, fleshy ap|:)earance. Also, 
the amyloid degeneration of certain tissues. 

Car^nin. A leucomaine isolated from 
American meat-extract, but not from mus- 
cle-tissue itself, — also obtained from yeast 
and wine. It is not thought to be very 
poisonous, but experiments made by Briicke 
showed it caused a fluctuation in the rate 
of the heart-beat. 

Carniv^orous {caro, voro, to devour). In 
surgery, a name a])plied to caustic sub- 
stances. In zoology, flesh-eating animals. 

Car^nose (camosus, fleshy). Resembling, 
or having the consistence of flesh. 

Caro^ba. The leaflets of Jaraninda pro- 
cera. A ]X)pular Brazilian remedy as an 
alterative and tonic in syj)hilis. Dose of 
the fld. ext. n\^xv-3J. Unof. 

Carot^id (Kapoo, to produce sleep). The 
great arteries of the neck. (They were 
thought to give origin to sleep.) See 

Car'^pal (carpus, the wrist). Pertaining to 
the wrist. 

CarphoPogy (Kapifto^, chaff, and ^Fyu, to 
collect). A term applied to that symptom 
in delirious and dyinjj jx'r>ons consisting 
in pickinji; at the iK'd clothes. 

Carpozy^ma (KapTzo^, fruit, Cvitrf, ferment). 
An alcoholic ferment. C. Apiculata, a 
widely diffused alcoholic ferment found in 
all fruits. 

Carp'^us. The wrist. The eight bones 
collectively forming the wrist. 




Car^riage. Sec IVard-carnage. 

Car'ron Oil. Sec I.inum. 

Car-sickness. The well-known symjv 
U>nis i^f sea-sickness ])roduced by joumey- 
in^r in railway cars. 

Car'thamus. American Saffron or Saf- 
tk>wer. The tlowers of C". tine/onus. An 
infu>ion, " SaflaMi ^-a," is a popular domes- 
tic renuHly as o diuretic in measles and 
iHtier exaiuhematous alVections. Unof. 

Car'tilage. Ciristle. A white, semi-opaque, 
non-xascular tissue com)X)sed of a matrix, 
ivntaining nucleated cells. C, Hya- 
line, di>tin}:[uisluHl by granular or homo- 
j»eneou> nmtrix. C, Fibro-, distinguished 
by a tibrvms matri x . When boiled, cartilage 
yieUi> a sul^tance called chotidrinCy q. v. 
Cartilages of Lar3mx. The cartilages 
of the liuynx pnxiuce the various modula- 
liwis of the jMich and intensity of the voice. 
Consist of the thyroid^ cricoid^ epiglottis ^ 
anil a )iair each of arytenoid, corfticida 
Is'-y-n^.s and x~untiform, C. of San- 
torini. a nodule at the a{K^x of each aryte- 
Dv^i.'. cartilage, the comiculum laryngis. 
C. of Wrisberg, the cuneiform cartilages, 
oiie on each sivle of the fold of membrane 
stretching Irmii the arytenoid cartilage to 
the rj'«4:]i>ai>. 

Ca rum. *. araway. The seeds of C. cantiy 
iD.ii^nooxs lo Kurv^ and an allied sj>ecies 
native to the T-icitic coast of America. 
CVjvr ATKi laste due to a \ volatile oil. Valu- 
a^U :n ir.tar.l coiic, but us<.tl chiefly as a 
f.iix-^r. C. Infusum, unof., 5J-ijtad Clj. 

r uncle 

dins. iT.T'T*, flesh V A small, 
amcrziil f i shy j:Tv»«th. C . . Lachrymal, 
^rv^ ih;f i.v«:v;::^cd>A near the inner can- 

Damn culje ■».-:.. the skinV The nj-m- 
ph..^. C. Mynifor'mcs. the projections 
cif TDi^iirxr-f r.^or the ixince of the 
vjii7.-i. ib.-«^': :: -v the rt-mains of the 
'lyzLi'.r J^:r :".* r^vvunr. They have also 
:»r;T j.'-r.:! .n ^j:: :~:xr:Vra:ed h\inen. 
CiTv^trby I "lu 5. C ! ; ^ e . Fhe u ne\j"winded 
fi. s ;rv :c J . ^- 'r - . .:'7 ./ ■ : ."."-.-•, disiin- 
r- -:*:..•.: ry *.-i:-r :e"-t:ir.i, Si-'-oy taste. 
I"*. cr-:.-. s t^t *.: A v^-*.i:i> o:!, which is 

I xlul 


-^ J. s^. .. .L..i^i.r* xzi.. 41 « .Taint. 

V :• ; r : .r.- r^ r ;-.-. » . -.h pcrjTJii v i s I " siaI 

ir?. :a;!v.:* ? c z-'.-.t::--; C. Infusum. 
I'ro:' .\ *cr:frs::th :c I to 40 nxvm* 
r^dv* " -. C- 01.. c\>ntaias 

Cas^ca Bark (Sassy Bark, Ordeal Bark). 
The bark of Erythrophlamm Guine^uiy a 
tree native to Africa. Properties due to 
an alkaloid. I*roduces nausea and vomit- 
ing. Valuable in intermittent fevers. C. 
Tinct., 25 per cent, in strength. Dose 
n\^x. Unof. Erythrophline, the active 
alkaloid, unof., locally an anaesthetic. 

Cas^cara Amar'^ga. Honduras Bark, llie 
bark of a tree native to Mexico. Much 
used as an sdterative tonic in syphilis and 
skin affections. C, Fid. Ext. Dose 
gss-j. Unof. 

Cas^cara Sagra^da (Chittem Bark, Sa- 
cred Bark). The bark of Rhamnus pur- 
shiana^OT California Buckthorn. Properties 
due to a volatile oil. U.seful in treatment 
of chronic constipation. C. Cordial, a 
trade preparation. All unof. 

Cascaril^la. The bark of Croion eluteria. 
Native to the Bahama Islands. An aro- 
matic bitter, increasing the natural secre- 
tions of the digestive organs. A tincture 
and an infusion, both I to 10, freshly pre- 
pareil and used in 3J-,^j dc*ses. Unof. 

Casea^tion (caseum^ cheese). TheprecijM- 
tation of casein during the coagulation of 
milk. Also a fatty degeneration of pus, 
tubercle, c-/r., in which the structure is 
converted into a soft, cheese-like substance. 

Ca^sein [ea5eum\ A derived albumin; 
the chief proteid of milk, precipitated by 
acids and by rennet at 40® C. It is closely 
allied to alkali -albumin, but contains 
more nitn.>gcn aiul a large amount of phos- 
phorus. It ciMistitutes most of the curd of 
milk. Two varieties of C, Vegetable 
have Iven de>cnlxxl, — Leg^min, in peas, 
lx\uis, c'A., and Conglutin, in bops and 

Ca'seous ^ \^seu^i\. Having the nature or 
cv^nsistcnce of chivso. 

Cassa'va. The fecula of manioc, Jani- 
pk.i n:,:n:i.\\ sejxunted from the juice. 
Commonly known as bread fruit. Unof. 

Casser'ian Gang 'lion. A large crescent- 
shaiHxl ^.U'.j;l:on of nerxes, >ituated in a 
deprc>si».*n in the j>etRTU> |xxtion of the 
temjx^ral Ivr.e. It i> the ganglion of the 
lar^T or s<.^n>k^r\- ax^ of the tiAh nerve. 
Kivm it ar.>e the ^^hthalmic. the superior 
and intVr^^^ m.i\ir..iT^* diAisioos. Called 
als^^ the k»a»er:,u*. iian^lion. 

Cas 'sia. l\:ri:-r.j: cassia. The fruit of a 

trtx\ «.'- r .-;*.■.;, jiTV'w ini: in t!V^'«oal regions. 

The jHxIj' ir. ;^ -i; dv>!*e> is a mi*d lasuilive. 

Castan'ea. Chc?inut. TbelesTesof C 
:..'..:. Cv^.tain tannic and galbc acids 
and other (Tiaciples vbciK valne v not 




known. Used in deccxrtion as a remedy 
for whooping-cough. C, Fid. Ext. Dose 

Cas^tor Bean and C. Oil. See Rutm. 

Castra'^tion (castro, to cut off). The ex- 
cision of one or both testicles. C, Fe- 
male, removal of the ovaries. 

Casts. See Tube Casts. 

Catacau^sis (Kara^ koiu^ to burn). Spon- 
taneous combustion. 

Catac^lasis (/cara, K?jau, to break). A 
distortion of the eyelids. Also, a fracture. 

Catacrot^ic (Kara^ Kporog, a striking). Ele- 
vations interrupting the line of descent in 
a sphygmogram. 

Cat^alepsy (/cara, Xafi^avuy to seize). A 
^Mismodic disease marked by suspension 
of consciousness and sensation, with rigid- 
ity of muscles, without material alteration 
in circulation, ffc. See Somnambuiism. 

Catalysis (KoraP.vcj, to dissolve). In 
chemistry, a reaction which takes place 
owing to the mere presence of another 
body which apparently undergoes no 

Catame'^nia [Kara^ fiTjv^ month). The re- 
current monthly discharge of blood during 
sexual life from the genital canal of the 

Catapha'^sia (Karcu^oiq^ assent). A con- 
dition of imperfect consciousness, in which 
the patient repeatedly utters the same 
word or words spontaneously, or in reply 
to a question. 

Cataphor^ic (wira, ^/;fw, to carry). Per- 
taining to the transference of currents 
through membranous septa in the direc- 
tion of a galvanic current. 

Cataphore^sis {Karaipopeu, to bear away). 
The transfer of medicainents by the cata- 
phoric action of the diiTusion-electrode to 
deep-seated tissues, as, e.g.^ chloroform 
into the sul)stance of a nerve. 

Cat^aplasm. Sec Poultice. 

Cat^aract (KarapoKTr/Ct a falling down, or 
over, as of something over the vision). 
Diminished transparency or an opacity of 
the crystalline lens or of its capsule. C, 
Black, the lens is pij^cntcd, and of a dark- 
brown color. C, Capsular, consists in 
non-transparent dejx)sits on the inner sur- 
face of the capsule. C, Cortical, opaci- 
Hc^ion of the outer layers of the lens. 
C, Diabetic, is associated with dialn'tes. 
C, Discission of, an operation [Prelimi- 
nary to absoqilion, or extraction by suc- 
tion, consisting in rupturing the capsule, 
so that the a<}ueous humor gains access to 
the lens. C, Extraction of. Removal 

of the cataractous lens by surgical opera- 
tion. See Extraction of C. C, Imma- 
ture, or Unripe, only a part of the lens- 
substance is cataractous. C, Lamellar, 
or Zonular; certain layers between the 
cortex and nucleus are opaque, the remain- 
ing layers being transparent. C, Mature, 
or C, Ripe. The whole lens -substance 
is cataractous. C, Morgagnian, when 
a hypemiature or overripe C. slu-inks and 
leaves a nucleus floating in the dissolved 
outer layers. C, Polar, (anterior or pos- 
terior), the opacity is confined to one 
pole of the lens. C, Pyramidal, the 
opacity is at the anterior pole and conoid, 
the apex extending forward. C, Recur- 
rent Capsular, or Secondary. Capsular 
cataract, appearing after the extraction of 
the lens. C., Senile, the cataract of old 
persons, the most frequent form, and that 
understood when not specified as con^erti- 
taly juvenile y traumatic, soft, etc, C, 
Soft, is especially that of the young ; the 
lens-matter is of soft con.sistency and a 
milky appearance. 

Catarrh^ (Karappeuy to flow down). In- 
flammation of the mucous membrane, espe- 
cially of the respiratory tract, but also used 
of the bladder, etc. See Coryz<i, Influenza, 
etc, C, Gastric, gastritis. C, Intesti- 
nal, enteritis. C, Nasal, coryza. C, 
Pulmonary, bronchitis. C, Vesical, 

Cat^aschasm (\-ara, ff^a/rz/a, scarified 
part). Deep or thorough scarification. 

Catastal^tic {KaraarO.yjLi, to contract 
downward). Astringent. 

Catat^ony. See Katatonia. 

Catelectrot^onus [cathiuie, electro^ Tm«of, 
tension). Tlie state of increased irritabil- 
ity of a ner^'e near the catliode. See Anc- 

Cat- gut. The intestines of a sheep treated 
to make ligatures. C, Carbolized, ren- 
dered aseptic by soaking in an emulsion of 
carlwlic acid. 

Cathar^sis (Kuffatpu, to ])urge). I^lrgalion. 

Cathart^ic [KaHaiixj). A medicine used 
to produce evacuations of the l)Owels. A 

Cathelectrot^onus. See Catehctrotonus. 

Cath^etcr {Kaftfrr/p^ a thing put down). A 
tul)c like instrument for evacuating the 
liquid of a cavity, usually the Madder. 
C, Eusta^chian, an instrument for ex- 
amining the K. lube, distending or making 
apfilicalions to it. C. Fever, disturbance, 
with fever, following intrtKluctioti of Ihe C. 
into the urethra. 




Cath^ode. See Kathode. 

Cat^ion (/carw, downward, f////, to-go). A 
word employed in electrolysis to denote an 
electro |Kisilivc element. Sec Ivtt. 

Cat^ling. A (winted, two-edged knife for 

Cat'^nep. 'llie leaves and tops of the herb 
Xt'pttii cataria. Stimulant and tonic. A 
lX)pul;ir remedy in chlorosis, hysteria, etc. 
l>o>ei«f lid. ext. 3J-ij. Unof. 

Catop'trics (wirc/nr/j/AOf, in a mirror). 
The laws of the reflection of light. C. 
Test, the diagnosis of cataract by means 
of the reflection of images from tlie cornea 
and len> ca|>>ules. 

Caud'^a Equi'na. The tcnninal extrem- 
ity of the >pinai conl from the second lum- 
liar vi rtcbra, resembling a horse's tail. 

Caud'ate ^cautia^^^ tail). Having, or re- 
sembling a tail. C. Lrobe of Liver, a 
small elevation of the liver. C. Nucleus, 
the intraventricular jMjrtion of the corpus 

Caul V Welsh <<////, a covering for the 
U'welsj. A portion or all of the fcilal 
membranes covering tin* head and canied 
out in advance of it in lal>or. 

Caus'tic \Kaud^ to buniV A substance dir^irgani/es or destroys living tissue. 
C. Alkali, a pure alkaline hydrate or 
oxide. C, Common, argentic nitrate. 
C, Dubois*s. arsenious acid X, mercuric 
sulj^hide 16. dr.\gon'> bk<Hl S |»arts. C, 
Lunar, argentic nilrale or nitrate of sil- 
vt r C, Mitigated, nrmntic nitrate made 
lt>s active by fusit^n with jK»tassium ni- 
trate or ari:rniic chloride. C. Potash, 
jx^!aN>ium hydrate. S*.'e I\t;issium. C. 
Soda, M.>lium hulnite. 

Cau 'terj* m; !.■'. Primarily, the applica- 
tion o\ c.iuslic>, but more frer]uently now 
the u<i* of the galvanic cauterv' or hot 
i:on for counter-irritation, rxMnoval i^f I is- 
sue. :.' . C, Actual, the u.-o <">{ the whitc- 
hoi iron. C. Button, '\r\vn he.itoi in hot 
w.iTrr. C. Gas, oautivi-alii-n by a stream 
oi \ uTTiin^ L;a< dirnliil u}">on the part. 
C. Galvanic, a plaliiuini wire lu-.ited by 
eli.'v tri».i;v C, Paquelin's. ov C Ther- 
mo-, a h '\\v p'..iii! |H'iiAl kept .it .1 
U'.'.itoi'ii uinit rai\nv by a cum nt o\ Ivn- 
.t!i va;^'i. C, Potential, or C. Vir- 
tual. iV.e a] ^p! ix-.i» 'o-T of eau.vtic ^ulM.uice'i. 

Cav'alry- Bone. .\ ly-uA ^le|\'sit in the 
a.biu.tor !t > \>\ the thii;h. 

Cav'ernous ....■:•'.■;. a caveV llaxing 
cue like >jx»tV'. or hollow places. C. 
Bodies, the i\'»rix'ra cavorno^a of tlie 
pcui». C. Breathing, thi- revirleraiing 

or hollow sound of bronchial breathing in 
dilated or abnormal bronchi. C. Plexus. 
Sec Plexus. C. Sinus, situate at the 
side of the body of the sphenoid. C. Tis- 
sue, erectile tissue. C. Tumor. See 

Cay^enne Pepper. See Capsicum. 

Ceboceph^alus (K7;,?of , a kind of monkey, 
Ki9a/./;, head). A cyclocephalic monster 
with a complete absence of the nose. 

Ce^cum. See Cucutn. 

Ce^dron. The seeds of C. simaba. A 
|X)pular external remedy in tropical Amer- 
ica for the lite of venomous insects and 
serpents. Of reputed value in malarial 
fevers. Dose of tlie tld. ext. n\j-viij. 

Ceke (pronounced thikt). A Feejce term 
for elephantiasis of the scrotum. 

Cel^andine. See Chelidonium, 

-cele (^ a tumor). A suffix denoting 
a tumor, 

Cel'^ery. The stalks of common garden 
celery. Contains <///>'/, an active prin- 
ciple found in wild par^i^nei^s. Reputed to 
be antispasmoilic and ner>ine. Dose in- 
definite. C. Seed, used to cover the taste 
of other drugs. Unof. 

Cc^lioscope. See Ca/osco/c. 

Cell (L. «<//<;, a small, hollow cavity). In 
auittcmy^ the interstitial sjiaces and small 
cavities of the 1 ones. In bfoicg\\ a nucle- 
ated mass of protoplasm capal le of repro- 
duction. See Cttt/'Oiiy. C. of Corti, 
the hair-cells on the outer surface of the 
(Mgan of C'erti. C. of Deiters, cells with 
fine proces>es resting on the basilar mem- 
brane of the coihlca, beneath the air-cells. 
C, Giant, the jiolynutleated Ixxlics of 
prt U pl;i>mic matter occurring in tul enu- 
k:>is, .><ircAma, ttc. C. Multiplication. 
( ylt genesis. A n.nme given to the prccess 
of npKxhitlion of cell>. May le cndo-^ as wlun the tell-contents break 
up by >egmentation into sej-arale nucleated 
nia>>e- \\ithin the cell wall; gifKt/HTrous, 
as w lun nrw eelU I ud fn m the mclher- 
cell : and //.<.• ;/./n»/o-, as when tlie mcther- 
cell diviiKs ly tUavage into two or more 
cells. C, Neuro-muscular, a name 
given to certain cells of lower life-ftrms, 
which act in part as ner\es and in jwrt as 

Cell-body. The mass of a cell, a miK»od 
i''\ two >ulMances, the w//i //-«;, or .j'A»- 
r::'/ ' ■,:. and the /'.rij-n.'i/cm.f. The first 
i'* the thre.uMike l-.isis of the C.-b,. the 
1.1 Her the lu>m<n;eneous fdar and interlilai 
Ml! >i.nue. The nucleus is comncsed of 
c..ri.->v;Am.r, or nuclear netwonc, other- 




wise called the chromatin ; the nuclear 
sap, or substances contained in the meshes 
of the chromatin, and from its non-staining 
quality called achromatin ; and the nuclear 
membrane, made up of two layers, the 
outer achromatic, the inner chromatic, or 
staining. The nucleoli are usually mul- 
tiple, and composed of more refractile 

Celluli^tis (dim. cella, itis). A diffuse 
inflammation of the cellular tissue, due to 
some wound and introduction of septic 

Cel'^luloid. Zylonite, Xylonite. A sub- 
stance made by heating trinitro-cellulin or 
gun-cotton with camphor, under pressure. 
An excellent substitute for ivory and 
tortoise-sh»ll. Useful in various ways in 
surgery. Highly inflammable. Unof. 

Cellulose. The basis of vegetable fiber. 
Identical in composition with starch. 
Swedish filter-paper is pure C. 

Cclot^omy (nn'^rt, tumor, Tetivu^ to cut). 
The operation for strangulated hernia by 
incision of the stricture. 

Cement^um. See Tooth. 

Censsthe^sis (koivo^^ common, 'cuadrfGuQ, 
feeling). Used latterly as a synonym for 
the sensations of the visceral organs. 

Center {Kcvrpov). The middle point or line 
of the body. The ganglion or plexus 
whence issue the nerves controlling a func- 
tion. C. Accelerans, a probable C. in the 
mzduUa sending accelerating fibres to the 
heart. They leave the cord through thi 
rami communicantes of the lower cervical 
and upper six dorsal nerves, passin^j thence 
into the sympathetic. C, Ano-spinal, 
controls defecation; at the 5-6-7th lumbar 
vertebrae ; but for the co-ordinated activity 
it must remain in connection with the 
brain. C, Auditory, probably in the 
temporo-sphenoiilal lobes, upon each side. 
C, Cardio-inhibitory, in the medulla, 
carried by the vagus. C, Cilio-spinal, 
connected with the dilatation of the 
.pupil ; lower cervical part of cord. C. 
for Closure of Eyelids, in the medulla, 
part of the Facial Center. C, Cough- 
ing, in medulla, alx)ve Respiratory C. 
C, Ejaculation, Budge's Genilo-spinal 
C, 4th lumbar vertebra (rabbit). C, 
Erection, is in the spinal cord, but con- 
trolled from the medulla. C. for Masti- 
cation and Sucking, Facial and Hypo- 
glossal Centers. C. for Secretion of 
Saliva, floor of fourth ventricle. C, 
Gustatory and Olfactory, in the unci- 
nate gyrus. C, Heat-regulating or 

Temperature. Mas been assumed by 
some. C, Micturition, the Vesico-spinal 
C. of Budge, at the lumbar vertebrae ; co 
ordination requires cerebral connection. 
C, Parturition, at 1st and 2d lumbar 
vertebrae. C, Respiratory, in the me- 
dulla, between nuclei of vagus and acces- 
sorius; called by Flourens the A'ceud 
Vital, or V^ital Point, C, Sensory, or 
Psycho-sen sorial Areas, occipital and tem- 
poro- sphenoidal lobes, probably the same, 
or intimately associated with, the motor 
centers of the parts. C, Sneezing, 
same as for nerves for muscles of expira- 
tion. C, Spasm, in the medulla, at 
junction with pons. C, Speech, in the 
third left frontal convolution in right- 
handed people. C, Swallowing, in 
floor of 4th ventricle. C, Sweat, the 
dominating C. is in the medulla, with 
subordinate spinal centers. C, Upper, for 
Dilator Pupillae, in medulla. C, Vaso- 
dilator, probably exists in medulla, with 
function the opposite of that of the Vaso- 
motor. C, Vaso-motor, in the medulla. 
C, Vesico-spinal. See Micturition C. 
C, Visual, in the occipital lobe, espe- 
cially in the cuneus. C, Vomiting, by 
means of auricular branch from the jugu- 
lar ganglion. 

Cent^igrade {centum, vl hundred, gradus, 
a step). Abbreviation, C. Having lOD 
steps or de^^rees. C. Thermometer, a 
thermometer with zero as the freezing 
point and lOD^ as the boiling point of 
water. To reduce C. to Fahrenheit regis- 
tration, the following formula is useful : — 
|°C. -|-32 = F. See Thermometer, 
Cent^igramme. The hundredth of a 
gramme, equal to 0.1543 of a grain avoir- 
dupois, or one-sixth of a grain Troy. 
Cent^ilitre. The hundredth of a litre ; 
equal to 0.6102 of an English cubic inch. 
Cent'imeter. The hundredth part of a 
metre, e(]ual to 0.39371 (or about \) of an 
English inch. 
Cent^rad {repitrum, ad). Toward the cen 
ter, or median line. 

Centrif^ugal {centrum, fu:^io, to lly). Re- 
ceding from the center. C. Nerves, 
those (mostly motor) conveying impulses 
toward the (x?ripheral jxirts of the botly. 
Centrip^etal {centrum, peto, to seek). 
Traveling toward the center. C. Nerves, 
those (mostly sensory) conveying impres- 
sions from the ixtriphcral organs toward 
the cerebro-sj)inal system. 
Centrum. The center or middle part. 
C. Ovale Major, the large masses oi 




white matter appearing when lx)th hemi- 
spheres are cut down to the level of the 
corpus callosum. C. Ovale Minor, the 
white matter appearing when the upper 
part of a hemisphere of the brain is re- 

Cephalae'mia (xf^a^^, ai^y blood). An 
abnormal determination of blood to the 
Cephalalgia (Kf^?.J7, o^jof, pain). Pain 

in the head. 
Cephalhaematc^ma {i^^dhi^ aiy-aru^ay a 
bloody fungus). A bloody tumor of the 
head. See Caput Succedaneum. 
Cephalhy^drocele. A tumor formed by a 
collection of cerebro-spinal fluid under the 
scalp as a result of cranial fracture. 
Cephalic. Pertaining to the head. C. 
Index. See Index. C. Vein, a vein of 
the shoulder. C. Version. See Version, 
C. Tetanus. See Kopf- Tetanus. 
Cephalog^raphy [Ktijfahjf yp<^t to write). 

A description of the head. 
Ceph^aloid (/if^o^^, eido^^ likeness). Re- 
sembling the head. 
Cephalol^ogy (Kr9a7^, }.oyoq^ treatise). 
The science of cranial measurements and 
Cephalom'eter (xf^aA^, fierpov, a meas- 
ure). An instrument for measuring the 

Cephalop^agus (Kf^?.7, head, Traysic, 
joined). An ensomphalic monstrosity with 
the heads united at the top. 
Ccphalot-'omy (/cf^?J7, Tofiij^ section). 
The crushing or breaking-down the head 
of the foetus in labor. It is effected by 
the cephalotomey an instrument for this 

Ceph'^alotribe (kc^cX;?, rptpoi, to crush). 
An instrument for crushing the foetal head 
in cephalotripsy. 
Cephalotrip'^sy (/cf^^^, rpipo). The 
operation of crushing the foetal head when 
delivery is otherwise impossible. 
Ce^ra (Lat.). Wax. A mixture of r^r^/V 
addy cero/ein, and myricinf gathered by 
the honey bee from the pollen of flowers 
and the leaves of plants. C. Alba, white 
wax, prepared by bleaching yellow wax. 
Valuable as an ingredient of cerates and 
ointments. C. Plava, yellow wax; pos- 
sesses an agreeable balsamic odor. Solu- 
ble in ether, hot alcohol, and chlorofonn. 
Cer^asin. See Choke-cherry, 
Cerato-. See Keraio-, 
Cera^tum (cera^ wax). A cerate. In 
phannacy an imctoGasprepamtkia of vUttt 
wazandlud. Then an 8 offidil Mfwfti. 

Cercomo^nas Intestina^lis. An intesti- 
nal infusorial parasite of men and animals. 

CerebePlum (dim. of cerebrum). The 
inferior part of the brain, lying below the 

Cerebrasthe^nia. See Phrenasthenia. 

Cer'ebrin (cerebrum). A nitrogenous glu- 
coside obtained from brain-tissue. 

Cerebrin^acides. Substances found in 
brain-tissue, derived from or containing 

Cerebrin^ic Acid. A name given by 
Thudichum to an organic acid found in 
brain-tissue. Has feebly acid qualities. 

Cercbri^tis (cerebrum^ LTiq). Inflamma- 
tion of the proper substance of the cere- 
brum, due to traumatism, contiguous in- 
flammation, or .septic influence. Headache, 
(X)ssible vomiting and convulsions are the 
most marked symptoms. 

Cer^ebrose. A name given to a certain 
crystallized sugar isomeric with glucose, 
occurring in brain-tissue. 

Cer^ebrosides. A name given by Thu- 
dichum to a class of .substances occurring 
in brain-tissue, containing cerebrose. 

Ccr^ebro-spi^nal. Pertaining to the whole 
of the brain and spinal structure. C. Axis. 
See Axis. C. Fluid, the fluid between 
the arachnoid membrane and the spinal 
cord. C. System, the brain, spinal cord 
and nerves. 

Cer^ebrum. The chief portion of the 
brain, occupying the whole upper part of 
the cranium. 

Ce^rium. Ce = 140 ; quantivalence il, 
IV. One of the rarer metals. The oxalate 
is the only salt employed in medicine. A 
gastric sedative, useful in the vomiting of 
pregnancy. Dose gr. iv-v. 

Ceru'^men {ceray wax). The wax of the 

Cervical (cervix, the neck). Pertaining 
to the neck. 

Ccr'vix. The neck; also the posterior 
part of the neck. Applied also to con- 
stricted parts of other organs, as cervix of 
the bladder, cervix of penis. 

Cest^ode (keotoc, a girdle). Used of worms, 

of which Tania is a type. 

Ceta^cea (ceiusj a whale). An order of 
mammals living in the sea, as the whale, 

dolphin, etc, 

Ceta^ceum. Spermaceti A faX^ sub- 
stance somewhat resembling paramne in 

its physical properties. Obtamed from the 

bead of the q[>ain whale. Solnbte in ether, 

dUoraform and boiling aleohoL Employed 




tains spermaceti lo, white wax 35, olive 
oil 55 parts. 

Cetra^ria. Iceland moss. A lichen, C. 
Islandica^ found in Iceland and other 
northern countries. Contains a form of 
starch which gelatinizes when boiled with 
water. A feebly tonic demulcent, some- 
times recommended in pulmonary affec- 
tions. Well known under the name of 
blanc mange^ when allowed to simmer 
with milk. Official decoction contains 5 
percent, of the lichen. Dose Jij-iv. 

Chala^zae (;^f«/xiCa, hail). The two twisted 
cords or layers of the outer denser part of 
the albumin, extending from the poles of 
the yolk of a hen's egg to near the outer 
part of the white. 

Chala'^zion (;^aAaC£oi^, a small hailstone). 
A tumor of the eyelid from retained secre- 
tion of the Meibomian glands. A Meibo- 
mian cyst. 

Chalico'sis (;j;aA/f, gravel). A disease 
of the lungs caused by the inhalation of 
dust or sand by workmen. 

Chalk (r<//x, lime). Carbonate of lime. See 
Calcium. C. Stone, gout-stone — deposits 
in the hands and feet of gouty patients. 

Chalyb^eate (;faAv^, iron). Containing 
iron. ^ 

Cham^berland*8 Bougie or Filter. See 

Cham'^omile. See Anthemis. 

Chancer e (Fr., same). There is an un- 
fortunate difference and even absolute con- 
tradiction in the definitions of authorities 
regarding this term. The trend of opinion 
seems to be to consider chancre as the 
initial lesion of syphilis, a true infecting 
sore, followed by constitutional symptoms ; 
and chancroid as a non-infecting sore. C, 
Hard, Hunterian, Indurated, Infect- 
ing, Non -suppurating, or True, the 
ulcer of venereal origin, that is followed by 
constitutional syphilis. C, Non-incuba- 
tory, Non-infecting, Simple, or Soft, 
a contagious, suppurating, non-syphilitic 
▼enereal ulcer, more properly called chan- 
croid. C, Phagedenic, chancroid with 
a tendency to erosion. C, Serpiginous, 
a variety of the last that spreads superficially 
in curved lines. 

Chan^croid. See Chancre. 

Change of Life. A common term for the 
cessation of the catamenia. 

Char^bon. The French term for anthrax^ 
otpmtula maligna, 

Char^coal. See Carbon, 

ChAr^eot-Neumann Crystals. See 

Char'' cot-Robin Crystals. Crystals 
forming upon leucocythoemic blood when 
allowed to stand exposed for a few days. 

Char'^cot's Disease. An affection of the 
joints, due to disseminated insular scle- 

Charp^ie {carpOy to pluck). Linen shreds 
for dressing wounds. 

Char'^riire's Guillotine. An instrument 
for excising the tonsils. 

Char^ta (;fa/:>rA/c, paper). A paper. In 
pharmacy, a strip of pwiper as an excipient, 
the fibers of which are impregnated with the 
prescribed medicinal ^ubstance. Of the 
three official chartiSy two are intended as 
vesicants. C. Epispastica, blistering 
paper. C. Sinapis, mustard paper. Also 
a wrapper for holding powders or medi- 

Chaulmoo^gra Oil. An oil expressed 
from the seeds of Gynocardia odorata^ a 
tree native to the E. Indies. Soluble in 
alcohol . I^pert ies due to gynocardic acid. 
Thought to be useful in leprosy. Recom- 
mended in scaly eczema, psoriasis and 
syphilitic skin affections. For external 
use, gr. XX ad J j of petrolatum. Internally, 
dose gtt. v-x of the oil, or gr. ss-iij of the 
acid. All unof. 

Check-'en. 'ITie leaves of C. myrtus. Pro- 
perties due to an alkaloid and a volatile oil. 
Diuretic and expectorant. Similar in ac- 
tion to eucalyptus. Serviceal)le in chronic 
catarrh, laryngitis, ^/r. DoscJ^ss-j. Unof. 

Cheeks. The sides of the face. Com- 
posed of fat, areolar tissue, muscles, etc. 

Cheese-rennet. See Ladies' Bed-straw. 

Cheil^oplasty (;^f£/?^, lip, nTMOoUy to 
form). Plastic operations upon the lip. 

Cheiropom^pholyx. See Pompholyx. 

Chelido'^nium. Celandine. The leaves 
and stems of C. majus. IVoperties due to 
a numl^r of alkaloids and acids. A drastic 
cathartic, and externally an irritant. Of 
service in jaundice, whooping-cough, and 
catarrhal pneumonia. Dose of the plant 
gr. x-xxx ; of the juice TT\^v-xx. Unof. 

Che^loid. See Keloid. 

Che^lonin. See Bahnony. 

Chem^istry (Arab, alkimia). The sci- 
ence of the molecular and atomic structure 
of iMxlies. 

Chemo^sis (x^jfu^tc)- Conjunctival and 
sub-conjunctival swelling. 

Chenopo'^dium. American Wormseed. 
The fruit of C. amhrosioideSy a ])lant native 
to the United Stairs. rro|>t*rtics due to a 
volatile oil, the only preparation used. A 
mild cardiac stimulant, promoting the se 




cretions of skin and kidneys. A very 
eHicicnt anthelmintic against the round 
worm. 1 )ose of tlie oil tT\^v-xv. 

Cher^ry. The Iwrk of the common 
cherr)', Pruuiis s-rotina. A mild Inlter 
and tonic, containing tannin. I )ose of lid. 
ext. 3 ss-j. /^runin^ a concentrated cxt. 
Dose gr. j-iij. C. Compound, each Oj 
represents cherry bark J^ viij.dcttuce 5 iij, 
honhound ^iij-^s, l>l(Hylroot, ,5], veratrum 
viride 5SS. Dose n^^xv-jj. All unof. 

Chest. Sec 'J'horax. 

Chest 'nut. S<ie dis/anra. 

Chew^stick. The bark of Gottiinid Domin- 
^''usis. A popular aromatic bitter in the 
West Indies. Dose of the lid. ext. 3J-iij. 

Cheyne-Stokes Respiration. See Rcs- 

Chi^asm (;f«/C(J, to make a cross, as an X). 
The optic commi.'^sure. 

Chick^'en-pox. See Varicelh. 

Chi'cot. Kentucky Coffee 15ean. The 
seeds of iiymuocladus Canadensis. C'on- 
tains a volatile oil and a glucaside. I^ro- 
l>al)ly a cerebro-.>]^inal stimulant. Some- 
times used as a >ul.)stitute for colfee. Unof. 

Chignon^ Fun'gus. A name given to 
the fonnation of nodular fungoid growths 
on the ha'.r. I'rolnibly tluc to l>acteria. 

Chig^oe. See Pulcx. 

Chil'blain (Sax. teh\ cold, hU^an^ lx)il). 
An erythemiiioiis local iullammation and 
swelling of the skin due to cold. 

Child^bed. The ])0]nilar term for the con- 
dition of a woman during and after lal)or. 
C. Fever. See Putrpcral Fn'vr. 

Chil'i Saltpe^ter. See Soi/ium. 

Chimaph^ila. l*i|)sissewa, IVince's Pine. 
The leaves of C. timbellata^ an evergreen 
found in the U. S. An a>tringent tonic 
and excellent diun-tic. The brui.scd leaves 
are UMi-d a"* a rulx^facient. Valuable in 
drojvy, several forms of kidney disease 
an«l affections of the urinary |)assagc. C, 
Fid. Ext. Dose ^ss-ij. C, Decoc- 
tum. I to 17. Dose ,^ j-iij. Unof. 

Chi^na Grass. A soft, silky vegetal^Ie 
substance u>ed as a surgical dressing. 

Chi'nium Amorph^ium Bo^ricum. 
Amorphous Ik>nitc of Qui nia. See Quinia, 

Chin-jerk, ^tx JuTi'-jit-k. 

Chinoid^ln,or Chinoidin^um. Quinoidin. 
A mixture of amorphous alkaloids ob- 
tained in the manufacture of quinine. Has 
the therapeutic pro|M*rtics of quinine. 

Chinoli^na. Chinolioe, LeuScoline. An 
alkaloid derivative of quinine and cincho- 
nine, occurring alio in coal tar. Now 

generally prejiared by heating aniline or 
nitro-l>en7x>l wiih glycerine ami a dehydrat- 
ing agent. A valuable antisev>tic and anii- 
pyre'ic. Useful in pneumonia and typhus. 
Uonmionlv used in form of tartrate l)ecau>e 
of the delicjuescencc of other salts. Dose 
gr. v-xx. Unof. 

Chira^ta. Chiretta. The leaves and lighter 
stems of C. Ophtlia. Resembles gentian 
in its therajH'utic properties. An excellent 
tonic. Dose of the jxjwdercd plant gr. 
xv-xxx.. C, Fid. Ext., in glycerine and 
alcohol. Dose n\^xv-xxx. C., Tinct., 
ten |x.T cent, in strength. Dose 5 ss-ij. 

Chiret'ta. See Chirata. 

Chirop^odist ( \fi\)i the hand, Toif [gen. 
TTorToi] the foot). A surgeon or j^rscm 
who i.)rofessionally treats diseases of the 
hands and feet, esjx^cially corns, bunions, 

Chirur^gia (,tT//), fp>«i', work). Surgery. 

Chirur^gicai. Pertaining to surgery. 

Chit^tim Bark. See Casraro Saj^raJa. 

Chloas^ma. See Tinea I'ersicolvr. 

Chlo^ral, or Chloral Hydrate. A colorless 
cr\'stalline solid having the compohition 
CJHCla^lIO)^: the hydrate of chloral, 
CUICI3O, improjx.'rly calletl by the latter 
name. A ix)werful hypnotic, antispas- 
modic and depressant to the ceit*bral, 
medullary and spinal centers. To a lim- 
ited extent an ana'sthetic. Scniccal-le in 
fevers accomjianied by cerebral excite- 
ment, in chorea, convulsions, and all aAec- 
tions requiring a ccrel)ral depressant. Ex- 
cellent in delirium tremens, 1 ut should be 
u.sed with great caution. Dose gr. v~xx ; 
smaller if combined with ix)tassium or 
sodium bromide. C. Butylicum, croton 
chloral. A .solid occurring in cr}-stalline 
.scales, resembling chloral hydrate, but 
made with butyl. ^VU^ ^* * ^^'^^i i»>t^ad 
of ethyl, CjIIj. In properties jMrallel to 
chloral but much feebler. Dose gr. v-xx 
in syrup. Unof. 

Chloralam^ide. A name inaptly applied 
to chloral fonnanidate. In doses of 45 
grains it is a hypnotic. 

Chlo'ric Ether. See Ethyl Chh^itU. 

Chlo^rides, Test for. Add a few drops 
of nitric acid, then gradually add a solu- 
tion of nitrate of silver. A white precipitate 
of silver chloride forms. 

Chlo'rine (.t>o^?, green). CI == 35.5; 
(|uantivalencc I. A non-metallic element. 
At ordinary temperatures a greenish-yeU 
low gas, prepared by decomposing lodium 
chloride, NaCl. Highly inritative to the 
skin and mucous membrane, pnxlucing 




spasmodic closing of the glottis. The 
most valuable of disinfectants. Chlori 
Aqua, chlorine water, contains 4 per cent, 
of the gas in solution. A good antiseptic 
wash. Dose, internally, Ti\,x-xxx. Calx 
Chlorinata, " chloride of lime/' a hypo- 
chlorite of calcium containing free chlo- 
rine. A valuable disinfectant. Dose, in- 
ternally, gr. iij-yj. C. Chlorat. Liq. con- 
tains I lb. of the salt per gallon of water. 
Sodium Chlorat., Liq., Labarraque's 
SoiiUian, sodium carbonate 10, calx chlori- 
nata 8, water ad 100. Dose TT\^x-3J. 

Chlo^rodyne. A proprietary remedy pre- 
pared by a physician of London. Supposed 
to contain chloroform, ether, morphine, 
cannabis Indica, hydrocyanic acid, and 
capsicum. The various imitations differ 
widely. Dose n\^x-xxx, with care. Unof. 

Chlo^roform. Methyl Terchloride, CHCI3. 
A heavy, colorless li juid obtained by the 
action of chlorinated lime on methyl alco- 
hol. (Commercial article, C. yenale^ con- 
tains 2 per cent, of im;)urities and unfit for 
adin'nistration. Intjmally, produces nar- 
cosis and violent gastro enteritis.) C. is ex- 
cellent in true cholera and similar diseases 
of stomach and bowels. Externally, much 
employed as an ingredient of rubefacient 
and anodyne linim'^nts. Mixed with at 
least 96)^ per cent, of air and inhaled, 
it is the mo»t valual)le of general anccs- 
thetics, but occasionally (l : 3000] caus- 
ing death by cardiac paralysis. Deep 
injections in the vicinity of the sciatic 
nerve are recommended in sciatica. C, 
Ammoniated, equal parts of ammonia 
in alcohol and chloroform; antipyretic and 
anodyne. LJnof. C. Liniment, commer- 
cial chloroform 40, soap liniment 60 parts. 
C. Mistura, pure chloroform 8, camphor 
2, fresh yolk of egg 10, water 80 parts. 
Dose .^j-^j' C. Spt., pure chloroform 
10, alcohol 90 parts. Dose TT\^x-3J 

Chlo^rophane. See Chromophanes. 

Chlo^rophyll (;|fA6»pof, ^uaP/w, leaf). The 
greeo coloring matter of leaves. 

CSiloro^sis (;jf^/x)f). The " green sick- 
ness;" a disease of young women; con- 
nected with anxmia and menstrual al)nor- 
mality, usyally suppression. 

Chlo^nim. See Chlorine. 

Choke-cherry. The fruit of Pntnmi^Ce- 
fxism) Vtrginiana^ not the P. llri^uiana 
of the pharmacopeia; common in the U. 
S. Anti^MMmodic, tonic, and slightly as- 
teingent. Cerasiftt a concentrated extract. 
Doie gr ij-viij. Unof. 

GbelndXMM. Stit Papillitis, 

Cholfle-'mia (.V'>^-^, bile, af/m, blood). The 
presence of bile pigment in the blood. 
ChoPagogue (;t"^-//, ajcj, to expel). A 
purgative medicine which promotes the 
flow of bile. 
Chola^lic Acid. See Choloidinic And. 
Cholecystec^tomy (;toAi7, kvotic, bladder, 
CKTOjur/, a cutting out). Excision of the 

Cholecystenteros^tomy (;toA;7, <cixn-/f, 
evrepov^ intestine, crofda, a mouth). In- 
cision of the gall-bladder and intestine 
with suture of the intestinal wound to that 
of the gall-bladder. 

Cholecysti^tis. Inflammation of the gall- 
Cholecystot^omy (;|fo?j7, Kvcrigy refivu, to 
cut). The operation of inciting the gall- 
Chole^dochus {xo'^t dexoftaif to receive). 
Receiving or holding bile. C, Ductus 
Communis, the common excretory duct 
of the liver and gall-bladder. 
Chole'^ic (.)fo>.//). Pertaining to the bile. 
Chole^in (;foA//). An ol>solcte term for a 
mixture of several principles of the bile. 
ChoPera (jt^X^, />ea), to flow). A disease 
characterized by violent emesis, diarrhu?a, 
al)dominal {xiin and cramps. C, Asiatic, 
a malignant form of the disease existing 
in India during the whole year, and occa- 
sionally spreading as an epidemic over 
large areas. It is characterized by exces- 
sive vomiting, alvine discharges resembling 
flocculent rice-water, severe cramps, and 
collapse. The cause is not with certainty 
known, but is probably of microbic origin. 
Koch has discovered a 1 bacillus (see Spiril- 
lum Cholene), the cultures of which have 
in some instances produced the disease, and 
in others have failed. C, Bilious, a form 
of the disease attend .'d l>y excessive flow of 
bile. C, Chicken, a very fatal epidemic 
disease of fowN, marked by tumefaction of 
the lymphatic j;l:inds,with inflammation and 
ulceration of the <ligestive organs and peri- 
cardium. There are none of tlie symptoms 
peculiar to cholera. C. Infantum, the 
"summer complaint" of children, cliarac- 
terized by g;istric jxiin, vomiting, purgation, 
fever and j)nxstrati()n. C. Morbus, an 
acute catarrhal inflammation of the mucoas 
membranes of the .stomacli and intestines, 
with enteric jxiin, purging, vimiilin^, si>a-i- 
modic contractions of the muscles, itc. 
Very similar to Asiatic C. in its symptom- 
Chol'erine (dim. of iAo/r'r,t). \ tenn ap- 
plied to the mild cases of clioleraic dior* 




rboea. Also, the initiatory stage of malig- 
nant cholera. Also, the zymotic cause or 
virus of cholera. 

Cholesteato^ma (x^^Vi OTearufia, a seba- 
ceous tumor). A tumor consisting of a 
spermaceti-like substance, occiuring most 
frequently at the base of the brain, but 
occasionally in subcutaneous tissue. 

Cholesterse'^mia [ckolesterin^ (u/ia, blood). 
The retention of cholesterin in the blood 
instead of being excreted by the bile ; su{> 
posed (probably erroneously) by Flint to 
produce grave nervous symptoms. 

Cholest^erin [^x^^^^ (jreafjov, stearine). A 
monatomic alcohol, a constituent of bile, a 
normal ingredient of nervoas tissue. Also 
the fatty substance forming the acid prin- 
ciple of biliary calculi. 

Cholelithi'^asis {xo^t X/^of, stone). For- 
mation of calculi in the gall-bladder. 

Cholet^elin. An amorphous, soluble, yel- 
low pigment derived from bilirubin. 

Chc^lic {xo^)' Pertaining to the bile. 

Cho'lin. Same as Neuriney q. v, 

Chc'line. A ptomaine found both in animal 
and vegetable tissues. It has been obtained 
from flesh, fish and eggs, and cultures of 
vibrio-proteus and comma-bacillus ; it has 
been found also in toad-stool (Agaricus 
muscanus)f in hops (and hence in beer), 
in ei^t, in numerous vegetable seeds, in 
extracts of belladonna and hyoscyamus, in 
beetroot- sugar molasses, in cotton-seed, ^-/r. 
It is believed that choline is derived from 
the decomix)sition of lecithin, a complex 
ether, and one of the most widely-distri- 
buted compounds occurring, in greater or 
less quantity, in all of the animal tissues. The 
existence of lecithin in plants is no longer 
doubtful. It is a remarkal)le fact that in 
ordinary putrefaction, as choline disappears, 
the diamines appear and increase in quan- 
tity, according as the time of decomposition 
is extended. Free choline ordinarily forms 
a strongly alkaline syrup, which combines 
readily with acids to form salts. Choline 
possesses a toxic action when given in 
large quantities, paralyzing like curara. 
Atropine antagonizes the action of choline, 
as well as of the far more poisonous neu- 

Choline Group of Ptomaines. Four 
ptomaines — Choline, Neurine, Betaine, 
and Muscarine — have been thus classified. 
All these bases may be considered as oxi- 
dation products of trimethyl-ethyl-ammo- 
nium hydrate. 

Choloidin^ic Acid. Derived from Cho- 
lalic Acid, and probably a mixture of this 

with Dyslysin ; all three decomposition pro- 
ducts of bile acids. 

Chol^'olith (pc^^Vy At^of, stone). A gall- 
stone, or biliary calculus. 

Cholu^ria (xohri, oifpov, the urine). The 
presence of bile in the urine. Also the 
greenish coloration of the urine. 

Chon'^drin (x^^^P^t cartilage). A sub- 
stance obtained from the matrix of hyaline 
cartilage by boiling. Resembles gelatine 
in general properties, but differs from it in 
not being precipitated by tannic acid. The 
substance yielding it is chondrogen^ prob- 
£d)ly an anhydride. 

Chon^drogen. See Oiondrin. 

Chondro'^ma {xovApo^). A cartilaginous 
tumor. See hnchondroma, 

Chondrot'^omy (;t^<^pof> re/ivw, to cut). 
The dissection or anatomical analysis of 

Chon'^drus. Irish Moss. The substance 
of the algie C. rrispus and C. mammillosus. 
These yield, on boiling with water, a sol- 
uble colloid consisting mainly of mucilage. 
Demulcent and somewhat nutrient. Some- 
times used in making blanc mange. Unof. 

Chc^part's Operation. Medio-tarsal am- 
putation of the foot. 

Chor^da (Lat. a cord). A cord, tendon, 
or filament of nerve. C. Dorsalis. See 
Notochord. C. Tendinse, the tendinous 
strings connecting the camea columna of 
the heart to the auricular valves. C. 
Tympani, a filament of the vidian nerve, 
which enters the tympanum. C. Vocalis, 
one of the vocal cords or thyroarytenoid 

Chordee^ (;^;opJ^, a cord). A symptom in 
gonorrhoea characterized by painful erec- 
tion and downward curvature of the penis. 

Chore^'a {x^peia, dancing). St. Vitus' 
dance. A functional nervous disorder, 
usually occurring in youth, characterized 
by spasmodic and convulsive contraction, 
and non-rhythmic action of the muscles 
of the extremities, face, eU. It may 
be caused by a number of conditions, 
among which are fright and reflex irrita- 
tions, but it is essentially a disease of the 
later period of childhood, and affects girls 
about three times as fre(]uently as boys. 
C, Electrical. See Dubint's Disease. 
C, Habit. See .Spasm. C. Major, the 
hysterical C. of the French, the movements 
wide in range and regular in sequence, 
causing regular oscillatory movements of 
the parts. C. Minor, that first above de- 

Cho^reoid. Pertaining or similar to dioiea. 




Chorio-blasto^ses (ckoriumy skin, p^joa- 
Tovu^ to germinate). Anomalies of growth 
of the corium and connective tissue of the 

Cho'rio-capilla^ris. The inner layer of 
capillary vessels of the choroid coat of the 

Chorioidi'^tis. See Choroiditis. 

Chc/rion (x^P^^t ^^^ foetal membrane). 
The enveloping membrane of the foetus, 
external to the amnion, internal to the 
decidua. C, Primitive, the yiteiline 
membrant (or Zona pellucidd) during the 
time of the development of the hollow, 
structureless villi upon its surface. C, 
Shaggy, or C. Frondosum, when cov- 
ered by villi. C. Laeve, the smooth or 
non-villous portion of the chorion. 

Cho^rio-retini^tis. See Choroido-retini- 

Cho^roid i^x^piov, the chorion, ti^oq^ like- 
ness). The second or vascular tunic of 
the eye continuous with the iris in front 
and lying between the sclerotic and retina. 
C. Plexus, a vascular plexus in the lat- 
eral ventricles of the brain. 

Choroidi^tis. Inflammation of the choroid. 

Choroid'^o-retini^tis. Choroiditis with re- 
tinitis. C.-r., Axnetropic, caused by 

Choroma^nia {^x^P^y * dance, fiaviGf 
madness). A nervous disorder manifest in 
various times and places, and characterized 
by dancing or other rhythmic movements. 

Chris^tison's Formula. To estimate the 
amount of solids in the urine : Multiply 
the two last figures of a specific gravity 
expressed in four figures by 2.33 (or by 
2, Trapp ; or by 2.2, Labisch). This 
gives the amount of solids in every looo 

Chromat^ic (^/wj/ia, color). Relating to 
or possessing color. 

Chro^matin (,Yp£j/m). The delicate retic- 
ular network or plexas of fibrils permeat- 
ing the achromatin of a typical cell in 
process of division. Called also Nucleo- 
plasm, Karyoplasma, and Karyomiton. 
See CeUbody. 

Chromatog^enous (;jfp<jua, yevvaUf to be- 
get). Producing color. 

ChromatoKogy. The science of colors. 
Also the spectroscopic investigation of 

Chromatopho^bia (xp(^ua, <pOf3e(j, to ter- 
rify). Abnormal fear of colors. 

Chro^matophore (;fp{j/ia, <pop£u), to bear). 
Spaces in the skin of cephalopoda filled 
with colored granules. 

Chromatops^ia (xp^f^t ^V"r» vision). Ab- 
normal sensations of color. It may oe due 
to disorders of the optical centers, or to 
drugs, especially santonin. 

Chromid^rosis (xp^f^i i6po^y sweat). 
Stearrhoea Nigricans, Seborrhoea Nigricans, 
Pityriasis Nigricans. Colored excretions 
of sweat, usually black, or sepia in color. 
Most commonly from the eyelids, but 
sometimes also from the cheek. In some 
instances has involved the axillae and 
groins. Of rare occurrence. Certain 
forms of chromidrosis are due to the 
presence of bacteria. 

Chro^mium {^XP^I^^)- Cr=:52.2; quan- 
ti valence il and IV. One of the elements 
of the iron group. The various salts of 
chromium, especially chromic acid, Cr^O,, 
are much used in the manufacture of pig- 
ments and in dyeing textile fabrics. Potas- 
sium dichromate (bichromate of potash), 
KjCrjOy, is used in various pharmaceutical 
and chemical operations. 

Chro'mophanes {^xp^'^y <^ivOj to bring 
into sight). Coloring matters derived from 
the retina. There is a green, Chloro- 
phane ; a yellow, Xanthophane, and a 
red, Rhodophane. 

Chromop^sia. See Chromatopsia. 

Chromoptom^eter (xP^f^i P^'P^^'* ^ tnea- 
sure). A contrivance used by Weber for 
determining the extent of development of 
color- vision. 

Chron^ic (xpovoCt time). A term applied 
to the long-continued disease, as distin- 
guished from the acute or violent stage of 

Chron'^ograph (^/jovof, >/>a^, to write). 
An instrument for graphically recording 
intervals of time. 

Chronother'^mal (xp^^^^y Oepua^ heat). 
Pertaining to the theory that all diseases 
are characterized by periods of intermitting 
chill and heat. 

Chrys'^alis ( ^yii-aor, gold). The pupa or 
secondary stage in the transformation of 
insects. So called from the golden color 
of certain chrysalides. 

Chrysarc'bin, or Chrysarc'binum. A 
substance improj)erly called " chrj'sophanic 
acid,'* extracted by alkaline solutions from 
Goa pinvdcTy the product of the decay of 
Andira araroba^ a Brazilian tree. A 
gastro- intestinal irritant, which is almost a 
specific when applied locally in psoriasis. 
Dose, internally, gr. l-xx. C, Ung., 
contains lo per cent of the drug with 90 
per cent, l^enzoated lard. 

Chrysopha''nic. See Chrysarobin, 




Chyle (Afv^, juice). The milk-white 
fluid absorbed by the ladeals during diges- 
tion. On standing, separates into a tliin, 
jelly-like clot and a substance identical 
with serum. 

Chylifica^tion {^xvTmg^ facto, to make). The 
process by which the chyle is formed, 
separated and absorbed by the villi of the 
small intestine. 

Chylo-pericard'^iuxn. An efliision of 
chyle within the pericardium. 

ChyloxThce^a {x^^^j i>e(J, to flow). The 
excessive flow of chyle. Also, a diarrhoea 
characterized by a milky color of the faeces. 

Chylu'^ria ^;fvXof, ovpoi', urine). The pas- 
sage of milky-colored urine. Thought to 
be caused by disordered condition of the 
lacteals, and also connected with Filaria 
sanguinis hominum. 

Chyme (yfv/iof, juice). Food that has 
undei^one gastric and intestinal digestion 
from which chyle is absorbed. The con- 
tents of the small intestines after having 
been acted upon by the salivary, gastric, 
biliary, pancreatic and intestinal secretions. 

Ch3anifica''tion {x^^uK, fario, to make). 
The change of food into chyme by gastric 
and intestinal digestion. 

Cicatri^cial Deformities. Abnormal con- 
tractions caused by cicatrices. 

Cicatric'ula. The Blastoderm of a hen's 

Cica^trix (Lat., same). The scar or mark 

left after the healing of a wound. 

Cicatriza^'tion. The process of healing. 

Cicu^ta Virc/sa. See Cowbane. 

CiKia {t'i/ium, the eyelid or lashV The 
eyelashes. Also, hair-like ap|)endages of 
certain epithelial cells, whose function it is 
to propel fluid or particles along the pas- 
sages that they line. 

Cil^iary (n'/ium). Pertaining to the eye- 
lid or eyelash, and also by extension to the 
C. Apparatus, or the structures related 
to the mechanism of accommodation. C. 
Arteries, — anterior, posterior lonj^^ and 
posterior shorty branches of the ophthalmic 
artery, supplying the recti muscles, the cili- 
ary apparatus, and the posterior structures 
of the eve, with the exception of the retina. 
C. Body, the ciliary muscle and pro- 
cesses. C. Ganglion, the ganglion at 
the apex of the orbit, supplying the ciliary 
muscle and iris. C. Muscle, the muscle of 
accommodation, whose contraction lessens 
the tension upon the suspensory ligament 
of the lens. C. Nerves, branches of the 
ophthalmic ganglion supplying the anftrior 
structures and accommoidative apparatus. 

C. Neuralgia, neuralgic pain of the eye, 
brow, temple, etc. C. Processes, circu- 
larly arranged choroidal foldings continu- 
ous with the iris in front. C. Region, 
the pericorneal or "danger" zone corres- 
ponding to the position of the ciliary body. 

Cilium. See Eyelash. 

Ci^mex Lectula'^rius. The common bed 
bug. A disgusting insect which infests 
beds, furniture, and the walls of bedrooms, 
and which feeds on the human body, punc- 
turing the skin and injecting an irritating 
fluid to increase the flow of blood. Char- 
acterized by the repulsive odor of its se- 

Cimicifu^ga. Black Snake Root, Black 
Cohosh. The root of C. racemosa, nat. 
ord. Ranunculaceae. A stomachic, anti- 
spasmodic, aphrodisiac, and diuretic. Acts 
on the heart similar to digitalis. Efficient 
as a tonic in many cardiac diseases, in 
functional impotence, and ovarian neural- 
gia. C, ext. fld. (alcoholic). Dose n\^x- 
3 j. C, Tinct., 20 per cent, in strength. 
Dose 5ss-ij. Macrotin (unof.), a resin- 
ous extract. Dose gr. |^-ij. 

Cincho^na. Peruvian Bark. The bark 
of several varieties of cinchona, a tree 
native to the eastern slopes of the Andes 
and cultivated in India, the most valuable 
being C. calisaya. Other varieties are C. 
succirubra, red bark, C. condaminea, pale 
bark, C. pitayensis, pitaya bark, and C, 
mi c rant ha. C. lark contains 21 alka- 
loids, of which 4, quinine, cinchonine, 
quinidine and cinchonidine are the most 
important. Cinchona has the same physio- 
logical action and themi^eutic uses as its 
chief alkaloid (|uinia. See Quinia. It is 
also an astringent, bitter and stomachic 
tonic, stimulating appetite and promoting 
digestion, beneficial in atonic dy^)epia 
and adynamia. C, Ext. Dose gr. j-v. 
C, Fid. Ext. Dose nv,x-3J. C, In- 
fusum, bark 6, arom. sulph. acid I, water 
93 parts. Dose 3 j- J j. C, Tinct., 20 
per cent, of the bark. Dose jss-ij. C, 
Tinct., Comp., red bark 10, bitter orange 
peel 8, serpentaria 2, alcohol 80 parts. 
Dose 3J-,?ss. 

Cinchonid'^ia, or Cinchon^idine. An 
alkaloid derived from cinchona. Resem- 
bles quinia in general prof>erties. C. 
Salicylate (unof.), has decided antima- 
larial pro;)ertics. Cl Sulph., less bitter 
than quinine and valuable as an antipjrretic. 
Dose gr. j-xx or more. 

Cinchoni^na, or Cin^chonine. An offi- 
cial alkaloid derived from cinchona. Siml* 




lar to quinine in theraprutic effects, but 
less active, producing much headache and 
some muscular weakness. C. Sulph., 
difficultly soluble in water, but soluble in 
acidulated water. Dose gr. v-xxx. 

Cinera'^iia Mariti^ma. The juice of this 
plant has been long used in Venezuela for 
the absorption of cataract. Unof. 

Cineri^tious (n'mres, ashes). Ash-like or 
pertaining to ashes. Applied also to the 
cortex of the brain, from the color of the 

Cin^nabar (luwafiaptf a pigment). Mer- 
curic sulphide, HgS. See Hydrargyrum. 

Cinnamo^mum, or 

Cin^namon. The inner bark of the shoots 
of several species of Cinnamomum, native 
to Ceylon and China, the latter being 
known in commerce under the name of 
cassia. Prof>erties due to a volatile oil. 
An agreeable carminative and aromatic 
stimulant. Useful combined with opium in 
flatulence, cramp of the stomach, enteralgia, 
etc. C, Aqua, 2 parts of oil in looo 
of water. C, Ext. Fid. Arom., contains 
aromatic powder lo parts, alcohol 8 parts. 
C, Oleum, the volatile oil. Dose gtt. j-v. 
C, Spt., ID ]>er cent of the oil in spirit. 
Dose n\,v-xxx. C, Tinct., lo |>er cent. 
of the powdered bark in alcohol. Pul- 
vis aromaticus, aromatic powder, cinna- 
mon, ginger a& 35, cardamon, nutmeg aiL 1 5. 
Dose gr. x-xxx. 

Cioni^tis (kujVj the uvula). Inflammation 
of the uvula. 

Cionot^omy (k/cjv, Tojirf,a, section). Exci- 
sion of the uvula. 

Circle of Diffusion. See Diffusion. 

Circle of Willis. The passage between 
the anterior cerebral arteries anteriorly, 
and the internal carotids and cerebral 
arteries posteriorly, by communicating ves- 

Circula^tion. The passa^^e of the blood 
through the various vessels, distinguished 
as capillary, f<etal, |X)rtal, pulmonary, etc. 
C, Collateral, that throu<;h branches and 
secondary channels after stopj>age of the 
princi})al route. C, First or Primitive, 
that of the embryo, a closed system, carry- 
ing nutriment and oxygen to the embryo. 
C, Second, the fretal circulation replacing 
thcomphalo-mesentericsy>tem. C, Third, 
that of the adult. 

Cir^cum-. A prefix meaning aroundy 

Circumcis^ion [circumridoyio cni around). 
Excision of a circular piece of the pre- 

Circumduc^tion. See Motion. 

Cir^cumflex [circumjlecto^ to bend about). 
Surrounding or enclosing; applied to a 
number of arteries, veins and ner\'es. 

Circumpolariza^tion. The quantitative 
estimation of sugar in a suspected liquid by 
the amount of the rotation of polarized 
light, sugar rotating the ray to the right, 
albumin to the left. 

Circumval^late (circumvaito, to surround 
with a wall). Surrounded by a wall or 
prominence. C. Papillse, certain papillae 
of the tongue. 

Cirrho^sis {tuppo^, reddish-yellow ; from 
the color of the cirrhotic liver). Increase 
and thickening of the connective tissue of 
an organ, especially of the liver. 

Cir^socele (Ktpaog, a varix, kt^'Ajj^ tumor). 
A varicose tumor, especially of the sper- 
matic cord. 

Cir'soid (xz/xrof, eido^, likeness). Resem- 
bling a varix, or dilated vein. 

Cirsom^phalos (tupaoc^ ofi<^?joc, navel). 
A varicose condition of the navel. 

Cirsot^omy (lupaoc, TCfivu^ to cut). Ex- 
cision of a varix. 

Cistern of Pequet. See Reccptaculum 

Cit'^rine Oint'^ment. See Hydrargyrum. 

Cit^rus. See Aunintium. 

Clad^othrix (/cP^rlof, a branch, Qpi^^ a 
hair). A genus of the family Bacteriacees, 
having long Hlaments, in pseudo-ramitica- 
tions, with true s{X)res. C. Dichotoma, 
found in soft or brackish waters, a sapro- 
phytic fungus, non-pathogenic, precipitates 
oxide of iron and calcareous concretions. 
C. Forsteri, found in the lachr>'mal canal 
in concretions; is probably identical with 
C. Dichotoma. 

Clamp (Ger. KIampc\. An instrument 
for compressing the |)arts in surgical opera- 
tions to fix them or to prevent haemorrhage, 

Clap. A popular designation of gonor- 

Clar'^ificant [claruSy clear). A sul)stance 
used for the pur|X)se of clearing solutions 
from insoluble matter. 

Clarifica'^tion {clams). The ojx'ration of 
making a li |uid or naturally trans]xu-ent 
substance clear. May U' accomplishetl l»y 
allowing the sasj)ended matter to subside, 
I y the addition of a clarificant or substance 
which precipitates suspended matters, or 
by moderate heating. 

Clar'ify (r///rr/j). To free a litjuid or solu- 
tion from insoluble or heterogeneoas sub- 
stances. To make clear. 




Clar^ifying Rea^gent. Any preparation 
ased for purifying microscopic and ana- 
tomical preparations that have been 
mounted in gummy media. Oil of cloves, 
turpentine, creasote, xylol, and oil of berga- 
mot are the chief. 

Clasp-knife Rigid'^ity. A reflex spas- 
modic action of the legs in increased myo- 
tatic irritability of the cord, in which ex- 
tension is completed with a "spring," as 

. in the knife. 

Classifica^tion (c/asst'sj a class, facio^ to 
make). An orderly arrangement of names, 
objects, diseases, etc.^ according to their 
properties and peculiarities. 

Clathrocyst'^is (/cX/y^pa, a trellis, Kwrig, 
pouch). A genus of microbes with round 
or oval cells, forming zooglceae in the form 
of circular layers. 

Claus^truxn (c/nut/Ofto shut). A barrier; 
used of several apertures that may be 
closed against entrance. Also applied to a 
layer of gray matter in the cerebrum near 
the lenticular nucleus. 

Clav^iceps {c/ava, club, ca^ut, head). A 
genus of fungi. C. Purpurea, the fungus 
producing scUrotis^ or the ergot of rye. 

Clav'icle (clavus^ a key). The collar- 
bone. The bone forming the anterior part 
of the shoulder. 

Cla'^vus (c/azfus). A com. A small, cir- 
cumscrilied, flat and deep-seated callosity 
caused by thickening and excessive devel- 
opment of the epidermis. Usually caused 
by pressure, and occur most frequently on 
the toes. Occurring between the toes, 
there is frequently considerable maceration, 
causing the " soft " com. C. Hysteri- 
cus. A local neuralgic pain in hysteria, 
anxmia, eU., in the head, as if a nai/ 
were being driven in. 

Claw-hand. A popular expression to 
signify the condition of the hand resulting 
from atrophy of the interosseous muscles. 
( French , main-en-griffe. ) 

Cleans^ings. The lochia. 

Cleav^ers. See Galium Aparine. 

Cleft Palmate. A congenital malformation 
of the palate, usually occurring with hare- 

Clefts, Vis^ceral. The four slit-like open 
ings each side of the cenical region, in 
the foetus, sometimes called the Bramhial 
openings. The siiis close (in the human) 
except the upper, from which are devel- 
oped the auditory meatus, tympanic cavity 
and Eustachian tube. 

Clei^do- (icXe/f, the clavicle). A prefix, 
meaning a relation to the clavicle. 

Clerk - Maxwell's Experiment. See 
Lowe's Ring. 

Climac^teric (likifjuiKTrjpy the round of a 
ladder). A period of the lifetime at which 
the system was believed to undergo marked 
changes. These were at yearly periods 
divisible by seven. C. Age, in women 
the time of cessation of the catamenia. 
C, Grand, the 63d year. 

Climatol^ogy (K?.///a, hiyoqj a discoiu'se). 
A treatise upon climate. 

Clim^ato-ther^apy. The uses of residence 
in different climates as a therapeutic agent. 

Climbing Staff- Tree. False Bittersweet. 
The bark of the root of Celastrus scandens. 
Alterative, diuretic and slightly narcotic. 
Has been advantageously employed in 
syphilitic and scrofulous aifections. Dose 
offld. ext. .^j-ij. Unof. 

Clin^ic {lO.iviKoq^ pertaining to a bed). 
Medical instruction given at the bedside, 
or with the patient present, whose symp- 
toms are studied and treatment considered. 

Clinodac^tylous (/cP./v6>, to tlex or lie, 
dcLKTvAjoq^ finger). Pertaining to an ab- 
normal flexure, deviation or cur\'ature of 
the fingers or toes. 

Cli'^noid (Khvriy a bed, ufio^y likeness). 
Resembling a bed. Applied to sundry 
bony stmctures of the body, as the ciinoid 
processes, plate, walls, etc. 

Cliseom^eter {kKici^^ inclination, //rr/xw, 
a measure). An instrument for measur- 
ing the degree of inclination of the female 

Clitoridec^tomy [K?^iToptc, eKTSfti'u, to 
excise). Excision of the clitoris. 

Cli^toris (K^nof)f^). The analogue in the 
female of the penis, attached by two crura 
or branches to the ischio-pubic rami, which 
meet in front of the pubic joint to form the 
body, or corpus. The so-called " gland *' 
is such only in appearance or name. C. 
Crises, paroxysms of sexual excitement in 
women suffering from tabes. 

Cloa^ca {cloaca^ a sewer). In early fcetal 
life the common orifice of the intestine and 
the allantois. In surgery the long canal 
of escape of pus from a necrotic seques- 
trum. The chamber into which open the 
large intestine and urogenital ducts of 
birds, amphibians and monotremata. 

Clon'^ic (iOjovoCy commotion). Applied to 
convulsive and spasmodic conditions of 
muscles in which alternate contractions 
and relaxations occur involuntarily. 

Clo'nus (/c^oi'of). Involuntary, reflex, 
irregular contractions of muscles when 
put suddenly upon the stretch. Aoocxtl* 




ing to the part stimulated, the phenomenon 
is spoken of as ankie^ foot^ or rectus C, 
etc. A valuable diagnostic sign in certain 
cord lesions. See ankle C. 

Clo^quet, Canal of. See Hyaloid Artery, 

Clostrid^ium. See Bacillus Butyric us. 

Clot. See Coagulum. 

Clot^tage of the Ureters. An operation 
proposed in case of ha?maturia from a kid- 
ney hopelessly crushed or with advanced 
carcinoma. The procedure consists in 
blocking or corking up the ureter with a 

Cloud^berry. The leaves of Rubus 
chaTmemoruSy much used in Russia as a 
diuretic. Dose 3J to a cupful of boiling 
water. Unof. 

Cloudy Swelling. Parenchymatous de- 
generation, — a swelling up of the elements 
of a tissue by imbibition or accretion, a 
form of hypertrophy with a tendency to 

Clove. See Catyophyllus, 

Club-foot. See Talipes. 

Club-hand. A deformity of the hand 
similar to that of club fcx)t. 

Clys^ter (/cAwrr^p). An enema. 

Cnido^sis. See Urticaria. 

Coag'^ulative Necro^sis. See Necrosis. 

Coag^ulum {coai^tlo, to curdle). Clot. 
A name applied to the mass of fibrin 
that forms from the plasma of the blood 
after the latter has been drawn from the 
body. Also, the curd of milk, and the 
insoluble form of albumin. 

Coales'^cence (coalesco^ to grow together). 
The union of two or more parts or things. 

Coapta'^tion (<<>«, together, apto, to fit). 
The proper union or adjustment of the 
ends of a fractured bone, the lips of a 
wound, etc. 

Coarcta'^tion {coarctOy to put together). 
A compression of the walls of a vessel or 
canal, thus narrowing or closinnj the lumen. 

Coarse Disease. Macroscoj)ic orgnnic 
lesions, such as tumor, ha.*morrhagc, ifc. 

Coat [loftus^ a tunic). A cover, or mem- 
brane covering a part or substance. C, 
Buffy, the up|x;r fibrinous layer of the clot 
of coaji;ulated 1)1o<k1, marked by its color, 
and absence of red coqiuscles. Coating 
of the Tongue, a condition of the tongue 
indicative of alMiormality of the digestive 
tract. Coating of Pills, a covering of 
various sul)stances to render them tein|X)- 
rarily tasteless. 

Co^ca. See Ervthroxylon. 

Co'caine. The chief alkaloid extract of 
Erythroxylon Coca. At first stimulant and 

afterward narcotic. Resembles caffein in 
its action on nerve-centers, and atropini 
in its effects on respiratory and circulators- 
organs. Long-continued use (cocaine 
habits is followed by insomnia, decay of 
moral and intellectual powers, emaciation, 
and death. Locally, a powerful anaesthetic 
to a limited area of surface. Acts most 
rapidly on mucous tissues. Applied to 
conjunctiva of the eye causes also dilata- 
tion of pupil and paralysis of function of 
accommodation. Applied to tongue tempo- 
rarily destroys sense of taste. Dose gr. 
]/i-\y C. Hydrochlorate, more properly 
cocaine chloride, most commonly used for 
local anzesthesia in 2-5 per cent, solution. 
Dose, internally, gr. j^-ij. C. Oleate, a 
5 per cent, solution in oleic acid, for ex- 
ternal use. 

Cocca'^cees (KOKKo^y a kernel). According 
to Mac6, the first family of Bacteria, includ- 
ing as genera the Micrococcus, Sarcina, 
Ascococcus and Leuconostoc. The ele- 
ments are normally spherical, reproduction 
usually taking place by division^ sometimes 
by spores either in one or several direc- 

Coccobacte^ria(/co/acoc, a kernel, /Ja/cr^/j^ov, 
a little rod). Applied by Billroth to the 
rod-like or spheroidal bacteria found in 
putrefying liquids, and called by him C. 
Septica. See Bacterium. 

Coc'culus Ind'icus. See Picrotoxin. 

Coc^cus {kokko^). a cell or capsule. C. 
Cacti, the cochineal insect. See Cochineal. 

Coccyg'^eal. Pertaining to the coccyx. 

Coccygody^nia [KOKKi>^f odwrj^ pain). 
Pain in the coccyx. 

Coc^cyx {KOKKv^y the cuckoo) (resembling 
the bill). The last bone of the spinal 
column, formed by the union of four rudi- 
mentary vertelme. 

Coch^ineal . The dried insects of a species 
of plant lice, Coccus cacti, parasitic upon 
the cactus of Mexico and Central America. 
Contains a rich red coloring matter, car- 
mine. Used mainly as a coloring matter. 
Thought to be valuable in infantile whoop- 
ing-cough. Dose gr. •.(. 

Coch^lea (/co ^;/of , a concna-shell). A cavity 
of the internal ear reseml)ling asnail shell. 
Descrilx?s two and a half turns about a 
central pillar called the ///(>./// >///j or colum 
nclliiy forming the spiral canal ^ about I "^ 
inches in length. The latter is divided 
into three canals or scal.v, — the scahc tym 
paniCy I'cstihuli and nuiliic. 

Cocilla^na. The l)ark of asjxxie^^of Ciua- 
rea, of the family MuliacdCy an emetic and 




purgative ; poisonous as an irritant narcotic 
in over-doses. It acts locally upon the 
mucous membrane when directly applied 
or when absorbed. Commended in bron- 
chial catarrh. Dose of ext. TT\^viiss. Unof. 
Cock^lebur. The leaves of Xanthium 
strumarium, A popular domestic remedy 
for bites of poisonous insects and reptiles. 
An active styptic. Dose of the fid. exL 
3J-ij. Unof. 
Co^co, or 

Co^coa (Port, cacao). The fruit of T^co- 
Aroma cacao, largely used as an article of 
diet. See Thcobroma. 
Co^deTne. An alkaloid extract of opium. 

Mildly calmative. Dose gr. ss-ij. 
Cod-liver Oil. See Morrkua, 
Cce^lia (<co/A/a, the belly). The belly. 
Cce'^liac. Pertaining to the belly. C. 
Artery, same as C. Axis. See Artery, 
C. Ganglion. See Gatii^Uon Semilunar, 
C. Plexus. See Plexus. 
Cce'^lom {Koihjfia, a cavity). The body 
Cce^loscope [Km7uay the belly, aKOfrru, to 
observe). An instrument for examining 
the cavities of the body, by means of the 
electric light, enclosed in a flask and 
mounted u|X)n a glass shank. 
Coe^nurus. See A Iter nations of Genera- 

Coffee. See Caffea. 
Cohabita'^tion (con, together, habito, to 
dwell). The living together of a man 
an<l woman without legal marriage. Sex- 
ual conntTtion. 
Cohe^'sion [cohitro, to stick together). 
The f<»rcc whereby molecules of matter 
wWwxf t(» rarh other. The " attraction of 

Cohn's Liquid. A culture liijuid devised 
by (ohii, (■(MM|H>se<U)f the following parts, 
h) Kmnnnf!*: DistilU-d water 200; tar- 
Iriifr of ainniouia 20; phosphate of po- 
Iwi-^u io; sulphate of magnesia lo; tribasic* 
j>ti(»Hphate of lime o.I. 
Co'hoHh, Black. See Cimicifiti^a. 
Coining of the Cord. Sre Cord. 
Co'itUH (,oifi4\). The act of sexual con- 

fiiitinii. Copulation. 
Cola'tion (coio, to -train). The operation 
of vtriiitiin^. 

Colch'icinc. S<r CohhicuM. 
CoUli'lcum. M. ado w Saffron. The corm 
mimI wrd nf C. ttutunntale. IVf)j)erties 
dur lo All »ll(»»loid, ioiihicine. An emetic, 
«lhir» li< , dl.iphorriic and drastic cathartic. 
Vrthmblo III ft4Ulr g«mt, ami used with 
yodtl maulla In giinorrhica. C. Rad. Ext., 

dilute acetic acid 35, powdered root loo 
parts, water q. s. Dose gr. ^-ij. C. 
Rad. Ext., Fid. Dose rT\,ij-x. C. Sexn. 
Ext., Fid. DoseTT^ij-v. C. Rad.Vini., 
40 per cent, in strength. Dose rT\^v-xv. 
C. Sem., Vini., 15 per cent in strength. 
Dose TT\^x-xxx. C. Tinct., prepMued from 
the seed; strength 1 5 per cent Dose 
Cold (Sax. cealct). The comparative want 
of heat. Used popularly for coryza and 
catarrhal conditions of the respiratory 

Cold-blooded. See Pakilothemiic, 
Cold-spots. See Temperature Sense. 
Colec^tomy UoXov, the colon, eicrofiff, cut- 
ting out). Excision of a portion of the 

Col'^ic (co/tcMs). Pertaining to the colon. 
The condition vulgarly called belly-ache, 
or a severe griping pain in the bowels, or 
adjacent organs, as, e.g., hepatic, nephritic ^ 
etc. C, Lead, or C., Saturnine, that 
due to lead poisoning. See below. 
CoKica Picto'num. Painters' Colic. A 
form of colic due to the absorption by the 
system of lead in poisonous quantities. It 
is common among those who use or woiic 
with lead. 
Collie Root. See Aletris and Dioscorea. 
Coli^tis [mkov, the large intestine). In- 
flammation of the colon. 
CoPlagen [kMh, glue, ytwan, to produce). 
A substance existing in various ^tissues of 
the body, es]>ecially bone and cartilage; 
converted into gelatine by boiling. 
Collapse'' (col/abor, to fall together). Ex- 
treme depression and prostration from fail- 
ure of nervous force, as in cholera, shock, 
haemorrhage, etc, 
CoKlar Bone. See Clazncle, 
Collect^ing Tubes of Kid^ney. A name 
given to ducts discharging into the calices 
of the kidneys. 

CoUect^or. A device by which any num- 
ber of cells may be taken from or added to 
an electric current. 
CoKles* Fracture. See Fracture, 
CoPlidine. A name given to Nencki's 
ptomaine-base, CgH.jN, isomeric but not 
identical with aldehyde-collidine. The 
ptomaine was obtained from pancreas and 
gelatine allowed to putrefy together in 
water. Its constitution is still unknown. 
The free base is oily, and possesses a 
peculiar, agreeable odor. Nencki believed 
It an aromatic base. Its physiological 
action aj^ars to be doubtftil. But an 
isomer of it discovered in ox-bkwd 6briu 



and 1:1 putrefied jelly-fish has a poisonous 
effect resembling curara. Frc^s poisoned 
by the isomer give out an orange- flower 
odor. Nencki's collidine is isomeric with 
coUidine obtained from coal-tar. 

Collinso'^nia Canadexi'^sis. Knob-root, 
Horse-weed, Stone-root. A popular do- 
mestic remedy used in the Southern States 
as a cure-all. Has antispasmodic proper- 
ties. Dose gr. xv-lx in decoction. Unof. 

CoUiqua^tion {coiliqueo^ to melt). The 
liquefaction or breaking down of a tissue 
or organ. 

Collo^dion [noXhidij^y glue-like). See Py- 

Col'^loid {mXka^ glue). A non-crystallizable 
and generally soluble organic substance. 
See Dialysis. Also, having the nature of 
glue. In chemistry, amorphous and non- 
crystalline. C. Degeneration of the 
Skin. A rare disease, occurring chiefly 
on the upper part of the face, in the form 
of small, glistening, translucent, flattish ele- 
vations, and yielding by pressiu^ a small, 
jelly-like mass. 

Col^lum (Lat.). The anterior part of the 

Collyr^ium ( KM.vpiov^ an eye-salve). An 
astringent, antiseptic or medicinal lotion 
for the eyes. 

Colobo^ma {Ko?jo(io(jf to mutilate). A 
cleavage or fissure of parts of the eye, of 
congenital or traumatic origin. Con- 
genital C. are due to imperfect closure 
of fissures during fcetal development. 

CoKocynth, or 

Colocynth^is. Colocynth. The fruit of 
C. Ci/rulluSy from which seeds and rind 
have been rejected. Properties due to a 
bitter glucoside, colocynthin. A tonic and 
astringent purgative. Used mainly as an 
ingredient in compound cathartic pills. 
Somewhat useful in colic, sciatic rheuma- 
tism and neuralgia. C. Ext., alcoholic. 
Dose gr. >2-'j- C. Ext., Comp., con- 
tains colocynth extract l6, aloes 50, car- 
damon 6, resin of scammony 14, soap 14, 
alcohol 10. Dose gr. v-xx. Pilulse, 
Comp. Cathartic, compound cathartic 
pills; contain each, comp. ext. of colocynth 
gr. 1.3, a)>stract jalap gr. j, calomel gr. j, 
gamlwge gr. j. Do^»e j-iij pills. Laville*s 
Anti-gout Remedy, contains colocynth 
2 ^, quinine, cinchonine && 5, Spanish wine 
800, alcohol 100, water 1000 parts. 

Colo'^gne. See Spirits. 

Co^lon {Kiikov, the colon V The first or su- 
perior part of the large intestine. In the 
various parts of its course it is known as 

the ascending C, the descending C, the 
transverse C, and the sigmoid flexure, 

Coloph^ony. See Resin. 

Co-'lor {^color). The differences in the ap- 
pearance of a thing seen, other than those 
due to shape, relief, etc. The tint or hue 
of an object, dependent upon the number 
of vibrations of the ethereal stimulus. 
C. -blindness. See Blindness. C, 
Complementary, any color that added 
to another color, or to a mixture of colors, 
produces white. C. Contrast, any two 
that, when mixed, supplement the prevail- 
ing tone of the light. Colors, Mixed, 
those produced when the retina is excited 
by two or more simple colors. C, Simple, 
those of the spectrum. C, Saturated, 
those containing little or no white. 

Color-blindness. See Blindness, 

Color-hearing. The hypothesis of the 
excitation of the chromatic centers through 
the auditory nerve. 

Colorim^eter (color, fierpcv, measure). 
An instrument for determining the quan- 
tity of coloring matter in a mixture. 

Color- sensation. Depends on the nmn- 
ber of vibrations of the ether, the same as 
the pitch of a note depends on the number 
of vibrations of the sounding body. Her- 
ing's Theory of C.-s. predicates dis- 
assimilation and assimilation (decomposi- 
tion and restitution) of the visual sub- 
stance in vision — white, red and yellow 
representing the sensation of disassimila- 
tion, black, green and blue of restitution ; 
thus endowing the visual substance with 
three modes of chemical metabolism. 
Young-Helmholtz*s Theory, assumes 
three kinds of nerve -elements correspond- 
ing to the three primary colors. Stimula- 
tion of the first causes red, of the second, 
green, of the third, violet. 

Color-top. A top containing on the sec- 
tors of its disc a number of colors to be 
" mixed " by raj)id whirling. 

Colos^'trum (colostruni). The first milk 
in the mother's breasts afler the birth of 
the child. It is laxative, and assists in 
the expulsion of the meconium. 

Colot-'omy [koTjiv^ refivu^ to cut). Incision 
of the colon, either lumbar or inguinal, 
according to the region of entrance. 

Colpeur''ynter (xoProf, vagina, evpinHj, to 
widen). An instrument for dilating the 
vagina by means of an inflatable bag or sac. 

Colpi^tis (ko?,ko^). Inflammation of the 

CoKpocele (/coAtoc, kj/^, tumor). Hernia 
or tumor in the vagina. 




Colpohyperpla^sia. A cystic hyperplasia 
of the vagina. 

Colpoperine^oplasty. Plastic operations 
for abnormalities of the vagina and peri- 

Colpopto^sis (KoXiro^f rcruoig, a falling). 
Prolapse of the vagina. 

Colpor^rhaphy (/coXn-of, pa<ptj, seam). Su- 
ture of the vagina. 

Colt'sfoot. The leaves of Tussilago far- 

fara. Demulcent and tonic. Sometimes 

prescribed in chronic coughs. Dose of 

5 j to Oj decoction, a teacupful ; of fid. ext. 

'^]-\)' Unof. 

Colum'^bo. See Calumbo. 

Coluinel^la. 1 he column-like rod of birds 
and reptiles, a part of the organ of hear- 
ing, corresponding to the auditory ossicles 
of ihe higher animals. See Cochlea and 

Col'^uxnn {columna). A pillar or column. 
Applied to sundry column-like organs of the 
body, and especially to certain parts of the 
spinal cord. C. of Burdach, the postero- 
external column of the cord. C. of Clarke, 
a group of nerve cells in the inner part of 
the neck of the posterior horn in the dorsal 
and luml)ar cord. C. of Goll, the postero- 
median column of the cord. C. of Turck, 
the anterior or direct pyramidal tract. Lat- 
eral pyramidal ^ Direct cerebellar. C.y etc.^ 
are other columns or tracts of the cord. 

Colum^na. A column or pillar. C. Bertini. 
That part of the cortical structure of the 
kidneys which separates the sides of any 
two pyramids, through which the arteries 
and nerves enter, and the veins and lymph- 
atics cmei^e. C. Nasi, the antero-pos- 
terior septum between the nostrils. C. 
Vcrtebralis, the spinal column. C. Car- 
neae, muscular columns projecting from the 
cardiac ventricles. 

Co^ma {KUfia, deep sleep). Abnormally 
deep and prolonged sleep, with the cerebral 
functions in alx-'yance; due to compression 
of the brain, haemorrhage, etc. C. Vigil, 
a comatose condition in which the patient 
lies with open eyes, but unconscious and 

Cc^matose. In a condition of coma. 

Combus'^tion (coniburoj to burn up). The 
process of oxidation, attended with the 
liberation of heat, and sometimes light. 
Loosely used as a synonym of inflammation. 
C, Spontaneous, that due to heat from 
chemical changes, such as the spontaneous 
ignition of oiled waste or shoddy in woolen 
mills, factories, etc. C, Spontaneous 
Human, the supposed burning of the 

body without the external application of 

Com^edone {comedo^ a glutton). Black- 
head. A black-pointed cylindrical plug 
formed by the lodgment of sebaceous mat- 
ter within the oritice of the duct. Nearly 
always occurs on the face, neck and chest. 

Com^frey. The root of Symphytum offi- 
cinale. Demulcent, slightly astringent and 
tonic. A common ingredient in domestic 
cough mixtiut;s. Dose of decoction indefi- 
nite ; of fld. ext. 3 j-ij. Unof. 

