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• ^^ 












-J ; . 













J. G. Barnard, Friater, Skinner Street^ 




FRAGMENT, by way of Preamble to the Arcadia 5 

Arcadia, Book I. — ^.. «•« • •• 85 

Wishes of a Recluse , — ... 201 

Wishes for the King .^ ....•.•^. ...... 252 

Wishes for the Clergy .-^ ^59 

Wishes for the Nobility -^ .. . 266 

Wishes for the People !.. 280 

Wishes for the Nation ..-.....- 28Q 

Withes for a National Education .. . 34S 

Wishes for the Nations , ,.. . 360 

Sequel to the Wishes of a Recluse ...*...... ..... 383 

Of the Nobility and the National Guards...—... 440 

Of the Clergy and the Municipalities ...... .- 452 

The Coffee-House ofSui:at 483 

The Indian Cottage. ,,....»........—......* 495 


t. •- 


Vol. IV. B 

t 5-1 


As there are Notes of considerable length to the 
two following Fragments, I have thought it ad« 
visable to transfer them to the end of their respec^ 
tive articles. The use of Notes, so common in 
modem Book, arises, on the one hand, from the 
unskilfulness of Authors, who feel themselves at & 
loss how to introduce into their Works observa- 
tions which they conceive to be interesting; and 
on the other, from the excessive delicacy of Rea- 
ders, who do not like to have their progress inter- 
rupted by digressions. 

The Ancients, who wrote much better than we 
do, never subjoined Notes to their text ; but they 
stepped aside from it, to the right and to the left, 
according as occasion required. In this manner 
wrote the most celebrated Philosophers and His* 
torians of Antiquity, such as Herodotus^ Plato^ 

XenophoUy Tacitus, the good Plutarch Their du 

gressions, if I may be permitted to judge, diffuse 
a very pleasing variety over their Works. They 
shew you a great >deal of the country in a little 
time; and conduct you by the lakes, over the 
mountains, through the forests ; but never fail to 
lead you to the mark, and that is no easy matter. 
This mode of travelling however doe^ not suit the 
Authors, nor the Readers, of our times, who are 
disposed tp find their way only through the plains. 
To save others, and especially myself, some part 

B2 of 


of the intricacies of the road, I have com- 
posed Notes, and separated them from the Text, 
This^ arrangement presents a farther accommoda- 
tion to the Reader ; he will be spared the trouble* 
of perusing the Notes if he grows tired of the 
Text* . . 

* I have taken the liberty, io this Edition, to insert the notes on the 
eorrefipondiDg pages of the text, to save the Reader the trouble of 
tiirntng from one part of the book to another ; but such is the vene* 
ratipu I bar® ^^r my Author, that I could op^ think of suppreestng even 
the above diort notice, as it st^nd^, 


■. :; .: 1 ■...■>i 

i '-J i . 

I ' 



i5^ - : , d' 

' • I ' 


* f 

^ ' BY JTAY 01^ 


•; '^"1 

; ;-.i .. ; 

. .ii. \ i*r 

• • U . . . ; 

jfV.S soon, as they pejceiyefi tbftt after ato expe- 
ri(?nce of Mankind so vex^tipus my bpart .panted 
only for a. life of solitude ; that I h?i4- embraced 
principles from which I could not depart ; that my 
opinions respecting Nature were contrary to tbeir 
systems ; that I was not a person disposed to be 
either their puffer^ or to court their protection ; and 
that, in a word, they had embj;oiled n^q with ray 
patron, whom they frequently abused to fne in the 
view of alienating me from him, and tf} whom they 
assiduously paid their court ; they then became my 
enemies. A great many vices are imputed to the 
Great; but I have always found many more in 
the Little who study to please them. 

These last were too Ofmnidlg . to attack me openly 
with a Personage to whom I had given, in the very, 
height of my misfortunes, proofs of a friendship so 
disinterested. On the contrary, in presence of thalj 
gentleman, as well as before myself, they passed 
high encomiums on my principles, and on some 
very simple acts of moderation which had resulted 
from them .; but they employed terms so 

B 3 artfully 

6 StO^ttL to THE Sf U|Di£8 OF NATURE. 

artfully exaggerated,. and appeared so uneasy about 
the opinion which the World would entertain of 
the matter, that it was easy to discern their great 
object was to induce me to renounce it, and that 
they commended my {>atience so extravagantly 
only to make me lose it. Thus they calumniated 
me under tllie guise of panegyric, and destroyed my 
reputation in feigning to pity me ; likewise those 
sorceresses of Thessaly, mentioned by Plirn/y who 
blasted the harvests, the flocks, and the husband- 
men, by speaking good of them. 

I separated myself therefore from tht>8e artful 
men, who continued to justify themselves at my 
cxpence, in representing me as a person of a mis- 
trustful disposition, afber having abused my con- 
fidence in so many different ways. 
• Not but that I consider myself as reprehensible 
for a sensibility, too acute, to pain, \i^hether phy- 
sicalor moral. A single pridkle gives me more un- 
t^sihess than the smell of a hundred roses gives 
pleasures. "The best company in the worid appears 
to me intolerable, if I meet in it a single sdf-im- 
iportant, envious, evil-speaking, malignant, pcrfi^ 
dlous person. I am well aware that people of very 
great worth assbciate every day ^ith persons of all 
these/desiirijptions, support them, nay flatter them, 
and' turn thiem to their own account ; but I am 
well aware at the same time that these same people 
of worth bring into Society nothing but the jargon 
of the.World 5 whereas I, for my part, always pour 
6ut my heart ; that they . pay deceivers in their 
owncoin, and I with all I have, that is to say with 
my sehtimentti. TlK)ugh my enemies may represent 

fne as o# a mifitrtist^ dktmtVer^ die gfeatMt fwit 
of the errors of my life, especially aa iar as tfaqr arfe 
tdndemed/arbse from an eicceBSOf c6ttfidaice;.aii4 
after an I would much rather have dieoi complaia 
that 1 mistmsn:ed them without a caiMe tlum that 
they should have had themselves any reason to be 
mistrustful of me. 

I endeavoured to make fi^ds 6f the men of an 
opposite party, who had expressed aa ardent ittcli- 
nation to attract me thither, before I joined it, but 
who the moment I came over, no longer put any 
value on my pretended merit. When tiiey per- 
ceived that I did not adopt all their prejuflioes ; 
that I aimed at nothing but the discovery of truth ; 
that, disposed to malign neither their enemies nor 
my own, I was not a fit person to be employed in 
cabal and intrigue ; that my feeble virtues, which 
they once so highly extolled, had procured me no^ 
thing lucrative; and that they w^e incapable of 
doing harm to any one ; in a word, that I no morf 
belonged to their side than to that of their aiitM 
goriists ; they neglected me entirely, and even per- 
secuted me in their tum^ Thus I found iiy ex^* 
tience that in a selfish and corrupted age, our 
friends measure theii* consideration of us only by 
that which their own ehemies entertain jwpectiag 
us, and that they court us just in proportion as we useful, or irender ourselves ^rmidable, to 
them. I have every where seen- confederacies of 
various sorts, and Ihave always found in them the 
same species of men. They march ri is true un- 
der staudards of different colours ; .but they ai« 
klways those of ambition. They have but one 
B4 and 

^ ft£4U£L TO THX nWfyJm OF NATUBE. 

toi4lhe«aiiiejdbtj?ctm:iiri^ to dppjipe<?r. 

•lifeverihefeM; theifife^rest^f <;bcir corps cxcepttfii J 
bever nseet .with i two of )t]^em whose opiniofis . fii4 
■bt fliflSor Mb ibuch afs tbqif f^ces* What i^ a source 
Df 5oj! to: the Qoe siiJf s the ^ther into despair ; to th^ 
iine^^KickB«e.9pj)ear;3 to be absurdity j to thcothear^ 
downright absurdity is evidence. What do I say ? In 
theeK»ct study}<which; J[. have made of men, ip the 
.view of finding.?, coqjfprter aiRo^g j^wi,I have seen 
persons the . ipo^ repowned differ completely from 
themselves, accprjjing as it was. morpiug or night, as 
it was, before o;[; after dinner, as they were in public 
<>r ill. private. Books, even those which are most 
eagerly carj^ied up, abound with' contradictiqna. 
Thus I was. made sensible, that the diseases of the 
jaindwere no lep^ reduced tq systematic methods of 
cure than thoise of the body, and that I had actecf 
very imprudently, in adding the unskilfubiess of the 
physicians to n»y own infirmities, as there are more 
patienta, i)f every description, killed by remedies 
4iiaa by diseases. 

< : WMle all tliiii was going on, my calamities had 
not yetifitained their final period. The ingratitude 
of men, of whom I had deserved better things ; un* 
lekpected family mortifications ; the total annihila^ 
tion of my slender patrimony, scattered abroad to 
the four winds of Heaven inenterprizes undertaken 
for the serviijeof my Country j the debts, under 
which I IsQT oppressed by engagements of this kind ; 

all my hopes of fortune blcusted.. these combined 

calamities made dreadful inroads at pnce upop my 

health a^d my reason. I was attacked by a malady 

.. . i * ' " "to 

to wliich I h%d'htjtbertaibeanas^«ngen Bfef^^similaf 
to those <:)f lightEiug, afiectod €be organs of vUion, 
Evety object pri^seateditaelf toine double, and.m 
mothn. Like (Edipu^ I $aw two Suns. My heart 
^a9 joot Ie9i dbtorbed XhUn my head. la the Bae^t 
day of Sum^iajsr, I could not cross the Seine in a 
ho^tt^ with{)nt undergoing anxieties unutterable ; 
evenl, who had preserved my soul iii tranquillity 
'amidst a tempest off the Gape of Good: Hope, on 
boaxd a vbasel struck with lightning. If I happened 
to pass simply through a public garden, by the side 
of a bason full of water, I underwent spasmodic af- 
fections of extreme horror. There were particular 
moments, in which I imagined myself bitten, with- 
out knowing how Oil' when, by ^ mad dog. Much 
worse than, this had actually befallen me ; I had been 
bitten by the tooth of calumny. 

Oue thing is absolutely certain, the paroxysms 
of this malady overtook me only when in the 
society of men. I found it intolerable to con- 
tinue in an apartment where there was company, 
especially if the doors where shut I could not 
even cross an alley in a public garden, if several 
persons had got together in it. I derived no relief 
from the circumstance of their being unknown to 
ine ; I recollected, that I had been calumniated by 
my own friends, and for the most honourable ac- 
tions of my life. When I was alone, my malady 
subsided : I felt myself likewise at my ease in places 
where I saw children only. I frequently went 
for this purpose and seated myself by the box of 
the horse-shoe in the Thuilleries, to look at the 



ehildrto playing on the grasty pftiterre with tfdt 
little dogs which frisked about them. Thete were 
my spectacles and my tournaments. Their inno- 
cence reconciled me to the human species, mucii 
better than all the wit of our dramas, and than all 
the sentences of our philosophers. But at sight of 
any one walking up to the place where I was, I felt 
my whole frame agitated, and retired. I often said 
to myself: my sole study has been to merit well of 
Mankind; Wherefore then am I shocked as often 
as I see them? To no purpose did I call in reason to 
my aid : my reason could do nothing against a 
malady which was enfeebling all it's powers.* The 
very efforts which reason made to surmount it serv«> 
ed only to exhaust her still more, because she em« 
ployed them against herself. Reason called not for 
vigorous exertion, but for repose. 

Medicine, it is true, did offer me her assistance. 
She informed me that the focus of my disorder was 

• GOD has bestow^Ml on me dits dhdnguisbed niArk of his (krour, 
that whatever disorder my reason may have undergAue, I have never lost 
the use of it, in my own apprehension, and especially in the eyes of 
other men. As soon as I felt the sympitoms of my tndt6]^)9ktoti t rttiire4 
into solitude. What was then that eatraardifiary ranson, which inti- 
mated to me that my ordinary reason was disturbed ? I am tempted to 
believe that there is in our soul an unchangeable focus of intellectual 
light, which no darkness is able entirely to overpower. It is, I am of 
opiuion, this seniorium which admonishes the druuk man that his renson 
is over^levatedy and ^be failing old man, that his onderstaoding is en^ 
feebled. In order to behold the shining of that candle within us, a man 
must have his passions stilled, he must be in solitude, and above all 
he must be in the habit of retiring into himsalf. I consider thia intip 
mate sentiment of our intellectual functions^ •s.tbe very esaenceof our 
soul, and a proof of its immateriality. 

FftAGIl£Nt* 11 

ta the nerves. I felt it mudi better than she was able 
to define it to me. But supposing I had not beea 
. too poor to avail myself of her prescriptions, I had 
too much experience to put any £iith in them. 
Hiree gentlemen of my acquaintance, tormented 
with the same species of indisposition, died in ashort 
time of three different remedies, and these pretend*- 
ed specifics for the cure of the nervous disorder* 
7he first by bathing and bleeding; the second, by 
the use of opium; and the third, by that of etheif. 
These two last were both celebrated Physicians,* of 
the Faculty, at Paris, both of high reputation for 
their medical writings, and particularly on the sub- 
ject of nervous affections. 

1 discovered afresh, but for this once by the ex^ 
^erience of another, what an illusion I had pmctised 
upon myself, in expecting the cure, of my com^^ 
plaints from men; I discovered how vain their opi^ 
nions and their doctrines were, and what a silly part 
I had been acting through the whole course of my 
life in rendering myself miserable, while I exerted 
myself to promote their happiness, and in maiming 
myself to procure ease for others. 
" Nevertheless, from the multitude of the cala- 
mities which oppressed me I derived a powerful 
motive to resignation. On comparing the good 
and the ill with which our fleeting days are so 

« Doctor I{<i«jr, Author of the Journal of Medicine, and Doctor 
Bnquetf Professor of the Faculty of Medicine at Pahs: who bo^i died» 
In the very prime of life, of tlieir own remedies against the uervoutf 



Strangely variegated/ I caught a glimpse of 
a most important truth, not generally known: 
namely^ that Nature produces nothing which 
deserves to be hated ; and that her Author, hav- 
ing placed us in a career which must of neces* 
sity terminate in death, has fnmished us with as 
many reasons for being reconciled to the thoughts 
of dissolution, as for cherishing the. love of life. 

All the branches of human life are mortal like the 
trunk. Our fortunes, our reputation, our friend-^ 
ships, our loves, all the most endeared objects of our 
affection, perish oftener than once before we our- 
selves die; and if the most fortunate destinies were 
displayed, with all the calamities which have attend- 
ed them, they would appear to us like those stately 
oaks which embellish the earth with their spread- 
ing branches, but which rear others of still greater 
size toward Heaven, struck with the lightning. 

For myself a feeble shrub shattered by so many 
tempests, nothing more remained to me that could 
be lost. Perceiving besides that I had henceforth 
nothing to hope, either from others or from mysel/^ 
1 committed myself to GOD alone, and engaged 
my promise to Him, never to ^xpect any thing essen- 
tial to my happiness from any one man in particular, 
to whatever extremity I might chance to be re- 
duced, and of whatever kind it might be. 

My confidence was acceptable to Him, of whom 
no one ever implored assistance in vain. , The first 
fruit of my resignation was the calming of my woes. 
My solicitudes were lulled to rest, as soon as I ceased 
to struggle against them. Very soon after there 
dropped into my lap, without the slightest solicita- 



tion, by tbe credit of a person whom I dkl not 
know,* and in the department of a Minister to 
whom I had never been useful, an annual gratuity 
from his Majesty. Like Virgil j I partoqkof the 
bread of Augustus. The benefit was of moderate 
value: it was given from year to year; it was un- 
certain; depending on the pleasure of a Minister 
very liable himself to sudden revolutions, on the 
caprice of intermediate persons, and on the malig7 
nity of my enemies, who might sooner or later get 
it intercepted by their intrigues. But having re- 
flected on the subject for a little, I found that Pro- 
vid^ce was treating me precisely in the same way 
in whicfh the Human Race in general is treated, 
on whom Heaven bestows since the beginning of 
the World, in the crops of the harvest, only an an* 
nual subsistence, uncertain, borne on herbage con* 
tinually battered by the winds, and exposed to the 
depredations of birds and insects* But it distin- 
guished me in a very advantageous manner, from 
the greatest part of Mankind, in that my crop cost 
me no . sweating nor labour, and left me the com- 
plete exercise of my liberty. 

The first use I made of it was to withdraw from 
perfidiorus \nen, whom I no longer needed to impor- 
tune. Aa soon as I saw them no more my soul was 
restored to tranqpillity. .Solitude is a lofty 
mountiain, from whence they appeai; of a very 

'* Jhougb' I am not acoustoiyied, ^hei| occasiQn requires^ to mention 
|)jpiune in my writijigs the. persons who have rendered me any service, 
and to whom 1 am under esspntial obligations, this- » neitbej* the time 
nor^th^ place for it. I am.iDtiiidiitiog.hi;fi>9 Ho .mefp(Hr& of n^ lifc^ 
imi Omp .whicli iftay ^er?^ a» a preamble (o i|i^ Work on Arcadia. 



diilii]iuti?e 5126. Solitude however was ratlier in)- 
' mical to my condition, in disposing the mind too 
mtensely to meditation.^ To J. J. Jiou9$eMU I stand 
indebted for ihe re-establishment of my health. I 
had read in his immortal productions, among other 
natural truths, that man was made to act and not 
to meditate. Hitherto I had exercised my mind; 
and suffered my body to rest; I now inverted the 
order of that regimen : I exercised the body and 
gave'repose txy the mind. I renounced the greatest 
part of books. I threw my eyes upon the Works 
of Nature, which spake to all my senses a language 
which neither time nor nations have it in their 
power to alter. My History, and my Journals^ 
were the herbage of the fields and meadows. My 
thoughts did not painfully go forth in quest of 
them, as in the case of human systems; but their 
thoughts under a thousand engaging forms quietly 
sought out me. In these I studied, without effort, 
the la^s of that universal Wisdom with which I 
had been surrounded from the cradle, and on which 
1 had hkherto bestowed a very superficial atten- 
tion. I pursued the traces of them in every part 
of the World, by reading books of Travels. These 
were the only modem books for which I retained 
a relish, because they transported me into other 
societies than that in which I was unhappy, and 
^^pteially, because they spake to me of the various 
Works of Nature. 

By means of them I was taught, that there is in 
every part of the Earth a portion of happiness fbr 
all t»en, of which almost universally they are de- 
prived ; and that though in a state of war, from our 


political orcicir which diaiiiiit«$ them^ they Wf iie in 
a rtate of peace^ ia the order of Nature, who invites 
them to approximation. Theae coQMlatory ine*^ 
dilations reconducted me insensibly to my flnoeiit 
projects of public felicity ; not to execute them io 
person, as formerly, but at least to compose an in« 
teresting picture of it The speculation simply of 
a general happiness, was now sufficioit fox my ixk* 
diTidual felicity. I Ukewiise reflfctedi that 9y iaM* 
ginary plans might one day be realized by men mora 
fortunate than myself* This desire redoubled in 
me at sight of the mi^rable beings of which our 
societies, consist I felt, above all, from the pri^ 
rations which I myself ^faad undergone, the neoes^ 
sity of a political order conformable to the ordei: 
of Nature. In a word, I composed one after the 
instinct, and the demands of my own heart 

Enabled by my own travels, and still more by 
reading those of others, to select on the surface of 
the Globe a situation proper for tracing the plan of 
a happy state of society, 1 fixed it in the bosom of 
South- America, on the rich and desert shores of the 
river of the Amazons. 

I extended myself in imagination over the face 
of those immense forests. There I constructed 
forts; I cleared large tracts of lands; I covered 
them with copious harvests, and with orchards 
presenting exuberant crops of all the fruits foreigq 
to Europe- There I offered an asylum to the meii 
of all Nations, the individuals of which I had seen 
in distress. There I planted the men of Holland 
and of Switzerland, who have no territory in their 



owii^ Country ; and Russians destitute of the means 
of esCabtisking themselves in their vast solitudes^ 
at home; Eaglishroen tired of the conviilsionG^ 
of their popular liberty, and Italians, of the le- 
tiiargy of their aristocratical governments; Prus- 
sianB sick of their military despotism, and Poles,, 
of their republican anarchy; Spaniards of the 
intolemnce of religious opinions, and French- 
men^ of the levity of theirs; Knights of Malt^^ 
and Algerines ; the peasantry of Bohemia, Poland, 
Russia, Franche-Cbmptfe, Lower Brittany, escap- 
ed fifem the tyranny of their compatriots ; the 
niniaWay Negro slaves of our barbarous colonies; 
the protectors and the protected of all Nations; 
Courtiers, gownmen, scholars, soldiers, merchants, 
financiers; every unfortunate wretch tormented 
with tlie maladies of European, African, and 
Asiatic opinions, alji of them, with very few ex- 
ceptions, aiming at mutual opprelssfion, and react- 
ing upon each other by violence or cunning, by 
irtpiety or superstition. 

They abjured the national prejudices which' 
had rendered them, from the womb, the ene- 
mies of other men ; and especially that which is 
the source of all the animosities of the Human 
Race, and which Europe instils with the mo- 
ther's niilk into each of her sons — the desire of 
being foremost. They adopted, under the imme- 
diate protection o^ the author of N^iture, the 
principles of universal toleration; and by that 
actof general justice, they fell back without inter- 
i*(iption into the unconstrained exercise of their 
, ' particular 

panl^ular character. The Dvtchina^^tlj^^re purs^ued 
agriculture and commerce into the very bospjn of* 
tl^ moraasea; the 5.>^i^Si ^p to the sumn(^it of the 
rock$, and the ^^ssian, dex^terous i^jp5ian»jging.tjie 
liatchety iixto the centre . of the AicHff t foresta. 
The£i^ti^opanthei:e4ddlcted |unvse)f to ^a.y;^ga- 
t;Qn^ ajnd to t^e useful arts which ^cpn&tita^erth^ 
strength of , the States ; the Italia^, totl^eltt{^l 
^^ts yr)^k)^ T^e them to a flqurishJng^c^njdltiou;; 
^ Prussia, to military eicercjuses; the ^P^^ to 
tho^e of .horsmans^p ; thereservcjd /Sp^md,.^ 
,the talents yhich re£(uirefii:*;i^sis; the^xq^clmis^q, 
to those which jren^er life a^eeable, and^e so- 
^cwl^jns^^inct wh^ch.qualifies Jijm^tp he i^^ie^on^ of 
ipniq^^png all Nations, All tl^^ m^i?, pf ^opj- 
WCjm fioy^ty ,^iffprent,,enjo,yed through thcm/edi^^jyai 
.Df .tplcj^atipn, |H?d j;^ter-c<;Mn|nu|^j<5ptipn of ,^^^ 
thijig tjiat |W93 ,he9t |> tbjBir^veral, c|]«\^ac^3, ^ 
j^mp^^ t|ie defects of oije h^ .the f eid^iifl^ij9iea iff 
j5i^ot||er. /J^ii^pce ;i:csulf:ed, froiy j^^uca^tipp, fre^p 
^ws, ^^id frpin h^it^^ cof^bii^attpn i3if i^ts,' qf t^ 
.)f;pts,pf yirti^es, and of jifeUgipus pri^cjples> JKhigh 
jfprin^^^o/. tljip .vhole but oqe^single pec^lp, di^osi^d 
^9 p?^ist jintejcpajly^e n^pst perfect hari^fjp^^ Jo 
j,^}?t.C5?ery external .inyadcjr, iwid tp amalgara?^e 
with all the rest of the JH[vui^n ^B^ce. 

i. commit then to writing all .the spectihttions 
3^hich J had pursued pn this subject ; l>ut wj^ei^ I 
atterpplfd tpputthcfla tpgei^bcir^in p^rdprto/pjjm 
IP myseff, and tpcp^vey tootha:s, the ide^^^of ^a^^e- 
pubjiic ipodeiled coi^fprijaahly to the Lays pf .$lifac 
lure, I perceived that^ aftpr all the^aibjWtKl b^be- 

Vox. IV. C stowed 


stowed, I never could make the illusion pass on any 
one reasonable being. ^ 

I^lato it is true in his Atlantis, Xenophon in hi5 
Cyropedia, and Fendon in his Tekmachus, have 
depicted the felicity of various political Societies, 
which have perhaps never existed ; but by means 
of blending their fictions with historical traditions, 
and throwing them back to ages remote, they have 
bestowed'on them a sufficient air of probability, to 
induce a Header possessed of indulgence, to receive 
as realities recitals whicli lie has no longer the pow- 
er of supporting by facts. This was by no means 
the case with my Work. I there went on the sup- 
position; m modern times, and in a wfcll-ktiown part 
of the Globe, of the existence of a very fconsider- 
able people, formed almost' entirely of the misef- 
' abWrefuse of European Nations, exalted all afoncfe 
to the highest degree of felicity • ^nd this fare phe- 
nomenon, so worthy of at least the cfuVidsity of 
Europe, ceased to produce any illusion,. as soon fts 
it was certain that it had no real exi^tenie. ' Be; 
sides, the scantiiiess of theory which Ihad pfocuS 
cd, respecting a country so different fVonfi ouw, and 

* «o sdperficially described by travellers, (iould have 

* furnished to my pictures' Only a false colouring, 
and very indistinct features. 

