Skip to main content

Full text of "Studies in Nidderdale : upon notes and observations other than geological, made during the progress of the government geological survey of the district, 1867-1872"

See other formats


THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



j 




STUDIES 



IN 



NIDDEJJDALE: 



UPON NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS OTHER THAN GEOLOGICAL, 

MADE DURING THE PROGRESS OF THE GOVERNMENT 
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE DISTRICT, 1867 1872. 



JOSEPH LUCAS, F.G.S., F.M.S., 

Telfurd Medallist of the Institution of Civil Engineers. 
Associate of the Inttitution of Surveyors. 



LONDON : 

ELLIOT STOCK, 62, PATERNOSTER ROW. 
PATELEY BRIDGE : THOMAS THORPE. 



PRINTED BY T. THORPE, PUBLISHER, PATELEY BRIDGE. 



670 



tUfTEltKD AT STATinXEfifi' IT ALL 



STUDIES IN NIDDEKDALE. 



ERRATA. 



PAOE. 


LIVE. 








13 


26 


The words " or the name may like Watch'em he from the 
word of command " Rak " drive (see Glossary)," in lines 
29 30, should follow the word ' dog ' in line 2i. 


16 


20 


for ' degression ' 


rtad ' digression/ 




21 


5 


,, 'imparts' 


,, ' imports/ 




28 


4 


,, ' Whan ' 


,, 'Wham/ 




30 


10 


,, ' passiu. ' 


,, ' passin." ' 




31 


3 


,, 'ah,ve' 


,, ' ah've/ 




82 


!l 


,, ' Styre, Stirt ' 


,, ' Styre, Stirc.' 




37 (col) 6 


'Uu' 


' Un/ 




51 


6 


'have the' 


,, 'have of the/ 




58 


14 


,, ' Manmnm ' 


,, ' Mannum/ 




63 


4 


,, ' that have " gates " 


See Introd. p. xviii. 
Glos., p. 254, s.v. G 


, and 

KKAT. 


70 


11 


,, ' vale Denbighshire ' 


,, ' vale in Denbighshire/ 


76 


6 


' Lib/ 


Tib/ 




78 


20 


,, ' by doth ' 


,, ' cry dost/ 




80 


38 


' Deel to diet* inn.' 


,, ' [Beel to diri*ion].' 




84 


1 


' Britian ' 


' Britain/ 




89 


28 


'off' 


., ' oft/ 




92 


23 


islet ' 


,, ' inlet/ 




M 


29 


,, ' on ' 


'an/ 




97 


7 


'as' 


,, ' has/ 




97 


9 


' bekkjr ' 


' bekkja/ 




97 


21 


' pertineutiis Snis ' 


,, ' pertinentiis snis. 




97 


24 


,, ' Lost honrrs ' 


,, 'Losthonrs/ 




101 


IT) 


' cover ' 


,, ' Cover/ 





Vlll. 



STUDIES IN NIDDEEDALE. 



PAOE. 


LINE. 






101 


29 for 


' probably ' 


read ' probable.' 


112 


13 


' besides ' 


,, ' beside.' 


116 


10 


' Blasyhaw ' 


,, 'Blayshaw.' 


123 


21 erase 


'it.' 




124 


4 for 


' King ' 


' Kring.' 


128 


14 


'TRIPLIATA' .. 


' TRIFOLIATA. 


141 


15 


' clangornm ' 


,, ' clangorum.' 


145 


2 


' Wharedale ' 


,, ' Wharf edale.' 


153 


2 


' Laweslight ' 


,, ' Lawslight.' 


156 


24 


' Kennit ' 


,, ' Kemiet.' 


176 


6 


' EASTERLEY ' . . 


' EASTERLY.' 


176 


24 


' cover ' 


,, ' Cover.' 


182 


11 


' gentlemen ' , . 


,, ' gentleman.' 


197 


1 


' in ' 


' on.' 


200 


1 


' flashed ' 


' flash.' 


210 


35 


' beet ' 


,, ' breet.' 


267 


45 ,, 


' Zauors ' 


,, ' Yarrow.' 


271 


35 


' Gr. jflug ' 


,, ' Ger. pflug.' 




CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTORY Author's Commentary ; The Gael in Nid- 

dcrdale, &c., &c xiii. 

I. 

Physical Geology aud Geography of Nidderdale. . . . . 1 2 

II. 

Traces of the plough on modern cattle-grazing lands. Long 3 
horned cattle, 3. Shorthorns, "Betwenged," 4. Nidder- 
dale proper, described ; past failure of Agriculture. 5 
Oatmeal ; ttye, tradition of . . . . . . . . . 6 

III. 

Nidderdale Sheep; "Sheep-gates;" "Mugs" A. S. Laws. 7 

The " half-bred," wool and mutton, A. S. Laws re wool. 8 

The " Sheep-cratch " " Swathed " land ; Sheep in winter 
and srring, 9; " Blackwater ;" " Mosscrops and " Cut- 
throats;" getting " rigged;" track of a half-bred ; " Kake 
out," "Sheep-rakes;" " Blackfaced sheep," 10. Ancient 
Cymiic (or Welsh) Numbers up to 20 still in use. 11 

Sheep-dogs apt to turn on sheep ; capacity ; require- 
ments : varieties, 12. Four types ; 46 Sheep-dogs' names 
in Nidderdale 1311 

IT. 

( 'AIMI AI, " Hasty-pudding," " lumpy ;" OATMEAL " fer- 
mented," Tiz. : " riddle-cake," ' held-on cake," or 
" turn-down cake," " clap-cake." WHEATEX FLOUB 
" tiffany cakes :" the " tiffany " or " temse," " Brush- 
shank," origin of " Temse." . . . . . . . 15 

STONE OVENS. Called " Yewns ;" the " Bakstoue.' 1 .. 16 18 

The " Branderi," or " Briggs." 1819 

The " Kail-pot ;'' the " Swape," or " Beak ;" the 

"Reckons." 1920 

The " Chiuiler-hoal ;" ancient Norwegian house. . . 20 

The large chimney ; " Hoodeud ;" the " lUuncl Boak." 2121 



X. CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

" The Gaberlunzie Man ;" tlie " Langsettle." . . . . 24 

The "Pore," "tengs," and "showl;" the "creel;" 

" peats," " settle " or " squab." . . . . . . . . 25 

Ling Hall, 25-6 ; the " Fleak ;" " Beef-case ;" " Thivel " 2526 

or " Spurtel." 26 

The " Rush-stand ;" " Seaves." 27 

The " Bukker," "Bink,' or " Binch :" the "Kern," 

" Sile," " Sine," " Blake " Butter . . 28 

The " Cheese-press." 29 



THE FARM. Garth, Cletch, Chook, Reckling, Stee, Mistal, 
Stower, Rung, Kelk ; " Reasted " horse, Twauc, Fettlin, 
Coaf, Lair, (O.N. Leir, Clay, see Gloss.), 30. Clogs, 
Skeel, Beild, Redstake, Bewce, Kye, Coo-bow, Far- 
Pastoor, (see Gloss.), High Lathe, " Backcan " or 
" Budget," " Beast-stang," Sheep-cratch " or " Pig- 
Cambril," " Stack-garth," 31. Helm, Thack, "Barn," 
(a man), Limmers, Conveyance, Sealh. Fleaing-spade ; 
Toft, Hog, Stirk, Stott-Stirk, Heifer- Stirk, Mug, Shipn ; 
Park, Stag, " Banky countrie," Tntak, "Swathed," 
" Gersinfield," " Beuty ;" " Hee Boon," " Low Boon," 
" Breah." (the broken bank of a river), " Nar Sleets," 32 

Watli, Low Holm: Slape ; Fog, (after-grass), Blashy, 
Pelsh ; Grip, Croft, Hoose, Hind, Lea, (Scythe). 
" Park," meaning and origin of the word. . . . . 34 

" SHEEPSCORING NUMERALS." . . . . . . . 35 41 

YULE, T'ool Clog, FromartyNeet, Spice Cuke, T'ool Cake 42 

Yule Cake, Jule Kage. T'ool Caudle, 43. Christmas 43 

customs, Yule (meaning), 44. THE SWOIID DANCE, 45 49 

THE NEW YEAH, T' Watch Neet 49 

VI. 

THE GAUTU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 54 

VII. 

THE HELM All the passages containing the word in the 

A. S. Laws, etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 5'J 

VIII. 

THE REINS " Reean," (50. " The Warder-marskc Reins." 6061 

The Wharfedale Reins, 02 ; Laws of Ine, 6263 ; 6263 
Tusscr, 6364; The Common-Fields; The Moors; 

Enclosure Acts, 1801, 1836 ; The Village Commune ; 6(5 

Causes for depopulation, 66 67 ; Absence of " Reins " 66 67 

in Nidderdale, 67 ; of Woolcombing ; Manufactures, 67 

Line, the Leiim, Harden, Gum. . . : . . . . 68 

IX. 

THE CKLT Kymrylaml, local Welsh names, 68 72. THE 6'J 72 

ROMAN. Pigs of Lead with Roman inscriptions ; 72 
Coins 35 Silver and 4 Bronze Roman Coins found in 

How Stean Beck, 73 76. The ROMAN'S FAREWELL, 77 7!) 

THE ENGLK, 80. Anglian place names, 8082. Bede's 8082 

story about Gregory, 83. THE DANE, 84; Lodbrog's 8384 

Death Song, 85 ; History ; Name of Niddurdalc. .. 8687 



CONTENTS. XI. 

PAOB. 

X. 

TH* QUERN. "Whernside." 8889 

XI. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES with NORSK Name*. . . . . . . 90 97 

XII. 

CRIOS AND SCARS Names of, 98 101. Men's Names in 98 101 

Place Names, 101 ; Mythical Names in do 101102 

XIII. 

BECKS AND GILLS, 103-5. Sporadic settlement of English, 103 105 

Norseman and Dane. Locative case, 105. " Angram " 105 
a Norsk Settlement, " Lodge " Anglian, " Shipn " 

txplained, 106-7. " With," " Royd," and " Shaw." 107 

" Wham," " Grain," " Brawn," 108. THE NORMAN.. . 109 

XIV. 

VEBTIOES OF THE ANCIENT FOREST... .. .. .. 110 118 

Peat-gathering .. .. 118120 

XV. 

THE MODERN BOTANY, 121129. Mr. J. G. Baker, F.R.S., 
of Kew Gardens, kindly looked through this and made 

some Notes which will be fonnd in the Introduction. . . 121 129 

XVI. 

THE FOMUD. Speculations on the name. . . . . . . 130 135 

XVII. 

THE BIRDS OF NIDDERDALE, with Studies of Names. . . 136141 

XVIII. 

TH* BIRDS OF NIDDERDALE, ETC., (Continued) .. .. 142144 

XIX. 

THE BIRDS OF NIDDERDALE, ETC., (Continued), with a 

digression on the Name of " Gabble-Ratchet," . . 145 157 

containing " Legend of the Troller's Gill." . . . . 147 149 

The Bargest. 149150 

Infant baptism in Anglo-Saxon Laws. . . . . . . 151 156 



THE BIRDS OF NIDDZRDALE, ETC., (Continutd). Swift, 

Martin 158161 

XXI. 

THE BIRDS OF NIDDEKDALE, ETC., (Continutd). Sand 

Martin to Fieldfare, 162165. The word " Field." . . 165166 

XXII. 

THE BIRDS OF NIDDERDALE, ETC., (Continued). Thrash 

to Sandpiper, 167 175*. Summary 175181 



Xll. CONTENTS. 



XXIII. XXIV. 

THE CLIFFORD FRAGMENTS. Outline of Story. .. .. 182 183 

Fragments 184204 

XXV. 

WEATHER AND FLOODS. Yoredale and Nidderdale ; . . 205 206 

Wharfedale, 206209; Irwell 209 

XXVI. 

ANTIQUITIES, ETC., Stone Celts, Flint Arrow Heads ; 210 

Cannon Balls, Political Medals, 211213; Coins and 211213 

Medals, 213. Mr. James Inglebj's collection 213214 

Wheeled Conveyances. .. .. .. .. .. 214215 

XXVII. 

THE DIALECTS OF NIDDERDALE. Part I., " Dicky and 

Micky Date." 216224 

XXVIII. 

THE DIALECTS OF NIDDER'DALE. Part II., The Glossary. .. 225 etseq. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE. 

First impression of Ling Hall. Frontispiece. 

The Sheep-Cratch 9 

The Branderi 19 

The Rush Stand 27 

The Cheese Press 29 

The Wardcr-Marskc Reins 61 

Wharfedale, from near Netherside. . . . . . 161 

The Sled. 278 



STUDIES IN NIDDEBDALE. 






Introductory Commentary. 



While hesitating to tax the patience of the reader, by 
introducing the subjects of these studies in the form of a 
commentary upon the text, a justification for this course is found 
in the Gaelic word ' Strath,' upon the very first page. 

This brings us to perhaps the most important, the last, and 
certainly the least expected outcome of these Studies, viz. : the 
former existence of a GAELIC population upon this area. That 
such a result was unexpected, may be shown by the effort in the 
footnote, (p. 1) to treat ' Strath ' as Welsh, and' by the fact that 
in the enumeration of the successive races, that have populated 
the District, (Study IX, p.p. 69-87) there is an omission of any 
mention of the Gad. It was not till the long list of words in 
the Glossary had been carefully worked out, that it became 
evident, not only that several of them are Gaelic, but that from 
their nature, it is impossible that they could be imported words. 
Lovers of Dialects have long been familiar with the Gaelic word 
(Nu) nor for tJuin, but its presence in England has not been 
accounted for. Several place names are Gaelic; names of 
pastures are especially Gaelic, and from their general character 
and local application forbid the idea of importation. Further 
particulars will be found in the commentary on the Gaelic 
element in the Glossary. 



XIV. STUDIES IN NIDDEBDALE. 

A curiously similar observation to that in line 8, p. 8, was 
made by Robert Brown, in 1799. To wit, ' Corn has already 
been cultivated there, for all the low fields have at one time or 
other been ploughed.' This proves the change older than the 
end of last century. The true key is found in Laveleye, (Prim. 
Prop., 1878, p. 254-5) who shows that it took place at the end 
of the 15th, and all through the 16th century. 

Local legends respecting Dun Bulls (p. 4.) must give place to 
the fact related by Barker, (Hist, of Wensleydale, p. 12, note) 
that they [are one of the badges of the Nevilles. In ' The Rising 
of the North,' 

' Lord Westmoreland his ancyent raisde, 
The Dun bull he raysed on high. 

That the years 1795 and 1797 were historical ' bad harvests,' 
gives additional interest to the tradition recorded on p. 6, 
as to Ryebread. 

It should be mentioned that ' Bakewell ' was the name of a 
celebrated breeder of Leicester sheep, and that the ' Bakewell 
ram,' (p. 8, note) is in fact only a ' Leicester Tup ' called after 
him, which proves that the modern cross did originate as stated 
in the said note. (P. 15,) Old Tusser gives a curious note 
regarding Terns, 

' Some mixeth to miller the Rye with the Wheat 

TEMS loaf on his table to have for to eat.' Sept. Ilusb. v. ii. 

The name terns loaf bears out the suggestion respecting 
tommy cake (p. 15, note]. 

The Chimler-hoal (p. 20), which enabled the stars to be 
counted by persons sitting in the room, (p. 21.) figures in 
Herodotus, (VIII, 187), who says, ' the rays of the sun reached 
into the house down the chimney.' 'The lad. ..traced a circle on 
the floor of the house round the sun's rays.' Beckmann infers 



INTRODUCTORY COMMENTARY. XV. 

from this passage the orifice iu the roof, which is prettily 
introduced by Tegner, in his beautiful Swedish version of 
Frithiof s Saga 

' And adown the airy chimney 

' Wakeful stars, celestial friends ! resting, viewed the festive circle.' 

(W. Strong's TransL, Canto III). The great festoons of sooti 
(p. 20) have suggested another beautiful verse to the great 
Swedish poet, (Canto XI, v. 18) where in describing Angantyr's 
house in Orkney as Frithiof saw it, he says, 

Ej midt paa golfvet gloder No fire on mid-floor glowed 

Den mantra brasans sken, Or brazier's bright flame shone, 



Men emot vagg sig stoder 
Kauiiii af inarmor sten. 
Ej rb'k i sal sig lade 
Ej sags der sotad as, ; 
Glasrutor fonstren hade, 
Och dorren hade his. 



But at the wall there stood 
Chimney of marble stone. 
No reek, the hall o'erspread, 
Sooted the Raunel-balk ; 
Glass panes the windows had 
And the door a lock. 



Were this contemporaneous, the reference to chimneys would 
bo very interesting, but Tegner's version is modern, while the 
" invention of chimneys " is put down in Haydn at " 1200, 
when they were confined to the kitchen and large hall." 

" One thing " says Leland, 1549, " I much notyd in the 
haull of Bolton howe ehimeneys were conveyed by tunnels made 
on the syds of the wauls betwyxt the lights in the hawll ; and 
by this means, and by no covers is the smoke of the harthe in 
the hawle wonder strangely convayed." By the 'covers' are 
meant the ' hood.' Harrison (Detcrip. of Britaynt in Holinshed, 

1677), says " Now we have manye chimneyes then, we had 

nothing but reredosses, and yet our heads did never ache" 
thus proving their general introduction in the 16th century. 
King's ' Vale Royal,' 1656, says of the Cheshire farm houses, 
' till of late years, they used the old manner of the Saxons, for 
they had their fire in the midst of the house against a hob of 



XVI. STUDIES IN NIDDEKDALE. 

clay, and their oven under the same roof, but within these forty 
years they have builded chimneys.' Barker (Hist, of Wemleydale, 
1856, p. p. 76) says, 'It is a fact that the last farm house of 
this ancient construction was standing in the township of Tong- 
with-Haugh near Bolton, in Lancashire, within the last sixty 
years.' In connection with this ' central fire,' the reference in 
the above verse to Angantyr's house, and again (Canto III), 

" Central placed, with constant blaze, were the halmfed embers burning 
Cheerful in their walled hearth." 

fall in with the Valle house (p. 20) and Lambe's note in Percy, 
(p. 241 below). The curious will find further information in 
Rogers's Agriculture and Prices, V. 1, c. 18, p. 421. 

A parallel to Pferdich or Pferdisch and paddock, (p. 84) 
will be found in Pfalung and paling, pfund and pund, (pound) 
and many others. Andrew Borde (Boke of the Introwduction 
of Knowledge, 1542,) gives a list of Cornish numerals which differ 
slightly from those on p. 88 below. They are ' Ouyn, Dow, 
Tray, Peswar, Pimp, Whe, Eth, Naw, Dec, Unec, Dowec, 
Fredeec, Peswardeec, Pympdeec, Whedeec, Sythdeec, Ethdeec, 
Nawdeec, Igous.' According to Mr. Leyland, of Kettlewell, 
' Sheepscoring numerals ' are unknown in Wharfedale, where 
' Sheep are counted on the fingers in silence, or a little pebble 
dropped every score.' (Orally, Sep. 7th, 1881). This reminded 
me of the following passage ' Bargains among the Indians are 
conducted in the most profound silence, and by merely touching 
each other's hands. If the seller takes the whole hand, it 
implies a thousand rupees or pagodas ; five fingers import five 
hundred ; one finger, one hundred ; half a finger, fifty ; a single 
joint only ten.' (Hist. Acct. of Travels in Asia, Hugh Murray, 
in Simpson's History of the Gypsies, p. 311, note). Simpson 
also cites Bruce's account of two Indian brokers concluding a 
bargain as to the purchase of cargoes. ' After about twenty 
minutes spent in handling each other's fingers, below the shawl, 
the bargain is concluded, say for nine ships, without one word 



INTRODUCTORY COMMENTARY. XV11. 

ever having been spoken on the subject, or pen and ink used in 
any shape whatever.' (Bruce, Travels). 

In addition to Study VI, (p. 51-5) there is a short article on 
the ' Garth ' in the Glossary, p. 253. ' Sulh ' the A.S. name 
for the plough, which figures so largely in Study VII, is still in 
use in Somersetshire. Pers. Kulba, a plough. 

A glance through Amyot's Mantchou-Tnrtar and Fr. Diet, 
will reveal several familiar words, which are probably of Mongolian 
origin. la connection with the ' Helm,' the subject of Study 
VII, the Mantchou-Tartar ' Helmen ' the shadow of an opaque 
body, is very striking. 

Accurate figures, as to the rural populations ' early in the 
century,' (p. 62) from a remarkable paper ' on the Increase of 
Population in England and Wales,' by Mr. R. Price Williams, 
C.E., read before the Statistical Society, 15th June, 1880, show 
that ' the increase in the population of the rural districts of 
England and Wales during the first decade of this century, was 
12-11 per cent., or very similar to that of the smaller towns, 
and as in that case, the maximum rate of increase (14'74 per 
cent} was reached in the following decade, (1811-21) from that 
time, down to the census of 1851, the increase of the rural pop- 
ulation was relatively very small... the decrement in the rate of 
increase being rapid and continuous. From that period, however, 
up to 1871, there was a rapid and continuous increment... The 
cause of the slow increase of the rural population between 1821 
and 1851, is evidently in a great measure due to immigration 
into the towns ; this will at once be seen in referring to the 
diagrams,' [which show] ' that the periods of greatest increase in 
the town populations are coincident with those of greatest decrease 
in the case of the rural population. This is especially noticeable 
in the decade, 1841-51.'...' The population of the towns, which 
up to this period was considerably less than that of the rural 
districts, equalled it about the middle of the decade, and at the 
end considerably exceeded it.' (Journ. Skit. Soc., Sep., 1880.) 



XV111. STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

In Col. A. H. Ouvry's translation of E. Nasse, 'Agricultural 
Community of the Middle Ages,' 1871, (p. 19) the passage from 
the Laws of Ine, c. 42, (p. 62) is given and translated. I had 
printed this part of the Studies before meeting with a copy of 
Nasse. He says ' Price and Schmidt remark very justly, that 
there is a hiatus after ' nsebben,' (p. 63, line 1, first word) which 
they fill up from Ine, c. 40, ' & recen heora neahgebnres ceap 
in ' (Ouvry p. 19). I had filled it up in the text with the words 
' their cattle,' (p. 62, line 2) which is all that is required. In 
the next clause, however, (line 4) for ' have " gates " ' read 
' that gap own.' The ' commotions ' mentioned in Mavor's note 
(p. 64) are explained by the following. ' Commencing with the 
great insurrection of the peasants in 1549, there were numerous 
local risings throughout the 16th century, all with the same 
object, the destruction of the enclosures which deprived them of 
their lands.' (Prim. Prop., p, 256,). Anent Mr. Atkinson's 
note, p. 65, on ' Sheep gates,' in France, under the system of 
common pasturage, a common flock of sheep receives from each 
inhabitant a number of heads, determined by the quantity of 
land which he possesses in individual ownership.' I must again 
refer to Mantchou- Tartar. ' Tchop ' means exactly the same as 
Welsh ' Cop ' Eng. ' Top,' summit of a hill, (p. 69). Wei. ' Tran ' 
(p. 70) is in Gael., 'Treann,' a field, ' Kist ' (p. 72) is classed 
as being of immediate Welsh descent into this dialect, because, 
being a Latin word, probably of monastic origin (see Gloss. ) it 
would be in use among the Celtic inhabitants long before the 
Angles came. ' Hull,' (p. 70) another Welsh word, appears in 
a 'Terrier of Glebe Lands' of the Chapel of Middlesmoor 1809 
' A little swine-hull, in length three yards, and breadth one yard 
and a half, covered with slate.' Grainge, (Hist of Nidd., 
p. 165.) Cleasby, or perhaps I ought to say Vigfusson, 
(Icel. Diet.) has 'Hask-wind' which is evidently wrong. Welsh 
Asgellwynt, is lit. ' the wing "of the wind,' (p. 72,) as I am 
informed by the Rev J. G. Roberts. 



INTRODUCTORY COMMENTARY. XIX. 

Few readers will have the dates of the Roman Emperors 
(p. 75) at their fingers' ends. They are Nero, A.D. 54-68 ; 
Galba, 68 ; Otho, 69 ; Vespasian, 70-79 ; Titus, 79-81 ; 
Domitian, 81-96 ; Nerva, 96-8 ; Trajan, 98-117 ; Adrian, 
117-88. Very interesting is the account in Hobkirk's Hist, of 
Huddersfield, 1868, (p. 491) of the discovery at Cambodunum 
of the bronze companion me Jal to the silver ' Juda ' denarius, 
found in Steanbeck, which medal is mentioned on page 75. 

The bulk of Study VIII was written in 1871. Page 80 was 
printed off before the early months of 1881, when the Irish 
Question brought to light the Eundale system, still in use in 
Ireland. Some excellent plans or maps of the ' Rundale Villages,' 
with their radiating stripes of land, appeared in the Illustrated 
London Papers of that date. Nevertheless, the word seems to 
be O.N. Rond, a rim, border, stripe, and deel, division, which 
like Mere, a boundary, and Mark or March, a boundary, has 
given its name to the village land. (Russ. Mir, Get: Mark v ' 
1 Ray ' or ' Wray,' (p. 82) is certainly Gael. Rae, a pasture, 
probably the same word as ' Reoh ' and ' Rough ' in Surrey. 

To the A.S. place names ' Bolton ' must bo added. The 
Domesday Bodelton, shows it to be A.S. Boll, or Botel an abode, 
hall, etc, and ton a name still preserved intact at ' Bootlc, 1 
Liverpool. 

To p. 89 we may add Chaucer's line, 

' Whereas they made him at the qucrnc grind.' 

Hani (p. 90) occurs in the form ' Hrani ' as a man's name 
in the Incantation of Hervor, v. 2. Sleet ' (p. 91) occurs in 
Somerset in ' Sheep-slate '=' sheep-walk.' Therefore also the 
1 slate ' upon our houses is the same Gothic word, and means 
4 fiat.' In addition to the Gothic forms given on p. 91, I find 
one apparently foreign word in Welsh, Ysletan, any flat body, or 



XX. STUDIES IN NIDDEEDALE. 

vessel, aflat, a flat bottomed boat. ' Huntari,' the ' hunting 
grounds,' or the district over which a tribe had the right of 
hunting, affords another example of a name being transferred to 
a newer form of the same thing. The venerable name of Mark, 
which in Dan. now simply means a field, occurs again half a 
mile east of MalhamTarn, in ' Gans High Mark,' ' Bordley Hall 
High Mark,' ' Cote High Mark,' fields ranging from 1400 to 1500 
ft., and in ' Clapham High Mark,' 1650 ft. For ' Ketywell,' (p. 
95) see p. 161. ' Itrdcnbec ' (p. 96) is evidently Doubergill 
Beck, which flows down through Wath. Roger de Mowbray 
gave by Charter, to the Abbot and Convent of Fountains all the 
land between ' Pateleigate and Iwdone,' (Hist, of Nidd. p. 89). 
Mr. Grainge adds in a footnote " This Iicdone is evidently not 
the place now called Yeadon." But it certainly is, Mr. Grainge 
himself proves it. The Carta (p. 96, bottom) shows that 
Fountains Earth originally extended from lu'denlcc to Beckermote. 
Mr. Grainge (Hist., p. 175) says, that it still extends " from a 
short distance above Beggarmote Scar, to where Doubergill falls 
into the same river, [Nidd] near the hamlet of Wath." He says 
again, "Doubergill divides it from Bishopside." The place 
really in doubt is ' Pateleigate,' which must have been the name 
of a road or track at the northern extremity of Fountains Earth= 
the ' Pateley road.' ' Mote ' is a commoner name than 
appears in the north. There is an old Cumbrian rhyme 
which says, 

" The Esk and the Liddle 

Run a striddle 
And meet at the Mote." 

which I take from Mr. Palmer's charming work, (The Tyne and 
its Tributaries, C. xiv, p. 157). 

As regards the suggested Groeco- Latin origin of Buskr, a 
bush, Lot, Boscus, (p. 104). ' By Inquisition, post mortem, 
(26 Ed. 1), Roger de Mowbray held ' Nidderdalo Chacea, 



INTRODUCTORY COMMENTARY. XXI. 

Baggworth bnscus, Glomescallo boscus ' which were within the 
Manor of Kirkby Malzeard,' (Hist, of Xidd., p. 175). 

Two Papers of mine, on " The Vestiges of the Ancient 
Forests of part of the Pennine Chain," have been published, 
one by the British Association, 1881, and the other in the 
beautifully printed publications of the " Geological and Poly- 
technic Society of the West Riding of Yorkshire, 1881." Both 
are founded on Studies XIII and XIV. For more about 
Charcoal-burning, (p. 117) see Rogers ( Agriculture and Prices, 
V. 1, c. 18, p. 421.) ' Terraced Reins.' (p. 120) are of world- 
wide invention ' At Murichon, a small village in Bhotan, which 
occupies a spot of even ground at the top of a mountain, the 
farmers level the ground they cultivate in the slopes of the hills 
by cutting it into shelves, forming beds of such size as the slopes 
will admit,' (Capt. Turner in Hamilton's East India Gazetteer, 
1828. V. 2, p. 262). 

To Mr. J. G. Baker, F.R.S., of Kew Herbarium, the author 
df ' North Yorkshire,' with whom I had the pleasure of walking 
over some of the ground treated iu these Studies, when I had 
the honour of conducting the excursion of the British Association 
from York to Brimham Rocks, 1881, I am indebted for the 
following notes on Study XV. The Modern Botany, (p. 121). 
" Primula Elatior. The Yorkshire Oxlip is not P. Ehitior, 
which is confined to Essex, Sussex, and Cambridge, but a hybrid 
between the Primrose and Cowslip. Euonymus Europteus 
ascends to Leyburn Shawl, 700 feet, and Aysgarth Force." 
The London Pride,' (p. 122) " Dr. Lees, in his ' West York- 
shire,' treats it os a true native in Heseltine Gill." Melamjtyntm 
Sylcdticum should be M. Pratense var. Montana. The Surrey 
plant is no doubt J/. Pratense, which has a larger flower. Ilubus 
CTuwucmorus, the Nowt-berry, " marks off beautifully in A r . Eny. 
the lower boundary of Watson's Arctic region." Ojcyria 
Keniformis, " this must be a mistake, O.ryria is one of the few 



XX11. STUDIES IN NIDDEEDALE. 

plants frequent amcngst the lakes of Westmoreland and Cumber- 
land, not known in Yorkshire." I bow to tbis opinion. My 
herbarium contains several specimens, all of which I may have 
brought from Norway. Tricntalis Europcea, " plentiful on our 
hills above Thirsk, specially at Boltby." 

Mr. Reason has stuffed at Wath, a most life-like group of 
Merlins, (p. 137) cock and hen and five young birds covered 
with dirty grey down, which were taken on Sigs worth Moor, 
1878. ' Tits, ' (p. 130) Euss. Ptetzei, birch . Mr. Leyland, 
(Sep. 7th, 1881) has stuffed at Kettlewell two Kingfishers, 
shot there. Professor Max M tiller has fulfilled hi? promise, (p. 
141). The passage nows reads (Ed. 1880, Vol 2, Lect. 10) 
" The Emperor Julian, (Mieopogon, init.) when he heard the 
Germans singing their lays on fee borders of the Rhine, could 
compare them to nothing but the shrill cries of birds." Mr. 
Newbould has stuffed at Drygill, a Greater Spotted Woodpecker, 
(p. 143) shot near Pateley Bridge, (Sep. 6th, 1881). ' Ket 
Crow,' (p. 142) i.e., ' Kite Crow,' for Kite means ' belly,' and 
Ket means ' offal.' This explains Kite the falcon. 

Some further comments upon the text will be found in 
the Glossary. 



THE PATE. 

The Pate, brock, or badger, which gives its name to Pateley 
(but see Glossary for all I know about the word), has long been 
quite extinct in Nidderdale and Wharfedale. Mr. John 
Tennant of Low Green, told me tbo following respecting the Pate. 
" Fifty five or sixty years ago, when I was a boy, Pates were 
common about Goldsborough and Knaresborough, and used to 



INTRODUCTORY COMMENTARY. XX111. 

eat and destroy considerable quantities of corn and potatoes. 
We used to hunt them at night. They cannot run very fast, on 
account of the difference in the lengths of their legs." There 
is a great difference in length, between the fore and hind legs, 
but I can bear witness to the fact, that in Nidderdale, several 
persons of undoubted intelligence credit the story, that the legs 
on one side, are longer than those on the other ! They were 
formerly common in the Dales. Old John Wilkinson was living 
September 5th, 1881, with his wife, who was just over 92 
years of age, and two months his senior, at his sou's house at 
Heathfield. They had been married upwards of seventy years, 
and seemed to be enjoying a peaceful old age, after a long life's 
work, quite content sitting side by side on the settle, with all 
they wanted in each others company, though they were both too 
deaf to converse easily, but in other respects in full possession 
of all their faculties. When I asked John Wilkinson, whether 
he had ever killed a Fomud or a Pate, he replied, ' Aye, scoores,' 
and his son, himself an old man, entertained me with the 
following relation. " About forty years ago, I was crossiu from 
Heathfield with fadther, to lay wait for a man that we thowt was 
like to be out poachin. We did not want ta cross t' brig, and, 
as t' Nidd was varra low, I greed to hug fadther across t' waiter. 
When I had taken ma stockings off, and had got inta t' middle, 
we heard a splash, and saw something swim across t' Nidd. 
So I maks back, and when it got ta t' bank we saw it was a 
Pate, so we gave chase, and as they cannot run s.t varra fast we 
seean catched it." 

Mr. John Leyland, of Kettlewell, related to me another 
personal experience. " A Badger was killed at Starbotn, 
[Wharfedale] about forty years ago. I and two brothers all rode 
on one horse to see the Badger- bait. We made a tunnel 
about 20 or 80 feet long, with a tub at t' far end Seven 
or eight fox terriers tried to draw the Pate, which was killed by 
Bx>ger Tattersall's dog." " Mr. Ley laud also told me that the 



XXIV. STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

last Pates known in the district, were a family, which were all, 
including young ones, caught in Doubergill above twenty years 
since, by Frank Bentley." The ' Basons,' on page 133, are 
evidently Badgers, as the Yetholm Gypsies call the Badger 
' Burran.' 

Mr. Thorpe tells me (June 1882), " That the last Pates 
seen or known in Nidderdale, were a male and female, and 
they were killed about 28 years ago in the Tenement Wood, 
Fountains Earth Township, by two men named respectively 
Mat Nelson, and Frank Bentley. Within ray recollection, 
I have known many Pates to have been killed at the Tenement 
by two brothers, Jack and Harry Blake. The Tenement was 
the stronghold of the Pate in Nidderdale. I also remember 
several Badger-baits, in the back yard of the Bay Horse Inn, 
Pateley Bridge." 



Some works that have previously gone over part of the same 
ground as the present work are referred to in the course of these 
Studies, but the ' Northern Tour ' of Arthur Young, ' North 
Yprkshire,' by J. G. Baker, and ' The Danes and Norwegians 
in England,' by Professor Worsaae, require special notice. As 
regards the last, large numbers of the words and names, which 
the learned Professor referred to the Danish, are identical with 
Old Norsk words, a circumstance that may be explained by the 
want of the very excellent Dictionaries of that Language which 
we now possess. 

The outline of these Studies was published in the Zoologist 
for September and October, 1879, under the title of " The 
Naturalist in Nidderdale." 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. XXV. 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



KDITIO*. 

Al. 1880. Nidderdill Comic Almanac.- 1880. 

Annstr. Armstrong's Gaelic and English Dictionary. 1825. 

Atk. Cleveland Glossary. Rev. J. C. Atkinson. 1868. 

Bla. Poems in the Nidderdale Dialect. T. BJackah.* 1867. 

Boet. Alfred's Transl. of Boetius into Anglo-Saxon. Fox. 1864. 

Bos. Anglo-Saxon Diet. Rev. Jos. Bosworth. 1860. 

Bra. Etymological French Diet. Brachet. 1873. 

Brock. Glossary of North Country words. J. T. Brockett. 1846. 
Cleas. Icelandic English Dictionary. Richard Cleasby, 

and Gudbrand Vigfusson. 1869. 
CL Gl. See Atk. 

CoUoq. Heard by me in conversation. 

Cot. French and English Diet. Cotgrave. 1650. 
Crav. Gloss, Dialect of Craven, with a copious Glossary. 

Carr. 1828. 
Cur. Principles of Greek Etymology, (Transl.) Georg 

Curtius. 1875-6 

( Cur. Sk. ) Hand list of some Cognate words in English, 

Latin and Greek. W. W. Skeat, (after Curtius). 1871. 

DM/. Diefenbach. Supt. to Dncange (Lat.-Ger.) 1857. 

Du Canye. Gloss... Med. et Inf. Latinitatis. 1681. 
Eb. Eyrbygja Saga, (in Cleas.) 

Fritz. Oldnorsk Orbog. Johan Fritzner. 1865. 

Glow. Sax. JEfric. at end of Somner. 1659. 

Grainge. History of Nidderdale. Wm. Grainge.* 1863. 

Grose, Provincial Glossary. Francis Grose. 1790. 
Hall, Hal. Archaic and Provincial words: 

k; * S ' \ Liddel and Scott's Greek Lexicon. 1864. 

Lid. <t oc. ) 

* Published by Thoe. Thorpe, Patcley Bridge. 



.XXVI. STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

EDITION. 

Lany. Languedoc. 

Lye. Saxon and Gothic Latin Dictionary. Ed. Lye, 

and Ow. Manning. 1782. 

C. Molbech. Dansk Dialekt Lexicon. 1841. 

Dansk Ordbog. 1859. 

Nid. Al. Nidderdill Comic Almanac. * 1880. 

'Ormul. Ormulnm. 1190. Ed. White. 1852. 

Ow. Welsh-English Dictionary. W. Owen. 1803. 

'Prompt. Pare. Promptonum Parvulorum. (The first 

English Latin Dictionary). 1864. 

Riola. How to Learn Russian. Henry Riola. 1878. 

Russ. English Russian Dictionary. A. Aleksandrov. 1879. 
Sax. Chron. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Ed. Ingram. 1823. 

Shakspear. Hindustani Dictionary. 
Skeat. Moeso-Gothic Lexicon. W. W. Skeat. 
Skin. Etymologicon Anglicanum. 

Somn. Dictionary Saxon- Latin- Anglicum. Gul. Somner. 1659. 
'Spel. Glossarium. Spelman. 
Strttm. Old English Dictionary. Stratmann. 
Ulf. Moeso-Gothic Bible of Ulfilas. (Lye and Skeat). 
W. or Wei. See Oic. 

WeJtj. Diet, of English Etymol. Hensleigh Wedgwood. 1859. 
IF. of C T . (p. 247). William of Cloudesley. 
Williams. Sanscrit English Dictionary. Monier Williams. 



Published by Tlios. Thorpe, Patelcy Bridge. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



i. 

IN Yorkshire there are three well-known hills that bear the 
name of Whernside, all about 2000 feet in elevation. Two 
of these Great Whernside, 2300 feet, and Little Whernside, 
1984 feet lie together, fourteen miles south-east of the third 
Whernside, which sends down feeders to the Ribble, the Lune, 
the Ure, and the Wharfe, on the backbone watershed* whose 
waters descend to the North Sea on the one side, and the Irish 
Channel on the other. Great and Little Whernside lie near 
the head waters of the Cover, a tributary which joins the Ure 
near Middleham, twelve miles north-east from its source and 
the Nidd, a tributary of the Ouse, which joins the main river 
near YorK, thirty-five miles south-east from its source. On the 
west, Great Wheruside looks down upon the village of Kettle- 
well, in the far-famed dale of the Wharfe, and up the lovely 
Langstrothdale ;f whilst above these, in the middle distance, 
looms the stupendous Pen-y-gent, having the truncated sugar- 
loaf shape characteristic of all the millstone-grit eminences on 
the Pennine Chain. 

This part of the valley of the Wharfe derives its beauty from 
being cut deeply into the mountain limestone, whose regular 
terraces and lines of cliffs form one of the most pleasiug features 

The actual watershed passes to the east of Wheruside. 

t Pronounced " Laiigsterdale " Lang Strath. This common Scotch 
word only occurs in England in the uauie " Langstrothdale." J. It. 1). 
Str.tth is Welsh YSTRAD a vale, bottom, or ralky. It foims the names of 
many places in Wales as " Ystrad Yw," " Ybtrad Tyvvi." (Owen.) 
Strath may also be contained in the uamv Col-stcr-dalc. 



2 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

in the dale. Though this limestone reappears in the valleys to 
the east, it is too low in their beds to give a character to the 
scenery. With these exceptions all the hills and slopes are 
formed in the millstone-grit formation, which ranges on a huge 
anticlinal line from Derbyshire into Scotland. It is this forma- 
ton that supports upon its sandstones and shales that remarkable 
extent of heather-covered moor and peat which occupies a belt 
of country, broken only by valleys, for a length of 200 miles, 
being in places thirty miles wide. The line of demarcation 
between the vivid green grass of the limestone and the black 
heather-covered peat of the millstone-grit is generally as well 
defined as that of the formations themselves. 

The basin of the Nidd above Hampsthwaite includes an area 
of eighty square miles ; and though some allusions will be made 
to the more southerly part of this area, it is the more northerly 
and more elevated parts that will be particularly described. 
For sixteen miles from Great Whernside the valley proper is 
nowhere more than one mile wide from ridge to ridge, and is 
from 500 to 800 feet deep, forming, as it were, a deep groove 
in the vast easterly-sloping heather- covered moorland. South 
of that the valley becomes more open, the height of the sur- 
rounding hills falls, and the moors which retreat to the west 
disappear altogether on the east side. Save for the magnificent 
Briinham Rocks, the valley below is tame, but by no meana 
uninteresting. 




STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



II. 

BETWEEN the Wharfe near Otley and the Nidd be-low 
Pateley Bridge, there is a great extent of wild half-cultivated 
land, almost all of which has formerly been under the plough. 
Some of this tract is yet wild moorland, in which lies the 
ancient enclosure of Haverah Park, but the rest has long since 
been turned into grazing land. Over this and surrounding 
districts,*farms fitted up for agriculture are now standing half 
ruinous, and it is no uncommon thing to see a little shed of logs, 
thatched with hay for the shelter of a few calves, put up in one 
corner of a large roofless barn built for the reception of hay and 
grain. Fences have been allowed to go to ruin, or gaps have 
been intentionally formed in them to give the herds of cattle 
now grazing there a larger run. 

Till about fifty years ago long-horned cattle were kept in the 
dale. They were black-and-white, and blue.* These dun cattle 

" The homed cattle of this district may he classed under four different 
heads. 1. The Short-horned kind, which principally prevail in the east 
side of the Riding, and are distinguishable by the names of the Durham, 
Holderness, or Dutch breed. 2. The Long-horned or Craven breed, 
which are both bred and fed in the western parts, and also bronght from 
the neighbouring County of Lancashire. These are a hardy sort of cattle, 
and constitutionally disposed to undergo the vicissitudes of t wet and pre- 
carious climate. 3. There is another breed which appears to be a cross 
between the two already mentioned and which we esteem the best of all. 
A great number of milch cows of this sort are kept in Nidderdale and the 
adjacent county, which are both useful and handsome. They are perhaps 
not altogether such good milkers as the Holderness cows, but they are 
much hardier, and easier maintained. They are at the same time sooner 
made ready for the butcher, and are generally in good order and condition 
ven when milked ; and besides these, there are numerous quantities 
of Scotch cattle brought into the county, which beef sells higher than 
that of the native breed." Agriculture of West Riding, Rob. Brown, 
1799, pp. 178179. 



4 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

are now very scarce in England, but are common enough in the 
dales of Norway. A tradition of them is preserved in the sign 
of " the Dun Cow,"* which is found in the mountainous parts 
of the North of England. They were replaced by shorthorns, 
whose chief merit lies in the fact that in a year and a half they 
will put on as much flesh as an ordinary beast will in three. In 
addition to this they " feed " better, and grow fat on pastures 
where an ordinary cow would remain poor. For these reasons 
they are well adapted for keeping for a year and a half or two 
years on these moorside farms. Since the decline of agriculture 
in the dale their numbers have very much increased all along 
this part of the lower slopes of the Pennine Chain, which may 
truly be called the nursery of the famous breed of Yorkshire 
shorthorns. The cattle are subject to a disease which causes 
them to swell up about the eyes and tail, when they are said to ' 
be "betwenged."f 

* In Mardale is a well-known " Dun Bull," familiarly called " Dunny," 
which got its name thus : The owner and landlord were standing talking 
together about what the Inn should be called, when a man came along 
driving a Dun Bull. This story was told me by the son (I think) of the 
man in question so that the tradition which the name carries is not 
always ancient. J. K. D. 

+ The Rev. J. C. Atkinson, the learned author of the Cleveland Glossary 
suggests, " TENG, to sting, to affect by injected venom ;" a word which he 
surmises may be " sting with the s removed." He has " TENGED, stung. 
An animal of the ox kind is liable to an affection, which by the Dales' 
people is attributed to the venom of a small insect ; ' a small red spider,' 
Whitby Glossary says, ' attacking the roots of the tongue.' The symptoms 
are swelling of the parts, and copious and excessive discharge of saliva, 
Tongue-tenged is the customary expression." For the ascribed cause in 
Nidderdale, see Glossary. Remember Cleopatra's hair-pin (see Glossary 
' BELLONED'). Mr. Atkinson says further, in a letter ' As for the w in 
"betwenged compare the parallel forms ' thwack ' and ' thack ' to drub or 
thrash. Your friend's " bewitched " is the old, old notion that is involved 
in many a term applied to cattle ills of divers kinds a notion neither more 
nor less ' superstitious ' than that of the venomous insect, or ' small red 
spider ' of the Dales people in this district in connection with ' tenged ' or 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 5 

Quitting the zone of cattle-grazing country we may now turn 
to Nidderdale proper. For the first six miles from Great 
Whernside the valley takes an easterly course, and both sides 
are marked by lines of fine escarpment a propos of which it 
may be observed that this kind of scenery, terrace rising above 
terrace, which has been so faithfully depicted by Turner, is 
peculiar to the valleys of the Pennine Chain, not only as regards 
England, but Europe, as neither Norway, the Hartz, nor Swit- 
zerland show anything of the kind. To return, however below 
this the valley turns to the south, after which only the eastern 
side continues to be steep. The margin of each terrace is fre- 
quently marked by a line of wood, but the slopes and terraces 
are grazing land. Nearly all the enclosed land on the sides of 
the dale as high as Woodale, 1000 feet, has been ploughed. 
It was ploughed straight up and down. No doubt this was 
necessary, as the slopes are so steep that heavy showers would 
wash away the soil.* 

Agriculture has never been a complete success in the dale, 
and within these twenty years the last of the ploughed land in 
the dale north of Pateley Bridge has been " swathed." Several 
late harvests, and some never got at all, have the credit, locally, 
of having contributed to this result ; but the true explanation 
demands a wider view. The dalesmen themselves say that oats 
often failed, and wheat would not ripen ; but that, as oatmeal 
was almost their only article of food, they and their fathers were 
obliged to put up with bad crops and imperfect success, as they 
were too poor to fetch oatmeal from the better districts. 

Grose quotes an ancient proverb " A famine in England 
begins at the horse-manger," and remarks " If oats fail, there i8 

' tongue-tenged.' Your own account of ' betwenged ' is sufficient to prove 
the extreme improbability that it ever could have been a household word 
with that part of the folk who must have originated the term, if it ever 
was originated." Grose (1790) has " Teng, to teng ; to sting or bite ; aa 
the bee, wasp, or adder. North." 

See Author's remarks. Transac. lust, of Surveyors, Vol ix., p. 154. 



6 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

generally a bad crop of every other kind of grain ; indeed, oat- 
meal makes a great part of the food of the poorer sort of people 
in the north." This was written in 1790, had it been 1880, he 
would have added many peers and royal personages to the list ; 
for a more wholesome and beneficial article of food was never 
vouchsafed to the human race ; nor perhaps was there ever a 
time when oatmeal was more in demand for porridge than it is 
at present. f 

Though from such names as " Rye Close" one would infer 
that rye had once been cultivated in the dale, there has been 
none grown for the last eighty years, and all the old inhabitants 
say that they never heard of any being grown. However, in 
the winter of 1799-1800 wheat bread was very dear, and the 
inhabitants of Lofthouse fed upon rye bread. 

* In the East-Riding oatmeal is not used as man's food commonly; 
oat-cake is unknown. This may account for the Norwegians (whose 
communication with England is principally by Hull) being so incredulous 
that the English eat oat-cake. J. R. D. 




STUDIES IN NIDDKRDALE. 



III. 



NIDDERDALE is now one large grazing field. Not only are 
the young shorthorns nursed here, but vast flocks of sheep 
are reared on the moors. " Sheep-gates," or the right to turn 
sheep on to the moors, are let in specified numbers with each 
farm, and now it is difficult to get " gates," though thirty years 
ago there were not sheep enough in the dale to stock the moors. 
At that time they were nearly all Scotch wethers, row there are 
few Scotch wethers in the dale. Nidderdale has its own breed, 
formed by crossing Scotch ewes and first-rate Leicester tups, 
called iu the dale " mugs." 1 ' (A. S. Mug, muga, mucg, a heap, 
round mass, stack, mow, in reference to the same feature that 
gives the name Tup. See Glossary.) The name " ram" is 
never used, and by many not understood. It occurs only once 
in the A. S. Laws viz. : in the Introduction to the Laws of 
^Ethelstan. " an ram u-eorthe iiii peningas." In the older laws 

one ram worth 4 pence, 
it was called hrythera. " Twd cald hrytliem oththe tyn wetkenu." 

Two old rams or ten wethers. 

Laws of Inc., c. 70. " Wether " occurs once or twice. 
" Ewe " was also an old Saxon name, but "Lamb " although 
a Gothic word used by Ulfilas appears to have been used by 
him in the general sense of sheep. " Hairdeis ist lambe." 

Herder is of sheep. 

John x. 2. "Is the shepherd of the sheep ;" and, although an 
A. S. word occuring several times in the A. S. Bible, never 
appears in the A. S. Laws. Thus " Eown bith mid hire geonge 

An ewe with her young 

Scotch Ewes and Leicester Tups. This crossing is the common 
mode of hreeding in all the dale country. In Westmoreland, about 
Mardale, thev rear ' Herdwicks.' J. R. D. 



8 STUDIES IN NIDDEEDALE. . 

scecipe scill. weorth, oth thait feowertyn niht ofer Eastron." L. 
sheep is worth a shilling, till a fortnight after Easter. 

Ine., c. 55. The result of crossing the mugs and Scotch sheep 
is a sheep known as the " half-bred," with plenty of wool and 
mutton commodities largely in demand in the manufacturing 
districts of Leeds and Bradford.* 

The wethers are now nearly all " half-breds " or " Nidder- 
dale Breed," the advantage of which over the Scotch breed is 
shown by the fact that when the wethers were "true Scotch" 
they were kept until they were three or four "shears." Now it 
is common to sell the "half-bred" at one or two "shears," 
Wether mutton is the best mutton in the market. Large for- 
tunes have been made in Yorkshire out of breeding sheep and 
cattle, with a view to meeting the ever-increasing demand for 
food and clothing. The true secret successfully accomplished 
by the skill of the Nidderdale farmers is in bringing forward 
your beast or your wether so as to carry the largest possible 
amount of flesh, or wool in the case of sheep, in the shortest 
possible time, and on the cheapest possible food, viz. : Pasture. 

There was a time when wool for clothing purposes was a 
scarce article in this country. In the Laws of Inc. (A.D. 088- 
728), c. 69, we read " Scedp sceal gongan mid his flyse oth 
A sheep shall go with his fleece until 

midne surnor, othtJie yyld that Jlijs mid twain peningum." 
mid summer, or pay for that fleece with two pence. 

* The origin of this cross is apparently contained iu the following 
passage of the great Agricultural Survey of 1793, p. 18C. " Sheep. The 
bheep bred upon the moors in the westeru parts of the Hiding, and which 
we presume are the native breed, are horned, light in the fere-quarters, 
and well made for exploring a hilly country where there is little to feed 
them but peat and ling. These are generally called the Peniatone breed, 
from the nume of the market town where they are sold. . . \\ c suppose 
croMing ewes of this sort with a JJakewcll ram would produce an excellent 
breed for the low country pastures, at the Bakewcll herds have usually 
the properties that the Peiiixtone wants. There are great quantities of 
Scotch sheep from Teviotdale, &c., fed in this county." 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 9 

From this it would appear that Midsummer would be the time 
when the flooce would be at its prime, and the man who cut it 
before that was fined for wascing material. Again in the Laws 
^thelstan (A.D. 924-940), c. 15. "We cir,<><}<, tl t ,r,l vim scyld 

We command that no shield 

if ////!/ ne lecge ndn sceajpcs fdle on tc^ld, and ijlj he hit dd 
maker lig (lay) any sheep's skin on a shield, and if he it do 
tjijlde xxx scill." 
let him pay 30 shill. 

When sheep are to be salved or sheared they are laid on 
a proper frame called a " sheep-cratch " shaped like a broad 
ladder, and erected horizontally, one end being supported upon 
two legs, and the other gradually curving down till the ends 
rest upon tut* ground. 

FIQ. 1. 




THE SHEEP-CRATCH. 

All the spring and summer the sheep run on the moors, 
each farmer turning out as many sheep as he has " gates " for; 
In November the farmers near the dale-head send their sheep 
down to winter in Haverah Park. Two or three flocks are 
joined together under the charge of one man, who drives then! 
down and remains with them all the winter, and bridgs them 
back on the approach of spring, late in March. They graze ofl 
the ling in Haverah Park, or on the sweet land that has been 
formerly ploughed and again " swathed." All the sheep, how- 
ever, do not go down. The fields in the upper parts of the 
dale in winter are full of sheep that have been brought down 
from the high moors. Though these undulating fields, with 
their ridges and hollows, are admirably adapted for wintering 
sheep, they can only accommodate a certain number ; many dw' 

ft 



10 STUDIES IN NIDDERDAtE. 

in cold nights, when they contract a disease known as " black- 
water." 

In the spring the sheep feed greedily on the flowers of the 
moor-silk (cotton-grass), or, as it is termed in the dale, "Mrss- 
crops and cutthroats. " :f Many hundreds are lost on the moor 
during the summer by casualties, such as falling into holes in 
the peat, by getting entangled in the heather, by getting bogged, 
and sometimes by getting drowned. At all times of the year 
losses occur through the sheep getting " rigged," that is laid on 
their backs or " riggs " in a little hollow, so that they cannot 
get up again without help, (See Glossary.) 

These half-bred sheep possess a habit common to all animals 
that live among mountains, and which seems to attach to the 
quality of sure-footedness, viz. that when they walk they place 
one fore-foot in front of the other. Even the horses that go 
much upon the High Fjeld in Norway acquire this habit, which 
keeps the animal well-balanced, and prevents it from sprawling 
about. The hind legs on the contrary move straight forward, 
so that, in the result, the animal leaves a track which has taxed 
the perspicacity of several of my friends during the last ten 
years. This track is what the shepherd hopes to find on the 
snow when he is searching for a missing sheep, not indeed upon 
the rough high moors, but upon the bents and upland pastures. 
Sheep are said to "rake out" when they form into a line on 
being first disturbed by the shepherd, and the sheep-tracks 
which they make walking single file are called " sheep-rakes." 
Danish licckkc means a "row." 

Sheep breeding has been practised here from the most 
ancient times, and it is probable that the " Scotch " or " black- 
faced sheep" arc the descendants of the primaeval British stock. 
I now give side by side 

Spring is said to be "bad times" for sheep. They then feed so 
greedily, after winter short commons, on rar.k grass that they get diarrhea, 
or otherwise sicken and die. I have noticed that in spring one meets with 
more dying, or recently dead sheep than at any other time. J. R. D, 



STUDIES IN NIDDKRDALE. 



11 



1. " An ancient form of counting sheep in Nidderdale," 
supplied by Mr. T. Thorpe, Pateley Bridge, "which," he 
remarks, "you will probably be aware, are counted and 
sold in scores or half-scores." 

2. " Swaledale numbers," supplied by my friend Mr. J. R. 
Dakyns, M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge, of H. M. 
Geological Survey, who says " they are also used in a 
Knitting Song," on the authority of Mr. J. G. Good- 
child, H. M. G. S. 

8. " Welsh numbers," from Owen's Welsh and English 
Dictionary (1803). 

4. "English numbers." 





I 


2 


3 


4 


/ 


Yain 


Yahn 


Un 


One 




Fain 


Tayhn 


Dan 


Two 


J 


Eddero 


Tether 


Tri 


Tbree 




Peddcro 


Mother 


Pedwar, Petwar, } 
Ir. Cetliir } 


Four 


s- 


Pitts 


Mitnpb 


Pump, Pimp, Ir. Coic 


Five 




Ta> ter 


Hithiier 


Cwev * iSix 


*? 


Later 


Lithher 


Baith Seven 




Overro 


Anver 


Wyth 


Eigbt 


/ 


Coverro 


Dunver 


Naw 


Nine 




Dix 


Die 


Deg 


Ten 


// 


Yain-dix 


Yahndic 


Un-ar-zeg 


Eleven 




Tain-dix 


Tavhndic 


Deu-ar-zeg 


Twelve 


/J 


Eddoro-dix 


Tetherdic 


Tii-ar-zeg 


Thir-teen 




Peddero-dix 


Metlierdic 


Pedwar-ar-zeg 


Four-teen 


/.r 


Bnmfitt 


Mimphit or Mumphit 


Pynitheg 


Fif-tceu 




Yain-o-buinfitt 


Yahn-a-mimphit 


Un-ar-bymtheg 


Six-teen 


r 


Tain-o-bnmfitt 


Tayhu-n-iuiinphit 


Deu-ar-bymtheg 


Seven-teen 




Eddero-o-luimfitt 


Tether-a-uiimpliit 


Tri-nr-liyintJu-g 


Eigli-teen 


f f 


Peddero-o-lmmlitt Metber-a-mimpLit 


Pedwur-ar-liynitbcg 


Niiie-teen 




Jiggit or Giggit Jigit 


Ugaiu or Ugaiut 


Twenty 



These numbers have been handed down from generation 
to generation, and remain, with the exception of a few singlo 
words, the sole surviving remnant of the ancient Cymric 



Welsh " v " is a guttural like Germ, cb., Span, x, Gr. cb. 



12 STUDIES IN NI0DERDALE. 

dialect of the Pennine Chain though those are hardly cold in 
their graves who spoke it fluently in Swaledale. 

In times of snow, from their habit of sheltering in the 
hollows, sheep often become buried in the drift. When this is 
the case a good dog will " set " them, and, if his master is there, 
he M T ill recover the sheep ; but, what seems most strange, how- 
ever good the dog may be, if he is alone he will be certain to 
worry* the sheep. None of the dogs on these moors are to be 
trusted when they go by themselves, as they are all the best 
of them apt to turn on the sheep. The dogs on these moors 
do not attain to the same perfection as they do in Scotland, 
probably because the runs are smaller ; but many dogs are sent 
up to be trained here. 

The capacity of the dogs for managing the sheep is very 
different in different individuals. Some seem to be born to the 
work, others would never learn. A dog must be obedient, quick 
at understanding, swift, strong, and able to stand the fatigue of 
running over the uneven ground of the heather-covered high 
moors. He must be able to learn to know all the hundreds of 
sheep under his charge individually, and to detect a stranger's, 
so that if two flocks get mixed, he can single out his own from 
the stranger's. They have to do this repeatedly on the open 
moors. A wave of the hand is sufficient to send a good dog 
long distances in search of a missing sheep. 

The sheep dogs in Nidderdale are referable to four distinct 
varieties. One, a thin long-bodied dog, smooth-haired, black 
and tan, long sharp head, long tail, sometimes tall ; very strong, 
swift, and clever. A second kind is a smnller dog, smooth, 
silver-grey, with dark grey blotches ; always wall-eyed, light eye 
in lighter patch ; biirk snappish ; barks in a skulking way, with 
its tail between its Ings ; cowardly. A third kind, handsomer 
than the other two, and generally larger, is a long-haired shaggy 

*WoiTj' Kill (S -r Glossary). 



STUDIES IN NIDDKRDALE. 18 



dog, with ft mass of long hair about the neck ; colour black ami 
white, being black over the back and sides ; has a white ring 
round his neck, (whence he is generally called " Ring") ; ears 
sharp, ^short, erect ; face short, triangular ; tail hairy. The 
fourth type is a noble-looking dog, rough-haired, terrier like, 
large ; colour dark slaty blue above, light ochreous brown below ; 
tan legs ; face hairy ; ears small, partly erect, then drooping ; 
tail large, dark above, light under ; bark loud a good honest 
announcement of the presence of a stranger. Though there are 
some few dogs that do not fall under any of these types, by 
fur the larger number of the sheep dogs in Nidderdale do ; and 
though the points of ditl'arence miy appear to be trifling, they 
are extremely characteristic and distinctive. A great many of 
these dogs are imported from Scotland, a few from Craven, and 
elsewhere. 

The following are some of the very old dog's names in the 
dale: Bute (said to be for Beauty), Corby, Cort (after Gorton 
in Craven), Crab, Craft, Daisy, Fan, Fleet, Flora, Gade, Gesa 
(pronounced like guess), Glan, Harry, Houve, Jessie, Jockie 
(said for Jock), Jos, Laddie, Lassie, Lady, Luce, Morna or 
Mourner, Nell, Rake, Rap, Ring (type 3), Rock, Roy, Sam, 
Shep, Spot, Sprat, Sweep (type 1), Swift (typo 1), Tip, Tossel, 
Trip, Turk, Watch, Watch 'Em, Wench, Wenny, Whip, Wily, 
Yarrow. Some of these are eminently suggestive of high 
antiquity. " Rake " probably has a Scandinavian origin, Ilakki 
being the Old Norsk for a dog. We may fairly conclude that 
the name of * 4 R:iko"*is at least 1000 years old in the dale. 
" Shep" may be A. S. Seep, a sheep, but Sep/ii is an Icelandic 
pet name for a dog ; or the name may, like Watch 'Em, be 
from the word of command " Rak," drire (see Glossary.) 
Similarly "Hoov" is the Welsh HICK (the Anglo-Saxon I/of) 
a hood (pronounced floor), and was probably given as a name 
to a dog in allusion to the shape of the hair on the head, or to 
its colour, presenting the appearance of a hood. The word 



14 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

"Hove"' (a hood) was still in use in the time of Chaucer, and is, 
in fact, used by him in the " Canterbury Tales " : 



And some deal set his hove," V. 3909. 



The name " Hoov " may therefore be 1800 years old in the dale. 
Many of the others are equally interesting. Some are obviously 
imported from Scotland. 




STUDIES IN NtDDEKDALE. 15 



IV. 



It is probable that we are more dependent upon animal food 
than we used to be. In tbeir early days, the present generation 
of dalesmen fed almost exclusively upon oatmeal ; either as 
"hastj pudding," that is Scotch oatmeal which has been ground 
over ayain so as to be nearly as fine as flour, boiled smooth and 
eaten while hot with milk or treacle ; or " lumpy," that is, 
boiled quickly and not thoroughly stirred ; or else in one of the 
three kinds of cake which they call " fermented," viz., " riddle 
cake " (see Glossary), " hold-on cake," or " turn-down cake," 
which is " made from oatcake batter poured on the bak' ston' 
from the ladle, and then spread with the back of the ladle. It 
does not rise like an oatcake." Or of a fourth kind called " clap 
cake." They also made " tiffany cakes " of wheaten flour, which 
was separated from the bran by being worked through a hair- 
sieve tiffany, or temse, south of England Taniitnj,* with a brush 
called the Brush Shank. Brachet refers the Fr. Tamis to a 
German origin from Dutch Tents, but Wedgwood takes us to the 
Italian and Latin " Fr. Tamis, It. Tamigio, Tainiso, a sieve, 
Fr. Estamine the stuff tamine, also, a strainer (Cotgrave), It. 
Stamiyna, a strainer made of Goat's hair, from Stame, Lat. 
Stamen, the fixed threads in a loom, woof, yarn" reasoning 
apparently upon the vrords. The fact however that we have the 
Dutch name Terns, would rather indicate that the Temse came 
into the North of England from the Netherlands, for otherwise 

" Tommy " is a common term for food among workpeople. As the 
' tift'any " gave the name " tiflaiiy-cake," so, probably, the Fr. " Tamia " 
may have given " Tommy-cake," shortened to " Tommy." If this be BO, 
the name " Tommy " carries a tradition of the time when oatmeal was tho 
principal if not the only avticlu of food, and so came to mean " food " 
generally. J. tt. D. 



10 STUDIES IN NIDDEKDALE. 

we should have expected Tammy as in the South. Again, it' the 
Dutch had derived their Terns from a French or Italian source, 
why should ir, who got our Tntnimj from the French, have gone 
to the Dutch for our Temxe ? That is, why should we have 
gone to two markets for the same article, the one being the 
original and the other a second-hand source ? It is true that 
the great commercial enterprise of that nation may explain the 
difficulty, under the light of an historical account of the inven- 
tion, which I have not before me. 

Stone ovens were formerly much used for baking, and a few 
are still in use. They are called " yewns," and are about two 
feet high by two feet square, vaulted, a>?d have a square door. 
They are made about breast high in the wall of the comfortable 
room on one side of the fire-place. The gude wife burned ling 
in this yewn till it became quite red-hot, when she raked out the 
ling and put in the dough to be baked. Dough is frequently 
called Doof and I remember, when a little boy at school at 
Blandford, in Dorsetshire, how we all hated a hot currant bunn, 
which went by the elegant cognomen of FifiM-duff. Pardon the 
degression, but on our way back to Yorkshire, it mav be inter- 
esting to note that on that very charming and beautiful range 
of hills, known as the Lower Greensands, in Surrey, stone ovens 
are still in use. Peat is there extensively used for fuel, and 
what is still more delicious, the small sticks and branches, 
picked up in the extensive plantations of Scotch Firs, are used 
as well as heather for heating the ovens. Sweet, indeed, is the 
fragrance of burning peat, but the scent of the pale blue smoke 
from the Scotch Fir boughs, with the leaves attached, is sweeter 
still. 

The Edfixtoiic was once an important thing in Nidderdale. 
It has given its name to several large Gills from whence they 
have been, and still are obtained, and that not only in Nidder- 
dale, and the surrounding dales, but all along the Pennine 
hain. From Bak-stone Gill, near Lofthousc, the stone is a very 



StUDIES IN NIDDERDAIJE. 17 

fine bedded soft micaceous flaggy sandstone. It will stand fire 
quite as well as fire-brick, which at the Dale Head is an 
expensive article. It is still used for lining all the limekilns, 
ovens, boilers, etc., and is laid horizontally. It is left thicker 
in the middle for baking, so as to stand the heat better. It 
makes sweeter cakes than iron plates. This stone is useless for 
any other purpose, as it shives off with frost, on account of the 
extreme thinness of the layers. 

Mr. Atkinson cites " Hire cako beamed o' the stan," from 
Hali Meidenhead, (Ed 0. Cockayne, p. 87,) which he claims to 
mean hearthstone, in support of his untenable suggestion of O.N. 
Bafatjarn as the derivation of Bak'stone. That could never have 
named the Gills, however, from which the Bak'stone is actually 
dug. 

The word Bak&trjarn, moreover, referred to as 0. N. is 
Icelandic, meaning "an iron plate for baking sacramental wafers," 
and occurs in an Icelandic church M.S. of the fourteenth century, 
called after a Bishop, Vilkins-Maldagi, 15. 87. This, were the 
other evidence less conclusive, would effectually dispose of the 
suggestion that Bak'stone is the result of a " transition of 
sound " from " the 0. N. original " Bakstrjarn. 

The Bakstone is still in use for baking, but has generally 
been supplanted by an iron plate, which retains the old name 
Bakstone like iron milestones. 

It is now many centuries since the iron " bakstone " first 
came into use, and, indeed, I can throw no light upon the actual 
date at which this took place. All I know is, that Sir John 
Froissart in his immortal Chronicle, which is a model of patience 
and careful attention to details, in an account of the manners of 
the Scots, and how they carry on war, tells us that " in their 
invasions into England, they are all on horse back, except the 
camp followers who are on foot. The Knights and Esquires are 
well mounted on large bay horses," (the ancestors no doubt of thd 



18 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

now nearly extinct Cleveland Bay,) "the common people on 
little galloways," (still the commonest kind of horse in Nidder- 
dale,) " they do not carry with them any provisions of bread 
or wiue ; for their habits of sobriety are such in time of war, 
that they will live for a long time on flesh half-sodden, without 
bread, and drink the river water without wine. They have 
therefore no occasion for pots or pans, for they keep the flesh 
of their cattle in the skins, after they have taken them off, and 
being sure to find plenty in the country which they invade, 
they carry none with them. Under the flap of his saddle each 
man carries a broad plate of metal ; behind the saddle, a little 
bag of oatmeal ; when they have eaten too much of the sodden 
flesh, and their stomachs appear weak and empty, they place 
their plates over the fire, mix with water their oatmeal, and when 
the plate is heated they put a little of the paste upon it, and make 
a thin cake like a cracknel or biscuit, which they eat to 
warm their stomachs ; it is therefore, no wonder that they 
perform a longer day's march than other soldiers." Cap. xviii. 
This was in the reign of Edward III., who was crowned 
A.D. 1326. The kind of cake they made was no doubt 
" clap-cake," Dan. Klappe-brod, or thin cakes beaten out 
with the hand. Mr. Grainge points out that though the name 
of " clap-cake" is retained in Nidderdale, the old method of 
making it from which it took its name has been given up.* 

The Bakstone, whether of stone or iron, is laid upon a 
frame called the Branderi, (pron Branderee,) which consists 
of four iron bars, upon two of which, a fifth, the slott 
bar, slides parallel to the remaining two, Branderi is used at 
and above Lofthouse, Briggs is the general name in the Dale. 
(A. 8. Bricg, Brig, Brie, Brycg, Brygc, Bryc, a Bridge, 
Dan. Brig). 

Nidderdale, p. 223, 1863. 



STUDIES IN XIDDKRDALE. 



19 



FIQ. 2. 




THE BRANDER!. 

The Branderi is made to fit on to the fire place, so that stones 
or vessels of any size, by shifting the sliding bar, can be placed 
u t " m it. The Branderi is uumistakeably of Danish introduction, 
(Dan. Branderi ; O.N. Brandreith,) and is not at all used in the 
south of England. It is a great addition to the open range. 

There was formerly in common use a round iron pan, about 
10 inches deep, and 18 inches across, with a tight fitting convex 
lid. It was provided with three legs. The Kail Pot, as it was 
called, was used for cooking pies, etc., and was buried bodily in 
burning peats. As the lower peats became red hot, they drew 
them from underneath and placed them on the top. The Kail 
pot may still be seen in use on a few farms. The name is, 
doubtless, from Kale a cabbage. The Kale pot was probably 
originally designed, and used for cooking vegetables. 

The Su-ape or Beak is a crane over the fireplace on which 
hang the Reckons, or pieces of iron having several hooks to hang 
pots on. The name of Swape is Scandinavian, from Sveipa to 
sweep round, " haun Sneipadi til Sverdinu," he swept round him 
with the sword ; Sceipr, a Swape, that which sweeps round, an 
oar, so a long oar used for working a Keel oil the Tyne is still 
called, but I suspect that the Norsemen gave a new name to an 
article, which they found in some more primitive form, existing 



20 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

in this Island at the time of their settlement, because I cannot 
find that the name is used, or ever was used, for the same article 
in Norway. Beak, the other, and probably the older name, is 
Cymric or Welsh. Becjn a little hook, dim. of Ba a hook. 
This carries us back to something more primitive than the 
kitchen range, however antiquated ; and that is the tripod, such 
as Gipsies use, made of poles meeting at about 5 or 6 feet above 
the ground, and having a pot suspended from a hook above the 
blazing wood fire. It also shows us that the name of Beak, a 
hook, has survived the change, and like Ijitkstnne has attached to 
the more " civilised " substitute that took its place. Upon tb.3 
Swape or Beak hang the Reckons, or pot-hooks, pieces of irons 
hanging down, with several hooks, one above another, to hang 
pots on. 

No doubt in England there were formerly plenty of houses 
with a mere hole in the roof, such as I have seen in Norway and 
Shetland, the roof and beams being hung with great festoons o,f 
soot, that must have taken years to accumulate. In Shetland I 
noticed that the fire was sometimes at one end of the room, and 
the hole in the roof at the other, so that the smoke had to travel 
all along the roof before it could find exit. This was for the sake 
of creating a regular draught, the cold air sinking into the room 
at one end, while the smoke rose at I he other. When the hole 
(as in the cases mentioned by Percy, cited below,) is directly 
above the fire, the cold air sinking on to the smoke breaks the 
column, and tends to dissipate the smoke, and spread it about 
the house. 

A tradition of this hole exists in the name Chimler-hoal. In 
the old Scandinavian houses the tiro was in the middle of the 
room, and, in fact, some of thoHO may still bo seen. One of the 
oldest houses in Norway is at Valle, in Setersdul, at least it 
existed in 1870, when I went over it. In it the fire-place was 
in the middle of the room. When near the end or side how- 
ever, the Jurge flagstone .stood well out in the room, so that 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 21 

people could sit all round it except on the side by the wall. 

The next progressive improvement was the large chimney, such 
as may be seen in the kitchens of many Abbeys, large enough to 
allow several people to sit round the fire under the chimney 
itself. The Ohimuey, as its name imparts, was introduced by 
the Norman French. ( Fr. Cheminee. Ital. Camminata, dim of 
cainino; Lat. Caininata, dim of Cuminits, whence also Dan. 
Kamin, used by Vitruvius for a chimney; Gr. Kiiminos an oven, 
also a flue. Probably from Kant, Kao to barn. Lid. & Ss.) 
(Bra.) 

This was shaped in its lower part like a hood, whence arose 
as I suppose, the name of lloodeud, which though stiil in use for 
" that side of the fire opposite to the yoon where there is no 
boiler " in modern houses, is clearly a tradition of these large 
hood-shaped chimneys. These chimneys were found in even 
very small cottages, when they had only a but and a ben, as well 
as in farm houses in the North of England and Scotland. The 
appearances of one of these cottages is thus graphically described 
in the little story of " Dicky and Micky Date ;" 

" They yuse ta git sat rooad t' oado fire-plaise t' father at 
yah side an' sou at tother 'coonim stars hoot d C chiinler 
tup far a wager as they sat, for it wer yau o' thcase oadefashuii'd 
chimlers 'ats rarely to be'y seen noo-a-duys. Ye cud see hoot o' i' 
topjra ontnj part o' t' harstan. Doon t' chimler hang a gert chean 
fra t' rannel Ituak o' witch they yuse ta hiiuj t' pndd'ush pan, I' fryi a 
pan, t' kettle, cr howt else 'at wautid ayther boilin er fryiu. 

The name of Hanncl Boak tells a tale. It literally means 
house-beam , lianns, gen. sing., Raima, gen. pi., of 0. N. liunn, 
a house, lidlkr, a beam. This requires a word of explanation, 
as it is evident that a beam across a chimney of the kind 
described, would never have received the distinctive appellation 
of the hou-e-beam. On the south side of the High Street in 
Redcar, there still stands a small white cottage. If one enters 
it, he will see just inside the door, some strong beams slanting 



22 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

at an angle from the bottom of the present outside wall, and running 
right up to the middle ridge of the roof. On ascending into tha 
upper storey, a parallel series of similar beams will be seen slanting 
on both sides, fruin the base of the outside walls, up to the 
medial line of the roof, whore they all rest against one beam 
in sooth, the Rannel-boak, or house-beam, upon which the whole 
structure depends. If the upper surfaces of these slanting 
beams be further examined, they will be found covered with the 
marks of where there were formerly horizontal laths, not nailed 
on to them, but fastened on by wooden pegs. On these laths 
the rooting material, whatever it was, was laid. The structure 
of the house was exactly as if a span roof, were built upon 
the ground, without any walls except end walls of course 
the present side walls are modern. On the noble and wild 
estate, that formerly belong to the Elwes family, in Eskdale, 
Cleveland, in the years 1873 to 1875, a large number of old 
farm houses and other buildings, most of which had fallen into 
a wretched stale of decay, were under repair. I then saw 
several skeletons of these old roof-wall houses laid bare, so that 
it was evidently the common mode of building houses some 
centuries ago. In one case, the house had been for centuries an 
outhouse, for there was a very old farm house near it, which 
had been built to take its place, when it was made into an 
outhouse. These old beams were black with the soot and smoke 
of fires that had burnt beneath them, when they supported tho 
roof- walls that sheltered the farmer and his family, before the 
old farm house close by was built. This proves that there was no 
chimney but that, in all probability, as in Shetland, the tire was 
at one end of the house, and the chimler hoal at the other. 
Such then was the Rannel-boak, or house-beam. In the little 
story of " Dicky an' Micky Date," it says that " they had 
a jackass called Jerry," they all three "liv'd tagether in a oade 
thakt buildin i' t' loanside, Dicky an' Micky occupied t' maist 
o' t' buildin, Jerry hevvin a corner tav hisst'n t' yak end." Now 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 23 

I have repeatedly slept in Norway, close to the partition between 
the house and the lair, and heard a cow eating within a foot or 
two of my head. In fact the cottage here described, is precisely 
similar to those which are found everywhere in Norway, but 
especially in the Sailers, or high up the dales. Now this end of 
the house, which is inhabited by the donkey, is called in 
Denmark, the FremmerS, from Frcmraffe, to project. " The 
Fremwers," says the Rev. J. C. Atkinson, " in old fashioned 
country -side houses, in several parts of Denmark, was a 
projecting end or portion of the building (whence the name,) 
which contained the oven, and gave shelter to one cow, or more, 
beside some sheop and the fowls." " In some cases the great 
or cooking fire of the establishment was also in the Fremmers, 
and where this was the case, meat, salt or fresh fish, and the 
like, were hung i roan." " Dan. D. roan, raane, or ran, rane, 
raande, the space below the roof'm the Freminers." 

Now from this Dan. Raan, Mr. Atkinson derives the Rannel 
in Rannel Boak. The question then arises, " Is Raan the 
same word as the 0. N. Rann, differently applied ? or is it a 
different word ? The oldest form in which we find the word Rann, 
is the Goth. Razn a house, but especially a ceiling, a roof (Lye) 
a structure, an edifice, something erected, that which is raised, 
probably a corruption of the part. pass. Raisgans ? of Goth. 
Raisgan, to raise. This passed into A. S., in the forms, Rttsen, 
Reesn, a covering, roof, ceiling, also, according to Somner, a 
beam in a roof or ceiling, or in fact Rannel-boak. The word did 
not survive in English, as the word " roof" proved the stronger 
of the two. In 0. N., as in A. S., it was a borrowed word 
from the Gothic, but it here underwent a marked change. 
Instead of Razn, it became Rann, of which Cleasby remarks, 
" the assimilation of zn or .</<, into nn, is peculiar to the 
Scandinavian language." Not being a word of native growth, 
this word had little more life in Icelandic than in A. 8., only 
remaining now as a poetic word. In Dan. instead of Rann, 



2t STUDIES IN NIDDERUALE. 

liaza appears to have beome Euan, and in this case to have" 
never grown in meaning beyond its first sense of roof. Thus the two 
derivations are in reality one, but I believe the immediate source 
of the Rannel Boak in tho English Dialect, to be the 0. N. 
ttann, because of the association with the 0. N. Balkr, a beam. 

To return, however, after this long digression upon f Eannel- 
botik, to the chimneys and fires in the farm-houses of the North 
of England and Scotland. When that witty libertine, King 
James V. of Scotland, (who died December 13th, 1542, aged 33,) 
had successfully accomplished an unusually audacious feat of 
gallantry with a country lass, under the disguise of a travelling 
tinker, he immortalized the scandalous event in a rich little 
ballad entitled " The Gaberlunzie Man." He called at a farm 
house, wi' monny " Good eens," 

" Saying, ' Gild-wife for your courtesie, 

Will ye lodge a silly poor man ? ' 
The night was cauld, the carle was wat, 
And down ayont the ingle lie sat." 

Now upon this Percy has the following note : " Ayont the 
ingle, beyond the fire," (see sketch of Ling Hall,) " the fire 
was in the middle of the room. In the west of Scotland, at this 
present time, in many cottages they pile their peats and turfs 
upon stones in the middle of the room. There is a hole above 
the fire, in the ridge of the house, to let the smoke out at. In 
some places are cottage houses from the front of which a very 
wide chimney projects like a bow window ; the fire is in a grate like 
a malt kiln grate, round which the people sit, sometimes they 
draw this grate into the middle of tho room. Mr. Lambe." 

Here we have another form of Hood, which name we will 
leave with the remark that Hood end meant no doubt originally 
the Hood end of the Langsettle, which stood out at right angles 
to tho wall. 

Such were some of tho older forms of fire-places and chimneys 
in respect of which, several highly interesting existing names,- 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 25 

of modern appliances, were originally given. We will now 
continue our account of this part of the subject, as it at 
present exists. 

The pore, tengs, and shovel, poker, tongs, and shovel, 
complete the furniture of the fire-place. Wo appear to be 
indebted to the Dutch for oar pokers, or at least for the name of 
the process, Dut. poken to poke. For tengs we may thank the 
Scandinavians, with a strong probability that we are not giving 
them more than their due, for Tengs is the Swed. Tang, and 
Tongs is the 0. N. Taung, Tony, Dan. Tang, meaning tied 
together, from 0. N. Tengja to tie or fasten together, originally 
with bands of pliable wood, ash or hazol, as we see in any smithy 
to-day. In one corner stands the creel (0. N. Krlli a basket,) 
full of " peats." At one side of the fire stands the Langscttle, 
settle, or "squab." Settle is the A. S. Setl, Settl, Setel, Setol; 
Scdel, Scdl, Gesetl, a settle, bench, stool, but Squab although now 
synonymous with Settle, was originally a stuffed cushion. 
Formerly when beef was killed it was hung to dry on a frame 
called the beef-case, shaped like a ladder with broad steps. The 
beef-case was hung horizontally on the ceiling above the fire- 
place. Ling Hull was about the last house in the dale in which 
the old style was to be seen, as late as Christmas, 1871 at 
which date I heard that the venerable occupants were under 
notice to quit, and the house was to be pulled down. Ling Hall 
was one of the last of the old cottage farms, and it so happened 
that my kind landlord, at Lofthouse, supplied the household with 
milk. Knowing the interest I took in all matters connected with 
Nidderdale, and in everything and everybody in the dale, he 
offered one night, shortly before Christmas, to introduce me. 
The snow was thick on the ground at the time, and had been 
lying about three weeks. Between six and seven o'clock in the 
evening we walked up from Lofthouse, by the light of the snow, 
and a lantern. Ling Hall was a very suiull honse, and not in 
itself so interesting as many older ones in the dale. Dut on 

D 



26 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

entering, had I been shown straight in to the presence of the 
Great Mogul, I could not have felt more awe struck. There was 
no light in the house but that of the peat fire, which was burn- 
ing upon a flag-stone that stood well out in the room. The 
night was a very dark one, and the general impression was that 
of entering a wood shed in the dark in which a man was lighting 
a pipe. When my eyes had become accustomed to the weird and 
lurid light, I was aware of two venerable Dames, bent nearly 
double with age, and resting with both hands upon high sticks 
with crooked handles. On their heads they wore high caps, 
having an enormous frill over the top of the head, and rising 
behind into a very tall rounded peak. They wore short waisted 
dresses, and short skirts. " Ayont the ingle " I also conjectured 
that there was some one to whom a pair of thin legs, in tight 
fitting breeches and leather gaiters, belonged, visible close to the 
fire. On perceiving us a thin old gentleman roused himself, and 
bent forward close to the fire to inspect me. There was no. 
modern humbug in that face true as steal, and as straight as an 
arrow, was written on every line of it. ' Strangers not admitted,' 
could not have been more plainly seen had it been painted up in. 
large white letters, but my landlord having introduced me as 
" My friend, Mr. Lucas," the old people gave me a very cordial 
reception. I now observed that the old Dames leaned upon their 
sticks in a particular manner, which I will be cureful to describe, 
The right hand rested upon the handle, and the left grasped the 
stick about eight inches lower down. 

On the ceiling, which was not ceiled by the way, hung the 
flt'alc, loaded with fresh made oat-eak.j, and over the fire was the 
beef-case. 

Wooden spoons are not used at all, at or above Lofthouse. 
They use a flit piece of wood called a Thivel or Spurtel, for 
stirring Gtol, or Hasty Pudding, and a small round Thivel for 
stirring cream. The Thiral, or Tltitliel, is of A. S. origin, 
from Tliyfd a shrub, thorn, Thythel a bush, bough, branch ; 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 27 

so is Spyrtle, A. S. Sprytle a stick, a sprout ; A. S. Sprytan 
to eprout. 

There was formerly in use in Nidderdale a Rush Stand, 
originally made by splitting a stick, and in fact this sort of rush- 
stand was in use down to the time when the farmers gave up 
making their own candles. An important kind was made of 
iron, with a spring to compress the holder upon the candlo. Of 
this kind, I give a sketch, which I made of one belonging to 
Mrs. Ryder, of Middlesmoor* 

FIQ. 3. 




THE RUSH STAND. 



The seaves were gathered at certain places on the moors by 
parties of gatherers, who went out to get them in the autumn, 
or late in summer. They chose the largest and strongest, from 
which they stripped off the outer skin, so as to enable the 



28 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

tissues to imbibe the melted fat into which they were dipped.* 
As the same places were visited year after year, they were 
known by names, such as "Fleet Seaves," " Seavy Hill," 
" Seavy Whan," " Seaves," etc. 

The Bukker, Bink or Bincli, is a large flagstone " which is 
leant against the side of a wall," and is used to "bray" sand upon 
for floors. The name Bukker (pron. Booker) is here misapplied, 
as it properly belongs to the instrument with which the sand is 
brayed. Swed. Bokare, a breaker, Boka, to bray sand whence 
Fr. Bocarder. It is probably from Bok, beech, the original 
Bukker being a beech stump, from its hardness. Brocket gives 
'Bucker, an iron instrument with a wooden handle, used in the 
country to bray sand with.' In this we see the beechen stump 
shod with iron. Bink or Binch, first meant a mound, 
Knob, then a seat, bed, then that of which the seat was made. 
Thus 0. N, Bint/r, a heap of corn, bed, bolster ; Swed. 
Binye, a heap, and Dan. Banke, a bank, hillock, are natural 
seats ; A. S. Bcnc, 0. N. Bckkr, Dan. Bank, a bench, 
binch (flagstones,) artificial ones. This gives the name to 
Binks Wood, where they are, or have been dug. 

Wooden floors have to a great extent replaced the old stone 
floors, so that the Bink, or Bukker, is not so much used as 
formerly. Wooden floors are washed, but stone floors were 
at one time never washed ; they were merely sanded, and the 
sand swept away. 

In the dairy department, there is the kern, (0. N. Kirn a, a 
churn,) now a revolving barrel or tub, on a horizontal axis ; the 
sile, (0. N. Sahl a sieve,) and Sine, (A. S. Sihmi, to strain 
[through a Sihan ?], 0. N., Sta a sieve, for Siva or Si/a a sieve. 
Sineia A. S., probably, from the pron.) and the "lile roond 
thithel" for stirring cream. Last, but not least, the Hake butter. 

* The Gipsies strip off two opposite sides, leaving the alternate ones to 
support the pith. 



STUDIES IN NIDDESDALE. 