Com^ma Bac^illus. See Spirillum 

Comminu^tion (commiuuoy to break in 
pieces). The process by which a solid 
body is reduced to pieces of varying sizes. 
It includes the various op)erations of cutting, 
rasping, grating, slicing, pulverizing, levi- 
gating, triturating, elutriating, granulating, 
etc. See, also, Fracture^ Comminuted. 

Com^missure [committor to unite). A join- 
ing or uniting together. C. Magna, the 
corpus callosum. C, Optic, the union 
and crossing of the two optic nerves in 
front of the tuber cinereum. 

Commu^nicans (communico). Communi- 
cating. C. Noni. See Nerve, 

Com'^mutator (commuto^ to exchange). 
An instrument for automatically interrupt- 
ing or reversing the flow of an electric 
current, making and breaking the same 
with desired frequency. 

Co^mose (coma^ hair). Having much hair. 

Com^pass Plant. See J^osin Weed. 

Complement^al Air. See Air. 

Complement^ary Colors. See Color. 

Complex^us (complexus^ complex). The 
totality of symptoms, phenomena or signs 
of a morbid condition. C. Muscle. See 

Complica^tion (complico^ to fold together). 
Used of intercurrent or succeeding disease 
or morbid conditions that render treatment 
of the principxal affection different or more 
difficult. Complicated Fracture. See 

Composi^tion (composition a putting to- 
gether). Compounding; used of medi- 
cines. The constituents of a mixture. 

Com^pound Cathar^tic Pills. See CoUh 

Compound'^ing. The mixing, manipula- 
tion, and preparation of the drugs ordered 
in a prescription. 

Com^pound Ox^ygen. A quack cure-all 
consisting of a strong solution of potassium 
nitrate or chlorate through which the ail 
to be inhaled is drawn. 




Coxn^press (compressus^ pressed together). 
Folded cloths wetted and applied Sra^y to 
the part for relief of inflammation. C, 
Fenestrated, with a hole for drainage or 
inspection. C, Graduated, the strip 
applied directly is narrow, the others, pro- 
gressively wider, cover it. 

Q>mpre8^sion of Brain. See Brain, 

Compres^sor {^comprimo^ to press together). 
An instrument for compressing an artery, 
vein, etc. Used of muscles having a com- 
pressing function, as the C. naris^ C. vena 
dorsalis peniSy etc, 

Cona^rium. See Pineal Gland, 

Concentra^tion (con^ together, centrum^ 
the centre). Evaporation of pxut of the 
water of a mixture, thus rendering it re- 
latively stronger. 

Concent^ ric. Arranged in an equidistant 
manner about a centre. 

Concep^tion (concipiOf io conctXvt). The 
fecundation of the ovmn by the spermato- 
zoid. See Pre^iancy, 

Con''cha(«))';ifa,ashell). A shell. Used of 
organs having some resemblance to a shell, 
as the patella, vulva, f/r.,and especially of 
the C. Auris, or hollow part of the external 
ear. C. Narium, the turbinated lx>nes. 

Concoc^tion Uoncoqtio, to boil together). 
The act of lx)iling two substances tc^ether. 

Con^crete (concresco, to grow together). 
Solidified or condensed. 

Concre^tion. The solidification or con- 
densation of a fluid substance ; used, also, 
of union of parts normally separate, as the 

Concu'^bitus (concubo^ to lie together). 

Concus^sion of Brain. See Brain. 

Cond^iment {copulimcntum^ spice). Spice, 
sauce, or other ap{)etizing ingredients used 
with food. 

Cond'^onifOr Cun'^dum (comip.oi canton^ 
a physician). A sheath worn over the 
penis, during copulation. 

Conduc^tion {cotiducoy to draw together). 
The passage or transfer of force or mate- 
rial from one part to another. 

Conduran'^go Bark. A remedy much 

•used in S. America as an alterative in 
sy|)hilis. Intro<luccd into the U. S. as a 
remedy for cancer of the stomach, with 
uncertain results. Dosegr. x-xxx. Unof 

Con''dyle (/cor(5i'/f»f, a knuckle). The 
rounded eminences in the joints o^ many 
of the lx>nes, especially the yj-w/zr, //«- 
mcrus &ndia7o. 

Con^dyloid. Resembling or pertaining to 
the condyle. 

Condylo^ma (xovdvAoc). A wart-like 
growth or tumor about the anus or pu- 
dendum of either sex. Applied also to 
syphilitic patches and discolorations. 

Cone^in. See Conium. 

Cones, Graduated. Cone-shaped bodies 
used for measuring the size of orifices of 
vessels, etc,^ especially in post-mortem ex- 

Confec^tion (confectio, a making). A 
confection. In pharmac^y a mass of sugar 
and water, or of honey, as an excipient 
with a prescribed medicinal substance. 
There are two official confectioncs. 

Confec^tioners' Disease. A disease fire- 
quently occiuring in the workpeople manu- 
facturing candied fhiits, nuts, etc. It is 
confmed to the nails of the fingers of the 
hands ; the nail loses its polish, becomes 
black, the periungual portion becomes 
loosened and raised up. 

Confine^ment. The condition of women 
during childbirth. 

Con^ fluent {conjluoy to flow together). In 
medicine^ a term applied to eruptions which 
run together. The opposite of discrete. 
In anatomy y used of the blending of two 
or more bones originally separate into one. 

Congen^ital [con^ together, genitus^ Ixjm). 
Existing from birth. 

Conges^tion (congero^ to heap up). Al)- 
normal collection of blood in a part or 
organ. Used of other liquids besides 

Con^gius (a Roman measure). A gallon. 

Conglom^erate {coftglomero^ to heap up). 
A mass of units without order. C. 
Glands, synonymous with acinous glands. 

Conglu^tin. Sec Casein, 

Con'^gress (congressusy a meeting together). 
An assemblage for deliberative purpose. 
C, Sexual, coition, or carnal intercourse. 

Con^ical Cor^nea. See Kerato-glohus. 

Coni^um. Hemlock, The green, full- 
grown fruit of tlie six)tttKl hemlock, C. 
macula turn. Contains several alkaloids 
and a volatile oil, li'operties mainly due 
to alkaloids amine and mcthyhonine. 
IVoduces motor paralysis without loss of 
sensation or con>ciousncss. In toxic do>es 
death ensues from |)aralysis of organs of 
respiration. Valuable in tetanus, blepharo- 
s{>asm, asthma and whooping cough. C. 
Abstract, made from conium 200, dilute 
hydrochloric acid 6, sugar of milk and 
alcohol q. s.,to make lOO |)arts of al'stract. 
Dose gr. ss-iij. C. Ext., alcoholic, each 
grain representing I gr. of drug. Dose 
gr. ij-v. C, Fid. Ext., same strength as 



:r7zy\':'rt'. =* lltion oi 

prrrrflid^;. lifj^jf. YT 'i-T-t'.. C. T.nct^. 
'S I**"' '•♦•'^i'- j'f--:..:'*.:. ' r.'A T^:-_^. 
Conine, uririf, voLai.i : i.A.i.'.t : .t ..'num. 
|)os«r ^r. fl.-f.;. Cor.iir.c Hyirichjcr., 
uin»f.,rrMimmt'n'li^'l ;ri -pa. iv.r,«:.r. r:»:-.M:cj:. 
All pri*{iaratiort.- un-.f;ri;ri .r. -•r-r.^*.-.. 

Con'^jugate [t-'H, Uf^*-:c.'T.J:i/ui. \ jrt^^, 
Vukt'd or coupl':>J. C Focus, -tk^ 

Conjiiga^tion. A form of z'zT.vy. irrir.r. -jr 
cell tlivision in uni(.»:llular 'jrrr'^^r.r^K. 

Conj u net i ' va I - 1 '///« nni'. u .-. cor. jj . 
TIk* iniionis niernhrarit: covtr.-ruj ih^i ar.te- 
lior ]iuition of the j^Inf^- of the trye, r*:- 
tlected on and cxtcndin;^ to thr: free cd^es 
of thi' lids. Its jxirts arc called /i/^«r<i.', 
«' u!ar or bulhar. 

Conjunctivi^tis. Indammation of the 
coiijiiiHtiva. It may lie catarrhal, croup- 
ous, diphlhcritic lor memhranou.> ). gonor- 
rh<t*al, phlyctenular, purulent, etc.^m char- 
acter or origin. C, Egyptian, and C, 
Granular. )x^ Trachoma. See also 6>/^- 

Con'nate. See Omjluent. 
Connect'ive Tis'sue. See Animal Tis- 

^- .. :.--..^.^i^ to the jxxMtion hi 

*: r. ■■--- ir. ;. r.d.iccvl — tho Articula- 

":i:r: ?:-5.::.:r.5. — ;>.? •^'1%: Icinj: Ivlwv-en 

.-. -- r ■ '»:wcfn iho toiijjuo 

: ■ ■ I ;xtv\con tho 

■. ; : . "."u \'i:r:h Ivl^ivii 

r ■.? Labials, .it 

--."■-". •. ■* , .i>y::-.ur . .I'sl 

> \V"» 


_ I 


ir.x isr-^. :{ -vhxi: :hie most r tmnttumt 
r—^*^. it; -'.i:.-?* :i' Ecr:icS- Cilland, Daniell, 
-rrr.r^- jr-.^t. L^-iljccne asd Soxe. 

C^cstica'iLCC .'t.r:*'.'. to cziKih tightly 
•■e-'.-.rr . «_V*CT-;rieas. Reteniioo and 
zn^ '^s •:{ ±e ijfzcs^ from functional 
.z^.'.::j :i 'JL'i t-r.»<fiTiaI cacal. OT from 
:l:r.i-.r— aii;=. :f ±c hiliorv cr other secre- 
Li . ri--. 

Cocstit'uents of Or^g^amsm. The In- 
organic C, are Water, forming 5S.5 per 
c.t:T.z. cf the body; Goaes, such as oxygen, 
zrjLr-sh ;yai, ^.v; Sails, of which the chief 
ar-: -ioiium chloride, calcium [^losphate 
1 1' rmi ng m«:>re than one-half of the bones), 
s«>iijm pho>phate, sodium carbonate, so- 
dium and potassium sulphates, potassium 
chloride, calcium tluoridc and carbonate; 
Free Acids, as hydrochloric, sulphuric, 
f/c. ; Ba»es, such as silicon, manganese, 
iron. The Organic C, comprise the 
large classes of the protcids, albuminoids, 
fats, t'U. 

Constitu^tion (etmstittto^ to dispose). In 
chemistry, the atomic or molecular compo- 
sition of a body. In pharmacy, the com- 
position of a substance. In physiology, 
the general temperament and functional 
condition of the body. 

Constitu^tional. Pertaining to the state 
of the constitution. C. Diseases, in 
pathology, such diseases as are inherent, 
owing to an abnormal structure of the body. 
Also, inherited diseases. Also, a condition 
in which the disease pervades the whole 

Constrict ^or {roMsfn'ni^v, to bind together). 
A name applied to any muscle that con- 
tracts, tightens cy straightens any port of 
the Kxly. 

Constrin'gent. Same as astringent. 

Consulta'tion (.v^.a//.-. to take counsel). 
Now appli«\l to a delilx^iation between 
iMo or morx' ph)>ician* concerning the 
d:.t^iuvii> v«f t^.e di>eaMf c^ a {.latient and 
tho rr\v,\-r nu-th^xl c^" trvatmcnt. 

Consunip'ticn .-.• •?.•»-».•. ic» consume or d«A\V \£:n^. denutrilion or 
.:::v • •*. \ lortii !vva<!v used a* a 5\-no- 


•*.- V\ V :*.Ha.-h\ A word 


:o .-^^^-a:,* :bv jwxrss by 
•c .-. .-^ .t>o > cv^mmunic'ated 
>^-; V . :vr ', y direvt contact 
*> .. 1.: .n;<r>-!Sie\iijte ^igeac. 
» ■ f Alsc i* jfvcinc 
> v.:;; « ^.v.-a a ccfBBunJcable 

V^vriv.-'^ \v* S^^^ttva Cit S< 




Contractil^ity [contraho^ to draw together). 
That property of certain tissues, especially 
a muscle, manifested in shortening under 
the i4>plication of a stimulus. 

Contrac^tion [contraho). Approximation 
of the elements of a tissue or organ, 
thus diminishing its volume or content 
C. -remainder, the stage of elastic after- 
Tibration or residual contraction persist- 
ing in a muscle after withdrawal of the 

Contra-indica^tion {contra^ against, in- 
die o^ to point out). A term applied to 
that pathological or modifying condition in 
which a remedy or a method of treatment 
is forbidden which under ordinary cases 
might be proper. 

Contrayer^va. The root of Dorstenia C, 
Stimulant, tonic and diaphoretic. Decoc- 
tion mucilaginous. Serviceable in low 
fevers and malignant eruptive diseases. 
Dose 3SS. Unof. 

Con'^tre-coup (Fr.). Counter-stroke, a 
variety of injury by mdirect violence. 

Contu^sion \c<mtundo^ to bruise). A bruise 
or injury by a blunt weapon, or by collision, 
without breaking the skin or covering. 

Co^nus {Kuvo^y a cone). A crescentic 
patch of atrophic choroidal tissue surround- 
ing the optic papilla. 

Convalla^ria maja^lis. Lily of the Val- 
ley. All parts of the plant. I'ropertics due 
to convallarin and conxtallamarin^ glu- 
cosides. A prompt cathartic, diuretic, and 
cardiac stimulant. Valuable as a heart 
tonic. Unlike digitalis, has no cumulative 
effect. C, Ext., soluble in water. . Dose 
gr. v-xxx. C, Ext., Fid., alcoholic. Dose 
7^ ss~ij. C, Infusum, prepared with three 
times its weight of water. Dose 3s^>~U' 
Convallamarinum, soluble in water. 
Dose gr. ^-ij. All unof. 

Convales^cence (convalcs{Oy to become 
well). A term applied to the recovery of 
strength after the disappearance of a dis- 
ease or ailment. 

Convolu^tion (comwlvo, to roll together). 
A term applied to the folding and turning 
upon itself of any organ, as the cerebrum 
and the smaller intestines. C, Broca*8, 
the third left frontal, the speech-center in 
right-handed people. 

Convolvulus pandura^tus. Wild Po- 
tato. The tul)er is a mild cathartic. I3ose 
gr. xl. Unof. 

ConvuKsant {conveiio^ to pull together). 
A medicine that causes convulsions. 

Convul^sions. The manifestation of 
nervous disorder commonly called Jits. 

Eclampsia. Loss of consciousness and 
voluntary control of the muscles, with 
clonic, tonic or mixed contractures, eic.^ 
constitute the chief symptoms. May be 
due to epilepsy, other functional or or- 
ganic disease of the brain, circulation, etc. 
C., Infantile, due to a number of causes, 
such as rickets,- exhaustion, etc.; sometimes 
called " screaming hts." C, Puerperal. 
See Eclampsia. C, Ursmic, due to the 
altered state of the blood in disease of the 
kidney. See, also. Epilepsy. 

Coordination (can^ together, ordinoy to 
regulate). The harmonious function and 
proper sequence of operation of the various 
organs of the body. 

Copai^ba. Balsam of Copaiba. The oleo- 
resin of C. Langsdorffii; native to Sou.h 
America. A stimulant diuretic, and an 
expectorant. Much used in gonorrhoea, 
but now considered of doubtful value. C. 
Massa, copaiba 94, magnesia 6 parts. 
Dose n\,x-;;j. C. Mist. Comp., La- 
fayette's mixture, unof., copaiba ^vij, 
oil cubebs zj, glyceriti vitelli Jvij; tn- 
turate and add syr. aq. piperit. ^ liss ; then 
add, with constant stirring, liq. potass. J^ ss, 
tinct. cardamon comp. ^ij, spt. nitrous 
ether J ss, aq. piperit. q. s. to make 5 viij. 
Dose 3J-3ss. C. 01. Dose n\^x-xv. 
C. Resina, mainly copaibic acid. Dose 

gr. j-v. 
Cop^per (Cu^pnim). A reddish-brown 

metal not used in medicine in its metallic 

form, but represented by several salts. 

The latter are gastro-intestinal irritants, 

producing nausea and emesis. C. Acetas, 

verdigris, used in pulmonary diseases, and 

as a lotion in skin diseases. Dose gr. 1^^. 

C. Aceto-arsenite, Paris Green, used as 

a };igmcnt and an insecticide. C. Ammo* 

niatum, unof., ammonium carlx)nate 3, 

copper sulphate 4 parts. Useful in chorea, 

hysteria, /-/r. Dosegr. J^-j. C, Potassio- 

tartrate Sol., Fehling*s solution, unof., 

copi^er sulphate gr. 70, distilled water 

fTV400: also dissolve Rochelle salt, gr. 

488, in water n\^i6oo; when required, 

mix and add water to make TT\^2720. 

Used as a test for glucose. C. Sulphas, 

soluble in water, valuable as an emetic. 

I )ose, as an emetic, gr. ij- v, as a tonic, gr. 



Cop^peras {cupri roxa^ rose of copi^er [?]). 

A common name for ferrous sulphate. See 

Cop^rolith (xor/K>f, dung, ^/i^of, stone). A 

term applied to h^ masses of fsccal matter 

which sometimes form in the bowels. 




Cop-'tis. Goldthread. The root of C. 
trifoiia. A simple bitter tonic resembling 
quassia. Contains berberine. Dose gr. x— 


Copula'^tion (co/fu/oy to couple). The act 
of sexual intercourse. 

Coraco- (Kopa^^ a crow). Pertaining to 
muscles attached to the coracoid process, 
as C. Brachialis. See Muscles. 

Cor'^acoid (ko/mi^). A term applied to any 
part having the shape of a crow's beak. 
C. Ligament, a triangular, beak-shaped 
ligament joining the coracoid process to 
the acromion. C. Process, a beak-shaped 
process of the scapula. 

Cor-'al Root. Crawley. Thp root of 
Corailorhiza odontorhiza. A prompt and 
powerful diaphoretic, much employed by 
the " eclectic " school of practitioners. 
Used in fevers. Dose gr. xxx. C, Fid. 
Ext. Dose n\^xv-xxx. 

Cord [chorda). Used as a synonym for 
the Umbilical Cord^ the vascular, cord -like 
structvu^ connecting the placenta and 
foetus. C, Coiling of, loops about the 
foetus or its members. C, Knots of, real 
knots of the cord formed by the passage 
of the foetus through a loop. False Knots^ 
accumulations of \Vharton's jelly at parti- 
cular points. C, Presentation of, descent 
of the cord at the beginning of labor be- 
tween the presenting part and the mem- 
branes. C, Prolapse of, descent at the 
rupture of the bag of waters, incomplete^ 
if remaining in the vagina, complete^ if 
protruding therefrom. C, Torsion of, 
twisting upon its axis. The blood vessels 
make about 40 spiral turns. Wharton's 
Jelly, the gelatin-like connective tissue of 
the cord. 

Cor^dial [cor^ the heart). Pertaining to the 
heart. In pharmacy, an aromatic spiritu- 
ous stimulant. 

Corec'tomy. See Iridectomy^ and Pupil^ 

Corecto'^pia (/copv, pupil, tKrtmo^^ mis- 
placed). An anomalous position of the 

CorediaKysis (/co/j^, rJmP.fw, to liberate). 
The production of an artificial pupil at the 
ciliar>' lx)r(ler of the iris. 

Corcl-^ysis {Kopt), ?.vaic, a loosening). The 
detachment of iritic adhesions to the lens. 

Coremorpho^'sis. See Pupil, Artificial. 

Coreom-'eter (xop^, fierpuvy a measure). 
An instrument for measuring the pupil of 
the eye. 

Cor^eplasty. See Pupil, Arti/icta/. 

Corian^der, or 

Corian^dnim. Coriander. The fruit of 
C. saliva. An aromatic carminative and 
stimulant. Used mainly to give flavor to 
other remedies and as a corrective to griping 
purgatives. Dose gr. x-xx. C. Ol., the 
volatile oil. Dose TT\^ij-v. 

Co^riuxn (corium, leaUier). The deep layer 
of the cutis. 

Corm (Kopfzo^, the trunk of a tree). The 
bulbous underground part of certain plants, 
as the crocus. 

Com {cornu, horn). Local induration and 
thickening of the skin from friction. 

Cor^nea (comuY The transparent an- 
terior portion of the eyeball, its area oc- 
cupying about one-sixth the circumference 
of the globe. It is continuous with the 
sclerotic, and nourished by lymph from the 
looped blood vessels at its ]>eripheral bor- 
der. It is lined posteriorly by Descemet's 
membrane, and the conjunctiva is firmly 
adherent to its substance in front. C, 
Conical. See Keratoglobus. C, Leu- 
coma of. See Leucoma. C, Tattooing 
of. See Tattooing. C, Transplantation 
of, the operation of engrafting a section of 
transparent cornea fix>m some animal into 
the space of an excised portion of leuco- 
matous human cornea. 

Comei^tis. See Keratitis. 

Cornic^ula Laryn^g^s. A small, horn- 
shaped mass of cartilage on the arytenoid 
cartilages; called also the Cartilages of 

Corn Smut. See Stigmata Maydis. 

Com'^u. (Lat.) A horn. A name s^lied 
to any excrescence resembling a horn. C. 
Ammonis, the hippocampus major of the 
brain. C. Cervi, hartshorn or ammonium 
hydrate. C. Cutaneum. A horn of the 
skin. A homy excrescence bearing a resem- 
blance to the horns of lower animals. 
May be any size from that of a pin's head 
to that of the finger. Of rare occurrence. 
C. Sacri, the prominence on each bone 
of the sacrum. 

Cor-'nus. Dogwood. The bark of the 
root of C. florida. Properties due to a 
crystalline principle, cornin. A simple 
stomachic, bitter and somewhat antiperi- 
odic. C, Fid. Ext. Dose n\^x-3j. 

Com^utin. One of the active principles 
of Ergot. Unof. 

Cor'^ona (corona, a garland). A crown. 
C. Ciliaris, the ciliary ligament. C. Glan- 
dis, the ridge of the glans penis. C. Ra- 
diata, tlie convolutions of the brain. C. 
Veneris, syphilitic blotches occoniDg on 
the forehead. 




Coro^nal Su^ture. The suture joining 
the frontal with the two parietal bones. 

Cor^onary. A term applied to vessels, 
nerves, or attachments which encircle a 
part or organ. 

Cor^oner {coronator^ a crown, an officer 
appointed by the Crown). An officer who 
inquires by authority of the law into the 
causes of deaths of sudden or violent oc- 
currence. C, Inquest of, the legal 
inquiry before a jury concerning the causes 
of a sudden or violent death. 

CoroniKla. The plant C, scorpeoides^ 
abundant in southwestern Europe. Has 
doubtful value in cardiac affections where 
increased amplitude of pulsation is re- 
quired. Unof. 

Cor^pora (pi. of corpus^ a body). A gene- 
ral term applied to any part of the body, 
especially of the brain, having a rounded 
or ovoid shape. C. Albicantia or Mam- 
miliaria, the two rounded masses of white 
matter forming the bulbs of the fornix. C. 
Arantii, the tubercles, one in the center 
of each segment of the semilunar valves. 
C. Cavernosa, the cylindrical bodies of 
erectile tissue forming the chief part of the 
penis. Also the two masses of erectile 
tissue composing the clitoris. C. Genicu- 
lata, two small eminences projecting from 
the optic thalami. C. Olivaria, the two 
oval masses behind the p3rramids of the 
medulla oblongata. C. Pyramidalia, the 
two bundles of white matter of the medulla 
oblongata, situated below the pons varolii. 
C. Quadrigemina, the optic lobes of the 
brain, the four rounded eminences situated 
under the corpus callosum. The anterior 
pair are the naUs^ and the posterior the 
testes. C. Restiformia, the large columns 
or cord-like bodies extending from the 
medulla to the cerebrum. C. Striata, 
two organs in the lateral ventricles of the 
brain, composed of the caudate and lenti- 
cular nucleus. The first, or intra-ventricular 
portion, extends into the lateral ventricle. 

Corp^ulcncy {corpulentus, a large Ixxiy). 
01x?sity ; fatness of the Ixxiy. 

Corp'^us (pi. corpora)^ (corpus, a body). 
A body; the human body. C. Aran- 
tius, the cartilaginous tubercle of the 
semilunar valves. C. Callosum. See 
Commissures. C. Cavemosum Vagins, 
the spongy tissue of the vagina. C. 
Fimbriatum, the lateral thin edge of the 
tania hippocampi. C. Luteum. See 
Corpus Luteum. C. Spongiosum, the 
spongy body enclosing the urethra, etc. 
C. Striatum. See Corpora. 

Corpuscle (dim. of corpus). A name 
loosely applied to almost any small, 
rounded, or oval body. C. of Blood, the 
minute, biconcave, flat discs, circular in 
man, elliptical in the camel, and oval in 
birds and reptiles. Corpuscles of the blood 
have been distinguished, according to their 
size — ^into normoblasts (normal in size), 
megaloblasts (of excessive size),mikro- 
blasts (abnormally small), and poikilo- 
blasts, of irregular shape and size. The 
red corpuscles in the blood of man are 
about jX^ in. in diameter and y^;^ in. 
thick. TjEiey consist of a colorless stroma 
(paraglobulin,cholesterin, lecithin and neu- 
rin) infiltrated with coloring matter (haemo- 
globin). The white corpuscles are 
flattened, hi- or tri-nucleated cells, about 
i^W ^^' ^° diameter, and exist in the ratio 
of 1 : 400 compared with red corpuscles. 
They possess a contractile power, alter 
their shape readily, and in general appear* 
ances closely resemble amcebee. They art 
most munerous in venous blood. C. of 
Krause, the spherical or ovoid corpuscles 
occurring on the ends of the nerve tubules 
which emerge from a nerve plexus. They 
occur in the conjunctiva, the edges of the 
lips and various mucou:> and glandular sur- 
faces. C, Malpighian, a name applied 
to the splenic corpuscles. Also to the 
Malpighian bodies. C, Pacinian, certain 
small corpuscles occiuring in the subcuta- 
neous cellular tissue of the fingers and toes. 
C, Tactile, of Wagner, the small oval 
bodies found in the papillae of the skin 
and enveloped by nerve-fibers. 

Corpuscula-^tion. A condition in which 
the corpuscles of the blood have undergone 
hyperplasia, being more large and numer- 
ous than in the normal state. 

Corp^us Lute^um. The yellow body. 
Hypertrophy of the membrana propria, or 
reticulata of the ovisac, after the escape 
of the ovule. C. L., False, that result- 
ing when pregnancy does not occur, called 
also the C. L. of Menstruation. C. L., 
True, that when pregnancy takes place, 
called also the C. L. of Pregnancy, and 
differing in several respects from the first. 

Corrcct^ive [corrij^^o^ to correct). A sub- 
stance used to modify or make more pleasant 
the action of a purgative or other remedy. 

Correla^tion. Interdependence; relation- 

Corro^sive (con, rodo, to gnaw). A sub- 
stance that destroys organic tissue either 
by direct chemical means or by causing 
inflammation and suppuration. 




CoiTO^sive Sub^limate. See Hydrar- 

Comiga^tor (corrugo^ to wrinkle). That 
which wrinkles. See Muscle. 

Cor'tex (Sanskrit krii, to split). The 
bark of an exogenous plant. The external 
layer of gray matter of the brain. 

Cor^ti. A celebrated Italian anatomist. C, 
Cells of, the external hair-cells of the 
organ of Corti. C, Organ of, a series of 
some 3000 arches contained on the floor of 
the basilary membrane, within the ductus 
cochUaris of the internal ear. C, Rods 
of, the pillars of the arch of the organ 
of Corti. C, Rolls of, the fibers forming 
the inner limb of the arches of Corti. 

Cort^ical [cortex, bark). Pertaining to the 
cortex or bark. Used of the gray matter, 
cortex, of the brain. 

Coryd-^alis. Turkey com. The tuber of 
C. fonnosa {^Dicentra Canadensis of de 
CandoUe). Tonic, diuretic and alterative. 
Dose of fid. ext n\^x-xl. Corydalin, the 
alkaloid. Dose gr. j-v. Unof. 

Cory^za (icopvc* the head). Catarrh of the 
mucous membrane of the nasal passages 
and adjacent sinuses. Popularly called a 
" cold in the head." 

Cosmet'^ic {laxrfiecj, to adorn). A remedy 
designed to improve or to hide the defects 
of the skin or other external parts. May 
be a white powder, such as starch, mag- 
nesic oxide, calcium carbonate (levigated), 
zinc oxide, mercurous chloride, or bismuth 
subnitrate applied externally ; it may be a 
white substance dissolved in dilute alco- 
hol, which is left upon the fieice after the 
evaporation of the solvent ; or it may be a 
stimulant to the skin used internally, such 
as arsenic. C. Operation. A surgical 
operation to give a natural appearance to 
a defective or unsightly part. 

Cos'^moline. See Petrolatum. 

Cos^tal (costa, a rib). Pertaining to the 
ribs. C. Cartilages. The 12 cartilag- 
inous extensions of the ribs. 

Cos^tiveness [constipo^ to be bound). An 
abnormality of digestion characterized by 
retention and hardness of the fseces. 

Cos^to- (casta, a rib). A prefix denoting 
connection with the ribs. 

Coto^ine. See Coto. 

Cof^to. Cotto Bark. The boric of a tree 
native to Bolivia. Irritant to skin And 
mucous membranes. Therapeutic proper- 
tics not known. Recommended in diar- 
rha'a and zymotic fevers. Dose gr. j~xv. 

Cot^ton. See Gossypium. 

Cot^ton-seed Oil. See Gossypuan, 

Cot^yloid Cav^ity. See Acetabulum, 

Couch-grass. See Triticum. 

Couch^ing (Fr. Coucher). The operation, 
now fallen into disuse, of depressing a 
cataractous lens into the vitreous chamber, 
where it was left to be absorbed. 

Cough^ing. A sudden violent expiratory 
explosion after deep inspiration and closure 
of the glottis. C. Center. See Center. 

Cou^lomb. The unit of measurement of 
electrical quantity; the quantity of elec- 
tricity that passes during one second in a 
conductor having a resistance of one ohm, 
with one volt of electromotive force, 'llie 
micro-coulomb is the millionth part of 
this amount. 

Count^er-exten^sion. See Extension. 

Count^er-irrita^tion. Superficial and arti- 
ficially produced inflammation, in order to 
exercise a good effect upon some adjacent 
or deep-seated morbid p)rocess. Generally 
effected by vesicants, rubefacients, etc. 

Count'^er-o^pening. An incision made 
in an abscess or cavity, opposite another, 
generally for purposes of drainage. 

0>urs^es. See Menses. 

Court Plaster. See Ichthycolla. 

Couveuse^. See Incubator. 

Cow^age. The external hairs of the pod 
of Mucuna pruriens. 

Cow^bane. Water Hemlock. The leaves 
of Cicuta virosa. An acrid narcotic, highly 
poisonous to cattle, but not affecting shoe]) 
and goats. Causes intoxication and spasm. 
Sometimes used externally as an anodyne 
in rheumatism. 

Cow^per*s Glands. See Glands. 

Cow-pox. See Vaccination. 

Cox^a (coxa, hip). The hip-joint. 

Coxal^gia [coxa, aA>oc, pain). Pain in the 
hip-joint. See Hip- joint Disease. 

Coxe's Hive Mixture. See Scilla. 

Crab Louse. See Pediculus. 

Crachot^ement. A peculiar reflex follow- 
ing operations upon the utero-ovarian or- 
gans, marked by a desire to spit without 
the ability to do so. It is usually accom- 
panied by a tendency to syncope. 

Cracked-pot Sound. A peculiar sound 
elicited by percussion over a cavity of the 
lung communicating with a bronchus. 

Cra^dle. In surgery, a wire or wicker 
frame so arranged as to keep the weight of 
the bed-clothing from an injured {xut of 
the body. Employed in fractures, wounds, 

Cramp (Teut. kramp). A spasmodic con- 
tzactioQ of the muscles attended with sharp 




Crane *8-bill Root. See Geranium. 

Cra^niodasm (icpaviov, the skull, KkcM^ 
to break). The operation of breaking the 
foetal haul by means of the cranioclast. 

Craniol^ogy^KpavfoVfAoyoc, a discourse). A 
treatise on the comparative study of skulls. 

Craniom^eter (k(hiviov^ fierpov^ a meas- 
ure). An instrument for gauging the dimen- 
sions of the skull. 

Craniom^etry. See Index, 

Cranios'^copy. See Phrenology, 

Cranios^tosis {Kpavtov^ ocreov, a bone). 
Congenital ossification of the cranial sutures. 

Craniot'^omy (KpavioVf rofitf, a cutting). 
The operation of reducing the size of the 
foetal head by cutting or breaking it up, 
when delivery is otherwise impossible. 

Cra^nium (x/iavwv, the head). The skull. 
The cavity which contains the brain, its 
membranes and vessels. Consists of 22 
bones, of which 14 belong to the face, and 
8 to the cranium proper. See SJhi//. 

Crassamen^tum (crassus, thick). The 
clot of the blood. 

Craw - Craw. See Filaria Sanguinis 

Craw^lcy. See Coral Root, 

Cream of Tartar. See Potassium, 

Creamom^eter. An instrument for esti- 
mating the amount of cream in milk. 

Cre^asote, or Creaso'tuin (K/oeac, flesh, 
otj^u^ to preserve). The pixxiuct of the 
distillation of wood tar, consisting of a mix- 
ture of phenol compounds. An inflam- 
mable oily liquid differing in this resf^ect 
from carlx>lic acid. Does not coagulate 
albumin and collodion. Most of the com- 
mercial creasote consists of carbolic acid 
or contains a large percentage of it Valu- 
able for its antiseptic, astringent, styptic, 
anrcsthetic and escharotic properties. C. 
Aqua, a one per cent, solution. Dose 

Cre^atin (Kptaq). A weak organic base 
occurring in various tissues of the body, 
especially in muscle. 

Creat'^inin (K/>£af ). See Kreatinin. 

Cr£che {Vx. a crib). See Infant Shelter. 

Cremas^ter (Kpefiau, to sup]x>rt). The 
muscle which draws up the testis. 

Cremaster^'ic Re'^flex. Retraction of the 
testicle on the same side by exciting the 
skin on the inner side of the thigh. 

Crema^tion {cremoy to bum). The de- 
struction of the body by burning, as distin- 
guished from interment. 

Creni'^or (crentor^ broth). Cream. Any 
thick substance formed on the surface of a 

Cre^nated {erena, a notch). Notched or 
scalloped. In botany, leaves which are 
serrated. See Crenalion. 

Crena^tion (crena), A notched or mul- 
berry appearance of the red corpuscles of 
the blood ; may be spontaneous or due to 
poisoning with Calabar bean. 

Cre^nothrix {Kprivriy source, bpi^^ hair). A 
genus of the family Beggiatoaceis^ whose 
filaments are enveloped in a gelatinous 
sheath. C. KiUiniana, abundant in fresh 
waters. The pathogenic rdle attributed to 
this variety by KUnsther in the production 
of typhoid b unjustified. 

Cre^olin. A ccol-tar product deprived of 
carbolic add. Haemostatic and highly anti- 
septic. It is more active than carbolic 
aad on pure cultures of pathogenic mi- 
crobes, but less eflicacious in putrefying 
masses. An excellent non -poisonous de- 

Crepita-^tion, or Crep^itus (crepito^ to 
crackle). The noise produced by escaping 
flatus, by the grating of fractiured bones, by 
the crackling of the joints, and by the 
pressure upon tissues containing an abnor- 
mal amount of air or gas. Also the pecu- 
liar murmur of respiration observed in 

Cres-^cent, Myopic. See Myopia, 

Crest. The surmounting part of an organ 
or process. 

Cre^ta. Chalk. See Calcium. 

Cret^inism. (Doubtful etymology.) The 
condition of a cretin. An endemic dis- 
ease characterized by goitre, and a condi- 
tion of physical, physiological and mental 
degeneracy and non-development. 

Crib^riform (cridrum, a sieve, forma, 
form). Similar to a sieve in being per- 
forated, as the cribriform Plate of the 
Ethmoid Bone. 

Cri-'co- {KfiiKoq^ a ring). A prefix denoting 
connection with the cricoid cartilage. 

Cri^'coid Cartilage. See Cartilages of 
the Larynx, 

Cri^sis \cri5i5\ The turning point in a 
disease, fever, time of life, etc., and in 
disease, marking a change either for the 
better or worse. 

Crist^a Acus^tica (Lat.). A yellow ele- 
vation projecting into the equator of the 
ampulla of the ear. 

Crist^'a Gal^li. Cock's Crest. The superior 
triangular process of the (Ethmoid bone. 

Crit^ical {crisis ). Pertaining to a crisis in 
disease, period of life, etc, 

Cro'^cus. Saflron. The stigmas of the 
flowers of C, sativus, (Should not be coo- 




founded with American Saffron, Cartba« 
mus tinctorius). An aromatic stimulant 
and emmenagogue, conunonly used as a 
cooling agent. C. Tinct., lo per cent 
in strength. Dose 3J-ij; of the drug, gr. 

Crossed Re^flexes. An exception to 
the usual law of reflex movements, in 
which, e. g.y excitation of one fore limb 
produces movement in the opposite hind 

Cross-legged Progres^sion. A method 
of walking in which one foot gets over or 
in front of the other. A symptom of cer- 
tain cord lesions. 

Crouton Chlo^ral. S^e Chloral Butylicum. 

Croton-oil. See l^igln Oleum. 

Croup (Sax. kropan^ to cry aloud). A dis- 
ease of the larynx, trachea, etc.y of children, 
of which prominent symptoms are a peculiar 
cough, difficulty of breathing, and often 
accompanied by the development of a 
membranous deposit or exudate upon the 
parts. There is doubt as to the real nature 
of the disease, some contending that it is 
either an acute spasmodic laryngitis or a 
laryngeal diphtheria, while others believe 
it a special type of disease. 

Cru'cial (crux, a cross). Resembling 
or pertaining to a cross, as a crucial in- 

Cru^ra (pi. of crus^ a leg). A name 
applied to certain parts of the body from 
their resemblance to a leg or root. C. 
Cerebelli, the peduncles of the cerebellum. 
C. Cerebri, the peduncles of the cere- 
brum. C. of Diaphragm, the muscular 
bundles arising from the vertebrae, etc^ and 
inserted into the central tendon. C. of 
Penis, the corpora cavemosi. 

Cru'^ral (cms). Pertaining to the thigh. 
C. Arch. See Ligament. C. Hernia, 
femoral hernia. 

Cms (crus). The leg; structures resem- 
bling a leg. See the plural. Crura. 

Cruso-creat^inine. A leucomaine, iso- 
lated from muscle-tissue. In this and other 
leucomaincs of the Creatinine Group, as 
well as in those of the Uric Acid Group, 
hydrocyanic acid plays an important part 
in the molecular structure of the bases. 
Very little is yet known as to the function 
of this Cyanogen Group in relation to the 
vital activity of tissues, but recent investi- 
gations seem to show that the seat of the 
cyanogen formation lies within the nucle- 
ated cell, and is intimately connected with 
the functions of the nuclein molecule. A 
number of leocomaines of fresh muscle- 

tissue are credited with possessing an in- 
tensely poisonous action ; and, if this be 
the case, any accumulation of such bases in 
the system, due to interference with elimi- 
nation, may cause very serious disturb- 

Crus^ta. The inferior part of the crura 
cerebri. C. Lactea. See Achor. C. 
Petrosa, a thin layer of bone covering the 
fang of a tooth. C. Phlogistica, the 
vellowish layer of the upper stratum of a 
blood-clot coagulating slowly. 

Crypt (KpnmTijiy to conceal). A small sac 
or follicle. Crypts of Lieberkuhn, mi- 
nute tubular depressions of the mucous 
membrane of the small intestine. 

Cryptoceph^alus (icpvTrroc, hidden, Kt^aihi, 
head). A monster foetus with imperfectly 
formed and concealed head. 

Cryptoga^mia (/c/w7rrof, ya/ioc^ marriage). 
A division of the vegetable kingdom com- 
prising all plants with concealed sexual 
organs, without pistils or stamens. 

Cryptophthal'^mos (xpvrroc, o^a^fw^^ the 
eye). Congenital union of the eyehds, 
usually over imperfect eyes. 

Cryptor^chid, or Cryptorchis (KpwrTo^ to 
hide, opxiCt testicle). A person with re- 
tained testicles, /. ^., not descended into 
the scrotum. Monorchid, with one re- 
tained testicle. 

Cryst'^allin. The globulin of the cr>'stal- 
line lens. 

Cryst^alline Lens. See Lens, 

Crystalliza^tion (KpverraXAof, ice). The 
process by which the molecules of a sub- 
stance arrange themselves in geometric 
forms when passing from a gaseous or a 
liquid to a solid state. C, Water of, 
the water of salts that cannot be extracted 
without destruction of their crystalline 

Crystallog^raphy (Kpixna^loQ yfta^t to 
write). The science of crystals, their for- 
mation, e/c, 

Crys^talloid (icpvoroA^, etSo^f likeness). 
Having a crystalline structure, as distin- 
guished from colloid. 

Cu'^beba. The unripe fruit of C. officinalis, 
cultivated in Java. Properties due to a 
volatile oil and an organic acid. An aro- 
matic stimulant, diuretic in small doses. 
Useful in affections of the bladder and 
urethra. A good remedy (applied by in- 
sufflation or smoked in cigarettes) for 
disease of the fauces, in catarrh of the air 
passages, etc. Dose gr. x-^ij. C, Fid. 
Ext., alcoholic. iJosc Ti\,x-xxx. C 
Oleoresina, ethereal. Dose ti\^v-xxx. 




C. Ol., the volatile oil. Dose n\^v-xx. 
C, Tinct., loper cent, in strength. Dose 
nv,x- 3 iij. C. Trochisci, oleoresin gr. % , 
oil sassafras gr. -j^^, ext. glycyrrhiza gr. iv, 
acacia gr. ij, syr. tolu q. s., in each troche. 
Dose j-iij. 

Cubic Space ioi air). The amount of 
space required oy the patient in hospitals, 
etc. About looo cubic feet to each patient 
is necessary to proper ventilation. 

Cu^bitus (cubitus, the elbow). The fore- 

Cu^boid Bone. A bone of the foot situ- 
ated at the outer anterior part of the 

Cu^ca. See Erythroxvlon. 

Cud Weed. See Life Everlasting. 

Cul-de-sac (Fr. cul^ the bottom, de^ of, 
sac^ bag). A cavity of the body closed at 
one end. Douglas's C, a pouch between 
the anterior wall of the rectum and the 
posterior wall of the uterus formed by the 
reflection of the peritoneum. Called, also, 
the recto-uterine or retro- uteHne C. 

Cu^lex. A mosquito. A well-known in- 
sect which punctures the skin to obtain its 
food, the blood. 

Culture (cflio, cultum, to till, cultivate). 
A name loosely and indiscriminately ap- 
plied to the act, the liquid or solid me- 
dium used, and the product of the process, 
in culture experiments upon microorgan- 
isms. The culture media are of various 
kinds: mineral liquids (see Ranlins Li- 
quid y Cohn's Liquid y etc.)^ bouillons of 
various kinds, gelatinous fluids, gelose, 
potato, serum, efr. These media are first 
sterilized, usually by heat (see Oven^ Ster- 
i/ization)f but possibly also by chemicals, 
by filtration, by cold, by steam, ffc. 'llie 
infectious matter is then taken ufxm a ster- 
ilized platinum needle point, pi|>ette, or 
other instrument, and transferred to the 
culture-medium. When the latter is of 
semi-solid consistency, as gelatin, the inocu- 
lation Ijy the needle is called Stichcultttr 
(Gr.) OT par piqilre (Fr.), the needle being 
thrast into the substance. When sown 
along the surface in a line it is called 
Strichcultur ( ( Jr. ), or en stries ( Fr. ). The 
macroscopic features of the suljsequent de- 
veloj)ment give imix)rtant means of differ- 
entiation. For example, when the inocu- 
late<l matter forms a mass in the medium, 
pointed !x?low and rising like a nail head 
alwve, it is called en clou^ nail-sha{)ed. 
Then the medium may l)c liquefied or not, 
variously colored, peculiarly changed, sedi- 
ment deposited or not, etc. Subsequent 

microscopical examination of the culture- 
product, inoculation experiments upon ani- 
mals, etc.y complete the study. 

Cul^ver's Root. See Leptandra. 

Cune^iform Bones (L. cuneus^ a wedge). 
The name of three wedge-shaped bones at 
the anterior part of the tarsus. 

Cune^us (cuneus). A wedge-shaped con- 
volution on the internal aspect of the cortex 
of the occipital lobe. 

Cu-^pola {cupola, a dome). The dome- 
shaped extremity of the canal of the coch- 
lea. Also, the summit of a solitary gland 
of the small intesdnes. 

Cup^ping. The application of cupping 
glasses; a method of blood-abstraction. 
C., Dry, without the abstraction of blood 
— a form of counter- irritation. C, Wet, 
with the abstraction of blood after scari- 

Cu^prum. See Copper. 

Cura^r^. Woorara. A vegetable extract 
obtained from Paulinia C. and certain 
members of the Strychnos family. A pow- 
erful paralyzer of the motor nerves and 
the voluntary muscles. Used in S. Amer- 
ica and elsewhere as an arrow poison. In 
toxic doses death occurs by paralysis of 
the organs of respiration. Reported ef- 
fectual in two cases of hydro[)hobia, and 
has been successful in tetanus. Dose by 
hypodermatic injection gr. ^k-\' 

Curd. The coagulum of milk which sepa- 
rates on the addition of rennet or an acid. 

Curette (Fr). An instrument shaped 
like a spoon or scoop, for detaching sub- 
stances from one another, as the placenta 
from the uterine wall, etc. 

Cur^rent {curro^io run). In electricity, a 
term applied to the transference of the 
force, which is arbitrarily likened to the 
flow of a liquid in a confined passage. 
C, Action, that obtained when an in- 
jured muscle contracts. C, Alternat- 
ing, a term applied to a current which, by 
means of an interrupter, is alternately di- 
rect and reverse. This current is em- 
ployed (in New York) for the execution of 
capital sentences. C, Battery, a gal- 
vanic current. C, Continuous, a con- 
stant, uninterrupted current in one direc- 
tion. C, Demarcation, the muscle-cur- 
rent of I)u Bois Raymond, the current 
obtained from an injured muscle. C, 
Galvanic, a current generated by the 
decomposition of acidulated water by 
means of metallic plates. C, Induced, 
or Secondary, a momentar>' current pro- 
duced when a coil of insulated wire is in 




tioduced within the field of another coil 
through which a continuous current b 
passing. When the coil is renooved from 
the Held there is a momentary current in 
the opposite direction. 

Curt^ate. See Expectation of Life, 

Curv^ature of Spine. See Caries, 

Cusp (cuspist a point V The crown or pro- 
jecting part of a tootn. 

Cuta^neous (cutis^ the skin). Pertaining 
to the skin. C. Calculus. See Milium. 
C. Horns. See Comu Cutaneum. C. 
Respiration, the transpiration of gases 
through the skin. 

Cu'^ticle (dim. of ctOis, the skin). The 
epidermis or scarf-skin. See Skin, 

Curtis. The derma, or true skin. C, 
Anserina. See Goose Skin, 

Cut-ofiT Muscle. A popular designation 
of the compressor urethras muscle. 

Cyan^ogen (movof, blue, ytwait^ to pro- 
duce). A radical molecule having the 
structure CN, an acid compound of carbon 
and nitrc^en existing as a colorless, com- 
bustible gas, exceedingly poisonous. Forms 
with hydrogen, hydrocyanic or prussic 
acid; with metals, the cyanides; with 
oxygen, the compound known as fulminic 
acid. Cyanogen and hydrocyanic add 
are usually distinguished by the odor of 

Cyanop^athy. See Cyanosis. 

Cyano^sis [Kvavoq). A bluish discolora- 
tion of the skin from non-oxidation of the 
blood, caused l>y local or general circula- 
tory diseases. 

Cyanot^ic. Pertaining to Cyanosis. 

Cycli^tis (kvk^o^^ a circle, iri^y inflamma- 
tion). Inflammation of the ciliary body, 
causing a pericorneal circle of congested 
sclerotic tissue. A serious condition, often 
implicating adjacent structures. May be 
serous, plastic, or suppurative. Irido- 
cyclitis, when the iris is also implicated 
in the inflammatory process. 

Cycloceph^alus (kvicP/>c, ict^.tjy head). 
A monstrosity with a cyclopean eye and 
atrophy of the nose. 

Cyclop^ia. See Synophthalmia. 

Cyclople'^gia (kl'/caoc, flr/j/y/y, a stroke). 
Paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the 

Cy^clops (kvk7jo^^ o^). A congenital mal- 
fOTmation consisting in a fusion of the two 
eyes into one. See Rhinocepkalns. 

Cyclot'omy (i£u#cAof, To^iri^ section). An 
operation proposed for the relief of glau- 
coma, consisting in an incision through 
the ciliary body. 

Cydo^nium. Quince Seed. The seeds of C 
vulgaris. Employed mainly for the muci- 
lage contained in the epithelial covering, 
which consists of a compound of gum and 
glucose. C. Mucilago, quince seeds 2, 
macerated in water loo parts. A bland 
demulcent, known in commerce as Bando- 
line, and used as a hair dressing. 

Cylin^drical Lenses. See Lenses, 

Cylindro^ma (icvkivdpo^, a cylinder). A 
tumor peculiar to the oibit of the eye and 
to the stomach, composed of cylindrical or 
dub-like hyaline processes. 

Cynan^che {kvuv, adog, ayx*^, to strangle). 
An old name for cases of diphtheria, 
croup, tonsillitis, etc., in which the patient 
struggles for breath (as a panting dog). C. 
Tonsillaris. See Quinsy, 

Cynantlux/pia {kvuv, ttvOponroCf man). A 
mania in which the patient believes him- 
self a dog. 

Cypho^sis. See kyphosis. 

Cypripe^dium. Lady*s Slipper. The roots 
of C. pubescens and C. parviflorum, Ameri- 
can valerian. Properties due to a volatile 
oil and acid. An antispasmodic and 
stimulant tonic. Used inst^ul of valerian, 
which it resembles, in certain parts of the 
U. S. C, Fid. Ext. Dose n\,x-xxx. 
Cypripedein, unof., an impure alcoholic 
extract. Dose gr. ss^iij. 

Cyrtom'eter (jcvprof, curved, lurpov a 
measure). An instrument adapted for 
measuring curves, and especially those of 
the chest. 

Cyst f ici'OT/c, a pouch). A cavity contain- 
ing nuid and surrounded by a capsule. 
C, Cutaneous. See Dermoid C. C, 
Dentigerous, containing teeth ; one form 
b found in the ovaries. C, Dermoid, 
congenital; the cyst- wall is like the skin. 
C, Meibomian. See Chalazion. C, 
Retention, formed by closure of the ducts 
of secreting organs, as in mucous or seba- 
ceous cysts. C, Exudation, from increase 
of exudation, or from exudation into a 
closed cavity. C, Primary, newly formed, 
not from distention. C, Secondary, a 
cyst within a cyst. C, Sublingual. See 
kanula, C, Synovial, from the disten- 
tion of bursic or synovial sheaths. C, 
Tarsal. See Chalazion, 

Cystal^g^a (tcvrr/c, a>.yoq, pain). Pain in 
the bladder. 

Cys^tic. Pertaining to a cyst, especially 
of the urinary or gall bladder. 

Cysticer^cus Cellulo^sae Curtis. See 
Alternation of Generation, A hydatid, 
or immature form of Tania solium, which 




is sometimes parasitic vpon the subcutane- 
ous tissues of the skin. 

Cyst^in. A substance, CsHj-N^S^Oi, found 
in urine in small amount. Test : boil with 
a solution of lead oxide in sodium hydrate. 
If cystin is present, black lead sulphide is 

Cyst^is. See Cys/, 

Cysti^tis. Inflammation of the bladder. 

Cyst^itome. See Cystotomy, 

Cyst^ocele {kooti^^ a pouch, laihei^ tumor). 
Vesical hernia. 

Cyst'^oplasty («cv0t<c» itAcmtctu, to form). 
Plastic operation upon the blsidder, espe- 
cially for vesico-vaginal fistula. 

Cyst^oscope {Kxtniq, axoTreu, to examine). 
An instrument for examining the interior 
of the bladder. 

Cyst^otoxne (icwrr«c, refivo^ to cut). A 
knife used in c3rstotomy and in rupturing the 
capsule of the lens in cataract operations. 

Cystot^omy. Incision of the bladder. 

Cythsemol'^ysis (iwro^y cell, a</<a, blood, 
ivai^, dissolution). Dissolution of the 
ccr|>uscles of the blood. 

Cy^tisin. A crystalline alkaloid of CyHsut 
laburnum. It has marked hypnotic pro- 
perties, with diminution of pulse. It has 
been used hypodermically with advantage 
in migraine. Dose of the nitrate gr. X. 

Cy^toblast (icrrof, pXaaroc, germ). The 

Cytoblaste^ma (kvtoc, p^atmjfia, germ). 
The germinative liquid in which cells 

CytodiSr^esis (kvtoc, duupeatc, division). 
Cell segmentation or division. 

Cytogexi'^esis. See Ce//. 

Cy^toid (kvtoc, ei^, likeness). Resem- 
bling a cell. 

CytoKogy (icvrof, Xoryoc, account). The 
science of cell-formation and cell-life. 

Cy^to-mitc^ma. See Cell-body. 

Cy^toplasma. See Protoplasm. 

Cytozo^dn (inm)c, ^wiv^ animal). Proto- 
plasmic cell masses, probably parasitic in 
nature, with independent movement; found 
by Gaule in defibrinated blood and other 


D. Abbreviation of Dioptry and Dexter. 

Dacryoadeni^tis ((faxpvov, a tear, a&nvy a 
gland). Inflammation of the lachrymal 
gland. ' 

Dacryoblenorrhce^a. Chronic inflamma- 
tion and discharge of mucus from the 
lachrymal sac. 

Dacryocysti^tis (Jaxptwy, jcvtrrtc* a sac). 
Inflammation of the lachrymal sac. 

Dac^ryolite. See Dacryoliths. 

Dac^ryoliths (dax/n>ov, hBog, a stone). 
Calcareous concretions in the lachrymal 
passages or palpel)ral conjunctiva. 

Dacryo^ma (daKpvUf to weep). The clos- 
ure or obstruction of the puncta lackry- 
maliay causing epiphora, or superabundant 
secretion of tears. 

Dac^ryops (rfcwc/woi', 6;V» sight). Cyst of 
the ducts of the lachrymal gland. 

Dac^tylate (cfaxrvAof, a finger). Resem- 
bling a finger. Possessing five rays ox ap- 

Dsemonoma^nia (Saifiuv, a devil, mania, 
madness). A form of madness in which 
a person imagines himself possessed of a 

Dalt^onism. A synonym for color-blind- 
ness. See Blindness. 

Damia^na. The leaves of Tumera aphro- 
disiacGy found in Mexico and Ix>wer Cali- 
fornia. A stimulant tonic and said to be 
a powerful aphrodisiac. The basis of a 
great number of quack remedies. D., 
Ext. Dose gr. ij-x. D., Fid. Ext. 
Dose n\^x-5J. Dose of the leaves ^j 
daily. All unof. 

Damp'^ing Appara^tus. The union of 
the tympanic membrane of the ear with the 
auditory ossicles acting as a damper to pre- 
vent excessive symfiathetic vibration for its 
own fimdamental note. 

Dance (Fr., danser). Any measured tread 
or system of steps accompanied by music. 
Also, any motion of the body caused by 




an abnormal nervous stimulus. D., St. 
Vitus*. See Chorea. 

Dan^cing Mania. See Choromania, 

Dan^delion. See Taraxacum. 

Dan'^druff. See Seborrhea and Pityria- 

D'Arsonvals' Oven. See Oven. 

Oarto^i'c Myo^ma. See Myoma. 

Dartres {6afnoq^ flayed). The contractile 
fibrous layer beneath the skin of the scro- 

Dar^winism. The theory of descent by 
evolution, as modified by the doctrine of 
the survival of the fittest. Named after 
Charles Darwin, a celebrated natiu'alist 

Datu-^ra. A genus of Solanacese, or night- 
shade family. D., Stramonium. See 
Stramonium, D., Tatu-^la, a plant be- 
longing to the nightshade family, closely 
resembling stramonium in its therapeutic 
and physiological properties. Has been 
smoked with advantage in asthma. Unof. 

Oat'^urine. See Stramonium. 

Daugh^ter-Nuclel. See Karyokinesis. 

Day-Blindness. See Hemeralopia. 

Deaf (Sax. deaf). Without the sense of 
hearing. A condition of impaired hear- 
ing. D. -mutism, a condition of deafness 
or impaired hearing, accompanied by im- 
perfect development (congenital), or loss 
of speech. 

DeaFness. The condition of being deaf. 
D., Paradoxical, called also Paracousia 
Willissii^ deafness for speech in silence, 
but with ability, e. g.^ to hear the same 
voice in a noisy car or street. Said to be 
caused by compression of the lab3rrinth. A 
form of otopiesis. D., Psychical, the 
deafness from destruction of the central 
area of the auditory center ( Munk) . Sounds 
are heard but not recognized or under- 

Death (Sax. death). The cessation of 
life. D., Apparent, a term applied to 
a cataleptic state in which respiration and 
circulation are so feeble as to be unnotice- 
able. D., Black, an exceedingly fatal 
epidemic called the " Plague," which oc- 
curred in Europe during the 14th century, 
during which it is estimated that 20,000,- 
000 people died. D. Rate, a term arl)i- 
trarily expressing the mortality of a place, 
based upon the number of deaths for each 
1000 of population during a period of one 
year. D., Sig^s of, certain indications 
of death, such as cessation of the heart's 
action, and respiration, vigor of the body, 
healthiness of the tissues, etc. D., So- 
matic, death of the organism as a whole. 

in distinction fWnn localized D., or necro- 
sis, and gangrene. 

Debove's Membrane. A deep, germi 
nal layer of flattened cells in the mucous 
membrane of the trachea and extra-pulmo- 
nary bronchi. 

Debri^dement (Fr.). The enlarging of 
a gunshot wound or a hernia with the 

Dec^agramme. See Metric System, 

Decalcific^ation {De neg., caixj lime). 
The loss of the lime constituent of bone 
in some cases of osteitis. 

Decal^ciiying Fluid. Solutions for the 
purpose of depriving tissue of its earthy 
salts. Chromic acid i grm., water 200 c.c, 
then add 2 c.c. nitric acid, — is commended. 

Decanta^tion. llie operation of removing 
the supernatant fluid from a sediment. It 
may be poured off by means of a guiding 
rod, or ^nwn off by means of a siphon. 

Decapita^tion (de^ from, caput, head). Di- 
vision of the neck of the child in labor, 
when delivery and turning are both im- 
possible. Sometimes called decollation. 

]5ecid'^ua (dedduus, a falling off because 
shed at birth). The membranous envelope 
of the ovum derived from the mother and 
cast off at birth with the placenta, etc. D. 
Reflexa, that part of the decidua growing 
about the ovum and enclosing it as a sac. 
D. Serotina, that part of the decidua vera 
upon which the ovum lies, and where the 
placenta is subsequently formed. D . Vera, 
the thickened, vascular, spongy mucous 
membrane of the uterus. 

Decid^uous Teeth. The temporary or 
milk teeth. 

Dec^igrammei Dec^iliter, Dec^imeter. 
See Metric System. 

Decoc^tion' {decoquo, to boil down). A 
decoction, or "tea." In pharmacy, a 
preparation obtained by lx>iling vegetable 
substances in water. There are 2 of)icial 

Decolla^tion. See Decapitation. 

Decollator. An instnmient for decapita- 

Decolora^tion. The operation of discharg- 
ing the color of an organic substance, 
usually by bleaching or by filtration 
through animal charcoal. 

Decomposi^tion (de, from, compono^ to 
put together). The separation of the com- 
ponent principles of al)ody, either by chemi- 
cal analysis or by putrefactive fermentation. 

Decortica^tion (cortex, the bark). The 
operation of removing or stripping the 
bark or husk of a plant 




Decrepita^tion (crepitus^ crackling). The 
crackling noise made by certain crystalline 
bodies when their water of crystallization 
is driven off by heat. Caused by the con- 
version of the imprisoned water into steam. 

Decu'^bitus {decumbo, to lie down). A 
term denoting a recumbent or horizontal 
position. Also, the position of a sick 
person while in bed. D., Acute, a form 
of bed-sore, due to cerebral lesions. 

Decus^sate {tiecusso, to divide crossways). 
To intersect. A term applied to nerve and 
to muscle fibers which interlace. 

Dedenti^tion [Je^ and dens, a tooth). The 
shedding of the teeth, especially the milk 

Dee^linae O^lcum. A highly refined 
petroleum oil manufactured on the Dee 
River. Said to be valuable for local appli- 
cation in eczema, I'tc. Unof. 

Defaeca^tion (defaco, to separate from 
dregs). The evacuation of the bowels, or 
discharge of fci2ces. 

Deferens. See Vas. 

Deferves^cence [defervesco, to cease boil- 
ing). A term applied to periods during 
the course of fevers in which the tempera- 
ture falls. 

Defibrina^tion (dt\ fix)m, fibrin). The 
removal of fibrin from blood or lymph. 

Defini^tion [definio, to lx)und by limits). 
In optics, the power of an object-glass to 
show clear outlines of area or structure, 
free from al)erration or distortion. 

Deflagra^tion [dtfia^ro, to l)e consumed). 
The oxidation of inorganic substances by 
mixing with an easily decomposing oxide, 
such as the alkaline chlorates and nitrates. 
Usually attended with violent combustion. 

Deflora'^tion [d', ^vA flora, a flower). On 
the part of the female the first sexual 
connection effected by consent, not by 
rape. The loss of those marks or fea- 
tures which indicate virginity, as rupture 
of the hymen. 

Deforma^tion {defijrmo, to disfigure or 
distort ). A ])rocess l)y which the Ixxly or 
any of its jjarts accjuire an almormal shape. 

Dcform-'ity {deformd). That condition of 
a IxKly or any jwut marked by abnormal 
shape or structure. 

Degenera'^tion {iie<rcnfro, to differ from 
ancestors). Deterioration, degradation or 
rcirogrevsion of the molecular or cellular 
structure of a tissue, organ or cell, so 
that it can no longer maintain its function. 
Atrophy is a form. D., Amyloid or D., 
Albuminoid, now regarded as an infiltra- 
tioQ from without, and not of a degenera- 

tion of the proper cells and fibers. O., 
Calcareous, the deposition of insoluble 
compounds of lime and magnesia within 
the tissues. Caseation, the proteid con- 
stituents undergo dry fatly degeneration, 
and are converted into cheese-like masses. 
Cloudy Swelling. See Cloudy Swelling, 
D., Colloid, akin to mucoid, the dis- 
organized material becoming of a struc- 
tureless, semi-solid, jelly-like consistence. 
D., Fatty, the conversion of the proteids 
of a cell or fiber into oil. D., Hyaline, 
the disorganized tissue becomes shining 
and translucent. D., Mucoid, hyper- 
secretion followed by disorganization of 
the mucus cells. D., Reaction of. See 
Reaction of Degeneration. D., System, 
when the degenerative process affects a 
system of fibers, in contradistinction to 
insular or scattered D. 

Degluti-^tion (deglutitioy to swallow). The 
act of swallowing. 

Degree^ {de and gradus, a step). Posi- 
tion in a graded series ; quality. The units 
or intervals of thermometric scales. Also, 
a charter or testimonial of qualification 
granted by a medical or other college. In 
trigonometry the jj^ part of the arc of a 

Dehydra^tion (de and vdup, water). The 
removal of the constitutional water of an 
organic sutistance, or the water of crystal- 
lization of a chemical salt. Called, also, 

Dei'^ters's Cells. Certain cellular struc- 
tures between the outer hair cells of the 
organ of Corti. Also certain nucleated 
cells at the intersection of the fibers of the 
white sul)stance of nerves. 

Dejec^tion [de onAjacio, to throw). The 
discharge of fcecal or other excrementitious 
matter. Also, a state of desiwndency. 

Delete^rious {de/eteriusy baneful). Hurt- 
ful, injurious. 

Del'^hi Boil. See Furuncnlus Orientalis. 

Deliques^cence (L. deliquesce, to melt 
away). The at)sorption of water from the 
atmosphere, characteristic of certain sul> 
stances. Such substances are said to be 

Delir^iant (de, out of, lira, the furrow). 
An agent which acts on the brain, so as to 
disorder the mental faculties and produce 
confusion of will-jwwer. 

Delir'^ium (de, lira). A disturbance of 
the cerebral functions manifested in 
the imfxiired action of the nerve centers, 
characterized by hallucinations, an inco- 
herence of speech, a staggering gait, etc. 




D., Alcoholic. See D. Tremens, D. 
Ambitiosa, a condition of boastfiilness 
which is sometimes manifest in the deli- 
rium of the insane. D., Febrile, the 
delirium of fever. D. Nervosum, the 
delirium following severe surgical opera- 
tions, or injuries. D., Senile, the delirium 
of old age, dotage. D., Toxic, the deli- 
riimi caused by poisons. D. Tremens, 
the delirium arising from alcoholic poi- 
soning, manifested in trembling and hal- 
lucination ; called, also, mania a potu. 

Delites^cence [delitescOy to lie hid). The 
sudden disappearance of inflammation by 
resolution. Also, the period of incubation 
of the virus of contagious diseases, such 
as smallpox, etc. 

Deliv^ery (Fr. dilivrer). Parturition, 

Delomorph^ous (dtiTjoQ^ conspicuous, 
/Mfxp^, form). With open or conspicuous 
form. D. Cells of Rollet, collections 
of large, oval or angular, well-defined, 
granular reticulated, nucleated cells, be- 
tween the membrana propria and the 
adelomorphous cells of the fundus glands 
of the gastric mucous membrane. Called, 
also, Parietal cells of Heidenhain, or 
oxyntic cells of Langley. The lining 
of the secretory part of the tubes is by 
cells called Adelomorphous, Central, 
or Principal Cells. 

DeKphinae O^leum. The oil of the 
common ]x>rpoise. It is said to have all 
the medicirud virtues of cod-liver oil with- 
out the disagreeable properties of the 

Oelph^inine. See Staphisagria. 

Delt'oid {delta, the Greek letter A). 
Having the shape of a delta, or a triangu- 
lar form, as the D. Muscle. See Muscle. 

Delu^sion (cfe and lusus, playV A term 
signifying false judgment of objective 
things, as distinguished from illusion and 
hallucination. See Hallucinati<m. 

Demen'^tia {cUy out of, mens^ mind). A 
mild form of insanity marked by imperfect 
conception, illogical sequence of expres- 
sion, loss of reflection and impaired per- 
ception. Often a final stage of other forms 
of insanity. 

Demi-. A Latin prefix denoting one-half. 

De^modex Polliculo^rum. An animal 
parasite of the skin which infests the se- 
baceous glands. 

Demog^raphy (cJ^^of, the people, ypa^, 
to write). The science of peoples col- 
lectively considered. The individualism 
of a mass of people. 

Oe Moivre's Hypothesis. That the de- 
crements of population are in arithmetical 
proportion, and that of every 86 persons 
bom, one dies uniformly every year until 
all are extinct. 

Demul^cent (demulceo, to smooth). Sub- 
stances which protect the mucous mem- 
branes. Generally of mucilaginous nature. 

Demutiza^tion. The education of deaf- 
mutes to speak and to understand spoken 
language by the movement of the lips, 
signs, etc. 

Den^gue. A zymotic disease somewhat 
resembling remittent fever, but much se- 
verer. It is characterized by racking pain 
in the head and eyeballs, arthralgia, ca- 
tarrhal inflammation of those mucous sur- 
faces that are exposed to the air, by 
swollen salivary glands and measly erup- 

Denis's Plas^mine. A precipitate of un- 
coagulated blood with sodic sulphate, and 
treated with sodic chloride. 

Dens (pi. denies). A tooth. See Teeth. 

Den^tal {dens\ Pertaining to the teeth. 
D. Arch, the arch formed by the alveolar 
process of each jaw. D. Arteries, the 
arteries supplying the teeth. D. Canals, 
the canals through which the dental 
arteries pass. D. Caries, a carious or 
putrefactive destraction of the teeth. D. 
Cavity, the cavity in the interior of the 
tooth, occupied by the pulp. D. Groove, 
a furrow on the lower border of the upper 
iaw early in foetal life, in which the teeth 
are developed. D. Engine, an instru- 
ment consisting of a treadle and pullies 
which give a rotary motion to the drills, 
files and cutters, used in preparing teeth 
for filling. D. Nerve. See Neri'e, D. 
Pulp, the pulp of the tooth. D. Tubuli, 
the tubules occurring in the structure of the 

Dentes Sapienti«. The wisdom teeth. 
A name given to the third molar tooth of 
each half of the jaws. 

Den^tifrice {dens^frico^ to rub). A sub- 
stance used for cleansing the teeth. 

Dent^ine. The bony structure of the tooth, 
lying under the enamel of the crown and 
the pericementum of the root. 

Dent^istry [dens). The science and art 
of the surgery of the teeth. 

Denti^tion (dens). The cutting or first 
appearance of the teeth in infancy. Also 
the arrangement and evolution of the 

Denutri^tion (dfir, fixmi, mttn'o, to nourish). 
The breaking down or atrophy of tissue 




arising from lack of nutrition. The oppo- 
site of nutrition. 

Deob^struent (L. de and obstruere^ to ob- 
struct). A medicine which removes func- 
tional obstructions of the body. An aperi- 
ent. {^Indefinite and obsolescent\. 

De^odand [deus^ God, do^ to give). A fine 
formerly imposed on an inanimate thing 
or animal that had caused the injury or 
violent death of a person. 

Deod^orant. A substance that removes 
or corrects offensive odors. 

Deoxida^tion [de^ from, oxidatus, having 
oxygen). The separation of an element 
or compound from the oxygen held in 
combination. Reduction. 

Depi'^latory (L. de and /i7«J, the hair). 
A sul)stance used to destroy the hair, — 
usually a caustic alkali. 

Deple^tion (depleoj to empty). The pro- 
cess of diminishing the quantity of any 
tissue or fluid of the body, especially the 

Depolariza'^tion. Destruction of polarity. 
The neutralization of the opposite poles of 
a magnet. The neutralization or recom- 
bination of light-waves that have been 
separated by means of a Nicol prism. 

Depos-'it (//f, from, /*onOy to place). A 
gathering of particles that have l)een held 
in suspitnsion. A gathering of morbid 
matter in any part of the body. 

Deprava^tion {depravOy to become viti- 
ated). A deterioration or morbid change 
in the secretions, tis>ues, or functions of 
the body. 

Depres^sant (deprimo, to press down). A 
medicine which retards or depresses the 
physiological action of an organ. A seda- 
tive. D., Cardiac, lowers the action of 
the heart. D., Cerebral, arrests the func- 
tions of the cerebrum. D., Motor, lowers 
the activity of the .spinal cord and motor 

Depres^sion [depn'mo). In anatomy, a 
hollow, or fossa. In .surgery, pressure on 
the brain by a fractured part of the cranium. 

Oepress-'or [de/^rimo). A name given to 
a mu«^clc or an instrument which depre&ses. 
Sec Muscle. D. Fibers. See Pressor, 
D. of Sims, an in.strument for holding 
l>ack the vaginal wall during exploration 
with the s{x.>culum. D., Tongue, an in- 
.strument for «Jei)re.s.sing the tongue in order 
to examine the throat. 

Oepu'rant (///r//j, pure). A term some- 
what loosely used to designate a medicine 
which purifies the animal economy. In 
phamiacy, to clarify. 


De R. A contraction and symbol of the 
term Reaction of Degeneration^ q. v, 

Deradel^phus ((Jf/W7, neck, a&tk^o^y bro- 
ther). A monocephalic dual monstrosity 
with fusion of the bodies above the umbili- 
cus, four lower extremities and three or foiu* 

Deradeni^tis (6tpn% oSttv, a gland). Inflam- 
mation of the glands of the neck. 

Derbyshire Neck. See Goitre. 

Derenceph^alus ((Jfp^, evKf^Aoc, brain). 
An anencephalic monster, the brain, 
cranium, and occipital foramen being ab 
sent, and with a [mrtial arrest of develop- 
ment of the upper vertebrae. 

Deriv'ativc [derivoy to turn aside a stream). 
A term formerly applied to certain medi- 
cines or modes of treatment that changed 
the form or symptoms of a disease. 

Derm. See Derma. 

Derm^a (depva^ the skin). The skin. The 
true skin. See Cutis. 

Derm^al (dcp/m). Pertaining to the skin. 

Dermatal^gia (Sepfia, a2,yo^y pain). Neu- 
ralgia of the skin. Rheumatism of the 
skin. Pain in the skin not due to any 
structural change in it. 

Dermati^tis (rfep/za, irtg). A name used 
loosely to include various inflammations 
of the skin induced by external agencies. 
D. Calorica, inflammations caused by 
heat, such as scalds, e/c. D. Congela- 
tionis, a name used by Van llarlingen 
and others to denote chilblains. See Jir}'- 
thema. D. Contusiformis. See Ery- 
thema Nodosum. D. Exfoliativa. See 
Pityriasis Rubra. D. Gangrenosa, a 
disease marked by the formation of circu- 
cular, erythematous spots, which become 
gangrenous and eventually slough. D. 
Gangrenosa Infantum. See Sphacelo- 
derma. D. Herpetiformis. See Hy- 
droa. D., Malignant, Papillary, Pagct's 
disease of the nipple. Carcinoma of the 
nipple. See Caranoma. D. Medica- 
mentosa, eruptions and inflammatory 
affections of the skin caused by the in- 
gestion of substances used in medicine 
and pharmacy. " Drug eruptions" (Van 
llarlmgen). D. Papillaris Capillitii. 
Acne Keloid. A disease of the skin of 
the occipital region, marked by enormous 
papillomatous vegetations of granular tis- 
sue which excrete a fetid dischai^e. D. 
Traumatica, inflammations of the skin 
caused by mechanical agents, such as 
bruises. D. Venenata, eruptions caused 
by poisonous sul)stances, such as poison 
ivy, poison oak, etc. 




Derm^atoid {AepfMj eidoCf resemblance). 
Kike r/r rriicnit>lin({ skin. 

Dermatology (Afff/M, loyoCy a treatise). 
A irr/Mihc. oti ttie nkin, its nature, structure 
Afi/l futictiofiM. 

DcrmatoKysis (Arpfta^ Xvat^t a, loosing). 
A \iitAfiu'(\ and iiendulous condition of the 
»kiii. A Mttinr i^ivvu to a rare form of 
Jiinomtt, (/. v.f marked liy liyj^ertrophy of 
till- Ilk III, wtii( ti in thickened by infiltration 
ifiio iiimii^liily |M-iidulouii folds, soft and lax. 

iJcrnriMtc/neii {i^ip/m). Disorders or dis- 
i')iM-4 (li iIm* hkin. 

fieririatoxri^a {Aiftfia^ (mnft an animal.) 
A lirifi u|»]ilii'd to animals ))arasitic upon 
lh<: Hkin 

Uftr'^riiold. Srr Pfrpnuioid. 

Ucrodtd'^yinuH (^'/'//, neck, Sidvfio^, 
fitAi\>\ry A i>y;xjtiiic nioiihtrosity with a 
iUi^U- \>tti\y, lw(i uvckn uiid heads, two 
ii)/|/« I uiid Utwf.r rxiiuniitit's, with other 
fw\ttnrit\niy hliiU <x:ciu»ioiiuIly present. 

|j««^feult'ii Apparatus. See liandage, 

D««^ault'ii Splint. Sec Splint. 

Dftto'^A.cmet'M Mem'^brane. llie internal 
M I^Miifior lifiiii({ meinl^raneof the cornea. 
Jffurmtdln^ iiillttinmalion of Descemet's 
ri«/ fiii/fafM-, 

iJKiicftnd^cnii {dnictuio^ to go down). 
lUvifit^ tt d//wtiward movement. D. 
Hofil, « Iriin' h (if the hv]K)glossal nerve. 

|j«*c«nt^ {litucntio). The act of going 
#1^/Wfi D, tttaf^e of Labor, one of the 
*<«{/< t. ill UU/f, < oiihitting in tlie descent of 
Oi' ('/ fiil h<'t»/l irit/i the j>elvis. D. of Tes- 
Ij/.k. v<r 'Jr%ii,lf. D. of Womb. Sec 

|iii«li.i.M^ti/>n {dnirco^ to dry up). The 
f /f <^ 1 4« //f r'-ffi'/ving mointurc from solids 

l^ftM^icciitive (dfiirrii). A medicine hav- 
M^(/ ih<' iprtt^ft'Tiy of drying moist tissues, 
«.%|/<«ii<lty of drying ulcers and running 
Htfft *. 

|ia«rriobacte^rium (Atafui^^ a band, 
ItttnTt/iiittv, A small staff). A group of 
mU uiiK%, Wf callrd t/y (John, correspond- 
fl^ (// Cli«: g'-nus /iariltus of Klein. 

P§§mog^rt^^y {AtcfifM:, a ligament, y/jo^, 
19 Wffta;, mm: deficri|Hion of the ligaments. 

9i0^fliai4 (Atufift, a bundle, e/(5oc, Uke). 
IJia a Mnail lAindlcr. 

Pgi yi lfW^tion idnpumo, to skim froth). 
Tfc* ^^UJd'um lif a ]i(|uid by removal of 
or /rxHh. Also, the fonnation of 

'lion (desquamo, to scale off*). 

tliMkMioa or ialling oflTof the cuticle 

Deter^gent (delergeo, to cleanse). A drug, 
compound, or solution, used for cleansing 
wounds, ulcers, etc. 

Determina'^tion {determino^ to prescribe 
bounds). The directicMi to a part or an 
organ, as of blood to the head. 
Detri^'tion (dettro^ to wear off). The act 
of wearing or wasting of an organ or part, 
especially the teeth. 

Detri'^tus (detero). The waste matter re- 
sulting from ulcerative processes. 
Deutero-al^bumose. See Alimmose. 
Deuterop^athy (deirrf/^of, second, Trai^of , a 
disease). A disease that is secondary to 
another, arising from s}-mpathetic action or 
influence of the first affection. 
Peu^toplasm (devrtpof, 7r/a<j//a, a form). 
The granules of proteld and fatty matter 
occurring in the ova of certain echinoder- 

PeveKopment (Fr. drviiopper, to unfold). 
The sequence of organic changes, by 
which the vitalized ovimi becomes the 
mature animal or plant. 
Devia'^tion {devius, out of the way). A 
turning aside from the normal. D., Pri- 
mary. In strabismus the deviation of 
the visual axis of the squinting eye. D., 
Secondary. That of the covered healthy 
eye when the squinting eye fixes. 
Pevi^talize (de^ from, vita, life). To de- 
stroy vitality, as that of living tissue. 
Pewees's Carminative, ^c Asafcttida. 
Pexiocard^ia (cjc^/of, on the right, Kapdia, 
the heart). Transposition of the heart to 
the right side of the thorax. 
Pex^tcr (Lat.). Right; upon the right 
Dex^trad. Toward the right side. 
Dex^tral. Pertaining to the right side ; 

Pcx^trinc (dexter, the right hand). A 
mucilaginous substance produced by the 
action of mineral acid on starch. Inter- 
mediate between starch and glucose. Turns 
polarized ray to the right, 'llie adhesive 
agent of postage stamjis and gummed 
Pex^trose. See .Sugar and Glucose. 
Diabe^tes (dm, through, fian'o), to .pass). 
The common name for diabetes mellitHS. 
D. Insipidus, a disease with many of the 
symptoms of diabetes mellitus, but without 
glycosuria. D. Mellitus, a disease of 
the metabolic functions of the system 
without great or clearly defmed anatomical 
lesions, manifesting itself by glycosuria, 

Solyuria, thirst, and progressive loss of 
edi and strength. Sec (Jfycasuria, 




Diabe^tic (SiaptfTTK). Pertainmg to dia- 
betes. O. Gangrene. See Sphaceloderma, 
Diach^ylon Plaster, or Ointment. See 

Diagno^sis [6ia^ }vuatc, knowledge). The 
distinguishing, tixation, or interpretation 
of a disease from its symptoms. D., Dif- 
ferential, the qualitative distinguishing 
between two diseases of similar character, 
by .comparative symptoms. 
Dial^ysis (dm, through, Ai>u^ to loose). 
The operation of separating crystalline 
from colloid substances by means of a po- 
rous diaphragm, the former passing tlirough 
the diaphragm into the pure water upon 
which the dialy.ser rests. 
Diamagnet'^ic (c5m, fiayvTjrigy magnetism). 
The east-and-west orientation of certain 
sul)stances, notably antimony, copper, and 
gold, when placed in the magnetic held. 
Di'^ amine. See Amine. 
Diapede^sis (f$mT;/($//(T/^, a jumping 
through). The escajje of the elements of 
the blood, especially the white corpuscles, 
through tlie ves>el wall i^ inflammation, 
arrest of circulation, cic. 
Diaphanom^eter. See Lactoscope. 
Diaphanos^copy (ffm9ai7/c-, translucent, 
<T/iOTfw, to see). The examination of 
cavities of the body by means of an in- 
candescent electric light introduced into 
the cavity. 

Diaphoret^ic (d/a^o/jtw, to convey). A 
medicine tliat induces i)crspiration or sweat- 
Di^aphragm ((^/a, ^/w}/ia, a wall), llie 
wall, muscular at liie circumference and 
tendinous at the center, which separates 
the thorax and aUIomen. The chief 
muscle of resj>iration and expulsion. 
Diaph^ysis. Ihe middle part or shaft of 

the long, cylindrical U)ne!». 
Diapoph^ysis i (^/«, apophysis). The su]*- 
rior (»r articular transverse ajxjphysis, or 
their hoiiiologues- 

Diarrhoe^a \ (^/«, /Vw, to flow). An almormal 
frecjueiicy of evacuation of the fieces, which 
are watery and sometimes acrid. 
Diarthro'^sis (^Wa, aftfffMjaiif articulation). 
A form of articulation characterized by 
freely movable joints. The various forms 
are : Arthroiiia^ in which the lK>nes j»lide 
\i\Mm plane surfaces; KnarthrosiSy l)cst 
known JLS ball-aml-.sockel joint, with motion 
in all direction^ ; (iyn;^lymHSy or hinge joint, 
v\ith backward an<l forward motion ; and 
P. ro/ii/oria, with pivotal movement. 
Diastal^tic (rJ/a, crcV'/Uy to start). A 
synonym for reflex action. 

Diastase {punaraai^y separation). A nitro- 
genous vegetable ferment that is either 
contained or developed in the fermentadon 
of grain, which acts on the molecules of 
starch, converting them into grape sugar or 

Dias^tasis. See Dislocation. 
Diastat'^ic Ferments. See Ferments. 
Diaste^ma [diaarjifia, a distance). A space 
or cleft. 

Dias^ter. See A'aryoh'nesis. 
Dias^tole (dmaroAr/, a drawing apart). The 
period of expansion or dilatation of the 
heart during its rhythmic cycle or beat. 
Applied also to the dilatation of the arteries 
by the heart's contraction. 
Diastol'^ic. Pertaining to diastole. D. 
Impulse, the back-stroke. D. Murmur. 
See Murmur. D . Thrill, the vibration 
felt in the region of the heart during 
diastole of the ventricle. 
Diather^mal (<5m, through, <9f/>//^, heat). 
A term applied to certain substances that 
are transparent or diaphanous to the waves 
of radiant heat. 

Diath^esis (rJ/a, through, riOijuiy to ar- 
range). A state or condition of the body 
whereby it is especially liable to certain 
diseases, such as gout, calculus, dial^ites, 
etc. May l>e acHjuired or hereditarj'. 
Diblast'^ic (fJ/f, double, ii/aaTo^y a sprout). 
Referring to a theor)- of disease that as- 
crilxis it to a double agency. 
Diceph'^alous (rJ/f, Kn^Ufj, a head). 

Di^chroism (rJ/f, xf*^^> color). The phe- 
nomenon of difference of color in liodies 
when viewed by reflected or by trans- 
mitted light. 
Dicrot^ic {^fiiKporo^y double Iniat). Double 
l)eating. D. Pulse, a term applied to a which imparts the sensation of a 
double l)eat at each {nilsation. 
Dielec'tric (rJ/a, ;/>./K7/>or, amU'r). A non- 
conducting >ul)stancc that transmits elec- 
tricity by induction. 

Di-'ct (cJ/«/n/, a system or motle of living). 
An arrange<l selection of food required to 
meet the needs of the iKxly. 
Di^etary (r^/a/ra). A system of footl regu- 
lation .so as to meet the requirements of the 
animal economy. 
Dietet^ic. Pertaining to diet. 
Dietet^ics. A systematic R*gulation of 
the diet for hygienic or therai)eutic pur- 

DiithyKamine. A ptomaine, obtained 
from pike-fish allowal to putrefy for six 
days in summer. It is an inflammable 




liquid of stzxnig basic properties, soluble in 
water, boils at 57.5°. Non-poisonous. 

Difference Theory. A theory to explain 
the galvanic phenomena of living tissues. 
The theory is an expression of the facts : 
Protoplasm when injured or excited in its 
continuity becomes n^ative to the unin- 
jured part ; when heated becomes positive ; 
and the surface-polarization diminishes with 
excitement and in the process of dying. 
Called also Alteration Thtory {Hermann). 

Differen'^tial. Pertaining to, or creating, 
a difference. D. Diagnosis. Stt Diag- 
nosis. D. Rheotome. See Rheotome. 
D. Tone, a tone produced by two pri- 
mary tones when sounding simultaneously, 
the number of whose vibrations corres- 
ponds to the difference between the two 
primary tones. D. Staining, a method 
of staining tubercle bacilli, s>-phiUtic ba- 
cilli, etc.y founded upon Uie fact that if 
deeply colored, and especially with a mor- 
dant, they retain the color in presence of 
certain reagents that decolorize the sur- 
rounding tissues. Koch, Ehrlich and 
Weigert, Ziehl and Neelson, Fiitterer, 
Gibbes, etc.^ have devised different methods 
of D. S. 

Oifferentia^tion. Specialization of tis- 
sues, organs or functions. The gradual 
change of homogeneous material into 
special tissues or organs. 

Diffrac'tion (dV, apart, fractus^ broken), 
llie deflection suffered by a ray of light 
when it passes through a narrow slit or 
aperture. D. Grating, a strip of glass 
closely ruled with fine lines; it is often 
used in the spectroscope in the place of 
the batter)' of prisms. 

Diffuse'^ [dfy fundoy to pour over). Scat- 
tered or spread about. In medicine, applied 
to diseases that involve a large part of the 
iKxiy. D. Aneurism, one caused by a 
rupture of the walls of a blood vessel. D. 
Inflammation. See Inflammation. 

Diffu^sion ( diffundo^ to spread). A spread- 
ing or dissemination. D. Circle, the 
im|x?rfect image formed by incomplete 
focalization, the position of true focus not 
having been reached or passed. 

Digas^tric (c^/c, double, jacrr^p, the 
stomach or lx?lly). Having two bellies. D. 

• Muscle. See Muscle. 
Dige^rent (di^^ero^ to digest). A digest- 
ant ; also a medicine which excites the 
healthy secretion of pus in wounds. 

Digest^ant. A ferment or organic acid 
that effects solution of the food in the 
mouth, Btomarh and intestines. 

Diges^tion (digero). The action of the 
organs of the digestive tract and of their 
secretions upon the food. D., Artificial, 
the production of peptones outside of the 

Digit (digitus f a finger). A finger or toe. 

Dig^ital. Pertaining to the fingers or toes. 
D. Arteries, the arteries of the hands and 
feet suppljing the digits. D. Compres- 
sion, the stoppage of a flow of blood by 
pressure with the finger. D. Dilatation, 
the enlarging of a cavity by means of the 
finger. D. Examination, examination or 
exploration with the finger. D. Nerves, 
the ner>'es of the hands and feet. D. 
Phalanges, the booes of the fingers or of 
the toes. 