I relinquish then mypblitical vessel, though I 
had laboured upon her for several years with un- 
wearied perseverance. Like the canoe of Robinson 
Crime, Ilfeft her in the forest where I had moulded 
-her, forwent of power to put her in motion, and to 
carry tier along tlie tide of human opinions; 


To no purpose did nty hnagination perform the 
tour of the Globe. Amidst so inaoy sites pi^eseated 
for the happiness of Man, by Nature, I could not 
so much as find where' to put down the illusory 
habitation of a People happy in conformity to her 
laws : for neither the republic of St JPaul, near 
to Brazil^ formed of banditti who made war upon 
the whole World ; nor the evangelical association 
of fFiUkm Penny in North- Amerifca, which ^ca 
not even so far as to act upon the defensive against 
their enemies; nOr the conventual redemptions* . 
of the Jesuits in Paraguay ; nor the voluptuous 
islanders of the. South Sea, who, in' the veiy lap 
of sensuality, ofier up human saG^ifices,f appeared "" 
tp me the proper representatives of i People 
making a right use, in the state of Nature, of 
all their faculties physical and ; moral, > . 

* There ;nrere,^ ip py opinioo, miiny d^feqtS'^. A« ««tajbfis^Mot« 4f 
tlie Jesuits in Pa^uay, A^ these monastic orders do not • marry, tba( 
they tad not within themselves the indepenMent pjrindple of existence : 
ilattheyslwei^s reeniibed the fhitenjty iv^lCUtapeaQS, andthat'^hey 
formed, evei^ jn their Bedemptiotis, pqi^ Ifa|ti9n> lyitliio^anolhehlJ^iitiqB $ 
hence it came to pass, that the destruction of their Order in Europe in- 
volved in it that of their establishnients in AmerioEu 3esi({es^ the con* 
veotl«4vre|u]«dty,.«itd the maltipU^ <»fen&onkii wUeh they had intro* 
ducc^ intq their po)iuplikdmiuiiftmtiaii|poiild aoit o^Jr Ai^iaQmt i^pic^ 
i^ho must,be incessantly kept up by the leadine-etriii^ and Jefd Iw t)^e 
eytrl'^lfhej rfre noi di6 leSd on that acconht deserving of immortal 
l|o4ciflr,ftK^ bfyiog collected widsulgected t& Mmiin Im^ k miitifadh 
of biurbarians, and for having instructed them in the Arts useful to hu- 
pap life, by preserving them from the oorrupuoq.'iof..jfv^ji||i^ Na- 
tions, * ., f 

. t tbej; did ii^w^ eat dogs,, tbose liatttral frienili <ji'Um^ir lohikfv 
^miuked.Uiiit efc^, ^<pple any^qg whon this is practinil,' tv«iB<i»<4 
disposed 19 spare humn flesh wHenoceasioo pranptlfed : 09 eai^iib^^toll 
•f dogs is a step towi^ aothropopbaigr* < . .«. ' ^j.. * .« 

C 8 Besides 

litf SEfttJEL TO rttZ ftttfXaCS OF KATUftK. 

^fd«s, though thctefrtternities pirseotedtoine 
Certain Tqmblicaa hnsgCBy die firat wia a state of 
tfownrigbt anarchy; the socoad mnply an asso** 
ciatiotiy undec tht pWtection of thcSUsite in wUcfa 
it waa oontahied ; sad (he oth^r two formed here* 
ditary ar»tot:rac«es merely, u&der which a partis 
ctthir cltts ^ cititMis, having reserved all powet 
to itself, even the disposal of the n«ti6nal subsiit^ 
enci^ kept the People at large in a atate of perpe^ 
tual tutelage, t^ithout the possibility of thdr ever 
Merging from the dasa of Nieopfaytes, or 6t 

Myaoiil) finding i^o cmnpliiGeaOy in age8'|>re* 
^ sen^ niaged it'b way lotrard (ihe ^dgestff Antiquity, 
and iilighted ipsftr of «U aiAoAg ^ NatilMs, of 

This happy p6Ai^ df ^ri^ete presented to me 
climates and situations similar to those which are 
dif^wsed ^^t thfe *est t)f Europe. I could %shioi> 
tbeiii at least, into pictures variegated^ and pos- 
sessing* the advantage of ivseinbkttce. <b; iwaa fill* 
cd w^ tommtai««f ewnsideratfstedevatten, some 
of which, sucli as thait of Pho^ covered with snow 
all the;year round, rendered it similar rto Switaer^^ 
tend. On 1*e wjher hand, it's morasses, siich as 
thart 6f Slyttph^lc, gave it in this^part of it'a tern- 
toiy SL /esemblancf to HoQadd. &'s i^getabtei 

• Thriite(iei6rAdi»ks 6f xiftn of the commonilty in'thl^ Island of 
Otahcitd, and in the other islands of that Archipelago, They arc 
not p*nDittalrt&«iil 8wioet4tfdi, ^hfch is the^ of -an -exc^ltent qiia- 
Ikffy^ ^kaMM^y^^^moOM, iti»«««r*©d'*Br tll*>EiAms,idio'iu^ 
*e €Ui& !Rm» Tq^slam dwMR up the iWiie, W* Ac *E-*ftitei ftti 
vpon theok Cooso^ Captaiai^oMl^ Voyages; 

.... * ^ ' ■ ' and 

mhI it'a wtnmts Minere the sume witb tbose Avhich ar« 
scattered over the soil of Itoty, of Fraucet and of 
the North of Europe. It prbducpd olive-tree% 
¥t]ie8,applertree«, com of aUkind«,piiiturj9; fore«t» 
of mksi of piues, atyl of fir*; oxen, horses, sheep^ 
goats, volvBs»......^Tbe occupattpDS of tl|e Arca^ 

diaQH were the saioe wilb thoM of ouir pe^satitiyr 
They wece claased i»to hu$baftdl9en, ah^phefds^ 
viae*drcss9ors, huatonen. But m jKhifiUify diffened 
widely frona owrs, they were very warlikie e;ct(}rr 
nafly, and very peaceable at home. As soon as the 
State was menaced with war, they voluntarily ap« 
peared for it'§ defence, every nan at bia proper 
post There was a €on9idenible proportion of Ar* 
cadians among tlie ten thousand Greeks who, 
under the command of Xenophon, effected the fa- 
mous Fetreat out of Persia. They were much de* 
voted to xeligioo; for most of the Oods of Oreece 
were narti ves of tfieirCoutitry ; Mercury o« Mount 
Cyllene; Jujriter on Mcmnt I^ceum^ Pirn on 
Mount Minalus, or according to other*, amidst 
tlie forests of Mount Lyceum, where be was wor- 
shipped with singular devotion^ Arcadia too was 
the theatre on which Sereuks exhibited the most 
astonishing of his laborious achievements* 

With those sentimefrts of patriotism aod of re- 
44gioa the Arcadian s blende d that of love, whicli 
has at length acquired the ascendant, as the prin- 
cipal idea which that people have left us of tliem^ 
selves. Jar political and religious institutions 
vary in every country with the lapse of ages, and 
are peculiar to it : but the Laws of Nature are of 
all periods of tim^, and interest all Nations, 



22 SEQUEL TO tut, srvmES OF NATURE. 

Hence it has cbme to pass that the Poets, ancient 
and modern, have represented the Arcadians as a 
Nation of amorous shepherds^ who excelled in 
Poetry ^^nd Music, Wliich are in all countries the 
expressive languages of love. Virgil^ in particular, 
frequently celebrates their talents, and their rural 
felicity. In this ninth Eclogue, which breaths the 
gentlest melancholy, he thus introduces^<3r//M^, the 
son of PoliiOy inviting the Arcadian, swains to do» 
plore with him -the loss of his mistress Lycoris: 

CaDtabitis, Arcades, inqait, 
MoDtibus hsc vestris. Soli cantare periti^ 
Areades. O mihi tum qu^ moUiter ossa quiescenti 
Vestra meosolioi si fistula dicat amores ! 
Atqiie utinam ex vobis unus, vestrique fuissem ^ ^ 

Aut custos gregis^ aut maturs vinitor uvm !* 

** You shall sing," says he, ** O ye Arcadians, 
*' these^ plaintive strains of mine, on your 0\vn 
^* mountains. Arcadians, you alone are Bkillcd in 
** song, O, how softly shall my bones repose, if 
** your, pipe sliall one day immortalize my un? 
" fortunate loves ! And would to Heaven I bad 
^* been one of you, though in the humble station 
^^ of a shepherd's boy, or of a grape-gatherer in the 
" vineyard," 

GaUuSy the son of a Roman Consul, in the age of 

^ To your lov^d mquntaiiis^aild your verdant plains, 
' Hepeat, Arcadians, these my love lorn-strains ; 

In magic numbers you alone excel. 

Lull'd \o soft rest my limbless limbs shall dnrell, 

Should youfswe^t qofes imnH)rtali2e my flame, 

And give to G alius dead a4^athless name. 

Oh, had I been, of you some shepherd's svrain ! 

Pr Qair<i die grape; py reap'd the golden graia ! 



Augustus^ considers the. condition of thje Arcadian 
swains as so enviable^ that he presumes < not to as* 
pire Xm the felicity <ot beiog among them a proprie* 
tary shepherd, or the dresser of a vineyaid, which 
he could call his own, but only to that of ^ simple . 
keeper of cattle: custos gregis ; or of one of those 
hireling labourers whom they accidentally picked.* 
uj^ as they went on their way^ to assist in treading 
out the ripened. clusters: Matures vinitor tcca, 

rirg*// abounds in such delicate shades of senti- ' 
menty which totally disappear in translations, and 
especially in mine., , , 

Although the Arcadians passed a considerable, 
part of their life in singing and in making love, 
Fif'gil does not represent them as an effeminate 
race of men. On the contrary, he assigns to them 
•jmple manners, and a particular character of forqe, 
of piety, and of virtue, which is confirmed by all 
the Historians who have made mention of them. 
He introduces them as acting a very distinguished. 
and important part in the origin of the Roman £m* 
pire; for when, Eneas sailed up the Tiber, in thei 
view of forming alliances witli the Nations who 
inhabited the shores of that river, he found at the 
place of his disembarkation, a small city, called 
Pallanteum> after the name of jPa//wj, son to Evan-^^ 
4tr King of the Arcadiai;is, who had built it. This 
city was afterguards enclosed within the precinct 
of. the city of Rome, to which it served as. it's first 
fortress. For this reason it is that V'wgil denomi-? 
nates King E vender {he Founder of the Roman 
fortress:^ , . . 

. ; Rex 'Evan^rui^ Romans Conditor arcis. 

C4 I feel 


I feel ito ijnrfesfetible ptopCMity to msci?t hi tSlS 
place, some passages of the JEheid winch have a 
jdifect reUtidh to the nftabners df the Arc^dlatrs, 
and which discbver at the sam^ tiifid thibir infiiiente 
on those of the ttojnati People. I am slbutrdaiitiljr 
sensible that I sh^Jl give but a* very indifi^rent 
translation of tho^e passaged; as I have done of all tbo 
Ijatin quotations already intrpdoced into vtiy l&odk ; 
but the delicious poesy of Firgii will indemnify 
the Reader for my bad prose, afad gVatif^ the taste 
which it will ins|>ire into myself of what ii natural 
lo me. This digressiou besides is by nb means fo<r 
. reign to the general plan of thli Work. I shall 
produce in it varions examples of the powerflil ef- 
fects arising from consonances arid contrasts, which 
1 have considered, in my preceding Studies; as the 
first moving principles of Nature. We shall sec* 
Jthat, after her example, Virgil abounds with theni, 
jmd that they alone are the cause of the Harmony 
of his style, and of the magic of his pictures.^ 

ptst^ ^neas, by eomniand of the Oqd of the Ti- 
ber who appeared to him in a d^eani, comfes to soi- 
JScit thp alliance of JEt74^er, inordei; to hh tf)'aking[ 
good ah establjsbitient in Italy. He avails htmsetf 
pf the anfeientJy aUiefd oHgiri of their faiAillei, whiclj 
both dWcertdcd frdW Aths^ the one by tllecftif; 
the ptbei" by Mifia. ISlvdnddr makes no reply on 
ithiB subject of this getiealogy; but fit sight of" 
flntds, hfe recdtt^cU with delight the fektiire^, the 
Voipb, ah<f i)it\d^t%^o^ Am%U^, t^hoift he had so 
Jbng itefbre, entertaitteti in fris palace wfithin'tJi6 
walls of Pheneum, when that Prince on his way t0 
gglamis .witb ^mp^ wfeo was goi^g to ym% his 


mtev HesumCf took the cold moiliitidns of Ariadii 
ia his road* 

, Accipfo ^bkoqUellbeAs! ut verba parentis 
Et vooem ^Jic4iM mufpn vultamque reoorflor ! 
Nam memini Heeiones vUentem regna sororis 
LaiKnedontiadem Prtamum, ^famina petentem 
PrbtiiiQS Arbidi^ ^Mb» invii^re shies:* 

Evander "Wnis then in the fiower of bis age; he 
fdt an ardent desite td joih his haad m ftiead^hip 
to that of Anekises: deMrd tor^tungere icstram. H<t 
ci^is toinlmd the toktos of fnend)sh]|> which hfe 
had received of him,^ml his presents, among which 
wfere two bridled bitticd with gold^ now niade ovter 
to his son Palbts^ as symbols no dc^t of Uie fnt* 
dence so necessary to a young Prmce : 

f rsniique faina^ meiis <)U8e nont daWyaorea, PftZ^f 

* On all tliy features tiow I clwell With joy t 
Weloonie, thnee weleofM, gMriba^ Prince 6irtVt>y! 
Sow in thy hc^, mjr ancinlt fekkA I see { 
AncMies looks, and liyes, and spenks in diee ! 
Well I recal great Priam^s stately portyj 
ftiAn dnce h^ s<^ugbc' bis Voyid i^^ 'co^R 
Oil S4lamiiiia« s&orei, Witb ail hi$ trai0 ; 
And jEDok bis w^y thr,0!ugb our Arcadian phun. . 

I* OM me^ tit pht»k^ gbi^bs beli^ldM^d 
i.wo guiuen ipnaie^ cnai reiuigenc gn f w V| 
<A gloriiMrs f resent/bjp my soM posififttO 

'W jMi a rich qoijHte aiKl embMider'4 ^^ V 

. Pitt. 



jknd iie immediatelj adds : ' - ^ 4 

£f]gci et qusm pedcisy joncta est aibi federe deitim : 
£t lox cikiD priraom terris se crasdim reddely 
Ainilio Istos (iimirtaw, opibuqae javdbo.* 

JEvciCy B. viiL L 169^-17^ 

" My right hand, then, has seakdfrom that day 
V the allianice which you now solicit; and as soon 
" as to-morrow's dawn shall revisit the Earth, I 
'^ will joyfiiUv dismiss you to the 6eld with the 
" succours which you ask, and will support you 
"to the utmost extent of my ability," 

Thus EvandeTj though a Greek, and consequent- 
ly a natural enemy to the Trojans, gives his aid to 
Eneas, purely from the recollection of the friend- 
ship which he entertained for bis ancient guest 
Anchues. The hospitality which he had formerly 
expressed to the father, determines him now to 
support the son. 

It is not foreign to my subject to remark in this 
place, to the honour of Virgil and of his heroes, 
that as often as Eneas, under the pressure of cala- 
mity, is reduced to the necessity of having re- 
course to the assistance of strangers, he never fails 
to remind them of either the glory of Troy, or of 
ancient family alliances, or to urge some other 
political reason calculated to interest them in 
his favour ; but those who tender him their 
services are always induced to act thus frpm 
motives of virtue. When thrown by the tempest 
on the Lybian shore, Dido^ is determip^d to 

« The peace you ask we give; our fMCndsbippli^jbt,. 

And soon as morn reveals the purple ligbt, 
'= tVith our coafcdefate troops, a mai-iial train. 

Safe I'll dismiss thee from these walls again* Pxtt. 

5 afford 

afibrd him an asylum i^. a^wnttmentttill inone^ulH 
lime than the recdltectioo.oftoy partkailarliospite^ 
Iky^Hghly respected as it was among the andentsj 
but by the ge^ral interest which we take id tfao 
miserable* In order to render the efiect :eF thit 
more dignified, and more afieottng, she appK^s tof 
herself the oseed . of it^ and reverberates from her 
awn heart, on the Trojan Prince, only the same de- 
giee of sympathy, which :shc demands for faersd£ 
These are her words : 

Me quoqiie per multds similis fortuna labdres 
Jactatam, bdc deiiram volnit consistere tcrr&« 
Uon igiiara i&ali, miseris succurrere disco.* 

jEneio, B. i. L. aS2— 654 

^' A fortune similar to thine, after having pursued 
** me too through distresses innumerable, permitted 
^' me at length to form a settlement on these shores. 
** Nurtured myself in the school o^adverstty^ I am 
^i instructed to succour the miserable,'* 

Firgii uniformly prefers natural to political 
reasons, and the interest of Mankind to national 
interests. Hence it Comes to pass that his Poem, 
though composed to diffuse the particular glory of 
the Roman People, interests the mea of all ages^ 
and of all Natidns. , 

To return to King Evander: He was employed 
in offering a sacrifice to Hercules^ at the head of 
his Arcadian Colony, at tlie time Eneas landed. 


♦ Mff wanderings and my fate resembNng yours, 
At kngth I settled on these Lybian ghofv«( ? 

And, toucli'd with miseries myself have known, 
I view with pity woes od like my own. Pitt, 


After hav]ilg*edgagod tfaeTrdjan Chief and hiiot^ 
tcudaiits to ptrtal:e of the sacnid banquet whirii 
lib^mrival httd intemipted^ he instructs his guest 
m the 0]%in of thi^ sa^fice^ bjr relating to him 
Ae hbtdry of tlhe- rt>bber Cbcus^ whom Hercabs 
pdt to doth in a cavern iadjoiritng tdthe Aventine 
Mbunt. He prtsests him with a tiemeiidoiis pic* 
tnie of the cotnbat of the son of Jupiter with thai 
flkme-tomitilig monster; he then adds: 

* Ex iHo etiebratiis bonoty Isedqne imaore^ 
Sermreie diem : fHrimii%qne Potitius auctor, 
Et domus Herculei custos Piosuria sacri^ 
Uanc Afam luoo statiut s qiise naxima semper 
Dicetnr nobisy et eritqos maxuna lenper. 
Quare upUy O jbveiibsy taotiiniflD in iMiiwM lMdtn% 
Ciagile fronde comas, et pocula porgite dextris ; 
ComxDuhi^fti<t<2'e Vocate deum, et data vina voteBtes* 
BiifiBfMt it^HW£e^bic0lor€ii]ApQpa)a»«ita^i 
TeMt^M «6iDaby fi4iisqat taiMxa pepemdxt : 


^ troai that btest hour tV Arcadian tribes bestowM 

Hie^ s^eain boinDolfs OA their giiarcKali GoA 

F^itiui Bnt, his gratitude to ptwt^ - , 

AdorM Attidei in the shady grove; 

And with the uldPinarian sacred line 

These altars raised, and paid the rites divine, 

'Biliea^ which our 'SMs for «Ver shaft mwB^iaift ; 
' And ever sacred shall the grove remain. 

Come then, with us to great AlcOes pray, 
MAttd drown ye)ur1iead^ and-sdemisiiethe dftjr. 

Invoke our commou God with hymns divine. 

And from the goblet pour the generous wine,. • 

He said, and with thepc^liicr's sacred bon^, 

like great Alcides, bi^dftbia boary brows; 

. IW/d 

& j^c^r laiJeTlt (Jex^OsAiQ .^^rplMis. Oel&$ Qfaafi$ 
fa mensam leti libaot, dlvosque precantur. 
iW^io iaJDerea proprior ^t -vesper^^lyttipo 7 

ff^Uifaff^ in ■T'TiTfw /jiytj» ^wiuWHyif forrhmy, 

InstfiQniiit epuUs^ et m^q^ grata Mcuoda *• 

Ddoa ferant: comolaii^deofteratisUMidiMtt ans. 

Tim fialii M ^matna^ inoema altam' tiiM^iL 

£at]iil^ adfiiiat arinrti >^»»»'w raniis. 

^•VWJ^P^p^f^PV ^p-VH^^^^^p ^V^V^r^^ ^F^^^^^^^^^ *^^IM«f^«. 