29 



A cheese press is still used in the upper part of the dale, 
which consists of two uprights fixed in the ground, and joined 
at the top by a crossbar. One third of the way up, is a shelf, 
on which the cheese to be pressed is placed. Above this there 
is an arrangement of handles for raising a heavy stone, or 
lowering the same, so as to press the cheese, as shown in the 
figure. A is a wooden peg for holding down the handle, so as to 
raise the stone weight, when the cheese is being put in or 
taken out. 

FIG. 4. 




THE CHEESE PRE3S, 



80 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

V. 

THE FARM. 

Ah've tell'd ye summat aboot t' hoose, noo ah'se boon ta tak 
ye'y roond t' farm. First, t' Garth, (yard), leak ! tharr's 
t' last cletcli o' chickens, (0. N. Klekja to hatch,) call them, 
" chuck, chuck, chuck, (pron. chook, chook, chook,) and they 
come running, all but the reckling, pooer lile thing, its nobbut 
wa'ak. (0. N. Heklingr an outcast). Thats t' lang stee (0. N. 
Stigi, a ladder) 'ats reear'd up agean t' coo hoose (misled} tharr. 
It hez yah stower, (0. N. Staurr a pale stake,) an' twa rungs 
(0. N. Hong) brokkan, t' oade meear gav it a gert kelk (0. N. 
Kelk, a kick, found in compos.,) as she'y wer passin. I can 
make nothing of Mistal, if it be not 0. N. Myki, dung ; Dan. 
Mog ; Germ. Mist, dung, in fact it looks more like a German 
word and 0. N. Stallr ; Dan. Staid; Germ. Stall,; stall, 
stable, Dung stall. * 

From the stable comes a sound as of a reasted (a stupid horse 
that won't draw or work) horse, and a voice says, "Hod t' still er 
ah'le gie the' a tu-anck," (the whip, A. S. Thwang, a thong.) 
Tharr's t' oade gallowa' see ye, ihey'refettUn it (0. N - Fetill; A. S. 
Fetel,) ta gan ta t' station. Lisan at yon coaf, (0. N. Kdlfr) hoo 
it bawls, lets gan ta t' lair, (0. N. Leir, clay, originally a clay 
building) an' hev a leak at it, fer its a grand 'in. " Trunnel f 
coop-barrow hoot o' t' road John William. Mally, we want ta lewk 
at t' coo/." " Why 'a, wait wal ah've dun milkin, an' then," 

* I find that Atk. Cl. Gl. conceives the same idea, hut refers it to A. S. 
meox, myx, mix, dung, and steel, steal, stall, stahlc, stall. It is, however, 
very much a north country word, on which account, I prefer to refer 
it as above. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 81 

(0. N. Wjolka to milk.) " D'ye hear Mally's dogs, boo they 
clatter when she'y walks," (Welsh Clog). "Hev ye'y nearly dun 
Mally ? " " Ah'se naain far off, ah,ve gitten twea skeels full, 
ah've nobbutt' 'urnal'd coo to strip an' then ah've dun." (A. S. 
Tu-eo, Twio, two.) (0. N. Skjola a pail). " Wa'ahs brokkau t' 
beild, lass ? " " Nay ah dewnt knaw ah'se sewer, its nut me 
ah knaw." (Welsh Beiliad). There you see the Eedatake, 
(prob. A. S. Wrtcd, a wreath, band, tie, see Gloss.) in the Beu-se, 
(A. S. Bos) to which the Kye (A. S. Cy, cows) are fastened ; 
and, round the beasts' necks, the Coo-bow ; (0. N. Boyi, bow) a 
large horseshoe-shaped wooden collar, generally of ash, to fasten 
cows up by, to the lli'datnke in the Betrse. The two ends hang 
downwards, and are joined by a crosspiece of wood, with a knob 
at either end, by which it catches, and remains fastened by the 
elasticity of the bow. Sometimes, instead of a piece of wood, a 
loop of hazel bough is made to fasten the ends together. 

When the Kye are feeding up i' t' Far Pnstnor,* (0. Fr. 
Pasture) they aro milked at the Hi'jli Lathe, (0. N. Hlutha) 
and as that is some GOO leet above the house, and a mile or 
more/ra heeam, (Dan. Fra, from, hjem, hiem, home,) he takes 
the Backcan, or Budget, a large oval tin can, with a tight-fitting 
lid, which is carried on the back, fastened on with straps, like u 
knapsack, exactly the same as may be seen in Norway, except 
those are of wood as these formerly were. Are you looking at 
that stick hanging there ? that is the Beast- stamj (0. N. Stony, 
gen. Stangar, Dan. Stang,) which is thrust through the hind legs 
of calves when they are killed, to haug them up by. Mind in 
turning round that you do not trip over the end of the Sheep- 
cratch, (0. N. Kraki a looped and branched stem ; used as a 
staircase in Icel ) Some people call it the i>iq cumln-ll, (0. Fr. 
Gamble, curved) because pigs are killed upon it. Now you shall 
see the Stack-garth, (0. N. Stnkk-gardrj. That Ih'lm (0. N, 

Pastoor above LoftLouse, lower down, I'ater. 



82 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

Helma, straw, Hjdlmr, a barn ; A. S. Healm, straw, Halm, a 
shed) wants fresh thack, (0. N. Thak, thatch) but we sa'ant be 
able to get at it till t' back end o' t' week, as t' barns (0. N. 
Barn, a man) are agate making new limmers (0. N, Limir) for 
hooer conveyance, and some new sealh (A. S. Sealh. willow) 
shafts for t' fleaing spades. There in the toft, (0. N. Topt, 
Toft ; A. S. Toft, home field) are the hogs, (hoy, a lamb a year 
old, cp. Wei. Hof/en, Hor/yn, in Glossary) sum of thease Hogs 
er worth 2 or mair and sum Stirks (A. S. Styre, Stire) 
o' wer awn breedin. That Stott Stirk (Dan. Stud, an ox) hez 
just been seld for 1000 guineas ta gan tav America, and thease 
Heifer Stirks are worth 600 apiece.* It t' clooase yonder 
ye'll see wer oade Mugs, (Leicester Teaps) we've maaide a dear 
streight into t' ship'n for 'em. 

Noo if yer nut tired, ah'le tak je doon ta t' Parks, ta see 
hooer Stags. (A. S. Pearruc, a parruck, paddock, enclosure,) 
(Stay, a colt. 0. N. Steggr, prop, a mounter, from Stiga, to 
mount ; the application is obvious.) Ye see its varra lanky 
i' this countrie.- We can ayther gan doori to t' beck an' ower t' 
lo' brig, or cross a We bit hither up t' dual be'y t' hippins, 
but ah doot it'll be runnin ower t' steeans ; if it is, we can gan 
up o' this side be'y t' Intaks an' ower t' bank top, ta t' new Intak. 
(0. N. Inn-tak, that which is taken in, Dan. Indtage, to take 
in.) Its nobbut lately sicathcd, we lime'd it weel, but ah doot 
it'll mak a pooer gerxinjield ; it lewks sa benty. Will ye gan 
be'y t' beck ? Varra weel, then we'll gan doon through t' Hee 
Boon, an' t' Low Boon, ( ? Dan. Bund, a meadow, bottom, as I 
do not see how to explain it by the Boonserttce ; moreover it 
appears to me that the latter word proceeds from the former 
as the rt/ww in the old ecclesiastical sense proceeded from lu'hn.) 
and then be'y t' carrs an' alang t' break top, (A. S. Break, the 
broken bank of a river) doon through t' Xar Elects, (Nar, near. 

Tim prices here qnolcd arc no fable, I am reciting an actual 
experience. 



STUDIES IN N1DDERDALE. 33 

O. N. Sletta, a level field) ta t' Wath, aboon t' Lo' Holm. 
(A. S. Wath, a way, 0. N. Vath, a ford.) A Holm is a flat 
meadow by a river, especially a small one, isolated from other 
fields by the sides of the valley approaching each other, and 
being steep and wooded on both sides to the River, so as to nip 
out the Holm at both ends. (0. N. H6hnr, Dan. Holm.) Its 
varra slape, (0. N. 6'fei/>r slippery,) tharrs sa mitch rain o' t' Foy, 
(Welsh Ficy, 0. N. Fob. Fog in Nidderdale is the young grass 
that springs up after a field has been mowed, the aftermath,) 
it maks it lilashy as weel, tharrs been sa mitch pelsh lately. 
I mun cut a yrijt doon this croft, (A. S. Grep a furrow ; 
A. 8. Croft a small enclosed field). This house (0. N. Hits 
a house) is whar me'y hind bides, (0. N. Hinc Hina a servant ; 
A. S. Uidan to remain). Thar he cums wi' t' lea," (0. N. Le 
a scythe, a large heavy scythe with a straight handle, and 
blade flat with the handle, unlike those of the south, which 
are smaller, and the blade is turned at an angle. The mode 
of using the lea is quite different from that of mowing with 
A south country scythe. Instead of being able to work him- 
self into an even swing, taking short steps, the mower with the 
lea takes a gigantic stride, and as he does so, bends down very 
far forward, at the same time taking in a far larger sweep than 
is possible with the south country scythe. It has the appearance 
of being far more laborious, than mowing with the common 
scythe, as the mower stops between each sweep, and has to raise 
himself upright to make a fresh start for every stroke. In 
addition to this there is no quick " recover " with the lea, which 
is too heavy for that, and at the end of the stroke has to be 
pulled back towards the imncer after a check, and then carried by 
a fresh effort over into position to commence the next sweep. 
Nevertheless, those who are used to it do formidable work with 
it, but I cannot say by which method a given area of <jrn could 
be cut quickest.) " Tharrs t' oade stud meeare asleep, ah reckon. 
Coa-up, coa-up, oade woman; coa-up, den, me'y lass ! What 

E 



34 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

deead ! Deng my buttons if she'y hezzant torfled i' t' neet. 
She'ys ben a rare gud meeare fer me i' her time. Bud noo we 
naun gan heeame, fer ye'le be tired, ah've na'ah doot." 

My thanks are due to Mr. T. Thorpe for revising this 
chapter, and making the spelling of all words, and orthography, 
to agree with the usages of the Dale. 

We have had occasion to mention the word Park. Brachet 
says : " The word Park is from Lat. Parcus." This is 
a common mistake. Wedgwood gives, apparently in no me- 
thodical order, " Fr. Pare enclosure, sheepfold, fishpond; 
Dan. Fish-park, a fishpond ; It. Parco, A. S. Pearroc, 0. H. G. 
Pferrich, Germ. Pferch, park, enclosure ; Bret. Park an enclosed 
field ; Lang. Pare/he, a fold for cattle ; Parga, Parghejha, to 
fold cattle on the ground,"' omitting W. Pare. Wilkins, 
referring to the various forms of the word, in his Glossary to 
the A. S. Laws, observes under Parcus, " omnia a Sax. 
Pearruc fluentia ;" but under the word Pundlrcce, he says 
" Aut a Gallor. Pare aut a Sax. Pearruc, Parcwn vocabamus." 
"We took the word Park either from the Welsh Pare, or from the 
Saxon Pfiarruc." Park in Coverdale and Wensleydale is an 
enclosure, field for horses, and this, I doubt not, is the original 
meaning of the word. The 0. H. G. Pferrich, Pharrich, 
M. H. G. Pferrich, Pen-lie, (Gotten) Pjirch, Parche, and Eng. 
Paddock (Pffjaddock) are evidently the same word ; Paddock 
being a corruption of a form [Pferdich ?] represented b} r the 
mod. Germ. Pferdisch, isolating to horses, from Pfcrd a horse. 
[Pferdich?] changed into Pferrich in Germ., Contr. Pferch, 
gave the parallel A. S. form p(e)arroc contr. j>arroc, park, so 
that we have in English, side by side, the two forms, paddock 
and park, proceeding from the same word, meaning "for, or 
leloiinin<i to hornets." It was so used in the Germanic Laws : ' 
" Qui grtgt'in eijuarum (a troop of horses) in parco furatus fuerit ' 
says the Lex Bajuwariorum,~-a passage which Brnchct actually 
quotes agaiust himself. All the other forms proceed from the 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 85 

0. H. G. From meaning simply an enclosure for horses, park 
came to mean enclosures of various kinds ; and because the 
boundary was frequently a bank of earth, so it even came to 
mean tjishpond, which was made by throwing a bank of earth 
across a valley. Co well says: " Parcus autem est locus ad 
ferarum custodiam palis aut alitei circumseptus." " A park is 
a place for keeping deer in, surrounded by palings, or some other 
kind of fence." The only other kind of fence possible formerly 
was an earth bank, probably between two ditches, a cam-fence. 

" Bedrifon hie on eenne pearruc." Sax.Chron. Anno. 918. 

They drove them into one park 

" On thisuni lytlum pearroce." Boet, 18. 2. 
in this little enclosure. 



The chapter of the Farm wauJd be inromjiJete without an Abstract 
of an elaborate Paper on 

SHEEPSCORING NUMERALS ; 
By the Rev. T. Ellwood, B.A., Hector of Torver, Coniston. 

I was not aware until long after the earlier part of these 
Studies were printed off that the subject of sheepscoring numerals 
had been previously treated. However, in two able papers upon 
the subject, read before the Cumberland and Westmorland 
Antiq. Society, by the Rev. T. Ellwood, B.A., Rector of Torver, 
the author gives no less than fifteen different versions of the same 
numbers, three of which are from North America, having been 
formerly used by North American Indians, who learned them 
from early English, or Welsh Settlers. Mr. Ellwood points out 
that the numerals " run in pentads," or sets of five, and refers 
this to the primitive method of counting upon the fingers. He 
then shows that in only one of the divisions of the Celtic speech, 
the Cymric, and in only the Welsh dialect of the Cymric " do 
the numerals proceed by fives up to twenty. In all the other 
systems sixteen is represented by 10-j-G. In the Welsh there 



36 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

is a separate word pipntlic;/ for fifteen, and then it proceeds' 
wn-ar-bymtheg, &c., differently from all the other Celtic systems ; 
and in this it exactly corresponds with the numerals of the Lake 
Districts. They have linn fit for fifteen, and yen-a-bumfit for 
sixteen, &c. Now this ar of the Welsh, according to Pngh's 
Welsh Grammar, means over, or in 'e.rcess of, 
and thus yen-a-bumftt means oiie over fifteen. Bat bynitheg, or 
bunifit, is really itself a composite word, and is made up of 
pimp, or pnmp, = 5 and dec = 10, so that yen-a-bumfit really 
means 1 in excess of 5-f- 10, &c." 

It is most rarely that leave is so readily accorded to make 
the fullest use of published matter, as that most generously given 
to me by the Rev. Mr. Ellwood, in reference to his valuable 
and widely known paper. Unfortunately I had not the opportu- 
nity of communicating with the other gentlemen, from whom 
Mr. Ellwood derived part of his materials. Their names are 
mentioned herein, and to each and all of them but particularly 
to Mr. Ellwood I acknowledge the fullest obligations for the 
greater part of the following Table, in which all the versions are 
brought together under the eye. 

NOTE. "Ever since the publication of my paper on the Sheepscoring 
numerals I have continued to receive information on the subject, which 
tends to confirm the opinion that they are not a recent importation into 
the northern districts in which they are found, but have come down 
orally from time immemorial. The many cognate Celtic names of 
places in those same districts form an additional testimony to this. 
The missing Hnk, however, in the chain of evidence was whether 
any Celtic dialect had ever been spoken in any of those secluded 
districts of Yorkshire and Lakeland, in which the numerals have 
bren found. In looking over the proofs of the present volume of 
Mr. Lucas, I find this question answered, as I thought, in a 
convincing manner. He says that in one of the valleys of 
Yorkshire " they are hardly cold in their graves who spoke such a 
dialect." This being the case, the numerals are I think the relics 
of a language formerly spoken in the Celtic kingdom, which occupied 
these parts, and which is generally known as the kingdom of 
Strathclyde." Rev. T. Ellwocd. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDAI.E. 



CD 



- 



CM a, 



v -r - s i s cs 



5 5 



Nl-NjS ^t-jrS- 

g I a^f^f ii||lgSS| 

ct C i> D ^ 3 *-C* w-?2 l> *G qS p> fl O _C 9 C 









s-a-s I 



H 



U 



M 



crit 



s 
^s-c - 

WOH b 



>O<O t> 00 OS O .-i < 



05 



CO 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



fl . 

fl 

CO O 



o ? 

tj J-l 

S <B 



e^ | ~ < - r~* * a -* rt 

1 



S * P P so 

S ? -A 3 



is 5s S3 s "S > o - 'S '3 i3 QJ 5 'S 'S o .^p 



iila^^tsl|'f r? sl^ 

I g^ 0.2-33^^ I *S !a ts J .^ 



2 - f* 

a"S $ 
Dfl H CM 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



89 



CD 


1* 

o S 


* 


rH 


*" -O 






g 1 


H 




c3 


^- r3 ^ &< 




p 


(3 0^3 = S 






S S d c ; S 










-a 




fH 


1 


sg |l l|jl 




aT 


g^Cj rfrt p X3 r ^C3V ^^C5| 




"a "o 


aaS * *" S s ? c ?:3 r 2;? t ?SS-S 




3 (2 


g s ^ rg g<,s! ^^s^ a 52^5 s S 2? 5 




w"" 


S Sttj-l^a^HHSa^^HS'^ 




' g 


tfl 




e J3 


60 - S 


CO 

rH 


.11 


_&0 -3 'g S ""3 -a 




P, 3 


a ?'S .JP a c .3 S * 










6 


'S CU ^"25 =*e^' : Sa C ?"a"b 






.5 '3 a 'S -^'2 s o -- .5 ' 3 i "^ s S '^ i 'S .SP 




.s 






fe 

CO 


_^ 




0) 


M *. '^ 


in 


r 


^!i^ '! 1 | 


< ~ l 


1 


a 5* " -. _ 'S' S t, ^"^ e ' 







S e^B^^^ 1 a -2eiii'o 




fc 


3a3 "5 SSc- 1 '""^?":- "P^^St 




o 






pq 


r^HH ?5 P-(Xt^5W^Sl"Hr"?;Sr H HHJ5O 




GO 


. 




C g 




rH 


'5 


.; ^ s a - = e * 




S 


S t r ? ='~"^^^'u = S?'l5"=f2-7^ 






r- 1 H H S E K X H C G > H H J% ?5 >i H H J5 O 




T 






3 






1 . 




eo 

r_| 


-: : 

B| 


j<-2 s - 
^.-5^ "^ E 1-f-? 




c a 

ifi 


^;~s? 2-7*? 
- * _r - TiiAfc**iiS 




9 

!H 


a3 ^ ?=l=^ii'l^ ; ilia'='w> 






^a _^ s> ,Jj ." 5 ** , = ^ vc , a ,- - i ^7 . 3 - ,^ >i c 




rt 





STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



co 

CM 



Jftff 



3 



O< CD O 

WHH 



cq 



ca 



o 

CM 



_" 







W 
to 



g 2 



Pnp, 



a S- 5 -S ~ 
S 3 S -3 

fdHH fe 



II 



rS -^ 






^ 
^ CS 



a 



a % .a .= 2 -~ 
c.ac: -g g-g^ rt 

WHH (T '"" 



Notes to Tables of Sheepscoring Numerals. 

COLUMN 1, up to 10 ; Co^s. 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 1220, or fifteen out of 
the twenty columns ore taken from Mr. Elhvood's Paper. 

COL. 2 is from Forbes'B Hindustani Dictionary. 

COL. 3, up to 5, from tlie Gypsies on Mitcham Cominou, above that 
from Grulluiunu and Hovlaiid. 



STUDIES IN NIDDEBDALE. 4 

(DDLS. 5, 10, and 11, see page 11. 

COL. 12 was given to Mr. Elhvood by A. J. Ellis, Esq., Ex-presidc-nt 
Philolog. Society, who changed the Spelling from lhat of a copy 
taken down by Mr. J. A. H. Murray, from the month of Mr. 
W. H. Thompson, of Kirkby Stephen. 

COL. 13, obtained by Mr. Ellwood "from Mr. Ellis, who obtained it 
from Rev. W. F. Bell, Laith Kirk Vicarage, Mickleton, Barnard 
Castle, who had it from a youth, who learnt it from his grand- 
mother, a person of about 80, now living at Middleton," (1877). 

COL. 14 is on the authority of Mrs. Ellwood, who learned it from her 
mother, a native of Coniston. These numerals have been known 
in Coniston from time immemorial. 

COL. 15 was obtained about 1818, from the shepherds of Borrowdale, 
by the Ponsoubys, of Barrow Hall, who gave it to Mr. Browne, of 
Tallentire Hall, who gave it to the Rev. T. Ellwood, 1878. 

COL. 16 was obtained by Rev. T. Ellwood, from Mr. J. Hellon, of 
Dunnerdale, Seathwaite. 

COL. 17, given to Mr. Ellwood by Dr. Kendall, of Coniston, who got it 
from a servant, a native of Eskdale. 

COL. 18 was obtained by him from Mr. Ritson, of Wasdale Head. 

COL. 19, taken by W. Browne, Esq., of Tallentire Hall, from the 
dictation of a female traditioner, who got them as a girl, thirty 
years since, from a woman of fifty years old, who got them from an 
old woman of eighty years of age, when the woman of fifty was 
about 15. That makes 304-35-f-sny 65-130. 

COL. 20, given to Mr. Ellwood, "by R. S. Ferguson, Esq., Editor of 
Transact. Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquary Society, who 
got it from A. Harris, Esq., who obtained it 42 years ago from an 
old lady in Epping, Essex," (1878). 

COL. 21, "used by the extinct Wawenocs in Maine, as written by Dr. 
Ballard. Sent to Mr. Ellis by Dr. Trumbull, Hartford, Connecticut ; 
was well known by residents in the Wawenocs territory as early 
as A.D. 1717. 

COL. 22, written in Glossic by Dr. Trumbull, from the dictation of a 
gentleman of Hartford, Connecticut, about GO years old, who had 
been taught the scoring when a child, by an old Indian woman, 
who Used to come to his father's house in Hebron, Connecticut, 

F 



4^ STUDIES IN" NtDI/ERDALE. 

YULE IN NIDDERDALE. 

' About Yu!e quheu the wind blew cule, 
And the round tables began." 

YOUNG WATERS I. I. 

Tool clog is provided by selecting a large log and getting it 
well dry. In some cases the fag end of last year's yule clog is 
used to light the new one, which in its turn is saved for a like 
purpose against the following year. The yule clog is lighted on 
Christmas Eve, which is called " Fromarty neet." Fromarty 
is a preparation of sodden wheat, and is eaten at tea on 
Christmas Eve. (I do not know that Fromarty, which is called 
the same, is eaten in the south at any other time of year than 
at harvest time, when the gleaners, who have not gleaned enough 
wheat to make it worth while to have it ground, " shuck " it 
with their hands, and boil it in water to eat at breakfast.) In 
addition to frumarty, " Spice Cake" is eaten at tea, and " T'ool 
Cake" sweet cakes with currants, sugar, etc. One Yule Cake 
is given to each member of the family and each servant. I 
now give, side by side, the method of making the Yule Cake, 
as made in Nidderdale and in Denmark at the present day, 

20 miles south east of Hartford, to sell baskets, brooms, etc. "She 
must have been," says Dr. Trumbull, " a Narragausett Piquot, or 
Mohegan Squaw. " The woman used to stroll the country gipsy- 
like, to sell the articles of her own manufacture. 

COL, 23, To " A. J. Ellis in February, 1875, by Mr. H. .Tenner, British 
Museum, who had hoard it that day from Mr. E. A. Guy, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, U.S., who was visiting the Museum. He said he learnt 
it from his mother, who learned it from the white hunters and 
trappers, who came in from the forests. They were said to be used 
by the Miami Indians, now extinct, formerly living in South 
Ohio. These numerals hiive no affinity whatever to the systems 
of numerals used in the Native North American Indian languages, 
%-Uich arc very complete in themselves. 



STHDIZS IN XIDDERDALK. 



the former supplied by Mr. T. Thorpe, Pateloy Bridge, the 
latter by a Danish friend of nfine : 



YULE CAKE. Nidderdal*: 



" 3| Ibs. of flour ; \ Ib. currants ; 

1 Ib. raisins; 2 oz. candied leraou 
chopped fine ; a little cinnamon ; 

2 eggs ; 2 pints of lake-warm inilk 
the eggs to be beaten in the milk ; i a 
tea-cup-full of yeast; 8oz. of butter; 
and 1 Ib. of sugar. Mix well. The 
paste is then dropped from a ppoon 
011 to a cake-tin generally four on 
a tin. After they are baked, mix a 
little brown sugar in milk to glaze 
the cakca with. When finished, 
they are hardly so large && a tea- 
cake." 

In shape they are like the Danish 
Jule Kage, On Christinas Eve one 
Yule Cake is given to each member 
of the family, along with a piece of 
Christmas cheese. As a rule, part 
of it is 'eft for Christmas morning, 
and eaten at the breakfast. 



JULE KAGE. Denmark. 



" 1 J Ibs. of flour ; (5 07.. of butter ; 
G cardamoms ; 2 oz.- raisins ; 2 oz. 
mixed peel ; .J Ib. sugar. Beat the 
cardamoms with the sugar, and mix 
with the flour and fruit. Dissolve 
a little yeast (about a halfpenny 
worth; in a good half pint of luke- 
warm milk. Mix well, and beat with 
the hand until the paste is quite 
smooth and does not stick to the 
dish. Then lot it rise for a couple 
of hours. When well risen, work the 
butter in < 7 c not rub or roll it. Pat 
it into the tins, rise again, and 
bake." 

The Danish Jule Ka-je is a flat 
cake, about an inch or more thick in 
the middle, and 8 or 10 inches across, 
getting rather thinner towards the 
edges. It is powdered with white 
sugar, and when broken, ia very 
li"ht and well unrated. 



It is customary for the tradesmen to give each of their 
customers a caudle at Christmas, and I use the word advisedly, 
for this candle is part of the Christmas, and not properly of the 
Yule, and in consequence, the custom is found in the south, as 
well as in the north, called T'ool Candle, or, T' Yule Candle. 
Thus one house is often provided with twelve or more caudles. 
Sometime after tea, in the evening of Christmas Eve, these are all 
lighted together, and the members of the household hold them iu 
their fingers alight for about tea uiiuutcs, when all but one are 



44 STUDIES IN NIDDEBDALE. 

extinguished. This one is left to cut the cheese by. A whole 
cheese is always provided for Christmas, and is cut for supper on 
Christmas Eve by the master of the house. After dark, on 
Christmas Eve, no person may take a light out of doors, not 
even a pipe alight, as it is considered unlucky to do so. After 
twelve o'clock at night, that is, the first thing on Christmas 
morning, people go round singing Christmas Carols, As early 
as five o'clock on Christmas morning, " t' lile barns" come 
round, holding each a sprig of green hollin, and saying, " Broiri 
ye f/ud luck." They receive a trifling present. The first comer 
gets most, sometimes as much as sixpence, while those who 
come after only get a penny. Grainge says : " He who enters 
his neighbours house first on the morning of Christmas Day 
is styled "the lucky bird ;" should a female enter first it is 
regarded as an evil omen." There is no further celebration 
of Christmas Day. They do not even have a Christmas pudding. 
This proves that the plum pudding is part of the Christmas, 
and not of the Yule. 

The earliest mention of Yule in the A. S. Laws, is in the 
Laws of Alfred, (A.D. 872,901) ' othtJie on Geol. " c. 5. 

or at Yule. 

From another passage in the same laws, it also appears that the 
Yule feast lasted twelve days with the Saxons, " xii dagas on 
Gehhol," c. 39. This was the groat feast of heathen times on to 
which Christianity grafted Christmas. As to the meaning of the 
name, there are eight or nine different theories with regard to 
that, and I shall not go into them, farther than to remark, that! 
as regards that one which makes the name to have meant ' feast', 
and to have been used of various other feasts in the year, a, 
curious passage occurs in the Ballad of ' The Boy and the 
Mantle,' in Percy's Reliques. 

" In the third day of May 
To Cnrleilc did come 
A kind cartoons child . . " 
[To Kiii Arthur's court]. 



STUDIES IN NIDDKRDALE. 45 

" Forth cnme an old Knight 

Pattering ore a creed. 

And he proffered to this little hoy 

Twenty markes to his ineede, 

And all the time of the Christmasie 

Willinglye to ffeede.'' 

The word Christmasse, here applied to a feast held in May, 
may be substituted for the word Yule, in an older ballad. 



THE SWORD DANCE. 

Mr. Grainge, in his Jlistory of Nidderdale,* says : " Tho 
graceful and martial " Sicord dance " is yet practised at Christ- 
mas Tide by the young men of the Dale. Their dresses for 
this purpose are of many colours, and their persons are adorned 
with a profusion of ribbons and other ornaments." He has kindly 
supplied the following for these Studies : " My recollections of 
the sword dance as performed some forty years ago are, that 
the performers were from eight to twelve in number. They were 
young men, one dressed like a clown, with a wooden sword, the 
others all in white trousers, and jackets of red, yellow, or some 
very showy colour, decorated with sashes and rosettes of ribbon, 
their caps were ajso decorated with ribbon. Along with the 
dancers was always a fiddle. First, the performers stood on one 
side of the room in a line, with their swords in their belts ; the 
clown then as the leading man walked round and began his 
nominy, something in the style of the boys Christmas play of 
St. George of England, telling the audience that he is some 
wonderful great man, Sampson for instance, and that he has 
brought his valiant sons to make them sport. Then he calls on 
the first by the name of Alexander the Great, or some other 
mighty man, to follow him. Alexander draws his sword and 
follows his leader ; the same process is repented until all (he 

* T. Thorpe, PaU-lt-y Brid^o, 18G3 



46 STUDIES IN NIDDKRDALE. 

performers are on the floor following each other with drawn 
swords ; when, at the words of their leader they face each other, 
clattering their swords against each other above their heads, at 
the same time dancing round in a circle. Afterwards each man 
grasps hold of the point of another's sword when held horizontally 
say two feet above the ground, when they all jump over them 
in qaick succession, a feat requiring much agility. This 
continues for some time. Afterwards one of then* holds his 
sword upright, when by some means the others interlock theirs 
with his, and form the whole into a kind of square lattice work, 
which the leader holding up carries round the ring some twice or 
thrice, dancing all the time ; then he throws down the let in the 
centre, and each man regains his own sword. Lastly, they clatter 
them against each other above their heads, as at the beginning, 
and after continuing this for some time the dance ends. The steps 
are timed to the music, which all the time keeps rattling away. 
I have no recollection of any particular song, although some of 
them sung all together at the end of the performance, something 
like the following rhyme : 

Now ladies fair and gentlemen, 

Our dance is at ail end, 
We do our best to please you, 

We come not to oft'cnd. 
We thank you for your kindness, 

We thank you for your chuer ; 
We wish you all a merry Christmas, 

And a lit-ppy new year. 



I have seen many parties of sword dancers, but the best and 
most respectable was trained at Grant-Icy, and George Watson, 
who once kept the George Inn, at Pateley Bridge, and his 
brother William, were two of them, and the music man was 
" Fiddler Leeniing," of Sawley." 

Mr. Grainge has also obligingly communicated the following 
Rotes on tht; Sicord J)n<r, from Brand's " Popular Antiquities :" 

Tliero is a curious and very minute description of the Sword Dance 
in Uluus Miigmts's Histoiy of the Northern Nations. Ho tells us 



STUDIES IN N1DDERDALE. 47 

th:it the Northern Goths and Swedes have a sport wherein they 
exorcise their youth, consisting of a dance with swcrds in the 
following manner . First, with their swords sheathed and erect in 
their hands, they dance in a triple round ; then, with their drawn 
swords hold erect as before : afterwards, extending them from 
hand to hand, they lay hold of each other's hills and points, and 
while they are wheeling more moderately round and changing their 
order, throw themselves into the figure of a hexagon, which they 
call a rose ; but, presently raising and drawing back their swords 
they undo that figure, in order to form with them a four-square 
rose, that they may rebound over the head of each other. Lastly, 
they dance rapidly backwards, and, vehemently rattling the sides 
of their swords together, conclude their sport. Pipes or songs, 
(sometimes both) direct the measure, which at first is slow, but, 
increasing afterwards, becomes very quick towards the conclusion, 

Henry, in his History of Britain, says : " The Germans, and probably 
the Gauls and Britons, had a kind cf martini dance which was 
erhibited at every entertainment. This was performed by certain 
young men, who, by long practice, had acquired the art of dancing 
amongst the sharp points of swords and spears." 

A writer in the Gentleman's Magazine in 1811, states that in the North 
Riding of Yorkshire, the sword dance is performed from St. 
Stephen's Day till New Year's Day. The dancers usually consist 
of six youths dressed in white with ribbons, attended by a fiddler, 
a youth with the name of " Bessy," and one who personates a 
doctor. They travel from village to village. One of the six youths 
acts the part of king in a kind of farce, which consists of singing 
and dancing, when the Bessy interferes while they are making a 
hexagon with their swords, and is killed. 

Walh's writes that the Saltatio armata of the Roman Militia on their festival 
Armilustrium, celebrated on the 19th October, was practised by the 
common people in the neighbourhood of Northumberland on the 
annual festivity of Christmas, -the yule-tide of the Druids. young 
men march from village to village, and from house to house, with 
music before them, dressed in an antic attire, and before the vesti- 
biiluin or entrance of every house, entertain the family with the 
Motus incompositut, the antic dance, or Chorus Armatns, with 
swords or spears in their hands erect and shining. This they call 
the Sword Dance. For their pains they arc presented with a small 
gratuity in money, more or less, according to every householder's 



48 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

It is quite evident that the modern celebration of the Sword 
Dance comprises another feast formerly celebrated on Plough 
Monday, as appears from the following description : " The first 
Monday after Twelfth Day is called Plough Monday. On this 
day the people went in procession to gather money for Plough 
Lights, or candles kept burning before certain images in churches, 
to obtain a blessing on their work. The reformation put out 

ability ; their gratitude is expressed by firing a gun. One of the 
company is distinguished from the rest by a more antic dress ; a 
fox's skin generally serving him for a covering and ornament to 
his head, the tail hanging down his back. This droll figure is their 
chief or leader. He does not mingle in the lance. 

Strutt, in his " Sports and Pastimes of the People of England," says : 
" There is a dance which was probably in great repute among the 
Anglo-Saxons, because it was derived from their ancestors, the 
ancient Germans ; it is called the Sword Dance, and the perform- 
ance is thus described by Tacitus : ' One public diversion was con- 
stantly exhibited at all their meetings, young men, who, by frequent 
exercise, have attained to great perfection in that pastime, strip 
themselves, and dance among the points of swords and spears with 
most wonderful agility, and even with the most elegant and grace- 
ful motions. They do not perform this dance for hire, but for 
the entertainment of the spectators, esteeming their applause a 
sufficient reward.' " 

To these Notes I add the following : 

The Rev. G. Young says : " There was usually an extra band of six to' 
dance the Sword Dance at Whitby. With the music of violin or 
flute, they formed a ring with swords raised in the air. They then 
went through a series of evolutions, at first slow, afterwards quick. 
Towards the close each one catches the point of his neighbour's 
sword, and various movements follow, one of which consists in 
forming or plaiting the swords into the form of a hexagon or rose 
in the centre of the ring, when one holds it up above their heads. 
The dance closes with taking it to pieces, each man laying hold of 
his sword. During the dance two or three Toms or Clowns make 
antic gestures, while another set called Madgies, or Madgy 
dressed like women, collect money." 



STUDIES IN XIDDERDALE, 49 

the lights. But till lately the festival was kept up. A plough, 
called the Fool Plough, was decorated with ribbons. Thirty or 
forty swains, with their shirts over their jackets, and hats and 
shoulders covered with ribbons, dragged it from house to house, 
proceeded by one in the dress of an old woman, called IJamy, 
who carried the money box. There was also a Fool in fantastic 
attire. Occasionally some reproduction of the Ancient Scandina- 
vian Sword Dance added to the means of persuading money out 
of the pockets of the lieges. One of the mummers generally 
wears a fox's skiu in the form of a hood. The feast originated 
probably with the priests as a means of collecting the Plough 
Alms, or money for maintaining the Plough Lights."* (Book of 
Days, Vol. I., p. 94-96.) When the feast of Plough Monday 
fell into disuse, part of the ceremony appears to have been 
grafted ou to the festivities of Yule, and the S.vord Da.nce. 

* See Study VII. 



TEE NEW YEAH. 

By many people New Year's Day is thought more of than 
Christmas, at least in the upper part of the Dale. At Lofthouse, 
I was told that Carols were sung before one o'clock in the 
ruoruiug, but Mr. T. Thorpe writes : " Carol singing is not much 
observed in Nidderdale." New Year's Eve is called " T Watch 
Neet." Meetings are held in Methodist Chapels ou that night. 
On New Year's Morning, the first person who enters a houso 
must be a man. At Loithouse a but/, but generally a man, with 
dark hair, is considered the luckiest, or, as it wad told to me, 
" They dont reckon to let one in with ginger hair." Arrange- 
ments are often made beforehand as to who shall " let t' new 
'ear in." As a rule, the door is kept locked, and if any one 
knocks who is known to have " /<" hair, hu is grcuted with : 

G 



&0 STUDIES IN NIDDEKDALK. 

" We cannot let the' in till Matty comes in becos thoo hez leet 
hair, etc." This custom seems to me to carry a tradition of 
hatred felt by the Celts, of Strathclyde, for the fair-haired 
Angles, their conquerors, and may have originated while they 
yet indulged a hope of casting off the yoke, and regaining their 
freedom. 




STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 61 

VI. 

THE GARTH. 

A Garth in Nidderdale means a small enclosed field close to 
a house. Calves, sheep, or pigs, are put in it. It corresponds 
with Dan. Vecnye and Toft. It occurs in the name of Haver 
Garth, near Pateley Bridge, which is synon}'mous with Haver 
Close, north of Middlesmoor ; and means oat-yard. 

Perhaps the oldest form we have the word, is the Gothic 
Gards. It is used several times by Ulfilas in his Bible, of 
which Lye gives chapter and verse. Thus 

Mark 3, 25. "If a house be divided against itself, that house 
cannot stand." The word here is inclusive, and means 
all that belongs to one lord or master, & freehold estate. 

Luke 19, 46. " My house is the house of prayer," =Temple, 
synagogue, cathedral, church, chapel, etc. 

John 12, 3. " And the liouse was filled with the odour of 
the ointment," =a dwelling-house. 

Matt. 8, 6. " 'in Garda" in domo, " Thy servant lieth at 
home sick of the palsy. =dwelling-house. " us Gardd 
'in yard," from house to /JOM?,=dwelling-house. 

The meanings of Garth by itself, are thus illustrated, (1) house, 
(2,) freehold estate, or manor, (3,) church. 

John 18, 1. " Aurtiya rds" orchard, Lat. Hortus, "over 
the brook Kedron where there was a garden." Goth. 
Aurtiyards=0. N. Jurta-yatdr, Urta-gardr ; M. H. G. 
Wurz-garte ; A. S. Vyrtyeard, Ortyeard ; Eng. Orchard, 
or wort-yard, an enclosure for 'worts' i.e. vegetables, 
garden. (Wedg.) 



52 STUDIES IN MUDERDALE. 

John 10, 1. " Gurds-lantbe, " Donnis oriuin, " He that 
entereth not % the door into the sheep/old, but climbcth 
up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber." 

From the Gothic we may pass to examine its meanings in 
0. N., and Icelandic. (Cleasby's Diet.) 

I. FIRST, then it means a yard, (an enclosed space) 

especially in compos., as Kirku gardr, a church yard : 
Stakk r/ardr, a stack-garth ; Dijra yardr, a deer park ; 
gardr alone is a hay yard, (round the hay ricks.) 

SECOND, a court yard, court and premises. 

THIRD, esp. in Norway, Denmark, and Sweden, a house 
or building in a town or village, (Dan. f/aard, Icel. beer.) 

FOURTH, a stronghold. 

FIFTH, in Icel. a heavy snowstorm is called (jfirdr. 

II. In Icel. a fence of any kind ; lc<jja, (jardr, to make fences, 
especially around the house field. Grjot gardr, a grit 
garth, i.e. a stone wall. Torf gardr, a turf fence. Haga 
garth, a haw garth, hedge around a pasture. Eb. 132. 

Garda-riki or Garda -veldi, is the name of the Scandinavian 
Russian kingdom, of 10th and llth centuries, parts of which 
were Holm gardr, Ka3ini gardr, Nov-gorod, etc. ; the name being 
derived from the castles and strongholds (jardar which tho 
Scandinavians erected among the Slavonic people, and the word 
tolls the same tale as the Roman ' Castle' in England. The 
Mod. Russian ijorod and grad are the remains of O. N. Gardr, 
a castle. c,g. Novgorod, l>elgrad. 

This gives a lively interest to the name of " Hardcastle 
Garth," near Birstwith, because it was so called after a Mr. 
Hardcastle, a farmer, who formerly lived there. 

We will now trace the word in Welsh. (Owen's Diet.} 



IN NIDUKKDALE. 



,: 



Cm-,-'- an enclosure, a garden ; </urz ////. corn yard ; y<irz 

traii; hay garth ; aarz t'<i</ni, a nursery. 
Gurth, I, a fold ; 2, a buttress, rampart, a fort ; 8, a cape, 

ridge, spur of a mountain. Gives the name to G<trth 

bcilico, Penarth, etc. 

In Mod. Dan. the meanings of Garth divide themselves inta 
three groups : 

1. Gjurd and Otiifttny, circumference. 
2. Tykkelse and Onifanj, extent, compass. 
8. V<r.n<jc and Gaard. 

The word Garth includes the transitional ideas which they 
keep separate. Girth, or circumference, thiclmess or bulk (of 
solids,) area enclosed, (of surface). 

Rosiny's Diet. 
1. Gjonl, girth. 

2. Oinfany, circumference, extent, compass. 
Q.Tykkelse, thickness. 

4. Gaard : 1, yard, court ; 2, house; 3, farm ; 4, freehold', 
5, manor ? 

5. Voenge, inclosed field. 

Fiske-gaard, a dam or weir for catching fish. (Imp. Diet.) 

English; Danish. 

Girth. Gjord 

(in a limited sense) space enclosed, thickness. Tykkelsc. 

Enclosed field. Extent, COUIJHISS. Vaenge. Onifantj. 

Yard, court. Gaard. 

House. Gaard. 

Farm. Gaard. 

Freehold. Gaard. 

Skjcer-Gaard in Norway is the frinye of inlands along th 
coast. 

* Wfleh z is pronounced like TII, Laid. 



STUDIES IX NIDDERDALE. 



Gjerdc, a fence, hedge. 

Gjerdc, to fence, make a fence. 

Omgjerde, to enclose, surround with a fence. 

Gjord, girth, a girdle. 

Gjorde, to girde. 

Orngjorde, to surround with a girdle. 

The meanings of gjord and gjerde have stopped short, not 
performing the transition from the thing enclosing to the thing 
enclosed, like garth, else we should have yard at once from either 
of them. 

The transition from girth to thickness is natural, and from 
thickness, a measure in one direction, the transition is easy to 
extent, compass, in every direction, never losing the idea of an 
ultimate limit. There the limit of meaning seems reached as 
regards solids. 

From Girth or circumference the transition is easy to the 
space enclosed or area, but in this sense the meaning was 
limited to an enclosed field. "When the cattle had trampled down 
the grass it became a yard, this was muddy and therefore paved, 
so it became a court yard of a house, then the name passed to 
the house itself, then to the wJtole farm, and ultimately a free- 
hold estate. 

In Nidderdale Garth has only one meaning, an enclosed 
field near a house. In Denmark it is represented by five words, 
the last of which, Gaard, has four meanings. 

The sense of fortress is found in Old Scandinavian and in 1 
Welsh, while its descendant Gor'od in Russian means a town. 



3TUDIES IN NIDDEUD,VLE. 



VII. 

THE HELM. 

The name of Helm, and the size of the old barns themselves, 
are interesting as pointing back to a bjgoue age, and to very 
ancient customs, but also as regards the word alms. Helm, 
Barn, Lathe, and many other names of sheds are used now quite 
indiscriminately, though originally they possessed very different 
meanings. 

Barn is strictly the Barley house, from A. S. Here, Barley, 
and Em, er.rn, a place, house. Berern, Beren, Bern, Bicrn, 
barn. If Cleasby be right in suggesting that the A. S., Eng., 
Hel., and Germ. Helm, 0. N. Hjdbnr, a helmet, also a hay- 
house, bam, helm, may be derived from hylja to hide, then we 
have two totally distinct words meeting in the sense of helm a 
barn. The distinction and derivation of Iljalmr is not, however, 
clear or at all established, whereas the senses of Hjalmr may 
well be derived from Hulrnr, because thatch is used to cover, so 
a cover, a helm, a helmet. 

Whether helm came to mean barn from one or both of these 
sources, however, it is clear that it did and does mean a store-, 
house for the produce of the farm. This brings us to the point 
respecting dims. After the advent of Augustine, it was first 
ordained in the Laics of Ine, (A.D, 688-728, c. 61,) lie 

About 

cyric sceattum Cyric sceat won sceal auyfan to 

phurch first fruits. Church first fruits one shall give from 
tham UEAJLME, ami to tlunn heorthe the ,sr man on liith to 

the li< !m, and from the house that the man is in at 



56 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

middan icintra." Next in the treaty between Edward and Guthrun, 

mid winter 

(A.D. 924-940,) we find : " Gif hied ful-halmyssan 

If anyone do not give full 

ne KyUe."c. G. Next, in the Laws of ^thektan, (924-940,) 
helm-fruits. 

Introd. where the difficulty first arises. " n' if ici'.le cac th<et 

& I will also that 

mine yerefan ycddn thcst man ay iff e tha cyric sceattas tO tha 
my sheriffs cause that one yield the church first fruits & the 
said sceattas to tham stoirum the hit mid riJtte to (jebyriye, 
soul first fruits to the places which they rightly belong to 
<V SULH-;ELMESSAN on yea re.,' 
& the plouyh alms of the year. 

In the Lines of Eadnnmd, (A.D. 940-946,) we iiud c. 2, 
Jle Teothunyum d ( cyric-sceatum. 
About Tithes & church-first-fruits. 
Teothungewe b^beodnth a:' cum Ohistenum mm, h;> Jtis ('rist<')iilum<', 

Tithes we ordain for every Christian mail, by his Christianity, 
<(' ci/ric-sceat, d- ^ELMES-FKOII. Gif liii /ura dun ir/llf 
& church first fruits, & alms mone}'. If anyone will not pay 
sy he anutnsuinud. 
let Lim he excommuuiciileJ. 

Here we may have the first mention of tithes paid in money, 
though the meaning of feoh is uncertain, for in the Laws of 
sEthelstan, Introd. it expressly says: " ayyfan iha teoihumjn 

give the tithes 

irtjther ije on cwieum. ceape ye on t/ia:s yea res eorlh tnnxtmniii. 
either in live cattle or in the fruits of the earth for th<: year. 

This I mention because sulh-oelruessan is tho word used in 
the samo passage. 

Next we find in Canon. 49, temp. Emljar, (A.l). 909- 975,) 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 57 

*' And we l<erath thtct <r.lc fasten beo mid ^L&ESSAN yewurthaal, 

And we ordain that each fast be honored with alms 
thift is, that fjchu-d on Godes est .KLMESSAS ijeorne sille, 
thatis, that whoeverforloveofGjdgives<'///fts > amplyand cheerfully, 
thonne bith his /(eaten Gode the geewemre." 
then his fast will be the more acceptable to God. 

Here for the first time the word .ELMESSAN stands alone, and 
here it evidently means imiwy as well as kiwi. lu (.'anons. 54, 
55, 56 ; we fiud, Can. 54, " And ice Itertith that Preostas 

And we ordain that Priests 

folc myneaian tha>s the hiy Gode don scidan, to yerihtan 
remind folk of that which they should do for God, to be correct 
on tcothunijuin <& on othnun thinyuin,, arest SULH-^ELMKSSAN 
in tithes & in other things, especially the plough-alms 
A'l' night on iifan Kiistrun. < geoguthe tcothumjc be Pentecosten. 
XV days after Eustisr. & tithes in young cattle by Pentecost. 
A eorth irestHtu be Omnium Sanctorum. J; Ruin fcoh be Pet res 
& earth fruits by All Saint's Day. & Home fee by Peter's 
Mtfxsun <& ciric sceat be M<irtinu$ uttMSun." 
Mass & church first fruits by Martiumas. 

Here Sulh-sehnessan clearly cannot mean fruits of the year's 
pl:mgh. Bosworth says : " Pluu-jh-aliiit, or the penny which 
was given to the poor for every plough, and for every such 
porliou of laud as would employ one plough." 

Can. 55, " And we la rath that Preostas sir a daUm fold's 
And we ordain that Priests so divide folks 
/EI,MESSAN, that hiy teyther don ge. God ijeijlailian, (\f 
alms, that they both cause God to be pleased anil 
folc to .SLMESSAN f/i'Hvrown." 
reconcile folk to alms giving. 

Can. 5G, " And ire ItrraiJi that Pri'indas KC<I!IIHIH sini 
Aud we ordain that Priests sing 

H 



58 STUDIES IN NIDDEEDALE. 

thonne hi tha cclmessan dalan. <& tham thearfan gcornc 
when they distribute the alms. & for the poor we earnestly 
Hddan that hig for thcetfolc thinf/ian." 

hid that they intercede for the people, In return, I suppose 
for the alms. 

Next we find in the section of the Canons relating to 
Repentance. Be deed betan, c. 13, " Deed bota sind gedihte 

Expiatory deeds are arranged 

on mistlice wisan, & micel man mcry mid ^ELMESSAN alysan." 
for in Various ways, & much one may redeem by alms yiriny. 
And again, c. 15, " <& scce mid his JELMESSAN cirican gelome." 
& seek with his alms the church after. 

Afterwards occurs Klines Icohtc, "alms candles." (Be 
Miyhtigum Manmum, c. 3.) SULH^LMESSAN. (Lib. Constit., 
Parag. 5) and "!LELMESSAN" in the general sense of alms. "(C- 

& 

on hwam mcpg hum (j'/re crnig man on worolde swythor 
in what may indeed ever any man in the world more exceedingly 
God wurthian thonn on cyrcnn & on H/ELMESSAN, <0 eft on 
worship God than in church and in alms, and lastly in 
yehalgedan hcalican lutdan." 
high holy orders. 

That fruits of the earth are here meant as well as alms in 
the other sense appears from the succeeding section. Be eyrie 
f/rithe, par. 14, " his tcothunye, asird sco suJh thone teothan 
his tithes, as well the plough as the tenth 
fficer." And by Sulh-abnessan in par. 19. Sulh-cchnessan 
acre. 

occurs again in the Concilium JSnham&n&e par. 17, (about 
A.D. 1010.) 

Up to the Tenth Century H(r1)>i>/.w. was used in a certain 
sense, when another word, jZEhncsse, of ecclesiastical introduc- 
tion, a corruption of the Greek clcntm^nii', came into use in. the 



STUDIES IN NtDDERDALE, 69 

/ 

saute sense. The probability is that in the lapse of centuries the 
origin and meaning of Iltrlmysse was forgotten, and that the 
liisfiops regarded it as a corruption of ^Elinesse, which may 
account for the corrupt form H.ELMESSE. Whether or no, 
JElmesse at that time drove out Htelmysse, and literally took 
its place. Haslmysse, Which occurs in the sense of sEhiuasc, in 
Lib. Con., A.D. 1008, was not wanted, indeed, for Tithe 
was used inclusively ; and on the other hand, ^Elmesse had the 
sense of alms, charity, which never appertained to Hcclmysse. 
But though H&lmysae was driven out of the leading dialect, its 
meaning has survived to the present day in the sense of a cart 
load, the second sense of awnwus, which derives its pronuncia- 
tion from the 0. N. almusa, olmusa, alms. 




f>0 STUDIES IN NIDDKRDALfi. 



VIII. 

THE REINS. 

Up to the early days of the present generation, (1871) the' 
dalesmen lived upon the agricultural produce of their land. In 
Nidderdale, much of the upper part of the dale consists of 
property farmed by the landlords,* and in this respect Nidderdale 
differs from parts of the surrounding county. There is no trace 
of the former existence of a village community in Nidderdale, 
though I am far from asserting that such never existed in the 
dale or of any other state of things than that of individual 
ownership. 

In Nidderdale, a Reean is the strip that was formerly left 
mn ploughed arormd a ploughed field. The farmers used to allow 
the men who worked for them, to graze their cows on these 
strips during the winter. Since the introduction of the steam- 
plough, however, they plough much closer to the hedge, and 
these Recatts are not now left. This gives us, as nearly as 
possible, the original meaning of the name which was a strip of 
land left Rein, i.e. umhuj or unplouylied between two adjoining 
parties, whether freeholders or commoners. Thus we find in 
0. N. Rein, a strip of land Hrcinn, pure, clean. 

f Jlccn. [two fields. f ) -r, . 

Dan ' 1 A.jcr-recn, a small ridge between} Recn > P ure > clean ' 

Swed. lien, a boundary lien, pure, clean. 

Germ. Rein, a strip of land Rein, pure, elcan. 

The original " Statesmen," in fact, from whom the leaders in Parlia- 
ment derive their tifcle. 

- A bank of earth surrounding Bishop Burton Park, near Beverley, in 
Ih* East Ruling, is called " The Rein " to this day. J. R. D. 



STUDIES IN NIDDK3DALE. 



(il 



A Ilt'in is the only kind of boundary which it was practicable 
for the occupiers of adjoining laud to imike, where there were no 
stones, and few labourers. The Danes brought the institution 
into these dales with them, as they did to Normandy, where I 
believe they are still in use. In Wharfedale, Coverdale, 
Wensleydale, and on the slopes of the hills to the east of 
Nidderdale, the country is covered with little step-like terraces 
called "reins," ('pr. reeansj. Some of the best examples are 
those at Wardermarske, of which I give a plan on a scale of 6 INS. 
to the mile, showing also tho modern fences, and the contours 
of the ground at 25 ft. intervals. 

FIG. 5. 




THE WARDERMARSKE REINS. 



The sides of the limestone slopes of Wharfedale are 
covered with them, each being twenty or thirty or more 



62 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

yards long, and two or three yards wide, and though they almost 
always there run horizontally, yet occasionally they lie up and 
down. These " reins" lay on land which belonged to the village 
communities of the dale, and each man in the village had one. 
One man held a "rein" for three years, when he exchanged for 
another. This system was in full working order down to the 
time of the grandfathers of the present generation of men about 
fifty years old.* With the decline of agriculture and the increase 
of grazing farming, consequent upon the departure of manufac- 
turing, power to enclose was applied for, under the Enclosure 
Act [6 and 7 William IV., cap 115J, 1836, which gave power to 
enclose, without a special Act, " open and common arable and 
pasture lands, and lands commonable during part of the year 
only, by Commissioners with consent of two-thirds in number and 
value of proprietors, or, without Commissioners, with consent of 
seven-eights in number and value." Long stone fences were 
built, and the " ranes" remained as the monuments of a bygone 
age. This was followed by a rapid depopulation of the dales. 
The stream of emigration set in to the great manufacturing 
towns of Leeds and Bradford : so that the population of the 
dales is not now one-third of what it was early in the century. 

There is an interesting passage in the Laics of Ine, which 

throws considerable light upon the ancient usages in regard to 

common land, cap. 42. Be ccorlcs garstune. " Gif ceorlas 

Of farmers gers fields. If farmers 

haebban gffirstun gemamne, oththe other gedal land 

have a gersin-field amang 'em, or other common land 

to tynanne, & habben sume getyned heora da3le,f sumo 

to be fenced, and some have fenced their part some 

* I doubt the system of Reins, as part of the village community haying 
been " in full working order" so recently. Some reins may have been still 
used at that time, but the village community, if any, had died out long 
before. J. E. D. 

t Dale, a division. In Wharfedale, near Buckden, a certain piece of 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 68 

nrebben & setten heora gemsenan aeceras oththe 

have not and their cattle eat the common arable or 

gaers, gan tha thonne the thaet geat agan & 

grass fields let them then gun that have " yates" and 

gebete thaem othrnm the heora dacle getyned haebben 

compensate them others that have fenced their part 

thone aefwyrdlan the thser gedon sy, & abidden him 

the damage that is done to them, and beg them off as 

aet thsem ceape, swylc riht swylc cyn sy. Gif 

regards those cattle, as formally as is proper. If 

thoune hrythera hwylc sy the hegas brece, & ga in 
however a beast there be which breaks fences, and goes in 

gehwaar, & se the hit nolde gehealdan se hit age oththe 
anywhere, and if he that owns it is unwilling to hold it or 
ne maage, nime se hit on his aacere gemete & ofslea 

cannot, let him take it to the 'reean' of his piece and kill it 

& nime se agen frigea his flwsc, & tholige thajs othres." 
and let the owner take again its carcase and lose the other part. 
Here the people had a common grazing field, and each commoner 
bad to make so much of the fence. Adjoining this field they 
had another, in which each commoner had a portion of land 
allot ed to him, and was obliged to make so much of the 
common fence, but each allotment was not fenced off from 
those about it. Every commoner had " (lutes' for so many 
cattle in the grazing field, whose trespasses occasioned the 
law. 

Tusser who published the 1st edition of his " Five hundred 
points of good Husbandry," in 1557, writes very sarcastically 
about the 'evils' of the common field system, but at that time 
it was so much part of the national system, that he was 

ground is called Buckdendales meaning I suppose a number of divisions 
for meadow among the different families, though it is not divMed now. 
Again a certain Harrow field is called Sykfdnle. J, II. D. 



4 STUDIES IN NIDDSEDALE. 

apparently alone in his opinion. The grounds of his objection 
are thus quaintly expressed. 

" Some commons are barren, their nature is sneu. 
And somo over layeth their commons too much. 
The pestered commons smnll profit doth give, 
And profit as little some reap, I believe." 

" Some pester the commons with fowls and with geese, 
"With hog without ring, and sheep without fleece. 
Some lose a day's labour with seeking their own, 
Some inset with a booty they would not have known." 

On this W. Mavor, L.L.D., who published an Edition, 1812, 
has the following note: " The right of commons, though per- 
tinaciously insisted on by those who possess claims, is neverthe- 
less of comparatively little value, especially to the poor. That 
lazy industry, that beggarly independence, which are created by 
the miserable stock which the poor man can command, and 
which is generally seen on commons, are as injurious to himself 
as to the community. The prevalence of enclosures, to which thf 
ijood seme of our Author rendered him partial, thow/h the a;/e in 
which he lived was not ripe for swh an improvement, as may be 
learnt from the commotions excited about that period, has 
diminished the evils of the common field system, but till every acre 
of ground is in several ty, Agriculture c.iunot be said to have 
reached beyond the first stage of perfection." 

How sad a conclusion } but reserving comments, we see 
from this that two and a half centuries after Tusser's time, the 
system was still vigorous enough to call forth such a note as tbo 
above. We have indeed more authoritative statements on this 
head in the report of the great agricultural survey of 1799. 
Ayricultwe of the West liidin;/ which are as follows : 

From Ilijilcy to the western extremity of the Riding, nearly all the good 
laud is kept under the grazing sjstem, find srldf.m or never 
ploughed. . . . Bering the time we were in that part of the country 
we hardly eVi-r saw a plough, and u stack of corn is a grent rarity. 



STUDIES IN NIDDEBDALE. 66 

Upon the higher grounds, there are immense tracts of waste, which 
are generally common among the contiguous possessors, and 
pastured by them with cattle and sheep. Some of these are stinted 
pastures,* hut the greatest part are under no limitations, the 
consequences of which are, the farms are oppressed, the stock 
upon them starved, and little benefit derived from them by the 
proprietors." P. 77. 

4th. The Common Fields. These are most numerous in that part of the 
country to the eastward of the great north road from Doncaster to 
Boronghbridge. It is impossible ven to guess at the quantity of 
land under this management, in general, it may be said to be 
extensive, and from the natural good quality of the soil, and the 
present imperfect state of culture, great room is afforded for solid 
and substantial improvements heing effected upon all land coming 
under the description of common field. P. 78. 

6th. The Moors. These lie in the western part of the Riding, and 
perhaps contain one eighth of the district. Upon them sheep are 
chiefly bred, and afterwards sold to the graziers in the lower parts 
of the country. A great part of these is common, which lays the 
proprietors under the same inconveniences as are already pointed 
out, and which might easily be remedied by dividing and ascer- 
taining the proportion which belongs to the respective proprietors. 
P. 78-79. 

The first fruits of this Report was the Enclosure Act of 1801, 
[41 Geo. 8. c. 109] which though perhaps inoperative, was the 
thin end of the wedge, and served to facilitate the passage of 
that of 1886. This latter has BO far swept away the common 
fields, that few men under 40 years of age can remember them. 

Regarding them as a part of the commune, one must 
regret the lost institution of the Reins. f Not satisfied with 
an equal division of land, the commoners caused a change 

" Mr. Atkinson Bays in Cleveland the Sheep-gate is na much connected with the 
farmstead as the fields or farm buildings. Ton cannot separate them, and you cannot 
create nw ones. It is all a bit of what wo speak of a* 'common right,' and the association 
is with the front stead, i.e., the site on which a honse stands, or has formerly stood." A 
consideration of all the passages quoted in these Studies, shows how the fc beep-gates grew 
p and the reason for their existence. 

* The physical rtasou for the TSXBACKD Being will Lc given in Study XIII. 

1 



66 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

every three years following the triennnial rotation of crops, in 
order to insure absolute fairness in regard to fertility of soil, 
and that each man should take the good with the bad. One man 
grew potatoes, another wheat, (where possible,) another oats, and 
so on. By means of " cowping " potatoes for oats, each man 
actually did live upon the produce of his Rein, and all went on 
well for nearly a thousand years after tho first settlement of the 
Danes. But as the population increased, notwithstanding that 
they added to the number of Reins, the struggle became 
harder and harder till at last the resources of the Dale were 
insufficient to maintain the inhabitants. With the difficulty of 
making a living at home, the impossibility of maintaining tho 
home manufacturer in competition with Leeds and Bradford, and 
the certainty of obtaining good wages in those and other centres 
of industry, there came the final blow in the Enclosure Act, 1836. 
The commoners of Kettlewell speedily availed themselves of this 
Voluntary Act, with the results stated above. (See p. 62.)* 

In Nidderdale other causes tending to depopulation have been 
working concurrently with that which operated in Wharfedale. 
The farmers engage their servants by the year, paying them so 
much wages, and finding them board, lodging, and paying their 
washing. In a farm house, in addition to the farmer, his wife, 
and family, there are all the servants of the farm. When I 
enquired what became of these servants, mostly young men, 
I was told that those who save a little money take farms of their 
own and marry, but that the improvident marry as farm 
labourers, and, as there are no cottages out of the villages, live 
at Middlesmoor, Lofthouse, or Ramsgill. If overburdened with 
children, they ultimately move to a manufacturing town, where 

In the Russian Mir "two thirds of tho votes of the peasants are 
necessary to pronounce the dissolution of tho community, and to divide tho 
soil into permanent individual property." Primitive Property, Laveleye, 
p. 11, (1878.) This provision may have been preserved by tradition in 
England from ancient times, aud so found its way into the Enclosure Act, 
cited on p. C2. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE, 67 

they get their children into a mill, and themselves obtain employ- 
ment of some kind from the manufacturers. That is one cause. 
There is another. Though much of the upper part of the Dale 
consists of property farmed by the landlord, the bulk of it lies 
in larger properties. It has been of late the practice on these to 
throw two or three small farms into one. They pull down all the 
habitable structures on the farms except one, to drive the tenants 
off, and prevent a possibility of any returning. Thus the same 
number of hands that formerly managed the small farms, now 
manages the larger one. It is true there has been a change 
from agriculture to grazing, and that on that account so many 
hands are not required to work the same area of ground, but 
capital is destroyed inasmuch as two of the three families who 
formerly lived upon the three farms, have to seek their living 
elsewhere, and become a burden to some already overburdened 
source of subsistence. " It's all very well," says the landlord, 
" but I was keeping them, now that they are gone, I get a larger 
rent for the single farm than I did for the three farms, and the 
land is far more profitable for grazing than it was for agricul- 
ture." All this is very true, but the public is the loser, to the 
extent of having two families and their servants to keep, or find 
occupation for, where they had none before, while the landlord 
and the largo farmer are clear gainers by the difference between 
the yield of the large farm and the three small ones, and the 
keep of the two ousted families and their servants. Few of these 
people take fresh farms. Most go to one or the other of tho 
manufacturing towns, where the difficulty of finding food enough 
for the teeming thousands is already terribly felt. 

The absence of "reins" in Nidderdale is not the only 
distinctive feature that isolates it from the surrounding country. 
Though woolcombing was the staple trade till very recent years 
of Masham,* West Burton, and Aysgarth, in Wousleydalc, thcro 

Masham, " lu spiuuiug of worsted a wotuau canu, if industrious, 
sixpcuco or oiglitpouc*- a day." Aurii.'u YOI'M;. Si>rtlicr:i Tjur, 1770, 
v. 2. p. 279. 



68 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

never were any wool-combers in Nidderdale, unless on the. 
borders of the Dale at Greenhowhill. Blackah makes one of the 
miner's wives say (p. 80.) : 

" Ah've been carding and spinning all day." 

Weaving and spinning " line " A. S. Lin (flax) employed women 
till about forty years ago. They made sheets, huckaback table- 
cloths, and towels, many of which are still in use. At Ramsgill, 
the birthplace of Eugene Aram, they wove cotton with a machine 
they call a " learn " (loom). A man came from Hebden, in 
Wharfedale, bringing them the raw material, and took back what 
they had woven. He paid them for their work, and left them as 
much cotton as he thought they could finish before his next 
visit. But " t' oade harden looms, sowlin can, an' t' windin' 
wheel amang t' rest," are things of the past. " Grarn " 0. N., 
Dan., Swed., Grarn; A. S. Gearn, (yarn*) is still spun in the 
Dale for knitting stockings ; but all signs of manufacturing 
activity has long since been absorbed by. the great centres, and 
disappeared from the Dales. 

ADDENDUM. 

In Switzerland and Russia, the system of Community, under which the 
Reins existed, is still flourishing. It formerly prevailed throughout the 
Aryan Nations. In Russia, the body of inhabitants of a village owning 
common land is called the Mir. All the arable land is divided into zones 
round the village. . . .Each zone is divided into narrow strips from 5 to 10 
yards broad, and from 200 to 800 yards long .... A partition of the soil was 
effected every year, or every three years, after each triennial rotation ... .In 
some places, partition takes place every six years, in others every twelve or 
fifteen, every nine is the most usual period .... The hay meadows are divided 
into fresh lots every year, and each family mows its own parcel, (dale) or 
else the whole is mown in common, aud the hay divided. Primitive 
Property, Laveleye, c. 2. 

There is a fine valley of land called Nidderdalo very populous, 

and the inhabitants are much engaged in the linen manufacture. They 

generally bleach the yarn before it is wove " etc. Agric. Surv., 

Wett Hiding, 



STUDIES IN NIDDEBDALE. 00 



IX. 
THE CELT. 

Nidderdale lies in the ancient district of Kymry-land, and 
the kingdom of Strathclvde, and the evidence of names of places 
shows that the country immediately to the south of it, and 
west of Leeds, was well populated by Celts. Thus, in BUHny 
Hill, an eminence between the Wharfe and the Aire, falling 
sharply both ways from an exceedingly narrow ridge, is found 
the W. Byl, a brim or edge. Byliairy having a rim or edge. 
Otley Cherin, a long hog's back shaped hill, which pre-eminently 
features that locality, overhanging as it does with its steep 
wooded sides, and gigantic scars the broad flat meadows of 
the sluggish Wharfe, is W. Cevyn the back ; a ridge ; a 
long extended mountain. Pannal* is W. Funnel a dinyle, a 
slope or fall. In Wushburndale, Pend rayon Castle, the name 
of a house high up on Jack Hill, was, probably in Roman 
times, the site of the abode of a Pendragon, or chief leader of 
the Cyinri. Cop Cray (near Brandrith Crags) at the summit of 
the moor, is a name of two Welsh words, Cup the top, summit ; 
and Craiy, a rock. Craddock, the name of a house, is Welsh, 
being the name of the successful Knight at King Arthur's Court. 

" Craddocke wan the borne 
And the bores head ; 
His ladie wan the mantle 
Unto her meede." 

The Boy and the Mantle, w. 191-194. 
More properly written Caradoc, as in Caer Caradoc. 

Panual, (anciently culled Rosehurst.) ALLEN, 'Hi*t. of York*., v. iri., 
p. 187. 



70 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

On the moors (Wharfedale side) north of Greenhowhill, " Coombes 
Hush," and " Coombes Marsh," 1500 ft., may contain a Welsh 
name. Coombs appears again on Arnagill moor, 1100-1200 ft. 
(W. Cwm, a hollow, a place between hills, a dingle or deep valley.)* 
Meugher, pron. Mewfa, a conspicuous conical hill over 2000 ft., 
on the watershed ridge between the Wharfe and the Nidd, and 
on the moors S.E. of Great Whernside, is probably Celtic. In 
Surrey, south of Godalming, there is a lofty hill called " Mervel 
Hill," but pron. by many Mi'erva Hill, exactly as we should 
pton. Minerva without the n. Myvyr Elian in Mona, and 
Glyn-y-Myvyr, a vale Denbighshire, are names which bear a 
striking resemblance to the present. Myvyr means contempla- 
tion, study, and is so explained in the above names by Owen. 
I can find no better explanation of the name of this lofty hill. 
" Slack," in " Foulcauseway Slack," as Kex Gill Moor, 
" Sough Slack," near Libishaw Hill, " Hey Slack," near Hud- 
storth, in Washburn, and especially " Clack Gill Beck," and 
many others, a boggy hollow in a moor as a place name 
generally because a road crosses it, (W. LLACA slop, mire, mud, 
dirt, is more in accordance with fact than 0. N. SLAKKI a slope 
on a mountain edge, (Cleas) which is perhaps more tempting). 
That magnificent hanging wood, " The Shawl," at Leyburn, 
(W. Gallt a woody cliff, or steep ; GWYZALLT a ^voody cliff, from 
GWYZ woody, overyrown, wild, and GALLT. In Wales this forms 
the names of several places, as " Y ZUALLT," " GALLT-Y-CRIB," 
" PEN-YR-ALLT," &c.) " Bather Standard " is the name 
of a sloping ridge or plateau, 1500 to 1G50 feet, on Grassington 
Moor. (W. RIIATH a cleared spot, a plain; YSTAIN that spreads 
or extends. " Tranmire " is generally an elevated moorland 
plateau, arid seems to me to bo a compound word. It has a 
wide range, however, from N. Wales to Cleveland which is 
rather against a compound origin. W. THAN a space- or stretch, 

On Patelcy Moor, situate in a hollow, is a bouse called Coombes cottage. 
The "Cain holes" of the Ordnance Map of Groat Wheruside is called 
" Coomb holes." 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 71 

* 

a district or region.} " Crundell Hill," a small round knoll on 
the face of the hill above Braithwaite, near Middleham. (W. 
CRWN round, CBON round. CRONELL a globe, CRONELLU to 
glomerate. CRYNDER roundness, CRYNAU to round, etc.) 
" Round Hill " is not an uncommon name for a similar feature. 
" Jonaman" a rock on Roova Plain. ="Jona Stone," (W. MAJEN 
a rock, block of stone.) "Tarn" occurs several times in the 
Dales of the Pennine Chain, as the name of single houses far 
removed from any small lakes so called. In this case the word 
is probably Cymric, and may indicate a site of an ancient royal 
residence of some Chief of a clan or petty King. (W. Teyrn 
a King.) Pen in Pen Hill, which Arthur Young writes 
" Fennel," (Northern Tour, v. 2, p. 459, 1770,) and Pen-y- 
Ghent, is W. Pen head, summit. Respecting the latter name I 
have never heard so much as a plausible explanation of that, but 
it seems likely that we have the same word as in Kent, (spelt 
Client*' in Domesday Book,) and Canterbury, viz., W; Caint a 
plain, or open country, also & field of battle. There are many 
places called by the appellation of Caint, as Caer Gaint, Canter- 
bury. Similarly Pen-y-Gaint would mean summit of the open 
country, i.e. not wooded. Mr. Dakyns suggests that Malham 
may be Keltic, as it is pronounced Mainn, and " Maum is used 
in Ireland now to denote a connecting mountain gap or pass." 
(Kinahan " Valleys," p. 122.) Madhm is Keltic for the hollow 
of the hand, so any hollow. The name would apply to the 
"cove." The name Malham Core would then be a reduplication, 
as Pen Hill, etc. In the " Confirmation of gifts " to Fountains 
Abbey by Richard I., we find " Malghum cum toto Malghmore 
et Malghwatre," and in an enumeration of the possessions of the 
Abbey, " Malghnm or Malham." 

In the Nidderdale districts proper, (assuming that some of 
the unexplained names are really Cymric) there is at least a 
marked absence of Celtic names, and the one or two that can be 

Spelt " Caent " in Laws of Hlothar, c. 16. 



72 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

t 

proved lie on the moors. We know that the Britons worked the! 
lead mines at Greeuhowhill, but there is nothing to show that 
the Celts ever made any settlement in Nidderdale. I question 
whether there are thirty Cymric words in the Nidderdale 
vocabulary. There are Beak and Beild, utensils ; Bogle and I 
suppose Boggart ; Brat, an apron ; Bray, BREUAN ; Brawn the 
place where trees branch ; Cabin ; Clog, (fool clog) a log ; 
Cluther, (Greenhowhill) ; Fog, aftergrass ; Hippings, stepping 
stones ; Hog, a lamb ; Kist ; Toppin ; and Yewn, to bully, Hidl, 
a small hovel or shelter, a very small shed, such as a tool-house, 
W. Hid a cover, covering. Ask, in the phrase an " Ask wind,' 1 
a hard dry biting wind like the east wind, may be simply a 
corruption of W, ASGELLWYNT, a side wind, or it may be con- 
nected with Asg, a splinter ; Asgor, to divide ; Asglodioni, to 
shiver, etc., and so mean a sharp, cutting wind. For others see 
Glossary. Some of these are confined to Greenhowhill, and 
some only used by the lowest stratum. The most that can be 
urged on the strength of them is that there may still exist the 
descendants of a few Celtic slaves in the district. The statement 
at the head of page 12 that a Celtic dialect was till recently 
spoken in Swaledale, was inserted on high authority. Mr. 
Goodchild however, who has more recently studied that district, 
in answer to a question, replies, " I have BO well proved Celtic 
element at all in Swaledale." There is certainly a well proved 
Celtic element in Nidderdale, to the extent shown above, and 
generally over the districts on which the numerals are found. 



THE ROMAN. 

Of the Roman occupation Grainge mentions that two pigs of 
lead bearing the inscription 

IMP. C^ES : DOMITIANO. AUG. Cos. VII BRIG. 
were dug up at Hayshaw Bank, in 1785. This shows that they 
Were cast A.D. 81. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 78 

In addition to this, Roman coins have been discovered. The 
account of the discovery was thus narrated to me by the finder, 
Thomas Jackson, a carpenter, at Lofthouse.* 

" I was playing with another boy up How Stean, when I 
crossed to " Tom Taylor's Chamber," the other boy was 
afraid to cross. I fun a small coin like a fourpeniiy piece, on 
the lowest floor of the cave. Then I held it up and showed it 
to the other boy. "Now wont you come across !" says I. So 
he come across. Then we traced 'em, one by one, stuck in the 
floor, and in the crevices of the cave. Others were stuck on 
their edges, and had been pushed into the cracks so far that 
we could not reach them. We were climbing out of the gill 
when we met a gentlemen. " This is a curious place," says 
he. " Ay, an' its been a rich 'un yance," says I, as we each 
pulled out a handful of coins and showed them to him. 
" What'll ye tak for em ?" says he. " Ah'll tak a shillin fer 
my sharr," says I. "An' what'll ye tak fer yours?" says 
t' gentleman. " Six shillings," answers the other boy. So he 
Bed he'd only give five shillings. " Ye sal hev 'em then," 
we sed. I went back t' next day and taaike a pair o' pincers 
wi' me'y an' pulled hoot them 'at wer fast i' t' cracks 'at ah 
cuddaut draw t' day afoar. We fand altogither thirty-five silver 
pieces, and four bronze. When I had got 'em all, " Fetch me'y 
black coit" says I, "Ah'll work na marr !" 

* The same mail who found these coins also told me the following little 
anecdote : " I was a little boy, when I found a small coin. I took it to 
school, and was showing it to the other boys, when t' maistcr calls out 
" What hev ye'y got thar, Tom ?" So he maks me tak it up t 1 him and tuts 
it away. " Oh," says he, looking at it, " I'll tak it to be magnified." An 
its magnifying yet." 

Mr. Ormerod's father found, when a little boy, fifteen crossbar guineas 
of William and Mary, near Newhouses. He took them to his father, who 
was ploughing. " See," says he, "what curious buttons I've fun." His 
father went with him to the pluce, but they could find uo more, Some few 
years ago, Mr. Ormerod's brother ploughed up a crossbar shilling in a field 
High Loflhouae. 

J 



74 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE , 

In explanation of this curious story, it may be added that How 
Stean Beck runs through a very narrow cleft in the limestone, 
in places 70 feet deep or more, with vertical or overhanging sides. 
When the sun is shining, a rich effect of light and shade, is 
produced in the liquid atmosphere, by the shadows of the leafy 
trees, marvellously suspended overhead, playing upon the grey 
limestone, or lost in the dark recesses of its numerous caverns ; 
at the bottom runs the beck, now tearing its way in narrow 
strips of foam through the tortuous crevices of its adamantine 
channel, now checked in its velocity in some deep basin, through 
whose pellucid waters a rich pencil of light may steal down to 
illuminate the collection of stones by which the eddying torrent 
has excavated it. Between the summer level and the flood line, 
the surface of the limestone is worn smooth by the water, and 
has, by chemical action, become covered by a thin film of 
redeposited silica, which has the appearance of a high polish, 
and makes the rock as slippery as glass. Added to this, the 
edges frequently slope toward the rushing torrent at such an 
angle as to afford no hold to the booted foot. At one of the 
points, where all these unfavourable conditions combine to 
render the passage of the beck all but impossible, is the cave 
called "Tom Taylor's Chamber," which at that time was not easy 
of access. Mr. Metcalfe, the owner of Stean Beck, has obligingly 
communicated the following : "Friday, June 12th, 18G8. A 
few days prior to the above date it came to my knowledge that 
two boys at Lofthouse had found in the rock upon my property, 
at Stean Beck, a number of old coins. On inquiry I came to 
know that they had been met accidently by a gentleman, 
who informed me that when in Leeds, as yesterday, he had 
sold them to a person in the central market, a general broker. 
On this Friday evening I found the broker, who had the 
coins in his pocket. He demurred to my demand upon him 
for them, stating they were under offer to the curator of the 
Leeds Museum. I, however, prevailed upon him to sell them 



One Coin 


- Nero. 


Four Coins 


Two 


Galba. 


Two 


One ,, 


- Otho. 


Nine ,, 


Three 


-Vespasian. 


Nine 


One ,, Titus, 


(Juda Coin.) 





STOD1ES IN NIDDERDALE. 75 

to me for 8 5s. They consisted of Thirty-two Silver pieces, 
viz. : 

Domitian. 

- Nerva. 
Trajan. 

- Adrian. 

Three others I had obtained in Lofthouse, besides four Bronze 
pieces. The Lord of the Manor, John Yorke, Esq., hearing 
of this find, presumed he was the rightful owner, and called 
upon me to look at them. I gave him ten silver pieces, 
(duplicates,) he giving me a Pig of Lead, found buried in the 
earth about 18 inches under the surface, in his land near the 
gate coming into Castlestead." 

Mr. Metcalfe has also added the following Notes on the 
Inscriptions on the Coins ; 

1. NERO came to the throne A.D. 54. 
Obverse. Nero Caesar Augustus. 
Reverse. Jupiter Custos. 

As regards the " Juda" Coin mentioned in the above list, the 
owner furnishes the following extract from Dr. Kitto's Bible : 

" ' She being desolate, shall sit upon the ground.' This is 
strikingly illustrated by the attitude, in which the captive 
daughter of Zioii, is represented upon the medal struck by Ves., 
to commemorate the taking of Jerusalem, (A.D. 70.) The 
obverse contains the head of the Emperor, while the reverse 
represents a woman sitting in a mourning posture under a palm 
tree. The inscription J. CAP., precludes any misapprehen- 
sion of its meaning. So striking is the analogy, that some 
think the idea of the device on the medal was purposely taken 
from this probably at the suggestion of Joj.-epb.ns, who was then 
at the court of Ves. and enjoyed his favour. The same ovout 



76 STUDIES IN NIDDEBDALE. 

is also commemorated in a silver denariu^ of the same Emperor,, 
in which the mourning female sits more markedly on the ground, 
while behind her rises the military trophy, which signalizes the 
triumph of the conquerors, and her own desolation." 

As regards the probable date at which these coins were 
hidden, we read in the Saxon Chronicle (MS. Cot. Lib., which 
was written AJ). 977.) " A.D. 418 This year the Romans 
collected all the hoards of gold that were in Britain, and some 
they hid in the earth, so that no man afterwards might find them, 
and some they carried away with them into Gaul." 

* This is the coin in question. 




STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 77 

THE ROMAN'S FAREWELL. 
A Study in Verse. 



I. 

Briton, while summer on these mountains gilds 

And wraps in verdure all the dales below, 

While yet thy glad eye, feasting on these wilds, 

Marks pleased the brown hills dappled with folds of snow 

Ere yet their winttr-stricken summits go 

To bury their heads in all pervading ice, 

Ere yet to floods the swollen torrents grow 

Rome will have quit thy shores, moved by the imperative criea 

Of grim barbarian hordes beneath fair Italy's skies. 

II. 

Down this deep rift alope in cool seclusion, 
Hid from the hot rays of the scorching sun, 
Where thick trees shade, and herbs in wild profusion 
Cast flowers around, and winding creepers run, 
With doubting mind I peer the vista through, 
I see the bright flowers to the daylight turning, 
I see the sky above, whose bright dark-blue 
Tells how fiercely aloft the midday sun is burning. 

III. 

And bitterly I regard my own fresh tear 

That mingles dripping with the dark springs under, 

To think that I must eke deposit here 

The accumulated hoards of many a year 

And sally forth again to bear the brunt and thunder. 

IV. 

Here in this little dint I thrust these moneys 

Safe to remain till we have eke chastised 

The insolent Goth that with his Myrmidones 

Stands menacing Rome then straightway back to the prize 

Eftsoous I will retuni, and spend my treasure 

All in a life long spell of vengeance-sweetened pleasure. 



78 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



V. 

Ye rocky dales where many a mountain stream 

With hoarser whisper vies the mountain's breath, 

Where crag born echoes, wakened from their dream, 

In distant answer carry the eagle's scream 

Up to the moorland solitudes and down to the dales beneath. 

VI. 

Ye dales of woodland and secladed farms, 

Of rills and ripples and of forest shade, 

Of bleakest summit sides, and mountain arms, 

Of deep-cleft gills where murmuring becks cascade 

In you, ye dales, not Rome, my heart is ever laid. 

VII. 

Lo, where a kingly heron from the beck 

Doth, rising loft, add grandeur to the grand ; 

With stately feet outstretched, and bended neck, 

And pale wings that the sable crest-plumes deck, 

He flaps his slow high flight toward the far marsh-land. 

VIII. 

Majestic bird ! alike of youth and age 

Beloved, and fitly favorite of kings, 

Thy swan peer delicate on lake let feedeth, 

A prince's child thy cousin gentle leadeth, 

Whilst thou with fierce wild by doth flap thy slow-arched wings. 

IX. 

Majestic bird, farewell ! Sweet dale farewell ! 
Farewell ye moorlands, fare ye well my flowers, 
Yet hear bow often on the heath-clad moor 
I listened to the golden plover's pipe, 
I watched aloft the curlew and the snipe 
How often, when the summer day was ripe, 
I lingered for a moment more 
To catch the sun's alternate stripe 
That lit aud dimmed on Middlcsmoor. 



STODIKS IN NIDDERDALE. 79 



X. 

How often, when the night was nigh, 
I wandered out upon the hill 
To see the lines of daylight die, 
How oft have sat in dear July 
All night besiden Arua Gill, 
And listened to the corncrakes cry, 
That made the stillness doubly still, 
Or spoiled the blackcap's melody. 

XL 

Great Jove, amongst the Gods most high J 
Methinks I hear the hoarse war-cry. 
Een now I feel my heart's blood burn, 
And I inun to the battle fly. 

XII. 

With the rising sun 

Hack the painted shield, 

Now to the bath of blood, 

With the greedy goshawk 

And the sallow kite, 

Call the grey wolf of the weald. 

XIII. 

Let the vulture hoarse, 
And the swarthy raven 
With horny neb, 
And the eagle swift 
With yellow feet, 
Haw to devour 
Find the mangled corse. 

X I V. Farewell ! 

The Roman here painted is the degenerate Roman of the fifth century, and it 
Coloniit. Having once parted with hia coins he finds conrage, and ns he dues BO, the 
metre shortens, till he finishes in the mocking savage strain of the older Teutonic Heroic* 
poetry. Verses XII. and XIII. are in fact little mure than adaptations of versos in the 
of Ucgiicr Ludbrog, uud iu Uio Saxon Chronicle, year 'J'M, 



80 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

THE ENGLE. * 

The Dale was first populated by the Engles. The great 
kingdom of Northumbria was founded by Ida the Engle, in 547> 
but the great influx of Engles into England on the north and 
east took place about A.D. 559, under Ella. They appear to 
have taken possession of the dale, at least as far as regards its 
upper half. The interior slopes of the hills, the villages, farms, 
pastures, sheds, one wood, the springs, tributary streams, and 
the main river itself, bear generally Anglo-Saxon names. Thus 
" Raydale Knotts " is the name of the interior side of Little 
Whernside. The occurrence of this name and that of Prydale, 
a field on Lodge Farm ; as well as Rundleside, (Rundale Side) 
the interior slope of the dale between Lodge and Woodale ; of 
Woodale itself; and probably of others in which the name dale 
is limited to fields or woods, induce me to withdraw the state- 
ment on P. 60. " There is no trace of the former existence of a 
Village Community in Nidderdale," and to suggest that in 
Anglian times there probably were such, or at least one family 
Community near the Dale Head. In this limited sense, Dale is 
an A. S. word, Dsel, used (as I have shown on P. 62) in the 
Laws of Ine, of divisions in common land (gedal land).f The 
word Dale meaning the valley, is 0. N., and was introduced 
later. "Thorpe" or "Thrope," probably the Thorp sub bosco, or 
' Thorpe Underwood' of Fountains Abbey, and " Staen," villages ; 
" Limley " (lime-field) being situated upon the narrow strip of 

* The earliest use of the word Englishman I have found is in the Laws 
of Ine, c. 24, (A.D. 688-728.) " Englisc man," next, in " Treaty hetween 
Alfred and Guthrun," c. 2, A.D. 878. " Engliscne and Deniscne," next 
in "Treaty, Edward and Guthrun," introd. "Engle and Dene." I 
therefore prefer ENGLE to Angle. 

t In Germany, under the system of the Mark or Commonland, the fields 
were anciently " divided into long strips, all bordering on one side on the 
road left for Agricultural purposes. These parcels were called DEEL, 
Deel is the Danish for a division. Sciiiften, in the North ; in England 
Oxgang" etc. Prim. Prop., p. 111. 