Digitals (digitus). Foxglove. The 
leaves of D. purpurea. Contains an amor- 
phous complex substance, digitalin^ that 
does not, however, reparesent the ftill prop- 
erties of the leaves. A cardiac stimulant 
and excito-motor. In larger doses causes 
severe gastric disturbance. Employed 
mainly in affections of the heart where the 
latter is rapid and feeble. Dose of the 
leaves gr. ss-iij. D. Abstractum, 
strength 200 per cent. Dose gr. X-}4- 
D. Ext. ; leaves yield 25 per cent, of ex- 
tract. Dose gr. yi-}^- D. Ext. Fid., 
strength 100 per cent. Dose TT\j-iij. D. 
Infusum, I fi per cent, in strength. Dose 
3SS-J. D. Tinct., 15 per cent. Dose 
n\^v-xv. Digitalin. Unof. Varies greatly 
in strength. Dose A— 3^0- 

Dig'^itus (Lat.). A finger or toe. 

Dilata'^tion {dilafo, to spread out). An 
increase of size of the wsills of a cavity or 
vessel. D. of Blood-vessel. See 7We- 

Dila^tor (dilato). An instrument for stretch- 
ing or enlarging a cavity or opening. 
Barnes' D., an instrument for dilatation 
of the OS and cervix uteri, consisting of 
a rubier l-ag that, being inserted, is dis- 
tended by water. D., Intra-uterine, 
for dilating the uterine cavity by means of 
air or water. D., Laryngeal, an instru- 
ment with two or three blades that may be 
spread for fi^eing or dilating the larj-nx. 

Dilem^ma (f^/a, /.afi^itj, to take). In 
experiments to determine the reaction time 
of psychical processes, if the person is told 
which side is to l>e stimulated, or what 
colored disc is to be presented, etc., the 
time is shorter. I^ck of such foreknowl- 
edge is called the dilemma. 

Dilu'ent {di/uo, to wash away). An agent 
that dilutes the aecretioos of an ocgan, 




or one which increases the fluidity of secre- 

Dilu^tion. The process of mixing with a 
neutral fluid or substance in order to attenu- 

Dimethyl^amine. A ptomaine found in 
putrefying gelatine, old decomposing yeast, 
certain forms of fish-decomposition, etc. 
Not poisonous. 

Dimid^iate. Half round. 

Dimorph^ous (d/c, double, yiop^^ a form). 
Existing in two forms. In chemistry, 
having the quality of two forms of crystal- 
lization. In biology, having two forms 
independent of those of sex. 

Dinner Pills. A name applied to various 
mild cathartic pills taken after meals. 

Dice^cious (jSn;^ two, o^Ac/a, a house). Hav- 
ing distinct sexes. 

Diop^ter, or Dioptric. See Dioptry. 

Diop^trics ((5m, through, O'^ru^ to see). A 
branch of optics treating of the refraction 
of light by transparent media, especially 
by the media of the eye. 

Diop^try ((J/a, OTzxij)). The new and most 
commonly accepted unit of measurement 
for optical lenses. A positive (or plus) 
spherical (biconvex) lens of one dioptry 
has a focal distance of one meter ; one of 
two dioptries, a focal distance of one-half 
a meter, etc. 

Dioscor^ea. Wild Yam, G)lic Root. 
The rhizome of D. villosa, a creeping 
plant, indigenous to the eastern U. S. Con- 
tains an extractive, Dioscorine. Claimed 
to l)e expectorant, diaphoretic and stimu- 
lant to the intestinal canal ; in large doses 
causinj; ncuralj^ic |)ains and erotic excite- 
ment. Used successfully in bilious colic. 
D., Fid. Ext., standard strength TT\^xv- 
XXX. .Ml unof. 

Diphthe^ria {t^/oHtpa, a .skin or membrane). 
An epidemic, infectious disease, generally 
rc'»ardc(l as of sjx^citic contagious origin, 
attacking the mucous membrane of the air 
ixiss.i;;cs, and producing profound depres- 
sion of the vital forces. It is characterized 
sjx*citi(\illy by the formation of layers of 
whitish or yellowish membrane, apparently 
th(* zoi)gl<eic or mycodermic form of a 
microl^ic organism. D., Gangrenous, a 
gangrene of the .skin and mucous mem- 
brane sometimes accom{)anying the disease. 
D., Laryngeal, a form involving the 
larynx, threatening death by suflbcation. 
D., Malignant, a very fatal form, begin- 
ning with rigor, vomiting: and attended with 
typhoid symptoms. D., Nasal, a form in 
which the diphtheritic membrane spreads to 

the nasal passages, and is accompanied by 
a fetid, brown discharge. D., Secondary, 
a term designating the occurrence of the 
disease with other acute aflections, such as 
typhoid fever, scarlatina, etc. 

Diphtherit^ic (6«^t'fm). Pertaining to 
diphtheria. D. Conjunctivitis, a form 
of conjunctivitis attended with an infiltra- 
tion of coagulable matter or inflammatory 
products. D. Membrane, the zoogloea, 
mycoderma, or pellicle forming on the 
parts involved. D. Paralysis, a paralysis 
frequently aflecting the muscles of the soft 
palate and larynx, after the healing of the 
lesions of these parts. 

Diphthon'^gia {(/t's, twice, <pOo}yoCf a 
voice). The production of a double tone 
of the voice by the incomplete unilateral 
paralysis of the recurrent nerve, or by 
some lesion of the vocal cords that causes 
each portion of the glottis to produce its 
own sound. 

Diplacu^sis (J/T?.oof, double, a/twr/f, hear- 
ing). The hearing of a tone as higher by 
one ear than by the other. Called D. 

Diplococ^cus (d/TrAoof, kokko^ kernel). 
Micrococci whose cocci are united in a 
double manner. See Miirococcus. 

Dip^loie (rff7rXo7, a fold). The cellular 
osseous tissue between the tables of the 

Diplomyel'^ia (ryfT?.oof , double, five?/}^, the 
marrow). .\n apparent doubleness of the 
spinal cord, produced by a lonjjiludina! 

Diplo^pia [Snr?jx>^, w^'vf, sight). Double 
vision, one object l)eing seen l)y the eye 
or eyes as two. D., Binocular, the most 
frequent, is due to a derangement of the 
visual axes, the images of the object being 
thereby thrown ujK>n non-identical {K>ints 
of the retime. D., Crossed, the result 
of divei^ent strabismus, the image of the 
right eye appearing ujx)n the left side, and 
that of the left upon the right. D., Direct, 
or D., Homonymous, the reverse of 
Crossed D., due either to paralysis of the 
external rectus or over-action of the inter- 
nal. D., Physiological, that produced 
when an imperfect image is seen Ivyond 
or within the distance of the object accom- 
modated for and transfixed by the visual 
axes. D., Monocular, or D., Uniocu- 
lar, diplopia with a single eye, usually 
due to polycoria or other imijerfections of 
the media. 

Dipsoma^nia (Ai^^ thirst, fiaviOf mad- 
ness). The uncontrollaljle desire for spir- 




ituons liquors. Generally coosidered a 

Dipterocaxp^us. See Gurjun Balsam. 

Direct'' {directus^ straight). In a right or 
straight line. D. Current. See Curri-nt. 
D. Vision, the perception of an object 
whose image falls upon the macuke. 

Direct^or \ dingo, to guide). D., Grooved, 
an instrument grooved to guide the knife 
in surgical operations. 

Dis- (^/r, twice). A prefix used to denote 
two or double. Also, a prefix to denote 
apart from. 

Disarticula'^tion (</;>, apart, articulum^ a 
joint). To disjoint, or separate the bones 
of a joint. A method of amputation. 

Disc {discus, a quoit or round plate). A 
circular, plate-like oigan or body, espe- 
cially the [Apilla of the eye, the entrance 
of the optic nerve into the eyeball. Its 
area corresponds with that of the blind 
spot. D., Choked. ?>tt Papillitis. D., 
Cupping of. See Excavation oftht Optic 

Discis'^sion. See Cataract. 

Discrete-' (discrefus, separated). A term 
a^^lied to exanthematous eruptions in 
which the pustules or papules remain dis- 
tinct. The opposite of confluent. 

Dis-'cus Prolig^erus (cJ/axof, a quoit, 
proles, offspring, gero, to bear). The ele- 
vated cells of the membrana granulosa of 
the ovum, whereby the ovum is attached 
to the same. 

Discu-'tient (discuto, to shake apart). A 
medicine supposed to have the power of 
resolving tumors. 

Disdi-'aclasts (f^/c> <^<<>» through, k?mtic^ a 
breaking down). Small doubly-refractive 
elements in the contractile discs, changing 
their position during muscular contraction 
and relaxation. 

Disease^ (dis negative, ease, a state of 
rest). A condition of the body marked 
by inharmonious action of one or more of 
the various organs, owing to abnormal 
condition or structural change. D., Acute, 
a disease marked by rapid onset and 
course. D., Addison*s. See Addison^ s. 
p., Bright's. See Bright' s. D., Chron- 
ic, one that is slow in its course. D., 
Constitutional, one in which a sj^tem 
of organs or the whole Ixxly is involved. 
D., Duchenne*s, a pseudohypertrophic 
paralysis, q. v. D., Focal, a centrally 
local i/.ed disease of the nervous system as 
distinguished from peripherally localized 
affections. D., Functional, abnormality 
of fimctioo without discoverable organic 

lesion. D., Graves. See Goitre. D., 
Hodgkin*s. See Lympkadenoma. D., 
Idiopathic, one that exists by itself 
without any connection with another dis- 
order. D., Intercurrent, a disease oc- 
curring during the progress of another. 
D., Septic, one arising from the putrefac- 
tive fermentation of sc»ne foreign sub- 
stance within the body. D., Specific, 
one caused by the introduction of a spe- 
cific virus or poison within the body. D., 
Symptomatic, a disease caused by or 
connected with another ailment of the 
body. The o[^X)site of idiopathic disease. 
D., Zymotic, a term used to include the 
whole class of germ diseases, or those 
arising from the introduction and multipli- 
cation of some living germ within the 

Disinfect^ant {dis neg., inficio, to cor- 
rupt). An agent that destroys disease 
germs and the noxious properties of fer- 
mentation aiul putrefaction. 

Disin^tegrate {dis, apart, integer, the 
whole). The act of l»^aking up or de- 

Disloca'^tion {dis, divided, loco, to place). 
The luxation cw abnormal displacement of 
one or mxx^ lx)nes of a joint, or of any 
organ from its natural |x>sition. D., Com- 
plete, the bones entirely separated. D., 
Compound, the coverings of the joint 
ruptured. D., Consecutive, the displaced 
lx>ne is not in the position as when originally 
misplaced. Diastasis, dislocation of an 
amphiarthrotic joint. D. of Eyeball, dis- 
placement of the eyeball outside of the 
lids. D. of Lens, the cr)-stalline lens 
thrown out of the capsule, or misplaced so 
that it does not occupy its proper position 
behind the pupil. D., Old, inflammatory 
changes having ensued. D., Partial, or 
Incomplete, the articulating surfaces re- 
maining in partial contact; called, also, 
Subluxation. D., Primitive, the bones 
remaining as originally displaced. D., 
Recent, no inflammatory' changes having 
ensued. D., Simple, without laceration 
of the surrounding parts. 

Dis^parate {dispar, unequalV Not alike; 
unetjual or unmated. D. Points, non- 
identical points of the two retina?. Diplopia 
is produced when the images of a single 
object fall upon such points. 

Dispareu^nia ({ft«<TTa/3eii*of, ill-mated). 
Painful or difficult performance of copula- 
tion from physical incompatibility. 

Dispens^ary (dispense, to distribute). A 
charitable institution where medical treat- 




ment is given the poor and medicines dis- 
pensed on prescription. 

Dispens^atory (dispefisatorium^ an apothe- 
cary's diary). A treatise on the composi- 
tion and preparation of medicines. 

Dispens^ing. The measwing, weighing 
and issuing the drugs ordered in a prescrip- 

Disper^sion (dispersuSy scattered). The 
scattering of an inflammation or other mor- 
bid condition. In physics, the separation 
of a ray of white light into colored rays ; 
also, any scattering of light, as that which 
has passed through ground glass. 

Dis^pirem. See Karyokinesis. 

Dis^pora Caucas^ica. See Bacillus Cau- 

Dissec^tion {disseco^ to cut up). To dis- 
sect and dissociate the organs of a body. 
D., Aneurysm. See Aneurysm. D. 
Wound, injury during dissection, with 
consequent introduction of septic material. 
It may become constitutional and result in 
septicxmia, or may lake the form of warts, 
Verruca nerroi^enica. The sore resulting 
directly from the prick or abrasion is called 
Postmorti m pustule. 

Dissemina'^tion (^//V, apart, semiuOy to 
sow). The scattering or dispersion of dis- 
ease or disease germs. 

Dissipa^tion (dissipafus^ scattered). A 
dispersion of matter or of the morbid con- 
ditions wliich cause disease. 

Dissocia^tion {dis, apart, socius^ fellow- 
ship). In physiology, the separation of 
the compcn(;nt elements of a conijXDund. 
In chemistr)', the <iecomjx>silion of a com- 
pound by means of high temjxfrature. 

Dissolu^tion {dissdu/us, loosened). A 
solution of the continuity of a part. De- 
comixjsition arising from the death of the 
l)0(ly or its j)arts. 

Dissolv^ent. A solvent. 

Dis^sonance {dissopio^ to disagree in 
sound). \Vhen the number of beats of 
two tones are (lilVerent by a less numljer 
than 66; the maximum I), lieing when 
the (lillcrence is ^^. 

Dis'^tal [dis/o, to !« at a distance). At 
the greatest distance from the trunk, heart, 
or medial line. 

Distichi^'asis (ff/c, twice, (mx'Ki a row). 
The condition of a double row of eyelashes, 
the inner rubbing against the globe. 

Distilla^'tion {desnlloj to drop little by 
little). The double process of vaporiza- 
tion and condensation of the vapor. Used 
mainly in purifying li<{uids by separating 
them from non-volatile substances. D., 

Destructive, the decomposition of organic 
substances by heat, and the condensation 
of their volatile constituents. D., Frac- 
tional, the successive separation, by distil- 
lation, of substances which vaporize at 
different temperatures. 

Dis^toma (cJ/f, twice, <rro//a, a mouth). An 
intestinal worm belonging to the family 
DistonuBy parasitic in its Brst stage, usually 
upon a mollusk, and known in this form 
as Cercaria. In its second stage it becomes 
again encysted, and develops into the form 
known as Distoma. It completes its de- 
velopment as a parasite within the Ixxly of 
a third host, frequently that of sheep or 
cattle. Making its way to the liver, it l)e- 
comes the dreaded liver-fluke, the cause 
of the disease known as rot. 

Di^ta Bark. The bark of Alsfonia scho- 
larisy native to the Philippine Islands. Em- 
ployed as a tonic and antiperiodic in intcr- 
mittents. Dose .^j-iv. Unof. 

Dita^na Digitifo'^lia. A Mjexican plant 
.said to possess galactagogue properties. 

Diure'^sis ((5m, through, ovpeu^ to make 
water). Abnormal increase in the secretion 
of urine. 

Diuret'ic (Sia, ovpeu). A medicine that 
increases the secretion and flow of urine. 

Di-'vers* ParaKysis. See Caisson Disease. 

Divertic^ulum (dim. of divertus^ turning 
aside). A small cul-de-.sac or pouch. 
Variation from a normal structure ; mal- 
formation. D., Meckel's, a sacculation 
of the ileum, owing to the non-obliteration 
of the vitelline duct. 

Doch^mius Duodena^lis. See Anchylo- 

Doc'tor {docfor^ a teacher). A teacher. 
A title conferred by a university or college. 
A licensed medical practitioner. 

Dog Button. See Xux I 'omica. 

Dog^ma [fioKzUy to think). A tenet or 
principle taught by authority. A statement 
of medical science. 

Dog' wood. See Comus. 

Dolichocephalic. See Index. 

Dolichohier'ic. See Platyhieric. 

DolichopeFlic. See Platypellic. 

Do'lor [doleOf to feel pain). Bodily pain 
or suffering. 

Dolo'res Presagien'tes. Precursory pains 
felt by women in advance of labor. 

Don'ne*s Test. Por pus in the urine. 
Allow pus to settle and decani ; stir a 
piece of potassium hydrate into the deposit. 
Pus will grow thick, tough and gelatinous, 
while mucus will form flakes and become 


Don'ovan's Solu'tion. See Anenii. 

Dor'sal {dorsum, ihe back). Peitaiiung 
to the back, or to the posterior put of 
an argtn. D. Artery. See Artery. D. 
Nerves. See Nervt. 

DoKso- {dorsutn}. A prefix used ia con- 
nectioD with the oBines of such organs as 
have their attachment to or ahout the back. 

Dor'aum. The back, llie rounded patt 
of the back. 

Dose [6oat^, a portion). The measured 
poitioD of metlicine to be taken at one 
time. D., Divided, a mode of adminis- 
tratton in which the dose is to be taken in 
fractional portions at inlerrals of a few 
minutes. D., Maximum, the latest 
portion of medicine ordered to pnxiuce a 
given result, or the largest consistent with 
safety. In this work both minimum and 
maximum dosage is given under each 
medicine or preparation. 

Dosim'etiy (Jomf, fierpov, a measure). 
The accurate and systematic measurement 
of a dose or prescribed portion. 

Dc/sis. See Dost. 

Doub'le (duo, two,//i>n, a fold). Two- 
fold. In pairs, D. Staining. Inmicro- 
«copr, an ingestion of two colors into a 
structure in order to show its details. 
Bacteriological ly the application of such 
staining reagents as will stain the spores 
one color anit Ihe rods another. D. Touch, 
the exploration of the vagina] and rectal 
walls by inserting the thumb into the one 
cavity, and tbe index linger inio the other, 
to thai, <■. g., Ihe presence of any abnormal 
growth may be ascertained. D. Vision- 
See Diplopia. 

Douche (Fr. dt/Hc^e). A stream of water 
directed gainst a patt, or one used to flush 
a cavity of Ihe body. 

Doug'tas, Cul-de-sac or Pouch of. 
See Pimck. 

Do'ver's Powder. See Opium. 

Doytrc, Eminence of. .'^ee Sarcog/ia, 

Drachm [ipax/iv, a Greek weight). The 
eighth part of the t^x^ecaries ounce, equal 
to 60 grains or 3.S grammes. Also the 
one-sixteenth part of Ihe avoirdupois ounce, 
equal to 27.54 grains. D., Fluid, the 
eighth part of a fluid ounce, equal to 60 

Dracun'culus. See Guinea IVorm. 
Diag'on Root. Indian Turnip, The root 

ei Arum Iryphyllum. Acrid, expectorant 

and diaphoretic Dose of Bd. eit. tl),iv- 

%y Uno£ 
Drain'age (Sax. dnknigean, to strain). 

The insertion (rf a tube or strands of other 


niaterial In a wound or abscess to withdraw 
the fluids therefrom. D. Anchor, a rub- 
ber (ilameiit inserted in an abscess or cav- 
ity. D. Tube, a rtibber tube with per 
fiirations. D. Tube, Decalcified, a de- 
calcified bone (chicken, rci.), used as a 
drainage tube. 

Dt»S'liC ^lipau, to draw). Powerful and 
irritating purgatives, such as scammoay and 

Drencb (Sai. drencart). In veterinary 
practice, a draught of medicine. 

Drepanid'ium Rana'rum. A (probably) 
parasitic cytozoSn of frogs' blood. 

DlCB'sing. The application of a bandage, 
lint tx other substance to a wound or 

Drom'ograpb (Jpo/jof, a course, jpafu, 
to write). An instrument for measuring 
Ihe velocity of the blood -current. 

Dropped Hand, or Dropped Wrist. A 
form of paralysis from lead-poisoning, con- 
sisting in tbe inability 10 contract tbe ex- 
tensors of the forcann. 

Drop'sy (wl/iint, dropsy). See Hydrops. 
D. of Belly. •AttAscila. D. of Brain. 
See llydroiephalus. D. of Chest. See 
Hydtotkorojc. D. of Spine. ?iix Spina 
Bifida. D. of Testicle. See Hydrocele. 
D. of Uterus. See Ilydromelra. 

Drug. A substance, simple or compound, 
natural or prepared, single or mixed with 
other substances, used a:i a medicine. D., 
Antagonistic, one that neut rallies the 
action of another by a process other than 
cbemical. The following table of Brunlon 
gives tbe mutual antagonistic doses of the 
principal powerful poisons with both lethal 
aitd antagonistic doses, in grains per pound 
Vieighl ^Iht animal:— 



;; Digllalln. 

id Strychnine, 
■" Ch™™i?'.' 

; ±1 ! :!: 

Taborandi, . 
Muscarine, . 

Morphine, . 

t Atroplnel^ 


-.1 , 






Chloraland Altopine, . . . 


'■ ■■ PkrMoxIne, . . 



\ 1 - 



DiRlUI[ne>iidAcotat<tie, . 

■" 1 •(' 

•' Mi>iHri>. . 

- ■!• 

" Sapooli, . . 

Cclumjum indCipiiini, . . 





fciorph[i«.ndcJff^^^'. : 




^ ■• CliLotqfnrni.. 

hiDKarinf ind Atropiui.', . 



Dnim'-belly. See Tymp,inius. 

Drum'ine. A name );iven lo ihe alkaloid 
enlractive oX Euf'hurbia drummondii, an 
AuMralian ])latil. Said lo be a local an- 
icslhelic. OainuHl, alui, to be an impure 
calcium oialale. Unof. 

Drum of Bar. See Tympanum. 

Dry BcUy-ache. See GirJk P,iin. 

Dry Caries. S<.-e Onyciomvtosis, 

Du'aliam [dun, two). A syslcm by which 
nil natural |)h<:nomL'na are explaiticd by 
mo principles. D., Chancrous, the 
ihL'Oiy of the exislcnce of two forms of 
chancre — the noninfccling.or soft chancre, 
and the infi-'clinc, or true (hard) chancre. 

Dubin'i's Diyase. " Electrical chorea.'' 
a malady mcnurilh in Italy, differing from 
chon-a in die character of ihc mnvements, 
which are sudden and shock-like ; in the 
course of the disease, which Is prngressive 
anil often fatal; and in the addition of 
muscular |>alsy and wasting. Kliol<^ and 

Dubois'ik. Tiie leaves of D. myaf<'roides, 
an .\u--trali.'in Irei', Contains an alkaloid, 
duMiin-; thoiijjht to tie identical with 
hyot.yiimiii,: Rt-wmiilcs the active prin- 
ciple of liclladiinna in jihysiological and 
iheraiK-utic effi-cLs. D., Ext. Dose gr. 
'/b-'i- D., Tinet. Dose mv-xx. Du- 
boisinK Sulphas. Dose gr. yJn-Vo- 

Duchennc's ParaKysis. Sec P^eudo- 
Inf^rlrBphi,- i'ara/vsii. 

Duet {dun: 10 lead). A tube for the con- 
veyance uf certain fluids of the body. 
D, of Bartholin, the ducts of the sub- 
liii)^! glands, extending alonji Wharton's 
duct. D., Biliary, the bitiaiy passages. 
D., CyBtic, the excretory duct of (he gall- 


bladder. D., Hepatic, the main trunk 
of the ducts of the liver, D., Proetaiic, 
the ducts of the prosiaie glandL D., Tho- 
racic, the trunk formed by the junction 
of the absorbent ves^^fls, D. of Steno, 
the excretory duct of the parotid gland. 
D. of Wharton, the excretory duct of 
(he sublingual gland. D., Vitelline, the 
duct that leads from the uiiibilical vesicle 
of the embryo lo the intestinal canal. 
Ducl'us (duco, (o lead). A canal or duel. 
D. Arteriosus, a continuation in (he 
fcetus of the pulmonary artery. In after life 
the atrophied remains arc found attached 
to Ihsl vessel. Called also D. Botalli. 
D. Chotedochus Communis, the tube 
formed by the junction of the hepatic and 
cystic ducts. D. Lacfarymalis. See 
Dubl'ing's Impeti'go. See Impetigo, 
Dulcama'ra. liitterswcct. The young 
branches of />. lo/anHoi. CJjntains sev- 
eral glucosides and an alkaloid. I'rapcr- 
ties Qut well understood. 

and ii 


toiic doses is a narcotic poison. 
Now employed in [isoriasis and similar 
skin disea»:s. D., Fid. Ext. Dose.^j. 
D- Decoc turn, unof, , lopvrccnl, strcngUi- 
Dose gj-ij. 

Dumb (Sax. dumli\ Unable to ulter ar- 
ticulate Sjieech. D. Ague, a popular ex- 
pression for ague or malarial sickncd 
marked by obscure syinpiiMn-i. 

Duodenos'tomy \duodcnuni, eraua, a 
muuth). The operation of o|>ening the 
iluodenum, and its ntiachineni to the walls 
[if the alidomen. in order to form an arti- 
ticial mouth and to introduce nutriment, 

Duode'num. (Ijit.) The lir<t part of the 
small intestine beginning at the jiylorus. 
The inner surface is covered with foldsof 
mucous membrane called fak'ulu: cimni- 

Du'ra Ma'ter. The outer membrane of 
the brain and spinal cord. 

Dura'tion of Life. Several melhoiU of 
ascertaining the duration of life are em- 
ployed : I. The Mean Age al Death ; i. 
the l'ro1>able Duralion of Life; 3. tlie 
Me,in Duration of Life; 4. the Expecta- 
tion of Life, or mean after-lifetime; and 
J. the numlier living out of which one 
dies annually. According to the ICnglish 
Life Table No. 3. the mean age al death 
is 40.9 years, 1>u( diis test is for several 
reasons fallacious, though it is of excep- 
tional interest when the deaths from vari- 
ous diseases are considered. .See ProbaMt 




/>. cf Z., Expectation of Life^ and Lift 

Dwarf (Sax. dweorg). A thing or person 
of stunted or arrested growth. D. Elder, 
(he root oi Aralia hispidia, A valuable 
diuretic. Dose of fid. ext 3J-ij. Unof. 

Dy'ad. See QuatUivalence, 

OTnain'ic ((5ii-n//if, energy). Pertaining 
to energy. In medicine, a synon}*m of 
stJunu:, q. z: 

OTnamics. See Mtrchanics. 

DjKnamite {dvi-afii^). An exp1o!vi%*e coo- 
asting of nitro-glycerine incorporated with 
infuaorial earth, to give it consistency. 

I>3Knamo (dwa/zif). A word popularly 
applied to an electrical machine in which 
the current is generated by revolving coib 
of insulated wire through the field of a 
magnet intensified by the same current. 

D3mainog^eny {fiiTafuq, yevx'ou^ to l)eget). 
The prdduction of energ)'; the physio- 
logical generation of force. 

Dynam^ograph (f^tTa///f, ^pa^^ to write). 
An instrument designed to measure and 
graphically record muscular strength. 

Dynamom^eter {^6vi*afitgt /ifr/xir, a meas- 
ure). An instrument designed to measure 
force. In physiology, one for the measure- 
ment of muscular strength. 

Dyne. A force sufficient to impart a ve- 
locity of one centimeter per second to a 
mass of one gramme. 

Dysacou'^sis. See Jfy/^rakusis, 

Dyssesthe^sia (dx.^^ difficult, aif^tfoi^^ sen- 
sation. Dullness of any sensation, especi- 
ally that of touch. 

Dys-aKbumose. See Albumose. 

Dysba'^sia (cHy, /3aff/f, a step). Difficulty 
of walking. Proposed instead of almsia, 
since in the affection there is rarely abso- 
lute inability to walk. 

Dyschromatops^ia ((?tf, XP^^^^ oftc, 
sight). Subnormal color- jierception. 

Dyscor^ia (f^i-r, difficulty, Koprf, pupil). 
Abnormality of form of the pupil. 

Dyscras^ia (ffi^, KpaaiCy combination). A 
term latterly restricted to an abnormal or 
impure condition of the blood, due to 
general disease. 

Dys-'entery (tfif, fiTf/jor, the bowels). A 
disease marked by inflammation of the 
solitary glands and follicles of the large 
intestine, with bloody stools. Prevalent in 
all malarious regions. 

Dyshidro^sis, or Dysidro^sis. See Pom- 

DyslaFia (rfuf, yja^Aa^ speech). A defect 
ii speech due to organic changes or mal- 
fimnation in the organs of speech. 

DysHysin. Sec Ckoloidimc Acid. 

Dysmenorrhoe^a \iv^y utjv, month, peUf 
to flow). Obstmaed or difficult menstru- 

Dysorex'ia {dvc, opr^tc, appetite). A de- 
praved or unnatural appetite. 

Dysos^mia {6ix, oofi^, odor). An un- 
pleasant or fetid odor. 

Dyspep^sia \M^^ .rr^rrw, to digest^ Im- 
paired or imperfect digestion. D., Atonic, 
a derangement of the stomach, with dis- 
order of its function, due to insufficient 
gastric juice or impaired quality of the 
same. May be due to reflex causes. D., 
Intestinal, due to defects in the pancreatic, 
biliar)* or intestinal secretions, to deficient 
peristalsis, etc. 

Dyspep^tone. 5^ Hemiprotein. 

Dyssperm'ia (tJuf. crepfta, seed). An 
imperfect or abnormal condition of the 

Dysperistal'sis. See Peristalsis. 

Dysphag^ia {dxx^ ^} u, to eat). Difficulty 
or inability to swallow. 

Dysphas^ia (di^, ^<t/c> speech). Imper- 
fect or disconnected speech arising from 
loss of or faulty arrangement of words. 

Dyspho'nia (eftv, pc^i'V, voice). A condi 
tion of defective voice. 

Dysphra^sia (<Wy, opaotc, speech). Im- 
perfect speech. Kussmaul's term for a 
mental condition in which the emotion is 
opposed to the words designed to express 

Dyspnce^a {^ix, ?rrfw, to breathe). Diffi- 
cult or labored breathing. ^ 

Dysta^sia (c^t^, itrrtipt, to stand). Diffi- 
culty in standing. Propo>ed for astasia, 
since in the affection there is rarely abso- 
lute inal>ility to stand. 

DysteleoKogy (dtv, re?./of, perfect, /o^o^^ 
a treatise). A term used by H&ckel to 
denote the study of rudimentar>' and use- 
less organs, such as the vermiform appen- 

Dysto^cia (cJnf, difficult, roKO(, birth). 
Difficult labor. D., Fcetal, difficult labor 
due to such foetal irregularities as dis- 
placement of the arm, excessive size, 
plural pregnancy, monsters, etc. D., 
Maternal, due to some defect upon the 
side of the mother, pelvic deformity, dis- 
ease, etc. 

Dystroph^ia (rfif, rpo^rj^ nourishment). 
Imperfect or faulty nourishment. 

Dys'trophy. See Dystrophia. 

Dysu^ria (dtif, ovpoi\ urine). Partial ot 
painful urination ; may be due to calculi, 
cystitis, spasm, stricture, etc. 




E. Abbreviation of Eye^ and Emmetropia. 

E. M. F. Abbreviation of Electro-motive 

Ext. Abbreviation of extractum. 

Ear. The oi^an of hearing. Consists of 
the outer or external ear, the middle ear 
or tympanum, and the internal ear ofc 
labyrinth. E.-ache. See Otalgia, E.- 
cough, reflex coughing from irritation or 
disease of the ear. E., Drum of. See 
Tympanum, E., Inflammation of. See 
Otitis. E. -trumpet, an instrument for 
gathering a larger number of waves of 
sound to a focus, and thus to improve the 
hearing of those partially deaf. E.-wax. 
Sec Cerumen. 

Earths. Certain metallic oxides or sili- 
cates, not soluble in water and not affected 
by a great heat. E., Alkaline, the 
oxides and hydrates of calcium, magne- 
sium, strontium, barium and other metals 
of the same group. E., Fuller's, a clay 
used as an absorbent in sores. 

Ear'' wig. An insect [Forficuia auricu- 
liiria)^ erroneously suj)posed to have a 
fondness for secreting itself in the external 
auditory meatus. 

East^on's Syrup. See Ferrum. 

Ebulli'^tion. See Boiling. 

Eburna'^tion {ehur, ivoryj. Increase of 
the earthy constituents of bone caasing 
greater size and density of the same. 

EcboKic (eKih/r/y a throwing out). A sub- 
stance used to protluce abortion. 

Ecchondro^'ma {rK, x^^P^y cartilage). 
A tumor growing from cartilage. 

Ecchondro'^sis. See Ecchondroma. 

Ecchymo^ma (ticf ly/cj/io). A tumor made 
up of extravasated blood. 

Ecchymo^sis [tKxvfioofiatj to extravasate 
1)1(X)<1). Sanguineous extravasation of 
blood into the areolar tissue of the lids, or 
skin, tlie result of traumatism. See, also, 

Eccoprot^ic.(fK-, out of, Ktrrpo^^ dung). A 
medicine that empties the bowels without 
causing li(|uid discharge. 

Ecdem'^ic (tK^T//ior, away from home). 
Used of diseases originating in a distant 
locality or f)eople. 

Ec'dysis (tK^ou^ to cast off). In zoology, 
the sloughing or casting off the skin. 

Echinococ^cus (exivv^, a hedgehog, kok- 
Koc, a berry). An hydatid, or bladder- 
worm, one of the larval stages of growth 

of the small tapeworm, Tania echinocpc' 
cuSy of the dog and wolf, infesting the hu- 
man digestive tube. See Alternations of 

Echinorh3m^cus (e;i;«vof, fnryxoCt a beak). 
A worm parasitic within certain animals, 
and occasionally found in man. 

Echolal^ia (nx^* echo, ?jaXta, talking). 
An aphasic symptom consisting in a repe- 
tition of words spoken to the patient by 

Echophot^omy {rfx^* <^oCt light). The 
production of the sensation of color by the 
stimulus of serial waves, or sound. 

Echo-speech. A peculiar method of ut- 
terance in one type of hypnotism. 

Eclamp^sia (eKkafinu, to shine or burst 
forth, frx)m the suddenness of the attack). 
Puerperal convulsions. Convulsive or epi- 
leptiform seizures suddenly coming on in a 
woman prior to or during labor, or in the 
puerperal state. The convulsions are first 
tonic and then clonic, finally affect the in- 
voluntary mascles as well as the voluntary; 
consciousness is lost, and the attack is fol- 
lowed by coma or sleep. The etiology is 
obscure, the attack generally repeated, the 
prognosis grave. The term E. is also used 
as a general designation of convulsions, 
and l)esides the puerperal form above de- 
scribed there are the infantile and uncmic 
types. See Convulsions. 

Eclect^ic (fK^^/cr/Kof). Pertaining to a 
choosing or selection. Used by a certain 
school of physicians, of themselves, to de- 
note a principle or plan of selecting or 
choosing that which is good from all other 

Eclect'^icism. The doctrine and practice 
of the Eclectics, 

Econ'^omy (o/x/a, house, vo/<oc,a law). A 
general name for the human being con- 
sidered as a whole. 

fecouvil-'lon. See EcouvUlonage. 

6couvil^lonage (Fr.^. The operation of 
cleansing and carrying medicinal agents 
to the inside of the uterus by means of a 

fecraseur^ {^x.\ An instrument used in 
amputation of parts, consisting of a chain 
or wire loop, tightened by a screw, whereby 
the tissue is slowly crushed apart rather 
than cut, thus rendering the operation 
easier and bloodless. 

Ec^stasy {tnortuji^y a trance). A trance- 




like, exalted condition of mind, with in- 
sensibility, immobility, etc. A species of 

Ec^tasis {tKToaiqy extension). Abnormal 
distention or dilatation of a part. 

Ecthy^ma UKihfia^ a pustule). An affec- 
tion of the skin, considered by Crocker and 
Tilbury to be a form of Impetigo contagiosa^ 
developed on the trunk and limbs. 

Ecto- (e/iTOf, without). A prefix signifying 
without f upon the outer side. 

Ec^toblast (e/crof, phjurroc, genn). The 
outside membrane or envelope of a cell. 

Ectocard^ia Uktoc, napdiaf the heart). 
Abnormality oi position of the heart. 

Ec^toderm. See Blastoderm. 

Ectop'^agus (fKTof, irayeic, united). A 
monomphalic monstrosity united laterally 
the full extent of the thorax. 

Ecto^pia (efcroKoc, displaced). An abnor* 
mality of position. E. Cordis. See 
EctocarJia. E. Lentis, dislocation or 
congenital malposition of the crystalline 
lens. E. Oculi, abnormal position of the 
eyeball in the orbit. E. Vesicae, protru- 
sion of the bladder through the wall of the 

Ectop'^ic. Pertaining to ectopia. E. Ges- 
tation. See Gestation. 

Ectozo^a (eicroc, l^uov, an animal). Para- 
sites of the external parts of the body, in 
contradistinction from entozoa. 

Ectrom'^elus [eicrpuaigf abortion, fie^oc, 
limb). A monstrosity with an arrested 
development of all the limbs, which are 
mere stumps. 

Ectro^pium (ficrpeww, to turn from). Ever- 
sion of the eyelid and exposure of the 
conjunctival surface. 

Ec^zema (eicCcw, to boil over). An in- 
flammation of the skin or mucous surfaces, 
accompanied by papules, vesicles, pustules, 
scabs, etr.f and usually attended with the 
discharge of serum. E., Diabetic, from 
the irritation of diabetic urine. E. Erythe- 
matosum, marked by ill-defined patches, 
usually on the face. E. Hypertrophi- 
cum. See Mycosis. E. Palmare, a 
form usually confined to the hands and 
feet. E. Papulosum, or Lichen Sim- 
plex, distingubhed by papular eruptions. 
E. Pustulosum, marked by pustular 
eruption. E. Rubrum, an intense va- 
riety, usually developed from the vesicular 
or pustular form. 

Edenta^tion (e, without, dens, a tooth). 
A deprivation of teeth. 

Ed^ibie (edibilis, eatable). Food, the con- 
dition of which is good and wholesome. 

Efferent (effero^ to bring out). Applied 
to nerves or vessels carrying from the cen- 
ter. See Centrifugal. 

Effleurage. See Massage. 

Efflores^cence [effloresco, to bloom). The 
flowering of plants. The formation of 
minute crystals on the surface of certain 
crystalline bodies, due to their loss of a 
part or the whole of their water of crys- 

Efflu^vium {effluo^ to flow out). The 
subtle emanations, especially those oflen- 
sively odoriferous, of a substance or per- 

Efifu^sion (effundoy to pour out). A pour- 
ing out. Tne abnormal secretion or trans 
fer of a liquid from its natural organ or 
place of secretion. Used of gases ali?o. 

Eges^ta (pi. of cgestum, fsecal matter). 
The discharges of the bowels. 

Egg. See ckntle. E. Albumin, a native 
albumin, or proteid constituent of the 
human body, of which the unlwiled white 
of egg is the type. It is distinguished 
from serum-albumin by its precipitation 
when shaken with ether, and by its un- 
changed reapi^earance in the urine when 
injected under the skin or into the intes- 
tine. E. Nog, a nutritious and stimulant 
drink, consisting of an egg beaten up with 
fouj* or five ounces of milk, to which from 
half an ounce to an ounce of whisky is 
added. It may be sweetened and flavored 
to the taste. 

Egypt ^ian Chloro^sis. See Anchyhsto- 
miasis. E. Ophthalmia. See Ophthal- 
mioy Purulent. 

Eich'^horst's Cor'^puscles. A s{)ecial 
fomi of microcyte in the blood of those 
suffering from pernicious aniemia. 

Ejacula^tion [ejaculor^. The ejection of 
the semen in coition. E. Center. Sec 

Eject^ion [cjicioy to throw out). The 
process of casting out ; applied especially 
to the excretions of the body. 

Elabora^tion (elaboro^ to take pains with). 
Careful and exact working. In physiology 
the process of making crude food into 
higher tissue products. 

Ela-'in. See Eleoptcne. 

Elas^tic (c/aww, to urge forward). Re- 
turning to the original form when sprung 
from the same by external traction or force. 
E. Bandage, an India-rubber bandage 
exerting continuous compression of a i>art. 
E. Stocking, a stocking of the same ma- 
terial and acting the same way. E. Tis- 
sue, a variety of connective tissue, of 




which some ligameDts are composed, hav* 
ing elastic properties. 

Blast^in. An albuminoid substance, the 
fundamental element in elastic tissue. It 
yields 36 to 45 per cent, of leucin and ^ 
per cent, of tyrosin. 

Elat^erin, or Elate'^rinum. A neutral 
principle obtained from Elaterium ecbal- 
liumy or squirting cucumber. A powerful 
hydragoguc cathartic. In toxic doses, 
causes emesis, spasmodic respiration and 
death. Dose gr. ^(t^- ^- Trituratio, 
elaterin 10, sugar of milk 90 parts, thor- 
oughly mixed. Dose gr. ss-j. 

EPbow. The ellx)w-joint. That part of 
the arm adjacent to the elbow-joint. 

EKder. See Sambtictis. 

Elec^tion, Operations of. Considera- 
tions of circumstances, such as age, condi- 
tion in life, business, sex, efCf determining 
whether to proceed with a certain surgical 
operation or not. Called, also. Operations 
of Complaisance. 

Elec^trical (//?.f/£r/>r>r, amber). I laving the 
nature of or produced by electricity. E. 
Chore^a. See Dubinins Disease. E. 
Shower Bath, a device for general elec- 
trization : ( )nc of the poles is immersed in 
a tub containing an alkaline solution. The 
patient l>encath this rescr\'oir stands on a 
metallic stool connected with the other 
pole. The falling water completes the cir- 
cuit, dis|H!rsing the current over the whole 
Uxlv. E. Sunstroke. See Sunstroke. 

Electric^ity [///jKTfHn). One of the forces 
of nature devclopi'd or generated bychcm- 
ism, inagnt'tism, or friction, and probably 
a modi; of ctlurral vibration, closely analo- 
gnii.s to and convortiblc into heat and light. 
E., Faradic, that pn^luced by induction. 
E., Franklinic, frictional or static electri- 
city. E., Frictional, that produced by 
friction. E., Galvanic, that which is 
grncralod by chrmical action in a galvanic 
cell. E., Inductive, that produced in a 
Uxly by prnxiinity, without contact, to an 
cKcirified Uxiy. E., Magnetic, that de- 
v('lojH:d by bringing a conductor near the 
jMilcs of a m.ignet. See Current. E., 
Medical, that use<l for thera{x;utic piu"- 
|)o>es. E., Static, frictional electricity. 
E., Voltaic, same as galvanic or chemical 

Elec'tro- (//^.^kt/wj'). A Greek word used 
.IS a prefix to denote connection with or 
relation to electricity. E. -biology, the 
science of the electrical relations and laws 
of organic lieings. E.-bioscopy. See 
Bioscopy. E. -chemistry, the science 

of the inter-relations and laws of elec- 
tricity and chemistry. E.-magnetism, 
magnetism induced within iron, steel or 
nickel, by introducing it within a coil 
through which a current is passing. E.- 
pathology, the diagnosis of a disease by 
the aid of electric irritation. E. -physi- 
ology, the study of electric reactions, 
properties, and relations of organs and 
organic tissues. E.-therapeutics, the 
science and art of the application of elec- 
tricity for therapeutical purposes. See 

Elec^trode {electricity^ o6oq^ a way). The 
application of points or surfaces connecting 
the body with the poles of a battery. E., 
Brush, one end fitted with a camel-hair 
pencil. E., Non-polarizable, zinc wires 
treated and so arranged as to prevent elec- 
trolysis. See AnocU and Cathode. 

Electrogen'^esis. llie results, after with- 
drawal, of the application of a current of 
electricity to the spinal cord, a nerve or 

Electrolysis {electricity y Awj, to release). 
The di.ssolution of a chemical compound 
by an electric current. Used in the tieat- 
ment of hydrocele, and other surgical dis- 

Electro-massage. The transmission of 
a current of electricity tlirough the knead- 
ing instrument. 

Electrom'eter (;/?^/rr^x)v, electro-, fierpcVf 
a measure). An instrument for the meas- 
urement of the difference of electrical 

Electro-mo^tive. Pertaining to the me- 
chanical or motor effects of electricity. E. 
Force, the potential, or tension of a cur- 
rent. It is estimated in volts. See lolt. 

Electromus^cular. Pertaining to the 
action of electricity u|X)n muscles. E. 
Contractility, the contractile resfwuse of 
a muscle to an electric current. E. Sensi- 
bility, the im{)ression uix>n a sensory nerve 
by electric irritation. 

Electropunctura'^tion. The use of 
needles as electrodes, which are thrust 
into the cavity of an aneurysm, with the 
object of coagulating the contained blood. 

Electrosta^tics (electricity y oraTiKot:, sta- 
tionary). The science of static electricity, 
or that developed by friction and induc- 

Electrot^onus (TmH)^, ten.sion). ITie 
change of condition in a nerve during the 
application of a current of electricity. vSee 
AnelectrotontiSy Catelcctratonus, and EleC' 




Elect^uaiy. A confecdon. See Confectio, 

Ele^idin. The granules of the superficial 
cells of the stratum granulosum of the epi- 

Bl^ement (eUmentum^ a first principle). 
In chemistry, a body that cannot be decom- 
posed into simpler substances. The ele- 
ments now number about 75. Used in 
biology of the ultimate microscopic struc- 
tures of a tissue. In electricity, one of the 
generating plates in a galvanic cell. 

El^ephant's Foot. The herb Ele- 
phantopus tomeniosa. Diuretic, expecto- 
rant and emetic. Dose of the fid. ext. n\,v- 
XXX. Unof. 

El^ephant Leg. See Elephantiasis, 

Elephanti^asis (fAe^, an elephant). Ele- 
phantiasis Arabum, Elephant Leg, Buc- 
nema Tropica, Morbus Elephas, Pachy- 
dermia, Barbadoes Leg. A chronic, spo- 
radic, oedematous disease of the skin and 
subcutaneous tissue, characterized by enor- 
mous hypertrophy. Thought to be due to 
a parasitic worm known t&fi/aria, which, 
entering the blood and l3rmphatics, obstructs 
the latter, resulting in a chronic enlarge- 
ment. Most common in leg and genitals. 

Elephanti^asis Grsecc^rum. See Lepra. 

Eleopt^ene. The permanent liquid prin- 
ciple of volatile oils. See Stearoptene. 

Erevator (eleifo^ to lift). The same as 
Levator. See Afuscle. An instrument 
used in surgery and dentistry. 

Elimina'^tion (^, out, limen^ threshold). 
Excretion; the process of putting forth or 

Elix^ir (Arab, el iksir^ the philosopher's 
stone). A sweetened, aromatic, spirituous 
preparation, which is practically a flavored 
syrup designed as an excipient for extracts 
and tinctures. There are many elixira^ 
only one of which is official. 

Elm. See Clmus. 

Elocu^tion (/», loquor^ to speak). The 
choice, arrangement and delivery of words 
and language, including the use of the 
voice, the action of the lungs, diaphragm, 

Elutria^tion {elufrioy to wash out). A 
water-sifling process whereby the coarser 
particles of an insoluble substance are 
separated from the finer. 

Elytri'^tis (c/iit/xiv, the vagina, tnq). In- 
flammation of the vagina. 

Ely^troplasty (f/i^r^ii-, Tzhiaou, to form). 
Plastic operation upon the vagina, espe- 
cially fur vesico- vaginal fistula. 

Blytropto^sis (iXvTpoVy ktucic, a falling). 
Prolapse of the vagina. 

Elytror^rhaphy (ehrrpoVf pa^t a seam). 
Suture of the vaginal wall. An operation 
to close the opening of the vagina in pro- 

Emacia'^tion (^)MarM^, to make lean). Ix>ss 
of the fat and fullness of the flesh of the 
body. Lean. 

Eman^sio-men'^sium (Lat.). Delayed 
menstruation. Amenorrnoea. 

Emascula'^tion (efnasculo, to make im- 
potent). Removal of the testicles ; impo- 

Embalm^ing (Fr. <*//, in, bauma^ balsam). 
The filling a cadaver with antiseptic and 
preservative substances to keep it from 

Embed^ding. The fixation of a tissue- 
specimen in a firmer medium before freez- 
ing, and section in order to preserve the 
same intact 

Embe^lia Riches. The juice of a fruit 
obtained in Asia Minor. Has reputed 
anthelmintic properties. Unof. 

Em'^bolism (tfifWjn^y P^ug)- The ol)struc- 
tion of an artery or capillary, usually by a 
blood clot or embolus, brought from another 
point by the blood current. E., Air, by a 
Dubble of air. E., Multiple, numerous 
small emboli. E., Pysemic, the emboli 
are purulent. E.,' Retinal, occurring in 
the arteria centralis retime, followed by 
sudden loss of vision. E., Venous, 
occurring in veins, especially of the lungs 
and liver. 

Em^bolus (eu^?Mc). A clot of blood 
brought by the blood current from a distant 
artery, and forming an obstruction at its 
place of lodgment. 

Embroca^tion (f^/?pf^(j, to soak in). A 
fluid external application to some injured 
or diseased part. 

Embryon, or 

Em^bryo (efi(3pvop). The ovum and the 
product of conception up to the fourth 
month of pregnancy. 

Embryocard^ia {embryo^ Kufjdta^ the 
heart). An affection of the heart, char- 
acterized by a heart-beat like that of a 
fa'tus. It is usually associated with tachy- 
cardia, and a condition of collapse and 

EmbryoKogy (tpPpvov, ?.«>oc, discourse). 
The science of the evolution of the em- 
bryo, or the study of f'ctal development. 

Embryon^ic. Pertaining to the embr>'0. 
E. Area. See Area. E. Connective 
Tissue, the primitive condition of connec- 
tive tissue when furst formed, consisting of 
imall, round cells. E. Spot. See Area, 





Em^ryotome. An instrument used in 

Embryot^omy (efifipiw, rofirf, section). 
An operation for reduction of the size of 
the foetus to render possible its transmis- 
sion through the birth-canal. See Cepha- 
lotripsy^ C yanioclasm, Basiolribey Basilyst, 
Decollii/ioHy Decapitation^ Exenteration^ 
Evisceration^ Lafnination^ Perforation^ 
Spondylotomy J Irans/ormation . 

Exn^esis [e/ttu^ to vomit). Vomiting. 

Emet^ic {e/i^TiKoc^ causing vomiting). An 
agent causing emesis. E., Direct, one 
acting directly on the nerves of the 
stomach. E., Indirect, or E., Systemic, 
one acting through the blood upon the 
vomiting center, or by reflex action from 
other peripheral sources. 

Emeto-cathar^sis. Vomiting and purga- 
tion at the .same time, or produced by a com- 
mon agent. 

Em'^inence {eminentia). A rounded or 
protulterant part of an oi^an, ei>|)ecially of 
a lx)ne. E., Ilio-pectineal, a ridge on 
the up|)er surface of the pul)ic bone. E. 
of Doyere. Sec Sarcoi^lia. 

Eminen^tia. See Eminence. 

Emis'^sion [emitto, to send forth). An 
ejaculation, or sending forth. 

Emmen^agogue {t/i/t/^ia.thc menses, a} (j; 
to c\|)el). A medicine that stimulates the 
menstrual flow. E., Direct, one acting 
directly on the generative organs. E., 
Indirect, one acting only through other 
functions nnd indirectly. 

Emissa^rium ( A term for any 
canal or clianml conveying a fluid outward. 
l.'.sc<l csjHcially of the veins of the skull. 

Em'issary Veins. Si-r Emiysarinm. 

Emmetrc/pia {t:i\ in; fifTfHn\ measure; 
(.»,", the eye). Normal or jxirfect vision. 
Thir condition of an eye whose shai>e and 
refract ivf media are such that, with sus- 
IH.iKle<l acconimo<lation, parallel rays of 
light are brought to a focus u]x>n the 
retina. I'V.r practical tesb», rays of light 
frrmi a |K)int 20 feet away are considered 
as {larallel. 

Em-'met's Opera'^tion. See Trachelor- 

Emol^lient {em,'//{Oy to soften). A sub- 
>tan( e used by external application to soften 
the slviii. 

Emo'tional \emoz>eo^ to move away). Per- 
taining to the mental condition of feeling. 
E. Insanity, characterized by exaggera- 
tion nnd exaltation of feelings. 

Emphract^ic [uiOfHirru^ to obstruct.) A 
term used by Hippocrates to designate any 

agent which obstructs the function of an 

Emphyse^ma (efuj^vaau^ to inflate). The 
abnormal collection of air in the connective 
tissue of a port, causing swelling and crepi- 

Empir^ic (f/z^e/p/KOi*, experiential, practi- 
cal). One practicing medicine without 
philosophical or scientific princi])Ies, simply 
from the results of his own or others' expe- 
rience. As couunonly used, synonymous 
with quack. 

Emplas^trum (ifiK/aaoUf to plaster up)t 
A plaster. In pharmacy, a cohesive, tena- 
cious substance, insoluble in water, as an 
excipient containing a prescribed medicinal 
substance intended to be spread thin upon 
chamois, kid or muslin, llie excipient 
is usually lead oleate or Burgundy pitch. 
(See Lead and Pix.) There are 17 oflicial 

Emprosthot^onos (efiTrpooOev, fon^ard, 
Tetvtjf to stretch). A tetanic condition of 
the muscles of the front part of the body 
whereby the body is bent forward. 

Empye^ma (ev, in, ttwi-, pu.s). Pus in 
the pleural cavity or in the chest. 

Empye'sis (eftTcveu, to suppurate). Dis- 
eases characterized by phlegmonous pim- 
ples gradually fllling with purulent fluid. 

Empy'ocele (m', in tiwi-, pus,^///;?, tumor). 
A purulent scRttal tumor. 

EmuPsin [emul^eoy to milk out). A fer- 
ment contained in bitter almonds. Also 
called Synaptase. Its union with amyg- 
dalin fonns hydrocyanic acid. See Amyf;;- 
da tin. 

Emul^sion. ^Vater in which oil, in minute 
subdivision of its jxarticles, is suspended. 

Emunc^tory (t-muNj^o, to blow the nose). 
An excretory duct or oi^an. 

Enam^el. See Teet/i. 

Enanth^ema (tr, ai-Oeu^ to blossom). An 
eruption within the body in distinction 
from exanthema. 

Enarthro^sis. See Diaithrosis. 

Encan^this {n\ Kuiikt^^ the angle of the 
eye). A reddish -colored morbid gr(.>wth 
in the inner canthus of the eye. 

Encephal^ic (t}'Kf^//(»r, the brain). Per- 
taining to the encephalon. 

Enceph'^alin. A nitrogenous glueoside 
extracted from brain ti.s.sue. 

Encephali'^tis. General inflammation of 
the encephalon. 

Enceph^alocele (*;K#9«/f>r;, «//>//, tumor). 
A hernia of the brain. 

Enceph^aloid. Resembling brain tissue. 
Sec Carcinoma. 




Encephalo^ma it}Krpa//)r^ uaa, tumor). 
Tumor of the brain. 

Enceph'^alon (>v, in, xtdd/jj^ the head). 
The contents of the cranium. The brain. 

Encephalop^athy i r} xroo//)^, rrath^, pain ) . 
A term for indefinite or general disease-of 
the brain. 

Enceph^alotome (eviuoaJj)^, 'oun, sec- 
tion). An instrument for slicing the en- 
cepbalon or a part for examination or pre- 

Enchondrc/ma in-, ;|fovt?pof, cartilage, 

"oma^ tumor). A tumor arising from car- 
tilage or resembling it in texture, ^tc. 

Enchy^ema {£x\ .1 r/»f, juice). The fluid 
enclosed in the nie:»hes of the chromatin. 

En Clou. See Culture, 

Encyst^ ed \tv^ kivti^, a bagV Enclosed 
in a cyst, or capsule. .Aneur^-sms, hemix, 
tumors, <r.V., may become encj-sied. 

End. llie terminal point of a thing. E. 
Bulb, the terminal bulb of a nerve in the 
skin. £nJ Bulb of Krause. See Cor- 
ptiscle. E. Plate, the expanded terminal 
of a nK»tor nerve upon a bundle of muscu- 
lar filers. E. Organ, the general name 
for the terminal organ or part of a sensory 
nerve-fil)er of whatever kind. 

Endarteri^tis (n-An-, within, arteritis\ 
Inflammation of the intima, ox innermost 
coat of an arter)'. 

Endem^ic \p.\ in. «^/wof, a people). Used 
of diseases that are not brought from with- 
out a ^larticular area or people, but that are 
peculiar to it. E. Verrugas. See Fram- 
bit sill. 

Endemiorogy (r r, ^m^*Kt ^'>}*Kf a treatise). 
Tlie science of endemic tliseases. 

Ender'mic {n\ i^epua, the skin). Within 
the skin. Pertaining to a method of admin- 
istering medicines through the skin, by 
rubbinfj^. f/r. 

End^o- ^ti<Jor, within). A prefix, meaning 

Endo-ausculta^tion. .\ method of auscul- 
tation devised by Bianchi by using the 
onlinar)' n'Siiphageal tul>e {xu^sed into the 
stomach, to aa^cult the gullet and stomach, 
and thmiigh them to a certain degree the 
heart and lungs. 

End'oblast (^f i«Tor, .?/<irtr»>f , a germ). The 
cell -nucleus. 

Endocardi'tis ^mA>i', ra^w'/a, the heart, 
trie). Intlamniation i»f the endticanlium 
or lining membrane t>f the heart. .Acute 
rheumatism is the nic>st fn^juent cause, 
though pneumonia, gout and septic fever 
may precede. The disease is ()rone to termi- 
nate fatally or result in permanent injury 

to the valves. Fibrixioas deposits or vege* 
tations project into the cavity of the heart ; 
the thickened endocardium is liable to be- 
come atheromatous, with chrcxiic ulcera- 
tion. E., Malignant, or Ulcerative, a 
rapidly fatal type due to sepdc infection. 
It has also been called EHphtheritic £., in 
the sense of belonging to the diphtheritic 
class of diseases^ Miciodrganisms are 
found in this form. 

Endocard^iuni i ntfov-, xapdia). The color- 
less, transparent membrane linix^ the inte^ 
rior of the heart. 

Endocolpi^tis. See Colpitis. 

End^oderm. See Blastoderm. 

End^ogen ^fitfor, ^n-xtiij, to produce). A 
plant whose growth b by means of new 
matter deposited in the interior of the trunk 
or txanch. See Exogen. 

End^olymph t, ntVn*. lympka, water) . The 
fluid of the membraiK)us labvrinth of the 

Endometri^tis. Inflammation of the en- 
dometrium. E., Cervical, of the cer 
vical portion. E., Decidual, of the de- 
cidual membrane of the impr^piated 
uterus. It may be diffuse (thickening and 
development of connecti%-e tissue) oi /olv- 
poidy with poU'poid growths. 

Endome^trimn i^ntfor. ftrrrfxxy uterus). 
The lining membrane c^ the uterus. 

Endomy^sium \t\-^x\ ut^. muscle). The 
extension of the perimysium between the 
muscular fibers. 

Endoneu^rium (oA>r. vsvoow a nerve). 
The delicate connective tissue K»l<ling to- 
gether the fibrib of a bundle of ner>es. 

Endopath^ic (ci^r. ra^^-, suffering k Per- 
taining to the rise of disease from condi- 
tions or causes not derived from without. 
See Excpatkic. 

Endopericardi^tis (ntloi-, rr/w, around, 
Ka{>^ta, the heart, /r/f. inflanunation ). Com- 
bined endocariiitb and pericarditis. 

End'oscope (n-A)!', within, <T*oTfu, to ob- 
serve). An instrument f^^r examination of 
a Ixxlily cavity through its natural outlet. 

Endos'copy yfi-tVir, aKO'rrw\. The exami- 
nation of cavities or organs within the lx>1y 
by means of an endoscope. 

Endosmom'eter. .\n instrument for 
measuring endosmosb. 

Endosmo'sis ^ri-t^n-, utyun^, a thrusting). 
The interchange and passage of two liquids 
through a dividing membrane. 

Endosmot^ic. Pertaining to endosmosb. 
E. Equivalent, the weight of distilled 
water that passes into the flask of the endos- 
mometer in exchange for a known weight 




of the soluble substance. This, e. g.^ for 
salt is 4.3 ; for sugar 7. 1, etc. 

Endostei^tis (evcJoy, oareoVf a bone, irig). 
Inflammation of the endosteum of bone. 

Endost^euin. The vascular membranous 
layer of connective tissue lining the medul- 
lary cavity of bones. 

Endothelio^ma. A tumor of the endo- 

Endothe^lium (n-cJov, ftyTjy, nipple). The 
internal lining membrane of serous, syno- 
vial and other internal surfaces; the homo- 
logue of epithelium. 

Exi'^ema (evirjfii^ to inject). An injection 
of a medicine or food into the rectum. 

Enepiderm'^ic (ev, emdep/iic, the epider- 
mis). Pertaining to the treatment of dis- 
ease by applications to the skin. 

En^erg^ (evepyeuy to be active). The 
power or force displayed by an oi^anism. 
E., Conservation of, the law that the 
various forms of energy can be transformed 
one into the other without the loss of any 
part. E., Kinetic, the power of a body 
in motion. E., Potential, the possible 
power of a body at rest. Physiolc^cally, 
its measure is the amount of heat that may 
be obtained by complete combustion of the 
chemical compounds representing the po- 
tential energy. 

En''ervate {encrvo, to weaken). To 

Eneure'^sis. See Enuresis. 

Engage'^ment Stage of Labor. See 

English Sweating Fever. See Anglicus 

Engorg^emcnt (Fr. engorgement ^ a chok- 
ing up). Over-distention of the vessels 
of a part and stagnation of the circulation. 
Vascular congestion. 

Enophthal^mia (fv, (HpffaXfioc, the eye). 
Retraction of the eyeball in the orbit. 

Enosto'sis (fv, ocrtoVf bone). A tumor 
within the medullary canal of a bone, or 
a iK>ny tumor originating in bone. 

En Piqttre. See Culture. 

Ens^'iform Append^ix (ensis, a sword). A 
sword-shaped, cartilaginous process of the 

Ensomph^alus (fv, o//^Aof, navel). A 
double monstrosity with practically com- 
plete and functional oi^fanisms, but united 
together by some more or less superficial 

Enta'^sia [nnaoi^, a straining). A generic 
term for spasmodic muscular action. 

EnteraKgia [evrepov^ intestine, a}.yo^^ 
pain). Pain in the bowels. 

Enterec^tomy (evrc/xw, intestine, eKTOfi^, 
excision). Excision of a part of the intes- 

Enter^ic (evrepov). Pertaining to the in- 
testines. E. Fever, typhoid fever. 

Enteri^tis (evrepov, iTiCy inflammation). 
Inflaounation of the intestines. 

Ent'ero- (eirrepov). A prefix denoting 
relation to the intestines. 

Ent^erocele (evrepov, w;?.);, a tumor). A 
hernia containing a loop of intestine. E., 
Rectal, with a covering of the rectal wall. 
E., Vaginal, with a covering of the 
vaginal wall. 

Enterocly^sis (evrepovy KXvoiCy a drench- 
ing). Injection of nutrient material with- 
in the intestine in cholera, collapse, ete. 

Entero-coli^tis (evrcpw, Ko?jn>j the colon). 
Combined inflammation of the intestines 
and colon. 

Entero-epip^locele. See Hernia. 

Entero-gas^trocele {prrEpav^ yaarrip^ the 
belly, KJj^t tumor). A hernia containing 
gastric and intestinal walls. 

Ent^erolith Uvrtpov^ ?u6ogj a stone). A 
stony concretion formed in the digestive 

Enterop^athy (evrepov, iraBoq^ suffering). 
Disease of the mtestines. 

Entero-peritoni^tis (evrtpov^ irepirovaiog^ 
iTtc). Combined inflammation of the in- 
testines and adjacent peritoneum. 

Ent^eroplasty (nrf/wy, TrP.atrffu, to form). 
Plastic operations upon the intestine to re- 

' pair injuries of its walls. 

Enterorrha^gia (evrtfMVy pt/yvvfii, to burst 
forth). Intestinal hemorrhage. Excessive 
discharges of any kind from the intestine. 

Enteror^rhaphy (evrepov^ />a^, a suture). 
Suture of the intestine. 

Enterost^omy (eirrepoVf orofia, mouth). 
Incision of the small intestine and suture 
of the same to the abdominal wall for in- 
troduction of food by this artificial mouth, 
in case of impossibility of food-entrance 
by the normal route. 

Enterot^omy (evrepoi'j re/ivw, to cut). In- 
cision of the intestine. 

Enterozo^on (evrepm', C«'>ov, an animal). 
A parasite of tne intestine. 

Enthet^ic (nmBijfn^ to put in). Coming 
from without, used especially of syphilitic 
and other specific contagious diseases. 

Ent^oblast {evro^^ within, fiAaaro^y germ). 
The nucleolus, or germinal spot. 

Ent^ocyte (evroc^ kito^, cell). The con- 
tents of a cell, including nucleolus, granu- 
lations, ete. 

Ent^oderm. See Bltutoderm. 




Entomology (evro/iov, an insect, Ao/of, 
treatise). The science of insect life. 

Entomoph^ilous {evrofia^ ^i?^<j, to love). 
Insect-loving or attracting. E. Flowers, 
flowers attracting insects by their secre- 
tions and thus securing cross-fertilization 
through the insects who cany the pollen 
to other flowers. 

Entop^tic (evTog, onTuoog^ pertaining to 
vision). Pertaining to the internal parts 
of the eye. E. Phenomena, visual phe- 
nomena caused by peculiarities or imper- 
fections of the eye itself, such as musca 
volitantes^ etc, 

Entot^ic (tvro^y ov^y ear). Pertaining to 
the internal ear. E. Phenomena, sounds 
caused by abnormalities of the auditory 
mechanism itself. 

Entozo^on (evroc, ^imv, an animal). A 
parasite living within another animal. 

Entro'^pium (ey, in, rpeiru, to turn). In- 
version of the eyelids, so that the lashes 
rub against the globe of the eye, produc- 
ing inflammation, pannus, f/c, 

Enuclea^tion (^, out of, nuc/ais^ a kernel). 
Applied to the operation of exsecting or 
shelling-out from its seat or capsule a 
tumor, etc. E. of Eye, excision of the 
eyeball from the orbit. 

Enure'^sis {evovpeu, to be incontinent of 
urine). Incontinency of urine. E. Noc- 
tuma, involuntary emptying of the blad- 
der during sleep. 

Envi'^ronment (Fr. enviroHner, to sur- 
round). The totality of influences acting* 
from without upon the oi^anism. 

En^zymes (ev, Cv"V, leaven). Hydrolytic 
ferments as distinguished from organised 
ferments, such as yeast. They act by 
causing the body to take up a molecule of 
water. They are most active between 30® 
and 35® C, and are destroyed by boiling. 

E'^osin. See Fuchsin, 

Epend^yma (e?rei'dt'/ia, an upper garment). 
The lining membrane of the cerebral ven- 
tricles and of the spinal canal. 

Ependymi^tis {^ependytna, iTiCf inflamma- 
tion). Inflammation of the ependyma. 

Ep^hedra Antisyphilit^ica. See Tepopote, 

Eph^edrene. The active principle of 
Ephedra vulgaris. Proposed as a my- 
driatic by Nagai. A cardiac depressant. 

Ephe^lides. See Lentigo, 

Ephem^era Malig-'na. See Anglicus 

Ephem^eral {e^tffiepoCt living a day). 
Temporary. Applied to fevers that paM 
away in a day. 

Ephial^tes. See Nightmare. 

Ephid'^rosis. See Hyperidrosis, E. Cru- 
enta, bloody sweat. 

Ep^iblast (f7r<, upon, pAaaroc, a sprout). 
The external or upper layer of the blasto- 
derm, called, also, the ectoderm or neuro- 
epidermal layer^ from which is developed 
the central ner\'ous system and epidermal 
tissues, including the epithelium of the 
sense organs. 

Epicanth^us (en-f, KavdoCt angle of the eye). 
A fold of skin passing from the nose to the 
eyebrow over the inner canthus of the eye. 

Epicard^ium. The visceral layer of the 

Ep^icome (ctt*, upon, K0//J7, hair). A para- 
sitic monstrosity with an accessory head 
united to the principal foetus by the sum- 

Epicra^nium {ewty Kpavtov, the cranium). 
The structures covering the cranium. 

Epicri^sis (tniKpiai^^ determination). The 
phenomena of disease succeeding the 

Epicystot^omy (fT/, Kvari^y a bladder, 
re«ucj, to cut). The suprapubic method 
of incising the bladder. 

Ep'icyte {eirty kvtoc, cell). The cell-wall 
or hyaline cuticle of cells. 

Epidem^ic (ctt/, d///iOf, people). Used of 
diseases that reach a people, or sp^ad over 
an area from without, in contradistinction 
to endemic. 

Epidemiog^raphy (epidemic^ yp^^y to 
write). A description of epidemic dis- 

Epidemiology {epidemic , ^>of , doctrine) . 
The science of epidemic diseases. 

Epiderm^is (en-f, cJfp/io, the skin). The 
outer layer of the skin. The scarf-skin, 
consisting of a layer of homy cells that 
protects the true skin. Has neither blood 
vessels nor nerve fllaments. E., Append- 
ages of, a generic name for the hair, nails, 
etc.^ growing from the epiderm. 

Epidermiza^tion. llie formation of epi- 

Epidid^ymis (Sidvfioty the testes). The 
small lx)dy lying above the testes. The 
superior end is the globus major ^ the infe- 
rior, the globus minor. 

Epididymis tis. Inflammation of the epi- 

Epidu^ral Space. The space outdide the 
dura mater of the spinal cord. 

Epigas'^trium (en-/, yaanjp, the stomach). 
The epigastric region. 

Epigen^esis (emytyvoficuj to be bom after). 
The generation of organisms by new and 




successive formations in contnulistinction 
to Syngenesis, in which each germ is 
supposed to contain those of all subsequent 

Epiglot'^tis. See Glottis, 

Epigna'^thus (fT£, ■)'vaBo^^ jaw). A para- 
sitic monstrosity in which the parasite is 
united to the su{>erior maxillary bone. 

Epila'^tion (^, out of, ///i//, a hair). The 
removal of hair. 

Epilato^rium. An application for perma- 
nently removing hair. 

Epilep^sy (frr^/v/V'^f, a laying hold of). 
A ner>ous affection characterized by sua- 
den loss of consciousness and power of co- 
ordination of motion with tonic and clonic 
convulsions, the fits lasting but a short 
time. This form of the djsease is the 
"true" affection, or the haut mal of the 
French. The petit mal [tibortwe epilepsy^ 
epiU'ptic vertigo) is less severe, and may 
consist of only a slight loss of conscious- 
ness, with retained codrdination of motion. 
E. Cursiva, the fit preceded by a tend- 
ency to run. E., Jacksonian, spasmodic 
contractions in certain grou{)s of muscles 
due to local diseases of the cortex, always 
confined to one-half of the body and with 
retention of consciousness. E. Larvata, 
or E., Masked, the less severe cases of 
the true epilepsy, in which the patient 
doL's not fall. E., Pw[X\9\^ Jacksonian £, 
E., Procursive, there is propulsion of 
the l)ody in some S{>ecial direction. E., 
Reflex, due to some reflex neurosis. 

Epilep^tic. Pertaining to or like epilepsy. 
Also one affected with epilepsy. E. Cry, 
the vocal sound or cry in epilepsy, from 
lar>'ngeal S])asni. E. Hemiplegia, some- 
times follows tht^ fit, es))ecially after uni- 
lateral convulsions. E. Mania, slight 
maniacal tendencies following or taking 
the place of the fit. E. Vertigo, giddi- 
ness is a conmion sensation of epilepsy, 
but is erroneously applied to attacks of 
minor epilepsy. 

Epilep^tiform {rpittp.<}\ forma, likeness). 
Resembling the syini)toms of epilepsy. 

Epileptog^enous [cpiUpsy, yevmUf to pro- 
duce). Prcxiucing epilepsy. 

Epi'lose (^ neg., pilosus, hairy). Without 
hair; baltl. 

Epineu^rium (rx/, vrvpm>, ner\'e). The 

Epipas'^tic (trriTnfjnUy to sprinkle). Per- 
t.iining to pla.sters sprinkled with some 
agent, as cantharides, used as a vesicant. 

Epiph^ora (eirnpffM^, to burst uixjn). An 
overflow of tears, due to over-secretion or 

impeded outflow of the normal methods 
of excretion. • Lachrymation, 

Epiph^ysis (e7r<, ^vu, to grow). A process 
of bone attached to another bone by carti- 
lage. E. Cerebri, the pineal gland. 

Ep/iphyte (m-^, ^vtov, a plant). A para- 
sitic plant living upon another plant. Used 
also of a parasitic plant upon an animal. 

Epip^locele. See Hernia, 

Epip^loon (fTrtir^cj, to float upon). The 
omentum. E. Gastro-colic, the great 
omentum. E. Gastro-hepatic, the les- 
ser omentum. 

Episcleri^tis (efl-^, <T»cX^/J0f , hard, ^rif). A 
localized inflammation of the subconjunc- 
tival tissues. 

Episior^raphy [tt^ujtiov^ pubes, pa^, 
seam). An operation for the cure of pro- 
lapsed uterus or procidentia. 

Episiot^omy (en-^ffetov, To\jai^ section). In- 
cision through the vulva in childbirth to 
prevent rupture of the perineum and facili- 
tate labor. 

Epispad-'ias (en-*, tnra^w, to pierce). Ab- 
normal opening of tlie urethra upon the 
upper part of the penis. 

Epispast^ic (en-/, aifaaiq^ a drawing upon). 
A vesicatory or sul>6tance producing a 

Epistax^is (t-KLoro^tjy to distill). Hemor- 
rhage from the nose. 

Epithelio^ma. Carcinomatous formation 
of the skin or mucous membrane, composed 
of epithelial cells. 

Epithe^lium (fx/, upon, ufir/ut, to place). 
The cuticle or cellular structure of mucous 
surfaces, and also the skin of the body. 
E., Ciliated, a form in which the cells 
bear vibratile filaments or cilia; at their 
free extremities. E., Columnar, distin- 
guished by prismatic-shaped or columnar 
cells. E., Nucleated, consisting of cir- 
cular or hexagonal cells, each containing 
a nucleus. E., Pavement, cubical or 
polygonal cells covering the surface like the 
stones of a jiavement. E., Squamous, 
the cells have been reduced to flattened, 
scaly plates. E., Stratified, the cells are 
arranged in distinct layers. E., Tessel- 
lated. Same as A., I\n>emcnt. E., Tran- 
sitional, intermediate Ix^tween simple and 

Epitroch^lea(e:r/, TfMxnha, a pulley). The 
internal condyle of the humerus. 

Epizo^on [trrif Cw<"\ an animal). An 
animal living as a parasite U{K)n another. 

Epizodt^ic. A contagious disease affect- 
ing animals. 

Eponych'^ium {em, ovv^, a finger nail). 




A homy condition of the epidermis from 
the 2d to the 8th month of foetal life, indi- 
cating the position of the nail. 

Eposto^ma (ctt^, oareov, bone). An ex- 

Ep^soxn Salts. See Alagnesium. 

Epu^lis {eTTiy ovTua, the gmns). A hanL 
fibrous tumor of the alveolar processes of 
the gums. 

Equilib^rium (aquus, equal, HdrOf bal- 
ance). An even balancing of a body or 
condition. E., Stable, when, after slight 
disturbance, the body will return to its 
original condition or position. E., Un- 
stable, when it will not so return. 

Equi^nia (equusy a horse). Glanders. 
Farcy. A contagious, specific disease, 
with both local and general s3rmptoms, 
derived from the horse or ass. Affects 
chiefly the skin, mucous membranes and 
lymphatics. Begins with purulent nasal 
discharges, which extend to the respiratory, 
ocular and oral membranes. Thought to 
be of microbic origin. 

Equiv^alence (a</uusy equal, vaieOf to be 
worth). Of equal value. The saturating 
power of an element as compared with 
that of hydrogen. 

Era'^sion (^, out, radOf to scrape). The 
act of scraping. 

Erect^ile (erigo^ to set up). Pertaining to 
stiffening, rigidity or erection. E. Tis- 
sue, that intermediating erection, consist- 
ing of a network of exp>ansile capillaries 
that under stimulus becomes engorged with 

Erec^tion {erigo\ The condition of full- 
ness and firmness of the penis, clitoris, etCy 
due to sexual excitement, friction, etc^ the 
mechanism consisting in an overfilling of 
the blood vessels. E. Center. See Center. 

Erect^or (erigo). Pertaining to muscles 
whose function is to erect or elevate a part. 
See Muscle. E. Pili, the unstripcd mus- 
cular fibers causing the erection of the hair 
and the phenomenon called goose-flesh or 

Er^ethism (epeStafioCy irritation). An ab- 
normal heightening of nervous irritability. 

Erg. See hi/. 

Er-'got, or Ergo'ta. A fungus, C/avt- 
ceps purpura (or Stbum cornutuni)^ para- 
sitic upon rye. Contains sphacelinic acid^ 
ergot ink acid, and comutin^ to which its 
properties are due. A powerful excito- 
motor, hxmostatic, and gastro-intestinal 
irritant. Used most frequently to promote 
uterine contraction \\\ childbirth. Valu- 
able internally in amenorrhcea and atonic 

spermatorrhoea; externally in gonorrhoea, 
conjunctivitis and inflanmiations of mucous 
membranes. Effects most prompt by hy- 
podermic injection. Dose gr. x-gj. E., 
Ext. Fid., prepared with dilute hydro- 
chloric acid, alcohol, and water. Dose 
jss-ij. E., Ext., — Ergotin. Dose gr. 
ij-xx. E., Vinum, 15 per cent. Dose 
zj-,^j. Sclerotic Acid, thought to be 
identical with ei^otinic acid. 

Er^gotism. The constitutional effects of 
overdoses of ergot, or of the persistent use 
of food containing ergot. These may be 
acute, chronic, gangrenous, or spasmodic. 

Erig^eron. Fleabane. The plant E. 
canadensi. Physiological action like that 
of oil of turpentine, but less irritant. Ef)i- 
cient as a hsemostat in menorrhagia. E., 
01., the essential volatile oil of same. 
Dose n\^x- 3 ss. Unof 

Eriodic^tyon. Ycrba Santa. The leaves 
of E. gltitinosuntf a shrub best known in 
California. An excellent expectorant, and 
valuable as an excipient for quinine, the 
taste of which it largely conceals. Useful 
in bronchial affections. E., Ext. Fid. 
Dose n\^xv-3J. E., Ext. Dose gr. ij-x. 
All unof. 

Ero^sion (erodo, to eat into). Disinte- 
gration of tissue by mechanical, chemical 
or morbid action. 

Erot^ic (tpt^t love). Pertaining to the 
sexual passion. 

Erotoma^nia (tpo^y fiavia^ madness). 
Morbid, abnormal exaggeration of love 
generally; more limited to the imaginative 
than to the carnal aspect of the sentiment. 
See Nymphomaniay Satyriasis. 

Er^rhine (n*, in, ^«i', the nose). A medi- 
cine which, applied to the mucous mem- 
brane of the nose, increases nasal secre- 
tions. A sternutatory. 

Eructa^tion (emcto^ to belch). Belching. 

Erup^tion {erumpo, to burst out). A 
bursting forth of any kind or from any 
part, but applied especially to the chief 
symptom of certain skin diseases, consist- 
ing in pimples, vesicles, rash, etc. 

Erysip'^elas (epv6po^, red, Tre)./^, skin). A 
constitutional febrile disease with a pecu- 
liar redness and inflanmiation of the skin 
and subcutaneous tissue, generally of the 
face ; of possible bacterial origin. 

Erysip^eloid. A peculiar affection of the 
pahns of the hands or soles of the feet, 
characterized by zones of violaceous red 
eruption with burning and itching. 

Brythe^ma (epv&rffiaf a blush). An affec- 
tioD of the skin commonly known as " rose 




rash '* or " inflammatory blush.'* A con- 
gestion or redness of skin that with pres- 
sure temporarily disappears. £. An- 
nulare or Circinatum, a form marked 
by the spreading of the disease in ring- 
shaped or circular patches. £. Fugax, 
a transitory redness sometimes appearing 
on the faces and trunks of children. Usu- 
ally associated with worms. E. Inter- 
trigo, a congestion arising from the fric- 
tion of adjacent parts of the skin. E. 
Laeve, the redness frequently occurring in 
dropsical swelling of the legs. E. No- 
dosum, a form marked by symmetrical, 
node-like swellings over die tibise, con- 
sidered an expression of rheumatism. E. 
Papulatum, an inflammatory form marked 
by papules and vesicles. E. Paratrim- 
ma, the red patches preceding the appear- 
ance of bed-sores E. Pernio, a chil- 
blain. E. Roseola, a form marked by 
a dull red hue. May be idiopathic, or the 
symptomatic eruption preceding scarlet 
fever, measles, etc. E., Scarlatiniform, 
somewhat like that of scarlet fever, but 
usually in defined patches. Frequently 
accompanies septicaemia, puerperal fever, 
etc. E. Simplex, congestion due to ex- 
ternal irritation. E. Urticaria, the early 
stage of urticaria, q. v. 

Erythras^ma (fpiVy/wf ). A vegetable para- 
sitic disease producing brownish patches. 
Appears usually on the folds of the axillae 
and inguinal regions. Resembles Tinea 
Versicolor^ but is more insignificant. Due 
to very minute microspores. 

Eryth^roblast. See Leucocyte. 

Erythrochloro'^pia (epvf)po^, x^-^P^t 
green, w^, eye). A form of subnormal 
color perception in which green and red 
are the only colors correctly distinguished. 

Erythrodex-'trin. A dextrin formed by 
the action of saliva on starch. It gives a 
red color with iodine. 

Erythrogjan^ulose. A granular sub- 
stance, found in starch grains, coloring red 
with iodine. 

ErythromelaKgia ifpvdpo^, fie7.o^^ limb, 
dkyo^:^ pain). An aflection of the extremi- 
ties characterized by great redness and 

Erythroph^leme. See Casca Bark. 

Erythrops^ia (epi^po^^ ^V'/f, vision). An 
abnormality of vision in which all objects 
appear red. 

Erythrox'ylon. Coca, Cuca. The leaves 
of /i. coca, a shrub indigenous to the 
Andes Mountains. (Not to be confounded 
with cocoa.) Contains an alkaloid, cocaine ^ 

q. v., to which its properties are mainly 
due. An aromatic tonic and cerebral 
stimulant. Stimulates the brain, produc- 
ing a remarkable power of enduring hun- 
ger and fatigue. Large doses produce 
hallucinations. Effects similar to those of 
coffee, but more intense. Much used by 
the natives for sustenance during long 
journeys. The leaves, smoked, are bene- 
ficial in hay fever. E., Ext. Fid. Dose 
Zss-ij. Difficult to obtain good leaves. 
vVines and elixirs of coca are numerous. 

Es^bach's Method. A test for albumin 
in urine, the albumin being precipitated by 
a solution of picric and citric acids (10-20- 
970 parts of urine) ; the number of grammes 
per 1000 c.c. being indicated on the gradu- 
ated tube of the albumimeter. 

Es^char (e(r;^apoc.), to scab over). The 
slough or scab following cauterization, 
bums, etc, 

Escharot^ic. A substance which, applied 
to the skin, produces an eschar. A caustic. 

Es^culus Hippocasta^num. Horse- 
chestnut. The fmit of the common 
" buckeye," or horse-chestnut. Recom- 
mended in hemorrhoids. Dose gr. iij. 

Es^erine. An alkaloid derived from Phy- 
sostigma, q. v, 

Es^march 8 Bandage, or Apparatus. 
The bandage is of elastic robber, and is 
used upon a limb to be amputated, in order 
to drive the blood out of it by progressive 
application of turns about the limb toward 
the trunk. 

Esod^ic (effw, within, otJof, way). Pertain- 
ing to afiferent or centripetal nerves, or 
those conveying impressions toward the 
central nervous system. 

Esopho^ria. See Heterophoria. 

Esoter^ic {eaurepo^, within). Secret, mjrs- 
tcrious. Arising within the organism. 

Esotro^pia. See Strabismus. 

Es^sence {essentia). That quality of a 
thing giving it peculiarity of power. The 
peculiar qualities of a drug extracted and 
reduced to a small compass. 

Essen^tial. Pertaining to the essence of 
a substance. Pertaining to the peculiar 
and distinctive characteristic of a disease. 

Esther {tether, the up|)er air). The tenu- 
ous subtle fluid filling space and interpene- 
trating all bodies, the medium of trans- 
mission of the vibratory activities called 
light, heat, electricity and magnetism. 
Used also to designate a large class of 
oi^anic compounds. Spelled also ather. 

Esther. A thin, colorless, volatile, and 




highly inflammable liquid, in composition 
a di-ethylic oxide (CjH5),0. It is used 
mainly as a solvent for fats and oils, and 
as an anuesthetic. Internally it is anodyne, 
antispasmodic, diaphoretic, and narcotic. 
Inhaled it is an amesthetic, and a cardiac 
stimulant in toxic doses, poraljrzing the 
respiratory centers. E., Acetic, proper- 
tics like ethylic ether. Dose TT\^ x-^j. E., 
Commercial, contains 94 per cent, of 
ether. It is unBt for use exce])C as a solvent. 
E. Fortior, should contain 94 per cent, of 
ethylic oxide. Dose Tr\^x-,:5J. E., Hy- 
driodic, unof. Dose for inhalation n\^ xv. 
E., Hydrobromic, unof. Dose Ylix-zj. 
E. Oleum, contains equal parts ether 
and heavy oil of wine. E., Spt., Comp., 
commonly known as Hoffman's anodyne. 
It consists of ether 30, alcohol 67, ethereal 
oil 3 per cent. Dose n\^ v-^ j. E., Spt., 
Nitrosus, sweet spirit of nitre, a solution 
of ethyl nitrite in alcohol. Dose Z ss- ^ s». 

Ethe^real. Pertaining to the etner or to 

Etheriza^tion. The administration of 
ether to produce anaesthesia. This is 
effected by inhalation of the vapor. 

E^therism . Tlie symptoms of etherization. 

Ethnics (tfOiKo^j moral). The science of 
human feelings, thoughts and actions rela- 
ting to duty or morality. E., Medical, 
the duties a physician owes to himself, 
his profession and his fellow-men. 

Ethmoceph^alus (v^/uoc, ethmoid, Ketpahf, 
head). A cyclocephalic monstrosity with 
a rudimentary nose, the two eyes being 
closely approximated. 

Eth^moid (r/Sfioc, a sieve). The cribri- 
form bone of the nose, perforated for the 
transmission of the olfactory nerves. 

Ethnol^og^ [efho^j a nation, ^.o}^)^, a dis- 
course). The comparative study of the 
races of mankind. 

Ethoxy-caPfe'me. A remedy recom- 
mended to relieve the pain of herpes 
zoster, and migraine. It is also said to 
prevent the gastric pain often caused by 

EthyKamine. A ptomaine formed in putre- 
fying yeast, in wheat-flour, and in distilla- 
tion of beet-sugar residues. It is a strongly 
ammoniacal liquid, boiling at 18.7°, — mis- 
cible with water in every proportion, — com- 
bustible, and possesses strong basic proper- 
ties. Non -poisonous. 

Eth^yl Chlor^ide. Chloric Ether. An 
anaesthetic resembling chloroform in action. 
Use sometimes followed by corneal opacity. 

Eth^ylene. A hydro-carbon radical, having 
the molecular structure CjH^. It is char- 
acterized by strong affinities, especially for 
chlorine, with which it unites to form an 
oily compound. Hence its common name, 
oUfiant gas. 

Etnylidenedi^amine. A poisonous pto- 
maine obtained from decomposing haddock. 
Injections of the ptomaine in mice and 
guinea-pigs produce abimdant flow of se- 
cretion from the nose, mouth and eyes. 
Pupils dilate and eyeballs project. Violent 
dyspnoea follows and continues until death, 
that does not tak€ place for twenty-four 
hours or more. The heart is stopped in 

Etiola^tion (Fr. etioler, to blanch). The 
paleness or blanching, in plants or man, 
from confinement in darkness. 

EtioKog^ (a/r/a,,a cause, T^oyoq, a dis- 
course). A treatise on or pertaining to 
the causes of disease. 