'^ From that period this sacred festival has beea 
^ cdebrated, «iid exultbg posterity^hails ^ ir tarn 
^ of the atiBual day. Potitus has the faonoiir of 
"^having first instituted it, and the Pinariati Fii- 
^ xriily, to Wlw>in belongs the direction of Ats #o- 
'^ iemn service in honour of HercukSy reared tJris 
^ altar in theiiallowed grove : which ever shall be 
'^^ cs^ed^ and in tny esteem ever shall beliie most 
"^ venerable of altars. Come oatfaen^ my yo^ng^ 
^ Yriends from IVoy, vol gratefill remembrance cif 
** merit «o exalted, crown your brows with ibt'fo^ 
^* liage of his favourite tree, put your right faand to 

. RaisM the ^crqwnM ff^\(it tttgh, in op^n view : % 

With him, the guests the holy riteparsuey ' > 

^AeadMi the'board t)ie«eh libation threw. \ 

•RolfA down Aesteep of {i^v Vtb^ b«sajr IssHt. 
Clad in ^teecy spoils of slie^pyproqeed 
fheholy prifikt^; f^o<iCiaf at theirbeall. 
Widi.AiiDlilifta>iwld9 nnxliatfSiriael, ma^b lhe/traMU< 
4nd jbi d rf i ff ty t h w^lit^rt jh^e-ftgain^ 
With care the copious viands they di^pos^ ; 
An^foftfaek' gdcitli'a itecbnd bJuaqoet rose. 
Tbe-tes oinihi^f |li«(Si^tdaai[^iaro^ 



•* the goblet ; invoke a deity who shall be ouV Coin-' 
'* mon protector^ and pour out your joyful libations 
" of the juice of^he grape. MHesaidy aad iMtantly 
** a poplar-branch of double-coloured foliage, from 
** the Herculean tree, shaded his hoaty locks, and 
*^ in twisted sprigs hung gracefully doH'n from his 
" temples : The sacred bowl filled his right hand. 
" With holy ardour every one immediately poured 
^ hb libation on the table, and preferred his prayer. 
. ^^ Meanwhile the Star of Evening ,l|^an to ap^ 
••* pear, the bvbinger of approaching, ^ight: and 
"-pow aprocfessionof Priests^ Potitius led the train^ 
" moved along, dressed, as the order of the fea^t 
** iiequired, in the fleecy skins of the flock, and \f^\h 
^^ flaming torches in their hands. The bancjuet ii» 
" renj^wed, and the grateful delicacies of a second 
«^ taUe.arj? serviqd up : w^ile .the altarSi are loaded 
" with piles of rich pflferings. The Salians advance, 
" their brows ad9fQ(;d with bouglis of poplar, and 
i* surround tjie blazing altars, with festive fio^g$ t^nd 

Every circumstance here detailed by the Poet i* 
idiX from being a mere poetical fiction, but is a, real 
tradition of the Roman History* According to 
Titm LiviuSj in the first Book of bis Historyj Poti- 
this and Pimrius were the Chiefeof two illustrious 
Roman families. , Evander instructed them in the 
ritual of the worship to be paid to Hereulesj'and 
committed the conduct of it to theircharge. Their 
posterity^ enjoyed the dignttyof $,his prMtUood^ 
down to the ccn^or^hip of Jlpphu Ckudius. The 
altar o^ H^rcuks^ Ara Maximdyyritzt Rom*, be- 
te tweea 


tween the Aventine and the Palatine mountains; 
in the open place called Forum BMrium. The Sa^ 
liahs were the Priests of itfar^, instituted by Nu^ 
may to the number of twelve. Virgil proceeds on 
the supposition, according to some ^commentator^ 
that they had existed ever since the days of King 
Evander*, and that they sung in the sacrifices of 
Hercules. But there is a great appearamce of 'pre- 
Jbability, that Firgil in this likewise followed the 
Historical tradition; for we know how carefully he 
collected, with a kind of religious ardour, even the 
slightest prognostics and tlie most frivolous, pre- 
dictions, to which he assigned a first-rate import- 
ance the moment that they appeared in any respect 
connected with the foundation of the Roman Em- 
pire. , 

Rome was indebted then to the Arcadiani^ for 
her principal religious usages. She was ^11 farther 
indebted to them for others much more interesting 
to humanity ; foir Platareh derives one of the ety- 
mologies of the name Patricians^ an order esta- 
blished by RomuluSy frorh the word ** Patrocinium^ 
** which means patronage, or protection.; and this 
" word is used to this day in the same sense, be- 
" cause one of the leading men who accompanied 
" Evander into Italy wa^ named Patronus^ who 
" being a person iwted for a character of benefi- 
** cence, ai\d for granting support to the poofer 
" and more oppressed class of Mankind,, commu- 
** nicated his name to that office of bmnwrty.'^ 

The sacrifice and the banquet of 'Evander termi^ 
nated in a hymn to the tonour of j?erie</w^.' loan- 
liot resist the inclination whichi feel to insert it 

. ' here, 


}mc, ip^dcr |to iQ^ke it igp^h It^A^^eia^i/e p;^- 
pk who QUQg so njielodioq^ly the loves c^ she(^ 
Jb^4s, K^efiS equally f^^h]f ,Qf c^\fihr^t\ng tl^e virr 
Met of H^aes : and j^M^ the saiae Poet wlioy m 
3iis EctogiiciS) )timies so swiQe% tl^e r^al pipe^ cau 
hiow V vigyMrQM9ly )the epic trun^pet 

f .Hie j^vfv^mii d^c^;^ i^e hw^ /SP^ cvipint IsMdes 
^ercale^ fit factii fer^Qt : vC pnii>o Dovercae 
Monstra manu geminosque prefimn eliaeAt angaes : 
/lit teUoegregios idem di^eqmtvrhe^ . 

Rege ^ub EuryBtbeOy fads Jun^nis ini^uas, 
' Pertulerit. Tu nubigenas ihvecte bimembresi, 
- ByimuBque, PbokaH|at niano : tu CmsBia mactaa 
:F^qdi|aft,.«t ^^a^MHtt Nofnea sjibjflpe ,1^^ 
T^St^jgii'lreinaere lacus; te janitor Orci, , 
Ossa super recubans, antro semesa cruento. 
Nee te uUss fades, non teruit ipse Xyphseas 
ArdatWWVma ^IMspst i9on^te.|ri^iqni|iqiie^ 

* The dioirs of old and young, in loAyiays^ 
Resound great fiercii/bf.iiniBoitaLpniiee. . 

. I|Q«r)firyt hia infant baods.(lie snakes a'ectbr^ w 
l^hat Jftn/^ ^en{ ; • and the 4ife monsters slew. 
What mighty cities ne%t his arms destroy, 
Th* £c)ialiaii walls; ai^ stately totrers of Troy, 
~T>e thtfuaaafl labours ofrtbe (lero^lfands^ 
.^^oin*d by proud Eury$theui stem cpmmands, 
And JM't revengeful Queen. Tby matchless mij^ht 
OVrcame- the cloud-bom Centaurs in 4ha fight ', 
•l^/W, *W^ ;»nkbepea|Ji ^y, %et, 
AnAtha gjrimbiiH^ whose raga diq^opled Crete. 
Beneath thy arm the Nemean monster fell ; 
Thy am with terror fillVi the realms of Hell ; 
.]^«\ifldn<grim^p<ifter shook ,wM dire diwiayy 
^bi|^lk<hal^y.,ao|d.;lfmb|edQVjb^|^ ^ 

If o shapes of .^ftager CDuhi thj^ soul affright, 

'' Kothoce 2]^ptotf4,towariDgto th^fi^t^. 

iJirnatw tiirb& ohpittiin circamstetit anguis. 
Salve» vera Jovis proles, decus addite Divis: 
£t tiosy et taa dexter adi pede sacra secundo. 
Talia carininibus celebrant : super omxiia Caci 
Speluncam adjiciunt^ spinmtemqae ignibus ipsum* 
CoQSonat omae nemus strepitu^ coUesque resultant. 

MnEiD, B. vili. L. 88^—30^4 

" On thi^faand were arranged a choir of youth, 
" on that a venerable band of old men, to celebrate 
** the praises and the mighty achievements of 
" Hercules: How, with the pressure of his potent 
"fingers he stifled to death two fearful snakes, the 
" first monsters armed against hiift by his cruel 
" step-mother : how he humbled the two proud 
'* Cities, Troy, and iEchalia: how he triumph- 
" antly surmounted a thousand painful labours un- 
" der King Eurystheus, imposed by the resent- 
" ment of unrelenting Jwwo; Tllou, invincible 
" Hero, thou, by thine aim, subduedst thedouble- 
" limbed cloud-born Centaurs, Hykeus audPholus; 
" the monsters of Crpte fell by thy stroke, and the 
" formidable lion under the Nemean rock; theSty- 
" gian lakes trembled at thy approach ; as did the . 

. I^of Lerna's fiend thy courage could confound^ 
With all her hundred headn, that hishM around, 
tlail^ mighty Chief, advanced to Heav'n>s abodes I * 

' ^' Hail) son of Jove ; a God among the Godis I 
. Bepresent to the vows thy suppliants pay. 
And with a smile these grateful rites survey. 
Thus they — ^but Cacus* cavern Mprowns the strain, 
Where the grim monster breath'd his fimnes in vain; 
. I (lyi-fbe gUd song, the vales, the woods rebound^ 
^{ ^ The lofty hills reply, and eciho to the sound* 


Vol. IV. p ''janitor 


** janitor of hell, reclinecl on a heap of half-goawrd 
" bones in his bloody den : No appearance of danger 
*' appalled thee, riot even the gigantic Typhaeus him- 
** self, rushing upon thee tremendous in aims : Thou 
** wertnot dismayed, though enclosed on every side 
"by the many -headed snake of Lerna. Hail, 
** undoubted offspring of mighty Jove! add new 
" lustre to the skies : Graciously bend do\yn to hear 
" our vows, and to accept our sacrifices." 

" Such was the lofty subject of their song : above 
" all the rest they exalted the prodigies of the fear- 
** ful den of Cacus, and the monster himself vpmit- 
" ing forth streams of fire. The spacious grove 
" was 6lled with the harmony, and the noise rc- 
" bounded from hill to hill" 

These are strains worthy of the manly breasts of 
Arcadians: We seem to hear them filling the am- 
bient air in the echoes of the woods and of the 

Consonant omoe nemas strepitu, coDesque resultant. 

. Virgil always expresses natural consonances. - 
They redouble the effect of his pictures, and infuse 
into tjiem the sublime sentiment of infinity. Con- 
sonances are in poetry what reflexes are in painting* 

This hymn will stand a comparison with the 
finest odes of Horace. Thpugh composed in regu- 
lar Alexandrian verses, it has all the elegant turn, 
and the movements, of a lyric composition^ especi^ 
ally in it's trjansi^ions. 

Evander afterwards relates to Eneas the history 
of the antiquities of the Country, beginning wifb 


Saturn^ who dethroned hy Jupiter retired thither, 
and there established the Golden Age. He informs 
his guests that the Tiber, anciently called Albula, 
had acquired it's present name from the Giant 7V- 
brisj who made conquest of the shores of that ri- 
ver. He shews him the altar and the gate, since 
called Carmentalis by the Romans, in honour of 
the nymph Carmenta his mother, by whose advice 
he had come to form a settlement in that plac^, 
after having been banished from Arcadia his native 
Country. He points out to him an extensive wood, 
of which Romulus in after times availed himself as 
an. asylum ; and at the bottom of a rock, the grotto 
of Pan-Lupercal, so called, he tells him, in imitation 
of that of the Arcadians of Mt)unt Lj^ceum. 

* Nee noto et sacri roonstrat nemus Argileti : 
TestatDrque locum, et lethum docet hospilis Argi. 
Hing ad Tarpeiam seddm et Capitoli» dficit, 
Aurea duuc, olim sylvestribus horrida dumis* 
Jam turn religio pavidos terrebat agrestes 
Dira loci, jam turn sylvam saxumque trifemebiin't. 
Hoc nemus, hunc« inquit, frondoso vertice coUetD, 

* Here, Pan, beneath the rocks thy temple stood; 
There, the renowned Asylum in the wood. 
Now points the monarch, where, by vengeful steel 
Hismurder'd guest, poor hapless Argus, fell ! 
Next, to the capitol their course they hold, 
Then rooPd with reeds, but blazing now with gold. • 

£v'n then her awful sanctity appeared ; 
The swains the local majesty revered. 
-All pale with sacred horror, they surveyed 
The solemn mountain and the reverend shade. 
Some God, the monarch said, some latent God 
Dwelb in that glopm, andhnunts tlie fi-o^ning wcod% 

*.- ^ ^ D2 • Ofc 

^ » 

^ * 


(Quis Deus incertuna est) h&bitlmt DeaSy Arcftdes ipsum 
Cfedunt se vidisse Jovem : ciim sxpe nigrantefli 
^^^ida concuteret deitrn^ nimbosque cieret. 
Ilaec duo pneteren dnjectis oppida muris, 
Relliquias veterumque Tides mouomeota TirorniD. ' 
Hanc Janus pater, banc Saturnus coodidit urlj>em i 
Janiculum huic, illi fuerat Saturuia nomen. 

£keiD| B. Tiif. L. 345—359^ 

" He next shews him the sacred gro\^e of Argi- 
** letum : makes a solemn appeal to that awful spot,^ 
" and relates the story of his murdered guest Argus. 
" Then he conducts him to the Tarpeian rock ; and 
•* to the Capitol, now shining with burnished gold, 
" once clothed all over with wild shrubbery. J^ven 
" then the gloomy religious horror of this spotter- 
** rifled the trembling rustics; even then theyshiidr 
'* dered, as they approached the rocky precipice 
^* and the wood. Some God, says he, but which of ' 
** the celestial powers we know not,, inhabits this 
** grove and this shaggy-topped eminence. Our 
" Arcadians imagine they have had a glimpse of 
" Jupiter himself, from time to time shaking the 
*' heart- appalling ^gis with his formidable right- 
^' hand, and rousing into fury the thunder-impreg^ 
" nated clouds. You farther see these two ruinous 
^^ cities, with walls crumbling into dust, the sad 

■■ ■ ■ " ' ■ " '■ — *■ r ■ . . ■ .. - -■ ■ 

Oft our Arcadians deem, their wondering e;^e.<r 
I Have seen, great Jove^ dread sovereign of the skies ;. 
High o'er their heads, the Qod his«gis held, 
And blackenM Heaven with ctouds> and shook th** immortal shield t- 
In ruins there two mighty towns behold, 
Rais'd by our ^ires;. huge monuments of old ? 
Janu/ and Saturn** name tliey proudly bore^, 
. Their two great founders ! • • * • but are now no more* ! Pitt. 

** remains 


^ remains and venerable monuments of personages 
'*^ who flourished in ages long since past. Janus 
" founded the one, and Saturn the other: hence, 
^' this ol^tained the name of Janiculum, and that 

Here are the principal monuments of Rome, as 
well as the earliest religious establishnients ascribed 
to the Arcadians. The Romans celebrated the feast 
of Saturn in the month of December. During tlmt 
period of festivity the masters and the slaves sat 
down at the same table; and these last then enjoyed 
the liberty of saying and of doing whatever they 
pleased in memoiy of the ancient equality of Man- 
kind, which prevailed in the reign of Saturn. The 
altar and the gate Carmentalis^ long subsisted at 
Rome, as well as the grotto of Pan-Lupercal, which 
was under Mount Palatine. 

Vir^l opposes, with the ability of a great Mas- 
ter, the rusticity of the ancient Sites which sur- 
rounded the ismall Arcadian city of Pailentum, to 
the ttiagnificence of those very places within the 
precincts of Rom^; and their rudealtar^ with their 
venerable and religious traditions under iJvtfwdfer, 
to the gilded temples of a city in which nothing 
venerable or religious was any longer to he seen, 
under Augustus. 

There is here likewise another moral contrast, 
which produces a more powerful effect than all the 
physical contrasts, and which admirably paints the 
simplicity, and the uncorrupted integrity, of the 
King of Arcadia. Itis when that Prince justifies him- 
self, without beiiigcalledupon to do so, from the sus- 
picion of haviag caused thedeath of his guestuirgus^ 

D 3 and 


apd appeals, as a witness of his iDtiocence^ to tbc 
wood which he had consecrated. to hipa. Thjs Ar^ 
gusy or this Argian, had insinuated himself into his 
bouse with an intention to murder hiip; but, 
having been detected, was condemned to die> 
JEvander had a tomb reared to his memory, and 
bere solemnly protests that he had not violated in 
bis case the sacred rights of hospitality, Tl^ 
piety of this good King, and the protestation which 
he makes of his innocence, respecting a stranger 
who was deeply criming against himself, and justly 
condemned by the laws, forms a won^rfuUy finQ 
i;ontrast to the illegal proscriptions of gu^sts^, of 
parents, of friends, of patrons, wherepf RoQ^e had 
been the theatre for an age before, and which had 
excited in no one Citizen^eitber scruple or remorse^ 
The quarter of Argiletum extended, in Rome, along 
the banks of the Tiber, The town Janiculum had 
been built on the mount of that name, and Saturnia 
on the rock first called the Tarpeian and after- 
wards the Capitol, the place of Jupiter s residence*. 
This ancient tradition of Jupiter s frequently coI» 
Jecting the clouds on the summit of this forest-co^r 
vered rock, and there brandishing his dark jegis, 
cpnfirros what has been said in my preceding Stu**, 
dies of the hydraulic attraction of the summits of 
mountains, and of their forest, which arte the 
soijrces of rivers. This was the case likewise with 
Olympus, frequently involved in clouds, on which 
th^ Greeks fixed the habitation of the Gods. In 
the ^ges of ignorance, religious sentiments^ ex- 
plained physical effects : in ages of illumination, 
pJiysipaji effects bring men bagk to religious senti-. 


ments. Nature at all times $i>eak8 to Man the 
same language in diflferent dialects. 

VirgU completes the contrast of the ancient mo- 
numents of Rome, by presenting a picture of the 
poor and simple h^itation of the good King Evan- 
4er^ in the very place where so many sumptuous 
palaces were afterN^rards reared. 

« Talibus inter se dtctls a tecta subibant 

Paapieris Erandri; passimque armeota videbaot 
Romanoqoe Foro €C laatis nragire Carinis. 
Ut ventum ad sedes: HiBc, inquiti liminafictdr 
Alcides«ubiitt htSc itlam regia ceptt. 
Aude, hospes, contemnere opes, et te ^aoqoe dIgnoiQ 
Finge Deo^ rebusque veni non aspcr egenis* 
•l^tit; et angttsti ejubter fasli^a testi 
logentem £tteaiii duiit : «trat'i^ue kxraTit, 
Effultum foliis et pelle Libystidis utssql 

JEneid, B. yiii, L 359— 3^8. 

^ While thus conversing, they drew nigh to the 

^ lowly roof (sf the poor Emnder : and saw the 

^ cattle strolling up and down, and heard their 

^* lowing, in i«rhat is^now the Roman Foruin, and 

^ the splendid quarter of the Rosti^ Bsiiig^rived^ 

* Thu8 tbey conversed on 'works of ancient fam^ 
liU to tb0 Monarches humble courts they came ; ' 
There mcen stqlk'd^whem palaces are raitfd* 
And beUoiVing herds in the proud forum graa^clp 
Lo ! said the good old King, this poor abod^ 
Beceiv'd great HercuUt, the victor God ! 
Thotty top, as nobly, raise thy soul abcnre 
All pomps,, and emulate the seed of Jove, 
With that, the hero's hands the Monarch prest. 
And to the mansion led the godlike guest. 
There on a bear's roughs spoils his limbs he lai4« 

' A^d sw^Iing foliage heap'd the hopiely b^ed.^ 

P 4 


^* This threshold, says he, received the victorious 
** Jlcides; this humble palace entertained a guest 
** so illustrious. Dare like hin), my beloved guest 
** to look down on wealth, and thus approve thy 
^' celestial origin, and kindly accept the hospitality 
^^ of this poor mansion. He spake, and conducted 
*' the mighty Eneas through a narrow portal ; and 
" placed him on a couch of foliage, covered with 
*' the skin of a Ly bian bear." 

It is here evident how deeply Virgil is penetrated 
with the simplicity of Arcadian manners, atid with 
what delight he sets Evander^s cattle a-lowing 
in the Forum Romanum, ' and makes them pas- 
lure in the proud quarter of the city, distinguished 
by the name of Carina^ thus called, because Pom- 
pey had there built a palace ornamented with the 
prows of ships in bronze. This rural contrast pro- 
duces the most agreeable effect This author of 
the Eclogues recollected assuredly in this place 
the shepherd's pipe. Now he is going to lay down 
the trumpet, and to assume the flute. He proceeds 
to oppose to hi9 picture of the dreadful conflict , 
with Cacus^ to the hymn of Hercules^ to the reli- 
gious traditions of the lioman iponnments, and to ^ 
the austere fanners of E^and^r, the most voluptu^ 
ous episode of his whole Work. It is that of Te- 
nus, coming to solicit Fukan to piake a suit of ar- 
mour for EneaSf 

* Nox ru|t, et fuscis tellureoi amplfsctitur alls ; 
At Venus haud animo nequicquam evterrita mater. 

* Naw awfuF Night her solemn darkness brings, 
And stretches Q-er th^ Woje14 ber dusky wiop; When 



taarenturnqoe minis et daro mota tumolta, 
Vulcanum atloqukur^ thalamo<|tte hmc conjugis aurao 
Iticipie,et ilktis divinam as^rat «morem: 
Dam b^Ilo Argolici Testabant Perguna regps 
Debitay casurasquc inimicis ignibos arces^ 
Non ullum auxiiium miseris^^ oon aima rqgavi 
Artis opisque tuae ; nee te» carissine cvDJnxy 
Incassumve tuos volui exercere laborer 
Quamvis et Priami deberem plurima Dadi^ 
£t durum JEnex flevissem titepe laborem. 
Nunc, Jovis imperiis, RutuloPum constidt oris: 
Ergo eadem supplex venio^ et saactam mihi nomea 
Arma rogo, genitrtx nato. Te filia Nerei, 

When Venus (trembliog at ber dire a1atii» 

Of hostile Latium, and her sons in arm%) - , 

In those stilly moments, thus to Vuican said« 

Keclin'd and leaning on the golden bed: 

(Her thrilling words her melting consort movc^ 

And every accent fans the flames of love : 

When Crael Greece and unrelenting Fate 
Conspir'd to sink in dust the Trojan state. 
As nion's doom was sealed, I ne^er impIorM 
In tiiose long wars, the labours of my lord ; ' 

Nor urg'd my dear, dear consort to impart. 
For a lost empire, his immortal art; 
Tho' Priam^s royal offspring claimM my care^ 
Tho' much I sorrowed for my godlike heir. 
Now as the chief by Jove^s supreme command. 
Has reached at length the destiuM Latin land; 
To thee, my guardian power, for aid 1 ran { 
A Goddess begs; a mother for a 8on« 
Oh ! guard the hero from these dire alarms^ 
Forge, for the Chief, impenetrable arms. 
Seet what proud cities every hand employ^ 
~ To arm new hosts against the sons of Troy; 
On me and all my people, from afar 
See what assembled nations pour to war! 
Yet not in vain her sorrows Thetif shed. 
Nor the fair partner of Tithonu^ bcd> 


Te potnit ladirymis Tithonia fiectore conjux. 
Aspice qui cocftnt pppuli que maenia clausis 
Ferrum acuant poitts, in me excidiumque meoram. 
Dixcrat; ct nivets hinc atque hinc diva lacertis 
CuDctantem ampteso moUi foret: ille rep«ntb 
Accepit Bolitam flainmain, notasque .medallas. 
Intravit calor, «t labesacUi per ossa cucorrit : 
Non secus atqae olim tonhru cum raptii corasco 
Ignea nma micans percucrit lumiiie nimbos. 
Sepsit laeta dolis, et formae conscia conjux. 
Turn pater aeterno satur dtvictus amore: 
Quid causaspetiif ex alto? Fidacia cessit 
Quh tibi, Diva, mei ? similis si cura fuisset. 
Turn quoque fas nobis Teacros armare fuisset 
Nee pater umnipotens- Trojam, nee fata vetabant 
^ Stare, decemque alios Priamum superesse per annos. 
£t nunc, si bellare paras, atque haec tibi mens est: 
Quicquid in arte me^ possum promittere cur«y 
Quod fieri ferro, liquido?e potest electro, 

When they, of old, impior'd my lord to grace 
With arms immortal, an inferior r^ce. 
Hear then, nor let thy Queen in vain implore 
The gift those Goddesses obtained before. 