STUDIES tlf NIDDEKDALE. 81 

limestone in the bottom of the dale a farm ; " Tiedera Wood," 
tiedfra being a pure Anglo-Saxon adjective meaning " thin," 
most descriptive of the thin hanger of birches upon a steep cliff 
of limestone to which the name applies ; with such names as 
" Wising (imun//, guiding) sike," " Huya sike (hedge or fence, i.e., 
boundary), " Twisling " (ticisluny, tributary, ad.) ; " Thornit " 
(thorniht, thorny, or abounding in thorn-bushes) ; " Mere 
Dike " (meera, a boundary, being the boundary between 
Stonebeck Up and Fountains Earth) applied to streams, as well 
as "Heaning" to fields (Anglo-Saxon hedn, high; iny, field), 
as in the field called Heaning Top, on High Lofthouse Farm, 
also Heaning, a flat meadow by the Ure, near Kilgram, which 
may be 0. N. HEGNINN, fenced, enclosed." Other physical 
features demanding notice are Gladstones, a wreck of large 
grit blocks lying strown on the hill side below the scar at 
which they must formerly have made an imposing crag; 
(A. S. Glad slipped). Compare ' Slipstone Crags,' Colsterdale. 
Throstle Hill, a little conical eminence on Masham Moor, may be 
called after the Moor Throstle, or Ring Ouzel. (See Glossary.) 
In the Carta of Roger de Mowbray " de recompensatione de 
Niderdala," in the 'Register of Fountains Abbey,' Fol. 148. 6., 
given in Dugdale, Throstle How is thus mentioned as a point on 
the boundary of Fountains Earth : " et sic usque ad Frostilde- 
hou, et de Frostilde-hou usque ad Hameldon," [here the initial F 
is apparently a mistake for T] " et inde usque ad Dalhagha et 

totum Dalhagha (Dallowgill) et inde trans versnm moram 

deversus Scfoldene," etc. From the latter part of this passage, 
however, we have valuable hints as to the^correct etymology of 
Dallow, also written Dalayh in the ' Confirmation of Gifts' by 
Rich. I., and in the enumeration of the possessions of the abbey 
temp Hen. VIII. and of Skell, evidently the same word as 
' Schelde' a river in Belgium. " Pony well," at Middlesmoor, 
may be A. 8. Funnr a pan, partly because the term Pony is 
cot used in the dale, Galloway being the term, and partly 
because of the celebrated enactment of King Edwin, (A. D. C27,) 

K 



82 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

King of Northumbria, that wherever there were clear wells by 
public roads, cups of brass should be suspended upon posts for 
the refreshment of way-goers. (Bede Hist. Ecdes., Lib. 2, c. 
xvi., 137). If so, of course the name is 1250 years old. 
" Heathfield," A. S, Hathfeld. " Slade " near Blubberhouses, 
" Hanging Slade," " Slade Wham," a bog on moors, twice. 
Slade only occurs in Washburn and Wharfedale, A. S. Slcrd a 
slade, plain, open tract, but it seems to have meant a clear 
place in the forest as in Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne : 

"And John is gone to Barnesdale, 

The " gates " he knoweth eche one ; 
But when he came to Barnesdale, 

Great heaviness there he hadd, 
For he found two of his own followers, 

Were slaine both in a slade." L, 56. 

" Hen Stones " recurs several times as the name of groups of 
rocks on the high moors. They are always on the highest ridges 
in the locality. " Hen Stones " on Pockstones Moor, 1860 ft.; 
" Hen Stones " on Barden Fell, 1500 ft. ; " Hen Stones Ridge, 
1250-1350 ft., N.W. of Greenhowhill ; " Hen Stone Band," the 
watershed ridge between Wharfe and' Nidd, 1750 ft., S.E. of 
Meugher Hill.=" High Stones." A. S. Hean, high. Band in 
" Henstone Band," " Long Band, " means an elevated ridge on 
the high moors, but it only occurs in this one locality. I think 
"Ray" or " Wray" in " Raydale Knotts," " Raygill," "Wood- 
man Wray," (a bog at the head of Black Sike,) is the equivalent 
of what on the Lower Greensand in Surrey are called "Roughs," 
e.g. " Perton Rough, J ' near Abinger, (A. S. REOH rough, 
uncultivated). These give but a faint idea of the extent to which 
the Engles stamped their image upon the higher parts of the 
dale during the three centuries of their possession of it before 
the Danish invasion. 

Of the appearance of the Engles we know nothing from them- 
, but we gain some notion of their looks from a graceful 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 88 

picture bequeathed to us in the time honoured anecdote, 
related partly by the venerable Bede, and partly by Antoninus, 
Archbishop of Florence, in his " Summa Historians." When 
Gregory was a Monk at Borne, years before he became Pope, 
some merchants, having just arrived at Rome, exposed many 
things for sale in the market-place, and many people went there 
to buy, among others Gregory himself. Amongst the other 
things for sale were some boys " candidi corporis ac venusto 
vultm capillorum qiioque forma egreyid," white in body, of 
beautiful countenance, and with fine fair hair. Having inspected 
them he asked from what country they were brought, and he was 
told that they were from the island of Britain, whose inhabitants 
" tails essent aspectiis " were all like them. Then he asked 
whether those Islanders were Christians or pagans, and was told 
that they were pagans. " Alas," said he, drawing from the 
bottom of his heart a long sigh, " what a pity that the author 
of Darkness should possess men " tarn luculi vultus," of such 
open, frank, and fair countenances, and that such external grace 
should be unaccompanied by imcard grace." He then asked 
again what was the name of that nation. The answer was that 
they were called "Angli," Angles. "Right," said he, "for they 
have the laces of angels, " anyclicam habent faciem," and it is 
fitting for such to be coheirs with the Angels in heaven. What 
is the name of the Province from which they are brought ?" 
The answer was " Deiri." " Truly are they de ira," said he, 
" withdrawn from wrath and drawn to the mercy of Christ, 
(" Bene" inquit " Deiri de ira eruti," etc.) What is the King of 
that Province called ?" The answer was " ^Ella." And he 
playing upon the name said " Alleluia, the praise of God the 
Creator must be ' Snuge in y* countrey y* so feyre chyldren were 
born in.'" Bede, Hist. Eccles., Lib. 2, c. I., 89; Fabian. 
L'hnm., c. cviii. Gregory lived to be Pope A.D. 592, and sent 
Augustine A.D. 590, 156 years after the coming of the Angles, 
and before his death wo hear him exclaiming, " Behold a louguo 



84 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

of Britian, which knew nothing else but to utter barbarian 
speech, already in the divine praises of the Hebrews, has begun 
to resound ' Alleluia.' " 



THE DANE. 

Centuries before there was any permanent settlement of the 
Danes or Northmen from Scandinavia in North England, their 
name had become the dread and terror of Saxon, Engle, and 
Celt, in these islands. Whatever spirit the Saxons once had they 
soon lost, and the Chronicle sounds one long wail of a slothful, 
shiftless, spiritless people, without resource, organization, or 
grasp of mind enough to tackle with the quick movements and 
fertile resources of the Danes. Fabian quaintly recites one of 
the superstitions that sprang up after the terrible Dane had 
hacked, hewed, and burned his way from north to south, and 
from east to west, through the length and breadth of the land, 
maiming or hamstringing his prisoners, and leaving them to die 
of starvation, or to fall a prey to the wolves which then abounded 
in many parts of this island. Brightricus, first King of West 
Saxons, began his reign A.D. 678. " About the ii year of 
Brightrycus, was seen in Great Brytaygne, a wonder syghte, for 
sodenlye, as men walkyd in the strete, crossys lyke unto bloode 
fell upon they clothis, and blood fell from Hevyn like droppis of 
rayne : this after some exposytours betokened ye comynge of ye 
Danes into this londe ; the which entred shortly after. For, as. 
witnesseth POLYCRONICA, about the ix. year of Brigthicus, the 
Danes fyrste entered this londe." FAB. CHRON., cop, clvii. 
King Regner Lodbrog, one of those invaders, was King of 
Denmark early in the ninth century. He was taken at last, 
in battle, by Ella, King of Northumberland. In his Deathsong, 
he or his Scald, or Poet Laureate, records all the valiant achieve- 
ments of his life, and threatens Ella with vengeance, which, 



STUDIES IN NIDDBBDALE. 



Jristory tells us was effected by his sons. The following shows 
the irrepressible fiery energy of these bloody men : 



" Hinggom rer med hiaurvi. 
Hanrd kom rid & skiauldo 
Nar fell nidr til jardar 
A Northyinbra-Landi. 
Var'ut um eina 6tto 
Aulklom thaurf at fryia 
Hilldar-leik, thar er hvafsir 
Hjalm-stofn bito ski6mar. 
Varat sem uuga eckio 
I aund-vegi kista'c." 

Lodbrokar Qoida, v. 14. 



" We hewed with the sword. 
Hard came stroke on shields, 
Corps* fell down to earth 
In Northumberland.* 
There was not at the eighth-hour 
Need for man to waken [blade 

Hilda's game.t there- where J sword- 
Bit skull through bright helmet. 
Was it not as young widow 
At high-table kissed I." 



Piracy was the recognised occupation of the North men. 

Piratical invasions went on from time to time, until Harald 
Haarfagr, King of Norway, A. D. 860-933, by a new system of 
pnbearable tyranny, drove from Norway all the more independent 
of the aggrieved freemen whose allodial holdings he taxed, and 
otherwise meddled with.|| The fugitive was no slave. He had 
left the home of his fathers, where he thought no freeborn man 
could now care to live, and scattered over many lands. " But 
of all countries," says Sir G. Dasent, " what were called the 
Western Lands, were his favourite haunt," [among these] 
" England, where the Saxons were losing their old dash and 
daring, and settling down into a sluggish sensual race." 

Northuinbria. 

t HildaVlaik, ^Battle. HILDA, Goddess of War. 

} At which time eight in the morning. 

Was it not as pleasant as when I kissed the young widow at the 
high-table. 

|| There still exists a descendant of this Harald Haarfagr, Tofte by 
name, at a farm called Tofu moen, far up among the Fjelds in the heart of; 
Norway. The King dined at his house on his way to be crowned at 
Troudhjem, in 1800. 



86 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

Towards 867 an organised expedition of Norsemen under 
Ingvar and Ubba, two of their kings, landed in Northumbria, in 
which district, in the beginning of Alfred's reign, or about 872, 
Halfdene rewarded his followers with grants of land. The settle- 
ment was somathing like the Norman Conquest two hundred 
years later, and its extent may be gathered from the fact that in 
the four counties of Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Cumberland, and 
Westmoreland, there are nearly one thousand places which have 
Dano-Norwegian names against less than four hundred in all the 
rest of England.* If the names of farms and physical features 
were taken into account, this number would be greatly extended. 
Among other places the Danes settled in Nidderdale. We may 
now consider the meaning of the name Nidderdale, and of Nidd 
the river in it. Several attempts have been made to derive this 
from a Celtic source, but I believe unsuccessfully. 

Near the end of the twelfth century, the Carta of Roger de 
Mowbray, above-mentioned, "derecompensatione de Niderdala" 
goes on " Scilicet totum Niterdale" and writes the name of the 
river NID. About a century later, or in 1284, the " Statute of 
Westminster the Second," [13, Edward I., c. 47,] writes the 
name of the river Niddiore. The abstract of Roll 32, Henry 
VIII., Augmentation office, given in Dugdale, has Nedirdale, 
while Camden, 1607, writes Nidherdale, and the name of the 
river Nidde. 

About four miles from its source the Nidd sinks into its 
limestone bed, and for two miles takes a subterranean course, 
like the Mole in Surrey, which does the same between Dorking 
and Leatherhead, and the Churn in Gloucestershire. It would 
have been strange if this phenomenon had escaped the notice of 
the dwellers in the dale, to which it gives a distinctive character. 
We find the Anglo-Saxon word NIDER, NYDEB, meaning " down,'' 

Pearson's 'Early and Middle AgRS,' ed. 1861, p.^,107 ; Worsane's 
'Danes in England,' p. 71. 



STUDIES IN NTDUERDALE. 87 

11 below," which may have been given in allusion to this descent 
and subterranean course, as a name to the river, and the A. S. 
word gedterul, the " down-pouring " or " channel, " to the 
second swallow through which the water flows. This is now 
called " Gooden Pot," ( W. Pot,) or " Goydin Pot." It has been 
attempted to give this word a Celtic derivation. The modern 
pronunciation of " Nidderdale " is as nearly " Nitherdil " and 
" Netherdil " as it can be written in modern English, but the 
modern name of the river is Nidd. This is, doubtless, one of 
the modifications introduced by the Dano-Norwegian invaders 
on their settlement in the dale three centuries after the coming 
of the Engles, for Nid is the name of a river which flows 
through Throndhjem, in Norway, and gives the name of Nidar- 
oss to a famous old town at its mouth. Similarly " Nidderdale" 
may be Norsk, Nidar-dalr, the dale of the Nid, but the earlier 
explanation seems preferable, considering the three centuries' 
occupation of the Engles. However this may be, the modern 
name of Nid certainly seems to be Norwegian or Danish. 



00 STUDIES IN NID1JERDALE. 

X. 

THE QUEEN. 

From Nidderdale, Great Whernside and Little Whernsidd 
appear as two distinct hills, two miles and a half distant from 1 
each other. The name of Whernside is itself of doubtful origin; 
(A. S. cicarn, 0. N. hvern, a quern ; and A. S. sid, 0. N. sida* 
side ; the first, given by A. S., seems best), but this much about 
it is certain, that the whole hill takes its name from a part of it, 
viz. the Wharfedale side, which is so called. Here are quarries 
from which the stone may have been dug to make querns. The 
Nidderdale side, however, is called Blackfell. In other words, 
the hill seen from Wharfedale, is called " Whernside," and from 
Nidderdale " Blackfell."* Similarly the slope of Little Whernside 
in Nidderdale is called " Baydale Knotts," and that in Coverdale' 
" Cowside," a common name for Pennine slopes,! while it 
borrows its general name from the larger hill. Whernside is 
pronounced " Whairnsid " which favours the A. S. origin. 
" Quernside " has been changed into Whernside, in the same way 
as " Quarrel" i. e., Quarry has been softened into ' Wharrel" 
in the name Wharrel Crags on the moors east of Coverdale. 

I received information of the discovery of two querns in 
Nidderdale, one in the flat field at the bottom of the hill below 
Middlesmoor, between the road and Stean beck, and immediately 
east of the confluence of Whitbeck with Stean beck ; and the' 

* The map in Camden's Brittannia, 1805, writes " Great Wharne- 
niile " for the northern end, and Blackfell for the southern eud of the 
hill, but this is wrong. (See below under Fell and Fieldfare.) 

4- The name Ccnvside is very ancient, nud must have belonged to the' 
Unenclosed hill pastures of the Village Communities in A. 8. times. It is* 
Aiost common on the grassy limestone fells. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. b'J 

bther in the flat footpath field close to the Nidd, immediately 
south west of Low Sykes. 

The quern, or handmill, among the Greeks and Romans was 
worked by slaves. The labour of using it was exceedingly arduous, 
nevertheless the toil was imposed principally upon women. 
The smallest farmers, however, ground their own meal, rising 
before daylight to prepare enough for the requirements of the 
day. The graphic description of Virgil renders it unnecessary 
to draw upon our imagination, to picture the quern in use. The 
right hand turned while the left kept feeding the grain, " Laeva 
ministerio dextra est iutenta labore" or vice versa when the right 
hand required rest. Cowper thus translates the description in 
11 The Salad." 

" Simulus poor tenant of a farm 
Of narrowest limits" .... [baring risen 
before the lark] " opes bis granary door. 
Small was bis stock, bnt, taking for the day 
A measured stint of twice eight pounds away, 
With these his mill he seeks. A shelf at baud 
Fix'd in the wall affords his lamp a stand 



And with a rubber for that use designed 
Cleansing his mill within, begins to grind. 
Each band has its employ ; labouring amain, 
This turns the winch while that supplies the grain. 
The stone revolving rapidly now glows, 
And the bruised corn a mealy current flows, 
While he to make his heavy burden light, 
Takes off his left hand to reKeve his right." 

That the quern was still worked in this country by female 
slaves in Anglo Saxon times, appears from a passage in the Laws 
of .lEthelbirht, c. 11., " OIF sio GRINDENDE THEOWA sm," "if 
she be a mill yirl" which incidentally alludes to them. It also 
appears from the same laws that the mill girl was not of the 
lowest rank, being compensated at a higher rate than the King's 
nurse, and the ' THRIDDE' third or lowest rank. I believe the 
quern is still in use in the Highlands of Scotland, or, if not, it 
has only very lately gone out of use. We owe our water-mills 
to the Romans, by the way. 

It 



90 STDDIES IN 



XL 

PHYSICAL FEATUKES, 

With Norsk Names. 

That tract of moor included between the Nidd and How Stean 1 
Beck bears the name of "In Moor" and " Middlesmoor " 
(Middel mor). "Middlesmoor" by the analogy of several 
Icelandic names compounded with middle would appear to be 
0. N. The same must be said of "In Moor " as opposed to- 
Owster Bank, 0. N. Aiistr eastern, Bakki bank, the elevated 
ridge which forms the eastern watershed ridge of Nidderdale* 
opposite In Moor, and from which a magnificent view is obtained 
over the whole of the vale of York and Mowbray, and of the- 
Cleveland Hills. The summit of In Moor forms a conspicuous 
hill, 1488 feet in altitude, which now bears the name of " Rain- 
Stang." " Bane- star g- en " is the name of a mountain in 
Norway on the watershed between Valders and Hallingdall. 
" Rani" is the old Norsk for a hog's snout, a hog-shaped hill, 
or "hog's back," and "stang" the Danish for a pole or post, 
W. Ystttny. The name " stang " occurs many times on hills io 
Yorkshire, as " Kettlestang Moor" and " Stang Brae," jiear 
Cnrlesmoor in the Laver basin, and " Stanghow " (Cleveland). 
Besides " Rainstang " to its summit, the Danes gave various 
names to other parts of " Middlesmoor," of which they took 
possession: c. g., "Armathwaite " (0. N, thvrit, a clearing, 
detached piece of land), while Middlesmoor was eventually 
retained only as the name of the village. Armathwaite occurs 
several times on the Pennine Range and in Westmoreland. 
Other Nortk names of hills and eminences are "Bull brae' r 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE, 91 

(led. bula, to tear asunder ; Norsk brae, hillside), the name 
of a part of the north side of the dale from which there 
has been a large slip, " Haden Carr " near the dale head, a 
plateau 1500 feet ending in a steep escarpment (0. N. had, hill, 
height ; Kjarr, bog covered with brushwood), " Jordan Moss " 
{Dan, jord, earth, peat ; en, the ; mos, moss, the peat-bog), 
peat-bogs on Braithwaite, near Greenhowhill sike, and Lofthouse 
Moors. "Blue Burnings," the name of a steep hillside above 
Lofthouse, (0. N. bldberne, the blaeberries), formerly a wood 
famous for bilberries ; also " Blubberhouses " (Bluber-husum) 
Washburndale ; " Trappen Hill," the steepest part of the hill- 
road that runs up by Blue Burnings, (Dan. trappe, staircase, en, 
the tmppen, the staircase). Before the road was made it is 
probable that steps were here cut in the soil ; they are common 
enough at the present day. " Arna Nab " (0. N. ama, gen. 
plur. of orn, an eagle ; Nab, Dan. nab, projecting point of a hill, 
eagle's point) ; " Arnagill," a picturesque rocky gill at the 
southern extremity of the Colsterdale basin. " Brown Ridge " 
{0. N. brim, brow of a hill), the northern watershed ridge of 
Nidderdale, 1500 feet ; " Acora Scar " (0. N. akr, arable land ; 
as opposed to enyr, grass laud). " Sleets," a flat field ; " Sleet 
Moor," an elevated flat moor, 1500 feet, east of Grassington 
Moor; " Nar Sleets=near Sleets" (0. N. Nd near,) and 
" Hunters Sleets," a flat moor, 1500 feet at Coverdale Head, 
probably also " Slight Hill," (875 feet) N. W. of Thornton Hall, 
and " Sleights" a village near Whitby ; (Goth. Slahits flat, level, 
O. N. Slettr, Dan Sletj. In the names "HUNTER'S Sleets" aud 
" HUNTER'S Stones," (near Jack Hill) we seem to have another 
vestige of the village Commune. " The Marken [or districts of 
the Communes] were called tireraulm in Alsace, or Hundsclinften 
or HUNTARI, among the Alemanni. They included cultivated 
land, pasturage, wood, and water." ( 1'iim. Prop. p. 101 j. 
So also in the names of " MARKENFIELD, MARKLNGTON." 
" Horso Hulks," a coufused pile of slips and Rocks on tho dalo 



9Z STUDIES IN NID0ERDALE. 

edge, 1000 feet ; opposite Ramsgill, (0. N. Hals a neck, also a, 
hill, ridge between two parallel dales, a pass ; Holkn, a rough 
stony field).* "Kelds" springs, and " Kell " at Greenhowhill, 
" Kills Wham," etc., (0. N. Kelda whence, A. S. Keld a spring). 
" Stainin Gill Beck," (three 0. N. words, Steinn stone, inn the 
Gil & Bekkr) "Bain Grain Beck,"=near branch beck three 
0. N. words, (Beinn, near, Grein, a branch, Dan. Green, 
& Bekkr), also " Grainings," " Crag Grainings," " Grainings 
Gill," and many others. " Green Nook," a knoll on Stean 
moors, 1550 feet, (0. N. hnjitkr, hniikr, a knoll, peak). 
"High Fleak," an elevated flat moor, (0. N. Fldki same). 
" Flask," on the north west side of Barden Fell ; " Half 
Flask," etc., (0. N. Flask a green spot among bare fells, also 
written Flas, Fles, in which form it appears in the name 
"Flesh Beck," East Witton, and " Flasby Fell." "Fell," 
0. N. Fjall, Norsk Fjeld, Gr. Phellos.See Glossary. " Carle 
Fell," "Blackfell," " Barden Fell," " Blashaw Fell," and 
" Segsworth Fell." " This common North of England word," 
says Mr. Dakyns, " does not occur in Scotland save in compo- 
sition. In Yorkshire it is not found south of Skiptou, Flasby 
Fell being the most southern " Fell " in Yorkshire, but in 
Lancashire it reaches a little further south. "f The word Hope, 
(0. N. HOP) properly a small land-locked bay or inlet, occurs in 
England only in composition. In addition to the Northumbrian 
and Durham names Kilhope, Stanhope, Ryhope, etc., we find 

* " Horse," House, Hawse, hass, a ridge between two dales. Se in 
" Horsehouse " in Coverdale, " Honehead " between Whavfedale and 
Littondale, Hawes, properly " The Hawes," (pron. T' Hars) Wensleydale. 
Here you pass over from east, to west England, either by Widdalo to 
Dent, Ingleton, or Settle ; or by Garsdalo to Sedbergh (pron. Sebber or 
Sedber); or by Mallcrstang into the Vale of Eden five different routes. 
This is therefore par eminence " The Hawes." Helks, in Wharfedale, 
surfaces of bare limestone cut up by joints into numerous rhombs. J. 11. D. 

t For further remarks on the word Fell see under Field fare. 



STUDIES IN NIDDEBDALE. 93 



" Widdop " in Yorkshire, north of Todmordcn ; " Gate-up," 
north east of Grassington ; " Bac-up," in Lancashire ; in which 
op and /7~-HOPE. To these we may add " Lead-up Beck," on 
the east aide of Coverdale. " Woogill Tarn " and " Coverdale 
Tarn," two large ponds in the peat, 1690 feet, on the plateau 
of the North Moor west of "Great Haw," (0. N. Tjorn.) 
" Priest Tarn," about 1700 feet, on Grassington Moor. 
" This northern word," says the same authority, " too only 
extends south about as far as Fell does the most southern 
Tarn being a pool near Keighley, called ' The Tarn.' " 
" Flamstone Pin," a rock 1350 feet, on the flat elevated plateau 
of Braithwaite moor, (0. N. Vlcemi a waste open place.) " The 
Three Howes " often recurring on the moors on elevated 
ridges, (0. N. Haugr a mound, burial mound j. " Storth's 
Hall " near Huddersfield. " Hoodstorth," Washburndale, 
(0. N. titorth, a young plantation). " Swinsty" (0. N. Sci?isti, 
swine sty). " Hammer," " Hammer End," a hill bank near 
East Witton, (0. N. Haimtrr, a hammer shaped crag, a 
crag). The river "Burn" (0. N. Brunnrj, but "Burn 
Gill"=Burn's Gill, after a farmer who formerly lived up 
there, where are now the ruins of farmstead and field-walls. 
" GirBeck" Coverdale, (O.N. Gciri, strip of grass among rocks). 
' Birk Gill Beck," Colsterdale, three 0. N. words. Scale Gill= 
Shale Gill, that part of its course being between clifi's of blue 
shale. " Fuley Gill," a deep cleft in high Colsterdale moors, 
(0. N. Fjdlfr, Fjdlbr an abyss). " lioova Crag," " Roova 
Trough," East Scrafton Moor, 1500 feet, (0. N. Hrjfifr, rough). 
' Wilder Botn, " a trough in the plateau of the same elevated 
range of moors, on the Coverdale Shed and " Starbotton " 
Wharfedale, (0. N. Botn, the head of a dale). " Grey Yaud," 
a crag above East Witton, (now a large quarry). " Yaud 
Head," the rocky gill in which lies Eavestoue Lake. " Rowan- 
tree Yards," crags on the moor near Hummerstone, Washburn 
dubious. " Sourmires," part ol Masham Moor, 1250 feet. 



94 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

41 Sour Ings," a field Colsterdale. " Sower Beck," high moors 
near Henstone Band, 1500 feet, (0. N. Saurr, mud; Myrr, 
moor, bog, swamp). " Vollens Gill," Coverdale. " Volla 
Wood," South of Sawley (0. N. Vdllr, a field, a close or 
paddock. Dat. plu. vollum). "Clint Gill" clint, narrow cleft 
in limestone. " Griff," trib. of Clint Gill, (0. N. Grof a pit, 
hole dug for limestone). " Hummerstone," Washburndale (0. 
N. Homul Norse Humul ; heaps of earth-fast stones Humul 
gryti}* " Gollinglith," pron. Gownley, ( Gula is a local name 
in central Norway. Hlith a slope, mountain side). Golling 
lith is a long spur in Colsterdale. " Gollinglith Foot" is the 
village at the foot of the slope, "Swidney " in Colsterdale, (O.N. 
Svida, in Norway, woodland cleared for tillage by burning. 
Swidney looks a dative or locative, in Icel. Si'idnur is a local 
name where sea- weed was burnt for salt making). " Melmerby," 
by the termination, is Dan., ' by ' being a town, village, or farm 
so with all places ending in 'by.' Places ending with um are 
generally Danish. We find " Kilgram" on the Ure, "Angram," 
and " Angram Cote," the latter at Ellingstring. " Toldrum " 
twice houses south of Evestoue Lake and west of Winksley. 
" Brandstone Scar," "B. Beck," etc., three 0. N. words mean- 
ing " hearthstone scar," i.e., the scar where the hearthstones 
were dug, and probably still are dug. Old English "brand" and 
(0. N. Brandr, the hearth.) Comp. " Bakstone Gill." Langbar, 
that fine ridge of moor that overlooks the ings of BoltOn, from 
a height of 1250 feet" Long Ridge, " or " long edge." (0. N. 
Barth, the verge, edge of a hill, freq. in local names in Icel. 
comp. " Langbarth " in Cleveland). " Bale Bank," a slope of 
grit grass covered 725-975 feet, (0. N. BALI a yrassy bank). 
" Ivin Waite," a farm house=" Ivy Thwaite." " Water 
Gate" = a ford where a road crosses the beck. " Blea Beck," 
" lied Beck," " Brown Beck," the two former near East 

* Also " Homerstoue grit," a coarse suudatouo with large quartz 
pebbles. J. li. D. 



STUDIES IN NIDDEKDALE. 95 

Witton are ell 0. N. names ; the last 0. N. lirun, a brow, 
edge of a moor. " Bak'stori Gill," trib. of Loug Gill, " Bak'ston 
Gill," trib. of Birk Gill Beck both in Colsterdale. " Great 
Gill," in reality a very little gill, 0. N. GKJOT, grit from 
coarse sandstone forming a part of its bed. Grit is generally jmm. 
" Greet." " Beldin Gill," a very little gill on the moors rising 
on Great Haw. I cannot explain Beldin such a man's name 
is unknown tome. " Brown Rigg"=moor ridge, (0. N. BKUN, 
the brow of a fell, moor, etc., HRYGGR, a ridge, as in Fjall- 
hryggr a mountain-ridge.) " Braithwaite" is a compd. of Bra? 
and " thwaite," the clearing on, beneath, or beside the brce, a 
common man's name. " Braithwaite Banks," near Middle-ham, 
are 400 feet high. " Strutt Stear," a crag about 1250 feet on 
the same spread of high moors as " Flamstone Pin," and 
" Wharrel Crags ;" 0. N. STBUTR, as a local name, a " strut" 
formed fell in Icel. Strut, a hood jutting out like a horn; also 
Stryta a cone formed thing. STORK, Bents, bent grass. Strut 
Stear is therefore " the Bents with the ' strut ' formed crag." This 
interpretation would make the name rather that of the immediate 
part of the moor on which the crag is situated, than that of the 
rock itself, which would be simply ' Strut.' " Middle Tongue " 
occurs several times as a name of the mountain spur that runs 
doirn between two becks, 0. N. MEDAL, Middle, TUNGA, meaning 
the same as above, cp. " MEDAL FELL " Middle fell, MEDAL- 
LAND Middle Land, etc., and our " Middlesmoor," written 
MIDLESMORE in possessions of Fountains Abbey, and MIDDLEMORE- 
in Camden's Brittannia, 1607, Lib. vii., 68. 

The names of well known Northmen who settled in Yorkshire, 
enters into the composition of the following : " Ulfers Crags " 
and " Ulfers Gill," Coverdale, 0. N. ULFR man's name, lit 
" Wolf. 1 ' " About the time of King Canute the Dane, Ulph, the 
son of Thorold, a prince of that nation, governed in the western 
partofDeira." (CauuUiis Ilrittanj. "Kettlestang," "Kettle- 
ing," and "'Kettlowoll," spelt "Kcttclwol" in the possessions of 



)6 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

Fountains Abbey ; 0. N. KETILL, man's name. " Baxley," 
Coverdale, and " Barnley," Colsterdale, moorland pastui'es, seem" 
by their terminations to be Norsk. 0. N. Hlith, a slope, -comp, 
" Gownley " Gollinglith. "Great Stockiner" and "Little 
Stockiner," large moorside pastures in Coverdale, from the kind 
of fence by which they were enclosed, (0. N. Stokkr, a stock, 
stake, the beams laid horizontally above a loose stone wall, a mode 
of fencing much used in the Dales of the Pennine chain. These 
horizontal bars are supported by upright posts, and do not rest 
upon the wall. They are to keep sheep from jumping the wall and 
knocking it down. They are only necessary where the only 
available walling stones were round, and for that reason easily 
knocked down. "Stockiner "means "the Stock fence enclosure," 
dat. sing, with def. art STOCKINUM nom. plu. STOKKAENIR, the 
Stock fences. The name is either the nom, plu. or a dat of place. 
" Seavy Wham" a moorland bog, two 0. N. words. "Foss" 
Rakes " the ford in " Greet Gill," on the moors near Roova 
Crag, just above a " foss " or waterfall, (0. N, FORS ; IceL, 
Swed., and Dan., Foss ; and Rake a footpath. See Glossary.) 
" Fosse Gill," etc. " Pockst'ns " a group of rocks and crags 
on the high moor east of Barden Fell, (Dan. PAK, a group), 
" Mosscar Beck " three Norsk words, trib. of " Brandstone 
Beck," also Norsk. " Brown Beck Swang," a bog on Agra Moor, 
Colsterdale, (0. N. Briin a brow, edge ; Svanyr a hollow place). 
Blazefield occurs three times always high, bleak, bare ridges- 
Blaze is dubious, but field is certainly Norsk FJELD, as there 
are no fields, but open moor in two of the three cases, and only 
modern [?] enclosures in the third. 

Another physical feature of great interest that bears on old 
Norsk name is " Beckermote Scar," a steep cliff in limestone 
at the angle of the Nidd at which it first sinks in volume into 
the ground at a place called " Manchester Holes." The Carta 
of Roger do Mowbray " de recompensatione," etc., mentions this 
place. " Do Iwdenbec sursum in longum Nid usque ad BECKEB-- 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 7 

iioiE." In Cumberland there is a place called " Beckermet," 
and in Langstrothdale " Beckermonds " is the name of the tongue 
of land between two rivers at their confluence. Beckermote 
(pronounced " Beckermort ") is 0. N. bekkja, gen. plu. of bekkr, 
beck, and mot, meeting ; but it does not mean a meeting of the 
waters, for there is no meeting of any waters. It simply means 
a "juncture," and as the same sense as in alda->nt, the end and 
beginning of two centuries ; missera-mot, the meeting, juncture 
of the seasons, where one ends the other begins ; so bekkjr-mot 
means the point at which the river on the surface ends, and that 
below ground begins. Beckarmote* Scar is opposite Tiedera* 
Wood, which is on a similar limestone cliff, but bears an Anglian 
name. The true explanation of the meaning of this interesting 
name shows how necessary it is to visit a place and see tlie nature 
of the spot to which a name is given. " Manchester " refers to 
the same event, and may be It. manchezza, loss, defect. 

It is interesting to note the collection of Danish names as 
opposed to old Norsk, on the east side of the Nidd near Loft- 
house, which is itself Danish. It is thus mentioned in the oft- 
quoted Cartti of Roger de Mowbray " Et preterea totum LOFT- 
HUSUM cum pertinentiis Suis. Lofthusum is the dat. plu. of 
Loft hus t a dative of place or locative, precisely as used and spelt 
in Denmark and Norway. The " Confirmation of gifts " by 
Richard I., writes it " Lost hourrs," in which a " long s " has 
been put for " f," and ''rs" for " se." These Danish names 
probably indicate that the settlers there were of a later date than 
the original Scandinavian invaders who settled on the west side 
of the Dale. 

Mis-spelt on the 6 IN. ordnance map" Beggarmote" and "Thedera' y 
respectively. 



8 StuittES IN NIDDERDALE. 

XII. 

CRAGS AND SCARS. 

Several Crags on the moors bear Anglian names. 
" Ewe Crags " occurs as a name several times, A. S. EWE EA, 
water. These crags always have a spring issuing from their 
base. Several sets of crags on the moors take their names from 
having been used as guide-marks for shepherds or others. 
" Owing to the steepness of the hills, and the spongy and 
desolate nature of the surrounding moors," says Mr. Grainge, 
" the approaches to the dale were always difficult, and at some 

seasons of the year dangerous" "The road from Kirkby 

Malzeard, to Fountains Earth and Pateley Bridge, even to the 
commencement of the present century, was nothing but a track 
across the moors, indicated to travellers in misty weather, and in 
winter, by tall upright pillars of stone, some of which yet 
remain." (Hist, of Xidd. p. 11.) Everyone who goes much on 
the moors, will know how suddenly a Scotch mist comes on, 
and how utterly lost he is with no landmarks, once let him get 
sight of " Wigst'ns (A. S. WEG, a way) or of " Kaygill House 
Wigstones," or of the " Wising Crags," or of " Wising Gill," 
(A. S. WISUNG, yuidiny) or, where there are no natural crags, 
of the " Long Stoop," a stone post sometimes eleven feet high 
or let him find the straight line of large stones on the Great and 
Little " STANGATE "=<stone way,' i. e., ' the way by the guide 
stones,' an elevated fiat topped ridge in How Stean basin , and 
he will soon find his way down to the dale. Now Wcy & Wixiny 
have possible alternative derivations and meanings.* It is the 

* Wising Gill occurs twice, " Wising Gill Sike," trib. of Stone Beck at 
Angrain, and " Wising Gill," trib. of How Stean Beck at West End 
Houses. Beth Lave a short steep course, the former three quarters of 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALK. 99 

rarest thing, however, to find a crag, or solitary stone on the 
moors, without a name. They are all, and always were, used 
as land marks. " Whey Crags," pron. " Wy Crags," seems to 
be the same as Wig, but Dan. Vei, a way. 

Other crags take their names from the sun, or points of the 
compass. " Twelve O'clock Stones," about 900 feet, on the 
moor to the south of that wild gorge, west of the Washlrarn, 
through which the Harrogate and Bolton Road passes. " Noon 
Stone," on the flat moor south of Bewerly, 1000 feet. " Summer 
Lodge Stone," on the north side of the dale, not far from 
Woodale. 

It may be generally remarked, that crags on moors and 
solitary stones, always have names, the exceptions being so rare, 
that I do not hesitate to use the strong adverb. Crags in dales, 
even though, conspicuous, and near villages, frequently have no 
names. The reason is of a practical nature. On the moors 

mile, the latter a mile, with a fall of in the former, 400 feet, and in the 
latter 600 feet. Some part of the course, in each case, is on the peat 
covered plateau of the moor, and the remainder, precipitous. Both are 
exceedingly small ' grooves,' the latter being the larger. Wising Gill 
Sike deflects the contours of the hill side in a very slight degree. Neither 
has the characteristics of a swamp, except on the open moors, where they 
both have that character in common with the other slight hollows on the 
moor. I am particular, because Mr. Atkinson writes auent this name, " a 
place near Guishro' called " The Weises," sounded Wyzes. I referred my 
enquiriiig friend to the word spelt ' weeze ' in my Glossary, and meaning 
" to ooze out," and gave besides some German and other analogies and 
connections, e.g., O. N. VEISA, a swamp, morass ; O. Sw. ictixa, a swamp ; 
Germ. WIESE, a moist meadow, &c., the place know as the ' weise ' or ' wises,' 
being just in moist weather, a water-logged field, with coarse herbage, 
which grows in such places. Dont you think oozing sike a better explana- 
tion than guiding sike? " Wising Gill, HowStean, it should be mentioned 
is quite in a line with the Staugate, up to which it leads. On the other 
hand we have " Sypeland," the name of a large bog on Fountains Earth 
Moor, which is uuqnestionally ' SIPK, to drip, ooze. The difficulty about 
theWisiug Gills is that the physical character is not that of S\pelaud. 



100 STUDIES IN NIDBERDALE, 

they are the only landmarks, in dales the roads and paths avoid 
them. Thus in Nidderdale, above Lofthouse, there are twelve 
considerable sets of crags, of which only two Gladstones, and 
Summer Lodge Stone have independent names. Four others 
have borrowed names, Maiden Gill Crags, Wising Gill Crags, 
Haugh Crags, (from Great Haw, on the south slope of which 
they stand) and Whin Pasture Crags, while the remaining six- 
have no names. Now it is these crags that give the dale its 
character. They are the setting, the jewel, the diadem, which 
brings into harmony the dark, somewhat savage, moors above, 
and the quiet dale below. (See " The Clifford Fragments " 
below). 

The complement to a crag is a scar. A scar is a hollow 
cliff left behind a place from which there has been a landslip, or 
above an angle of a river which has eaten away part of a hill side. 
Scars are conspicious features in a dale. 

While Brimham Rocks may be instanced as the noblest 
example of a crag, Guyscliff is the finest instance of a scar. And 
I cannot pass over these two remarkable Physical Features with- 
expressing my undiminished admiration of their unique beauty, 
and of the stupendous scale upon which they are formed. A 
Scar is an object of very great beauty. The clean cut section of 
the rocks with their alternating bands, and rich colouring, the 
vestige of the native forest that clings to the verge of the cliff, or 
that shoots up on the screes or sprouts from the inaccessible face 
of the rock wall, give to a Scar a kind of beauty quite different 
from that which characterises a Crag. Above Lofthouse there 
are JiJ 'teen considerable sets of Scars, of which only four have 
independent names, The Old Scar, Beckermote Scar, Boysoak 
Scar, High Scar ; and tico have borrowed names, Woodale Scar, 
and The Scar, by Scar House, which name evidently reflects 
upon The Scar from which the house takes its name, i. e. if 
Scar House had not been built, " The Scar " would probably 
have been classed among those which have no name. Of thes. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 101 

Scars, Woodale Scar and the Old Scar are very large, coming 
only second to Guyscliff in point of size and beauty. 

Men's names enter into the composition of the following : 
M Hiuby Hippings," stepping stones in the Nidd near Barley, 
from a farmer who first placed them there. " Burn Ground " 
and " Hum Gill." " Ktjlin Hole," a cave in Stsen Beck, from 
the owner of the land, " Turner Car," generally spelt " Turna- 
car," and " Turnacar Gill." " Ruscoe," (pron. Roosca,)8 small 
farm house, "Ruscoe Beck," etc. " Oliver High Lathe," " Oluer 
Scar," etc, near Stsen. " K<iy Head Allotment" Kay is Welsh 
or Cymric, as it is an Arturian name. "Bales Hill," Colsterdale. 
" Lobley Crags," near there. "Day Ash " near Thornthwaite. 
" Bird Ridding," Coverdale. " Mall Reynolds Wham," and 
'* Tow Claypham Bogs," bogs on Moors, Colsterdale. " 1'icker- 
inn Dub," a sheep-wash in the cover. " Backhouse Gill," 
" Jemmy Dike," " Hardcnstlc Moor," " Hardcastle Garth," 
"Pallets (Polly's) Crags," "Jack Hole," peat pits. "Abraham, 
Crags," " Xanny Black Hill," "Black Hill,"=" Bleak Hill," 
is common. Nanny Nanny's Black Hill, is thus distinguished 
from another Black Hill close by. " Xanny Pasture," rocks, 
with grafS between. " flood Gap," " Oddy Ridge," a rough 
strong ridge, may be from a man's name, but the name " Oddy" 
is the 0. N. ODDI, a point or tongue of land, Dan. ODDE, so that 
the meaning is the same. In Iceland and Norway it is frequent 
in local names. " ODDI," as a man's name, also written Chldr, 
means a leader. The name " Odd Stones," similarly placed at 
the end of a ridge on the moors, not far west of Henstone Baud, 
is certainly Oddi, ODDE, a point of land, which so far makes it 
probably that the name Oddy Ridge was not a man's name, but 
the Norsk name for that feature in the landscape. " Ilttrdisty 
Hill." These are but a drop in the ocean. It will be observed 
that the men's names are all genitives, but without the s, thus 
Haxby Hippings ijaxby's Hippiugs. 

Mythical uaiues may enter into the composition of the follow* 



102 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

ing : " Freia Head,"^row. " Freeya Heead," a lofty ridge on 
the Wharfe and Nidd watershed, about 1800 feet, S.E. of Great 
Whernside. A. S. Fred the Teutonic Venus in 0. N. Freyja 
" and Freia," says Pearson, " at once Cybele and Aphrodite 
Demosia." Middle Ayes, p. 74. 

" Hurders Edge," pron. " Hurthers Edge," on Black Fell, 
the eastern side of Great Whernside, about 1COO feet, 0. N, 
HiJthr, the blind brother and slayer of Baldr. So also " Hud- 
dersfield " is pron. locally and spelt, on the map accompanying 
the Agric. Survey of the West Biding, 1799, " Huthersfield," 




STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 103 



XIII. 
BECKS AND GILLS. 

Thus far attention has been drawn to the names of- Physical 
Features, but there are one or two more most interesting points 
connected with names of places that should on no account 
be passed over without mention. It has already been shown 
that most of the streams in the upper part of the dale bear 
Anglian names. For the highest eight miles of the dale, or 
as far down as Stfen Beck, there is not one Danish name applied 
to a stream. 

In How Staen basin however, the names of the tributaries 
seem to be almost all 0. N. and Danish, thus on the south side 
BAK'ST'N GILL, fed by " BAKSTONE GILL Great WHAM," a 
spongy bog, 1750 feet, on the north side of Meugher FELL, 
" Great Blawn GILL BECK," Little do., " Sandy Sikes GILL," 
" STAINING GILL BECK," " AYGILL BECK," " BUSKAR BECK," 
0. N. BUSKAR bushes, nom. plu. of BTJSKR, a bush. Dan. 
BUSKER, nom. plu. of BUSKR,) and lastly, ARMATHWAITE GILL. 
This derivation of Busker Beck has been contested, and the 
Medioeval Latin " Boscus " suggested in its place. It is there- 
fore desirable to state that all the above-named tributaries lie 
wholly on the high moors, except Buskar Beck and Armathwaite 
Gill, which is much lower down the valley. Busker Beck springs 
in the peat on the table land at about 1400 feet, and descends 
through a short course of three quarters of a mile to How Stcan 
Beck, at a point rather below 1000 feet above Sea level, rather 
more than half its course being through moorside pastures, in 
which the sheds are called LATHES, also 0. N. The whole valley 
is bare of trees above 900 feet, save for a few bashes of thorn, 



104 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



etc., scattered here and there in that part of the course of Buskar' 
Beck, in which it cuts through the " Edge " or " Nook " of the 
dale, and is in consequence deep enough to afford them shelter. 
Now if we look to the meaning of Boscus we shall at once see 
that it would be wholly inapplicable here. Boscus, It. Boscoj 
Fr. Bois, means a wood, also a part of the forest, a woodland 
pasture, (Du. Cange), and this last was a special meaning of 
Boscus. Again, Boscus in this country was a monastic, and so 
a legal word, not one in use amongst the remote dalesmen. 
Moreover the Abbey of Bylands, in whose Forest of Nidderdale 
this remote beck lay. held the wild and extensive district of 
Stonebeck Up and Stonebeck Down, which contained many places 
in its lower parts to which the name Boscus would have been 
very properly applied. I apprehend also that the name Boscus 
was a generic one like " Wood " or " Pasture," and by itself or 
simply prefixed to Beck would define no place in particular, 
whereas Buskar defines the only Beck at that altitude near which 
there were and are bushes. Buskar Beck has a south-east 
exposure. More might be added, but to my mind the evidence 
given is conclusive. 

In the highest eight miles of Nidderdale, above Stean Beck, 
there are forty-two streams, including branch tributaries, of which 
twenty-seven are named. Of these twenty-seven, six retain their 
original Anglian names unchanged, as "Stand Sike," " Hagga 
Sike," " Maddering Sike," " Mere dike"; and twenty-one do so 
with the interpolation of the word "Gill," as in "Skitter Gill 
Dike," " Wising Gill Sike," " Twisling Gill" " Thornit GUI" 
" Gill " (0. N. GIL, a deep narrow glen with a stream at the 
bottom,) being the name, not of the stream, but of the narrow 
valley which contains it. The English, who came from the Low 
Countries in which riceis are the most strongly marked physical 
lines, were careful to name their rivers and streams, the water- 
shed ridges being low, flat, and ill-defined ; but the Norseman, 
who dwelt in a land where the watershed ridges form the great 
physical barriers, or lines of dirixion, called the included area 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 105 

DALR, dale, or division, (Goth. DALUR, DALEI, dale, DAILJAN, to 
divide ; A. S. D-EL, a division, a dell ; GEDAL, divided ; 0. N. 
DEILD, a division ; Germ. THAL, dale, THEIL, a division ;) making 
the name of the river subordinate. 

For this reason a dale frequently bears one name and the 
river another, as Soetersdal in Norway, river Otter ; Wensley- 
dale in Yorkshire, river Ure ; Colsterdale, Yorkshire, river 
Burn. Therefore, when the Norseman found himself in the 
Yorkshire hills, he applied the cognomen of " gill " and " dale" 
to the smaller and larger valleys, which the English had been 
content to know by the name of the river or stream. 

There is one more point worthy of mention. The English, 
or Engles, settled in the whole dale ; whereas the Norseman, and 
at a later date, the Dane, obtained a footing here and there. 
Thus " Angram," at the Dale head, is a Norwegian settlement, 
(0. N. ANGRUM, written " ANGROME grangia" in Abstract of 
Roll 32, Henry VIII., Augmentation Office, dat. plu. of Anyr, 
a bay (?), these datives, the representatives of the old Aryan 
locative, have the force of "in" the place). It is right to 
mention, however, that the name ANDGRYM appears in verse 8, 
line 2, of the Incantation ofHervor, (Hervarer Saga). 

"There was originally, in all the Aryan languages," says 
Max Muller,* " a case expressive of locality, which grammarians 
call the locative. In Sanscrit, every substantive has its locative 
as well as its genitive, dative, and accusative." It has been 
suggested that the urn termination represents an old word meaning 
home. " The element ' Ham,' " says Latham, \ " is found all 
over Germany. But it is not found in the same parts, [by which 
I suppose he means that it is not found everywhere in the same 
form] it is Heim in some ; in others, hem ; in others ittn ; 

Lect. on Science of Language, Second Series, p. 218. 
4- The English Language. LATHAM. P. 136. 



106 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

Oppenheim, Arnhem, Husum." My friend, Mr. Berg, Director 
of Education in Faeroe, from whom I have derived much infor- 
mation, in answer to a question as to how this termination is 
understood by the Danes, gave the following illustration of its 
form. " Where do you live ? " " Husum," i. e., in the place 
' Huse,'=houses. In olden times the plural was frequently used 
when referring to a single house, (Cleas). Single houses 
frequently consisted of groups of buildings within one wall. 

"At Angram we have the words " thwaite," and " laith" or 
" lathe," for shed, (0. N. hlatha, a barn) : 

" Whyne had thou put the capel in the lathe." 

CHAUCEK, ' Canterbury Tales,' v. 4085. 

On the next farm, Lodge, an Anglian settlement, all the 
sheds are called "barns," an Anglo-Saxon word which prevails 
all the way down the valley to Stean Beck, at which stream we 
again find the word "laith." At Stean the word " shipn " is 
used . 

" The shepen burning with the blacke smoke." 

CHAVCEB, ' Canterbury Tales,' v. 2002. 

Perhaps no word in the English language offers a readier, 
more perfect, and more completely satisfactory, apparent 
etymology than shipn. In A. S. we find the forms SCIPEN, 

SCYPEN, SCEPEN, SdPPAN, SciPAN, SCYPPAN, ScEPPAN, SceOPPAN, 

SCEAPAN, SOAPPAN, SCAPAN, a stall, stable, shed ; also SCEPEN- 
STEALL, a sheep stall. We also find SCEP, SCIP, SCLEP, SCEAP, 
SCEOP, a sheep, for the first half of many of those various modes 
of spelling the word, and PEN, PIN, PINN, a fold, for the latter 
half sheep pen. Yet nothing could be farther from the truth. 
Shipn probably means ' a small barn,' though it is evident from 
the eleven different ways of spelling the word used by the Anglo- 
Saxons, and since shipn with them meant a stall, a stable, as 
well as a barn, that the real origin of the word was lost and 
unknown to the authors who wrote those various editions of it. 
It is also clear that they spelt it on the erroneous theory of the 



STUDIES IN NIDDEBDALE. 107 

above derivation and etymology. But it may be roundly stated 
that it is found spelt eleven different ways because its real 
etymology was unknown. Some of the terminations are AN, not 
EN, a fact which at once raises the question as to the final half 
PEN. This termination is neither the result of ignorance nor 
accident, for the termination of the original word is AN, and not 
EN. All the various modes of spelling are phonetic. Shipn in 
its various forms is a corruption of another word, which the 
Anglo-Saxons could not, or would not take the the trouble to 
pronounce. Welsh u sounds like English i in ship. YSGUBOEAN, 
a small barn, dim. of Ysgubawr, a barn, a place to store sheaves, 
from Ysffub, a sheaf of corn, is the true full form. The process 
of contraction is obvious. 

The words "with" (0. N. vidr, a wood) and "royd" (0. N. 
rjodr, a clearing in a wood), so common south of the Wharfe 
and to the east of Nidderdale, do not occur in the dale, above 
Hartwith. In Washburndale ' Blaywith Wham ' is over 1000 
feet and on a southern slope on the open moors. There are no 
trees there now, and I believe there are none at Grimwith. This 
raises the curious question, were there trees there since the 
Danes settled in this part ? Some light may be thrown upon 
the answer by the parallel case of " Shaw," a wood, a 
word apparently exclusively Danish in this sense, as it is 
common in Jutish Keut. 0. N. SKOGB ; Swed, SKOG ; Dan. 
SKOV, a wood. The Shaics were great places for the outlaw and 
hence originated several Norsk terms. The analogous words, 
A. S. SCUA, 0. N. SKUOGI, Dut. SCHAWE, mean shade, shelter^ 
Shaw is common in the Ballads, and Chaucer, 

" Gaillard he was as Goldfinch in the thaun." 

CHAUCEB, ' The Cook'$ TaU.' 

" Whither ridest then under this green thaw ? " 

CHAUCER, ' The ' Friar' Tale.' 

" In somer 4 when the thawesbe sheen, 
And levcs be large and iang." 

ROBIN HOOD. 



108 STUDIES IN NIDDEEDALE. 

" I rede that we draw* 
Into the wode shawe 

Your heddes for to hyde." 

And many others that might be cited leave no doubt that 
Shaw meant and means a wood, and therefore it is interesting 
to note that it occurs many times on the open moors, far above 
the present limits of tree- vegetation. In such positions "Shaw" 
is generally a craggy or rocky place. There are no trees or 
bushes in " Shaw Gill," (about 1200 to 1580 feet,) or " Shaw 
Gill Sike," (1150 to 1400 feet,) tribs. of Trows Beck, at the 
dale head, near Lodge, nor in Trows Beck, (which probably is 
itself A. S. TREOW a tree). There are no trees on "Feather 
Shaw," (1250 feet,) Colsterdale Moor, on " West Shaw," (1200 
feet,) on " Foulshaw Crags," or " Foulshaw Crags Wham," 
(1000 feet,) on Bewerley Moor, or on " Shaws Ridge," N. W. 
of Greenhowhill. Mr. Dakyns adds " ' Collishaw Ing,' 1125 
feet, (but the presence of Great and Little Collishaw Hills 
suggests for this case a man's name,) "Hem Gill Shaw," swamp 
up to 1950, just below Red Scar, head of Coverdale, close by 
" Slape Gill Shaw," 1700, also under Little Whernside, " Lords 
Gill Shaw," 1500 feet and over, " Outershaw," a hamlet 1125. 
Artificial clearance is out of the question here. " Firth," a 
wood, is common over the watershed to the east, but does not 
occur in the upper parts of the dale. "Wham" is a common name 
for a swamp on the moors, as " Great Wham," 1750 feet (0. N- 
hvammr, a swamp) which possesses a rich flora; also " Sand- 
with Wham," on the moors to the east of Nidderdale. The 
branch of a stream is called the " grains " or " granes " (on the 
moors), as " Agill Granes," (0. N. qrein, Dan. green, a branch). 
One of the oaks below the High Scar, Bak'stone Gill, being split 
upwards as far as the branches by a landslip upon the edge of 
which it grew, was said to be " roven up to the grain" This 
point is also called the "brawn," (W. Brawn, that abounda 
with growth). 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 109 

THE NORMAN. 

Of the Norman we see few traces. Such a^ there are are 
probably of monastic origin. Grange tells us that Roger de 
Mowbray gave Brimham with Hartwith and Winsley, Dacre with 
Bewerley, and Fountains Earth to Fountains Abbey within a 
century of the Domesday Survey, and to Byland he gave the 
district now constituting Stonebeck Up and Stonebeck Down, so 
that the whole valley was held by three proprietors, the Arch- 
bishop of York, and the Monasteries of Fountains and Byland.* 

The pronunciation of the old French word " PASTURE " 
(pastoor) is well preserved in the upper part of the dale, while 
the small list containing the names of " Haver Close " (Danish 
haver, oats, French CLOS) and " Hazel Close ;" arran, a spider 
(old French ARAIGNE); " Heronsew " (old French Herongeau, a 
Heron); " Fromarty " (old French FROMENTEE, sodden wheat,) 
&c., indicates that the Norman invasion touched Nidderdale 
lightly. A few more will be found in the Glossary. 

* Hittory of Nidderdak, p. 9. 




110 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE; 



XIV. 

VESTIGES OF THE ANCIENT FOREST. 

Nidderdale and its moors have formerly been covered by 
an extensive forest. Many trees lie buried in the peat upon the 
moors. In the thousands of sections made by little water-courses 
the birch appears almost everywhere predominant. Hazely 
" sealh " (willow), thorn, oaks, &c., also occur, but the birch 
must have formed a thick and almost universal forest by itself, 
such as may be seen on the west coast of Norway at the present 
day. The upper parts of the moorland gills, and much of what 
is now the moors, must formerly have made a beautiful 
appearance with its light gauze-like forest of birch and mountain 
ash. The last surviving example on any considerable scale is 
preserved in Birk Gill, a tributary of the river Burn. The run 
of the Gill is N. W. to S. E. The Gill is about 400 feet deep 
at its mouth, and half a mile wide from ridge to ridge. Like all 
other valleys at the same elevation in these hills, it is boat-shaped 
in section, the beck running in a deep ravine at the bottom. 
The sides of the Gills are wild heathery moorland, crowned with 
fine lines of crags down to the edge of this ravine in which the 
native forest is preserved. There is no cultivation in the Gill, 
the bottom of which is 600 feet above sea at its mouth. The 
belt of wood clothes the sides for 200 feet, or up to 800 feet 
near its mouth, and ends where the stream reaches 900 feet, in 
a distance of rather more than a mile. Above this the stream 
is called Barnley Beck. The wood consists of Mountain Ash, 
Alder, Oak, Ash, Birch, Holly, and^Thornv running above 
the edge of the cleft with a delightfully irregular and feathery 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



in 



margin on to the ling-covered moor. Above 900 feet, the 
following stragglers were noted, in ascending the stream : 



ASPECT, FEET. 



SOIL. 



Mountain Ash 
Alder. Oak. 
Alder. Birch. 



Holly 

Alders 

Birch 

Salix 

Birch 

Holly 



Thorn 
Mountain Ash 



900 Grit 
925 



940 
950 
975 
970 
975 
1000 



A few stragglers of M. 

Ash, a Sulix up ta 

950 on side. 
South side of Gill. 
Highest living Aider. 
South side of Gill. 



North side. 
South side. 



Scale Gill, X.W. and S.E. 



S 1050 Grit 

E 1100 Shale 
E 1125-1175 



North side nr. stream 
Highest living Thorn. 
South side. 
Highest living Tree. 
Highest living M. Ash. 



Barnley Beck, S.W. and N.E. 



Birch 


N.E. 


1050 


Sandstone 


Holly 
Salix 


Protected 



1050 
1050 


,, 


Mountain Ash ,, 


1100 


Shale 


Thorn 


.. 


1080 


Sandstone 


2 Mountain 


Ashes ,, 


1120 


base of Sam 


Birch 


,, 


1125 






Mountain Ash 



E 1175 



Holly E 

E 

Mountain Ash E 



1130 
1150 

1150 



East side. Sheltered 
from East. 

West side. 

East side. Sheltered. 
Highest living Salix. 

West side, high up. 

In bottom. Highest 

living Thorn. 
3 On Scar. 

Highest 

living Birch. 
Sandstone On trib. near stream. 

West side, 50 feet 
above Barnley Beck ; 

highest living M. Ash. 
Shale In bottom nr. stream. 

Highest living Holly. 
Highest living M. Ash. 



Colsterdale presents a similar picture. 
House Gill. 



Mountain Ash 



E 1150 Shale 



20 feet above beck ; on 
moor ; highest living 
tree. 



112 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



Xew House Gill. 

ASPECT. FEZT. SOIL. 

Mountain Ash S 1175 base of Grit 



Thorn 



Birch S 

Mountain Ash E 

W 

2 Mountain Ashes E 



Eiver Burn. 
1175 Grit 



Long Gill. 

1175 base of Grit 
1225 Grit 
1210 
1250 

Backstone Gill. 



Mountain Ash 



Mountain Ash ) 
Bullace J 



Mountain Ash 



Mountain Ash 



Mountain Ash 



S.W. 1275 Grit 

Steel House Gill, 



Steep bank; close to 
stream, ; 100 feet 
above river Burn. 



On tongue at junction 
of Long Gill. High- 
est living Thorn. 



Highest living Birch. 
25 feet above stream. 
Besides stream. 
Highest living tree. 



Highest living tree. 



E 



1375 
1375 



base of Sandstone 
Eiver Burn. 



Gill ; on 



1225 base of Sandstone South side of Burn ; 
120 feet above river. 

Thorny Grane. 
1200 base of Sandstone Highest living tree. 

Deep Gill. 



N 



1255 Sandstone 



On South side, slightly 
sheltered by Middle 
Ridge. 



Now let us compare the highest elevations at which the Birch, 
Mountain Ash, Thorn, Oak, Hazel, and other trees now grow, 
with the elevations at which their remains lie buried in the peat. 
First it may be desirable to premise that the highest six miles 
of Nidderdale runs due east from Great Wheruside, and that the 
northern edge rises 400 feet above the Nidd in three quarters of 
a mile. This grand slope, having a southerly exposure, of 
course gets all the sun there is. Nor is this all. Throughout 
this six miles the dale has a northerly curve, the greatest con- 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALB. 



118 



vexity towards the north being at Lodge, and Woogill. Lodge 
owes its existence as a farm to this fact, and the fields of Lodge 
Farm are the highest any where in the dutrici their upper edge 
being about 1500 feet above sea level. One field called 
" Bewtchtr Newkuig" runs over the dale edge up to the 1700 
feet contour. I may here observe that a newk or neak is far from 
being the sheltered corner that it is in the south, but a bleak 
shoulder or " edge," a bold sharp feature running along the side 
of a dale. (0. N. Hnjitkr, and hnukr, a knoll, peak, Cleas). 

It must also be observed that, after they have been made a 
few years, these elevated mountain pastures tend strongly to run 
back to moor. Ling begins to grow upon them, and it would be 
too expensive a matter to repeat the original process of burning 
ploughing, and limeing, to keep them up. In this way the wan- 
derer along the skirts of the northern moors may see hundreds 
of old enclosures or " Intaks," that have been thus lost as 
pastures. Bewtcher Newking will ere long have reasserted its 
right to be classed with the moorland around it.* The shelter 
from the north-west, north, and east winds, and the sheltered 
exposure to the full warmth of the southern sun, has also pre- 
served in Woogill several relics of the ancient forest at higher 
elevations than they are found anywhere else in the district. 

WOOGILL. 



Hazel 


1350 


Grit 


Deep Wooded Gill in moor, highest 
living hazel anywhere in the 
district. 


Birch 


1275 






Salix 


1375 






M. Ash . . 


1400 






M. A*h . . 


1450 






M. Ash .. 


1550* 


Base of Grit 


Highest living tree ; Gill gets out on 
to moor. 



* 1600 in a note made 1871. 

In Arthur Young's Northern Tour, 1770, I find the following 
observations on the Moors, made during his visit to Swinton : ''There 
are tracts of land that have in process of time been inclosed from the 
moors and thrown into small farms, but I should observe that scarce any 





114 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



When a great elevation is attained by the stragglers, they are 
always found at the base of a bed of Grit or sandstone, from 
which there is a perennial ooze or spring. 

Next I will exhibit the general Tables of observations on the 
elevation of the highest stragglers of each kind of tree. 



BIRCH. 



Locality. 
Burning & Eye Close E. 15'25 Peat 



Aspect. Elevatipii. 
Feet. 



Soil. 



Bemarks. 



High Scar, Bak'stone S. 
Gill 

Fox Crag, do. 



Ordnance 6 in. 
Map. 

117 (S.W.) Dead birch stems 

bui ied in peat. 
Do. do. 1200 Do. Do. do. 

Arna Knab Wood S.W. 1000 Highestlivingbirches 

011 the steep hillside 
on borders of moor. 
Others, trees in wood 
an oak, ash, heck- 
berry, thorn. 

1100 100 (S.W.) Scar hit by slip, most 

thorns, then birch, & 
onl;y two small oaks. 

950 Do. Elder, birch, hazel, 

sycamore, holly, & 
one small oak. 

Foul Sike E. 875 Sandstone 101 (S.W.) Highestlivingbirch, 

with M. ash. protect- 
ed ; at a water fall ; 
nlderafewft. below. 

Cot Gill N. 850 Sandstone 101 (N.W.) Highest living birch, 

24 ft. lower down nre 
two thorns & ahollin, 
open ling-coy'd moor. 

Greenhow Sike 1050 Peat 135' (S.E.) Dead birch & oak 

stems in peat. 

Carlesmoor Beck E. 800 Sandstone 118 (N.W.) Close to the stream ; 

living. 

Far Beck S.E. 900 Do. 118 (S.W.) Highest living birch, 

sheltered. 

Sandy "Sikes Gill + 1725 Peat 99 (S.E.) Top of flat moor; 

dead stems in peat. 

Wising Gill Sike t lofiO Do. Do. Do. do. 

Woogill 1375 Sandstone 99 (N.E.) In deep gill, protect- 

ed ; M. nsh ascends 
t Means exposed all round. to 1550. 

of these inclosurcs have been made of late years, they are all old farms. 
Many of these contain very large fields of moorland, an hundred acres 
and upwards in a field, th:it are all overrun with ling," &c., &c., in as 
wild a state as any moor, and differing from it in uolhing but in the being 
inclosed." Vol. TI., p. 283. 



STUDIES IN NIDDKRDALB. 115 



Locality. Aspect. Elevation. Soil. Ordnance 6 In. Remaiks. 

Feet. Map. 

fleet Seaves 1025 Peat 118 (N.W.) Dead stems in peat. 

Long Gill S. 1175 At bnse of 84 (S.W.j | Highest living birch, 

Sandstoue in deep gill, sheltered. 

MOUNTAIN ASH. 

Woogill S (Protected) 1GOO Sandstone 99 (N.E.) Hi^hestlivingM.Ash : 

at base of grit : 
protected. 

Scale Gill E. () 1175 Do. 84 (S.W.) Highest living M. Ash, 

some thorns at 1 100. 

Bak'stone Gill Long Gill S. 1350 Do. 84 (S.W.) Highest living ML Ash, 

Birch at 1175 in 
Long Gill. 

Skell Beck S.F. 900 Do. 118 (S.W.) Highest living M. Ash, 

Carlesmoor Beck E. 875 Do, 118 (N.W.) Do. do. do. 

Birch nt 800. 

Foul Sike E. 875 Do. 101 (S.W.) Highest living M. Ash, 

at base of grit. 

Trib. of Wandley Gill E. 975 Highest living M. Ash. 

THORN, 1870. 

High Scar, Bak'stone } 

Gill } S. 1100 Shale 100 (S.W.) Most of the trees are 

Thorns (see Birehj. 

Cot Gill N.E. 825 Do. 101 (N.W.) Highest Thorns, Holly 

Sike, from Sandvvith | at 850 (see Birch). 

Wham to Stock Beck |" E. 800 Do. 101 (S.W.) Highest Thorns. 

Greeuhow Sike Protected 1050 135 (S.E.) Do. do. with Ash, 

Plum, & Sycamore. 

Long Gill E. 1175 Highest Thorns. On 

point at junction of 
Long Gill & River 
Burn. 

Scale Gill E. 1100 Highest Thorns. 

JUNIPER. 

Lai Beck 925 Peat & Grit 117 On Grit Crags ; shel- 

tered ; narrow cleft 
in Fountains Earth 
Moor. 

Next to compare with these I will put in a Table showing some 
of the elevations at which I noted 

DEAD BIRCH STEMS IN PEAT. 

Locality. Aspect. Elevation. Soil. Thickness. Remarks. 

Feet. 

Steel House Moor 1600 Sandstoue 5 Head of valley, irt^oor, 

Colstcrdnle. 

Kay Head Allotment E. 1570 Grit 8-10Ni.ld Basin. 

Little Blowing GUI Book N.E. 1725 Grit Nidd Busiu. 

Burning & Rye Close E. 1525 Nidd Basin. 

Fleet Seaves N. 1025 Nd<l Busiu. 

Greeuhow Sike 8. 1050 With dead Oak stm. 



116 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

It will be observed that the highest living hazel is in Woogill, 
at 1350 feet, but there was a time when the hazel not only grew, 
but ripened its nuts, at 1650 fet, on the moor east of Henstone 
Band, at the head of Gate Up Gill. There I found, buried in the 
peat, hazel nuts, many of which were bored by a maggot, 
proving that the nut came to maturity, and the kernel was eaten 
out by the moth before it ate its way through the si- ell. (Our 
word moth, the name of the mature insect, is taken from the 
Gothic Matha a worm, caterpillar). 

There are many oaks in the peat bogs between Blasyhaw 
Gill and Brown Rigg, 1000 to 1250 feet, easterly aspect, exposed ; 
and a very large oak, thirty feet long, was dug up at Biggin 
Grange, Kexmoor (550 ft.) In Sykes Moss, most of the buried 
trees are sealhs, oaks, and birches. The birch is easily recog- 
nised by preserving its bark so completely, and an old sealh is 
known by its red wood. The wood of the young sealh is white. 
The wood of the sealh is much sought after, as it will last under 
water longer than oak. It is used for making spade-shafts, the 
sides of sleds, etc, 

Unlike the northern side, the southern side of the dale in the 
neighbourhood of Woodale, rises only 200 feet above the Nidd 
till the " edge " is reached. Under the edge, however, west of 
Woodale Scar, it is called " Wintersides," and there is a house 
(Scar House) upon which, ic is said, the sun does not shine 
for thirteen weeks in winter. This is by no means an uncommon 
thing in similar situations. The effect on the vegetation is to lower 
the limit of trees to the extent of sometimes hundreds of feet. 

From the remains of the lost forest we can distinguish two 
zones, that of oaks up to about 1200 feet, and that of birches 
above that level. No doubt there would be no difficulty in 
constrncting a fairly good map of their distribution, if one had 
time to devote to it. 

The birch]and thorn covered the upper part of the sides of 
the dale, what the Anglos called the " Edge," while in the bottom 
of the dale there flourished the sycamore, ash, holly, hazel, 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALK. 117 

alder, bullace, elder, wych-elm, "heckberry" (bird-cherry), 
&c. ; the hist especially in the neighbourhood of Lodge, near 
the dale head. There is now a fine avenue of planes (sycamores) 
at Woodale, 1000 feet, with heckberry, common ash, and alder, 
with Petasites rulgaris along the river bank. At Rough Close, 
925 feet, there are hazel, holly, ash, sycamore, bullace ; on 
Bekkamot Scar, 725 to 900 feet, there are ash, hazel, holly, 
bullace, thorn, the ash being the commonest. All the large trees 
on the Scar are ash, with a strong undergrowth of hazel. All 
along under Thwaite House nearly all the trees are ash, with the 
remains of hazel undergrowth, and a few fine ' hollins " (hollies, 
A.S. Holen, H'llegu). On Boysoak Scar, 700 to 750 feet, there 
are ash, alder (at bottom), holm, ivy, and elder ; and along the 
river bank south of Thrope* House, GOO to 650 feet, there are 
ash, alder, hazel, heckberry, plum (sloe, A. S. Slag, Slage, Slag* 
thorn, SInh-thurii). In the same field there is a remarkable old 
birch, with very small leaves, not pendulous. Though there are 
now hardly any beeches to be seen ia the dale, I am told by the 
old people that they formerly abounded, but have been gradually 
all felled. Bekkamot Scar and Boysoak Scar are limestone, but 
all the rest of the dale is sandstone and shale, or the covering of 
drift clay and gravel that lies upon them. 

With these may be compared the limestone slopes of Wharfe- 
dale. A little above Netberside, on a steep slope below the road, 
is a natural wood of birches. At the top of the sides of the 
valley for miles are remains of extensive thorn scrub. Lower 
down the sides and along the bottoms, many sycamores. The 
valley has, however, been much cleared of trees by agriculturists. 

Birch and " eller " (alder, Dan. eller) were formerly exten- 
sively exported from Niddsrdule to supply the bobbin-makers, but 
this trade has nearly ceased. Sume years ago, when the 
" scrogs " (Dan. skroq, trunk, stump) were cleared off Thrope 
Edge to make room for a large plantation of larches, known as 
" Thrope Plantation," a great deal of charcoal was burnt, and 
was sent to Masham to heat the combs of the woolcarders : this 

Spelt M generally pronounced. Sometimes Throp, Thorp, dk Trope. 



118 STUDIES IN NIDDEEDALE. 

was not commonly practised, however in the dale. Blue Burn- 
ings Wood, which formerly existed near the spot (1000 to 1200 
feet) consisted of birch and hazel scrub. Blaeberries abounded 
there : this being a most capricious plant in the matter of 
ripening its fruit, it may be well to state that the site is a steep 
hillside running north-west and south-east, and facing south- 
west, at the elevation given, the slope of the ground being 1 in 
44, or an angle of fourteen degrees. Most part has been 
ploughed within the last seventeen years, (1871), Turnips and 
potatoes succeeded there ; oats would hardly ripen, sometimes 
not at all. Blue Burnings now belongs to different proprietors ; 
part is glebe land. Before the enclosure the same proprietors 
ran sheep on it, each having so many gates. 

The peat on the moors, viewed broadly, is now undergoing a 
process of destruction. Except in the " Whams" the conditions 
for its formation do not exist. In summer, on the higher ranges, 
the peat becomes very dry and dust-like, when it is swept away 
by the strong winds, all along the lines of the dry beds of what 
are, in the autumn and winter, watercourses. This process is 
best seen in the ascent of Great Whernside from the south-east, 
where acres together of bare rock have been thus denuded. 

The peat oa these moors does not run to a great thickness, 
as may be seen from the subjoined table. 

LocaHty. Aspect. Elevation. Subsoil. Thick- 6 in. Remarks. 

Feet. ness. Map. 

Carle Fell t 1650 Shale 6 99 Elevated sandstone pla" 

teau, 

Carle Fell t 1700 Sandstone 5 99 Do. do. 

Deadman's Hill + 1750 Sanst & Shale 8 99 Most elevated nab of same 

Kuy Head Allotment t 1525 Grit 4 99 Elevate! sandstone pla- 
teau, gently sloping E. 

Agill Beck + 1550 Grit 5 99 Do. do. 

Riggs Moor E. 1775 Grit 8 99 

Bluyshaw Gill E. 1(525 Shale 6 116 Nidd Basin. 

Moor nt bead of Bain 

Grain Heck N.E. 1825 Shale 8 11(5 On watershed between 

Great Blawu Gilt Wharfe and Nidd. 

Beck N.E. 1775 Shale 6 

MonrE. of Henstone On watershed between 

Bund S. 1650 Sandstone 8 llGWlmrfe and Nidd. 

Hazel Nut in Peat S.W. 1650 Sandstone 8 116 Highest living hazel is 

in Woogill, 1850. 
Rochard Dilw N. 1260 Shala 6 135 Washburnd*le, 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 119 

The villages have their common land on the moors from 
which the inhabitants may fetch peat. Middlesruoor has one 
hundred acres of peat common for the village. The top spit of 
the peat is cut with a spade with a long bent handle, called tho 
flaying (pronounced Jiiuimj) spade, into pieces sometimes a yard 
long and eight or ten inches wide. These strips are called 
" flouts." They are not used for burning when " peats " can 
be got, but blacksmiths use them for heating the tires of wheels. 
For this purpose they are better when cut from sandy ground, 
as the sand makes them grow hotter. 

In the process of gathering peat they first cut slices the shape 
of a thin brick, about eight inches or so long, in May. These 
they call " peats." The peats are laid to dry and harden on the 
moor a few hundred paces from the place where they are cut. 
After about a fortiiight the cutters "set" them, which is standing 
three pieces together, one piece on its side edge, slightly leaning 
over towards two others resting endways against it. After 
another fortnight they "hut" them, which is setting six or eight 
more peats round these, and laying two or three flat on the top 
to shoot the rain off. After a time, sometimes as much as a 
month more, they pile them into stacks, which are called 
"ruckles." Last of all, the process of bringing them down to 
the farm in a cart is called " leading " peats. They are then 
stacked, generally in the open air, ready for use. Of course all 
this has to be done in the dry weather. If a person puts off 
getting his peat till late in the season, he runs risk of not having 
any for the following winter, and indeed this.sometimes happens. 
It is useless to try and get them when the wet season has once 
set in. The process of gathering his peats occupies a man for a 
period not complete under about two months. 

NOTE. I will now give the physical reason for the TERRACED REINS 
promised on page 65, as after the picture jnst drawn of the Aucient Forest, 
we are DOW in a position to understand it. The smooth slopes of limestone 
in Wharfedale, were the only places not covered with a dens* forest 



120 STUDIES IN NIDDEHDALE. 

vegetation, until one rises far above the limit of cultivation. They were 
clothed with short green turf, but were so steep that terraces had to be 
made, to prevent the heavy rains from washing down the soil. Similar 
terraces formed the ' terraced gardens ' of the early Jewish Kings, near 
Jerusalem. They were formed under the Incas in Peru on a noble scale, 
(Prescott, Peru, Vol. 1, cap. 4, 3rd Ed.) by the co-operation of Agrarian 
Communities, (Laveleye, Prim. Prep., P. 133), also (Wiener, Perou et 
Bolivie, 1880.) 




STUDIES IN NIDDEBDALE. 121 



XV. 



THE MODERN BOTANY. 

To the botanist the district of which Nidderdale forms a 
part possesses a fourfold interest. While its higher parts ascend 
into the arctic region of Watson, its lower portions lie far down 
in the agrarian zone. The line marking the upper limit of 
grain crops divides the district into two parts, in the higher of 
which many northern types occur, while in the lower we have 
representatives of the Midland and Southern English, and of the 
Germanic types of distribution. The district lies upon the 
border-land of several provinces, both as regards zones of eleva- 
tion and areas of distribution. 

The Germanic is represented by the rare Primula elatior, or 
oxlip, which ranges up to 750 feet east of the Nidd, but up to 
900 feet or more in Wharl'edale ; and in Wharfedale by the still 
rarer and more beautiful lily of the valley, L'onrailaria majalis, 
which grows in the woods near Netherside in large beds like 
garlic, and at Arnclifl'e. 

The Southern English type is represented by the daffodil 
(here a rare plant), Narcissus jisctido-narcissus (which grows at 
Azerley, at 800 feet), Colchicum autumnale (in meadows by the 
Ure near Tanfield, 200 feet) Euonymus europa-us, the spindle 
tree (one bush by the Ure near Low Mains, in Masham parish, 
250 feet, exceedingly rare) ; while to the British English type, 
or those which, though occurring throughout Britain, are yet 
more plentiful in the southern counties, belong Herb-Paris, Parti 
quadrifoUa (wood near Azerley, 250 feet, very rare), and Hang- 

P 



122 STUDIES IN NIDDEKDA1/E. 

how Pastures, 720 feet, in small wood, steep hill side, north 
aspect, south of Middleham, and Gentiana amarella widely 
scattered, but rare, and exceedingly pretty with its pale rose- 
coloured flowers. 

The Midland, or Intermediate type of distribution, is repre- 
sented by the nearly extinct Cypripedlwn calceolus, or lady's 
slipper, which still grows at one or two favoured stations in 
Wharfedale, very properly " not for publication; " Polemonium 
caruleum, Kirskill Wood, Arthington, 350 feet, sheltered, N. 
aspect, June 10, 1870 ; and Primula farinosa, one of the most 
beautiful of plants. Its flowers are a pale lilac-purple, with a 
yellow eye ; the leaves are mealy, pale green above, and silvery 
beneath. Its habitats " stream-bogs," or bogs not stagnant. 

The British Intermediate type, or those which, though 
occurring throughout Britain, are most plentiful in the Midland 
district, is represented by the cranberry, Vaccinium oxycoccos, 
a fastidious fruiter. 

The Scottish type, or those which range as far south as the 
North Midland districts, is represented by Trollius europ^us, the 
globe-flower, which ascends to 1400 feet, on Greenhowhill ; it 
likea shallow valleys by running streams. Prunus padus, the 
heckberry (Danish hekhebcer, hedge-berry) ; or bird-cherry, 
which is common in the upper part of Nidderdale, from BOO to 
1200 feet. Towards the end of May, the long white racemes of 
clustering flowers that adorn this mountain-loving species add a 
strange and characteristic beautj to the pleasing wildness of these 
subalpine dales. The London- pride, Saxifraga utnbrosa, grows 
wild on the limestone of Greenhowhill, at 1400 feet, where it 
carpets for acres the gently sloping grass fields on the northern 
side. The is no reason for doubting that this is as true a 
British species as the very grass that grows with it. Who, it 
may be asked, would take the trouble to carry it up to a wild 
Yorkshire hill and plant acres of it 1400 feet above sea-level 7 
Barely such an enterprising person would have chosen a locality 



STUDIES IN MDDEEDALE. 123 

better calculated to bring him some reward for his trouble. 
" Mr. Tatham," says Mr. Watson, in his ' Cybele Britannica,' 
" deemed it wild in Heseltine Gill, West Yorkshire ; and 
according to Mr. Brand, it grows ' on Craig-y-barns, a hill to the 
northward of the Park at Dunkeld, covering acres, and in some 
places to the exclusion of everything else, forming the entire 
turf. But for the occurrence of Hypericum calycinum, and other 
introduced plants, it would have been considered native.' But 
against this fairly given testimony of Mr. Brand there is some- 
thing more positive than the suggestive counter evidence of 
Hypericum calycinum and its associates. In the ' Correspondence 
of Sir t. E. Smith,' we find a letter from Mr. Winch, expressly 
stating that the Sajcifraya was introduced into the woods of Blair 
Athol by the gardener. Whether his introduction extended as 
far as Craig-y-barns does not (from memory) appear in the letter." 
Now a gardener would probably be the very last person to plant 
it on Craig-y-barns, though he might to adorn ornamental woods ; 
and the natural conclusion is that he introduced it into the woods 
from Crmg-y-barni, its native habitat. Melampyrum sylcaticum, 
whose small deep yellow flower is often the only one to be seen 
in the woods, it is plentiful from Huddersfield northwards. In 
Niiderdale it is plentiful in the woods near Fellbeck, 600 to 
700 feet, sheltered ; also at Hag Pits, 500 to GOO feet, sheltered. 
I have since found this northern plant in oak woods, at COO feet* 
southerly exposure, on the Lower Greensands of Surrey, one mile 
N.W. of Leith Hill, fairly plentiful. If of accidental introduction 
with the Scotch firs, it has flourished well. 

The Scottish-British type, or those which, though occuring 
throughout England, are most plentiful in Scotland, is represented 
by Pyrola minor, lesser wintergreen, which grows in leaf-mould 
in Hackfall, 300 feet, a noble wooded gorge through which the 
Ure flows between Masham and Taufield. The Wintergreeus 
are noticeable plants in the woods of Norway. The name is 
Scandinavian, (Dan. Vintergron ; Steed. Wintergrona). In Bp. 



124 STUDIES IN NIDDEEDALB. 

Tegner's beautiful Swedish version of Frithiof s Saga, (Canto 12) 
it is thus introduced : 

, " ocli Vintergront 

King offret hanges," 

"And Wintergreen around the victim hangs." 

Parnassia palustris, grass of Parnassus, and Pinguicula vulgaris, 
the butterwort, adorn many of the wet bogs generated by springs 
on the hillsides. The green-veined wax-like flowers of the former, 
and the noble appearance of the plant, call forth the admiration of 
the botanist who for the first time lights unexpectedly upon them in 
their native hillside bog; and the recollection of the inexpressible 
pleasure felt on first finding Parnassia palutris, Pinguicula 
vulgaris, Drosera rotundifolia, Narthecium ossifragwn, Piubus 
chamaimorus, Myrica Gale, Trollius europaius, Saxifraga umbrosa, 
Botrychium lunarla, Ophior/lossum vulyatum, and many other rare 
and beautiful plants, has remained fresh in the memory, affording 
a never-failing source of pleasure through many after years of the 
rough battle of life. The young botanist who yet has before him 
the pleasurable emotions attendant upon the discovery of some 
new or rare plant for the first time may well be envied that 
rapture. Botrychium lunaria is rare. It grows in grass fields, 
and is difficult to see. It grows in Nidderdale near Clark's Carr 
Wood, at GOO feet, sheltered. 

The Scottish Highland type, or those which, though occur- 
ring in the northern counties of England and Scotland, are yet 
limited to the mountains, is represented by Empetrum nit/rum, 
the crowberry, which grows sparsely among the ling on the moors 
up to 1800 feet; Vaccinium Vitia-idcca, cowberry ; Arctust/ij>hylos 
Uva-ursi, the bear-berry, which is very rare on these moor.s, occurs 
on Great Wham, 1750 feet, and on Little Whernside ; Rubus 
chamamorus, the smallest tree, the cloudberry, locally the ' Nosvt- 
berry,' with a beautiful white blossom, is scarcely six inches high, 
and grows sparsely on the high moors, but is very local in its distri- 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 1 25, 

bution on them ; Oxyria reniformis is common on moorside 
pastures and streams ; while Trientalis europaa is exceedingly rare. 
This last occurs also on the moors of Cleveland. 

The British type, or those that are fairly equally distributed 
throughout this island, is represented by niauy rare and interesting 
plants. Dronera rotundifolia, which is found on the peat on the 
moors in abundance ; the juniper, which is very rare, but of which 
a few bushes are preserved in sheltered gills on the borders of the 
moors, as in Lul Beck, at 1000 feet ; the asphodel, which is very 
rare, grows under Brimham Rocks, at 850 feet, and on Coni- 
stoue Moor, about 1750 feet: the golden yellow flowers of this 
exquisite little plant are some of the most beautiful things in 
nature. Menyanthes, bogbean, fairly common in bogs ; Mi/rica 
Gale, not common, moorland bogs ; Calluna cuhjaris, the ling, 
characterises the moors, but does not ascend above 1800 feet, 
often replaced by green grassy moors, called Bents ; Erica 
tetralix and cincrea occur among the Hug; Gymnadenia conupsea, 
sparsely, up to 1200 feat, in grass fields ; Corylus acellana, in 
the valleys, up to 1200 feet ; Yucdninm myrtHlus, local, but not 
uncommon, especially in moorside woods and in sheltered damp 
places on the moors on which the sun shines, when it fruits best; 
Draba verna, scarce, Pateley Bridge, 500 feet, and Galyhay 400 
feet; Ophioglosium vulgatum, exceedingly common in places occurs 
right up the dale to Lodge, 1250 feet, in grass fields ; Digitalis 
pur}iurca, sparsely; Mercurialixperennis, less plentiful than south 
of Whurfe, where it is most common; I'rimultt vulytiris, 1800 feet, 
on Pen-y-Geut, in flower May 7th, 1871, very dwarf; Cochlea ria 
officinulus, Carrii-r Pasture, near Kettlewell, grassy boggy moor, 
1000 feet, north-east aspect, same day ; Adojca moschatellina 
and Asplftiium viride, on north slope of Peu-y-Ghent, 2000 feet, 
both very dwarf. 

The following table shows the stations of several of the more 
interesting plants of the district. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



TROLLIUS EUROP^US. GLOBE FLOWER. 



Locality. 



Aspect. Elevatioc. Soil. 
Feet. 



Linton Bridge, Wharf e- 

dale 600 

Hollin Close Dike, 

Nidderdale 800-850 



Above Carltcn. Cover- 
dale 900 
By Itiver Cover 620 
Grantley, Skell 350 



6 in. Ord. 
Map. 

135 
135 



Remarks. 



Fl.JMay 27th,'1869. 

Near Haver Garth ; 
shallow, valley on 
high ground. 



83 

84 

136 



Steep wood to Cover. 

Alluvium of Skell ; 
one plant ; very 
small and meagre. 