Eucal3rp^tU8. The leaves (lanceolate, 
after 3 years' growth) of the E, globulus, 
or Blue Gum, native to Australia, but now 
cultivated in California. Contains a vola- 
tile oil, which yields eucalyptol, a cam- 
phor, by distillation. An aromatic bitter, 
promoting digestion. Highly antiseptic 
and anti-malarial. Valuable in atonic dys- 
pepsia and in intermittent fevers. E., 
Fid. Ext., alcoholic. Dose n\^x-3J. E. 
01., the volatile oil. Dose n\^x-xxx, in 
emulsion. E.,Tinct. Unof. Dose 3ss-ij. 

Eudiom^eter (ft»(^/<2, calm weather, fierpitv, 
a meastu'e). An instmment for ascertain- 
ing the composition of the air. 

Eudipleu^ra (ev, well, rf/r, twice, Tp.«'/oa, 
the side). In biology a designation of 
those organic forms composed of two 
equal and symmetrical halves. 

Eu^genol. A product obtained from the 
residue of the distillation of oil of cloves. 
Antiseptic. Unof. 

Eu^kalyn. A substance similar to inosit, 
arising from the fermentation of melitose. 

Eulach^ion Oil, or 

Eulacho^ni Oleum. Candle-fish Oil. Eu- 
lachon Oil. The oil of the fish Tha/e- 
ichthys padficus, or candlefish. Less dis- 
agreeable than cod-liver oil, for which it is 
often substituted. Dose 3J-iv. Unof. 

Eu^nuch (fm»or;fof, guardian of the couch). 
One from whom the genital organs have 
been removed or mutilated so as to render 
him impotent. 

Euon^ymus. Wahoo. The bark of E. 
atropitrpureus. An astringent tonic and 
purgative, resembling rhubarb, jalap, aloe. 




ftc.y but rather milder. Beneficially em- 
ployed in dropsy and hepatic affections. 
E., Ext. Dose gr. j-v. Euonymin, 
unof.,. the essential principle. Dose gr. 

Eupato'^rium. Thorough wort. Boneset. 
The leaves and flowering tojM of £. per- 

foliatum. A bitter tonic and diaphoretic, 
of value in remittent and typhoid fevers. 
Thought, also, to be a ta^nifuge. E., Fid. 
Ext. Dose n\^x-!5j. 

EuperistaFsis. See Peristalsis. 

Euphor^bia PiluUrera. Has reputed 
value in asthma and cardiac dyspnoea. 
1 )ose of the extract gr. j. Unof 

Eupho^ria (fii2k)/>of, easily carried). The 
sense of well-being or health. 

Euphra^sia. Kyebright. A small an- 
nual, formerly much used in eye affections. 
Of utility as an astringent lotion in con- 
junctivitis. Valuable in breaking up nasal 
catarrh and in hay fever. E., Tinct., 
strength 1.9. Dose TT\j-v. 

Euplas^tic (fv, well, 7r?.a<T<7w, to form). 
Pertaining to lymph of a healthy form, 
consistency, etc. 

Eupnoe^a. (ev, well, 7rvf«, to breathe). 
Normal and easy respiration. 

Eustach'^ian Cath'^eter. An instrument 
for dilating the £. tube, introduced along 
the floor of the nose. 

Eustach^ian Tube. The canal extending 
from the tympanum to the pharynx. 

Euthana^'sia (fv, well, Oavaroq^ death). 
An easy or calm death. 

Euto^cia (roKof, childbirth). An easy 
natural delivery. 

Evac^uant [n'onwy to empty). A medi- 
cine which increases the secretion or evacu- 
ation of an oi^an, especially the bowels. 
A purgative. 

Evacua'^tion {tfacuo). Defecation. 

Evapora^tion (<•, away, vapor^ vapor). 
In phannacy, the process of converting a 
licjuid into va|x)r by the agency of heat. 

Evc'ning Prim'rose. The flowering tops 
of (Knothera biennis. Recommended in 
asthma with gastric irritalnlity. Dose of 
the fld. ext. ^ss-^j. Unof. 

Eventra-'tion (/, out of, venter^ the belly). 
Pertaining to an extrusion of the abdomi- 
nal viscera; especially in a monstrosity. 
Used also as a synonym of Pendulous 

Ever-'sion of the Eyelid. A folding of 
the lid upon itself for the purpose of ex- 
posing the conjunctival surface or sulcus. 

Eviscera^tion {e^ out, vistera^ the lx)wels). 
The removal of the viscera E., of the 

Eye, removal of the entire contents of the 
globe of the eye, leaving the sclerotic 
intact. An operation in place of enuclea- 
tion, and following which some operators 
insert a glass or metal shell globe, called 
artificial vitreous^ to preserve the shape, 
etc.y of the eyeball. E., Obstetric, the 
removal of the abdominal or thoracic 
viscera, in embryotomy. 

Evolu^tion {evoho, to unroll). The develop- 
ment or unrolling of the organs and func- 
tions, and the stages of growth of an organ- 
ism. See Darwinism. E., Spontaneous, 
a tenn expressive of the occurrence in child- 
birth of a series of changes effected by the 
organisms themselves, whereby a shoulder 
presentation is transformed within the 
pelvis into a combined breech and shoulder 
presentation and delivery effected. 

Evulsion (evello, to pluck out). Forcible 
tearing or plucking away of a port, as a 
polypus, tonsil, etc. 

Exacer bastion [exacerbo, to be violent). 
Increased violence of the symptoms of a 

Exan^thema, or Ex^anthem (efov^/m, 
eruption). An eruption of the skin. 

Excava^tion of the Optic Nerve. A 
hollowing or " cupping " of the disc, or optic 
nerve-entrance, that may be physiological 
or congenital, and without particular signifi- 
cance ; or pathological^ the result of glau- 
coma, optic atrophy, etc. 

Excen^tric Pains. Radiating pains, symp- 
tomatic of spinal disease, due to irritation 
of the posterior nerve-roots. The pains are 
felt to be in the peripheral organs, hence 
the name above. 

Excip^ient {excipioy to take up). In phar- 
macy, any substance used to give an agree- 
able or convenient form to the ingredients 
of a prescription. 

Excis^ion {excindoy to cut off). The opera- 
tion of removing a part or tissue by cut- 

Excitability (excito^ to rouse). The qual- 
ity of reacting to stimulus. 

Exci^tant. A remedy that stimulates the 
activity of an organ. 

Excito- iexcito). A Ijitin prefix denoting 
stimulation or excitation. E. -motor, per- 
taining to nerves aroasing motor function. 
Also, a drug or agent that increases activity 
cf the motor nerve centers. E. -reflex, 
pertaining to a reflex action that ends in 
muscular action. 

Exci^tor. See Sympathetic Ophthalmitis. 

Exclu^sion (excludo^ to shut out). A 
shutting out. E., Diagnosis by, the 




reaching a final or most proLable diagnosis 
by successively excluding one hjrpothesis 
after another as, fh)m a consideration of the 
symptoms, impossible. 

Ezcoria^tion (^jr, from, corium^ the skin). 
Abrasion of the skin, or removal, partial 
or complete, of a limited portion of the 

Ex^crement (txcemOf to sift out). The 

Excrementi^tious. Pertaining to the ex- 

Ezcres^cence (excrfsco, to grow out). An 
abnormal outgrowth upon the body. 

Ezcre^ta (fxcfrno). The natural dis- 
charges of the body, particularly those of 
the bowels. 

Ez^cretin. A substance extracted from 
human foeces, related to cholesterin; of un- 
known history and constitution. 

Ezcre^tion \excef7io). The separation of 
the fluid waste products of an organ, or the 
body as a whole, out of the blood. The 
fluids so excreted. 

Ez^cretory {excerno). Pertaining to ex- 
cretion. E. Duct, a canal conveying the 
excretion from the excretory organ to the 
discharging point 

Ezenceph^aius (f^, tyKtipaTuav). A mon- 
strosity with the brain outside the cranial 
cavity, associated with vertebral fissure. 

Ezentera'^tion (ff, evrefxtv, intestine). 
Removal of the intestines or thoracic 
viscera in embryotomy. 

Ex^ercise (exerceo^ to keep busy). Func- 
tional activity of the muscles. E., 
Active, that exerted by the will of the 
patient. E., Passive, when the part is 
moved by another, or acted upon, as in 

Ezfolia^tion (exfolio, to shed leaves). 
The lamellar (or other) separation of bone 
or other tissue from the living structure 
in Dry Necrosis, etc. 

Ezhala^tion {ex halo y to breathe out). The 
vapor, subtle particles, etc, given off by 
the body through the skin, lungs, etc, 

Ezhaust'^ion (exhaurio, to pour out). 
Drawing out or emptying. Applied espe- 
cially to great loss of vital and nervous 
power from fatigue, or protracted disease. 

Exhib^it (exhibeo, to give). To adminis- 
ter medicine. 

Ezhil'^arant (exhilaro, to cheer). An 
agent to enliven and cheer the mind. E. 
Gas, Nitrous Oxide gas. 

Ezhuma'^tion (ex, humus, ground). The 
digging up after interment, or again bring- 
ing a dead body out, for examination in 

medico-legal inquiries, or for reinterment, 

Exod^ic (ef«, out of, o<5of, a way). Ap. 
plied to nerves transmitting impulses out- 
ward from the central nervous system. 

Ez^ogen (cfw, ytwax^, to produce). A 
plant whose growth is by means of ex- 
ternal deposit upon the trunk or branch. 
See Endogen. 

Exom^phalos. See Hernia. 

Ezopath^ic (c^«, Troflof, pain). Pertaining 
to those causes of disease coming from 
without or beyond the organism. See, also, 

Ezophor^ia. See Heterophoria. 

Ezophthal^mic. Pertaining to exophthal- 
mos. E. Goitre. See Goitre. 

Exophthal^mos (e^, otf^aTifioQ). Abnor- 
mal prominence or protrusion of the eye- 
balls. E., Pulsating, that characterized 
by a bruit and pulsation, due to an aneu- 
rism that pushes the eye forward. 

Ezosmo^sis. See Osmosis. 

Ezosto^sis (ef, o<n-eoi/,'bone). Abnormal 
enlargement or growth of bone, especially 
a deposit of bony tissue upon the surface 
preexisting bone. 

Ezoter^ic (e^urepiKoc, external). Sjmony- 
mous with Exopathic. 

Exot^ic (e^Lrruio^, foreign). Pertaining to 
plants and products from another country. 

Ezotro^pia. See Strabismus. 

Ezpec^tant (expccto, to look out for). 
Awaiting or expecting ; applied to n plan 
of treatment consisting in watching the 
progress of a disease, and not interiering, 
with therapeutical measures, unless war- 
ranted by special symptoms. 

Ezpecta^tion of Life. The average num- 
ber of years that persons of a given age, 
taken one with anodier, live, assuming that 
they die according to a given table of the 
probabilities of life. It thus has no rela- 
tion to the most probable life of a single 
given individual. E. of L., Complete, 
the addition of one-half year to the Cur- 
tate Expectation to allow for that portion of 
a year lived by each person in the year of 
his death. E. of L., Curtate, the average 
number of whole or completed yean, lived 
by each person. 

Expect ^orant {ex, out, pectus, the bicast). 
A remedy that acts upon the pulmonic mu- 
cous membrane, to promote or mod.fy its 

Expectora^tion (ex, pectus). The fluid or 
semi-fluid matters from the lungs and air 
passages expelled by coughing and spit 


Experimen^tum Mirab^ile of Kirch- 
ner. An hypnotic phenomenon in ani- 
mals; a hen, ^. ^., remaining in a Bxed 
position when the head is pressed down 
and a chalk line made from its beak. 

Ex^pert {expertus^ proved). A penson es- 
pecially qualified in a science or art. E., 
Medical, a physician peculiarly fitted by 
experience or especial learning to render 
a true opinion in medico-legal or diag- 
nostic questions. 

Expira^tion (expiro^ to breathe out). The 
act of breathing forth, or expelling air 
from the lungs. 

Explora^tion {exploroy to search out). The 
searching out the condition of a diseased 
organ or part by means of auscultation, 
palpation, percussion, etc. Also the search- 
mg a wound to learn its nature, course, 
etc.y and if foreign bodies may be present. 
Also the examination of the female geni- 
tal organs by the finger or instrument for 
diagnostic purposes. 

Explor^atory. Pertaining to exploration. 
E. Puncture, the puncture of a cavity or 
tumor and extraction therefrom of some of 
the contents to learn the nature of the 
same. E. Trocar, one especially adi^ted 
for E. puncture. 

Explor^er. An instrument for use in ex> 
ploration. E., Electrical, an instrument 
for detecting a bullet by means of the elec- 
trie current. 

Explo^aives. See Consonants. 

Expres^sion. A pressing out. The forci- 
ble separation of liquids from solids by 
pressure. E. of Foetus or Placenta, 
assisting the expulsion of the same by 
pressure upon the abdominal walls. 

Expulsion, Sponta^neous. The extru- 
sion of the fcetus or the placenta without 
external aid. 

ExpuKsive {expello^ to drive out). Per- 
taining to the extrusion or driving out of 
the fcetus in childbirth, the voiding of the 
fxces, urine, etc. 

Exsan'^guine [exy sangtiis^ blood). Blood- 

Exsicca^tion [ex^sicco^ dry). The process 
of depriving a solid of its moisture or vola- 
tile constituents by the agency of moderate 

Ex^strophy (fKm-pf^, to evert). Con- 
genital absence of the anterior wall of the 
bladder and alxlomen, with extroversion 
of the bladder. 

Exten^aion [extendo, to stretch out). Trac- 
tion made upon a fractured or di:>located 
limb in order to bring the parts in ])roper 

apposition. E., Angular, a method of 
reducing and maintaining old dislocations 
of the hip. E., Counter, traction upon 
the trunk or the trunk-end of a fractured 
limb in addition to extension. E., Double, 
upon both limbs in hip-joint disease, etc. 
E. Stage in Labor, one of the stages 
of labor, consisting in the bending of the 
foetal head, the occiput toward the back. 

Exten^sor (extendo). That which stretches 
out or extends. E. Muscles. See Miacle, 
E. Tet^anus. In general spasms the 
extensor muscles overcome the flexors, and 
the spasm thus becomes an E. T. 

Extirpa^tion (extirpo^ to root out). 
Thorough excision or out-rooting of a part. 
E. of the Eyeball, complete removal of 
the globe of the eye. Enucleation. 

Extra-. A Latin prefix, meaning outside^ 

Extraction of Cataract. Removal of the 
cataiactous lens by surgical operation. 
The methods proposed or practiced are al- 
most numberless. Daviers Method, im- 
proved hy Beery wd^ by a semicircular flap, 
upward in Daviel's, downward in Beer's, 
in the cornea, or at the margin, with rupture 
of the capsule and expression of the lens. 
This method is being revived and, with 
modification, adopted by a large number 
of modem operators, and is called the Flap 
Extraction. The Discission Operation 
is used in soft cataract, and consists in in- 
troducing a needle, whereby the capsule is 
broken and the aqueous humor gains access 
to the lens-substance, which then is absorl^ed 
or taken out by suction. In v. Graefe*s 
Peripheral Linear Method, the Graefe 
lance-knife enters the sclerotic 1.5 mm. 
from the corneal border, and 2 nun. below 
the horizontal tangent of the upper border 
of the cornea, and is at first directed down- 
ward, but the counterpuncture is finally 
made opposite the point of puncture. The cut 
upward is then made parallel to the plane 
of the iris, followed by an iridectomy, cap- 
sulotomy, and expression of the lens. The 
change in v. Graefe's Modified Linear 
Extraction consists chiefly in bringing 
the section to the corneoscleral junction. 
Needling, or the needle - operation. 
See al)Ove, under Discission. The Sim- 
ple Method, now advocated by many oph- 
thalmic sui^eons, consists in a flap- form- 
ing section and an omission of the iridec- 
tomy. The Suction Method consists in 
the extraction of soft cataracts by sucking 
the lenticular matter through a syringe 
nozzle introduced into the lens substance. 




Eztract^or (e'x, traho, to draw). An instru- 
ment for extracting bullets, sequestrse, etc, 
E., Screw, armed with a screw attach- 
ment ; a tirefond. 

Eztract^um \^extraho\ An extract. In 
pharmacy, a semi -solid preparation ob- 
tained by dissolving the soluble parts of 
drugs, and evaporating the solution thus 
obtained. Alcohol and water are the most 
common solvents. There are 32 official 
extracta. E. Pluidum, a fluid extract. 
An alcoholic extract or concentrated tinc- 
ture of a strength such that I cubic centi- 
meter represents the medicinal powers of 
I gramme of the drug. Approximately 
I minim of the fluid extract represents i 
grain of the drug. In some of the fluid 
extracts alcohol is used as the solvent; 
in others alcohol and water, and in still 
others alcohol and glycerine. There are 
79 official extracta Jluida. 

Eztra-pol^ar Region. That lying outside 
the electrodes, as opposed to the Intra- 
polar Region, or area, that lying within 
or directly beneath. 

Eztra-u^terine (extra^ uterus). Without 
the uterus. E.-u. Pregnancy, ^t Preg- 
nancy. E.-u. Life, that after birth. 

Extravasa^tion (extra^ vas, a vessel). 
Filtration or effusion of blood, serum or 
fluid into adjacent tissues. 

Eztrin'^sic (extrinsictiSy from without). 
External, outward. E. Muscles, those 
attached to the trunk and extending to the 

Eztrover^sion. See Exstrophy, 

Exuda^tion (exudoy to sweat). Filtra- 
tion or oozing of the serum of the blood 
through the walls of the vessels. 

Eye (Sax. edgCj Lat. oculusY The organ 
of vision. E., Accommoaation of. See 
Accommodation. E., Appendages of, 
the eyelids, brows and lachrymal appa- 
ratus. E., Apple of, formerly the eye- 
Udl; the puptl. E., Artificial, a thin 

shell of glass, celluloid or other substance, 
colored like the natural eye, placed in the 
socket after enucleation. E., Compound, 
the organ of vision formed of several crys- 
tal spheres, as in the low^er crabs. E., 
Diagrammatic, of Listing, a diagram 
of the eye for the more exact calculation 
of the passage of rays of light through 
the eye. E., Pineal or Epiphysial, the 
rudimentary median eye in some lizards. 
E.,Schematic, an ideal or normal eye. 

Eye^ball. The globe of the eye. E., 
Dislocation of. See Dislocation, 

Eye^bright. See Euphrasia. 

Eye'brow. The supercilium. The con- 
nective tissue, skin and hairs above the 
eye. The hairs serve chiefly to prevent 
the. sweat from falling into the eye. 

Eye/ -cells. Cup-shaped cells of porce- 
lain enameled black to place over the eye 
after operations. 

Eye-glass. A lens worn in one eye. 
Eye-glasseSy pince-ntt, worn instead of 
spectacles, and held in position by a spring 
acting upon the bridge of the nose. 

E3rc^-g^ound. A synonym of the fundus- 
oculi or internal aspect of the vitreous 
chamber of the eye. 

Eye^lashes. The cilia; the hairs of the 
e3relid. E., Evulsion of, pulling out 
the same. E., Transposition of, shift- 
ing an excised strip of cilia and lid edge 
containing the hair bulbs to a new position, 
or otherwise altering the direction of the 
lashes by Ofieration. 

Eyelid. The protective covering of the 
eyeball, composed of skin, glands, con- 
nective and muscular tissue, the tarsus and 
conjunctiva, with the cilia at the free edge. 

Eye-strain. The excess and abnormalism 
of effort w^ith the resultant irritation, caused 
by ametropia or insufficiency. Used also of 
the effects of excessive use of normal eyes. 

Eye-teeth. The canine teeth of the upper 



F. Abbreviation of Fahrenheit ; also of 
Fac^ make, and of Fiat^ let there be made. 

PI. or Fid. Abbreviation of Fluid, 

Ft. Abbreviation of Fiat. 

Face (fades ^ the face). A name applied 
to the loWer and anterior part of the 
head, including the eyes, nose, mouth, 
cheeks, lips, etc. 

Fac'et (Fr. facette^ a little face). A small 
plane surface. The articulating surfaces 
of bones. Also, the flat surfaces occa- 
sionally seen in calculi, caused by friction 
upon each other. In Zodlogy, a segment 
of the compound eye of an insect. 

Fascial (fades). Pertaining to the face. 
F. Angle, the divergence between a 
line drawn from the upper jaw tangent 
to the forehead, and another to the ex- 
ternal auditory foramen. F. Artery. See 

Facultative (facultaSy capability). Per- 
taining to functional or acquired power. 
In l)acteriology, amphibious as to oxygen. 
F. Aerobia. See Airobia. F. Anaero- 
bia. See Anaerobia. F. Hyperopia, 
a division of manifest hyperopia. F. Para- 
sites, those that develop in non-organ- 
ized me<lia. See, e.g.^ Ratdins' Liquid, 

Fac^ulty (facultas). A special action of 
the mind through the instrumentality of an 
organ or organs. Also, the corps of pro- 
fessors and instructors of a university and 
its colleges. F., Medical, the corps of 
professors and instructors of a medical col- 

Fse^cal (feXy sediment). Pertaining to 
the fa;ces. 

Fse^ces (frx). The dregs of a liquor, as 
wine. Also, the alvine discharges or 
excretions of the bowels. 

Fahr^enheit'sThermom^eter. See Ther- 

Faint (fingo^ to feign). A condition of 
languor. Also, a state of syncope or 

Falc^iform (///.r, a sickle). Having the 
shape of a sickle. F. Process, a pro- 
cess of the dura mater which separates the 
hemispheres of the brain. 

Fall-'ing. Dropping; losing one's equi- 
lil)rium. F. of Womb. See Uterus. 
F. Sickness, a common term for epilepsy. 

Fallo^pian Tubes. See Oviduits. 

Fall^-rh^otome. An arrangement where- 
by a weight injures a muscle, and also 

breaks and makes a galvanometer circuit ; 
by this instrument it was shown that the 
demarcation current took a certain time to 

False (fallOy to deceive). Not genuine. 
Feigning or closely counterfeiting. F. 
Bittersweet. See Climbing Staff-tree. 
F. Gromwell, the root of Onosmodium 
virginianum. Reputed to be tonic and 
diuretic. Dose of fld. ext. n\^xv-zss. 
Unof. F. Passage, a passage formed by 
the laceration of the urethra, caused by the 
forcible introduction of a catheter or other 
instrument in the wrong direction. F. 
Ribs. See Ribs. F. Water, a collection 
of fluid in catarrhal endometritis. 

Falz (Lat.). A sickle. F. Cerebelli, die 
sickle-like processes between the lobes of 
the cerebellum. F. Cerebri, the sickle- 
like process of the dura mater. 

Fam^ily (familiar a household). The per- 
sons belonging to a household. In biology, 
a class of genera similar in organic struc- 

Fam^ine (famis^ hunger). Severe and 
continued hunger. Also, a general scarcity 
of food, which results in the starvation of 
many people. F. Fever. Same as Relap- 
sing Fever y q. v. 

Fang. See Teeth, 

Fan'^tdme. See Phantom, 

Farad^. The unit of electrical capacity. 
Practically, a capacity sufficient to hold one 
coulomb of current having a potential 
of one volt. The micro-farad, ji^T^^intTf 
part of the theoretical farad, is commonly 
used. A practical form of condenser of 
one farad capacity consists of 300 leaves 
of tinfoil, each 16 centimeters in diameter, 
separated by leaves of mica. The entire 
surface is about 1. 1 sq. meters area. 

Farad^ic. The induced current, named 
from its discoverer, Michael Faraday. See 

Faradixa^tion. The application of the 
induced ciurent to a diseased part, or in 

Farley. See Equinia. 

Fari^na (farina). The ground or pow- 
dered fecula of seeds, especially that of 
com, barley, rye and wheat. 

Farina^ceous (farina). Having the 
nature of or yielding flour. Also, ap- 
plied to very fine furfuraceous exfoliations. 

Par Point. See Punetum Remotum, 




In the pancreatic juice, there is P., Dias- 
tatic or Amylopsin, converting starch 
into maltose ; Tiypsin, converts proteids 
into peptones in an alkaline medium; 
P., Emulsive, emulsify fats ; P., Pat- 
splitting, or Steapsin, splits fats into 
glycerin and fatty acids and P., Milk- 
curdling. In the intestinal juice, there is 
a P., Diastatic, changes maltose into 
glucose ; P., Proteolytic, changes fibrin 
into peptone; Invertin changes cane- 
into grape-sugar; and F., Milk-cnrdling^ 
and A., Diastatic y are also found in blood, 
chyle, liver, milk, etc. Pepsin and other 
ferments are also found in muscle and 
urine; and, lastly, a Pibrin-forming P. 
is also found in blood. 

Fern {^zx. feani). A name given to the 
cryptogamous plants of the order Fiiices. 
See Aspidium, 

Ferrein^, Tubule of. See Pyramid, 

Fer^ro- {ferrum, iron). A prefix used 
with the names of certain salts of iron. 

Per'rum. (Lat.) {Gen. Perri.) Iron. 
/;• r= 56. Quantivalence ii, I v. A metal 
having a luster varying firom silver white 
to gray. In pharmacy, a fine non-elastic, 
soft wire is used. F. Redactum, iron 
by hydrogen, occurs in fine powder ob- 
tained by the reduction of ferric oxide 
by hydrogen. A constituent of the blood, 
to the red corpuscles of which it gives 
color. An irritant in large or long- 
continued doses. In small doses a 
stimulant and slightly astringent tonic. 
Highly valuable in amemia, but contra- 
indicated in plethora. Externally many 
of the soluble salts are excellent styptic 
and astringent lotions. Dose gr. j-v. 
Perri Acetat., Liq., a 33 per cent, so- 
lution in water. P. Acetat., Tinct., has 
li(j. ferri acetas 50, alcohol 30, acetic ether 
20 parts. St}'ptic and stimulant. Dose 
gr. X- 3 iij. P. Bromidi, Syr., contains 10 
per cent, of ferric bromide. Sedative tonic, 
recommended in ncrvoas di.sorders. P. 
Carb., Saccharat., contains 15 per cent, 
of ferrous carlwnate. Stimulant to diges- 
tion. Dose gr. ij-x, with food. P. Carb., 
Massa, Vallet*s mass; ferrous sulphate 
100, sodium carl)onate iio, honey 36, 
sugar 25, syrup and distilled water && 
q. s. ad fac. lOO parts. P. Comp., Mis- 
tura, Griffith's mixture; ferrous sulphate, 
myrrh, sugar, &a 18, potassium carbonate 8, 
spi. lavender 50, rose water 900. Essen- 
tially a carbonate of iron. Dose gr. iij-v. 
F. Pilulse, Comp., Griffith's pill, con- 
taining each, ferrous sulphate |pr. jk^, so- 

dium carb. gr. ^, myrrh gr. jss, syrup q. s. 
P. Chloridum, strongly acid, astringent, 
haemostatic and styptic. Never used in- 
ternally. P. Chlor., Liq., an aqueous so- 
lution containing 38 per cent, of the salt. 
Dose Tl^ij-x; rarely used. P. Chlor., 
Tinct., contains liq. chlor. ferri 35, alco- 
hol 65 parts. Very commonly used, and 
one of the best tonic preparations. Dose 
n\^v-xx. P. Citras, soluble in water, 
insoluble in alcohol. A mild stimulant. 
Dose gr. ij-v. P. Citras, Liq., a solution 
of ferri citras, 35 per cent, in strength, 
Dosegr. v-xv. P. Citras, Vinum, am- 
monio-ferric citrate 4, tinct. orange peel, 
syrup, aa 12, stronger white wine 72 parts. 
Dose 3J-ij. P. Hypophosphitis, ferric 
hypophosphite, soluble in very dilute 
hydrochloric acid. Dose gr. v-x. P. 
lodidum Saccharat., soluble in water. 
Tonic. Dose gr. v-x. P. lod., Pil., 
contain reduced iron, iodine, liquorice, 
sugar, acacia, and water, coated with 
balsam of tolu in ether. Dose j-ij 
pills. P. lodidi, Syr., contains 10 per 
cent, of the iodide. Dose n\^v-xxx. P. 
Lactas, ferrous lactate, — best solvent, 
sodium citrate. Dose gr. j-iij. P. Ni- 
tratis, Liq., aqueous, contains 6 per cent, 
of salt, styptic and astringent. Dose H\^v 
-XV. P. Oxalas. Dose gr. ij in pill. 
P. Oxid. Hydratum, ferric hydrate, 
prepared by adding 2a\, ammonia 8 parts 
to a solution of ferric sulphate 10 yaxia. 
An antidote for arsenical poisoning, \yct 
pared when needed. P. Oxid. Hydrat. 
cum Magnesia, prei)ared when needed 
firom sol. ferric sulphate looo gr., water 
2000 grains, to which is added magnesia 
150 gr. water ^xxxij. An antidote for 
arsenic. P. ^mplastrum, strengthen- 
ing plaster; ferric hydrate, dried Canada 
turjx^ntine. Burgundy pitch, && 10, lead 
plaster 70 parts. F. Trochisci, have 
each of ferric hydrate dried gr. v, vanilla 
gr. -^Qy sugar and mucilage of trngacanth 
q. s. Dose j-iij each day. P. Phos- 
phas, an adjuvant to laxative pills, gr. v 
-X. P. Pyrophosphas, tasteless and 
non -astringent. I)o>e gr. ij-v. P. Sul- 
phas, copperas^ prcrto-sulphate of iron, fer- 
rous sulphate, astringent and irritating. 
An ingredient of pil. aloes et ferri, q. v. 
P. Sulph. Precipitat., the foregoing pre- 
cipitated from solution by alcohol. Dcm^; 
gr. ss-ij. P. Subsulph. Liq., Monsel's 
solution, an aqueous solution of basic sul- 
phate of iron, powerfully astringent, styptic 
and haemostatic, rarely given intertudly. 




Dose gr. iij-x. F. Sulph. Exsiccat., 
dried ferrous sulphate, the most astringent 
and irritating. Dose gr. ss-ij, in pill. P. 
Valerianas, valerianate of iron, soluble 
in alcohol. Dose gr. i-iij, in pill. F. 
et Ammonii Citras, citrate of iron 3, 
water of ammonia I part. Dose gr. ij-v. 
F. et Ammonii Sulphas, ammonic- 
sulphate of iron, ferric alum. Least astrin- 
gent of sulphates. Dose gr. ij-v. F. et 
Ammonii Tartras, ammonic tartrate of 
iron. Dose gr. v-xx. F. et Potassii 
Tartras, least disagreeable of all iron 
preparations. Dose gr. v-x. F. et 
Quininse Citras, has 12 per cent, of 
quinine. Astringent and stimulant. Dose 
gr. iij-v. F. et Quin. Cit., Liq., of 
doubtful value. Dose n^v-xv. F. Vi- 
num Amarum, bitter wine of iron, con- 
tains liq. citrate of iron and quinine 8, 
tinct. orange peel 12, sjTup 36, stronger 
white wine 44. A good substitute for the 
various "elixirs of cahsaya and iron." 
Dose 3J-iv. F. et Strychninse Citras, 
contains I jx;r cent of strychnine. Astrin- 
gent and stimulating. Dose gr. j-iij. F. et 
Ammonii Acetas, Mist., Hasham's mix- 
ture, contains tinct. fer. chloride 2, acetic 
acid 3, liq. ammonii acct. 20, elixir au- 
rantii 10, syrup 15, water 50 parts. Very 
agreeable, tonic and diuretic. Dose 3 ij-v. 


F. Dialysatum, dialyscd iron, a ten per 
cent, oxychloride in water. Astringent 
and styj)tic, but only feebly chalyl)eate. 
Dose n\^x-xxx. F. Arsenias (not to 
Ix! confounded with arsen//*' of iron). 
Dose gr. xft-J. F. et Manganesii 
lodidi Syr., containing in each Hd. 5, 
50 gr. of i(xiidcs in pru|)ortion of 3 of iron 
tn I of mangancsf. Dose l^x-xxx-^:^]. F, 
et Manganesii Phosphat., Syr., syrup 
of phosphate of iron and manganese. Each 
,:^ contains 2 gr. phosph. of iron and I of 
manganese. Dose ^}. F. Mistura 
Aromat., pale cinchona lark 4, ca- 
lumba 2, cloves I, iron wire 2, tinct. carda- 
mon comp. 12, tinct. orange jxrel 2, water 
of ixfp|H^rmint 50. Dose 5J~U- ^' Mist. 
Laxans, ferrous sul[)hate gr. ij, magnesia 
sulphate ^]^ dilute sulphuric acid Tl\iiji 
spl. chloroform TT\^xx, water of pepix'rmint 
ad fac. ^]. Ferro-salina, Mist., mag- 
nesium .sulphate ^^j, {X)tas.sium ditartrate 
2J, dried sulphate of iron gr. x, water 
^xxxij. Ilose a wineglas.sful. F. Phos- 
phatum Quininae et Strychninse, Syr., 
Easton*s S)Tup, unof Each 5J contains 

gr. j phospb. of iron, gr. j quinia and gr. 
Jy strychnia. 

Fer^tile {/erti/is, fruitful). Prolific, fruit- 
ful. In botany, applied to flowers having 
a pistil. 
Fertiliza^tion of the Ovum. See Fe- 

Feru^la. Giant fennel. A genus of the 
order Umbelliferae. Also, a splint. 
Festina'^tion {festino^ to hasten). A symp- 
tom of paralysis agitans and other diseases 
in which the patient shows in walking a 
tendency to take quicker and quicker steps. 
Propulsion or retropulsion are coincident 

Fc'ver (ffbris, a fever). A systemic dis- 
ease or symptom of disease whose distinc- 
tive characteristic is elevation of tempera- 
ture, accom{>anied also by quickened cir- 
culation, increased katabolism or tissue- 
waste and disordered secretions. F., 
Abdominal. See Typhoid F. F., Af- 
rican. See /"., Yellow. F. and Ague. 
See /'., Intermittent. F., Anomalous, 
one whose symptoms are irregular. F., 
Ardent, a malarial fever to which immi- 
grants to a tropical country are peculiarly 
liable. F., Articular. See Dengue. 
F., Asthenic, one with a low fever tem- 
perature, weak circulation and great loss 
of ner\ous force. F., Atypic. See /'., 
anomalous. F., Bilious, one accom- 
])anying affections of the digestive organs. 
F., Catarrhal, that with catarrhal affec- 
tions of the air-passnges. F., Catheter, 
a severe remittent fever sometimes follow- 
ing the pa.s.sage of the catheter. F., 
Cerebro-spinal, a malignant epidemic 
fever characterized by s{)asmodic actions 
of the muscles of the neck, retraction of 
the head, hypcrasthesia, <*A-., with lesions 
of the cerebral and spinal membranes ; due 
to a siK'cific poison. F., Congestive, a 
malignant form of a remittent or intermit- 
tent malarial fever. F., Continued, one 
in which there is a slowly cx>ntinuous rise 
of temi^erature until a not high crisis is 
reached, whence the fever ends fatally or 
slowly .subsides. F., Enteric. See A., 
Typhoid. F., Eruptive, that accom- 
panied or succeeded by an eruj^tion of the 
.skin. Kxami^les are Scarlet /•*., Mtasles^ 
Rotht'ln^ Smallpox^ Vaccination ^ I'ari- 
celAi, /uysipelas, /)engut'. F., Essen- 
tial. See /'., Idiopathic. F., Idio- 
pathic, one in which no local afl'ection 
causes the disorder. F., Inflammatory, 
the same as .simple Ontinued /•'. F., 
Intermittent, one in which the symptoms 




intermit, with intermediate periods of free- 
dom from the febrile attack. F., Mala- 
rial, remittent, or Fever and Ague. P., 
Jungle, a remittent fever of India. P., 
Malignant, a severe and fatal form. P., 
Pernicious, a malignant fatal type of re- 
mittent or intermittent malarial fever. P., 
Relapsing, an epidemic, contagious type 
due to a speciBc poison, similar to yellow 
fever. P., Remittent, a paroxysmal fever 
with exacerbations and remissions, but not 
intermissions. P., Septic, due to the 
admission of septic matter into the system. 
P., Typhoid, or enteric fever, an acute, 
self-limited febrile affection due to a spe- 
cific germ, and having characteristic lesions 
in Peyer*s patches and the solitary glands. 
P., Typho -malarial, a malarial fever 
with typhoid symptoms. P., Typhus, 
ship or jail fever, a contagious specific typ>e 
connected with filth and overcrowding. 
P., Yellow, an acute, infectious, paroxys- 
mal, malignant fever, characterized by 
three stages — the febrile, the remission, and 
the collapse; due to a specific poison. 
Destroyed by frost. 

Fe-'ver Bush. Spice- wood. The bark 
and fruit of Benzoin odoriferum. An aro- 
matic stimulant and tonic. Properties due 
to a volatile oil. Dose of fid. ext. — bark 
3J-ij, of the berries n\^xx-3J. Unof. 

Fe-'verfew. The herb Pyrethrum par- 
thenium. A stimulant tonic with emmena- 
gogue and anthelmintic properties. Dose 
of fld. ext. 3J-ij. Unof. 

Fibber {Jibra^ a thread). A filamentary or 
thread-like organ or part of an organ. Ap- 
plied to the thread-like filaments of mus- 
cular, cartilaginous and tendinous tissues. 
P. of Corti. See Corti. 

Fibbers of Tomes. Elongated and 
branched {>rocesses of the odontoblasts of 
the pulp, tilling the dentinal tubules of 

Fibril'la (dim. oifibraY A small fiber or 
component filament of a fiber. A name 
applied to minute nerve filaments. 

PibriKlar. Pertaining to fibrillce. F. Con- 
tractions, short contractions occurring 
alternately in different bundles of muscular 

Pibrilla'^tion. See Fibrillar Cont actions, 

Fi^brin {fibra^ a fiber). A native albumin 
or proteid, a substance that, becoming 
solid in shed blood, plasma and lym{)h, 
causes coagulation of these fluids. It then 
exists in tlie shape of innumerable, excess- 
ively delicate, closely-packed, microscopic, 
doubly-refractive fibrils, entangling the 

blood corpuscles, as in a spider's web, and 
with them forming the blood zloiOT placenta 
sanguinis. Fibrin forms about 0.2 per 
cent, of the blood and is insoluble in water 
and ether. It is changed into syntonin by 
dilute hydrochloric acid. 

Fibrin^ogen (Jibriny yewau, to beget). A 
native proteid of the globulin class, obtained 
from blood plasma, serous transudations, 
etc. According to Schmidt it is one of the 
chief elements in the formation of fibrin 
(the other being Paraglobulin), which 
occurs dissolved in the plasma, aided by a 
fibrin ferment. 

Fibrinoplast'^in. See Paraglobulin, 

Fi'bro- (Jibra, a fiber). A prefix used with 
words to denote fibrous structure. F.- 
blasts, the formation of new fibrous tissue. 
F. -cartilage, a variety of cartilage having 
fibrous structure. See Cartilage. F.- 
myoma. See Myoma. F.-neuro- 
myoma. See Nturoma. P. -plastic, 
fiber-forming. P.-plastin. See Para- 
globulin. P.-sarcoma, a tumor having 
structural resemblance both to fibroma and 
spindle-celled sarcoma. 

Fi^broid {Jibra, eidoc, likeness). A term 
applied to such structures as possess a fib- 
rous appearance, but cannot be separated 
into fibers. Also, a fibroid tumor. 

Fi^broin. An albuminoid, the chief con- 
stituent of the cocoons of insects and spider- 

Fibro^ma (Jibraj omay a tumor). Fibroma 
Mplluscum, Molluscum Simplex, Mollus- 
cum Pendulum, Molluscum Fibrosum. A 
disease of the skin marked by the pres- 
ence of soft tumors within the connective 
tissue of the deeper layers of the corium 
and subcutaneous tissue, lliey are usually 
hemispherical, and vary in size from a pin's 
head to that of an orange. Occur on all 
parts of the body, and frecjucntly extend 
to the nerve trunks, where they have 
l)een found in post-mortem examination. 
Thought to be due to obstruction of the 
lymphatics. P. Pungoides. ^^ Mycosis. 

Pib'^ula (L. a buckle). The smaller or 
splint bone at the outer part of the lower 
leg articulating above with the femur, and 
l>elow with the astragalus and tibia. It 
fcH'ms the external malleolus. 

Fi^cus. (Lat. a fig-tree.) The fig. The 
fleshy receptacle of F. carica^ native to 
Asia Minor, and cultivated throughout 
Etmope and tropical America. Contains 
62 per cent, of grape sugar when dry. 
Somewhat laxative and fairly nutritious. 
Constituent of confectio senna. 




Field of Vision. Sometimes spoken of 
as simply the field. The extent of indi- 
rect vision with fixation of the visual axis 
upon one point. Its limit for white light 
is al)OUt 90° outward, 70° inward and 
above, and 60° downward. The F. for 
colors is more restricted, that for blue is 
nearly as large as white, red and green 
more narrow. F., Testing, the. See 
Perinuter. F., Contraction of the, oc- 
curs in certain retinal and cerebral affec- 

Fig. See Ficus, 

Fig-wort. The herb Scrophularia nodosa. 
Alterative, diuretic and anod)'ne. Some- 
times used in form of ointment in piles. 
Dose of tld. ext. 3 ss-j. Unof. 

Fil'^ament {Jiluniy a thread). A small 
thread-like structure or part of an organ, 
as a muscle, nerve or tendon. F., Sperm- 
atic, the caudal filament of the sperma- 

Fila'^ria {^fi/um). A genus of thread-like 
worms belonging to the order Nematoda. 
• Many, if not all of them, are parasitic. F. 
Medinensis, the Guinea IVornty q. v. 
F. Sanguinis Hominis. Craw Craw. 
A nematode worm native to the Guinea 
coaijt of Africa, which, entering the blood 
and lymplmtics, causes l)7nph al)scesses 
and certain forms of Elephantiasis, q. v. 

Fil^iform {fiium). Thread-like. F. Bou- 
gie. See tiotig-ie. F. Papillae, the small- 
est an<i most numerous of the P. of the 
tongue, occurring over its whole surface. 

Fil'let, 01''ivary. A fasciculus of nerve 
fibers enclosing the olivary body of the 

Filo-pres^sure {Jiium). Compression of 
a vessel by means of a wire. 

FiKter {fi/trunty felt). An apparatus for 
straining and removing from water or other 
liijuid solutions the impurities it may con- 
tain. F., Chamberland's, or C.*s Bou- 
gie, a filter of peculiar construction that 
allows no microbes to i)ass. 

Filtra'tion {fil/f-um). The operation of 
straining through bibulous {)aper. The 
l)est white filter-pa|)er should l)c used for 
filtering alkaline or alkaloidal solutions. 

Fi'lum Termina-'le. The terminal strands 
of the spinal cord, extending from the 
first lumliar vertcl>ra through the cauda 

Fim'brise (fimbria^ a fringe). Threa<ls ; 
a fringe. F. of Fallopian Tube, the 
fringe-like |>rocesses of the outer extremity 
of the oviduct. 

Fing^crs. (Sax.) The digits of the hand. 

Fire-damp. See Marsh Gas, 

Firc'^wced. The herb Erechthites hieraci- 

folia. Infests peppermint fields of Michi- 
gan. Tonic and astringent. Of reputed 
service in dysentery. Dose of fid. ext. 
2 ss-j. Unof. 

First Inten^tion. See Healing. 

Fish^er's Test. See Fhenyl-hydrazin 

Fish^-skin Disease. See Ichthyosis. 

Fis'^sile (Jindoy to split). That which may 
be split or cleft. 

Fis^sion (findo). Reproduction by split- 
ting into two or more ecjual parts. 

Fissipara'^tion. See Cell. 

Fissip'^arous (fitido). A sexual genera- 
tion by fission. 

Fis^sure (findo). A groove or clefl. A 
term applied to the clefls or grooves in 
various organs, as F. of Bichat, the 
transverse fissure of the brain. F. Gla- 
serian, the fissure of the glenoid fossa. 
F. Longitudinalis, the cleft in the 
median line on the upper surface of the 
brain. F. of Sylvius, the cleft lx!tween 
the anterior and middle lobes of the brain. 

Fist (Sax./j'j^). The firmly-closed hand. 

Fis^tula (findo). A suppurating, tube- 
like passage in the body. F., Aerial, 
opening into the larynx, trachea, etc. F., 
Anal, alx)ut the anus. F., Blind, a va- 
riety of anal, urinary or other fissure with 
but one opening. F., Blind, External, 
an anal F. with but one o]}ening external. 
F., Blind, Internal, anal fissure with but 
one opening internal. F., Blind, Uri- 
nary, suppurating tracks 0]X'ning into the 
urethra, but without external openings. 
F., Biliary, of the biliary ducts or gall- 
bladder. F., Complete, with two ojx^n- 
ings, internal and external. F., Fecal, 
alxlominal F., opening into the intestine. 
F. in Ano. See .htal F. F., Mam- 
mary, or Milk, of the mamma or its ducts. 
F., True, one that discharges the secretion 
of an organ. In F. recto-labial, recto- 
urethal, recto-vaginal, and recto-vesi- 
cal, the gut communicates by a fistulous 
track with the lal)ia majora, the urethra, 
the vagina, or the l»ladder, resj)ectively. 
F., Thiry's, an artificial intestinal F. 
made in the dog to obtain intestinal juice. 
F., Vellas', the same, but so made that 
the loop is supplied by its own McxkI ves- 
sels and ner\'es, isolated, and with an 
upper and lower ajHirture. 

Fit (Sax.yf/, a song). A popular name ap- 
plie<l to any suchien pamxysm of a disease, 
but csi)ecially to one of epilejwy 




Fixa^tion (fixus^ fixed). A making finn 
or rigid. F. Forceps, those used for fix- 
ing or holding a part in position during a 
surgical operation. 

Flank (fliucus, soft). The part of the 
body between tlie ribs and the upper bor- 
der of Uie ilium. 

Flap (O. E. flappatty to break). A loose 
and partly detached portion of the skin or 
other soft tissue. F. of Amputation. 
See Amputation. F. Extraction. See 
Extraction of Cataract. 

Flat-foot. See Talipes, 

Flat^ulence (Jtatus^ breath). A condi- 
tion marked by the presence of gases in 
the alimentary canal. It arises mainly 
from the fermentation of the contents of 
the stomach and intestines. 

Fla^tus (Jlatus). A term applied to gases 
in the stomach and bowels. 

Flax-seed. See Linum, 

Flea. See Fulex. 

Flea-bane. See Erigeron, 

Fleece of Stealing. An interlacing of 
fibers passing from the cortex about the 
dentate nucleus. 

Fleischl's Law of Contrac^tion. That 
the excitability of a nerve varies at certain 
points in its course. 

Fleit'mann's Test for Arsenic. Put 
some strong potassium hydrate into a test 
tube and a few pieces of pure zinc ; clasp 
over mouth of tube paper wet with silver 
nitrate and boil. If the paper is not 
stained no arsenic is present. 

Flesh (Sax. flasc). The soft tissues of the 
body, especially the muscles. F., Proud, 
a colloquial term for the soft and inflamed 
granulation of the edges of a wound. 

FlexibiPitas Ce^rea. (Lat.) A condition 
of the limbs in catalepsy in which they 
resist passive movement and seem as if 
made of wax. 

Flex^ible {/lexus, bent). That which may 
be bent. F. Catheter, a catheter made 
of flexible substance. F* Collodion. 
See Pyroxyline, 

Flexile {/UxiJis^ pliable). Easily bent 

Flex^ion {Jlexus). The operation or pro- 
cess of bending. F., Forcible, in surgery, 
a mode of treating aneurism by a forcible 
bending of the limb so as to compress 
the popliteal artery, thereby reducing the 
volume of blood; also, of breaking up 
adhesions of the joints by mechanical 

Flex^ion -stage of Labor. One of the 
stages of labor consisting in a bending of 
the head forwaxd toward the chest 

Flex'or {JUxusY A name applied to those 
muscles which bend a limb or part See 

Flex'ura (Lat., a bending). A bending or 
curve in an organ. 

Floating Ribs. See Ribs. 

Floc^culus (dim. of JloccuSy a tuft of 
wool). A small lobule of the cerebellum. 

Flooa^ing. A popular name for the 
copious bleeding from the womb during 

Floor of Pelvis. See Pelvis, 

Floor- space. The distance apart of beds 
required for proper ventilation of hospitals. 
It should be not less than -^^ of the cubic 

Flor^ida Allspice. The leaves of Caly- 
canthus Jloridus, A pleasant aromatic 
stimulant. Dose of fld. ext. gtt. x-xxx. 

Flou^rcn's Doctrine. That the whole of 
the cerebrum is concerned in every psy- 
chical process. 

Flow (Sax. JlouninY The free discharge 
of a li()uid, as the olood. 

Fluctua^tion {Jlucttio, to float or roll). 
The wave-like motion of contained fluid 
upon pressure, or by succussion. 

Flu'id (JluOy to flow). A substance whose 
molecules move freely upon one another. 
Also applied to the liquid tissues of the 

Fluidrachm^. See Weights. 

Fluores^cence (fluo). A property pcs- 
sessed by certain substances, consisting in 
the emission of colors while light is being 
])assed through them. Quinine, fluorspar, 
and several structures of the eye, possess 
this power. See also Phosphorescence. 

Fluorescein {Jluo). An amorphous pro- 
duct of the reduction of fluoresceine, the 
latter an anhydride of rcsorcin. On account 
of its neutral quality and green fluorescence, 
it has been used to study tlie movements 
of the intraocular fluids. 

Flu^orine. F =r 19 ; quantivalence I. One 
of the elements. It has not been isolated, 
but is probably a gas. All the salts are 
highly corrosive and poisonous in their full 
strength. Ammonium fluoride is recom- 
mended by Lucas in hy-pertrophy of the 
spleen. Dose n\,v of a gr. iv to J j solu- 
tion. Unof. 

Flux {JluxuSy flowing). An abnormal flow 
of any of the excretions of the Ixxiy, espe- 
cially the fscces. Also, a synonym for 

Flux^ion (fiuxus). Gathering of bloo<l 
or other fluid to one part of the body. 




Pc/cal (focus^ a fire-place). Pertaining to 
or occupying a focus. F. Disease. See 
Disease, F. Haemorrhage, localized H., 
in contradistinction to diffuse or dissemi- 
nated. F. Meningitis, involving but a 
small area of the membranes. F. Mye- 
litis, localized, in contradistinction to 
diffuse or disseminated. F. Sclerosis, 
the chronic indurating form, sometimes 
called Sclerotic Myelitis, 

Fo'cus {^ocus). The principal seat of a 
disease^. The point (called /rf»ri^//Jv«/j) 
whereto are gathered the rays of light by 
a convex lens or a concave mirror. F., 
Negative, or Virtual, the imaginary 
focus of an object placed within the princi- 
pal focus. Conjugate Foci, interdepen- 
dent foci. 

Fcenic^ulum. Fennel. The fruit of F, 
vulgare. Properties due to a volatile oil. 
A mild stimulant and aromatic carmina- 
tive. F., Aq., 2 parts of the oil in loo 
of water. Dose ^ss-Jj. F., Ol., the 
volatile oil. Dose n\^ij-v. 

Fce^tal. Pertaining to the foetus. 

Fce^ticide i/ce/us^ unborn offspring, cetdo, 
to kill). Tne killing of the foetus in the 
womb by intent. 

Fce'tid {fcvteo^ to become putrid). Hav- 
ing a foul odor. 

Fce^tus (/atus, offspring). The product 
of conception from the fourth month of 
intra-uterine life to delivery. Often used 
of the whole }x;riod of intra-uterine life. 
F., Altitude of, the general form and direc- 
tion of the trunk and the position of the 
limlw in relation to it. F., Papyraceous, 
a retained dead f<.etus mummified and 
compressed. F., Presentation of. See 

Fold. A term applied to the plication or 
doubling together of various pcuis of the 
body. F., Recto- vaginal, the fold of 
the peritoneum descending in front of the 
rectum. (Called in the male the recto- 

Polie & deux (Fr.). See insanity , Com- 

FoKliclc (dim. of/ollis, a pair of bellows). 
In anatomy a very small secretory cavity 
or sac, as the follicles of LieljerkUhn. F., 
Graafian, the small vesicular Inxlies in the 
cortical layer of the ovary, consisting of 
flattened granular cells with oval nuclei 
and membrana propria, each al)Out y^j'^ 
inch in diameter. F., Sebaceous, the 
sacs lying within the .skin which secrete 
the oily fluid with which the skin is soft- 

Follic^ulose {/o//is). Full of folUde^ 
Having the appearance of follicles. 

Fomenta^tion (/omentum). The appli- 
cation of cloths soaked in hot medicinal 
solutions, to reduce inflammation or allay 
pain. Also, the application of hot dry 
cloths. Also, the decoction applied. 

Fons Pulsati^lis. See Fontanelle, 

Fonta^na's Markings. Delicate micro- 
scopic transverse folds of nerve -fibers, to 
which is due their non-retraction when 

Fontana's Spaces. Those between the 
processes of the ligamentum pectinatum 

Fontanelle^ (dim. oi fontana^ a spring, 
from the appearance and feeling). The 
membranous spaces of the infant's head, 
from delayed ossiflcation of the cranial 
bones. F.,Anterior, that at the point of 
union of the frontal, saggital and coronal 
sutures. See also Bregma, F., Pos- 
terior, that at the point of junction of the 
apex of the lambdoidal sagittal sutures. 

Food (Sax. foda). Anything used for the 
nourisnment or formation of tissue. The 
substances ordinarily employed as aliments. 
Foods, Isodynamic. Those producing 
an equal amount of heat. F., Plastic, pro- 
teids. F., Respiratory, fats and carbo- 
hydrates. (The nomenclature of the two 
last rests upon an erroneous theory.) 

Foot (Sax./5/). The organ at the ex- 
tremity of tie leg ; one of the organs of 
locomotion. In bimana and quadrumana it 
consists of the tarsus, metatarsus, and pha- 
langes, or toes. F. Clonus. See Clonus, 

Fora^men ( foro, to pierce). A pas.sage or 
opening. F. Caecum, the blind passage 
at the root of the spine of the frontal bone. 
Applied also to other caxal fommina. 
F. of Magendie, an opening in the inferior 
boundary of the fourth ventricle. F. 
Magnum. That in the occipital lx)ne 
communicating with the spinal cannl. F. 
of Monro, an opening under the arch of 
the fornix. F. Ovale, an 0]x?ning be- 

. tween the auricles of the f(L'tal heart. F. 
of Winslow, the ajH-rture that extends 
between the large sac of the omentum 
and the cavity of the al domcn. 

Force (fortis^ strong). That which pro 
duces or arrests motion. 

For^ceps (forceps ^ a pair of tongs). An 
instrument with two blades and handles 
for purposes of seizing, traction, etc.y in 
surgical, obstetrical, and other operations. 
F., Angular, force}]S WiA for insertion into 
a canal. F., Arterial, specially adagtod 




for seizing an artery ; many varieties are 
named j^ter inventors. P., Bone, ex- 
ceptionally strong, for use in operations 
upon lx)nes. F., Bullet, of peculiar con- 
struction, to extract bullets. F., Canula, 
long, slender forceps enclosed in a tube, 
that open by protruding the blades. F., 
Craniotomy ; the halves are crossed and 
adapted to embryotomy. F., Dental, 
adapted for extraction of teeth. F., Ec- 
tropion, adapted for seizing the lid in ec- 
tropion operations. F., Gouge, cutting 
forceps for operations upon bone. F., Iri- 
dectomy, delicate forceps for seizing the 
iris. F., Midwifery, or Obstetric, for 
seizing the foetal head in labor and by 
traction aiding its exit ; a great number of 

Forc^ible. With force or power. F. Ex- 
tension. See Extension. 

For^cipressure { force y and presser, to 
Sfjueeze). The arrest of a minor haemor- 
rhage by pressing the end of the divided 
vessel with a pair of spring forceps, the 
pressure being continued for 24-36 hours. 

Fore-arm. TJfiat part of the arm between 
the wrist and the elbow. 

Fore-brain. The anterior of the encei>ha- 
lic vesicles into which the primary nerve- 
system of the embr)'o divides at an early 

Fore-g^t. The cavity in the raised cephalic 
end of the embryo, called also Head- 

Fore'hcad. That part of the face between 
the orbits of the eyes, the hair above, and 
the temples at the sides. 

For^eign Bod^y. A suljstance in a wound 
or cavity acting as an irritant. 

Foren^sic (forensis, belonging to the 
furum). Pertaining to a court of law. In 
medicine, that part of the science con- 
nected with judicial iniiuiry. Also, medi- 
cal jurisprudence. 

Fore^skin. The prepuce. 

Forma'tio Reticula^ris (I^t.). The in- 
tercrossing of the fil)ers in the medulla. 

Form'ativc Cells. Large spherical, re- 
fractive cells beneath the hyix>blast. 

Formica^tion (formica, an ant). A sensa- 
tion like that produced by ants or other 
insects crawling upon the skin. 

Form'ula (dim. oi forma, a form). A pre- 
scril)ed method. In pharmacy, a list of 
the names an<l respective (|uantities of sub- 
stances entering into a comjiosition. In 
chemistry, a method of representing the 
gravimetric structure of a compound by 
tymbols. F., Constitutional, one that 

shows structure and proportionate compo- 
sition of its component parts. F., Em- 
pirical, that showing the constitution of a 
body without showing how the molecules 
are grouped. F., Graphic. Same as 
Constitutional. F., Rational. Same as 

For^nix {^fornix, an arch). The triangular 
lamina of the white substance of the brain, 
extending into the lateral ventricles and 
arching downward. 

Fortifica^tion Spect^rum. A term used 
of the appearance of a peculiar subjective 
visual sensation in migraine. The luminous 
shape of its outer edge assumes a zigzag 
/orm, with angles like a fortification. 

Fos^sa {fossa, a ditch). A depression, fur- 
row or smus. F., Canine, the depression 
on the external surface of tlie superior 
maxillary bone, forming the origin of the 
levator anguli oris and compressor nasi 
muscles. P., Cranial, any fossa of the 
skull. F., Iliac, the smooth internal sur- 
face of the ilium. F., Lachrymalis, the 
depression in the frontal bone for the recep- 
tion of the lachr)inal gland. F., Nasal, 
the nostrils. Sec Nasal Fossce. F., 
Navicularis, a fossa within the penis, 
formed by a dilatation in the spongy por- 
tion of the urethral passage. 

Fossctte^ (Fr ). A dimple or small de- 

Fourchette^ (Fr., a fork). A fold of mu- 
cous membrane at the junction of the 
lal^ia majora. 

Fovc'a i^ fovea, a small pit). Applied to 
many depressions in the Ixxly or its organs, 
but more jiarticularly to the/J/rrrt centralis 
retince, a little pit in the macula lutea op- 
]x>sitc tlie visual axis, the spot of distinct- 
est vision, where the retinal cones are 
massed together and the rods and some 
other parts are absent. 

Fowl^cr*s Method. See Urea. 

FowKer's^ Solution. See Arsenic. 

Fox-glove. See Dii^italis. 

Frac^tional Cultiva^tion. The isolation 
of one variety of microdrganism fn.>m a 
mixture of several in order to study or cul- 
tivate it. lliis is done by attenuation of 
the medium so that a drop will proltably 
contain but one organism. Distilled water 
was first used as the attenuating medium, 
but gelatinized media are now used. Bre- 
feUl and N&geli suggested the procetiure, 
an<i Lister isolated the lirst microbe, the 
bacilltis lacticus of Cohn. 

Frac^ture (frango, to break). The break- 
ing of a bone, either by external force, or 




by the action of the muscles of the body. 
Applied also to the breaking of a cartilage. 
F., Barton*8, oblique, of the lower end 
of radius, beginning in the articulating sur- 
face. F.-Bed, a double inclined plane 
for fractures of the hip. F., Capillary, 
consisting of only a iine crack or fissure. 
F., Comminuted, with shattering of the 
bone. F., Colles', one of lower end of 
radius with displacement backward. F., 
Complete, entirely through the bone. F., 
Complicated, with injury to adjacent 
parts. F., Compound, with communi- 
cating wound of the skin. F., Depressed, 
with depression of the fractured part be- 
low the normal level, as in fracture of the 
skull. F., Double, one l)one is fractured 
in two places. F., Dupuytren's, frac- 
ture of the fibula with retraction and dis- 
placement outward, and with laceration of 
the ligaments of the foot. F., Epiphy- 
seal, with separation of the epiphysis of a 
bone. F., Greenstick, one side of the 
bone is broken, the other bent. F., Im- 
pacted, with forcible compression of the 
parts into each other. F., Pott's, same 
as Dupuytren's, without laceration of 
the inferior tibio- fibular ligaments. F., 
Simple, without rupture of the skin or 
mucous membrane. F., Spontaneous, 
with but a slight force to cause it, as in 
diseases of the bone. 

Frae^num (l^t., a curb). A ligament, 
fold of integument, or other part which 
checks or limits the movement of any 
organ, as F. Labiorum, the fourchette or 
lower commissure of the labia pudendi. 
F. Linguae, the bridle of the tongue. 

FragiKitas (I^t.). Brittleness. In phy- 
siology, a want of flexile stren^h. F. 
Cri^num, a brittleness of the hair, which 
breaks or splits. F. Ossium. Abnormal 
brittleness of the lx)nes. 

Fragmenta^tion {/ragmentum^ a piece). 
The sulxli vision into fragments. F. of 
Calculi, Spontaneous, the exfoliation 
and breaking up of a calculus by the action 
of the uric acid or other morbid products 
in the bladder. 

Framboe^sia. Yaws, Pian, Amlwyna But- 
ton, Parangi, C'xxro, ^^ndemic Verrugas. 
A contagious disease of the skin character- 
ized by dirty or l>right red raspl;erry-like 
tubercles ; api)earing usually on the face, 
toes and genital organs. 

Pran^gula. Kuckthom. The bark (one 
year old) of Khamnus F,, or alder buck- 
thorn. Fresh bark a violent irritant ; old 
bark a non-irritant purgative much used in 

constipation of pregnancy. F., Ext. Fid. 
Dose 3ss-ij. 

Frank^incense. A name given to a va- 
riety of resinous aromatic substances, espe- 
cially the exudation of Abies excelsa. 

Frank^lin Spec^tacles. See Bifocal, 

Fra^serin. See American Columbo. 

Frec^kles. See Lentigo. 

Freez^ing. The congelation of liquids, 
especially of water. F. Fluids, licjuid 
preparations, s)Tupy or gummy in con- 
sistence, with boric acid, in which tissue 
specimens are immersed prior to freezing 
and section-cutting. F. Machine, an 
apparatus for producing intense cold by the 
evaporation of condensed gases. F. Mi- 
crotome, a microtome attached to a con- 
trivance for freezing artificially the tissue 
to be sectionized. Used with very soft 
tissues. F. Mixture, a mixture of salts 
which in undergoing solution absorb heat. 

Frem^itus (Lat., a murmur). A tremor 
caused by the .sympathetic viliration of 
the body in consonance with some other 
vibrating body. Also a murmuring. 

Fri^able {frioy to rub). Easily broken or 

Fri^ar's BaKsam. See Benzoin. 

Fric^tion (frico, to rub). The act of rub- 
bing. The process, in medicine, called 
shanipooing. Also the inunction of a 
medicinal substance by rubbing. F. 
Sound, the sound observed in ausculta- 
tion, caused by the rubbing of adjacent 

Pried^reich's Disease. Hereditary 
Ataxia, or Hereditary Ataxic Paraplegia; 
depending on combined posterior and lat- 
eral sclerosis of the cord, differing from 
tabes and ataxic paraplegia in the early 
age, hereditary nature and some other 

FrigoriPic {/rigusj cold, facio, to make). 
That which produces extreme cold. 

Fringe -tree. The bark of the root of 
OiioNanthus Virginica, A mild diuretic, 
aperient and reputed alterative. Dose of 
fid. ext. I5SS-J. Unof. 

Fro^mann's Lines. Silver nitrate stuin- 
ings of the axis-cylindeni of ner\es at their 

Front^al (frons). Pertaining to the an- 
terior part or aspect of an organ or l)ody. 
P. Bone, the anterior bone of the skull and 
superior of the face. F. Sinuses, the 
cavities, one over each orbit, of the frontal 

Pronto- (frons), A prefix denoting an- 
terior position. 




Frost-bite. Injury to the skin or a part 
from extreme cold, resulting in inflamma- 
tion and gangrene. 

Frost-wort. See Helianthemum. 

Fructifica^tion [fructus, fruit, //rw, to 
make). The formation and development of 
the seed or fruit of a plant. Applied also 
to animal reproduction. 

Frugiv^orous {Jrux, fruit, voro^ to de- 
vour). Fruit-eating. 

FriUiiingskataiTh. See Venial Conjunc- 

Fruit {^fntctus). The developed ovary of 
a plant, and especially the succulent, fleshy 
parts gathered alx>ut the same. Also ap- 
plied to the offspring of animals. F. 
Sugar. See Su^ar. 

Fuch^sin. Rosein, Magenta, Eosin, Ani- 
line Red. The hydrochloride of rosanilin, 
a lustrous, green, crystalline salt imparting 
an intense red to solutions. In lai^e doses 
produces violent emesis and purging. In- 
jected into a vein causes staggering and 
tTem))ling. Very eflicient in reducing al- 
buminuria. Dose gr. %-vt. 

Fungus Vesiculo^sus. Bladder-wrack, 
Sea-wrack. A marine alga abundant on 
the seashore. Alterative and tonic. Em- 
ployed in goitre and glandular enlarge- 
ments, but mainly as an empiric remedy 
for the al)sorption of fatty tissue in obesity. 
An extract for such purpose is sold under 
the name of anti-fat. Unof. 

Fulminate (fulnifn, lightning). A com- 
pound of fulminic acid with a base, usually 
silver, gold or mercury ; characterized by 
highly explosive qualities. 

Pumiga^tion {^/umigo, to smoke). Disin- 
fection by exposure to the fumes of a vapor- 
ized disinfectant. 

Punc^tion (fungor^ to perform). The nor- 
mal or special action of a tissue, organ or 
part of the Ixxly. 

Func^tional {ftmgor). Pertaining to the 
special action of an organ, whether physio- 
logical or pathological. 

Fund^ament (fundo, to be at the bottom). 
The foundation or base of a thing. Also 
the anus. 

Fund'us (fundus^ the bottom). The base 
of an organ. F. Glands, microscopic 
tubular glands of the cardiac portion of the 
gastric mucous membrane. P. Oculi, the 
posterior and interior portion of the eye 
.seen liy the ophthalmoscope, comprising 
chiefly the retina, p(4)illa, retinal vessels, 

Fun^giform ( fungus , a mushroom). Hav- 
iog the fonn of a mushroom. P. Papil- 

lae, elevations over the middle and front 
part of the tongue. 

Fun^gus (/uftgus). An order of plants 
without stems, leaves or roots, consisting 
of juxtaposed cells, without chlorophyl. 
lliey reproduce by .spores. The chief 
classes are the HymenomyceteSy Basidiomy- 
ceteSf Ascomycetes^ and Oomycetes, P. of 
the Dura Mater, a tumor of the skull, of 
malignant nature, originating in the layers 
of osteal cells. F. of Brain, hernia 
cerebri. P. Hsematodes, a bleeding 

Fun^gus Foot. Madura Foot, Myceto- 
ma, Ulcus Grave. An endemic disease 
of India affecting the foot or the hand, 
accompanied by mammillated pu.stules, in 
each of which is a deep-seated sinus. \\,\s, 
now thought that the presence of fungoid 
growths is an incidental feature and not a 

pyknic (funis^ a rope). Pertaining to the 

Punic^ulus (dim. of funis). The sper- 
matic or the umbilical cord. 

Pu^nis. See Umbiliais. 

Fun^nel (Old Fr. fond). A wide-mouthed, 
conical vessel ending in a tul)e, designed 
for the speedy and safe trans])ortation of 
liquids from one vessel to another. Also 
used as a support for paper filters. 

Purfura^ceous (furfur^ bran). Resem- 
bling In-an. Applied also to dandriff-covered 

Pu^ror Uteri^nus. See Nymphomania. 

Furred (Old Yx. forre^ a sheath). A 
coating of granular or epithelial scales and 
other matter upon the tongue. 

Pur'row (^Sax. furh). A groove or trench. 
P., Genital, a groove in the Wolflian 
body, appearing about the sixth week of 

Purun^culous ( funmculus^ a boil). Per- 
taining to the continuous production of 

Purun^culus (I^t.). A boil. A local 
inflanmiatory affection, commonly invest- 
ing a skin-gland or hair-follicle, ending 
in necrosis and central sui)puration c^ 
adjacent |)arts. It lx.^ins with a }>ainful 
induration, followed by a swelling, that 
finally suppurates and sloughs the " core." 
P. Orientalis. Oriental Boil, Aleppo Boil, 
Delhi Boil, Biscara Button, Gafsa Button, 
Kandahar Sore, Pendjeh Sore, Natal Sore. 
A local disease, marked by the successive 
formation of papule, tubercle, scab, and 
sharply circumscril^ ulcer, on the face, 
especially the cheeks and angle of the 




mou ih. Common along the shores of the 

Mediterranean Sea. 
Fu^scl OU. See AIcokoL 
Pu^sible (J'tisusy meltedV That which 

can be easily fused or melted. 
Pu^siform {/ushs, a spindle). Spindle- 


Pulsion (fundOf to pour out). The process 
of liquefying a solid by the agency of heat 

Pustiga^tion {Justigo, to beat). Flagella- 
tion. P., Electric, an application of elec- 
tricity in which the surface of the body 
is rapidly tapped with the electrodes of an 
induced current. 

Q. Abbreviation of gramme. 

Gal. Abbreviation of gallon, 

Gr. Abbreviation of grain. 

Gtt. Abbreviation of gutta or gutta. 

QzA'fiy {gady a goad). A dipterous insect 
belonging to the genus Tabanus, Also, ap- 
plied to Hies of the genus (Estris, 

Gad^inine (from Gadtix callariasy had- 
dock). A ptomaine obtained fifom decom- 
posing haddock, — also from cultures of the 
bacteria of human £cces. It acts as a de- 
cided poison when given in large doses. 

Gad^uin (gadus, the codBsh). A fifUty 
principle occurring in cod-liver oil. 

Gaert^ner, Ducts of. Remains of the 
Wolffian bodies persisting in certain ani- 

Gaf^sa Button. See Fumm-ulus Orient 

Gag (Mid. Eng. gaggfn^ to suffocate). An 
instrument placed between the teeth to 
prevent the closing of the jaws. 

Galac^tagogue (>aAa,milk, ayn^ to bring). 
An agent that increases the secretion of 
milk in the breast. 

Galac^tia (/oAa). The family or class of 
diseases, according to (food's Nosology, 
embracing defective or abnormal secretion 
of milk. 

Galac^tocele (yny^t xfi^, tumor). A cystic 
tumor of the female breast owing to the 
closure of the milk duct. 

Galactom^eter. See Lactometer, 

Galactoph^agus (>aAa, ^V^t U> eat). 

Galactoph^orous (yaXa^ 9opeo, to bear). 
Milk-bearing. G. Ducts, the excretory 
ducts of the mammae. 

Qalactoph^orus. An artificial nipple 
placed over the natural oigan in order to 

fiudlitate suckling and also to protect the 
natural nipple when abraded. 

Galacto-phthi^sis (ya^, ^tot^, con- 
sumption). Emaciation and debility due 
to excessive secretion of milk. 

Galactophy^gous (yaXa, ^tv)Oy to flee). 
Having the power to reduce or arrest the 
secretion of milk. 

Galactopoiet^ic (yaka, iroteo, to make). 
A term applied to agents or remedies that 
induce the secretion of milk. 

Galactopo^sia (yaXa, irivu, to drink). 
** Milk-cure." The treatment of diseases 
by the use of milk diet. 

Galactorrhe^a (ya^a, 1)iq, to flow). An 
excessive secretion and flow of milk in a 

Galact^oscope. See Lactoscope, 

Galact^ose ?yaXa). A carbohydrate ob- 
tained by boiling lactose with dilute min- 
eral ackls. It crystallizes, is very ferment- 
able, and has the reactions of glucose. 

Galactother^apathy (yaXa fkfxiTretaf 
treatment), llie treatment of disease in 
suckling infants by the administration of 
the remedies to the mother or wet-nurse. 

Galba^num. A gumresin of Ferula gal- 
banumy native to A.sia. Expectorant, 
stimulant and antispasmodic. Useful in 
chronic bronchitis and catarrh. Dose gr. 
x-xx. G. Pil. Comp. See Asafottida. 
G. Emplastrum, galbanum i6, turpen- 
tine 2, Burgundy pitch 6, lead plaster 76 

ua^lium Apar^in^. Goose Cirass. A suc- 
culent plant, the juice of which is a popu- 
lar remedy in strumous affections. Dose 
of the juice i v. Unof. 

Gall {x^'kn^ bile). The bile. The juice 
normally secreted by the liver. G. Blad* 




der, the ])ear-shaped sac in the right lobe 
of the liver, constituting the reservoir for 
the bile. G. Stones, the calcareous con- 
cretions occasionally formed in the gall- 
bladder and its ducts. 

Gallia ( Lat.). Nut-gall. An excrescence 
on the leaves of dyer's oak, Querrus iusu 
tanicay caused by the deposited ova of an 
insect. Contains tannic acid from 10-75 
per cent., gallic acid 5 per cent. G., 
Tinct., 20 per cent. l3ose gss-iij. G. 
Ung^entum, 10 per cent. See Acid, 

Gallic (galla, an oak-gall). Pertaining 
to the oak-gall or nut-gall. G. Acid. See 
Acid^ Gallic, 

Gallon. A standard unit of volumetric 
measurement, having in the United States 
a capacity of 231 cu. in., and equivalent 
to a weight of 58,328.8 grains of distilled 
water at maximum density. In Great 
Britain its capaci^ is 277.27 cu. in. 

Galton's Whistle. An instrument for 
testing the ]X)wer of hearing shrill notes. 

Galvan^ic ( Galvani, an Italian physician 
and scientist). Pertaining to galvanic or 
chemical electricity. G. Battery. See 
Battery, G. Belt, a belt composed of 
alternate plates of copper and zinc sepa- 
rated by pieces of felt moistened with 
dilute acid. Designed to be worn around 
the waist. G. Cautery. See Cautery. 

Galvaniza^tion. The transmission of a 
current of low electro-motive force through 
any part of the body, for the purpose of 
diagnosticating or curing disease. 

Galvanic- [Galvttni). A prefix denoting 
connection with chemical or current-elec- 
tricity. G.-cautery. See Cautery. G.- 
puncture, the introduction of fine needles, 
that complete an electric circuit, into the 
skin or other tissue. Also a form of 
galvano-cautery employing a ciurent of 
the necessary electro-motive force to heat 
the nee<ile to whiteness. 

Galvanom^eter (/ier^w»i',a measure). An 
instrument used for the qualitative deter- 
mination of the presence of an electric 

Gamboge^. See Cambogia. 

Gang^liform {ganglion and forma , a 
fonn). Formed like, or having the nature 
of, a ganglion. 

Gang^lion (ya^y7uoVy a knot). A sepa- 
rate and semi-independent ner\'ous center 
communicating with other ganglia or 
ner\-es, with the central nervous system and 
peripheral organs. Used also of an en- 
larged bursa in connection with a tendon. 

Ganglia, Basal, the ganglia at the base 
of the brain, comprising the corpus stria- 
tum (caudate and lenticular nucleus), optic 
thalamus and corpora quadrigcmina. Bid- 
der's Ganglia, two ganglia at the auricu- 
lar groove of the fix)g*s heart. An alpha- 
betical table is appended of the principal 
ganglia, showing their location, roots and 
distribution (see p. 1 69). 

Gang^se^na Oris. See Stomatitis. 

Gan^g^ene (yayyptuva^ a sore, from ypaivUf 
to gnaw). Mortification or death of a part 
of the body from failure in nutrition. The 
putrefactive fermentation of a dead limb or 
tissue. G., Constitutional, that dependent 
upon systemic disease, such as diabetes, or 
circulatory disease. G., Dry, shriveling 
and desiccation from insufficiency of blood. 
G., Embolic, caused by an embolus that 
cuts off the supply of blood. G., Hos- 
pital, a contagious form arising in crowded 
conditions without antiseptic precautions. 
G., Moist, with abundance of serous 
exudation and rapid decom{X)sition. G., 
Primary, without preceding inflammation 
of the part G., Secondary, with pre- 
ceding inflammation. G., Senile, that 
attacking the extremities of the aged. G., 
Symmetric, attacking corresponding parts 
of opposite sides. Called, also, /Raynaud's 
G. See, also, Sphacelodertna. 

Gan^g^enous. Pertaining to or being of 
the nature of gangrene. 

Gaps, Cra^nial. Certain occasional con- 
genital fissures of the skull. 

Garb^age. The refuse materials of kitch- 
ens, cookery, etc. 

Gar^gle (dim. of garga, the throat). To 
rinse or wash the interior of the throat and 
upper part of the pharynx. Also, a wash 
for the throat. 

Gar^lic. See Allium. 

Gar^rot (Fr. garottery to bind). An in- 
strument for compression of an artery 
by twisting a circular bandage about the 

Garrulity. See Vuha. 

Gar'rya. California feverbush. The leaves 
of G. Fremontii. A bitter antii)eriodic, 
popular on the Pacific coast as a remedy 
in malarial diseases. Dose of the fid. ext. 
n\^x-xxx. Unof. 

Gas (Dutch, gecsfy a ghost). Any sub- 
stance which is normally aeriform. Sub- 
stances normally in a liquid or solid state 
are usually called vapors when changed to 
an aeriform condition. 

Gas^kelPt Clamp. An instrument for 
compression of the heart so that the pulsar 





See Semilunar, 

Andersch (Petrous Petrous Portion 


or Inferior). 


Temporal Bone. 

Cardiac {IVris- 


Cervical (Inferior). 

Cervical (Middle or 

See Otic. 

Beneath Arch of 


Cardiac Plexus. 

Carotid Artery. 

Carotid Plexus. 

Last Cervical Ver- 

Cervical (Superior). 

Opp. 5lh Cervical 





Opp. 2d and ^d Cer 
vical VerteDrce. 

See Ophthalmic. 

Under Surface Dia< 


Nerves at Base of Skull. 

Cardiac Plexus. 

Carotid Plexus. 

7th and 8th Cervical, Mid- Cardiac Nerves and Plexus, etc. 
die Cervical. 

Cervical and Spinal 
Nerves and Ganglia. 

Cervical, Petrosal, Pneu 
mogastric, Hypoglos- 
sal, etc. 

Cavernous Plexus, Laryngeal, 
Cardiac, etc. 

Petrous Portion 
Temporal Bone. 

Jugular (or Supe- Jugular Foramen, 
rior). I 



See Ophthalmic. 

See Spheno-Pala- 


Back of Orbit. 

Phrenic Plexus. 



Sup., Inf., Ext., Int. Branches 
Carotid and Cavernous Plex- 
uses, etc. 

Inf. Vena Cava, Supra-renal 
Capsule, Hepatic Plexus. 

Ophthalmic, Sup. Maxillary 
and Inf. Maxillary. 

Otic (Arnold). 


Foramen Ovale. 



Ant. Communicat- 
ing Arter>*. 


See Gasserian. 

Front of Crura of 

Ophthalmic of the Fiah, 
Third, Sympathetic. 

Inf. Maxillap', Int. Ptery- 
goid, Auriculo-Tempo- 
ral. Sympathetic, 
Glosso-rharyngeal, Fa- 

Continuation of Hypoglossal. 

Short Ciliary. 

Tensor Tynpani, Tensor Pa- 
lati. Chorda Tympani. 

Cords of Sympathetic. 

Spheno- Palatine. 




Spheno- m a x i 1 la ry 

Solar Plexus. 

Above Sub • maxil- 
lary Gland. 

Sup. Maxillary, Facial, 

Gustatory, Chorda Tym- 
pani, Sympathetic. 

Cords of Sympathetic. 

Solar Plexus. 

Ascending (Orbit). Descending 
(Palate), Internal ^Nose), Pos- 
terior (Phar>'nx). 

Junction of Great Solar Plexus. 

See Cervical {Mid- 

Mouth and Submaxillary 

Supra-renal Capsule. 





tions of the auricles and ventricles may be 
separately registered; used in the study of 
caidiac pulsation. 

Gasp (Ice. gaispa^ to yawn). To catch 
for breath. To breathe spasmodically with 
open mouth. * 

Gasse^rian. See Ganglion, 
Gas^tero- (j'tMrr^p, the belly). See Castro. 
Gas^tral (^acrrjyp). Pertaining to the 
stomach or abdomen. 

Gastral^gia {yaarrfpf aX')o^f pain). Pain 
of the stomach. A mild fonn is sometimes 
called gastrodynia, 

Gastrec^tomy {^axmip^ tKTo^iriy a cutting 
out). Resection of the pyloric extremity 
of the stomach. 

Gas^tric (yaoTTip), Pertaining to the 
stomach. G. Digestion, that part of the 
digestion of food performed by the gastric 
juice ; the conversion of albuminous bodies 
into peptones. G. Fistula, a perforation 
or communication other than the normal 
one, between the stomach and peritoneal 
cavity, or with the outer part of the body. 
G. Follicles. See Glands, Peptic. G. 
Juice, the normal secretion of the tubular, 
peptic glands of the stomach. A clear, 
colorless liquid, having an acid reaction 
containing from .5 to 2 per cent, of solid 
matter in solution. A small amount of 
hydrochloric acid .2 to .4 per cent., and a 
ferment called pepsin, are the essential 

Gastri^tis {yaarrip, iTig, inflammation). In- 
flammation of the coats of the stomach. 
Gas^tro- (yaar/fp). A Greek preBx denot- 
ing connection with or relation to the 
stomach. G. -colic, pertaining to both 
the stomach and the colon. G. -colitis, 
concurrent inflammation of the stomach 
and large intestine. G.-colpotomy, the 
operation of the Cesarean section in which 
the opening is made through the Irnt'a alha 
into the upper part of the vagina. G.- 
duodenal, pertaining to the stomach and 
duodenum. G.-clytrotomy. See Casa- 
rean Operation, G.-enteralgia, concur- 
rent pain of the stomach and bowels. G.- 
enteric, pertaining to l)Oth stomach and 
bowels. G. -enteritis, concurrent in- 
flammation of stomach and bowels. G.- 
enterostomy, formation of a flstulous 
connection between the stomach and duo- 
denum in obstruction of the pylorus. G.- 
enterotomy, intestinal inci>ion through 
the abdominal wall. G. -epiploic, per- 
taining to stomach and omentum. G.- 
hysterectomy. See Cesarean Operation. 
Q.-hytterotomy. See Casarean Opera- 

tion. G.- stenosis, a stricture or morbid 
contraction of the stomach. 

Gas^trocele {yaarijp^ Kti^t hernia). A 
hernia of the stomach. 

Gastrocne^mius. See Muscle. 

Gastrodyn^ia (yaarfjp, odvinj, pain). A 
mild pain of the stomiach. See also Gas- 

Qas^trolith {yatrrrip, Tudo^, a stone). A 
calcareous formation in the stomach. 

GastroKogy {yaorrip, 7m)o^, a treatise). A 
treatise on the stomach and its functions. 

Gastromala^cia {yaarrip, \ia7^aiua, soften- 
ing). An abnormal softening of the stnic- 
tuml tissue of the stomach. 

Gastrop^athy (yaorrfp, nadoc, suflering). 
Any disease or disorder of the stomach. 

Gastrorrha^gia {yaortjp, l)ff)Wfu, to break 
forth). See Hematemcsis. 

Gastror^raphy (yaarrfp, })a^ffy suture). Su- 
ture of wounds of the abdominal wall or 

Gastrorrhoe^a {yaavTip, ^«, to flow). A 
regurgitant flow of gastric mucus or liquid 
from the mouth. 

Gast^roscope (yaarrfp, aiumeuy to see). An 
instrument for viewing the interior of the 
stomach. Consists essentially of a tube with 
incandescent electric light and reflecting 

Gastros^copy. The insp>ection of the inte- 
rior of the stomach by means of the gasiro- 

Gastro^ses {yaarrip). A general term for 
diseases of the abdomen or of the stomach 

Gastros^tomy {ya<mjp, aropa, mouth). 
The establishing a fistulous opening into 
the stomach. 

Gastrot^omy (yaffTT^p^ re fjio, to oil). Inci- 
sion of the at.domen or stomach. 

Gastrox^ia (yaarrfp, o^i*f , acid). Abnormal 
acidity of the contents of the stomach. 

Gas^trula .(} uim/p). In IlaeckeVs classi- 
fication, the larval form of all animals 
above the protozoa, 

Gath^ering. A popular name for al>, 
pustular inflammations and suppurating 

Gaule's Experiment. See Cyfozoon. 

Gaulthe^ria. Wintergreen, Tcal)crry, 
Methyl Salicylate. The leavt-s of winter- 
green, G. procunibcnsyiin evergreen plant. 
Properties due to a volatile oil, that is 
also found in black birch an<l several other 
plants. Stimulant, a.stringcnt, and antipy- 
retic. Used in rheumatism and gout, or 
where salicylate acid is indicated. G., Ol., 
oil of wintergieen, much used as a flavor. 




Dose Tr\^iij-x. G., Spt., oil of winteigreen 
3, alcohol 97. 

Gauze. See Antiseptic. 

Gavage^ (^r-)- Forced feeding. Applied 
to the feeding of weak infants by the aid 
of an oesophageal tube. 

Gelatine \^gt'lo^ to congeal). An albuminoid 
substance of jelly-like consistence, obtained 
by boiling skin, connective tissue, and bones 
of animals in water. The glue of com- 
merce is an impure variety. G. Capsules, 
capsules of gelatine designed for containing 
medicines of nauseating taste. G., Medi- 
cated, a soft basis consisting of gelatine 
3, zinc oxide 3, glycerine 5, water 9 parts, 
to which antiseptic or other medicaments 
may be added. Preferable to greasy oint- 
ments. All unof. G. Culture-medium, 
a jelly made by a solution of the best com- 
mercial food gelatine in the proportion of 
6, 8 or 10 parts to loo of water, with I or 
2 parts of dried peptones or glucose (the 
latter not U!>ed if the culture is to be made 
on slides), for increased nutritive value. 
Bicarbonate of soda is used to neutralize 
the acid reaction. This in Imcteriology is 
simply known as Getatine. 

Gelat^inous. Resembling, or having the 
nature of gelatine. G. Tissue. See 
Animal Tissue. 

GeKose. A culture-medium used in bac- 
teriolc^cal investigation. Gelatine lique- 
fies at 23® or 24® C, and is thus inferior to 
gclose, for those cultures that require a 
higher degree of heat for their proper devel- 
opment. The base of gelose is a vegetat)le 
mucilage, derived from an Indian sea- 
weed, Gelidium spiniforme^ of which a 
jelly is made, 2 to 3 parts (to icx>) of dried 
peptones added; lo to 15 p>arts of this 
sulxftance to 50 parts of water, with I to 5 
of glycerine, forms the nutritive jelly called 

Gel^osine. A mucilage extracted from a 
species of alga found in Japan. Soluble 
in water and alcohol. An excellent ex- 
cipient for powders, tinctures and salts. 

Gelsem^ium. Yellow Jasmine. The root 
of G. sfmpervirens^ abundant in the south- 
em U. S. IVoperties mainly due to an 
alkaloid, gflsemine, a powerful motor de- 
pressant, antispasmodic and diaphoretic. 
In toxic doses produces diplopia, extreme 
mascular weakness, and anaesthesia, death 
occurring from asphyxia. Useful in exal- 
tation of nerve action, cerebrospinal men- 
ingitis, etc. Especially valuable in remit- 
tent and malarial fevers. Dose gr. ij-xx. 

G., Ext. Fid., alcoholic. Dose n\^ij-xx. 
G., Tinct., 15 per cent, in strength. Dose 
n\,v-xxx. Gelsemina, the alkaloid. Dose 
gr. •^—^' 

Gemellus (dim. of gemtnus, twin). 
Double. In pairs. G. Muscle, the gas- 
trocnemius muscle, on account of its double 
origin. See Muscle, 

Gem^inate (geminus). In pairs. In 
botany, parts mat are disposed in pairs. 

Gem^inous. Same as Geminate, 

Gemma^tiort. See Budding, 

Gen^erate {genera, to beget). To beget, 
to produce of the same kind. 