This said, her arms, that matched the Winter snows 
Around her uoresolviug Lord she throws; 
' Wlien 1q ! more rapid than the lightning fiies. 
That gilds with momentary beams the skies, 
The thrilling flames of love, without controuI> 
' Flew thro' the sooty God, and fir'd his soaL 
With conscious joy lier conquest she descry'd; 
When, by her charms subdu'd, her Lord reply'd ; ^ 

Why ail these reasons urg'd, my. mind to move ; 
When such your beauties, and so fierce my love ! 
Long since, at your request, my readj care» . 
Jn Troy's fam'd fields bad arm'd your sons for war^ 
Nor did the high decrees of Jove and Fate 
Doom to so swift a fall the Dardan State. 
But ten years more old Priam*s might enjoy 
Th* imperial sceptre and the throne of Troy. 
Yet, if our Queen is bent the war to wage,, 
liersjicred caus^ shall all our s^rt engage. . Tb^ 

Quantum igmes animaeque valent: absiste, procando, 
Viribus iudubitare tuis. £a verba locutus, 
OptaitOB cbdit amplexus: placidumque petivit 
C9iiJQ$i» iiifusu» gremioy per membra soporem« 

iE««Eip, B. ?iii. L. 369— 4011: 

*\ Night hastens on, and encircles the Earth with 

"** dusky wings, but Venus, whose maternal breast 

• y was agitated with well grounded apprehensions, 

^* alarmed at the threats of the Laurentian Chief, 

" and the dire preparations of approaching war, 

^^^ addresses lierself to Fw/caw, and, reclined on her 
** spouse's golden bed, tjius begins, while love 
'* celestial flowed from her lips : All the time that 

• *' the Grecian Princes were ravaging the plains of 
*^ ill-fated Troy, and assailing her lofty turrets, 
^' doomied to fall by hostile fires, I claimed no as- 
'* ststance for that wretched. People ; I asked no 
"arms, the production of thy matchless skill ; nor 
" could I think, my dearly beloved husband, of 
** employing thee in a fruitless labour, though I 
" both Jay under manifold the family 
^' of JPm;», and had frequent occasion to shed tears 

The nofilest tirm^ our potent skiU can fmme, 
With breathing bellows, or the forming flame. 
Or polishM steel, refalgent te behold, 
Or mingled metals, damaskM o'er with gold, 
Shall grace th« chief: thy antkouB fears give o^et^ 
And doubt thy interest in my love no 'more. 

, He spoke; and fir'd with traueport by her cbannS], 
Clasp'd the fair Goddess in his eager arms;' 
Then, pleasM, and panting on her bosom lay, 
jSumk in repose, va^ all dissoIvM away^— *»]P^t, 



•* over the perilous exertions of Eneas. Now, by 

*^ Joves supi:enie command, he, has landed on the 

*^ Rutulian shore. In the same state of anxiety, I 

'* have now recourse to thee as a suppliant, and 

** implore a protection ever sacred in my eyes. Ar- 

" mour \ ask of thee, a mother for a son. The 

** daughter of NereuSy and the spouse of Ttthonus^ 

" had the'art of prevailing on thee, by their tears, 

" to grant a similar favour. Behold what Nations 

" are combined, what cities have shut their gates, 

" and are whetting the sword for the destruction 

*' of me and mine. 

^^ She spake ; and as he hesitated, she flung her 

" snowy arms around him, and cherished him in 

** her soft embrace: he instantly catches the well 

•* known flame, and the accustomed fire penetrated 

** his very marrow, and flew like lightning through 

** his melting , frame ; just as when a fiery stream 

** issues from the bosom of a thundery cloud, and 

^* ^kirts it's edge with tremulous light. His fair 

** spouse conscious of beauty's power, joyfully per- 

*' ceiv^d thejnfluence of her wily charms: and 

'* tlms the good-natured Parent of Arts, subdued 

** by the irresistible magic of mighty love, replies : 

" Whjr^go so far in quest of arguments? Whither, 

". my Goddess, has thy confidence in me fled? Hadst 

" thou expressed a similar anxiety before, I would 

** then have fabricated arms for thy favourite Tro- 

" jahs. Neither almighty Joxe^ nor Fate, forbad 

** Troy to stand, nor Priam to survive for ten years 

" more;. ■ Now, then, if for war thou are preparing, 

"and if such is thy resolve, whatever my skill can 

'• perform I solemnly promise to effect ; whatever 


** cam be produced from iron, or liquid mixtures of 
" the finer metals : as far as the fiery element and 
** the breathing bellows have power to fashion ; 
" Cease, by continuing your entreaties, to express 
" a doubt of your empire over me. Having thus 
** spoken he returned the expected caresses, and 
** melted away in the soft bosom of his fair con- 
^* sort, while gentle sleep stole upon every limb." , 
Firgil always employs conformities in the midst 
of contrasts. He chuses the night season for in* 
troducing Fenus to practise her bewitching arts on 
Vulcan^ because the power of Fenus is greatest in 
the night. It was impossible for me to convey in 
a feeble prose version, all the graces of the language 
of the Godess of Beauty. There is in her diction 
a delightful mixture of elegance, of negligence, of 
address, and of timidity. I shall confine myself to 
only a few strokes of her character, Mrhich appear 
to me capable of being most easily bit. At first, 
she lays great stress on the obligations which sl)€ 
was under to Priam's family. The chief, and I 
believe the only one, was the apple adjudged in lier 
favour by Paris^ one of the sons of Prvam, in pre- 
judice of Juno and Minerva. But that apple, 
which had declared her the most beautvful of the 
three, and which had moreover humbled her rivals, 
was £V£ttY THING to Fcniis : she accordingly call$ 
it Pturimay and extends her gratitude on that ac- 
count not to Paris only, but to all the sons b( Priam. 

QiHunvis et Priami deberem pluaim a ««/if. 

-As to Eneas, her son by Anehises, although he b^ 
here the giand object of her enterprise, slie ^pea][cs 

, only 


only of the tears which she had shed over his ca-? 
lamities, and even these she dispatches in a single 
lin^. She names him only once^ and in the verse 
"following describes him with io much ambiguity^ 
that what she says of Eneas might be referred to 
Prianiy so fearful is she of repeating the name of 
the son of Jnchises in presence of her husband ! 
As to VukoHy she flatters him^ supplicates, implores^' 
yrheedles him» She calls his skill, " her sacred 
protection :" sanctum nunien. But when she comes 
to her great point, the armour for EneaSj she ex- 
presses herself literally in four words; " Arms | 
beg ; a motlie r for a son'; Arma rogo i^genetrix nata. 
She does not say, " For ha^ son;*' but conveys her 
meaning in general termS; to avoid explanatioi^s of 
a nature too' particular. As the ground was slip- 
pery, she supports herself by the exaipple.of tw\j 
faithful wive», that of Thetis and Aurora^ who had 
obtained from Vulcan armour for their sons; the 
first for AchlUeSy the second for Memnon. The 
duldren of these Goddesses were indeed legitimate^ 
but they weie mortal X\kt Eneas, which Was sufficient 
for the moment. She next atteinpts to alarm her 
husband for her own personal saftty. She sug- 
gests that she stopd exposed to increxlible danger. 
** Comjbincd Nations," says she, *' and formidable 
^* cities whet the sword against me.!' Vulcan h 
staggered, yet still hesitates; she fixes* his de- 
.terminati«on by a poaster-stroke; she folds him in 
her beautiful arms, and caresses him. Let wha 
can render the force of: Cunctantem aynplexu molli 
f0vet....sensit leta doUs.^.und above all,./or7W^ ft?n- 
*cw^ , which defies all the pow^ of itmn^atiQiu 

5 Vulcan* » 


^ Fulcaris reply presents perfect adaptatioinfi to the 
situation into which he had been thrown by the. 
<^resses of KmuSf 

' Virgil gives, hioiy firsts thp ti*lp of Father; 

Tttm Pafer'aeterno fatur devictus amore. 

I have translated the word Pater^ " Father of 
/*Arts," but improperly. Tliat epithet bplongs 
inore justly to ^poUa than tQ F(</c<]ui; it here im- 
ports the good Vulcan. Virgil frequently employs 
the word, father, assyno^iymous with good. He 
often applies it to Emasy and to Jupiter himself: 
Pater EueaSj Pater omnipotem. The principal 
character of a father being goodness, he qualifies, 
by this name, his hero, and the Sovereign of the 
Gods. The word, father, in this passage, signifies, 
in the most literal sense of the words, good man ; 
for Vulcan speaks and acts with singular goodness 
of disposition. But the word, father, taken apart, 
is not sufficiently dignified in our language, in 
which it i^onveys the same meaning, in a trivial 
inanner. The commonalty addresa it, in familiar 
discourse, to old men, and to good natured persons. 
Some commentators have observed, that in these 
%vprds : ^ 

Fiducia cessit quo tibi Diva inei, 

there is an inversion of grjanamatical construction; 
^nd they have thought piffjpeif t9 ascribe this to a 
poetical licence. ^ They li^*e n()t perceived that the^ 
irregularity of Vulc'gaV (Ti/qtiou proceeds from, the 
cirsprder of his h^ad ; apd th2it Virgil represents him 
not only ^s transffr^spin^ against thjs rules gf grain-^ 


mar, but trespassing against the laws of even com- 
mon sense, in making him say, that had Venus ex^ 
pressed a similar anxiety before, it would have been 
in his power to fabricEite armour for the Trojans; 
that Jupiter and the Fates did not forbid Troy to 
jitand, nor Priam to reign ten years longer: 

Similis si cure foisset; 
Tom quoque fas nobis Teucros armare fuisset ; 
Nee Pater omnipotens Trojam, nee Fata TCkabant 
Stare, decemqoe alios Priamum superesse per annos. 

It was decidedly clear that Fate had destined 
Troy to fall in the eleventh year of the , siege, and 
that this irrevocable decree had bee|i declared by 
many oracles and prognostics ; among others by 
the presage of a serpent which devoured ten little 
birds in the nest with their mother There is in 
Vulcan's discourse a great deal of swaggering, to 
say no worse of it, for he insinu,ates, that there 
were arms which he could have made, in complais- 
ance to Venus^ capable of counteracting the course 
of Fate, and the will of Jupiter himself, to whom 
he gives the epithet of omnipotent by way of de- 
fiance. Observe farther, by the way, the rhyme 
of these two verses, in which the same word i^ 
twice repeated successively without any apparent 

• ^i c^ra faisset. 

• • ^••• •arroare fuisset. 

Vulcan intoxicated with love, knows neither what 
he says nor what he does. He is completely deran^jedf 
in his expression, in his thoughts^ and in his ac^trons^ 
fox he forms the resolutionrof fabricating maghlficent 
armouy for the iflegitimatejondfhk faithless spouse. 

It ' 

It i^' tiue he avoids naming hiin. She has pro-' 
nounc'ed his name but once, out of discretion ; and 
he suppresses it altogether, out of jealousy. To 
Venus alone the service is to be rendered. It ap- 
pears as if he believed she was going personally to 
engage in combat : " If for war thou art preparing/' 
says he to her, **and if such is thy resolve :" 

•Si bellare pnvas, atqae hseo tibi mens ieit. 

The total disorder of his frame terminates that 
of his address. Heated- with the fire of love in the 
arms of Vehus^ he dissblves like metal iii the fbr- 
nace:" " ' 

xtj^mark tlie accuracy of that metaphorical con* 
sonance, infumsy " dissolvfed," so perfectly adapted, 
to the God of the forges of Lemnos. At length,, 
he b^ome completely insensible. 

•■-• , ; % 

' ^; ' plic|limk|«e petivic -^ 

iSbj&o^ means a great deal more thkn sleep. It far* 
tfe^t- presents a conscfnance of the state of metals 
^cr their fusion, a total stagnatibtl. 

'^BUt in order to weaken the effect of what is li- 
centious in this picture, and inconsistent with coa« 
jugal manners, the sage Virgil opposes immedi- 
ately after to the Goddess of voluptuousness, re- 
questing of her hui^band armour for lier natural 
son, a matron chaste and poor, employed hi the art*. 
of Minerva to rear her young ones ; and he applies 
that affecting image to the self^same hours of the 
night, in the view of presenting a new contrast, 
Vol. IV. E of 


of the different uses which .vice and virtue make 
of the same time. 

* Inde ubi prima quies medio jam noctit abacte 

Curricuio expulerat somnum ; cam foiminai prin^m 
* ' ' Cui tolerare colo vitam tenuique MinervlL 
Jtnposi&um cinerem et sopitos sincitfit ignes, 
Noctem addens y^peri^ ftunulasque ad limuo^ 1od|^ 
Exercet penso | castum ut servare cubile 
Conjugis, 9t povatl parvos educere nafeos. 

£m£ID, B. viii. L. 407-— 413* 
. V> : ' ' ■ • » 

" At the hour which tenniaatcs the fort sleeps 

" >vhen the car of Night h?id as yet performed hi^if^ 
^' half it's course; that season when first the carf- 
" ful housewife, accustoihed to earn her living hy 
" the labours of the distaff and the fcjeble. industry 
^* of the arts of Minerva^ blows away i:he gathcr- 
*^ ed ashes, and rouses up thq slumbering flame,, 
" making night itself contribute to her thrifty and 
" inures her maidens to lengthened tasks by glim- 
^' mering light; to save her^ielffrom the temptation 
*' of infidelity to her husband's bed, and to supply 
** the means of rearing, her : tender o^spxing;/'. « 

Firgil goes on to deduce. new and sublime cpn-v 
trasts from the humble occupations pf this virti^o^^ 

But rose refresl/d, impatient, from the bed. 
When half the ifteiit hours of night were dect 
What tirne the poor, iaborious, fVugal damfi. 
Who plies the distaff, stirs the dying flam^ ; 
J^mploys lier handmaids by the winking light, 
And lengthens oat their task with half the night ;' 
Thus to hn children she divides the bread, 
And guards the honours of h^ bomelj bed,<*->FitT. 

matron. He oppoaea, m cfiose sucGesskm^to her feeble 
industry, tenm Mineroa, the ingenious Fukanto 
her dying embers which she rekindles, sopitos igncsp 
the continually flaming crater of a volcano ; to her 
maidens, among whom she distributes balls of Mrool^ 
tongo exercet penso^ the tremendous Cyclops forg- 
ing a thunder-bolt for /ifpi^er» a c;»r for Many an 
»gis for Minerva, and who, at the command of 
their master, interrupt their celestial engagements 
to undertake a suitnof armour, for £n€ast on: the 
buckler of which were to be engravetl the priiieipal 
events of the Roman Hidt^ry. 

Baad secus Ignipotens, nee iiempore segnidr OIoi " ' 
MoUibus h sbuis operm ad fkbrilla suigit. 

Insula Sincankmi ^i«^a ia^ iEQiiamWi 
Brigitur Iii>ar«m, fivmntibiia ^^% flam \ 
Qoam sabtar i^tvw ^Qfilpfum ^mmmmm 
Antra iEtnaa tonaiH » vaM^oe JmsiiiMiil^ 
Aadidi«lmntgaBiHcuB|BtHduiilqp««|Taiii^ . 
ficricinni Chalybaa,at foroaciba^ Viit aab^ t 
Vtdcani domuBj, av Volca»it aomia^ liUva.' 
Hoc tone IgaipoWwoa4od«acaadiiab«llQ» • 


* So 10 his tasky before the dawo^ retires 
From soft repose, the father of the fires* 
Amid th' Hespeiiao r^ Sidtian flood 
AU black with sbioke^ a rocky is^nd stood, 
The dark Vulcaoian land^ th^ region of the Ood. , 

Here the grim Cyclops ply, ia vaults profound^ , , 

The huge iEolian forjffi that Mutod^rs raund, 
Th' eternal anvils ring ^ dungeon o'er ; 
From side to tid^ the fiety c«reni» roar. 
Loud groans the mass bcDeath their pond*rous hlow% 
Fierce bums the iUunt^. And the fall fiimaoa ^an» 
To this dark r^gjon, from the bright Abod% 
With speed iflopattuius flaw tha fioiyOvd- 

B« TU' 


Ferrum exerceUiiit vmU^ Cjrdopes in antroi 
j BrOBte^u«,Surapes{|iieHiivdu»iMii^4(ync|iioik 

His informatam manibosi jam parte p«lita, .^ 
' Fulmen erat, toto Geiiitor qae plumira ccelb 
- Dejieit in terha i part hnperfeeta nMHiebiat. 

Xr6» imbfis tbPti racUdSi tres iiabis aldose . 

i^ddiderant : rutili tres ignis^ et alitis Austri. 

Fulgores none terrificos, sonitumque,' metumqae 
^ - MtBcebant operi, fli&niisquci se<|uacibu» int^ 
V . ;Pllftemliftli4!futi«^lT1llpqueH>tw<|^•.▼olu9f9a 

lastabant, quibns iUe viro^ ^uibii9 esritat urbe» ; 

^idaque horrificamy turhatae Palladis arma 
^ C^rlatiin flqaamis seTpeatam ttdroqiie polibatit :' 

Commotqpe itfisMfftipwm^^ in p^Ql^iQ^ dit9K / 

Gor]gona9 detecto vertentem liuniim c^o. r : . . 

ii'j ' . 


Th' alternate blows tiie brawny bfetbrefif'Jleal ; 
Thick burst the spi^i^ ffom'the^tortnipM ste«t, :'. * 
Huge strokes mdgb Sltirffm tend BtonM |ftV«» • 
And strong PyMliKiiiabookliieglbohiy^f^ -- • 
Before the Sovereign eflatfe,the (Cyclops stAive ' < 

With eager spe«d, to f orgs a bolt for S&oe. > > •• 

Such as by Heaven's almighty-Lord are'hurFd, 
All chaig'd with Tfiiigtaiice^'on a-giiilty- WMrf. 
Beneath their hands^ tremendous to surrey ? 

Half rough, haiflbfm'd, the direadfcd enginetay r 

Three points of rain ; three forks of hail conspire ; 

Three arm'd with wind ; and tlirec were barVd with fire 

The mass they tempered thick with livid rays, 

Fear, Wrath, and Terror, and the lightning's blaze. 

IVith equal speed a second train prepai'e 

The rapid chariot for the God of War ; ' / - . . 

The thundering wheels and axlesi'th^t Excite 

The madding nations to' the rage df ^ght. " ' 

Some, in a fringe, thne burnish"^ serpisnis roU'd " 

Bound the dread segis, bright with iM)aIes oiTgold ; ' 

The Itorrid segis, great Minerva?^ shifeld, ' 

When, in her Wrath, she takb the fmtaf iield; 

All charged with cajrling snakes the boss they rals'd. 

And the grim Gorgon's bead tremeQcfeas blazU 


^ . .X- 'VEiiGHSirF. ; < : 18 

ToSte la^ta, tiu{ait, coBptosque auferte Ubores, 
JBtnei Cyclopes, et hue advertite mentem. 
ArmA acri facienda vilro : nunc viribus usus, 
NwBC maQibas rapidia^ omni nuttc arte magiml: 
PnBcijpitate moras. Nee plura' e&tus ; at ilU 
Ocius incubere omues, pariterque laborem 
Sortiti : Floit sS rivis, aurique metallum : 

ValiUBicusque ehalybs vtailk fornace liquetcit. ' * 

Ingenteni clypeom informant^ unum omnitf coocra 
Tela Latinoram : septenosque oribus orbes 
. IntpediUDt : alii ventosis follibus auras 
Acdpiant, reddmitque: alii stridentta ^ngunC 
JSra laca : gexak impositis incudtbus aotruou 
Illi inter sesemultll vi bracbia tollunt 
In numerum, vertantque tenaci fordpeiAassam. 

JSAEift) B. triii. L. 4ir-^5S. 

*^ Not less vigilant, noi* less disposed to industry, 
" at that early Hour the God who rules the fire up- 
** rose from his soft couch, and addressed himself 
" tb hrs plastic labours?. 

Jji agonizing pains the oioBster frown'd. 
And roll'd in death her fiery eyes around. 

Thcow, throw your tasks aside, the Sovereign said • 
Anns for a godlike Hero must be made. 
Fly to the work before the dawn of day ; 
Your speed, your strength^ and all your skill display. 

Swift as the word, (his orders to pursue,) 
To the black labours of xha forge they Aew ; > 

Vast heaps of steel in the deep furnace rolled, 
And bubbling streams of brass, and floods of melted gold* 

The brethren first a glorious shield prepare. 
Capacious j)f the whole Edtuljaa war. 
Some, orb in orb, the binding buckler frame ; 
Some with huge bellows ruuze the roaring flame ; 
Some in the stream the hissing metals dKown'd, # 

From vault to vaujt the thond'ring strokes reboumj^ ^ 

And the deep cave rebellows to the sound. ^ 

Exact in time each ponderous hammer f^ays ; ^ 

In tin^e their arm the giaat brethren nnsc^ y 

4 ad turn the ^lowifig n^ass a tboos^nd ymjSf'^Fm* \ 

E5 ' "Not 


" Not far from the Siciliati shore Md JBoiian 

** lipari, an island arises out of the deep, forming a 

'^ huge mass of lofty and ever-smoiUcing rocks : 

" in the burning entrails of which, a spacious 

^" cavern and the fire-consuitied -^tnean vaults 

^* incessantly thunder with the sultry labourv of 

*' the Cyclopian brothers ; the anvils reverberate 

" the thumping of their sturdy strokes : the 

'' hammering of flaming steel resounds from cave to 

** cave, while streams of fire ascend from the foam- 

^' furnaces : such is the dread domain of Vulcan^ 

'^ and from his name the island has obtained ' the 

" appellation of Vulcania, Hither it was that the 

** fiery God, frop the heights of Olympus, now 

** repaired. 

" The Cyclops there he found plying their 
*' irony labours in the capacious cavern, Brontes 
" and Steropes^ and the naked-limbed Pyracmon. 
** They had in hand a dread thunderbolt, one of 
'* those which father Jove so frequently hurls from 
** flaming Heaven upon the Earth: it was as yet 
•* but half reduced to form, partly polished, and 
** partly in a rude imperfect state. They had 
** blended it in three rays of rain congealed into 
♦* hail ; three of the watery cloud ; three of ruddy 
** fire, and three of the winged Southwind. They 
" were now infusing into the composition the ter- 
** rific flash, and noise, and dismay, and anger 
(* mingling with the rapid flame. In another forge, 
y they were ardently finishing a warlike car, and 
** swift-flying wheels for Mars, in which he rouses 
V hostile armies *nd cities to the fierce combat. 
f Others were employed in burnishing, with 

^^ eiatilou$ 

^ "toBttious skin, a korrific asgis, the armour of Pat' 

^ las when moved to vengeance, with scaly ser- 
^* penfcs wrought in gold ; exibiting the inter- 
** tivisted snakes and the dire head of the Gorgon 
" herself, a covering for the breast of the God* 
*^ dess, cutoff by the neck, and rolling about her 
** deadly eyes. 