DROSERA ROTUNDIFOLTA.- SUNDE W. 



North Gill Beck 



Gowthwaite Moor 



E. 1025 

E. 1575 
N.E. 800 



Cot GL11 

Between Cot Gill and 

Braiidrith How N.W. 800-850 



Carle Top E. 1000 

Sike fn.m Sanclwith 

Wham to Stock Beck N. 800 
Stock Beck S.E. protected 725 
Blayshaw Gill E. 1625 

Seaves S. 1025 



117 (N.E.; Aug. 16, 1870 : S.E. 
of Hambledon Hill 
wet ground close 
to stream. 

Peat 117 (S.W.) Wet bog culled Burn- 
ing and Rve close. 
101 (N.W ) Bog 'beside stream. 

101 N.W. Boggy Sike : near 
boundary of k Mas- 
hain moor. 
Hill Top, exposed. 

101 S.W. On a slip : boggy. 
101 S.W. Bog by side of stream. 
116 (N.W.) Near head of Gill:* 

on hill top. 

,, 135 Edge of Braithwaite 

Moor. 



PARNASSIA PALUSTRIS. 



Near Hard Gap 



E. 1150 Boulder clay 117 (N.W.)Sep. 2, 1870, Fl : bog 

on edge of grassy 
moor. 

Sike, south of Whit- 
beck E. 



Blayshaw Gill 



1250 
Protected 1050 



Fountains Earth Moor W. 



Near Moor Lane Plan- 
tation 8. 



950 
1000 



650 



Aug. 25, 1870, Fl. : 
boggy ground. 

Aug. 2i, 1870, Fl. : 
small bog on stream 
bank. 

Aug. 24, 1870, Fl. 

Aug. 23, 1870, Fl. : 
bog at spring on 
steep hill side. 

In a little bog. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



127 



Locality. 
Bogs in Skell and 



Lavcr Basin 



COM ARUM PALUSTRE. 

Aspect. Elevation. Soil. 6 in. Ord. 

Feet. Map. 

E. 118 

E. 136 



Remarks. 

Below moors : with 
Mcnyathes trifoliata. 



RUBUS CHAMCEMORUS. CLOUDBERRY. 



Peat 



Scattered along the 
high moors above 
1700 feet, among 
the Jiug. 



PETASITES VULGARIS. BUTTER-BUR. 



Cover dale. 
Arkleside 
Colsterdale. 

Pott Beck 
Agill Beck 

Nidderdale. 

Woodale 
Low Sykes 



850 



83 



600 San ly drift 100 
675 Alluvium 100 



Common on the sandy 
banks of the streams 1 
in the millstone grit. 



Bnnress Bank Wood, 

Deep valley. 
Very narrow, wooded 

gill. 



840 
500 



Allnvinm 
Alluvium 



100 
117 



Sandy bnnk of Nidd. 
Alluvium close to Nidd. 



CAMPANULA LATIFOLIA. 



Banks of Nidd above 
Lofthouse 



Above Carlton, Cover- 
dale 



575 Limestone 100 



700 



At bottom of dale, 
here 750 ft. deep : 
not uncommon. 



ARCTOSTAPHYLOS UVA URSL RED BEAR BERRY. 
Moor near Little Whern- 



side N. 1750 Peat 99 

Great Wham N.E. 1750 Peat 116 

PYROLA MINOR. LESSER WINTERGREEN. 



Rare ; High moors : 
among the ling. 

An extensive swamp, 
on high moors. 



Backfall 



400 Leaf Mould 101 



Fl. June 23, 1869, a 
deep gorge in Mill' 
tone grit. 



128 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



CHLOEA PERFOLTATA. 



Locality, 

Sutton Limestone 
Quarry 



Aspect. Elevation. Soil. 
Feet. 



Date. 



Remark*. 



N.E. 275 Mag. Lim. June, 1870, The'only one I saw 

in the district. 

GENTIANA AMAKELLA. 

Field E. of Great Wood S.W.prot. 400 Sandstone 136 Grass field north of 

Nidd. 

NearBiimhamKocks 136 Fl. Sep. 24th, 1869. 

Wike Fields S.W. 360 188 Grass field, side of 

nairow valley; S. of 
Harewood. 

MENYANTHES TRIPLIATA. BUCKBEAN. 

Several Bogs 



Bog ne;ir Lady Hill 
Below Hk'h Fish Pond 



118 In Skell basin, below 

moors. 
118 

118 With Comarum Palus 
tre., bottom of narrow 
valley. 
325 Mng. Lim. 102 Sheltered, on Drift. 



Bog near Sutton 

PIXGUICULA VULGARIS. BUTTERWORT. 



Kettlewell 



800 Limestone 



Arkleside Force 
Gir B.ck 


N.W. 
S.E. 


900 
900 


Drift 


Tranmire Bog 


E. 


875 


Do. 


Azerley 




300 





Bognr. St. John's Well 

and St. Helen's Well N.E. 



175 Peat 



Deep G >rge with 
Piim. Faiiuosa. 

Coverdale. 
84 On Aura Moor ; 

Gravelly Drift. 
84 Gravelly Di-ift, on 

moor. 

118 \Vilh Prim. Far. 
118 With Mt-nyanthes 
trifoliata & Coin arum 
Palustre. 

102 In valley on Magne- 
sian Limestone. 



PRIMULA FARINOSA. BIRD'S EYE PRIMROSE. 

800 Limestone 



Kettlewell 

Linton, Wharfedale E. 



600 



Diift 



Grassington, do. W. 700 Do. 

Field south of Azerley 3JO Do. 

Bog nr. St. John's Well 

and St. Helen's Well N.E. 175 Peat 



Deep Gorge, near 
bott un. 

134 i uii!c above Linton 
B.idye ; l>o^ in small 
landslip in field by 
Wlmife, fl. May27ta 
1869. 

134 Fl. June 15th, 1869. 

118 B<> in valley, gi-een 
fields, lie low. 

102 In valley on Mngne- 
sinu Liuii-stone, not 
far from Ripon, with- 
Pinguicula Vulyaris. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERUALK. 



129 



PRIMULA ELATIOR. OXLIP. 



Locality. 



Aspect. Elevation. Soil. 
Feet. 



Pate. 



Remarks. 



Litton, Wharfedale S.W. 875 Limestone May 6th, 1871 Flower ; at foot of 

wood N.E. slope of 
valley. 

Netherside, do. 625 do. 15th, do. Flower. 

Carlesmoor Beck Protected 750 Sandstone 118 (N.W.) 

River Skell 415 On Alluvium ; near 

Hungate. 
River Laver 300 At foot of North 

Wood. 
Winksley 350 Field Beside a little stream 

which joins the Laver 

at Rough House. 

R. Laver 270 On Alluvium. 

Granny Bank N. 650 84 Steep wooded bank 

by River f!over. 

NARTHECIUM OSSIFRAGUM. ASPHODEL. 

Head of Gateup Gill S.W. 1650 Peat 116 Exposed ; face of 

ridge ; high moors. 

Bellow Brimham Rocks N.W. 850 136 Bog; hill slope; 

priiig fed. 




130 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



XVI. 

THE FOMUD. 

The first time I ever saw a Fomud was during a never-to-be 
forgotten visit to my venerable friend, Col. Crompton, at Azerley 
Hall. It had been shot in the woods there a few years before. 

One hot afternoon in the summer of 1870, about three o'clock, 
as I was walking with Plato down High Ash Head Moor, at the 
height of 1200 feet above sea level, on a northern exposure, 
my dog, who was a few yards ahead of me, suddenly stopped. 
When I came up to him I found that he had at bay a most 
beautiful and courageous animal, in shape like a gigantic Stoat, 
in colour russell, and with a head like that of a Fox. It was 
crouching with its fore quarters down, and its pretty face turned 
up showing the sharpest white teeth, its ears erect, and beautiful 
eyes rivetted on its Leviathan assailant. My dog was burning 
to attack it, but I restrained him, when, taking advantage of the 
opportunity, the beautiful creature shot swiftly away. Its 
general appearance was that of a fox, with a long thin body and 
a very small head. In fact it more resembled a fox than any 
other animal. As I did not then know what the animal was I 
described it to the next man I met on the borders of the moor, 
who told me that it was the Fomud. This was all the enlighten- 
ment I could get, and I was obliged to rest satisfied with it for 
sometime afterwards when I learned from the late Mr. Wood, 
the intelligent keeper at Beworley, that it was a Marten. He 
said " The Foul Mart." Herein, however, my poor friend was 
mistaken, in common with everybody who has written about this 
name, than which no word has given rise to more confusion 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 181 



or originated more mistakes. The Fomud is not the Foul Mart, 
which is a name of the Polecat. A Polecat would often be called 
a Foul Mart, but never Fomud. 

These are the salient facts. We have in England only one 
species of Marten, The Pine Marten, Maries Sylvatica, 
generally called Martes Abietum. This is the now accepted 
determination of Mr. E. R. Alston, in a paper " On the specific 
identity of the British Martens," published in the Proc. of the 
Zooloijical Society, 1879, p. 468, of which I now give an abstract. 

" Two European species of Martens have been generally 
recognised since the days of Albertus Magnus and Agricola, 
although Linnaeus and others regarded them as identical." 

" Martes Sykaticn. Outer fur rich dark brown ; under fur 
reddish grey with clear reddish yellow tips ; breast spot usually 
yellow, varying from bright orange to pale cream colour or 
yellowish white. Breadth of the skull across the Zygomatic 
arches rather more than half the length ; the arches highest 
posteriorly, whence they slope rather suddenly downwards and 
forwards. Sides of muzzle nearly parallel, etc." 

" Martes Foina. Outer fur dull greyish brown ; under fur 
greyish white. Breast spot smaller than in M. Sylvatica, pure 
white. Breadth of the skull across the Zygomatic arches much 
more than half the length, the arches regularly curved, broadest 
and highest near their middle. Sides of muzzle slightly 
converging, etc." 

" The young Pine Marten has a bright yellow throat, which 
fades in old individuals to white or greyish-white, or pale grey 
mottled with brownish." 



" Martes Foina is not ami never teas a member of the British 
Fauna. During the last ten years I have traced out every 
supposed Beech Marten I could hear of from various parts of 
England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, and everyone has proved 
to be Martes Sylvatica." 



132 STUDIES IN NIDDKRDALfe. 

" The Pine Marten, although greatly reduced in numbers by 
persecution, still maintains its ground in the wilder districts of 
Scotland, the north of England, Wales, and Ireland, and occa- 
sionally specimens are killed in counties where the species 
was thought to have been long extinct. In Scotland it is perhaps- 
the most abundant in Sutherlandshire and Rosshire, especially 
in the Deer Forest. In the Lowlands a Marten is now a great 
rarity. In the north of England, Mr. W. A. Durnford* sajs 
the species is " still plentiful" in the wilder parts of Cumber- 
laud, Westmoreland, and Lancashire. 

W. Harrison, (Description of Britayne , Bk. iii., c. vii., p. 108, 
in Holitished, 1577, V. i.,) in a chapter ' Of savage beasts and 
vermines,' says, " But it shall suffice that I have named them 
[Bevers] as I doe aleo the Martern, although for number I 
worthily doubt whether that of our Bevers or Martens may be 
thought to be the lesse." 

In Bp. Tegner's beautiful Swedish Version of Frithinf s Saga, 
the Marten is effectively introduced in the pretty lines 

" Som en mard ban flog 

Uti Hasten opp." Canto x., v. 8. 

which is, literally translated, 

" As a mart be flew 
Up tbe mast aloft." 

Upon this passage Strong has a Note : " Mustcht Mrtrtes, the' 
Pine Marten. In proof of the facility with which this little 
animal scales the yet unfelled masts of the forest, it may be 
stated on the authority of Buffon, that it usurps the nest of the' 
Squirrel and of the Buzzard, and dislodges the Woodpecker from 
its mine." 8trony's Transl. Note, p. 137. 

The Wood Marten, Pine Marten, or Fomurd is not an offen- 
sive animal like a Stoat and a Polecat, and has no smell, but on 

* Zjologist, 1877, p. 291. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 133 

the contrary, the skin is used by furriers and it is even called the 
Street Mart, in contradistinction to the Foul Mart or Polecat. 
Therefore the Fomard is not the Foulmart. Fomud is always 
assumed to be a contraction of Foulmart, but Fomard seems to 
be a name complete in itself from 0. N. Foa a fox, and Mordr, 
Dan. Maard, a Marten, =the Fox-Marten, as we say the 
Marten-Cat, etc. 

0. N. Foa a Fox, 0. H. G. Folia, Goth, Fauho pi. Fauhons, 
(Ulfilas. Matt. viii. 20), and A. S. Mearth, meard, also ma-rth, 
Germ. Marder, Dan. Maard, 0. N. Mordr, a Marten, are from 
Gothic Matha a worm, (which also gives us our word Moth, from 
the caterpillar state,) as we call them Vermin from their worm- 
shaped bodies, Lat Vermis a worm. 

While Fomard is thus quite a different name from Foulmart 
this latter is equally an independent name, and is simply the two 
A. S. words Fill foul, and meerd, meard, meard, a Marten, 
weasel, stoat, etc., a generic name. This I gather from the old 
spelling of Foul without the o, as in King's Vale Royal, 1656, 
p. 18, " Foxes, Fulmards, Otters, Basons, and such like ;" and 
the beautiful lines cited by Brockett. 

" The hart, the hynd, the doe, the roe, 
The Pulmart, and false fox." 

The Cherry and Slae. 

Brockett says " Fulmart in Sherwood's Diet., and some of our 
old writers use Fulinwrt." The title was conferred upon the 
Polecat in recognition of the eminent qualities by which it is 
distinguished, and save under the book-learned idea that Fomard 
is a corruption of Foulmart, is never applied to the Marten cat. 

By a similar assumption, Fonlmart has been made the same 
name as Fr. Fouine, the Beech Marten, a third distinct species, 
which is also a Sweet Marten, but which does not occur in this 
island. In Cotgrave we find " Fou'inc, Fortune. The Foine 1 
Wood-Martin, or Beech Martin. Foiiaut a Muske-cat, or as 
Foufnne. Fou a Beech tree." 



184 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE 

It is clear therefore that Foiiant and Fouinne in 0. Fr. means 
the Polecat as well as the Beech Marten, Martes Foina., but an 
impassable gulf exists between Fouinne, and the good old English 
word Fiilmart. So far from our being beholden to the French 
for our English name, the very name of Martre in French was 
borrowed from our Forelders on the Continent. The Med. Latin 
Martes is doubtfully used by Martial (Ep. x. 37). This gave 
Martalus, found in some late Latin texts. Ital. Martora, whence 
Martre (Bra). Again, Fouinne would appear to be corrupted by 
German influence. For the 0, Fr. Fou a beech tree, from which 
Fouine comes, is apparently changed from its original form Fan 
under the influence of the Germ. Buche. Faine, Beech mast, is 
from Lat. Fagina. Now the word Fagina is used for the Beech 
Marten in an Article of the Council of Tarragon, "Nulli canonici 

Let no canons 

vel clerici vestes rubeas vel virides nee forraturas pellium 

or clergymen presume to wear red or green garments or furs of skins 

de martis, de faginis portare praesumant." (Cit by Bra' 

of Martens or of Fouines. 

who says Fouine was formerly Foine, and originally Faino). 

We here see a distinction made between two Martens, which 
were not called by the same name, i.e. the Pine Marten was not 
called Fouine in France, where both kinds exist. Far less should 
it be called Fouine in England where the Fouine proper does not 
occur. It is therefore abundantly clear that three quite distinct 
names, Fomard, Foulmart, and Fr. Fouine, applied to three 
quite distinct animals, respectively the Pine Marten, the Polecat, 
and the Beech Martin, which last is not a British species, have 
been confounded and treated as one. 

As regards the cognomen Cat in " Marten- Cat." 0. N. 
Kottr gen. Kattar, Dan. Kat, Swed. Katt, 0. H. G. Chatza, 
Germ. Katze, Gael. Cat, Wei. Cdth, meant originally the Marten 
Cat or Weazel, ermine, wild-cat. The cat was not domesti- 
cated in the tenth century among the Scandinavians, (Cleas.) 



STUDIES IN NIDDEUUALK. 185 

though, as Darwin shows, they were domesticated in the East and 
in Egypt more than 2000 years ago.* 

From 0. H. G. Chatza comes Fr. Chat, Lat. Catus, a cat. 
But what is Lat. Catta. Riddle translated it " a kind of bird, 
doubtful." When the passage is carefully read however there is 
little doubt that Martens are intended. 

It is necessary to state that Martial, who was born A.D. 48, 
published his 12th Bk. A. D. 108, and the passage in question 
occurs in Bk. xiii., Ep. Ixix. 

" Panuonicas nobis nunquam dedit Cattas 

Mavult hiec domino mittere dona Putens." 

" [Umbria] never gave us Punnonian Martens 
Pudeus prefers to send them as presents to our Sovereign." 

Bather than keep them himself, they being new to him, and 
on account of their novelty deemed worthy as presents to the 
Emperor. Paunonia was a province containing modern Hungary 
and part of Austria, whence they were sent as curiosities to 
Pudens, who was in Umbria. There is little doubt then that 
Catta and Catus both come from the German. In Latin there 
was already the word Feles meaning a Marten, Polecat, etc., 
Welsh Bele, and that our compound Marten-Cat is a similar 
one to Foa-modr, Fomard, Fomud. 

Animals and Plants under Domestication, v. 1, p. 43, 1868. 



136 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



XVII. 

THE BIRDS OF NIDDERDALE. 

Pateley Bridge lies at the centre of a circle of somewhat over 
forty miles radius that passes through several points on the 
eastern and western seaboard. Thus it is forty-one miles from 
the Tees-mouth, forty-three from Morecambe Bay, forty-seven 
from the Ribble near Preston, and forty-five from the Humber at 
Goole. This central position, taken with the great vertical range 
of the district, 100 to 2800 feet, is eminently favourable for the 
occurrence of birds, resident, marine, migratory, and casual. 
Sea-birds occasional find their way across, and perhaps I should 
say not uncommonly, if all the occasions on which they have done 
so had been placed on record. In the summer Gulls slowly flap 
their way all along the eastern slopes of these hills. In June, 

1868, I saw one above Billing Hill, in Airedale ; on July 29th, 

1869, one over Haverah Park; and on May llth and 13th, 1871, 
a Lesser Black-backed Gull at Kettlewell, in Wharfedale. A 
young Gannet, in speckled plumage, was found on Bewerley 
Moor (1000 feet) in 1858, and is now in the possession of 
Mr. Yorke, of Bewerley Hall. ' Gannet , is an A.S. name, as 
appears from the beautiful line, " OVER GANOTES B;ETH," over 
the Gunnel's lath, i.e., the sea, Sax. Chron., A.D. 975. 

In the absence of any recent record of the Golden Eagle in 
the district, the names of" Arna Nab," " Arncliff," "Arnagill," 
indicate that it formerly bred on these hills.* Buzzards are 
occasionally seen on the moors. At Christmas, 1868, Mr. Yorke'g 
keepers trapped a Common Bu/zard on Gowthwaite Moor (1200 

See i>ago 91. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 137 

1500 feet). Mr. Ormerod shot a Rough-legged Buzzard on the 
moors near Lofthouse about 1861. The Bough-legged Buzzard 
is said to be commoner here than the Common Buzzard. The 
Merlin Breeds on the moors. On February 22nd, 1868, 1 saw 
one a few miles west of Bradford ; on June 12th, 1869, one on 
the moor behind Guys Cliff (1100 feet), a magnificent cliff with 
a northerly exposure, over 100 feet in height, in the lower part 
of Nidderdale. Its flight is swift, low, and graceful. As it flies 
its wings seem sharper than a Kestrels, and its tail thinner, 
approaching the appearance of a Swift. The last week in June, 
1869, Mr. Yorke's watchers found a Merlin's nest on Ramsgill 
Moor (1250 1500 feet, N.E. exposure), with four young birds. 

On July 1st, 1869, I saw a Red-backed Shrike at Hole 
Bottom (950 feet), a dell full of trees and bushes, slightly 
exposed to the S.E., chattering and making a great noise. It is 
here a rare bird, as I have no other record of its occurrence. 
Says Chaucer, in ' The Friar's Tale ' : 

. " As fall of Jangles,* 
As full of venom be these Wariangle*." V.6990. 

The Wariangle (Germ. Wurgengel,) is now a rare bird. I 
believe the name is still used in some West-Midland Counties. 
Mr. Speght (Edit, Chaucer, 15971602,) explains " Wariangle" 
to be " A kind of birds full of noise, and very ravenous, preying 
upon others, which when they have taken, they use to hang upon 
a thorne or pricke, and teare them in peeces, and devour them." 
A faithful description of the habits of the Red-backed Shrike. 
Cotgrave's " French Dictionary," published 1650, translates 
arneat by "The ravenous bird called a Shrike, nyn-murder 
wariangle." The Anglo-Saxon " Scric" is rendered by Manning, 
in Lye's " Gothic and Anglo-Saxon Dictionary," by " Turdus," 
i.e., Turdus viscivorus, the Screecher. The Old Norsk Skrikja 
is rendered by Cleasby. in his "Icelandic Dictionary, " "The 

"Chattering." 

B 



138 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

Shrieker," and Sol-shrikja (i.e., sun or day-shrieker), " Shrike, 
butcher-bird," (" Itiuerarium, or travels of Eggert Olaffson," 
1772, p. 582), while the modern Swedish Skrikja is the Jay, 
another " screecher." " Skrikes Wood," near Bewerley, pro- 
bably takes its name from either the present species, or 
the Jay. 

These birds commence their autumnal migration in July, 
when they are to be seen along the coast of Sussex. On July 
80th and 31st, 1867, I saw two at Heene, and on August 7th 
and 8th S. F. Lucas (alas ! gone to a too early grave,) shot 
two migrating. 

The Tits, at least the Great Tit and the Blue Tit, are clever 
mocking birds. On January 26th, 1868, I heard the Great 
Tit uttering a cry like that of the Wryneck, but not so loud and 
sweeter. I have noticed the same note in the Lesser Spotted 
Woodpecker, and a young Kestrel. In 1867 there was an extra- 
ordinary abundance of holly-berries at Heene, Sussex. The Blue 
Tit (August 9th) was constantly in the holly bushes, in company 
with a Blackbird, cutting off the berries, the ground being strewn 
with them. On Sunday, October 25th, 1868, at Pool, Wharfe- 
dale, I watched from inside my window a Blue Tit busily engaged 
in pecking at the apparently bare bark of a trained cherry tree, 
on the young shoots and buds, and when he had gone I looked 
to see what kind of food he had been eating. The extremities 
of the young branches and buds were covered with the Aphis, 
much changed in colour, very few being the light green they are 
in summer ; they were dirty brown and black. The Blue Tit, 
through the autumn, goes in flocks with the Cole Tit and Great 
Tit, together numbering perhaps fifty birds. They like the 
sheltered deep valley of the Washburn, where all three kinds 
abound. The Blue Tit has a powerful, sprightly note like " Chick- 
w<-ed, chickwred, chickwced," quickly repeated. The Long- 
tailed Tits go in little flocks of six or seven ; they have a sweet 
little single note, a straightish flight, stronger than one would 



STUDIES IN NIDDKBDALE. 139 

expect, with their long tails stuck out behind. It is uncertain 
whether one of the Tits is meant in the lines : 

" Pants enim qnamvis per noctem linnipet omnem 
At sua vox null! jure placere potest."* 

" Tit " is the 0. N. TITTE. The A. S. names were Col-mase* 
fr<vc-mase, and Spic-mdse ; 0. N. Spiki. The species to which 
these severally applied are not identified. Tinnipet seems to be 
formed upon a noun Tinnipe from the some root as Tit. In the 
Lfijend of Good Women, about A.D. 1368, we find 

" As doth the tidife for newfangleness." V. 154. 

And again in the Squires Tale, about A.D. 1890. 

" false fowls 
As be these tidifes, terceleta and owls." Cant. Tales, v. 10962. 

" Skinner " says Tyrwhitt, "supposes it to be the Titmouse," 
and rightly, I think, from its Etymology. Lat. N frequently^ 
Eng. D as TENEB, TENEBA=A. S. TEDEB, TEDEBA ; also Lat. p 
Eng. F, therefore Lat. TINNIPE Eng. (or 0. Fr.) TIDIFE, which 
might probably contract to " Tit, but the pre-existence of 0. N. 
TITTB in the north, and the invasion of Tidife on the south 
rendered the extinction of the A. S. names, in part at least, and 
the acceptance of " Tit " a matter of certainty. 

The pied Flycatcher breeds in Bolton Woods, near Harden 

From a very beautiful little Latin poem of the third century, called 
" Elegia de Philomela," written by Albus Ovidius Juventinus (about A.D. 
210). It expresses the cries of forty-one different birds by appropriate 
verbs, and is the sole authority for the meaning of several of the Latin 
names. It is to be found in the " Authelogia vett nun Latinornm 
epipranunatum et potmatum." Ht-uricus Meyerus, Lipsia?, 1835. Several 
pretty verses are cited in tLu; present work. 



140 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

Tower, Wharfedale ; at Bewerley and at Harefield Wood, 
Pateley Bridge, Nidderdale ; and at Hackfall, near Masham, on. 
the Ure. All these are deep wooded valleys. They rear two 
broods in the course of the summer ; the first brood is brought 
off in May. On July 15th, 1869, the second brood flew from 
the nest at Bewerley. At Harefield Wood the site chosen was in 
an old wall, which can be entered in three ways, two of which 
are easy to the bird, and the third so narrow as to cause it to 
squeeze very flat to go in or out ; nevertheless this is the one 
generally chosen. The cock appeared to build the nest, and used 
to prevent the hen from approaching till it was ready. Harefield 
Wood is on the west side of the hill, is admirably protected from 
the north and east, and is itself cover from the west. Accor- 
dingly it is one of the very few places in the district of which it 
can be said that it abounds with Whitethroats, Lesser White- 
throats, Spotted Flycatchers, Redstarts, Robins, Chaffinches, 
and at least two pairs of Pied Flycatchers. The Pied Flycatcher 
has a melancholy little "tweet," very like the Spotted Flycatcher. 
They dart from the wall, &c., just as the Spotted Flycatcher 
does. They are a trifle more sprightly, not quite so downcast- 
looking as the latter, and evidently have the mastery of it. 
They are naturally very tame. The Spotted Flycatcher is far 
from common. In 1868 I did not see one till May 8th, when I 
saw one in Jonas Wood, near Farnley Hall, Wharfedale. This 
bird feeds its young after they have left the nest. It utters a 
weak, piercing note. 

The Kingfisher is very rare, I should say almost extermina- 
ted, On March 4th, 1868, I saw one on the River Aire near 
Bingley ; and on November 9th, 1870, one at Burrill Wood 
(350 feet), in a narrow " clough " with well-wooded sides, 
sheltered, and one at Mickley (175 feet), on the River Ure, where 
it flows through broad meadows. 



STUDIES Ili NIDDERDALE. 141 

The Raven,* which has given its name to a great many 
places, is now confined to the wildest and most elevated parts of 
the West Riding. I have only seen it twice. On July 23rd, 
1868, I picked up a young Raven at Carlton, on the south side 
of Otley Chevin ; and one hot day (May 6th, 1871), after a 
wearisome climb to the summit of Pen-y-ghent, J. R. Dakyns 
and myself watched a pair wheeling about, croaking hoarsely, at 
a great height above us, doubtless taking us for carrion as we 
lay motionless upon our backs enjoying their beautiful evolutions. 

Max Miiller remarks. " The Emperor Julian, when he heard the 
Germans singing their popular songs on the borders of the Rhine, could 
compare them to nothing but the cries of birds of prey." The original (in 
the " Misopogon," written about A.D. 352), has tois chrogmols ton trachu 
Boonlon ornltiton, and the Latin translation in the Leipsig edition of 1693 
has " clangornm quos aspere clamantes aves edunt," while Eugene Talbot, 
in his French translation, 1863, gives " cris rauques de certains oiseaux,' 
but boldly adds in a foot-note, " Les corleaux." See Voltaire, " Essai sur 
les Moeurs," Preface. Clangornm is not a good rendering of Chrogmois 
for the " Elegia de Philomela," which was written 140 years or so before 
Julian wrote the " Misopogon," says, " Clangunt porro Aquilae. .et crocitat 
Corvus." Crocito is for crocio, Greek Crozo, Croxo, to croak as a Raven 
or Crow, from which Chr6gmo$, a croaking noise. In 1879 I was induced 
to write to Professor Max Miiller concerning this passage, when he 
courteously replied, " The passage from the ' Misopogon ' is too general to 
allow of any conclusion being drawn as to what kind of bird Julian 
intended. I shall alter the wording of the passage in my Lectures to which 
you refer." 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



XVIII. 
THE BIRDS OF NIDDEBDALE, 

(Continued.) 

I have never known the Hooded Crow to breed on these hills,, 
nor even to stay the summer. In 1868 I saw the first on 
October 20th, at Yeadon Ghyll, and on the moors near Lanshaw 
House (800 feet) ; in 18G9, on October 13th, at Appletreewick, 
Wharfedale , in 1870, on October 28th, in some fields near 
Newton House, in the flat country of the Vale of Mowbray (110 
feet). These birds are very plentiful in Norway, where they 
breed in the summer, as I have observed in 1870 and 1871. 
The Hooded Crow is a noticeable bird, and has attracted my 
attention when quite two miles off. It has far greater power 
of wing than a Hook. 

My late revered friend the Rev. J. W. Warter, Vicar of West 
Tarring, Sussex, gave me the following note about this bird : 
"He is wild, wary, and often savage. In the year 1849, one 
pecked out the eye of a lamb at Heene, and some years ago one 
remained near Courtlands till some half-bred wild ducks belong- 
ing to the owner of that estate were out of their shells. These 
he killed by turning them on their backs, after which he pecked 
out their insides. Having been caught in the fact, he was shot. 
Ho had no business,' said my informant, ' to have stopped 
behind.' " 

The Carrion Crow in Yorkshire is called " Ket Crow." 
" Ket " means offal. In Westmorland they are called " Doup 
Crows." Rooks begin to build in February. They rob old 
nests to build the new, and apparently wage war upon each 



STUDIES IN NIDDEBHALE. 143 

other's colonies, as they both bring twigs to and carry twigs 
away from the same rookery. Rooks begin to take long flights 
at least as early as September, when they fly to the salt marshes 
by the sea. They are seen during the summer high up on the 
moors, often when there are no other birds visible. " May 23rd, 
1871. Many Rooks about Angram to day. I hear they have 
been ^hooting young Rooks at Woodale." At Woodale is the 
highest Rookery in the dale. The Jackdaw is a bird of the 
low country, but the Magpie goes up the dales and gills, only 
stopping short of the moors. 

" Pica loqnax varias concinnat gutture vocet, 
Scarrili strepita quidquid et audit ait." 

The Jay also keeps to comparatively low country ; it occurs 
in some of the large " falls," or " hangers," in Airedale, as 
in Calverley Wood, at 225 feet, and in large woods throughout 
the district. 

The Nuthatch is rare ; I have seen it only once, in the deep 
wooded gorge of Hackfall (600 feet). The Wryneck and the 
Tree Creeper, common in the south of England, I have never 
Been anywhere in the district. In December, 1868 or 1869, 
Mr. Ormerod shot a Lesser Spotted Woodpecker in Bak'stone 
Gill, near Lofthouse ; but it is a rare bird here. 

The Cuckoo, Fr. Coucou, W. Coy, is locally called " Gowk," 
(0. N. Gaukr, a form allied to Dan. G-idy, Swed. GiJk, and A. S. 
Qeac, like the "Jack" in " Jack Daw," onomatopaeic names). 

The Cuckoo ranges from sea-level up to the high moors, 
where they ascend as high as Ring Ouzels or Titlarks are found 
to make nests for them. In spring, up to 1200 feet or higher, 
there are few places on the moors in which it is possible to be 
out of hearing of a Cuckoo. Cuckoos begin to go in little flocks 
of six or seven by the end of July or beginning of August. On 
August 2nd, 1867, I saw in Surrey a flock of six Cuckoos in tho 



144 STUDIES IN NIDDEEDALE. 

plumage of the first year, and later in the day a second group of 
four, also in the plumage of the first year. They arrive in April 
in flights of twenty or thirty birds. The Cuckoo has a long, 
plaintive, somewhat wailing note, very soft and musical. It has 
also a rattling note, not altogether unlike that of a Landrail. 
Cuckoos vary much in colour, some young birds being dark ash- 
coloured, or cinereous ; others dark rufous, resembling the 
colour of a Kestrel ; while some are intermediate and tinged with 
both colours. 




STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 145 



XIX. 

THE BIRDS OF NIDDERDALE, 

(Continued,) 
With a Digression on the name of " Gabble-Ratchet" 

The Evejar occurs in the District. On May 8th I started 
one in Jonas Wood, near Farnley Hall, Wharedale, and I have 
also seen and heard them in the woods under Guy's Cliff, 
Nidderdale. They begin to migrate early in August, when they 
appear on the coast of Sussex. This bird is locally called the 
" Gabble-ratchet." Beside the jarring noise or " churr," it has 
a piercing, distressed note, which sounds from several different 
places. Like the Grasshopper Warbler, the Nightjar seems gifted 
with ventriloquial powers. 

Mr. Atkinson, in his Cleveland Glossary, enumerates four 
different superstitions associated with the name of Gabble- 
ratchet. 

1. A yelping sound heard at night, and taken as an omen 
of approaching death. 

2. A mysterious bird with fa) large glowing eyes, (b) 
hooked beak, and an (dj awful shriek, which appears to, 
accompanies, or is (e) heard by the death- doomed. 

With which compare 

0. Dan. HEL-RAKKE, a bird with a large head, (a) staring 
eyes, (b/ crooked beak, sharp claws, (c) used to fly 
abroad by night, and (d) shriek aloud, and (e) fore- 
boded great mortality. 

3. In Leeds, Scotland, and Devonshire " Gable-Ratchet " 

8 



146 



STUDIES IN NIDDEEDALE. 



is held to be " the souls of uubaptized infants, which 
are doomed restlessly to wander about in the air." 

4. In Cleveland a tradition exists that a gentleman who had 
been very fond of hunting, when on his death-bed 
ordered all his hounds to be killed and buried with 
him, that no one else should enjoy the sport with tl-em 
when he was cut off from it. 

Now as regards No. 1, the full explanation of that single 
point is in itself a large matter. The following extract from an 
article by F. W. J., Bolton Percy, in the Leeds Mercury Weekly 
Supplement, Saturday, February 28th, 1880, will show that it is 
part of a well-known superstition also known under the names 
of Padfoot and Barguest, as well as other names : 

" At the outset understand that I do not speak from personal 
experience, or from actual knowledge of this fear-inspiring bogie. 
I never foregathered with this " boggart." I have frequently had 
it described to me as being a large four-footed creature, some- 
thing in the shape of a dog, with " saucer eyes," and carrying a 
portion of a chain which it rattled now and again. In this 
neighbourhood (i-e. near Tadcaster) what is spoken of as the 
" Barguest " seems to have been identical with the " Padfoot " 
of Wakefield, Brighouse, and Halifax, and the vicinities of those 
places. I am told by an old resident at the village of Colton 
that fifty years ago, if it were heard (as he averred it had been) 
under the window of the room where a sick person was lying, it 
forboded certain death. We can imagine what a terrible power 
the belief by the people in general in such a creature might be 
in the hands of a less credulous, unfeeling, and unprincipled 
man. 

" Camden, the celebrated antiquary, speaking of a certain stone 
that had been found in York near what was known as the 
" multangular tower," and which had the words " Genio loci 
feliciter " inscribed on it, seems to think that it had some 
reference to the " Barguest of York," Another writer has the 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 147 

following : " As the heathens had their good genii, so likewise 
their evil ones are traditionally handed down to us by those many 
idle stories of local ghosts, which the common people do still 
believe haunt cities, towns, and family seats, famous for their 
antiquities and decays. Of this sort are the Apparitions at 
Verulam, Gilchester, Reculver, and Rochester, the Demon of 
Tedworth, the Black Dog of Winchester, the Padfoot of Ponfrete, 
and the Barguest of York. 

" Anent this subject there is a very pretty ballad in Hone's 
" Table Book," entitled, 

THE LEGEND OF THE TROLLER'S GILL. 

On the steep fell's height shone the fair moonlight, 

And its beams illtira'd the dale, 
And a silvery sheen cloth'd the forest green, 

Which sighed to the moaning gale. 

From Burnsall's tower the midnight hoar 

Had toll'd, and its echo'was still, 
And the elfin hand from faerie hind, 

Was upon Elboton hill. 

'Twas silent all, save the waters' fall, 

That, with never-ceasing din, 
Roar and rush, and foam and gush, 

In Lonpscar's troubled linn. 

From his cot he stept, while the household slept, 

And he carolled with boisterous glee, 
And lie no hied to the green hill's side, 

The faerie train to see. 

He went not to roam with his own dear maid, 

Along by a pine-clad scar, 
Nor sing a lay to his ladye-love, 

'Neath the light of the polar star. 

The Troller, I ween, was a fearless wight, 

And, as legends tell, could hear 
The night winds rave, in the knave-knoll cave, 

Withouteu a sign of fear. 



148 STUDIES IN NIDDEKDALEy. 

And whither now are his footsteps bent ? 

And where is the Troller bound ? 
To the horrid gill of the limestone hill, 

To call on the Spectre Hound ! 

And on did he pass, o'er the clew-bent grass, 

While the sweetest perfumes fell, 
From the blossoming of the trees which spring 

In the depth of that lonely dell. 

Now before his eyes did the dark gill rise, 

No moon-ray pierced its gloom, 
And his steps around did the waters sound 

Like a voice from a haunted tomb. 

And there as he stept, a shuddering crept 
O'er his frame, scarce known to fear, 

For he once did dream, that the sprite of the stream- 
Had loudly call'd FORBEAR ! 

An aged yew in the rough cliffs grew, 

And under its sombre shade 
Did the Troller rest, and with charms unblest 

A magic circle made. 

Then thrico did he turn where the streamers burn,* 

And thrice did he kiss the ground, 
And with solemn tone, in that gill so lone, 

He call'd on the Spectre Hound ! 

And a burning wand he clasp'd in his hand, 

And he nam'd a potent spell, 
That, for a Christian ear it were a sin to hear, 

And a sin for a bard to tell, t 

And a whirlwind swept by, and stormy grew the sky, 

And the torrent louder roar'd 
While a hellish flame , o'er the Trollor's stalwart frame, 

From each cleft of the gill was pour'd. 

And a drondfnl thing from the cliff did spring, 
And its wild bnrk thrill'd around 

* Tho Northern Lights, very frequently nml vividly neon in Yovkuli 
+ These two liuc: nr from a Gcnr.au Ballad. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

Its eyes had the glow of the fires below, 
'Twas the form of the Spectre Hound ! 

When on Rylstone's height glow'd the morning light, 

And, borne on the mountain air, 
The Priorie" bell did the peasants tell 

'Twas the chanting of matin prayer. 

By peasant men, where the horrid glen 

Doth its rugged jaws expand, 
A corse was found, where a dark yew frown'd, 
And marks were imprest on the dead man's breast 

But they seem'd not by mortal hand. 

In the evening calm a funeral psalm 

Slowly stole o'er the woodland scene 
The harebells wave on a new-made grave 

In " Burnsall's " churchyard green. 

That funeral psalm in the evening calm, 

Which echo'd the dell around, 
Was his, o'er whose grave blue harebells wave, 

Who called on the Spectre Hound ! 

" The above ballad is founded on a tradition very common 
among the mountains of Craven. The spectre hound is Banjest. 
Of this mysterious personage I am able to give a very particular 

account, having only a few days ago seen Billy B y, who had 

once a full view of it. 

BILLY B 'S ADVENTURE. 

" You see, sir, as how I'd been a clock- dressing at Gerston 
(Grassington), an' I'd staid rather lat, an' may be gitten a lile 
sup o' spirit, but I war far from bein' drunk, an' knaw'd every- 
thing 'at pass'd. It war abowt eleven o'clock when I left, an' it 
war at back end o' t' year ; an' it war a grand neet. T' mooin 
war varra brect, an' I nivver seed Rylston Fell plainer i' a' my 
life. Now, yo' see, sir, I war passin' down t' mill loin, an' I 
heerd summut cum past me, brush, brush, brush, wi' chains 

* Botton Abbey. 



150 STUDIES IN NIDDEKDALE. 

rattlin a' t' while ; but I seed nowt ; an', thowt I to myseP, 
now, this is a most mortal queer thing. An' I then stuid still, 
an' luik'd abowt me, but I seed nowt at a', nobbut t' two stane 
wa's on each side o' t' mill loine. Then I heerd again this brush, 
brush, brush, wi' t' chains ; for yo' see, when I stuid still it 
stopp'd ; an' then, thowt I, this mun be a Bargest, 'at sae mitch 
is said abowt : and I hurried on towards t' wood brig, for they 
say as how this Bargest cannot cross a watter ; but lord, sir, 
when I gat o'er t' brig, I heeard this same thing again ; so it wud 
either hev cross'd t' watter, or gane round by t' spring heed ! 
(About thirty miles.) An' then I becom a valliant man, for I 
war a bit freeten'd afore ; an' thinks I, I'll turn an' hev a peep 
at this thing ; so I went up Greet Bank towards Linton, an' heerd 
this brush, brush, brush, wi' t' chains a' t' way, but I seed 
nowt ; then it stopp'd a' of a sudden. So T turned back to 
gan hame, but I'd hardly reach'd t' door, when I heerd again this 
brush, brush, brush, an' t' chains going down towards t' Holin 
House, an' I follow'd it, an' t' mooin then shone verra breet, an' 
/ seed it tail ! Then, thowt I, thou owd thing ! I can say I've 
seen the' now, so I'll away hame. When I gat to t' door, there 
war a girt thing like a sheep, but it war bigger, liggin across t' 
threshold o' t' door, an' it war woolly like ; an', saj-s I, ' Git up,' 
an' it wouldn't git up ; then says I, ' Stir thysel,' an' it wouldn't 
stir itsel' ! An' I grew valliant, an' rais'd t' stick to baste it 
wi', an' then it luik'd at me, an' sich oies ! (eyes) they did glower, 
an' war as big as saucers, an' like a cruell'd ball ; first there war 
a red ring, then a blue one, then a white one ; an' these rings 
grew less an' \ess,till they cum to a dot ! Now, I war nane feer'd 
on it, tho' it girn'd at me fearfully ; an' I kept on sayin' ' Git 
up an' stir thysel ;' an' t' wife heerd as how I war at t' door, an' 
she cum to oppen it, an' then this thing gat up an' walk'd oft', 
for it war marefcar'd o' t' wife than it war o' me ! An' Itell'd 
t' wife, an' she said it war t' Bargest, but ah've uivvor seed it 
since; and that's a true story." 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 151 

Mr. T. F. Thiselton Dyer, in an interesting article on " The 
Dog and its Folk-Lore," (The Gentleman s Magazine, Vol. 246, 
p. 489, April, 1880,) has the following remarks upon this part 
of the subject : " In Lancashire this spectre dog bears the name 
of " Trash " or " Striker," (Notes and Queries, First Series, ii., 
51.) In Cambridgeshire it is known by the name of " Shuck," 
and in the Isle of Man it is called the ' Mauthe Doog.'" 
At Norwich Castle there is also a " Mauthe Dog." Sir Walter 
Scott in the " Lay of the Last Minstrel," sings : 

" For be was speechless, ghastly, wan, 

Like him of whom the story ran, 

Who spoke the Spectre Hound in man." 

See for further instances the Book of Days, ii., 443. 

Touching superstition No. 2. The 0. Dan. version (taken 
from Atkinson) proves that it is of Danish introduction. 
The description contained in points (a) and (b), seem to be 
nothing but exaggerated notions formed upon the features of 
the Goatsucker, the point (c) is true of that bird, and (d), 
another exaggeration of some debateable sound. Aneut 
these points, I would observe that (1), the Nightjar or Gabble- 
ratchet is a very focal bird. (2), that, in consequence, very few 
people know it at all. (8), That the few who use the name 
Gabble-ratchet, in the Otley District mean the Nightjar, and 
some of these do not know that bird by any other name. (4), 
that the habits and voice of the bird, are well calculated to 
develop superstition, and afford a living stock on which to graft 
the creations of the imagination. 

As regards No. 8, infant baptism it is a matter of history 
that Christianity found a slack acceptance with the body of the 
English people. Notwithstanding this, it was evidently not 
deemed expedient to use any legal force, for it was not till a 
century after Augustine came that Wihtraed, King of Kent, 
(A.D. 691-725,) at the instigation of Archbishop Birhtwald, 



152 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

imposed a punishment for the worship of heathen gods. Laws 
of Wihtraid, Clause 16. 

" GlF THEOW DEOFLUM GELDATH, VI SCILL. GEBETE, 

If a thew to devils pay (honour), 6 shillings, he pays 

OTHTHE HIS HYD." 

or his hide-gild, (i.e., money paid to escape flogging). 

At the same time we find Ine, King of the West Saxons, 
688-728, led by Bishops Hedde and Eorkenwolde, to make the 
first law respecting infant baptism the subject of the superstition 
No. 3, attached to the name of GABBLE-RATCHET. " GILD 

Child 

BINNAN THRYTTIGUM NIHTA SY GEFULWAD GIF HIT SWA NE SY XXX 

within thirty nights let be baptised if it so not be 30 

SCILLINGES GEBETE. GlF HIT THONNE SY DEAD BUTAN 

shillings let (the parent) pay. If it however be dead without 

FULLUHTE, GEBETE HE HIT MID EALLUM TH^EM THE HE AGE." 

baptism, let him pay for it with all the goods that he owns. 

For two centuries from this time we hear no more of the 
subject, when the influx of the Danes brought a fresh race of 
heathens into the country. 

In the Treaty of Edward (the first King of all England) and 
Guthrun, A. D., 906, we read, " THMT is ^ERES THJET HI 

This is first that they 

GECW.7EDON TH^ET HI ^NNE GoD LUFIAN WOLDON & ^LCNE 

command that they one God love would & each 
H;ETHENDOM GEORNE AWEORPAN." (Clause 2, preamble), 

heathenish practise diligently cast aside. 

And again, C. 3, " GIF M^SSE PREOST TO RIHT ANDAGAN 
If a mass priest to the right day 

CRISMAM NE FJECCE OTHTHE FULLUHTES 

the chrism do not fetch or give previous notice 

FORWYRNE THvEM THE TH;ES THEARF SY, GILD WITE 

of the baptism to them that have need of it, let him pay his 'wite' 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE/ 
MID ENGLUM K MID DENUM LAH SLITE, THAT IS TWELF 

with the English and with the Danes 'Laweslight,' that is twelve 

ORAN. 

oras. 

This is the first punishment for neglect of baptism attached 
to the priest, who is thus made to have a personal interest in 
seeing it properly carried out. 

The particular offences indicated, are, neglecting to provide 
the holy oil, and the white garments in which children were clad 
after baptism, and neglecting to give notice of the day on which 
the baptism would bo hold. "In explanation of this, I may 
observe, that formerly, baptism was not performed except at 
stated times, that is, Easter and Pentecost, nor anywhere but 
in public, except illness required it. Next in the section of the 
Canons, temp. Edgar, 959-G75, on " The Modes of punish- 
ment," we read c. 44, " Grp UNTRUM CILD H^THEN GEWITE 

If a sick child die heathen 

& HIT ON PBEOST OELANO ST TIIOLIGE HIS HADES & 

& it bo 'lang o' the priest* let him lose his order & 

BETE HIT OEOBNE, & OIF HIT THURH FREONDE 

do penance for it diligently, & if it be through its friends' 

GIMELISTE WURTHE, F.ELTE III GEAR, AN ON HLAFE & ON 

carelessness, let them fast 3 years, one on bread and 

W^ETERE, & THA TWA GEAR III DAGAS ON WUCE, & BEREOWSIAN HIT 

water, and then two years 8 days a week, & rue it 
;EFBE." 
for ever. 

The priest has hero a heavy personal interest at stake, 

if infant baptism bo not performed. Next in the Laws of tho 

Northumbrian Priests made at York about the same date, 

wo find, Sec. 8, " GIF PREOST FULLUHTES OTHTHE SCBIFTES 

If a Priest deny baptism or confession, 

FORWYNRE, GEBETE TRET MID XII OR, & HURU WITH GOD 

let him pay for that with 12 oras, and especially diligently 

i.e. the fault of the priest. 

T 



154 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



THINGIGE GEORNE." C. 10, " ^GHfflLC CILD SY WEL 

ask forgiveness with God. Lot each child be properly 

EATH GEFULLOD BINNON NIGON NIIITON, BE WITE VI 

baptized within nine nights, [on pain] of 'wite,' i.e. vi : 

OR & GIF H.ETHEN CILD BINNON IX NIHTON THURH GIMELISTE 

oras, & if a heathen child within 2 nights through carelessness 

FORFAREN SY, BETAN FOR GoDE BUTON WORLDWITE 

dead be, ask forgiveness of God without the 'wite' of this world 

& GIF HIT OFER NIG AN NIHT GEWURTHE BETAN FOR GoDE, & 

and if it be over nine months old let them pray to God, and 

GILDE XII OR FOR TIIARE HEORDE THE HE W.ES H/ETHEN SWA 

pay xii oras to the Parish in which ho was heathen so 

LAN6E." 

long. 

The struggle did not end here. Heathen worship was still 
practised in A.D. 1008, as appears from a passage in the Liber 
Constitutionurn drawn up at that date. " EALLE WE SCYLAN 

All we must 

^ENNE GOD LUFIAN & WEORTIIIAN & ^ELCNE II.ETHENDOM 
one God love & worship & each heathen practise 

MID EALLE AWEORPAN." 

altogether cast away. 

Clause 33, again repeated in slightly stronger words in 
clause 52 of the Code of A.D. 1013. 

From a chapter in the Laws of Canute, 1017-1035, we infer 
that heathen worship' was still rife in the land. C. 5, De 
Gentilium Superstitionili's abolcndis. " & WE FORBEODATII 

And we forbid 

EORNOSTLICE JELCNE H/ETHENSCYFE. H/ETIIENSCYPE BITH, TH.ZET 

earnestly each hcnthcnship. Hoathcnship is, that 

MAN IDOLA WEORTIIIGE, TH^T IS, TH.ET MAN WEORTIIIGE H^ETHENE 

man idols worships, that is 1 , that man worships heathen 

GODAS, & SUNNAN OTIITIIE MoNAN, FYRE OTHTIIE FLODWJ3TER, 

Gods and the Sun or Moon, fire, or rivers, 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 155 

WYLLAS OTHTHE STANA.S, OTHTHE UNICES CYNNES WUDU^TREOWA 
Wells or Stones, or wood trees of any kind 

OTHTHE WICCAN CR^EFT LUFIGE, OTHTHE MORTHWEORC GEFREMME 

or loves witch-craft, or murder commit 

ON VENICE WYSAN, OTHTHE ON HLOTE, OTHTHE ON FYRTE, OTIITHE ON 

on any wise, either by lot or by torch, or dreo 

SWYLCRA GEDRYMEHA u^NIG THING DREOGE." 

anything by means of such phantasms. 

This is a remarkable and valuable passage and serves to dispel 
our common, but erroneous notions as to the rapid and universal 
hold that Christianity took upon this country. Next in the 
Liber Canonum Ecclesiasticorum about A.D. 1052, canon 27, 
we find the infant baptism question, 

." & GlF UNGEFULLOD CILD F.ERLICE BITH GEBROHT TO THAM 

and if an unbaptised child be suddenly brought to the 

LJjESSEPREOSTE THJET HE HIT MOT FULIJAN SONA MID 

Mass priest, (we command) that he must baptise it soon with 

OFSTE THvET HIT NE SWELTE H^ETHEN." 

haste that it do not die heathen. 

In the Book of Ecclesiastical Law, commonly called the 

" Capitula inccrta Editionis," c. 17, we find GIF MAN HWYLC 

, . If any man 

METRUM GILD TO M^SSEPREOSTE BRINOE SY OF SWYLCRE M/ESSE- 

. a sick child to the Mass-priest bring, bo it of what parish 

PREOST SCYRE SWYLCE HYT SY THONNE FULLIE HE HIT SONA & 

soever it may, then baptise he it soon and 
FOR N.ENIGUM UN^EMTAN NE FORL.I'.TE HE HIT NE FULLIE, SY 
for no hindrance let him neglect to baptise it, be it 

THOXON THE HIT SY. GlF HE HIT THONNE FOR &NIOUM THINGS 

whence that it may. If ho it however for any thing 

FOR/KT, & HIT BUTAN FULLUHTE GEWIT, THONNE WITE HE 

neglect and it die, without baptism, then let him know 



156 STUDIES IN NIDDEKDALE. 

THJET HE SCEAL ON DOMES D^EGE FOB THA SAWLE RIHT AGYLDAN 

that he shall at Domesday account for that soul to 

GODE." 

God. 

From these passages we learn that for a period of three 
hundred and fifty years after the first attempt at legislation on 
the subject of infant baptism, and four and a half centuries after 
the coming of Augustine, the difficulty was apparently as great 
as ever it was. What they failed to do. by compulsion, the 
priests, who had a personal interest at stake, therefore endeav- 
oured in self defence, to bring about by superstitious means. 
In other words, the superstition of the Gabriel-ratchet being 
the souls of unbaptised infants flitting about in the air, probably 
originates with the priests, sometime during the Anglo-Saxon 
period. Its very nature proves it to bo of Christian growth 
therefore it is useless to look back to Pagan times for any earlier 
traces of it in this particular form. 

Superstition No. 4 is part and parcel of the Wild Huntsman 
Legend, as remarked by Mr. Atkinson, and, like No. 2, a mere 
graft onto the name of Gabble-ratchet. 

M. Thisclton Dyer, in the above cited paper, says (p. 494) 
that in Lancashire, these spectre hounds are locally termed 
' Gabriel-Ratchet,' (Roby, Traditions of Lancashire ; Harland 
and Wilkinson, Lancashire Folk-Lore 89, 167). Keunit (M.S. 
Lansd., 1033) says " At Wcdnesbury in Staffordshire the colliers 
going to their pits early in the morning, hear the noise of a pack 
of hounds in the air, to which they give the name of Gabriel's 
Hounds, though the more sober and judicious take them only to 
be Wild Geese making this noise in their flight." We have here, 
continues Mr. Dyer, " the solution of this popular superstition, 
for it is a well-ascertained fact that these spectre hounds are no 
other than numerous flocks of Wild Geese, or other large 
migratory birds." I cannot accept this ' solution,' which seems 
to bo only another superstition ' instead of a well-ascertained 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 157 

fact ' Mr. Dyer claims it to be. Even the authority of Yarrell, 
(Notice and Queries, 1st series, v. 506) that Rennet's ' geese ' 
are of the species Anser Segetum is unconvincing. It may be 
that the judgement of the ' sober and judicious' is still sub-judice 
11 Reverting, however, once more," continues Mr. Dyer, " to 
the Gabriels Hounds : In Northamptonshire they go by tho 
name of ' Holl Hounds.' In Devonshire ' Yeth Hounds,' or 
1 Heath-hounds,' ' Yeth ' being the dialect form ol ' Heath.' In 
Wales Cum Anmcyn or ' Hell Hounds.' 

Wordsworth alludes to this Superstition : 

" For overhead are sweeping Gabriel's bounds 
Doomed with their impious lord the flying hart 
To chase for ever on aerial ground." 

Mr. Robert Ingleby, of Pateley Bridge, informs me that he 
has always hcarJ the name of Gabriel-Ratchet applied to the 
Nightjar, and has known it as the common name of that 
bird from his boyhood. 




158 STUDIES IN NIDDEEDALE. 



XX. 

THE BIRDS OF NIDDERDALE, 

( Continued j. 

The Swift frequents some of the higher ground. August 
5th, 1807, Examined and measured five dead Swifts, and a 

dead Martin. 

SWIFT. MARTIN. 

Indies. Indies. 

Length from tip to tip of wings, extended... 16 11 

. Tip of beak to tip of tail 7 5^.. 

Length of leg when straightened ... ... H to 2 l 

Length of wing ... ... (average) 7j 4 

Length of tail 3 2} 

The shortness of the leg of a Swift is a remarkable feature. 
The arrangements in the mouth of a Swift are admirably 
adapted both for catching and for retaining flies when caught. 
The gape of the mouth is exceedingly large, and the sides are 
provided with skin walls. The roof of the mouth is provided 
with a triangular plate divided into two, and whose apex is at the 
beak. This plate is studded all over with short spines and 
edged at the base, and on the inner margins of each half with 
stronger spines. All these spines point towards the throat. 
The tongue is of two portions, one in the throat, and one in the 
mouth, consisting of a sagittate plate, the hinder parts of the barbs 
sharply serrated. The lower portion at the entrance of the throat 
is also sagittate, but broader, and the tooth upon it are weaker. 
The bird has the power of elevating these spines, at least all 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 159. 

those of the tongue, to hold or impale the flies when caught. 
Behind the roof-plate, and lower in the throat, is another plate, 
also armed with spines pointing downwards. 

The tongue of a Martin is on the same type as that of a 
Swift, the mouth plate being sagittate and barbed with several 
points, but the lower plate is deeper in the throat. The roof of 
the mouth is also covered with spines, but far fewer and smaller 
than those of a Swift. There is much more of the mandible 
exposed in a Martin than in a Swiffc. The plates in the roof of 
the mouth are not nearly so distinct as they are in a Swift. 
The flies I found in the Swifts were in the mouth, those in the 
Martin were in the throat. 

Swifts do not associate with Martins, and they are never soon 
in the same air together. When Swifts fly high, Martins may 
be seen nearer the ground ; but when Swifts are low there are 
no Martins. Martins ascend to the Dale Head. 

The House Martin seems to be one of these creatures whoso 
fortunes to a certain extent fpllow those of man. I fancy that 
the Celt on coming to these islands must have found very few 
Martins, and those few only in localities where there were lime- 
stones cliffs for them to build against. Nor is it at all probable 
that the Romans found many more. The Martin could not have 
become the very generally distributed and common bird it now 
is for centuries after the construction of stone houses with 
mortared walls afforded it a site for its marvellous nest. 

Among the very few natural nesting places of the common 
Martin is Kilnsey Crag, Wharfedale, a magnificent beetling 
cliff of limestone that rises abruptly from the level of the 
river to a height of about 165 feet. The horizontal extent 
of the projection of the upper part of the cliff beyond its 
base must be considerable, probably some 40 feet. Under 
the shelter thus formed many birds but more especially the 



160 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 




STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 101 

Martins build their nests, which, in the breeding season, 
may *be counted by thousands. The air about the cliff 
seems alivo with Martins, and the face of the cliff literally 
swarms with their nests. Kilnsey Crag is nearly a quarter of a 
mile long, and forms a most striking object from any point of 
view, but it looks especially grand and imposing from the flanks 
of Great Whernside, on the descent towards Kcttlewell. The 
full face of the cliff is there seen, either white in the morning 
sun, or black when he has sunk behind the mountains to the 
west, when it looks double its size. The most characteristic 
view is however from the slopes near Netherside, from which 
point in company with Mr. J. R. Dalcyns, west of the river, tho 
above sketch was taken. On the left, Kilusey Crag is distant 
two and a half miles, beyond which the river Skirfare flows from 
the exquisitely sweet Littondale to join the Wharfe. The bold 
bluff beyond that is " Knipe," (W. CNAP ;'0. N. KNAPPR; Dan. 
KNOP ; A, S. CN,S:P, a top. Knop, etc.,) three and a half to four 
miles distant ; a name occuriug at Kniphill, near Leatherhead in 
Surrey, and commonly. In the dale beyond this lies Kcttlewell 
respecting which we may add to the remarks on page 95, "spelt 
1 Ketylwell ' in the Compotus of Christopher Lofthouse, Prior of 
Bolton, A,D. 1471, [12 Ed. lv.] " The lead-mine chimney is 
distinctly seen five miles off ; at seven miles we see ' Tor Mere 
Top ' on Starbotn Moor, and at eight and a half miles, ' Buckden 
Pike,' 2802 feet above sea level. To the right the limestono 
girdles forms part of Langliffe, an obvious corruption of Langcliff, 
some three to four miles distant, while on tho right, -in tho 
immediate foreground is ' Grass Wood.' 

Tho picture would lose none of its beauty if wo could show 
the magnificent Heron that rose from tho Wharfo as we sat 
admiring the*beauty of the evening. 



u 



162 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



XXI. 

THE BIRDS OF NIDDERDALE, 

( Continued). 

Sand Martins are very scarce, or rather very local in the 
district. I noticed them twice at Apperley Bridge, Airedale, 
(about 200 feet) where they build in the sandy river bank ; and 
on the Ure below Tanfield. In a gravel pit here (160 feet) there 
was one lenticular bed of sand, one foot long, by six inches thick 
in the rnicldla, and in this I found a Sand Martin's nest with 
eggs, on Juno 12th, 1870. Until the last few years, however, 
ihey used to build in the bank of the Nidd, below the weir, at 
Pateley Mill. But they never build there now, on account of 
the floods having taken away the bank, as I am informed by 
Mr. Robert Ingleby. " Sand Martins " writes Mr. Thorpe, 
" are certainly plentiful on the Nidd in the Season. I have 
myself known them build a little below Loithousc, near ' Sykes' 
and various other places on the banks of the Nidd both above and 
below Patelt-y Bridge. 1 should think they are to be found in the 
season above Lofthouse. They have had their nests in the banks of 
the Nidd, ever since I can remember." On the Wharfe, near 
OLley, they are to be seen by hundreds, as I am informed by 
Mr. Yorko's present gamekeeper. He was formerly keeper at 
Farnley Hall, and when fishing in the Wharfe, he has taken the 
birds and their nests. This bird does not seem to ascend abovo 
five or six hundrt-d feet. 

The highest elevation at which I found a Pied Wagtail's nest 
was 1050 feet, near the Dale Head. This was on the face of a 



STUDIES IN NIDDEROALE. 168 

limestone scar, in a tuft of mos3 covered with long slender grass, 
six feet above the waters of the Nidd ; young birds, May 21st, 
1871. The hole was bored into the clump of moss from low 
down in the side ; nest nude of grass. Pie j Wagtails arrive in 
parties of forty or fifty, early in April. OQ March .llth, 1868, 
I saw a pair of Grey-headed Wagtails beside the canal near 
Manningham. Striking points are the head being a much lighter 
grey than the back, and the small size of the bird. 

The Titlark, here called " Lingtit," breeds on the moors, 
especially on the grassy moors or bents. I give the descriptions 
of three nests, taken down from nature in 1871 : 

No. 1. Near Carlton, Coverdale, N.W., 1000 feet May 19. 
Open grassj moorside bank above little running stream. Bent- 
grass nest, round; five eggs. Internal diameter, 2] inches. 
Length of eggs, -7-3 in. ; breadth, -6 in. ; ochreous ground, 
thickly covered with dark brown stains, blotchings, and markings 
darker at larger end ; still darker lines and streaks at larger end. 

No. 2. Near Lodge, Niddordalo, S.W., 1600 feet, May 22.- 
Opon grassy moor, nest with three young birds in a tuft of ling 
and bents. Young birds covered with long grey down. 

No. 8. Angrani Pasture, Nidderdale, S., 1850 feet, May 
28rd. Found a Titlark's nest with eggs. Instead of being all 
dark, they wore dark only at upper end, with asual darker 
markings and stripes. The lower halves wore very pale greyish 
ochre, almost white. The bird was distinctly striped down 
the breast. 

The Redpoll breeds in Nidderdale. On May 19th, 1869, 
I found a nest in an alder bush on the bank of the Nidd, 
(about 890 feet), just above the weir at Pateley Bridge. The 
nest was in a fork a few feet from the ground, composed externally 
of roots and twigs. Four eggs ; small, pale bluish green, 
spotted and streaked at larger end with brown. 



164 STUDIES IN NIDDEBDALE. 

On February 22nd, 1868, I saw an immense flock of Chaf- 
finches, which must have numbered some thousands, They were 
in beautiful bright feather, apparently all cocks. A strong west 
wind was blowing, with hail and rain, and they took shelter in 
the low hedges. The place was a steep hillside, two miles east 
of Shipley, Airedale, facing north-west, in the teeth of the wind. 

Mr. Dakyns writes, "The Chaffinch is called "Bull-Spink"." 
(W. YSPINCYN, a finch, also called PINO. Yspinc, that is smart 
or trim, (Ow.) Other Welsh forms are ' Gwinc ' and ' Wine, ' 
which rather suggest the sharp note of the finch tribe. The double 
application of the name ' Bull,' probably evidences a confusion 
between the two. 

I noticed the Bullfinch on four occasions only, as follows : 
November 9th, 1870. Hedges near Rasp Wood, three miles 
S.W. of Bedale, sheltered situation (375 feet) ; Nov. 29, 1870. 
Ellington Firth, in valley in largo wood, sheltered (500 feet) ; 
Dec. 6th, 1870. Roadside hedges between Azerley and Kirkby 
Malzeard (375 feet) ; June 13th, 1871. Follifoot Ridge, western 
exposure, summit of ridge (400 feet). 

The only Crossbills I have ever seen wild, stayed for some 
time in the autumn of 187-1 at Sandsend, near Whitby. 

Starlings go right up to the Dale Head, but I do not remembor 
seeing them on the moors. They begin to Hock in June, as I 
observed near Bewerley, June 17th, and again early in August, 
1869. In February, the Starling sits upon a twig and sings 
throe notes ; one as if his beak wore chattering with cold, 
another like in sound to the Corn Crake's, but far less loud, and 
a third like the clucking of violin -strings with the finger. It 
utters also a fourth note a long sweet cadence gradually dying 
away and descending the scale at the same time. 

The Dipper I did not observe in the Airo below Shipley, 
doubtless on account of the polluted state of the river ; nor in 
the Wharfe below Otley; nor have I noted it in Nidderdalo below 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 165 

Pntelcy Bridge ; nor in Washburndalo below Blubberhouso. In 
tho Uro, however, I have seen it ns low as Ripon (90 feet). It 
follows almost every beck right up on to tho moors. They are 
generally seen singly, sometimes in pairs. On May 9th, 18G9, 
I watched two Dippers in the afternoon flying about over some 
shallows near Ramsgill. They kept chasing each other at a great 
pace, flying close above the water. In order to escape its 
pursuer, tho pursued now and then followed through the water, 
entering and leaving it without any apparent check. I was 
astonished at the freedom with which they could transfer them- 
selves from the air to the water or the water to the air. Even a 
duck seems to rise out of the water with difficulty. They rested 
frequently on snags, stones, and roots of trees, and kept up an 
incessant "chip, chip," quickly repeated. The Dipper's nest is 
sometimes so placed that the bird would have to fly through tho 
water every time it entered or left the nest. They frequently 
build under waterfalls. 

I observed the first and last flocks of Fieldfares as follows : 
Stainburn Moor (800 feet), October 15th, 18G8 ; Crag Wood, 
near Brimham Rocks (500 feet), June 1st, 1869 ; Appletreewick, 
Wharfedale, October 17th, 1869 ; Ilardgap, near Stean, Nidder- 
dale (1200 feet), on border of moor, September 2nd, 1870. 

The Fieldfare in Craven and Westmorland, and in the East 
Riding is called "Fell-for" or " Fell-fare." A. S. FEALA-FOR, 
the mtiny <j<)ery, because thuy always go in flocks. (In Nidderdalo 
they are called " Chuckers," but the Dan. and Germ, names aro 
different, being respectively Dan. Knunxfutjl, Germ. Krammets- 
vogel. In 0. N. Krainsi is poetic for a Riven). 

This raises an interesting question as to the original meaning 
of our word "field." The English "FIELD" is A. S. FEALD, 
FELD, F.ELD, FILD and "many " is A. S. FEALA, FELA, F.ELA. 
Again " field " is Germ. FELD, (but Dan. MARK. Felt is a mili- 
tary term, and the Dan. for many is "manyc,") and tho Germ, for 
many is vi?le. Now the Dan. for a common is FUSLLED, Schleswig 



166 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



Holstein " FIELLED, so called," says my friend, Lient. 
Rasmussen, of the Danish Navy, " because it is the right of 
many owners to run cattle on it because it is held by or belongs 
to many." Now the passage in the Laws of Ine, cited at length 
on page G2, brings out so strikingly the connection between a 
" common " and a " field " as to leave little room to doubt the 
correctness of this explanation. " If farmers have a grazing field 
in common," Safety and economy were the motives, no doubt, 
for adopting this custom. Of course the origin of the word is 
farther back than Anglo-Saxon times, but it is remarkable that 
TUN and not FELD is the word used in the passage in question. 

many, A. S., FILD, field 

,, A. S., FKALD, 

,, FeLD, Longbard, 0. Sax. and A. S., 

FCLD. 

,, VOLT, field, Netherland, VELD. 

,, FELD. ,, 

,, FIELD, FH'LD, field '. Dan. FIELLED, 

a common. 

,, POLIS, (a city). 

,, FOLD, a field ; A. S. FOIDE a fold. 

d ' from FILU, we have ' Fold ' from FOL. 
From the same root come : 

the many, FOLK, which means " the many." 
full, 

FOLK, FOLC, Folk. 

,, VOLC, ,, 

,, VOLK, ,, 

,, VOLC, ,, 

,. FOLK, ,, 

,, FOLCK, ,, 

,, PLETHOS, (a crowd) ,, 

As Turba a crowd gives Thorpe a village ; so Polloi the many gives 
Palis a city ; and Folk gives Fylki a county. All those meanings dato from 
the ancient Village Community, but before leaving " Field " I may remark 
in parenthesis that LAND or LOND means " lent," or that which is lent, 
loaned, and dates from that epoch in the history of the Village Community 
in which certain plots were " loaned " to certain persons to revert to com- 
mon property at the expiration of stated periods. 



Gothic. 


FILU, 


A. S. 


FEALA, 


0. H. G. 


FILO, FILU 


M. H. G. 


VIL, 


Germ. 


VIEL, 


Frisian. 




Gr. 


POLUS, 


0. N. 




So also 


-like 'Fiel 

T 


i' 

Gr. 01 POLLOI, 


Gothic. 


FULLS, 


0. H. G. 


FOL, 


M. H. G. 


VOL, 


Germ. 


Voi,t, 


0. Sax. 




[eel. 


FDLLR, 


New Fris. 




Gr. 


PLEOS 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 16? 



XXII. 

THE BIRDS OF NIDDERDALE, 
(Continued.) 

The Thrash and Blackbird go up to the Dale Head, at least 
as high as 1200 feet, where there voices lend to the wild beauty 
of the scene. 

" Et Merulus modulaus sat polcbris tinnitat cxlis, 
Nocte ruente tamen cantica iialla canit." 

" Lodge, May 21st, 1877. The chorus of birds on this still 
calm, sunny evening, 6-30 P.M., consists of the notes of tho 
Curlew, (of which a pair, wheeling about, has gone to the Nidd 
to drink), the Ring Ouzel, the Cuckoo, the Snipe high in 
air, and the Chaffinch, with his sharp, ' wit, twit, twit,' while 
Starlings are busy with their young in the neighbouring 
barn -roofs. 

1 Tone TunlOh trueulal, Sturnns tune putitat ore.' 

7 P.M. The Thrush has only just begun to sing, and now, savo 
for tho distant Curlew, he has it all to himself. 7-80 P.M. 
Curlews all around making a sweet melodious chorus ; Swallows 
gone; Martins flying about; Starlings gone; the last warm, 
soft, rose-coloured tint fading and darkening on the opposite 
cliffs. Four distinct Thrushes singing ; Partridge noisy in the 
dale below the house. 

' Cuccabat hinc Perdii, Line, graceitat improbuB Anscr.' 
A troop of clouds that came over this afternoon have all gone, 



168 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

but there is a haze forming." Partridges W. Y PETRUS lit. the 
starters; PETRUSEN, A Partridge, (Ow.) 

The Ring Ouzel has a sweet song, not unlike part of a 
Thrush's. It has a beautiful note, which it repeats thrice, 
not inaptly represently by the words " tree, tree, tree," smart, 
'but extremely melodious. The Ring Ouzel does not ascend to 
the very highest hills, nor does it go below the heathery moors, 
and even on these is not to be seen everywhere. Its favourite 
haunts are broad shallow valleys with numerous running 
" sikes," and having on each side a flat ridge. There the ling 
grows long, and its nest may be found near to some running 
stream. I give descriptions of four of these from nature : 

No. 1. May 13th, 1869. Brimham Rocks (900 feet), in 
an east and west sike, on the northern side, under a tuft of 
heather. Composed of sticks of heather and pieces of dry strong 
grass, rather loosely compacted, but strongly built, and lined with 
finer grass. The nest contained four eggs ; light bluish green 
ground, mottled .with dirty brown spots. 

No. 2. May 14th. 1869. Pateley Moor (1000 feet), con- 
structed like No. 1, and exposed to the east. Three eggs. 

No. 3. May llth, 1871. Moors near Kettlewell, (1440 
foot), in a cleft in limestone. Made of grass, &c., lined with fine 
grass ; internal diameter, 4 inches ; outside, 7 inches. Four 
eggs; pale blue ground, faint blotches, pale .purple and., brown, 
thicker at upper end ; length, 1*2 in.; breadth, -9 in. 

No. 4. May 22nd, 1871. Lodge (1075 feet), under a tuft 
of wood-sago in a vertical bank on a bed of sandstone. Made of 
wiry roots and stems of bracken, pieces of moss and coarse grass, 
lined with fine grass ; internal diameter, 4 inches, round. Four 
eggs ; pale green ground, irregularly but somewhat thickly 
speckled with umber blotches of a pale tint, and less distinctly 
with pale purple, especially about the larger end ; a few dark 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 169 

lines and dots at larger end ; length, 1-25 in. ; breadth, '0 in. 
Nest three inches deep ; seven feet above stream. 

The Ring Ouzel is somewhat uncertain in its appearance 
upon the South Downs ; sometimes it will not appear for years 
together. ' The first flock seen for years came to West Tarring, 
15th October, 1862,' as I learned from the notes of my late 
venerable friend, The Eev. J. W. Warter, Vicar. On January 
29th, 1879, I observed a small flock amongst some furze bushes 
on the downs about a mile above Michelgrove, in Sussex. 

The Dunnock (Hedge Sparrow), is so called from its dun 
colour, as the Robin is called Ruddock (Welsh RHWDAWG, A. S. 
RUDDUC,) from his red breast. Let me record my tribute of 
admiration for the gentle bird, whose rich little canzonet may be 
heard on the silvery mornings of those rare bright days when an 
atmosphere, clear as crystal and of alpine purity and freshness, 
descends to invigorate the less favoured regions of the plain in 
bleak November. 

The Redstart is quite as characteristic of the larger woods as 
the Grouse, Golden Plover and Ring Ouzel of the moors. It 
abounds in the district, and ascends to 1000 feet, perhaps higher. 
I have noticed it in Airedale, Wharfedale (as high as Starbotn), 
Nidderdale, Colsterdale, aud Coverdale. The Willow Wren, 
Redstart, and Chaffinch have a note in common most delicately 
modulated and drawn out by the Willow Wren, rather more 
quickly repeated by the Redstart, and somewhat more coarsely 
by the Chaffinch, which seems to mock the Willow Wren. 

There are no Stonechats in Nidderdale. On July 6th, 1869, 
I saw the only Stonechat I remember to have seen anywhere in 
the neighbourhood ; that was on Constable Ridge, near Haverah 
Park (750 feet). The place abounds with low stunted furze- 
bushes. 

The Whinchat is extremely common, and ascends to 900 
fact ; in Airedale, east of Shipley, there is not a field without 

V 



170 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

several. It has -a favourite note, " tooee, tuck, tuck," the 
"tooee" drawn out beautifully modulated, the "tuck, tuck" 
rather reedy in sound, somewhat like picking the end of a thin 
piece of wood with the finger. The whinchat and Wheatear have 
this note in common ; so great is the similarity that I question 
whether the most practised ear could tell by the sound alone 
which bird uttered the often-repeated and slightly varied " twee, 
chuck, chuck," They also have the same habit of flying before 
one along the road a trick common to the Whitethroats, Fly- 
catchers, and many others. Whiuchats swarm along the railway 
between Pateley Bridge and Dacre Banks. Wheatears arc 
common on the higher ground. They abound on Greenhowhill, 
1400 feet, with its grass fields and stone walls, in the flat green 
fields of Cracoe (700 feet), near Lintou in Wharfedale, where 
there are stone walls or iron railirgs, and no hedges, with a lew 
scattered thorns. They evidently consider, with Colonel 
Lovelace, that 

" Stone walls do not u prison mal;r, 
Nor iron bars a t'ajje." 

A few wore still to be seen at Greeiihowhill, September 0, 1881. 
The young Wheateavs arrive at the south coast early in August, 
where they Hock during the autumn. 

I have not seen the Grasshopper Warbler in the whole 
district, except once, about June 15th, 18G9, at Garth Crook 
(1000 feet), on the border of the high moors of Barden Fell, 
between the Wharfe at Bolton and the Washburn, an exposed 
situation, with an easterly aspect. I have observed it farther 
south, near Huddersfield. 

Notwithstanding the efforts of a local author to disprove the 
existence of the Nightingale in this district, I venture to record 
two localities in which I have seen tnesc birds, Ksholt Woods-, 
in Airedale, in the summer of 18G8, and on Slay 8th, in Jonas 
Wood, near Farnley Hull, Wharfodnlr. Nightingales usually 
reach the south coast the first work in August. On July 27th, 



STUDIES IN N'IDDKRDALK. 171 

1867, I saw tho first at Iloeno. On tho loth one was for some 
time oil a geranium, in front of a window where I was writing, 
pecking the underside of the leaves. On looking to see what it 
could get, I found numbers of cobwebs stretched in various 
directions to catch the flies that might shelter there from the 
rain that had fallen lightly all the morning. On August IGth I 
saw a beautiful cock bird in the asparagus bed, of which dense 
forest it seems particularly fond. It runs nimbly up the perpen- 
dicular stalks, now and anon pecking on its way. It Hew to a 
tree about thirty yards oil' a straight slightly undulating flight. 

I used frequently to hear the Blackcap singing through the 
night, in company with the Corn Crake, at Apperley Bridge and 
at other places in the district. 

The Whitethroat occurs in Nidderdale, where its "ee tschuk" 
may be heard, but not plentifully. 

The Lesser Whitethroat is by far the commonest bird in the 
whole district, from the vale of York up to the borders of the 
moors, where its place in this respect is taken up by the Titlark. 
It ascends Nidderdalo to Angram (1200 feet), at the Dale Head. 
The inclined plateaux, peculiar to the eastern slopes of the uiill- 
stone-grit range, with their small clusters of Acer pscudtt-plutanua, 
and frequent small ponds, .ailbrd just the conditions that suit 
this bird. No table land is too exposed or too elevated; provided 
there is a cluster of two or three trees and a pond, there will be 
Lesser Wbitethroats. This lively bird has a loud attractive 
song, consisting of four notes quickly repeated, then another four 

a shade lower, then a third and a four, thus : .... 

After the last four the song dies away in a beautiful little trill. 
It has also a note like the Wuinehat's, softened and modified. 
Tho Lesser Whitethroat's note has ceased by the beginning of 
July, when tho pretty and frequently repeated trill is much 
missed. This bird may often be seen inspecting tho intruder 
from the leafj cover of its favourite tree, 



172 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

The Wood Wren is somewhat more local, but in suitable 
situations is sure to be heard. Tall trees and thick underwood, 
firs and Acer pseudo-platanus, deep sheltered "gills" with 
wooded sides, and large woods, are the favourite haunts of this 
bird ; where these prevail it ascends to 1000 feet, and to the 
borders of the moors. 

The Willow Wren ascends the dale to Angram (1200 feet) ; 
but I have no special notes about it, from which I conclude that 
the bird is rare here. 

The Chiffchaff ranges up to little above 700 feet. The steep 
wooded .sides of the valleys and extensive woods, with tall firs and 
beeches, or any tall trees, are the favourite haunts of this bird. 
It is not so common as the Lesser Whitethroat, but considerably 
more common than the Wood Wren. 

The Common Wren ascends to 1000 feet, perhaps higher. 

The Woodpigeon is called " Cowshot," the shot seems to bo 
from the Welsh YSGUTHAN, lit. " the scuddcr," a name of the 
Woodpigeon. 

The Rock Dove breeds at Guy's Cliff, and at Brimham Rocks. 
On May 18th, 1869, one flew out of a hole bored for more than 
a yard into the peat on the top of a crag amongst the Hare Head 
rocks. A yard from the nest I picke'd up two eggs, one broken, 
the other addled ; these may have been turned out by a Cuckoo, 
but I had no opportunity of proving this point. The Rock Dove 
only lays two eggs. 

On August 12th, 1871, Mr. Ormerod shot a Grey Hen on 
Cockley Hill, (1300 feet), on the moors east of Lofthouse. 

The Grouse vary much in colour. Some 12 or 14 years ago 
there was a family with sandy and whitish feathers on the moors 
near Nursa Knott. Mr. Newbould has all three stuffed at the 
" Moor Cock Inn," Dry Gill. (1881.) 

Mr. Reason has stuffed at Wath, 1881, a light brown 
coloured Grey Hen, a very pale bird, shot on Sigs worth moor, by 
Mr, Tennant, of Low Green, in 1879. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 178 

The Grouse is a capricious bird in its choice of residence. 
The fact that they do not abound everywhere on the moors is 
doubtless not without its influence on the leases of moors. They 
are most plentiful in the zone between 1000 and 1500 feet, and 
do not go much above 1700. Spots where bilberries ripen, kept 
moist by springs, and with a southerly exposure, attract them in 
autumn, though they liennder a northern " edge " in the spring. 
For their nests they like broad shallow hollows with springs at 
the edges, and a flat ridge, at least on one side, on to which 
they adjourn to crow and sun themselves. " Cocklakes" is the 
name of one of these " Riggs " on the moors, west of the River 
Washburn. What a flood of beauty is shed upon the word when 
we learn that it means the "playing-ground"* of the moor-cock! 
They build also in the peat in deep-stream courses. Here is a 
description of two nests : 

No. 1. May 10th, 1871. A light nest, beside a deep stream- 
course in sandstone. Made of round rushes, a few feathers 
mixed ; 7 inches across. Seven eggs ; pale grey, irregularly 
speckled and blotched. 

No. 2. Same date. Deep-stream course, in peat under tuft 
of grass; exposure N., sheltered. Made of grass; 7 inches 
across. Ten eggs. 

Many young Grouse are hatched before this ; and it is 
astonishing how fast they grow, how soon they are able to fly, 
and how strong they are on the wing. 

It has been my good fortune to spend nine successive years, 
spring, summer, autumn and winter on and around the 
moors, and to have sat among the long heather, in the fresh 
spring evenings, listening to the melodious clamour of the piping 
birds. Here I will fall back upon first impressions, lest the 
picture should suffer from the rude touch of familiarity : May 
22nd, 1869. On Masham Moor, a glorious expanse of heather, 

Goth. LAIKAN, 0. N. LEIKA, to play ; LFIKR, a game, or play. 



174 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

lying to the north of Nidderdale, 1500 feet above the level of the 
sea, from 6 to 8 P.M. Air resplendently clear and transparent, 
not a cloud to be seen ; the sun lighting up the moor. Grouse 
calling all around, with Curlews wheeling in the air, and Golden 
Plovers swiftly skimming the ground ; the Ring Ouzel suddenly 
rising on to some spray of heather, and uttering his melodious 
' tree, tree, tree "; the Snipe wildly flying high in air, with his 
peculiar knocking noise and startled whistle -hundreds on every 
side, all together in full chorus. The charm of the place, with 
its wildness, the incessant harmonious clamour of the piping 
birds, and the complete novelty of the scene, inspired me deeply. 
The Golden Plover has a single sweet mellow pipe, which is 
answered by his mate a semitone lower ; also a note which he 
frequently repeats, r- 1 . - . ' : , like the 'Hallelujah' of the 
' Hallelujah Chorus,' and who knows but that this refrain may 
not have been thus suggested to the great composer ! while 
with some of his single pipes there is a beautiful and inimitable 
little roll. The Curlew keeps up an incessant ' toor-r-lui, 
toor-r-lui,' in a flute-like, melodious, piping tone, while the 
Grouse utters a peculiar guttural call as he flics off, in the time 
of what is generally understood as a ' double knock,' the syllable 
repeated being ' coc.' All these together form a chorus to bo 
heard nowhere else but in these moorlands." 

The Woodcock sometimes appears on the moors. On the 
!-51st of October, 1871, I saw one near Greenhowhill, (1325 
foot). 

The Peewit, called " Tewiit," ' Tewit,' and ' Tee-wit,' (cp. 
Dan. TWIT,) is generally distributed and very plentiful, ranging 
to at least an equal height. Young birds begin to call imperfectly 
in July. They come down to the Wharfe to drink just as it is 
getting dark, and continue crying " peewit" as late as a quarter 
past nine. 

The Corn Cniko is found in the larger dales, but does not 
ascend to their upper parts. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



175 



The Heron pays periodical and solitary visits to the dales. 
One was hanging about the Washburn from September 14th till 
October 31st, 18G8, and doubtless much later. One came to 
the waterfall in Wath Wood, Niddcrdale, on August 2nd, 1869 ; 
but with the exception of one or two occasions in the upper part 
of Wharfedale, I have not noted them elsewhere. 

I have been much struck with the tactical methods of the 
Snipe. On July 80th, 1808, I put up four of these birds in a 
stream among the broad meadows between Otley and Burley, in 
Wharfedale. They divided, each in its own course flying lead- 
long at a great_ pace for about two hundred yards up stream. 
On being a second time roused they rose, each in its own course, 
to a great height, and flew right away. ' Jack Snipe ' seems a 
reduplication, for Gut- is the Welsh for a Snipe. 

The Common Sandpiper is found along the streams in the 
dales throughout the spring. I have no note of its occurrence 
above 900 feet. 

The following summary will give an idea of the distribution 
of some of the birds observed by me in the district, and will 
show the various elevations at which they were respectively met 
with : 

SUMMARY OF THE ORXI'lHOLOGY OF THE DISTRICT. 

Elevation. II 1 G H MOO II S. 

2000 ft. Raven. 

1500 ,, Titlark, Buzzards, Snipe, Grouse, Golden Plover, 
Merlin, Ring Ouzel, Curlew. 
Cuckoo, Fieldfare, Peewit. 

DALES. 
UPPER. LOWEH. 

1200 ft. Dipper. 
900 ,, Sandpiper. 

700 Heron, Whiuchat Redstart, ChifichalT. 

800 ,, - Ued- backed Shrike. 

600 ,, Redpoll - - Nightjar, Nuthatch. 

500 ,, Pied Flycatcher - - Jackdaw, Jay. 



176 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

LOWLAND. 

400ft. - - - CornCrake. 

300 ,, Sandpiper Kingfisher. 

200 - - ... Sand Martin. 
100 Dipper. 

EASTERLEY SLOPING PLATEAUX. 
BAKE. WOODED. 

1200 ft. Peewit, Swift. 

1100 Gulls. 

1000 Fieldfare - - Lesser Whitethroat. 

700 ,, Stonechat, Wheatear. 

GOO - Wood Wren. 

500 Bullfinch. 



SUMMARY OF LOCALITIES. 

PIED FLYCATCHER, Muscicapa atncajnllu. 

Bolton Woods, Wharfedale, 400 ft., May 20th, 1869. Deep 

wooded gorge, sheltered. Breeds. 
Harefield Woods, Nidderdale, W., 500 ft., May 14th, 1869. 

