Skip to main content

Full text of "Studies in the psychology of sex. v.3, 1904"

See other formats


This is a digitaJ copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

ll has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enler Ihe public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vmy country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways lo the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other niaiginalia present in the original volume will appeal' in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from Ihe 
publisher to a library and finally lo you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with librai'ies to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we Lue merely Iheir custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order lo keep providing this resource, we have takeD steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm aiftomated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system; If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a laige amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage Ihe 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and maybe able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove ll. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring thai what you are doing is legal. Do not assume Ihat just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country lo country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assutne that a book's appearance in Google Book Search meatis it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize Ihe world's information and lo make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search tlirough the full text of this book on the web 

at lilitp :/ /books . google .com/ 


Bui!er Building 


Gift of: 
Dr. John C. Spencer 


U-9lj3P^ !3V 






Psychology of Sex 





( C — >Ul- 1b Sii Va 

I. Thi EnMiM •! IMmIi, 11m Whibhi 
•I fiinl PnMiciti imt tato-mlbn. 
».H, Nt. 

I. UihI btmiM. SlJt. Mt. 

■. lulftit ■■ Iht hn^ bMalu. «.M. Mt 

If. faml IdKtiM m HiR. ».M, let 

V. Entic SiaMiiH. Ik HcckaMtH al Om- 
Hm Ftjpchic Iteli 1r Pri|- 


n. S«i ia WMiw !■ SwiclT. S3 Jl, aH. 

Each volume i> lold wpuately, ind ia 
complete id itaelf. 

Thi* i> the only edition in English pub- 
liihed by the author' i permUiion. 










wif y i" i^ir^W 






COmiCHT. I91* 




PkUMdBbb. fm., t-. i. A. 
Pma si F. A. D»B c wtr r 
1VI4-M CViTT Sina 

Ll'glizpci uv 




Is llie prPTious IWe voliimeft of tJiew Sludies, 1 liave dealt 
mainly with lh« wxubI tiiipiiUi' in n-lntioii to itB objt-ct, leaving 
out of account tbc cxtcmnl pcm>Ds and tlie enviroimienlAl 
iDfliieocei) which yet msy powerfully affect that impul^ anil \U 
gratilictttioii. We cannot afford, |jowevL-r, to pn** unnotict'd this 
relationship of the ecxual inipuW to third pi-reons and to the 
community at large with all its anciently established traditions. 
We lijtvo to considiir sex in relation to aociety. 

In «o doing, it will bu pofsiblc to diM-nss mure eummiirily 
than ill precc^ding votmiii« the manifold and inipurtunt problems 
tliBt are presented to us. In considerin); the more epecial ques- 
tions of sexual psychology we t-ntered a neglected lietd and it 
was nccMoary to expend un analytic care and precision which at 
many points had n^'!\-cr biH-n cxiK-nded before on th««e <]ii<#lion«. 
But when we reach the relatioiwhips of sex to society we have for 
the most part no such ncgli-ct to encounter. The subject of every 
chapter io tlie pre)!t>nt volunii.- could easily form, and ufti-n has 
formed, the topic of a volume, luid the literature of many of 
these eubjccts ia already e-ttremely voluminous. It must there- 
fore be our main object here not to aceumulnte details but to 
place each subject by turn, ta ch^arly anil i^iici'inctly n« may be, 
in relation to tbo*e fundumcntHl principle* of At-xaal psychology 
which — «a far a« the data at pruient admit— luive been set forth 
in the prcwding volumes. 

It may seem to some, indeed, that in this exposition I should 
have confined myself to the present, and not included so wide a 
sweep of the cour»c of human history and the traditions of the 
race. It may wjiccially »onn that 1 have luid too great a stress 
on the influence of Christianity in moulding: sixuu! ideals and 
Mtabliebiog svxoal institutions. That, I am convinced, is an 






erroi'. It is bcctuM it is k> fn-<]iH'i>tlr made that th« morements 
of profrren amcoR hb — morDiuentfl that can never at any period 
of social Jiistor; cease— are bj many so aerioufJj mikundcntood. 
We cannot oHcape frmn nur traditionit. There nn'rr has bmcn, 
and never can be, any "age of rva»on." The most anlvnt co-call^ 
"free-thinker/* who caEt« a»i<t« as he imagines the authority of 
the Chrietian past, is still held by that post. If its traditions are 
not abeolutcly in his blood, they are ingrained in Uu.- texlurc of 
all the tocial institutiona into which Im> wai) bom ami they tilfct 
even hiM moded of tliinking. The lau^t inodificatinne of our 
i]uttitutMD» arc Ineritabty infltienicd by the past fonn of tbose 
institutions. We c*nnol n.'^lize where vre are, nor whither we are 
moving, nnlieeB we know whence we came. We cannot under- 
stand tbe Bigni6cance of the changies around us, nor face them 
with cheerful confidence, unlem we are ac<]uainted with the drift 
of tlie great moTcments that utir all civilization in neTcr-ending 

In discussing texvai questions which are ver>- laT:gely matters 
of soda! hygiene ve ehall thus still be preseninf; tbe psycho- 
logical point of view. Such a point of new in relation to these 
niattcTs is not only l^^itimatc but necos^ry. DiKuseions of 
social hygiene that are purely medini or purely juridical or 
purely moral or purely theological not only lead to conclusloits 
that are often entirely opposed to each other but they obviously 
fail to pouess complete applicab)liti>- to the complex human pei^ 
wnalitv. Tbe main Uttk liofore us inuitt be to aiwertain what best 
expresses, and what best utiefiesi, tlie totality of the impulses and 
ideas of ciriliwHl men and women, ?m> that while we must con- 
stantly bear in njind medical, legal, and moral demands — which 
all corrc«jM>nd in tame rrnjKCt* to xome individnal or social need 
Jie main thing in to iwttsfy the demand^! of the whole human 

It is uGccMary to emphasise this point of view bcctiue it 




irouM stem that no error is more common among writers on 
the hygienic and moral proi>k'mA of sex tlian tlio utglcct of 
tlic piiyrliological Rtjmdpoint. They may lake, for iuetancc, the 
fiit of Bcxual rvstmint, or the «do of »exua] unrcetruiot, but 
they foil to roalin? that so narrow a basia ia inadequate for the 
needs of complex human beings. From the wider psychological 
standpoint wc recognize that we have to conciliate opposing 
inipulfws that are both alike founded on th« human, psychic 

lu the preceding volumce of tlivue Studies I hare sought to 
refrain from tlie expression of any personal opinion and to main- 
tain, so far as possible, a strictly objective attitude. In this 
endeavor, I trust, I have been surccsi'fiil if I may judge from 
Ihc fact that I have received the i<ympHtlij iind approval of all 
kinds of pe<^lo, not l€«« of the ratioiialiiitic free^-thinker than of 
the orthoiloic believer, of those who accept, as well as of those 

rho reject, our most current standards of morality. This is as 
■hould Iw, for whatever our criteria of the worth of feelings 
utd of eondurt, it must always be of ii«e to ntt to know what 
exactly are the fcelingis of people and how tliose feelings tend to 
■ffect their conduct. In the present volume, however, where 
social traditions necessarily come in for consideration and where 
we have to discuaa the growtli of those traditions in the past and 
l)i«ir probable evolution in the future, 1 am not sanguine that 

b« objectivity of my altitude will he crpinlly cli-nr to the reader. 

hare here to set down not only what people actually feel and 

do but what I think they are tending to feel and do. That it a 

matter of estimation only, however widely and however cautiously 

it I* approached ; it eoinnot be n matter "f absolute demonstration. 

I trust that thore who have followed me in the past will bear with 

me still, even if it ia impossible for them alwaya t,o accept the 

Jnsiona I hsTc niywlf reached. 

Cubb B*f, Oomwalt, KngUnd. 

Havklocs Ellis. 


U-9lj3M Uy 



The Hotheb and Heb Child. 


The Child's Right to Choose Its Aneeatry— How This is Effected — 
The Mother the Child's Supreme Parent — Motherhood Hiid the 
Woman Movement — The Immense Importance of Motherhood — 
Infant Mortality and Its Cnuses — Tlie Chief Cause in the 
Mother — The Need ot Rest During Pregnancy — Frequency of 
Premature Birth — The Function of the State — Recent Advance 
In Puericulture — The Qucalion of Coitua During Pregnancy — 
Tlie Need of Rest During Lactation — The Motlier's Duty to 
Suclcle Her Child — The Economic Question — The Duty of the 
State — Recent Progress in the Protection of the Mother — Tile 
Fallacy of State Nurseries 1 


Skxdai. Education. 

Nurture Necessary as Well as Breed — Precocious Manifestations of 
the Sexual Impulse— Are they to be Regarded as Normal ! — The 
Sexual Play of Children — The Emotion of I^vp in Childhood — 
Are Town Children More Precocious Sexually Than Countrj' 
Children* — Children's Ideas Concerning the Origin of Babies — 
Need for Beginning the Seximl Education of Children in Early 
Years — The Importance of Early Training in Rcsponsihility — 
Evil of the Old Doctrine of Silence in Matters ot Sex— The Evil 
Magnified WTien Applied to Girls — Tlie Mother the Natural and 
Best Teacher — The Morbid Influence of Artificial Mystery in Se.v 
Matters — Boolis on Sexual Enlightenment of the Young — Nature 
of the Mother's Task — Sexual Education in the School — The 
Value of Botany— ZoSlogy — Sexual Education After Puberty— 
The NeeesBity of Counteracting Quack Literature — Danger of 
Neglecting to Prepare for the First Onset oE Menstruation — The 
Right Attitude Towards Woman's Sexual Life — The Vital Neees- 
sity of the Hygiene of Menstruation During Adolescence — Such 
Hygiene Compatible with the Educational and Social Equality 
of the Sexes — The Invalidism of Women Mainly Due to Hygienic 

U'9"L![>i^ 'JV 



Ne^eet— Gocul I n 11 u mid- >it ?Ii,V6kal Training on Womno and Bnil 
InflHfiiM of At)i1<-tic« — TliF KriU ol Eniolionnl SupprvMiuii — 
N«sl of Tenrliiug ibe Ufgiiity of Sox — liilluencc of These Fncforn 
on ■ Wnnuin'i Futn in Marriuftp— Ii«rturo« anil Aililretws on 
Sexunl Ilygii'Qi? — The Dwlor'n I'url in Sexiiul ICiliiention — 
PabvrUl Inltiiitluii Into Itic IJciit Wnrlil— Tli« linn- of Hip He- 
ligioiUDnJ KI1)it.-ul Ti'uclivr — Tin- laitiHiion Rjlc* of Siivugcs InUi 
UuihODd iinil \Vinniinlioocl^Tli(i Sexual Int1uf<iicu of Literature — 
Tb« Sexual lulluMiod lil Art 




The Grtvk Altitude TownniB Naki^dnfMi — How llic Romans Mmll- 
Hoi That AUituil«— Tli« liilhictirv of CliTSittatilty^Nnht-dnpss in 
Molisval Tiiu*s — Evolution of Iho Honor of Xnkpilnras — C'on- 
runiititnt CliBniw in llie l'i>iirepticin of Niikeilni'»-~Hruilprj- — The 
Itomontir Movement — Rise of n Xew Feeling in Regnrd (o Knkeii- 
iww — Tlie Ilygicnio AMpt-cl "f NnkmlntfH^ — How fliildrpn Mhj- Be 
AccuHtomed to Nakedness — Kakednmn Xol Tnimirul (o Modesty — 
The iBMinctof PliyMcnl PTidi«— Tlif Valiii! .if NiikodnMH in Edu- 
ution — Tlic .4'Uthctie Value of Naked lies*— The tliunan Body oa 
One of the Friuie TonicH o( LKb— How NtLlc«dnefca May Be Culti- 
vntud — Tli« Moral Valu* ol NokfdnPM OS 


Tut ViLUiTio.t or Sexe-'aj. Lovk. 

The Ooneeption of twxiuil l.ov»— Tlie Attitude of Medl«vsl Ascetl- 
eI«D— ^ Bpmntd nnd St. Odo of Cluny — The Ancetje tnililenee 
on the Proximity o( (lie Sexual nud E^eretory t>nlnf«— Lwe 
a* a Sat^nnient of Nature — The Idea of the Impurily of Sex In 
Primitive Rvliglonk Gc-nerallj— Theorlen of th» Origin of Tliin 
Idea— Tlie Anti'Acectic Ekuient in the Bible nnd Early Chric 
tianity — (Tiement of Alexandria — St. AuguMlne'a Attitude— The 
Recognition of the SarredneiH of the Boily by Termllion. Buflnu* 
and Athftnasiu* — The Rrfornintlou — The Sexual Inbtiuel Re- 
girded as Beattly — Tlie Human Sexual InHinot Not Anlmalllke 
— Ln»t nnd Love — Thi> IVflnlllnn of [.ove — l^ve nnd Names for 
Loi-e Unknown in Some Part* of the World — Homanlic Ijive of 
L«te Development in the White Kaoe— The Mjtterj' ul Seiual De- 
•ire— Whetlier love ia n Delnnion— The spiritual as Well no the 
PhyaintI Stnicture of the World In Part Built up on Sexual Love 
Th« Taetimony of Mim of Intellect to the Supremooy of Loto 






TOK FuscTKix Of Chastity. ^^^^ 

Cbattity EMetiiM to thn DIktiIIt of Ijme— TIm- F-if;hli>i>nt!i Ci^nlury 
R*irnll A]iniiMt the Idrnl o[ Chaatily — I'nuatural Fotm« of 
Chailit}' — Till! I'sji-liolu^jiviil ltn»l* of Asct'tirivin — Aflci-tii-'imi and 
CliaKtily »* SavajB VlitiiPs — The Signiflcjinpp of Tnhill — f;hii*til)' 
AmoDR Harhnroua Peoplm — C'Imstilj' Amons tin- Enrlj ChriMtinin 
— Stnig^M of the Siiiiitx uilh tlic Klcftli— Tlii> Kiiiiiftiice of 
Chrixtinn <l[aiit[ly — It* l>w«y in Muliirinl Tini<'B — .Ivrantin kI 
Virolrllr: nniJ th* 'Hvvi Romiuicn of Clinst* I.iM-r— Thn t'nphu»tity 
of the Korthirn Bivrbiiriiiiis — Tlie Pviiiti-iiliHln — Indiivncc uf tli» 
R«fiiilraB<« Rnd tlir^ Ki>rnTFnAt!i>n^Tlir Rn-alt Agnlnst ^'irjiinity 
a> u Virtue — Thp Modern Oonwption of Cliiiitlly hb a Virtiii'^ — 
TI10 Infltienci^M Tliiil Kuvor thf Virtue of flhastity — Chnstlty na 
» IH*dptine — The VpIup of Cluislily for tli» Arlinl — «iifl 
TmpotMiro In Popular KotlmHllan — The Corrct^ DrIlnltianR of 
AMctidmn and Chastity 143 

Tbi! Pbobixm or RtaiAt. Abbtiskxct. 
Th« Tiillu«tm> i>f Tradition— The TIkv^IohIciiI Concppdou of L1111U- 
TMidmey of There InllucroM to Degrade Scnuol Morulily — Their 
Kenilt 111 Crvathig tlii> Prulil*in of SuxuhI Ah^tliifiiiro — Tbc Fro- 
tMta Agninit Sexual Ahdinmw — Sexun) Alwtinenfc nnd Grnius — 
S«3nial AlMtinPitot! in Womm — Tlie Adt-ocutea of SexuHl Absti- 
nence — Intirmrdifltn Attiludo — l'n»sti»fiiptnry Natiirr of the 
Whoir DiKUHJim — rrilifiiiin of the Conci-plion of .Scxunl Absli- 
nmcr — Si'Kiinl AtMtiii»[iNia4C«iiipnr«d to Alwtiupnw (torn Pood — 
No Complpti! Analogy — Th« Slorality of Se.ximl Ah»lin«ii* Eu- 
llr*ty N(gHliv(> — I* It the Phyiiciun'n Duly ti) Advise Extra- 
CoBJngHl .Sriual Intnrniiinw! — Oplnioni of Thooe Who Animi 
<ir Dpiiy Thi» Duty — Tlic Coneluaion Aguin*t Sueh Adi'li'e — The 
rhyucian Bound br Ihv Social am! Mornl tdma of Hia Age — 
Thf Pht-aieian a* Befofmer— Si-xiinl AMinencp and Sexual Ily- 
gicne — Alnnhol— Th«< Influtnoe of Pliy"it-»1 and Mental Kxvr- 
Htt — The fnadequun- of Sexunl llygjpne in Tlii* Field — Tli«i 
Uar««l Xntuie of the (.'one«ptioii vl l^xual Abatincnc« — The 
Keecadty of Bcpliu-iDg It b>- a \rore Posittve MmI ITS 



t The Orgjf; — Thti RellKiou* Origin of thfl Orgy— The Fea-t of 
Foola— Rrtognlttoo of th^ Otgy by th* Orwka ■nd Romana— 

, Luio^lc 



Thi! Orgy Aroong Siiva^-*— Tliif Dnuna— The Objtrl Subwrvnl 
1^' thp Orgy 818 

II. The Origin ut%d Dttfhpmml of Pro»titvtion : — T\w Dt'dnition of 
Pros tilut ion — Prusiitulicin Among SnvitgM — The ('onilitionn I'n- 
di-r Wlili'li Profi-Mionnl PrcAtitutlon AiiMut — S«ttwl I'mitllu- 
tion— Thi- Ititf of Mj-liltu— Thi- I*(iictite at Prodilution (■> 
Obtuiii a llaTrhigr I'urtioii — Ttiv Ri>w of SM^Iar Proslittilion in 
(ircrcp— PrtKtIliiliian In thn Eaut — Indin, China, Japan, rtc. — 
I'Tontilution in Rwinc — The Influmi-'c of CHi rial Unity on Pronti- 
tu11on~Th» F.ITort to CodiIikI PrnHtUiilinn — Thn Mivllvvai 
IlrutlicI — The .\pptarnncr of (he Coiirtnan — Tullia D'Arafpmn 
— Vi-nmli-n KininD— Ninon Oi- lj>ncioi? — IjitfT ■^tlcmpls to Ktaiti' 
M<o Prtntiiuiion— Tho Rpgulntion of Proititution — Iti Futility 
BpcomInK Ri'cogniu^ , . 224 

III. I'Ae Caunta of Protlitulion: — Prostitution »» a P»rt of Ike 
Mnrriiif^F Rjnt»in — The Conipint CHU-intiDn of Pruititulton— Th« 
llotltvH .lu[|m<'<l hy Prnntlluti-ii — 1 1 ) Kmnomlc Factor of Prottl- 
tulion— iVivcrty ScHdm the Chief Motive for Proirtitiition — 
lliit Rrvinoniir Pr*«nirif Evirtu a R»al Infliicnc — Th» TjiTgr Pro- 
portion of Pnatitutt^N Ri-oriiited from Domestic Serrioe — Signifl- 
cnnco of Thli Fart— (IJI Th.- ItloU.^ Km-ior of Prostitution — 
The Bo-ealled Bom-ProHtitule — Allrgeil Identity wiDi lli» Rurn- 
Criminal— Til* S*x««l Instinct in Prwdtulfn— The Phj-nlenl and 
Pnyehie (liuraelefi of ProstiUitrs — (3| Monl Nretwtity a* « 
Fador in (lie ExiHteuce of Prowtitiitlon— Tli^ Moral Advocate* 
of Prostitiilion — The Morol Attitude of Chtirtianity Towards 
ProAlitutioi) — The Alliliide "f I^tvatanllatn — Rwent Advoente* 
of the Sloml Nee«>iiii- of Pn^Milutlon^MI Civilinitioiial Vain* 
aa a F«ct«r of Proslitiitiori— Tlie lii!1ui'nr« of I'rhan Life— The 
CruinR for F.veitpmvnt — Hliy Scrvnntgirb bo Ultt^n Turn lo 
Pttistlmtion— The Smiill Part Plajmi \>y Ko. I net ion— Prostitute* 
Come Lnrgely from th* Conntry — The Appral of i'ivilintioii 
Altnu-I* ^^'■>nn■^ Lo ProRtitution — The CoTTe«pandinK Attrnctioa 
Felt hy Men— The ProKlltnt* U Artist and Luuler of FMli|au— 
Th» Liiann of Vulgnrily. • 2M 

IV. Tlk« /VmmI Swial ilHIuOf Toirardit Pro*(t'ul(»n .-— The Decay 
of th* Brothfl— The Tendeney to the Hnmaniaitian of Pmatltn- 
lion— Th<i Mouelar?- A-.pwts of Pro+tilutioo- The fieiiha- The 
Ileliiira — TTie MornI Revolt Ajtainrt Prostitution — .'<qii>lid ^'lee 
Ila»ml on LuKitrloua Virtue— The Onlinury Alliluile Tonrard* 
PrtiKlitiileo — Tta Cruelly .Mwurd — The Seed of Rrfonnin|! Pro* 
titution— The N.*.l of Ki'totrnin)! MarrinKe — Thew Two Need* 
Cloaoly U>rTelat«d— The Djmniilie lUlatioualiiiHt Involved 302 




roit^nnrr op tiik Vcmckkai. Dtinuiiiai. 

The Rl|pil(lcftn» nf th» VotiMWil Dincttwn — The IliiitoTy of Sjrpliilji 
Hie Wobkm of ll* Origin— The Sociiil OiBvity of .S.vplilli>.-Tlio 
.Sm-UiI Dangrm of Gonoirha-a — Tli» Uodrrn Chanjic in llii: Uotli- 
<mI« of tVitnbiitlnK VniPrral Di'i^x'* — Cmiiu-* n( Ihi' Dci-ny of Mi^ 
SyrtiTiii nf Pi)lii-r Rtfpiliit ioti — Si'ci'!nily of F>ii'iiig tile Kucta — 
The Inilwi'iil Vit-liiii« nf Writi-bI 1 llii'u-i'ii — Dini'iiM* N«l 
Criroo — Tlir rriiidi'lr of Null lien I iuo — Till' SvntidiiuiviMii Rvnti-m 
— (!rstiiit<><ii> Tri'sliiH^Tit — ^I^lnl*^l'lll'nt For TriintmllilnK Vonp- 
renl Dim-aMi* — Si-ximl KiIiiMtiim in Itdation to Vi-ncival DixraiKi 
—1,^111-41^ Ktc— DIwumIoii in Kevcls nnl on tlia SUgi^-Tb* 
"DintniBtiDg" Not the "linmor>r :. 3I> 


Skxval MoBjomr. 

PriMiUiiUnn In ItpIatlAn to Out MBrTiii(fi> SjT>t*ni — ]iUnlnei> nnd 
Molality — The Definition of the Ttrni "Moruiity" — Tlii-orvlit'al 
Morality — Tin Dirlnlon Into Trailltinnnl MornlKy anil Mmil 
Morality — PriiGtinil Monilily — Prnr)i<«l Morullty Bilm-iI on 
Cii»lom— Tli» Only fiiiUJret of Rrli-titifli' Rthiw— Tlio Rparllon 
Drlwi'm Thixirdinil and PiHctical Mural it y^Sriual Morality 
in IliR Pa*t an Ap|i11(-atioil of Emnnnili- Morality — Tlie rnnl- 
hilled Ri^ilitj anii Laxily of This KIoRililr— The Growth 
nf A Spwiil<? S«xual MnrnHly ami llic Kvolntion of Moral 
liliiali — XlanifextHiiuiM of Scxtiat Murulily — Uiiiregnrd of tlie 
I^WniB of Marriai;e — Trial Marriajte — Marriaft* Aft*r COn- 
cvptlon o( Chilli — l'h(-iioiama in UerinaiLy. AnglaSaxon l?oiin- 
Irica. Rittsia. ett. — The Sinlti* of Woman— Tin- l[i"lorioii! Tpml- 
etiry FavoTuii; floral K'|iialily i>f \Votiirn wiili M-'ii— The Tlirory 
of the ftlntfiarcUale — Mothn-IJcucpiit— Wi'imii In Bal>\'!<>iiia — 
Egypt— Rorni? — Tlii- Ei^lilci^illi and Ninelecnih Oiiturii-a — The 
HiBrorical Tetnlency Favarinft Morrtl Iimitiality nf Woman — Tlin 
Amhl|[iKiii>' hillupnce of Chrintianily — Influence of Teutonic C^ih- 
tam and FrndallHin — (^li>alty — Wnman in EnglnniJ — Tliv Sale of 
Wlvo* — The VanixliInK Siihjeetlon of Woman — Innpllluile of the 
Modem Man to Domineer — Th(? (irowlli of Moral Re«pon«ihl1lty 
in Wontra — Tlie Concomitant Devi?lo]inient of Eeonomic Indcpen- 
(Imicc — Tht Inrrrake of Women V\lio Work — InvaHion of llie 
MoiJerti TnduHtrial Field by Women— In Ilow Far This I» Soeially 
.luUifiablf — The Semial ll»H|HinHiblUly i>f Women and lt>t Cmi-i- 
qnencca— Tli« Alleged Mornl Intcriorit}- of Woweo— The "Self. 





Sac'rilirv" of Woirii-n — Society Not Coawnirf wiUi 8«xua) Rela- 
lianihipt — Procrcntjon tjin SoIp Sexual Concorn ot tb« 8t«t*— 
The Sinir«-nie lnijioit«nor ot MnUrnilir aiK 



T1ii> IX-liiiition of Marriagi>~Marria^ Among Anitniils — The Prr- 
■tominaniT of MonognuiT — Tlif Qiicilioii o( firoiiji Mnrriaf;^-— 
Uonogniiiy k S«lur»l F«cl. Not Itatvil on Huiiiuu Jjiir — Thi- Tctnl- 
riK^' to PIrcv th« Form of Alarriapi Abovn the Fni't of MnrriagK 
— Tlie [lintory ot Murriugi; — Slarringc in Andi-nt Rooic— <Jrr- 
mnnle Influcnec on Mnrringp — Bridn-Snlp — Thi' Kiiin— Tlii.- Iiillii- 
cmv of C'hriatiuiiit; on Murmgr — The Great Eslont of tliia 
Inniii'iiof — Tlin Snernnifnt of Matrlnii-my — llrigiii unil Urxnttli 
of Iho Sai-rami-titol Conci-plion— Tlic Church SlBcir Mnrrsiiifc a 
PuMio Act — C'ltiiMi Liiw— lu Sound Cor* — lis IJrvt'lopnii^ut — Its 
Confuiiuns nnd Absurditjca — Pfculiatitln of Kiit{ll<li MaiT)ii|[e 
I*n' — Inflii<-nc« ot th* Iti-fonniitioii on JInrriii)t^— Tiip Hrot«Htaiit 
Conception of Mnrriflfte >b d Swiilflr Contfncl— Tlit- PuriUn Rp- 
fiwm of MbttIiiki' — Milton «■ llip Pionwr of Mnrrlii){v Rnform — 
HiM Vjtwii on Diturec — Tho Burkwnrd Position of EngUnd In 
MxrrlaKi' K»'(orm — ("titirfvin of Ihi- KnjiliNli t)ivoror l^w— Tniiii- 
tionflof tlii-rnnon I*w Slill Prrsi-ti'nt — TlicQuciillonof Damage* 
for AJiiltcrj*— C'>lhiHi<in «• a Bar lo Divort*— Uivoni- in Fnuu*, 
Germnny. Aiintrin. Rumin. rtc. — The Tniti^l Stutps — Impogsibil- 
Ity of UM'idin^ by SliitutP tlw Cuubw (or Uivon-r — Divorc* by 
JJutnol Coiiwnt^It* Origin and rtevrloprnpnt — Impodcil liy the 
Traditioii» of Canon \aw — Wilhvlm tan Humboldt — Uih|i>>ii 
PioncwT AdvooitM of DlivircB by Mutual Conicnt— The Argu- 
nii>n(« AgniiiKi Kanllity of Dlrorco— The Ibiwi^Ib of lli» Chll- 
drwi — The Protwtion of Womrn — TTic PrMrnt Tpntlcncy of the 
)>iiyir<^ Movt-nifiit — Marriiij!" Not. a Contrift — The I'ropniuit of 
MnrridBP for a Term of Ycjim — l.c({al Diubiliticn nnd I)ivtd> 
lid van til ;!>■•< hi the Po-ition of th* Kualmnd and tlw Wife — M«r- 
riap- Not a fc-nti-aet But o Fact — Only tin- Non-Ktwntluli of 
MHiriagv, Not the Knvnlinlx. u pTOprr Matli-r for Coiitmot — 
Thp Ijpicat KixviRnEtion of MarTiagn a* n Fact \^'ithmlt Any Cvk- 
mony — Contrnrt* of Uic Prrwin Oppuwd to Modern T«nd«ii(ric«^ 
Tim pRflnr of Moral R(«pon4ihi1ity — Mnrriaif a* an Ethickl 
Km-ranipnt— PrrwJnnl Rpj-jMinsibilitT lnTolv« Frerdoin— Friwdom 
thp Rt-«t Ciiiaranln' of Kt.ibiltly— Fntav Id^na of Indirlduultnu — 
Uodern Tcndcntj- of Marriogr — With the Birlh of a Child SI«r- 



riBRc CuKo ti> Im) a Privnlu Connrn — Evfry Child Mu«t Haw 
a I*)p»I F«tli*r nnd Mother— How Thia C-nii be Kir«ti-ii— Tlic 
Finn Baiiit o( Munogamj- — The <jiicstiun of Manin)^ Varia- 
tion it— Such VniUtioiw Not (nimlail to Jliinogain)- — The Mont 
romnion VariBlions — Tin- Flrxibilitj- of Maiiingi- UoliU Varia- 
|ion>> ill I'hwk— Marrlajp- Varinliniis rrrtua I'ti»(ilution~Uar- 
Tiagv oil a Rrtmunablc mid HiuiiaDc ItnaiB — Siininuirj anil Cuh' 
cIimIvii . . , 420 


TiiK An Of LovK, 

MarrJoj^ Xot Only for PTOciTntioti — Thcologinns on the Swra- 
m«Mlum Solalionit — Tni[Hir(nti''v of Uic Art of Lone— The Baaii 
of 8UbilUy In MnrriaRc on.l tho Condilinn (or Right Procrea- 
tion — TliP Arl dI Imiv tli* lIuluHtk A)piiii-t Divotvr — The I'liity 
of Loi-c niid Msrrlaip- a I'linclplp of McmIpiii Mornllly — (.^hrivtian- 
ily and the Arl of Lmr — Oiid — The Art of 1-o\p Among IViiul- 
t!vc Fro)>l<>»^8t-xtial Initiulion in Afrits and EiM'whfir — Tii« 
TmdMipy to Sponlancoui Dr^Tilopniont of Ute Art of I^^vi- in 
Knrly hilt — Flirtation— Seuial Ipiorunpc in Wonirn — Tile Hub- 
txtiid'* Plan" in 8vxual Iniliuliun — Sexual Ignoninin' in Mi'ii— 
The nuiluind'n KJiirtiljon for MarriaK^' — Thi- Injury Donn hy tho 
l^nomnt't of llusbiind*- -Tlif Phyaienl nnd Mental Iti-xulln of 
Vnikilful Caittm — Woim-n l'nd"r8)iind llip Art of ij>\'e Iteltnr 
Than Men — Ancient nnd Moilotn Opininni roneernini* Freqiieiu']? 
of ruitiw^Vnriallon in Sviunl (.■ii]iiii'it,v — 'Hi.' Soxiial Appi-tile — 
Tlii> Art of l/yrr llnaed on tlio Diolojpcal Fuetn of (~ouil«hip — 
The Art of Plnuin^ Women — Tiie I^ver Compnrpil to Ihr Mn- 
rician— Tlie I'ropoMil ai a Tart of Caiirl-i|ii|i — Divintition in the 
Art of Ijove — Thp ImportmuT of the Preliniiniirics in ('oiiit*liip — 
The rnhkilful Ilnibund Fr«ioMitlj* tlie C'aii'e of tile Fiij*id U'lf* 
— Tlie UilTienltr o( r'oiirt*hif> — Siniii1lnn«}iiH Orgnsm — -The Ei-il« 
of Incomptftv Grulifl'-ulion in Women — roiluB Interrnptii*— 
Coltua K*»er\ams— The Human Mptho,! of Cnitii* — Variutioiia 
in Toitug — PoHtnii* in CoiUiii — Tlie Bent Time (or Coitnn— Tho 
Influencv of roilm In Mnriiflge — Tlie Advanlngea of Al>sn)c« in 
UtrrisKO — The Riokn of Abaenee— Jealoiny— Tlie Priraitlvp Funo- 
tion of JeuloiiBV — Its Predoiiiinanee Among Aniinalii, SaTagei, 
rte, and In I'lilholoipenl Stnte»— An Anti-S«irinl Eniolion — 
•TMlnuHy Ineompolihie Willi the Prnjrrewi of rinliintion — The 
Poaibility of [.oi inK More Tlicin Hne I'ernon nt u Time — Platonic 
Frimdthlp— The Conditions Which Make It Poasililw— TU« Ma- 


. .,C 



tcrnal Elomont in Womnn's Love — Tb^ Finftl DevelopiDeiit o£ 
Conjiignl Ixn-e— The Prublem of Love One of the Gie&Ust of 
S<H-ial Questions 5Q7 


The SciEscE of rBix'KEiTio:^. 

The Relationship of the Sripnc? of Procreation to the Art of Lore 

Sexual Deaire and Sexual rlen»ure as the Conditions of Con- 
reption — ReproJuetion Fonnorly Left to Caprice and Lust — The 
Question of Procreation as a Reli^ous Queittion — The Creed of 
Eugenics — Ellen Key iind Sir Krancis Gallon — Our Debt to Pos- 
terity— Tlie Problem of Replni'in^ Natural Selection— The Origin 
and Development of Eugi-nies — Tlie (leneral Acceptanoe of Eu- 
genical Principles To-day^Tlie Two Channels by Whleh Eugenical 
Principles are Ucconiing EnilKHliml in Practice — The Sense of 
Sexual Responsibility in Women — Tlie Rejection of Compulsory 
Motherhood — The Privilege of \"oliintary Motherhood — Causes of 
the Degradation of Mulhcrhood — The Control of Conception — Now 
Practiced by the Jlajorily of the Population in Civiliied Coun- 
tries — The Fallnev of "Rncial Suicide"' — Are Large Families a 
Stigma of Degeneration? — Procrentive Control the Outcome of 
Natural and CiviliKod Progrena — Tlie Growth of KeoMalthusian 
Beliefs and Prnctieos — Fucultstive Sterility as Distinct from 
Neo■^[ntthusiunisln — The Medical and Hygienic Xecessity of 
Control of Conception — Prcventire Slethoda — Abortion — The 
New Doctrine of the Duty to Practice Abortion — How Far is thin 
Justifiable! — Castration as a >[etliod of Controlling Procreation 
— Xegntive F.ugenics and Positive Eugenics — The Question of Cer- 
tificates for Marriage — The Inade(|iiacy of Eugenics by Act of 
Parliament — The Quickening of the Social Conscience in Regard 
to Ifcrpility— Limitations to the Endowment of Molherliood — 
TTie Conditions Favorable to Procreation — Sterility — The Ques- 
tion of ArtillHal Fecundation — The Best Age of Procreation — 
The Qupnti'in of Early .Motherhood — The Beat Time for Pro- 
creation — Tlie Completion of the Divine Cycle of Life 570 

U-9lj3P^ !3V 




The OiiU'e Riglit to Choot* Iw Aiirp'try— How TbU i> EfTertwI— 
The Motli*i llip Cliild's Supreme- rnrent— llollierhood ati<I th* Womnti 
Hovemeut — Tli* Immenao Imporianrp of SrotherhMMl— Infant MorliiHIy 
and lie CViuwa— TliP <'hii.-f Cuiiwr in llie SIotliCT — Th* NVi-.l of Knt 
Dtirin;; Pregnancy — Frwuiprir^v of Prrniatiire Itirlh — ^Tlic Fuiiflioii if 
tlic SlBtr — Retent AtWancp in I'lioripullurt — TIip CJiitslion of Coitiin 
During I*Ti'giianiT— TliB Neud of R«l Diirinj; Jjutntlon — Tlit- Mothrr'* 
Diitj' to Sitfktc IliT Child — The KPunomSc (juration — Tlie IKilv of tliv 
Sim* — Rix-enl Piopwuii In th« Protection of the Mollicr— T}ip Fnllacj' 
ol Stale Ntinwrifs. 

A uax'h sexual nature, like all else that is most essential 
in him, is rooted in a toil Hint was formed very long before hie 
birtb. Ill thii^. 06 \a wery other retpwt, he draws the elements 
of tiia life from )ii« iinccators, however u«w the recombinRtion 
nmy be and liovevur greatly it mav be modified bv subsequent 
conditions. A nian'a (leetiny stands not in the future but id the 
jiayt. That, rightly cnii§idcrcd. is the niu:tt vital of sll vital 
facts. Every child tliiii^ Iins u right to chooec \m own ancestors. 
N'aturally he can only do thin vicariously, through his parents. 
It id tlic mnut Bi rious nnd Hncrt-d duty of tlie fiiturp father to 
choose one half of the aiieovtrul and hereditary character of his 
future child; it Li the moat serinuji nnd sacred duty of the 
future mother ti) make a Biniilnr clioioe.' In ehooeing each 
other they iiavc betww-ii Ihcin choscii tlif whole ancestry «f their 
child. They have determined the stars that will rule his fate. 

In the part that fateful dct cm li nation has usually been 
made helplessly, ignorantly, a1nio«t unconsciously. It has either 

1 U i» nol, of courw. alwair* lilTally (rue timt euvlx piitent aim- 
jilifi rxnrtly hnlf thp hemlit.v. (or. n* ivi* kcc' aiiKinn nuiiunln Ki-ncrKlqr. 
ih(- utTfi|>riiig inny aometiineii npproach iiioiv licurlv to itav piiri.'nt, noTne- 
timt-* tft Ihc otli^. wliilp miioiiR plnnl*. n> Tie Vrlci nnd olliiirn hnvo 
thown, tlif heredity may Ii<- mill more un«qually divided. 



, ^lOO^ 



lH'en ^ukIviI l>r nii iiistiuct wliiili, on Itii; wliolt', Iiah worked a\it 
fairly wcl!, or coutrolliil by ecouoniic iutt-resU ol the ivsulU of 
which M iimcti cutmot ho siiid, ur li'ft to t)i« mks of Iovlt thnn 
betitiat cliances which can pifMliice nothing but evil. In tlie 
future we cannot but have failh — for all the Lope of humanity 
mutt n>8t on that faith — -that n new guiding impulse, reinforcing 
niiturul in^itiaet and becoininji in time an inseparahle aecom- 
pHiiiincnt of Jl^ will lead eivilixetl luan on bii> racial eoureu. -lu^t 
as in the past the race lia«, on the whole, been moulded br ft 
natural, and iii part (^oxuai, select inn, that was umonacious of 
iUelf and iguoratit of Ok cJids it rnuilc towanl«, to in l)iv future 
the race will be moulded by deliberate selection, the creative 
euerfry of Nature beconirnf; i-elf-coni^ci'iua in the civilized brain 
of man. I'hi^ it not a faith which lirni its source in a vague 
hope. The probleuin of tlie individual life are linked on to the 
fate of Die racial life, and again and again we tthall find a» we 
ponder the individual (juestions we arc here concerned with, that 
at all poiat« tlicy ultimately converge towards this Mine racial 

Since we hare here, therefore, to follow out the sexual 
relationships of the individual as they bear on society, it will 
be convenient at thi# point to put a«tide the ciueatiomt of nneet'try 
and to accept the individual as, with hereditary constitution 
already determined, be lice in liia mother's womb. 

It i* the mother who is the child's supreme parent. At 
various points in zoological evolution it has Becinod ])0!wible that 
tiie functions that we now know ta tliose of maternity would Ite 
largely and even ecjiially sliared by the male parent. Nature has 
tried various ei^pcriincnts in Ihis direction, among the fialic*, fur 
instance, and oen among bird#. But rcflfonablo and excellent 
as these experiments were, anil though they were aufficicntly sound 
to secure their perpctu^ition unto lliis day, it remains true that it 
WAR not along these line^ that ^Inn wa# di'8tine<) to emerge. 
Among at! (he mammal predeoeesors of Man, the male is an 
imposing and important figure in the early davs of courtship, 
but after ronce]>li()« has om.-c l>een secured the mother plays tlie 
diicf part in the rucial life. The male must be contmt In fomge 


TBK Mormtn asd hkh cnitt). 

aljronil nnd xtaud on guard wlien nt hniDfi iu tlic nnle'cliamber of 
the family. Wlicu r-he liaa ouce bwri iiiii)ryt,niuUil llie female 
uiiiuial angrily rf-jvcte tlic car\wi« i<hi> liiid WL-kuiiifl i^o cociuut- 
tiably before, oiid cv<'p in Stan th^- place of the fathi-r at tlic birtli 
of hia cbild i» not a notably di^ilied or t'omfartablL- one. 
Nature accords tbe male but a eecomliiry and cumpnratin'ly 
litimble p!«cc in tbo lioint-, tlie breed ing-iiUec of tlie nice; be may 
compEaisale bmisi'lf if be will, by making iidventvire and renown 
in the world outside. The mother is the child's supreme paa>iit, 
and during the period from concqition to birth the hygiene 
of tbe futare man can only be afTected by influences which woi-k 
through her. 

Fundamental and etementsry ns ii the tact of tlic prC' 
dominant position of the mother in relation to the life of tlie 
race, incontestable a* it niu^l wxin to all llioi« who huvo 
traTerecd the volumes of these Sludies up to the prcKont point, 
it niui<t be admitted thnt it has sometimes bi-en forgotten or 
ignored. In the great ages of humanity it bus indeed been 
accepted as a central and sacred fact. In clasnic Koine nt one 
period the hou«e of the pregnant woman was adorned with 
giirlands, and in A1hen« it wns on inviolable Fanutunry wborc 
even the criminal might And shelter. Even ami<l the mixed 
tnl1i]enee« of the «ulicrnntly vital times wbieh preceded the 
outburst of the Kenaissance, the I'deally beautiful womun, a.* 
pictnree still ebow, was tbe pregnant woman. But it has not 
alu-fiVH been ff>. Al the pntn'iit time, for inrtanec, tberc can be 
no doubt that we are but bej;inning to emerge from a period 
during wliieli tliiB fact was often disputed and denied, both in 
thcorj- and in practici-, even by women tbemselvi's. This was 
noUbly tbe case both in England and America, and it is probably 
owing Eq large part to tbe unfortunate infatuation which led 
women in these lands to follow after manritline idi-alu that at tlie 
pff^ent moment the inspirations of prngresB in women's move- 
niititii come mainly to-day from tbe women of other land*. 
Motherhood and the future of the race were sysfenifltieally 
I»oHttl«l. Paternity is but a mere incident, it was argued, in 
man's life: why should maternity be more than a mere inridcnt 

, , . Ca.'O'^IC 

in woman's life? to Kuglaiiil, by a curiouHly pcrvcrtiH] fonu of 
Mcxuiil at trad ion, wuiiiin kkto fi ra«ciiial«tl by the glamour tJtat 
Rurrounde<l imii llinl they licsiml to Ruppn«# or forgil nil ttie 
facts of organic cnnxiiliilion which made them imJikft men, 
cnunting their glory tut tlu-ir »hiiiiip, and sought the same educa- 
tion m nun, the Hiinio oecitpalious as nu-n, evcu tlio HUnc »|>ort^. 
As we know, there whs at the origin an clemeiit of Hghtnesji in 
thi* impulse.! It w(i.* abMlulcly right in w far ns it wiw a dnim 
for freedom from artitiiiiil ri'striction, and a di-niand for 
economic independence. But it became mischievoiis and absurd 
when it developed Into n pai<«ioD fur doing, in all rwiuvt*. the 
same thing^i an men do; Iiaw miaehit'vous and how ab.iunl we may 
realize if we imagine men developing a paeeion to imitate the 
wavf and ovnijitic>n.i of womrn. Fnvdoni is only good when it 
IB a freedom to follow the laws of one's own nature; it ceases 
to he frei'doni wlit-n it bceutncw a «Invi»h attiMiipt to imitate 
otiiere, ami wotdd be disastrous if it rould be successful. - 

At the present day Ibis movement on the theon-l icul side haw 
ceased to ihjiqhwi any representative^ uhn exert seriouit influence. 
Yet it« practical results are still prominently exhibited in Eng- 
land and the other coiuitries in wliich it has been felt. Infantile 
niortulity u cnonnou*. and in Knglnnd at all events \a only 
beginning to sliow a tetidcucry to diniiniitb : motherhood is with* 
out dignity, and the vitality of motheri' i* ^iK-edily iriishi-d, *o 

1 It hIiouIiI scnrrrly bf nrrriMnry In nay thnt to amcrt lluit molhn'- 
liood is a noman'ii *ii|)tcidl' futicliKti i> hy na iiiranii to «invrt lliut l><>r 
M>Uviti«H hIiouM W miiliiii^l to tin* Immi'. Tlint !■ an opinion wliicli 
may nou- be rrgurdtrd n> nlniunt rxliiiot n*i-ii nriioog Ihcme who tnoit 
glorify th« fii[iC'tion of Moiiinn m iiioilipr. A" Kiindrioh N'auTiiKiin nnd 
oHirrm hnvp very tint)' pciintiil out. ii nomnn i* not ndnjiinlclj- Piiuip]wii 
to tullil livT fiiuHiMii- 11" iiicttior Mild IritiiK'r of cliildit'ii iiiiIpxh ilie han 
Hvm! In Ihn world nnd ext-rdwd ■ vornilon. 

a"Wrrp llw i'iipui:itii'» <i( the bruin nnd the hcArt rquni in tlio 
IMM." Lilr Bratin (Dif Fntumlrage, piigr 207) well Myi, "Ihc cuUy 
of woRirn into pibllc. Dtp nniild hp nf no vnliir to hiiniBnity. and wniild 
evBn l«ad to a bIIII wildt-r t.'omp«titicin. Only \\\v rMognition tbit tli* 
cntirr naliiri- of uomnn !• dilTrri-nt. (rnm tlint nf ninn, that it Rlgnlflpil 
ft neir rivifyini! prini^ipli^ in litimiin life-, mnkm thr womirn's movnnMit, 
in ■nlta nf Ilir mWonrppt ion nf Its rni'mli't and ll« frUnd*. n soolnl 
lyvoiulkni" {!"* nlio Huvrlcick £1lii, J/an and Woman, fouitb tdilion, 

ieo4, »>]>M>taiir ch. xviU). 




thnl oftra llicy foniiut bo mtich iii> Bucklc tlieir intanU; ignorant 
girl-iiiolliere give their infaoU potatues and g'm ; on every baud 
we are told of the evidence ot dogcnvrucy in Die mux-, ur if not iu 
tiie riico, at all events, in tlie young individuals of to-day. 

It would Im out o( pine?, and noiild Icud un too fur, to diwuui 
hi-rc tfapH varioiui pmrtknl outi^oiiu-s uf (lin fooliitb Htti-iiiiit to bi-Iittle 
tit* iiiuii«ii»e ntvial inijMirUiice of motlicrliood. It U raougli licie to 
tou«h oil (he one point of the exevte of intiiDtilir mortality. 

in Knf(li>nd — whkli U not from llii- miclnl |<oiiit iit vivvr in « very 
niDcii iKort Miiilition tliiin most couiitrlrH. fur In AiintrU and Ruwbt 
the iiitant iiiorUlily U higher ittill. thaiiKl> 'U Aiittralk and New Zoa- 
lund muvh lower, but eIiII ciurasive — niorv Uiao unrfciurlli of the lottl 
nuuibtr of ilnitlia cvvry yvar is of iufaut^ iiiidFr one year of agn. In 
Ihr ojilahin of m«dintl OIGcith o( hiralth who nie In Iho bent |)0«ition t<i 
i«nn UD opinion, about oue~haI( of tliiii tnortulitj-, roughly ■penkliig. !■ 
•bsolutvljr prcifiiUbl*. Moreovar, it Lt doTibltiil whether there is any 
real motcnienl of decreaiM in thii niortulity; during the pn*t Imlt rvii- 
lury it lias «aui«tiines Hll^hl1>' liopn mid Hoiiietimot itlightly fallen, and 
thouf^ during the |wuit few rears Ihe gi'neral movcninnt of iiinrlHlily for 
chtldnrn under fire in KiiKl.iiid niid V^'ules has nliowii u li-ndc-ni'^ to 
diMTcaic, in I^ndon (acroriling to J. F, J. Sykr*. nltlioiigh Sir Khirlej- 
Murphy ban ntlrniptrd to uiiniiiiize the aigiiitieaneo of theitn lif^irn) 
the infantile niortiility mio tor llu- Hut three nioiithn of life aetually 
Totu- from (to per 1.000 In th» pmml li)Htl-lN»2 tu TS piT 1.000 in the 
period tSOitlflOl. (Tliia refers, it muit he rcmembeTcd, to the period 
befure the inlrodiiction Of the Not i lira I inn of llirtlui Aef.l In uny ease, 
nltliouuli th» pfnerat morliiUty ".ho\m a marked teniieiicy to iinprove- 
nirnt them 1* rmlaltily no adK|iiately eiirTe*ponilinR improvempiit in th* 
infanlile mortolity, ThU ia »curcely anrprisiug. wlitn we realixc that 

there hu" Im'iii i luiiige for the hpttr-r. hiil rather for Ihe worne. in the 

eonilllionpi under which our Infanta are horn and reaivl. Thus U'lUlain 
Hall, who hfta had nn intiuiale knowleditr c\tentliiix over fifty-six years 
of the slum" nt I.eedii. and hns weiffbed iind ineH^meil many tliouwimU 
of uluin children, l>e*ldni examining »^c^ 12<i.O0O l>nyii uml girU as to 
their fitiieM (or faetory labor. stiit*it (Wiffiali Mflifil Juumal. l>tober 
14. that "fifty years atfo the Mum mother wax mueh more sober, 
cleanly, dommtle. and motherly thnn ahft it to-dnyj abe wn« berwK 
hettw nourished and the ntmort nlu'ayA »urhle<l her ehlldrfn. nnd after 
vrantng thry r««4<leed more nutrition* hone-mnking food, and she was 
able lo prrpnre more wholeiomo food at home." The nyBleoi of com- 
pulMry^eduealion ban hit'l an nnforlunutr influence In exerting a itrain 
am th« parents and wontpiiing the condition* of the home. For. eifellent 

. .A3t.)OglC 



aa cducktion ia in iUelf, it i* not llir primary need of life, and lia* Ixvn 
nude comjiulBory lii(ur« lli« niorv «s«vutiiil lliingit of lid- liurr Imi'ii luiiile 
«i|uallv coiupuliKiT;. Huw abiolutdr iiiinireiuiiry this great mnTtalitj 
iJi may hv shonti, witliout froklng the g^ood rKampk of AuBtruliu and 
Kvw Zpaland. by nictvly compariDK nmntl Engllali town*; tbua while 
in Guildford llu- iiifautili- di-alh riiU' in do per Uioueund, in Buralem it 
i» 20S per lliousanil. 

It 1* Mimciinicii laid tJiat infantile mortality l» hr Monomic qii«»- 
tion, and tliat with iiiiprovpH)i>nt in vagM it would mvnnt. TIub id only 
true lu fi timit'id ex|i-nt nnd under n-rl*in enndltjoni. In Aii.ttmHa 
lht>r* i» no grinding poretty. Imt llir dfnttu of iiifunts under oiie yenr 
of age arc BtJII bclwMiii 60 and 90 pvr tlioiiMind, nnd uDt-lIiird of tlii* 
morulily. according to llooprr IBrilith iltrlivnt Jownnl. IIIOH, v-ot. II, 
p. 889). beini; due to the ijcnorniieo uf niutheni and the dislike to kiick- 
ling, is («»lty prevent able. 'I'lie I'tnjilojiueiit of mnrriod women greatly 
diminlihra the poverty of n fomily. but nolhing ean be wurw for the 
vet fa re of tile wutnun lu mother, ur fur the welfatu uf her child. Itoid, 
the medical officer of henlth for StalTordiihlre. whrre tlinrr are two large 
centre* of nrtiian popiilati'm with identical lieulth eonditionB, lias iiliown 
that in til* northern centre, wlier* a very liir|ri> numlier of womrn are 
ragBgrd In fnctoriea. ntllMiirtlKi Brv three time* as fteqitent UK in the 
soulliern ecntrc. uliere there ure pruclically no tmde employment" (or 
wonieni the (r«i|iieney of abiioTnia1itie« in nt«o in Ihe Mnw ratio. The 
auprrioHty of Jewt!>li ot-er Clirittiun children, again, nnd their lower 
infantile mortatlty, nepm to be entirely due to the (net that .leweeeee 
are belter uiother*. ''The .Jewinh children in the »luni»." says William 
Hatl (Britiih JfnfieatVoi'mar. fVtober 14. IflOi;), upenking from wide 
and aecurole knowledge, "were mperior in v-eight. in teeth, nnd in gen- 
wal bodily develnpinent. and they seemed le»(i »uweptiMe to Infeirtion* 
diteuae. Vet the«e .ten-i were orercrowded. they took little exrrcine. and 
their itniHinitiiry enn'rnnmenf wa* obvioun, Tlie (net »'««, their chil- 
dren were much better nnuri*heil. Tlie prej^innt Jeweiw won more enred 
for. nnd no doubt mpplled lietter nutriment to the fcrtm. After the 
rhililren ucre l"rn flO |>er irnt. (ccciied hreoxt'inllk, end during later 
childhood they were abundantly fed on Ixine-niaklng material; eggs and 
oil. (t»li, frmh vegPlnblea. and fruit entered largely into their diet." 
O, Newman. In hl« lni|>ortnnt and comprelien^ive liook on Infant Mor- 
latitjf, cmphaNxe* (he conclualon tbnl "flmt of nil we need a higher 
atandnid of phywlcnl inotlierhooil.*' Tlie problem of iufanlllc mortality, 
he dccluren Ipnge 250). U not one of utiiilnllon alone, or hnuilng. or 
Indeed of poverty n* such. "5«( l» niafnfy ■■ ;i[M(iaa o/ molhfrhood." 

The fuiidflnientnl m-cd of tlic iirpxtinnt woman 18 rest. 
Witliout n Inrgo ilcgive of uiatvnial rest tlierc can be no pupri- 

l)y-/":il>y ' 


Till: MOTllKIt ANt> IIKK ciiii.h. 7 

cSiunv.l Thf task of creating a man needs tJte whole of a 
woDian's beet cDt-rgiee, morr C6pc'cinlly diiring Uic llirce montlis 
before birtli. It nnnot t)o Kutiorclinatctl to thv lax on atrengtii 
involved liy inantul or mental tabor, or even strenuous social 
duties and BiDU8emeiit«. The numerous oxperirnonta and obtM-r- 
Ttitions which hav« bc«n made during rocrnt vonrfi in Jklntcrnity 
I!i)flj>tiak, more especially in F'rance, have shown conclusively 
that not only the present and future well-being of the mother and 
the eatie of her conlineDient, but the fnt^ of tlic child, are 
inuncn»cly influenced by rest during the last inooth of png' 
nancy. "Every working woman i» entitled to rest during the lart 
tlin* months of her pregmmcy," This formula wan adopted by 
the International Congress of Hygiene in IBOO, but it cannot be 
praotically curried out iwccpt by Hie couperutiun of the whole 
community. For it is not enough to »v tliat a woman ought 
to rest during pregnancy; it is the buainesa of the commonity to 
enmirc tiwt that reet is duly secured. The woman herself, and 
licT employer, we may be certain, will do their beat to cheat the 
community, but it is the community which euffers, both 
ccoDotuicatly and morally, when a w«miui caetd her inferior 
children into the world, and in ita own interests the commonity 
is forceil to control both employer and employed. We can no 
longer allow it to be anid, in Bouchacouil's words, that "to-day 
the drega of the human npecies — ^the blind, the deaf-mute, the 
degenerate, the nervous, the vicioiii^. the idiotic, the imbecile, the 
cretins and epileptics — nrc better protected than pregnant 

I'lnittd. «rtiu ni)i>t a1wH>'s Ik- liuiiured aa one of ihr fotuiden o( 
eugmin.. han, togrtlii^r with hia piipiU, done much lo proparo tli« vn^y 

I Tlie word "piieritMiItiiTe" wa« inveiilod bjr Dr. f'aron in lSfl(t to 
•l|ptr;p ttip nilliirp of (hlldirn nlUr birth. It «'ii» Piiinrd, Hii- distin- 
gniihnl Frmcli obntrtrkinn. wli". in 18(1,1. gave II n Inrjfrr »nd lni»r 
MgnlAcanoe hv npiilvlne It to incltidi- the ctiltiirc nf chiltltvn befurp (<irth. 
It ii now dctlnvd ■» "tlir m-icnpi! which ha* fur !tn pnd lln> srarph for 
thn kiiowl«dg" ri-lntivir to tlit^ Ti^nroiltiotion. the prpirn-ation. and the 
anietlorBtion of tlip humnn ract^ (POcliFu, I.a I'uirirtilluit araiil la 
SoUMnee, TliPw il* Pari*. IKORl. 

Hn Im OfounrMr (pp. iiO rt tftjA Iloucba»tirt Ims discuRH-d thn 
prebtcma of puvrlrulture at some iMigih. 

, , ...Coog 


i-BXcuoLytiV or skx. 

for the ncceptanoe of thU •tmple but important priocipti? by making clvat 
tb« grounda on vhkh II la biiMt]. from pi<>l<'ii|ftil iibrn'rvikiiuiii uii ilii* 
prpKnunt women of nil dnMi's I'inur.l liss •howii ™nplu«vcly tliot ivonicn 
wlio rvst (]iiri[i^ ptr^iuui-i- huiL' llriiT (■liilUrt^ii lliuu wuiiivu nho ilu nul 
rent. Apnrt from tlip uiorr grapml ci'iU of nork during pivgnunr^-, 
Pinurd fuiiud tliut during tlir later month* it Iiud a tcridviicv lu pri^ss 
the utvrii* down into lli<- pplvi». nnd ai> rniiHi tW prvniatnri! Iilrth ot 
undwolopnt children, wliiti^ liilxir was rondi-n-d auiir diQicult iiud dun- 
grroiia (bw. e.g., Pinntii, tiitwtte <!••» Wrtpitnuj'. Sov. 28, 1S03. IiL, 
Aniialr* dr nyni'trolugir, Aug.. 18081. 

Lelourupiix lixo hinilii-il lliu '|iifb(!ou whither repow during preg- 
nanry U ntH'eiuuin' for unninn H'lio*n prof^mloiinl work in only --liKlitly 
fatiguiiig. Hf i n veil i gut I'd 732 auct'Fsiivi? cuuIiiifmL-nli at tliu Cliniqiie 
Baudvlocqiin in I'ariii. We (oimd tlint tllT uomrn i'ng&;;i'd In (nt)gtiing 
(KcupAtioni (»rn*iinta, coolsn, tU:) uiid not ri-'ting diiting pitgiiunfy, 
produced rliltdien uilli an nvrrngi; wright of If,OM] grnmnirK; ll.> women 
tagagrd in otily alightl)- fatiguing oci'iiptitiun* (drr^dinukcrs, nilllinrrs, 
«tc.) and alM not renting during pTegnnnoy, had ''hililrnn with an hut- 
»ge wriglit ol 3.130 grammn. u siigiit but sigiiifionnt diffrn-nw. in vitw 
o( the fuct thill the noini-n ot the t'li-t giijii]i imtp liirgi' anil rvlmsl, 
whllB tho'p of tlif nwond group wt-re of uliglil nnd flc-gnnt build. Agnin, 
ixiuipuring gruupv uf uumrn »ho re>il-'d diiriug pn-KUiini'v. it whh (uund 
tliat the womrn ncoimtonird lo futigiiiii;; work bnd cliildron with nn 
ftveragc weight uf 3,310 giauiuieit. while Ihoxe ae('u^IuIued lu lent 
fatiguing work had childrrn with an arrrngo weight of 3,;ilH grnmmea. 
The dilTeTrnev iH'tni-vn repute mid non*reptiw U llius rontidernbtc. while 
It alio euflblM rol>u«t women I'xerdiing a fntigiiing ooi^npntion to rntrh 
up. though nut lu lurpans, the frailer wutnen e^i'tvining a tim (iitiguiiig 
oceupatlon. Wo mip, ton, that even In thn n>nipnra lively untaligiiing 
occupationa uf luilUnent. ete.. rent during pregnancy klill rvuiuini 
Important, nnd mnnot witely be diupcnied with. "Soeiety." I^'tuurneuK 
uonchidet, "must jjcuaritnteo re«t lo wtnien not welt ut[ ilurinu a |<<ii'l 
of prpgnaney. It will be repaid llic oo*t of doing no by the inereiued 
Tigur of the eliildmi lbu» ppHlui-ed*" (l^toumeux. Or t'tnflurnt'v dc M 
/Vofnitton <l« In Jf/r« gw U /'"iiU dr I'KiifaHl. Tlu'^se de Parin, INOT). 

Dr. Dweira-Bcrn-in {ttrnie Praliqut d'ObtUuiquv cl dt Ffdtalrit, 
1Ufl3, p. •tiOl, compaii-d fonr gruup* nf piegnnnt women (fervanls ttltli 
light laork. Mrvunis with heavy work, furm girls, dresunmkern ) wh(f 
rMlnl for three montlix before eanllnemetit with four group* similarly 
compovrd who look no rrtit before oonfin^iiirnt. In every group he found 
that tbe diflertnee in the awfage weight of liie child wiin markedly in 
fanir of liie tnunen who rcstnl, nnd it wa> notable that tlic grvutcrt 
differenc- w«» found in the mw of ilie farm girls who were probably Ui« 
Btatt robitat and aliia the hardest vorked. 



The ububI time of gntution raogn IwtwMii 274 Mid 290 i1d;^i lor 
280 to S9(l (Liyit Iroiii tli« Ian menstrual period I , and ucc««(oiitk]ly n tew 
dayii UiBgvr, tliougU ttirrc in diipiile a* to the Icnjcth of tlin PXtr«iii* 
Unit, Kliii'li BOiiiv ftuIlioiltk'H would (■xtcml to 3IH) duy*, or vwu to 320 
■lay* (Phiard, Id Rlohd'n /tHtrtiiHnniie ih- I'Sgiiiologir, vol. vH, pji. IM- 
im: Taylor. Xtftlirat Juittfiru'lewr', fl(lli rclitjon. p]i. 44. 08 r( arif.; 
L. 11, Allvn, "Prolonged Ge^lJllion," Amrtirait Journat Ob*letTie», April, 
I1IU7I. Ii |> jHiuililp, as Mllllnr xug]ti'Hti-<l in )H!)h in :i Thi'vi.> Av Kniii^-, 
llut dvilijalion triid« to iliorti-n tlir prri<>d of gi-ntmiim, nnd lliiit in 
*»rli<rr h)(<lh it wait li>ii)[rr tliuii it i« now, Sufli h li-iidFUi'y to prvinii- 
tarc birth nndcr the eliciting nt^roiis influeni^u of cinliimtioit would 
tliUH rorrv>i|<ciiiil. n» Itoiictiaeourl Iih> iiointnl out I La Gtaatrair, p. 113), 
to tlic nimllar rtrect of dom^t lent inn in nnlinalH. Tliv robust eoiititry- 
uonun becijiuni I runt funned into the inori- firutedil. but nl»o more frnxilc, 
town w'oriiaii wlio nrrfd« n ilrgrvi^ of i-iire nnd hyipeap wliieh llie cuuntry- 
wxininn with hi^r ni«rf i«*l*1iint nprvon» Hjiiitiii eaxi to Hottic I'xtent din- 
pcnw nitb, nitbuu);!) even nbi-. a* we mv. buITcth in tlie penun of Iict 
tliild. ami prubHbly in hi^r own [lerHOti. from Ihi^ rfTrctfi of work during 
prr^aut'v. Tlic siTion* nnture of Ibis civiliu'd lendi'ney to pr^matnro 
birth — of which Inck of n-'l In |>rfgiinnfy i«, hoivi'vi>r. only one of nev- 
*ral Important caniir* — i* shown hy the faH that Sf^rojiinn [Fri^.gutncit 
CotHpiirtr ilrit Caiurg dr VArrotii-hrinrnt Vrfmaltiti. TbPM.' de ParU, 
1007) fonnd lliat ubont one-third of Fr«neh birth* (32.38 |H^r cent. I ar« 
to a xreatrr or Ipm extent premBliirc. Prpgnntiey i« not n morbid eon- 
dilkiD: on tli« ronlrary, a prcpiuiit wumnn in n1 tli«' clininx ii( hiT moit 
nonaal physiologieal life, but nivinK to the Icnuion thun inralviHl alie 1h 
opoclally liable to aulTrr (rorn any iltgbt Nhivk or strain. 

It mii*t be iL-marknl tbnt Ibn incrcned IcndcMcy to premaluro 
Itlrth, wbil* in piKt it may hv du^ to gencriil ("leleneii'ii of clrlliMition, 
iy alio tb part due to very dellnitr and preventable vuum'b. Sypliili*. 
uleohri(i»ei. and atlemptH to ptoducp nbovtton arn nmang the not uncom- 
tium csuiwa oi premature hirth (wc, f.g.. Q. Y. McCleary. "The Inllu- 
nice of AntenBtal ruuditions on Infantile Mortolity," ffn'li*ft Jfediooi 
Journal, Aug. 13, l!)04l. 

PrMiMturc birth outcht In W avoided, liecuusr th« child born tin 
carl]' Is iwnifficl«^tly ccguipiit'd for tli« laik tK'forn him. .intenip, deal- 
ing irilh n<nrly 19.000 caies at the t.iiriboi>ii&re Hoxpilnl in I'nrix and 
tJi« Maternity, found, tliut rfkoiihij^ fium the dale of the la>t uieatlnu' 
tion, tlu-r« I* a dtieet rulntlon iielwern the wei)|;bt of the infant at birth 
•lid the l<«irtii of th* preftnancy. Tlie lon^r tli* prcananey, lh« finer 
Hit diiUI (A«tvn^. Bapporl tia Paiilx ilr* Knfanl» li la Dmrtf de la 
OroMnm, Tli»a«- ik Pari*. lOD.I). 

Th« frequency of pre»iutnr« birtli U probably aa gmt in England 
>a in Frane«. Ballantync states ( J/anual of AntmaKil PalkoUt^; Thti 


)y /,:. Ajt.)l.wlc 


rsYcuiiLoiiY or sex. 

Ftlwi, p. 4iU| that for pmftioil purpoiuv U\k fIn|u■^Dcv of prrnuitHro 
IftbttiB in uuitcrnit}* lH>i|iiUU may be jiut at 20 |H.-r ccnL, but Uiat if 
■II infainU trcigfliinx Ihm tliaii 3,l)0U )(rnininr« nr« to l>« tvgjtrdiHl as 
pnniuturv. it rimv to ll.S pi^r evat. Thnt (xvinaturo birth ii incrcaaing 
in Eiif{luiid M-cui* to hf indk-Hlul by (be tact tliut during tbe put 
twcntj'fli'c vcam there ho* btvn a ntfiuly rinp in tlic mortality rat' (ram 
p^vnlatu^>^ birth. Mutluary. who diuuMcs thii puinl and ronMd*^r■ tli« 
Incnuiv rnnl, «oiiclu<lra llmt "It urnulil app«sr that tlirri; Iih« been « 
diminution in the quality an well a> in the quantity of our output o( 
babJM" luxe slua a ili*cui»inn. in(i(Hlur<Nl by l)nw»uu Williams, on 
"Hiyaicnl LMcrtumtiuD," Utilixh ilrrlieal Journat. Oct. 14, 100&). 

It iiM'd Hcari't-ly bv [loiiiti'il vul that nut only in immuturity a 
caiwc of drtrriorution in tlir infant* that rarrirc, but lliat It alunv 
avn-ea unonnoiuly to <l«cr(««« Ui« number of infAatB Ihnl arc ablr to 
•urvin'. Thus (i. Ncwiuun atutua (lotr, eil.) that in nuwt latgi liu);i>»h 
urban ilintricta immaturity ia th? uiucf atuM! uf iufant Diortali^, fur. 
liLxhliitt iiljout 30 jHT rrnt. of the infant dcnthi) f-vrn in Ijondon (IvtiTi);- 
tOD) Alfred Ilurrii {Urilith Ufdic-al Journal, Dw. 14. 10071 llndu tliiit 
It b rVHjioiiiililn (or m-arly IT \iev cent, of the infantile doiiUix. It it 
MtlmHliMl by Nvmiian thnt about lialf of the moll)«r» of infants dying 
u( inimulurity Huirvr from tiiarkfd ill-lit-nlth and poor phyniquei ttipy 
are not. tliiTrforr. Illlnl lo bo uiotlicrB, 

Heat iluriiiK prvgiiBucy in a wry powerful ag.ut iii prermting prp- 
mature birth. Thus Dr. f^urraulc-lyjurifi hun cumpured 1.550 prfpinnt 
women nt the .Voile Miehrli-t who rp»led before conflnrment with 1.SS0 
WDTiien cwiillned nt the IlOpitJil IjiriUiiiti^ie who hud mjoycd no sudi 
periml o( reit. Sli* found that the averai^e duration of pregnuney wbi 
at lejint twenty duya shorter in the liillir group «MniP. Sarraute-Lmiri*. 
!>'■ rinftiirrur d<i Rfpon »ur la Ihiric de la QcMtation, ThCic dc ParU, 

l^yliofT han inniiilcd on th<! abnolutc nweaMty of r«at during prcg- 
nnnty. oa wrll for the Mko of the noman hericlf a* the hurden ahe 
carrlcH, and »hon» the eril iranlla which follow when reat in ne^tlected. 
Kallwny Iravflin]!. liovme- riding, hiej-eling. and »|re« are nlno. Ley* 
bofT bcliei-eii. liable to bo injiirioUK to the euiiroe of prcgnunty. l^i-ybolT 
rtvogiiiws the diflieullies nhich proorealing wnmen nrr ptnerd under by 
prewnt indualrial eondilion*. nnd eiinelitden thnt "it !■ lirf[enlly necM- 
aary to prercnt women, by Inw, from working diirinK the Init threo 
monllia of prcgnaney: that In <^'ery cliotriet Ih're iiboitld 1<e n maternity 
fund; thnt during Ihli en(orr*d n-M a woman should ri"eeivn the namo 
•alary •■ during work." Ilti addi thnt the children of unmurrjed 
motbtr* should be t-nrvd for by Ihp 8tatp. that thrrv Khonid \v an right- 
hmiri' day for all workern. and thnt no ehildren under sinlwn nhould be 
■llowod lo work IE. U-yboff, L'ByfUite de la Orottettf, ThCae dr Parla. 



P^rruc utaLrn tlmt at luit two inoiiUii' rmt brforr conIln«mciit 
•liould be maiii! i.viii|iulMjrv. arul Uiut iluTii^g llib |wriod tin- wxnuaii 
tliniild r«opivi> an tndrmnlty rtgulaud b,v Uip SUU. 11c !« ut opiuiuu 
Uiat it Khoiild tklce Llic fftnn of compulMt; luvuranoc, to vlilcli i lie 
worker, ibe vrnplo^er, and the Htato alikv rontributcd ll'erriie, A—itt- 
OHoe aiw /*nninet Bnetinte*, Tli4*e d* I'ariR, lUOA), 

It !■ probnUIn tluil diiTtn|t tlir earliiT montli* of pri'ipiancf. work, 

U mt MCDCHivcly heavy and rihausting, liun Utile ur nu bnd ptTw-ti tliii* 

Baechimont iOocvmenlt poar wn-ir rt VHintniv: itr In Ptiiriculture 

Inlraut^inr. Tlifne d* l'»ri». Ifli'Hl foiitid thnt. »hik iIhtp nnn a great 

fpln In the weight of childrm of iiiothRrt who biiil mtvd for thrc« 

■lonlhn, th«TV »ma nn eorreiponding gnin in the rhililr<-n of thoM 

Inolhvrii who had tfutod (or InnKrr prrlodn. It i> dntinfc Iha liut tliraa 

BHMitha tliUt rr««ilDni, npuBe, the otqaation of the obligatory Toutine of 

imphn'mnnt bMoinn niwuutry. Till* U tho oplniim nf Plnnrd, the ehlnf 

L'AUthurily on tlii* IIlutt^^■ Uanj. however, feurlng thut ecruiiuiiiie and 

flnduatrial coudlllonti tender mi Iou^a jieriod nf rrat too dilHriilt of finic- 

|-UeaI Bttainnwnt, are. with Clappier and U. Newman, mnient to demand 

months B« a mloimunii Salrat only B»k« for aw iriiinUrs ro«t 

'baforv (onflncmenl, the woman, whether married or nui. rect'ivinR a 

pacUDiiarj indenmily during thi* period, with m^ieiil mrr and dru)^ 

Ut*. Ballaotyn^ tlfanual of AHlenalal fallwloyy: The. I'lrttit, p. iTi). 

an well nn Niven, aluo asica only (or one nioulh'a Mmpulwry rcit durinff 

^JpvgnaDCf, with indemnity. Arthur livlme, howtv^r. taking a incirL- com- 

pyrwheMitW view of nil Ihe (nctor* invnlved, eanctude* In a vnlitnhle pnper 

on "The Unborn Child: It* Carp und Ita BigliV (/Irtfin/i JUnfimJ 

Journal, Ati;i. tt. lOCiT), *'Tlie lm|HirUnt tiling wmild be In prohibit 

[|ir«gn«Dt wonim from going 1o n-ork at nil. and it U ai imporljint from 

tlie standpoint of the child Ihnt tliU prohlliiliim »li«uld include Uio earl]' 

U the lat^ months of prt^anry." 

In England liltle progrcno haa yet bevn made a^ repirda Uii« ques- 
tion of mt diiTirig pregnnnri-, even »« rpRardu the ednention of ptililie 
opinioit. Sir William Sinclair. I'lofnuor of Ubitelrk'n ut the Vieloriu 
University of Manchi^U-r. haa piibliulivd 1 11107) A Plfit f'rr Hilabliili- 
img i/uniWpaJ Ualrmiiif Unmet, Ilallantyne, a grent Dritinh niithorlly 
on th« etiibrrolo^- of the eliihl, ha-t piildiNJieH ii "I'lea for a Pre- Matern- 
ity Uoqtital" \Biiiith MrJieal Journal, April It. tU'H). hnii (incp givpii 
*n Important leoltite on the siibjret (BrUiah iledical Jauinai, Jan. 11, 
lOOei.andlian further dlviinied Ihe uialter In hi« Ifnaiiffl of AnteSatal 
PntMosf! TheF^luf (Ch. XXVIII : he U, ho«-cvcr, more intereated in 
the eatabli aliment of hoapltala (or th« diM«HM of pregnancy Ihan in Ihe 
wider and more fundamental quMtion at rmt for all preftnant ivnmen. 
In England there arc, indeed, a few InHtltutions which receive iiiiiiiiir- 
rted wom«n, ultb a record of good conduct, who nn: pregnant tor the 


P8TCH01.00Y OP SEX, 

flrst tiuii", (or. us BotipIih court rnniirk.*, unciciit BritUli prvjtidlccn aro 
vt^lKiHi^il Id aiiv iTivroy bcitiji >!ii>\vii (u wuiiicii wlio ore rtciJiriita ui 
committing the crimp of ennrpjitjan. 

At i>rr>i>rit. iiiJii'd. it h only in Kraao« tiiut thv iirgi^nt nn'd i>f 
tnil during iln' Inllvr imtnlliit o( )ir<-Knnni-r Ii>ih iK'ni dmrly rwiliztHl. uutl 
on)' scrioua nnd oflifuil utli'Hi|)t» mudt- to |)^ovidI^ (or it. In nn intprp»t> 
ill); Pnri» llic«i»i (Or ta /•u/ricii'fnr*- oi'uiif /<■ Vniuant-r, 191)71 ('ia|)[iipr 
hm liroiijtht togctlii-r much informntion licniinn on Ihf cITortii now bcinit 
mitili- lu drat pru(.>lii>a]ly nilli Ihix qui."tli<in. TliTf are iriniiy AiiUt in 
I'nrl* far jiri-gniint women, Ona o( llin Ix-^l la t1i<< Axilc Mlrliclnt, 
(oiindpil in ISB.^ by Hit .Xs^istmiCL' Piibtiqiiv di? I'urii. Tliii ii u sniia- 
tiiiiiim for |irfgnnnt unmi'n uhn linvp Tonohi'd it )H-rlo<l at im>v"ii nnit it 
luilf montlis. It i> numinnlly rentrictnl to the admiuion of Firndi 
ivointfQ wlio Iinve been domicilnl (or u j-mr In Purlii, but, iu practie«, It 
nppoarM Ilinl uonipti fmin nil pflrt« ot frnuoe arc Tmeirnl. lV->' art 
rmploi-ed in light niid orciiiiionn) work lot thrr iiintitulinn, IwinK paid 
(or tliU work, ntid nrr iil«> (iccu|iiisl In niakliiK pIoIIic* fnr tbu o^tpwlwl 
bolty. Miirricfi nnJ iinmiinriwl women out ndmiitrd olilif, nil n-flmnn 
twiUK i>i|il.ll (roiil tliv |H>ilit r>f vIrw of mollirrhooit, mid indpt-d Die 
■nnjorlty at tlio wonim who come to llip AmIp Mlchrli^t sue unrannini, 
■uini- \tv\Dfc iiirla nho iinv« tvon (riidifi'd i>n foot Irom ilrittuny niid other 
remote iinrtu of Fmncr. to Mrk roncculmriit from thrlr frimdn in tho 
hOBpit«bi« sM'luMon of lliew T^tu)K- ill tlie gr^t city. It ia not lli<r 
Tpn't ndi*Rntnjci> nf tbn(>- ln>iltiutlniiii ihnt llicy Bhicld iinmnrrloil mother* 
nnd tlipii oftniriog Itom thr mnntfold criln to wlilHi Uii-y urr i!\pO!ml. 
iind thus l-iid !•> •iMTraiH" ■*rinii> and HiilTi-rin|[. Iii nddilinn to tha 
mnlirnlty [i>(iij(p4. thiT*' nrr inatttulioni in Franw (or a«isling nilli 
hclji und ftdvicp Uwm' |iri-|;iiuiil »i)tn*n «'iii> [iri'fT to rftnain ftt home, 
but are Ihu* rnnlilcd to moid llic nprpwity (or Hiidup domtintic Ulxir. 

Tllcrc Diigbt to he no nmunT (>( doubt Unit ivhi-Ti. nit h Ihn faM 
tO'iUy in OUT oun unil Kiinr othir nuppOM-dly i-lvitizrd rounlrici. muther- 
bood outitdp uuirriap^ i-i acvountnl nn.nliiioqt a crimp, tbcm is the w&rj 
lfri>ittMt iienl for ndiijiint* provision (or tinmnrripd vomni who nrc 
filMUt ta beennie Tiintlifrn. pniibliti){ Ihi>m lo riwii'«> ghfltfr mid i'>ir« in 
Mtcrtvy. and to prriprtf their upK-rmpcct und mmmI pnution. Thi* Is 
Btmi'uiry not only in l)ip iiiti-rMilH of huininiity niid public Mtinnmy, but 
nlM>, a* <■ too oftrn (or)tnttPn, in tbe Intprcul* of mornllly. (or it in 
(tM'liiin that by thv nc)cl«'t ti> (iintiih sdniuiitc proi-iiioii of thin nnturo 
nionirn are itrivrn to indtnticidv aud protititiitlnii. In porlipr. mont 
liuniunp duyii, the ((cnciral providoin for the HTcret rwpplion iind iiitc of 
illrKiUmatn in(nnt8 tnis uiiduubtrdly iiioul lipii^ficial. The Hippretsion 
o( the medion'al method, whieb In France took pini'e (frndually between 
isn and 1H(12, M to a gT*at Incriiane In Infanllclde and nlxntion. and 
wsa a direct encouragement to crImA and immorality. Id ISKT ihn 

llg-.v-nCiy ' 



CDDiiril G-i-tt'tTat of tUe Seine wiuglil to rrpliin- tin- prrvnlling Dcglirt ij( 
UiiH uiallrr liy tlie adojitiuii of mure (iiilighlcnt'il iiU-nn ninl (uuiideii n 
hureua jecrcl rf'aiJHiiKKJDri d.r iirpRiuiiil moiihti. Sinf* tlien tiotli the 
klMndoiinipnl of inrxnln sinl hifHiilIi-iJe Iinvi- j^iiilli,' diininithciL thuugli 
titty are litcrdaoiiiK in 1li»w t'N'l* ■>( Fmnri! whii-h povtvin do rtmilillcH 
or till* kItuL It I* v'iilcly liflil tlmt tliR Stall- hIiouIiI unify tlip suntngp- 
mrntii far ■wuritis stcrct moUTiiilT, nnd ilioiiM. in il> own iiiU'mts. 
iinijprtjikr the €xpcii»n. In IW14 t'reiiph Inw riiiiur<4l iIip protwliim of 
untnBiiit'd imilWrj by KUfltniilrciiiK their n>ct>-t. but il failed to orsnnixe 
|th* goieral mlablialimeDt of ■M'l.'n-t intttrrtiit ie?-. iiivl liiin left to ilij('tOT4 
FiW pli>nM>iln)[ part In Ihlni k""! >t><l liiimnne (iiililir uork (A. MaitlBrcl- 
Bniae, Refusm, Malrrnil&s, Burraua d'Admimioa Snrrrln, commc Mni/mii 
Prfttrttilirtt drt InfonliriJr, Thi^se i!e PuiiH. lOiM). It U not uniiitih* 
tbf kiut bentlltB of tiif falling birtli thut it lias lieljivd to Htiniiiint« 
thin bcnclicpnt morenienl. 

The iK:Vt'lo|iii)(ait of an uiduotnid tjtteaa whii'h Bubordinates 
Hie human li»il\ njul lli<? Iiunmii !)oii! to the thirst Tor gnlil, Iimh, for 

^a time, ditmi^wd frum t-uctul coo^idciut ion t)if tntcn-tiU of tlu^ 
race urul even of tlie iiidividuul, but it mui^t bo ri'ini'inbered that 

l&ia Iiaa not been atwuys and pvcn where so. Altlioiigh in soim> 
irta of the world tlie women of savaj;'^ peoples work up to the 
lime of conrmenicnt, it must be remarked that the conditions of 
irork in nvage lif« do not rcscniblo the strenuoua and continuous 
labor of niiwlcni factorien. In timny jiartj" of the world, how- 
ever, women art not uUowod to worlt Imnl duriiig pregnancy and 
ererr consideration ie eliown to Lliein. Ttn^ \s »o, for instance, 
among the I'ucblo Indiam^, and among Ibi- IiuHun* of Hoxico. 
Similar care is taken in the Carolines ond the Gilbert Islands 
ad in many other regions all over the world. In Bome plat-eK. 
tromen are afeUidiii during pregnancy, and in others are com- 
pelled to otwerve many mort; or leas excellent rules. It U Ime 
that tl» auigni-d eaiise for tlie*c rule* idt frequently the fear of 
evil epirity, but they nererthelefs often preiiervc a hygienic value. 
In many parts of Uie world the discovery of pregnancy h the !<igii 
for a festiva! of more or lesa ritual character, and much good 
advice ia given to the expectant mother. The modem Mn«»el- 
inans are careful to guard the health of their women when preg- 

. .Cnioglc 


pKTrmn.n(iv dp sex. 

tuiit. und »o an' tliG Cliiiiifc' Kvcn in Eiiropp, iu the lliirtociitli 
wntUTv, 08 CiappiiT mitcs, imliiatiial oor|ioruiioiis S'>inetim<« had 
regard to this mattiT, and wmild not allow n-omeu to work during 
pr^DXiicy. In Jcoliind, wIrtl- nuich of tlii' priniitiro life of 
ScaudinAvifln Kiiropc it #lill protorvod, gn-nt privautions are 
tAk«D wilh preRnant women. They must lend a qtiict life, nvoid 
tight ^nnc-ntK. bo iiiodyratL- in eating niul drinking, take no 
alcohol, be eafoguarded frum all «h<x'k)i, white their husbands and 
all otlicnt who surround tliein muel trmt them with cunsiderution, 
save thfin from worry nnd utwiiy bear with thi'iii patii-ntly.- 

It is necpKsary to eniphasixe this point bccaupe we have to 
renliie that the modem nioveniOHt for surround uig (hi- pregnant 
woman with tenderness and care, so far from beinR Ihe mere 
outt^-'ime of ci\-ilizcd softness and dcgeneraey, ii*, in all probabililyi 
the rrturn on a higher ptime to tlii> sane practice of tJiose raeea 
which laiil the foundations of human grcatneet^. 

While ri*t it the rardin*) virtue impnaod on * woman 
during the later months of pregnancy, there are other pointa in 
her regimen that are fur from iinim|>ortftnt in their bearing on 
tho fate of the ehild. One of thew U the (piei^tion of the 
mother's use of aleobol. Vndoubtedly alcohol has been a cause 
of much fanutieisni. [{ut the declamatory extravagance of anil* 
al«ohalijttfl muitt not bliod us to the fact that the cviU of alcoliol 

■ The importanre of snteaatul pni^ririilliire wn>t hill^ rncoKolMd 
in Clilna A iboiiHnnil yrnrs tgp- Tlilif Almlninp Clioii)! ut»U- ut Iliiit tlin 
ooncpTning llir (tlti«iition of llir cliild: "KTm bvfurp Mrlh hit iHliicatlm 
niaj bfttlni ami. tliernfnri'. the prmpcvtlrc mollipr »f old. when lying 
dawn, lay atniij^ht: wlicn nittin)i; down, nut upriglil : nnd vrlirn ulano- 
Inft ■tood rrcctl SIib would not tiutp >trnnt(i> llnvaro, nor liikr« any- 
thing to do with iiiiritniilinm: if lier fcc'd wcr* not eiit itrniKht nha 
would not Put It, «"d it licr mnt »■■«• mil -I't Ntraiitlil. elitf ironld not 
■it upon it. Sli< would not took nt unr ohji'clionabia nijiht. nor linun 
to any oli)eclIonnbl# sound, nor utter any rude word, nor Imndk any 
impure thing. At nl|[ht »ho atudinl ■oma cnnonlcnl wnik. by day ahe 
oocupiM )ii>rHeir with Mr«nionii.-<t and muMP. TlivrvfurF. livr •»□■ wrrra 
anripit and pminrnt for tlirir latent* ond vjrfurn; 'ueli waa tlio mntt 
of Mnlvnninl trninliiK" <H. A. Uilps, "XVoman in Clitnnv Literature." 

A'tnrrrcnfA Crnlurf/, Not.. IBO*). 

a Max Rnrtol*. "Idandlsehcr Uranch," rtc.. Xfilmrhrifl far Klhr^l- 
ogie, ISOO, p. 63, A HummirT of (tie (^iittom* of varimm jHWplvH in 
rMnnl to prdODanKT U rivtalnr PIom and Bnrlrlit, Uat IVriti, Soct. 


.;) ,v.:...yCiOOgle 

HRR cnn.D, 


are r«al. On Uie reprodudivi* [jroc^M wjKictally, on IW niaui- 
iiiiirT gliiuds, ami mi tlic chilil, nlcolinl )i>ik iin niTititing nm) 
ile^eii«rattve intluooce williunt nny t'onijx'nsutorv mlvantiif^i'K. 
It has been provtiJ by i-^puriiiu-ntti on luiimiilD nnd oWrvntiona 
on thu htimiin i>u1ij«ct tliat nlcuhnl taken liy the pre^^ant woman 
pttBMfl froelr from tlie mati^nml circulntion to ItM^foHal eirculu- 
tioo. Ffre luus riirtlior »!iown tliut, bv inji-ctind ah-nhol and 
nMehrdes into hen's ogjpi (liirinft incubation, it is poMible to 
rause arrest of dwelopnii'iit iind iiiiiirnniiiition iit the rhick.' 
TW womiin who !« liMiring lien-hild in lior woiub or ruckling it 
at her breast would do well to remember that the alcohol wbit-h 
may he ImmileMi to beisclf i» little belter than poison to the 
imtnatTire beinjt who deri?efl noiiriahment from tier blood. She 
tiliould confine henelf to the very liglitvtt of alcoholic beverai^ 
in very niod«rat<- amountj* iind wotdd do better rtill to abnndon 
th<»e entirely and drink milk inetcad. She ia now the 8ole 
sour^-o of ttie diild'a life imd *li« aiiiiiot be too scrtipiilous in 
crcatin); around it an atmoephem of purity and health. No 
after-inllui-nco fon evtr compensate for mi^takei- made at tliis 
time. 3 

What is true of alcohol is equally true of other potent drnga 
and potBona, whieh «)iou!d all 1>e avoided so fur as poesible during 
pregnancy becautw of tin; harmful influence they may directly 
exert on Uw embryo. Hygiene is bettur than dnigB. and care 
hf excreiwd in diet, whiih should by no mcan^ ho exoes- 
Jt in a mistake to suppose that the pre^ant woman needs 
conoiderablv more food timn usiinl, and there if much reason to 

I On Uip InAimiM of nlcnhol diirinK prrgnanry on tli* embrT'O. aM, 
rj»., G. Nm-nian. tttfani HorlatUi/. pp. 72-T7. W. C. Sullivan [Alcohol- 
im. 1(106. Ch. XI I. Miiiiiiinrinni l)ii> i>vl(1enci> i^hoiving lliut nlmhol is a 
[ni-tor in litmkau ilfgeneration- 

iTIirrff (a (•vi-tj r«aw)n to Ix-liwc tliat tin- Hlruhnliim of the nothcr'a 
IhUwt inny inijMiir lici ■bilily u* n mother. Itunffr tl)ii- Zuiuhmend* 
f'nMiski-il iter Fronen ihre Kiaiter :u Stdlrn. (Iflli rctitioii. lOOjI. from 
«n im-Mtigntion cxtptidinc mir 2.000 (nmiliM. ilixd' tlint clironlc alco- 
liolic polaonlnK In thp fntli^r (« tli"- clii.-f cmi-e of (he itiiught«T*B inAbilHj 
to mirkle, thi* iaabiii(_v not imuiillr bring miovrrr-it in lubtiHiiiftit grn- 
rntion*. Iliiiiii<i ban, b^wovir. lM»n f.]i[ioiii'il hy lir. Ajm'"* Bhilini. "l)i» 
Slitlungtnot." Zeiftehrift fUr Borialf Mrdiein, 1908 (fully •ummarixcd 
br b*neir in Bt*uat-frribleme, Jan., 1900). 




P8Y<mOI.00V r»F flKX. 

Miovv not only limt a riili meat dii-t li-iids to cause sterility 1 
timt it is nisa uiifavorablo tu tlie development nf the diiki 
the womb.* 

How far, if ut iill, it U often aKkeil, sliould scxit»1 iiitenoursir 
be eonttnue<} afler fectmdation lins been clearly ascertained 1' 
Tliig bn« ii(>tiHway» bt-en found au ea»y quertion to auawi-r, for 
in the human i-oupli^ many lom-iderations combine to complicate 
the answer. Kven the Catholic Ihcologinne have not been entirely 
in agreiiiierit on iUi* point. Clement of Alexandria said that 
when the seed had been sown tlie lielil must be left till harvest. 
But it may be concluded that, as a rule, the Church was inclined 
to reheard intereouroe during pregnancy m at moet a vcuiul «in, 
provided there was no diinger of abortion. Augustine, Oregory 
the Great, A()uinac, Dens, for iuKtancc, tieem to be of this mind ; 
for a few, indeed, it is no sin at all.- Among animals the nde h 
simple and imiforiu ; us mon xt the female is impregnated at 
the period of testnia slie absolutely reject,* all advance of the 
male until, after birth and iKclutJon are orer, aiioUier period of 
lentni* (NTum. Among savagt'* the tendency J* hw» uniform, 
and sexual nbslinence, when it occurs duriii); pregnancy, tends to 
beccnne tciw a Dstural instinct than a ritual observance, or a 
custom now eliiefly supi»orteii by sapentitions. Among many 
primitive peoples abstinence during the whole of pregnancy is 
enjoined beeantic it is believed that the semen would kill tlic 

Tie TaliMid ts unhiTonble to raltii* diirhiit profpintwT-, «nil thr 
Koran proliibiita it during the ulmlf of tli* j»ri.«1, aa >vpII hh during 
•tickling. Aninng tU« llindiu, on the athvr hand, inttrrmurH! ii con- 
llnund tip to til* l»»t fortnight of prrgiianry, aud it li evi-ii bvlif-vHl lliat 
(he injected semen help>i to nottrlith t1i« vmbri^O (W. D. Siithcrlnnd, 

1 Sh'. r.fl.. T. Arlliiir IWiup. "TIip fnlmrn rhild."" BriiUh Mixlinal 
Jottmat, .\\ig. 24. I!>0T. Xiitrilion itlboiild. of courM:. he iid(V|tiatr. 
No*1 V*t«n liii» uliowti ll.nni-rl. .Iiily t. 10031 thnt drfM'Uvp nutrition 
of the prrgnunt iroman diniiniBlim tlie wei(;)it of tlie ofTiprlng, 

2 D*brcjni>, Mv/-hialogir. p. 277. Ami from Uie PiutMtant «idc 
ace Niwthnrt'c frhrUlianily and S'x Problrmf. Ch. 1X1. ntho pprinilo 
•rnnnl InfnvniiiM' during prcirnnncT. 

!iSm- j\p|M>nilix A to tli« third vnlumo of these Btudiai; alio PIou 
and Bartolii, loe. eil. 




' da^ AIIIn)[ iinil tUt' Vulkimciliziii iint'T tloii Haiiani StW* 
Unih<-nk." Miinehritfr itrfli^nitirhf Wnfhenupb'-ifl. Nvs. 4S and U. 

lUOO). The gnat IiiilUn pliyslrinii Sunrutn, liowirvpr. wai oppowd Ut 
a>i(u« during pTegnanrj'. uiid Hit Cliinpiie uri> pnijilintlcnllv on tlir nanut 

As men liavo emerged from liarbaristn in tlie direction of 
civilintioii, the «nimul inxtimt of rcru«nl nftiT iinprfptnlion 
hSR l»«i 0"niplet<'ly liwt iit wumpn, while at tlie same time both 
evsea lend to become inditTercnt to those ritual restraint; wlik'Ii 
at an mrlicr iierim) were nliiioKt a* liinOing an instinct. Sexual 
intercotiniG Ihuii came to be jintcticoH after iiii{)rr)^ntinn, nincli 
the same tta before, as piift of ordiuury "mnritul nghte." though 
HoiiiKimit) tii«re hm reinaiiipd ii fnint »U!i)>ieion, reflected in the 
hesitating attitude of the Catiiolic I'lmrxh already alluded to, 
that *Heh intiTcoiir»M> may be a #inful iudulpfncc, Morality is. 
hovcvcr, called in to fortify thi» indulgence. If the huttband » 
shut out from marital intcrcoiiTBe at this time, it ia argued, he 
will fux'k ovlra-maritnl jntercouwe, n* im!ci*d in *i)me parts of 
the world it is refognized that h« legitimately may; therefore 
the iiitoreetH of the wife, anxious to retain lier huvbund's fidelity, 
nnd tlio inlereal* of Chrivtian morality, anxiouK to uphold the 
inatitution of monogamy, combine to permit ti)e continnation of 
coitus durinp prx-gnniKy. The ciwtoiu hii* hct-n furthered by the 
fact thnt, ill eiiiiixed women at all cvcntti, coitus during preg- 
nancy is uaaally not less agreeable than nt other times and by 
»om« women is felt indrci! to he even more agreeable.' There i« 
aWtiie further consideration, for those couples who have sought 
lo pre\'ent conception, that now inlercourw may be enjoyed with 
impunity. Froiu a higher point of view Hueb intereourse may 
also be justified, for if, as all the finer moralists of the sexual 
impulse now l>clie\'e, h>vc hue its value not only in *o far as it 
in<lii«<fi pmemtion but also in so far as it aids individual 

■ Tliim one Uily wrilnt: "I liuv? only Imd one child, but I mny 
ib; thot during; prognnucy llie d^Airc for union nun mucli otmnf^r, for 
Itw whole llm*'. Uian nt nny other period-" Itouclwoourt (La (VriMMMNe, 
pp. ISO'lSSt itntM lli«l. n» o t\i\v. «pxuul d««ire U not diminished fcy 
pregnancj', and i« McntionNll]: incrcatcd. 

>. ^...■. 




development and tho iiiutiiul g«u<l nud liannouy of fbc united 
couple, it bccoKiuK inoriiHy right during pifgiiiiric-y. 

Front an early period, however, ^eat authorities hava 
decUred themselvca in oppoeition to the custom of pructicing 
coituH during pregnancv. At the end of the lirst century, 
Snninuti, tlic firnt of great gynatologict*, etaleil, in his treatise 
on Ihe diseases of women, tJiat » intercourse is injurious 
throughout prcgimncr, because of tlie movement impurti'd to the 
uterud, and especially injurious during the lRtt«r montliB. For 
more Iban sixteen hundred years the question, having fallen into 
the IiandK of the tbeologiaus, eeenis to liave been neglected on 
Uie medical side until in 1721 a dii^tinguijlK'd French obstet- 
rician, Mauricean.. slatt'd that no pregnant woman should have 
intercourse during ihc last two months and that no woman sub- 
ject to miscarriage should have intercourse at idl during 
prtgoancy- For mure thun a century, however, Mauriceau 
rcmuned a pioneer with few or no followers. It would lie 
i neon veu lent, the opinion went, e^'cn if it were nccAMary, to 
forbid intercournf during pregnancy.' 

Uuring reoent», nevertheless, there hfiA been an 
increasingly strong tendency among obstetricians to epeak 
decisively concerning intercourse during pregnancy, cither by 
condemning it altogether or hy enjoining great pnidence. It is 
highly probable that, in accordance wth the elaiwicid experiments 
of Ilareate on chicken nnbryoa, nbot-ks and disturbances to the 
human embryo may also produce injurious effofts on growth. 
The disturbance due to coituA in tlic early stages of pregnancy 
may tluis tend to produce malformation. When sueh conditions 
are found in the children of perfwtly hciilthv, vigorous, and gen- 
erally temperate parents who have indulged recklessly in coitus 

I Thin "iiJwiiivcnicTiiw" rrmoinM to ilny n »tiimbliii([l'l<H-k with many 
»x»1lciit aiiUioritiv«. "Exn^pl wlii>n llicrr i» u t<.-ti(|i:iii'y tu miieur- 
rUga." Miyii KoHmnnn {Scnatat And Kaminer. H^aUh nnd /)J'f-rMp >n 
Itrlatitjii lo Marriagr, vol. i. ji. SS71. "<vc mii«t hv wry Buurjed in 
ordrrin^t •bitlnpnci' from IntcriwurMi dining pri-pianey," and llallniilj'nv 
iThr F'rUtt, y. 475) rautiou'ly Tptiinrkfi tlmt Ihe miration in diflieult 
to dncidn. Port-t nl«o (Din Snrartir Frarir, foiirlh pdltion, p. 81), Vfho 
U not pr*pArtd l« MdvArni^ romplple ■otiinl iiMinencp during ■ noiinal 
(■rcgnancy, ndmils tliat it is u rotlier dinieull question. 

IJ .y !'--.iOi 




duim'ibe enrljr irtageit of pregnsnry it is poeeiblc Uiul suvli 
<-aitui Iiaa acted oil the ciiiljrvo in llio sitinc wiiy «* itli'uks antl 
iutoxicattOD» an- knuwit to mt mi tin; t-iiibno of lowiT oigiinininB. 
However this may be, it is quite certain that iii prcdiiipCHied 
Wiuneii, coitips iliirinp prcgiinncy onnw^ pn'matiiro birth; it 
MMnetimee liiippt-n* iliat kbor pains begin a few minuter after 
dte act.* 1'he natural instinct of animals refuK'a to »tluw 
intarootme during pri'j;»«ncv ; the ritual dlisi-rvanoe of primitive 
p«oplefl wrj' fniiiiKRliv points in the same (iirecfion; the voice 
of medical science, ki fur a£ it 8]>etik(i nt all, ia beginDiof; to 
Htlcr tlie Biinic naminfj;, and before long Mill jirohably bo in » 
jroiiitioD to d» to on the basis of more solid and coherent evidence. 

Piiurd. Uic grmtod uf nuthuriti«ii on jmerictiltiire, ftioertii that 
lh«ie miuit be cnnp\ttv ri'-uinlioa of snxuni IntvTi-oiirw during Ltic wliol« 
of prrfcnnncy. knd in hi* ramnilthif; Tooiii at thr Ctiniqiii' RniulFlorqiiai 
he liai pUiwd a Urgt plurnril witli ii[i " liii[K>rlnnt NutliV to tlii-i vlTtK't. 
PC-rf uy* utronnly of opinion lliot ncniia! ri-Intioii« dnrinK jiri'giinncy, 
cilMviull}' when rpf'kJi-otly cikrrifd otil, ptuy un iniiiurtaut purt iu Ihe 
okmation of ncrroii* troublpi in i-liildrcn who nin of aoiini) 1ier«ilit>' nni! 
otiierwiM frri^ (mru iill tiioi'MiI Iiif><(.'tioij during f^ntation nnd dfvclop- 
mcnl; hi" tpoordod in dMnil a cnn' nhlHi hp «>iialdi>rei[ rvtivIuBU" 
("L'Inlltinwc dc rinwntiin.'iici- fMrxiK-llc pcndiint la nprtation hut la 
DMCtfldaiK*," Arphirtra de Xcuruloffie. April. IDOS). Rundmruurt diH- 
CDMc* the anbiDcl fully lf.<i Vramrtme. pp. I'T^M). anil thinkii thitt 
•rxiull jnl«Tixiur*« during prvjrniini.'y nhtuild he iivoid«I at innch Ha poH- 
tible. POrbrinuTT (Sonntor and Knminfr. Ilrnlth and DUraJtf in Rela- 
tion lo JforriojK, vol. i. p. 226) teiHrniinondu nbitinrnw from the. lixth 
or ■rTCDtli month, nnd IhrDiinhout thr vrlioli' ot pr>'t!iianrv whiTP llipr^ 
la aRjr tmnkncy (o iiiiH<Hrriit|^. irhili? in nil i-niipt much carv luid gpntlc' 
DM* ahould Iw pxnriicil. 

Tbi' wtioli- HUbjcct liaa bocn invertigtttiMl in ii Paria ThciU by H. 

l/te I'titflurner Jt la Copalalion pmdani la fSrvaaeait, 1003) ; he 

^KmHtidM tbnt wxiuT rplntiona ntr dnngiroita lhroii([lioiit prpipinncj'. 

frnqupDlty prnvoklni! pr^'inuture Funfinniiciit or nliurliun, Hiid that tliny 

ar^ wave danj^'rous in {irimipHrtr than In miilti purs'. 

iTbU point la di»nsiu>d. fur inRlnncc. by S^ropiun in a PariH 

THmU {Fritjuenef ennijinrfr ifra Caut^t de l'Afemieh''mfTil l*irmalUTf, 

|]007>; h» eoocludcs lliat ™itin diirlntc prfRnnncy i* a more frMuent 

Muw of premature ciinfiiinini'nt Ibun ir< ronjinonly 6up|)0*oil, fapecullj* 

in primipane, and markedly m> by tho ninth moatli. 

Dgr,- /..OOg 


PfiyriI0I.O<lT OF RRI. 

\'earl_v «-vi-nk'tliiug Unit lins bocii «ui<l uf tliu liygiene of preg- 
nuti<.-y, KDd the need for rest, applieit aUo tu tlic period 
imtiu-diiiU'l}* following the birth of the child. Heel aiid liygient' 
on the mother's part eontiiiui- to he neecweory nliki* in Iier owa 
intereete and in the child's. This need has indeed hoen more 
g^tncTHlly iind more pruetirally roiofmizi'd than the mod for rent 
during pregnanev. The 1itw« of Hcvei'ul lountriex nmke compiil- 
■orj- a period of rest from empWinmt after tontinemenl, and in 
■ome coimtriM tliey eoek to provide for the rcmuiierntton of tlie 
mother during Ihio enrnrcvi) i\-*t. In no eoiintry, indeed, it. the 
principle carried out so tlioroiiglily and fur no long a period ns 
is dt'«jrtil)Ie. But it is tite right principle, and enibcxliee the 
germ whieh, in the future, will he developed. There can be 
little doubt that whatever are the niatters, and they are certainly 
many, which may be safely left to the diwretion of the individual, 
the care of the mother nnd her ihild is not among them. Thai is 
a matter which, more tlum any other. cfmnTiis tho community o» 
a whole, and the community cannot afford to he slack in fluseriing 
itfl authority over it. The State needs healthy men and women, 
Bud by any negligence in iittonding to this need it inflii-ts serious 
ehargea of all sortit upon itHelf, an<l at the aoine time dangerounly 
impairs its efGciency in the world. Nations have begun to rccog- 
nixo the dmrabilily of etlucation. but they have scarcely yet 
begun to realize that the nationalization of health ia even more 
important than the nationalixation of education. If it were 
nMCM&ry to choose between the task of getting children ediieateil 
and the task of glutting them well-bom and healthy it would be 
better to abandon cducntion. There have \n\-n many great 
peoples who never dreamed of national systems of education ; 
there has been no gremt people without the art of producing 
hotdtliy oud vigorous children. 

This matter becomes of peculiar importance in great 
industrial states like England, the U'nitc<l States, and Ger- 
many, hwausc in such states a lacit rnnspirocy tends to grow up 
to subordinate natioDal ends to individual ends, and prtutioally 
to work for the (letcrioration of the race. In England, for 
instance, this tendency liM become pocullnrly well marked with 





duastrouB reeult^. The iutoRitt of the emplojcd wonum tencU to 

^become one with tliat wf lit-r wnplojiT; lietww-n thcni they com- 
bine to crush tlii^ intercsta of tho chii<l who leiireeent^ the race, 

find to defeat tlie luwe uitidv in tiie iutfrcnts of the raiv wliich un.' 
bows of tiic community as n irhok-. The employed woman winhM 
< earn as much «ra^ as she cnn nnd with an little inter niptiou' 
as 8h« csn; in (Ratifying that wish she i», at tlic same time, 

^acting in the int«ri«t» uf the employer, who uircfully avoids 
iwartinR lier. 

Thin in)|>iil»e on (ho cmiiloycd womiin's part !■! by no meanx 
alwayji and entirely the result of poverty, nnd would not, there- 
fore, be removed by mining her wiifjee. liong before niarringo, 
when little more llmn n ehihl. sdie hii' usiinlly gone out to work, 
and work bae become a second nature. She hsu mastered her 
work, she ciijoy« a i-crluiii position tiud what to her are high 

rnges; slie is among her fricndii and companions; tlu> noise 
and bustle and excitement of the work-room or the factory have 
become an agreeable Htiimihuit whieli vile can no longer do with' 
nut. On th« other hand, her home means nothing to her; Hhe 

j.onIy returns there to sleep, leaving it next morning at day- 
l»rc«Ic or earlier; she i# ignorant cvra of the cimplc*t domc!»tic 
arte; she moves about in her own hime like a etrange and 
awkward child. The mere act of marriage cannot change thi« 
elate of tilings; however witling hIic may be at marriage to 
become a domesticated wife, she is destitute alike of the inclina- 
tion or the )>kill for domesticity. Even in spitfl of herself she is 
driven back to the work-shop, to tlie one place where slie feels 
really at home. 

In Oermiinv womtri arr not nllowttd to work for (our WMk* After 

mUlncmriit. nor dminit tlir (ollouliig (wo vm-k* cxin-pt by mvdicHi 

i«»Ttlfl<'fttp. Thi" oWlipiioty iniiiniiicp HKiiitint (lisi-ane whieli oovera 

[Women Ht raiiliiivciiviit ^if'^iires Dii-ni uii inili-iiiiiit^' »t lliU time rqitivnJvat 

to M laigr [Ntrt ul tli<?)i* "iist'', Miimiil and uiunurrM luutlicrs tiuni'Sl 

■l(k«. The .\iiHti'iiiii Imi in fuuutW on tlir miiiif iiiodfl. Hiis mcaflurr> 

haa led ti> u xeix giviit dwrciup in infonlilc mortulity, nnd. tlicrcfore. 

■ gTMt incrpnie in ticaltli niiionK IIiom- wIio aiirrivr. It it, liiiwnvpr, 

iirdrd an vrry inn(lo(|iin(i!. nnd tlicra i* n movonii'nt in n<>rmanj for 

raxltiHInit Ihc timp, for nppljlng Hi'* HvtlpTii tr> n tnt'mr ntuuber o( WOBien. 

and for making it atUI iuotc deHaitel^ fonipuUoiy. 



paycMoi,oaT op sex. 

In SwltaerlnnJ tt 1ib« twc-n ilkgnl •inac 1X77 for any womiin to bc 
tECpived into ■ iai-taty uftcr conllDcnicut, titilpsB she hu* rivtcd in all 
lor eight iii-vV*, bIx win-k* nl iMwt o( tliia period being nflcr confine- . 
menu SinoL- 1S08 Suisfi working moinwi hnvp hvrn pioU-pipd by bw ' 
from exeivisliijj hard uiirk •iiirlnij; (irnicnniicr, and (roni vitrioun oth^r 
InHuencea likely lu be iojurioiu. But tliis lnw is o-ad«d iu practice, 
bMMUM It provlile* no comprnwtoTj- Indemnity for tlif n-omiin. An 
Nltempt, in ISOO, lu ihiiimiiI the Inw by jiroviiliiig for auvli indemnity 
wa* lejoctcd by 1li«< iH-oplp. 

In tti-lgium uiuJ llullnnd iIktp nrc lun*f nfpiinU nonien working 
imincdiittcly ufti'r cotidnprnoiit. Iiiit no Indi-mnity i« [imiidi^d. no tlut 
« III ploy rm nnd rmployed combine to cvnde the Ibu-. In FTnnei> thero ta 
DO Huc^li hiw, ulllioujfh ilH neoeuity )iu4 often born i-niplintJnilly tiM«rt«l 
(top, e.g., Salvnt, La Depopulation tie la Fminx, Tlii'M! Ar l.yoii, 1(103). 

In Kngluiid it i* ilte^pil tu employ a wuiunn "knowingly" in a 
woikiihop within four irerku of the birth of lier child, but no pravision 
in made by tlic Inw fur tlie coin pvnwit ion al the woman who ii thu« 
rvtjuired to snerillee 1ier«r1f lo the Intvrett* of the 8tat(-. Tlie wouiiin 
«vadu Uie low in tacit colliinion with bcr cmployuri, who con nlwny* 
avoid ''knowing" that ii birth hnit taken pUiH-. nnd ho rxvipp ull reapon- 
■ibility for the motlier'* cmploynicmt. Thin (h» fnctoiy Inipcctor* •t» 
unable lo tak* uction. and the Inn ixiironiM n dtad letter; En 1000 only 
one proxcciition (or thi* nlTcnsr could be btoiixhl into eniirt. By (ho 
innertion uf this "knowingly" a premium in plHcisI on ignuranct^ Tho 
unwisdom of thim lielorchnnj pWing u prrminm on iKnonince baa 
alwnyn been more or le«ii clenrly rocogniwd by the frumeri of legul codea 
even n» fiir buck no tlie dny* of the T*n ConininixliiienI* nnd tbp Inw* of 
Hninnntbi. It In Ih* buainew of the Court, of thoo'i who adminiitctr the 
law. to mnke allouiini'i? for i^omnee wber« nucti i\llownii<e ii> fnlrly 
iwllfld for-, it !■ not for the luw-maker to make nmooth the path of the 
law-breaktT. There are ei-idirnlly luw-inukers nowadays «o ierupulou*, 
or wo aiinple-minileil, that Ihpy would I^p prrpnreil in tinct that nu pick- 
pocket ahould be proircuted if he wa« able lu diilare on oath that ho 
bad no "knoivlrdKe" that tlic piirM lie had tnkcn bclon)[ed to the person 
he «trBcl*d it from. 

The annual irporta of tha Enffliih factory innpectora serre to 
bring ridicule on thii law. which look* no wisely humane and j-rt ineanB 
nothing, but have no far Wen powerlesn to t-ffpet any change. Tlieso 
report* ahow. moreover, tluit llie dilFieuIly in iticreiifiiiig iu miigniliidr. 
Thnu Mi»ii Mnrllndnlf. n factory Innpcetor. ■•(ntes thai in nl1 the town* 
she vl*ita, fnnii n quirt eathcJrnl city to a lHT)ce innnufacturiiin town, 
til? Mnplnyinent of niarrird women in rnpidly inercnaing; they hftve 
worked in mills or factoriM all their livra and are quite iinBCcuaUiincd 
to cooking, housework and the rooring of children, t» that aft«r mar- 

0.^-/, . ,Cjt.K)glC 


rtiuge. vven vhm iiot ixiiiip<-llv<l by jiovvrty, tliejr prefer to gn on working 
*» twforr. Uiw Viiica, another [iictnry inipcictor, r«]>rata tli* remark o( 
m nximau woriter in * fiu'tur}-. "1 do uM nuetl to wuik, but t do not llki' 
■Ufinit nt horn*," whiln nnothcr WMnan luild. "I would tallier \iv hI 
work a hundred timea thun at homi!. I fft loit at homn" lAunanl 
Brporl Chief Innprclor of t'aelorif and W'orkiihopa for IDOG, |>p. 3£S, 

It muy 1m' nddiil tlint iiot only U lUc Kii>!li«li law «iij<jiiiiiit; four 
WMktt' rent on Ihc moilicr nfUr childbirth prartii-nlly innprrati\-p, but 
tlu> [lOTJod itsoK ia nlMnidly inaibqunle. A* a icnl (or thu inothrr it la 
iiidrcd MilHcivnt, but thn RIaIo la itlll more inti-ri'tt'il In the child Uion 
in ita mother, nnd the child ii^eUt Iho mollier's chief rare for n murh 
longer pi'rlod tlian four wcrka. lli-lme ndvcimtPJt the StBl« prohibition 

[of WDinim''ii «*ork tor at lennl ai\ niuntlis ufter (MinllnenieDt. Where ntir- 
•erl«a areatta«hed to fsctorlM, Miabling llie niotlier to nuckle her Infuul 
in intrrvnli of work, the perioi] mny doiibtlcas Im »hcirt'>iied. 

It ia iinjMrlanI to rernvmber that it is by no meuna only the women 
in faeloiiea who are [ndneed to woik at ntual during the whotr period 

LiDf prei^iianey. and to letiim to work I in mediately iiflvr the brii^f real of 

[«onltni>meiit. Tito Rrnearrh Committee of the Christian Socinl Uniun 
( Loiiilun Bmneh) nndi-rlook. In ID05. an iar|uiry Intu th^ i'iii|>layiui5nt 
of uoiiien after eliildlilrth. Women In fnrtnrii-.* and workohop* v/ere 
Micliidcd from the inquiry which only had reference to wonicn en(i:nKrd 
In bousehdd duties, In home indimlile*. nnd In enaunl work. It who 
found thai thn majority curry on Ihrlr miploj-mcnt riglit up to tlie time 

LOf eonllnemmt and renume it (rum tfii lo (oiirtiu-n daya later. The 

'infantite death rale (ot th^ children at w-omfn rnttuged only in liomeliold 
dtltiet wn* greatly Imvcr than that (or the ehildren n( thi' other womnn. 
while, a* ei-er, the hatid*(i;d Infuntii had n vnAlly hlphei di-nth rale than 
thr breast-fed Infants iRiilUh Me<tw-il .tourual. Oct 24. I00«. p. 12071. 
In the gnat French gun nnd armourplatr worki at L'reuiot (Sa6ne 
Loire) the naiariea of expectant mother* amonit the employee* are 
Tsla«il: amnKemcnta are made for Kivlnj; Ihem proper odHee and mod- 
leal attendnnee; lh»y are not allowed to work H(ti'r the middh' of 
pTegium-T or to rcliim to work after "nnflnement witliont a mediiuil 
ecitiflcnlp of nine*'-. Tlie rf«nh» are xiiid t<i be pjepUi^iit, not only mi 
the health o( the mothern, but In the diminntion of pri-miiturc births, 
the deeriiine of infsntitf deathi. and the general prccatcnce of brennt- 

tfeedinf. It would prolinhly be linpeleu to expect many rmploycrs In 
An|^0-Baxon lnnd« lo adnpt thi» polity. They are ton •■priiellent," they 
know how HUiall ih the inoney-vulue of liuniaii liven. With u* it in neceH- 
■ary for the Stale In tntprvene. 

There tan be no doubt tluit. on the whole, modem eivlliaed com- 
munitica ara beginning ia TcuIUn that under the aocial and cconomie 

. .. *. A) 



cuudiUims now tending mart and BioTt! Ui prerttjl, they inuat in Ibrir 
own intnvsta inMiiw tlinl (lip iiiollifir'H Itptl viwtgy nnd vibiUI)' ht« 
devolvil to llir cliild, boili brfore and allot- lU birth- they are also 
rniiEiiiK iliat llivy ciiaiiut iimt^t utit tli^i duly iu tiiit reiprcC imlput 
thpy iniiU'.' n<tt-iiiiat« provinloii for th* motlirrn wlio nr* thoa roiii{wUciJ 
to vpuoHiici' tliHr omploymwil in ordur to dM-otr thpimwlvra to thnr 
frfalldreii. Wr lic<r« roarh a iwiiit nt whidi IndiviiliintiBin ii at one u-itli 
SoFiDlinin. Thr iinlIviilunlUl ■■nnnot fnll to >><■(■ tlint it i* iil nil eoi-t 
uMMsary to rC'Tiiovc iiixHnI caiidil iotm wliidi cninh nut ull individiutltty; 
tile Sorlnllat mniml (nit Ii we that a sorirly wliirli ni-Klrpln to intrci- 
dtiu** ardet at tiiiii n-nlnil und vital point, tliir prwliirtioin of IW tiidivid' 
imI, iniiot BiMimltly pariah. 

It is involrecl in the proper fulfilment of a tnotlier'B 
rdatioDlliip to licr iiifuiH diild Ihut, proviilcd she is licaltliy, i\iK 
should suckle it. Of recent yvan thi» question lias become a 
instter of serioue firanty. In the miildle of the eiglitcenth 
cmtiirv, vlii-n till- upiicr-rlasd wmiii-n of Frnnce had grown 
disincliuod to auckle their own diildren, HotU'^enu raised ao loud 
and doi|iK'nt K prntc«t Ilint it tHX^me once more the fashion for 
a woman to fulfil her iintiiral duties. At tlic present time, when 
the same evil is fouud ontn more, nud in a far more serious form, 
tor now it is not the finall upper-cl&ra but the great loiror- 
daw that is concerned, the eloquence of a Konsseau would bo 
powerleas, for it is not fashion so much as convenipnec, and 
espCiCially an intriK-tnUle economic factor, that is chiefly con- 
cerned. Not the least urgent reason for putting women, and 
especially mothers, upon a sounder economic basia, is the 
necemiti,- of ennbling them tn Auekle their children. 

So woinan ia Muod. hcaltliy, and voiii]i1ete unlus «he poMMUca 
br«uta ttiat aii- lH>nutl(itl cnouitli to bold tli? promise of being tiiuctioiiul 
when the time for thtir i-xrrpiie arrivtv, mid nipples tlmt rnn'gire luck. 
Th» gravity of tli!« qumlioii to-dny i* shown hy the frvquvncy with 
whieh nom^ii ure lacking in ilila evtentiul i^lmimt uf womanhood, and 
the j'uuuf; tnnn of ta*day. it Itna biyn uild. oflfn In tftklng a wife, 
"nctiully nmrrleo but pntt of n woman, thi- othfV \iart brinR c-vhiLltpil 
in the oheniUt'd shop window, in tin- «hiip(.' of n sHki reeitiiiv'l>otlle." 
Blarbcr fmmd anions n tlioii*nnd piiticnt* frnin the nintrrnlty depart- 
inent of l.'nlvprsity Colle^ Ito-pitiil Ihnt Uiirly>iiini- lind opver »ticlil«<I 
at all, Kren hundrvd and forty-Kven had suckled all llicir cliildrcn, and 

\i .y .-.■•-.liJi 



tn« buDdicd and fuurU>eii had suckled iiiily *oni«. The cUtf 
gi>cn fi>r not auckliug v-hm iiiiMUce or inniiltlclency at milk; oUier i«i- 
raia being inability or diitodinntiun to auckli'. tiiid rt^liuul of tlie obild 
to Uko the bniinl ( KluckiT. Htditjat Chioiik:lf, l\h.. lOOllJ. ThrM! 
mulls WDOiiK tli«' l<oi>>liiii piMiir lire ci'rtiiiiily very iniivJi U'ller tlun 
(mill bit found in many munaincturing towiin wljeru wuuii'ii uurl: niter 
roarruigr. In tliu atlier Imge uouiitiicit of Kuro^e i!(|Vinlly iiniwitiKlikc- 
lory rauilM nt* found. In I'nrl* Madniiic Dliuka lian »lio\vn tliut of 
SOO womm «lio I'ump for thi'ir toiillnctncnt to tlic C'liuiqiiv liiiudcliwqiic, 
only 7* mjicklcd tlicir children; of the 135 who did not eiii'lili^, 'J'l wvrn 
pm'^ntnl l>y j>Btlii>lojii"ii t'lmi** or nlim-ii'i' of milk, ICO by thu neciwBi' 
ti«« of ttM'ir woTk. Evun tha>e who oncklnl i-ould u.ddi>iii ramliiiui.- ;iJore 
Uu*i) seivn uiuntliii on aoniunt of the pliyniologlciil itritin of work 
tUhiaka, CoHlribviion <t C/ilurfe <i« lAllaitrmml .VotrrTiel, Tlitse de 
I*i>riii, I894f. Many ntntaslita huve been (pillirred in the German coun- 
trica. Thus Wivdow <'.Vn(ftllbiat( liir tSfiaiikoi'igir. No. 20. 1S95| 
foam) that of fi'23 wonwn at lliv Pieibtii^ Muleruily oidy half oould 
■acklc thoroughly during Ihc Ri*t tiro wn-k*: Imperfnet nlpp]>-a were 
noted In 49 oa*«*, and it was found thut the devt^Iopment of the uipple 
bor« » dirnct rrlntton to the vntue of the breatt ufl n Decretory oriinii. 
At ^funirh EK'Iieiith nncl Btlller found that nearly 60 per cent, of women 
of tbv hiwef ctaM were unable to suckle their tliitdren. and at Stult^rt 
thrM-qaarier* of tlio child-bearing nomen nern In thi* rondlllon. 

The m80D8 why cliiUln-n ^lioiild be siic1(I(m] at their 
mothers' breasts nre Ur^r than aonie may be inclined {a believe. 
Til the first plac« the psyL-holo^c^l reaeon is one oT no mean 
iiu]>»rt«nce. The breniit with itn CYfiiiisitely .ii'itsitivi' nipple, 
vibrating in liarmony with the sexual organs, furnishes tlic- 
Donnnl m<.-ohanism by which malernal love is developed. No 
doubt the woman who never suekli-s lurr child iiiay love it, but 
eu<ii love is liable to renisin defective on the fundamental and 
instinctive side. In xonie women, indeed, whom we may 
bcaitate to call abnormal, maternal love fail.t to awaken at all 
until brmight into action through thia mechanism by the act of 

A more f^eneraUy reco^ized ami certainly fundamental 
rra»OQ for Hiickling liie child is that the milk of the mother, 
grovided fivn is resnonably healthy, \* the infant's only ideally Rt 
food. There are some people whose confidence in science leads 
them to believe that it is pufsiblu to munufacturu foods that arc 



>r Bitx. 

ae j^uod r>r better than niothcr'e milk; they fancy that tlie milk 
which is best for the calf iri equally best for »o <]ilTcrent an 
HDiiiial 8B the baby. These are delusions. Tiie infiint'e best 
food i« that olabornti'd lu im ovrn iiiothprV hody. All other 
foodei (in: more or lees poseible substitutes, which require trouble 
to prepare properly and urt% moruover, cxjWBcd to varioutt risks 
from which Uie mother's milk i» frw. 

A further roniton, t^pecitilly nmong the poor. ng«in!it the uwj 
of any artificial foods ia that it aceuetomx thoiie around the 
child to try experimentB with ite feeding and to fancy that 
any kind of fond tlioy eat thcmdolves may hi- pood for the inTaut. 
It thus happens that bread and potat<ieH, brandy iind ^'in, are 
thniiit into inTant*' mouthi. With the infant that ie given tho 
breast it 'i» easier to make plain that, except by the doctor's 
orders, nothing else must be given. 

An additional reason why the motlier sliould suckle her child 
is tlic close nnd frcijiient nwtociation with the ehild thus involved. 
Not only is (he child bettor cared for in all respects, but the 
mother U not deprived of the discipline of such care, and is also 
ciinl'led from tho ouUut to learn and in undemtand the child's 

Tli4 innbUitj' to «uck1c Mcquirn giMt nignificnnM if we roallxo 
that it ii iiste(!iHl'?il. prubnlily iii n U(|(« iiipflHiiri> n* a dirn-t. citufti-, willi 
Inf«ntll«i DKTlnUt.v. Tlii- nuirtalhy of urtiUcJally-ffd infotita iliirinji tha 
flni Tcnr of life in iwlilutn Icm tlinn douhk tliat (it ili» brMmt-fed, some- 
ttroM tt I* ni niiich oa Ihrrr limcii tliut nf tlie broxilfcd, or Rvi>n I^o^I^: 
tliua at Dvrby 51.T per cnit. i>l haiidfed iiiraul« die iiiidor Ui« ngc of 
Iwehi- niontlis liut ontj' fl.B per («Bt. of l)t™«I(i^ Jnlnnt*. TlioBc who 
nin-ti'c arc by no niisinx tree from iiiirtriiig. At Ibo end of thp firit 
year tli*j' arf toiinil lo wvlgli «bout 2fi ptT cent Iw* thnii the br«:itl- 
led. and to be much nborteri they are more liable to tubriviilo»i« and 
rickets, with nil tlir evil results that lluu- from thfw diHiruvii and 
(here i* iwme leoMon to bollnre that tUo dov«lopnu-nt of ihpit tcrth i* 
injurioiuly nfTrrlfd. The dp|[rnrrn|p ohanirtcr of the arliflcially-fcd i« 
well Inillcntvd by tin- fact that of -10.001) cliildr<ni who tci-rv broii)tlit for 
trputm^t lo Uie Cblldrvn** in Miiiilib, flO per cent, hud 1*«i 
brought up by liuiuL anil th« (cw who had b«»n nuckled Iiiid tiHiiully only 
hu'l the br*o*t [or n nbnrt time, Tli* evil inlliipnre prriiula citii up lo 
adult life. In (cme purls of Franoe wUer« Ibc wet-uuriw ludiwtry 



BourUbpi M> grcHlly Uinl upudy all tlie rliiidmi urv brniiglil tip by liiiuii, 
it ha* hrvn (oiuid that the percentngn of rejpclcd iH>iucripU is nrarly 
double thut for Fratior gene rally, (.'ormpondiiig ri-^ulte h»vf b«en 
fouiid by Fiimljiing in n large firrman altiktic onnoointion. Amoiig 
Its manltcn. 65 per rml. •ctre loiinJ mi inquiry to Iidve Iwfii breust- 
fml Bf< iiiFiintii ^fOT an nvoriip* of >>ix nioiiMioh lint among IW lio^t 
nlhlclfit Ihi- piTWiiUgp of bii-Bst-finf row to 72 ]>rr cent |for on nverngi- 
ppriuJ of iiiue or leu uioiilli»), uhili- for the group of 15(1 who xUyn^ 
loWMt in nthlHic powrr tlic peropntngp of brciut-fvil ft-U to 57 (for an 
avFr&i^ of only Ihnv month* i. 

V\tit advnntn^tr* for xn iiifaut of Mnfc, Hurklvil by lt« raothfr are 
greater than ran W Hopoiinliid for liv the mem tavt of iH^nt; mii-klrd 
nth«r tliaii hnnJ'ftd. I'hiit has bm/n •lioun by Vitrey (Dt la Morltttili 
titfanliU, Thlf* do l.yoit. IDOII. who (n<ind froin the statiiticii of th<i 
HMcl-IMea at Ly«ma, that Infanta nieklpd by their iiiotlicr* iiavc a mor- 
Utity of only IS pfr roni,, but if oui-lil^il hy fctrflnp-r*, llic niortallty 
ri>e> to 33 per mnt- It may be milled that, vdxih luekling in cneiitinl 
ta (lie t«inpli>t« well-brinK ol tlip rliilil. it In htglily df«irabl<» for Ihp 
take ot Iba mother'* health also, (Some important atuti«tj« ure nam- 
DMrbxl (n a paper on "Infnnlil« Mortality" in Britinh Mftticol Journal. 
JTor. 2, 1907. while tiie various aspwta of aiiekling have been thoroughly 
dhraMPd hy Rolliiiii^r. "ffbtr SBugllnji!«-St'ililiehkcll und ilSe Kiblirlie 
funelionellc Atrophie der men»eblieh»Ti ilikUdrltiM!" (Corrmpoiutrnt- 
Umf Ociifjr^hea Or-ffllirhixfl Anlhrnpiilrtinr . (Wt.. 1B99). 

It app«Mn that in Swnilpn. In Ibn middln i>( the rinhteonth crntliry, 
it WOa a piuniahable nffenne (or a woman to give ln^r baby the bottle 
whni Hhe ""as able to qiiek1<^ it. In i<v>^nt y«ar4 Prof. Anton vou Meu- 
grr, of Vienna, ha* nifpird I in hi* flur^ilickc ffm*( iinil rfir Bp*itsfo»en 
Kttaten) that the future gmcialiun hii> the rixbt to make Ihiit claim. 
mat ha propoiea that every mnthcr nhall be legnlly bound to ourkle lier 
Lcbilil tdilaaa her inability to do no liao been certified hy a phynician. 
A. SdirOfdrr |0a« Rivhl in drr Oeackleehlliphrn OrdaiinQ, 1N»;I, p. 
SM) al*u argued thitl a motlier »hmilil b<^ b-pilly bound Id luekle her 
Infant (or at lennl. niiio monthn, iinle-ui mild ground* ef'iiUI be Hboun to 
the eontrary. Bnd this demniid. wliioli leem* rennoimble nnd nnturnl. 
since It I* a mother'') priiileKe an \i*U an her duly to Huekle her infant 
whca aMe to do «<. hm been ln>i><t''nlly made by otiier* nlno. [t 
h*a bvan aupported from the legnl nide by Weinlicrg iUutlerchuU, Sept., 
1007). In Prancp the IjoI ltouit>ie1 forhidit a woman to act n* a wcl- 
nnrar itnlll Iier thiW i* wven monlhn old, and thia lina had an cxeelleut 
(ffKt In loweiinjr infantile mortality <A. .XMfit: Pu/rieullurt rt In Lol 
Botutel, Thiac de Pnrii, IBOS). In snme part* of fJermany niiinutaet- 
urDra are rompelM to net up a suck iin;^ room in the fuctory. uliere 
moUi«n mn give tbo br«aat to th« child In the iiit«rt-al* of work. The 




cOBlral ani uplwcp uf tlx-ar roam*, nltli pfovinloii of i1oc(ot« mitl iiura*^ 
Ii iMultrUkai by the munkipniity {Struat-nobtme, Sept., 1008, p. 

As tiling* arc to-day in nioc1(.>rn inihtgtrial coiintrtn tlic 
righting of tlieee wroiipa cannot be Mt to Nature, that ia, to the 
ignorant und untrained iuipiiUfti of pcritoiiH who livo in a whirl 
of artificial life where the voice of instinct )» drowneil. Tlie 
mother, we are accusloincd to think, may lie trufitt-d to see t<> 
the wdfurc of her childj and it in unnocviMiry, or uven "immoral," 
to come to her S9»iet4incc. Yet there are few tilings, I think, 
more pathetic Uian the sight of s young T^icushire mother who 
worktt in tlie itiilN, wliin *]».• Imif to rtay at home to nurse licr 
sick child. She is nsed to rise before day-break to go to the 
mill ; tiho hna scarcely »eeD li<-r child by the lifjht of the sun, she 
knows notliing nf ita necessities, the liandH that are gu xkilfiil to 
catch the loom cannot soothe the child. The mother gazes down 
at it in vague, awkward, spcwhlw* miwrv. It if not u w'glit one 
can ever forget. 

It is France that is taking the lead in the iuittation of tliu 
sciontilic and practical movement* for the care of the young child 
before and after birth, ami it is in France thnt we may find the 
germs of nearly all the methods now becoming adopted for 
arresting infantile mortality. The village system of Villiers-le- 
Duc, ncnr Dijon in the Oote d'Or, has proved a gurrn of this 
rruilfiil kind. Here even,- pregnant woman not able to aecure tJie 
ri);ht I'ondilionK for her own life and thul of the child she is bear- 
ing, is able to clsim the asRistance of the village authontiea ; afac 
is entitled, without payment, to the attendance of a doctor and 
midwife and to one fninc a day during her confinement. The 
liioiMunw adopted in tlii<: VLlla<!i> iiave practically abolished both 
maternal and infantile niortnlily, A few ycops ago Dr. Samson 
Moore, the medical officer of health Tor Hiiddersfleld, hcflfd of 
thin villHgc, mid Mr, lU-iijaniin nroadlicnt. the Mayor of lliid- 
lUrsHeld. visited Villicrtlc-lliic. It vrnn rcHolvcd to initiate ia 
lluddcrslield a movement for combating infant mortality. 
Henceforth anw what in known a^ the Tluddemfield dihcme, a 
scfiemc which has been fruitful in splendid results. The points 



T1IK MOTnKII AN'U il T.R Cilll.n. 


of the Haildersfifiid scheme are: (1) compuliton' notification oF 
birtlw within [urt>'-«i);l)t hours; {'4j tlio H])poitibtK-iit uf ln(l>' 
BMiiitUint invdicnl oHIcfi'B of Jii.'I|) to visit Itic liomv, inquire, odviw, 
,and 8BeiBt; (3) the organised aid of volmitar)' lady workers in 
f fubonliDntion to the iiiuiiiL'ipul purt of tliu Mctiomc; (4) sppuul 
lo tlie medical officer of help wlicn the baby, not being under 
medical care, fails tn Hirin', Ttic iiirimtllc iiiorlalitv of 
Hnddcrefidd Iish bctn very greatly rodiioed by this scheme.' 

Tli« HuddcrdleM iclMine mn)' he ta'iA to Iw llir origin of llic Eng- 
Ibli KotiHcation ot Itirtlis Act, nliiHi T»mc into operntioii in lOOK. This 
Act T<>prpi>di(<. in KnKland. tlin nutionat inniij{ii ration of ii M'tinme tor 
tlic iHrltrrDK-'tit of llic riicp. llic uttiniiilf rc-iiilt" t>f Mliivli it ii iinponaibl* 
to forrm*. Wlirn tlii* Act conipn into iinivcrwil m-tion ■■viry Uib,v of 
tlir Und will be (.-nlitlcil — It^gnll; anti not lij intlivijuul capririr or ptiil- 
anlhrople cordt>HWTwloii — to nicilic-al iitlcntion frnni lliir tiny o( nnd 
tr^Tj mothw will lim-e nt linn<l tlii.' coiinsi-l «f nn pdiiPBtciI wiiman in 
IciuHi witti till- inimiclpiil miUiorltW, Thi-rv could bv bu gr«ilPr 
tritimph for niodiml ncii-ncp, tut niilioniil i-flicii-iicy. nnd Uin rnu>r o( 
huntiinily gvncrutlj', Gi-vn on the lowi^r fiiiHiipiol p1nn«. it is cnsy to seo 
that nn raormniia savliiK o( public and prii'ato nioiwf will ttiti4 Ih- 
tflwti-d. Tli*> Act in Hiioplivc, nnd not pompnlMry. Tliin wmt n wi»c 
pr«.'iiiilion. for un Act of Ilii>t kind i-annot bi* cfTr-ctoiil uiili^ia it is 
cnrrivil out tliorouf[h1.v l>y tlic commimily H(]o[illiig II, and II nlll not 
; be odoplnl until a comiiiimltj- liiu clmrly rvnliu'd ita ndvantasea nnd 
the inetliodit ot nltnlnlnit llifm. 

An ini|Hirtaiit ndjimrt of this ar^iiixntion is tlic Scliool for 
KMhcn. Riicli wlioot', nliich htp now t>cginnini; to 'pring up fftvry- 
wbere, niaj !><■ uiid to liiivi> tli^Sr origin* in tlip Contutlalimin ile Xour- 
ri»*oi>s (iritli their ofTiboot tlid Ooulle dc J-alf). eitabliiilii'd b,v ProfenBor 
Kudiii in 1f)<)3. which buvp itprnul all over Kmiii-c snd bwn widi-I; 
lullu«nti*l (or Kood. At tliR Coittullalwrii Infniilt nic pxiimiticd nnd 
wrtghcd WMkl)^, and the mothrro ndviied-nnil cncuumgi'd to aucklu their 
ehildr^n. The fl'ivltci, htp prHctinilly milk dlxpenwirii-*! vrhcro infanU 
for whom l>Tni*l-fi>c(ling is liii]inh^lblc »ri> fed with niilk under medicnl 
•iipmiiiion, S<>huolii for Muthrrx rcprrwiit un enhirgpiiipul of the uini'> 
whvmp, conring a variety ot siibji^'ls which It !■ nccMiar)' for n mother 
to knonr. Some of thi? fint of thnio hcIiooIh u'er« «Mtab1iiih«d at Ehnin. 
at th« Bavarian town of Wt>l*M^b«rg, and in fltient. At K>nie of the 

I "Infantile Mortal!^: Tlie HnddcmflHd Schcrac," Br<lUh MfdicaX 
Joarnal, Dec., 1001 1 Banuwn Moore, "Intunt Mortality/" ib,, .\iig)i«t 



ScIuhjIh (ur MotbtTv, unit nut«bl,v hI (itii'iit idMcribed bj Mr*. Iti^rtnind 

HuMcIl III llif \ii"-lfrnth f'l-alU'i/. lODO), the imjKirliiiil ntep lins boeii 
taken of giving truiniiijj lu yoiitig fjirti frimi [oiirl(i.'(i to ciglil^'u; Uicy 
receive iimtrurllnii in liilnnt iinntoiiiy nml jiliyniolojiy, in tlie prcpaiu- 
tioD «( •I'Tiliicd milk, in wfi^'liiiig cbildrcii. in tuking tcmpralum uud 
milking otiart*, Su mniinf;i)ii[ cTOclM->t, Hnil nftrr two .vcitrx »re aliln to 
fnm n ta\aty. In vnriou* purta of Kngliind. nchooN for Toiind raothpnt 
and girln on thesi- linra urc now bt-ing p«liibli")iml. firnt in Ijjndon. aivivt 
tlie *UPt|jic*» of I>r. F. .1. Sykf". MHlial Olliwr of H*»llh for St. I'nn- 
crcoa (WW, r.ff.. A Hphool for Wolhcru. IftDH, dcwTiliinic nn Mtnblinhmrnt 
of thi> kind ot Somcr« Town. «if1i n prrfnof by Sir Tlionim Biirlow; nn 
necouut ot riMVnt iilb'Uifit'i to iiii|irovv Uio ciir« oC inliiiitii in l.undun wilt 
aim be found in Ihr Lancit, Sk\A. 28. inos). It muy hr uddi^d thnt toiaa 
KiigliHli aiUMi['j[ialili<-'(i buvi? etUibliabnl depAtii lor aupplying niulhera 
cheaply witli gpriA milk, tiiicli di^pAtx an, tiowcwr, Ukply to Ih> aiore 
Miin'-bii-vunii tbun bcni'lii'inl it tlicv pruiiic-le the nubolitillion uf hiinil-ftMHi- 
Ing tor mickNiig, Tliry itbouIJ ui-vit bp f»liib1iib«I fxci>pl in itiiuii'ttion 
with Si'hooUi for Mothorn. irhcrr an rdiu-jitioiuil inlliwnrp nioy Iw 
pxcrli'd. HTid no niotlii^r Hbuuld b>.> vupplit-J witli uiilk unlt'-ui she prrscntA 

niodiciil certiflcatr Bhovving that. *\w it nnnblr to nouriih hrr child 

1 Hyiim, ■■^^l>lllcnl Womi-n and Pnblic llwiltb Qui-stioiin." Briti»h iltlicnl 
Journal. Oet. 0, 1808). Il Is notrwortliy thnt In Knglnnd thn locnl 
niillinritlM will Bhortly b« emiiuwercd by law lu cslabliiili SvliouU for 
Moth on. 

The gn-Ht iK-ncliU produrud by thi'iie inatitutioni in Kriinw!, both in 
dlminlHliini! tlu- infiint mortality and iu pronioling Iht' ■.ilucHlinn nf 
RioUicTi und tlu'ir priUi- mid inlrriMit in their cbildtrn. have been set 
forth in two pBrl« tlii-wa l>j' <•■ Chnijnion tOrganiiation dta Cvntulla' 
lioitt dv \'aurri»fianK a la Campagar, 1008). nnd Alcide Alexandra \Con- 
lullalion dt .VoHrrimm* tl flouttf dr l.nit iTArijuft, lOOSl. 

The mnvrment in noiv aprviidin^ throiighnut Biirojio. and an Intr- 
nnttonnl I'uion luit bevn formed, including all the ianlltntioni specially 
founded for the protection of child life nnil the promotion of purriiriil- 
liiri>. '^lt^ iwrmiinent cominiltee j-i In Bruiudi, und n Congr«K4 of Infant 
I>rDlTOtion iOovUe de IMi) i* lield vrtty two y«an- 

It will be SOPH Hint all tlie movcjnont*! now being net in 
action for the impmveiiieDt <if ihc race through the diilil ami 
till! child'g nioliier. recc^ii« the intimacy of the relation betwet-ii 
the mother and her cliiM and ore designed to did her, even if 
neceaearr by lh<- e-vereise of some pressure, in performing hiT 
tuliiml fiinetioiu in relstioo to her ehild. To the theoretieal 
philantliropist, eager to reform the world on paper, notliing seems 




ritupk'r tliiiQ to oiiii; lliL' prwt'iit iiiU of diild-rciiriiig liv ttcUiD^; 
up State iiurfi^riL-ii wliicli aro at onco In ri.-lit.-ve iiiotiien ot t-vi-r|> 
tiling cunui'L'tcd with the productioii uf the mvn of tbe futuru 
buyoad tin- plwixwri- — U eiieli it hajiptiio tn b(> — of concciring 
tlieiu and the trouble of bearing them, and at tbe aainc time to 
rear tliem up independently of tbe borne, in a wholesome, 
erononiital, mid Hciciitifif inuiiMer.i Xntliing hih-his siiiipk'r, but 
fnmi Ibe fiindnniental pavohobigifal HttindiMiint nothing is falser. 
Tbe idea of a Slate wbidi is oii(Ki<k' tbe uouimunity i« but a 
Hurvival in iiiiotber fonn nf that antiquated notion wbirh cum- 
pelled Louis XIV to declare "L'Ktnt cent moi!" A State 
wbi(-h ndniibt that the individuals compowing it nro inconipi.-t(^Dt 
lb) jiL-rfiinn tht-ir own DioAt Mit-red nnil intimate functions, and 
>Jukes upon itself to perform tbem ini;ti-ad, attempts a iask which 
would be uniU-^irabk>, a\eu it it vcre pu«»ibk- of adiiewnicnt It 
must alwavfl be remembered that a State whieb propotics to 
rvlicvc it« L-on^lituont members of their natural functions ami 
reepDnftibilitien attempts fiomething quite different from the 
State wbicli »ccla to aid its members to fullil their own 
biological and social fuut-tious more adequutely. A State which 
lienableii ibi nioth«r# to rest when they are dilht-bc-aritig i^ 
en^faged in a reusonahle task; a State which takce over )l« 
niutlien' ehililren i« nihieiiig pbilnnthropy to ubnurditv. Jt l» 
sj to realizo this i( we eonsider the inevitable course of dr- 
(■uni^tanrcs umk-r a sy«toin of '■Statu-nu series." The diitd 
irould be rcmovi-d from itii natural mother at tiie earlieirt age, 
but some on« has to perfami tbe mother's duties ; the substitute 
nuat then-fore lie |>roperly trained fir such duties; and in 
exerdsing tliem under favorable circumstancve a maternal rrbi- 
tioosliip i» de^-doped between the child and tbe "mother," who 
dnubtlctH posseawii natiinil maternal inrtinfis hut has no natural 

I Rlira Kry liu« uiliiiirnUy iltult with pruponiili of tliU kiad (a* 
put fortli by C. P, Stclfonl in licr Kapwyg -On T^vo niiil ^(llIri^lgl<." Id 
oppogitiini to Aiich pTopoMtln KMvti Kt^ fliiggtrntii that nuoh womi^n &■ 
tlwvo Ixirn proprrly trnlncil for mik|Krii:il rhillnii nii'l nre tianliln cntlrHy 
to dipport th^inwIveH ulitk- riicroiiiiig llicm nliuuld be mibpiiiliM'il by tlie 
State during th« phiM'B Hr't. tlin^i' y>>i>[* of I[f«. It mnv bi' uMpA tliut 
in L4>i|iE!)( tlin plan of »iil]*i<liE>iiv in<it1ii-rs who (under pri>pi.-r iii^Keiil 
■nil oUiti Huptrn-inion) aucklc tlicTr iiifnnbi htm nlrendy bcm IntroilutMMt. 




iiiiilcmiil bond to tbe cliilil flic i» motlieriug. Such n nrlatioii- 
i^liip tctidi' t<j bi^cijua- od Ij<)11i sidiH prucliculLy and eiaotiotuUly live 
real rt<lationHlii(». Wi- vcn uftt-D Imve upjinrliinily of Mi-ing tiow 
tmaatiAfac'tnry i>ucli n relalionitliip liM-onii^H. Tin- iirtillclnl m»tlii>r 
is deprived of a child she had be^ua to itel her own; the 
diild'8 emotional rdutionghips iirc upsot, split and disturtrd ; 
the real mother has tht- bittcrnos* of fueling thnt for her 
child she is nnt the real mother, M'ouhl it not Iiavo hini inurli 
brtt*r for all if the Stnte had encourajfed the vast army of 
wnmiii it had truincd for the poKitioii of inoth<-riiig ntlicr 
women's children, to hmc, instead, children of thtir own ? The 
women who are inciipnble of motlieriiip their own childreii could 
then he trained to rcfniin from Ix-arin^ them. 

Ellpn KMf (111 Ikt ('■'•iliiry »/ ihf I'hitd, nml clucH'hprp) hn» adro- 
eattd for ull j'aung woniPii u }eaT of ix)m|>ul<ury "at'Tviue," iiiiiiluguut to 
tlie eonipiilaory in)lltitr,v itervlre impoi'il In moot csxintriv* on }'Oiin|[ 
men. During tlii< prtiuil llic fprt nvnild be Irnineil in rntjunnl hmi^e- 
k«eplnf[. ill til* princijilc* of Iiyjrlenf, in tlie parn of tlip nick, nnd enpn- 
ciiilly in llip luifp of intonla ami nil thnt conciTin the physieul nnil 
jinychiv dcvplupmpiit of vhililmi. TIip priiiviplc uf (Inn prujKitnil liM 
■in** Imm-o wMpIj- ucrppti>d. Murji' von Sclimiit (in Uvt iftiffrnlUiul, 
10071 goe* to («r »* to iidvocnte a p-ncrnl triihiiiiji: of young women in 
flueU dutien, enrrinl on In « kind (if i-nlnrgrd nnd im|iron.'d nitdwlferj' 
<K'1ionT. Tlir' itervice uould lonl » yenr. nnd Die t'oung n'liinun >i'oiiUI llisn 
lie fur three ycnr* in the tvwtrvM. and linhle to be culled up for duty. 
Tliere In rvrtaliily much lo be <uiid for such a propowil, conitldernbly 
more thiin m to be «nicl for I'ompnNory militurj' nerrii-e. For while H 
is Ten- doiitittiit whether ti inin viti ever be enllerl on In light, most 
nonim nre liuble to he rullc-d on to mereiic hotuebotd duties or to lonh 
after childrm, whether for theauelvw or (or othtr pe{ii)le. 

Ihj-V--,. A.^.'^.'^^^.L 



Nurture Mm««mT7 ■>« Well as Br^vil — Prncocimi* Manlfi-RUtiona 
nf the Srx>ial Imputte— Ara Tlipy til b<- Iti-)(Hrtlnl n« XurmulF — The 
Seiuiil liny of Cliililicii — Tin Emotion nf I.uvn in Childhood — Art Towr 
rhildrcn Mure PrccooiuUs Svxiiully Tliuii Coiintij- CliilJivn! — Cliildmi'ti 
Idfus t'oncvrnltig the Ori)[lii of Knbi«H — Nwil for llr^noltig tlie 8<tx<iiil 
Kdacnlion ot Children in Kurly Venn — Tin.- IinpnrUiiicp of Knrly Train- 
ing in Itcspunnibilily — Kvil of tlii.' Old IXn'trinr of ISili-iu'e in Mutters of 
Sei— Pin Eiil MaKnined niicn A]i|>1icil to Girls— Tlic Mother the 
N'otural und Benl TL-ni^hcr — Tlit iMurliid Inllu^nce ol Artiflulal Mjrstery 
In Sen MAtlom — Ilnoka on Snual Enlijihtrnmeiil of tli* Voiiiif; — N'atuiu 
ol titt Mother's Tiink — Sexual EducatiDii in the Srhool— The X'ntuc of 
Baltiiiy — ZoDIo^ — S('\uh1 Kdiionllnn Afl.-t Piiliirly — Tlie Xi'WBwty of 
t'oiinternctiiig Qiiuvk LittTiiturc — Dniiifi-r of Nrglpcling to I'ri-pnre for 
the First Oiiv-l ot McnHtrmitioii — 'IV Higflit Altilude Towards Woman** 
Sr\unl (,(fi^— The Vitnl Ni-cetsity »( Hie llygieiip of MenHlriiallon Dui- 
Ing Adoleicenet — Sueh Uygii-nc Comimtiblc with the EJueHlionBl nnd 
Roei«l Enuiility of llie Sexrn — Tlie IiiviiliilUni o( VVoiiieii Muiuly Due to 
Hy)[l>nlo KrgWt^^ooil Influence of Thyttefll Training nn Womiin ond 
Had InfluMii* «f Albletioa — The Kril* of Emotional Sii|>prr»ftioH — Seed 
of Tenehinj; Ibi- DiKnity of Sex — hiMiiPn™ fif The-e Kfieton* on n 
WomBn'ii Fnte in MarrinH(v-r.i-rture» Hnit Adilren^w on Sexiiiil llygifTie 
— The llortDt'n I'urt in Si^niil Ediieation — I'liberUI Initiiitimi Into tlie 
Ideal World— The Plnec of tbe Rellglonn iind Klhienl Ttarli.r— Tlio 
Inllintinn Kilint of Snin^^i-n Into Manbood nnd Womanhood — The Sexual 
Innuance of l.itrratnre— Tlio Si-xiuil Infliienee of Art. 