" Children of iEtna, says he, Cyclopian brothers, 
^ desist ; remove these unfinished labours out of 
" the way, and attend to what I am going to give 
" in charge. We have to fabricate armour for a 
^* redoubted mortal : now exert your utmost 
" strength, now ply your busy hands, now call 
" forth all your masterly skill : let not a single 
" instant be lost. He said no more : they all, 
^* with the quickness of thought engaged in the 
' *' work, and assign to each his share in the mighty 
" task hy lot The golden and the brazen metals 
*^ flow in rivulets ; and the death-fraught steal 
** dissolves in the enormous furnace. The vast 
" and ponderous shield they fashion, itself alone 
** a bulwark against all the weapons of the Latins ; 
** a sevenfold texture of impenetrable orb upou 
" orb. Some draw in and expel the air with 
*^ the breathing bellows, ; some temper the hissing 
" brass in the cooling forge ; the hollow cave re- 
" bellows with the strokes thundering on in- 
^* numerable anvils. They, in regular time and 
" order, elevate the brawny arm to the lusty blow, 
** and turn round and round the flaming mass 
" with the tenacious tongs.*' 

You think you see those gigantic sons of ^tna 
li^work, wd hear the noise of their ponderous hana- 

E 4 ' mers ; 


mers ; so imitative is the harmony of Virgifs Ter^ 

The composition of the thunder is well worthy 
of attention. It is replete with genius, that is with 
observations of Nature entirely new. VirgU intro- 
duces into it the four elements all at once, and 
places them in contrast : the earth apd the water, 
|he fire and the air. ; 

Tre9 irnbris tort; radio9, tres njibis aquosp 
AddideraDt, vutoli tres ignis, 6c alitis Aastri. 

Tliere is indeed in the composition po earth 
properly so called^ but he gives solidity to the 
water to supply it's place ; tres irnbris torti radios^ 
literally " three rays qf crisped rain/' to denote hail. 
This metaphorical expression is ingenious : it sup- 
poses the Cyclops to have crisped the drops of the 
rain, in order to form thepi into hail-stones, Re- 
mark likewise the appropriate correspondence of 
the expression alitis Austria *^ the winged Auster/' 
Auster is the Wind of the South, which alinost al- 
>vays occasions thundery weather in Europe. 

The Poet has afterwards had the boldness to 
plact metaphysical sensations on the apvil of the 
Cyclops : metumj " fear ;*' iV^^, " wrath*" He 
amalgamates them with the thunder. Thus hp 
shakes at once the physical system by the contrast 
of the elements ; and the moral system by the 
ponsonance of the soul, and the perspective of 
' Peity. 

• •«... Fiammisque. seqnacibuft irat. 

He sets tlie thunder a-|-olling, and shews Jupiter 
^ \n the cloud. 

flrgii farther opposes to the h?ad of Palias, that 


of Medusa; but this is a contrast in^^conamon to 
him with all the Poets. But here is one peculiar 
to himself Vulcan commands his Cyclopian work- 
men to lay aside their operations designed for the 
use of deities, and to give undivided attention to 
the armour of a mortal. Thus he puts in the same 
balance, on the one hand the thunder of Jupiler, 
the car of MarSy the aegis and cuiras of Pallas; and 
on the other the destinies of the Roman Empire, 
which were to be engraven on the buckkr of a 
man. But if he gives the preference to this new 
work, it is wholly out of love' to Venus^ not from 
any regard to the glory of Eneas. Observe, thsit 
the jealous God still avoids naming the son of An* 
chiseSy though he seems here reduced to the neces- 
sity of doing it. • He satisfies himself with saying 
vaguely to the Cly clops: Arma acrifaciehda virp. 
The lepithet, acer^ is susceptible of both a favour- 
able and an unfavourabk sense. It may import 
keen, wickedly severe, aud can hardly with pro- 
priety be applied to a person of so much sensibiUty 
as EneaSy to whom Virgil so frequently appro- 
priates the character of the pious. 
" Finally, Virgil^ after the tumultuous picture of 
the .Slolian forges, conveys us back, by a new con- 
trast to the peaceful habitation of good king Evan-- 
d^r^ who is almost as early a riser as the good 
housewife, or as the God of fire. 

* Haec pater iEoliis properat dom Lemfiias oris, 
{Ivaudrum ex huinili t^tp hin^ susciu^ alin« 

^ These cares ekiploy the fathep of the fires ; 
lifeaMipme Zvmd^r from bis couoh retires, 



Bt vntvtiqj^inludrvni 99h evlmioq cnotu^ 
Consui^^it s^ior, tuoioftque mdacitar aitvt, 
£t Tyrrhena pedum circumdat Tincula planlis? 
Turn lattri atqufi hnmeris Tegeaeum lubligat eusen, 
DemisM ab imvn paMhtrs tttpi retorqucnii 
Nmqoo •! genani caitodea linuae ab alto 
Procedont, gressumque eanea comitantiir herilcnu 
liospitis Sjaem sadem et secreta petebat, 
Semonaai aMaMW el proniitti OMiieris beros, 
/ KecmiiHisil^ifatfleinaltttiaaaagebat 
Ftliiis bttic Pallat, olli comes ibat Achates. 

i£K£iD, B. viii. L. 454^466. 

** While the Lemnian God was dispatching this 
" \wighty business on the shores of JEoIia, the 
** genial rays of returning Aurora, and the matin 
^ song of the birds under his straw-clad roof, sum- 
" moned Evander from his lowly bed. The viener- 
*^ able sire arose: he assumes the tunic, fitted to his 
'' ancient limbs, and binds the Tuscan sandals upon 
'^ his feet; next he fits to his shoulders and side 
" the Arcadian sword ; a panther's hide, thrown 
•' carelessly l)ackward, depended over his left arm. 
'^ Two faithful guardian dogs leave their station at 
" the threshold, and, well-pleased, attend their 
" master's footsteps. The hero well recollecting 

Cnird bj th^ parple beams of morn away, 
And tunefal birds, that hail'd the dawning day, 
fint the warm umic rouad his limbs he threw; 
Keait OQ bis feet the shioing tanddb dnw. 
Around his shoulders flow'd the paather's hide. 
And the bright sword hung glittering at his side. 
Two might/ dogs^ domestic at his board, 
( A faithful giiaitl) attend tbelr aged Lonf . 
The promis'd ^d revolving in his breast. 
The careful Monarch sought his godlike guest, 
Who with Achatet rose at the dawn of dajr. 
And joined the King and Pailat ou the wa/.— PiTxi 



^ the conversation of the niglit before^ and the aid 
*' which he had promised, was bending his course 
^^ toward the apartment and secret retreat of his 
'' respected guest EncM too had been up with 
*^ the dawn : they met ; the one attended by his 
" youthful heir, the other by his confidential friend 

Here is a very interesting moral contrast 
The good King EvandeVy without any body- 
guards except two dogs, wh^ch likewise served tx^ 
watch the house, walks forth at day-break to con^ 
verse on business with his guest And do not ima- 
gine that upder his straw-covered roof mere triflo 
are negotiated. No less a subject is discussed than 
the re-establishment of the Empire of Troy, in the 
person of Eneas^ or rather the foundation of the 
Roman Empire. The point in question is the dis* 
solution of a formidable confederacy of Nations. 
To assist in effecting this, King Evmder offers to 
Eneas a reinforcement of four hundred cavaliers. 
They are indeed selected, and to be commanded by 
Pallas^ his only son. I must heie observe one of 
those delicate correspondencies by which Virgil 
conveys important lessons of virtue to Kings as 
well as to other men, in feigning actions appa*' 
rently indifferent : I mean the confidence reposed 
by Evander in his son. Though this young Prince 
Avas as yet but in the blossom of life, his father ad- 
mits him to a conference of the highest importance, 
as his companion : Comes ibat. He had given the 
name of Pallanteum, in honour of his son, to th6 
city which he himself had founded. Finally, of 
the four hundred cavaliers whom he promises to the 



Trc^ Prince, to be liader the conmumd of PMas^ 
two bimdred he himself is to select out of the Arca- 
dian youth, and the other two hundred are to be 
/umished by his son in his own name* 

^ * Agendas hnjc eqjuite» bis centum, robora pubis 
Lecta^ dabo ; totidemque suo tibi nomiue Pallas. 

iEKEiDy B. viii. L, 518—519. 

Instances of paternal confidence are rare among 
Sovereigns, who frequently consider their succes- 
sors as their enemies. These traits strongly depict 
the candour and the simplicity of manners of the 
King of Arcadia, 

That good Prince might perhaps be censured 
for indifference about his only son, in removing 
bim from his person, and exposing him to the dan- 
gers of war: but he acts thus for a reason diame- 
trically opposite ; his object is to form the young 
man to virtue, by making him serve his first cam- 
paigns under a hero such as Eneas. 

f HuDc tibi praeterea, spes ct solatia nostrt 
Pfillanta adjungam. Sub te tolerare magistro. 
Militiam, et grave Martis opus, tua ceraere facta 
AsMiescat ; primis et te miretur ab anais. 

^MBiD, B. viii. L. 514—517. 

* Beneafh his stnndard rang*dy a chosen force 

I send, two hundred brave Arcadian horse ;. 

Andy to support the gathering war, my son 

Shall lead an equal squadron of his own.— Pitt. 
t And let my Pallas by thy side engage, 

PolUs, ti)e joy of my declining age. ^ 

Beneath so .great a master's forming care, 

Let the dear youth learn every work of war; 

In every field thy matchless toils admire, ' • 

4nd eiuulaie th^ deeds^ and catch the glorious 6re,^PiTT. 

« I will 

*^ I will likewiy^ send tny son Ptf /Aw himself with 
^ tbete ; Patla^my hope atid my ctelight I^t hiiri 
** acCtislom himself to endirre the painfiil t6t£i of 
^ war uiMler such a master, form his mind to glory 
•Vby the. sight 'of thy gallant deeds, and learn to 
" admire thee from his earliest years * \ 

The important part acted by this youog Prkice 
may be seen in the sequd of the jEneid. P^irgd 
has extracted many, exquisite beauties. out. of it : 
such are, amon^ others, the affecting leave which 
his father takes of him; the regret expressed by 
the good old man that age permitted him aot to^ 
accompany his son to the field ; after that, the 
imprudent valour of the young nian, who 'forget- 
ting the lesaou conveyed by the two bridles of 
AnchiseSy ventured to attack the formidable Tur^ 
nus, and received from his hand the mortal blow; 
jthe high feats in ajms performed by EneaSy to 
avenge the death of the son of his host and ally; 
his profound sorrow at sight of the youthful Pat- 
la^f cut off ki the flower of his age, and the very 
first day that he had engaged in the fight; fia^Uy, 
the honoiirs conferred on the lifeless body, when 
^e sent/lt to the alfflicted Father. 
- Here it i« we may remark one of those touching 
comparisons,* by which Vh'gtl;'\n imitation of Hih 

. * Those oomparlsoQS^re beauties which seem appropriate to .pbe^3r. 
Bat I think paintioig might adopt Uiem to advantage, and derive power- 
ful ^eflibcts from them. For examf^le, wheo a painter is representing on 
die £»re'glt>uod of a battle-piece, a joung' man of an intefestin|( cha^ 
ir, killadj and 'Stretched abtig the grass^ he might introduce near 
« " htoa 


nier, dminisheB the borrpr of his battle-pieces, snd 
already heij^htens their effect^ by establishii^ is 
them consonances wi^ beii^ of aqother or^r. 
It 16 in representing the beauty of the you«g P0l^ 
huy the lustre of which death hfui not yet been 
able entirely to efiace. 

him SQPitt beautiful wild plants aiialagoai to bis character, with droop* 
ing fiowersy and the Italki half cut down. If it were in the pitftore of 
% modem battle, bo mig^ HafSlato, and if I may venfiuM on thdek^ 
^resiiony kill in it, the veg^tablea of a hi|[^er order, soch at a fruitptroc^ 
or eren an oak; for our cauoon-bulleti commit ravages of ^ very dif* 
ferent kind in the plains, from those produced by the arrows and jave- 
lins of the Aiiciints* Tlwy plow up the turf of the bflls, iaewi|owi 
the forested deare aaiisder the young trees, and tear off bu^ fragments 
from the trunks of the most veoerable oaks. I do not recollect that I 
ever saw any of these effects represented in pictures of our modern 
battles* They are however very common in- the real scenes of waK, 
, and redouble the impiestions of terror v^hicb Pbiate^ iptend to eaci«e 
by the representation of sucb subjects. The desolation of a country 
bas a 4tiU more powerful expression tban groups of the dead» and of 
the dying. It*s groves levelled, die black Airrows of it's bp^torfi mea^ 
dowB, and it's rockt maimeda Swfuliy display the e^ot^ of human fof^ 
extending even to the aneient monuments of Nature. We discern «b 
them the wrath of fongs, which is their final argument, and is accorct^ 
ingly inscribed on their cannon: VU'ma ratio Kag^^ Nay there roighit 
^ eifveseed tbroMgh tbe whole eftlent of a baittl^^ioQe, the detpn(a» 
lions of the discbarge of artillery^ repeated by.t|io vallies to severnl 
leagues distance, by representing, in the back- grounds, the terriiSed 
shepherds driving off their charge, flocks of birds flying away toward 
the borixon, and the wild beasts iibandoning the woods. 

Phy«ical consonances heighten moral sensations, especially whien there 
is a transition from one kingdom of Nature to another. 

* There like a flower he lay, with beauty crpwnM, 
Plucked by some lovely Yiigjun fvom the groond: 


Cm neque fulgor,adhoC| nee dum sua fomarecessit: 
^Too jam mater alit tellus, viresque ministrac. 

* iSir^ii>»B.kt.LdQI--iri. 

. ' ♦ . . . . 

" Like a tender violet or languishing hyacinth, 
** cropped by the fingers, pf a virgin ; which have 
'* not yet lost their beauty and .th^ »diajiicej but 
'' their ]]^r^nt: Earth sustains them no more, no 
'* more supplies them with nourishment." 

Mark another cbusoiiaiice with the death of 
Ptaltus. ' In wder to ^xpr^s thi idea tl^at these 
flowers have not suffered in being separated fVom 
the patietlt stem, Ptrgiftepsi^setiis them as gathered 
by a young maiden; Virghtep demessum palUce ; 
literally, " reaped by a virgin finger,** arid from 
that ^ntle image there results a terrible contrast 
with the javelin of jUrnus, which had nailed the 
Irackler of PaUas to bii^ breast, «ad killed him by 
a single blow. 

.Finally; FirgH after harti)g • represented the 
gfief of £>6(mder on bdiolding the dead body of 
hb'ten^. and the despair of that unhappy father 
imploring the vengeance of Enms^ derives from 
tbe very death of JP^aUaS' the termination of tht 
war, and the close of the \£aeid ; iotJlumus ovtt^ 
eome in single , combat By Enea»^ resignii to him 
the victoty, the empinv the Priqaleesi Lemnia^ 4ud 
snqsplicatea^him to rest aatisfied^wlth Mcriflcet 94 
ample ; but the Trojan hero, on ihoipoiiitof gtanp 
iag! him his life^ perceiving the bek vo£ PalUf^ 

■ piiii I »■ , — I ■ ■■ I, ^ ■■.,■ ,. — . ■■■■■■. I y III >i»i^M^— i^K 

The root no more the mother earth suppKes, 

Yet still th' anfadedcobur ch^nni tte ejpMlHPftx. 



which Turnus had assumed, after having slain that 
young Prince, plunges his sword into his body, 
as he pronounces these words : 

l^alla^ te hoc mlnere, Pallas 
InuDolat^ et poDam sealento ex sanguine SMmt* 


" It is Pallas^ PaU4% who by this blow exicts^ 
''atonement^ and takes vengeance on thy criprinfil 
"blood/' ' ■ : : .i' . 

Thus it is that tbe Aircadrans b^ve ex^rcisei^ aa. 
influence, in every possible respect, over the his- 
torical n^onuments, the religiousi traditions, the 
^rliest wars, and the political origiii of the fto^ 
man Empire. , '. . : .!i - 

It is evident that the fige in which J'.eHbibit the. 
Arcadians is by no means an age of fidjoti. I col^ 
lected therefore, resp^ctingitbem and theircountry, 
the delicious images which the Poets have trans* 
mitted to us of theic,' together, with the n^osfc atir 
thentic traditions of Historians, which I^foundiia. 
great numbers in the/ Voyage of Pauaamtzs into 
Greece, in the Works otPldtdrch, and the Retreat 
of the ten thousand by Xmopk^n; so that I col- 
lected, on the subject of Arcadia, all that Naturie 
presents no&t lovely in our climates^ and History 
most probable in Antiquity. 
While I was engaged in those agreeable researches, 
I had the good fortune to form a personal aquaint- 
ance with John-James Rosseau. We very frequently 

* Tis AiftM, FulUa, gives the fatal blow. 
7hus is bt9 (host atoo'd*— Pitt. 


FRAGMENT; ' *" ^ 6li 

went out a walking, in the Summet-time, in every 
direction round Paris. I derived incxpfessibte 
satisfaction from his society. He hjid nothing of 
the vanity of most literary characters, who hfi 
continually disposed to draw the attentio'n of othe* 
men to their ideas ; and still less that of ^e men 
of the World, who imagine that a man of letters il 
good for nothing but to relieve their knguor by . 
prattling to them. He took his share of both the 
benefit and the burthen of conversation, talking in 
his turn, attentively listening when othevs talked! 
Nay he left to those with whom he associated, thi 
subject of the conversation, regulating himsdfac* 
cording to their standard, with so littie arrogance 
Df prttension, that among those.who did Hot knoW 
himf, persons of moderate dtscernrnent took him 
for an ordinary man, and tbo»s who assumed the 
lead considered hrm as much inferior to tbcnr* 
selves ; for with them be spoke very little, and pii 
very few sub^ts. He hai been scnnetiinesr ac- 
cused of pride on that account, by men of the 
fashionable world, who imprute their own vices to 
personis who havq not the advantage of fortune^ 
but who piossess an independent spirit that scorns 
t6 bend the neck to their yoke. But. among 
tnany other anecdotes which I could produce, in 
support of what I ji/iSt now said, namely, that 
simple fyeople took him for an ordinary man, here 
is one which nfe^t convince th^ Reader of his 
habitual modesty. 

The very day that he went to look for a dinner 
with the hermits of Motirit Valerian, as I have 

Vol. IV. F formerly 

66 8KQUEL to !f HE 8TUpi£8 OF NATURE. 

formerly irplated in a notp; on our return to Parw 

in the evjening, wc iir^rc caught in a shower^^ 

not far ffOfn thp Bois de Boulogne, opposite tq 

the Gate JViaillot- We went in to take ahelter 

under the great Che^nut-trees, which bad now 

begun to put put leaves ; for it was during tho 

Eastpr-holidays, Under those trees we found 4 

great deal of company, who like ourselves had 

crowded thither for covert, One of the Swiss'§ 

lads having perceived Jokn-JameSy came runixing 

up to him in a transport of joy, and thus accosted 

him : ** How now, my good man, whence do you 

" come ? It is an age §ince we have had the pleat 

'* sure of seeing you 1" Rousseau mildly replied ; 

'^ My wife has had a long fit of illness, and I my* 

***8elf have been considerably out of order," " Oh ! 

" My poor good man,^ replied the lad, *'you arc 

" not comfortable here : come, come ; I will find 

" yo]u a place widiin doors." 

In fact he exerted himself so zealously, that he 
procured us ap apartment above stairs, where, not^ 
withstanding the crowds he contrived to acconxf 
modate us with chairs, a table, and some bread 
and wine. While he was shewing us the way, I 
jsaid to John- James ; ^^ This young man seems to 
*f he very familiar with you ; surely he does not 
" know who you are?" *' Oh ! yes," replied he, 
J* we have been acquainted these several years. ♦ 
*f My wife and I used frequently to come hither iu 
" fine weather, to eat a cutlet of an evening." 

The appellation of *^ good man,'? so frankly be- 
fftQwed on bim by the tayem-boy, who had un^ 



doubtedly long mistaken John-James for some 
lionest mechanic ; the joy which he expressed at 
seeing him again, and the zeal with which he. 
served him, conveyed to me completely an idea of 
the good-nature which the sublime Author of Emj- 
lius displayed in his most trivial actions. 

So far from seeking to shine in the eyes of any 
one whatever,, he himself acknowledged, with a 
sentiment of humility not often to be found, and 
in my opinion altogether unfounded, that he was 
not fit to take part in conversation of a superior 
style. " The least appearance of argument," said 
he to me one day, ^* is sufficient to overset me. 
** My understanding comes to my assistance half 
'* an hour later than to other men. I know what 
•* the reply ought to be precisely when itcis out of 

That tardiness of reflection did not proceed from 
^^ a maxillary depression," as is alleged in the 
** Prospectus of a new Edition of the Works of 
'* John-James^'^ by a Writer in other respects high- 
ly estimable : but from his strong s^nse of natural 
equity, which permitted him irot to give a de- 
cision on the most trifling subject till he had 
examined it; it proceeded from his genius, which 
turned it round and round to get a vietjr of it in 
every direction ; and finally, from his Qiodf^sty, 
which repressed in him the theatrical tone, and the 
oracular sententiousness ♦ of our conversations^ 


"^ These are the personal reasons, which he mig^t hate for talkiii^ 
sparin^y in company; but I have no doubt that he had others mocb 
more weighty, arising from the chluracter of our Sbcietves theiqselves. 

F2 IfiQ4 


He was in the midst of a cottipnny of wits^ li^ifH 
bis simplicity, i^hat a young girl in the glow of 
aatutal colours is amidst women who put on arti' 


I find those general reasons lo happily detailed in the eicellent Chaplei 
of MofUaigne'8 &Mys On the Art of Convenatioily that I cannot repress 
my incfination to mwrt a short eitract froM it^ in hope that tlM Reader 
may be induced to peruse the ifvhoie. 