Genera^ tion (generation a begetting). The 
begetting or production of oflispring. G., 
Organs of, those that are functional in 
reproduction; the genitalia. G., Spon- 
taneous, the supposed production of or- 
ganic matter or beings, from inorganic 
matter. G., Alternations of. See Alter- 
natiom o/G, 

Gener^ic (genus, a kind). Pertaining to 
the same genus. 

Gene'sial (yeveaiCt origin). Pertaining to 
generation. G. Cycle, the periods of 
ovarian, uterine, and mammary activity, into 
which the reproductive life of the female 
is divided ; the first extending from puberty 
to conception, the second from conception 
to gestation, and the third from gestation 
through lactation. 

Gen^esis (ytveaiq). The act of begetting. 

Genet^ic (yevtai^, generation). Pertaining 
to generation. Also, anything inherited. 

Genic^ulate Bodies. Two oblong, flat- 
tened bodies on the outer side of the 
corpora quadrigemina and under the back 
part of the optic thalamus. 

Gen^io- (ytvtiov, the chin). A prefix denot- 
ing connection with the chin. 

Gen^ital (genitalis^ pertaining to genera- 
tion). Pertaining to the organs of genera- 
tion or to reproduction. G. Cord, the 
union of the two ducts of Wolff and of 
Miiller to form a common cord in the 
embryo. G. Eminence, or Tubercle, 
an elevation appearing about the 6th week 
of embryonic life, in front of the cloaca, 
and from which the penis or clitoris is 
developed. G. Fissure, a furrow extend* 
ing from the genital eminence of the 
emt)r)-o to the cloaca. G. Folds, two 
plications at the side of the orifice of the 
cloaca. G. Sense, the degree of vigorous- 
ness of the development of ovisacs. 

Genita^lia (genitalis). The Ofgaoi of 




Gen^ito- {^genitusy begotten, from j^ij^o, to 
be bom). A prefix denoting connection 
or relation to the genital organs. 

Gen^tian, or Gentia^'na. The root of G. 
luteay a European, and of G. caUsbtci, an 
American species. A simple, non-astrin- 
gent bitter. Highly esteemed as a sto- 
machic tonic in convalescence from acute 
diseases and malarial fever. G., Ext. Dase 
gr. j-v.. G., Ext. Fid. Dose ^ss-j. G., 
In&sum Comp., unof., gentian lo, bitter 
orange peel 2^, coriander 2j4, alcohol 
40, water to make 320. Dose 3J-5J. 
G., Mist. Alkalin., unof., dil. hydrocyanic 
acid 1T\,iij, sodium bicarl). gr. xv, infus. of 
gentian comp. to make ^ j. Dose 3 j. G. 
et Sennse Mist., unof, iniiis. of senna 
.!^iij, comp. tinct. cardamom 3J, comp. 
infus. of gentian gvj. Dose Jx. G., 
Tinct. Comp., contains gentian 8, bitter 
orange peel 4, cardamom 2, dil. alcohol 
to make 1 00. Dose 3 ss-ij. 

Gen^u (genuy the knee). Pertaining to the 
knee. G. Extrorsum, outward bowing 
of the knee, — bow-legs. G- Valgum, in- 
ward curving of the knee, — knock-knees. 
G. Varum. Same as G. Extrorsum. 

Gen^uclast (genuy KXaUy to break). An 
instrument for breaking irreducible adhe- 
sions of the knee-joint. 

Gen^u Cor'pus Callo^si. A name given 
to the reflected part of the corpus cat- 

Genuflex^ {gt^nu, flexuSy bent). Bent at, 
or like, the knee. Also, l)ent at any joint. 

Ge^nus (gtruusy a family). A species or a 
numl)er of si)ecies marked by one or more 
common characteristics that distinguish 
them from the species of another family. 

Genyplast^y (yntf , the cheek, ir^aaauy to 
form). The operation for reforming or 
restoring the cheek imperfect either from 
injury or from congenital malformation. 

Geog^raphy (77/, the earth, ypa<^y to write). 
In medicine, a description of the earth's 
surface with reference to climatology, and 
the distribution of disease, with relation to 
origin and locality. 

GcoKogy {yrj, ?jo)o^y a treatise). The sci- 
ence treating of the structuml development 
of the earth. 

Geom'ctry (yrj, ftrrpovy a measure). That 
branch of mathematical science treating of 
the relations of magnitudes. 

Geoph^agism (}•;/, tpayu^ to eat). The 
practice of earth- or clay-eating, practiced 
m a few localities. 

Gera^nium. Cranesbill-root. The root 
of G, macuiatum. Properties due to tan- 

nic and gallic acids. Useful in diarrhoes, 
infant colic, etc, G., Ext. Fid. Do^ 

GeratoKogy (ynpa^y old age, ?.oyo^, a treat- 
ise). A treatise concerning old age. 

Gei^lach's Network. An exceedingly 
delicate fibrous network of the finest nerve 
fibrils in the gray matter of the cord. 

Ger^lach's Theory. Pertains to the con- 
nection of the nerve-fibers and ganglionic 
cells of the cord. 

Ger^lier's Disease. An affection (of farm- 
hands) characterized by sudden paroxysms 
of ptosis, vertigo, muscular paresis, and 
cervico-occipilal pain. 

Germ (gcrwe», a sprout). The ovum, 
spore, or zodspore that, by fecundation, 
b capable of developing into an oi^anisni 
like that whence it was derived. G. of 
Disease, the special virus or spore by 
which a disease becomes communicable. 
G. of Sac, the vesicle constituting the 
blastoderm of mammals. G., Specific, 
same as Germ. G. Theory of Disease, 
the theory that contagious and infectious 
diseases are communicated by means of the 
transference to and development of a si)e- 
cific seed or s]X)re within the organism of 
the animal infected. 

German Breast Tea. A decoction of 
althaea, g. v. 

German Chamomile. See Matticaria. 

Germicide {^germcn, aspnmt; cicdercyXo 
kill). An agent that destroys bacteria; 
an antiseptic sul)stance. 

Ger^minal. Pertaining to a germ or the 
genesis of a tissue or organ. G. Area, 
the area germinativa ^ox embtyonai shield^ 
a white round sjxjt upon one side of the 
vitelline membrane in which the blasto- 
derm l>ecomes double. G. Matter. See 
Protoplasm. G. Membrane, the blasto- 
derm. G. Spot. The nucleolus of the 
ovule. G. Vesicle. The nucleus. 

Germina'^tion {germination a sprouting), 
llie sprouting of a seed. The beginning 
of the development of an ovum, si)ore or 

Gero^ni Specio^sa. An Andean plant, 
having a reputation as a local remedy in 
sy])hilis and rheumatism. I'nof. 

Gerontox^on. See Anus .SV/////V. 

Gesta^tion (gero, to bear). Same as 

Giacomini*s Method of Preserving 
the Brain. Immerse in a saturate<l solu- 
tion of chloride of zinc ; turn several times 
daily and inject 600 grms. of the li(iuid 
through the carotids. Remove membranes 




in 48 hours. Allow to remain in solution 
until it begins to sink, then immerse in 
alcohol for 10 days. Inunerse in glycer- 
ine until it sinks ; remove, allow to dry, 
and varnish. 

Gi^ant (jip'^as, large or ponderous). An 
adult of a si)ecies excessively developed in 
stature and proportions. 

Gibbos^ity ^^ibbosus). The condition of 
being giblx)us. 

Gib^bous {gihbosuSf hunchbacked). 
Bunched or bulged out. Abnormally 

Gilbert's Syrup. See Hydrargyrum. 

Gid^diness (Sax. gyddian^ to be merry). 
A sensation of whirling or unsteadiness 
of the Ixxiy, usually accompanied by more 
or less nausea. 

Gig'^ger. See Pulex. 

Gimbemat's Ligament. See Ligament 

Gin. See Spirit its ; also, Junipcrus, 

Gin^ger. See Zingiber, 

Gingi^va (I^t.). The vascular tissue sur- 
rounding the necks of the teeth and 
covering the alveoli. In the plural it is 
popularly known as the gums. 

Gingi^val {^gingiTa). Pertaining to the 
gums. G, Line, the blue or purplish 
line along the gums where they meet 
the teeth, indicative of chronic lead-poi- 

Gingivi^tis {gingiva). Inflammation of 
the gums. 

Gin-'glymoid (}/}7?.t'//of ,ahinge). Resem- 
bling a hinge-joint. 

Gin^glymus. See Diar^fhrosis. 

Gin^seng. The fleshy root of several spe- 
cies of Panax. An aromatic bitter with 
tonic i>roperties. Unof. 

GiraKd^s, Organ of. The vasa aberrantia 
of the Wolffian Ikxlies. 

Gir^dle (Sax. gyrde/^ a waistliand). Any 
band designed to go around the Inxly. G., 
Pelvic, the l»oncs (or cartilages) form- 
ing tlic sup]X)rt for the lower limls of 
vertebrates. In mammals they cc> of 
the ilium, ischium and os pubis. G. Sen- 
sation, or Pain, a .s^msation as though a 
liand had ))ecn tied around the {lelvis, or 
one of the liml>s. A symptom of affections 
of the spinal cord. 

Giz^zard (Old P'r. Grsifr). The strong 
muscular stomach of birds. 

Glabella (dim. of giabcr^ smooth). The 
triangular sj^ace l)etween the eyebrows. 

Gla'^brous {glabfr). Smooth. In lx)tany, 
destitute of hairs or down. 

Gla^cial (>i.'/tfnW, ice). Icy Resembling 
ke in appearance. 

Glacia^tion (g/aa'fs). Assuming a condi- 
tion like that of ice. Also producing ero- 
sive effects like those of moving ice. 

Gladi^olin. A certain alkaloid occurring 
in brain tissue. 

Gladio^lus (dim. of gladius, a sword). 
The middle or second piece of the sternum. 

Glair^ine. See Baregine. 

Glai^ry i glair ^ the while of egg). Slimy. 
Also, alouminous. 

Gland (g/ans, an acorn). A name given 
to various small racemose or ovoid organs 
of the body, both secretive and excretive 
in function, withdrawing from the blood 
material for other purposes, or that is 
injurious or of no use to the economy. In 
structure they may be simple, saccular or 
tubular. Also, the bulbous emi of the penis 
and cUtoris. G., Arytenoid, the small 
muciparous glands in front of the arytenoid 
cartilage. G. of Bartholin!, two small 
glands, one on each side of the vagina, 
opening through ducts on the inner surface 
of the nymphse. Also, the sublingual 
glands. G., Bowman's, tubular glands 
of the olfactory region. G., Brunner's, 
the granular bodies occurring in the duo- 
denum. G., Buccal, the glands between 
the buccinator muscle (of the cheek) and 
the adjacent mucous membrane. G., 
Cervical, the lymphatic glands of the 
neck, also called cenncai ganglion. G., 
Ceniminous, tlie glands that secrete 
the wax of the ear. G., Coccygeal, a 
gland at the tip of the coccyx. G., Cow- 
per*s, two small glands anterior to the 
prostate gland. G., Duodenal. See 6^., 
Brnnne?5, G., £bner*s, serous gland>i 
of the tongue. G., Epiglottic, the mu 
ciparous glands about the epiglottis. G.« 
Gastric, the glands of the stomach — tul)u- 
lar and peptic. G., Haversian, the 
fatty Ixxlies lying l)ehind the synovial 
fringes of most joints. G., Iliac, the 
glands, six or eight in numlier, lying on 
both sides of the iliac vessels, that re- 
ceive certain lymphatics and the effierent 
vessels of the inguinal glands. G., La- 
bial, the racemose glands near the edges 
of the lips. G., Lachrymal. See Lai hty- 
mal Glands. G., Laryngeal, the muci- 
paroas glands scattered abuut the region 
of the larynx G., Lieberkikhn's, the 
columnar glands distrilnited over the 
mucoas membrane of the intestines. G., 
Lingual. See Salivary Glands, G. 
of Littr^, the glands in the submucous 
tissue of the urethra. G. of Lutchkm. 
See Coccygeal Gland. G., MamiiUtt7» 




the milk-secreting glands in the breasts of 
the female. G., Meibomian, the minute 
follicles Ix^twcen the cartilage and conjunc- 
tiva of the eyelids. G., Molar, the 
glands Ixitweeii the masseter and Imcin- 
nator mu^les of the cheek. G., Moll's, 
sweat gland:» o))ening into the hair-follicles 
of the eyelashes. G. of Naboth, the small 
glandular iKxlies within the mouth of the 
uterus. G., Nuhn*8, mixed glaud:& near 
the tip of the tongue. G., Odoriferse, the 
glands behind the cervix of the penis, ex- 
creting the smegma. Q., (Ksophageal, 
the glands in the sulmiucous tissue of the 
a'so|>hagus. G., Pacchionian, the so- 
called granulations clustered alx)ut the outer 
surface of the dura mater, pia mater, and 
certain sinuses of the brain. G., Palatine, 
the .small glands forming a continuous 
layer near the surface of the hanl palate 
and al)out the soft palate. G., Parotid. 
See Stt/i7'tiry Clauds, G., Peptic, the 
glands situated all over the mucous coat of 
the stomach secreting the gastric juice. 
G., Peyer's, the clustered glands near the 
lower end of the ileum. G., Pharyngeal, 
the racemose glands of the pluuynx. G., 
Pineal. See Pineal Gland, G., Pitui- 
tary. See Pituitaiy Body. G., Pros- 
tate. See Prostate Uland. G., Salivary. 
See Salh'ary Glands, G., Sebaceous, 
the minute saccular glands in the corium 
of the skin, that secrete the sebum. G., 
Solitary, the glands scattercil through the 
mucous membrane of the smaller intes- 
tine. G., Sublingual. See Saltrary 
Glands, G., Submaxillary. See Sail- 
raty Glands, G., Sudoriferous, the 
glands of the skin that secrete sweat. G., 
Suprarenal, the supran^nal capsules. See 
i'a/'snle, G., Thymus, a tenijwran* organ 
lying mainly in the neck, attaining its full 
growth at two years and practically disap- 
pearing at puU-rty. G., Thyroid, a lobu- 
iatcil gland in the }i\y[)er part of the trachea. 
G., Tracheal, the miimte ovuid glands 
abundant in the ix>sterior | virt of the trachea. 
G. of Tyson. See G. (>don/fr,t\ G., 
Uterine, the tubular follicles flistributeii 
throughout the mua.^us membrane of the 
utonLs. G., Vulvo-vaginal, the gland 
of Itartholini. G., Weber's, mucous 
glands near the ixx)t of tongue. 

Gland^ers. See I\,fuinia. 

Glans Pe'nis. The cxmical sha]xxi Ixxly 
furming the heail of the {K-nis. 

Glass ^Sax. ,;-.ic'0< A brittle, hanl, and 
trans|nn'nt sulnstance consisting usually of 
the fused, amoq)hous silicates of potassium 

and calcium, or sodium and calcium, with 
an excess of silica. Wlien glass of a high 
refractive index is recjuired, lead silicate is 
also added. G. -blowers' Disease, a 
term formerly ased to designate any infec- 
tious disease of the lips, cs})ecially syphi- 
litic eruptions. Also, applied to pulmo- 
nary emphysema. G., Crown, a very 
hard glass, made from sodium sulphate 
and lime. PI as a low refractive index but 
considerable chromatic dispersion. Used 
in lenses of optical instruments. G., Flint, 
composed of lead and pota>.sium silicates. 
Has a very high refractive index. Used in 
lenses of optical instruments. G., Solu- 
ble, potassium or sodium silicate. 

Glas^ses. A synonym of spectacles or 
optical lenses. 

Glau^ber's Salt. See Sodium. 

Qlauco^ma (/^^iwoc sea-green). A dis- 
ease of the eye whose essential and char- 
acteristic symptom is on abnormally height- 
ened intraocular tension, resulting in hard- 
ness of the gIol)c, excavation of the pa- 
pilla or optic nerve, a restriction of the 
field of vision, conical ano.'sthesia, colored 
halo alx>ut lights, and lessening of vi.sual 
power that may, if unchecked, proceed to 
blindness. The etiolog)- is obscure. G. Ab- 
solutum, or Consummatum, the com- 
pleted glaucomatous process, with blind- 
ness. G. Acutum, the first or the re- 
newed attack, with Uie characteristic and 
intlammator\' symptoms, generally intermit- 
ting after a few days. G. Fulminans, 
an acute attack coming on with great sud- 
denness and violence. G. Haemorrha- 
gicum, that associated with retinal hivmor- 
rhage. G., Secondary, that consequent 
to other ocular diseases. G., Simplex, 
without intlammatory sym|>toms. 

Gleet (Sax. ^lidan^ to slip down). The 
chronic stage of gonorrhoea with muco- 
purulent tlischai^e. 

Glen'oid (}/(^rv, a cavity. A name given 
to any ]>art or organ having a shallow 

Gli'a' Cells. See Deitcrs Cells. 

Gli^adin. See G:uten. 

Glio'ma (;/m, glue). A name given by 
\irchow to a variety of round -celled .sar- 
coma, con«>i"*ting of a tumor of neuroglia 
cells, occurring in the central nia<s of the 
brain, or of the cord. G. of the 
Retina (" ence])I)al«>iil of the retina "'), a 
glioma springing fmnithe conneviive tissue 
of the retina, a^ually ov.'curring in the young, 
and in>'olving the choroid, o\K\c nerve, 
and extending finally into the brain. G., 




Pseudo-, of the Retina, metastatic puru- 
lent choroiditis, simulating the appearance 
of retinal glioma. 

Gliomato^sis. Exuberant masses of glio- 
ma-like tissue in syringo-myelia. 

Gliomyxo^ma. A term applied to tumors 
having the character both of glioma and 

Gliosarco^ma. Such tumors as have both 
the neuroglia cells of glioma and the fusi- 
form cells of sarcoma. 

Glis^son. See Capsule. 

Globe of the Eye. The eyeball. 

Glo^bin {^ globus y a globe). A native pro- 
teid of the glolmlin class, one of the 
products of the decomposition of ha:mo- 

Glob^ular (dim. of globus). Having the 
shape of a globe or sphere. 

Glob^ule [dxm.oi globus). A small globe. 
In biolc^, any minute spherical structure. 
In pharmacy, a small pill or pellet. 

Glob^ules of Donn6. See Blood Plates. 

Glob^ulin. One of the native proteids of 
the general class called globiilins; it is 
obtained from the crystalline lens. 

Glob^ulins. A class of native proteids 
comprising (ilobulin, Vitellin, Para-, or 
Serum-globulin, Fibrinogen, Myo.sin and 
Globin. ITiey are insoluble in distilled 
water, but soluble in dilute neutral .^^line 
solutions, lliese solutions are coagulated 
by heat, and precipitated by a large amount 
of water. Tliey yield acid-albumin when 
acted upon by dilute acids, and alkali-albu- 
min by dilute alkalies. Vegetable Glob- 
ulins have been .studied, and named vege- 
table Myosin , I ikllin^ and Pataglvbulin^ — 
found in the seeds of plants. 

Glo^bus (I^t.). A ball or glol)e. G. 
Epididymis. See Epididymis. G. 
Hystericus, the "lump" or choking 
sensation occurring in h^-steria, caased 
prol)al)ly by s])asmodic contraction of the 
oesophagus and pharv'Ugeal muscles. G. 
Major, the larger end or head of the epi- 
didymis. G. Minor, the lower end of 
the epididymis. 

Glom^erate {^^lonieroy to wind around). 
A descriptive term applied to any gland of vessels bunched together like 
a ball of thread. 

Glomer^ulus, or Glom^erule (dim. of 
glomus). A knot or small rounded mass. 
G. Malpighii. See Malpighian Bthiics. 

Glos^sa ()?.itH7<Ta). The tongue; also tlie 
faculty of articulate s]x;ech. 

Gloss^al [y^xtaaa). Pertaining to the 

GlossaKgia {yhjoaa^ o^/oc, pain). Any 
pain in the tongue. 

Glossec^tomy [ykuaaa, eicroftrf, excision). 
Amputation or excision of the tongue. 

Glossi^tis (yhjcraa, trig, inflammation). 
Inflammation of the tongue. 

Glos^so- (yXuaaa). A prefix denoting 
connection with the tongue. G.-hyal, 
pertaining conjointly to the tongue and 
the hyoid bone. G. -pharyngeal, per- 
taining jointly to the tongue and the pharynx. 
G. -pharyngeal Nerve. See Nerve. 
G. -spasm, spasm of the tongue. 

Glossog^raphy (}7.ijffaa, >/mx^, to write). 
A descriptive treatise upon the tongue. 

Glossol^ogy {y^jnaaay ?jo-yoc^ a treatise). 
A treatise concerning the tongue. 

Glossophy^tia (y?jjaaaf ^toi, a plant). 
Black Tongue. A dark discoloration of 
the tongue, due to accumulations of spores, 
dead epithelium and accidental impurities 

Glossople^gia (yAuoaa, n?irDfff a stroke). 
Paralysis of the tongue. 

Glossot^omy (>/w<T(Ta, Tejavci, to cut), 
llie dissection of the tongue. Also, the 
excision of the tongue. 

Glos^sy Skin. See Atrophoderma, 

Glot^tis (>/6rrTa, the tongue). The rima 
glottidis. The opening between the ary- 
tenoid cartilages, or the interval between 
the vocal chords. Over it is the epiglottis, 
a thin lamella of cartilage covering the 
larynx during deglutition. 

Glu^cose (^Awcif , sweet). Dextrose, Levu- 
lose, Grai)e Sugar, Starch Sugar. A sub- 
stance obtained from starch 1 y the action 
of the natural ferment diastase, and by the 
catalytic action of mineral acids on starch. 
Less soluble, and therefore less sweet than 
cane sugar, but e(|ually nutritious. Much 
used as an adulterant of cane sugar. 
Dextrose differs from levulose in its l)eha- 
vior to the polarized ray that is turned by 
the former to the right, and by the latter 
to the left. 

Glu^coside [glucose^ eiAoc^ like). A name 
given to a series of comix)mids that may 
be resolved by the presence of acids into 
glucose and another {irinciple. 

Glu^cosine. Various ptomaTne-liases ob 
tained by the action of ammonia on glu 
cose. One of these, C',Jl,„Nj(C = 6V 
corresponds in formula and general proj)- 
ertics to a remarkable unnamed lase 
formed during the alcoholic fermentation 
of sugar or mola-sses, — Morin's base, 
C\II,(,Nj: — a colorless, stronjjly refract- 
ing, very mobile oil, with a nauseous, 
pjriidine-like odor. It produces stupor, 




paralysis, diminution of sensibility, dilata- 
tion of pupils, lowering of pulse and 
temperature, coma, and death. Alkaloidal 
bases have also been found in petroleum, 
parafBne-oil, chloroform, benzole, ether, 
amyl alcohol, and in most solvents in com- 
mon use. 

Glue. An impure gelatine obtained from 
the hides and hoofs of animals. 

Glute'^al (yAovrof, the buttock). Pertain- 
ing to tlie gluteal muscles or to the but- 
tocks. G. Artery. See Artery. G. 
Nerve. See Nen'e. G. Reflex, a con- 
traction of the gluteal muscles when the 
skin over the buttock is stimulated. 

Glu^ten (gluten^ glue). A substance re- 
sembling albumin, with which it is proba- 
bly identical. Occurs abundantly in the 
seed of cereals in the form of cubical cells 
surroundmg the starchy fecula of the seed. 
It consists mainly of gluten-fibrin, gluten- 
casein, gliadin and mucedin. 

Glyc'erine (yT^vKvq). Propenyl hydrate. 
A \'iscous, syrupy, colorless sul)stance de- 
rived fix)m certain fats — mainly palm oil — 
by decom]M>sing them with superheated 
steam. Pure glycerine is an emollient ; the 
imptu^ article an irritant to the skin. 

Glyc'erine Cu^pric Test (for sugar). 
To an inch of potassium hydrate in a test- 
tube add a few drops of copper sulphate 
and a few of glycerine. Boil and add 
suspected urine by small amounts up to 
less than one inch in the tube. Sugar 
will throw out the cuprous oxide, red or 

Gly'cerite, or 

Glyceri'tum. A glycerite, or mixture of 
medicinal substances with glycerine, lliere 
are two oHicial glyccrites. 

Gly'cin. Called, also, glycocoll, amido- 
acetic acid, or gelatin sugar; derived from 

GlycochoPic Acid {y7.vKvq, x^'^-Ht bile). 
An acid found in the bile. 

Gly'cocol. See Glycin. 

Gly^cogen (y'XvKvq^ yewau^ to produce). 
A white amorphous powder, tasteless 
and odorless, forming an opalescent solu- 
tion with water, insoluble in alcohol. Com- 
monlv known as animal starch. Occurs 
in the blood and the liver, by which it is 
elalx>rated. Changed by diastasic ferments 
into glucose. 

Gly^conin. See Vittl/us. 

Glycosu^ria (>At»cvc, ovpov^ the urine). 
The existence of grape sugar in the urine. 
See Diahttes. G., Tests for. See Hoett- 
cker^Sf FeAIin^s, Glycerine^ Cupric^ In- 

digO'Carmine^ Pavy'Sf Picrosacchari" 
meter^ Phenyl- hydrazine Roberts Differ- 
ffUial Demity^ Saccharometery Trctmmet^s, 

Qlycyrrhi^za. Liquorice Root. 'ITie root 
of G. glabra. A demulcent and mild lax- 
ative, of sweet taste. In combination with 
other medicaments, an excellent expector- 
ant. Much used as an excipient in pills, 
troches, etc. G., Ext., the liquorice of 
commerce, occurring in black rolls. G., 
Ext. Purum, made with aq. ammonia 
and water by percolation and evaporation. 
G., Fid. Ext., prepared with water and 
alcohol. G., Mist. Comp., Brown mix- 
ture, pure extract, sugar, acacia, &a 3 parts, 
tinct. opium camph. 12, vin. antimony 6, 
spt. nitrous ether 3, water 70. Dose 3 j- 3 ss. 
G. et. Opii Trochisci, have each G. ext. 
gr. ij, ext. of opium gr. ^^, acacia, sugar, 
oil of anise q. s. Dose j-ij. G. Ammo- 
niatum, the sweet principle of the root 
made soluble by ammonia. Dose gr. 

Gme^lin-Heintz Reaction. A test for 
bile-pigments in urine. Nitric acid con- 
taining some nitrous acid is added to the 
liquid, and if bile-pigments be present, a 
play of colors follows, beginning with 
green and passing through blue, violet, red 
to yellow. 

Gme^lin's Test. See Gmelin-Heintz Re- 

Gnat (Sax. gncct). A di))terous insect, the 
Culex pipiensy differing but slightly from 
the common mosquito, with which it is 
popularly included. The " bite " consists 
in a piercing of the skin and the with- 
drawal of a minute quantity of blood. It 
has no sting nor }x>ison glands. 

Gna^thic {yvalkt^y the cheek l)one). Per- 
taining to the cheek or the ui)i)cr jaw. 

Goad^by's Solution. A solution of salt 
and corrosive sublimate in water, for pre- 
serving meat against putrefaction. 

Gob^let Cells. Chalice-like cells Ijing 
between the epithelial cells of the intestinal 

Gog'gles (E. goggle^ to roll the eyes). 
Spectacles with colored lenses and wire or 
cloth sides, to protect the eyes from ex- 
cessive light, dust, etc. 

Goi^tre (gutfur, throat). Enlargement, 
particularly if hypertrophic, of the thy- 
roid gland. Called, also, /inmchocele and 
Tracheocele. It generally accompanies 
cretinism. G., Exophthalmic, a disease 
characterize<l by one or more of three 
symptoms — cardiac palpitation, goitre and 




Ook^rhu. The fruit of Pedalium murexy 
found in East Indies. Much used by the 
natives in enuresis and spermatorrhoea. 
Used in infusion of §j to Qj of boiling 
water. Dose ad lib. Unof. 

Gold. See Aurum. 

Golden Rod. The leaves of Solidago 
odora. Aromatic stimulant and carmina- 
tive. A volatile oil distilled from the plant 
is used in flatulence. Dose of the fld. ext 
3 j-ij ; of the oil n\,ij-x. Unof. 

Golden Seal. See Hydrastis. 

Gold^-thread. See Coptis. 

Goltz's Balancing Experiment. Ani- 
mals lose their power of equilibrium with 
removal of the mid-brain or corpora quad- 

Goltz's Croaking Experiment. A pithed 
male frog croaks when the skin of its back 
or flanks is stroked. 

Goltz's Embrace Experiment. During 
the breeding season the body of the male 
frog between the skull and fourth vertebra 
embraces every rigid object with which it 
is brought into contact. 

Goltz's Statical Theory. Every position 
of the head causes the endolymph of the 
semicircular canals to exert the greatest 
pressure uix>n some part of the same, thus 
in varying degree exciting the nerve-termi- 
nations of the ampullae. 

Gompho^sis. See Synarthrosis. 

Gona^gra (7(n'v, the knee, a-yita^ a seizure). 
Gout of the knee or knee-joint. 

Gonarthri^tis (yoin;, aptffHw, a joint). In- 
flammation of the knee-joint. 

Gonarthroc^ace (>wv, apffpov^ Kaiajy evil). 
A cancerous or ulcerated aflection of the 
knee-joint, popularly known as white swel- 

Gonarthrot^omy (yorw, apOpov, a joint, 
TtfivUf to cut). Incision into the knee- 

Gonecyst'^ic (yov^, semen, ici^rr/f, a blad- 
der). Pertaining to the vesicida seminaUs. 

Gonepoiet^ic (yoiv/, tto/^w, to produce). 
Pertaining to the secretion of semen. 

Gonococ^cus [yovriy kokkoq^ a kernel). 
A microl)e thought to be the specific cause 
of gonorrha'a.. See Gonorrha^a. 

Gon^ion. See Skull. 

Gonorrhce^a (yor//, /Vw, to flow). Etymo- 
logically, an involuntary discharge of so- 
men, but generally applied to an infectious 
pus-like discharge from the genital oi^ans. 
The gonococcus of Neisser is believed to 
be the sf^ecific microbe of gonorrluua. It is 
a diplococcus, found in clumps of from lo 
to 20, surrounded by a mucous envelope. 

G. Balani, affects the glans penis. G. 
Ophthalmia. See Ophthalmia, G. 
Rheumatism, a rheumatic affection of 
the joints as a sequel of gonorrhoea. 

Gonos^cheocele (yovj;, oax^ovt the scro- 
tum, Kijhf, a tumor). A swelling of the 
testicle with semen. 

Gonyon^cus (yoiVj the knee, oyicog, a 
tumor). A tumor or swelling of the knee. 

Goose Grass. See Galium Aparine. 

Goose Skin. Cutis Ansera, Goose Flesh. 
A popular name for a well-known condi- 
tion of the skin marked by prominence 
about the hair follicles of acute papules. 
See Arrector Pili Muscle. 

Gor^get (gtirges^ a chasm). A channeled 
instrument similar to a grooved director. 
It may be blunt, cutting, hooked, etc, 

Gossyp^ium. Cotton, llie hairs of the 
seed of G. herbaceum. Freed from impuri- 
ties, and deprived of natural fatty matter, 
it becomes die absorbent cotton of surgery. 
Soluble in an anmionio solution of copper 
sulphate. The root is thought to have 
enmienagogue properties ; the oil is an ex- 
cellent substitute for olive oil. G. Rad. 
Cortex, cotton-root bark. Dose gr. xxx- 
3J. G. Rad. Ext. Fid., prepared with 
glycerine and alcohol. Dose n\^ xxx -^j. 
G. Seminis Ol., the expressed oil, consti- 
tutes most of the so-called olive oil of 
commerce. See, also, Pyroxylin, 

Gouge (Fr.). An instrument for cutting 
or removal of bone or of other hard struc- 

Gou^'lard's Extract. See Lead. 

Gout {^guttay a drop). A disease character- 
ized by an excess of uric acid or alkaline 
urates, especially sodium urate, in the fluids 
of the body. The latterns first deposited 
about the articular surfaces of the small 
joints, but in time the arteries, cardiac 
valves and connective tissue of the kidneys 
may be involved. The mctatarso- phalan- 
geal of the great toe is, curiously, the 
favorite point of attack, and the helix of 
the ear is another favorite seat. Tophi form 
about the affected part. To decreased 
solubility of the urates, due to increased 
acidity of the blood ; increased formation 
of uric acid, and failure in function of the 
kidney, — is ascril)ed the cause of gout. 

Gow^ers* Method, — of counting the cor- 
puscles of the blood by the ha*macyto- 

Graafian Fol'licles. Sec Vesicle. 

Grac^ilis. See Muscle. G. Experiment, 
an experiment performed \i\yoi\ the gracilis 
muscle of the frog, showing that pure 




muscular excitation does not travel back- 
ward from the muscle to the nerve. 

Grad^uate (gradus, a step). To take a 
degree from a college or university. Also, 
a person on whom a degree has l>een con- 
ferred. Also, in pharmacy, a glass vessel 
upon which the divisions of liquid measure 
have been marked. 

Grad'^uated Com^press. A compress 
made of pieces decreasing progressively in 
size, the apex or smallest piece being ap- 
plied to the focus of pressure. 

Graduated Cones. See Cones. 

Grftfe*8 Symp^tom. In exophthalmic 
goitre, when the eyeball is directed down- 
ward, the upper lid does not, us usual, fol- 
low, but remains in a state of spasmodic 

Graft {ypaOiCf a style). A small portion of 
skin, lK>ne, periosteum, nerve, etc., inserted 
into or upon a raw surface or tissue deficient 
in the s})ecial structure desired. G-, 
Sponge, the insertion of antisepticised 
sponge to act as a framework for the granu- 

Grain (/planum , com). A general name 
applied to starch -producing seeds, or those 
of the cereals. Also, any small seed. In 
pharmacy, a small pill. Also, the -g-f^-g 
part of the Troy pound. 

Graminiv'orous ( gramen, gi'^ss, voro^ to 
devour). Feeding upon grass. 

Gramme (ypafi/jta^ a Greek weight). The 
weight of a cubic centimeter of distilled 
water at its maximum density. The gravi- 
metric unit of the metric system of weights 
and measures. See Metric System, 

Gram's Method. See Gramas Solution, 

Gram's Solution. A decoloring agent 
useil in bacteriological studies, consisting of 
iodine I part, ]x>tassium iodide 2, water 300. 
The preparation is taken from the color- 
l)ath, washed and plunged into this solution 
until it takes a blackish tinge, then washed 
in alcohol until decoloration is complete. 
This process is called Gramas Method. 

Grana^tum. Pomegranate. The cortex 
of the root of Punica G. contains a liquid 
alkaloid, peiietierine. One of the most 
efficient anthelmintics against tapeworm, 
rarely failing to bring away the whole 
worm. G., Fid. Ext. Dose zss-js.s. 
G., Decoctum, fresh bark ^xvij, water 
i xvij, boiled to ^ xij and strained. Dose 
^iv-vj. Peiietierine Tannas, tannate 
of the alkaloid, known as a patent medi- 
cine under the name of Tanret's Peiie- 
tierine. Dose gr. ss-j, followed by a quick 
puigative. All uoof. 

Grandry's Corpuscles. Occur in the 
beak and tongue of the duck and goose, in 
the epidermis of man and mammals, etc. 
They are terminations of sensory nerves, 
and are also called I'actile or Touch Ccx- 
puscles of Mcrkel. 

dran^ular Lids. See Trachoma. 

Granula^tion (dim. of granumy a grain). 
The operation of reducing coarsely crystal- 
line substances to particles of uniform sizie 
by solution and rapid evaporation, with 
constant stirring. Some substances, like 
ferrous sulphate, are best granulated by 
filtering a strong solution into alcohol. 

Granula^tions {granutum). Papilla-, or 
grain-like growths that spring up in the 
healing of wounds and ulcers. 

Gran^ule (granulum). In anatomy, any 
small rounded grain, such as is found in 
the Malpighian bodies of the spleen. Also 
a spore or an isolated cell. In pharmacy, 
a small pill. G., Elementary, irregular 
protoplasmic bodies in blood, smaller than 
ordinary corpuscles. 

Granulo^ma (granu/um), A term used 
by Virchow to include such neoplasms as 
do not advance l)eyond the stage of granu- 
lation tissue. G., Fungoides. See 

Grau'^ulose. The starch granules or starch 
enclosed by coats of cellulose. 

Gran^um. See Grain. 

Grape Sugar. See Glucose. 

Grat^ing {^grata). A frame or screen 
composed of bars. Also a sound produced 
by the friction of very rough surfaces 
against each other. In optics, a glass ruled 
with exceedingly fine parallel lines to pro- 
duce chromatic dispersion in the ray of 
light reflected from it. 

Grattage^ (Fr.). • A method of mild 
scraping or curetting the internal walls of 
the uterus by means of a brush. 

Grav^el. In surgery, a common name for 
the larger calculi or urinary concretions. 
Also, any difficult or })ainfiil micturition. 
G. Plant. See Trailing Arbutus, G. 
Root, Queen of the Meadow, the root 
of Eupatorium purpureum. Therapeutic 
properties like those of Boneset, See 

Graves's Disease. See Goitre^ Exoph- 

Grav^id (gravo, to load). With child. 
Pregnant. G. Uterus, the womb during 
pregnancy or gestation. 

Qrav'ity i grain's ^ heavy). The property 
of possessmg weight. Also, a condition 
of serious import G., Specific, tKie 




measured weight of a substance com- 
pared with that of an equal volume of 
another taken as a standard. For gaseous 
fluids hydrogen is taken as the standard ; 
for liquids and solids, dbtilled water at its 
maximum density. 

Gray Matter. See Brain, 

Great Lau^rel. The leaves of Rhododen- 
dron maximum. An expectorant. Use- 
ful in obstinate coughs. Dose of fid. ext. 
n\^v-xv. Unof. 

Green. A simple color of the sp)ectrum. 
G. Dragon. The corm of Arum dra- 
contium. Expectorant and diaphoretic. 
I>>se of fld. ext. ir^-x. Unof. G. 
Osier, the bark of Comus circinata. An 
astringent tonic and fel^rifiige. Dose of 
fld. ext. n\^ XX- 3 j. Unof. G. Sickness. 
See Chlorosis. 

Gregarin^idse (gffx^ a herd). A class of 
parasitic protozoa, of extremely simple na- 

Griffe. See Mulatto. 

Griffith's Mixture. See Ferrum, 

Griffith's Pills. See Ferrum. 

Grinde^lia. The leaves and flowering top 
of G. rohustOy found in California. An 
antispasmodic and motor depressant, in 
large doses producing mydriasis. Valu- 
able in asthma, lironchitis and whooping- 
cough. Dose of the fld. ext. Tt\^x-xj. 
G. Squarrosa, common ague weed. An 
herb pojnilar in the western U. S. as a 
remedy for ague and malarial diseases. 
Has proved serviceable in chronic rheuma- 
tism. Dose of the fld. ext. Tt\^xv-xxx. 

Grind^ers' Asth^ma. A chronic aflectkm 
of the lungs resulting from the inspiration 
of metallic or siliceous dust, accumulating 
in the lungs, and producing symptoms 
similar to tiiose of consumpiion. Called 
also G. Kot and G. Disease, 

Grippe. See Ittjluenza. 

Groin. The depression lx:tween the belly 
and the thigh. 

Groove [y^-tgroof, a channel). A furrow, 
or channel. G., Dental. See Dental 
Groove. G., Infraorbital, the furrow at 
the posterior of the su|)erior maxillary on its orbital surface, which Anally 
develops into a canal of the some name. 
G., Occipital, the furrow on the inner 
surface of the tcmfx^ral bone, in which 
the occipital artery lies. 

Ground Laurel. See Trailing Arbutus. 

Ground-nut Oil. Peanut Oil. A fixed 
oil expressed from the embryo of the seed, 
of the peanut, Arachis hypogaa. Resem- 

bles olire oil in general properties, for 
which it is often substituted. 

Growing Pains. A term applied to neu- 
ralgic pains of the limbs occurring during 

Growth (Sax. growan^ to increase). The 
augmentation of the body taking place 
between infancy and manhood. Also, 
the increase of any part of the body by 
addition to the number of its cellular ele- 
ments without the production of structural 
abnormality or differentiation into unlike 

Gru^el (dim. of grutum, meal). A decoc- 
tion of com- or oat-meal boiled to a thjpk 
paste in water. 

Gru^mous . Knotted , or in granular masses. 

Gru^tum. See Milium. 

Guacha^ta. The fk>wers of a Mexican 
plant; contains several bitter tonic princi- 

Gua^co. The leaves of Mikania (7., 
much used in S. America in snake-bites. 
Thought to be of value in chronic rheuma- 
tism. Dose of fld. ext. 3 ss-j. Unof. 

Guai'^acol. An active constituent of 
crcasote. Has been recommended instead 
of creosote in phthisis. DoseTt\^j-iij. Unof. 

Guai^acum. Lignum Vitae. The heart 
of the tree, and also the oleo-resin of G. 
officinale. A prompt diaphoretic, expecto- 
rant and alterative. Efficient in tonsillitis, 
neuralgic dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhoea and 
rheumatism. Formerly much used as an 
antisyphilitic. G., Tinct., strength 20 
per cent. Dose n\^T-3Jin mucilage. 
G., Tinct. Ammoniat., has guaiac 20, 
arom. spt. ammonia 80 parts. Dose Tr\^T 

Guan^idine. A toxic derivative fix>m 

Gua^nine {guanoY A leucomaine dis- 
covered by Unger m 1844, as a constituent 
of guano. Since then it has been proved 
one of the decomposition -products of nu- 
clein in both animal and vegetal)le organ- 
isms. In the case of the lower animals it 
is evidently the end-pro<luct of katalx>lic 
chancre. Guanine and creatine ap|)ear to 
mutually replace each other — both l)eing 
sul)stituted guanidines. It is an interme- 
diate product in the formation of urea. It 
is non-poisonous and a muscle-stimulant. 

Gua^no (Pt*niv. huanu, dung). The 
excrement of sea fowl found on certain 
islands in the rainless regions of the Pa- 
cific ( >ccan. Consists essentially of alka- 
line urates and phosphates. Used exter- 
nally in certain skin diseases. 




Guara^na. A dried paste prepared from 
the seeds of Paullinia sorbilis^ found in 
Brazil. Contains an alkaloid, guaranine, 
identical with caffeine. Employed chiefly 
in nervous sick headache. Commerciid 
preparations not always trustworthy. Dose 
of the fld. ext. Tt\^ x-^ij. 

Gubemac'ulum Testis (Lat). The 
conical-shaped cord attached above the 
lower end of the epidydimis and governing 
the descent of the testes in foetal growth. 

Gubler*s Tumor. A prominence over 
the carpus of the dorsum of the hand in 
chronic wrist-drop from lead-poisoning. 

Guillotine. A surgical instrument for 
excision of the tonsils or growths in the 
larynx, etc. 

Guin^ea Worm. A nematode worm of 
tropical countries, that in the human tis- 
sues in which it burrows may develop to a 
length of several feet, producing inflamma- 
tory ulceration, unless removed. 

Gul-'let. See (Esophagus. 

Gum. A name loosely applied to con- 
creted juices of plants. Chemically, a 
substance yielding mucic acti/ when treated 
with nitric acid. See, also, Gums, 

Gum Arabic. See Acacia. 

Gum -boil. Abscess of the jaw. 

Gum Dammar. The resin of a species 
of pine, Dammara orientaiisy native to the 
East Indies. An ethereal solution is 
used by microscopists as a mounting fluid. 

Gum^ma (Fr. Gomme). Gum-like tumors, 
resulting from a peculiar caseation of terti- 
ary s>'philitic inflammatory deposit. 

Gums. See Gingiva. 

Gun Cotton. See Pyroxylin. 

Gurgling Sound. The peculiar sound 
caused by air pa.ssing through a li(]uid. It 
is heard in breathing, when the bronchi 
or pulmonary cavities contain a fluid sub- 

Gur^jun BaKsam. Balsamum Diptero- 
carpus. Wood Oil. An oleo-resin obtained 
from several species of DiptocarpuSy a tree 
native to Southern Asia. Similar to Copaiba 
in therapeutic effects. Dose n\,x-3ij, in 
emulsion. Unof. 

Gus^tatory {gustOy taste). Pertaining to 
the special sense of taste and its organs. 

Gut. A common name for intestine. 

Gut^ta ( A drop. Also, freely used 
as a minim or sixtieth part of a fluid 
drachm. G. Nigra, or Black Drop, a 
dilute acetic acid containing saflron, and 
flavored with sugar and nutmeg. Unof. 
G. Rosacea. See Acne. G. Serena* 
a synonym of Amaurosis. 

Gut^ta Per'cha. The elastic gum exud- 
ing from Isonandra gutta, a tree growing 
in the East Indies ; the best solvents are 
chloroform, oil of turpentine and carbon 
disulphide. G. P. Liq., a solution in 91 
parts of commercial chloroform with 9 
parts lead carbonate. For protective appli- 
cation to slight wounds and eruptions. See, 
also, Traumaticine. 

Gutta^tim (gutta). A pharmaceutical 
term signifying drop by drop. 

Gut'tur (guttur, the throat). The throat 
with reference to the trachea. 

Gut^tural {gu/tur). Pertaining to the 

Gut^turo-tet^any {gu/fur, tetany\ A 
form of stuttering in which the pronuncia- 
* tion of such sounds as gy ky ^, is difficult. 

G3rmna^sium {yvyLvo^y naked). A place 
designed and fltted with appliances for the 
systematic exercise of the muscles and 
other organs of the body. Also, in Ger- 
many, a high school. 

G3rmnast^ic {yv^ivoq). Pertaining to the 
science of preserving health by bodily ex- 

Gymnas^tics (yv//vof). The science of 
preserving (and formerly of restoring), 
health by bodily exercise. G., Medical, 
any physical exercise designed to restore 
or promote health. G., Ocular, regular 
muscular exercise of the eye, to overcome 
muscular insufliciency of the eye. G., 
Swedish, a system of exercises to restore 
paretic muscles. 

GynflecoKogy (>in;^,awoman, 'hr^oq). A 
A treatise on the diseases of woman. 

Gynsecomast^ia {ywrjy fiaarogy a breast). 
A term used to denote the excessive devel- 
opment of the breasts of a man, either with 
or without atrophy of the testicles. 

Gynan^dria (>t'»'»7, avripy a man). The 
same as Hermaphroditism. 

Gynatre'^sia (yvmjy Oy without, TiTpn/ni, to 
perforate). The obliteration or imperfora- 
tion of the vagina. 

Gynoplast^ic (yinf^yirhurrtKn^y suitable for 
moulding). Pertaining to the closing of 
unnatural openings, or the dilatation of 

contracted, narrow openings in the female ' 

organs of generation. 

Gyp^sum (}^>(k, lime). Native calcium 

sulphate. See Calcium. 

Gyra^tion i^gyroy to turn or whirl). A 

turning in a circle. Also, giddiness. * 

Gy'ri 7pl. of gyrus, a circuit). A name 

appliea to the spiral -shaped cavities of the 

internal ear, and also to the convolutions 

of the brain. 




Gy^rus {gyrusy a circle). A term applied 
to the convolutions of the brain. Also, the 
winding of the cochlea. G., Angular, 
the posterior division of the lower parietal 
lobule of the brain. G., Annectant, the 
first and second external occipital gyri. 
G., Ascending Frontal, the anterior 
central gyrus. G., Ascending Parietal, 
the posterior central gyrus. G., Anterior 
Central, the convolution lK>unding an- 
teriorly the fissure of Rolando, extending 
from l)ehind that fissure backward to the 
margin of the great longitudinal fissure of 
the brain. G., Posterior Central, the 
convolution bounding posteriorly the fissure 
of Rolando, joining the anterior central 
gyrus at the upp>er and lower ends. G., 
Cuneus, the small convolution joining 

the poste-Tior end of the gyrus fomicatus 
with the apex of the cimeus. G., Den- 
tate, a small notched convolution of giay 
matter in the hippocampal fissure. G., 
Frontal Inferior, a convolution of the 
frontal lobe of the brain, called also the 
third frontal convolution. G. Hippo- 
campi, the convolution at the inferior 
median edge of the upper lobe of the 
brain. G., Marginal, the convolution on 
the inner surface of the great longitudinal 
fissure of the cerebrum. G., Occipital, 
a name given to several convolutions, ^ne 
of which, the G. Occipital Primus, or 
first annectant of Huxley, connects the 
parietal and occipital lobes. G., Tem- 
poral, a convolution on the under surface 
of the temporal lobe. 


H. Abbreviation of hypemutropia. In 
chemistry, the symbol of hydrogen. In 
pharmacy, the abbreviation of hatistus^ a 

Haben^ula ijiab^na^ a rein). A riblx)n-like 
structure. In anatomy, the superficial gray 
nucleus of the optic thalamus in front, 
and suf>erior to the posterior commissure. 

Hab^it (haheoy to have). That condition 
or quality that one naturally possesses, or 
that may be acquired. The tendency to 
re|)eat an action or condition. In biology, 
the appearance and mode of living of an 
organized being. 

Hab^itat {habito, to dwell). The natural 
locality, or geographical range of an ani- 
mal or plant. 

Habita^tion (haHfo). A dwelling place. 
The natural locality of an animal or a 

Hab^itus (habeoy to have). A habit. 

Hae^ma- («///«, bloo<l). A Greek prefix 
signifying olood. 

Haemacy^anin {aiua^ Kvavo^y blue). A 
blue coloring matter found in the blood 
and the bile. 

Hsemacytom^eter. See H<cmocytometer. 

Haemadynamom^eter. Sec Ilemodyna- 

Hse^magog^e (a//ia, aycj, to expel). A 

remedy or agent that excites or increases 

menstrual dischaxge. 
Hse^mal {ai^ia). Pertaining to the blood 

or vascular system. 
Haemalo^pia {at-na^ otp, the eye). "ESfa- 

sion of blood in the eye. Erythropsia. 
Haemarthro^sis {a/fia, apOtjoig, a joint). 

KfTusion of blood into a joint. 
Haemastat^ics (euim^ arariKo^^ standing). 

That branch of physiology treating of the 

laws of the equilibrium of the blood. 
Haemastheno^sis (aiiuij aoHevia, weak- 
ness). A weakening or deterioration of 

the blood. 
Haematachom^eter. See Jlamotachom- 

Hsematang^o^sis [aina^ ayyeinv^ a blood 

vessel. Any disease of the blood vessels. 
Haemateme^sis (ntfta^ meuf to vomit). 

Vomiting of blood, from any caase. 
Haematenceph^alon (aiua^ e} Kf 0o?.ni;, the 

brain). A haemorrhage or bleeding within 

the brain. 
Haematherm^ous {atua^ Orpfi^y heat). 

Having warm blood. 
Haemat^ic (ai/ia). Bloody. Pert.iining 

to, full of, or having the color of blood. 

Also a tonic to the blood. 




Hsematidro^sis (aifia^ iSpoai^, sweat). 
Bloody sweat. Ephidrosis cruenta. A 
sanguineous p>erspiration of the sweat glands 
caused by the extravasation of blood into 
the coils and ducts, whence it is carried to 
the surface mixed with sweat. 

Hae^matin {aifia). An amorphous prin- 
ciple of the blood with steel-black metal- 
lic luster. It is insoluble in water, alco- 
hol, or ether, but dissolves freely in dilute 
acids and alkaline solutions. Should not 
be confounded with hematin^ a synonym 
of htematoxylin. 

Hsemato- (<u//a). A Greek piefix signi- 
fying blood. 

Hse^matoblasts (otfui, phurro^, a cell). 
Hayem's term for blood-plates. 

Hse^matocele (aifiUy lOfAjf, a tumor). A 
tumor formed by the extravasation and 
collection of blood in a part. 

Hsematoceph^alus (a<//a, Ke^hj, the 
head). An efliisioc of blood, or a san- 
guineous tumor of the brain. Also, a 
monstrosity characterized by the efiiision of 
blood into the cerebral hemispheres. Also, 
a vascular tumor that b sometimes ob- 
served in the pia mater of anencephalic 

Haematocol^pos {at/m^ ico?.;rof ,the vagina). 
Hemorrhage into the vagina. Also a 
collection of menstrual discharges within 
the vagina. 

Hse^matocyst (aifui^ KvariCt a bladder). 
A cyst containing blood. Also an eflfusion 
of blood into the bladder. 

Hsemato^des. See Hamatomyces. 

Haematogen'ic (m/m, yeveatCt birth or 
origin). Pertaining to the formation of 

Haematog^enous ((Ufjaf yevoc^ a kind). 
Derived from, or having its origin in, the 

Haematoglobin. See Iliemof^lobin. 

Hsematohidro^sis. See Ilamatidrosis. 

Haematoid^in {p.i\iay etSoc, resemblance). 
A derivative of hx*moglobin, probably 
identical with the bile-pigment, bilirubin. 

HsematoKogy (aifia, /o^of, a treatise). A 
treatise on the blood, its nature and func- 

Haematol^ysis {ai/ia^ ?.t<<T/c, a solution). A 
solution, or an imperfect coagulation of the 

Haemato^ma (aifia, o/ia, tumor). A tu- 
mor, fungus, or swelling containing blood. 
H. Auris, an efhision of blood or serum 
between the cartilage of the ear and its 
covering, occurring in various forms of 
insanity. H. of Dura Mater, an efhision 

under the dura mater, consisting of flattened 
sacs containing blood. 

Haematom'eter. See Hamodynamometer, 

Hsematome^tra {p^iuiy pofrpa, the womb). 
Haemorrhage in tne womb. Also, a collec- 
tion or distention of the uterine cavity 
with menstrual discharge, due to obstruc- 

Haematomphal^ocele {aitia, ofi^joc, the 
navel, lOfArj, a tumor). A tumor or a her- 
nia at the navel distended with blood. 

Haematora^yces (ai/ia, fiwofc, a fungus). 
A harmatoid variety of encephaloid cancer. 
Called, also, Fungus Namatodes. 

Hsematomye^lia (a</Mx, fweh)^, marrow). 
Haemorrhage into the spinal cord, llie 
symptoms vary with the seat, but paralyses, 
vasomotor and trophic changes, loss of 
sensation, etc.. are common. 

Hsematomyeli^tis (ai/ia, fiveXoc, iriCt in- 
flammation). An acute myelitis in which 
there is paralysis arising from efiiision of 
blood into the spinal cord. 

Haematopericar^dium (aifia^ ireptKapSiov, 
the pericardium). An efiusion of blood 
into the pericardium, due to rupture or 
perforation of the w^alls of the heart. 

Haematoph'^agous (atfia, (payu, to eat). 
Blood-eating ; p>ertaining to insects such as 
the gnat, mosquito, ^/r., that suck the blood. 

Haematoplast^ic (aifia^ TrAaanxof, plastic). 

Haematopoie'^sis {atfM, Troteu, to make). 
Blood-making. See, also, /Arma/osis. 

Hsematopor^phyrin (aifia^ nop^poc, pur- 
ple). Iron-free luematin, a decomposition 
product of haemoglobin. 

Haematops^ia (atfia, onj;^ the eye). An 
extravasation of blood in the sulKonjunctl- 
val tissues of the eye. Bloodshot 

Haemator^rhachis (atfia/paxiit the spine). 
Spinal hsemorrhage. 

Haematorrhce^a (aifjia^ peu, to flow). A 
])assive flow or dischai^e of blood. A 

HaematosaKpinx (atfia^ aaXTriytf a trum- 
pet). A distention or obstruction of the 
Fallopian tubes with blood. 

Haematos^cheocele (a//i(z, ocxeov, the 
scrotum, /07A7, a tumor). A tumor or dis- 
tention of the scrotum with blood. 

Hsematos^copy (o/yw«, oKo-eu^ to see.) 
Examination of the blood and blood-discs. 

Haematosep^sis. See 5\fpticirmia. 

Haem^atosine. See Ifamatin. 

Haemato^sis [cu^artHj^ to make bloody). 
The process of the formation of blood aind 
the development of blood corpuscles. 

Hematospon^gus. See Hamaiomyces, 




Hematoz^ic (atfia^ ro^iKoVy a poison). 
Pertaining to a poisoned or impure con- 
dition of the blood. 

Hematox^ylon. Logwood. The heart 
of //. campechianum. Occurs in dark 
brown raspings or coarse powder. Con- 
tains tannic acid and a coloring principle, 
hamatoxyliny that becomes grayish -red 
by the action of light. A mild astringent. 
H. Ext. Dose gr. v-xx. H. Decoc- 
tum, strength I to 17. Dose §j-ij. Unof. 

Hsematozo/on (o/^, C<^v, an animal). 
Any living organism or animal in the 

Hematu^ria (punay ovpav, urine). Blood 
in the urine. Called, also, hanuUuresis. 
It is due to injury, local disease, general 
disorder, or the presence of entozoa. 

Hemautog^raphy ((u/mz, avro^^ self, 
ypcu^t to write). The tracing of the pulse- 
curve by the jet of blood fit^om a divided 
artery caught upon paper drawn in front 
of it. 

Hemid^rosis. See Hamathidrosis, 

He^min. Chloride of hannatin. A doubly 
refractive pleochromatic crystalline sub- 
stance derived from blood. H. Test (for 
blood in urine) ; from the colored earthy 
phosphates hsemin may be extracted in 
several ways. 

Hemochro^mogen (aiiia^ XP*^f^*^* color, 
yewau, to beget). A reduced alkali-hx- 

Hemocryst^alline. See Hamoglobin. 

Hsemocy^anin. A substance correspond- 
ing to harmoglobin, found in the plasma 
of invertebrata. 

Hae^mocyte {fuiifiy KvroCf cell). A gene- 
ral term for the corpuscles of the blood. 

HsemocytoKysis (aifia, Kvrog, Aug;, to un- 
loose). The dissolution of blood cor- 
puscles under heat. 

Haemocytom^eter {atfjui, /cvrof, a cell, 
fierpoVf a measure). A device for esti- 
mating the relative number of corpuscles 
in the blood. 

Hsemocytotryp^sis (ntfM, icvrfK^ cell, 
Tpeijkt, to rub). The breaking up of blood 
corpuscles unaer strong pressure. 

Hsemodromom''eter (aifuif SpofioCt speed, 
fierpoVf a measure). An instnunent for 
measuring the rate of the flow of blood 
in the blood-vessels. 

Hemodynamom^eter (ai/ia, dvvafiiCf 
strength, fierfxtv, a measure). A con- 
trivance for measuring the tension or pres- 
sure of blood against the walls of the 
arteries. Careful experiments show that 
in man, the pressure of blood in the 

carotid artery is about that of six inches of 

Hemoglo^bin (at/iOt globus^ a round 
body). Haematoglobin, Haemocrystalline. 
A dcnibly-refractive, pleochromatic colloid 
or crystalline matter existing in the cor- 
puscles of the blood, to which the red 
color of the latter is due. In man the 
amount is 13.77 percc^it., in woman 12.59 
per cent., reduced by pregnancy to 9 to 12 
per cent. 

Hemoglobinom^eter (hamoglobiny fier- 
pov, a measiue). An instrument for the 
quantitative estmiation of haemoglobin by 
comparing the color of a solution of an un- 
known with that of a known strength. 

Hemoglobinu^ria (hamogiobin, ovpov, 
the urine). The presence of haemoglobin, 
red coloring matter of the blood, in the 
urine, due to its solution from the red 
corpuscles and subsequent transmission to 
the urine. It occults after transfusion of 
blood, during certain stages of septicxmia, 
and after se\'ere bums. It is not attended 
with the presence of any structures of the 
blood in the urine, thus differing from hixma- 
turia. H. Test : to a suspected sample 
add a drop of acetic add and boil ; a red 
coagulum indicates haemoglobin. See, also, 
Aimen's Test^ Ilicmin and I/fller. 

Haem^oid (ai^a^ the blood, eido^^ likeness). 
Having the appearance of or resembling 

Hsemom^eter. See Hamodynamometer. 

Haemome^tra {aiiia^ ^^V'^P^^ the womb). 
The retention of menstrual discharge in the 
womb or uterine cavity owing to obstruc- 

Hsemophil^ia (at^a^ ^iXia, love of). An 
abnormal tendency to haemorrhage, or ease 
of bleeding. 

Haemophthal^mia (aifia, o<^a?.fioc, the 
eye). A hxmorrhage into the interior of 
the eye. It may arise from contusion, from 
iridectomy, or by rupture of a vessel. 

Haemopneumotho^raz (aifia, Kvev/ja, 
wind, Oopa^j the chest). An cffrision of 
air and blood within the pleura. 

Haemop^tysis (aifia, irrvu, to spit). The 
spitting of blood. 

Haem^orrhage (a</ia, ^^ity//, to burst 
forth). The flowing of blood from wounded 
or broken vessels. H., Accidental, from 
premature detachment of the placenta when 
normally placed. H., Capillary, oo/ing 
of blood from a wound without a flow from 
large vessels. H., Collateral, in acute 
inflammations. H., Complementary, 
succeeding to another haemorrhage that hai 




been cut short. H., Consecutive, ensu- 
ing some lime after injury. H., Critical, 
occurring at the turning point of some other 
disease. H., Post-partum, primary^ 
within 24 hours after labor; secondary y 
after 24 hours. H., Unavoidable, fix>m 
detachment of a placenta prscvia. H., 
Vicarious, abnormal discharge of blood 
from some other pgrt of the body than the 
vagina, and occurring in suppression of the 

Hsem^orrhoids {/aemorrhois^ piles). I*iles. 
An anal disease consisting of inflammatory 
swellings of the tissues about the anus, 
sometimes with cveision of the rectal mu- 
cous membrane. H., External, situated 
without the sphincter ani, H., Internal, 
within the anal orifice. 

Hsemostat^ic (cufM^ arariKo^ stationary). 
Having the property to arrest haemorrhage. 
Also, an agent or remedy that arrests or 
restrains bleeding. 

Hsemotachom'eter (cufia, TaxoCt swift- 
ness, fierpov, a measure). An instrument 
for measuring the rate of flow of arterial 

Hsemothor^ax (atfiGt 6opa^). The empty- 
ing of a wounded or ruptured vessel within 
the thoracic cavity. 

Hse^ser's Formula. See ChristisotCs 

Haid^inger*s Brushes. A visual phe- 
nomenon seen upon directing the eye to- 
ward a source of polarized light, due to the 
double-refractive character of the elements 
of the macula. 

Hair, llie hirsute appendage of the skin. 
Each hair consists of^ a bulb and a shaft. 
The former is situated in the true skin, but 
is enveloped in a sheath of epidermis. 

Hair-cap Moss. Robin's Rye. The 
leaves and stems of roiytrichum juni- 
pentm, A powerful diuretic. Dose of 
the decoction ad lib, \ of the fid. ext. 3J-ij. 

HalP-breed. A popular term applied to 
offspring whose parents belong to different 

Halistere^sis. The loss by fully formed 
bones of ^ to |i their lime-salts, resulting 
in osteomalacia. 

Ha^litus (I^t., a vapor). A vapor. Also, 
expired breath. H. Oris Fcetidus, tainted 
or foul breath. H. Sanguinis, the cha- 
racteristic smell of the blood, peculiar to 
each kind of animal. 

Hallucina^tion iallucinor^ to wander in 
mind). The hignest degree of subjective 
sensation, dependent alone upon patholo- 

gical stimulation of the sensory cortical 
centers. (Illusion is where sensations are 
modified and mistaken by the secborium.) 

HaKlux, or Hal^'lus {hallux). The great 
toe. The great toe when overriding the 
second toe. H. Valgus, displacement of 
the great toe outward, or its contraction. 

Ha^lo (dAcjf, a threshing floor), llie 
brownish circle about the female nipple, 
called also the areola; the luminous or 
colored circles seen by the patient about 
light in glaucoma. 

Ha^logen (a^^, a salt, ymaw, to produce). 
A term formerly applied to chlorine, bro- 
mine and iodine, as acid elements, other 
than oxygen, that formed salts when com- 
bined with bases. 

Ha^loid (a}jQy eiSoCj likeness). A term 
sometimes applied to the chlorine, bromine 
and iodine salts of the vaiious bases. 

Ham (Sax. hamm). That part of the leg 
between the knee and hip joints. 

Hamame^lis. Witch Ha/el. The leaves 
of N, virginica. Properties not fully 
known. Thought to be tonic, styptic and 
sedative. Appears to affect circulation 
in a manner similar to aconite. Highly 
recommended as a haemostatic. A prep- 
aration of this drug is sold under the 
name of Pond's Extract. H., Fid. Ext. 
Dose TT\,j-3J. Hamamelin, unof., an 
extract of uncertain composition. Dose 

P-. j-ij. 

Ham^mer, Thermal. Same as Cautery^ 

Ham^mer-toe. A distortion of the second 
toe, in which it is tent upward. 

Ham^mock (Span, hamaca). A couch or 
bed made of netting or canvas, suhpendcd 
at the ends. Much used aboard vessels 
and in tropical regions. 

Ham^string. The tendons of the posterior 
muscles of the thigh. Also, to cripple by 
cutting the tendons of the muscles of the 
thigh. H., Inner, the tendons of the 
semimembranosus, sartorius, and semiten- 
dinosus muscles. H., Outer, the tendons 
of the biceps flexor cruris. 

Ham^ular {hamuSy a hook). Pertaining 
to or shaped like a hook. 

Hand (Sax.). The organ of prehension 
in bimana and quadrumana, composed of 
the carpus, the palm and the fingers. 

Hang^ing. Death by suspension of the body 
from the neck, by a rope provided with 
a slip noose. The immediate cause of death 
may be asphyxia, cerebral hemorrhage 
f^from strangulation), or dislocation or 
nacture of the cervical vertebrae. 




Hang^nail (Sax. angnagl^ a sore by the 
nail). A pEutly detached piece of epi- 
dermis at the root of the nail, the friction 
against which has caused inflammation of 
the abraded surface. 

Hapheraet^ric. See yEsthesiometer, 

Hap^loscope (aTrXoof, single, aKOTreu, to 
see). An instrument for measuring the 
visual axes. 

Hard^hack. The leaves and twigs of 
Spircta tomentosa. Astringent and tonic. 
A popular New England remedy in diar- 
liicea and cholera infantum. Dose gr. 
v-xv, in decoction,^-of fld. ext. 3ss-j. 

Hare^lip (hare^ lip). Congenital fissure 
of the lip. H., Complicated, with cleft 
or malformation of the bone also. H., 
Double, two clefts of the lip, or one of 
each lip. Twisted or Harelip Suture, 
figure-of-8 suture about a pin thrust through 
the lips of freshened edges of the cleft. 

Hai^ri8on*3 Groove. A depression, later- 
ally, from the xiphoid cartilage in persons 
with chronic difficulty of breathing. 

Harts^hom. A name popularly given to 
ammonium hydrate. See Ammoftium. 

Har^vest Bug. See Leptus Autumnalis. 

Hasch^isch. See Cannabis. 

Has^sall's Corpuscles. Concentric, gran- 
ular, nuclear, endothelial cells in the me- 
dulla of the thymus. 

Hatters' Disease. A form of constitu- 
tional mercurial poisoning. Also a skin 
disease arising from the use of mercury and 
arsenic. Also an acute irritation of the 
respiratory tract caused by the fumes of 
nitix>gen tetroxide; all these chemicals 
being used in hat-making. 

Haunch (Fr. hanche). 'ITie part of the 
body including the hips and buttocks. 

Haust^us {^haun'Of to pour out). In phar- 
macy, a draught. A px>rtion of medicine 
in the form of a draught. 

Haut Mai. See Epilepsy. 

Haver^sian Canal. Sec Bone. 

Hawk^ing. Clearing the throat by a pe- 
culiar expiratory current of air. 

Hay Asth^ma. See //ay /erer. 

Hay^craft*s Method. See l/n'c Acid. 

Hay^den*s Vibux^num Compound. See 

Hay Fever. A disease of the mucous 
mem)>ranes of the nasal and respiratory 
passages, also at times involving the con- 
jmictiva and eyeball. It is marked by 
catarrhal inflammation, cory/a and abun- 
dant lachrymation. It is thought to l)e 
due to the pollen of the grains and other 

grasses. It is also attributed to the influ- 
ence of microbes that float in the air. 

Hay's Reac^tion. See Strassburg's Test. 

Hay's Test. For the presence of bile- 
acids, that lower the surface-tension of 
fluids in which they are dissolved. Throw 
a small quantity of sulphur on the surface 
of the fluid containing bile-acids, and the 
sulphur will sink and be precipitated in a 
few minutes. 

Head (Sax. heafod). The anterior or 
upper part of the body. That part of 
the body containing the brain oi central 
nerve-system. Also, the upper end of a 
long bone, as, the femur. x 

Head'^ache. Any pain in the head, gen- 
eral or local, arising from any cause what- 
ever. According to Hughlings-Jackson, 
frontal headaches, such as '*sick" and 
"bilious" headaches, are due to disorders 
of the digestive system; headache at the 
vertex, to cerebral troubles ; and occipital 
headache, to amcmia. Eye-strain is a fre- 
quent source of headache, especially of the 
frontal region. 

Head^-breeze, Electro-therapeu^tic. A 
device for general static cephalic electriza- 
tion by a head-plate with numerous in- 
sulated pencils for subdividing and accu- 
mulating strong currents, and giving more 
gradual effects. See Static Breeze. 

Head'^-fold. An inflection or tucking-in 
of the layers in front and beneath the head 
of the embryo. 

Head^-gut. See Fore-gttt. 

Head^ -locking. A term in obstetrics de- 
noting the entanglement of the heads of 
twins at the time of birth. 

Heal^ing (Sax. halan). Union and cica- 
trization of a wound. Applied generally 
to the cure of disease. H. by First In- 
tention, without the granulating process. 
H. by Second Intention, by the inter- 
mediation of granulations. H. by Third 
Intention, the direct union of two already 
granulating surfaces. 

Health (Sax. htr/th). That condition of 
the iKxly and its organs necessary to the 
proper performance of their normal func- 
tions. A hale, or whole condition of 

Hearting (Sax. hyran). The special sense 
by which the .sonorous vibrations of the 
air arc communicated to tht* mind. The 
cerebral center is excited by the viliration 
of the fluid contents of the lal)yrinth, or 
terminal organs of the auditory niT\'e. 
Sound is composed of three factors, pitch, 
intensity and timbre. The first depends 




npon the number of the aerial vibrations ; 
the second upon their ampUtude ; the third 
upon their form. 

Heart. The organ giving the initiative 
and chief impulse to the circulation of the 
blood. It is enveloped by a membranous 
tissue called* the pericardium. G>nsists 
essentially of four cavities, a right auricle 
and ventricle, and a left auricle and ven- 
tricle. H., Dilatation of, the abnormal 
increase in size of any or all of the cavities 
of the heart. H., Hypertrophy of, an 
abnormal increase of the muscular tissue 
of the heart. H., Sounds of, the sounds 
observed in the auscultation of the heart, 
occurring synchronously with the con- 
traction and the closure of the valves, etc. 
H., Valves of. See Valve, 

Heart^bum. A burning feeling at the 
stomach and lower part of the chest, caused 
by the acetic or putrefactive fermentation 
of the food. 

Heat. A mode or rate of vibration of 
ethereal or physical wave-motion. Within 
certain limits of intensity it is essential to 
the development of all organized beings; 
above a certain degree, destructive to all 
organization and life. As regards the 
body, a temperature above 98.6° F. Also, 
in physiology, the period of sexual excite- 
ment in the females of many animals. 
H., Animal, the heat generated within 
the bodies of living animals by the libera- 
tion of the latent heat contained in the 
food. H., Latent, physiologically the 
potential energy existing in a complex 
proteid molecule, and which is liberated 
by the simplification of the latter, or the 
katabolic processes of the organism. H., 
Prickly. See Urticaria. H., Specific. 
See Specific, H. Stroke, a nervous 
affection characterized by sudden syn- 
cope, enfeebled circulation and respira- 
tion, caused by exposure to intense heat. 
Called also Sunstroke. 

Hebephre^nia (V;/3^, puberty, ^^v, the 
mind). A sp>ecisd form of mental de- 
rangement occurring in young persons of 
both sexes at or soon after the age of 

Heb^etude {hebeto, to be blunt). Dull- 
ness of the senses and intellect. A term 
applied to the state of partial stupor in 
ahcctions of the brain. 

Hec^tic (^/cr//coc, habitual or consumptive). 
Habitual. A word now commonly used 
in connection with certain constant symp- 
toms of phthisis, as H. Fever, the febrile 
fymptoms coDCttirent with pulmonaiy coo- 

sumption. H. Flush, the flushed cheek 
accompanying pulmonary consumption. 
H. Spot, same as //. Flush. 

Hec^togramme (^/carov, one hundred, 
f^anime). One hundred grammes. 

Hec^tolitre (^icarov, liter). One hundred 

Hec^tometre {iKarov, meter). One hun- 
dred meters. 

Hedeo^ma. Pennyroyal. The leaves and 
tops of H. pulcgiaidesy distinguished by 
their aroma. Properties due to a volatile 
oil. Stimulant and carminative. Has 
some value as an emmenagogue. Useful in 
flatulent colic of children. Odor ex- 
tremely repulsive to fleas and mosquitoes. 
H. 01., the volatile oil. Dose TT\^ij-x. 
H. Spt., unof., 10 per cent of the oil in 

Hed^rocele {i^pa^ the anus, x^.j7 a tumor). 
A hernia in which the part protrudes 
through the notch of the ischium. Also, 
prolapsus of the anus. 

Heel (Sax. kela). The hinder part of the 

Helco^sis (iXiOjff/f, ulceration). The for- 
mation and development of an ulcer. 

HeFcoid (iAxoc, an ulcer). Resembling 
an ulcer. 

HeFenin. See Inula. 

HeliantheHa. The root of H. tenuifolia. 
Aromatic, exp>ectorant, antispasmodic, and 
in large doses emetic. Of reputed service 
in pulmonary complaints. Dose of the 
fld. ext. n\^v-xxx. Unof. 

Helianth^emum. Frostwort, Rock Rose. 
The herb H, canadensi. Astringent, aro- 
matic, tonic and alterative. Useful in 
diarrhoea, scrofula and secondary syphilis. 
Dose of fld. ext. n\^v-xx. Unof. 

HeKicine (^A^f, a spiral). Tortile, or 
spiral in structure. H. Arteries, arteries 
proceeding from the profundae penis 
branches of the pudic, and from the dorsal 
arteries of the p>enis. 

Heli'coid (eA/^). Having a structure with 
spirally arranged parts. 

Helicotre^ma. llie opening connecting 
the scala tympani and vestibuli of the 
spiral canal of the cochlea. 

Heliother^aphy (*J7^/of , the sun, Bepoircuif 
treatment). The treatment of disease by 
exposure of the body to sunlight Sun- 

Heliotro^pin. See Piper. 

He^lix {ih^, a coil). The margin of the 
external ear. 

Hellebore, or Helleb^orus. The root of 
J/, niger^ black hellebore. Pkoperties due 




to two glucosides, helleborin and helle- 
boreln. A drastic hydragogue cathartic, 
and emmenagogue. Formerly a popular 
remedy in insanity, dropsy, and amenor- 
liioea. Helleboreifi is sometimes used in 
cardiac affections as a substitute for digi- 
talis, its action being obtained by smaller 
dosesaod less irritation. H. Nigri., Ext. 
Unof. VkMt gr. j-x, cautiously. H. 
Nigri., Ext. Fid. Unof. Dose n\,ij-xv. 
Helleborin. Unof. Poisonous, insoluble 
in water. Helleborem. Unof. Very 
soluble in water. Dose gr. ^—f^' 

Hellebore^ine. See Hellebore. 

Heller's Blood-test. A test for blood in 
urine : Add to urine half its volume of 
solution of caustic potash and heat gently. 
The earthy phosphates are precipitated and 
carry the haematin with them, falling as 
garnet-red flocculi. 

Heller's Test (for albumin in urine). 
Pour down the side of the test-glass con- 
taining the urine, pure nitric acid. A 
white zone of coagulated albumin between 
the acid and urine indicates the presence 
of albumin. (See, also, Roberts* Reagent), 

Helminth^agogue. See Anthelmintic. 

Helminthi^asis (i7,fui^y a wormV A con- 
dition mariced by the presence of parasites 
in the body, especially of intestinal worms. 
Also, disorders or lesions caused by worms. 

Helmin^thics. See Anthelmintics. 

HelminthoKogy (f A///vf , Ao^of , a treatise). 
A treatise on worms, especially those para- 
sitic upon the body. 

Helminth^ous {kAfuv). Wormy. 

Helo^des (puo^f a swamp). Swampy, or 
marshy. Also, a fever attended by profuse 
sweating. Also, marsh fever. 

He^ma-. See Hamato-. 

Hem^atin. A synonym for htrmatoxylin. 
Sec //amatoxyltm. 

Hemeralo^pia ('tffiepaf day, w^^, the eye). 
Night-blindness, a symptom of several dis- 
eases of the eye, of failure of general nutri- 
tion, etc. Vision is good in day or strong 
light, but fails at night. An unfortunate dif- 
ference of defmition prevails in reference to 
this word and Ayctalopia. Sometimes it is 
defined as a condition the reverse of that 
given above. 

Hemi- (*7/tt, half). A Greek prefix, mean- 
ing one-half. In anatomy and physiology 
it is applied to one of the two lateral 
halves of the body. 

Hemiachromatops^ia (*Tiiuox%y xf^f^t 
color, oy»/f, sight). Defective, or al>sent 
color visioo in corresponding halves of the 
field of vision. 

Hemi-albumin. See Anti-albumin, 

Hemialbu^minose. The same as //emi 

Hemial^bumose. See Peptones. 

Hemiansesthe^sia ('^^t, avaiadrfatay want 
of feeling). Partial or complete loss of 
the sense of feeling in a lateral half of 
the body. 

Hemiano^pia. See Hemianopsia. 

Hemianops^ia ('i7/^<, half, av neg, o^cCi 
sight). Blindness of one-half of the visual 
field. It may be bilateral (binocular) or 
monolateral (monocular or uniocular), ac- 
cording as it affects one or both eyes. H., 
Binasal, due to anaesthesia of the tem- 
poral halves of the retina, the nasal fields 
thereby becoming invisible. H., Bitem- 
poral, the reverse of the last. H., 
Crossed or Heteronymous, a general 
term for either binasal or bitemporal H. 
H., Homonymous, the most common 
form, affecting the inner half of one field 
and the outer of the other. H., Inferior 
and Superior, the upper or lower halves 
of the retina are insensitive. 

Hemiatax^ia ('7/'^ ara^ia, disordered 
movement). Inability to produce orderly 
or systematic movements on one side of 
the body. 

Hemiatheto^sis (>///, o^eroc, without fixed 
position). A term for athetosis or invol- 
untary rhythmic movements of one side of 
the body only. 

Hemiat^rophy ('17//', aTpo<^ia, lack of nour- 
ishment). Impcrifect or impaired nutrition 
confined to one side of the body. 

Hemiceph^alus ('vf^it Ke<^?.Tf). A name 
applied to a monster foetus in which the 
cerebral hemispheres and skull are absent 
or undeveloped. See Anencephaltis. 

Hemichore^a (*7//<, x^P^'^* * convulsive 
twitching). A form of chorea in which 
the convulsive movements are confined to 
one side of the body only. 

Hemicra^nia ('17/^^ Kpavim\ head). Neu- 
ralgia or headache of one-half of the head. 

Hemidiaphore'sis (vf^^ SiaoopTfoiq, sweat- 
ing). Sweating of one lateral half of the 
body only. 

Hemidyssesthe^sia ('7///, ^v^^ difficult, 
aiaHr/aiCy sensation). Enfecl)led or dulled 
sensation in a lateral half of the Ixxly, or 
in half of one of the oi^ans of sense. 

Hemienceph^alus ('r/fu, evKe(poh}r). A 
monstrosity without organs of sense, Lut 
possessing otherwise a nearly normal 

Hemiep^ilepsy ('tf/Jt, f?r/?J7^/a, epilepsy). 
A form of epilepsy in which the con- 




▼ulsions are confined to one lateral half of 
the body. 

Hemihidro^sis ('v///, ldp<j^, sweat). The 
same as hemidiaphoresis. 

Hemim^elus ^ijiu^^tzhiq^ limb). An ectro- 
melic monstrosity with deficient or atro- 
phied forearms, legs, feet and hands, with 
normal arms and thighs. 

Heraiop^ia ('^//i, u^^ eye). The older term 
for hemianopsia. Hemiopia refers to the 
seeing half of the retina, hemianopsia to 
that part of the field not seen. 

Hemip^agus ('^/i*, Trayof, united). A 
monomphalic monstrosity united by the 
thoraces, and with a common mouth. 

Hemiparaple^g^a ('7///, Tra/KZTr/iT/xa, paral- 
ysis of the limbs). Paralysis of a lower 
limb on one side only. 

Hemipar^esis J['^/A^> napeaig, impairment 
of strength). Paresis, or weakening of the 
strength on one side of the body only. 

Hemi-pep^tone. See Peptones. 

Hemipho/nia (*»7/i^ 0<JV7, the voice). 
Speech having the characteristics of half- 
voice, half- whisper; used by patients in 
great weakness and exhaustion. 

Hemiple^g^a (*^/^, ^^/>»7, a stroke). 
Paralysis of the motor nerves of one side 
of the body, due usually to a lesion of 
some part of the corpus striatum and in- 
ternal capsule, or of the cms cerebri, of 
the opposite side of the brain. H., Al- 
ternate, unilateral injury to the pons, 
causing paralysis of the facial nerve on 
the same side, but paralysis of the oppo- 
site side of the body. H., Cerebral, the 
ordinary form first described above. H., 
Crossed, paralysis of the muscles of the 
eye supplied by the third nerve on the 
opposite side to the one otherwise affected. 
H., Facial, motor paralysis of one side 
of the face. H., Hephsestic, from the 
use of the hammer by smiths; not properly 
a special type. H., Spastic, a form oc- 
curring in infants, in which the affected 
limb is subject to convulsive twitchings. 
H., Spinal, paralysis of one side or of 
the whole body without loss of sensation 
of the opposite side. Due to disease of 
the spinal cord. 

Hem^ispasm (''7///, (TTraa/zoc, a spasm). A 
spasm or convulsive movement affecting 
only one side of the body. 

Hem^isphere (''////, cr^/pa, a ball). Half 
a sphere. H., Cerebral, either lateral 
half of the cerebrum. 

Hem^lock. See Conium, 

He'mo-. See //amo-. 

Hem^orrhai^. See Hemorrhage, 

Hem'orrhoids. See Hamorrhoids. 
Hen^bane. See Hyoscyamm. 
Henle, Fenestrated Membrane of. The 
layer of longitudinal elastic fibers of the 
inner coat of arteries. H., Loop of. See 
Tubuli Uriniferi, 
Hensen's Experiment. Proving that the 
so-called auditory hairs of the crustacean 
Mysis vibrated to a particular note. 
Hepatal^g^a {'wo-P* the liver, a/.yoq^ pain). 
Pain in the liver, but more especially the 
%paroxysmal pain occasionally affecting the 
right hypochondrium. 

Hepatec^tomy ('T^rap, etcrefivUf to cut out). 
Excision of a protruding portion of the 

Hepat^ic ('rprap). Pertaining or belonging 
to the liver. H. Duct. See Duct. H. 
Lobes, the natural anatomical divisions 
of the liver, usually designated as right, 
left, quadrate, spigelian and caudate lobes. 
H. Zones, certain areas in an hepatic 
lobule. The central area, capillaries and 
cells form the Hepatic Vein Zone^ sp>ecially 
liable to cyanotic changes ; the area next 
the periphery of the lobule is the Portal 
Vein Zone; and the area between the 
two the Hepatic Artery Zone, 
Hepatiza^tion C^TTrap). An abnormal 
change in lung-tissue, in which it becomes 
solid and friable, somewhat resembling 
that of the liver. H., Gray, the condition 
of a lung in the third stage of pneumonia. 
H., Red, that in the second stage of 
pneumonia. H., White, the condition 
of the lungs in stillborn syphihtic children. 
H., Yellow, the condition of the lung in 
the third stage of pneumonia when tinted 
by numerous pus cells. See Pneumonia. 
Hepati^tis ('iprap^ irtq^ inflammation). In- 
flammation of the liver. 
Hep^atocele ('^ap, a^??.^, a tumor). A 
form of hernia in which the liver pro- 
trudes through an opening in the abdo- 
minal wall. 
Hepatocirrho^sis (*^ap, Ktppoc, yellow). 
Cirrhosis of the liver. 
Hepatocyst^ic ('rfrrap, kiyttoc, a bladder). 
Pertaining to the liver and gall-bladder. 
Hepatodyn^ia ('^ap, odvtr/t jiain). Pain 

in the liver. 
Hepatogen^ic {'r^rapf yevvaiOy to beget). 
Pertaining to conditions produced by the 
liver, as H. Icterus, also called al)sorpt 
tion icterus, or jaundice, caused by the 
absorption of bile already formed in the 

Hepatog^raphy OTrap^ ypa(^*, to write), 
A description of the liver. 




Hepatolithi^asis Uj^cLp^ XtdiaaiCt presence 
of calculus). A aisease characterized by 
gall-stones or other concretions in the 

Hepatol^ogy (iT^ap, Tjoyoc, a discourse). 
A treatise on the nature, structure and 
functions of the liver. 

Hepatomala^cla (r/irap, fiaXoKoc, soft). 
Softening of the liver. 

Hepator^rhaphy (r/irap, fxu^, suture). 
Suture of the liver. 

Hepatorrhex^is (wap, pn^tCy a rupture). 
Bursting or rupture of the liver. 

Hepatot^omy (iirap, rejivu, to cut). Inci- 
sion of the liver. 

H erb ( Aerda , grass) . Any annual or peren- 
nial plant that yearly dies to the root. In 
pharmacy, the leaves, stems and flowers of 
an annual or perennial. 

Herbiv^ora (herba, voro, to devour). A 
name formerly given to a division of mam- 
malia. Animals that feed on vegetation. 

Herbiv^orous (Aerda^voro). A descriptive 
term applied to animals that subsist on 

Herbst's Corpuscles. Sensory end- 
organs in the tongue of the duck. 

Hered'itary (A^res, an heir). Acquired 
by inheritance. H. Disease, one trans- 
mitted to the offspring liy the parent. H. 
Syphilis. See Syphilis. 

Hcred^ity {fieres). The law by which nat- 
ural form, structure, and conditions, both 
of mind and body, are repeated in offspring 
or descendants. 

Hering's Theory. See Color-sensation, 

Hermann's Difference Theory. See 

Hermaph^rodite {Epprfg^ Mercur\', A^po- 
cJtri;, Venus). One with some congenital 
malformation of the genital organs, such as 
epispadias, hypospadias, cleft of the scro- 
tum, elc.f that makes the determination of 
sex somewhat doubtful. H., Apparent, 
the external non-essential organs are the 
only ones of the opposite sex. H., Bi- 
lateral, a testicle upon each side. H., 
Female, essentially female, but with simu- 
lated male organs. H., Lateral, a testicle 
upon one side, an ovary upon the other. 
H., Male, the reverse of //. Female M.^ 
Neuter, with no organs essentially male or 
female. H., Spurious, non-essential pecu- 
liarities (as the beard in a female) without 
abnormality of the genital organs. H., 
Transverse, the external organs of one 
sex, the internal of another. H., True, 
essential organs of I)Oth sexes present. H. 
with Excess, the individual possesses all 

the organs of one sex with some of the 
opposite sex. 

Hermet^ical (Ep/z^f, the god Mercury, the 
reputed founder of alchemy). Pertaining 
to chemistry. Also, having resistance to 
chemical action. H. Sealing, the closure 
of an outlet by cementation or fusion, so 
that it is impervious to air. Also, the 
closing or covering of a wound by imp>er- 
vious dressings. 