It may ;iwin to fomc tlint in nttiidiing wciglil to tlie niieeetry, 
tlio parentage, tlie conception, tln' gestation, pveii the first 
Infancy, of ttiu cliild we iirc wandering awny from llie tplicrc of 
tlie psycliology of nex. Tliat i» fur from licing the cuse. We an>, 
on the coutrary. going to the root of sex. All our growing 
knowledge tends to show that, equally with his physical nature, 
^Ihe ehihra psychic iiahirc is btidtnl on liredl anil nurtnre. on the 
fualitr of the stocks he belonps to, and on the care talfcii at the 

• (88) 


.. *^30i.)^(C 



ciirlv nioiin-iitj* Aviini ciia- counts for moat, to ppewrvu the Ane 
ijuaJily of tliow stotks. 

It munt, of oourH-, Iw [i.-mi'iulwrc<j iliut tlic inlluciii.'ot at liotli brei'J 
and iiuitiirv Arc allko Inllurtillnl oil tlic (ate of the 1 nil 1 vidua I. The 
influpHi-c or nurture in no obvioun lliut ti'W an- likely to iinik'vnit<! it. 
TliP iiillin-ii™ (•( br«t>il, lioiveviT, I" Ii'^m oljvioim, mid «i" niiiy Mtill mrpt 
u'ilh prrannH u> ill iiifornii'd, nml iiTlinin to iitejudicnl. a* to deny it 
iillugclher. Tlip groulli of our knmvli'ilgtf in tliin mutter, by "liuuiiiij 
Unir Mibllc nn<l pi'iinlriitive l» (he irilliiciiiv of licrcdity. mniiol fail to 
dUpirl thia mim-liit-vouit notion. Xo tuiind driliiaition i» po^niblc exwpt 
in n coinmitiiily ulilrh in the ina-«i U irut uuly nrll-iiuHurril but mil- 
lirrd. Anil in nu part of )ifc! *o niticli n« in Uir (I'Xiinl ri!liitlnn«hipji la 
tli» lnllu«ni<» of good brn-diDg mure iki-itlrp. An inHlruclive [lliutni- 
lion may be gltNtncd from tlip iniiuitR niid {'"'ctw hintory of hta oaTly 
life fiimUhed tci me by u higbly cultured IttiHMun gentleman. II« tvita 
brought up in cliildhood wlt)i liin omi brother* ami iiiitcr* and u little 
g\t\ of the 8*iiir H^ will had Ih'i>ii adnjitmt frniri infniii'.v. tlir ehild nf a 
prostitute hIio had diod kkhi iiftrr the infnnl'* birth. The odopted child 
vifA trenti'd ax one of tlie fiiniily, and all th« rhihlr^n Mi[ipo#rd Mint xli* 
WHS n real iii*tfr, Yl-I from cnrly yeors nhc develo[)ed inslincti nnlike 
lliow of thv chiMr'n >vith nliom she wa« niirlun-d; t>li« lied, 'he vna 
cniol. alio Icm-d to niiilic miaohicf, and •he dnvelopi-d prpeciriouniy vicioii* 
«uul impnlsra; tliough eiirc^futly cdnoatcd, ahc adopted the uR'upaliun 
lier mother, and at the ng» of twenty-two wft» eilleil to Siljcria for 
nbbi'ry and nltenipt In ninriLT. The eliild of n dinner father and n 
pr(ii>tilute mother i< not fatally dpvotM to niin; hut invh u child ia 
il1-bn>d. and thiit (net. in some caiea, may ocutnlixe all the inlluenevS 
of good onrture. 

Whon we ri.'aili the period of infancy wc have nlrendy pasaoil 
bovoDtl tlio foundations and potentialities of the sexual life; ve 
nro in some uiM<pi witnotMiiij; it" iictunt licginnin^. It is a 
well-established fact tliat autn-erotic manifestation^) may some- 
times be obMMTod even iti infnuts of lose tlian twelve montlut. 
\Vf an' not now called uptwi to rli*i'ii(ii* IJie dinputjililf point as to 
lion- far such manifeatationa at this age can b(> called normal.' 
A sliglit degree of inenvtruul and niuminaiy activity somL'times 

I Th«!«e inaulfeiHatJonit linve been dealt with In th» Mndy of Auto- 
•toliam in vol, i of Ihf preaent Wfu<fi>«. It may Im- ndded tliat the ■•exnal 
1I(0 o( tlir child haa boen vxhanntlvely invealljpiled by iinW, IliM J^MTfOf- 
trben dei Kii'lea. IflOS. 




occurs at birtli.' It M-i-in» clear that nvrTuuH iid<I iwvdiio i^xual 
uctivity hiL» iU tir^t fjiilugg at tlii^ early pcrioil, and iik tint yi-ars 
go by All mercasiug number of inilivi<luals join the etreani until 
at puberty pructically all urc earrit.-d along in Itio grcut current. 

While, tlKTi'fofv, it ja possibly, wen probably, true rlint the 
KOiindeHt liiui hfjilthiest indiviiluals rihow mi dellnitir Hignfl of 
DcrvouK nnil pflvcliit^ !i(>.\uality in childlionil, audi man iftvtii lions 
are still sufficiently frequent to imike it imjHMMililc to say that 
ncxnal Iiygicnc niay be completely ignored until puberty is 

PiH'ocimiii phj-Kioil developmi^l o<vur« an a Mmewhat rare varlu- 
W. Koicrr Williniu* ("PrMDcimin ScxunI DrTplopiTn-iil wllli 
■tracts of ovi-r ()»« Iliiiiilrfil i'umm," llriluh fhjn>rniln<iirat Jaunia\, 
03) liua fumii> iin importiuit cniitribulinn to tlit- kiioivloilKi' 
i anomnly wliirli U miM')i ojmimnpT in g\xU tli^iii in bo,i«. Kiigri 
WillUniB'* «uw* IikUicIc only twpntjr buy« to Mglily ffirU, unit prvcorlty 
i* not wt\y iiicirc (n^iumt bit! more proiiuinicvtl in girl", wliu liovc b<«n 
Intown to eoiirriiv at eight, wliilo tliirlrpn l*. ttulnl to Ih- t)ii> cnrlifHt 
age at wlilcli Imys hnvr |irov^ nhk to bi-g"t I'liildrrMi, 'I1iis. it may hv 
rMnarketl. i* uI-mi t)ii> i-ntlU-Kt tip! nl wliirh «|irriiiHliiKi>ii an found in tlic 
■cmtnal fluid of boyi) before that Offe llie eineulatifin* cniitfltn no >pi*r- 
innlxima, nnJ. at Fiirbrlii^r und M»ll haw r"iiiitl. tlii^y muy tmvn Xn- 
•bsprt nt iiliil<v'n. dt lat<"r. In feninlff cbildri-ii iin^oeioiin *(^iiii1 tievi-r 
opmrnl i» If-H Foininonly nsiOFiuteil wilb ((enerni ioorcnw of Imdily 
dnvnlopnicnt tlinii !n boyn. (An imllvidnal mw' of «Brly «i-xiiii1 Hevi-jop- 
m*nl in a girl of fivi- liii-i binrn poinpiclely described und fiffiired in tin* 
XriUvhrift fiir tUhnolnijiri, imill. Heft 4, p. 312 ) 

I'TWociuM" wxuiil iinpiil-ra are j^riiiTrnll; vugii.-, ocenMoimj, nild 
more or le** Innooi-nt. A eii»e of rare nnd pronoiiiurd cliiiriiPter. in 
WlUeb II t'liil'J. a Ixiy, ftorti Ihc ugp of two lind becTi neiunlly nLtrnetvd 
to girlx and noiiK-ii, niiil •Jir^ctnl nil liin tlioiiglila and iirlinnii t« iiexuni 
atlrinpls on them, bnt Wen deMrilieii by Merliert Kii'b, of Ilnlroit 
{Alicnint and yturolafi*!, Nov., lOOjI. (jpii«;al evidence from the 
literature of the aubiect n> to Hpvnni iiniyH-ily. il* fmtneiicy mid ■ignili* 
«DM. haa bwn brought togifther by U M. Terman ["\ Study in Pre- 
1 •BOtty," JmiTioiin Jountnl I'tiifht/loffji. April, ]fl05|. 

1 Thia genital elBoreiwence in tlie ■rxiinl glanda and brenita nt 
Mrth or in eariy fnfnncy hn* been diwu-iiod in a Piirl* thi.-*i', by I'nmllb- 
Itenoaf (/.a Cntf flfni'tnl rt Ira Jtauifflnllmi* Coniirjvs eArt'lf FirluH 
rt If XauifauH*. IDOn) ; ba l« unable to offer a Mtiitactory explnnntlon 
of ^\M^'^• plieoomenu. 




Thr prpctioiu llmt oiv liuUr in mvnr In mulr infiiTilii have uaiulljr 
■111 hTVUhI i<lfn>'fi''An(^, llicxiitli. n> Moll milarkx. tltp>- tnnj- iirqiiiro it tiv 
otfrsetinic llir rhililV ultPiiIliiii; tlirt »(■■ iii<T<>K* ri>Orx. It I* iM-tli'VCit 
by Mime, tiuwovrr, anil ti«t«blv* by KrvUiL, tlml wrtain manifuitnlionn of 
inlanl uctiiHj', pM|»n'iiill}' (liiiiiib*Nii(-kiii)i. un ot dpxiiaI minuitloti, mid 
that ll>r nrxunl liii{>ut>i- caiHitiinllj' niniiili-Bli' ili'II at u very <nirl}* age 
Tlie htUcl Ibut the luriunl tiutiiirt i« nlKcnt in rliililtinotl, Fmid rc-^rda 
im fl ■rrioiia mor, no fa«y t" cnrTw-t liv oltwn-ation lliat Iip «*oiiil<-rH 
liuw it can Imvi- aiiwrD. "In rt^tity." lio Tvmiirloi. "tliv Drw-liorn infant 
brln|r< iiriiiiHtit,v n-ith it Jnin tlir mrM. m-xuhI vnaation* aorampiiny it 
lhTuii|-li lli<^ duyti of iHrlutiuii nnd diililliixHi. mid w-ry tnr ciiltdirti i-jiii 
fall to PXprrirnen nrxunl activitlrc ami IrrliiiKn Wforv tliv ppiimt of 

puln-rty" (Fr«iid. "Ziir Scxuplleu AiifklSniiig il'-r Kind#r." Hosiair 
Jf'rJJti'n «hJ llygifne, BJ. il, IBDT; ef.. for dptall*. Uii- »ninc niUhor'a 
Drei AbhanJIuagea fur StTuallhr»rie, tODS). Moll, vn tlic otli«r liiind. 
rorMldem that h'rrmi'a vl«m on MWiuillty In liifknry are PXAKgi^rfltionn 
H'liicli murt he dfcjuivrly tpjrcttd. tlioii);h he ndmito thnt il in dilllciilt. 
if iii'l iiii|)i>*><ilili-. til (tiirprriitiatfi (li* fivllnip" III cliildliotKl iMoll, Da* 
Hrrualtebrn if»a Kinitf*, p. Ifl41. MpII hvljpVM aliio that |)!iych<I-M'XUaI 
iiiniiifr>'(iitioii>i »]i|H-uiiDK uKi-r lli« auv of ciglit nr* niit piitlmlogicnl ; 
cliildrpn who urp n-pukly or of bnd liiTpdity are not i»*ldom sr'sually pr*- 
nii'ioiii*. Iiiit, I'll thp olh'r h^ml, Moll ban knoim children of ciKht or 
nin« with ttroiijilj dpi-eluprd mmiibI impiilura, who ,vet becomo finely 
developed mm. 

Itudtmpntari- npxtinl ndivltieii tn diildhood, accompanied l>y aexunl 
fwlini^. iiiii*t iiiderd — wlirn Uipy nre nut loo pronouneni or too prrmii- 
tiire— bi- reiprded n» roininR withiii Ihi" iinrmnl ■ipliarf', tli"iiKb nbrn 
tliey iHTiir fn children ot bud bemlity they ar« not without nerloiin 
ri"l(H. Hut III henlthy Hilldren, aft*T tlic «ire of «even ot iiiji;lil. tliey 
Itud to produec no evil re-iultH. and are MHctly of the nature of play. 
Piny. Iioth in anlinalu ami men, an (Iroo* hna nbown n-lth innrvHiiiiit 
ireullli of illiiBtraliun, ii a Wiiefieent proet-M of ediieatiun-. the youii); 
crnature )■ thereby prcpariiij; it«-lt fur the exereiip of Ihoae fiinctionii 
wliieh in lultr life !t niUHt enrry out more eompletely and more aeri- 
onalj. In iiin Hpirtr rfer ilrnjiphrn. (iroat applies this Iden to the lexnal 
play of children, nnd brinjj^ ('irwiird qu<itatiiin» from literature in evi- 
dmcc. Keller, in lil* "Knmen und .tiilS''t niif dem l)orfe." hn* giitm an 
admirably truthful pielurc of thne childisli tuve-relatiuDBhipn. Kmil 
8«hultH'-Matkou->(ky (Oftrhterkl imW Ontflltrhafl. Tid. U. p. 370) repro- 
dueea Nome ncenen from the life nf n IJltle )tirl of Heven clearly illu'lnit- 
InK thn exnel iindire ot tlie «exunl tiinuifi'<'tntinn nt tlili RKe. 

A kind of (udlnieTitary ■pxnnl inlereourse lietween children. n» 
Itlnrh han remarked tBrilriitir, pte., llil. II. p. 2.14), occur* In many parto 
of the world, and ix re™gni»eil by their elders m play. Thin \\ for 




Int^iiiiM, Ui« caw amonK llic Uanendu u( the Tr&iuvanl {ZiUtch'ifl fUr 
tihiH/.'ogir, I^UU, Hr>fi 4, p. 3U4|, and nntong tlic I'.ipiuia* of Kiiiiwr- 
Willirliiis-Lnitd. Willi tli« appTOvnl of the parMi[«. alllmugli iiiucli 
rvl it-i»<-i' U obmrvrd (irf,, 1S8». Heft 1. p. 10). Ginlntd (.Kgyple ct 
I'tilnfinn, ISO", p. lOS) iioUiil tlie ■rxiiiil pUy of Ilic boy^i iind girls in 
Cniro. In Nnw Meiito W. A. llniuinoDil iScj-uo/ ImpvirtuK; p. 107) 
hiu iivn bo^ nni) girls uttmi]itiii|{ a pinytii) Hr\ual i-onjiint'lion with 
tlie enroll rajcviiicn I of lurn nnd noiiivii. aiiil in Sevi Yurk liu 1ju» si'i-ii 
lioj« and girlii of llirLi! niul four doijig tliv i-iitiio in tlin prcsi^cc of Ilidr 
(wmito, witli only a lnuii)iiii|{ ri'lniki^. "I'luyint; nl pu and niu" fa 
Indefd Ricimncl)* comiuuu iiniuii); irUildrFn in i^'niiiiic liimior'ni'r, and with 
a ronipMi! iilii.?nr^ of virloiwnwui-, nnd i* Uy no m™n« confim'd to eliil- 
dri-n of low nociul cIom, M«1I rpmark* on iU fri'nupni'y (l.ibuta 
He-rualiJi, Bd. i. p. 277), tind llip nmiriilllii> of muniiflipjil pantorn. in 
^i>ir Invi-ullKiulon nf Gprmnn rural morality {Dia (IrachUvhllichn- 
niltliehe Vrrhatl niaat, Bd. i, p. 102) found ttint c)iil<lreii wlio arc nut 
yrt of ichMil age mak« nltcmpta at coitiiti. The nc-xunl piny of clillilmn 
im hy no tiK-nns tniifini'il to fntlin' mid motlipr ^inm: fri-qui-nlly th^re 
nr« jcuuics of Hidinnl witli tin- rllinnv In rxfi(»nri> nnd sniAokingo. and 
ociNi'ionall}- thpre aio ipimcn of Urint; dortora and mnkinfi r in nil nations. 
Tlius a young Kn^liHh wr.inun onyn; "Of pourt", vtWn we were nt whool 
[at thp agi! of twplre and cnrtii-rl we uiird to piny willi one nnotlicr, 
wrernl of ti4 i-iTlii w<< ii«-<l In p) into a fii-dd and pretend we vfetv 
doctom nnd tind lo cxainiiii' oni> nnnllirr. and tlicn wo uaed to pull np 
one »nolluT*H fl')!!!^!! nnd find enoh othirr.'' 

Tti^ie jtainrii do not ni^reiaiirify ini'olvc thc! tot'.ppmtion of the 
MXital impnlw, nud lilill Im« lini-n tlii^y any element of lovi-. Hut miio- 
lioni of love, •rnn'cly if iil ull di^linpiiohnble from ndiOt vmunl lovo, 
frpqueiilly apfN-nr nt eqnnlly enily iiRin, They nrc of tlie nutnce of piny, 
in DO fur a« ]>liiy is n prepiimllun for the nc'ltvitirs of Inter Wt. though, 
unlike (tie Rameii, thpy nrp not felt «* piny, Kaindolir. more thnn ■ 
cimtnTy ago (Vrnu* t'rania, 17881, referred to the fri-iinent love of little 
lioy« for wnmnn, SWi^ ii"iinlly llie love in ('-It townrds imlividinils of 
(lie opiioxite or tiie »ume tex who nre not widely different In age, though 
usually nldei. Tl<« inont eoioprehr-Msive study of the matter hit« been 
made l>y Knnford Bell in Aiiirricii nn ■ luisit of nn mnny n* 2..*1(I0 i-nu-a 
<8i B«]l, *^A rrplinilnnry Study of Ihe lOinotion of l.oi-e Between the 
SntW," JinrriVoii Jnurnat I'ni/rlinlog,/. ,fuTy. 1[I03). Bill llndii Hint the 
pMMnCA of llie emotion tietweeii lliree nnd eii;lit yeai-s of nge is nhonn 
t^ mieh netlon* n* hiiiixlnj;. kiting, lifting rnvh other, seulHing. silting 
cl<Me to enoh other. efmfe«ion« to fneli oilier nnd lo oIlieTiJ. tulking about 
eaeh other when apart, seeking ench other nnil excluding the reat, grief 
nt •epnrntion, (fivlnjt gl1t», showing -(leciul eouiteairi lo eneh other, milk- 
ing HicrtllcM (or mcli other, exhibiting jenlouxy. The giria nre, on the 


" ^ ^^^ 


psTCHOLiMiir or sex. 

iii'lii>1«. nicir* HdigrMtlv* Uian tht boy*, nnd h** niixiouii tu Iccp thn mut- 
l«r DKiPt. After Uie «gt uf pight. (he girl* incriMisc ia moili^iity nnd 
boj'H beitime "(III morn HccTctir*. Tlic phyticnl MMiutlon* Am not 
iMlIy lon](«] in tlie nVMial orgitno; ereirtinn of tlii! jMiiin unil liyppr- 
icniU of (111' female wsiinl |'.iil« Hi-ll ivjimiU a* iiiHrklnj; iiiiJiii- pi#- 
cocil)^. But tlivTP \» dilTuiH^d viisculur und nl■r^'utlN tiiTnescviiL'c! and a 
Hta(e of (■xiilljiliixi comiinraliln, (IioukIi not «)tial. (o tlint •■xptrioiiivil in 
siUilrHivnt and itdnlt ma. On tlic whak, ai RvH nouDilly roncludci. 
"love lH.-ti>'<«u I'hitilrpn of O|>|io8ite nfX liviira niucli Ili» ^aitir ri'Iatiim tu 
that lwtvie«n ndiilt* >« tlic flavrvr dm-', to Hip fruit, and has about as 
little of jibyiicnl iipxunlity in it an an npple-blMnuin ha* of the npple 
thot dt?T*li>jn from It" Moll alw (u;». «(., p. 71!) poiwjili>f» (Iiat kl-wiiig 
and other nimilar siiperlleial eontaets. which lie di'uuniiuHtea the jihe- 
iicniiMin of con t recta (Ion. comilitiile ino«t lrM|uently the llrst and mIo 
manifcutation i)f the texnal Impiilie In ehildhood. . 

It in oft«u ilati^d Unit it in easier for children to preiierve their 
(cnial innocenee in Ihe munlry Ihnti In the ton-n. nnd tlint only In cities 
in sexinilily mm[iHnt nnit cunnpi^^ioux. Thi-i is by no menns true, nnd 
In »ome re»fiop(« it in the iever«i' of llio tnith, ri'r(ninly, hard work, a 
mitural nnd nimple life, nnd a Iiick of alert inlelligenee often eumbine 
to kwp the nirnt Ind rhnite in thought nnd net until the period of 
ndoleieenee in <T>Mipteteil. Aiiiinoii. for inntanee, ■tnti'i'. thuuf^i nithout 
(rivintt driinite evidenee. ihat th)< i> eommon nmong the Dad^n eon* 
■eripts. Certainly, alw. all the multiple wtiwri* e.xi'itenieitti of nrliun 
life l«nd to nroune the nen'oim nnd eerebral exeitahility of the yi>uii|r at 
a eompHi.itively early ttjiv in the sexiinl as in other fields, nnd prrnnoto 
pr*mntiire de^iren nnd eurio«itie«. Hut. on the other hand, urhan life 
(ifTers the yaimK no irrnlitlnition fnr (heir detires nnd curioailien. Tli« 
publicity of a efty. the nniversul nirvefllnMi'e, Die otmlleil decorum of a 
population eonneious tliat it in euntinually exposed to (he RiDie of 
*(run(teT». combine to «ptvad a *eil over the pjuitrrie hide of life, whleh, 
even when nt In*t It fnll* to eoneenl from thr ynuiiK Ihe nrhiin ttimnll 
of timt life. elTeetunlly eonceaK for Ihe mont part, the ^'ratiliciitions of 
Ihone Htlniull. In th« oQiinlry. howeivr. thene rntruiiitii do not rxist In 
nny eorretpondinR degree; Hniniul* render Ihe elenientjil fuet« of nexual 
life eluar to all; llifre U \r^' need ••r rejrHrd for demfuiu; speech i» 
plainer; unpervi'ion i* lmpotniUe. and the nniplent i>p|H>rtnnitieii for 
hcieuhI iiitiniar>' nie at hand. If ili' Hly mny perhapH be naid lu lator 
iinehaniilT of thoiijrht in the young, the eountry may certainly bo •aid 
Ui (nvor unehnslily af net. 

Tho •laborate InTVutlKiitlon* of the rommitlee of Lutheran pnitors 
iatA sexnal morality (Die Oev-hUrhtlieh liltUche %'rThiillniiae im 
D<vl»t^n Hi4-he). piihll«hed a few yenr* axo. demonttratr ampty the 
•extial freedom in rural Oermony. and Moll, who is decidedly of opinion 



sot AL KUCC.VTIOS. 39 

that th« MHintry cnjo>* no Ti'TativF [rwdom from lexuHlity, (Uti^ (ofi. 
(*■'-. pp- 1!IT-130, S3I)) that ri'rn Dm circiiluLtan of ohacvno liooko ntid 
jiii-tiiivH among Arlioal't^hildrvn •oi-mi to be more (rcqumt in ainull tuwiis 
iiiid tlie coiintiy than I>i UrKP citlvs. In HumU, nliore It ini)[lit In> 
tlioiiitlil (hat urlHin nnd niral rondilioiu ofTrrcd Ich contrail Uuin in 
many («uiilriif». tliP mimo (Uffcronce has Ihtii olwnrvi'il. "T 'lo not 
know," a Ituniun eorreipondpiil wrltcn. "ubi-llipr Zifl*, in La Teirt t'ur- 
rw'tly dontribe* tin- lit" o( fii-iifh vlllBgr«. Hut (hi- v-ay* «( a Kmu-jan 
Hllage, where 1 pii««d purl of my childliooO. fnirly rpacmbtc tbow 
dP^crilM'iJ by Zulu. In the 1it» of tli« rural jiopuliitiun into uhkh I whh 
|i1iiiitti>d rvcn'thing wn* Impri'tinBli'il with rrotijiin. One una mirroiinitod 
Iiy oniioat lubricity in nil ill iuiiiioiti-sty. Contrary lo Ihc gt^ui'rully 
rerrivnl o|iiiiioii. I lirllcvi- tlinl a child niAv pn^acrvr hi* mvxunl iiinoeenvc 
mare raaily in n lo\s'n tliun In the rounlry. Tliore nrt. nu doubt, muuy 
cKccptioiM to ihi* raid. Dut the fundiona of the loxiiul life nrc Kcn- 
cially more conccnlM in llit^ townii than in Dip flidds, Modi^tly Iwbethcr 
or not of tliR merely ikiipcrHcJnl and exterior kind) ii more developed 
niiiijiig urliiin pa[iiiliillnns. In ajwuklng of •exnnl tilings in the towns 
pruptn Tvil Ihclr thought more; even Ihc lower ela*a in tnn-n* employ 
mure n-itTaiut. mora ^nphetiiiiimH. thnn |iiifl«Ant«. Thu^ in the townn a 
child may cnsily fail to comprehend when riaky euhjcds nrc tiilknd of 
in his pr«M'nc«. It niiiy b« *nld (hnt Ihe corruption of tinrnx, tliough 
more eonoLiilod, ia nil the deeper. Mnybe. bill that mncenlincnt pre- 
»crve< rliildrsn from it. The town ciiild ncea proslitules in the »trcpt 
•¥ary day without dinHngiiisliinR (hem from other pople. In the conn- 
try lie would every ihiy hear it ituteit in Ihe eni'te^t tci-nm Ihnt mieh 
and sucli a girl li<i4 been found at rtlglit in n iKirii or a ditch makins 
lo^-e with tueh nml nuch a youth, or thnt llie Kcrvunt (pri ulipo every 
nighl into the [•oiichninti'B bed, Ihe fncl« of Hpxiinl Inlerrountp. pregmincy, 
nnd Hillilblrth lieing s|inkcn of in the pliiincul term*. In towns the 
child's atlenlion in wilicitcd by n IboUNiml diTereut objcclB-. in the 
fountry, vxei'pt lleldwnrk. uhirb fall* lo Interett him, he henrt only of 
the rcprotluction of uniiuulB and the i-rolic exploits uf girls uiid (*out1i>i. 
Ulian wc Niy that Uie iirluin environment in more exciting we nrc think- 
ing of ndults, but llie things nhich exWle the iiduU buve umuilly no 
erotic elect on llie child, who cannot. hoHcver, long reiunin nsrxunl nlien 
he upcit Ihe great peovint girU. u« iirdent an muies in lieat. iilmiidoninK 
t1ieni««lve» to the smin of riihnot youths, lie cannot tnil to leitmrk 
thcM (rank manifestation* of u-xiinlily. thougli the subtle and perverte 
refinements of Ihe town would cmnijic liin notice. I know Ihnt in the 
connlrlcR of exngifemleil prudery there f* niuoh hidden corruption, moie, 
one i> nomctime? iuclin.'d to think, thnn !n Icia hypocritlcnl eountrieii. 
Rill I ln'1ii-v<' Hint thnt ii n fiilne impre^iion. and nm pemuuded tliat 
preci*ely bccauM of all tlieic little concealment* which oxcltc the muH- 



rsYfuouxiy or sex. 

ckina UDiuenNml of fotr'tgtttn, Uierc are rmllv inanr mar« ^tniiig 
fiNipla ia Bagl*aA wlio rvnain «li«>t« thmn in Ibe coiuitrini vh)cj» 
Irtat Mjnial rrlatlona nton fnakly. At all «T«aU, if 1 lutTc knowa 
EnglUiven wbu wcrp rcrj lUbaucbei) aod t-rrr rrtin«l jn tiop, | hav* 
•Jno IfDinm jntmg mrii ol th* »Mn» matitia. ovrr tweotj'. who vtm aa 
iBMKvnt aa rhildrpn. tiut scvpr n Tonnx Prnichman. Italian, or 
Bpaniard ol whum (hi* poaM be ■aid." Time is luidoubtrdly tmth 
In thi* itatnivnt, tbou^i It mnrt b» r>Bienb»TKil thai, fxnlkiil aa 
diaatity i*. if it in bojwsl on nere t|in»*nnce, ttn pamtcnot ia expoeed 
to (*tt1I>1(i ilanjtPrK. 

The question of KcxunI hvgiene, mor* wppoially in ita $pcei«l 
upcct of m'xuhI enlightcnmcut, is ttot. Iwwercr, dependent on (lie 
fact that in saitm children the pijchic and ncn'ous nianifeslation 
of sex appcant »( an earlier a^e than in others. It rests upon the 
larger gcnvrul fuct (liut in all children (lie uvtivity of iiilolli^p^nvt; 
begins to work nt a rei? early age, and that this aetirity l«n<ls to 
manifeitt itielf in an inquisitive dr»ire to know many clemcnlnry 
fot^lH of life which are really d<-[w»dent on Hex. The [iriniary 
and moat universal of these desires is the desire to know where 
children come from. No qiicttion oiild be more iiiitiiral; the 
question of orij^ns is necessarily a riindninental one in childish 
philosophies as, in more ultimate sha|)CM, it is in adult phtlo«<o- 
pliiw. Must rhililren, vitlier guidei! I>> the statements, usually 
the misstatements, of their ciders, or by their o»ii iutvlligenc* 
u-orkin^ amid such indications as are "pen to them, are ia 
poii^tawion of n tlieon' of tJie origin of babie». 

SUnlry Ilnll ("ContPnl* o( CliiWrtii'it Mind* on Knicring Sthool," 

Ptdaifogiral Heminarg, .Iiiin'. ISfll) \i»n ™lliMtfit i«omi> ■>( [lin lielipfa i>f 
jviing chlldrrn >■ to i\\e <>vi)[Jn uf bnblrii. "(inil niiilips linblcn tn hoaveu, 
lliough th« Tlolj Mollier nnd otii SbilIa (.'Iauh iiiiikr •ome. He let* 
thoni down and dropa them, und tlic w*(inii>n or doriQta catch Uipin. or 
He leaiva tli'-ni on tli^ Bliku'slk, or liritiic* Ilicrn dnun a iTOMlen laililvr 
backwardit and |>iilli> it u|i .-if,iiiii. or mninnia or llic dnctor or thr niinw 
fft ii|> and I'-leli iIk'iii, Momclinii'- In a Imllnnn. nr llii'y (ty di>uii mid Ium 
ofT Ihcir (vlnpi In unine jdnMi or olhT and (othi-i it. nnd jnnip down lo 
Jsmt*. wlin giiva tlit'in aniiincL T\\ry «*rr« alwi uftcn «)id lo Iw found 
in floiirbnnvU. and thr flour atipk* pvor no tonp:. joii know, or thty 
in»w In wiMuiR"", at <!(nl [mln tli«-ni in uatM*. {Hfrtinpii in the wwi-t. mid 
UiB dod4)f' get> tlii-u out anil taki-a tlimi'to alck folk* that want tbcni. 


si-:3i(AL eut'CATioN. 


or III* ininoiiun bfiii|i« Ui^-m luivly !ti lh« TtiomlnR; tli«y niv Jui; oul uf 
tbi- ground, or bougbl nt the biibj' itorc" 

111 Kiiglmiil iintl Anivrii'ti tlif? iiiijuiiitive pliilil is ollui tulil that tlia 
Imbr wui (ound in the gurdi-'n, under n gaoarhetry buib or nltrwhi-rcj or 
mure voiiiiiioiily it in •aitl. v\ilh iibiit i> duiiblkw felt tu be i\ nturer 
upproacli In th<^ tnitb, lliat tlip doctor brought it. In (li-rmnii^v thr roiii- 
mon rtorjr told to childrm !<• Ilmt tbv >>tork briiipi tin- bub>-. Various 
thmirl«ii, mnatlj' blued on fidk-lnrr. hnvi< bi-cn piil forward lo pxplnin 
lliU story, but none of tbrni Hin-iii <|iiitL> convincing; Isee, r.<i., G. KermxTi. 
"SKXiiai-Mylhfln." Orwh/fvAl unci GrtflUrhnfi. vol, i. Ilpfl 5. IflOU. p. 
Kfl, oud r. Nflckp, .VrurofofliVh^ rc.ii.oJftfoK, So. 17. 1907). Niiirk* 
tbinkn lliprc In Mirni.' pUii^lbillty in I'rofi-uMir lVli>riniinu's suKgoi- 
tion Ibnt a frog writhing hi a iiliiTlc'a bill mxMiiliItu a tln.v bimiun 

Ill Icf-Innd, nivordiiig lu Mn.t T!art«1s | "Uliindiwhvr Bmurb iind 
Volkigluiibe." rie.. Ztittchrift fur Klhnologie, 1000. Heft 2 nnd 3) we 
find n tninaltion lirtwwn tlin nntiiral ami tho fnnrlfnl In thn utorliw ttild 
lo childien of tbc origin of bubir* (tb« stork U here prMludnL for it 
only oxli-nd* to tlip wiiith'-rn lionlpr of StiiniliniivUii liiii<!>(. In N'ortli 
Iwlund it is Mid UiAt <>ud imidE Ibr Imby iinil Die tiicitber bure it. und 
on that netonnt l* now ill. In I]\p northwitt it JH xiiid (bnt riixl ninde 
the biiby ond gmc it to the nuitlier. KUenbere it in luiid Ihnt i"lod wnl 
tlie biiliy nnd tlip mid«ifi> htiinj-lit it, the motlicr ont.v U'iiig in bed to 
be nenr the bnby (wbiiU is si-Morii plum] In n cTndle). It !•■ nl"n w.Mlii'- 
, tiueii mid Itiiil n Inmb or » biiil linnijjbl ihv bnby. .\ts>in it is uiid to 
hav0 mitervd diiiinjt Ilir night throngh the windoir, Sotni'l inic*., how- 
ever, the child is told thiit tho bnby miiir out of tlit^ mother'n breast*, 
or from Wlow hpr biefl«li. and that i* why abr I* not widl. 

Kven wb#n (diililten b'nrn tlint babicn vfrni! uiil of tbci mothcr'ii 

body Ihiit knowlmlip* often Ti-mainn vrry vakiii' nti<l iiininirntv. It vpr.v 

Iconunonly bappen-. for inalAiiop. in nil eivtlixcd iii\intricn thai the nnvel 

|.U rrg*rd«d at the baby'H point of i>xit from the body. Tliii' )> :> iinliiriil 

' mneliiuon, anee Ibe navel ix seemingly ii chnnnel iiilo the Imdy. niid « 

channel for which there it no obvious ii«e, while (be pudendal elefl 

would not iiiggest ittvll to girls innd still lenfi lo Uiys) us the gnte of 

birth, since it already iipjienrs to Ix' ininiojmti'Pd by tbv nrinury ficere- 

tion. This Vlief eailcernlTig Ibn nnvfl Is sometimeo prescned through 

the whole period of ndoie^rrnee. e'pi-cially in ^irls of the !"i-enl1ed edii- 

ealed elus^ who ure (■»> uellbrr'd t<> dlieiinR ihi' mailer with tbeir 

liiiitried friendii. iiIkI Vlicvc indeed tbnt they nre nlrendy Mitlicifntly 

.well informed. At Ihi* ngi- Ibn liellet niny not hp nllogethrr hnrmleM. 

rln to tar nn !t lend* to tbe lenl gnte of tet lieing left iingiiHtdeil. In 

[iXlMVB where airls commonly bolievp. nnd htp tinight, that bnbicn eomo 

tkrotigb tb« navel, popular folk-talea Aro current [AnthTopophylriu, vul. 



iii. p. 89) wbtdi ri>prHrnt UiP luUUlEe* rMulting fToon tkia MM u 
InLding (a tlic kws of virginity. 

Pn-iii], kIio brIicvH that diUilrrii ((liv liltlc emlit to tlip itorl: 
fable iui<) iiiiDii«r slorii-ti invvnUyJ fur tlieir mynliGcnlioii, lint mud*? an 
Inlrrrating p«}^botc>gini1 Inmtifpitiiin Into the tral iliMinrt iihicli triiil- 
ilirn thoiHchrek, a^ Ihc mutt uf olnrrtaliou and lliaugbt. reach mo- 
o-miiig tlic ««x(ul tanta of llf« (S. KrMiil, "t.'ri>er liitantlli? 8v)(iwl- 
thcoricn." Rrtual-rrotUme, Tha., 10081. Siwli thmricn, he ntoark*, 
coTivtpond la the brilliant, but <!«tw1iv(> 1i}'|kiI)iitWb wliipb primitivo 
proplH nrrlvv nt conerrning the nature anil orljtin of the world. T)icr« 
are thrro tllcorjn. whioh. aa Ficud quite truly cvncltidn. arr very mm- 
nionly fontiitl by rliiMrcn. Tlii.> fin>t. Hid l)i« moil widi'ly ili>v>piiiiualt-d. 
i« that thert- U nti imal nnatomiral diffctiMic* bclwn-n bovn and 
girlH: if the boy Dotior* that htn little sinli-r lini no obviuu^t pfriiin h<< 
mn conclude* Ihnl It la b«caii*p *h(> I* too young, nod the llltlp )[1tI 
hcnetf taktw the ume rievt, llic fui-t that in Mirly life 111* clilorii Ih 
reIntU'<>1y larjiPT and morn pnnU-likn hvlpit to conHrm thin vfaw which 
Frpud tonnwls with the tendency in later life lo erotic dream of wfomen 
fiinil'liMl u'llh a pfniii. Tbii tlirory. nn Frvud aUo rtfmarkii. famr> tlif^ 
growth I'f hi?Mii>i'Mi>dlly uh^ii iU grmm ■n" prwi-nt. Tlir nwond 
Uifori' I* Ibc f«tTHl tlicnry of tJiv orljiiii at babtM. Hie child, who [icr- 
hapi think* bin molber hiu a pt^U, and ii in any cane Ittnomnt of the 
va|!inn, nnuc1iiil''o (hnt thn bxhy i» broufbt Into th« world l>y nn action 
■nalogoui to the action <if the bowrU. Tli# third thnity, which ii> j>cr' 
linpa !*■«• prevalent than the other*, Krciid terms the ooditilic thfory of 
cvitun. The child rraliun that his futlirr raii*t have taken lomti mrt 
of part in hi* production. Tlie theory that iicxiuit intcrei>ur>e oon«iilii 
in violence ban In it n trncB of truth, but M-eio* to \k- Krrivpd n( nther 
Dbwurely. The ebild'n own npiunl fpclinipt are often aromnl for the 
lirot lime when wrcHtling or «trutnE>1ing with n cntupanion; be may v» 
hi* mother. ul»o. reiit«ti»(( more or lo« ptajtnlly a iiidden mreiti from 
bin fHiher, iind if » real inmrrcl liikn plii't, tlie impreSMOn iiiay lie 
forliflecL A» to wbit the ittate of rnnrriAdr con"i<t« in. Freud finds Ihiit 
it U ii«iially revrn'dcd fl" n Mute whkh Mboli»lie« tnoiie»ty, the moit 
preralmt theory iH-ing Ihal marriage meun* tlmt people can make wiiler 
before each other, while another comnion chililinh llieory is tbut mar- 
riage U when people cun thow each other their privnlr pnrta. 

Thus it is tlwt lit II very laily *ln(;p of llic clilM's life we are 
broujjlit face to fact: with the question how we nmy most wisely 
b^^n bis tnitiiition ijito Uic kuowltnVe of the grrat central fucis 
of wx. It xt pt-rhajif n little Intc in tlic iJi>_v to pcpini it »* n 
question, but to it is among us, aitliough three thouBand five 




hnndred rears ago, tlic Hgyptiua futlivr spoke to his cliiM: "I 
liavv given you « mollier who hait carried you within )icr, a heavy 
burden, (or your Baiie, iind without i'E«tiiig on nic. When at laet 
yaa were born, *lio indcvd submitKHl hernrlf to tlic yoke, for 
during three years* were her uipplts in your mouth. Your 
eicrement« nerer luroed her Btomach, uor made her «ay, 'What 
am I duing?" When you were sent to Bchoo! t\iv Muut regularly 
every day to carry the household bread and beer to your master. 
When in your turn you inarry and hare a child, bring up your 
child as your mother brought you up,"' 

1 take it for Rranted, however, that — whatever doubt there 
nay be sa to the how or the when — no doubt is any longirr 
poitible »» to the absolute neeeRiiity of taking deliberate and 
active part in tliia sexual initiation, instead of leaving it to the 
clianee re^'elntion of ignorant and perhaps vicious companions or 
senants. It is IxToming more and more widely felt that the 
risks of ignorant innoccnee are too great. 

"AU tho lore and aolkitudc panntul ypnming 6»n bcrtow," write* 
Dr. G. V. Bitller. of Clilrajro tlA»'i- ontf in Al}hiilirii. ISOO, p. 83), "ull 
that tlio miMl roflncil icligiaun iiilliicnri' cnii olTcr, nil Ihnt tlic nimt 
eultimtcd u~socialiuii« run iKi'DinjiliHli, in aav fiilnl inuDivnl may be 
oUiti^rat/'il. ThPTP In nn mom Cor cthicRl Ti-BonnliiKi '■■<1''<^'1 oftfiitliiK^k 
!■■> conarioiUDiwi of winiig. but oiilv Murgnr^t'i 'Kn war co bUu'." Tlio 
lame writer aMn (An liid Ixvn pm-Iflunl.v reinnrked by Mn. Cralk and 
other*) that amonp rfiurdi mnnbt'ni it in tho liner niid more Mn*ltlvi> 
orKaiilxatlon* Itint nie Iho ino«l ■usopptlW* t" *<')iiuil viiiotluiift. So tnr 
as bojB arc foncprniil. wt- Ipiivp initruction in miittcm at upv, llio nio»t 
•acivii nnti crnlrni inrt In the world, n» Canon Lyttclloa r*«iark», to 
"■lirty-minikil (ii'boijl-li«j*<. grooms. gar<l«i-boy>. nnj-onr. in sliorl, who nt 
an «nr1}' ««<* ■"".V ''•' xoMdi-iitlr <1eltl<M iin<I Hunidirnlly nwkkni to <nlk 
«f tlicm.*' AnA, so far ■■ girls ore mnepmi>rl, n» Ralicnc loii^ ago 
nmatkcit, "u tiiotli«r maj' bring up hvr daughter liFverFly. and currr 
litT U'neutli her wltiK* for 8pvrnt4vn y»ar*i but a Mrvant-glrl can 
itwtToy tlinl long work by a word, evi-n by a gesture." 

Thp grrnt |)nrt ptnyml by Nirvant-trirU of the lower claaa in the 
«exaiil liiitiiitinn of Uir (-hiidrm of the middle dues has been illuitratn) 
in dotling nilli "The Stntual Impulse iti Women" in vol. iii. of tbeoc 

I AmAineau. La ItoraU df» Effyptitntt, p. 64. 




ffonfiM, and nccil not now be lurilicr dtiouunl. i would only htiw My 
• u*ord, ill paoaing. on tliu utli«r aide. OfUu a« Borvanl-girls Uks tiii* 
part, n* mtut not gn m (ar a« (o Miy that It is Ihe ciue witli tJi« 
majorit}'. A» regard* tJfnnaiiy. Dr. Alfred Kind Iiii« laU-lj- put on 
record hU exp«TUti(-o : "1 liave nrvcr, in .voiith, lit-Hnl a Iwd or imjiropcr 
word an aroc-relalioniliipa Imni n uprvant-gir]. alUiough sprrant-girU 
lolto»-rd one another in uur him»e like nunihine and •howets in April, 
and llirre wn* utwayii a rrlntinii of •.'oiiirHiieviiip betn>(i>ii u4 I'hildx'ii mwl 
llic •crvantn." A* regnnl* Kiinlnnil, 1 mn add (hat my own youthful 
e.ipi-riencM ixirre'iKiiid (o Dr. KindV Tliiti in not aurpriKing. fur onc^ 
may any Iliat In tlic ordlnnry w«II-i-andttianrd ffiH. (llOMgli her virtuo 
nuiy not he developed to hcrole proportion*, them i* yrl uinntly a 
natural renpevt (or llie Innoi-vnee ol children, u natural wxual indilT«r- 
en<« to thrm, and a natiirnl rxpoctalion tliat tli« ninla aliould t«kf the 
Autivc part nheu u hcviuiI titualioo arinen. 

It it aim beginning to bu Mt tliut, cvpccialh' lu rcgiiril» 
wonien, i^orant iimocenci.' in not merely too fragile a jKtoseseion 
to be worth preservation, but thnt it is positively miechievoiu, 
itinco it involves tlie Wk of ncceennrv knowledge. "It is little 
short of criminal," wriles Dr. !■". M. GooJeliild,' "to send our 
j-oung people into the miiUt of the excitements ami temptationi! 
of a grcftt city with no more preparation than if they were going 
to live in Paradiae." In the case of women, ignorance lias the 
further diBudvontage thut it dcprivei; tltem of tite knowkdgc 
DCceBMirr for intelligent tiympatliy with other women. The 
unsynipatlietic attitude of women towards women is often larjiely 
due to »licer igiuirnncc of tho fntt« of life. "Why," write* in n 
private letter a luarried lady who keenly realizea tliis, "uro 
voinon brought up with ^ueh ii profound ignornncu of their 
own and especially otlicr women'* naturea? Tliey do not know 
half ae mueh about other women m a man of the raoiit average 
mpacity learns in hti" day's march." We try to make up for our 
failure to edurnte women in Die r'H>i<'ntial matti'r« of 8C\ by 
imposing upon the iwlice and other guardians of public order tho 
duty of protecting women und morala. But. a* Moll insiflts, the 
real problem of chastity lies, not in the mulliplicatioD of laws 

l-'llio .Social KvH In PbiUdt-llthU." Arvna. Mardi, UM. 




rind poticoiiim, but largely in womtu's knowli'<lgc 0/ the ilniigiTu 
of Bex and in the cultivatiuii ot tlicir seitw a( rvKpoiiBibtlity.' 
We are always making laws for the protection of childnn and 
(■ettitig thv police ou {^UHrd. Hut laws und the polieu, wlietlit-r 
their aetiviticii arc good or liad, an in either case alike in«flectiial. 
They can for Itie most pari only be invoked when the damage is 
ftlr«ad,v done. \Vl- liuve to l(wni to go to the root of the matter. 
We havfi to teaeh tliildren to be a law to tbemschi-s. We have to 
give tbem tliiil knowk-dj^e which will enable them to guard their 
own [MTiinniilitieii.^ There i'' an nuthentie vtorv of a Indy who 
bad learned to ewim, niueh to the liorror of ber elerpyman, who 
tliought tliat swimming uoh unreininine. "Rut,"* she said, 

["HUppoi* ] was drcm-nin^'." "In ibat case," be replied, "yoii 
ouglit to wait until a mnu eoiuit! alung and gavcs you." Then? 
wc have the two nlI-tllod^ of salvation wbieb have been preacbinl 
to women, the old method and the new. In no sea have women 
been more often in danger of drowning than thut of sex. There 
ought to be no (|iieetion as to which n the better metliod of 

It in difllciilt iiouHdnya In UnJ nay sriluiio aii^mt-nti at^iiiat the 

dwirahilltj' of iinily i>oxiiul pn1if;btenint-iit, mid ii in aliiiniit witli nmuntf- 

rnenl that n*c rend Iiow Mi« novi'lUt Aljilioiinf Uiiuik-t. when askpd 1i{» 

[opinion of Biich (■nlitchlRrtDK^t. jirotcstnl— In n Hjilrlt rrrtnltily I'miimmi 

mmang Ihc vara of his time — thut it »'ii» uiui«'«Murv. Vni'iiuw boys <diiIi1 

lesm n'cryOiing frnm tlii* strreta nn<l the ncuih|iH|n'r". uhiie "il« to 

ynung girln — nol I miuld tiwi-h tlifin nnae of tlic triilhi of pliysiologj'. 

I tun nnly wc disnilviintaKrH in such a procfptlltiiC' I'hpw Initlin are 

Ii(1j, dirillucioniniC. "iirp 10 «)iock. lo trighlpn. to diogunt the mind, (he 

nature, of a f^rl." tt !■ u" timcli nt to hhv l)mt tiittv is no nwd to 

•iipply noiircrii of pure wiitor vhen thcTc ntc i>mMt™ In llic »lrcft l)iul 

; tinjon^ can drink ot. A <'oiiti:'ni|)uiur,v ot Duiidi'l**. who poiwiitoil n far 

finrr iplrliiifll innit^il. Covoritry i'niniori', the jMH't. in ihi- ca-my on 

"Aiiripnt unit .Mod«ru Idea* of Purity" io his hvnuliful imnk. Rrligia 

PortiT, hnd already finely protcslrd against thnt "dinMiic of Impurity" 

t Mnll. KiHlratf Hrruatnnyfinduni). third vdlllon, p. 502. 

3 Thin iKiwrrli^Hinms of Ihc hiu* and the poller i« well rccognitcd 
by iBtt-TPrs ramillitr witli t\\v imKWr. Tliii* V. U'*rlhiiiii.T ISUlHeh- 
Irilidelitie drr OTtumtivIt , IftOI) insUta throughout oti thn tmportaaoa 
o( pnrtTit* nnd t^nchfifl Itiiporting to childti-ii from tli*'ir early yeiitu a 
pragmaively inoreoaing koowlrdgp of scsual tuattera. 



irhloh coineH of "oiir nitxlprn uiidivine nilmiin" for which Dniid«'l 
plradnl. And Mrtclinikoir. imii'i< tvcetill.v, from llic «ct«iilLl^f •iUf. spi-iik- 
ivg i3»|n.'Cii»lly at rfjpTil* wtuncn. dwlnrvs tlinl knciu'lMKi- i» h>, iiidUjH'ii' 
Mbl« (or nionil coinluct Uint "ignomniv inuit bir uountvd the mart 
Immornl of tcta" {Hisait OpIimUttt, p. J20). 

Q1i« (liHttnipilxliril Britiluti nordiM. r^mtll* l^mnnnW, In hi* 
VHomme m Amaur, dcali uitli the qiirilion of Ihc vcxuiil vduoation of 
the yminK by jirrw-nling lh« bi>lury ol n young man. brmiglil up uiiiIit 
th# iiitltivitci^ of llii' rmivrnlioiiiil aiiil hyimrlllrnl virwa which lirach 
Uiftt niidjtv nnd «.'x arc •hnmcdxl »ini dii<gii^t[ng Ihingn. In this way 
lie puiwt tiy Ihe oii[)orluiiitii-« <>t Iniiwfiit mid rmdinil Inrv. to l»p«imo 
haprli>»]T Ptialnvcd at la»l to n ipiwuni ivomnn who trniti hiia merely 
a* the imitntinont of hi-r pl«aiiiTe, the liut of a long inirrfMiian of loTrm. 
The book U R pOH'prfiil pica for n Mii«, whol<^«omp, nod nnttml rdura- 
tion in jimtlMH of *i-x. U wu«. howtrtr. prowpulwl nt Brugwi, in 1001, 
thoiifth the triiil HhhIIv »rid«l in ae.)iiilljil- Sinh n rordict U in har- 
mony B-ith thi- jp-ncral tcndoncy of teplins "t the prpwnt lim*. 

TliB old id-a*. rxprm-wl by Dandt-t. Hint (ho farm of «s ftr« ugly 
and disitluiioninK. and thnt thry ithocb the mind of the yminR. art both 
alikp mtii'fty faliv. A* Cniioii l.yttrlt'in Ti>itinik>, in ur)[ini( that tho 
iuwi of t1i<? IruTiHiniuicin of lifv should be tniiKht to oliildtvn by the 
niothrr: "Tlip imy Ihpy r««civp It witii native rovereiwe, lruthtulne«a 
of luidenitnnding nnd giiiletrsa dpliettcy. Is nothing short of a rcrclattoit 
of the nrvi-r-ppBiiiinr braiitv of nHtup-. I't-ople sonietiine*B tpeak of Ui« 
jpulpwrilmblo bpniily of childrpn's innorrnee. Hut I ventiirn to my thnt 
no ono (pilto kiiiiWH wliat it U whu lin>t forHjjone llip priviU^g* of N-liig 
the firnt to iwl before them thp true mejining of life and birth nnd thn 
iiiyMcry of Ihpir own bPiiiK. Not only do Of fall lo biiild up niiniJ 
knuwlt'dite in theni, hut we put away from oiirwhTu the ehonee of iMim- 
Ing aompthliiK thnt must be diwne." In the wine way, Kdward Car- 
penler. fluting that it in eony and nuturul for the child lo Imrn from 
thn fJTiit Ita physlml relation lo its mother, remark* ll^of-'t Coming of 
Age. p. 01 : *"A eiiiW at the age of puberty, with the unfolding of ita 
far-down rnnotlonnl nnd aeniiBl n;itnre. in eraini-ntly «i|iiibl»' o( tho nioikt 
cvnbitivo, affeotlonul and serene apprerintlon of what *e« mean* (grn- 
rrally mor^ *•^ br thliic^ are (n-diiy, than itc wurldliag pamit or 
gunrdinn) i and mn abaoTb the tmrhing. if lyin path Mi rally gii-rn. with- 
out any shock ur dinlurban^e to itn udh* of tihami'^ — that ften«e which Is 
N) nolnral nnd vnliinhle n snfegunid of eiirly youth." 

How widespread, even some yeari aj^. Iiad be<xirue the eonviction 
that tlie sexual fueti of life should be tnnght to girls as well as boys, 
was shown wh«n the oplnionn of a \*ry nit»oellaiie«u« n-wirtinent of 
more or less prominent persons were songht on the qnestion ("Thn Tree 
of RnowledKP," A'rto /Cevieu-, June, 1804). A Bmall minority of two only 



SBXtAl. KWUATlOii!. 


(Itiiblii .\illcr ami Mm. I.yiiti L.tntuiif were n^fJimsl niidi ktiowliMiip.-, 
wliitc uuiuiig Uie tiiiijuritj iu liitur uf it Wi'ri< Miui'. AJ:iiii, TbooMi* 
liiril_v. Sir W'ulliT Ili'iuinl, lljiiniiMiii, Hull (.'uim-. Snrnli (irnnil. N'orilaii, 
udf Ileni')' Sumpru-t-. Kumiii^M luii NiitlniT. iiiul MUh Williinl. Tin.' 
n of tli« wniiiuii'g lunvcuirtit nrc, iif i«ur«>>, In fnvor of ■■iic-li kiiuut- 
Tliui n niivtitij; of Ihc DimJ fllr Multriwliuu lit Dt-rlin, in 1005, 
JuiiMt imuDiiiiouil}' puKwd u ii'Kulutiuii dnliiring tlint tlio (■nily kpkiuiI 
' Dnllglilfiiiueiil of diililmi in tlii^ tncl* o( Ui<! w-xiial l!(i- i- iirgi-nlly 
nnM-taurv lHullcitehuli. 1!)<>S. Ili^ft 2. p. 81). It iiiuy I>l- uJiW tliat 
mnlicnl o|>ininn linn lonK approvril of tlii* ■'tillglili'nini'nt. TIiiin in Kii^' 
Innd it ««■ ptlitorially ilnUil jii llie Aiiluh ilrdiral .rnurnal mrni- w-drn 
Hpi (.'line 0, ISP4) ; '■Mori mpiliot mrn of im ngi- to li.-gi-t miitlili-ni* 
id such pIFaini will be nbk la tpodII inntuncva in wliich uii ipiurnniv, 
Bliicli ntiulU lia«-v bivn ludiorou? It tt linil not \m-n *n Had, Iiii4 bi>i-n 
dlikptaynd on mntloTn ri'Knrilinfc wliich rvrry «oinnn cntrrinR nn ninrrinl 
life ouglit t" hnvv brrn niTiinilcly inf'iriiK-iI. Tlirri' ciiii. we tliiiik. he 
llttlA doubt that niiicK iln1>n|>[iini>>H nnil a irri'nt iknl nt J1lnp» vroilld be 
prevented if rnuug ]>rupk> uf l>c>lli ni!xrii l<onie-ini.t| u tilllr nri'Uruti.* knowl- 
ITKH riling t)ia kokiiiiI rvlalions, Hiid uvfi* well imiir^uiHl witli tlic 
Dfounil fmiHirtiuicc of ■cln'ting lu'ulthy iiiiit<'«, KnowU-'igi? ncod not 
neeejBuril.v W iin«ly, Iml i^vi-ti l( il nvrv. It ctTtainl.v I- not toiiiim ruble 
rin tlmt r(r»iH.i-t tvith the iuniginingn of ignomnco." In Amorien, alio, 
where at an umtual meeting of tbe Anieriruu Mi-diciil A'twrlatiun. Dr. 
Dcnstair Lrwi*. of (liimgu. rliHincntly iirtcril the ncril of ti>n«liinj( hpxiuiI 
liygicnc to yoiilliH nn<l twirls, all tliv niibHH|iii.-nt nine speukeni. nuine of 
tbniti |jhy»lclnnii of uorlilvi'ldi^ tiiini', viproxu-d tlK'ir euu-ntiiil agrcpoinnt 
(Uedipo-l.cfiat Journal, Jiini'-Si.'pl., 11)03 |. Ilowiird. ajpiln. ut [he end 
^of hli plnlKirnt*! Itiil'-iy of MolrimoHial /iwfidifiiim (vol, iil. p. 25") 
erix the nen-wity for ediuvtinn in mutters of w!\, ii* i^ing to the 
[root of the luorriBae juwbkm. "lii tl" fiilnrc efliicnlinnnl prngmmme," 
Teniarb«, "m-x qiieHlioiiH luiist hold nn lionomhle ptacL'." 

.Vi'liile, liow«v(-r, it iit now widiOy rcwogiiizoil that children 
itilli-d to eciiunl Dnlightcnincnt, it cannot be sait] that this 
lief is wid«1y put into prarticc. Mnny )>criioni!, who are fully 
'^wrfiuatlod that chililrcti should sooner or Inter bo t!nlij;htened 
ifincrrning tlu' mcxiimI SOurtTS of life, are woincwhat nervously 
BDxioiiB as to the preriiit! age at wtiirh thia cnliglitonment should 
hrgin. Their Intent fcelinp seenis to be that aex is an evil, and 
enlightenment ennperniiig tiex nWo nn evil, however neeesanry, 
find thai the chief point ia to ascertain the latest moment to 
wliieh w(t cun wifely postpone thin neccBsary evil. Such ai 

U, J ,-■•:. r.yLH)Og 


oUilude is, bowevcr, altofjether wrong-) icii(Ii.-d. T!ie child's 
desire for Iciiowlcdgo cunceriiing tiic uripn of hinieclf in h [hv- 
fectly natumi, hoiicjtt, and liuniik-)« dMire."*© long as il in not 
pcHfrtod by being tliwartud, A diiid of four niny ii*k (juutftiaini 
on this itiolkT, t-iniply and Hpuntsiicoiii^ly- As soon as tlio 
(]uestion» »re put, certainly int ^cion m thoy l>n-otiic at all 
inFiRti-nt, they should be answered, in the same simple and 
ft[)ontum'()Ufi spirit, trutlifiilly. Ilioiigh atvording to the measure 
of the child's intt-lligcoiw and his capaeity luid dcKin- for Knowl- 
edge. This period should not, and. if these indications are 
followed, naturally would not, in any tasi?, be de]uye<l b(>yond 
tile sixth year. After that ajte even the most carefully jiuarded 
child it liiihli- to C'Outaniiutiliug com niunieut ions from oul]>ide. 
Moll ]>oints nut that thu sc.xuui enlighteniacnt of girlii in itfi 
various stages ought lo be always a little ahead of that of boys^ 
and an the devcloiuncnt of girln up to the puhcrta! age i» more 
pn-cocious than that of boys, this demand is reasonable. 

If the eloim-nts of sexual education are lo be imparted in 
early childhood, it is. quite (ilear who ought to be the teacher. 
There eliould be no ((ue»tioQ that this privilege belonge by every 
right to the mother. K\ccpt where a i-hild in, artiticialty 
separated from his diief parent it is indeed only the mother 
who has any natunil op|M>rtuiiity of receiving and niiiwinding to 
tlie»ic (|ueBtiona. It i* unneceaaary for her to lake any initiative 
in the matter. The iiieritable awakening of the child's Intclli- 
gonec and the evolution of liiii boundlei<s curioeity furnish her 
love and xkill with all opporlunitiea for guiding her child's 
thought* and kmiwlcdgc. Xor i* it ntvc**anf for her to possees 
the slightest technical information at thia stage. Jl ia only 
ewential that she should hare the moet ahsolute faith iu tlie 
purity and dignity of her physical rdationtihip to her child, and 
i)p able to speak of it with frankness and tcndemea*. When 
that essential condition is fnl6lled every mother hnn all the 
knowledge that her young child needs. 

AiaoajE tlip beol iiiit1ii)[||i<>«, Imfli mm and womMi, in all (tip roun- 
tri** whew tliU mnttiT in attrnrting Btlmtion. th^r* nwni* now to lie 
nnflnfmlty of opinion In faviw at thr phmonlatj fortu of the bal»y'n rela- 




hip lo itH nii>tJiPT bi-inic ex|)Iuini:d lu tliu I'lilM hy tlic tnottier as 
tlic cliitd lii-gtn< ui ntik <[ii(-"l lulls. TLtifl iu Ci-niian}' Moll Iiab 
ra|ivati!illy uigiivd in tliin semp; Uv in'Uts thnt si'muiI cMlijililoiinirnt 
■liould be mainly n prtvR(« and iiidiriilunl iriutUT: lluit in svliaoU thct« 
should be iiu gmcrul and pcrioniil wamtngu iilniit iiiANlurbntiun, eta. 
Ilboiigli mt a latrr iirc Iiii Appimpi of iimtim-liDn in rpjpird to vmrmrenl 
dUMMv), but that Hip ninihi'i h IIih ]ir<i(H-r piTtioii lo ItiipKTl iniinui(« 
knawlcdge (o tli<; HiiM. and tliiil any nffo in mijlabtr for tlic ■xiinmi'nce- 
mrat of »ui-li i>nli);iil>'ii<"<i'>it. )>riividcd it is put inlu a form fitli-<l fur tbo 
age (Moll. op. ciV^ p. 3841. 

Al tho Mannlii^ltu tiiivtiii^ of lh« Ci^ngTMH of Hip Gvnnnn Society 
(or Conibnling V'nuiwil l>i-iruw, when llir lursllan of ■mini ■■nliglit'^n- 
ni^nt (oniivtl tliv >uili> iiibjin't i>( dtw-iiwion, tliu upitiion in fni*ur of early 
traclitng M' Ibe nititlier pievnjlrd. "It i* tlie niotlirr tvlio iiiu»t, iu iIm 
nnt iilare, be made re^iMnsible for tlio cbild'ii clear nnderKtanding ol 
■i-xtial tliiiiipi, Ml ofti'ti liiuking.'* *iiid Krnii Knikciib^r^ I "Die Ailfgnbe 
der Mixtter." Iirruali«i<litga<)il.-. p. 13), wbili- Max Eiiili-i'Mn. n teneher. 
Hiiiil iin tlie xsini! oi'i'iiition ("Oie S«-xiirHe t'ru)^ in die Vulk<iHirbi.ili-." i*cf„ 
|>. SSyi "It i* tlic n>olhnr wbo h»* to |[lve llip eblld Ida llr-C c\]'>luna> 
lion*, (or it ia to hit motber tbnt be tlvH nnlitrall)- eome* uitb hla 
qiwstioiiH,'* In Kngliiiid. ('iiiion l.ytu-Huii, uliii i- di•>ti1l]^liHb<'d among 
the heodit of public .vbooh not lru»t by bin clear and ndmlnililp stute- 
menu on th«w (iwittlon«, etatr^ HUotkna unit Honn. \>. Dll> that th* 
niolli^a part In tliv uPKuat enllnbtenmcnt and wxiinl giiardiunHhip of 
her •on in of paramount iinportaiKi-. und ibuuld begin at Ibi' enrlic^t 
ytitr*. .1. II, 1lnill''y. nnotber tehcMiIiiinxfer ("Tbe Spx ninicutly," Ifnuut 
r(e*r*. .Tune. 1004 1, nlto nlules Hint the motbiT'a part couie* llrst. 
N«Il1ien(e iVhfitlianUii aiut Frj- I'lnhlfttit, p. i.'-) Iii'lli-vex tbiK llic duly 
oi the parent* iit prlniarT in tbi» mutter. Ibc fmnily dod«r and thj 
■eh-mtmiiMrr cominK in "t a Intir «l»gi'. In .Xiuevlin. Dr. Mary Wood 
.^Iten. wbo oK-upiek n proinlnent nnd inlluentiul jiosition In women'n 
Hocial tnovenientx, iirg"« tin ChitH'Caali'lrnre Uf<i'nrdf4, and otlior 
pamphUtftt llmt n uidOict ulioidd beiiin In It'll lirr i-bcid I1ie*r Ibhig^ as 
HOnn ad lie beginH to nnk queittioiu. the uge of f»ur not l>riiig tm iHiung. 
niij nplnin* bow thin inny lie done, giving pxnnijile* ol i(* linppy ri^Aulta 
in proniotiog a nvreel conHdviu'r.* beluei^n the <')iibl iind bin mother. 

If, »* K frw believe sliould be tlio case, the tlrst iuitintion » 
delayed to the tenth jenr or cvmi Inter, there I» thu diffiinilty that 
it ii no Imigi-r w) ciisy tn tnik simply and naltirally about such 
thingx; the m»lh<-r is be^timimg to foci tuo shy In itpenk fur the 
fint time «boiit theec diritciilt i<ul>jei:t« to & son or a daughter 
wlm IB ticnrly a« big as hericlf. She feela that she cnn only do it 




awkwardly and ineffectively, and slie pri>l)alj!y decides not to do it 
at all, TIiuB an atriioi<ph«r<.' of iny»tcry in t-rcaUjd witli all Uie 
ciiibarraitMing and perverling influences which mystery encourages. 

There can hi- im •InuUt tliat. more ciipi«ially In highly intelligent 
children with viigup buU iiii4p«.>iii1i»^d yvt inai«t«iit Miual impulse*, the 
artilipial myntiry ivilh wliti-h ni-x In tna oftpn ctothM not only •«*ii- 
liiHlPB the nalnrnl mrionity Imt nl™ t*ti(i» to fiivor the morbid intvnnity 
and pvcn piurivnoe of the bi-muiI ini|iiilHc. Tlii* liDi luiije been rvt-og- 
nixeil. Dr. Ileildoen wrote at llio be^niiinK of Ihe ninrliK'nth n-nliiry: 
"It ii in vain thnt n-c (li«cintilc (o mirTwIrm the mf;i'Ttie-L-i vilh nhieh 
chilHTen of rither box iHi-lt t« uitiUy tlH'nwelvmi coni-prninR thp rcnfor- 
motion of the other. Ka ilrgr*« of renrrvc in lh<? hi^ndn iif rntiiilica. no 
roil trira [1(1^4, no eare to put bookt of uiie ileoerlptiori out ■'( Hlxlit and to 
|[arh1c oUipm, ha* prrhapa, with any one »ct of ehildrrn, iiue««l«d In 
pre^-eiititiK or "(IITIriK thi* kind of carloHity. So )inrt nf Iha hlntory of 
humnn thonjtlit would pptliiips he more ningulnr than the ilraln^ni* 
deviled by ynung people in dilfercnt Mtnatlona to make thcnniHvnt mna- 
tpr» or uitnpHiM of the iccrH. And every di^coveri-. ilue to tlieir oirn 
iiiiliiirii-<<. mil but b<- ••> much nil poured iipnn an I mxKi nation In flaniea" 
|T. Brddom, lli/gria, 1802. vol. iii. p. 50i, Kaui. ngnin, in one of the 
MrlicHt book* on morbid m-tuality. Bpt» ito« n niy«(ery aw on» of the 
eniuei of ptt^rKopatkiii nrxualiM. Uarro (/.a fubtrti. p. 291)| point* 
«ut hOBT the veil of tuyMery Ihrowrr oiyr aexual matterii merely terrn 
ia toneentralf! attrntion on them. The dinliuKuiithei] Duteh writer Mul- 
t«tu1i. in one of hit lettem (quoli^d with approi'al hy Frendl, remark* 
on the dnnpTu of hiitin;; OungB froro boys and (jirln in a veil of inyittery, 
pointing out Ihnt thin mu»t only helglilen tli« curionlly of children, and 
as far from keirping them pure, whieh mere ignonuiee oan never do, 
faeata and |iervertH their fmaglnalionii. Mrs. Mary Wood Alien. alM. 
warn* the mother {op. Hi., p. Si agninst the dan^^er of allowing any 
air of embarraMiiift niy*t<-ry to cre*p oier Ihetw thinir*. "If Uie innlrue- 
tor feels any enibnrruMmmt tn an«werinB the iinerlv* of the child, ht Is 
not fitted to be the teaeher, for llie feeling of embHrrasMiient wilt, Id 
(omc nibtle way, eoinniunieat« ilaelf ta the ehild. and he will experience 
an Indednalile ffnw nf ofTeiidei] <le1<raOT whi<'b it luith uneeeaiuiry nnil 
ondmirable. PiiriHrution of one'* on-n thought i». thiii. th» firit ntep 
towarda t««ohiag the truth purely. \niy." iihe a<tili>. "is Je«tli. th» 
gateway out of life, any more dlffnillvd or pnthetle tlutn birth, the gntc' 
way Into lifet Or why is the tnkinir of earthly life n more andil fact 
than the giving of life?" Mm. KnnI* Rlehmond. in a booh of advice to 
moUisr* whieh contains many wi-te and true Ihinpt. ««>-■: "I want to 
InaM, mot* atrongly than npon anything rise, thnt it la the t<erref that 


BESPAt, W)UC.lT[0!f, 


mi-kiuikIx ciTlaiii fMrfa vf lliu bwl.v niiU ihi-ii fun>-li«ri~ t)>.it give* thmD 
tlirlr daiiKor tn tii* child'* (lioiiHhl. I.iltli' i:liil<lrm, frum varliMt jrMn, 
are Uusht to think uf tlieac iinrli of llicir Imly nti iii)-iit«r[<iUH, and nol 
only ao, but that tlifj are int-^tiTloiin bmniim tlief an nncleaiu Chil- 
divn hai'F nol ewo a name fur Ihi'in. If v>ii hnvo tn *pmk (o yotir 
ohiUI, ^11 nlliKJo to tlicni inyitTiniK'ly niiit III n linirnhiippT on Hhat 
little part of you tliiit vuii J<iii't epoak of,' or wordii to tliiit cfTect. 
IWfor* evprytliinK It U ImjiortHnl tlint vonr rlillJ ham a gnnil 
vorking nnmR lot tlii-np parts of hi* bodr. ■»<) for tlieir fimcrlinnii. bii<1 
tliut \iv thoulii Ih> tiiii^ht lo tiw mill to hi'Hr tl": niuiii?>>. miJ tliiit aa 
nntutnllj' and oprnly n» UioiihIi tin or you were •ppukinn of liii hcnJ or 
his foot, foni'mlioii ha!>. for iitriuiis rcaiuiiiiii. iimile il iinpotaiblc to 
•peak tn this way in piiMlc. Tlut you mn, nt any rati^. Iirfak throU|(h 
thia in the nurwry. TIhtb thin rule of ponivnilwn hna no Dd'rantii),'^, 
kad many a unrioua iliuidviintaji^. It lo i-a'y to Hsy tn a rhilil. tlin flial 
time lie makes an 'awkward* remark tn puliHc; 'I,XHik hi-re, laddie, you 
may nay nhiit you like to ni« or to daddy. lui(, for some TMi«on or otli^r, 
oiie ilucn nut talk about Iheac' (only nay tehat thing*) 'In publle.' Only 
1« y«or child mnkp the r#lnnrk lii public brfou' you '■pvak (never niiiul 
the idiuck to your caller'i feelingii, don't warn him against doing so" 
(KiiiiIb KIchinoad, Boyltood, \i. nU). Svx muni iilwiiy* be n mystmy, but) 
•H Um. Biehmond rij(1itly wya. "tbfr rrul and trun mysterin nt gennra* 
Uon and birth are very diirereiit from the vulgar secret irenesa with 
which ciutom surround* tlicm." 

Tlie queation as lo the precise nnmca to Ix- given to the more pri- 
vate LodSIr paTt4 and fuuctloiia in Kimetinie* a little dllfirutt to Milve. 
Every mother will naturally follow her ow-n instincU. and probably her 
owu IruditionH. in thii mutter, I liuve flH'ulicre pointed out (in the 
■tudy of "Tlin EToliiUnn of Modoiily") how wide»prMd and in»linctive 
h lh» tendency lo adT^pt eonstnnlly new eii|>!ieniimn« in thin Ili-ld. Tlii' 
ancient and ■Imptn wnrda, whieh in Eni^and a great puet like rhaueer 
«aul4 still Due rightly and niitiirnlly, are no often dropjied !u the mud 
by the nilsar that thi'rc !* an instinellre hesitation nowndnys in apply- 
ing Ihrtn to beautiful uws. Tbey an-. Iiou'm'er, utic|UL-filiutiMbly the liesl, 
■nd. in Iheir oripii. the nio"t diffuifled and r3ipre«iiivn moriK Many 
perionn are of opinion Hint on thia aiiTOUnt they should lie re»eiied from 
the mit't, and their Merrdncs; Inu^ht tn children. .\ medienl frtpiiil 
write! that lie always tuu(;lit hit irun that the vulgnr sex names are 
really beautiful word* o( anricnt origin, ami that when we imderMaud 
than aright «re cannot p<u»ib1y sec in them any inotirr for low jeHting. 
Thejr are almple, serloux •iiul •ntemn word*, connnlln^ the ino»t (antral 
facts of life, and only to iRnomnt ond plebeian vul)pirily can they cause 
olwceoe mirlh. An American man of neiMii-e. wlm ho« privHtHy ninl 
anonymotisly printed Mme pamphlets on sex queations, nlw> takes this 



vifir, mill i-»nKli>tf1)llv iiixl iiictli(Mlirnl1y iixch Hi*' nncirrit iiiiil Dimple 
wordfl. 1 urn o( opiiiiuu Ihul Mii« i'> tin- idinil lo Ih- nuught. Iiut lliat 
th«ro Mn> iitivlouA illiIli-iiUii<i« nt jircM-iit in tli<^ way »( nitnlnlng It. In 

rway cute, however, tlie motlii-r thmild be in puneisiun of a very preelM 
ibiilnrj- (or nil Uip bodliy part* iiiul m-t^ wlilHi it ranoernm her chil- 

' dwn to know. 

It IK M>inetiiiii'» «ai<l tljnt nt this curly age ebildrai ahonld 
not be ttild, even in a simple and elementary form, the rful facta 
of their origin but should. iuKtciid, licur u fiiiry-talo having in it 

kperhapfl wmo )(ind nf Aymlmllc trutli. This contention may be 

|BbiK>luli.d>- rejt'cted, without thereby, in any degree, denying the 
inportant plucc which fair>'-talc8 hold in tlio itiiuginatinn of 
younj! children. Fairy-talcs have a rwil valiiu to the child ; they 
ari> II inoiital food lie needs, if he is not to he spiritually eturvcd ; 
to deprive him of fairy-tale* at this age \» to do him a wrong 
which can never he made up at any subsequent ape. Uut n«t 

, only arc »ex mnttcrtt too vital even in childliodd to he Bafcly 
nade matter for a fairy-tale, hut the real facta are themselves 
m wonderful as any fairy-tale, and appeal to the child's imagina- 
tion with UK much force ax ii rairy-dilc. 

Even, however, if then> wcri' no other rensoiiii againiit telling 

bfihildrcn fairy-tales of 8>x instead of the nal fiirt*. there is one 
reason which ought to bty docttiivu with every mother who values 
her inHueoee over her child. He will very quickly discover, 
either by infonnution from othen or hy Im own natural intelli- 

^gence, that the fairy-tale, that was told him in reply to a question 
about a simple matter of fact, was n lie. Wilh that diwoTcry 
lis mother's intUiencc over him in all sudi matters vanishes for 

Kever, for not only has a child a horror of being duped, but he is 
extremely sensitive about any rebulT of this kind, and never 
eat^ whut he hue been made to feel was a mistake to be 
aed of. He will not trouble liia uiolher with any more 
sua oa this matter; he will not confide in her; he will 
liimself leani the art of telling "fairy-talox" about scv matter*. 
He had turned to his mother in tnist; she had not responded 
with e(]ual trust, and slie must suffer the puniahtoent, aa 
Henriette Fiirth puts it, of seeing "the love and trust of her son 




ttom her by the first bo_v liu niakeii friends witli in tiic 
Iwet." When, as Bometimw happcDo (Moll mentions u cuse), 
u mollior govt on rqitMiling tlKW filly xldHt* to a girl nr boy of 
atn-a wtio i^ siKTctly wdl-infoniu-d, iiw only ilefurndeK herself 
in her cbiltt's eye«. It is t1 iii fuijil init^tnki-, ho ofti^-n miidc by 
niotlii-iv, which at linit Icmli' tlum to iniiigJnc thnt tlu-ir i-hililn>ti 
are HO innocent, and in htev yeurs (-au»i?i) them RiAny hours of 
bSttproess because they realize they do nut poAi^eiw their chililren'tt 
truitl. In tile nintter of trust it in for the mntlier to takt the 
first step; the ehildren who do not IriiBt their inothem are, for 
the moel purl, mcnly remembering thu le««on thoy U-arned ut 
their mother']! knee. 

The number of little books nnd pampliU'is d<^a1ing with the quvii- 

of Die j'i'KiUit RiillKlitriiiiiMit tif the vnim^ — n'hftlirr inli-ntleil to In) 

b.v tke vuuDg or olT'.'ring guidniici' U> molliprs Htid Ipupliern in tlif 

nak of ImpHninK knnw ledger— tin >: ItccriTii* \ny 1nr)||v liiil(<fil during 

*m-nit yearn in Amcririi. Kiif^lnTiil. mid mpediill}' <!rrmiinr. whpiv tlirri' 

liHit bi"i>ti of I:iCp «ii i-iiormoiiK iirciihiction of -wh lil<>nniiri'. Tli*' lot* 

Ben ICiuiv. writing iiiidrr tlii> piieiiilon,viii ul "Hlliii Ktli rimer ." tiublinlieil 

two bookleta, Babs BmU. nnd The Human Floirfr |i«*iii<l bj- Mn. Wol- 

■tenhnlroe Hlinv. Buxton IIou»p. Cimitleloti). whiob stntc llio tneta in u, 

tiniplv iitiil delinite liii4i>iil>r. Iliiiigli lh« iiiitliur nils not a notnbl}' 

Kliatrfo (^ilite nn llm nclentlfle anperlt of IIk'mp ijiip*tloii». A cliamiiiig 

eotiv»THttion belwem ■■ nmthfr und cliild, from n Fniieli smtrci^, in 

/•printed br FMwnrd (."nrpcutBi at tlie Pnd of lil* Lorr'u ('t,mt"ff "f Aye, 

Bow tlV Are Bnrn. by Mr*. N. J. l nppnrpiitly n RusHliiti liidy writing 

In Knglt»li I , prefiici>d by >)■ H. Itadley, |« iitinfactorv. Mention amy 

alto be niudtr of The Wondtr of Life, by Mury Tiidur I'olir. Muiicirft 

Murky's H^np of Life, nn Aniprieiin book, wliieb I hare not nerii, tut* 

|4ii<rn highly praist^. Uatt of tbmc buuka nrv intended (or ijuitr ynling 

bildrpn. nnd viliilc Ihcy rxplnin more or leu cli-nrly ihc origin ul bHbloo. 

irly nlvruys nlnrlini: «ith llip fnrts "f plunt life. Ihey toudi very 

lightly, if Hi iill. on th* reliiii"n» of tlie ■wx'*. 

Mr». Enni" Rieliraonirn hooki. liKgcty ;i(ld»etaed lo niotliprM, d<'Bl 
with the**' qut^Htion" in n vi-ry Bnne, diri^'t. iind iidniimlilt miinner. and 
Cnnnn l.yttelton'i boiik*. dl«piiMin(( *iieli <|iieilion>. )[i'Hi"rnHy. nri> bIbo 
rMvlleiit. 3Io4t of the bi>ol;i> now to be nieiitiotinl ixte iiit'-ndcd lo Ih- 
rmd by boj'« nnrt irlrl* who lini'i' renclu'd the up- of piilHrty. Thuv rrfer 
ijoorr or Ihm prvriiirly to veviinl rvlutioiuhipK. iind they itKiiully loueli 
Ian nMnturbntion. Tlie l^tory of Life, written by a M-ry nceiiiiiiilixhfd 
woman, the Inte Kllive Hopkins, iti Bnirwhut vague, nnd inlroduecs too 

■-^ o'^ 



man}' MCbltcd religiuim !<!«>■. Arltiiir Trm'b)> Unillhj/ Boi/hooi lit a. 
little book of wholcaonic Inntlpncj-; it i*aU *|i«-iiill>' nitli inMturlMtfoa. 
A Talk Kilh Bnj/t About Thrmttlvti anil A Tntk trilh </irl* About 
ThemMflrtt, both liy F^la-niil Briicp Kirk (I'"' fuller b-«ik writtni in 
conjunction witli u lu<l>'> ileal with iKi-minl n* urtl :n. M-Minl h.vgtcnc 
Tli«Ti.- could be 110 U'lter Imcik to pal intn tliv linncl* of a t>u)' or girl ut 
pubortj' ttinn M. A. Wurrm's -llmoirf F'ourtfrn, uriimn by nn Aini-rlcttn 
k)u>u1 tvuclior in IWi. It una a moat charminR iind dclicntcly wriltoi 
book, which cniilil not liavc otTcnili-tl llic iuiim-ciii'v iil llic niokt 8cnsitl%~(> 
moliicn. Xothing. however, i* jjhtmI I« pruritii'-"'. nnd it wn« pn»T for 
the prurient to cnpluri! the Inu- nnd obtain (in 1^071 legnl comlcmna- 
tion of Ihit biMk aa "obscene." Anylhiiijf uliirli M-vunllj' excites t 
pnirlent mind 1», it \* trnc, "oIwhtip'' for thnl minil, for, a* Mr. Thm- 
dor« Schroeder remurkt. obscvnil}' is "the eoiitriliiitidn of the residing 
oiltid," but Mc mvd nuch liouka as thli in order to diiiiinUli Ihn niiiiiWr 
of prurient tninds, and lite condernuntloii ol no entirely itdmlrable a bunk 
uiHk'M. not fcir molality, bnt for Immonillly. 1 am told tliiit the Ixiuk 
wui nubsequMitiy ittueil uiiew wlIli iiioit of ll« bn»l ]Mirtions <iTniI.I«d. 
mid it I* MAli'd by Scbrocdpr {Libnty a[ SprrrK anil I'tm Kua-nhoi lo 
I'uiily fiofKii/anrla. ji, .It) tlial the nntbor uni compelled to reii):ii lii* 
po«ilion n« <> public itcbool pTincijial. Mnrla l.l«chn*«'i^k«'« Oeni'hUehl- 
lifhf llrlrhruny drr Kinil'i I lejirinted (roin \1iAflet!Khalx. IIHW. lli'ft 
4 and SI \» n inoit ndmlrnblf iintl IIioioiikIl diwumou of the whiilo 
question of m-^unl tducatlon. thoiiKli llie writer i» nii>re intermied in 
the tenclier'« nUuie in this qutttlon than in the rootlicr'a. SitiycfiitionB 
to niothcTD arc contnlnMl In lliip> ^lii". IVo kommea die Kindi-r hrrt. 
K. Stichl. fine iliillnpflii-lil. und mnny oilier books. Dr. AHd-d Kind 
atrongly tecoinm(Tid« l.tidvrift r.urlltl'i Do- Vrrk'-hr !i<il mrintm Kin- 
4ern, mor* wpi'i'inlly in iln rnnibinnlion of wxuul iiliieiilion with urtiitjc 
education. Many ■liniliir honks nrn rcfcrrnl to by lllocli, in hi* 8r»ual 
Lifv of Our riuie. (.'h, .vxii. 

I h've vnumernlcd lb# nnme* of t\\et,e llttl« ImokH liecniiof llii'y at* 
frequently iwuiTl in u lemi'privatv nmnDrr. and arc meldoin cu«y to pro- 
I'xire or to lu'iir of. The pro|ingntlon of nuch liook* ■ecni* to Iw felt to 
be nlmo*t u diigraceful action, only to Iw performed by MmUIi. And 
*urh t fi'cliii^ -ii'm* not unnHliirul nhcD v,v wv. us in Ibe I'liie of Ibv 
author of .I'mwif Ftni'lffn, thut n nomlnnlly civiliieil cmintry, inntend 
of loading uith hunum n ninn nlio hat u-orkcd fur its morni and phi'tical 
welfar"", •■•eki -o (nr a* it can to Tuln him. 

I may add that while it wonld nsually he very helpful to a niolher 
I be nFijiialulcd nilh ii Inr ol the liooklflji I hnii' niiiixd niie Would da 
«It, in actually Uitking to licr cliildren, to rely mainly on her own 
knowlptlfte and liMplration. 


BKXt'AI. IJ)i;CAT10S. 


The sexual pducntjoii wlikli it is the tnolhcr'e duty and 
privilc^ to initiate during biar cbild's early years cannot iiad 
ovfibt not to be tcchuicBl. It ie not of the nature of formal 
instruction but is n private and intimate initiatioD. Xo doubt 
tlie mother must herself be taught.' But the education she 
needs is mainly an education in love and iosigbt. The actual 
f«ut« which ehc rwjuircs to we at this early utagi- are very simple. 
Her main task is to make clear the child's own intimate relations 
to herself and to show that nil young tilings have a similar 
intimate n-Iation to their mother.^; In giMii'ializing on Uum point 
the e^ is the simplest and most fundameDtuI typo to explain tbe 
origin of the individual life, for the idea of thv egg — in its widest 
sense as tlie seed — not only haa its truth for the Inunan creature 
but mny be applied throughout the animal and vegetable world, 
lu tliis explanation the child's physicnl relationship to hi^ father 
is not necessarily at first involved; it may be left to a further 
fit«gc or until the child's ipiestious lead uji tn it. 

Apart from his interest in hia origin, the child is also 
interested in hie sexual, or as they seem to him cxelusively, liis 
excretory organs, and in those of other people, his sisters uoil 
parents. On these points, at this age, liis mother may simply 
and naturally satit-fy his simple and natural eurioeity, calling 
things by preci}>b names, wliethcr the names u.ied tire common or 
uncommon being a matter in regard to which she may exercise 
lier judgment and tuntc. In this manner the mother will, 
indirectly, be able to safeguard her child at the outset agaimt the 
pnidish and prurient notions alike which he will encounter later. 
She will also without unnatural strcan be able tn leuil tiiu child 
into a reverential attitude towards his own organs and so exert 
an iDfluniee against any nndet^irable tampering with them. In 
talking with him al>out the origin of life and about his own body 
and functions, in however elementan* a fashion, she will have 
initiated him both in sexual kntiwWgo and in sexual hygiene. 

fParml* mint In' taught Iiow I" iiii|Hiil iiitortn«tlon." Tcmnrku 
E. L. KeT«a ("Eduoalion upon Scxunl Multprs,"" SftP Voric Mftltml 
Jomrnnt, ¥f\i. li). 1(10(1). "And UliH toarlilng of the paroDt nhould Ix'^ic 
whm be ia liimtelf u child." 



'I'he mother who «eUtbli8hi« a reUtioiuhip of confidence witlt 
bvr child during tUcaa fimt yean will proUbly, if *\k pOi^eitHeg 
aiiy tDcAHtirc of wietdom and hict, be able to preserve it even after 
the epoch of pulicrly into Ihc ilitlii\ilt years of ndoleacwiec. But 
UK an L-diicuti)]' in tla- iiiirrowor si-dac Iter funotioDR will, in mo^t 
cases, end at or before puberty. A somen hat more tcclinlcal and 
completely inipeitionol tuqiiaintanct* with tho cssi'ntinl facts of wx 
thm becomi-s dpsirnble, and tliis would usunlly be Kupphcd bjr 
the f>dino1, 

'I1i« grMl tbouitli eapricioui^ educator, Boamlow, to tomv ext«iit a 
pii]iil i'( Roii»rnu, wait on early piuni-cr in bolli tlip theory nnd tlip 
priK-lioe at Kiviii^' u'tiool children innlrurtion in llii" fnct* o( tlip kcviihI 
life, from tlio Dgc of U-n onwimlH. Ilv iiminls mucli on tliin Hubjwl in 
liin (rii-iit trMliMu. Ihi' Kl' in^iilatir-rrl- I lTT(t>17T-l). Tin- ijupitiotm of 
childrpii are to tn.' anii>vc-r«iJ tTiiilifully. Uv Mati-o. nnd tliry «ju«l he 
liitight never tii Ji«t at niiylliitii! i>i> ■nriiil niitl ■cimiin nn tli<> iM'xiial 
ivtationt. Till'}' art to he sliown (liflurvs of I'liildliirlli, und tlii' cLiDgrrs 
of im^xiihI irrcKiilnril irv nrr to W olrnrly m pound I'd to thi-iu at tlic oulvt. 
Bay* nre tu he liilki.-ii (u lii»[iitijil« In mv thv ■•■••ilIId of v<mcrc>ul (Hbciii-p. 
Kawdow i« awnr* tlint nmny pBrriil* amt tcin-liprs will be Mioi-ked at 
111* inniilriKT on tlicip tliiiigi in liii licxilin and in iiU practical |mla- 
gogic nork. tint iini'li iM.<upl#, lie deotuii^*. oii^lit tu he ti!i(icl(i>d nt tli« 
Blblo (•■'I', f.<i„ I'iiilooli*, l,a Kffortnr itr t'i:duralifii rn MUinagiic uii 
JitohuilitTHf liMe: Bo'eil'iw tt te PhitanlhropinUmr. pp. 128, 258, 280, 
'IT2). Ilmrdow un* tiiii (,ir ahead of hit own time, nnd even of our*, 
to rxert niiidi iiillii»nce in thl* mattrr, and ho had few immnliulA 

Sotnewlial lairr tlina Bunrdow. n dUltn^idied Ivngliili phynicinn, 
TlioRuiii Itpdilom, norkrd on Komcwiist llie same liar", aeekiiig to prouiut« 
•exiial knnn'l<->ixi> by l«etnreii and d«inonBtmtionft. In Iiih nrinnrknblo 
book, Hi/gria. publialinl hi IHII-J |m)I, i, Kt>ui,r 1V| W Detti forth llin 
ab«ardSt,v of the c-ouvenlionul t«|iiiri-inpnt thnt ".liuficdon und iKHoranPc 
vliould Iodj(i' in llie unnii' lirnoni," mid i\vnU at leoKlli with the question 
of ma«tui'b«lion und llir ncnl of <ii>\uiil i-dm-iilion. He- iii>i"l> iin lli» 
(trwtt Iniporlnnee of tvr>(nti-H on natural hinlorj- which, he had found, 
iMUld be gitra with perfert propriety to n mixeil nudlenro. Ill* cxperi' 
••up™ hnd »hoiiiH Hint Imlniiy, Ihe iiniphStiin, the hPn nnd liei egg*, human 
nnatoinr, even diii-me and noinetinieii the niitht of il, ure oiiliitary fi'nu 
thin point of vien. Hi- thinks it in n hupp,v thing tor ■ child to fpiin 
his fird knou'leitKe "( lexiiat diffnvnee from nnntoniical subjerta, tha 
dignity of d«a(b b«ing a aoMe prrhide lu llie knowledge of sex and 





ilppn'viuK ItTorev»r i>( morbid prurifiuT. It in nfsirpi'lr nvcmaaT^ to 
ii-niark Hint this nielhuJ of tmrliiiig i-lillctreii llic '•It-invnU of Mxiinl 
aiuitoni}- ill tin- ;HiBr-Hiurfri;i ruuni Iiuh not found maof ■dvooatca or 
followerii; it in umkniiiibli-. for it Fuiln ti> Inke into noroiinl the MimI- 
tiv'enr«ii o( rliiUrrn ti ■iidi iniprvssiims, uikI it h imimvtMr}-. (or it iit 
Juat •■ catf lu tvnoli tbn ttitpiity uf life u» Uiu dig;iiity uf Jcutli. 

Tbe duty of tlio xolioot ta imparl pilucatloii in matlm of hx to 
eblldren hnn In rrcrnt year* Ihh-ii vigurniiHly niid ably advooutcd by 
Haria LiMdmr'Asku (riju. (■■(.). nlio 8pi-nk« uitli lliirty yi-nrx' cxprrirucn 
•* a tnielicr anil rni intimll((^ ncqituintanei! villi childriii nnd tliHr homo 
life. She iirgu«H thiit uiiioiig thv tiiiiin of tli? popiiliition lo-cluy. while 
In the hniiii^lSfR Ihrro !■ tivcry o|)|nTtiinlty fnr c<inr*i> fiiimliitrity villi 
Kxmil mnltciH. there is no opportunily for n pure and eiiliglittued iiilrw- 
diivtiou III Uieiti. limits Win); fcir thtr riio>l |>art biKli RiorRlIy pnd 
i n Id lv<-l unity ineupablr nf aiding their diildren hcri^. Tluit tk« iiohuul 
diould «>tituni« the Itadliig part in this tusk i>. olii* l>vlieve«. In accard- 
aiw^ with tin- wholp tendency of modern clTtlited life. She would have 
the initriietion {(indiinled in niirli n niniiii<>r (linl diirinfC tiif liftU or 
*iiith year of oclioul Dtp tbs pii|ill would iihv'Ivp in<trtiction. u-Jth the 
aid of diui^iiiuK, eoncrming the nexuiil orguna and funvtiuiiB of the 
hl)[hrr Tiia>iimnl>, thv bull nii'l i-ow lioiiijc leli'clpd hy prpli?rpn(!V. Tltc 
faets of gpilution would of iviitnc he iurliided. \Vli<'ii thii ntage was 
rfflehrd It nonhl bo easy lo pii*^ mi In the huninn Hpciii^ with the HtAti!- 
meat: "Ju«t in the name nsy a* tho rait dnvvlopit in the ectv ao the 
chilli di?vel"|»t 111 the niotliiT'ji lM)dy." 

It i> dlthrult not In ri'iMKiiin- tlin foivr ot ^fnrla I.lHchncwtka'* 
arguitinit. and it tevniA hixltly prtilmble thai, a>i ohe iiioerts. the Jnitnic- 
(loii propnsfd lien in the i^iirii" ol our pn'oi'iit pnth of (iro^eM. Such 
iiulruetion nould be foTiniil. uiieniotiunul. mid linpeinonal : it would bo 
^vrii nnt ni Hjicelllc tntlriii'lLon in mntt''r« of del, bilT Hiinply hb ii pnct 
of natunl hiilory. It would mpplenmnt. »o fnt n* mere knowled([n U 
a>nn-ini<d, the laforinntloii the ehild luid iilrtady rvwived frum iU 
mother. But il would by no mean* mipplant or rpplaen the piriniial 
■nd latlmiile relationship of eonlidenee between motbei' nnd ehild, Thnt 
ii ulwayH to be aimed at. and tboiifili it inny ixil Ik- |Ki-.-il>te among Ihi- 
ilteitiiraled tiiaiuex of t<i*diiy. nothin^t elie will nd(tiunt''ly tnk" iU placn. 

There can Iw no doubt, however, that while in tlic future 
tlieBchooI will niriit probahty he rejiarded n» the proper plaee in 
whidi to teach the ch-nw-nts of physinlnjrv— tuid not us at pnwwit 
n mpfipty cmaeculated and effeminatei! physiology — thp intro- 
iliirtion of eiich reformed tnichinjr i« nf yet iin practicable in mtmy 
eomni unities. A coarttc and ilUbred coinmunitx' iiiovi^ in n 

V.:y. -'■-.. 




vieioua circle. Ite members are brought up to believe that aex 
inattcre arc lllthy. uud whon tliey Uiconie ndult« they prot«^l 
violently against tlieir children being taiigbt tJiin Hltliy Itnowl- 
edge. The tcaclier'R tatik io lJui» rendered at tlio best diHU'ult, 
and under democratic condition;! imposaihle. We cannot, thei-c- 
fore, ho{ie for any intinedinte introduction of eexual pliyitiolagy 
into schools, even in the unohtrnsivc form in which alone it 
could properly be introduced, that is to gay a£ a natural and 
incvitahli- piirt of general physiology. 

This otijectioii to animal phyniolojry by no m(vin)i applit'S, 
however, to Iwtany. There can be liltle dotibt that botany is of 
all the itaturul ncienci,-* that wbicli Iieat udniit« of tim incidental 
instruction in the fumlnnicntal fact* of sex, when we arc con- 
cerned with children below the age of puberty. There art ut luast 
two reaeons why tliis should be so. In the Drat place botouy 
rually prcecote the bcginnin^^ of hcji. in their moKt naked and 
entinl fornw; it makes ck'ur the nature, origin, and sig- 
kance of sex. In the second place, in dealing with plants the 
of sex can be statfd to ohildn^n of either sex or any age 
quite plainly and nakedly without any rcMtrvc, for no one now- 
adays regards the botanical facta of sex as in any way oRensive. 
The expounder of fes in plants al«o has on his side the advantage 
of being able to at!Sert. without tjuestion, tlie entire beauty of the 
sexual process. He is not confronted by the ignorance, bod 
i>diicatiun, and false awKiciutioiis which have made it so dilTieult 
either to ace or to show the beauty of ^ex in animals. From 
the »ex-Iifo of plants to tho 8cx-life of the lower animalii there 
is, however, but n i^tej) which the teacher, according to his dis- 
cretion, may take. 

An onrly nlumtlnnAl aiithoritr, SalniiAna, in lTf!5 adrocatB^ th» 
lual enligliti-iiiiit'iil at cliildrvn by Ant tcOiChiiig tliciii boUny, lo Ih- 
jllow*!) Iiy mi>In|(^^ In romlcrn timn thv method of inipurling trx 
kiinwli-ilup to chitdrvii liy meant, hi Ihp fir«t place, of trotany. lint tn^i-n 
l(Mii!rally itiU'iH>jiteiJ, niiil from Oip ninal vmloiia qiiBTtm. Thtin ALtrra 
(to Pubetiil. p. SOOI rrcomrndii thin plan. .7. IIiKlrev-Mpnos ("La 
Qufition du Si-xr ilan» rROiK^linri,'' Rr-rue Soi-iitti»tf,Jiifii'. 1))05). gives 
til* wimr* Bilviw. tfitdolf SommiT, In n pnpcr mtillH "MBdcliMipraieh- 
iinit Oder Mniix'ticritillduiig?'' [Oaehtrvht vii4 Gramtaehaft, Jflhrgang 




I. Hett 3) rccMiitiicTi'!'- tliiil tlic Gnt inUodurtioD of bc\ knnwlnli^ to 
cliililrcn •.liiiiilil be niuitc by tulkiiig to th*ni on tliii|i]« iintuntl lilnluijr 
mbjiwU; "Uivre are pniltru opportiinitiH," hi> icmnrkH, "ovitr n tairy- 
tal«, or a walk, or n fruit, at nn vgg, t)>i? nuwinK at »«vd or the nut- 
building of birds.'* Cunon I^'tlvltoii {Tmininff of the ruHKji in Lntr* 
of Ber, pp. 74 ft wf. I ailvium n twnicwlmt limilnr mi'tliod, Ihoitffh Injr- 
in|[ chief otTFH on peitomil MeStlrncc lH't»v<>n tbv child und bis ii>i>lhi'i: 
"ii!lfrtnce io nijidi- to Uu- niiiiiiitl world jii"l wi far an tho cbild"* knowi- 
<hI|CO extendi, »o a* to jirr-vfiit llin n^w fuel* from being viewed in Uolt- 
(ion. but the main «Lii|ihu->iB l^* liiiU on hit f>'i>litig (iir tii> mother nnd 
th« Instinct vrhirh exlMn In nenilv nit chilUrpn of Tevi-r<.-nfi.' diur to the 
mntcmul reUtion;" ho add* tliut, howi-vi-r dilGctilt tW itulijcct. mny 
mam, tli« maenliitl tncta of palemiljr muxt al<o bv npUinrd Io hay* and 
gliU alike. K«jM, ntpiin (.Vctc York il<itunit Journal, Fnb. 10, lOOIt), 
advocatcH teuthiiit; ''Ulldren fToiu on cnrl}' ttge the (acta of plant 
life nnd aim raiicerninj; in-i^t* and olhnr lower aiiininliK. ntid na grad* 
mil)/ Imding up to human hrintr*- the matter brinf; thii* robhod of H» 
unn holcwime Ri}>ter}-. .Mrs. Kimis tlichiuond fHofihood. p. <tS) rtnim- 
Dic-iul* tlint phililrca nhollhl be npiit to aprnil nonie n( thdr tlmr U|miii n 
farm, to that thvv mny not onl}' bcronip aniiiaini<.>il nith the general 
(act* of thv naliirnl world, bnl a1*o «ilb tli« seiiml llie>, of nniniali, 
iMming thing) irhirh it i> diflleutt to trach verbally. Karina Kiirlii 
("Wi« erii*ht niau tin Kmd isOr wiucnden KeiischheilT" flnu-M'pM nitil 
GtartUchaft. Jahrfptng (, II«fl 1>. TpprwliiriiiK «i>in« ut her talk* with 
her nine-year old Mn, from the tima thai li<> Ant ni^kFd her where ehil- 
ista came from, stiowa how she begun with tHIinf; him nbrnit fluwerH. to 
paaa on to fUh and blrda, and llnnlly in the f.ieii of humnn pregnancT. 
■honring him pieturca from on obiletrieul manual of (he rliild in itx 
mother'* bivly. It niajr br tuldi^l that the advi-abilily nl In-ginning the 
wx t«nehitig of children with (he fuct« "f botany vra« repeatedly einplni' 
tlMd hy *ariou4 Mpeaker* at the «iivcial mi-rlin); r>f \\\o nerman CongreM 
for Combating Venpr*n! Diwn«p rtprotcd to the iiibjret of aexual instruo- 
tlon {fttntatiiiidayiigik, Ckpeeially pp. 30, A', 711), 

Tho trnn«itioii from bntonv to the elcincnlnn- loHIogy of the 
er aniiuab, to human nnalomy anil phvBiolojry. and to tlio 
•dcoce of anthropolopi- baped on tliew, is ^implo nml nstural. 
It U not likely to hv tnkt-n in clctHil nntil tlic tige of puberiy. 
Sex enters into a!l thcsi.- snhjcct* .ind should not W iirtificiiilty 
DxcItKled from them in the education of either boya or girl». 
Tlio text-books from which the aexiinl sviitpm \t entirely omitteil 
ought no longer to hu tolerated. The nature and secretion of the 

ij., , 






tcstidts. Ihe mcaniiif; of the ovaries aiid of menetruation, as 
well us llic t^igiiifiL'mK-c of rnMiiWIip'm mid tlu- uHiiury cxcrelit)!!, 
should be clear in their main lines to nil liovs and girlrt who have 
reaclii'd lht> age of puberty. 

At {itiU^rty thi-tv iirini'ii a m-w iirul |iowcr[id ivJisiiri wbv bovs 
and girls should reeeive definite instnietion in matteiis of sex. 
Before that ago it jit poKsililc for Ihe foolifih ]iarcnt to imngini- 
that a child niav be pre^t^rved in ignorant innoL'en<«.' At 
puberty that belief is obviously no lonper poasihie. The 
«nior(»icyucc of puWrty vrith tlio develo|nni-iit of llie Hi'xual 
organs, the appearancf^ of hair in unfamiliar placi'K, the gemeral 
related organic changes, the spontaneous and perhaps alarming 
wrurrence in boysof wniitial vnii*«ii)n*, and in girln of mchi'tniii- 
tion, the unaccustomed ami sometimes acute recognition of 
8C.\ual desire accompunicd by new M-nvationa in the twxual organ" 
and leading perhfl])t) to masturbation; all these aronse, as we 
cannot fail to realize, a new auiiicty in the boy's or girra mind, 
and a new eut-io»ity, all the more acute in many caitt's b<.'cau«e it 
is carefully concealed as too private, and even too shameful, to 
speak of to anyone. In boys especially if of Hcu«itive tenipcm- 
menl, th<^' nufTcring thus caused may be )<een and prolonged. 

A dmlor of iihiloHiph}-, pnMUJnent in liiii prufuasiua, wrutr to SUn- 
lej- Hull { Adotrtcriwt; vol, i, ]i. 4Ml ; "M.v mlirc yi>«th, liuin nix Ui 
cidliMwn, Kim made uiiwrablr Irom lack of kiio«l«l(^ tlml unj- one wlm 
knew uii,vtliiii)c or llu' naliirp o( pubcrly might have Kiven; till* lr>iif( 
acriBe ul (li-fi'i'I. (tri-ad of opvrutioii. B)iaiiie mid worrj. Iiiia tvft nn Indtli- 
btf uturk." Tlivre hip crrlainly mnny nn'n wlio muld >uy the 1111111', 
Lnncutrr ( "TuyclioloBy unil Pcdaifogj- of Adolwroiiw." I'rtlagogical 
Srminary. July, 18!l>. pp. IS^uj sjiMiks BlT(iri)(ly rpj^Hnlloj; tlie evUa 
of Ignorniinti iif u-xiial liygkni!, am! the trribl'' fnc^t thut iiilJlIons of 
jMUthn are nlwiijn in the hands 0/ qiiuckii wlio dupp tbcm into llio bi'licf 
tliat CWy are on l)ii> load U> nn nwdil ilphliny iiiiT^ly Ivchuw Owy liiivo 
OMMsionul rm:i»ioii> diitinf; (livp. "Thia )■ not n tiglit mjitlir." l^n- 
ruMtrr dwinmt. "tl fltrik("< n( tliv wry foiindntion of our tutuoil lifr. 
It dniU with IliP !■■ prod net iiry jinrt iif oiii iiiitiirM. nnd mii'tt Itiivi- 11 dwp 
hcrediliiry inllm-m'i'. It i> n nutiiral t>-ii1t •>( thr fr>«li>U fiilx- iiiixU'Kly 
idiown ii-ipirdinK "11 "rx instruction. Ki«'ry l)ov ihotild lie (au)t<il III? 

1 Moll (oju. eii^ p. S34 1 nrKucn wvll linw liniMMHilitv It I* to pre- 
■ervp chlldmi from liglits and iuniu^noe coanct'lcd with Ike npxiiat life. 





sbiil'Iu |>h}-*loIogical (&1-U Ix'fori- hit \ih ia (orevi-r blighted by Uda 
okUK." IjinnuUr lim huJ in liia lianda nnn llKiiKiinil letter*, moftlly 
written lijr }'(iiiii)( [iroplc, nl>i> tvcrv iii^uiilly iiunmil. iiiiil uddrcHnl to 
qiinckn nlio were dupinu tliiriii. Fiuiii time t<> timp Ibi' Kuicidc* of 
jrouthB Inm lliin cauw uri? reported, uiid in tnuny m^CnlciiiJi mikldi^ 
ibid ha» undoiibtvill;' Urn tlx- rviil eauw. "Week nfu-r wn>k," writm 
thv Bniith Uftlkal Jovinal ici nil tiditorUI i "Jlxn^mun Quack Lilrm- 
tare; The MomI of a Iti-cnt Suicide," Oel. 1, IStiai, "Bre rmrlvc 
despairing lettvni tniiii lluiw vietinis ot foul bir>U of ptey who have 
ublAiiivd thvii flrnl Iiuld on tliow tli«>' rob, torture and oftcu iiiin. by 
adverlltmiionts liiwrli'd Uy Iwr^^'ll|Mlppr)l of n rPHpectnbln. nay, even iif u 
vnlaablc and revpeetrd, ehaneter." It ii iidded lliut the n-rnllhy pro- 
prletors of Mieb neiraimpprH. uftvn eiijininit it re]>utation fur bimevutenM. 
rrm wli«n tlin niatlrr i* brought before lliein. rxfiiiic to Intvrfero n« tlipy 
wuiild tlieieby lose h aoiitve of inrotiie. uiid u eensornbip <if ndvvrtiio- 
inpiit^ U projiuveil. T]ii>s however, i* ditli<-ult, aud would Ih- quite 
unneOFsury if youth* received proper rntiglitc^tiient from their nnliiTnl 

MAxlurbnlion, and tii» fear (bat by nn urca-ional nnd prtia)>« out- 
Krovn pmetit'i; of muKturbation Ihey luivu Mitnetitii-s done themMtvea 
Irrrparable injury. Is a rominon aource of anxiety to boys. It haa long 
b*en a quewtion wliethw a bioy uliould he warned ngnlnat inaHtiirlMtion. 
Ala mwting of the Swtion ot t'Byebolojjj- of the liritisli Meilicnl AiH>o- 
elation tionie ye-ars nipi, (iiiir «|WMlii'r», imliidiiiB the I'lesident (Dr. 
Rlnnilfordl. vrrre decidedly in favor of |>iiren1(> warrilii); their I'hildren 
ngninnt ma>turbatiiiii. nhile thre^ -iiH-ukers were decidedly nKoinal thai 
oniir*v, mainly on the (ground that it uav |H»»iib1e in jiaa* lUroiij^h even 
a public *ehonl lif« uilbuut hearing of inustiirlialinn. iind alw> that thd 
wsmin); against inatlurbHlion irilght encoiira|(v thi' piiirliue. It i«, 
however, befoming morv and more etenrly renliinl that i|[norani<e, even 
it it enn be maintained, is a pi^riloiiH po>4M>KHio(i. <vbile the lenebinj; that 
eonnista, a" it !>hoiild. In a IovIiik innthi-r'n roimHel to the ehibl tmni hii 
MTlIf«t yrara Ifl treat hi* ne-xnnl pari* with eure and ren|wet. can only 
lead to ma«(<irl>alion in the ehild uhii in iiireiuly ii'rvHii>ilb!y inipelled to 
it. Mont i>r the nfx iiiannntu tor Imyi txmrh im nitiiiliii'hiiticm. •omrtimei 
K(agp?raling its dnnfter*: meb exnuKirrnlion tihonid be avoided, tor it 
lead* to far wome evils than Ihft«i' it attempl* to prevent. It seema 
undeairabk that any waminiT' almtit niaxtnrbution should form piirt of 
•ehool tnntniHion. unlesi under very upwial ei re urn stance*. TIip HFxnal 
Inalntfrtiun ini|inrted in the M'h<»>l »n ttciiinl ni> on other tinli)ecl-< nboiild 
bo abnotut'ly ImpDrnonal and objei'tive. 

At thi' point we approiirh one of the difll'-ultic* in the way of 
apvual enllitlileninent : the innornneo or unwiHiloni ot tin- wonld-bo 
tearben. This difficulty at present exiata both in the home and the 



MTcnoi-OOY OK !<K\. 

M-liool, vrhil* ll li'tlrojn tin- tnlui- of mniiv iimnuHlti wriltcn for the 
■ckubI Inslruelion o( Hie j-ouiig. 1'liP mollu-r, wlio inixlil to lie Oie 
child'* contlilant nml Kiil<In lii iiiiitlfr- iif wvnul tHlui'ulioii. unil coulil 
nnturuUy tw no if k-ft to li«r uwti livnilliy iiiMincU, hn* tmiially bv«a 
hrnujclit «p ill fnln' Irnditloni' whldi il r'-iiniri-* n tiifth ilf(rrvp o( intdli- 
gciicv nod dmratlcr In eaouj* Irom: Uju (.cbtHillcncIirr. pvpii If i>n!j- 
cnllmi iijian to {[li-i> limlrurliou in miliiral hintory. !■ r)ppri.'wi«i h,v the 
HiniH tiuditiona, and br fulic ■lukmi- KiDrvvnttiK tlin wliolc isiitijivt of tm; 
tlie u'ril4.-r of uiniiiiiiln ,on wx liun ufli-n only irtv-l liimx'K tiom thcM 
boniU in order to iidvnctili' dn)fTTin1 k, uiiwivntllio, mid Mmptimn niii- 
i-lupvous oiiiniom ulijch liuvi- btcn evolved in enlliv l|cnoranc« of tlie 
rml (Hi-la, At Muill tayt lltaa aexuallrbra dn Kintla, p. 2'ti). n*n»- 
•niy lu (exuiil PnllKlitniineRt I*, vrc rHnnot help levliiig a. tittle skt-ptieid 
u» lo itH reaiiltti mi long ■>. tho*e who uughl to eitligliten arc thetiuctvn 
often in neni of cnllKlili-iinient. !!<' ii'fcr^ nlwi to lliv fact (IihI evcii 
•nioiig oompctcnt suthuntin there ia difTcrenec of opinion nmecrnin); 
llll|)ortjlnt ninttcro. at, tat iiixliiiii-o. whvtiiiT iiis^litrlNitiun U phy«ii>1<>({* 
imi At the lirsl d-vi-lojirarnl o( the tiexuni Inipiilae and liou" Inr neJiual 
alutiiiffiiif in lM>ru'li''l(ii. Rut it is n'idi-ul t!ial thi- diHii-ullie^ dut- lO 
fulw (nidition and ii^oraner will dimiiiii>li >« ■ound Irndiliona and bet^ 
t(-r knowlislfi' btronie more uidHy dilTusMl. 

The girl at pul>erty i» ustifilly loss keenly aiiil deiinitcly 
CODwiou* of her si'xiinl imtiti-o tlitiii the boy. But tlu' mka nhe 
runs Irom sexual ijinoranco, though for the moet part different. 
■ re moit' subtk- and loi^a easy to repair. She is oflcii ftxtn-nmiy 
ini^iiijiilivc- comxTning these matters; the thoughts of adolescent 
girle, and often tlieir eonrer'ation among Ihcmoclvca, reiolve 
much around ecvunl and allied my*lmt'jt. Evm in the matter of 
oonacioua sexual impulse the girl is oftin not so widely difTercnt 
from her brotlier. nor to much lew likely to *»ejipc the con- 
tamination of evil eonimunieatioDs, so that the seruples of 
foolish and ignnrant pcrsous nho dread to "«illy her purity" by 
propor iustruetion arc exceedingly misplaced. 

Convrruition« denlluft willi the important mrrtpries of human 
■ature, (ftici atiil ^latrlivtiiiii ««tp told bv ladle« »iio Imd formerly btvn 
paplU in Ilnli«n Xnrmal Srliooln. arv tiie order ot the day in schoola 
and Tolipgrs. and upoeiiillv eirele nround piuereatimi, thr moit dlMeiilt 
iny*tpry o( all. In Knfilund. evi'n in Hip hi*l nnd mont mmicm eollege*. 
in whifh jpimri and idiysical cxirrUe ore much cultivuted, t am l"ld 
that "lh«- mujurity of the [tirl» nre entirely ipioi'Rnl of nil •e^niil mnt- 
ttnt, and iitnlrntand nolliing whaitever about then. But they do «*on- 



dVTBtHlllt tliem, uikl Ulk nlMiit lliiiii i'<jii>1uii1Iv" {*••<■ ApfMndls D^ "Tb« 
Bclinal-l''Ticii<!>lii|i> u[ Giili," in tin- nwund vuliiiiif ut tlWM J8<utfj«)). 
'■'riifl rwtrlclwl li(« niiil (cltvTi^d miiul of girl"^" wrolo a w<>ll-kni>im 
pIiyiEcian ■omi! j-niir* ttfft |J. MJIncr Futlmgil), Adohnprucf, 1880, pp. 
80, S3| "IcHve ttii'm wiiti \eM to ui'liviOy oooiiiiy Ui»Lr thougliU tlinn U 
tlio ante u'ltli bnv*. llii-j' nrr 'tiKlioiixl.v laughc Minniilinmt. nnd n j^rl 
may Iw B pcrfrct modvl of oiituiiid di^Lvirum iiiiil }-<^t htm a vvrv llllh.v 
miniL Ttip iirudiBliiws* wllh wlikli "In- h liroujilit np Icavm her no 
iilt>-rnal(i*i> but to view lier pumwun* Ituiii the nailj- »ide o( huinnn 
luiluiv. AH li««llliy tli>>ii^la on llie sulijort !• vlunronnly rcprcinii'd. 
Kvcrjlliiii;^ U lUtm to durkrn \\pt mind and foul lll^r inin{[iiiutlon by 
tlirontiti)* her biirk on li'T own tlioiightd and a lilemtiiiv with which ilie 
U aaliamiNl to onm aequo in la niv. It in oppiuni to a Klil'a hrat Enlvn-nt^ 
to ]>r(rvvnt her (loni hnving (nir iind just ixincpplioiis nhout hcr»lf and 
h«T natiiTV. Mnny )i fnir yming t(jrl in irredeemably rtiiticd on the wry 
tlirp«hold of life, hrrwlf und her fnmily disgrnced. from Ignotuiiee »■ 
niueh «» from vice. When the inument ut t^Tiiptulioii voinn she tnlli 
withcnit aoy pnlpiihte miittanee; the hits no trained eduented power of 
rMi*tanr« wlihiii lier»i-l(i hfr nhok fuliira hansa, not npon hrntell, hut 
opon the perfection of the aoclal aafeguards by which »lie is heil^l and 
•UTTOundiid." L'nil«r the fice anclnl order of .VrnTlcn today mneh th* 
•am* results are found. In an inntruetive article ("Why (!irl» Go 
Wrong." iMdittf Uome Journal, Jan., lOO'l B. B. lAnAney. who. ns 
•fudge of the Juvnnile Court of Denver, l« nhle to cpenk with authority, 
bringH fbm'aid ainpl« «ridenix- on this heiiil. I'olh \iit\t and l>oy«. he 
hail lounil. (amHlmp* po-nean nuiniiACTlpt l>mtk< In uhi<-|| thi'V h>id «iit- 
ten donii the ertiijett iieiuul (hin^, TheiH- children nere ofti>n tneet- 
faoed. pl>'a«aut. rnltnnl anrl liitr1U)[ent, nml they had re>|)e('l:<1ile pur' 
cnt«: but no ow had ever sjioken to them of ^ex nialters. except the 
wiiral of thi-ir *chool-rellon4 nr anmn nxnw-intnilril and rorkh'i-- iidult. 
By enrefnl iQi|uiry I.indsi-y found that only In one in twenty cnneii had 
the parent* ever spoken to th<i children of »vsiial >.iihjeot«. In iieiirly 
every en«e the children neknowledged that it wa* not from Iheir |«irentji. 
but In lh# Mrwt or from older rom|uintoTi». that Ihej- Imrnt the fa<-i>t of 

«ex. The parents lUlinllv imnpned that their elilhlren "ete absolutely 
jfpioxant of these malfm. and tvere a^lo^i■hed to realixe their miMoke; 
"parvnta ilo not know their <>hn>lreii. nor have they tlu> t.n«t idi'n of 
what their ebildren knoff, or whnt their children talk n1<out and do 
wlian away from thi-ni." The [laieiits jrulH.v of tht>t neRlecl to Inntnirl. 
thtir children, ore. Lindsey doetnre*. traitors to their children. From 
hb own enpvrl«nce he jmlfn-^ that nine-lenthn of the girls who "go 
WTomg," whether or not they *ink in (he world, -lo "o ouflng to the Inat- 
tention of Ihflir parents, and thiit in the cn*e of mont prontitiites the 
miMliiet is really dome before tho njpi of twclr«; "evtry wayward (flrl 



liV RRT. 

1 Iiuvu Ulk?d Id Imn uwurvd mtr uf Ihii liutli.'' ilc cotutders Utat niae- 
ti-mli" o( mIkbiI lujy* iiiul wlioiil-jfiils. in iiiwn or Mxintry. nr* v»»y 
inqui.ilivp rpsiirdinj( mnttor* of mm, uiul, to liii own Hiiiaiviunit, he 
haa found that ill tlii< )^rl« iLia is as mnrkeil lu iu tliv boyn. 

It is the biieini'BS of Dw girl's mntlicr, at lca«t a» tiim-Ii ui> of 
the boy's, to wntili ovor hiT cliild from llie earliest yeara antl t« 
win her contideiire in all the intiiiiati'' ami |HTaiitiAl itiutUis of 
sex. Willi t}ic8e ii^jiccts the scliool cannot properly mediUe. 
But in inattorf of physitiil m'xual hygiene, notably mcnelruation, 
in resard to which all pirls stand on llie miih' lerel, it i* ocrtainly 
IIh' duty of tile Inidicr to tuko an actively watdiful part, and, 
moreover, to direct the general work of education accord injtiy, 
and lo eDHurc that the pupil tihalt reft whenever that may Bcem 
to be de^irahlc. Thiw U [iiirt of Hw very i-li-iiicnt:> of the cilncn- 
tioa of pirU. To disregard it should disqualify a teacher from 
taking further uharo in educutioiml work, Yet it u constantly 
and persistently neglected. A large number of girls liaTo not 
even been prepared by tlieir mothers or teachers for the Bret 
on«'t of the meiititninl flow, «ninctiine« with disas'lmus rcBults 
both to their bodily and uicntal liealtb.' 

"1 know of no largo ^wV» •chool," wrote O dintiiigiiUhtd g^fna- 
«ili>gl»t. Sir \V. S. I'lnvtnir I "ICdtlcRtioii nnd Training at Cirls nt 
Puberty." Itiilith Uedieal •/oiinial. Itvv. 7. 1S05). "in whicli tlw nbno- 
lilt* dUtlneilnn irhleli exista brtwivn tioyii and girli an rcgnrda llii> 
dutninnat ini>nBtrtinl tiinrtion I« njrvtiMnHti rally <iir<»l for ami Httendrd 
In. Indn-il. tlip fnrllntt of nil iwhoulniintieawii i* dJiilinFtl}- iintagnnistic 
lo Hucli iin ndniMiion, Tht cou|i>nli»]i is tliut tlierr is no rvnl dilTerpnt'e 
liplwwn nn nd(>lf*<^iit mnlc iind (omjilp. thnt whnt in Rood for onr U 
good for tb« oilier, nnd thnt huc-Ii an tlivti- i» )» diii' to llii- #vil rii»toti<K 
■>( til* p)i*t whiHi liKVP di'tilnl to womi-n Ihc nmbitiima and odviinlagv* 
i>[i<.-n to invn. nnd t)i»l tliis uill itivipiiVHr Hlii^n ii liu]-pi<^r era i" innnR. 
urnti^d. U tlii" lie wi, liow pumM it llinl uliili" cvi'iy prnHicn! pliy»iHiill 
of experirnop hiii nr<^n ninny cnwi uf anirniiii und t'liloruoix in gir1<^ 
nrmnipnnlcd by anicnorrlioni or iti(^orThi))|;in, htmdnrlini. palpitntjon*. 
eninriiilion. and all tlie famillur acnimpntiinientx of bri^akduwn. nn 
aiui1o]ti)ii>t rondillnti In n nrliooMiny I* «o Tnrp that it nay ivpII br 
doiibln! if it U pfvt bpw at «11V' 


of the pubic boir. ThU iinnpcpti-d gniwtli of hnir frequently causes 
jt'iinj; girii miieh swrBt wottt. nn<1 ofIi"n tbey rnrrfully rut It off. 



It i«, however, only tlie FX<--uiii--t fur tlii* nlmoat rrimlnal ncgligi/ncf, 
as it outfit ici be roimiikied, vvliirli ure aew; tlie ueslijjeiiui^ itoclC U 
•nt-'icnt. Half a ccntur}' pnrlJM. bcfur? tlie new era of (eminlno «ituon* 
t'ou, aiiotlter diatJugaialMd ^uwiCologUt, Till iBUmtnt* a/ Btatth and 
Prindplrt of yrmatr Hyyirne, 18J2, p. 18) utaUxl that Irom a ctatititkttl 
Inquiry reBntding the onset of menstrua tioii in tieurlf one thounnnil 
U'umeu lie found thai "iCi \tr evvl. wvre totnlly iuij)rrpari.-(l fur iti 
apprarnnce; Oiat tliirtoen out of the twenty- Ave were mm-h (rl)(litenB<1, 
•crennirU, or wful into liyiilcrica! fiW; and that nix out of the thirteen 
thought IhemnelvM wonnileil anJ wnslieil Hilh eold nul«r. Uf Uiow 
(rinliteneit Ilie jieiiernl lifallh wnn flerinnnly impaired." 

Kngeimann. after utatitig that liia experienee in Ameriea n-nii 
•iniiUr to Tilt'a fii Engliitid, ronlinueu ("Tlie Health of the American 
Girl." TraHtaclinnn of Ihr Houthriit /turgiral ami Oyiirrolagical Horirty, 
ISnOi: "To iuniiineralile uorni^n iius fiiglit. u^rvoua aiui emotional 
«a(clt«inent, exposure to eold, i>roiigl<l injury at puberty, \\'hat more 
natural tiinn Ihul Uie anxious girl, siiiprjacd by the ■udden and unex- 
pected torn of the precious life-fluid. «1iould itetk to elierk the bleeding 

^mMlnil — *■ i>he (Uppowa! For thix purpoa? the uhr of eold ivaahc* and 
■pfilientioni ia cunimon. some even seek to stop the Hun' hy h eold biilli, 

|M wa* done liy a now eareful mollier, who lonji lay at the point of death 
ftoni the re»ult of such indinerction, nnd but *Iowly, by yeais of care, 
r>^ained her lii«11h, Tlie terrible warning hn* not licen lout, and mind- 
ful of her own expericnor lite hn.i taught her children a Ichwii which 
bat few nr« fortunate enou);h to team — the individual care during 

kperloda of functional activity which la needful for the preaervalion of 

rwoawii'B health." 

In a htudy of one hundred and twenty-five American high aehool 
Itiri" Dr. ticlcn Kennedy refer* to the "uiodeBty" which niakeH il inipos- 
•ible even lor mothers and daughter* to upeak to each other coneernini; 
the mmitrtial functjona. "Tliirty-aix giria in this higli Achuol pas«L-d 
into «aiiMinhood with no knowlntjie whatever, from a proper aouree. of 
■11 that make* them womt'ii. Thirty-iiinB were probably not much 
wiser, for they stated that Ihey hail rci'iieil xome luHtriietion, but had 
ixi« talked fre<rly on the matter. Front the fort that the ruriuun girl 
did not talk freely on wluit naturally intercited her. it is postible ahe 
wa* pat off with a few n'ordi aa to |H-r4i>iiul rare, nnd a reprimand for 
ht rario«<ly. [.oh ihan holf of the girl* felt free to talk with their 
iDothera of tbia mort important matter!" (Helen Kenneily. "Bfferta ol 

^Bigh School Work upon Girh During Adoleaeenee," rnlogaffical 8emi- 
■ry, JaM, IXdn.) 

The ^ame itatc of things probably aliio preralU in olher eountriea. 
Thut, a* regard* Prance, Edniond dp floncourt in CHfrit Ipp. 1ST-13B) 
4neflbod the terror of hU young heroine at the appwrancB of th* firrt 




memtrunl p«riu(! for which she hud n«v«r In-WIi iiiepared. i!v lulda: 
"II U I'try iiKldoiii. iiidivd. tliat woman i>p««k i<f tlilo rvriit unlit}'. 
MothiT* tear to u-sin Ihrir iluuBlilm. rider nUttrn dinlike coulidcnOBa 
u'ilii their vu(in|Kr nistrTii. guveruemes arr grneraiiy mute with girls 
nho linv* no motWri or vlifern." 

Sometimes thj-i JcudK l<) HulciJo or io mltrinpt-i at tniidil«. Tbus ft 
few jntrn aj(D thn ronn niu rppoTt''il In llin FiriTrVi newgpupers of a foung 
girl of fiftven. wliu threw herself into the ><eini> ut Siiiut-Ourit. 8ii» wu 
rnaciieil. and nn l>c>in|t hioutcht hrtorr llir pollen Mmmlialoner naid that 
>lie had Iwen utlix'ked hy an "unknown dlHcav!" which liad drii-en her 
to dcipnir. IMnerert inqiijrv rcrealod that the mritrrioiia iiialadj nuis 
one common to nil women, uiid the girl wan reBlured to her ioMif&cienlijr 
punished p«T»Dtii. 


Half a century ago the sexual life of frirls wag ignored by 
their parents nad li-iictK'n> from rcaaont- of jinidishni'Mt; tit the 
prcflcnt time, when quite different idean prevail regarding 
feminine educatioii, it is ii;norc<l on tlie ground that girls Hlioiild 
be a8 indcpvndciil of tlicir jiliy^iolu^ital scxiiiil life a9< bovs are. 
llie fact tliat this mischipTous neglect has prevailed (-qually 
under ^uch dilferont conditions indicutt-s tlciirly lliot llic vary- 
ill); r(;aMii« asHi);m-d for it are iiicn-lv the itoakei of ignorance. 
With the growth of knowledge we may reasonably hope Uiat one 
of tlie chief evil* wiiiih at pn'Mjiit iindenninc in cnrly life not 
only hc-altby motherhood but healthy womanhood generally, may 
be gradually eliminated. The dsia now being accumulutcd show 
not only the extreme preTBlcMte of painful, disorderwl, and 
ul>sent menstruation in adolescent girls and youug vonieu. but 
aUo the great and winietimes pormnm-nt evil* inflict«^ upon e\en 
healthy girls when at the beginning of sexual life they are sub- 
jected to severe strain of any kind. Mcdinil uuthoriti<4. 
whichever k-x they belong lo, may now he i»aid to be almo«t or 
quite unanimoufi on thli point. Some yeai-s ago, indeed, Dr. 
ihiry Putnam Jaeobi. in a very able book, Thr Question of Rett 
for WoHifn, concludes! that "ordinarily health}"" women may 
disregard the menstrual period, but she admitted that forty-sis 
per cent, of women are not "ordinarily healthy." and a minority 
which COOKS so ni-ar tn being a majority ean hy no nieann ti« 
diamisacd as a negligible <]uanlity. GirU themselTcs, indeed. 






carried away by the ardor of their pursuit of work or ainuse* 
ment, are usually rwklewly and ignorantly iiidilfcrcBt to the 
seriooB ritJcs they niu. But thi- ojiiiiiiiua of tciiclii^rt) are now 
lending to agree inth medicnl opinion in recognizing the 
importance of care and rest ilurinfi the yvttn of cdotegcence, and 
tnclicre are e^iii prepurcd (o admit that u ycar'ii r(»l from hard 
work during tht period that a girl'* sexual lifi* is becoming 
eatflblislied, while it may ensure her Itealth and vigor, is not even 
a disadvantage from the cdueutionn] point of view. With the 
growth of kni>wli'ilj:e und the decay of ancient projudi«es, we 
may reasonably hope that women will be emancipated from the 
traditions of a false civilization, which have forced her to refjard 
her glory aa lier shame, — though it has never been so among 
roljUBt primitive peoples, — and it ii* encouraging to find that no 
diKtinguisbed an educator as Principal Stanley Hall looks for^ 
ward with eonfidence to ifuch a time. In his cxhtiurtive work on 
Adolescencti lie writes: "Instead of «hame of this function girls 
should be taught the greatest reverence for it. and should help It 
to aormulity by regularly stepping aside at stated times for a 
few years till it ia well e^tabliithed and normal. Ti> higher being* 
that looked down upon human life as wo do upon flowers, these 
would be the must interc'sttn)^ and beautiful hours of bloHsonitng. 
With more self-knowledge women will have more ntdf-reapect at 
this time. Savagen,' reveres this state and it gives to women a 
mystic awe. The time may come when we must even change the 
dirieions of the year for woiiieu. b-nving to man hi« week and 
giving to her the same number of Sabbaths per year, but in 
groups of four successive days per mouth. When woman asserta 
her true physiological rights idie will lii-gln licre. and will glory 
in what, in an age of ignorance, man made )ier think to ho her 
shame. The pathos about the leaders of woman's so-called 
emancipation, is that they, even more than those they would 
persuade, accept man'* estimate of this state."' 

10. a Ball. Adalf»ffnef, vol. 1, p. fill. Mnn^ year* Ago. in l»1i, 
fhe Ut« T)r. Clarke, (n hl« Anr in Fdueation, adviiwil uipn*lruiil rent (or 
girli. anil therebj' annwrd a violent (ippit»itloii which woulrl wrlnhily 
not tw foiini] nonrtiiayi. when the aiin-ial riika of womanUoud arn Iit'rom- 
tng more clearly undrratooil. 


P8TCU0100T OF SV.X. 

Tbeee wiac words cannot he t<Kt tk-eply pomliTcd, Tliu 
patlioe of Ilie situation hsa indeed been — nt all events in the 
pHt for to-day a more ciiliglitcucd geuerntioD ii; growing up — 
that tlic very leaderx of the woinanV niovemeiit liuvn often 
betrayed tlie cause of women. They have adopted the ideals of 
men, they have urged women to become second-rate men, tbey 
have declared tlint Uie healthy naliinil womiui dinrcpinl* llu? 
presence of her menstnial functionti. Tin* i» the very reverw! 
of Uie truth. "They claim," remarks Enfrdmann, "that woman 
in lier natural «tato is the plivFJcai cqunl of man, and consttintly 
point to the primitive woman, the female of itavagi- peoples, aii 
un example of this supposed axiom. Do they know how well tbiv 
same savage is aware of the weakness of woman and her su»- 
ceptibility at certain periods of lier life l' And with what care be 
proti-ctfi her from harm at tlicsc periods ? I believe not. Tho 
im|>ortancc of nurrounding womeu with certain pnecautions 
duriu|; the height of these great functional waveis of her 
exi«tiitco was appreciated by all peoples living in an approx- 
imately natural itnte, by nil rncce at all times; and among tlieir 
comparatively few religious customa thia one, affording re-st to 
women, was most persislcjitly adliercd to." It is among the 
white rar(«> alone that IIk- sexual invnlidiam of women prevails, 
and it is the white races alone, wbidi, outgrowing the religious 
ideas with which the menstrual seclusion of wonu-n was asKO- 
ciate<l, have flung away tliat beneficent seclusion itself, throwing 
away the baby with Ltic bath in an almost literal Si-nse.^ 

In Otnaaii}' Tobl«r lias invesiigaied tli« iuen«trual hiMorle* of 
over on« thoUMnd nomt^ iUonaUnr-hfill fUe Ortiurlthultt mid QyM- 
kotogie, July, lOOS). lie Kndu that in the great majority of women at 

I Kor a aummHTy of Uie pliyitlcal itn<l mmtAt phenomena of the 
■nmttnial period, nee tUvelock KIIik: JUan and Woman. Cli. XI, Tho 
primitive coDoeption of nit-ostruatioa i* lirlrlly disontwd in A|ipenJiK 
A lo tlie flmt VDhiniP of these Hludirt, anU more eliiborately by J. G. 
Frazer in Thr Qoldm Bov^h. A \aip^ c>)llvoU«Ti »( fnrtn with regBrd 
to tl» menstrual ^Mhiaion of Women throujihout th» world will 1m found 
in Plo«B and Bartela, Dan HWfc. Tlie pulxTtal seeliisfon at fcirU at 
TorrM SIrnita li*s bem eiipeolnllx riiidled by ScHgnianii, Reporli Anlhrih 
potogteat E^eitUhn to Torres Strat'ra, vol. v, Ch. VI. 


Ui* prMMit tiajr mriHtTuutiuu in HHMMUtPii wjlli distinct dotr-rinrntioD o( 
tlic nmcral limltli, an<l illnilnullon of fuiirlbiuil puorgy. In 26 per oent. 
local pHin. gcnrral iiwUiw. and mental ami ncrvoiu knomollM m«xtol«d; 
in Ur^r proportion ixnae Uih cuwh in uliicb locul pMn, gteeral «*«k 
IteaJtli Of pajvblo abnormality wh* experi^ncrd alone at thia period. In 
16 p«r ntnt. only none of tlimr innptamii werr c^?(p^tlenccd. In a rcty 
■mult HparaU gtoup the pli.viical and mental fiinc^tionii were stronger 
tliirin)C tli'iB period, bjt in lioK of these ease* tliere was dislinet ditturb- 
ance during the intermenslnial period. Toliler conehidet tliat, wliilo 
uwnctruatiOR itaelf ia pbysiologknl. all thene dlnturbancra ar« patho- 
login I. 

A> Inr aa Knglunil i* «onernicil. at a diKMinnion of normal niid 
painful menBtriiutioii at a meeting of the Itritlili Awtoeiation of Re^a- 
terrd Mrdiea] Wonii^n on the Tth of July, 1008, it waa atntcd by MiM 
llentliam that SO pL-r eent. of girls in good powltion suCTeied fiom pain- 
ful inenitruntiun. Ihlm. Dnnnptt uid It umally oceurrrd between tli« 
aj^ ul tuenty-toiir and tliirty. being frequently due to neglect lo ntt 
diiiing ineiMlnialion in The earlier year*, nml MtK Hrsingfr Rvana had 
found that thii eundition wna rcij eoninion oiiiong elementary nebool 
teaohers «lio had woiked hard for examinutioiis during eurly girlhood. 

In America vnrloni Inrntigatiana bare been earried out. nhowing 
Uui prevnleui^e of ilisturbanee iii the Hexual benltli of nchoul girti and 
young women. Tims Dr. Helen P. Kennp<l.e obtained elaborate data eon- 
reinlng tlie menilnial life of one hundred and twenty-flre high •chool 
girU ot Ok avenigc age at eighteen ("Effect of High School Work Upon 
<!irU Dnring AilolMcenee." /Vi/oijuyiWf linninaiii. June, IflBWI. Only 
twentydghl (rit no pain during the period: biilf llie total number 
RtpeiioDcnl dliMgreeable fiyni]>(oni'4 liefore the period (•iirh ns headache, 
roalaUe. Irritubltlty of temper), while fortytoui eumplnined of other 
■^mptonia beiiiilen pain during the jieriod (exjieeiHlly hefldiiebe and great 
weakneiM). Jane Kellej- Sabine (quoted In BmIoi itnlirnl nnti liurficat 
Journal, fifpU 15. 1S04I found in New Knglnnd Ki'hixil^ among tno thou- 
tiand girls that 73 |>er e^nt, lind inenxtninl trouble*, BO per cent, had 
teueorrlwc* and ovurian ni'iirnlgiu. uiid UO per <'ent. had to give up work 
(or two day* during r*eli month. Thear reaulto ncem morv tlian u*iiully 
■nfavonible, but are nignifieant, a» they outer h large number of euses. 
The eoiiditionB in the I'aeille States are nol iiiudi better. Dr. Mary 
Itltter (in a paper mad before the roltfomin State Medical Sodety In 
1003) ht«tod that of CflO Freahmen girl* at the L'nivenity ot DLUfornia. 
S7 per TcnL were subjeet to inenttruul disordera, 87 per cent, to head- 
nehea. 30 per eent. to baekarliei. 29 per pent, were Imbltuntly ennotliialed. 
10 per wnt, had nlmormnl btart aoundu only 23 per cent, were free 
from (nnclkntal dirfurbnneea. Dr. Helen MiicMupchey. In an intereating 
paper «n "Phyniolo^cAl Pbeuoniena Preceding or Aecomjianyiug )Ien- 


paTCHoi-oav OF sex. 

atruBiiun" {Lanett, Ch-t. G, ISOl), by iiiqulrii^s among one hunJrpil 
riit<]i<'iil wniiirti, niiTHca. anil women tcochorn m Toronto concerning tlio 
lirfM-ncp or obnnicc of twciilj-onc iliffiTcnt Bbnorrniil ■□Piist.niul plie- 
uuiucnii. fuunU lluit bctuven 50 und 00 ]>er i.'ciil. Hilmttli'il tlist lh«y 
nyre llnliln at ihls time to ilintiirbrd *\«rp. to h«ii)n(^hc. to numUl 
dcpmuion, to jij^iitivc dintiirbHntv, or (o diHtnibunct of tlip spn'inl 
■enwi. wliil" alioiit '2S to TiO por crnL vinv. Ilnlili> to nciiinlgin. tr> rrrtign, 
to KtcfiniiiTfl ncrvoiu rnprnj*, to ddcctirp niTioiin nnil niiifinilur powpr. 
to imtiinMiiis hypcraMithcniu. lo vasomotor (tinliirbuniM!'. to convtipatlnn, 
I'l ■linrrli'Pii, to liicrcaiwd urltiation. to cuIaiipooh eru]>tiun. lo increo>*(l 
liability to take cold, or to irrilafinK wntrry diwliarurs before or «ft»'r 
tlie m«i»trual diMfliHrnv- Tliin lin[uiry i» of niucli inli^r^'it. bwaiite it 
clearly bring* out tlir marked premlent'e of menjitritation of ™nditioii» 
wliicli, llinnirli not nPceHinrily of any gravity, yet detlnltrly liidicalr 
derrraieil power of reaintance tu morbid influpntf^s and diminiiilimt 
•nii-laney for work. 

How ■criotio nn inipvdiment tuetiHlruat troubles are to u woman it 
indicated by tlic fact, tliat llif uoim-n niio ai-Iileve mioccM anil fam* 
•«Tn neldom to be greatly affeoled by tlicm. To that nr may, in part, 
attribtiti' tup frequency with which loader" of the women'* movement 
have tmiteil men>truiitiim ri> a thin^r "' no iniportanee in a wumuii'i 
lif«. Adclo O^rhnrd, and llvknc Simon, also, in th^lr valuable and 
impartial work. Mulltraphafl und Grittigr Arhrit (p. 312), fniU^ to 
.And. in tli«!r inrjuirira ninonK women of diiilinirii>>>hi^ ability, that m«n- 
atruation waa reicnrilnl a* Hrioiialy diiitiirbinR to work. 

Of late the iiigitciilion that Hdulv>H.'ent {Tirls nbull nut only r«t from 
work during (mo dayu ot the ntenstiiial jierloil. Iiitt hnvv an entire Ii<i1i' 
day from iwhool during the llr»t year of ununl life, lia« frequently lieen 
put forward, both fiom Dir milieal und the •'■liieational Hide. At Ihi' 
nif^tlnK of the Awiation ot Rrgi^tereil MislienI Women, nlrendy 
Inferred to. Mi« Slnrg« spokv of tlie good results ubtainvd in a H'hool 
whRre, during th« Unit tnu y*ar* niter puberty, the girl* were kept iii 
bard for the fir»l two days of eaeh menatmat {wriod. Some yoars *go 
])r. (J. W. Cook ("Some ni*order« of Mcnitriialion," Amrrimn Jonrnat 
of Obaltlriiv, April. 1800), alter giving <'B»eii in jioint. wrote: "It i» 
my di'liheralv convletion that no girl iihoiild be rimflned at "tudy during 
(li« year of her puberty, hut "he ihoiild live an outdoor life." In an 
artieln on "Alnmna'i Children," by "An Alumna" (Popvlar Spienrr 
Monlhlif. May. 190*), dealing with the •enual invnlidiiro of Amerlenn 
women anil th^ severe Htrain of inutlierhood ujKtn them, the Hulhur. 
though ihe i< by no mcani hoMilp to education, which i» not. ahe 
dMlarea, at fault, pleadii for r«t for the pubertal girl. "If the bruin 
claim* her whole vitality, bow esn there be any pro[ier U"velopinent ! 
■Iiiiit •• rr>T7 young Hiildren should give nil their •trength for Mmc yean 



ly to pliyilcnl flniwlli Wfurv the bruin U alluwud Ui iiuki; uny •,-oh- 
■iilmililp ilmuioiln, no ut Uiis crilicol jhtIoiI in tin- lllv ot Ili« wutiisu 
iiifiliinK •lioulil Dtvtnict the right o( waj ot thin imporlunt ■f«l(in. A 
yivti at (hv tMiM ithould \>e made espwially oa*}' lor Iut. ulth iii?itUi-r 
mvntnl nor ncrvotin itraini nnd tliroiigliout tho red uf her >choo] itnya 
■bo nlioiild have her |)«riadical Aay o( itnl, free fioiii any ittudy ur over- 
•xvrlinn." In nnothpr nrllrle on th» Miur itiilijert In the luinic journal 
("The Hmllh of AniPriean Girls.*' ^pt-. 1D07). N'elli« Cuminx WhiliiUr 
nili'omt*'* a klnillnr rniir»>. "I nni rdrnitiii: to lio conrliicpd. Minx-ivlint 
■([■insl mr wiili. that there nre mnnv eiue» when the |{irl oujcht to l)e 
taken out o( scliool i-iitirely for nonut monlho or for a yenr at llir /iprioil 
of ftvbfrli/." She add" Ihnt the chic) olwtaele in th? «»)■ In the j(irl'« 
own like* nnd diilikeii. and tU« i^uniDCc u( her mulher who bus b«eii 
aenutomed to Ibiuk tliat pnin ti a nomnn'ti naiurnl lot- 
Such a pniod of rc*t from mental utrnin, wliiitt it would fortify 
lh*i (irgHnlain In ll« riv^iAlnnn- t'l any rennomihle itntrn Intvr, need by no 
mean* tie Imt for cditcntjun in the wider lenne nf the word, tor the edii- 
nttluii ri><)uirvd In claMrooniH in but a uninll purt of Ihi^ cJuciiiiiiii 
miuirrd tor life. Mor Khould it by nny nienna he rencrreii merely for 
the sii'kly and delienlv yirl. The trngk' part of the prMent nef;U>ct to 
Kii'e iprlii a r«all.v wiund und (IttinK eduontion U Ihnt the liei^t ntid niient 
girls arr thereby iii> often luitird. Eren the Knglinh polieeniRii. who 
■(lDiille<lty belongs in pljyiiical vigor and tien'oua lialance to the Itower 
af tli« population, it unable to bear tlie utrain nf hi* life, nnd in unid 
to W Koni out in twvnty-ftre yeart. It is eiiually fooliiih to »ubuiit the 
IbiMt flowMK of girlhood to a Hlrpin whieh in admilledly too »ri-ere. 

It «wm» lo lie flrnr (hat tlic miiiii fiii-tor in the fomnion 
emn! anil general invalidism of RirU and yminR women iei bail 
bypeup, in llie fimt place consiHting in neglwt of tliu mc-n«tniiil 
functionA and in tiie accoml placu in faulty liaiiitii generally. 
In ail liie more essentiul nialterx lliat concern tlie liv^ienc of 
tlic !)oi]y till' Iruililioiic of girls — and lliis «;i'iuit tn bo more 
especially the ease in the Anglo-Saxon countrie;* — are inferior 
to those of yoiitliB. Women are much more inplineil than men 
to tubordinute tlici^e thin^ to what i>cemB to Uii'm some more 
urgent interest or fancy of the moment ; they are trained to wear 
^awkward nnd constrieting gnniients, they are indifferent to 
rgular and euhstantial meals, preferring imiiitritioni^ and 
iiKligcxtible foixlK and drinkit; they are iipt to di-ire)iard tlie 
d«mande of the bowels and the bladder out of lazineis or 


modeity; they un- wen iiidiffcivnl to j>l)VHii.-al clL-unlitK'K*.' In 
s grtnt number of iiiinor wa>'«, which separately may Heem to be 
of little itnportunce. tbey plar into the liauds ot ati i-Dviruiiiiivnt 
which, not ulwurg having liccti ii(l(:i|untely ndju-itcil to their 
•pccial nvciU, would exert a coaeidcrable strees and strain even if 
tiiey carefully Bought to guard theinKdve* ugain«t it. It hat) 
been found in ;ni Amiriian Women's <'oli(?t;e in which about half 
the scholars wore corsitg and ImU not, that ncurty all the Imnon 
anil prizes went to the non -co rscl -wearers. McBride, in bringing 
forward thi* fact, pertinently romarks. "If Ihe wearing of a 
aiugle style of dreiM will make thin diffcn-nre in the live* of 
young women, and that, too, in their nioet vigorous and reeistive 
period, how much difference will a score of unliciUlhy habits 
make, if per^iittcd in for a life-time?^ 

"It >c«ma ^vt(lvnt.*' A. E. tiilvx roiicluilM I'Some PoinM of Pre- 
I'ciitive Ttvnlmnnt In thu Ditrancii of Women." The BatpUat, April 10, 
I8DT) "that ilvMiionuTThiva iiii^-lit U> lo ii lurgp extent proTenled bjr 
attention to Kiiiirriil lifnlth niid nlucRtinii. Slinit hour* of work, eijie- 

iThu* Miia Lutb Snuboru, Director uf I'lij-ik-nl Training ut tlie 
Cliioap) Normal Srliool. found tlint a linth nntt' u fixttii^lit wns not 
unu*iuil. At tlic nu-nfltrual period «»pwinllr Uirtv i* Ktill n Kipersti- 
liou* dri4il at v/nicr. Girl* unoiild nlwaj'i he luiiKlit tlint nl this period, 
above nil. rli-anliotvi in Litifirnilivi;])- ni>i'"««iirj. Tln'rc nlmiild be n lupjd 
hip bntii iilfilil unii tnoming, and ii voginnl (toiidic Iwlilrh tliniilil n>'VFT 
be ootd) ia alwny* Milvanta^ieoiiik t>oth fnr poirifurt aa vrrll a« rlean- 
lin«iii>. Tlipr* in not the sJiRhtrHt tpason to dread -aiHet during men- 
struatioD. This point wn« (liinistii'd n lew jrnni n(jo in tlie Briiinh 
JVAffoat Journal with romplele unnnimil}' u( opiniun. A dintinffinnhi'd 
AnierlrHn obotntTlcUn. nisn. Dr. J. nifton Kdpir. uttrr a rArefiil ^liidy 
of opinion and pnelW in lhi<t niAlti^r ("BntliInK I>tiriTig the MFu-irunl 
Prriod." Annrloan Journal Obttrlrkt, Sept., lIKHIi. mndudr* tlmt )t la 
poMthle and benellclal to take co?d bath« ItliouKh tml <ti'»-lm(!i«i during 
the period, prorided due prteaulioni "rr oWrrwl. nml thiit there are no 
Midoni changM of habit*. Siteb > eour-e •houM not bo indiwiimbiiiti'ly 
Adopted, but there i-nn be no doubt lliat In iturdy penuint «-ouien who 
are Inured (o It early In life "v«i prolnnite'I Ininiernion !n the wa In 
Ashing h»» no evil re«n1t«, and t* even henefli-inl. Hoiucel Unnalm He 
OynfrnliiiiiF, TW,, ISMt hnn imhlt'lied ilatlHtli'" of the nieu«tninl Hfe 
of 123 liiherwomen on Ihe French eon*t. Tliey were aecnatomed to 
tihrinip for hnur" nt » timr hi the spii, c-lirn tn nivn-e the wni«t. nnd 
then walk about, hi their wet I'lolhe* oellinR the »hrimp*. They nil 
tnaUted that their menntrnnHon won ennier when they were oelively nt 
««rk. Thefr perfoil* are notsblv reipilnr, and tlieir fertllltv ic hiah". 

!.l. II. Meltride. "Tlie Lite and Ih-nlth of Our nirls in K«latlon tO 
Tbelr Future," J/fenlal and .VcufoIoj'X, Feb., lOM. 