*' As the fkiind acquires new vigour from compiQnicatioo with vigorooa 
** iMkI w^H^rei^afed itAndt, it is intposiihie to express how much it 
^* lows apd degduerates ^ the eofttioual commerce and iiitimsey of 
** grovelling and puny char^tcrs. There ia no contagion that spreads 
** so ra{Adly as this. I have p^id v^ry de^ for my experience oa tbii 
^ mibject* I ai|i foAd of arguing, and of discussion ; but with hw 
** flnpn, md ift isy oiirn wity: for lo sorve as a diow to the (SreaC, and 
** to make an eiikulous parade of wit and prattle^ I consider as a most 
» degrading employment for a man of honour*" 

i6 VnUcd tot the actif e conversation of a gentleman among men of 
te Wnfld^ aSd fuitt, tt low pog^ farther iawB, for ike paasfye eomrer-p 

'' The grayityi the robe, and th^ fprtuna of the penon who speakSi 
^ ftoqn^tly gite currency to insipid and tricing tittle-tattle, tt is pre? 
^ iKlniAk tlitt t Gidotlctbaa to foUowed, so i^wAil, i»uot possess witbii^ 
^ himself a fund vei^ superior (o one of the herd; and ihal a persoi^ 
*f entrusted wiih so many employments ond commissions of importance^ 
^ OO disdiudftiland ^ self-sufficient, must possess much greater ability 
^ dialk thai other who salutes him at such a respeetlpl (Kstaoce, an«| 
f' arhom ao one employs^ Not only the worda, hpi the very grimaeeo 
*i of those consfequrntial perspnageS| attract consideration* and turn to 
^ atfcoUi^t, 0very one tying with another to put some flattering and sig- 
f' ol€ca<it ^ss upon tbem. If they let themselves down so ftir as to 
f< conv^f^ ^ith ordiaary men, apd meet with any thing from diett^ 
'' except approbation and reverence^ you are sure to be levelled to the 
^' dost by the'^tfuthprity of their experience. They have heard, they 
^tSii(0!Uien..'tboy tta^e done: yo» are qaito overwhelmed by an accn- 
<f mifi^tiqa of ius^pcasJ' 

Wha^ then would Montaigne have said, in an age when so many of 
ift* Little imagine themselves to be Great; when eyery one has two^ 
^eet Coar ^» to sot hiui^ off» wfaOn dipoe wfto have noile, en- 
trench tb^ifpaelves pndet tba fatvonagiB of ihoie who hava } Hie greater 
jpait vjk tr^tb Icgjfi with |)kici<if tb^vl^Hi^ 09 the fcucos of a maa ^1r>. 


filpiai re4 8n4 vilte. StiU Jess wwW ]m have sbfe^ 

^H); in » titf4'tift^9 19 tb^' freedom pf intimacy; 


y^p^vof^^i^f^i l^ the;^ Bvlwi^ red|^iiM»y0stfip0tiltt3slioiilAQr9; 
j do f^ sjpiqik of tt»0M ^^If-iqipQtijtafH |^90tl9m|#« who Uikmg fofietamoii 
pf ^ Atiihpt )tj^ tjbej Ji^y iiut on tU^ «jr of leiring hifa^ ioi»rfi9ll^ 
ihomselv^ Jbte^veeo fjioi ^d tbe aolicip^s of pitblic fcn^fiiir, io Qpd«r 10 
l^divue bii9 to a purticttlar depgndftnce on them, a^d wl^o become )»$ 
fjjB^^i^ lepeinies, jf he jt^s Uif spirit to r«}ect the Meijeitjr of heiiig 
pryteicted bj then* The haftpy Jfoa^^^o^ had m im^ of for^imf). 
pvt what pouH be have said of tiieee iivfeeling &Uoirs, «o ^oo^oon i|i 
«Af r«Dks^ .wbo> to get rid of their lethai^, oooirt tkp aoqyiiutilpiiQe «f « 
Writer of reputatioii> and wait in sileuce for hil leltipg off at every tui# 
flfofcenoes Dewly eoined^ of oallies of wit; who haT^,opt ^ nupch fs tbf 
Ufase to ta^e them ux, tfox the i^uUy of retaining theois utd^Ms thej H/:^ 
iJeUi^ed |d a» ivqposing tone, or pulfed off ia the colomni of ^ Joiifif 
|)^ ; and wbO| in a word) if by chance they happen >to be ^rvixkf If^m. 
/j[^q«eA$ly th^ ma%mty to affix to tbem ?m indi^iorent or a dapger^uv 
IHPf^sAii^g^ io order to jpwer a repatiaf^OQ which ^e^ them ui^l^r^t^ 
J^8wr^dlfJ hi4 Mfntm^ne hiaweif app^fm4 in our circles as nothing 
in^ra thap plain Mici^fif, notwkbfi^aiiduig his etqtMiite j«dg(nf ot» n^ 
f|Qqpei¥» so iWLtufaly eruditioa so vast, aad nUck he wdfirstoiNd S9 
iM^pily CQ apply, he would ha^ ibuad hiipni^lf ev^i^ i^^fm red^fufi tm 
n^i^tiei^ like John* James. 1 1^^ bieen socnewh^t diffv^ ojn this <?bW^iV 
i^ jipnour pf the two Al:^hoKs, of Smiliu^^ wd of the S^says. Thtf 
iMre }?pth h(ef u aecn^ed of reserve, and of mc|)^in^ jno j^eat iig)w^ ia 
conversation; and likewise of %eiBg both egotists ip th^ir wri^tiog^, baft 
^Ipi very Ijjttle justice on either score. It is Man livl^om they ^e «Ter 
^HfUPcib^. in their own perspp ; and I ailways &id t^^ isben ,lh^y tfifjf 
^4hffa$el?e% they talk likewise to me. 

^ faturn to John-Jqmes: he was v^Qsp sincere ^4euy?ng hj^vf^f Pf 
4bfi.gl9ti%a^Qn of n^ity ; he sef^rred his reputation ipot to Jt^jper^9i^ 
9Pt to certain natural truths diff|ised over his writixig^^ but in o^he^ 
W9^^ ;i^ttiug m epttraordin^ value on himself* I tokl h^m, one day, 
^t ayoy^g Jlady ha^ said to xhe, she would tbfn^ b^^f l)^py V^ nir 
4§udipg him fm » servant. '^ Yes," replied he, f^ irv. order to bfar 1^ 
*' ^ik sk or jeivenhoofs on the sol^ect of tbp Emjlius.'' jt h^ve oftenep 
|lh||n,qn<(^ tfiken the liberty to ppmbat son^ of bis ppip^ou^; sp f^ (rqjuf. 
bfingoSeudpd, he with,pleasupp ^<?kupwl^dgfsrf ^^;;fuj)t|i^ ^if mfOf^ 
ih^^ if»s i«9^<i|Mro^iil^ pf i(. 



and on subjects which were familiar to him, thosd 
especially in < which the happiness of Mankind was 
interested, his soul soared aloft, his sentiments 


Of this I beg leave to qoote one instance, which reflects iome credil 
on myselfy thougli it'tnajr savour of vanity ; but, in sincerity, my sole 
intention in producing it is to vimiicnte his. character from tl&t char^« 
Wherefore, skid I to him, once that the subject happened to come m tb4 
*vay, have you, in your Emiltus, represented the serpent in JPotewtVt 
Deluge as the principal object of that Painting? It is ndt so, but' the 
infiint, which it's mother is straining to place on a rock. He meditated 
»for a moment, and said to me : *' Yes, yes ; you are in the right : I 
^ was mistaken. It is the child ; undoubtedly, it is the child ;" and be 
'appeared to be perfectly overjoyed that I had suggested the rcmarl:. 
But he stood in no need of my superficial observations, to bring him 
to the acknowledgment of the little slips which bad escaped him. ' He 
"said to me one day : ** Were I to undertake a new Edition of my 
• Works, I would certainly soften what I have written on tbe subject 
*' of Physicians. There is no one profession which requires so much 
'^ close study and application as theirs. Li all Countries they are -really 
^ the men of the most cultivated understanding.'' Upon another occa^ 
fiion be said to me : ^ I mingled in my quarrel with Mr. Hume^ too 
^ strong an infusion of spleen. But the dull climate of England, thd 
^ state of my fortune, and the persecutions which I had just been eil^ 
^ during in France, all contributed to plunge me into melancholy/^ 
He has said to me oftener than once, " I am fond of celebrity; Tac^ 
<^ knowledge it: but,'' added he, with a sigh, ** God has punished me 
^ in the point where I had offended." 

At the same time, persons of high respectability have censured htm for 
^uiknowledging so much evil of himself in his Confessions. What would 
they haye said then, if, like so many others, he had in these indRvctly 
jpronounced his own eulogium ? The more humiliating- that the failings 
lire of which he there accuses himself, the more sublime is his canddr 
in ex{^6sing them. Tliere are, it must be admitted, some passages ia 
-which he is chargeable with indiscrcdon in speaking out too plainly, 
Vhere another person is concerned ; particularly where he discloses th^ 
liot over delicate attachments of his inconstant benefactress^ Madame 
it Warens : But I have reason to believe that his posthumous Works 
liave been falsified in more than one place. It is possible that he did 
not hame he^ Irt his manuscript ; and if he did faentioh he* by name^ he 
tiiought he might do this without hurting atiy one, because she ^eft nd 


i^RAOMEKT. 71 

bipcame impfessivk, his ideas profound, hid images 
sublime, and his speech . as krdent as his written 

But what I jpri2ted itill more highly than even 
his genius was his probity. He was otie of the 

posterity. Besides, he spoalis of her «very where with a wttmth of 
interest. He uniformly fixes the attention of the Reader, in the midst 
of her irregularities, on the qualities of her mind. In a word, he con* 
ladered it ab his duty to tell the good- and the bad of xht pe/tsmtLgesi of 
.his History, after the example of the most celebrnted Historians of An- 
tiquity, Tacitus says expressly, in the opening of his History, Book 
£rst, *' I have no reason either to love or to hate Otho, Galla, or Vitet^ 
" Uui. ' It is* true I owe my fortune to Ve^xinan, as I owe the progress 
^ and preservation of it to his children ; but when a man is going t^ 
*' write History he ought to forget benefits as well as ii^uaes.'' {|i 
truthj Tacitus taxes Vespasian his benefactor witli avarice, and other 
faulliB. JohnrJameSy who had assumed for his motto^ Vittm impenden 
ver^f (t* devote life to truth) may have valued himself as much on hif 
love for truth in writin^j his own History^ as Tacitus ,did in writing tlMt 
of the :Rom{ih Emperors. . 

Not that I by any means approve the unreserved^ ihrnkiiess of JoAi^ 
Jime^ in a state of Society like that ia which we j^p^ ja^d that I hav« 
not reason to complain besides of the inequality of his t^topefi pf inoon* 
clusiveness in his Writings, and of some errors in conduct^ if he him« 
self haa published these for the purpose of oondemtiilig then.- 'Bi* 
fvfaera'is the ma% where is the Writer, wbtre is espdciatly tktMofoi^ 
tunate Author, who has no fault to reproach himself with ? John-Jdmm 
has discussed questions so smoeptihic of being argaed on either side; ba 
was conscious of possessing at once a mind so great, and of being sob* 
jectad to aio^ftnna so deplorable: he had to encounter wants so pret* 
ting, and friends so perfidioas, that he was freqntatly foicad out of th« 
ooamon road. But even when he deviates, and becomes the victim of 
fathers, or of himself, yon see him for ever foi^gettmg.his own miseries 
that be: may devou his undivided attention to those of Mankind. He il 
naifioarm] J the defender of their rights, and the advocate of the miso- 
taUe^ There m%|it be inscribed on his tomb those afifecdng words from 
a Book on whidi he pronounces an eulogimn so subline, and of whidi 
lie carried always about him soBie select passages, dnriog the la«t yeers 
of his life : His ezys wsioh a9lm mavt, 4AB foao|VAVj i»n mb 


F 4 fw 


few literary character^^ tii^d in the furnace of 
afflictiooi to whom you might with perfect secur 
rity communicate your most secret thoughts. 
You had nqtbii^g to fear froo^ his malignity, if 
he deemed theoa to be «vrpng, nor from h|s per** 
fidy, if they appeared to him to be right. 

One aftemooBy then, that we were enjoying our 
repose in the Bois de Boulogne, I led the conver- 
6^on to a subject which J have had much at 
h^art ever since I came to the use of reason. We 
fiad just been speaking of Plutarch's lives of emi- 
nent meq, of An^'s TranslatioQ, a Work wliich 
he very highly pi-ized, in which he had been 
taught to read when a child, and which, ifl»w 
po% roisjtahen, has been the gierm of bis eloque&c^ 
end of his anticfue vitti!es;'So much influence 
does the first education exercise over thp liest of 
Ji(e ! I sai4lio }Um then ;. 

I coukl'haV^ wished very much to see a History 
of your composing. 

< :•/, /, ^* I ppce ftUa pp^wftJ psfifpe&aity to irrite 
•^ that of C0imo de MedicU* He '•eas a simple 

,':{ : . . . '* pMiyidna)^ 

-c .^: Ikrt '»;lhe dtecwoa'ppeitouiiodd apdn hifBhy FiUqotk Gmm hu^ 
iik^ iPhktns^Mh^i age iiL reipea to oAUn >iimpjipitf. 
. ^ C90m9 i€ Medkiif whfi im the cdaef of that bouM, anil indeed 
*f iouwiecl k, a iltisa\ ng/gdky ef being Muned >fiii|ong the greatest ef tfae 
if QtesiXf c^MfiiaUj wbea ids eonditioii io li£s » taken into iIm aocemU^ 
J^nmofly tbafc £ii % merdiaBt, \uL90awwy9d kit name io a ftmilf «ke 
^ moei Bkotnoasy i 4luiik, 4ibat vnter-was «n jcIm Woiirf. fkm Iheiir <veiy 
^^^aemaotm Hinder dM laacmi 4^ 4liat Bame ef Abtfictf, peetetsed to 
.•^ aaiicbciedit, .UmI l^g^ld kan% "be believed, mes^ I tavekHe Ae 
i^UoMances sAicli i haaa s^ea of it k^Ffanefe, aad &a £nglafid.....i knew 
*i ene of theii servants, Gerard Quannese by name, who^was'tdmost 


'ModivHii^ who k^wm Uif ftoi^rcign. of bis 
** feU^Wi-citivfliis by r^ndeting tbem moie happy. 
V H^ r»js^ awini»iBtRHi«d hh wperiority nnoly 
'' by tl)^ bf nf ^Ka whiiph he QW&nnrd I imA ilia^ 
" 9 r4^u|l^,§kpitch ef th^t subject; h^t 1 havtae* 
\' li^q^Uh^ iK; I pos^fn^ BOt the Uients ^equi^te 
" to the ^(^pQf itaon ^f Hbtpiy." 

Why have not you yourself, with all your tr* 
dent Msil fqr: the MppJffMS qf Mankind^ mltde 
some attempt to fbriD ft Hippy Eepublic? X kno^ir 
a gi£^ iBMiff^ ^Q pf 4II CouBtfiea, and t^ every 
condition, who would have followed you. 

" Oh ! I havfs h»d too much ejipperi^ttfle' of 
*^ Mankind T' The^i looki^ at me, ^ffcer.a mth 
ment's silenjce, h^ ddded* with an Mr lof umm 
displeasure t '' I hiave iievfiral time* efttmated you 
" never to introduce th$X subject/ 

J^vift wherefore migjht you not have formedL wtdi 
M fi96f mblage of Evivepetas destitute ^f fivtmie, 
Md 9f « CouJ^try, in .«oiiie uninhabited iidsickd.of 
Ihe JSi9uth-Ses^ an estaMishm^ot siniiUr to that 
Wl^ WWam Pern 6mn4ed la NorthrAnenea, 
m th« mA§k 4f savages ? 

'* What a difference between tht ^fft in which 
"he lived, and ours ! J|» JPe«f«'s tii^e, tWe was 
V4 r^iigiQus belief ; powr»*day9 moD no longer 
^ belMKe ill »9y thing.''. Then, soft^pteg his 

^ the only ii^strmBi^ot of supportjng King Edward IV. on tbe tjirone of 
** £ngland, during the Civil Wars of that Kingdom/' And a little 
Wer : ^^ Db* authority of Uf fredeoeMon was k^iirio«w to diis 9€Ur 
*' de Medicii^n^Mtfio^^ (^ of CofW, Fhp KM <m^ ^ii^faupdef 
'* of the Faii)ilj, was gentj§ and VRP^bje, and wsk H H99 n«f«W9 ^ 
** a Bity possessed of liWrty." (Book vH,) 


74 SJB«!iu£i t6 ta£ irv i>ttn of ifltvkL 

•• tow : " I should havJ5 liked vtry wcH to lire irf 
f* si society such as I figure it to myself, m the 
** capacity of a private member; but on no eon- 
^-«idcratk)b whatever trould I have undertakea 
" any chalrge ; least of all that oiF ruler in chief. 
" It is long since I became sensible of my owil 
•* incapacity : I was unfit for the smallest employ- 

You would have fouiid persons iA abundance 
disposed to execute your ideas* 

" Oh! I beseech you, let us cjIU another sub- 

I have some thoughts of writing the History of 
the Nations of Arcadia. They are not indolent 
shepherds like those of the Lignon. 

His features softened into a smile* "Talking/* 
s^ys he to me, ** of the shepherds of the Lignon^ 
f^l once undertook a journey to Forezi for the 
** express purpose of viewing the country of Cale* 
f ^ doii and Astrea, of which iTrfeius has pf esented 
^^ us with pictures so enchanting* Instead of 
" amorous shepherds, I saw, along tfie banks of 
" the Lignon, nothing but smiths, founders, and 
^^ iFOfi-moii^rs.'' 

How ! in a country so delightful ! 

"It is a country merely of forges. It- was this 
^* joijrwey to Forez which dissolv€:d my illusion^ 
" Till then, never a year passed that I did not 
" read the Astrea from end to end : I had become 
" quite familiarized with all the personages of it» 
" Thus Science robs us of our pleasures." 

0h } my Arcadians have no manner of re-, 


setiiblattce to you blacksmiths, nor to the ideal 
shepherds ofUrfeiuSj who passed the days and 
nights in no other occupation but that of making 
love, exposed JnternaUy to all the per]|i.cious con^ 
sequences of' idleness, dud from without to the 
invasioAs of surrounding Nations, Mine prac* 
tise all the arts of rural life. There ave among 
them shepherds, husbandmen, fishermen, Yine* 
dressers. They have availed themselves of all the 
sites of their country, diversified as it is with 
mountains^ plains^ lakes and rocks. Their nmn« 
ners are patriarchal, as in the early ages of the 
«rorId. There are in this Republic, no priests, 
no soldiers, no slaves ; for they are so religiousi 
that every head oC a family is the pontiff of it; 
so warlike, that every individualjnhabitant is at 
all times prepared to take.ftip arms in defence of 
bis Country, without the inducement of pay ; and 
in sudi.aiState of equality, there are not so much 
as' domestic servants among them. The children 
are thcr& fa«i>ugfat up in the habit of serving their 
parents. > *i * . 

The .utmost care is taken, to avoid inspiring 
liion, . junder the name of emulationi with tli^ 
poison Of ambition, and no such lesson is taught 
as that. of. surpassing each other; but, on the 
contrary, they are inured betimes to prevent one 
another, by good offices of every kind ; to obey 
.their parents:; to.prefer their father, their mother, 
a friend, atmistress, to themselves; and their 
Countty. to isvery. thing. In this state of Society 
there is no qntrreUing among the young people 


7^ SEQUEL to tR£ STlTDtES O^ KAtUtilL 

unless it be some disputes amoc^ lovers, like 
those of the Deoin 4u Village. 3ut virtue tijiere 
frequently convokes the citizens to natioDal ts« 
semblksy: t<| coneert together measures coiuiuciYt 
to the general wel£ire. They elect, by a pluntlity 
of TQices, their Magistrates, who govern the State 
T^ if it were one family, being entrusted at once 
with the fhnctions of peace, of war, f nd of re^ 
ligion. From their union such a force, results^ 
that they have ever been enabled to repel all 
the Powers who presumed to encronch on their 

No useless, insolent, disgustful, or terrifying 
monument, is to be seen in their Country; ao 
colonnades, triumphal arches, hospitals, or prU 
ions; n4> irightAil gibbets on the hills as yott 
enter their towns : but a bridge over a torrent, a 
well in t^ie midst of an, arid plain, a grove of fruit- 
trees on an uncultivated mountain round a smafl 
temple, the peristyle of which serves as a place 
of shielter for travellen^ annpunce^ tn^ situations 
the most deserted, the humanity of the inhar 
^itanfo. Simple inscriptions on the bark of a 
heech-tree, or on a tude unpolished rock, pesv- 
pertuate to posterity die memory of illuetrioup 
citizens, and of great actions. |b the midst of 
maimers &p baieficent, Rdigion speaks to di 
hearts, in a language that knowji no changes 
"Jliere is not a single mountaiq, nor a rivcf, but 
what is consecrated so some God, and ts called 
l^y his name ; not a fountaitv but what has it's 
>lbijiadj; yot \ flowe]^ nor %,bivd, bet what is the 


MvAi^fifAM mtkttitiitLt dttd alfectlug tAithxtitr- 
phosis. The whole of Physitii is tbcte conveyed 
in felJgiotrs sentimeiitsf, and all religion in the mo- 
litiiiieftts of Nature, t)eath itsdf, Which em- 
poisom 6o tnany pleasures, there prestente perspec* 
tives only of consolation. The tombs of ancestors 
ere raised amidst groves of myrtle, of cypres^ 
und of fir. Their descendants, to whom they en- 
deared themselves in life, resort thither m their 
hours of pleasure, or of pain, to decorate them 
with flowers, and to invoke their shades, per- 
suaded that they continually preside Over thehr 
destinies. The past, the present, ahd the future^ 
link together all the memtrcrs of this Society 
with the bands of the Law of Nature, so that, 
there, to live and to die is equally an object of 

Such wasf the vague idea which Igave of the 
Plan of my Work to John- James, tie waii de- 
lighted with it We made it oftener than once, 
on our walking excursions, the subject of muck 
pleasant c^versation. He sometimes imagined 
jncidents of a poignant simplicity, of which I 
availed myself. Nay, one day, he persuaded me 
to change my plan entirely. " You must,** said 
'* ^e to me, " suppose a principal action in your 
^* History, suph as that of a man on his travels, 
^* to improve hitnself in the knowledge of Man- 
^^ kind. Out of this will sprii^ up incidentli 
^* varipd an^ agreeable. Besides, it will be nec^Sr 
^* sary to oppose tm the state of Nature of th? 
^* Njitions of Ar?adia:jj to the s?ate of corruptiofit 


" of some other People; in ord^n^p give relief to 
** your pictuf^ by means of contrasts." 

This advice was to me a ray of light which pro* 
cluced another : namely, first of all, to oppose to 
these two pictures, that of the barbarism of & 
third people, in order to represent the three suc- 
cessive states through which most Nations pass ; 
that of barbarism, that of Nature, and that of 
corruption. I thus had a complete harmony of 
three periods usual to human Societies. 

In the view of representing a state of barbarism, 
I made choice of Gaul, as a country, the com^ 
mencements of which in every respect ought to 
interest us the most, because the first state of a 
people copimunicates an influence to all the pe* 
f]ods of it'3 duration^ and makes itself felt even 
in a state of decline, just as the education which 
S man xewivca on the breast extends it's influence 
^ven to the age of decripitude. Nay, it seems as 
if at this last epocha the habits of infancy re-ap- 
peared with mpre force than those of the rest of 
jife, as has been obs<Jrved in the preceding Studies. 
The firgt impressions efface the last. The charac- 
ter pf IJations is formed in the cradle, as well a? 
•tint of l^an. Rome in her decline preserved the 
spirit of if;i|iiYer$al domtn^ion, which she had fronv 
hpr origin. 

I fo}xxid thp principal characters of the manners, 
3p4 of the rpligion pf thp Gauls, pompletly traced 
in Cesar's Co^pnientarif s, in f^l^tarch, in Tacitm 
on the Manners of th^ Gen^an^, an4 in several 
modern Treatises ox\ |he Mythology pf. ^he |^a- 
tious of the North. - 


I h»v^ taken up the state of the Gau]9 $everal 
nges prior to the time of Julius Ce^ar, in order tQ 
h^ve an opportunity of painting a more marliec} 
character of barbarisin> and approaching to that 
livhich we have found among the savage tribes of 
North-America. I fixed the commencement of 
\the civilization of our Ancestors at the destruc* 
tion of Trpy ; which was likewise the epocha, an4f 
undoubtedly the cause, pf several important revo* 
lutions all over the Globe, iThe names of which 
the Human Race is composed, however divided 
they may appear to be in respect of language^ of 
religion, of customs, and of climate, are in equi« 
Ijbriuni among themselves, as the different Seas 
which compose the Ocean under different Lalir 
tud$s» Ko extraordinary movement can be ex- 
<:ite.d in any one of those Seas, but what must 
communicate itself, more or less, to each of the 
p.thers. They have all ^ tendency to find their 
level. A Nation is, farther, with respect to the 
liuman E^icp, what a man is with respect to hi« 
own Natiofi. If that man dies in it, another ia 
})orn therip witl^m the same compass of time. In 
like planner, ^f one State on the Globe is destroy^ 
/ed, another is regenerated at the same epocha, that 
is what we have seen happen in our own time% 
)¥hen the gpeatpst part of the Republic of Poland,, 
having been dismembered in the North of Europe, 
to be confounded in the three adjoining States, 
i^ussia, Prussia, and Austria, very soon after the 
greatest paj-t of the British Colonies of North-Ame- 
fica, was disunited fropa the three States of Eng- 
}^nd; Scotland, and Ir^land;^ to form one Republic; 



ttUd M tliete Wft9 in Europe^ a pottbn of Poland 
tidt diffiiembered, there was in like xtiantier^ in 
America^ a portion of the Colonies that did not 
separate ffom Great-Britain. 