Wood on east side of dale. Breeds. 

Bewerley, E., 400 ft., July 25th, 1869. Wooded. Breeds: 
Hackfall, Ure, 200500 ft., June 23rd, 1869. Deep wooded 

gorge, sheltered. Breeds. 

REDSTART, Euticilla phcenicurus. 

River cover, above Carlton, 700 ft., Juno 5th, 1871. With 

Lesser Whitethroat ; noisy. 
Deep Gill, N.E., 800 ft. Deep narrpw gill, wooded sides, 

near Jervaulx. 
Starbotn, 800 ft., May 9th, 1871. In the upper part of 

Wharfedale. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 177 

Litton, GOO ft., May 7th, 1871. More open country to W. 
Ilkley, Wharfedalo. Saw first April 2Gth, 1870. 
Riffa Wood, S., 225 ft., April 80, 1870. Sloping fields, hedges. 
Arnagill Tower, 1000 ft. Deep wooded cleft, in moors, 

falling to N. 
Bridge Banks, Laver Bottom, 800 ft., 1870. Wooded sides 

to valley. 

Swetton, E., 725 ft., 1870. Exposed easterly-sloping plateau. 
Wetshod Lane, N.W., 700 ft. Exposed, hedgerow trees. 
Bramley Fall, N., 200 ft., April 30th, 1868. Airedale, west 

of Leeds ; extensive woods, sheltered, low in valley. 

LESSER WHITETHROAT, Sylvia curruca. 

Middleham, Wensleydale, N., 400 ft. Broad valley, E. and W. 
Carlton, Coverdale, E., 900 ft. Few trees ; hillside, 800 

ft. above river. 
Angram, Nidderdale, 1200 ft. At bottom of dale, last trees 

near Dale Head. 
Lodge, Nidderdale, 8., 1200 ft. In A. pseudo-platanus, 200 

ft. above river. 
High Woodale, Nidderdale, N. and S., 1000 ft. Dale side, 

steep, few trees. 
Black Hill Ho., Kcx Beck, S. 825 ft. Exposed, on ridge ; 

in garden. 
Biggin Grange ,, E. ,575ft. In avenue, protected ; 

valley slope. 

SkerBeck 825 ft. 

Spring Hall S., 425 ft. On ridge. 

Owster Hill E., 450 ft. Wood cresting hill ; 

several small ponds near. 
Kendale.Wood, Kcx Beck, 850 ft. Sheltered. 
Bridge Banks 800 ft. 

A small wood ,, E., 850 ft. S. of road, small 

stream, sheltered. 

N. of Upper Holborn Bridge, Laver, 500 ft., exposed. 

W 



178 STUDIES IN NIDDEKDALE. 

Drift Lane, Laver, 450 ft. Sheltered ; near foot-bridge ; 

small woods. 

Belford Lane, Laver, GOO ft. Exposed ; with Wood Wren. 
Wctshod Lane ,, 700 ft, In company with Redstart. 
River Nidd, 490 ft. Trees by River above Pateley Bridge ; 

broad meadows. 

Oxmires Plantation, Washburndalc. 300 ft. 
Swinden Hall, Wharfedale, 200 ft. A few trees ; in valley, 

E. and W. 
Nowall Hall, S., 175 ft. Cluster of trees N. of Otley ; on 

level of Wharfe ; close to river. 

Riffa Pasture, 150 ft. Banks of Wharfe ; on alluvium. 
York Gate Plantation, 825 ft. On summit of Chevin ridge. 
Black Horse Inn, Airedale, S., G50 ft. Gently sloping to S. 

from Chevin ; a belt of trees, N.E. and S.W. 
Kereby Town End, Wharfedale, S., 280 ft. On ridge; avenue. 
Owl Head Wood ,, S., 150 ft, Steep wood, to 

alluvium ; with ChiiFchaff. 
Near West Plantation, Wharfedale, 325 ft. Cluster of trees 

in fields. 

Belt near Halfway House, 575 ft., May 1st, 1871. 
Little Plains Wood, 850 ft. On table land S. of Aire, near 

Calverley. 
Hollin's Wood, N.E., 800 ft. Lies low, steep bank to Aire. 

WOOD WREN. Phylloscopus sibilatrix. 

Long Side, Birk Gill, 850 ft., May 19th, 1871. A deep cleft 

in moors, with native forest. 
How Gill, N., 850 ft. Narrow wooded gill in steep hillside, 

above Jervaulx. 
Arnagill Tower, 1000 ft., June 14th, 1870. A deep cleft, N. 

and S., in moors ; wooded sides. 
Burntroots Plantation, 800 ft., June 1st, 1870. Sheltered ; 

wooded sides of Thieves Gill, N. and S. 
Carter Sike, Lavertou, N., 800 ft., 1870. Exposed, groups 

of trees ; hedges. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 179 

Bolford Lane, 600 ft., 1870. Exposed ; with Lesser 

Whitethroat. 
Picking Gill, Sawley, 625 ft., 1869. Deep gill, sheltered ; 

wooded sides. 
Moselcy Wood, 525 ft., May 1st, 1869. 

CIUFFCHAFF, Phylloscopiis collybita. 

Kirkhy Malzcard, 425 ft., May 20th, 1870. Protected ; Park 

Wood, sides of narrow valley. 
Wood near E. Tanfield, W., 125 ft., September 21st, 1870. 

Small wood in steep bank above Ure ; heard. 
Steadbars Wood, S.W., 200 ft., June 1st, 1870. Near Light- 
water, moderately protected from E. 
Wiuksley Bridge, N., 300 ft. Wooded sides of Laver. 

Valley, N.E. and S.W. 
Wiuksley Banks, W., 400 it., August 27th, 1870. 

N. and S. 

Low Ray Carr, 500 ft. N.E. and S.W. 

North Wood, N. 825 ft, E. and W. 
Eavestone Lakes, N.E., 600 ft., May 27th, 1869. Deep gill 

with steep wooded sides, lake at bottom. 
Low Wood, 8.E., 650 ft., May 24th, 1869. Valley, wooded 

sides; stream, S.E. 
Wai-sill Pasture, E., 720 ft., 1869. High table-land ; wood 

on edge of moor. 
Oakshaw, Clark's Carr, and Hag Pits, E., 400 to 600 ft., 

1869. West siJo of Nidd ; extensive woods. 
Shepherd Wood, S., 225 to 875 ft., July 21st, 1869. Steep 

wood to alluvium of Nidd. 
Cockbur Bank, 700 ft. Washbnrndale. Steep wooded sides ; 

valley 800 feet deep. 
Swindcn Wood, 800 ft., Juno 1871. Lies low; N. side of 

wood ; no other woods near ; singing 3 P.M. 
Budding Park, 260 ft., Juno, 1871. Tall trees ; considerable 

wood ; singing 1 P.M. 



180 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

Kirskill Wood, N., 850 ft., June, 1871. On S. side of 

Wharfe ; steep hillside ; singing 11 A.M. 
Whin Covert, N., 375 ft., June, 1871. Steep bank close to 

Arthington tunnel ; chiefly tall firs and beeches ; singing 

12, noon. 
Hunter's Wood, N. slope, 250 ft., June 7th, .1.871. In narrow 

valley; small wood; singing 4-15 P.M. 
Keswick Oxclose Wood, N.W., 150 ft., June 7th, 1871. Steep 

bank above Wharfe ; Singing 4-15 P.M. 
Owl Head Wood, S., 250 ft. Steep wood to alluvium of 

Wharfe ; singing 3-40 P.M. 

West Plantation, S., 275 ft. On table-laud ; large wood. 
Longridge Plantation, N., 325 ft., July 3rd, 1871. Hare wood 

Park, protected ; singing 5-30 P.M. 

GROUSE'S NEST. Great Blowing Gill Beck, N., 1820 ft. ; in 
gentle hollow on moor S. of Great Whernside. 

SANDPIPER, Trinya hypoleucos. 

Pott Beck, Kiver Burn, 500 ft., 1871. Deep valley with 

narrow alluvium, wooded N. and S. 
Pateley Bridge, Nidderdale, 390 ft., May 10, 18G9. One in 

Nidd, on shallows ; broad meadows. 
Lofthousc, Nidderdale. S., 430 ft., 18G9. Nest with four eggs, 

bank of Nidd ; broad meadows. 
Ramsgill, Nidderdale, 4GO ft., May 9, 1809. One in Nidd, 

on shallows ; broad meadows. 
Stean Beck, Nidderdale, 875 ft., 18G9. Deep gorge, very 

narrow, rocky shallows, wooded sides. 
Trows Beck, Nidderdale, S.E., 1300 ft., 1871. Lodge 

Pasture ; sloping open moorside ; in dale. 
Tanfield Mill, Urc, S.E., 125 ft., Juno 12, 1871. Limestone 

shallows ; rocky ledges, in river. 
Above Winksley Bridge, Kiver Laver, 800 ft., 1870. Wooded 

sides ; narrow meadows. 
Galphay Wood, 250 ft., 1870. Steep woods, to river on E. side. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDA.LE. 181 

Apporley Bridge, N., about 300 ft. Stream in wood, over- 
grown with trees. 

SNIPE, Scolopax gallinayo. 

Angrani Pasture, S., 1550 ft., May 23, 1871. Caught young 

Snipe ; attracted by old bird feigning lameness. 
Dale Head, 1350 ft., May 22, 1869. Breeds ; and on 

Masbam Moor. 

Coal Dike, N., 750 ft. Very small stream on high ground. 
Galphay Moor, N., 525 ft., May 26, 1870. Saw five, 5 P.M. ; 

flattish boggy land, slightly exposed. 
Jackhole Head, W., 1250 ft. Saw seven, High Moors, W. 

of Greenhowhill ; wet, exposed. 
Stainburn Moor, S., 800 ft., Oct. 22, 1868. 
Burley, in Wharfedale, N., 200 ft., July 80, 1868. Stream 

in alluvium of Wharfedale ; saw four. 

DIPPER, Cinclus aquacticus. 

Sowden Beck, N.E., 1075 ft., September 14, 1871. Stream 

on open moor. 
Spruce Gill Beck, N.E., 900 ft., 1871. Deep valley in moors. 

,, ,, N.E., 1075 ft. Valley in moors. 

Trows Beck, S.E., 1800 ft., May 24, 1871. Flew against a 

stone and killed itself. I have this bird stuffed. 
Bain Grain Beck, E. f 1600 ft., May 11. Near watershed 

ridge between Wharfe and Nidd ; High Moors. 
River;Nidd, Ramsgill, 460 ft., May 9th, 1869. Meadows, a 

pair ; nest near. 
River Ure, near Ripon, S.E., 90 ft., 1870. Broad meadows, 

stony shallows. 
Spinksburn Beck, S.E., 550 ft. Meadows, shallow stream 

in slight hollow in table- land. 
North Gill Beck, 850 ft. Deep gill, wooded sides, sheltered. 



182 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



THE CLIFFORD FRAGMENTS. 

Being studies from nature to illustrate the story of 
THE SHEPHERD LORD. 

INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 



The subject of the following fragments of tho story of a 
really noble character, is well told by Miss Julia Corner, in her 
story of The Shepherd Lord. * 

Lord De Clifford, who was killed in a skirmish after the battle 
of Tovvton, 1460, left a son about seven years of age at the time. 
His title and estates being forfeited, he lived as a shepherd's 
son for about ten years at Londesborough, but for sixteen years 
after that as a shepherd on the estates of Sir Lancelot Threlkcld 
whom his mother had married among the mountains of 
Cumberland, near the borders of Scotland. Towards the end of 
this period, or when he was about 82 years of age, " a gentlemen 
of noble family and good estate, Sir John St. John of Bletso, in 
Bedfordshire, came on a visit to Threlkcld, with his daughter 
Anne, a fair girl in the bloom of youth and beauty." The 
Shepherd Lord, " who had seen her riding out over the hills 
with her father and Sir Lancelot," fell in lovo with her. " She 
had seen him too, and had observed how far superior he was in 
appearance to other rustic swains," and being no doubt secretly 
informed or influenced by Lady Margaret Threlkcld, Do 
Clifford's mother, reciprocated his affection while he was yet 
a shepherd. " It chanced one day as ho watched his flocks 
feeding on the mountains, he saw the dainptl on her while 

Mngnct StoricH, Groombridge P. 134. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 188 

palfrey, attended by a single page, riding direct towards 
him "...she stopped her horse and said in the sweetest tones 
imaginable, " Good day, shepherd Henry, I came to ask a service 
of you. ..in riding over the hills this morning I have lost a golden 
clasp with three diamonds, that fastened my gorget, and I would 
ask you, should you meet with such a bauble in your ramblings 
to carry it to the Lady Margaret of Threlkeld, who will see that 
it is returned to me." " Lady I will not fail to do thy bidding. 
Few persons traverse these hills, and I doubt not the jewel may 
be recovered." " Thanks, gentle shepherd : we leave Threlkeld 
this day, so farewell, and be assured your courtesy will not bo 
forgotten by Anno of Bletso." That night by moonlight ho 
wandered over the hills in seai-ch of the lost treasure, and for 
many hours ho sought in vain ; but at length, oh joyful sight ! 
he saw the diamonds glittering in the moonbeams. Lord 
Be Clifford was restored to his title and estates on the accession 
of Henry VII, I486, when he married Anno St. John, and lived 
to a good old age at Bardcu Tower, which he built for himself. 




184 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



THE CLIFEOBD FBAGMENTS 
CANTO I. 

SUNRISE IN EARLY SPRING. 
1. 

The winter-trees had dropped their chips ; 
And shivering dews, by lent winds shaken, 
Fell from their skeleton finger-tips. 

2. 

When the last melted icicle drips 
In the silver mists of morning, 
After the weeks of winter-night, 
Oriens, all the earth adorning, 
Flashed like a new Apocalypse. 

8. 

Glad songs of spring the wet boughs waken, 
As scandent Phoobus, with his streams 
Of mingled light that quivering held 
The golden fogs whose vapours hung 
Over the dripping woods, dispelled 
Their morning mildews in his beams. 

4. 

Loudly the early song thrush sung, 
And, echoing in the pendulous beech, 
Again was heard the jay's harsh screech. 
The squirrel had begun his tricks, 
The rooks were busy collecting sticks, 
While, in the mists of morning grey, 
There might be seen the lambs at play. 



STtJDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 185 

6. 

Algeria's olives all forsaken, 
Frail little wings, that o'er the ocean 
Wondrously sustain their motion, 
Flit alike from palm and citron. 
Songsters that had refuge taken 
In the carob and pistucho 

Not the loveliest glade 
Amidst the chestnut groves of Spain, 

Nor the leafy vine 
That doth with loving tendrils twine, 

Nor the cool fig-tree's shade, 

Can tempt them to remain ; 
But, northward with the lengthening light, 
The blithe birds winging their vernal flight 

Make the green woods of England ring 

In the early days of spring. 



CANTO II. 

EARLY MORNING AMONG THE MOUNTAINS. 
1. 

By Eden's Vale at this sweet hour, 
A shepherd, striding up the steep, 
Mounts to the moors to lait his sheep, 
A-fe*ding on the Mosscrops flower, 
And, swift to hem the stragglers in, 
Glan* and Boy \ behind him rin. 

' Glan ' is Gaelic Glan, pore, Welsh Oh'm, pore, fair, beautiful, 
t ' Roy ' is Gaelic, red, rusaet. 



186 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

2. 

When the steep ascent was done, 
He turned to rest and see the sun 
Glorious, ever glorious sight, 
It was rising utmost bright. 
la the still morning seen afar, 
Rose a pale blue line of smoke, 
Rising perpendicular. 
Not a sound the silence broke, 
Save the Blackcock from the bent 
To the Birks for shelter went, 
Or the Ouzel's wild note uttered 
As from rock to rock it fluttered. 

8. 

The great mountains to the west, 
Always lovely, look their best 
When the early morning ray 
Lights their cliffs and corries grey. 

4. 

The shepherd in his frock of serge 
Stood standing on the craggy verge 
That fringed about a lofty scar 
Whence he could scan the dales afar. 

5. 

Beneath him, in the coombe there lay 
A vestige of the forest spare 
That flourished once on fell and dale 
The mountain-elm, the rich-leaved plane, 
The red scotch-fir, the hollin grey, 
The rowan-tree rooted in the shale ; 



STUDIES IN N1DDERDALE. 187 

And silvery willows here and there, 
The which perennial springs maintain 
While straggling birk and eller trees 
Were thinly scattered on the screes. 



And, wonderfnl no less than these, 

He marked the lesser plants that sprung 

The shimmering moss, the lichens pale, 

All in a wondrous verdure hung. 

Fast upon the steep rock-wall, 

It sprouts from every little ledge 

No shelf so strait, no clint so small, 

But there upon the utter edge 

Its little fronds and flowerets fall. 

7. 

A scornful goat with heiwnimble kids, 
Was feeding in unconcern, 

Over the edge of a little ledge 

That left no room to turn 

And while he watched, the Rock Dovo blue 

Forth from her craggy fastness flew. 

8. 

Perched on a pinnacle of the rocks, 

There sate a valiant Peregrine. 
He viewed her deviating line, 
And like a bolt from heaven amain 
In a swoop that made the quarry swerve, 
He passed her in mid air ; 
And then with bold repair 
Described a wondrous curve 
Up to his post again. 



188 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE, 

Beneath him in the waving pine 

The Raven croaks, and the Woodpecker knocks ; 

He sees the Wild Duck flying in line, 

He watches the Starling drilling his flocks ; 

The Roe bounds over the twisted roots ; 

And, heavily rising once in his swing, 

The Blackcock like a rocket shoots 

Along the purple ling. 
As many an unrecorded thing 

The silent falcon notes, 
Above him on majestic wing 

A Golden Eagle floats. 

9. 

The shepherd was o'erjoyed with joy, 
The blithesome morning made him gay 
" Hey Glannio lad, far yaud ! Hey Roy ! " 
And they to the moors were off and away. 



CANTO III. 

THE SHEPHERD ON THE MOOES. 
1. 

A swelling ridge doth crown the moorland bogs. 

Perched on its summit is a boulder laid 

In early morning when the dew distils 

Its cup of raindrops from the larch's blade, 

A startled beam, aimed at Italian hills, 

Had missed his mark, and through more northern fogs 

Struck the old stone. All day the spent beam played 

On his grey granite. There the red-deer crops 

His morning lichens, and, in slumbers laid, 

Sleeps through the frosts of night beneath its fervent shade. 



STUDIES IN NIDDEHDALE. 180 

2. 

There's many an old unnoted stone, 
There's many a monumental crag, 
Stands up upon the moor alone 
But this from those discern yon can, 
For all men call it ' Jonaman,' * 

8. 

The shepherd came with Roy and Glan. 
At their approach the grand old stag, 
Startled, Iwis, sprang from his lair, 
Threw up his noble head in air, 
Stamped his fore foot and shook his horn, 
Then, snorting at the dogs in scorn, 
Set quickly off at a stately trot. 

4. 

Sayes, while he was yet within arrow shot 
" Live, graceful creature, in thy glen. 
11 Live, freest, noblest denizen. 
" Had I been born like other men, 
" What angel could have saved thee then ! " 
Then, sniffing towards the new laid slot, 
The trusty Roy and faithful Glan 
Crouched by the shepherd on Jonaman. 

CANTO IV. 

THE PASSIONATE SHEPHERD TO HIS LOVE.t 
1. 

Ere the earliest grouse-cock had shaken his feather, 

And called up his mate from her bod, [heather 

Ere the first morning sunbeam had touched the dark 
And tinged the black moorland with red, 

Jonaman 'John-stone. Wei. Maen a stone, 
t The title of Christopher Marlow's beautiful little ballad. 



190 STUDIES IN NIDDEBDALE. 

A damsel fair of tender age 

Came riding out through Threlkeld gate, 

Attended by a single page, 

2. 

They struck off through the woods in a wavering line, 

For a while by the side of the stream ; 
Then up through a forest of scented pine, 
Till at last they saw the white precipice shine 
In the light of the sun's first beam. 



Before them, under the birky brae, 
The shepherd's cote in shelter lay. 
" Prithee, gude wife, an by your grace 
I would desire to rest a space 
Under the cover of these trees, 
And break mj fast in this sweet place." 

4. 

' Ay marry, hooney,* if ye please. 

All that I have to give 

Is at your service laid. 

'Tis nobbut plain we live 

Besides some oaten cake, 

I have this morning made 
A rye-bread loaf, and there is a goat's milk-cheese. 

5. 

" As luck will have it, I fear 
There is no sweet milk to day, 
For at this time of year 
My goats wander off to the fells, 
And my cows go to feed on the brco ; 
And now, as I cannot hear their bells, 
I fear they are far away." 
* Hooney' you there, 1 (see Gloss.,) 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 191 

6. 

" Indeed I count this sumptuous fare 
The thick soar-milk, this mountain cake 
That only the stcan ewn can bake 
With fagrant fuel of Juniper, 
The scented Ling, or sweet Scotch Fir 
Indeed I count this sumptuous fare. 

7. 

When the light repast was o'er, 
As it by chance, a noble fell 
And rolled across the sanded floor. 
Then, giving them no time to thank, 
The maiden bade the folk farewell, 
And whipped her palfrey up the bank. 

8. 

A little later, on the moor 
Full loud she heard the shepherd sing ; 
In tones full clear, and accents pure 
The notes came floating o'er the ling : 

Ruth- a -riding. * 
i. 

" Of all the roads that bridges bear 

" O'er waters shining in the heat, 
11 Or bow-necked steeds, in summer, wear 

" To flying dust with bright-shod feet, 
11 The dearest winds through Ryal'sf glades, 
" Where o'er the knaps in elm-tree shades, 
" The air-blown primrose blooms and fades, 
" And Ruth comes out a-riding. 

Taken from Barnes's Philological Grammar, 1854, p. 300, with two 
verbal alterations, ' longsomc ' to ' laiigsomc,' in V. 2; and 'Her' for 'A' 
in V. 3, line 1. I do not know where the original is to be found, or who 

is the author. 

+ Ryal is in Northumberland. 



192 STUDIES IK NIDDEEDALK. 

ii. 

" And I would fain, with early feet, 

" Arise ere morning dew is dry, 

11 And wend through dust of mid-day heat 
11 To bluest hills of all the sky, 

" If there, at last, ere dusk of day, 

" The evening sunlight would but pay 

" The langsome labours of my way 

11 With sight of Ruth a-riding. 

iii. 

" Her feathered cap with bending brims, 

" O'er shades her warmly-blooming face, 
" Her trim-set waist and slender limbs 

" Or rest or bend with winsome grace ; 
" And as her skirt o'er-spreadeth wide 
" With flowing folds the horse's side, 
" He flings his head and snorts with pride 
" To carry Ruth a-riding, 

iv. 

" While bright below her sable cap 

" Her sparkling eyes look down the lanes, 
" And, loosely bending o'er her lap, 

" Her slender hands hold up her reins, 
" The gateman fain would open wide 
" His gate, and smiling, stand aside, 
" Foregoing all his toll with pride 

" To look on Ruth a-riding." 

9. 

As the last clear note dies away, 
The damsel on her palfrey grey, 
And a page upon a galloway, 

Come riding o'er the moor : 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 198 

" Good shepherd, tis a maiden's task 
Of thee a service now to ask, 
Yestreen, in riding o'er the Flask 

I lost a brooch of gold. 
In it there is a diamond set, 
Round it is written ' Qtf fooit COt,' 

And in the marge ' |)cufl? a mOJ>.'* 
Now should the bauble's brilliant glance 
Happen to catch thine eye by chance 

As thou rakest thy sheep to the fold, 
Wilt thou convey it for my sake 
Back to the Lady Margaret 

Who will in safety hold 
Trust me, though more I dare not break, 
Thy kindness I will ne'er forget." 

10. 

With mute delight the shepherd hears, 
Her voice like music filled his ears 

As he drank her accents in. 
And ere, with eager utterance strung, 
The loosened bridle of his tongue 

Had courage to begin, 
A lile bird wewtaled on the bra). 

11. 

Perched upon the topmost spray 
Of a lonely juniper- thorn, 
A Finch as dusky as the ling 
Sprako f its sprightly twittering 

"De bon cor," and "Pency a moy." " Be of good heart," aud 
" think of me." From a massive gold ring figured in Aubrey's History of 
Burrey. 

t Sprake, A. S. Sprac, p. of Brecon, to speak. 



194 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

Sweet wild notes that seemed to sing 
" Hail ! smiling morn 
" That opes the buds of May " 

And then it flapped its little wing, 

Nor could ye reckon its wither-away. 

12. 

Sayes, " What pretty brjd :;: is this so gay ? " 
13. 

"Oh, that is a little bunting bird 

That flits in early spring. 

In March, as I have beard, 

Despite its slender wing, 

A gaumless flight it takes 

Along the northern path, 

Towards the silver hills and little lakes 

Where the old Eeindecr bells in noble wrath, 

On fields on ice when A.rtic morning wakes. 

14. 

Then hither again in dark October nights, 
Tinged by the northern snows, he flitteth, white. " 

15. 

Onco loosed, his speech began to flow. 
Ho marked the maiden's loveliness, 
And she, to see his ardour grow, 
Divining that the shepherd's dress 
Was but a veil that none might know 
The wearer's native birth and breed, 
Suffered the shepherd to proceed. 

Bryd, young bird. Bunting bird. The Snow bunting. I here 
recount an experience in Unst, the most northerly of the Shetland Isles, 
in June, 1874. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 195 

1C. 

" There be few that gan these gates, Iwis, 
Ay, marry ! but I can tell thee this, 
I'so vrarrant, save my dogs and mo 
There's not a carl in all the land, 
That, from the spot whereon we stand, 
Could look around and rightly tell 
The name of every dale and fell." 

17. 

" Now I will scour the mountains ower, 

First I will try the Flask, 
Then double back along Foulcauseway Slack, 

And count full light the task. 
Nor yet content, upon the Bent 

I will wander round and round ; 
I give thee my pledge, I'll search the Edge, 
Nor will I pause, but through the Shaws, 
And all the Fleak, alone I'll seek 

Until the gem be found. 

18. 

She essayed to speak. Her tongue refused. 
And as the mantling blush suffused 
The maiden's face, the shepherd read 
The one shy glance, the half- averted head, 
And seizing the happy moment's chance, 
With frank and fearless confidence he said : 

19. 

" There rankle th that within my brain 
I could wish thy spirit to hear. 

Shall it with brazen chafing smart, 

Till, by its fiery weight amain, 

Lake molten lead through cere, 

It burn its way down to my heart ? " 



196 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

20. 

" Hard were the kyst as amethyst 
Could feel the inner senses prank 
With untold love, its prongs grown rank, 
Could feel their courage and resist !" 

21. 

" Though I do keenly, keenly feel, 
That, trodden in the uuderdust 
Beneath new Education's heel, 
Love, that vain old sentiment, 
Hath disappeared, and must." 

22. 

" Aloft on high advancement's wing 
We clutch at every shooting star. 
On the great struggle of fame intent, 
We shake off each retaining thing 
That tends to keep us where we are." 

23. 

" While yet the golden early day 
Lights down on thine unclouded brow, 
While yet those fleckless beams array 
The dimpled smiles that fade and grow, 
Thou shalt not lack the multitude 
To whom thy very words are food, 
Who, could they clasp thce as their prize, 
Would 'sign their claim to Paradise." 

[The maiden draws her rein, as though to retire.] 
24. 

" I yet thy mute attention claim 
For ono short moment only, 

Ere the world's pleasures have grown tame, 
And life feels cold and lonely." 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 197 

25. 

" When Death hath in his work begun, 

Ani doth thino homo dismember, 
Thy friends, departing one by one, 
Shall leave theo like the lessening sun 

That yields to chill December." 

26. 

11 If ever, Annot, in thy need 

Alone thou wendest all the earth, 

If ever thou hast cause indeed 

To curse the day that gave thee birth 

If ever on that hated road 

The stones have made thy poor feet bleed, 

Then, wanderer, next thy God" 

27. 

11 Thou weepest then, ere quite debarred, 
Lend me once more thy dear regard. 
And mark thce if 'twas I that marred, 
If jaded slavish word, ill starred, 
Fleet in its uninstructed path, 
Hath stricken chord of thine so hard 
As wring out notes of grief or wrath, 
My conscience, 'midst its general stain, 
Burns smartly that I gave theo pain, 
And rather would I with the slain 
Lie dead upon the battle plain 
Than live to say the same again." 



198 STUDIES IN NIDDEEDALE. 

CANTO V. 

MOONLIGHT AMONG THE MOUNTAINS. 
1. 

All day through the shepherd true 
Had followed the loved behest, 

Till the black pall of dark night-fall 
Constrained enforced rest, 

Bat he rose as soon as the clear full moon 
Gave light to renew the quest. 

2. 

The quiet mountains slept 

In the dream of their midnight swoon, 

The tips of their loftiest pinnacles lit 

By the light of a frosty moon, 
Or wrapped in a shroud of fleecy cloud, 

Like a moth in its soft cocoon. 



At last as he sought now left, now right 
In the stillness of the alpine night 
Broken only by murmuring streams 
Just as a falling meteorite 
Startled the stars from their dreams 
The diamond, sparkling at his feet, 
Flashed in the white moonbeams. 

4. 

The hardy shepherd well-nigh wept for joy, 

And when his spirits had ta'en a moment's grace, 

He clapped" his faithful Glan, and huggled the noble Roy, 

* Clapped, i.e. patted ; O. Norsk, Klnppa, to pat, stroke gently. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 199 

Then framed for heiim" and in a little space 
Had reached the summit of the grassy knowl 
That rises rear the Hie Blow Tarn f sae lonely 
The stillness of its waters broken only 

By the plash of the startled wild-fowl. 
5. 

In the weird moonlight night among the mountains 
He sate him down to rest on those wild shores, 

The silence only broken by the torrent 

That bears the waters of a thousand fountains, 
Together rolled in one ambiguous surge, 

Down through the wooded cliff with stark pines horrent, 
And over the force that leaps its craggy verge. 

6. 

Fed by the scene, his wild imagination, 
Bound in the spell of moments all too fleeting, 
Fast yielded to the heavenly fascination 
While far off on the fells the wild sheep bleating 
Back to the herder's voice scut distant greeting, 
As from his innermost heart he uttered the burning invocation. 



CANTO VI. 

THE INVOCATION. 

1. 

" Sibyl, at thy Campanian shrine, 
If thou cans't Fate unveil, 
Betray the lurking tale 
And tell me mine." 

Framed for heiim, made for home 0. N. Fremja ; A. S. Fremman, 
to make, etc. Heiim Norweg. and Dan., Hjem. The parallel northern 
form ' liame ' is 0. Norsk. Heim, ace. of Htitnr homo. 

t Plow Tarn, i.e., Blue Tarn. O. N., Blar, lead coloured, blue ; in 
compos. Did. As Bld-ber, Blaeberry, Bla-nucr, blue moor, so Bld-Tjorn, 
Blow Tarn. There are several small lakes so called. 



200 STUDIES IN NIDDEEDALE. 

2. 

" For, Annot/ me thought with meteor flashed unguided, 
The sharp knife Separation struck our star. 
I felt thine anguish, heard thy cry ' Divided,' 
But ere I claimed thee, lo, thou wast afar." 

3. 

" Thine orb shines pale at midnight now, beloved, 
Whilst I from out the most unfathomed Hell 

Look on thy glory. 

Distance, the long-rayed, peering down his beams, 
Of all the firmamental field 

Marks thee the veriest far." 

4. 

" How have I longed for thy return ! 
Day chascth day, while yet the sand 
Runs swiftly on at Time's demand. 
The hours are eager in the chase. 
As each one passes in his turn, 
Up steps the next to take his place." 

5. 

" Forgive my ravings, for the wandering light 

That floats before me roaming through the night, 

Hath led me from thee, led me far astray, 

Far from the usual, plainly painted way, 

Painted upon a sign-post with a hand 

To show where men should follow 

And now the very ground whereon I stand, 

Shaken and cracked with earthquakes, trembles hollow." 

G. 

" ' Tis night, and past the hour of eventide ! 

While morn was young I watched thee, bathed in pride, 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 201 

That thou wast happy. But \vhilo thus so proud 

To watch thine eye, a little sailing cloud 

Passed over it. Sadly thy sweet face bowed* 

Sudden of all its brightness disillumed, 

And thou didst weep. What did those barbed poigns 

Those ranks of thunder, demon prongs that fumed 

In Hell their crackling furnaces, conjoin 

To lunge thy lovely heart because on mine 

Their lightnings burned and baffled, unconsumcd I 

Annot, farewell. 

That most extremest distance, bridged by the beams 
That fled towards me when from thy dear eyes 
Too gracious thou hast deigned regarding me, 
And now do perish glistening on my tears, 
Doth stand most unsurpassed, dissundering us. 
One word from theo, and snapt the slender shaft 
That points me from thce, hostile though I viewed 
Thy lanced guardian, when his lightnings flamed 
Their ruddy hatred lest the pretty word 
Should 'scape thy lips, and with a rosy smile 
Light up the shadows of my sorrowing heart. 
Banned in love's darkest deepest catacombs, 
The stringed thoughts, vibrating in my braiu, 
Draw tensely that my native strength doth fail 
To raise my lowly level to thiuo own." 




Z 



202 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

CANTO VII. 

THE SHEEPSCORING. 
1. 

The shepherd and his dogs, the twain, 

Were early agate and on the moors 

Bound for the scoring. Many a swain 

Comes with his brace of curs.* 

And as he lightly strode along, 

They heard the careless shepherd's song. 

2. 

" I'd as lief be a carl on these mountains of ours 

As heir to a peerage with paralysed powers. 

Lot me drink the pure air on my bonnie wild fells, 

And I'll leave them to live in their lordly castells. 

While sheep run on mountains, and cattle on plain, 

And there's strength in this arm, I'll not spend it in vain." 

3. 

" Hey Glannie, lad, fa' yaud, fa' yaud! " 
Twenty flocks are mixed together. 
Wildly waving arms and shouting, 
Twenty shepherds, nothing doubting, 
Send their dogs across the heather. 

4. 

Bute, Craft, Corby, Cort, | 
Crab, Fleet, Flora, Gade, 
Gess, Glan, Houve, Jock, 
Each knows his proper flock. 
Donald Bayne and Anty Homer 
Wave their hands to Eake and Morna. 

' Cur ' is the gciioral name for Sheepdogs. Lapp. 'and Fin. 'Coira,' a Dog. 
t Sheep doge uames see p. 13. 



STUDIES IN NIDDKBDALE. 208 

Rap, Ring, Roy, Rock, 
Jos, Laddie, Lassie, Luce, 
Shep, Spot, Swift, Sweep, 
Single out their proper sheep. 
Tip, Trip, Tossel, Turk, 
Watch, Watch'em, Wenny, Wench, 
Whip, Wily, Sprat, and Yarrow 
Each does his proper work. 

5. 

While all the shepherds shout 

' Drive him in,' or ' Fetch him out.' 

Soon the contrived to sever 

Flock from flock, with dogs so clever. 

Then the scoring work began, 

And this is how the numbers ran. 

6. * 

"Yahn, Tayhn, Tether, Mether, Mimph, 
Hither, Lither, Anver, Danvcr, Dick, 
Yahn-dic, Tayhndic, Tetberdio, Methcrdic, Mimphit, 
Yahn-a-miraphit, Tayhn -a-mimphit, Tcthcr-a-mimphit, 
[Mether-a-mimphit, Jigit." 

7. 

Shepherds from their different dales, 
Told the same with varied tales. 
But when nil the shcop were scored 
Here we leave the Shepherd Lord. 



Shecpscoring Nnmerols, p. 11, nnd 35. This shonhl he road very 
fast, as the shepherds ran thronght it. 



204 STUDIES IN NIDDEEDALE. 

CANTO VIII, 

REST. 
1. 

The battle had been lost and won ! * 
Into Barden Tower there ride 
Lord De Clifford and his bride.f 

2. 

Sayes, " Now the race is over 
Let tho good steed eat his clover." 

3. 

"Brightly, bravely, heroine, 
I have seen thy virtues shine. 
Bravely, brightly, all enduring, 
Thou hast ended in securing 
Heaven's favour, wife of mine." 

4. 

" When tho rough tempest struck thy fragile form, 

Stcdfast thou stoodcsfc in thy meek defence. 

Though veterans quavered, thou wort undismayed. 

I marked thy seasoned mind, thy sober sense, 

The stern occasion kindled thy quick resource. 

Thine oven temper and thy passive force, 

With meek retirement of thyself, displayed 

That mental sovereignty that makes, the modest maid, 

The faithful wife, the gentle mother, the prudent damo." 

[End of the story of Henry De Clifford, the Shepherd Lord.] 

Dosworth Field. Fought August 22ud, 1485. Immediately after 
his accession to tho throne, Henry VII restored to their titles and estates 
all those Nohles who had been deprived of them by Edward IV. in 1461. 

+ Ilia bride, Lord Do Clifford had married Anno St. John of Bletso. 
Their son was the 1st Earl of Cumberland, and tho hero of the ' Nut-brown 
Maid.' 



STUDIES IN NIDDEBDALE. 205 



XXV. 

WEATHER AND FLOODS. 

1. YOREDALE. 

The ' Great Flood ' in the Ure, at Masham, happened Feb. 
2nd, 1822. There had not been snch a flood since February 
2nd, 1782 or 8, when the 'tymbar' bridge at Masham, mentioned 
by Leland, and Tanfield bridge, were washed away. This was 
the greatest flood known in the memory of men then living. 
(Fisher, Mashamshire, 1865). 

2. NIDDERDALE. 

The following notes have been contributed by Mr. R. Ingleby. 

Patclcij Brid'jc,, 1881. RESPECTING OUR FLOODS. The 
door check of our old mill, which we have this year covered 
np, has a many floods marked on it. Previous to covering it 
up wo took the levels, and had some of them engraved on the 
new door-jamb of our present old mill. ' The Great Flood ' 
which was talked of as the largest flood in the memory of man by 
our fathers was the 6th May, 1825. It was quite local, all the 
rain falling in a very short space of time, between Patcley Bridge 
and Ramsgill, principally on the east side of the valley, but more 
especially on the lower end of the township of Fountains Earth, 
and on High Bishopside, a large amount of damage being caused 
in Pateley Bridge, none falling further up the valley. It was 
severe and destructive, owing partly to the suddenness of the water 
coming down. The February 1st, 1868, flood was tho largest over 
known in this neighbourhood. It was up for several hours, and 
was a foot higher than the 6th May Flood. It was 8ft. 6in. 
deep on the mill threshold. All the ground floors of our buildings 



206 STUDIES IN NIDDEKDALE. 

were under water. The pigs, over 20, we got into the houses, 
but in the bottom floor they would have been drowned. Therefore 
we had to take them up into the bedrooms ; and our two cows 
we took into the house also. We lost no stock. 

Heights above mill threshold : 

February 1st, 1868, 8. 6 

May 6th, 1825, 2. 6 

September 29th, 1852, 2. 

July 4th, 1777, 1. 7 

July 6th, 1881, 0. 6 

November 28th, 1881, 0. 9 

Between July 6th, and November 28th, 1881, a series of 
seven floods occurred, the largest of which was on November 
28th. On July 6th, nearly the whole of the Holme meadow 
land was under water, and after the grass was cut, other floods 
occurred which swept away entire fields of hay, thereby causing 
a great amount of damage to the farmers. It is a noticeable fact, 
that no two floods in Nidderdale are alike in effect, which is locally 
accounted for by saying, " that the rain falls in planets."* A 
great manj' floods have occured between 1777 and 1881, but 
those we have recorded were the highest. I myself witnessed 
the extraordinary amount of destruction of property caused bj 
the Floods of 1868, and July 6th, 1881. 

3. VVHARFEDALE 

Mr. John Ley land, of Kettle well, from whom in 1871 I 
derived much information respecting the working of the reins, 
(p. 60 et. scq.) kindly allowed me in 1881 to copy the following 
notes from his note book, on the subject of Floods and Weather. 

May 28f/(, 1860. A great snowstorm on the Monday morning. 
Wm. Wrathall had about 80 ewes and lambs overblown in tho 

Halliwcll (Archaic and Provincial words) has this word: as lias 
Forby, (Vocab. of Ea*t Anglia) 1830-58, but neither explains its origin, 
(see Gloss.) It racaus locally, and in sheets. * 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 207 

snow on Laugliflb [part of which is shown , marked ' LIMESTONE 
GIRDLES ' on p. 160, see also p. 161] Pasture. The fences in 
several places quite covered. 

February 9th, 1861. Great Snowstorm. I had two horses 
overblown and died on Haytongue Pasture. Two men lost at 
Cray same time. 

1868. A very hot summer, no rain from the last of May, to 
5th of August. The 4th day of August was the hottest day. 
The hottest summer in the memory of anyone living. ^ n this 
never-to-be-forgotten summer, I was engaged in working out the 
geology, and constructing the map of that fine range of pasture 
land to the north and south of the Wharfe, E. of Otley. The 
whole country was burnt up so that the soil of the pasture fields 
was everywhere exposed. Not a bkde of grass remained green, but 
curled up dry and brown as the soil itself, and to all appearance 
the roots were dead. Towards the end of the drought, an Indian 
officer, a friend, happened to return to England. On my remarking 
to him that the grass was killed, he replied ' In three weeks after 
the rain falls the grass will be as green as ever,' a prediction 
which was borne out by the result]. 

Kettletcell, December 18*A, 1869. The largest flood on the 
Saturday night that has ever occurred since I came to live at 
Kettlewell, riz. : .10 years. We had to dam it out at both doors 
in the cellar. It reached the top of the gantry. It was 8 in. 
higher than the flood in February last, in the same year. 

June 18th, 1872. A large flood or thunderstorm on Coniston 
Moor [hidden by Grass Wood on p. 160] and Whernside, doing 
a great deal of damage on the east side of Wharfedale: [This 
happened while I was at Harrogate shortly after leaving the Lodge 
near the Dale Head, Nidderdale. In the Trnmtic. Institution of 
Surveyors, Vol. IX. p. 146, reference is made to this event. 
" Mr J. Lucas (visitor) said that he remembered a waterspout 
(he believed in July 1872) which burst on Great Whernflide, 



208 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE, 

one of the Yorkshire hills, and swept away a vast amount of 
property in Coverdale, demolishing among other things a semi- 
circular bridge in Nidderdale, which had withstood the floods 
of 200 or 800 years." [It -was on this occasion that the then 
newly erected stone bridge over the Nidd near Lodge, which had 
cost 500 to build, was swept away]. 

October 21st, 1874. On the Wednesday night at 9 o'clock, 
one of the greatest floods that has occurred since I came here, 
viz. : for 1C years. The water came through the bar on a 
stream. I had to dam it out of both the front and back doors. 
8 inches deep in the cellar. It was 4 inches above the taps on 
the gantry. 

1878-9. A very severe winter. Snow fell on the 8th 
November, and continued until March 1st. The frost very 
severe. A deal of snow till the 20th of March. Never clear of 
snow from the 8th November till May 13th. A very late spring. 

November 8th, 1878. A very severe snowstorm. William 
Coatcs had 30 sheep overblown on Gillside Pasture, and several 
more in other places on the Friday. Saturday a fine day. 

1880. October 21th, 28th, and 29$. A very severe snow- 
storm, accompanied with a very strong -wind. A great many 
sheep overblown, and several dead. 4 large trees blown down 
at Whitehouses, and 1 at Throstle Nest on the Thursday 
Afternoon. 

January 22nd, 1881. Tho watorfall at Hardraw Scarr, 
near Hawes, supposed to be about 110 feet high, was frozen to 
one solid icicle from top to bottom, supposed to be 80 feet in 
circumference. [Photographs of the frozen fall were taken 
at the time]. 

January 2Qth. 1881. A very severe frost. Had the milk 
frozen on my can handle during the time I was milking the cow 
at 7 A.M. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 209 

V 

March 3rd, 1881. A very severe storm. Snow continued 
to fall without intermission from March 3rd to Sunday March 
Gth. The Mail did not arrive at Kettlewell at all on the Friday, 
March 4th. Came on the Saturday, March 5th, at 4-30 P.M., 
with the Friday's Mail. Badger's carts left on Cassa Moss, near 
Cray, same time. Going from Kettlewell market. 

March 4th, 1881. The mail bags had to be conveyed on 
foot from near Craven Heifer to near Catch Hall. Conveyances 
overblown in several places on the road from Skipton. 

June 8th, 1881. Great Whernside quite covered with snow 
at 8 o'clock in the morning. 

July 5th, 1881. A very severe thunderstorm on the Tuesday 
night. Very severe lightning until 3 in the morning. This 
was followed by a very severe flood on July Gth, in Nidderdale. 

JOHN LEYLAND. 

4. THE IRWELL. 

The ' Great Flood ' on the Irwell at Salford, happened 
November 16th, 1866. (Jacob, Proc. Inst. C.E., 1882). 




A 2 



210 STUDIES IN NIDDEKDALE. 

XXVI. 

ANTIQUITIES, ETC. 

STONE CELTS. Mr. George Metcalfe has a stone celt of the 
ordinary shape, 6 ins. long, by 3 ins. wide at larger end, of which 
I have seen a drawing only. It was found on Pateley Moor. 
Mr. Metcalfe has also sent me drawings of two PERFORATED 
STONE HAMMER HEADS, which are comparatively modern. Both 
are flat, but otherwise differ in shape. One is long-shaped, 
wide at one end, and pointed at the other. It is 2f ins. thick, 
by 8 ins. wide at widest, with a circular hole of If ins. in 
diameter. It was found near How Stean by Old Willie Beckwith, 
about 40 years ago, (1882). Along with it was found a bronze 
spear-head, which has been lost. The other hammer-head is 
circular, reminding one strongly of a stone-breaker's hammer 
formed by fastening a thick iron ring on to the end of a stick. 
It was found up dale, somewhere near Lofthouse, where it was 
lying for some time in John Kirkbright's house, and was used as 
a plaything by his children. Mr. Robert Ingleby has two stone 
celts, one of Greenstone, 5| inches long by 2J inches wide at the 
broadest part. It is studded with minute black crystals, 
apparently hexagonal, and star-shaped with six points. The 
other is WJdnstone. It was picked up in a farm yard at Calf 
Haugh, in 1879, by Mr. Robert Ingleby. Interior, slate colour, 
rough texture. Exterior, worn smooth, dirty brown. Length 
Gjj inches. Width at broadest part 2% inches. I have drawings 
of both these celts. 

FLINT ABROW-HEAD. A very perfect flint arrow-head was 
picked up on Mr. Tennant's allotment on Pateley Moor, April 
29th, 1881. Its length is 1.19-32 inch, and width 1.8-82 inch. 
It is symmetrical, sharp pointed, and beautifully barbed. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 211 

Two CANNON-BALLS have been found one near Middlesmoor 
about 12 years ago, 18 ins. in circumference, weight Sjlbs, 
in the possession of Mr. F. VV. Theaker, of Pateley Bridge the 
other Tibs. 9oz., found near How Stean, in March, .1874 ; in the 
possession of Mr. Metalfe, of Castlestead, who has also a very 
curious old BRONZE KAIL POT, (see p. 19), which was found 
on Greenhowhill. The body is globular in shape, 7 ins. diameter 
with a projecting rim or neck at the top, measuring from the 
bottom of the pot to the top of the neck 5 ins. ; this rim is 
6 inches external diameter. A straight handle projects from 
the neck, having a curved support fastened to the middle of the 
globular portion, which was once supported upon three legs, 
about 4 ins. high, making the total height 9 inches Mr. 
Metcalfe has also two WOODEN SPADES found in Cockhill mine, 
near Greenhowhill, one with a shaft 2 ft, and blade 6 ins. ; 
the other with a shaft 17 ins., and blade 5 ins. Mr. Newbould 
has another, 2 ft long, found in the ' old man ' (i.e. old mine or 
old workings) of the Yorkshire mine about 13 years ago, Mr. 
Metcalfe has an IRON AXE-HEAD found buried 8 feet deep on 
Coldstones, by Thomas Blackah, the Greenhowhill Poet and 
Miner, June 19th, 1878. The shaft portion is 8 ins. deep by 
1-J ins. wide, blade and shaft, 4 ins. across. The peculiarity 
of the shape is, that the neck is not opposite the medial line of 
the blade, but towards its upper edge. I have seen a drawing 
of this axe only. 

A fragment of a POLITICAL MEDAL was taken out of a loose 
stone wall on April 1st, 1874, in Nidderdale, above Pateley 

Bridge, on one side preserving the letters THE GEXERO 

GYLE round the margin, and at the foot NO PENTIONER, with 
a full length portrait of the duke, (all but the head) having behind 
him guns, swords, and flags. On tho other side MAKE ROOM 

FOR SI BERT round the margin, and a full length portrait, 

(all but one foot) of a gentleman in the dress of George I. time, 
but with a rope round his neck, by which he is led by Old Nick 



212 STUDIES IN NIDDEEDALE. 

with horns and tail and goat's legs, and a four pronged fork, 
towards the open mouth of a Dragon representing Hell. The 
lower part of this side is broken off. A perfect example in the 
Brit Mus. shows on one side " MAKE BOOM FOB SIB KOBEBT" 
and at the foot ' No EXCISE,' and on the other ' THE GENEEOUSE 
DUKE OF AEGYLE,' and at the foot ' No PENTIONEB.' It is 
wrongly classed in the Brit. Mus. under date 1739, as will be 
seen from Keightley's History of England, 1839, V. 3, p. 376. 
Sir Kobt. Walpole formed a grand scheme for abolishing the 
Land Tax, preventing fraud, increasing the revenue, simplifying 
the taxes, and collecting them at the least possible expense. 
This was what was called the Excise scheme. Walpole's plan, 
which he introduced March 1st, 1733, was confined to the article 
of tobacco. It was what is now called the warehousing and 
bonding system. The word Excise was odious in the ears of 
the people.... Riots ensued. The Bill was abandoned ; rejoicings 
and illuminations took place all over the Kingdom ; the Ministers 
were burnt in effigy, cockades were worn inscribed with 
' Liberty, Property, and No Excise,' and medals were struck, of 
which the present is an example. On other medals Sir Robert 
is associated with other characters. The medals are a very fine 
brass-like bronze, and in all probability of German manufacture. 
As works of art they rank high, the design and execution being 
masterly and bold, and the minutest details of the dress faith- 
fully expressed. The medals are lens-shaped, with a raised rim 
all round. The fragment belongs to Mr F. W. Theaker, of 
Pateley Bridge, who has also in his possession three medals 
(two bronze and one brass) struck in honour of Admiral Vernon, 
who took Porto Bello with only six ships, November 22, 1739. 
They were found about 15 years ago, in the neighbourhood of 
Lofthouso. One is brass (?) double-concave with raised rim ; 
another brass (?) double-convex, with thin edges ; and the third 
is bronze, double-concave, having Obv. Figures of Admiral 
Vornon and Commodore Brown, with Cannon on one side. 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 218 

Inscrip. " ADMIRAL VERNON AND COMMORDORE BROWN. " 
Zfot?., View of Porto Bello, Harbour, Forts, Six British Men of 
War, and Two Guardacostas, with Merchant Ships behind Forts. 
Inscrip. Took Porto Bello with six ships only, November, 
22nd, 1789. 



COINS AND MEDALS. 

Mr. II. Ingleby has a considerable collection of old English 
Coins which have been found in various parts of Nidderdale. 
Amongst others a guinea which was ploughed up in a field at 
" Red Brae," in the Township of Bewerlcy. A large number of 
Gold Spanish Coins, 1750, Josephus, J. D. G., were found at 
Woodale, in the wall of an old house when being pulled down, 
one of which the above-named gentleman has in his possession. 
Philip V. was King of Spain at this date. 

A small Silver Coin of Elizabeth was found by Mr. Peter 
Green on a by-road near Gowthwaite Hall, June, 1881, having 
been washed bare by the rain. It is now in the possession of 
Mr. H. Verity, Bewerley. 

Mr. Metcalfe, of Castlestead, has in his possession four 
Silver Coins, James I., Charles I., and Elizabeth, which 
were found in the wall of an old house at Whitehouscs, near 
Pateley Bridge, by a person named Jackson. 



MR. JAMES INGLEBY'S COLLECTION. 

Mr. James Ingleby, of Brirahousc Farm, Eavestono, has 
kindly contributed the following note. He has in his possession 
the following objects found in or near his farm, which lies out 
of the dale, some four miles east of Patcley Bridge. " Two 
Greenstone Colts ; five barbed flint arrow heads ; two leafed 



214 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

ditto ; one diamond ditto ; one other (which has been broken) ; 
five flint spear heads ; two flint saws ; a large number of flint 
scrapers. 

A hollow dish was found near Skellgill covered over with a 
flat stone, the whole being buried in the ground. It contained 
burnt human bones and several peculiar small stones." [A full 
account of similar cases will be found in the works of Tylor, 
Lubbock, and others, but it may be as well to mention that the 
Rev. W. C. Lukis, Rector of Wath, will give a description of 
this particular find in a forthcoming work.] " Mr. J. Ingleby 
has a large collection of other flints and coins, one a silver coin 
of Charles I., found on the high road near Pateley Bridge. He 
has also a valuable collection of birds and their eggs. Nearly 
all have been ' collected ' by him during the last 15 or 20 years. 
In a field behind his house he shows a cremation ground in 
which a number of burnt human bones have been ploughed up, 
in company with several bronze articles." 

I understand from Mr. Thorpe that he has visited Brimhouso 
Farm, and was shown the above-named articles. 



WHEELED CONVEYANCES. 

Wheeled convejances are of very recent introduction in the 
upper part of the dale. During my stay at The Lodge, an 
account was related to me (if my memory be correct) by Anty 
Horner, of the first pair of wheels that were seen above Lofthouso 
or Middlesmoor. They were all in one piece, and quite solid, 
being cut out of a single piece of wood. This would be some 50 
or GO years ago. Mr. Thorpe states that about two years ago 
he saw a conveyance of this description in a cart shed belonging 
to Mr. Matthew Teal, at the Tenement House, Wath, near 
Pateley Bridge. The wheels were wood, all in one piece, very 
thick and strong, and without tier; when in motion the axle 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 215 

went round with the wheels. The body of the conveyance had 
low sides, strong- made, and was so constructed that it could be 
lifted off the axletrees and wheels and then used as a coop 
cart. All the work was done, and much is still done as has 
been related, with the sled. My amiable landlady at Apperley 
Bridge, used to tell a good story of the year 1828, illustrating 
the inconvenience arising from bad roads and defective convey- 
ances. " It was before hearses were used in this part of the 
country, when the vehicle used for the conveyance of the 
dead, was a kind of litter drawn by two horses, one before 
and one behind. My grandfather had gone to Manchester, 
and while there, had the misfortune to break his leg. My 
grandmother was at home at the time, [at Apperley Bridge]. 
Being anxious to get him home, she went to Manchester 
with a litter, as, owing to the bad state of the roads in those days, 
that was the easiest way for him to travel. My grandmother had 
to walk all the way. They had got as far as Keighley on their 
way back, when the litter broke down, and my grandfather was 
thrown on to the road. My grandmother ran straight into the 
nearest cottage, seized a chair, and without stopping to explain, 
ran out with it. A minute afterwards, the woman of the house 
being anxious about her chair came out to see what had become 
of it. The sight that presented itself to her astonished gaze, 
was the broken litter, my grandfather like a ghost, sitting in his 
night-dress on her chair. As soon as she was able to speak, sho 
called out to the other inmates of her cottage, " Come, quick, 
hero's a dead man come to life again." 



216 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 



XXVII. 

THE DIALECTS OF NIDDERDALE. 

PART I :- 

Dicky and Micky Date. 

By THOMAS THOEPE. 



I what ear Dicky Date wer bom he said he cuddant tell, an he 
diddant think onnybody livin cud. Dicky had an only son call'd 
Micky, When seen togither it wer hard ta tell whether Dicky er 
Micky wer t' oader. They baith dress'd alike fra top ta ta'ah 
they wok'd alike, an they tok'd alike. Wat taine did tother did ! 
Were yan went tother went, in fact they wer as Ruth an Naomi 
they cuddant net wuddant be'y parted. They had an ass call'd 
Jerry as oade as Micky, if nut oader. They all three liv'd tage- 
ther in a oade thakt buildin i t' loanside, leadin up ta some farm- 
hooses at t'hill top, at Herefild.* Dicky an Micky occupied t' 
maist o 7 t' buildin, Jerry hevvin a corner tav hissen i yah end. 
I summer, Jerry preferr'd ta hev his aboad, wen nut otherwise 
ingag'd, i t 1 loanside i cumpany wi' t' pigs an coafs belanging t' 
neoberin farmers. That part o' t' buildin occupied be'y t' fad- 
ther an son wer divided inta twea rooms t' livin end an t' par- 
ler end as they call'd 'em. T' livin end wer ther aboad baith 
day an neet, for ther bed steead i' yah corner. T' parler end wer 
occupied entirely wi' t' oade learn, at which Dicky had sat thraw- 
in t' shuttal weavin harden fer monny a lang ear. Micky wad 
noo an then tak his turn wi' t' warp an weft an rattle away 

* Heathfiold, near Pateloy Bridge. 



STUDIES 'IK NIDDERDALE. 217 

clickity clackity, flickity flackity wal his fadther com again ta 
tak bis turn. Oado Dicky boose wer a faverbite plaise for all t' 
youug chaps roond ta gan sittan o' t' neets. They yuso ta git sat 
roond t' oade fireplaise t' fadtber at yah side an son at totber 
tellin all soarts o' tales, baitb possible an impossible, er else 
coontin stars hoot o' t' chimler top fer a wager as they sat, fer 
it wer yan o' thease oade fashun'd chimlers at's rarely ta be'y 
seen noo-days. Ye cud see hoot o' t' top ont fra onny part o' 
t' barstan. Doon chimler hang a gert chean fra t' rannel-boak 
at which they yuse ta hing t' poddish pan, t' fryin pan, t' kettle, 
er howt else at wanted ayther boilin er fryin. 

Dicky an Micky wer knawn be'y baith oade an young fer miles 
roond aboot, fer they went fra yah plaise tav anither hawkin har- 
den o' ther awn manifackter, Sometimes Jerry went wi' 'em, 
pertiklerly if they bad a lang journey. At other times they yuse 
ta carry it thersens i ther turns. They baith lik'd a bit o' bacco 
bud they nobbut can-id yah pipe, an when they did smeak yan 
bad a few pufls an then t' pipe wer bandid ta tother. 

I ther business ramals monny a act o' kindness wer shown 
tul 'cm which they certainly desarv'd, fer they wer twea as bonist, 
harmless mortals as iwer wok'd this earth ; an tho' ther lot wer 
a hard yan, they seem'd happy an contentid, an thauk'd ther 
Creator fer His manifold blessing bestow'd upon them which 
blessins seem'd nowt bud poverty, hunger, an starvation. It 
seems strange an unreasonable at foaks sud be'y thankful fer 
bein pincb'd an puuish'd efter toilin ommast day an ncet, an sa'ah 
monny aboot em i luxery an er thankful fer nowt. It is na'ab 
wonder then at some foak sud git t' noashun at tharr's yah God 
fer t' ritch, an anither fer t' pooer. Well ; let mo remain ta t' 
end o' my days like oado Dicky an his son honist, an content- 
id if iwor sa pooer, an still thankful to that Great Supreme Bein 
'at rules all things, even t' sparros. Dicky an Micky warrant o' 
the hypocrite stamp, ner Jerry nayther jackass as he war fer 

B 2 



218 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

it diddaut matter ta him whether it wer prince, squire, er begger 
at pass'd him at t' loanside, he maaid na'ah distinction, he wad 
cock his lugs at taine as seeane as tother, an if ayther on 'em 
touch'd him wear he cuddant hide it he gav 'em his reet hinder 
leg quick, accompanied wi' his perculiar scream, fer he, like t' 
rest ov his tribe, gat rnarr kelks an thumps ner corn. 

Dicky an Micky com in fer ther sharr o' teazin an varra oft abuse 
be'ya lot o' mischeevous young fellos i t' neeberhud. All soarts 
o' pranks wer play'd wi' em ; they had been subject ta this soart 
o' thing all ther lives. Sometimes when they wer sittin quiatly 
of a neet at t' fireside, wi' ther elbows o' ther knees an ther 
heeades i t' fireplaise nearly, a cat wad drop doon t' chimler, set 
up a yowl an cut intav a corner, er off thro' a brokkan square i 
t' winder terrified, an t' two oade fouk wad be as freetan'd as t 1 
cat, an jump up an run ta t' far side o' t' hoose thinkin at t' 
varra divil hissel had landid, or some evil spent had cum an wer 
boon ta dew some harm i t' neeberhud, fer they, like maist o' 
foak i t' locality, i ther day, possess'd a gert amoont o' superstition. 

Yah nect a lot o' mischeevous young scamps fer miles roond 
had arrang'd ta hev wat they call'd a lark. They gat ther faises 
black'd, an dress'd thersens i all soarts ov queer fashuns. Two 
on 'em wer comin ta t' plaise o' meetin, an they wer just pagsin 
a lair, when a sarvant lass wer comiu hoot wi' twea canfuls o' 
milk, an when shey'd just turn'd t' corner she'y spied thease two 
black ens. She'y threw t' cans doon, spillin all t' milk. Ower 
t' wall she'y went, an off as fast as ivver her legs cud carry her, 
an nivver stopp'd wal she'y gat inta t' hoose, screamin' like 
somebody terrified. T' mis'ess wer sat darnin stockins ; she'y 
threw 'cm doon as scean as ivver she'y saw t' lass an seazed a 
pailful o' watter at wer standin a back o' t' deer, beside t' peat 
creel, an threw it reet i t' lass faiso an nearly droondid her. T' 
rnis'css wer sewer t' lass wer ayther in a fit er else gon mad. 
T' two young taislrills wer sewer t' lass wad dee wi' freet, sa'ah 
they went efter her ta t' farmhooso, an' wen they gat tharr, t' 



STUDIES IN NIDDEKDALE. 219 

lass wer comin roon a bit, an wer tellin t' mis'ess wat she'y had 
seen ; but as seean as she'y clapt een on 'em cumin inta t' boose 
she'y flang her arms up, gav a gert scream, an- fell agane t' oado 
'ooman on t' top o' t' laugseltle. Yan o' t* chaps sed " Its 
nobbut us." T' oade wooman set her een on 'em, an thinkin it 
wer " Oade Nick " at had cum fer t' lass cos she'y d laid lang i 
t' mornin an haddant had time ta say her prayers, she'y doon 
on her knees an sed " Tak me, maister, tak me Mr. Nick, fer 
t' pooer lass is ower young ta gan yet." T' chaps begin ta be'y 
flaid the'y freetan'd baith t' mis'ess an t' sarvant hoot o' ther 
wits, an at the'yd git hang'd. Hooiver, i t' end wi' a gud deal 
o* coaxin an declarin at it wer nowt bud thersens wi black faises 
an queer dresses, they gat 'em baith roond, an van o' t' chaps 
maaide it all reet wi' t' lass we'y a few kisses an leavin a black 
mark ov her faise. " Giv ower, noo ; gan awa wi' ye'y, ye'y 
nasty gudfernowts, ah's tell hooer Bin when he cums became." 
Wen Bin heeard t' tayle he ommast crack'd his sides wi' laffin, 
an sed it wer worth two canfuls o' milk ta hev freetan'd his oado 
wooman, fer he cud nivver dew it. 

Efter they'd maaide all rect wi' t' oade wooman an t' lass, they 
set off as fast as they cud ta meet t' other chaps, an they fand 
"em all waitin ; sa'ah they tell'd 'em o' ther spree they had wi' 
oade Mally an her sarvant lass, which wer rare fun fer all t' lot. 

T' next job wer ta plague pooer Dicky an his son. Yan o' 
t' chaps had a pistil i his pocket charg'd wi' pooder, an another 
had a squirt fill'd wi' watther colour'd wi' bleead. They all gat 
roond t' hoose, an leakin throo t' winder they saw Micky cleanin 
t' poddish pan hoot fer his supper. Yan o' t' fellas had a turnip 
an he threw it throo a brokkan square i t' winder an just miss'd 
pooer oade Dick heeale. 

" Seesta, fadther," sed Micky, "that turnip's cum'd through 

t' solid wall." 



14 Nay nivver," sed t' oade man ; " thoo can mak mo beleeve 
howt ommast, bat nut that, Micky my lad. Its cum'd throo V 



220 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

winder. Ah beleeve its that young scamp o' Jonas's but ah'le see." 

Up Dicky jump'd an oppen'd t' deer, an just as he put his 
heeade by t' deer-cheek a pistil wer fired off tother fellow 
squirted t' watter reet inta t' oade man's neckhoal. Dicky sprang 
reet back, an fell ower t' creelful o' peats, an bit wi' t' back ov 
his heeade agean a deer, an tharr he laid deeade fer howt he knew. 
Micky gat him intav his chair i t' corner, an when he saw t' 
colour o' bind aboot his neck he fetch'd a deep sigh, an said 
" Thoo's dun for this time, fadther. If they'd nobbut hittan me 
an all, ah waddant hev carr'd sa mitch ; but if ta dees, fadther, 
thoo sal be'y laid be'y side o' me'y muther, an ah sa'ant be lang 
efter the'. Ah'le put t' harden mezzer an the' Garman silver 
specticles inta t' coffin, an ah'le fetch oade Susy Barker an Pally 
Spenco ta lig the' hoot. Can ta' speeak fadther ? " 

" Oh I," sed Dicky, " ah izzant geean yet, bud pretha tak 
that bullet hoot o' me'y neck, fer it does hurt." 

Wen t' pooer fellow efter t' pistil had gon off fell agane t' 
deer, he gat a spell of it run intav his nek, which he wer certain 
wer a bullet. 

Micky tewk t' cannal an tried ta fin'd t' bullet, but he cud see 
nowt but bleead, sa'ah he clapt t' cannal doon an said he'd 
fetch t' docter. 

" Nay, niwer bother, Micky, fer he'll charge me'y threc-an- 
sixpence, an happen winnat dew me'y a fardin's worth o' gut). 
If ah dee, ah dee ! the Lord's will be'y dun." 

Just as Dicky had finis'd his prayer, in bounc'd a gert rough 
farmers' lad call'd Tom Merrifield, but he wer awlas call'd " Yallo 
Bullock," becos hede a carroty toppin. He ass'd wat wer np. 
Micky tell'd him all t' concarn fra t' thrcead ta t 1 needle. 

" Why," Tom sed, " hcv ye'y sattal'd yer worldly affairs, 
Dicky, fer ah see na'ah chance o' yc'y livin wal mornin ?" 

T' tears ran doon t' oade mon's faise, as he glaspt his 'ands, 
shut his een, and then began 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 221 

" Few an eval hez me'y days been he'er belo, bud ah've a 
gud hoap o' tother side o' t' greeave. Eh Tom, ah beleeve 
Providence hez sent ye'y i' t' nick o' time ; sa'ah ye'y mun sit 
ye'h doon an write me'y will." 

Tom gat a pen an ink, a lump o' tea paper, an 'put oade 
Dicky specticles on. T' oade fello sat up i t' chair an began 

" I, Richard Date, o' t' oade loanside, i t' toonship o' 
Steanbeck Up an Doon, i t' Parish o' Kirkby Malzeard, an i t' 
Coonty o' York, bin o' soond mind, wind, limb, an eeseet (howt 
bud hevvin a bullet i me'y neckhoal), beleevin i t' Lord's prayer an 
t' ten cummandmense, an nut expectin ta ivver see dayleet again, 
I he'erby mak me'y last will an testament. Ah leeave ta my son 
Micky all my personal property t' oade harden learn, sowlin 
can, an' t' windin wheel amang t' rest ; I further order all my 
just debts ta be'y paid hoot o' me'y bit o' lowse brass t' main 
bulk al be'y fun i a oade coffee-pot widoot a spool, felt up i t' 
thak aboon hooer Micky bed an mine. 

T' first ah owe oade Tommy Kidd fer hoaf-a-laaid o' hav- 
vermeeale, an oade John Weitherhead a foarpenny bit at ah 
borrow'd on him fer thare charity sarmons at Gowthit. Jinny 
Varty wants pay fer twelve ounce o' garn, an she'y can ayther 
hev t' brass er t' garn back, fer ah've nivver had time ta knit it 
yet. Oade Jim Covert wants pay fer t' last sheep heart he sent, 
bud tell him ah said afoar ah deed at. heetpence wer plenty for't. 
An now ha mak me'y deein declaration an ah've gean a faithful 
statement o' me'y warldly consarns, an ah put Tom Merrifield an 
his bruther-i-law (at wed his oadest sister Liza) in as me'y 
exeketers." 

All wer as still as a mouse wal Tom read t' will hower, an 
when he'do finish'd t' last words, tears began a rowlin doon t' 
oade mon's cheeks an he tewk hod o' Tom hand an sed 

" Eh Tom, it feels hard ta hev ta leeave this warld an this 
lad o' mine wi' sitch a lile bit o' warnin. Ah conld hev lik'd ta 



222 STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 

hev liv'd other two er three ears fer Micky saaike. We've been 
varra cumfertable tho' we've sumtimes been pinch'd ; bud still 
we've had nowt ta grurnmal at bud thcase gudfernowt chaps at's 
kill'd me, bud ah fergiv 'eui all. Tom, an' wen ah's geean thoo 
can tell 'em sa'ah." 

Tom tewk up his hat an bid t' oade fellow farrweel, an' just 
as he oppen'd t' deer two chaps went by wi Jerry. Dicky saw it 
wer him, an fergittin he wer o' t' point 6' deeath, he sprang hoot 
o' t' chair an ran ta t' deer, shootin, "bring t' wokin stick, 
Micky, bring t' wokin stick, ther runnin awa wi' t' ass." 

Doon t' loan they went by t' cade steane troff wi' Dicky 
an Micky behint 'em shootin " Jerry, Jerry, doant leeave us !" 
Yan o' t' young scamps wer astride o' Jerry, wi' his fceaco ta t' 
tail, singin at top ov his voice. 

Just when hede finish'd singin, doon com Jerry his full len'th, 
an his rider flew like a scopperdil reet hower his heeade ; his 
mates thowt he wer kill'd. They gat him up an he went limpin 
on as weal as he cud ta get hoot o' t' road o' t' fadther an son, 
wa'ah wer cloise at ther heels. When Dicky an Micky saw it 
wer na'ah yuse ta run after 'em onny farther, they turn' d back ta 
leak efter Jerry. They fand him quiatly grazin o' t' roadside 
as if nowt warr. When tl'ey gat up tul him Dicky sed " Pooer 
Jem'." Ta witch Jerry replied wi' a roat at wad hev alarm'd 
onnybody bud his maister an Micky. 

When they gat heeame Micky sed " Ah think, fadther, ye'll 
git better noo." 

Why'a, thoo sees, Micky, fer all ah'se sa'ah oade an sa'ah 
near me'y end, ah cannot bide ta see pooer Jerry abus'd, heze 
been sa lang i t' family. If ah wer droin away, ah beleeve ah 
sud git up if onnybody wer dewin howt at him. If ah sud dee 
afoar thee an thoo sud liv langer ner him thoo mun giv him 
a reet berrin. Mak him a rcct grecave doon t' loanside, under 
t' gert plane-tree, aside Jinny Lellan coaf garth." 



STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. 228 

" That's his faverhite plaise, fadthcr ; he awlas liggs tharr, 
an hoz dan ivver sin ah knew him." 

" I, I, that's wat ah mcean; an ah think his banes 'al rest 
tharr t' best ov onnywear." 

Dicky, Micky, an Jerry, haz gone t' way o' all flesh. T' 
oade hoose i' which they lived an slruggl'd, hezbeen pull'd doon, 
its foondation rip'd up, an it is noo grown ower wi' gers. Not 
a vestige is left ta mark t' plaise warr it stead. It may be'y 
truly said o' them an ther habitation, that the place which kent 
'em yance will ken 'em agean na rnarr. 




224 



STUDIES IN NlDDERDALE. 



XXVII, ( continued) . 



THE DIALECTS OF NlDDERDALE. 



PART 2 :- 



TIHIIE 



By JOSEPH LUCAS. 




XXVIII. 



THE DIALECTS OF NIDDEBDALE. 



William of Malmesbury, who wrote in the 12th century, 
says, in the "Gesta Pontificum Anglorum": 



11 Sane tota lingua Nor- 
danimbrorum, et maxime in 
Eboraco, ita inconditum stri- 
det ut nicb.il nos Australes 
intelligere possimus. Quod 
propter vicinium barbararum 
gentium, et propter remo- 
tionem regum quondam An- 
glorum, modoNormannorum, 
contigit, qui magis ad Aus- 
trum quam ad Aquilonem 



Truly the whole language of 
the Northumbrians, and espe- 
cially in Yorkshire, sounds so 
confused that we Southerners 
cannot understand it at all. 
This is because the district is 
that of the barbarian races, 
and on account of the over- 
throw of the former English 
kings by the Normans, who 
sojourn more in the South than 
in the North. 



diversati noscuntur." 

Prologus, Libri III. 

(Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain 
and Ireland, 1870. P. 209.) 



A GLOSSARY 

OF SOME OF THE WORDS USED IN 

THE DIALECTS OF NIDDEEDALE, 

CHIEFLY FROM WORDS COLLECTED BETWEEN THE YEARS 
1868 AND 1872. 

By JOSEPH LUCAS. 



ABEAB, A. S. Aberan, bear, suffer, endure. 'Abere se borh that he 
aberan sculde.' ' Let the surety bear that which he ought to bear.' Lutes of 
Edgar, c. 6. 

ABOON, above, A.S. Abnfan (Sax. Chron., Anno 1090). That is the full 
form, the simplest being ' ufa '=over. There also occur ufan, ufane, ufene, ufenan, 
ufon ; be-ufan, b-ufan, b-ufon. ' At-be-ufa-n ' contracted to a-b-ufa-n = abufan ; 
but Goth, ufar, ufaro. ' Swa we her beufan cwzedon.' ' As we herein above 
ordained.' Laws of AZthelttan, Pi. 2, c. 2. ' Thaere rode the stode In/on tham 
weofode.' 'The rood that stood above the altar.' Sax. Chron. A.D. 1083. In the 
ballad of The King of Almaigne, A.D. 1264, temp. Ed. II., we have 'By God that 
is aboven us ;' and in the Ancient Ballad of Chevy Chase, probably about 1400, 
we find the contracted form, ' In Chyviat the hyllys aboun,' Fit. 2, 1. 102. In 
Nidderdale now common, as ' Tharr's nut aboon three on 'em,' colloq. Dan. 
oven, Dvt. boven, Gr. huper, Lot. s-uper. In a transition state, O.E. abowyue 
(Barbourt Bruce in Wtdg) and abowen; also abowue, abouene, abouen (Atk), 
'That from abone shall fall.' Townley Myst., p. 23. 

ABOOT, about, A . S. Abutan, abuton ; a stands for on, as appears from 
the passage ' Logon onbuton tham weofode," Lay about the altar' (Sax. Chron., 
1083), which gives on-buton, on-b-uton, on-b-(it-on or on-be-ut-an, which after 
removing prefixes and suffix leaves ut, out There also occur ut-an, but-an 
(be-ut-an). Unlike 'aboon,' this word is not necessarily a contraction of the 
full form. I suspect that in the phrase ' I don't care a button,' we are really 
using the full form without knowing it ' I don't care abutan,' which, when 
the word was forgotten and the real meaning of 'a button' with it, was cor- 
rupted into the present shape reduplicated in the sentence ' I don't care a 
button about it.' Uutn is the commonest form, ' Gif dynt sweart sie buton 
waedum.' * If a black bruize be left outiide the clothes' Leges SEthelbcrti, 59, 
i.e., on the face, hands or neck. ' C buton ithe.' ' An hundred without oath.' 
a 2 



228 ACC. 

Laws of Lothair, 10. Abuton was a very uncommon form in A.S. It occurs 
only twice in the Laws. 'Abuton ende on ecnesse. Amen.' ' Without end for 
ever. Amen.' Art. 10, 'Confession? 'Canons,' temp. Eadgar. 'Abuton stan.' 
Laws of the Northumbrian Priests, c. 54, temp. Eadgar. 

ACCRA, 'Accra Scar." 1 O.N. Akr, Gollt. (Ulf.) Akrs, A.S. ^cer, Ger. 
Acker, Gr. agros, Lat. ager, arable land. 

ACCORA EARTH, green arable earth (Grose). ' Accora earth,' 0. N. 
akra-grerthi, afield garth, ploughed field. In c. 42, of the Lau-s oflne, cited 
at length on pp. 62-3, we find 'aeceres oththe gsers,' ' ploughed land or grass;' 
' aecere gemete,' ' the boundary of his piece? where several parties cultivated a 
tract of common land ; each having allotted to him a certain small ' division,' not 
fenced off, but marked by a strip of unploughed turf, and therein called his 
' (Ecre.' These are the senses of ' Haege ' and ' aceres ' in the proverb cited below. 
Here we have the rudiments of the modern meaning. Again, in c. 67 of the same 
Laws we find the word cecra, in the gen. plural, meaning the ploughed part of a 
small farm, 'and tholige thaera cra' but in the Rochester MSS. (Rqffensis, i.e., of 
.Hro/esceastre, gen. of Hrofe-ceaster, Rochester) 'tholige his acera.' 1 c. 67. ' Be 
gyrde landes. Gifmon gethingath gyrde landes, oththe maere, to raede gafol, & 
ge-eraeth [ereth, MS. Rojf.^i gif se hlaford him wille thaet land arseran to weorce 
& to gafole, ne thearf he him onfon, gif he him nan botle ne syld [slihd MS. Rqff". 
" built " suits the sense], & tholige thaera secra.' ' Of a virgate of land. If a man 
rent a virgate of land, or more, at a fixed rent, and plough [ear] it, if the lord 
determine to raise that land in work and in rent, (there is) no need that he take 
it if he has not built any house thereon, and let him lose those acres.' In the 
Laws of Alfred, 26. ' Gif hwa gewerde othres monnes wingeard oththe his ceceras? 
' If a man damage another man's vineyard or his field.'' From Exod. xxii. 5. 
' iii .fficera-braede.' Laws of Mihelslan (A.D. 924-940), Pt. 2, c. 2 implies a 
recognised standard measure, under a furlong, as appears from the context. In a 
charter of Edred, King of Great Britain (A.D. 948), we find ' 26 acras prati, 
50 acras silvae, et 70 acras de Brushe.' The first Statute General defining the 
value of an acre was 31 Edward I., 'Bis octogies perticam continens.' Con- 
taining 160 perticas (sq. meas.) Spelm. It appears from the Hist, of Foundn. of 
Abbey de Bella, a pertica 16 sq.ft. (perch). Another was issued, 12 Edward II., 
No. 18, York. ' Decem acra; faciunt ferlingatam, quatuor forlingatie faciunt vir- 
ffatam, et quatuor mrgatcB faciunt hidam, quinque hidce faciunt feodum militis.'' Du 
Cange. This is, apparently, the same edict as that quoted from the Lib. Rid>. 
under the word Farden which, it is to be remarked commences with the Magnum 
Feodum Militis and ends with decem acris. This would suggest that the Danes 
still had the privilege, conceded in the Laws of Eadgar, of ' observing the 
General Statutes according to the best form of laws which they could choose.' 
Leg. Eadgari, Supplement, Par. II. Thus we see that 'acre' originally meant 
' ploughed land;' then, a measure of land. The word occurs in the sense of 
arable land in the Saxon Citron. A.D. 1130. 



' Haege sitteth 
Tha aceres daeleth.' 



' The hedge aKideth 
That acres divideth.' 



The Latin had the word ager in the same sense, but later adopted the new forms 
acra and acrum from the German, meaning a measure of land, before A.D. 948, as 
shown above. Brachet quotes from Du Cange ' Ego Starchrius do S. Florentine 
octo acra de terra.' ' Give to S. Florentinus eight acres of land.' Chartul. de 
S. Flor. A.D. 1050. Now, the word terra, used simply in this form, denotes 
arable land as distinct from wood, meadow and pasture. ( Domcsd., Surrey, Vacher's 
Extension, 1862, p. 3, Note K). In Domesday Book, ' acra ' is used instead of 
acrum, 'una acra prati.' 'One acra of meadow. 1 Domcsd., Surrey, Vacher's Ex- 
tension, p. 8, 1. 5. ' xx acres prati,' &c. The Domesday acre contained 160 
perches, but the perch had not the same value in all counties. In Domesday 



ADD ANE. 229 

Book the amount of arable land is given not in acres, like the woods and meadows, 
but in 'ploughs. 1 'Terra est vi. carucarum.' 'The arable land is for six ploughs.' 
But we have seen that acre means 'plough* in the same sense. This explains the 
transition of meaning from ' ploughed land' to our sense of 'acre.' The rough or 
primitive ' acre' was as much as one plough and Hie beasts belonging to it could culti- 
vate in one year the quantity varying with the soil, mode of tillage, &c. Lord 
Macaulay well expresses the primitive notion of an acre not as an absolute measure, 
but as a measure of quantity, in the lines 

' They gave him of the corn land, 
That was of public right, 
As much as ttco strong oxen 
Could plough from morn till niglit. Lay of floratius, v. Lxv. 

Du Cange gives one instance of ager being used in the sense of acre, ' Terra 
unius hidae, et terra 28 agrorum." 1 Lib. Rames., 245. ' Acair,' the Gaelic form 
looks like the sister of our 'acre,' which is not found in Skinner, Lex. Any., 
1671. 

ADDLE, to earn ; O. *V. Odal, property, seems like ' boun ' to have been 
made into a verb, to earn ; A. S. eadan, to produce ; eadgian, to make 
prosperous or happy; O. N. audga, to enrich', Goth. (Ulf.) authagjan, to bless; 
O.N. audr, wealth; A.S. ead; Hel. od; C). N. odal, property; Goth, auds, 
blessed; Gr. ousia, properly, and onos, a price, value, payment, articles of traffic; 
Lot. vas, surety; Sans, vasnas, price (as O.N. audr. empty; Lot. vast us; and 
O. N. and, Gr. aisia, L<it. fas, Gr. ousia, onos as aisia, ainos). Brocket! has 'uv 
edlean, recompense or requital,' but this cannot be the source of ' addle.' Of a 
horse, 'when he'd addled his shun,' earned his shoes. lila., p. 13. 'I aidle 
my keep.' Grose. ' Gather,' hence ' addled,' corrupt. 

ADOOT, witiiout. ' He did it adoot a grummal.' Nid. Al., 1880. 

AFOOR, AFORE, before; A.S. .ffit-foran. 'JEt-foran wiofode,' 
before the altar. L<ncs of Wi/itrted, A.D. 695. ' 2t-foran eagum,' be/ore his 
eyes. Canons, Eadgar, 32. A rare form in A. S. 

AGAIN, AGANE, ayainst; A. S. Agen, against. 

AGE AN, AGEN, again; A.S. Agean, agen, again. See ANKST. 

AGATE, lit. ' on the way? about; A-grate for ' On-gate ' ; A.S. geat, road, 
tcay. 'Thou art early agate' early about this morning (Atk. Cl. Gl.) 
' Agate cleanin.' Colloq. * Agate a new cart ' engaged upon (Wilbraham 
Clte*/t. Gloss.) 

AGG, lit. to ^oa</, to provoke, ' egg on,' to quarrel; O. A r . agg, brawl, ttrife; 
frequent in Mod. Icel. (Cleas}; Steal . agg, a goad, secret Itate; agg, root form 
Gael. Ag, doubt, to doubt, hesitate, refuse ; Gr. AK in ake, akis, &c.; Sans. AC. 
in Acan, dart; acus, stcifl; Lat. acus, acuo, acer, &c. (Cur. 2). 

AGGING, quarrelling. 

AGGLINQ, quarrelling (Pateley). ' jiggling" is more probably 'Haggling' 
than a form of ' Agging.' 

AGWOBM, sec II AO WORM, but the orthog. being doubtful the deriv. is also. 

AH, /, ego. 

AHS', AHS'LL, / shall. ' Aha git me noase ta t'tree if ah doant maind.' 
' Run against the tree.' (A'tW. Al., 1880). ' I'se warrant,' = l HI warrant.' 

AN, and. 

ANENST, against, opposite to, over against, in face of, as regards. ' Anens 
the cherche.' M.S. Bible in Halliwell. 

ANENT, again*!, about, concerning, over against. ' A. S. Ncan, nearly, nigh, 
almost' (Huntley) cannot be right; nor can Sax. Anan, to yire (Brockett). 
Anenst anil Anent have a common origin with A. S. Ongean, on and geon, 
against, opposite ; in compos. Foreanent and Thereanent : * And s wince 
thar-ongean,' ' and labour thereanent ' (Canons, Eadgar K* iiitan, 1 6). 



230 ANT ARF. 

Wedgwood correctly observes, ' The word anent does not seem to come directly 
from the A. S. ongean. It shows a northern influence from the 7s/. giegnt, Sw. 
gent, opposite.'' They are all collateral and imperfect forms. In the A. S. Laws 
ongean first appears in the sentence ' Thurh thaet he ongean Codes rihte.' 
' Through that he against God's law.' The simplest A . S. form is gen, ongen, but 
ore is frequently represented by a, whence agen. The n and g have not been able 
to survive together in English. While some dialects have selected the n for elision, 
others have dropped the g, giving anen, anent, anenst. The ' st ' is in the nature 
of a superlative termination, as in 'whilst' from ' while,' 'alongst' from 'along,' 
'amongst' from 'among.' ' Anentis men it is impossible, but not anentis 
God, for all things ben possible anentis God.' (Wicliff's Bible in Wedg.) 
Ger. entgegen, Gael, an aghaidh. It is evident that the full form is lost, and 
that it might be built up out of the materials supplied by these various fragments. 
ANTEBS, ANANTERS, ENANTEBS, in case, lest, it may be. Two 
very opposite derivations have been proposed for this word. Brockett goes to 
Dut. Anders, which involves Ger. anders, otherwise; A.S. other; Goth, anthar; 
Mod. Gr. enantios, otherwise, on the other hand; Anc. Gr. antios, enantios (adj.), 
enantion, enantia (adv.), against; Sam. antara. Here the passage of meanings 
is, opposite, on the other hand, otherwise, in tlie alternative, in case. The likeness 
between the Sanscrit, Greek, Gothic and dialect forms is striking, and the 
explanation simple. Atkinson (Cl. Gl.) brings forward a formidable rival in 
Nor. Fr. aventure ; Chauc. aiintre, which derives great support from Chaucer's 
' auntrous,' adventurous (Sir Topas), and from ' anters,' still meaning adventures 
in the North. But that will only explain anters, and not ananters. The 
prefixed an either means on, or, as Brockett suggests, if. Now, while neither 
' on-adventure ' nor ' if-adventure ' could mean ' per-adventure,' which is the 
nearest we can get to the sense of our word, it seems also the highest improba- 
bility that the A. S. ' an" 1 should be prefixed to the Nor. Fr. auntre, to make up 
a word already existing in the Greek in the sense of opposition, and in the Sans. 
anta, end, limit, boundary; nearness, proximity, presence; antar, tvithin, between, 
amongst (Zend, antare ; Lat. inter ; Goth, undar) ; antara, within, among, 
between, by the way, in the meantime ; an-anta, endless, boundless ; an-antara, 
continuous, contiguous, immediately after, &c. ; words already ripe to form the 
modern alternative seme of anters, ananters. The word is too deeply rooted 
and widely spread in the North of England to be a Nor. Fr. word, I think. 
' Ananters he come.' Grose. ' In case he should come.' 