Her^nia (hernia, from kpvoq, a sprout). A 
timior formed by the protrusion of the con- 
tents of a cavity (usually the alxiominal) 
through its wall. Hernias may be called 
after their locality, as Epif^astric, Femoral^ 
Inguinal, Perineal, Scrotal, Umbilical, etc.; 
according to their condition, as Encysted, 
Reducible, Strangulated, Purulent, etc, ; 
according to the contents, as Cerebral, In- 
testinal, Omental, Vesical, etc. ; or, lastly, 
according to their origin, as Acquired, 
Congenital, Infantile, etc. H., External, 
one appearing upon the external surface of 
the body. H., Femoral, the protrusion 
takes place through the femoral ring be- 
neath Poupart's ligament. H., Humor- 
al, swelled testicle. H., Incarcerated, 
a strangulated, obstructed or irreducible 
H., — variously used. H., Incomplete, 
not fully passed through the op>ening. H., 
Inguinal, passing above Poupart's liga- 
ment. H., Inguinal, Direct, to the inner 
side of the epigastric artery, not following 
the course of the spermatic cord. H., 
Oblique Inguinal, through the inguinal 
canal following the course of the sperm- 
atic cord. H., Irreducible, that cannot 
be put back, but that is not strangulated. 
H., Obstructed, obstruction, but not 
positive strangulation. Hernial Sac, the 
serous membrane pushed before it by a 
hernia. H., Strangulated, such con- 
striction as to prohibit |)assage of blood 
and fi\x:es. H., Umbilical, appearing at 
the navel. H., Ventral, through the 
abdominal wall in front other tlian at the 
abdominal ring. 

Hemiopunc^ture {hernia, punctura, a 
pricking). The puncture of a hernia. 
Her^niotomy (hernia, rtfivu, to cut). C)per- 
ation for the relief of hernia by section of 
the constriction. 

Heroph^ilus, Torcu'larof. See Torcular. 
Her^pes (kpTTu, to creep). Formerly 
creeping eruptions, now applied to erup- 
tions marked by the presence of groups t)f 
the same upon an exanthematous base. 
H. Circinatus Bullosus. .Sec Ifydroa. 
H. Esthiomenos. See Lupus. H. Faci- 




alia or Labialis, an eruption on the lower 
part of the face, most frequently about the 
mouth. Thought to be of neurotic origin. 
Called also //. Febrilis and Hydroa Fe- 
brills . H., Gestation. See Hydroa. 
H. Iris. See Erythema. H. Progeni- 
tal, consists of vesicles grouped upon an 
inflamed base, on the genitals, especially 
the prepuce and labia, frequently a sequel 
of gonorrhcea and soft chancre. H. 
Tonsurans. Stt Fityriasis Rosea, H. 
Zoster. See Zosier^ Herpes, 

Herpet^ic (ipirrf^, a disease of the skin). 
Pertaining to herpes. 

Herpet^iform (^/wriTf, forma^ a form). 
Having a likeness to herpes. 

HerpetoKogy (kpirj^* ^y^t * treatise). 
A treatise on skm diseases. 

Hes^selbach's Triangle. See Triangle. 

Heteradelph^us (hepoct other, €i6e?u^^ 
brother). The same as Heteropagus, 

Heterade^nic (hepo^, adr/Vy gland). Per- 
taining to or consisting of tissue that is 
unlike normal glandular tissue, though 
essentially glandular. 

Heteradeno^ma. Tumor formed of hetera- 
denic tissue. 

Het^cro- Urepo^, other). A Greek piefix 
denoting diversity or unlikencss. 

Hetero-al^bumose. See Albumoses. 

Hetero-autoplasty, grafting of skin from 
one p>erson upon the body of another. 

Heteroceph^alus (irepoc, ne^jj, the 
head). A foetal monstrosity with two heads 
of unequal size. 

Heterochron^ic (hepoq^ XP^^^^i time). Ir- 
regular in occurrence. Occurring at dif- 
ferent times, or at other than the proper time. 

Heterod^ymus (irepo^f dtdvfio^, twin). A 
double monster, the accessory part being 
but an imp>erfect head. 

Hctcrog^amy (irfpof,ya^«)f, marriage). A 
term applied to diflcrent forms of sexual 
development arising from difference in nu- 
trition or environment. It is typified in 
the Phylloxera vas/airixy the development 
of which is far more complex when the 
insects are bred under ground, on the 
roots of the grape vine, compared with that 
when the insects breed upon the leaves of 
the vine. In the latter case the successive 
generations consist of apterous, oviparous 
females only ; in the former the cycle con- 
sists of male insects, apterous females for 
perpetuating and winged females for spread- 
ing the species. 

Heterogene^ity (hepog, yevoc, a kind). 
The condition or quality of being hetero- 

Heteroge^neous {hepo^, ycvoj). DiflTcr- 
ing in kind or nature; composed of differ- 
ent substances, not homogeneous. 
Heterogen'^esis (hepog, yeveaia, genera- 
tion). Organic deviations in the situation 
or cnaracter of organs, e/c. <Also, the fact 
of a living parent giving rise to offspring 
that pass through a totally different series 
of states from those exhibited by the pa- 
rent, and not returning into the parent's 
cycle of changes. 

Heterogenet^ic (erepof, yeveaia). Pertain- 
ing to heterogenesis. 

Heteroinfec^tion (hepog, inficio, to taint). 
Infection transmitted by a person who is 
himself not infected. 

Heterol'^ogous {jtrtpo^^ ^^oc, an account). 
Differing in structure or form from the 
normal. H. Series, a series derived from 
each other by chemical metamorphoses. 
H. Tissues, morbid tissues that have 
no structural relation with the normal tis- 
sues of the part. H. Tumors, tumors 
having a different tissue from that of the 
part in which they are situated. 
Heteromorph^ism (hepo^^ t^op^^ form). 
A condition marked by diflerence in form, 
as compared with the normal form. In 
chemistry, the property of crystallizing in 
different forms. 

Heteron^omous {hepo^, vo/no^f a law). 
Abnonnal. Deviating from ordinary laws 
or types. 

Heterop^agus (erfpof, other, Tro^'iof, 
united). A parasitic monstrosity with ncn*- 
mal head, upper and lower extremities, 
but with a parasite attached to the anterior 
abdominal wall. 
Hetcrop^athy (frrrof, Tra^of, affection). 
The treatment of a disease by inducing a 
different morbid condition to neutralize it 
Abnormal reaction to stimulus or irritation. 
Heteropho^ria {trtpoq^ different, ^^p(Kt a 
tending). A tending of the visual lines in 
some other way than that of parallelism. 
It may be Esophoria, a tending of the 
lines inward ; or Exophoria, outward ; or 
Hyperphoria, a tending of the right or 
left vbual line in a direction above its fel- 
low. Hyperesophoria, a tending of the 
visual lines up and inward. Hyperexo- 
phoria, up and outward. 
Heteroplast^ic. See Heterologous. 
Heterotax^ia (hrpog^ Ta<f/f, order). A 
congenital, but not hereditary, displace- 
ment of an organ or part. Especially a 
malposition of internal organs. 
Heterotop^ia (irepo^^ ro;rof , a place). Ab- 
normal position. Misplacement of an or* 




gan or part Also, any abnormal growth 
of tissue foreign to that part of the body 
wherein it is situated. 

HeterotFop^ia. See Strabismus. 

Heterotyp^ic {irepoCt rwof, a pattern.) 
Applied to a nionstrosity consisting of a 
well -developed fa?tus from which grows 
an immature secondary fcctus. 

Heterozanth^ine. A leucomaine isolated 
from urine in 1884. In composition, it is 
methyl-xanthine, and is intermediate Yte- 
tween xanthine and paraxonthine or di- 
methyl-xanthine ; exists in the urine of 
man in the same proportion as paraxon- 
thine. But it exists in urine of the dog 
tuiaccompanieJ by paraxonthine, and the 
same fact has been observed in the urine 
of leucocytluemic persons. It is thought 
by Solomon to have its origin in the kid- 
ney, its physiological action is not yet 
fully known. Xanthine, heteroxaiithine, 
and paraxanthine form normally a homolo- 
gous aeries of xanthine bodies in the urine. 

Hew8on*8 Experiments. To prove that 
the blood vessels exert a restraining in- 
fluence on coagulation. 

Hezicol^ogy (k^tq^ state or condition^^^oc, 
science) . The relations of a creature to 
its environment. 

Hia^tus {hiOf to gape). A space or open- 
ing. Also, the vulva. H. of Fallopius, 
the shallow groove on the petrous )x>rtion 
of the temporal lx)ne. 

Hibema^tion [^hibemus^ winter). The 
dormant condition or winter sleep of cer- 
tain animals, notably bears, hedgehogs, 
etc,^ in which animation is almost sas- 
pended. Respiration and circulation are 
greatly reduced, and nutrition is {)erformed 
mainly at the expense of the fatty tissues 
of the animal. 

Hic^cough (hic^ a mimic word; cough). 
A spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm 
causing inspiration, followed by a sudden 
closure of the glottis. 

Hick^ory. The bark of shelll)ark hickory, 
Carya alba. Tonic and anti- intermittent. 
Useful in malarial fevers. Dose of fld. 
ext. ,^ss-j. Unof. 

Hide-ix>und Disease. See Sc/frikierma. 

Hi^dro- {tiipoq, sweat). A prefix signify- 
ing sweat 

Hidropede^sis (M/x.>c» iTTj^rjtjtq^ a leaping). 
Excessive sweating. 

HidropoiS^sis (MfM<)f, ?ro/r(j, to moke). 
Causing the formation and excretion of 

Hidros^chesis (M/mjc, ox^ffiq, retention). 
Retention or suppression of the sweat. 


The fonnation and 

excretion of sweat. 

High'^more, Antrum of. The large cavity 
in the body of the superior maxillary bone. 

Hi^um (Lat a little thing). A small fis- 
sure, notch, or depression, especially the 
notch on the internal or concave border 
of the kidney. 

Hind^brain (Gcr. hinterhirn). A divisbn 
of the brain, developing from a fuimel- 
shaped tube in the embryo to an antericMT 
lobe that becomes the cerebellum, and a 
posterior lobe that becomes the medulla 

Hinge-joint. See Diarthrosis, 

Hip (Sax. hype). The upper part of the 
thigh at its junction with the buttocks. 

Hip-joint Disease. An arthritis of the 
hip-joint ; an affection of early life, and ac- 
cording as it begins in the head of the 
femur, the acetabulum, or in the synovial 
membrane and proper structures of the 
joint, is divided respectively into Femora!^ 
Acetabular and Afihritic. Its etiology is 
obscure, its symptoms pain (coxalgia), 
swelling, and deformity. Coxalgia is in- 
correctly used as a synonym. 

Hippocamp^us (Itttoc, horse, ica//7rof, a 
sea monster). A name applied to the con- 
volutions, // major and H. minor^ the 
former situated in the inferior, and the lat- 
ter in the posterior horn of the ventricles 
of the l)rain. 

Hippocory^za. See Equinia. 

HippU'^ric Acid. Benzoylamidoacetic acid. 
An odorless, monol)asic acid occurring in 
large amount in the urine of herbivora, 
and in them the chief end-product of the 
metabolism of nitrogenous sul stances. 
Human urine contains a small amount 

Hip^pus (tTTTTof , horse, from analogy to the 
movement of the same). Sjiasmodic pupil- 
lary movement, independent of the action 
of light. 

Hir^sute (hirsuttts^ shaggy). Covered with 
hair or l)ristles. Shaggy. 

Hirsu^ties (^frr/////j). 1 lypertrichiasis. Hy- 
pertrichosis. Polytrichia. Trichauxis. Hy- 
pertrophy, excessive, or almormal growth 
of the hair either in quantity or in position. 

Histioid. See Histoid, 

Histochem^istry (lartt^y a web or tissue, 
chemistry^ llic chemistry of oi^onic 

HistodiaKysis (/Vrof, Aa?.tw'>f, a resolu- 
tion), llie dissolution of organic tissue. 

Histogen^esis (/(iroc, }fn«w, to beget). 
The study of tlie origin and development 
of organic tissues. 




Histohje^matin {larog^ hsematin) . A pig- 
mentaiy extractive of the suprarenal bodies. 

Hist^oIJ (i<rrof, eiSog, likeness). Pertain- 
ing to tissue derived from the mesoblast, 
as a histoid tumor. See Neoplasm. 

Histology {loToq^ ?-o>'oc, a treatise). The 
study of the intimate structure of tissues. 

Histol^ysis {jioroq^ XtK7<c» dissolution). Dis- 
integiHtion and dissolution of organic tis- 

Histon^omy {}^oroq^ vofiog, a law). The 
laws of the development and arrangement 
of organic tissue. 

HistophysioKogy (tcrrof, ^ic, nature, 
h)yog, a treatise). A treatise concerning 
the functions of the various tissues. 

Histot^omy (Mrrof, reyw^^ to cut). The 
dissection of any organic tissue. 

Hives. A name loosely applied to almost 
any papular eruption of the skin. In 
Great Britain, applied to croup and to 
chicken-pox ; in the United States, limited 
to a transitory form of urticaria, 

Hoang Nan. A Chinese preparation ob- 
tained fix)m Strychnos gauUheria. Proj>er- 
ties due to small percentage of strychnine. 
Reconunended as an alterative in syphilis, 
leprosy and similar diseases. An alleged 
preventive of hydrophobia if given in large 
(gr. xv) doses during period of incubation. 
Dose gr. X->^- ^nof. 

Hoarse^ness (Sax. hds). Harshness of 
voice depending on some abnormal condi- 
tion of the larynx or throat. 

Hodg'^kin's Disease. See Lymphade 

HofTs Malt Extract. See Malt 

Ho^agog^e (6Aoc, whole, a^di^of , leading). 
A medicine or remedy that expels or 
drives out the whole of a morbid substance. 
A radical remedy. 

Holm^g^en's Tests. See Blindness^ 

Ho^lo- (6Xof, entire). A Greek prefix sig- 
nifving entirety, 

Hoioblast^ic (Wof, p^aroc, a sprout). 
Pertaining to the segmentation of the 

Homat^ropine. Sec Atropine. 

Home'sickness. Nostalgia. An urgent 
desire to return to one's home. May he 
accompanied by a morbid sluggishness of 
the functions of the various organs of the 
body, developing into profound melan- 

Hom^icide (Aomo^ a man, aedOf to kill). 
The killing of a human being without 
malice or intent, as distinguished from 
murder or manslaughter. AUo, the taking 

of human life in general by another. Also, 
one who takes the life of another. 

Ho^mo (Lat.). Man. llie sole genus of 
the order Bimana. 

Homocent^ric (oftoq^ the same, Kevrpov^ 
a center). G>ncentric. Having the same 
center. H. Rays, a pencil of light-rays 
either cone-shaped or rod-shaped. 

Homocer^ebrin (SfMC, cerebrin). A nitro- 
genous glucoside obtained from brain- 

Hom^ceo- (6/ioioc, like). A Greek prefix 
signifying like or similar. 

Homceomorph^ous (ofiotog, f^op^rf, a 
form). Like or similar in form and struc- 

Homceop^athy (6fioioCf like, Tradof, ail- 
ment or disease). A word applied by 
Hahnemann to a system of treatment of 
disease by the use of an agent that, ad- 
ministered in health, ** would produce 
symptoms similar to those morbid condi- 
tions for the relief of which the agent or 
medicine is given." The hypothesis ex- 
pressed by the adage, ** similia similibus 
curantur.'* See /Regular, and Allopathy. 

Homceoplast^ic. Pertaining to a neo- 
plasm resembling its matrix-tissue in tex- 
ture. One differing widely in this respect 
is heteroplastic. If separated in posi- 
tion, it is said to be heterotopic ; in date, 

Homogene^ity (ofioq, alike, ynH>^, a kind). 
The condition ot being homc^neous. 

Homoge^neous. Having the same nature 
or qualities. Similar or identical in struc- 

Homogen^esis (^/«)f, ynn'mj, to l)eget). 
A term used to denote the fact that a liv- 
ing parent gives rise to offspring that 
passes through the same cycle of changes 
as itself. 

Homog^eny. See Homogencsis. 

Homog^onous (©W, >ovof, seed). With 
like or similar offspring. 

Homoiother^mal {dfioiocy Mkcfiep/urf^ heat). 
Pertaining to animals that are ''warm- 
blooded," or that maintain a uniform 
temperature despite variations in the sur- 
rounding temperature. 

Homologous {ofio?j)yui). Having the 
same structural form, ase, or type. H. 
Series, in chemistry, a graduated series 
of compounds having a common difference. 
See Hydrocarbon. H. Tissues, those 
identical in type of structure. H. Tu- 
mor, a name given by Virchow to a tumor 
consisting of tissue identical with that of 
the organ whence it springs. 




Hom^ologue {6/ioXoyog). A particular 
Ofgan common to any number of species, 
classes, or orders of animals. 

Homol^ogy {6fwc, ?'Oyogf a treatise). The 
science treating of the comparative study 
of the same part or organ in different 
species and orders of animals, and also to 
the study of organs or parts developed 
from the same embryonic structure. Also, 
the morphological identity of parts or 
ofgans in different animals. 

Homon^omous {ofiog, vofioq^ a law). Gov- 
erned by or under the same law. 

Homon^ymous {piioq^ orv/ya, a name). A 
term applied to names that have the 
same sound or pronunciation, but different 

Homother^mic (6 //of, Oepfirf^ heat). 
Having uniformity of temperature or bodily 

Hom^otype {ofioCt riTof, a pattern). A 
port corresponding and similar to an- 
other part, as the humerus to the femur, 

Hondu^ras Bark. See Cascara Amarga. 

Honey. See Mel. 

Honeycomb Ringworm. See Flcnnis, 

Hook fSax. hdc). A curved instrument. 
H., Blunt, an instrument descril)ed by its 
name, for exercising traction u{x>n the 
foetus in an arrested breech presentation. 
H., Tyrrell's, a blunt, slender hook for 
operations upon the eye. 

Hop. See llumulus. 

Hope^ine. See Ilumulus. 

Horde^olum (hordt-um^ a grain of barley). 
A stye ; a fiiruncular inflammation of the 
connective tissue of the lids, near the hair 

Hor^deum (Lat.). Barley. H. Dccorti- 
catum, barley deprived of its husk ; com- 
monly called pearl barley. H. Germi- 
natum, malt, q. v. 

Hore^hound. See Marntbium. 

Hori^zon (op/Cwi', the horizon). The line 
separating the visible from the invisible 
part of the earth from a single ix)int of 

Horizon^tal (op/C<^)- Parallel to the hori- 

Hor^mion. See Skull. 

Horn (Sax., horn), 'ihe hard projection 
used as a defensive wca|)on, gruwing on 
the heads of certain animals. Horn> may 
be permanent, aa in the ux ; or deciduous, 
as in the deer. Also, the hardened epi- 
thelial sukstance of which the hcini is 
composed. H., Cutaneous. Sec Contu 

Homer's Muscle. The Tensor Tarsi 

Horop^ter {fipoq^ a boundary, oirTrtp^ an ob- 
server). The sum of all the points seen 
single by the two retinae while the fixation 
point remains stationary. 

Horripila^tion [horreo, to stand on end, 
pilusj the hair). A sensation as if the 
hairs of the skin were stiff and erect. 

Hor^rors (/lorreo). A popular name for 
delirium tremensy q. v. 

Horse -Chestnut. See Esculus Ilippo- 

Horse- Radish. The fresh root of Cock- 
Uaria nmioracia. lYojierties due to a vola- 
tile oil. Stimulant, diuretic, and exter- 
nally a rubefacient. Much used as a condi- 
ment. Dose of fld. ext. 3J-ij. Unof 

Hos^pital {Jiospilale^ a large house). A 
building for the care and treatment of sick 
or infirm people. H. Fever, a feverish 
condition formerly common in hospitals, 
due to ill-ventilation and unsanitary con- 
ditions. Also, the fever symptomatic of 
gangrene. See Fever. H. Gangrene, 
a contigious, phagedenic gangrene occa- 
sionally attacking wounds or open sores. 
It is confmcd mainly to military hospitals, 
and l)elievcd to i"»e of micro! jic origin. 

Hos^pitalism. The morbific influences 
arising from the gathering of diseased i)er- 
sons in a hospital, which seems to have a 
tendency to produce septic diseases. 

Host (/wj/zV, a stranger). A landlord. The 
oigainc Ixxiy u]X)n which parasites live. 

Hot-spots. See I'emperature Setise. 

Hot^tentot Apron. See Apron. 

Hound's Tongue. The leaves and root 
of Cynoghsaum officinale. Anodjue, de- 
mulcent and astringent. Dose of fld. ext. 
Zss-j. Unof. 

Hour-glass Contrac^tion. See C/ei-us. 

Housemaid's Knee. See Abscess^ Bur- 

Howship's Lacu^nse. Depressions in 
which lie the osteoclasts of^ eroded or 
.sjwngy bone. 

Huin^gan. The seed of a plant native to 
the Andes. Infusion used in urinary 

Hum. A low rhythmical murmur. H., 
Venous. See Venous. 

Humec^tant {humecto^ to make moist). 
A diluent. Ali^o a substance usid to 

Hu^meral {humerus). Pertaining to the 

Hu^merus. ( Lat.) The large l)one of the 
upi>er arm. Also the shoulder. 


Humid^ity ihtimor, moisture). The state 
or quality ot being moist. 

Hu^mor {humor). Any fluid or semi-fluid 
part of the body. H., Aqueous, the 
transparent fluid that fills the anterior 
chamber of the eye. H., Vitreous, the 
transparent gelatine-like substance filling 
the posterior chamber of the eye. 

Hu^moral (humor\. Pertaining to the 
natural fluids of tne body. H. Path- 
ology, a theory among the Greeks that all 
diseases resulted from a disordered or ab- 
normal condition of the fluids or humors 
of the body. 

Hu^mulus. Hop. The fiiiit-cones of 
H. lupulus. Contains various principles, 
hopeine and lupulin being most important. 
A bitter stomachic tonic and feeble hyp- 
notic, increasing cardiac action. A poul- 
tice of hops is a favorite remedy in inflam- 
mations. H. Infusum, unof., ^ss-Oj. 
Dose 5 j~^^' M* Tinct., 20 per cent, in 
strength. Dose ,^ j-ij. Lupulinum, the 
glandular poWder. Dose gr. v-xv. L. 
Fid. Ext., alcoholic Dose ^ss-ij. L. 
Oleoresina, ethereal. Dose gr. ij-v. L. 
Tinct., unof., strength 12^ per cent. 
Dose 3ss-ij. 

Hun^ger (Sax. hunger). A condition 
marked by a sensation of emptiness of the 
stomach and intense desire for food. 

Hunte^rian Chancre. See Chancre. 

Hunt^er's Canal^. See Canal. 

Hunts^man's Cup. See Trumpet Plant. 

Hutch^inson's Teeth. A notched or 
furrowed condition of the fi-ee edges of the 
permanent teeth, especially the central in- 
cisors of the upper jaw ; due to inherited 

Hux^ham's Tinct^ure. Red cinchona 
bark §iv, orange peel ^^iij, scrpentaria 
gr. Ixxx, Spanish ss^lion gr. clx, cochineal 
gr. Ixxx, brandy ^ xl, digested four days. 
Dose ,^ss-ij. 

Hy^alin (i-aPwOf, glass). A translucent sub- 
stance, called, also, canalized fibrin, that 
sometimes occurs in miliary tubercle. 
Also, the membrane or sac forming the 
wall of hydatid cysts. 

Hy 'aline (wiAof). Resembling glass in 
transparency. H. Cast, or Cylinder, a 
clear, nearly transparent urinary tube-cast. 
H. Degeneration, a degeneration of 
fibrous tissue that becomes transparent, 
jelly-like, and homc^eneous in structure. 

Hyali'tis (t-aAof, £r/f, inflammation). In- 
flammatign of the hyaloid membrane. Used 
as a sjnonym for inflammation of the vit* 
reous humor. 



Hy'aloid (miAo^-, e<(k>f, like). Transparent; 
like glass. H. Artery, in the embryo, a 
branch of the arteria centralis retime, tra- 
versing the vitreous humor to the posterior 
capsule of the lens. Its hyaloid sheath 
forms the Canal of Cloquet. Persistence 
of this artery after birth has been observed. 
H. Membrane, a delicate, transparent 
membrane surrounding the vitreous humor, 
except in front, where it becomes fibrous 
and strong and forms a leaflet of the zo* 
nula of Zinn. 

Hyaloidi'tis. See Hyalitis. 

Hyal'oplasma. See Protoplasm. 

Hy'brid (hybrida^ a mongrel). A term 
signifying the offspring of two individuals 
of distinct but closely related species. 
Among animals, the mule is the best Known 

Hydarthro'sis. See Hydrarthrosis. 

Hydat'id (i'dar<f, a vesicle). The cyst of 
the embryo of Tttnia echinococcus in the 
human body; frequently, also, loosely im- 
plied to vesicular tumors and cysts of many 
kinds. They are most frequent in the liver, 
but are found in most any tissue, even in 
bone. Synonymous with H. Cyst. H. 
Mole, ^t MolCfffydatidiform. H. of 
Morgagni, certain short processes of the 
tunica vaginalis testis. 

Hydatid'iform (ydartq^ forma, form). 
Having the form of a hydatid. Resem- 
bling a hydatid. H. Degeneration of 
Chorion, or Vesicular Mole. See Mole. 

Hydrac'id. A term sometimes used in 
chemistry denoting an acid formed by a 
combination of hydrogen and some acid 
element or radical other than oxygen. 
Hydrochloric acid, HCl, and hydrogen or 
hydric sulphide, H,S, are examples. 

Hydradeno'ma. Adenoma with serous 
or watery contents. 

Hydrse'mia (vAup, water, aifia, the blood). 
A watery condition of the blood due to de- 
fective renal .secretion, or to imperfect fibri- 
nation. Accompanies albuminuria and 
certain other exhausting diseases. 

Hy^dragog^e (vfiuf), a-) g>, to expel). A pur- 
gative that causes licjuid alvine discharges. 

Hydram'nios (vdup^ water, apvtov, fcetal 
membrane). An aVmormal amount of 
amniotic fluid. 

Hydran'gea. The root of H. arborcseens^ 
a saxifrage. Much used by the Cherokee 
Indians in calculi of the bladder, and said 
to be of certain utility. Dose 3 ss-ij. Unof. 

Hydrangiol'ogy (i'<^w^, a-)yuov, a vessel, 
'^joyo^, a treatise). A treatise on the nature 
and functions of the Ijmphatics. 




Hydrargyr^ia. See Mercurialism. 

Hydrargyri^asis. See Mercurialism. 

Hydrax^gyrum. Mercury. Hg = 200; 
quantivalence ii, IV. llie only liquid 
metallic element, hence the common name, 
^inV^ilver. In medicine the metal, its 
nitrate, oxides, chlorides and iodides are the 
salts most commonly, the sulphide and cya- 
nide less frequently, used. A tonic, purga- 
tive, and alterative in small doses continued 
not too long a time. In larger doses, or too 
long continued, is apt to produce ptyalism. 
In " biliousness," mercurial purgatives have 
long been a favorite remedy, blue mass, 
and mercurous chloride or calomel being 
usually employed. In syphilis mercuric 
chloride and iodide are generally con- 
sidered a specific. In the form of calomel, 
useful in glandular inHammations. For- 
merly much used in the same form in 
typhoid and malarial fevers. The soluble 
sUts of mercury are highly poisonous. 
H. Ammoniatum, ammoniated mercury, 
"white precipitate,'' mercur-ammonium 
chloride. Used externally. H. Ammo- 
niatum Ung., "white precipitate oint- 
ment," — ammoniated mercury 10, benzo- 
ated lard 90 parts. H. Chloridum Cor- 
rosivum, coirosive chloride of mercury, 
mercur/V chloride, " bichloride of mercury," 
" corrosive sublimate." Soluble in water 
and alcohol ; antisyphilitic. Dose gr. iV~tV* 
Very poisonous. H. Chloridum Mitis, 
mild chloride or subchloride of mercury, 
mtxoxxons chloride, " calomel," — laxative, 
tonic and antipyretic. Insoluble in water 
and alcohol. Dose gr. ^^^j-x. H. cum 
Ammonia, Emplastrum. Sec Ammo- 
nium. H. cum Creta, niercur>' with 
chalk, " chalk mixture," " jjray powder," 
contains mercury 38, sugar of milk 12, 
prepared chalk 50, ether and alcohol q. s. 
Dose gr. ss-x. H. Cyanidum, mercuric 
cyanide. Soluble in water and alcohol. 
Recommended in diphtheria, with aconite. 
Dose gr. ^\^-^^* roisonous. H. Em- 
plastrum, mercurial plaster, — Mercury 
30, olive oil 10, resin 10, lead-plaster 50 
parts. H. et Arsenii lod., Liq., Dono- 
van's Solution. See Arsenii'. H. Flav. 
Lotio, unof., "yellow wa?>h" for syphi- 
litic sores,— -corrosive sublimate gr. xviij, 
lime water ^ x. Gibert's Syrup, unof., 
hydrarg. biniodid. gr. iij, i)otass. iodid. 
gr. cij, water ziij, s}Tiip (j. s. ad fy\. 
H. Iodid. Vinde, j^rcen iodide of mer- 
cury, mercur^f^ iodide. Dose gr. |*<j-J. 
H. Iodid. Rubnim, red iodide or bin io- 
dide of mercury, mercurfV iodide. Soluble 

in solution of potassium iodide. Poisonous. 
Dose gr. ^^'fif* ^' Massa, "blue 
mass," " blue pill," has mercury 33, licorice 
5, althaea 25, glycerine 3, coiifection of 
rose 34. Used mainly as a purgative. 
Dose gr. ss-xx. H. Nig^a Lotio, unof., 
"black wash" for syphilitic sores,— calo- 
mel gr. XXX, lime water ^x. H. Nitrat. 
Liq., solution of mercunc nitrate. Used 
as an escharotic. H. Nitrat. Rub., Ung., 
unof., red ointment of mercuric nitrate, 
brown citrine ointment; made with cod- 
liver oil. H. Nitrat., Ung., citrine oint- 
ment, — ^merouy 7, nitric acid 17, lard oil 
76. H. Oleat., contains yellow oxide 10, 
oleic acid 90. H. Oxid. Flav., yellow 
oxide of mercury. lasoluble in water; 
soluble in nitric and hydrochloric acids. 
Used in preparation of ointments, ^'/r. H. 
Oxid. Flav., Ung., contains 10 per cent, 
of the oxide. H. Oxid. Rub., red oxide 
of mercury. Dose gr. -^q-^. H. Oxid. 
Rub., Ung., contains 10 per cent, of the 
oxide. H. Subsulph. Flav., yellow 
subsulphate of merc^ury, basic mercuric 
sulphate, "turpeth mineral." Soluble in 
nitro-hydrochloric acid. Dose, for emcsis, 
gr. ij-v. H. Succinimidum. Has been 
reconunended for hypodermic H. 
Sulph. Rub., red mercuric sulphate, 
"cinnabar." Used only in fumigation. 
H. Unguent., mercurial ointment, ^* blue 
ointment," — ^mercury 450, lard 225, suet 
225, comp. tinct. benzoin 40, old nuTcurial 
ointment 100; triturated until the globules 
of merciuy disap|X!ar under a magnifying 
glass. Used to produce mercurial cllect 
by inunction. 

Hydrarthro^sis (vSup, water, of)ffffni\ 
joint). An effusion of fluid in a joint as a 
result of chronic synovitis. Called also 
Hydrops Articuli, drojwy of t^e joint, 
white swelling, e/c. 

Hydrar^thrus. See Ilyiirarthrosis. 

Hydras^tis, Golden St'al. 'Hie roots of 
//. canadensis. lV<»iXTties due to several 
alkaloids, the princi{>al l)eing hydrastine. 
A simple, bitter tonic with antijK'ricxlic 
properties. Arrests the movements of 
white blood corimsclcs. An excellent 
remedy in catarrh of stomach and urinar\ 
oi^ans, and useful as a lotion in gonorrhiea 
and gleet. Donc of the tld. ext., TT\^x-xxx ; 
of the tinct. — 20 jxir cent. — 'Z ss-ij. Hy- 
drastin, unof., consists mamly of chlo- 
ride of lxjrl)erine. Dost*, gr. ij-v. 

Hy^dratc (i%5w/), water). A comjxiund of 
an elementar)' atom, or of a radical, with 
the radical hydroxy! H-O- or -O-H, as 




tttr. hy'lnitj<-n ati>in may !« positive or nega- 
tiv«'. I'Tdi tif:ully a hydrate is coii.sidcrcd as 
a niol(-t;iiIr of wati-r with its basic atom of 
liydrr^f'ii replaced by aiiollicr c'Iectro|x>si- 
tivr atom, a>* {xititssium hydrate, K-O-H, 
is deriv<*d from water, Jf-CJ-II. 

Hydra^tion ( h^uft). '{lie prucess Ijy which 
a IxMly or siilfstaiice lN.*comes im])regnatcd 
fir .>a(iirated with water. 

Hydrenceph^alocele. See Meninf^ocele, 

Hydrenceph^alus. See Hydrocephalus. 

Hydri^asis. S*'e IlydrO'theraptutUs, 

Hy^dro- (/rJw/), water). A prefix si^^nify- 
iii^ lihUt-r^ or tiiat water foniis a structural 
part. See, also, Hydrate. 

Hydro^a (iM(.»/>). Ilydroa her|x:tif<>nn, 
I )erinati(is her]>etifonnis, Pemphi^s pruri- 
ginosus, Her|H's (^ebtutionis, Ileqies circi- 
natu.^ bullosas. A bullous or papular erup- 
tiini acconii^iuiied with erythematous lesions 
and intolerable itchin^r, ap|H'arin(; on un- 
et»vered parts of the Ixxly, as tlie face, 
hands and wrists. Occasionally resembles 
lieriHvs /<vster and Krythema circinatuni. 
The rea>j;ni/ed varieties are H. Gesta- 
tionis, of pregnancy, and H. BuUeux, 
in which tlie erui>tii>n is attended with 
buU.e inste;ul of jKipuUe. H. Febrilis. 
Si*e Hcrf'.'s. 

Hydrobiliru'bin. IVriveil from bilirubin, 
a citjorin^ m.Uter of f.tvi's, identical with 

Hydrocar'bon. .\ name applie<l to any 
one of a multitude of comiK>unds ami- 
))oscil mainly of hydn»^en and c.irUin, but 
aUo under vXMtain conditions containing; 
(4her elements ;vs sutMitutiiui pnHiucts. 
The I H^ssibi lilies of the numlnT of >uch 
ci>ni|HmiuU may W seen in the following; 
sene>, |KThaps tlie :«imple>t, c.irU»n, 
(.\ Ivin^ a tetiud, and re |uirin^ four monad 
atoms to saturate its «|uantivalence : - 

In either of these 
one \st nK»rv' .ttoms 
ol h\di\^en nuv I* 


rtlune. ^'^Hj. 

riojune, i.*^l!,. 

|iutane« ^^Hj^. 

Tent. me, ^'^M,.. 

It \\\\\ Iv iu«*K\M th.ii il\v" MH'mlviN v»f the 
wnes ditKi b\ V'U. in tlu' prvsrnl cisc 
r's- \.ii\'Us memS'rs of the \ a\ >H'iiesare 
UsualU uivlivMli-\l a> lollows 
Pjirj'fme ><!ies, l\ill,u j. 
0;er'M\e>. V.'.U,ii. 
\cel\lenes. V\M^« - ^. 
kA carUw atonu. l^us. 

rt*plaasl by tether 
atoms (^ radicals 
without alteiin^ the 
Ntructme of ilu' CxMii- 


\ in \*htch '.' 

\ i\\\\ uum-vi 
II H ;. ttK* 

cv«Tea|Koding member of the lN*rath»c 

series would be CjHg, etc. All the hydro 
carlKins are inflammable. They occur in 
nature as maish gas (tire damp), natural 
gas, naphtha, petroleum, asphaltum, ozocer- 
ite, etc.^ in a multitude of forms. 

Hydrocele ( I f^w/j, k/;/,^, tumor). A collec- 
tion of serous fluid in the tunica vaginalis, 
or in connection with the testicle or cord. 
Applied, also, to a seious tumor in other 

Hydrocenc/sis (Wwp, xerw^/f, evacua- 
tion). An evacuation of water cither by 
the use of hydragoguc cathartics or by the 
operation of "tapping" the cavity contain- 
ing the accumulation of fluid. See Para- 

Hydroceph^alic (ffJwp, /cf^/^). Pertain- 
ing to or afiected with hydrocephalus. H. 
Cry, the shrieks of pain of the hydroceph- 
alic child during the exacerbations. 

Hydroceph'^alocele (i'<^/:>, m^i/ri^ the 
head, «/////, a tumor). Gjngenital hydro- 
cephalus in which the encephalon pro- 
trudes through the miunited or undeveloped 
cranial wall. 

Hydroceph^aloid (Mw^, «0</P//, the head). 
Pertaining to or rc>embling hydrocephalus. 
H. Disease, a disease resembling hydro- 
cei>halus, sometimes ol>ser\e«l in poorly 
nourisheil infants just after weaning. 

Hydroceph^alus (i'(^), Kr^i///, head). A 
collection of fluid in the cerebral ventricles, 
preventinjj closure of the f«.)ntanelles and 
causing enlargement of the skull. 

Hydrocholecys'^tis (mV*. .I"'''/, tl»^ l^ilc, 
«ivr/f, a bladder). I»n>|i>y of the gall- 

Hydrocirs'ocele (m^u-,'. K.>Kyi»f, a \enous 
enlarj;ement. \'/?';. a tumor). Hydrocele 
acvomjwnied with v.iriavsc veins of the 
S|x*nn.ilic ct^nl. 

Hydrocce'lia ^mV.», m».'.i:. the U'lly). 
l>n»|viy of the U'Uy or aUli.minal n^gion. 

Hydrocol'lidine. A hi^ihly jK»i>onous 

iHomaine Uis<'. so nanunl by <.i.uiiier and 
•'lar\l» ai:d vUvLuvd by lluin to K' identi- 
cal with ilio hNvlrwvMbdmo olta:m\l by 
1. ahoms aiul TmivI V\ ti'.o .iclAn k'^x sele- 
niuin on niK\>tmo. N\:iv '■>.:. or; t:u' other 
lun^!, •iss'vMtvAl Its uler.titN >* t'.i .i I .><r i-io- 
lati\l i'\ \\\\\\ \\\ lS'c\ lo w'-. oh hv h.ul .\>- 
vii x'd i!>eto'Muu.» v.\ll,,\ L li.' t"i -.v.iu'a 
V'! vi.uitiei .ii'.vl lutvl'^ 1*% .'.'■x\ 1!; ::T-.e i^. 
I ^l I. .N \\\\^ ;^vunai;K' v :.ii'io: I'rv^m 
vMo'oiv»!!ui^' o\ :-\--« •.•u::v iVtrjg 
iuu\ii\''. aiul jhU!i!v!".j^ 1'a'-s ''.s''. and 
4«\ rU sl» Ihv* ttve ■ »iM.- > .m .:';:'.v»>: ov Iv.*- 
lt's.s. Alsabne. o»!\ 'UmvI. ■\a\ii'^ a >Tvnji:, 
iKiuriiAtm^ wK'c iiKes\i':i^«. Ss,^ stuAila 




dose as 0.0017 gram of the hydrochloride 
injected into birds, produces dizziness, 
paralysis and death. The pupils arc nor- 
mal, and the heart stops in diastole. 

HydrocoFpocele {viup, koatto^, «^/^J7, 
tumor). A serous tumor of the vagina. 

Hydxocot^yle. Pennywort. The leaves 
of //. asiatica. Active principle vellarincy 
a bitter tonic and alterative, very service- 
able in skin diseases, syphilitic sores and 
leprosy. Unof. 

Hydxocyan^ic. See Cyanogen^ and Acid^ 

Hy^drocyst (rdw/), mw/r, a bladder). A 
cyst containing a water-like liquid. Syn- 
onymous with hydatid. 

Hydroderm^a (('<5(jpy 6ep^, the skin). 
Dropsy of the skin. 

Hydro-electric {idupy clecttici/y). Per- 
taining to electricity developed by the phy- 
sical action of fluids or in connection with 
water. H. Bath, a bath in which the 
metallic Uning of the tub is connected 
with one pole of a battery, the other l)eing 
in contact with the person of the {patient. 

Hy^drogen (I'dwp, ^n-jow, to produce). 
II = I. Quanti valence I. A gaseous ele- 
ment, one liter of which weighs .0896 
gramme. It is feebly basic and occurs in 
nature combined with oxygen in the form 
of water Wfi. It has lx,'en liquefied at a 
temperature of — 286° ¥. under a tension 
of 650 atmospheres — a pressure of about 
4.7 tons per square inch. In combination 
with carbon, oxygen and nitrqyen, it forms 
a multitude of radicals formerly known as 
"organic " compounds, but now often syn- 
thetically formed. Used largely in the 
qualitative determination of arsenic and 
antimony, and for combustion with -oxygen 
to produce intense heat. Has also l)ecn 
used by inhalation in consumption. H. 
Peroxide, an unstable comix)und having 
the composition H^C.).^. A powerful anti- 

^ septic and germicide. Used as a disin- 
fectant in diphtheria, glandular swellings 
and suppurative intlammations. It is the 
basis of most hair bkaching solutions. 
I.)ose, 3ss-ij. Unof. 

Hydrohae^mia (i'rtr.v», ntua^ the blood). 
Watery, or poor condition of the blood. 

HydroKogy (»Ay>, >o}or, a treatise). A 
treatise on the nature and uses of water. 

Hydrolyt^ic {rAup, /tt.*, to dissolve ). IVr- 
taining to the dccomiK)sition of water, or 
the liberation of water during a chemical 
reaction. H. Ferments, thost^ causing a 
combination with the ehrments of water in 
the substances they decom|x>se. 

Hydro^ma (iMw/>). A cyst or sac filled 
with water or serous fluid. Also, an 
oxlematous swelling. Also, the dilatation 
of a lymphatic of the neck from a cystic 

Hydromeningi^tis (i-Aup, pr/i'c}^^ a mem- 
brane). Inflammation of the membranes 
of the brain or cord, accompanied by ef- 
fusion of watery fluids. 

Hydromenin^gocele (I'^wp, f^m'ty^, '07^J7, 
a tumor). A watery tumor of the men- 
inges, protruding through the skull. Also, 
a watery tumor in the arachnoid cavity 
or in the continuation of the subarachnoid 

Hydrom^etcr (rcfwp, //crpor, a measure). 
An instrument for determining the specific 
gravity of liquids or solutions containing 

Hydrome'^tra (?'^w/3, fiffrpa, uterus). A 
collection of water or mucus in the womb. 

Hydrom^phalus (Wwp, ofif^/(t^, the na- 
vel). A tumor at the navel distended 
with water. May arise cither from ascites 
or umbilical hernia. 

Hydromy^clus (t^w/), five?.oc, marrow). 
A congenital cavity of the spinal cord. 
Also, distention of the spinal cord caused 
by the eflusion of water or serous fluid. 

Hydron^cus {v()upf oyn^, a mass). A dis- 
tention or swelling caused by an accumu- 
lation of water. See, also, ilidtma and 

Hydronephro^sis (r'^fj^>, vfV'P^r, kidney). 
A collection of urine in the kidney from 
obstructed outflow. 

Hydrop'athy (iV^ti^, mflof, suflVring). 
The treatment of dis«*ases ly the use of 
water, externally and intirnally. 

Hydropcricar'dium ^vfnop^ zrtpiKnp^iov^ 
(the |XTicardium). I)roj)sy of the i)eri- 
cardium. Also, an eflusic-n of water or 
seroiLs fluid into the i>ericanliuni during 

Hydroperitonac^um. See Ascifis. 

Hydropho'bia (?Mg>/), ^',.^f»f, dread). A 
symptom of rabies in man, consisting in 
fear of water, or inal>ility Ko swallow it. 
UscmI commonly as a synonym of AV//'/V>-, 
an<l particularly of the disease in man. 
H., Pscudo-. See J\\cndo hydi 0/^/1, hia. 

Hydropho'bic {/*'(.>/'. "" t»"'. )• rt-rtaining 
to or having the nature ot hydiophobia. 
H., Tetanus. See h'opf t.tanus. 

Hydrophobopho^bia (// r d r o ph o b in , 
^ifii}^). A morbid and intense dread of 
hydro] >hol>ia. 

Hydrophthal'mia (»A.7', water, tKJfUt/fH)^^ 
eye). An increase of the fluid contents of 




the eye, resulting in glauc&niay kerato- 
globus^ staphyloma^ etc, 

HydrophthaFxnos. See Keratoglobus. 

Hydrophysom'^etra {v6up, ^voa^ wind, 
ft^Tpa^ the womb). An almormal collec- 
tion of water, or other fluid, and gas in the 

Hydrop^ic (WpoTrocof, dropsical). Per- 
taining to dropsy. 

Hy^droplasm. According to Nflgeli, a 
fluid constituent of protoplasm. 

Hydropneumato^sis (vAupf rcvevfiaTuat^y 
inflation). An abnormal or morbid col- 
lection of water, or other fluid, and air 
within any of the tissues of the body. 
See, also, Hydropneumonia. 

Hydropneumo^nia (vcfcjp, Trvevfiuv, the 
lung). A disease thought to consist of a 
serous infiltration within the lung; also, 
an eflusion within the pleura sometimes 
accompanying pneumonia. 

Hydropneumopericard^ium (I'dup, irvtv- 
fia, air, ntpiKap6iov, the pericardium). 
A morbid collection of air and water within 
the pericardium. It causes the clacking 
sound commonly known as the "water- 
wheel" sound. 

Hydropneumotho^rax. See Pneumato- 

Hy^ drops (*r»<T/)6/V', dropsy). Dropsy; an 
abnormal collection of fluid in a cavity or 
part of the Ixxiy. See Anasarca. H. 
Paralyticus, that in paralyzed parts. H. 
Spurious, from obstruction of the natural 
outlet of a secreting organ. 

Hydroquin^one. Obtained from Uua 
Crsi. Valuable as an antipyretic without 
producing injurious after-effects. Effiects 
temiwrary. Dose, gr. xv-xx. Unof. 

Hydrorrhachi^tis. See Spina i I'cntosa). 

Hydrorrhce'a (r<5w^, f)oia, a flow). A 
flow of water. H. Gravidarum. An ab- 
nonnal discharge of liquid from the preg- 
nant uterus. 

Hydrosadeni^tis ('vf^p, adenitis). In- 
flammation uf the sudoriparous follicles. 

Hydrosalpinx (vdDp.tTa/.zty^^ atrumpet). 
A distention of the Fallopian tul)e with a 
fluid substance, and its obstruction at the 
fimbriated extremity, caused by inflamma- 
tion. Fretiuently a result of gonorrhoea. 

Hydrosar^cocele. See Sarcoccle, 

Hydros'^cheocele ('inJwp, oaxeov^ the scro- 
tum, aiul Kfi7rjy a tumor). Dropsical hernia 
of the scrotum. 

Hydrostat^ic (Wop, (rramf, standing). The 
science treating of the conditions and 
properties of liquids in a state of equilib- 

Hydrotherapeu^tics Vviwpy Oepairevu, to 
heal). That part of oalneology treating 
of the hygienic use of cold water, and of its 
therapeutic application to the body. See, 
also, Ba/h and Aqua. 

Hydrothionu^ria Tvrfwp, Otov^ sulphur, 
ovpoVf the urine). Ilydrogen-sulphide in 
the urine. 

Hy droth(/rax (v6op, dupa^^ chest) . Dropsy 
of the chest. 

Hydrot^omy {JvSup, refjvu, to cut). A 
method of dissecting certain tissues by the 
forcible injection of water into the arteries 
and capillaries whereby the structures of 
the tissues are separated. 

Hydrova'rium ('vdupt ovarium, an ovary) . 
Ovarian dropsy. 

HydroxyKamine. An amine having the 
composition NH-(HO), and much re- 
sembling pyrogalhc acid in physiological 
properties. It has been successfully used 
as a local application in psoriasis. It does 
not discolor the skin, llie following 
formula is used by Fabry : hydroxylamine 
hydrochlorate 2-5, alcohol 1 00 parts, chalk 
to neutralize. .Unof. 

Hydrozo^a {'vdup, ^cjov, an animal). 
A class of the Coelenterata including 
the Siphonophera, Ctenophora and Ily- 

Hygei'a ('Tyfw, the goddess of health). 
State or condition of health. 

Hy'giene ('vyieivoCy good for the health). 
That science treating of the laws of health 
in its broadest sense. 

Hyg^eche^ma ('i7pof , moist, r^xVt sound). 
The peculiar sound produced by a liquid 
as obsen'ed by the stethoscope, or by j>er- 

Hyg^rin^ic Ether. A sul>stance of uncer- 
tain composition, said to have mydriatic 
properties. Unof. 

Hy'g^o- ('t^'pof, moist). A prefix denot- 
ing moist or 7i'ct. 

Hyg^o^ma ('vypo^^ oma, tumor). A serous 
cyst. The bacillus of tul)erculosis, has 
been found in four ca.scs of hygroma con- 
taining rice bodies. 

Hyg^om^cter ('fj/jof , fin-pov^ a measure). 
An instrument for determining quantita- 
tively the amount of moisture in the air. 
This amount, constantly varying, is ex- 
pressed in terms of the percentage re- 
quired to saturate the air at the particular 
temperatuj:^ observed. 

Hyg^met'ric ('v}/wf, fierpw). Per- 
taining to hygrometry, or the quanti- 
tative determination of atmospheric mois- 




HjTgroph^ila Spinc/ta. A shrab used 
in Ceylon and India as a diuretic in dropsy. 

Hygroscop^ic ('t^poc, aKorreo, to see). 
Having the propeity of absorbing moisture 
from the air. 

Hy^lonite. See Celluloid, 

Hy^men ('v^>7>% a membrane). The fold 
of mucous membrane at the vaginal en- 
trance. H., Imperforate, a congenital 
abnormality, the hymen without an open- 
ing, thus closing the vaginal outlet or 

Hyme^nal Vvjmv). Pertaining to the hy- 
men. H. Tubercles. See Afyrti/orm 

HymenoFogy {^vftrjVt 7.a)oq^ a treatise). A 
treatise on the nature and structure of 
membranous tissue. 

Hymenomala^cia ('t'/<7f, fia?jaKoc, soft). 
An abnormal softening of membranous 

Hymenomyce^tes ('17/71', ftvK^^ a fungus). 
An <»der of fungi naving the hymenium 
or umbrella. All the edible mushrooms 
belong to this class. 

Hymenop^tera (*vfiffv, irrepovy a wing). 
An order or family of insects distinguished 
by two pairs of membranous wings. In- 
cludes ants, bees, wasp, ichneumon, flies, 

H3K0-. A prefix denoting attachment to 
or connection with the Ayot'tl hone, 

Hyoglos^sal [hyoidy -^/.uaaa, the tongue). 
Pertaining to the hyoglossus. Extending 
between the hyoid bone and the tongue. 

Hyoglos'^sus. See Muscle. 

Hy^oid Bone ('Toe/d^f, similar to Greek 
upsilon). A bone situated between the 
root of the tongue and the phar)'nx, sup- 
porting the tongue and giving attachment 
to its muscles. 

Hy^oscine. See Hyoscyamus. 

Hyoscy^amus. Henbane. The older 
leaves of //. nii^er. Contains an alkaloid, 
hyoscyaraine, isomeric with and similar to 
atropine ; also, a derivative hyoscine. An 
excellent narcotic, calmative and hypnotic, 
less irritating than lM?lladonna and stramo- 
nium. Useful in mania and the delirium 
of fevers. Ilyoscyamine is useful when- 
ever atropine is indicated. A powerful 
but uncertain mydriatic. H. Abstract. 
r)osc gr. iij-v. H. Ext., Alcoholic. 
Dose gr. j (of uncertain strenj^th). H. 
Ext., Fid. Dose TT\,v-xv. H. Tinct., 
15 per cent, in strength. Dose 3J-iv; 
as a hypnotic Jss-j. Hyoscyamine 
Sulph. Dose, hypodermic, gr. xij- A ' ^ 

mouth gr. ](-}. Hyoscine Hjrdxobrom. 
Unof. Dose yJjr-A- 



Hsrpacu^sis or 

Hsrpaku'sis ('viro, axotv/f , to hear). Hard- 
ness of hearing from defect of the auditory 

Hypalbumino^sis. Morbid diminution 
in the proportion of the albumin in the 

Hypal^gia ('tiro, oAyof , pain). Diminished 
sensibility to pain. 

Hy'per- ('vn-ep, above). A Greek prefix 
signifying abcrve^ beyoml or excessive. 

Hyperacou^sis. See Hyperakusis, 

Hyper«^inia ('vn-fp, atiia^ blood). A con- 
dition of plethora or congestion of blood, 
especially in the capillaries of the skin. 
H., Active, caused by an abnormal sup- 
ply of blood. H., Passive, caused by 
an impediment to the removal of the 

Hypersesthe^sia ('tm-rp, atoHtfoi^, sensa- 
tion). Excessive or exalted sensibility of 
the skin. May be s)'mptomatic or idio- 

Hypersesthet^ic ('iirep, aiafhfotq). Per- 
taining to hypcrtesthesia or an unusual 
sensibility to impressions in the sensory 

Hyperaku'^sis ('wrfp, oKoiwCt hearing). 
An excessive or exalted sensibility of the 
sense of hearing. Also, a highly devel- 
oped sensitiveness to the discernment of 
pitch and timbre of musical sounds. 

Hyperalbumino^sis. An unusual rich- 
ness of allnunins in the blood. 

Hyperalge^sia ('inrep, a/.y/trt^, sense of 
]xiin). Excessive i^ensibility tu ])ain. 

HyperaKgia ('I'Trrp, a?.}o^f i»in). Exces- 
sive i^ain. H., Acoustic, excessive hy- 
pe rakusis. 

Hyperaph^ia (*i»7rfp, ndr/, touch). Exces- 
sive sensitiveness of the t.ictile surfaces of 
the body. 

Hypercathar^sis {*v^fp, hafhfxtiCt cleans- 
ing). Excessive purging, or too free use 
of cathartic me<licincs. 

Hypcrchro^ma ('I'^fp, XP^M^t color). 
ITie hyjxjrsecretion of the pigment of the 
skin, as in phthiri:isis, syphilis, cfc. 

Hypercrin'ia {'virrp, Kpnu^ to separate). 
Abnormal or excessive secretion. 

Hypcrcyc^sis ('vrfp, KVf/atCf conception). 

Hjrpcrdicro^tic. Pertaining to the pulse 
when the pulse-curve shows the aortic 
notch l^elow the base line. 




Hyperdisten^tion ('vTrcp, distendoy to 
stretch). Forcible or extreme distention. 

Hyperdiure^sis ('vTTfp, Siovpea, to pass 
urine). Excessive secretion of urine. 

Hyperdynam^ia ('i^fp, dwafug, energy). 
Excessive strength or exaggeration of ner- 
vous or muscular functions. 

HjTpereme^sis {'vTrep, efieaig, vomiting). 
Excessive vomiting. 

Hyperenoep h'a 1 u s ('iwrep, eyKt<paXov, 
brain). An exencephalic monstrosity with 
lack of the superior part of the cranium, 
the brain protruding. 

HjTperephidro^sis ('fn-rp, e^6<jat^y slight 
per!»piration). Excessive or long-continued 

Hyperesopho^ria. See Heterophoria. 

Hyperexopho^ria. See Heterophoria. 

Hypergen^esis ('iwrep, yewow, to beget). 
A general term signifying excess or re- 
dundancy of the parts or organs of the 
body. It may be normal, as in the increase 
of the tissue of a muscle ; or abnormal, 
as seen in monstrosities. Also, an exces- 
sive production of the elements of a tissue 
or organ. 

H)rpergeu'8ia(*v7rep,y«xyec, taste). Abnor- 
mal increase of the sense of taste. 

Hyperglobu^lla. Polycythaemic plethora. 
An abnormal increase of the red-blood 

Hyper^icum. St. John's Wort. The flow- 
ering tops of //. perforatum^ abundant 
in temperate climates. A long- known and 
useful remedy, applied locally in contusions 
and ecchymoses. Unof. 

Hyperhidrc/sis or 

Hyperidro^sis ('twrep, Mpuc, sweat). 
IdiDsis, Ephidrosis, Sudatoria. Excessive 
sweating. A functional disorder of the 
sweat glands marked by excessive secre- 
tion. May be general or local. 

Hyperin'^osis. ('iwr^p, /rof , muscle). Ab- 
normal increase m the fibrin-factors in the 

Hyperinvolu^tion ('twrfp, involvo^ to roll 
around). A diminution in size of the 
uterus, due to the abnormal involution oc- 
curring after pregnancy. 

Hyperkerato^sis ('vTfp, Kfpac, horn, cor- 
nea). Hypertrophy of the cornea either in 
extent or thickness. 

Hyperkine^sia ('vrrp, Kivrfot^, energy). 
A general term to denote any exaggerated 
s|)asm or muscular contraction. 

Hyperkinet^ic ('wrep, luvffaig). Pertaining 
to hyperkinesia. 

Hypermas^tia ('I'^fp, fiatrroc, the breast). 
Excessive development or hypertrophy of 

the mammary gland, which remains nonnai 
in structure. 

Hypermetn/pia. Same as Hyperopia. 

Hypermne^sis ('vTrep, fivffoic, memory) 
Abnormal exaltation of the power of mem- 

Hyperodontog^eny ('vn-ep, odovc, a tooth, 
yevvaUf to beget). The phenomenon of a 
third dentition late in life. Supposed to 
be due to development of one or more su- 
perfluous tooth -germs which have remained 

Hyperop^ia Cvrrep, uiff, the eye). That 
condition of the refractive media of the 
eye in which, with susi)ended accommoda- 
tion, the focus of parallel rays of light is 
behind the retina ; it is due to an abnormally 
short antero-posterior diameter of the eye, 
or to a subnormal refractive power of its 
media. H., Latent, that part of the total 
that cannot be overcome by the accom- 
modation, or the diflerence between the 
manifest and total. H., Manifest, that 
the acconmoodation can overcome, or that 
corrigible by a convex glass with acting 
accommodation . 

Hyperos^mia ('vrrp, oofir^, odor). An ab- 
normal and usually morbidly acute sense 
of smell. 

HjTperostc/sis Cy^ept ooreov, bone) . Exos- 
tosis or general nyp)ertrophy of bony tissue. 

Hyperpho^ria. See Heterophoria. 

Hyperpla^sia ('vTrrp, 7rAa<7/f, moulding). 
The excessive deposit or augmentation ot 
the elements of the tissue composing an 

Hyperplast^ic (Wep, TrXo^r/icof, fit for 
moulding). Pertaining to hyIX^rplasia. 

HjTperporo^sis ('vrcp, ttw/xjct/c, cementing 
or uniting). An excessive formation of 
callus in the reuniting of fractured lx>nes. 

Hyperprax^ia ('vTfp, irpci^tc, exercise). 
The excessive restlessness of movement 
characterizing certain forms of mania. 

Hyperpselaphe^sia ('i>7rep, tlif/Aa^fOia^ 
touch). Abnormal increase of tactile sen- 

Hyperpyret'ic ('I'n-cp, Tiy), fire). Pertain- 
ing to hyix;q>yrexia. 

Hyperpyrex^ia {'vrrtp, Tzvp, ex(^, to have) 
A condition marked by excessively high 
temperature or febrile symptoms. 

Hyper sccre^tion. Excessive secretion. 

Hypersthen^ia ('I'Tfp, tjfiei'oCf strength). 
A condition of exalted strength or tone of 
the body. 

Hyperton^ic ('vrrfp, roj-of, tone). A con- 
dition l)eyond the natural tension or tone. 
Also, irritability. 




Hypertrichi^asis. See Hirsuties. 

Hypertricho^sis. See Hirsuties. 

HjTpertroph^ic (*wrcp, r/jo^jy, nourishment). 
A condition of hypertrophy or excessive 

Hyper^trophy ^'vn-f/j, rpo^;/). Excessive 
nourishment or increase in size of any part 
or origan of the body. H., Cardiac, may 
be cau>ed by valvular disease, or *by dis- 
ease of the kidneys and other distant 
organs, or by constitutional disease. H., 
Concentric, though the wall be hyper- 
trophied, the cavity of the heart is con- 
tracted. H., Eccentric, cardiac H. with 
dilatation. H., Idiopathic, when without 
further disease of the heart's structure, or 
those of other organs. H. Numerical, 
an increase in the number of the con- 
stituent cells or structures. 

Hypertro^pia. See Strabismus. 

Hyphse^mia (', moa, blood. H:cmor- 
rhage within the globe of the eye. 

Hyphidro^sis ('inro, 'vdcjp, water). Defi- 
ciency of water. Less than the normal 
amount of water in the tissues of the 

Hypino^sis i^viro, iq [gen. iwf], a fiber). 
A deficiency of fibrin in the blood. 

Hypino'tic ('vto, /f [ tvoq^, the fiber of 
fiesh). Pertaining to hypinosis. 

Hypnol'ogy ('vrrvof, Aoyof , a treatise). A 
treatise upon sleep and its hygienic effects. 

Hyp'^none. See Acetophenon:'. 

HjTpnop^athy ('wTri'of, nafiog, disease). 
Sleep due to a diseased or morbid condi- 
tion of the body, brain, or mind. 

Hypno^sis {'imvoc). An artiticial condi- 
tion produced by hypnotizing. Also, the 
gradual approach of sleep. 

Hypnot^ic (vxvof). A remedy that causes 
sleep. A soporific. Also, pertaining to 

Hyp^notism ('vrrvo^). A state of artificial 
somnambulism ; may be produced by vari- 
oas means, as, for example, looking with 
concentrated attention at any small object 
so near that effort is reijuired to converge 
the axes of the eyes. It is characterized 
liya partial or complete absence of volition, 
sensation and self- consciousness, except 
that which comes from the hy])notizcr or 
some dominating will or idea. See, also, 

Hypnoti^zable. Susceptibility in being 

Hypnotiza^tion. The employment of the 
means used to hypnotize a {)ers()n. 

Hy^poblast ('uto, under, /:^yUiffrf>r , a sprout) . 
The internal layer of the blastoderm, called, 

also, the endoderm, entoderm or epithelio- 
glandular layer, from which is developed 
the intestinal epithelium (except that of 
the mouth and anus) and that of the glands 
opening into the intestines ; also the epi* 
thelium of the air passages. 

Hypobro^mite Meth^od. A method of 
estimating the urea in urine, based upon 
the fact that when urea b acted upon by 
sodium h3rpobromite (or calcium hypochlo- 
rite) it is decom]X3sed into nitrogen, car- 
bon dioxide and water. 

Hypochon^driac ('vtto, xov^p<Kt cartilage). 
Pertaining to the hypochondrium. 

Hypochondri^asis ('iwro, ;^;ov(J/)/aicof , one 
afiected in the hypochondrium). A dis- 
turl)ance of the functions of the nervous 
system similar to melancholia, in which the 
patient believes himself suffering fhxn 
Ixxlily disease. Characterized by alternate 
spells of moodiness and excitability. 

Hypochon^drium. See Abdomen. 

Hypochro^mia (*t«ro, xp^f^f^y color). Ab- 
normal pallor or transparency of the skin, 
occurring in certain skin diseases. 

Hypodermat^ic ('vtto, depfuiy the skin). 
Pertaining to that which is under the skin, 
or to the introduction of medicines beneath 
the skin. 

Hypoder^mic. See Hypodtrmatic. 

Hypodermocly'sis (*vrro, depfia, skin, 
itAwT/c, a drenching). The hy{xxlermatic 
injection of nutrient material lieneath the 
skin in the algid stage of Asiatic cholera, 
collapse, etc. 

Hypogas^tric (*vwOj yaarrjp^ the belly). 
Pertaining to the hypogastric region. Se« 

Hypogas^trium. See Abdomen. 

Hypogeu^sia ('wro, ynw/f, taste). Dimi- 
nution in the sense of taste. 

Hypoglos^sal (*iwro, yTjjaaa^ the tongue). 
Under the tongue. H. Nerve. See 

Hypoglot^tis ('wro, yhjTra^ the tongue). 
The under part of the tongue, adherent to 
the lower jaw. Also, a swelling at the 
under \yaxi of the tongue. 

Hypognath'us ('I'^ro, lieneath, }-i»aflr>f, 
jaw). A monstrosity in which the {xurasite 
is attached to the inferior maxillary l)one. 

Hypoma^nia ('rn-o, //aiva, madness). A 
moderate degree of maniacal exaltation. 

Hyponeu'ria ('ito, vft;^»',aner\'e). Slight, 
or diminished nerve power. 

Hypoph^ysis ('I'^-w, ^I'w, to l)e developed). 
Hie pituitary Ixxiy ; sometimes called the 
H. Cerebri. 

Hypopla^sia. See Aplasia, 




Hypopselaphe^sia ('wro, ^rf?,a<^7jaic, 
touch). Diminution of the sensitiveness 
of tactile sensation. 

Hypop^yon ('im-o, tow, pus). A collection 
of pus in the anterior chamoer of the eye, 
secondary to inBammation of adjacent 

Hypos^mia ('vrrcjy oafirf^ a smell). Diminu- 
tion of the sense of smell. 

Hypospad^ias ('irn-o, an-cuj, to draw). An 
abnormal opening and ending of the ure- 
thra upon the under surface of the penis. 

Hypos^tasis ('i;;ro<Trrt<T/f , a standing mider). 
A word loosely used to denote faeces, or 
any sediment falling firom a liquid, especi- 
ally the sediment of urine. Also, a form 
of passive hyj^enemia caused by the de- 
pendent position of the part affected. 

Hyposthcn^ic (*v7ro, o^evof, strength). 
That which reduces strength, especially 
diseases that are more than ordinarily en- 
feebling. Also, a medicine that reduces 
the action of the heart without affecting its 

Hypoth^enar ('wrodevapY The fleshy 
eminence on the palm of^ the hand over 
the metacarpal bone of the little finger. 
Also, the prominences on the palm at the 
base of the fingers. Also, the ball of the 

Hypother^mal ('vtto, BepfiTf, heat). Tepid. 
A temperature placed arbitrarily between 
59° and 68° F., or 15° and 25° C. Also, 
pertaining to the reduction of the temper- 
ature of the l)ody. 

Hypoth^csis ('iwro, Beai^y a position). A 
supposition set forth for discussion or dem- 
onstration. A theory. 

Hypoxan^thine. A leucomaine, also 
known as Sarcine or Sarkine. Occurs, 
accompanying adenine and guanine, in 
nearly all the animal tissues and organs 
rich in nucleated cells. In minute quan- 
tities it is a normal constituent of urine. 
It has also l)een found in plants, seeds, 
ferments and wines. Hypoxanthine ap- 
pears to be one of the products formed by 
the decomposition and successive oxidation 
of proteid matter previous to formation of 
uric acid and urea. It arises from adenine 
by action of nitrous acid. It is non -poi- 

Hys^sop. The leaves and tops of // oji- 
cinalis. An aromatic stimulant, carmina- 
tive and tonic. Much employed in chronic 
catarrh. Dose of fid. ext. 3J-ij. Unof. 

Hys^tcra i^vartpa^ the womb). The uterus 
or womb. Also, the vulva. Also, the 
placenta or afterbirth. 

Hysteral^gia (*wjTc/>a, aXyo^^ pain). Any 
pain in the womb. Also restricted to 
neuralgic pains. 

Hysteratre^sia ('wrre/ja, a, without, rer- 
paivu), to perforate). An imperforate or 
impervious condition of the mouth of the 

Hysterec^tomy ('urre/sa, eKTOfirfy a cutting 
out). Excision or removal of the womb 
by surgical operation. 

Hy sterna ('varepa). A functional dis- 
turbance of the ner\'ous system, supposed 
by early physicians to be due to disor- 
dered condition of the womb. It is now 
often considered a reflex neurosis; not 
with certainty known whether it is due 
to structural alteration of any part of the 
central nervous system, or to abnormal 
blood supply, ^/r. Paralyses, impairment of 
vision, convulsions, etc., are usually promi- 
nent symptoms. Major and minor types 
are differentiated. The popular signifi- 
cance of the term is that of feigned disease. 
The physician usually considers the affec- 
tion real. Hypochondriasis is often the 
analogue in men. 

Hyster^ic ('varepa). Pertaining to hysteria, 
g. V. Also, pertaining to the womb. 

Hyster^ics. A popular term for hysterical 
or convulsive movements and conditions. 

Hysteri'^tis. See Metritis. 

Hysterocat^alepsy ('wrrepa, #cflro?.^«c, 
catalepsy). A form of hysteria accom- 
panied by catalepsy. 

Hysteroclei^sis ('t<Trf/)a,KAf/<T/f, a closure). 
The closure of the os uteri by scarifying 
and suliu-ing the labia — an operation for- 
merly employed in vesico-uterine fistula. 

Hysterocye^sis (^wrrefxi^ Kvitai^y preg- 
nancy). Uterine pregnancy. 

Hysterodyn^ia ('wrrcpa, o<5in'7,pain). Pain 
in the womb. 

Hys^tero-cp^ilepsy {hysteria^ eTTi?jnlfta, 
falling sickness). A form of hysteria ac- 
companied by convulsions resembling those 
of epilepsy. Gowers advises the term 
hysteroid in reference to these seizures. 

Hys^tero-epileptog'enous [hysteria^ 
eniTjpfjia). Producing hysteria and epi- 

Hysterogen^ic (hysteria yyn^vnu, to beget). 
Causing or producing hysteria. 

Hys^teroid. Resembling hysteria. See 
Hystero-epUepsy. H. Convulsions, con- 
vulsional movements with hysterical symp- 
toms in various organic diseases of the 
brain, in epilepsy, and in hydrophobia. 

Hys'terolith ('wrrcpa, P^of , a stone). Cal- 
culus or stone in the womb. 




Hysteromala^cia ('varefHif fiahuco^, soft). 
Softening of the tissues of the womb, ren- 
dering it liable to rupture at time of labor. 

Hysteromalaco^ma ('vorepa, fiaXoKog). 
Softening of the womb or of any part of it. 

Hysteroma^nia. See Nymphomania, 

Hysterom^etry {'wrrepaf furpw^ a meas- 
ure). The measurement of the womb. 

Hysteromyc/ma ('varepa, myoma). My- 
oma or fibro-myoma of the womb. 

Hystero-neuro^sis (^varepay vevpov, a 
nerve). A reflex action resulting from 
irritation of the uterus. 

Hystero-paral^ysis ('varepa, napa^vcig, 
palsy), raralysis or weakness of the walls 
of the womb. 

Hysteropath^ia {'varepay iraOoc, suffering). 
Any disttse or disorder df the womb. Also 

Hysteropex^ia (* wrrepa, Tnrywfu, to fasten). 
Abdominal fixation of the uterus. 

Hysteropto^sis Cvarepa, imjaiq^ a fall- 
ing). Falling of the womb. See Pro- 

Hysterorrhez^is ('twre/Ki, /^lyfif, rupture). 
Rupture of the womb. 

Hysterot^omy. See Casarean Opera- 

Hystrici^asis ('wrrpi^, a hedgehog). A 
disease of the hair in which the latter 
** stares'' or stands out like the hair of the 


I. The symbol of Iodine. 

lamatol^ogy (lafia, a remedy, Aoj'of, 
science). A treatise on remedies. 

latralip^tic (mr^M)^ , a physician, aP.rt^, to 
anoint). Pertaining to the cure of diseases 
by inunction. 

lat^ric (/arpof). Pertaining to the physi- 
cian or to the science of medicine. 

latro- (/arpfwj, to heal). A (Jreek prefix 
signifying /o heal^ and in composition, 
relating to medicine or physicians. 

latrophys^ics (mrpo^, ^viKog, pertaining 
to nature). The relation of physics or use 
of physics in disease or therapeutics. The 
materialistic explanation of disea^. 

latrotech^nics [tarpnxj^ Ttxvrjt art). The 
ait of healing. 

Ice (Sax. is). The solid form that water 
takes below o° C. or 32° F. I. Bag, a 
bag of waterproof material filled with ice, 
for application to any part of the lx)dy. 
I. Cap, a bladder or rubber cap filled with 
pounded ice for application to the head 
m congestion. 

Iceland Moss. See Cetraria. 

Ice^land Spar. A transparent calcium 
carbonate crystallized in rhomlx>idal prisms. 
It has the property of dividing and doubly 
refracting a ray of light. 

Fchor (iXSH^i P"^)- ^'^ 9s:nA and thin 
puriibnn discharge from an ulcer or wound. 

lecherous (/;t<^)- Pertaining to pus con- 
taining ulcerative, serum-like products. 

Ichorrhse'^mia {}X^9^ o'A'^. the blood). 
The diseased condition of the blood due 
to the absorption of septic matter. Also, 

Ich^thin, or Ich^thidin. An albuminous 
substance obtained from fishes. 

IchthyocoFla. Isinglass. The air blad- 
der of the sturgeon, Aciptnsrr. Occurs 
in homy, translucent, white .sheets, that 
form a jelly with hot water. The purest 
form of gelatine. Used as a food, for 
clarifying liquids, and as a test for tannic 
acid. I. Emplastrum, court- plaster ; 
consists of isinglass 10, glycerine i, alco- 
hol 40, water and tinct. l)enzoin q. s., spread 
upon fine white silk bolting cloth and 

Ichthyog^raphy {^ixl^'^, ypcj^^ to write). 
A description of fishes and their di.stribu- 

Ichthyoid ('A^«f, f/r^of, a form). Re- 
sembling a fish. 

Ich'thyol (/;t^»f). A preparation ob- 
tained from certain varieties of asphaltum 
occurring in the Tyrolese Aljis. It is 
alleged to be efficient in eczema and 

Ich^thyolite (i;t^f» /^^, a stone). A 
fossil {>etrifaction or imprint of a fish. 

I I 


,.., Mnil ical Poinis. LV*nsiK>nding points 

,.t \\u »«o lil.n.i, or the l^^o iKiMlions in 
. .,1 \ iwmmm'. . m ' X* V.t'.v :hc iniage of an object 

. I . . I I III « 1 I '-.i 


lac'.n :»t .. -Niz:: Aunufonni.rly 

M, '.' '..<• ■ . ". . *■ :.> ^ hill goiiorrlKva, 
,-: <..\. !k . ..:^-rf. :o .e ouc to the 


, ■ . ■ ■ ' m 

,,.=-...■.- .'•^-- ^ .>-... >^.. ...*.-. l.J 

' .... -s ■ -"*f's-"»ru*, :f.i' v:.'. .- ?::■.-. r:. -v.. y : r:vr.l 

% ■<« . ^ ■ 

* ...-.»■■ 'i:±.'.~ i.\: ..:.:Iy i<> ioej- 

^ .»-•■• _ ^.... .:- "■■■ '•'■■'-■■■..■.":. I. Center, that 

^. •.••-■ ^ ^ ^^ ^■■•. . r.-.ji::er which, in niu-nn.i: 

"^ " ■ \^ . ..I iin.i ; v^-.: > muscular mo\ rmc-m. 

^ . ^i/-' Lncon-^ciousniovirni'iiii, 

.i.v «.• .'.'..■■■ >"^ <^'f the mind when the 

aif.'ii.ii: > *'v!i-rwise ali.orlx'd. 

Iqcvv-ii^: i"2 . ''f^. app<-araMte, r/uofji.i^ to 

"■ ,^ I I'll. "hit stagt! of Ijypnoiisni in \vh"ch 

i, ;ii.- ..;u imprcv^stMl on ilu: lirain of the 

H^'.- : 6 iiitu action. 

... ■-■.^f5 ■ ^■";, rcscmMin^ in fi.rm). A suf- 

*\ .:c:iOtin}.j rcscniMiincc to tht: ol'ject with 

I ;:-.<r n.une of which it is comliincrl. 

.:deus {n^ioc, one's own). A .su(ii\ havin;^ 

V I'le sense o{ possei.non or t?7i »;/#•; .?///>. 

.:. . ^.^■% IJiempre'sis (/fW, ffjTfn,rTir, l.uniinjri 
Sivntancous (r)inlmMi(»n. Also, hponta- 
. , ., noi'Us inilaiiunatiiMt. 

Id'io- (/'Wfjr). A < Ircck prefix .signifying 
]HXuliar to one's s«*lf. 

Id'iocy (/'Wjr//r, a private i>erM»nV A cnn- 
dilion of mrntal <li.-lici<ncy, UMially acvoin- 
jxinied by lU-j^'cncnuy. .-^ic Af/i*/. 
Idio-mus^cular i /fV-u,-, niuainlits^ mu-'cle i. 
IVculiar to !nii>Liihir ti^^iic. I. Contrac- 
tion, tlic iY«ntraLtion of a fali'^i'd or tired 
mu-svlr uniltr cortain coni litiun^ of atimiili's, 
inllucnc.e. tfc. 

Idioneuro'^sis f/'^or, vi rvwu-, a ner\-cV An 

aflocli(.»n dut.' tn .-nnic ili.-turi cd or alinor- 

mal corMliii"-n of the ncrvi-s .supplying ihe 

V'ki' tir attack afl'LClo<l p.ut. 

^Jn-^^'' '**^" '-^ rt'i'i^'iii pirnu'niiion. Idiopath'ic i.'f^M.r. TrvW, ^ut"f,-ringV IW- 

^^ Vgudivu... .1 III « ^^ ii»i>t«> lo dt-note taining to .uiy diM'.ax.- iir>i cun-'C.iurnt or 

uiiit ^4 k***' » l»iu«'>>lary sub- drjH'mU nl uumi .nm^lur. 'I'lie antillu-sis 

of syinj'athctic. <lt utt mpathic, 't--. 
"» kun* w^ ni nil'l.iiii I ^ A nu-n- Idiophren'ic i /' v- •".'.'.•■, ■', ilic rnindV A 
Uvuuoa .'I ^.'lnt llnng iH'Kt'i>rd. irnn t.-mpli»yi^fl 1 y 'I'uki.- Im di-nulc in>anity 

1% kkUid(li«>n in aiutt' mam.) in <Uic to diM-.iM' of llic brain. 

latku«i»d idt .!>. and lam ii"-« lli'W Id'ioplasm \if^iuc„ r'/unnu^ anything 
f^i^f'U llii mititl A IfMU nmch form»th. A word .soin(iiiiie<» u>cd tu de 

|titii'.tii .iniliiM'.. I., Fixed, that ni«le the solid i>an of protoplaNm. or that 
'^1(1.1 III mIiiiIi one ili>minant idea \\xr\ ca|<il>le of tran->mitling to uOspring 
|iui«. the {K'culiarities of the parent. 





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Id^iospasm (iStog, airaafiog, a convulsion). 
A spasm or cramp confined to one part. 

Idiosyn^crasy (idioavyKpaaia, peculiarity 
of temperament). Any special or peculiar 
characteristic or temperament by which a 
person differs from other persons of ordi- 
nary habits. 

Id^iot (idiuTTK, a private person). A person 
of imperfect, dehcient or arrested mental 
development, either congenital, or due to 
causes arising soon after birth. 

Id^iotism. The state of idiocy. 

Idro^sis. See Hypiridrosis. 

Igasu^ric Acid. An acid occurring in 
St. Ignatius bean, and certain other plants 
containing strychnia. 

Igna^tia. St. Ignatius Bean. The seed 
of Strychnos Ignatii. Properties due to 
the alkaloids strychnine and briicifie^ of 
which the plant contains of each about i 
per cent Therapeutic effects similar to 
those of nux vomica, q. v. Recommended 
in hysteria. Highly efficient in control- 
ling the functions of the cerebro- spinal axis. 
I. Abstractum. Dose gr. ss-j. I. 
Tinct., has lo per cent, of the drug. 

Ig^ipunct^ure {ignisy ^x^^punctura, punc- 
ture). A method of cauterization and 
treating certain forms of hyj)ertrophy by 
the introduction of platinum needles heated 
to whiteness by the electric current. 

Ig^nis (I^.). Fire. Combustion distin- 
guished by rapid oxidation. I. Actualis, 
actual cautery. I. Fatuus, the phenome- 
non known as Jack o' lantern, Will o' the 
Wisp, etc. Its origin is not known. I. 
Sacer, an ol>solete name for erysipelas. 
I. Sancti Antonii, Suint Anthonys HrCy 
a common name for erysipelas. 

Igni^tion (ignis). The process of heating 
solids, especially inorganic compounds, at 
a wliitc-hot temperature until all volatile 
matter has been driven off. 

IKeac Passion (f//*oc» a colic or griping). 
An ailment characterized by severe griping 
pains and vomiting of fcvcal matter, to- 
gether with spasm of the aUlominal 

IleadeKphus (iV^v/w, ntJf^^, brother). A 
monocephalic dual monstrosity with bodies 
united at the pelvis, with four lower and 
two ui>per extremities. 

IKeo- {i/mm). A prefix signifying con- 
nection or relation to the ileum. 

Ileo-cse^cal [i/enni, avium). Pertaining 
or l)elonging to lx)th ileum and coecuni. 
I. Fossa, a depression in the lower \yaxi 
of the small intestine at the base of the 
vermiform process. I. Valve, a valve 

consisting of two folds of mucous mem- 
brane that guards the passage between the 
ileum and caecum. 

Ileo-col^ic (ileum f colon). Pertaining con- 
jointly to the ileum and the colon. 

Ileo-coli^tis (ileuniy colon\. Inflamma- 
tion of the lower part of tne ileum and 
the colon. It is commonly known as in- 
testinal catarrh. 

IKeum (ciAew, I turn). The lower half of 
the small intestine. Receives its name 
from its peristaltic movements. 

IFiac (iliay the flanks). Pertaining to the 
ilium or to the flanks. I. Aneurism, one 
occurring at the groin. I. Artery. See 
Artery. I. Crest, the upper fipee margin 
of the ilium to which the abdominal 
muscles are attached. I. Muscle. See 
Muscle. I. Region, one of the regions 
into which the abdomen is conventionally 
divided. See Abdomen. 

Ili^acus. See Muscle. 

IliadeFphus (/7w, arfr?^, brother). A 
term applied to foetal monsters united at 
the pelvis but double above. 

Il^io- (ileum). A Greek word used as a 
prefix to denote relation to, or connection 
with the ilium. 

Ilio-capsula^ris (ilium, capsula^ a little 
chest). A muscle occasionally found in 
man, originating at the anterior lower spine 
of the ilium and inserted into the ilio- 
femoral ligament. 

Ilio-fem'^oral (ilium, femur, the thigh 
bone). Pertaining conjointly to the ilium 
and the femur. I. Ligament, an inverted 
V-shaped ligament extending obli(]uely 
across the hip joint, from a spine of the 
ilium to the trochanters of the femur, pre- 
venting over-extension of the joint. I. 
Triangle, a triangle consisting of a base 
drawn itova the summit of the great tro- 
chanter to the anterior upper spine of the 
ilium, with an ai)ex formed by lines drnwn 
backward from the anterior upper spine 
and upward from the summit of the tro- 

Ilio-hypogas^tric (ilium ^ i'To}«<Tr/j/m', 
the lower l)elly). Pertaining conjointly to 
the ilium and the h)ix)ga>trium. I. Nerve. 
See A'^erz'e. 

Ilio-in^guinal (ilium, inguen, the groin). 
Pertaining to the ilium and the groin. I. 
Nerve. See Nen'e. 

Ilio-lum^bar (ilium, lumbus, the loin). 
Pertaining conjointly to the ilium and the 
loins. I. Artery, a branch of the ix)ste- 
rior division of the internal iliac artery, 
supplying the iliac us, and also the psoas, 




and quadratus lumbomm muscles. I. 
Muscle, that port of the quadiatus lum- 
bomm muscle that is inseited at the tips 
of the processes of the lumbar vertebrae. 

Ilio-pectine^al. Pertaining conjointly to 
the ilium and the pectineus muscle. I. 
Ligament, that fxirt of the iliac fascia 
which attaches Poupart's ligament and the 
sheath of the crural vessels to the os pubis. 
I. Line, the ridge reaching from the spine 
of the OS pubis to the auricular surface of 
the ilium. 

Ilio-peKvic. Pertaining conjointly to the 
ilium and the pelvis. I. Abscess, a sup- 
puration sometimes occurring over the ili- 
acus muscle during first labor, and com- 
monly due to the laceration of muscular 

Ilio-pso^as. The iliacus and psoas mus- 
cles taken conjointly. 

Il^ium (I^t.). The upper port of the os 
innominatum. The haunch bone. 

Illaquea^tion {illaquta^ to ensnare). A 
method of changing the direction of mis- 
placed cilia, by withdrawing them by a 
noohc, through an o|)ening in the adjacent 
tissue of the lid. 

Illegit^imacy (/;/, not, Ugitimus, according 
to law). The condition of being unlaw- 
ful, or not legitimate. 

Illegit^imate (f/», iegitimus). Not in ac- 
cordance with statutory law. L Child, 
one l)om out of lawful wedlock ; a bastard. 

Illequa^tion. See lUaqueation. 

Illic^ium. Star Anise. The fruit of 11- 
liciutn anisatum, Proi)erties due to a 
volatile oil identical with oil of anise. 

Illumina^tion {illumino^ to make light). 
A light produced by a luminous body, 
and reflected by surrounding objects. I. 
of Eye, the lighting up of the interior of 
the eye by means of the ophthalmoscopic 
mirror. I., Oblique, in microscopy, an 
illumination produced by throwing the rays 
u])on the object at any angle of inclination. 
In ophthalmology, of the cornea, etc.y by 
focusing a iK-ncil of rays obliquely upon 
the part. 

Illu^sion (ii/usioy a mocking), ^-ee Iliil- 

Im'age \int(ii:^i\ a likeness). The picture 
of an object formed by the focalize<l rays 
of light pnx'eeding from it. I., Diffu- 
sion of. See />/^//>/('«. I., Erect, that 
of the fundus oculi as seen by the ophthal- 
moscope, the details of the fundus l)eing 
in their natural position. I., Inverted, 
that obtained l)y mterposing between the 
mirror and observed eye, a high-power lens ; 

it is an aerial image at the focus of the lens 
used. I., Real, that made by the foad- 
ized reflected rays. I., Virtual, that pro- 
duced by the imaginary focus of the rays, 
as, e.g,y behind a mirror. 

Imagina^tion {imago). The picture-mak- 
ing power of the mind. The faculty by 
which one creates mental ideas or pictures 
by means of the data derived from ex- 
perience, ideally revivified, extended, and 
combined in new forms. 

Ima^go. An image. Also, the mature or 
winged stage of insects. 

Im^becile {imbecillus, weak). Feeble in 

Imbecil^ity {imbecillus). Mental weak- 
ness or defect. Similar to that of idiocy, 
but of less degree. 

Imbibe^ (inibtboy to drink). To drink or 
suck in. 

Imbibi^tion (imbibo). The sucking up, or 
capillary absorption, of moisture, liquids, 
or gaseous substances by inorganic, ot by 
dead or torpid organic bodies. 

Im^bricated (imbrexy a roof tile). Dis- 
tinguished by overlapping. Applied to 
the position and arrangement of scales in 
certain squamous diseases of the skin. 

Imita^tion (imitor^ to be alike). A pro- 
duction that is similar to or a copy of 
another object or process. L, Morbid, 
the occurrence of a convulsive or mental 
affection brought about by observing a 
similar affection in another. 

Imme^diate (m, not, metiioy the middle). 
Direct. Without anything intervening. I. 
Contagion, that from a direct source. L 
Union, union by first intention, or without 
suppurative granulation. 

Immed^icable (//i, not, nudicoy to cure). 
That which does not yield to medicine or 
treatment. Incurable. 

Immer^sion (/>i, mergOy to dip). The 
plunging of a Ixxly into a liquid. In medi- 
cine, treatment by a continued bath. I. 
Bath, the liquid employed for the immer- 
sion. I. Battery, a form of battery in 
which, by inclining the cell, the elements 
are immersed in the liquid. L, Objective, 
a microsco]* objective, asually of high 
power, the lower lens of which is im- 
mersed in a drop of water, glycerine or oil, 
placed on the cover glass of the object 
under examination. 

Innmune^. Having the power of immu- 

Immu^nity {immunitasy exem])tion). The 
condition of an organ, or of the body, 
whereby it resists the development of in- 




fectious or morbid processes. The inocu- 
lation of attenuated virus and of chemical 
compounds are examples of methods by 
which I. is gained. It has also been shown 
that inflammatory action is destructive of 
bacterial development. I., Acquired, 
that fiiom a previous attack of the same 
disease or a modilied form, as varioloid. 
I., Natural, the natural resistance of the 
tissues, or system. Immunization may be 
transient or permanent. 

Immuniza^tion. The act or process of 
endowing with immunity. 

Im^munize. To give or acquire immunity. 