«l*lly »r •1«ndiug; pltolf ol outdoor cserciM — UaniB, boating, i^ing, 
gy-mnaatlc*, and valkinK <<" ihonv who cannot afford thsM; ngularltr 
of lueuU and food at the proper quality — not tlii: inCMwuit tea und hn-M 
and liutt«r <rlih vHrktion of paetrj': tlie avoidance of overf>x«rliaii aud 
prolonB^ fatigiW; thewr are Hime of the prinei|uil tbingi which require 
altentloii. girU puniip th«lr ttudj-, but more l*li>itr«-l)", they will 
arrire at the unmo kdhI. but a tittle later." Tbc brncSt of alloninff 
(rw movement and raerdae to tlie w-h(>I« body U miduiibtedty very great, 
both aa regnrda the (osual and tcneral iihyxlnit benltli and the mental 
balance: In order to inture thin 11 !■> ncK<i-«tnrv to avoid heavy and con> 
atrletiiig (pinnenl», more Mjiedally aroiiiicl llii' elieM. for It U in respira- 
tory power and elie»t expoiwion more llinii in niiy other re*pi«t that 
girls fall behind buj-s l*ee, T.y,. Huvrltx-k Klli». Miiit and Woman, Vh. 
tXl. In old dayn the Kreot nlicUde In the free exerelv «l j^rla lay in 
an idra) of feminine behavior wUieh involved a prim reatroint on every 
natural inoi'«iinent o( the iKxly. At the preteiit day that Ideal i« not m 
fervenlly preaehed an of old. but ita Iraditiunnl influence itill to »ome 
ext«iil p«nii*t«. while tbeie U the further dilTit^ulty Ihat adequate time 
and opportunity and enooumgement are by no meun> gtmernlly afforded 
to ittrl* for tlie ruUlvatioii and Iralnlnft "1 Ihp rnnipiuiii: in>itinet> wlilrh 
are really a serious part of i-ducntion. for It i« by •mJi frtr exerejue of 
the whole body thnt llie neiirn iiiiiiu'iiliir «y«tHn. the ba-i* ol all vital 
netivity. is built up. Hie negUrl of «iicli nJiiciitiun U to-day elesrly 
viatble in the slruelure of our women. Dr. F. May Dlckinonn Berry, 
Medieal Kxamlner to tli« Teelinlral Edueallon Hoard of the I.nndnn 
County Couneil. found IBrilith MedienX Jmirnnl. May 34, 11)04* nmonK 
over ),SI>0 girlH, who rejiretent Ibe itower of the schools, since they had 
obtained (ohotarahlpa enahlliin llieni In iiroi'epd to hi);lier cradc iv|i<iol*. 
that 82 per eent. presented hoih'' de^rree, nut Htways pTDnuuneed. of 
lateral elirraliire of the spine, though »iieli en>ra were Tm' rare amonjc 
the boys, to the same way among a very '«iiuilHr clutM of svleet (prls 
a( Uie Chiea)[i> N'ormal .Srhnol. Mlu l.iirn Saiiliom {Dm-lort' .Vagnsinr, 
Dec., 1B00] found IT per eent. with apinal currature. in some cusea of 
a ftrj prouoiineei] ilepree. Tltere I* no n«aon why a nirl should not 
have oa atratght n back a.i a bny. and the cause enn only lie in the 
ileteetiiv muMular development uhieh wh* found !ti most ol the eaMa, 
*iim»tlnie>t aecnni|Mniei| hy nnafmla. Ilerp nml ihero nowaday*, nuionft 
the bi-ttrr wiriBl rlaui!!. there is ample proviiinn f«r the d<-velU[mient nt 

muaoular power In ([IrU, but in any tt^ni-mhrM wny then' i" no adequate 
opportunity (or sueh e.iprei>c. and nmonR the working clau. above 
alt, in the sretion of it whieh loueliea tlie lower middle rlasx. although 
iheir llvei are deatined to be fltleil with a constant strain on the neuro- 
mu«eular lyateni frtiro work at home or in shops, etc., there !« usually 
a mininiiiin of healthy exerciar and phyaical development. Dr. W. A, 


^ O'^ 



B. Sdtnua. of BAllimore ("Caiwo* of Painful M«ii»tn»tkMI in Cnoitr- 
rM Women,'* jlmmMiR Jotimal OhnH-trvs. Nov., 1907). tflipkMltM tb» 
■dniratil* FMult* obtainoil tij nitxli'iatt- pliynleal trxerclw fur roung 
womm, »Dd in training them Ui irarp fur tlii^ir bodici anil to mt their 
ncrviniH «yal4^in*, u'lill« Dr. Charlolt* Itrown. of Sua Frnncioro, Ti|[hUy In 
■(*ta on thr potahlinhmriit in all townn adiI rillnKCn uUkr of ouliloor gym-'' 
wwtie lUJiI* for n'omen und girln, and of a building, in co«uie<Tt!un wiili 
tntj larif Mlinol. for training In phrali^), mftnunl. and damMtfe 
•cicniw. Till! jiruvinion of upwinl [ilajgnmmls ii iiwt>5«iry wlicrr Ihe 
«(erci«lDg of f[lrl« in to nnfnmillar an to cniia^ nii embarraHsiiig arnuuut 
of attention from Ih* ojipOBilp m-\. though when it is »n iminomcuiBl 
rastotn it rail W rarrlni out oti Ih>' vJHhk^ grfi-n witliuiit atlntcting thx 
allghteit nttcntion. an I iiovp uppn in Spain, whore one cannot (ail tn 
ronnoct it with Ih" phynlcal vigor of Ihp wnnirn. In boys' soliciots gamM 
arc not only racnuragvd. but made compulsory-: Init lhi« is by no nirani 
a anivertal nitc in girld' whoola. It In not unvxsary. and 19 iudwd 
kighty iinilniiraMc, Uiat the gncnM adoptnl tihiiny \ie thoHi> of ho.VH. In 
Kn^iland •■•fHtially, wh»r« thv niovi-uicntn at uomrn Hr^ m often iiuirk»l 
Vy awkwnrdncu, nngulnrilr and lark of grarp. It is csspnlin] that noth- 
ing nhould Iw duui? to empliuaiw Ihew oliariu?l>>ri<tiif>. fur wlii-rr vi^^r 
iii\iihwa v(oIpnn> «<■ arc In thn prrM-ncn o( a lack of liili" nfuromjiwiilar 
poiirdimition. Swimming, wbrn pomihle, nnd pipm-iiilly mnie form* of 
dannng, are «dml»nhly ndaptrd to dnvrlnp the bodily movrmcnt* of 
womm both Tiftorauidy and harmoniously tarr, e.g., IlarpWk Rllti, .tfnn 
and WomOH. Ch, VII). At thr International Congre^ of School 
Hygiene in I90T (m*. e.y., BritUh Iftifjual Journal. Aug, 24. IflO") Dr, 
III H, (itilick. forniprly Dliwtor of Phyi-icnl Training in the Pubtio 
f;rhools of Xi-w York C^ily, stated tliat aflrr ninny rapprlmcntu It had 
b«m found in llic Snr York «lcinenlnry ami hi;fh ni-hooU thiil folk-danc- 
ing «on»titalf«l tht yt-ry l)p*t iTxcrelsp for girl«. "The •UnoH >iek*t«il 
involrcd many contrudionii of tli^ lurgv uiuxiilHr masim of the Ixkly and 
had llien^fore a great frfTiiet on respiration, rimilalion nnd nntrillon. 
SufJi movRmenta. mortovtr. when done aa danci-*, could be carried on 
thlM or lour llmM a* Iniig vithoiit producing fatigue a* formal g>ni- 
IMntio. ytany folk-diuic« were imitative, itou'ing nnd rmping danee, 
dnncva npmMing trude morement* (the fthnemalcr's danoe), others 
[llualmting attack and defenie. or the piimuit of game. Such neuro- 
muscular moi-ementa were nicialK' old and ltll«d In *ilh inan'H eiprea- 
■i«# life, nnd if it were accepted that the folk-dnnces rrnlty cxprn»m) 
UI epitome of man'i neiiromu senior history, as diitingiiislied from 
mere permutation of movements, the tulk-dnnce Mimbinntiou-i should lie 
preferred on (hew biological ground* to tho nnnelcctcd, or own thv 
phyaiologlcnlly selected. Prom the g»thetie pmnt of view the senw of 
Iieauty a* shown In ilnncing was far comnioner than the power to aing, 
pnint or iDodrl." 



It inuet always be reiuembi'red titut in realizing tbc e«p<.-cinl 
of woiiiairB naliiru, vre iKt not icimmit our»elv«H to the 
j^-'-Qiat hi^fliur i-ilui^Iion i» unfitted for a woman. Thtit 
({uestion may now be regarded ae ectlk-d. There i» therefore no 
tungvr any n^-i-d for the fff\'<'riiih anxiety of the early leaders of 

' feminine tdtication to prove that pirlfl can be educatod cxnf tly n* 
if they were boys, and yield nt k-ustt as goo<l educational results. 
At the preswit time, indeod, that anxiety is not only unnecesntiry 
but mischievous. It is now more necessary to show that women 
have i^pecial nmrds just as men havo specitil iii-chU, and Uial it in m 
bud for women, and therefore, for the world, to force thera to 

Fwcept the special laws and limitations of men as it would be bad 
for men, and therefore, for the world, to force men to acfcpt the 
cial laws and limitations of women. Each sex must seek to 
tlie goal by following the laws of it« own nnture, even 
although it remains desirable that, both in tlic school and in the 
world, they should work so far as possible siite by side. The great 

ifact to he rememhcreil nlway* in that, not only are women, in 
physics! itixe and pliysieal texture, alighter and finer Uian men. 
but that to an extent altogether unknown amonR men, their 
eentre of gravity is npt to be dcilecti-d by the scries of rhythmic 
sexual curves on which they are always living. They arn thus 
more delicately poised and any kind of sirens or strain — cerebral, 
IKTVOUR, or mu.sciilar — it more likely to produce kitihu*! diaturb- 

[jance and requires an accurate adjustment to their special needs. 

Tlie fact tlint it la atrca* and strain in gvnenl. Rnd not nrvcsiiarily 

Ktlonnl ktllilii^a. tlmt uTp Iniuiioiia to ndoleiirpnt wninrn, U *utl[- 
proved, if iirocf is DiM'i-Muit^*. by the fart lliut ntxiinl arrest, nnd 
^qwleal or twrvouo lirrakduwti. went uiili rvlrvme [i'i'<iii>-ii<'y in ^irls 
irtia work in ihopB or inill*. even in girli wlio hnvp ncrer iH-i-n to •chcxil 
at all. Even exeewuM In athktiea — nliic-li iinw imt infrequently ocrin a* 
a reaction n^iiut u-oman's indilTcrpiici- to |>h}-iienl pxeri-lse—nre bnd. 
Cyeling i* Iwnelieial for wmntm who enn ride without pain or diaconi- 
fart, and, Bcrnrd!t>K to Watkltis. it i» t\vn lieneflcinl in many dineiincd 
'and diwrdrriil prlvj<! eondition*. l)Ut cxcpMlve e^'cMiig i* n'il in itn 
rtmilla on women, more npefiall.v by indneing (igidity of tlio prrincnm 
to aa txteiit whieli mny t\m |irevetit cliililbiilh and nereiwilalc opi-rn- 
Hon. I tnajr add that the wine objection applies to mueh horae-rid- 

WTciidLoor OK 8KX. 

tng. In Ihc nam* way everjlhiiig »liieli uuiisfii shucks to llio 
U apt to b« dHiig«roii» to \iipnifn, tinea lii tlie womb tln-y 
a delicately poiacd orgmn which varies in weight at difTprcnt tinicn. und 
it would, for in*l«n(<«, W iiupoMibk to cotniiieutl fiMlbHil as u gaiar fur 
girls. "I <lo not tH>ti»'p," wrcitc Miu n, Bntlontini*. DiriH'tnr of Vaauir 
CAttcgc rivmiiauiiiii. to I'rof. W. Thoman ifre and Sorirly, p. 221 
"wuiuuD i-aii cicr. nu iiiittli>r ntint Iho trnltiini:. ii|)))r(Hii'h iiii>ii in tlivlr 
ph)'tlcB] achirvcnicnti : uiiil." nhr windy oddi, "I >iv no rruMin wliy 
th<7 Bhould." Thfrne ocvlii. iudpt'il. ii« Iiiis nlrviiily livi-ii iii(li('ut*'il. to be 
■VHtuiiH «liy tb'-y ishoiitd not, cpwinlly If llipy liiok foimird lo Uptohi- 
ins mothpr*. I hove tiolircd thut woni«n who have lived a very robui.1 
■nd atblelic outdoor lifr. m far from always having the i>asy confine- 
ments which wc mi)[ht anticipate, wniftimn* linv» vpty aorioualy difliriilt 
limn, imperilling tlie life of lli» cliild. l*ii making Ihia obwn'ation U> 
n ctl«tinfEiii»bvd otwt«trl<'lan. the Intn Dr. Kngetnuinii, hUo wna hu ardoiit 
advocate of pliyBieal rxenrise for women (in r.g. hit |) res i den tin I addren. 
'"The llcilth of llie American Girl," irnijr*(i((ioii* tinuthem «iiry»™( and 
Offimtologirnl Ai»oirialion, lltDO). be replied that he hud himu'lf made 
the Mime ohwn-ntinn, uiirl lliiit iimtiuctorK in phynical trurning. buth in 
America nnd Kngland, had alio told him of such case* among tlieir 
pupili. "1 bold," lit wiutc, "prwiwely tlie opinion you exprew [a» to 
the unfarorahle Inltuenee of iniuwular cli'i-elopment in wonienl. -llh- 
tn(W, (,r., overdone phyiii«iil training, rnunes the glrl'n nynteni tti 
approximate to the mnnciiline; thin in bo whether due lo "port or 
necesaity. Tlie woman who indulges in it appraxlniatex to the mate in 
her attributen; thi* U miirkei] in diminUhed >extiul intcn'ity, nnd in 
Inerrnvd didlpiilty of ehihlbirth. with, In time, iMneneii (cciindity. 
Healthy habils inipiuie. but mnwuline mtiiteular development diminiiihe*, 
womanly qiialitipa, ntthoiigh It i* true that the prnsnnt nnd the liilBiring 
woman hare easy labor. I have never ujvopatcd miiwiilar developnieul 
for girl*, only pbyalral tininlng. but bave perhapi inld too mucb for It 
and prained it too imgtiardedly. In nehooU und collefT". no far. how- 
mr. It U InMiniHcnt rather than too much; only the wealthy hare too 
much golf and nthlelie sport*. I nm rolleeling new mnteiiiil, but from 
what t already have i«cn I am trnpr^Tord wilb the truth of what }*ou 
■ay. I nm studying the jioint. and >linll rlaliomte the explanation." 
Any puhli<«tion oa thiv aubject wbh, liown-er. prerenln) by Kngelmnnn'a 
death a few yean later. 

A proper recognition of tite special nature of woman, of her 
peculiar nectlH and hor dignity, hnn a iii)^ul1canc<c bvynncl its 
importance in education and hypene. The traditions and train- 
ing to whidi she is tuttjecU'd in tliia matter liuvi' a subtle and 

().;)■,-■.:. c,,LA)l.)gl 



far-nsflching Biguilicfluve, ucccinlLag he Uk-jt arc good or evil. If 
die i» tuugtit, implicitly or cjtplicillj, coiiU'iiiiit for lim cliaracUr- 
istlca of ti«r own aes, she oaturallji' develops mascuJine ideaitt 
nbich may peniiancntly discolor lii-r visiim nt life mid distwt h«r 
jiracttca! activities; it hnit l)ev[i found Uiat da many ait fifty per 
cent, of American ftchool girU have mattculine ideals, wliile fifteen 
per «nt. Ajncrican and no fewer tlinn tliirty-four [Kt cent. 
Euglish Khool girln wislii-d to he mm, tliotigh *ciireidy auy boys 
visited to be women. > With the *ame tendency may be con- 
nected tbat neglect to cidlivate the emotions, which, by a 
miAchieTougly oxtrnvagaiit but inevitable reaction from the 
opposite extreme, has eomelinies marked the modem training of 
women. In the finely dc^■clopcd winnan, intellignicc i* inter- 
penetrated with emotion. 11' there U an esaggeratod and 
iKilnted culture of intelligence a tendency tihowe itwif to dla> 
Itarinouy which brcakrs up the chnriicter or impairs its eomplete- 
neiis. In thiti connection Jteibiuayr has remarked that the 
American woman may serve as a warning.^ Within the emo- 
tional njiherc itself, it may be added, Ihcri! is a tendency to 
disharmony in women owing to the contradictory nature of the 
feelings whicli are truditionolly impri'^ed upon her, a contra- 
diction whicli dates back indeed to the identification of siacred- 
nese and impurity at the dawn of civilization. ''Evcri- girl and 
tromui,'* wrote Hetlmann, in a pioneering book which pushed a 
sound principle to eccentric extremes, "is taught to regard her 
H-xual parts os a precious sud sacrc<l spot, only to be H))proacii«d 
by a hui^Mnd or in s))ecia) circumHtancea a doctor. She is, at 
the same time, taught to regard this spot as a kind of wnter-elosct 
vhich fllie ought to be extremely UNliaiiied to possess, and the mere 
meotiMl of which shouM cause a painful blufih."^ The average 

I W. C Clianibers. "'rii* Kvwlution ot lUwnls." Ptdagogkal Hfmi- 
nary, Marrli, 1903: rmhcrlnp Dmld, "Schoot rhllitrcii'a Tdrnl*," Vn- 
fiOMl Bericw, Yrh. and Dr'.. inoo. *nd .tunc. 1001. No GiTraiin girN 
MlnH>w1e<If[nl a iriih In lie mcMi; thfj said It uxtiild b" wkked- Amnng 
Tleubh girl", hcnvpver. Varendonck found nt Ghnnt (Arrhlrai de Ptg- 
rkotofif. July. ]pft>t) that 2(1 ptr wnt. had m^n as thvir Mt-atn. 

»A. KeibiDHyr. Dir Enliehklutifftgfch'fihte dr» TaUnlen und (hnf**. 
IflOS. Bd. I. p. TO. 

IR. Uelluumn. Veber OeaehltfAI*freihfU, p. I*. 




uiitliinking womaD nccvpls tliir imongruity of tliis opposition 
without <)uoslioii. iiinl growft accueloiued to adnpt tii'Tcelf lo each 
of thf ini-ompntilili-* flceoi-ding io cirfumsUtncoe. Tlie more 
tlioiightful woman nnrkB out a private tliixiry of licr own. But 
in very many cnees this mi^cliii'voui' opposition cxort* a aubtly 
piTvorttiig jriJlucni'u on the whole outlook towards Nature and 
life. In a few caHW, also, in women of jiensitive temjierflnipnt, it 
even undemiineB and ruins the pm-hic ])crHona1ity. 

Thus BorU Hiilis Iiar nwonlrd a tnw IIIu*tratiiiK the HlMistroiM 
mnilti of inculcating on n morbitllr >cn>itivc girl thp dootrine of the 
impurity of wotni-n. She was oihiciitiil In a convent. "WliHn tli»rc iihp 
«'nii Imprrumi urilli thr iHillpf thnt tvoninn is a vcsa^l of r'm and 
inipiiTit}'. 'HiiH TiLTrnpil to liiivc bvvn iinliucd in lier bj' tiiii; of the nun* 
wlio wiu verv Ui'l.v :tiiil prActicetl •ii'lf-niiitlilli'Hlioii. With tlii* otiiu'I of 
li»r |H-riodi>, mill witli the olinprvntion of the Bninc in the oilier girls, 
thU doctriiir of (Rniiile Impurltj van nil tlir stiviiiger ini|irp»ixl on her 
ni-naitiv^ nLind." It Inpnecl. Iiowner. from conseioiia memory nnil only 
tuiiiie lo the tore^^ouiid in Huhfluqurnt }rar« n'ith the cxh mint ion nnd 
fttigue of prolonKPtl otDm work. Tlii>n ohc mnrrlrd. Have '**he lino nn 
(strtm* •bliorr^'nce of noinen. Womnn. to thn patieiit. ia impurity. 
Alth, the V(Tjr Incarnation of degradation nnd vice. Tli^ lioiiw wnili 
must not be given to n Iuun<li7 vihr.Tr n-ooien work. Kotliintt mu«t bo 
picked lip In Ibe Htreel, uul eveti the incut vnliDible objpet, pri'bnntw 
ini([lit liBve been drojipi-d by a womnn" (Boris Sidin. "Sludien In 
(•rhopnthology," Boslan Mntir-al (iiiil fitrgicat Journal. April 4. 11107). 
Thnt i» thf loitipnl onlenrn? of iiiucb of the trnditioniil teitehiriit which 
la givMi to girl*. Fortunatrly, the liPiiltliy mind olTer* a nnlurnl resiot- 
iince to it« eomplotr Bccaptni Ion, ytX It iminlly, In tomo i»v^' poni>t« 
■nd n«-ta a misehievoua inlluvnre. 

It is, however, not only in her relations to herself and to 
hrr tax that a girl's thou^hte and feulingB tt-iid to be distorted 
by the ignorance or the faltw traditionn hy which shu \» so often 
carefully surrounded. Her happiness in marrinp;e, her wholo 
fatnn.' career, ie put in peril. The innocent young woman must 
always risk much in entering ibc door of indissoluble marriage: 
nho knows nothing truly of her husband, she knowe nothing of the 
great laws of love, she knows notliing of her own possihilities, and, 
worse etill, she ia even ignorant of her ignorance. She nins the 
risk of losing the game while riie is still only beginning to learn 

l)y /.-•:! i>y 



To 8om« extent Uint is <iuiU- iiii'vltuble it ve arc to imtist that 
H mmiftD Mhouli) bliitl herself to marry a mau bi'foie she lias 
experiencod the nature of the furees tluit marriage may unloose in 
licr. A yoiing girl bclievi* ifhii jiu^wtweit ii cerlniii diarui^ter ; she 
Arranges her future iti accaniaiu^o with that character; Bhe 
marries. Tlien, in a couBiderable projjortion of cases ( five out of 

I MX, according to the novelist Htmrgd). willtiii u _vo«r or vwn a 
w««k, she fintl* fhe vm completi'Iy mistaken in lierscif and in thc 
man she haa married; she discovers within her another self, and 
that self detwts the man U) wlioni *hf is l"i\ind. That is a 
poaBible fate a^fainst which only tin; woman who haa alrnidy been 
aroused to love is entitled to regard herself as fairly protected. 

There \», however, u certain kind of protection which it is 
poseible to afford the bride, even without departing from our 
most conventional conceptions of marriage. Vte can at least 
iiuiist that slic shall be accurately informed ait to the exact 
nature of her physical relations to her future Imsband and be 
safeguarded from the ehocki) or llic (ii:<il [unions which marriage 
might otherwise bring. XotwitJictamiing tlie decay of preju- 
dices, it is probable that even to-day the majority of women 
of the KKcalled educated elai>8 marry witii only the vaguest and 
most inaccurate notions, picked up more or less elandeatinely, 
concerning the nature of the sexual relationships. So highly 
intelligent a woman as Madauje .Adam has «tnted tliat she 
bdieved herself bound to marry a man who had kissed her on 
the mouth, imagining titut to be the su|}retnc act nf sexual union,* 
and it has fre<|uently happened tliat women have married 

I Kxually inverted jiersnns of their own sex, not always knowingly, 
but believing them to be men, and never discovering their 
mistake; it U not long iiidcctl wince in America three women were 
thus successively married to the same woman, none of them 
apparently ever finding out the real sex of the "hushand." "The 
civiliEed girt," as Kdward Carpenter remarks, "is led to the 

• TWt MM weias rni|u«nt amonft vuung girl* in ConUnrnUl 
Entopp. It furmn the nubject nf ono «f Slnrcvl Pr«vaat'i> l^tlrt* da 
/'cmmra. In Au»tritt, according to KiGUd, it in not uncommon, exelu- 
Kvr\j nmoeg icirU. 




'altar' often in utternioet Igamancc uuil iiiii^uudcrsUndillg of the 
Mcrificisl rites about to W uoiitumiiiateii." Certainly more 
rapes have bccii eflectci] io ninrriAgr Uiau out«ide it' The girl 
is full of vagtii- ami nminntic faith in the promises of love, often 
licightciiifl b}' till.- (>cfltn9iHii tl«piotcd in sentimental novels from 
which every touch of wholesome reality lias been curofuHy 
omitted. "All the candor of fuitli ie there," aif Si'nancour puts 
it in hig book De I'Amour, "tlic di»irM of inwjwrienci.', the needs 
of a new life, the ho])ci* of an upright heart. She baa all the 
faculties of love, phe must love; slie has all tlie moans of 
pteoturf, die mii«t lie loved. Eron,'thing vj;pro«iiu?H love and 
demands love: thi»i hand fnniied for iiweet careeaea, an eve whose 
resources are unknown if it must not sav that it consent* to be 
loved, a bommi which is motionh'«» and iisclens without love, and 
will fade without having been worshipped; these feelmgs that 
are so vast. *o Idider, so voluptuous, the ambition of tb* heart, 
the heroism of passion! She need* must folluw the delicious 
nilo whidi tJie law of tlie world has dictated. That intoxicating 
part, which she knowii *i wi-11, wluth everything rei'iill*. which the 
day inspires and the night eominand^, what }*oung. sensitive, 
loving woman can imagine that she shall not play it?" But 
when the actual drama of love begins to unroll before her. and tihe 
realizes the tnie nature of the "intoxicating part" slie haa to play, 
then, it has often happened, the ca<M is altered; she finds herself 
altogether unprepared, and is nvrreome with terror and alarm. 
All the felicity of her married life may then liang on u few 
clumces, her husband's skill and consideration, her own ])resenca 
of mind. Hir«bfeW records the case of an innocent young girl 
of wvent^cn^ — in this caae. it evt-ntuiilly proved, nn invert — who 
was persuader) to niai-ry but on discovering what marriage meant 
eooi^tically rc^iited her husband's sexual npprnaehes. He 

1 Yet, nmoiding to Engliih Iaw, rnpe in a vrinie wliioh it ia inipoa- 
sible for a hURUaiid lo cnuiiiiit on hin u'i(« (*ee. r.<r., Nfvjil Gvarv. TS' 
Late 9f Uarriage, Cli. XV, Sect. Vi. Ttin pprformnm-p of the maiTiOigr 
wrfinon^. however. *rtn it it neeesmrll,v Invnlved k dmr p:Tp1iinatlon of 
niariliil privilvRpn. rannot Iw rcgnrdMl ni odequaU jiutiflcnlioa for an 
not of iieiual InlriYoiuiie jicrfoTmni nitli violence or wlilioiil ih* wife'* 




ftppeBled to Iier moUivr lu (,'xplaJii tu Iivr dnugliUrr tlic iiuUire of 
"•rifely tluti^a." But tin; voiiiig wife lYfpliwl to her motlier's 
exjrastulations, 'if tliot ia my wififiy duty tln-D it wiw your 
poreotol duty to liuvo tuld me bcron-hutul, for, if I liud known, I 
should nevor lisvo ninrnod." Tlii; liushnnd in this case, much in 
love with his wife, aoiislit for eipht yiare to i>V(T-|)crKiindt; h?r, 
but in vnin, and u a'poi'iittoo linnlly li>ok iibce.i That, no 
doubt, is irn extreme case, hut how many innocnnt young iiiviTtotl 
girU never realize Dieir true uHtiire iiutil uftLT inarriiigi!, and 
liow many perfyrlly normal girltt arc tm iih<>i-ki-d by Uic too 
sudden initiation of marriage tlint their beautiful early dreanu of 
love never dovt-iop slowly and ivlioKi' into the ucp^ptnnce 
of ita atill more beautiful realities? 

Before the age of puberty it would Heem that the sexual 
initiation uf th« child — Apart fmiii vueh eeicntiiic information m 
would form part of aehool coursea in botany and zoologj- — should 
be th« exclusive privilege of the mother, or whomevLT it may be to 
vhom the mother's duties are delegated. At puberty more 
auUicritative and precise advice is desirable than the mother may 
be able or willing to give. It is nt this age timt she should put 
into her (ton's or daughter's hands wniie on<r or other of the very 
nmnerous manuals to which reference has already l)een made 
(pagu 53). cxpoiiniltiig the ptiy»inil ami moral aspecU of the 
sexual life ami Ihe principles of sexual hygipne. The boy or 
girt b slrcudy. we nmy take it, acquainted with the fact« of 
motfaerhood, ami thi' origin of babies, m well as, more or less 
precisely, with the futiicr's part in their procreation. Whatever 
manual is now placed iii hit* or her hands lihould at least deal 

I Jlirarlildld. Jaltrbuck fur ItfTurllr Xwi»rli'tiiiliilrH. 1003. p. 8S. 
It niB^ hr Hildrd iliat a liorror of cuilus ii not nMnnnrily due ta bad 
rdiipatton. «nJ may a)«o ocniT in liprnlllarily dc^iicralc wumpn. whone 
ancmtuis hnvr ■liown nimilnr or iitlird mental pcctilinrilip*. A cnne of 
•ucli "fiini-l lonal impoti-iin'" Tim \ivrn t'-jKirtiil ia ■ yuunK Ilalinn wife 
of liT*ntyon*. "Iio n-m olhrrB-i»r Imnlthy, «n<l ■trotigly attafln-ij lo )ior 
hu»li«inl, Tli«> iTiHrrin^i- wsn annulkil on tlw Rniuiiil thnt "mdimmtary 
•fxiial or vmotional pBrnnoU, wliidi ri'iiijir* a wife Invincibly r*(rar1or}' 
to Hixnal iinlon, nntuillittninting tlir inlr^itr of the npxnal orfpini. von- 
■titulcH ncjehie fuDFtlonal Imnot^nre" tArchivic ii Pttehialrta, 1000. 
teiw. rl. p. MM1 . 



siiininiirily, l>ii) (k>tiniti1y. with tlic sexual relationship, and 
jiliniild nUo CMtiiiiient, uariiiiijElv Itiit in no itt;inrii#t ;<|iiril. with 
tlie chief auto-erolic plicnomeiiu, and by no means fvclusivdjr 
with muntMrliiitiou. Nolliing but good cun i-rnnc of tli« use ofi 
nnrh a manual, if it haa hci^n wii>tly tiolected; it will tuippiant 
wliut the motJKT liaH already donu. what the Icuohcr may i^till be 
doinfC, and whut hiU-r may he doni! hy privatv intervtt-w uith a 
doctor. It hac indeed been arpued that the hoy or Rirl to whom 
iiuch lit«rahire is pn-wntcd will merely make it an opportunity 
for morbid r«vi-lry and sensual enjoyment. It eiin well be 
believed that this may soniitinies happen with boys or girls from 
whom all sexual fact* have nlwayti hei-n niyateriously veiled, and 
that when at last iliey iimi the opportunity of gratifying their 
long- re pressed and jierfcctly natural eiirioifity they are overcome 
hy the excitement of the e^-ent. It eould not happen to children 
vho have been naturally and wholiitomely brou]{ht up. At a 
later age, during adol<«['ence, thfre i» doubtlemt groat advantage 
in the plan, now frequently adopted. f>?pecially in Oermany, of 
giving lectures, nddrc«M«, or (luiet talko to young people of each 
»ex »i>parntvly. The apeaker is usually a apec^ially wcloetcd 
teacher, a doctor or other qitalilied person who may he brought 
in for thii special purpose. 

^1*01(7 Kail, afUr rciiiiitTking ttiat iwxtint i^umilon ulioiild ]» 
ohi#Ity from (nlliirn to «oti« nml fiom iiiiithi>r» In iIi»ii)[1i1it». udds: "It 
iniiy l'i> tlint in llir future' Ilits kind of iniliutJon will nitain lierome an 
■rt. and i-xiwitu will li<l] iia iillli m"ri> miiiiili>iice hciw to Jo our duty 
In tlip iitanifoUl Rvi|{i'nFivi'. types nnd Btaftri. ol yniilli, niiil Iniilt^ail of 
fMling budli^il atiil ilrfi-iitrd. We kIisII btc tlikl llil>i ngr iind Uifinc in the 
■iiprfine opi'iiinn fur the liigliofit pi'iliigogj- in do tin bf"-*! nnd mii«t tran»- 
Jonniag work, as wi-ll as living the f^fatvt of nil opporliinitii^H for Uie 
tM«ll*r of rrHgioii'" iSlitnley Hnll, Adi>lc*fiK*. vol. i. p. 4ilni. "At 
Wlllinmi Colkgr. IlarrnTd. .tolins Itopkia* iind Clark," tlie Mtii* diitln- 
piiibpd t«aeliVT olmprtf!! lib., p. 4(1.11. "I linvp iDHileil n duty tii luy 
ilcpartmmtnl trnieliiiig In apenk \fty briefly, but plainly to young mtn 
under my initruction. pptiwnnlly if I decmud it nim-. Hnd often, though 
here only In pneral t*nns. Iwfore studwot bodies, nnd I belin-c 1 liavc 
novtli^rr done mori? gooH. hut it i* a painful duty. It m|tiirp3 tiU'l an<I 
(omr di-iTTiv <if linrd nnd itivnuoiis nmimon ■cnif rather than tn'hnicnl 

IJ ,j - ,-r-3 C/y 



[t U H-unvIy iiiiTiMit}^ to Miy thul (liv onlinuiy U-nc-lii-r of vitfafr 
avx in (|iiit^ lTi('iiii>iHftiMil (•> •jH'iik uf >i«\uiil liygiPDi-. It in n lA*k to 
ulijch ul[, or (omc, ipachm miiiit be truinc<l. A l>i-giiiniiig in thia 
dirrctiuu hu* lir«n iniiijp in Gi-riuun}' by tin- ilvtivcry to teachers ot 
miirufi or Wnim on ocxiinl liVKii'np Jii tMliicntion. In PriLwia the Ant 
ullcRipt urB.i niuil<^ in Iltriluu u'hi-ii tin? (.'ontral school nutlioritivs 
ruiui^itwl Dr. Miirliii Cholwii to ili'livt'r »iicli ;> coiirw to one liimdred 
and fifty tcochern who took llin grcnli^t inter«t in Uir IpeturcB, wliicTi 
covrni tli« ACKtoniy of tli* ii^xaal oriWH*, tin- ilnvMopniPiit of IT"" »xiinl 
Instinct. lt« chief prrvprnionM, renerprtl diirnpiei. and t!ir importJilici' of 
Ihi! rlltti ration of Hvlf •control. In ftfarhlrchl nnd (Imellechaft < Bd. i. 

n^ft T I Dr. Pritx Rciithcr (jivcs the mbi^lnncc of lecturex which he has 
(Irlivervd to a claM ot younj,- t<^rtclivrii: they vovit much the suniB gronnd 
nil Chatxm'*. 

Tlicnr in no eridcnrc that iu Eiij^ltind iiiv Miiiistifr of E4uciiliun 
hu jrt taken any hlcjit to tnmire thf dnlii'ciy of lertiirci on seKiml 
bjglme to the pupitx who are ubout tu IcHve kIiooI. In PruxsiH, huw' 
•Tvr, the Miniitry of Kdiication ha* taken nn active interest in this 
matteri and lueli Iwrlurei nrc bcj^inning to Iw coininou!}' (Iclivi>red, tliougti 
•tiMiilancf at them in not nonally ob1i)()itor7. Some year* n|{o (in 
IflOOl. wh(-n it win pro|iOMd to di'lii-'r a wriw of Iwlurw on »e!(ual 
hygiene to the advanced puplin in Berlin ichool*. under the niupicna o( 
* iKK-it^ty tor tlit^ iinprovpnii-nt of inornlH. the niuncipal nulliOTiliea wIIIj- 
drew their permiininn to iims the einurnom*, on the ([roiind that "tineh 
Iwtiiri^n ivoiild hi" ONtri-nnfly dungi-roiit to the iriunil dfiinc of an audicucc 
of the j-Dung." The »nme objection h»« Ihhti made by municipal ntllciaU 
in Prance. In Gerinimy. lit nil crcini. howrvcr. opinion in rapidly grow- 
ing more ejiliRhtenfil, In Rngland HUIp or no progreuft ha* yet been 
niadc. but in America ilcpn arc Inking taken in thit direetioii. as by the 
ilitcngii Soi'icly for Siicial 1l}Ki>'"f- It must, indeed, W wid that tlioon 
who oppose the icxuttl en lighten in ent ot yuiitli in largi- cities arc directly 
allyinti: IhemwlvM, wh»th«r or nut tlicy know i(, with the iiiUnnnTOs that 
make for rice and immorality. 

Such lectures are nlnu ([ivrn ti> girl« on leaving xchon], not only f(lrla 
ot the ii#tt-tu-do, but mIho tii<He of the jioor elnas. who need them fully b« 
mull, and In aome mpeeti more. Tliiu Dr. .\. Ili<idenliain bin pub' 
li»hed a lecture ^Brx'urllr Brlrhmnfi drr am dm VoUamehulr r-ntlasupntn 
ilfatlcft^n, inOTI, i»<-«>Bii)«iiicd by unntomical tablpi, which he ha* dcHV' 
pred to girl* about to Irarn nchnol, and which ia Intended to be put into 
Uieir liands at thia time. Salval. in a L}-ou>i tlie^is I/.0 Bfpopulation 
dt t« France. 19031 , Inaiat* that the liyRienc of jiregnancy and the care ■ 
rf infamla •hoiild lomi |inrl of the suhjecl of nucli lei'ture*. Tliemi aiilj. 
j««t« might well be left, liowifvcr, to a »omrwh«t later period. 




HaiiifUitng is clearly ucedeil leyoud Iwturi^ uii tiitm 
uiatt«re. It sliould be llie busioew of tliv {mrciit^ or other 
guarilimiB tit evci'v lulnli'sn-lll ,VOUtll iinil girl to arrange ttul, 
once nt lea^t nt thiii jicnocl o{ life, there should be a private, 
personal interview wilh a medical man to affonl on i)]i])(irtuDity 
for H rritnilly and cfinlitUntiid talk i-onwming tlu- main point* 
of (cx\inl liygicnc. TUf family doctor would be the best for thi* 
duty becnuse lit- would lie familiar with the personal temperament 
of the youth aod the family tt'iiikiK-ics.' In the fa*o of girl* a 
woman doctor woiihl oftfn he preferred. Sex i« properly a 
mystery : and to the unsjioilt youth, it is instinctively so; exeept 
in nil alwtriitt and teclmical fnnn it cannot proixtrly form the 
sni)jeet of h'cturcj). In u private uni) individualized eonver»ation 
between the novice in life and the expert, it is possible to say 
many ncccseary tiuu);)> that could not be said in public, and it if) 
possible, moreover, for the youth to nsV 4]iicittion3 which Bhyness 
and rcwrve make it imjio^ible to put to parents, while the con- 
venient oiijHii-l unity of putting them naturally to the expert 
otherwise neldoni or never oceiira. Moet youths have their own 
special ignorances, their own special difBcultiea, difficulties and 
ignorances that entdd sometimes be ri'solved hy a word. Yet it 
by no means infrctjucntly happens tliat tliey carry them far on 
into adult life because they have lacked the opportunity, or tlw 
skill and fliniurnnee to create the op|)ortiinity, of obtaining 

It mnnt be clearly understood that theee talks are of medical, 
hygienic, and pliN-Kiologieal ehuraeter; tlioy are nol to !»> ui.i'd 
for retailing moral platitudes. To make them that would be a 
fatal mistake. The yonng iire often very bontile to nwrely con- 
ventional moral maxims, and suspect their hollownesw, not 
always without reason. The end to he aimed at here is enlighten- 

I Tli« ranonablmoHH of Itiii iit»p ia m obvioua lliut it iliould 
•orwly nnA iimi'tt-nvt. "Tlif limtriictlon at MhftollKi.v* and siUool- 
girl* ia nioit adoquntplv elT«W by nii i-lUi-rljr dortur." N'llcke rpiiiurk*. 
"gM>nwttniH perliit|)a the Mliaol'(l(>cti>T," "1 •ironxly iiili'<vnte." says 
Clouaton ITIie Hugiette 9f Kind, p. 240). "that Ihc^ fnmily itwlor. guit)«l 
bv the parrmt ntid ibe tweh^r, U by far lli« beit iasiTiictor nod monitor," 
Moll ii of th« MiQ« opinion. 

IJ, J -, -.■•:! iy 



niiGllt- Certainly knowlinlge can never he immoral, but notliing in 
gained by jumbling up knowlefige and moralitj- togrtlior. 

In emphasizing the natuiv of the phyaician'R ta»k in this 
matter at) purely and Himply that of wise practical enlislitcnmi-nt. 
uotliing is implied ogainKt the udvautftgiv, und itidei'd 1)il- 
imnieiuc raluc in acxual hygiene, of the moral, rcligioua, ideal 
elemenla of life. It is not the primary busiue§« of the pbysieiun 
to inspire theee, but tli(ry have a very intimate ri'lution with liu- 
texual life, and every boy and girl at puberty, and never before 
puberty, should be granted the privitepe — and nnt Ihe duly or 
the ta#k — of initiation into tlioac i'l(iiK-nt« of the world's life 
wbidi are, at tlie same time, natural functions of the adolescent 
aoul. Here, howCTcr, is the sphere of tlie religious or ctbieal 
teacher. At puberty lii; hu» his great opiiorlunity, the greatest 
lie can ever obtain. The flower of sex that blosiKimi' in the body 
at jiulwrty has lU spiritual counterpart which at the same 
moment blossoms in the soul. The churches from of old have 
rccc^iized the religious Eignifieance of this moment, for it is this 
period of life that they have ujipoirted as the time of conflnn- 
■tion and simitar rites- With tiie progress of the agee, it is true, 
TOCh rite* become merely formal and ap]iarentiy nieauingless 
fossils. Bat they have a meaning nevertliele«s, and are capable 
of buiog again vit)i1i;tc<l. \or in their spirit and essence diould 
they be conAned to thoae who accept supematurally revealed 
rdigioD. They concern uU ethical teachers, who must realixe 
that it it at puberty that they arc called upon to inspire or to 
forti^ the great ideal aapirationa wbicb at this period tend 
•paotaneously to ariso in the youth's or maiden's wild.' 

The age of puberty, I have said, marks tl)e period ut which 
this new kind of sexual initiation is called for. llefore puberty, 
altliou^h the pitycbic emotion of love frei}uently devclopa, as well 
as somotinu-s physical M-xual emotions tlitit lur mostly vague 
and diiTused. definite and localised sexual sensations are rare. 
For tbe noniml \in\ or girl love is usually tin unspecialiied 
em<*lion: it ie in (iuvau's words "a state in wbiili the bwlv hti" 

> I liar* farther devi^lopvd tlih ariiumpul in "R«ligioii nnd thr 
t'liililt" Xitiettmlh Ctnlurg aiut Afirr, 1967. 

, Lhxv^Ic 




iiut tbe Bmalleet place/' Al llus 6nt ruing of tlw sun of sex U)«| 
boy or girl sees, t» Blnke said be mw «t suiirittc, itot s round 
yellow body enierKiog ebme the horizon, or any other physical 
manifntntioTi, but a great <-ompany of singiug angels. With. 
the deilnitc eruption of plivAiral Acxunl uiDnife^tatton niid desire, 
whether at puberty or later in adolesfcence, a tKw turbulent dis- 
turbing inHiu-iKf iipi>i'»rH. Agninst llu; fon-v of tldn ioflucoce^, 
mere intellectusl enliglitemiient, or even loving niatema) oounsd' 
— tlw agencies we have »o far be<-n concerned with — may be 
jmwerleiiE. lu gaining I'ontrol of it we iniixt find our auxiliary, 
in the fact that puberty is tl>e efflorescence not only of a new 
physical but a new psychic- force. The ideal world naturally 
Dnfo)<[g> itself to (he boy or girl at puberty. The magic of 
beauty, the iostinc-t of modesty, tbe nnturalnees of self-restraint, 
the ides of unselfl^h Im'e, tlie meaning of duty, tbe feeling for 
art and poetry, the craving for religioui conceptions and 
emotions — all these things uwuke ipontawijusly in llio unspoiled 
boy or girl at puberty. I say "unspoiled," for if these tbJnglJ 
have been thrust on the child before puberty when they hare I 
yet no meaning for him — as is unfortunately fur Uw often doDe^ 
nioro especially ii« regards religious notions — then tt is but too 
iikelr that he will fail to react pro{>erly at that moment of his 
development when he would otlicrwiw natiirully r<*pond to them, 
Vnder natural conditionn this is the period for spiritual 
initiation. Xow, and not before, ti> the time for the religious or 
ethical teacher as the c»*t: may be— for all religions and ethical 
^^ema may equally adapt themselves to this task — to take the 
hoy or girl in hand, not with any cjuvial and obtrusive reference 
to the si'jcual impulsei but for the purpose of assisting the 
development and manifestation of this p«ychic puberty, of 
indirectly aiding the young sinil to escape from K\ual dangers 
by liamcs-itng hi^i chariot to a fitar that may help to sav« it bom 
•ticking fast in any miry nita of the fl««h. 

Sih'h nn initiation, it l* ini)M>rtant to remark, is more than 
an introduction to the sphere of religious sentiment. It is ail 
initiation Ento manhood, it must involve a recognition of tbe 
masculine cwa more than of the feminine virtues. This baa 




'^'Jtten wi'll underetvod lij- 1)r- liucHt primitivf* racm. They con- 
"mnUy give tlieir boys and girla an iaitiatuiii ut puliert.v ; it la 
an initiulioQ ihut involves not merely educution in tlie urdinitry 
teatv, liul II )iti.'rn diiiciplinc of tlie l-Iiii meter, leals of Dnduranco, 
the trial of character, tlm testing of tliu unwclct of llie soul as 
much as of tlie bodv, 

CeivmonleK of Inirinlinn inU luanliood it puberty — involvln); 
phj'iical and mental Otscii'linc. ai nvll ni ln>tniriioii, la^lin^ fur wi.-vk'i 
or iiiQiitli*. and iipvfr iitcntiiMit for botli ecxi-a— art ivunmon among 
iHvafpH in all piirbi of tlir world. Tlicj- nearly nlwayv involve tlie 
oidunnce of a cortuiii mnouiil of pain and hiirdnlilp, a nitv iiintouri; 
o( IralnlntC vliivli thn tioftnM> of civllixation haa too fontiilily allowci] 
to drop, for thi! ability to endiin- liurdnt-vi U nn rsiirntial condition of 
all rnnl manhood. Il l> ai a portpnilvi- tn Hum ti-ii'li-ncy to fliibbincmt 
in iiiadi>rD cilucutToii lliul the ti>Hcliiiif; of Xietiai'lic \a *.) Invahinbte. 

T)iv initiation of iimntig Lhi- tiiitivi-^ of Torrex Btruits has 
hetn rlaliorali'ly dmcHlii-d by A. C. Unddnn i ll'pwis Anthrvpalugirul 
KxptdilioH to Torrn Utrailt, vol. v. ('lit. VTI nnd Xlll, II Inatn D 
month. Invoti'H miipli ■irvrrn trainlnK and [mwrr of podurnnco. and 
iocludea adiiiirable raorot inilrurtion. lladdon rpiuark* thot it forainl 
"a vtty good dlioipMne." nnd add«. "it !« not M»y In MUFi>lve of a norp 
effectual tiiran* for a nipld ttaiiiinK." 

Among t)i« iibiirijpnra of Victoria. Auslmlia. tli0 initiatory cere* 
monlts, OB dnwriti^d by R. If. MatWwii ("•Sonif Initiation i>rnnionle»." 
ZrilKtitift fur EfhnuJogU'., IHOo. Ili-ft 0). Iiint for (H'veii montbii. and con- 
*titute an adrnlrabl* dl«cipliiic. Tlie iKiy* ntv liik»ii anny by the sldfr- 
of (he tribe, aiibjefted to inony ttialu of pntirniv and i-nditrnncp o( pain 
and itt<'>auitort, nonn^iimri inrolving vvtn iiiv snnllowing of urine and 
ncmnvnt. brouf(bt into contact with utrangr Iribcii. taiiKbt tlie law* 
and follc-tore. and nt tlu- «nd incvlin^ art lirld nt whii'li brtrotliaU are 

AraoDf! the nortliern lribc!i of Centml AuMralla th« Initiation 
<vmnoal«« invnlvi- eirciinii-l<.ioii and urrihrnt unbinciiiion. ai wdl a^ 
hard manual labor nnd hardiliipf. The initiation of girU into woman- 
hood ia aprt)m|inni?d by ciilting oi.*n of tlii> vagina. Thrne ppremoniM 
havs bwtn dPwril>«l by Spcnrpr niid (iill™ |Vor(h«-ii Tri6« nf Cmtral 
Aualr^Ua. Ch. XH. Among vurimn [wviplc* in Rcltlub Kn»t Afrien 
(liieUiiltnic llie Vfaiml) ptiborlal inltialinn U a ftrrat eervmunial pvpnt 
nctendine over a period of mniiy montbn, and it include* clrcumeltion 
In Inly*, and in pirli eli(ovidi'*(oiny, o" well a«. among boihb tribe», 
removal of tlie nympliir. .\ jrirl who iviinren or pries out diirina the 
operation la disgraced anion^ the women and pxpetled from the aetlle- 



mtnt. Whm the ceremony ha* het^ latU factor ilj" «)m{>l«tril tlip boy or 
^rl is m»rriiig«aibl<.' |('. M>ii'>li Iti<ni1iirlt. "('ircuniciHiuu iiiitl CliloH' 
dtctOTiiy HI PmctWil bv tW Nnlivt'H >if llrltUh Enat Alricn," HritMi 
Uedt^al Jtixirnal, April 20, 10051. 

Iriilliitioii niiioiiji; the Afrirnn Ilawpniln, ila (lorrllx'il by n mla- 
•ilnniiry, in in Ihtpe Nlat^it: (It A ttngf ul iiintniclion ami discipline 
Uiiriitg nliii'li Ilic trn'1itlun>> iiml hiirrcd thtii|pi of tlic tiibc nrv rrvralpil. 
thn art of wnrfare liiiiglil, nrlfreMruint iiiid rniluruiivt burno; Uien thv 
}roulh* are counled n* Iiill>|[rc)\vn. (2| In tlie n*xt Rtage tli« nrt of 
lUtK'iuit t" pinotioi-il. liy itacli h-x M-pnrnU-ly. during l)ii> Auy. (3) In 
till- flnul Mngp. "liiiii in lliiil of oumplcti* w.xiiiil iiiitiution. the two 
BMM dHiiw lojii-lWr Itv iiijilit; llii- "wtnc, In iW i>iiiiiioii til tli" jfood 
mimionnry. "dnen nut Iviit di-iHTiiilion;" the itiilinted nre now eomplet« 
■dultB, will) all the [iriti1i-^-« and ret|><>iiiiitiililic4 uf udullit {Rev, K. 
tionsehliiiif, "Tlie Bawendn." .launutl .lnrAinpofn^ir'a/ Initilulioti, July 
to ])ep., IB06. p, 372. Cf., nn iiiteri'iling u<>rounl of tlie Itaweiidd Tondo 
tcliiwU by niKitliiT niiHi'lunnry. Wcaamnnn. Thr Itniri'nda, pji, 110 el leq.). 

The- Initiation of Kill* in AzimUi Ijind. CentrnI Africa, hai been 
fully und int*-rrHtiti)|;ly dewrib^d by H. Crairfurd Antfus ("Tli? 'Chen- 
■umwali* nr Inltintion Ceremony of GliU." Xrittrhrifl fiir Krhif)liii)ir, 
1W9S. Heft 6). At tile tint »\gn of metistriinliun th" gitl i* tnken bj- 
lier motlier out of the Tiltnfte In n )[■*'"' '>"'- prepnrrd for linr where 
only Llir women an' nllown) In viait her. At the end al menntruiition 
Hhe i» taken to a aecludrd apot ond the n-omen dance round her. no men 
beinK present. It was only with niiif-h difneiilly that Anftui whj> en- 
nblcd to witn«w the eeremony. The girl in then informed in regnnl In 
the hygiene of nn-nitnintion. "Mnny (on^* about the relation* between 
men «nd women -ire Niiii[t> "'"' t*"* K"'' i* in«tni^ii-d ■» to all her dutie* 
when >he hrenmeii ■ wife. . . . The girl ii tauj^ht to be faithful 
lo her bn^bniid. nntl to Iry ami henr ehildren. TliP whnln matter U 
looked iiiiun n« n niutler of rourae. nnd not a^ a tbin}i In he nahanml 
of i>r lo hide, nnd l>ein|i thii" openly treated of and no seerecy made 
oboul it. you And in IhU tribe that the uuiripn nre I'ery virlunu*, 
beeanuR the unbjeet of married Ufa ha* no glamour for tliem. When n 
woman in pi'egnsnt ^he i> ai^iin ibtneedi Ihii time nil the dancer* are 
naked, and nhe li tnnght hnw to bchnra and what lo do when the ttma 
of her deliverj- arriveti." 

.\monit the Yunmn Indiana of California, an dcitcrtbed hy tloratlo 
Bust ("A Pulierty Cerrmony of the MIiMinn Indiana." .1nierfe>ait Atlhrii- 
ftologl*!, -Inn. to Miireh, 1008, p. 2SI the giria are nt puberty prPpared 
for mnrriHp" by a cerenion.v. They nre wrappi^d in bliink"!" nnd plneeil 
in n warm pit where they tie looking very happy aa they peer otit 
through their covers. Kor tour iluya nnd ni^ita they lie here (nrcaxion- 
ally going away for toodi, while the old women of the tribe dance and 



fiiiK round tlir pit «Hi»tuiiUj. At (iiiii'n tlie old womrn throw -iiirt 
coilm HHiong thv vrowil to ti'nrh tlio giil* to be gvncrou*. They uIko 
lfi\i- HWBV cJolh niid u'lii-nt, to Icucli tiK-ni lo lie kiuU to Uic old am.) 
iwnl}*; and tli^' few wllil iiroilii Ijronilcnit orrt tlic girl» to rnusc them 
to be proline. Fiiinlly, all itrnngerii Hre ordi^ri-d au'n,v, gnilHiids arv 
ptfit'ivl mi tlip prlw' liradit, and lliey nrr l>'d (■> n liilliiiite and ahnwn the 
Inrge and sacred »tane, t>,viii1nliml of the (i^iiink' urK^iiu o( |,'cni!niliuD 
aud rewndiltii); thnni, wUiHi in aiiid to protect wnmnn. Then xrnln I* 
thrown Dver nil preifnt, nnd the (rrcmony U over. 

Tlio Tlilinke^l E^nkiirio uiiiiieu u-t'iv loiij; imti'il fur tlii^r Ano 
quslltien. At puberty tlicy wore nccliKleil. wnietiiiK-" foi a ulmlt' j'eiir, 
iKing kitpt in durkiiims, ixiffi-riiig. mid fililu Ym def«;tive nnd uiiiuilis- 
factory lu thb inltlalioii wnv, "li.uDg»ilarl hiijc^jiU," tayn Uancraft 
l.ValJiir Raaui of I'aoifio. toI. I, p. ItO). rclerring to tlic nrtim of the 
TUIlnk(^t uTimiin. "Ihnt it njH)' be during this period uf n)nfineiiicnt tlist 
tlie FDiiiidaliun ot her inMuoiit'e ii. Imd; that In niudc*t n!iii;ri~e and 
mwdltation her eliurncter is sli-rtigtbninl. and itUe uumo* (oith oletin>eil 
in mind a* well n* body." 

We lmvi> I«»l llitnc aiicK'nt nitd invaluultlc nU-* uf inttialion 
into manhood aud noiuanliootl, with their inestimable tnnral 
bencGti;: at Ilie most we hu\e merely pri-servetl the shells of 
iiiitiiition in which the core has decayed. In time, we caniiul 
douht, thfiv will 1)0 revived in modern riiriiiM. At prcMnt tlia 
epiritual initiation of youths and niaideni- in left to thv chanei'!' 
of some liiippy accident, and lu-iially il is of a purely lereljral 
liaracter which cannot be perftwtly wliolesiomc. and i" (it tlic 

'bert ob«iinity incomplete. 

Thin cerchnil initintion i-oiniiionly oeeurs to the youth 
Jirougll the medium of literature. The intluenrc of literature 
io eexual education thus exteudi°. in an incaleulablo degree, 
bvyond the narrow Hfdiei* of mnnniiU nn si'xuiii liygitMie. however 
admirable and deoirable the^ie may be. The greater part of 

I literature is more or less diBtiiuity peiietraled by cTotic and aut'i- 
9tic conceptions and impuUcs ; ucarly all imaginiitive literature 
proceed* from the mot of nex to flnwer in virions of beauty nnd 
cestaey. The l>ivine Comedy of Diinte i,- licrein the immortnl 
trpe of the poet's CTolution, The youth lieefinio)' aeipiuinli'd 
with the tmaiirinative reprew-ntatione of lovi,- before he bcconiex 
seipiaiDtcd with the reality of love, eo that, as Leo Berg pute it. 



"the way lo lovt; aiDong prapli-'S jmam* tlimugh iitinginii- 
tioii." All literature ia thus, to the adolescent aoul, a part of 
iwxual education.' It dcpviuli', to tH>nii.' extent, though for- 
tunately not enlirely, on the jiuljiinfrit i)r tliosu in authority over 
the young itoul whether the hlerature to which the youth or girl 
is admitted is or is not of the Inrgc and humanizing order. 

All gtcat literalure toucliM nnkiillj' end Muieljr on Uw central hcta 
of tes. It i> alwu}'* ranxotini; to ivmcitibcr th:> in an a^p- of pettv 
p^u<lI^^ie^ And It U a witlNf action lo know tlint it uuuld not be po*- 
hIIiIi' lo tmiiitL'Ulutr Uic lilvmluri' of the gtpnt iij{«, howcvi-r Ji>MtHljlB 
U might si.-cm (o tlje iiiPii ol iiKiri- <tc)?^Ticrutc iiik*. or tu ctIohu tlic b.w- 
i[uc» \o lliot lltiTBtiirf MguinsI tlip jnniig. All our TfliRiou" Hiid litcrniy 
Iradilicmii serve to (ortifj- the posilion o[ the Bible ntid of Sliakenifrnrc. 
"So ninny mrri iijid woiiii-ii," wrllck n i'orr«.,poiidcnt, ii liti-rnry man. 
■'ipiin KiTLnnl idenn in ejiildlioort from reiidinR the Old Tc»tjiment, thot 
the Biblp inny J* culM iin cri'lir ti'il liook, Mo>*t |)i'rN)n9 of pitliM nei: 
with whom I have conversrJ on the »nlij«?t, «ny tlint the Rookn of Moocil, 

and th« storim nt Amnon and Titriiiir, Iy>t iind liU dauj^htor*. Potiphar's 
■ Ifo Biid .loimph, etc, cnnni'd ijiticiilntlnn nod curiosity, und gnve thera 
infonnatiun of tlip mxurI n-lulionship. A boy nnd f[irl of fltlren, both 
friends of the wrilvr, tiiid now uvi^i- thirly ,\eiini uf ngv. uiwd to Und out 
orotic pa»a{{« in the Bible on Siindiiy morning, while in a Disucnling 
ohiipi'l, and ])Hia (li«ir Bih>l<'ii to one anothor. with their f1n)(<?rti on the 
portionR that intemted them." In thp wimc wny ninny a young woman 
ha.! burrowed Shaknpcarv in ordor to rend tho glowing erotic p06tTy ot 
IVnua and AJonU. which h«r frlviids liiiv« (old li«r about. 

Tho Bihle. it may be remtirked. in not in every respect, a medial 
introduction for the yoiing mind lo the iiuetlioni of sex. But evpn 
ill fmnk anceptaiice. as of ditine origin, of leiiiial rules lo unlike those 
thnl nre numiaHlly our own. oueh as po1y|^my nud coneutiinttici>, help* 
to cnlaTK* the vlilon o( the j-onthful mind by Hbowin^ Hint the mien 
uuToimding llie child nte not thow everywhere nnd ulwayn valid, while 
the nakednet-k and imliMii of lli« Bihlc cannot hut b« a wholeiwnie and 
tonic corrective to eonvenlionol pnidcriei. 

We uiunt. Indeed, ilways |>TDlett a^iaat the abiurd contusion 

1 The inlimnte relntion of nrt nnd poetry lo the lexiinl impiilan 
haa been reulixivl in « fnigmeiilnry wiiy hy runny who have not otUined 
to any widu visitrti of nuto. erotic nctivily in li(e. "Poi'try in neepsaarily 
related to the dCxuHl function." luiyn MHchnikolT (/"mtU ftptimialet, p, 
3SS), who also quotes tdth approval the utatement of MI»>iiH (pre- 
riou«]y made by Ferrero and miiny otlieti) tlint "artistic nplitiides niu><t 
probnbly 1m: conslderrd as ■oeondnrj- sexiuil characterH." 



•pwvli ill rc((HTilcij ns r()uivalcnt to immorality, 
it !< ofli'ii tiitoptvd et'i-n in wliat btv ipgirdcil 
«a intalleeliml <)iiuTtcn. Vihen in tlir llnuse of I^otiU. In tli« last reri' 
turf, the qvtchlioii of tlie ex<-lu«ioii of Ityroii'^i ntutui.- fium VVcutminiiter 
Abbey Wtta under ditciwiiian, Ijord llrmighnm "ilrnii^l tlint Slinkc'jwnrp 
was more morui tlinn Itii'mn. He vuuld, on l]\e coiitrur}'. point nut in a 
diiiglr jHige at Shnkpuprjirr morr ginnfinc-tt llmii uh* to lie (oimil in nil 
tj>rd Bfron'i norkii." 'Ilie cunclusiun lirougiiuia tliiis rraclird, thqt 
It^TOn iH nn iiicomiMmbly iiior« TDonti uritiri Ibnn HhukvfliWiirL'. uugtit 
t* luTB bwn K nufTiHont ndurtln ait afliurrfwiH of hi* arKUini'nl. Ixit It 
ilopt not spgH'^r Itiiil nuvonv jiuiiiUil out the tul^ i-unfu-iion into 
which he had fallen. 

It iiiu}' liv Kiiid thiit llip ^pl^'i)lI itltractiivncaH whii'li the iiukcdni-Hi 
of groat IltoraturA umtetimM posccHscs for yoang minds is nn wholesome. 
But it muBt he iFmi^rab<.T*d thnt the |H<('u1iur interest of this elcmvnt in 
mi-rely iliic (o Uir fact timt clHcwhfVe there Is nn invctirnle unil ntinor- 
tnal ooncralnient- It mtint ulio Ire «iiid thut tlip iiUIemcnts of th« greiil 
wriltTs nbuut iMtiirnl thinu;* nrc ki-iit ili'^rnding, nor nvpn crotJcnMy 
exciting to tliv yoiinic. nnd what Emilia Pnrdo Dnzan li-1l'4 of hert^clf and 
her dflight when ft fhilil in the Iii«lfiri(':il book'^ of (he Old Ti><<t nine lit, 
that the rriide paiii>nt[e( in them (nih'd to tend the fnilTteit cloud of 
trouble kcioia her voting iniftgiiintiuii, in eqiiiillj' true of niost children. 
It Ls iiMKSMirjr, indeed, that these naked and xeTlouH thing* "hould bn 
left atanding. eren if only to euunterbulnnei- tli« lewdly eomie rHottt to 
I>MaiIi«li 1oi-e kiid ties, whirh aie viHilile to nil hi evrrv low-dnu book- 
wllrr'* iliop window. 

Tbi* poinl of rivw waa Tigorously vluinpioned by the >p<uiker« on 
(exiwl ediie*llon at the Third C"ongrc*a of the Herman <je»ell«!hnft mr 
Betdinipfung der (■mliiri'MBkraiikheileD in lt)U7. 'Miiib Knderlln. Hp«iik- 
ing *• a lieadma*ter. proleslr.d agninsi the ciiitom of iHindterliinK paemt 
■ad fotkinnBii for the use of ehildipn, und tliiM robbiug Ihein ol the 
BflMt introdiiclioa to purillvd •e^ual inipiils^ii nnd thv hlghent sjiherw of 
tmollan, while at the atime time they are rroklcs-ily exposed to the 
"p»jThic inftfclion'" o( Ihc vulgur cutnie pu|)i.'rs everywhwe elpowd lor 
Mk. '~Sn lotiji s* children me too young to respond to erotic poetry it 
atnnot hnrt Ihcni: when they nre old enough to reB^iond It enn only 
benelil tiM-ni by ojwning l<i Dwm the highest and purei't e!iitnnel« of 
human rmotian" iHrraaipadaijQgik, p. 801. I'rofcssor Schllieniiekur 
(M., p. M) expreMwa himaelE in Ilie ssme iicnite. and reiiiBrkt thut "Ihu 
mrtlwil of reniovliin! from •ehoot-book" nil' tliono pflssagei which, in tho 
opinioa of sbiirt-siglited ami n ■ rr on - hearted sclKKilniiisters. are unsiiited 
for jroiith, must be decinively cuiidennied." Kiery heiillliy Ihiv and ([iri 
wfM has rmched the age of pnln-rly may Ix^ safely nlloned to rini<b1« in 
any good libraiy, howncr faried ila t«ii(«iits. So fur from needing 






Kiiiiiance tli«7 will iitiinlly kIiow a much moiv tcllnn! tniitp than thplr 
rldc^ra. At tliii ugc. wlii-ri Ui« puiutioiin ttrc still viigiiia! niij Mfimilivt;, 
tli« tlilngK tlint nrQ rralUtJc, ukIv. or morbjil. jnr on the young iplrtt 
unci nrc ant nuicU, though iu niliilt lifr. with the oiiirviiiiig of m«ntMl 
Icxiurc M'l'icU comi-« of yi-am nnd rxperiCTicc, thiii rc[mgiiiin«, doubllpus 
by un cquBlly nound ond nnlurol instiiicl. way bwmie iriutli li'"* neut*-. 
Klloii Key hi Ch. VI of her Cenlurfi of Ihv VhU't well ■ummariM* 
th« r*Bi«inii nguinut the prnptiw of selecting for phildrrn boolts tliat urc 
''nuifjiMr" (or lliem. a |»ii(-tioe u'liSrh Kh<< cnntldHn one of th« folti«« of 
■no<lcrn rtlui-Dtian. The cliihl tliould he fm to rciul nil j^fkit literature, 
and Kill liitrmt'll iiitlinctivi'ly put n»i>k lh« things hv It- not yot lijw 
for. I)U cooler senses are umliitiirlird hy iK'cnea that hu eldern And toaJ 
McvtliiiK. while ei-m at u l»ti-r Htn^ it in not tlie nnltednnw of grrat^ 
litrratiiie, hut much more the method of the modern novel, wlitcb i« 
likely l» vUiii lliv litinginHlloD, fataify leiility and Enjuro Uate. It |a 
concealment uliich mUIi'ads and eoainetin, pinducing a itat* of mind in 
uhivh nva tliu Bible brivnieti a »tiiunhi8 lu the tu-nMW. Tli« nriiiugH 
of the Kieat masters yield tlie imaKinatlvo food wliieh tht child eravea. 
and tJic erutie □luiiieut in them i* too brief to be ot-rrheating. It i* the 
mor« nerewniy. Kllon Key remnrka, for rhlldrrn lo he introdueed la 
grot literatiirr. diner they often liarr littlr opportunity lo occupy theM- 
letiea vith it In Intrr life. Mr.ny i«ar« varlier I!<i«kin, In Sraame «md 
lAlirs, hud eliHiiierrtly iir^d that ewn young giili idiould bo allowed to 
range frcrly in lihnirlei. 

WliQt lisH hetn said about literature applies equally to art. 
Art, u well m literature, ami in tlvo #«m« indirect way, oan W 
made a raiuable aid in the t^sk of sexual enli)ttit«Dment and 
ae\tial hygiene. Modrm nri may, indt-od, for tlio mut part, Iw 
ignon-d fmin tliiH jKiiiit of view, but cbiMren eannot be too 
«arlj raniiliarined with the repra>eDtjitiona of the nude in ancient 
(«ul])turp and in Die paintings of tlie old ma^toni of tlw Italian 
school. Id this vay ther may be imniunized, a9 Bnderltu 
expre«K« it, agaiof^ tirade rppneentatioii)) of the nude which 
make an ajipeal to the boiicr inrtith.<tA. Karly famJItartlr with 
nudity in art is at Uie same lime an aid to the attainment of a 
pn>pcr attitude towanU purity in nature. "He «lio has oan 
learnt." aa Holler reniartv, "(o enjoy pcacofully nakedneas Ulj 
art, will be able to look on nakcilD(«f in nature ax on a work 





Cast* of cIii»H' nuil? >ituiii-.-H Hiiil iv[iiiiJucliunB uf tine |rfoUins oE 
thi- old Vi-itFtimi Aud ullifi' lUllnii oiuntiTh may ttiUnnly bo BMd to 
■doTU MrlioulrooinEi, not su mui-ti 04 objecln of iiiHtiiivlioTi uh tliliig* of 
bmuty nitb n-liiHi th» cliilil rnniiot too cnil]' bnconic iBmlliarixciL In 
lulj: it ii niii to be uhuhI for whool claian U> bv Ukira 1^' thriT 
lf«cli«TB to llic urt iiiUBfUiii't nilli good rmultfl; such visits form pint 
of tho ollii-inl 'U'hcTiii' (if Piliirntlon. 

ThsTe can Ik' do doubt liint ■iieh enrly fniuilinrity with tlic beauty 
lit nuiiily in tlHNoii?' art Sa wliloly nmxlril nnioii); nil novinl I'tii-iH-f iiiul in 
many <>onntrii'n. It i» to tliln lii'fi'ct "f mir .•ilHoiillon tliat w inii"t 
atlributu tlie cKi'iniuuiil, and indii-d in iiiin-icft and Kngluiid frt-qucnt, 
occurrrnoti of i«iich incident' a*- petitions and pro(eM« agaiic^t tbo 
uxliibitiOD of nude »tatnary in art inust-iiuKi. Uie diiplny of pictures so 
liKiir«inNlv<- *,* Iirighroii'it "llatli of l^vrln-" In uliup H'lndow«, aud lli« 
demand lor \he dtaplnK of tlic naked [irrwiiiifliriitiDni' of nhitract rirlUH 
in nrrhitrplnral ^trvi't di'i'Oriitioii. So iniiwrfrct i« itill lliii isIuCHtiun of 
III' mntlitiidv thitt in tbe*!' inivttrr* tliv lll-bri'd fnnalie of prilrirni-y 
iwnully gninn bin will. Such a sliilo of tliiiii<« runnot but buve Hn 
unwholcmme rvavlluii on tbi- niurnl »tniun|ihi'i'L' of llii? ixiniiiiunity Sn 
which it ii pouiblr. Kt»ii from llie rp1i((ioiiii point of view, prurient 
pnidery is nut junttfiable. Northcotv bus wry l(-nip«TUtvly and iieniiibly 
■liiienHiitMl (be (lumtion of tbn nude in nit train Ihn Mundjioint of Chrla- 
lian momlity. He point* out tint not only i* Iht nude in art not to 
ba coud<:!uini.Hl »itbuul quullfii'nllnn. mid Iliiit Ilii> uiulv in by no mnariH 
nN«»arily the erotic, but Iit utnu ndd" t)iiit evpn rrotiL- urt. in ili lieit 
and piinnt inunifvitliitiunn. only iiioni'i'H fiiinliiiiiK dial nrv tli« Ipgillninlo 
obj*)"! o( innn> aApirntiona. It would lie inipoMilile even to reprrivnt 
Itiblml ■totici adnjunti-ly on eanvan or in nmrbli? if ctotk' art were to 
beUbooed (R»t. H. Northcole, ChrUtionitg anil Skj; problems, Ch. XIV). 

Early familiarfty wltli the nude In cUmIc and Mrly Kalian art 
tdionld be combined ut puberty with an t-quul familiarity with plioto- 
grapha of lioButiful and niiturallj devvloir^d mid^ mod«l«. In fonni>T 
yeara bonka oontainlnK «iieh pictures in a itiitable and attractive man- 
ner to place before tile young were diflknll to priH-iir^. Xow tlit> dilH- 
cully nq iMipr »t;1Mh. Dr. C If. Stratj;. of Tlie Iliipie, bos been the 
pNioerr in thi* matter, and in n wrieH of Iwiiuliful liooln (notably in 
Ocr Kirrper Jem.Kindeii, Die BehSnhtrit dri ircibtiffirn Kurprra and Die 
RoMtntfkSnh^t rff» ll'rtftf*. all piihHuliPd by KnU in Siutt(tart), he 
hai brou^t ta|cether a Inrita number of admirably >elertcd ]>hotagrapha 
af aud« but eotindy rhaale figured More recently Dr. Sbufetdt. of Wn^b' 
iaytnn (who dedicatm bl» work lo SfrntKl. bai publi«h<^ )i\« 8tiutif» 
of Ihr Hhkuiii Form In which, In the wimp uplrlt, he hnn brought 
tofrth«T the reiutta of lii> own "tudie* of llie naked human form during 
many jcara. It la DMca^ry to corrert (be impreRBlunH rceaived from 

. .,CjI.K!'^1l' 



clnaric MurcM by good plietogmpbie illurtntioiia on aMOunt of lh« (bIm 
conTentlaii'i |)TRnilllBg In cIhmIc wurka, though tlima MiitTntioim vnr 
not nporssorilj* (iiW f(ir llic HTtinU who oriKmntHJ thcio. Thr umimion 
o( the itudundal liair. iti ii-pimvutatiuns of Itie iiiuli- ivu». fur hmUiK'^. 
qiiiU nntuial fur t\» [wnplu ut iTuun(ri«a (tllll undvr OrienUI infTui^iio! 
arc ac('iinl<iinp<l to wnm-i> tlip hair troni llip txxly. II, howoiT, niiilvr 
liillfi iliFTf^rpnt cnnditionn. wt< prrpi'timU' tlmt nrliklic convention tndNjr. 
wc put ourwlvcs inin n pcrrcriic rcrlnlimi to iiutiitP. Tlwrc l> ninpio 
evidence of this, "Tliere i» one convention «• nneicni. no neee»arT. an 
uuiveraiil." wrilea Mr. Frederic llnrri«oii [Xinetmmrh Crniury and 
Afl'T. Aug,, I90TI. "lliut ill ilfliljcmle 'tcKiince In-diiy mMv iirou-ie Ui» 
bile of tli» Iea>t tiiutiuiiiiHli of iii«n and nlioiild innkc wniiicn wftlidrnw nt 
anee.*' tf buys und girl* were btmiK'it iigi nt their inntlier'n kneei in 
familinritv with pjeturni^ of Ixmntiliil nml nntiirnl naUrdnemi. it n'i>u?d 
l>e iiTipn-mililv for anjone to write nich nillv and ilinmcriil word^ no 

Tlict'v can be nn doulit that nroone aiir*clvcn the ><iiii[ili> nnd A\tt<X 
nltitude o[ the eliilil tminnU nnlffdneaa l» «i enrlj- mi>hed out of liini 
that intcltiiii-nt education in ncccnari* in order thiil V>e miiy bi* cnablt>d 
to iil»ccm whnt I* and whnt i« not oliiccne. To the plough hoy nnd the 
ooiinlry wrvnnt'^rl nil nnkctlneM. including t.hftt of Orcek ntntiinry, I* 
alike shnmcfiil or lu»lfti1. "f 1iavi« a picture of women tike thut," iwtil 
a (■oiintryman with it irrln. n* he pofntM to n photofrrnph nf one o( 
Tintoret'* niost benutifiil ip'oup*. *'innokinft cifcarcttc*.'* And the innv* 
of ppople in moBt northern counlrien have still psAnrd litlle licyond thin 
%iafp< of discernment: In nhllll.y to dIMingiiiih hi'tivecn the hcanljful 
and the nbscene tti«y are still on the letnel of the plongh*boy and the 







The Greek Attituil« Townnln NnkwlnMB — How lli* Ronmn* Mwdi- 
IM Tliat Atllluilo — Tlir infliii'iu'i' of CliriMinnitT— Xakr^ilnets in Mrdla- 
i'hI Times — Kvolutiim of tlic Horror of Nakrdii^st — L'oiioomituiit Cliant;* 
ill the Conwptioii of NiikPiliivs* — I'rudeTj-— Tlie Roiiiniitic MovmiPiil — 
)tl*>^ «( D Sow Fi^lin^ in lti>ii«rti to Nflk<Mliit-ii» — Tiie Hygimie Atpcct 
of Noknlneas — Hon- f?iltdrpn May B* Acpunlomed lo NukednPs* — N»k«l- 
iH"H» Not IniiTiirnI to Muilenty — The ]n>lini.-t of Physical Pridt— -Th* 
Vnliir of XakedneiH tn Kdiifntlon— Tlip .Knthelic Value of Nnkeiinni*.— 
Tlie )tiimiiii Body a* t>iie o( the Primi? Tonii"» of Lifi — Hon- NukftlnMH 
U^JT Ba Cultivated— TliP Moral Vnlii? nf N'akMlneM. 

TiiR discn^ton of the rahic of nakcdneee in nrt leads ui> on 
ti> tile iiiUi'd r|ii(-)iti')ii of nakfihu'K* in iintuiv. What ix the 
psjchoiogical influence of familiaritv with nnkedneae? How far 
kIiouM cliildreo be made familiar with the naked bodv? This is 
a qu«4tiou in regard to which dilTerent opiuinns liave liwn held in 
difTerent ogn, tad during nrrnt vi'arH a remarkable change has 
hej^n to come over the mindri of practical ediicationuli^ltt in 
n-giird to it. 

In Sparta, in <'hios and elsewhere in Greece, women nt on« 
time practiced f^mnaftic feats and daucei! in nakedness, tof^etlier 
with the men. or in their presence' Plato in hi# Republic 
approved of such eustoms and said that tJie ridicule of those who 
laughed at tliom was but "unripe fruit plucked from the trw of 
knowled^" On many <juciition8 Pinto'* opihioua changi'd, hut 
not on Uiie. In the Lau-f, which arc the last outcome of bis 
phtlofiophic reflection in old age, he still advocates (Bk. viii) n 
similar coeducation ot the sexes and their cooperation in all the 
works of life, in part with a view to blunt the over-keen edge of 

iTIius Atlienieiii (Bk. xiii. Hi. XXl sny*r "Ln t)ie 1«land of 
Chios it is m beautiful night to go to the grtnnnfiB und the rnce-eourws, 
ftoi to see th« youns men vrfstling niked with tlic iTiaidena who art 
alao naked." 




tiim tugcllivr uf \outli» iiiul girlit witliutit conrtraiut in cMtuiucH 
which oHered no ponceuliiiCTit to tJie form. 

It in iioli'worlliy that titc lioruHn^, « c'oaracr-grained people 
lliun tlw (ini-kn niii) in mir narrow ni<i<lem senw- more "moral/* 
ghowed no pciccption of the moralizing and n?lining influmcv of 
nnlci'dniv^ Kudity to tliem wiis iiu-Rdy a lioMitious indulgence, 
to he treated with citntenipt evpn when it was enjoyed. It was 
coiitiited to the stage, iind i-lumorcd for by th« populace. In the 
Floraliu, wpccially. tlic crowd swui to have claimed it as their 
right that the actors sliould play naked, probably, it has been 
tboiiglit, us a sunival of a folk-rittiid. But the liomans, though 
thfv wen; t-Hgcr to run to the tlii.'utrc, felt nothin)); but rli&dain 
for the performers. "Flagitii principium est, nudare inter cive» 
corjiora." So tliought old I'^nniu^, as reported by Cicero, and 
that reniaimid the genuine Itoman focling to the last. "Quanta 
penersitas !'■ as Terliillian exclaimed. "Artera magnificant, 
ariitlccm uotauL"' In thif matter the Itomanit, although they 
nrouBcd the horror of the Chriatiana, were yet in reality laying 
Ihe foundation of Christian morality. 

C'hriBtianity, which found i<o many of PlatoV opinions con- 
genial, would have nothing to do with his view of nakedness and 
failed U> rfcogiiiiic it* psychological corrcctnaw. The r«won wua 
simple, and indeed simple.minded. The Church was pasaion- 
fltely eager to light againrt what it called "the flefh/' and lbu« 
fvlt into the error of confuMug the nubjective <{uc«tion of wxual 
desire with the objective spectacle of the naked form. "The 
ndi" 18 evil; ihcrofori', "the flesh" munt be hidden. And they 
hid it, without understanding that in so doing they had not sup- 
pressed tlie craving for the human form, but, on the contrary, 
had heighUmed it by imparting to it the additional fascination 
of a forbidden mystery. 

Rurlon. In his Anatomit of ilrloticholfi n>«rl MI. Srrt II. Jinn. II. 
Raba. IVl, irfprriiig lo tliv m.-nmtnnnilatlnns of Plato, add*: "thil 
Euarhitu und Throd^rel n-ortbily lull him (or [t: hikI «rLI they Bil^ti_ 

lAuj^uslinc iltf cMlate flH, lib. ii. cap. XIII) rcfcra to t1i« MltaB> 
fMilnt. ronlMMliig t\w KflniHn< witli t1i« Gr(«k« wlin honons] tix^r artofx 

Vljy l'--.l ,jy 


for ■■ oue dkllli, tli« very sl^t of nnLttl puru, 0(iu«c(A enonnovt, 
excffdin) onevpur^nc-x, onrf ifir* up both inrn and icomrn to burainif 
tutl.'' Yet, BH Burton liiitim-K hUUs turlliei on in tlif same neftion of 
hi* nark IMmii. V, Kub>. Illl, Hiilimit proii-M, "ftorae are of upiiiiuii, 
thai to *(■<-■ a nromnn nakfil. I> nlili' of itHcK lo ahrr Mo <iff«ctloD; itiiil 
it is worlby ut roiitiilrnitlon. xnitli .Vnntaijfrir. l!i<' 1''ri'iicliinnn. In lili 
BsMj'^ tlint thn akilfiillfit mnitrrn of [imDn>iii> ilulHani-H' npiHiiiit for ■ 
rcmrdj' of vciiitpdhh |]iission«. n full «iincj- of the body," 

Thfre ouglit t4> bo no inicstiuu rpgHrdinj; tli« fai-t that it i» tlw 
adoniMl. tli« p«rtiHlly it'rni.'>'a)i.>'l bod,v. mid not Ihi- iibHoIutely nakvil 
UmIv, wliich apta aa a •■■xunl c^rltunt. I hnvi- liii>ii)[ht lojiii'thnr •omo 
Fvidmnon this point in the study of "The Ei-ohilion of Modf»tj-." "In 
Maila^^aamr. W'vet Afrion, and Ihi^ Capr," iiiyi ti. F. Scott Elliot (A 
.VtilBrtfrial in Vi'l-Afrirn. p. HO | . "I linvn Htwuya found the wimn nilf. 
rhoititf vnrin inrcnHj_v u« tli* amount of clothing." It in now inilpi'd 
)(encrall}' li*l>I tbal oue uf the vhli-f priniar.v objevts of orniiiiirnt and 
HnlhiiiiC wa« the ttimulatlon of »«-xiial dwii'p. and artUI*' modpU 
are well awar« tli*t wlwn they arc wnniiletely unclothed, they arc inonl 
fiafe fnnii umlvnira] masculliir ndvaiici-n. "A favorilr niKdol i>f mini' 
told wi*," r*iit«rk« Dr. Shnfeldl (itrdical Brirf. iVt., 1110*1. tho dl»tin- 
guiiihiHl author of RdirfiVji 0/ thr Iluinan form, "that it wa* her piM- 
tin U> duiubi^ as BOoti nftpr cnliThig thi> iirtiM's uliidiu ae jioxvibli;. for. 
aa men »t* not alnayi T»pon>thlR for thnr cmotioiu, nhc fvlt that *hp 
wia f*r teat likrlj to Hroimp or cxcitt^ thvm ulion Militi-ly ninlv Uian 
wh4Si only •cmjdraprd." Tliii fact la, indcrd. qultn familiar to artii^V 
■oodetk If the (niiqii^st ol oexunl dexlr* wt« the llrnt and last consid' 
rratioR of life it. would be more i-eaiuinable to prohibit dothinjt than to 
[irobibit nakedneiw. 

When C'hrirtinnily absorbi-d tlie wliotu of the Kiiropcon world 
thU strict iivctklnncie of fvati th<^ iilght of *'tiif Hi'-iih," nltliough 
Dominally accepts! by all as liie desirable ideal, could only be 
carried out, tlioroughly and conijilctely, in the cloicter, la tlic 
(inicliw of the world oiitKiilr, ailhoiigh tlie originut C!iri*tian 
iAvnU n-niAincii iiiHiiciitiul, vurinus jingan nnd primitive tradi- 
tionH in favor of nakednca^ still pcreisted, and were, to gome 
extent, allowed to manifetit theini^elves, alike in ordinary cuKtom 
and on special oecasion.". 

Tfow wideapread ■■ the oeraaioiial i>r habitual practirai of nalcrilneM 
In tlin wotM geDerally, and how entirely ecnKurdant it is with even u 
Bicnl ■emilivp modesty. ha» b<*n lot forth in "Tho Evolution of Moil- 
*Mr," In vol. I o( three Bludiet. 





Evnti diirini; IliP t.'hrialinii rni llie iiii|>iilw lo uc]o|)t niklity. nftm 
wrltll l)lc> (i-i'lltlfc tUnt it viat. iiii I'tiXHlnlly bicrvil iirncticc, ban |iciiil>>t('it. 
Th* AdaniitH d( tlit.' wcuml ti^nliir}-. nliu mid luid pra]r«d nakvd, and 
OelebriiliHl tlic lutcraniont nnk^'d, nixordiiip to the ■tat<^ii>iit iiuoU-d Iiy 
St. Aufualinf. Mi'm to linvi: cnuacil little itFundul no long n* tlier onljr 
prncticiHl ijiuhly In Uifir aacrvd ceri-iiionk-x. 'I'lie Oi'mum Itrflliivn of 
ttin Firo Spirit, in thn tlitil«-ntb cnntiiry. eonibiiii'il m muHi cliaalltjr 
witli jironiiiiciioii.'i nakiilm-" tliat urlliiHlox Cutliolicn Iwli^'ed tli*j- wero 
OMiitlcd by till* Di-vil. Tl>i> Fri'iivh l'iciird«. lit a much )ut«T dntr. 
iiuintikt on public nnkediichi, Wlii^intc lliut l^-oil liad iicnC tlirlr londi'r 
into ttie world h» a ni-vv AiIhid t<i rti'iitjibliKli llu- \a\v of ^Catiiroi they 
were pursMUlwl nnd v.<-tv liimlly rxtiN'iiiiijnlcd liv tin- Hiiit-ilf*. 

In dally lili'. Iinucvrr, a. i«iii>lilnn1ilr drttrrr n( nnknJnt-u wai 
tulcratnl during nimliicval tinies. This vrni iiutiibly mi in the public 
Imth*, frrqucntcd by men and women togctlirr. Thus Alwin Schultx 
miinrkti (in lii» H'lfiacfir Lrbtn :ar Z<<t der UiiinrMiusr'), tlint the 
w(iiiii>o of tlic DTinlm-rntic ^Iii^ho", tboiigli uut tlio men, trtre often nnkrd 
in tbese bntlis cxecpt (or a but und a neekUw. 

II Ik wmiotimp* it(nt(>d (bnl hi Ilie mi-diU'Viil rrllgiou* plays Adam 
und Evp iTfn- nbwtliiti'ly niikccL Cluimbcr* doubts thi*. and tliinks Uiey 
wora lloiib-txilnri'H tiylit*. or we're, ii>> in ii later play of tliiK kind. 
"iip|inivlli'd in uliilit I»«11iit" (K. K, OiumlxT*. Thr Mediirral Hiaj^f, 
vol. I, p. 5|. It mny be w, but Ibe public Ptjminire evi>n of tliv ncscunl 
organs WHS permitted, nnd that in ariiilfH'rnlie buutef. fnr Jubn of SaliH- 
biiry (in n paat>R.gc quotisl by Itupkle, Cnninion/ifarr ftinik, G-ll ) protfilii 
iigninxt tlu» ciiBtom. 

Tbe women of tbv (nminiat ■tiiterRtli century In France, as R. A» 
Moulde 111 Clnri^rr rrmnrks I Rrrur de I'Att. Jan.. l^tSS), bad no ncmplc 
(n rprompeniInK tlieir adorer* by Rdroittind them to tlieir toltetl<>, or 
even llicir linlti. I^tp in t)ir eenlury they bei'uiiic nlill lei« pruditb. und 
ninny well-known Indien ntlowed Ihcmarlvea lo be pujntcd naked down to 
the wniit, a» we see iu the porlrait of "Gabrii^lle d'E»ti*7B ou Boin" at 
(liantilty. Mnny of then* pfeturcK. however, are wrtninly not real 

Even in the middle of the sevenleenlh eentury in Knginnd nuked- 
n«M wn« not pTobibited In publl<^, fnr Pepya ti'llt iia that on Jnly 20, 
1607. ■ (Quaker enme into Wed I minster Ihil), crying. "Kejient! Kepentt" 
lieing in a "tot* of nukediiett», ewept that he vrat "very civilly tlod 
about the prlTitlei to avoid neHndnl-" (Thin traa doubtlniii Solomon 
Ecolea, who will aceuiitomcd lo ffo about In tliio eo«tume, both before and 
after the Reeloration. He bud been n di^lln^lehed muiician, and, 
lbou){li eccentric, wnn iippnrendy not fnnnne.) 

tn It chnptcr. "D" In NuditC." nnd in Ihf appendieeH of hi« book, 
Dt I'inour (toL i, p. 821). Sewiacour j^ve* hi»tiinoe« of the oceadonol 






pravUiv of nuilil.v Iti Ii^umpi-, ;>iiil adds souw intorvittiiiff rrniBi-ks <il Iii» 
uvTD; *i^ bIm. Ouliiun- illft J)iri»iU Offiratrir*. Cli. XV). It would 
appear, tu n nilc, tlwt Ihougli camplcta niiditj* woa nllomd in otbrr 
rtapecU, H <ra« unual U> cover tliu acxiuit purU. 

Tlie mrtvcineiit of ri.-\-olt iiu;aiDat iinkedness never becamp 
coraplololy victorious until tlie niiii-Uiiilh iriitiirv. Thnt cen- 
tury rcprrsented the triiiiii])!) of oil tin- fnrast that banned public 
iinkodiicss (■vi'rywln-ro and Hltdgetber. If, iiii I'lidor insists, 
nftkedoew is arintociatic and tbe slavery of cMlies a plebeian 
cluncteristic impoM'il on the tower ohi«^c» by tm tipper oliut* who 
rcJWrved to Ihcmselvtn tin- privili-ge of phyoieal ciillure, we may 
perhaps eonuei-t this with the oiitbui^ of tlcnuKratic pleljoinniKm 
which, BB Nietzsche )H}intv<l out, rcHibod ito i.Iiiiinx in tlic iiine- 
traiitl) century. It is in any case certainly interestinf; to obsene 
that by this time the movement had cnliruly ehanjitnl Ht chiir- 
Bctcr. It had booonic general, but at tint same time its founda- 
tion had been undennined. It had largely lost its relipioti* and 
morel character, nuil injti'ad wii» rt-gnrded n» n nllHl^^ of coii- 
wntion. The iiineteentli century man who eneountered the 
apwtAcIc of white limba fiasbing in the sunlight no longer felt 
like the mediieval necctic that he was risking the salration of hie 
immortal ««il or c\-en courting the depravation of hi." morals ; he 
merely felt that it was "indecent" or, in extreme cases, "disgust- 
ing." That IS to «ay he regarded the matter as t-imply a qucfittuii 
of convcutionul etiquette, at the worst, of tante, of u>«thetics. In 
tJras bringing down his repugnance to nakedness to so low a plane 
he had indeed rendered it generally acceptable, but at the same 
time he had deprived it of high winetion. Hi* profound Imrror 
pf nokcdne^ was out of relation to the frivolous grounds ou which 
bflKod it. 

We mui't not, hAworxr, iindor-inte tlie tonncUj- nitli wLioh (lii* 
botror of nuktdiic-ui nai held. NothhiK illiutratss more vivldlj- tin- 
(In-plr iii|!r«incd Iiitlred wlileh (he niii«U.-enth Mnturjr fi-lt ot nakvdni-'ix 
than Ui« fcrochjr — thi-rc i* no other word tar it — with which Chrlstiiin 
_niiiaionari«s lo savagM all over the world, even in the tropie*. in>i>lrd 
their (vnivcrl-i ndoptint; lliv conventional ctothiiig uC Northern Ktim|H-. 
Tmreljcfn" aaTTBlivr* almiinil in rcfrrvnceit to the emphasia placed by 



inlnKinnnripii on tliiii diiingi- uf I'uiluiii. vlMi wiu bnlh injurlou* to tha 
livnllh nf Ihc |>«flplr iiikI ilo|rmlinK (■> HiHr digiiil.v. It !i hiillidpiit ta 
i|iiut« <mo autliorilatiTp wiIufh, Ijotd Slaiiraori-. (oriin-rly Giivirnor of 
Fiji, who read a long puper W tlie AukIIcuh l^IiB9iunll^,v Couferi-noj in 
1804 Ml tbo subject of "Undu« Introduotinn of Wmt^ni \Vay»" "In 
th« oentrv of the vltliiiz<>," lie rvmarkwl In qtiotlnic a t;i'pkn1 (u«i> 
Iftnd ivfcrrfnic not tn Fiji Imt to Tonipi). "!■ thr rliiirrli. ■ wnodnn 
Immlike building;. If tUe day he Kiinduy. wp ahnll fliid Oic tiutire 
iiiininltT nnaypJ in a ^rcMiioh-litncV «i>*ii1!uw-tnil poat, n nwkcloth. 
onca wliil'?, ain) a pHir of sjH'i'tJirlp", hImcIi Up proliibly ilops not 
DMd. prendiing to n miigrvgntinn. thr iriHli- pnrtion nf vlilcli U dri'iMf^ 
in rnucli Hie some minin^r n? liimnplf. wiiili- the w-omcn nrr Ahurned 
oiil ill old battfTcd IihU or bunnvt*. und slmiwlpsa gown* Wir bathin|t 
drcMt*, or it mny Ijc In rrinoIiiu'B of an parly type. Pliipfn of inflii- 
tjirr and wnmen of high l>irlh. who in tlii-ir natit*i> drtm u*ouid took, 
und do look, thp ladln and afntli-nini tlii'V nre. nrr. liy their Sunday 
i!npry. givm tlic apppnriinec of Hllcndanls upon JiiicT(-in-the-f<r<H>n. If 
a vIhH 1)0 pntd to \hf lionai-i ot the- town, nftcr thr mornlnir** work of 
the pwiple in over, th<' family will hr found Httintf on rhiiim. li'tkxt 
nnd iinpomfortoblc, in n room fnll of litti-r. In the houw* of the 
mipTlor nnlivp clergy therp wilt bt- a yet jfrpntcr apinR of tlii' mnnner* 
of the Wdiit. Tlier* will bf ehairs eoveird with hldeoiin nntlniHoiiMam, 
taitelei* round wontfil-worli rant" for obvnt flower jar*, ami n lot of 
ti(;1y cliMp nnd vulgar china chimney anianipnt«. whii-Ii. tlirr^ being nn 
fllpplaee. nnd Pon»i'i|iiently no ehiinnej-'plere, ^re net out (n ord^T on II 
riek«ly deal lablo. Tlie wliole life of tliene villajK folk ii one piec» of 
iinrml nrllng. Tliej arc mntinnally n*kliitC thrmnetve* whMhor they ara 
incurring any of the penullie« entaiteil hy infraction of flic long toble 
of prohihltion", and whether lh''y nre living up to the foreifpi gannentK 
they wear. Their face* have, for the moul purl, an expreoion of Hullrn 
dion>nt*nt. they move almnt nilentiy nnd jojlewsly. rebela In heart to thn 
rMtriclK-e eode on them, but wlilrh th»^- fear to ea»t off. partly from a 
vtignt appreheii'lori of |;iF»il>h- *i«'iitnr ri-xull-', and partly becauM they 
*appOMi they wilt er-nie to he good rhri'tiunn. If they da ao. Thejr hmxa 
gnoA ^nund for their divni I iif action. At tlie time nhm I viHited tha 
Ti1lBj(r> I have Rpecinllj in my py«, t( wan putil«hahle liy fine nn^l Impris- 
onment to wear native clothing. puni->hahle by fine and iinprfiMnment tn 
wear long hair or a (jpirlaiid of flower*! pii«i«hnMe hy tine or Imprifon- 
ment to wreillo i>r to play at bnll ; pnnl'hnjile hr tine nnd impriwrn- 
ment to bnlld a nntfve- fashioned homtp; piniHhable not (o wear nlilrt 
and Irouierm. and In rertatn toralille* mat and nhoen nlao; nnd. in addi' 
tion (o laws enforcing a itrictlr pnritiinieal obiwrvalion of the fvnhbnih. 
it wn* pnafxhahle by line niiit imprivinnient to hnthe on Niindayf. In 
Home otlier pla«ea bathing on Sumlay wmh puniHlLablr by tloggingt And 




I my kiuiwlcdan wotiidii hftvc bcon flagged for no othar oftenm. Men In 

Riicti ciminintj>nn>» are rlp« for revolt, aiiii »oinetlniM the rvt«U MmcH." 

An nbvioiu result ul rtduiring the fn-ling about nnlcnlnpii* to an 

nnreuoiiiiig but imperntive cOTitt-nticiii in thi> t«nt1i>iii.>y ti> pnidUhncm. 

This, «» wc know, U o form at iiwiiilo-irioilcnt.v whipli. Wtng n poiivpn- 

lion, ond not n natiinil frvling. i* cnpublr of iinlimilnl cxtrnaion. It U 

by no m«Dii« rcmlinnl to modem timM or to Chrialiun Europu. Tin.' 

MiFlvnt npbrrws n»rP not entlt^ly ttfi- fforti pnMl*linf*». nml wi' fiiiil In 

f Uie Old Tcstanmt that liv n curiom Miphcmiimi tlic ■ncunl orgnnH are 

iwnulimM rttemd to a« "tli«i UoU" Tli« Tiitka arc rapfibk of )iriirlUh- 

i'TW««. 80, inideed. were e>-M> (he nnelmt Orrpka. "Dion tW philoi«)phpr 

tvlU lit." icinnrk* CI«nimt of Alpxandrlii I.S'rruninrm, Kk. IV. Cli. XIX) 

"tliHt n I'crtain woman. t.Tsi'licit, IhroiiKli fxcra* of m(>il«ty. linlhnti In 

her cluDipH, nml tlint l'liituU-ru. wlicii tili« wfis to mtui tlio biilli. ijrad* 

ually drru' linrb hpr tunW n* tlip wntor oovorci] Imr nnkpil partJii and 

then riling by degrrea, put it ou." Mincing prude* were found among 

tha «*rty CTirialUna, and tbplr wnya art ([THpliIrnlly dvwrlliod by St. 

JcTonie in oni- of hia Icttrta to Ruitorliiiim ; "Theae women," ho anya, 

japeak betwp^u their twtli or with the edge of the Up*, and with a liip- 

I ing iMigue, only linlf pronoimeiiig thi-Ir word", liecsnae thi-y regard na 

I grow irhaterer is nnluinl. Such na tlieac." declnieg Jerome, the aeholnr 

in him ovpreomintc the natvtjr, "rorriipt even Iniigtinge." Whenever a 

Mew and artifieial "inodeiitj-" i» linpo»ed upon oiivngca prudery lenda Ui 

arlM-. Iliiddon de'cribea tliU among the luiliv-en at Torres StroitM. ivheru 

eTcn tlin ehltdren now aulTer fmm exnjtgvratvil pnidiobneaa. tlioiigli for- 

niMly abaoliitcly naked and iinnthnnied (Oombriilgc AnthropolOjtical 

S^pnlHitm lo Torra Hlraii*. vol. v, p. 271). 

Tlie ninetwntli peuliinr, which witnessed the triumph ot 
Itniidity and pnidrry in this ninlt*'r. also produceil the fiwt 
fniitftil jierm of now conceptitm* of nalcwlness, I'o sonip 
txtent these were embodied in the i^roul Komanttc movc-munt. 
Itoiiasenti, indeed, had pItiM-d no sjjceinl insiiitonce on nnki>dne9H 
SH an cIcTiicnt of tlie letiim t^) Xntiire whiHi he iireiidied ao 
influent iaily. A new fceliK(f in thi* lanttcr emerged, however, 
with (.luiraoteriBtic extravapnnee. in some of tlie episodes of the 
Revohition, while in Gpmiany in the pioneering Lurinjf of 
Friedrich Bchle^l, n chamcteristic figure in the Hoinantie move- 
ment, a still nnfamiliar conreption of the hody was set forth in 
I wrious and rnmcet spirit. 

In England, Blakv with Iua ntran^v and Hiuiiin^' genius. 

l)y-/---. , ^. 





proclaiiiicd a mystical gospel which iiivoh'{^ the spiritniil 
glorification of the body and contempt for the tivilized worship 
of clothes ("As to (1 iiioilcrn man." he wrote, "Btrijjpcd from his 
loud of clothing hi- ix like n duud corpse") : Mhilo. later, in 
America, Thoreaii and WhiliriATt anil Burroughs nr^crtm), *ti\\ 
more delinitely, a not disHJitiilar nu'ssage conccniing the need of 
returning to Nature. 

Wc find tho inipnTtnn«> at thf alxlit ftf t^ body — thoii^ my lur'] 
rowly. Tor llio avoitlniKv of fraud iu tliv prtI{iiiIiMrie« of luuiriagv— wt 
forth Bn ptirly n* the >i?(ti<pntli FPntiit^ by Sir Thoman More In lii« 
Utopia, wliicb i* M rioh in new and fruitful idms. In L'Uipia. acmril- 
Injt to Sir Tliomaa More, brtor« innrrlafcp. a Htaid and lioiient niutiuu 
"dliowRth tliu woman, l>i- ili* mnid or widow, nnki'il to th? wrMcr. And 
liki.'wi»u u, sagv und div^roH iiiiin viliiliitoth tlii? nnocr nukrd to thn 
wnnmn. At tliid ruxttira vr« Iniiglipil Htiit dixHiluwi'd it ii« lo<jli>li. Itiit 
tliey. on Ilicir piirt. do greatly wunder ut tin.' folly of iill otbrr notion* 
which. In liuyinK n i-nlt wlicrp a little mnnpy in in hnmrd, be to chary 
and drciininpwt that though hi- be almost all l>ar^. rH t\\ty wit) not 
l>iiy him iinlv** (Up i>ni1dli> ntid nil lhi> liiirn<*u he taken off. lot tindi-r 
t)iM# FOveringH \ic hid notnc gall or lorc. And yet. in ''huoning a wifi-, 
vhkh shall b« cither pleaiurn or diipl«a>.tiTi> to thou all ihrir life after, 
tlify Iw no rpfkl<>ji» thst nil Ihi.* residue of the womao'H body bi'ing eov- 
eiml with plothi-*. thny futlmntc lior iwircj'ly by on» liandnbrcadth (for 
tht-y can tee no more but Im fniv) and >o join her to tlivm. not without 
KTcat jfoparih- of pvil agivniiif; Initrllii^r, t( nnythlnR !n her body aflrr- 
ivard ithouUI (>liiiiioi! lo ofTrnd or mi^likc thrm. Vi-rilr. «o foul dcfonnily 
■nay b* hid under tbete coverinpt that it rnny (|ulte nlinnate and tiikn 
awajr th« man'* mind froni hia wlfp, wh'n it chall not be iKwfuI for 
Iliclr ImhIii'i) to he Hepnrulp ngsiin. If Niich di-'formily liniipcn by any 
eliance aftrr the marrlaKr la (>niiHuniinRte and llnUlitd. well, thrrc ia no 
mnedy but pntienw. n\it it wrre wHI done lliat a liiw wrrr made 
wjierehy all ench dwelt* ii*Te (iwhewnl and n\'oid('i! bpforchnnd." 

1'he denr eonnption i>f what may be called thv H|iiT!tiial vniiia of 
nnkedncu— by no mean* fnnn More'* jioint of tim-, but ni> a part of 
natural liyifi''n>* in the nideit Kcn^c, nnd «■ a bij^b and npM-iul anpect 
of the purifying nnd eniinblinfc funetion of lii>auly — is of nioeh later 
date. It ii not elenrly cxprmiiipd until the tiint- of the Ito>nianli(^ mor*- 
ment at the beitinning ot the nineteenth fentiiir. We liav* It admirablj 
a*t forth in Renanmnr'* fte I'Amour {flrrt edition. 1800; fourth and 
•niariied edition, Ifl-I'l), wliii'b ktlll rvtnain" one of thi> liput book* on the 
morality of love. .\t|pr reinnrkinfc thnl nakHnetrt by no mean^ aliol- 
iihea modesty, he proeoedA U> udtorate oocoidonal |>artia) or complete 

\ I. J, -.'■::. j^' 




nndilj. ''Let us hu)>|>h»v," L* ri-in»k>', Mtitrwhul tn Uii! *plHt of 
Plato, "ft ruiinlnr in which at crrtuin {^-ncial folivali tlict wnmcn 
Khoiilil hf ubHiilulely frew to bv hmtI^ or vvni i\mlf iinkeil. r>wiuiiiimj;. 
mtuinit. wnlking. thoM who lliought good lo do no mijcht iviimiii 
unclolhfd in Iliv pnt^iicc of iii^n. Nu iloiilit the illiKiiciiia uf luvi' would 
b« littlv Icimuii, niul |>aMi<m uolilJ •■■•' n (liiiihiiitlon of iu IniUHpurli. 
But in it pamion thnt in Kc-ni-rat tnnubln humun alTnini! W« dvimI 
hodut atlnchinviits and dolicjilc lii-Ii^li. and all thr*« wtr timy ohtain 

wblle ttltl jirovrvlntt our i'i>minmi-Hi>iii<'- Sui^h iiiikcdiina 

irould ilniiuiiiil (Drmpnndtns InnTliution*, •.trong and Mmptv, and n gift 
tvflpiTt for llnisi- ronvpiiliom which IwloiLg to oil timtm" (Sciuncour. D« 
r.lmovr, vol. I. p. 3U). 

Prom that time onwardi rtfcrcncci to tlic nliie and dciiralillitf 
<if nak«ilQM* br^onie inoi<> nnd mtiit- tn^\ift\l In nil riviHzrd rouiilricit, 
Munrtimoa minjilcd irlth harcuiitii! alluHlon* to tlii^ tnUu> convrntlon* W4 
have inherilni in this matter. Tliiw Tliori-aii wrilp* in hia journal nn 
Jun» 12. IHuS, n4 hf lookjt at boy* iHitliine In llic rivt<rr "Die rolor of 
Uicir bodim in thr sun nt n distance i* plruiiing. 1 hear tlir noiind of 
tlieir apart boriio over the itAt«r. Ao }>rt vte lime not man in Xature. 
What a olUKiilar fact for an nntl>>l vitltant tik llii* earth tn cnriy Ixtok 
in hiD notp-book. Ibnt mfn vrtre forbidden to expnat their bodiea undi-r 
llio i»ever*>it p»n»ltie«." 

Iwsn Blwli. in fhnptrr VII of liia Smial Life of Our Time, AW 
miom this ((twatlon o( nnkedncsa from the modem point of tIw, and 
oMicludM; "A nalnral iHincr-ptlon of iiakfidnesu: that is the wulehword 
of (he tiitnn*. All the hy)[>'^<ii'^i f'thrlic. nnd nioml cfTort* of our time 
are lointiiiR In that direction." 

Strati, at U-liU on* who h:i4 worki'd m Atrenuouvlj' in tlw tau«a 
of human health nnd lieauty. ndinirnhly del* forth Ihe ■tup- whieh wo 
haTc now Dttaine<l in IhiH nialter. After pointiiijj* out (Die Frauen- 
lilridiing, third <iditiun. IIXM. p. 'Ati\ that, in opposition to the pnjcnn 
Horlil H'hkh worshipped naknl ffids, Cliriitianitr developed the idea 
tliut cakedaeK* vua nurely lexual, and thrrefore ininiornl. he prweedx: 
"tlut or*r all iflininiereil nn the henvi'nly lielxtitfl of the On»;, the naked 
body of the Savionr. I'nder that proteetion there lius gmdunll.v diieu- 
gap4 iT'ielf fmni the eontunion of ideiis a nvw IruiKllu'iirpd form of 
nafcrdnea« madr fti-e aft-'r Intig ilrugclp. I would call thin arlUtio 
mokrdnrtn. for as it iia<- [iiimoTtnlln-it Irv tlie nhl Oi'eeks throuffh art, » 
abo among no it hus Ixvn awakened to nen- life hy art. Artintic naked' 
nMt K in it* nature, mueh higher than either the natural or tli« sensual 
«onivpiion of nakedneaa. The simple child of Nature area In nnkedneoa 
nothing at all; the clothed man seei in the uneovereit Iiojir only a Ben- 
•ual IrritAtlon. Rut at the hijfhe»t Htandpnlnt mnn eonselouslj- relurna 
h> NstUK, uid recognicea lliul uud«r the manlfotd Lxiverluga ot human 




Aibricittlon Uiorc U hidden the moiit >|j1eiiili(l cri^ului'i- thol Gud liu* 
i>r«at*iL. One niajr Mtmid in isili>nt, wortilil|i[>iii|f u-onikr bi-forv tli' ai^ti 
fiiioth«T mty be im|icllcd to imiUle und kliuw to liin fcTlmr-niaii whiil 
ill Ilial lioly niQinent hi- lia« (i(M>n. Hut Imlli cnjiy tli* »pwt*cle ot 

liiimnn bi-aut>- 

with full MinitpiouvneH* iinil riilighl«i«l purity o( 

It wiu not, liowcv'i>r, m) much ou tliew more ttjiiritual sides, 
liut on the ttide of hygiene, thut tlie nineteenth century furniah^ 
it« chief practicul contrilmtion to the new nttitucl« townrds 

LortI Moiiboddo, tlin ScoUli jlld^. wlio waa a pioneer in rcf^rd lu 
11UU17 roodrjrn iilwi%. iiad ulrt>udjr in liii- piglilMmlii ccntiiT}- tTuliicd tii* 
liygienia vnliic of "itirbutliV* ""'I I'p liivctitvil that now (oiniliHr naiuc. 
"Ijord Munboddo." wiys Bonwrll, in 1T7T il.ifr of Johnaou. rditi-d by 
Hill, viil. ill. ]>, litxi "told me Hint lie awiikcd every mmuiiig ot (our, 
nnd t]>t!n for lii^ limlUi gal up and wiilkcd in liii loom niikt^, with tliv 
window o|H-n. uliith Ije riitled tiikiiif{ an air-bath." It it nniil alto, t 
know not on what anlhorlty. tlint he nmds hiit lieniilifiil dnughh-rit lAkv 
iin air>bntli nnkwl on the tcmny n-pry morning. Another disllngiiislii'd 
iiinn of the >uim» ffntuiy, Ucnjaniin Prnnklin, u«-il "ornetiiiieo tn worlc 
iiukc'd in lii» iiludy on hygicnie (tround*, ond, il in rwDrded, anca 
iiirrif^liled n wnnntpil by opening the door in an ubsen I- minded 
moment, thno unnltii'ed. 

Rikli (eeuiH to bitve lieen the Hpontle of nirbaths and suu-batha 
regarded uh n ■kj'Mvinntic method, tie r-*luUliiih<d light- nnd air-l>atlii> 
over half a eentury ngo ut TnvTiIe nnd elM-uhere in Austria. lUt motlo 
w»»: "l.lj[ht. Truth, nnd Fre«Iom nrc the motive force* townrds the 
highent dei-clopnient of phyhicnl und inoml health." Man i» not n flth, 
lie dMlarvd; ligbl nnd air are the fliAt mndllionii ■>( i\ biglily orfpuiited 
life. Solaria for tlit Irnitment of a number of difTrr^nl dicordered con- 
dillonx nrn nou' eommonly ■■»1«hli«lii'd. nn<l inoul *'in» of natural 
I hers pen licit attach prime imporlance to liglil and air. while in medieine 
generally II 1« l>eginiiing Co lie reoiignirvd that meli IntltienoeH can by 
no me«n> be iieglecUd. Uv. Pnnand Sunday, in bl> /nrroifiielioit A la 
Thtraptiuliiive Xataiutr pnr Itt aijfnit Phyiiiiu<.w ti Dirtiliquei 1 lOOT I 
*sta forth "ueh metlinil* eomprKlieiinItvly. In flermnnj Min'tiiithn IiAVti 
berome widely eommoni IbuH Ij-nkel Iin n pn|ier auinmnrixe*! in BrUitti 
iledtfvt Jowmal. Oct. 31, IBO))) prcaerilien them with niiteb benellt in 
tnboreulo^l*, rheumatic condilluno. obe'illy. niiiemin. neiimathnnia, tix. 
He consider* that tbeir pecniior value li™ in the action of liglit. Pro- 
feMor J, N, Ttyde. M Cbleagn. even bfUeven CUght-nunKi-r in tha Via- 
duetloii of I'toriaBiii," Brituk Uedioal J'turnal, Uel. U. ItiOOl, tliat 




pwHrloali I* mused by ilcllGieni.-)r of auiiliglit. and in Itrst curnd \>y the 
applitmtion of liglit. TliU bvlinf, wlitt^h hag nnt, liowpvfir, bevii g«'iivrul!_r 
Hi'fi'ptwl In it« unqiiuliflnl form, he inguiiioupily imp|inrt» by the (ncl Hint 
pKiriiiiii tmiU M Appi-iiT on ttiu iriudt eK|Ki9ed parls of tlic body, whicli 
niny hn hclil to nntiirHlly ircnlvc nnd rniiilrp thn miixlninm of ligbt, mid 
by the absriice of Ihv div-am! in but (H>unlri«n ami nriiuiij; nff^uon. 

Th*r hy)rieiii<^ valu^ of Tinhfilii<-->H i< iridiriil<'<l by Die r<>l>UHt lionltli 
of thr lovneni throughout the i.orld who go naked. The vijptr of th* 
Irisli, •Iw, hH* Ixvn coawtrt^-'l with thi fuel that (:n Kyiie* S[ory">n> 
lliimitrii ■liinnil both *exp>. even among |ii^H>n>i of hi|j:li MX'inI Hum. 
Were ai.i'Uiilonicil t« gf> nnki^l 4'\i^'))I. for h innnttv, npeciiilly in mora 
rsnuit« partii ot the conntQ-, an tnte aa the si'vpnteenth centnrj-. XMii-ro- 
rvrt primitive races ubandon niikedne-is for ciotliin^. nt once tlie Ij'riileney 
lo di!<«i*e, mmrtiility. aiuI ilr|ti-ni>r*ry>ly iiu'reaHe*. thonf;h it niuit 
W TeiurniliFrri] that thu iim.- of i-luthing i* conunonly aecompnnird hy tb>- 
Introduction uf otbi-r bnd hitbil^. "Nakednefii) in the only condition 
univ«rBii1 auion^ vifcnroiiH and h«nltby wiviijjmi; at Bvnry othi-r [mini (jer- 
hagin tlicy differ." remark* Kre<icrifk Boyle in n pafx-r ("Siiruge* nn.l 
Clothe*," ilanlhltf Reritic. Sept., 100"! in wliich he brin)^ tog^tlier 
mai^h evidcnivi roncnminj; the hyirienie ndrantagn ot tbn nnturni human 
itatc in vhieh mnn in "all Uivr." 

H i* in Cvrnifliiy Ihnt n rctnni townrds nuknini^g liai bevn mt»L 
■bhr and tlioroiighlr advocatvfl. nutnbly by Dr. tl. Pudor In hin Katikt- 
Puttiir. uud by R. T't>|£e«itter in IHr Xachtlirit {firil piibllnhnl in 1905 1. 
a book nbteh hni had a vrrj- liitge cir«ulnliou in nmny editiona, Thean 
wrilim rnthuHlaatieally ndvoeAfr nnkrdnma, not only on 1iy|{ieiiie. but 
ott moral and artistit gnimids. Pudor Insiala more ospeeially thai 
"nitkdlaM*. both in g^'mnnstjeii and in iport. la a method of eur« and 
a mrthoi) i>f regi-neration;" lie advoffttes to-educution in tliis enltwrn of 
■iake<lnefM, Although he make* large claims (m i>nkc<lni>««— bi'licvinu 
that iill the nations wbich have diBrexiirJed tiie^e cUims have rapidly 
boeome dwadent — Pudor l» triw bopefid tlinn tinftewitttr of any ipcedy 
vietary over the pTejndlpeB opponed to (be riiltuTe of nnkedni^w. H" 
coniiiders lliat the immediate tii*k la ediicnlion, and that a prneticnl com- 
mmcMDcnt nay be*t be niade \vit?i the fool which i» aprciiillr in need 
of hygiene nnd pxercinei a lai^ )MTt of the fIrAt oilunie uf hi* bo<jk i* 
i»nM to |I|0 foot. 

Ab file tniilter is Ut-day viewed by thaw; »litcationa]isti) who 
are e<iiiai!_v alive to leniiitnrT and wxiial coneideration!>, the claims 
of nakedness, so far as cniiwrns tlic voting, arc ropiidi'd a* part 
alike of physical and moral hypieiic. The free contact of the 
ntknl body with air and water and light make* for the health of 



tile body; familiurity wilii the sigbt of tlie body ak^elics petty 
pmrieuoii'K, trains Hit sense of bcnuty, jiiid makt* for Uie healUij 
of the tfouJ. Thi» double aspect of tile matter lias uniloubtodl] 
weighed greatly with those t4?jic'licrs who dow approve of cn«U>ai« 
which, a few ycam «go. would hiive been hantily ijiflmiiu'i''! m 
"indecent." There is still n wide difTerenee of opinion as to the 
limits to which the j)ractice of nakedness may be carried, and nliw 
U to the age when it should begin to be nvtrictcd. The fact that 
ihe adult generation of to-day grew up under the influence of tlie 
old horror of nakedness is an inevitable check on any revolu- 
tionary ehangcM in thee« tti&tterti. 

Maria Liiichn(vwi)ta. one nf the nhlntt Bftvnottra of the mclhixlicAl 
vnlightciiincnit of rhililrcii in iimlttTn of wm ^op, cif.l. cli-arly rrnliKMi 
lliut 11 "iiiio RllitiiJc towarilB th<- bmly li*s at tli^ iwit of a wuml ediira- 
tion for life. BliP flndii tlint the clikf obiwlion vncvimU-rrd in »ui:li 
cduciition. n« Hjipliivl in tlio biKlivr duMM of «Mioolii. it "t)ip horror of 
the clrlliMol man at ht» own IkxIv." Sh» shows that tlirrr can bo no 
>1iiii1)l that tliow ulio »TV i-iieii|!<xl in the (tifnciilt (a<'k of worklnif 
lnwardu Ihe alxilitinn of that niipt'iittltloiiii horror h>re Ukkrn np a moral 
task of Ihe liTst iiu porta niM-. 

\\'altrr (ipr1iar<t. in a thoughtful nnil sriiiiihlc pfl[ipr on tli<> i 
tioiml qurstion ("Ein Knpitrl «ur Kriiieiiungsfriige, (IrKhlrekt un 
Cairllnch'ift. vol, i, lli'ft 2), points out that it \* the ailiiJt who n«e(l« 
cdufuliun in Ihia mutter — a,» in lO many other matlprs of nov-ial mlit(ht- 
minioiil — roiwlili-rahly mor* than tlip child. Parpnt* fdufiite liwir chil- 
dren fioin the earltest yearn in pnlflTy, and vainly (liitl^r IhcmsHi-M 
that they have (hereby pi'nmoted their nioeleily and morality. Ho 
rreordn hit own eurly life iti a (ropi''ul tnnti ami acoiiBtiMneft In nakeil- 
nmm from tho flnit. "It Was not till T eanip lo fiermnny when nearly 
(wMity Uiot I Imrnt that tlii^ buiunn body is indMvnt. and that it iiKiHt 
not bo ahonn h(ieBn«> that 'wniihl aroiiw had impulira.* It wan not till 
the humun body wan «ntirply withdrawn from my (iglit and after I wiu 
eonntantly told that there wna unietlilnii iniproprr l>ehind etothei. that 

I uas able to undrrnlnnd this l*ittil thrn 1 liiid nut known 

dial a naked t>ody. by the mere faot of being naked. n»iUI ari.use erotic 
fwlinga. I hud known emlic feellnKi. Inlt they hnil not nriwn from the 
alght of the linked body, but ji^adtuitly btuKMinvd from the nnlon of our 
aoul«.~ And he drawn the final moral that, if only (or the aake o( OUT 
diildreK. we niuitt learn to nlueate uurwtves. 

Porol (/lie flrj^fltf Ftagr. p. HO), dpcaking in entirely the MM* 
•HIM as (i^rliurd, leniarkii that pntdei?' may be dther canned or cured 





in oliililivD. It 1IIAJ' hn citii^-il hy iindiif Hnijpt)' hi povrrjnjt thvir IkhIjch 
And liiding from thi-tn thn bodiia of otlK-r*. It may be oured by niuking 
Uirm rrotiMi tlmt tlicrp In notliing iii th<i txMly llint is iinnfltiiTnl mid 
tliat wc nerd hr u^limuvtl uf. Kml by encourH^iiig bnlbhig of t!i(! aexra in 
cnmmon. lie point* oiil (p. S131 the Ailvrnilngi"' of nllowing rhildron 
to be aoiuaintitl wiMi the Hilnlt tfrnm wbU'li tlioy will (livmHclvCH eomir 
day »«iiim», nnd ™ndcmn« tlir pDnditct of tlinsr fonluh prrsonn ivho 
■animp lliat I'liilUrm alri'Bdy |>n>»u-Hii tlip Hd'ill'H PnilK' f^litign nboiit 
thp bmly. Tlinl U no fur frnm brxnti llin rniw tlint clitlilivn »tv fre- 
quently nimble to diitiiigvish the wx o( other children npnrt from Uieir 

At the Mannlieim CongreB* of llie Gennan Society for Comboliiijt 
V«iier«Al I)l*rn*e«, njwKially drvot'd U> iwxiinl lijKiene. Uie ii|)i-ak<'rt ron- 
otanlly rrteired to the necp«»ityof promoting familiarity witli the naked 
body, Thtw Rulenbiirn nnd Julian Marcuw {K'j-uoljiiUlag'iiiik. p. 2(Ht 
nnpliniiKe the fmporlnnce of nir batliB, not only for tlie naki' nl the 
phyoiea) licttlth of the yuuiitr. but in the interiritfi of riitional ne.xual 
trntnlnjc. Hnlter, n tmeher, »pfiikin(( at the name oonjiromi (op. iHI,. p, 
SSI. aft^ insinting on faiiitliaTily with the nude in nrt and lileraturr. 
and protvatlim afpiinat the l)On'dler luting ol poenia for the yoitna^ eon* 
tinaca: "Bf bu thing- it ntweri ordinanem no noul wni evnr yet laved 
Irnm moial ruin. One %'lio bus leiiml lo enj'ny |)enoi.'fii11y the nnk^d in 
art U only utirred by tlie nnked in naliire a* by a work of art." Ender- 
lin, anolhcr lenrhcr. Hpeiikinj; in the •ntine Hcnite (p. ."in), |H>iiit» out 
that nakednnu ennnot net iwiunllT or inimornlly on the rhitd. ilnee the 
MXUal inipulw hut not yet become pronuiiniyd. and the enrlier he i* 
lntr(idui<i^ In the nukiil in nntnro nnd in ait. nn n mnttpr of eoiirnf, tho 
lea> likely are the wxtinl fei'lingi to he dex-elo[>ed precocioiiily. The 
dijld Ihm, inilri'd, tireonieii Imninni' ti> impiiri' Inllnenci'it, w> that later, 
trben reprewntationa ot the liude are brou4;hl before him for Uie object 
nl ptioiviking lit* wantonneiu. they ar^ powerleiu to injiim hlni. Tl U 
inportanl. Koderlin ad<l«, for faiuiliuritr with (lie nude in art lo be 
tMTnt at arJiool, for moit of iii. na SIcbert rrmarlu, hav^ to IrHrn purity 
Uirotigli art. 

>IakedneH in UtUiiiig. rcnmrki Itoliwbe in lii> I.irhftebrn in rtrr 
Xalmr (vol. iii, pp. Hit *■/ «''';.), «" n1r*inly In W5tne tm-imure posdewi; 
wa BMd it 111 phyvknl rxerdiiei, nl tir*t for Ibn vkpi M'yiHrnti'ly ; then. 
«(■•■ wc have grown n«iLitomed to tlie idea, ueea^ionally for both aexrs 
l«gKh«r. We neMl tu acquire the enpacity to veo the bodirx uf Indlvld- 
nal> of th* other trt with mieh ■elf-Fontrol nnd Eiieh nnturul in»tinet 
that Ibey become non-erotie to ub and can he gMU-d at without «rntia 
tfiing. Art, he •ny", nhowii tlinf this i« poMihle in eieitiiation. 
Seienee, he add*, eomtn to the aid of the wiine view. 

Ungcwittcr (Mo Xtu^Hhrd, p. S7) alio ndfoeatea hoy* and ^irla 




enffajtlng in pla^ mid g;,viiiiifl'iti>-ii tog«tliar, rutifcly rinkoci In nir-batlio. 
"In thin way.'" he liellevt-i. "lUc gfrnnaNJum wouM become o school of 
nioralllj, in viiirh jnung giuwiiig tiling wouli,) )h> «,h\t to Tctaln their 
puriljr an long na posiible Ibrougli breoming unlurullj' iircuiituiiii-il ti> 
Mch oUier. At th« Mtne time their bMlics would be hiinli'iinl anil 
dn-alo|Md, and the prnvcptiiin of bmiitifiil nml nntiiral fomi* nwnki-ncil." 
To UiOM who hm"* any '"inoriil" dmibu on the innitrr, ho meiilionn the 
Cimfom III iemo(« fcrimtry ili*trift>) of boy* aTid ([frU bnlhlnn iDBrtbcr 
quite nokeil and without nny uriunl coniciottiairai^ RnduU Sonunn'. 
■inillnrly, in nii vxerllpnt artlclp piitittril "Mild^'benprtichiinK niler Men' 
Bplu'obiidungr" iOcjichlrvht uiut (ItteJUrheft, Hd. i. Heft 3| uclviiM thut 
children ithoiild bv iiindv Hi-oimtomed to each other's nnkrdneM troni nil 
e«rly agr in lUc fiiinily life of the liouw or the gnrih-u. iii giimen. and 
opeeinlly In )>alb!n|l: ha r«miirl(> thnt pnnmtn having children o( only 
one iie\ sliuuld euUJvute for their children *i iiikc intimate relHtiont with 
a family iiui i«(t ■-hihlr«n of liki* age of the o|ii>o"ite wit, »o that they 
may grow up togptbpr. 

It is scarcely neci^flarY to iidd that the cultivation of nakffl- 
nv^s must alvaye he conciliateil with reejiect for the natural 
in8liiirt« of niodei^ty. IT the pructico of nnkcdnciis tod the younj; 
to esperience a diniini^ilit'il levcreiitH' for their own or others' per- 
eonalitiea the advaDta;;ca of it would he too dearly bought. This 
is, in part, n matter of wliolcgoinc invtiiiet, in part of wise train- 
ing. W« now know that the fth«encc of flotheti Ims little relation 
with the flbsoice of niodesty, such relation as there ts beinp of 
tho in\~cr>« onler, for the savngc ntcos which f^ nuked arc usually 
more modest than tlioae which wear clothes. The saying quoted 
by llcrodutuB in the early Greek world that "A woman takes off 
her modesty with ht-r itliift" was b favorite text of the Christian 
Fathers. Ktit I'lutarch, who was also a moralist, had already 
prot«)*ti-d at;aiutit Jt al the cloHe of the Orwk world: "By no 
means," he declared, "she who U modest clothes licr«clf with 
modesty when she lays ai-ide her ttmic." '*A woman may be 
naked," nx Mnt. Bii>hop. Ilic traveller, remarked 1o Dr. Baclz, in 
Japan, "and yet behave like a lady,''* 

The question is complicated amonj; oursclrce because estab- 

> Sc" "The Evolution of Modesty" in (he fimt vuhiine of theie 
filudiet, where thia (lueition of the rclul.lonihip of nnkrdneu to niodmbr 
Is fully dLwiiaapd. 






liahed traditioim of rigid coDcealmeot have fostcifd a ])nirit'iiiy 
wbicli it na uffra«ive iiuult to iiukud Din(]i.-.->tv. la iniiiiy lands 
the women u'lio arc accurtomed to he almost or tjuite unked in tlie 
preseoce of their own people cover themselves as soon ns they 
kccDtDe coiisdous of Ihe ltii<tful iii4|ui^tlive vyvn of Kumjicans. 
Stratz refers to the prevalence of this impulse of offended 
modesty in .Tapan, and mentions that he hiniei-lf failed lo uroiisp 
il iimply boeuuse he was a phy»iieian, and, iiiorcovor, hnd long 
Ured in anolhc-r land {.lava) wheie alto the cuftoni of naked- 
new prevails*. ' So long as this unnatural prurience exi»ie a free 
nnrpialiru'd nnkitlnc«s iii rendered dilTieull. 

Modesty is not, however, the only natural inipuW which 
hut to be considere<l ia relation to the custom of nakedness. It 
seciDH probable tiiat in cultivating the practice of nakedness we 
nrc not merely carrying out a moral and hrpienic prescription 
but ailowiog Icgitininte scope to iiu in^tiiict which at some 
periods of life, e«p«:i«Iiy In adoU-Hcome. Jn Kpontancoui? and 
natoral, even, it may be, wholesomely based in the traditions of 
the race in st-xual ^'lection. Our rigid conventions make it 
im]>os>iitb1e for us to dificover tlte lawn of nature in tbi« matter 
by stifiing Lliem at the outset. It may well be that there is a 
rhythmic haniiony iitid concordance between inipulscd of modesty 
and impulM°a of ostentation, though we have done our best to 
dis^uiHe the natural law by our stupid and perverse by-laws, 

Ruuilcj' Hull, who Rmphaaixi^ llio Imporlwico at nnkvdnriia. rnnnika 
that at pubtrly wt hnvv iititGh rwuon to av^uini- tliul in a ntnlr of niitim 
tticr* in ■ rcrtain llmtinrtini prido *nil nud'ntAtlon l.lint ni-rompnnlo tho 
new (on! drwlopinrnt, and ((uoteii Ihv obwrviiliun of l>r. S4«rlF}' tlint 
Ibc Impiiliw lo ro[i<'i':il tin- "f.Miul urpiii'i i" •■•jHi-inlly ntnrkoil In young 
nun who arr Uiidcrdrvi'lnprit. Iiiil, not rviilcnt in llioac wlio hk! lU'vrlojx^l 
Wyrad lilt' at-rnigi'. Stunlcy Hull (.Udfraorrtrc. rol. ii, p. 07], also 
i*i*n to the frnpirnry willi wliieh not only "vlrt'icnw jroimg nion, but 
♦Twi wooiPD, lathpf glory in ofcmrionii when tlipy cun diirpluy the bmiity 
ol thfir form» witlimit ivtfTvv. tint only lo tlieniwtve* nnd In IovmI one*. 
but rrm to ollirr* wltli pToprr (itPtPXtn." 

itrntif have floiibllpn" iioiwl tMn tendency, euppcially in womon. and 

1 P. H. Rtral*, OtP Klfrprrformrn IH Kn«»t tind Lfben rfffr Japanrr. 
Socoad edition, Ch. Ult kL, Fnactiklridans. Third edition, pp. 23. >0. 




FsycuOLOr.T of hvx. 

cblcdy in tlioio w\ii> are nuiwioiia of tK'Uutltiil p1i.v*icn1 di'volopiiiMit. 
}iaduu« Celine Rmooz Ik-Hcvi-h thnl tin- Uinli'iicy oorrvHiwutl" to n rMiUf 
Jcnp'TOotc^it insliiirt iu nunji'li. liltli' vi not nt all mnnifi-ilrtl in inrn 
who huvp consMiucutly iMUglit In iii>|)a>M> itrtiflcially un uoiurii tlicir oven 
tBBWTulijae conoqition* of modntr. ''In the nptun) Mln ul thf young ^rl 
to-ds}' there i« k inoruciit when, by a wirntl ntaviaiii. ■>)>■> (rrU the pride 
of her Hx, Uie intuition of her niaml ■upcrioritT «n<l cniinot undenttnd 
why »h« miiiit hiile itn cnnw. Al thi« inouu-ot. wavi-Ttiig Wlwwn the 
Isw-n of Naliin" Hiiil w>oi;il ruiivpiitioiit, -dr- wiiiwily knoMx !( nnliednoM 
*hoiild. or ihoiilit not. nfTrlxlit Uei. A Mil of o>Tifii«vl atnvi>ttc mraior}- 
Tocalh to her a period before elolhiii^ wiik knunii. Hiid rvrfnld to h*T •« 
D (Mradiininil IHral tii* pinttoniih of thnt liiiiiinn e|Kieh" l(Vlinc Renooi, 
Prf/ehotogie C'oni/Mit^e rfr I'lloinmr rl de la frmme, pp. 8S*87 I . I'erhapii 

thU WBn oliK'-iiTel.v (pit by tlie Gennati jrfrl (meiiiiuiii'.l in KulWck'* Life 
of BrahniMi. nlio unid: "One enjoys muaic twice a> inueh Hfrolkiff," 

From tlic jKiint of view witli wliidi wc arv }«?«• essentially 
concerned there are three waya in whieli the cultivation of 
nitk^nes^ — eo far as it is permitted by tlip elow cduciition of 
public opinioii — twid* to exert nn influctiw: (1) U it an 
iniportaot element in the sexual iiy^fiene of the young, intro- 
ducing a wholesome knowledge and incuriosity into a sphere 
onee given up to prudery and pnirienty. (2) The effect of 
Dakednc-sa is bcneRcinl on thntte of morv mature ftgc, nlwi, in no 
far ae it tends to cultivate the sense of beauty and to fumieh the 
tonic and eonroling inllucoces of natural vi-ior and jn'ttee- (-0 
The custom of nakednow, in itx inception nt all orents, has a 
dynamic psychological influence also on morals, an influencQ 
exerted in the Hiibntitntion of a t^trenuoiis and positive morality 
for the merely negative and timid morality which has ruled in 
thiu Uphere, 

Perhapg there are not many adults who realize the Intense 
and secret absorption of thought in the mindg of many hoys and 
some girU concerning the problem of the physical conformatioD 
of the other sex, and the time, pntience, and iiitclle<-tua] energy 
which they are williu)^ to expend on the colutlon of this problem. 
This is mostly effected in secret, but not seldom the secret 
impniae manifevtc itself with a sudden violence which in the 
blini) eyes of the law is reckoned aa crime. A German lawyer. 
Dr. Werthauer, has lately stated that if tliere were a due degree 





of fniuiliiirily witli tliu itiitiirul uiigsiiK uiiil :(un<;tIoiiii of tlic 
opposite wx oinety ]>cr ccril. of t)iu indeci^iit ai-bi of voutbs with 
girl cliildreo would disapjioar. for in iiioflt cases tlnwe are not 
UMulU but iiK'ruIv till- iunoc^Dt, llinugh um'ontnillidde, out- 
come of a rcprcKM'd natuni! curinnily. It in tjuiti- true tliiit not a 
few children boldly i-idist eadi others' tuoperatiou in the 
aettli'inent of the <|ue»tion mid rceolve it to their itnitiml natiii* 
faction. Itnt evi-ii this i* n<it nl toycUuT witlsfnclory. for tlie 
end is not atliiimd openly and wliolesoniely, with a due sub- 
ordination of tbo fipccifienllj fiexuiil, but with a conMeioiitniuw of 
vrrong-doing and an exclusive iitttiili\'i-iiei*K to the merely 
physieal fact whicb tend directly to develop eexuul excitement. 
When fumiliarity witli tlie ntil«il body of the other iiiix io gained 
openly and with no consciousneas of indeeoruui, in the course of 
worlc ntid of play, in exercise or pj-mnastics, in running or in 
Wthin^, from a child's varlieHt yiam, nn iiiiwIii)1i'«oijk' results 
BGcoinpany the knowledge of the c«eential facts of physical 
confonnntion tlniM naturally acquired. The pnirimrc and 
pnid«rT which have poisoned sexual life in the past are alike 
rendered impossible. 

Nakednew has. however, a hygienic value, ns well as a 
spiritual sifcnifleance, far beyond its influences in nllayinjj the 
natural in(|iiisitiveness of the ynun); or acting ns a preventative 
of morbid i-iuotion. It is an Inspiration to iidutts who have long 
out|;rown any youthful curiosilies. The vision of the csscntiut 
find elcmaj hiiinan fonn, the nenrol thing to us in all the 
world, with itit vigor and it« bcAuty and itji grai<e, is one of the 
prime tonic* of life. ''The power of a woman's body." said 
JanK'S Hiuton. "is no more bodily than the power of music is 8 
power of atmospheric vibrations.'' It is more than all the 
beautiful and stimulating things of the world, than flowers or 
star* or the wn. History and legend nnd myth reveal to us tlie 
sacred and awful influence of nakedness, for, as Stanley Hall 
says, nakedness has always been "n tiilisman of wondrous power 
with gods and men," How sorely men crave fur Ibc *pe<'taclo of 
the human body— even to-day after generations have inculcatwl 
the notion tliat it is an indecorous and even disgusting spectaolo 


witnessed by the oagerno** with wliicli tlicy ecck after Hie 
CtACio of even ita iniiKrfect niid ineretTiciotiR forms, altliougli 
tiiMe oertainly poe^ase a lu'ady and sliinulating quality which 
can never be found in tlie putbetie Him]t]icity of naltL-d licautj. 
It was nnothor jt|>fi-tn<'li; when thi- ■iiK'vnN of unrifiit Mndagancar 
at the annual Fandroon, or fc^st of the balh, laid aeido thdr 
royal robw and wbile tbuir subjertH crowded the iwlacL' courtyanJ, 
di«eeinli-d the marble steps In the butli in complete nakcdnces. 
When we make our conventions of clothing rigid we at once 
spread a feaH for hi»t and dunv ourifelvcs one of the prime tonic« 
of life. 

"X won ffcling in dttpoir niid wnlkiiiK dmpoiidcntly nlonR n MH- 
iMunic Htri^el." nritv* tlie Aii^trnllun aiitlior of n yot uiipiiljll"lK>(I iiuto- 
liioKTupliy, "when tlin-i- cbildivn ciiim.- Tunning ont of a, Iniic onil rnuMiil 
tlii> roud ill full ikyliglit. Tlie Ix-anty ttiiil t«x(iuv of tbvir U-gi in the 
o|)Fn air Dllnl me witli joy. m> Ihat 1 for^t oil m>- troubli-i whiUt 
looking at tli«in. It woh a bright rcvMaUiin. an uiio\[Hi;tcd glimpM of 
Pnrailii'i'. and I havn ncvrr <vn»d to tliunk the liii[ipy combinRtion of 
almpp. pule MixhI. nnd Ibir «kiii r>f tb«M> puv«rl,v-«trit'ki-ii diildrm, for 
Ibf ivinil »eBiiied to qiilckpn their golilen bennt.v, niid I retained th* poay 
viiion of tbcir natural yoinig iiniW. to ninch more divine thnn those 
alunyn under rorer. Aimtlier wou^ion kIicii nukvil yutuig linilj* made 
mc forjtet oil my k'""'" ■■"' drmiondeney wim on my flmt visit to 
Adelaide. I eume on a naked buy kuuin)[ un ihc Tailing nmr the Batha. 
and tlio benilly of bl* face, tontn, fair yountc limb* nnd eiqllUlIc fc«t 
flllcd m» witli joy and renewed hope, Tlie tear* earae lo my eyes, and I 
Mid to mywK. 'ffbile there in lieaiity in the world 1 will eontinue to 
struggle,* " 

U> must, an BOIkIic deetnrci (loo. oft), oci^utitoni oursirlves to gam 
on the naked human body exaHly as we gaie nl h beautiful (lon>«r. not 
merely with Uie pity ivitli which tlie doctor look* .it Ihe body, but with 
joy in ita ^trongtli and henltli nnd Waiity. Fur a llowor, as BiiUcbc 
truly addi, in nut merely "naked liody," it in tlie most oacred region of 
tJic body, the «e\uiil nricnri* nf the plant 

"For glrln to dunce naked." »id tlinton, "i> Uir only tmly pare 
form of daneing, nnd In doe time it must therefore come about. This in 
eerlain: girl* will dnnce naked and men will be pure enough to gaM 
on them." It has already been no in Greecp, he elHewheie reiiinrkii. as 
it ia to-day in .lapan (an more recently deoeribeit by Klrutzi. It U 
nearly forty year* sinee therte prophetie wordo were written, but Hlnton 
liimtelf would probably have been aurpriaud at th* progreaa which han 

lJ,j-,-'':irjy ' 




)lTtnd]r bvL-ii waAa hUiwIj' (for iill tr 

. luust be hIoh'I tuwarda 


thi> S""'' )^vcn on tlic itBRr ni^w nn<l niorc iiaturul trnditlon* nrp Ix'^in- 
niiig to |iTi>vail Sn Europe. It ii nut miiiiy j-ruri vini'c an Englisli iiFiit'** 
rp^rdrd a» a CHliiiniiy t)ip ntDlviriviit lliut cliv iip|)«nivd on Ihi.- aUgn 
bare-foot, and bruuglit an action tor HIifJ, irinninK ■ubatitntial ilaniagM. 
Surli a rc*iit( «>ould warcrlj' Ik pouiiblv lo'doy. Tlie niovcni'-nl. in vrhich 
Tradora Dnncnn wan ■ plonpiir Iiiio Ipd li> a partial didiiao aiiiniiK ilmircri) 
of Iho olTcntiie dirvicp of liglit*. and it in no linijiiT conaidi-'ri-d iiidivor- 
nii* to nhow RianT part* of IIir body wliirli U, nan fornii>rl,v iiNiinl to 

It idiould. Iion-cvrr, b« addvil at lb« »nnie time tliat. wlilt« danot^ra, 
in la fur a* thc^ are gi^nuine arliila, are nilillpd to di'triTiiini' the eon- 
ditlont nio*t fnvoTablo to tlit'lr nrt. ii'ilhhig wliiili>vi>r i» piim-d for tlii' 
muM of a wholcwinic tnlture of nak<-dnns by lUe "living itatiicn" and 
"living pictures" whirli liavr iiblaiii''d an international vDuut- diirhiK 
riTcnl jTara, Tb«c iiiuy hv l(');itiniiili- an variety pcrfarmnncm. but 
thry hov* n'>lliinjj uliati-vijr to iln witb eilbi-r Xutiiiv iir art, l)r, Pudor, 
writing an onD of tbr purlii'nt apoitlm uf the culture of nakcdnnu, bni 
cnt-rgetinfilly prolcdtwl ajjainit lbp«* |ierfnrmanoofe (Srraal-I'iobltine. 
Dm., IfiOS. p. SiS). He riglitly jiuiritfi out tbut nnkednent. to )ir whotc- 
MMne, r(!quir«« the op«ii air. Ibv inMdou'H. Ihi' •iiulight. and Ibat niikcd- 
DCM at nlftlit, in a mimic hall, by artiflcini ItKbt. in tlip prownrt- of 
•pMtatort wlio are tlipuinvlrea riollied. lias no dtincnt of morntity about 
It. AttemptH havi* Uvtv and tlicri- bi-ou ijuit-lly niaile to cultivutc a cer- 
tain anioiint of inutunl nak»dnc>ii u* bi'tHi-cii tlic M-xet on ri'niot'' country 
DXcunioni. It U DigniQeant to find n record of such nn experiment in 
Vngewilt*r'» Pie \aekthril. In iM-i rn-* a |ini'ty of peiipl<>, men and 
wmnen, would regiilatly every Sunday wek n-iiiole spots in uood* or 
RiMdows where tliey wniilil letile down, picnic, nu'l ••nyn pimes. "Tliey 
niBd« thmmelvnt a> coinfortjiblu us jniiiible, tlie tncrn laying aiide their 
coata. waintfoat-t, IxmU und >uii'k«; flic women their ldi>n*>-ii, iklrta, 
KhoM and ■torkinip. Orndually. aa the moral eonceplion of nakedneas 
developed in their niindn. mure and niuTC clolhiiiK fell awny, until th« 
nm wor« nothliiic hut bath inn-d rawer* and Ibe n-nmeri only tlieir 
ehemiiKv. In lhi« 'euatuuie' giiuies wen- ciirrli'd "ill iu •-ouimon, and ii 
regular cnmp-IKc li-d. The Indici (*onic of "bom wcrp unmarriedl 
muld then lie in lin'uinoek>i and we men on th-; s^n'i. und (he inler- 
courw wan delightful. We felt ni lyicniher* of one funiily. and lirhaved 
■ecordingly. tn an entirely nutunil and unenibmrn!™''! way we gave 
eumelrra up eutindy to the liberating feelinga urouM-d by this lij,'hl- and 
klf'bath, and pA«*ed ihma >p1endid lioiira tn joyous singing nnd dancing, 
in wantonly childish fashion, freed from the burden of a falne eivilixa- 
tlon. It was. of eourse. nere>.»flrj' to teek upot" as remote nii pn"ilbl» 
from high-road*, for fear of being diitturlwd. At the wim« time we by 





w utx. 

no nMU fiiilcd hi nutuml niodi^*!}- uml cDHudPialion towardu one 
MioUwr. C1iil'lri-ii. who cnn tm fiitlivT}' imki'il. muy bv allou^d to UkA 
pnrt in nurh mcplingit of n'lulti. nnd nill thus bt- bruiigitt up free from 
■uorbid pruili^ri**' {It. I'ligpwitti-r, Dit XacltKril, p. &9). 

No doubt It may bn *nid tliat Oio Ideal In thia matlAr U Um pos- 
lilbitlty of permitting <^iii|)Wi! nnkmlnm*. Tliin nmy he RdtnittMl, and 
ft id undiMihli'dli' Imi<- llinl our ri}i\A ]>ali«' i'i-)[ti1flticin> do much to 
■rtilldally to*U-i a pomcpulment in Ibi* innlti!r which ii not bntnl on 
any nBtuml in-tinct. Dr. SIiiiMilt nanntcH in hi" HlnJir« of the 
Hwnitn FoTm (lint onre in thi^ c»iitAM' of n phologrujihio expedition is 
th« woods Ut nine upon t»i> Uiy*, iiiikvd i>x(->>pt f»r UitliliiK-'IravfpTs, 
•nKBffnl in ((ritind Mutrr lilii^n from a pond, lie fuimd them a gooi 
•ubjn-t for lii-i cuinvru. but they could not be induced lu rcmovo tlidr 
dravcra, by no mran* out of pilli«T niodcutj or mock -mod city, hut nimply 
bccHiinc tlicT fciir*d Uipy tni^il poi-lbly be cutight uml luri'-tcl. Wft 
harrt to r»eoKniiM- thnt nt the prmnit <lny Hip Ruicml |w>piilnr nentimcnt 
h not yet "ulWcicntly cducut»d lo «llow of public iliwciwrd for the iiin- 
Vwition of ("vprinK the h'XiIiiI ccnlrea, nnil all alti-mptf to rxtend thn 
boundB of iiakedutu must «hmv n due r^giunl for thi'i rv<|iiiroiui-nL A» 
eoaetn* women, Vulf^lin I.rlir, of Frclbuig. in DreiKgnii, biio inventod 
a poittiimo (11)^iTitl in I' n;^ witter'* Di< SaeUh'ti] which ii xiiilnble for 
clthiT public niilerliutb* or sir bnlh*, h<-citu>c il mi^i^A th? dfmntiil of 
thoHC whone miuiinum requirement i* Ihut the chief gexnni cmtrc* of 
tlie body whouM bv c«v»rcd in iiul)Iic. wliilu it i» otherwidC fairly unob' 
jectjnnnblc. It ron^int"' of t«-o picrcii, nindr of porniii mntcrlol, one 
roverUig the brcaaU with u Iwnd over the ohoiilden, Hnd the other COV' 
ering thn abdomen brioiv the nmcl and drnwn between the lefpi Tliin 
minimal co*tum», wliile nt'Ilh^r idwiT nor wathetic. adfwiiintely oovpm the 
•exiiol reKloiii of the body, while leaving (he arm>, mini, hip*, and lc|p> 
onltrely free. 

Tlicre finally remains tlie moral af^poct of nnk(>iln«>s. 
Altliough this hn* bwn nnplin«u(Hl by many itiiring Ihi» jiast half 
K-ntury it is still unfamiliar to the majority. The human body 
can never bo a little thing. The wise cdiientor may Bfe to it 
that boVR and girla arc brought up in a natural and wholesome 
fumilinrity with each other, but a certain terror and beauty 
mnit alwaVB attach to the spectacle of the body, a mixed uttrac- 
tton and ropuUion. Rccause it ha^ tlii« force it naturally c-nllc 
out the virtue of tl)o«c who take ptirt in tlie upectacle, ant! makes 
impoBsiblr any soft compliance to emotion. Even if »e admit 
that the 9i>ectaclc of nakednoes if a challenge to pa^tKioii it '\» »till 




a. L'liallea^ tlmt calls out the finuobliiig ijiinlities of self-control. 
It is but u poor ^ort of virtue ttitit lies in IIwd}; inlo the desert 
frniii lliiiigs tlist we i*!or i»ity litive iti tham u teiiiptaiiim. We 
hare to learn that it is even wor»e to nttempt to create a desert 
around ub in Uie mid»t of civilization. We cannot dispense with 
paiieioDS if ne would ; rcu«on. ns ilolbncli said, is tlie orl of 
chooaing thi^ right jiassions, and i^lucution th« art of mwing and 
cultivating them in luiman hearts. The tipectnclp of iinkcdness 
lias its moral value in tmdiiug us to learn to enjoy nimt ve do 
not poswRB, a Icsaon whicli i* an ctwcntial part of tin- training 
for any kind of fine swial life. The child ha-i to learn to look at 
Roirvni and not pluck then) ; the man has to learn to look at a 
woman's beauty and not d«iiirc to pflseem it. The joyous ctta- 
quest over that "«rotic klc))t<>!])iinia." as Ellen Key has well said, 
rcv(»l« the blotwoming of a fine civiiiMtion. We fancy tlin 
comiueat is difScuIl, even impossibly ditDcult. But it is not so. 
Tliis iinpnise, like other human impulses, tends nnder natural 
conditions to develop teniporat^iy and wlioicsomcly. We arti- 
lidally press a stupid and brutal hand on it, and it is driven into 
tht two unnatural cxlrrmeH of repression and license, oni- 
etttmc as foul as tiiu otiier. 

To those who have been bred nnder bad conditions, it may 
indeed seem hopeless to attempt to rise to (lie level o( the Greeks 
and the other finer tcinperod [lenpli's of antiquity in ntalixing the 
moral, as well as tlie pedagogic, hygienic, and lesthetic advan- 
tages' of admitting into life the vpevtaele of the naked human 

II linvn not (oriiii<|i?rHl it in ]>lnce lipre to emphiwlw the vBtliplfc 
iadtii^m'* of fumilinrily with nakFdn»!<. The nioiit Kithctic nuliunii (nut- 
liAy the Orrrku ami thi> .IniinnrBP) hnvc brrii tlinov tliat prfxirvfit a 
OCTtaiii i»KTvv of Inniiliiiril; with the niikeil body. "In all nrtu," 
Sbeturliack rptnorki. "citlliii'd jicoplpH bs<v« Approni-liixl or il^pHrtMl 
from pur* b»uty ntworiliTifa' it.i they npprcMitli«i or dcpartm] from Ihs 
habit of nakmhi'Mi." I'ligi-uitlcr iri>.i»(B on tW udviiiilui^' t^ tho artlit 
of iKini; Bl>le to iiiikIt Ihp natcil IithIv in iiinvpmdif.. aiid it muy b* worth 
mniitkininii tliiit Kidrnt niu;io IDippimerl, the (Vrnjan ar(int of tn-dnj 
wlio hai mci-rtwl f!Twit inlloenw I)_v hin frtnh, powirful and yet n'ver«'(il 
drlinnition of the tiili«i human form in all it* varvlng nspi-tta. 
attributn hU Inspiration and vision to thp fnct (hnt, aK n pupil of 
IM*fc&hEu-h. h* was a(>c'ustom<'d with his poriipniiioii" tn work nnfccd in 
the tolitadM outnH* Miinli^h which they frequented (F. EnKenKhorgpr, 
"Rdin," Dtnlsclt KuUur, Aug.. 1008). 




body. But uulesB Wf do we hopelessly letter ourwlvcH in our 
luiirch Hloiig the nmil of Ltviliziilioii, wt- ik'jjrivc oureolve* «t oiii* 
of a sourte of moral xtreiiglli and of ]ov»"!< initpiration. Just as 
Weeler oncv asked why the devil should have all the b^t tiinc:<, 
m lo-duy men are be^iimiiig 1o usl; why Hit? hiinian biHly, Ibe 
moat divine iticbidy at its liin-sl itioTmrntu that creation has 
yielded, should be allowed to become the peri]uisile of lliose who 
lu»t for the obscene. And some are. further, eonvinccd Ibftt by 
enlisting ii im t]j<- iiide of jniritv imil strength they are raisini; 
the most powerful of all bulwarks against the invasion of « 
vk'iou* conception of life and the fOU«tiucnt degradation of »wt. 
'I'hesit an- e(mi!iilcriili<ins which we cannot longer atford to neglect, 
however great the opposition they arouse among the unthinking. 