The ilatne politkal re-actions are to be found in 
fttt Countries^ and in all ages. When the Umpire 
t)f the Greeks was subverted on the banks of tlie 
EllkiM Sea^ ifi 1453^ that of the Turks immedi* 
ately replaced it ; and when that of Troy was de- 
stroyed in Asia, under Pri^, that of Rome re- 
ceived it's birth in Italy, under Eneas. 

But, from that t<rtal subversion of Troy, there 
ensued a great many revolutions of inferior mo- 
tnent in the rest of the Human Race^ and especial- 
]y iii ^ Nitions of Europe. 

I ojiposed to the state of barbarism of the Gauls, 
that of the corruption of Egypt, which was then at 
iC^ kiglrcst degree of civiliisation. To the epocha 
of the siege of Troy it is tliat many learned men 
bate assigMd the briUiant reign of Sesostris. Be- 
aides' this^ opinion, being adopted by Ftnelon in his 
Telemacbus, was a sufficient Authority for myWork. 
1 likewiie selected my traveller from Egypt, by 
fire advice c^ John-Jamts^ in as ranch as, in An- 
tiqnity, a gt«^€ many political and religious estab^• 
lishments were communicated by reflux from 
^gypt, to Qrttct^ to Italy, and even directly to 
Ihie Gapis, as the History of many of onr ancient 
©sages suflfttiently evince. This too is a conse- 
i^uence of political re-actions, Whcne\'cr a State 
hi^ attained it's highest Atp^t of elevation, it is 
^nfe tb it's ftrst stage of decay ; because &11 human 
jthirigs begin t<yfade as soon as they have reached thp 


. 'J PEAOMENT. 81 

ppint of. perfection. Then it is that the Arts, the 
Sciences, Manners, Languages, bes^to undet^ a 
r^pflux from civilized to barbarous States, as is 
demonstrated by the age of Alesander among the 
Gr^eks^ of Augustus among the Romans, and of 
Louis Xiy. among ourselves. 
' I had accordingly oppositions of character in 
" the Gauls, the Arcadians, and the Egyptians. But 
Arcadia alone presented me with a great number 
of contrasts to the other parts of Greece, which 
were but then emerging out of barbarism ; between 
the peaceful manners of it's industrious inhabit- 
ants, and the boisterous discordant characters of 
the heroes of Fylos^ of Mycene^, and of Argos; be- 
tween the gentle adventures of it's simple and in* 
nocent shepherdesses, and the awful catastrophes 
of Iphigenicfj of Ekctra^ and of Clytemnestra. 

1 divided the materials of my Work into twelve 
Books, ^nd constructed a kind of Epic Poem of 
them ; not conformably to the rules laid down by 
Aristotle^ and to those of our modern Critics, who 
pretend after him, that an Epic Poem ought to ex- 
hibit only one principal action of the life of a hero; 
but conformably to the Laws of Nature, and after 
the manner of the Chinese, who frequently com- 
prehend in it the whole life of a hero, which in my 
judgment is, much more satisfactory. . Besides I 
have not in this deviated from the example of H(h 
mer; for, if I have not adopted the plan of his 
Iliad, I have nearly copied that of his Odyssey. 

But while I was devising plans for the happiness 
of Mankind, my own was disturbed by new cala^ 
jnities. n^ 

Vo^ IV- G Mr 


My State of health and my experience, permitted 
meibfe longer ttfiKilicit in my native Country, the 
slender resources which I was on the point of 
losing diere, nor to go abroad in quest of them. 
Besides, the nature of the labours in which I had 
engaged could not possibly interest any Minister 
in my favoiin I thought of presenting to public 
view such of them as I deemed most calculated to 
merit the protection of Government I published 
my Studies of Nature. I have the consolation 
of believing that I have, in that Work, confuted 
sundry dangerous errors, and demonstrated some 
important truths. Their success has procured for 
mc, without solicitation, a great many compli- 
ments on the part of the public, and some ^nual 
marks of favour from the crawn, but of so little so- 
lidity that a slight revolution in an administration 
has stripp^ed me of most of them, and together with 
them, what is much more vexatious, some others 
of still higher consideration which I had enjoyed 
for fourteen years. Court favour had the sem- 
blance of doing me good ; the benevolence of the 
Public has given a more steady support to me and 
to my Work. To it I am indebted for a transient 
tranquillity and repose; and under these auspices I 
send into the world this first Book, entitled The 
Gauis, to serve as an introduction to the Arcadia^ 

I have n^t enjoyed the satisfaction of talking 
on the snbject of it to John James. It was rather 
too rude for the phcidness of our conversa- 
tions. But rough and wild as it may be, it is an 
opemng in the rocks, from whence there is a 



glimpseof the valley ia which he sometimes reposed. 
Nay when he set out, without bidding; me faren^l, 
for ErmenonyiUe^ where he closed his days^ I tried 
to recal myself to him by the image of Arcadia^ 
and by the recollection of our ancient intercourse 
in concluding the letter which I wrote to him with 
these two verses from Virgil, changingonly a single^ 
word. s 

Atqae utianm «x vobis unus tecumqvLe foissdm 
Aat castas gtegiSy ant matttrai vinitor uv« ! 








A LilTLE before the autumnal Equitioi, Tif^ 
teusy a shepherd of Arcadia, wad feeding his 
flock on one of the heights of Mount Lyceum, 
tdiich projects along the giilph of Mfi^setiia. He was 
seated under the shade of somefpine-trees at the foot 
of a rock, from whence he contemplated, at a dis* 
tance, the Sea agitated by the winds of the South. 
Ifs olive-coloured wates were whitened with foam, 
which fell back in girandoles thiB whole length 
of the strand. The fishing boats, appearing and 
disappearing alternately between the swelling 
surges, ventured, at the risk of running aground 
on the beach, to trust their safety to theit . 
insignificance^; whereas large vessels, in full . sail, 
under the violent pressure of the winds, kept at a 
cautious distance, from the dread of being shrp- 
wrecktd: At the bottom ofthegulph, crowds of 
women and children raised their hands to Heaven^ 
and uttered the cries of solicitude at sight of the 
danger which threatened those poor mariners^ 
and of the succession of billows which rolled frofn 
the sea. and broke with a noise like thunder on the 
rocks of Steniclaros. The efchoes of Mount Ly- 
ceum reverberated their hoarse and confused roar- 
ings from aU quarters^ with so much exactness that 

G S Tirteu9 


Jirtew, at times turned round his head, imagining 
that the tempest w^ behi|id hilp^ and that the Sea 
was breaking on the top of the mountain. But the 
cries of4b^^Matsa]idth^sea-gttl}»i ^bi^ came 
flapping their wings to seek refuge there, and th<p 
flashes of lightning which furrowed the If orizon, 
soon made hin^ seiMible that safety was on the dry 
^and, ^jxd that the tex^pest w^^ stil) more 4>?9^fAJl 
^t <a distance thap it appeared to ^is vi^w. 

Tirteufi cQrop5|«sionat?4 the^Jpstiny of seamenj^ 
j^nd pronounced t^t of the shepherd to be bl^ssed^ 
as it in sojnp degree resembled that of the God& by 
placipg tranquUlity in tub hfarty and the tjpmpes( 
^pderhjs UpU , 

. While ^p FS^s expressing his gr^^it^de to |ie?ir 
yen, twp ipeii of a noble djeporpnejit appf afp4 OJI 
the great ro^ >vUidi winded below, towarxj thi? 
base of the njouptain. One of them wsts ig th^ 
full vjgour of life, aud tjie otl^er still in tl;ie ftlQon» 
of youtb. They werp walking with gneat *peed, 
like tfaye|lps3 impa^ipnt to f cacl> tbeir object, Af 
soon /as they were vithin Jjparjng, the eldey of t\\9 
two called to Tirteus^ a^kjug if tljey wpre iiof on 
fiie.rpad to Afgp?, But the pom pf t^ig vi.nd 
among the piujps prievQuting l]iis voice Irom h^n§; 
heard, thp youpgpr asc^nfl^4 tp^ards tbe shephprdi 
^nd cried ajoud tp hinP : ^' Father, arg ^^e pot upon 
** the road to ^rgos?" " My son/^ rpplie4 Tktens^ 
/* I do not know where Argons lies. Tovf .are in 
y Arc^ia, upou tbe road to Tpgeum, and tjxesp 
" towers which ypu sep before you are tlje tower;^ 
"of Belleniine,'^ While they were talkipg, * 
shagged dog, young ^nd frolicsome, which accom- 

fankd the fttrangen havisig pf rceived in the flock 
' a ahe^goai e&tirety white, ran up to play with her; 
but th6 goaty terrified at the sight of this ammal^ 
whoise eyes were covered all over with hair, fled to- 
ward the top of the moa&tain» and the dog pur- 
sued her. The youBg man recalled his dog, which 
immediately returned to his feet, lowering his head 
and wagging his tail He then slipped a leach 
roimd the dog's neck, and begging the shepherd to 
bold him fast, he ran after the goat, which stiU 
continued to flee before him; his dog however see- 
ing him ready to disappear, gave so violent a jerk 
to Tirteusy that he made his escape with the kach 
about his neck, and raa with such speed, that in 
a short time, neither goat, traveller, nor dog wf re 
to be seeti. 

The traveller who had remaitied on the highway, 
was preparing to Ibllow his companion, when the 
«be]^rd thus addressed him: " Sir, the weather 
^^ iaboisteiOBs, nigbt approaches, the forest and 
*^ the mountain are fiiU of quagmires, in wtuch 
'^ you may be in danger of losing yourself. Come 
^* and repose yourself A while in my eottage, which 
^^ is not far from hence. I am perfectly sure that 
^* my goat, which is very tame, will return of her-* 
•* self, and bring back your friend to ns, provided 
*' he dpes not lose sight of hcr.'^ In saying these 
words he applied his pipe to his mouth, and the 
flock immediately began to tile off by a patb to- 
ward l^e summit of the mountain. A kige mm 
marched at the head of this little flock : he was 
followed by six she-goats, whose dugs^ ahaost 
touched the ground; twelve ewes accompanied by 

G 4 > their 


their lambs, which were already considembly 
rgrown, came next; a she-ass and a c^lt closed the 

The stranger followed Ttrteus in silence. They 
ascended about six hundred paces, along an open 
down planted here and there with broom and rosC"* 
imary: as they were entering the foresjt of oaks, 
which covers the top6f. Mount Lyceum, they heard 
the barking of a dog, -^ soon after they descried the 
young man's shock running toward them, followed 
by his master, who carried the white goat on his 
shoulders. Tirteus said to him: " My son, thcJugh 
'* this goat is dearer to me than any other of .the 
.**: whole flock, I would rather have lost her thau 
^ * tliat you shbuld have endured so much fatigue in re^- 
" covering her; but if you please* youshali this night 
"repose in my cottage; and to;morrow, if youare 
" resolved to continue your journey, I will con- 
** duct you to Tegeum, where you may be inform*- 
•* ed of the road to Argos. NotwithstandingySirs, 
" if I may be permitted to advise, you will not de- 
•* part from hence to-morrow, it is the feast of 
" Jvpiter^ celebrated on Mount Lyceum, and 
* ^ people assemble here in multitudes from all Ar- 
** cadia, and from a great part of Greece. If you 
" are so good as to accompany ine thither, when I 
^*present myself at the altar of •/ttpi/cr, I shall be 
** rendered more acceptable by adoring him in 
" company with my guests." The young stranger 
implied :i ^^' Oh, good shepherd: M^e accept with 
^* cheerfulness your hospitality for this night, but 
" to-morrow with the dawn we mtist pursue our 
"journey toward Argos. We have for a long 

" time 


. ^ time been cont«iding with the waves, in order 
' ^* to, reach that city so. celebrated over the wholii. 
** earth, for it's temples, for it's palaces, and 
" from it's being the rjBsidence of the ^reat Ago* 
" memonS 

After he had thus spoken, they crossed a part of 
the forest t)f Mount Lyceum toward the East, ^nd 
descended into a little valley sheltered from the 
winds. A fresh and dow^y herbage covered the 
sides of it's hills. At the bottom flowed a rivulet 
called Acheloiis,* which falls into the river AlphcMSl, 
whqse islands, coitered with alder and linden^treesi' 
are perceptible at a distance from the plain. The 

• There were in Greece, several rivers and rivulets which bare this 
name. Care must be taken not to confound the brook which is- 
sued from MouBt Lyceum, with the river of" that name, which descend- 
ed from Mount Piodus, and which separated Etolia from Acarnania^* 
This River Acheldus, as the fable goes^ changed himself ihto a Bull, in 
order to dispute with ffercuki the possession of JDiianira, daughter of 
Oeneus King of Etolia, But Hercules having seised him hj one <^f bit 
horns, broke it off; .and the disarmed River was obliged to replace 
the lost horn, by assuming one taken from the head of the goat Anud" 
theeu The Greeks were accustomed to veil natural truths under in- 
l^iotts fictions. -The meaning of the fable in question is thisi The 
.Greeks g^ve the name of Achelous tp several rivers, from the word 
AyiXs}, which signifies herd of oxen, either on account of the bellow- 
ing noise of their waters, or rather because their heads usa- 
allj separated, like those of oxen, into horns or hraaches, which fa- 
dlitate their confluence into each other, or into the Sea, as has been 
observed in the preceding Studies. Now the Achelous being liable to 

^undations, Hercules the friend of Oeneus^ King of Etolia, formed a ca- 
nal for receiving the sttperflux of that river, according lo Strabo% 
CMH:ount, which weakened one of iVs streams, and gave birth to the fa- 
bulous^ idea, that Hercules had broken off one of bis horns. But as, 
on the other hand, there resulted from this canal a source of abun- 
dant fertility to the adjacent country, the Greeks added that Ache- 
lous, in place of his bull's born, had taken in exchange that of the 

^ gt)at Jmalt!i$af which, as is well known, was the syo^bol of plenty. 



trunk of an M willow, laid low bj the hand of 
tiine, smed as a bpdge to the Achelous : this 
bridge had no ledglng, except some large feeds 
which grew on each side of it : bat the brook^ 
the bottom of which was paved with rocks^ was so 
easily forded over» and so little use had been made 
cf the bridge, that the convolvolus almost entirely 
covered it with it'» heart^haped foliage, and with 
flowers resembling wbi^e spires. 

At a little distance from this bridge stood the 
dwelling of Ttrteus. It was a small boose covered 
with thatch, built in the middle of a mossy ground. 
Two popla«s formed a shade for it to the West 
On the South sid^ a vine surrounded the doors 
and windows with it's purple clusters, and with 
5t*s leaves already of the colour of fire. An old 
ivy sheltered it from the North, and covered, with 
it's ever*green foliage, a part of the staircase 
which led on the outside to the upper stoiy. 

As soon as the flock approached the house they 
began to bleat, according to custom. Immediately 
a young maiden appeared, descending the staircase^ 
and carrying under her arm a vessel to receive the 
milk which she was going to draw. Her robe was 
of white wool ; her chesnut locks were turned up 
under a hat formed of the rind of the linden-tree ; 
her arms and feet were naked, and instead of 
shoes she wore socks, as is the fashion of the 
young women of Arcadia. Froih her shape you 
would have thought her one of the nymphs of 
Diana; from her vase, that she was the Naiad 
of the fountain; but her timidity $oon diseo* 



vercd her to be a shepherdess. As soon as she 
perceived the strangers, she cast down her eyes; 
and blushed. 

Ttrt€u% said to her : '^* Cyanea, my daughter; 
*' make h4ste to milk your goats, and to prepaid 
'^ something for suj)per, while I warm some water 
^ to wash the feet of these travellers whom Jupiter 
^ has sent to us.'* . In the mean while he entreated 
the strangers to repose themselves on a grass-plat, 
iat* the foot of the vine. Cyanea^ having kneeled 
down on the turf, milked the goats which had as- 
sembled around her ; and having finished, she led 
the flock into the sheep-fold, which stood at one 
end of the house. Tirteus In the mean time warm* 
•d water, and washed the feet of his guests, after 
which he invited them to walk in. 

Night was already advanced ; but a lamp suspend* 
t A^^ ^^^^ *^^ ceiling, and the blaze of the heartl^ 
which was placed after the manner of the Greeks, 
in the middle of the habitation, sufiieiently illttmi- 
nated the interior of it. There were seen hanging 
round the walls, flutes, sff^herd'g crooks, scrips, 
a)6ulds for mafciRg cheese; baskets of fruit and 
^rthen pans full of milk stood upon shelves fasten* 
ad to the joists* Over the door hy which they had 
pntered there was.a small statue of the good Ceres^ 
and over th^t of the sheep-fold a figure of the god 
j^itfiy formed from the root of an olive-tree. 
• As socm as the strangers were introduced, Cyanea 
isovered the table, and served up cabbages with ba- 
tcoh, some wheaten bread, a pot filled with wine, 
a cream cheese, fresh eggs, and some of the second 
figs of the year, white and violet coloured. She 



placed by the board four seats made of o^. Sfae / 
covered that of her father with the skin of a wolfj^ 
which he himself had killed in hunting* After- 
wards, hfiving ascended to the upper story, she re- 
turned with the fleeces of two sheep; but whilst 
she spread them on the seats of the travellers shc« 
burst into itcars. H^r father said to her: " My 
** dear daughter, will you remain for ever inconso* 
** lable about the loss of your mother? And can you 
** never touch any thing which she was accustomed 
•* to use without shedding tears ?" Cyama made no 
reply, but turnitag her head toward the wall, she 
wiped her eyes. \Tirteus addressed a prayer, jjnd ofr 
fered a libation to Jupiter^ the patron of hospitali- 
ty; then haying invited his guests tp sit down, 
they all began to eat in profound silence. ,. 
. When the meal was finished, Tirteus said to the 
two traveller ; " My dear guests, had you chanced 
*^ to jenter tb««Mbit^tion of some other inhabitant^ 
" of Arcad^ or had.>you passed this way some 
** years ago, joji woukJ have been^much better re- 
« ceived- But the ^a^bf/iip^er has smitten me. 
*' I once possessed, upon the neighbouring hill, a 
" garden whiqh supplied me at all seasons with 
?' pulse, and; excellent fruit: It is swallowed up in 
"the forest. This solitary valley once resounded 
"with the lowing of my oxen. Nothing was to 
" be heard, from mom to eve, in my dwelling, but 
" songs of mirth -and sounds of joy. I have seen 
" around this tal)Jei three sons and four daughters^ 
" The youngest son was arrived at an age capable 
" of tending a flock of sheep. My daughter Cyanea 

^* dressed 

ARCADIA. • dS . 

'* dressed ber little sisters, atid already supplied the 
** pUc6 of a uiother to them. My wife, industrious^ 
** ahd still young, maintained all the year round 
*' gaiety, peace and abundance in my habitatioDw 
** But the loss of my eldest son has bdcn followed . 
*' by that of almost my whole family. Like other 
^* young men, he was desirous of shewing his agili* 
^* ty by climbing up the highest trees. His mother^ 
^^ to whom such exercises caused the greatest dread, 
^' had frequently entreated him to abstain .from 
'^ amusements of this kind. I had often predicted 
** that some misfortune wotild be the consequence. 
^^ Alas ! the Gods have punished my unwarranta* 
^*ble predictions by accomplishing them. One 
** summer's day, in which my son was in the forest 
** Keeping the flocks with his brothers, the young- 
f * est of theifl took a fancy to eat some of the fmit 
^' of a wild-cherry tree. The eldest immediately 
^' climbed it, in order to gather them; and when 
^* he had reached the summit, which was very ele» 
*' vated, he perceived his mother at a little distance, 
** M'ho perceiving him in her turn, uttered a loud 
" scream and fainted. At this sight, terror, or re* 
*^ pentance, seized my unhappy son ; he fell. His 
^^ mother, being brought to herself by the cries of 
" her children, ran toward him, but in vain at- 
*' tempted to re-^nimate him in her arms : thcun- 
" fortunate^ youth turned his eyes toward her, pro- 
'• pounced her name and mine, and expired. The 
*' grief with which my wife was overwhelmed, c%r- 
** ried her in a fe\^ days to the grave. The most 
'^^ tender union reigned ainongst my children, and 
^^ equally their affection for their mother. ^ They 
. .. V, ^^ however 


" bdw^ver all died, through sorrow; for her loss, 
^^ Mid for that of ench other. How much anxiety 

•* has it cost me to preserve this gpor girl !*' Thus 

^ke Tirtemy and in spite of his efforts the tears 
rushed to his eyes. Cyatiea threw herself on the 
Itosom of her father, and mixing her tears with his, 
she pressed him in her arms, unable to utter a syl- 
lable. TtWewsaid to her: ^' Cyanea, my dear 
^ daughter; my sole consolation, cease to afflict 
" thyaeif. We Shall one day see them again ; they 
*' are with the Gods." Thus he spake, and sere- 
nity once more appeared on his countenance, and 
cm that of his daughter. With the greatest com«> 
posnre, she poured out some wine into each of the 
cups ; then takiog a spindle^ and a distaff furnished 
with wool, she seated herself by lier father, and be- 
gaa to spin, looking at him^ and su[iportiBg her* 
aelf oti his knees. 

The travellers in the mean time were melted into 
tears. At leogth the younger of the two, resuming 
the c<mversati(H^ said to Tirteus : ^^ Had we been 
*^ received into the palace, and alt the table of Ago* 
.^' memnen, at that instant when, covered with glory, 
^^ he wias restored to his daughter IpMgenw^ and to 
*/ I»s wife ChftemmBtra^ who had languished for his 
^\ return so long, we could neither have seen nor 
'^ heard any thing so affecting as wliat we have ju9t 
''witnessed. — Oh! my giood shepherd ! it must be 
^^ ackuKHvledged that you have eKperienced severe 
^Striats; but if €!^^, whom you see here, would re- 
f '- late to you those whiok overwhelm nien in every 
** quarter of the <S lobe, ypu would spend this whole 
•** night in listening to him, and in blcsaog your 
^ own lo* : how mauy sources of distress are un- 

" known 


""* knoWQ to you in the mid&t of this petceftil re^ 
>* treat ! You here live in perfect freecUmi; Nature 
"'^^Bupplies all your ivants; |mteiiial kH^ renders 
^' you happy, and a mild rdigion consc^ies you 
*' under all your griefs,** 

C^kas, taking up the conversation, s^d to his 
young frigid : ^* My son, relate to us your own 
*^ misfortunes : Tirt^us will listen to you with mote 
^' interest than he would to me. In mature age, vir- 
^ tue isgmerally the fruit of reason; in youth, it 
^^ is alvi^ays that of feeling." 