Im^pact (/;/, pin-^o^ to drive into). A for- 
cible striking against 

Impact^ed (/«, pingo). Driven against 
and retained, as a wedge. I. Fracture, 
one in which the fragments of bone are 
driven into one another in such a manner 
as to shorten the bone. 

Impalc^ment (//i, /V?/, a pale or picket). 
The perforation of the body or a |>art by a 
rod or stake. 

Impal^udism (m, palusy a marsh). The 
morbid predis|X)sition to malarial diseases 
common to dwellers in marshy regions. 

Im^par (///, not, /^/r, ecjual). Odd or un- 
equal. I., Ganglion, a small ganglion on 
the coccyx. 

Imper'^forate (///, neg.,/V//2/rfl, to pierce). 
Congenital and abnormal closure of an 
opening of the Ixxly, as the anus, vagina, 
etc. See Occlusiin and Obstruction. 

Imperfora^tion (/'//, neg., perforoy to bore 
through). Occlusion, csf)ecially used of 
the Anus, Hymen, Vagina, etc. 

Imper^meable (/;;, not, per, through, mea- 
ttiSf an opening). Not capable of being 

Imper^vious {in, pen'ins, caj>able of pas- 
sage). Not permitting a passage through. 

Impeti^go (I .at.). l*orrigo contagiosa. 
A tenn formerly used to include almost 
every form of pustular inflammatii^n of the 
skin, most of which are now classified with 
other diseases. The following are recc^- 
nized by i'ilbury Fox : I. Contagiosa, 
marked by discreteness of vesicles and 
])u^tules, caused by iiunrulation with morbid 
pus. Ix'sion.'* occur mainly al)out mouth, 
nostrils, chin and occiput. I., Duhling*8, 
dirters from the foregoing in being non- 
infectious. I. Herpetiformis, an inflam- 
matory di.seasc of the skin descril)ed by 
1 lebra, coiisi.sting of suix^rficial pastulcs of 
j. in head si/e, tlcnsely crowded into groups, 
usually circular in shape. Very rare in 
America, and occasional in Europe. 

Implanta^tion (in, planto, to set). The 
act of setting in. Also, the transplantation 
of a tooth from the jaw of one person to 
that of another. Also, the engndting of 
epidermis from the skin of one person upon 
the body of another. I., Hypodermatic, 
the introduction of a medicine in the form 
of a soluble solid under the skin for thera- 
peutic purposes. I., Teratological, a 
foetal monstrosity consisting of an imperfect, 
joined to a perfect foetus. 

Impond'^erable [in, not, ponderabilis, that 
which can be weighed). That which can- 
not be weighed. I. Fluids, an obsolete 
term, formerly applied to light, heat and 

Importa'^tion [in, pcrto,io carry). Trans- 
ference from another locality or foreign 
country. I. of Disease, the carrying of 
the contagion of disease. 

Impos^thume {airoarrifia, standing away 
from). A corrupt form of apostema. An 

Im^potence (in, not, possum, to be able). 
Lack of power, applied especially to male 
incapacity of procreation. 

Impreg^a^tion (in,pregnans, with child). 
The state of toeing pregnant. Fecunda- 
tion. Fertilization. 

Impres^sion (imprimo, to press upon). 
A hollow or depression. Applied to a 
numl)er of such in the body. I., Digital, 
the mark made by finger pressure. 

Impu'^beral (in, inA,puber, ripe). Desti- 
tute of hair on the pubes. Not of adult 

Im^pulse (impcUo, to drive against). Any 
communicated force. Also, the shock and 
reverberation on the chest- walls caused by 
the beating of the heart. Also, a sudden 
six>ntaneous emotion of the mind or in- 
fluence acting upon it. I., Cardiac, the 
systolic beat of the heart occurring at the 
apex, and felt in the fifth intercostiil s])ace. 
I., Morbid, any strong, unnatural im 
pulse, es}>ecially one of an insane charac- 

Impulsion (impdlo). The act of driving 
or ui^ing onwani, either mentally or physi- 

Impur^ity (//;, not, punts, pure or clean). 
Want of purity or cleanliness. In chem- 
istry the condition of containing some sub 
stance other than that desired. .Adultera- 
tion. In medicine, a want of cleamos in 
the .sounds of the heart, but nt t sutVicient 
to cause a murmur. 

In. A Latin pretix .signifying /// or ivithin. 
Also, a particle signifying negtUion. 




-in, or -ine. A suffix added to the names 
of the halogen elements, chlorine, bromine, 
iodine and fluorine. Also, a distinctive 
termination used to distinguish organic 
bases, particularly the class known as al- 
kaloids. It is also loosely applied to cer- 
tain organic radicals. 

Inan'^imate (m, not, antV/y/j, life). Not 
animate. Dead. Without life. 

Inani^tion [tnanioy to make empty). Empti- 
ness of the organs of digestion for want of 
food. Also, wasting of the body from 
starvation or disease. 

Inap'^petence (m, not, appetoy to desire). 
L<^ or want of appetite. 

Inartic^ulate (/;/, not, articuluSy a joint). 
Not jointed or articulated. Also, vocal 
soimds not capable of arrangement into 
syllables, or of l)eing understood. 

Inassim'^ilable (m, not, assimuioy to make 
like). Incapable of assimilation. 

Incandes^cent {incandescoy to l)ecome 
white hot). A term applied to a sul)stance 
that has liecn heated to the degree of emit- 
ting light. I. Electric Light, one con- 
sisting of a film of carbon of high resistance 
enclosed in a vacuous glass glol>e. The 
film emits a white light when the current 
passes through it. 

Incar'cerated. See Hernia. 

Incarcera^tion (//f, carcero^ to imprison). 
The condition of im])nsonment or confine- 
ment of a part. See Hernia. 

Incama'^tion. See Coneeption. 

I nicest [JncestuSy not chaste). Carnal in- 
tercourse between persons of near relation- 

In'^cidence {incido^ to fall). A falling upon. 
The direction in which one body strikes 
another. I., Line of, the path of a ray 
or a projectile. I., Point of, the point 
upon which the ray or projectile is reflected 
or strikes. 

In^cident (inrido). Falling upon. 

Incinera^tion (r/>i^ri*j, ashes). The process 
of heating organic sul>stances in contact 
with the air until all organic matter is 
driven off, and only the mineral ash re- 

Inclosed (i«t-M7j, to cut). Cut. I. Wound, 
one made by a sharp-edged instrument. 

Incis^ion (incido). The act of cutting into 
any tissue of the body. 

Inci-'sive Unndo). Having the quality of 
cutting. Pertaining to the incisor teeth. 
I. Teeth. See Incisor. 

Inci'^sor \incido) . Any cutting instrument. 
L Nerve, the branch of the inferior dental 
nerve lupplying the incisor and canine 

teeth. I. Teeth, the four anterior teeth 
in each jaw. 

Incisu^ra {incidd), A notch. Also, an 

Inclu^sio Fceta^lis. (Lat.) A form of 
foetal parasitism in which liie parasite is 
more or less included and overgrown by 
the tissues of the autosite. 

Inclu^sion {includoy to enclose or shut 
in). The state of being shut in. Also, 
the act of shutting in. 

Incohe^rent [in, not, coharo, to stick 
together). Not connected or coherent. 
Inability to express that sequence of 
words or of ideas necessary to convey 

Incompat'^ible (m, not, compatibilisy en- 
durable). A term used to designate such 
compounds as are incapable of mixture 
without undergoing such chemical or phys- 
ical changes as impair or destroy their 
value. Also, substances physiologically 
antagonistic, and therefore useless to pre- 

Incom^petence (m, not, compatior, to 
suffer togeCAer). Inability to perform 
natural functions. I., Mental, a disorder 
of mind sufficient to produce irresponsi- 
bility. I., Valvular. See Insufficiency. 

Incon'^tinence (in, not, coutifteo, to con- 
tain). Inability to restrain the fa?ces or 
the urine ; involuntary evacuation. Some- 
times used as a synonym of venereal indul- 

Incoordination (m, not, con^ together, 
ordino, order). Not in natural or normal 
order. In pathology, the inability to pro- 
duce voluntary muscular movements in 
proper order or se(]uence. I. of Ocular 
Muscles. See Insufficiency. 

Incorpora^tion (/«, corpus , a body). The 
process of intimately mixing the particles 
of different bodies into a practically homo- 
geneous mass. 

Increma'^tion. See Cremation. 

In^crement {incrementum^ growth). In- 
crease or growth. 

Incrusta^tion [incrusto^ to cover with 
rind). The formation of a crust. Also, 
the formation of a calcareous deposit in 
organic tissue due to senility or disease. 

Incuba'^tion {incubo, to sit on eggs). In 
medicine, the period between the implant- 
ing of the contagion and the development 
of the disease. 

In'^cubator (incubd). A device for the 
artificial hatching of eggs or cultivation of 
microscopic plants. I., Crude's, a copper 
tube made with double walls, between 




which water at the desired temperature 
may be put, and, withdrawn by means of 
pipes and stop-cocks. I., Tamier*8, an 
apparatus for the rearing of premature 
children, consisting of a box with two 
compartments, one containing the child, 
the other, and lower compartment, being 
filled with warm water, so as to keep a 
uniform temperature of 86°-88°. 

In'^cubus. See Nightmare, 

Incunea^tion. See Impaction. 

Incu'^rable (/«, euro, to care for). That 
which cannot be cured or restored to 

In^cus {incuSy an anvil). A small bone 
of the mtemal ear between the malleus 

"land stapes. 

Indenta^tion {in, dens, a tooth). A con- 
dition of being notched or serrated. I. of 
Tongue, the notches on the borders of 
the tongue made by the teeth, and visible 
especially during inflammation of the 

InMex, (Lat.) The first finger. Also, the 
relation or ratio of one part to another, taken 
as a standard. I., Altitudinal, the height 
of a skull multiplied by loo and divided 
by its length. I., Alveolar, the degree of 
prominence of the jaws, measured by the 
basi -alveolar length multiplied by loo and 
divided by the basi-nasal length. When 
the alveolar index is less than 98, the skull 
is orthognathic, when more than 103, 
prognathic, when intermediate mesog- 
nathic. I., Cephalic, the breadth of a 
skull multiplied by 100 and divided by its 
length. When this is below 75, the skull 
is called dolichocephalic, when above 
80, it is called brachy cephalic, between 
these limits, mesaticephalic. I., Nasal, 
the greatest nasal width multiplied by 100, 
and divided by the nasal length. W'hen 
the nasal index exceeds 53, the nose is 
platyrhine, when less than 48, it is said 
to be leptorhine, if between these num- 
bers, mesorhine. I., Orbital, the or- 
bital height multiplied by 100 and divided 
by the orbital width. If the orbital index 
be above 89, it is called megaseme, if 
under 84, microseme, if between, meso- 
seme. I., Thoracic, taken at its widest 
part is 100 times the sagittal, divided by 
the transverse measurement. 

In'^dian. Pertaining to India, the West 
Indies, or to the al>original Americans. 
I. Black-root, the root of Pterocaulon 

pycnostachium. Has reputed alterative 
properties. Dose of fld. extract n^xv- 
XXX. Unof. I. Com. See Zea Mays. 


I. Physic, American Ipecacuanha, the 
bark of the root of Gillenia trifoliata. 
A mild emetic and cathartic. Dose of fid. 
ext. lt\^x-xl. Unof. I. Turnip. See 
Dragon Hoot, 

Ind^ia-rub^ber. The prepared concrete 
juice obtained mainly from an Indian tree, 
Ficus elasticus, and a South American 
tree, Siphonia elastica. It is valuable 
chiefiy for its elasticity and its insolubility 
in water. It is difiicultly soluble in oil of 
turpentine, and highly soluble in carbon 
disulphide. Also, called Caoutchouc. 

Ind^ican. A glucoside forming the basis 
of indigo. May be obtained ixova the leaf 
in the form of a yellowish -brown syrup, 
having an acid reaction. 

Indig'^enous (indu, in, gigno, to be bom). 
Native. Originating or belonging to a cer- 
tain locality or country. 

Indigest^ion {in, digesto, to dissolve). 
Same as Dyspepsia. 

Indig^ta'^tion (in, digitus, a finger). A 
term applied to the displacement of a part 
of the intestine by intussusception. 

In^digo. A blue pigment formed during 
the fermentation of Indigofera anil, I. 
tinctoria and other species. It is insoluble 
in alcohol or water, but freely soluble in 
strong sulphuric acid. Used mainly in the 
arts as a dye-stufi*. Chemically, it is a 
mixture of several principles, the chief 
being a blue coloring matter, indigotin. 
Therapeutically, it is an irritant to the 
mucous membrane of the alimentary tract, 
producing intense nausea. It has been 
used advantageously in epilepsy, chorea 
and convulsions, in doses varying from 
z ij- 5 ij daily. Unof. I. -Carmine Test 
tor Sugar. Put in 30 minims of water 
one pellet indigo-camiine and sodium car- 
bonate; heat gently to solution; add one 
drop of urine and Koil quietly. A change 
to red or yellow indicates sugar. 

In^digogen. See Vroxanthin. 

Indirect^ (in, dingo, to l)e in a straight 
hne). Not direct. I. Vision, that per- 
ception of an object in which the image 
falls on some other spot than the macula. 
I. Division of Cells. See Karyo- 

Indisposi^tion (in, dispono,Xo l)e out of 
place). Any slight illness or disturliance 
of the functions of the Ixxiy. 

Indissoluble. See Insoluble. 

In^dol. A product of intestinal putrefac- 
tion ; formed, also, when ])rotcids are heated 
with alkalies or by superheating with water 
to 200° C. 




InMolent {in, no?. J:'r.\ :o ittl pair . 

Sluggish. Wiihout pain ; *pt':i-.-d :o tl- 
ccr>. tumors, f.W 

Induced' {inJu.w to lead in:c . Made cr 
produced I y the ajjency of any iaeaii5>. I. 
Current. See Cw-n:/. 

Indue 'tion yh:J»t.\ ». The e<35r'I:jS:in«a! 
of an al^irjct bw or prcwsiiK'-r: ^t iDejLn> 
of sj>ecihc or |\inicu'-ar ii;u??ra:i:c*Sw I. 
Balance, in |>hy>)Ci;. ar. insinira-a: i:s<v3 
Uvr the detcviion i^" cur«:its icowexk lo 
atViHTt the palvanometcT. I. Current. S«« 
Currz-Kf. I. of L.abor, ihe iriapisg cq 
of laU^r by artiticial meai& 

Inducto'rium. A ma4rnrto-iT>iar:iai ap- 
paratus fi>r |.^\'sio\^pcal p-rrvts^SL 

In'durated ^:«:j-,-.\ to hariir: . Hiri- 
enetl. I. Bubo, a hari ;».-r: of 
the hmj^iic g'ax>d>. u«iil':y o:' <}";Vrj..;:ic 

Indura'tion :v.:i-.'. T:>e Vurisr-:::^ ci 
a tissue w i:bo.:T a'ur-:^.-^. cf scrorcxre. I.. 
Brown, a hardia.-ii; i'C :uaij r:>s.;e mnh 
accurau'.-lu^n nf '.•«:i;'.r>;r.*jiry rsinsr. I. 
of Chancre, a h.-j->: r^.xi ;:".?, cc a ri>l:ke 
rini:. aVou: :>ie Eiar,::^ c-i" a i]iir>cnt or 
5\*:>hi':*.-c u\tr 

Inehria lion ;■:-•.•-.>. :.*^ rajie dr--k 
The c^"Ov'.::\T. of;fs?v. 

Iner'tia «?, r>.<. ---:•. ^^K.1■ S-.;j^.5.!i- 
De5& Iri v»^>s..^ik. t*!!? ir.i:'-/,:":y ^i ~^~fr 
lo chir^t :> c:o ;..::■. c eA^e^-c :t =>fAr.5 

« ■ ■ 

of ar. c\::rr.:.'. f.c.-^. 1- iTC'.ys.'S*.-^. :-- 
aj'.:\-:;y of :::-.v crcir. vX f-r>.tKt of fhe 
S.-».:y I.. Uterine. :rr? fj^i'-rf cc i^^^- 
psr.T r5i> of -::r.T»; r.r.trir::?:-^^ ;:: "jiii.x 
I , Intestir.Al. :.--;.^;r cf :-::Sl:::.1 or:^-ir, 
cr pcr;<Lil» I. cf Drug^ ^:k c-f 
p:»-.r .c >i.:3f. fr-rr. zrJiryrc .:-jL':r«, !.-» 

'Tl~~l" "■- ■- . » - >• "i- "." T ""i" VO *. "V"^ ""i" "^-- 

I:: extre niis :r. a.:, r-.r^.—^z .t^i . \ 


-< »- 


Iri :i-ry -.-t.-. s. _"* j' ..-. 
.1 ■:■•'■ I. Diseases cf. :"i.:s,' :j 

:^r: .:■:-■----? I . Overlaying cf. 
- :" i- Li. : - r— 7 I Sheli-r. a 

Tf ""t '-J T :r.:-'T itt i -rir ii z, rrr^'.tTZJLt 

In' iaicl rV-^r '-:.'. ic- iUI in i. An otstnic- 
ooc cc p::^. In poobology, an organ or 
pan fjjed ic diA£33t>co vhh a coa^om. 

Infarc'tion rv-j*-.-.-^ The pHi^ng or 
CKxring cc a vessel br an einlR-4u«; the 
cia2ci£< cc fcxjsvas^^i i^cod in the tissues 
in Kal»;C:sa. 

Infect' :"ki.-.V. t:- p:;: in,cr cccrupc",. To 
caasaiirjc^e cr tra-^anit the speaftc virus 
cr i:er=i> cc ia-^ase. 

Infec'tion :««.-:.."» Trie ccimnimkatjoo 
of ii>i-ase-|:eni» cr vires, ry any means, 
d-Trr: cr iaiincrL 

Infec'taons >)f-:'.. Hsrir;^ the quality 
cc" nansEinng disiase cr ihe agents that 
ca=st 31. ' ^ 

Infecuad'ity ■'«. tkC/' .■K'siat.-, fruxtfiilj. 
5csr~iTy, Karri-nr^ss. 

Infe nor :o=rv. vC" .-«->•«.•. IcwV Lower. 

In£b<uIa't)on :%,Tru2^, a clas^^ . An 
coerii6:r. JcrrKr>r «n;.j.-yTe-i lo prevent 
l'^e rscrar:»:c. cc ibt rreraoe over the 

i*. .>cc^.s:^i j.f passs^ a riaj: 'iirjogh 
occv>i:e fipe* .c u>e rriTo.-*. In a simi- 
lar n^ar.r-ir a r.r;i: -b-** passed thrjc^ni the 
'.a:*ia cc i:w i\tj:.rA in ccitr ::• iascnt the 
chascrry of K=.-i«w 

In£l "trite -ir. Yz , x".>. -. tr srun . To 
vvce in:." ir.f :rj:frscn:al 5oar« cc a'issie; 
iJCs :!■« sn':>jCiDr* *.>.-> ■::.iiin^ pissei 

In£!tra*tioa r, Fr . e">-.'- / Pae ab- 
DrcTStl i.:r^.:io.c :c any rnid ira wiih- 
ci:r. id:.' an crpijn cc r^ssae, joectr:^ it 
rsi-cbtn-irily s: a^ :c i:sr*cy ii* fnr-cDco. 
I. of Bone, a r-:i:rr^.£r in'lTra^.o ci 
S»;, cccssc-a: «:-.>):: :c' saarer :bn i*- 
c:.r>r* T>.i-vmL, cc cj« :c ^ray .-azirtlloci 
=it::;r. I.. Calcareocs. ii«7».siis cc'llnM 
cc ct'ifT cj.':L::ni SAJ:s '■nrS— any ti>?53e 
CC --be :vx:y I.. C«IhLJLr. irzna-y 
e\..'.-,i:'.-c :-:.* a tiiaoe. mnx-jy^nc «^:::te 
c:rn.:>:*is I., Fatty, :'*< e>i<e2p:f of 
C..1 cc :::: jc'-cv"*^-;^ -- ^ — :ers.-c cC a 
c^'.'. I . Plastic inii Cf a charKter'.'Cl r>;» '.^y-rijl r*:**^ Bay de- 
"«f*'.x. I., Sa-^gr.iiseous. an eitravas^ 
13 :c. :c iv.xxi At <T:>r3>.-tfcs. I.. Tu- 
bcrcuJOwS. a .vc-MrT-.-* cc mScr..":=Jcc5 

lnr.r.::e Distance ^ ;f-m *rs cccks fc* 
1: D. Cf -.Tin. •^" .>-r , t" f " :cr t riTS. A-*>so- 
'._:? .viri i .<r:. .■>.■«:> ~»,c r\.s. 're:, rc*.Ti- 
cil'v. "i^- r-.rz. L- c.:- vr. ^r i*<t a^ay 
an s: c:«rji .-. : r.v. ir.-i ,-il.:-i 

In^rs rrT'-ni^'. zi,x scztng, or 

In*rt= arr » t -^x. . A x 




are maintained during the period of treat- 

Infirxn-'ity (in/imtus). Weakness. Feeble- 
ness due to disease or senility. 

Inflame'^ {inflammoy to set on fire). To 
undergo infiammation. To become unduly 
heated and tui^d with blood, owing to a 
morbid condition. 

Inflamma^tion {inflammo). A condi- 
tion of nutritive distiui)ance character- 
ized by hypencmia, with proliferation of 
the cells of a tissue or organ, and attended 
by one or more of the symptoms of 
pain, heat, swelling, discoloration and 
disordered function. I., Adhesive, a 
synonym of Healing by , First Intention, 
I., Aplastic, and I., Plastic. See 

Inflam'^matory {inflatfimo). Pertaining 
to inflammation. I. Exudation, the fluid 
exuded from an inflamed part. I. Focus, 
the central or culminating spot of an in- 
flamed part, or that at which suppuration 
begins. I. Fungoid Neoplasm. See 
Mycosis. I. Infiltration, the exudation 
escaping into the interstices of an inflamed 
tissue and not removed by the l}'mphat- 
ics. I. Zone, the area of gangrenous 
formation bounded by the line of demarca- 
tion Ix^twecn dead and living tissue. Also 
the line of demarcation. 

Infla^tion \^inJlo^ to puff up). Distention 
with air. In surgery, distention of the 
bowels with air to relieve obstruction ; or 
of the lungs for artificial respiration; or 
of the Eustachian tube for the purpose of 

Influen'^za (Lat., an influence [thought 
to l)e due to the stars]). A contagious, 
epidemic, inflammatory affection of the 
mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, 
accom{)anie(l by a muco-purulcnt dischaige. 
fever, and prostration. Popularly called 
by its Frencli name, la gf'ippe- 

In'^flux [in^Jluo^ to flow). An inflow. The 
act of flowing in. 

Infra- (infni^ l)eneath). A I^tin prefix 
meaning heueath. 

Infra-ax^illary (infra, axilla^ the arm- 
pit). Kelow the arm-pit. 

Infraclavic'ular (infra ^ cUnncula^ the 
collar-lxme). Below the collar-lx)ne. 

Infracost^al (//(/>-«, ^<v/«, the ril>s). Below 
the ril)s. 

Infrac^tion (in, fraction 1 )reaking). Incom- 
plete fracture of a l)on«». Also, an inden- 
tation or driving inward. 

Inframax'^illary (infra ^ maxillium^ the 
jaw). Below or under the jaw. 

Infra-orb^ital (infra, orbita, the orbit). 
Beneath or below the orbit. I. Artery, 
the branch of the internal maxillary artery 
traversing the infra-orbital canal. I . Canal, 
the canal in the superior maxillary bone 
that transmits the infra-orbital vessels and 
nerves. I. Foramen, the ai)erture in 
the superior maxillary bone through which 
the infra-orbital artery passes. I. Groove, 
the groove leading to the infra-orbital 
canal. I. Nerve, the name of the supe- 
rior maxillary nerve at its entrance to the 
infra-orbital canal. 

Infrascap^ular (infra, scapula, the shoul- 
der-blade). Below the shoulder-blade. 

Infraspina^tus. See Muscle, 

Infrastemal (infra, sternum, the breast 
bone). Beneath the sternum. I. Depres- 
sion, the depression of the ensiform car- 
tilage, commonly called the pit of the 

Infundib^uliform (infundibulum, a fun- 
iit[,formay a form). Funnel-shaped. I. 
Fascia, the funnel-shaped membranous 
layer that invests the spermatic cord. 

Infundib^ulum (infundo, to pour into). 
A funnel. I. of Brain, a funnel-shaped 
mass of gray matter attached to the pitui- 
tary gland. I. of Cochlea, a small cavity 
at the end of the modiolus. I. of Heart, 
the arterial cone from which the pulmonary 
artery arises. 

Infu^sion. See Infusum, 

Infuso^ria (infusum, an infusion). A class 
of microscopic, ciliated organi>ms belong- 
ing to the order of Protozca. They repro- 
duce by fission and budding, and also by 
eggs or germs. 

Infu^sum (Lat.). An infusion. In phar- 
macy, a preparation made by treating a 
vegetable sul)stance with hot or with cold 
water without boiling. Infusions should, 
in the absence of S]X!cific directions, con- 
tain I part of the sul)stance to I o of water. 
'ITiere are 5 oflicial infusa. 

Inges^ta (in;^ero, to carry into). Sub- 
stances introduced into the Ixxly, eNi>ecially 
for puqx)ses of alimentation. 

Inges^tion (in^ero). The introduction of 
food or nutrition into the mouth or stomach. 

In^gluvin. A preparation obtained from 
the gizzard of the fowl, used as a sul>sti- 
tute for pepsin and j)ancreatin. Wry effi- 
cient in the vomitiug of pregnancy. Dose 
gr. XX. 

Ingras^sias, Processes, or Wings of. 
The lesser wings of the sphenoid Ijone. 

Ingraves^cent (in^ravcsco, to Ixicome 
heavy). Increasing in weight or in se- 




werity. I. Apoplexy, probably doe to 
tlowly increasing cereLral henx>rrhage. 

Ini^avida^tion. See Imprefptation, 

Ingre^dient (in/^redioryXo iAep into). Any 
part that entcn* into the ibrmation of a 

In -growing Nail. .Sec Onychogryphosis, 

In^g^inal iinj^uin^ the groin). Pertaining 
Xti the grr^n. I. Canal, the canal trans- 
mitting the spermatic cord in the male, 
ami the rrnind ligament in the female. It 
is situated (nrallel to and just above Pou- 
part's ligament. I. Glands, the super- 
ficial aiid the deep glands of the groin. I. 
Hernia. See Hernia. 

Inguino-Abdom^inal. Pertaining con- 
jointly to the groin and alxlomen. 

Inhala^tion {tnhaloy to draw in). The 
in-lireathing of air or other vapor. I. 
Diseases, those due to the inspiration of 
air containing dust or any finely divided 
matter. See Grinders' Disease. I. of 
Medicines, the introduction into the air- 
i)assag(*.H or lungs of medicinal substances, 
m the form of vajxjr or fine spray. 

Inhale^ ijnhalo). To inspire or draw air 
or other vajwr into the lungs. 

Inha^ler (inAn/o). An iastrument for ap- 
plying, or for inhaling the va{x>r of aUquid 
mr<licini'. , 

Inher^ited (inAtcreOf to cleave to). De- 
rived from an ancestor. I. Disease, a 
dis<> tiiat has been transmitted to a child 
by its (Mircnt. 

Inhib'^it (i^AiSeo, to check). To check, 
restrain, or suppress. 

Inhibi'^tion (inAidro). The act of check- 
ing, restraining or sui)pressing. Inhibitory 
nerves jind centers, arc those intermediating 
a nKxlilication, stop|)agc or su])pre$sion of 
n motor or secretory act already in pro- 
gress. I., Vasomotor, an influence ex- 
erted on the contractile walls of the blood 
vessel.s, that causes their dilatation by a 
(liuiiiiiition of their tone. I., Voluntary, 
the cheeking or tem|)orary restraint of a 
rellex by force of will. 

Inhib'itory (///// /M>). Having the power 
to ri'strain or hold in check. I. Center 
of Setschenow, a cerebral center in the 
optic loi)es of the i»rain of the fog, the 
stimulation of which checks reflexes. I. 
Nerves of the Heart, those of the vagus 
supplied by the canlio-inhibitory center, 
through the spinal access<.^r)' nerve. I. 
Nerves of Respiration, certain afferent 
tiU'ri in the lar>*ngeal branches of the 
vagus nene, that exert an inhibitory action 
on the inspinitory act of respiration. 

Inhuma^tion (inkumo, to pat in the 
ground). Burial of the dead in the 

In^ial {ntov, the occiput). Pertaining to 
the inion. The posterior aspect of the 

Inienceph^alus (tvtov, eyxe^aAov, brain). 
A class of exencephalic monstrosities, the 
brain protruding through an occipital fis- 

In'^ion (tvinv). The external protuberance 
of the occipital bone. 

Ini'^tial (in, eo^ to go). Beginning or 
commencing. I. Sclerosis, the primary 
induration of a hard chancre. I. Stage 
of Labor. See Labor ^ Stages of. 

Inject'^ (tn,jacio, to throw). The introduc- 
tion of a liquid into any cavity of the body, 
natural or artificial, by means of a syringe 
or similar instrument In pathology, a 
condition of distention of the capillaries 
with blood. 

Injec^tion (/«, jacio). Aqueous or other 
solutions thrown into the vessels, beneath 
the skin or into any cavity of the body. 
I., Anatomical, filling the vessels of a 
cadaver or of an organ with preservative 
or coagulating solutions, for purposes of 
dissection, etc. I., Coagulating, injection 
of coagulating solutions into the cavity of 
an aneurism. I., Hypodermatic, by a 
syringe in the tissue beneath the skin. I., 
Nutrient, injection of nutritive fluids into 
the rectum or other cavity. I., Opaque 
Naked-eye, for anatomical or microsco- 
pical purposes, made of plaster-of- Paris, 
tallow, vermilion and gelatine, acetate of 
lead and bichromate of potash (yellow in- 
jection), or acetate of lead and carbonate 
of soda (white). I., Transparent Micro- 
scopic, made with carmine for red, ferro- 
cyanide of potassium for blue, chromate of 
potash for yellow, etc. 

In^jury (m, not, jus^ a right). Any dam- 
age or narm to the body or any of its 

In'^let of the PeKvis. The heart-shaped 
space within the brim of the pelvis. 

Innervation (m, nervus). 'Fhe discharge 
of nervous impulse from a ganglionic 
center. The manifestation of nervous 

Innom^inate (m, without, nomeHt a 
name). A term applied to several parts 
of the body to which no other definite 
name has been given. I. Artery. See 
Artery. I. Bone, the irregular-shaped 
iKtne forming the sides and anterior wall 
of the pelvic cavity. 




Innutri^tion (in, nu/rio, to nourish). 
Want of nutrition or nourishment. 

Inocula^tion [inoculo^ to engraft). The 
introduction into the circulation of the 
virus of infectious diseases, or of certain 
medicinal agents. I., Jennerian, vacci- 
nation, or the I. of cowpox virus. I. of 
Smallpox, inoculation with the contagium 
of smallpox to produce a mild tyi)e of the 
disease. I., Preventive, inoculation of 
some virus to act as a preventive of a more 
serious disease or ty])e of the same disease. 

Pnogen (iq [gen. /w)f], fiber, yewau, to 
produce). A name given to a hypothetical 
substance held to occur in muscular tissue, 
and to be decomposed, during contraction, 
into carbon dioxide, sarcolactic acid, and 
myosin. Because of this behavior it is 
considered the energy-producing substance 
of muscle. 

Inorgan^ic (/n, arganum^ an instrument). 
A term applied to a body or a sul)stance 
that [X>sscsses none of the possibilities of 
development, growth or life. I. Constitu- 
ents. See Constituents, 

Inoscula^tion (m, osculo^ to kiss). The 
Joining, at their mouths, of the branches of 
blood vessels, especially the extremities of 
arteries with the origins of veins. 

Inosin^ic Ac^id. An ammonia derivative 
from muscle ; of unknown constitution. 

I^nosit. See Sugar, 

In^quest (//i, quiero^ to ask). A judicial 
inr|uiry. I., Coroner's, an inquiry con- 
cerning the cause of the death of one who 
has died l;y violence or in some other un- 
known way. 

Inquisi^tion (in, qu<cro). The inrjuiry or 
hearing liefore a jury or commission con- 
cerning the sanity or lunacy of a criminal 
or ajwrson charged with crime. 

Insaliva^tion (/;/,M/m7, the spittle). The 
mixture of the food with saliva during 

Insane^ (/;/, not, jf7/i«j, sound). Deranged 
or diseiiscd in mind. I. Ear. See ILrma- 
toma Auris, 

Insan^ity (/;/, Stinus). A derangement or 
aiinormal condition of one or more of the 
mental faculties, without loss of volition or 
consciou'^ncss, arising from causes other 
than l^xlily disease. I., Acquired, that 
arising after a long period of life of mental 
integrity. I., Alcoholic, that induced l>y 
alcoholic excess, usually a result of he- 
rirditary tendencies. I., Communicated, 
that transnutted by intercourse with an in- 
sane person. I., Epidemic, a form occa- 
sionally manifested among a number of 

people in common association, as \n con- 
vents or schools. I., Febrile, a maniacal 
form, occasionally resulting from acute in- 
flammation, fever, or from similar cause. 
I., Hereditary, that acquired by virtue of 
hereditary weakness or taint, and not in- 
duced by other apparent causes. I., Idea- 
tional, a term applied to any form in which 
there is marked perversion of the reasoning 
powers. I'., Impulsive, a form in which 
the patient possesses an uncontrollable de- 
sire to commit acts of violence. I., Moral, 
a form marked by perversk)n and depravity 
of the moral sense, without impairment of 
the reasoning and intellectual faculties. I. 
of Pregnancy, a form occurring during 
pregnancy, characterized by melancholia, 
suicidal intent, and abhorrence of friends 
and relatives. I., Primary, a form, often 
congenital, that arises with the develo]> 
ment of the body. It may also proceed 
from injury or disease of the brain in early 
life. I., Puerperal, a term sometimes 
applied to the delirium of childbirth, but 
more properly to the mania occurring after 
delivery. I. Simultaneous, when two 
or more persons hereditarily inclined be- 
come aflected at the same time. I., Voli- 
tional, such forms as are marked by de- 
rangement of the will. 

Insa^tiable Appetite. See Bulimia. 

Insectiv^ora (insectum^ an insect, voro^ 
to devour). An order of plantigrade ani- 
mals belonging to the mammalia, 

In^sect PowMer. The powdered flowers 
of several species of Pyrethrum or •* bu- 
hach," an insecticide in common In 
the United States the flowers of P. cinera- 
folium are extensively cultivated for this 

Insemina^tion Unsemino, to plant seed), 
llie planting of seed. The introduction 
of semen. 

Insens^ible (i//, not, scjitioy to feel). With- 
out the sense of feeling. Incapable of 
being perceived or recognized by the 

Inser^tion (ins fro, to set in). The act of 
setting or placing in ; or, that which is set 
in. I. Velamentous, the insertion uf 
the margin of the umbilical cord upon the 

Insid^ious (insiditTy an ambush), l^eceit- 
ful. Hidden from external view. I, 
Disease, one that shows no apparent 

In si'^tu (m, situ, position). A Latin 
phrase meaning in a given or natural 





i« til' -rui ■'til'.- a i. ijr^Ji'.i\ iti\ .: '.r-ja; 
lU'. :i *y : '^aus' '.•' 'ii>*::U.-- "jri.-'.rojr.'- 
ji; ^.laruia'.v . fa- uiuii^' u* ;ira-i:i:ij. o 
bUi^-'-uiiiL*..^ i'\ •rxpU'^ui'. ic t:i'. Mi''- 

Inbonj'nui </.. H'.j; , ^ommt. . -• r; . 

Wan? of >lc«.| Jiia 'iliiy H. -jt*:!.. 
Inbpec'tion (k.::::h . l :'^ii'.n'^im^- .. Il 

iiicUi' iiii . tij' i-.\aunijid,l.i'ji o: lii*. laXI} . ur 

o! all) iMf «^I r. 
In^pira^tiun ■^;. /•"( i« upratii- .. '!"ua: 

\u^\ ii oi tiji i't4.-a*i . 
Inbpib^batc •/■■/•■.. i«. tiiijK»ri. ;. Iv 

iiiiir.i riii'.K i>} «\a}rra'.jui 'r '.ly aiJMi7>- 

tiuii ol 'lit ii>jiii' iiii-:i.-iir Liiiii. 
Inbtaura^'tioii ". ' .i^'f.'-.i .. a r*:i:in\a'.. 

'Jlii lii-»' a;»;>:a'.iii'.». o' fe jjiiy^iurjjji'-iu 


In^btcp tfi .(i.'f\ *ii»- '^^rr. 'jf t:i». I'jy*. .. 

J 111 ai'. !i '->' ;li«- l<Ai'. 
Inbtill»'tio!i ■ /- ' . ! , lo liu' i'. 1 rn- 

liitii . 1 III y^.-.f .!jj' *)\ b iriiii'j ;Uit.:'.,fK^ 

In^btiiict , /I './/•//' •'. li!i;>« ! , Aij 1!.- 

h«ii'.«'l ;.;i!'j'i. Mirn. N U'»;. .V/'..;i'»:<l w r.t a 

1 1 .i.v» I'.;' ' '^.'.' «-,; ■•■• ..■ '.o ' .i'.iv UTiO vn'.':!. 

In^btiluU .// /•/.*" I.'. ..<"'. I ;. . A -.'.al*:- 

llii r,| ifi i,i <,i ;i.».-. ."■. *<^. ;:»|V *! -ll-'l- 

hi> 'i' t«ji !'n 'a'.' "i" '.1 '»• «l: vt'iiiia*i'.»ri of 
]ii.«.' ;■• i of M#;'ji'.jnc. ••i«. •■>p]a- 

II ii'«!. </i ;ji. .•i:/j'' y ';f I'.' lav\ ^ of ih*: 
IV I' i.« • •/! i!.<'!i'i'.i , |/.ii!j*/'i*/;M' ;;! j^'fjy-i- 
«j'«.L'_v ' ?.' •! :y'iii<lMiJ<K ;i!i a •V'l'MiVJli of 

ltl^^|| ijiijr ijt '///•//,/.., ii; bjiil'j). Any 
iii< • ii..iii> .i| !•••'! 'ii <!<-, i<i- iir,<<l in o(^ 'ra- 
il* II • -I i •< .•! tir III 

lijMuHi'i II ii« y '///, ■////, iifi'l<j, f'lii'i, to 
lii<'-< li.< .iii.K ily I'l noun. I :i< lion. I. 

lit Mii:>i l( h, Ai live, :i |.)i< n'ini< ii'in of a 
nii< • l< -ft it^' oil l>^<i'ii ni<'i«° jouiIn wlirn 
ilii |i .ill MM I \\liiili il |r.l^M^ ai<- s<i 
I li.ii. ■• •! il I .iniml iiiiiii.Kl tii(i\«']y 
•III', liiiiln I ill. Ill III llii- 4 -Il III I .( till- ■■linit 

• ill Ii ■ III 111 w III! 1 1 il I ■( •.'iii^ In |i( :ii I i\ r. 
1 ill Mum Ifh, I'ashlvr, llii- atialn^Mic 

• I ili> |lii iK'iiii ii.i III .iiiiM 1 III many 
l>iiiiiii| iiiti ill.-, vOiiiiliy iiniliiiii (if lli«' 
I III I I'll « > iili •! In-Ill (In |M '-Miiiii III (lie 

}• IkI . 1 1 II mil • It l>i III;- liMi sjiiilt III .11 I 

iitiM- I >ii> Il > III iiiii liiiii I n 1. Ill llir Octl- 

lill MllMtU.t, X^ • ,ll< III >^ III |l.llt-MS III till' 

• lull . hi liliili il< { Il I -^ ii .siil(|iip_ ill ^llllll|^ 
mil oilii iiKi-M, i|l|li>|i|il, ./. 1. 1)1 t))r 

i'lllitla* Vfllvc'tt, IUI|i«||i-tt lUlMlIt*! |K-| 

littiiu^li i«i;(it^ila(l«iii. 

Insnfi&a'tiar lOc. suihi.. u pa£ .. 

L'jowm: c: an- nz}«:P dmdec aiDsanct: 
uuo: L acriac-. o: inu i. carinr. 
It Buffiator .v.. luif: . A sniali msmi- 
xutm' vs Liiowm; nut ijowdrr? int!>& cavhr 
or m i. sunac*. jiisc our icr Liowiuf; aiir 

mi( tiK UJlX^i. 

Ir siilfc A\.. 11. aDaiamy, tiit ismnd 
o: IveL. 

Ir'suisr .niruui, ai i^iaiidi. Isoioied m 
coijdi'.icsi. aisc. pcrtamiu^ tr tfat laiaDc of 
Kt:L I. ScleroBib, cr diaseminaird ficle- 
rusi — scatii^rtL iniCL- o: sclen3Sb> it the 
DnuL aiic core. J: i- ralied j. -<>%««* m 
r*ui///.v d.^.cm.n^: r^v ihtr French, and 
muni'jit &L:i'jrusi> m tht- Cfjrmaua. lu 
etiLiiMg} It oLtoJUTt Tnt SMninnms \-ary 
a'--urdiiit: I: Hit iic^siuui of iht isjeif-; 
>ijiur a-raiir:fnii»_'ii:?. t leri:} tremor, parc^ 
hiT 'JT uaniivsUs trit-Liiaupci*. v. ., art- the 
u\'.*<' 'joniniitt- Tilt iird^ioais. ih jrrave, 
axil treatnifn: of Iitiit ax'ail. 

iD'siUate .K:u,a. Ic isulal^ or separate 
frun. surr.iuiidiiiijr.. Iij tJectricin\ lo sor- 
r.»;:iid a j-jiiuuc-or wiih t noii -conducting 
hu:»s'.a:ic,f '.n wiih one having an ciceed- 
in^riy ijipi re.sis*^ii:*t:. 

In 'suit .;'»;. ujior.. J.7.V. , lo le^>V The 
l**r;::u:^i:ii: ■.•f a ]»arcixysm or of an attack 
c»f i. d!-»-.'a>r. I., Apoplectic, an apo- 
pi*;'_"*.it >trouf . 

In'te^al .im-.j-.'r^ wholeV Entire. Es- 

Inlcg'rity •.'nU--r\. WTioleness. En- 
tir»-ry. Alv.i, vir^nnJly. 

Integ'ument ./>;, ujicin. A-;'.\ to coverV A 
covirinj;. e-^pncially the skin. In tiotany, 
the (.ii\«.-l« ■[>«: MUTouniling the ovule of 
j^lianfm^aiTKiu- pjaiit<i. 

In'tellect {Inh-r, Utwccn, .>,'.% to chooscV 
'Jhe mind c»r rea.'^ininj; jiower. I., De- 
ranged. >x-c In anity. 

Intel''ligencc \inti:l,'.fu.-^ a pcrccixingV 
'! Iji- un<lf-r«t:ni«liiig that comes from the 
jH rccption of «jualiiie-« and attributes of the 
ol»j*'(tiM.- World and manife-ilcd in the pur- 
|M).sivc cmplnymint t»f means lo attain an 

Intem^perance (/;;, not, tcmperantia, mild- 
ness). Want of miKleration. ImnKxh-rate 
imiul^'i-iur, I'spt'cially with reference to 
aiinliolic Ii«|U()rs. 

Intcn'sity yiut-usm^ strong). Concentra- 
imn Ky{ rnir^jy '>r activity. Also, a high 
ili^nr of cm rg)" or i^)Wfr. I., Specific. 
Sir .s>, .///, . 

Iiiten'sive \Jfitiusui\. Increased in force 
or em igy. Strengthening or increasing 
the si'xuul passions. 




Inten^tion. See Healing. 

Inter- {inter ^ between). A Latin prefix 
signifying between. 

Interartic^ular {intery ariiculus, a joint). 
Situated between joints. I. Fibro-carti- 
lage, the flattened cartilaginous plates, ir- 
regular in shape, between the articular 
cartilages of certain joints. 

Interca^dence (inter^ cado^ to fall). The 
irregular beating of the pulse that seems 
occasionally to have an additional beat 
between normal pulsations. 

Inter^calary {inter ^ calo, to insert). Placed 
or inserted between. I. Growth, a term 
applied to growths of new material inter- 
stitially deposited. 

Intercellular {inter^ celluhy a small cell). 
Among or between cells. 

Intercen^tral (intery centrum^ a center). 
Between centers. 

InterciPium. See G lobelia. 

Interclavic^ular (inter, clai'icula, the col- 
lar-bone). Between the clavicles. 

Intercolum^nar. See Fascia. 

Intercon'^dylar, or 

Intercon^dyloid (inter^ Kovdv^jog, a knob). 
Between condyles. I. Eminence, the 
si)ine or knob separating the two con- 
dylar portions of the tibia. I. Fossa, the 
notch between the condyles of the femur. 
I. Line, a transverse line separating the 
popliteal and patellar fossx. I. Notch. 
Same as /. Fossa. 

Intercos^tal (inter, costa^ a rib). The 
space between ril)s. I. Arteries, the 
aortic arteries of the intercostal spaces. 
I. Muscles. See Muscles. I. Nerves, 
the anterior i)arts of the dorso-spinal nerves. 

Intercosto-hu'meral (inter, costa, hume- 
rus, the lx)ne of the up{)er arm). Pertaining 
to the arm and the space between the 

In^tercourse (intercursus, commerce). 
Communication. I., Carnal, sexual com- 

Intercur^rcnt [inter, curro, to run). Oc- 
curring or taking place between. I. Dis- 
ease, a torm kx)scly applied to diseases 
occurring six>radically during a period of 
prevailing endemic or epidemic diseases. 
Als<j used of a disease arising or progress- 
ing during the existence of another dis- 
ease in the same |x*rson. 

Interdenf'al (inter, dens, a tooth). Be- 
tween the teeth. I. Splint, a splint used 
ill fracture of the jaw, consisting of a me- 
tallic frame at the neck of the teeth, held 
by wire sutures ])nssing l)etween the teeth. 

Interdig^ital (inier^ digitus, a finger). 

Between fingers. I. Membrane, the 
skin between the toes of palmate-footed 
animals. I. Space, that between adja- 
cent fingers. 

Interdigita^tion (inter, digitus). The 
locking or dovetailing of similar parts, as 
the fingers of one hand with those of the 
other ; or of the ends of the obliquus ex- 
ternus muscle with those of the serratus 
Magnus. ^ 

Interfascic^ular (inter, fasciculus, a bun- 
dle). Situated between fasciculi. 

Interfer^ence (inter, and ferio, to strike). 
Interposition. I. of Light, the mutual 
neutralization of waves of light, as shown 
in Newton's rings, when the crest of one 
wave falls upon the trough of another. I. 
of Sound, the neutralization of two sound 
waves, one by the other. 

Interlob^ular (inter, lobus, a lobe). Be- 
tween lobes or lobules. 

Intermax^illary (inter, maxilla, the jaw- 
bone). Between the maxillary bones. I. 
Bone, a small bone between the superior 
maxillary bones of the foetus that re- 
ceives the incisors. It also occurs in most 

Interme^diate (inter, medio, the middle). 
Situated between. 

Intermenin'^geal (inter, fir^viy^, the mem- 
brane enclosing the brain). Between 
the dura mater and the arachnoid; or, 
between the latter and the pia mater. I. 
Haemorrhage, a haemorrhage between 
the meninges. 

Internment (in, terra, the earth). The 
burial of the Ixxly. 

Intermetacar^pal (inter, metacarpus). 
Between metacarpal lx>nes. 

Intermetatar^sal (inter, metatarsus). 
Between metatarsal bones. 

Intermis^sion (intermissis, a breaking-off ). 
'ITie interval l>etween the paroxy.sms of a 
fever. Also, an intcnal when the pulse 
fails to beat in rhythmic time. 

Intermit^tent (inter, mitto, to send or oc- 
cur). Occuring at intervals. I. Fever. 
See Fe7fcr. I. Pulse, a pulsation marked 
by irregular jmuses interrupting its rhyth- 
mic action. 

Intermus^cular (inter, musculus, a mus- 
cle). Situated between muscles. 

Inter^nal (intemus, inward). On the in- 
.side. I. Capsule, the band of nerve mat- 
ter l)etwecn the optic thalamus and the 
intenentricular |»rtion of the coq)us stria- 
tum. I. Capsule, Knee of, the angle 
formed by the two divisions of the internal 




In^temode (inter ^ nodus ^ a knot). The 
space between adjacent joints or knots. 
'Diat part of a nerve-fibril between Ran- 
vier's nodes b called the interoodal seg- 

Intemun^cial (inter^ ntmrius, a messen- 
ger). That which forms a connecting or 
serving medium, as the nerves and their 
relation to the muscles and the will. 

Inter^nus. See Internal, 

Interorb^ital {inter^ orbita, the orbit). 
Situated between orbits. I. Bone, the 
median bone of fishes. I. Plate and 
Septum, a structure of the fore-brain, 
with its extension, found in certain fishes 
and reptiles. 

Interos'^seous (inter, ossa, a bone). Be- 
tween bones. I. Arteries, a name given 
to various branches of the dorsal, palmar, 
plantar and metatarsal arteries of the 
hand, foot and forearm. I. Muscles, a 
name given to certain muscles of the 
hand, foot and forearm. I. Nerves, the 
nerves supplying the foregoing muscles. 

Interparietal (inter, paries, walls). Be- 
tween walls. I. Bone, a term sometimes 
applied to the upper, squamous and non< 
cartilaginous part of the occipital bone. I. 
Suture, the sagittal suture, or that formed 
by the parietal bones. 

Interpedun'^cular (in/er, pedunculus, a 
little foot). Situated between peduncles. 
I. Space, the pons Tarini, or posterior 
perforated space that forms the posterior 
floor cf the third ventricle. 

Interphalang^eal (inter, ^lay^, a finger). 
Between the fingers or the toes. I. Articu- 
lations, the ginglymoid articulations of 
the fingers and toes. 

Interpu^bic (inter, pubis). Situated be- 
tween the pubic bones. I. Disc, the fibro- 
cartilaginous mass forming the symphyses 
of the pubis. 

Interscap^ular (inter, scapula, the shoul- 
der-blade';. Between shoulder-blades I. 
Region, the part of the chest between the 
inner border of the shoulder-blade and the 

Interspi'^nous (infer, spina, the spine). 
Situated between the vertebrae. 

In^terstice (inter, status ^ fixed or set). A 
space or interval. Also, a pore. 

Intersti'tial (interstitium^ space between). 
Pertaining to any space or interval between 
parts or organs. I. Absorption, in ab- 
scesses, the absorption of tissues between 
A cyst and the skin. Also, any similar 
absorption. I. Atrophy, a condition ob- 
served in certain diseases of the bones 

{arthritis deformans) y in which the min* 
eral matter has been absorbed to such an 
extent that only reticulated laminse remain 
I. Hypertrophy, a condition in certain 
diseases of the bones in which there is an 
excessive deposit of mineral matter in the 
Haversian canals and lacunie. Often ac- 
companied by diminution in the size of the 
bone. I. Keratitis. See Keratitis. I. 
Pregnancy. See Pregnancy. 

Intertransversa^les (iftter, transversus, 
turned across). A name given to the short 
bundles of muscular fibers extending 
between the transverse processes of con- 
tiguous vertebne. 

Intertri^go (inter, tero, to rub). An ery- 
thematous eruption or lesion of the skin 
produced by friction of adjacent parts. 
See Erythema, 

Intertrochanter^ic (inter, trochanter). 
Between the trochanters. I. Line, a ridge 
on the upper end of the femur between 
the great and the lesser trochanter. 

Intertu^bular Sub^stance. The translu- 
cent, granular sul>stance of the dentine of 
the tooth, containing most of its earthy 

In^terval (inter ^ vallum, a rampart). A 
space or lapse either of time or distance ; 
as the interval between the paroxysms of 
a fever, or between two organs or parts of 
the body. I., Focal, the distance between 
the anterior and posterior focal points. 

Interventric^ular (inter, ventriculum, a 
ventricle). Between ventricles, as, of the 
heart. 1. Septum, the fibrous septum or 
partition between the ventricles of the 

Interver^tebral (inter, vertebra, a bone of 
the spine). Between the vertebne. I. 
Discs, the lenticular discs of fibro-cartilagc 
between the adjacent surfaces of the verte- 
brae. I. Notch, the notch at the l)ase of 
the pedicle of the laminae on the sides of 
each vertebra. I. Substance. Same as 
/. Discs. 

Intes^tinal (i«/«/i//«/7f, the intestine). Per- 
taining to the intestine. L Absorption, 
the absorption of the peptonized products 
of digestion by the capillaries, veins and 
lacteals of the inner surface of the intestine. 
I. Arteries, the arteries of the intestines, 
of which the principal trunks are the cceliac 
axis and the mesenteric branches. The 
lower part of the rectum is supplied by the 
hsemorrhoidal branches of the iliac and 
pudic arteries. I. Canal, the entire in- 
testinal passage from the stomach to the 
anus. I. Fistula, a fistula or unnatural 




aperture in any part of an intestine. I. 
Obstruction, any cause or agent that ar- 
rests or impedes the progress of the faeces. 
I. Tract, or Tube. Same as /. Canal. 

Intes'^tine (intusy within). The part of 
the digestive tube extending from the 
stomach to the anus. I., Large, com- 
prises the caxnim, colon and rectum. I., 
Small, consists of the duodenum, jejunum 
and ileum. 

In^tima (m/imusy lowest). Used instead 
of tunica intima ; the innermost coat, or 
thin, trans])arent endothelium of vessels, 
consisting of a layer of irregular, long, fusi- 
form, nucleated, si)uamous cells. 

Intol^erance (/«, tolero^ to bear). Want 
of endurance or ability to stand pain. Im- 
patience. Also, the inability to endure the 
action of a medicine. 

Intona^tion (in/ono, to thunder). The 
rumbling or gurgling sound produced by 
the movement of flatus in the twwels. 

Intoxica^tion (m, foximm, a poison). A 
word (wpularly used to denote the excessive 
use or an overdose of an alcoholic liquor. 
I., Septic. See St'p/icamia. I., Uraemic. 
See Uramia. 

In^tra- {intra^ within). A Latin prefix 
signifying within. I. -abdominal, within 
the cavity of the alxlomen. I. -articular, 
within a joint. I. -capsular, within the 
capsular ligament of a joint. 

Intracra^nial {intra ^ cranium^ the skull). 
Within the skull. I. Haemorrhage, cere- 
bral ha-morrhage. 

Intralob^ular {intra, lobus, a lolie). Within 
a lol)e or lobule. I. Vein, the vein ex- 
tending from the apex to the base of the 

Intrameninge^al (intra, f^fn'^y^t the me- 
ninges). Situated within the substance of 
the memliranes of the lirain and spinal 
cord. I. Haemorrhage, an elusion of 
blood into the sac of the dura mater. 

Intramu^ral (intra, tnura, a wall). In- 
trai)arirtal. Within the substance of the 
walls of an organ. 

Intra-oc^ular (intra, oculus, the eye). 
Within the glol>e of the eye. L Haemor- 
rhage, an effu-sion of blood into any ]>art 
of the eye. L Pressure, or Tension. 
See Tension, 

Intra-or^bital {intra, orhita, an orbit). 
Within the orbit. L Aneurism, an 
aneurism within the ori)it of the eye, 
and Usually involving a branch of the 
ophthalmic artery. L Haemorrhage, a 
hsemorrhage taking place within the ort>it 
but behind the caiisule of Tenon of the eye. 

Intrapari^etal {intra, paries, a wall). 
Within the walls or the sul)stance of the 
walls of an organ. 

Intraperitone'al {intra, TfpiTovtuoi; the 
peritoneum). Within the peritoneum or 
membranous sac that contains the viscera. 

Intrapolar (intra, polus, the end of an 
axis). Between the poles or ends of an 
axis. See, also, Extrapolar 

Intra-uterine (intra, uterus, the womb). 
Within the womb. L Amputation, a 
spontaneous amputation occurring occa- 
sionally to some part of ^efatus in utero 
that becomes constricted by the umbilical 
cord or from other causes. I. Fracture, 
that which occurs to a fa-tus in utero, I. 
Life, that period of the existence of an 
animal between concep>tion and birth. 

Intrave^nous (intra, vena, a vein). 
Within the vein. I. Infusion, the intro- 
duction of a solution or a liquid into the 
vein. I. Injection, same as /. Infusion. 

Intrin^sic (intrinsecus, on the inside). In- 
herent, inward. 

Intro- (intro, within). A I^in prefix 
signifying within, 

Intro^itus (intro, eo, to go). Any aperture 
or opening in the body. I. Pelvis, the 
inlet of the pelvis. I. Vaginae, the ex- 
ternal aperture of the vagina. 

Intromis^sion (intro, mitto, to send). The 
introduction of one l^ody within the walls 
of another, as of the penis into the vagina. 

Introsuscep^tion (intro, suscipio, to re- 
ceive). ITie slipping or telescoping of a 
part of the intestine upon itself. 

Introver^sion (intro, vt rto, to turn). A 
turning within, as, introversion of the 

Intuba^tion (in, tubus, a pipe) The pas- 
sage of a tul>e into or past tne larynx, to 
allow the entrance of air to the lungs in 
croup, diphtheria, etc., or to dilate a stric- 
ture, etc. 

Intumes^cence (intumesco, to swell). A 
swelling, of any character whatever. Also, 
an Increase of the volume of any organ or 
part of the iKxly. 

Intussuscep^tion (intus, within, j//J'7//V», 
to receive). Invagination or involution of 
one part of the intestine by another, pro- 
ducing olwtruction, etc. 

Insula. Klecam|>ane. The root of /. 
helcnium. ( 'ontains a crystalline sub>tancQ| 
helcnin, and from 20 to 40 j)er cent, of a 
starch, known as inulin. A gentle stimu- 
lant employed in i)ronchitis and to hasten 
the apjMfarance of the skin -symptoms in 
exanthcmatous fevers. lX)se gr. xx-^j 




of the nxx, or 3J-ij of a Jss lo the Oj 


Insulin. A ffjnn of March ocftirrinj; in 
Inula htUnium 'axA. 'Xh(-r plants. It is 
uAf/n^i yellow \ry iodine, ixring different 
in this rc»>j>r<.t fn>>m lionual starch, which 
i.s c/^kjrtd Mu«:. 

Inunc^tion ^//»««i,'., to anoint), 'flic act 
of niUiin;; an oily tjr fatty suli^tancc into 
the skin. AIvj, the itulv^taiiLc usi-d fcx" 

Invag^ina^tion {imz/i^/'ni^ to easheathc). 
'Ilje ''h'.athing ^/r telcscopinjj of a |jart or 
organ \jy a canallikc structun-, as the in- 
testine. An fifjerallon frjr oi>literating tlic 
canal of a hernial o[x-ning by the inflam- 
mation resuhing from fm^hing the bkin 
inward and .-^uluring the j>art fast. 

In'' valid (///, z'.i/to, to Ix: \v<-ll). One who 
is not well, e.^fxrcially one who is chn^ni- 
cally ill or wlu^ise convalescence is slow. 

Inva^sion (/«, z/a^A', to go). The Ixrgin- 
ning or attack of a disease. Al>o, the 
manner in which the l>egins its 

Invcrmina''tion (/«, Trrw/;/^///f7, wormy). 
A crmdition (^f having intrstinal worms. 

Invcf'sion (/>/, T'^rA/, to turn). A turning 
or placing in a fXisitioii the opjW'site of the 
normal j^jsition. I. of Bladder, a con- 
ditir»n in whi< h the hl.wMcr is in part or 
complrt<ly pushed into the dilated urethra. 
Occurs in females only. I. of Eyelashes. 
See Kntropi.m. I. of Image, an image 
project c<l by a convex lens or concave 
mirr<^r, at a jxjint U.-yond the ftKus. 

Invertebra-'ta (/;/, vrrtehra, l)acklx)ne). A 
term applied to animals that have- n(j .spinal 
column. One of the four divi-sions in 
which it was fr^rrnerly customary to divide 
the animal kingdom. 

Inverf'in. See Fmutnts. 

In'vcrt-sugar. A variety of glucose that 
turns th(r iK)]ari/f'd ray to the left. It is 
pra( tieally a mixture of dextrose and levu- 
lose, «»r fruit->ugar. 

Invisca'tion (/;/, viscum, bird lime). The 
mixin;i of ftxxl with the saliva during 

Involu^crum {invo/vo, to cnwraj)). The 
covering of a jiart. The sheath of lx)ne 
jnMJoping a se.juestruni in dry necrrisis. 

Invoruntary (/;/. not, r,>/,.. to will). Not 
^)y an act nf ilu- will. .\ term apj^lied to 
certain motion^ and functions nf thtr vari- 
ous organs of the IkkIv that are not con- 
trolled I'v, orare not(lejM.'ndenton the will. 
I. Contraction, muscular contractions 
not resulting from an act of will. I. 

Muscles, those th^ are nx gin t m e d by 

the will. 

Involu'^tion \irr:'C'h\\ to roJl iqwcV The 
retTf.igressive change lo their vjtgzu coo- 
dition that certain organ* imdogo aiier 
fulfilling their fimcticnsi purposes. I. of 
Uterus, the return ci the nterns, that aftff 
gestation weighs about two pounds, to ia 
normal weight and condition. 
Podine, or lodum. I =127: Tuan- 
tivalence I. A non-metallic cltmect with 
metalliclu>tcr. VolalilL/es at a I: w tem- 
perature, giving off crimson-jwrple vapor. 
( Krcurs in cod-liver oil, looA. marine plants, 
and shell-fish. Soluble in alcohol, in scOnriai 
of ix)tassium iotlide, and in scJuiioo of salL 
In it>elcmentar^• stale an irritant lo the skin, 
and much used as a tincture to produce ccon- 
tcr-irriiation. Potassium iodide, the princi- 
I>al form for internal use, is an alteraiiyc, 
ranking as a specific in tertiar>* s}-philis, 
and with mercury, available in all forms of 
that disease. An excellent remedy in 
liepaiic cirrhosis and chronic bronchiris. 
Qjmbined with ammonium it is valuable in 
catarrhal affections. Acidi H3rdriodici 
Syr., contains I jx-T cent, of the absolute 
acid. I)rjse .^j-iv. Ammonii lodidum. 
See Ammonium, Iodized Phenol, unof., 
a mixture of iodine and carbolic^ acid, 
u.sually I to 4. For local use. lodi Liq. 
Comp., Lugi^l's solution — iodine 5, po- 
tassium iodide lo, water 85 parts. Dose 
TT\^ j-\, diluted. I., Tinct., 8 pt-r cent, in 
alcohol. For hxral use. I. Trichlorid., 
unof, recommended by I^angenbach as an 
antiseptic in surgery. I., Ung^., iodine 4, 
Ix»tasMum io<li(le I, water 2,l>enzoated lard 
93 i>ans. Amylum lodatum, iodized 
starch, iotline 5, starch 95 ports, distilled 
water loo parts, triturated and dried. 1 Kfee 
HJ-.5J- Potassii lodidum. IX«se gr. 
\-Z)' Potass. lodid., Ung., contains 
fxA-s. i(xlide 12, sod. h>TX)sulph. I, boiling 
water 6, l)enzoatod lanl Si parts. Sodii 
lodidum, delijuesccnt. Dose gr. v-.^ij. 
Todism (/wrV;)- A condition arising from 
the prolonge«l use of io^line or ioiline com- 
ix)unds, marked by redness of conjunctiva 
and mucous nicml)rane of the respiratory 
ixassages, furr>' throat, and lachrymation. 
lod-'oform. Triknlo- methane, CHI,. A 
comjxiund containing alout 91 l.x?r cent. 
of io<line. An antiseptic and feeble an- 
.xstlKtic highly useful for local application 
to wounds, abrasions and indolent .sores. 
Internally a tonic. Its odor may be cov- 
ered with thymol or oil of rose. Dose, in- 
ternally, gr. j-v. 




I^odol. An iodo-caibamide in the form of 
an amorphous brown powder, soluble in 
ether and oil. More antiseptic than iodo- 
form and free from odor. Locally anaes- 
thetic. Favors granulation. Of reputed 
service in syphilitic sores, etc, Unof. 

lo^dum. Sec Iodine, 

Fon (a.w, going). An element set free by 
electrolysis, and classified as an anion or 
katicn^ according as it is set free at the 
positive or negative plate. I., Migration 
of, the transference of an ion from one 
pole to another. 

Ip^ecac. See Ipecacuanha. 

Ipecacuan^ha. Ipecac. The root of 
Cephaelis /., found in Brazil. Contains 
an alkaloid, emetine. An emetic, expecto- 
rant, and cholagc^e ; in very small doses, 
gr. ^g, a mild tonic. Used mainly as a 
safe and prompt emetic, in membranous 
croup, and in the summer dysentery of 
children. Dose as an expectorant gr. ss-ij ; 
as an emetic gr. xv-xxx. I., Ext. Dose 
TT\^j-v. I., Syr., 5 per cent, strength. 
Dose :5J-5ss. I., Vin., 7 percent, in 
strcngtli. Dose TT\^ j-3J. I. Trochisci, 
contain each ],i gr. of the drug. I. et Mor- 
phinae, Trochisci, contain each, morphine 
sulph. ^, ipecac 1^, with flavoring oil and 
sugar. I. et Opii, Pulvis, Dover's pow- 
der, contains ipecac and opium each lo, 
sugar of milk 80 parts. Dose gr. ij-xv. 
I. et Opii, Tinct., deodorized tinct. of 
opium 100, evaporated to 85, fid. ext ipecac 
10, alcohol q. s. ad 100. Dose lT\^v-xxx. 
Em^etine. Dose as expectorant gr. y|^ 
-^\ as emetic \-\. 

Ipomoe^a Caeni'^lea. The seeds of this 
plant have been recommended as a stimu- 
lant of the intestinal glandular appa- 

Iridec^tomy (//)/c, ^kto^tj, excision). The 
cutting out of a part of the iris. I., An- 
tiphlogistic, one performed in inflamma- 
tory processes to reduce the same. In 
Optical I., the piece of iris excised is 
over a portion of the lens or Ixmeath a 
portion of cornea clearer than that exposed 
in the natural pupil, whence additional 
vision is gained by the iridectomy. See 
Pupil ^ artificial. I., Preliminary, is per- 
formed in advance of the extraction of 
cataract, instead of at the same time. 

Iridenclei'^sis, or Iridenklei^sis. See 

Iridere^mia. See Aniridia. 

I^ridin. See Iris. 

Iridochoroidi^tis. Combined inflanuna- 
tion of the iris and choroid of the eye, the 

form usually assumed in sympathetic oph- 

Iridocycli^tis. See Cyclitis, 
Iridod^esis (ipi^, Seaig, a binding together). 
A disused method of displacing the normal 
pupil by ligature, instead of iridectomy. 
IridodiaKysis. See Coredialysis. 
Iridodone^sis (/p<c> Sovt^tc, a trembling). 
Tremulousness of the iris. 
Iridon^cus (ipic, oyicoc, a mass). A tumor 
or swelling of the iris. 
Iridople^gia {iptSt t^^7>^, a stroke). Paraly- 
sis of the sphincter of the iris. 
Iridot^omy (<p«c» to//^, section). An in- 
cision of any kind into the iris. 
I-'ris. Blue Flag. The roots of / versi- 
color. Contains a resinous principle, irid.'n. 
The fresh rhizome is purgative, emetic and 
diuretic. Serviceable in catarrh of the 
duodenum, malarial ailments, etc. I., Ext. 
Dosegr.j-v. I., Ext. Fid. Doselt\^v-3J. 
Iridin. Unof Dose gr. j-v. 
I^ris Upt^t a colored halo or circle). The 
antenor portion of the vascular tunic of 
the eye, attached teethe pectinate ligament 
and ciliary body; its central aperture 
forms the pupil. I., Absence of. See 
In'deremia. I., Angle of, that formed by 
the cornea and iris. I., Prolapse of (or 
Hernia of), protrusion through a corneal 
or scleral aperture; when adherent it is 
called an antenor synechia ; when adher- 
ent to the lens behind, it is called posterior 
synechia, I., Tremulous, arises from 
non-support of the iris in aphakia or dislo- 
cation of the lens. 
Irish Moss. See Chondrus. 
Iri^tis (<ptc* 'T'Cf inflammation). Inflam- 
mation of the iris, called after its origin, or 
character, blennorrhagic, rheumatic, syphil- 
itic, plastic, serous, etCy etc, 
Irit^omy. See Iridotomy. 
I'ron, See Ferrum. 
Fron Wood. The heart wood of Ostyra 
Virginica, Tonic, antiperiodic and altera- 
tive. Has lieen successfully used in ma- 
larial diseases, neuralgia and strumous 
affections. Dose of the fld. ext gss-j. 

Irra^diating {irradio, to emit rays in every 
direction). Radiating from a center, as a 
pain arising from a definite f<x:us of irrita- 
tion. In physics, that phenomenon causing 
any light-colored object in a dark back- 
ground to stand out stereograph ically and 
api^ear larger than it really is. 
Irredu^cible (m, not, reduro, to lead 
back). That which cannot be reduced or 
restored to its normal condition. In cheni' 




istiy, applied to a compound that cannot 
be separated. In surgery, applied to a 
fracture or dislocation that cannot be re- 
placed. I. Hernia. See Hernia. 

Irriga^tion (irrigo^ to lead water to). The 
application of water, especially a stream, 
to an inflamed or abnormal tissne for pur- 
poses of moistening, antisepsis, cooling, or 
flushing the part. 

Irritability (irritOj to provoke). The 
quality of being susceptible to excitement 
or irritation. I., Faradic, the muscular 
contraction caused by a secondary or 
induced current. I., Galvanic, the mus- 
cular contraction produced by the direct 
current. I., Muscular, the inherent 
contractile quality of a muscle. I., 
Nervous, the capacity of a nerve to trans- 
mit an impulse after receiving a stimulus. 

Ir^ritable (irrifo). Easily inflamed. Sus- 
ceptible to irritation. I. Bladder, a con- 
dition of the bladder marked by constant 
desire to void urine. I. Breast, a neu- 
ralgic condition of the mammary glands 
usually associated wiAi uterine affections, 
or with intercostal neuralgia. 

Ir^ritant (irrito). An agent or remedy 
that produces irritation or inflammation. 
I., Chemical, one acting by virtue of its 
afHnity for the elements or compounds of or- 
ganic tissue, as nitric acid, caustic potash, 
etc. I., Mechanical, that causing lesions 
or inflammations by mechanical operation, 
as cuts, contusions, pressure or distention. 
I., Nervous, one acting through the me- 
dium of the nerves, as in sympathetic in- 
flammations, etc. 

Irrita^tion (t'm'to). A condition of undue 
excitement. Also, an inflamed state. Also, 
the stimulus necessary to the performance 
of the functions of an organ. 

Ischae'^mia {icx*^, to check, oi/ia, blood). 
Bloodlessncss. Imperfection of the sui> 
ply of blood to a part. Local anxmia. 

Is^chial (uTx'ov, the ischium). Pertaining 
or belonging to the ischium. 

Ischiat^ic (icxiov). Pertaining to the 
ischium. I. Notches, the notches, greater 
and lesser, of the ischium. The former 
transmits the pyriformis muscle, gluteal 
vessels and superior gluteal nerve, the 
latter, the tendon of the obturator intemus, 
its nerve, and the pudic vessels and nerve. 
Called also sacro-sciatic notches. 

Ischidro^sis (iffx^i ^o suppress, i^ptJCf 
sweat). Suppression of sweat. 

Is^chio-. A Greek prefix indicating re- 
lationship to the ischium. I .-anal, pertain- 
ing to the ischium and the anus. I.-bul- 

bar, pertaining to the ischium and the bulb 
of the urethra. I.-cavemosus, the mus- 
cle that compresses the veins of the cms 
penis and assists in the erection of the 
penis. It has a similar relation to the 
clitoris. See Muscle. I. -neuralgia, 

Is^chiocele (ur;^<ov, 107X7, a tumor). Is- 
chiatic hernia. 

Ischiop^agus [vax^^^ Trayeic, united). A 
monomphalic monstrosity united by the 

Ischioperinae^al (urxiffv^ ireptvatovy the 
perinicum). Belonging to or pertaining to 
both ischium and perinanmi, the space be- 
tween the anus and scrotum. 

Ischiorect^al (taxuiVj rectum). Pertaining 
to both ischium and rectum. I. Abscess 
or I. Cellulitis, an inflanmiation of the 
areolar tissue of the bchiorectal fossa involv- 
ing the rectum and thigh. Suppuration 
may occur at any ])art of the inflammation, 
but is ordinarily near the anus. I . Fascia. 
See Fascia. I. Fossa, a deep fossa filled 
with fatty tissue situated on both sides of 
the intestine, between it and the ischium. 

Is^chium («T;fiov). The inferior part of 
the OS innominatum or hip-bone ; that 
upon which the body rests in a sitting pos- 
ture. It forms a part, also, of the aceta- 

Isch^nous {^iaxy<K9 thin). Emaciated. 

Is^cho- {usxt^t to suppress). A Greek pre- 
fix meaning to suppress. 

Ischo-galac^tia {^lox^^j yaXa^ milk). Su]> 
pression of the natural flow of millc in the 

Ischome^nia (urx^i fir^'taia, the menses). 
Suppression of the menstrual flow. 

Ischuret^ic («T;f<j,ov/xn', urine). A remedy 
or agent that relieves retention or suppres- 
sion of urine. 

Ischu^ria Ucxf^f ovpov). Retention or suj)- 
pression of urine. 

I^singlass. See Ichthyocolla. 

Island of Reil. The central lobe of the 
hemisphere of the brain, situated at the 
base, behind the fissure of Sylvius. 

Is^o- (/<Tof, equal). A Greek prefix signify- 
ing equality. 

Iso-amylam'^ine. A ptomaine obtained 
in the distillation of horn with ]X)ta>h ; 
also occurs in the putrefaction of yeast. 
Boils at 95°. Non-poisonous. 

Iso-a^piol. A substance obtained from 
apiol, exercising a {wwerful influence upon 
the vasomotor system. 

I^sobar (ioof, /3apof , weight). In meteor- 
ology, a term denoting a line drawn 




through points having the same synchro- 
nous barometric pressure. 

Isochromat^ic (loo^, xP^M^t color). Hav- 
ing the same color. 

Isoch^ronous (iff<Kf xP<f^^)- Having or 
occupying equal intervals of time. 

Isoco^ria (i-aof, equal, /to/77/, pupil). Equality 
in diameter of the two pupils. Aniso- 
coria, ine([uality of the same. 

Isodynam^ic (/aof, dwa/^/f, force). Hav- 
ing equal force. I. Foods, those that 
produce an equal amount of heat in 
undergoing the chemical changes of diges- 

Is^olate [isolOf an island). To separate 
one from another. In chemistry, to sepa- 
rate an element from its combination. In 
electricity, to insulate. 

Isol^ogous (a7oc, equal, Ao7t>c, a word or 
law). Identical in composition with those 
belonging to a series, as, the essential oils, 
all of which have the composition Cj^Hj^. 

Isomer^ic (^aof , //f/)of , a part). In chem- 
istry, applied to substances having the same 
centesimal composition, but whose mole- 
cules have an essentially different struc- 
ture and chemical properties, as aldehyde 
and ethylene oxide, both of which have 
the formula C,H^O. The former, however, 
has the structure 

Methyl. Carbonic 

CH, — CO — H, 

while the latter is composed of two mole- 
cules of ethylene, joined by an atom of 
oxygen, thus (CH,)— 0--(CH,). This, 
the most common type of isomerism, is 
sometimes called metamerism. Also, ap- 
plied to substances having the same cen- 
tesimal composition, but whose molec- 
ular weights are in even multiples, a type 
of i.-vomorphism commonly called polymer- 
ism. Also, in crystallography, applied to 
any substance that crystallizes in more 
than one (orm. Also, applied to a sub- 
stance existing in twu or more forms, a type 
of isomerism called allotropism. 

Isomet'^rical Act. The tension of a 
muscle when stimulated, its length re- 
maining conMant. 

Isomorph^ism (/rrof, fiop^^ a form). Simi- 
lar in crystalline form. Also, the replace- 
ment of one element in a cry.stalline salt 
by another, without alteration of form or 
system. I., Heteromerous, a condition 
of dissimilarity in molecular composition. 
I., Isomerous, a condition of similarity 
m moleculiu- com|x)sition. I., Polymeric, 
the suUtitution of two or more atoms oif 

one element for one of another, without 
alteration of crystalline form. 

Isop^athy (uro^, nadog, suffering). A 
term used to denote the treatment of dis- 
ease by the administration of one or more 
of its own products. Thus, smallpox 
would be tretUed by the administration in- 
ternally of the variolous excretions, e/c. 

Iso-propyFamine. See Propylamine. 

Isop^ters {vaoq^ (wrrjyp, an observer). The 
relative visual acuity of the retina at dif- 
ferent distances from the macula, both for 
form and color. 

I^soscope (£<Toc, aiumeo, to see). An in- 
strument consisting of two sets of parallel 
vertical wires, one of which can be super- 
imposed on the other; designed to show 
that the vertical lines of separation of the 
retina do not correspond exactly to the ver- 
tical meridians. 

Isother^mal (uroCf Oepfitf, heat). Of equal 
or uniform temperature. I. Lines, in 
ph]rsical geography, lines drawn through 
places having the same average tempera- 
ture for a given period of time. Inasmuch 
as it frequently happens that two places 
having the same annual average tempera- 
ture may have, one a climate of great ex- 
tremes, the other a very equable climate, it 
is now customary to display comparative 
isotherms for the six warm and the six 
cold months of the extra tropical regions. 
I. Zones, zones bounded by isothermal 

Isot^ropous {taog, rpomj^ a turning). Hav- 
ing the same shape and appearance from 
whatever point observed. 

Is^sue (Fr. issue ^ from, exeo, to go out). A 
discharging ulcer, especially that made arti- 
ficially for purposes of drainage, counter- 
irritation, etc, 

Is^tarin. A nitrogenous, phosphorized sub- 
stance of complex structure occurring in 
brain tissue. Properties not investigated. 

Isth^mo- (laSfioc, a neck). A Greek pre- 
fix signifying the /auces. 

Isth^mus (laOfwc). The neck or con- 
stricted part of an organ. I. of Fauces, 
the space between the arches of the palate. 
I. of Thyroid Gland, the transverse cord 
connecting the lobes of the thyroid body. 

Italian Leprosy. StQ Pellagra, 

Itch. See Scabies. 

-itc. A suffix employed in mineralogy de- 
noting a mineral, or of mineral origin. 
A contraction of }jJfi<ig^ a stone. 

I^ter (itery a journey). A {passage com- 
municating between two or more parts. I. 
Ad Infiindibulum, the passage between 



tbe third ventricle of the brain and the in- 
fundibulum. I. a Palati ad Aurem, 
the EusUchian tube. I. a Tertio ad 
Quartum Ventriculum, the aqueduct 
of Sylvius extending from the third ventri- 
cle to the fourth. 

-itis. A suffix used to denote inflamma- 
tion of the tissue or organ when terminat- 
ing the name of the organ. 

Ixc^des. A wood tick. An insect of the 
natural order Acaridea. I. Ricinus, a 
species parasitic on human beings. 

Jaboran^di. The leaves of Pilocarpus 
pinnatifolius. See Pilocarpus. 

Jacaran^da. The leaves of a South Ameri« 
can plant, J. lancifolia^ used by the natives 
in venereal disease. Dose of an § ij to Qj 
tincture TT\^xv. 

Jack^et {^jacqucy a coat of mail). A short 
coat. J., Plaster-of- Paris, a mould of 
plaster-of-Faris cast upon the body or part, 
for keeping it rigid and fixed in a desired 
position, in sprain or dislocation of the 
spine, etc. J., Straight, a system of 
leather straps used to bind violently insane 
persons in order to prevent self-inflicted 

Jackso^nian Ep^ilepsy. See Epilepsy, 

Ja^cob's Mem^brane. A name some- 
times applied to the layer of rods and cones 
of the retina 

Ja^cobson's Nerve. The nerve of the 
tympanum. J.'s Organ, two narrow tubes 
in the lower and anterior part of the nasal 

Jacob's Ulcer. See Rodent Ulcer, 

Jactita^tion (jactito, to pour forth). The 
restlessness and tendency to frequent 
changes of position that characterize severe 
distress in disease. 

Jadelot's Furrows. Certain furrows of 
the face of children in serious illnesses. 
Three sets are distinguished : The Genal 
F., from the mouth almost to the malar 
bone ; this and the nasal are said to indi- 
cate disease of the gastro-intestinal tract 
or visceral organs ; the labial F., from the 
angle of the mouth outward to the lower 
part of the face, and " should direct atten- 
tion to the lungs"; the Nasal F., from 
the nasal alse in a semicircle about the 
mouth; the Oculo-zygomatic P., begin- 
ning at the inner canthus of the eye, 

and passing outward beneath the lower 
lid to be lost on the cheek, — said to point 
to disorders of the cerebro-nervous sys- 

Jal^ap, or 

Jala^pa. The tuber of Exogonium pur- 
gata. Properties due to two resins, jala- 
pin and convolvulin. An active hydra- 
gogue cathartic, especially useful in com- 
bination with calomel. J. Abstractum, 
an ingredient of pil. comp. cath. Dose 
gr. j-v. J. Resina, precipitated from the 
tincture by w^ater. Dose gr. ij-v. J. 
Pulv. Comp., contains jalap 35, potas- 
sium bitartrate 65. Dose gr. x-^j. 

Jama^ica Dogwood. See Piscidia. 

Jam^bu As^su. The root of Ottoniajabo- 
randij a Brazilian tree. Thought to be 
stimulant and febrifuge. Properties not 
definitely known. Dose of the fld. ext. 
1T\^x-xx. Unof. 

James'^town Weed. See Stramonium, 

Ja'^nus, or 

Jan^iceps (Janus^ a two-faced divinity, 
caput y head). A syceptiialic monstrosity 
with two faces. 

Jas^mine, Yellow. See Gehemium, 

Jasun'^di. See Saraca Jndica. 

Jaun^dice (Fr. jaunisse^ yellow). A dis- 
ease arising from diseases of the liver, 
obstruction of the biliary passages, etc. 
It is characterized by yellow coloration of 
the skin, preceded by languor, malaise and 
nausea. J. Hepatogenic. See Hepato- 

Ja^va Tea. The leaves of Orthosyphon 
staminarus. Reputed to be diuretic in 
3J-ij doses. 

Jaw- jerk. A tendon reflex obtained by 
suddenly depressing the lower jaw. 

Jaws. See MaxitSsry Bones, 




Jcjunos-'tomy {^jejunum ^ arofia, the 
mouth). The making of an artificial open- 
ing through the abdominal wall into, and 
the lips of the same to become adherent 
with, the jejunum. The operation is de- 
signed to permit the introduction of food in 
cases of cancer of the pylorus and similar 

Jeju^nuxn {^jejunus^ empty, because thought 
to be empty after death). The upper two- 
fifths of the small intestine, or that be- 
tween the duodenum and the ilium. 

JeFly {geUr^ to freeze). In pharmacy, a 
soft, non-viscid, but somewhat elastic sub- 
stance of which hydrated gelatine is the 
best example. Domestic fruit jellies consist 
of the inspissated juice of the fruit with 
one or two parts of sugar, together with 
the natural mucilage of the seeds of the 
fruit. Many of the imported jellies sold 
in the United States contain no fruit juice, 
l)eing for the greater part ordinary animal 
gelatine acidified with tartaric acid, and 
flavored with artificial flavors. 

Jenner^ian. Pertaining to Jenner or to 
the theory or practice of vaccination. 

Jequi^rity. See Ah-us Precatorius, 

Jcrs^ey Tea. See Red (Root), 

Jcs'uits* Bark. Cinchona. 

Jig'ger Flea. See Pulex. 

Johnson's Picro-saccharim^eter. See 
Picro- saccharimetcr. 

Johns'wort. St. John's Wort. The 
flowering tojw of Hypericum perforatum. 
Reputed diuretic, astringent and sedative. 
Dose of ext. gr. x-xx; of fld. ext. 3J-ij. 

Joint. See Articulation. 

Joints-disease. Any morbid affection in- 
volving the joints and their surrounding 
tissues. J., Charcot's, a disease of the 
joints accom[)anying tabes dorsalis. It 
is characterized by a swelling, due to effu- 
sion of fluid into the cavity and al)out the 
surrounding tissues, followed 1^ a lax con- 
dition, and ending in distortion or deformity 
of the joint, with diminished range of 
motion. J., Hip. See Ilip-joint Disease, 

JuMas Tree. Red Bud. The bark of 
Cercis canadensis. Astringent. Much used 
in diarrhrea, and as an injection in leucor- 
rhcra. Dose of the fld. ext., TT\,xv-Tj. 

Ju^gal (y//;'7/w, a yoke). Connecting or 
uniting, as by a yoke. J. Bone, the 
malar bone. J. Process. See Zyf^oma. 

Ju'^glans. Butternut. The inner Iwirk 
(collected in autumn) of the root of y. cine- 
rea. A mild cathartic, very popular in 

d3rsentery and chronic constipation. Dose 
of the ext., gr. v-x. 

Ju^g^lar (juguium^ the throat). Pertain- 
ing to the throat. J. Veins. See Vein. 

Ju-'gum (Lat). A yoke. J. Penis, a 
cushionea forceps or compressor applied to 
the penis to prevent incontinence of urine. 

Juice {Jus^ broth). The fluid or liquid 
tissue of an animal or plant. J. Canals, 
spaces within the connective tissues, the 
origins of the lymphatic vessels. 

Jum^pers. A name applied to those af- 
flicted with a neurosis characterized by 
motor incodrdination and convulsive move- 
ments of any part of the body, but espe- 
cially of the lower extremities, so that 
springing or jumping movements follow 
efforts to walk, etc. 

Jung^lc Fever. See Fever. 

Ju^niper, or 

Junip'^enis. Juniper. The fruit of J. 
communis. Properties mainly due to a 
volatile oil. A stomachic tonic, diu- 
retic and aphrodisiac. The oil is elimi- 
nated by the kidneys. Valuable in chronic 
pyelitis and cystitis. J. Infusum, unof., 
consists of juniper berries .^ j, boiling water 
Pj. J. Ol., the volatile oil. Dose TT\^v-xx. 
J. Spt., 3 parts of the oil in 97 bf alcohol. 
Dose 3J-3J. J. Spt. Comp., the gin of 
commerce ; oil of juniper 10, oil of cara- 
way I, oil of fennel I, alcohol 3000, water 
q.s. ad 5000 parts. Dose 5 ss-j. Oil of 
Cade, unof., a tar obtained by the distil- 
lation of juniper wood. Sometimes used 
externally in eczema and psoriasis. 

Junk (Port. ///«r<7, a rush). In surgery, a 
quilted cusnion forming a sling in which 
to suspend a fractured limb. It was for- 
merly made of rushes or reeds. 

Junk^et. Curds and whey ; a delicacy for 
invalids, prepared by taking )4 P'^t of 
fresh milk heated as hot as agreeable to 
the mouth, add I teaspoon ful of rennet or 
essence of pepsin, and stir enough to mix. 
Let it stand till curdled, and ser>'e with 
sugar and nutmeg. 

Ju^nod's Boot. A boot-shaped case, usu- 
ally of stiff leather, made to enclose the leg 
so that the air being exhausted, the blood 
vessels and tissues of the limb are dilated 
by the excess of blood. It has lieen em- 
ployed to relieve inflammation and con- 
gestion of the viscera. 

Jurisprudence (yV/j, law^prt/dentiaj skill). 
The science of the interpretation and appli- 
cation of the law. J., Medical, the ap- 
plication of medical knowledge !o the 
principles of common law. 




Ju'ry (juroy to swear). A body of men 
legally appointed to determine the guilt or 
innocence of a prisoner, or to determine 
the facts in judicial inquiries. J. of 
Matrons, a body of twelve matrons, for- 
merly empaneled in England to determine 
if a murderess, for whom such plea was 
made, were pregnant. J. Mast, an appa- 
ratus for suspending the head in the treat- 
ment of diseases of the vertebrae. 