"FolV nri' flfniid of 1.11011 tliinga roUBing the jios'ion*." EJn-niil 
rnriwiilvr rvuiiirkH. "Sn dunbl tlir tliingx nmj ni-t thiil vuy. Rut why. 
wn mny nok. chinild pmplp he nirnlil of Toiiaing {insf'iuns whkh. after all. 
nil- the gn-tit driving fonvt of liiiman Mtvt' It it true, tlie SHiiie wrilrr 
cDntiniiH. our ranvpntionat moml formnlifi am no lonjjcr i>tron({ Mjough 
ti> fmiln)! |Hi»Ainn iiiIoi}uiit<-l.v. and that we nre grntTiiting •timm in a 
hoiliT Hint. Ih i^iiWrnl nilli riiit, "Tlif ciTri> U not to rut off tlie iiu*- 
■ions, or to bo weakly Mfruid of thciu. but lo And a new. imind, honltlir 
(•ii({iii*i "t p'lit'rul itinralily ami iimiTiinn tt-nvr wilhin wliich tlipy will 
work" (Kdwnrd Catpcntir, .Iftinii}/ llfi'irji>, Sept.. 10071. 

Ko fur ■« I am aware, IiOH^vcr. ll wa« Jhiiim nintnn who chielty 
sought to tnsikn elrar the poiHitiitily of a pniitivo mornltty on th« basU 
of nnkoilnviu. benuty. and M-\iuil inHuenci-. rr)n<Tdv<l Hit dynamic foir** 
u'liirk. whm niipprpupd. nmko for n>Tniptlnn and wKpii iriirly uiwd 
•ervo to iijHptr« and cnnoblv lili^. He n'orki'd oiit lii« Ihiiuzlita on tht* 
matter In MSS.. wittli-n from nlmut IR70 to hi» <tnnth two yrnr« later. 
which. ncr^T bnving Invn pivpBTPd for piiblicalion. miiaiu in a frnii- 
mcntsn' aiatp and hnvo nut tin'ii pnbtinh^. I quote a t<'w brii.'f clinrtf* 
trriHtii? piivuip'*: "In not." he wrote, "Ihr Hindu rcfu-uil to kv n 
woman rating atraiii^-Iy like rHiri to we one nsk'ilT Tli« r*«l M^iiRuatity 

of Hip thought in vinibly idrntioul Supposp. bcoBuie thpy 

ari* i]i-liriou» to f*t, piDvapploM w«r(> forbiitdfu to be Mcon. «XPppt In 
pieturea. and about that thptp waa (Oinethinft dubioua. Suppoae no one 
ntljihl hav« si|itit ol a pintwppl*^ iiiiIi-kh h« virt* rirh enoujrli to purrhaaa 
onp for hii partipiiUr rating, thp lijc'it and lh« eating ttriu^ hi tndii- 
alilhly jolnPil. U'bat liiAUulaPM wnnld aurround Ihrni. whnt ronatant 
pnlripDcy. what (truHngl .... Ui« told ua of her 

Syrian adTTntarN, and bow hIm wf^t into a woo(l-carv*r> ahop and h* 




Woiilil not l«ok ftt her; and liow ihc took uji a tcot and irork«(l. till nl 
Inn hr. looked, and tliv}' boUi Luihi out laughing. Will it nut lie ctvu 
Ml with our looking nt women nltogctlict! Xlii^re nill coni« a work — 

and at UkI uc nhnll look iiji und bolh liur^t nut Imighing 

Wliim inrn biw Irut}' itlial is amiM, anil act villi T^Hson nnd forethouglit 
iu T«>ipect Uf l\\v wxuul rftuiloiiii. n-jtl lUnj' not hi'Ul oil tin' «njoj'mviit 
of womrn'* liraiity hi; yoiitlii>, and from thu nailiest age. llint the finl 
ttfUag may bo of bconty! Will they not saj-. 'Wn munt not allow the 
falHi purity, we nmit hoTe the true.' Tlie fiilie !in» been tried, and it 
iH not gpoi cnougli; the power purely to eiij'iy bruuty must be gained: 
■tlnnipting to do with lem in fatal. Kv^ry in>liiirior nl youth iiliall 
•ay : 'Thiii braiily of wnmnn, Ood'» chief Hork rif henuty, it in Rood yoii 
MV it: It is B pleoiuri! that •errri Kooil; nil bmkuly wrvN it. uud above 
all tills, for ll« ofHw i* Iu inuk« you pure, rume to it no you comn to 
doily brrnd, or pnn> air, or Ihe deaniiing bath: this U pure to you if 
yoii b« pur*, it will aid you In your effort to be m. But If any of yo« 
an? Impiirf. and make of it the feeder of impurity, tlien you alioiild bo 
a^bamed and pmy ; It I* not fi*r you our IIIp can be ordm-cd; tl i* for 
men and not for Iwnitt*,' Tliln mii»t eome whi.-n men oiioii tlielr eye*, 
and net eoolly and wllb rca-nii and lore! lio'iKbt. mid not in mere {iBDic 
In r«»p«ct to the sexual passion In ita moral rplatlons." 

u.) Cji.)lm,;Il' 


■niB VALUATION Of SF.Xr.M. mx-fi. 

The Conrcption of Srxunl Lot<'— The Atcitud? <il Mrdim'al AiMtl- 
cism — St. Bcmurd untl I^l• Odo uf (.'luny — Tlic Aitivtit.' Insistmitw on llie 
PrMimity of tlip Sexual iiut] Excrolury— Lovi? as a 8acnm«ilt 
o( Nature— The Idea of Ihi' Im]mritr of Sex jii I'rJmitivc Itettgiona 
Genera 11)-— Theories of the (Jrigiii of Tliix Iden— The Aiiti-Aacelic Ele- 
luent in Ihc Itilde and Enrly C'lirUtinnity — ('leini-nt nf Alexandria — RU 
Ati)[iixtine's Attitude — Tlio Recognition of the Sueredneas of tlie Body 
Iiy 'I'tTtulliari, Kulliiw) and AthaiiAtdus — Tlie itcforniation — Tli« Sexnal 
Inatinct regnrdeil ns Itenstly — The llumnn Sexunl Instinct Not Animal- 
iike — Liut and Love — The Definition of Love — Love and Names lot I/«'e 
Cnknown in Some PbtI" <>( tbp World — Romantic Lnve of l^t* Derelop- 
inenl in the \\*hite Race — The Mystery ot SesunI IteBirt. — Wlwllitr Lei'u 
i« A Ih'liiKioii— Tlie Spiritual an Well fia the Phjaiml Stnicliire of the 
World in I'art Built up on Sexual Love— Tlie TeMiinony o| M»n of 
IntHlwt to the SupreniHey of I-ove. 

It will be *ecn tlial the prefCiliug iUficii»»ion of nnketltifta 
hu8 n HJgiiificnnoc beyond wliHt it npponred ta posxei^ »t the out- 
Ect. The hvj^ienic value, phveicallv and mentally, of familUrity 
with nakfdncw) during tbo early yetm of life, however con* 
Hideralilv it may \ie, is not tlie only value whieh such fainili«ritT 
poeseeWR. Beyond it^ te''tlietic value, al»o, there lies in it a moral 
valne, a toiiroc of dyiinmic energy. Ami now, taking a fltiU 
further step, we may say that it has a epiritual value in relation 
to our whole conei;ptiOD of the sevua) impulse. Our altitudo 
towards! the naked human hody in tiic test of our attitude towaixls 
the inetinct of sex. If our own and our fellows' bodies seem to 
ui intrinsically ttliameful or diHgui^tiu^. nothing will over really 
Minotile or purify our eonoeptions of iiexual love, liove craves 
(he Seeh, and if the Se§h ia Bhameful the lover must \k shameful. 
"Se la COM flinato i vile," ns I^'onnrdo da Vinci prnfouudly 
said, "I'amaiife se fa vile." However illogical it may have beeti, 
tlierc really was a justification for the old Christian identification 
of the flesh with the actual instinct Thej stand or fall 


l)y,-'^:i .jy 




tWr; u*e caiinot dugrmle the one and txalt the other. Aft 
■ fe«linga towardn Dnkedno«« ure, to will be our feelings toumrd* 

"Mail is nothing cIkp llinn ft-tid sperm, a sack of dung, the 
food of wonns. . . . You hav<' in-^or wen n vilprdiing-hill." 
inch was tlie oatcome of St, Bernard's cloifltcred Mtditationea 
'iuaimtrA Sometime*, indued, those mc-dimvul nionk« would 
lit that the i^in possened a cortain 9up(.Tfioiiil Ixinuty, but 
liejf only made lliat sdmUslon in oider to einpha!=ize the hideous- 
of OiK body when deprived of this film of lovelineBx, nnil 
rMr&in<Ml nil tlioir perrertH; intellectual noumen, and tlivir 
forociona irony, ae tliey eagerly pointed the linger of mockery at 
e^'cry di'tiiii of whnl .tei-incil t" tlicm the pitiful (igiire of num. St. 
Odo of {'luny— ch.irming saint as he wa* and a pioneer in hit 
appreciation of Ui« wild boAuty of the Alps be had often 
Iraversed — was yet an ndi-pt in thin art of reviling the brauty of 
Itie human body. 'I1iat beauty only he^ in the r-kin, he iosirts; 
if we could see beneatli thi; skin women would aruu»» nothing 
hut nauaea. Their adoniments arv hut blood and mucus nud 
biln If we refuse to touch diuig and pbh^gm evi-ti ivitb a finger- 
tip, how can we (leeire to embrace a sack of <)ung?- The 
m^dim'sl monk* of tin* more eontenipliitive order, indeed, often 
found here a delettabte field of meditation, and the Christian 
world gcnemlly wae eont<-nt to accept Ihoir opinions in more or 
]<■» diluted versions, or at all events never made any definite 
prote^rt against them. 

t UtditallOBfs tSi*iiiiir d« Copmili'i'if Rumantr ConititiOHU. MieauV 
Patr^»gia. rol, clxxiv. p. 4S(I. cup. HI. "De DignitnU Anim* ct Vilitat*' 
Corporis." It mn.v lie norlli wliile (o c)Uote ninr>> at Ipii)iI)i the vigoroiii 
Iangu>g> of the ori{{innl. "Si diligpnlpr tonsidprei quid per on et nnres 
nrtrrow|iie rorpori« m^^atiis Ptrrrdinhir. villii* Htirqiiilimim tiumqiiaiti 

.viilicli AtlPiutc. Iiomo. i|iiid fiii>li nnic iTtiini, et qttid » nb 

tu IIM|US ad OCL-Hsura, utqm- quid rtii pont liniir vitAiD. I>T»rrclo (iiit 

''ipund non >nii>t poRlnt di> vlU mnlnrln rnclun, el Tilinimo panno 

iKnlntus, inmHtniiili viiijrniiii^ in iiIito materno fuisli nntritiin. ot 

lunlen tan fult pi^lll* Grciiixllna. Nililt nliiid est homn qiiain xprriini 

fptidnm. mn-iiH uli-n-oruin, cilm- vi-rinliiin Quid Biipprliis. 

pnlvin et Hull, taijiw ronceplii* cula. nuwi iiiiwria. vivm- pii-iia, niori 
anpistis ?" 

zRn> [in MignM' ediliun) H. Odoni* abbalk ClunitKeiitui Calia- 
rfoitcs. lib. ]}, cap. IX. 




Kvcri men of Hcitunc iHtopti-d tln-iic ("ODC-eptionji anil iire, 
imkiil, only now iK^inniiig to <-mancipate thenifielTee from sucli 
iincient superstition*. It, dfi Qruef in the Prcfnoe t<> liiH famouit 
tif-ntife mi llnt^'i'iiernliteor^nnixirvnmcii, /*>■ ^fuHfrum Organit 
llcncradone Innifrvietilil'im, rledicatei! to C'lisnm 111 <le Mwliei in' 
IGTS, fonsitlen-d it iieciwary to aj)«lof;i«' for tlic aiibjcet of hit 
work. I'lvi'n n oontTiry Intor, IJnnjicii>i in fiis jireat work. Tk« 
Si/stfin of ,V(/(((jr, itUniissed as "abominnbic" tlic exuct study 
of the female gi^nitnU, iilthoiij^b he admitted the scicntilic 
i[iten>i<L of tiucli invc^ti]K:ntion!i. Ami it men of ftctem-c have 
found it difticTilt to atlain an objective vision of women we 
rannot be suipriKcd that mediievnl and «tiU more ancient 
onceptioiK* hnv(! often been subtly mingled witli the views of 
[ihitiwopiiinil and scnii-philoHophieal writers.* 

Wc may n-giird n« a special variety of the ascetic ticw of 
ses, — for tlie nw-eticB, as we see, freely hut not quite legitimately, 
based their a>tcctici«m largely on n-sthetie conniderations, — ^that 
inaiiilenre on the proximity of the wxual to the excretory centres 
which found expresBion in the early t'hureh in .Viigiistine'a 
depreciatory anwrtion; "Inter fjcei-B et unnam nascimur," and 
still por»iAt» among many who by no mean* nlwayp asitociatc it 
with reliRioii? aiicWidsm.- "As a result of what ridicidous 
ifonoitiy. iind of what Afephii'to|)hiliiin irony," asks Tarde,* 
"has Nature imagined that a fiineiion so lofty, so worthy of the 
poAlic and philoeophicul hymnt) which have celebrated it. odIt 
deserved to have itn c&cliiaivc organ shared with that of the vilest 
corporal functions!^' 

It miiy, however, he pointed out that this view of the matti-r, 
however nnionsi-iously, is ifcielf the outcome of the ascetic depre- 
ciation of the body. ?roro a scientific point of view, the 

1 Dnhmi (Xtve Fonhungea Hhfr rfiV Mai^tti* rfr X(iif«-, pp. 432 rt 
ar^.l ohowa how tliri narellr rlrw nf womnn'ii Imily prrolafHt. for inaUnn'. 
in Scliopenlmiier and Dp K«<Ip. 

sin "Tlic ICvolut ion of MwlMty," in the flrit volume of tliMS 
KiuiHrn. xnil ii)?iiii ill thi- ftftli volume in dix'nitini; urolngnin in tho 
Htiidy of "Krollr R^'mbnlium," tli« niiitnnl ri'ni'lion* of the wnusl ami 
pxcrptory ctnlrei wrn tullv drnlt with. 

'"L* Morulo Sexticllv," Anhirta H' Anthropologic CrimiHtiU, Jan., 



iDotalioliv ]>roc«SAca of Uic body from one- vnd to tlic otlicr, 
whether regarded cliemically or peycbolopically, are all int^r- 
voveo und nil of oqunl dignity. We cannot tR'pamte out any 
))i)rli(.ii]nr chcink-nl or biological procei^ and (Wlnrc: Thi« in 
vile. Kvpn what we call excrement still store<i up Ihe stuff of our 
livcit. Ealing liu« to some persons scctncd a diiign#tiii)! procesii. 
But y«t it liaa l>ecn po^ililo to »jiy, with Thorcaii, that "tlio gtvla 
have really intended that men should feed divinely, as tlicniHelvcA, 
on tlii-ir own nectar nnd anihrofiiii. ... 1 have felt tlint 
vatin)^ hecanu^ a itai'runient, a molhod of coniiiDinion, an cotatic 
e»rcise, and a Bitting at the communion table of the world." 

The wicr«moiit« of Xntura nrc in this way everywhere woven 
into the texture of men's anil women's l>odie«. Lipn goo<l to kina 
jtjtb are indeed Hn^t of iill chiefly j;oad to eat und drink with, 
nccnmulntcd mid overlapjictl have tho ccntn^x of force heconic 
in the long course of developmenl. that the mucous membranes 
of the Dutural orifices, through the Fiensitivenei<s gained in tJieir 
own ofHce*. bII become ngcntii to thrill tho noul in the contact 
of lore ; it ia idle to discriminate high or low, pure or impure ; all 
alike are stinetilied already by the extreme imction of Nature. 
Tlic none rcccivcit tiie brcnth of life; the vagina receives the 
water of life, t'llimntely the worth and Invelinens of life must 
be measured by tho worth and li>vo!ine«s for us of the instruments 
of life. The svelling breasts aiv such divinely gracious insignia 
of womanhood because of tlie potential child that hang" at them 
and Hiickf; the Inrge curves of the hips are so voluptuous because 
of the potential child they clasp within them; there can be no 
division here, we onnnni cut the roots from the tree. The 
•tiprcJuc function of manhood — the handing on of the lamp of 
life to future races — ia carried on. it in true, hy the same instru- 
ment that is the daily conduit n( the blit'ldor. It has been ^aid 
in scorn that wc are bom hi-twccn urine and cvcrcmcnt; it 
may be said, in reverence, that Ihe passage through this channel of 
birtli is a sacriimfiit of Xaturu's more sncreil and sigiiirumnl than 
men could over invent. 

These reiiitionships have been sometimes perceived and their 
uieunnig realized by a sort of mystical intuition. We catvh 



gliiiipaeB of Bucb an insight now and a)^n, first amon^ tlie pwtB 
and later utuong tin- pli,v8ioiiui8 nl tli» ReDaiManiT-. In lt!ti4 
Itolfinciug, ill hit Ordo et JUelhodu* Oeneralioni Partium etc., at 
the outset of the second Part devoted to the sexual oi:gans of 
women, set* forth wlinl anncut writer* have said of the Kleiiainian 
and otlier my-tteries and the (li*i,'otion and purity demanded of 
those who ap])roached thf^ sacred rites. It is so also with U8, Iio 
cunlintK-s, ill llio ritosof ^lieiitificinvvvtisntioi). "We also operate 
n-ith sacred things. The organs of sex arc to be held among 
sacred tilings. They who approach these altars must come with 
devout mimU, Let the profnnv i<land without, and the doors bo 
ctoKed." In tiioae dayx, even for science, faith and intuition vere 
flioue poseihle. It is only of recent years that Uio histologist's 
uiierotieoije and tlie physiological eheniiHt's tv-i<t-tube hare fnr. 
nished them n-ith a rational bflBis. It is no longer possible to 
cut Xature in two and assert that htn she is pure and there 

There Uiuii appear* to bo no ndrquale ground for ngroring with 
thOM who oonaidor tlml IliP proximity of tlip j|vncratl\'* and oxcrewry 
eoitre* !■ "n etupid biin){lv of IiHture'*." An tmsocialion which U so 
AUtleut nnil primitivr In Xaturn can onI,v OMini rrpiihivo to tlioM whiM» 
(rcljn;;* huvp Ixvomc murlmll}- ti mm turn I. It muv further 1« T*nwTk«d 
tliat tilt! uniis, which i" llir m'jrr ui^tlii^Ucnlly unutlraclne u( tlic MBr«- 
tflty rcntrc*, N ™m para lively r«nott from tho i>niial i jntrp, Bnil lh«t, 
at R. Ifpllinnnn rruiurk'.il many yMri ago iii diM.'iiSAing Ihia quesliou 
tVrbfT flciehi'vhl'frriliril, p, H2): "In thn lirnt plB<v, tifMr void*.! 
urino hu» nothing Rptvially unplrauint about it. and in the iM<ond plx*. 
wen if it hiid. wo might T<r{|ect that a roav muitth by no nxans loon ita 
elinrni mirrly Im-cbiim It falls to InTlte a kino at tlio monirnt when tt* 
■pniHeiiior in vomiting," 

A clergyman wrltM •ug^tliig that we may ^ (iirtlivr and tad a 
poaitivr advantage in tbla prodmity: "1 itm glud tlmt you do not agiM 
nilh Ihv man wlio ronnld^roil Ilini Nnturr liiid hunitlcd tiy luing th« 
lienltalk for urinary purpovi; apart from t(-lca1o{;[iciil or thfotogtcal 
KTouniU 1 tould not follow lh>it line "f r>-uM)niii)f. 1 think thi^re i« bo 
uvod tor diHgiiF't coiuwrnlng the iiTinary orgnn?, thoil^ I (pcI tlutt till) 

■ Hie ahovi' paxto^. now fillKhlly niodlHiMl. originally tannai an 
UKpubliahad part of an dh«v on Walt Whilmnn in Thf \rar ffp4ril. first 
iMusd In I8S0. ' 




kUiu run never W uUtucIivp Iu ilii- noriiiiil mttiili buL tlie tunu in (juite 
Mparat* from tlio gvnilslt. I ivoiilil suggest, tbiti Ihti proximity •nn'oa 
o KDOd end in making the orsnns more or !(-» secret uxccpt at Unicn of 
HTxnal enmtion or to thutic^ in Iny^. Tiie retiult ti tame dtgrfe of r«pul- 
uton at ordtnan- tltnva anil a strong altroction nt lime* of iirxua] 
Bctiiity. Hence, the ordinorj- guardinj; of the purts. from fenr of creot' 
ing ilisgiint. gi'««t1}' incmtHM Iheir BttrnetiveiiesB ut uthi^r liini'it uli^ii 
N'Miikl Miiotiun is porn III mint. Further, the ftrling ut <liBtr""t Itiielf U 
metely llie remit of haljTt ami sentiment, however imcfiil it tnuy be, and 
aoAHding to Scriplnie <n'er>'thin)t i" el«in iind good. 'Hie uncetic feeling 
of repuliioR. if we ICO hnck to orixfn. Is iliie to other tlirtn CTIirlntian 
influDDM. CUriatianily cumr out ot .tnduii>m which hiul tu> •i-uw of llie 
iiii|iuiity of marriaKc, for 'iincIPAn' In Iha Old IVstnment ulniply inenns 
'wtcnrd.' The aoet^tii: biih; ot ilir rrligiou of Chriolianity is no ^urt o( 
the religion of (litint an it enme ftoni the litimU of it* Fomiiler, and 
tliC mnd*rn tpcling on lhi4 tnulter U u tiiigerin;- remniinl of t!l(^ lier^Hy 
of the Uaniehimn*." I may add, howevpr. thai, hh >CortheotR points 
out (ChritiianUg and Brg PrabUmt, p. It), tide bj' side iu thv Ot<I 
Tistament with the frank reeognition of nexuolily. therc' is a ciicle of 
td«U rcnAling the feeling of iiiijiurity in sex und of nhuuic in iwunM' 
lion irith it. Chriiitianity inlieriteil this mixed feeling. It hai rrnlly 
brvn a wirWprm>(l and iilniMl nnivernal filing among Ihi- nneicnt and 
primitin people* that therr h sometliiiig Impure and sinful in th« thing* 
of wx, M> that thOM who u>oul<l lead ii reJigioun life uiiint avuid aeiuul 
relalionoliips; ercn in India relibncj- has eommnndeil reipeet (wn, e.g., 
\V«alcrmarck, ilarriagf, pp. 150 ef trq.). A> to Ihe ongiiiRl founduliun 
«( this notion — irhlch It It unneceewry to dii>.*ii>t-i tnoi^ full;' her« — 
nunr theorie* hnve been pnt forward: St. Aiigiiiiine, in hi» Dn Cii-itaio 
Dti, «(4« forth the ingenious idfti tlint the p<-ni^. being IlibU- to spon- 
tan«oiu roovementii and ereetiunn that nrc not under the control of the 
will, is a shumpfxil orjpin ond ini'OlvftH the whole aphere of nf\ in Itx 
ahanM, Wntcnnarek nrgiU'i thut among nearly all people* there i> ti 
feeling agiiust wxuut rr la lion h hip ^vith iiii'inh^n of the snni? Inmilr or 
houMbold, and a* wnc img thii* banJOird from the (.phere of dotne><tlc 
life a notion of IIa general impurity Hio«ei Norihcoli- po<nt>t out that 
from Ibn fir>t fl hna btien neeruaiy to leek coneeoliin'nt (or knxiinl inter- 
tmmiF, bfcaune at thiil moment the Kiiiplu wuidd be a prey to hodile 
nltacfc*. and that It wn> by an eauy trnnailinn Ihnt ift came to be 
re^rded aa a thing llint ought U> bti concealed, and. therefore, n hlnful 
tluay. (IKderot, in blH KappUinml au ^ojiaijf de Bovyainville, had 
alrwily r^frmyl to thin motive for Mvlnaion n* "the only nntnral ele- 
nwBt in nu»d»ty.") Crawley hnii dt'i-oted a large purt of hi* Migt.'eiHvi* 
wotic. The Mytiic Hote, to allowing that, to Ravage man, hct !• n iioriloiM, 
dangrroua, and enfeebling rJemcnt in life, and. therefore, tinful. 



rotooT or rbx. 

It would, however, bo a Diiatiike to tiiiuk tliat eucli men a« 
St Bernard and f4t. Odo of Chiny, adiniriibly as tlioy rc{ira«eiiti'J 
tlie iMViic am) cvcii tlic gciK-ral Christian views of their own 
time, »n> to be regarded as B]toget)ti>r typical cxitauents of the 
frenuine and primitive Christian view. So fur us I have Ihnui , 
libit- lo discover, during the fiint tlioiwaiid yvnvi at Christianity^ 
we do not find thii* eoinenlrntod iDtellectual and emotional 
fi-rocity of attaeic on the botly ; it only devetoped at the moment 
iilien. with Pope Gregory VII. niedin-vBl Christianily readied tho 
climax of its conquest over the roijIk of Eiiro|icHn men, iu the 
establiehment of the cclihaey of the eeculap clergy, and the growth 
of tlie great cloirtored communities of mi)nl<« in severely regiihitwl 
and eeelmled orders,* Before that the teacher* of ascelieism 
were more enncemcd to exhort to chtietity and modesty than to 
direct a delilieraiemid nystemntie attack on the whole body: they 
concentrated tbeir attention rather on npiritual virtues than on 
physical imperfi-cUonK. And if we go hack to the Oospelii we 
find little of the mediieval ascetic spirit in thi> roi^orted sayings 
and doin°:s of Jcshb, which may rather indeed be said to reveal, 
on the whole, notwithstanding their underlying asceticism, a 
certain tendernciw and indiilgenee to the body, while e»"en I'mil, 
though not lender towards the borly. exhorts to reverence towards 
it as u temple of the Iloly Spirit. 

Vt'f cannot expect to find the Fathers of the Church sympa- 
Ihetic towardii the spedaete of the naked human body, for their 
jio^ition WHS hn«ed on a revolt agaiiitit paganism, and pugnnism 
had cultivated the body, \akednew had been more especially 
associated with the public hath, the gymnasium, and the theatre; 
in profoundly dinnpproving "f these pagnn institutions Chri&ti- 

1 F.vpji In tlip ninth wntiiiy, linwnver, wli*n the mnuHTtic iiir>vciiii-at 
wa« rupiillj- dpvclopiiig, thcii; were hjiik- wlici ivitlnlood ilin tni'li'iiciiii 
ol tW iii>w nnc<>(kH, 'Diuh, iu S50, lUtrHtnimq, Hip inoiik of I'orbifv 
ntoln n trpnliiw I I.Urr lir nj qumt t'^iialu» m VIrffinr nittut c*fl Ii» 
prmt> tJiat Mni^- nvilly ipivi- hiiili li> .li-tii llimii^rh hin nrxiinl ur^o^ 
and not, ni> tmni- )iiicli*«tnmt: fKrionn wi'ri- iH'irinninK to tlilnk coulil 
alone l)« poMjUlr. Ilitniiffli llif inrtrp poiivi-iili'mnlij' dcoiiit breiud. Tlin 
Kf^iia) "Tirun* wiTp *iiii<'illl<-i]. "R|iirihiH wini-tnn . . . . rt Ihnla- 
mum Mnin <1ig»um apoiuu wincUflcMvit ct portiim" (Achery, Spieileffitiin, 
vol, i, p. 6S). 

Vuy .-<-i>t.^LsOO^[C 






anity tlieeourageJ iiakiiluc^i'. Tlie fHct tliut fHuiilianly witli 
nakedms^ wai (a\oiMi:, latlior tliiiii 'ippowd, to Uiv clittatity to 
wiiifli it attaclii'd sii inuili iiii|inrtance, tlie Cliurcli — HioukIi 
indoi-O at oil).' uiuiiicnt il acccptw) tiake<lne«i< in the rilo ot bap- 
tisDi — woe for Uif riiort part unable to «oi- if it wa* indrad u farl 
nliiWi tliu B])i'ciiil conililiniir! of deoadctit i-lagMic life Imil tended 
to dii^uise. Hut in their dwiiiwi |)referenie for the dressed o«r 
the naked human body tlie early C'hratians frequently lipeitated 
to take the further step of asserting that the body ia a fociia of 
impurity und that tin; jihyniciil org«n» of hl-x aiu a devicu of tliu 
devil. On tJie contrary, indeed, some of tlie iiio«t distiiigtiished 
of the Fathers, especially Ihoee of the Eiirteru Church who had 
felt tti« rivifying breath of CJrcok thoiiglit, oei-ii* ion ally exprwiMd 
tliemfelrefi on tiie subject of Nature, »ex, and the body in a 
spirit which would have won llie approval of Ooothe or Whitman. 

Clonu-nt of Alexiindrin, witli all the mrentrieitie* of his over- 
Bufitle iutt'llwt, was yet the most genuinely Greek of all the 
Fathers, and it i» not surpniung that the dying ray of clasaic liglit 
reflected from hi» niind Mied some illuiiiinalion over thi« question 
of sei. Ue protested, for instance, against tliat prudery which, 
as tlie 8UD of the clasi^ic world set, had begun to overshadow life. 
"We should not bo a^lianied to immo," he di-clnrod, "'what God 
has not been ashamed to create."* It was a memorable declara- 
tion because, while it accepted Ihc old dn^sic fi-fling of no ithaiue 
in the pieeence of nature, it put that feeling on a new and 
n-Iigiouc bonis hannoniouii to Christianity. Throughout, though 
not alwaya quite consistent iy, Clc-iuitnt defeiida the body and tlie 
functions of flc.\ against Uiose who treated them with contempt. 
And aatlie cause of sex h tJie cauw of women he alway* strongly 
asaerta the dignity of women, and also proclaims the holiness of 
marriage, a state whiclt he soinetinics places above that of 

Unfortunately, it must be said, St. Augueline — another 

I Padagogiu, lib, ii, cap. X. Klsewbcre {iiL, lib. ii. Ch. VIi hn 
B)Hk«s a more dpisiti^l atnt^mvnt to the wine efferl. 

S8«Ht, r.ff., Wilhclm Cnpituino, UU Moral 4ee C'lenKM twi Alcai- 
OK'irieti, pp. 112 rf tr^. 

p8TCHOi.oar or sbk. 

Nortli Afrii.-aii, but uf Hgiuim ('artlingt' anil unt uf Ui-eek Ales- 
Bndm — tliout;ht tlmi he liad n caiivLDciiig onswi-r to tlie kind of 
nrgiimunt u'hidi CU'iiiuot prcacntcd, itn<l so gnai was tlic force 
of hU pasBJotiate and )«>tc?nt geniufl that he was able in the end tf> 
make hi<i mitivrcr pre^'ail. Fur Ao^stine sin wii)> ItiT^itnry, nnd 
Bin Iiuil itt i>[iiTiiil Heat nnd tiymWl in the sexual organs ; the fact 
of Ein bus modilied the original divine ac^ of creatiou, and we can- 
not front st'X and its nrgniis lu tbmigb Uutc had been no inherit<Hl 
Bid. Our scxtml organs, he declares, liave bwjonie abanieftil be- 
cause, through sin, they are now moved hy hist. At the same time 
Augii«tine by no meanx lakes up the ni(>diii*\TiI axeetit; position of 
coDlemptuoua hatred towajda the body. Nothing can be fuillior 
from Odo of Cluny tbun AugnrtineV mthiti>insiii about the body, 
even about the eMjuisite harmony of the parts beneath the skin. 
"I believe il muT be c"ncluded," be even snv*. "that in the ere- 
ntion of tite hnman body bimuty was more regardml than 
necessity. In truth, necessity is a trnnsitory thing, and the time 
is coming when we sliull be able to cnjiiy one umUber'a beauty 
witliout any I««l."i Kven in the sphcro of Bex he would be 
willing to admit purity and beauty, apart from tlie inhttrited 
influence of Adnni's sin. in Paradise, he says, had Paradise cou- 
tlnaed, the act of generation would have becii as simple and free 
from shame as the act of the hand in scattering seed on to the 
earth. "Sexual conjugation would have bwn under tli? eontrol 
of the will without any sexual dwire. The semen would be in- 
jected into the vagina in ns simple a manner as the menstrual 
fluid is now ejected. There would not have been imy words 
which could he called obscene, but all that might be said of tlicw 
members would have been ns pure as what i* Mid of Hie otlier 
pfli-ls of the body."- That, however, for .\ugufltiue, is wliat 

i;>r ri'ifoM Dei. lib. ixii. cap. XXIV. "Then! in tia nMd," h» d^Sn iiVJ., lib. xiv, cnp. \\ ''thnt in oiir sins and vices we aoouM 
tlio nuUiic of the Apili to llir injur,v o( the Cr«*U>r. for in iu own kind 
•nd degree tlio ftetli Is (piod." 

a St. .\tigii>4ine. Dc Ciiilalf Dei, lib. »iv. «ip. XXIIIXX^X 
Clirynostian snit Uti-itriry. at N.v«»n, tliDuglit tliiil iii r»mill*« liniiiuii 
lN>Inff« urouM hnrr multiplied by ipcdal creation, but such f* not the 
nrcri'tcd CaUiollc dorlrin«. 




iiiiglit liavv In-eii Ju I'ui-adise where, as lie believed, sexual deairo 
bad no cxiHtencv. Ai^ tlii»t,'» uro, liu tu-ld, wv uro right to Ira 
■dtitmvd, vc (1» M'l'll Ui lilunli. And it vriu nutural that> a« 
Clement of Alt-xandrin mentions, many licreticiii iiliouKl have gone 
further on this road and heli<-red thnt while Ood made man down 
to the navel, lliu rest "iifi inaik- liy iiiiolhor power; ituoli horotici 
linte their il^^Arendnnta «raong iia evtn to-day. 

Alike in the Eartem and ^\'oslern Churches, however, lioth 
helon and after Augustine, thougli not h> often after, great 
Falhera and toncliers Iinvc ntt^'red i>[iiiiion# which rw.-all tliose 
of Clement rather than of Augustine. We cannot lay very much 
weiglit oil the utteran<v of the cvtrnvagnnt and often eontradic- 
tory TertuUian, but it is worth noting that, while he doelared 
that woman in the gate of hell, he nl^o enid that we must approach 
Xatupc with reveR'iice iiml nut witli hhi^hiv. "Xntuni veni-niudu 
eat, non erubesccnda." "No (.'hriBtian autlior," it has indeed 
been said, "has so energetically spoken against the ht^ri-ticul con- 
tempt of the hfjdy aj Tcrtullian. Soul and hody, accnrding to 
Tertullian, are in the croHt>)4 attsix-iation. The Mul \» the lif^ 
principle of the body, but there is no activity of the soul which is 
ni.t manifcoted and oowiitinned hy the flesh.'"* .More weight 
attaclies to Itulinua Tyranniue, the friend and fellow-fltudent of 
St. Jerome, in the fourth ccnturi', who wrote a commentary on 
the Ajwuitles' Criiil, wlijch was grcully ectccnud by the early and 
mediieval Church, and is indeed still valued even to-day. Ilcr^ 
in answer to 1h"«c who dwltired that there was ohiconity in the 
fact of Christ's birth through tlic Hexiinl organs of a woman, 
Itu6nas replies that tiod created the sexual organs, and that "it 
i* not Xnture hut merely Iiuuinn opinion whidi teaches that these 
pnrtB are obscene. For the rest, all the parts of the hody are 
made from the stime clay, whatever differences there may be in 
llieir uw-sand functions."* He look* at \Uc matter, we eoe, piously 

) \V. ('*[>lliiitl«, Dir Mortil di-it VUini-ni von AtrxaiiHrirH. |i[J. 1 12 el 
««■!. Without lliB body. Tetlullinn drclutcd. there could tie no viiKiiiUy 
snd tin wilviillnn. Tlii' itoiil ith^K it corfKircat. llr cnrrifA, ind«nl. hi« 
ideft of Iho omniprcMfnce of the Inly to thr nh*iir4. 

SBaflaiM, CommrntariiM tn RffmMum Apottolttnim, e^p, XII. 



U)<loL(l, but naturallj and simply, like Clement, and not. tike 
Augu«tiuc, Ihruu^li the di^lnrtitig incdiuin of h theologit-ul i>yi«- 
ti>in. Atlmnasiuci, in the ICaetem Church, «[>oke in th<> i>nme sense 
as Riifinus in the VVestfra Church, A certain monk niim»l 
AmuD hod ht-cii much giicvcd by thy ocvnrreiup of i^cminfll emu* 
siona during slc^p, iind he wrote to AthnmiiiitiBi to inquire if 6uch 
tiiiissions arc a sin. In the letter he wrote in reply, Atbanasius 
Kfckn to rvussuie Amim. "All Ihingi*." lie IHl!" liim, "are piirw 
to the pure. For what, I ask, dear and pious friend, can tliere 
be Miiiful or naturally impure in cxcremeat?* Man is the hand- 
work of tiod. There \» ccrluinlr nothing in ti« that in impure"* 
We feel as we read these utterances that the seeds of pnidery and 
pruriency nre already alive in the populur mind, hut yet we «« 
alito that Mme of the must distin^fuUhed thinkers of the early 
('hriatian Church, in striking contrast to the more morbid and 
niirrow-mtnde<l mpdiicval n«cctic)!, clearly stood aside from tjie 
popular movement. On the whole, they were 8ubmer;;ed because 
Christianity, like Buddhism, had in it from the finit a germ tliat 
It-nt itrii'lf to UMH'tIc rcniiriciatiun, and tin; m'xual life is alwaj'a the 
first impulse to be sacrificed to the passion for renunciation. Itut 
there were other genua alto in Christianity, and Luther, who in 
his own plebeian way assei-ted the rights of the liody, although lie 
broke with medijeval aecetidsm, by no Dieans thereby cast him- 
self otr from the traditions of tlic early Christian Church. 

I have thought it worth while to bring fom-ard this endeoce, 
altliough I am perfectly well aware that the facts of Nature gain 
no additional support from tliv authority of the Fathers or eren 
of the Bible, Nature and humanity existed before the Bible and 
would continue to exist atlhough the Bible ehould be forgotten. 
But tiie atliliide of Chrixtianity on tliis point haa bo often been 
nnresenedly condemned that it seems as well to point out that 
at it« fmc^t momcul", when it was a young and growing power in 
the world, the utteranocM of Christianity were often at one with 
those of Nature and reason. There are many, it may be added, 
who Aud it A nintter of eonttolation that in following the natural 


>Ml|[ne. Faiwvlogia Orava, vol. zxvl, pp. IITO H Wf. 




LnjUoRul luillt in titia matter tliev are not thereby altoj^tlter 
"'*^*^-; witli the relij-ious traditi"lis of their mce. 

It it iH«iccl>' nd-Mtmij- to ivmiirk llml when wi- tuni from Chrii- 
tiaiiily Ui tlio Ollm grrnt viiorM-TpHKioim, wo do not iwiinllj- iiip»t wUli 
no ambigiiou* nn nttitniio townids lu-x. Tlir Mnhotiinii^aiiii wcrr an 
emphatio In aaserthig the unclit}- of »t"c ns lliry veiv in nswrting 
I pliyairHl rUanlineMi tliey wcrv pr^putM tu cnrrr tW fiiiic-lioiii' <>( •vx 
' into llie (Hliir* llfii, and vifto nrvt-r wnrrlnd, an LiiUicr and ho mnny 
other Ciiriatinm hm-o bci-n. wJucCTning the luck of ofinipiititui in Ilcnvpn. 
Ill India, nltliouj^li Indln U t1i« lionio of Uio innNt pxtrvnic form* of 
rr>ll||4oii8 aKcnticIsm, iim:ubI love linn biwii nanctillcd and dirlnlwd to a 
greater Fxtent tliuu in uny olhvr |>urt of tlic world, "It xcnns nei'^r to 
]iiiv« viiti'ipd into til? licniU of the Hindii IciiUlittor*.*' Hnld i^ir Witlinm 
Jonea long lincc (Workt, tol. ii. |). 3lli. "ilmt anyiliiiii^ nuturul miild 
be oAeiuiircly obsrvni-, a tingulurity wliicli porrudca nil their writing*, 
hut !■ no proof of till- dppravity of tlii^ir mornU." Tiie mohiaI net liaa 
oftm hnd n nligiou* Higiiilicitnrc in Indiii. niid tli» ininiitent detail* o( 
Die wsuhI lit* and (It variallot<« aiw dl>M'ii>ui(Hl In Iiidlun itoUc tr(-ati»C4 
In a uplrit of grarity. whil» nowhirrp clw hiivc tlin nnutoinlcn] and gdiy- 
' uolugieai •muni cluirti«t«ni of women Iwen itudivd with luch minittf iind 
adoring ttvrr^nrv. "I^vo hi India. Imlh «■ rpjinid* tli#orj* xnd jiriictipi!." 
rriiiaik* Itichnrd Schmidt \ISHtiilg,- :ur tmlinchrn Bri/lit-. p. 21 "iio«- 
en an im|iort)»m'e which it is iiupuwible for u« even to conceive." 

Id Protertaiit rountries the influence of the Iteformatinn, by 
ating Bcx as Qfiturul. indirivtly tended to eiibetitute in 
feeling townitl^ i>cx the opprohrium of flinfulncfte by the 
nppTobriuin of animality. Henceforth the aesua) impulse must 
l>e dispiised or adorned to botOTnc reimport ably hiininn. This may 
Iif illuvtnitcd by a pnsiage In P«pys's Diar;/ in the gt-vcntccnth 
century. On tlie morning after tlie weddinji day it was ctia- 
touian' to call up new married coupk-e liy miisio ; tlie abi'Miee of 
Miitt nnisic on oneoccni^ion (in lOliT) sei'mcd tu Pcpyn "an if they 
hti*) iiiurricxl liku dng nnd liiteh." We no longer innist on the 
music, but the same feeling slill exicts in the craving for other 
diHguiees and adornniente for the Be.\ual impul^. We do not 
nivrays tprIixg that love bring« Itn own nanctity with it, 

Nnwsdayn indeed, whenever the repngnance to the ROXlinl 
liidc of life maaifeatB itself, the assertion nearly always made ia 

. X^OOg 



i-svcifnij(K>Y or nvx. 

not en mudi tlint it i* "lilnful" lu that it ia "LwasUy." It is 
rc^anlcd as tliat part of man wliich inat<t closctjr allies him to tlitf 
lowvr aiiiiiials. It elioulil *wrtcly bo npc'csnary to point out (hnt 
tluH lit A inintHke. On whichever side, inileed, wr approatli it. Urn 
implicntion that sex in man ami animals is idniticnl cannot Ix; 
bomo out. From thu puint of view of those who nowpt thi« 
idioitity it would he much more eorrett to sny tliat men urn 
inferior, rather tlian on a le\'el vritli animuU, for in aninmls imik-r 
natural conditionH lliu M-xiial iiiiitinct itt utridly siibordiiiateil to 
reproduction and verj- litlte siiBceptible to deviation, bo that from 
the Ktandpoint of thoi-c nho wiiili to miniiuixc vex, aniiDnU are 
ncjirer to the ideal, and such penuma must my with Wonds Huteh- 
imao: "Take it altot^tlier, our animal auce«tors have quit* oa 
gnoil (■eni'on to Im; anhwncd of uh n* we of thwn." But if we look 
at the matter fmm a wider biological standpoint of development, 
our conclusion muut be vcn,- different. 

So far from hiiiaj^ animal-like, the liumaa impulses of sex 
are among the least aoimal-like acquifiitiona of man. The lioman 
)iplierc of K-x dillerN from the animal Kjilicrc of »v\ to a singularly 
great exleitt.* Rrc-atliing is an animal function and here wenn- 
not compete with birds; locomotion is an animal function and 
lierc we ennnot equal quadrupeds; wc liavo made no uutnblc ad- 
vance in our cireulntory, digestive, renal, or hepatic functions. 
Kven as regards vision and hearing, there are many animals that 
are more keen -Bigli ted tlian man, ami many tlint arc (■aj)able of 
hearing rounds that to him are iniiudible. But there arc no 
animal* in whom the «e.Tual instinct is so sensitive, to highly 
devclojicd, so varied in it:: manifctttatioiis, itn constantly alert, ta 
capable of irradiating the highest and remotest parts of the 
or|;ani.'<m. The sexual activities of man and woman belong not 
to that lower part of our nature which degrades us to the level o£ 
the "brute," but to the higher part which raises »b towards bH 
the fincft netivilica and ideals we arc capable of. It is true UiKt 
it is chiefly in the mouths of a few ignorant and ilUbred vomen 

rnin|Hir«1 nitli tliow of tli* lower niiiiimU. falmu' mnrhiwl ilifTorvnrnt (te* 
■^ilif Uvrlianitui of D«<tiin«MeDcM-,'' in llio IKlh vulumi- of Uine StiuKn>. 

()y-,-^n by VjI.)I.WI 

'iV flFSr'AL IXtVR. 


rv llnd »ex reterwil to as "bestial" or "tin; (iiiintiil pail of 
OUT nalun;."' But since womtn arc tlie iiiotliLT» and U-nclicn> ui 
tin: liuiiiiin race IliU is a picon of ignorance and ill-breeding which 
cannot be too Hwiftly eradicated. 

Tiiotc are some who eeeni to tliink that thcv have held tlie 
balance evenly, and finally MMi-fl the luatttT, if tlioy ndniit that 
sexual love niav be either bcautifnl or dingusting, and that either 
view is equally nonnal and legitimate. "Ustm in turn," Tarde 
Ktnnrkv, "to two men who, one cold, the other ardent, one diaste, 
the other in love, buth cr|iially edutatcd and lar^-minded, are 
estimatinj; the Bame thing: one judges as disgusting, odious, 
rerolting, and bestial what the other judpcs to be iMiciouit, ex- 
quisite, ineffable, divine. Wliat, for one, i» in Cliristian phraae- 
otogy, ao naforf^ivable sin, is, for the other, the state of true 
gne*. AcU that for one seem a i^ad and occasional necewity, 
Btains that must be carefully effaced by long intervals of con- 
tinence, are for the other tbe golden nails from which all the 
rest of eondui-t and existi-nre if swsipende^, the thing* that alone 
Rive human life its value,"' Yet we may well doubt whether 
both Ow»v pGrt>ODK arc "etjuaUy well-cducati'd and broad-minded." 
The savage feeU that sex is perilouii, and he i^ right. Hut the 
persm who feels that the sexual impulse is bad, or even low and 
Tulgar, if an absurdity in the universe, nii anomaly. He i« like 
those persons in our insane asylums, who feci tiiat the instinct 
of nutrition is n,'il and so proceed to starve IhcniBelves. They 
are alike spiritual outcaBtx in the universe whose children they 
are. It is another matter when a man declares that, personally, 
in Hii* OKU case, be oherisbes an nscetio ideal which leads him to 
reettaiQ, so far as possible, eitlier or both ini|iii!scs. Tiic man 
who is sanely ascetic seeks a discipline which aids tin- ideal he 
has penonally set bi'fore himself. lip may still remain theoreti- 
cally in harmony with the imiverae to whieh he helonga. But to 

1 It may pvrhapt br nt wpII to point oiif. with Pon-l (DJo Hexuflla 
/'nii»rf, p, fiiwi, t)int llip nxirtl 'lirallnl'' i" jjt-iienillv used 'juitc iuiwrrwtly 
In (hia «>nn«otii>n, Tnd*«l. not only for Uip higlicr, but bIho for Ui« 
lowrr imoitntotion o( thf «>xii«l itnpiiliw. it would usuallj' b* Dior« 
«0frw« to nt* jiuitMd th* qimliflcntlon "hiiinnii." 

^tioc. eil., ArcKitet d'Anlbtopulojie Crtminrltt, Jan., IMT. 



VKYCUOljWiY or »KX. 

jM>Hr conlempt on the wxual life, to throw tlie Vfil "f "impurity" 
on-rit, u, a« Nit'tzK'licdivlwd, the uiipunloiublic miii ujiaitot thu 
Uol.v Gtimt of Lif«. 

Tlwre are many who swJi to ooocUate prejudice and rvswn 
in their %-aluatioo of fvn by drunring ■ slmrp dtetJuctiou botwiH'D 
'lust'' nnd "lore " rejecting the one aod acccptinj; tito other. It 
is quite proper to muke such s dixtinction. but the manner in 
wliieh it is made iriW by no incnnji u^unllv bear t.-\anii nation. Wc 
lure to define what ve wean by "luiit" and what w« mean by 
"love," and tliis is not easy if th(^' are regarded as mutnally ex- 
cluitive-. It in ^onietinieii uid that "luflt" inurt be understood a* 
meaning a recklesa indulgeitce of (he sesnal iinpuJEe vithont 
Tcgaid to other contidorations. Rw nndrn^tootl, we art- qnite iwfc 
in rejecting it. Hut that U an entirety arbitrary definition of th^ 
word. "Lurt" ie really a ren,- ambi^pioue tenn : it ie « good word 
lliat Iiaa changed it« m'jrnl vnliiw, and tlierefort- vro mird to define 
it verj- carefully before we venture to use it. Properly spetiking. 
^ust" is an cnlinely colorlcMt word' nud merely ntcana de»ire in 
gvneral and sexual desire in partirular; it eorresponda to 
"hunper" or "thirFt"; to use it in an offensive aense is much the 
same as though we should aUavji aksiiiiK' that the word "hungry" 
liad the offeiiEiive meaning of "greedy." The result liaa been that 
sensitive ininds indignantly reject tli« term "lust" in cou- 
nctrtion with love.' In ttie parly uste o( our language, "lust," 
"lusty," and "lustful" conveyed the sense of wholemine and 
normal sexual vigor; now, with tiic partial exceptiun of lusty." 
they have been so completely degraded to a lower s^nse that 
ilthovgh it vrould be very convenient to mtore tltem to their 

> It ham, iMWPTpr, Uvomr cokrril and siKprrt from an fatly w-rioil 
ia th« hintOIT of ChriHliaiiily. SI. Au|rii<><iiii- l Dr Cirilale Dei. lib. xiv, 
cap. XV), whilfi Hdmlttins llint lihulo or lii<t i* mrrpljr ihn Kmrrk iMnK* 
for all ilcvirtr. adilii thai. »i Bpcciully ii|)plic(t lu llic nptual appctilr, U i* 
Jttatly ■nd proptrly nilxrd ii|i ultJi idiv nf •linint^ 

lllinlun u'fll illiiBtiHtoi thii fn-linf;. "\W pall bj' the nam* of 
Iniit," he dppiarcH in hia MSH., "tiip ran^t olmpl* and tialural d«(iirM. 
H> rnijtht »» well term hunger and thirnt 'lu«l' •■ wo cnll im-pnHion. 
whi-ri FXprpininR nimply NutuiyV firomptlnii. W» mSurflll it 'liint.' cTurlly 
libpllInK IhoRp tn whom wr uicribc it. nnt) introditit nhcoluti- dicordpr. 

Pdt, liy fimlishlv ronfounding K)i(uTe'« demnadn with Iiiil, wi> iiioihl iijuin 

~ traint upon lipr." 




original and proper place, wUicIi Btill reniaiuH vacant. Hit atteiii])t 
ut Ruch 1 restnrulioit Mcnrcoly fiveine u bvpefiil tnxk. We have 
*o deeply poisoned the springs nt feeling in tlicsc matters with 
mcdiffva] ascetic crudities that all our words of sex tend soon to 
Wi-t>ine l>e<patt«ri'd with filth; wc muv pick them up from the 
mud into which thov have fallen and »eek to purify [hem, htit to 
many eyes they will gtill eeem dirty. One result of this tendency 
l» that we have no simple, prctisi?, iiatiiml word for the love of 
the sexes, and are compelled to fall back oi) tiie general term, 
vrhidt is mi extenHivo in its range tliat in English and French and 
iiio«t of the other Iittding langmigiw of Kurope, it ik e>]iially cor- 
rect to "love" God or to "love"' eating. 

hore, ill the eextial vensc. it, Humnurily conyidercd, a syn- 
tJiesis of Inat (in the primitive and uncoloreil ^unsc. of sie-vual 
emotion) and friendfiliip. It is inoorreut to apply the term 
'■low" in the wxual senw* to elementary and unoont plicated sexual 
desire; it b equally incorrect to apply it to any variety or cwm- 
binalioD of vari<.'lieit of frienclKhip. There can bo no sexual love 
without last; but, on tlie oUier hand, until the eurreutx of lout 
in the organism have been ko irrndiate^d as to affect other parts of 
the p«yckic organism — at the hast the affections and lh« social 
feelings — it is not wt sexuid love. Lust, the specific sexual ira- 
pidse, is indeed the primary and eswnfinl clement in this syn- 
tlinbiis, for it alone is adequate to the end of reproduction, not 
only in animals but in men. But it is not until lust is expanded 
awl irmdiated that it develops into the exquisite and enthralling 
Bower of love. We may call to mind what happens among 
plants: on the one hand we have the lower organisms in which 
sex is earrie<l on summarily and erv])togamieal]y, never shedding 
any shower of gorgeous blossoms on the world, and on the other 
hand the higher plants among whom sex ha.i V)eeouie phanero- 
gamous and expanded enormously into form and color and 

Whlli! "Hiut" », of pourup, kiMiwn xtl o*«r tho wt>rl(l, nnd thero nr* 
wpryvfliet* word* to rl««i)nuil(> it, "love" U not iiuivcrully known, and 
In man;' labsaiiKi'i thoro nrr no word* for "Iovp." TIi» tnlliirM to find 
toiv are o(t«n ranarkablo and iinfxiMK'tcd. W« may find it wh^ri' we 




Icut t%pw.'t It. Sexual <leBlr« breaiur tiUallwd (aa Ser|^ 1ik« poinUd 
out) evMi bj tome nniEiiAlii, mpwlally bird*, for wbim & bird piiwH to 
itpath fnr the Iom of its mule tliin omnnt br due to tbc unM>inpIiatt''i| 
i[i>il[|K't of n^x. but inuDt invnlvo the iiiU-ru'eariiig of tlint itutinot «*ith 
thn otbcr rltmrnt* of life t" ■ iIprtpp nrhich in r«tp cvrn nmnnj; tlin nio»t 
rivilixrd men. Soiii* niivKgp riiPt'S nwm to Imve no fundnrocntBl notion 
of \ovTf. and (llkp thn Amcriran Knhuan) no pHninr^ imH for it. wfaile. 
»n the othrr hiuid. in Qiticlmn. the \an^juage of the nucieBt PvruviaiM. 
lliere are npnrty «i\' liimdri-d rombinnllons of the verb munajf, to Sot*. 
Amon<f Home people* lovp irrmn to Iw conflncd to tho wompn. L^toiirimu 
lI.'Emtution Lifthairt. p, 523) point* oiil Ihut in vurioiw parU of tho 
world women hnve Uken n IcBdinj; p»rt iti croalinfi; protie poetry. U 
inni' be mi^tioncd in thia conni'Ption thut iiitridp from crotli^ moticm 
HOLun)* primitivi.- ]K'upl«i occutb ehi^J' among vromen iZtittvhrift fiir 
iiiit(alif\ittcn»oha{l, IrlOU, p. STK). Not a few (KvagM potaeu \int- 
pormo, ai, fur instanee, the Bun)i*li (Vcltcn, In hii'/Voia imd Portia 
<h-r Hiiahnti. devot^>« n nerlion to love- poem >t rppmdureil In tli« Susfcali 
lun}(UBf(rl. D. (3. Brlnlon. in nn inlermtlnx pnpor on "TIm> Coaoep- 
tion of Love in Worn* Amerinui IjlDpuiBn" (Prof^rrjins* AmeriMn 
PhiUiKophkvt SooVfy, Tol. Txlli, p. 548, ISSfl) «li<te« thut lli« utirds 
for love in thcue hintfiinip* rcr™! four mnin »-nv» of eKpreuinf th« 
eon<'eplion: 111 iiinrlicnlnte cries of emotion: IZ) aH«rt)DDH of mme- 
nPM OT nimilftritr; (11 muprtlon* of ennjiinrtlon or nnion; (i) Aurr- 
tiuns of a wiiih, desire, a longing. Itrinton nild; (hat "Uieite ksdiv 
nottonn are thow which underlie the majority of tlie word* of Iovp 
in the sreat Arjan family of Tnnguap'«." Tlie remarkable faet emeri^eva. 
lio»'(!Ver, that the |M?opl»« of .\ryBn Iniijriie were »lo\r in developing lUeir 
conenplion of •eMi«l loie. Krinloii rcmnrl(» that the Amerknn M»yai 
mu-it \iv placed above llie jivoplen uf early Aryan culture, in that Ibey 
jMiavHed a radh'al Horil for the joy of liivp whirh wa* in cigniflMitee 
purely poycliicni. referring ilrictly to a menial ulale. and nritlMr to 
■inillarlty nnr denirc. Kven the Ofpekm Were late in developing any IiImI 
of nexunl love. Thii has been wfll hrouglit out by E. V. )l. Benock* in 
hi* AnIimafKua of Colophon anil the Fi>»ilion of Wometi in Ortrk Fottry, 
a book which conUim mme hoiaidouii a«*ertionJ^ but in highly inslrue- 
liv* from the prencnt point of view, 'llie Greek lyric poetn wrot* pnu*- 
tieally no loi-e yxtvmn at all to women Iwlnre .Vnacreon, and bin wrre 
only written in old B|te. Tnin love for the Greeks »»■ nearly alwnyi 
horuuoexual. The Ionian lyrie pocta of early Ore*ce rejpirdetl wovnan 
ni only an Inotrnnient of plenaure anil the founder of the family. 
Thcognii eomparei mairinge to cnttle-brtvdin)!: Alcinan. when Iw wixfie^ 
to be com pi I men ta 17 to the Hpsrtan girh, 4|ieaka of them an his "fcmala 
boy-friends." .Esrhylus make* even a father awHme that hi* daughters 
will nilitM'Imve if left lo theMinelvw. Tli*re i" no WKiinl lore la Ri>|i4ii>' 

i):y ;---.\Oi 




rli-i. luifl in KiiritiiiW H ii only III^ nunii'ii \\\vi full in l-ivi', Iti'iiorh* 
MmcIutlH (ji. 67 > tlint in Otvrev icximl li>n\ Armn (o u nimpnratively 
laliT period, wai looked ilown on. finil held lu be unwortiiv of public ii»- 
MiHulon and rrprranilntlDii. It won In Maiinn (IrircJa inUier IIihci in 
Gr«««! itaelf that mm took iniemt in «roni«n. nni) it wiu not until the 
AlHiindrian period, and noliibly in AxclfpUdN. R^necke niuiiitiiiiin, that 
the lovn of women wn» reicnrdnl an a mutter of life nnd ili^ulh. Th«re- 
afl«r llw eonceplion of m^iiuI love, in iU ramanlie aapi-eU. iippcDm in 
Eiiropenn life. With tin- Crliip slory of Trialrnm, n* r.n>toii Pnrln 
remurk*. it flnully appenrt in the Chrittinn Kiirupran world of puirtry 
as the rhl*f jioltit In tiunian life, the ^ent motive force of voodurl. 

Romantic love (niled. however, lo pv-nctrnlc the tnnsm in Europe. 
Ill lh0 tixtaeiilk century, or ulwnever It wiu that Ihe IwIIhiI of "Glaa- 
Svrion" vnu n-rittcn. we tec it !■ asmmpd that a chiirl'a relation to hi* 
mUlreu Is <H>iinncd to the m«re act of npxiial iiiter<i>iirM< i lie fail* to 
kifa li«T on airiving or departing: it in only the kniglit, tlie man of 
upper elnn*. who woulil think nf o/Trrlnj; thnt tender elrllity. And at 
Ihe prvnetit day in. for instance, the region between Eart Frietlaiid and 
the A\y». lilorh ■taleo (Kivudfrfccn uiwrrer Zrii. p. 201, lollouing K. 
H, Jle»*er. Hint the woril "love" it unknown among the majweii, nnd only 
lt4 eon me Pounlrr|iart leeopiiwd. 

Ou the other nide of tlie worlil. in Jupnn, lexHiil lo»-p KceniH l« ho 
in as great diiireput« as It was <n aueient Crmwe; thux Mia* Tmida, a. 
JapaoitM h«ad>iniatrfiu, and henelf n C!irl>tlnn. remarks (as <iu[iled by 
Mr*. Fnuer in ITorM'* Work and Plan. Dee.. 1D(16) : "Thai word 
'hnV haa Ixvn hitherto a irord unknonn nnumn our tlii*'*- in the foreign 
Miiiw. Duty, aubniiuion. kindness — these vere the nenllmenta which a 
);irl was ex|>H>ied to bring to the htisbaiid n'lio had bven eliOBen for her— 
and many happy, harmmiioiis marriages werr the rranlt. Now, your 
dear nentimentAl foreign women Bay to our girli: 'It !■ wicked to marry 
nithoul \aiti tlie obi-dienee to parents in 6iich a raax U tin outrag« 
Rftninst naturo and ('liristinnity. If yon lore a man pni must sacrifice 
everything to marry him." " 

When, howerpr, love I* fully dneelopwl tt tieramc* nn enormounly 
extrndad. highly complex emotion, and liiht. even in the best *en»« of 
thai word, become* men>1y n coiirilinated element nmong many other 
okm^nla. Herbert Spencer, in on inlercttin); ]iii>(B«gi> of lii« PrincipU* 
t/f Ptyvholofty ( I'att IV, Cli. VIII). hn« nnalyied love into n* many *■ 
nln« dUtlnd and im)>i>itAnt elemental: 111 the physicul inipnliie of 
•est (2) th« feeling lor bi^nuty: (J) nlfeclion; (4) admirntion and 
reapmt; (B) lore of npprobntion; (fil lelf-enteem: 171 proprietary 
feeling: (8) eittended lib.Tty of action from tho nbucnw of perianal 
harritrra; (fl) exaltdtinn nf the •ympothie*. "Thin passion." he con- 
cluden, "fuses into one iuinicnBi^ afigrppite most of the elementary exclta- 
liiiDA of nhleh we are cflpablr." 




It is scarcely neceanrf to say tliat to licfino a«xiia] lovp, or 
even to analyze ita coinpanentB, is by no aieaos to explain it« 
niy»t«ry. Wc itedc to tutigfy our inti^lligciice by iiiimds of ii 
cotiereot picture of love, but tlio gulf between that picture a»<l 
the emotional reality must always he incommenBurable and im- 
paRHble. "There is no word more often pmnounocd Uian tbat 
of love," wrote Bonstetten many yearn ago, '■yet tliero is no subject 
more myrteriDUK. Of that whicli toucliea ue most nearly we 
know l(-ii#l. Wo iii(-a«ure the nnirch of tlie stare and we do not 
know bow we love." And however ex|ii;rt wc liavo become ia 
dcli-cting and annlj^tng the L-auee$, the concomitants, and t)i« 
results i>f love, we inii«t »til! make the «ume eonfiwion to-day. 
We tnay, as some have done, attempt to ex])lain lore as a form of 
liungttr mid thiivt, or a« a force aualoguus to elet^'tricity, or aii a 
kind of magnetiian, or as a variety of ch^nictil aJTinity, or as a 
vital tropism, but Ihe^e explanations are nothinp more thnn ways 
of expri-nsln|j! to ouiKelvcs the miignitudo of tlic phenomenon we 
are in the presence of. 

What bus alwny* bnflled men in the con tern phi I ion of i^xubI 
love is the seeming inadeqiincy of its cause, the immense dis- 
tTej)aney between Uiu ncct^ssarily circumwrilwd region <>f iiiucous 
ijK-mlirnne which is the (Inn! gnal of tiiirb lovo and the »m of 
wo rid -emh racing emotions to which it seems as the door, so that, 
ns Itemy dc Gourmont has said, "the mticous m<-mhraneii, by an 
inelTable mysterv'. enclose in their obscure folds all the riches of 
the infinite.*' It is a mystery before which the thinker and the 
artift are alike overcome Donnay, in his play L'Escaiade. 
makes a cold and stern man of science, who repanls love as a 
mere mental diwrdor which can be cured like other di*on]era, at 
last fail desperately in love himself. He forces hid way into tlie 
girlV room, by a Indder. at doad of night, and breaks into a long 
and pnssiouate ii(ie<i'h : '■Everything that touches you becomes 
to me mysterioiia and sacred. Ah! to think that a thing so well 
known a« a woman's botly. which Rciilptors hnva. modelled, which 
poets have sung of, which men of science like myself have dia- 
seeted. that mch n thing t^hould suddenly become an unkitown 
mvMery and an infinite joy merely because it is the body of one 




jwrticular woman — v-hat ineaoitv ! And yet thut is what I fee)."* 
Tliat love i» a nntural iiisanity, a ti^mporury dclusinn which 
ttic individual in r«mpeil<^d to mfTer for the take of th« nice, U 
indeed an eiplanation that baa sufTK^ttt-d iteelf to many who have 
been biifiled by thi» iiiyrtcry. That, m v.f kmiw. wtie tJic cxplana* 
lion offcRid by Schopenhauer. When a youth and a uhl fall into 
eneb other's arms in Ihc ecdacy of love tliey imiij^ine that they ars 
uckiiig their nun hiijipinnii). Rut it i* not *n, tmli) S<-lK>|)cn- 
baner; they are deludeU by the genius of the race into the belief 
thut they are 8ii-l(iiig a jK-i'^tDal end in order that they inay bi> 
induced to cffwt a far greater iinperBonal i-ml; the creation of 
the future race. The intensity or thi-ir pniwinn is not the 
mcaaarc of the {leraoiial hajipincftji they will eecuro but tlie 
measure of their aiitituilp for produoiii;; off^imnfj. In accwpting 
[i&s«ion and renouncing tlic couni^ct>^ of cautious prudence the 
routli and the girl arc really sacrificing thdr chances of 
eelflsh happincja nud fulfilling thi? larger ends of Nature. Ax 
Sdiopenhauer mv thi> nuitlcr, Ihi-n- wm here no vulgar illuftion. 
'Hie lovffrs tliought that they were reaching towartla a Ixiundlesaly 
imnieni^i' perniiinl hnppinewi ; they were probably deeeivM, But 
they were deiviveil not hcniu:ic the reality wai« le-** than their 
imagination, bul Iracaiue it was more; instead of pursuing, aa 
tliey thouglit. « nii-rety piTBoniil eiiil tlicy were carrying on the 
ert^nlivc work nf the world, ii tank better left undone, aa Schopoii- 
haiwr viewed it. but a tu^k whoi-e magnitude he fully rerogniKed.- 
It must be rPmeuilifred that in the lower iicn*c of deception, 
lore may be. and frequently is, a deluf^ion. A man may <icceive 
himself, or be deceived by the object of hi^ attraetion. concerning 

> Srvrral imtiii ii-n ■'aitirr niiolhiT PiTDrli Writrr. (W illi^tiii^itheil 
phyakiMD. A. I^rnvtitiun l Oi-> Ijiurcnn) in liis Ointorin Analomiea 
Humajii CorpmU (lib, viii. ()ii»«Ii(i vill hnil liliBwiM ptiuli'd over ""tlw 
tncriHil))]' dpniic of roltii*." and inked liow it viat llint "tluit divitip 
iinimut. full of ririinon and iiiilymcnt. wliioli wr cnll Mfln. «hout<l bi^ 
atirnrted to tliniu- o1i<eene |inrl* of w(itiii>ii. andi'il Nrlth flllh. which are 
plaMiJ. like B Km-rr, in thr lownt piirt of tin* body," It is nott^wnrtliy 
lliftt, from Iho fiT"t, and i>i|iintl,v nmojiK men of ri-lidlon. ram o( Mirnce. 
nnil mm of Irtlrm. thti<trry of tlii* proMrai liu» [H'ctiliuTly iippcnl'id 
(o Iho Vrnrh mind. 

1 SchopeubauiT. Din Writ aU Willr ,ir<J Vcnlrllung. vol, U. pp. Iloa 


rsTctioLooT or skx. 

the (jualitiee Uiat ehe puBMiiece or fails to poeeewi. In ttret love, 
occtirrini; in yoiitli, fuch Atxvptkm U pcrluipH entirely nannal, 
and in ctTtiiiu aug^-estible and inlUmmablo tyjie^ of inHiplc it m 
peculiarly apt to occur. This kind of deception, although far 
more frequent niid conspicuous in inntterit of lore — and more 
rcrioua Itecntiao of the ti^htnciu of tlie marriage l>und — h liable 
to occur in any relation of life. For most people, boweier, and 
tlioeo not llic Ica-it itane or tho leHft vltc. llie nioniory of llio 
exaltation of love, even when the period of tliat exaltation ia 
over, still renialilH ai^. at the li-itHt, llic memory of one of Uie most 
ixal and «^L-ntint faetd of life.' 

Romi' uritcrs win tu unituac tliv liability in niultrn of love to 
.!•■!''' I it Inn or ((liui]>pflintinmt with thf lBr|[iT qnmlinn of a mi'tii|'U}>lcRl 
illiiniun in 8i'lni|»Bhauyr'(i wnw. To wme Pil*iit lliin coi»fu«iim pi-t- 
liapi* nxlHt' In tlm dlwuuion o( low by Rraniivkr and Pnil in La 
XouFtllr Monadologia (pp. SID r( ■CQ.)> In comideriug whether Iutc i« 
or ia not a ilrlu^ioii, th^' aimu» that It l« or Is nut accordiiif,' ■>< iiv 
ni*, or are not. doiiiinnlpd by sflfi^hncss nnd InjiinHiv. "Tt iinn not an 
ewr-nlinl crtor which pr^aided avvt thp creation uf thi? idot. \ot the i>tul 
)i only what in all things the iiifal is. But to rpuli)>? th» idrjil in 1ot« 
two periHHis nil" needed, and thi-reia if. flie gr«tt dillicullj'." We kre 
nnver juMIIlpd. Umy conclude, In easting conlrmpt on otir hive, or even 
on itji objit'l, /or it it U true that up liave not gaineMj poueuion of the 
snvctpljtii licautj- of the world 1( i* equally tnie tlint we hav« not 
nttJiined n de}^ve of perfection lliut would ha\'e enlilled lu jtintly tu 
cUim 41) (iteat a priiv." And prhapii ino«t of ua, It may b« added, must 
admit in the md, If we nri? honekt with oiiiiiHveii, tliat the prixr* of 
luic tre have gained in Uie world, whati-vcr their llau», arc far grenlcr 
than wo dcaervrd. 

Wc may well agree* that in a tertain wntie not lore alone but 
all tlie pasaioos and dcsiree of men are illusions. In that sense 

I "Porhap* thrr* I* lenmly a man." wrote Malthim. a clerxyniun 
a* nrtl an one uf the prufunnd«ot IhinkcTH of hi* day yB»»aii on the 
Ihiiifiph of I'aptilatiot. 17UH, l*h. XI). "who hna onec oipcrienerd tho 
gi'nnine delij^it ul virCuotu love, however grmt hi* intelJMtual ple&oumi 
may have lieen. that ilo«a not look hack to the ppriad a* tho lunny ipot 
in hi» whole life, where hU imaKination lore* to bnnle. which he reeol- 
Ireta ("til eniilimplatcs with tho tondut rfcreta, anil which he would 
nunt with to live ovM ajpiin. Tho miperiorrtj of JnlellMtual to ■exMBl 
plenaiim conaiHl* rathi-r in their Rlliiig up mor» time, in their hnTinit 
a larfier innfro. and tn their l>cing low liable to aatiatc, than in tlicir 
beinfc mor« real and oMcDtial." 





the QoBpel of Uuddlia is justified, and we may recognixe tJie in- 
cptnitioD of Shakespcflpe (in tlio TempMt) and of Calderon (in 
la Vida es Saefio), who felt that uHitoatdy tlie wliolc world is 
an in«ubetantial dream. But short of tliat large and ultimate 
virion vc cannot nci-ept illuMon ; wc auiiint udinit that love is a 
delusion in nonie special and pefiilinr senM that men's other 
cravings and BSjiirstiDns cticupc. On the contrary, it ia the most 
solid of realities". All llic progrcMive furriig of life arc Imilt up on 
the attraction of sex. If ne admit the action of ee-iual selection 
—as wo can scurccly fail to do if we purge it from its tmeBsential 
accretions' — ^love hnt) moulil»l the precise siiape and color, the 
essential beauty, alike of animal and liuman life. 

If we further reflect that, aa many investigators believe, not 
only the plivflical structure of life hut also its »<piritiial slructiiro 
— our social (eclings, our morality, our religion, our poetry and 
art — ifrc, in some decree at least, also built up on tlio impuUc of 
sex, and would hnve been, if not non-existent, certainly altoRether 
di^cn-nt hud other Ihun sexual incDiods of propagation prevailed 
ia the world, we may ca«ily realise that vc e&n only fall into 
confusion by dismissing love a? a delutiiou. The whole edilice of 
life topples down, for ni* the idcali»t Sdiillcr long since f^aid, it la 
ratirely built up on hun^r and on love. To look uj>on love as 
in any sjieclal sense a delusion is mcriOy to fall into Die trap of 
tt sliullow cynicism. l/>vc ia only a delusion in so far as the 
wliole of life is a delusion, and if we accept the fact of life it to 
unphilosophical to refuse to aceejit the fact of love. 

It i* unntvi'URry licrr to inagnifjr the functionm of lovn In ihi> 
unorld: it U >tiinU'i<nt lo ini-Mtigate Its working in il» own projicr 
■plii^ir. It mn>-, liflwcTcr. be worth while to (iitote a lew expruwloni i>( 
tliinlccni, boloiigiiig tu (-ai'fuii« bcIiooIh. iiIio imre pointMl out wluLt 
iWMncd to tli'm the fnT-ninging sifnlltcanci' ol IIip ncxiinl rmotloriH for 
(lie inoml lil«. "The pasiiunn are Ihv liuivciilj^ Hrr wliich ^tm life lo 
the moral world." wrote Ki>lvi?tius lung ainre la Oe VRtprit. *'Tbn 
activitr of tho mind dcppndii on tlip ni^llvlt.v of tho pM*ian>, aiiil it in 
at the peritHl of tJie pnnnionn. fr<im the age o( twenty-lWe lo thlrtr-flve 

I Til*' whole nrpinii-nt of Iho lourlli volume of them! Sludif*. on 
"Sexiiul 8ol«ctlon in Man," points in Ihiit illrtctlon. 



■y or SKI. 

flt (crlf lliat mOTi art cnpniiln of the great^ret i-fforU of lirlup w ut 
genius." "Whnt (ouvluw sex." wruti- Zolu, "touclirii Uic oentre of toclal 
\Uf.'' Ui'vii our regard (or the prniif unci b1nm« ■>( oUi«r« Iias a iiKiual 
origin. frofeMor Thomtti" nrgum i /'nj/rAoIojiieaf KrnV-ir, .tun., 11104, pp. 
Ol-ltTi, and it U low ulildi U llii' source of «iiiic«|>til]ilil)^ gvnvmllr and 
of llip allruittlct nido of lifn. "Tlii* HpprHrsnri> of ■'■x." l'mf«M-or Wood* 
IIutc]iinK>n nttmipU to »how ("f-we n* n I'urtor in Evolution." Ifoniif, 
1898). "tlio di'vvloimieiit of mnlvn<-o<« und f^^^lai(■Ill■«■. wii4 nut only the 
biilhpl.'wc «f air#rlloii, tli« wcIlHprlng of all mornlitv, but an fiiormou* 
pponnmic Bitvanlugc to the raer nnd an nbnolutt- neWMity of progrcsa. 
In it lirHt wv and uuy M>niioiou« lon^ng fur or BOlivv imputsi^ to^'ard a 
(I'ltow crmliirv." "\Vi>r<' iiinn loblwil of ■h'' iimllnrt of piorrrutlon. and 
of nil that ipifitunlly ■prinif" Ihercfrnm," ruelniniwl Mniidnlrv in lu* 
l'h;i.fialogy of Hinil, "Miul iiiuiripnt would ull povliy. iinil iwrliHpo nl^ 
llU «lioI.» ni(ii'iil Ki-riw. Im- n1>1 i ti<m (vd fi»iil 111* Ufi"." "Otin »eomi> lo 
onMflf triinrilj)^it«l. iilrun^r, rii'licr. more complete: one in niorv cuni- 
pMc," »By» Nictiwlip (/W nHlr riir iftthl. p. 3fl!H, "vp find Iipta art 
an un organic function: wd And It Inlaid in tlir moat angelic Uwtinot of 
'lovp;' vtv find It a* thv gtvtiU*l «tSmu1ant n( llf?. . . . i. It U 
not mcrcl}' lliut it change* tlir feeling of vnlnn: the lover t« worth 
mon<, U Blrongpr. In MntnniU IliU rondilion prodoiMis now irvn|H>n«, 
pigincnla. eolorm, and formn. above nil new niovementn. new rhythmit, a 

new Bcdiictive tniinif. tt Is not oilierwi«e in mnn Eren 

in arl tli« door U «pen>-d to him. If »-■> •iiI)trHFt from lyricnl work in 
words and wiinds the i<iifq^tion» of that inteiitinal lervr, what i« left 
oi-pT In poetry and mu*ivT t.'.irt pour I'arl perlinp». lln! quacking rir- 
luoaily uf raid frog* who p«rlali In tlmir marah. All the rut La ercnted 
by love." 

It %vonld bn eniy to miilUpli- citation* timdlng to ahow hoit- many 
divert think'Ti hniy pomp to Ihf eoneluiion that «exnn1 Im'e ([neludinjt 
IhetewiUi piiriMitnl nnd pupocially mntemnl love) i> the oource of tha 
ehief mnnlfnalnlioTiA of life. How (ar Ihi-y are justili«Hi in Uint conclu- 
alon, It is not onr biiiinnu now to inquire. 

Tt is iindoubU'illy tniu tli«t. ut> we have «een when diicuating 
the erratic and iiiiporfwt diatributiiiii of tlif I'tmception nf love, 
and even of words for love, over the world, by no iiioun« nil 
people trc ci^iinll.v apt for expcripnoing, oven at any time in their 
lives, the emotionn of acxuhI cxnltatinn. The difference betwiTu 
tho knight und the churl utill subeistti. and both may fioinetime* 
l)e found in al! Roeiai strata. F.vfn tho reflnenienfa of cexual 
enjoyment, it is UDneceetiary to ionist, rjnite commonly rOTnain on 




a merely pliysiral bnsiit, ai]<l have littlo ellcct on tbe iutcUectual 
1111(1 iiiiolioDJil niiluri'.' Kut llnit is not Uil' cahc uiUi tlic pL'uplu 
wliu tiavc iiioiit (lowvrrullj' intluunc^l tbe course <ir tlie worhl'tt 
tliouglit and fwlint;. The perBonal reality of lure, its importaoco 
for the individiiii] life, aie foetc tliat liavt bt-cii toitifivd to by 
eomc of tbe createat tbinkers, after liveei (le^■ote<l to the attain- 
ment of intellectual labor. The experience of Ueoan, who 
toward the end of biit life ivl iloun in liifl renmrkable drnina 
t.'Abbeste tie Jouarre, his convittioa that, even fioiii the point 
of view (if elinitity, love it, afler all, tbe supreme tiling in tile 
B'orld, to far from slniiding alone, "Love Iin» alwaytt appeareil 
Ot< an inferior mode of human niiii^ie. andiiliou as the superior 
mode," wrote Tiirde, the dl^Iin^iii^lied sooiologit't, at the end of 
hie life. "But nill it ainaya be tluii:? Are there not reasons 
for thinking tbut tho future perliiipti rL-^Tves for us tbe InefTkble 
ttur[iriite of an inversion of that seinlar order?" I^plaee, half an 
hour before his denlh, took up a volume of bis own iti-ciini'iiir 
Vele*tf, and *aidi "Ail Hint t» only trirtes, there i* notliing true 
but love." C'onite, wlio had spent his life in building up a 
Positive Philosophy which should be uli§u!ute!y real, found (as 
indwxl it may be said tbe jrrejil Kn^dinb l*0!<itivist IMU tilw 
found) tbe eidniination of all hi^^ ideals in a woman, who was, 
be sold, Egeriit and Bentriee and Tjiuru in one, and he wrote: 
'■Tlwre i# nothing real in tbe world hut love. One grows tired o( 
thinking, and even of acting; one never grows tired of loving, 
nor of Niying so. In the worst torturee of ufTccUnn I have nwcr 
wa«ed to feel that tbe esfcntial of bappinesfi is that tbe heart 
should be worthily filled' — even with pain, yes, eicn with pain, 
the hittcrcfl pain," And Sophie Kowalewsky, after intellectual 
■cbievements which have placed her among tbe most diatinguiBhod 
P«f her sex. pathetically wrote: "AVliy can no one love nie? I 
could give initn- than most women, and yet the most insignificant 
women are loved and I am not." I»ve. tbev nil swm to «y, \i 

I "Perlmpit rno«( dvcrnp' nn'ii," VqxvX ri-rnurka (OiV Srxwllr Frtti/f., 
p. 807). "arr but slightly tvwptivp In Hit- inloxipotinn of love; llu'j iir* 
at most on th# ler*i nf tli)' gourniet. wlilch U liy no mPBii" nirtHmnHly 
an imnmnil plane, but ia ccrtainlj nut that of jiueti}'." 





the one tliiDg that in suprenit;]y wortli vliile. The greatest aud 
moat brilliant of the world's intellectual giants, in their moments 
of final insight, thus reach the habitual level of the humble and 
ahnoBt EDOnjinoiis persons, cloiBtered from the world, who wrote 
The Imitalion of Christ or The Letters of a Portuguese Nun. 
And how many others ! 

U-gljjp^ !3v 



tltf RmwntJal to the DIpiSly of Lo\-e— Tlie Eisbteenth Century 
""R<i«ilt Apiinrt tho Idem} at ClinrtUv — I'ntinlnral ■Form* of riiiwtlty — 
TliF I'Bvcljiilngii'nl IlHHJ'i uf Aocplicivtii — -AstrirUciMii uiid Chiiitity an 
Smajii' Vlrtiic» — The SigniticBiir* of Tnhiti—l'hBitily AmamK HaibnrouA 
I'i'iiIjIci — ('liatitity Auiuiitc tin- Eiirly Cliri'liitu* — Slrug|{lcs of T.liv Sainta 
wirli llie Klwh — Thp Roinnn™ of ChrlHlinn I1i»nllt>' — \t» Decay in 
UnliEViil Times — ^uca««*ii rt \'icolrllr nnd (hi- new Romnnw o( CIibdIg 
I»ve— TliF I'lichnatily of th« Norlhcni BnTbarUns — The fPniUntiftla — 
IitHnmc' of the RrnnUHnnop nnil dip Ri-foiTiintlon — Tlii* Revolt A|in[n*t 
Virginity an • \'iriup — Tlir Modfiii foiic'itlicm of Chantity «■ a ^'iriuc 
— Thf InltiiencM That F««>r lli» Virtui' of CliiiMtil)' — t'lm-tity ■>* a Dis- 
cipline — Til* Value of Chaxtity lor the Arlinl— Tnttncy and Impotent-u 
in IVpular B^tiniatioii — Tlio Corri'ct Ucfltiiiioim uf Ancetklsin nixl 

Ths iiupn-iiic iiiiportdnce of diUKtity, imd even of aeceticism, 
has nerer at an,v time, or in nny greatly vital hunuui society, 
altogether failed of recoj^itioii. Sometimi's rhai^titv has been 
exalted in Iitiman <->itiiiiati(iii, ^omvtiDieM it bus bec-u debavtil; it 
has frequently changed th« nntiiiv of it» mnnif<«lAtion» ; but it 
\inr alwHye been there. It is even a part of the beautiful vision of 
all Nature. 'Tbp glory of the world i* di-fn only by n chaste 
mind," aaid Thoreau witii his tine extravagance. "To whotnso- 
erer this fact is not an awful hut h(?autifnl nn-stcry tlicre arc no 
flovers in Nature." Without cliai^tity it i* ']tti\t'm\hh' to main- 
tain the dignity of iwxnni love- The wx'ioty in which its estima- 
tion ninkx to n minimum is in tJit- last stages of degeneration. 
Chastity ha* for H!xual love an importance which it can never 
lo*t, least of all to-^Iay. 

It i« <iuite true that during tho eighteenth and nintrteenth 
cenluriea many men of high moral and inffllectiial distinction 
pnmounc«d very decidedly their condemnation of the ideal of 
chaatity. Th* great Buff"n refused to recognize cliactity a* an 


■^ -OL 





t<U)tl dikI rcfvrn^ «cor[ifutly to "tlijit kiu<] of inxiinily wrliidi hux 
ttinit'd a girpB virftiDity into a Uiing witli a real e\is(en«'," wliile 
WillUni Jlorrii!. in liU downright iniiiiner. once declnnil at a 
iiiceting (if the Feliowahip of tliu Nt-w Life, tfiat aitooticiaiu ia "the 
most di^nisting vicp that afflicted human natan?." Blake, 
ttiough )i& Ht-nis alwa>'s to have Ik'(-ii a ittrit-tly muml man in (be 
nioiit coiivciitmnai lit'nHc, fi-It iiothtfl^ but ooDli?rapt for rhaetity. 
and mmHinies confers a kind of reliftious soleninitv on tli« idea 
of nni'lmxtity. ShplltT, who may have btim uiiwiwr in sexual 
mfltterB hut can scarwly be rallwl nncha.«te, also oflcn MecniB to 
ai^mx'ialc rclifpon and morality, not with chastity, but ifHh un- 
ehadtity, and mmh tht- tome may hv nid of Jame* Hinton.' 

Bnt all tbew men — with oUier men of lii^h character who 
have pronounced i^iiiiihir opinion* — were reacting; against faltM*, 
decayed, an<l cimventionBl fonn^ of chastity. They were not 
rebelling against au ideal; they were seeking to wl up an id*!al 
in a place where they realiutl that a niischicvoiui pretense wa^ 
niB«iueradin<j as a moral reality. 

Wc cannot accept an ideut of chatitity udIcm vo nithlf*>1r 
cast aside alt the nnnHlnral and empty forma of chastity. If 
chastity is merely a fatiguing effort to cnnilatc in the sexual 
•phere the oxplnit^ of pnifcKniflntt! fasting men, an effort usting 
np all the energies of the organism and resulting in no achiere- 
nMDt greater than the ah»lincncc it invoh-cs, then it is atiroly an 
unworthy ideal. If it is a feeble submission to an external 
coorcntional law which there is no courage to break, then it is 
not an ideal at all. If it i* a rule of morality impomtl by one 
sex on the opposite sex, then it is an injustice and provocative 
of revolt. If it is an abctiiiencv frotn the unnal fonns of eex- 
nality, replaced by more abnormal or more secret forrits, then it is 
simply an unreality based on misconception. And if it is merely 
an eictcrnal aeccptanee of eonrcntions withniit any fnrilwr 

I For Illukp and (or Sliplipy. n* «tll lu. it nuv be sdiiMl. for Ilift- 
ton. chintjty, »• Toilhiintfr rPiiiMTkn In hln Blvtn t>f fhrllrji, la "a typ« 
of Mihmiuion to tlip ni'IuH). n n.-niiij('iittKm of llir infinite, nni !■ thcr»- 
f'w* >iiilp(l by tin-en. Tlic chn.«tc mnn, i.r., Ihr man of pTuifcnm and wU- 
rontrol. U thn man who lifls lo»t t)<e nakHnma of liitt primilive 




VYi'o ill ai'l, thru it is' n iimti'mj)! ilili: fnriv. Tli«M 
are tlie foTniH nf chastity whicli (Iiiiiii^ the post tiro centuries 
ninny finiv«fmk'd nifn finvi- vigorously re'ji'rtc<i. 

The fnrt that cliastity, nr ascpticiBni, is n real virtue, with 
line vses, becomeB evident when ve realize tliat it has flounl^lIed at 
nil tiints, in connection with nil kiniln of rcligionti and tliv most 
various mornl codes. We find it pronounced anion;; savapee, and 
the Bpecinl virtues of savagiTV — hardncM, endurtmee, and hravery 
— are intimately connwtod with the cultivation of chastity and 
B6C0ticism.' It i« true that sava^'es seldom have any ideal of 
rlMStity in tin- dijjii'iidcd modern #en<^i>. ni^ a ntntc or jiennaQcnt 
abstinence froni sexual relationBhipa having a merit of ite own 
ajiart from any uie. They eKtcin (■lia''tity for its value*, mogicRl 
or roal, as a mi'lli<)d of sclf-eontml «liiHi eonti'ibute» towards the 
attaiumi-nt of important endn. The ability to bear pain and 
ivstraint is iieaily idu'av:< n main cK'nient in the initiation of 
youtlis at puberty. The cuBtoni of refraining from si-xtial inter- 
courm before expeditions of war and huntin];, and other serious 
<!onocrna involving great muscular and mental alrnin, whatever 
the motives assigned, is a sagaoious method of economising 
energy. The cxlmncly wide-spread Inihit of avoiding inter- 
counc during prt'jjnnucy and suckling, again, is an admirahlt^ pre- 
caution in sexual hygiene wliieli it i» extivmely difRcidt to 
obtain the obserrancc of in civilijaition. Savages, also, are per- 
fectly well aware liow valuable sexual continence is, in comhina- 
lion with fasting and unlitiuU', to acquire the aptitudi' for nb- 
nomial spiritual powers. 

ThuH C, Hitl Tuut iJourmil A'liliiupuliijtkHil In'ilitut'^. iiM.A>in«. 
lOOS, pp. 14.1-14S) give* nil intt^riMiUnK awouiit of IIip ndt-diiwipltnn 
iiRiIergonv by ltio«i.> aiiimig tU<i Sali»li liitljiiiis of ItrlliHli Cnlumbia, who 
9«-k to angtiire nhiimnniftic power*. The pnychk HT(*t» if »«Pli truln- 

I For eviilcrici- ot tin- prtitl iccii 'it nava^pt in tlii" miittcr, *er ,\pppn' 
diK A to tho third volume at tliMn Htwllrt. '"nii? Sexual Inntiiirl in 
tevkpft." Cf. 11I1.1J ("Ih. IV and V|[ of Wi-^t'rmnrdi'- Historif of 
Hvman Uarrlagr, nnd olim CIi«. XXXVlll nn-l XI-1 of tin- fiirii- author'* 
Oti^n and DTFlopmrnI of Ihr Utoral Id-It*, vol. ti: Fm/jr'n OoMiyt 

Btniffh <ontnio» much brnriiift on thisi nmSjwl, lu al-to Crnwlcy"" Mii't'ir 




iiitf on llie» men, tupi llill Tuut. Ih unJoiibUtL "IL enubiM tliem 
to unilertitku and ac<:'tii»tili«li (<■>>)■ of ubnurmnl ttrrngtli, njplil<r, uiid 
nilunnw; and prn them ut tiiiK-n. iH-tiilt^B a gi-m-nil (-xaliuiiuu uf Uie 
Miuc*. unduiibtiHl vluirvoj'Hiit aiid Mfr iiiifii?rnorinnl mi^utnl anil bodily 
powers." At the othfr end o( tlip world, nn olion-n by Uip Report* al 
tht Anlhrnitnloglml KyprdUinn to Tmiyi Ulraiit (vol. v. p. 321 ) . elowly 
snnlugouf nii'lUoiJ- of oliIninliiK ■iir>criintiiTnl powir* nrn hIk} caitomary. 
There nrc fiindampntul ptrcliologii^l inmoni for llic iridn prrv- 
nli^nM of uiiH'ticisui hiiiI lor tlip rcmiirkablv iiiniiner ill wliioli it UivoIvvh 
Mlf-moi'll Ileal ion. evi-n neule phy^lenl aulTmnK- Sueli pnin 1* an aotual 
psychlv itimulBtit, iiiori; ripcoiiilly ill Hli);btly iit-itrotie ihtbuus. TliU U 
wi'll illii»Uiil«il by n joiiiiK vom«ii, n puti^nt of Jnnet'*, wlio sulTereil 
from Dieiitnl depr«M.)on and vm* ntvixitonicfl to Snd rrlivf by ■lightt}' 
burning her Imnda nnd Ucl. 8hc liprw-lf ekarly und#rnt(M>d t)i» liAltir« 
of li«r artlonii. "I tt<r\," »he mid, "that I ninkn nn effort wben I hold 
my liantts on llie ■tm'e. or wbrn I iMnii l)ni)tng wutrr un my (n-t ; it Is 
n violent net nnd It nu-alcenR me; T feel lliAt It i" really iloni' by myself 
nnd not by iinollipr. .... To nmke u nu-nlal i-IItirt by iUdl i> 
Ino dinieult for me; T liiiv* to supplement it by ptiy^icnl rfTorta. I 
hnvr not nupwodi-d in nny oilier wiiy; tliiit i» nil: when I brnt-e mj«flf 
np lo bum my>vlf f make my mind [(ivr, lighter nnd idot«- actlrc for 
tevcinl duys. Why do you ■p'.-ak of my dtoire for niortiDcation I Sly 
parents believe that, but it U nbMird. It would be a mortiltcutioi] if 
It brought nny suffering, but I enjoy thi* lulTering. it givmt me bnck my 
mind; it prevents my thoughls fiom Mopping: whnt would oiio not do 
(o attain such happinp**!" ( I'. Janrt. "Tli* I'ntliogciiPiia of Some Impul- 
►ioii»," Journal of Alinornial I'ti/rh'ilii;)!/, April, I80t(.| If we utidei- 
»land tliio pnyrhologtciil procws we may ri-nliie how il in t.hnt rren in 
the liiglier religiomi. Iiuueier ehe they may ilillcr. the pruelirnl value 
of Duceticinn and niorl incut ion .-i^ the ne<v>uiry door to the nioi^t exaltfd 
religiotu *tat« in almoil universally lerognired. anil with eumplete chtar- 
fulneu. "AKCtieium and ecstuoy are inHparnhIr," an Probit-Blraben 
remark* at tho out«et of an intere>iing ]ia]<er un Mahoinmvdan myati- 
ciam ("L'ExfaM dan* lp Myillcl»mc Mniiilmnn." Ilrriir fhUotophtque, 
Kor^ loom. Aieeticima i« the nucepiviry nnle-ehambcr to npiritual per- 

It thus IiAppenit that unvngo tK'0)iU-« targi'Iv bnne tlieir often 
ixltnirable enforcptD^nt of asceticiEm not on t!te praoticiil ground* 
tlint would Justifr it. but on rdigiotte groundti that with tlie 
prowth of iDteltifteDCc fall intn discredit.* Even, howcvor, when 

1 Ri*. e.ff.. Wcatermarck. On>ln ami Dn^hpmenl of lU .Vont 
frftwa, vol. II, pp. 4lS el $r^. 




Ci itliiil>m--< wljuiTvaiit'^* I'i .-•aviigi.'B, wliofluT in sexual ur in "o«- 
Setltnl niutli're, arc witliout iiiiy oliviouslv Muiml bnsU it tanuot be 
nid Hint tl)C> arc entirely uat.'!ese if tlicy tend to encourage eelf- 
eontrol aiid tlie scnsi; of n-vcn-iKv.' Tiic wouiJ-bc iiitelligput 
and pradicnl jK-oploi wlm cn^t iiiide primitive obHen'ancoA lieonusp 
tbey eecm baaeless or even ridiLtiioiw. nerd a still liner prudical 
Beme and still grmtiT inti-lligi-iii;e in oidn- to rc^liKv Hint, tliougli 
the roiijionti for llie olisorvaitces Imve liepn wronj;, _\et llie obHfrv- 
ances tliemsclvcs muy liuvu been ncecsfiiiry methods of attainiQ}; 
penona! imtl fnidnl oDIcienev. it countAntly linppt-nA in tlic loursu 
«f civilization that we hnve to revive old obscrvnjifCF and furnish 
tlicm willi 11PW R>«*on». 

In ooiv>i(IiTin|i Ihr moral qiiidify of rhnntity itmnng uivngp*. \vc 
niiiit <^nr«tully scpiinttr that iOin*lil}r' wliiHi ninong "i-iiii'jiriiiiilivi- |)M)- 
n)e> Lt rtchiHi vnly Impoiwcl upon Hvuncn. Tlij* tin* no niorol qiiHlily 

|wlnUT«T, for it in Dot PX«rDi«mI as n UHcful tlisripliiir, but iiiorply 
MifurcMl In onlpr In lirij^hton tlip (viinomic nm] pnitlc cAhin at tlin 
women. M»nr nullioriliw iK-lk-tf Umt. the rrganl tot womrn m prop- 
erly (uminhc* tUo tnw r*n«>ii for the wiil»|)ritai) inai«U^iiii- on vir^^inily 
ill bride*. Tliim A. II. Ellis, sppaking of tlin VVoul Cniiil of Afiicn 
iTorvia-RpeakiHg I'eopltt. pp. 1^.1 rr i(q.\, M^i tliat ^rU uf good cIum 
ar* bflrolUi-il ah mere Hiililrpn, and ar* mrpfiilly inmnli-il (ruin men, 

rvliili- girU of jowpr ola«t nre Hcldimi iH-lrotliird. und muy lend any life 
ilwy ctioow. "In lhi« cuatom of iufaiit or eliild l*trotl>ai« wc probBldy 
Und Ui* key to Ihnt mrioiut regntd for untf-niiptial rlimtity found not 

only anionfC llie (ribi-> of ttii' V-'M 1 Slnvt< Vatt*t*, but iil-m amoiiK 

many othvr iindviliBnl piijpU-* in diffcrpnt purt.i of ihe world." In a 
very dIRVrciil port of Uh- wurlil. in Norlliini HiWriii. "tlitf Yiikiil*." 
Sicro^evskl ilntfs iJouinal Anihi-tipolngirnt ht'HUitr, .Imi.-.Iimr, IftOl, 

I Tliii:j nn otil XIhoiI ilndnrinl. a tfvi rnnri- njto. Ilial tlie docllno of 
hit Hire h;t<> Ui-ri entiri'ly due to Ilie lt»« of tlir iiniii'Mt ri'lisiiiui fiiilli 
in tbo f'jftii. '^For." 'nlrt lie (I (|ii'ile from nn .\m-l;l«iid npwipnpiT I . 
"in the oldi'n-tinie olir iapn rnmilipd Kip whtilc p"ici«l ny-tem, Tlir 
hntd. the hair, "pots wlitre nppnrllioniL apponreii. plaecit uhioli thu 

I tokuiigat pmi'luimi'd an naerpi]. ivp have for^Itrn and di!<ri<i;iird<-d. Who 

RuwaiMya (hinki of tho jafreilnew of (Ik; henil? i^ nhr'n Ihc kettle 

rfcollH. the yniing man lump* up. wliip* tlie cup off hin hmJ. and u*e* it 

, l«r a kettle- holder, fl'lin noMndny. lint look* on wllh IndifTerener when 
the IxiTher of (he vilhiKi-, if hp hi. ni-nr tlie fire. «hnki>» the IcMixe hair off 
hi* eloth into it. and llie joke and Ihp Iniigliter goet nn n» if no laernl 
operation hail Jiwt lieen coni-tnded. K<vkI in ennntiiucd on plaoM whlcli. 
In liygotiA days, it darn] not even be cnrried crrcr," 

ij,, CjI.)i.JS^Ic 



p. 9C). "8M iiotliitiK Imnioiu) In Illicit lovn, |>rovldtii|[ only tluit nodcHly' 
hiiiri-n inntninl \(na by It. It U tnic Ibat paicnta irill Kuld • duugliU-r 
it licr coRiliict tlitputniii to ilvjitive them of thdr guiii from (lie bride- 
prkp'. but i[ (iTiof^ Ibt^ httiv lost liopv of inairrliig lin olT, i>t If iko 
briilr-prlro haa boon iprnt, tbry mAnifnt mmplrt^ ItiidilTeTeiwc to bcr 
condurrt. Mnidmii irlio no longix expiH-l marriage kre not rMtrsIn^ 
lit nit. if tlify obwrvw difuriiin It i* only out of mtpcct to curtoni." 
\\V»Irrronrcle (//i»»ory of numnn itarriatit, pp. liS c( »r^.) also atiiw** 
llip roniii^'tion between thi- liijth utilitiintM of vir^nlty and tlt« conMp- 
tion of womnn ii« property. miJ n-lurniiig lo the nucstion In hi* Inter 
work, The Oriyin and Dfrflupmenl of Ihr Jffirol Idrat (vi>I. ii, Ch. 
XLtll. nfter pointing nut tlint "marriage by purchase boa thus raiud 
the (tlandnrd of fi'iiiHte diaatity." \ie rrf^rs I p. 4.17) to thv HigniCcant 
(act tlmt the sedlielion of nil iinmniripd girl "'in cbiolly, if not exelu- 
•iwlr, ri'ipirded u* nji offrn.-te against the pareutt or fuiully of th* girl." 
and there l« no indlcallon that It !« ever held hy ««rnp'* tliat any wron;( 
ha* b«Ti done to the uotuan herJeU. Wratmnarek r«MigniMa at tli* 
Mm" time that the preference givnn to virgins hat nlan a bioIa|[<OBl baat* 
in the iiiatin(!tivn maivuline ferltnKof jcoloiuy In TPgnrd to WMnm who 
have hail inter<«ur*e with oUif-r tiien. and e-|>eeially in tW erotic charni 
for men of t)ic <>niotlonnl »tate of (hynean whieh n^vonipanicii virginity. 
tThiA pitint Ikih been dealt u'lth in the dineuxiion of Modeftty in vol, i 
of th«M HtuiIifM.) 

It 1» feairely nee<'AMtry lo add that llic iuHiitt«ni« on tli» virginity 
«f bride* i* by no ineuni conAiied. na A. B. Ellii •rrnia to imply, to 
lllirii iliird people*, nor it il neoebary that wif<>*purrha«« tbonld always 
■ecompany it. The prefemiec atill pcr»i*t^ not only by virtue of it* 
natural biological basi», but na a rirfliieiii°nl and «ni(fD«ion of ttie ide* 
of vroman aa property, among thaw ririliird piropln who. Ii)i» nuriwlv**. 
inherit a form of niarrlngif to 4ome e^lenl buxtnl on wlfe-pnrehaw. 
I'nder audi mndiltonH a woraan'a ehaititv hint nn important anclal (uBp. 
tinn to perdirni, Iwiiiji, «■ Mrt, Mons Csird lian |uit it {The Uoralilg of 
Uarria^f, l!^07. p. HKi. the vratch'dog of manV property. Tlie fact that 
no eli>uipnt u( ideal murnlity enters into th« queation ia ahon-n by the 
IIBual abience of any ileninnd for ante-nnptinl rlinatlty in the liui'tuiiid. 

It must not be 8Up|XMed tlint uhrn. an in moat uauiilly the enae. 
there la no nnnplet« and [lerniaiienl pn>hibltinn of extra*nuptial iiiter- 
t-OUrse. mete unrestrained Ikrniic prnalla. That h«i probably never 
happened nnywliere nmon); nneoiitaniinainl Hai-agM. The rii)e prolMibly 
Il Iliiil, nn among thr tribe* at Torrca Straita fllrporta CamtWrfpe 
AnlhroiMiliifiir-al KriuilUinn. vol. v. p. 273). ihere ii no rompletr ttm- 
tt»mev before nLnrriiiKP. but neither i* there any unbridled liernar. 

The example o[ Tahiti i« innlruolive a* regnnln the preT«len«F of 
«liMtlty among |}eopleB of wliat nr gimrmllr eonalder low gmd«« of 




ciTiltzBtioa. TahStJ, orcordlnx to nil tvbo tiavn viiitvil it, from the 
vaHint «xplOTcri down tu tliHl dldliuguiiiliMi AmvricAii Burgwon. tluc lulv 
Dr. Ntrholas Scnn. ii au iNUiid |i(i<iua>(ng iiiialitle* of nnlurnl beauty 
knd clinutio excp|Inn<^. nlikb It in impuMiblv to ralr too higlily. "r 
Mwiiinl to hn trannporlwl into llip gnrdi-ii ol Edi-ii," taid Biiugainvillv io 
ITOd. But, mBinlj uudi-r tli<^ iiifliii>ti<?e of tho mrlv Eii^flUti mMnioiinrk-H 
who hcM iilmi uf tlieorHical niornlity totnlly alirn lo tlin:^ of tlic Inlinb- 
iUnto of tlir UUndu, thn Talntiann have hnvmr the ntock rJiiitDple of a 
pniiiilatlon givm ot-er to Ijctinliouanraii and alt its awful renulls. ThiM, 
in hi* taliiablp Polynaian Rararehrt (»er«Dil edilion, 1832. vol. i. Cii. 
IX) WllllBin Kills 9ny» that the Tnhltiniii practipwi "thi> worst [lollii- 
tlons »f which it wns [lostibli? for muii 1« Iw gviilly.'' though not sprcify- 
ing them, Wlicii, however, «o cjiTpfiilly pxainiiic 11«" narrnllvi'B of tli<.' 
rarly vtiiitDn to Tnhiti. Iwfore tho popiiliilion bti'nme ran Ui mi no ted by 
contutrt ii'iUi Kuixipi^nii**. It b<vi>ini>ii drni rlml tliU vii>w tii^i'dH viTiouK 
modifiratioa. *^ho fcri'nt plenty of tpiod and noiiri^bing fond." wrnto nn 
early explorer, J. R. Fornter tObservaliotis ifodcon a Vojiagf Roaiid the 
WorU. 1778, pp. Ml, 409. «2). "tnjiethcr with tho fliiP ellmnto, thi- 
bMuty and iinr**tn-i-d h«1uirior of their fcmnlm. invite them powrrfully 
to tilt njoyini^nlB und pl«u«un>s of love. They begin very nnilj- to 
abindon thrm^clvcn tn the mo«l libidinriim wpn™. Their songs, their 
dnneu, and dniniutit; perfnrmnneei, btenthe n spirit uf Iniurv." Vet 
he in over nnd ovtr nji«in liiip-'Hed |o 'et di."vii fai't" wlik-h Iwiir t<^ti- 
mony lo thi! virtticn of thete people. Thongb rnthrr elTeiiiiniJile in 
btiJM. they are nthleli.:'. hp pulys. Moreover, in Ilieir wars they flght 
wilt grntt hravcrj' und valor. They are. for the re«t, hospitable. He 
rnnarka that they trMit their married women with gi'i-nt reopect. Hnd 
ihat women uenerally are neurly the etiiiaU of men. both in intelliRenee 
and In •orlal poxltioii', lie givCH » I'hurming •li'ivriplion of the woinea. 
"In shorl. their churneler." KoMter coneliidrj, "ia as nniinble nn fhnt of 
any nation thnt i-ver ennie unimproved out of Iht- hHnds of Nature," nnd 
he renark* thsl. n» nn» felt by the South Sen peoples gcnernlty. "when- 
rrw Mfc mmp lo this hnppy lulnnd wi« could evidently prreeive tlie 
opulrnec and happlufaii of It* inliaMlBiitJ-," It U nnt^worlhy sIko, tlinl. 
iwlwilhataiidins tho high importance which the Tuhitiaiu attached to 
tbo orotic aide of life, they w«r« not deflpieiit in r#pird (or cliadlity. 
When Cook, who rUited Tnhiti many time*, wan nmonft "thin benoi-olcnt 
human*" ppople. he n'>led tlieir e«tei'tti for elia»t[ty. and fouml lliiil not 
only wTre betrothed (firlii •trietly giiiirded before marriaKc. but thut men 
bIm who had refrained frwin sfsuul intercourse for some litne Iwfori' 
uurriage wera beljn-rd to piun at dratli Immndlalrly into the abode of 
th« Ura^. "Thvir brhaviur. on all ocnuionn. setfnm to indicnle u l^rvat 
opwii i M a nnd gmerority of dinpoiltlDn, T never «nw them, in any mi«- 
fortOM, tabor under the upp«uriincc of an\iely, after the uritiL'al iiioiiiciit 





wu pMt. Mcilhcr dart care evct ucm to nrinklu Uitir brow. Oii tlio 
wntraTT. nyea tlit^ iippronch uf divtii iIoi-k nut uptHnr U> iillcr llivir usiuil 
vivacily" tThhd Voj/iii/t- <i{ Ditciivriil. l7"al7M)|, Tiimbiill vi«l|i>il 
Tiihltl lit n ]uli-r pfiiod {A Vayogr Houml th' ll'orM ii» iSHfl. ptc. pp. 
IiT-t'5). btit u'liilt finding nil lurl-i uf vvfv* Aiiiuiig tliciii. ]ii- U j'i't rom- 
prllnl li> ndrnit thfir rirlur*: "Thitir iiianniT of u>ldiM*iii)[ ttraiitp^rk. 
Friitn tilt- king tA llie niiNinvHt isulijot't. is cuiuU-omh und ufTublp in llui 

<titrpnii! Tli*j' wrUlnly Htb ninonip>t carli otlii>r In ihomi 

Imrmonj^ Uian ii tisual oniunKit ICuropninii. During the whole lime I 
vrud Hiiii>iiK*l tlimi I iii^VTt it«ii 'iirh u l)ilii|C <i< h hiittlfi. .... I 
never miicmlipr to iiavn sepii nn Oinlicitcan out of tcmiKT. Tlicj' jot 
upon miJi oilivr wiMi )fi>^:iU-r frit-dom tliAn tliu Knropeatia, but tlivoe 
JMt* nrr ncrrr token in ill purt. .... With rngnrd to lood. It 
It. ] beticvi'. an invurliiblt Uii' iii UtaLvilv tliat wlmt^vrr is jioaamted bjr 
one I* common to all." Tliini wr w thnt iwn anionic n jii-npk wlio are 
puiiiiiioiil}- rcfcrml to a* tlie niipreine exiiiaplF ot u luition gin-n up u> 
uni-iiiilriitli-il liei'Ul luiiMi«»^ tli* clalni" of rluiMit.v vn-rv udmitlcJ, and 
many otlier virtuen viBorounly (lourinhcd. Tlie Tnliitiniis were bruve, 
liOHpitHbli-, Mlf>'i>iiUi>ltM. <'Ourli«u«, rnnaidiriili- to tin- nvi'Ja of others, 
ehlralintiB to women, rven appreciative of (lie aitvnnlase* of lexual 
T*«lTUiiit. to an vxtcnt uhieb lio* rarely, if lytut, Wen knonu ainoug 
tliOK rtirli^tian natloni whlc'h ha>'0 looked down upon them aa abandoned 
ift iu)Hp«ttkab)e vice*. 

Ah u'c turn fruiti s^avages towardit jieopica in tlie barbarous 
and civilized staga we find a genna] tcnilvncy for clmtttity, in so 
far as it is a annnion jiowcwion of the coininon i)i>o)ile, ia he less 
icgardeil, or to be retainnd only ns a traditional convention no 
Itmgcr etritlly obeervtti. Tin- old (;rotmd(i for clinrtity in primi- 
livo n>li];iiinii and tabu have dii-uycil and no new groumis have 
been generally establiilicd. "AKlioujili llie progress of civiliza- 
tion," wrote (•iblioii liiiiji; agn, "lian timlDubttHlly conlribiitcil to 
nsfcuaf^ the fiercer pa&-iaiiA of human nature, it seeius to have 
bi'tn less favornbU' t/i tlw virtue of ihaiitity," nnd Wwtcrninrck 
concludes that "irrejrular eonnections belween the se.vw bavo. on 
the w'iiole, cxbibitod n Icndcncy to Incrcujo along with the prog- 
TF6a of i-iviliisation.'' 

The main difTvrcnce in the social function of chastity as we 
pass from Hnvngcry to higher Ktsges of culture »>ccins to bo that 
it ceased to eiiBt as a (:eneral hygienic mea^nre nr n gener 
ceremonial t>b«crvEincc, and, for the iiioul jwrt, bcc-onics confined^ 



to epeciul pluIoBopliic ur ivligioui; ml'cU wliicb cultivate it to an 
exlreuii,- tU'^rvu in n mure »r Icttt profctwiotml way. Thi« Ktatu of 
tilings IB well illu^rated by the Itoman Empire during the early 
centuries of the Christinn era.' Christianity itself was at first 
one of tlieso «icli^ inamuivd «f the ideul uf iliastily; but by its 
Buperior vitality it replaced all the others and finally imposed its 

^ideale, thoij|;h by no means iti? primitive practices, on European 
ci«ty geiHTaily. 

Chastity manifested itself in primitlre I'hristianity in two 
Brviit t)i(>u};h not nct'easarily opjKtscd ways. On the ooo 
it took a Mi'ni and praclitai form in vigorous mm and 
women who, after beinR brouRht up in a society pemiittinK a 
high degree nf i^vxind inilnlgt-'iin-. >«iiiliU'rily found llicmfelvcs con- 
Tinccd of the *in nf such iniliil^jcni'e. The battli; with llic docicty 
they had been born into, and with their own old impulses and 

.liabit«, becume eo sevrrc that tUi'y often found tliertiwIvM com- 
pell«d to retire from the world altogether. 'I'hus it was that the 
parched solitudes of Kgypt were peopled with hermits largely 
ocoupii'd wilii the problem of subduing their own flesh. Their 
preoccupation, and indeed the preoccupation of much early 
Christian literature, with sexual matters, may be said to be vastly 

Lgrcntvr tlian was tbo ^aw with the pagan society they had left. 

M'aganism accepted sexual indulgence and was then able to dis- 
min it, eo that in classic literature wc find very little insigtcnoe 
on »c\iial dctailn e\ei-pt in writers like Martial, .hivenal ami 
IVtruuius who introduce liiem mainly for satirical endjL. But 
Uk' Cliristians could not tlinx iwape from the obscasion of sei; 
it was ever with them. We catch interestinp jrlimpses of thoir 
dniggles, for the m»>^t part barren iitniggleji, in the Kpisttes of 
St. Jerome, who had himself been an athlete in these ascetic cpd- 

L tests. 

*K>Ii, how mnnr liniM," wrotp si. Jpromi- to KuBloflihim. Ilip 
virgin to v'liom he ndilre«W one of the longeKt unil moat iiilcTeaUiiK <'t 
hi* l*((i>r*, "wlieii In tlie dweTt. In that vant sclltude which, burnt up 

1 Thui. lonfc brfbre rhri»iinii innnloi nriMii*. (Ii^ nucelie life of tli* 
rlnlibr oil Tm- •Imllnr lltipn cxl't-vl in Kgy|>I In the woreliip n( Scrnpla 
(IMII. Komtui 'Sooieljf, p. 70). 

. ., Ca.'l^^Ic 



by th" lirnrt of llic >uii, ulTrtn bul ii liotiiblf dui'lltng to monkd, 
Jiiia][iaFd mtiH'lf Dmuii)C thi- ddiglitt of KoiiipI [ whx hIoiii', (or iiiy 

full of blllernnw. My limln wfiv cnveml by n nn-trhrd »nck and 
B,V «klii wn* a* black nii nn RthiopiutiV ETPt>- ilny I wi'pt and ipDatipd, 
and If 1 wa« miwUlingly ovi-iPumi' by ■•ipc|i my li-nn bwly Iiiy on the b«re 
rorlli. 1 Kny nntliiiix i>' "")' fooil nnil drJnfc. (or in llic ilcwrl rwn 
invniidii linvp nn ilrjnk bill cold nUtiT, nml cuokcd fooil !« rpgnlilrd on 
II luxury. Wi'll, I, hIui. oiil of Irnr of hell, bud mindi'niniil inyK>-lf to (hi* 
linxoii, ■■iiiii[iiiiiinn of ■I'niplont niid wllil biiiMi', odon »<>mi<>rl hi linn|(ina- 
tiun amon;; biindK of gitU. My fnve iritu pnle with fatting and my mindi 
wllliln my frijfi.l ImjcIv wn» burning wiili ib-nirv; tlii- fiti"* of lii»t wxmid 
still tlnii- w|) in u body Ihnt nlrcudy hwiuhI to be daid, Tlien. dtpn»i'd 
of nil hplj), I tlin-w iny*i'lf nl tli^ f*i't. of .1»mu«, wnntiing t\irn\ witli itiy 
tram and drying tlirm witli my hnlr. lubjiigating my rcbcllionn flcBli by 
lonK ro"!*. ) ti>mr>iiilM-r llmt inorr (linn onci? I |mvti'<l Ihp iiif^ht n(t?rin){ 
c(ii>» and ttrikiiiK my brniMt until (loil unit mp ppuor." "Our wntnry." 
wrote St, Cliry^oKtom in lii" Diarnvsr in Thosf Who Krrp Virijing in 
Thfir HoHvt, "ha« ni'i'ii niuiiy mea who lime lionnd Ibf-lr bodi™ witli 
('Iminn. clotliml I li<-ni<Flvi>i> in luick*. rctirrd In Ibr (nnimitu of tnonntuitii 
ulipri* tWy linvp liti'il in cnn-lnnt vigil nii<l fniting, iflvInK tW 'xnmplc 
of ill* nifi'i »n>irTp di«''i|iliii" uiirl furbiddin); nil wnmun t'l ito»h the 
thmhold* of tl>c>ir linmbi* (luftlinir*; nnd j*i. In ''plto of nil the upvptI- 
Ilea thi-y hove pxitciumI on thffm«p|vpii. it bah w-ilh dtffiiriilly thry could 
rppri>M thf (my of thMr pmslon*." ITIInrlnn. wvy* Jnrom*-. mvt vinloni* 
of naked noincn uhrn Iip Iny down on hi* nolitary coiicli and dfHciou* 
mrat* wlifn he fut down to hix frugal t«l>li-. Such nportcnMa tvniUrcd 
the Mrly Jinintt ■i-^y umipnlon", "They u>i'd tn «iy." we are told in 
nn Intpicul inK l<l"l»ry of thn Kjo'i'tixii miHiorlii'-. l*nltndhiH'H Par/i'H*i' 
of tkt Boll/ l-'alhri; belonging to the fourth trnliiiy |A- W. Budgr, The 
I'araitiif, vol. ii, p, laill. "(Iinl Alilift Iiniii' went onl nnd found the foot- 
print of » woman on the road, nnd he thought nbimt it in hit mind and 
d»lrm-ri) it anylng. Tf a brother «eeth It h« may fall,'" Similarly, 
ucfording to ihc rulcn of St. rnuriun of Arli-* for ihiiib. no mule cloUi* 
liif! was to be tukt-n into the ooni*ent for the purpose of washing or I 
mending- ICvcn in old ajp?. a certain anxiety about chmtity (till re- 
nuiinecL One of the brothcn, we are told in Thr I'aradiiir (p. 132) aofd 
to Ahbft Zeno. '"Beliold Ihnu hait grown old, how it the iiinttfr of foml- j 
cattonT" The venerable taint leplieil, "It knoekelli, but it pnueth on." 
.\« the eenlurien went hv tlie aiimo ntrenuniiB anxiety to piard 
ehn«tily •III! mmniniil, and llie old nirnj^le eon>itnntly reappenred (oee, 
r.f),. MijEiH-'i OierJonnuire »r.l*ei*(iirmr. art. "Df-nioii. Tentation dil"). 
Some ■ainta. it <■ truo. like 1.ul)it dl (loningn. were so angFliently natur«d 
that (hey never felt the sting of texnal deiirc. Theae sei-ni tu liava bevn 
the exceptioD. 8t Benedict and SI. FrancU esperlenccd the diffieiilty of 

IJ, j -,-,-■:] rjy' 




inilMliiJng llir IImIi. St. MagiUl«ii* do Poui. in order to dispel wxiiul 

dcniri'i, Koiilil roll on thomy buslim till tlw liIooO rami-, iknne lainli 

kojit * ipminl onak of r«Id wnlir in tlidr cdli to ntntid In (Lm, 

Hae^rdittiil Cflitmei/, vol. i. p. 124 1. On tlir ollirr linmt, the Illcunt 

lAiifTl' 'I' rulginio t«1l« uh in lirr Vinionfi l<^|>. \l\l tliiil, unlil for 

bidden hj hvr confmu^r. »be n-nuld pincc hut c<uil> in lier acvtrl parta. 

bopinti bj: niat«>iMl flrp to eitinguiib tlic lire of Mncii]iiaeenw. l^t. 

lAlilhelni. the Iioly Bishop of Sliirliotnt-. In thp t'iKlilli ppntuiy, »\aa 

I Kdopted > linraoofiatliir nirthod of Ireutment. though of h more 1lli>Tat 

kind, for WiUinni of Mnlnmbiiry -tuti-'x tliut when trmpled by the llr^h 

lie would hHv<> wi>iii>-ii lo 'it an 1 lli> \>y him iinlll lie ([<*''»' enim a([n(ni 

tlio mrtliml [iroT'^ vi-ry •iiwc-ndil. for the rcawn, it wu» lliuiiglit. thnt 

till? l>Til fi-lt hv hiid biH-n iiiiiilr h fool of. 

In time tlie Cnlholie prncHee and theory of AnccticUni brcnm* 

more torniulireil nod elnlH>i'»i>>il. and ilH brnellclnl tITitIm yetie hold In 

cxtimd bej'nnd the individual hininclf. "Ascelifimn from the Chrintiiin 

, point of rifw," uriten Ilrenlcr d.- Mniitinomnil in nii Inlrrvtlng study 

' ("Aapfitlsme et My-iliciime." Rrrw I'hiloguphiijUir. March. IfOl) "i^ 

Inolhing *lw than »)1 the tliiTHiieutir inm>iun.'» ninkinK tor nioml purifi- 

I'Cktioil. The Christian aaivtie in an nthl'tr atniKKltne lo tranxfcirin hi> 

I CDmi|)t nalinv unit iriuk# a road to Ood tbrougb the ufaitaeleN due tii hi« 

puiuiona nnd tlxe u-orld. ITr U nol n-orkinji in hlx own inleri^t* uloiu*. 

but — by virtue ot the revFtolhility of merit iihiHi nompenwiteit that of 

iolldarlty in «rior — for tlnr ifiMd und lor the tuilvatioii of the whole uf 

This i^ llio UKpCL-t of uarly ClirUtinii nsccticifiii iiiort utUai 
bagized. But Uicrc is anotlior aspect n-hich may be less 
liliar. but has birn by no mcun^ \ef» imprjriaDt. Primitive 
I Cbrirtian chaiitily vi»f on one hiiIo ii strcniioiis dtAcipline. On 
[another side it vas a romnnce. and this indeed was its moet 
tpiKificnIly Chrittixn wide, for athletic nscotidem hoM boon iwm- 
ciate<l with the moat various! rcligiou.4 nnd pliiUwophic bHicfx. 
If. indeed, it had nrl |>06Sf;^ed the cliariu of a new sensation, of a 
dWicioiis frw^inm, of im unknown advenhui', it noidd never have 
conquered the European world. Tht-re ari' only n few in Hint 
world *-ho have in lliem the stulT of moral athletep ; there are 
many who respond to llio nitnulton of romiini-c, 

Thf Cliristian* icjccfcd the prosscr forma of sexual indul- 
Hvaev, but in doinj; m they entered wilh a more delicate ardor 
Into Uie more refined forms of sexual intimacy. They cultivated 

, ,.,:., Cookie 


l-8VCU0UKiV or SKI, 

ft relationahip of brothers and eiatcrs to eacb other, tbey kissed 
oiMi nnotlicr: nt one time, in the spiritual orgy of Iwptiuo, they 
wer« not ashamed to adopt complete nBkednces.^ 

A TIT}' in^lnictiru pictiiri.' of tlie forms which chartityj 
■muomhI uiuoug till* furiy (.'hri>>liunK i» givcu us in th« trcatiw of ^ 
dir^-sostmn Agaiiut Those ivho Keep Virgins in their Botuet, 
Out fnthfiK. Chrytoitoin lM;giiis oiilv kni"»- two fonns of wmnl 
inlimaey, marriage and fornication. Xow a tliini form has 
appeared : men introduce young girls into their houses and kwp 
tht-m there j»erninnently, respcs'ling their virginity. "What," 
C'hrirsostoni asks, "is tlie reascm? it seems to me Uiat life in 
eonimon uilh u woman is ifwvrt. even outside conjugal union and 
(lt»hly commerce. That is my feeling ; and |>er1iaps it iii not my 
fcelin}; ulune; it may aliui be tiiat of th<^«e men. They would 
Dot hold tlieir honor m chnp nor give rise to sudi scsndaU if 
this pieasnro were not violent and tyrannical. . . . Tiiut 
' Uiere should really be a pleasure in this which produeo u love 
uiore'ardent tiian conjugal union may suq)riso yon at first. Kut 
when I pve you Uie proofs you will agree that it is so." The 
abscDoe of lestmiDt to desire in marriage, he continues, often 
U-iids to speedy disgUKt, and even apart from this, sexual intcN 
course, pregnimcy, delivcrj', lactation, the bringing up of children, 
and all the pains and anxieti(« that accompany tlicse things Honn 
destroy youth and ilull the point of pleasure. The virgin is free 
from these buj'tlen:(. She retnins her vi'ror and j'outli fulness, and 
I'veii a( thf iigir (if Rirty niuy rivnl the young nubile girl. "A 
iloiibic ardor thus bums in the heart of him who lives with her, 
and the gnitifioatton of desJrc never exliiiguUheit tlie bright 
tlaiiie which ever continues to increncie in strength." Chryaoetom 
dtticribos minutely all tlie little cures and attentions which the 
modern girl.-* of his time m|uii'ccl. and which theM> men delighted 
to expend on their virginal swepthearts whether in public or in 
private. He cannot help thinking, howerer, tliut the man whu 
Iflvidhea kissea and carewca on a woman whose virginity he retains 

I At niet)'. in Uio bnptintfT. «ilh 1niiip« dimly burning, the wonii^i 
vim rlrlpiieil evfii nt thfir tiitifcM. |)liiiiKi'il tlinx- liintv* 111 the |>ool, ' 

■uninli'il. ■1iY~u.ll in wliitc itn<l kimnl. 



is pntting himself Bomenhat in tbe position of Tantalus. But 
this Dcw relineiupnt of tt'iidcr clinflity, w!iji.-h uimi.' us a dcliciouii 
diwoTory to tlic carlj- ChrisIianH ulio hnd rcMiluttlj' thnixt nwoy 
the licentiousness of the pajran world, was deeply rooteil, aa wt! 
discorcr from the frwiufncy with wliiih the grave Futliers of tJie 
Church, apprchcnsiw of nc&nilal, felt enUcci upon to rcprnvo it, 
though their condemnation is sonietimes not without a tracfi of 
secret sympathy.' 

There was one form in which the new Chrintinn chntttity 
fiourished exuberantly and unchecked: it conquered liternture. 
The rooet charming, and, wc may be sun, t)ie muet popular 
literature of the early Church Iny in the innunicrahlc mtmina-x of 
erotic chastity — to snme extent, it may well he, founded on fact 
— which lire embodied t"-day in llie Acta Sanclorum. We ciui 
Me in even the mo^t simple and non-miraculous early ChH^tinu 
records of tlie martyrdom of women tJiat tiie writers were fully 
■ware of the delicaitc chnrm of the heroine who. like Pcrpetiia at 
Carthage, tossed by wild cattle in the arena, rists to gatlicr her 
torn gnrmenl around her and to put up her dislievi-led hair.- It 
was on easy Ktep to the etoric« of romantic adventure. Among 
these delightful storicfi I may n^fer (tsqiecially to the legend of 
Thekia, which has been plated, incorrectly it may bo, as early as 
the first ccnlury, '"The Bride and Jlndogroom of India" in Judati 
Thomas's Acts, "The Virgin of Antioch" ob narrated by St. 
^^^^L&mbroMi tlic history of "Achilleus and Nercus," "Mygdonia 
H^Hlmcl Kariah," and "Two Ixiven* o( .\urergiu'" nx toM by Grc^ry 
[ of Tours, Early Christian literature abounds in the stories of 

' lovers who had indci'il preserved their chutttity, and had yet 

diacorered the moHt cxt|uiaite secrete of tove. 

I Thus Jerome, in lii« l«tti!r tu Euttoehhiiti, Tvtvrt to Ihooe muplvM 
who "•hare tlic name room, often rvrn tli.' oamc W<l. iitiil cnll ii* >ui- 

Elrloun if we dr«w uny conclu-iono." wliile Cyjiriiiii (Kpinioh. aft) 
> unable to itpprovp at tlio«p mr-ii he limr* of, one n diwcon. mIio live 
In famtllar inteivoiirM nilli vir^iii*. even sleoiiing in llie anine htnl wllli 
thNu, for, h« dcpIarM. t.litt fcmininp wx in ucnK and ^outh I" wntitoii. 

SPerprtun (.4f(a Sancloruin. Miiii'li 7) ia teriiiotl by Hort nnd 
ayor "that fnirent flower in the (pirden of posl-Apuitolie rlirinlen- 
ali." HtiP will nijt, hownver, n virgin, lint n .voui^ iiiollicr «'illi n linby 
. ^e^ l)TeB*1. 

, , . . Caxv^ 



Thckl*'* Atj \» 111* twni(y-lliir<l of 8rpt«ailwr. Tbtn \m b vmj 
ItnoJ SjrrUc vrriJim <bv Lipiu* anil olbnrit ra|t>rde(l an mar* prlHitlv* 
Ihon the Ur*«k venioiil of the Aria of Paul anJ Thekia (■««. «^^ 
Wrlnht'fl Aifjiij/phat Aeit) . Thfao AeU brkonic to tko latter part of lh« 
Moaml cenitiir. Tbe ilory ik Hut lliPkU. iFfniiiiK to yield to the faa- 
■iim of Itio lil){h pripul of t'yTia, «->■ put, nakn) bill for a KirdW (Mib- 
(■jmcHfiiM) inlo lh<* arrnn oo the back of a liimeM, which l)«krd bcr 
f<>rl and foii^t for hor ■|^in»t lb« other bta<tK. iyiag in h«T defeiur. 
The othrr bnantJi, boirever. did hi-r no Imrm. and nn« finNllir Tel««»*d. 
A quern luudM her with inonrv. bU« iiirHlifiiil htr drvn lu louk Tikr a 
man, travrlli-d to mcft Pmil, and litn) to old aip-. glr W, M. Raniiut.v 
luu written nn inh-r^tin^ nludy uf thi>'i# .4rla (The Phurrh fn fA« 
AomoH EKipif. Ch. XVII, Ilt> la of opinion that the Aet» nrv 1m«^ on 
a drat (vutur}' docum^t. and ii able to diiMntangle manjr elcmpntu of 
IriitU from the •lory. \l« Mat** that It !■ llii 'nilj i>vldm(<i> »* pOiw«t 
cf the Mem* and actionn of itomtn during llie Sr>t crntury In Asia 
Minor, mlii-r* Ih'lr pmltloii i»n« no liixh mid Ih<->r iiifliipiirt- no irrwil. 
Thckhi rcpri'»«ntii the awrlion of n-omiin'a rights, nnd »hc adtninirtercd 
Ui<> rtle t>f ImpIiMii. Ilioiiitli in lli« pxUtlng vtraiant of th* Aett th«iM 
tnttilien are lonnl dnsii or elimlnalnl. 

Some of tho Riciit t}-piral of tlit-uf cnily HirUlIan romauren aio 
doi^rihnl an rinotlioBl -In oripn. wllh Mimrlhing of the Rrnna of Man!- 
vlutoii dualltiin which wen h«1d in the lich and I'omplex matrix of 
(lnu*tirl>ni. whll* Iha tiplTit nf th<*u> rnmiini^'i l> a1u> Inrficly Mon- 
tanint, with the enmblnnl ehaotity and arilor. Ihr pmnouncFd (eiuinine 
toii<- duo I'l il« nrijiin in Aniu Minor, u'hirli miirk-il Xlotitaniun. It can- 
not III- drniitl. however, that tlipj- largely |uiued Into Ihe main utrfunl 
ol ('hTi>lliin liiidili'iti. mid f'>riii nii •■••u.-ntUI nnd liii|ior1ant pait of 
■ Iwt tiHitltlon. (Rrnnn. in hi* UwrAiirHr, Cha. tX nnd XV. 
fnaivta on tht^ immeiiw deht of Chiiitinnity to nnoitie und Montnniit 
mntTlbiition* I . A i-hnrmtprlMip pxninpiv I* th» utory of "The Bt-trothwl 
"I India" in Ju4aa Thrnaait't ApU (Wright'* Apocrffphol Aft*). Judaa 
Thomas wan mIJ by hi* mti*t<>r Jr*u* In an Indian merc^hunt who 
ivqlifrcd a mrjUTuler to fft with him to India. On ill'iemlHirkiiit^ at tlio 
city nf Sandiinik they limrd Ihc •miiiid« of mii>li: ntid Klnf[int[. mid learnt 
thai it u-aa the weilding'fen"! of Ihr Klnit'* diiiiKhl«r. which all mtint 
nttvnd. lirh nnd jioor. «lave'> and (iTnion, KtfAnir'ra und eltlipiwi. 
.Indai Thomat w<-nt. uith )ii> new mniti-r. In the bunqu't and rK-linnl 
willi a (tniluiid nf imitir ]>liiri>il <>ii hi" Imid. Whpii ii llehi'cw Ihllc- 
plnyrr mmc miil nlin-id over him nnd plHvH. he uing the (unipt of Chriit, 
nnd it kiiii *i-fn tlinl he vin* more Ixqtiitilnl than nil that weni therv 
mvd thn King -M-tit tnr him to birsm tlie yoiiu); luuplc in the bridal ehum- 
hrt. And whfii all wrrn gnnp gut and llii> door of tlie bridal chamber 
cinard, t)iii brldogrooni approached the lirtilr. and taw, uh it ircrc, Judaa 



ThnBH irtill Inlkiii); uitli lirr. fliil il uMt ■>iir Loi'd wlio HHid to liiiit. 
"1 Mn ml JilltjiH. Imt lii> brntlii-i." Ami iiilr I^ril wt dnwii an tlio bnl 
bfnidp thu young [RHipk- and U.-giiii t-j my lo tlicm: "Hi-mi-uibpr, nij- 
diililrvu. ntij»l rii,v bmilitT "I'Hk" ttitli ,v.>ii. iiiict know to nliom lin coin- 
Biittcd yoo. nad know timt if yc pr«wnt' yuurMdvci from tliin fllthy 
Intrn'UurtiF yv Ih^ihhc |i<irv ti>niplr»i, mid nrc lUkivd (ram atflicllong innnl- 
f««t and lildilvn, and from the livnvf curr of rliildrm. Ihn cnil whtTi^f 
U biltcT Mrruu'. Ftir tlu^ir hhIivs yo n'ill bHvuii- opprvrtMiM Hnd rob- 
twTft. and y» will Iw j{rlpvaualr torliirrd fov tln-ir Enjiiric'. h'nr rliildrini 
orr thf cuuitv of iiuiiiy jKiiiw: ritlii-r llii- King full" u|ion tWm or a 
d*'nii>n Inyit hold of l)ii>ni, ar luiratyi'i'- Iu'IdIIh tlii'in. And if (livjr bo 
hnltliy tlipy ™mt- lo ill, eillier by udiiHriy. or thoft. or fomicnticin, or 
rvrFtauMiPM, or vnln-jilnry. Itut If ,v« nil] bf ptr-nudnl by m<-. and 
ki»p j«ur»rlvct, purply unt» God. rr "hull haw livinjt ehildrcn to whom 
not one of tlii^or Mcnii-tlii'g and hurls injmt'lli nigh: and j*c iIihII b« 
vithoiit care and nitluMt griet and witlioiil norrow, nnd vp >1iflll hopo 
for the lini<» when r* »hiill w tin." Iriic »vpjiiiiig>(«iil." The young 
conpl* wern port^tindcd, nnd ri^fitiinod from lii*t. nnd our l^rd vani>>h«d. 
And ill the morning, wtim it wka duwn. the King tmd tlit liiblv fur- 
nlkh>'d i^rlr Ami bioTijiht In ticforr tlii' hiidfuroom nml l>ridt>. And hp 
fonnd lii<-in litting t)ii^ ont' opiw^ilc lltt- uUkt. und the tacv iif the bride 
WM lliieovi>n-d and tlii> bi'idi>|i!'ooni wnu vi-ry i-liirrftil. Tli^ niotlier of 
the bride iwilh to her: "Why nrt Ihou Kitting thus, und urt not 
MhAinm], but art w If, lo, thuii wnt ninirJiHl a long time, mid for mnny 
a lUy!" And her father, too. Hiid; "In it thy ({rent loi-e for thy hus- 
band that ptPVPnt* tlirc (roin ^vrn veiling thynplf!" And tlio bride 
«ruiwf-r*d and vnidr "Truly, my fallii-r, I :im in grenl love, and am 
prajlng to my l^ird that I may conllniw Jn thii lovi- which I hnvc 
KtpericnMil ttiin night. I Hin nut vi'iltHl. beefiuno the Veil uf eurrnptiun 
in tdkon froni mi; anil I am not axliamiil, bv^-aniio thf dei-d of ■hami' hnii 
been mrioved (»r from ine. and t »m I'hri'rful nnd gtty. and de-<pi-e Ibi* 
iand of corruption and thf Jnyt of 1lii« nfddlngft-a'it. lipcaiiai' I nm 
invited to the true weddinj; fenit. 1 buve not lind inlereoutne with a 
hunhand, the rnd whvr<>i>f I* bitter rrponlancp. Iifmiiu' I nin brtrothed 
to the true ItiutaniL" The bridr)prnom uncui-ri'd ulw in the wine spiril. 
rtty DHtiinilly to the diminy uf the Kiii^. wlio hpiiI fur the Doroerrr 
whom he bad aakml t» b1>'>i> hlii imliirky ilaunhteT. Tint Jiidn* Tliomns 
bnd already left the i-ily nnd nt bi» inn the King'* BWwardu fiiiinrl only 
tb«i flnt«-play#T. oittins nnd n'('e])ini; bii-uum- he hnd not tnben her witli 
him. She van Kind, liowt'vrr. when •lie livnrd nhnt hud hopjiened. and 
hutdWd to the young eouplc. and lived nilh tlietn fwr nftrtwnrd*. 
TW Kiiig alM trui finally rei<oiiei1ed. and nil ended rhnirti'ly. but happily. 
In Ihef wimr Judtu Thnman't Atttt. whieh nre not Inter than tlic 
tonrtli RBtury, we find {eighth uctt the otory o( Myudotiin and Knrinh. 



WVCllOUXiY (»r SKX, 

Mygilonio. tlic wifi- of Kaiinli. w mnvi-rU-d by Tliouian ami liven fi 
hi^r hiiqbitnd. nnki-'it Huvi' fur the eiiitain of thv cliuinbvr <l>.«^r uliii'h 
has wrapptvl oroiinil her. to Iht oW nnrip. With tlic nurw all* goe* to 
Ttiomiiii, w)io juiirB huty oil over her licHil, bidiliii); lli» tiiim* to anoint 
hi>r nil oviT wltli it; tb>-ii n rloth i>i put roiin<l Iit loiii* anil he hap- 
tUcs hiT; tlicn hIiv ii elotlu-d and lit |pvt-ii hrr thi^ xucTaiuvnt. TliO 
foung rxpdtrp of diaHtily gruws lyiii^'iil nt titiim, and .Iiidnii Thonitta 
breaks outt "I'lirily ii tbc athltU who in not ovtrwnie. Piirity i» Ih* 
truth thill bleni-lji^tb not. I'lirily h woilliy bi-ZoTi- (ItiA of brlnjc to Him 
a fnmilinr boniimiiidrn. Piiri^ it tlio mMwngvr of cwicord which 
bringvth UiB tiding of pivico." 

AnnthiT roiimnpr of chaiitity is (urnithrd by the ppijodn of 
Druilana in The ttitlory of Hie Apofllr» trttditiMially nltribiil«il to 
Abdiao, BI»tM>p of Bsliylon (Rk. V, Ch. TV, H »eq.\. Diutlanii In Ih* 
uifo of Androni<mii, and is m> piotia that i>h« will not Imvi! iuttrvoanc 
with lifin. The jouth Cnlllmnrlni* folU tnndly In love with her. and Mk 
amorout atlrmpln iiivolvi- iiiiiny rxriting adiVDturM, bill ttiP chastity 
of Driitiniin in Itnnlly llilimplinnt. 

A dinractcrUtii^ oatnplff of the litcrntuTP u")? are here conoemM 
with E« St. Ambro»p'« Mory of "Tlie Vlritin i" 'h* Brothel" |narrat*d 
la hU Df Vtrgtnibug, \figae'* rdjtion of Amhioto'ii Work*, vols, ili-ir, 
p. 811). A certain viifcin. St. Anibrniti- tcllit iih. v/)m lately llvml at 
Antiooh. w»n mnilcmncd fither to Mcrill™ to t.h» £»>)■ or to ki> lo Ibr 
brothrl. She chow the iaitrr iiIt«Tiinlivi-. But Ihp firtt man who cane 
In to liM wan a Christian Bolilinr who rnllrd hor "rfntpi," and liadp haf 
have no frar. He propovcd that thry shouM pxi'hangv plothM. Thi« 
M'n« don" and »hi> ffaonpod. ivhili' tlic loldiir wn« Inl away to drath. At 
tbt^ plapv of fxpcitlion. howpvi-r. nhi^ run np and rxclnimi'd lliat it wa* 
not dpolh bIip frnrtMi bnt shame He, hown-rr, maintained that he hnil 
tvcn condi-innnl to di-alh in hrr pT»«>. Kiniillj' the croirn of martyrdom 
for which t.licv rontrndrd WB' ndjlldgrd to iKith. 

We conxlaiitly oh"i'r>-e in the early do<'ninents of thi« romanlie 
Utarfttiirff of cliahtity that cliantlly la ln>>i*t*d on hy no meniiv chielly 
iMOBUne of it* revanb after death, nor <^'en bemiMo the v{r|[lii who 
drrotes Iiprnelf to It nwiirea in flirlsl an ever-young lover irhone goldfM' 
hsired bwitily i% •ometiniPi' rmphaMtod. It» ehief charm I* rppn>ii*iitKl 
a* lyin^ In ll« own Joy nnd tn-eiloin nad Ihr 'VH-urity it inroIviHi from 
all the lTouhl». inranvenieneoa nnd bondnge* of mntrlninny. TTiih (aTly 
t'hrlitlnn nioienifnt of rimiunlic chantity was viearly. in largr mntnire. 
n luvolt of wonirn agninit men and marriage. Thii i» well bronght out 
In the in"tr\irtin' «t"ry. wipimscd to bt of third eentnry orif[in, of th» 
eunucha Achitlcu^ nnd Xrrrnn, an narrated in thi- Aeta Bnnttorum. May 
12th. Ae^llleu* nnd Nereiii wer« Chrintian i>unneh« of the brdebamber 
to Dumilin. a virgin of noble hlrtli, related to the Emperor Domitian 


IB roitcTiojr OP cmarrfy. 


ihvil Id AmivImii. -"II ot ;■ Ciin-iil. ijif iby. ;i6 tlitJr uiitima 
a'^Uhig oil her Jvwrl* niiU her |iiir]iU' K'*i'<i>i-'nt' cniliraldtrod irlth 
Rolil, Ihcy began in luni to tiitk to Iht uIkiuI nil tUe joys imd odvuitngH 
of vlr^iiitj", ft» o(iiii[iiircil to nuirrlnii;* »illi a incr*! man. Th« convorm- 
tioii lo (Irrrloppil at gtt^t Imgtli nnd with much rloi|iic^ivi. Domltia 
nai final l^r pcrniuidrd. Kbp sulTvrFd iiiiicli from Atin-tinn In cunHF- 
(jiicnpo, Bud tilicn lii- ohfjiliml lii-r lianiiliiiii'nl tn mi i«!iiriil -liw wi-nl 
thilh«r with AHiillcii-i mid Nvri-iix. wliu wuti- |iut to d(>Htli. Iiiridmt- 
•Ity. Ihtt di*!!!)! of Ki'li''iita. iiiintlii>r livroini' of rlin-itlly, U dmcritwit. 
Wicn clcvntod nn tlie mcl; lurninn nhp would not marry, nlie cuntlnnlly 
rsfiiiwd to deny Jraun. wliuni iilie cnllnl lit-r lovi-r. "Ego non wgi> 
amatoTcm meiini!" 

A »pi*inl dcpiirtnu-nt nf thin llt(>Tnlitrn in concrmnl with itoriM 
of tli# winwrtiotis tir lln' pciiitfiicp of rnurli-Han*. SI. Martinlnnii*. for 
In«tnnm iFcb. 13(. wn* t^niiilM by tlii" mnrlMnn Zr*. but conrrrlrd 
hfr. 'niP »tory of St. ^tnrflpltl■t of f'ortonn (Feb. 221, ii [K'nik-iil 
lyiurtr^Biii. !h lat^. for xlif lvloii|C4 [it ()■<' Iblilrpnlli cfiitury. Thr tnott 
driifthlful dociimmt in thU lilfrotiire i» probubly tlip luti-nt, Ibf foiit- 
t<»nth wntury llnlUii d.'vot imial rntuniKP rnlli-il Thr l.ifr nf Wni'jif Mart/ 
Uiig^nlei\ commonly assoinntcd witli thi- iininc of Fnili- Doiiii-nipo 
Cnvalra. (It bn* born ImiiHlattrd into Kn)Cli>li). II U ll>« ili-llcMcly 
and delieioiwly told romnnpi- of th* i^bunti' nnd iinioionatc love of the 
itvfe<-i ■inn«i'. Mary Mn^alene. for brr Iwlovnl Mnctrr. 

A( timn nfiil on th* InMKtfnr'' on tbn jny* of obnitlty in tliin lif^ 
bornnie U-m mnrb'd. iind cbuHtily i> mure nnd murp rvjpirdpd a* n italo 
only to lir fully ii>wnr'b>d In » fiiliirc IKp. Kvpci, liowi-vi>r, in (iregory 
of Totirt's chnrmin); itoiy of "The Two l^ovcr* of Aiivt-rpir." in whiHi 
thin ntttitiidp in Hcnr, tbp plcnsurc* of rlint'li' love In Hii« lifi- nre 
brought uu! u* cleurly a« in any of the mrly roinann-n (Iltrl'iriir Fran- 
Ctynim, lib. i. CRp, Xl.lll. Tiro (pnator' of Auvprmn' curb hnil mi only 
I'hild. and they betrothed them to encli other. When the wedding day 
came nnd the vfliinir roiiple wctii plneej In bed, Che bride tiinied to Ihp 
wall and wept bitterly, Tlie hrideiftoom implored her to tell him whni 
wmt the mailer, nnd. tiiniinjt ((marilH him. ulie Miid that if she wpre lo 
wee|) all bet dny« nhe eoiild never wn«h nwny her Brief [»r "be hail 
rwolvinl tit jrive her little body iminncnlale lo Clirint. nntouelied by mi'n, 
nnd nou iii^teuil n( immortal row* she had only hud on lieT brow faded 
ro«M. whleh deformed rnther than adorned It, and Inatend of the dowry 
of Paradise which Chrirt hod pmmined her nhn had become the eoniiurC 
of ■ mnr*ly mortal man. She di'plored her -lod fate at i-onnldcrnhlft 
length and with miieh gentle eloquence. At length the hridegrooni. 
mereome hy tier mithM, «f>rdn, felt that cternnl life had Hhone Iwforp hlni 
like n great light, nnd deelari-d that If »he wUhPd lo nbntain Imm enrniil 
dMtrM h» vaa of the mdu mind. She wbb grateful, and with clasped 


HtVGllOLMlT or BEX. 

liaiulH llicy Mt ftiilci^p. for inniiy yimttt (Iwy thui livml taxetlier, 
plustclj' uliaring lli« luiuif \M-d. At li-ngtli »Im- dkd nnd w«s buried, tier 
knwr ratodnft Iwr InuiMiiiiUte (u tbe liaiul* of ChriU. 8o«ci *(t«r- 
wank he dtnl aUo, and nws pUnnI in » tir)iarutr lonib. Thrn u mirade' 
liappcnc^l wfaloli tDiidr manifnt llie iiuKniliuli- of Dii* clinow Uivv, tor 
the two bodica nvTp foiiiiii m.VAtvrioittlf jiUcrd togntlicr. To tliin day. 
(Ir<>gDry conrlu4«n (wrllinK in thn njxtli wfituty), the people at Uu 
place call llieai 'Hlit Two Lot«tb." 

AlUioujrii Kcnaa (JViuv-jHr^tf, Ch. XV) briafljr call«d utciitlon U> 
Uia ttJatann o( tlil* copknt* nirly Cliriitian Iit««atur<! tctting fortli tho 
mnuiM of eha«Uly. it VMnu tut j'tt to huvi^ rvn-iml lilllp or no «tud}-. 
It ia, however, of con»liUrable iinjiortiiii'i'. iiot nii-ri'ly for it» tmn sakt, 
hut on aecoitnt of itn p>}-c1>»1c>)[iciil aifinitli'nncc in mnking rlvar tha 
nature of llie motive (orcvn which made cliatitity ea*y Mid charming to 
tbe people of thfi Pflrif ('Jul-^tliin norld, nvnn vim It involved coiuplets 
atMtlnence from Kxual iiilcrcourw. The eiu'ly Churcli iiukth^iiiHtiMd 
llie rrotiriain ot the Pof^n world, and norriird it In tliP niont Pirivtual 
wajr hj apttlnn op a new and tnonj rniaJiltp tTotidinn of ita own. 

During the Middle Ages tlie primitive frcehness of Chrirtiui 
dtDstity \>eg&o to lose it« chnnn. No more rDniRnci>K of ohaRtity 
were wriltea, and in iKtual life mcii no lengi-r sought t1«nng 
idventar(« in tlie 6eld of chaotity. So far as the old ideaU lur- 
vired nt all it was in ihe Bccular field of chivalry. The last 
iiotablo lipirc to emulate tlie ftchii-veitioDts nf tli« early Cbristiuis 
wa« Ilolwrt of Arbrissel in Nommndy. 