ABF, afraid. Brock, has also ARFETH and AIRTH, afraid; Hal., AEFE, 
a/raid, backward, reluctant. We find A.S. earfoth, difficult; yrth, fear, 
cowardice; and J'ers. khauf, fear. Curtius (398) finds Sans, arabh, to do any- 
thing actively or with vigour, to work hard; Ger. arbeiten, to labour; Goth. 
arbaiths, Ger. arbeit, work ; Lat. labor. Work produces gain, profit, whence 
Gr. alphema, theprice of work, the cost of labour, a contract price; Sans, argha, 
worth, value, price; alphano, to bring in, to yield. But work also implies difficulty, 
whence A .S. earfoth, difficult, whence reluctance, fear. ' I'se arf to do it ' 
because it is difficult; whence A. S. yrth, fear, &c. I intend to trace the 
passage of meanings, not the passage of forms. 'Mither I'se arf, I'se arf,' or 
arfish, which seems a mere corruption of earfoth. Brachct (Et. Fr. Diet., 
1873) finds O. H. G. eiver contr. to eiv'r, whence O. Fr. afre, fright, introduced 
into Gaul either previous to the invasion of the Germanic races by barbarians 
serving under the Romans, or in the invasion of the Franks, Goths and Burgun- 
dians (Ib. Introd. 20, p. 22.) Fr. affre, fright, used as late as 17th Century 
by Bossiiet, and in the 18th Century by S. Simon, ' Les affres de la mort ' 
the terror* of death. Atk. (Cl. Gl.) correctly identifies O. N. argr, O. Sw. arg, 
a coward; A.S. earg, earh, timid, slow; Scot, arch, argh, airgh, ergh, afraid; and 
Clcas. (Icel. Diet.) Ger. arg, Gr. argos, and Mod. Eng. arch, archness; and finds 
(Paul Diac., 6, 24) a Latinised form, arga. We have also O. Ger. nrg, ark, or 



ABB ATT. 231 

arag, arak, miserly, wicktd, impious; Ger. arg, iirgcrn; Sans, argb, to be worthy, 
to cost. 

ABB, o scar; O.N. ATT, orr; O.Swed. oerr; Dan. ar, a scar. The first 
scar or ar was that caused by the plough. Gael, and Wei. ar, ploughed land, pro- 
bably the root word ; Sans, arus which also gives 

EAB, to plough, also ore and earth (see ACCORA); Lot. aro, Gr. aro5, to 
plough; Eng. harrow; Mid. Lot. caruca, Hind. (Dakhni) har, a plough. 

ABM'D CHAIB, arm chair. 

ABBAN, spider; O.Fr. Araigne, Lai. aranea, 6V. arachne. Spin, arana, 
llal. aragno, Mod. Fr. araignee Patois aragne. In O. FT. araignee was a 
spider's web. Araigne does not appear in classical Fr. later than La Fontaine, 
but survives in the Patois aragne. Araignee drove out araigac in the 17th 
century. Bra. 

ABT, a quarter, point of the compass. Mr. Dakyns sent me this word from 
Wharfedale. ' The wind is in a cold art.' Cottoq. 

AS, than. ' I'd onny time rather be hittan as droondid.' Al., 1880. 'I'd 
rather break steeans by t'rooad as dew that' (be a gentleman's servant), Collorj. 

AS, ow. To express a superlative degree as is often used as follows : ' As 
heait as heait' = ' as hot as hot' [can be] very hot. 

ASK, ASKEBD, ESK, lizard; Gael. Asc, snake, adder; Gr. askalabos, 
askalabotes, lizard. Askerd seems a contrac. of askalabutcs ; r and / being inter- 
changeable. Hence, probably, O.N. askr, a spear, and so the ash- tree; A. S. 
eesc. tier, esche. * An' lile bonny askerds wad squirt amang fling.' Bla., p. 38. 

ASK- WIND, a sharp, cutting wind, a hard, dry, biting wind; W. Asgell- 
wynt, side tcind connected with the last word (see p. 72). 

ASS, to ask; A. S. Ahsian, to ask. ' Ah thowt o' assin them.' 

ASSED, asked ; A. S. Ahsode, p. of Ahsian. ' He ass'd what were up.' 
Al. 1880. ' They ass'd him what his assets were.' Al., 1880. 

ASTEEAD, instead. 

AT, prep., to; Welsh, A. S., O.N. and Dan. At, to, towards. 'Listen at 
it/ 'A gert chean ... at which they yuse ta hing,' &c. ' A great chain 
onto which they used to hang,' &c. Al., 1880. 

AT, eon;'., that ; O. N. At. ' Ah wish fra me heart at ah yet wor a lad.' 
Bla., p. 37. Swed. At, Dan. at, Goth, thatei, A. S. that, Ger. dass, Ormul. at. 

AT, rel. pron., that, what, which; O. N. At. ' He tried ta due t'best at he 
cud.' Bla., p. 12. ' An them at they diddant keep locked.' Bla., p. 12. The 
two latter (conj. and rel. pron.) are, both in O. N. and English, contractions. In 
O.N. the full form was fhad, That With the initial ' Thorn' (Th) dropped, it 
became at. In A. S., on the other hand, the at was dropped in abbreviating, 
and ' Thorn ' (Th) used to represent the whole word. At is also a contraction of 
A. S. hw;vt, n-liat, ace. plu. of lnva, who. which, as in Ex. 2, under rel. pron. above, 

A GOOD FEW, a good many. ' How many of them were there ? ' ' Wai, 
there was a good Jew.'' 

ATAFTEB, aflcrwards. 

AWLTJS, always. 

AWN, own, property of; A.S. Agan, agen, own; originally p.p. agen, or 
agan, to hive, pomtu, own, with auxiliary to be, that which is agen, had or 
potsested by a man is his agen, own. The form 'ain' is Dan. egen, from a verb 
lost in Dan. ; the O. N. eipi, to own. 

AX, to ask, A. S. Acsian, axian, to ask. 

AXED, asked; A. S. Acsode, ax ode, p. of acsian, axian. ' He acsode 
hi,' he axed them. (Law* of Edward, c. 4.) ' Acsa hine,' a* him. 
Canons temp. Eadifar, De Confessione, 2. 

AYTHEB. either; A.S. JEgther. ' Huton win- aegther ge hy sylfe ge 
heora hyndas.' ' Without punishment ayther or themselves or their shepherds.' 
(Laws of Eadgar, par. 18.) In the A. S. Laws eegther is followed by 



232 BAG BAB. 

ge . . . ge; athor, ather by oththe . . . oththe, and is used to 
indicate the dilemma, ' either, or this or that,' as we now say ' either this or that.' 
' Athor oththe feo oththe feore.' ' Either or property or life,' Laws ofEadgar, 
c. 4.) ' Ather deth, oththe tha Godes wanath . . . oththe waccor,' &c. 
(Ib. Suppl, par. 8.) ' He thowt had ayther been caught,' &c. AL, 1880. 

B. 

~ . (III. Gothic (Eng.) B commonly = Lat. F, Gr. <l>, Sans. Bh, 0. H. G. P. 
""IK. F,B = P P P F,B,V. 

BACK-CAN, a milk-can, flat on one side and having tight-fitting lid, made 
of tin and strapped on the back knapsack fashion ; for the steep dale sides. Also 
called ' Budget,' which see, also, p. 31. 

BACKEND, autumn. 'And oft i't' backend' (Bluckah, p. 38) 'in 
autumn] but also of other periods. ' I'll try and get at it t'backend o' next 
week.' Colloq. 

BAD. A somewhat stronger term than ' Awk'ard.' 'Peats 'are 'awk'ard 
ta reef when they won't stand up, but coal is ' bad ta git ' when the roof is 
dangerous, or from any other cause in the workings. A cheat, sharper, or bad- 
tempered man is ' bad ta dew wi'.' 

BADJER, a pedlar. A travelling, originally walking, grocer and butter- 
man, licensed victualler. Lat. bajulus (Brock.); Gr. badizo, to walk; Lat. 
bajulus,/bo< carrier, porter. Bra. finds Wei. baiy, a burden, load; Gael, bag, 
whence Fr. bague, bundles, parcels, bagage, luggage; we find also O.N. baggi, a 
burden, a packsaddle ; O. Swed. bagge. I suspect a connection between all the 
above. I cannot follow Fr. bagagier (Gent. Mag., Aug., 1829), or bladier 
(Wedff.) Though badger originally meant a walking merchant, we now talk of 
' badgers' ' carts (see p. 208). Badjer is probably a Latin word. 

BAIN, near; O. N. Beinn, straight; Gr. pelas (IX.), near (Cur.); Lat. fere 
ferme (III.) ' Bain Grain Beck ' l near Branch Beck ' (p. 92). 

BAINEST, nearest. The ' bainest way ' is exactly O. N. or led. 
' beinstr vegr,' ike shortest way. 

BAITH, both; O.N. Bcethi. ' Baith his sen and a' his band ' ' himself 
and all his company.' 

BAK, to bake; O.N. Baka, to bake; A.S. bacan; Ger. backen; Gr. phogein 
(Cur.) ; Hind, pakana, to bake; O. ff. G. bahhu, bake; Sans, bhaktas, baked, 
cooked (Cur. 164); Lat. coctus; Gael, fuin, to bake. 

BAKSTON, bakestone. Gives the name ' Bakstone Gill ' to several narrow 
glens in which the flaggy sandstone from which they were, and still are, made, 
occurs (but see pp. 16-18). 

BAND, string, $c. Hal. gives 'a space of ground containing 20 yards 
square.' North. (See also p. 82.) 

BANG, a blow; 0. N. Bang-, hammering; bangu, to hammer. 

BANK, a steep hill; O. N. Bakki, Noru-eg. and Dan. bakke, A. 8. bane, 
Wei, bant, a heiglit. ' Tir Bant,' upland (Owen Wei. Die.). Gives the name to 
' Owster Bank ' (p. 90) and to ' Dacre Banks.' Oft has the weary tourist thought 
himself at the end of the endless succession of hills on the hilly Norwegian roads, 
and been saluted with the information ' Stor bakke til ! ""A big hill yetj and so 
in life it is ' Stor bakke til ! ' 

B ANKY, hilly. ' 'Tis banky i this coontrie.' Colloq. ' Bank Top ' = ' hill 
top,' as the name of a farm, &c. (see p. 32, 1. 22); see also Armstrong (Gael. 
Diet.), baenn. 

BARN, a child, also a man ; O.N. Barn, Dun. barn, Goth, barn, A.S. 
beam, Scot, bairn; Gr. pais, paidion, a child, boy; phero, / bear. Cur. Gael. 



BAR BEE. 233 

paisde, paisdean; Lai. pner. Barn = ' lorn.'' "A bolder barne was never 
born.' Chevy Chase. ' \Ve like to see wer barns at neet.' Bla. 'T' lile 
barns start a beggin'.' p. 44, above. The Scotch ' bairn' seems to be A. S. 
' Gif heo cvricbearn gebyreth. Laws of JEthelb. 77 'if she living bairn 
bear.' * Wife and beamed Laws of Hlothcer 6. 

B ARGITEST. For one view of the Earnest, see pp. 1 40-50 ; for another, 
Ritson (Fairy Tales, p. 58). Hal. ' a frightful goblin armed with teeth and 
claws, a suppositions object of terror in the North.' In Nidderdale, a word used 
to frighten children into obedience, ' also an imaginary hobgoblin, sometimes applied 
to a worthless, ragged, and ill-mannered fellow.' Grose. O. N. bar. in compos., 
and grestr., a stranger. Grose finds ' bar ' and ' gheist' from an erroneous sense of 
bar. Drake (Eboracum, p. 7, app.) has ' Sax. burh, a town, and ga&t, ghost.' 
Brock. ''Dut. berg, a hill; geest, ghost: or Ger. Bahr-gheist, spirit of the bier? 
Atk. supports Bahr-gheist. I find in Reg. Scot. (Disc, upon Devils and Spirits, 
1 665, Bk. I., c. xxxiii, 4), a list of the seven good and the seven evil Demons 
known to the Black Art. No. 7 of the latter is ' Barman, who most commonly 
possesseth the souls of those who are joyned unto him.' I think the same ' bar ' 
entered into feel, bar-axladr, high-shouldered, bar-atta, a fight (atta, on all sides), 
bardagi, lit battle-day, metaph. a calamity, scourge. Bar-efli, a club, (eflir, helper) ; 
bar lomr, a wailing, (16mr, the loon). Qestr, a stranger; so, likeLat. hostis, an 
enemy. 

BEAK, a toothed crane above the kitchen fireplace ; Wcl. beqyn, a little 
hook, dim. of ' ba ' (see p. 20); Gael, bacan. 

BEEAK, bake (see BAK). The c runs through Russ. peche, peku, to bake; 
Pol. p\ec,astove; piec, to bake: Bo/tern, pec, heat; pec, an oven; pecu, pec^, to 
bake. ' Ah've a potfull o' floor yet to beeake.' U/ackah, p. 29. 

BEAST, cow; Gael. Blast, Dut. beest, Dan. boest, Gr. boskema, a cow; 
Lat. beslia, a wild beast ; O. Fr. beste, Fr. bete, but Lat. bestialia, cattle, whence 
Fr. bestiaux, betail, cattle. Beast, now the general name of a cow (beasts, cattle) 
in the Dialect, is neither O. N. nor A.S. It is only represented in this sense 
by I We/, 'biw,' cattle. In Lai. it is evidently a borrowed Teutonic word. In 
Nidd. it may really be a Celtic word, for we find A. S. boost, b$st, beestings, there 
in use ; but, as we have seen, boost does not appear in A . S. moaning a cow. Its 
connections are with Lai. pascere; Gr. boskein, to feed; pateomai, to eat. Also 
phagein, to cat; Sans, pitas; Goth, fodeins, food; fodgan, to feed; A.S. feoh, 
cattle; O.N. Fe. Beast comes under Grimm IX. for pascere, pastus; under 
Grimm III., for phagein (phadgein), whence, perhaps, Golh.fwlijan: but, as might 
be expected, many of the forms being names of food and eating handed about 
from one nation to another, defy all laws, see also BEWCE and BOKB, BAK and 
BEEAK, for other connections. In Surrey's ballad of Harpalus, 1557, 

' His beastes he kept upon the hill 
And he sate in the dale. V. 41. 

BEAST-STANG- (see p. 31 and s.v. STANO), a short *tick to thrust through 
the legs of calves to hang them up by. 

BECK, a stream ; O. \. Bekkr, Dan. beck, Stred. back, Ger. bach, Dut. book, 
A. S. Becc (from the O. A'.), O. Steed, boekker, O. //. G. pah. a beck; Gr. pege, 
Lat. fons, a spring. Bekkr means both bank and beck, which are variations of one 
word. As Lat. 'ripa' and 'rivus,' O.Sw. 'banker' and 'boekker,' O./f.G. 
' Panh' and ' Pah,' (nee also p. 28). 'Tooting Beck,' in Surrey, takes its name 
from the Abbey of Bech. in Normandy (to which it was given), which was called 
by the O. N. name (see BANK, BISK). 

BEEAT, bit; O. W. biti, 3r</ pen. plur. of pret. of Bita ; Goth. ( Ul/.) beitan, 
A.S. bitan, Ger. beitzcn. 'T'lile midgies they bceat seea we hardly cud bide.' 
Bla., p. 3U. 

BEEATH, both; 0. Sar. Betthia, bede; Goth, ba, bajoths; O. N. bathir, 



234 BEE BEN. 

gen. beggja, neut. baethi; Ger. beide; A. S. butu, butwu, ba (/. n. of begen), ba- 
twa, begen (gen. begra) ; Sans, ubhau, Gr. ampho, Lat. ambo, Lith. abbu, abbu- 
du; Lettish, abbi, abbi-diwi; Slav, aba, o-ba-dwa (Dief., Cleas., Wedg.); Norweg. 
begge, 'begge to,' both. Colloq. 

BEEP CASE, a ladder-shaped frame, hung horizontally under the ceiling 
near the fire. Beef was formerly hung on it to dry (see Frontispiece). 

BEER TTTLi'T, beer to it; used so much like one word, and actually written 
' tea tult,' ' beer-tult.' Dan. til, to, which see. ' Ah had a glass o' t' best 
beer-tult, and it's maaide me'y feel sa pooerly.' Nid. Al., 1880. 

BEFOOAR, before. 

BEHINT, behind ; compares with Ger. Hint-an, hint-en (adv.), behind; 
hint-er (prep.) behind. ' Wi' a tail hung behint at sweeps t' street like a 
brush.' Blackah, in AL, 1880. 

BEILD (I), the handle of a 'skeel;'' Wei. Beiliad, a projection. The 
handle is formed by leaving one of the staves projecting above the others (see 
p. 31, and SKBEL). 

BEILD (2), a shelter; O. N. Byli, an abode, is closely allied; also ' bsela,' to 
pen slieep during the night. On the high moors a shelter of loose stone walls, 
generally in one of the two forms T" or ("> Beild is properly something 
bylled, or built from O. E. bylle, to build; A. S. byld-an. In the Creed of Piers 
Plowman, about A.D. 1390, we find 
'Swichabildbold 
Y-buldupon erthe heighte.' Lines 311-12. 

BE'Y, be; A. S. Beo. ' Ic beo,' 1st pers. Jut., I shall be, and the 1st pers. 
subj., I may be, of beon, to be. This is a genuine survival of the A. S. inflection, 
as it is not always used by the same writer or speaker, even in the same sentence. 
In the sentence 'tell em thoo'll be'y cumin bye and bye,' (Blackah, p. 15) it 
probably represents the 2nd pers. plu. of the subj. beoth, as it is an indefinite 
promise. 

BELONED, or improp. 

BELLONED, poisoned by the fumes of lead, but it has no doubt had a wider 
meaning; A. S. Belene, belone, belune, the henbane, a very poisonous plant 
(Hyoscyamus Niger); Wei. bela ; Dan. bulmeurt, henbane. Watson (Cybele 
Brittan. Compend., p. 251) 'Native, Europe all. Low grounds. Humber to 
100 yds.' Pateley Bridge is 500 ft. Lat. fel, bitterness of poison; A. S. bcalo, 
bealu, bale, evil; O.N. bb'l; Russ. boli, pain; Pers. bala, misfortune. This may 
also explain bar in bargest. W. bele ('bale'), a marten, or fomard; Gr. galce, 
gale; Lat. feles (' the fell one'), from its death-carrying qualities. W. bela, 
henbane, is connected by Owen with Bel, war, havoc ; Bel = Mars. Owen mentions 
a ' Romano-British ' altar found in the North of England, having the script ' Bel 
y duw Cadyr,' ' Mars, -the puissant god.' ' Bel ' appears as ' bane ' in ' henbane ' ; 
Pers. l>ang,Arab. banj, henbane; O.N. "bani, death; A. S. bana, killer, death, <%c, ; 
O.H.G. bano; O. N. bana-mathr' = ' bane-man,' i.e. slayer = ' Barman,' 'Bar- 
gest,' q.v. (see also BEWT). 

BEND, band, flock, company; A. S. Bend (beand), band; O. N. bendi, a 
cord; whence Mid. Lat. benda, a band (Du Cange). ' Mid bende ' ' with 
bands' (Laws of Mlfred, c. 2). I was told that a bend of black swans came 
down the dale, and that several were shot near Pateley. They must have strayed 
from some ornamental water. Grose also has ' Bend, the border of a woman's 
cap. North? Bosworth (A.S. Diet., 1860) has 'Bend, a band, bond, ribbon; 
a chaplet, crown, ornament. 1 

BENSEL, to beat; O. N. Benzl, a bent bow (from bcnda, to bend, in its 
turn from band, bendi, a band), applied probably to any curved stick used for 
beating. Dan. bcngel ; Ger. bengel, a cudgel. Brock, has ' Teut. benghelen,' to 
' band," 1 to beat with band. Connected with this is O. N. ben, a wound. ' I'll 
gie thee a good benselling,' said J. A. to his son, at Lodge. 



BEN BEW. 235 

BENT, coarse grots on the moors; the grassy moor itself, as opposed to the 
heathery or ling-covered moors; O. E. Bent. Sir J. Hooker (Stud. Flora, 1870, 
p. 431) says 'an old Greek name, 1 without authority or explanation, apparently 
without foundation. Wei. banad, broom ; Hans, and Hind, bhend, a kind of reed; 
bans, a reed; binna, bunna, to lu-i.-t, to mat; Gr. sphingion, a band; sphingo, to 
bind together; Lot. fingo. * Gr. phimos, a muzzle; Lat. figo' (Cur.) O.H.G. 
pinoz, pinuz ( Wedg.) ; Ger. binse, a rush bent, A general name for the coarse 
grass or the grassy moors, in place names, ' Blnyshaw bents ' in fields, as in 
p. 32, 1. 25 ; certainly not confined to genus agrostis. 

4 Bomen bickarte upon the bent. 1 Cfovy Cliase, 
' A Skottyshe knyghte hoved upon the bent. 1 Otterburn, I. 77. 
' Then a lightsome bugle heard he blowe 

Over the bent soe browne.' Sir Cauiine, I. 83. 
BEBRIN, burying, funeral. 

BESOM, broom, A.S., Besom, beam, Dut. and Ger. besem, possibly a 
Dut. form. B-s-m a failure to pronounce b-r-m. 

* Here's the beesom of the Reformation 
Which should have made clean the floor, 
But it swept the wealth out of the nation.' 

Rebellious Household Stuff (Pepy's Collect.) 

BETTEBXY FOLK, gentry, or thereabout ' They're Utterly folk, 
Mr. N 's well up* (q.v.). 

BETWENQED, cattle are said to be Betwenged when suffering from a 
disease which causes them to swell up about the eyes and tail (see p. 4), from 
which it would appear to mean stung, ' be-stinged.' Hut (?) The disease is 
said to be caused by eating something in the hedges, and ' betwenged ' to mean 
' bewitched. 1 I strongly incline to connect it with A. S. thweenj?, a thong, a 
phylactery, thwungen, forced, constrained, compelled (pp. of Thwingan), by the 
votaries of the Black Art An obscure word (see p. 4). 

BETWIXT, A .S. Betwyac, very commonly used. 'Betwixt you and me,' 
in confidence. ' The betwyac us sylfum syndon,' which are betwift us. Laics of 
Eadmund c. 6. ' Swa swa lamb betwux wulfas,' ' as sheep among wolves.' 
S. Luke, x. 3. ' The betweox preostan sy.' Canons temp. Edgar, 7. 

BEWCE, COW-BEWCE, boose, cowshed; Wei. Bu$ca, a fold to trhich 
cows are brought for milking (Ow.), whence A.S. bo's, a stall, manger; O.N. 
bass, whence Fr. bauge, a boose ; Ger. banse ; Wei. bufes, from buf, cattle ; 
bu, a living being, kinc, whence Ital. bu, an ox; Gr. phuu, to bring forth; phus, 
a son; Sans, bhu, earth; ' Bhu, bhavami,' / come into existence, fie. ; Lai. fui, 
futurus, &c. ; A.S. Be6n, to be, exist, become ; O. //. G. bim, Ger. bin, am ; Goth. 
Bauan [Bauains, duelling, Mar. 5, 3, whence also liararia], Ger. bau, house; 
bauen, to build; Slav, byti, to be; LM. buvu, / am, (Cur. 417, c. 564), see also 
BY ILK and for bewce, p. 31. 

TO BEWT, TO BUTE, to boot; A.S. to B6tc, to b6t; from btan, to 
better, to improve. Bote, therefore, meant that makes goal, an emendation, com- 
pensation. Thus in the Laws, 'xxx sceatta to but' (.-Ktlielb.. 71); 'twyb6te,' 
double amends (Ib., 35); 'to b6te' (/Elf., 2, 40); 'twybot' (SElf., 36); 'twi- 
feald b6te '; and in later Sax. b6tleas, inerpiaUe ; as ' housebreaking and arson, and 
open robbery, murder in public, and treachery to one's lord.' Canute, A.D. 1017-35, 
pt 2, 61. Boot or bute, in the Ballads, was used in opposition to bale 
' For now this day thou art my bale, 
My boote when thou shold bee.' 

Rob. Hood and Guy o/Gisborne, 1. 72. 

* Sen God he sendis bate for bale.' Robin and Maiane, 1. 37 (A.D. 1568). 
Blackah uses ' to bewt 'Potms in the Nidderdalc Dialect, p. 34. 



236 BED BLA. 

BIDE, to remain, dwell, endure, wait; A.S. Bidan, O.N. bida. 'Whar 
dosta bide P' ' In London.' ' I Loondon ! ' (Colloq.) ' We hardly cud bide.' 
endure them. Bla., p. 38. 

BIGG-, to build; O. N. Byggja, Dan. bygge, Swed. bygga, A . S. byggan, 
Gr. pegnumi, peguo, Lat. Figo, to build; Goth, buan, Gr. oikein, A. S. buan, 
Hel. buan, to inhabit; Ger. bauen, Swed. and Dan. bo, O.N. bua, to dwell; Gr. 
phuo. See BEWCE for Sans, bhu, bhavami ; Lat. fui. 

BIGGIN, building ; O. N. Bygging, Nor. byggen (Fritzmr), Dan. Bygning, 
Gr. oikos, Lat. vicus, and (from Gr. peguo) pagus, whence pagensis ; Ital. paese, 
Fr. pays ; Lat. paganus, Eng. pagan ; Sans. pa9, pafayami, to bind; Lat. pax, 
peace; pango, to fasten, fix, &c. (Cur., 343) ; Eng. pitch, pack, peg (Lid. e Sc.). 
Vigfusson, in Cleasby, does not connect pegnumi. The Dan. bygning follows this 
form, as bygging follows peguo. ' Biggin Grange,' and freq. as a place name, 
also occurs as a man's name. 

BINK or BINCH, a flagstone, a stone seat. A large flagstone leant against 
a wall, and used to bray sand upon ; also improperly called ' BUKKER,' (which 
see). O.N. Bekkr, Dan. Bsenk, A.S. Benc, Eng. bench, Wallach. benca or 
bicasu,_/?wz<; Hung, beka ; see also BANK. O.N. Bingr, a bolster, bed, heap of 
corn! Swed. binge, a heap ; Dan. banke, a bank, hillock; see BUNCH. In place 
names, 'Binks Wood' and 'Jenny Binks Moss' = Jenny's Binks Moss places 
where they were dug (see p. 28, also BECK). 

BIBK, the birch; O.N. Bjork, Dan. birk, Ger. birke, birken (ScMlem, 
1727) ; A. S. beorc, Eng. birch. 'Birch' is not understood by many, or is thought 
to mean ' beech,' to which, as well as to O. N. bb'rkr, Eng. bark, it is nearly 
related; all having furnished food. That bread was made from birch-bark, see 
Ray, Hist., 3, p. 12. Linnaeus (Flora Lapponica, 1737), says, of the birch, 
' Cortex nunquam editur a Lapponibus' (p. 264), ' the bark is never eaten by the 
Lapps,' which implies that it is, or was, eaten by others. He gives, however 
(p. 276), a curious account of the mode of making ' bark breed,' lark bread, from 
the Scotch fir (pinus Sylvestris), which is called by the Lapps ' Betze.' ' Betze 
Lapponibus bietze aliis' (p. 274), that is, I doubt not, 'the food tree,' betze from 
Russ. peshche, food; found equally in Eng. 'beech,' Gr. phegos for which see 
BOKE and Ger. fichten {Dan. fyr, Swed. (Scania) fur, O. N. fura, Nor. (Trondhjem) 
furu, O. H. G. foraha, Ger. fohre, E. fir ; Su-ed. tall). The Lat. is betula ; ' betulla,' 
Plin. (Lib. 16, c. 18) ; according to Camden, from an old Celtic name, bedu, but 
Vossius laughs at this ; O. Fr. boule, boulay. Cot. The existence of ' fohre' and 
'fichten' in Ger. as names of the same tree is suggestive (the former from the 
'spines' or 'pines' (leaves), Lat. pinus or 'firs'; in Surrey reduplicated 'far-pins'), 
the latter from its _/ocx/-giving qualities seemingly a borrowed word, probably 
from the Greek. An identity is thus established between birk, bark and beech, 
as food, which goes a long way towards proving their identity as words. Nowhere 
is the birk more beautiful than in those majestically pathetic verses of Hamilton 
(who died 1754) on TJte Braes of Yarrow, where 

' Sweet smells the birk, green grows, green grows the grass, 
Yellow on Yarrow's bank the gowan.' LI. 50, 51. 

BIT, beat. 

BLAKE, yellowisli-ivUte, bright yellow; O.N. Bleikr, i/ellow; Dan. bleg, 
pale, <$c.; Steed, blek; Ger. bleich and b\ns,s, pale; Russ. byeliey, byele, white, 
(zhultcig, yelloii'); Gr. palleukos, white; but O. H. G. plak, black. IftheGV. 
palleukos be really for pan-leukos, all white (Li'l. and Scott.), the ' b ' in blake, 
and the ' by6 ' in Huss. byeliey, represent an old word meaning all. ' Gode 
blake bollys.' Tourn. of'/'oltc.ii/tam. ' As blake as a marygold.' Colloq. Nidd. 

BLAY, bleak, A.S. Bleed, a blowing, looks tempting, but this very northern 
word must be accounted O. N., an adj. connected with led. blasa [Eng. blaze] ; 
of places, in the phrase ' ilasa vith ' to lie full and open before the eye, said by 



BLE BOK. 237 

Cleasby to be modern. Perhaps, explains ' Blazefield,' certainly 'Blayshaw,' 
'Blaywith,' &c. ' It's a blay poor place, fit to flay yan.' Collaq. Middlesmoor. 
This word is no doubt connected with O. N. blasa ; Gotii. (Ulf.) blesan, Steed. 
blasa, A.S. bla wan, bleu wan, Ger. blasen, /-'</. blow, Lot. flare. 

BLE A. lead-coloured, also blue; O. N. Bly, lead; A.S. bleo, a colour, hue, 
Uee\ blue (Bos.) O. N. blar, lead-coloured, whence Wei. blawr, grey, iron-grey; 
Scot, bla, livid; Gr. molybdos, lead; Lat. plumbum, lead, lividus, lead-coloured, 
closely allied to Gr. leukos, Lat. Qz\\is, yellow, golden-coloured, as blea to HI..VKK, 
q. v., Gr. 'leukoi konisalo' with grey dust (II. 5, 503). 'Lead' stands for 
* blead,' as ' lividus ' for ' flividus,' and * leukos ' for ' fleukos.' O. N. bly, 
lead; Ger. blei, O.H.G. pli, lead. O.H.G. 'blei-faro' became Fr. blafard, 
wan, pallid (Bra.), cf. also Eng. 'lake' and 'flake,' Russ. golyboe, sky-blue 
(Riola) ; Swed. bla, blue; Dan. bla, Ger. blau ; 0. H. G. blao, whence Fr. bleu, 
blue (Bra.). Probably the metal took its name from the colour, ' blee' is common in 
the ballads. 

' All wan and pale of blee.' Sir Cauline, Fit. 2, L 80. 

' That bride so bright of blee.' .Sir Aldingar, v. 52. 

' She threw down the mantle that vras bright of blee.' 

Anc. Metric. Romances, ''Boy and Mantle," 1 1. 50. 

The Russ. Blyednie, pale, forms a link between this and the following word. 

BLEEAJD, blood; from its colour, as with Gypsy, ratte, ret, blood; Hind. 
ntkt, blood and red. 

BLEEAM, blame. 

BLINDERS, blinkers, of a horse. 

BLOWSEY, blouse. 

BODUM. bottom ; Dut. Bodem, Ger. boden. 

BOGGART, BOOLE. 1 . A hobgoblin, a sprite, properly a spectre, phantom ; 
Wei. Bwg, a hobgoblin, scarecrow, bwg-an, a bugbear, scarer; Gr. phasma, a 
spectre, ff host, Qc.; phao, to shine, to appear, phaino, to bring to light, $c.; Ger. 
gespenst, a spectre; IMI. spectrum, a form or image, real or imaginary, from 
spectare freq. of specio, to look at ; O. N. spa ; Scot, spae, to look at ; Fr. 
spectre, Eng. spectre, StcetL spoke, Dan. spopelse, which comes so near to 
boggle as to make it almost certain that it is the parent form, modified in its 
initial by the Wei. bwg, which has lost an 's.' There is an apparent dilemma in 
connection with this word. Lat. specio, specto has the sense of Gr. skeptomai, 
wherefore they are admitted to be akin, but if this, therefore skeptomai is also 
akin to phao, phaino (sphao, sphaino). 'Skp,' by metathesis for 'spec' (Grimm 
IX.), with the aspirate ' sphec' (Grimm III.), brings them to a common point, 
spha, sphe. 2. To leaver, to shy of a horse. ' To take boggart, said of a 
horse that starts at any object in the hedge or road. A'orM.' (Grose). Wei. 
bogelu, to terrify, to hule from fear . 'Arthur n'm bogela.' Arthur will not 
frighten me. Tryslan a Gwalcmai in Ow. 

BOKE, book; O.N. Bok, Swed. bok, Dan. bog, Goth. b6ka (Ulf.), b6ca; 
A.S. b6c, Ger. buch, il/. //. G. B'ueche, O.H. G. puochi. book; Gr. phegos, Lat. 
fagus, Goth. b6ka, A.S. b6c, b6cc; O. N. b6k, Dan. bog, bog; Swed. bok, Ger. 
buche, M. II. G. buoche, O. //. G. puocha, puocha, puohha, beech (Grimm, Curtius, 
Cleasoy) ; O. N. baki, beyki, beech-wood, on slabs of which the ' runes ' were 
engraved bok-runar (Sdm. 19, Cleas.). The name of the tree also used for the 
' mast,' from M. II. G. we find Swiss buech, beech-mast (Stalder, I., 237); buchen, 
beech-mast (Simpliciss. hcrausg., A. Keller, 1854). The * mast' gave the name to 
the tree, not vice versa. For Gr. phegos meant oak. Theophrastus (Hid. Plant. 
III. TIL, 2), B.C. 322, is clear uj-on this point, as are Dioscorides (Hist. Plant. 
I., 145), 2nd Century, and Pausanias (Descr. of Greece, VIII., 12, 1.), A.D. 170. 
la Mix/. Gr., however, phegos certainly means beech. Kontopoulos (Mod, Gr. 
4' Eng. Lex., 1868). Phegous, beech-nutt Plato (Rep. 372, c.) ' Roast myrtle 



238 BOK BRA. 

berries and phegous at the fire.' Phakos, pulse, beans, S[c.; phaselos, kidney '^btan; 
all from phagein, to eat, whence phegos was derived by Eustathius (Comment. 
A.D. 1160, 594, 33, et seq. on II. 5, 693). Gr. phagein, Sans, bhaks, to eat, 
whence Bopp derives bacca, a berry; Goth, basi; veina-basga, grapes (Ulf. Matt. 
vii. 16, Luke, vi. 44) ; Russ. peshcha,/boo?, comes very near beech and buech, beech 
mast. Much attractive learning has been bestowed upon the meaning of phegos 
from Theophrastus to Max Muller. Among the modern essays see Conrad 
Gesner, 1541 (p. 107); Curt. Symporian. 1560 (Hort. XXVI. 19); Isidorus 
(Deriv. and Etym. XVII. 7), 1585; Mitford (Hist, of Greece, VI. pp. 9-11), 
1818 ; Carl Fraas (Klima und Pflanzenwelt, p. 119), 1847; Curtius (Grundziige, 
p. 156), 1858; Pott (I. 112); Grimm (Gesch., 398); also (Deut. Wortub. s.v. 
buche); Kuhn (IV. 84); H. Merivale (Hist. Stud. < Anc. ItaV), 1865; Max 
Muller (Led. 2nd Ser. pp. 216, et. seq.), 1864; also Meyen (Geog. of Plants, Ray 
Soc., 1846, p. 347) for species; Quercus JEgilops, also probably Q. Ballota. 

1 Theyr bokes thou buniest in flaming fire, 
Cursing with boke, bell, and candell.' 

A Ballad about Luther, the Pope, fyc., temp. Ed. VI. 

BOKE for BALK, o beam. ' Ah jumped off t' boke onta t' hay mew.' For 
' Rannel-boak,' see pp. 21-22. O. N. balkr, a beam. 

BOOT, a turn, fit. ' Thoo had sike bad boots now an then.' Al, 1880. 

BOTJN (BOON), gone, going, on the way, off to ; O.N. Buinn, past part. 
of bua, to make ready, prepare. A very favourite word in the Ballads. O. E. 
bone, boon or boun, ready; later corrupted into ' bound,' from which the Ballad 
writers formed a fresh verb ' to boun ' (Cleas.), of which these examples 

'Busk ye, boun ye, my merry men all.' R. Hood and Guy ofGisb., v. 21. 

' He bowynd him over Solway.' Otterb., 1. 6. 
Of its proper use the following are examples from the Ballads 
' To battle that were not bowyn.' Otter., 1. 1 6. 

' To battle make you bowen.' L. 110. 
' Our kynge was bowne to dine.' Sir Cauline, 1. 22. 

Chaucer also, ' As she was boun to go the way forthright.' Cant. Tales, 11807. 
In Nidderdale, ' Where is t' barn P ' (Colloq.) ; and in a local rhyme 
' Ye mud really hae thowt it warr boune to drownd Craaven.' 

BOWT, a turn,JU. ' Thoo's browt this badly bowt on wi' the own care- 
lessness.' Ib. 

BOWT, bought. 

BRANDERI, a moveable framework of iron bars to put over the fire. For 
a riew of same see p. 19. Dan. Braanderi, O. N. brandreith. 

BRANG, brought; A. S. Brangr, p. of bringan, to bring. 

BRUNO, brought; A. S. Brungon, ]st pers.p. of bringan ;p.p. brungen, 
brought. 

BRANT (1), steep; Swed. Brant, A.S. brant, bront; O.N. brattr, steep; 
Nor. bratt-bjerg, a precipice, cliff (Colloq.) ; Lat. frons, frontis, forehead; Eng. 
front (Grimm III.); Gr. protos, prSteros, in front; Sam. pratamah (G. IX.) 
Also probably Gr. phren, midriff, because it is in front, whence phrontis, thought, 
care, heed, #c. (G. III.) "Tis a varra brant hill. 1 Colloq. (2) Forward; 
' Tlile thing wer as brant as cud be.' (3) Proud, stiff; ' She war at brant 
as brant.' Colloq. 

BRASBTWOOD, brushwood; 0. N. Breyskr, weak, brashy, hair-like; applied, 



BRA BRE. 239 

I suppose, to the^Btraggling runners and shoots that are trimmed on" a hedge ; 
variously used (see Atk. Cl. Gl.) Spelman cites ' 50 acras sylvoe, et 70 acras de 
brushe.' Chart, Edred., A.D. 948. Skinner derives brushwood from Tent. 
bursle, a hair, a bristle, whence Ital. bruccioli, brucciare; Fr. brosser, bresse, 
broisse, brosse, to which we may add Gr. prason, a leek, which is bristle-shaped, 
phriz, phrisso ; Lot. firigeo. 

BRASS, money, pron, brass; A. S. Braes (Somner); from O.Gcr. bras, Me 
fire; Ger. bras, that which is cooked on the fire, food; O. N. brasa, to braze, harden 
in the fire; bras, that which wot brazed, solder (Cleat.) ; A. S. brass, brass, from 
being used in the brazing or soldering of iron ( Wedg.) From O. Ger. bras, fire, 
come also Span, brasas, Port, braza, Ital. brace, bracia, bragia; Fr. braise embers; 
braise r, a brazier. 

The Heir of Linne ' Had never a penny left in his purse, 

Never a penny left but three, 
And one was brass, another was lead, 
And another it was white money. 1 LL 61-64. 

' I don't care a brass farden,' is a common expression in Nidderdale (see FARDKH), 
and Blackah ' For wer brass '11 nut gan a girt geeat,' ' Our money will not go 
far '(p. 20). 'Bronze' is a twin word, from Goth. Brann, O. N. brandr, the 
hearth. 

BRAT, apron; Gael. Brat, an apron, mantle; Wei. brat, a clout, piece or 
rag; (Ow.); A.S. bratt, a cloak (Somn.) ; brat (Wedg.). 'We're gaeing ta 
bring thee a new brat.' Bla., p. 18. Gr. pharos, pharos, a cloak; pharsos, a 
piece torn off; Lot. pars, a part. 

BRAY, to pound sand ; Fr. Brayer (Skinner) ; Wei. br euanu, to bray (Ow.) ; 
brau, brittle; breuan, a quern, mill; breuanu, to grind or bray; Fr. broyer, to 
grind, crush, bray ; Goth, brikan, to break, whence Lat. bricare ; A. S. bracan, 
breacan, brecan, to break, bruise; 0. N. braka, to creak; Ger. brechen, to break; 
A. S. breotan, to bruise, break; O.N. brj6ta, to break down; Lat. and Span. 
britare, which Cleasby thinks 'came into Spain with the Goths ;' Span, bregar, 
to knead ; Gr. 'regnumi, to break. Bray may be direct from Fr. brayer, but 
this is certainly not from Lat. bricare, as Brachet thinks, but from the Celtic. 
For method of braying sand (see p. 28), also BBEAH, RREEA. 

BRAWN, the place at which the branches begin in a tree; Wei. brawn, 
abounding with growth ; or, perhaps, baren, a branch. A tree which stood on the 
edge of a landslip at High Scar, above Lofthouse, was said to hare been ' rovcn 
up to the grain' or brawn (see p. 108). 

BRAZZAXDLY, in a brazen-faced manner; A. S. Brsesen, made of bran, 
strong, powerful. ' And fair befooare t'winder he brazzandly stood.' Bla., 
p. 18. 

BREAH, the broken bank of a river (Grainge); A.S. Breah, Eng. and 
Scot. brae. 

BREEA, BREAK, briar; A.S. Brer. ' Before "Turner Carr* (on the 
Ord. Map, " Tumacar") was riped, it was all brears and chcwps,' tee CHEWPS. 
The Heir of Linne found 

' The little window, dim and dark, 

Was hung with ivy, brere and yewe.' Pt 2, 1. 10. 

Span, abrojo, Gr. 'rachos, proves correctness of Skinner's suggestion that brssr 
is contr. from bneoer, breaker, so called from its tearing propensities. 

BREAD, bread; A. S. Breed, bread the A. S. pron. well preserved. 

BREET, bright; A.S. Beorht, bright; breahtm, breahtem, a shining; 
which suggests a form [breaht] repres. by pres. word. ' And t' fire burns as 
breet as can be.' Bla., 26. 

BREK, to break; A. S. Brecan. 



240 BRO BUB. 

BROKKAN, broken; see BRAT. This a piece of pleasantry anent a lazy 
man : 'Ah wish t'storm wad brek sa'ah as ah cud git ta me'y wark.' ' They 
say he dozzant knaw yet at its brokkan.' Nid. AL, 1 880. 

BROWN-LEEMING-NUT, hazel nut; A. S. Leome, a bough, branch, 
limJ>. 'Brown leemers' or 'brown shuilers' (Hall). Is 'brown-leemin' the liazel 
tree, from the colour of its bark (?) 

BE.OO, brow; A. S. Brew, brsew, brow, the common pron; Gr. ophrus; 
Ion. ophrue; Sans, bh.ru, bhruwa; O. //. G. hrawa (Cur. 405). 

BRUSH-SHANK, a small brush used for working wheaten flour through a 
tiffany (sieve) for making ' tiffany cakes '; prop. ' brush-handle' (see p. 15). 

BUD, but; as A. S. abbud, abbudissc, for abbot, abbotess (abbat, abbatissa). 

BUDGET, a backcan; O. Fr. Bougette, ' a little coffer or trunke of wood 
covered with leather, wherewith the women of old time carried their jewelles, 
attires and trinkets at their saddle-bowes when they rid into the country ; now 
. . . any such trunke,' &c. Cotgrave, Fr. Diet., 1650. Dim. of bouge, a 
budget, wallet, great pouch, male, or case of leather serving to carry things in 
behind a man on horseback.' Gr. molgos, skin; Lat. bulga, a hide, a skin, a bag. 
According to Festus of Gaulish origin. ' Bulgas Galli saculos scorteos vocant. 1 
The Gauls call their leather bags bulges (in Du Cange). Bulgia same as bulga, 
from Ital. bolgia; Late Gr. boulgion. Will, of Malmesbury writes ' bulgias et 
manticas coram efferri et expilari jussit.' Gest. Pontif, Lib. I. (Spelmaii). 
' Bulga = hydig-faet,' a leather vessel. Gloss. Sax. JElfric. ' Bulgce et manticoa 
reseratoe sunt ' budgets and saddle-bags. Eadmer, Life of Anselm, 2, 27. Du 
Cange said ' bolgan ' was a Welsh word in his time, and that the Armoricans 
(Brittany) call it boulchet (see p. .HI and BACKCAN). 

BUKKER, or more properly Booker, Steed, bokare, breaker ;boka,fo bray 
sand; whence Fr. bocarder. The original booker was a beech stump, Goth. 
boka, from its hardness. Brockett describes an improved form of this, ' Bucker, 
an iron instrument with a wooden handle, used in the country to bray sand with.' 
A similar instrument used for ramming asphalte pavements near London is called 
a punner, i.e. pounder. For bukker see also p. 28, and BOKE. 

BULiLACE, the bullace, a wild sour plum; Wei. bwlas (Wedg.), from bwl, a 
ball, whence Fr. boule, bulle, a ball; Lat. bulla. From bwlas come Ital. bullos, 
bulloi, sloes; Eng. bollis (Skin.), Bret, bolas or polos; O. Fr. bellocier, a bullace 
tree. 'As heet as a bullace.' Colloq. Nidd. 

BUMMEL-KITE, blackberry. 'Bumble-kites' (Ffalliwell), i.e. bumble- 
belly, from the effect of eating too many. Brockett says ' I have often been 
admonished by the " good old folks " never to eat these berries after Michaelmas 
Day, because the Arch fiend was sure to pass his cloven foot over them at that 
time.' Atk. (Cl. Gl.~) gives a similar explanation. The name is used in Hamp- 
shire (Warner, Hist, of Hampshire). //. bombare, Lat. bombilare, Gr. bombos; 
Late Gr. bomboin, bomb'ule, bombulios, &c. (Skin. Et. Ang.) 

BUNCH, kick; O. N. Bunki, a heap, pile; O. Sw. bunke. a heap; O. N. 
bunga. elevation; O. Sw. bunga, to beat; Dut. bunzen, bumsen, to knock; bons, a 
knock. (Wedg. and Cleas.) 'bunch.' Lut. pungere, pugnus; Bel. boken, 
boocken, whence Fr. buquer (Skin. Et. Ang., 1671). 

' Or mebbc thoo'll be bunched aboot 
Wi' t' barns across o' t' fleur.' Bla. p. 33. 

BURN, stream; A. S. Burn, burna, burne, byrne, from Goth, brunna, 
a spring, whence O. N. brunnr, Swe. brunn, Dan. brond, O. H. G. brunno, Ger. 
brunnen, born; S. Eng. bourne, Gr. phear (Cur. Skcat.) Only occurs in the name 
of the River Burn, Colsterdale. ' Burn Gill,' Gouthwaite = ' Burn's Gill,' after a 
farmer who lived up there. The Greek equivalent, phrounos, a toad, seems to 
liave baffled etymologists. Grimm's Fairy Tales, however, will explain this. It 
ia connected with fish, reptile, and water worship. 'Beck' is a parallel case. 



BUS CAM. 241 

Sans, bhekka, a frog; also ' fish,' which means water as well. Gael. Tasg, a fish, 
gen. Eisg, Gael. Uisc, Eng. Esk, Siier. Wiika, water; Dan. fisk, fish; so also 
Nor. lax, salmon; Lai. lacus, &c. Probably Burn, a stream, should be classed 
as Gael, burn, water. 

BUSK, a bush ; Icel. Baskr ( Wedg., neither Fritz, nor Cleasby give this) ; 
Dan. busk, Swe. buske, whence Med. Lot. busca, busketus, busquetui, 
buscagium, &c. in Du Cange who derives them from ' boscus.' I should not like to 
separate ' bush ' and k brush ' however, thin, weak wood, and for other reasons, in 
part given on pp. 103-104, 'bush'cannot derive from 'boscus' (see BRASHWOOD). 

BUSK, the front bone of women's slays; Fr. Busc, busq, also buc, buste, ' a 
buske; plated body or other quilted thing worne to make or keep the body 
straight' (Cot.): a corrup. of Ital. busto, from Lot. bustum (Skin.) ; originally the 
busk, Fr. bu, bust, buste, meant the body ; or busk, the long small (or sharp- 
pointed) and hard quilted belly of a doublet. Cot. Busk in this sense occurs 
in the Ballad of Edom o' Gordon, 105. Compare Eng. Gypsy troopias, women's 
stays; Wallach. trupu, the body. 

BUTTERFLEE, butterfly; A.S. Buter-fleg'e (Somner); Teut. butter- 
fliege; Del. boter-vliegre. 

BUTTER SHAG, a slice of bread and butter, Bla. Gael. Sliseagr, a slice. 

C. 

I IV. Eng. C, Goth. K, Sans., Gr., Lai., Celt., G ; Slav. G, Z ; 0. H. O. Ch. 
OrimmA VII. Goth, h.g.(f); Sans. K, h; Gr. K, Lot. c, qw; Celt, c, ch; Slav. K, 



CABIN", Gael, and W. Caban, dim. of cab. a cot, booth, fyc. ; used by the 
lead miners at Greenhow Hill, of the huts or shelters they erect. It. capanna, 
Fr. cabane. ' Tugurium parva casa est quam faciunt sibi custodes vinearum ad 
tegimen sui. Hoc rustici capannam vocant.' Isidore of Seville. The Welsh 
cab was 'in the form of a cone made with rods set in the ground and tyed at the 
top.' Ow. The charcoal burners in the forests of the Brocken make these cabins 
of firpoles tied at the top, as I have seen. 

CADGER, ' a miller's man who goes from house to house collecting corn to grind, 
and returning it in meal.' Grainge. O. F. [ Achateur] acheteur, Gr. chad, 
kao, kapd, to take in, comprehend; chandano (chadein, chadeein), to take in, comprise ; 
O. A", kaeja, decoy, allure (?) ; fat. capio, capto adcapto, accapto. Fr. acater, 
llth century; achater, 12th century; acheter, 13th century. Bra. From 
achater, to buy, comes achat, a purchase (accaptum) ; similarly, from achater 
[achateur] acheteur, purchaser. If the ad be dropped throughout (in its later 
form a), we hare [chateur] cheteur for acheteur, which, I suspect, is our word 
' cadger' = caterer, from cater. In the Rouchi dialect, or the patois of the Hainault, 
we find acater for acheter ; O. Fr. achepter, to buy ; It. accatare, to acquire ; Pro- 
vence acapta, acapte, acquisition of an estate. Neapolitan accattan, to buy (Dies) ; 
hence Old Eng. acates, cates, victuals, provisions purchased. The eatery was the 
store room, whence to cater, to purchase provisions ( Wedg.). 

CAIKE, cake. 

CAIME, comb. 

C AM, a fence ; O. N. Kambr, a ridge, a fence on the moors, formed by 
^^BB'*tf two ditches and throwing up a ridge between them ; M'. camlas, a 
trench or ditch, in this district as a place name ' Camleas Dyke ' on the 
moors; O.N. kambr, a comb; Dan. and Steed, kam, comb; A.S. camb, 
O. If. G. champ, Ger. kamm, Eng. comb. Kambr first meant a ridge, afterwards 
a comb, from its shape ; Gr. kampter, a bend, angle ; the point at which a line 
turns; kamo, kampto, to bend, to turn round a point or angle; W. camu, to bend, 
boic, or curve; Gael, cam, crooked; cam, to bend. Connected with next word. 

1 

0C0BI18 15 NlDDKRDALE. LuCOt. 



242 CAM CHE. 



CAMBRIL, a curved wooden frame to lay sheep or pigs on. Pig-cambril, 
another name for the sheep-cratch, for which see pp. 9 and 31, also CKATCH, 
below; (?) direct from O. Ft: Cambre crooked; Gr. kampule, a crooked stick; 
kampto, to bend; kampulos; Lat. camurus: Wei. cam, camawg, bent, crooked; M. 
Lai. camerare ; Fr. cambrer, to bend; cambre, crooked; Span, combar. to bend; 
O. H. G. or Goth. (?) whence Lat. hamus, hamulus, a hook; A, S. hamere, a 
crooked stick used for steering a boat; Gr. kampsa, a wicker basket; Russ. korobe; 
Eng. hamper; O. Wei. cwrwgyl, a coracle; ftuss, korable, a ship, whence O. N. 
kobl, Eng. koble, a boat, on the Yorkshire coast; Lat. curvus; Gr. kampe a cater- 
pillar; Sans, kapana, kampana (Cur. 31, b). ' Taureaux aux pieds cambres.' 
C. Carapanos (Dodone ft ses Ituines, p. 149), 1878. Cambrel, generally pron. 
' Cam'rill,' but in view of the Gr. and A. S. forms the dialect word may be inde- 
pendent of the Fr. Gael, cam-luirg 1 , camlorg;, a crooked stick. 

CATsTNALi, candle; A. S. Candel, from Lat. candela, a candle, from candeo, 
to shine; whence also Fr. chandelle. The dropping of the d is a Danish charac- 
teristic, as 'mand,' 'man' ; ' vand,' 'van,' &c. Of monastic origin. 

CAP, to beat as a difficulty. Capped, beaten, in argument or otherwise, 
outdone, surprised, astonished; O. N. kapp, contest, zeal, <Jfe. ' It caps me wer 
he gits it fra.' Colloq. ' Ah wor capped,' ' That capped me.' Colloq. 
1 Ye'd been capt to have seen.' Bla. 

CEAIMED, combed. 

CHAPMAN, a small travelling merchant; A.S. Ceapmann, Dan. kjob- 
mand, Swed. kb'pman, O. N. kaup-mathr, Ger. kaufmann, Russ. kypets, a merchant 
prop, the striker of a bargain, COWP, which see. If we cannot now readily 
picture the importance of the effete ' chapman' to this country in times past, there 
are not wanting materials to aid our perceptions. The A. S. Laws are full of 
special enactments respecting them; thus, in Kent, a man who '"farmeth" a 
" comer" three nights in his own house, cepeman or other traveller,' is made 
responsible for his conduct. Laws of Hlothcer, 15 (A.D. 675-685). The Laws of 
Ine, King of the West Saxons (688-728) have a special chapter 'on the journeys 
of chapmen up country.' 'Be cypmanna fore up on lande.' 'Gif cypeman 
up on Folc ceapige.' ' If a chapman (ceapige) 'chop' with folk [let him] do that 
before witnesses. If a man receive stolen property (thyfe feoh) '' set cypmen " 
(dative) from a chapman, and he has not bought it before good witnesses, let him 
prove that he neither knew it, nor was the thief, or he must pay his " wite" 
36 shill.' Ine, 25. In the Laws of Alfred (872-901) there is a chapter ' Be 
cypmannum.' 'On chapmen.' 'Also it is ordained (ceapmannum) for 
chapmen that they bring the men whom they take up [coun'ry] with them before 
the King's sheriff at " Folc gem6te" [the general asseml ly of the people on 
May 1st] and show how many there are of them, and that they take those [same] 
men with them, whom they must .afterwards bring back, according to law, to 
Folc gem6te. And when it is necessary for them to take more men up with them 
on their journey, let them declare it every time as oft as may be necessary for them, 
to the King's sheriff before the Gemo'te.' JEtf., c. 30. The Folc gem6te could 
be assembled any time by ringing the Moot Bell. The necessity of having 
proper witnesses to every bargain is still more strongly insisted upon in the Laws 
of Eadgar (959-975). The passage is too long to quote, a great many cases, with 
penalties, being instanced (Eady., Suppt., Parags. 13 to 20). Chapmen had to be 
particular as to the quality of their purchases, which made old Tusser remark 
'For that every chapman they seem not to please.' (500 Points, 1557, 
'Tillage,' v. 27.) The pleasant Dr. Plot tells us that if wheat 'stand too long, 
much will shatter out of the hand in reaping, the worst only remaining, which will 
be Pale in the hand, an unpardonable fault where the baker is the chapman.' 
Nat. Hist. o/Oxfordsh., 1705, c. 9, 99. 

CHEAN, chain; Fr. chaine, Lat. catena, Gael, ceangal. 

CHE WPS, rote ItuJtes, red teeds of wild rose; 0. N. kjupa, seeds of the roie. 



cm OLO. 243 

Neither Fritzner nor Cleasby give this word as O. N., but the feet that kjupa, 
hjupa is used in Norway in the same sense with the Swetl. hjupon indicates the 
source, while its presence in Nidderdale proves its antiquity. Wedgwood, who 
gives the Norsk forms, adds Dan. hybe, A. S. hiope, heope; Eug. hip. 'When 
Turner Carr was riped some years ago, a many chewps were taken away.' 
Colloq. where it means rose bushes. 

CHIMLER-HOAL, chimney of the old open kind (see p. 20, et seq.). 
CHINCE, tabby. A ' chince tom-cat.' 

CHIPPED, chapped. ' Chipped hands.' 0. N. kipra, to wrinkle; kippa, 
to quiver; Dut. kippen. 

CHOOAK, choice; O.N. (Juok, the throat ; kjokr, a clicking voice ; kjb'kra, to 
speak with a choking voice. Of a horse ' He'd hommast ha drawn whal he 
chooaked.' Bla. p. 13, 1. 12. 

CHOOKEBS, CHUKKERS,^eW/ares. 

CLAG, to hang on; O. N. "Klakkr, a peg on a packsaddle on which the packs 
were hung (Cleas.) Of a horse, ' Claggred on fra his tail tuv his heead.' Bla. 
p. 12,1. 12. 

CLAISE, clothes, and 

CLEEASE, clothes; contr. from A. S. Claethas (pi. of clsetli), garments, as 
'cloze ' from ' clothes ' ; O. N. klaethi ; Dan., Sice, and Nor. klaeder, pron. (in 
Norway), klehur; Dut. kleed, O. H. G. chleit; Ger. kleit, kleid; Eng. cloth (tee 
also CLOOT and CLEKT, below). 
CLAISE-CORD, clothes-line, 
CLAP, u pat with the hand ; O. N. Klapp, a pat. 
CLAP, to pat a dog; O. N. Klappa, to pat, whence Klappe-brb'd. 
CLAP-CAKE, a baked oaten cake, originally ' clapped,' or beaten out 
thin, with the hand. Dan. Klappe-brod (see pp. 1 5 and 1 8). 

CLAP. Other usages, ' Clap cannal doon,' ' set the candle down ; * ' To 
clap een on ' = to see. 

CLAVEB, clover; Dut. Claver; Dan. klever, klover; Swe. klb'fver, Ger. 
klee, Gr. chloe, chloa, clover; Ion., chloie, tlie tender shoots of plants in spring 
(A. and S.); the blade of young corn or grass; chloeros, clover colour, green, 
contr. chloros; Eng. Gypsy, chor, green clover; Hind, khur, clover. 

GLEET, coltsfoot (tussilago farfara); A. S. Cleot, a little cloth. As bur- 
dock and butter-bur compare with cloth-bur, and blanket-plant with blanket 
from the woolly leaves (see also CLAISE and CLOOT). 

CLEET-WINE. 'The beverage made from it,' writes the Rev. S. R. 
Anderson, Vicar of Otley, ' is called Gleet-wine,' (MS. letter). ' Hooer Liza 
had maaide some cleet-wine, a kind of verb.' \id. A I., 1880. 

CLETCH, a brood, whence O. A'. Klekja, Dan. kloekke, Sice, klacka, to 
h-itch; Sans, kill, kill!, a key; Hind. kt\&./ort; Arab, kala; Gr. kleis, a key; Lot. 
clavis; Gr. kleio, Lot. claudo, to shut; Mid. Lot. claia, cleia, cleta, clida; Fr. 
da,ye = A. S. hirdel, a hurdle, whence a fold. Clida, a cage /or prisoners (Leg. 
Ripuar, 77). ( Williams, Sans.; Shakspear, Hind.; Spelman; and Willdnt Gloss. 
to A. S. Laws); see also CLUTHBR, CLOOASE. 

CLINKER. ' That's a Clinker ' exceedingly good one. Colloq. 
CLINKINGK ' He's a Clinkin good walker.' Colloq., Middlesmoor. 
CLINT (1), name of a place near Hampsthwaite; Dan. and Sice. Klint, 
brow of a hill, promontory. Clint is situated upon the jutting spur of a hill. 
(2) Flint, chert. At and above Lofthouse and Middlesmoor the chert beds at 
the junction of the Yoredale and Millstone grit beds are so called. (3) ' Crevices 
among bare limestone rocks ' (BrocktU), so used in Wharfedale. Ger. klinze, 
klinse, cleft, slit, yap (Grimm Diet., s. v. klinse, 3, a); Stcc. giant; MY/, glyn, 
Gael. Gleann, a glen; pi. glinn. 

CLOG, a log, a wooden shoe; Wei. dog, clwff, a large stone (Otc.), with 
the sense of the following : 0. N. klot, Swe. klot, Dan. klods; Ger. klotz, kloben, 



244 CLO COW. 

a log; Russ. gleiba, a clod; comp. Eng. glebe, Mid. Lat. gleba. ' Tool-clog:,' or 
' T'yule-clogr,' (see p. 42) ; Gael, cloch, a stone. 

CLiOISE, close. ' Cloise at ther heels,' (AL, 1880), and in a fmg. of a local 
rhyme 

' Then up there sprung a little breeze 
Anent the larchy cloise.' 

CLOOASE, close (Greenhow M\\\);Lat. Clusum, an enclosed place; clusum, 
clausum, whence Fr. clos, close; A. S. clysan; Franco-Gallic, clorre (Skinner), Gr, 
klision, Ger. schloss (see also CLKTCH and CLUTHER) ; Gael, clos, clobhsa. 

CLOOT, a kerchief; Gael. Clut, cluit, clud, cluid, a rag; Wei. Clwt, a 
piece = A. S. clut, a clout, little cloth (see CLATSE, GLEET). Pers. kala, silk cloths; 
kala, doth; Russ. cholste. 

CLUTHER (n.), a cluster, group; Wei. Cluder, a heap of anything carried 
(On'.) Of a horse, 'Sike cluthers ah've seen on his back ' (Dla., p. 12). 
(v.) To collect, to flock; Wei. cludeiriaw, to heap together. ' An t' sheep 
cluther on t' t' hill-end,' (Bla. p. 21). This word cluder explains the names 
of Great Clowder and Little Clowder, a part of the Craven Fells, where there are 
cinders of limestone rocks; also our beautiful English word 'cloud, 1 which Min- 
shew (cit. by Skinner) acutely connected with Zo^.claudo, Somner with ' clod ' and 
' clodded ' (see also CLETCH and CLOOASE) ; Gael, cludair, clouts, rags, patches. 

COA TIP, come up. 'Coa up, coa up, oade meeare, coa up, den,' an 
affectionate call to a horse (mare). AL, 1880. 

CONEY, rabbit; O. N. Koni (of doubtful signif.), Dan. kanin, Su-ed. kanin, 
Dut. konijn, whence Ger. kaninchen, kanin; Icel. kanina, kunina; and O. Fr. 
coim\\,J2ng. cony, Gael, coinein, coinean;,Span.conejo, Port, coelho, Hal. coniglio, 
Lat. cuniculus, Gr. kouniklos, kuniklos, kounikoulos (Grimm) ; Mod. Gr. kouneli 
(Oontopoulos). 

COOL, coal; A.S. Col, Dan. kul. In the Aire Valley, near Bradford, 
called'coil.' The Ord. Eng. pron/ coal,' follows O. N. k61, Su-ed. kol.and O.H.G. 
and Mod;Gr. kohlen, Russ. ygole, Sans, ko'eta, charcoal perhaps from its colour, 
kala (pr. kawlo), black. Cool above Middlesmoor. 'Colsterdale'='Coalstrath- 
dale,' however, is called ' Cowsterdil.' 

COOP-BARROW, o u-heel-barrow ; W. cwb, a cup, kennel, &c. ; O. N. 
kupa, a cup, bowl; Dut. kuip, coop (Ogil.) ; Ger. kufe. Aifords another example 
of the name of the older article being transferred to the new and improved one. 

CORF, calf; O. N. Kalfr, Swed. kalf, Dan. kalv. For the ord. pron. A S. 
cealf, Goth, kalbo, O. H. G. chalba, Ger. kalb. 

COW-BOW, COO-BOW, a large horseshoe-shaped wooden-collar, generally 
of ash, to fasten cows up by in the ' bewce.' Used principally above Lofthouse. 
The two ends hang downwards, and are joined by a cross-piece designed to catch, 
and remain fastened by the elasticity of the bow. In place of this cross-piece, or 
wooden key, a loop of birch was formerly, and is still sometimes, employed (see 
also p. 31). Birch boughs are very extensively used for tying purposes of all kinds 
in Norway. The name, as well as the article, is genuine Scandinavian. O. N. 
Ku, cow; bogi, a bow. 

COWL, 1. a bruize, esp. on the head; OiN. Kula, a ball, knob; Swed. kula, 
a ball, bump ; 2. v. to bruize; 3. to hoard money, to collect. 

COWP, to exchange, to chop, swap; O. N. Kaupa, to barter, bargain, buy; 
kaup, a bargain; Goth, kaupon, to negotiate, bargain; kaupatjan (Ulf.), to 
strike in the face (Grimm, Diet. V. 5, p. 323, col. 2). For part of the evidence for 
this see under CHAPMAN. First of all, when two persons wanted the same thing 
they fought for it. Hence, long after barter was in use in the presence of witnesses, 
the parties struck one another, latterly shook hands to cement the bargain. 
Hence the phrase, ' to strike a bargain, 1 that is lit. to cowp, kaupa. Chop, the 
twin word, is A.S. coap, which came to mean cattle, because they were the 



COW CUD. 245 

principal subject of barter. Ceape first appears in the A. S. Laws in the sense 
of cattle in the L. Inc, c. 40. Cheape, in the sense of a bargain, occurs in the 
Htir of Linne 

' Thou shalt hare it back again better ceape 
By a hundred markes than I had it of thee.' LL 99, 100. 

i.e., a better bargain, chop. Hence also Ruts, kypetz, a merchant. 

COWSHOT, a wood pigeon, cushat; A.S. Cu sceote, of which the second 
half is probably from the Welsh name of the wood pigeon, ysgruthan, the scudder 
(see p. 172) ; Gael. Smudan. 

CRANE, a revolving arm above kitchen fire, usually called ' swape ' at and 
above LOFTHOCSK ; and BEAK (see pp. 17, 18). A. S. Green, cran, crano. 

CRATCH, a curved frame to lay sheep on, &c. (see CAMBRIL, also pp. 
9 and 31). O.N. lfra.lri. l)an. krage, a looped and branched stem used as a 
staircase, still so used in Norway. Stiles are often so made, as in Tusscr. 

Save step for a stile of the crotch of the bough. 1 (April Hush., v. 10.) 
Skinner derives cratch from Lot. cratica, craticula, crates, a hurdle (Lex.); 
in Gr. trasia, tarsia; Mod. Gr. tarros. From the Lot. crates comes A. S. crata, 
cratu, craet; Eng. cart and cradle; and cratitius, a hurdle, lattice, sheep-pen, fold , 
Ital. craticia, whence O. Fr. creiche, creicche, cresche, ' a cratch, rack, oxe-stall, or 
crib ' (Cot.) ; Fr. creche, a crib. ' And she baar her first borun sone and 
wlappide him in clothes and layde him in a cracche.' Wicliff (c\t. in Wedg.) 
I suppose crech means a wooden hurdle as opposed to a wattled hurdle in the 
following humourous northern satire 

' Sum on dores, and some on hech, 
Sum on hyrdyllys, and som on crech, 

And sum on whele-barows.' Tourn. of Tottenham, 1. 205. 

CREEL, a hazel or willow basket, commonly used for holding peats, the 
peat-creel; a fishing-basket. O. N. ~Kx\\i, a basket ; 'krila,'' to weave, plait. Atk. 
(Cl. Gl.) has Gael, criol, a chest or coffer. Irish, kril or crilin, a basket, but 
the former is manifestly an after sense, and the 7mA creel is probably a Scandi- 
navian word. From krili comes Fr. creil ( Wedg.), which Roquefort would connect 
with 'craticia'; in Russ., kreilo is a wing; kreilatie, winged; but the creel 
has another name. ' We can put all wer rubbin steeans into my creel/ Bla., 
p. 17. 

CROFT, a home field ; A S. Croft, from Grceco-Lut. Crypta. a closed field 
(Spel.). In the same sense, in Piers Plowman 

' Til Lammesse time 
And by that I hope to have 
Hervest in my croft. Vis. 11. 4386-2. 

[The Ruts, is 'ogorod,' i.e., 'garth,' for which see pp. 51, 54.] A.S. Croft, 
cruft; Belg. krufte, crofte, is, like 'close,' another word denoting 'enclosure,' 
of Latin, i.e., Monastic origin. Lot. crypta, from Gr. krupto; croft was again 
Latinized into croftus, croftum, cruftum (Spel.). 

CROO ANTES, cronies, old friends; Gael. Cro, O. N. Kr6, a small pen or fold; 
krc'iinn, penned in a kro, in Iceland the pen in which lambs when weaned ate 
put during the night cronies 'fellows of one fold.' 2. In the same way Scot. 
cronies, boon companions, from Dan. kro, a beer-house. Skinner unworthily 
goes to Gr. chronoi, time, or to Lot. congerro. ' Bud t' best of all crooanies 
mun part.' Bla., p. 14. 

CUBBERT, cupboard. 

CUD, could; A.S. Cade, p. and cad, pp. of cunnan, to bt able. The 
survival of the A.S. spelling is not less remarkable than that of the pronunciation 
of many words. 



246 CUB DEM. 

CUR, a slieep dog ; Lapp, and Finn, coira, a dog. 

CUSS, to kiss, pr. like puss; Anc. Wei. Cusanu, Franco-Teut. cussan, A.S. 
cyssan, O. N. kyssa, Dan. kysse, S^oed. kyssa, Goth. (Ulf.) kukjan, Belg. kussen, 
O.H.G. chussian, chussan; M.H.G. kussen, Ger. kussen, to kiss; Anc. Wei. 
cus, cusan; A.S. coss, O. N. koss, Belg. kus, Teut. kuss, a kiss; Hind. (Sans.) 
chuman, chumna, to kiss; chunia, chumma, a kiss. 

CUTTHROATS, the genus eriophorum, cotton-grass, otherwise called 'moss- 
crops and cutthroats,' and ' moor silk.' 

D. 

II. Goth. D, Lat., Celt., Slav. D; Lat. B; O.H.G. T; Gr. Th, Ph; 

r ,, J Sans - Dh > Lat F - 

'1 VIII. Goth. Th and D, Lat., Celt., Slav. T; Lat. E;O.H.G.D; Gr. T; 

-Saws. T. 



Eng. D commonly = Lat. F, Gr. Th. 

, father. Almost as universally spread as babaor papa (Wedy.), which 
forms the subject of a very able and exhaustive excursus by Sir John Lubbock 
(Tlie Origin of Civilisation, <fr., pp. 323-8, 1870), in which he gives the name for 
father in 124 languages other than those derived from Sans., and 16 American 
tongues. Dad appears in Wei. tad, Bohem. tata, Gr. tata and tetta (Cur. 243), 
Gael, daidean, Lapp, dadda, and several others. 

DAVERED, daft, muddled; O. N. Dapr , downcast, weak, Qc. ; deyfa, to 
cleave, stupefy; Swe. dofva, Dan. dove, Goth, ga-daubjan, Ger. betauben (Cleas.) ; 
Gr, tupho, to raise a smoke (Cur. 251); tuphoo, to wrap in smoke; tuphos, smoke, 
that which darkens or clouds a man's intellect (L. and S.); tuphlos, blind; Goth. 
daubs, blind; O.N. daufr, Swed. db'f, Dan. db'v, A.S. deaf, Eng. deaf, duffer, 
dupe; Sans, dhup, dhupayami, to smoke; Gr. thuo, to offer burnt offerings; thumos; 
JEol. phumos; Lat. fumus, smoke; Ger. dimpfen, damp, steam, fume. 

DAYLEET, daylight. 

DAZZIN, lazy; O.N. Dasinn, lazy; dasask, to become weary; Swed. dasa; 
dasadr, exhausted, weary; Eng. dazed with sleep. 

DEACENT, decent. 

DEAR, DEER, door, at Ramsgill, Pateley, &c.; A. S. [DyruP] gen. Dyre 
of a door; duru, dor; Lat. fores, Gr. thura, Satis, dvar, Gael, dorus. 

DEER-CHEEK, doorpost; A.S. Ceaca, ceca, ceoce, chece. 

DEE, die; O. N. Deyja, to die; Goth. (Ulf.) dauthus, death; dauths, dead; 
Gr. thnekein, thanein, to die; thanatos, death. Wedgwood, who misses the 
Greek, but gives several other forms, finds it (s.v. DEAD) ' impossible to draw a 
distinct line of separation either in form or meaning between dead and deaf 
(Die., 1859). Die is a Norsk word (see SFETTLE). 'If ah dee, ah dee' 
(Al., 1880). 

DEE A, DEAH, do; Gael. Dean, A.S. [di6n, an obsolete form, whence 
'did']. An interesting relic of antiquity. Russ. dyalate, to do. 

DEEADE, dead. 

DEEATH, death. 

DEFT, neat, nice, pretty; A.S, Dcefte, convenient, mild (Benson, Voc. At/g.- 
Sax., 170]); defre, timely, seasonable ; 'doeft' = 'de-aeft' and * dcfre' = 'de-cfro'; 
'De' freq. occurs in the A.S. Laws for ' the' conj. than, whether, cither, in pro- 
portion as so 'de-aeft,' as after, conveniently to, deftly, conveniently. 'We've 
had a gay deft bit o' sno.' Bla., p. 21. 

DEM, a dam, from the verb existing there must have^been a noun ; A . S. Dem. 

DEM, to dam; A.S. Demman, to dam, stop water. 



DEM DAH. 247 

DEMMED, damned; A.S. Demde, ;>., and demed, pp. of deman, to 
condemn ; Lot. damnare. Part of an interesting conversation overheard one 
winter night in the inn at Lofthouse, which we know to be a Danish settlement, 
' He says we're Saxons, an it's a demmed lee.' 

DEW, do; A.S. [Di6n obsolete form], see DEEA. 

DIKE, a stream; A.S. die, a ditch; O. JV. dik, dike, Dan. dige, Steed. 
dike, Cer. teich, Gr. teichos (Curt.). Often applied to small streams running off 
the moors or down the dale sides, but it originally meant a ditch. For instance*, 
see p. 104. Synonymous with SIKE, </.r. In Shetland, 'die' means a 'fence,' 
even a wire fence is called a 'die.' This illustrates two principles First, ' die ' 
meant the place dug and the stuff dufi, which was ranged in a long heap beside the 
trench, so 'die' came to mean/Jrnce'; Second, the transference of the name of the 
old article to the new and improved one, which has frequently to be borne in 
mind (see DOOF). 

DILL, to lull to sleep ; O. TV. Dilla, to lull. 

DON ON, to put on; A. S. Don, to put on ;on, on. ' So don on thee bonnet, 
we'll beeath gan togither.' Dla.. p. 17. ' Don,' to put on, is well known to be 
' do on,' as ' doff' is 'do off; but 'do,' in A.S., is 'don,' imperat. 'do.' Don on 
may be only an ignorant reduplication, but the many old forms found in this 
vocabulary should place us on our guard against pronouncing any peculiar words 
or phrases to be either the result of ignorance, or incorrect. ' Do off,' which 
proves Do on, is prettily introduced in the Ballads, thus: 

' Robin didojfhis gown of green.' Rob. Hood and Guy ofGisb., 1. 177. 
' And lyghtly dyd o/'his hode.' Adam Bell and W. o/C., I. 40. 

DOOANT, do not, not quite so much contracted as 'don't.' 
DOOF, douyh, dialect form; a variation of A.S. dag, dab, Swed. deg, Dan. 
dei, O.N. deig, Dut. deig, Goth, daigs, Ger. teig, Eng. dough, duff, doof, also diz, 
dike, ditch; A.S. hlaef-dige, Eng. lady, 'the loaf-maker.' 'The fundamental 
notion,' says Cleasby, ' in plasticity O. N. deigr, moist; digna, to become moist,'' 
&c., which fully explains all the above, and Goth, deigan, to mould. Goth, dnigs, 
Lot. fingo, Gr. thingano (thiggano). Cur., 145. Also Lai. tango, tetigi ; Eng. 
touch. Also Fr. diner, Eng. dine, dinner, that is, ' dough,' or food moulded with 
the fingers, from Goth, digans, moulded; deigan, to '</,' mould. 

DOOT, tliinle, believe, doubt ; O. Fr. doubter, Fr. doute, douter; Catalan. 
dubtar, Lat. dubitare, to doubt. French pron. well preserved. 

' Ah doot it'll rain afore neet.' Colloq. 
1 Neea doot bud he thowt it wur reet.' Dla., p. 12. 

DOWLY, lonely, dull; O.N. Daufligr, 'deaf-like,' lonely, dull. Brock, 
suggests Gr. Doulion, Lat. dolor, Fr. deuil, douleur. Though the origin of Gr. 
doulos,a slave, is unknown, Brock, must be regarded as wild. Dowly is connected 
with Goth, daubs, see DAVERED. 

' Bud t'hoose leaks dowly all t'week lang.' Dla., p. 16. 
* Ah feel sa dowly an sa pooerly.' Al., 1880. 

DOWTER (pron. like 'doubter'), daughter; Goth. Dauhtar. Fabian, 
who by the way served as Sheriff of London, and refused the office of Lord 
Mayor, 1493, repeatedly uses the word, e.g., ' That his xxx douR-hters should 
slee theyr xxx husbands' (Chron.,c. i.) 'Constantius . . . Senator of Rome 
. . . married Helen the doughter of Coelus List King of Britain . . . 
which Constantius was after made Sesar' (cap. Ixvii.). A survival of a Gothic 
form. 

DAHTAK, daughter another variety; Dan. Datter, with Swed. dot tor, 
O.N. d6ttir, and A.S. dohtor, d6htcr, allied to Goth, dauhtar ; O.II.G. tohtar, 

IN NlBDIKDALB. Lucat. 



248 DBA EAS. 

Ger. tochter, Dut. togter, LitTi. dukter, duktere ; Gael, dear, Bohem. dcera, Russ. 
dshchere [with which compare Copt, scere, a son, and other allied forms, for which 
see my History of the Gypsies. Rutherford. Kelso, 1882]. Finn, tiittar, Lapp. 
daktar, Slav, dushti, dusti, Armen. dustr, A. and M. Gr. thugater, Sans, duhitri 
duhita 'the milkmaid of the family' Zend, dughdhar (Williams). 

DRAB'D, covered with mud or dirt; Gael. Drab, a spot, stain; A.S. 
drabbe, lees, dregs, drab. * Drab'd up to t'knees.' Bla., p. 36. ' Drab,' the 
colour, therefore means mud colour or dirt colour. 

DREE, tedious; O.N. DrjugT, lasting, slow but sure; Stved. drygr, Dan. 
drb'j, Gael, draghalach, tedious. Many of the meanings in Steed, dryg 1 , great, 
strong, long, voluminous, large-limhed, glutting, nourishing, dear, proud, stiff, 
disdainful, haughty, &c., correspond with Gr. thrasus, bold, spirited, audacious, 
impudent all implying endurance or last. Gr. thrasos, tharsos, courage, con- 
fidence; Sans, drishtas, daring; drish, drishnomi (f dare), Go^/i. gadaursan, O. H.G. 
gidar, Lith. drasus (dreist) (Cur. 315), Gael, dragh, trouble, vexation, annoyance. 

DREE, to endure; O.N. Drygja, to make or keep longer, to lengthen; 
A.S. Dreogan, to endure. Cleasby gives N. Eng. ' to dree one's weird ' to 
abide one's fate. Common in the Ballads. 

' Heawing on yche othar whyll the might dre.' Chevy Chase, 2, 93. 

' That all this dill I drye.' Sir Cauline, 1. 43. 
' Some other dule ye drie, oV Edward, Edward, 1. 20. 
' And quhatten penance will ye drie for that ?' Ib., 1. 27. 
' And if ye brenn my ain dear babes 

My lord shall make ye drie.' Edom O'Gordon, 52. 
DRAW AWAY, to die. 

' Her oade fadther drew away 

Sat in that oade arm chair.' Bla., p. 4 1 . 

DROIN AWAY = drawing away, dying. ' If ah wer droin away.' 
Al., 1880. 

DRIVE, sleet, Qc.; O.N. Drif, driven snow; drifa, sleet; Scot. 'Stoorand 
drive,' dusty snotv wind-blown. ' Vethr var drifanda,' it was driving weather, 
i.e., sleeting or snowing. 

DUB, a puddle or small pond; 0. N. dapi, a pool; Gael, dubadh, a pond; 
dub, to dip ; Fris. dobbe, a puddle ; Wei. dwb, mortar, cement, originally mud or 
clay walls. 

DUDS, clothes; Gael. Dud, a rag; dudag; led. dudi, swaddling clothes 
(Cleas.) \ duda, to swathe in clotJies. 

' The gay their gaudy duds display.' Bla., p. 1. 

DEW or DUE, to do; A.S. dion, a lost form (see DEKA); cf. feel, gjb'ra 
and gora, to do; and Dan. gjbre, Swed. gora, to do, with A. S. di6n and d6n. 

DURST, dare ; A. S. Durste, dyrste, or dorste, pret. of dear, to dare, but 
commonly used in other tenses, as * I durstn't do this or that,' I dare not. 
' For tham ic ne derate,' for that I durstn't. Laws of SElfred, Introd. ' Ne 
dorsten na fit gan,' durstn't gan oot. Sax. Chron., A.D. 1083. ' Little John 
Nobody that durst not speak.' Reformation Ballad, ' Lit. John Nobody,' 1. 1C. 
Gr. tharsco; New Attic, tharreo, to dare. 

E. 

EA or YAH, one ; A.S. Ean, one. See also pp. 37-40. 
EAR, year; Goth. Jer, O.N. ar, Swed. ar, Dan. aar, Dut. jaar, Germ. jahr. 
A. S. gear, Gr. & Lat. hora. 

EASINQS, eaves; A.S. Efasan, eaves. 



EEN FAB. 249 



EEN, eyes; A.S. Eagan, eyes. 

EEBREES, eyebrows. 

EFTER, after; Dan., Swed. and A.S. Efter. 'The hyrefter gaegeth,' 
which hereafter goeth. Laws of Hlotheer, A.D. 675-685. 'Tba geworhtehehi 
efter to leode,' then wrought he it efter into Terse. Pref. to Alfred's Transl. 
of Boethius. 

1 Nut varra lang efter laid deead iV Sack Syke.' Bla., p. 39. 

ELDINO,/u/; O.N. Elding, fuel; eldr,^re. 

ELLER, alder; O. N. Elri (Friiz.), Dan. eller. Common in place names, 
as ' Eller-beck,' ' Eller-carr '; and Colloq. freq. as ' birk an eller.' 

AT T'END ON'T, at last, after all. 

ENEAF, enough. ' It's reet eneaf ' is frequently used ironically, meaning 
it is not. 

ER, are. ' Whar is t' bahn ? ' 'To Gt. Whernside.' 'Yeer, erye. We'll 
see aboot that, hooiver ! ' Colloq. 

EWER, a jug; A. S. Ewe, water therefore properly a water jug. 

F. 

Eng. F, Goth. F and B; Sam., Gr., Lot., Cell., Slav. P; O. H. G. 



FA.DTHER, father; O. N. Fathir. It is not possible to write the pron. 
of this word other than by the letters dth run into one soft sound. Goth. Fadar, 
A. S. faeder, O. H. G. fater, Ger. vater, Lot. pater, Gr. pater, Zend, patar, Sam. 
pita, pitri. 

FAIN, ylad; A. S. Feegn, O. N. Fegrinn, Hel. fagin. Most common in 
the Ballads, e.g.- 

1 Thes worthy freckys for to fyght, 

Thereto the wear full fayne.' Chevy Chase, 2, 30. 
' Sent George the bryght, ower ladies knyght 

To name they were full fayne.' Otterburne, 2, 78. 
' The Percy and the Dowglass raettc 

That ether of other was fayne/ Ib., 86. 
' Soe fayne of fighte.' King Ettmrre, 157. 
' I'll make yond fellow that flyes so fast 

To stopp he shall be fayne.' Rob. Hood 4' Guy o/Giiborne, 64. 
All's fain, lad, to see thee come in.' Bla , p. 21. 

FAIR, altogether, wry; Gael. Fior, very; Dan. dialects, fcer. Foer (adj. 
and adv.) greatly, in a high degree, remarkably (Afolbech in Atk.). ' They wer 
fare capt wi' gittan lost in a wood like that/ Al., 1880. 

FAND, found ; O. A r . Fann, 2nd pers. fannt, p ret. of finna, to find. 

FAR PASTURE, a common name of upland moorside pastures, is, I doubt 
not, like so many other double names, a reduplication Gael. Feur, pasture as 
with feur-ach, feur achadh, wherein 'ach,' 'achadh,' also mean pasture. Before 
finding the Gael, feur, pasture, I was for fourteen years baffled by this word. It 
is curious that ' aire ' and ' ray,' both meaning pasture, are also Gaelic. Dan. 
foer, grass; Lot. f<n\im, fodder. (Armstr., who also allies Lot. ver, spring.) See 
p. 31. 

FARDEN, farthing; A.S. Feording, feorthunff (for feorthling), i.e. a 
fourth part of a coin Shilling, Ger. schilling. According to Ihre. from Steed. 



250 FAS FEL. 

skilja, to divide. The name originally of pieces of money stamped with an 
indented cross and broken into four, a quarter of which, schilling, was called in 
A. S. feorthlyng, or ferlyng, but not styca, a bit, piece, us Wedgwood suggests. 
Lye gives the full A. S. form, feorthling, ' the uttermost farthing.' Matt. \. 26. 
' Feorthling and feorthan dsel thinges,' the fourth part of a thing. ' Twegen 
feorthlingas,' ' two mites.' Luke xxi. 2. Feorthung, fartldny. ' Twegen 
sticas thset is feorthung peninges,' ' two mites which make a farthing.' Mar. 
xii. 32. This passage proves the value of a stica. Lye has ' sticce, stycca, a 
kind of brass money among the A. S., so called because it was the smallest of all 
moneys, being worth only half a farthing.' But feorthling:, meaning a fourth 
of anything, was not confined to A. S. In feel, fjorthungr means generally the 
fourthpart of anything; also a small coin, a liquid measure (ten pots), a weight 
(ten pounds), a fourth share of a tiund (tithe). In Norway countries were 
divided into fjorthungr, quarters; thridjungar, ' ridings," 1 or third parts, c. 
Again, in Icel. the whole land was politically divided into fj6rthuncar,/a;-</an_9s; 
ferlyngs, or quarters in A.D. 964, and these still exist (Cleas.). The following 
note in the Liber Rubus in the Exchequer proves that it was also a measure of 
land in this country : ' Sciendum quod magnum feodum militis constat ex quatuor 
hidis, et una hida ex quatuor virgatis, et una virgata ex quatuor ferlingis, et 
una ferlinga ex decem acris (cit. p. 5, Gloss, to Domesd. Dk., V. II., Warner' 1 * 
Hist, of Hampshire). Ogilvie (Eng. Diet.) has ' Farthing, a division of land 
equal to thirty acres. Obsolete;' but gives no authority for the value, which is 
three times that given in the Lib. Rub. There is a curious agreement between 
the ' ten pots,' 'ten pounds' of Icel. and the 'ten acres' of Lib. Rub., which 
suggests that farthing as a land measure was like 'Riding 1 of Scandinavian 
origin in this island. ' 1 don't care a brass farden,' in Nidderdale a common 
colloquialism, not only conveys a tradition of the brass money of our A. S. fore- 
fathers, but suggests the necessity of distinguishing one farthing from another at 
a time when the word had such widely different meanings. 