Jus^culum {Jusculum^ a decoction). A 
vegetable soup commonly known as Ju- 

Jute. The fibers of the bark of an Indian 
plant, Corchvrus capsularis^ and other sim- 
ilar plants. The fibers are used as a dress- 
ing in surgery. 

Juven^tus (jm'enis^ young). A term for- 
merly applied to that period of life between 
the ages of twenty-five and thirty-five. 


K. The symbol of Kalmniy or its more- 
used equivalent. Potassium. 

K., or Ka. In electrotherapeutics, the 
abbreviation of Kathode^ or of Kathodic, 

Kabbalist^ic. Pertaining to the Kabbala, 
or system of the treatment of diseases by 
supernatural agencies. 

Kai^rine. An artificial alkaloid prepared 
from chinolinc. Valuable as a very power- 
ful anii])yretic. Produces diaphoresis and 
emchis; sometimes followed by collapse. 
General pioperties similar to antipyrcne. 
Dose gr. iij-xxx. Unof. 

Kairoli^'na. An antipyretic resembling 
kairine, but less efficient. Unof 

Kak^ke. A disease occurring in Japan, 
similar to, if no*, identical with. Beriberi. 

Kakos^mia (koaoj, foul, cxrw^, smell). 
A repugnant or disgusting smell. K., 
Subjective, a disturbance of the olfactory 
ner\e or center, either from hysteria or 
from disease, giving rise to the perception 
of an ofl'ensive smell. 

Kakot^rophy. Ill nutrition. An%mia. 

Ka^li. An obsolete term for potassium. 

Kalim^eter. See Alkalimeier. 

Ka'line. See Alkaline. 

Ka^lium. A synonym for Potassium^ q. v. 

KaPmia. Laurel, Mountain Laurel, Sheep 
laurel. Broad-leaved I -aurcl, Calico Bush. 
The leaves of A', latifolia^ a well-known 
evergreen common in the U. S. Altera- 
tive, cardiac sedative, and astringent. A 
popular cure-all. Has proved valuable in 
diarrhcen and syphilitic affections. Dose 
gr. xx-xxx; of the fld. ext. TT\^xx-3ss. 

Kampala. Rottlera. The glands and hairs 
fix>m the capsules of Mallotus philippensis^ 
native to Southern Asia and Abyssinia. A 
purgative and anthelmintic much used 
against lumbricoid and other parasitic 

worms. Dose ^j-JJ o^ *" Sxi ^° S*^'J 
alcoholic tincture. 

Kan^dahar Sore. See Furunculus Orien- 

Kan^dol. A volatile constituent of coal 
tar. lYoposedas a local anaesthetic. Its 
rapid evaporation freezes the surface tissue. 
Possibly identical with Rhigolene. Unof. 

Ka^olin. White clay. Ihe silicate of 
aluminum. Obtained from the decompo- 
sition of felspar. Sometimes used as a 
protective application in eczema. Unof 

Kapo^si's Disease^. See Atrophodemta 

Kar^'dio-. See Cardio-, 

Karyokine^sis (Kizpt*r;y, a nut, Kwrioi^^ mo- 
tion). The complicated process of cell- 
division, and especially the changes in the 
nucleus called Indirect Division, Mito- 
sis, or Karyokinesis. There is first 
formed out of the chromatin the wreath, 
rosette, or spirem, subsequently a star- 

^ shaped form the Aster, and then the barrel 

'form, or Pithos, followed by the Diaster, 
or double star. Then follows the separa- 
tion of the protoplasm into two parts, in 
each of which the chromatin rearranges 
itself into a coil, the whole called the 
Dispirem. Two daughter nuclei are 
thus derived from one mother nucleus. 

KaryoPysis {Kopivov, Xit.^, to loose). The 
segmentation of the nucleus of the celL 




Karyo-mit(/ma. See Celi-bady, 

Karyom^iton. See Chromatin. 

Karyoplas^ma. See Chromatin, 

Katab^olism {Kora^ ^aK>M^ to throw down^. 
The change in cells whereby their molecule 
is rendered less complex, and contains less 
force. Called, also, Destructive Metabol' 
ism. See Anabolism and A(etabolism. 

Katadic^rotism [Koray diKporo^t double 
healing). The occurrence of a divided or 
double pulsation in the downward stroke 
of the sphygmc^rraph. 

Kaf^alepsy. See Catalepsy, 

KataKysis. See Catalysis. 

Kat^aplasm. See Poultice, 

Katat(/nia («ara, tovo^^ tension). Accord- 
ing to Kahlbaum, a form of mental de- 
rangement progressing from melancholia 
successively through mania and stupidity 
to imbecility and tonic convulsions. 

Katelectrot'^onus. See Catelectrotonus, 

Kathar^ophore . An instrument for cleans* 
ing the urethra. 

Kathar^sis. See Catharsis, 

Kath^ode (Kara^ 060^ , path). The nega- 
tive pole of a galvanic battery. 

Kathod^ic. Pertaining to the cathode or 
negative pole of a battery. K. Closure 
Contraction, the muscular contraction 
occurring when the circuit is closed with 
the rheophore on a motor point. K. Open- 
ing Contraction, the same when the cir- 
cuit is opened. 

Kat^ion. See Cation and Electrolysis. 

Ka^va-Ka^va. Ava-Kava. The root of 
Piper methysticum^ a shrub native to South 
America and the South Sea Islands. A 
diuretic and motor-depressant, producing 
intoxication when taken in large doses. In 
small and moderate doses resembles coca 
in its action in allaying fatigue. Unof. 

Kcep^cr. See Armature, 

Ke''fir. See Kephyr. 

Keh^rer's Opera^'tion. See Oesarean 

Ke'^lectome {Krfkn^ a tumor, tKrofjoj^ a cat- 
ting). A cutting instrument introduced 
into a tumor, by means of a canula, in order 
to obtain a part of the substance for ex- 

Ke^loid {xv^V^ a claw). Cheloid, Alibert's 
Keloid. A connective-tissue neoplasm 
marked by irregular, smooth, firmly-elastic 
cicatrice-like lesions. Begins as a small 
no<lule on the skin, that finally assumes 
an oval, crab-shaped form; most common 
over the sternum, but occurs also on the 
mammae, neck,' arms and ears. K. of 
Addison, forms contractions of the skin 


and fasciae, giving a hide-bound look to 
the part. Arises spontaneously from the 
sites of cicatrices and other injuries to the 

Kelot^omy. See Herniotomy. 

Ken^tro - kine^sis {Kevrpm', a center, 
KtvrjtTtc, motion). A term used by Ferrier 
to denote the influence of any motor- nerve 

Kentucky Coffee Bean. See Chicot, 

Kephal^ic. See Cephalic. 

Keph'^alins (xe^oA^ the head). A series 
of substances occurring in brain-tissue, con- 
taining the radicals kephalyl, stearyl, gly- 
ceryl, and neuryl. Occur usually as an 
amorphous, colloidal mass. 

Kephalom^eter. See Cephalometer. 

Ke^phyr. A kind of fermented milk used 
in Transcaucasia. Unof. See Kumyss. 

Ker^asin (xepo^, a horn). A cerebroside 
occurring in brain- tissue. 

Keratecta'^sia (fcepa^^ eKToaiq^ extension). 
The forward protrusion or bulging of the 

Ker^atin (xepof ). The basis of homy tis- 
sues, hair, nails, feathers, etc, A mixture 
of various complex sul>stances. Decom- 
posed, it yields leucin and tyrosin. Neuro- 
keratin, the substance composing the 
sheath of the ax is- cylinder and the white 
substance of Schwann. 

Kerati^tis (icepa^, itiq, inflammation). In- 
flammation of the cornea. K., Astig- 
matic, a form of K. said to be due to 
unconnected astigmatism. K., Interstitial, 
inflammation of the interstitial lamellae of 
the cornea, usually due to inherited syphilis. 
K., Punctate, characterized by minute 
punctate spots on Dcscemet's membrane. 
K., Traumatic, that consequent to wounds 
or other injury of the cornea. 

Ker^atocele («e/oaf , k7j7jj^ tumor). A her- 
nia of Descemet's membrane through the 

Kerato-conjunctivi^tis (icepaCt conjunc- 
tri'itis). Simultaneous inflammation of the 
cornea and conjunctiva. 

Kerato-conom^eter (Kepa^y kuvoq^ a cone, 
fierpov, a measure). An instrument for esti- 
mating astigmatism by the images reflected 
from the cornea. 

Keratoco^nus. See Keratogl<^us. 

Keratog'^enous (fffpa^-, yfwao, to beget). 
Pertaining to the formation of homy 
growths. K. Membrane, that part of the 
skin or layer of corium which develops 
into nails, claws and hoofs. 

Keratoglo^bus (xfpuc, f^lohuSy a ball). 
Distention and protrusion of the cornea. 




The sclerotic may also become distended 
in severe cases. When so extensive as to 
prevent closure of the lids, it has been 
called buphthalmus. When the distention 
is transparent, regular and cone-shaped, 
the apex of the cone being the center of 
the cornea, it is called keratoconus, or 
conical cornea. When the protrusion is 
opaque, or connected with synechia of the 
iris, it is called staphyloma of the cornea, 
or anterior staphyloma. 

Kerato-iri'^tis (icepa^, iritis^ inflammation 
of the iris). Combined inflammation of the 
cornea and iris. 

Keratc^ma. See Callositas. 

Ker^atome (xffxzc, rofuj, acutting). A knife 
with a peculiar trowel-like blade, used for 
making the incision into the cornea in the 
operation of iridectomy. 

Keratomyco^sis (/cepac, M^^V^t & fungus). 
A fungoid growth on the cornea. 

Ker^atoplasty (Kepac, i^'Xaaau, to form). 
Plastic operations upon the cornea, espe- 
cially the transplantation of a button or 
excised portion of cornea from an animal 
eye to that of the human. This is effected 
by means of a peculiar trephine, by which 
the tissue to be transplanted is removed 
from the animal's eye, and the place for 
its reception is made in the human eye. 
Sometimes called trephining the cornea. 

Ker^atoscope {nepaq, twcoTrtw, to observe). 
An instrument for examining the cornea, 
and testing the symmetry of its meridians 
of curvature. 

Keratos^copy. See Retinoscopy, 

Kerato^ses [iupa^\ A class of skin db- 
eases characterizea by thickened epidermis, 
and the presence of such callosities as horns, 
warts, etc. 

Kerato^sis Pila^ris {^Ktpa^^ piius^ hair). 
Called, also, Lichen pilaris y and L. spinu- 
losits. An affection of the skin marked by a 
pin -head-sized conical elevation investing 
the hair follicle and somewhat resembling 
gooseflesh and ichthyosis. 

Ker^atotome. See Keratome, 

Ke^tone. In chemistry, an organic com- 
pound consisting of the unsaturated radical 
=C=0 united to two alcohol radicals. 
May be considered as derivatives of second- 
ary alcohols, bearing the same relation to 
them as the aldehydes bear to the primary 

Kibe. See Chilblain. 

Kid^neys (Mid. Eng. kidneer). The two 
Ivgc glanaular Ixxlies situated in the lum- 
bar regions, by which the urine b secreted. 
They consist of the kidney proper, and ex- 

cretory duct or ureter. The fonner consists 
of an outer cortical substance, and an inner 
medullary matter. K., Bright's Disease 
of. See Bright s Disease, K., Floating, 
one misplaced or movable. K., Large 
Mottled, that of parenchymatous nephritis, 
mottled with gray patches. K., Large 
Red, the kidney of Bright's disease extra va- 
sated with blood. K., Large White, one 
af!ected with lardaceous degeneration ; also, 
that of the advanced stage of Bright*s dis- 
ease. K., Pelvis of, the funnel-shaped ex- 
pansion of the ureter formed by the infundi- 
bula. K., Small White, the flnal stage 
of the large white kidney after loss of its 
substance fix>m atrophy. K., Surgical, 
a name sometimes given to pyelo-nephritis, 
or distention of the kidney attendant with 
inflammation, abscesses of the cortex, and 
retention of urine mixed with foetid pus. 

Kiea^tine. See Kyestein, 

Kil^ogramme (;t'^/o<, one thousand, 
ypafifiaf a gramme). One thousand 
grammes, or 2.2 pounds avoirdupois. 

Kilogramme^tre (xi^uoi, ypa/ifia, fitrpov, 
a measure). A term denoting the energy 
required to raise one kilogramme one meter 
in height; equivalent to 7.233 foot-pounds. 

Kil^olitre (;t'^o«, Xirpa, a liter). One 
thousand liters, or 61,027.05 cu. in. 

Kilometre {xi^it //eT/ww, a measure). 
One thousand meters, or 1093.6 yards. 

Kinsesthe^sis (tuveu^ to move, atathjai^y 
sensation). That quality of sensations 
whereby we are aware of our positions and 
movements, especially those of the auto- 
matic type; distinct from the muscular 

Kinemat^ics {luvffpa, a motion). The 
science of motion without reference to its 
origin or effects. 

KinesiatMcs. Same as Kinesipathy. 

Kinesiom^eter (/c/iv/a/f, fierpoVf a meas- 
ure). An instrument for determining 
quantitatively the motion of a part. 

Kinesioneuro^ses (Kivr^aic, vevpov,a 
ner>'e). P^unctional abnormalism of the 
motor centers or ner\'es. 

Kinesip^athy (Ktvrfai^^ naOoCt suffering). 
The treatment of disease by g^rmnastic or 
calisthenic movements of the parts of the 
body involved. 

Kinesod^ic («r^/f, o^og, a way). Per- 
taining to those nerve fibers conveying 
motor influences. Also, the motor tracts 
of the nerve-system. 

Kinet^ic (Kii'j^tg). That which produces 
motk}n. Pertaining to those forces that 
produce motion. 




King^s Evil. A name formerly popularly 
applied to scrofula, on account of a belief 
that it could be cured by the touch of the 

King's Yellow. See Orpinunt. 

Ki^no. The inspissated juice of Ptero- 
carpus marsupium^ found in India. Simi-* 
lar in action to tannic acid, and used 
mainly as a constituent of gargles and 
diarrhoea mixtures. K., Tinct., lo per 
cent, of the drug. Dose TT\^x-^ij. K., 
Pulv. Comp., unof., kino 15, opium I, 
cinnamon 4. Dose gr. v-xx. 

Kinom'^eter [kivio^ to put in motion, yxTpw^ 
a measure). An instrument to measure the 
amount of displacement of the uterus in case 
of tumor or cellular inflammation of the 

Ki^otome [ku^v^ the uvula, royifi, a section 
or cutting). An instrument for amputating 
the uvula, or for dividing strictures. 

Kis'^singen Water. A laxative tonic 
mineral water of Bavaria. 

Klang. See Timbre, 

Kleptoma'^nia (x^Trrci), to steal, ^lavta^ 
madness). A form of emotional insanity 
manifested by a morbid desire to commit 
theft. It is sometimes accompanied by 
impaired intellect, and is often hereditary. 

Knead'^ing. The same as Petrissage. 

Knee (Sax. cneo). The jouit of the bones 
of the thigh and foreleg. K. Cap, the 
patella. K. Joint, a hinge-joint con- 
sisting of the articulation of the condyle 
of the femur with the upper extremity of 
the tibia and the posterior sur£eu:e of the 
patella. K., Housemaid's. See Ab- 
scess, Bursal. K. Jerk, Patellar Tendon 
Reflex, K. Reflex, or K. Phenom- 
enon, a reflex of the tendon, consisting of a 
slight convulsive kick, due to a light blow 
on the patella tendon. K. Pan, the patella. 
K. Knock. See Genu. 

Knife (Sax. cnif). An instrument for cut- 
ting. In surgery, knives are of various 
sha)x:s and sizes, according to their use. 

Knit^ting. The union and becoming rigid 
of a fracture. 

Knock-knee. See Genu. 
Knuck^les. The joints of the phalanges 
with the metacarpal bones and with each 
other ; also a loop of intestine. 
Koe'^nig's Manomet'^ric Flames. 
Toothed or zigzag flame pictures seen in 
a revolving mirror, and produced by the 
vibrations of the voice against a thin mem- 
brane that separates the gas chamber sup- 
plying a small burner from the air chamber 
into which one speaks. The form of the 

flame picture b characteristic for each 
vowel, and varies with the pitch. 

Ko^la Nut. The seed of Sterculia acu- 
minata. Used in parts of Central Africa 
as a substitute for tea and coffee. Contains 
an alkaloid similar to caffein. A cerebral 
stimulant and cardiac tonic. Dose of a 20 
per cent, tincture, 3J. Unof. 

Kol^po-. See Colpo-. 

Kolpo-perine'^oplasty (/coAttoc , nepivatov, 
TrAoffffcj, to form). An operation for the 
cure of procidentia. 

Kommabacil^lus. See Spirillum Cholera. 

Koos^so. See Brayera. 

Kopf-tet^anusl Cephalic tetanus, due to 
wounds of the head, chiefly in the region 
of the fifth nerve. Initial trismus is asso- 
ciated with paralysis of the face on the side 
of the injury. In some cases there is also 
pharyngeal spasm, so that the name Hy- 
drophobic Tetanus has also been given 
to this form of tetanus. 

Kopio^pia (^con-oc, weakness, u^^ the e^e). 
A Synonjrm of asthenopia. K . Hysterica, 
a term applied to those symptoms which in- 
dicate hyperaesthesia of the fifth and optic 

Kor'c-. See Care-, 

Koros^copy. See Relinoscopy. 

Kou^miss. See Kumyss, 

Kous^so. See Brayera, 

Krame^ria. Rhatany. The root of K, 
triandra and K. tomentosa^ shrubs native 
to South America. Possesses the same 
astringent qualities as tannic acid. A popu- 
lar remedy for fissure of the anus, spongy 
gums, etc. K. Ext., in water. Dose gr. 
v-x. K. Ext., Fid. Dose TT\^v-.:5J. K. 
Syr., contains of the fluid extract 35, syrup 
65. Dose^ss-iss. K. Trochisci, con- 
tain each gr. j ofthe extract. 

Krauro^sis (Kpavpoofiai, to become dry). 
Shriveling and dryness of a part, especially 
of the vulva. 

Krause's End-bulbs. Terminal bodies 
of sensory nerves in the skin and mem- 
branes of all mammals. They are elon- 
gated, oval, or round bodies 0.075 ^o 0.14 
mm. long. 

Kre'^atin («fpfaf, flesh). A constituent of 
muscular and other tissues having basic 

Krea'^tinin (Kpeag). C^H^NjO. A deriv- 
ative of kreatin ; a strong organic base occur- 
ring in normal urine. 

Kre^sol. An aromatic sul)stancc united 
with sulphonic acid, occurring in urine, in 
two forms, orthokrcsol, and {)arakresol; 
metakresol is an isomer of the latter. 


Krin^osin. A nxtrogoiLEed fitttrsdbstaaee 
of the brain, occuinn|r in kog tihmmfiry 
oyatal^. Scinbie in boiling cthfcr and al- 

Kfyptophan'ic Acid. Said to oocnr as a 
free acid in urine, thongii reganfed bj 
Laodwebr as an animal gmn. 

K&hne'a Pancreas PMder. IV cp ai ed 
bjr the prokwged' extxactioo of fresh pan- 
creas of ox with alcohol and then vith ether. 

Ko^myss. Konnri-w OriginaUj, fermtnted 
■Dare's milk. Of high repute amoB^ Rns- 
sians as a food for phthisical patients^ 
Largelv made in the United States, bv ia- 
nesting cow's milk J xxix with jeas Jss 



atfeccioos of the kaiutjiSb. 
Kn^mng OiL See Ptmgianm. 
^4mciif , conce|itMBy < 
r). A filmj dcpotot of '***^'**^^^rg 
at one time thought to be diagnostic 

KjKmograph (<n«, a ware, }paaw, to 
write I. A waTe- writer. An instnmieiift 
for leprodndng graphicallT the Tariatioo^ 
in the pressure of the biooi. 
KyplK/sts \ ftr«M02{-, hamp-baclL>. Hmnp- 
back. Angular cmiatm e of the spine. 

L. The abbreviatioD of Lfft^ and also of 
Libra f a pound. 

Labarraque's Solution. See Chlorine, 

La^bia (Lat, a lip). The lips. Applied 
to lip-like structures and to the edges 
of an incised wound. L. Majora ox L. 
Pudendi Majora, two folds of skin of the 
female external genital organs, arising just 
below the mons veneris, surrouxKling the 
vulval entrance, and meeting at the ante- 
rior part of the perineunL L. Minora, or 
Nympha, two folds of skin at the inner 
surfaces of the labia majora. 

La^bial {Jabid). Pertaining to the lips. 
L. Bone. See Intemiaxillary. 

Lji^bials [labia). The consonant sounds 
which are formed mainly by the lips. See 

Labidom^eter (Aa/3^, forceps, fierpov, a 
measure). A forceps deigned to measure 
the dimensions of the h^d of a foetus in 
the fx-lvis. 

La'^bile (la /for, to glide). Easily falling 
oflf. In electro- therapeutics a labile appli- 
cation is the i>a.ssing of the electrode — 
usually the negative — along and touching 
the skin r)vcr the track of a nerve. 

La'^bio- glos^so- larynge'^al Paralysis 
(labium, a lip, y'/unnn, the tongue, 7japv)^, 
the larynx). See Bulbar. 

LAbio - glosBO - pharyngeal (labium, 
yXuaaa^ fapvy^, the gullet). Per- 

taining coDjointlj to the Up&, toogne and 

LaHnoinancy (labium^ funrrtta, a divina- 
tion). The power of underslanding what 
b said by observing the motions of the lips 
in speech. 

LAbioplas^tic {labium, T/iUJvw, to form). 
Pertaining to an operation for restoring the 
lip, after injury or partial destruction of the 

LAbiotenac'ulum (labium, tenaculum, an 
instrument for gripping). An instrument 
for holding the lips in a position required 
for examination or operation. 

LA^bium ( Lat. ) . A lip. Also, any structure 
consisting of a strip or flap of elastic tissue 
that closes upon an orifice. 

LA^bor (Lat.). Work. Parturition; bring- 
ing forth young: the process whereby the 
fcetus and its appeixiages are expelled 
from the mother. L., Artificial, when 
effected or aided by other means than 
the forces of the maternal organism. L., 
Conduct of the, management, hygienic, 
medical or .surgical, of the parturient woman. 
L., Difficult. See Dystocia. L., Dry, 
when there is a deficiency of the liquor 
amnii, or when there has been a prema- 
ture rupture of the bag of waters. L., 
False, or False Pains. See Pains. 
L»., Insanity of. See Insanity, L»., In- 
•tnimentalt one requiring the use of in- 



struments to extract the child. L., Mech- 
anism of, the movements of adjustment 
whereby the foetus is accommodated to the 
dimensions and variations of the birth-canal 
in its passage through it. L., Missed, 
retention of the dead foetus in utero be- 
yond the period of normal gestation. L., 
Natural, or Normal, or Physiological, 
when effected by the sole power of the ma- 
ternal organism. L., Pathological, when 
deviating from the normal type by reason 
of weakness of the maternal forces, anoma- 
lies of the pelvis, or of the foetus, or of 
complications, all being causes of ob- 
structed L. L., Postponed, delayed 
beyond nine months. L., Premature, 
taking place before the normal period of 
gestation, but when the foetus is viable. 
L., Stages of, the first begins with dilata- 
tion of the OS, and ends with complete di- 
latation, so the head can pass; the second 
ends with the expulsion of the child ; the 
third {^placental) includes the expulsion 
of the placenta. 

Lab^oratory (laboratoriuni). A room or 
place designed for experimental work in 
chemistry, physiology, biology, etc, 

Lab^'rador Tea. The leaves of Ledum 
lati folium. Demulcent, expectorant and 
tonic. Dose of fid. ext, 3 j-ij. Unof. 

Labur^num. The leaves of Cystisus /. 
Properties due to an alkaloid, cystisin. In 
small doses diuretic and resolvent. In 
larger doses poisonous, irritating the ali- 
mentary tract, and producing purging, 
vomiting and exhaustion. Unof. 

Lab^yrinth {7ia(ivfn^Soq). A name given to 
the series of cavities of the internal ear, com- 
prising the vestibule, cochlea and tlie semi- 
circular canals. L.,Bony. ^t L.^ osseous. 
L., Membranous, the membranous cavi- 
ty within the osseous labyrinth, from which 
it is partly separated by the perilymph. It 
comprises two sacs contained within the 
vestibule, the semicircular canal and the 
canal of the cochlea. L., Osseous, the 
bony ca{)8ule of the internal ear, communi- 
cating in front with the cochlea and behind 
with the semicircular canals. L. Pit. 
See Auditory. 

Lac (Lat.). Milk. Also, the resinous sub- 
stance de{x>sited on trees by an insect of 
the genus coccus. 

Lacera'^tion {/acero^io tear). Mechanical 
rupture by a tearing action. L. of Peri- 
nseum, a tearing through the wall sepa- 
rating the vagina and perimeum, which 
occiu^ occasionally to a female in child- 

Lachnan^'thes Tinctoria. Red Root. 
A plant popular in parts of the U. S. as 
an expectorant and silterative in phthisis. 
Dose of a 10 per cent, tincture, TT\^x. 

Lach^rymal (lachryma^ a tear). Having 
reference to the organs of the secretion, 
transfer, or excretion of tears. L. Appara - 
tus, the lachrymal gland, ducts, canal, 
sac, and nasal duct. L. Artery, the first 
branch of the ophthalmic, supplying the 
gland. L. Bone, upon the nasal side 
of the orbit, articulating with the frontal, 
the ethmoid and superior maxillary bones, 
in which begins the lachrymal groove and 
nasal duct. L. Canals, or Canaliculi, 
superior and inferior^ extend from the 
puncta to the sac, and serve to convey the 
excess of tears from the eye to the nose. 
L. Ducts, seven to fourteen in number, 
extending obliquely from the gland to the 
fornix conjunctivae, carrying the tears to 
the conjunctival surface of the globe. L. 
Gland, the gland secreting the tears, situ- 
ated in a depression of the frontal bone, 
the L. fossa ^ at the upper and outer angle 
of the orbit. L. Probe, a probe for 
exploring or dilating the canaliculi and 
nasal duct. L. Puncta, the minute orifices 
of the canaliculi, upon the eyelids near the 
inner canthus. L. Sac, a sacciform enlarge- 
ment of the upper part of the nasal duct, 
into which the canaliculi empty. L. Style, 
a probe used in stricture of the nasal duct. 

Lach^ryma (Lat.). A tear. 

Lachryma^tion. An excessive secretion, 
or an overflow, of tears, from any cause. 

Lacin^iate (lacinia^ tlie flap of a gar- 
ment). Jagged or fringed. 

Lac'mus. See Litmus, 

Lac^rimal. See Lachrymal. 

Lactalbu^min (lac^ allmmen). An alka- 
loid asserted to have been found in milk. 

Lacta'^tion (lacto^ to suckle). Suckling. 
Applied also to the period during which 
the child suckles. 

Lac^teal (lac^ milk). Pertaining to milk. 

Lacteals. The lymphatics of the small in- 
testine which take up the chyle. 

Lac^telne (lac). Same as Lactoline. 

Lac^tic {Jac). Pertaining to milk or its 
derivatives. L. Acid. See Acid^ Lactic. 
L. Fermentation. See Fermentation 

Lac^tide. A crystalline substance obtained 
by heating lactic acid or any of its isomers. 

LactiPerous (lac^ fcrro^ to carry). A 
term applied to vessels that convey milk. 
L. Ducts, the ducts of the mammary gland. 
L. Glands, the mammary glands. L. 

' lie Greek letter A. 
ronnecling Ifae OC' 
ictal boiKs. 
A method of mii- 
wnfei? and n slip o( 
of reflections from ibe 

iperimptncd on another 

/aminu, b plale). A 
to any fciliatioa or 
L. of Bone, the 
iding the Ilnvenian 

r, a thin plate]. Having 
of, or lesembling any thin, osx- 
L. Cataract. 

me'ness. The condition of inabilityto 
f ilie limbi freely, or vrithout pnin. 
" ""1 {lamma. a pUle or scale). A 
' e leno used to duignale foliated 
Also, any ihin layer of hone, 
membrane, or other tissue. L., Bowman's, 
the slniclurclesi mcml Trine bolween the 
anterior layers of epithelium and the Rlimus 
tissue of the cornea of the eye. L. Cinera, 
the conneclinn layer of gray mailer between 
the corpus callowm and the 0|itic com- 
missure. L. Cribrosa of the Sclerotic, 
Ibe perfented lamina thnwgh which Ihe 
optic nerre enim the globe of the eye. 
ll. Cribroaa of the Temporal Bone, a 
■mall laminated hone forming the end of 
the internal audilny mealui. L. Dor- 


Balis, one of the two ridges bordering the 
me<lutlarygroovc, that unite to (ona a canal 
which finally develops into the cerebro- 
Epinal canal. L. Fusca, the pigmenlaiy 
tissue of the sclerotic forming the outer 
layer of the ]x:nchor(nilul sinuii. L. Spi- 
ralis, a thin plate in the ear, o.-u-cius in the 
inner part and memliranouit iu the outer, 
that divides the qtiral tulie of the cochlea 
into the srala lympani and itala viililmii. 
L. Spiralis Ossea, a tbin y\a.\e of t-one 
that winds spirally around the modiolus 
of the cochlea. L. Superchoroidea, the 
dtlieate mcniliruiie of Ihe outer surface of 
the choroid tunic of the eye. 

Lamina'ria (lamina). Tlic Cured lower 
partof the sicmof Z. r/iw.</nnt. L. Bou- 
gie, a bougie made of the stalk ; n.sed Ibr 
urethral dilatation. L. Probe, a probe 
maile of the stalk, used to dilate the cnna- 
licuti and na.i'al duct. L. Tent, a lent 
maile of the .stem of the plant, for dilata- 
tion of the lenix uUri. 

Lamitia'tioit {lamina). Arranged in 
plates or layers. An o]>rration in eniliy- 
otomy, consisting in cutting the i.kull in 

Lam'ium Al'bum, The leaves and 

stems of the plant L. album. I'ropeilies 
due (0 an alkaloiil. Lamina. Useful in 
menorrhagia. lJo>.c of the tincture z ss-ij. 
Lanc'eolate (tantiela, a little spear). 

Having the form of a lance-heail. 
Lan'cet (dim. lantra, lance), 
edged surgical ' ' 

Lanc'inatc {laneine.lo tear). To lacerate, 
pierce, or 

Lanci'si, Nerves of. The ifrio' hn^iiu- 
dinal.s. The elevated lonf>itudinal bands 
of white matter of the corpus callosum of 
(lie brain Iwunding Ihe raphi. 

Lan'dry's Paral'ysis. A fiTin of paialy- 
sa descrilied by I.and[7, characterised bjr 
loss of motor power in the lower extremi- 
ties, Kfailuolly extending to the upjier ei- 
trcmities, and to the centers of circulation 
and resfHTation. 

Land Scurvy, See Fvr/'iira. 

Lan'essin. A preparation of wool-fat 
iumilar to lanolin. 

Langerhan'a Cells. Certain modilli-d 
e|)ithclial cell* forming thesimplci nerve- 

Lang'uage (liiijpia, the longneV 'Hie 
arlimlalB rounds, signs, orsyml«K whereby 
thought is communicated. L., CentM 
for. See Afhaiia. 




Lang^uor (Lat. faintness). Lassitude. 
Disinclination to take bodily exercise, or 
to exert one's self. 

Lan^olin. A cholesterine fat obtained 
fk»m sheep's wool. Recently introduced 
as a basis for ointments. It does not 
saponify or become rancid and is charac- 
terized by remarkable penetrative powers. 

Lan^tanine. An alkaloid extractive of 
^'erda sagrada. Asserted to have antiperi- 
odic and antipyretic properties. Has been 
successfully used in intermittents. Dose, 
gr. xv-xxx. Unof. 

I^n^termann*8 Notches. The appear- 
ance of the intemodal segments of the 
nerve-sheath under the influence of cer- 
tain reagents, dividing the same into strips 
obliquely cut at the ends. 

Lanu^go ^lana^ wool). The down-like 
hair that appears upon the foetus about 
the fifth month of gestation. 

Lapac^tic (AoTraffaw, to empty). Empty- 
ing. Also, any purgative medicine or 

Lap^aro- {Jjn^apa^ the abdominal walls). 
A Greek prefix denoting connection or rela- 
tion to the abdomen or abdominal walls. 

Laparo-colot^omy (AaTrapa, Kokow^ the 
colon, ro^ri^ a cutting). Inguinal colotomy. 

Laparo-cystec^tomy (Xafrapo, kixsti^^ a 
cyst, EKTOfiriy an excision). The excision 
of an extra-uterine foetus with its cyst 
through an incision of the abdominal 

Laparo-cystot^omy {hnzapa, KwrriCt rofiij, 
a cutting). An incision through the pa- 
rietes into a cyst containing an extra-uterine 
foetus, for the purpose of removing the 

Laparo-elytrot^omy. See Cesarean Ope- 

Laparo-enterot^omy {Xana(Mf tvrepov, 
an intestine, toiuj, a cutting). An incision 
into the intestine in the iliac region, for 
the relief of an intestinal obstruction. 

Laparo-gastrot^omy {Xmrapa, yaarrip^ 
the stomach, ro^^ a cuttmg). An incision 
through the abdominal walls for the pur- 
p(»e of reaching the stomach. 

Laparo-hysterect^omy (Xairapa^ wrrepa, 
the womb, tKTopiTf^ an excision). The re- 
moval of the womb through an incision in 
the alxlominal walls. 

Laparo-hystero-oophorec^tomy. See 
Casarean Operation, Porrt^s Operation. 

Laparo-hysterot'^omy. See Gastro-en- 

Laparo-ileot^omy {^i^apa^ ileum, rofiif. 

a cutting). The formation of an artificial 
anus in tne groin. 

Laparos^copy (Aan-a/Mz, OKoneu, to exam- 
ine). The examination of the abdomen 
by the stethoscope, plessimeter, or by other 
instrumental means. 

Laparo-splenot^omy {hrntipa, an^ijv, the 
spleen, rofirf, a cutting). The surgical 
incision or entrance upon the spleen, 
through the abdominal walls. 

Ilaparot^omy. See Casarean Opera- 

La^pis (Lat a rock). An alchemic term 
applied to any non-volatile substance. L. 
Divinus, a mixture of cupric sulphate, 
potassium nitrate and ammonio-potassium 
sulphate, a& i6 parts. L. Mitigatus. 
See Argentum. 

Lap^pa. Burdock. The root of the com- 
mon burdock, Z. officinalis; contains a 
bitter principle, a resm, and tannin. Aperi 
ent and diuretic. Has some reputation ab 
an alterative in constitutional blood dis« 
eases. A tincture of the seed has been 
recommended in skin diseases. Dose of 
the root 3 j-ij> in infusion or tincture. 

Lard. See Adeps. 

Larda^cein. An am'mal proteid, an indi- 
gestible amyloid substance, chiefly occur- 
ring as a pathological infiltration into 
various organs, as the liver, spleen, etc, 

Larda^ceous. See Amyloid, 

Lark^spur. The seed of Delphinum 
consoluJa. Diuretic and emmenagogue. 
Dose of fld. ext. TT\j-x. Unof. 

Lar^va {latvay a ghost). That form insects 
take in emerging from the egg, com- 
monly known as the caterpillar or " grub" 
stage. Also, applied to the immature form 
distinguishing many of the lower verte- 
brates before maturity. 

Lar^val {Jan'a). Pertaining to or existing 
in the condition of a larva. 

Larynge^al ("kapvy^, the larynx or wind- 
pipe). Pertaining to the larjTix. L. Artery, 
the superior thyroid artery. L. Cough, 
a shrill, metallic cough of nervous origin, 
occurring occasionally without .symptoms 
of disease of the lungs. L. Crisis, an 
acute larjmgeal spasm, occurring in the 
course of tabes dorsalis. L. Dilator, an 
instrument designed to dilate the larynx, 
when the latter has become constricted by 
cicatricial tissues, or from other causes. 
L. Mirror, a small circular, silvered -glass 
mirror used in laryngoscopy. L. Nerve. 
See Nerve, L. Paralysis, a loss of power 
of some or of all of the muscles of the 
laiynx. L. Spaces, the upper, middle, 




and lower puts into which the layrnx may 
be conveniently divided. 
Laiyngect^omy ^Aa/wy^, ticroftfj, a. cutting 
out). An operation for the extirpation of 
the larynx. 

Lar3mgi8^inu8 (Xapiryyil^ij, to vociferate). 
A term loosely applied to various spasmodic 
affections of the larynx. L. Stridulus. 
Same as Laiyngospasm. 

Laryng^^tis {Xapvy^, tri^, inflammation). 
A catarrhal inflammation of the larynx 
accompanied by sore throat, hoarseness, 
and, usually, painful deglutition and cough. 
In severe cases there may be oedema, 
dyspnoea, and suffocation. In infants it is 
much the same disease as croup. It also 
accompanies malignant affections of the 
throat and trachea, such as diphtheria, 
cancer, tr/c. 

Laryn^go-fis^sure (Xapvy^, fissurd). 
Division of the larynx for the removal of 
tumors or foreign bodies. 

Laiyngog^raphy {}uap)\rf^^ ypf^* to 
write). A description of the larynx. 

LaryngoKogy {^.ofnr}^, ^of, a treatise). 
A treatise on the larynx. 

LaryngoparaKysis (lapvy^, irapakvaiq, 
palsy). Loss of the voice or paralysis of 
the vocal cords from nervous affections, not 
local disease. 

Lar3mgop^athy {T^apvy^, waBoCf a suffer- 
ing). A term including all affections of 
the larynx. 

Laryngophan^toni (Aapvy^, i^vraofiaf a 
vision). An artificial larynx designed for 
illustrative purposes. 

Laryn-'go-pharynge^al (^ptry^^ ^a/nf}-^, 
the throat). Pertaining conjointly to both 
larynx and pharynx. 

Lraryngoph^ony (hipiQ^^ ^cjv^, the voice). 
The sound of the voice observed in the 
auscultation of the larynx with the stetho- 
scope ; also the sound of the voice observed 
in the auscultation of a large cavity in the 

Laryngople^gia {hipvy^^ T^^-nyVj a stroke). 
Paralysis of the muscles of the larynx. 

Lar3m^gospasm (Aa/^vyf, ffwaafjo^f a 
spasm). Spasmodic contraction or closure 
of the glottis ; spasmodic croup, as dis- 
tinguished from inflammatory croup. 

Lar3m^goscope (^apvy-^f aKonru, to ob- 
serve). An instrument for examination of 
the larynx. 

Laryngo-steno^sis {Xapvy^y arevuotCy a 
contraction). Contraction in size of the 

Laiyngot^omy (Xapvy^f refn'Uf to cut). 
The operation of incision of the larynx. 

Laryngo-tracbe^al (hipvy^y Tpaxeut, the 
windpipe). Pertaining conjointly to the 
larynx and the trachea. 
Laryngotracheot^omy (P.apvjf , rpaxeuif 
Toptf, a section ) . That form of the operation 
of tracheotomy in which the cricoid carti- 
lage, and some of the upper rings of the 
trachea are divided. 

Lar^ynx (Aa/wyf ,). The upper port of the 
air passage, between the trachea and the 
base of the tongue. It comprises three 
single cartilages, the thyroid, cricoid, and 
epiglottis, and three pairs of cartilages, the 
arytenoid and those of Santorini and Wris- 
berg. It is lined with an extremely sensi- 
tive mucous membrane, which forms two 
transverse lipped folds that constitute the 
vocal cords. 

Lasciv^ious (A7jrfV/V7,wantonness). Libidi 
nous. Wanton. Having an unlawful desire. 
Las^situde (/assus, tired). A state of ex- 
haustion or weakness, arising from causes 
other than fatigue. 
La^ta. Sec Miryachit, 
La^tency {Jateo^ to be hid). The condition 
of being latent or concealed. 
La'^tent (lateo). Concealed. Not manifest. 
In physics, applied to heat that appa- 
rently disappears when a liquid is vapor- 
ized or a solid melted. L. Period, the 
time required for the incubation of a disease. 
Lat^erad (/a/us, the side). Toward the 
lateral aspect of. 

Lat^eral [lateralis). At, belonging to, or 
pertaining to the side. The aspect of the 
side viewed from the middle. L. Col- 
umn, that column of the spinal cord 
between the antero- and postero-lateral 
fissures. L. Operation, that form of opera- 
tion in lithotomy in which the opening is 
made on the left side of the perineum. 
L. Plates, the part of the mesoblast lying 
external to the provertebre. L. Sinuses, 
the two veins of the dura mater situated in 
the attached margin of the tentorium cere- 

Lateri^tious (later, brick). Pertaining to 

an urinary sediment resembling brick-dust. 

Latere- cervi^cal (lateralis, cen>ix, the 

neck). At or about the side of the neck. 

Latero-dor^sal (lateralis, dorsum, the 

back). At or near the side of the back. 

Latero-flex^ion {lateralis, JUcto,\jQ liend). 

Bending to one side. 
Lateropul^sion (lateralis, pello, lo drive). 
An involuntary motion or Ix^aring to one 

La^tex (Lat., liquid). The sap or the juice 
of the tubes or vessels of plants. 




Lath^yrus Cic^era. A species of vetch, 
commonly known as "chick-pea." See 

Latb^jrrism (?,a^p^f, spurge). The con- 
vulsive movements, tremors and paraplegia 
arising from the use of the seeds of Lathy- 
rus cicera. 

Latis^simus (superl. of lotus ^ wide). An 
adjective signifying widest. It is used as 
a descriptive term with certain muscles. 
L. Colli. See Muscle [Platysma My- 
ouies). L. Dorsi. See Muscle, 

Laud^anin. One of the alkaloids of opium. 
It is soluble in chloroform and alkaline 

Laud'^anum. See Opium. 

Laugh^ing (Sax. hUhhan). A succession 
of rhythmic, spasmodic expirations with 
open glottis and vibration of vocal cords. 
L. Gas. See Nitrogen. 

Laur^el. See Kalmia. 

La^va (Lat., a flood or torrent). The 
molten ejecta of a volcano. 

Lavage (Fr.). Irrigation or washing out 
the stomach. 

Lavamen'^tum {Javo^ to wash). An in- 

Lav^ender, or 

Lavan^dula. The flowers of L. vera. 
Properties due to a volatile oil. Aromatic, 
stimulant and carminative, but used mainly 
as a flavor and adjuvant of other medi- 
cines. L. Ol., the volatile oil distilled 
from the whole herb. Dose n\j-v. L. 
Ol. Florum, the oil distilled fifom the 
fresh flowers, preferable to preceding. 
Dose Tt\j-v. A constituent of Spt. Odor- 
atus. L. Spt., 3 fMuts of the oil in 97 of 
alcohol ; a perfume. Dose 3 ss-j. L. 
Tinct. Comp., oil of lavender 8, oil of 
rosemary 2, cinnamon 18, cloves 4, nut- 
meg 10, red saunders 8, alcohol 680, water 
270, dilute alcohol to make 1 000. Dose 
.^^ss-ij, a constituent of Fowler's solu- 

Laveran, Corpuscles of. See Bacillus^ 
of Malaria^ and Plasmodium, 

Lax {laxo^ to loosen). lxx)se. Not tense. 

Lax'^ative {laxo\ An agent that loosens 
the contents of the bowels. A mild pur- 

Laxa^tor (/ajr^). That which loosens or 
relaxes. A name applied to various muscles. 
L. Tjrmpani. See Muscle, 

Lay^er (Sax. leger^ a couch). A mass of 
uniform, or nearly uniform, thickness, 
spread over or covering a considerable 

Laxaret^to (Ital., a pest bouse). A qoar- 

antme establishment. Also, a place for 
fumigation and disinfection. 

Lead. See Plumbum, 

Lead-poisoning. Either due to acci- 
dental or industrial introduction of lead into 
the system. The symptoms are disturbed 
nutrition, anaemia, the gingival line, lead 
colic, constipation, pains in the limbs, local 
muscular paralysis (wrist-drop) and wast- 
ing, saturnine encephalopathy, etc. The 
treatment consists in stopping ingress of 
lead to the system, its elimination by 
iodide of potassium, aperients, etc. 

Leaf Cup. See Bearsfoot, 

Lean^ness. A condition of having less 
than the normal amount of flesh. It may 
be natural, or the result of disease. 

Leav^en (levoy to raise). A name given 
to several species of ferments belonging to 
the class of saccharomycetes^ of which the 
culture known as "sour dough" is a com- 
mon example. 

Lec^ithin (Ae/u^, yolk of egg). A class 
of nitrc^enized, phosphorized substances 
occurring in brain- and nerve-tissue. 

Lectua^lis (dim. of lectusy a bed). Per- 
taining to a bed or couch. Also, diseases 
that confine one in bed. Also, a patient. 

Lec^tulus (dim. of lectus). A l)ed or 
couch. Also, a couch or mattress contain- 
ing medicinal substances. L. Medicatus, 
a dry fermentation. 

Leech (Sax. liece^ physician), fftrudo 
MedicinaliSt of the order Hinidinea^ class 
Annelida^ sub-kingdom Vermes, To extract 
blood by leeching. L., Artificial, the 
apparatus for cupping. 

Lees (A. S. Icts^ dregs). The dregs or solid 
matter held in suspension by a lir}uid, that 
finally settles at the bottom of the vessel. 
Especially the sediment of vinous liquors. 

Leg. The lower extremity of man, espe- 
cially that part from the knee to the ankle. 
An organ of locomotion of man and 
other animals. 

Legit^imacy [legitimo^ to make lawful). 
The condition of being within the bounds 
of the law. Also, the statutory recogni- 
tion of a child bom within wedlock, or 
within a period of time necessary to gesta- 
tion, which may elapse after the death of 
the father. 

Leg^'^min. See Casefn. 

Leiomyo^ma (Af/of, smooth, //wf, a 
muscle). A form of myoma characterized 
by unstriped muscular fiber. 

Leipothy^mia {^tiru^io relincjuish, ^vfio^^ 
the mind). A term denoting fainting or 




Leister's Tubes. Tubes of soft, flexible 
metal designed for bending about any 
part of the body. Cold water is passed 
through the tubes, thereby reducing the 
temperature of the parts encased. 

Lem^on. See Limon. 

Lens (Lat., a lentil). A regularly-shaped 
piece of glass or crystal for the refraction 
of rays of light. The crystalline lens of 
the eye. L., Achromatic. See Achro- 
matic, L., Biconcave, a thick-edged lens 
having concave spherical surfaces upon 
its opposite sides, called also a negative or 
minus lens; used in spectacles to correct 
myopia. L., Biconvex {^positive kx plus 
lens), a thin-edged lens ; it has two con- 
vex surfaces ; used to correct hyperopia. L., 
Cylindrical (either minus or plus), one 
ground upon a cylindrical tool, i.e.y one 
with a plane surface in one axis and a con- 
cave or convex surface in the axis at right 
angles to the same. L., Decentered, 
one in which the optical center is not 
opposite the pupil of the eye. L., Peri- 
scopic, one with concavo-convex or 
convexo-concave surfaces, the opposite 
sides being of different curvatures; to 
avoid spherical aberration, and to gain a 
greater Beld of clear vision, called meniscus 
lenses. L., Plano-concave, Plano- 
convex, Piano-cylindrical, has a plane 
surface upon one side and a curved surface 
upon the reverse. L., Spherical, one 
whose curved surface is a segment of a 
sphere, either concave or convex, in con- 
tradistinction to a cylindrical lens. L., 
Sphero-cylindrical, one with a spherical 
surface upon one side, and a cylindrical 
upon the reverse, used for the correction of 
either myopia or hyperopia, combined with 
astigmatism. See Spectacle- Lenses. 

Lentic^ular (dim. of lens). Pertaining to 
or resembling a lens ; also a descriptive term 
ap|>lied to an instrument with a curved 
cutting edge for removing the rough edges of 
bone made by the trephine. L. Ganglion. 
See Gan^rlion. L. Nucleus, the extra- 
ventricular portion of the corpus striatum. 

Lenti^go {Jens\ Freckles, Ephelides. 
Circumscribed spots or patches of pig- 
ment, small in size and occurring mainly 
on the face and hands. Freckles rarely 
occur before eight years, and are not com- 
mon in aged persons. Most frequent among 
people of light complexion. 

Len^tor (lentuSy adhesive). Viscidity of a 

Leonti^asis {leo, a lion). See Etephanti' 
Otis, L. Ossa. See Osteitis. 

Lcp^er {Xeirpog, scaly). One affected with 

Lep^ido- (^£inc. a scale). A Greek prefix 
signifying a scale, or scaly. 

Lep^idoid (Xent^). Having the appear- 
ance of a scale. 

Lepidoplas^tic {^irtf, ir^ctaau, to form). 
Forming scales. 

Lepidop/tera {^^irtCt f^repov, a wing). An 
order of insects distinguished by feather- 
like scales and a spindly coiled suctorial 
apparatus. The order includes butterflies 
and moths. 

Lepid^osis (?.tiriQ). Same as Ichthyosis. 
Also, a synonym for Lepra. 

Lep^ocyte (AeTroc, a husk or sheath, kvtoc, 
a cell). A nucleated cell. 

Lep'^othrix (AeTroc, 6pt^, a hair). A condi- 
tion of the hair, especially that of the arm- 
pits, in which the shaft becomes encased 
in a sheath of hardened sebaceous matter. 
Also, the typical thread-like form assumed 
by certain species of bacteria of the (»der 

Lep^ra (Aeir/Mi, a leper). Leprosy. Ele- 
phantiasis Graecorum. Leontiasis. Psori- 
asis. An endemic, chronic, and highly 
malignant disease, somewhat analogous to 
syphilis in pathological character. Preva- 
lent in Europe and Asia, especially along 
the Mediterranean shores. Rare in North 
America, except on Pacific coast. A con- 
stitutional disease preceded by malaise, 
debility and languor, followed by character- 
istic bullous, macular, or tubercular lesions 
of the skin. L., Tuberculated, charac- 
terized by massive infiltrations and the 
formation of tubercles, commonly on the 
face, breasts, scrotum and penis. L., 
Non-tuberculated, a form of the disease 
characterized by macular patches that 
spread peripherally, until much or the 
whole of the skin is involved. In later 
stages the disease extends into the subcu- 
taneous tissues, muscles and bones, result- 
ing in disarticulation and destruction of the 
joints of the fingers and toes. This form 
of leprosy is nearly always marked by 
anaesthesia of the pcuts involved. L., 
Mixed Tuberculated, involves both 
forms of the disease. There is very strong 
evidence in favor of the contagious char- 
acter of the disease, and, also, that it is 
intimately connected with the develop- 
ment of a specific bacillus. 

LeprophthaKmia (P^tt^, o^a?.fioc, 
the eye). Ophthalmia of a leprous char 

Lep^rosy. See Lepra. 




Leucophlegma^sia {XevKog, ^?,ey/ia, 
phlegm). A condition marked by a ten- 
dency to dropsy, accompanied by a pale, 
flabby skin, and general oedema of the 
whole body. Also, subcutaneous emphy- 

Leucopla^sia {XevKo^, irXaai^, formation). 
A name given to formations of white spots 
or plates on the epidermis and epithelium. 

Leucorrhoe^a (Aevicoc, l>eu, to flow). An 
ailment characterized by a muco-punilent 
discharge from the female genitsd canal, 
attended with catarrhal inflammation. The 
pus is usually filled with Trichomonas vagi- 
naliSf a large rod-like bacterium, in addi- 
tion to the various species of leptothrix and 
micrococcus normally present. According 
to the secreting part it is termed, cervical, 
uterine, vaginid, vulvar, etc, 

Leuco^ses (Aetwof). Diseases of the lym- 
phatic system. 

Leuco^sis (Anwcoc). Abnormal whiteness 
of the skin. Also, the development and 
progress of leucoma. 

Leuks^mia. See Leucocythamia, 

Leu^koc3rte. See Leucocyte. 

Leukoc3rto^8is. See Leucocytosis, 

Leukoder^ma. See Leucoderma. 

Leukoplak^ia (Aftwof, ^Aa^, a flat surface). 
Certain white fungoid patches, sometimes 
forming on the dorsum of the tongue and 
mucous surface of the cheeks and lower 

Leu^sin. A crystalline body found in 

Levant^ Wormseed. See Santonica, 

Leva^tor (Icvo, to lift). That which 
raises. A name given to several muscles. 
See Muscle, 

Levato^res Costa^rum. See Muscle, 

Leviga^tion Uevigo^ to make smooth). The 
trituration ot a substance made into a 
paste with water or other liquid. When 
performed with a muller on a slab of por- 
phyry it is called porphyritation. 

Lev^ulose. The natural sugar of fruits. 
See Sugar and Glucose^ 

Ley^den Battery. A series of Leyden 
jars connected tandem. 

Leyden Jar. A glass jar coated within 
and without with tinfoil, reaching nearly 
to the neck, and surmounted by a knobbed 
conductor connecting with the inner coat- 
ing. It is designed for the temporary 
"accumulation" of electricity, or rather 
for the preservation of the high potential 
to which the inner foil may be chaiged. 
It is discharged by connecting the outer 
foil with the knob. 

Lia^tris Odoratis^sima. Southern Va- 
nilla. Contains cumarin^ the flavoring 
principle of the tonka bean. Unof 

Libid^inous (liindinosusy lustful). Char 
acterized by strong sexual desire. 

Li^bra (libra). A weight of twelve troy 
ounces, or 5760 grains. Also, applied to 
the avoirdupois pound of sixteen ounces, 
or 7000 grains. 

Lice. See Louse. 

Li^cense (licentio). An official permit or 
authority conferring on the holder the right 
and privilege of exercising his profession. 

Licen^tiate (licentio). A term sometimes 
applied to a person who practices a pro- 
fession by the authority of a license. 

Li^chen (pieixvvt a lichen). A term now 
restricted to those diseases in which in- 
flanunatory papuke undei^^oing no change 
are the main feature of the disease. L. 
Ruber, an inflammatory disease marked 
by pin-head or pea-sized papules, which 
may be smooth, but more often scaly, and 
deep red. May be discrete or confluent. 
The most common form in the U. S., known 
as L, ruber f ot planus, is distinguished by 
angular spots. The acimiinate form, L. 
Acuminatum, is rare. L. Scrofulosus, 
characterized by small and chronic inflam- 
matory, red papules, usually arranged in 
circles, and occurring in scrofulous subjects. 
According to Van Harlingcn it is rarely 
met with in the U. S. L. Pilaris. See 
Keratosis Pilaris, L. Simplex. See 
Eczema, L. Spinulosis. See Kerato- 
sus pilaris, L. Tropicus. See Milia- 

Licheni^asis. The condition of one af- 
fected by the disease lichen, 

Li^chenoid of the Tongue. A peculiar 
chronic and spreading rash of the tongue, 
at first appearing in light crescentic bands 
The etiology is obscure. 

Lid. See Eyelid. 

Lie^ben*s Test (for acetone in the urine). 
Acidulate with hydrochloric acid and distill. 
Wlien treated with tincture of iodine and 
ammonia there is a turbidity, due to the 
formation of iodoform. 

Lie^berkiihn's Jelly. An alkali-albumin 
produced by the action of strong caustic 
potash upon egg-albumin. 

Lie^bermann*8 Reac^tion. A test for 
proteids. A violet-red color is obtained by 
fmiling animal proteids with concentrated 
hydrochloric acid. 

Lie^big. A celebrated German physiolo- 
gist L.'a Beef Tea, the soluble extnu:- 
tivc matter of lean meat It is prepared by 




macerating a pound of lean meat, free from 
fat and cut into small pieces, in a pint of 
cold water, in which TT\^xxx of hydro- 
chloric acid and gr. xl of sodium chloride 
have been dissolved. The liquid is ex- 
pressed and strained. L.'s Bouillon. 
See Bouillon. L.*s Extractum Camis, 
a proprietary preparation, consisting of the 
soluble fibrin of meat with the natural 
mineral salts and a flavoring principle os- 
mazome. L.*s Infant Food, a proprie- 
tary substance, having the following com- 
position : wheat flour, malt flour, AA ^ ss, 
potassium bicarbonate gr. vij, dbtuled 
water 5j, cow's milk ^v, mix thoroughly 
and boil. L.*8 Method. See Urea. 

Li^en (Lat.). The spleen. 

Lienomala^cia (//>», ^akwua, soflenins). 
Softening of the tissue of the spleen of a 
morbid character. 

Li^entery (Xf/of, smooth, evrepov, an in- 
testine). A kind of diarrhoea in which 
the food passes rapidly through the bowels 
without undei^^oing digestion. 

Life (Sax. It/), The force or principle 
underlying or causing the phenomena of 
organized beings, 'llie power by which 
an organism exists and exercises self-move- 
ments in response to emotions or sensations 
and adapts itself to its environment. L., 
Change of, that period in the life of a 
female at which menstruation ceases. L., 
Duration of. See Probable. 

Life Everlasting. Cud weed. The 
herbs Gnaphalium mari^antaceiim and G. 
polycephalttm. Tonic, astringent and ano- 
dyne. A domestic remedy of some repute 
in affections of the chest and bowels. 
Dose of a decoction ad lib. ; of the fid. ext. 
n\^xv-3J. Unof. 

Life Root. Ragwort. The herb Senecio 
aureus gathered in flower. Expectorant 
and tonic, formerly used by the Indians 
as a vulnerary; a favorite remedy of the 
eclectic practitioners. Dose of a decoction 
ad Hb. ; of fid. ext. TT\^xxx-3 j. Unof. 

Life Table. A table constructed to show 
the numl)er and ages of the living, and the 
numi^er and ages of the dying in a com- 
munity or society. Halley's, the earliest 
English table, was constructed in the 
second half of the 1 8th Century, and suff- 
gesled De Mowre's Hypothesis (q. p,). 
Price's Northampton L. T. was used 
by the Iv{uitable Life Assurance Co., upon 
its establishment in 1762. These taoles 
were not constructed by a comparison of 
the deaths and the living at each age, 
but from the deaths only, and since biiSis 

and deaths are not equal, and since migra- 
tion also disturbs the stationariness of 
population, these tables are not correct, as 
they overstate the mortality of young adults 
and do not dissociate males and females. 
Dr. Farr constructed three English L. T., 
designated respectively, Nos. I, 2 and 3, 
and various other tables have been made, 
called the Healthy Districts, the Upper 
Class Experience, the Healthy Males, 
the Clerical Experience Tables, etc. 
The last noteworthy table is the New 
English L. T., by Dr. Ogle, that starts 
with a million males and a million females 
and shows the number surviving at each 
age, and the mean expectation of life at 
each age. 

Lig^ament (ligo^ to bind). A band of 
flexible, compact membranotis tissue con- 
necting the articular ends of the bones, 
sometimes enveloping them with a capstile. 
L., Poupart*s, the crural arch or lower 
border of the aponeurosis of the external 
oblique muscle. L., Oimbemat's, that 
part of the aponeurosis of the external 
oblique muscle which is reflected down- 
ward and outward, toward the os pubis. 
Also called the third insertion of Poupart's 
gland. L. of Zinn. See Zonula. 

Liga^tion (ligo). The operation of tying; 
used especially of arteries. L. of Cord, 
applying a ligature about the umbilical 
cord of the newborn child. 

Lig^ature (ligo\ A cord or thread of any 
material lor tying arteries, etc. L., 
Animal, made from sheep or catgut, the 
tendons or sinews of various animals, etc. 
L., Antiseptic, rendered free from infec- 
tive material by soaking and cleansing with 
germicidal solutions. L., Intermittent, 
the tourniquet, relaxed at times. L., 
Lateral, partial occlusion only of the 
lumen by a loose ligature. L., Metallic, 
made of silver or other metal. 

Light (Sax. Ie6ht\ That form of ethereal 
vibration or undulation which, when im- 
pinging upon the retina, produces the 
sensation of vision. L., Diffused, that 
reflected simultaneously from an infinite 
number of surfaces, or that has been scat- 
tered by means of a concave mirror or 
lens. L., Dispersion of. See /., Spec- 
trum of. L., Electric, that produced by 
the passage of electricity through a me- 
dium having high resistance, such as the 
carl)on film of the incandescent, or the in- 
terval of air between the carl)ons of the arc 
light, the medium of high rcsi«*tance being 
heated to whiteness. L., Monochro- 




matic, that which, oo being analyzed by 
a prism, consii>ts approximately of waves 
of one length only. L., Reflection of, 
that property \iy which a ray of light strik- 
ing an object retxninds, or is bent back. 
Rays falling on a plane surface are re- 
flected at an angle equal to that of the 
incident ray. Objects are perceived by the 
light reflected by them. L., Refraction 
of, that property by which a ray or pencil 
of light, when passed through a prism, is 
bent out of its course. Refraction occurs 
when a ray of light passes through media 
of diflering densities. L., Spectrum of, 
a name given to a ray of light that has 
l)een decomposed, its primary com{x>nent 
parts une(|ually refracted and projected 
upon a screen. See H^ai'e-Lent^ths. 

Lightening. An atmospheric discharge of 
electricity. In the form commonly known 
as ** chain" or **bolt" lightning, the elec- 
tricity has an extremely high potential, and 
a stroke under such' circumstances is in- 
variably fatal when the discharge passes 
through a living body. The form known 
as "sheet'* lightning is a "brush" dis- 
charge of low |x>tential, and harmless. L. 
Pains, the sharp, momentary pains occur- 
ring in tabes. 

Lig^neous (/ignis, wood). Having the 
nature of wood. 

Lig^num Vi^tae. See Guaiacum. 

Lig^ula (dim. of lingua, a tongue). A 
little tongue. Also, a name given to the 
tongue of an articulate. Also, a genus of 
cestoid worms. See Lingula. 

Li'^lac. The leaves and firuit of Syringa 
vulgaris. A bitter tonic with reputed anti- 
periodic properties. Unof. 

Lily of the Valley. See Convallaria 

Limb (Sax. Urn, a twig). An arm or leg. 
An organ of prehension or locomotion. L., 
Artificial, a mechanical substitute for an 
arm or a leg. L. Plexus, the supposed 
rearrangement of nerve-strands so as to 
connect nen'es derived from diff^erent parts 
of the spinal cord with particular groups of 

Lim'^bus {limhus, a border). A border or 
hem. TTic circumferential edge of any flat 
organ or |)art. L. Comeae, the edge of 
the cornea at its juncture with the sclerotic 

Lime (Per. limu, a lemon). The fruit of 
several s))ecies of Citrus. L. Juice, the 
juice of the lemon or lime. Should con- 
tain, when bottled, a small percentage of 
inli^urous acid to prevent fermentatioo. 

Lime. The popular name for calcium 
oxide, CaO (quick lime), and calcium 
hydrate, Ca(HOV 

Limbic (^/<of, nunger). Pertaining to 

Lim^inal Inten^sity. SttFechner'sLaw. 

Lim^itans, or 

Lim^iting. Bounding. L. Membrane, 
the thin membrane on which the epithe- 
lial tissue of the various glands rests. 

Limitro^phic Uimitropus, a name given 
to Roman lanos frimishing subsistence to 
soldiers). Remak's name for the great 
ganglionic cord of the sympathetic nerve- 

Limnomephi^tis (^/n;^, a pond, mephi- 
tis, a noxious odor). A general name for 
noxious odors arising from marshy ground 
or swamps. 

Li^mon (gen. limonis). Lemon. The fruit 
of Citrus limonum. Of the same genus as 
the orange and the lime. The rind contains 
a volatile oil identical in structure with oil 
of turpentine. The pulp yields about 7 per 
cent, of citric acid, which has about the 
same properties as acetic acid, but has 
much value as a refrigerant and antiscor- 
butic. The expressed juice is largely em- 
ployed as a refrigerant drink in fevers. 
L. 01., the volatile oil. Dose n\j-v. L. 
Syr., lemon juice 40, lemon peel 2, sugar 
60, water q. s. ad lOO. L. Spt., " essence 
of lemon," 6 parts of oil and 4 of peel in 
90 parts of alcohol. Acidi Citrici, Syr., 
citric acid, water, aa 8, spt. lemon 4, water 

Limoph^thisis (X///oc, hunger, ^/cr/c, wast- 
ing). The wasting of the body due to pri- 
vation and lack of food. 

Limopso^ra (A//ioc» V^pa). A kind of 
scabies (or fmiritus?) asserted to attack 
man and other animals after long priva 
tion from food. 

Limo^sis (X//ioc). Unnatural appetite. 
Also, a name given to a class -of diseases 
distinguished by depraved appetite. 

Limother^apy (A/;/of, depaneia). The 
treatment of disease by partial or total de- 
privation of food. 

Line (liuum^ athread of flax). In geometry, 
that extension of dimension which has 
length, but neither breadth nor thickness. 
Also, the 'f^ part of an inch. In anatomy, 
an imaginary conventional lx>undary or 
guide-mark. L., Axillary, a vertical 
line drawn through the anterior fold of the 
axilla. L., Blue, or L., Burton's, the 
giftgitvl line. L., Curved, of Ilium, 
pro|ecting curved lines on the dorsum of 




the ilium. L., Curved, of Occiput, pro- 
jecting lines arching outward on each side 
of the occipital protuberance. L., Facial, 
the line joining the most prominent part 
of the forehead with the alveolar process 
of the upper jaw. L., Focal, the meri- 
dional or axis line of a cone of light-rays. 
L., Holden*s, a sulcus below the fold of 
the groin, starting from the femoro-scrotal 
furrow, and dying away between the 
great trochanter and superior iliac spine. 
It crosses (he middle of the capsule of the 
hip. Ls., Incremental, wavy lines of 
dentine granules traversing the dentine of 
a tooth, showing its stages of growth. L., 
Internal Supracondyloid, the lower ex- 
tension of the inner angle of the shaft of 
the humerus, to which the intermuscular 
septum is attached. Ls., Lizars', a line 
joining the posterior iliac spine and a point 
midway between the tuber ischii and the 
great trochanter; also a line from the 
posterior iliac spine to the inner point of 
trisection of a line between the tuber and 
the trochanter. The upper point of trisec- 
tion of the former indicates the emergence 
of the gluteal artery ; the middle of the latter, 
the spot where the sciatic artery leaves the 
pelvis. L., Mammary, a vertical line 
drawn through the nipple. Ls., Median, 
Anterior and Posterior, the lines whose 
plane divides the body into synunetrical 
lateral halves. L., Nilaton's, the line 
passing across the middle of the acetabu- 
lum and over the top of the trochanter, 
joining the superior spine and tuber ischii. 
L., Parasternal, a line separating the 
median from the lateral regions of the 
thorax. Ls., Sternal, vertical lines dropped 
from the sternal ends of the clavicles, one 
on each side. L., Thompson's, a red 
line of vascular tissue along the margin of 
the gums, frequently noticeable in phthbis. 
Lin^ea (Lat.). An imaginary or real line 
used as an anatomical boundary or guide- 
mark. L. Alba, the median fusion of the 
tendons of the abdominal muscles, extend- 
ing from the metastemum to the pubes. 
L. Albicantis, certain irregular glistening 
strise often observed in the skin after child- 
birth. L. Aspera, the narrow, prominent 
buttress ridge along the hinder aspect 
of the femur. L. Cephalica, a line 
of the palm of the hand, extending 
from the level of the metacarpo-phalan- 
geal joint to the middle of the fifth 
metacarpal. L. Hepatica, a vertical 
line of the palm of the hand, extending 
from the rasceta to the vallecula of the 

middle finger. L. Ilio-pectinea, or 
Ilio-pubi, a line forming the brim of the 
pelvic cavity. L.« Nuchales Superi- 
ores, lines on both sides of the occipital 
protuberance passing outward and becom- 
ing continuous with the hinder edge of the 
mastoid process. L. Quadrata, a faint 
line in the femur, descending from a small 
roughness vertically above the level of the 
lesser trochanter ; it receives the insertion 
of the quadrati femoris. L. Semilunaris, 
a curved line, concave inward, extending 
from the cartilage of the eighth rib to the 
pubes ; it marks the outer edge of the rec- 
tus abdominalis muscle. L. Solea, an 
oblique line of the tibia at the attachment of 
the soleus muscle. L. Splendens, the 
line of pia mater substance along the an- 
terior median fissure of the spinal cord. L. 
Stemo-mastoides, a line drawn from 
the interval between the two heads of the 
stemo-mastoid to the mastoid process. Transversae, white depressed ab- 
dominal lines, one at the level of the um- 
bilicus; one opposite the tenth rib; and 
one at the seventh rib cartilage. They 
mark the lines of the tendinous intersection 
of the rectus abdominalis with its attach- 
ment to the overlying tendons. 

Lin^eament (/rW^, a line). The outline 
of the face. Also, the outline of the em- 

Lin^ear {linea), A line. A twelfth part 
of an inch. L. Extraction. See OUa- 

Lin^gam. See Phallus. 

Ling^ism. See Lin^s System. 

Ling's System. A method of treatment 
of disease by gymnastic and other rhythmic 
movements of the body, employed by Ling, 
a Swedish physician. 

Ling^ual. Shaped like the tongue. Per- 
taining to the tongue. L. Bone. See 

Linguet^ta Lamino^sa. See Lingula. 

Lin^gula (dim. of lingua^ a tongue). A 
transversely lamellose lobule between the 
valve of Vieussens and the central lobule 
of the cerebellum. Called, also, the lin- 
guetta laminosa. Also, a thin, lamellated 
part of the petroas process of the sphenoid 
tx>ne. It is also called the li^ulay and 
also the processus petrosus anticus. L. 
Mandibularis, the prominent, thin scale 
of bone partly surrounding the large fora- 
men of the lower jaws; it serves as the 
attachment of the spheno-mandibular liga- 

Li^ni. PI. of linum. 




Liniment^um (lino^ to smear). A lini- 
ment. A thin, liquid ointment for external 
application, usually a solution of a medici- 
nal substance in an excipient of oil or oil 
mixtures. There are ten official lininunta, 

Lin^seed. See Linum, L. Oil. See 

Lint (/inum, flax). A loosely woven or 
partly felted mass of broken linen fibres, 
made by scraping and ** picking " old linen 
cloth. It is universally used as a dressing 
for wounds and raw surfaces. 

Lignum (Lat.). Flaxseed. Linseed. The 
seeds of Z. usUatisHmum^ the common 
flax plant, containing 30-40 per cent, of 
fixed (linseed) oil in embryo of seed, and 
15 per cent, of mucilage in epithelium. A 
demulcent, emollient and expectorant, use- 
ful in all inflammations of mucous mem- 
branes. L. 01., the fixed oil of flaxseed 
expressed cold, a glyceride of linolclc acid. 
Dose ^ss-ij. L. Infus., unof., "flaxseed 
tea," flaxseed 3 iij, liquorice root 3J, water 
i X, infused four hours. Dose indefinite. 
Carron Oil, linseed oil emtilsified in lime- 

Lio-myo^ma. See Myoma. 

Lipacidse^niia (AiTroc, fat, acidus^ sour, 
aipucL^ blood). The presence of fatty acids 
in the blood, with diminution of its alka- 

Lipacidu^ria (X^n-of, acidus^ ovpov, urine). 
An excess of volatile fatty acids in the 

Lipse^mia (A/ttoc, aifia). The presence 
of an emulsion of fine oil globules in the 

Lip^arocele (^Trapoc, fat, KtfX^, a tumor). 
A tumor of the scrotum. 

Liparom^phalus {Xtirapog^ ofz^aXoc, the 
navel). A fatty kimor situated at the 
navel, or involving the umbilical cord. 

Liparoscir^rhus (^iropoc, aiuppo^, a can- 
cerous growth). A fatty, scirrhous tumor. 

Lip^arous {h,7rapoc), FaL Obese. 

Lipemania. See Lyptmania. 

Lipo^ma {^jmo^^ fat). A fatty tumor. 

Lipomato/sis (AiTroc). The production of 

Lip^pia. The leaves of Z. mexicana, 
Eiemulcent and expectorant. Does not 
nauseate. Dose of the tincture 3ss-j. 

Lippitu^do (lippusy watery condition of the 
eyes). A condition marked by a moist and 
raw margin of the eyelids, which discharge 
purulent matter. 

Lips. The fleshy folds surrounding the 
onfice of the mouth. See also Labium, 

Liquefac^tion Uique/acio^ to change to 
liquid form). The condition of having 
been changed to a liquid. 

Liq^uid {liquo^ to melt). That form of a 
substance in which the molecules are in a 
state intermediate between attraction and 
repulsion. Water between 0° and 100° C. 
is the best example. 

Li^quor f Lat.). A liquid. In pharmacy, 
any solution m water of non-volatile sub- 
stances, except infusions,decoctions, syrups, 
but including the solution of gutta-percha 
Hn chloroform). There are 28 official 
liquores. In anatomy, any fluid of the 
body. L. Axnnii, the liquid in which the 
foetus lies. At the middle of pregnancy 
it equals in weight that of the foetus. It 
serves a number of useftil functions, and 
in labor protects the foetus and cord from 
pressure, dilates the os and lubricates the 
genital canal. L. Cotunnii, the perilymph 
secreted by the fibro-serous membrane of 
the internal ear. L. Sanguinis, the serum 
of the blood with one or more elements of 

Liq^uorice. See Glycyrrhiza, 

Lisp^ing. A kind of defect of speech, 
natural or acquired, in which sibilant letters 
are sounded like Unguals, especially x asM. 
It sometimes arises from too great length 
of the tongue. 

Lister^ian Method of Dressing 
Wounds. Gu'bolic acid was the first 
antiseptic, but from its volatility and slow- 
ness of action as a germicide, it was re- 
placed by corrosive sublimate. But this 
proved irritating and* was precipitated by 
the albumin of the blood serum. What 
might be called the Third Method was 
the antiseptic dressing called Sero-subli- 
mate Gauze, consisting of a gauze charged 
with a solution of corrosive sublimate in 
the serum of the blood. This was found 
diflicult to manufacture and was harsh and 
non-absorbent. The Fourth Method con- 
sisted in a combination of chloride of 
anmionium and bichloride of mercury, 
called Sal-alembroth. This was likewise 
objectionable because of its ready solubility 
in the blood serum. Fifth Method, a 
gauze containing three or four {)er cent, by 
weight of the biniodide of mercury. This 
was irritating to the skin. A Sixth 
Method is l^e latest, and believed to be 
the ideal antiseptic dressing. It consists in 
the application of a gauze impregnated with 
a solution of a double cyanide of zinc and 
mercury. This is said to be non-volatile, 
unimtating, insoluble in water, and only 




soluble in 3000 parts of blood serum. It 
possesses but little germicidal power, but 
I : 1200 keeps animal fluids free from 
putrefaction. G>rrosive sublimate 1 : 4000 
may be added as a germicide. 

List^erism. A general name for the an- 
tiseptic and aseptic treatment of wounds 
according to the principles first enunciated 
by Lister. See Lisierian Method. 

Li8t^er*s Method. See Listerian Method^ 
and also, Fractional Cultivalion, 

List^ing's Eye. See Eye. 

List^ing's Law. Pertains to the move- 
ments of the eyeball : When moved &om 
the position of rest, the angle of rotation in 
the second position is the same as if the 
eye were turned about a fixed axis perpen- 
dicular to the first and second positions of 
the visual line. 

Lifter. See Metric System. 

Lithagog^ue (A/^, a stone, ayu, to drive 
out). Any agent kx remedy, not mechan- 
ical, which tends to expel calculi from the 

Lith^arge. See Lead. 

Lithemia(A<(^, a</[ia, blood). Lithic acid 
in excess in the blood. "Modified gout.*' 
A name applied to a group of symptoms 
dcix;ndent upon retention in the system of 
certain ])ruducts of deficient metabolism. 

Lith^ic Acid. See Uric Acid. 

Lith^ium. Li = 7 ; quanti valence i. One 
of the rarer alkaline metals, a few of the 
salts only being used in medicine. Because 
of its low atomic weight, its high saturating 
power makes its salts more fdkaline than 
those of sodium and potassium. The car- 
bonate and citrate are used largely in rheu- 
matism and gout. L. Benzoas. See 
Benzoic A cut. L. Bromidum. See 
Bromine. L. Carbonas, not deliques- 
cent. Dose gr. ij-xv. L. Citras, deliques- 
cent. Dose gr. v-xxx. L. Salicylas. 
See Siilix. 

Lith^o- (Xi^, a stone). A Greek prefix, 
signifying calculus, or stone. 

Lithoceno^sis (Ai(/af, Kn^utaid evacuation). 
The extraction of the fragments of calculi 
that have been crushed or mechanically 

Lith^oclast. See Lithotrite. 

Lithodial^ysis (Pu//oc, d/oAvu, to dis- 
solve). 'Ilie dissolution of calculus in the 

LithoKapaxy (Xiftjf, Xawa^tCt removal). 
An operation of crusliing and of removing 
stone at the same time by irrigation. 

Lithol^ein {hfh^, oieum^ oil). A substance 
similar to vaseline, and, because of its anti- 

septic and antiparisitic qualities, proposed 
as a substitute for it. It is oily, of neutral 
reaction, without smell or taste, and con- 
tains no fat 

Lithol^ogy (A<^, Xoyo^t a treatise). A 
treatise on the nature and treatment of cal- 

LithoKysis. See Lithodialysis. 

Lithoxne^tra (^^, /^trrpa, the womb). 
Ossifications in the womb. 

Lithontrip^tic (^doc, rpi^, to wear down). 
See Lithotriptic and Antilithic. 

Lithopse^dion (X^doc, iraidun', a child). 
The calcified or mummified remains of a 
dead foetus carried in the uterus or abdomi- 
nal cavity long after the normal period of 

Lith^ophone {hdo^t ^wvri^ sound). An 
instrument for detecting by sound the 
presence of calculi in the bladder. 

Lith^oscope {hdoq^ aicoireUf to examine). 
An instrument for the detection and ex- 
amination of calculi of the bladder. 

Lithot^omy {?u0og, re/ivu^ to cut). Incision 
into the bladder to remove calculus. L., 
Bilateral, the incision of the perinseum is 
curved, just in front of the rectum, and 
the lithotome entered by an incision into 
the urethra at this point. L., Lateral, 
the perineal incision is about i ^ inches in 
front of the rectum and to the left of the 
raphd, the cut being downward and out- 
ward. L., Median or Marian, the 
perineal incision is in the median line one- 
naif inch in front of the anus, by a straight, 
double-edged bistoury. L., Medic-lat- 
eral, a modification of the lateral opera- 
tion. L., Medic-bilateral, a modification 
of the bilateral. L., Pre-rectal, a modifi- 
cation of the bilateral. L., Rectc-vesi- 
cal, extraction of the stone by an incision 
through the rectum. L., Supra-pubic, 
by an incision above the pubis where the 
bladder is not covered by peritoneum. L., 
Urethral, incision of the urethral mucous 
membrane. L., Vaginal, by incision 
through the vaginal wall. 

Lithotresis. See Lithotrity. 

Lithctrip^sy (A//^, i'p//^w, to pulverize), 
llie operation of crushing calculi of the 

Lithotrip'tic. See Lithontriptic. 

Lithotrip^tor (A/ft>f, Tpijiu). An instru- 
ment designed for crushing calculi of the 

Lithot^rity (h^, Tpt,3u, to wear by fric- 
tion). Crusning a stunc in the bladder, by 
the lithotrite, into fragments small enougo 
to pass the urethral canal. 




Litb'^ous (hOo^). Having the nature or 
appearance of calculi of the bladder. 

Lithure^sis ('/uih^j ovprfot^, making water). 
The voiding of small odculi with the 

Lithu^ria (lithium, cvpov, urine). A con- 
dition marked by the presence of lithic 
acid, or of lithium :»alts in the urine. 

Lit^mus. Archil. A blue pigment ob- 
tained from Rocella tinctoria^ a lichen. 
Employed in chemical determinations to 
detect the presence of free acids and free 
alkalies. L. Paper, Blue, unsized paper 
ste jped in a solution of litmus ; turns red 
in contact with acid solutions. L. Paper, 
Red. unsized paper steeped in litmus tinc- 
ture colored red with acid ; turns blue on 
contact with alkaline solutions. 

Lit^ter \Jectica, a ccnich). An extemporized 
stretcher or couch with liandlcs for carrying 
sick or wounded. 

Live^do {Jrveo, to gr- )W black). Same as 

Liv^er. The largest glandular Ofgan of 
the body, situate on the right side of the 
abdominsd cavity ju>t below the diaphragm ; 
its principal function is the secretion of bile ; 
it also aflfects the constituents of the blood 
in it< passage through the gland. It has 
five divi>ions, the right Iol)e, left lobe, lobus 
Spigelii, lobus quadratus, and lobus cau- 
datus. The last two are consklered pro- 
longations of the lobus Spigelii. 

Liv^id (//Vr.'). Discolonxl from the effects 
of congestion or contagion. 

Li'vor ylheci). Lividness. The discolor- 
ation consequent upon severe contusion and 
congestion uf the part. 

Lix il^t.^. Wood-ashes or the h'e there- 

Lixivia^tion (//r/rm/w). The process of 
leaching ashes. Also, the process of dis- 
solving any alkaline salt from the insoluble 
impuritiis with which it is mixed. 

Lixiv^ium {//xh'iMw). The filtrate ob- 
tained by leaching ashes; practically a solu- 
tion of an imimrc potassium hydrate. 

Loath 'ing. Intense disgust, that may 
excite nausea. 

Lo^bar {^l.hus^ a lobe). Pertaining to a 

Lo'bate lA^^v/;). Having lolx^s. 

Lobe (/» iof). A name used to designate 
the p.irts or divisk)ns into which an or^^an 
may be sejiarated by t'lssuro and con^tric- 
lions, as the lobes of the brain, liver, ear, 
etr. Lobes of Brain, each half of the 
outer cerebral surface is divided bv fissures 
into five lobes, the fifootal, parietal, occi- 

pital, temporo-sphenoidal and oentnd, oc 
Island ot Reil. Lobes of Liver. See 
Liver. Optic Lobes. The quadrigemina 

Lobe^lia. Indian Tobacco. The leaves 
and tops of L. inflata. Contains a liquid 
alkaloid, lobilin, the active principle. An 
expectorant, antispasmodic and emetic. 
In larger doses a motor-depressant and 
narcotic. Valuable in asthma and dry 
cough. The main ingredient di empiric 
consiun]Hion cures. An excellent enema 
in strangulated hernia. L., Acetum, i6 
per cent of the drug. IDose n\^v-3 j. L., 
Fid. Ext. l^ose n\j-x. L., Infiis., unof., 
3J to Oj. Dose .^j-3J. L., Tinct., 20 
per cent, of the drug. Dose n\,T-xxx. 
Lobelin, the impure reainokL Dose 
gr. ss-j. 

Lo^belin. See Lobelia. 

Lob^ular (lobului). Like a lobule. Per- 
taining to any lobule. 

Lob^ulus (dim. of Ic^us). A small lobe or 
division of an organ. L. Caudatus, the 
tailed lol>e or elevation of the liver that 
separates the right extremity of the trans- 
verse tissure from that of Uie vena cava. 
L. Centralis. The Superior Vermiform 
IVocess. L. Paracentralis, that port 
of the mdtor cortical zone of Charcot on 
the inner surface of the cerel)ral hemi- 
spheres. L. Quadratus, the square lobe 
under the right lobe of the liver. L. 
Spigelii, the lobule i>n)jecting from the 
Itack part of the under surface of the 

Lo^bus (li^us^ a lobe). A lobe. Any 
well-defined, rounded part of an organ. 
L. Caudatus. See Lobulm. L. Quad* 
ratus. See Li^ulus. 

Localiza^tion \lovuSy a place). The desig- 
nation of the seat of any {)ain, irritation or 
disease. L., Cerebral, the designation 
of the place of a localized irritation (neo- 
plasm, injur)', <•/<-.) by means of the stud> 
of the symptoms of the {^xitient ; often of 
great im|)ortance in trephining. The posi- 
tion of the motor and sen>or}' centers of 
the brain. See cV/iAr. 

Loch^ia (?^'.V'>fi conlinementV The dis 
chaise fn^m the genital organs during two 
to four vieeks succeeding lalx)r. L. Alba, 
the whitish flow that takes place from 
about the seventh <iay. L. Rubra, the 
sanguineous flow of the first few days. L. 
Serosa, the serous di.scharge taking place 

about the fifth day. 

Lochiome'tra (/n;|T<a, iirirpa^ uterus). A 

collection of the lochia in the uterus. 




Lochiop^yra (Xoxetoc, pertaining to child- 
bed, nvp, fire). Puerperal fever. Same 
as Lochopyra. 

LfOchiorrha^gia {Xoxeia, Injyvvfii^ to burst 
forth). An excessive flow of the lochia. 

Lochiorrhoe^a ("Xox^uif peu, to flow). Ab- 
normal flow of the lociiia. 

Lochios^chesis (^x^^t ^^ serous dis- 
charge after childbirth, <rx^» ^o retain). 
Retention of the lochia. 

Lochometri^tis {^x^t ^ woman just de- 
livered, metritis^ inflammation of the 
womb). The inflammation of the womb 
consequent upon puerperal fever. 

Lochoperitoni^tis (^;tof> peritonitis). 
Inflammation of the peritoneum accom- 
panying or following childbirth. 

Lochop^yra (Ao;i'of, ffup, fire). Puerperal 

Lochoty^phus (^^fof » "^^i stupor). Con- 
tagious puerperal fever of a typhus type. 

Locked-jaw. See Trismus, 

Lock Hospital. An English hospital for 
the gratuitous treatment of venereal dis- 

Locomo^tion. Animal Movement. 

Locomo'tor Atax^y. See Ataxy^ and 

Lo^co Plant. See Astragalus MoUissimus, 

Lo^cus. An indefinite term in anatomy, 
meaning a place or position, as lL. Cseru- 
leus, a bluish-tinted eminence on the 
fasciculi teretes of the fourth ventricle of 
the brain. L. Niger, a dark area in the 
center of the section of the cms cerebri. 
L. Perforatus, the anterior and posterior 
perforated spots at the base of the brain 
through which many vessels pass. 

Loeb^isch's Formula. See Christison's 

LoemoKogy. See Loimology. 

Loewe's Ring. A demonstration of the 
yellow-spot which in a strong light a|^ars 
surrounded by a bright area. Clerk -Max- 
well's experiment consists in looking 
through a solution of chrome alum when 
there is seen an oval spot due to 
the pigment of the yellow spot. 

LfOgople^g^a (^oyof , word, ttAt} 7, a stroke). 
An aphasic symptom, consisting in the 
impossibility of uttering a word though the 
memory of its sound, ^•/r., is clear. 

Logorrhoe^a (Auyoc, ^w, to flow). Ab- 
normal rapidity of speech ; a symptom of 
cerebral irritation. 

Log^wood. See Hamatoxylon. 

LoimoKogy (Ao</«)f, a plague, "hxyo^y a 
treatise). A treatise on the nature of con- 
tagious epidemic diseases. 

Loins. The lumbi, or lower part of the 
back in the region of the hips. 

Longev^ity Uongay long, vita^ life). Long 

Long^- (longuSf long). A Latin prefix 
signifying length or extent 

Long^ing. The earnest desire for any- 
thing ; often present in the female during 

Longis^simus (super, of longus^ long). 
Longest. L. Dorsi. See Muscle. 

Longitude (longitudo). Angular dis- 
tance from any standard meridian perpen- 
dicular to the plane of the axis. 

Longitu^dinal (^longitudo). In anatomy, 
lengthwise, or in a direction the opposite of 
transverse. L. Sinus, the triangular sub- 
cranial canal extending fiom the crista galli 
to the tentorium. 

Longsightedness. See Hyperopia. 

Lon^gus (longus, long). Long. L. 
Colli. See Muscle. 

Loop of Henle. See Tubuli Uriniferi. 

Lordo^ma (^pdocj, to bend inward). The 
anterior or forwajxi incurvation of the 

Lordo^sis {^p^otj). Anterior curvature 
of the spine. 

Lore^ta's Operant ion. The forcible 
dilatation of the pylorus for the relief oi 
stricture, by laparogastrotomy. 

Lo8tor^fer*s Corp^uscles. The granular 
masses alleged by Lostorfer to have been 
found in the blood of syphilitic patients. 

Lo^tion {Jatio^ a wash). Any medicinal 
solution for external use. L., Black. See 
Hydrargyrum. L., Goulard's. Liquor 
Plumbi Subacetatis. See Plumbum. L., 
Red, zinci sulph.