Hobert of ArbriMel. who tuunded. in the eleventh (cnlurj, th* 
(anieuft and dlfttltiKuikhcd Ordrr ot Pontn^rault for women. wn<s a Breton. 
Thia Celtic origin it <loiibtl<.-tB *i)^ilicant, for it may nptuin hii unfail- 
ing anlor and |P>'<''y' "■"! '■'" enthiinlaattc ven^ntion for n-ouiunliood. 
Kven thotc o( hi* friend* wlio ilcprei-iited wliot tlirj- ron^idcml lii« scan' 
iIhIoos cnndiiet bear (eHlimiiii)' lu )<<« iinrallinj: and dii-prfol It-mpFra' 
meni, hi* alertnPM in at'liun, his rrudint^a for any dmi n( humanity, 
and hl« entire freedom from u-verity. He attraeted immfnic cTOw<b of 
prople of all eonditlonii, c*p»cla]ljr womra, Ineliiding pmHtltnli^i. nnd hU 
inilnenoe oirr women was ^eat Oner he went into a hrolliel to warm 
hl« faet, and, Ineldenlally. eonvprted ail the women lliere. "fl'ho are 
you I" asked oth' of Itiein. "I hute been here twruty'flve yearn and nobody 
haa eifer nunc livre to fjilk about CUhV Kohrrt's n'inlion with bin nuns 
nt Fonlevratilt uv* very inliiniitr. and be wmild «ft<^ ultrp with them. 
Thin iH wt forth prpciiely in iMtert wiUlPn by frlenil* "f ills, bi>thO|}« 
and abbota, one of whom ramarka that Robert had "discorcred u new 




bnl fruitk'as furni of murlyrilum." A ro,val i(bbi,u« ol Foiil«vTHult in 
Uif wmit«riit)i iviilury. (iretcniliiig Ihnt the vptii'Mtcd founder ot tliv 
oilUr toulit nul ]Hwiiblv liuvv lict-n (^ilt.v uf sucli scandnlouo conduct, 
and tliat Ibi- IvtUm must lln'rvlori' W ■jiurjouii, liad the origiiuils 
ikatiOTpd, M) far n« [KKniblc. Tli« Bollaiidisla, in nn uuiirholHr)y and 
incoinplcte aiHounl of tlie iiiAtlcr ^Aela Sawtotvm, t'rl>. 2S), ndoptod 
thin ricvf. J. von Wollrr, hoH-rrcr. in u reocnt unU Ihurougli atuiSf of 
Robert of ArliriKsel (DiV Ertten Wandtrprritigfr I'fankrfie^A, Thcil I), 
■howa that llicr* i* no ri4iwn irlmtcvrT to doubt the autliCDllo ftod 
reliable chBrscter of the impugned lettoni. 

The early Chrintinn Ifgendsi of clinrtity lind, however, tbmr 
eocceeeors. Aiicasgin et ykwIetU, which was probably written in 
Kortlii'm Frducc townrds Ihe cud of the twelfth fcntury, i« above 
all thf (IcHt'cnrinnt of lln- stories in the Aita Sanrtorunt and elsc- 
wtiere. It embodied thkir spirit and carried it forward, uniting 
Uii-ir dcIicAk' feeling fur chastity and purity with the ideal of 
Rionogamic love, Aucansiu et Xicohtie was the death-knell of 
the primitive Christian romance of chastity. It was the dis- 
covery that the cha»t« reSnctncnts of deJicecy and devotion were 
possible vrithin the Btridly nonunl sphere of sexual love. 

Thote were at least two cauiw* which tended to e-itinguish ^ 
tiw primitive Christian attraction to chantitv, even apart from the | 
inflaence of the Chnrch authorities in repreesing ita romantie 
ntanifortationn. In liie fir«l place, the submergence of the old 
pagan world, witli ita practice and, to oomc extent, ideal of 
Hxnal indulgeiier. reninved the foil which had given grace and 
delieacy to the tender froednm nf the young Christians. In the 
second phicG, the auKteritiee whicli the early Christians hj)d 
gladly prnctiwd for tlie siikc of their houI's health, were robbed 
of their eliarni and s))nntaneity by being ttmde a formal part of 
eode« of punishment for sin, first in the I'enitentialB and after-' 
wardi at Hie disiri-tlmi of confessor*. This, it may be added, 
[vaB rendered Ihe more necessary becauno the idoal of Chrintian 
' chastity was no longer largely the poBsession of refined people 
who had been rendi-ri'<) jnimnne to Pagan license by , being 
broaght op in ita midst, and even theniHelvi<a steeped in it. It 
via dearly from the first a serious matter for tlie violent North 

Africans to maintain the idk-al ot chattily, and when Christianity 





sprt'ai] to NonherQ Kuropc it si^emcd almost a hopptoss taA to 
acdimutizv its idcala uuioug (iiu vrilJ Ovnimnit. Hen'<ri<^r it 
boL-ainv in'ci^'juary (or celibn<;y t» be impoHed on the regnlar clergy 
by tbe stern force of eccleiiiaiitical aiilliority, while voIunUrjr 
celibacy was only kcjtt alive by a Hucee^tiou of religious «nthui>- 
■attU perpetuiilly founding nev Orders. An oeceticiHD tbns 
enfornetl could not always be accompanied by tlio ardent exnlt«> 
tion nercesary to maintain it, and in its artificial c-fTort« at self* 
proMcrvaticin it frcHjuently fell from its insiecurc heights to the 
depths of unrestrained licenee.' Thix fatality of all hnzardons 
elTorts to 0Ti-rpiii>!i liti inanity's norntal limit)) begun to be realiz<-(l 
after the Middle Ages were over by ctear-sighted thinkers. "Qui 
rent fuire fanfrc," said Pn*cal, pungeiitly summing up thi* view 
of the matter, "fait In b^te." That had often been illustrated io 
the history of the Church. 

Ill* PviiitMitlnla togMi to come into UM b tlie ■nrnth ccntiiT7. 
Mill iNvninR of wi<Ic prrvnloncv mid niitharity durlnti Itin ninth niid 
Icnth iTuturies. They wiTf bodies of law, piirtly Bpiritiml iind partly 
iHiriilnr, kdiI w«rn thrown Into thn foim of enlnlnfciiM of nfTi'iii'M witli 
th* exact measure o( pvnunoe prr^'ribt'd for eai'h ofTc'iitp. Thry rrpre- 
Mnt«d tlin Intrn<li](-tl(in nf unriiil oKtrr nmonK iiiitniiiiNl barbnriuuti. nnd 
were eodei of erinuniil luw uiuch more thun purl of n lyitpni of Mcnt' 
mental eonfeKsion and p«naiic«. In Fr»)ice and Spain, uli«re order on n 
Ohrirtkn bn«tii olrendy exisiterf, they were little needful. Thry hnd their 
origiii in Iri^land iintl Kii;;tnnd, and mpt'dulir Guurithed in (ierinanyi 
Clinrlemnjirni' fciippoifwl fhrm (npn, e.f).. \/eti. Hulory of Atirirular Con- 
fettion, vol. li, p. 98, nliM) Ch. XVlIi Ilu(th Williaina, ediljon of Cihliu. 
Part II, Appendix 3; the rhiet P«nIteD(lnlB Bre nproducpd In Wawwr- 
•cfalcbFn'B Huatr/idnunsrii] . 

In 1210 tlL(> Ijitrran Coundl. undrr Innuvent III. made ranfewtion 
obtigitlory. Thp prict,tly jircromilive (if rrgnlntlng thn aitionnt of prii- 
■DM according to drcumalanwa, wilh greater flexibility thnn the rigid 
Ptnlt'^tlal* ailmilt^d, »'«s flr%t abwlutcly niserlcd by IVter of Poifier*. 

I The Eirrngth of early Chriiilinn niwTtiriim Uy In !t« HpontwiMaB 
and volnntnrr chniHoIer. When, in the ninth ct-ntury, the Csrloriagiaiu 
ktlempted to mforcp mannctie and ploriral cellbBry, ihm rrmll WM a 
fr«nt ntilhiirit of iini-hnatity nnd erime: nnnneriea l>et<ame brothels, niuia 
vere freauenlly guilty of Infnntlridp. monkn <«nimittPil unapeakmttl* 
aluimlnfltlnna. Ihp rrffiilar clvr)!?' fortned in<«"t<ii>npt relatloa* with (heir 
nearent female lelatlvra (l.iea. HMori/ of ftiettrdotal CMbaey, vd). I. pp. 


Tfipn AInin li? I.ille tlitpw nidc tin? IVjiilentiuli an oliiiolelr, and litcliiteii 
Uint tlic prirnt liiiiisi'H luiiHl iuiiuiiu into tlie oiri'itiUHtiiiiceB of cui'li ain 
and wwigh prwiwiy Itn niillt (IjOS, op. cit., vol. II, p. 171). 

lying U-'fore UiU pt'riod, lioivevcr, thv idi-nia of cluistity. to f«r &h 

thev invi>1vnl any conai:tornhli- drtim' of ronlmi'ncr, nltlionnh they lind 

b«wmc (irmly linrdonnl into the eonvcnti'inul IraditioiiB ntid idealu of 

the ChriBtiuu diurt-h. had wiiwd to hnvv any grwt eli.irm or forrc for 

the people llvlrij; In ClirlMondnm. Anions tlio Narth^Tn buTbiLrUn>. witli 

different traditions of n ni<?rr vif^ifuiin iind nuttirni ordfr tii'liind tliem, 

jfihe deiuandx of wx wpri- nflvii (rnnkty fvhiliit^d. Tli>- iiii>nk Orderirus 

VitalU, in tli« flci-mth mnlury. notr.i whut he cnlU Din "Usciviouaneu" 

I ot llie wirr« of tbe NoniiHn ooiniin'rvrH of KriKluiid who. wlicn left nlonu 

. bomf. ipnt mcuat(<!ii that if tlieir hiutmixU foiled to rptiirn spoedJIy 

would Ijike nrw orira. The ci-libncy of tin- vIiTgy wjii only ettnli- 

Qthnd with the very jprntj'st difBrHlty. und nUcn it wait e>tnbHshed, 

■Jtriettft bMnmv uncliuitv. Archbiiliop Odu of Roupn. in tlic thirteenth 

cetitiiry. reeorded in thp diniy of liin dioiTinn vlnitallonii thnt thi're wa* 

one uncIiHste prie«l in evi-ry five purinhe*. nnd f^veii n« rc'i^irds the Ilaly 

of thci Mmn period Ihn frUr Sallmliene In M* remnikHhln niitoliigrnpliy 

thowa how little chutity wiui regarded in the reliicloiu life. rhn«tily 

could now only be mainlnlned by force, usiintly tliv morni force of 

> •cddlaiiltcAl aiitlmrlty, which wan Itndf undi'milnrd by iiiu'hnitity. biit 

I •ometiinvii *i*en phyairal fori*. It wmt in the Ihirtei'iith eentury, in the 

kojilnion of •otnp, that thn ([i'llle of chanlity (ringiila paatilatU) firmt 

I begini to appear, hut tho chief nnthority, Caitfernon ( (m Ccinlurc ii« 

Ihatteit, IS>04I believes it only diilei from the Itenais^inee (Krhulti, 

'l>o« BSfi»che l.ebr-n =iir ZHi itrr MinnmSngfr, i-ol. I, p. 6f>S; Dufour, 

m^totra d« lit Prottitullon. Vol. v. p. 272; Kranm, AnlkTOpnphylrlii, 

vol. iii, p. 2471. In tlie «iit««iith c^'ntuiy ooiivenln were liable to bwiirai; 

I BloKMrt hrothrlii, on we Imm on thn uiilmppaehahir iintliority of Iturchard, 

Fope'a •ecretaiy. in hi» Diai-ium. edited by Thuasne who bringa 

tocellier additional nuthorlllcH for tlila »lnU-niPiil In a fnolnnip (vol. !f, 

p. 79i; that they r«mainvd so in the Pighteenlh century we nee clwirty 

fai the poxra of CaumoTa'a JfdniotrM, and In maiuy other dociinientu of 

tbo period. 

The ITf-naiaBflnee and iho riac nf Jiumnnism uDdoobtedly 
Bff«rt<sl tlip fMliDg towards ascctkiam and chastity. On tJie one 
hand a ncir and Hnci«nt uinctiou watt found for the disrefrnrd of 
LVtrtUM which men began to look upon an tncrfly nionkivh, and on 
'the other haud the finer spiritB aflect<3(l by the new moveinont 
bcsan (o renliite that chastity might be better colttTated and 
obBcired by those who were free to do m tiwy would tlian by 



>F flint. 


thoiic who were under tliu compulsion of priefltly aiiniority. 
That \* tlic firling tlmt prcvnilM in Montaigne, and that is die 
idea of Kabelais when Ik- mado it the only rule of hU Abbe; of 
Thtlfimc: "Foy ccquc vouldran." 

A littlo Ut-rr tliin dndrinr nan ippoaW in varj-iii); tuniu bv many 
wri(«ni man or Ifh linged hy tlie cullarc brought Into fn*)ilon hy the 
RptutMaiKV. ''A« long a« DiiuH'^ wa» Uw," rviiiuTlc* FFrrHnd in liis six- 
tocnth cpotuty Irpntinr, Dt ta UoUidlc d'Arnuui; "nhc was rlinati'." And 
Sir Krii^lm Dinbj*, tliv lalcitt ivpres^iiUilfvp of Hip Ri-naisMincr spirit, 
iniiali in Ills I'livale Mrni'iiM tlinl lln> tllicrly whifili L.veiirgiu. "the 
wincul: liumiin law-inukpr Hint ci-cr waa," gnrc to women to c^ommiinicato 
tlicir bMllcB lo men (o whotn Utty w*r# drnvn by nnble alfwlEon. and 
the liope of grnerou* olTipring, wo« tha truo pntiup wliy "rrnl chantjt; 
flouri»h»il ill Sparta more than in nny oilier part ot tlie world." 

In ProtoBtant countries the ascetic ideal of chastity wujt still 
fnrtlicr diwrcilited liy th« Tlcformntion movement wliirh was io 
considerable part a revolt against coropulsorj* celibacy. Ititligioa 
was thus 110 longer placed on the side of chaxtity. In the 
eighteenth century, if not earlier, the autliority of Nature also 
was commonly invoked against cliastity. It has thus happcnetl 
^at during the past two centtiriee tterioua opinion concerning 
Chutity hag only been partially favorable to it. It began to be 
felt that an unhappy and injurious mistake had been perpetrated 
by attempting to maintiiin a lofty Ideal which encouraged 
hypoeriay, 'The human race would pain much," as Senanconr 
wrote early in the nineteenth century in his rnuiirkiible book on 
love, "if virtue were made less laborious. The merit would no 
be so great, but what is the use of an elevation which can rar 
be fiuptiiii)ed?"> 

There can be no doubt that the undue discredit into which 
the idea of chastity began to fall from the eighteenth century 

> SeaaiiootiT. tir rumour. wX. ii, |). 233. Idam has plaoed much 
iMtatmHonchniilly than iliiinliHnity, but pnMnieslty, It would aiqMar, 
tlwr* is oftra morr n^rd for cliuHlity under Moharomednn rule than 
nndcr Cliriatlan hiIp. Thin it i' maii'ii bv "\'iator" (Porlnlffhils 
Rmfifte. Dec.. lOO^t that fornierly. under Turkiah Moiilcin rale, it waa 
JnipoHiiilr to buy tlis rtrtii* ot nnmr-n in Hoania, btit that now, under 
the (.liriHlinn rule nf Auitria. it i* everywhere poaoible lo buy women 
nmr the Austrian fronller. 




oRvards was Inrgcly ilue to the existu'iicc of tiinl incroly cxtcmul 
and conventional physical chastity which was arbitrarily enforced 
so far &8 it could ho i.-nforcud, — ntid is indi-ed in sonic degree still 
enforced, nominally or really, — upon all retipectablv women out- 
side marriagi'. The couctjption of llie ptiyiical virtue of vir- 
ginity had dcgradod the conception of the fpiritual virtue of 
chastity. A mere routine, it was felt, prescribed to a whole sex, 
vliether thuy would or not, i-ould never poesees the beauty and 
durm of a virtue. At the same timu it bejian to be realized that, 
SB a matter of faet, the state of rompulsory virginity is not 
only not a state eopocially fiivornble to the cultivation of real 
virtms, but that it is hound up with qualitioit which arc no longer 
regarded as of high value.* 

"Hon- iirbitrntT. artiltcinl. contrary to Nnlure, is tbe lU* now 
(mpotnl upon women tn thin mnttcT of Miinlilyl" wrote JaaiM Hintwi 
forty yarn ago. '"Tliink ot tlint lino: 'A womnii who ■IdibrTnti'ii U 
lo*t.' Wc maW iUnKi>i', makliiK nU n'i>mnii)i(Ki<l )>aii;i; ii]>i>ii b pnlcit lik* 
thU, and •tirrounding it with iinnoturul and jirctrmnlurnl ditnser*. 
Tlwrc i« a wanton utirMtnii prnVmilli'il in IIih litv at womnii now; tli« 
prtM^t 'riitiio' I* n niorl'iil uiiiii'iittliy plant. Nntiiti- ami God never 
poiitnl Ihp lifp of n womiin iipcm inch n nn^lc'i point. Tlin whole mod- 
prn idea of pli«*1ily tia» in i( u-nniinl vxa^t^rnlion, rnir^ly, in purl, 
mnaining to us fTOm other limn, witli what wiu good in it in great 
part goino," 

"Tlie whole grace of virginity," wrote anotlier philonopher, Gnyaii, 

' Tlie UjiBi« of thl« fooling wan *tr(mgthr'n''il when It wtir shown liy 
sriiolnra that the phyuenl virtue of "viririnity'' hud txH'n ■nuM|iieradiaiT 
under a talap name. T« remniii n virpin ■O'^nii' In h/ive Tneunt al the 
lirnt, among people* ot early Aryan eullure. by no mean>t In take a vow 
of cliBKlIty, bul to refiiv lo' ■iiVanit to tlin ynkr of patrinrehul marriage. 
The women wlio preferred lo ilniid outside irmrriane were •'virpn»,"' 
even (hoitzh motUent of Urjie famlllm. and .4:iuliyiuii upeaks of t]l« 
Amuwnn a» 'Virttim." while in fireek the rhild of an iiiimarrie.1 girl wii« 
alwnyi "Uie virgin'* non.'" Tlie hi"tori- of Arl.-mlfc. the moat primitive 
ot Creek deitlea, Sa !n<^lTuetlve fmm thin |)oint of view. She wn« origin- 
ally only virginal in the leniw thnt she rejerterl marriage, being the 
goddeu »f « nomadic and mntrlarrhal hiinling pi-o^ile wlm had not yet 
adopted mnrringe. and nhe wa? the (piddess of rhildl'irlh. womhipwd 
with orgiaMlc lianee* anil phollic pnililemH. It win by a late transfor- 
mation that Arteini* became tlie jriwMe*.* of i-liailitv (Fomell, Cvllt of 
Ihr Orerfc 8tal<t. vol. II. pp. 412 rt rri/.: Sir W. M Ramsay, f'ifW of 
Phry^ia. vol. I, p. flfli I'aul Lafargtic. "Lks Mythos Uiatorlquea," i^ei-u« 
dtt'lMcB, Dec.. 1004). 



"i» iguortiuce. Vlr^nity, like ocrtnin fruiUi. c*ii only be, preierved bj 
a procpRs of ilcsjccatioii." 

>l<^Tii»^ |ioiiit«il out lliv *amo •JO'iiooHting iiiflui-n<« of vtrgiitity. 
In » Irtlcr ilnliNl 1**S9 lio wrol*; "I thliik tlint iiowiidayw p««ple klUcIi 
far too much iniporliin<« to cliastitjr. Not llmt I deny thut chastitjr ij 
m I'frtiie, but thtT'.' «r<t iIi'Kti'i'h In virtiiM just rh tli«re nri* In vices. It 
■■Tin* to \f Ahmid lliit B wontnn ■huuld be l>uiiiiih<7d from ooejcty for 
buvitij; lint] II loi'iT, u'tiil« u wuinun who is miMrly. tlou1ile*fM>Ml and 
■pilcfui gat's ev0ri'wh(ir«, The morkltt}^ of tlils age U nuiirrilli- not that 
u'hich in tnuRht in the Goipol. In my opinion il i« bcttCT to Iovp too 
much thnn not pnoiittli. N'ou-ndnyn dry hrnrtii nrn utticlc ap on a pin- 
irnclu" iRevvr. dn DfTiw Mondra. April. 1886). 

Dr. H, Paul li:tN <k-vHli)[>e<I an nllii-d point. Sh« nritf^; "Then 
arc iprl» who, ci-en n» rhildrpn. have pTo>tit.iili>il lhpmi"'lvpii by nnuturhn- 
tion and IntK-'irioiii Uioitghti. Tlie purity at llirir loulx hat long Xttrm 
lost and nothing rt'imtiiit unknown (o them, hut— they hav^ proncrrad 
their hymenii! Tliut i« for the soke of Hie fnlurc hunhand, T^t no one 
dare to doiiht their Innnoenre m'illi tlint iinlmpeRehnhle evldmcet And 
it HDotlicr girl, who hus pntned lier i7hildhcH>d in tomplctf purity, now, 
with nwnkeneil iu>n"i4 nnd wnini linpctnoiii wnmsnllnM*, giiTMt her«lf 
to a luiin in love or i^ven onl.v in pussion, they all ntund up and acrwim 
that iltr II 'difthnnored!' And, not Irnnl, the prontitutnl girl with tli* 
hymen. It U riie indeed who jcrentns loudefit and thrown the biggntt 
»(one«. Yet the 'dialionored' wonuin, who i» •'>uiid and nbolenome, nt*i 
not fear to tell what ihc ha!i dnnn to thr man who dsirr* her in mar- 
liage, ti|)ealing as one human heing to another. She ba4 no nefd to 
bitiah, ihe has rxercin^d her human riglits. and no reaxunable man will 
on that account e«leetii her th* le»*" (l>r, II. I'nnI, '■IJlo I'el>er(M'hiifinnj[ 
der JunKfemsclinft." (;«rfc/irAf tinrf Grfrlltchall. Bd. ii. p. 14, lOD'i. 

In a Mmilnr spirit writen F, F.rhard l(i<4H'htivhl wid (ImfHiirhnft, 
Bd. i, p. 40M1 : "Virginity in one neniw ban it» worth, hut in the ordi- 
iinry Hensf it is grwilly overeiti mated. .^jwH from the fnd tlint a girl 
who popiBpawB it may yet \tv thoroughly perverted, thii overntimalion 
of rirginity lead* to the girl who is without it being denpinvd. and haa 
(nrther resulted in the development of a tpef inl industry for the prepara- 
tion, by mean* nf a priidtahly dniotrnl eduenllon, of girls whn will brinjt 
lo their husband* the peeulinr dninly of a hride who knows noUitng 
about anything. Naturally, this ran onl.v be aehieved at the expenw of 
«ny mtionnl e.|iioHfion. What the tinilei'ploped little Koow may turn 
into, no man enn foresee." 

Prcnd ff-eruatpTolteme. Mareh. IftOftl nl*o jioInlH nut th* evil 
re-^ills of the ednealinn for marriage whieh Is given to girt* on the 
basis of tills ideal of rtiglnity. "^diiention undertake* the task of 
reprewing the i^rl's tCDsuaUty until the time o( betrothal. It not only 



1<U (cxual rrlntiona niid wta n high prriuhun on jnnocencp, but it 
■Iw witlidraws ttie ripMiiug wumuuljr iiidivitluiLtity frum li-mptutiun. 
niaiulaining it atnlc of Ignorance! c()nc4>rnlng Ilie prnctlo^il tiile of tlie 
part •he U inlondiil to pluy in life, ami enduring no Blirring of Invp 
wliich cuinot leftil to inRiringp- Thn rr«ii1t I* that when slip \* Kniltknl; 
permitled to f»Il in loi'e bv tlie nulhurit}- of ber elders, the girl cannot 
tirlnii! tivr jinyriiic ijispoaiHon to l)i>nr, and gni-8 into inHTringi< uncertain 
of her onn ferlitign. As n con-ii.i|uen('[> of tljii artilieial rctiirilution ut 
the function nt Invp Hhc iKiiij^t nolliing Ixit defiijitioii to the huahand 
who ban net nil hi* dc«ires u|ion her, and munifests frigidity in her 
phjvirnl Tplnlionf with lilm," 

Simaneour IDc VAmour. vol. i, p. 2SS) even beliiivcs tliat, when 
It bt poMible to leave out of eoueideration the queatiun of ofTipring, iiot 
only will (Jie law of chnstity hreome eijiuil for the two nexea, but there 
will be a t*iidein-v l"x the nituiition "f Ihe wxes to be, to "Jine extent, 
changed. "Continence becomes n counsel Tnther than a precept, nnd it 
ii in wom«>n that the voluptuous indinHtiuii will be re^rded with mont 
indulgenee. Miin is made for work; he only meet* pleaiurc in possiag; 
ho niu»t be ront^-nt that women should oi'i'iipy theunelves with it mom 
than he. It U men whom it tochftuata, and men mutt alwATV. in part. 
rMtrnin Uicir dei-iren," 

A*, bowcTicr. we libcrute oiireelvea fr«m the bondage of n 
compulson- p)iy.iirnl chastity, it bi^onic^ iiuKniblc to rcbabilitnte 
chutity OS » virtue. At llie prosetit day it can no longer be 
said that there \i an Ihc pari of tbink'-m tiiid mornliats imy active 
hostility to Ihe idoa of chastity; there is, on the contrary, a 
tendcDcy to rccogniw; ttic value of chastity. But thig recognition 
has been ftccompanictl by a rotum to the older and BOundcr con- 
ception of chastity. The preservation of a rigid sexual ab- 
fitiDfiic«, an empty virginity, can only be regarded as a pseudo- 
chastily. Tile only positive virtue which Aristotle could have 
ncognized in thiv field was a tcmperanc-e involving rextraint of 
the lower tinpiii^i.^, a wise exercise nnd not a nnn-exercise.' The 
bcB* thinkers of (he Christian Church adopted the same concep- 
tion; St. Basil in his important inona'slic rules laid no weight on 
self-discipline a* an end in itself, but regarded it as an instru- 
ment for enabling the spirit to (tain power over the flesli. St. 
Augustine deciarcd that continence is only excellent when prac- 

I See, e.ff., XicomacboMi Etlilcs, Bk. Ui, Cli. XIII. 

, Cioot^lc 



liocl in the faith of the highert good.' and he rcganM rlurtilf 
as "an onlcr1,v iDOicincnt of the aoul aabordinating lower things 
to higher things, and specially to he manifested in conjugal i 
relationiihipi'' ; Thomas Aquinas, defining diastitv in mucli 
the nme tray, defined impuritv n« the mfojmcnt of sexual ^ 
ptcasnre not according to right reoiioii, whether as regards tlie 
object or lh<> conditions,* But for a time the voices of the groat 
moralista were unlx-ard. The virtue of chastity v*i «vr.iinped ia^ 
the popular Chri^tiiui pofaiun for tlie onnihilatioo of ti>e fleab, 
and that \-iew vat, in the sixteenth centuri', finally consecnted 
by the Council of Trent, which formally pronounced an aciatbenn*'^ 
opoD anyone who should declare tliat the ft«t« of virginity and 
celibacy wai> not better than the xtate of matrimony. Nowadays 
the pscudo-clustity that was of value on the simple Kfound that ' 
any kind of oontioencfi is of higher epiritual worth tlian any 
kind of sexual relationship belongfi to the paft, except for thoae 
who adhere to ancient ascetic creeds. The mystic value of vir- 
ginity ha* gone; it seems only to nrotiwt in (he modem man'.* 
mind the idea of a ]>tqtinncy craved by the hardened rake ;^ it is 
men who have tlicmticlviit long jxiMcd the age of innocence wlio 
attach an much importance to the innocence of their brides. The 
conception of life-long continence aa an ideal has also gone; atj 
the be«t it u rcganled as a iTiero matter of personal prcferenoft.^ 
And the conventional nimulatton of nnirer^al eliastity, at tlie 
bidding of reapeetability, is coming to be regnrded as a hindisnvo 
ratliiT Uian a help to the cultivation of any rial eliastity.'' 

■ Dfr CMlal« Dei. lib. iev. rap. XX. A tSttle further on tllbw sH. 
cap. XXV) 111- Tcfvrs tn Abnhnni an n. man ohle to uv tramrn at a man 
■hoiiltl. hi* n'ifi) tPm]UTat'ty, lii* eonciilijnp c«ni|i11nntly, ii^itlier Iminoil- 

VAnifnMii. Ml|[iii''ii Pitllloil, V»l. iii. 1)11. I'i4. nrt I. 

3Sw till' Stutly <if M<i(l«Hty in Ibe Itrxl vulumc ot tlivt* Bladir*. 

* The mnjority of chnM*' ymitli*. rvmnrk* an nrntp wilic of modern 
llf« (Ilrilpftch. ytmvmlSt tind Kultar, p. 17-^', urn merely actuaUd by 
tradititinni pTindpInt, or b^' %liynriu, fi'Ar of I'diiri'til liifrctiona. lock ul 
■*lf'Conn<li'ncp. nwnt o( money, viry aoldom by nny fon'iilrnilion for a 
Future 11-ifi'. nnd thml indvoil tmiild'liA H trnKl-Vninli' errnr, for n tranan 
lay* no hiiportnnre on iiitart iiiuiculinity. Motcovpt, he Nildn. (h« «feaMe 
man in Uiiiililr to fhoonc n wifo wtnely, aivl tt in nmoiii; troclum knd , 
cliTKyincn — thn rhmihtt rU«"^thiit inuit iiiibft)>]iy iii»rriii|C'> nr# madi^i 
Milion bad already nuido thi« (act an argument for facility ol divoieai'i 




The chaattty that ia regsrded by the moraliBt of bHlar as a 
virtue has tt« worth bjr no means in it* ibsttoeDoe. It is nut, in 
St. Tbcruui'ii wonls, the Tirtne of tbe tortoise which irithdrawa 
its liiobB under its carapace. It is a virtue because it ie a dis- 
cipline in Bolf'C'ontitil. becanM it belp« to fortify Ute character 
and will, and because ii U direotly favorable to th« cultiiatioii of 
the mott beautiful, exalted, and effective sexual life. So vieued. 
chastity may be oppOMcd to tbi' dMiuind» of delw»ed ueditcral 
Catholicism, but it is in harmony with the demands of our 
civilized life ttMlay. and by no means at Tsnance with tlw re- 
quirements of Nature. 

There is alirays an onalog}- between the instinct of repro- 
dovtion and the inrtiuct of nutrition. In Uvo matter of nling it 
is the influ<3Ke of science, of phyeiotoi!:)', which han finally put 
aaide an exaggerated asceticism, and made eating "pure." The 
Hune process, a» James Uinton well pointed out, lias be>-n made 
poesible io the sexual relationship* ; "fcience has in its hands 
tl»c key to purity."' 

Ulny influences have, however, worked together to favor an 
innataoce on diasUty. There has, in the fimt place, been an 
isetitable rearlion n^sinM the sw^xual facility which had conic to 
bo regarded as natural. Such facility was found to have no 
moral value, for it tended to relaxation of moral fibre and was 
unfavorable to the finest semal satisfaction. H could not even 
claim to be natural in nny broad i>cn»e of the word, for, in Nature 
geikcrally, sexual gratilication tentU Io be rare and dillicult.- 
Courtsbip is arduous and lon«. the liea^on nf love is ftrictly 
delimited, pregnancy interrupts ^-xual rclatioiiehipfi. Kren 
among savages, so long as they have been by civiliza- 
lioD, virility is usually miiintaincd by a fine asceticism; t!i« 

1 "tn catinK." wiiil tlintoo. "u-e havr iirhipvod tbp DmIc i>[ Mmbin- 
lag pkMurp witti an alxwui* n( •liM.' Tfie iirublt^ni tor man ■nd womnn 
■■ «> lu ii-H- aiid IK1KWII1 (he ■oxual pmuion nn Io mak<- tt Uie miniiitn' 
tn lilxhrr tMnJ^•, »ttli ivi ivntriiiiil oii il Intt Ihiit. It ii riapntlnllj- con- 
tiTCtcil with Ihintri (if the ■pirjluo) anivr. and would iMtitritllj' revolve 
ronnil tUrm. Tn lliink o( It 8« mprrly tindily i" u iiiii>lnkc-," 

J Srv "AnnlynU of the F(<«ual Impulw."' nni! .\ppftndlx, "Tbe Sexual 
InOinct in KavagM," la vol. ill of these Btudki. 





cnOuraDc« of harxHiiji, Hdr-totitrot miil rvi^triiiDt, tempered by 
nre orgies, constitute a diiicipliiie which covt-rit U>e ci-xutil iw 
well a* every other departiniiit of eavage life. To jirceene the 
name virility in eivilined life, it may woll lie fdlt, we must 
deliberutdy cultivate a virtue which under Havag« conditioug of 
life Is Datunl.' 

The influence of Nietzsche, direct and indirect, has Iwen on 
tlic Bide of the virtue of chu»tity in ite modcni sense. The corn* 
roand: "Be hard," as Nietzsche uitcd it, was not to much an 
injunction to an unfeeling indifference towania othera ns an 
apptuil for ft inuru ntix^nimuM allitudc toward* uno'0 self, the cul- 
tivation of a eelf-eontrol able to gather up and hold in the forces 
of the luiul for cviicnditiire on deliberately accepted ends, "A 
relative cliantity," lu; wroti-, "a fundamental and wise forwight 
in the face of erotic things, even in thought, is part of a line 
rcnsounbh-neM in life, even in rietily endowed and complete 
natures."- In this matter Nietzdrhe i» a typical representative 
of tJiti inoilci'ii movement for the restoration of chastity to ita 
proper place as a real and bi-ncricinl virtue, and not n mere empty 
convention. Such a movement could not fail to make itself felt, 
for all tliat favors facility and luxurious softne^ in sexual 
nintt^Ts i» (juiekly folt to degrade character at welt n* to diminiah, 
the finest erotic satisfaction. I'or erotic satisfaction, in its' 
highest plane;*, it only possible when we have secured for the 
sexual inijiulse a high degree of what Colin Scott calls "irradia- 
tion," that is lo My II wide diffusion through ihe whole of the 
psychic organism. And that can only be attaint^] by placing 
impediments in the way of the swift and direct gratification of 
Boxital desire, by compelling it to increase its force, to tiike long 
circuits, to cliarge the whole organiimi so highly that the final 
climax of gratilied love is not the trivial detumescenco of a petty 
desirv but the immense consunimntion nf a longing in which tlie 
whole eoul an well as the whole body lias its part. "Only the 

1 1 liave elBi'Whtrc (liiicuH«nl more at iMiglh tli* nond In modern 
dvillird llfn of a nntiirnl and ulncern MiuHtdiim (we A/firmationt, ISOS) 
"St. Prnn«i« niid (.Hlieiii." 

BDw wait Morftf. p. 3B2. 




diulecube really obMceno," bhuI Hiiy»iiinn«. 
pUn^ only tbe chaste can really love. 

And un a higher 

"Phynicnl purity," rernatk* Hun* Mmjnico |"Die IVIi^rMliAtxiiiig 
der ri^Hisclieii tCvinheiU" GachUrht und Octrltuchaft, toI, 11, Purt 
VIII) "nils orl|[]nnUy vnhivil a* a tigii of grctttvr strcngUi uf will and 
firmnen* of clinrat'tor. and it marked a rite nbavn primitive conditions. 
Tliin purity nuH iJiltlmlt lu prtservi^ in tliune unaure day^i it wiu rare 
nnd tmuntuil. Fmm tbi* inHty rrwr tlir ■ii|WTiilItioii of ■upcniAtiirHl 
pawir [(■siding In tli« vit^lii. Hut lliis liiia nu mcanin); ui Boon an sucli 
purity l)rct>i)io Krucrnl und n npcviully roiiHpiciioiin dr|[n>i) of flrmnPita uf 

cltariicttT in no longi-r m-i-di-J to nmiutnin it Phyaiml 

purity can only ponK-M vniui- wlicn It I* tlia tmhII of Imlivlduul Htrcn)^li 
i^f character, and not wlii-n it U tlic reaull ot uuuipulsury nilvi uf 

Konrad Halk'r. wlio Iiuh given Hpocinl nttvntiun to the ■exiut) qu™- 
tion in «cbooI>, r«narl{» In relation to pliysi<.-nl ffiprcjaer "Tlie greattat 
adv>nta){e of physical Picrcisert, howtror, tii not llin ili'vclnpinciit of Uir 
aclivi; nnd pn^kire strennth of ■hi' hiuiy anil itn •kill. Iiut tli« eslubtUli- 
m«nt nnd furl ill fa I Ion of the nulhority of Hip will over IIip l>ody nnii It" 
nivdii, so niui'h );ii*pn up In iurlijlrni'i'. lie wlio )ih> IcHriil to endure and 
overrom^, for the «iike of a deflnilo aim. htms^r und UiirHt and fatigue, 
will be the better able to wUlmlJind nexuul inipulwi nnd thi- temptation 
t« grjtify tliem, when bettor inniRhl nnd ippttlietic feeJing liiive made 
dear to him, ni one u^icd to miiinlulii aulbontr over hi* l>o<ly. that to 
yield would be injuriiiu* or di-<g>u('i.'ful" < K. IKilkr. "Die Aufgnbc der 
VolkHohulv." li'.Tiinlj>-iiUi!)agil!. p. T"). ProfeBsot Si'liiKf-nnt'ker (iiJ^ p. 
]02(. who nUo [■niphn*iri!ii tbe iniporlnnec of itclf-eoDlrul und nelf-ri!- 
■Iralnl, thinki u )<.>iilb must bear hi mind his future mlmlon, aa ctlisen 
and (atlicr of a (amity. 

A Bufatle and peiietralive thinker of to*day, Julr« de GuulUer, 
wrttin); on moral* nlllioiit reforenoe to tbia specific question, hna di>- 
(!U*Drd what nm; intcnial inliihilory uiolivea we can appral lo in 
rejilaeing the oM exturnii) inbibilion of aulhnrily nnd Wlief whirii i» 
now ileenyml. He nnsweri that the Male ot feeling on wbich old fnitha 
were buHed i>till periiitn. "May not." he ask«. "the dvniiv fnr n thing 
that ue love and wish for beiietli-enlly replaei- the >ielii'( thiit a thing 
U by dlTine will, or in tlie nature of tliinguT Will not tbe pr*«enco of 
a bridle on the frmry of inslinct m-eal lliietf as a useful altllude adopted 
by Inalind it*#lf for ll* own ronservatinn. aa a aytnplom of the fore* 
and health of inallnel* Is not empire over oneself, the power of feg- 
nlatlnji one'* aet". a murk of snperiorily and a motive for wlf-eateemt 
Will not thia joy of pride have the same authority in preserring fhe 





nYOHOUxiT or ssx. 

■■Mtincta aa waa ante (MMetwd by reli^oua (mr and llic iir^loidnl 
Imperative* at rr^iont" <'lulea dc Cinullier, Jda iMpendaiica da la Morale 
ft I'l'tdfprtidancf dra .l/Titrs, p, 15.1.) 

H. Q. UVIIh (In ,1 \taiirrn Vtopia), pointing out th« [mporl^UM 
of chdiitity. though rejerting reliltorj-, invoke*, like JuIm dc Qniilticr, 
th? motii-p o( pride. ''CIviiluition Iiar di>vplii]Mid far more rapidly tluiD 
man ha* niodiA^'d. I'ndM* llin iinnntitrni prrfivlinn of u-piirlty. lilitrl^, 
nnd abundance our civillmtion liao attained, the normal untrained 
humnii hfiiig h di-iMi-i-il In cxpci* in iilmoiit tvery dirmtioni lie (enda 
to eat too mueh and loo elnlmrntHy. to drink too much, to breome Iniy 
faitvr tlinn lii» nvrk run l>e n^Iucrd. lo u'u?l« liii iiili>rest upon diiplnys. 
■nd to make Inrc tnci mueh nnd loo rlnliomtvly. Il(> jc^l* out of trnln- 
iiig. atid (lunc^-utruti-t iifxin e)^>iitic or erotie bruodings. Our foundrra 
orgnnlted motive* (roni all mrta of Aoiirci-s. but I lliiiik the rliiirf fon;e 
to (rive men t«I(-eontrol is pride. Tride niny not be the nobleit thing 
In tb«i iioul. bill il In till- bi-M king tlieri^. for all that. They looked to 
it to keeji a man eleiin and Hound and mne. In thia matter, na In all 
niRttem of nnturni dfairr. Ibey hHd no a|ipMlt« mu"l be glutted, no 
ajipetitc muiit hnve artlUHnl irbeta, and al<o nnd eqiinlly tlint oft 
appetite >hiiii]d be Hturveil- A man muit cnmv from the tnble iHitl*II*d, 
but not replete. .*nd. In the mnll<r of love, a atratjibt nnd eleiin detire 
for n eleon and rtraiglit fellow ereoture wna our foundern* Idenl. They 
enjoined marriage belwiwn equnU n» the duty to the raee. and they 
frnmi-d direetion* of the preelsnt •ort to prevent thnt nxnriou* (nscpar- 
nblenm*. tbut eonnubiiilily. Ibat sometime! redttees a couple ot people to 
Bometbing j<)iiilly lei* than elllicr." 

^Vitb lejcnrd to ehnctlty na an clement ot erotic Mtltfnrtlon, 
Kdwntd Ciirpenter write* (tore'* Comi'nj; of Afff. p, 111: "Tli«Te is a 
kind of illti'imi about phyaleal dealr* ■Imtlar to Ibnt wlileh n child 
•iifTpra from when, neeing a beautiful floiver. il in»TaDtIr anatdiei tlie 
tatne. nnd doxtioy* In a fevr nioment* thi^ form nnd frnfcranct! which 
attracted it. He only gela the full glory who holdx bimielf back * little, 
and truly gimueiHe*. ubn U viitllng. It Dceil he. not to pn^esg. He in 
indeed a inuiter of life wlio. aecepling the grunn-T dixirea a* Ibci' come 
(o bia body, and n>it n^fiiiilng them, knows how to Iraiuform tb«m at 
will iuto the raoit rare and frnginnt flowers of human eiiiuliou." 

Beyond it« fmiclions in bwitding u]) cliaracter, in beightca-^ 
ing nn<l ranoMing the erotic life, and in Biibecrving the adoqtitt 
fulfiliiicnt of fniiiily and social (tiitioit, oliimtitv lins a more special] 
value for tliwie ulio cuUlmto the arts, \Vp may not always bfl 
inclined to beli«Te the writers wlin have declared tJiat lhi<ir rersa] 
aloD« in wanton, but their lives ciiaste. It is certainly true, hour- 


1 7a 

t\«r, llifil a Tcht'miiMp ttt tliis kind tends lo occur. Tbe stuff 
of tbe si-Mial li/e, as NitrUwiie wiy-s it tlie istui! i>/ art; i( it is 
expeiii]ed in one ehaunol it is lost for the otiier. The niaHtcra of 
all tlic more iiit^n&ely cinolioaul urts liave frequently cultivated 
ft high degree of ohnstity. This is notably tiio i-ase «» rogards 
[minic; one thinks of Mozart,! of Beethoven, of Sclnihert, and 
manj leswr mm. In ttu-caimof jtot'ts (ind iiovdisls i-hiijirily muy 
usually seem to le less prevalent hut it ia frequoitly well-mark«l, 
and is not «cldoni dii^^iiiHcd by the re«ounditig reverberations 
whieii even the sligiiteat love-episodi! often exert* on tlw poetic 
orptni^m. GoctlK-'s life Hccm^, at a lin^t ^''■O'^^i to be a lonf; 
wri<Tj[ of contiDUOUM love^-piitode*. Yet when wc reniciiibor that 
it was the very long life of a man whose vigor remained until 
the end, that his atlachmnits lonfj and profoundly affected his 
emotional lift^ and liix work, am) that with most of the wonieu 
lie has immortalized he never had actual sesnal relationships at 
all, and when we rcaliKP, moreover, thiit, throughout, he accom- 
plished an almo=.t inooneeivahly vast amount of work, wc shall 
probubly conclude that ccxual indulgence had a very much smaller 
part in Goethe's life than in that of many an average man on 
whom it leaves no obvioua emotional or intellectual trace what- 
ever. 8t<'nic, again, dvclurctl that he must ulway« huvo n 
I>ulcinea dancing in his head, yet tbe amount of his intimate 
relations with women appcari< to have been small. Balzuc spent 
his life toiling at hin desk and carrying on during many yean n 
love correspondence with a woman he scarcely ever saw and at 
the end only sfwnt n few moiitlttt of married life with. The like 
experience has befallen many artistic creator?. For, in the words 
of Landor, "absence is the invisible and incorporeal mother of 
ideal bMtity." 

We do well to remember that, while the auto-erotic manifes- 
tations through the brain are of inliuitc variety and importance^ 

■ At till! Bgi* of twmty-Hvp. wlipn lii> hnd nlrriidy prO(]iiP«<) muirh 
Aa« woilc. Mnrjtrt wmtn In hiii Irl.tcro thnt lie lia>l never loiiched a 
irDman. Ihou^li In- longpd (or In*-* mul iiinrring^, lli> eodld mil. alXnrd 
li> matry, he would not »eiliicc nn innnnpnt pirl b veninl leUtion vraa 
rrjniiuvi to liim. 




the brain and the gc-ximl oigau^ nru yvt tlic great rira]s in using 
up bodily eiicrjij, uiid that tliero is aii antagoDisni lietvxK-n ex- 
treme bruin vigor nnd extreme sexual vigor, even although they 
inay wjini-tinies both appear at different periods in the enme 
individual.' In thiK eeiiM> tliiTe is do paradox in the suving of 
KaniOQ Corren that potency ii^ inipok'uce and impotence potency, 
for a high dogrce of encrgj', whether tn atbletii^ or in intelk-ct or 
in iKixnal activity, is unfavorable to the display of energy in 
other directions, Every high degree of potency has its related 

It may b* ndilrd that wo may And a curloiiitlf inoaiulMcnt proof 
o( the cxci'iwivi? iiuporbiiice altaclit^d tu Hfxtiul functiun by a iwcie^ 
which ti,vnt<?niatieally trlc« to dcprM'iatn nci. tn thf dingrai-e which to 
attributed to tho lufk of "virili.-" poti-noy. Although pivili»?d life offi-ra 
inimraiti^ scujie for Ih"« of iu>Kiiall,v impotPiit porMxis, Ihft 
impotjiiit man !■ modn to [ccl thut, whjlo he necA not hr (trrBtly eon- 
nmn) if lie HulTcTfi fruin ii^riviu^ dUturhaiir^* of diction. If he »honhI 
«nff<'r jurt an InnoecntlT from ntTvou* di*t«rlinne™ of tiip nexual Im- 
pulvc, it i> i.liiioiit a ottnie. A iilrikiii); example of this wm ahixwn, ■ 
t«V jMn *go, irli^n It was plaiiaihly migicRstnl that CHr1,v1i>'» TVlntlona 
nlth hi* wife rolttht tmt bu exptuincd bv supposiog thut he Miiferrd from 
Boni* tmuhle of t^xual polene.v. At ontv admiiwr* ni>ilii>d forward ti> 
"dffffnd" rarlyle (rom thin "dingrnceful" chnrKei thi^ were mors 
■hiK'ki^d Ibnn if it hnd born iilli*(^'d that he win a syphllitie. Yet 
iiii|iot<<iici> la, at tlip mant, an ititlTnitty. whether due to noinc Mtt^nital 
auatotiiicul defect or to a disturluince «f nervoun Iwlnne^ in th' d<-1!mla 
■exiiol nieebaiiiitin, «tieh as is apt to oecur in nieu of abnormally »rn»i- 
tive tFiiiperament. It i> no more dUgmecfiil to mitler from it than from 
dyapffpnla, with whinh, iudMd. it may b« awoeiat^d. Many mfii of 
geniu« and high moral char«r:ter havt> \>nm ■ranally deformed. Tliix 
was tlie CBiie witli Cowpi-r (thou^ib Ibit si^iricunt (net i* Riippressed by 
hi« blogrophoM) ; Ituikin wa« divoreed (or a lenwn of tbin kind; and 
J. S. Mill, It i» aald, woa ««MiaJIy of little more thau infantile develop- 

Up to this |M)int I have k-en eonsidcring the ([uality of 
chastity- aad the quality of aaceticisra in their most general Mii»e 

I K^ihmaTT, Die Entwicllungggmrhichtii dfi Tatmtrt unrf neniea.. 
Bd. i. p. 4.1T. 

Dy ,-,.:. r.yOOtwlc 



and without any sltempt at precise (iiffercDtiation.' But if wc 
are to accept th<«Q ae motlcrn virtunt, valid to-day, it is iiecHsaary 
Unit w<! itlioiild be Minii-u'liat inoru prixiiiu in lU-Hntiig Iheiu. It 
seems moBt couvenient, and moat strictly accordant aUo with 
etymology, if wc ttf^ree to mean by airceticism or ascesis, the 
athlftte (juality of iwlf-disciiilinc, coiitrolliDg, by no meana neces- 
sarily for in<lefinitely prolonged periods, the gratitlcation of the 
rwNual impiilst'. By cliMtity, wbich is primarily the qtinlity of 
purity, and Hocondarily that »f holint^Ms rather than of abi>liiience, 
we may best anderstand a due jiropnrtion between erotic claims 
and ihe otiicr dainm of life. "Chiwliiy," aw Kllcn Key wt-Il nays, 
"is harmony between body and soul in relation to love." Thus 
ennipretiendcd, avcctici^m is the virtue of control tliat loads np 
to erotic gratifiealion, mid chartity i* the virtue which exert* its 
harmonizing influence in the eroUc life itself. 

It will be (teen that a«cctici)im by no means necessarily 
inroWes perpetual continence. Properly iindenitood, asci^liciam 
is a discipline, a Iraininp, which has reference to an end not 
itself. If it i* compiilsorily perpctmil, whether at the dictates of 
a religious dogma, or ati a mere fetivli, it i# no longer on u natural 
basis, and it is no longer moral, for the restraint of a man who 
lias epcnt hia whole life in k pniion is of no value for life. If it 
is to be natural and to be moral asceticism must have an end out- 
cidc itself, it must sub^rre tlie ends of vital activity, which 
cannot be eubservoil by h perHun who i» engaged in a perpetual 
struggle with his own natural instincts. A man may, indeed, as 
a matter of luste or preference, live his wholo life in sexual 
abalinence, freely and easily, but in that case hi- is not an aseetic, 
and his abstinence is neither a subject for a))plau6e nor for 

I We inoy cxchidn nltogptlicr, It is Morcely npcmiMry to rcp*ftt, the 
quftltty of virginity — Ihnt U t*i wiv, the potwp'i'ion of on intact nymen — 
MUM tixit !■ B merely phyjipul qunlity with no nwwmian- i-tliitinl rpln. 
llnnnhlpK. Tlie demand fur virf^inily in woTiivn iK for ilir> mnet part. 
nithtT the demand tor n better tnarkrtnbli' nrticle. or for b mori' power- 
fnl ■Iiinul*nt to mSMulIno desire. Virginity involvca no mornl qnntitiea 
In itt poitn'^HOr. Chnitily and miTti'TKiii, on tlie otiifr linnil. at* me«n- 
ingi»m temu. except a* dcnianiU mnile liv tlis xpirit on itself or on the 
body It controls. 



KTCiioLOGT or sex. 

In the same way chastity, fur from involving sexual ib- 
titmi-Dc«, only lins iu valuv vlivD it u brought witiiin Uw erotic 
sphere. A purity that ia ignorance, when th« a^ of childish 
innowDce is onee fiaHRcd, is mere stiipi<lity; it is oparer to vice 
than to virtue. Xor i« parity consonant with effort untl i^triij(;gle; 
in thnt respitt it diff(.-r8 from acceticism. "We conquer the 
boncta^ of tex," Ilosa Msyrwler says, "by acceptance, not by 
drai&ls, and men can only <Iu thie with Utc liolp of woin<-ti." Tiie 
would-be cliastity of cold calculation id equally unbenutiful and 
unreal, and without any sort of tiiUic. A true iind worthy 
chastity can only be supiiortcd hy uu ardent idval, whHh^T, oa 
amoDg the early Christians, this is the erotic ideal of a new 
romance, or, as among ourselves, a more huiuniily erotic ideal. 
"Only erotic idealism," tiajit Klton Key, "can aroufw enthuiiaam 
for chastity." Chattily in a healthily developed pcroon can thus 
bo beautifully exercised only in the actual erotic life; in part it 
is the natural instinct of dignity and tcnipt'nuico ; in part it i« 
the art of touching tlie things of eex with hands that remember 
their aptnen for all the iinc end'* of life. Fpon the doom-ay o£| 
entrance to the inmost sanctuaiy of lo'.'e thore is thti? the same 
inscription as on the doorw-ay to the Epidaurian Sanctuary of 
Aeaculapiua: "None but tlie pure diall enter htrf.'' 

It will he uwn tliut the definition of chntlitv rcinniii* ■ainen'hat| 
lacking In |iriwl«i(in. 'Hint is lni»viul>|i?, W'v mnnol |^up purity" 
ti|[1itl)', (or, like mow. It wlH mrrtlj- iiwlt in om liamU. "furiiy Itself 
forbids too niltiut« a iiyDt^in of rut«D (or the obwrvniiiv of purlly." well 
nj* »td|r»ick lUrlhoils of ElhirA. Bk. Ill, ('tu IX). ElM>wh<-re (op. 
fil.t Bk. iti. Civ. XI) he atlvmpta to annwrr Ih^ quMtlmi: Wlmt seiunl 
rfflstlonH nr« MnpntUlly Impiiinl anil ronfliuk'H tluit no Bnnwfi is poa- 
tible. "There appcjir* to be no diMlnct principle, tiavhig nii.v clnlui to 
■cK-eviilFnet-. upon wliich tlie <iuntioR emn be Knsnenxl no ns to ooin- 
Dd gmiirHl M8cnl." E^'oii wliat 1» called "Free l.we." lie ni)4», "in 
far a» It U enmeirtly ndviiratiM an a mpttn* In n eompMrr liurmony 
of aentinunit beto*™ men mid a-omen. (mnnol be ecmdeiiiuctl as Iinpur*, 
for It seeniD pBradoxkiil to diatinguiafa purity from Imparity mtfrety tqr 
ItM rapidity nf tmnrition." 

Moll, from tlie standpoint of Tncdiesl p«ycholof[y. mehes tli« Mine 
eonduaion lu Rldinrlrk from tliat of elhW. In n rrport on th* "Value 
of CTimtlly fnr Uen," pubtiNhed ns nn appendix to ll>« tliird fdltiim 

I)y --TOi:,yCjt)l.WlL' 



(19(10) o( hU A'ondriri- KciiiolrnipfiiiilU'ii}. tlip dinUnguisbnl Dprliii jiliy- 

•irinn dUi-UHi-i ilie mnltt^r wJtIi niin-h vi^irnim oorainon Mnse, inaiatUig 
tbat "iliu"!'.- liiiil iiiirliiiiil" iirii rtliilhc iiti-iu." W'v niiiel n"l. In- »taX»A, 
ni In so often (ioni-. iilentjfy "diu»t*" with "bpiiiiiIIv nlmlim-nt." lie 
mJJb ttiHt tv« ar« iii>t ju'llltml Iti iWciibliig till ■■ttin-miti'ilnl iu>](ual 
inUTmur*i> fli> iiiicliai>tf, fuv, if Mc do no, vie bIuiU Ih; compelled to 
Rpiril )ii!iirly all men. nnil wine ver; Mlimabtc wotitcn. n« uncliftaU. 
H« rigtitiv' intiatii that In tliin malttr n-p must tpjik lli<^ name rule (o 
womiii ni lu mi-n. iind lie puind out lliut (I'lni ulii^n it involvos wlinl 
may Iw twlitiicnlly ndult^ry m'xiibI lnt*rroiir*i> \» not nivcMnrily nil' 
chaste. Iln tuknt the caw of n ({iil who, nt riglitwn. when still luentall.v 
immntiin', \h riiiirrifd io a nuiii with h'1ii>ili ^)ll■ fliiilit il ini]mMiblr to 
lire and n nepurBtion coiinoqiipntly occnr*. nlthDii|[li n divurce niuy l>» 
im|K>s«ihlv to obtuin. If »1ii> now liills piH«ioiiutely in luve with o mnn 
her \o\r may he (rntirety chnitc. tliough It invnlvm whnl in t<^<?hnlFnlly 

Id tliue tiiKlei'fitandiuf; aeci-ticiBin and clinstity, ami tliHr 
bencficinl function* in life, wf get! tlint lliev ftiTnpy n plaeo mid- 
way between the artificially exaggerated position tlicy once hfid 
and tliat to which tli(?y were degraded by the inevitable reaction 
of total indilTen.'iK'u nr Hclnal hostility which follnwed. Asceti- 
cism and chai<tity are not rigid categorical imperatives; they are 
u§cful means to dceirable ends; tbey are wise and bemitiful ort«. 
Tbcy demand our (vliiiiatinn, but not our ovi-r-estiiiiation. For 
in oTcr-esti mating them, it is ton nfteii forgotten, we over-esti- 
mate the M'xual instinct. 7'be inefinct of ee.t is indeed extremely 
important. Yet it ha« not tbiit nl I -enib racing and siipcreminrat 
importance which some, even of those who fight against it, are 
acctiftomed to believe. That artificially magnified conception of 
tlie BCMial impiilsi^ i.* fortincd by the iirlificinl cmpba-'is placed 
upon ascetioidni. We may learn the real place of the sexual 
impulse in learning bow we may reusonably and naturally view 
tlio restrainta on tbat impnUe. 


u ^...,. 




TIip (nlliwncp of TrHclllinn — Tlie Thiwilogiail Conwjilipii of Lu 
Tendency of llivtr liillumi<C4 !■> l)i'ip-«<]e Scxiinl Morality — Thi-ir Rmult 
in Oi'iitiiiif 111* Ctoblem of Sciiuil Abslinpoce — Tli» I'roti^-tK Adjust 
Knxiial Ab»tincn™ — S*xuiil Aliiliiiiiice «nil 0''niii« — Si-xiial Aljstincncr 
in Women — The AdvorAten o( Si'xii»i Abslinfnii- — liilpriupdintp Attiludo 
— l'n«iti*(«ctory Knture of the Whole DJwus^ion — L'rilioiBiii of tli* ('OH' 
oqition of Htfxual Abntiuenw — Svxual Abstinence an Comparrd to 
Abiliiiriii-e from Fooil— No CompWe AnnloRj-— Tlif Morality of Scxtul 
Abulinwire Enlirrly Nrgntive— In II (lie I'hyiician'i' )>iily tn Adri»r 
KTlrn-Conjiiiptl IntvrMiuraeT — Opiiiion- of ThO"C Wlio AOlrm or 
Deny This Duly — riic Coiicliihloii Agnin*! tiwh Adrier — Tlin Phyvicioa 
Boiuid by Ihv Sociut niid Morul ldi?us of HU 4gi- — Thi- rbysivian a« 
ficfonneT — SpxtihI Abntinf-nw nnd ft'xiial Hygiene — Alcohol — Tl» Intln- 
tnrc of l'li,v«i«ai und Ikfi-iitnl Extrrinc — The InBdr.H|iiii[<y of Sexiifti 
Hyipi-n* in Thin Field — TIip ['nrrnl Nntiire of til* Conception of i^xiiftl 
AtMtinence — Tht' NecCiiity of Iti-plucrinK it by a More roiilive Ideal. 

Whks we look at Uie ninttor from « purely nbstrart or evrai 
purely biologiral jwint of view, it might aecm that in decidinft 
that asceticism iinil ditiKtity urc of hijfh \ii\ae Sot tlio pcnional 
life we have iaid nil that i* necpsiyiry to say. Tliat, liowcTcr, ia 
very far from being the case. We soon realize here, as ut every 
point ill tlie prnctical upplicfllion of M-xnnl psycliology, that it ia 
not sufficient to cletermine the abstractly right course along bio- 
logical liiieK. We Iinvc to harmonize our biologinrt ileinanrlii with 
social demands. Wc are ndeil mit only by natural inatincta but 
by inherited traditions, that in the far past were solidly based on 
intellij^ible ground»>. and that even etill. by the mere fact of their 
existence, exert a force wliirh we cannot and ought not to ignore. 

Tn di«cii88{ng the valuation of the sexuitl iiupulm- wc found 

that we had good ground for making a very high estimate of 

lore. In discussing cliastity and asceticism we found that they 

also are highly to be valued. And we found that, so far from any 

(178) ' 

l)y z.'-Ti Ciy 




Btradiction Wmg \wtv inviAwA, low nml i-liaatity are int«r- 
tirined in ull their liuv^l (levt-lojinii-utH, mid liiul Wiotb is tlitu u 
pcrfift tiiiriiion,v in HiJimrciil oiiinBiiliou. Hut wIipq wc come to 
t-nriKiiU-r ttic matter in lietail, in its particular persona! applica- 
tions, we find that ii new factor aawrt* ilsulf. We find tliut our 
inlii-rili'd eocinl mid religiouti trtiditions exert n prcMurc, nil nn 
one diiV, vliioh inakeii it iiiiposBililo t« plnoe tlip relations of love 
and chastity simply on the haais of bioSogj* and reason. We arc 
confronted at the outset by oiir traditionK. On the one eide these 
traditions have woiglitod flic word "luat" — considered aa expreee- 
ing all the uianifcstalinns of the sexual impuUc which are outcldc 
initrriago or .which fnil to have marriage im their direct and 
ostentatiuii!> end — witli dpprwmtory and sinister meanings. And 
on the other side llicee trnililiuns hiix'e created the problem of 
"wsnal nhrtiiionce," wlncli has nothing: to do with cither ajecti- 
ctsm OP cliafttity as these have been defined in the previous 
chapter, hut merely with the purely ncfiative pressure on the 
Mxiial )m|iiii«c, exerti'd, Indcpindenlly of tht.> individiial's wislim, 
by Iiis rclifiious and social environnn-ut. 

The theological concTption of "lu«t," or 'Tibldo.'* as ein, fol- 
lowed logicully the cjirly Cliri.itian concvption of "the flesh," aiid 
became inevitable as soon as that conception was fimily estab- 
lished. Not only, indwd, luid early Chrirtian ideals n dejfrnding 
inlliience on the estimation of aexiial desire per se, hat they 
tended to depreciate peneraily the dignity of the sexual relation- 
ship. If ft mun made $exiial odvunec^ to a woman outside 
marriage, and thus broufiht her within the dcspiited circle of 
'•lust," he WHS injuring her because he was impairing her religious 
and moral value.' The only way ho lould n.-|tiiir the dama;^ 
done was by paying her money or by entering into a forced and 
tlierefore probably unfortunate marriage with her. That is to 
say tluit sexual relationeliips were, by the ecclesiastical traditions, 

I ThUvW" nns nn flml>ipioii-i im[irovem''cil on the view, iinivpnuill]' 
picvnivtit. H<i Wr*trrninrc'k ban nhavin. nmnng priniiljvp pmplcs. t)int the 
KXiinl net involvns ImlltTiiit.v lo A Honinii or wprcrlnllon of lirr only In 
*o far u( iliu IK thv prupvrl)' uF niiolhcr penon wlio !• llii.' ruuU/ iujured 




plDi.'i.'(] on n |icctiiiiarv li«Hiii, on the name iuvtl sb prostitution. 
By itfl wfll-nieant iatcntiotis Ifl support tlie tlieologiciil morality 
wtiich had dcTi-lopcdt on an a)MM>tie Itaxit^, l\w Church true tlius 
rcftlly unil or mining even ttint form of sexuni relationsliip which 
it sanctified. 

Crt^r.v the Grwt orili>rv(l tlint lhi> Milucrr nl n vlr^n nhall marry 
her, or. in onue of rffiwnl. hr nrv^rrly puninhwl forporally nnil nliiit up 
in H nioiiuitcry to pvt{atm iwiiaiKi-. Afcunhnu to other rcrlrgikNtlcal 
nilrx, ihp injuc^r of a cirittn. Iliaujih held tu im TMpuiwikility tijr tli* 
civil toruiii. n«s rvquired In marr^ h«r. or to ffnil o liii'linnd nml fiirni«h 
a JoivTj- for IiiT. Such nilt» hud thi-ir s™'^ •''!*. ""<l W-Tp «p"-inlly 
equiliiblc u'liFii vd I Id ion linil b«i>n iie(<niii|)lii>)ii;il liy tl«<fit. But they 
InrfiFly tr^'^il in pmetlcp to aiiliorilinntr nil (jiipition* of ■riuol mornlity 
to a monry qufntioii. The reimrad'oii lu Ihv uutiihii. also. Ur^ly brain* 
MM-piuairy IxmiiHc the nci'lti^lnAtlpal miiroptjnn of lint cniii«l lirr vnhie 
to Iw dpprw'iutcil bv r^ontai^l with Imt, nnd llic rcpnmlion miKlil Iw MtdJ 
to winilitiilc a jiBit of |H>iiiiiin?. Aqiilnfli' lipid tlint hi«t. In howBwr 
•liglit a drinw. i" ■ mortal ain, and moit of tli? more inllu'!ntial 
thpoloiflana look a livir nrarly or quite n* rij[id. Some, liowcv^r. Leid 
tlint u cvrdiin ilr^rcc ut ili^lrvtation i« jicwiibli* in tliniF mattrrs iritliOQt 
tnnrtnl 'in, or a>»crt''d. for InMnnre, tlint to fifl the toiiHi of u toft 
and warm hand is nul niortnl sin no long at no iwxual fcclJiiK In Ihpr4>by 
arniispd. Other*, liowever. held Hint *iir!i dintliietinnu Mr- impoMJble, 
and tlint all plpuiures of thin kind am ninful. Tonian Sanchex m- 
deai/irrd at iiiui-h leii^li lo •?stHlilt<h rulM for the poinplivnlvil prohlrnut 
of delrclation that thiia nroie. btil he tnu mtotrBlnoi to ndmll tlmt ao 
nile«tir« rcnily iHiiwihle, and tlint xich irmttera mtiKl tie left (n the Judg- 
ment of B prudmt man. At thnt point ounilntfy diuuWrii and the 
nioil>rn |ialnt of view •meriRii l*ve, c.9,. I.4S. llUlary of AuiirtiUir Con- 
^n«i'oH, vol. ii, pp. 5T. 115, 3411. ete.). 

Even to-day the influence of the old traditions of thy Church 
still unconi^cioufily survives nnion^ »b- Tlint is inevitable as 
regards religions tearhcrs, hut it iii found also in men of #cicnce,j 
even in Proteetont eountrite. The twuH ib thul quit« contra-] 
dictory doginnii are found side hy side, even in tlie same writer. 
On the one hand, the nianifesfationa of the sexual impuliie are 
eDiphatically condemned a^ hoth unneccs^uri' and evil; on the 
other hand, marriuge, which in fnndamrntaUy (whatever else it 
may also he) n manifeslalion of the sexual impulse. recciv« 
cquallr emphatic approval ae the only proper and moral fonii of 




living.' Tliere can be no reasonable doubt whatever that it is to 
the jnirvjviug and piTvadJng influence of the ancient traditional 
theological conception of libido tiint \v<t inuHt largely attributi- 
the sliarp difference of opinionE amonp physicians on the qiiejitiou 
of Kxual ab^inencu and the otliiTwiHc unueecsEarv acrimony with 
vfaieh these opinions have jiomelimcs been s'latixl. 

On ihe one side, we find the emphatic statement that sexual 
intercourse is ncccMnary and that health cannot be maintained 
unless the aexiial activitif^ are rcftularly i-xercined. 

'"All parts of the body which are devt-loped for a definite use 
are kept io hcallli, and in the enjoyment of fair growth and of 
Jong youth, by tJie fulfilment of that iisi^, and by their appropriate 
cxerciw in the eniploynn-nt to which they aro accustonied." In 
that »lateni«nt, which oocurii in the great Ilippocratic trcatiae 
"On the Joints," we hare the classic expreswion of the doctrine 
whicli iu ever varying forniii has been taught by all those who 
have protested n;;ainst sexual ahstinence. \Vh<'n we come down 
to tlie sixteenth century outbreak of Protestantism we find that 
Lutl)er's revolt against Catholicirim vim in part n protest against 
the teaching of sexual abstinence. "He to whom the gift of con- 
lioence is not fiivcn," he said in his Table Tall; ''will not beconut 
chute by fasting and vigils. For my own part I was not 
esceseively tormented Tthoiigh elsewhere he speaks of the great 
fir« of lust by wbii-li lie had been troubled], hut all the sjime the 
more I maceratei! myself the more 1 burnt," And three hundred 
jenrs later. Hebel. the would-be nineteenth cciitnry T-utlicr of « 
dilTorent Prntcxlantism, took the saiui- attitude Inwards sexual 
abstinence, while Hinton the physician and philosopher. living in 
a land of ri<rid sesua! conTentionalism aud prudery, and moved 
bj keen srmpatby for tlic sutTcrings he »aw around him, would 
break into passionate sarcasm when confronted by the dortnne of 
sexual abstinence. "There are innumerable iIIk— terrible dc*true- 
tiann, madnt-NK even, the ruin of lives — for which the embrace 
of man and woman would he a remedv. Xo one thinks of 

iTIiis tnipllHt enntrailietlon tins been Bnili>ly potated out Irtan tlip 
religMWs aide oy the Rev. H. Nartheote, VhHtitianily and Sea PrcbUtat, 
p. St. 





<Iuc»tJoning it. Terrible evils und n rwiicdy in a delight and joyi 
And iiiiiD hn« vhnwn no tu muddle liii* iifv tliot he niu»t eay: 
"Tliere, that wouh) tic a remedy, hut I cunnot use it. / must 
6rt virluotu!" 

If w# <«iilin« our««lves 1o modem timn nnd to fairljr prralm in»d> 
»tal«mentii, we And In Snhurifff fipomtafotojrfa (ITSOi pp. 2T4 et 
''•Of.), not only a diwumion of tlie BdniRtafrM of modrrnto mxua] Intar- 
I'liumt in n numlivr of di->or<lm. u« ivilncidcj b/ famtius ■utliarili«, 
l)ut niso a lUt of r^aulOi — inrltidlnz )tn<>Ti>xin, In*i>tiily. impotence, 
cpil<!|iiiy. MTn death — wliieh were twliirnl to hate tiM--n due to vxiiiil 
nbntiiipnci!, Thin vxtroirii- vk-w of tho p<iMib1p vvils af s^xiiul nti>lhii; 
M>nmj4 to lun"*) bwn part of thn Rqnatiwinra tiuditlons of ronJivine itiir- 
mrd by u wrtuin oppoHilioii bi^tuo-b religion and wiviit'i*. It nut etill 
ilK^roilKly statwl by IJillfninml enrly In ths nln'-tpontli crnllirj-. Sllbu!- 
quMitly. the ni*rdicnl »tat--rrii.-ntH of thit rri] n-txilt^ of nriciinl nbftJnriiM' 
bixwtno more t*m|it.TB('' aiiil mi-Bniiriid, llioittch «llH ofti.-ii pnxioiinciHL 
Thun Oyiirkovpchky brlii-vi'* Ihnt thuv iwniH» nioy bi- n% tvriov* at thrnu- 
of r»«xu«l cxeeM. Krafrt-Rblii); nhowed tlikt Bcxuni nbstincnoi? could pro- 
dnco * utatn i>f KPneral nrrvotw v.tejtcmrnt Ijahrburtt fur Ptj/ehialrlt, 
Bd. riti. Hi>ft I nnd 3). Hrlirvncb-NotJEiii); regurda wxiwl abatiinmce »■ 
K MUM of rttrenie leiual hypi>r«iithe«ia ani of varloiu pervenioiiN (in 
B chapter on u-xiial ab«liin.'nci« in his Kriminalpiifrfhola/tiiiphr unrf 
Ptyehopalhotogiiie-hr Studim. ini)2. pp. 1T4-lTf)). He ri't'onls in 'illii*- 
(ralion thv ra><<> of n niun of lliirly-alx who had nisMiirb]tti'>l In inodcnt- 
tion Bn n hoy. hnl nhnndonrd the practip* entirely, on moral i^round*. 
twenty ycurs iigo. mid h.i* iipvit lind M'KunI intcri'oijr'>c. fifllnK proud 
to c-nttir niiirrlagr u clin»(p mnn, but now for yconi hai miffiTiMl (freatly 
from «lrnn» s^xuul hypcr#>i(hc*iH nnd conri>iilratlan of tlionfilit on 
■PXiial inhjeclii. notnitliatandhift m «tTonK will nnd the reaolrp :iot to 
mafltiiibnte or indulge in illicit tn(«Tenurki>. In nnoth<-r caw a vlgoroua 
and hMlthr man. not invert4^, and with iilran^ Mrxtial deairea, who 
remaiiiMl nhsliiwnt up lo innrrinec, (^iifTfr^ ftoiii piyi'hlc Impotvniw, and 
bin wifo rrmain* a virgin notwitUntnndini; nil licr utfccllon und carewiea. 
Ord conwiJereil Hint «cxiial Bli'liiKiirc iiiijtiil iinwliic' mnny minor cvilx. 
-JJo»t of IK." he wrolo iB'ilinli .Vfdiral Journal. Au((. 2. I8MI "hare, 
no doubt, been consulted by ineu. cha>lv In iicl, who an- tonnentn] by 
sexual exciu-nictil. Thoy tell one alorie* of lonji-eonliniK-d IochI «xFiie- 
nwnt, follownl \iy inten-M> muitrulnr we«(ii)i>*fi. or by «t'vrrc ni'hlnK pain 
in the ha<k nnd leg*. In Mime 1 fuive bnd eomplainti> of Hwelliiig nnd 
atilTnoM In thu le|^ and uf piiiii* in the JointA. partlrulnrly in thn 
knet*;" he n'^ea the canf of a ninn whn milTcred afler prolonged ehnHtitjr 
from inflnmniatory condiliona of knee« nnd wM only cured by mnrriagn. 



pMm Oould, it maj be uldod, findit tlint "exwstivi^ ungratiQcnl sexual 
duin" in unc ol the ciiu»e>« o( aoutv orchitis. Kniioiidioa |"Soinn 
OWrTBtli>n> on Continrnoe as t. Factor in ticalth and IMiwaHr," Pveifie 
tIeMeaX Journal. Jan., 1000) records Ilicr caw ol a gciitlt'innn of n«Arlf 
WTenly who. duriii); liio ]iruliii])t<»i itiiirw of liis wife, aulfcml Ijom lir- 
^ueDt and ^xtrenu prinpiMii, pausing iittomnln. He wiu t-«ry wHain 
that hi* ttoubl<» were not due to liji euntiDenoc. but nil trentnirnt fnilril 
and tliMe wrre no HpoiilaneoiLn einis^iuiis. At liul Rviuondinu aitvincd 
him to, s« h« pxprewiM |i, "iniitatr Solomon." }l» did no, and nil 111" 
■ymptDini at ddcr diKappoRrrd. T1ii» case la of tpcclal IntiTnit, brenuie 
th* RjmiptoniH wviy not art«iii]Miiiicd by nny couHcioiis wiuiil dexlri'. It 
U no Ii>ii}(er generally briicvisl tliiit wtiiiil nlmtinDncc tondii to produce 
iiMHiiity, aiid the OMuitiionuI easeE in irliieli prulunged and inlviuw u-xuul 
dtflra In >oiinK womnn l« fnI)ow«d by Jniwiiity will u«UHlly be Cuuud to 
wmr on » baHiH of herpditary defiencmtion. It in hold tiy tnanf 
anthorllUui, howpver, thnt minor menial trouble*, of n more or I*hs vnguu 
chanicliT. as well in nenrBsthmia and hyutfrin, are by no mmn* Infre- 
>]iien(ly due to wxtial HbntiiK-uFe, Tlius Freud. wlio hns carefully atuditil 
anipitncurociii. the obneMion of nnilety. Ilndit tliai It i" n r>>Mii1t of »exual 
abitinmcc. and may iiidivd lie cun^ideied ni a viearioun form of mch 
■biilln»n<^ i Fri'iid, S«nim!ii»p Klfinirr Hchrlflrn nir Xcurottnlrhrr, 
1900, pp. 7<l tit aeq.). 

The nhole subjert of wvunl abittinenre bus been <li«euHsml at 
Iragth 1^' Nj-ntrSm, of Rtockholm, in Das Ornpklrfkliilehrn unit ttinn 
OtMix, Ch. 111. Ill' mni'liid'i* thnt it Ih dftiruMi- tliHi conlini'iiee 
•himld b« preaerved an lonft iii powiblr in order to «trenglhen Ihe phy«- 
l«al health and to di'velop Uic iiilPUiin'm* and cluidu-ter. Tli» doi'trinu 
of pamianrnt >i>xiin1 almlinence, howenT. ho regards ns entirely (alar. 
cxMTiit in th« cane of a ■mall number of religious or pliilonopliic persons. 
"Compl*t« nb«tiiiriire diitiiiK a long priod of years rannot be lioriia 
without prodiieiiiit nerioiia reiulti both on the body and the mind. 
. ^ , . t>r(«iii1y, a younic man hIiouUI rpprvoit hin Mxiial Impulae* 
■a lonit a> poaalhlc and avoid everythinjr that tnajr artlHcially net aa a 
■nual (timulflTit. If. however, be hai done ■□. and slitl sulTcrs froai 
iiniali«l<ed nomiiil "i'\iiiil de«irev and if h* wss no [lOPtiiiljilily of mar- 
rlatc* williin a reatonalde time, no one •howld djire to »ay thnt he is 
committiTig u ain if. n-ith mutual under«lHudin(^. he pnlen into sexual 
Telations with a woman friend, tlr foim» (em|iornry sexnal rclnl.ionnhipny 
provideil, tliat 1«, that he taken the lioiii)riilile preiaution of lH-getliMj[ no 
ebildren. unlea* hi» piirtncr i-i fntirely uilliriK to Iweome * motbiT. and 
ba la prepared to neeqit all the renponiiliilitlea of fatherlwod." In an 
artielv of later date ("Die Kinwirkitn^ der Sexn«ll«n Abittineni: auf dW 
Omindhnlt," ttnual-l'raJilitni; .Tiily, lilOSl Xyntifini vigorouHly mm* up 
his vitw*. Uc inclodei among the results of ttexual ab«tinen'x' orchitis, 

Digs.TM C// 





frix|iii-ni Invotiintary v-minRl Piiiiuloni. impolEnee, nptimilhrnln, dtprMH 
nioH. anil H KTcnt vnripty o( ncrvoni' di*lurb«iiciri of taKurr churauter, 
iiivolvini; diiuinisbwl [kwi-t i>t nr>rk. liiiiitoi] riijn.vnii>nl nf li'', *!iwpl«ifc- 
BHui, nervniiMnoii. nncl pri'o™upntioii nilli Krxiinl d«irc» onJ imagina- 
tioiu. More i-4|H-('ially Ilii.>ri- in ln^iglili-iiml (k^uhI irriUblUty niili «Tfc- 
tiona, or nvpii spininnl rinluion* nn tlii- ulitflitnt uccanioin, us nn gBxiiig 
nt an attnii^tivi! wotiiun or in (ucm intfrcoiinp with tier, or in Itx* ytttt- 
I'lm of wtiTk* n( nrt rciirrtrtii itijt tinknl fl]iiiri-<t. Nyitriim lin» lioil tho 
upporlHitity of uivrnti piling mid I't'cordliiK iiinply cuwn of person* wlio 
liar« prfwiilfil ()>•■<•(> nnil >iinitHr I'ymplnin* at Ili<< TPMitt, In* ln-tifvc*, of 
■cxust nlmlincnpc. 1\p lin* |mbliali«) iiaiiir' of thrn' cnwi tZeilieSrifl 
fur BtirimlteiiiiK'iurhaft. iu-t., l!inN». biil it lony hf aOiM tlint Rohlwlpr 
("Die Aliallncnlia Sf.iuniW fb,, Xov^ Iilft«) lin« critariii-il tlii'»i; cdm-*, 
unci doubts wl|Ftlicr nny i>t IhiMn urv ■.'oncltuivc. Itolilitlcr I>vIlc'i*p> tlint 
llie bH>I rpitiltit of iM-niiiil nhttiiiifare nri- nmrr ponnani-ut, auii u1>«> lljut 
no anatomirally patlioloj^ml itnlM |auch n* oroliitjol eon bn thereby 
producpil. Hut li» Mnii-iiler*. ni-vi>r1li*li-'A, MiHt even iTicDmplett- and 
tcmpomry m-iiioI iilintinmee tnny prmhice (airly •Piioiio r«iitlii. and 
enpvcially tieiirniifli elite di>liirliuiieei n( iHrii>us kiod». hiicIi nn ncrvoui 
itritabilily. nnxirly. dejui'uinii, dl>liii-1inatioii for work; alui diurnal 
eniimiuii!!. pr^uiatiiie ejneuliilioiui. nnd ei'eu b utale uppioui-liing mly- 
Tlft«i«', iind In tvonieii by^tttrriit. liy>lero-epilep«y, uiid uynip)ioiTi»niM«l 
manifntntioni; all thran ■yniptnin* mnr. howevpr, be bplievca, be cured 
when the abntinenee cruxe*. 

Many ailvcwntefc ol si'viinl ab>>liii'<nr«> linve nllucheit Iniportnnce to 
the faet llint iiipti nf RTeNt gi-nlui hare oppurmtly been eompletvly con- 
linen! thi'<''iii[lioiit lilr. Thi» in eerlniiily ttne (sw ii.i(r. p. 17S). But 
thU fnet Pan »o»rcply he invoked nn an iirjtumenl In faior of Uie advun- 
ta|[i>a of xeviial aljHtinenee uiuuii^ the iirdinnry jxipiilation. J. F. Scott 
■electa Jeniiii. \ewlon, Hwllioven. and Kant a« "men of Tijpir and mental 
Kriiinen nlm iiutt! lived rhnitrly ni buelielors." It cnnnot. however, be 
ntid Uial Dr. Srolt hnn been happy in the fonr fl)[iire« whom h* hus been 
■ble to »eleot iKiin the vliule luHtori- of human gvniui — rxamplea of 
lifr-Iong aenunl Rb<>ltnpnc<>. W» knoiv litll' with abwilute <rrtaliitj of 
Jeaus, and rvrn it we reject tlie diagnotia whieh Prafemar Binel-Sanf[l^ 
(in hia Fali* ttr Jetvi) hn* bull) up from > minute *tudy of the GoipeU, 
there are many reuaunH nhy n* ahould refrain from emphanUing tb» 
maiuple of hii wxiial nliMinener; Npwion, apart from hia >lupenilou« 
lieniiiA in a "pwial Held, wni an ineompletr and nnwitlifartAry haman 
beini; who ultimately rvneheil a condilion vriy like inaanity; Beelliiwrai 
wa» a I )i»i'>iU|tlity morbid nnd diwaiieii man, who kd an InlMiarly ua- 
happy exiat(«ce: Kanl. from fir»l to la^l. wan n fn-ble raletudlnarian. 
It woidd probably be diflleutt to Und a hcMlthr normnl inau who uyiuld 
vttluntarily accept the life led by any of Iheac fo«r, e»-«m oa the price 

Or:j- Lr--^Oi 




of tb<ir time. J. A. Godfrty (SrieiMt of ll«», pp. ISOUT) ditntatm 
Ht Ipiigih tlit^ qiuvtioti ulietbMT mixuaI abaUoence U (iit-oiabk to ordinarr 
InUlln-tunl vigur. (Icolilln^ that it la not, and tlint tiv caiiiint argue 
from tli« nmi»lonal opxiuiI nh*tiiion<w of mm oi gcniiii, who iirr oflni 
■bnonnall.v coiixIilutiMl. nnii iiliyi-lottr Ix-lnw tW ntfriijCV. to Die nor- 
mnll^ ikvcltfKil nijin. SpkuuI iilMtinmi'i'. it inov \x uilikil. ia liv no 
mmnx hIurvh a [uvurnlile •■'ygu, cvm in iiicn wliu nliiiiii iiitvllvirtiiiilly 
above l\w ni-erage. "[ liai<- n»l nUniui-il tlii> lni|ii'pjtaioii." r(>iuark« 
Pr*u<l iKrxual-l'iviblrinf, Mnreh, ll'Ofii. "lliRt viuat abitinpncc^ U help- 
ful to riiprgrtiv mid inikpnidtnl ni(-n uf uclion or nriginal tliiukpra, to 
«ouraf«<niiH lilicmtor* or nforniei". Tliv ni-Kunl cnndiii-t of a man la 
oflPU nymlnlic uf liU whntp luplhod of rnietion tn thr world. Tlie man 
who i.-npr(ptirnlly ptttjui llic ulijii't of Inn m-xuhI dcAirv mn,v he trusted 
to idiov a ttmiUilj' mlmtln^ c-DTny hi tli< piiTmiit of otlin- ninu.'* 

Many, tliough not «11, who deny thnt prolongotl eexnal 
aljstincnce i« hnrmle**, incUi(li' wruiien in tliin statpniont. There 
are some authorities iaAeed who believe that, wliether or not any 
conscious *cxua\ i\i*he U jiroM-iit, vcxiuil uWtiiiuiicv is lews eai>ily 
tolerated liV women thnn by men.' 

Cahani?. hi hit fainoiis ami |iium-criti(; work. Rapport* du Pkynitiai! 
Ct ttit iloral, *aid in IWi, tlint vcinifii iint oti1>' bi-«T hpxuhI ovrcnH nioru 
twllj' than men, but irxunl pHvaiion* with more dilAculty, and a env- 
t]atiB and «:t|>i^Ti<-iii:ed obf>erver of to*da,v, Lilwviili^ld {8rj:tiallebrn iiad 
yrrrftihidi^a, IHtlll. p. 53i. nhile nnt ci>ngidi^i-lnf[ that normal nnmcn bciir 
•exunl Dlwtinenrf I**"* i-UBily thiiii mi'ii. adds Ihul Ihii H nut the cuw 
uitJi u'limrii of iicTiinpiitlilc iIisiio«.itiaii, who HitlTi'r miuli mtim lr<.im tlii* 
cauv. mid dtlicr mii'iUirbulv nlicn dvxiiiiI iDCcnxiiiric i>> imtWHuibtv or 
fall iiitci liyHt^TO'iiviiiiKtliiriiir ^mtci. Duach utAlPil (llaA Urm-hlrvhtn- 
hbtn dr* M'eibft, B3<l. toI. j. \>y. Qtl. 71) llml not only i* the unrkinit 
of the Aoxnal fiint'tlono in tlir oignniHin Htiongir in woiiivu tliiiu iu mi-n. 
but Uiat tlir bad r«>ult« of ncxuat abittnrncT arr taart mnrkfd in women. 
Sir Btnjuniin Brodie suid long atso tliiil the iiiln of cunlinein-''' to women 
are perhni;" irrmter than tlio«c ot Incntitlniincp, iind lo-dny Ifaiiimcr (/>ir 

Gr*vnd\filti'-hm 0'(altirn ilfr ilftrhlfr-hlticKi:! Knlliatlaanikril. ll(04) 
itfltfN thai, w fur »4 rruwnii nf health nrr (imnTncd. iwviiiil iibHlintiici* 
ia no more lo b» r»romn>">ndfd lo woniin Itiiiii lo ni''n. Ny"tr'ira i* o( 
the *am« opinion, thont^i he tliink^ tlinl woinr-n boor nrxiiul abatineneo 
licltrr thviii mm, nod hn» disrtisspd Ibid spivinl iiiiijfltion iit lenftth in n 
uxlinn of hi* Gr»ehlrchliilfbfn and stu'iic Gticlze. Uf ajtrwn with tho 

' It lin« alrmdy bom neenssarv to ilioniw thin point briefly in "The 
ScxtuI iMftilie in Women," vol. Hi ot tlwoy SfirJiV*. 




[<\pi'i IPiKvd Krb that n \aige niiiiibtT of cumpl«U'l}* chUiU women of U|k 
t'liumi'tt-r. uud [ioMi>i.-iiKlnK •liklintitiiahol qlialllirii of iriiml niid !ii>art, Ut 
iiiDTR or IcH tlisonk'Tril Ihrougb tlioir «i;xuiil absthiencri (liii in iippclanf 
uftt^n the MHi! u'ttli nomvn mnrrltn] to liupotrnl niirn, tliniigli It U (r«- 
qiipntl<r not until lixny iippronch tlie n^ ot thirty, Nj-HlrUin rvmarlu, that 
women di-'Aniti-ly naliu tliHr i><>iiiifll nprsU. 

A f;rr>iit many women trlio nre hraltli}:. (^bnalr. and modot, feol at 
timu nucli powcrrul npxiiul dvi^irp (tint they mn acnrri'ty nnitt the 
temptnlinn to k" '"(" t)>i> <^lrp(-t and ■oikit tlic flrit mnn thiM' mmt. 
Ni)t u few Mich wniiim. ofti-n of P'khI hixedind do aotually ufTiT Ihciu- 
t«lvi>4 to men nrlth whom thc-y nmr linvn ptrhnpi only the aliKhtmt 
aixliiajntaiicp. Ruiilh ivcurdii tiich cusfn [Briliili (lynir'nloffhat Jour- 
ual, Krh., l>tH7l. niid niONt nivn have niH wlUi Iheni iiL »ome tlnir. Whru 
n u*amnn of hijih moral ehainctcr nnd vtrong paiutonK i* irubJMlcd for 
a wry 1on)|> |H>riii(l lo thi- periM-tiial strain of «iii-h M-xiin1 rravluic, Mpe- i 
clnlly If romliliici) utlh love for a drXnlte Individuul, a chnln of pvilj 
TtniiltK, phyw<ut iind muml, may be si^l np. and numerous distlngulahedd 
phyMciniM have rflxirdrd oiit^h pdiiw. which tcniiinnt«iij nt oncv In com- J 
plete rernvety iia *i»ii as the [uin>loii whi j'riiljfled. Liiuvergne lonfl 
Iwf dweriWd ■ en»e, A fairly typWl cnse at IhU kind wn» rq»rte4 
in detail hy Hraehet (Or riJiipocliondrir, p. flO) and embodied by Gti*- 
•Infier In hi* clnulc work on "Mriitul Piitholngy." It roncerncd A 
henlthy mnrried Indy, tu-«nty->ix yejiri old, having IIitm rhildrim. A 
riaitiiifi! Bcquninlance completely giiined her afTeetions, but Bbe iitrenu- 
>U«Iy rmii.ti'd Ihn w-diiHn|^ inlhiener, ntid coiiertiled the violent pAMton' 
that he bad arouned In her. Various serioiiJt oymplomi. phynieal nnd 
mrntal, ^Inwly l>egiin to ap|)eiir. uiid i^He developed whut weined to be 
Mgiu of eoniumplion. Pis month*' jIht in the •niiih of France pro- 
duced no iinproveiTieiit. either in the liodily nr [iiciiIjiI nynijitoniH. On ' 
rettimini; home i>he hecnnif slill worse. Then »he affnin met the object 
of her punxion. sncvumbed. .ibHnduned her huuhnnd and children, nnd 
fled njth him. Six monthH later shn ntis »carer1r recoipiiMble; beauty, 
frMhn«H4 ami plumpneHs had taken th« pluce uf emnriation; while the 
•ymptomn of eonnimptlon nnd nil other trouble!! hnd entirely dlnnp- 
|iMred. A somewhat tiinitar cuie ii recorded by Cauiill Lederer, of 
Vlennn ( VnnofMoAri/r fiir HarnltmathfilCH ami Kr^uellf Rygitne, 
1000, Heft 31. A widow, n few raonthii after her liunhnnd'n death, hegna 
to rongh, nilh "vmptoni* of hionHilnl catarrh, but no dpdnit* >.lirn» of 
lung dinennr. Trenttnmt and chnnne of Htmntc proved entirely unavail- 
ing to elTn^t a cure. Two yearn later, oa no sl|ni* of di*eniM> had 
appeared in tlie Innpi, tboufth the aymptoms contlnueil, she married] 
ajinln. Within n very few ireehi nil symptomii had disnppenreil, and 
iihe wni entirely freah nnd well. 

Nitmerous dlatinguixhed g>ni»i>logUt« hove recorded their bellrf 

l);g-7fm>y LjOtWlC 



that noiiifll cidti'nidnl it n nmody for vnrimm diiurilprii o( tke >F:iual 
■j'atMn in moiiicn. and tkiil kbttinnioc ib n raiisi- of >u<'li diM>ril«rt>. 
Mntthswi Dunntn mill tlint oc-xiinl 'xrltinrn^nt in the nnlr Trmnly tor 
nuiunorrliutt 1 "tite only emiiH-nAguguir mulicinv tliat 1 kuow of," 1)9 
vntv [Htdiral Time*. Vrh, S, IH(44), "i> not tn Iw found in tlir I*hni^ 
mnrapiPiH : it in CToliu vxcittnient. Of tlie vnlui? of erotic txoitomL-nt 
there is no doulil." ,\ii»tlt'. In lils work on .Vi'ur<i/jft'ii, re(*r« to tliu 
boiirfloial efftet o( Manual inUrmiurK on d,viiintw>rrha«, cunarking lliut 
Die nercHHSty of lli« ftilt niiUiriil i-xi-rcioL' of tin- m-xtist function ii tliown 
Iir the grrnt iinpmvcnit-nt li> nicli ea*e* >flRr nmrrlniiP, nnil i-sjirciatljr 
uft*r cliildliirtli. (It riiiiy Ixr rvmaiki'd Uiiit nut ull nulliorilie* (Iml 
<ly»nicnnrrliirn bpntrllti'd by mnrrlnsn, nnd Home mnaidRr that the disc^iLBe 
l« oftMi lliprtfby aggravated; hpu, e.y., Wjttie Cook, Atiitrioan Journal 
ObttHriM. TJor,, l!W>3.) Tlio di»tin)pii-l'ml RyniKPolojEl**. Till, nt ii nomi- 
wliiil MTlier date [On Vlrrint <ind Oiiarian In/tanimaliOH, IMi. p. 309|, 
iiiiixt'nl on tlie evil tmiiU* of spxunl iiIihI in^m-p in producing ovarian 
iniiution. and pcrhapn nuljiirrnte ovatiti*. remarking thnt thin wiu apc- 
eiaily [ironfiiinri-il in young widown, and In pro"titnli>» plneed In (wnilcn- 

tlHriM. IntciiKp dcflire, he point«l out, detcrminp* orjtnnle mmrnientu 
TMeinblin^ lliosv nM|iii><.-il for tliu gm ( i lieu t ion of the dt-sirc. The«» 
burning denircn, which <nn only bi- qnencbrd by their leptlmntn latia- 
(Action, are «lill fiirllicr tieijuililcni-d by the ciolie inthinnop of Ihougbts, 
book*, pictliica, mn»ic, which nrc often crm morn Driualiy utimulnt- 
tng IliHn Krc'ii[ iutercourt^ wilh men. tnil tbc excitement tbiis prtidnced 
i« not rp|ln'(<d by thnt nntiirnl eollnpie which ihonM follow a itato of 
Yitul turgeu'ence, .^fter referring to tlie blolng^cul faetn whidi »bow 
the elTeet o( psyehie inllnenfc* on the (ormntive poivern of th« ovarjo- 
uterino organ* In nnimnln. Tilt conlinuen: "I mny fairly infer thnt 
•iniilar incitements on the uiind of (emnles may hnve n BtlmnlBllnK effect 
on 11i« or|[nni of OTiilallon. I bnve frri|ne.ntly known men at mat ion to 
be iiregvilnT, profune. or abnoruinl iu tyjw during courlHliip in women In 
whom nothing slmilnr hnd previoiuly occurred, nnd thnt thin protracted 
tbc tieaiment of chronic oniriti* nnd of uterine intliimmation." Itonni- 
fleid, of nncinnnti (Mrdicnl Fiandnrtt. Dec, IHOfii. oon-id'-rs thnt nnsnt- 
itHed lexiial dc«ite i< nn importnnt entue of entnirhnl cndometriti*. It 
Im well known that nlcriue llhroid'' Iwnr a Ueliiiile rclatimi to organic 
■etunl fteti>fity. und thnt »exiinl nlmtincnce, more eupcclnlly the long- 
ronlinnei] depiivnijon of pregnancy, is a very importnnt caute of the 
diwnie. Tliia U well ■ho»ii liy nn nnnlytU by A. B, Ciilea [/Hin««(, 
Mnreh 2, 11107)' of one hnndted and fifty mw*. A« many an fifly-nix of 
these rafiefl, more Ihnii n tliird. were nnniarried women, though nearly 
all werL' over thirty renin of nsc Of the nlnely-foiir married women, 
thirty-four hnd never been prepinni: of thoie who hnd been pregnant, 
tIli^ty-^iI had not been no for at leant Icn yearn. Tliui eiglily-four pfT 





percHOLoov op bbx. 

GOit. had sltiitt not t>0'i-n prvgnnni nt all, or liad had no [irpgniiiicy for 
Bl Iciwt ten ,vmis. Il is, thricfunr, rridiMit thnt deprivation of wKiuil 
fuhclioti, vrlicthvr or uut iiii'olvin^ alwtiiiiriire from iivxubI interrourw, ia 
an ImporUnt cnuac of utcrin* Hbroid tunian. Balla-IImillifjr, of Vic- 
loTJa <£r0luli*on of llif DUfotrt of iVomin. IS1)4. and "Kttologjr of Din- 
vaBvo of Foinuli- Cimibil Uri^an*." AlltiuU niid llayfair. Syalem of 
Oyiiroolojrj/), bclini-ji tlinl nnuiiallRd wxiiul linitp t> a factor la vory 
nianjr dUordtn-a of the hkiwI «rguii in nomi-ii. "My vicwa," Iw vritc*| 
Id a )ir!va(o Ivttor, "arf toiind<^ on a nuilly «]>vcial gynMOlogtatl prao-l 
ticp of twenty j-eurn, durinn whi.-ii I liave mjn-lf taknii alioiit a»vnl>T 
tliouBund imiiit carvftil ii.-i'ur(l>>. Tin- tinririal woiaan Is (cxunlly welU'j 
formcid and lief iwxaal fi-plin|p> m|iili(> nail* fact ion Iti tli« dir«ctiut) o(j 
lUc productiun of tlu? next grnrratioit. but under the reotrictiva and iiowl 
papprially alinormal conililion* of clviltmtlon Mime vomm uiiilergo^ 
licraditury alrupby. and ihi! uterm nud sexual frrlings are frcblr; In 
Olluirn <if ([CHid nv>>rMK>' )»i-al dnrlopnipnt Ihr filing i« in ii'Mrainl; in 
Dihcni tlic frclinK*. nn urit ai tlic or^iit. are atrong, and it normal una 
lie witlihold evil'- I'lixui'. lii-aTlng In iiiinil t)i«ac varidlm of oongenittil 
davalopmrnt in rrlalion to the renpiretive coDdilion of virginity, or atarltoj 
or paTDui married lif'. Um moile ut ocrurr^nro and of profT^at of dlieaae ' 
Hrrovta on the pliynieian'a minil. and tlierc in no nior# occAiion for bewil- 
derment than to tbe metliematioian Mudying conic spctionit. wiiifn bi« 
knuwlcdjp- haa gtvnn from ilic bn'ia of tli« 4rienc«. Ilie prolitcin ii 
■iigl[i>hlit<l : IIdk a rrowd «f unaa>acial«d ilineaitta fallen a* lbrout[U a 
aiere on woman, or baii> llicaa alTMtion* almnat iicccKMiiily eniiied from 
tlia circiinii'tnm'M of Iter unnatural environnipnt !" It may b* addfd 
that Kiich iiicsiial f.i/r of ll'uniEiH). while prutnting agiiinat any cxag- 
gctaicd aalimat^i ot tlir nlTrel« of uliniincncic. r(iii>idcm that in 
womm It niay re«u1(. not unly in numi'ioui looal diaoidern, liut al*n In 
narvoni dinlurbance. h>-xt«rla, and rvvu InisinHy. while In ticuratitlienic 
noinf^ "ri'irulatrd vmial intn^!ourw hdi an acliwly bcnnHcial nlTcct 
nhicli i» oft™ rtriliinn-" 

It is iinporlaiil to remark llial Ih* mil rwults of acTual atutlnrncR 
ia wanicn. In the oplninii ni many of lllo«^ who insist upon their impor- 
tunn.'. are Iri' an niean* merely due tn anwitlhlW wxital itMire. Ttiay 
may bi> prnuouiu'nl even wlien the wmiuin herwif )iai nut the allgtitcnt 
nin*rioii»neu of wxiial need*. This wit« clearly (Minted out forty y*nra 
ago by the saj^ioiia Aastic lop. cjlt. In woman, ra|m:ln1Iy, he le- 
marka, "a certain rc»tlra> hyperactivity of mind, and pcrhapa of body 
alMi. !U-etii4 lo be tlitr rxprtanian of Nature'* unconncloii* Tcaentiacnt (>f 
the nrglnl n( Afriiil /unrluin*." Such Homen. he nddt, hare kept tlicin- 
selvei friv from mail iitbnt Ion "al the «np«nae of a la-rpctiial and almoat 
ftfrcv actiiily «t ininri and muKcle." Auntie had fonnd that aome t>l the 
waTNt mwa of lh« form of ntrvo^ity and neuraathenta whidi ho tvnnod 

Dig-vfTiby Ljl.iti'jIC 



'S|)iDul irrilatinii," uFlpii ao'Oiii| b; iiritalili.- vIomArli iiTid aiuPuiiM, 
gi.>t wpII on niari!n)p>. "TlirrT run be nn ((iiviilian." lii* mnthiilcH, "ttml 
K very Urge proporlton of (lient vaws in K!ti(,'1i- woiDi^n (whi} form by 
(ar Ui« greiitvr iiuiiiImt of ii)t>JM'l« i>( npiiiikl irrilaUon} ari> iliie to thi* 
ranu^ioiiR or iinroiiwiou* iiriliiticm krpt up by sn iin«at Uliri) mcxual 
wiuit. It it i^iUtiu tliut vcn* miiiiy ymiti); \innnni (unirivii iiii>ri! 
e#porliill,v ) niv tnrinvntvil liy ()>■' irrhuliillly n( tlic hpxiihI Dr);anii with- 
out luiving till? IvHnt cunwioiinncKn of wxunl dt'iirc. iitid |>rPKi-iil tli« sad 
apiH-tncIn of n (1> rnanijif^c nltliaiit cvi'r knowinu llip Idii" miircp of Mi» 
Riisrry which tnonpncitates tWiii fur ull lliv Hilivc diitit.-* of lifr. It i* 
• sliifiiilar fact that In occa»ionfl1 InaUinom oni> niAy i-znn wc two aia- 
tn*. inhiTitinj; the «anip kind of nrrrouit or]{anieattun. Imih lormmtwl 
with the «yu>|)lumH of ■|>iiiiil irritation and botii piubably Mitri^riii); from 
reprpanrd wxiinl fiinctionB, hut of whom one ihdll lie piiirniindnl and 
entirely uncon^ciuun of Ihp teal wtiivi- uf 1i«r fruidiics. while the uthrr 
la a vti'tim to eonnoioua and fniillpis »rxiiul Irritation." In this matter 
Anitie may be rcgnrdefl nn n h>rrrttriner of Freud. «*liu hai dcvpIo|H-d 
Willi jirrfHt ktilith'ty and analytic poivcr the li.wdine of tlii' tmnsfomlk- 
■ion flC rcpremed iH-xiia1 inNlincl in u'lini-n into murhid furtna. Hr con- 
aidvn* that the nvrrnalty ol today in Inrgnly diii- to tliii injunoiiii acflnn 
on tliD acxual life of that rcpreiulon uf tiutntnl iiiitinet* on which our 
(rivilixatioo it biillt np. (PprluipH titr (-tcnTei.t brit-t ttatrmpnt o( 
Prtud'n rltui on the niattvr la to be found in a very miggriilive aitiele. 
"Die 'Kullurettc' SeMiaiinoial iind die MoiliTii"," in Srrtial- 
Frobkmr, llarch. IfiO!*. reprinted in tlio n.-cond acriBi of Fr*'iid'» 
fiaaifnfMn^ KtrtHtr HnhiifUn Sur .Wiiroarnlrhrr. mOMi. We pnMC« the 
apUtndc. he aay*, of anblimnting and trnn^forminti our orviial aolivitim 
into vthvr ai'Iiviti«a nt a ptyRhlcnlly rHnti'd ohnractrr. biU non<sexiiul. 
Thi* {iroc«aa cannot, however, bo rarrivd onl Id an nnliiniipd *ttnnt any 
mora than can the convemion of heat into tnpchnnical work in onr 
machine*, A certain amount of direct hpxiirI oat in taction ix for moM 
organ ixati on* Inditpenuiblc, nnd the rentincintion of this individually 
Yarying amount i't puni-hcd by inanifot^tion^ which tve ar* comprilt^I 
to rrgnril an niorblil. The iirocciia of *ublimalion. under lim influence 
of civiliaition. leniU iiotli to iu'\ual pcrvi-rnion* and to piyclio-ncii rosea. 
'Hicac two condiliiin.^ are ctu<«-l3* related, ai Freud view* the proeem nf 
thair deivlopinvut i th^- atand lo rach other as ponitive and negnliTa, 
■ntMl pcn-miiana being the positive pole and pn-chn-neiircMca tha nega- 
tive. It often happen*, he rcmarV». that a brother mar be sexually 
parvnrw, whiln hi* lii-tcr, with n weaker xcxiial tvinpcramrat. la a 
Bcurolic whom? symplomn are n t run* forma lion of lier brother's pcrvcr- 
aioni vhitc ill many families Ww men arc immurnl. th« women pure 
and reflncd hut highly ncrvon". In the co'c of wmticn who have no 
defect of aexual inipulBa there is yet the name preamre of clviliroii 




mor»ll(7 piijililnic thnni int» iitfiirotlc nUt'ii. II U ft ti'rri1)Iy H'rioui 
Injiutifo. Krrud niiuirk*. that tliR dviHitcd ■Undanl nf •rxiiiil WU U 
till? MiiiK for all [i^nuiiB. becHiiii^ tliongli wiiiii.'. by tlii>ir cirgaiiiuilicm, 
niHj' ennlly ncvppt it, for olhent it involvi^s tliR moiit (lifllmll purt-hic 
HLcriflccn. The unmarried girl, who lia? hwoiiii- DcnxiuiT}- wnk. con- 
not be Bdviflpd to teek relief in mnrtia^. for "lie iiiuxt be ilrong in 
orilw lo "bfar" murrlaip, wliflc ttp iirjto a ninn on no account to 
BintiT A ((iri who U not itrang. Tlic iiuirricd nuniiin who hn« expcrl- 
irnoiHl tli« ilcct'pliun* of iiiHrriugT? Iiii« ii"U)illy no viiy of relief left 
but by HbuiidnijitiK 'i'''' virtii<>, "Tlio mor" •trcniiaiiHly i-hv Iiii txvn 
ciiiicufi'd, and llic more eomplotcly "he liiu liecn nuliipctPd to the liomnnd* 
of civil i&itiuti. the iiiuri.' flic fL'iira lliit wiiy uf cwmjic, niid in the conflict 
botwwn licr desires and her nenw nl dnty, the u\%ri ui'k* ri>fii|i<' — In 
nniimiin. Nothing protcctn her virtue to nnrely nn disennc." Taking * 
■till wider vivw uf the iullucnce uf llie nnrn>w' "civi1iw<d" conceptiou of 
Kcminl morality on women, Freud flnds that it ii> not limilrd lo the 
production uF upnivliv ounditiuiii': it atTectfl the whule intellectual ajili- 
tudn of womon. ThHr nhiention denien them any oeeujialion with iwxual 
prubtemii. ulthoitgh nurli problems are no full of intere*t to t1i«m. for it 
Inruleatci, llie aneii>i>t prejudice ilmt any eitrla«ily In Mich iR»tt«>ra la 
unwomanly nnd u proof of wieked ineli nations. Thej- ar» thus t«^rilt<<4 
(roni tlilnkiiip, nrid kno\vl*Jge i. deprived of worth. The prohibition to 
think extendi, untflmnltcnlly nnd Inpvitahly, far Iiejn>nil the »exual 
Bphrrc. "I do not bellove," freud conclude*, "that theie U any oppncl- 
tion lietwecn Intrllci'lual work and «e\ual activity aiieh a* wa* ■tipponed 
b^ Mtlbius. i nra of opinion that the unqilenlioiuible fact of the intcl- 
leelunl inferiority of »a iiiuiiy tvouien i» due to Die inhibition of thou^it 
Imposed upon Ihtm tor the piirpnu of ■exiiol re pre** ion." 

It 14 only uf recent years that this problem ban been roaliKcd and 
faced, thmiKh lalltary Ihlnkvra, like llininn, have been kivnly ennviniia 
of ita cxi"lcnce; for "iorrowing virtue." a* Mm. Ella Wlieeler Wilcox 
puti It, "in more a»hanii-d of its woea than unhnjipy oiii. beeaiiM the 
world hna lenra for the lattJ-r and only ridicule (or the former." "It ia 
an nlinoBt cynical trait of our age." Ilellplteh wrote a few yearn ago, 
"that it is conalanlty tliflniMiiig the Ibenie of proMttutton, of police 
control, of the age of conicnt. of the 'whit* slavery.' nnd piXMea orrt the 
moral atnif(Kle ol womnn'a toul witJiOut an attempt to anaim h*r burn' 
ing quedions." 

On the other hand w« iitid medical writers not only DMertingj 
with mucli niornl fervor Ilmt Hcxual intcrwiir*!.'' outi^ide nisrriafi 
U iilwnys and altogether imnccciwary, hut derlaring:. moreover, the 
harmlewQett or even the advantafces of sexual abstinenee. 



bbiiig. tlio Swcdiiih profvuiur, in lii* It/iyifiie Sfjvfllr, odvocutcti 
^ftlMtinciicv ouUlilo niarrUgi>, ami hiu^iU IIh linrnili'wni'ra. Qlllm 
JcIb Touri-ltp. Vt-r(; nnil Atigngiir?ui in Vruni'f ngiw. In fiprnitinj- Fllr- 
liringvr iSeiiiitur und Kiiiiiiiwr. Health and Ititeajir in llttaiian lo Mar- 
rimje, vol. 1, p, ii*') «»»prl« Ihnt contlin'iiM [« powllilp and nwftary. 
tliougli ndmitlinf,' Uinl it may. Iiowcvrr. menu wrrioiw miichiirt in t-icci-p- 
tioool «1M>. Kdl^nbtiig tSrxualti AVu ru/ict I hi«. p. 14) doillito wlivtlicr 
anynnr, who otlirrwiup Utrd a rcuionuMc life, ever hwaiiM! Ul, or nwrc 
pr*ti4i'lj' nviirnHtlii.-tiic tliroiigh *ii"!iiiil alixl Innncn. Ilppir, r<^|ilyin(E to 
Mil- ari[iiiii>'>it« «( llrlid in hiii u-cll-knowii book on ivomrn. (I>^n!v« thAt 
■i-^ual abstirK'ncv ouu fvor produce Mtvrin'i't or riyiii|)liumiinii>. XAcke, 
who liio (rpqupnlly dUciiupi) tlic probh'm of Hi>xiia1 nbatinonre (e.g., 
Atrhii' fiir Kriminat-Anlhropalogie. 10(13, Ilpft I, und Srjiial/'rotfrmc. 
J«Dt% 1908). iniiin(niti» thnt itoxiinl abalin<>nci- iiin. Ht innBt. pruJucc rare 
Md «1!glit uiifamnibti! reiullH. nnit thnt it U no mote Ukriy to prmlum 
inaanily, itvcd in pri'dinpAsod indiviiluHlii. tbuu aro tbc opposite fxlri^inoa 
of sexual cxn-tn luid niii-ilnrtaition. lie nd4H tlint. ko Iht ttt tii« onu 
obwrvatlonH nrn conrciufd. thp pnlic^nt^ in o»yliinii tntlpr nonrccly at all 
from tlivir cvinpn1w>ri- ii.-\tin1 ubntinvTite. 

It is in Kri(tlaiu!, Iimu'vi-r. Ihnt Ibp vlrluP* of ooxnal nbotlniMicr 
hBve iiecn !no»t loiidly and r>ni|j)iiili™ll_v protliiiined. BOmctiwi" irnWd 
with fDnBidt-mbli' birk of •■iiiiliniiH ijmiti lira lion. Acton, in IiIh Repro- 
diietiM Organa. wXn, forth thi- Iraditioniil Rngliiili vtt-w. m wrli a* RohIp 
tn liU itoratily and tbr Moral Qaatiou. A mory distinguinhiil n?pre- 
•pntfltlvp of Ihe «nii»- vipw van I'ugi't, who, in bii Ii-rturi- on "ScxunI ' 
HyTiorhondriimiB," conplcd ncxnat intcrmuntp wilh "llicft or lyinjt." Sir 
William Uowrrn i tfi/pliitiii and thr Wri'oiii St/ilrm. \W2. p. 12(tl alio 
procluim* th^ advantjien* of "unbroken rbai^tity." morn fvprrinlly a> * 
method of nrofdin^ "ypblH". He 1h not hopeful, Itowi-vir, (■vcn as n-gnrda 
!ii« own remi-dy, (or be addn; "We oun trao' "Hiall jrroiinil for liope 
that the diiieuiie will thuti b*' ni»l(-r!ii1ly redncvil." He uYinld nlill. huW' 
ever, prcacb I'liaNlity to Dip indhbliml, and lie doca 80 with nil tlii' ai4ci-ti<- 
ardor of n nn-Jurvid nuuik, "Willi all (hi' fotP* that any knowlmljic 1 
pooies*. and nny iintliurity 1 liavi', ean upve, I a»aert that no tnan rvcr 
j>et wan in the uliglilcFl dfjn'ec or way the womi! for mntinencc or hrttpT 
for ineontincnce. From the Inller all are wor»e morally! n clear 
majority am wnnc phytically; and in no umall niinibr the remit la, 
and ever will bv, ntlcr pbyateal ehlpwrcrk on one ii( the many riii-k«, 
ftbarp, Jaj!^]-edg»ii. wbicli be«pt the way, or on one ut the many beds 
of fentering alline wliii'h no care ran puxcibly aroIO." tn Aincricu the 
tamo view widely prevaiU. and Dr. J. I'. Seott. in his gr*TiaI/n»(iiiet 
(leoond edition, 1008. Ch, Itl), arpies very vifprounly and at (prat 
length in favor of lexual abstinenee. lie will not won admit that there 

•■^ o'^ 


psTcnoLOGT or sbx^ 

nre Uu «iilp« to tht- queatkiH, lliougl) it llinl «m> llt« cane, tlie length 
And ttip riirrii^ of tiU nrKunmln woiilil bo uniiwnuaity. 

Anxintt iiioliml autlioritiea who liorr iliMUMcd Ui« question of 
ipximl nl»lit»^iici! at kiiffth it In rtot, IndcW, iwunllf poMibI« U> tlivl 
■udi utiqanliflMi opialonn in it* fntor hs tliuoe t liavc iiuoteiL lliirre <«n 
lio no tloiiht, howMtr. that a lurgp proportion of pUj-sicUiit, not ncliid- 
iiij; prominent and dittingninlivit autliorltlM. wlifoi nauallj coiifrontM 
with lh« qii^Ilim nlii-tlioT vMint ulAtinmpr i* IiurmlM*. will at oneaj 
adopt till- ol>vioii« path of li-mi rpfliitancr un<t i*ply: Yc*. In only 
Irtr cawa wilt thi-y evi-n iiiBki> any (pinllDFaUon nf tlii* nnlrmntiva 
•nawvr. Tlil* (<>n(lcnry Ih vptt wpII illiistTnti^ l>y an Inqiiiiy mnilp by 
Dr. Ludwtj; JnoobEmhn. of St. Prlcrsbiireh C'lHi- Smuelle EntlialtaanHi 
kelt iin l.ichli- dvr Mrdicin." Si. pFlmbutgcr SletlkHnitr-ht Woehm^ 
tchiifl, March IT, lOOTI. He wrotr to ov^r tu-o liundml dlitinguiih^ 
Riusian and German profMsora o( phy^ioliigjr. neurolo]^. psjchiatry, 
ft/f., ituking thrtn if l\i«y rrfiivitd KxunI al»itin<>iip« a* linmi1i>M. The 
ijority rrtumi-d no anmvpr; flerra RiiuJan and twcnty^iglit Ctrmniw 
epiinl. but four of thrin inrrrly naid that "they lind no pcT>onnl «>xi)«rl- 
•ne*," •te.i tliMp tliii* reiiiHini-d Ihirty-llvc Of these F,. Pnager. of 
Bonn, wna slcrptiral of the ai)vnnl«|p> nf any propngandn nf nhntlnf^or: 
"If all ttii> niilliorllip* In tho wnrM dwtaie<l tht liarmleHnmi of absti- 
nenM that would harp no Infliii-nrc on yonlh. Forw* bt<* hnr* In piny 
that brcnic ihrouKh alt oh«iap|e«." Th« hnnnlTCMni*M nf ahttin^nrc waa 
nftlmiml liy Krn|M>lln. Cranitr, (JBrtner, TiktipIc. Schottrliii«. GalTky, 
Finkltr. Bekncw. lAiMr, Seifrrt. f!riib(r: thp Imt. Iiowcvi-r. nddnl thot 
he knew t'ery fi^w abflliopnt rounj; men. iind liimwlf only nmiiMenJ- 
•batliK-nrP ipvid Iwforv hill dnvplopnimt. and iiih'i'iYninui not dnnffttwrUl 
in moderation evi-n before then. Dtii^r knew oaiei of altntinmee 
Mrithont hnrmfiil retiitl*. but iiiiiitelf lliiuijchl (lint iin p>nernl opinion 
rould l>e given, JIIrf!en>im laid that nhstinenco in lltrif in not hurmtiil. 
but that In Hime pnn»k Inli>rmiir»i> exettx a ninr" lienelleial Innnmce. 
Hortmanii Haid that alnlinenre in liarmlma. adding that lliongh it eer- 
t«tn1y lead* to mnitin-hation, thnt U letter than |innorrli<m. to nay noth*', 
Inj; of Nyjihiliit. iind it e«-ii_v kept within bound*. Ktrdmpi'll replied] 
that aexiial abatinenre I* harmli>H, and tndirM'tly iiitrfiil M prvaerrlnif 
from the rltk of venereal diHease. but thnt •Mcnnl inter«<nirac, bving 
normal, in niirait more deMrnble. Ilenxen Kiid llinl ab'tinenee i" not 
to Iw unnyndilionaltr npproi-ed. Itnnipf rrptlnl that ahMiiiener wni not 
barmtiii for niowt tH' the op- uf Ibirly. but after that age there waa 
a tendency to mental i>li<>i>si.|oni>. and mflrrinjcn ■hniild lake place at 
tn<mty'flvi>. I^yden almi conMidered abittnence hannlew until towarda 
thirty, when if lead* to payrhle nnrimnlica, ripecially atatea of anxiety, 
and a pertain nITeclnllon. HriM T'-ptied thnt ab«linmee i« hnrmlMt tor 
moat, but in Mnie leadri to hyrtcrieni manifcatatlona and indirectly (o 

l),y ,-.■•:. CyCiOti^lC 



bud iv4iiltii ln>m miuturlmtiun. whili! for tlii- nurmHl miin nbitiiieiirc 
cunnot he diTiK-lly Wnrtlclnl, »in{T> inturtoiimc ik nntiiriLl. GrUtxiii-r 
tliouKlit t'hnt sbitinrncu in aluioit newt harinfut. ypHFlieila uM It in 
hnrmlcu in Uiii'K. but IihiiiiFuI in ho tnr nn it lenilit to uniiutiirnl mode* 
of gratillcntiuiL. Ni'itittor bi'Hpvcia tb»t innro pTolnnjiiMl nhxtlii^rn'e tlinii 
U nnw iimml would be brndiciiil, but iiiliiiiltt-d tiie npxiiul p-^dUitii)(i« of 
our clviUzadniL; In- iidili-il tli:it of cniirHf \\f wiw iio liiirrli for lipiillbjr 
nii>n in infi^nxmrnr. Hochr rrplifd tbnt nb^linoncr i« qilitn hnrnilcsi in 
nonnnt prrton!!. but nut alwuyn itu in iibnoritiul pi-rMtnu. \Wbrr thought 
it liail u iixcftil iiilliivn<'e in iurri-sxliLti willpowur. Tnrnnwaky sniil it 
In ftood in curly RmnhiHid. hut liki'lr to br unfnvoialilr' nft^r twenty'llTft. 
Orlow ri'pliwl tbat. e»pwialiy iu youth, it is hnrmli'M. nnd ■ mnn eliniild 
lip ■« chaote «■ bin wlfp. Popow (Wiil Ihnl nbMlncnce U k™«1 »' "" 
«|[rs mid prvtcrvm tlir pm'rK.v. tlliiinpnnn eniil tluit In adult ngi- ab- 
■Itnvnn' in nritli^r mirinnl nur lii-ncrLcial. nnd p-niTully Icnd^i to nius- 
tnib«ti"n, thongh not gi'iicrnllj to ni-rmu* diMorilfru but tlinl pvon 
mnilnrbalion is bctlt-r Ihnn sypbilit. Tnt-birivw iiiiw no burm in 
nbwlinrni-e up to thirty, ami tlioii(!lit ipmibI wcjiknv-s niorp llknly to 
follow cxrp-ta tlian nbstinenn.'. TwhUli rcpirdcd nlmtinniw n» bcncfioial 
rnthirr tlinn tiamiful up to lu'pnty>live or twvrLty-t'i),;ht. but thoiiglit it 
difficult to dwridc uftrr thiit agp wlipn nerrou» nlli-mtion* seem to be 
caUMd. Dnrkwhcw itoit rPBiir-lcil nb^tincncc a* linrnili'iis up to Iwpoty- 
flv». Fiilnkel *ni<l it "ii?i h.irnilfss fur tnont. but tlint for a cnnuidiTaliln 
piopoitiun of pmitif inl''i>inir«e i* ii nti^ssily. Krb'n opinion is 
ragkrded by Jambunlin ai- Mnnding aloiir: lie plnivd the anp bolow 
wliich Blwtintnci- is liarujIvH nl twpnly: after Unit iige Ijv rrf^rdvd it 
as injurloiii (o hcnilli, ■i>rioii#ly impelling nork iiml cflpneity, wliilo in 
nmrotie peiMirii it Ii-ndx lo nlill more mTious rpnutln. .liin'Ob^uhn cun- 
elnil^a that tli# giinetal opinion of tliose nn<<ii'rring the Inquiry niny tbii* 
h* M;pre»iicd: "Voutli nbouTiI Iw nbotinnit. Abstinence p«n in no wny 
injure tlieiu; on tliP i-iMitrnry. ll in lioni'Hi-iiil. If our young pfople will 
rcmnln nbiliric-iil iind avoid mlrii*c»njugul inlercoiKM' they will main- 
tnin a high ideal ot lovi' iiiitl ptiitipriy tbi'ini>#lve« from T«ncT«ut di-ie&iH-s." 
Thr barnileioneiK of icxunl alulinenee won likewjte nfHriiiwI in 
Ann'ka in a rvioliiliiin [miied by tbr AnjL'ricnn Miilirul A"'iniilir)u in 
1906. The proi>ii-llinri (biia formully newpteil »*n« lliu« worded; "Con- 
tinence U not iiieiinipiitible with heiilth." It viighl to hr gpn«in11y 
r««lited tliat nbf-lraot propo«itton8 of thla kind aiP wnrthloH. beciiuMi 
they mean nothing. Every nanc perion. when eonfrOHtwd by the demand 
lo boldly animi or deny the propoxKion, "Contlupner U not ineompoli- 
hlc with health." in lionnd to nftlrin it. He niiglit Hriiily believe that 
Hnilinenee in incoinpntible with thp liealth of most people, and that pro- 
longed <«ntlnence (• ineompntihle with anvone'ii health, and yet, if lie 
IK to be Itoneat iu tlie use ol language, it would bo ImpoMiblc for him 





to ili^^ tlii^ vaf[i»> nnd nbitraet propotitimt that 'Tontindico |i nol 
tn(''.<tii|)nlilik> w'itii lienllh.'* Surli ^rojiofitioiii} Htv llit'r<'f>-ii) ii>il otil.v 
ulllioiit value, liiit nrtiisll,v nti (lending. 

It IB ol>vioii* Unit tliv nutria cvtrcmo aiiit luiqualifiod opiuioiu in 
(nvor nf spxiinl iibsl incni-r nii- Imitnl mil on mcdirjil. Iiiit oii wlmt th« 
uTitcr* ipgiirU us moral ciiiiiidcniliunn. Murravvr, ns the ntni- writn* 
nre usuhII.v miiiuI1,v oiiipliatio in i<-)piril lo the ii<lviiiilHp-> of wxuh) Intrr' 
rounc in mnrtiiigr. it, in dear tliat they linvi^ ranimiltnl thcmiiclvni to 
a mnt.ratliotiun. The miiiki net, at Mflckr rightly point* ont. cannot 
txtumc gnad or biiil Hccirding uh it i'« jierrorniPd in or out or mnr- 
ri&gr. T1i<-rp in no raiigic rtlioni-j' In a tew wordi jironounml by a prie»t 
or n KrH'i'rnineiit oIlioiHl. 

ttrmondlnn {lor. cil.) reniarku that tlie authorltlM who hav» com- 
■nittnl DieiiLHiOvpi to tlcclurnlioiiK in fnvor of the uni-'ondttionul advan- 
(iij[» of »i>xiiai nMinpnce li'iid to (all into lhr« vrrnn: (1) they 
geiiiTuliu.' unduly, imlrjul of connidi-rina i-nrh cbw individuully, on ill* 
own niPTltiii (3) thvy tuii ti> rftilize thiil hiimiiu nuturr U Influenced 
by highly mlsml nnd coinpIcK motivpn ond cnnnot be Asstinipd to be 
amennhlr only to inotirex of abntruct mornlily: (3) tlivy ignore tha 
gmit umiy of nnulurbntorn nnii hcxiihI imriTrla wiio mnkc no eomplaint 
of Bi-ximl MifTcrtniE. but by mninliiining a rigid m-xiuil ubstinpniv. no tar 
as norinnl Telatloniihl|M arc concerned, grailually drift into ciitr<aita 
whmrr thfre la no return. 

Bfitwocii llitwe who unconditionttUy atfinn or deny tlie hamt' 
Ifitsnt^ of genual nbftinciicc wo fiml an iiitcntifdimte party of 
authorities whose opinions are more i|iialilie(l. Many of those 
who occupy this more yarded poeition are men whotte opinions 
carry much weight, nnd it in pmbuhlc that with thi^ni rathor than 
with the more extreme advoentca on either side the preateT 
ineasurc of rvaton lies. So complex a question as Uits cannot be 
ade(]iiateiy invi-otiirnti-d nicrcly in the ah^tnicl, and wttlod hy 
an unquaMed negative or afiirmative. It is a matter in which 
e^'ei^ 0S9C ^l^(ll]i^c)! it» own special and perxotia! coiuidcratioo. 

"Where thnrc 1» «uch a tnarknl opponttlon of opinion tmtlt In not 
«clu«ivply on one tide." ri'innrlcs liSwpntrld iSvjvalhben and S«rt*m-. 
tfiilrn, wrond nlltlon, p. 40). St^nnl ahidiurniNi U cnrlainly ofl 
[njuriuua to fivtitopitthic pt-rsonn. (Thin in iiou* Itrliein] by a lar 
nnnibrr «( aiithorltira, and vms perhnpx flmt dH-lHltvty atnti^ by Krafft*] 
Kbing. -I'^bfr N«ruro«rn durrh Alwtlnenx." Jahrbach f'" F'HrhUUri*^ 
188*. pl I). Ijivrnfrhl fIniU no special proclivity to nrnraathenla 





■inoiig th« Catholic c)rrK>'. onil nliiMi it (tori (w-fiii. Uierf U no rfatmi 
to snppoM a iMual muHJitimi. "In Ik-hIIIij- nnil nut lirrcdituril.v iipura- 
{uithk men oomplctc nlMtintmcP U pcmtiblf willioiit, injury lu lliii nprvoiit 
<y«t*m." Iiijiirioiia (ITpcU, li? rviitiuuos. ulieu tlicj- nppi'ur. •ridoni 
otmr until brtween twenty-four nnd tlilrtyniv year* nf ajp; «n<l pvpn 
tlivn arv nut usuulty serious rtimijjh U> lead to n riiit to n doctor, ran- 
■i>tin|t mnliily in frpfjni'iK'v of niu'tninnl PiniMioiH, pnin in teatfa or 
rectum. Iiyperirsth™iii in tiic prcn'-ncp of wonipn or of wiiiiul idiuia. If. 
howevpr. i^iiilitlnnM nrini" wlii''li spwlully Htlmulut? the M'xual emotion*, 
noumitthrnln may Ih> prodiicvil. l/>wf'nfi'M nj^f^H witli Fr<<n(l and 
Oatt«l llinl the npurnni? uf unxirty ti-nd-> to occur in the nli^ilincnl. 
oari^fiil FXaminntion slio\vinf> tlinl tli" nlmtlnnnoo ih a (actor In It* (iro- 
duction in both te\r-a. It i« common niiicnK youna women mitrricd to 
miioh older men. ofU-n nppeiiTin); diirtiiK tl"' lir-t year* of iiiarriaKo. 
Under •prcini cirmnwtnnco*. tUcri-foii', nbntincncT cnn b<" injimoii*. but 
on the vholc the diUKniltic* due to sucli ab^tinvncr un.' nut iwvprc, nnd 
thoy only vxceptionally call (orib artnnl dtNttirbwicr In the nprroni or 
payeliic iphcrcii. Moll takc^ n similur Ivrnperutc and diw- rim inn ting 
TifW. He regards wxiial almtinenci.' before niarrlnp* n* the iitcni. bnl 
points out tlmt we mnit avoid any dortrinnl i^xtremr^ in prexehiiig 
araual abatLnciK'p. for mioU prfacliint: will nirrcly lead to hypocrliy. 
Intercoiirnc witli proelJttittTj. nnd llie tendency to clinnge a uoiunn like 
A garment, induce loss of scniitivenoH to the ■piritiinl and per»oiiiil 
einiient in uotuiin. ivhrle Die dnn^^'n of nexunl ubnttnencc mu«t no 
mnrr tie exaggerated than the danger* n( VTual tnten'our*e (Mutl. 
Libido Scitualin, 1B98. vol. t, p. 848; id., ITonfrarr Hejruatrnip/lndatiff, 
ISM, p. aS8). Blncli aloo (In n chapter nn tbe ^ncAtlon of sexual 
■b*1inencc in hiii SeiriiaUrhfa tinnfrtr Zfil. 10081 lukps a nimilar (Innd- 
|iolnt. H* advocates atiatention during cnrly llln and tem]>orii>y ubalirn- 
tion in adult life, nuch nlialention being vnlmible, not only for tbo 
eonwri-aliun and (mn»formalion of energy, but alw to eniphniiic the 
het tint li/e contain* other mntlrrn to strive (or lieyond the end* of 
•ex. ftrdlirh ( J/cdtHmVAc KUnil;. lOOH. No, T) nltu. in a careful 
■tildy of the medical nii|iecU of the iineation. take* an Intermediate 
■(;indpoiut in relation lo the rclutire advanlagc* und disadvuntngca of 
acxual ahstEnenctf. "We niity «ay that sexual Hb«tia«nce is not a condi- 
tion which muni, tinder nil ciiciinistnnee* and nt any price. lie avoided, 
though tl it truv tlidt fur the majority of licalthy adult peruini' regular 
•ntul intercourM la advantageous, ami sometime* I* even to be rcconi> 

It ninr he added that from tli* standjioint of Phriiflan relij^ou* 
morality thii name attitude, between the extreme!! of either party, 
r»ro(piiilng the ndvantagei of sexuul iihHiinenee. but not iniUtlnj; that 
Uiey khull Iw purehaied at any price, hn* al*o fuunJ repreicntation. 



P8YCH0100T OP SKt. 

Tlnu, in tCnglatiil. un Anglican t'lergjiTinii. tliv Itov. H. Kortheolr 
{ChrUlianiljf and Hrn /'mWrm*. p|i. i», 60) dra]* trni|i«ral«ly anil 
t^-iDpatlirticnllv u'UU llie cjillieullltw ot wxiial nlMlinvniv, and in by no 
DivnnH oiMii'illcoil tliot nueh nbttinpncr U aliraj'ii nn unmixrd udmi- 
tngf; while in Germany a Catliolic prifBt, K«rl Jvntsdi (SrxiialftMlt. 
Hfrualjustit. StxualpoUrri. 11>011) nM'- \ilmw\l to ftpimM- tlu' rlgnrouit 
nnil uixiiiallHrt) niurrlioiii of Rlbbind in futor of wxiuil absUnmw. 
Ji^Ucti tliud Miir«nv-i wUal hv eoiLceivcs nuiilit to lie thp ■tlitmlc of 
fnlhcr*, of public opinion, of llic SUtr nnd the Cburrb lowurdi the 
young muii in this iiintW: '"Emli-nmr In b* nWlnfiit until innrriagp. 
llHiiy fcnccivd in llii«. If you cun Miccii^ii, it I* gooO. Bill, if yo" ran' 
not ■ilooiM.'if, it i* uiinvffsisary lo cusl ii-proaEbcii on yourwit anil tu 
rfgard yoiirwlf n* a umindrrl or n l<Ht ainncr. I'roviilcil thnt you do 
not iilHindon youHcH to mere enjoyment or wantonnoss. but arc conUnt 
with whnt i« nf'-4uwiri' to rf»tor>^ yimr \ivnrv of mtnd. if\l -fommion, 
anil pliwrful capncity for ivorli. nnd nleo llint you observe tlir jiicoan- 
tiono trhjcli pliy nil'! unit oi' irKiiericnc^d trii'ndi iinpreM upon yon." 

When ^e tlma aiiahzi^ and invi'tiligalc tin* the three main 
»trcaDiB of e.vpert opiniouB in ifgard to tliiB question of aoxuat 
al»tiiKiK'e — the opinions in fuTor of it. ttii- opinions in oppositinn 
to it, and the opinioiia wliicli take an intcmiecliate ooiirae — we can 
K'lircei}' fail to coiiclude liow unsatisfactory the whole diMtissiou 
is. Th« ttalfi of 'Vxual ubiitincnce" is a coMipk-t«ly v«giic and 
indeBnite state. 'I'he in(lo6nite and eren ineanin);Ies8 charact«r 
of tile c:(pres*ion "sexual ab*l ineiicc" is shown bj the frctjutncj 
with which thooc who arjiiue about it aasnnte that it can, may, or 
evni riiuirt, involve masturbation. Tliat fact alone Itrgfllv de- 
prives it of value a!> morality and a1to|i;other as abstinence.. At 
this point, indeed, we reach the most fimdamentai criticism to 
which the conception of "so\uh1 nhfitincnoe" lies open, nohieder, 
an experienofd piiysii-ian and a nvogni^eil authority on questions 
of sexual patholog}', lias submitted the ctirrcnt views on ''sexual 
abstincnt'o" t" n r<oarching critieiKm in a tenfrtliy and important 
paper.' lie denies altogether that strict sexual abstinence exists 
at all. "Sexual abstinence,^ lie points out, in any strict ncenso 
of the term, niiisl involve ahstincnw not merely from »i*x«al 
intercourse but from atito-erofic iHanife=tation8, from masturba- 



■ "Di* Abstiucotia S«xualfs," Zrittohrift fSr SMualiciMintrlia/t. 
Nor,, IM6. 



tion, from liumuei-xiuil atrts, Crom all iii-.\iiallv pcrvorso practices. 
II iiiuvt fui-tiicr iiivalvu n puniiuuc-iit aUtctiUun from imlul^cnco 
in erotic i marina lions and voluptuous re%-erie. When, however, 
it k poNfibIc tliiiti to rL-liili-r tin- wltnli.' p^ycrhJc field a tabula raaa 
m far m hcimoI mtivity iticonramcd — and if it fails to Ik- m ctm- 
etdntly and conisirteiitly tliere is no strict sexual abstinence^ 
Ilicn. Itohlcder [Kiiiit^ out, wc liaw to cHiii-idor whc-tlii^r we arc not 
in preaence of a case of sexual aoffisthesta, of anaphrodwa 
i(ej:ualui. Tlist IS (luvKtion wliicli is rarely, if ever, faced by 
tlioiie ulio difli'iti'H sexual aliMinmce. It is, howe\'er, nn rxtrcinely 
pertinent queetion, because, as lloldeder insists, if sexual aD:e«- 
tlicsiu cxitlH tlie quwtiuii of srxual ulMinc-mv falls to tlic ground, 
for we can only "abstain" from actions tliat are in our power. 
Complete ifcxual uiwwtlicsin is, Iiowcvcr, so rnro a slate tliat it 
may lie practically left out of consideration, and as the sexual 
impulse, if it cxihU:, musl by p^ysiologicul necessity sometimes 
l>(-(;oiue active in some slia|fe — even if only, according to Freud's 
view, by traoBformatioD into some morbid neurotic condition — 
we rwK-li till* ciini-luxion timt "«e\unl nlmtim-nce" is striclly 
iniposwible. Hohleder Ims met with a few casG» in whieli there 
Si-e:m-d lo him no escape from llie Mmelusion that sexual ab- 
stinence existed, but in all of tijese lie suh^(juently found tlmt he 
was mistaken, usually owing to the practice of masturbation, 
which he believes to be extremely common and Very frequently 
accompanied by n persistent attempt to deceive the physiciati 
couceniini; ili* existence. The only kind of ■•st-xuul abstinence" 
that exists is a partial and temporary abstinence. Instead of 
saying, as sonio say. "Permanent abf^tincnce i« unnatural and 
oannot exist without ]ihysical and niHilal injtny," we ou^ht to 
say, Rohled«r believes, "Permanent abstinence is unnatural and 
has never existed." 

It is impossible not to feel as we contemplate thb cJiaotic 
mass of opinions, that the whole discussion is revolving roimd a 
purely negative idea, and that fundtunentiil fact is responsibh^ 
for what at first seem to he startling conflicts of statement. If 
indeed we were to eliminate what is commonly regarded us the 
religions and moral aspect of the matter — an aspect, be it 




remembered, which Iini- uo bcuring un tlic eswntml natural tatin 
vi tlie <|iii«tiou — wo I'iinnot (nil to piTci-ivc ilmt tlni^i; (wtt-nta- 
tiouH ditrerenccfl of convictioD would be redaced within very 
DHrrow anil trifling iimiU. 

We (.-uniKil dtriclly enbrdinntc the impulK of reproduction 
with tha itnpuiw of Dutrition. There are very important diifer- 
eacc§ between tbem. more eepcciully llic fundamcolut 'lifTcronce 
thtit wliile the sntisfuctiun of tbe one Impuln; i* abHolutvIv necea- 
HHry both to tlie life of the individual and of the race, the satia- 
fjlotion of the other is ahBulutely neceeenrv only to the lift? of 
the ra(;e. But whtu wc rwhue this i|u<.-Hli(m to one of "sexual 
abi^tinence" we are obvlouely placing it on tht! flnme luisia lu that 
of eb«tinence from food, that is to eay at the very opjKwite pcile^ 
to which we pime it whm (iw in Ihc jircvinnp* dwjitiT) we con- 
sider it from tbe point of view of aseeticiiiin and rlinetity. It 
thuA conit* about thnt on thii- np^tivo basis there really Jit aa. 
intereatinK analogy betwwn iiulrilivc abiitinencc, though ueceft-n 
«irily only maintained incompletely and for a short lime, and 
sexual abtitint-nce. maintained more completely and for n hiiijter 
time. A patient of Janc-t'« ftvmt to bring out clearly tliin resem- 
blance. Xudia, whom Janet was able to study during five years, 
wa« a young wouinn nf twenty-seven. h<wUhy and intelMgeut, not 
sufTerini; from bystt-ria nor from anorexia, for »he bad a normal 
appetite. But*Rhe had an idea; she was anxious to be xlini and 
to attain tbiii end #be cut down her mealx 1o tbo timallest sixe, 
merely a little soup and a few efij^s. She sulTered much from the 
abatincDOC xhe thus imposed on herself, and wag always hungry, 
though sometimes her hunger was masked by the inevitable 
stomach trouble caused by so long a peraisieocc in tliis rrgimf. 
At timcfl, indiH'd, *Iiu had been m hungry that abo had devoured 
greedily whatever she could lay her handa on, and not infri,-- 
(lueiitly *ihc could nut resist the temptntion to eat a few biscuits 
in secret. Such actions caused her liorrible remorse, but, alt the 
enme. she would be guilty of them again. She realized the great 
efforts dcmandnl by her way of life, and iudi-ed looked upon her- 
self as a heroine for resisting so long. "Snmci imos," she told 
Janet, "I passed whole hours in thinking about food, 1 was so 



hun^rv. I hwhUowikI my saliva, I bit my handkcriliicr, I rolkil 
on tlie ground, 1 wuntcd to cat so budl.v. 1 searched bookn for 
i]«BrnptioDi< of uMiU uiid fcuHt*, I tricil lo d<i-civc my hunger 
by iinn^lEiii)|; that I too wiis enjoying all these good tilings. I 
was realty famished, and io spite of a few weaknesses for biscuits 
I know tliut. t iiliowcd iniich ciiiragi'."' Xadia'a motive idea, 
tlint sbt- wished to be slim, oorrflsponds to the abstinent man's 
idea that he wishes to be "moral," and only dtfTera from it by 
having the ndvanUige of being somcuhat more positive and per- 
eonat, for the idea of the person who wishen to avoid mxuhI 
indulgence bccaii»e it is "not right" is often not merely negative 
but im|H>reumal and iinposHl by the ^iK-ial iind religious environ- 
ment. Nadin'a oceat^ioual outbursts of reckless greediness eor^ 
rvsponil to the siidd^ii imjiiilse* to renort to prostitution, and her 
secret weakneiisw for biscuits, followed by keen rcniorsi', to lapses 
into the habits of masturbation. Her lits of struggling and 
rolling on Hn- ground are preeinely like the outburtitii of futile 
sire whieii occasionally occur to young abstinent men and 
'women in Imillh and rtrnigth. The absorption in thoughts 
ai)out meals and in literary deseriptions of niealit is clearly 
Analogous to the abstinent man's absorption in wanton thoughts 
and crotii; books. Finally, Nadin's eonvictlon that she is u 
heroine eovresponda exactly to the attitude of self-righteousness 
which often marks the Kexually abstinent. 

If we turn to Freud'w penetrating and sugge&tivr study of 
the problem of sexus) abstinence in relation to "civillxcd" sexual 
mondily, we find that, ihoiigh he makes no n-(ercnci- to th« 
anatogii' with abstinence from food, his words would for the most 
part have nn equal a|iplieation to both aiscj*. '"The task of sub- 
duing so powerful an instinct as the .''oxual impulse, otherwise 
than by giving it satisfaction," he writes, "is one which may 
ADiploy the whole strength of a man. Subjugation through sub- 
limation, by guiding the sci^tjal forces into higher civil iitationiil 
paths, may succeed with a minority, and even with these only for 
a time, It'Hst easily during the years of ardont j-onthful enorgj-. 

I P. J(inc!l, "Ia MaJudic du Scrupulc," Rcvut Philotopliiqar, itay. 

J,j ,-.:u:,yC300^,^IC 



Most nlhow biwomo ni-urotic or olherwlso como to grief. Ex- 
ptTictKC »hovi9 that the majority of peopio conotituting our 
society are coostitiitionally unequal to the task of abstinence. 
We Boy, indeed, thst tJic stnigglc with tlii* powi-rful imiHilBi- and 
tlie entpliasis the Htru^le involveii on Ihc «-lliicnl and itttthetic 
forces in tlie soul's life 'ateelfi* the character, and for a few 
favoriibly wrRanized natiirps tliis ie Inie; it miist also be nt-knowl- 
edged that thv dllTLTonliation of individual charartiT no marked 
in our time only becimca )>i)aail>l(! throufrli nexual limitations. 
But ill by Tar tbe majority of cases the etruf^le with sensuality 
usca up the avaihihle energy of ilmraotvr, and tbiti at the very 
time when the youn^ man needs all his strength in order to win 
hit) pluc'O ill the world."' 

When wv bnve put tlic prohirm on tbiii negative basia of 
abiitinence it U difficult to see how we can dispute the justice of 
Freud'it couclu»i»nit. They hold j.'^ind oquiilly -for nhfltinence 
from food and abstinence from fi'xual love. When we have 
placed the problem on a more positive basis, and are able to 
invoki' the more nctivo nnd fruitful motives of aacetieiim and 
chastity t)ii« iiuforhiniiti) fight against a natural impulae is 
aboli«bud. If chastity is an ideal of the harmonious play of all 
the organic impulses of the tmnl nnd body, if nscdicism. properly 
understood, i« tlic athletic striring for a worthy ohjeti which 
caueeKi, for the time, an indifference to the gratification of sexual 
inipulnci'. vns arc on wholesome and natural tc^tiund, and there is 
no waste of energy in fruitless striving for a negative end, 
whether imposed artificially from without, as it usually is, or 
voluntarily chosen by tlie individual himself. 

1 8. Freud, Bnmal-Ptahtrmo. Mmrh. 1901*. An Ail»li> ^H-l1r«ib(^r ulou 
points out {Uult^rachvit, Jrh., ]00T. p. 30). it in not onoush to provo 
that aMIiiMiiw i» not danjii-rou*: wi- Imri? to ipinpiiitior that tlU H[iirituiil 
nnd pti7*lnil mnrgjr iinnl up In rpprruinti (hi* mighty instinct ofUn 
rrduMi a joj-oiia iind (Micrgplii- nntiiii> tn a vteary tinU fnited slmduw. 
Siroilurly, ticli-iie SiJioker (OiV l.irbf uiirf rfic t'raufn. p, IDS) wiyji: 
'■■niP qiiPDtinn whptlirr nbstlnfnpc !» Iinrmriil f», to »av thi? truth, u 
ridiriilou* qnrntion. One n««li to \w no tiiyrvoiiH npprlalUt In Viiaw, a> 
H matliT nt miiriu', that a llfp of linppy lov<< nnd marriRK'' U thv healtliy 
life, and it« efiniplMf nbiipnci* cnnnut tnil to lead to wrer" pi.ychti> dcpr**' 
■Ion, wvn If no dltcct pliralolDgicnl diiituibancM can bf di-uiuuiitiHted." 




For there is really uo coni])i('te analog}' between sexual 
desire and lumgcr. between nhstincrKt fniiti scxiihI rcltttions ami 
abstinenctt from food. ^\'lien we put them both on the Utmis. of 
abstinence we put thoin on a basis which covers the impulBe for 
food but o[ily lialf covcru tlic inipulso for Kexiia) lov«. Wc con- 
fer no ])l«!a«urc and no iiervice on onr food when we eat it. But 
the half of sexual love, perhaps the most important and ennobling 
lialf, licK in what wc give and not in what we tiiki;. To reduce 
this <{ue>ition to Ihe low lovel of abstinence, i» not only to i-cntre 
it in a merely negative denial but to make it a solely aelf-reRard- 
ing (|uc!itiow. Instead of asking: How can I bring joy and 
strength to another? we only ask: How can I preserve my empty 
virtue ? 

Therefore it i« that from whatever aspect we consider the 
queation, — whether in view nf the flagrant contradiction between 
the authorities who have discuswd this question, or of the 
illegitimate mingling here of moral and physiological eonaidera- 
tions, or of the merely negative and indeed unnatural character 
of the "virtue" thus sH up, or of ihe failure involved to grasp 
the ennohlingly altruistic and mutual side of ^xual love, — from 
whatever aFptvt we approach the problem of "sexual abslineiieo" 
we ought only to agree to do so under protest. 

ir we thuH decide to approach it, and if we have reached 
tli« cMiviction — which, in view of all the erideoee we can 
wanvly escape — that, while sesual abstinence in to far lU it may 
be recogniKcd as possible i* nut incompatible with health, there 
are yet many adults for whom it is harmful, and a very much 
larger niimlHT for whom wIimi pn.ilongcd it is unde«iriib)e, we 
encounter a serious problt-m. It Is a problem which confronts 
any petBon, and especially the physician, who may be called npon 
to give professional advice to his fellows on this matter. If 
•extui rehitionshiptt are sometimefl desirable for unmarried per- 
•onx, or for iiiiuTit-d pevsrin!* who, for any reason, are debarred 
from conjugal union, is n phynician justified in riK-omnu-nding 
auch sexual rclu(ion!ibip» to his patient? Tliiii i* a ((ueKtion that 
has frequmtly been debated and decided lu opposing senses. 





Vaiiaun ilUliiiKniilicil |ili,riiii.'UnB. vnpcciall]^ in Gcnnanjr. Iiava 
pruclaiiu<.'4 Ihv tliil.v of tUv Jot-tor to recoiuniBiwI m-xu«1 intcrmiiiMc to 
hi* pntlriit whciin-fr be con iti clem it dcslrnbk. (iyurkovi-chky, for 
inatniicp, luia fully ili>K-iUHM<d linn >|u««lioii. aud aiiBix'iTil it In th* 
alHTinfltlre. Kyitrf.m (Serual-I'rolilrrnr. July. lOOS, p. ll.ll uttUa tliiit 
it U tlie phyiirian'n iluty. in boiuv t'unes of ni'xtiKl wiwhooits. wht<n all 
otK«r mptliixlii »( trvntmpnt linvn lAilrd. to rMnmmend kxuhI intrr- 
cuura« MS llit< bntt reiiKtly. Dr. Miu Maipuw »t«iiii» nut »* > can- 
■pkiioiis ad vocals of the niHTonditioniil duly of the physician to 
uditH'titc wxiuil iuti-ri?»iiPH! in smnr c»tvK butti 1a nirn and to women, 
and hna on mnny ocnuion* orxiiHl in tliin mnnv (cff„ IMrf dr.r .irst 
turn AutiCTchviii-hra Grsehlrvhltrrrluhr ralrnt H'04|. MurcuiH! Is 
stioiigly of o]iininn tliiit a pliytipinn wlio, alloHinj: lilmarlt to bt 
intluvnci-d by iiiurHl. v>i.*i')l<i)iiciil. or iillicr (■(■iinid*?riiliuiiH. iicgk-cto to 
locoiiimrnd winiid intprtountr irlion lie connidcru it dminibk (or the 
pHtirnl's 1ii!hIIIi, IK uiiuurlliy uf bi« profi.->iHinn, and itlioiild cither give 
up ninliclnr or wnd hik luilients to otlirr doctors. Thii attitude, thouj^ 
not uBiijilly »o einpliHtically stated. «««ma lo be widely aco^ptnL 
i^Wrei |[oi'« pven furlhnr nhen he stntes ( Monalackrift flir Horn- 
l^roiiilAri(i-ii unii Srxafllr Hjigicnf. \9M. llpft :i) that it U th*r pliysl- 
clan'o duty In the cnic of n wnmnii who is siifTering from her hiutband't 
iinpotcuPT. to udviw her tu itaw intrrt'iitiree with unothi^r man, adding' 
that "whfthiT "lie doe* in with ln'r liii>-hiin(l"* poimcnt i» no affnlT of 
the plijuitian'™. for he ia not Ihc gMiirdiiin of morulity. hut the gunrdion 
of health." The pliy»lciaiiB who piihliHy l»ke thix Hllituil« are. haw- 
ever, a iimull minority. In Knglund, no far ns I um aware, no phyileion 
of rmiijcnri' ha« o[«nly prmlninivd the duly of the doctor to adriM 
■oxual intereouTM- oiitoldc matrltiKc. although. It U •Mr«^cly nrnwMiy 
lo iidd. in Kiiglnml. iit fliH'wIifri?. il hupix'nn thnt du('tor&, including 
women dootor*. from time to time priiiitely point Out to their unmar- 
ried und etun married patlenti. that aexiuil interomnic would probably 
be brnellcial. 