FASH, to trouble; O. Fr. Fascher, Mod. facher, which Brachet ingeniously 
traces through Provence 'fastigar,' whence 'fast'gar,' 'fas'gar,' then 'fascher.' 
Fastigar, from fastig, ennui; Lat. fastidium. 

FAST, stuck, in a fix; O.N. Fastr, stuck fast; Swed. and Dan. fast, A. S. 
fsest, 0. H. G. fasti, Ger. fest. ' I'm not fast for a pound or two.' cf. O. N. 
fasti, a fix. 

FASTENED, ' Fastened ta t'sod' = ' rooted to the soil.' 

FEEL, to hide. At and above Middlemoor and Lofthouse. ' Feeling and 
lating '=' hide and seek.' Thus, ' That 'ud be a rare place to get felt o'anyone, 
if one was laking at feeling and lating.' Colloq. at Lodge, 1871. Mr. Thorpe, 
however, gives for Pateley Bridge, ' felt,' to hide. ' Felting and lating,' hide and 
seek. O.N. Fela, Dan. fjoele, to hide; Gael, falaich, folaich, to hide. 

FATTY-CAIKE, short-cake. ' Ah felt pooerly . . . sa'ah ah maaide a 
fatty-caike.' Al., 1880. 

FELL (1), mountain; O.N. Fjall, Nor. fjceld, fjeld ; Swed. fjall, pi. 
fiellen. Said by Cleasby to be a Scandinavian word. In Norway, however, it 
means rock iis well as mountain, and thus corresponds with O. H. G. felisa, a rock, 
whence 0. Fr. falize, faloise; Mod. Fr. falaise, a cliff; Gr. phellos, a rock, stone; 
phelleon, phellion, phellis, Phelleus, stony ground, the last being the name of a 
rocky district in Attica. Pausanias (Descrip. Grec. Lib. VIII., c. 12, 1), 
speaking of the cork-tree, tells us that some of the Ionians,'as docs Hermesianax, 
the poet, call the bark bf this tree ' phellos,' i.e. rocky. For place names see p. 
92, but it is uncertain whether they severally refer to this or the following word. 
Meantime the Masso-Goth. fera, a country; and Lapp. vari,/e//s, bear a strong 
likeness to pres. word. 

FELL (2), a moor, or open waste ground (PLilli.). ' Properly the unenclosed 
mountain land; if enclosed it is so and so's "pasture"' (Dakyns M S.). That 



FEL FLE. 251 

this word is Dan. fielled, a common, the property of many, see pp. 165, 166, and 
add thereto Gr. polus, many; Russ. pole, afield (whence 'Poland'); polya, 
fields; Gr. polis, a cily. Brocket (Gloss., 1846) has 'Falls, the divisions of a 
large arable field attached to a village, annually cultivated in a fixed rotation of 
crops.' The Old German also explains the origin of our word ' village,' by the 
same transitions of meaning as turba, thorpe; polloi, pole, polis; folk, fylki; so 
vil, ve'lt, village. 

FELLFOR, fieldfare; A. S. Fealafor, tlie many goers, because they go in 
flocks, see p. 1 65. 

FEOWER, /oar; A. S. Feower. ' JEt tham feower t6thum fyrestum,' 
the/bar front teeth. Laws of JEthelb., 52. ' Feower sceap with anum,'ybar 
sheep for one. Laws ofJElf, 24, from Exod. xxii. 1. But with these excep- 
tions for a full account of this word see Stratmann, O. E. Diet. 

FER,/or. ' Ah's fer off,' I am just going. 



FETTLE, ., condition, preparation ; O.N. Fetill, a strap or belt ; O.f/.G. 
k7.e\,Ger.fesse],A.S.tetel,achain,bell; fetels, a belt, bag ; fotfetel, Gr. pedllon, 
a sandal ; pede, a fetter ; Lai. pedica. * In good fettle,' condition. 

FETTLE, w., to harness, to prepare; A.S. Fetelsian, to put on a belt, to 
harness; Gr. pedao, to fetter. Freq. in the Ballads. 

' Then John bent up his long bende bow, 

And fetteled him to shoote.' Robin Hood and GuyofGisb., 66. 

* When the Sheriffe saw Little John bend his bow 
He fettled him to be gone.' Ib., 1. 225. 

' Ah've fettled ivvery button hoal.' Bla., p. 1 6. 

For further remarks on ' Fettle ' see Atk. Cl. Gl. 

FEWT,/bo<, points to a lost A. S. form (fe6t), whence ' feet.' ' Fe6t'is to 
' f6t ' as ' feower ' to ' fower,'/or, and is preserved in feotere, a fetter. 

FIND (prow, finnd), to find; A.S. Findan, O.N. finna, Su-ed. finna, Dan. 
finde, Goth. (Ulf.) findan, Ger. finden, Dut. vinden. 

FIT (1), ready, $c. 'They're jest aboot fit,' ready, in proper condition. 
1 It's fit to flay yan, 1 cold enough to. 

FLAID, afraid. 

FLAIN, a (/host, ' something that flaits one ' (Dakyns, MS.). 

FLAY, to frighten; O. N. Flseja flffija, made by Fritz, and Cleas. to = flyja, 
tofiee. Atk., Cl. Gl., however, finds in Egilss. to put to flight, to frighten, which 
is clearly the sense here. Dakyns gives ' FIAIT, to frighten. Wharfedale.' 

FLAY-CROW, scare-crow. 

FLANQ,^an^; O.N. flengja, to whip; O.E. Flangr. Alisaunder, 2749, 
in Stratmann. 

FLAT, a lead vein lying in the plane of the bedding ; Dan. flota, a bed, layer in 
mines. FLOUTS, a slice of turf, p. 119, also explained by Dan. fluts. 

FLAY (of the wind), to cut of the skin; A. S. flean, O. N. fla, Dan. flaae, to 
flay, pull off the skin ; O. N. flagna, Dut. vlaegen, vlaen, to flay, but espec. of 
a cold wind ; Swed. flaga, vind-flaga, a flaw of wind. Of a cold wind, * Fit to 
flay yan.' 

FLEAINQ-SPADE, 'flay ing: spade: O.N. Flaffa, to cut thin turfs; Dan. 
lag, a flag or 'flout' of turf. 

FLEAK, a rack hung under ceiling to hang oatcake on to dry; O. A''. 
flaki, fleki, a hurdle. A flcak is a wattled hurdle, aa being made of ' flakes' of 
wood. Gael, cliath, a hurdle. Small houses or cottages were formerly built of 
' fleaks' covered with mud or clay, which gives the names of ' fleak,' ' flack, 1 to 
villages. Such an one may still be seen near Farnham, Surrey (1879). Percy 
remarks, in a footnote on the line 'To milk kye at a fleyke' ('Reform,' Ballad, 



252 FLE FBI. 

Lit. John Nobody, 1. 14), that cows are frequently milked in hovels made of 
fleyks. Gloss, to fteliq.). 

FLEE, a fly; A. 8. Flegre, a fly; fleoge, fly; O.H.G. fliuga, O.Dut. 
vlieghe, for many O.E. forms and passages see Stratmann, O. E. Diet., 1878. 

FLEAK, FLEUR, floor; A.S. fl6r, O.N. florr, 0. Dut. vloer, M. H. G. 
Vluor, which last our word most resembles, 

FLIPPER (Middlesmoor), FLEPPIN (Pateley Bridge), to cry; O.N. 
Fleipra or fleipa, to babble, prattle ; fleipr, babble, prattle. Children are said 
to 'flipper and winge,' when crying, &c., see WINGB. cf. JRuss. lepetate, to prattle; 
lepetanie, prattle. 

FLIT, to remove from one place to another; O. N. Flytja, Dan. flytte. 

FLITE, to scold, quarrel ; A.S. Flitan, 0. II. G. flizan, for O. E. see Stratmann. 
' Mmg flit ne beo betweox mannum,' 'that there be no quarrelling amongst men. 1 
Canons, temp. Eadgar, 23. 

FLOUT, see FLAT. 

FLT7ZZ, to blunt, to bruise; 0. N. Flosna, to wither. ' Flosna upp,' to 
break up a household. 

FOG, aftergrass, autumn grass ; Gael. Foghar, lit. a spoiling the fields of their 
crops, harvest, autumn. Foghar na said, ilie liay harvest. (Armstrong); Wei. 
Fwg 1 , long dry grass, hay. (Ow.) ; O. A r . fok, hay. The fogr in Nidderdale is 
the young grass that springs up after a field has been mowed, the after-math. 

FOMUD, the pine marten (Martes Sylvatica), for some speculations on the 
name ' Fomaro" see Study XVI. pp. 130-5. 

FOND, foolish, soft; O. N. Fani, a fool; Swed. fdne, a fool; ' Gael, faoin, 
Ir. faon, foolish, fond; Lot. Vanus, Arm. vean, vaen ; Eng. vain. (Armstr.) 
' Ah's naaine sa fond as ye think ah is.' 

FOOAL, foal, A.S. F61a, 0. N. f61i, Swed. fale, Dun. fole, O.H. G. folo, 
Ger. f iillen, fbhlen ; Goth, fula, Gael, foilid, Wei. ebol, Gr. polos, Lot. pullus for 
0. E. examples see Strata. ' Follifoot ' = ' F6lafoten,' a Norw. place name, imported. 

FOR, before; A.S. For, fore; 'for Gode and for worolde,' Concil. 
JEnham. about A.D. 1010. 'T' birds sing .... their carols for clooasing the 
day.' Bla. p. 25. 

FORCE, waterfall; O.N. Fors, Swed. fy Dan. foss. As a place name in 
Nidderdale, 'Park Force,' How Stean Beck. 

FORELDERS, forefathers; O. N. Foreldri, forellri ; Dan. foreeldre, 
Ger. Voraltern; A. S. forealdian, to grow old, O. H. G. faralten. 

'FOURTH FROM THE CROWN = of high rank. I heard this 
curious expression more than once at Middleham, Wensleydale, but lack evidence 
to explain it properly. I suppose it means in the ' fourth rank] &c. 

FOARCED,/orced. 

FORNENST, over against, opposite ; A.S. Fore ongean, A.S. & O.E. 
fornean (Stratm.), see ANENST. 

FOWER,your; A.S. Fower, see FEOWKR. 

FRA, from; O.N. Fra, Dan. fra, A.S. fra, common in the A.S. Laws. 
' Clagg'd on fra his tail tuv his heead.' Bla., p. 12. . 

FRAME, to prepare, to do anything; O. N. Frama, to further, to advance; 
fremja, A.S. fremman, to make, $c. (see p. 199). 

' Fer t'weather's been pashy this spring, 

Bud ah fancy it's framing- ta mend.' Bla., p. 21. 

FRATCHIN,' falling out; Gael. Fraoch, wrath, fury; O.E. fracchin. 
Prompt, parv., 1440. 

FREEAT, to fret; A.S. Fretan, to fret. 



FRIDGE, to rub against; A.S. Freothan, to rub, as a stocking fridges 
the heel with an ill- fitting boot; Gael, frid, fride, a pimple (see also Atk. Cl. Gl.) 



FRO GAT. 253 

FROMATY, O. Fr. Fromentee, sodden wheat ; Ital. frumento, wheat ; Lot. 
frumentum, 0. E. frumentee, see p. 42. 

FUIT,./bo< (see FKWT). 

FULL OFT, very ofltn; A.S. Ful oft. 'For thon hi ablaendath fal 
oft wisna manna gethoht,' for that they blind ful oft wise men's thoughts. 
Laws of Alfred, Introd. 46, from Ex. xxiii. 0. 

FUNT,/oanrf; O. N. Funnit,/oanrf ; finna, to find ; pret. plu. fundu, part. 
fundinn, sup. fundit. Cleasby says ' The forms " funnu " and " funnit" may be 
found in MSS., but were probably never so pronounced.' This Nidderdale word 
would appear to cast doubt upon the correctness of this suggestion. 

' Ah, barn ! noo we sud ha fun't oot 

If breead haddunt kept doon seea lo.' Bla. t p. 21. 

G. 

I. Goth. G; Lot. gv, g, v; Celt, g; Slav, g, z; O.ff.G. K; Gr. Ch; 



Grimm. 



Sans, gh, h ; Lat. h, f. 
VII. Goth, h, g, f; Lat. c, qu; O. Irish, c, ch; Slav. K; O. H. G. h (g, 
k); Gr. K.; Sans, h, K. 



Eng. G commonly = Gr. Ch. 

GAEING, going (Greenhow Hill); O.N. 1st pert. ting. Gen?, and plu. 
gb'ngum, pres. of ganga, to go; Sans, kank, Lith. kanku, to go. 'We're gracing 
ta bring thee a new brat.' Bin., p. 19. 

GAN, to go; A. S. Gan. to go. ' Wilta gran wi' me?' Bla., p. 17. 

CANNING, going. * They're panning: for scooring steeans.' Ib., p. 18. 

GAINE, gone. 

GAIN, near; O.N. Gegn, sJtort; Dan. gjen, gjen vei, gjensti, short cut 
( Worsaae) ; Gael, gann, near, parsimonious. 

GAINEST, nearest; O.N. ' Hinn greg-nsta veg,' the g-ainest way. 
Mariu Saga, .545, in Cleas. Gael, 'is g-ainne,' or 'ni's grainne,' nearest 
(Armstr.). 

GALLOWA, the general name for a liorse in Nidd.; Wallach. calu, a 
horse; calau, a large horse; Ger. gaul, a horse; M.H.G. gul, Dut. gul, guil; 
Hind. (Sans.) ghora, a horse; gliori, a mare; Sans, ghota, a horse; ghotaka, a 
horse ; Gael, gearran, a galloway, horse. 

GAP, gale,- O. N. Gap, a gup; A.S. geap, Gael. cab. 

GAPSTEAD, gateway. 

GARN, yarn; O. N. Garn, A. S. gearn. ' Oade Mally ^fawson at used 
to spin gtirn.' lila., p. 42. O. N. ' Spinna gtirn,' to spin gram (Eb. 92 in 
Cleas.). 'Lin ok gurn,' ' line (flax) and garn' (Is. 78 in Cleas.) as used in 
Nidd. Gael, calanas, yam. 

GARTH, afield near a house (tee Study VI., pp. 51-4, to which add Gael. 
garadh, a yard; ftuss. ogonxl, a grarth (p. 52), and to ortgeard, p. 51. 'Orche- 
yardes and erberes' (Creed rf Piers /'loicman, 1. 329), and ' By land Abbey. Item, 
There is a grownde called the Ortrarde adjoynyng the late Abbat Chambre,' 
containing 8 acies pasture (Paper Survey, Hen. VIII., Augmentn. Office). 

GAT, got; O. N. Gat, oot; prtt. of peta, to get. 

GATE, a road, path, way; O. N. Gata, Steed, pita, Dan. gade, a way; 
Goth. (Ulf.) gatva, gatwo, a street; A.S. geath, a street; Gael, geata, a gate; 
* With them that grate come.' Ormulum. * The grates he knoweth eche one.' 
Rol. Hood and Guy of Cub., v. 52. See GIEAT and p. 9. 0. H. O. gaza, 
gazza ; Ger. gasse. 

STUDIEI is NIDDIBDALB. Lucas. 



254 GAY GRE. 

GAY, very; Gael. Ceart, Dan. sehr ; Fr. tres. Very common colloquialism. 
' We've had a gray deft bit o' sno.'- Bla., p. 21. 

QEEAN, gone (Bla. p. 11), fee GAINE. 

GEARN, GERN, yearn; A.S. Giernan, girnan, gyrnan, to yearns 
O.N. Girna, Goth. (Ulf.) Gairnjan, to yearn. 'Gif death scyldig man scrift 
sprasce g-yrne,' 'if a death-doomed man desire confession.' Treaty. Ed. Gath, 
c. 5. 'I real doon gud gernin hearnist. ' A!., 1880. 

GEARS, #rass; A.S. Gears. 

GERS, grass; A. S. Gers, gsers. At Lofthouse and Greenhow Hill. 
' jEceres otthe gaers.' Laws of Ine, c. 42. ' Nepping bits o' yung gerse o' t'rooad- 
sides. Bla.) p. 1 1. 

GERSIN' FIELD, a grazing field. 'Grassington' is called ' Gerston' and 
' Gers'n.' 

GEEAT, a way; A. S. Geat, Gael, geata, see p, 63, 1. 3, where ' that have 
"gates'" should read 'that own that gate,' i.e., gap or breach in the fence, the 
portion unbuilt. ' For wer brass '11 nut gan a girt geeat,' ' our money will not 
go a great way.' Bla., p. 20. In this sense from O.N. grata (see GATE). 

GETTEN, got; A. S. Geten, pp. of gitan, to get; also O. N. getinn, part. 
of geta, to get. In places where a bed of coal is worked out, it is said to be all 
gretten. 

GIE, give; Norw. Give, is pron. ' gee.' 

GIEN, given, if. This, taken with A.S. 1 gif,' if, suggests that ' gif,' ' 'if,' 
' gien,' ' gin,' all meaning, ' if,' are all contracted from gifen, given. 

GIE OWER, stop, cease, leave ojf. ' Give over.' 

GIMMER, ewe lamb; O.N. Lamb-gymbr, a gimmer. An ewe that has 
not lambed (Cleas.). Dan. gimmer-lamb, ewe lamb. 

GINE, going (Pateley). 

GIRD, churchyard, see GARTH, and pp. 52 and 54. This word, one of the 
most interesting in the Dialect, seems to be Danish, and to complete ' the transition 
from the thing enclosing to the thing enclosed,' mentioned in para. 3, p. 54 : for 
Icel. kirku-gardr is churchyard, wherefore I incline to refer present word to Dan. 
Gjerde, a fence, hedge. ' Ah've thowt mesen thoo mud gan i yan o'the girds 
sum o' these days.' Al., 1880. 

GIRN, yearn; O.N. Girna (see GERN). 

GIRT, GERT, great. Like gers, grass; cart, crate; bird, brid, &c. 

GISS, goose. A sing, to which plu. geese belongs, comes nearest to the 
Polish ges, a goose; Sloven, and A.S. gos,pl. ges or gees; O.Kuss. gasi, Huss. 
gus, 0. N. gas, pi. gasss, Dan. gaas, pi. go2s, gjoes; O. II. G. ganzo, Germ, ganz, 
pi. ganze ; Lat. anser, Gael, geadh, Gr. chin, Bohem. bus, Hind. (Sans.) bans, 
bans. 

QIT,get; A.S. Gitan, to get. 'Ah've summat to tell the' barn when we 
grit thither.' Bla., p. 17. 

GITTEN, got; plu-pcrf. greten, got. 

GITHER, gather. 

GLASP, clasp. ' He grlaspt his hands.' Al. 1880. Gael, glac, to clasp; 
clash, a clasp. 

GLEEAM, gleam. 

GOB, mouth; Dan. Gab, mouth; Gael, cab, mouth; O. N. gabb, mockery; 
gabba, to mock; A.S. gabban, to scoff f gabbling, a scoffing; Russ. goboru, / ^eak. 

GRADEL.Y, adj., orderly, friendly, agreed. Of a horse, ' Per he awlus wer 
gradely wey me.' Bla,, p. 12. Hal has ' Gradely, decently, orderly, 
moderately. Also an adjective. North? 

GRAIN, branch; O.N. Grein, Steed, gren, Dan. green. 'Not found in 
Ger., Sax. nor English.' Cleas. This last is an error (see pp. 92 and 108). 

GREASY, muddy. In a particular state of the mud, in which it is very 
alippery, the salutation is sure to be ' 'Tis greasy.' 1 Hugs, gryazi, mud. In Russ. 



ORE HAD. 255 

only does grease mean mud. Thus Afar, griis is a pig, Dan. gr'u,pig; Gael. 
creis, grease ; creiseach,,grreasry. 

GREEAVE, a qrave. ' Mak him a nice greeave doon t' loan side. 1 
Al, 1880. 

GREEAVE, to grave, dig; O.N. grafa, Dan. grave, A.S. grafan, Gael. 
grabh, sgriobh ; O. H. G. and Goth, graban, Ger. graben, Dut. graven. 
' They're agate graavin peats.' 

GREET, to weep ; Goth. Oretan, A . S. grsetan, to weep ; Gr. chalaza 
(Cur., Skeafs Handlist); O.N. grata. For a long list of 0. E. passages see 
Strata. 

' I'll fill the air with heavy sighs 

And greet till I am blind.' Gil Morrice, 1. 188. 

GRIP, a narrow, open drain; A.S. Grep, a /arrow. ' Grepe,' in the 
' Originiils and analogues of some of Chaucer's Cant. Tales,' 1875, p. 214, which 
Stratm. cannot explain, is perhaps cleared up by this word. 

GROOVE, (he line o} workings on the ' back ' of a lode, being marked by a 
ditch, is so called, e.g. As a place name, * Stony Grooves.' It means simply 
a 'dug ' place. Dut. Groeve, O. N. Grof, groftr, gr6f; Ger. and Dan. grube; 
Goth, groba, a /*ofe, dug place; O. H. G. gruoba, Mid. Low. Ger. grove, which, I 
take it, is the source of our word O. E. grofc (Romance of Alexander, Stev. 5395 
in Strat.). * Grough,' ' gruft,' a word meaning the hollows cut by stream courses 
in the peat, which I heard on the Marsden Moors west of Huddersfield (O. N. 
grof, groftr), is quite unknown on all the moors around Nidderdale, but appears 
no doubt as a place name at ' Griff,' in Coverdale, as noted on p. 94. 

GRUMMAIi, grumble. ' He did it adoot a grummal,' without a 
grumble. Comp. ' hummal ' and ' humble.' 

GRTJND, ground; O.N. Grand, grunn; Dan, grund; Goth, grundus 
(Skeat); Dut. grond; Ger. grund, 'whence the Dan. and Swed.' (Cleas). 

GUD, good; Goth. g6ths, g6ds; Dut. goed, Ger. gut, A. S., O.L.G., O. Fris. 
god; O. N. g6dr, O. H. G. guoter. O. E. Gud is written by Laurence Minet in 
his poems, 1352, and for other places see Stratm. 

GULL, porridge; Wei. Gwl, damp, moist; Gael, goile, the throat; 0. Fr. 
goule, throat; goulee, goulette, a moutliful; goulu, a glutton; Lot. gula, the throat; 
Dut. gallon, to su\illow; Pert, gulu, the throat; Sans, gal, to drip, to eat, sicallow; 
gala, the throat, whence Hind, gal, gala, gala, the throat. Compare Hind, gulgula, 
fried flour dumplings, and gulgule, swollen rice mixed with molasses formed into 
balls. Gull is always spoken of in the plu. as ' them,' and is often called ' hasty 
puddini;.' 

GULL-THIVEL, a flat stick for stirring 'gull ' (see TIITTEL). 

GULLY-KNIFE, carving knife; also called 'whittle;' perh. goulee. 
Brock, supposes originally a butcher's knife, for the gullet. 

H. 

f K. Sans. K, Gr. K, Lai. c, qu; O. Ir. C, CH; Slav. K. 
Grimm, VII J KH. Goth. H, q, f; Sani. H. 
I G. O.H.G.H (G, K). 



Eng. H commonly = Lot. C = Gr. K. 

HADE, heed. ' Nivver hade yer feet,' the boots being muddy 
O. E. hede, O.Fris. h6de, O. H. G. huota, Ger. achten, heed; Lot. cura, custodia 
(Slratm.); Gael, curam, heed; O.N. Heidra, Dan. hoedre, to honnur; O.N. 
beidr, honour; Dan. header, honour. 



256 HAG HAN. 

HAGWORM, adder ; 0. N. Hog-gorm, Swed. and Dan. huggorm, hugorra ; 
lit. 'the biting worm,' from O.N. hb'ggva, to bite, of snakes (Cleas.). 

HAINING. (1.) In the name 'Heaning Top, 1 mentioned on p. 81, it may be 
more probable that we have 0. N. Hegninn, fenced; and not A.S. hean, high; 
ing, field. As a matter of fact, it is a ' high field,' being some 600 feet above the 
bottom of the dale, and the highest field on the farm. Moreover, 'Highfield' is 
a common enough name. Furthermore, ' Heene,' in Sussex, stands on a ridge, 
a low ridge truly, but still the highest for miles round, wherefore it was 
referred by the late Rev. J. W. Warter to A. S. hea.n,high. The Domes. 'Hene' 
throws no light. But against this we have the necessary concession in the 
' Heanihgr,' a flat meadow by the Ure. O. N. hegrninn, fenced, enclosed (p. 8 1 ) ; 
also the phrases cited in Cleasby, e.g. , 'At liegna lond sin' (Fornaldar Soyur, 
1. 376), to hain or protect his land, which falls in with 'naming- land,' a phrase 
in Brock. 0. N. hegna, to fence, to protect; Dan. hegne, Swe. hagna in; 
Ger. hegen, A.S. hegjan, Dut. heggen, to hedge, enclose, so to proteet, save, 
preserve. ' A haining day,' in Scot, means a time for saving, putting away 
money against a ' rainy day.' ' Grete hertes in the haynes, parks, enclosures 
MS. Lincoln, in Hal. ' Faiere parkes in with hainus. Sir Degrevant, 70, 
in Stratm. In James I. (Scot.), c. 10, 'All destroyaris of grene-wod and sic 
like of all new haningis.' Jamieson. Also Helenore, p. 1 4 

'As haining 1 watered with the morning dew.' Ross in Jam. 

HAINING (2), cold, drizzly, or rainy and blowing, but do not expect to 
meet one person in the district who knows the word. By chance in 1871 I was 
just enabled to rescue the word from oblivion, during the oft-mentioned visit to 
Lodge. Mrs. Allen then told me that her grandparents used it, but she had long 
forgotten it, and it only came to her memory as we were talking about words. 
Since then I have made further inquiries, but have not found anyone who knows 
it. The answer to my inquiry at Middlesmoor was that I was 'right in the 
meaning, but wrong in the spelling. It should be "hazy."' (!) Hal., however, 
has ' Hainish, unpleasant, Essex,' which may be this, or connected witli A.S. 
\\ean,poor;honth,poverly;Goth. hauns, humble, poor; Gr. hohn, scorn, Qc.; Dut. 
hoon, 0. Fr. honnir ; but whether or no, our word is clearly Gael, ainbhidh, 
rainy weather (Armst.), from ain, water. 

HAN'CLOOT, towel; O.N. Handklsethi, a towel; Dan. haandkleede ; 
A . S. clut, cleot, a little cloth, clout (see CLKET). 

' Git t' wallet fra oot o' low drawer 

An' leuk fer t' clean han'cloot and all.' Bla., p. 20 

HANDSEL, to use for the first time; O.N. Handselja, lit. to give the 
hand, so to stipulate, bargain; handsala, to make over 6y' handsel;' haudsal; 
Dan. handsel, the transference of a right; Wei. honsel, /tandsel; Gael, sainnseal 
(from the 0. N.), a handsel, a New Year's gift. (Dut. handgift, Ger. handgeld, 
handkauf.) Handsel is a purely Danisli word. In the A. S. Laws we find 
first : Inc. c. 53 (A.D. 688-728). ' If a man receives from another a stolen man 
and By seo hand othcwolen the hine sealde and the hand be dead (quelled) 
which gave him,' [i.e. if he who handselled him be dead] ' let him who has 
him declare upon the grave thzet se6 deade hand hine him sealde that the ded 
hand him to him gave.' Again, c. 56, ' If a man buy anything and find within 
thirty days any fault with it, thonne weorpe he thone ceap to hand tham 
syllende,' then let him give back the purchase to the handseller. Again, 
Laws of Alfred (872-901), c. 38, ' Gif he wille on hand gau, and his wzepnu 
syllan,' if he will submit and give up (handsel) his weapons, f. e. ' waepnu on 
hand syllan.' Next in Laws of Eudmund (940-946), c. 7, ' If a man kill a 
man thonne syththan gebyreth thaet man s vile thoes slagan forspraecan on hand, 
then afterwards it behoves that one give for the murderer surety into hand that 



HAN HEL. 257 

the murderer shall surrender peacefully.' Next in the Lib. Constit. (A.D. 1008), 
temp. jEthelred, ' [the breach of] that [peace] be inexpiable thaet he mid his 
agenre hand syld,' which he with his own hand gave. Again, ' The him man on 
hand syld, 1 that the man gave it into his hand; and a little further on, 'The heom 
man on hand sylle,' that which to them the man gives into their hand. Wedg. 
observes ' The formation of the word has been commonly misunderstood as if it 
signified delivery of possession, giving a thing into the hand of another ',' which is 
clearly the meaning in all the above A. S. passages. The fact is that we should 
never have had the word from the A. S. We find nothing but possible rudiments 
of such a word, which, had they matured, would have given a different sense from 
our word handsel. The word cannot, therefore, possibly be derived from the 
A. S., as Atk. (Cl. Gl.) would have it, but only from the N. 

HANG, hung, pret. from apres. HINO. q.v., ' Doon t'chimler hang* a gert 
chean . . . o' witch they yuse ta hingr t'poddish pan,' p. 21 . 

HANN AX, pron . of handle, as 'cannaT of 'candle.' The dropping of the 
d is Dan. 

HAPPEN, adv., perhaps; O.N. Heppinn, lucky; heppni, good luck. 
Heppnast, to have good luck. 

HAPSE, HAPS, latch; A.S. Hasps, a haps, hasp; from (!>: 'apsos, a 
fastening, haps. These are very generally used in place of locks, for all inner 
doors, except in very modern houses. A Greek name imported by early Gypsy 
metal workers. See my Yetholm Hist, of the Gypsies. 

HARDEN, hemp, hemp-fabric; A.S. Heordan, tow refuse (Bos.); Goth. 
hazds, O.N. haddr, Dan. and Dut. haar, Swed. bar, hair', O.N. and Dan. hiirr, 
flax, linen; 'Sat tbrawin' t 'shuttle weavin harden for monny a lang ear' . . . 
'hawkin harden o'ther awn manafakter.' AL, 1880. 

HARSTAN, hearthstone. 

HASTY-PUDDING-, gull, gulls, or oatmeal porridge, or poddish, in this 
neighbourhood Scot, oatmeal ground over again, boiled in milk, and then mixed 
with more milk till it obtains that consistency from which it takes its name. The 
1 hasty pudding ' of the south is diff. 

HAVE, ieltave. ' have yersel.' 

HAVER, oats; O. N. plu. Hafar, oats; Dan. & Dut. haver, Swerf.havre, 
Ger. hafer, Russ. plu. ovese, oats ; Lat. avena, oat. 

HEEAD, Aeu</ ; A.S. Heifod (gen. heafdes) heifd, hsefd ; O.N. hofud, 
Suxd. hufwud, Dan. hoved,/<ea</, hiived, head of cattle ; Dut. hoofd, fiead ; O. Fri*. 
hived, ftuss. golova, glava, golovka ; Goth, haubith, Ger. haupt. 

HEEAM, home ; Nor. Hjem, Dan. hiem, A. S. lirem, Ger. heim. 
'Hame' is O. N. 'heimr'; 'Home,' A.S. 'ham.' 

HEEARIN, herring ; A. S. Haering, Dut. hiring, Ger. baring, Fr. hareng, 
O. Fr. harenc, from O. If. G. harinc. 

HEEARIN, heron. See HEERINSEW. 

HECK, a swinging fence where a wall crosses a beck, as far as I know the 
only sense in which this old word is preserved, except in the name following. 
Dan. Hekke, O. N. heggr, Sv>ed. h'agg, Dan. hepi, A. S. haege, hege, a hedge ; 
A. S. baeca, a bar of a door ; haecce, a sheplierd's crook. ' Sum on dores and 
sum on heck.' Tourn. of Tottenham, \. 205. In Surrey, 'Hatch,' a wicket gate. 

HECK-BERRY, bird-cherry (Prunus Padus) ; Dan. Hoekke-bcer, the 
bird-cherry. 

HEETEEN, eighteen. 

HEIGH, HEE, high ; A. S. Heah, high. 

HEFTIN, 'gert heftin shignons.' Bla. in Al., 1880. O.N. Heptinn, 
part, of ' hepta ' or ' hefta,' to bind. * Heftin ' above means ' sham,' ' artificial ' 
from their being tied on, 

HELD-ON CAKE, a kind of oat-cake (tee p. 15). 

HELL,. In place names common, as 'Hell Hole, 1 'Hell Deck.' I believe 

STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. Lucas. c 



258 HEL HIN. 

all the 'Hell' holes or becks that have come under my observation have been deep, 
narrow, wooded (but that is not essential), gills, with spring at the bottom. I 
gave it in evidence before a Committee of the House of Commons that ' Hill Farm,' 
in the parish of Buckland, Surrey, is built over a spring, the source of the ' Shag 
Brook,' and that this spring is called the ' Held.' I have been tempted to 
explain this by A. S. keld, O.N. Kelda, a spring; Swed. kalla, Dan. kilde, 
Ger. quelle, A/. H. fi. qnal, quil, Eng. well; Or helos, a marsh; Lat. vallis (Cur., 
.530); and to regard 'hill' as a corruption of the same word, in the same way as 
the three place names on p. 92. 'Hell Hole' might thus mean '.-prmfl hole.'' 
But the ear and inclination suggest that 'Hell Hole' is like 'How Hill,' a 
reduplication, in favour of which view we have O. A'. hellir, a cane in rocks, but 
in most 'hell holes' there is no cave. Except that there is no religious meaning 
or application in the word, I have formed no more definite conclusion respecting 
it than the above (see WELL). 

HEI.M, HELLAM, straw, IhafcJi, a sited, barn; O. A". Halmr, helma, 
straw; hjalmr, a barn; Dan. and Ger. halm, straw, haulm; A.S. healm, liselm, 
strau', stubble; haulm, a thatched shedj Gr. kalnmos; Lat calamus, culrnus; Sans. 
kalama, rice, a reed; Arab, kalam, a reed (see also Study VII., pp. 55-tl). 

HEM, to draw in; O.N. Hemja, Dun. hemme, to stop, stay, limit; 
hemme sig, check, restrain. 'The days liems in short, sir' (Middlesmoor) 
reminds one of the beautiful opening line of Little John Nobody: 

' In December, when the days draw to be short.' 

HENNOT, have not. 

HEPN, HEPEN, or improp. epn, able, well; O. N. Heppinn, lucky. 
' ord heppinn,' readij-tongued. 

HE'RE, contr.fr. -he war' = he was (see WAR). 

HEERINSEW, heron; O. Fr. heronfeau (TyneMtt), sometimes called 
' heearin.' 

' Nor of their swannes, ne their heronsewes.' 

Chauc. Cant. Tales, v. 10,382. 

' Heronshaw' = ' handsaw,' in the Prov., not to know a hawk from a handsaw. 
The second half, ' shaw' or ' se\v,' is Gael, corr, corra, a heron, crane, or stork; 
Jius*. tznplya, a heron; so that heron-ecau is a reduplication. I perceive that 
several diets, make heronshaw = heronry. O. E. hairon, from O.Fr. hairon, a 
heron (Strattn.), which is probably from Goth, hairus, a sword, from the beak. 

HERSEN, herself (see SEN). 

HET, heated; O.N. Het, prel. sing, of heita, to heat. In an early 17th 
century ballad, ' Limping Vulcan het an iron barr.' Tom of bedlam, 1. 31. 



7 , v f A.S. hsebban, hacbbe, arc related to hev as habbe 

TT _,_ T _ TT -. T , . [ to have. 

HEVVIN, having } 

HEYTHER, either (see AYTHBU). 

HEZ, has; A.S. 'haefth' is to 'hez' as 'hafth' to 'has'. ' At hez him near 
two hands in height,' exceeds. (Ula.). 

HIF, if; A . S. gif (see GIEN). 

HIND, a wan put in to occupy a farm house where a farmer has more than 
one; A. S. hina, liine, a servant; hina-mann, a farmer; O.A. hjon, lijun or hju, one 
of the parsons belonging to Hie. household (I-'ritz.). 

HINDER, hind, back, behind; A.S. Hinder, Gotli. hindar, O. A r . hindri, 
O. II. G. hintar, Ger. hinter. Hinder log = hind leg of a horse. 

HING, to Itung. An orij!in;il form, lost except in these Dialects. Like A.S. 
bringan, brang.brungen; ./?/. bring, hrang, brung; A. 8. swingan, swang, swungcn; 
Emj. swing, swung, swung; sling, slang, slung; sting, stang, stung so hingr, 
hang:, hungr, as actually used in this Dialect, see HANG for Ex. Considerable 



HIP HOL. 259 

vagaries are noticeable in the forms of this word, thus Dut. hing, hung, is imperf. 
of 'hangen,' to hang. In O. N. hanga, pret. hekk, part, hanginn; and A. IS. 
hangian, hon, part, heng, hangen; the pret. and purl, point to an original infin. 
hinga and hingan. O. II. G. hahan, Ger. hangen, Dut. hangen, henghen. ' Hinge', 
that on which a door' hings.' 

' Gae bring a robe of your eliding, 

That hings upon the pin. 1 Gil Morice, 1. 98. 

HIPPINGS, stepping stones, over the Nidd, as at ' Haxby Hippings'; Wei. 
hypynt, a sudden effort; hwp, a sudden effort; hwb, a push forward, an effort; 
Enij. hop. 

HIPPINOS, a baby's napkins; A.S. Hip, hipe; hyp, hype, /em. hype, 
hypan, the hip; O. N. huppr, the hip, which in the North and Scot, means the 
buttocks. 

HISHER, higher. In the sh we have a very remarkable relic of the guttural 
running through Hath, hauhs, A.S. heah, Eng. high, O. N. har, Steed-, hog, Dut. 
hoog, Dan. hoi, O. II. G'. hoh, Ger. hoch. 'Are you going to Ramsgill?' ' Nay, 
were fer a lile bit hisber up t'daal.' Colloq. 

HISSEN, himself (see SEN). 'Jerry hevvin a corner tav hissen i yah end." 
Dicky and Micky Date. 

HIT, eat. 

HITTIN, eating; A. S. Hitath, to eat; Golh. itan. 

' It's a job ta git summat ta hit.' /Ma., p. 23. 
'And gave ower hittin just then.' Ib., p. 14. 

' Eat' is A.S. etan, Dut, eten, Ger. cssen, Lot. edere. 

HOAFE, HOFE, adj., half; O. N. halfr; Dan. halv, Goth, halbs, Ger. 
lialb, Dut., Sired, and Eng. half, '/{us-: polovenneie, poly. 

'T'HOASTIK CABLES.' ' Foaks hez lang toked aboot "t'hoastik 
carles " an ther wallin t' cuckoo in, an sike like.' At., 1880. The carls here 
referred to are no doubt spirits of the woods, the idea springing from the echo in 
lloastik Wood in the little story, 'Lost in the Wood,' Al., 1880 Carl is a 
word long lost, but formerly existing in this district in a more material sense, and 
still preserved in one or two place names, e.g., Carleside, Carle Fell, Carlton, 
in Coverdale, &c. O. H. G., O. A'., Dan. and Steed, karl, Dut. karel, O. H. G. 
charl, A. S. ceorl, a man, a rustic; O. E., mentioned several times in Stratm. as a 
name; Lat. Carolus, Enij. Charles. As above instanced, the meaning of the word 
being forgotten, a superstitious sense has attached to it. The names of gypsies 
offer many parallels. 

HOD, hold. 

HOG, a lamb a year old; Gael. 'Qg, young, youthful; tig, oig, a youth, young 
child; ogan, dim. of Off, a young man, twig, needling; Wei. hog-en, a yirt nearly 
full (frown; hogyn, a young man. Hawg, pi. hogion, completeness, fulness, 
perfection. Hog therefore means the same as Lat. pubes. Hence also prob. 
Mod. Midland Eng. hoggerel, hogget; Nor. Fr. hogetz, a year old theep. Hoff- 
colt, a colt a year old (Devonsh.). 

HOLLIN, holly. A.S. Holegn. holen; Gael, cuileann, crann, cuilinn. 
Holly is never used colloquially. Hollin is also freq. in place names (gee p. 1 1 7). 

HOLM, Inn-, Ilit land by riven; O. \. Holmr, meadow* beside rirert with 
ditches at the back, which exactly describes the sense here. Dan. holm, loir, 
flat land, Sfc. ; Sic&l. holme, an i-lft;A. S. holm, a river island, <Je. 

HOLM, a tree. In answer to many inquiries I was positively assured that it 
was not the ' holm ' oak, and as far as I could determine it was the * witch,' or 
mountain elm, that was so called. This seems probable, as the O. A', for elm is 
almr, alrar; Lat. ulnius, Ger. ulmc, Wulach. ulinu, &c. 

c 2 



260 HOM HUM. 

HOMMAST, almost, seems to be a parallel form with ' almost ' corrupt, 
from ' whole-most.' A. S. Hal, insest, as ' almost,' from eal or al and incest, most, 
as a dropped or added A is a most exceptional thing here, though so common in 
the South. 

HOONEY, a familiar word, used in addressing another, ludicrously connected 
with 'honey' and 'sweetness,' by popular misconception. It simply means 'you 
there,' or 'you,' and is connected with \Vcl. Hwn, this here, this masc. one present; 
hwna, that there, that one present; hwnacw, that one yonder; hwnw, that 
one absent; hwnyma, hwnyman, this one here; hwnyna, that one there. 
Hon, this fern, here; hona that fern, here; honyma, honyman, this fern, here, 
&c. It is either hwn, fern, hon; or hwna, fern, hona, according as it is addressed 
to a man or a woman. 

HOO, how, A. 8. Hwu. The ord. pron. 'how' is A.S. hu. 

HOOALE, hole; Goth. Huls (adj.), hollow ; Ger. hohl, Dut., O. N., and 
Swed. hoi, a hole. 

HOODEND, ' that side of the fire opposite to the oven where there is no 
boiler.' (Mr. Thorpe, of Pateley Bridge) see p. 21. 

HOOIN, to punish, trouble; O.E. Hunen (Stratm.), Goth, haunjan, to hu- 
miliate. 'From "hean,"/tze (hoin)" 1 (Stratm.); from hauns, Immlle \Skeat); A.S. 
hynan, henan; O.Fris. hena, O. E. henen, O. Dut. and O. H. G. honen, O. Fr. 
honnir, to humiliate; Goth, hauns, A. S. hean, hum lie; Dut. lioon, a scojf, taunt, 
affront, disgrace, contempt, c., which may be the immediate parent word; Goth. 
hunths, captivity; A.S. honth, penury, poverty. An old woman says to her 'owd 
man,' 'Ah cannot abide to hooin thee.' Bla., p. 28. 

HOOKABACK, hucfcaback, tablecloths, &c. 

HOOP, hope. 

HOOR, hour ; Dut. uur, Ger. uhr, Swed. & Dan. ur, Mod. Gr. hora, Gyps. 
hora, a watch, clock ; Lai. hora, Fr. heure, Gael. uair. 

HOOSE, house ; Goth. Hus, O. N. bus, Swed. hus, Dan. huus, hus ; Dut. 
liuis, O. H. G. hus, Ger. haus, A.S. bus, give ord. pron. 'house.' 

HOOT, OOT, out. ' Fer heeame hoot o' this as scan as ah can.' Al., 1880. 
Dut. Hit, 'uit het huis,' 'oot of the hoose.' The prefixed h is of the more cor- 
rupt Dial, of Pateley Bridge. 

HOOIVEE., however. 'Ah thowt ta me'y sen " thoo's a feal" hooiver.' 
AL, 1880. Frequently terminates a sentence. 

HOPERTH, ha'p'orth. 

HOPPEN, often (Bla.) 

HOTJST, WHOOST, to cough; Ger. Husten, M. H. G. huosten, O. H. G. 
huoston, A.S. hw6stan. 'I can't bear to hear ye houstin' like that.' O. N. 
hosta, Swed. hosta, Dan. hoste, Gael, casd, Hind, khansna, khasna, from Sans. 

HOW, hill ; O. N. Haugr, a tumulus ; A. S. how, a hill ; Dan. ho, hill. 
In place names only, as ' How Hill,' ' Grcenhow Hill,' and as names of tumuli. 
'The Three Howes' occur over and over again on the Yorkshire moors, being 
generally three tumuli ranged in a straight line on some prominent ridge. 

HOWD, hold. 

HOWT, out/lit, anything (Pateley) for 'owt,' which sec, 'How's yersel?' 
' Warse, if howt.' 

HUG, to carry, to fetch and carry, as a dog game. ' Ah thowt ah wad hug- 
fadther across t' waiter.' Collar] ' Noo come let me hug: the' the 1 cooate,'/efc/i 
thee thy coat. /#., p. 28. O. N. hug-a, to attend to, look ttjter; Goth. (Ulf.) 
hugjan, to think; A. S. hugian; O. N. hyggja, to think, toko thought for, attend to. 

HUGGTN' STICKS, carrying-poles on which a coffin is carried to the 
grave. 

HULLOT, owlet; O.Fr. hulotte, dim. of huettc, owl; Lot. ulula (Cot. lira.). 

HUMMALED, hornless; as 'a hummaled slot,' hornless ox. Gael. 
umhall, humble; A. S. homola, homela, a man who has had his head shaved 



HUM KEN. 261 

(for pillory), ' Gif he hine on bismor to homelan bescyre,' if he to his dis- 
grace shave his head as though he were going to the pillory. Laws of JElfred 
(872-901), c. 31. Atk. (Cl. Gl.) collates (J. N. hamla, to maim, mutilate; 
Sited, dial, hammla, to make pollard a tree; O. Steed, hambla, to lop q^the limbs; 
and with 0. N. hamla Cleas. collates A. S. hamelan, the private parts which were 
cut off" for several offences; O. N. hamal-stut, locus supplicii, place of punishment ; 
Ger. hammcl, a wether, with which Grimm Ger. hamalstat, M. H. G. hamelstat, 
pihamalon, iruncare, to mutilate; A.S. hamelian, Eng. hamble; M. H. G. hamel, 
a castrated ram. Holtrop gives Dut. hamel, a wether. In Oldenburg hummel 
is hornless cattle. Fliigel gives ' Hummel (provincial), a bull kept for breeding.' 
Lat. humilis, Eng. humble, c. 

HUMMER. I suppose corrup. of Hanover in the sentence ' Ah wish all 
ther sticks wer at Hummer.' AL, 1880. 

HUT, to set up peats on the moor, as described on p. 119; 0. Fr. Huter, 
to build, to set up (Col.); O. Ger. hutten, to build huts, from O. H. G. hutta, Ger. 
hiitte, Dut. hutte, Dan. hytte, a hut. 

I. 

INTA, into. 

INTUL, into ; O. N. Intill, Dan. indtill, into. 

IS, are. ' These is;' commonly used in N.E. and Scot. It is a survival of 
an older form than ' are.' 

IVTN, ivy. The place name ' Ivin Waite ' = ' Ivy Thwaite.' Gael, 
Eitheann, O.Dut. ieven, ivin; O.E. 'ivenlef,' ivy leaf. Seven Sages (Ed. 
Wright, 1845, p. 181, in Stratm.). Ivy,' A.S. ing, O.H.G. ebah, Ger. 
ephew. 

J. 

JOWL, 'puffin away " cheek by Jowl.'" Al., 1880. Gael. Qial, Jr. giall, 
Wei. kill, Eng. gill, A. S. ceole, tliejaw ; Fr. gueule, throat ; O. E.jol (Prompt. 
264) = O.E. chavel, A.S.ce&fi, 0. N. kafel (?) M.L.G. kavel, O.E. chavel, 
cliavil, chewil, choule, a jaw ; Far. Dial, chon, to chew. (Stratm., Hal., Amstr.), 
see GULL. 

K. 

Grimm IV. Goth. K, Celt., Gr., Lat. Q; Sans. G, Slav. g,z.; 0. H. O. Ch. 

KAIL, soup; Gael. Call, cal, kail, colewort, a name for all sorts of cabbage; 
Scotch-broth, of which kail is a principal ingredient (Armstr.). A. S. cawl, O. N. 
kal, Dan. kaal, Swed. kal, Russ. zelenaya, Dut. kool, Ger. kohl, O. //. G. kol, Fr. 
chou, O. Fr. chol, Lat. caulis, a cabbage ; Mo<l. Gr., kaulos, katili, a stalk. 

KAIL POT, pot in which soup, &c., was cooked (see pp. 19 and 211). 

KARKIE, cake; O.N. Kaka, Steed, kaka, Dan. kage, Dut. koek, cake; 
Scot, cookie, Gael, caraiceag 1 , a kind ofjxincake. 

KAY, fay; A.S. Cmg. 

KELD, a spring; O.N. Kelda, A.S. keld. Gives the name 'Kelds' to 
the dale side N. of Thwaite House (see HELL). 

KELK, ( kick; O. A r . in compos. ' Thru-kelkinn,' olstlnaie (in Cleas.), 
indicates a form kelk; llms. tolchoke nogore, a kid;; tolkate nogore, to kick. 

KEN, knote; O. N. and O. Fris. Kenna, Sired, kanna, Dan. kjende, Ger. 
and Dut. kennen, Fris kenna, A . S. ccnnan, ^1f. H. G. kennen, Goth, kunnan, 
A.S- caiman, to know; Eng. cunning, Ruts, znate, to know, Gael, vainicb, token. 



262 KER LAD. 

The passage, ' Gif he thonne centh,' in the Suppt. to the Laws of Eadgar is 
transl. by Wilkins (wrongly, as I think), ' Si autem notum sit ... illis.' 
It should read, ' But if he can prove from A.S. cennan, to produce evidence. 
Gr. gignoscS, Lai. gnosco, Sans, ganami (Cur, 135). 

KERN, a churn ; now a revolving tub on a horizontal axis, but, till a few 
years ago, an upright tub, in shape dke a truncated sugar-loaf; none of these are 
now seen. O. N. Kirna, Stved. kerna, Dut. kern, karn. ' Churn,' Dan. 
kjerne (see p. 28). 

KERN, to churn; A.S. Cernan, to churn; Ger. and Dut. kernen, Swed. 
kerna smor (to churn butter); Dan. kjerne, Dut. karnen. 

KERSAMAS, Christmas, i.e., Chirs'imas, sometimes Chris'imas; Dut. 
Kersmis ; all for Christi-maess. 

KI, cows; A.S. Cy, ci, nom. and acc.plu. of cu. Used at Lodge and there- 
about, where I have shown (pp. 80, 104, 106), by several independent tests, proofs 
of an Anglian settlement preponderate. 

' More meet it were for them to milk kye at a flcyke.' 

Lit. John Nobody, 1. 14. Reforrnn. Ballad, temp. Ed. VI. 

KINK, abend, a twist; Swed. kink, Dut. and Dan. kink, O. N. kengr, 
horseshoe; keng-boginn, ' bend-bowed,' crooked. 

KINK, hysterics. Atk. (Cl. Gl.) has 'kink-cough,' whooping-cough. 

KINK, to cough; O. N. Kinka. to nod the head; kingja, to wallow; Dut. 
kinken, Dan. staa kinker, to kink; Sired, kikna, to choke; Hind. (Telugu) kakwan, 
whooping-cough (Dakhnl, Harris). 'That bai'ns kinkin, hit it ower t'back.' 
Colloq. (Pateley). Swed. kikna af skratt,' ' to die of laughter,' i.e., to double up. 
'I laghe that I kinke.' Towndey Mysteries, 309 (Yorks, about 1450). 

KITE, belly; Goth. (Ulf.) Qithus, A.S. c with, Steed, qwed, O.H.G. quiti, 
the womb ; fiuss. zhevote, the belly. 

KITTLE, to tickle; O.N. Kitla, Swed. kittla, Dut. kittelen, A.S. 
citelan, Ger. kitzeln; Gael, cigeall, gigeall, giogall ; Ituss. shchekotate, to tickle. 

KITLING, kitten ; O. N. Kitlingr. 

KIST, KYST, chest; Gael. Ciste, Wei. cist, A.S. cist, cyst; O.N. and 
Swed. kista, Dan. kiste, Ger. kisti, evidenced by their identity to be all from 
Lot. cista (Cleas.). ' & hyre cjste.' Laws of Canute, c. 74. 

' Some ran to coffer and some to kist, 
But nought was stown that could be mist.' 

James V. of Scotland. The Gaberlunzie Man, 1. 37. 

KNAW, to know; A.S. Cnawan. 

KNEP, to browse as a horse; O.N. [kneppa], Dan. knibe, to nip; O.N. 
knapper, Dan. knap, scanty; hut. afknabbelen. to browse; liuss. sbchepate travy, 
' to nip grass,' to browse ; shchepoke, to nip; Ger. kneipen, to nip; Htiss. shclieptzei, 
O. N. kneif, nippers or pincers; O.N. knifr, Siced. knif, Dan. kniv, fcny. knife. 
Of a horse, 'Nepping 1 bits o yung gerse o' t' rooadsidcs." lila., \i. 11. 

KONK, nose (properly cheek) ; O.N. kjalki, cheek; Kjanka, to make grimaces ; 
from which I infer a noun [kjanki], cheek; J{uss. shcheka, Dut. koon, Sired, and 
Dan. kind (Dut. wang, Ger. wange), cheek. 



L. 

LAAIDE, a load. ' A laaide o' sticks.' O. N. Iliad, A. S. lad, hlad; 
Gael, luchd, lod, a load; Dan. lade, to load, lade; Gael, lod, Dut. laden, bcladen, 
belasten; last, a load; Ger. laden; Goth, hliithan, to lade. 

LAD, a man; Goth. Lauds, a lad; W. llawd, a lad; Dan. lad, idle, lazy. 



LAI T.Tra. 263 

LAIR, a coirshed, $c.; Swed. lagre. Dun. lagre; Goth, ligrs, a bed, from ligan, 
to lie: //IMS. logoveahche, a /a/r; but this Northern word is t>. N. leir, c/ay (see 
p. 80). 

LAITH, LATHE, shed ; 0. A r . Hlatha, Swed. lada; Dan. lade, o 6ar; 
G"er. and Dut. lade, a 6ox. 

LAIK, LAKE, to play; Goth. Laikan ; O. N. leika, to play; Steed, leka; 
Dan. lege; M. H. G. leicha, to laik, play; A. S. leecan, lacan, to 'lark,' play, 
O. A r . leikr, a game; A. S. lac, a ' lark," 1 game. 

' And live in lust in lechery to leyke.' Lit. John Nobody, 1. 22. 
' He lakes up an doon amaiig t" bogs.' Bla., p. 22. 

LAIT, LATE, to seek; Goth. (Utf.) Wlaiton, to look round about (Mark 
\. 32); wleitan, to look; A. S. wlitan; Goth, leyta (Cleas.); O. N. leita; Dan. 
lede. to seek; Gr. letho, to escape notice; lao, to see, look at. 

LAND, to arrive anyteliere; Dan. Lande, to land. A person lands on 
reaching the end of his journey. 'Then ye've landid,' or ' So ye're landid,' 
is a fieq. salutation. 'Thinkin at t' varra divil hissel had landid.' Al., 1880. 
This expression may well have arisen among the islands and isthmuses of 
Denmark, where there would be much boat travelling, and so become generalised. 

'LANG O', owing to, tlirutujh ('ALL ALONG ON'); A.S. Gelangr on. 
' & hit on preost grelang- sy,' and if it be lang- o' the priest, i.e., the priest's 
Jault. Canons, EaJg., On Punishments, c. 44. ' On wisum scrifte bith eac 
swithe forthg-elang wislic deadbot,' a wise-like punishment is forthg-elang: 
on, t/te property of, a wise priest. lb., 9. 'He sed summat aboot it bein' 
langr o' that gert parlement man we had sike bad weather.' Al., 1880. 

LANG, adj.. long; O.N. Langr. Dan. langr, A.S. langr, Dut. lang-, 
Goth, laggs, Hired, long. The pron. is A. S. probably. 

LANQEST, lomjest. ' An' t* langest of days hez an end.' Bla., p. 14. 

LANG SETTLK, settle, seat by kitchen fire (see p. 2.i). 

LANGSOME, slow, tedious; A.S. Langsum. ' Hu langsum waes,' &c. 
Alfred's Boet, 18, 4. 'The langsome labours of my way.' Kuth-a-ridtng, 
p. 1 92. O. N. [langsamr],langfsamlegra, ' Iangsoniely,''cmu;d/y; Steed, longsam. 

LANG-STKEAKED, stretched at full length; Dan. Lang-strakt. Of a 
horse, ' Ligging lang-streaked. upo' t' green.' Bla., p. 11. ' Long-stretched,' 
from D<in stroekke, to stretch. 

LANT, to delay; O.N. lata, Goth, latjan, A.S. latian, to be slow, delay. 
The word is evidently Dut., for we find Dut. lanter-fanten, to loiter, lounge; 
lantcr-fant, a lounger; lunderen, to loiter; IAJW Ger. luddern. AtL (f'l. Gl.) 
advances for 'hntered' that it = Mated' with the nasal added, as described by 
Wedgwood under ' loiter,' ' lounge.' 'If he's ony notion of anither takkin me 
plaise, ah'll lant him.' Al., 1880. ' I'll keep him waiting, disappoint him.' 

LANTED, disappointed. 'Ah's lanted this time.' 

LASTY, lasting; Dut. Lastigr, troublesome, burdensome, inconvenient. ' Een 
lastly werk,' a troublesome business. ffoltrop. ' It's been ower lasty by 
hoafe," has lasted much too long. Bla., p. 19. 

LEE, LEA, set/the; O.N. Ljar, le, Dan. lee, Steed, lia, a large heavy 
scythe which has the blade in the same plane as the handle (see p. 33 for descrip. 
and mode of using). Comp. Chin, lei, a plough. 

LEAD, tofetdi in a cart; A. S. Lsedan, O. N. leida. ' Whar's Tom ? ' 
' He's leadin peats off t' moor.' ' Leadin cooals fra Pateley." 

LEE AK, look; ' Leeak, muthcr, here's a gentleman on horseback.' 

LEE, lie; A. S. Leah, a lit; lees 8, false. '& tluet leeas bith,' and that 
is false. Lawt of Eadg., Suppt. Goth, liugn, a lie. 

' Ye leid, ye leid, ye filthy nurse, 

Sae loud I heird yc lee."' Gill Morice, 11. 87-8. 

STUDIES IN NIDDBBDALE. Luca*. 



264 LEE T' LI. 

Can a tradition of Celtic hatred have come down to modern times? e.g. (at Loft- 
house), ' He says we're Saxons, an it's a demmed lee. 1 

LEEARN, learn; AS. Loernan, (Cleas.)(?) from Ger. lernen, lehren; 
Dut. leeren; Swed. lara, Dan. loera, 0. N. Isera, all from Goth, leisan, to learn; 
laisjan, to teach. 

LEE AM, loom; A.S. Leome, a bough, branch. 

LEEAT, late. 

LEEAVE, leave; Goth. Leiban. 

LEET, light; A. S. Leoht. 

LENGER, longer; Dan. Lcengere, A.S. lengra, longer. 

' No lenger wold I lye.' Sir Cauline, 1. 46. 
' No lenger make delay.' The Nut-lrowne Mayd, 1. 104, about 1520. 

LET, leave off", give up; Dan. Lette, to free, discharge; Goth, letan, A.S. 
loetan, let go, release. 'Ah've let thinkin' 'f it," 1 given up thinking of it. AL, 
1880. Dut. laten, Ger. lassen. 

LET ON, give up a secret. ' Gif thset he ne msege, Isete on.' If he 
cannot do that, give it up. Laws of Hlothcer, 7. ' Mind you don't let on,' tell 
anyone. Mr. Thorpe supplies the following word : 

LET ON, to succeed. ' Hoo hez ta cum on, lass ? ' ' Oh ah've let on rarely, 
ah've gitten all ah wantid.' 

LEUK, LEWK, look. 

LICK, beat; Gael, leac, to flay, destroy; Wei. Llac, Llyad, a slap, lick, How. 

I LICKER = ' in liquor,' drunk. 

LIG, to lie; O.N. Liggja, Dan. ligge, Swed. ljuga, Goth. (Ulf.) ligan, 
A. S. licgan, liggan, Dut. liggen. 

'Two yonge knightes ligging by and by.' Chauc. Cant. Tales, v. 1013. 
'What houndes liggen on the floor adown.' lb., v. 2207. 

LIG, to lay; O.N. Leggja; Dan. loegge; A.S. lecgan, to lay; Dut. leggen, 
Ger. legen. ' To lig a body oot.' ' To lig a rate.' 

LIKER, more like, more likely; A.S. gelic, like; gelicost, most like; requires 
a compar. supplied by pres. word. 

LILE, little; Wei. Llai, little; lleiach, smaller. 

LIMMEKS, shafts; O.N. Limir, pi. of limr; A.S. limu,jZ. of lira, a limb. 

LIN, flax; O.N. Lin, Wei. llin, Gael, lion, Dut. lijn, Eng. linen, Gr. 
linon. 

LINE,yto; A.S. Lin, Goth. and Ger. lein, Lat. linum. From the noun 
comes the verb to ' line.' 

LIS'NEKS, cars. A cant word. 

LITE, to wait, to expect; O. N. Lita, to look fur; Dan. lide, to rely. ' To 
lite o' van,' to wait on (i.e., for) anybody. 

LITHER, lazy; O.N. Lithugr, yielding; Dan. ledig, lad; A.S. litha, 
litlie. From soft we pass to pliable, yielding, weak idle. Jiuss. lyentyac, lazy- 
bones. 

' " My ladde he is so lither," he said, 

" He will doe nought that's mete." ' King Estmcre, 1. 203. 

Means lithe in the following passage 

' But up then rose that lither ladd' 

And hose and shoone did on.' Glasgerion, 1. 33. 

T' LIVIN' END, inner room, where there are only two. ' T' livin' end 
an t' parler end.' Scot. bi-n = //? inner room; but, the outer; in ' But and ben ' = 
' be-out and be-in.' 



LOA MAI. 265 

LOAN, lane; Prov. Dan. Laane, lane, an open place (Wedg.); W. llan, a 
dear space, small enclosure (On:); Fris. laan, lona, a lane or narrow passage. 
'An o:ide tluikt buildin i t' loansi.de/ p. 216. 'Doon t 1 loan they went, 
by t' aide steane troff. 1 p. 222. 

LOANING-, lane; Gael. Loininn, lonaig-. 

LONESOME. Many are the places that are truly such as here described : 

'Thus he hath sold his land soe broad, 

Both hill and holt and moore and fenne, 
All but a poor and lonesome lodge, 
That stood far off in a lonely glenne.' 

Tlie Heir of Linne, v. 11. 

LOFFEB, lower; Dan. Lavere, compar. of lav. low. ' Hisher and loffer.' 
LOSS, to lose. Apparently a noun used as a verb, but an infin. and pres. 

are wanting, from which the pret. and part. ' lost, 1 has been formed ' lossed ' 

itself, unless preserved in pres. word. 

' Hoo badly off wad wimin be 

If they sud loss all t' men.' Bla., p. 16. 

Goth. Liusan; A.S. losian, to lose; Dut. verliezen; Gcr. verlieren. 

LOWE, a flame; O. N. Log, logi; Dan. lue; Steed, lag*, A.S. lig, 
aflame; Gr. Inclines (Cur. Sk.). 

LOWE, to burn, flame; JL). N. Logu; Steed, lag-a, to burn with aflame; 
Steed. ' Elden begynner lagra up, 1 the fire begins to flame (Serenius), or as 
would be said in the same words on the Pennine Hills, ' The Eldin begins to 
lowe up. 1 

LOWN, LOWND, calm; O. N. Laan, hidden, secret; Maun stigr,' a secret 
path; Maun vagr, 1 sheltered creek; laun contr. for laugn; logn, calm, tranquil; 
Steed, lugn; Dan. luun, lune. Lownd places, sheltered, low lying. 

LOWSE, to loosen; O.N. lausn, release, and lausnari, a releaser, indicate a 
verb [lausna] to release. To lowse a horse out of a cart. 

LOWSE, loose; O.N. Lauss, loose. 

LTPWAKM, luketcarm. 

LUGS, can of a dog, horse, &c. ; O. N. Log?, a ledge, rim, margin; a small 
square piece cut out of the ears of sheep to mark them. Atk. Cl. Gl. gives ' Pot- 
luys, the perforated ears of metal rising above the edge or brim of the pot, nnd 
receiving the ends of the movable bow or kelps.' Cleas., however, makes log 
mark a lawful mark on sheep. It is, however, open to question, whether 
log-mark does not=16'ggmark, not 'law-mark' 1 but 'ear-mark,' 1 for we find liuss. 
slyche (pron. slooche), an ear, which is probably the parent word. 

M. 

MAD, angry. 'Ah was mad. 1 I was angry. Colloq. 

MAAIDE, made. 

M ADDLED, confused; A.S. Jffadelod, pp. of madclian, to discourse, and 
so 'to get confused. 1 

M ADDLE, r., gobble, prate; A.S. Madelian, to speak, talk, prate, gabble 
(see M AWN ED). 

MAIN, //., the rjreater jxirt; A. S. Maeg-en. maegn, main, body. ' T'main 
of t'day. 1 The greater part of the day. Ilia. 

MAINLY,ybr the most part. ' We mainly taks wer tea aboot this tahm." 
CWfcf. 

MAIR, more ; O. N. Meiri, Dan. meer, mere, more. From Lofthousc 
upwards, but at Pateley * marr.' Thus on p. 73, 1 took down from the mouth of 



266 MAI MEZ/ 

the narrator, ' I'll warlt na mair ; but Mr. Thorpe gave it in its Pateley form, 
' Ah'll work na marr,' ' wark ' is pron. like ' bark.' 

MAISTER,, husband, master; O .Ft: Maistre, Wei. meistr, from Lat. 
magister. Many years ago, the late Mr. Bury, having been promised the living 
of Burnsall on its becoming vacant, thought in the meantime he would like to see 
the place. On reaching the garden gate, he saw an old woman at work among 
the pea sticks, and enquired, 'Is your master at home?' She, not at all offended, 
replied that he was; for she was used to hearing her husband called her 'maister.' 
This story I had from the late Vicar, in 1869. 

MAK, make; O. N. Maka, A. S. macian, to make. 

' In joye yt maks our mirthe abounde.' 

To the Lute in Music, 1. 7, temp. Hen. VIII. 

MALI/?, Molly. 

MANDERS, MANTHEBS, manners; O. Fr. Maniere ; th, pron. soft, like 
fh in 'this,' and d are a corruption of the ni sound. A blundering attempt to 
pronounce the liquid. ' Sin thpn ah've been donned in all manders o' things.' 
Bla., p. 25. ' It's sported all manthers o' cullers bud blue.' II. p. 43. 

MANISH, manage; comp. ' poddish' porridge; ' hish,' high. 'Ah felt as if 
ah cud manish a taaiste o' sum so:irt.' AL, 1880. 

MAR. MAKE,, mure. 

MARRY, indeed, forsooth; O.Fr. Marie an expression belonging to 
Roman Catholic times. ' Noa, nut I, marry!' Colloq. 

MASALGIN, a mixture of rye and wheat; O.Fr. Mestillon, from Lat. 
miscellanea; but in this Dial, word the Lat. form is better preserved than it is 
in the Fr. mestillon, mesteil, Mod. meteil, muslin (lira.); metail, mess- 
ling: or masslin (< 'ot., 1650); Gael, maslaim. maislean. 'It the land be 
of that sort which they call maumy, it is commonly sown with all sorts of wheat, 
xniscellan, barley,' &c. ( / lot, Nat. Hist, of Oxfordshire, c. 9, p. 245). ' Beans, 
wheat, miscellan, barley and pease in their order.' lb., 61. Wanting in JtaL, 
but 'mescolato' is mittd, and in Span, mesclado = muslin. Fr. metail Eny. 
' metal.' 

MAWN, A. -S". Manian, to exhort, remind, <c., see MADDLED. 

' He mawned and maddled all aboot 
His daddy cumin heame.' Ula., p. 16. 

i.e., he kept on reminding, or mentioning and chattering about, &c. A.S. maiiian, 
to remind, passes into maenan, to have in the mind, to remember, to remind, and 
that into maenan, to moan, complain; Swab, mauiien, to speak with the mouth 
nearly shut; maunzen, to speak in a whining tone. 

ME, my; O. N. Minn, min, mit, my; Dan. min neuL mit, my. 

MEEAD, made. 

MEEAN, mane; O.N. Mori, Wei. mwng, mane; mwn, the neck; Gael. 
muing, muidh, muinnidh, mane. 

MEEAR, mare; A. S. Mearh, mearg-, mear, a horse, steed (Ztos.); 0. A T . 
marr; O. H. G. marah, a horse; O.N. merr, a marc. 

MEBBE, may be. 

MENSE, decency; O. N. Mennskr, human; Steed, menniska, Dan. 
menneske, A. S. mennisc, O. H, G. mcnnesco, mennisk; M. 11. G. mannisk, 
Ger. mensch, Nct/wrl. minsk. Of a cradle, ' My mother she charged me to clean 
it for mense. 1 Bla., p. 43. Of a drunkard, ' He's lost baith sense an' mense.' 

MESEL, myself; Dan. Mig, me, myself; mig-selv. 

' I'll fetch yond pedlars back mysell.' Sir Andrew Barton, pt. 2, 1. 44. 

MESEN, myself (see SEN). 

MEZZER, measure; O.Fr. Mesure, from Lat. mensura; A. S. mseth. 



ME'Y MYS. 267 

' Be his meethe.' A. S. Laws, freq. 0. Fr. pron. distinctly preserved, though 
somewhat mutilated. 

ME'Y, my- ' Me'y fewt, an me'y noose, an me'y mooU).' Bla. t p. 34. 

ME'Y, me; Dun. Mig, me. 'It winnat dew me'y a farden's worth o' 
gud.' 

MICH, much (tee MITCH). 

MICKLE, much, great; O.N. Mykill, mikill; A.S. mycel, micel, great', 
Gr. megas. 'Gifseo micele ta bith ofaslagen,' if the (tig toe be cut off. Laws 
of Mlfred, c. 40. 'On tham miclan synod,' at the great synod. 1 Laws of 
JEthelstun, c. 26. 'That did Sir Andrew mickle scare.' Sir And. Barton, 
pt. 2, 1. 54 

MINCH, mince; O.Fr. Mince, mynsser, to mince, prob. from Runs. 
smyagchat- 1 , to mince, with ' cockney ' Suss, koochnya, kitchen, and several other 
words relating to cookery. 

MIND, to rememlier; A.S. Mynan, to remember. "Ah maind this or 
that.' Colloq. 

MISTAL, pigsty or cotcshe/l; 0. N. Myki. dttnij; stallr, stall; Dan. mogr, 
mitck; staid, stall, stable; Ger. mist, dung (see also p. 80). 

MITCH, much. 

MON", man; A.S. Mon, man. 'Gif mon othrum steow asette,' if one 
trespass on another's phce. Laws of Hlotliar, 12. 'Thonnemon monnan 
betyhth,' when mon indicteth mon.' Laws of Ine, 46. 

"MONNY, many. 

MOORGAM, moor-game, grouse. 

MOOBPOOTS, peewits. Foot = poult, Fr. poulet (Brock.), hut (?). The 
common peewit is called pew-it, which contracts into pewt, poot. 

MOOTH, mouth. 

MOSSCROPS, cotton grass (see p. 10), called 'mosscrops and cut- throats,' or 
' mnorsilk ' (Eriophorum). It is this which figures so gracefully in Macpherson's 
Ossian. Cathlftn, Duan. 2: 
' If on the heath she moved her breast v.-as whiter than the down of Cana.' 

MOUD, MOWD, mould. 

MOUDHILLS, molehills. 

MOUDYWARP, mole; led. Mold-varpa; A.S. molde-wyrp, the mould 
caster; O. .V verpa, varpa; A.S. weorpan, to cast up; Goth. (Ulf.) wairpan, Dut. 
werpiMi, O. II. G. werfan, Ger. werfen, to cast. 

MUCK, dirt, mud; O. A r . Myki, Dan. mug. Tis mookie,' is said of any 
muddy ro:id or place. 

MUD, m>i//it ; A. S. Mot, can, may, tit '<//</; comp. * bud ' for ' but,' &c. ' Bud 
let me come heame seun or late as ah mud,' tila., p. 36. 

MUG, a Leicester tup or ram; A . S. Muffa, a ball, heap, as they arc called 
' tup ' from O. \. tupt or tuft (see TUP, also p. 7). 

MON, must; O. A". Man, ;rcs. mun, imperf. of munu, must, \cill, shall. 

' I ween but thou mun die.' Sir Cauline, 1. 93. 
And in the beautiful lines in Hamilton's Braes of Zanors: 

' Lang maun she weep, lang maun she, maun she, weep, 

Lang maun she weep with dule and sorrow, 
And lang maun I nae mair weil be Men 
Puing birks on the Braes of Yarrow.' 

MUHN. mourn; A.S. Murnan; murnende, mourning (Boei^ 3). 
MURNING, mourning; A.S. MurnuDg. 
MYSEL., mystlf; Dan. Mig:, selv (-re MESEL). 

4 Yes, I may tell, and fret myll/ Tht Auid Good Man, 1. 33. 



268 NA NEE. 

N. 

NA, no ; Wei. Na. 

NAAINE, none, not. 'Ah's naaine mitch up on her cummin here.' 
AL, 1880. 

NAANINE, none, not; A.S. Nsenigne, contr. from ne senigrne, not any. 
'& mon nsenigne mon on thaet ne sylle.' Laws of Alfred, c. 10, also c. 18. 
'She's naanine ower honist.' AL, 1880. 

NANQ-IN, gnawing; Gael. Cnamh, to gnaw. 

' T' biggest pleasure, lang endurin, 

Wad becum a nangin pain.' Bla., in AL, 1880. 

NANPIE, mac/pie; Wei. Piog 1 , pia, pi; pioden, a piannet, magpie; Gael. 
pigheid. 'Mag' and 'nan,' prefixed to the Celtic name, give magpie and nanpie. 

NAB., near; O. N. Na, Dan. noer, Swed. nar. ' Nar Sleet,' the name of a 
field below Middlesmoor. 

NATTERIN, peevish, cross, $c. ; Dan. G-naddre, Swed. g-nata, to grumble ; 
Dan. Dial, gnaddrig, fretful, peevish; Swed. Dial, gnataktig, gnatiger, gnatuger, 
gnetuger, gnatu, peevish; gnater, gneter, a natterer (Atk. Cl. Gl.); Gr. knao, 
knaio, to scrape or grate; knetho, to scratch, to provoke or excite; knapto, to comb 
or card wool; later Attic, ' gnapto.' 'Ah see an hear eneaf o flitin natterin 
wimin adoot bein tied to yan . . . thatdovl.' AL, 1880. 

NATERABLE, natural. 

NATUR, nature, essence, essential qualities. ' It's took all the natur out 
of it.' 

NAY, no; O.N. Nei, Wei. na, Gael, ni, Dan. and Swed. nei, Goth, ne, 
Ger. nein. 

NEE AN, NEE A, no; Goth. Niu, O. N. neinn, A. S. nsen, nen, nin, 
none ; contr. from ne, can, not one. ' Nea matter to what he wer yooaked.' 
Bla., p. 13. 

NEAP, ^5 O.N. Hnefl, the fist; Swed. n'afve, Dan. nceve. 

NEAK, nick, nook; O.N. Hnjukr. 'Neak' is a Ramsgill form (see pp. 92 
and 113, also NEWK). 

NEAN, nine ; Goth. Niun, A . S. nigon, Dut. negen, Swed. nio, Dan. ni, 
Ger. neun, Gael, naoinear, naoi, nao. 

NEAR, stingy; O. N. Nser, close, sharp. A man who has money, and is 
careful of it, is said to be 'near.' (Dan. noerig, Swed. narig, Atk., CL Gl.) 

NEARHAND, near, nearly; Dan. Nserhaand, A. S. neah-hund, near. 
A common expression in Niddersdale. 

' Makine, adieu, the sun goes west, 
The day is neirhand gane.' 

Robin and Makyne, 1. 52 (printed 1568). 

NEATHER, nearer; A. S. Neheh, near, would form a compar. nehehra, 
which guttural may be repres. by ' neather.' Only those who know the bleak 
four miles round Grecnhow Hill can appreciate all that is expressed in the line, 

'Ah wish the'y wark laid ncathor hcanic-.' Bla., p. 15. 

Goth. (Ulf.) nehw, near; nehwis, nearer. 

NEEAWHAR, nowhere; A.S. Nawar, nahweer. 'He'd nivvcr been 
neeawhar fra heeame.' Bla., \>. \?>. When I was at Lofthousc in 1871, it 
was said that there was an old woman up there who had never been out of the 
dale, not even climbed the sides to look over. I remember a man in possession 
of a good farm, whose age was 60 years, who had never slept but two nights out 
of the house, and those two nights not together, and who had never been farther 



NEE NTJT. 269 

than Ripon. Formerly there were plenty who never moved from home from the 
cradle to old age. 

NEEBER. NEABER, neighbour; A.S. Neah gebur, neahbur. 

NEET, night; A. S. Neaht, neht. 'Siththan ane neaht,' after one night.' 
L. Hlothcer, 10. ' Yah neet,' one night. Colloq. 

NEB, beak; A. S. and but. Neb, Dan. nceb, Steed, nabb, O. N. nef. 'Oif 
mon otlirum thaet neb ofaslea,' If a man cut off another's nose. L. JElfred, c. 40. 
At Lodge (1871), a bird caught in a brick trap was said to have been 'caught by 
its little neb.' Connected with NEAF, NIP, NEP. 

NEKT, nuked; O. A'. Nekt, nakedness. 

NEPPIN, nipping, cropping grass (fee KKEP). 

NESHT, neit. As with ' HISHER' and other words given in this Glossary, 
the ' sh' in nesht represents a guttural found in Ger. N'achst, lost in O. .iV. 
naest, Sired, nast, Dan. noest, Dut. naast, naaste; A. S. nexst, next. 

NEWX, nook; O. N. Hnjukr, a knob, peak, eminence. At Lodge and 
locality, as distinguished from NEAK at Ramsgill. Near Lodge is a high field, 
named 'Bewtcher Newking' = ' Butcher's ridge-field" 1 portion of the ridge (see 
pp. 92 and 113). 

NIP, pinch; Dut. Nijpen, Knijpen. The ramifications of this root are 
most various, e.g., O.N. hneppa, to cut short; O.H. G. knyppen, nippen, to 
snap the fingers; Ger. kneipen, Swed. niupa, Dan. knibe, liuss. shchepoke, to 
nip (see NEAP, NEB, NEP). 

* But ever shee droopeth in her mind 
As, nipt by an ungentle winde, 

Doth some faire lillye flowre.' Sir Cauline, 2, 39. 

NIWEB, never; A.S. Nsefre, contr. from ne, sefer. 

NOBBUT, only. * It's nobbnt us'=not but. 

NODDLE, Iiead (slang) ; 0. E. nodile, ' nodil, nodle.' Prompt., 357. Wei. 
cna, that is rounded; O. N. hnudr, a knob, ball; hnoda, a clew; led. hnod, a rivet- 
head; Dan. knudc, a knot, and many others; Lot. nodus, for gnodus; Gr. gnathos, 
a tooth. 

NOO, now; O. N. Nu, Dan. nu; O. N. ' Sommeren er nu over' (in Cleat.); 
Goth, nu, Dut. nu, Ger. nuh, nun; Gr. nun, Lot. nunc. 

NOOSE, nose; O. N. Nos, A.S. nosu; Swed. nk'sa, Dan. noese, Ger. nase, 
Ituss. and Eng. nose, Dut. neus. 

NOPE, a blow, properly the effects of a blow, a lump; O. N. knappr, a knob; 
hnappr, a button; Gael, and Wei. cnap, a knob; A. S. cnap, Ger. knopf, Dut. knop, 
Eng. knob; Wei. cnipvvs, a fillip with the finger; Dut. n6pen, to pr, prick, 
encourage. 

NOR, than ; Gael. Na, Wei. no, titan. ' Bigger nor me.' Bla. p. 36. 

NOWT, nothing; A.S. naht, contr. from na-wuht, na-wiht; no- whit, not 
a whit. ' Gif other care nawiht gehereth,' if the other with his ears nowt 
heareth. L. JEtluilberl, 40 (561-616). 'Nawiht on thaem wite.' L. JEthd- 
stan, 21 (924-940). ' Ac se Abbot nolde thacs naht,' but the Abbot would 
have nowt of it. Sax. Chron., 1083. ' Haveth he nout of Walingford ofer- 
lyng,' he has nowt of the Wallingford honours ('overling,' opposed to 'under- 
ling'). Rich. o/Almaigne, 1. 10. 'When they had ascertained his liabilities 
they ass'd him what his assets amoontid tew. He said, " Nowt." ' Al., 1880. 
* Liza may say it's gud, bud ah reckon nowt on't.' Ib. 

NUT, not. A further contr. of ' nowt.' Nawuht, naught, naht, nowt, nut, 
not. ' T moor's nowt like itsen.' Bla., p. 39. 'A thing at's nut reet,' 
76., p. 13. 

STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. Lucas. 



270 OAD PAT. 

o. 

OADE, OWD, old; Dut. Oud. 'Een oud man' = 'an owd man,' 'eene 
oude \TOUVV ' = ' an oade ooman.' 

OFT, often; O. \. Opt, oft; A. S. oft, Goth. (Ulf.) ufta,' Swed. ofta, Dan. 
ofte. ' Se cyrlisce man the oft betoken were thyfthe,' the rustic man who has 
been oft accused of theft. L. hie, c. 37 (688-72U). 

' T' OADE MAN,' or 'the old man,' i.e. 'the old mine. Gael. Mein, 
meinn, meun, a mine, mineral; Wei. maen, a stone, mineral; man, a space, 
u'Jiat holds or contains. The lead miners of Greenhow on striking into old 
workings underground say they have come upon ' the old man,' which is clearly 
the old mine, as shown above, but this being forgotten they sometimes express 
the same by saying ' the old man has been there.' 

ONT, aunt; O. Fr. Ante. 

ONNY, ONY, any; A. S. anig 1 , as ' any," from ' senig.' 

ONNYWERES, anywhere. 

ONTUV, on to. 'To mak back at neet ontuv Hardcastle Moor.' Bla., 
p. 39. 

OOR, our; A. S. tire, our, would suggest an unaccented form [tire]; Goth. 
unsar. 

GOT, out; O. N. ut. 

OP, up; Dan. and Dul. Op. 

OPPEN, open; 0. N. Opinn. 

OUT, OWT, anything, ouyhl, aught; A. S. out, contr. from awuht, awiht, 
a whit. ' Othtlie his landes awuht, 1 owt of his land. L. jE/fred, Introd. 26. 
'Minra awuht feala,' my somewhat numerous. Laws, Ib. ' Nage heo his 
yrfes awuht,' she has not a whit of his estate. L. JElf, c. S. ' Wordes ne 
weorces owiht don,' by word or deed to do owt. L. jEt/u-lst., pt. 2, c. 2. 
'And gif ther is out to eadwiten,' and if there is owt to blame. Ancren 
Riwle, pt. IV. 'Ah like it far better nor owt at's i t' hoose.' Bla., p. 42. 

OUT, OWT, ought, should. ' Ought ' for ' owed.' ' Proud he owt to feel 
hissen.' 

O V, on ; Dut. Over, of, about, upon, c. ' Per they'd seeame reight as us 
up ov Hardcastle Moor.' 

OWEB, over; A. S. Ouer. Sax. Citron., 1137. 'Comin ower t' moor,' 
'ower neet,' ' gie ower,' leave ojf, &c., are common colloq. 

' She wor awlus ageeat, an' scarce ivver gav ower.' Bla., p. 37. 



P. 

Grimm VI. Goth. P = 0. //. G. Ph. or f; Gr., Lot., Celt., Slav. B; Sans. B or V. 



PALLY, Polly as a place name, ' Pally's Crags.' 

PARK, an enclosure, field for homes, in Coverdale (see pp. 32, 34). 

PASHY, wet underfoot ; tier. Patsche, sludge, mud. 

' T'wcathcr's been pashy this spring.' Bla., p. 21. 

PASTOOB, pasture; O. Fr. Pasture (Cot.). The O. Fr. pron. is well 
preserved at Lodge, and generally near the Dalehead (see p. 31). 

PATE, the badger. The Gael, is broc, brochd; U. N. b:'okkr(?), Dan. brok, 
We/, broch, Eny. Dial, brock, Alod.Gr. tioclios (Sived. giiitling, Dut. das, Ger. 
dachs). ' Pate' is a very local name, ' brock' being the usual word. ' Pate,' the 



PEA aUA. 271 



lodger, does, I believe, give its name to ' Pateley,' which used to be spelt 
' Pait-ley.' I cannot find an.C source or origin for the name of ' pate,' meaning 
the bwtyer, in any of the languages contributing to this Dialect. Guided by 
the well-established case of ' peat,' from ' bete,' I am led to identify the 
'bad' in 'badger' with 'pate'; but wh.it is 'badger'? (1.) Wei. Baedd, 
a boar = Pate; baeddu, to wa/loic; to tumble about in the dirt; baeddwr, one 
who tumbles about in the dirt = ' badger '; Fr. bedoiie, bedouer. (2.) Pate, 
miyht h'r. Bete, as ' peat' = ' bete' ; but I think the former explanation pre- 
ferable in the absence of positive evidence, and because the latter does not explain 
' badger' at the same time. The 'pate' is now extinct for an account of the 
last tee IKTROD. (3.) Note. ' Bite, a fox, among gypsies on Mitcham Common 
(1880). 

PEAT, peat; A.S. Betan, to better, to improve; be tan fyr, to mend or 
repair a fire (lion.) ; O. E. beten, ft. Fris. beta, O. N. boeta. ' Fires bete.' 
Chauc. Cunt, '/'a/ex, 2,253. 'A brighte fir wel belt.' Sir Perceval. 'Thornton 
Romances.' Yorks, early 15th cent, (Strutm.). ' Bete the fire,' gave the name 
of ' betes,' or ' peats ' to the sods with which the fire was * beted ' ( Wedg.) ; 
Gael. foid. 

PEAT-CREEL, a basket for holding peats, which stands in the room. 

PEWDER, pewter; Gael, peodar, pleodar; Dut. peauter, speauter 
(Spelter); led. piatr, Low. Lot. peutreum, O. Fr. peutre (bra.), Ital. peltro, 
SjMtn. peltre. 

'PIN-FOLD,' a pound; A.S. Pinn, a penn, pound. '"Fund" and 
" pound," from the " pin " of the ancients, whence " pinfold.'" Wilkins Glots. 
to A.S. l.awt. t.v. Fundbrece. 

PLEEACE, place; A.S. Plaece occurs in the Cotton MS. of the Gospels, 
written about A.D. 9dO. The A.S. was interlined between the Lat., which was 
written about 680 (Somner). We cannot therefore have tiken our word straight 
from the Fr. as is commonly represented. Lat. platea, ,S/*//. plaza, Ital. piazza, 
Fr. place, Wel. plas. 