The duty of the phynieiun to rrcommeni! wxuul interwurs* has 
bren denird m rniplialienlly tin It Itaa been nttlrmod. Thn* Knlenbttig 
ISrjuale Xruropalhie. p. 43), would by no means adritc tixtru'ConjuKBl 
relations lo hi* pnllenti "anch adviw in quits out*id« the physician's 
compotenee," it is, of courte, denied by lliosc who nptrd sexual 
abstinence as alwayn harnilfss. If not licncflcial, 1!ut It in alto dmied 
bf mnny who eonstder that, under some eircumstanco. sexual lnter> 
course irould dn f[ix>d. 

Jloll has eapKially. and on many occasions, discussed tlie duty of 
the physician In relation lo th« igucxlion of advising ih^.iual lnt«rcollrM 
outaldi) marriane <p.(r„ in his comprehensive work, .tcrrtlfcfcc Elkiii, 
1002t bIm ZtiltckHJl far Strlslkhn FormUutiff. 1005. Nob. IS-ISi 




Uulltrnchats, 11)05, Ki-ft 3; Unchlwlil und tltsTtUchaft, toI, ii. \lvtl 
8). At tli« niiWt Moll liail hfra diiipoanl In nau-Tl tlii! tigiit »l the 
p)i}-»icUii to iPi-omiDcnd ik^xiiuI inlftvoiiriie under itumi- i-iri.'iiiusluiu.'vti 
"no long as iniirria^ i^ iinduli.''l anil Hfxiinl iiilirmiirM) oiiUitda 
nwrrUgo cxintn." ho wrote lOic Vonlrdrr ScxuaUmpfiadung, hscowI 
•dltlODi p. SItT), "»o lot))!. [ think. wt< iimy \\»f micIi int«rrourii» 
Ownpi'iitlrnllj. provlilrd that tlin rlKhl" of no third pcnton (huiboml 
or wife) N)c injurnl." In all bit luler nrilinft". liowevM, Moll ratigi;-* 
hiitivelr eleari,i- and ilwisirvl^v on thp oppwHc »iilf. lie wnniilcra that 
tItA phptidan lias nn rlt[ht to ovrriook thr poiwiMc iiuiiltit o( Iiih H<Irii-4T 
In inllietiiig venvn-al tlioMkw. or. in th« ohw nt n wuinaii. iirpgnunoj'. on 
tiU patjpitt, and hi- l)^!^!'!-* that thcn^ wrlniii r^^iilt* ar« far moro 
likely to happen tlmn i> plwnyn ndmttlisl by thonn who di-fpod thr 
l«f(i(lmnc.v of mich »dvi(v. Nnr will Moll iidniU that (lie ]>)i,v>ieluii iit 
aitillcd to overlook the moral anpeetn of the qnention. A phyuichui 
may hnour Ibiit n jxior inHn I'unld ubtniii many thingt trmd fur Iijk 
health by itealintt. hnt \\e ennncit ailviup hlni to >ti-iil. AIoll takes the 
<n»« of )i C'ntholie prietl who i>i milTerln); from ui-urnxlli'-nin tine to 
H\uu1 ahitlnenei!. Kven nltboiitib tliv phytjeinn freU certain that tiin 
prJMl niHy be able tu avoid alt tlie riKks of disuase a« well as of pub- 
licity, hn ii not nnlitled to nrgn him to nnxiial Inlerc-oiirw. TTe has to 
raneniber that in Ibiis causing a priest to break bin vowk of chastity 
he mny indniw n mi^tal onnlliet nnd a bilfev rpm»r*e uhtch may limd 
to til* womt resultn. ei-en on bi« pntii-nf* physiuBl health. Bimilnr 
result*. Moll remark*, mny IoIIob- uiit-li ndt le» wViPn fiivcD to a married 
man or womnn. to say nothing of poBiibte iTivorcc ptoeecdings nnd 
neecimpariyiii); evils. 

RoUleder \ V orlrimngfti iihrr OmehlfchUtrirh unit Or.iniFitc-S OrjB-A- 
li»ht»tehrn drr Mtnurhi-n) Adujitx i) ■"iinewbal qiinlitii'd attitude in thi« 
Ulattn-. A* n ijcneral nilo he in decidedly agnin^ letrimmendinji 
■Uual intercourse onttide marria^ to those nlio ure BufTerine from 
partial or tempornri' abstineuee (the only furm of ahatincnee he rceojf- 
nlBCB). partly on the t^iind (hut the evil* of nbitinenee are not seriouw 
or pnrmnnent, and partly becauw- the patient i>t fairly verlaiii to exer- 
cise bia own judgment in the matter. Hut in Home eliiMen of coien he 
rvroinnieRdi mch inte>cnur-e, and unUbly to bi^eniiiil perwion. on the 
l^und that li« is tbui preacrvint; liU patient from the crimiutl rlaka 
of homoBcxual practlcM. 

It BoemB to mu tliat there ahoulil be no <l»uht whatever bb to 
the corretrt proffstiional attitude of the phTsician in relation to 
this iiaestjon of advicr wmcrning kcxiihI intcrrmir^e. The 
phvHidao U nerer eotttled to iidvii« his patient to adopt aexuiil 

tJig-.7<\i C// 




iDtercouryc ouUidu nmrriagft nor tiny motlirx] of relief wliidi ts 
cnmmoBly regarded as illegitimaty. It is said tliat the physician 
liUH notlting to du with coniijdcratioiiit of couvcntionul mornlity. 
If hv rtitiiiidera that champagni? would be good for a poor patient 
ought to recniiJini-nd him to take cliampa^e; he is not 
illwl upon to connidvr whether the palimt will hog, liorrow. or 
steal the rhanipagne. Hut, after nil, even if that he admitted, it 
must still he said that the plivsiciun knowf that the diampagne. 
however obtained, ia not likely to he poiMinoim. When, however, 
he preecribee sexual intercourse, with the same loftv indilTcrem-c 
to practical eon^iderutionit, he has no such knowledge. In giving 
such a ]ire»cription the physician haii in fact not the Ktightext 
knowledge of what he may ho prescribing. lie may be giving 
his pntii-nt n vojieivnl diwasL*; he may he giving the anxictif* and 
respoDsibilitiee of an illegitimate child : the preecriher is quite in 
the dark. He is in the *muv iKinilton as if lie liad preseribed a 
qtiack medicine of which the composition was unknou-n to him, 
with the added disadvantage that the medicine may turn out to he 
far more poU^ntly explosive than in the cjikc with the usually 
innocuous patent medicine. The utmost that a physiciau can 
properly permit himself to do is to put the ease impartially before 
his patient and to prej<ent to him all the risks. The solution 
must be for tlie patient himself to work out. as best he can, for 
it involves social and other conniderutions which, while llicy are 
indeed by no means outside the sphere of medicine, are certainly 
entirely outside tbc control of the individual private practitioner 
of medicine. 

Moll nlso i> of opinion Ihnt thin im|>ar(iiil pr^Hcntation o( tli« vumi 
(or and agiiinvt «o:i;uhI intPTCOurw c(irrwat>Dii<la Ui the plivKlciun** duly 
In llw mnttfrr. It U. tncli-nl. a duty which ran ncarpiOy be eteapfi liy 
t1i» phyiirinn in many cmhca. .Moll ]iniiita out Ihnt it can hy ao ueans 
b« auimilateil. as nnmc have *uppoii<'d. wiUi the rwoinincndation of 
•ntinl intprrauriie. It ii. on the eootrary. he wmarlto, nui'-h more 
■nalc)|p>iiii to thn phy«!cian'« duty in r*(«rnn« to op^mtion*. llr put* 
tM-forp the patient the nutiire of thn opprntion. U< ndvnntaf,'09 and ita 
rlnkii. bill lie leaves it lo Wie pulient'a JuitgDient to neecpl or rrjrct tlin 
oiwration. I.ewilt nl«o tdrtr/ilrrtillirtie EntkatUamkril vnil Of»iinrf- 
hfitMi6riiHjft», I90(t|. alter diK-usting tl>e varioua opiniomi on (Ms 



qUMtlon, comes to tlie coiicl union tlint Ihe plij-aicimi. if li« tliinkn that 

iiilfrcinir'W uuL«i<lu mil it in jf" iiiijj'i* 'f iM'HflU'UI, •lioiilj i>\(il»iii t\iv 
tWSiruUifti hihI ImVR t)ic jinticnt binmt'U lu d<H.-id<!:. 

Tlieri' is luiotlier reason wliy, liaviij^ r(-gBrd to tlio prevailing 
moral opinions at nil events among the riiidiile dussps. a physician 
slioal<I refrain from iidvixing: extra-conjiiiinl intercoiirne: he 
placra himself in a false relation to his social environment. He 
IB recommending ii rcmi'dy llic mtltire of wliii-h lie could nol 
publicly nvow, nnd »wi destroying the public I'onlidenfo in litm*i'lf. 
The only physician who is morally entitled to advise his patients 
to piiter inli> cxtni-conjujin] rcIationdhipN U uiic who openly 
admowledgc^ that he is prepared to give BUth advice. The doctor 
who ie openly working for wxinl reform has perhaps won the 
moral right to givo ndviic in ncrordance with the tendency of his 
public activity, but even then his advice may bo very dnbiously 
judicious, and he would be Iwltir adviwd to conlliic hiit cfforlft 
at social reform to bis public activiticB, The voice of the physi- 
cian, as Professor Mux Fkwh of Frankfort observes, is more and 
more beard in the developmont and new growth of BocinI iiwtitu- 
tions; he is a natural leaders in such movements, and proposals 
for reform prrt]HTly come fniiii liim. '"Hut," hs Flesch continues, 
"publicly to accept the excellence of existing institutions and in 
Iho privacy of tbc consuUing-room to give advice which assumes 
Uic iin[)erfei.<tion of tbo^e institutions is illogical and (Nrnfnsiiig. 
It is the physician'd business to give advice which is in acconl- 
ancc with tin' iiitircj'ts of the community u* n wliolu, and those 
interests require that sexwal relationsliips shoulii be enteral into 
between healthy men and women who arc able sud willing to 
accept the results of their union. That Kboubl be the ^h^-siciun'ii 
rule of conduct. Only so can he become, wliat to-day he ts often 
proclaimed to be, the leader of the nation.'" This view is not, as 
we sec, entirely in accord with that wbicb as«unies that the 
phj-sicinn's duty is solely and entirely to his patient, without 
regard to the bearing of his advice on social conduct. The 
patient^s interests are primary, but they are not entitled to be 

1 Max Flewli, "Hhe. Hygitie uiid S*icuplle Moral." Mullrnchutt. 
IMS. Hrit 7. 





plant] iu antagnnimn to tlif iiik-n^tH of sociHy. Tlie s<lTt«o 
givi'ii by tilt' wwo pliysimii iiitiE>l nliKuyii lie iii lionimny willi tin? 
Boctal and moral tone of his age. Thiis it is tbat the tendency 
amoni; tdc youujior Eiiicratinn of pliy^iciiinii toHlftv Ui tiik* nu 
Active iiitiTOMt ill ruining Hint Uinc nml in promoting flocial 
reform — a tendency which exists not only in Germany where such 
interests have Ion;; been netite. bill hIco in no (jonwrvative A land 
as ICnginiitl — is full of |iruini#e for tin- future. 

The physician is usually content to consider his duty to his 
patitnf in n'lutioiiship to «c\iial ubiitinencv ng sufficienlly fid- 
flUed when he nttcmptK to nlluy ^cvtm) liypern-sthc^ia by niiKlical 
or hygienic ticatmeut, It can scarcely be claimed. Iiowewr. thnt 
flic rmultit of such Ireiitincnl are nsnally (latisfdctory. and some- 
times indeed the trcjitincnt has n icsiilt whiiii ii* the reverse of 
that intended. The (lifReulty generally is that in order to Iw 
efficaeioiis the treatment imii't be carried to nn extn-me which 
exhausts or inhibits not only the genital activities alone but the 
activities of the whole organism, and rfiort of that it may prore 
n stimulant rather than a Kcdntivc. II i:* (filTimiU and UNually 
iinposi-ible to separate out a man's siixiinl activities and bring 
influcnoo to bear on these activities alone. Sexual activity is 
so closely intertwined with tlio other organic nctivitiw, erotic 
exulwinuce is so much a flower which is rooted in the whole 
organism, that the blow which eru^hee it may strike down the 
whole man. The bromides are universally recognixed as powerful 
Kcxual nedativi!*, biH their intlunicc in this respc<-t only makes 
itself felt when thej* have dulled all the finest energies of the 
organism. Pliyicnl exerci»e is universally recommended to 
sexually hypcnesthetie piitii-nts. Yet mort people, men and 
women, find that |)hysical exercise is » positive stimulus to sexual 
activity. This in notably m ii« regards walking, and exubiTanfly 
energetic young women who arn troubled by the irritant activity 
of tlicir healthy sexual emotions sometimes spend a largtt part of 
their time in the rain attempt to lull their activity by long walks. 
Physical exercise only proves efficacious in this respect when it is 
carried to an extent which produces general exhaustion. Then 
indeed the sexual activity is Udled, but eo are all the menial and 

Dig- /fnfiy VMC 



pliyotcnl iictiviticii. IL in iimloultteilly true Hint cxi^ri'W^ ninl 
games of all sorts for young (tiople of both sexes Iiuve a sexuallj- 
bygicnic as well ns n grneriilly tiygioiiiu inltiiriic'.' wliicli is 
undoubtedly iM-neficifll. Thoy nn>, on all grounds, to lie pii-frired 
to prolonged scdtutary occupations. But it is idle to suppose 
lliat games and exercise will suppress tin- scxuni impulses, fur 
in so fsr a^ they favor bpaltli, Uiiry favor all tint iinpiilsi'ti tliat 
ore the result of health. Tlie most that can be expected is that 
llicy nioy tend to restrain tlnj nianiftwtatioRs of sex by disjKrsing 
tJie energ}' thev generate. 

Tliert are many physical rules and precautions which are 
idvocati'd, not without it«>>nn. as tending to inhibit or diminish 
sexual activity. 'Die avoidance of heat and the cultivation of 
cold is one of the most important of theee. Hot climates, a 
rloao attnoapbere, heavy bed>clot)iing, hot batlin, all tend )>owct* 
fully to excite the sexna! system, for that systeni is a peripheral 
H-nsury organ, and whnt^^ver etinuihitcs the iikin geDernlly, 
stimulates tlie sexual syatem.' Cold, which contraeta the skin, 
aUo deadens the tiexual feelings, n fact which the ascctits of old 
knew and acted upon. The giirmi'nts and the posture of the body 
are not without influence, ('onstriction or presiaurc in tlie 
neighborhood of the sexual region, even tight corsets, aa welt as 
internal preii«urc. a* from a distended bladder, are sources of 
sexual irritation. Sleeping on the haok, which congests the 
spinal centres, also acts in the same way, as has long been known 
by those who attend to ncxual hygiene; thu» it if »tatnl that in 
the Franciscan order it is prohibited to lie on the back. Food 
and drink arc, further, [)owcTful sL'xual gtimulanta. This is 
true even of the simplest and most wholesome nourisliment, but 
it i» mora especially true of flesh meat. and. above all, of alcohol 
in iU stronger forms such an ciiiritn. liqueurs, sparkling nn(] 
heavy wines, and even many English bepra. This baa always 
been clearly realixcd by those who cultivnte aseeticlam, and it is 
one of the powerful ri?Hi»on* why alcohol should not be given in 
early youth. As St. Jerome wrote, when telling Knstoehiuni 
that she miwt ovoid wine like poison, "wine and youth are the 
1 Sen (he Seetion tm Touch in the fourth volume of those Stuiirt. 



psYcnoLooy or siut. 

bto firM Df !iti»t. Why iidil >)il In the tlfltiicy"' Idlonc^x, a^in. 
eiipix-inlly ulK-n oombined wilh ridi living, proniutc!! seitiinl 
activity, aa llurton eeU fortli at length in his A natomy of Mehn- 
c/ioltf, and coiiK'tant odniptition, un the other hund, ((Onn-ntratfis 
the wandering ai-tivitie*. 

Mentnl exercise, like physical ^xerciae, has aometimos been 
advocoti-il n? n metlim] of culminjj Bpxual (■;(citftiiOD( . hut it «ceriiK 
to he t^^ually tituivocal in iu action. If it is jirofoundly inter- 
eBlin}! and exciting it may stir up rather than Inll the nexiial 
I'niotion*. If it BroiiKCit little interest it is utmlili' t" overt any 
kind of influence. This is true even of mathematical oceupationa 
which have been advocated by various authoritic«, inctoding 
Broiij«aii!, ait aids tn (lexuni hygiene.^ "1 have trii'd mechanieal 
mental work," a lady writce, ''such as solving arithmetical or 
algebraic pmhlenis, but it doee iio good ; in fact it seems only to 
inereaiie the excitement.'' "I ritudied and eapeeially turned my 
attention to inatiiematics/' a ciergyniau writes, "with a view to 
check my MXiia) t<'ndejiei*». To a certain extent I was Bu<ce»a- 
fid. But at the approach (if an old friend, a voice or a touch, 
the« tendencies ciimu btiek again with rctiewi-d strength. I 
found tiialh^matics, however, the best thing on Uie whole to t*kfi 
off my attention from women, belter tiinn religious evercises 
which I tried when younger (twenty-two to thirty)." At tlie 
best. Iiowerer, such devices are of merely temporary cfRcacy. 

It is easier to avoid arousing tJie !M>xual iinpultes tlian to 
iniposo eileuee on them by hygienic measures when once they are 

1 "I liBVp Iiail two j'pnr*' iOoup i-xpiTlonrp and roitneiioii with Ih* 
Truppisli." nruU- IJr. l!iitti.'rfii;l(I. of Nnliil iltiilith Urdiml Journal, 
Sept. 15, tl)0<(, p. MK|, "holh n< mrdtcnl atlniiiliinl atiil an tx-iiiK a 
l^tliolic in i^tevil myni^lf. 1 liniT ntudivd llicin anil iuicHligutcd tlirlr 
lltr, haliit* nnil illvt, nnil tliouicli 1 ihoiilil bn very {xieVifani in nilaplilig 
it mvDPlf, us nut niiitcd tu nii> iniliviJually. Ilii* grmt bulk »f theia me 
In nViaohitc iilp«l lionlth ainl "tri-nirtli, 8»Iilom ailing. mpHlilf of vn»t 
worli, mpnlal and pliysiuul. Tlicir lifp in very nimplc nnd vrry ri^il'r. 
A lirnlthlrr lioiiy ot men and uvimcii, with p<>rtivl rijiinnEmity of |nin> 

Kr — lliia 1alt«T I lay great hIivm on — it would he dJOiPult tu flntL 
'bUIi brami In their cyra ntiA coiint'iianon snil aelinni. Only in ikk' 
nnu or protonffml joiimi^>-<« aro t)i«y altuwMl any «tTOng looiU— Meato, 
«ggs, etc. — or any at«>liDl. 

aFdrfl. l.'InnUnrl Swucl. w-Tond pdlflon. p. 3W. 

■IHl; F'llitnLKM ol' SBXrAt ABSTIXI^XCE. 


iirouflfd. It is. tlit'rffuic, in cliililliood ami yotitli Hint all Uirtu? 
nicMKim* iiiBj' l»e iimet i-fiisimnbly obsorvinl in order to avoid any 
premature iie^ual excitement. In one group of gtolidly normnl 
childreD inthiencM tilut niiglit lie f\|)»'t(;d to act «oxiially pttM 
away unpcrwivoil. At llie othi-r extreme, another group of 
ehildren are bo Deiirotieally and precociously sensitive that no 
precaiitionH will prtwcrve ttinn from «ucli influences. Bnt 
betwctn tlicsegrniijin there is another, prohahly niucli the largest, 
who refiiat Bli>;ht sexua! mg-rc'tionB Ijul may succumb to stronRcr 
or longer infltu-iu'e*, and on thene tho inreit of siwtial bygicne may 
prolitably be bei^towed.' 

After puberly. when the Kpiintam-oii* luid inner voiec of sex 
may at any moment suddenly make itself lieanl, all liygtenie 
precautions arc liable to bo Hung to the winds, and even the 
ynuUi or niiii<k-ii niui>t un\ion« tu mtnin the idenk of ihaMity cJin 
often do little hwt wait till the storm has passed. It sometimes 
happens tbiit a jirol'nificd period of «0Minl ctonn and strws oetrUM 
■OOR after jiiibei'ty, and then dies away altbotigb there has been 
little or no sexual gratification, to be BiicceedeJ by a period of 
ooinparulivc ciilrii. Il imist be reim-mbi'ri'd that in (iiiiiiy, and 
perhaps most, individuals, men and wonien, the sexual appetite, 
unlike hunter or Ihtrst, can after a prolonged ftniggle, bo reduced 
to a more or lens (piiesii'nt state which, far from injuring, may 
even benefit the physical and psychic vigor gencnilly. This may 
luppen whether or not sexiinl gra(i(l(«tion Iin!« been obtain*^. If 
Uiere has never been any such gratifieation, the struggle is lef 
severe and sooner over, imless the individual is of bighly erotic' 

I Rurnl lifp, a« wi- liiiv«i wvii when iIi««iiMing ita rvlstion to Mxual 
)>r(ir«('ity. is on otte side tlie rcvprw uf n uTi'iiiiartl ftgttlnst Bexual 
inHuoncu. Itiii. on iIip otiipr liaad. iii ho Ur as II iuvutvva hard work 
and «iiiijilr living iindFr (.vtiditidnit tliut n»c not iicrvoiuly stiinuUting, 
it is fnvuinble to n winnMiTitbly Ji^Uywl ifniiiil artiviiy in yuiitli and 
to It rt-lnlivf coiitiiictK't'. Ammon. in the rauric of hi« anthropologieitl 
inmitigation* o( Kudcn Conner ipl*, found thai Hcxual bit»"rw>UT>w WM 
rnr» In tlie eniiiitiv hpfor*' twenty, and even ■rxunl (■missions during 
Hl«ep rare before ninctei-n or (nenty. [t \it Miid, al«o. h« r«p<'at*, thnt 
nn one Im" « riRHl tu run after girls wKo dops not yet parry ii Eun, 
and tile elder IucIji tometlnira hriilntly ill Irt^t any yonngpr boy found 
Ktlnir alMint with a girl. No doubt tliis is ufteu prclitnlnsry to inueli 
license later. 






U'liipcniiiK'UL If tLerc htm bivii gnitifiuitiou, if tLe miiul h 
tiWvxi iu}t luerely with deaircii liut with joyoiiH o.\pcrieiice to wbich 
the body al^o )ia« grown accustomed, tlien the struf^gle is longer 
and more painfully alworbing. Tlie ^iiocwding relief, hoire*-er, 
if it comes, is sometimes more roniplete and in more likely to hv 
associated with n state of pF^ycbic healtli. Fur tbc fundninentnl 
exptTiciiecs of life, under nortnsl conditions, bring not only 
intelleotual nnnity, bnt emotional pacification. A conquest of tUc 
eexiial aj)petiti.'H wliicli bus never at any jwriod involved a gniti- 
fication of lhc»e apiwtitt-ii seldom prwluoen rcaultH tbat commend 
thcmselreB as rich and heautiritl. 

lu tlieso comlmt!< tiune are, bowever, no permanent con- 
qiients. For a vi^ry large number of people, indeed, though there 
may be emotional cliangeH and OiK-lualiouB dependent on a 
variety of lirciimstrtnii!', there can scarcely be Mid to be any 
conquest at all. They are either always yielding to the impulseftl 
that asKuil them, or iilwayit resisting tbowo inipuW*, in the first 
cafie with remorse, in the wnxind with diiiaatiitf action. In cither 
case much of tlioir lives, at the time when life is most vigorous, ia 
wailed. Willi women, if tbey happen to be of strong passions 
and reckless inipulaes to ahandonment, the results may be highly 
enervating, if not disu^trous to the general psychic life. It is to 
this cause, indeed, tbat some bavc iK-en inclined to attribute (he 
frequent mediocrity of women's work in artistic and intellectual 
field*. Women of inteliectnal foree ary fn-tpiently if not gcn-j 
erally women of strong passions, and if ihey resist Uie tendency 
to merge themselves in the duties of maternity tlieir Uvea are 
often wasted in emotional i^mflict and (beir psychic natures im- 

I Tlir num<?rica1 prr|)i>niler«nm! wliieh eelibat* womcB leathcm linvo 
now jtninnl hi tlin Amrrlciui wlioot ojntciii lia* muhcnl iiiiich iiii>>|{iviii^ 
■aiuiit: inuny iuif>nci()UB dbwrvvr*. luid U uniil U> be unmttiiliK-lur;' in it* 
miilla on tlin paplli of botli trxi-n, A (ti-ltiitriiUliv<! Riilhorily. Pity 
f«»ur Mi'Kmii Caltrll ("Tin: St'liool and Ihc h'liiiiilj." Pojrvlar SCTCnr* 
JfmtrUy. Jan., 1t)(lll|, ri'ferriiif; tn tliU prpponiirrnnrf of "iti>vLlaliif<l 
and uniwxiMi ■pinHttrr*.*' ((w« n fur an to my Hint "Ihr. iillitniitv mult 
of Ictlintf th<- rclllMt'* fvinnlv hr tlin imiial toai-h^r ha* lieon ouch bo to l 
mak* il a (juMtii>u wliether it wuiilj not b<^ nn u<JvaiiUi{[e lo (Iw country J 
if Uie whole kcIimiI plant could b« wi-npprd." '^ 

Dy /TO..yCTOO^Ur 



The pxtcnt In nlik-h «r\uii1 ntiilim-ncv anil tlip Mnis)[l<'* It Itiv<>K» 
tnnj hainpvr and al>Mirl> t)ii^ iiidividiutl tliimiiiliKul lifp N wi-tl it1ii«tnitnl 
in tho foHoirinit rnac. A titdy, vi|[Dmiiii. rnliiiit, nnd Krnrrnliy licnltliy, 
uf gTfnt Jntellii^iiiM- mid WgU chuTnctrr. Iiii'i roacli^d miiUlte lift- witlioiit 
ninrrj-inji;. i>r vver hm'mg wxiinl rfliitiiin"h!|i«. Klic <ku» nii only cliUd, 
nnd Bfhcn botupen tlirop and (niir vrnr* of nKP, a pinyinntp nome nix 
ymr* uldvr. iiiiti:iM hvt jnto t)ii> Imliil of pliiying: with livr Hi-xiiitl 
pRrtn. She Win. lioncvrr. nt thU ngr (jnito iWoid of sc-xunl ff*Iinff«. 
and the habit drup]>Rl iiiitur>11y. wUliout any bod cITccts, a* tioon as Bho 
left (he nplBhIjorliofxl of ttiU girl n yenr or to Utfr. Htr li^nllh xroa 
good nnd cvrn brilHuiit, nnd »h<! Ji^vclopnl vigorously nt piiti(-rly. At 
the »gv of Hlxtvi-n. however, a menlul ■h'H'k caukM nien<triuition to 
dlmlnUh in Bmnimt during somn yp.ata, nnd siniiiltnnpoiisly with Ihi* 
diminution ppr«i"t>'nt ocxiihI excitement np|H-nteil H]>i>nlniimiiHly. (or the 
(liat time She Tegardrd suo.h feeling n« ahnnnnnl and iinhmlthy, and 
ercrtfd nil her pnwera of ii-lf-prinlrol in reM!i.linjf Iheiii. lint will jicwer 
Imd no efTfi't in diminishing tlie foelingn. Thiro imi ronitant nnd 
iniperiuus meiteinent, with tti« *entiF of vihralion, tension, preaaure, 
dilatation and tickling. aecompRnied, it may he. hr Homo ovarian con- 
KTition. for ahc felt tlint on the left >idc there wa« n network of aexiial 
ni'oeit. und retrovernion of the ulerii" wa« ilelicterl sonie year* Inter. 
Her lifo wan rtrennou* with mnny dntien. but no oceiipntion could lie 
pnraaed without thi» undrrptirrput of Rtiunl hyprra'-tlienia involving 
perpetual self-control . Thl« coiiliii"<'d more or lem aeiitcly for muny 
year", nhen menatniation andUenly utoppeil altogether, miich befom the 
uiunl period of the cliniacleric. At the same time the nexiial excite- 
ment ceaii'd. and she became culm, pi^ncrful. nnd hnppy. Dlroinlahed 
men«truution was a<iioeiAtMl with -lexuul excitement, but abundant 
menatniatlon ami It* enmplpte nliienee were both neenmiiaiiieil by the 
relief of excilenient. Thi? lasteil fr)r (nxi years. Then, for the treat- 
ment of a tr!lli|]g degree of aniemia. iihi> wa* lubjcrted to a long, and, 
in her ca«e. injudii-ioun course of liypod^nnic Inji'cliotiii of cirychnia. 
From that time, five years ago. up to the prenpnt. there ha* liepn con- 
■tnnt KctunI excitement, and «Uc has ulways to be un gourd 1e>il nlie 
should be overtaken by a (.eMUil x|in>im. Her torture in Incteanei! by tlM 
[act that her Irnditinna make It impoulhle (or her (excppt under vrry 
exeeptional etreumstuneeH ) to allude to the caiue ot her BulTeringH. "A 
«-nmaii [* hnndirapped," nhe write*. "SIip may iievOT speak to anyone 
on mieU a auhject. She mu"t live her tragedy alone, umlling «> much 
U she csn under the strain of her terrible burdm." To nild to her 
trouble, two yenr« ago. she (*It Impelled to reiorl to mnaturbntlon. and 
hu done eo about onee a month diucc: this not only liringt no real 
nll«f, tnd iMmB Irritnhlllly, irakpfnlness, nnd dark mark" nuder the 
(Tca, but is a cauio ol remorse to bcr, (or sh« regards masturbation as 





vutiii'l.v nlinnrmnl nnil uniuttiiml. Slii> bus trinl to Jpiln benefit, uut 
merely by tlia usiial uictliwlH vl p)li)'iji(rti) hj-giune, bnt by auggMtion, 
Christian Sclfnrp, t»tp., Init ill in vnin. "I mny nay," »1ii> wrltoft. "Ibtit 
U in thr iiiUBt pKuJoiulc iknirc uf my bourt to Iw frnsl (rotn tliin boiiil' 
tgf. Il>nt I timy rplHii tlw I<^ri'Lbli< yeum-tutig U-iimuii of T^siiitiiiicc. anil 
be huppy In my own irny. If F liii'l tliU nftlli'tioti oncp > month, oncn 
a (vcek. ficii twiL-c u wpi-k. to iitiinil iigiiintt il noiild 1>r cbilH'x play. I 
■hoiild upom to Ti'Dcirt to iiiiiinliitHi iii*uin'>. Iinwcvir iiKxIcratrly. Hut 
wlt-i'ontiol itflplf iiBit iU rcvcngca, and I Mim-tiuicR teal an U it Is no 
longer to bo bomp." 

Thns wliilc it U an immense benefit in physical and psychic 
(Iwclopiiicut if the eruption of tlif dirturbiiig !:o\unl emotions can 
be delayed until piiijcrty or adolwccnce, nnd while it w a very 
great advantage, after that eruption has occurred, to be able to 
(tain control of tlit-ge emotions, to crush nUogt-ther lli« Re*;tial 
natiire woultl be a barren, if not, indeed, a perilous tictory, 
liringing with it no satisfaction. "If I bad only Iiad three 
weeks' happiness," »9id a woman. "I would not quarrel with 
Fate, but to hare one's whole life so absolutely euipty is horrible." 
Tf aueh vacuous gelf-re^trnint may, by courtesy, be tenned a 
virtue, it itt hut a nej^tive virtue. The pentDUH who achieve it, 
as the result of coij^nitally feeble sexual aptitudes, merely (a« 
Gyurkorechky. Fiirbrinfrcr, and Lowenfcid have all alike re- 
marked) made a virtue of their weakness. Many others, whofle 
iostinctg were less weuli, when they disdainfully put to flight tlie 
d'cKires of wx In early life, have found that in later life tJiat foe 
retnmB in tenfold force and perhaps in unnatural shapes.* 

tOoTTO (Iitf CrtmintI; p. Slil) mrntianii that at tIilrt4<«R priMtt < 
cntrletrd of orFme. «iv urn- icuilty nf actusl attoinpt!i un cliitilrfii. and 
rf alghty-thTMr «mvipt«i Iny ti'«choi». forty-eight hnii mimniilti>d »iiniliir 
offniMi. TliU wan at ■ timi- «lii>ri liiy t*ftplier» were in pnirticp aliiiMt 
CTunpfllpd lo live n cclibntc lifi-: nltcrni lunditiona han iprntly dimin- 
Ithpil t.liis dnK* "f offen-e rnning tlivni. Williout gwiiK no fir h" crimv, 
many marnl and Tnllj^niia nrnn. derKytnPii Bud othnra, who hni'c led 
■pTirfly nlwIJTtvnt IIvfi In j-out)i. M>mctimM rxprrienpe in middle ■(c 
ur Idttr the eruption nf almont, un"int«illnHn lufxiinl ImpiilcH. normal 
or nbnormnl. In Hoin«n iiurh mnnifmtutionii an apt lo take Ihs form 
of obnmional thought* of HPiiinl rharartor, an e.g., thr chip IComple»- 
Ifrnilut t'nnfrfg Intrrnnli'inal dr ilMf^n'; Moscow. IHDT, vol. Iv, p. 21) 
at ■ ehaale voman irlio wn« compelled to think aliout nnd lot* st th* 
•canal organa of mm. 




Tile conceirtioii of "sexual abstinenco" is, we see, an entirely 
fnlee and artiticiul cunLTplion. It it not only ill-udjuek'd tn tlie 
hygienic fm-ts nf tlie case Imt it fails even to invoke nuy 
genuinely moral motive, far it U exclusively self-regarding and 
srlf-«'Htred. It only IjccHnnc* genuinely iTiiiral. unil Iruly inspir- 
ing, wlien wo trnnsform it into the allniieitie virtue of iiclf- 
t^crifiee. When we have done *o we see that the element of 
nUtinencu in it eeatt-s to Ik- essential. ""ScU-Mcrifiee," writi'n the 
author of a thoufjhtfiil Wik on the acxiial life, "i* nckmiwledgi'd 
tu he the ha^is of virtue; the noblest instancce of aelf-^aeriGce 
arc thoKC dietated by sexual nlToetitHi. Sympathy is the secret of 
allrui«n; nowhere is sympathy more real and complete than in 
l«ve. Courage, both moral and phynieal, tiie love of truth and 
honor, the spirit of enterprise, and the ndniirntion of morel 
worih, are all inspired by love &e by nothing else in human 
nature. Celibacy ilenioa itsw-U (hat inspiration or re«trict« its 
influence, according to the raeasarfi of its denial of sexual 
intimacy. TIiuh the deliberate adoption of u consiHtently celibate 
life implies the narrowing down of emotional and moral cxpcri. 
ence to a degree which is, from the hrnad seientifle standpoint, 
unjustified by any of the advantages piously euppoecd to accrue 
from it."> 

In a sane natural order all the impulses are centred id tJie 
fulfilment of needs and not in their denial. Monnver, in tJiis 
special matter of sex, it in inevitable that the needs of others, and 
Dot merely the needs of the individual himr>^'lf, should detemiini; 
action. It it more especiiilly the needs of the femnh^ which arc 
the detennining factor; for those needs are more various, com- 
plex and elui'ive, and in bis altentivenesi^ tu their gratification 
tlie male finds a noiirce of endless orotic natisfadion. It might 
be thought that the introduction of an altruistic motive here is 
merely the claim of theoretical morality insisting that there shall 
be a firm curb on unimal instinct. But, as we hnw^ again and 
again seen throughout the long course of these Studies, it is not 
BO. Tho animal instinct itself mnlcL's this dcanand. It is u 

> J. A. Oodfrpy. The Sfioice of Sen. p. 138. 


fhvciiolouy or »kx. 

bioloK't'^ 1"^* tliat rules tbniughuut the zoological wuiiil nud 
liiu involved llic univcrgality of cmirt*liip. In ninii it is only 
modified bfiauao in man sexual needs are not entirely concen- 
trated in re|)roduction, but more or Icm penctnitf tlic whole ol 

While from tlie point of view of society, as from that of 
Niiture. the end and oljjcct of the sexual impuloo is jirwrcutiou, 
»nd nothing hiy-md |ni>f rent ion, tJiot \» by no means true for the 
individual, whoso main iibjint it must be to fnlfil himself har^ 
uiouiou»ly Willi that dne rcgiird fur ol lii-rit whieh the nrt of living 
deniandft. Even if sexual relationshifis had no cnnuerlion witli 
procreation whatever — aa some Central Australian tribes believe 
— lliey would Klill be juHtifinbtc, und are, indeed, an indii^pensnblo 
aid to the beet moral ilcvelopnient of tlic individunt, for it ia only 
in so intimate a relationship ua that of sex that the hne!>t jrrices 
niid iiplitudi« of life have full jopo. Kvcn the saJnttt cuiinot 
forego the sexual side of life. The beet and most acromplisbed 
saints from Jeromo to Tnlxtoy^ — even the exquittitc Francis of 
Assi^i — had »toretl up in thtur past all the experieocea that (!o to 
tlic complete realization of life, and if it were not an they would 
have been the le« saints. 

The element of positive virtue thus only outers when the 
control of tile sexual impulse has passed beyond the stage of 
rigid and rterile abstinence and has become not niercly a delib- 
erate refueul of what i" evil in MX, but a deliberate lu-ceptnnec of 
what is good. It is only at that moment that such control 
become* a rt'al pari of the great art of living. Vnr the art of 
living, like any oilier art, is not compatible with rigidity, but lies 
in the waiving of a pen^etual harmony between refusing and 
accepting, betnivn giving and t^iking.^ 

The future, it is clear, belongti ultimately to those who are 
slowly building up sounder traditions into tlie structure of life. 
The "problem of «oxuaI abstinence" wilt rttoro niicl more sink into 
iDBiguilicanee. There remain the great solid fact of love, the 
grout solid fact of chastity. Thnec arc eternal. Bciwwn thian 


I Srp. r.y., llnxvlofk Klil«. "HI. Fninel* *bi1 OUi«r«," ifflrmalioHa. 




IwTD m notliio^ Itut liarinuiiy. The development of oiu; mvo1vi?s 
the development of the other. 

It liua been noecttanry to trcnt seriously thie problem of 
"ecxiiol Hbstincoce" becauvc ve have behind iir the trn'litinnt of 
two thousand years based on certain ideala of sexuiil law and 
sexual license, together with the long effort to build up prnetiec^ 
nion; or lese eonditioniKl by those iileala. We cannot immediately 
eeeape from these traditions even when we question their validity 
for oureelve*. W'v hiive not only to recogiiixc their existence, but 
also to accept the faet tJiat for some time to come they must still 
tn u cuiisiderahle extent control the thoughts and even in eoino 
degree Ihe actiom of I'Kintin^ communitice. 

It is undoubtedly deplorable. It involves tlie introduction 
of an nrlitieislily into a iral natural order. T^vo is rciil and 
positive; chastity is real and positive, [tut w>xual abstinence is 
unreal and negative, in tlie strict sense perhnps impossible. 'ITio 
underlying ffelingi" of all those who hnvo einphflMined itf impor- 
tance is tliat a physiological process ean be good or bad according 
M it ia or ix not curried out under eertnin arbitrary external con- 
ditions, which render it licit or illicit. .\u lut of xeiiual inter- 
course under the name of "marriage" is beneRcial; the very 
Bume act, under Ihc name of "incontinence," is perniciou*. Xo 
physiological proccHK, and still letu any spiritual process, ean 
bear such restriction. It is as much as to say that u meal become* 
, good or had, dijtcstible or indige«lihlc, nccording as a grace is or 
[■» not pronounced before the eating of it. 

It i« deplornhic bccauge, such n conception being essentially 
nnreal, an clement of unreality is tIniA introduced into a matter 
of the gravest concern alike to the individual and to soeiety. 
ArtiRcial disputes hiivc been introduced where no matter of real 
dispute need e\ist. .\ contest has been carried on marked by all 
the ferocily which marks contests about metaphysical or pscudo- 
inetnphysicnl difTorcnccs having no concrete basis in tlie actual 
world. As will happen in such cases, there has, after all. been no 
real difTcrcnce between the disputants because tlic point they 
ifoarreled over was unreal. In IruUi each side was right and each 
lido was wrong. 

.... CjI-K.'^^Ic 

2m P8Y0UOLOOY 01? SES. 

It is necessary, ve see, that the balance should be held cveu. 
An absolute license is bad; an absolute abstinence — even tliough 
some by nature or circumstances are urgently called to adopt it — 
is also bad. They are both alike away from the gracious equilib- 
rium of Nature. And tlie force, we see, which naturally holdK 
this balance even is the biological fact that the act of sexual union 
is the satisfaction of the erotic needs, not of one person, but of 
two persons. 





'T. The Orjff.— Tli» Iteligioua Urigiii of llie Orgj- — Tlic Fe«-t ot 
Foot* — Hd-ognitioti o( llie Orgy by Ihe Drt^k* and Koitian^ — The Orgy 
Among Stivugi'B — The Drumu — The Ubjtt-t SubBen-ed by the Orgy. 

II. The Origin and Df-rrlopineril of t'lrttiiliilion: — The Dcflnitinn 
of rroililiili"!! — [Vns tit 111 ion .\inoiig Snvuges — The L'onilitiinis Under 
\V1ilrli Prof i^si nun 1 ProUiluIion Arises— Sacred Proaiittitlon — Tlio RIU' 
of ^lytittA — The PittclicB of Prustilutioii to Ubtuin a Marriage Portion — 
The nine of Swiihir Prortitiitioii In Grewc — I'rnHtitiitioii in the l^it — 
India, lliinn. .Inpun, ot-.'-^Proi.titiitioii iii Ronir^ — The liilliieiice of 
Christianity on Proniiiuiion — The Effort to Comhat Pro«litiition — The 
Unliicvut Btolhel — The Apinvrunee of the CourtMan — Tullia D'Aiagiina 
— Veronica Kiaiipo — Ninon ile J-pii<-l"ii — I.nler Atteniptti to Eradifstc 
ProUltiitioii— The Regulation of Proatltiitlon— lU FuliUlr Beconiiii([ 

III. The Cautfa of J*iostilution: — Prodttiition At a Part of Uie 
Alarria^ Sj-it^ni — Tlie Complct ransntlon nf Prnatltutioti — Tlio Motives 
Auigncd hj- Proslitiitei* — (1 ) Koonomio Factor of Front it nliun — Poverty 
8elJoin the Chii^f .Motive foi' Prootltittion — But Ei-onondi' Pn-iwure EKerta 
n Real Inllnmep — -Tho Ijiigf Proportion of ProktitiitP" from 
Donx'stie Servici' — Significance ol Thi* Fuel — 12) The Biologicnl Factor 
of ProMlliitloii — Tlie So-Tilh-.l Uorn- Kmntltnle— Altegvd Identity with 
the RomCHniinal — ^TTiG SpothI Inatinct In Pr<i«tilnt*9 — ^The Phynicnl 
and P»ychir rharoeters of Pro^lilulrg — n> Moral Neewsity aa a Faetor 
in th' F.xiNteBi'i' of Pro*littiti"ii— The Morul AiKooatea of Prostitution — 
The Moral Atlitnde of ChriJlidnily Towarda Proutitiition^TIi*' .Mtitude 
I'f PnilcBtanlinrii — Recent .Wvoenle* of the Mornl Xet'e«tity of ProBtitu- 
tion — (4) f'lvilinitioniii Value aa a Factor nf Prri*li(ilti"n — The tnilil- 
eneo of Urban Life— The ('rjivinx for Kxritfment — Why Servant-girU no 
Often Turn to Prnatitiition — The Small Part Played liy Sedurtion— Pro- 
■titiitra Come largely from the- roiintrj-— The Appul of Civilisation 
AttracU Women lo I>matitiition— The CorreifKindinK Attraptlon Felt by 
Men — Tlie PrtiKtitiile a* .\rtiat and T-rnder of Fn«hion— Tlie rhnrm of 

IV. Th« PrfitHf Sofial Attitude Tomrdu /VonfifuftOn.'— The Deeny 
of the Brothel — Ttie Tendeney fo the Hiimnniwition nf Proililntion — 
The Monetai; Aapecta of Prostitution— The Geisha— The Hetuira— The 





Morul RcTOll Ai^iiut I'roslitution — Siuulid View Baaed on Luxuriq 
\'irtiie~'niw Onllnary AtUtiido To«.fli.J« I'niMtttiiU-*— It* Oin^ltj- Abmirl^ 
— Tlio Nrccl i)t Ri-foroiitig Pr««tUiition — Tlio Nei-il of ItpforminK Miir- 
riugv — Tlivoe Two Needs Closvly CorrelaW — 'the D.vnauiic bvUtioiMhIps 

/. Th« Org\j. 

Tn-iniTioxAi. morality, religion, nn*l cstabliflhed convwition 
comltiiie to pnmiote not oulv the extifnie of rij;:iil alistineuce but 
nisto tliut of rfL'kl(»ui license. Thcjr iirvudi niiil idL-nliito thci oiiv 
extreme; tlicy drive those wfio eannot aoci'iit it to- ailopt tho^ 
opiKwitc extremu. In Uic gi^at ages of religion it even liappenfl 
tlint Uic severity of the rule of iihal ini'iiec is more or \v*% (leliltcr- 
alely teinpeieil by llie perniimsion for occaainnal outbursts o£ 
lici-n»c. n'o tliuti have the or^^y, nliicli Hourixhed in tiicdiievcl^ 
davH and it, indeed. In Mn hirgeeit M-nse, a univoi-Hal manifestation, 
having s function to fulfil in every orderly and laborious civilixu- 
tinn. (mill lip on nnturnl energii^ii (hat are Imiind by more or [<«9 
inevitable restraintfl. 

The comtidiTution of the orgy, it may he said, liftH us beyond 
tlio merely «e\tinl sphere, into u higlior and wider region which 
bnlongfl t« religion. Thp Greek ortjeia referred originally to 
ritual things done with a religious purpose, though Inter, wfaea < 
itani'Cfr of Bncchanals and the like loKt their vacred and inspiring' 
cliaracter, the idea was fostered by Christianity tliat iiucli tbinga 
were immoral.' Yet Christianity was itwU in its origin an orgy 
of thi- higher spiritual activitios rclitiiw<1 from the uncongenial^ 
Berritude of claasic cirilixation, a great festival of the poor and 
the humble, of the i^lave and Die «inn<.'r. And when, with Uiei 
necessity for orderly iKH'ial (irgaiiiiuition, l'hri.-<tianity had ceased^ 
to be this it atill recognised, as I'aganism had done, the n<vd for 
tn occasional orgy. It appears Ihat in 74.3 at a Synod held in 
Hainault reference was made to tlie Ki-hriiiiry debauch (dr Spur- 
calibta in frbraario) as a pajstm practice; yet it was preciaely 
this pognn fL'Stival which was embodied in the accepted custainft^ 
of the (liriAtian Church a» tlie chief orgy of the ecclcciaxlicalf 

> Si>c. e.g.. CliMlinni'* lIulitMQ I.Mlurt«, The Uutltrirt, Paffim aifd 
ChiUllaa, pp, 123. ISe. 




i-ttcgmt Carnival preliiced ta the long fast of l/ait. The 
m on Shrorc Tueiwlay nnd Iho previous Sunday con- 
stituted u Cliri»tiui) BncdiuDtilian foi^tival in whicJi all cIsmmm 
joined. The greateat freedom and activity of physical niovenicait 
was cncouraRcd ; "some go about naked without ehanic, some 
crawl on all tonrs, iM>mu on stillx, »onic imitate tmimalH."' M 
lime wmt oil tlic Carnival lost its most 8ti'on);ly jnnrkfd 
Bacchanalian feature-", liut it still retains its eBsential cliaraL-ter 
as a pcrniiltc'd and tcniporan* relaxation of the tenainn of rue- 
tiimary rttritraintM and cisiucntion*. The Mwlitwiil Feart of 
Fools — a New Year's Kevel well eatalilistied hy the twelfth eeu- 
turv, mainly in Fianti' — prcscnti'd an expressive pieturc of * 
Christian orgy in it* extreme fomi, for hcR^ the most sacred 
ceremonies of the ('hurcli became tlie subject of fantastic- parody. 
Th« Church, according to Nietmchc's t>aying, like all wise legit- 
ktors. leeognized that ithere ^Teat inipulsea and habits have to be 
cultivated, intercalary days must be appointeil in which tlicoe 
imftulsea and habit* may be denied, and ;"> learn to hungcT anew.' 
The clergy took the leading part in these folic- fceti^'alH. for to 
the men of that age, as Meray remarks, "the temple offered the 
complete noti's of the human gnitiut; they fonnil there the 
teaching of all duties, the consolation of all sorrows, the catie* 

1 Hornin.TT'i Tiuurhmbiick. 1835, p. 255. nnicrtktnngi>. in a chaplcr 
nn I II (-il in; VII I J^hIIviiIx hi IiIa SiiiMmltphra Bauemlrhrn i'mi !a ittr.Uulfr, 
•lioHK how. in tliMc Clirintinn orgies which wero rnntly o( imjptn origin, 
tli» IJeriDiiii pvuplir TpacU'il with liviucniJuii.i iin<l lioiiitrrtmH murgf 
agninut tiin IntioilniiH nnd nionotoiioii* extatenrc nf cvi-niUy lifn. 

3TbiB wttn c.'i«urly tvuliti-d by tlie moru inUlligi'iit iiuliuldcrB of the 
Frftot if t'tMilx. Aii<ili>r« porMiw wi«h(rd to abolUti this Ftodt, and in n 
tvmnrlialilc petition wnt up to the ThraloKlcal FbchII^ of Paris (and 
quoted by Plugel. Qtarhirhtf dm Grotak-KomUohtn. fourth edition, p, 
SM) tha CAM tor th« hVa-t i* thiiti pn-wnted : ~'\V« do this accordinir t« 
anfient ountom. In order tliut laWy. wlilrh i* ■rcoiid nolnrr to ninn nnd 
weins to tie inbum. mn.v at Irit't nnrc a ymr linvc fri-c onlM. Wine 
pRuk* nonld bur-^t Sf ve fuili-d aomctimM to reinov-o ItiP Imriir nnd Irl in 
Air. Now wi> are all III doiind ea*k* anil ImrrtlH which w<iu1d IH out 
tlie wine nf wimlim if Iiy cnnstnnl dPt-olion nnd finr of C-oA «■<■ .illnwod 
It to firmonl. \Vi" intint 1v\ in air lo (lint H may iinl Iw spoilt. Tliii* 
on «omr daj^ we (rivr oiiiiirlr''B up to oporl. *a thnt with tli^ (jrcalpr wnl 
wi" niny 4ifli>rwni(lM i,>tnm lo lli* wnr«iiiii of '!i^l," Tim FraM of Fool* 
win not •tipprriwp') nntil the middle o( thp iii)tlr«ilh n-nluiT-. and relict 
o( It pcrsUted (as at Ais) titt near tli* end o( the eightwnlh ccnturjr. 

ij, Cjckj'^Ic 



faction of all joys. The sncred fvMtival* of mcdia'val Cliristiunity 
vere not a survival from Itoiusn times; thvy le^pt from Uie ^fiy 
heart of Cbrtetiui society."' But, as Hiny admits, all great 
and vi^>ruii« |>fo{>W, of (hi> Ka^l and Div VCvft, have found it 
Dece««ary Mitutimi'H to pliiy with thtMr ^acntl tilings'. 

Amon^ tile Greeks and Itomans this need is «rerii'where 
risible, not only iu tlicir comedy and Dieir literature generally, 
but in evcrydiiy lifo. .\* Nii^Kwiii- Inily rciiinrlof (in hi» Oebttri 
der Tra'jSdie) the (ireeka recognised all natural impulses, even 
those that arc H'ctiiingly unworthy, and tuifi'^iurdcd them from 
working inisclncf hy providing channvU into wliith, one *i>et'ial 
<Iaj-a and in special ritrs. the surplus of wild energy might hann- 
liwly flow. I'lulurL-h. the la«>1 and nioi^t intliicntial of the 
(Jnck moral istji, well says, vhen adrocjiting feiitivaU (in his 
essay "On the Training of Children"), that "even in bows and 
har[w we loown their strings Hint we may h<-nil and wind thfm 
up again." Seneca, perhaps the most ia6uential of Koman if 
not of Europenn morali^, even recommended (xi.-a»ii>nal drunk* 
eimciS. "SoiJietimcp," he wrote iu his Z^"* TmnquiUilaif, "we 
ought to come even to tlie point of intoxication, not for the pur^ 
pow of drowning ourfclvcii but of linking ourwlrot deep in vine. 
Fur it waHbes away cares and raises our spirits from the Inwest 
dcpthiT. The invcnt'ir of wine is called Ltbfr because he frees the 
eoul from tbv servitude of mre, releases it front slavery, 
<]uickeus it, and makes it bolder for all undertakings." The 
Romans were a fterucr and more serious pcojtle than th« Greeks, 
but on that veri' account tbcj- recognized tlie necessity of occa* 
Kiiinnlly rclii\iug their moral fibrcH in order to preserve their tone, 
and emoiiraged the jin-valenee of ff^tivalti which were marked 
bv much more abandonment than those of Ureece. When these 

1 A MOrnr, Ln Vir <tu T'-min <t*» I.ibrr* Prtchfurg, xo\. H, Ch. X. 
.\ ipni'l nnrl wholiirly ai.-ii>iiiil o1 (lie Fcant of Foula i* jiimi \jy K. K. 
t'lianiliiT>, Th'' MriUtrrnl Slngi , Cli, MM. It i* ITiic tliRt tl»- CliiiTch 
ami till' iiirty Fiilhm blten ■nntlii'timtiuHl the tliratrp. But (STi-uory 
of Nn7-iniim>ii iiliilKit fo (ouD'l a Cliiinlinii ItivntT'': (lii* Mnllirvnl Myi- 
tVTin n-cri- ccrluinly iimli-r IIip protm'lEon o( tlif cl<-r((V. ond St. TliiraiaB 
Aqiiinnii, tlic |rri^at>"<t at tlie ocliiMluifu, oul^ cuDdeDuns tlio tli«iitTc wlUi 
rantiuua quMliflcatioDA, 



fcelivula begun to low Ua'ir uioraJ oanctioa an<l to (nil intv i1l'i-ii,v 
the<l<^'iK'u of KoiiiL- liml U'^im. 

All ()V(.'i- Ok wui'Kl, iiikI not i^xcopting llif luui't primitivft 
savigee — for even savage life U built up on a^teiimtic con- 
Btraints wbicli sometimes neetl reIa.vntion — the principle of the 
orgy tB recoKnize"! "mi actrpti-il. Ttiiis SpciiCT juid Oillen 
IdcMribe' the Xnlluigiirti or fipo-ceremony of the Warramiinga 
tribe of (Vntral Autttralin, a fostiviil taken part in by both aexes, 
in which aJI the ordinsrr rulee of social life are brnki-n, it kind 
of Saturnalia in which, however, there in no sexuni license, for 
rtexual liecnHc is, it need ^<-arci-ly lie i^aid, no esumtial pnrt of the 
(orgy, cicn wheo llie orgy lighteue tlie burden of sexual con- 
rttniintd. In a widely dilFcrent part of the world, in Britiiih 
Coluniliin, the Snliiih Indiana. Hcconling tn llill Tout,- believed 
that, long before the wliitei ciinK-, their antct-tor* observed a Sab- 
bath or Bcventh day ceremony for dancing and praying, na8enib< 
ling at sunrise and dancing till noon. The Sabbath, or peri- 
odically riTLurring orgy, — not n day of tension and constraint but 
a festival of joy, a rcftt from all the duties of everyday life, — 
has, as we know, formed an ciwential part of many of the orderly 
ancient civilisations on which our own has been built;''' it ia 
highly probable tliat the stability of these ancient civilixations 
.was intimately associated with their rccngnition of the need of a 
Sebbttth orgy. Such festivals are, indi'wl, n* Crawley observes. 
proceseeB of puriScatioa and reinvigoration, the elTort to put nfT 
"the old ninn" and put on "the new man," to enter with fresh 
energy on the path of everyday life.* 

I Spencer and GiUeti, yorthcm Tribrt of Cenlrat Auftralla. Ch. XtT. 

ajtmrnal Anlhrapolnglciil hifHlulif. Jiily-Dcp., Ifl04. |i, 3211. 

a WeftUTiliiir'k \On;iin unrf Drrcluprntn't of Ihr Moral Idraa. vol. 
It, pp. Sa^'Di uliawii liu»~ nidcKprruil ii llii> ciialom of telling n|mrt n 
pciiudical Tcsl iluy. 

*A. V^ l>a«lev. Thr Ui/Kth Rage, pp. 273 r( »fii., Crnwlpy brings 
Into nuocinlion with thin fimrtiun of grcnt f»tivnU tli« cualoni, tottnil 
in soini- partv of tlir world, of fxchmifpni; vvirrs nl tlie-x' time«, "It Iibs 
nntlitnti vrhnti-ver lo do nltli tlie timrriagn *]'>teiii. necpt m lirenklnj! it 
for n *L-iiian. wempn of fnrbiddrn dffrr"" Iwinn tent, on the (nitip grounda 
(in tonventionn and ordinnrv relalionB are liroken at fesllimU o( the 
Batumnlin tj'pc. th<i objrct Mna to eTiniifrc life nnd irtnrt nfrrah. by 
pxrliniittlnc nv-r.v tiling on* enn. hIiiIp tin? viry art of cxebflni»' ("oIiu'IiIpk 
with llic otlii't drtirc, to wpM the community tngrlhcr" [lb., p. 410). 



psYciioLOtiT or »\at. 

Tlie orally U uii inslituliun wliicli by no iiiiww limt iU «iji;niR> 
caiice only for tlic past. On tlie poutniry. (Ito hipli ti'nsioit, the 
rigiil rmiliiu-. the gniy iniinotony of innilfrii life iiii'ii'U-rHly caU 
for tnorm-iitii of organic rf lief, though the ]>rec'isc form that that 
orgastic relief tukee niu^^t noct^H^arily diangie wiDi oIIkt soeiaX 
chnngfit. Aa Williclm von Ihiitibnldt KaJil, "jiixt ii>^ nii-n nird 
sufTering in order to become strong so they need joy in order to 
k'come good." Chnrlwi Wai^ier, in^iiiting more rocontly (in his 
Jtunfissf) on the«muenevd of joy in otir iiKHliTn lifo, regrristhnt 
dancing in the old, free, and natural manner lin^ gone out of 
fii«liion or l»ecoin« wnwlioleiinni'. Paming in indwd the mont, 
fundiinienlal and primitive fonii of tlie orgy, and that which moBt 
completely and healthfully fulfils itH object. For wliilo it is 
aii(loul)t<>dly, ail we see even tiinong nniinaU. a iinHn>«s by which 
sexual tumeseence is accomplished.' it Ijy do means necessarily 
bcconipfi fociiwicd in scjcunl detuinewcncc but it may itsMf become 
a di'tuniMcent diBfliarge of accumulated oner|j>'. It waa on this 
account that, at all c-Tcutit in fomier da.\')', iJic clergy' in Spain, on 
moral grounds, openly encouraged the national passion for 
dancing. Among cultured people in modern times, the OTgj 
tends to take on a purely cerebral form, wliieh is less wholesoine^ 
bccann) it faita to lead to harmonioua diiichargc along motor 
channels. In these comparatively passive Torms, however, the ^ 
oTgj tends to become more and more pronount-ei] under tlie con* 
ditiona of eiviliKation. Arutotle's famoua titatement concerning 
the function of tragedy as "purgation" seems to be a rccojinition 
of the bi'neficiiil effects of the orgy.' Wagner's music -dramas 
appeal powerfully to this need; the theatre, now as ever, fulfils 
a great function of the same kind, inherited from the ancient 
days when it was tlie ordered expression of a se-vual festival.^ 

I Sro "The Analyil* of tlirr flncunl Inipiilw" In vol. Ill of IheM 

>(9. Marrar, Anriiiml Orrrk t.Utfaturr, ji. 211. 

>Tlie Greek dTBmit probably Mtnv out of a fi>lk*Ic>iilnil of iiior<> or 
1m* mkuaI chnracter. and It is i>vi>n tviull>lt> thni Ihc mM!:rval dmma 
had a Mnncwliat Bimilnr ori|cin {ten VkmnWioa. TUe Or-rk Tticalrr; iVih 
bert Humjr, tec. rit. ; K*f I Pwirwa, TKt VboMfi of Ihvlh, v»L ti, pp. 
laa-O. 280 rt .(,.). 


Tlie tlioatro, iudci'il, ti-iids ul ttio ]>rL->'i.'itt tiiui- to aiwuiiic a Itir^r 
importance! itml tn npiiroxiiuate to tlie uon^ serioua dramatic per* 
formancea of claeeic davs by being truDisferred to the day-time 
and tlie opcu*air. France hns especially taken the iuitintivv: in 
tlicse ]M>rfrtrnianrcB, analogous to the Dioayaiac festival* of 
antiijuity and the MyEtcric^ and Moralili'>s of the Middle Ages. 
The 1110%'tMnL-iit lifgaii wiiuu yuur« ago nt Orange. In 1907 tliere 
Vfxe, in France, as many aa thirty open-air theatres (Th4Atr«i de 
)a Xaliirf,'' "Tlieiltrcs du Solcil," etc.,) while it is in HfineillcB 
that tlie Hrxt formal open>air theatre han been enacted rime dav^ic 
days.* In England, likewise, there has bi-en a great extension of 
popular intcrwt iu driimatic piTfoniiunti'n, and ilic newty Insti- 
tuted Pageants, carried out and taken part in by the population 
of tho region commemorated in the Pageant, arc fcfdivals of tlie 
same character. In Knglnnd, however, at the preiH'nt time, tJic 
real popular orgiastic festivals are the Bank holidavH, with which 
may be awnciated the more oct-asional celchrationif, "JlaiTckings," 
etc., often called out by comparatively ineiignill<-ant national 
^GTcnta but still adequate to arouse orgiastic eniotion» us genuine 
[aa those of anti<piity, though they are lacking in beauty and 
'n'ligiouB consecration. It is easy indeed for tiie narrowly austere 
person to view such manifestations with a supercilious smile, but 
in the eyos of the moralist and the piiilosopiier thcito orgiu]<tic 
festivals exert a salutary ajid [ireserrative function. In every 
age of dull and monotunou* iimtini- — and all civilization involves 
such routine— many natural impulses and functionn tend to 
become supprcsj'ci!, ntropliied, or perverted. They need tJiese 
[moments of joyous exercise and cxpnssion, momentM in which 
pihey may not necGBsarily attain their full activity but in which 
' they will fit all events !«• iihle, a« Cyples expresses it, to rehearse 
their great possibilities.- 

I It. Cnnndo, "!*■ Chnr^(tP^ ['rancaU." J/erMire de Franoe, Unr I. 
1110T. p. IMo. 

a "Tlii* )*. in tiipt." Cypltn [|M-lur(>« ( r*' Proer** of Uumnn 

Bxpfrienrr, p. 7431, "\n'» itrml function — (o rcliw>rsi> within ii« gti-utrr 

[ ep>inli<: posflibililioi. tn hnliitiintc UN to larger net unlixii lion* of pLTional- 

llj- In ■ ritdtmptitnr.v mnnnM." «n,l mi to aTOimi'. "niin1r«sly biit spkn- 

tllilljr, the 8beer m yet nnfulflllcd possiliiUtiPt within uk." 

ij, . . ..CjIKH^Il' 


//. The Origin and Urcduiiinfnt of Progtiiulion, 

The more refln^tl foniiB uf the orgy flourish in civiliiaUoQi 
although an ncrouut of tii«ir mainly cerebral chnrncter they arc 
not Hit' iiKwt bwidifcnt or tlic iimst rfTw-tive. The mor», 
|irlmitive niid muM-ulnr funns of Ihi: orgy tvnd, on the other 
hand, under the influence of civilization, to fall into (ligcrcdit 
and to hv m far nit jiDSHiliK- .*uj)]iri.'Mi>'l idtngf-llier. It is jiartlyl 
in this way that civilinition encourages prostitution. For llift 
orf!:y in iu priinitivu forms, forUiddi-n to stxiw iUolf opvnly and 
rfitutably, aeekg the <hirkni>a^, and allying itself with a I'unda- 
mental inetJnct to which ciriliaed society offers no compicto 
legitiintitc i>ati#r«etion, it firmly entrenclics itdclf in tlie very 
centrp of eivihxeil life, and tJiereby constitutes a problem of 
imuieusc diiTu'iiity and imjiortanci'-' 

It is cnuinionly «iaid that prostitution lian existed always and 
ewrywlien-. Timt statement ia far from correct. A kind of 
■miteiir prostitution is oci-usionally found nniong eavngi.-i<, but 
Dtualt}' it is only when harbariiim iti fully dcvelope<l and h already 
approaching the stage of civilization that well developed prosti- 
tution is found. It csiiits in n systematic fonn in every civilixa- 

What is prostitution ? There has been connidcrable diecu>- 
sion ng to the nirnvt definition of prostitution.^ Tlio Roman 
nipian said that a prostitute was one who openly abandons her 
body to n nutiibcr of men without choice, for money.'"' Not all 
modern delioitions hove been so satisfactory. It is sometimea 
said a prostitute is a woman who ^vos herself to numerous men. 
To be sound, however, a detlnition must be applicable to both 

I ICvcn wlii-n niunutotiuui labor i> ■ntc^tln't1lnt, It In nol tlivri'by pKf J 
UxtrA ngninit ilrgradiiiK orgilaktlc re>Otion>, Prot. U Gurlitt iihawai 
(/>!> Vriir (ItFiriatwn, January, 11)0(1. pp. 31-11) liow tliP stri-nuous, 
iiiiii'mUtiiiK Inldlcolunl work of PrustiBn N-minarW Intdt nmnnK Intli 
twK'ln.'n anil neholam to tlio wont forms of thp orgy. 

vRiiliiitaux diMTiMBM luriouK dpHiiilion* of prnstilution. Dr la 
fVcwfilulion rn Ktirtipf, (»p. Ilfl rl teq. For llie oT\g\n of tlie tminpit to 
■lff~if[nAti' til* i>rn«titiito. net Sehndpr. Rratlrrei-vii. nrt, "T!riu.>li infer in." 

3 DigrH, lib. xxKI. tit. II, p. 41. If she only p^vt tieneU (o oae or 
two |)rrsuu», tlioush for monirj. It wn* not pnutltiiUun. 






sexes alike and wu sliould certainly beeitate to describe a miin wlio 
had ec-xunl iiiUTt'utir»e wJlJi inniiy wuiul-d as a prostitute. I'hc 
id«a of venality, ttio liitentiou to Hell tliu favors u( tW body, is 
eesential to tlie conception of prostitution. Thus Uuyot defines 
a prostitute dm *'a»y pcivon for whom »xual relutionships are 
mibordinated to gain."' It in not, howe\'er, adequate to define a 
prostitute eimply a» a woman who sells her body. That is done 
I'von- dny by women who become wivt-s in order to gain a homo 
and a livelihood, yet, iinniorni ax Huh conduct n)uy be from any 
high ethical standpoint, it would be inconvenient and even mis* 
.leading to call it proslilution.^ It U better, therefore, to define 
a prostitute as a voman who temporarily selU her Hexiial favora 
to various pereon«. Thus, according to Wharton's Law-lcxtcon 
a protititute in "a woman who indii>criiiiinat('ly conttorti* with men 
for hire"; Bonger states that "those women are proatitutes who 
sell their bodies for the o.\crotM.- of sexual act» and make of thie a 
profi-fBion" ;* Richard again Atates that "a prostitute ic n woman 
who publicly gives herself to the first comer in return for a 
IKCuninry remuneration."* As, finally, the prevalence of homo* f 
sexuality has led to the existence of male prostitutes, the defini- ' 
tion must be put in a form irrespective of sex, and wo may, there- 
fore, say that ti |)riii4titutc is a perKin who makes it a profcBaion 

1 <iiiyot. La PniHiiiuliiHi. p. R. Tlie elnn^nt of i-mnltty U e&wnlinl, 
and rcligioiu writrri (like Itobcrt Wardluw, D.D., of Eiliiihurgh, in IiIh 
lAvliira Ofi f'cinate Proililuiion, 1M2. p, 14 ) wliu dvflur pruBtiliition aa 
"th« llliftt IntrrcoiiriiP of tlii- wxm," auA si,-noiijnnon4 witli thiologicnl 
"fflrriiealion." tall into nn aliMird conluainn. 

9"Suct> marriftgcs nrf •nmoliini" •llj;;nialiie<l sh 1i>pnilin'd pronti- 
lulion,*" TPmnrks Sidffwipk iit-rlhadu of Klkio', Bk. iii. Cti, XI). "bul 
tW phrnw i" fpit to be extraca^nt anJ pnrmlojiipal," - 

3 HotigT. CriminaUlf •■! Ciinilillcri'i Uronoiniriim, ji. 3T8, Bon- 
pfT bt'lk'vvo tlial t)io net of pmstitiitinn in "intrinsically ^uul Id tliat 
of n innn or woriiun wlii ccmdni-lB a iimrriiign fur wonoiiiiml rpuamw." 

* B. Rlclmrd. io Proitiiulion <l I'mU, IfiHO, p. 44. It may hv qiiwi. 
tion^d whrthw publicity or nntoriety stioiiI<l form nn ««w-ntliil pari of 
tli» delliiitinn; ft nwiii", Iiowpvi'r. to Iw involve'), or the pmstltiit* can' 
not obtain diiita. Rpiiss sIbIps thnt she inii»(, hi nddltion. Ii" «liifil«l«ly 
without means of oittioiifcni'i'; Ihnt is Por(»lnly not («»<-nliiil- Nor \* 
H ttfettmarjr. ma the DiV»( insisted, that tlio art Hhoiild bi' perfoniird 
"without pleawiT*;" tliflt mny lie ns It will, witliout BfTrcUng tlie 
prtMUIutional nature of tli« act. 

. ., Cjt.K.''^lC 



to gratify the lust of viirious puroODe of tlio oppoeite ees ortr 
Baroe «cx. 

It u M«i-iitial tlinl Itic ni?t of proKtItutlou olioitlil be liabitiiully pcr- 
foritifiJ with 'Vnriouii p«son»," A mtidohii who gaiaii her living hy Iwing 
iiiintiVHi U> * mill, h) whom ahc U fnitlifnl, h not a prattltiiU. although 
Hho often boconu-j one aftvrwunl'', and niny have btvn one btrfure. The 
vuct point at which a woman bcginn to b« a |iTi»litiili> i'^ a iiii>rHiion of 
cnn*iilcrab!r imporlnncr in roiintrirB in nliiirh prastiliitrn nro >ul>Ji%t to 
reginlTBliuii. Thus in B«rliii, uot long uiuu. a girl who wan uiintrPMt to 
• rich cavalry ofhrcr and aupporteil by him, iluring tli" ItlncHu ot the 
oIHcrr nccidentilly met a mnn wlioui sIio hud formerly known, nnd oner 
or Iwicv invllod htm to 9«! her. ie<'piving from liim pren^titu in money. 
Thl« noincliOH- ™ini> to Ihp knowltMlgi' of the polico, and 8li« won arinteil 
nod ■entciiccf) to one dny'i irnjiriannnient n* an uiiregiitcred ptuiititule. 
On np|n-4i), however, tli« «enlenae was nnnullrd. LiimI. in his Ulralrrcht, 
InyK It down thnt n girl who ohlain' whole or part of hir Income from 
"(ixed relutioiisliips" i* not practicing unchuitity for gain in th« tenm 
of th« German law {Ovsohlocht und Oeaelkcltott, Jabrgnng 1, Heft 0, p. 

It id not altogether cony to cxplam the origin of the system- 
atized professionnl profititiition with tlio oxistonce of which wo 
are fsiniliar in civilization. The amateur kind of prottitntioii 
which hiw «ometimce l»ccn notod among primitive pixiples — the 
fact, that id, that n mnn may give a woman a present in seeking 
to pcrfiuade lier to allow him to have intpreouriio with her — ia 
renlly not proxlilntion n« wc undciKtnnd it. The pi-esent in such 
a case is merely part of a kind of courtship leading to a temporary 
rrhitionKhip. The wmnan more or le«( rctnini her §orial position 
and iii not fnn-iil to make an avocation of selling herself because 
henceforth no other career is poMible to her. HVIicn Cook tame 
to New Zealuud hi« men found that the women were not impreg- 
nable, "but the tenns and manner of compliance were as decent 
ue those in marriage among us," and according "to thoir notions 
the agreement wag as innocent." The consent of the woman's 
friends was nececaary, and when the prelirainnries were settled 
it was also neceflsnry to treat this "Juliet of a night" with "the 
camtf delicacy as is here required with the wife for life, and the 
lorer who presumed to take any liberties by which this was 




violated viae sure to be disapiioinleJ."' in some of tlie llclan- 
esJan Inlands, it is Biiid that woiik'II would wimctimi'^ bpwiiiio 
prostitutea, or on account of their bad conduct be forced to 
become prostitutes for a time; they were not, however, par- 
tieulnrly dos]iisfd, nnd when tliey bad in this way accumulated a 
certain amount of property tbey could marry well, after which it 
would not bo proper to refer to their forincr career.* 

Wliai proBtiiution first arises among a primitive people it 
eometimes happens that little or no stignm ia attached to it for 
the rensoQ that the community hug iint yet bi'caiuc occustoincd to 
attacli any special value to the presence of virginity. Schurti! 
quotes from the old Arabic geographer Al-Bekri some iutcrciitiiig 
remarks about the Slav*; "The women of the Slava, after they 
have married, are faithful to their huBbands. If, however, » 
young girl fulU in love with n muii tihe goe» lo bitii and HatiaHes 
her passion. And if a man marrieii and finds hia wife a virgm 
he suya to her; 'if you were worth anything men would liav« 
loved you, and you would have chosen one wlio would have taken 
away your virginity.' Then he drives her away and renounces 
her." It is a feeling of this kind whtcli, among some peoples, 
leads a girl tn be proud of the presents she baa received from her 
lovers and to preserve them as a dowry for her marriage, knowing 
Uiat her value will thuK he Htill further hcightcJied. Kven among 
the Southern .Slavs of modem Europe, who have preserve<l much 
of ilie primitive mrxual freedom, thi» freedom, as Krauvs, who hss 
minutely studied the manners and customs of these peoples, 
declares, is fundamciitnlly dillerent from vice, licentiouEnese, or 

Prostitution teitd« to ariK, as Sehurtx has pointed out, in 
every society in which early marriage is didicuU and iutercourso 
outside marriage is socially disapproved, "Venal women every- 
where appuir Si! soon as the free sexual intercourse of young 
people is repr(«8ed, witliout the necessary consequences being 

I UawkMworth, Aroount of tlir Voyagr*. etc. ITTS, vol. il. y. 264. 

a H. W. CuilrinKtoii. The itclaarmiana, p. 235. 

a P. S. Ktriiw, S'ltnaninclu: flrlichvngvn, 191)3, Ji, S90. 




ipipctled by iiimininlly early inarriag«."' The rcpreMion of 
H'xunl iiiliiii»i'k')i DiiUitk' iiinrrlu^- iit n |)1ii!n»iiii?noii of civiliza- 
tion, but it is not itself by any means a iiieusiire of u |)L'ople'« 
general level, and may, tlierefore, begin to appear at un early 
p^riofl. But it is tni])ortaiit to rcniembcr lb«t tlie primitive and 
rudimentary forms of prostitution, wben tliey occur, are merely 
temporary, and freqnently — though not invariably — inrolve no 
ilugrnding influence on the woman in public estimation, some- 
times indeed increasing lier valne as a wife. The woman who 
M'lls herself *for money purely as a professional matter, witboat 
any tiionght of love or |>aiwi<in, and who, by virtue of lier pro- 
fession, belongs to a parinh clasa detlnitely and rigidly excluded 
from the main body of ber sex, is a phenomenon wliich c«n 
seldom be found cxoept in developed civilization. It ia alto- 
gether incorrect to speak of prostitutes as a mere survival itom 
primitive times. 

On tbe whole, while among MngM sexual relationsliipe are 
■omotimes free before marriagB, as well as on the occasion of 
special festivals, they are rarely truly jiroiniscuoiM and still more 
rarely venal. When savage women nowadays sell themselves, or 
are lold by their busbundt', it bus usually been found that we arc 
concerned with the contamination of Knropean civilization. 

The deltnite ways in which profcj^tonal prostitution may 
ari*e arc no douht niany.^ M'e may absent tn Ihi^ gmi-ral principle, 
laid down by Schurti!, that whenever tbe free union of young 
people is impeded under c»nditioni> in which early marriage is 
a\fo dillicult prostitution must certainly arise. There arc, how- 
ever, different ways in which this principle may take shape. So 
far as our weslvrn civilisation is concerned — (he civilization, tliat 

lit. SrhurU, Altfmiliuiii-n vnd iUinncrbandt; iS02, p. IflO. In 
tliia work ScliHrti bringn logpther (pp. ISB-201j ■omc cMiiipl™ of th* 
gn^a of {iron Lit II lion nmonif |iTliiiitl«i- pe-)!'!*-, - Uaiiy fnrln unil reftr- 

enOM «r»- vivi-n by Wi-^trrmnrck {Jlitlory of Human il'irriage, jjp. 111! 

tl »eq., nncl Origin and IhieUipmtnl of lie ifofui Ideat, vol, ii, pp. 411 
et arq. I . 

^Rschuren (inore MprcUllj In Jii« Mutterrwht nnil Slagi- ton 

Tanai/vil) nrgunl t)>nt eveu rw1iK<<>ii* pnwtltiition apniiiK from tho 

ri>*lnlHiii« of nriuiitiiT inatinctn to tht iiiditridualiiatioR of love, C{. 
Ruberlwn Smith, Bflighn </f Bftnitr*. SKonil «(litSon, p. 09. 




is to sfl_v, wliicli }in« iU vraiilo in the Mwliterranc-an hnsin — it 
would fieeiii that the origin of prostitution is to be found pri- 
niariJy in a religious (ruatom, rcltgion, the great coojicrvitr o( 
sociiil truiIitifliiE, preserviii); In a traniifnrmed shape a pnntitive 
frei-ilom tiiat was passing out of general social life,' The typical 
example i« iliat recorded by Hcrodntus, in the fiftli century 
before Clirift, at the tt^inple of Alylitta, the Bahylonian \'enu8, 
where every woman once in her life bad to wme and give licrnelf 
lo tltc finst elrunger who tlirfw a coin in her hip, in worahip of 
the godde»a. Tlie money euiilil not he refused, however small the 
amount, hut it was pivcn as an o0ertory to the temple, and the 
woman, having followed the man and thut; made oblation to 
Mylitta, returned home and live<l chastely ever afterwards,^ Very 
similar customs existed in other parts of Western Asia, in North 
Africa, in Cyjjnis and other islandw of the Kiinlcrn Mediterranean, 
and also in (Sreece, where the Temple of Aphrodite on the fort at 
Corinth possessed over u thoiisund luerodulcs, dedicated to tha 
Bcrviee of the goildcss, from time to time, as Strnbo states, hy 
those who desired to make thank-offering for mercies vouchsafed 
to them, Pindar refers to the hospitable young Corinthian 
women miniatrants whose thoughts often turn towards Ouraiiia 

1 Whatever iiiR Tcnsiin may Ik-, tliere can be aa doubt tlint tliero i* 
tt widpAjurvHtl U->i(kiifj* ('>i' r>.'ligiiiii mid proailtiiiiMi to tit niaociutf il i H 
in pcMiiibly tu winic «it«nt k spwivl vwie o( tlint KcncrRl rannpctlon 
bvtHMn t1ii> r^ligiout and wiual impuIsM wliirli luis Ik-vii ■Jtwuncil dw- 
whcrc (Apponiiix C to vol, i o( tlicse Sludim). Thiw .\. li. Kllw, in his 
book OH The Eiif-upvafiing Pfoplva of Writ .\friea {^\y. 124, 141) Htulca 
tlint licrc wniDcn drdicatt-d tn a |^l bifonic promiiipiioiiii pronUtatn*. 
\V. (i. Suinii^T ( f'o/tipoj/ji, Cli. XVI ) brin^ tii|^rtli«r many tnctii conwni- 
iiij( the «ldi- dUtrihiitlon of religion* prontltiitlon. 

a Hortxloluii, Bk. 1. Ch. CXCIX; Bnnich. r\\. VI, p. 13. Modpni 
•cholar* roiillmi tticr nlalviuFnU of Herodotus from Uie atiidy of Itnbyloii' 
Un lil»nitiit»> thiJUgli Sii<'lincil lo deny tlmt fliyimis prn»t)t.iit.ion 
cm-iipicd Ml InrtiP B plncp an li<> gltva it. A tiiblFt ot the Gilgumiuh epic. 
Kccurdiiis to Murri* Jnnlraw. tc-ii-rt to proatitutes ns btlciidunl* uf Ihu 
fcnddfts liilittir in tlio pity fnik lor Er<*hl , which wni tliuo it ri'iilre, niul 
pcrhfip* thn cVirt rpntrs. of tin' ritsi dp-cribfd liy n'-rmlotiis (Mrurl* 
Jontrmv. The RrHgtnn nf BalmUinin and AiMirin. IHM. p, 4751. Nhtar 
w»« tho goAAfiat of fiTtilllv. Ihp (TTPiit motin-r RrKldi^". nnj tlie pivn(iliif« 
iiVTt Diivtivvtet, nttnohcrl ti> Iinr worship, wlio look pnrt tn pirrnionirB 
jnti-ndcd to »ymlinliiW' f>-rltlily. TIic-m- prii^titPw-M "1 tKlitnr vifrv known 
by tli^graera) oami^ Kadiabtu, "tli<^ holy one*" (op.cit,, pp. 485. 6601. 




Aphrodite* in whose tumple they burned inccnec; and Athoueuii 
mentions the importance that was attached to tJte praycra of the 
Comitliian pros>ti(iitcs in nnv nntionnl calamity-' 

We »ceni liere to be in tlie presence, not merely of a relig- 
ionely preserTed sunivat of a greater jicxtial freedom formerly 
existing.^ but of n upeoialiKed nnd rltuAllKcd dirvelopuient of tJiat 
primitive cidt of llie gciiprativc forcos of Nature which iiirolvcs 
llic belief that all naturni frultfiilnees is associated with, and 
promoted by, acts of human sexual intercourBfi whieh thus 
acquire a religious eignilicance. At a later stage acta of eexual 
intercourse liaviug a religious significance becomp specialiised and 
localized in temples, and by a rational transition of ideas it 
becomi'H bcIie%V(l tliat such acts of mxva] intcrcource in the »crv- 
ice of the god, or with persona dcvotitl to the god*« wjrviec, 
brought bcucfits to the individual who performed them, more 
cspi-vifllly, if a woman, by insuring her fertility. ^Vinong primi- 
tive peoples generally this conception is embodied mainly in 
seasonal festivals, but among the peoples of Western Asia who had 
ceased to be primitive, and among whom traditional priestly and 
hieratic influences had acquired very great influence, the earlier 

1 It ia UDuul niiionK moil«ni writers to uaaucUte Aphroilito Pan- 
demon, riitli'T thnn OiirunlB, with vciml or nroiriiiciimiH Bcxiiulity, but 
thin U n oumplctc mifllHkc, (or the Aphrodite randpmoe was piiTpljr polite 
lesl flnd liail iio ectiinl »i(|:iiili«>iiKi.-. Tlie Diislako wiin intTUiliiu(>d, prr- 
hapa inlcntintinllv. hy Plata. It lia« hft-n kUgftnti^l tliut thnt nrcli-ju^' 
rIit, wlio <ii»likvJ <l«>iii>jrTntiF idi-npi. purnoHfly Bought to prrvirt ftnd 
vul|pirl7i- the ratircpti.rii of AphriHlite I'anikmoa (Farnell, Cutli of Qmrk 
Stattm, voL ii, p. 460). 

SAthenipitK. ttk. xiii. van, XXXII. It appears that the only other 
HHIonIp enmniiinlty wlinrr the tomiilo cult Involved unrhniitltj wan a 
eHy of the Lofri Kjiijwphj-rii (Fnrncll. op.cit., \hi1. ii, p. fi:ifl). 

' I do not snj- an enrJi<r "proini^piiity," for (he (iH-ory of a primi- 
Uv« acxiinl proinis'-iiity i- now wiilely di-ereilili'd. thoii([h Ihere can Ii« 
no nMiwmnhln dniiht thnt th" i-nrly |ircfnli>iir(> of mother- right wna more 
favorsblr to the sr-xmil fri*iIoni of womea thnn tho later palriarrha! 
nynleiti. Thus In vrrv purly Egyption diiyn n woman foolil rIv* her 
favor* to any man she c^how by nendliiir lilm Iii*r Bnrm»Tit. eveii if »he 
were inarrlMJ. Tn time the |pt>ni:h of the rif(h(* of men lpd to this be'mtt 
r<^rdpd nn crimlnni, Imt lli' prlMtwrn^ of Ami-n ri'tainrd the privileBis 
to the )n«1. AH IiFing under divine protection (Flinders Pvtrit. EgyjitiaH 
Talet. pp. 10, 48). 




PR09TITCTI0N. 231 

generative cult Iind ttiua, it seems probable, nnturally chaogcil 
iU form in bccomiug uttaclicd to the t«nipk'i<.i 

The tlic.orj lliat religious proitiLutioii dMrc1o|H.>d, a* n general nilc, 
mil of til* lH>Ii«f tlml the ^'n^Hlive activity of liiiman b«liig» poAMAsed 
k myiti^rlaiii nnil unrrail InfliiRRi-o (n promotiiiff tho fertility of Nnlur* 
^■ncrnlly titOmB t<i liavr berii lir>t not (orUi by MiiiiiiliHrdt in liM Antik« 
Wald- unit FrlJk-iittu (j-p. 283 et W7.I. It I* ftiipportcd by Dr. F. 8. 
Krauna ("BdwhlnfnutllbunR niK KulltiancUiini;." Anlhropophj/tria, vo\. 
Hi, p. SOl, wlio refi>r« In Un- "ijfni llrnnt fiict thitl in liarueli's tiiii*. at A 
pnrioi) long nnicrior tn Uirodolii*, nacrcil pro*titiitif>n took plow undur 
tlie tTvcs. Dr. J. (i. Kraiu-r Iih« more- fnptviiilty Ot^*FlopiTd thtii concep- 
tion of thn orl^ii of niorod pnwtiliilioii in hi* Arlonu. Alii', Oririt. lie 
tliiia Hummnriw* hia timi^hy diicumion: "W* may concltido that k grent 
>fntli>-r Godden*, the |>i>r«onificiitl<iii of nil the ri-prodiietivi- eiicritiN of 
nature, wiu vorihipprd under different nnm». hut with n iiul»lantial 
similarity of myth iind ritnul by many people* of ueiitpni A^tn; thnt 
UKuiciatnl witli her wii« a lover, or rnthor nerien of lover*, divine yet 
ninrlnl. with wb<iin hIu' niii(''d ymr by yeiir, their roininerro bclnft denmrd 
CKoentinl to the prripnKution of nnJinnlM and pinntf, mtrh In th'lr scvvriil 
kind; Hiid further, tlint the fiibuloun union of the dirinu pair wai sini- 
uiated, and, n> It wrre, innttiplied on earth by the nuil, tlioiigh tem- 
porary, union of the human wxe* at tlie mnoetudry of the gnddess for 
the Mike of thereby enonring llie Iriill(ii1ne»« of the p«iind and the 
iii(-ren»e of mon and lieaot. In eoiir»i' of time, an the in*titiitlon of 
individual mnrringe grew in fuvur. and the old {-oinmunisrn fell wore and 
morn into diai^rndlt, the revival of the ancient praelire, even for a flln([le 
OooMion in u uoinun'H life, beoamc cvi>r more repuj^nant to the moral 
MOM of the people, and aeooriHii(tly they r«*irled t" vsrioii* expdients 
for evading in praetiee the ohligalion whieh Ihey ntill ueknowlrdged in 

thaory Iliil while the majority o[ women tlius contrived to 

observe the form of religion without nacriflcing tlieir virtue, it wtts fltJII 
tli'iiight nec-p«»iiry to the )ii>neTHl weKnre Ibnt a ''erlnin numher of them 
should diBchargi? the old oblijpitiim in the oUl «ay. These becumo 
liro'litulef, either fur life or for n term of yeari. nt one of the tpmplei>: 
dedicnied to the icrvire of rell)[inn, Ib^v were lnvi-»ted with a wered 

I It should be added tlint Faniell i-Tlie Pniitlon of Women In 
Ancient ReliKion." Arehlp fiir Rrtii/ionmnsiKniphaft. ]!I04. n. M) seelM 
to explain Die rellfrioui prostituliun of Babylonia as a apeciat reli^oue 
modilication of tho citntom of deHtroyinir virfrinity liefore marriage in 
order to ufeguard the hiubnnd from fhp mvi'te dnni^-rs of defloration. 
E. 8. Hartland. nlw ("Concerning the Rite r( the Temple of Mylitta," 
X a r&rO]9of orient Ksuntja I'mfntnt to K. B. Tji'er. p. ISHl. nuRKTsts thnt 
thl« wna a puberty iit# eonneeted with eeremnninl denoration. Thia 
theory ia not, however, gcoemlly accepti-d by Semitic Echolnrs. 




oliaiA^tcr. nnd their rooation, far from being deemed intamou*, was 
probublj- lunj; rvgsrilnl by the \aUj nt an fxriviiic of more tliiiti coiildiuii 
riTtti«, anil mvitrdrd willi a tribute of mixed ivondcr, Tpvcrnicr. ntid 
pity, not unlike that uliioh in some purls of tlir uxirM i* itill iinid to 
women wlio Bpck to honor tlieir Cmtor in n ilifTirt-nt way by rMionnciiif; 
tlio DAturnl liinrtlnti'^ nf Dirir vx nnd Iho trndiri'tl ri'tnlinn* of liiimnn- 
itjr" (.T, G. Fi-awT. AJo«iji. Alti», Oniu, IWOT, pp. 23 «t »eq.). 

It w difficult to reti^l tbe winrlunion tluit tlii« th«iry ri^irnicnta 
tb«i rentrnl mid ]>rinii(lvi> iilpn wlilrli led to tlie dcvelopiiu-nt of wrrcil 
proilitntion. It ir-mu pqnnlly dpor, hnwcvi-r, Hint m tjmo went on. nnd 
eepMlnlly h« tfinpto viiltn di'vvlii|)ed <ind pHcitly inHuenir incriv«>il, t.Iiii 
fundnmcntal nnd primitive idea t''ndcr) to bcronit' inodifimi, uiid evvix 
traDBformed. The primitivL- i.-oiii*]>lion broump (piwiulizcd in Uie belief 
that rf1i)(ioii« Miefila, nnd Mii[iflfiii1l_v IW gift of fruilfii1m-wi, wtie 
gained III/ Ikv irorthij'jin . wlin thiu mnglit the gnildesfi'* favor by an 
art of uncliHHtily wliiidi miglit be pr(>><univd ti> be ngreenblo to an 
nnchniite drily. The rit« nt Mylittn, aa dracribril by IIpTodotuH, inw » 
late dei'elopment of Ibif kind iu nn nncienl i-iviliuiliou. nnd the bcnelil 
•ouKlit wnn evjdi-ntly for tlie wombipptT henuilf. TliU liax Ijeen pointed 
out bj Ur. ^^'(■nt<'^lla^<'k■ wlio rcinnrki lliut tlie words ipoken to the 
vomnn by lier partner na lie Kite* iiiT the rrtin — ''May (he (toddnit bo 
niMpicioiit to tlieel" — thenrnelven indi<-ut« Ihal the object of lli« aet WM 
la injure lier fertility, nnd lie refers rIho t>j tlir fact (hut ■trnngrrn fre- 
quently had a nemi-iupcTnatiiral chaiHeler. nnd their lietielllqa ipedally 
«lficaoioui chanicler (H'e»lerinnrck. Oriyin nnd Drvflopmrnl of Ihe Morol 
litrat, vol. li. p. -(4(11. It may lie added that the ritn of Mylitta thus 
brenmo nnnlognim with another Mediterrnneon rite, in wliieh the act 
of liuiulalin^ iiilereonroe nitli the repTi-nentAtii'e of a god. ur hi« inuige, 
ensiirml n woman'* fertility. Tliia U the rite pmelieed by the F^-plInna 
of ilendoa. in whieh a trtiinnn nent lliroiigh tlie eeremony of Himuiated 
inlereonrse witli the uirrtd goat, regnrdnl aa thi? repmentAllve of a 
dellT of IMnlike ehnmeter (HeTOdotus, Itk. ii. tli. XLVt; and «fl 
Uulaute. Dm Dirinilta Oftitrairiets, C'h. II i vf. vol. v of theae Krudi'n, 
"Erotic Symboliimi." Rret IVi. This riUt wni mflint«in«d by Roman 
womMi, ill i<ODii«rtioii Willi the Btatiieo of Priupiw, to a wry muoh Intur 
date, and St. Aninixtlne mention* how Itoiiiim mnlrons plneed tlw young 
bride on the ereet member of Prinpna lOe Civilalr Dei, Itk. iii, Ch. IX 1. 
The idea rvidrntly running Ihruiigh this whole group of phenoiTienn in 
that the deity, or the reprenentative or even were Image of the dnlly, 
)• able, through n reni or aininlnted net of InlerMiime, t« e»nfer on the 
Worahipp«r a portion of ita own exalted genemtivA activity. 

At a later perimi, in Corinth, prostltutee were still the 
prieatesses of Venue, more ur less lootiety attactieii to tier 



tciuplei^ and ho long aa that was the case tfacgr enjoyed a con- 
siderable degree of C6t«cin. At this stage, hoverer, wo rcalute 
(hilt religiouH prostitution was developing a iitililnritut »'n\v. 
These temples flourished chiefly in sea-ooast towns, in islands, in 
large cities to wliieh many stratigere and sailon; came. The 
pric)^le»!teM of Cyprus hvimt incense on her nltiir* «iid invoked lier 

[ sacred aid, but at the same time Pindar aiidreasea them aa "young 
pils who welcome all grangers and give them hospitality." 
3« by side with th« retigioua significance of the act of genera- 
tion the needs of men far from home were alrimdy beginning to be 
deliiiitely recognized. The Uabylonian woman had gone to the 

it«mpl« of Mylitla t<i fulfd a personal religious duty; the Corin- 
thian priestess had begun tn act as an nvowc<l minister to tlic 
SC.iual needs of men iu l^t^ange cities. 

The custom wliich Herodotus notttd in Lydis of young girix 
prostituting themselves in order to acquire a marriage portion 
which they may dispose of as tlicy think fit (Bk. I, Ch. 93) may 
very well have developed (as Fra/er aljio iiclicves) out of religious 
prostitution; we can indeed trace its evolution in C>'prna wliero 
eventually, at the period when Justinian visited tlie island, th« 
money given by atranxera to tlie women was no loiig<r placed on 
the altar but put into a chest to form marriage-portions (or 
them. It is a custom to he found in JapAn and various other 
parts of the world, notably among the Ouled-Xail of Algeria,' 
and is not necessarily always based on rcligioui- prostitution; 
hut it obviously cannot exist cxovpt among peoples who sw noth- 
ing very derogatory in free sexual intercourse for the purpose of 
obtaining money, so that the custom of Mylitta furnished a 
natural himh for iU^ 

t The girls of tills tribe, who arc rc'iiinrkHbly pretty, after npnnjtng 
twftor tlii^v.v-rarH iii tlms ftma«"itiR a lillle ilowry, rctiirii lioiiie U> Uiarry. 
Mid are «■!<! to moke moilrl wives nnil niotlirrn. They nru lipjierllwil by 
Hertiieraiid in P»n'Ut-niicbftt«l*t, La Pnjutitulion A Paris, ii. p. 839. 

a 111 .\liyk«inin (arroTiHlItt to Flax'lii. Urilith ilrdienl Jrntrnat, 
Mnrcli in. 1897 ), n-heri' proatilution Huh iiltvari bwn bi/l<l in liipli i-^tci'in. 
llie proBtitiiten, who arw now "iibli-ct to mi>.liwil <>xainlitatIon tuico a 
wci'k. »lill nitnch no illngrnn- t"> thdr profennioii. and cn»ily finil hiu- 
bniiils BflfrwsrilM, Pnttt'r iSohnih and Raulrm. pp. 108 *( »tq.) ffirM 
rp(eren™i m rrRnni* r>*oplp«, widely <!iiiporMil in the OM World anil tlie 
N«ir. aniline ulioin tlie youiig woiuea Uave practiced prustilution to 
obtain a dowry. 

IJ, J- /'•:!!>/ 



wyciioLOHY or swc. 

I As a more Hpiritual conccjition of religion developed, and 

\ as tlio growth of L-iviliztitioii traded to dupnvo ircxual iDlercourHO 
/ of its sacred lialo, religioiiH prostitution in Greece vm dowly 
! abolished, Ihotigh on the coasts of Asia Minor both religions 
prostitution iind pro»litiitiou for the purpotte of oblnining a 
marriage portion persisted to the time of ('on-atantine, wlio put ad 
i-nd to these ancient ciistoniH.' Siipcretition vas on tlie side of 
the old religious prostitution ; it wa« believed that women v-lio 
had never saenllced to Aphrodite became consumed by lust, and 
according to the li^gend recorded by Ovid — a legend which eccma 
to point to a ccrtnin antngoniun between Huered niid xt'cuhir pros- 
titution — tliis was the case with the women who first became 
public prostitutes. The decay of religious proiititution, doubtUwt 
tumbinod with the cravings always bom of the growtli of civiliza- 
tion, led up to the first establishment, attributed by legend to 
Solon, of » public brothel, a purely secular putablisliment for a 
purely secular end : the safeguarding of the virtue of the general 
population and the Incrciuo of the public revenue. Witli that 
institution tlie evolution of prostitution, and of the modem 
marriage sj'stem of which it forms part, was completed. The 
Athenian dUterion is the modern brothel; the dikltriade is the 
modem state-rcgulatffd prostitute. The free hi'tttirtr, indeed, 
subsequently arose, educated women having no faint of the dik- 
terimi, but tliey likeu'isc had no nllioiul part in public worship.^ 
The primitive conception of tlie sanctity of sexual intercourse in 
the divine service had been utterly l<wt. 

A lnir\y typical exninpl« of tlie eonditioiw existing among ^vngm 
Is to 1m Tnund In tlie "Soiitli Sra Ulnnd of Kottinia, wll■^^e "proslitiilion 
lor money or ^(U waa quite unknown." Adultery alter marriage was 

'At Trallea, in Lydi», pvi-n in Uic ifcond wntury A. D., as Sir 
W. M. ItsmMj nolet {Cilir* of Phrnpia. vol. I, pp. D4, 11»). sacred 
pronti tilt ion wai ulill sn liunornblc nrncUcn (nr women of |ii>nd birtli 
who "f«lt tlieninplvM enllvd ii]«>n to live the divine lif« under the influ- 
cncw o( dlvlnn jnaplrntlnn." 

>The grsdiml iwcnlarl7n(:on of proititntlon from ita rnrlicr re- 
ligious form liDK lieirn trnced li}' vnTiuiis WTltern |)>ee. r.g,. I)upuue,v. Ln 
Pmtlitution rfon* VAnliiiutU). Tlie enrllHt eomptimentar;- rrliTrncv to 
llie Ifttaira in literature is U> hi- fuuntt, ncooTding to Beaecke (.Inti- 
tnachM* if Coloptutn, p. 30), In BaccliylidM. 



mbn uuknonn. Kut there wa* grut fn-cdum in the fonnnticm of (■■xiiiil 
TelxtionxliipA bvfore niArrlage (J. SlAiitvy (.iiirdinrr. Journal Anthro- 
yalog'wal In3tiiiilr, Februnry, ISSS, p. 409). Mudi thf sumo U hnld ot 
the Bantu lla mboU of diries (op. oil., Jul.v-DMi'iulwr, lOOQ. p. 410). 

Among the Mrly ('j-rari of VN'iiIm, TcprcimtinK n mor«i aJvAn(«d 
■orinl mtugc. prontitution oppeara to have been not iib«olu(ely unknown, 
but publiu prontiluliou wn« piiuUhed bj- \aif» at valiiitli!i< privili'geM iK. 
D. Holt, ""Miiniaiiff \mv:» ond ruslonis of the Cymri." Jour»iil JnlAro- 
jiological Intlitult. A ugunl- November. 180S, pp. 161-103). 

Prokliliilioii wnM priiolii-ally unknown in RutmAli, and regarded an 
■liBmrfiil belorn the coming of the Kngti»h and the <rxani|>1e of the mod- 
em Hindus. The niiBBion«rie9 have unintrntionally, b«t inevitably, 
farar«d tlic growth of prottilution by cuiidc inning free unioiia {Srchiva 
^Aiilhrt>polngic Crtminrlle, Nmemlier. 1003. p. 720|. Tim Engli*b 
brought pros ti tut ion to India, "lliut wan nut ipeeially the fault of the 
Knj[liab," Miid n Itralimin to .fulrs Bols, "it I" llin erime of yntir civillut- 
tion. Wo have o«-er had prostitutca. I mean by that horrihio word 
the brutnlixed «i>rvant« of tli# giVM desire of tlie pniMerby, \\'v bud, 
and wo hav*. miile* of ninger* and dniici'r* wlm are mnrried lo tree* — 
y»B, to tree* — by loucPiing erremonie* wliich date fr^m V'edic linieBj our 
prlMtH ble«s them and rni?etvn niueh mnnny fmni them, They do not 
rcfuK themselves to those who loi'o them and pleaw them. Kings havo 
mado them rieh. They represent all the art«: they arc the vii^iblo 
beauty of the unicerse" (Jiilen Boio. I'lsionji df I'ladr, p. 5S}. 

Itcllglous proatituten, It may be added, "ttin nervanta of Vie gai," 
are eonneeted with ttinplen in Soullii'm India and the Deecan. Tliey 
are dernled to their wierrd culling from thi'Jr eorliiiiit ypar*, and ft l» 
their ehicf buninem to dance before the image of the god. to whom they 
*re marrird (thouith In I'pper India profeailotial dandnn; girU are mar- 
ried to innnimatn ohjeeta). hut they urn niao tmjnnl In amuping and 
AMUaging the desire* of devotee* who eoiiie on pilgrimage to the ahrine. 
For the lirtrolbnl rit<-* by which, In India, iuieri<d pronlitut" aro oon- 
•eerated. nee, e.g.. A. Van Gtinnep. ffi(™ dt Pauagf. p. 142. 

In many parU uf Wi>iit'i'n A>in. whiTp bnrl>arl*tn had T««ehcd ft 
high atngp of development, proitlitution wa« not unknown, though itaually 
diaappmved. The Hebrew* knew it, and the hiatorimi Bllilieal re(i>r- 
me** to proBtitutf* Imply little rnprol.ntion. -Tephlha wan the son of a 
proatitut«, brought up wtth the legitimate children, and the story of 
TftnMT ia instructive. But the legal oodes were extremely ncTPro on 
JewUh maiden* who becamv prontltutei (the olTeoBe was quite tolerable 
In ttrange women), wliils Hebrew moralists Mtereiwd thfilr inveetlvea 
a|caln>t pm*tlliit|nn: It I" cuCilelenl t" refer to a welt-known pa-mage in 
the Book of Proverbs (nee art, "Ilarlot." by Clieyne, in the Knriflopirrlia 
Blbliea). Mahoiopd alao severely ooudemncd pro«tttutlon, tliough some- 

U ,J " z "vJ .:■/ 




wilut iiiord tolerant to it in >luv<.> n-omcn; accoriling to Tlal^by. liotrnver. 
proatituliun uaB pmvtkallj- unknown in lalnm duiiiig iho first cvnturici 
utter tlic I'roiiliprB tinw. 

Thu IVrsiiin ndbvrcnts uf tlie laniRwhat auntie Zfndavata aira 
km-w pTuetitutluii, nii'! i>-giiril>-il it willi ■•'puUioii: "11 is the tiuln [tl"-' 
coiirtfMin, no an ini'aniaticin oi tl>v (rmnlp ilcnion. Gnhi), ^^pitltnlu 
Zorutliuoti'n ! who nii:KD iu her the ared of the fuilhful nnd the unfnjth- 
ful, of the u'Onhippvr ot Mamhi and Ih? womliipper of the Dmao. of the 
nickoil nnd Ihv TSKht<<oiJ>. Iltr look dries <ip otie-third of the mlghlir 
Hoodn thnl run from tlip mmintnlnR. O Zaritthiijitrnt her took within 
onv-third of llie beniiliful. Koldi-n-hued. (powing pInntK, O ilarntlmsira i 
h«T look wilhert one-tUinl of thv «lri-nglli u( Spentu AriTmili (the #«rth]; 
and her toiich wlthfra in thi> fnilhdil oitie-thlrd n( lit* gn^ thonglitu, i>( 
hi» gixnl won!». of liin good deedn. one-thiid of hit fltrength. of hU vie' 
torioii* ponrr, ol hi> holineM. ^'erily I x»y uiilo tliep, O SjiEtama 
Zaratbuiiirn ! Kieh ereBture.* oinght to bi- killwj pvpn mute thnn Klidinj* 
*nsk<'H. tliKu liotvliiig n>olves than the shc-ivulf that tnlln upi'ii tlie fold. 
or than the shefiog thnt fnll» npon the watpm with tier tlimiwindfold 
hrood" (Zend-AvettH, th« Vf'lidail, tranBialed by Jiiines Ditnneitt«t«r, 
Farfad Xvmi. 

Ill prHeliee. however, pru^tilutlon ii wll entiibllnhcil in the modern 
Kant. Thnn in lli' TArtnr-Tnrconinn region liouxp^t nf proatilntion lying 
outaide tiie patho frequented by ('hrinliiinn have bei-n dewrilied hf > 
writer who Appearn to he welt intoriiied ( "Oriental iorlic Prontitntion," 
Gruchtefhl uiid Orafllmrkatt, 1907, Bd. Ji, Heft It. Tlie*e houMs are not 
leimrdi-d ut iintnoru] or fc>rb[dden. but us pbiees in whieb the vlollor will 
find a wciDinn who gh-e* him (or a fow hour* the illiuiun of being in hi« 
own home, willi the pbiinure i>( enjoy iiiji; her Hunpi. dance*, and recil«- 
tlono. anil finally h'T Ixidy. Pnymi'nt la nia<tc at thr door, and no nubM- 
ijneiit qiintion uf money ariaesi tlie vinitor U heneeforlli among (riend*. 
iilnioAt an if in hi4 own family. He treat* tlie prootltiite almont a* if 
•he were hli wife, and no indpeorimi or eonr»enewt of xpeeeh oeeur«. 
"There in no obwenily in tbe t>rientu] brothel." M the mme time tbrrD 
U no nrl.illeial pretmei- of innoeenee. 

In Ea«ter[i A^iii. ninon;: the peoples of Mongolian tiUfk. vapecinlly 
in China, we And prostitntion llrmly eotablinhed and orfpiniied on a 
prurtienl buBines* bogii. Vrosti till ion i> here oeeepted and viewed with 
no wrioii'i dinfaiur. hut the prontitule her»;lf i". ni'verthelom, treated 
with eontnnpt. Vonng rhlldren are (reqiii-iitly »old to be trained t« a 
life of ptuDtitution. ediiented oeeordinRl)'. and kept Muit up from Iht 
world. YounjF widows (remarruige being diwtpprovedl fT«|uenlly alno 
tJide into m life of prostt till ion, ChineM prontitulci «ft«n end through 
opium and Uie raragm of lyphilli l»ee. r.«., Coltman's Th« Cklnrnf, liton, 
Ch. VII). in nnelenl Cliina. it Is wid prontittitca were a superior 




I >nd orcupif^J a poiiilign soiui-wbat similRr to that of the lietainr in 
QfWCt> Kvwi ill iiirxlorii (."liiiin, lionxvcr, wlietv Ihi'y iiri- vrry nunivtMii^, 
nnd Uic! Ilowtfr Iwatu, in wliicli in lownt by llio hpu liny iiMiiilly livt?. 
very liucuiiouB. it i« eliicflj' for (■iiti^rtJiiiiiiiriit. ui-'corHing to some wtitcrR, 
that they nrv iv»urt«^ to. 'IVIinng Ki Ton);, niililsry ntlneliA in Puns 
(aa qiiotril by Piou and RurlvN). dcvrlbm 1lii> (lovrrr bout bh less 
KUklogoiui tu u Kuropran brothd timn ia a cajf ckanlani ; (lit young 
rhinnmnn coRicii li<-rp (or mnwc, for Im. (or agrnrable convi-rwiiion wiih 
the Ilower-muidpn*. «Ilo «rc by no mrani llt^cessu^i1y cntlnl upon tg min- 
Utft to the Imt o( tlirir Tl»itor». 

Iti Japan, lliv [>ro«tiltL(«'s lot ii< not so ileKraJi'd na in China. T)ic 
Krnatnr rclinrincnl of -lapani'iir civlllxation nltowk the proxtilutp to 
TL-tjiiii u highvr degT'^ <>' ii'lf-raBpci^l. Slir is aometimes rcgnrilnl irlth 
pity, liLit l««t ott^n wltli roatampt. She muy aMocifttt opt-nly wit]i men, 
ultiuiutvly be iDurried. even to men o( girad soeinl elan*, and rnnk lU a 
rpDpeetalilti woman. "In HilliiR (mm Tnkin to Voknlinnm, Uf [mnt win' 
ter," t'olttnnn oliwrres [op. oil., p. 11:1). "I unw a piirty of (our youni 
men and three quite pretty and |^ily'|>aiii(eJ pru^titiite*. in the ume 
eiir, who were having a gloriaii* timr. Th*y hnd two or thn* bottlen o( 
fariouB liqiiuTfi. ordc^ei. unJ (Hney enkcv. and thiry ate, drunk and Ming, 
beitidea playing jokes on eiwh otiiir anil (rotirkiiig like so inniiy kllt«nR, 
Vou may travel the whole tengtii of the (.TiineBo ICinpirp nnd nrvtr wit- 
neM »tioh a Bcene." Yet the historj- o( Ja])«ne-e pruttitiitea (wUieh baa 
bwn writli-n in nn interMlinji ami wi'll-iTi(ornn'd liook. Thr Xiplillrtg 
Cily, by an Pinglish iiliiib'nt u( •u'.'iulog\' «'ho rciunina anonyniuiiH) Bhciwn 
tlint priMtitijlion In >ln|)nn hn'i not only hi-en flnvcri'ly n'iriilntKl, hut 
very widrly looked down upon, nntl thnl JupanpM pii>iililut» hnvn oflpn 
had to BUiliT grviitl.v: they were at one l.iiiii- pruetientty slaves ami u(lcn 
trenlwl with miieh hardiihip. They ni.' (ri'o now. nnd any conilltion 
npproaehing «lavery in atrictly prohihiti-d nnd guiirdcd a),-)iiniil. It would 
seem, however. th«t the pnlmieat dayn o( .Iiipanew pionitutlon Iny sornn 
eentnrlen bark. I'p to the middle o( thn <>i)thtr*nth ppntnry Jnponeae 
proMitutea were highly Beconiph'»h«I in sinpni;. duiieiiig. nia*it, eto. 
Towards tlii« period, hou.-ver, (hey iwi'iii l« have declined In nneial con- 
sideration and to ha<e eensi'd to lie well edncnlcd, Yet M'en lo-duy. na)'* 
)[alignon ("Iji l'ro»titutioii an -Inpon." irehifct d'.inlhropiiU/j/ie Crimi- 
nfllc. Oetoher. IdOMl, \i~,» inrnniy ntlacht^ to pr>wtilulion In Jnpiin than 
in Europe, while at tlie MHie time there I* I"** immornlity in Japan 
Uian in Kurope. Tliongh prostitution is orfjinised like the postal or 
telegraph nen-fcc, there U also mneh Hnndnitin'' prn«(itution. The 
prostitution quarters are elon, beanlKuI and wflt-kept. but the Jspanene 
proiilitutM have 1o«t mnrh of their native good taste in costume by try- 
ing 1(1 imitate European (n-hlon*. It was when prostltnlion li.'gnn to 
I decline two centuries ago. that the geiahan Br«t nppeared and wen 



ai'SUiiixM In «uoh a waj* thiit tlirj' sliould not. If poMihIf, compels ss 
[iruHtitutf* witli thn (itrogtiucU uuil Ik-vuteil iiiliiibituulii of the Voshi' 
wnra. as Ihc quuilCT i» I'lillfd Ui whk'li ptoxtiluti^ ntv roiifiiiH. Tbv 
geiaba^ of oomw. are not prostitutta. though thi>ir virtue niny not 
alwaja be imprrgtmblc, Biid in social posilioii thej' corrupcnd to 
octrcxai^B in Eiiropi.'. 

lu Kurca, at all evenU belort Korcn fril into the handu of tho 
Japanrip, it irould >nrm that (livre wna no dintinrtton lirlwmni lh» 
claaa uf d*ndiig KirU and |iraiiUtnt<>«. "Amntiji the coiiiteMiiio." Angu4 
Ilnmilton atalo*. "the mental abililin arc Irained anil developed witli a 
view to inukinj; Ihvm brilliant and mlvrlHiniiig cumpiiiiionn. Tlieoc 
'IfiaviM of BUnliglit' are eatled ywiii'ny. anrl i'(>rre«poiid to the grislisK of 
Japan. Offlelnlly. they aie atlacheil to ft dcpnrlmenl of ({nvamment, ttnd 
pre oontroUed liy a bureau of their own, in common with tlie Court 
musleiana. Tliey are mipporlvd from the national trpannf^. and Xboy are 
in pvidcnrp at ottieial dinners and all ]>hI*(w i-nli>rtaliiiiirnt«. Tliey rend 
and reeites they dante and »ina; thry beeome aecompli>licd arlista and 
mu«ie|aiiit. They dr""(i with nceplionul la»l«>: (h'-y miive with excwd- 
Ing grace; they are delieate in a[>|iearniii?e, very frail and very human, 
vary trtrder. s.vmgiatlirti^, and imanjnntive." Biit thoiigli they are «r- 
lainly the preliiert woiripii in Korea, raor* in the hightrnt aoeirty, and 
might bceoine eoncuhiim of the Kmperor. they are not allowed to 
marry men of gnoil rlais (An)irii!i Hamilton, Korea, p. 52). 

The Iiistorj' of Kuroppan proatittilion, ad of «o many other 
modern itiBtitutioDB. may properly be eaid to begin in Rome. 
Here til tlie oiitHet we Hlrcady find thnt i neon* Won tly mixed 
attitude towards proatitution which to-day is still preserved. In 
Greece it was in many respects different. Grcitc wa* nearer to 
the day# of religions prostitution, and the sincerity and refine- 
ment of Greek eivilization made it possible for the better kind of 
prostitute to exert, and often be wortliy to exert, an influence in 
all departuKiit^ of life whicli xhc ha* never been able to exercise 
since, except perhaps occasionally, in a much sliglit«r degrw, in 
Prance. The course, vi^foroufl, practical Hoinan was quite ready 
to tolerate the prostitute, but he was not prepared to carry th«t 
toleration to its lopcal results ; he never felt Iwund to harmonise 
incon«ijitcnt facts of life. Cicero, a moralist of no mean order, 
without expressing a|)provu1 of prost ittit ion, yet could not under- 
stand how anyone should wish to prohibit youths from commerce < 




with proEtituto^, t^iicli ncrerity being out of hnrmony with all the 
vurtvDiM of tln! past or the present.' But llic eiipiTior cliWf of 
Jloman proetitiit<.-«, thu bon^ mutiera, ti^il no niicli iligniHed 
|]gwition at the (ireek httaira. Their influence was indeed 
Iminaise, hut it wns confined, aa it is in the cuiic of their Kiiropeun 
succesflors to-duy, to fuKhiorm, (■u«t<nii.'<, anij nrts. Tliere was 
nlwny* a wrtuiu iiionii rigidity in the Itmnnn whicli pre\'entud 
him from yiehliog far in this direction. Hl- encounigi'il lin>thels, 
hut he only t-ntoifd tiu-m with covered head and face concealed 
in hie eloak. In the same way, wliile he tolerated tlie prostitute, 
beyond a certain point lie slinrjily rnrtiiili'd her privileges. Not 
only was she deprived of all influfuoe in the higher wucems of 
life, but she might uot even wear Iho viita or the stoia; ehu could 
indeed gn alnini*t naked if Aw pleaded, but ^he mu>it not ape the 
emblems of the respectable Homan matron.- 

Tho rinft of Chrixtianity to political power produced on the 
whole less change of policy than might have been anticipated. 
The Christian mien- had to deal practically as best they might 
with a very nii.xod, tiirbuk-nt, and acnii-pugun world. The lead- 
ing fathers of the Chureh were inclined to tolerate prostitution 
for tlie avoidance of greater evils, and Christian emperors, like 
their pagan prcdccesfiors. were willing to derive a tax from proa- 
titutiun. The right of prostitution to exist was, however, no 
longer so iinquMtionaUly recognised as in pagan days, and from 
time to time some vigorous niler sought to repress prostitution 
by severe enaetmcnti". The younger Theodoitins and Valontinian 
definitely ordaim-d that there tdiould \k no more brothels and that 
anyone giving shelter to s prostitute should be punished. 
JuRtinian conlimicd that meanuru and orderu<l that all panders 
were to be exiled on pain of death. These enactmenti* were quite 
rain. But during a thousand years they were repeated again and 
again in varioua parts of Europe, and invariably wiUi the same 
fruillem or worse than fruitless results. Thoodoric, king of the 

1 ricpio, Oialio prfi Cotlio, Cnp. XX. 

aPlMrp Dufour, nittoirt dn la PronliluKon, vol. ii. Cha. XIX-XX. 
TIk- rml Qiiihor of thU nwll-knowa history of pnintilutioii. wliirli, tlimigli 
not srliolnrly in iu mpthoilii. brinipi tJiRvthtr n peat anna of interesting 
{pfonnjUion, ja taid to be Paul L»eroii. 



Viaigotli*, i)iinii'In--i wiili iK-ath tlioi^e whn jiromotoil [trofltittition, 
aai Itccaret], a Catliolic kiu^ of tlic same jxHtple id the sixth 
century, pro1iibik-d prostitution >iltogotlii>r nnil ordort'd tlint ii 
prortilute, wlicn found, nhould rwcivi.! tlii'ee htindretl strokes ol 
the wljip and be driven out of the city. I'Uarleiiiapne, aa well 
as GenBcricIi in Carlliagc, and later Frcderiek Burbtirossa in 
Oermany, made severe laws against pii>Rtitution which were all 
of no cfTcct, for even if thoy eceined to be effective for the time 
th« roactiou wuk nil Uic ^re^ter nfterwardii.' 

U \a in France that the most persiBtent efforts have been 
made t« combat prustitiitinn. Most notable of all wore the 
elTortfl of tlie King and Saint, Louia IX. In 12M St. Ijouis 
ordained that prostitutce should be driven out altogether and 
deprived of all their mnnoy mid goodn, ovwi 1o their mnntloH and 
gowns. In 13515 he repeated this ordiuunce and in 12G9, before 
Betting out for the Crusades, lie onkTe<I the dertntction ot all 
places of prostitution. The repetition of those decrei,* shows how 
ineffectual they were. They even made matters worse, for pros- 
titutte were forced to mingle with the general poptiliition and 
their influence was thus extended. St. Ixtuia wa8 unable to put 
down prostitution even in his own camp in the Kast, and it 
existed outride his own tent. His Icjpslntton, however, was 
frequently huitnted by subfletjuent rulers o^ France, even to the 
middle of the seventeenth century, always with the eaine ineffect- 
ual and worse resultj*. In 1560 an edict of Charles I X nhnlished 
brothels, but the iiumher of prostitutes was thereby increased 
rotlier than diminished, while tnnny new kinds of brothels 
appeared in unsuspected shapes and were more dangerous than 
the more recognized brothels whicli had been auppressed,= In 
»pitc of all such legislation, or h«-ause of it, there lias been no 
country in which proatitulion has played a more «ons])icuous 

1 Italmtaux. iu bia Bi»totre de la I'rruliiaiion en Kuiope, dvacrilws 
many ntteiiipts to *upprM( prMlJluUoii) rf. Dufour, op. cii., vol. HI. 

aDufuur. op. Bit,, vol. vt, Ch. XLI. It «&■ tn tli# reitm of tlio 
liotniMCHiinl Ui'iiri- Til that thi^ toln-ancv ot Iirutlicli in* pMaMUIiucI. 

■ In tlin rtKl)ti>pnth Pantiirj-, mpMlall)-, IioimnR of proKtitutinn in 
Paris attained to au aHtoiilnliiiig itcgrte of HnbornUon nml pmipe.rltir. 






At Mmituii, m great was the repulsion urouBcd by pPO*titiitt's 
thiit tliyy were compelled to buy in the inarkcU otiy fruit or 
bread that had been soiled by tlic nioiv loucli of their hands. It 
«-Bfi iw oIm) ill Avij^imn In l'i\'-i. In Catalonia they eould not 
tit nt tho «Ani« tablu ns a lady or a kniglit or kiss any honarablc 
person.' Kven in Venice, the paradise of prostitution, nuniermig 
and fei"erc rejinhtioris were i)iiswd ajiain^t it, and it wna long 
hftforo the Venetian nilem resigned theniBelvea to its toleration 
and regulation.- 

Tlu' last vigoroiiE nttempt to uproot prostitutiou in Ktirnpe 
was that of Maria Theresa at Vienna in tlie middle of the 
pighteenlh century. Altliou^h of such recent date it may be 
nieiitioni'd licro hecaiim' it was mediii'val alike in its conception 
and raetJiods. Its object indeed, wa* to sui)pres8 not only prosti- 
ttition, but fornication generally, mid llio iii<>an# adopted were 
finest, tnipri»oninent, whipping and torture. -The cuppased eaiiaes 
of fornication were also dealt with wvercly; short drewies were 
prohibitctl; billiard romn* and vafH were in*i>ectod; no wait- 
refu»eii were allowed, and when discovered, a waitress was liable 
to be handcuffed and enrricd ofT by the police. The Chastity 
Conimiaaion, under which tlicsio measures were rigorously carried 
out, was, apparently, established in 1?51 and was (jiiietly 
abolislied by the Kinpcrdr .Iciweph II, Jn tbc cnrly years of hie 
reign. It was the general opinion that this severe legislation 
was really ineffective, ami that it caused much more serious evils 
than il ciired.-* It i* certain in any case that, for a long lime 

OwiiiK to Ili« ouiistnut wnlcliful Mtlenliou of the (xilKv a vail amount of 
ddailnl infornrntinn ciiicrnilng tlirsc p«tati11>liinnitl>i wm uccumulalcd, 
imtl fturin;; T(ici-iit yeiir^ itiiirli of it tins bvea pubiiilii^cl. .\ ■iinimitrj of 
thU litfrnturc will tw found in Dtllin^n's ,Vrur Forhhuitg'-n ritiir lien Mar- 
quia dr Radf unrf seine Zril. 190J, jip. 07 et *tq. 

1 tin biiU 11.x. op. pif, p. H. 

SCiilai liu.1 writtm t1i« liiotory of VeiiPltnii prOHti Ui t ion : and •OHW 
of tKe doi'unieiil" I10 tiamd lisve b«*ii I'ppro.liu'prl liy MunU-gnM», Qlt 
.Imori ilrffU Comlnii. cup. XIV, At tlic bpfnnnlnK of the Mrvi-nlitiith em- 
Uiry, a com pant lively late period. Coryat vlnltej Veiilrp, and in liiit 
Crudltift frivpn n fiil) and inlTcMlng nrronnt of It* iyiiirtc«nii, irho then 
numbered. Ii« miv*, at IwikI SO.OOOi tin' r«v#iiii« tliny bruuglit into tlin 
Btnte mnintaini^ n doKMi guljcvi. 

aj. tSchrank, Div Proatitntion in Wifn, Bd. I, pp. ISZ-200. 






past) iilc^itimacy has been more preraicnt in N'icnna tlian in any 
otlicr groat Kuropean capital. 

Vet tiie attitude towurds proittitiit^ti wae alwoye mixed and 
iiicon8ii<tcut at dilToront placrs or different tiniea, or even at the 
same timo and place. Dufour has aptly compared tbeir position 
to that of the medieval Jews: Uiey were continuulh- persceutffl), 
eccleeiastically, cirillv, and sw-iailj, yrt all cla«w# wore gind to 
have reooiirxc to Ihcin nml it wa.'< impoA^ililo to do without tliem. 
In some countries, including Kngland in the fourteenth century, 
A spoi'ial costume was imposed on prostitutes as a mark of 
infamy.' Yet in many rcs|)ed¥ no iiifaiiiy whatever attached 
to prostitution, liigh placed otheiaLi could claim payment of 
their expenses incurred in visiting prostitutes when traveling ou 
public bufiincjs. Froxtitutiou soinetinios iiliiyod an oflicia! par 
in festivities and receptions accorded liy groat cities to royal' 
giK<et», and the brothel might form an important port of tlio 
city's hospitality. Wli^n the Empowr SigiKmund oamo to riin 
in 1434 tile streets were illuminated at such times aa he or his 
suite desired to visit the common brothel Brothels and«r 
municipal protection arc Touiid in the thirtM'oth century in 
Augsburg, in Vienna, in Hamburg.- In Krance the beet known 
ahhayi'X iif prxMtitutee were those of Toulouse and Montpelliw.' 
Diirkheim Li of opinion tliiit in the oarly middle ages, before tliia 
period, free love and marriage were lefs severely different iat«d.1 
It was the riiio of tho middle clasit, ho roosiders, anxious to pro- 
t^tt their wives and daughters, which led to a regulated and 
jiublioly rocoguizod attempt to direct debauchery into a sejmrate 
channel, brought under control.* Theite brutheUi oonstitutM) a 
kind of public service, the directors of Ihom being regarded slmostg 
aa public olTicials^ bound to keep a certain number of pro»tilute«,' 
to charge according to a fixed tariff, and not to receive into their 
hour's girls belonging to the neighborhood. Tlie institutions of 

1 r. Itol*rt, Lfs Siffne* d'Inf-imie au Mt>iicn Apr. Ch. P,', 

XRu<tK-k (GfM-hicHf rf<r tiirevllichm ttilllUhkril in Dnilirhl«nd, 
pp. SG-.tSi glvf* man}' d^tailH conc-«rniii^ t)i«i important part pUvod bgrj 
proBtiluti^a ani] bmtlirlii in mcdiirviit Gprinon life. 

A Tli«T or* iIciuTitir<t b7 Kalmtnux. ofi. fit., pp. !K) ft atq. 

* L'AnnU Sooiolo^quf, ■ei'ciith ywir, lOW, p. 4W. 




tilia kind lii^U'd for tbrct- ccuturi<.-8. It vns, in part, perhaps, tim 
impetus of lliu iifw riMti-stniit tiiovi'iiicnt . but niuinly itic tfrribli- 
dcvastutiou pimlm-eil by tlic introiliictioii of iiyphilis rmni 
America at the (Mid nf tlie flfteentli century which, as Burckharrit 
and otliLTs have pointed out, lod to Uiu decline of the mediii^val 

The superior modem prostitute, the "courteBan" who had no 
connection with the brothd. irvcni^ to have been the outcome of 
th« Renniwancc and madu her ajipeanince in Italy at the end of 
tlie fifteenth century. "Courtesan" or "corlepiana" meant a 
rlad}' fntlowinfr the court, and the Utiu began nt Oil*! time to be 
I'Spplied to a superior prostitute- observing a certain degree of 
decorum and reittraint." In the papal court of Alexander Bnrgin 
the courtesan flouri><hcHl even when hor conduct waa not alto- 
gi>ther dignihed. Burchard, the faithful and imimpeaeheble 
chronicler of this court, dcMcnbes in hi« diuri' how, one evening, 
in October, 1501, the Pope sent for llfty cmirtwans to he brought 
to his chamber; after supper, in tJie prea-nce of Cicear Borgia 
and his young aister Ijiicrezia, thoy danced with the servitors and 
others who were present, at first clothed, afterward.-* nak*>il. The 
candlesticks with lighted candles were then placed upon the iloor 
and chtvlniit)) thrown uniong them, to hegatliered by the women 
(Crawling betweun the candlesticks on their hands and feet. 
Finally a number of prizes were brought forth to be awarded to 
tboH mm "qui plurics dictoa meretrices camaliter agmiMocrent,'* 
the victor in the contest being decided according to the judgment 
of the spectator*.^ This scene, enacted publicly in the Apostolic 

> Block, D«r Ump'-vnn ttrr Si/pUlb. Ai nfkrAti Uie Gtrmnn 

•"FraUPnliBll^eil" we Mux Uniipr. Das <lr\ehlrvhl»lrbcn in Act Ihtiltrhm 

Y^iiangrnlifit, p]>. lH3-'21t. Iti I'miIm. Ihifour olales {op. oi(„ vo\. v. 

t'li. XXXIV). brollidn undt-r Ihr nrdinnnce* of St. IjoiiU Imd miiiiy rlj[1itji 

tliirli tlii-j lfl«l at lait in K'Uo, whi-ii tliey bpcame tnvr«lv loloratnl 

ibouMS, without itatutvg, epocial coRtumni, or mnflni^mcnt to upoHal 


2 "Coriegitin*. hof rat merrtrlx tintimfn." xmtf Burchnrd. the 

Pope's 6e«r«ljin', at l]ip l)»|riniiin|t df the tixloenth emtiiri-, Aiori'uni, mt. 

' ThiiAxic, vol. fi, p. 442; nthi'r niithoritin an- ijtiotnl b;p ThuuiitF in b 

■Biirdianl. JWnriiini, vol. ui. p. 167. Tliuasiw quolcn ollu-r «u* 
'Him lu oonBrmalinn. 



jHilnct; iind svnuioly rtct fortii by tlie iuii>artial secretary, is at oiicu 
a Dotablt; c|>isotle in tlif hintory of iimilcni jirostiliil imi iiiul one of 
the most illiiniiualing illuatrattoiis we jwesess of tlie paganism (i( 
the Itepaiwtance. 

Befori! the Wnn "Murt^Baa" wiiu« iota repute, proatltutca were 
tvi-n in [liilj" rtjmmniil)' puIIpiI "'•inner*,'" juTpa/ric', Tlic ehnii|{p, Ciiiil 
nrniaTki in a vi-ry intPiv«tin]g ndidy of (lie Hi>nai>u<nn(v pro*tItule ("I'no 
llorligJHiia frn .Mille." Allrnt'^mo it Cimiiuxrnl". pp. 217-331 ), "rrvrwU a 
pratoiinii nllrration in ideas and in life;" u Itrm tliut KU)K»U-d iiifnmy 
^T<< plH(v U> one tliut «iiinP'''te>I nppriivnl, and rven honor, tor tli«> i«urls 
of tlie R0iiHli»itnct> period repreneiiteit tlie flnnt cullllTc of tlie time. 
Tlie Iwiit of tliesL> I'ourtefiauB Heeiii to haw Im'I'Ii not n1tO)(ether uiin'orlliy 
of the lioiinr lliey refdved. We <nn lii-inc't this in their Irttern. Thcrn 
ta R chnpler on the Irtlers uf Itennixuitn'e pioatitutm. especinll}' those 
of CsinilU de Cibo wliirli hto marke.l by Reniiliie |«uioii, jn l.nlhar 
Srhmldt'* f'Tawn^rirft dfr llenaitJuuifr. llic (anioim liuperiu, entletl 
liy n Pope in the «Arly y«ars of the nUteenlli ronliiry "nobiliMlmum 
Roinw •rorliiin," knew T-atln and could uTit« Italian vcrw. Other 
courteaaiu knew Ititlinn niid l^tin poetry by heart, while they vtrt 
aceorapll'licul in niii*ie. ilnnclnj;, ntiA tpivch. We ore reminded uf aneient 
(Irawe, and Graf, di>cii»int[ hciw far the Renni"nnen eoiirlr'iiiiik n-oeni- 
Med the hi'tiiine, lliid* a very eovnidnriiMe llkeneM, e«p<Ti«llir iu enltiiri- 
anil inlliirnee, thmiffli with wnie dilTereiteei dnc to tlit> anUgDnl*in 
betwMn religiioD niid pmHtitiitinn at the later period. 

The nnnt diatinguiahecl figure in every re»peet ninniig tlio eonrlcAana 
of that lime wni eertainly Tullia D'Ara^tin. Slir was pr»biib1j' the 
danjilitnr of Cardinal D'Ainfptna (nn ill^liniato idon of the .Spani«h 
royal family) by • FerrareAe rnnrtiMnn who beiiiine his mistteH*. Tullia 
liaa Kflined n high reputation by lier verse. Ilnr lirit Miiinet {• nddreued 
to a youth <if twenty, nlioni slie piiMionntely Invi-d. Iiiil wbri did nol 
rRtnm hor lore. Her fliimina Mrtrhinn, b trantliit Ioii from llie Span- 
ish, Ik a very pure and rhn>(e work. She was a wwniin of rrflned 
inntineli and nipiralionn, nnd oiie« at leant ohe uhnmlrnuHl hrr 1if>' of 
proHtitntiun. Site wm held In hif^i eateem and lespi'et. Wlien, in I>i40, 
Coiimo, Duke of Klormee, ordered oil proititnlc* to wear a yellow veil 
or liandkerehief aa a publie badge of tbcir profMnion, Tnllia nppnaind 
to tlie nuchesii, a Sjumlab lad.v of high character, iind nveived pennission 
to di»pen«e witli this badge on acL'ount of her "rara icEen/ia di pneata 
ft HloMlln." She doJirnled her nimr lo Hie l>iieiii'n-. Tnllia IVAragoua 
WH» ri-rj- benulifiil. with rellnw hair, and remarlcnbty large nnd bright 
pyeii, whieh drtniliiutfd t1io*p ulm raini* n<-ar her. 8he waa of proud 
bearing and inspired unusual reapeet (O. Bingi, 'Tn' Etera Roinann," 




XutHV Antologia, vol. tv, l^Sil. pp. OSS-Ill; R. Bongi, Rivitta crifiat 
itrlt'l l.flf'atuia JIaliana. ISm. IV, p. Ifilt). 

Tullin D'Ara^nn won clonily not n couTlonn at hiMirt. IVrlinpi 
t]i« most lypicol cxitraplc o( (li* Itciiuisvuce ruiirtiwiii hI hrr Iwnt is 
fiiinidii-'il by Vyronicu Fmiico, Iwrn in I04il nt Vcni™. of niiil.ll.' r\am 
fntiiil,v nml in rnrl,v lifo uiirtiuil (o a doolor. Of livr alto it Iiilh been 
miid lliaU uliilv by prnf»H«ioii n iiroitHiitc, ■■■* va» by Inclination « pool. 
But «l>^ nppparn lo liair been uc-ll contont n-Jtli lier proffwion, nii'I 
tipsrr adiamcvl til it. IltT liti- miil ibLiiHcU-r buve bwn atudlvd by 
Arluro Graf, uiiil mori.' slif^lly In a liltb- Imok by Tniolnl. Sbc wft« 
highly rulUirpil. mid knew •cvpwI lan!^iu)(<--ii: r-he ul»o uini; well nn'l 
plu)i-<l on iiiiiiiy iiiHlrUTiiculo. In nn« ul lii>r li'Itrn ftlie (iulvi«i->« n yoiilli 
wlin nil* iiiixlly in \n\p witb licr Ihut if be winlipn to aliloin her fuvon 
lie miKt Icnvn off itii|K>riuiiiiit; ber iind dcvolv liiumclt trutiqiiilly to 

' aludy. "You know uvit," kbi* tiilcU. "tbnt all tbci*o who rlnini to lie nliln 
gain my Inrc. and who uri' irxlrpmi-ty ilcar to mr. aiv »lii-iiiioii<i hi 

Ftludious iliM-iplirw If my (ortiim- nllowiKl it. I unnld ipi'ncl 

Full my time qiiirtly in llift neadirmini of vidiioiK mvn." Tin? l)icitiina« 
nnd Aopniint I't itntii|ui(y. a« (iritf nsmmentav would not l>nv« ilf^mandcil 
do mlifU of thHr lnvpm. tn brr ponmn It in poiulbl* to Irncc Home of 
her loTT liiiitorir^. iind ihc ofti*n sliowa bcrscif torn ty ji;iilou«y at tlip 
thmiKbl tbnl pirbnpn anotliir wrmian mny np[imn<'h ber bvlovnl. One 
nh« fell in lot'i! with in HtksiaHtii-. )io«i'ihl,v a bi«hop. witli wliom nil* 
hail no relntloiisbipH. unil afti-r » lone ab^pni-p. whlcli hoalvd bcr lovfs 
■hff nnd he tipennic nincpri- fritTids, Once iht won vi«il(<d by IlMiry III 

fcf Kranw, who tnnV nway h'r jinTtriiit, wlilli- on lipr purt she promlwil 
dvdkntit n Ixwk to him: nhp >o fur (nllllh'd this an to addma some 

FtonnrtA to him and a iHi'T: "ncitlier did Ihf Kin){ fi'ol aAliHincd of hi" 

[^intimiicr with Hip (i>iirlp*nn." Tpmiiil(» firnf. "nor did •!» Ruspect thnt 
' would fcel ofchairii'd of it," \Vb(-n Moiitnljfin; p(|iiai>J tlirnugh Vi'nioe 

ttOie tent him a litllp bwik of bpT«. n» we Iciirn from h'm .fournnl, though 
fhpy do not npp^nr (c hiive mel. Tinlorct wii» om of her many distin- 
Ipiiiihnl fnpnd*. nnd fthp mm n utrpniiniiii ndvorntp of lh<> h!|th qiinlitii" 
of modern, a> mmiwi'i^d with ancii-nt. art, llvt fricndnliips witp Affcc- 
tionalo. and >Iip n*pn uppm" to hnvp had vnrloiw ([mnd ladii-* nnionjf bpr 
trii-ndii. Slip WHS, hoorvT, «• f«r firini lii-tnj; H-1i>i]ni.-<J •>! \ut profcx-iion 
of pmirti'Min thnl in onr of bor pormn nbc nfllnnH iiho hn« hpcn tniight 
by Apollo otliPT arlH liesfdi'it thoac bf i* iiHiially regarded at toadiing: 

"Toul rioipp (■ |[ii*t*vol« divento, 
Qiiando mi Irovo ron pprionn in Ictta 
T)a mi nninta p nrndiln ml spnto." 

In ■ wrEain catalog of Iha pricm of VNirtlan eourtmutnii Trronlm 
h aMipiod only 2 tcudt for her farom, while the ronrU^an to wliom the 


reyciiOLooY of stJt. 

caUlogue ii dedicated U wt <lowii at SS acudi. tinf lliinkn thpro may 
be »oine miBtaka or mallro livrv, iind an Itnltan )c*ntt^iiiHii of ilic limu 
iit«l4!i that she required not lean Uuin 60 w.'udi (rum thosn (» wlinni bIiv 
WHS willing U> anord wIimI Montalgiie called tli« "nt'gutiation r^ti^^r." 

In Ti-gnrd to this mutter it inny be. monlioni^ that, a* stated hy 
lianildlo. it itas lh« cubIoui for ii Vwitftian ptoalittite to liavc nix or 
■even gimtli-mFii at a time as hrr lcivr>r>. Each ««» ontitl^d to muw to 
will ond nK'pp with her on on» nl|^t of liio wppk, Imvjng her days fnw, 
Thcj" pnid her *o iniieli per niunth, but "he nlwayn dcfinitply rownc-d tho 
right to receive a slraiigifr paxtiii^ Ihruiigh Vmicc. if tlw wifthwl, chunk- 
ing thr timi" of her appointmrnt willi hi'r loviT for th<" iilfclil. Th* high 
nnd Hpwinl priFCB nliii-h «'p find n-cordcd uro, of couine. tliimc di-maiiilnl 
from tlin casoal iliktin^ultlied -Iranjjcr «iio ruuii- to V'snioe »b. once in 
tliB Hixtvnith ti-nliiry. Mnnluiicni^ cflmr. 

In IB80 (ivhpu not more limn thirty-tour ) Vcroaioa conTtiucd to 
the noly Onico tliat nhr hmt hod alx children. In the ■■mi> ,VMr ehr 
formed llie deait^ of founding a home, which ithould not b? a moiuutery, 
where pro«tltnt«i wh« ni»lni(i to abandon thHr modf of Hf» could And « 
rcfu^ n'ith their children, if they hnd any. This H>cmt to have led to tlie 
MtnWiMliiiiPtit of a rami del Sncrorio. In 1391 •lie died of fcvcr, recon- 
fUcd with Ood end blesMil by mnny unfortnnnt*^ She Und n ptnA heurt 
nnd a Miind Intellect, and nax the ini>t of (he great RcnuiHinnce courle- 
UDS who relived fircck lirlairium (fJtnf, ;lrfrnm-*o it Ciariu-vrnlo, pp, 
217-351). Kren in iiixtecnlh century Venice, however, it will be «ecn. 
Veronies Ktaneo *eem« lo have been not altogether at [leaiv in the career 
of a courieinn. She int» clearly not adapted for ordinary marriage, yet 
under tlie mool favonihle condltlonii that Ihe modern world ha* «ver 
offered it may ■till be doiibted whether n pronlitiite'i enreer ean offer 
complete iiati«facti<in lu a nomun of hirf^e heart and brain. 

Ninon dn I-cncIo*, who Is fn>i|Henlly called "llie lB»t of the g;r«at 
coiirteiinnn." may seem an cj:(!eption to the ifeneral ride as to the inuhil- 
ity of a woman of gruiA lieait. Iil|;h ehaiactcr, and fine iniellisence t" 
Hnd aatiafavliun in a pmitilute's life. But it ■■ n tutal misconception 
alike of Ninon de I.euclo«'« temperumcnt and her career to re^rd her 
ai in any true nemie n proatitutc at nil. A knowledge of even Uia Imreiit 
outlines of her lilr onghl to prevent such a mistake. Born enily In tlie 
■eventeenth centur;, the wn* of gnoit (iimily on both *lde«; her mother 
wuB a woman of «i-vere life, but lier father, a gentleman o( Touraine. 
iniplieil her with hi* own Kpieutean philo^ipliy a* well uh hlx love o( 
munic. .She wim enlreniely i«*-II ediicatnl. .\t the nge of ^lixtecn or 
Mivonleen *li" liiid her lirxl IiH-er. the n"ble nnd valiant On*pRrd de 
CoHgnyi lie WHK followed for Iinlf a century lij u lung micceHiion of 
other loi-em. lometlmeii more tlinn one nt n time: three yntt was the 
longeat period dtiring which »he wnt faithful to one Iwer. Her nltrae- 





[.tiou luted M long that, it is Mid. three genarHtloiu of S£vIgnM w«re 
bw lonrtb Tallamant At» Rtaiuc mftbles lu to «tudy in dL-tAil 

' tipr KiiMOiM. 

11 is uot, however, the nbuudanee of lovers which iniikM p, woman 
ft pToiitltutv, bill t1i« nutuTi- [if her ri'lntEonshipg villi Ihcin. Soiiile- 
Bcuvo, ia an otlierwisp adiiiirubti- itudv of Ninon do l.nicio* {Cau»eiK» 
Al Lundi, Tol. Iv), rpvim to Ti'L'knn li»r nmong tlie roiirlouiiB. But na 
woiiMii in A proatitiiti! unlnu nhc hum men b<i n itourcp of pccunlnrj- 
piln. Not only i* ihm no widenoe that tliiH was the case irith Ninon, 
but all the {iviilfnco n^Iudc* Biich n rplntlonnhlp. "It Teqiiiri^d much 
kkitl,'' Bold Voltttirp, "and a great deal of lave on her port, to Sndiieo 
hpr to Bcrept pivwnt*-" Tallcmant, in>1wil, mft thai »Iie numeliniea 
look nionej- (rum her lovcrii. but tlii* slalement prolmbly Involv™ nntli- 
liiK 1>e,vond whut U eontainmj in Vollaiiv'H remark, snd. in any case, 

, Tnllemanrn goHiiip. though UBually well-iuforincd. wun not ulna}-* re- 
tiabk. All at* agreed nit to livr extreme i'Jl*lnlere«lediie>4, 

When WR hear prcriiwly ot Ninon dr. Lcn?loi In conniption tvitli 
money, it !« not aa receiving a ^ft. but only ai repaying a debt to an 
old tover, or restorinjt a laTjfd »uin left with her (or anf" kpi-iiing when 
the owner wna exiled. Sueh ini-idrntu arc far from •ugf(i.-«liiig the pru- 
ffMioiial prnxlitiile of nny agf; they are rather the relntlonikhips whieh 
might exirt between men friends. Ninon de Lent'los's character was in 
many nsptM-ln far from perfect, but nhci combined many maHoulinc vlr- 
tUM, and ffiKiclally probity, with a temficraroent which, on the wiiolp, 
wan certainly fcniinine; she haled hypocrisy, and shn wn» ne^-cr Inllu- 

j^nerd by pecuniary eon side rations. She wan, mormver, never recklesti, 
lit always retained a eert*in self-restraint and tumperanoc. tven in cnt- 

''ing and drinking, nnd, we are told, she never drank wine. She wa*. as 
Saintc-Bcuvc has remarked, the (init to realiKe that there inmt he the 
amc rirtueii for men and for women, and tlmt il in iib«urd to reduee all 

tlcDiintn* virtues to one. "Our swc has l^en burdened with all lli" 

[frirolilieji," nhc wrotr, "and men have resctvcil to themselves the essen- 
tial qualities: I have made luyBVlf a man." She «ometinie« ilre«>ied at a 
■nan when riding (Bi>e, t.g.. Currtvpoiidtitee AulhfHliiue of Ninon dn 
Lmcla*. with a good introdncilon hy Kmilr Colombey). Ponieiounly or 
noU ahe leprem-nted a new feminine idea at a period when — tis we tnity 
M« in inatiy forgotten noi-ela written hy the women of Ihiil time — Idea* 
were beginning to emerge in the feniinlni» sphere. She mis the finl. and 
doubtlM«, from one ii')iiit of view, the most e»tre">e ri-pre«en1ntivn of a 
nnall and dl<IJn|[ul°hetl group of Freneh women nmong whuni Georges 
Sand i» the flnent personnlitv. 

Thus It !<■ idle to atlpmpl to niloni the hl-tory of proktttution witJi 
tlie name of Ninon de Lenelo*. A debauched old prorfiltite would n^ver, 
likn Ninon towards the end of her long Uf«, have been able to rctnin or 




to cuQqurr the *flcetion and IIip ntvt^ni i>[ many of the Wit mm Knd 
women of her time; uwn to the >uslor«i Siiiiit-Simon it #««iiipd that 
the!* Klgnn) in her Ultlu court a dvvoriuii wliich the i^patcst prinwsiM 
c-aitnal ucbin-v. HUr wa* not n piiwtiliili', but n uoiiiuii of uiiiquv pot- 
sonalilj- with n lltllp ■trmk of jp^niiii in it. ThAt ■hr nnh inimihihlp 
wp ncfil not jHTliap* gri-ntl.v nrgri't. In liiT olU agp. in ItlBfl. her old 
frimd und forriivr luvi-r. Ntiii(-Kvri-iiii>iid. wrntv to li«r. with only a little 
«xa|E|KratSon, that tlifr" viore li'vi jiTineeiju^h nnil fnir oalntii who would 
not lonvi- their ™iirtn nnd ihdr cldinlprn to chniiite plaw.i with her, "If 
I liad kuown beforphiind whiil my lite would Ih> 1 would lini'c hiinjp^I 
myarif," wni hvr oft-(|iioted unswrr. It Is. iiiderd, n nolitary phraiw that 
»lip« in, perhaps «.« tlie rxprrnion of a mrmH'ntnrj' mood : one may rnako 
too mtich of It. Mori- tnilj diaracteriHif \i tliir tint- naylnn in which 
h«r Kpii'ureciii philotopliy scfin* to ilictch out towarda Kietischei "lA 
joio lin IViprit en niarnup la fore*." 

The frank aofcptnrn'i! of ))t'oi>tit\ilion lt_v the spiritual or G^■e^ 
the temporal power has sinee tiie Ucnaissance become more ami 
more exeoptioniil. The opposite extreme of Htt^mptinir to uproot 
prostitution hns nl*i in priiotiep U>on nitnuetlier sbaiKloneJ. 
Sporadic attemptH have iiideeil been made. lure and tiiere, lo put 
down prortitiition with a rtrong hand even in quite ino<lcnt tinira. 
It is now. however, realiiwd that in such a case the remedy is 
woriu.' than the din-.iw. 

In 1900 a Mayor of l^orlamojitli fi>ll (( hl» dnty 1o attpinpt to Hilp- 
pma proititution- "In Ihrr ruHj* part of his mayonilly.'* accordinK to 
a nllnnui U'fnro the SoWt ("omniittw on thr rontaftJons DIapnwit Acta 
(p. .lOSl, "tlii^i' was nil oriliT pavird that evi-rv beerliouiw-kwprr and 
Ii(«n»«i vlctiinlcr In llif borough known to harbor thcw wonifii Mimld 
bit drall with, and probably Iom- hi< licmw. On n ^ven day about tllrl^^ 
hnndind «r four htinitivd rif (lii-*i<' forh>rii oittc-HHt* nvre hiindtnl »li(>1i>< 
■ale into the ttrrcta, and they lorinrd np in ■ laiK^ body, mnny of them 
with only a thift and a petticoat on. and with a lot of dninkm miMi and 
boya with a fifi- and flddle thcT pHrndi-iI III* dtre*!"! for wvpriil days. 
They marrlimi in n body to thp workhoiito, Init for many rcnsona they 

were refniH) ndniitlniioe Tlie* nyinii-n wandeted aV'iil for 

tu-o or three dnr« ahell<'rle«i, and tl wna felt that the remedy wan wrry 
much wnriu- tlmn Die di^eaw. and th« women were allowed to p) haek to 
their furint-r places.'* 

Similar rsperlme nts hat-e beun made ei-en more recently In America. 
"In i^ltttburg. IVnniylvanla, la 1891, the houaca of prostitute* 




■«d, the iimutes turned out ui>oii tlic niferln, Aiid were rcftiiod lud^- 
and pven food by tli* cl(!xrit« of tliot idacc A «-nvc i?[ populur 
nmcnatnincc, nil over the coiintry, »t thr outrage on liiiiiiunily. freatt'il 
ft rcMtJon whirli rt-aultpd in n Innt condition bv iio invHni lM>tter thiin 
fir«L" In liic mme venr bIki n MDiUar ineiitcnt occurred in New 
fork with III* MJini* iiufortunate rcniltj (Isldor* Dyer, ■■Tli« Miinlcipiil 
Control of Prfuititiitlnn in tlic rritfld StatM." rpport pracntcj to the 
Bruuel« Internutionul Conference in 1809). 

There grew up inatead the tendency to ri'gidftte prostitution, 
to give it u MMni-olTicial tult-ititioii wiiidi ciiuhlcd the authorities 
to o.xercisc a contml over it, and to ^iiinl «g, far as possible 
Sgainet its evil by medical and pohce iiispoction. The new 
brothd ^yrtpni differed from the uncicnt iiicdiwv&l lioiu>ca of 
prostitution in imjiortant respects; it involved a routine of 
medical inspection and it endeavored to Buppreee any rivalry by 
miliccni'cd prontitutcn outnidu. Bonmiil Mnndeville, Uie author 
of the Fahle of the Hfi\t, and an acute tliinker, was a pioneer in 
the advocacy of this eystom. In 1TS4. in liiE MoiifM D'-f^ni"^ of 
Puhlirk ^'lew», lie nrguofi tlint '"tho pncournging of public whoring 
will not only prcxcnt most of the niischievotis effects of tlilit vice, 
but even Ipascn the quantity of whoring in gi-noral, and reduce it 
to the nurro«'e(*t houiul^ whii-li it tan possibly he cnntniue<l in." 
He projiofted to discourage private prostitution by giving; apeeial 
privJleges and immunities to hrothde by Act of Parliamont. His 
scheme involved the criHtion <>f one hundred brothels in a s[>ccial 
quarter of the cily, to contain two thousand prostitutes and one 
hundred mutrons of nbihly and experience with phyeicians and 
surgeons, as well as eonimissioncrs lo oveWLM* the whole Mande- 
ville was regarded merely aa a cynic or worae. and his scheme was 
ignored or treated with contempt. It wm^ left to the genius of 
Xapoleon. eighty years later, to e)«tabli>ih the system of "inaisons 
de toUranec." which had so (^'eat an influence over modem 
Europr-Mii pructiee during a large jiarl of the hi«t century and 
even still in its numerous Burvivals forma tbe suhjeet of widely 
divergent opinions. 

On the whole, however, it mH^t he *aid that the system of 
registering, examining, and rcgiilari/.ing pro)ititute« now belongs 



to U)c ))<ii<1. Many grent l>iitl1o» lisre been fought over Uiis 
qoestion ; ilic most important is that vhidi rngeil for inajiv yvnrs 
in England over Uie Contagions Dueases Act&, and is embodied in 
tliv 600 pugos of « Iteport by a Select Coinniitl^u on Ihvue Acts 
issued in 1882. The majority of tiie iiientbcre of the (Committee 
reporied favorably to the Acts which were, notwitiirtunding, 
re|wnled in IHftfi, since which dale no wprjous atti'inpt hni been 
made in KnginDd to a^tablish them again. 

At tlie prcfiMit time, alUiough the old system still stands in 
Wtitiy eminfries with tlif ini-rt Ktolidity of csUibliihed iuHtltutioDK, 
it no longer conimands general approval. As I'aul and Victor 
Marguoritto havo truly sttttc<l, in the counw of an acut« examina- 
tion of the phenomena of state- regulated prostitution nit found 
in I'sris, the sj-stem is "barbaroua to start with and almost 
indTicacioua as well." The cxpei-t it every day more clearly 
dcmonttt rating its incffituiey while the pHvelioIogLit and the 
sociologist arc constantly becoming more convinced that it ia 

It <-aQ indeed by no means b« said that any unanimity baa 
been altnined. It is obviously so urgently necessary to combat 
llic flooi.1 of diicasc and miiwrr wliicli pruccede directly from the 
spread of iiyphili!> and gonorrho'a, and indirectly from the prne- 
titution which is the chief propagutor of these diseases, that we 
cannot he «tirpri!tcd that many *liould eagerly catch at any system 
which seems to promise a palliation of the erils. At the present 
time, however, it is tliose best uciiiiairiU'd with the operation of 
the mtem of control who have moat clearly realized tliat the 
euppoi^ palliation is for the most part ilhisory,' and In any 
ease attained at the t-ost of the artificial |imdiictioii of other evils. 
Id France, where the system of the registration and control of 

I Till- i-Miinpli.- of tlotlnml, mlieri! som* Inrgf chip" liav« ftitopteJ tlii^ 
r«Tt>iIntl(in of prcutltiition nnJ others hove not. is ipulnictivi- ii< ri'itnril* 
(he illuwTj' uutui* 'if llw iifli»htiit!<'« of twniiliition, In 1Hn:1 I)r, Ilpniitf* 
biDiif{]it fcimnnl fiipire". mippliwl liT IJiitrti oflipinU. •liowinR thnt in 
K'ttti-rilum. ulrnv pruilitiition un4 n')^iliiti><l. bolli iimititiition nnd 
vpn^mil iliwniifn ivcr* mnif preva\'-nl thnn In Amntsritniti, a, rity n-ttli- 
out TogiilntSon (A. Df«|irfB. La Proatiiuiion en Franct. ft. 128). 




profltitut<?s has been eBtablishcil for over a centnn-,' and where 
coiieLKjiKntly ib( ui]vaulugt«, if ^iicli llicre ut<j, i>}iould be clonrly 
roiilixf^l, it meets witli aliiioat iDipassioDed opposition from able 
men belonging to evory scctiou of the comtntinity. In OermaDy 
the opposition to ri-jfubiriwJ (i>n(HiI has long bivn led by well- 
(.■<)tii{ipcd exiii'rts, beaded by BlnBchko of Berlin. Precisely tlie 
same eoneluHiotis are being reached in America. Gottheil, of 
New York, finds that the niunicipul winlrol of pm«titulion is 
"neither «ucecfuful nor desirable." lleidingtifcld eoncludes tliat 
rtlie regulation and control system in force in Cincinnati has done 
little good and nuieh harm ; under the system among the' private 
pnticnta in bis own clinie tlie proportion of cases of both nyphilia 
and gonorrhcea hn^i InLTesocd ; "iu[)pre^ion of prostitutes U 
imjwe^ible and wnlrol i* impracticable,"'-* 

It ii in Geimnny liuit l\w attempt to rcgulnto proetltutlon ttill 
rruiuiiis uiUHt por*inlciit. villi ri'-iilU tliHt in Girrimiii}- ilscK nri: regnriled 
■■ iiiifortunntr. Tlini tbi- (Irrnian Inw mflictii a peiinlly on hmiMlinMor* 
vthi pL'imit i11egUiiiisti> « intercourse in their Lumspk. TIiih U 
meant to Mrike the iinlicposiMl pro»litiito, hiit it rfnll.v m^finrnyps pros- 
titulioD, for a dnvnt j-outli und girl nho Jwidu (o turm n rclutionihip 
vrhii'Ii later muy dovvlop Into uinrriitgi', and whirli Is not ilti.-gii1 {(or 
Citia-mnrilnl *trxiinl inlprmiitiH' per w in iiot in GcTmany, n« it in by tho 
an ti<j nil It'll Ittws of at^'pial Aiiivrioan Staler, n puninhiiblv ulTfusi^). are 
ailbjeftfti to W niiii'li tiniiMp nnil unnoynncD by tbp >a<iplcloii> polirc that 
' It it miU'h Piisicr (or Ihe girl to bwonii- a |iri>ntituli- und put lierwK under 
the prolet'tiou at Ibo iiolicc, Tbp U<v una Ur^-ly diTPC(i>il ngainat tboM 
who livp on the profit* o( prosliiulion. But in prneticp it work* out dil- 
((■raitly. The prostitute simply lia« to pay extrnvagiintly high rDiit«. bo 
that h*r Inndlord rfnily live* on the frnitu nf her trade, while abc hiiit 
to carry on her buaincM with int^ren*nl ni'livity nnd on > larger aeals 
In order to cover liwr heavy expenses (I*. Hiiti«tnei«ler, "Zur Annly'c dcr 
Prontimtion," artchlrvhl iniif OnrltM-hall, xol H, 1007. p. 20tl. 

In Italy, opinion on thin mnlter i» much divided. The regulation 
of pro*titu(ioii bus lieen siu'ceiwlvely adnpl*d, almndoned, and rmdoptML 
In Switxrrland, the land o( ipivemniental expi^rimenU, rnTimu planH are 

1 It irnn in IS02 that the mediinl Inipeclion of pro«tilute-i in Paris 
brothels irai inlruilueed. though not tuilil 1HZS fully eslnbl<*lied and 
made pieneral, 

a M. I,. Heiding«fi-td. "The Pomtrol of rrosUtutlon," Journal A meri- 
ean Medical Aitociatlen, January 30, ll>04. 




tfi*il In illffiTcnt ro-ntonn. In nonit^ there ti no nttcmpt to intirfpTO 
vith pToslilulion. «\t'«|it UDilcr spevittl circumKlancmi in otfiora nil 
prosli till ion, nnd nrn fnrnlnntlon (ji'iifrtilly, It piiniahiihlp : in CmcTa 
only rotivn pn»titutH are pi-rnjilU-d lo prnctici.-: in Zurirli, Bint-* 189". 
prostiliition is prolilbitvil. but cure is tiikcii Ui put no ■tininilllvs in tl>n 
pntli of tivp nrxuul n-Iutioimhipii whivli iit* not (or gaiti. Willi Uine, 
ililTerpnt r«.-giilatiiiiii, iiiornlB in Swila-rlnnd p'nfnillj' ari> Miiil W In- 
nnirli on Ilic mmn Ipve! no plupwlicin ( MorfniiCiirl«toplif, ftti Problf-ntf 
At la MUf-re, vol. iii, p. 2S0). Tlu' untni- conpiniion lioldii pjod o( Lon- 
lion. A dl^lntfrekleil obwrter, KflHn Ri-inu {La VrV tlatanlr m AagU- 
tern, 188S, p. 237). conclnilcd tiiat, notwItliatAndintt It* Urn tntdr in 
pro«1ltutio)i, it4 hIi>o)ioII«' exco«»c». iU vifeii of nil Itinda. "I^nJitu Is uiie 
of llip tnoiit mornl cnpitflln in Europp." The movniKTit townnl* frci-ilom 
in tliis innlt^ !i;i>< Ih'<.'ii c^idrnctMl iu rwt-nt ymts by thc^ nijanduniiK^nt of 
the ■}*it<ini of rrgiiUtion by nonnmrk In lUOQ. 

Even tho most ardent advocates of the re^»tnitiou of pros- 
tituted Twogaiic Diut not only in the teudencv of civiliitntiou 
opposed rather than fnvorahlc to the system, lint t!ial in tlii; 
nunicraus countries where the system pereistfi rcpBtered prosti- 
tutes are losing ground in the utrugglc agaiuiit elttndi'Stjnc 
proBtitutea. Kven in France, tlie tlaneie land of police-con- 
trolled prostitutes, the "rHaiwuB tie tolerance" hare Iodr been 
stondily (Urren«ing in niinihcr, hy nn means Ijeeuiisc pmKtitutioii 
ie decreaPiDR hut becaurie low-class )im»senf» and innall cafi»- 
chanlants, which arc really imliecnH>(l hrutheH are taking lh«ir 

The wholesale regulanzatton of prostitution In civilised 
ecntri'M is uowaduy*, iDdce<l, adviK'Ht<'d l>y few, if «ny. of Iho 
an tho ri ties who belong to the newer aohool. tt is at most claimed 
la deeiruble in certain places under sfK-cial vireunistanccs.^ 
KveD llio«c who would >itill be glad to i^ec prostitution Uioroughly 

1 Rm, t.g., G. Bf'raiiK. f,« .t/nJton de ToUr»no«, Th«w da Pkrb, 

iiThii« the circiim»tanc(« of the Rnxll"h army In IndU «ro ol ■ 
■pet'ini clinmi'ltr. A niinibir u( iluUmcnlii (froni tlu- rcportu of rora- 
mltti-i-k. ollti'-inl piibl kill ion*, eir.) rfjcaniiiij; the ffooil inllimnoc nt 
icpiinlicm in mliipinj[ vcncn-nl ilivn-u^ in India are- hronsht logcthcr 
hy Siintwin rolfiiii-l F. H. WVWi, ■Tlic Pr^vi'nlion of Rrplilll*," f^oucrf, 
AuxuHt \i. I'UiO. The «ytli-in hn* liivn ulioli billed. Iml only m tho mult 
of a popiitnr ouicry »n'l not on tlie quf^ion of tte rocriu. 




in the control of the polici> now reragnizc that experience shuwii 
thJH to be iiiipcMsible, An tunny girls begin Ili«ir ciirocr aa pro»- 
titutcuJit n wvy early nge, a soiiiul syjitcm of regulutioii MhouJd be 
prepared to enroll aa permnneDt proetitutea even girk who are 
little more than diikln-n. Tliut, however, i« n logical eonolu«ton 
ogaioKt which the luorul svaw, tind even the ouinninii siaiw, nf a 
community intitinctlvely revolta. In Paris ^irls may not be 
inscribed as proMtitutoa until thpy have reachfiil the ago of sixteen 
Bnd (inme conHiiler I'vcii llinl uge too low.* Moreover, wheurt'W 
ehe Ikicoihos diseasod, or grows tired of tier jwution, the registered 
woman miiy always slip out of the hands nf the police and cstrth- 
liidi iici'snir elHwliere an a elande^tinc prostitute, t'very ri^d 
attempt to keep prostitution within the police ring leads to 
offensive interference with theactiomi and the freedom of rwpeet- 
nble women which cannot fail tn be intolei'able in any free com- 
munity. Even in a city like Ijondon, where prostitution ta 
rclnlively free, the supcni!*ion of Ihc jioliee has led to scandalous 
police ehariiefl against women wiio have done nothing whalwcr 
wbicb should legitimately arou»e suspicion of their behavior. 
ThecKflpo of iJic infected wotnau from the ])0l ice cordon has. it is 
obvioua, an clfoct in raiiiing the apparent level of Ik^IIIi of 
roistered women, and the police statistica are still further 
fd]Iaciou*ly improv<fI by llie fact that the inniali* of brolticl* are 
alder on the average than clandestine prostitutes and have beeoniv 
immune to disease.^ These fact* are now becoming fairly 
obvious and well recognized. The state regulation of proetitii- 

I Tbiis Ricliurcl. wlio iioFcptH rfgulnlion and n'nii inklriicti'J to 
Rport on it for lliv I'hti-i Munici|iiil I'uum'il. would nut Imve ulrlii 
InncrllW a* |>[i>(('ti«ionfll pT«atiiiiU-ji uiit]l tUr,v arc of agr and nlile ta 
rfalilU! what tlicy ate bindin); t1i<-'iii->i'1vi-fl to | E. Ridiard, Im I'lanlilu- 
lion d P'inji, p. 1471- But nt thnt ok<- a Uige proportlntl of |irOHtitiiti-i 
hare b«ni practJHng llicir prnfi.-niun fur j-cari. 

3 lu Ci-rmunv, whciv thi- cure uf infvcliMl prostitulet umler rpgula- 
tiom !■ iifarly i-vi-ryivlirn' c<itiitiii)*ory, uninlly nl tli"^ ro«l of Hip com- 
munity, itw foxind tlint IS in the nvrrairr op- ut whkh tVy are afTM'tfd 
br ii77>hlll<i; the avnafR up' *>( jirofcliliitwi hi lirollii'I« !■ liiKhPt than 
Ittat of tlio»p AutaMe, and n much Inrffer prti|Kirtion liave (liori-fon- bccoiii-' 
Immiinir to dturano ( Blnncliko. "IIvKkne der Syjihllin," in Wcyl** Hand- 
5«wA rfcr Bygieni:, Bd. H, p. It2. 1000). 

. ... C-.t.K)^,^Ic 


ttoD is us desirable, on moral grouniU for tlic oft^oiiipliiiNvxul 
reason tliat it is only aiiplicd In unv ntx, niiil ou practical grounds 
becuuMo it i« incHective. Society allons tlie police to baruM tliO 
proatitiite with jwtty persecutions under the guise of cliargps of 
"solicitation," "didordcrly conduct," rtc, but it ii^ no lonj^pr con- 
vinced Uuit ftlie oiigiit to be under the abeolute control of the 

The problem of prostitution, when we look nt it narrowly, 
Mcnis to be ill the i>anie jxi^iition to-day as at any time in the 
courac of the past three tJiousand years. In order, however, to 
comprehend tiie real signilicauct' of prfl^titiition. und to atlnin n 
reasonoble atlitudu toward* it, we mu^t look at it from a broader 
point of view; we must consider not only its eii-o!ution and lu»- 
tory, but its causes and its relation to the wider nsp«rt* of modern 
soeial life. When we thus view the jiroblem from a broader 
standpoint we sliall find that there is no conflict between ihfl 
claime of ethics and thoae of social hygiene, and Iliat the co- 
ordinated activity of both i« involved in the progressive refine- 
ment and purilicfltlon of civiliied sexual relationships, 

///. 2'ke Causes of I'roxliluHon. 

The histor)- of the rise and development of proetitutioa 
enables us to see that prostitution is not an accident of our 
iniirriaj^L- »iystein, but an e.'tKcntinl ronsitituent which appears con- 
currently with its other essential constituents. The gradual 
development of (he family on a patriarchnl and litrgi'ly mimi>- 
gamic basis rendered it more and more diiTlcnit for a woman t« 
dispose of her own person, ^ihe belongs in the lir>ft place to lier 
father, whose interest it wa» to guard her carefully until « 
husband appeared who could afford to purchase her. In 
the enhancement of her value the new idea of the market value 
of virginity gradually derWoped, and where a "virgin" had 
previoualr meant a woman who waa free to do as she would with 
her own body its meaning was now reversed and it came to mean 
a woman who was precluded from having intercourse with men. 
When slie was transferred from her father to a husband, she 

().;),- ■TT.yC^^lC 



was Htil! guarded with Uie same care; liui;l>nn<] and father alike 
found llieir inletx;!<l i[i prcwn-ing llicir woiiifii fnnn iinniumed 
riii.-ii. Tlic i>itunli»n thus jjroiiuced resulted in llie e^ifltt-nee of a 
large boily of young men who were not jet rich enough to obtain 
wives, and a large nuinbcr of young women, not yel tliosen a« 
wires, and many of whom could never export to become wives. 
At micli a point in social evolution prostitution is clearly 
ineritable; it is not fo much the indispen)>able eoneomitunt of 
marriage as an Wiicntial pnrt of the whole ej-*tem. Some of 
tlie superfluous or neglected women, utilizing their money value 
and perhaps nt the same lime reviving tniditionii of an earlier 
fret'iloni, llnJ therr wwial function in celling their favor* to 
gratify tJio temporary desires of the men whohave not yet been 
able to acijuirc wives, 'nitis every link in the ehain of the 
ni&rringc syKlem is firmly wddcd and the complete circle formed. 
But while the history of the rise and development of prosti- 
tution Fihows us how indefltructiblo and cssentiiil nn climent 
pro»ititiition it of the marriage sy^ttem which has long prevailed in 
Europe — under very varied racial, political, social, and religious 
COnditiouK — it yet foil* to supply iw in every respcet with (lie data 
necessary to reach a definiUi altitude towards prostitution to-day. 
In onJ«r to understand the place of proKtitution in our existing 
systfim. it i* nnewtnry Ihat wc nhotiM analyse the chief fadon? of 
prostitution. We may most convenienUy learn to understand 
those if we consider prostitution, in order, under four aspects. 
These are: (H rronomir neeessity; (3) hiohgWal pre<lii>pnsi- 
tion: (3) moral advantages; and (4) what may be called its 
eivititationa! value. 

IVhile these four facton of prostitution seem to me those 
here chiefly concDra us, it ia scarcely necessary to point out 
that many other cniisc^ contribute to produce and modify proeti- 
lution. Prostitutes themselves often seek to lead other girls to 
adopt tlie same paths; recruits must he found for brothels, 
whence we hnve the "white slave trade," which it now being 
energetically combated in many part^ of the world ; while all the 
/orms of sednctloD towards this life are favored and often prc- 
dinposed to by alcoholifim. II will generally be found thst sci'cnil 





wYcuoLooT or «mE. 

ramce haw coiiiljiiiod to pu&h a girl into the career of ]>nwli- 

The way* in rrliU-b vArtoufl tneUttt ot rnvlroBUMat and xugj^i^ation 
unite to lond n ipri into ibc^ piillis i>( prntiilulion are Indiratrtl In the 
following Mtali^mpnl in which » rarrt«pon(l«nl hn« oet fortli Iii4 own cun- 
olusiuns on tJiU mnllrr ni n man of thr wnrld^ "I Imvc hail n nnmr" 
whHt raricd cx|)eri«ice among loo-c- uomen, mid can uj'. n'ilbuut 
lit^Hltatiaii, that not mors tlian 1 prr "nt of tho womvn I hnT* known 
rould he rrgardNl oa edncalisL Tlil« imlirnt'-^ tliut almosi invarinbljr 
t\\vy nrp of liumbis origin, and tlie tcrriblti phm-m of overrrowdin|{ lliflt 
ore duily brought lo liglil Huggit»t tbal iit r^rj- party affnt tlic icnift of 
modp«ty bci'i>ni«M vxllnct. and binic ■•T'torp |iii1i(>rty a familiarity with 
thin|c« sexual takrt plai^p. A* noon an tbpy arc »!d ^wmi^Ii tbcoi' jrirt* 
■re unliKTcil by tlifir mcctlivarlH; tin- fiitnilinrily witb wbk-h they regard 
RPMial iiiiitl''t' lemoveii tliv rvatralnt which stirrounds n girl whoiv «arly 
IKo ban bren *pmt in dowfnt siirrfiunding*. Later tbey go to work in 
faptoriM iind nhopn; if pretty ami alttnclive. Ihi-y rontorl with man- 
Bgnra and foremen. Then the love of llncry. wliieh form* no liirge a part 
of the (eiHinInn rhnrncl*r, l»mpt« the gl»1 to beoonie tba 'kept' wouian 
of Mm» mun of mmna. A remaiknble thing in thii connection in the 
faet that tlier rarely en(i>y eneilfmrnt with their protector", jirefprring 
rntlier the mamrr rnibraeet of aome nian nearer their own ■latinn In 
life, very often a «olJi«. I hnre not known mnny women who wero 
H<dncf>d ant) dcnerted, though lliiH I* n fiction much affecl/'d liy pro*li> 
tut«ti. HarinntilE lupply a ronsideruble number to the runko of proalitU' 
tion, laigi'ly on aeeoimt at Iheir addletlon to dilnk; dmnkennra* 
Invariably leaiU to laxiien* uf inural restraint in woiiu'n. Anollier 
potent factor in tlm production of prostitute* lie* in tho Hare of linvry 
ilitiint«d by some friend who liaa adopted Ibc life. A ^rl, working hard 
to lire, IMS some friend, perhapn making a call in tlie itrert where tha 
hnrd'Working inrl lii-es, ciotbed in liiiery. nhile »he bemlf can hardly 
enough to ent. ^n baa a eonver*nli»ii wilh b'r Anely-rbid (riiid 
bo tellH her bi>w entily xbr can earn money, npluinlng vrhnt a vital 
autet the lexiinl nrgani are, nud "cxin atiothi-r onn i* «dih-d to ^be rank4." 

There U nome interest in conwdering the miionn awignnl for 
proalitutei enbiring tbeir career. In «»me cminlrieH tlii« ba* U«"'n esli- 
mattil by tiu»« who eome cloarly Into olDelnl or otbrr contuct irllit 
proctltutM. In other cwintTica, it ia th» rule for iprU. liefore tbey are 
regiiterod a* proatltutM, to itnte the Teaaon* Im which thej- deaira to 
enter tliv onreer. 

Pnr*fl('Diiehfttplet, who«e work on proHlitutea in IMrl^ i» ■lltl an 
authOTftr. prmenled the Rrat ntlnial^ at thin kind. Tie found that of 
a\-er lire tliouMnd [irattitxitM, 1441 were inSuenced by poverty, H2S by 



■adnellail of luvW't who liail nlinndnnnl llicm. 12H hy (lie lou of |iiiri'iit< 
from dmth or otlicr i-iiuf^. My mch an pulimntc. iii^ily the irliolc niim- 
ber am a««ount«<l fur by wrotclivdncM, tliat Ih tiy raoiiomlc cauunt, alono 
(Pftrftnt-DucliflWet, De Ja Pronlilulton. IfiflT, vdI. I. p. 107). 

Ill BniiHwU (liiritiK n period of twmty y»nr« (1805-1884) 3505 
Komrn were inwriticd At pro«tltiitr*. Tin- ™"'p« they aHifpii^ for 
ili-nliinic to tnkp to tlii« Mrwr pro«i?nl a ih(r>*rnnt pWiiro from tlint 
Bliown by Paioiit-DiicliatelH. but p«Th«p» a more r#llalil# one, iKlioiif;)! 
tlii'i* nre •wno innrk«d nnil riirioiis d!aprppiinti«. Oiil of lli» 3505, 153.1 
mplttiueil tlmt extreme povrrly woa tlie rausc of llicir dcgnidalion; 
llln [rniikly ranfriuicil that tlieir sexual pamioni were l)ic mum; 430 
iitttibiiti-d thvW fnll to nil company; 31S laul thi^y wrre iliB^iHlcd nnil 
we>Tj- of tlipir work, licrniw tlie toil wn-i no nrdtimiH unil tlip pay w 
Nii&ll: 101 lind Ixx-D almndrint-d by tliclr lovRr>: 10 lind qiiATri>l1ed willi 
Hxeiz pnrmt*: 7 ivere abandoned by tlielr liu^btind^; 4 did nut agree 
ivilb tbrir ^inrrliHiin; :l liad family i|iiarrel-i; S ir«re ««ni|)ell«d to 
prottUutf themselivH by Uii-lr liu«l>und«, nnd 1 by Iter parenU ll/aMi't, 
June 29. 1800. p. UiZ). 

In I»ii<ton. Mi-rrick found Iliat of 10.1122 pmititiiti'it who paucd 
tliTOugli hi* linn<lii diiriitg the yean lie wim cliiipliijii nt Millbnnk priRon, 
5081 I'oluntjiTily led lionn' or ■Itiintton for "« IKi' o( pl.iiMiie;" 3303 
ani^nl piivi.'rty n« llic ruiiM': .1154 wvrH "svduci'd" nnd driftrd on to 
the •ttpet: 18-16 wr-rv liclrnycd by proiniiws of niiirtiiigc nnd alinndoned 
by lover and rvlntionn. On thr whole. Merrick itnlea, 4700, or nearly 
«nc-ttilrd of the wliolo number, mny b« Mid to owa the adoption of tbolr 
career direetly to men. 11,212 to other caimei. He ndda that of tliOM 
plM(lfn)[ )ioiei1y n ]aigr nimiber uTTe Inilnlent mid Inciipolile (C. P. 
Uerrielc. llVt .Imniij/ the I'lillfn. p. 3H1. 

I,H]j(nn, an Knullikh city mliwlonary with an exteni^lTe ni^ualntanrr 
wltlt prmlllulM, divided them Into tl>e (ollowiii);; gmupx: [II One- 
foiiitb of thf girlt are iter<'«nl», especially in public liou»cr». Ijeer *liop«. 
ele., and tlm* M into llie life; (2) unt-fourtli (■orne from fnctorlM. 
etc,; (.11 nearly oiic-fourlli iire r«?riiiled by procurcniiei who vihit coun- 
try tonnt. niarketK *tc.; (1) u llmil (tmiip include*, on the oul- Imnd, 
tlioM who are induced U> becouiv prastitutes by destitulion, or Indolence, 
or B bad temper, wlilcli unfile tbem for ordinary ikvoivlionit. nnd. an the 
other linnil. thii«i> wliu buve been lediicnl by a falic promUa of iiiiirrlflg'? 
IW. I-ojtaii. Thr Orral Hociat Et-it. ISTl, p. 331. 

In Amnrien Htnget hnn reported the remlti of iiiqutrie* made of 

two thntiianil Neu' York prmtitutM aa to tbo oaUfoa which induci'<l llii'in 

to lake up their aixventiou: 





Dl'* tit lit ion . 

Incl'tntLtinii . 

SwlllcPlI unci nbnililollcd 

Urink ntid lipdn- (or <trliik 

lll-lrfatinr-nt by purrnla. n-latjun*. ui ItiKbanili. 

Aa an cniv life ..... 

Bad rniiiimnj' . . , . . . - , . . . , , 

PftTmodi-d hy pr<H(iitut«> .... 

Too iilli> to work 


flrdiic^d on ^inipant nUlp . - 

Sediir^d in emigraiil liOHrdliig; Iiotiim. 

(SangiT, Hi»torji uf PuMtilullott, }: 4M.) 











In Anu>rl(v, ofpiln, morr rrcrntly, Profcaior Woodi lliildiinnan ]iut 
liimnrif into ooiiiiiiiiiiimtian wttli xoiTir tttirly T<-pr'«en(n([vi! int-n in 
varionn grntt mrtropolllnn rDntmi. and tliUH ininiinAriMs the onovrcr* iu> 
rrgardJi the etioloju of iirostitution : 

Per Offit. 

LovL' 'it iljitpUy, luxury iuid idliinma 42.1 

Ilnd (itmily nirToumilnKn i3.9 

Bcdui'tion in whicli tliey wero umownt ricliniB. 11.3 

Xjnrk at cniploymant 9-4 

npTPdily 7.9 

PriiiiHry ApkuhI apjwtlte S.B 

(Wood* lliitrhlniuin, "^ic Economiu of PnMtitution." Amrric^^ 
OfpUTcologic and Obftetrie Journal, S»pl«inl>«T, IMS; id.. The 00¥f 

Aoconlinj) to [tanrin. |>. 1114.1 

Tn Italy. In l!4(ll. nmonx 10.422 Inwrlbrd prortilatra (ram (be nue 
of m't^ntrcn ti|miirdii. tbe oauwa of proitilutlon were cUsiined ss fol- 

Viva snil di-priirily 2,752 

Deaf li of jMirents, hnabiind, etc 2.130 

Scdnction by tover 1 ,633 

Sednrtlon by cmployw 027 

Abandoned by paTrntn. Iludiand. etc. . . 704 

l>ive of liiinry 808 

Infitrmmt by lover or other perwiui owtiidi" 

(umily , 6M 

tncilrmcnt by parnitu or huibvnd 400 

To snpporl p«T«nla or rhlldrrn . 303 

(Fmrrlanl, Miaorrnni Drlirujucnti, p. 19X) 




TUp lyHBoiu aiiisncd by UiimtUn prustttulc* (ur Ukiujt up their 
*ttr«cr ore lim-unlliijc lo F<'iliTii« | n* lollowc 
3IO |H-r (viit. hiiiillicicnl wiigps. 
£1. " " dvuire for ikuiuwiilriil. 
H. ■■ " loii« ol pince. 
B.S " " [wrsunaion hy women fricinl«. 
flji " " lofc* o( Imbil of work. 
5.S " " chaipin, nnd t<i piuiiih lover. 
.B ■■ ■' ilniiikenneHfi. 
( SiimmnriM'd in Archirr^ iTAnlhropologir (-Timlnetle, Nov. IS, IMl.) 

1, Tk« Economic Causation of I'roftilittion. — Writers on 
praetituUon frequently assert that eeonomic coiiditioDii lie nt 
the root of prortitutioii mid ttiiil iU diit-f luiw » poverty, while 
proRtitutca theraaelvps often declare that the difficulty of earoin); 
a ]ivelilioo<^l in other ways wa^ & main cnuw in inducing them 
to idopt this earccr. "Of nil tlie cauwn of prostitution," Parent- 
DudiAtelet wrote a century ago, "j)urticiilarly in Paris, and 
probably in all large i-iti^s, none ic more active than Int-k of vrork 
and the misery which is the inevitable result of iiisuffieient 
wagoe.'' In Knglnnd, also, to a lai^ extent, Sherwi?ll states, 
*^oro]K flnitiiale uiHi trade."' It i» eqiially !»o in Berlin where 
the number of registered prostitutes Jncreaees during bad years.^ 
Il in Kt also in Amorica. It ]i> th« game in Japan; "the came 
of causes is poverty."^ 

Thus the brood and general statement that prostitution is 
largely or mainly an wonomio phenomenon, due to the low wages 
of women or to sudden depresdions in trade, is ever>"wbere made 
by inTestigutorii, It must, liowt-Ter, he added that these general 
statement* are considerably qualified in the light of the dotailed 
invest igati'ins made hy earefid inqiiirern. Thus Strohinberg. 
who miniileiy inve«tigat<!d 4(>2 prostitutes, found that only ono 
awigned destitution an the rcosion for mlopting lier career, nnd on 
investigation this was found to be an impudent lie.* Hammer 

"A. ShMweil, lift (it TTMf Ijondon. IflOT. Cli. V. 

S Itongi-r briujcn logt^hcT ■tatintki ilttintrntlng this poiut, ap. fil^ 
PTi. 4028. 

^The \i<7f>ltr»* dill. p. 123. 

4 RtrulimbrrK, •« qiioUu.1 )iv AM-liaircnl>iii]f. llo» V'rbrtxfhrn. 190:1, 
p. 77. 





found tliat of ntn«tjr registered liemian prostitutee not one haS 
^■ntux'<) un Die career out of waal or to support n child, while some 
weut on tbe etrLct wliile iu tho poMcssioii «f money, or witbout 
wi»liing to he paid.' Piirtor KuscJmmnu, of the Teltow Mag- 
doifno Hume in Berlin, finds tliat it is not want liut indifference 
to moral coQBiilcralione which k-uds girls to bcfoiiK- prostitutes. 
In Germany, before a girl ie ]>iit on thu police register, due care ia 
alvayii taken to give liiT a cbance of entering a Home and getting 
work; in Berlin, in the course of ten >inrg, only two girl* — tiul 
of tbouHaods — were wilting to take ndvuntikge of this opportunity. 
The diffienlty experienced by English Keiwue Homes in finding 
girls who ore willing to be "rencued" is notorious. The samo 
diflicnlty ia found in other citJM, even where entirely different 
conditions prcvnil; thus it ia found in Madrid, according to 
Bernaldo de Quiroe and Uanas Aguiliuiiedo, tliat the proxtitiitee 
who enter the Homes Qotwithrtuiding all tho devotion of the 
nuns, on leaving at once return to their old life. While the 
economic factor in prostitution undoubtedly cxirtti, the undue 
frequency and emphasis with which it i« put foi-ward and accepted 
is clearly due, in part to ignorance of the real facta, in part to the 
fuct tliiit such an assumption appeals to those vhose weakni^x it 
is to explain all eocinl phenonienn by economic cau»c«, and in part 
to its obvious plausibility.' 

Prostitute* an* mainly recruitwl from the ranks of factory 
domeatic servants, shop girls, and waitreenca. In soric 

> Slonatttelirifl fiir llaritkraiililieilen uml ftfrutlU Bj/giene, 1004. 
Ui'H 10. p. 4110. But till* miiti- Id iinilouMiilly ?IIi.'i.-tiv* hi tome caiM , 
of uiininrrii>fl nt>mpu in Ocnnany utialilp to gpt work (>r» nrtirip bj- 8i!«" J 
Irr llnirii'tta Arcmtt, Policp-AwiMiiiil at HtuUgttrl, Scrual-I'robltinf, 
Dnwrnlwr, IdOSl. 

SThm. tor Iniktanrf. wp (Ind Irina wn Troll. Boron ty A ni Hitying in 
li«r book. Im FrriVn Rcifrh Ip. 17(1): "Co itnil nili llimo itnforliinats 
prontiin-B |r tli^j- wiltinplv nnd frrtfly tipvolcd lhoit»ir1v«i U> »ki>. And 
np«Tly all of tli<-m will ti-li yen n utorr of nwil Hnd d«l!tiition. ol liunRQr 
iiiid Itti-lt of work, whifli com pel led tli'pm to it. nr elic of Iovp ond ■cdiie- 
tlon and the f»-nr of the dUFovcrv of lh»lT fal»* »l»p wlilcli (Iriw*- them 
out of their liomp^. h»1pl«»* and fona):vn. into the pool ot viet from 
n-hlch ther* 1* hardlj- any imlratlon." It 1", of wrnrne. quit* tnio that 
tli» proitiliitr !■ fri-iiiii-nilv rcndy to tell «afh pttnriM tn philiinfhmpic 
ppTwin* who ucpect Xa hear tlienu and MmetiniM ci«n put the words Into 
her mouth. 

i':j-. -■'••■' o^ 




of thM« occupations it is diHicult to obtain emplojinent all tlie 
year round. In tlii« way mnny millinera, drwamnkfrB and 
tailormsCB bfconie prortitiitCB wht-n busincfs i« slack, and rotiirn to 
business when tlie season begins. Sometimes the regular work of 
the day b supplemented concurrently by prostitution in the struct 
in the evening. It is eaid, posisibly with come truth, thnt amateur 
prostitution of this kind is extremely preTalent in England, as it 
la not checked by tlie precautions wliich, in countries wlicrc pro«ti- 
tution is rcgulnti^d, the clandoHtinc prnntitnto must adopt in order 
to araid registration. Certain public Invatories and dressing- 
rooms in central I^oudon arc said ta bo used by the girls for 
putting on, and Anally washing oiT before going home, the 
customary paint.* It is certain tlint in England a large propor- 
tion of parents belonging to the working and even lower middle 
clats ranks are unacquainted with the nature of the Uvea led by 
their own dnugbters. It must be added, also, that occasionally 
this conduct of the daughter is winked at or encouraged by the 
parents ; thus a correspondent writes tljat he "knows some towns 
la Eoglaixl where prci<-'titution is not regarded as anything dis- 
graceful, and CHn rememher many cmi.% where the mother's hooM 
has been used by the daughter with the mother's knowledge." 

Aeton, in a -well-informed huuk on London prostitution, 
written in the middle of the Wt ctmtury, said that prostitution is 
"a transitory stage, through which an untold number of British 
wijiuni arc ever on their pnnsiige."^ This »tatemrnt wiw :*tren. 
uously denied at the time by many earnest moralists who refiisod 
to admit tluit it was possible for a woman who liad simk into so 
deep a pit of degradation ever to climb out ngiiin, respectably safe 
and sound. Yet it is certainly true as regards a considerable 
proiwrtion of womcnf not only in England, but in other countries 
also. Thus I'arrnt-Duclialelet, the greatest authority on French 
prostitntion, stated that "prostitution is for the majority only a 
transitory stage; it is fjuitlod usually during the fir«t year; very 

' C. iluutli. Life and Lahonr, Tinal t'oUimc. p. 125. Similarly In 
Sweden, KiilIlKTe otntca tliiit girls of thirteen lo upveiiteen, \Wing at 
liome with their pnrenta in eumfortnble (-IrFiiintlAncn, hars often bvdn 
found on tlie MriT'H. 

I W, deUm, />no«(i(iiri<M, ISTO, pp. SK, 40. 

I)y .f:T'yCj<.>'.>glC 


I'f^VCllOLOUT or SEX. 

few prottitutft contiaae until extinction." U is difficult, how- 
•ver, to ascertain pFedsely of how large a proportion this is true; 
thflre are ao data whidi would sen'e at a basis for exact estima- 
tion,' and it is iiiipo«#it)k- to oxpoct tlint roitpi-ctutili; married 
women would admit that they had ever been "on the streets" ; 
they would not, perlmps, alwsj's admit it even to tlii-msclvot. 

Tli» followinK CB»p, tlioiiRli noted down over twenty yenre ngo. is 
fKirl}- typioni of u certain dun*, umoiig Urn luwer mule* o( proatitution. 
In n-hidi tlie cooiioniic factor cxnint* tor much, but in whicli we ODglit 
not too hastily to auuinn thnt it in the wit' (actor. 

Widow, ugi-d tliirly. with two oliildrcii. VVurkfl in au umbrella 
nianiitactoiT In the Kn>t Hnd of t»u'lon. I'nrnliin i-lxlitivMi aliilllnga a 
wwk by hard wnrk, anl inircniiiia lier inoimc hv occmipnully going mit 
on the •trwt« in tin- niniingH. She hauntu ■ quiet aide street which l« 
une of tlia approaHi«H to a Intge city railwuy tormlnni. She I* a com- 
foirtablir, nlinuiit matronly- looking woman, ([uietiy drevied in n way that 
U only notlewiblo from tli» skirt* Ving rather vhort. If ipoken to »h« 
nuiy remark that nhe i« "waiting for b lady friend." talk* in an alTectwl 
wny alj«iil lli» wnatlier, and (iiirendietieMlly JHti'inhiM-* her o!f»r«. She 
will either lend a mnn into one of the silent neiglilioring liinen flllml with 
warehouses, or will take him home with hir. Klie Ih willing lo aooopt 
any sum the mnn ninr lie willing or nble lo give; ormKionally It la a 
tovereign. KomeUmei It i* unly n itixpenee: on nn nrerage ah« Htnil a 
few ahillings In an evening. She had only Wm in London for im 
months; lieforr thnt she lived in NVwncnitle, She did not go on the 
•trveta th*r*; "rireiiiiwlanees alter cnrws," she mgely reniniks, Though 

1 In Lyons, neeording to I'otlon, of 388* prostilutM. 3104 nlisn- 
doned, or apparently ■Imn't'ined. their profeniion; In Paris a very larm 
number beoanip nerranU*. drensinakeni, «r tniloresses, occupations whtch. 
In many enws. donlitlei*, lliey hnd exerel»«l heforp I Psrent-Diirhntelel, 
Or la PrMlilution. IH3T. vol. i. p, 5^41 i-ol, ti. p. 431). Sloggett Iquoted 
liy .letonl "tnleil that jit niiven|iorl. 3.10 of llie 1775 prostitut'-B Iher" 
inurricd. It is hiOI krimiii Ihitt prntitilutos oiwnstonally nmrry e\|reme]y 
well, ft wss TPiiiarked nearly a eeninri' ago Ihnt marriiigei rif pronti- 
tut«a to rieh men were «ipwlnlly freiuent (n Englnml. and n«iinlly Inined 
out well: th» <wni» aeema to In- tnie »till. In their oivn -oeinl rank thi-y 
not infrequently mnrry rnhmen and r"'li™''i''n. th" two classes of men 
with whom thoy are brought mti»t eloiply in eontnet in the streets. Aa 
r^rds (Jerronnv. C. K. Sehneider (We ProttHnlrlt unit dir QmfU- 
tehaft), (tales that young nnixtihites lake up nil !u>rt» of neenpntionH 
and situaliutiv uDmetimeii, If therlinve saved s llttin money, rstabllshlng 
n bnsineu. wliMe old pro«tiliiteH t>eeome prneuresses, brothel -kecpera. 
lavatori- wonnm. and so on. Xol n frw pro*ti1ule« marry, he addi, hut 
the proportion among in«rrihed flerninn iiroslltntes U very small, less 
than S |<er rent. 





not fipciikiiig wirll of lliu (wliue, hlie «n,vii l\wy tlu nol tnlerd^re with lit^r 
a* Ui'y Ao with ooiuc of tha gitU. Slic ni'Vcr give* tlicm moiK'y, but 
hiiiU IhHt it ix HoiiiHimna nect^snry to grntlfj- tbeir dMireo iii order ti> 
kixfp on good trniTi witli tliiMn. 

It miU't always bo remembered, for it is sometimes torgotteu 
by 8ocialiKi« nnil KOcial rctormere, tlmt n-bile the pressure of 
poverty exerts a markocUy modifying inliucnot- on prosliliition, in 
tliat it iiicreuMS tlic ranks of tlic womea vbo thereby seek a 
livclitiood and may Uius be properly regarded ag a factor of 
prostitution, no practieahle raising of the rate uf women's wages 
could possibly servi-, directly and alone, to abolish prostitution. 
Dc Moiinnri, an ot'otiomist, after n-marking timt ''prostitution Je 
an induBtr>"' and that if other competing industries can offer 
women t-ut1icientiy high pecuniary inducements tliey will not bu 
go fre<|uently BtiracUd to pronlilution, proceeds to poiut out that 
that by no meana settlea the (iuestion. "Like every other industry 
pixwtitution i^^ govcrui'd by the demand of the need to which it 
responds. As long n» that need and that doiiiand pcr»iirt, they 
will provoke an ollcr. It is the need and the demand that we 
mwt act on, and perbupit K-ieuee will furnieh uh tlie na'anx tu do 
SO."* la what way Molinari experta Bcience to diminish the 
demand for prostituted, howivcr. is not clearly bmiighl out. 

Not only have we to admit that no practicable rise in tlic 
rate of wages paid to women in ordinary industries can possibly 
compete with the wages which fairly attnietivo women of quite 
ordinary ability can earn by prostitution,- hut we have also to 
realir^' that a rise in general prosperity — wbidi alone can render 
a rise of wonicn'!» wage* healthy and normal — involves a rise in 
the wages of prostitution, and an increase in the number of 
prortiliittv. So that if good wages is to bo regarded as the 
aDtagonist of proHtitution, wc can only say that it more than 

IG. lip Molliinri, /,« VirirllUurc. 1197. ^i. 155. 

3 Reus-i niiil olhcr writors havi' rcproiKiivil typical pxlraots from 
thn prirato Bommif iHiokH or (irnatilllti"", nhowinR llie liifih rate of their 
I'liriiinftH. Kvcn in th^ commtm brothcU, in niiitKMphiii ( nciiiriHn(t to 
Ooo-lrhiM. "Thr Soolnl Kvil in PliiUrt.'Iphin." Arf-a. Mnr<-h, l«B8t. (tirtu 
cnrii tw-i-nly ilolliiin nr more a ivwk, ivliirh la (nr niorp Hi«u tlic-y could 
tain m any othrr occupation open to thi-nu 




Hiw* Uick with one Imod what it taken with the otiipr. To 80 
marked a degree it Uiio the cii»e tliat l)(^v{jr6K in a dutaikd moral 
and demographic i>tudy of tlie distribution of prostitution in 
France comes to the roncluition tliot ue must rMcrse the ancient 
doctrine that "'poverty engyndtrr* |inH>titttti(Hi" since i)ro<titi:tton 
regulHrly incTciii>(« with wealth,' anil hh a il^partement rises in 
wealth and prosjicrity. bh the niimhpr both of its inscribed and its 
free prontiiutcti riiti's nlso. There iii indeed a fnllocy here, for 
while it iK true, aa Draprt^ argues, ttiat wealth demnndit pmatiln- isaisotnie that a wcnithy community involves the extreme 
of poverty as well as "f riches und that it is anmng the poorer 
elements that prostitution chieSy flndii ita recruita. The ancient 
dictum that "poverty engender* prtisfitnlion" still standi, hut it; 
is tomplicntwl and ijualiliwl hy Uil- comple-v eomlitiona of civiliM- 
tion. Bonger, in his able discussion of the economic side of the 
(|uestioii, has realized the wide and deep hnsis of priwtilution 
when he reai'hw the conclunion that it is "on thi! one hand the 
ineritabte complement of tho existing legal monogamy, and on 
the other hand the rwnlt of the hud eimditions in which many 
yoimg girlsi grow up, the resull of tlic phywcnl and psychical 
wretchedness in which the women of Uie people live, and the 
consequence also of the inferior |iiMitinn of women in our sctunl 
flwii*ty."- A narrowly wctnomic consideration nf proAtttutiou 
ran by no means bring us to tho root of tlie mutter. 

On« RircLTinstAnni aloni- thaiild huva tiiRlcod to Indloitii UiAt tliiF 
inubilit}' of ninuj' womi^ti to hk'Uto "■ living wafuc." it fur from Iwing 
tlin iiiniit fiinilnmnntnl cnnac of prontltiitlon : n larifp projiurlion of' 
pro'tilutvH oom" troin tliv mnks aF donirxlir 4ervi(i>, Of ull (In- ^«i( I 
)[T<iii]iii n( fpmnip irorkris, lioiiiMllo npn-antH ar4> (he (rmt from niiMiomie'' 
Kiixiclic": llivy iln iiul pay fur fuc'd or tor lodging: tlu-j' ulU-n live a* 
well HI llirir nilitri'iitui. nnd In n large proportion of cniin tlipy haw 
t(-wer money an.iietU-* tlinu Dirir mtMrcMes. MorKivi-r. tliey nuppty an 
almoiit nnivcrwil dcmnni). no tlint tUorr U nrvr anjr nwd for *^m very 
inMltrratiOy coinpti-nt wrvantii to lip in wrnit of work. Tlirj- eonBtitiiti?, 
it in triiff, a very \aiKf liody wliidi wiiild nnl full to Mipi>ly ■ rortnin 
rniillngent uf rrcruitu U> proatitulion. I)ut when nr ii'e Uiat diMnrstie 

■ A. Dmpr^ ta Prvtilulion en Fntnce, IMS. 

sjlonger. Crimiaalitf vi Von4iHo»t Beonomitptn, 1003. pp. :)Tfi-(U. 

().y-/f:iCiy ' 



nrrvicc ti the chief rcicrvoir (toiii whit'li |)ioitituU-ti ure drawn, it itliuuld 
be clear that the craving for food nnd sIipUpt J* by no ni"«ii« th« rhifi 
caUKO ol proalitiition. 

tt muy lie uddi-<l lliut. ullbotigh the «ipiiflcaiiee ol tliie predumi' 
nnnce of ncrvHnta Ainong prnslitiitf^ n iwldnin realised by thoip who 
faney thut to rL'iiiovir jfuverly in lu iitmliFtli jiroHillutioii, It tiH« nut liei-ii 
ignor^ by the inorf timugliWiil stiidiTits of sooiiil qii(MitieTii>. Thii* Sh»r- 
B-HI, while pointing out tnily tlint. lo a Urgf t'slent. "moralri llui-tuuln 
wilh trade." ndd* Hint, ajjuitiil the iin(Mrtnn<-e of llie econnniif fnrtor, 
it i» a »tijo[»live nnd in rvery wny impieuiivp (nrt thnt th" majority 
of the girls wlio frrciuent the Wrat Hnd of London I SS ppr i-cnt.. nceord- 
iog to the Salvation ArniyV Ri-gt»t«rM) are drawn from dompitic service 
tthcro tho economic atnig^te is not Hcvcrcly felt (Artlinr Shervrell, I.i/tf 
tn Went Londrtn. C\u V. "I'mnlitulion"*. 

It i« at tlin sBnie tlni« worthy of note that hy the conditlonn of 
thi*ir live* •cn-nnt*. more tlmn nny other cUrnt, renemblc pio»titutc« 
(Bernnldo de CJniro" and I.Una* AjcnUHnh-do have [ioliil<'d thii onl in 
La Mala Vi'ta fn \fai!i-i'l, p. 240). Like prostitiitm. they arr a elniw of 
woDiM) apart: lli'-y ire not entitleil lo tlip con-idiTalionn ami the little 
rourt^Blpn n«nnlly pnid toother womi-n; in some counlrif* they are even 
rt^rtvred. 1ikt^ pToitiliiten; it is senrrely H\irpri«fng Ihnt n-lien they 
miffnr from no many of thp dinndvantnsei of the prostitute, they ihoiiM 
■oinetimc* dpnin- lo |iomt'"" al-n -onie of lipr inliniitngps. Lily TIrann 
fFi'iiw'f'ni/K, pp. 3S0 rt srij.l tin* net forth In detail thmu* nnfarornblv 
eonilitioni of domcilie iiiliur ui they beur on the tendency of nrrrant- 
pirls to l)p<-onie pro-tiliil»«, R. de Ryektr*. In lilx important leorlt, Ln 
Cppfnnf/- CiiininrVr I lOtlT. pp. *80 rt trq.: rf.. the mme 01lthor> nrtide, 
"La Criininii lit* Aiieillali'e," Airhin^ ii'\%%thn.f,ulog%r Cn'minrtlr. July 
nnii IJpeeniher. 16061. Iin* studied the pnyeliolof^- of the »erv«iil-girl. 
llo flnda that alie i« specially marked by Im'k of forenght, vanity, tacit 
of Invention, Inndeney to tmllntlon, ani) mobility of mind. Thew are 
dwraeterti which oily licr lo the prontitntc. I)r Rycki^ro p.itimntes the 
proportion of former •ervant' among iiniulitnteK (p'nernlty a* fifty per 
cent., and addn that Hhut it culled the "white ulnvcry'' here Hndi it* 
moct complacent and docile rictlmn. lie remark", lioweii'r, that lh« 
»m*ant proxtititte i», on the whole, not wi much ininiornl a« non iiioral. 

In I'ari" Parent-lhielifltcli'l found tliiit. In proportion lo their nnm^ 
ber. aervant* fnntiiilicii Die Inruieat continjiient to proaiitnlton, »n<l hi' 
etlltora al*o found that they bead the Hat I Parent 'DuchBlcIct. edition 
1857. vol. i, p. 831. .\monjr clnndeMine pmalituteii at Pari*. Commenge 
hu more recently found thnt former acrvanli mnititiile forty per cent. 
In Bordennt .Tennnel lf)e Ir Prmlilvtlon Pahliquf. p. 1(V>) al>o found 
tlmt in isno forty per cent, of prontilutea hod been aerranla, leamstrcwej 
coming next with thlrty-wvfn per c*nt. 




In Opnnaii}: and Au«tnu it liii« long been roconnital that donie«UL' 
wnice fiiTniftlies Hie rlilrf ntiinlwr of rccruiu to proititution- Lipp»rt. 
ill (kiminnj-. and Oro»-tIol1Ui^r. in Aiixtria, poinUd out tlilii prodoml' 
nance of inaid*»i-rvunt't mid il« lii^lflcHncc betor* t)i« middle ol tlie nine- 
letMitli ci'iilurj'p ami mori> nwntly lilnnrliko hun ulatctl ("IlyKkne irf 
?<}'|iliill>" In Wpyl'K llaitilbuch dr.r HygitKF, Dd. li, p. 40) llvut Hiumm 
Brrlin prv:tituf<r« in 1808 miiiU-ii-rvant!! sUnd hI tlie 1ip«.] with M\.f-t»m 
)i«r OMit. BAunigiirKu lint otatid tlint In Vlrnnn tlie pTOporliotl of 
tcrvnnta in tldyriRhl per iTnt. 

In Kiigland. avcoriUiig to tlie lt«port of a Sclrot Coiiimittw of th* 
\jtTA% on tlic laHTt for tlio protivtian of (.-hildivn. listy pw wnt, ol pros- 
titute* htve been •ervanla. F. Rvino, in hiH VU (Intmilf en Anghtfrre, 
iA»U* Um proportion b» piglil;' pw ccnl. It aonld nppcnt to be even 
liighn* ni rcfpinl* tli* Wpit Knd of Ijmdon. 'J'akiiig I^mdon us ii wliol' 
tlie c«t«nHive Alalitlicn of MMrick [VTark Amnng Ihe FallrH). clinplnli^ 
of tho Millbiuik Prlion, •hou-nl Hint out of U.TDO pronlitule*. 582». or 
■bout forty per pent., hud prcviounly been nervunln. Isundrennes cotnlnK 
npxt> nnd tlivn dr<-u(maki>rfi rlmt^lfylng lii* ilntu lomi'iyhnt more mtRi- 
ninrily nnd rouglily. Merrick fouud tlmt Ibe pro|>onioii of sernint* wra* 
flfly-Uirj'c iK-r opiit. 

In Ami'ricn, Hnioiig tno tboiuuiid prostitutecL, Rungrr nUiten tbot 
(orQ--thr«i per cmil. linj iM'fii acrvaiits. drriuniaker* ooming next, but 
III A long illterviil, with *i\ per cvnt ISangnr. Hinlory of Prmtitution, 
p. SS4). Aniutin I*bilndi-1p)iin proalilut'^R, (iondoliild •tjitrs tliat "do- 
mcRtieii arn prolmhly In Inrgeit proportion," nltlioiigli «oiii« rccnilta may 
be futiiid from nlinoti any occupation. 

It is tlifi iwnw in ollipr coiinlrlw. In Italy, according to Tniuineo 
Hm I'rottitutionr. p. lOOi. ■ervantii ooinp flmt among prattilutta with ft 
proportion of twenty -Mgbl pT fnt,. foHowwl by llie group of dreaii- 
Diukmi. tuitDiniiea nnd millinera. novimljvn prr nrnt In Sardinia, A. 
Mantetcnixn «(at«8, nio^t proMlttitra are wrvantu from tlie eountn'. In 
RuMiift, ftceording lo Fiaii^t. the proportion In forly-Riv per cont. In 
Madrid, nceording to Kalavn (a« quoted by Bcrnuldo de Qniroa nnd 
Uanns Aguilauit'do {Ijh Mala Vdia en Uailrid, p. STIt)), Hcrvanta coine Ht 
the head of rcgiHlered piovliluleB witb tu-eiily-«even per cent. — nlmoct 
the Mime proportion lu in Italy — and un (ollowmj by dreAMinikfrd. In 
Sweden, according to Welander [ Uonalttheflf fiir Prokliixrhe Derma- 
rolofie, leOO, p. 477) among -2541 inu^rilHxl proatltiile*. lii^a (or sixty- 
two per cent) were donie-itic scmntii: nt n long interval followed 2IQ 
teaoiBtresiiex, then IflS rac(oT;y workern, etc. 

2. Tlif. Jtlolotflcat Factor of ProsfUution. — Kconomic oon- 
xiderationd, fts wc »fv, have a highly impurUint modifioatory 




InfiaMlCc on proftitution, altbougb it is by no means mrrect 
to assert that they form its main cauec. Tiierc is anotlier 
question wliicli hm exercised many investigators; To what 
extent are proetitutea predestined to this career by organic con- 
stitution? It is generally ailiiiitted tliat eoononiie and other 
conditions arc nn ('x<'itiiig caunc of prostitution; in how far are 
tlio«e who Hnceiin\b predisposed by the possession of abnormal 
personal characteriHtics ? Some inqiiireir have nrgued that this 
p rod ieposi lion is sa marked that prostitution may futrly bi- 
regarded as a feminine equivalent for criminality, and that in a 
family in which the men instinctively turn ti» crime, the women 
instinctively turn to prostitution. Others have as strenuously 
denied this conclmon. 

LombroM lia» inorp cNp^rlatly ailvocnteil tlie (toctTtne that proa- 
tltation Is th« ricnrioiiB pi|iiiru1<^nt of criininuHty. In thi« he waa 
dnfiloping tli"> remilr* rcnHifil, in thu lm|Kirlant ■tiiJy of tlie Jukes 
familv. bj- Diijtdolc, who foimd tliiit "lli»ro where the btolhcr* commit 
erEiiie. tlie sistvr" rtdopt ptnitlitiitinn;" the fiiip* nnil ii»ipri8i>nuii>iitri of 
tlio wompn of the fiimily wore not tor violntioiin of thu right of proptrty, 
but mainly fur olTi'in** agitiiint iiublic di>tTiicj'. "Tlit^ imjcliulogicnl a* 
well nn nnntomSnil Identity of the Miminnl nnil the horn pnwlitute," 
LomblvBo nnd Ftrrero toiicliiikil. "coiild not In- inorp coinplclp; botJi oro 
idnntlciil with thp niorat Inwnr, and thc^rrforc, Dcc-ording to thf axiom, 
niiial (o Mich oth^i. ThiTi- is thu s«in« Inck of moral bcdsc, Hie unic 
liardnPM of hrort. thp annif prcrooioiiii t-iitn for ovit, the Minii> ludiffcr- 
ence to Hocial infamy, thv nniiio vulnlility. turi^ of idlrneiii. and Inck of 
tomtijirht. tUn iniiifi ln>.|H fiicllc ]iU'iit< tires, for (he org;- nnd for iitcuhul, 
the lamr. or utmost the tnmr, vnnity. Frifllitiilion U only thr feminine 
side of criminnlity. And so true is It thnt prostiliition and criininnHty 
ate tu-a oiiitloiioii*, or, so to say, parnllel. pht-nuruvnn. tlitit at ttieir 
extiPiai* t\ivy iinwt. The prostitnti- U. thcrffor*-. psychologically a, 
ciiminnl: if iihe foniinilB no oltriurs it >• bccaiiM her phyniciil wp«k> 
nVMh her suiull int'.'ni}['*ncc, the fflciMlr of nci|iiiring xvhnt »hc wuuls by 
more «uy method*. ilii>|ien«pB her from the necc»siity of crime, and on 
th*M very p'oundn prontitntlon rrpri'«cnt« the *i].icciRc form of fi-mlnino 
wiinitiolity." Tim iiiKhopi iidd thnt "proUitution l». in a ccrujn anise. 
aooiaHy uiM-fiil as iin onUjt for innxotiltne wxiiiility nnd n preventirc of 
crime" ll.ombroso nnd K-rrero. La Donna Ddinqumlf, ISfl.l, p, 571|. 

Those who havp nppou-d thU vipw hni-e tnkcn varloiis grounds, and 
by no menns nlwayf understood the ponition thojr are altflcking. Tlxii" 




fstohoijOoy ov esz. 

W. FiMrIi«r (in Die PronKlul'on) rigorously aiguea that prMlltutlos Is 
not BO tnoflciuiivc ucjuivalMit ol crimiDitlity, btit a. Itiutor of oriuinalilf. 
Ftr*, ujpiin (in Dfgfntri<»cmce et t'riminalitf) , m»i-TU that rrlmtnality 
nud prontilutloi) are not Hjiiivalmt, but idcnticul. "PrOititutM and 
crituinal*,*' lie bolUx. "Iiave a* a cociiiTion ohttrBcti>r ttic-ir unpTOiluuUvc- 
npsM. and ct>nt>Fqiii>titl.v tln'y nn* both niiti-Hirlal. Pro*t itiili'>ii thit* 
fonrtitutM ■ form of cTimiiinlity." Tlic pnwntinl charac^ti^r ot t'riininnln 
in not. IiowcTvf. llii-ir improJiiolivcnv*.*. (or lliiil th«y slmre villi n <^>n- 
Bid«ral>lc prntxirlion ot lln> n'i«lili!i'-t o( tin- iijipcr eln?MM; it iiiiixt lit- 
flddi'd, altio. thnt t]ic proiUtiitr. iiiiUkn the cTiniEtinl, U riieri'lHiiif^ nii 
activity for wliich tliere is a di^iiiatid, tor wliich slic U willingly pniJ. and 
lor which «he liaa to work (It hn* MimntinwN Ihk'ii notod tliat tlin pros- 
titute lank* down on tho thjrf, who "docn not work") ; ahe in curiyjnji 
on a iirofpminu. Hiid U ifillier more hut teM prcNlurtfr* tluio tlitme ivlm 
rniiy on iiiun; more Tc[ii]ln)i1<< proffHiona. AiiehiiJTrnburK. nlM» Ixtlivrins 
himspK ill o[i|>(>*ilioii to l/inibroHO. nipic*. itumi-whiil dilT«ri>iilly frain 
VfTf, that proitiliuLlon it not indtwd, a* FCrf twld, a form of ctlininallty, 
but that it is loo fm|ii<-ntly unitM with criminality lo be rcgurdcd n« 
an ^nli'Ali>iit. MiinkpmrdliT lia> nior<' ivrrTitty iiiip|H>rt«>I Ihi^ *ain« 
view, llcrp. however. u« usual, there is a wide difference of opinion 
lu to tho pn>|)0[tlcMi of pronlllutvs of wliom Ihia i« true. It i« recog' 
nized by nil invettisnturs (o be true nf a eertiiin niimbdr. but whit« 
Ituum^rten. finin uii examination of eiglit tliniiiuiml pniHtitii(e«. only 
round mlniile pmiiurlicm who were eritninnlii. SlrtlhmherK found thai 
nmnnji 4(12 )iro'(lliit('» there nt-re nn many a* ITS lliievi.'a. From utiutber 
aide, Mornaoo iaa quoted in .IrrAiui't rfl t'tichiatria, l>>Oii, fane. I), on 
the atrtngth of bio own Inventigutions. 'it more olparly in oppusition to 
Lombnwo, lineo he prole»t> ntlojielbeT ngninHt any pnritly doicnrrativc 
vhw of prostttulva which would iu any way oaaiiuilatc theiu with 

The qiiMtJon of the scxunlity of pro»titat«B, vliicli has a 
L-crtHJn lionriiiK on the question of tlici'r tciiilcmy to Ougeiiurution, 
hne bt-eii s^Htetl by diH^eut writers in iljlTcrent senses. While 
•oinv, hkp liloi'iiwo, HMi'ii tlint ycxtial imptil!<e in n main cmiBe 
intliinng women to ndopt a proiititiitc'!* cnrwr, otiiprs nnwrt that 
pro(ititiit«e are usually almoet tlevoit] of sexual impulse. Lom- 
broso refers to tlie prevnlonce of sexunl frij^dity among prostl- 
tutee.' In I^iidon, Merrick, spfakinjr from a knowledge of 
over 10,000 proetitutcB, states thnt he lias met with "only a very 

I Im /Johhr DTliaqiivnle, p. *01. 


few cases" in whicli grusx iwrxiuil duviiu hm been the molive tu 
adopt a Vitt of prostitution. Id CarU, Itadbureki had staled at 
&much earlier period tliut "itmoiif; pTo«titut(« oul- finds very few 
who ere proinpt<<d to liburtinage by Huxiinl Rrdor.'*i Comineoge, 
again, a cnrt'ful student of die FaiUiaii prostitiit«, cannot admit 
that BCiual desire is ta be diie^d aiiiou^ Uk' serious eniiKO of 
prostitution. "I have iitnde inquiriea of tbousan<U of women on 
this point," he states, "and only a very suiall number liave told 
iTie tbut thev were driven to prostitution fur tlie sati»faetion of 
sexufll ncediit. Although girlii who give themselvea to prostitution 
are often lacking in frankness, on tliis point, J believe, they have 
110 wiiih to detfive. When they Imve actxual ueods they do not 
conceal them, but, on the contrary, show a certain amour-propre 
in acknowledging tlicin, as a sulHcient «ort of justification for 
tlieir lifi-; tio thiit if only a very nmnll minority avow thirt mntiv« 
the reason is that for the great majority it has no exislcnco." 

There can be no doubt tbnt thi* iitati-niciilii made rogurding 
the sexual frigidity of prostitutes are often much loo ungual illed. | 
This \a in part ccrtaiuly duo to tlie fact that Uiey are usnaJly 
made by those who »in'ak frmu a knowbilgti of old proittitut«a 
whose habitual familiarity with normal sexual in ita 
least attractive asjxsits has rcflult^d in compjcli' indifference to 
such jntereonrwe, so far a» their clients arc eonccnml.^ It may 
bo slated with truth that to the woman of deep pasMons the 
ephemeral and »iiper(idal rcbitionsliipit of prostitution can offer 
no temptation. And it may be added that the majority of pronti- 
tutcB begin thair career-at a very early age, long before the gome- 
irhat late period at which in women the li-ndmoy for pnaNion to 

RurllHir'kl, T'uilf d« rimpulf-oantx. p. 80. It imiy bi- uAtivA (Iml 
Bi>igli, n ti^uilinfc nullioritj- un lliir uimtoiiikiil piviiliiirUi» of tlie rxli-rnul 
feninlc Brxiial orKDiM, who Wlii'vp tlirtt "truiij! ikvi'loiitiiviit i>J Hit" e^tWrnil 
frmltst orpiuo nvmiinpAtijri libidinDim tc^denciM. Ii&s not found mteh 
drvclopmcnt to be <N>ninioii utnnny prMtiliilvx. 

V HHninier. wliu liiu hud much opporlunlty of stiidflnK thv pi^hol. 
ofcy at proitltiitos. n>>Tiiirk« Unit he liua wen no rea.«ni to auapfCt •exual 
coliliiPM fMonalAvrhrifl filr Hamkrttnkliritrn ii'irf SnmfUe Hj/gi^iut, 
190fl. IMt -2, p. HS), nltli»iiKli. an In- Iiii^ i-laewliiri' tliiM. be in uf opin- 
ion tlmt indulpDcp, rollicr than oxcmi of scnsiuility, n the chief mum 
of profltitution. 



become strong, ha» ;f«i arrived. ^ It may al«o be mid liiiit in 
inJifffrcnoe to sexual relationships, a ii'iidencv to ftitadi do per- 
soDul valiip lo them, in often ii prfdi "pinning ciiiitTO in tbc udoptioti 
of A prostitiitoV onrwr; the general iiiental shallownow of prosti- 
tiilea may well he accompanied by shallowness of physical 
eiTifltion. On the other hand, niiiny pi'ortitiilc», at all events early 
in Iheir carpers, ajipenr to show a marked degree of aenauality, 
and to women of coarse se.vuni fibre the career of prostitution has 
not been willmiit iittnictiomt from this [joint of view; the 
gratifieation of phreieji] defirc Ia known to act »j» a motive in 
some cases and is clearly indicated in otheiv.^ Tliia is scarcely 
snrpming when wc rt-nKiTdirr tlint ])rnKtitiitw arc in u very largo 
proportian of caseii remarkably robuHt and healthy persons in 
pencra] respects.^ They withstand wttlioiit ililUculty the risks of 
their profn^ion, und lhoii|;h under it« inffntin-e the manifcst»- 
tions of sexual feeling can scarcely fail to become modified or 
perverted in conrse of time, that is no proof of the original 
abKOlce of sexual nentiibility. It ia not even n proof of its low, 
for the real sexual nature of the normal prostitute, and her 
poMibilittcs of 8c\unl ardor, an- chiefly muntfevted, not in her 
profeasional relations witli her clients, but in her relations with 
her "fancy boy"' or "bnlly."* It is quite true that the conditions 
of her life often make it practically advantagooiia to the pro«ti* 
hit« to have attached to her a man who is devoted to her interests 

In llip third voliimi- «r 

> 8eo "The 8e:(u>l Impulsi- in Women," 
thnK- Sludtr*. 

sTiilt Htati*d thHt in Kilinburgh inuiy mArrted wotneii living; with 
tliclr himlinnila in romtoTtitblc riroiiniitanfvii. ttid lutrinit cliildrpn, wctp 
found to In* nt^titig hh pruBtttntt^1. thnt ii. in Ihv regular Imbit of making 
HfloifCniitlonH with atrangrrn (W. Toit. Uagtlaltnifm tit Kdinlurgh, )H42. 
p. Id). 

^jHnke bnn^ (ug«tli«T 0|iiiiion» to Ui!s fdTert, lUr WUIkiirlttk* 
HtrrorbriHiirTi drt Onchtfrhlf. p. 478. "I( wo Rimparn b pniittitut« of 
lhirty*fivp ivith li«r rMpoptnblp nint^r." Acton ri-murkni ( /■rtwIidilioH, 
1H"0, p. .1!)), '*«■* tiHdiitil lliul that (li,^ cnnillliitlonal rnvnHi-ii often 
thought to he netvntaty cotiioqiwiiprn at proslitution tixciTcl thoec atlril)' 
BtaW* to the Mr^a of a family and (lie heart- wearing iitmegl** <>( 
rlrtaou* labor." 

» Ilirwhffld nliitPK (ITcMTi if/r Ufh'-. p. 3.11 thnt thi- ilmtire tor 

tntprrmirw with n synipnthotin p«rmi Is bel^tcnnd, and not dcciMMd, 
ty a protestional aH ol cuittia. 



and will Jofcnti tlicm if ncccdsaPp', Iiut tliiit U only it secondary, 
fi('['aiii>na), niiil suliaidiury nJvHutagt' of the "fnDcv lu'v." *ii far 
as {jroetituti-H guiiTally oru cumvrnod. SIic it nttruc-Uil to liim 
pi'iiiiorily l>i>cffliu(! lie appenhi to her pentonally ami alii; wants liiin 
(or liereelf. The motive of her attncliiiicDl is, above all, erotic, 
in the full sense, involving not merely WTiunl relntlonti but 
)>OMoitsion anil common intcre^, a permanent and intimate 
life led together. "You know tliat what one d<ii'B in the wiiy 
of budines* cnnnot fill oneV licnrt," wiid n Gorninn prostitute; 
"\\'liy should we not liave a husband like otlier women? I, too, 
need love, if that were not no wc should not want a bully."] 
And ho, on hi; jmrt, reriprncnteB this feeling and i» by no means] 
merely moved by self-intorcsl.' 

One of uiy corrmponilcnt*. wlio hn« hiid much exp«rii>nc« o( prosti- 
infN, not onl,v in BritHJii, but also in Oermnny. Fiance, Bolfjium nnj 
Bdlud. liH« fntind tiiut thi> nnrin:i] inaii!fi<*tHtl<ni* of ooviih) tn-liiig arv 
mtlch more comnion in Britiili ttinn in continpntnl prontltulm. "I nlionld 
•ay." lie wrilfii, "tliol in numinl ixiitiiH (rtr''i|ri »-(ii"i>n an; gmn'ollj' 
nnfuniipioii* of nmnnl ^xcittmcnl. I don't tliink I hnvn i>vcr kiiowH a 
fotviipi woniiin who Imd nnv wiublanot of or)fjMii. ItriUili ivompn, on 
the othnr linnil. if n m.iii io innilirnti'ly kiix!. niid ahowa thni li« tin* 
lOtiM fccUnga beyond uivrv si'imunl i;ruti lieu lion, often abandon Ihrm- 
telvaa to th« nllitcat dnlighU of scxunl cicitfmpni. Of courM in Uii* 
Ufa, a> in others, there U keen ooirj petit ion. ai>d a womon, tn vie witli 
hiT eomiietitnn). mint plenno her gentlemen friend"; but ii nipin of tlia 
world enn ulwnyi diatiiii^iBh hctween real and ilmiitnted [laiviioii." (it 
i^ liutnible. lio«f.>v.'r, ihal he niny W nuiNt suecemfiil in nroniing lh< 
feelinfpi of hi» own fcllow-eonntry women. I On the other hniid, this 
uriter lind« tlint Ibe foivign wnineu nre more anxioua (o provide for tha 
enjoyment of tlieir tempornr;' eonaorU and to iMCPrijiln wliat plMMS 

1 Thia hn« ijcra elrnrly •hown by Ilnnn Oirtwnid ( from wlioin I take 
the aboTV-qiioted obaervalion of * iirontitnle), one of the best unlhoTitiei 
nn prostitute life niid ebarnclc^ •ee. r.g., hi* article, "Die ercitinrhcn 
Beziehuugen ntiwhen Uiine nnd Zuhnller." <8iwot'i'roAlrine. June, 
lOfli*. In the aiiliaiHinerif. nnmlier of the same perlorlioat f.luly, lllOH, 
p. 303) I>r. M»x Morcuae siipporli OslwaUI'a experienec*. nnd anya that 
th* Irtteri of proslitnU'B and (heir bullieTi nre Idve- letters e?(iirlly like 
thoM of rmpeefahle people of t)i" unme eU", nnd with the lutmo element* 
of love nnd ienloniy; tbeBe rMiitinn^bipd. he remark*, often prove very 
endnHnjr. Tlie prnttilnte nnlhor of the Tiijeftiirft eiii*-!- Vrrlnrrnrn ip. 
HT) «!<« hu> Mime remarks on the pro*titute'» relation* to her bully, 
etalii^ that it i> aimply the natural rrhtlonahip of a jtirl to lier lofcr. 


tlicm. "TIhi (orpigncr ■timu to maki- it Uil' liuniiK-A* of lier IKe to tftt- 
rover noiiic ubiiuriiiiil inodr of wxiinl grnttAt^ation tor hrr coiiaort.'* FlSr' 
Uifir own plfnMm- iil«> fomgn iirostilules [ri-qufiillj unk for ounni'' 
lincrtvt, in prcltTi-tKi" to uoiiuhI i-oltiw, wliilc nnal coitiia U nlno com- 
mon. The* diir<-reDctt< evidently In that the BritUh woratn. when Ihrj 
Mok ttrat mention. Iliiij it in normal coitus, wliile tlie foreign wom^n 
prefer iiiopp ubnoriiLiiI iiietliudo. TIiitl' in. however, one pl»«« of Dritiih 
prostilut^M w'likli till" oorri-'iminlprit flm!'' ti> !»' nn cxt-cpti'm to tlie 
gDneTnl rule; llie cln*s of tliour who uro recriiitiil from (lie lower walki 
of the "(Mp', "SiHi women are jf>>rierally in"ri> lii-entioiis — tlint in to 
my. more aequuintiTl with tlip hiiurrc in sexunlisra — lliiui jrirlt wlio 
fiiUK' from ahopit or Iwio; they "how a knowlpil^ of /rllalto. niiil «Ten 
anni eoitiis, nnd during mrnnlrnntinn frequently suggest iulcr-niuninuirir 

On the u'liole it would uppear that prostitntcs. Uiough not 
iisunlly impollcd lo their life by nmtivoi* of K'umkiUIv, im t-nterinK 
and diiriiiR the early part of their career poasess a fairly axeiage 
umoiiut of sexual impulK, with varialioDs in bath directions of 
excels niid deficiency ii* well ur nf pervcrition. At n eomewh«t 
later period it is uneleea to attempt to inoaeure the sexual impulse 
nf pro#tituti-K by the uniouiit of pleasure Uiey tske in the pro* 
Dal per form an re of (•exutd iTitereoursc. It is iiceewary to 
lin wliether they ])osaeAH sexual imitineta which are 
gratiliitl iri uther ways. In a large proportion of cases this is 
fouod to l>e so. ^Inst urination, ««|)ecially, is eittreniHy common 
amonK prostitutes everywhere; however prevalent it may bo 
among women who hare no other means of obtaining wxua) 
fH'atillcation it is adniilttnl by all to be ftiil more prevalent among 
prostitutes. iDdccd almost universal.' 

Ilonioeexuality, tlioiijjh not so roninion an masturbation, is 
very frequejitly found among prostitutes — in Kranee, it wouhl 
aevm, mure freipiently than in Engbind — and it may indeed be 

■ TliUD Mora(;liii founil that nniong ISO proxl I tutu's !n North Itiillfln 
brotheU. and umong 2^ I'lf^tont Itjiiiiin nnd fiirc-iRn cot'ott^'i, rvery one 
ndmill^d tlinl nhe must tirbn ted. prefrrahly by frii'lion of thi> etilorin; 
113 of them, the majority, di<e1nrf>d that thf7 preferred solitary or 
miitiinl itiH>ttiir1iiilii)n to normal eoitiiH. Ifnmmer ntnt'-'i {Zrhn L^bfii*- 
tSuff Berliner Kontiollmlidrhi-n In OntwaWa anrltv <>f "Growlndt 
HotEiimentf." lOOfl) tliat when in bonpitnl nil bnt three or tour of alxty 
prMtitutv* miLxturbnte, nnd thoiu> who do not are laiifthnl at by the rmt. 


'■:j ,-jy 




euiil tliat it uci-ur» inuii* often ntiion^ iirMetitutcii tliiui iittKiii}; oay 
otiii'i- tla.^ of women. It h favored by tilt atciiiircd distuste for 
normal coitas due to profcMioiiul intfiLtuiixj witli tiicn, wliicli 
lends lioiinnti.-xunl relntionsliips to Ito regarded as pure and ideal 
bv comparison. It would appear also that in a i-oneidcrable pro- 
portion of rase? pmslidite* preeeiit a congi-nitiil tonditiwi of 
Kxnal iiivtmion, bucU a condition, witli an accompanying 
indifferetire to intercourse with men. being a predisposing cause 
of tile adoption of a prostitute's cun.-cr. Kurclla uven regards 
prostituUv net coiiKlituting a sub-variety of longi^nital invi>rti). 
Anna Ruling in Germany states that about twenty per cent. 
pixHititutcst arc boDnwexunl ; when a*ked what indiieed them to 
beeoiiiii prostitutes, more tlian one inverteil woman of the street 
lias replied to lier that it was purely a mutter of biiginwe, kcxiuiI 
fwling not cominjt into the rpieHtion escept with a friend of the 
Bume BCX.' 

The occurrence of congenital iiivemioa umong proetituteB — 
although we need not rogard prostitutes as necessarily degenerate 
as a das* — suggests the question whetlier we are likely to find an 
unusually large number of physical and other anomalies among' 
them. It cannot be said that there is unanimity of opinion on 
thU point. For si>mc nutbortties prustitiit^-s are merely uonnni 
ordinary women of low social rank, if indeed their instincts arc 
not even a little superior to those of the class in which they were 
bom. Other invcsligators fiud wmong them bo large a proportion 
of individuals deviating from the normal that they are inclined 
ta place prostitute's generally among one or other of the 
abnormal classes. " 

IJahrbiiek fiir Remuflh Zirtaehenalufm, Jnhtg^og VTI. lOOB, p. 
14A; "Svxunt Iiivcraion." vol, tl of tliow HtuHict. Cli. IV. Hammer 
fiiund (liat of twrnlT*tivr pruHtitiitn in a rptormnlarr ni many no twi>ntT> 
thrrp wprn liom<Mi>iiiH). nr, on noml jtiotiii'Ia, «ii*jii<r[v<l to In! ■uoli. 
Hirwlifcld (Brrii'n* Itrillfu (!ee,-hl'rlil. p. I)S> liiontioti* (dot pTi><.l[til(«4 
•omrlimeA accosl beIt"'r>i;liiKH wo?m-n who, fnmi tlwir mim-Tifec uir. thcr 
lake to h* honuMVYiinl : (roiii jwr-oii" (>f llirir own ni-x pro-trfiitc* will 
■ectyit a tmallrr ri-iniin'-rnlinTi. iind •nmrtinK'ii rr-lnv pnvmcnt nlto^thcr. 

SWith pronlitiition. «a with critiiitialitr. it i* of t'our«i' ilini<.-u1l tn 
<Ui>nit«nitl« IIiP (■I^^^u^!nt nf luTiMlltj- from that of vnvtronment. pvm> when 
wp hftvp irooil tiToiiTxIii for ItclievfriB thHt tlis fnctor of Iierrfity hei*. »* 
thrmifthniit the wliolc of lift", cnnnot fnil to enrrv mneh wpjjht. tt is 


rriVcnoLwiV w sex. 

B«aing)trt«n. In Vicnnii, (iwiii u knuHlnliif o( oi-rr SOOO prantltutea, 
concluilol thdt only a vrry uiiculi- ptojiorlion urr rilliet criminal '>r 
pi<yi.')iu)mtliic in tt'iiipLTHmcnt ur oigimiiMtiim [Arehiv I'ir K'iminat- 
Anthivjiologii: vnL xl, 11)02). It in not clcnr. UoHTvcr, that Buumgar- 
trn cnrricd out any dptniiei) nnd prvi'Iii? iuvcstLgnllunH. Mr. Lan«. * 
Umdoa puli<^t> magialratf, linn tUtt'd fti* tll•^ ri-kiilt of liU own nljiwrvii- 
Iton, that prostitution In "at once n fiymplnin nntl oiit«aine of the Mine 
dricrioratcd pliyiique apd dwndcnt miniil llbi* nliicli dctvrinlne the 
iiiiiriufintiiri' of ninlH IrmnpH, |H>tlj- lliit-vi"", and pTofvHklonal begpm, of 
nliriRi tliK pronlitiito i* In Ki-iirrHl l)i^ fonial" iinnt<>t(ii<-" {Klhnologifitt 
Journal, .April, lilOS. p. -111. Tliit nlimalp l> dciubllMn cumci n» 
rcKordft a poii-Ufnihli' [)rfi|H.>rlii>ii of tiie women, oft^ii •■n(M'i)!i'il liy drink, 
H'ho pRua tliiDilgli tlic pallet- cnurls. hnt it (-oiiUl uiirM'ly br npjilird with- 
out qualification tit prosliltitn g<^ncrully. 

Moriwd" {A'vhii-io <ti PHlihi'itria. tSJIli, faw. I) linn pr«l«<*ti<d 
nKnliiit B piirctj- dcRmcratlvi- vipw of pn»titntH on Ihc strpntith of bU 
un'it titiwTvutioiiN. Tliprp is. hv niatmi. a <mlp^ry of ptostitutn, un- 
kimiii] to lu-iL'nlille in>|iiiicr*. wiiirh lie f«II" that of tli« protlitvit 41 
alio borilo. Among tlicut the nigiiii of degi'iipmlion. pliysii-nl or moral. 
_«r* not lo \>v foiinit iu fjtatfr timiilMT thiiii nnioiiK tvomi-n w)io An not 
clonK to pranlitution. They rnvnl nil «ort» of chnrurtrr*. nomn of thtMU 
uwiiig )^i-Dl ri-rLDFiutrnt. and ar« I'hicfly uDirki'i] ulT by t.lii^ jkihavimIoii 
of an UnuMial dcxrcp of tPXilnl nppflitr. F!vi>n ainiin^ Oil' inatir di>)i;ntded 
group of tli« bvint prostiluaonf. inf aiiwrtii. we Hud a. priiluminnnrR of 
wxiial, ■« well ■« pnif«ouiionnl, fhiiindfru, rnthfr than thf xijrnn of drftt-n- 
cration. It ii »ufllrietit to <\\mle otic more tpntiinony. a» i-t down many 
jtari ago by a wumim of hi^h intr))i|C<-ii''p ami cbaructt-r. Mri. Craik. the 
norfillst: '^lii> uomi-n who fall nii- liv no mean* tlii> nornl i>f thi'Ir htA- 
lion." di* WTotr, "I hurr hcuiid it affiriiifd by mori- tlinn one ludy — by 
onp in particular whoop rxparlvnrr wn* a> larip' a* hn iH'ni'volciin' — that 
many of Ihrni are of the vrry bout, n-liuwl. inlrlligciit, truthful, atid 
alTiKTtionatp. •( don't knou liow It in.' nhi' would iwy. 'wbrtber th«ir 
TPty «upirriorily mak" lh«n diiwali^flmi with llicir own rnnk — luich 
bTUt*« or ctownit oh lalioting tni-n ofloa art-! — m tliitt Ibey tall ruiivr 
rietima to thr rank above Ihein: or wh^thirr. though IhU throry nlll 
Bhock many ixKipIiv othrr rirtuM can oxiat and Bonrjeh «ntir>'ly dintinct 

mrUin, in any ctifw, that proolltntion frsquMilly runs in fumilim. "It 
haa oft»n Ih-ph my *xiH'ri«^»*," wtit*« a forrnt-r pn»lttuti' < llrdwlit 
Uard, Brichir cinrr {IrfnUeam. p. l.W» "Ihnl wlicn in ■ family a girl 
pnlera tlii« |ialli, bpr *i»t*r noon ■ftfmurdo fnlloMv lur: I have inrt 
with innuDitrabIc (■■n; mnrtlniH thiwp (iitpr* will all be on the reg- 
)Dli>r. anil [ knew m cn>i» of four diKtm, who*!' mnthrr, a nildnift', had 
btvn in priaon. and (he fathrr drank. In this cnnr, nil four (ii«(n^ who 
w*ic Trry hoaiitiful. inarrieil. una at Inut very liappily. to a rich doctor 
irlio took hvt out of tlie broLln.-! at hlJlIm-u iiiiil cdn(-at'>il litr." 




from, snd n(Ur llic tun of. tliul wUloli ar uiv ai-uusluiiiiil to bvlidvc lh«- 
iniliiipeiiiialile prime vlrlup of our wx — chaatily. I cnimul fxpliiin It; 
I win only »ny timl it i» iio, tlinl notni.' of my muni proiiiiiing villngc pris 
hiivi- btnTi llio flmt to comn to tiarm; ami noino of tlic l)f»t rttid uioBt 
fiiillifiil (I'Tvanta t M'pr hB<), hnve licim girli who havn fatli'ii into shame, 
and who. huil I doL gnw to t1i<- ikboik> aiid put Ihi'iri in tlif wny to do 
upH, would infniUlilj" linvr l)ePDnie 'lost women' " (A H'oiHan'ii Tkoiighl* 
.1 tmwl W'l/mrn, 1858. p. 291 1. VnriouB wtitcrn hnvp iinisted on tin- rdoiI 
moinl qiwlitit-H of prMliti]|««. Tliii» in Franoc, Di>«pine liiit riitiiiierat«* 
liieir viceo M ID gr«e<itD«iu and lov* of drinic, (S) lying. (3| anger. 
|4| uant of nrdt^r and iintidinc^. (>>) mobility of chnractrr. (It) need 
of movpinpnl, (7| ti-nd^ncr to hoiao««xualit_v: and then prooMds to 
dRtHil thi>ir Kuo'i <|iiHlilU't>: tlii-ir mtttrnuil nnd IiIniI iilf>-<'liun. Ilii'ir 
charity to r^kch other; nnd Ihelr ri.'fiiiitl to di'n-mnci' 'iich othrr; whiln 
tliM" arc fri-qucnlly rcligioun. Bonn'limi.'B niudi-iil. nnd gi-nornlly very hoH' 
fit (DMtpln*, r'n'-hfrl'iyir Siil«"lti\ vol. iii, pji. Sl)7 ■■( fl.; n* i'*((nnl« 
Sicilinn proBtttnti-*. rf. Callari. Arrhii-io rfi Ptkkiatria, time, IV, 190S1, 
The chnrity towards each oth^r. oft'^n maolfcfttcil in dUiti-M, is largely 
ncntTnli^fd by a ti^ndcni^ to profi'ujonul luopicion ond jpnlouiy of «ftch 

Iximbrnao t>e1fi>vps fhat the liiwi* of pmntitntlon miiat b« found In 
niornl idiocy. If by moral idiocy we nre t<i undwstnmi a condition nt 
all clunely iiltii>il uith Inwanlty. this nHw-rlion it dubious. Thtrc ai^FnKi 
no fli«T n!lnIlon*hip tietwrcn pro<titiiiion nnd innniiity, and T(inini«> 
lia» iihown iLa Pro*tilutione, p, TU) Hint tht- (rpqinrm-y of pro«litiit*3 in 
tlw vnrioiii Italian pravincn !« In iiivrnH> ralln to thv (rcijiiPncy of 
inuni? persons; as innanity incrvasea. pnwtitution dectvnaea. But if 
ire nifian n minor ilt>gTi>i« of moral Imbecility — tlint U to My, » bhintnem 
of pcrrcptiuii (or the ordinary- moml eon lidc ration* of clvilitntion which, 
while it i» largely dne to thp hnrdi-niiig iiiflnrnep of an nnfnvornhle fiarlv 
environment, may uIho re"t on a congenital ptcdinpoiition — Ihi^rr iiin 
br no doiiht that nionil inibpfllity of ^Viichx di-^rr"*- i» very frequently 
found nniong proititutt'it. , It n-oiild be pkiinilili', doublle**. to noy that 
every woman who gii-e* lier virginity in exchange for an Inadequato 
retnrn in an iinla-cile. If nhe givei henetf for tore, »ihe ha». at tlin womf. 
made a foolish miMake, xiich ai the yoniig nnd incxjiericncvd may at any 
time mflk*^ But if ihe deiihrratcly prnpoiipfl to nclI herwlf, and doca lo 
for nothing or next to iiotlilnK. the wi-e is altered. Tlie e:ipirrienee« of 
Cotnmenge in Pnrin are inilniHivn on thin pi:iint. "For many young 
girh." he iiTiti«, "Tnode»ly has uo exislenci-. they experit-nre no emotion 
in allowing thcmwkes completi'Jy UndreBftcd, they abandon themnelrea to 
any chauve individual whom thrv will never see again. They attach no 
importnnee to their virginity; thay are dellowcred tinder the nlrangeiit 
««nditioii«, without the left»t thought or Mre About th» «et they are 

. t^iooglc 



■c4i>iii|>lliihlng. No smliiuciii. no ealculnliau, piutbc* tlicni iiilo n innira 
Brms. TliCf lei t)i'^>iiiBOli'>i> i!» niUiout rollMiOD Rnd williout mciili-p. In 
an «lmMt aniiuul manner, (rum iiidilTvii-uci' nnil wilbout picanure." He 
waa acquainted wiili torty-flvf girU botwMn tlii; sgi-? of twcKv and ttvea- 
t«en wlio wptn dPlloworrd by chnncr «tmnger« whom tliejr never met 
affnln; tlii-y lo't tlicit rirgiiiHy, in Dmiin«'» phn*.-. as tlicy lost ibeir 
niilk-toelli, niitJ mulil kIvp nn plnuiiMc nciKiiint of tlir Iom. A rItI of 
flflivn, iDi-nl ioni'd liy C'oaimi-ngi-, liiiii),' willi lier [mreiits whd 3U|>pliei] 
all licr u'Hiits, 1u«l liar vlrtcliiliv by rniHitlly mccling n ninn wlio olTcrnl 
hwtiro Irniicii it *lic would go wilb hiiui she did so u'iUioiit dirniur and 
■OOH bcKUll In luvo^t men on Iut nn-ii ncMtlliil. A girl of (uiiltcvn, also 
liritig cumfortubly ivith Ik.t puTi-iils. uonfloi'd lier rirgiuity at n Mir in 
return (ot a g}aM of liccr.anti lienied'rili Iwguii to a^so^Uto with pro*- 
tltnt«*. Another girl of tlie *innr nge. nt a Wal {{■Ir, winhing to go 
round on the hobby horte. 9{Hinlaiifoii*ily olTered heroi'lf to Ihe man direct- 
ing tlie madiiiipry for 1li» plpshiir* of a rid*. Y*i an'itliM gii1. of (Ht*i"n, 
nt another tete, offered hi-r virginj^ in return for the aamo momeniary 
Joy ((^niiiieiig*. Prnililntiiin Clnnttratdir. ISI17, pp. l(il rf »fq.\. In Ihe 
irnitrd Stntoi, Dr. VV. Trari« filbh, pxamlnliig phyiiclan to the Xpw 
Jfork So<-ifty (or the I'nn-CTilioii of Cnieltj- to Cliildren, Iwar* niiiiiltir 
itlmnny to the fact that In n falily l«r|[e ptvpirlinti nf "rap" mm 
le child is the willing vielim. "Tt i* horribly patbctie." lie «ayi {iitd- 
ioal Rtoord, April 20. 1007). "to lenm how far a niekel or a quarts 
wtll go towardn pun-hojdng the virtu« of thrae rhildren." 

In estimating the tcndcner- of prnititiitrs (o di>pUy rongeniUl 
pliysieal anomalies, the vrudet>l and niovt ubviuui teat, though not a 
prwinn or laliafnctory ono, h thi- gcni-ral iinpreniiion producetl by the 
fao& In Krnnoe. when nearly lUOO proBlitutvi wpri- diviili-d Into Ave 
groups from the |K>lnl of ri«r of Iheir look*, only from ncvcn to fourteen 
per eent, were (oiuid t» bi-loug to the Dr»t group, or Ihnt of llio»* wlio 
eonld b« (aid to po<tiw>« youth and twnuty (Jeannel. De la l^Mlilution 
Fubliijue, 1800. p. inSL Woods HuMiinson. agnin. judging from an 
ntPHiKirti aequnlntfliieo nilli 1.ondon. I'arin. Vt<Minii, SVw York, I'lilladrl- 
pbia. and rhitngo, nisert* llint n hundmomi- or cvi-n nttrn.-tii'e'looking 
pro«llttit«, Is i:ire, and that the general B«*emgi? ol l)eaulr i« lower than 
in any other elan* of womon. "Whatever other evils'' he romark*, "Uw 
fatal \)09tT of lirniity may Ih.> teiiponiiiblc for. it hai nolhing to du with 
proa ti tilt ion" iWooU HnlvliinHon. "Tlie Ek-onomi'^ of Prontitution." 
^OMTteiii fjjrnirro'o^'eal hh-I Olmlrfrir Jourmil. Hrptcmlwr, ISOS), it 
miuit, of coume, br l)i>rne In mind that Ihew etilfmate* are llabl« to be 
vitiated llirough bi-ing hasnl ehieUr on Iht- in»pretion of vomen who 
mmt obrioiiily belong to the rlttm of prostitutes and have already bwn 
MMraened by their jirofension. 

Tf we may conclude— and the faet is probably undlaputed — that 





tUMltlfllli tC?rv«aLIf, nnd ]u>nnr>n)ou»]j (oriiii-d (nres ni« rar« ratli«r llmu 
eOMBMai among prattilutca, we Tiutj' certAJnlf auy that minute pxaminii- 
tion will reveal a \nigv iitiniber of ptivsicn) nhiiorniulitier. On« of (lie 
Mirllr«t ImpnrUnt phyiicul Jnvcitignlinns of prostitutes wdh tlint of Dr. 
Pnulini^Taniowik}' in llunsiu iGthI publi^lit^l in tlie Vraleh in 1887, and 
a(t«rwar<lit as Eludet anthT«pom(i<iqU'.t «ur let I'roilituftt et Ir* 
I'olnuirii). Slic danimnl fifty Si. IVlcrrilmig iiro^lilutcs who hud Ui'ii 
jninatca of a l>roth('t for not 1cm than two ji-ura, and aIho fift,v pvafout 
wemni of, wo far aa |>09si)>lc. Hie n>mi> ngv and mcntnl ilcvrlupmL-iil. Slio 
found Uint ( I ) the prostitute ehou't-d shurlcr antrTiur-poat^rior aiid 
traiiHivTBc diamotern of «kuMi 12) a [in)|>i)r1l<iii eijiial to elglity-lonr pi'f 
cmt. ihowcd varioiia ttgaa of phyaieal deKcneratlon (irregular akult, 
afymnielr}- of foce. aiionttilifM of liard p«lnt«, mtv. fU'.). Tliia 
tcndmey to anomaly nnionR Ihn prortitutM ttfla to Mine extent <':(plniiini 
wlien il H'HH found Unit abuut fuiirnftlin of them had parentd who mci'ii 
habiluHl drunkard', nnd nearly ono-ftftli vmv the laM ■tirvlvora of lar|(>> 
familieii; such faiuilieB have been often prodiieed by drgeneratc parenln. 

The fre<|iienej' of linrditiiry demenerulion has liecn noli^l by Bon- 
hocffer aiiiung (.'trtniin prustituti^s. He invealigated 100 Rreilau pronti- 
tutes in priwjii. iind therelure ol a luoi'tr abnormal <]»n» than orddiHry 
proytitiitca, and found that 102 were hereditarily de^nenitc, nnd tnoitly 
with oii« or 1n>th pamita iilio w«ii> drunknrdHi 53 al-io Hliowed feeble- 
mlniMnMiii ( Zrilgt-hrift (Cir dU (Jtaamie BlrvfuHttPtiithaft. RiL u(i!l, p. 

'I'll* Dioflt dvtnil«d exaniiiiatioiH ut ordinary non-criminal proati- 
tulo, botli nnthropomelrieally and as regnrds the ptevnli'nee of anoni* 
alies, have been tiiiide in Italy, thuufch not on a truflk'tenlly laiga ' 
number of »ubjecta t"> yield nbnululely dreisive te»ult=i. Thin Korimtarl 
made a dMail«d Pxamiaat Ion of sixty pro-itUulei belon^njc ('hi«ny ta 
Emiiin anil \'enice. nnd alio of twimfy-arvrn othsrt bnlongiiiji ti) Bologna, 
the lalter group being conipnred with a third gtoiip o( twenty normAt 
womra hrlnnglng to Bolngiin l.dvKi'rto di Puirhiatna. 1K!)2, fasr. V1|, 
The pTontitutes were fonnd to he of loHcr type than the normal in- 
divldMala, having aninller lifadv and Inrijwr lavf. At the auUmr biniwU 
puinlo out. bi4 iiubjeels were nut itifliciently miinrrou* to juatify for- 
rraching gtn«raliuitIon>. but it may !»■ worth while (o •uniniariKv soto* 
of IiSb re»ult9. At equal lieigbis Ibc pro*tilHtc« nhoweil gvratvT weighti 
at «|iial apw Ihey «-*ie of sliortw stature than other wonien, not only 
of mellto-do. hut of thi? [Kwr clas«: height of faee. ht-ij-goniatie diameter 
not the diitaner hetn'npn lyipxniaol, the dlnlaniv from rhin to 
auditory mealui. nnd Ihe >in) of the jaw were nil greater in the 
tr%t thr hondit were longvr nnd broadrir. eoni|Kireil !■> the palm, 
than In onllnary women ; the foot also wni lonKrr In pronlitule*. and 
the thigh, m comparrd to the Mlf, waa larger. It ia noteworthy that In 



ni¥OUOLO(JY op SKX. 

moiit pnrUciiIiin, and cMpccUlty in rpgnrd la head meaiiureiiiciit*, Ihi* 
variatious n«rv niucb grnttvr aiDOiig tliv jiixxIitiitcR tliao ainoiiK thv 
other women rxaniinrd; Ihii U Xa tome extent, Diough not eutireljr, to 
be ■ocOTintnl for by tlie »liglitty prntir mimbfi' o( the fornwir. 

Ardii (in the lainc number of the JrebiVio) gitve tlie r«BUlt ol 
obBervnliunq | iiudrrtiiken at l^iiibroao'* nuggpation) ns to the (rvi{iumcy 
of fl)inonii)iUll<i nmoiid pioitjlntes. The aubjet'ts wrre Beventy-four in 
numlier niiil belonged to I'rofrBEtor (iioi-Biinini'i Cliuica ftifilopatim ■! 
Turiii. Tliir nbnorniiilStieH Invi^tignlml wnro rliilp ilUtribiition of hair 
on piibrs, cheat, and limb*, hypertrichosiji on foreliond, l«ft'hundedn«M^ 
atrophy of nipple, iinil tullooiiig (Hhirli was only (oiiiid oiico). Com< 
billing Aiiln's obaenations nltli another seiieu of iibsFrratiaiia on fifty- 
five prostitutes esiimint'il by LoinhroAo. i'. in .ounil that virilr Ji>«po«ilion 
of lialr i« found (ti flflncn ppr crnt. at ngninst six per cent, tn norauil 
women; nomc degree of hypertriphoM» in i-ighteeo per wut-i i»ft-hand«l- 
neM in rlevpn p*r wnt. (but in norninl wmiipn n« high as twelve pet 
cent, nemrilinji to (lulllni : nud ufropliy al nipple in twelve pc-r «ut, 

(litiffrldii-Kiifa^Ti. u|i;iiln (Alii iJ-lln i'l/clflA llomana di Anlr^ 
ftolngiit, lAOT, p. 216) , on rnumininK eighty-tvo proriitute* found 
»noinatii>4 in thi.> following order <if diiTfatiiig fri-qu«ncy: tvndem'y of 
enbrowi to meet, tuck of crnninl synimetry, depreuion at root of now, 
defectii'e development of mlvt-«, )ir|w-rtiii!hOBis and other anomMliea of 
iiair. adherent or nhiont tobiile. prominent zignma, prominent (or«'he«il 
or frontal buuex, bad itti plantation of teeth. Ilaminian ttibeteli> of t*t, 
tUIn vertical lip*. Tliesn signs ore leparotelr of little or uo important, 
though (ogvther iu>t without aiipiiflcHnee ax iiu indicofion of general 

Morn reeinlly Aiearilla. in an ehihorule Mndy l.irrhirio Ji P»i- 
chiatria. IDOO. fii*«. VI. p. 912) of the linger prints of pronlilHlei, eomca 
to the coneluiiion that even in thin n-npect prontitulei tcrni lo fomi a. 
class Hhou'iiig mnrpbolojiii-nl inferiority lo noniinl women. The palterm 
tend to ahciw unusual simplieity and iinifDrmity. and the siicnilleHnM of 
thU t» Indicated by the fart that a similar uniformity is aliown In- the 
linger printa of llie iiiiane and deaf mules I l)c SsncliM nnd TOMnno, Jilt 
HacUlA Romana .\ iitrtifi-iUigia. vol. \ili. I!)ti|, raw. HI, 

In Chieagfi Dr. Harriet Alrsaniicr, in conjiinclion with Dr. E. S. 
Talbot and Dr. J. G. Kicrnan, p;iamtn>'d thirty prostitute* In the Bridr- 
well, or House of Corret'tiim; only the "obtuse" cImm of profcujon*) 
pnwtitulcs leach Ihi* insiitnllon, and it i« not thrrefove aurpri"ing that 
they trere found to exhibit i-cr>' mnrkwl stiiimnla of cie|p'neTa<7. In 
T*rn nenrlj half of thnm exHuiiued were CHtic Irish. In stxteni tli9 
itygomntic procnars were uneqnu] nml very prominent. Other fa^uil 
nsTininetries wer# oommon. In three eoM^s the hends were of MongoloUl 
typei lixteen wereep[(nnthte. nnd cicvi-n progntithiei firo showed armt 




of ilevdopmcnt uf (uoe. Bracliycfplinly jiredomlnat^ (acvfiitecn oaaca) t 
the rfst wi>rti mnmticrplialic; there wcrr no dolicliovcpliBli. Almorinali- 
tio* in aliupc of the nkull wori' iiuiiivrouB. and Iwenty-ntnf^ hud dpfectivi? 
ears. Four were ilpnioiutrably inunn. and one nun an «|ii1cj>tio |IL C- 
B. Alcxamlcr. "I'htukul Abnormal 1 1 ii^s in I'ruiitiltitft.'' Clitvngu Acadcny 
Of Mwliclo", Aptli, IHU3; K. S. Tnll«t, Ihrsmrrae^, p. 3B0j Id., Irreg- 
ularittea o/ Ih^ Trrfh, fourth edition. [>. Hi). 

k woiili] tn't-iii, on tilt,' wliolo, HO far lu tlie evidence «t present 
goes, that pro8iittiU>s aie not quite normal repreeentatiii-ca of tlio 
ranks into wlitch tiicy wure bom. There has been a process of 
flcWtion of indiviiliials wlio eliglitly iltvinte eongenitallv from 
the normal average and are, correspondingly, slightly inapt for 
norniiil life.' The psyehic cliarMetcristic* vrhieh necoinpany siich 
deviation are not HlwavK nereaiiArily of nn obviously unfavorable 
nature; the sii;;litly neurotic girt of low claBs birth — iliBinclined 
for lianl work, through defective energy, nnd perhaps gieedy and 
eddeh — may even seein to pusses.'' a refinement superior to her 
ttotion. While, however, there is u tendency to nnonmly among 
prostitntcs, it nui«t W elc-arly reeogniwid that that tendeney 
remains slight so long as we eonsider impartially the whole eInNi 
of proBtitutes. Those invf^ligBtor* who Imve reached the con- 
clusion that jirostitiiteB are a highly degenerate and abnormal 
claw have only nbwrvett special group* "C prostitutes, more 
especially those who are frcipiently found in prition. It i* not 
poKsible to form a just conception of prostituti'S by studying them 
only in prison, any more than it would be poM.ihk- In form H Just 
conception of clerg>*nien. doctors, or lawyers by studying them 
exehisively in prison, and this remains true even although a niucli 
larger proportion of prostitute* than of members of the more 
ri-putahlc professions pass through prisons; that fact no doubt i 
partly indicates the greater nhnormulity of prorfitulea. 

It has, of course, to be remembered that the special condi- 
tJOBSof the lives of prostiltites tend to cause in them the appear- 
ance of certain professional cbnrBcierirtie* which are entirely 
acrjuired and not congenital. Tn that way we may account for 
the gradual niodifioation of the feminine secondary and lertiar>- 

iTIii* tiiet i» not confmdti-ti'd by the i)ndoub(t>(l f.irt (hut pWMili- 
tnlM nr« by no mcanit alwayn contcnltfil with ihe llle Uiey »'lioow. 




Dcxuiil clinractvrs, and tliv appearanre of m&itciiline characters, 
such as the fretjuent iWp roicc, etc.' Hut witli all due allowance 
for thea- acquired c-hnniL'UTa, it ri-iiniiuii true tbat mcii compara- 
tive invp^tigationit ns have w far i>e«n niaile, althoti<;h inconclu- 
sive, scPDi to indicate that, even apart from Itic prt-vulciicc <>f 
iicquircii ntioiniili<-^, llii; pmfiiwiininl udeclion of their avocation 
tcndii to iicparRt^! out from tlie general jwpuUtion of tJie same 
social cluc^, iodiviilualB wlio po«»ci^ authrup'iinctrK-al otiaractvrs 
varying in u di-tJnitt* dirf^ction. The nbnervationH tliiis made seem, 
in this way, to indicate that proetitutes tend to he in weight o«r 
the average, though n<it in >t)itun.-, Unit iu li-iigtli of arm they arc 
inferior though tlic hand;) are longer (this has been found alike 
in Italy and Ituasia) ; they have smaller ankles and larger calves, 
and utill larger thighe in proportion to Ihcir large calvei*. The 
cfltimaled skull capacity and the skutl circumference and 
diameteri are Honicwhnt below the normnl, not ouly when com- 
parod with rc>'i>ectahle women hut also uitli tiiicveii; there is a 
tendency to hrachycephaly (both in Italy and liuHsia) ; the 
cjivck-bonc^ are uxually protniueiit and the jaw^ developed; the 
hair i.i darker Ihau in rei>pectabl« women though Ick* to than 
in thieves: it is al*o unui^ually abundant, not only on the head 
but also on the pudenda and cliiewherc ; the oycs luive been 
found to be decidedly darker than those of either respectable 
women or critniiuiU.- 

80 far as the evideuce goes it nerres to indicate that prosti- 
tutes tend to approximate to tlie type which, as was sliown in the 
previous vohuiic, there ix reunion to r<^gard as specially indicative 
of developed sexuality. It is, however, unnoceiwary to discus* 
this qucstiou until our antbropometrical knowledge of prottitatw 
is more extended and preciw- 

8. The Moral Jualificatioii of FnatUution. — ^Tliere are and 
always have been m"ralista — many of them people whnwe opinions 
are descning of the mont mtiouk respect — who concider that. 

I Tliin pmnt hiu been dl*cii«wd br Hlocli, BtmalUbt)! uiuam- Xeit, 
Ch. Xltl. 

> Variou* onrlM of oWrrallons sr* Mininiitrlwi] bv LombroM anil 
I'orrM*. 1m OoHHa DcKnfUMfr, laDS. Part III. wp. IV. 


allowiog for the need of improved liygienic conditionE, the 
eici^leQce of prostitution pi\'»i-nte no aerioux problem [or soliition. 
It is, at nio«l, they kiiv, n iit^cusur}' evil, and, »t beet, n beneficent 
invtitiition, the bulwark of the home, the inevitable rei-erBe of 
which monogamy is ttie obvorse. "The immoral guardian ot 
public morality," n the d^finitiou of prostitutea given by one 
writftr, who takes tlie humble view of the matter, and another, 
taktni; Uie loftier ground, writes: "The proKlitute fulfil* a itocial 
niiiuion. 8hc If tUe ^lardian of virginal moileaty, tl)e clianiiol 
to carry ofT ndulterouB deaire, the protector of matrons who fear 
late maternity: it ie her part to act as the ohieM of the family." 
"Femalo Decii," said Balmt.' in )ii« I'hi/iiwtotfir tlu Miinitge of 
profc'titutei, "tiiey sacrifice tliemselvea for the republic and make 
of tJieir bodies a mnipart for the protection of respectable 
fainiliea." In the same way Schopenhauer called proBtitutca 
"hutoan sacrifices on the altar of monogamy." Lecky, again, in 
un oft-ijuoti'd pHSjiajti* <if rht'tiiric.i mny be Kaid to combine both 
the higher and the lower vie«- of the prostitute's mission in 
human so<'icty, to which he pi'cn st>cl(s to give a liieratic character. 
"The supreme type of vice." he declared, '*sh<t i* tdtiniately the 
most efficient guardian of virtue. But f<ir her. the uncballeiiged 
purity of countlew hap)>y homes would be polluted, and not a 
few who, in tlie pride of their untcmptcd chaatity, think of her 
with an indignant shudder, wi^uld have known the agony of 
remorse and of despair. On that one degraded and ignoble form 
■re concentrated the passions that might have filled the world 
with shame. She ri'muinH, while creedi^ and civilizations rise and 
fall, the eternal priestess of humanity, blasted for the sins of the 

I am not aware that the tJreelcit were greatly coneemed witli 

1 Hiiitf/'}) "f Kitropfan itomh. vol. Hi, p. 283, 

3 RitniUrl.v (xird .Morloy hai written ( tHtUrol, vol. il. p. 801 : "Tli* 
purilj of U\« tftmily. w lovely niid dear un it in, hus -dill unlv bri^n 
Rcnirrd hlthftrlo by rcUinliif! n vast ami OoIotoiih lK«t of rcninW oiit- 
r«i«t« .... upon whoai^ hcnd^. ni iiiioii thr tioupt^goat ot Uic 
Hebrew oniinnnre, wn piit sll thi- iniqiiili<*n of the rlilMrpn of Hip boiiif. 
»nil «M llii-ir trnnsfrri-wiimfi in all Ibcrr mih. iind then bunisli llii-m witli 
inBl«die(ioM Into the foul oiitJ?r wll.lpriiesK and the land not Inhobitwl," 



i«YCiioi.oaT av eitx. 

the moral justification of proBtitution. Tlicy had not allowed 
it lo assuitif v«ry offcnuivc ri>rtii» uiid for tlit iiiOftt pnrt Iht-y 
were contoiit to accept iL The Itomans usually accepted it, too, 
but, we patlier, not (piitc so easily. There was an aiusl^-'rely 
serious, ultiiost Puritfliiic. "pirit in the Romans of tlnf old stoi'k 
antl tlioj' flcein sometimes to have felt the need to SAsure Ihem- 
Belvcs that prostitution ntilly was morally justifiable. It is 
eignificunt to uotc thnt they w<'n> ftceualomed to remember that 
Cato was said to have exprei^sed satisfaction on seeing a mua 
cmergo from a brothel, for olherwisc Im might liaY« gone to lie 
witli hin neighhor'a wife.' 

The social necessity of prostitution is the moat ancient of 
all the arguments of moralist in favor of the toleration of pros- 
titiita; and if we a('ci-|)t tlie eternal validity of the marriage 
system with which prostitution developed, and of the Iheoretical 
morality Iiufii'd on thnt »y*teni, this is an exceedingly forcible, if 
not an unanswer-iblc, argimient. 

The advent of ChriHtianity. witli it« special attitude towards 
liwj "AmIi," ni'cossarily tausfil an cnoriuous jncrcawt of attention 
to the moral aspects of prostitution. When pro«titution was not 
morally dcndunced, it hceanie clearly necessary to morally 
justify it; it was impossible for a rhureli, who^; ideab were 
more or lees ascetic, to be benevolently indilTerent in such a 
matter. At n rule we iteeiu to find throughout ihat while thv 
more independent and iiTcsponnible divines take the side of 
denunciation, those theologians who have had thrust upon thcin 
the grave responnibilitiee of eeelesiastiea) Htatefuiianiihip have 
rather tende<l towards the reluctant moral justiiicatiou of prosti- 
tution. Of thi# we have an example of the fiwt importance in 
at. Augustine, after St. I'aul the chief builder of the Christian 
Church. In a treatise written in '1H(! to jnitlify the Divine regu- 
lation of the world, wc find him declaring that just a« the 
executioner, however repulsive he may be, occupies a nectwaary 
place in society, so the pronlituto and her like, however sordid 
and ugly and wicked they may he, are equally necessary ; remove 

I nornce, Balirt*. lib. i. 2. 




]>ro«LitutiM from human ofTain nnd you would pollute Ihc u-orM 
with lust: "Aufcr merelHoea do rebim humaois, tiirbaveris omtiiu 
iLbidiuibui!."' Aquiuii«, the only Uit-ologicul thiiik(.T nf Cliristeii- 
doin who can be named wiUi Augustintf, wm of the » mind 
with him on this (|U(?stion of profit it ut ion. Ho msinlnined the 
Binfulnees of fornication but he accepted the neceseitj- of prosti- 
tution as a bonoficial part of tlie eocial structure, comparing it to 
the scwcnt whieli kwp « piiiaci; piin-.^ '■Pronlitiiliim in towns is 
likv the flower in a paln«>; take an'a)' the sewerH and the palace 
bvcucKi! an impure and tlinkiug place." Lignori, the most 
inRticiitial theologian of moiv modern lima*, wm of tlie like 

This wavering and somi-indiil^Tnt attitude towards praeti- 
tuiinn was indeed gi-neia!ly maint:iined hy theologians. Sumo, 
following Augustine and Atpiinns, would permit prostitution for 
the avoidance of greater evili" ; others wero altojjethor (>j)pMod to 
it; others, aj;ain, would allow it in towns but nowhere else. It 
was. however, univrsallT held by theologians that the proatitute 
has a right to her wag^s, and i» not obliged to make rcetitution." 
The earlier ('hristian moraliHt* found no dirticulty in maintaininp; 
that thiTe is no sin in renting a hou«e to a prostitute for the 
purposes of her trade; absolution wii* always granted for tliis 
and abstention not required. ■• Koniicatitn. however, alwayn 
remained a sin, and from the twelfth century tmwards the Church 
made a scrici* of organixed attempts to redaim projttitiitvM. All 
Tatholic theolo^ans hold that a prostitute is bound to confess 
the sin of prostitution, and most, though not all, theologians have 
believed thai n man also must eonf<«^ interenurse with n provU* 
tute. At the same time, while there was a certain indulgence to 
the prostitute herself, the Church was always very severe on those 

I AtifniMiii^, De Oriine, Bk. II. C'h. IV. 

= /!.• fffjim.n* Print^fiUm lOpawula XX], lib. ir, cup. XIV. I am 
inilrlilril to tlif Urv, H. Norlhwit* for the refereiiw to tli»' prwinc plaw 
wli(<rc till* (tfltcnirnt (imim: It ti iinunlly qiiat«t mori' viiKiidy. 

3 I^a, ninlnrj/ of AuHcvIar ConfetnloH, vol, ji, p. 09. 'niw- wb« 
pvvn, It itr<>ini. nii coi-piilrk derinion of lilt- SnlaitiHnrn tliix)1ogJnns tliat 
a nun mijjht no rewiv* monry. "lidtp vl volide." 

* Un, op. dr., vol. II, pp, 203, 306. 




who lived on the profiU of protuotiDg prn«titiitioD, on Uic leuotut. 
Thus tlie Council of Kivira, which was ready to receive withant 
penance the prostitute who married, refui^ed reconciliatioii, evea 
Hi death, to piTmim who hud hi-oti guilty uf hmicinium.* 

Protestant Um, in thiti as in many other matters of sesual 
morality, haxiag uhiiiidaDt'd the confetrr'ionEil. wng usually able to 
c*cupe the Docessity for any definite «Jid r(!fi[)(insible utlorance* 
eoncerning the moral status of [jrostitution. When it espreesed 
any opiition. or eougtit to initiate any pmetical action, it natumlly 
juded itftcli on llm Bilili<:al injimutioim uguiiiiit foruioalioh, ns 
"«pre«ted by St, I'aul, and showed no iiien-y for prostitutes an<l 
no toleration for prn^ittitiou. This attitude, which was that of 
ihe Puriianii, wax tiic mam easy sineo in Prot<^«tiuit countries, 
with the exception of siiecial districts at special perioda— such as 
Geneva and Xcw KiiglantI in the ceventecnth and eighteenth 
centuries — theolofiians have in these matters been called upon to 
furnish religious exhortation rattier than to carry out practical 
policies. The lattfr task they have h-ft to otliere. and a certain 
confusion and uneertainty has thus often arisen in (h« lay 
Protertant mtud. This attitude iu a thoughtful and serioua 
writer, is well illustrated in England hy Kurton, uritiiig ti cvntury 
after the Kefonnation. lie refers with miti^ited approval to 
"our P*eudo- Catholic*." who are wvere Willi adultery but 
indulgent to fornication, being perhaps of CatoV mind that it 
should he encouraged to avoid worse ntiHchiefs at home, and who 
holds brathel^ "as necotuuiry as churches" and "hatv whole 
Colleges of Courtesans in their towns and cities." "They hold it 
impiwsihk'," he i-ODtinue». "for idle pcrBOuf, young, rich and 
hiety, 6o many servant, monks, friars, to live houeat, too tyran- 
nical n burdm to compel theui to be chaste, and most untit to 
HulTer poor men, yoimgci' hiotliero iin<l Hohlicrii at all to marry, 
as also diseased pereons, votaries, priesta, servants. Therefore as 
well to IctH'p and cute the one a« the otlier, they tolerate and wink 
at these kind of h rot hel -houses and stews, ^lany prubablv ar^gu- 
meuts they have to prove the lawfuluees, the ncccwity, and n 

I Rabotaiix, Be la t'rtMltlulioii en Enntpr, pp, 92 tt Mf. 




Ukntiou of tlicin, as uf uttcry; uii>I nitliniit <]iic«tioD In poli^ 
the]' arc not tu li> vontradiL-ti^il, but iil1ogetli«r id religion.'*' 

It was not uutil the bcgimiing of the lollwwinjj century that 
the ancieut argiiiiii-ul of St. AuguHtiau for llit- iiiurni juelifieation 
of pru«tUutiu>i wii* bolilly iiml liuuisivclj ittnU-d in ProtCBtiinl 
England, by Bernard Maiiilovilli? in hia P'able of the liees. and at 
its firet prouinlgation it aeemed so oirensive Jo the public mind 
that Hie book wa? supproe^d, "I f courtetiaus and etruuipi'ts wciv 
to be prowcul«<d with )i» nuoh rigor us aonic gilly ))eople wouhl 
Iiave it," Mandovillf wrot<>, "what hicks or bars would be mifflcient 
to preserve the honor of our wives and daugliters? .... 
It TN maniffft that there is a necessity of suerilicing one part of 
womankind to pvem-rvv tlie otiier, and previ-nl a tiltliini>s» of a 
more heinous nature. From whence I think 1 may justly con- 
chidv that chaMity may be >^u])|>»rt4-d by incontinence, and the 
b*«t of virtues want the assistance of the worst of vices,"- After 
ilandevillc's time tbie view of prostitution began to become coin* 
nion in Pn>te»tanl ils well ni< in other countries, tbougli it was 
not usually so clearly espressed. 

It may bo of intermit tu gatlier tO)f«tliirr a few hmk modem 
rvrniiplp* nf ntfltrincntu broiiglit forward for tho mor*) Junlillmitiou ot 

Thus ill rraiiff M^UMiicr dn Qiicrloii. In liis ittorj u( fnapkion, 
wrilton in'tbe miilcllc of the i-iglitii-ntli ti-nlury. put* into thi- mouth of 
a Gri*k cnurli-aii m.iny iiiltrr.^tlng n-Hpctlona iHniwniiiig lUc liff Riiil 
poaltion of Ihc ptonlitute. Slii? di'fciids bi^r jirufoiaioii vrith miicli skill, 
and mtgam ttiat uIiiIp in«n imngiiin tliat proitUtutvi arv mKrely the 
dmpiM^I vlrtinH of thrlr p)(vi»urrs. them n-oii1(l'lK> tjrnnti nre really 
(liqiM who tm luiuivl^'riDtc to Ihe ii«vilit of tin- uuitien tliey trani|>lB 
jicnnatli thrlr (vet, and tlioninfltv)) ei|ntilly ileHcri'e tlir wnlenipt they 
bestow. "W> return dingunt for Jissu»t. iis they iniial surely pprccliT, 
We often abandon to theui uier«ly n -tjitui'. itnd while intlumed by their 
nvm denlrM Ihry roniiim* thenisp|vp» on Inaenaiblr eharma, our tmnqiill 
«>ldne*ii lei«ir*1y enjoya their aeniibUily. Then it i> w« rvaunie all our 

1 BaHon. .lnali>m<i of Mftanrholy. Part III. Rect. 111. Mem. IV, 
Sttbu. n. 

3R. Mand4n-ille. Krmarka to Fable of tht Bcra, ITN, pp. »3fl; ff. 
P. Salcmann, Bernard dc UandeeiUe, pp. lOM. 





i'i}>1ilA. A Utile liol liluud lia< 1iMu|tlit tlicup i>tiiiic) cnvturm In our tvet, 
Htiil n'nilTMi UH mUtrvMM ut Uivir futi^. On wliirli ti|ili>, I luk. U lli« 
itdtDntiifirV* [tilt nil mrn. >>lii> uddn, am not •■> unjunt tuwmr<l« the prtnc 
tltiiti-, mid «lii.> i>rDCM>«U to prunouiira » ctilogy. nut without k ttlight 
touch of ironjr in it, of the utilitv, fncilltT, and convpnieneo of th« 

A Inr^ nuroboT of ttie modern writers on pro^titiillon ln»li>t on ll« 
<iKial1y bcncficinl fhantPter. Tbua riiariM Rkhard cwncludn bin book 
(■n till? Hubjecl with tin- word*: "■I'll* t<i>ii>liii'L o( swii-l.y with tv^rd to 
prvatlliitloii iiiiiat prwwil triiiii tlie prliiciiili- of unitttiitlv nithoiit falm 
■home fur it* utilitv, and mmpnuoiou (or tlir [xMr crrtttum nt whoM 
expense IIiIk I« nttiiin<?>!*' U,a Pmiitilutian ifrront (c Fhiloiophf. 1l*AS. 
p, 171). "Tn mnki.' iiiaM'iii|j[p poruiiiiicnt U to tink'' it difflctitt," nn 
Anirrii^Bn miviieal writpv ohwrYMj "to mako it difficult U to defer it: 
to deter it in to iimintain in the eommiiiiltv an Inoreii'fng number of 
•ncually pcrlnct Individun1i>. witli normnl, nr, in e«w-» wIim-p reprcuion 
I4 pmlungrd. excetnirr> Hexiiat uppetilrn. The aovlal tril i* the nntniul 
outeomn of tlir phyiral nntnrp of man. hlii Inlierlteil Impuliw-'. and the 
Artlfipinl eondition" ti'itl->r uhidi lie i* n>m|)ell(^ to live'' ("The Social 
Kvil," MotftPinc, Aiixiiit nnd Srptxmbrr, 100(1), Wooiia lliitfbiiuon, 
whik upwiking vritb ntroij); disuppraviil of prontitutiun nod rrgarding 
■lltiiIrM n* '■tbe wont ■|)m;iinPii8 of the ses," yet rvK*rih prv*t!tutlan 
I n nwini nfCPtiify of the hiftbesl value. "¥mm n mpdim-rconomic point 
' new I rentun.' to claim it ua one of Oic grand wketiw and eliminatlm 
aHennlea of nnliire. and of hij^li^t ralut- to Ihp Mniiiiuuity. It may be 
roiiRhly eharacti-riitc-d ni n uiMy vnlvi- for the tnilittitlon of inarria^" 
(The tlotpi-l Aroording In /Jarinn. p. lOD: ef. tb* »nme aulhnr'c (irtji'lo 
on "The KiHinnrriie* of I'm'timlion." Miniuinriiia) in Itoaton ilriivial and 
KurgU-al Jawnal. Xovemlier 21. IS(>S>. Adolf Drrnon. In a minirwlint 
almitar apirit, nfifuea ("Die UrMcbe dtr Proatitution,'' Srrual-Prabtrme, 
f^pttmber, IIIOH) that "proatltntlon I* one o( [he mean* nur-d hf Xaturo 
to limit Ibe procr^utit* acthity of men, and eapwially to poctpone lb* 
pt-rtod of lexiuil nialiirlty." MoHnari mni^ilerg that the aorinl benrftt* 
of proalilution bnriff Itt-i-n nianifeileil in rnriciua wmya from the fitut; by 
atrrtllElnic. for inAlnm-e. Ihi> mnrr exn-aMT« manitMlnliunit of tlie (•rxunl 
impiilne prontitiilion mippre»iwd the o<'e«i;Mity for tb^ Infnnlieidc of luper- 
fluoiiH rhihiren. niiil ted to tht pruliililtion nf that primitive ni^liod of 
limit Jnjit the populnlion (fl, de Molinarl, l,a Viri^ulturi; p. 4>1). In quit* 
unntlif^r way Ibun Ihnt mentioned by Mi>linari. prostitution ha* vwn In 
very rreent tlnm M to the abandonment nf infanticide. In tbn CliiueM 
province of ling-Vanir. Mallsnon »tat», it wan usiial not many ytara 
Bga tor poor pnrentn to hill forty per nmt. of the xlrl children, or «i'en 
nil of (tiem, at birtli. for they were too <-t|ien>ire to rear and bmnjtht 
nothing In, alnee men wlio wlalied to marry could eo-ily obtain a wife 

Dy /■•T.cyOOO^.^lL" 



In Hm neighbor it)|t prnTtnrr or ^\'cll('llu, wlicrp women wi>ri- v<-ry ■•uj' to 
ebtaln. Now, huwuii-'r, the liiiv i>f Btminvliiiia hIodi; tliu i;i>att mnkvs il 
•my ifUHy lor girl>i to nmi-'h the brotlicln of ShHiig-IInj, wliari? Utty cun 
enm nionpy (»r their bmiliMi the tuutoni of killing them lin* thrrpfori^ 
(lini out iMuUgnoii, JtrftiVm il'Ailhroi^lopit Vriminrtlr, 1890, p. 72). 
"I'mlsr present c-onditioiu." writpn Dr. F. ICrluin) ("Aiioh eiii Wort «ir 
Kharrlorm," <J<irrftI«:AI unil QemtUaehaft, Jafargang I, ll<?ft 01, "proatl- 
tulion (in thv Lrviidvnt wiiw. iiicludiiiif frvv rvlMioiinhiiixj is nwetmr^' 
ill nrdrr tliiil >'iiiiii]i men may, Jii noun- rli-grrp. Inain lo kn»w uoiiieii, far 
mnvnilionnl roiiviT»nti«ii cnnnol HiBlrr for thin: bu cxnct knovfledgp of 
reiuiiiiiie thoiiglil Slid oi'tl'm K howvvir. iir<'i>n«iir,v tor it pru|icr i-'hoieo, 
■in« it ii Rrldnm poi>«iblc- to irW im the ctM^tuintj- of iml inrt. It i» food 
nlrwi llmt iiitni stimild ueur iilF llicir lioniit Iwfurv miirriHgi.-, for Ui« P^'.v- 
gniiioii' iPDdcncy will bn'ol: th(DU((li somc-wlitri'. l'rii«litiilioii will only 
■puil llios« m*Tii in whom tliere is nut muoii tu npoil. tiiid if tlic dtiire 
for niniriagi> U thiM Imt, tlio mnn'ii unl>r)(Dltm rhlldrrn miiv have amae 
to thank liiin." N>i»wt. SllPki'. oud rnnny ollierii, linte plondtil tor 
|>K»tlttitii>u, and even for brothvU, a* '■necengary evil*," 

It in «rarcely nereminrj' to ad<l that mnny, amnnj; ev<in the strongri.t 
upholdprs of tlio moriil uilvnntuRi'* of pro*tilutloii. bclinc lliul hwiue 
improvemcnl in nn'thod in olill desirHbte. ThiiSi lti>rnu1t looks torwunl 
to ■ tinu' when reKiilatrii broihe]« will become lets conteniptlhlr. Vari- 
oua improvetnenli may, he thinkn, in thu nenr futiiie. "depriiT them of 
the bnTbaroiinHtlriliut^s whieh mark tliem out for the opprobrium of the 
ukrpticiil Of ignorant multitude, whili- thtir rwogniiuiblc udmulagea will 
pnt CB and to the rotiteiii]il anxinivl hj their eynipiil niprct" (l.a UainoJi 
d€ Tolfranef, Tlii-ie de l'nri«. IBOl) . 

■i. The Civfliztiiiottal Value of ProslHuUan. — The moral 
arfrumvnl for [irnHtitution if hatvd on tlie belief thnt our 
marriage Bytttem U m infinitely precious that an institution 
wliicJi wrrc* n* itfl buttrwrg muBt be kept in cxistonce, Iiowcvcr 
ugly or otherwise objectionable it may in itself be. There 
i*, however, nnother urpument in support of prostitution wtiich 
Pcarocly rnociTiw tliy etjipliiii'is it ih'»iervi^. I roftr to it* influencft 
in adding an element, in swine form or another neecasary, of 
gaiety and rariety to the ordered complexity of modem life, n 
relirf from the monotony of its niechanicul routine, u dirtraption 
from its dull and r('iii>ectabli' monotony. Tiii« is distinet from 
the more apeciHc function of prostitution as an ontlet for 
Buperiliious sexual energy, and may even affect those who have 




i-sycHOLWiY or »i:x. 

litlle or no commvn-c willi primtitutw. TliU ck-mcut miiy 
Miid to cuimtituto till.- dvilizalionul valut- uf prostitution. 

It ia not merely tin- f^cncrul <.>tiutlition8 of civilization, bat 
more EpM-ilUnlly tlii; t'on<liliunii of urban life, wliidi nmkc thi# 
factor ini^iatcnt. Urban life iinpnses by the etress of competition 
s very severe and exactinj; routine of dull work. At the sumo 
time it iiiflljcji nun «nil wotiien niore nensitive to new imprcwionii, 
more enamored of »citciiient and change. It multiplies the 
opportunities of social iiitcri.'ourvo ; it decretiscs the ehnnccs of 
detection of illegitimate intercourse while at tlic tuime time it 
makee in«rriage more dilJiciilt, for. by heightening social ambi- 
tions and incr^ai^ing the cxpcn«(« of living, it poftpoucs the time 
when a home can be created. Urban life delays marriajie and yet 
renders the substitutes for marriage more imporalive.' 

There cannot be the clighteet douU lliat it is thi* motivi^^ 
the effort lo supplement the imperfei-t opportunities for self- 
developTnent offered by our restrained, lucehaiiical, and lahariou£ 
civilization — which plays one of tlie chief part* in inducing 
women to adopt, temporarily or permanently, a prostitute's lite. 
We have seen that the economic factor ii not, as was once tup* 
fton.-i.\, by any meruit predominant in ttii* choice. Nor, again, E« 
there any reason to suppose tliat an over-mastering sexual impulse 
is u leading factor. But a litrge mimlwr of yoimg women turn 
instinctively to a life of prostitution because they are moved by 
an obscure impuUe which they can scarcely define to theniselres or 
ezprc9f«, and arc often ni<hnmed I" confeiiit. It is, tiiercforc, sur- 
prising that this motive shnnld find so large a place even in the 
forma! statistics of the factors of prottitutiou. Merrick, in 
Ixmdon, found that >*iOOO, or nearly n third, of the priii>litiilo8 he 
investigated, voluntarily gave iip home or situation "for n life of 
pleasure," and he puts this at the head of tlic causes of prostitu- 

■ 'I'livM conJitiun-i favor tp>n|K>mry ttre unions, biil ihtf slao favor 
pToMitutiim. Thf rniHon l*. nomriliiij: lo AJolf Gttoon iSinnMl- 
Problrmr, S»ptMnb«<r, IltOSi, tliat the WDitian of gmid dun will not lisvo 
(ri* iinioD*. Partly moved by moml tmilltlon*. and pnrtly by the fpel- 
InK tliflt mnn *)ioul<l be lenllv her properly. Hhe witi not iciv* henwtt 
niit of loif Ui > mnn; anil hn tberctor* turns to tho loncrclnn woman 
wtio pvp» her*rlf (or money. 




tioD.* In Aiiicrica Sanger Toiiud timt "iudiimtiuu" cumc nlmoat 
at tlielieadof tlic cttiine^ of proatitntion, wliilc U'ooitii Huti-liiiiiioit 
fonnd "love of dispUy, luxury and idlencsa" hy far nt the head. 
"Diegueted und wtaiicd willi work" i» the roa»i>ii ossignt'd by a 
Inrgc nuinbcT of llelgian giria when »tatin^ to die jmlice their 
wish to be enrolled a? {irostitiitcf. In Italy a similar motivo in 
estimated to play an important part. In Riii^itia '■dosii-e for 
■muwnient" conie« second among the causes of prostitution. 
There can, J think, be little dotibl Uint, as a thouglitful atudcnt 
of Loudon life Ims Loneltided, the problem of proKtitution is "at 
bottom a mad and irresistible craving for excitement, a scrions 
and wilful rerolt against thf monotony of commonplace ideals, 
and the uniiiripircd drudgery of everyday life,"- It ii» lhi» factor 
of prostitution, we may reasonably conclude, which ia mainly 
res|>onsible for the fact, pointed ont by F. Sehillcr,'' that with 
tho development of civilization the supply of prostitutes tends to 
outgrow the demand. 

CbarleH Bootli Bpenm to bi> of tlin wmn opSnion, nrd qnoti^s (Ufe 
and iMbor of the People, Tbird Si-rici, vol. vii. p. ,1041 from a Rpsein- 
i'ommlllcn Rpp«rt: "The popular idfu i». tliat the™ n-oiiim on- fngcr 
tu lenvD tt life of hIu. TIi« {ilaia and simple trulli is that, fur the most 
part, thnv liuvc no ilnlro nl nil in be leKned. So many of time women 
do not, >nd will not, rr^rd prostitution as a sin. 't urn tnkm nut to 
dinner nniJ to Mim* plaee »f luniuement riTri' night ; wliy should I giv 
It wpT"" ilerriok. wlio found that five jwr cent, of H.OOO prostitute* 
who puNSi^ lliroiiKh Mlitlmnk Prlnon, wprp accii«lonii'd 1o t-ombine r*' 
ligloo* obMTvnnn! with the praoticr of their prof'-sEion. alsa temnrks iu 
rcs>Td to their trelingfi ttboiit iiiorHlit}': "I am convinit-d tlint ther« are 
tnnnr poor men nnd women who do not in the Icnst iirderMnnd wlint is 

> Miiny girls, xaid Klltev tlopkins. gi't into nundiii^f mervly becHiiM 
th»j' hi»vi» In llicm nn clem.'nt of the "lilack kitten," whioli must frolic 
Bud pluy. but biis no desiie to get into dunger. "Do yau not think It a 
Utile hard," »ho addnl, "tlmt m«ii should have diiR by the side of li*r 
foolinb daucinK f«t n bottomlew pit. nnd thnt "he ninnot have her jump 
ami fiTn In luifotf, and put on h^r iim' tnithern like the silly blrd'Witl^il 
thing nhe i«, without a (Ingle fnUc utep dmlilnR hi>r ovpr the brink, and 
leavjnft hrr with the verv woinnnhood dashed out of berl" 

a A. Shurwell. Ufr'ln «'«( Jtrnirfmt. 180T. (Ti. V. 

a A« iinotrd by Blooh. Sevualtrbtn Vniirrtr ZfiI. p. 358, In Berlin 
during reoent yeavB the numlipr of pronHtulea hns inerensed at nearly 
double the rat« nt which th« gpneral population lin4 incrvaited. It is no 
4oubt probable that the nupply tmda to incTcaiie the demand. 





ImiiUcd in Uic tenn 'linmorBlity.' (hit o( aiattmty to yoii. tliry nwy 
ouMTiil to nliat you UJ", biit tlif^ do not coni|irc<li«iid ^ur nivaning mliL-n 
j-ou talk of virtue or purilyi }'uii nre 8im]itv tilkinji over tlidt UmiiIk" 
(Merrick, op. oiV., |>. i>i). Tlio •nmc atttittidr uiny be (uund among 
pro«(Itiitm rrer>'v,-tifri!. In lUIy F'i'rriaiii m'-iil!<in« a girl o( llltcen who. 
whrti nprimed of itiilrrciicy witli a man in a publii- gnrili'ii. dcninl wltli 
tpurs and muoli indi|[na(loii. Iln llnally Indiirpd lii-r to conf»(. and tliiii 
nuked li^f: "Wiy did j-ou trj' to icnke Hit- liclierir you a goml 
girl!" She IiMilatj-i). ^nilM. and iiaid; "I(.-e«ii'io Ihry snji girla ought 
not to do wliut t do. but DUglit to nork. But I nm wlint I am. and it 
i« no coni-cm of tlwlri." Tlii* attiliid-- l» often more than nn ln»linrtlvr« 
r«cHii|[-, in iiitelliKPnt proutitutM it freqnwitly b««umr« a roanoned con- 
vitrtion. "1 can bvur pvery tiling, if to It nunat be," wrotv tlie nnlhor of 
tlip Tajifburh Haer Vrrlorrnm (p. 2011, "cvr>n scrloun and lionorablt' 
ponlompl. but I cannot bear *com. Conteinpt — y«, if it ia juBtillfll. If 
a poor and prrliv girl witli »irk and bitter Wart Minid* nloni* In life, onirt 
off. n-ith temptation" and "edurtionii offering on evtrj- side, and, in spit* 
of Unit, out of inn'^r cmviciion "lie rhoow* the gny and itionotonoiin 
path of reniinetatioii and Riiddlf-claH morality. 1 recogniie in that girl 
a p<^r<iOMa1ity. wlio ban a rertain juttiUi-ation tn looking down with con- 
tcmptnou* pily on weaker jtirln. lint tlioae gn-se who, under the eye* 
of th^ir nliepiierds and life^l'ing ovriier*. have aluayti t>een pnKtiirMl in 
»mootli green llelda. liut'e eertainly no rigbt to laiigli soornfulty at others 
who have nnt l>een on fortunate." Nor must it be sup|>oied that tlitrc 
is ni>res«Drily any •ophi«try in tlin prortitiite'g jiistifiention of Iwreelf. 
Somn of our tx'st thinkers and oboervrs have reaehed a conrlnilon Ibnt 
Ih not disnimilnr. "The actual conditions of sodcly are oppoicj to any 
high moml feeling in wcmen," >rarTo oliwrve* (/,« Piibritd, p, 402) , "for 
between tliuni^ who sell tliemselve* to prostitution and thopw who nell 
t hem BO Ives to marriage, the only differrnre ia In price and diirntlon of 
the [■ontrnet." 

Wo have already seen liow very large a part I'n prostitution 
U furDldied by tlione wlio have left domestic service t« adopt tUia 
life (antf. p. 204). It is not difllriiH to find in tlii« fnct cvid^neo 
of lliu kind of impulse wliich iinpclii a womun to adopt the career 
of prostitution. "The wrvant, in our sociely of equality," wrotfl 
Goncourt. rccDlling somewhat earlier daya when ehe wae often 
ndinitted to a phue in the family Hfe, "li»i» hecome nothing but a 
paid pariah, a machine for doing hounehold work, and ia no longer 
allowed to shore the employer'i htiiunn life."' And In England, 

1 tioneourl, J Mimat, vol. til. p. 4D. 



ovca lutU a century ago, wu alii'udy Gnd the Miniv BUttciiienU 
concerning tlie sorvant's [jotsition : "ilomestic service in a complete 
slavery,'' witli eatly liouis and late hums, and constant running 
up and down, stuire till hvr legs are swollen ; "uo amount of 
ingenuity appear:! too often to he exercised, worthy of a hetter 
cause, in obtaining the targcHt poiisible amount of labor out of the 
domestic machine"; in addition ehe is "a kind of lightning con- 
ihictor," (n receive the ill4emper and iiiorhid fcelinjre i>f iier 
mistrcsR and the young ladies ; so that, as souie have said, "1 felt 
so miserable I did not care what became at mo, I withed I was 
dead."' The servant h deprived of nil hiiiTinn rclntionships ; she 
muat not betray the existence of any einiple impulse, or natural 
need. At the same time she lives on the fringe of luxury ; abo 
is surrQuiid<Ml by the tantalizing virions nf pleasure and nmuxc- 
ment for which her fresh young nature craves.- It is not sor^ 
prising tliat. repelled by Mnrcliev«l drudgery and attracted by 
id!c luxury, she should take the plunge which will alone enable 
her to enjoy the glittering aspects of civilization wMch seem so 
desirable toher,^ 

It in tonictimr!) Etutrd that the prtraleRcc of jiroatitutiun smong 
girl* wlio WTP fomiijriy gflrvanl* i* <liii> (o tli" Immi-ntp nuiiitwra »f 
Mrvnntii wlio nre wducr.! by tlii'ir mastora or tin.- j'oujig men o( Uic 
fBiiiitj", ntii! arr tl'ii» (orrcil or Ici the street'. Uiiilr)iihti'<ll_v in n curtain 
proportion of ciiwii. pcrhiips Bonii'tiirics o fuirly con^iiilprnhlo proportion, 
this i« A <]FCi»Ivo fnrtiir In tlir nmttiT. bill it tiriiri'dy wonia lo he the 
chief faetor. The e^iisl^nce of rtliitionahip* bi'lwc'tn scrriintii und in««- 
(nri, it Ruikt be mnemb^roil, by no tdmiii nK'oasarily bnpliei seduction. 

I \'*nd«rk(B(e, Thf Dent of London, 18.14, p. 24B. 

I Bon|{tT ICrimiualilf ft I'ondiliong Hcimomiijurii, p. 40fi) rof(i« t"> 
the prevalence of prcMtitnUun amon^ dre>KniiikcrH und niillinm, an well 
ua among H-rvanti. na ihowinx tlic inlluciioc of mntjirt with luxury, and 
addw th»l the rich wonii-ti, who look down on pDHlitution. do nol nlwnyn 
rcalin^ thnl tli*y are th^nini'lvos nn important factor of prottilutiun. botli 
hv their luxury ond their Idlmoiw; while Ihiy do not •fern to he nwam 
that they wviuld thi'HLXelvfB net in the »«nip way if placed under llie iiaiue 

3 H. Lippert. in bin book on prostitution in Hanibur);. laid much 
•trenii on the ernvtnjr for drvwt and adornment a* a faeloi of prostitution, 
and Bloeh iDa.t UnFUnJtrhm vn»«rrr Zril. p. 3T2) eonflidern that thin 

fnrlor in imunlly iindereiitiniated, and that It cxarta OH ttptcinlly pdwer- 
fii) influence on M-rmnta. 


Ill A tuige nUmlMr of taiHi'^ till' oiTiniit in a tioiiirliDid I>. in hOliihI mat- 
tcT*. tlip teaeber nlbiT Itiuii Una jiuiiit. Uii "Tliv iiiexuiil lm|>uli»e in 
W'onivii," in the thiTil voluinv «f these Uluilitt, I hove diiciuard th« port 
lilnjcd Uy siTViknts US snual iniliaUir* of th<? young bujs in llit liotue- 
bolcls in v'liicii tlwy »" plHreil.) Tlip innri* prvclm- xUtintie* of the 
MtiMS of prostitution wlilom n!.si(ni BciIuFtion an llic iniiin di^tcnnining 
factor in more tlian abmit Iweiity \<cr ccnl:. <i( cbmi, tliouffli thi» 1* 
obviously onv of tli» mont runily arownblp niolivcii (nee nnfc, p, 2SI1J. 
Adduction hy anjr kind of ('mpluypT c^uii«tiliiti.-s only ik |)Tn|>ort)i:in (iitnaljy 
i«w thnn lialf) even o( tliciip piwc*. The ii]wvial cone of acduclion of 
■ervanU by master* ran tliiis ploy uo very oonalderMlile pnrt as a factor 
of proiitltution. 

Hie atatisties of llie parmtage of illegitimate eliildrm have aome 
iHtortng on thi« qunitlon. In a scrira of IfiO unmarried motliers nraiitird 
liy tlie Itrrlin Bund f(1r Mutteisrlintr.. parlieular* are given of tiie 
orrit|)n(ioii> liolh of tlie niolliets. iind. ns far n4 pmalhle, of the fstlirra. 
The former were one-Uilrd aervunt-girls, and the gri-ot mnjorily of the 
ranalniler BHlNlantu In trnden or girl* rnrryiof; on work nt home. At 
tlie heud of the [alhen (ainong 120 cnseit mine artiuin* {'Si), followed 
by frBd*tipe<>|ilp (2-2); only a •irinll proportion (iO 6j 3S) raiiUl bo 
desprilied an "gMitleJiien," nnd rvRii Ilijn proportion lo»M Mmc of ita 
Higniliennee ii'hvn it w pointed out that some of the girls were also o( 
the middle-ctno*: in nineteen ea«M ttin fntliprs werp married men (Iful- 
lemrhiil:, January, IflOT, p. 45|. 

Mo^t autliorllli'' in mo'-l eonntrteB are of opinion that 84^1* who 
evcntwilty [umiolly between the ages of llflren Piid twenty) bcMone 
priitititiiti'n lini'i" loul their vlrjrinlty at nn pnrly ngf, nnd In the grr«t 
majority of en»e« llirough niL-n of their own elan*. "I'lie girl of tlie peo- 
ple falls by the people." «1ated Kvuh in Fmnoc fLa I'mttiliilum, p. 
41)- "It i* her like, worker* like bemelf. who hare th« flnt fruits of 
her beauty and virginity. Tlie man of the uorht «ho eovera her with 
gold and jewetn only linn tVelr leaving*." Marlineatt, n^ln (J)f fa 
pTottilulion ClanJf'»lwe, 18SS), showi>d that proGtitute* are usually 
dellowtred by men of tlielr own rlao*. An<i .lennnel. in ItordeaiiK. found 
rcaion for beliwing tliut it ia not elilefly their mufitera whn lead aervanta 
astray; they oft'ii jjc inlo service l>e<iiin>i Ihi-y have been sedueed in llie 
country, while lain', greedy, and iinintelligi-nl gii's nri- lent from the 
tountry Into the town to serviee. In Edinlmri"li, W. Tail ( WnyrfuJeniawi, 
1842) found that loldier* more than any other elnm in the rommunity 
are the seducers of women, the Ilighlanders being espMinlly notoriou* in 
thia TMpeet. Boldiera hare th!* reputation everywhere, and In Oennnny 
eapeololly It ts eonst«nt1y found tlint the presenee of thi- Holdtery in a 
country diatriet, aa at the annual mHnieuvie*, is the enuoe of unehaatlty 
nnd tlle|[illmat« birtlis; It ts so utiii in Austria, where, long ago, Oroaa- 




Hoffiu^r stated Uwl Mldipm nvrc rMpoaiMbli! for nt leant A tliird ol nil 
tllcttilimule l)irtli«. a Htiarc uut of all proportion to tli^ir nunitwra. in 
Italy, Uarro, hiveslignting the occniion of Ihct lonn of TJrfpiiity In twent}"- 
two prortitiil<a. louud tliui ti--n pivi- llienwelves moie or tens Kpantane- 
ously to 1or«r« or nuLsteri>, ten ylctdcil in llm cxpoctntioci bt ninrrlAge, 
and two vrcro outngeil t£,n Pubertit, p. 101). The )o» of liiginity, 
UArro adib, thougli U tnn.v not i)v tlii< dlrort mux- o( prostitution, often 
Ittdl on to it. "When n door hiu on«p bmn bmken in," n pnutilut* Mid 
to him, "it i« diilicult to itvvp it cluMd." lu Sardinia, on A. Miiiili-K»ua 
and Ciiiffo found, prontitniet iirc very Inrgrly mTviiiitii fruni the country 
who havi- alrvuily Ix^u dvlU'Wi-ri'd by men of llicir uwn alas*. 

ThiA riviliMittonnI fai-tor of |>rnMitiition, the influence of 
luxury and excitenicnt and ipfincmcnt in attracting the girl of 
the poopK'. as the flumo attrael" thr moth, is iiiJIcatcd by the 
fact that it is tht? coiiDtr>-dwelk-rs who chiefly succumb to tlie 
faeci nation. The ^nrle wlimc adulc»ccnl rxjilneiTe and orfriiii<tic 
impulses, sotnelinieM incmii'i'd hy n slight eongenitiil lark of 
nervoiia balance, have been latent in the dull monotony of country 
life mill licighli-'ncd by the sjiwlucle of luxury acting on the 
unrelieved drudgery of town life, find at laet their complete 
j;ratiGcjition in the career of a prnetitute. To the town girl, 
born and bi-cd in the town, thi« career liM not u(iually much 
attraction, unless §he has been brought up from the first in 
nn environment that predispoHcs her In adopt it. She is familiar 
from childhood with the excitements of urban eivilixtUion ami 
they do not intoxicate her; she is, moreover, more shrewd to take 
care of herself than the country girl, and too well ac<|tuiintc(l 
with the real facts of the prostitute's life to be very anxiouB to 
adopt her career. Beyond this, al?io, it is probable that the 
fltoclu she belongs to poKsess a native or accjiiired power of 
resistance to unbalancing influences which has enaldcd them to 
survive in urban life. She has become immune to tlio poisons of 
that life.* 

I Sini'p tliis wn* wriltcn Hip infliicnw of nevprnl generations of 
lown-tife in immiiniiin;; it olnrk to tli.' nvilik of thai llfi' (though wltli- 
out refrrfiicc to prostitution I hai been aet forth b; Reibmayr. Die 
KnIwickluagtgvMhichtc d<* Tahntct und ilcnics, 10Ut>, vol. 11, pp. 73 cl 

. .Xti.K)^[^ 


ptiYOHOLOaY or ftKX. 