PLEAF, plouali, at Ramsjiill. 

PLIF, or PLEW, or PL.EUGH, plough, at Lodge. With plif and 
pleaf compare D>tn. plov; with plew, pleugrh, A.S. plou. O. \. p!6gr, 
Sired, plog, O. Dut. plog, ploug; hut. ploeg, Huns, plyge (ploog), 0. H G. ploh, 
phluog; M. //. G. phluoc, pHuoc; (jr. pflug; Gr. ploion, to tail; Sans, plava. 
*Sulh' is the word used in the A. S. Laws, ' plough' never. In O.N. arthr is 
the genuine word, according to Cleasby. Nor is plough Goth., for Ulf. uses 
hoha, hoe something like the breast-plough of the Cotswolds probably. Flough 
is therefore O.H.G., probably from the Rust. Sulh, the A. S. word Pert. 
kulba, a plough; //. sulcus, a furrow is still in use in Somerset. 

PODDISH, porridge; O. Fr. Potag-e, pottaye. P oddish is nearer the 
parent form than ' porridge.' 

POODER, powder-, O. Fr. Puldre, Fr. poudre; formerly poldre, origi- 
nally puldre, from /Ait. pulver (Bra.), Dut. poeder, poeijer, pulver; Ger. pulver. 
Fr. pron. well preservi-d. 

PORE, jxikfr. I suppose Po'er, like brea'r, briar, from breaker ($ee p. 25). 

PRETHA, pritliee. I pray thee. 



a. 

, ' gentlemen,' too often flash persons wholly unworthy to 
buckle the shoes of the Dalespcoplc, some of whom annually look forward to the 
grouse season, ' when t 'quality cums up t'DaaL' 



272 RAK BAY. 

R. 

RAKE, w. (1.) The line of heaps on the surface, made by working a lead 
vein; the heaps on the 'back of a lode.' The Pers. (and Hind.) Rak, a row or 
line; Russ, draka, Dun. raekke, a row; O. N. rakr, straight; rak, the rakinys nf 
hay in a field; Atk. Cl. Gl. gives RAITCH, a white line down a horse's face (also 
Hall). (2.) A footpath, Pers. rak, a row or line; rah, a, road, way; O. N. 
rekstr, a beaten track, originally that made by a drove of sheep or cattle. (3.) 
A 'sheep-rake, 1 * sheep-track. Huntley (Colsu-old Gloss.) gives ' RACK, a path, 
chiefly applied to the paths made by hares; Dut. racke, a track.'' I find Dut. 
rak, apart of the road. We have ' een goed rakj e,'a good part of the road behind 
us. Holtrop. ' At Buckden,' writes Mr. Dakyns, ' we have " Hakes Wood," 
a wood through which goes the old straight road which is itself called " Buckden 
Hake."' Rake = road, in Sir Gawaj/ne, Lancash., about 1360. Also Alex., 
3384, ' Out of the rake of rightwisness renne suld he nevire.' Stratm. 4. A 
dog's name. ? O. N. reki, driver (see p. 13 and Erratum to ditto). 

RAKE, v. (1.) Sheep on the moors are said to 'rake out,' when they form 
single file, as they do on being first disturbed. 'To rake in row,' in the passage 

' But keip my sheip undir yon wod ; 

Lo quhair they raik on raw.' Robin Q MaJcyne, 1. 12. 

Gael, rach, to go, walk, travel; O. N. rekja, to spread out, unfold ; Goth, rakj an, 
to reach, stretch; rikau, to reach, collect, Jieap up; Dut. reiken, Swed. riicka, Dan. 
roekke, Ger. reichen, Lai. rego, Gr. orego, Gael, ruig, to reach; O. N. reika, to 
wander, walk, in a wavering, unsettled manner, as sheep. ' To raik on raw.' (2.) 
To drive; Gael, ruaig, O. N. raka, originally vreka (Cleas.), to drive, to wander; 
Wei. rhacu, to put fonvard, to advance, to take the lead; Goth. (Ulf.) wrikan, 
wrakjan, to persecute; Dut. wreken, A. S. wrecan, Eng. wreak, O. H. G. rechan, 
Ger. rachen, Swed. vraka, D:m. vrage, Lot. urgere (Cleas. Skeat.). 

RAM, adj., stinkiny, fetid, offensive; O.N. Ramr, strong, bitter, $c., Dan. 
ram. 

RAMPS, garlic; A. S. Hramse (? meaning), Swed. rams, garlic, prob. 
from the O.N. ram, neut. ramt, bitter, strong, like an onion. Ramtgras 
(Elucidarium, 141, in Cleas), is no doubt garlic. Somner, followed by Bos. 
renders A.S. hramse, hromse, by ' Henbane,' but ? (see BELLONED). ' Rams- 
gill ' may take its name from rams, garlic, which is freq. in the woods, covering 
the ground like a carpet, to the exclusion of all other plants. 

RANDOM, the direction of a lead vein. ' We're following the random 
now,' used by the miners of Greenhow Hill. 

RANG, wrong; O. N. Rangr, A. S. wrang. Sax. Chron., A.D. 1124. 

RANNELBOAK, beam in the old chimney; O.N. Rann, the house; 
balkr, beam; ranns-balkr, house-beam (see pp. 21-24). 

RATTEN, a rat; Gael. Radan; a water rat, 'radan uisge.' O.N. rotta, 
with def. art. rotta-inn; Dan. rotte, with def. art. rotten; or Swed. ratta, 
rotta, with def. art. rotten, might indeed be the source of the Gaelic word, 
especially when we have regard to the history of the Norwegian rat, which has 
spread from thence. A. S. raet, O. H. G. rato, Ger. ratte, ratze; />. rat. The 
Prompt. Pare, has ratun or rat^n. 

RAY enters into several place names up dale, of which instances are given 
p. 82, with a suggestion as to meaning of ray. Since printing that sheet, 
however, I find that rae is Gael, for a pasture (see Introductory Commentary). 



BEE RIP. 273 

REE AN = REIN, a strip of grass left unploughcd around a ploughed field; 
but see Study VIII., pp. 60-68. 

REE AST, rest; A.S. Reost, raest, re&t, rest. 

REEASTED, restive, Jresh, skittisli. I think this must be A. S. Rested, 
pp. of restian, restan, hrestan, to rest ' rested, 1 therefore ' eager.' ' Ay, Shoe's 
resisted, thoo mun let her gan oop t'bank a bit, t' tak t'joomp oot of her.' Cul'oq. 

REE A TS, roots. ' Ttree-reats.' 

RECKLING-, i he youngest or smallest of a brood of chickens, ducks, &c.; 
O. N. Reklingr, led. 'rekningr,' and rekingr'; Dan. rekling. an outcast, lit. 
' the little driven one'; from ' reka,' to drive. Atk. Cl. Gl. finds in Kok, S. Jut- 
land, vrassel, vrasling, for vragsel, vragsling, in the same sense as above. Kok 
quotes Uutzcn for vrag, vragling (see p. 30). 

RECKONS, toothed sticks, now of iron, on which the pothooks arc hung. 
Wei. Rhignez, a notched slick (Ori:). The 'reckons' hang on the *s\vapa' or 
' beak ' (p. 20), which Atk. Cl. Gl. calls the ' reckons.' Wei. rhig, rhigyn, a 
notcli, groove. Rhignez, a notched or furrowed part of Jinything, render's Atk.'s 
suggestion, ' Reek-airn,' * smoke-iron,' unnecessary ; moreover, ' reckons,' the 
* notched stick,' probably existed ages before iron was known here. 

REDSTAKE, the post in a bewce to whicli the cow is lied or fastened. A . S. 
Wraed, a band, tie; stica, a stake; wKede, a latdi, buckle, control, bundle, $c.; 
1 writha,' a band, rein, thong, bridle. The beasts were formerly tied up with 
ticisted bands of willow, ash or hazel, still the fastening of the Cow-BOW, q.v.; 
also p. 31. 

REEK, n., smoke, foy or mist, drizzle; Stcetl. Riik, Dan. xog, Dut. rook, 
O. E. roke, Ger. rauch, smoke; Goth. (U/f.) rekwis, rikwiz, darkness; rign, rain. 

REEK, f., to smoke, to be misty, O. A', rjuka, Swed. roka, Dun. roge, to 
smoke; Ccr. riechen,/ome//; A.S. reocan, rlcan,ti> smoke; dr. hresso, hrugnumi, to 
lireuk; hregmin, hregniis, breakers, the 'reek' of the sea. * Epi hregmlni thalasses.' 
11., I., 37. Russ. berege, tlte shore; Eng. breakers; Goth, rikwizjan, to Income 
dark. ' Why it rain'd and it reekt, barn, ye nivrer saw sike weather.' B. Bailey, 
in Grainpe's I list, of Nidderdale, p. 224. 
REET, right; A. S. Reht, riht, riyld. 

REWL, rule; A.S. Rewl, e.g. * Ancren Riwl.' The 'g' in Txi/. regula 
must have been pronounced as *y.' 

RID, to clear; A.S. Riddan, O. N. rydja, Dan. rydde, A.S. hreddan, 
to rid; Scot, red or redde (Clear.'). On Saturday night ' all's ridded up.' 

RIDDING-, (i clearinij; O. .V. Kjodhr, a clearing, open space in a forest 
(Cleas.). Sec RcDDiNO, ROVD. 

RIDDING or RHYDDING, a for,!; Wei. Rhjd, rhydlo, a ford; 
rhydiad, a forming a ford; rhydiaw, to form a ford. 

RIDDLE-CAKE, a kind t>f oatcake; Gael. Rideal, W. rhidyU; A. S. 
hriddel, a sieve, riddle. 

RIG (1), back; O. N. Hrygrgr, Swed. rygg, Dan. ryg, A. 5. hrycg (from 
the O. N.}, rig; Kuss. kryazhe, O. H. G. hnicki, Ger. riicken, Gr. hrachis. The 
farmers nevt-r speak of a sheep's back, but of his ' rig.' (2.) A ridge, common 
in names of hills; O. N. hryg-gr, Fjall-hryggr, a mountain ridge. 

RIGGERT, a close tup; O. A r . Rifir-g-yrthr, tight-girt, part, of rig-gyrtha, 
to girth tightly, from rigr, ttiffnes*. In n R. the testicles are under the back, 
whence some have supposed ' rig, girt.* 

RILE, disturbance. Hall, has ' RiLB, to disturb, to vex. East. 1 

* Froons arc ruffled temper's shaddas 

I SMI in' fra sum hidden rile.' Ula., in Al., 1080. 

RIFE, to grub up txx/, scrulis, bushes, $c.; A.S. Ripan, to ripe or reap. 
4 When " Turner Carr" was riped a few years ago there were brears, chewps, 
&c.' Colloq. 

ff 
STUDIES IN NIDDKBDALB. Lucas. 



274 BIS SAA. 

RIS'D, raised. ' Ther rent'll be ris'd.' 

HIVE, tear, split; 0. N. Riufa, rifa; 8 wed. rifva; Dan. rive, to rip up. 

ROVEN, torn; O.N. Rofinn, part, of do. ' Roven up to the grain.' 
p. 108. 

KO AT, bray of an ass; Gael. Eaoic, a bellow, roar, the voice of a deer; 
Wei. rhocn, a grunt; hence Fr. ruit, mt;Eny. rut, ' the rutting season'; Swiss, 
r'uden, to bellow; Ger. ranzen, to rut; rauschen, to roar; Bret, ruda, to be on Iteat; 
Gael, raoichd, to bell as a deer, to roar; Wei. rhochain, to grunt like swine; 
rochi, to grunt, to growl; Dut. ruchelen, to bray, grunt. ' Pooer Jerry ' [to his 
donkey] 'to which Jerry replied wi' a roat at wad hev alarmed onnybody bud 
his maister.' AL, 1881). 

ROWANTREE, mountain ask; O.N. Reynir, Swed. rb'n, Dun. riinne, 
Lat. ornus, Goth, runa, O.N. run, a mystery, a written character; ratin, a trial, 
experiment, and reyna, to experience, are all kindred. The original notion is 
scrutiny, mystery (Cleas.). R. so called from being supposed to contain a magic 
power against witches (Carr., Crav. Gloss., and Atk. Cl. Gl.). 

ROOAD, road. 

ROOSE, rush on to ruin; A. S. Hreosan, to rusk, waver, fall; O. A r . hrjosa, 
to shudder; Swed. rysa; Wei. rh.wysaw, to flourish, wanton;rhvfys, adj., vigorous, 
wanton; rhwys, ., vigor, wantonness; rhwy, that runs out, excess. The word is 
therefore from the Wei. in the sentence, ' The rich may romp an roose away.' 
Dla., p. 9. 

ROYD, a clearing in a u-ood; O.N. Rjodhr (see RIDDING, RUDDING). 

RUCKLE, a slack of peats on the moors (p. 119). ' Ruckle, 1 ' little rick.' 
Gael, ruchdan, a little conical rick of hay or corn. ' Ruchd. a conical rick of 
hay or corn' (Armstr.). This is exactly the shape of the ' peat ruckles.' A.S. 
hreac, a rick; O.N. hruga. On the moors as a place name, ' High Ruckles.' 

RUDDING, a clearing; O.N. Rud, a clearing in a ivood; with def. art. 
inn, rudinn, the clearing. Ormerod = ' Orme's clearing 11 (see RIDDING and 
ROYD). ' Rudd' occurs as a place name, and as a man's name. 

RUDDLE, red paint for marking sheep; Wei. Rhuznll, red ocJire or 
ruddle; rhydlyd, rusty; rhwd, rust, rhwdawg, rusty; rhwzeli, a red salve; 0. N. 
ryd, rust; rydga, to become rusty ; Goth, rauds, Dut. rood, Ger. roth, red. 

REW, RUE, to repent; A.S. Hreowan, reowan, to repent, rue; hreowsian, 
reowsian, to be sorry for, to grieve for (Bos.); O. N. nryggja, to be grieved, also 
to grieve; A. S. ( Mid sothre hreowe,' with true penitence. Canons, Eadg., 'Be 
Be tan,' c. 18. 

' And thow hast brent Northomberlond 
Full sore it reweth me.' Otterb., 1. 44. 

'Sair, sair, I rew the deed.' Ld. Barnard, in Gill Morrice, 1. 194. 

RUNG, a round of a ladder; 0. iV. Rong:, same. From rangr, crooked, 
not straight; originally, no doubt, applied to the branch or stumps of brandies 
which formed the steps of the ladder. A ship's rib is called ' rong' or 'ranga.' 

'His owen hand then made he ladders three 

To climben by the ranges and the stalks.' Cant. Tales, v. 3G25. 

RUNNEL, a sike or grip, open drain in a field ;Dan. Dial. Ronnel. 

S. 

SA AH, shall I. 

SAAH, so. 

SAANT, shall not, ' Ah saan't, sa ah noo.' AL, 1880. 



SAA SEE. 275 

SAAIKE, sake. Goth. Sakjo, strife; sakan, to rebuke, strive; A.S. ssec, 
war, (tattle; sacu, a Ian-suit, c., a cause, accounts; ' for his sake,' for his cause, 
tide, -interest. 

SAIM, /an/; A/. <. Sagrimen, sain, sayn,/a<, especially /a/ which the 
monks used (Du Gauge); hence Gael, saira, nc/<; HW. snim, grease; Ital. sairae, 
/ard; O. Fr. ' sain, seam, tlie tallow, fat or grease of a hog.' Cot. Sax. seme. 

SAMMEL, gravel (Westmoreland. J. R. Dakyns). 

SAMMEN, a mass of conglomerated gravel. Some well diggers near Bedale 
told me that they came upon a 'salmon' at 25 feet. Goth, saman; O.N. 
saman, ace. sing, of samr, together; Dan. samxnen, Gr. hania, Lot. simul. 

SABVANT, servant. 

SAT, scaled; O. N. Sat, pret. of sitja, to sit, incorrectly used as a participle. 

SATTAL, ., to settle; sattal'd, settled. 

SATTAL, ., a settle; A. S. Ssetel. 

SC ADDLE, unsteady; O. A r . Skadligr, 'scathely,' * scaddle,' noxious, hurt- 
ful; sksethr, scatheful, noxious; A.S. scsethifr, noxious, criminal. 

SCALE, ., shale, laminated indurated clay; A.S. Scala. As a place 
name, ' Scale Gill,' ' Scale Hill ' near Leathley. S. so called because it 
separates. 

SCALE, ., to scatter molehills; O. N. Skilja, Sn-ed. skilja, to separate. 

SCOOB, icour; Dan. Skure, to scour, Dul. schuren, O. Fr. escurer. 

SCOPPEBDIL, a button mould. * In former years, when farmers dressed 
in drab breeches and gaiters, the scopperdill was covered with the same 
material as the garment. It is made of bone, with a hole in the centre. Boys 
used to fix a piece of stick through the hole and spin it with finger and thumb; 
hence to ' spin like a scopperdill." ' T. Thorpe. O. A', skapdr, skaptr, 
skapid, shaped; part, of skepjn, to shape. Kennett has ' A scoppering or 
scopperell, a little sort of spinning top,' &c. The term occurs in a MS. Diet, 
dated 1 540 (Hall.'). 

SKBAT, to scratch ; Dan. Kratte, kradse, to scratch. 

SCBEEAM, scream. 

SCBOGGS, stumps, low rouyh busliea; Dan. Skrogr, slump; O. A r . skrukka, 
a shell; Gael. sgro<f, a skull cup, hat, a ludicrous term for the head or neck. 
' Scroggrs ' may still be seen on Thrope Kdgc (see p. 1 1 7). A valley in the chalk 
near Basingstoke is called ' Scroggrs.' 

SCUM, a film on water; Dan. Skum, froth or foam. 

SCUMFISH, r., to stifle, suffocate, especially with smoke; A. S. Scymfian, 
to cover; (? from) Gael, cum fodha, to stifle, lit. to hold beneath. Not the ' scumfit' 
of Jam. or the Ital. sconfiggere of Jam. and Brock. 

SEEA, look here. Often used to call attention when addressing a person. 

SEEA, so; A.S. Swee begets ' seea,' as ' swa ' begets * so.' 

SEEAF, safe; Lit. Salvus, Fr. sauf. 

SEAGAB, sugar (Ramsgill); Gael. Siucar, sucar; Wei. sugyr, Dan. 
sukker, Steed, socker, I tut. suiker, Fr. sucre. Ital. zucchero, Lot. saccharum, 
I'em. shakar, Suns, sharkara, Arab, sukker. The Dial, word seems to evidence 
a tendency to pron. like the Gael., though of course of later iutrod. than Gaelic 
times in this locality. 

SEALH, a kind of willow; A.S. Seal, sealh; Gael, seileach. O. N. 
selja, Goth, salh, O.l/.G. salaha, sala; Fr. saule, Lat. salix; Gr. he! ike, in 
Arcadia, the willow from its pliant nature (L. and S.); connected with the root 
of Gr. elisso, eilo, Lai. volvo, Ger. walzen, Eng. willow, Goth, valvjan, O.I1.G. 
wellan the primary meaning being to turn round, twist; A.S, sala, Eng. sallow. 

SEE All, same; Goth. (L'lf.) sama, sasama; ^..V. sama, same, same; Fin- 
nish, sama, same; Sans, stone, like, equal; Gr. hama, Lat. simul (see SAXMKH). 

SEE AN, SEAN, soon ; 0. N. Senn, soon (see SECS). 

d 2 



276 SEA SHI. 

SEAP, soap (Ramsgill); Dut. Zeep, Gael, siabunn, siopunn; Wei. 
Bebon, Ger. seife, Lat. sapo, Hal. sapone, Fr. savon, Bret, soavon, suan. The 
remark under SEAGAR applies to this word. 

SEAVES, rushes; O.N. Sef, Dan. siv. As a place name, 'Fleet 
Seaves ' (see SIEVE, and pp. 27, 28). 

SEEAVE, save; Lat. salvare, Fr. sauver. 

SEESTA, seest thou. 

SEET, sight; A. S. ge-siehd, sight. 

SET, to set peats (see p. 119); A.S. Settan, O.N. setja, Dan. scette, 
Swed. s'atta, Dut. zetten, Goth. (Uff.) satjan, Gr. tithenai; seto, Laconian for 
theto (Aristophanes, Lysistrala, 1080). 

SETTLE, fireside seat with high back; A.S. Setl, gesetl (see p. 25). 

SETJN or SEWN (pron. seoon), soon. A true form [seona] (?) the parent 
of A. S. sona, soon; Goth, suns, immediately; Dut. saen, soon. ' Soon, 1 i.e., the 
aJtout to be, appears to be connected with the root of Goth, sind, A. S. seon, synd, 
are, and Ger. seyn, to be. 

SETTER, SEWER, sure; O.Fr. Sear, later seur, now sur; Prov. segur, 
Span, seguro, Lat. securus. 0. Fr. pron. well preserved. 

SFETTLE, to infect, convey infection. ' You'll sfettle me with your cold. ' 
Colloq. A fanner was said to have been ' sfettled by his own beasts.' Mr. 
Dakyns writes ' SKITTLE,' a common, but less correct, form. Sfettle, to com- 
municate the means of killing, to make ill; O.N. svelta, to kill, to starve; Dan. 
suite, to starve, suffer hunger; Goth. (Ulf.) swiltan, to be put to death, to die; 
A.S. sweltan, O. E. swelte, O. L. G. sveltan, O.H.G. svelzan. For 0. E. 
examples see Stratm. O. E. svelte, by transpos. svetle, whence sfettle; 
Gr. sphatto, Att., pres. for sphazo, / slay, kill; imperf. esphatton. 

SHAFT, handle ; O. N. Skaf t, skapt, lit. that which is shaved, a shaved stick ; 
A.S. sceaft; Dan. skaft, Dut. schacht, Ger. schaft, schacht. In the Laws 
of JElfred, c. 32, 'If they are both equal in length, ord & hindweard sceaft,' 
where ' sceaft' means the part of the cusp of the spear which was fastened on to 
the stem. The circumference of a shaft which the hand would just surround 
became a standard measure with the Saxons, 'ix sceafta munda. 1 L. 
JEthelst., Pt. 2, c. 2. 

SHAK, a hollow in the surface of the ground, left Jifter the falling in of the 
crust in the carboniferous limestone districts, and in the salt bearing 'new red' 
marls near Ripon. The largest is ' The Great Shak,' on Barden Fell. Smaller 
ones are commonly called Shak-holes. They are sometimes caused by old 
workings. 0. N, skakkr, distorted. 

SHAM, shame ; O. N. Skamm, usually skdmm, Ger. skammar, shame. 

SHAMFUL, ' It's fair shamful, and can't be stoodened any longer.' 
Colloq. 

SHANK, handle ; Dan. Skank, A . S. sceauca, scanca ; sceonca, sconca. 
Dut. and Ger. schenkel. ' Gif tha earm scancan (arm bones) be both broken.' 
' Gif se scanca (leg bone) be stabbed below the knee.' L. Alfred, c. 40. 

SHAF, s/utpe; O. N. Skap, shape; A . S. gesceap. 

SHAW, a boggy place on the moors frequently has the name 'Shaw' (see 
p. 107; also my Papers on the 'Vestiges of the Ancient Forest on part of the 
Pennine Chain,' 'Iransac. of Brit. Asioc. (York Meeting), 1881; and Trans. 
Geol. and Polytechnic Soc. of West Ridinyof Yorkshire, 1881) where I have shown 
there were formerly trees. O.N. Skogrr, Swed. skog, Dan. skov, a wood; A.S. 
sc(ia (shower), O.N. skuggi, Dut. schawe, shade, shelter; Gr. skeue, Lat. scutum 
(Cur., Sk.). 

SHE'Y, she; A.S. Se6, site; see SHOO. ' She'y ' written by Bla. (Greenhow). 

SHIPN, cowshed, stable, small barn; Wei. Yspuboran, a small barn. See 
pp. 106-107 for A. S. forms, scipen, &c. 'To neate scypene.' Bede, IV., 24. 



SHI SIP. 277 

SHIVE, ., a slice; O. A r . Skifa, a thaving, dice; Ger. schcibe. 

SHIVE, v., to dice, laminate; O. N. skifa, to dice. 'The stone . . . 
shives off with frost. 1 Collix/., p. 17. 

SHIVER, shale (Lancashire, Dakyns, MS.). 

SHOO, she; A. S. Se6 (pron. shoo), near the Dale Head (see SHB'T). 

SHOON, slwes; A.S. Sceon, Scon (;//. of sceu, sc6), shoes. 

SHOOK, shower; A .S. See or ; A. S. scur gives sltower. 

SHOOT, shout; Shootid, shouted. 

SHU, she; see SHOO. 

SHUN, shoes(see SHOOK). 

SHOWX., shovel; Wei. Ysgubell, a broom; ysgub, a sJicaf, broom; A. S. 
sceoH. scofl, scobl, <t shovel; scof, ditst; 6V. skapt5 (Cur., Sic.). 

SIDE, to move aside; O. N. Sida, to side. ' I'se gittun all sided tip,' e.g., 
on Saturday night. Near Dale Head. 

SIDEB, longer; O. N. coinpar. of sid, late; SidtLTT, longer, later; sidr,/c; 
A.S. sidor, lowfer, later, compar. of sid, late. 

SIEVE, a 'rush; O. N. Sef, Dan. sir, A. S. sife, syfe (see SKATE); 0. //. G. 
sib; A. S. sibi, a sieve, because made of rushes (see SILE, SINE). S. so called 
because they grow in wet places (sec SIPE, SOFT). 

SIKE, a small stream or gutter, an open field drain ; O. A r . Sik, a ditch ; A. S. 
sich, sic, a ytUter, watercourse (Somn.). A word especially used on upland 
pastures and moors (see pp. HI and 104). 

SIKE, such; A. S. Swylic, contr. from swi, lie, or ilic, so like, such; swilc, 
swylc, contr. ' such' is contr. from swa, ilc, ylc or ilic. 

SILE, SAHL, a., a sieve; Gael. Siolachan, whence O. N. Bald, Dan. 
sie, sold (6V. ikmas, Cur. SL); (see p. 28). 

SILE,SAHIi,.,<os/rain;6W. sioladh, O.N. salda, Sued, sila, PI. D. silen. 

SINE, v., to strain; A.S. Sihan, seon, to strain; sile. ' Sine,' contr. from 
sifan or sivan, as ' sen ' from ' seven,' ' aboon ' from ' abufon,' &c. O. N. 
Bia, for 'siva' or 'sifa' ; Gr. Ikmas (Cur. Sk.), (tee SIPE); O.H.G. sihan, 
O. Dut. sijghen, O. E. sihen (Stratm.), (see p. 28). 

SINE, n., a sieve; 0. N. sia, O. Dut. sijghe, O. H. G. siha (Prompt., 79). 

SIN, since; A. S. Siththan, s^than, syththan, sjththon, seothan, seothon; 
O. N. sithan, Dun. siden. ' Thonne siththan.' L. Allh., 52, and in the 
beautiful verses Sax. Chron , A.D. 938 : 



' Siththan castan hither 
Engle and Saxe 
Up becomon 
Over brymum brad.* 

' Syththan sunne up 
On morgen tid.' 



' Sin from the east hither 
Engle and S-ixon 
Up came 
Over the broad sea.' 

1 After sunrise 
In early morn.' 



N.B. ' Sunne up ' opposed to 'sundown,' still in use. 

' And syne my logeyng I have take.' Olterb., ver. 39 (fought 1388). 

Sen God he sendis bute for bide.' Robin and Makine, 1. 37 (about 1">71). 

1 B.urne sin thy cruel father is ganc.' Lady Anne Bc-thicelCn Lament, 1. 36. 
In Nidd. common as 'some time sin.' Fabian, 1493, uses the uncontracted 
fonus. And sethen that tima.' Chroit.,c. 134, and again, ' Bcnct, that was 
in good favour with King Os wy, went sythes to Home.' c. 134. 

SINQLET, a 'jersey.' Opposed to ' doublet,' or ' guernsey. ' A flannel 
worn next the skin. 

SIFE, to drip; PI. D. Sipen, Dut. zipen (Atk., Of. 6V.); Dan. sive, to drip, 
to give out drop by drop; but Wei. sipian and A.S. sipan, to take in drop by 
drop (see SINE). 



278 



SKE SLO. 



SKEEL, a milk pail or can; O. N. Skjola, a pail (see p. 31). Formerly a 
shallow wooden pan, with one of the staves left longer than the rest (the 
'Beild.') Now any milk pail. 

SKIFT, shift, O.N. Skipta, Dan. skifte, ^4.6'. scyftan, to shift. At 
Lodge, a farmer from Melmerby, Coverdale, remarked, ' They'll happen have got 
skifted to-day' (1871). 

SKK.IKE, ., to shriek; O.N. Skrikja, Dan. skrige, Russ. krechate, za- 
krechate (see p. 137). 

SKRIKE, n., a shriek; Wei. Ysgrre9, a shriek; (2.) Name of a bird. 

SLACK, a hollow boggy place; Wei. Llaca, mire (see p. 70); O.N. slakki, 
'Dan. slag, hollou-s of some length and breadth in a road or track' (in Atk. Cl. Gl.). 
'cp. Dan. slank, Get: schlank.' Cleas. As a place name, ' Foulcauseway Slack,' 
near the Bolton end of the B. and Harrogate Road. 

SLANG-, slung; A. S. Slingan, to sling. 'An thar we lang switchers we 
slang: taty crabs,' And there with long swishes (bendable sticks) we slang: 
potato tops. Bla., p. 38. 

SLAPE, slippery, thin, weak; O.N. Sleipr, slippery. When the 'hippings' 
are wet with rain they are said to be ' slape,' i.e., slippery, but weak tea and I/tin 
' hasty-puddiug' are also said to be slape. 

SLATE, flagstone. ' Slate' means flat. Goth. Slahits, O. N. slettr, Dan. 
Blet,flat; Gael, sgleat, sgliat, a slate, is, no doubt, a borrowed name. Shale is 
also called slate, e.g. ' Blue slate.' 

SLECK, to slake, quench; O.N. slokva, slecthi, slecqua ; Dan. slukke, 
to slake; Swed. sliicka, Dut. lesschen, Eng. lush. ' Hann slcektti thar nu thorsta 
sinn.' Barlaams Saga, 198, Cleas. 

SLED, a sledge; Gael. Siadd, Wei. ysled, O. N. sledi, Dan. sloede, Dut. 
sledde, sledde; Ger. schlitten, whence Hal. sliscio, Rms. salazkhe, a sledge; Gael. 
slaod, O.N. slzeda, slosda; Ger. schlittern, Ital. slisciare, to drag, to sled, perhaps 
the original of to 'lead' peats, &c., in Nidd. There are four kinds of sled in 
Nidd., of which one, sketched on Witton Fell, is shown below. 

'He smote the sledded Polack on the ice.' Hamlet, Act I., sc. 1. 




SLEET, aflat meadow or moor. O.N. slettr, a plain; Dan. slette, level 
field; Goth. slahits (- /?a<; (see p. 91, also SLATE). Allied to 'slide' and 'sled.' 
SLITTER, adj., careless, slippery; A. S. slidor or slithor, slippery. 

' And to a drunken man the way is slider.' Cant. Tales, v. 126G. 

SLITTER, ., to slip through; A.S. Slitherian, to slip out. 'Ah didn't 
carr hoo ah did it, nobbut ah gat slittered through it.' Colloq. 

SLOP, a loose garment ; Gael. Slapar, a skirl ; O. N. sloppr, A . S. slop, a 
gown, loose garment; Ger. schleppe; akin to Dan. sloebe, train, trail; O.N. slapa, 
Dan. sloebe, to hang loose. ' Blue lin slop.' Bla., p. 18. 

SLOTT-BAR, a moveable bar sliding horizontally on the Branderi (see 
p. 18, and Fig. 2, p. 19). 

SLOTJNQEINQ. ' If thee desn't gie ower, ah'll gie thee a sloungeing 
bat,' a heavy How. O.N, Slaungr, pret. of slb'ngva, slyngva slengja, to sling; 
part, slunginn. 



SLY STE. 279 

SLY, to act slily; O.N. Slsegja, to cheat, act on the sly. Of a girl, 'An 
slyed oot In meet him. 1 lila., p. 18. 

SMEAK, smoke; A. S. Smeuc, smoke; sine oca n, to smoke. 

SMEAKIN, smoking; A. 6". Smeocend, smoking. 

SMELLER, a heavy or sharp blow; O.N. Smellr, a smack. 'Ahll gie 
thee a smeller.' O. N. smella, Swetl. smalla, Dan. smoeldc, to crack a whip. 

SMOWL, smile. ' Billy smowled an sed, " Thoo oadc madlin.'" Al., 1 880. 

SMOWLIN, smiling. ' Ahve seen yer smowlin leaks at van another.' Ib. 

SOFT, u-ft, rainy, especially nfine, wet, u-arm rain. From the climate, the 
salutation, "Tis soft,' is heard more frequently than any other. A.S. Soft, 
seft, connected with SIPE, to <lrip,t].v.; also SIEVE. 

SOOND, sound; Dan., Swed. and Get: Sund. 

SPEEB, to ask; O. N. Spyrja, Dan. sporgre, A. S. spirian, spyrian, to 
ask. 'Thonne mot man smeagan and geornlice spirian,' then should one enquire 
and diligently ask. Lib. Constit. JEthelred, lie Cyric Gritltc. 'And laga 
smeagan and spyrian oft,' and search the laws and consult them oft. L*. Cnute, 
(1017-35), c. 21. 

' And bid hir cum to Gill Morice 

Speir nae bauld baron's leave.' G. M., \. 38. 

SPELL, a piece, splinter of wood; O. N. Spolr, a lit, short piece oftccol, or 
of anything; spjall, spell, a flaw; Swed. Dial, spjale, strips of wood, latlis; 
Dan. spile. 

SPYRTLE, aflat stick for stirring porridge. ' Gull-spyrtlc.' A. S. Sprytle, 
a stick, a sprout; spyrtan, to sprout; sprote, a sprout; spyrta, spirta, spyrd, u 
banket, from being made of sprouts of willow, hazel, &c. 

SQUAB, the settle. Originally a stuffed cushion, from which the name 
passed to the seat (see SETTLE, also p. 25). 

SQUIRT, to dart quickly. 'An lile bonny askerds wad squirt amang 
t' ling.' Ma., p. 38. 

STAG, a colt; O. N. Stegrgr, a mounter (tee p. 32). 

STAK, stuck; O. A r . Stakk, pret. of stinga, to stick. 

STAN, stone. In the name ' Stangate,' in How Stean Basin. 'Rubbin 
starts.' lila , p. 7. Stane, O. N. steinn, is not used here. 

STANG, a pole, post, stick; O. N. Stongr, gen. stangar, p[. stanglr ; Dan. 
starts:, f.'er. stange, A. S. steng, Wei. ystang, Gael, stanf?, a peg, pin (seep. 90). 

STARE, stronij; O.N. Sterkr, Dm. stoerk; Stcxl. stark, A. S. stearc; dr. 
ster, steriktos, stark; sterizo, to stand fast; stcar, ster, sli/?'f>it; O. A'. st6rr,%; 
coinpat: staeri or staarri, s/wr. staerstr; 6V. uteiros, hard, barren; stein, u 
barren cow, (? a steer); A. S. steor, a st.-er; hit. stcrilU, sterile. 

STARVE, to shrivel with cold only; A. -V. Steorfan, stearflan. ' Starved ' 
in the ord. sense is given by ' hungered.' Starved meant an effect of cold first, 
as a. phrase given in Dos. specifies ' steerf of hungor.' 

ST AWL, falter, fail, give in; O. N. Stallra, to halt, falter; staulask, to 
icalk infirmly. ' Hjarfci drepr stall,' the heart fails (Cleas.). ' Ah's fairly 
beginnin to stawl.' lila., p. 25. Cle.isby says, * Metaphorically from stallr, the 
step of a mast.'' 

STEAD, stood. 

STEAN, STEEAN, stone; A.S. Stsan (see STAN). Goth, stains, 6V. stion, 
stia, HjieMe (Cur. 225, Sk.)\ Later Gr. steion, steia (L. and S); Per*, sang. 

STED, place; e.q. ' Doorsted.' 

STEE, a ladder; O. N. Sti, stigi, a step, steep ascent, ladder; Dan. Stiffe, 
ladder; sti, path (whence 'Sty Head Pass'); stige, to climb; A.S. stigan, 6V. 
steicho, Sans, stigh, tocJindi; O. II. G. steg:i, an ascending (Cur. 177), (nee ST.\O). 
In place names Braisty= Brae-sty, Cattcnty (in Cleveland), and perhaps 
Swinsty, Washburndale. 

STUDIIS in NIDDBRDALE. Lucas. 



280 STE STO. 

STEE-STOWER, ladder-stalk (see STOWER). 
STE AL, stool; A.S, steal, steall, stsel, a seat. 

STINT, to limit; O. N.. Stytta, to tlwrten. Those who have experienced 
the good-natured hospitality of some remote farmhouse will have heard the 
frequent injunction, ' Don't stint yersel,' and doubtless responded thereto in true 
English fashion. The word as used in the Ballads is A. 8. stintan, to be, weak, 
faint. Thus : 

* He never styntyde ne never blane 
Till he came to the good Lord Perse.' 

Anc. Chevy Chase, Fit. 2, 1. 69. 

' I wys he neither stint ne Llanne 

Till he his ladye see. 1 Sir Cauline, I. 151. 

Commons, i.e. moors, here, as elsewhere, are stinted and unstinted, on which 
the commoners can turn out a limited or an unlimited number of sheep (set pp. 9 
and Co). 

STIRK, a year old calf; A.S. styrc, stirc, stiorc, a slirk; sterc, stearc, strong, 
stark (fee also STARK, STRONG and SXOWER). A stirk is either a ' stott-stirk ' 
or a 'heifer- stirk. 1 

STOCK, cattle. On a farm, ' We keep the gate shut lest the stock should 
get through. 1 

STOOP, a post, e.g., ' Yek yet stoop, 1 oak (jate-post. ' Long stoop, 1 tall 
stone way -post (see p. 98). 

STOOR, dust, disturbance; Wei. Ystwr, O. N. styrr, Dan. stoi, stir, 
tumult, brawl, fyht, tear; stor, dust; Gael, strigh, stir. 'Ah raised sike a stoor, 1 
made such a noise. Ula., p. 66. ' It' ther owners had seen us thar'd been a nice 
stoor. II., p. 3!i. Obsolete in the sense of jiyht, as in the Ballads 

' And Estmere he and Adlcr yonge 

Right stiffe in stour can stand. 1 King Estmere, 1. 272. 

Connected with next word. 

STORM, SHOW. 'Summat ta burn again a storm of aythcr frost or snow. 
AL, IfittO. 

STORMY, snowy, 'like snow.'' The sense is remr.rkablc. The salutation, 
' Tis stormy, 1 is a greeting only heard in reference to snow. ' Tis rurt 1 (rough), 
being applied to wind. ' ''Tis wild, 1 to wind, ivind and rain, c. If a man says, 
there will lie ' a storm afore neet, 1 he means there will be a fall of snoir. But 
it is only near the Dale Head and up on the plateaux that folk are so correct. In 
the corrupt dialect of Patelcy Bridge, no doubt, the word may frequently be heard 
in its general sense. To my mind this word affords the key to the solution of the 
problem so ably and beautifully handled by Prof. Max Muller (Lcct. on Science 
(>/' Lawjuaijc, X I., v. 2, p. 506 et set].), as to the meaning of Sarama, and clinches 
the argument of Prof. Kuhn, ' who was the first to analyse the meaning and 
character of Sarama [and who] arrived at the conclusion that Sarama meant 
storm, and that the Sanscrit word was identical witli the Teutonic storm and 
with the Greek harme." 1 If the proper and original meaning of storm was 
frost and snow, and storm be ctymologically identic.il with Sarama (as Eny. 
' stone 1 ; I'crs. * sang 1 ), then the query of the learned Professor, ' But admitting 
that Sarama meant originally the runner, how does it follow that the runner was 
meant fur storm P 1 is intelligibly answered, in the appearance of snow driven 
befoic the northern blast. If Sarama, the storm, meant frost and snow in 
countries lying to the north of India, we can understand why Sarama, 'discovered 

the cleft of the rock,' and how she 'crossed the waters of 

the Para,' and why the Panis say ' Thou art come in vain to this bright place,' 
.as well as why they ask Sarama about Indra (Jupiter 1'litvius) (10b*th Hymn of 
the last book of the Rigveda, pp. 50!)-U, Max Miillcr's Led.). Sarama is 



STO STB. 281 

called ' the dog of the gods,' and said to have been ' sent by Indra,' in an Indian 
Commentary cited by M. Muller (p. 510), ' to look for the cows,' who ' were 
carried off by the Panis from the world of the gods and thrown into darkness'' 
ergo, towards the north, the land of frost and snow. Sarama, the Dog of Indra, 
was mother of the Sarameyau, the two four-eyed brindled watch dogs of Yama 
(conjectured by some to have been originally Indra and Agni (_/ire),and Sarameya 
to be the Greek Hermeias). Sarama is made to mean the 'dawn' by Max 
Muller, by others the 'wind,' by Williams the 'runner.' Suns.-Eng. Diet., 1872, 
p. 1092, col. 2, !ind p. 1110, col. 1. We can understand why storm, in the 
sense of 'frost and snow,'' hugs the north, where the storms arc of that character, 
and why it should mean rain and wind in more southern climes. It would be a 
curious point, if the sense of storm, preserved on part of the Pennine Chain, 
should be found by any other evidence to bear out lluhn in his identification of 
storm and Sarama, and that Sarama dates back to a northern 'land of dark- 
ness,' and first meant 'frost and snow.' I have deemed it my duty thus, with 
much diffidence, to draw attention to the issue arising upon this word storm. 
Steed., Dan. and Ditt. storm, Dan. stormvind, tint, stonnwind, Ger. Sturm, 
sturm wind, Russ. shchtorme, HW. ystorm, Gael, stoirm, A.S. storm, steorm, 
stearm, which looks like a locative storum, ' in the stoor' (.is they say 'stoor 
and drive') i.e., 'in the stir.' A.S. stirian, styrian, to stir, &c. (see ' STOOR'). 
Jamieson has ' STORM, snow, Aberd. This use of the term is pretty general in 
3 1 Gotland], 

STOTT, a lull-calf; A. S. Stotte; Dan. stud, aw or. Lye has A. S. stotte 
in one passage only, where he renders it by eijttns vilis as a contemptuous term for 
a hone, like /eel. stoti, a nickname occurring in Landnamabok; O. N. stod, a 
stud (of horses). 

STOTT-STIRK, year old bull calf. 

HEIFER-STIRK, a year old coiv-culf. 

STOYT. 'They pointed an said, " What a girt stoyt is he."' Bla., p. 
36; of a little boy. O. N. staut, a stuttering in reading; staut-faerr, able to read 
a little. 

STOWER, tlte stalk of a ladder, a stake, paling; O.N. staurr; Gr. stauros, 
a stake, paling; Sans. stararas,^rin; Lot. in-stauro, to erect; Goth, stiurjan, to fix; 
Dut. sturen; Ger. steuern, to steer (see STEE-STOWKR). 

STRAIT, narrow; Hal. stretto, O. Fr. estroit, Mod. Fr. etroit, from Lot. 
strict us. 

STRANQ, strong; A.S. Strung:, O. W. strangr, Sured. itrang, Dan. and 
Ger. strenz, string, O. H. G. strang, Lat. stringo, Gr. stranpo, strangeno (Cur., 
577). ' Tham strang-an and tham unmagan,' the strong and the weak. Canons, 
temp. Eadgar, De Confessione, 3. 

STRANGER, stronger. 

STREET, straight. 

STREEAN, strain; O. Fr. Estraindre, estreindre; Mod. Fr. etreindre, 
to bind, tie up; Lat. stringere, to hurt, injure. 

STRTJKE struck; O.N. Struku, pret. (plural) of strjuka, to strike; Dan. 
stryge. 'A way she stroke off at full trot.' /#./..]>. 14. /eel. 'Hestrinn strauk 
fra mer,' the horse ran away from me. Strok-hestr, a runaway horse (Cleat.). 

STREIOHT, straight ; A.S. Qestreht, part, of streccan, to ttrddi. 'And 
straight came out.' St. George for Engd., Grubb. 16, 1. 59. O. Dut. strack, 
A.S. strac, strac, straiglit; O.Dut. s tracks; Dan. strax (Eny. straightway s), 
immediately. 

STREIGHTEN, to straighten; A. S. Stregdan, stredan, to spread, iftvw; 
strocgan, same; streccan, to stretch, make straight. 

* Cum don on thi' bonnet an' shawl, 

An' streighten thi' cap an' thi' hair.' Dla., p. 24. 

j n 

STUDIES IK NIDDKRDALE. Lucas. 



282 STR SWA. 

STRETCH, to exercise ; A. S. Streccan, to stretch over. 
' Capered and stretched up an doon.' Dla., p. 36. 

STROTH, in Langstrothdale = Lang strath Dale, and in Colsferdale = Coal, 
strath Dale. Gael. Strath (Scot, and Cornwall); lr. srath, a valley, moun- 
tain valley, $c.; Wei. ystrad, which latter is, in Eng. place names, common, e.g., 
Stroud. Strood, Stroud Green, Hornsey, Middlesex, and near Croydon, Surrey, 
&c. (see also p. 1, note). 

STUDY (pron. stoody), to think, ponder, think out ; Lot. Studeo, to apply the 
mind to; 0. Fr. Estudier, Mod.Fr. etudier. Always used in the sense of think. 
The response to an enquiry may often be, 'Let me stoody '= let me think. 
' He's varra mitch gean [gi'en] ta studdin. What he thinks aboot ah nivver 
can tell/ AL, 1880. liuss. chydo (prnn. Chooda, Riola), wonder. 

STUFFLE, stew, fume, 'bade Snarle gat inta a reg'lar stuffle. ' Gael. 
stuadh, a wave; stuadhmhor, stormy, proud; or sturt, stuirt, sulkiness, pride; 
sturtail, sulky, sullen, proud. As stubh = stuff", and stuth = stuff, so stuadh or sturtail 
= stuffle. 

SUD, should; A. S. Sceolde, imperf. potent, and/lit. part, of scealan, ought, 
shall. 

SUER, fure (see SEDER). 

SUN SIDE, Me' south, towards the south; Norweg. solsiden, same sense. 
Used by the miners of Greenhow. 

SUP (pron. soop, like ' cook '), to drink; O. N. Supa, A . S. supan, suppan ; 
Dan. sobe, to sup drink, cf. Soup and Supper. 

SUTE, suit; O. Fr. Siute, sieute, seute; Mod. Fr. suite. 

' He had a sute of silk 

About his middle drawn.' Boy and Mantle, 1. 9. 

' Cooarderoy sute.' Dla., p. 3.5. 

SWANG-, 'a fresh piece of green swarth lying in a bottom among arable or 
barren land, a dool/ Grose. In place names freq., e.y., ' Brown Beck Swangrs,' 
Colsterdale. O. <V. Svungr, a hollow, the belly. Swang-s are hollow places in 
high ground, or on plateaux. 

SWAPE, a crane over the kitclicn fire; O. A 7 . Sveipr, an oar; A. S. sweep, 
swope, swiopa, suiop, a whip; None, svobe, a whip. .Swape, lit. the sweep or 
sweeper; thus ' the handle of a pump' is so called in Norfolk; 'a long pole used 
in drawing water out of a well,' in the North (drose) ; ' an oar,' on the Tyne 
(see p. 19). Wei. ysgub, Gael, sguab, broom. Connected with next word. 

SWAP, v., to exchange, barter; originally, t<> exchange blows, confirming 
Grimm's explanation of COWP, q.v. A. S. Swapan, to sweep round, to swap; 
Goth, sweipan, to swipe, sweep; Gael, sguab, to sweep; Wei. ysgubaw, to sweep. 
' Swapte,' ' swapped,' in the Ballads; A . S. sweep, swept, p. of swapan. 

' At last the Douglas and the Perse met, 

Lyk to Captayns of myght and mayne; 
The' swapte together till the both swat 

With swordes that wear of fyn niyllan.' 

Anc.' Chevy Chase, F. 2, 25-28. 

4 They swapped together whyll that they swette 

Wyth swordes scharp and long.' Otlerb., F. 2,1 101. 

' And to the wits of Glanctis away stole Jove Divine; 
Who with Tydidcs Diomede made swap and barter fine.' 

C. Merivale, Iliad, 18G9, VI., 235. 

SWARBLE, to swarm, i.e. to climb up a pole or a tree by the legs and arms; 



SWA TEE. 283 

Rust. vzberat'sya, to climb, comes nearest pres. word, but swarble = swarmble 
^scramble; Dut. grabbelen, Fr. grimper, agripper, to scramble; Dut. grabbel, Ger. 
krabbel, a tcramble. 

' To swarble up t' trees an late birds' nests t' day lang.' Bla^ p. 38. 

SWAT, si)uat,flat. * Till ah fell we'y me'y noddle full swat ageean t' 
yoon.' Bla., p. 34. Wd. yswacL, a titrowing down, a fulling flatly; ystwatiad, 
a squatting down; yswatiaw, to squat, lie flat. As to line 26 in Anc. Chevy 

' The swapte together till the both swat,' 

that might mean till they both/eW down or sicealed. 

SWATH prop. SWARTH, to convert arable intot/rass 'and, a verb formed 
from the noun; O. A r . svorthr, Steed, sward, Dan. gron-swoerd, Ger. schwarte; 
Dut. zwoord, skin of bacon; groene z6de, greensicard. Sward originally meant 
the skin, hiilc. 

SWEEL, to gutter, uxisle, of a candle; Wei. Ysweiliaw, to waste, consume; 
A. S. swdan, to burn. Connected with next word. 

SWELTED, overpowered with heat; (1) O.N. svelta, Goth. (Ulf.) swlltan, 
A. S. sweltan, to die; O. E. swelte (see SFETTLE), O. L. G. sveltan, O. H. G. 
svelzan (Strutm.); suilizon, to perish by heat; M.//.G. swiltan, to die (Atk. 
Cl. Gl.); (2) O.N. svelta, causal to preceding, to put to death (Cleat.); O. E. 
swelten. For O. K. instances see Stratmann. ' Ah's fair swelted. 1 Collog., 
after a walk on a hot day. 

SWITCHER, * a slender stick something like the shape of a whipstock,' a 

'" 'An thar we'y lang switchers we slang taty crabs.' Ola. 

T. 

Grimm V.(Eng.) Goth.T; Lith., O.Slav^ O.fr., Lot., Gr., Sans.,D; O.II.G. Z. 

T', the; A.S. Te, the. ' Thaet te ryht awe,' that t' right laws. I*e, 
A.D. 688. ' Thaet te naenig ealdormanna,' that no alderman. First appears in 
the i&ix. CJiron. after A.D. 1 1 38 contr. for 'the,' which also appears iu the Citron. 
same date, contr. for theo for se6, heo, for se, se6, thaet, he, she, it. 

TA, to. * Ah thowt he're [he war = was] gine ta dee.' Dla., p. 16. 

TA, thou', Lot., whence Fr., Gael, and A.S. Tu. In O. N., after verbs, tu, 
as skal-tu, niun-tu, vil-tu; A. S. wilt-tu. ' Wil-ta gan wi' me.' Bla., p. 15. 
JKuss. tei ({iron, ty or tra) (see THOO). 

TAIS TRILL. In Urock. taistrel, testril; in Atk. tastrill; in Leeds Gloss. 
tarestrill, a mischievous, ill-behaved boy. Gael, (from taisdeal, a journey) tais- 
dealach, taisdealaiche, a saunterer, lounger. 

TAK, take; O. N. Taka, to take. 

TAK QTX,' take on? griete,tolamnt,be low-spirited. 'Dooan'ttak on like that' 

TATY, potato. 

TATY CRABS, potato tops. Bla., p. 38. 

TAV, to. ' It's been proved tav a gert fact' 

TAINE, the one (see TKEAH). ' What taine did tother did.' Al., 1880. 

TEE A. TEEAN, the one; A. S. Te can. Correctly used in the verse 
* Tone day to marry King Adland's daughter 

Tother day to carrye her home.' A". Estmere, 1. 109. 
But reduplicated in the following 

' Therfor the ton of us shall de this day.' Anc. Chery Cliase, L 72. 
' The tone of us tchall dye.' Otterb., F. 1, 1. 48; F. 2, L 8. 
Or, perhaps, ' the tone' is ' thaet one,' with the ' t ' misplaced. 



284 TEE THI. 

TEEA,i!o; Wei. Tua. 

TEE ABLE, table; Fr. Table, Lat. tabula, Gael, taibhle (from the Eng.). 

TEE ALE, tale; A.S. Teale, tealde, told; taallan, to tell; O.N. tal, talk; 
tala, a tale; tala, to talk; Swed. tala, Dan. tale, io feW; Dut. taal, speech, fyc.; Ger. 
erziilung, a tale. 

TEEAP (Ramsgill), tup, ram; 0. Fr. Toup, a ram, from L.Ger. topp (Bra.). 
Generally pron. ' toop,' like ' cook' or ' book' (short). 

TEEASTY, tasty, agreeably flavoured. O. Fr. Taster, to feel ; Ital. 
tastare. Lat. taxitare (frequentative of tastare), to touch frequently. 

TEEM, to pour; A. S. Teeamian, to produce in abundance. In Nidder. to 
rain heavily, to empty a cart. 

TELLED, told. 'Noo, ah tolled ye nut ta due it.' A. &'. tealde. 

TEMSE, a hair sieve; Dut. Terns, "Dan. Dial., N. Fris. terns, Steed. Dial. 
tamms, Mid. Lat. tamisium. It. tamiso, tamigio; O. Fr. tamis, which gives Eng. 
tammy (see p. 15). 

TENGS, tongs; Swed. Tang; O.N. tong, taung, tongs; tengja, to tie or 
fasten together ; Dan. tang, Dut. tanghe, A.S. tange; Ger. zange, tonys (see p. 25). 

TENG-, to sting; Gael. Teum, to bite, sting; teumta, bitten, which is no 
doubt the betwenged which forms the subject .of a note on p. 4, and which in 
this Gloss. I was tempted to connect with the erroneous notion of witchcraft 
entertained by my informant, for want of a better explanation. I heard be- 
twenged at Lofthouse and Middlesmoor applied to cattle suffering from a 
disease. 

TENT, shoiv, teach; A.S. Teon, to tug, pull, lead, educate. 'And to 
craftan teon,' and induce them to learn a craft. Canons, Eadg., 51. 'Ah'll 
tent thee,' I'll teach thee. 

TEW, to; Wei. Tua. 

TEWK, took. 

1EWFIT, peewit; Prov. Dan. Tyvit, from the bird's note. 

TEWT, to it. 

THACK, n., thatch; O. N. Thak, A. S. thaec, Dan. tcekke, Steed, halm-tak, 
O. // G. dakyu ; Ger. dach, thatch ; Lat. tectum ; 6V. stegos, tegos, a roof. 

THACK, v. To thatch; O.N. thekja, A. S. theccan, Dan. toekke, to 
tltatch; Lat. tegere, Gr. stego, Ger. decken, Dan. doekke, Sans, sthagami, to 
cover (Cur. 155). ' Ye'll see a oade thakt buildin i t' loanside.' 

THAB, THARR, there; O.N. Thar, A.S. thar, Goth. (U/f.) thar, 
O. If. G. darot, Ger. dort, Dut. daar, Dan. and Swed. der. 

THARF, adj., slow, unwilling, afraid; Goth, thaurfts, O. N. Thb'rf, A.S. 
thearf, need, poverty; thearfa,poor; Goth. (Ulf.) thaurfts, needy, poor. A 
man acts unwillingly because he is obliged to; slowly because he is unwilling; 
reluctantly he makes a journey on foot by night in fear from necessity. A very 
common word in the A. S. Laws. ' Gif he thurf,' if there is need. Ine, 54. 
' Ne thearf,' no need. Mlf., Introd., Exod. xxii. 2. ' Ne thearf ic N. sceatt 
ne scyllig,' 1 do not oive N. a ' scot ' or a shilling. jEtftelst., pt. 2, c. 21. 

THEE, thou, you. 'Thee read it.' Dan. De. 

THEE, THE'Y, thy. 

THEEASE, those; O.N. Thessir, thessar, thessi (masc.,fem. and neut. 
plu. of thessi), these; Dan. disse. ' Those' is A.S. this, nom. and ace. plu. of 
thes, for which reasons ' these' for * those' prevails in N.E. and Scotland. 

THENK, thank; A.S. Thsenc. 

THERSENS, t/iemselves. 

T'THICK END, the greater part. ' T'thick end of hofc an hoor.' 
J3la.,p. 15. 

THINK-ON, remember; A.S. Thincan, pethenceaii, to think. 'Ah'll 
try and think-on,' really is, ' Ah'll try and thincan,' remember. ' On thisum 
anum d6me man inaeg gethencean.' L. JElf, Introd. ' Utan gethencan hu 



THI THY. 285 

Jacob,' &c. L. AStheht., Introd. 'We moton eac thencan,' we mun eke 
think-on. II. See also my History of the Gypsies, Kutherfurd, Kelso, 1880, 
for ;i play upon this word and Zingano. 

THIRR, tftcse; O. A'. Their, they, them. 

THOO, thou; O.N. Thu. ' Thoo knaws,' thou knows. 'Thou' is Goth. 
and A. S. thu, G'er., Dan. and Swed. du; Lut. and Gr. tu; whence I regard the 
forms ' la, 1 " ' tu,' as in reality Lot. For Lat. ' t 1 we expect Goth. ' th,' by Grimm's 
law, and for 'tu' find Goth. ' thu.' 

THOWT, thought ;A.S. Thuhte, p. of thincan. Thane Halgan Gaste waes 
gethuht.' L. Mlf., Int. from Acts xv., 28. * Me rihtest thuhton,' seemed 
most just to me. / b. ' Thonne thuhte us aerest most thearf,' then it seemed to 
us first most needful. 1 L. Edmund, c. 6. 

THRANQ, busy; O. N. Thrimgr, thraungr, thrangr, close, tight; 0. Steed. 
thranger, Dan. trang, Siced. trang, A. S. thrangr, pressed, p. of thringan, to press, 
crowd, throng. ' If ta be thrangr we'll be back in an hoor.' Bla., p. 17. Goth. 
threihan, to throng; O. E. thring, Ger. drangen, Dut. dringen. 

THRAW, throw; A.S. Thru wan, to throw. 'Sat thrawin t 'shuttle 
weavin.' Goth, thragjan, to run, A.S. thraegian; cf. A.S. thrah, a space of time, 
a season; O.Eng. throw. 

THREAP, to argue; A. S. Threapian, to threap, reprove; threapungr, a 
threaping, chiding, <c. (Bos.), but ? other meanings; Gael, dearbh, to prove, try, 
certify, attest, put to the test, cjc.; O. N. thrap, thrapt, a quarrel, which seems to be 
connected with threp, a ledge, u footing, formed by a projecting stone in a wall, 
whence a logical basis, an argument; threifh, to touch, feel with the hand ; thrifa, to 
clutch, grip, fake hold of. The Gael, dearbh, to prove ; Wei. darbwyllaw, to persuade, 
seem to have been the innocent cause of the argument. Argument leads to quar- 
relling, quarrelling to killing, whence Dan. droebe, to kill, slay. ' Drcebe med 
soak,' to bore to death tcith talking; drab, manslaughter. 

1 It's not for a man with a woman to threape 
Unless he first give o'er the plea.' 

Take thy old cloak about tJiee, 1. 61. 

THREAVE, ' a measure containing 12 sheaves strait-, or 24 ling'' (Grainge) ; 
Gael. ' Treabh, ttco cocks of corn consisting each of 12 sheaves' 1 (Armst.); 
treabh, treibh; /Ml. trilms, Eng. tribe or clan, a farmed village, 'village com- 
munity," from treabh, to till, plough, cultivate. Out of ' treabh-talamh,' the ploughed 
land of the tribe, or the villain community, the Romans made 'Triptoleinus' (I'al- 
lancey), the ploughman; H'el. drefa, '24' ; ' drefa o yd,' 24 sheaves of com; 
dref, a bundle; whence Mid. 7xi/. dreva, O.N. threfi, Nor. troeve, Swed. 
trafwa, Dun. trave, A. S. thraf. a thrare; M.II.G. travn, <i leap; Mid. Lat. 
trava; liuss. trava, grass; Ital. and Lat. draba, whitlow grass; >}>u. drava; Wei. 
drefu, to bundle or tie together; O. N. thrifa, to thrive, and thrift. * Dreva mani- 
pulorum uniiis vinculi de arena.' Cambro- Britannic Lairs, in Spelm. 

THROOAT, throat; A.S. Thn'.te, Dut. strot; O. H. G. droza, drozza; Ger. 
drosssel, drostel, the throat. * Throte-golle.' Prompt. J'arv., with the note, 
' throte-gole,' or * throte-bole,' ' ncu dc la gorge, gosier.' A.S. throt-bolla, the 
windpipe. *Throt-gole ' = 6'r. tmcholos, throat. 

A. S. Th = 6V. T; tra[d]-chelos (Gr. cheilos, chelumon, the chest). 
A . S. G = Gr. CH ; tliroa t-gole (Lat. gila, &c^ fee GULL). 
A.S. Th = Crfr. D; drost el (for drotsel, O. H. G. droza). 

' Throat-gollc ' contracts into 'throttle,' ' throte-bolle' into the Cleveland form 
' thropple.' Of the same origin is the next word. 

THROSTLE, thrush ; ' Moor- throstle, Ring -Ousel; A.S. throstle, 
throste; O. X. throstr, Dan. trust, liuss. drosde, Ger. drossel, Lai. turdus. 

THYVEL or THYBEL,, a Jlat piece of bcechicood used for stirring 
porridge; A. S. Thyfel, a shrub, thorn (Dot., but ?). Also called 'gull-thyTcL' 



286 THYTWA. 

THYTHEL, same; A. S. Thythel, a busk, bough, branch. 

THYSEN, thyself. 

TIBER, tidier ;O. N. Tidari, comp. of tidr, customary, $c., from tid,/ue. 
The compar. tidier in Eng. is A. S. tidigere, tidiggere. Tidy means lit. timely, 
seasonable, fyc. 

T'L, TIL, to; O.N. til, Dan. til, Siced. till, to (see TUL). 

' And quhat a hauld sail we draw till 

My mirry men and me.' Edom O'Gordon, 1. 5. 

TIV, to, used before a vowel (see Tov). 

TOFF, tough. 

TOFT, a homefield; O.N. Toft, topt, apiece of ground, messuage, homestead; 
A.S. toft (seep. 32). 

TOKE, talk. ' They wok'd alike an they tok'd alike.' 

TO MORN, to-morrow. 

TOPPIN, hair on the liead; Wei. Topyn, a tuft of hair; Gael, top; O. A". 
toppr, a tuft of hair. The following passage, ' Hest hvitr at lit, raudli eyrun ok 
topprinn,' a white horse with red ears andforelock, toppin (Laxdcela Saga, 1 94, 
in Cfeas),is strikingly like 'He'd acarrotty toppin.' Al., 1880. 

T'TOTHER, the other; A. S. Theet other with the ' t' misplaced. 

' A the tothar syde that a man might se.' Anc. Chevy Chase, F. 2, 1. 25. 
' The tone of them was Adler yonge 

The tother was King Estmere.' K. Est., 1. 5. 

TOV IT, to it; (see TIT, Tov). 

TORFLE, TURFLE, to die a natural death; Gael. Torchair, to perish, 
happen; torchar, a mortal fall, death; 0. N. thverra, to be drained, ebb out; part. 
thorinn, thurr, Wei. twyr, A.S. thyrr, dry, thyrran, to dry up, wither; tnurh, 
thruh, thryh, a coffin. A horse dying in a field is said to torfle; if at night, 
' he torfled i t' neet.' Russ. soknyte, to wither. 

TREEACE, trace; O.Fr. Traict, a teame-trace or trait (Cot.); Lai. 
tractus. 

TRET, treated, badly used; A.S. Dreht, troubled, vexed, grieved, p.p. of 
dreccan, to oppress, use badly. ' The his leodscype swy the drehte,' which greatly 
harassed his country. L. Eadgar, Suppt. ' I never was so tret,' in the matter 
of rent by a landlord. Colloq. 

TREWTH, truth ; A. S. Treowth. The ord. pron. of truth is nearer O. N. 
tryggth, ' whence Mid. Lot. treuga, Eng. truce' (Cleas.); O.N. tryggr, Goth. 
(U/f.) triggws, true. 

TROOSERS, trousers; O.Fr. Trousses, Mod. Fr. trousse, breeches; 
trousser, to tuck up; Lot. tortiare, a verb formed from tortus, p.p. of torquere, to 
turn, <c. 

TUB, TEW, too. 

TUL, to; 0. N., Swed., Dan. Til, to. 

' Gilderoy was a bonny boy, 

Had roses tull his shoonc.' Gilderoy, 1. 2. 

' He gained the love of ladies gay, 

Nane eir tull him was coy.' Ib., 1. 13. 

Gilderoy was hanged at Edinburgh, July, 1638. 

'When he'dgitten tul her ageean.' Bla.,^. 14. 

TUV, to; before a vowel or 'h' mute. ' He's gaine tuv his warke.' AL, 
1880. ' Fra his tail tuv his heead.' Bla., p. 12. 

TWANC, whip; A. 8. thwang, thwong, a thong. Our dial, form would be 



TWE TJBC. 287 

written t'wancg, as thincg, thing. 'Ah'll gie thee t' twanc.' Lodge. 'Ah'll 
gic thee a twanck.' Pateley. 

TWEA, two; A. S. Twio, two. 

TYKE, ' a Yorkshire tyke.' 0. N. tik, 0. Swed. tik, a bitch; Swed. Dial. 
tik; Dan. Dial, tiig, a bitch (Atk.). Blackah calls a favourite horse an 'oade 
tyke,' and a ' horse-cowper ' is so styled in the following humourous little 
excursion : 

T'Oade Yorkshire Tike. 

Bane ta Clapham town-gate liv'd an owd Yorksher tike, 
Who i dealing i horseflesh had ne'er met his like; 
Twor his pride that i au the hard bargains hede hit, 
Hede bit a girt monny, bud nivver bin bit. 

This oud Tommy Towers (bi that naam he wor knaan) 
Hed an oud carrion tit that wor sheer skin an baan; 
Ta hev killed him for t'curs wad hev bin quite as well, 
Bud 'twor Tommy's opinion hede dee ov hissel ! 

Well, yan Abey Muggins, a neighbourin cheat, 
Thowt ta diddle oud Tommy wad be a girt treat; 
Hede a horse, too, 'twor war than oud Tommy's ye see, 
For t' neet afoare that hede thowt proper ta dee ! 

Thinks Abey, t'oud codger '11 nivver smoak t'trick, 
I'll swop wi' him my pooer deead horse for his 'wik, 
An' if Tommy I nobbut can happen ta trap, 
'Twill be a fine feather i' Aberram cap ! 

Soa to Tommy he goas, an' the question he pops : 
' Betwin thy horse an' mine, prithee, Tommy, what swops ? 
What wilt gi' me'y ta boot ? fer mine's t'better horse still ! ' 
' Nout,' says Tommy, ' I'll swap ivven bans, an ye'y wilL' 

Abey preeached a long time about ' suramat ta boot,' 

Insisting that his war the liveliest brute; 

Bud Tommy stuk fast where he first had begun, 

Till Abey shook hands, an sed, ' Well, Tommy, dun ! ' 

* ! Tommy,' sed Abey, ' ah's sorry fer thee, 
Ah thout thow'd a had den inair white i the'y ee; 
Good luck's wi' thy bargin, fer my horse is deead.' 

Hey ! ' says Tommy, ' my lad, so is mine, an' it's fleead ! ' 

XuU. Al^ 1873. 

U. 

UPHOD, uphold = tcarrant, be bound, in the line. ' They're ganning fer 
scooring steeans too, ah'll uphod 'em.' HI a., p. 18. 

URCHIN, hedyehog; A. S. Erscen, ircing ; Uelg. horts, hurts; Lot. ericius, 
M. IM(. erinaceus, Franco-Gall, herisson, Mod. Fr. herisson (from the Lot.), 
oursin, urchin. On Mitcham Common the gypsies call it archie and archie- 
witchin, or aitchcwitchin, which is the L)ut. ijzerwerken (lit. ironwork), a 
hedqthog; Rua. ezhenoke, O'er, egel (see also my Hut. fthe Gvj>tiet, Rutherfurd, 
Kelso, 1882). 



288 VAR WAR. 

V. 

VARRA, VARY, very; O.Fr. Verai, vray; Chaucer, veray; O.Eng. 
verai, verrai, verray, verrei, verri (Stratm.); Dut, waar, Ger. wahr. ' Nut varra 
lang efter.' Bla., p. 39. 

VAST, n. } a large quantity. ' There war a vast o' money spent over that 
job.' Colloq. Fr. Vaste (subst.), Ger. wiiste; Lat. vastus (adj.). 



w. 

WAD, was; Goth. Vardh, 1st, 2nd and 3rd per s. sing., pret. of vairdhan, to 
le; O.N. vard, pret. of verdha, to be; A. 8. weard, pret. of weorthan, to be. 

"WAD, would; A.S. "Wolde, would. 'They thowt they wad hev a lark.' 

WAE, woe; A.S. Waa, was; Dut. wee, Ger. wehe, Wei. gwae, Lat. voe, 
Gael, wo, O. A T . Va, .4 . <S. wa. 

WE A WORTH, woe worth; A.S. Wea, woe; weorth, imperat. of 
weorthan, to happen. 

1. 'Gif muth oththe cage wo weordeth,' if to mouth or eye woe happen. 
L. JZthelbert, 45 (561-616). 

2. Woe worth, woe worth thee, wicked wood, 

That ere thou grew on a tree,' 

remarked Little John, when his bow broke. Hob. flood Guy ofGislorne, 1. 69. 

3. 'Woe worth, wae worth ye, Jock, my man.' Edom CfGordon, I. 69. 

4. ' Woe worth, woe worth thee, false Scotland.' 

Murder af Darnley, (1567-8). 

5. ' Howl ye, woe worth the day. Ezek., xxx., 2. 

6. ' Wae worth the loun that made the laws, 

To hang a man for gear.' Gilderoy, 1. 65 (1638). 

7. ' Wheea worth 'em they'll hear what we say.' Bla., p. 1 8. 

WAKE, weak; A. S. wae, wffic, but our form would be written waec. 

WAKKEN, waken; A.S. Weecan, Dut. waken, wekken, Ger. wachen, 
wechen. 

WALE, to hurry; A.S. weallan, to boil; Dut. Ijlen, ovcrijlcn, Ger. eileu, 
iibercilcn, to hurry. ' Ah did wale it when ah startid.' Colloq. 

' Seea ah waled on as fast as i' cud.' Bla., p. 27. 

WALSH, insipid; i.e., Welsh to a Saxon; A.S. Walahisc, wselisc, 
wylisc, wilisc, foreign ; wealh, pi. wealhas, wealas, weallas; Walas the Welth; 
anything -not Saxon. 

WANDTA, warrant thou (see WEEST). 

WANKLE, weak; A.S. Wancol, woncol; Ger. wankel, unsteady ; fluc- 
tuating; Dut. wankelen, to totter (see WENCLE). 

WAR, WARR, was; O. ^V. var, ls< and '3rd pers. sing. pret. of vera, to le. 
1 They fand him quiatly gra/in' o' t'rooadside, as if nowt warr.' 

WARK, ache, ]>ain\ O. N. Verkr, Dan. voerk, pain. ' A bit o nice fatty- 
caike ... a glass of best becrtult, an a bit o' became fed bacon (some o' 
wer awn fecdin) ... it seems varra hard it and bring t'stummurk wark 
like this.' Al., 1880. 

WARK, WARKE, work; A. S. Wearc, weerc, weorc; Goth, vaurkjan, 
to work; O. N. verk, Dut. and Ger. werk, Dan. vcerk, work. 

1 And bids me leave my wearye warke.' Aged Lover, 1. 35. 



WAR WES. 289 

1 Ah'll warke na mair.' Culloq., Lofthousc. ' He's gaine tuv his wark.' 
AL, 1880. 

WAB, worse ; O. A r . Verr, Sired, varre, Dan. voerre, A . S. waerra, worse. 

WARSE, worse; A.S. Weersa. 

WARRANT, teas not; 0. N. Var'at, wot not (Lodbrok. Quid., tee p. 85). 

4 Still he warrant a thief.' Bla., p. 12. 

WARP, threads that run trilh the length of a piece of cloth, &c. (see p. 216). 

WATH, a ford; O.N. Vath, aford; A.S. watb., a way; wad, a ford; Dut. 
watte; Lttt. vadum, a ford. ' Wath' as a place name occurs several times, e.g., 
three miles above Pateley and near Ripon. In Surrey * Waddon ' occurs twice; 
on the Wandle, near Croydon; and on the Wey, near Farnham. 

WATTHER, wafer. Like ' fadther.' 

WE, WI', WE'Y, with; A.S. Wid; O. N. vid, vidr, or vith, vithr, with; 
Goth, withra, Dan. ved. 

WE AM, stomach ; O. N. Vomb, the belly. 

' Yah neet this week lile Mat began 

Ta plean aboot his weame.' Bla., p. 16. 
WEANT, trill not. 
WEE, with (Bla.). 

WEEAR, tcear; O. N. Vera, A. S. werian, to wear. 
WEEL, well; A.S. Wl, well, well. 

' An slyed oot ta meet him as weel as ah cud.' Bla., p. 16. 

WEEST, trill l>e; A.S. Wyrst, contr. from weorthcst, wurthest, wyrthest, 
2nd pers. ''/. pres. of weorthan, to liecome. * Ah'll wandta weest seun be all 
reight,' I'll warrant thou wilt soon, &c. Bla.. p. 29. Weest is here used in a 
future sense. Weorthan had no future, then-fore this was expressed by the pret. 
tense, as in the example. 

WELL, a tpriai/, a natural outflow nf water; A.S. wyl, wyll, wil, well, 
wcnll, a spring, lit. that which bultiles np; wyllan, weallan; Goth. wul;m, to well 
up,jfoic; ' wiel, whirlpool; fait, volvo; Gr. cluo,fo roll round* (Cur.); A.S. wyl = 
wylm, alioiling,lulJjling; sewylm (Kwelme, a place name, lit, 'water-well'; 
in the localire case, the place wltere the spring breaks out. ' Oth hire eewylm,' 
up to its source. Treaty of Alfred and Guihrun, 1 (A.D. 878). This is 
' Ewelme,' in Bucks, and ' Ewell,' in Surrey, at both of which places large chalk 
springs issue. The Domesd. form, ' Etwelle,' for ' Ewell,' does not weigh against 
such evidence; the ' t' is probably a mistake for Eawclle (see HELL, and in ref. 
to that art. ef. A. and M. Gr. helos, a marsh, '.<!., a spring bog; Mod, Gr. heleos, 
a marshy field by the side of a river; (f)elos; Lot. vallis (Car. 530); O. N. kelda, 
Steed, kalla, Dan. kilde, M. II. G. qual and quil, Ger. quelle). 

WENQBY, leather?/, tough. ' As toff as wenffby.' A I., 1880. 

WEB, ira*. See Win, and add A . S. Weero, 2nd pen. tiny. perf. of wesan. 

WEB, were ; A.S. Waeron, plu. of do. 

' And some unseen wer present tlierc.' Fair Bridges, 1577. 
'Altho he wer nobbut a hoss.' Bla., p. 12. Er we wer flit away.' Ib., 
p. 14. 

WEB, our; O. A r . Var, virr; Icel. vor, Dan. vor, Sw&l. var ovr. ' We 
like to see wer barns at neet.' Bla., p. 10. 

WERSELS, ourselves. 'We strewn wersela all at we can.' Bla., p. 22. 

WEBSENS, ourselves (see WEB and SEN). ' An then we oil git wersens 
streijiht. Bla., p. 29. 

WESH, ., a trash; A. S. WBBSC, wesc; Dan. vask, Dut. vasch, a wcsh, 
wash. ' Let'g have a wesh' (Colloq.), ijt. y ' water'; Gael, uisge, water. 

STUDIES IN NIDDERDALE. Lucas. 



290 WES WIS. 

WESH, v., to wash, that is, to 'water'; Gael, uisg-ich, to water; A.S. 
wascan, to wash; Dut. waschen, Dan. vaske. 'Ah wesh'd an then sanded the 
floor.' Bla., p. 27. The River Washburn is called 'Weshburn,' and with 
' Kirkby Wiske' and the Esk (Cleveland) must be classed as a remnant of 
Gaelic nomenclature (see BURN). 

WEWTAL, to whistle; Gael. Fead, to whistle, to wewt; feadailich, 
wewtalingr, whistling; A.S. hweosan, to blow; hweotherung, murmuring; Gael. 
feadaireachd, whirling; A. S. hweotha, hwiotha, hwitha, a breeze, from its iL-histling. 
' A lile bird wewtaled up in a tree.' AL, 1 880. Yarrell, followed by Atk. 
(Cl. GL), is mistaken in associating the name ' whew duck,' or ' whewer,' a name of 
the widgeon, with this word (Yarrell, III., 193). 'Whewer' is Wei. : 9wiwell, 
the widgeon from its flight, the female salmon; gwiwell, a widgeon, the female 
salmon, from their movements; cwiwiaid, widgeons. 'Whews' = cwiws, widgeons 
all from wiw, a whirl or quick turn; fwiwian to turn, dart about, fly here and 
there. So also gwivver, ' whewer,' tlie. squirrel (Ow.). 

WHAM, a sivamp on the moors; O. N. Hvammr, Swed. kvammen, Dan. 
suomp, sump; Alam. suam, Goth, svamms, a sponge; A.S. svam, Belg. svamme, 
fungus; Gr. somphos (Cur.). 

WHAR, wliere; Goth. Hwar, O.N. hvar, Dan. hvor, A.S. hwar, Ger. 
wo. ' Per let me ... be whar I like wi him.' Bla., p. 18. 

WHELK, a lump. Prompt. Parv. gives ' Whele or whelke, soore whelle, 
qwelke (wheel).' Russ. polosa. 

WHELP, a pup; ^. S. Hwelp, hweolp, welp; O.N. hvelpr; Dan. 
hvalp, a whelp, pup; Goth, wulfs, A. S. wulf, Eng., Dut. and Ger. wolf; O. N. ulfr, 
Dan, ulv, Lat. lupus, Gr. lukos, wolf; Lat. vulpes,/or. Cleasby is mistaken in 
connecting 'North E. Ulf'm pr. names, Ulpha, UlverstonJ directly with ulfr, wolf. 
' Ulfr,' a well-known historical character is responsible for that (see p. 95). 

WHEML, to overturn, empty a cart, lit., to turn up on its ivheels; A. S. 
hweol, hweowol, hweogl, hweohl, that wMch revolves, a wheel, gave a 5., 
hwiolan, to wheel, and hweolum, contr. [hwelm] whelm, to turn up on its 
wheels. Hweolum is the dat.plu. made into a verb, lit., on the wheels. Wheml 
by transpos. from whelm. A story is told of an old woman who, at last over- 
coming her aversion to travel by rail, proceeded in a train with a basket of eggs 
to market. A slight accident occurred by which she and her basket were thrown 
out on to the line and all her eggs broken. She, being more ruffled than hurt, 
picked herself up, enquiring in an injured tone of voice, 'Do they aye whammel 
us out this gate ?' O.N. hjol, Swed. and Dan. hjul, Dut. wiel, /("ass. koleso, 
A. S. hweol, Eng. wheel, that which turns=Goth. hweila, a while time, turn. 

WHILE, until (see WAL). 

WHINNY, WINNY, to neigh; Wei. Wihi, tlie whinnying of ahorse; 
wihiaw, to whinny (Ow.); Lat. hinnire; Fr. hennir, to neigh; Lat. hinnus; 
Gr. ginnos, glnos, a mare, a mule's foal, $c. ' He'd set up a whinny an run.' 
Bla., p. 13. 

WHITTLE, a carving knife; A.S. H witel, hwitle ; th weotan, to cut of; Lat. 
cultellus. , 

WHYA, why. 

WILT A, wilt thou (see TA, thou). Wilta gan wi' me?' 'Wilta wed 
me ? ' Bla. 

WINQE. ' What is t:i wingrein and cryiu at ? ' Colloq., to a crying 
child. Lit. winge means to act as one under the whip. O.N. thvinga, to 
weigh down, oppress; Dan. tvingc, O.II.G. dwingran, M.ll.G. twinge, Ger. 
zwingen; A.S. thwingan, to force, constrain, compel. 

WINNAT, will not. 

WISHIN, cushion; Gael, bog-shuidheagan, Ruts, polyshchka; Lat. culcitra, 
dim. culcitinum; Ital. cuscino, coscino; Fr. coussin, whence Ger. k'ussen, 
Dut. kusscn. The Dial, form seems a corrup. of the Ital. 



WIS YE. 291 

WISHT! hush, be quiet; commonly said to a child. Gael, eisd! 
' The winds with wonder whist' Milton, Ode to the Nativity, Hymn. V. v. 

WITH, a wood (see p. 107); O. N. Vithr, a wood; A.S. withige, withie, 
withthc; Eng. withy, Ger. weide, Lut. vitta, Gr. 'itus (Cur.). 

WITHER, vicious; Wei. Q-wydiawg 1 , Gael, guineach, vicious. Of a mare, 
* She seazed him full wither by t'neck.' /?/., p. 14. 

WITTAL.ED. ' Ah've gittan fas'cn'd ta t'sod if ah aint gittan wittaled 
ta t'trec.' A I., 1U80. Wei. Gw\zaw, to grow moody; gwyzen, a tree; gwy- 
zawl, rudimental; so 'wittaled,' means ' rooted' to the tree, so as to form part of 
its wood, grafted. 

WO, who; Dun. Hvo, A. S. hwa, hua; Gael, lo, liuss. kto. 

WOKED, walked. 

WOR, was (see WAR, was). 

WORSER, WUSSER, icorse; A.S. wjrsa, worse. ' The wjrsa sj,' be 
the worse for it. L. Eadg., c. 4, A.D. 959-75. 

WRANG, UTOHJ; O.N. Rangr, older form vrangrr; Suxd. vrang, Dan. 
vrang, Goth, wraikws, wry, crooked; A.S. wringan, to wring. 

WTTR, tras (nee WER, was). 

WUTS, oats; Fris. Oat, pron. as a contracted dissyllable, 'Oat,' i.e., that 
which can be eaten. O. N. ata, food, but only of beasts, a carcase (because it is 
eaten); aeti, an ediUe thing, oats; A. S. aten, oats; ata, oet, an oat. 



Y. 

YA, you; A. S. Eow, dat., ace. and all. plu. of thu. 

YA AL, <i !< ; A . S. eal, cala, ealo, ealad, calod, eolod, ale ; Dan. iil, Dut. ail 
or eel (from the Eng,). 

YAH, ow; Gael. Aon, haon ; A.S. ean, an. 'Ya' for 'van,' as 'a' for 'an.' 

YAK, YEK, oak; Gael. Darach, darag, oak; A.S. ac. The Dial, form 
(cormp. from the Gael.) would be written ' cac,' and supplies the noun from which 
A. S. eacen, great, miylity, strong, may be formed. ' Yak vat stoop' = ok gate 
post. 

YALLO, yellow. 

YAM, aim. 

YAN, one; A. S, ean. ' Where yan went t'other went' 

YANCE, once; A.S. eanes, gen. sing, of ean, used adverbially. ' Ofter 
than aene,' oftener than once (lit tltat one time). L. Ine., where the neui. def. is 
used. 

YAT, pate; A.S. Qeat. * Yak yat stoop,' oak gate post, and in the name 
Yetliulm, Roxburghshire. 

1. * And whan the}' came to King Adland's hall, 

Untill the fayre hall yate.' King J&tmere, 1. 172. 

2. ' And hiryates all locked fast.' Edom (TGordon, I 34. 

3. ' Seest thou not yonder hall, Ellen ? 

Of redd gold shines the yate.' Child Watery, L 74. 

4. 'He knew ivvery yat at rooadside.' Bla. t p. 12. 

YE, YE*Y, you, thou. ' See'ah ye'y mnn sit ye'y doon.' D. and M. 
Date. 



292 YEB TTJL. 

YERSEN,yorse^(see SEN). 

YEWN, to bully; Wei. Hewian, io defy continually or often, to hector; ewn, 
powerful, impetuous, overbearing ; ewni, to become so. 

YIT, eat. Intermediate between .4.6'. etan and hitadh; Eng. Eat, and 
Dial. HIT, which see. 

YON, yond, yonder; A.S. Geond. 'I think that's him comin yon.' 
Colloq. 

YOON, oven; Siced. ~Ugn, Goth. (U/f.) auhns, Dan. ovn, A. S. 6fen, Ger. 
ofen, Dut. oven, Gael, iimhuinn, uamhainn. 

YOOAK, yoke; A.S. luc, a yoke; Lat. jugum; A.S. iucian, iuuian, to yoke. 

YOOAKED, yoked. 

YULE, Christmas; O. N. J61, A. S. eedl (see pp. 42-5). 

YULE-CLOG, yule log (see CLOO and p. 42). 



More than half the above Glossary of 957 words consists of O. N. and A.S. 
elements O. N. 262 and A.S. 24 f words. Next come Gaelic 43, Wei. 37, 
Dan. 34, O.Fr. 28, and Dut. 15. The O.Norsk or Scandinavian element is the 
characteristic of the Dialect, and carries with it one or two Lupp and Russian 
words. The O. N. and A.S. bring down several Old Got/tic forms ; besides which, 
the Dialect preserves a very remarkable series of seven Gothic words not found in 
O.N. or A.S. Diets. These Gothic words form one of the most interesting 
features of the Dialect. The Welsh element proves the survival of descendants 
of the ancient Cymry here resident, beyond all question ; but by far the most 
striking feature is the presence of a large number of Gaelic words, which it will 
only be necessary to enumerate to show that some of them also prove the survival 
of descendants of a still more ancient Gaelic speaking population upon this area. 
They are Ask, Beast, Bink (Ga. Beinc), Brat (also W. and A. 8.), Burn, 
Shag (in Buttershair), Cabin (also W.), Cambril, Cloot (also W.), Deea, Bud, 
Fair, Far, Fog- (?), Fratch, Gay, Glasp, Hammer or Hainis'n, Hor, 
Jowl, Kail, Lick, Loaning 1 , Nangrin, Nor, Pewder, Kake (also Goth.), 
Batten, Kay, Kiddle (also W. and A.S.), Boat, Kuckle, Scumfisb, Scagar 
(in sound), Se'ap, Silc, Slate (?), Stroth, Stuffle, Taistrill, Tengr, Threave, 
Torfle, Wesh (through A.S), Wowtal, Yah (I'), Yak (cor. of Daracli). In 
addition to these, there arc ten Monastic Latin, and five German words; and a few 
ancient Oriental forms, such as Biggin, Fell (1), Fettle, (<ang, Antersand Annntcrs, 
which have come, with 'Boskab' and others that have stopped short of England, 
along the northern route. 



y * 



V. fc ., TYP. 



UNIVERSITY 

This book is DU1 



University of California 

SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY 

405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1388 

Return this material to the library 

from which it was borrowed. 



OCT 03 ftECD 



84 



UC SOUTHERN 




A 000 990 144 



f 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
THIS BOOK CARD ' 





tt 




University Research Library