In nil ^p-ntt Hcii'D a Inrgi^ proportion, if not the mnjoTitr. of Iho 
inhabilfliiU liuvi- iiiunll^ bvi'ii born outxlik tli« dtt- (l>i Iionilon oiilf 
nliout fifty por cent, of heads of hou»ch(iIcU arp di-finiU-ly r^p-jftnl aa 
boni in Londoni: iiiiii it is iii>t tlirri-fote i-iirprii-init Hint )>r<:>'>tllut08 
nbo slioiil'l often bp otitsiilrrB. Still it remains a ■i|{nilicant fnct thnt 
wo typirally urbitn & plirnomeiion aa proHtiluliaii •hoiilil bv »0 lar^ly 
ramiitcl from the countrr. This ia cvciywIiMe tli« cjine. ML-rrlek 
enum(frnt(9 the rt^ioiis fii>ni wliivli «iime lunw U.Onn pro«tit<itM who 
ptufii^il tliroiifth Miltlinnk Prison. MiiKII'^ox, Kent, Siirrvy, Emoc uid 
Devon are tlic rounlic« tliiil tliin<l iit tlip livud. antl Mprrirk e»limiit«* 
thnt tliH mntingt-nt of l^onilon (itini the four roniitW whicli make up 
London wn» "000, or out' I ml ( ot tlic wliolc; militiKv fciwnn like Cat- 
rhrtiPT nud iiuval ports likp Ptyinoutli R)i]>ply iimny prcMtitittvs to 
I^ondon; Irnlnnd fiirnislinl many more than Si-otlniid. nnd (r«rinany far 
more than any oUivr European country. Ffmiici- btitig ecarccly repiv 
KcntPiI at nil (Mrrrkk. Wnrk Amo-n the Fallm. 1»W. pp. )4 Ifil. It t% 
of cour*(', possible that the pr(i)Kirliuiis among those who pnsa tbrou|[h a 
priaoii ill! nnt acctiralrly ropmenl thi' projioitions nmong prostltiitaa 
grnvralty, Tlie registers of Ihi^ l^ndun Sakalion .\rrny Itfsiriie Ilumo 
■how llint ftlxty per cent, nt the ^rl* and women oonie fioiii the proviueea 
(A. ShcTwell. Ufr tn Wf*l I,r>iuU>n. Ch. Vl. T)iU U Qxmlh the same 
proporUon as Tsit found among prottitutm geniTBlly, half a century 
earlier. In Edlnl>urttli. Sanifr fonnil that of 2000 prottitutw in New 
Yorl: an manv as 1233 were born nhnuid (TOil In Trplniid). while of th« 
reuioinlng 162 only li;i]f were born in the Slate of N't-w Vork, and clciitly 
(though till- exact llgtiivii arc not given) u still smnlW pnitinrlioii iu 
New York City. Proiilituteii come from the Xurtli — where the climate ii 
nneoTiK<>nia1| and munufnrturing and snlentniy orenpntlon* prevail — 
much more thiiii from the South : thus Maine, u cold htenk maritime State, 
nput twenty-lour of thww prostllules to N.-w York, while ei|uiiliM»nt Vir- 
dlnia, irhlch at the lame mlp should bnve *ent seventy'two, only lent 
nine) there wai a ehnllar dlfTervnce between Rhodi- Island and Marj-lund 
iSnnirnr, Hitloiy of Prottiltilion, p. 452). tt is instruetlvn to nee here 
the influenep of a drenry irllmnt'' and morii>lnnoii« Inhor in stimulating 
the appetile for n "life of pleasure." Tn Fmnec. as *hOH~n by a map In 
ParentDuebfttelef* worl< (vol. I. pp. 37-«4. IWuT), il the country ia 
divided Into five 7oni>*, on (hi- uhole ninninK cn'l and ivext. tlierr it a 
steady and proirrr«sivc decrease in tlio numl>>-r of prostitute* each xooo 
sends to Parit, as we deieend soutliwunU, Little more tlinti n third 
seem to belong to Pari*, and. n« In Ameriea. It li tlie aerious and hard- 
working Korth, with its relatirely cold climate, which furnishes the 
lurgett ooDtlngentt wen In old France, Dufour remarka |op, cit., rol.i 
W. Ch. XVI. proutStntton. «■ the fahUavr and romarm show, was letaj 
intumou« in the laii^u« d'oil than lu Uie Ian;u« d'oo, so tlint they weMJ 


., Google 

pwoflTiTirnos. 395 

.A|BM||n ntrc in tlic Soulli. ^t a laU'r iivriml Rents Hlntcs (to Piotli- 
faftS^jr IS) Itmt "ni-HTly all tliR piontilutcii nl rarin come fi'om tlia 
provinci*"." Jcnnnfl fuumt tlinl of oni' tliou-utnil Horilcaux pruHtllulc* 
oitly (orty-iix licloii);rd to the city Ittclf, nnd Potton (Appciulix to 
Pninnl-Duoliflt^Iot, vnl. 11, p. 440) Htntiii thnt ol neuirly (anr thoUMind 
Lyons prnxtltiiti'ii onty 378 bclonftvil to Lx<">*< In Vi«Qtiii. in 1973. 
i^hrank rnnarkn tliut of ovi-r ISOO proHtltiit«H only 013 wvrv boru tn 
Vkmnu. Til-? Ki'iii>rnl riili-, It will I* nivn. t.lionjfli thf vnrinltoni nrr 
wiJp, (■ (hftt littlfl more than a third of a city'* pro«iitu(i!« art- children 
of the city. 

It !■ interesting lo nntr that this tendeDO>- of Urn pruKtitulc to 
reach cities from afar, this tnigrniorj' tendency — which they, nAwndnyii 
sliare with waiters — is no mcrrlj- modern plicnomciion. "There arc (cw 
citiea in Loinbardy, or Franco, or Onut," wrot« St. Itonifnoi' nearly twelve 
cenluiiea nfio, "in which tlicrc- ii not an adiiltorosn or proititute of tlm 
English niition/' nnd Ih- Hiiint attributes tlili to the custom of going 
on pilKTiiii»K" tn fnri'ljjti 'lirinci. At the present time llicr* [- iii> mHrlved 
Knglish element niiuing Continentiil iirostitulcs. Tlius in I'nris. acoord- 
iiil! lo B"'il*« ll.a l'r'i\liliilii>n, p. 12). (tic ('iieiffii piiMtltiitcH in ili-i'renH- 
in){ order are Belgian. Girman (AlsnccLotrBine), Swi*» (wpedally 
Geneva), Italian, Spnniah, nnd only then Knglish. Connolitsetirx in lUi* 
matter iny, indeed, tlmt the English prcntltutc, na compared with her 
Continental (and en|)«inlly French) ■i-itrt-. faiU to thaw to advantaST, 
beln^ usually grasping as regards money and deficient in charm. 

It it tile iippcal of civilization, lliongh not of wlmt is fino»t 
and hvst in civilizution, wliich utoro tbun nny other motive, calU 
women to the career at a prostiluti'. It is now iicccesan' to point 
out that for the man also, the same appeal makes itself felt in tlie 
person of the prostitute. Tlie common nnd i^orant assumption 
that prostitution exists to satisfy the gross aensuality of thu 
young mimsrried man, and tliat if he is taught to bridle gross 
sexual impulse or induced to marry early the jirostitute must bo 
idle, is altogether incorrect. If all men married when quite 
young, not only would the remedy be worse than the iliwase— a 
point whieh it would be out of place to discus.* here — but the 
remedy would not cure the diwaae. The prortitutc is something 
more than n chnnncl to dniin off KUpcrRuouM Moxnal energy, and 
her attraction by no means ceases when men are married, for t 
large number of the men who visit prostitutes, if not the majority, 




are married. And ulikc wiit-iher they are married or unmarried 
the motive is not one of imcoinplicated lust. 

In England, a veil informed writer remark" thnt "tlic valiw o( 
■narriugp hb a moral a^fiil iH MiJ^iiceil by the tact that all the IwUct- 
claiH prostitulo tn London arc aliiKKt tnlirpl,v ■upporlnl by mutTM'd 
mea." while in Gemiany, &4 Hlalinl in tlip Siil^re^ting Htrien of r«niini»* 
cpnwn by n former proRtitutf. Iledwig Hard'* Beichte finer GcfalUntit, 
||i. 20S1, the miijorily of tlic men who TJiit promitut^* are tiwrried. 
The eKtimate i» |in)bHtily excc»''ivi'. Wivwr ttntea tlinl onl^ (wi>nty*flT« 
per rent, of raara of nonoTrliipa occur in marrli'd nien, Tliii indieation 
l» probably mi>leuclin); in llie opposite direction, na the marriid vouM 
be Ion rrcklrui tlinn the }'0tinK and nnmarried. As rvi^rda tlie motives 
whieh lead married men to pruititulea, tleilu-i|; Hard narrot« from her 
own pxpcrl«n''e« nn incident wlilch U ln*tmelive and no doubt Epical. 
Id the lo«n In whidi she IUt.) (iiiirt'y »■ a pnii-iiliiti> a man it the b«Ht 
■ociol duM was itiltodiiced by a friend, and vinilcd her hahitunlly. Sho 
had olti-ti ween anil n<linir(>(1 In* wiFe, who unit one of the beaulii-t of the 
plitfv. and had two (linrming children; himbnnil and wife M^med devotvd 
to eudi other, and every one envied tlieir happlne^B. lie irms ■ mrm of 
Intelleot and ciiltnre who encoiiriigrd llcdnlg'a Imw ot bnaki; «he becama 
greatly attached tu him. and one day ventured to asic him hot? he conM 
leave Li» lovetj anil charming wife to come to one wlio was not worthjr 
to tin her ihoc-luce. "Yes. my child." lie nnawercil, "but nil her beauty 
and culture brin^ nolhiiiK to my heart, tyhv ia cold, cold as ic?, pn>per, 
and, above all. pUlcfpnutic. I'uinprred and spoilt, she livec only tor h4>r- 
•elf- we are two fiood i«Ttirwdp4. and nothin;; more. If. for in'taiiM, I 
come back Irom Ihv i'lul> in the evening and i!ii (n Iit Iieil. iwrhapi a 
little e:(eiled. ilie iK^nnies nervoua and she thinks it improper to wake 
het If I kixt her she dvfpnds hertelf, and tell* me that I nmell liorribly 
of eignm and wine. .4nd if perhaps I attempt more, »hc jumps out of 
bed, brlMlea up an thnniih I were aaiutnlting her. and threaten* to throw 
hernetf out of the window if I touch her. So, for the »ake o( peace, I 
leave her atone and come to fou." There can be no dmibt whatei-er tliat 
thin in tlie experience of many married men who would be well oontnit 
to find the eweetheart at well nt the frieiiil in their wiTe>i. But Ibe 
iciTeii, from a variety of eanien, have proved inenpoble n( becomin]( the 
Mxuiil mntci of tlicir hu?tbnni!». And Ihc liM-bnndii. without being tar- 
ried away by any impiiliie of -trnngi pamtion nr any d»ire for inlidelitf, 
seek abroad what they connot find at home. 

Tliin 1« not Ihe only reason why married mi>n »i*it pRmtltntM. 
Even men wlio are happily ninrrl-'d to women In all chief reipect* Mtri 
10 tbem, arc apt to find, after aomc ysura of married life, a myaterUxn 



<nvfng fur vari(!l,v. Tlipv arf not Uri-J of theii' wIvch. Uwy liuvi- not 
the I«ut iriiih or iDtrntiun to obandon tticm. tli«j- will not. if tliej- cun 
help it. g^t« th«iu Ihe e1l);hle>il pain. But Irani time l» time Uivy tn 
I(<(t l>}' HI) almoM lrrv*iittih|p ami inrolunton' impiilio to icrk a tfniponiry 
intitnucy wtili uotiim U> uhom tiolliin); woiitil pi'rsuuilp llivin to Join 
UitMitwlvFB [ieriiiaritMiII,v. P«i>)4. wlinnn IHaty. In nililiTioii t<i itn otlivr 
cUlnis upon iii. U a pnydiolopciil docummt of unique ini|H>rtnncc, fur- 
niKhcH u «VT?' I'liuvHrtrrintir Mtiiiuplv of IbU kliii] of impuUe. Hi' liarl 
murricHl n young ami charminf; wilt, to whom he U ^catljr nttachcd. ami 
he lives hiippily U'illi liur, mv« (or a few occHHioTinl iloiumtic quanvta 
aoon bvulnl by ki«*i>*; Ui* Iw U n'itn«>W(l by lii« Jealuuar. a jnluuiiy 
which, on he njlmits. Is quite uiiminoniiblF, fur bIic !■ ■ (aitliful and 
di-vot«d wife. Vet ft f«n' vnarit aftf-r niHi-riaei.-, niiil !u the micliit of n 
lifa ol itrdmoun official acUritir. Pepya cannot rrslit tli* toniplntlori to 
mnJ( the Icuiporary facortot otlif-r woinori. »oliluiii pr->Htitiiti-ti. but ni-arly 
always womvn of low tucial daot— ahup noiitrn. uorkinrira hjim, 
Mipcrior H>rvant-giils. Uftvii liv ia mntcnt tu imiu- theni to o i)uict 
alv'hutixe. «nd to tak^ a frw trivia) libriiiM. Somotimeit lliey atnwTulily 
rvfum to olIoH' morr t)ian this; when that happens hn friHiurnth IhankK 
Alini|rUty God Iiih \iv makes hlit entry in bit Oinry at night) that be 
ha* b«nn wved from temptntinn and fioni lorn of time aiid money: In 
anj cane, he l» apt (o row that it ahall iie\fr o^i'ur a^in. Tl alwrtyii 
doe* ornir iiKnln. . Pepya In iiult' slncirii wlih hiiu^elf: he make* no 
attempt at j tut i Ilea I ion or eiruie; h# kncwii that he ha« yieldiil to n 
l^niptatlon; it l> an ImptiUe that rome^ over him nl interv.iN. un itn- 
pulw that he Mvm» uunble long to rcaint. Throiighont it all he remain* 
■n Mtlmabln and diliK<-nl onieiul, and in luuat TenpertH a tolembly 
rirtiiDus niun, with a genuine dl»)ikn of loooe pi^lf and loo*e talk. 
The altitude ot Pepy* !« brought out irilh ineoinpn table sinipllcltv and 
■incnrit/ bccauu ho in Mttlnn down *hB*e thinp. for his own et«8 only, 
but bia enne i« ■ubntauliall.v that of n, ru)>t niimlxr o( other ineB, [jet' 
hajin Iiidei<d of IliB typienl honime nioj/en •ciniirl (n-v Pepys. Z>iori). eii, 
Wheatler; e.g., >«l. iv. jiuAJiim), 

Thfre in a ibird i'h-4 of niftmed men, Ic'-s eoniidemble io number 
but not iinimpurfunl. ulio are imprllcd to flitlt prOMitiilm: the cUs4 nf 
»exuHlly perverle.1 nieii. nieri? arc ■ great many rcfinon* why sneh men 
muy dciire to be marTled, ami In soine eaae^ Uiey mnrry irotnen with 
whom tbey finil it [Kiuilile to olitain the partirnlar form of »\iia\ gratilt- 
cntinn they nave. But in a l«'gf projovlion of e«»p« tiii« U not 
poofcible. The eonrc-ntionnlly br«d woman oft"-n cannot bring heracK to 
humor even Muie nuilc innoe<-nt feti«hi-tie uhini of her hii^liiind'a. for 
it in too nlien (o her fpelin^ and too Ineomprehcnuihlp to Iter Ideai, wen 
tbnuKh i-lie limy !«■ genuinely in love with him; in miiny eoHrs the hu- 
band would not Tentiir« lo aak, and Mareeljr ercn with, that his wif* 


?9TCnOI.OOT op BKX. 

»houlil l»uil hefwif to piny Ihe (iinUuitic or poiiililv dcgriuling part hU 
dceirc* demand. In aui'li m vii4» lie tuniB iiatiirnll^ to the pruHlitutr, tli« 
only wouiau wIioai' buxinraa il i« to (uIHI Ui puuliar nivda. MarrJag* 
baa brongiit nu rrlii-C U> thvut men, »ti<l tUvy ooDiititul« k nuLrntirUijr 
proportion ol a pioHtltiita's clients In evriy grot citir. Tlio moit ordl* 
IMT}' pr<)BtJtiil« ol any eipt-rieiicc I'an supply cuicii from uinunff her ob-q 
viflitors to iltiiatrittc a treiitin.' of p«yrliopatljic sucunllty. It muy luQice 
hern to c|<iolc a pnssu^ from t\w coatttnlimn ot a youijg ]»nilv[i ( Stmud I 
priMtitiile OH H'riltrn down from her Up* by n (ricii<l to nhom I niB 
lndpl>tcil for the donuliPnti I have merely turned a few eultoqiiiiil terms 
into mors tMihnicBl rorms. Attrr deteriliing how, when slic waa still ft 
oblld ol llilrtcrn in the country, > rich old ([rntleniBn would fr«(]»«nitl]r 
come and exhibit himM'lf before lier and other girU. nnd wn« eventiinlly 
arrested uiid impviaoiivil. she «puk" nf the p<^n'er8itietl she Ijnil met with 
Mncfl ohn bad liraomc a prnnfttiitc. Shf> know a youuK man, about 
twenty- live, geiierally dre««i.-d in u iiHirling ntyte. who ulviuyii cnme uith 
n jinir of ilvo plti>'oiiN, whicli lie linm^ht in a biiskvt. 8he and the girlj 
with whom Khe lived had to undre'^n and tulle the pigeon* and wring 
their ni'i'kAi lio wnnlil stand In front of them, and a* the ii-«ks n'er« 
wrung ortpum oeirurred. Once a innn met her in the atreet and aikcd 
h<rr il he might oom« witli hirr and llrk her boot*. She agreed, and be 
took her to a hotel, paid half a giiineu for a room. and. when nhc «t 
down, got under Uie bible and lieked her lHM>tit. whieli were covered with 
mild; he did nothing more. Then there were some Ihin;.-". «lie (injd. thai 
were too dirty to repeat; well, one inun cniiie hoiiie wUh her and her 
friend and made tlieui urinate in<o hia noutlu Hlie also had «U>rfe« of 
llngvltation, generally of men who whipprd the glrlh, more rarely of men 
who liked to be whipped by them. One man, who brouglit ■ new birch 
every time, liked to whip her friend until he drew btood. She knew 
another man who tvould do nothing bnt Mnuek her notei violently. Sow 
uti these thing*, which I'Oitie into the ordinary day's work of the prosti- 
tute, arc roolnl in deep and nlmn*! Irrnlntlhle lmpul*e« (as will be clear 
to nny reader of tlie disciit^ion of Erotic Synilmliim in the prevIoiM 
volume of thrae Aln'fJr*). They must find anme outlet, flut it ia only 
the prostitute who pan be relied upon, through her tntere*tn and train- 
ing, to orereome the natiiml repukion to such nelions. and gratify 
de«ire« wliiuh. without gruti Ilea lion, might take on other and mor« dan- 
gcroira forma, 

AlUiough Woods Kiitclifnion iinotea with approval the 
(ledarntion of a fHenfl, '"Out of tboaunde I lniv« never seen one 
with good table manners," there is still a real senao in which Uie 
prostitute repre8cnt)«, however innJequiitcIy, the nttraction of 

pROSTiTimojr. 299 

civil izntion. "Tlierc wue no hoiiec in wliicli I could habitually 
see a lady'a fatu ami licai' a lady's voice," wrote the novelist 
Aotbony Trollope in hia Autobiography, conucrning his cnrly lile 
in Lomlon. "No allurenieiit lu diK-ent reflpettabUity caiin; in my 
way. It aeema to me that in such circuinstancee the temptations 
of loose life will almDl^t L-i'rtainly prevail with a young tniui. 
The temptation nt nny rate prcvaiied with me." In every great 
city, it haa been said, tliere are thousands of men who have no 
right to call any woman but a bnniuiid by her Christian name.' 
All the brillinnt fever of civilisation pulses round them in the 
Btreete but their lips never tnuch it. ' It i« Ihe prostitute who 
iDcamates this faitcinution of thv city, far butter timn the 
virginal woman, even if intimacy with her were within reach. 
The prostitute rcprwcnts it bt-euusc she hcwclf feels it, bccaiiso 
■ho has even ^acrillced lior woman's honor in the cITort to 
identify herself with it. She has unbridled feminine instincte, 
»he i« a mistrosB of the feminine art:* of ndnrnment, hIic can t<peak 
to him concerning the mysteriea of womanhood and the lux- 
uries of aes with an immediate freedom and knowledge the 
innoceiit maiden eloisterfd In her home wotild bo incapable of. 
She appeals to him by no means only because she can gratify tlie 
lower desires of sex, but al«o bM'aiise she is, in her way, an artist, 
an expert in the art cf feminine exploitation, a leader of feminine 
fashions. For ehe ie this, and there are, as Simmel has stated in 
Ills PhUomphu ikr Mode, good psychological rea«oiu why she 
&lwa}'9 should be this, lltr uncertain social position makes all 
tliat i» conventional and evtublished hateful to her, while her tem- 
perament makes perpetual novelty delightful. In new fasliions 
fltie finds "an lesthrtic form uf tliat instinct of destruction which 
•eenis peculiar to all pariah exi^K-mvs, in so far as they are not 
completely enslaved in spirit" 

I [n France till* hitirancy U pmboilieil in tlie di-lk'imw [iriviliigc of 
titloietnent. "The inystory of luloimrnl I" excluiuis Erneat La Jpiinease 
in L'llotoe<iii»tT: "BbttIit* broken >1own, teIIb ilrawn nwny. and ttie ease 
ot «x{»tenpet At e, timi? wli«ii I wna very |r>ii^1y. and iry'mg to grow 
arr(ructoni(^ to I'tirla and to mlnfarluiitt. I would go miles — on foot, nat- 
iirnllv — (o Hee a ^rl i-uunin and an nunt. merely lu Uavr BOinclhing to 
lutOfier, SoFnetinio they Won' tiol nl. homi", nnd I linU t<> «lme tidpk 
with my tu, my thlmt (or confidence and (nmilinrlty and brotlicrlinew." 


. ., Cjt.K)i;Ic 



"However Burpri^iii^' it may secin to name.'' a niadMV vrito 
remarko, "protlitutvs niuHi Iw ]iut oil tlie Minir lev«<l as ftrUaU. Doth 
tiiir thnir gifts Olid tnlcntu for the py snd ple4»iiTc of other*, and, M ft 
T\t\v, fur paj-iiipiit. Wlwt la the e««>iiDtinl (liffcrviicr bet<r*en a Mnger 
who f^vcs pleasure to hrarpn by her thriMt and a prnalituto who glivt* 
plcBiurc to those who st'i'k her by nnolher [mrt of hrr boJj-? All art 
works on th« wnw4." H« refers to tlie nignilli'iuit (art tJiat actors, and 
CBpepiullj- nttrpsws, were forinpriy rt-'gRrdod iiiiicli n* jirustitutca ore now 
(R. Il«llmaiin, Ceber QKHphlcohliifmihnt. pp. 24.1-252). 

Ili'rnnUlo lie Qiiiroa nml Llnnns Agiiilniiinlo ( /.o Miila li'l-i rH 
Ma4rid, p. 2421 Irncc the eiiniB influpnov stiU lower in the social scale. 
T\iey arf dcxiTMiing llio niaiv ujiiiilid klii<i of m// chwlO'il, Iti nhich. In 
Spain and clwulicrc, the most vicious and degenerate (I'minine crMtUTM 
Iwcome wal<TP«si><i (niul occH*ioiiiillj' siugHrs and daiiMfn), playing tli« 
part ai amiable and di*tin}^i>hc<l hrlainr to thi- puNip nf niniipn anil 
ahop'bOTS who frequent llie«i> rPHOrt*. *'Dr«s««d with wlmt «(-fins (o tlie 
roulh ineproBphnble tmic. wilh huir cinlioriiliily pri'imrrd, and clfctn 
faou ndorniMl wrth tlowvrv or tnuki-U. alfiihlc and at timei bftUgliljr. 
Rupcrior in chnrni and in finery t^i tlii! otii'-r wnmi-n hr 1* ahlc to know, 
the n-uitmuvH bn'Otno tliv iiiott eirmtcd exampU of tli« frinme j/ttttuilt 
whoTii he is ubiu to contemplate and talk to, the courtrsan of his (phere." 

But while to the simple, ignorant, and hungry youth the 
prostitiito upjioiils M the cmlKxItmrnt of many of the refin^inents 
and pcrvcrsilica of civilisation, on nmiiy more conipK's und 
civilized men elie e.vei1s an attraction of an alntoiit reverse Wnd. 
She u[ipt'ii!n by \ivr frcfh tin<J niitiml coari'eness, her frank 
familiarity with tlie crudest (ncU of life; and no lifts them for 
a moment out of thfl witherinp atmoophere of artificial tliou^ht 
mid iinrea] t'cnliinont in which »o many civrli/cd pcrttons aro 
compelled to !i])cnd the greater part of their Jives, 'lliey feel in 
tlio words which the roysl friend of a woman of this temperament 
18 Mid to have u^cd in explaining hor incomprehensible inHueiiii; 
over him: "She ia so apk'ndidly vulvar!" 

Tn Ulnitriition of tbii aapcrt of the apiienl of proatliuilon. I umj 
qual« a passa^ in whieh th« nnvollit. llermant, in his Oonfratum (Tuit 
SHfanl d'Hier <I^ttr« Vlt), ham >ct down the reasonn which may lead 
tb« niper-Tefined ehild of a cultural »gif: yet bt' nu menni radieally or 
0(mipl«l«l)r vicloiifl, to itnil Mttihclion In pommrriT' with proitltut'a: 
'As lonji as my heart wni not toiielied the object of ray BHt>4fur'lian wmt 
eonipktrly indilTerent to inc. I wai, morrover, a great lover of nbiolute 



liberty, wliicli ia only poMibk in Uie circle of t1ie>e anonyiuous fnatuica 
aii(] In llicir iviKn'td dwelling, 'i'lirrc (M'piy tiling bi-cuiiic |>ci'niia»ltil«. 
With oUier wouieu, Ivxvetor tow W» nuiy «e«k tli«iil, cerUin (.'uui«i)aiicc* 
ntut k» oliMrvdl, n kind of protcxwt. To tbcM oiic i:ttn nay rvpryltiing: 
ono is prolcctrd b.v incuj^iiilu and unurcd tl'dt iiuttiing will be dtviilgrd. 
1 pro&tnl by Ihls fi'eiiloiii. ulilrb suili-il my agi'. but witli a pvrverse 
(ftncy wliicli »■■» not cbnructi'tittic of my ycurn. 1 ncurwly know whcro 
I found wlint I "aid to llii-ui, tut il wan Uic 0I•[J0^ilp of uiy tmtv*. nliicli 
were »im|)k'. niirt, J( I nmy vciilnri' to wiy it', I'lii-nic, Il !• Irii^ tbnt. 
In ninltcTii of love, iinri-ilruiiii'il nntiirslisni ulu-niii tindi to perveriiun. 
A (Mt that can oiily Btvm |)nndu\icnl at Ant aiglit. Primitive peoples 
havp iiiitny tinitu In nmimoii with degt'iivrnli^ It ivna, ho^^'cvcr, only 
in Korda that I wai unbridled: ond that n-n» the only wcaxion un nliicli 

I can rerollMt «erioii«ly lying, ttiit Uint i"f>iiy. uliicli I tbi'ii i^^pcri- 

eneed, o{ expelling a lower depth of ignoble initlneti. ureinn to rac 
cbaracl(>ri«ti<' hihI hiniiiliiiling. I niny ndd that vwu in lh« midst of 
tiMM dlMipationo I letuined a cprtnin reterve. The eontacl* to wliirli 
I expowd niysvlf fuilcd to v>it luv. nothing; ivaa k-ft wlivn I hud erosHnl 
the tbreAhotiL I have iilwnyii retnlncd, from that (ovelbl'' nnd indltfi'rent 
('Onuuvii.'P. tbe habil of Httributin^ no cunvi-ijuPncc to llir uction of the 
n««k. Tlio amoroiiB function, which mliKion and momlltj- have nur- 
rounded with myrtery or seuioiied nith sin. iccm« to niL- u funution like 
any other, « little vile, but ngrceahli!. and onn to which the iiiiuiil epilogue 
ia too long. .... Xliis kind of compunionihip only hiitrd for a 
»liort time," Thh annlynis of ihe nttilnde of a orrlnin eomriioii type of 
eirilixcd modern ninn iieeni« to be junt. but it inny pcrbop* ocnir to noine 
rMdcrii that u comtneree wliich 1«d to "llie action of the lletth" Ix-itig 
regarded a» of no conieiiiienrp can •eniecly lie *aid to have left no taint. 
In s BOmewbiil limltar mnnncr, Henri de R^piier, in bin novel. Let 
IteyKOntm dr MonMfvr Brtol (p. SO), repTenent* Rcrcailll' a« delib- 
erately pr«ferring lo Infce bin pTeflKUre* with wrvBnt-girlii ralbcr than 
trlth Utdies. for [druHnre mhk, lo hi« mind, a ItJnd of «eTvira. which could 
well bo occoraniodale<l nith the iirrvipe!i they are nccmtomed to give; 
and then Ihry :ii" r<ihii"t :uid BgTepabh-. tb<-y poimvin the jiairftf irhicli 
Ir atwavR ebarmiri]; Iri Ihe coiniimo pmpic, and they nrc not apt to be 
r»pcllcd by tboie little jiceidcntn tthieh might offend the failidiuua neuiu- 

Wll(ie« of delieatety bred Indie*. 

nioch. icho ban eapecinlly eniphaiited thiii aide of the uppeni of 
prostitution ^Da^ f<e,ruitIlrbfH umn-rr Zeit. pp. .159-3112), tefem to the 
delicate ami *enslllve ynuii;; llnnlnh wiiler, .T. P. Jukobsi'n. who ntKinit to 
hai* acutely felt the contrast between Ihf higher and more hubltnni 
impuliea. and the oeeatioTinl outburet of what he (elt I" be lower 
initJnctB: In bin yieU f.yJne ho dewribes tbe kind of double life in 
whtrh n tnnn I* true foi a. forlnE^it to the god he wonbip*. and U tlien 





ovprcciinc hj" otlmr poupri vlitch iiLii(ll<r bcHr biiii in tlicir grip towanl* 
what li<> (eoU to be htiiiiiliHiing, pervpr»o. anJ flUliy. "At »ui-li nioinenU." 
Blocb rrniarlcD, "the man is anotltcr being. Tlie 'Iwu miit>' in tlic breftiit 
bwomo M rtalitir. I» that llfn fumous acliolnr, the luflj idi-ulist. Uip finp- 
Mukd wdthvtiriati. the nrtist nlio lias ^rm u« lo many splendid kiid 
pure works in (Kiolry nnd pninling! Wp no longiT rrcogniie liim, for 
st >tich iiioinentE aiiutlivr lielng liiis ixiiiie lo thi> mirtitiv. another niitur* 
i( moving witliin him. and uilh the powrr of an rlriiK'ntary totvf I* 
inipi'lUiig him towardu thing* at which hi* "upper «in«cioii»nr*a.' tb« 
Hvillud tnnn nlthin lilm, would ahiiddpT." Hlooh bi'lii'vea tliat we •« 
hriv conn-rnfil with a kimi ol noniml maaouliiiv niasochiaiu, whlah 
proatitullon iwn'wi to gialilj. 

IV. The Prr^cnt Social Attitude Towards Pro»tiiution. 

W« liflvc now surveyed the ciUTipIex fnft of prostitution in 
iwme of it« most various and typical as|)ect8, t-cukin^ to realize, 
intelligently anil oympatliHictilly, the fundameoUl part it plays 
an an cleiiKiitiiry couilitiient of our marriage aystcm. Finally 
wc hnvi' to conFidpr the grounds on which prostitution now 
uppears to a large and RTowinft number of persons not only an 
unitatisfactory mctliod of sesual gratification but a radically had 

The movement of anta^ni><m towards projititutioD manifejita 
itself most conspicuonsly, at might beforehand have Iwcn 
iiniicipatpfl, by n feeling of repugnance Inward* the modt nnricnt 
and typical, once the moKt credited and be«t estahlii^hcd proetitu- 
tional manifestation, the brothel. The growth of thia repng- 
nanto is not confined to one or tiro countries but is intemationa], 
and may thus be regarded as corresponding to a real tendency in 
our civilization. It is equally pronounced in proslitutee them- 
selves and in the peoidi* who are their clients. The distaste on 
the one side increuooe the distaste on the other. Since only the 
ino^t helpless or the most stupid prostittitoi* me nowiidnys willing 
to accept the servitude of the brothel, the brotlieUkeeper is forced 
to resort to extraordinary methods for entrapping viclims, and 
even to take part in that cosmopolittiii tmdc in ''white Hlavcc" 


PROSTirrTTOH. 808 

wliicli cxisiB mldy to fwd lirotlicl?,' ThiB state of tliinge Im* n 
natural reliction in prejudicing Hie clieiitx of proettliitkin iigaiost 
aa iaetitutioD wliicli u gning out of Tiiithkin and out of credit. 
An even more fiintlanicntfll antipathy is engendered by the fact 
that the I>rotht>l fails to refpond to tiie liigh decree of pergonal 
freedom and variety which civiliKHlion produces, and always 
demands even when it failn to produce. On one side the prosti* 
tute is disinclimd to enter into a Biavery which iisiiully full* even 
to bring her any reward ; on the other *idc her client feeJs it as 
part of the fmuinatioii of prostitution under rivilized conditions 
that he Khali enjoy a freedom and choice the brothel cannot 
provide.^ Tluii- it conic* about that hrothclti which once con- 
tainiHl nearly all the women who made it a bneinew to minister 
to the ».'xufll needs of men. now contain only a decreasing 
minority, ond that the trnnnforniutinn of cloit^tcrctl prontitntion 
into free prostitution is approveil by many social reformere as a 
gain to the cause of morality.^ 

The decay of brothelfl, whether as cowHe or a« *ffert, has 
been associated witli a vast increase of prostitution outiide 
brothele. But the repugnance to brothels in many essential 
ruspeetA «l»o applies to proAtitulion gi-iK-nilly, ami, a* wc Khali 
sec, it is exerting a profoundly modifring influence on that 

The changing feeling in regard to prostitution seeina to 
express it*clf mainly in two ways. On the one hand there are 
thn*i' who, without doniring to aholinh prriKtlttitiou, nwcnt the 
abnegation wliicIi accompanica it, and are disgusted hy its sordid 
aspects. They may have no moral scruples against prostitution, 

1 For some fnct* aii4 reletvunn to tliR cxt'niUTii 11Uratur« oonorm- 
ing thU trarle, »pc. e.g.. Klivli. Oaa Semuallrbta Vnaerer Zeil, pp. :iT4-:i7<Ji 
alMo K. M. Bttcr. Zriinflitifi fUr SfiruatwitsenaelMft, &fft., IBO81 Pau- 
hicfi il» Calboli. \iiora Anlaloiiia, April. 1002. 

a Tlipsp mniidrmtinns do not. it in truo. apply to many kindu of 
wxiinl pprviTts wlio form nn Imporlsnt proportion of the'Hiftit* of 
liriiflieU. n<-*c Clin fr«iiirntly (iinl wlint thfj' cmvo inttilc- n brothel 
mnHi (noTn (-iihily lliiin outiiHr! 

S'Him C'hii'rlc« Booili, in liin nrpnt work on t.ifr and I^hor In Ivon- 
doif, finni volumo (p, 1281. rcpommi'ndi that "lioii*!-* of iiowmiiimlnlSon," 
Inntoad o( lirins liiml«| out, aliould be tolerated aa a step tavrard* the 
supprpvfion ol brotliel*. 


M/wr OF HEX. 

BO<l Ihey know no namm whjr a woman Hfaoald nut fredy do m 
*he will with lier own persHi. Bat they believe tltat, if pntMitu- 
lion U neceesan-, the rclationefaipe of loen with prostitntes ebould 
be limtiflDe aad ngre«*bl« to «acfa patiy, utd not di-gruding (o 
eitlwr. It miut be remembered tlint under tbe conditions of 
civitixed nrban life, Uie discipline of work is ofteo too severe, 
and tbe «xeit«ni«nt« of urWn existence loo coni>t»at, to render 
an abandonment to or^^ a detiirable recreation. Tbe gross form 
of mgy appeals, not to the town-dweller but to the pvasant, and ' 
to the Milor or aoldier who reaches the town after long perioiU of 
dresrjr routine and emotional abstinence. It ia a mistake, ercn, to 
(uppoee that the attraction of proetitution it inc\'itul)Iy HMO- 
dated with the fulfilment of the ttcxual act. So far is this from 
beinf; the case thiit the most attractive prostitute maj be a womaa 
who, jwravMiiig few oexunl ni-cde of her own, de»ire8 to pIcMe hj 
tbe charm of Iier personality ; these are among those who most 
often find good hii^bund^. There are many men who are e^•eQ 
well content merely to liave a few hours' free intimacy with an 
agreeable womtin, without any further faror, although that may 
he open to them. For a very large number of men iimler uHhiji 
conditions of exiKtenec the prostitute ie ceasing to be the degraded 
inetrumnit of a momcnt'i! Iuj"!?!!! docire; tliey si-i'k ud agreeable 
humon person with whom they may find relaxation from tlie 
daily stress or routine of life. When an ad of prostitution is 
thus put on a humane basif, although it by no means thereby 
becomes conducive to the best development of either party, it at 
least ceases to be hopelessly degrading. Otiierwisc it would not 
hMTO beoD poMible for religious proatitntion to ilourisli for so long 
in ancient days among honorable women of good birth on the 
slwrcK of the Mediterranean, even in regions like Lydia, where tbe 
posiiioa of women was pecnliarly high.' 

It is true tltat the ntonetary side of prostitution wonld still 
exist. But i( i* jwesible to eicaggerale its importance. It most 

t "Towns ItkP Wootwtuh, Aldtmliot. Porbimonth. PtynMUtli.'* it hu 
hr»n mM. '^bMnd with wretrlm). tOthj aMMler* that brar oa TM«n> 
lilKMr<» la wtnnm: hut It <■ Arink. •earn, bnitnlilv nn<l divrav whioh 
ban rwhwvd them ta Ud* state, not tke Berc faet of «»M(alin( with 

i;.g-./f:i r^y CjtitW iC 



bt poinled out Uitil, tliouj^ii it i? iiMial to speak of the prostitute 
as a woman who "sells ht-rseli," this is rather u crude and inexact 
way of expre»«iug, iii il» typical form, tlie rdatiimchip of n 
prostitute to her client. A prostitute is not a conunodity witli a 
market-price, like s loaf or a leg of mutton. She is imich more 
on a level with people belonging to the profiWonal dasst*, vehn 
accept fees in return for aorvitea rendered; the amount of the 
fee varies, on the one hand in accordance with prc>fe(!«ional 
Btanding, on (he other hand lU «ceordnnie with the client's meauK, 
and under speeial circumstances may be graoiously dispcusi'd 
with alto);ether. Prostitution placee on a venal bai^ifi intimate 
relation;«hi]>s which ought tn Bpriiig up from natnivil love, and 
in so doing degrades them. But strictly speaking there is in 
such a case no "sale." To sprak of a prostitute "selling herself" 
is scarcely even a pnrdonable rJietorical exaggeration; it ii both 
inexact and unjust, i 

Tliii tiTiKlcricy in h7i aJvfinoci] eivi1i»iti<>ii t>^WHr.]q tlic humanlta- 
tion of proKliliitioti is t)'** ri'rtr^p prnce^, wi* mny notr. to that wliieh 
tdkra piuce at nil mrlier Blugi- of civtiLxation whi'ii (be nncipiit coticvp- 
tion of the religious dignity of prostitution bi-pm to fall int« i]Urpput«. 
Wlira mm ceuec to rwerencv wottivn wlio are pnHtltutM in tlie *errice 
of ft g""l(te»« tliey act up in thdr pUoe prostituti-s nlio are mprrly al)j«vt 
slnvps. flntli-ring Uiem.ielK« llial tUvy an- lliereby »«rking in the cnuM 
of "pmgriW nnd "momlity." On thi" uliorr* o( tlip MfilllTrniipftn thU 
process took plnii; morp lUnn two tliounund veiir» Bgo. und is uMoclatcd 
w'itli tlie name of Solon. To-dity we niiij we the Mine pruvena going on 
in Inilin. In »omi> part* of India {nn nt .)c)iiri, nrnr Pnnnnlil Urit born 
girls nre dediraled to Kliniiilnbii or othtT ^Is: they arc morrinl to Ih* 
(PhI anil t''inii>il iimiiiJi>. TIipv wrve In tU< temple, Bweep it. and vriuh 

1 "Tlie rontraet of prn«lit>itlcin In the oplnton of proi<)iliitiii IhiTn- 
•elvM." nprnnldo de Quiroi and Llanai Axuilunipdo rfninrk I La Mala 
Tida en Vadi-id, p. iHii , "mniiol Un aHtniiiati^[ to ■ iuiti>. nor to a eon- 
trnet of work, nor to any other form of hurlcr rnrognixcd bj- the i-ivil 
law. They (■oniider thnt in the>p pnet.q there nlwnys entera an elptnent 
which mnken it much lik<- a ki'I iu a mi'lter in which no payment 
poiild bo nrlc-qiinle. 'A womnii''. body In n-ilhont prW (■ an axiom of 
prortilulion. The money placed in the hand* of her who proeumt the 
Mttlnfaefion of •etiial de-ite i-i not. the pri^-e of the ael, hut an offTlnjt 
whieh the prientem of Venm nppliei to her mnintsnonec" To the Span- 
lard. It U true, everv Irnnoa'-lion whieh reMembles trade Is ivpninitnt, 
but th« prtneiple uniierlving IhU ferlinK holdi good of prostitution gen- 





tliD holy vcMcIg. niso tlicjr daiicp. *iag und proatlliitc tlicinwh-iw. Thoy 

HI!' forbiildi^n lu i[itirry. uiid Uiry \ive iti tlir huinc* uf tlicir )Hiivnt%, 
lirathTs, or ni-lprn; lii'iiijj coiixi'crMli'J lo rrli^jioui Bcn'ict.'. tlii^.v mm 
untouched by dpgrn tint ion. Nowndiiyn, hunPi'cr, Indinn "rrtntmrrf." In 
lli« name uf 'VEvilirjiIimi uud >i>*i<Tiic<r.'' aeek to piTHiiuilr the muraiii lh»t 
thry nrn "pliingnl in a rariKir of dPCrndnllon." No iloiibt in tlnio the 
nould-be niorulisls will drive the mufatif out of thrir temj>l*s ■niJ their 
!mme«, d«j>rive them of ill «el('i>«pwt, and convert th#iii into wretched 
oiilcuBta, all in the cnune at "neieuee and eivilimtion'* (see. e.j)., au arti- 
cle by Mm. KJi"hibul UeoJhrtr. The Xrw Htfoi-mrr, Oc(obi>r, 19U7I. So 
it is that early reinrniern create for the lefonner* of a Inter day the ta»k 
of huniunizlii)' jjruntituliun ufresli. 

T]ierr> ran tie iin iloiilit Hint thia mare liunianr' eonceptlon of pronti- 
tulion is to-diiy beginning to be rvali/vd in tlie aeluni cirillxvd llt« ol 
Europe. ThuH iu wiiling of proiiiitiitlon in Porli, Dr. Robert MicbcLt 
("Kroliiebe Slreiftdge," i/uKcmcJiuIr, liioa. Hetl 9. p. 388) ranarka: 
"Whil» in <!erHiiiny tlie jiroMlitute ia gem-rally consltleri-d a« mn 'outcftut' 
crpnturo, and treated aeoordingly. an innlriniienl of uiiiwuliiie lust to b* 
lined and lliroiin nuay, and whom oul' uould under no eireiiuutlnnoea 
let'uguEEe in jiublir. in Trnnee tlie pnintiliile plnyn in many re"|iee[4 the 
jKirl which Oni-e K'''e BijjniHoiinec and fame to tlie hflaitir ol Athena." 
And after de»cribinn the con *i deration and respert whieh Ihc Pariaiui 
proBlilut« l« often nlili- lo rxpiire of her friendn, and Ili« uunnexuBl reU- 
llon of comraUcahip whieh she can cnt«r into with other men, tho writer 
continuea: "& girl who corlainly yields hefMi'tt fur money, but by no 
menna for thp tint eomer'a mnney. and who, In adiilllnu to her 'buAliWM 
friends,' feolH the need of, so to sny. nouiexual eoMii>union« with wlMm 
■he can nssocialc In a free eoniraile-Iike way, aiiU by whom fllie i« tmat«d 
and valued aa a free hnuian being, is not wbolly |ii<t for Ihe mural wortli 
of humnnity." All prostttiilioii la bail. Mi(h<-lii iniiehide', lait wn nhoiild 
have reason to congratnliite oiir^elve* if lore-rclmioinBhips at this 
I'aTiaian npe<-i«M represented the lowest Icnown form uf extra-conjugal 
aextuliij. (As bearing on th« relatir« conn i deration nceordcd to proatl- 
tiiteo I may oientiun tlial a I'aris prostitute remarked i» a frimd of 
mine tliat Kngliithmen would ask Iit ()iie«tIon4 wliieb no Krenehinan 
would venture to nak.) 

It Is not. however, only in Parii. although here more markedly and 
pmminnntly, that Uii» hnm.iniiliig rbangi' tn inoslilutiim is beginning 
to make itself felt. It is manifetited. for indnnee. in the grfatft oprn- 
nc«« of a man'* sexual life. "While he (oruierly slinkeil into a brolhel 
In remote street." ]>r. Willy ni>ll|tach remark"! fYerriMil-i* «tul KhKut, 
p. IW). "he now walk* abroad vrith his 'liniBon,' v{*Iting Oie thcntrMi 
■nd cnflH^ without indeed any anxiety to meet bis seijualntanoea, but 
with no embarraMmeiit oa that point. The thing is becoming more com- 



liintj]ilai'«, nan nal'irnl." Il ia nl«n. Itrltimcli iirix^rpilH to \inlnt uiit, 
tliUD bocamlntf inorp inoru] alnu, »n<l mucli uiiuliiiU'saiiic iinidrry and 
pruriFiii'y in Im'Iiii! itaim nwny uilli. 

In EnKkncl. wlit-rc clianip.- U bIow. tliia tcudency to thi- humaniai- 
tion of priwtttitlion m».y be Ism |irnnounc<-it. But it cPrtdinlj' «xlst«. 
In th<! mftldlc o( the Imt Mntury Lwky irroU- {tli^tortj of European 
UoraU, tol. ii, p. 2851 Iliut liiibilwil |>r»atitiit<nii "i* in nu ntlit^r Euro- 
pciin Fouulry no iiopi'li^'Mly viciuiii or i>o lrrpvii''nh!i'." Tlint ttnlrmrnt. 
*liirh was dIho matte by I'm rent- Ducliflti-tpt ond other foreign olMtrn'tMit. 
ia fully conlinncd by llw eviduiicc on n'coii]. Itut il i" n kteti-mrnt 
wtiirli woiilij linrilly be mnde loiUy. exrxiit prdiajr*. In rrlrrvtiiv to iip«' 
eial conflnni arrn* of our citiei. It i'< tli"- luniii' in AiHurieii. and we 
muy dotibtlL'ss finil tliis U-ndeury Tel1«(-te<l in the teport on The Sooiul 
BrtI (10021. drown up hy n eommitt«« in Np«- York, wlio gmr II (p. 
ITS) at one of their chief recoinnLriKlutiuni that pruntitiition slioutd do 
lon^T lie reKnrded nn it i-rinie. in uliieli llgbl. one (^Iheni. tt liml lonni'riy 
iMvn n>(pird*d in New York. Tlml mny seem biit n iinuill rtrp in the 
path of liumii nidation. Iiiit it in in tlie ri)[1>t direction. 

It 1» by no inennj" only in limd' of Kiirt>[H'ttn civiliaition that we 
may trace witli de^irtuping eMlture tlie rtfinemviil and liiiiiiiinixiitian of 
tbe «lit[)it'>r bonda of relaiionnbip with women. In Japan exactly the 
name demand* led. Mveial vctituries ago, to the appearance of the g»Ssha. 
In (be roi]r»e of an lnlei'e«tin(£ ami pn-eiie study nf Uw ji;eislin Mr. R. T, 
Farrer (cmnrku (.Vi"(ic(trnfft fciilury, April, 1004); "The geiiiha in In 
no wnito uet'e«Mirily a eonrli'Xiii. $l>e i» ft woni»n eihientnl lo attract; 
IM-rfeeted from her ehildhooil in all thi" Intrieucii'a of Japaneni' litem- 
tore: prnclicfJ in nil nnrl reparlve: inured lo the rapid give-and-take 
of oonveriation on every to|iic. human ami divine. From her carlieat 
youlh Blie is broken iiilo an Inviolnbte cbirui of inaun'.'r ineomprehenaible 
to the llneiit ICuropean. yet ahe i> almnit Invariably A bliMuwmi of tlin 
lower rla»M?#. uilli dumpy tIah'h, and aiiunt. ngty nail*. Her edueAtion. 
physical and moral, I* far harder thiin that of tbe ballerian. and her 
nwcMD i« achieved only niter yearn of strii^le and a bitter agony of 
tartur*. .... .\nd the geishn's nocinl pooitlnn may be compared 

with that of the Europenii netieM. The Ueioha-houte offer* prlica ai 
ilrsiroble an ony of the \\'eitem Btnge. X jfrent jr'illui «i(h twenty 
nobles ■illing round Iier, coutenilin^ for lier Inughtet. and kept in con- 
atant cheek hy the llnihing bodkin of her wit. holdn a pu>iltio]| no le<M 
hif[h and famous than Uiat of Sarah Bernhardt In her prime. 8h» la 
equally iiou|{ht. equally flatlered, qnile at madly udoreil. that <|uiet little 
elderly plain ^rl in dull bine. But abe is prized tbuw primarily for her 
tongue, whoite [lower only ripens fully as her physical chnrm* decline. 
She demands vail snms for her ownera, and even m often appi-sr* nud 
daneea only at h«r own pleasure. Few. if any. WeaLernora over ace • 



psychqlogy of sex. 

T<tull,v romou* geiiliR. Sb« i^ lo'j ^timC (•< rxnii- txrori' ii KniujH'an, 
i.-!(copt fur KU august or iiuiiiTiul comm^iiid. Finullv hIic vi^y, and fr«- 
qumtly doeH, mnrt}- into cinltvil pluc-ci. lu all tliiH tb«rw Is uol lb* 
Hllghtcat ncccnit.v for uuy illii'Il ri'lntion." 

In aom^ rospectx tli^ position of tbi> nnciMit Oii*k tielaira w«« 
more analo^i* to llint of tlie Jnpanfii>p griaha than to that of thu |>ruHti- 
tut* in tl'» ttrkt K-nBc, For the Grw'k*. imlii-J, tlie Affdirti, wa» not 
itrictly D pornr or proilUult ut all. The nniiie meant friend or com- 
|)auion. and the woiuiiu to wlmni the nnmi' wni applini held an honorable 
position, which poiild not hf pccorilinl to the mere pr')''titut-'. Ath'nini* 
(Bk. xiii. Ch». XXVIIIXXXl brtnjr. lORelTier pa«<M|;e< showing that 
the hrlaira cnnlil hf r(>}^r>Ipd n> >n Inih'ix^niti'nt rltin-n, purr, ilmple. and 
virtuous, altojiPtlier diitiiict troni the common crew of prostitulm, 
UiOU|!h tho«e nii^lit n[>e her name. The heininr "were almost Ibe i>nl;r 
Orpck wonim," »aym Donnldnon [Woman, p, S!l). "who cihibitod what 
wns lH"it unil nobleit in woinen'ii nnture." Tlilti (aet rpniler* it more 
Intpllig'ihle whr a woman r>f mirh iulHInHnnl ilifltlni-tlon as Anpaila 
■boiild have btvn a hetairn. There ncpmo lilllr iloubf at tn her inlel- 
leeluftl di«(in<'(ion. ".Kuchine*. in hi» rliah>(fiiecnlill'sl 'A«pn«la."'writoa 
Homperx, the hi«torinn o( Orrek philoiopliy {Orevl- Thinknt. roL iil. pp. 
124 and 343| . "put« in Ihe month of tluit di'tiiiei>i*hed vromun nn ineixive 
critleinm of the mode of lif" traditional for her sex. It would be rxeeed- 
ingly ilrangr." Gomprrz adds, in nrgulns that an inferenee may tbiw 
Iw ilrawn coiieeroIiiK the liiMorii'nl Aajwi'lfl. '"If I'lr.e authora — rlalo^ 
Xonopbon and .Kichincj" — bad agreed in fietitioii*lT endiiiiiit tlie rom' 
panfoti of IVrioIes with whnt ve might vi-ry ri-jKHinnbly hare MpM4«d 
her to posBe.ta — * highly vullivatcd mind and intplh-rfual intliionce." It, 
is eTvn )"i'<ibl<- tlml tlie movement for woman's right whieh. a* we dimly 
dirina thrDUgh the pages of ArintAphanes took plnee In Alhena In tha 
fonrtb e".^lllI^■ B. ('.. wni led by hrlair't. .\oeording lo Ivtt Brun* 
IFrnUFnfitiaiir^palitm in Alhrn, 10(H), p. 10) "the moi^t eerfatn Inform- 
Uon whieh we poAscva enneeriung AnjiaHia bciirn a ■Irnng teiemhlanea to 
tba pletnre whieh K\iripide-i and Ariittophanex prrm'nt to u* of tlie 
leader* of the womnn movr-ment." II wna tbn oclitenoe of this mm-e- 
mvnt whieh made I'lato'ii ideas on the eonimiinitv of women appear far 
lea* nbniird than they do to ui. II niny perliapo lie thoiigbl by MMM 
that thia movement represented on a higher plane that love of distnie- 
tion. or. as we should better say. that spirit of revolt and BHpinition. 
which Simniel finds to mark the intellectual and ariislle netlvlty of thoaa 
who ar* unclaised or duMmisly etaa«ed in th» »"tia1 liierarohy. Xinon 
da LmelM, aa we hare seen, was not slrletly a eourtrsan. but ahn was * 
phmaer in tba aaoertlon of womnn'4 righla. Aphra Behn who, a lilUe 
lat«r In Eugland. oeeupied a similarly d<il)l»na soelal ))nsitiin), wan lik^ 
wise a pioneer In gpiierons hnmnnitarian a<ipiration», which have aiiue 
been adopted in the world at Imge, 




TliML- [vGiiinient* of prostilulioii may be wild to t* cliii-Uy tli« oii(' 
TOUi'' o/ Uir Inlp unci iiior* devMopml >tnt(ri in t'lvUimtion. As Sohurtj! 
liM put it i.iltetMaasrn il»rf Mannrrbiiaifr, p. 191): "The cliwrtul, 
*kilful and urliftticully BccomplUluM hrlaint frsquMilly stinil* ua au idiml 
Rgurv In opimnitiun to tliv iiilell«ctuu]l.v iinriiUivatcd wifr banished lo 
thn interior of tlie liouiw. Thn «ourti<iuiii of tlic- Italiiiii RmaiHsance, 
JatRiui'M g<>ii>)>a*. rhini'ic lloai-r-girl". iind liiUtiiti linvad'^riit, nil nIluiv 
sonie not iinnolilc fcutiiri'^i, thi" breath of a fi'fc aiiUtlc exintfncr. Tlipy 
linvp ncliieviHl — "iili, U f* true, tin- wprilici- of thfir higln'*t worth — 
an Inikpcndoiice from thv uppreMlvv niti- of iimd niitl of Uouitrliold 
(Iiitic!!, luid UL |)urt of the (i>mlnin« tniiouuicnt whith U so ofttn cri|)|il('d 
comes In therm to brilliiiut dt-x-i-ltipmL-nl. I'ronttluliuu in 11^ bvHt form 
may thiu oITi^r a path b,v which thnae fi>iuinin« rlinract^rlHtic* may dxrrt 
a wrlaiD Infliwncf on Uio dcvplopmcnt of drilixiitian. \V* may also 
bplli-vc tUnt thi.- arli-ilif fli.-tivjty uf wouwn \i in 40ni<- niea*urv ablr to 
oltrr a poiintpq'oUi' to th? othiTU'inf !<■•■ plfnunnt rpMilt* of ocvuul 
ahtindiiiirni'iil. prcvi-cting Ihr cnanmin;; niid drslmctiun ol the emollnnal 
lifi'i III hi" Mngrlii SuiltTniniiii huH ilL^M-rilti-il it typi' •>( wmiian who, from 
the >'l«iidpuint of Htrivt mumlily. in tipi^ to dinili-'innnlion. hut in licr 
art findi n foothold. Ihn Htr^njclh of u'hidi rvvu ill-will must iimviUiugly 
rccagniw." In hi» Hrj- anil Chariirler. Weininger hni develMjifJ In « 
moro cstri>mp nnd rxtravaKiiut mtinurr tbc coiK'Cptiou of Iho proititute 
ms * funduiTicnlal and MiMitiul part of life, b p*rmanont feminine typ*. 

There nrc otliir*, apparently Ju incroaBiiig numljer*. wha 
approach the problem nJ prostitution not from «n a«thelio stand- 
point hut fruin a mnml i^tiimlfiotnt-. This mornl attittule is uot, 
however, that convriitiorialiwil iiiuralitv of Cato und St. Angus- 
tine and Lecky, set forth in previous pagea, according to which 
the protttitutii ill the street mtixt be accepted as (he ^urdinn of 
the wife in the home. Tlusi,' inoralii'ts rcji-it iriilwd the claim of 
that belief to be coiieidered moral at all. They hold tJiat it ia 
Hot tuonilly possible that the honor of some women shall be 
purehaacahle at tin; price ot tlic dii^lmnur uf olhcr woiiicu, because 
at such a price virtue loses all moral wortli. When they read 
that, 88 G'lniinirt ittitirl, "the mort huiiriouH articles of women '« 
Irotuaea IU-, thv briibil chciuincit n( girU with dowritx of tix 
htuidrcd thousand francs, are made in the prison of Clain'anx,"! 
th«v dee the nynibnl nf llir intiiimtc dq>c»drncc i>f our luxurioiu 

I Journal ihv Qoneourl, vol. lil; thia was In ISH. 






virtue on onr wiuulid vkf. And while tlicy ncccpt the historical 
Knd sociological evidi>iioc which ahowa tlint pnistitutiftii is an 
inevitable part of the marriage aj'stem which etill survivea amonj; 
UB, tiicy ask wlicllicr it in not i>()»«il)l»' co t" iiiodifv our niarriiigc 
syfitvin tluit it hIihII not he nQceantry to divide feminine humanity 
into "disreputable" women, who make BBfrificen which it is Ain- 
honorablc to mukc, ami "ri'Siiwtnhk'" wnmen, who tnke fwcrificca 
which it onniiot lie loa* dishonorable to accept, 

Froatitulca. u dint i n 11:11 isheil man of aolenoe tias nid <Duolaiix, 
It'Byniinp Siieiale. p. 243), "limr h'-i-oiiic tlilntpi whirli tlii> i»il)lic iiSM 
when it wnnU tlipm. and llirtiwn on IIj« (lungUpui) wlirn it Im* mnde them 
vUe. In Um jihaiinnUin it ovcin han t1ii> Iii*o1<'n<'e to tTi«t their trntk n* 
•hMnrriil. iin though it vffrf not jui-l u-> ■huiiirtiil tn buy a> to Mil In 
Ihii miirkpt." ItliH'h I Sfxiirllrhi'ii (iti*riiT Xeil. Th. XV) tnsiitta tliut 
proHtiliilion inii»t be cniioliled, and that «nl,v •» ran It ho orvn diminUboiI. 
Iiidorc DycT, of Si>w Orli'Bn", «)iio nrgUFS tbiil w* einnot ehwk prontilu- 
Uon iinlt!M wp etratr "in the mindi of men and w>.mp-ii a niHrit of 
loIrnin<.-(^ iiiHti-ad o( Int'il'innw of falkn womt-n." This point may be 
llluttrat'd by a rrmnrk by the prnttituti aiillinr of tliv Ttigrhurh ein«r 
Terlormen. "If tlie prof.-wlon of yit-ldiiig tin- bodj- ctuiwd to bi" n shame- 
ful one," ahe WTflt*, "the anny of 'iinforlunatm' would dimiiiiili by fonr- 
flftha^I will even nuy nint-tenlhii. Mynrlf, for pxamplel How glsilly 
would i lake a ftituutiori an com [ui 11 inn or gDvi-rnosH!" "Oar ol two 
tbingf," vTotc the eminpnl Mcjologiat Tnrilp {"!« Mornl« SvxupMp." 
Archice* d'Anthropohgir Crimhrllr. Jaaiuiry, 18(171. "cithfr proilltii- 
tton will dlMppnir throtigli fontinulnp to Iw dlHhoiioinlili' and will be 
npljwed by %oTap otiivr in^litution which will bi'ttrr miicily the drtecta 
of 111 (111 o|[a moil » mnrrlnKr. or it will siinivr hy b'.'miiiinu reitjiectable. that 
U to »uy, by making iUcIf respeotcd. whether liked or dinHkwl." Tarde 
thouglit thin nilRbt pnrhap* oomo alioDt by a bottir orimnltatlon of pros- 
titutea. a morv eureful acWliun anions thoio uho denired udrnMHion to 
their ranka and the cultivation of prof rbh ion nl virtue* wbloii would ralM 
their moral kvrt, "If rourtctani fulfil a tiiH-d," Dalme had iiJrcady aaid 
in hit I'kyiiMofir ia UaiJajir, "lliey miiM livi'onir' nn Inititutjcau" 

Thig moral ntlitiide \* eiippoi-ted and enforced hv the 
ineritahle democratic tpiidenry of civilix»ti"ii whii'h, althouj^h it 
by no meane d(«trovs the idea of claea, undermiiin that idoo an 
the mark of fundamental human dintinclions and niidcre it 
Huporlicial. ProEtitutinn no lonf^r mtikex a woman a slave; it 
ought not to make licr even a purinh : "Sly body is luy own," aaid 



the young (lernmn proetitute of to-day, "and what I do with itis 
oubody v\m's c-ouiiTn." Whoa lht> proxtitnti; w«» litiTally a 
tlave moral duty towards ber was by no means m^easarily 
idemtical with mural duty towards the frn: woDiaii. But when. 
even in thi> famo fiimilv, the prostitute may be scparatoil by a 
great and impassable social gulf from her married sister, it 
becomes possible to Bce, and in the opinion of many imperatively 
nuxiaiHiry to eec, tliut a roadjii^tmcnt of moral vuhios J." roiiuired. 
For tboti^anda of years prostitution lias bwn defended on the 
ground that the prostitute is necessary fo ensure the "purity of 
women." fn a dvmvcratic age it begins to bg realized that 
proBtituto> also are women. 

The developing sense of a fundamental human equality 
underlying the (inrfave division!* of claw tends to make the 
usual attitude towards tlie prostitute, the attitude of her clients 
even more than that of society generally, seem painfully cruel. 
The callous and coarwly frtvoloun tone of ft» itiniiy young men 
about prostitutes, it has been said, is "simply cruelty of a 
peculiarly brutal kind," not to be discerned in any other relation 
of life' And if this attitude is cruel even in speech it is flill 
more cruel in action, whatever attempts may be made to disguise 
its cnielty. 

Canon I.j1tl«tnii'* tptnnrk" may Iip Inkrn t" rcfi-r cliinDy to young 
mm of the uppi^r mMdlE rliiin, ronccniiDg what ii pt-rliap* tlio tiiiiiil 
BtUtuOe of lower ninliUc c1ii«h poopli' towardx prtntltiitinn. I maj quote 
from ft Ti-iHarknblc coinmiinifutioa wlii'.'h hm ri'uolml mc- troin .\uxtralU : 
"Wlint MD thp viewB of D j'ttting imin brought up in n miiWle-cluBs Chris- 
tian ICngllsh fiiiiiily on prostitiiteii T Tuke mj fnllior, (or tnstiuiiw. Ilw 
Snt ineiilioiiwl prO"lilulp» tn m<?. If I r»-iii('inlii'r rij!hl1y. whi-ii *pcnking 
of his life b«f«i<' Tiiarringr. Aoit he 9|>okc ol them m he uuuld speak of 
a horHR he hiid hhrii, piiiil for. ami di^inlvic'tt frnin hi> mimi when it 
had retidi^rt'd him Hi^rvjce. Although niy mollier was to klml and good 
tbt apokr of abandonrd women with (ll»gii^t and »'Orn on of some iiuclean 
animal. As it IbitUra rnnity and pride tn he ahW- with good couate- 
nanof- and iiniversn! conniiit to look down on aoiix'thinK, I unm graap«d 
the itituation and adupttil iiti altituilr which ip, in the nmiri; Hint iif ino''! 

I lt«\-. tlic Hon. C. l^ttlvtun. Training of the Young in Laiet of 8tse, 






middlc-cliiHi Chriitimi Knglinhiiicii tuwurdi protlJIutcfl. But as pubcitf 
di'vi-)o|>s tlii* tttitiitio lina to b« nn-umiiioilitlril wilJi tW itUh to main 
uM of tliis «uni, these niornl Ic'pors. The ordinary young niMi, who likes 
a spite of imiiiorality Hiid liiiit it uhrii in Uiw ii, and think* 11 !■ not Uktiy 
to rome ta iiis mniUrr'g or sistprs' mrs, dnr« not get over hii arrog&nc* 
and disgiiat or nbiitv tiieui in the Ipaat. lie bikn Itiein u'lUi iiim. more 
or Idiui dt*giii"pil. lo th(> hrotliH, nn<l thiy enlor liis thoiightn and action* 
at) tlie tim« he i- steeping vilh prottilutm. uv kiting tbem, or pataiag 
his hai»U over thrni. at lie would nvir a niHie. gelling a% mueh as he 
can for hit money. To tell the' truth, on Ihe whole, thnt wru ray atdtudo 
(00. Ktit if antorje hnd mtked me for tlie em.illMt rcAHon tur Ibta 
nltiliidp. for lhi» fpeling of ■iiperloHly. pride, hantrur, and prejoiliet, I 
iihould. like any ulhrr 'n-^pcptnhte' ycmng man, linve heen mtirdy at a 
lo(«. and ronid only hnvp gnped foollslily." 

From tlie niodcm iiionil stuDdpoiiit which now concern! us, 
not onlv i« tin- enictly involved in liic dinlionor of llie prostitute 
nbsurd, but not less absurd, and often not leas cruel, eoenis tha 
honor liivlowcd on the respectable women on the otlier i»ide of the 
social gulf. It iji wi'il recoj;ni/.etl that nun wmetimoa g>> to 
prostitutes to gratify the excitement aroused by fonilling ihoir 
betrothed. 1 A« thccniotiotml and physical rntult^ of ungratifiei) 
escitement are not infri'i|uentl_v more HeriaUH in women than in 
men, the betrothed women in the^e caw* arc equally justified iii 
veekiii^ relief from i>ltiiT men, and the vicious circle of absurdity 
might thus be completed. 

From the j)uint o( vt^w of the modern moralist tlwre )s 
another consideration which vrtt» altogether orerlooked m the 
con rent ion 111 and traditional morality we have inherited, and 
was iudtiM pnic'tically non-«Kisten t in the ancient days when that 
morality was still a living reality. Women are no longer divided 
only into tho two groups of wives who are to be- honored, and 
prostitutes who are (he dishonored guardians of liiat honor; tliero 
it A large third class of women who are neither wives nor prosti- 

1 Scr. rir.. R. W. Tnylor. TrmlUf: on RKeual DitOnlen, IMJ, pp. 
74-5. UMrff llirlh (Wefff. tur Wriiiiof. 190(1. p. «I0) nnrmtr* thft «aiM 
of n young oIHpit iilio, iM'inB Bxpil»d by the onrewe* of liia betralhed and 
ha.viii); tiM much le'pecl fc)r her lo go fiirlher than tliia. nnci I«i mucli 
reipect for hlmwK to rcaort to mnvliirluilion. kn''w no(liiti); liclier than 
to go tu tt proHttlute. Kyphilia dei'eloped n ten- days oft«* the wcddiBK 
Birth adds, hricily. thnt tlie rcfulta wore tcriiUlo. 



trites. For tliis group of the unmnrried virtuous (he trailitiuniil 
moralilj' liail no jiiaoe at all; it simply ignored IJieiu, But the 
new iDoraltxt, who is learning to recognize both the duiniH of tlio 
individual and lli« claims of wiciety, Ijugimt to iisk whetlitT on tlm 
one lumd these wiwien are m>t Rotitled to the satisfaction of their 
air<-('tiona] and emotional impulses if they so desire, and on tlie 
other hand whether, siuee a lijgh eivili/ation involves n diniinishod 
birth-rule, the eorniininity is not entitled to c-Dcour«jj;e every 
healthy and able-bodied woman to eontribute to maintain tl)i3 
birth-ratc when *lie bo desin.-*, 

AH tlio eonsidorntions briefly indicated in the precedinff 
pages — t)iG fundi) in<-Dtal sense of himiuD equality gtmerated hy our 
civilizaliiHi, tlie repugnance to cruelty which aecuiikpaniiig the 
refinement of urban life, the ugly contrast of extremes which 
sliock our developing democratic' tmdencies, the growing «eu*c of 
tho rights of the individual to authoritiF' over his own person, 
the no lees strongly emphasized right of the community to the 
best that the individual can yield — all thew considerations are 
every day more strongly influencing the modem moraliKt to 
Dj^Hume towards the prostitute an attitude altogether dilTercnt 
from Hint of the morality which w« deriveil from Cato and 
Augustine. He sees the queati<m in a larger and more dj-namic 
manner. Tn^ti-ud of diclnring that it is wi'll wortli while to 
tolerate and at tlio same time to contemn the prostitute, in order 
to preserve the sanctity ot the wife in lier homo, he is not only 
more inclined to regard each a» the proper ^ardian of her own 
moral freedom, Imt he is Ie*« certain about the time-honored 
position of the progtitutu, and mnreuver, hy no means sure that 
the wife in the home may not be fully as much in need of 
rescuing as the prostitute in the street; he is prepared to con- 
iidcr whether reform in this matter is not inmt likely to take 
place In tlie shape of a fairer apportionment of sexual privilege* 
and sexual duties to women gcncrully, with an inevitably resultant 
elevation in the sexua] lives of men also. 

Tlie m-ult uf mnnr irrious rtfnrincm H{^itii>il tli^ injiutloi.- unt] 
(Iftrrndattnii ni>w Enixilvril bv out nynteiii of prnititiillan !• pm> prorniiiid 
iliiil aoiue \tixv« dKclnrwi tlienistUrs n-ady Ui awepl niiy rtvohUioii of 

, CiOOglC 


rsxaioLocY or sbx. 

idMM wbich would bring about a morv wholMoiDC trkUBmuUliini ol uidWd 
valuBH. "Oi!tt(T indeed amrc * Mturaalia of fret men an<l u-onHB," 
CXOlatins Edward Car|)«Dt«t (Xure'a Cominj of Agr, p. 62). "Umib the 
tpMlcrle wlilch, a* it Ift, our gr**l cittn prcivnt At ni^lil." 

Evm tlicMw ttbo would be i)uitr Mntrnt wiUi a> coBterratiT* a 
trcatntMit an pouibk of mcial institutions atin cniuiol (ail lo renliae 
Iltat prualilution is imiiatistactoTT. nolcu we are cout«nt to make veiy 
)iiiinbl« rJAimn of Die Mxual ait. ~T1i* aft of prn»titutioa," Codfrfjr 
dpclaiH IThf AWrttcr of 8rx. p. Iffi). ^w»y b* pliyniolojripallj' oomplctc, 
but it ii complrtr in no other npniip. All tlir moral und iiilellcctuBl fae- 
tora vrbirh oombini! with ph}*i>iail dpiirc lo form t)ii! perfect texwJ 
flttmctlon are ab«-nt. All tti« Mghi-r elvini'iitx of loie— •dwlratloit, 
rnpcct, honor, and Hrlf-iurTt firing dciviition — nrc m torAga to prostilii- 
tion aa to tlit^ vgoinUe net of inaiturbatian. The piinnpal drawh«tka to 
tho moraljly of Ihi^ art lir in il« *>»•(}'.■ in ttonw more than En the »et il«*lf. 
Any alTivtiniinl ijualilr which ■ rnoro or le»4 promimMns oonnpetfon 
might powfB? \* at oiiec dr«troj-nI by the intrution of thp inunetary ♦]»- 
menl. Tn thp riviillinji drtfraitntioii tho woman bn* the lurfte^t (harr, 
ainm it uiakro her a pnnah and ini-olvrm h«r in nil the hardening aixl 
dapntrlnK iiifiiipriee* of Micist ostrneiBm. But her degradatloii only 
wrvca to render her inflnenec on her porlners more demnrnlixin^ Ptob- 
titullon." h« eoni^lii'Iet. "lio* a itlrong l«iden«T totvaiil* einphniiitins tli« 
naturally arlflih ntlltiide of mrn townnia women, and mieoiiraging them 
in the delimion. Iwrn of iiiiregulnfed paiBioiis. that the Bexiiol «et itaclf 
ia Ihe aim niul eoil of thr "pv life. l*rf""tilu(ion con therefore mak» no 
claim lo alTord ercn a tempotnry lolution to the aes problrm. It fulfila 
only that miK^ion which ha« madi; it n 'owpAMiry Pvil' — the miiwioo of 
palllallre to the ph.t-iieni rigor* of wlibiiey and monogamy. It does w> 
at th» <x»>t of a oouuiderable amount of pliysii^al and mora) deterioration, 
mueh of wliich U undoiihtedly duo to the action of aociety in completing 
the degrudaticn of the prorttitule by per«iiitr[it oatracism. Pronlitiilion 
wo* not M Kfvt nn itvil when It wan not thoii)t!il oo grrat. yvt «t-ni nt 
lt« Iwkl it wuti n. rciil evil, a melunolioly and iionlid travesty of einen* 
und natural pHaslonnl T'laticin*. It I* an wit wlilrh we are bound to 
have with us so long ait n'tibsey U a pu«tom iind monoeamy ■ Ian-.'' It 
ii thn wife «■ we'l as thn pToititiite who U dfjrTade'l by * ■ystem which 
nuikM vvnal love poxsible. "Tlie time hat gone pa«t." tiie aaine writer 
mnarlca cNewhere (p. \9S\ "when a mete itremony can really aanrtify 
what U bii«e and tran'furm Itint )ind trrecd into the sineerity of muNl 
kffretlon. Tf, to vntvr Into apxnal connretloni with a man for a aolcly 
material end I* a disftnor to hnmanity. it ia a dingrnee under the mar- 
riafpi bond just as much a« apart fmm the hyporritre;!! hlnblnfc of tlie 
ohunrh or the Inw. If the pubTie prostilute U a lieing who deaerre* lo 
ba trMtod M a pariah, It Is hopelemly irmtlnnal to wlUihold every sort 




of iiicinil oI^p^f.^^lum from the wnmnn who leads a siinilnr lifn umlrt a 
diffen-iit si-t of Extcniiil cinriiiiiBtaiLots. Kitht-r the proetiluU- wife niu»t 
cgiiiv uiitlvr llie niural ban, or thnr^ miiit bo an end to the complt>t« 
o»trnci*ni under wliieh the prortituU labors." 

% Tho tliiiiki-r who more «lcnrl,v »iul fiiii<lainFii tally tliait otliOTi. and 
nmt of n11, i<-atup(l thi> iljiiiimii^l iclntiomhipi uf proHtitutiuii, ■■ 
ilrprtidenl Upon a fliimtfc in the otiipr niK-iiil rvlutinij-thip-i of lifp, HIM 
Juuiei tiiiitun. .Mori- tliun tliirtv ynun a-ifi. iii liiiKiiX'Htiirv n-rltingB 
thnt atill TPinnin iinpiihlinhcd. nlnrc ho iicvpr ivortnl thnu into an 
urd<;rly form. Ilinlun jpive tiguroiis and often pa-Mninitir cviinsiiivn to 
thi» tnniinnii-ntjil Wi'ii. It niny bo worth uiiilc (o unote n few brief pos- 
mgM from tlintun'i MSS.: "I fn-1 tlmt tli'? Iuwh of force sliould lioltl 
alio amlil the wavM nf hnmnn pa>'-lon. thnt tho mlniion* of invchanlM 

arc true, ami will rnic nlno in hniiiiin lifir Tlirrr Ji n tpn- 

■ion, a, rniBhing of the euul, by oiir iu<xlern li(r. and ll !<• ready (or il 
Hnddrn Bfirinir to n difffr'-nt ordiT in which tlic (ori;>'it iiliul! TenrrmiKr- 
UieiniK.'lv«a. It is n dynnniical qncxUun preiwnted in tnoral tiTiuc. 
. . . . Kwpinjt B portion of the woninn pnptilntion without proapfct 
of marriiige meana hHtiii)^ prustttulen, thnt in women iii instruments of 
man's mer« wnsnallty, and tliU nifnn* the killing, in many of thnn. of 
all pure lovo or cnpucily of il. Thii is the fact we hare to foM. 
.... To-d)iy I Mw a younn: woman who4« lif« wa« being connuned 
by Iior wnnt of love, a eose ot thri-ut^ncd utter nii»cry: no«' '■■i> the 
price ut wliirli ire pnrehnw her ilMienlth: for her ill-henlth we pay the 
C-niahinfi of amith^r ({ill into lidll. UV gWr thnt for It; hi'r W(i-trlii>d- 

neu of noul und body ure bought by ptostitulion; we have pmstitutM 
made for llmt W'r- devote nfinr. women reckkw-ly to perdi- 
tion to muke a lioHiounp Ileuvcn for Ihe re*t. .... One wears 
faerielf out in vainly trying tn endnre ple^miict she in not Btrong enough 
to Mtjoy, while other women are pcriiihing for Ini^k of theft« very plvni^ 
■rah If marriage !■ this. 1b tt not eiubodinl Iu«i T The happy Chriatinn 

IkHDM arc the true dark pla'-eu of tlie earth Prostitntion 

for man, tenimint for woman — they nre two »id« of the sniiie tiling, and 
both are denlaU of Invf, tiku tu\nry and ancetidtini. The mountiiini of 
reitraint must be used lu lilt up the nhvBscd of Ivunry." 

Some of Hlnton'n views were net forth by a. writer Intiniatfly 
nequainted with him in n pamphlet entitled Thff Future of ilaniaffe: An 
Eirraitoa far a Quealion of To-day. by a Renpi-ctahle Womon (H'^K 
"When once t1ii> convietion i* (orued homo upon tlic 'good' women." tha 
writer reninrkn. "thnt their pinee of honor and privilv^ rests iipon the 
degradation nf othern an it4 basin, tlioy will never rut till t'ley have 
either uband-nied it or noujcht for it roiiio othrr pedentul. If our inflexi- 
ble ninriintce ■yulem lin> for it* ewenllal rondltion the e\I*trnre 'ide by 
tid« witli it of prostitution, then one of two thinp (oUowh: either proa- 





tituiiun iiiiHt l>c cliown lo be coni]>«tibIv with the wdlArfug^ aMIMl tUA 
pliv»lcMl, of tliu woiiK'ii wlio practioe ii, or our toarrlige ajraUm inaBt b» 
ooudcuiiivil. II It wnn clvurly put brfnn* nnyanc. hr could nut wrioiiulf 
aiwcTt ttint to be 'virtue' whteli could oiily he pnicliOPil nt the exppnit« 

nf nnothi-r's vice WhlUt the Ihws of phyHi<<« crF becoming 

to univcrMilly inrojtnl'H'd that no one drenina of nttcmpliuit lo Hnnihilatc 
X prirticlv of mutlcr. or ot (ortiv yvi wi! do iiul tll^llncli<('l,v apply thr 
■niiR- i-uiK-vptiuii to miiiiil foiiHit, Imi tliink and act uh if wv could Dimply 
do an-By with an evil, nhili- Inarinfi uncliantt^l that wlikh gii-» it Itn 
atrcogth. Thifl in the only vii'u- of the Mcial problem which can givv ua 
ho|)e. That prutlltiilion »houhl almpTy cttim: kiiviiig pvcrvthlng; «Isc as 
It 1*, would he diiwii(roTii> if it w-vre poifiihlc!. itut it h nut pOMihlc. 
The wi-okncM of all rxiiting t^lforta to put down pnmtitution is tliat thejr 
arc din-ct«d n|pi[ii»t it an an Itolalnl thliiK. wlx-riwa it i* only eiie of 
the ayniptuDiB procrcding ftoin n common di«Miiic.'* 

Rtlpii Key. who during Ti>o(>iil ycara hn* b-'ifM llii^ clilrf Hpo>tt« of 
a ifH-iiel nf ■oviiut niurality hn»'>l on thti nerds of women an tha mothers 
of tliu ruci*, has, in u loiiicu'hni liniiliir apiiit. dtriiouncrd dlikc prualilu- 
tlon and rigid mnrringiE, ilwlnriiift (In her Estaiia'on /.of* onrf Marria^} 
that "the development of wolie pcrnonal mnarloiianeai ia ms much 
hindi-rrd hy noriiilly rpgiilul''d 'morality" as bj- MiriHUy rppilutnl 'im- 
morality.' " and thnt "the two loivent anti aocially anncllunod expreasioo* 
of rwxuul dualiam. rigid maiTia|[0 and pro«lltittion, will grndually bpoomn 
iinpoisililr. l>e<>auHt' ><it1i the iviDqiieAl of the idea Of erotle unity th^ 
will no longer correspond lo human nentl*." 

Wc riiav Slim up t)io prcevnt Fitnation as regards prostitution 
by saying that on tin- one band then i* n tendency for ibi eleva- 
tion, in ucsociation with the growing humanity ami refiucmi-nt 
of civil imtion, cliarnctiTisticM which must incviUihly tend ^> mark 
more and more both tliofo women who Irecome prastitut«B and 
thoBC men wbo aiek them; on tbc other hani1. but jicThniH 
through the name djuaniic force, there \» a tendency toward(> the 
Blow elimination of prostitution by tbc siuounaful coinpeti- 
lion of bipber and pnrcr nictbotln of no^nal relationship frccl 
from pcciinittr)' con Hid era t ions. Thin refinement and hiimuni/n- 
tion, thia competition by better forms of sexual lore, arc indwd 
nn c««MitiaI part of prngresi; as civilixalion bocomca more tndr 
sound, wholesome, and sincere. 

Thin moi-nl cbnnj^ cannot, it seems probabl«>, fnil to be 
acvomposicd by the rcaliziitioQ that th« faeU of human life are 





mora imjidltaDt tliaa Uiu forma. Vot ulL dInuglt^ from lower lo 
higher mxiial fomia, from savngerv- to civiliKation, are accom- 
panied — in so far us tlicy arc vital cliiuigi's — W ii *low and paioful 
gropiii|! towanln tlie tmtli tliat it i* only in natural relations that 
sanity ami sanctity can lie fonml. for, as Nidzsche saiti, the 
"rrtuni" to Xatiire slioultl ratiicr be iiilloil tlic "ascent." Only *mj 
can wc acliievtr tliv final elimination from our heartii of that 
clinpinp tradition that tliere ia any impnrity or diclionor in act* 
of love for wliicli llic rcawiinble, am! not mi'rely tli« conventional, 
conditions havR been fulfilled. For it ia vain to attempt to 
cleanse our laws, or even our bv-laws, until wc have first cleansed 
our JicJirU. 

It would be out of place here to push further the statement 
of the moral question as it is tixlay beginning to shape itJ^elf in 
tlic *|dn.'ro of »c\. In n psychological diacniffiion wo are only con- 
eemod to set down the actual attitude of the moralist, and of 
rivilizntion. The practical outeomc of that attitude murt be 
left to moralists and sociologiata aod the community generally to 
work out. 

Our inquiry has also, it may be hoped, incidentally tended 
to show that in practically dealing with the qiKslion of proetitu- 
tiou it i* pre-eminently ncccj^sary to reitiemher the warning 
which, as regards many other social problems, has been cm- 
bodied by Herbert Spencer in )iis (amoua illustration of the 
bent iron plate. In tryinji lo innke the hciit pintc i^inooth, it is 
aaeleaa, Spencer pointed out, to hammer directly on the bucltled 
up part; if we do ho wc merely find that we have made matters 
worse; our hammering, to l» cffectivo, mnut be around, and not 
directly on, the offensive elevation we wish to reduce: only so 
pun the iron plnte he hammcrcil smooth.' Rut this elementar>' 

1 rt i> nn oft-qiiolnl pniun|t«. but mn schitpIj' be qiioted loo a(t«n: 
*^'ou 6ie tliut tliii wruutilit-irou plnln ii nut <\\)iU- lUt: It (tick* up n 
little. hpTP lownrda llio left— 'i-nokli-N,' lit we say. How shnll wp fliilli'ii 
It I Obvioualy, yiii rrply. by hittinjt ilnn-n on flio purl thnt i« prommmt. 
W*ll. bnri> <■ n ImmtinT. iind I pro tbr plnl<- n blow as rati ailvis*. 
ITarJer. ynu My. StUl nn pffwt. Another strokeT WpII. tbere l> one, 
■nd pnot.lier, nnil anolhcr. The prmninrnce remnini. you *w: tbo *vil 
1« a* gTfat »t ewr — (jreoter. indeed. But Ihnt i* nnt nil. T>«>k at the 
warp which the plat« ha^ got iwar tite opposttt^ eige. Whero It was 



SI 8 

P3TCirol,fniY OF SEX. 

iiiw Itus not bven iin(li-r»tuo(l l>y nitirnlisK TIii> plHiii, pnc^ 
tical, ooniiiioii-«vnsQ ri.-fnrimr, ns lio Imiciwl liiiuself t<» be — 
from the time of Charleina^e <mw«rds — has over imil over sgaiu 
brouglit biH heavy list tliri-tlW down on to the evil of pr»titution 
iiiiJ liat AlH'nyii inndc matlero wor«e. It is only by visely wurkiog 
oiitsi<Ic and aro\ind the evil that we can hope to Icckd it effect* 
ually. Ity aiiMing to develop and raixe the nrlationtiliipfl of meo 
to women, mid of women to women, by modifyinfr our notions of 
sexual relationships, and by intrcHlucinp n saner and truer con- 
ception of womanhood and of the icfiponRihilitiea of women as 
well as of men, by attaining, wcinlly as well as economically, a 
higher level of human living — it h only by such methodn ai* tJiwe 
that we can TvawQabty ejcjiect to see any diniimition and allevia- 
tion of the evil of prostitution. 80 long hx wc arc incapable of 
such methodtt wc niiiH be content wiUi the prostitution v6 
deserve, leamin;^ to treat it with the pity, and the reepect, which 
BO intimate * failure of our uivilization iit entitled to. 

flat lipfnrn ft la now curvML A prrtty bungle wd haT« mad* of It. 
. Inati^nd of (.■iivinit t1i« origiiml defoot we Uave iiroduced a bmomL Uu<I 
ive &«kmt tui artlMn practiced in 'plnnlnlitnn,' ao it in tuiHed, he would 
havo tuld ua that no good WBa to bv doiiv. but only mineliier. by hittlnft 
duwn on the proJoctinK part. !!■' wnuUI liavi- tAUKhl ii> hoiv to givn 
vurioual.v-dirfetiJ and (ptTJatly-ndjiiitcd blowi with a hAmmcr pli'*- 
wli«re: «■> atUiokinj; tln» fvll, nf>l by dinTl. but bj* iiidir"'i net(i>n«. The 
rrquircil pn>OTBii ia leas Btmplc thnn you tliuiight- Kvm a nheet o( inrtAt 
Ir not to be niicciviirully d<wl( with atier tlioai' miiinioii-ii<-ii>>t> nietliodi) 
in which )*ou haw no much conlldimi-i-. Whut. then, ihnll we tay nbout 
ti KirirlTT .... I* huinniilty mnvi- ri-ndlly »tial|[ht«n<^l tlian an 
iron pLaVoT" {Tke Siiidg of Bocinlogi/. p. :£iO.) 



Th» Signiflcnncp of the Vcnercul DiairaBfi — The IlUtory of RyphUU 
— Th* I'roblfiii of llK Origlii— Tlic Social OraviU' o( Sypliiti— Tin, Social 
Dnti^rs of Gonnrrhim — 'ilxf Moikrn Chanp in the Method* of Cmntint* 
ing \'ciieri'al Disiraips — t'tiii»e« of thr Deouy of the Systi'm of Pulicu 
B^gulalion — Nrei?s*itv of Facing the Fnota — Tliii Innoopot. Vietinw of 
Vontreal Diai-OBt-s — Uisiresrs Not friiuc* — Thf rtincipli- of N'otiflratloa — 
Til* Sciirnlinavimi S_t-(i'm^-<;riitiiit(nis Tri-Htineiil-^I'iminhiiH-iil fur 
Tinn»mitl iiig VoncreaT Diaciiiips — Sexual Eiliicailon in Relation to Ven- 
trwil Uisi'oiiwt— LwlureB. Elr. — DintuBsion in Novell and on th* Stnge — 
The "Diigiiatiiig" Not tlii- "Inimornl." 

It may. pcrliups. excite surprise tliat in the prect'diiiK dis- 
ciiwion of prosliliitioti st-arccly a worJ has bucn said of venereal 
dkc-aseB. In the (lycs of ninny people, llie (jitestion of prostitution 
is simply the question of syphilis. But from the peycbological 
point of view with which we are directly eonocmwl, a» rnim the 
moral point of vipw with which we eannot fail to be indirectly 
conceniod, the question of the diseases which may be, and so 
frt-qwntly arc, a»Hx.-iuted with prostitution caniLot be phiccil in 
tJie first line of significanee. The two cjiieations, however 
intimately tliey may be mingled, are fnndnmentally distinct. 
Not only would venereal diseases still persist evcii though prosti- 
tution had absi'hitelv ceased, but, on the other hand, when 
WB have brought sypliilis nnder the same control u« we have 
brought the somewhat analogous disease of leprosy, the problem 
of profititntion would still remain. 

Yet, even from the standpoint which we here occupy, it is 
scarcely possible to ignore the question of venereal disease, for the 
psychological and moral aspects of prostitution, and even the 
whole (jueiition of the sexual relationships, arc. to some extent. 
alTected by the existcneo of the serious diseases which ore *pecially 
liable to be propagated by sexual intercourse. 

Foumier. one of the leading authorities on this subject, hiw 
well said that syphilis, alcoholiem, ood tuberculosis arc the three 







modt^rn pliigiicfl. At a iiinoli curlier iiciioil (ISjl) Scliopcu* 
bauer iu I'areiua und I'aralipumena liad expressed tlie opiuion 
thut tlic two things which tnnrk mixli-m social liTe, in diiitiiietion 
from that ct flntii|uity, ami to the advantage of the latter, are 
the knightly prtuciple of hutmrand venereal disease; together, lie 
nddcd^ tlic,v liuvu poisoned life, and introducect a hostilu and ercii 
diabolical clement into th<! relntioiiii of the Hcxea, vhich has 
indirectly affected uU utlier Hocial relBtifmfihipH.' It is like ii 
merHiandi^e. mj« Hiivolhiirg, of fvpliilig, which civilixation haa 
everywhere carried, so that ouly a very few remote difltrict« of the 
globe (as in Ccutral Africa und Central Brujal) nrc t<Mlay free 
from it.* 

It is undoubtedly true tliut in tlie older civilized countriea 
the nianifc«tuti')iiE of eyphiliK. though still severe and n cause of 
physical deterioration in tlie individual and the race, are leea 
fcvoro tliun tlicy were pvfii a gcnerntion ago.^ This ia partly the 
n«iitt of fiirlicr Hiid bolter trciitnicnt, partly, it is powible, th« 
result also of the fiyphiliKation of the race, some det^e of 
immunity having now become an inlicrited posseeeion, although 
it mu»t bo n-mciubcrcd that an uttiick of syphilid docii not 
necesiuirily confer immunity from tlie actual attack of the 
disease even in the same individual, But it mu«t be added that, 
even though it lias become leas severe, syphilis, in tlie opinion of 
many, is nevertheless still spreading, even in the chief centres of 
civilizutinn ; thiH hat< been noted alike in Pariit und In I^ndon.'' 

1 Tt ti prnbnblc thnt ^Uoiimliniirr frit a moit tlmn ni«rrl,v iprevU- 
live liiliTi'Mt in Iliix miill-'r. filiH'li liut »lni«ii gi""l rwnon for Iwlk'viiig 
that Krlioponluiurr himwlf conttnetfd sy|iUi1ii in ISIS, sntl lliot lhi» wnii 
M hctoi' 111 ■■tiimliliitliiK h!" {«ii<'<'|ilion 111 tW wnrltl nii.1 in i-orillrming 
Ilia coii"tilutiuniil prwtimiiiii i Meithin'mph-^ Kl'iM. Not. 2A nnd 2(1, IflOQ). 

3 llflvi-lbiiiji, in Spniitnr niiit Kanilncr. Htalth aiirf Ditnue I'lt ICrhi- 
(I'on to .Warriifli-. vol, >, np. 188-lt(S. 

"Till* i« Uw vi'r>' di^ltmti' opinion of Iiowndi-s after an exp#rteiK*^ 
of nfly'rniir ypAVB in t\tp. (rrntnicnt of vpnrrmi diiTFKn in Lirorpool 
iBrOi'th ilfdiral Jovrnol. F(?b. 9. 1007. p. 3.14). It U furlli^r indtmtod 
by till' fuH il( It l> n rml fart) that iilnri> )H;fl (licrr hna bren « decline 
of liolli Ihc infiintilr iitnl gMiprnI morliiliiv from syphiii* in Kngl&niL 

«"nipr« Is no doubt wliut-ver tliat lypliiilB In on Ihn InercMe in 
London, iudfrin;; from hnipltnl work Rlonr/' unym I'rriift {Rrtii^h tfe^lool 
Journal, Mmrh .10, IBOTI. Syplilli« «■«» ri'ld'-ntly very prn-nlciit, how- 
mr, A ci-nlury or (wo ngo. and thvra U no grouad (or Biai-ning potltivoly 
that tt [« more preralcnt to-day. 

Dy ,-'.., .yOOD^IC 

TUB cnxQriMT of the nCXOEAl diskasrs. 

Attoiding to tlie belief wbicli » now tootling to pi-e^aili 
8ii-philia WAX brouglit Ui l-'iiropt: ot llic end of tliu fiftwiith c-eDltin- 
by the fln-t Uiacoverers of America. In Seville, llio cliii'f 
Eiira]}L-nii port for Americn, it was known aa tlie Indian disease, 
but wliiii Ciiiirle* VIU iiud iiis nnny first brought it to Italy in 
1 1:).), hlthoujih this ci>uinx-tion with ihy F'rwicli was only 
accidental, it was culled tlie Gallic dieeni-e, "a monstrous disease," 
sniil Ciitmuii*, '■nev«-r swn in [irevioiiit centuric* and altogether 
iinknoun in the world." 

Tile *ynonyiiw of oyiiliilis were at first almost inntimerable. 
It was in hi« Ivitin poem Si/philia sive Morbus OaiUcus, written 
before 1521 and publisliwl nl Verona in 1530, that FrnwiBtorus 
finally gave tlic dispnue it« now univcwnlly accepted name, invent- 
ing a romantic ni)-th to account for its origin. 

Altlioiigli tlip weight of autlinrildtii'? opinioo now seems to incline 
toward! the belief tti'tt ajphiliv was bruugtit to Europi! from America, 
on the diwocery of t!ie New World, it in only wllliio qiiiU> repent yrnri 
llint tliat brlief hns guini'i) groiinii. mid it ifarpi-ly even yet nei-ins cer- 
tflin thnl u'linl tlie Spuniiinl- bioiifilil b&vk from Auieriva wun rpnlly a 
ilioenw n)iiw>liit«1.v new to thi* Old WorlU, and nui a tnoir vliuli'iit form 
of an old diieuxe ut which the mutiifi«bitioii4 hiid becunie b<.'iii][n. Buret, 
for inalniice U-v HiipMIU AujaurrrhHi '( cnrt irs JtieiVn", IfilWl, who 
•omo yearit ngu Teiiclie<l "llie deep wnvirtioii that nyphili* dale* from the 
creation of ninn,'' mid btlirved, from a niiiiHU> itudy of rlauie niilliors, 
that arphili* rxintrd in Itotnc under the Cieiuir*, wai of opinion tliat it 
liiiH brokeu out Hi dlirvrcnt pluc^D and nt dilTerenl timen. In epidemic 
liiirol* exhlbltlnff dllTerent romliinolioiin of Ita nianlfidd vt*"'"*' "^ 
that it pu-wd uiinutii-ed at unlitiiiiv tinn"'. niid al the limei of iln more 
intense iiiniiifealnlinn wn* looked U|ioii n> a hitherto iinknnn-n diaentie. 
It wan thm rejpirJed in clawie tiiiief, he roiiNidiT-, a* coming from 
Eg}'pt, thoiicli he looked upon il* ri-al liomo iia Aula. I^'n|>uld tilUck 
liaa IlkewiiKi fjuotcii (Arehiv fiir Dri«-alaloifle unit ffgphUU, Jnnuury. 
ISnO) pa>>*H^-B from lhi> meilical epigram* of a «ixtepntli century phy- 
•ietan, Gabriel Arnta, deelariiitc that nphihH In nnt rfolly » new dlienie, 
though popularly Bupposed t« bi- "o, but nn old di«eaiip whieh ban broken 
out wltli liillierto iinkiinwn violoni-e. TliPrc i», however, no eoncluaive 
reason for betieving that nj-pliiliii wan known at nil In clanoie antiquity. 
A. \'. Xotthaft ("Die I.c^tende ton dcr Alth«tuniB-s.v[ihili»." in the 
Rlndfleiteh Frattrhiift, lti07, pp, 3Ti-B92) haa erillcally invmitignted 
the jiauwgfH ill cUmIc authori which were aupponed by Roaenbauin, llurpi, 






I'roksvli and otli«r- tn r>-t<-r in' »>'pliilii'. Il i« quit« Irur. KotUiAft 
HduiSls. tlint many i>( tlifw pnuiigp* iiiigElit pat«lbl>' rpt«r to *)'|riilIU, 
mi oar or tio would cvm Iwitcr lit nypliill* than anj- other diwHae. 
But, oil thr wbolc. tht-i,- (tirni-li ii« friKif nt nil, nnd no lyphikilogiiil. tie 
conclude*. 1ia« i-ver xtird^vtl'il in dfiiuinatratinK tKot irpltilin waa kDovn 
in anti<|uitv. Tlmt \i-Vtrl i* n Irifr'nd. Th« moHt damning arguinnit 
agBinitt (I. yotlhnft points out. U llir ruct lliMt. xlllioiigh In antiqiiil}' 
Omn wprn Krcnt |iliT«ii'inn» wliiv wen; ki-i-ii oliTvpr*, not oiii" of llipm 
fprt* any iIPwriiitioM of tli« primnr,v. Mninilaiy. t'rllaii-. and conicpniliil 
fomm of till* illnrHHOL Clilna !■ frrqnontly miiitionn] n* tli« original 
home of ■yphUli. but thii bclirf i» nl-io qiiiti^ without haais, pnd thp 
JapanfM phyolrian. Okamuia. hn« abou-n I M'/Haluchrifl flir priittitekii 
DfrmaMogif. io|. \iv!ll. p|i. SOD rt n''/.) that riiliimn ivoord* rrvral 
nothing nlatinft to ■yphilic parlirr than the i>ixl«mtli ccntnij'. At th« 
Pari* Aradcmr of >l>-dii.-iii^ in 1900 pholufcrapli't (rriin Kfypt vtvr* px- 
hlbltvd by Knui]ii>-1 nf liiininii ivmaliM which dntr from R. C. 3400, shoir- 
ing bone li-iionii «'hkb »n'm«l to Iir ctonrly lyfihllitic; Fourniw, however, 
one of llie Kr«ile"t iif uulbririlEi^. i-on'idi-rnl that tJic dUfcno>li of «yph- 
ilii could not )« maintnlni'il uTilil ntlier raiiililinni llubln to produce tome- 
what •imilar Imne letionB lind been climinuled (firiliih Uedir^l Journal, 
SnptoRibor 2!). 1000. p. 940). In Florida nnd lattaua reiiioni of Central 
AmericB, in nndoiilitrdlv prerolumlilnii liiirial plocen, disenacd boiKa 
have been found wbleh aood nntlinrillci hnvn derUred could not b« $ajr- 
thing elHe than nv-pliilitic ff-g.. Brilitli ifrdiral Journal. Xovember SO, 
16(1', p. 14S7). thoujcb it miiy bv noted that *o recently h* 1809 the mit- 
tJou* Vlrcliow otnteil that pre-Columbian nrphllin In America mtaMtJII for 
llim an open i|ue«Iion (Xrittrhnft /iir Elhnoto^ir. Heft 2 find 3, \A^9. p. 

2181 . Fmm nnotlier niile. Selcr. tlie di*tluir<l^1>"<l aulborlly on Mexican 
antiquity, uliowa (KrittrliTffi filr BIhitoloft'; 18011. Ileft 9. p. 440) that 
the anrient \fe(icnnit veie acquainted with a difu'i>"e whkli, n* Vtvy 
dencribed El, might well hnve been nyplillU It In ohvioin, however, tUat 
while the dilliciilly of demon* Ira ttn;( nyphililie di'enseit bones In Ainorleti 
l« an f(rvnt n* In|ic, the denionntTaliivn. howi-ver complete, would not 
tulllce to allow that the di«eni>e had not a1ri>ndy an exluti-nee alM In Ui» 
Old World. IV plauxihte theory uf Aynla thut lifteenth rentury ayphilia 
WH* a rinileiit reenideneetice nf an niiulent dloi'nite hna trcincnlly been 
revived in more mmlem tlinr*. Tliiii .1, KiiotI ("Tlic Origin of SyphllU," 
\r.c Vuri- Kn/ipol Journal. October SI, ICOS) >iiKif«tH tbiit though not 
new in fllteeiith century Rurope. It n-n» then Imporled Bfrerih in a form 
reii'lrred more nfigravated by comlnif from an exolie rac«. M la believed 
often to lie the ease. 

It napi in till- eiirhteenlli eenturj- that .lenn A^tmc brptn the 
rehahllltallon of the belief tlint iiypliilii la really n comparatively moil- 
em diseaae of American origin, and •Inee th»n varioin anthoritlet of 




vr«ig]it liave given tlieir «dlicii-iu-i! to tliiit vl«w. It \» lo tliv aiKTuy nud 
Icarniii); of Ur. Iwuti filorh, ol Drrlin (the flrnt volumo nf whose inipor- 
tanl wort, Der I'npning <ttr SuphilU, was piiUiHlied In 1001 t Hint we 
o«-e Uii: tuUeot sUloiiiPiit of lUn cvidenw in fui»r o( tlic Amcrlonti origin 
of lypliilU, nioch rogaidt Uiiy Diax dt- loiu. a diiliiiguisUed Spani-h 
phfuicinn, ni llie wciglilieHt \vilnci'*i (or tlie Indian origin •>! tlie (IJseh'c, 
and conclitdfS Dint it wan bionglit bi Riitn|)p by Colninliii^'s mi>n frflin 
Ontral Am*tliia, more prn-infly from llip Iilnnd of Unili. to Spain in 
1493 nnd H04. and imini^dtaU'ly aftrmaiiU waa sprpad by the nrmlra of 
Charlps VII( in an epidemic faaliion 0T«r Italy «nd the other countriM 
of Eiiiopi'. 

It niuy b» added that «ven if we have to arcvpt tlie theory that Iho 
ci^nttnl rrgionn of Amerien mn'tiliilr the plncv of origin of KiiropMin 
■yphili«, we atill hnvL- to Teongniii? that nyphtlia hu tprtad in the North 
Amerirnn rontincnt vpry miii-h mor»' nlowly and pnrtinlly tlmn It hn» 
in Europr, and even at thi' prmicnt dny there ore American Indian 
trlbra among whom It is unknown, llvldfr. on the bttnii of hi^ own 
(^perirncei nniong Indian ti!l)i>i'. n* well n>i of widit Inqulriea among 
agency pliyHician*. prepared a table nhon-ing that among wme thirty 
tribe* nnd gimipn of t[i1j''H. eighteen were almoat or eiiliri-lj- free frwm 
venereal diieaic, wliite among thirteen it win very prevulent. Almost 
without exeeption. the tribes «here syphilid is rare or unknown rrfiwe 
upsunl intereoiirse with •trnrig>>r«. while thoM amoug whom »iich dispane ' 
is prevulrtit ure morally Inx. It is the white* who are the nource of 
infection nmnng theie Irlhe* ( A. B. nolder. "Oyn^clc Noloit Aiuong the 
American Indian*," AnitHeoH Journal of Obftctrtr^, Itttti, No, 1). 

Srphilia ifi only nno, ct>rtflinl,v tlic iii'^nt important, of a group 
of three entirely ilintiHot *'voncroiiI iliiwii«i>8" which have only 
been cliMinjgiiijtlKil in recent times, ami so far m their prceine 
natiin- nnd euti«ation nre concerned, are indeed only to-dny begin- 
ning to be understood, although two of them were certainly 
known in anttrjiiity. It is but seventy years ago since Hicord, the 
great French syphilologist, following Bassereau, first tHiiglit the 
complete independence of sip'philis hoth from gonorrhica and soft 
chancre, at the name time cspowniling elwiHv the three stogcs, 
primary, sccnndary and tertiarj\ throngh which syphilitic mani- 
festations tend to pass, while the full extent of tertiary syphilitic 
symptoms is searcely yet grasped, and it is only lo-day beginning 
to he generally renli;(cil that tvrn nf the most prevalent and serious 
diacABes of the biyio and nervous system — general paralysis nnd 




tiibvn dor»flIis or luc'uiiiulur iilaxU — Iiave tlifir prodoinituut 
though not mh ami oxolui<ivc onufle in tlic invimion of tlie 
syphilitic poisou nianv years before. In IS'U a new stugu of 
niorp jirccief kiiowlcd^t uf Uie vencrc-ul di«ca«ce begou with 
Neisscr'ii cliKcnvcry •■/ thu gonococciis which i* tlic ttpccitlc cnuM> 
of gonorrlicpa. Thid was followed a few years later by the dis- 
covery by Ducrey an<J I'niin of the baeillii)' of soft chaiicrCi (Iw 
least important of the venenr'al dispiifips lipcaiise exdusively local 
in its offwta. Finally, in Jil05 — after MctchnikolT hud prepared 
the wny hy tucai'ding in currying syphilis from man to monki'y, 
and Lassar, hy inoriilatiiin, fmni iiionki'V in monkey — KritJ! 
Schnudinn niaile his Rreat discovery of the protozoal Spirochirla 
piilHiia (nineo iomctiniw t-all^ Trejinnrmn imlliilnm), which is 
now generally regarded &ii the oauw of it^iihilix, ami thus revealed 
thtr thinl hiding plnco of nne of thi' most dangcrons and insidious 
foes of humanity.' 

There i« no mi>re subtle poison than that of syphilis. It is 
not, like smulUpox or typhoid, a disease which produeos a brief 
nnd sudden fltomi, a violent Htruggle with the forces of life, in 
which it tends, even without treatment, provided the orgftnieni 
is henltliy. to succumb, leaving little or no traces of its ravages 
behind. It penetratea ever deeper nnd deeper iuto the orgnni»nit 
with the passaije of time leading to ever new manifeatationii, and 
no tissue is mTc from its attack. And so'cubtlp is this nll-per- 
va<ling poinon that tliough ita outward nitinifentotionH arc 
ainennblc to prolonged tn'utment. it is often dillicult to say that 
Die poiflon hax he<.ii (inally killi<tl oul." 

The immense importance of syphilis, and the diief reama 

1 Sc«, t.g., A. Nciwfir, lUt MpaHtncntrfts SyphilUforiehunif, IMfl. 
aad E. Hoirmaiui (who was nswviittcd with Bdiaudinn'* <Ji*coveiTt, W« 
AttMiogit dfr Kt/phili; IWC; D'Arc^ Powrr, A ^y*(fni of SyphUit. 1008, 
etc.; ¥. W. Mott. "I'nt1iuliig>- of Sypliilii in tint LiK)>l o( Modom He- 
wntcli." Brili*h Utitieat Jvuinal, F^briur/ SO. 1900; alM. JrrKi'vM of 
Xeurohgy awl l'*f/vhioltj/. vol, It, 1I>(W. 

aTtitfTi' in *<ime diffcrencp of opinion on llii" point, •nil thouf^li It 
Mi-ma pr«biil)l<> that cnrly nml lliprou^h lrr«litit^t uiuallr curm thi- din- 
*nw In n fi>w vmis nnd icndrr" fiirtlii-r mmplkntion* hlffliljr iinprnbniile, 
it la not posatbU, i-vi-n iiiiil(-r the moat fnvornble clTOumMaiicci^ to >pcak 
witli iibM>lLit« MrUidty aa to (lie future. 





v\ij it is necl?S1^ar}' to couBidvr it lioru. Vie* in tlic fuL't that its 
n'milt« nrc not coiitinttl to the individual himself, nor even to th« 
persons to whom he may impart it by the TOiitttgion due to con- 
tact in or out of bcxuuI rviutioTi^iips: it afft^t^ the olTitpriiig, and 
it afTcots the powiT to produce offspring, it attnrks men and 
women at the centre of life, as the progenitors of the eoming race, 
inflicting either sterility nr the tendency to aborted and disoased 
proiluctn of cnncpption. Tho father ftlone can perhapi* transmit 
sypliilin to his ihild, even thon^li the mother escapes infection, 
find tlie child born of syphilitic parents may come into the world 
apparently livalthv only to reveal it» ^yphilitie origin after a 
period of months or even years. Thus syphilis is probably a main 
fitOM of tile enfrcbli-ment of tho race.' 

Alike in the individnal and in his offspring syphilis shows 
ita deteriorating effects on all the structures of the body, but 
wpcciflliy on the brain niid nervoiii? »yctem. There are, as has 
been jwinted out by Motl. a leading aiilbonty in this matter,* 
five ways in which =vphilis alTeota the brain and nervou* system: 
(1) by moral shock : (2) by the effect* of the poison in produc- 
ing anamiia and hnpaired general nutrition; (3) by causing 
iiiflannimtion of ihc membranes and tissues of the brain ; (4) by 
producing arterial degeneration, leading on to brain-softening, 
paralysis, and dementia; (5) as a main laiise of the para- 
syphililic atlcitions of general puralyeis and tabes don-alie. 

It is only within recent yeant that medical m(.-n Iiiivc recog- 
nized the preponderant part played by acquired or inherited 
syphilis in pr™Ineing general paralysis, which so largely helps 
to Gil lunatic asylums, and tabe« dorsalis whicb is the most 
important disease of the spinal cord. Even ti>-day it can searcfly 

' "Tliiil ivjiliilii- lini bwii. iiuil i". oav of tin- tlik-f wau-^" ol pliyiicnl 
ikRmrriltioii In Mnslnnil i-Niinnt hi- ^oninl. and it la O turi ttiHt i* 
ocllnowlMKPiI on .iFt iiid»ti," write« Lkutriiant-CoTonpl Ijimbkin. the 
nurdlcal irfHerr in ponininnd of the I.omlon Mllitarj- llospitni (or VtMiiTWil 
Diof^DeB, "To prsjijile vrHIi tho trp«tmi-nt f<l "vpliilla nmoiig IIk- civil 
popillntion of KnRlaml oilRlit to ho (Iw chief object of lli<>«r iiitifri-^twl In 
that niost KiimiiiK i|iiVHtioii. tlie phvHlp«I Jpgcncnitlnn of our rape" 
[BrilUh Uedifal Joumnl Mign'i Ifl, 100.11. 

2F. W. Molt. •■)*\-piiill» an a Cause of Insaalty," BHiUk Utdicat 
Jomruol, October 18, 1902. 




KTCUOLIXil: Ol'' 6EX. 

be aaid that there in coniplL'tc agrt^enient as to tlie mprviiic iiD> 
portancc of the factor of s^philiB in these diseosea. There can, 
however, be little doubt that in ubout nUtety-five ))er cent, at 
least of cat)i« of general paraiyi^tK syphilis is present.^ 

Syphilis is not iiiiieeii by ituclf an ndcquate cause of general 
paralysis for anioDg many savage peoples syphilis is very common 
while goiu-ral paralysis is viiry lai-i'- It is, as KraSt-Ebing wa» 
aecustomod lo say, sj'philiKation and civiliialion working together 
which prodiifc Rcneral paruly»i«, pc-rhnjis in many caaes, there in 
reason for tliinking, on a nervous soil timt is hereditarily 
degenerated to some extent ; this is shown hy Uie abnormal 
preA'alence of cout^eiiital sti^natn of degeneration found in gen- 
eral paralytic)' by Nickc and others. "I'aialytinie iiHwitur ut(|ue 
fit," according to the dictum of Obersteiner. Once undermined by 
syphilid the detvHonitcd bruin is unable to resist the jars and 
titvains of civilized life, and the result in general [laralyKis, truly 
described as "one of the most terrible scourges of modem times," 
In 1902 tb« i'^ychologiinl Section of the British Medical Asso- 
ciation, embodying the mo«t competent Kngli»>h authority on this 
question, unanimously passed a resolution recommending that 
the attention of the I/^'gislature and other public bodies sliould bo 
called to the ncoeRsitj for immediate action in view of the fact 
that "general paralysis, a very grave and frequent form of brain 
disi>a»e, together with other varieties of insanity, is largely due 
to syphilis, and is therefore preventable," Yet not a single step 
has yet been tiiken in this direction. 

The dangetv of syphilis lie not alone in its potency and its 
persistence but also in its prevalence. It is diflieult to state tlie 
exact incidence of syphilis, but a great many piirtiut investigations 
have been made in various countries, and it would appear tttat 

I It cBn iwtdom bp provci) in more than *ightT i>cr crnt. of amrt. 
but ill tu-niljr |>iT cpTit. of old lypliilitir crim It is coiumooljr liii|M>Mibl« 
111 And ITttcn ol the discoHP or to oblnin a hUtonr of it. Croeksr fouDit 
lliat it vtus only hi Fi)clity pi-r wnt. of oa^t^s of absolutely e»rtain syphi- 
litic akin AiacBiu-n tlint he could nlitnin n blatnry of •ypliilllir Infection, 
and Jlolt found nactly the ininp iMrrct'ntagc in nb^oluttdy certain >y)>ni- 
lltle Iriinn* of the brain; Mott WII^'veD I' "■'Syphilis in Relntion ta 
ihe Ncrvunis SyirtMn." Brilith If'rfiml Jour'nol. January- *. 1008) tbat 
qrplillf* Is tli« ««««iitUt cnuw of fr?neral parnlysls and tabes. 




from live to twenty pur cent, of the jiopulation in Kiiropt-aii 
c-Duntrice is svpliilitic, while ubout fifteen per ceiit. of tlie 
syphilitic uaav* diu from cauMVS directly or inilireclly due Ut tlie 
diaease,' Iii Frajne fjwierally, Kouraier estimates lliat suvcntiH'il 
per ceut. of the whole population have had Bvphilia, and nt 
Toulouse, Audry couxidcm tlmt vighttiii per cent, of all bis 
p»tientH ere syphilitic. lu Copenhagen, when* notitit^atiot) i* 
obli^tor>', over four ptr cent, of the population are said to be 
»yphilitio. In Americji a committt'C of tJie Mcdicul Society of 
New York, appointed to investigate the question, ru-ported as the 
result of exIiauKtire inquiry that in the city of Xuw York not 
less than « quart«r of a million of ca«e« of venereal (li»caee 
occurred every year, and a leadinR Xew York dermatologirt has 
stated that among tiie better elfi*>e (untili(« he knuna intimately 
ut least ontvthird nf tlie sdua have liad Hvphilis. In Germany 
eight hundred thousand cases of venereal diseaae are by one 
authority estimated tu occur yearly, «nd in the larger universitios 
twenty-five [kt cent, of the students are infected every term, 
venereal disease being, however, specially common among studentf^. 
The yearly uuiulicr of lucn iiivalidttil in tin- Gcrnmii army by 
venereal iliseases equals a third of t)ie total number wounded in the 
Franco- Prussian war. Yet Ihe Gcrriiun army etundti fairly high 
as regards frceiloiu from venereal di^ca-'M,! wiien compared with the 
British iinny whidi is more sj'philizcd Uian any other European 
army.- The British army, liowocr, being professional «ud not 

1 Audry. La H'-rnoint Mfdieair, Jiinfi 2fi, IBOT. WHion Europaaiw 
«*rry n-philis to land* intiuliittsj by peopic of lowrr va,ev. tlie reaulta are 
oflm n-rj- rimvli hoiwi tlinii tlii". 'Iliim Ijimlikiii, nit a tvmi\1 of h spe- 
riitl misMioii to liirc-9tignti> ij-philU in Ugamk. (ound that in some 
dinlriclfl Hs niiiiiy 111 iiiii'.-ty pT rHit. <if tliv [H'upli- nulTtir Irulu «vpliili«. 
Hll<l fitly to xiitly piT I'ont. "! tin' iiifHnI moitnlity \<- duo to thU causi'. 

Thp»e p™plr urr Bugunda, a, liiglily inWIiKi-nt. pont-rlul, tnd wi-ll-orffiii- 
insl Iribt Wtore i\ivy rwrivcd. iu tlic gift of ivpliilis, \hv full Iwnpitt of 
civilitation aud Clirintmiiity. wliicli iT.Bintikln point" nut) hn» bean 
lnrt^>lv Ihr mil"- of the uprcnJ of tlio dinMsp by brcnkint; down wwial 
Fustom* and omnndpnting the woinrn. flirintiniiity is powprliil Fnou)[li 
to bwnk down lb* old iiior»Ii(v. but not powerful enoutib to build up k 
new monlitr (RrirUA Ifr-fiVni Jovrnal. Orlobrr ;l. ItlOS. p tOST). 

3Rvpn within fho limit* of llie Knttlinh nrmy it in found In India 
(n. C. Prf^ch, Kyphitii in Ihr Armji. 1007) (hut rmcrrnl dlirniM^ in ttn 
time* uior* fr¥(|i[i-nt among BrltUh troop* than among Nallw troop*. 





nutional. w lees nprsscDUtiv* of the people Minn ii> (Iil> ca»e^i 
lountrivn uliure some fonn of coaecriptian prevails. At oiir 
l»iiclon lioepital it could be nHccrUiinetl thai U'li per cent, of the 
pAticiila hnii hml ■•vphiliw ; thin pmliablv iiieait* a real proportioD 
of ntjoiit llfkfii per cfiit., b liigh tlioii;'h uot eitremely high ratio. 
Vet it ia obvioue tlist t-vcti it the ratio i« rcnlly lower than this the 
nntiuDal Io"« in life nnd hiNlIth, in ilpfMivc prncn-ntion and 
raoin! (l('tcri»ratioii. must he enonnniiti anil pincticiilh- incal- 
culable. IDven in laHh the vcneri-al biii];;et is cooiparable in 
aiiKiuiit to the gonvral hti(l|;irt of a j:rcut nation. Stritch 
t-htiinalcH that the coat to the BritiMi nation of vciicrcnl iliteaveti 
iu the army, nary and Government i)e|iartinentfi alone, ainounta 
annually to 0,(H)0,Ono, and whni allowance i» maile for super- 
anniiatioiifi and aick-h-ave indirectly ottatiomil tliroiigh thoM 
discaees, though not appearing in the returna as aueh, the more 
(iccurnte inlininte of the ciwt to the nation ia stated to be £7,000- 
000, The adoption of simple liygienic nieairnre* for the preven- 
tion and the »i»ocdy cure of venereal diseases will be not only 
indirectly but even directly a tmiircu of iinmcniw wealth 10 the 

Syphilis is the most ohtiously and conspicuoiiBly appalling 
of the venereal diKi.ii!*i.'if- Yd it i* 1<^ friujucnt and in some 
reepects lets dangeniusly ineidioui) than tlie other chief venereal 
disease, gonorrhcca.' At one time the eerious nature of 
goiiorrhii-a, ciipecially in n'onuMi, wiu> little renlized. Men 
acceptwl it with a light heart as a trivial accident; women 
ignored it. Tlii« failure to rcftlise the gravity of gooorrhoMi, 

OiiUido of national nna]«* It Is (ound, by admisitlon tQ hotplt*! and 
dmth THt«, tluit tli« United States rtandi fur nwsjr nt tlie b«ud for Irv- 
qu*ac]> of vvnereiil dl»«aM, bring followed hy Ureat Britain, thm Franco 
and AuMri>'Hiingnry. Run* la. nnd Clvrmony. 

I TliiT' l» no ilii>|<iit« ''iiiiccriihift ""^ iinliquity of gonorrliiMt in tli< 
Old World a% theiv U ri>|[iii'dine \vpliiliH, Tli<- dlu^'o iran cpTlalnly 
knonn nl ii >'ery rpiiiolr |)i-rirHl. KiTn ICwirhnililmi. tlii^ fninoui King of 
Awrla, rpfeTTwl to In the- OM T^Htninrnt. wak Ir^nlwl by tlie iirlc»fii (or 
n dlwirdcr wliicli. in di'-<CTi1ii:d in tlii> pimcifomi dopiimpntit of tlie time, 
could only linvr Vi<*n Konnrrlimi. Tlip diwH'-p wn* »l«o w»ll known to 
thn nnrlcnl RsTplEnnit. ami evidently mmmon. for tli«y recorded inanj' 
.pr*MTipfifin» for il» lipnlmenl (Oi;t»lf, "flonorrhop IMft vor PlirlMi 
flchnrt." Moaotihrtle fiir prakliaiihe DermatoUigie, ISW. p. 2601. 

Dy /■•T.cyCjODglC 

oo.Niji'iwr o^TO^^wwiiAP^DIBiiaM. 829 

eveUfiometimee on tiie part of the medical prnfetnion — so that it 
hofi been popularly lool£(>d upon, in Oriindin'i< woixls, ah of little 
tiiont lii^ilSiaiK'i- tlian a cAd in th« noi«> — ha« loil to a re«rtion 
on Uie part of some towards an opposite extreme, anil the ri»k* 
and dangers of gonorrlKpA hiivc bcL-n even undiil}' inngnilled. 
Thi» \» notnbly the vim- a* rcjtariln »tpvility. Tlic Innnnimalory 
reaultfi nf gonorrliraa are induliitalily a |)olent cnnae of iiterility ta 
botli Bcxee; some aiitlioriticH have HtnU'>l that not only eighty per 
cent, of the dcntlit fmtn inrtntmnnldry diKcam.-n of tht- pt-lvic 
organs and tlie majority of thn ruHea nf chronic invalidiom in 
nonicn, but ninety jicr nent. of involuntary "terile marrinjics, arc 
due to gOHorrhtt>a. Xeiwcr, n great nutliority. u«.Tibc» to thia 
disease without donht fifty per rent, of sudi marriages. Even 
this estimate if in the expericnfc of some observors exceseire. It 
18 fully provf-d that tht- gn-iit majority of nii-n who have had 
gonorrhoea, oven if tlu^y marry within two years of being infected, 
fail to convey the diseaxe to their wives, and even of the women 
icfi^cteil by their huKiianiln itiorc Ihan half have cbihlren. This 
ifl, for instance, the result of Krh's cvperifnoe. and Kisch speaks 
still more strongly in the Kame seur-e. Uumiii, again, although 
regarding gonorrhrcn an nni' of the two chief lainLi's of Mcrility 
in women, finds that it is not the most frequent i*aii»e, bi'ing only 
responsible for about oni'-lbinl of the eaw^e: the other two- 
tbirda are due to developmental faults in the genital organs. 
Dunning in Americ-oi hoo reached m<iiltit which are fairly con- 
cordant with llumm's. 

With regard to anotlivr of the terrible rwult« nf gonorrhom. 
the port it j>hiy« in producing life-long blindneSN from infection 
of the eyes at birth, there has long Iweii no sort of doubt. Tho 
Committee of the Ophllialinological Society in IKSI, reported 
that thirty to forty-one per cent, of the inmates of four asyhims 
for the blind in England owt^ their biindncM to thin coUHe.' In 
German avyhims Keinhnrd fomid that thirty per cent, lost Uieir 
Bight from the same cause. The total number of persons blind 
from gonorrh<ral infection from their mothern at birth ts 

I Cf. <tIi>m»Tiiii<liim hy Syiln»r 8t*-pUp|i«>n. Report of nplitluilniU 
NMnAlomm CommittK. Billiiili Vrdicai Journal. M»y 3. lOTO. 

lUy ,"■-.> i-j^ 



rtiVcuuUHii oy »tsX. 

enoniious. The Bntis]i Ito^al Commiasion on the Conclition of 
the lllind cstuaatcd there were about seven ttiuueand pcrsoOB in 
the United Kingdum alone (or tv-mtv-in-o per cent, of tlic blind 
penona in tlie country) who became blind n» the result of this 
disesae, and Moukerji sUted in his address on Uphthalmalogv at 
the Indian Mcdienl Oongrvn of 1894 that in Bengal alone therv 
were aii hundred thousand totally blind begKarn, forty per cent, of 
whom lost tlii'Li' eight at birth through matcrual gonorrhtea; 
and this refera to Ute beggar claaa alone. 

Altliough gonorrhcM is liable to produce many and various 
ealsinitiea,' Uicrc cau hv no doubt that tlie majority of gonor- 
rhical pcrwna escape eitl>er aiifTering or inflieting any very 
serious injury. The special reason why gouorrhcca ha*^ bet-ome 
fo peculiarly «'riou* a »courge is it« cxtronii; prfvalcme. It 
is difficult to eetiniatc the proportion nf men and women in 
Uie general po^itilation who have had gotiorrhn-ii, and thr<«limati-s 
Tary within wide limits. They are often set too high, Erb, of 
Heidelberg, anxious to disprove exaggerated estimates of Die 
prevalenei> of gonorrht>;a, went over the records of two thousand 
two hundred patients in his private practice (excluilinjc all 
hospital patients) and found the proportion of those who had 
suffered from gonorrhu-a was AH-Ti per cenl. 

Among the wi>rking classes the disease is mucli less prevalent 
than among higher-class people. In a Berlin Industrial Siek 
Club, 112 per 10,000 men and G9 per 10,000 women had gonor- 
rhcea iu a year ; taking a series of years t!ie Club showed a steady 
increase in tlio number of men, and dMreuse in the number of 
women, witl) vencroal infection: this seems to indicate that the 
laboring classes are beginning to have intercourse more with 
prostitutes and Ivwt with rcepcctable girls.^ In Amerieu Wood 
Itu>a;lee has ^'iveij (as had Xoggeratb previously, for New York), 
the prevalence of gonorrhica among inliilt males as from 75 to 80 
per cent,; Teiiney places it much lower, 20 per cent, for malea 

I The extent of thpse cvila ti *?t forth, e.ff.. In a mmpTohrnnlve 
tMAj by T«flor. Amcricait Journal Ohnltlrica. JuuuMry. 1008. 

!SM»»pt brinjpi lojtpllirr fiRurri Waring on tlie prpvnknw of 
KOnorrhtra In (li>rinany. Hi-nntur nn<] Kaniioer. llttiUh and DUme in 
lt*Utti«n 10 Uarriagt, vol. il, pp. iSd-fOS. 




and S per cxiit. fur fi'iiiulM. In Knglund, u wriU-r io the Lancet, 
some 3'cnrs ugu,' fouiul nit Uic rciiiilt of cxpiTicnci: nnd iiiquirics 
that ?5 piT ceut. uduil males liave bad gODorrhcBs onci-, -10 ptT 
cent, twice, 15 per cent, iUnv or mora timet. According to Dul- 
l)crg alioiit twenty per cfnt. of ni-w <-tiae« <H(ur in niurricd men of 
good social class, the disease being eomjiaratively rare among 
married men of tlie working lIuhs in England. 

QoDorriioca in ltd prevalence ii< (hiia only tHscond to measles 
and in the gravity of its refliiltn sfareely second to tuberexdosis. 
"And ret." as Orandin remarks in comparing gonorrlin?a to tuber* 
euloi^iR, "wilne»s the aelivily of the crusude against the latter and 
tlic criminal n]inlliy displayed when tiie foniier it, conecnK^."^ 
The public must leurn to miderstand, another writer remarks, 
tliut "gonuiTliicQ is a pi.T>t that cimrcrnH Its highest interests and 
mo6t tiaered relations as much aa ilo :tmnllpox, cholera, diphtheria, 
or tubercuIoBic"^ 

It cannot fairly bv f»id thut no atteinpttt have been made to 
beat back the flood of venereal disease. On the ronlniry, oucb 
attempts have been made from the first. But they have never 
been effcctiial;* they have never been modified to changed condi- 

1 Lniierf, Scptfiribcr 23. IM2. A* regavd* women. Dr. Frnnce* 

Ivens t/frifinh ilfdiral Jiiurnal. .Iiitii' 111. IDODl liui founJ at Liverpool 
tlial 14 per ocnl. of gymrcolngknl coses rcvpAlcd the pmiRncc of jpinor- 
rhmi. Thty wrrc nio»lly pour ti'spectuljlc mnrriud women. TfiU i* 
nrotmbly n liigli prnpni'tioii, an Livcriiool in a bu<i,v maport, but It t* 
loa« than SHnget's prtimnte of 18 per cent. 

3K. il. Grandiu, Mtdical Uncord. May ICO. 190(1. 

1 K, VV, ( 'II 41 1 ill;;, *'S«ci«tii(;icnl .Aapccte of rJonorrho*," Tratuaeliont 
Auirrifnii (lynrcologirnl S«ei>(j/, \i>l. xxii, 1887, 

* It is only in very ■iniill (vimmiinitlpH nili'il 1>y nn Riitwrnllc |>uwor 
with rIwoIhIi* autliority 1o conliol conililitin* nnd la eiiiiiunc pemoni of 
Intli MTXcs liint rrglpini'ntaliuu Ihi'Viiiim in iiny ■li'p'i>c oir<>i-tiinl. Thin \% 
well Aliown by l)r, VV. K. TiiiruiKxI. \ilio diMiilic* Ihn nytlrni Iip ovgnnizeil 
In Ihp minpn of the Minncwln Inm Tonipiuiy [Journal Amrripau Mni- 
iral Ataociation. lltnTmlii^r H. lOOIH. TIip women In tlie brotlirU on 
til* pomniiny"* ei.tKt»i wew of tlie Imvwf clnw. «nd diswisL- wah **ry 
prrralmt. Careful rxnminiition of tlie wonim wmb <i>tHbUi>li<>d. and eon- 
trot of the men, who. iinmril!«l''ly on l>reiinim(r diseased, were Iwuiid to 
declare by what woman tUry had beni infei'ti"'!. Tlie woman Wft» 
reitponiible for ttie medieiil bill of the mnn bIip inferted, nnd even for Iiis 
hoard. If Inrnpaeltjitei). an^ the women were rompelli^l to niAintaln a 
fiind for llieir own bonpitiil evppnoe* when Teqnired. In thi< way ven- 
ereal dU«wc, though not entirely upnioled, was very greotly illnilnlaheil. 


tion; st Uio prMent day tliey are liopdicBly uniciontlfic Utd 
entirely oppowd alike to the social and tlie individual demandii 
»f modem peoptev. At (he rurt'Hi^ i-onrcrciKcs on this quev^tioi) 
which liavA been held during ivccnt years tJie only geiionilly 
aoL-cptcd conclusion u-liich Iish emcr^ied is that ull the ctiflting 
syst«nia of interference or non-interference with prostitution »re 

1'lic c'haracti^r of prootitutiAn han chaiij^t^d and th« lu^tlioilti 
of dealing with it must change. UrotheU, and the systems of 
oBicittl rc^hition which grew up with «pocial reference to 
hmthclx, are aliko out of date ; tliey have about than a mcdiieval 
atmoephere, an anti(|uated epirtt. which now render them 
unattractive And inspected. The con*piciion»ly distinctive 
bmlhcl i« fulling into disrepute; the livi-ricd protrtitutc ahsoliil^ily 
under municipal control can scarcely be eaid to exiet. Prostitn- 
tiou tcnd« to become more difTti«i'd, more intimately mingled with 
guelnl lifi- generally, lea-i easily dietinguiehed as a defiiiitidy 
separable part of life. We efln nowadays only inftaence it by 
methods of permeation which bear upon the whole of our social 

The olijwUon to Uip ie);iilH<ion tit proHtilulion ii still of ilow 
proU'Mi, but it U ^titilllj' drvclopinx cverpvlictr. Hnil mny br traced 
f(|tiallT In iK'irntiflc opxiiton Biiil in popiJar filing. In Fmnm Uin 
niilnlcipnllllp* of iu>mi^ of llip ]Hii;c''*t cltltw liiivc cltlipr (iii|>prnuu)d tlie 
■irst^Ui of rrKtiIntioD iiititi-1y or tiliown Dirir diiupptui'iil u( it. while an 
inquirj' nninutt w\i"r«I ImnJrivl nwliol mvn utiowwl l!i«t Im" thnti one- 
Ihird were in fuvor of maintaining regulBtion (/fir \r«« Gcnrrati'm, 
Jant, I90S. p, 244). In (jennanjr, wfa«r» then la In «om« niitpccCa man 

I A rlsar nnd pompr^lii-n^ire rtntpinpnt *f tlie prwMil pMllion of 
th? quMtlon Is gilicn liy In>in Mlovh. Dn* Hetnultebm Vn»-Ttr ZHt. Oin. 
XIllXV. }low irn-ffnrlunl thi- •ynti-iii of police TPKulntion i*. even in 
tiermanj'. when* politi- liilrrffipnw in tolpriil*^ to » iB»rk<>il a d'g'**, 
may lie illu«trnlrd by thr eai-v nt Ma nil helm. Here tlir rrKalation at 
pnMtitiition 1h vi-ry wvi-rr and thntmiith. yrt n rnrrful Inquiry in lOOS 
among the doctor* of Itlannlioim (ninety-two of whom sent in d'talird 
rrturrt*) thowml that of t\\ hiinilvi-d poiwb of v*nnr«il ili«"'n»p in men, 
nearlv half had heeii oontrncli-d fn>m prostilntpt. Aliont half the Xf~ 
malnlng <•»»*« (nMirly n (|ijnrb>r of the n-holel were duo lo wnltrnaca 
nnd Itnrtniiidn: tliMI foHonwl nen-nnt-irirlN (l-iim and I>»b. In Piwual- 
p/ldngr-gii;, th# PKMneedingt af th« Tliird Oermaa Congreu (or OomlMlJiig 
Vcnereul Di«i«M*, tM7, p. 280). 




o( intvrferimti: with Our lilwrly o( llii' ilidiviiluul tlian 
In-Hdboai JBiSll^i»'i *'■' Amerioa. vmioiiit t'lnlmintn kysli'ini. [or orgiui- 
Uog pnMtiliilloti anil dealing with t«nci'cul dlm-unn fuiilinuc lo iM 
maintained, but tliey caimol be completely carrM out, wiid it ia gun- 
fnilly Hdiiiittvd Uiat in onj' <'««? lliey roiild not iiciximiili*]! tli<- olij^Ptu 
•ought. Thii* in Snxony no brothpU ure olIiciHlly lolvratn]. lliough na 
■L niutttT of fad llicy nnverl liel*"!* i-siiC. Il-'iii, n* in iniiiiy otlwr paiul 
ol (iernmny. most iiiliiiite nnd i-xteTiMivp rrKidntionn are (runiiil lur tlie 
UHO of pinalitillrii. Tliun nl hi-ip/.tn lliry niil>-l not tit un the bcnehei 
in publii.' pruiiicnudm. nur |^ lu pirluie gulltTica. or llinitri^T, or ran' 
cprta, or rrxtniiiarits, nor IcKik out «( lliiiii wiiidonH, nor Nturc about 
them in llic itred. nor niiiile, nor wink, rtc, etc. In foci, r (Iprmiui 
pi'uxtituli- wliu poHMKv^-i the lieruit.- »i>lf •control to nirry out mnaoiMi- 
tiounty hII till- •(■lf-d''iijinK oriliiiniiM'« iilUpiiilly de«mil for her |;iiMnno« 
irould wfTa to \f rntltird !» n (lovrrnmi'nt ]i(-ii<i«n for lifr. 

Tu'D method* of deiiling with iiruetittition preiiiil in (iennnny. In 
iouio cities pnblif liiiii->'^» nt prij>lituti<iii me t'ltrrnU'il (thrxieh not 
llcrniicd) ; in olher eilies prostitxitiou u "free," Ihough "neiTPt-'' Hum- 
bnr^ i« tliu tni>»t iiii|>orlflnl city where liimnm of priMtltiiUon ar« 
lokinteil Hiid Hrgregaleil. Ilut, it ii utolpd, "evnryiilitri!, by far ths 
Inrgi-r proportion of the pmditntM belong to Hie bocnlled 'aecrel* class." 
Ill Ilniiihurt,'. n1oiip,;>rf «tM[ifr<t'd men, ulien Hvvuneil of infecting woiaen, 
olHelnlty einniiiinl: men of every wiclnl eliia* ninit obey n «iiininons o( 
thin kind, which in iouod (nrrctly, and if dinruaed. they are bound to go 
under Irciitnient. if necesaury under compulwiry treatment in the eity 
hoopllul, until tin 1iiii)p-r dnii|^rniiH tii thi> com ni unity. 

In (Jcmiany it i» only "nlien a woman \m* bei-n repeutedly obacrrvd 
to act *ii« pie ion Illy in the ittrm!t« tl>at she i» (pilelly warneil; St t)ie 
warning la diiiri?Kaided kUp in invited to fpve. her name and nddreii to 
the police, and inlertiewi'd. It is not until theie methods fail that hIil' 
is nlTleinlly innerilieil n* n pinatitnli'. The innerihed women. In ■ome 
citieii at nil eTMits. coHlributr lo a nick Iwnefil fund which pny« tlicir 
expenae* when in hoiipiliil, Tlie beiilntion of the i>oHep |j> inneribe ■ 
woman on the ofTidal li«l i» Icftitimiile and iiiei'itahle. (or no other roiiriM 
would 1h- tuleralyil i yet the imiiorilj of ptonlitntei hepn their eareer* 
very yoiinB. and on thej- tend to become iiitocteil very parly after tlirir 
mreeTH begin, It \» ohviouit that thii dclny cuntributea to render tha 
■yilem of regiiljiilon InefTnellve. In Berlin, where thers are no odloinlly 
reoognizcd brothcU, there are Mima *ix tliouiianil tnneribcd pioatitutoi, 
btit it ii estimated that there are over lixty thousand pmatitutea who 
are not inseribed. (The foreifoing facia are tflken from a wriea of 
papcra dvaerihing personal invenllipition" In Oermony made by Dr. F. 
BitrholT, of New York. "I'olicp Mcthodi for the Kanitnry Control o( 
Pioalitntion." Xfin York .WerfintI Joumat, Augn«t, lOOT.) The eotima- 





tion of tli» amount o( clAiidastln* procUtullon can InJom] ncvtT be 
more than gueicnork: «ine(Ty tlie name fipirv of iilxfj- thoiisunil it oon^ 
mcioly brought tontniil h* tlip prolmhk niiinbc'T of prottltiili^H not oniy 
in Berlin, but nl«o in Lonilon and in >J*w York. It in llb»olutely ioipiM- 
iilbl« to Bay whether it i« under or ov«t tlin n-al niimbOT, for s«cri>t 
proHlUution is quit; Intangible, Kven If tli« facts werv mirarutoiuTj 
rovpnli-d tlio^rc would atill ri-nmin llic rtilBdllty ol dfvldln^ wb»t i* iirnl 
whnt U not |>ra<ititnltoii. 'I'lii' nvimnl anil piibtir prO'titiile i' linked 
by various grndntion* <in tlic one tide to tbn (pji|>i-plBbli! inrl tiring at 
lioiii« wtio Bi.'ek« sdiMc \iu\r relief frum Ihe Oi|)prcMiun of licr n^ipKlnbil- 
Ity, and nn Ihe otbvr hanil lo tlip ninrrivil wnmnit ivha hna married for 
tlin mikii of ii iioine. In nny fanp. hoM-pvrr, it in x'cry wrtain that public 
proitilutra living entirely on thil eainintiii of pmstilutloii form but • 
(mall proportion of Ih** vu<l army of womrn who may ho said, in a nide 
Bpn»<f of the worit. to lie prri«titnt>>*. I'.r,, who nw thflr attractirencaa lo' 
obtnin from men not love slootr. but inon*y or gwiili. 

"The struggle against sypliilif ia only potwilile if we agree to 
rcgnrri its victimi as uiifortiinitte und not as goil^. .... 
We must gii^e up tlK* prfjuilit-e which ha* Ifl to tlic creation of 
the term 'shameful disenses,' ant) which oomniands silence con- 
cemiiig this scour;^ of the family and of humaoi^." In these 
v,TiT(]» of Ditdftiis:, tlit^ (lisitinguJHhetl mcci'ssor of Parfeur ni the 
I'astenr Instiinte. in his noble and admirable work f/lfftyifn« 
Sodale. we have indicated to na, I am convin<«d, the only road 
by which we can approach the rntlrtnal and «uco«Mful treatment 
of the great sot^ial problem of venereal disease. 

The raprpme importanre of this kry lo Ihc^ loliitian of a proUein 
which has ofl^n sevmeil Inanliible in tA>ilny b<-ji1nning to broom* recoff- 
niwd in nil (|ii«rter«, and in every oountry. Tliii« a dlxlln^^uiiihed 
German aulliority, I'rofsswir Finger iGetchtecht und nnfllfiuxft, Bd. 
I, Heft S) (IpHnrM that venereal di«i-n«e muiit not be regiiriJeJ fts the 
well-merited piininhniPnl for a debauched life, but as an unhnppy 
nerident. It neemH to Ih' in Friincp, however, that thia tnith liaa Wn 
prochiimed witli mo»t eourn(te niid hiirnanlty. and not alone by the 
followers of ncicncc and medi(?ine, but by many who might well be 
pxeiiipd from interfering with so diihcult and un^at«tul a tnilc. Thui 
th« brotheni, Tanl and Victor Hlirgueritte. who ooeupy a brilliant and 
honorable plrtce in oontMnporary Freneh letlrrn, hav* diatinguithod 
themielvr* by adi-o^iitinit a more humane altiliidp towards prostitnt4«, 
and a more modern method of dealing with the question o( venereal 



(liwiiv. "Thp tniu inetliod of (irFvenliou in (lint wliidi niitkox il vIeHr 
t<> nil tlwt (VpliiliH Ih iioI h myMrrloiin and t^iiilili- tiling, tin- jH-iulty 
of tli« >in of tho Huh. * wrl of sluiiiwful n-il bruiidnl liy Catholic miilp- 
(IJi-tion, but un ordinary di-ipiise whieh niay be lii-ntcd niid curwL" It 
ninj- be rtiiiHrkciI thnt the nvrririoii to m-knowlmlgo wnc^tval dtWKM in 
at lcn»t n.i inarkci] in Krutict iii in iiny otli^r i.'Oiiiilry: "iiiulndii-* 
hontPUBOa" in a coriwcratwl Fr*iii'li t*rm, just as "loathsome dispa".'" 
U In Rnxlinh: "in the hos|iiUl.'' sny* I^mlrct, "it rrquire* raiii-h trou- 
ble to ohiujn an ai^owal of pmorrhiwi, and «w umy p*tnfm ourselvi* 
happy if the patient ■cknowlcdg'-!! the fact of bai-ing had lyphili*." 

No oviU can Ik* coiiibuti'd until tiiey lire reongniited, simply 
mill frankly, and honestly dixcussed. It is a stgDiticant and even 
»iymlK)ijc fad that the batUria of disease rarely flouri»li when 
ihey are o]»n to tlie fnv ciirix-ntM i»( pure air. Obscurity, dia- 
guiBc, concealment funiisli tlie best ronditions for their vigor and 
dilTuviou. and tlie^t- favoring couditiaus we have for centuries 
past npoonled to voncrcal diseases. It was not always ao, as 
indeed the eurvival of the word 'venereal' itself in tliis connec- 
tion, with it« n:fcrencc to a'^oddees, alone suilicw to sliow. Kven 
the name "sjpliilis" itself, taken from a romantic poem in which 
Fracaslorus Mought a mythologicat origin for the disease, bears 
witneM to tho same fact. The mmantic attitude is indeed ns 
much out of date as that ')f liypoiTitical and ahamefac^i'd obscuran- 
tism. Vie need to face theve dieeaitce in the same simple, direct, 
and couragcons way which him nlrejidy been adopti.'d succesefully 
in the case of sinallpox, a disease which, of old, men thought 
analogous to ryphili^ and which was indeed once almost as terriblo 
in ita ravages. 

At this point. Iiowever. we encounter those who say that it is 
unnecessary to show any sort of recognition of venereal diseases, 
and immoral to do anything (hat might #ecm to involve indulg- 
ence to tliose who suffer from such diseas3; they have got what 
they dewn'e and may well be left to perish. Those who take 
this attitude pluco themselves so far outside the pale of civillM- 
tion — to say nothing of morality or religion — that they might 
well be disregarded. The progreea of the race, the development of 
humanity, in fact and in feeling, has consisted in the elimination 
of an attitude which it i« an in«u!t to primitive peoples io term 

U ■}- 7'-Ti Ivy 




Barage. Vet it U an nttitiKli' wliicli i^Iiuiild not Ik ignored for it 
still catTieH weight with many who tiiv tno vieak to withstand 
tliosi; who juggle with line moral pliraws. 1 have even seen in a 
rocdiml ijuurttr the titatcincnt that veui-rL-jil di«ce«e cannot be 
put on the iuime level with other inf(.>etioiii# diHonscs hcctiu^c it ia 
"tJic result of volimturj- action." IJut all the difleaees, indeed all 
the accidents and mi^forttinca of tufferiDg human bein^, are 
etiually the )nvo1unt»ry re»tdtii of voluntary Hftions. The man 
who is nm over in crossing tlio slrect, the family poisoned by 
UDwholoeoino footi, the motlier who catches the disease of th« 
child she ii> nursing, all the<^e siifTor af the involuntary n^ult of 
the voluntan- art of gnitifying some fundamental human 
inatim-t — the inelinct of activity, the instinct of nutrition, the 
instinct of afTection. The infltinct of tcx \s »» funilamcnta) as 
any of these, and the involiintari- evils which may follow the 
voluntary act of gratifying it stnnd on exactly the came level. 
This is the esitential fact: a human being in following the 
human iustincti^ implnnbcd within him has stumbled and fallen. 
sy periion who sec». not this eMcntlat fact hut merely some 
[ibsidiary aiipcct of it, revcalii n mind that is twisted and 
perverted; he has no claim to arrest our attention. 

But even if we were 1o adopt the ><tand|ioint of the would-be 
moralist, and to agree tlmt everyone must be left to suffer his 
dcsertK. it in far indeed from heio;; the fact that all those who 
contract venereal diseaM-ji arc in any i^eniw receiving their deserts. 
In B large number of cases the disease has been inflicted on them 
in the most absolutely invohmfiiry manner. This in, of eourte,, 
true in the case of the vast number nf infants who are infected 
at conception or at birth. But it is alMi true in a Hearceir leasi 
abmlutc manner of a large progiortion of per^ions infected ini 
later life. 

Syfihilif ingnnlinm. or A'pbilic of the innocvint, as it is oooi-^ 
monly called, may be said to fall into tive groups: (1) the T«it 
army of congenitally sypliilitic infants who inherit the diftense 
from father or mother; (i) the eowntantly oeeurring tases ot_, 
ffyphilifl contracted, in the conrse of their professional dutiw, b« 
doctors, midwives and wct-nursw; (3) infection aa a result • 






affection, as in eimple kifising; (4) occidental iiirt.>ctiuii from 
cuBiial contacts ami from using in cominoii th^ ohject-t ami 
vtnifiltt of daily life, such as iiipit, towcU, ruxors, knivce (as in 
ritual circumcision), etc; (5) tbe infection of w'lYf* by tlidr 

Hereditary congenital sypliilis liclongM to tlie ordiniirj- path- 
olo^ of the dieeatie and is a chief element in ita social danger 
Gince it is responsible for an cnormntis infantile mortality.^ The 
rinks of extragenital infwtiim in the profcx-iionul activity of 
doctors, tnidwives and wet-nurses is abo universally recognized. 
In tlie ctae of wet-niiree« infected by their eniployeni' syphilitic 
infants at their bi*, the jimalty inflicted on the innocent in 
peculiarly harsh and unnecessary. The influence of infected !ow- 
tlass midwivc!< is notably daugeruu*, for tlicy may iuliict wide- 
sprond injury in ignorance; thus the case has beim recorded of a 
midwife, whose linger becume infected in the course of lier 
dntJC^ and directly "r indirectly cniitiitninated one hundred per- 
80IIB. Kissing ie an extremely conmioD murce of Mphilitic 
infection, and of all ostrauenital regione the mouth is by far tlie 
mo»t frequent seat of primary »yphililic sores. Tn ^nnic eace«, it 
IB true, especially in prostitutes, this ie the result of abnormal 
sexual contacts. But in the majority of euecs it is tli« rcauU of 
ordinary iind *lig!it kisses na bi'tween younjr children, between 
parents and children, between lovers and friends and ucijuaint- 

I A tlxtli li-M numerous cIum might be added of t1i« young gith, 
otton no more than cliildrcn. wlio liuve beni pruvticntlir rnpcd by 
nwn wlio believe thai iiilcrwiinie wlt!i n virgin is a oiir* (ijr ol»tiiiBt« 
TMierral dl»«iiH!. In Amcricn tliU beiivt is (rpqiipntly held bj- Itolinnn. 
ChinMf. [ififropB, etc, W. Trnvi- Oibb, Etnioiiiiiifr PliyBii-iiin of ths 
New York ftoclptv for the Prpvcniioii of rniellj- to Childf'n. hn» es- 
•mined over COO raped children (only a nmnll proportion, h« stutittt. of 
the cwuH aetuntly Deciirriii|;t, aud limlfi that tbirti.«u pft cml. hove 
Tenerwil diHesnea. A (alrl.v Inrjte proportion of these cnsM. nmonft girlf 
from twelve to •ixtem, »re, hi- "tales, wlllinR vletim«. Dr. Flora 1^1- 
luelc, alito, of the John> Hopkim Hovpital DiHp«nMTT, titimateii that 
in Baltimore tlono from 800 to 1.(100 elilldri-n Ijelween the «(W« of one 
ami fifteen "re vm«e«llr infected every veiir. The Inritfl number, nhe 
tail, )« al Urn 8gB of dx. and the chief chumi Bppr«rii to b«. not lii«t, 
kit «uper»lltfoB. 

f inherited •.rphlHs, tee, <.jr., Clemrat Lucaa, 


IJ,, Cji..'l>.l'^lL 


psrcHOLOoT OP (net. 


aocee. Fairl}' l.vpica1 cxomplcif, wliicli Imvc ki-en rqmrted, arc 
tboee of A cliil<), WumiI h^ a proetitiitc, who hcLume infecttxl and 
rabsequently mfecte{l its mother aod grandinotlier ; of a youDg 
French bride contaminuted on