Tirttus^ addressing himself to the young stran« 
gw, said : ^^ Persons of my age do not sleep miich. 
^* If you are not over oppressed with fatigue, I 
** shall receive great pleasure from hearing you. I 
^* have never quitted my own country, but I love » 
'^ attd honour travellers. They are under Uie pro* 
^* tection of Mercury and of Jupiter • Sometliing 
^^ useful may always be gathered from them. As 
^^ for yourself, you must Certainly have experienced 
^^ great distress in your own country, having at so 
** early an age separated from your patents, m\h 
^ whom it is so pleasant to live and to die.^ .. 

^ Though it is difficult,'^ replied the young mail, 
** to speak always of ourselves with sincerity, yet, 
*^ as you have given us so kind a reception, I shaU 
^' candidly relate to you all my adventures both 
^ good and bad." 

My name 4s Amasis. I was born at Thebes in 
J^Sypt, the son of an opulent father. He had me 
educated by the priests of the Temple of Osiris. 
They instructed me in all the Sciences upon Which 



Egypt values herself; the sacred language by which 
you may converse with ages past, and that of the 
Greeks, which enables us to hold converse with all 
the Nations oif Europe, But what is infinitely su- 
perior to Science and Language, they taught ipe to 
be just, to speak truth, to fear the Gods only, and 
to prefer before every thing else that glory which 
is acquired by virtue. 

This last sentiment increased in me as I grew up. 
Nothing had been spoke of in Egypt for some time 
past but the Trojan war. The names of Achtllesy of 
Hector^ and of other heroes, disturbed my sleep. I 
irould have purdiased a single day of thei^renown^ 
by the sacrifice of my own life. .1 thought the des- » 
tiny of my countryman Mentnon was enviable^ who 
had perished on the walls of Troy, and in honour of 
whom 9 superb monument was reared at Thebes.* 


^Memnortf the son of Titkonm and Aurora, was killed at the siege of 
Troj by Achilles^ A magoiiicent tomb was erected to bis memory at 
Tbebes in Bgypt, the ruins of which still subsist on the banks of the 
Nile, in a place called by the Ancients Mef/monium ; and in modern^ 
limes^'by tlie Arabians, Medihet Hahou; that is, City of the Father. 
Here are still to be seen colossal fragments of his statue, out of which ia 
fornl^er tim€^..b£^rmonious sounds issued Qt the rising of Aurora, 

1 propose to make, in this place, some observations on the subject of 
the sound which that statue produced, because it is particularly interest- 
ing to the Study of Nature. In the fir^t place it is impossible to call 
the fact in question. The English traveller, Richard Pocock, who, in the 
year, 1738, visited tfie remains of Memponium, of wliich'he has given a 
description as minute as the present state of things admits of, quotes on ' 
the subject of the marvellous effect of Jfcmnon's statue, several Aa<« 
ihorities of the Ancients, of which I here present an abiidgment. 

^rabo tells us, that tliere were in the Memnonium, amoug other 


AECADIA. ; 97 

What d6 1 say ? I wotild willingly have given my 
body to be changed into the statue of a hero pro* 


colossal figures, two statues at a small distance from each other ; that 
the upper part of one of them had Been thrown down, and that there 
issued once a day from it's pedestal, a noise slmi^ar to that produced 
bystrikmg upon a hard body. He himself heard the noise, having 
been on the spot with JElms Grai/ta; but he pretends not to affirm, 
whether it proceeded from the basis, or from the statue, or from the 

PiiMy die Naturalist, a man more serupolousty eiaet tbmi is geite* 
raUjJmapaed; when an estraordinary fact b to be attested, satisfies 
l^imself with relatittg die one in question, on the public faith, employing 
sadi tenns of do«bt as these ; ^aryptur, ut putmnt, dieunt, of which be 
makes such frequent use in his Work. It is when he is ipentioning 
the stoop called basaltes, Hkt. Nat, lib. 36. cap. 7. 

Iwotnit eadem Egyptus in Ethiopia quim vocant ba$a!ten, fertei Co- 
iM'is atqtut duriius 

Non absimilii ilU narratur in Thebit^ dehbro Scrapis^, ut ptUani^ 
Metmouis ttat^d dicatu$ ; q^em ^uotidiano toUs ifrtu t^taGt^m rafii^. 
crtpare dicunt. 

<< The Egyptians likewise found, to Ethiopia, a stone oaUed banker 
^ of the colour and hardlKMS of irqn 

^ One not vnlike it is said to be the stone of which the statue of 
<^ Memnon is made, at Thebes, in the Temple of 5erapii, frpm wbeo^y 
^ as the report gpes^ a sound issues erery morniog on .it's being ftrucliL 
** with the rays of the rising Sun,** , 

Ju9emly so carefully on his guard against snpenftiitiiM, ^espeaa^r 
t|M superstitions of Bgypt» adopts this fiwt in his ifsecaih Saim, whiab 
is levelled at these very superstitions. 

' JBlffigietiacrinitetaureaceTxc^Uheci, 

Vmidtoniagica raonant uffi Memnon^ chordft, 
Atque vetvM l%tba wtfumjaeet cbru0jporti9» 

Vot.iy. H ««Tli^ 


vidcd they ha4 txpow^d roCj . on.a/ptllar,> to? the veEte"- 
ration of Natioosi . I rehired: tbeatoteaif myself 


. *< Thero shines tbe gHded iinag^ of a consecrated monkey, v^iere tlie- 
^ magic chords tesouiKl Jrota the fn^tilated s^fitue of M^fmnotif and 
*' andent Thebes lies buried under the ruins ofher hundred ^tes/' 

Ptfuianiof relates tihi^t it was Ca^nbyses y^ho broke. tliis statue s that 
hailr of the trunk was fallen to. die ground ; that tlie other half emitted 
every day, at sun-rising a sound sim^ilar to that^of a. bow-string- s,nekp^ 
pipg from over-tension. 

PAi/os^r^s speaks, oi* it from his own knou'ledge. ne saysy iii tiie 
)ife of JpoUojiius of I^ai^a^lhat . tlie Menmormim wad not only aTem-^ 
pie, but a forum ; that is a. place pf very considerable extent,, contf^ning ' 
it's public squares, it's private buildings, &c. For temple«^ in ancient 
times, bad a great ^lany exteiiior dependencies ; the groyee which were^ 
consecrated to them, apartments for the. priests, eoclasuTes for the- 
victims^ and accommodations for the entcrtainme/it of stranger?. 
JPhUostratus assures us that he saw the statue of Memnon entire, 
who supposes that the upper part of it had been repaired in his time. 
He represents it under the form of a young man sitting, with his eyes 
turned Coward the rising Sun. It was of a black-coloured stone. Both 
feet were in a line, as was the case with all the antient statues, up to 
t)B time ofJDedaiusy who was the first it is said that made statues to 
advance, the one leg before tbe other. It*s haads rcsved ou^ the thighs,* 
99 if going to ri^. 

' On looking at the eyes and mouth yott would itave thought it was 
(^ing to speiaAv." PHilostrdtui and bis travelling companions were not 
•urprized at the attitude of this statue, because they were ignorant of 
ilfa virtue: Jbut whien tbe rays' of the ri»ng Sun' first darted on itV head, 
tNf no sooner TCMiKhed tHe^nioiitlrthaQ itdid actually speak, which- 
appeared to them a prodigy. ' 

Here w, accordingly, a series of grave Authors, from Sirabo, who 
lived under Auguitu$, down' to PhilostraCus, wfio lived under the reigns 
o( Caracalla Btkd Oeta^ that i* during a period of two hundred years, 
who affirm that 4h< stiitue Of Memtton emiltled a sound at the rising of 


irotrt the deligtits of Egypt, atid from the endear- 
meiits of my patetaal mansion, in order to acquire ail 


As ti» ItUhdtd Poakk,' ifh6 saW My tlie hiftf of it la itSi, U 
fbaild it in the same state that SirabohaA seen it, about 1738 - year^ 
before^ excSept that it emitted no sound. He says it ils df ai particulaif 
sort of'gtanite, hafd and porous, such as he had never sc^n before^ 
and which a pxtd deal- resembles the eaglef*stone. At the dis-^ 
tance of thirty feet from it, to the North, there is, 4s ^n the time of 
Strabo, another colossal statue ezttire^ built of five layers of stones, thd 
pedestal of which is 80 feet long and 17 broad. But the pedestal of 
the mutilated statue, which is that of Memnon, is 33 feet long by 1^ 
broad. It consists of a single piece, though cleft about 10^ fbet behind 
the back 'Of tbe etatue. Pocoek says nothing of the height of these pe- 
diestals, undoubtedly because they are encumbered with sand / or rather 
because the perpetual and insensible action of gravity must have mado 
them sink into the Earth, as may be remarked of all the ancient monu- 
ments which are not founded on the solid rock. This effect is observ- 
able, in like manner, in the case of heaVy cannon, and piles of balls, laiol 
on the ground in our arsenals, which impercefftibly sink in the couf s^ oi 
A few years, unless supported by strong platforms. ^'^ * 

As to the rest of the ttatoft of Memnonf tbe foUowihg aris the dtmeu^ 
01008 gives by Pocoek^ 

Feet In. 
From tbe aolei of the ffiot to the mde^bone « 3 6 
Fromditto^totheiiistei^ - - * « 4 0' 

From ditto up 10 tbe top of the knee - ;- 19 O 

The foot ii 5 feet broad^ and the leg 4 feet tbicL 

Pocoek apparently refers tbjese measureiQiefits to the lEn^fMii staodian^ 
ivhtch reduces thenrn^rly by the eleventh part He fooiod besidiss im 
the pedestal, on tlie l&g? and the feet of tbe statue^ several ii^toi|ptloi0 
in unknown characters; others of grea^ antiquity in <j«eek mid LtuMp 
very indifferently engraved, which are the attestfttiona of ibt f^pM# 
who had heard the sound which it emitted. i on 

the remains of the Menmomum present slli aroomV to at ir«ry graa^ 
H 9 


illustrious reputation. Every time that I pi;eient6d 
myself before ray father, "S<?ujd n^ to the siege of 


distatioe,ruinsof animinensesuiduncoucb MiJchitectare^exctnrMioBt in the 
solid rock ivliich form part of a temptey prodigious fragments of vraXh 
tumbled down aod jreduped to rubbishy and o|hecs standing; a pyramidir 
cal gate, avenues^ square piiiars, surmounted by statues # with ibe head 
broken off, Iwlding in one baud a lituus, andf a whip in the other, as that 
of Osiris, At a still greater distance^ fragments of gigantic figures lie 
scattered along the ground, heads <^ six feet diameter, and 11 feetiir 
length, slioulders 21 feet broad, human ears three ficet k>ng and 16 Vh^ 
chds broad ; other figures which seem to issue out aS thoi earth, of whjksh 
the Phryfifm bonnets oaly are Co be seeo. All these gigantic produo* 
I tkins are made of the most precious materials, ef blacky upd wl^te mar» 
hie, of marble entirely black, of marble with red spot»y of b)|iek granite^ 
of yellow gi^nite; and they are, for the most part, loaded with hierogly* 
phics. What sentiments of respect and admiration must have been pro* 
dttced in the minds of those superstitious people^ by such enormous and ' 
mysterious fabrics, eaypeckdly when in their solemnly silent courts, plain<- 
tive souuds were heard issiiing from a breast of>fttORe, at the first rays of 
Aurora, and the colossal Memnan %htiug at the sight of his mother. 

The fact is too well attested, and is of too long duration, to admit 

ef beh^ called in qeeftioti, Kevettheleis many of the learned have 

thought proper to' ascribe it to some exterior and momentoneotts artifioe 

of the ptiestB <lf Thebes. Nay it appears that Straboy who witnessed the 

noise made by the statue, hkts tbis suspicioe. We kiKnv in leah^ that 

Tentriloquiits are able, without movieg the lips, to utter weixfe and 

sounds whibh seem to come from a conaderable cKstaoce, though they 

are produced close by your side, for my own part, however durable 

the marvellous e^t of Memnon'$ statue may be supposed, I caii con- 

.ew^ ft prodKoed by the Aurora, and easily imitnble, widieut being un- 

ieithe aeeessity of renewing the art^ce of it, tilt after the kpse of ages. 

ft k wefl known that tiie pridsts of Egypt made a particular study of 

.MlMIre; tiiat they had f<>f med of it a Science knOwa by the name of 

'M^^ A$ possession of which ^ey reserved to themselves. They were 

not igeorant assuredly of theefiect erf the dilatation of metals, and among 

others of iron, which is conti-acted by cold, and lengthened by beat. They 

fl^ljht h^e'j^ed, in the great basis of MemnotC^ statue, a loug irue rod 


AnCATDIA. 101 

*^ Troy,'* said I to him, " that I may purchase for 
** myself a^name renowned among men. You have 

•' my 

ii^ a spiral itney and siKcepcible, from it*s extension, of contraction an4. 
dflatation, hj the slightest action of cetd and of heat. 

This medkim was sufRctest for extracting sovnd from some metaU 
lie oompof itioa. Their oolossat stmcoet Mag piutiy liottow, as maf 
he seen iu the splijftt& near the pyramids of Oraad Cairo, tbey 
could dispda^ in them machiiiecy of evciy himt The stone itself 9$ 
the statue of M^mmn being, aocofding to Fiiny^ a basaltea, mhUk 
possesses the hardness and the cobuf of Won, may TMy well hmf^ 
the power of contracting and of dilating itself, like tlua »em!, ef 
which it is apparently composed. It is certainly of a iiat«f«.diiferenlr 
from other stones, as Focockj who bad laade obsenratkm of aH sons 
of these, affirms that he hod never seen the like of it. He ascrilies 
Co it a particular character of hardness and porosity, which are in 
general attributes of ferruginous stones'. It might therefore be sos** 
ceptible of contraction and dilatation, and thus possess within itself 
a principle of motion, especially at the rising ofAurorUf when the 
<SOAtrast of cliccold niglit and of tke first rays of the rising Sun has' 
most action. 

, This effect must have been infallible under a sky like that of 
Upfier Egypt, where it scarcely ever rains. The sounds emitted from 
tiie statue of Memnon, at the «moment v\ hen -the Sun appeared over 
the Horizon of Thebes, had therefore nothing more marvellous in it, 
than tlie explosion of the caimon of the Palais Royal, and that of 
Che mortar of the King*s-Oarden, as the Sun passes 6ver the meri- 
dian of Paris. With a burning glass, a bit of match, and some gun* 
powder^ it would be easily possible to make a statue of Jupiter 
dinnder in tlie midst of a desert, on such a day of the year, and even. 
at saeh an hour of the day and of the night as might be resoIve<i on. 
This would appear so mucii the more marvellous, that it would thuu* 
der only in clear weatlier, jike the highly ominous thunder-daps 
among the Ancients. 

What prodtgi^ are operaied at this day on persons labouring un- 
der the pM^kes of superstition, by means of electricity, which 
t^irpuglft the medium otf a nod . of iron, or of copper, strikes in an 
invisible m in ler, is' capable of killing a man at a single blow, calls 

H d dowu 


'* my elder brother with you, who is sufficient to 
*^ secure the continuance of your posterity: ifypu 

** alway? 

icmn the thunder fcom the bosoij;^ of the cl<^ud, ^4 dicf^cUf it ^t plpt-r 
tare as k falls ? What effects might not be produced by means of 
aero^ationy that aire »tiU in it's infancy, which throngh the mediam 
of a globe of tafeta, glqoed over with an elastip gum, and filled with 
a putrid air, eight or ten tines li^iter than that which we hr^atbe, 
i^ii^ several ipen at onoa af>ove ttie cloods, where the iirinds trans^ 
port th<^ to inoredible dntapces, at the rate of nine or ten lea- 
gues au liouTy and without the least fatigue? Our aerostats it is 
true are mt no' muiner o^ use to us, because they are carried along 
i|t the mercy of the winds, as they liave not yet discovered the means 
of conducting their machinery; but I am persuaded they will one 
day a^n, ihit) point of perfection. Theve is^ oo the subject of this 
invefition, a veiy oirious passage in the history 6f China, whieh proves 
that the Chinese were in ancient; times acquainted with aerostation, 
i|n4 that they knew that method of conducting their machine which 
way they pleased, by night and by day. This need not excite surprize 
on the part of, a Nation which has invented before us the Art of 

Printing, the Mariner's Compass, and Gun-powder. 

..-■.'-' . ■ . , • ■ . , i' 

I shall give this fact complete from the Chinese annajs, in the vi^vv: 
of rendering our incredulous Readers sonaewhat more reserved, when 
they treat as fabulous what they do not comprehend in the Ifis^ry ' 
of Antiquity ; and credulous Readers not quite so easy of bf lief, when 
they ascribe to miraicles, or to magic, effects which modern physic%> 
imitate publicly in our own days. 

It is on the subject of the Emperor Ki, according to Father le Comte^ 
or Xi«M, comformable to the pronunciation of Father Martini, who, 
has given us a History of the earliest Emperors of China, after tlie 
annals of the coiiiitry. This Prince, who reigned about three tliou^ 
sand six hundred yeu-s ago, gave himself up to the commission of 
cruelties so barbarous, and to irregularities so abominable, that the 
name is to this day held in detestation all over Chinayan4 that when they 
mean to describe a man dishonoured by every species of criminality, they 
give him the appellation of Kieu. In order to enjoy the delights of a 

.* voloptuoiia 

^always oppoae my uidinatiaDs, tbrou^thetlread 
'x)f losing me, kaow^ that if I^scape ^tbe sword, I 

. *^ shall 

voluptuous life, without distmctioo^lie retired, with his lady and favour* 
ites, into a magnificent palace, from-which the light of, the Suu was tx* 
'eluded on every side. . He supplied it's place by an infinite number vf 
superb lamps, the luiitre of which seemed, to him preferable to that •£ 
.the Orb of Day, because it was ever uniform, .and ^lid n«t recal to Us 
imagination, by the vicissitudes of day and night, the iapM^co«rs9 of htt* 
man life. Thus, in the midst of splendid apartments always iUuminatcd, 
he renounced the government of Empire, to put on the yoke of his own 
passions. But the Nations, whose interests he had abandoned, baying 
revolted, chased him from bis infamous retreat, and sent him out a vaga 
' bond for his life, having by bis misconduct deprived his posterity of the 
' succession to the Crown, which was transferred to another family, and 
'leaving' a memory loaded* with such execrations, that the Chinese His* 
tvrtans never give him any other name .but •tlie Robtiei;, without once .be« 
-ftowng oniiim the title bf Emperor. 

" At the .tame tixoe,** lays Fathar Je <Co«i/e, ^ they detCrpyed 
,.4<bis palace; and in order ~to tr&Dsmk to posterity' tha mmaaj of 

** vf<^nhieiMJe» 80 cminant, they aoapeadad tba Jaaqis of it io 
. « all the iquarters of ftbe .city. "Thia coatom «iaa ropvated annuaiy, 

**And beoaaM from that(On)e « ramatkable .festivity all over the 
.« Empire. It is oelebrated ^at ¥atot-Gbiaou 'with more flM^ 

** ficence than any whera alse, A&diiit is «ii4 that fimnerly the iilumiim* 

^ tions on this occasion were so beautiful, that one Emperor, not daring 
. '' avowe()ly to quit' l^b Court, aoi) resort, thither to enjoy tha fpactacle, 

'^ put himself, tk^ Queen and several Princesses of the Blood,into the 
. ,y hands of a magician, who engaged to convey tham to it in ft very short 

** tin^e. He ,made them mount in. tlia nightFtime on saiiarb- thranas, 

** .jivhich were carried aloft by swans, and which in a^moaaot acriaad «t 

" The Emperor, wafted through the air on clouds which gradually 

' ^ descended over the city, contemplated the whole festival at his ^isilTje : 

^ he afterwards returned thence with the same velocity, andtbgr the same 

" vchiclf, without it's being perceived at Court that l{%imd been, at all 

' " . .« ftbsei^^ 


** thill ndt ijsctpe tli^morft painful ^ath tff cha- 
" grin.*' la truth, I was vfeibly declining; I avoided 
itt society,' and was so recluse that they gave me 


^ ibsetit. this is not tbe bnlj fable ^hicb the Cliintse relate. They 
^ have faittdfies retatit e t6 every labjecty for they are superstitious to 
f* an dtocfss, and on the subject of magic in particular, whether feigned 
P tft f«al, there is not a People in the World to be compared with 
** Aem.* Msimrs ^ the present State rf China, hy Father k Cmte* 
jMiJtr Tt. 

*T\i\i Emperor, who was thus transported throngb the air, according 
f6 t'ather MagaiUans^ was called Tarn, and this event took plaoe two 
thousand |eani i^er the reign of Kieu ; tliat is about sixteen hundred years 
1^* {"ather MagaUlvM, who e:»pre9set no doubt respecting the truth 
pf the event, though he supposes it to have been performed by n^a|^, 
tdds, after the Chineset that the Emperor Turn caused a concert pf 
Tocal and instrumental music to be played by bis band in the air over 
ITaail-CheM, wf^ch graittly s«rpH«M Oifi ihbabitaata effhatclty. Itfs 
jliaiaaea froai NanUa^ where tbs Emfieiw might be then supposed io 
^eaide^iB a(ba«i eig^tMi laagnes. Mowevetv if heivai at Pekin, as 
Jfi^Msl^akif ftvea ut te omleretaad, when he wj% that the Courier fh>(D 
Yamfe-ChekHi was a iboaih on the i«ad, i^ carrying hiaa the news of 
Ihaaeilraonlinayy wm^ vi^idi d^ey asdnbed to the inhf^bitaati of Hefb- 
ymt^ tlte^alnrial joomey «ria 175 leafnpi >a a uraighUtiie. 

B«a ivMldut iUBpliftiiig hbm the fact as it stands, if Pather U ConUp 
kad teen a^ neba diy, ae Wa^doe^ by the whole inhabitants of 
9m»f af Lapde», amd ef tb^a fooift eoi««derabte cities of Europe, Philb- 
H fh a fi awyen dtd kf) giobel ab^va the el«^ds, carried 40, ^ay 50 lea- 
fiaa km tba jpdM^ ibeir depaniMiKt tuid one of th^m crossing, through 
tile aiTi, the arm of the Sea, which s^rales England frbih fVance, fie 
he would not up hastily have treated the jpbine^e tradition as a fable.. I 
knd tefSdl^ i great analogy of forma between those magnificent thron^^ 
tird iki<St;^ tlifkd^ talkieh grfdualfy defended f>rfr the city of Tamt-Cheifu, 
atod oH^ a&(»taHC glpbe^ to which it is so easily possible to give those 
feAaiAilioaa decfMntio^s, The conducting swans alone seepfi to present 
a <^cuhy in the manag^oieipit of this aeria) navigation. But wher^ 



the sifname of Meneros. To no purpose did my 
father attempt to combat a sentiment, which wait 
the fruit erf the education he had given me. 

One day he introduced me to Cephas^ exhorting 
me to follow his' counsels. Though I had never 
seen Cephas before, a secret sympathy attached me 
to him, the moment I beheld him^ This respect- 
able friend did not endeavour to oppose my favour- 
ite passion, but, in order to weaken it, he changed 
the object: •^You thirst after glory," said he to me, 
*Mt is undoubtedly the most desirable thing in the 
*' World, since the Gods reserve it for themselves 
" as their peculiar portion. But how can you 
^' reckon upon obtaining it at the siege of Troy? 

fore should it be deemed flnpossibie for the Chinese to have trained 
iwans CO flight ttiftiplf , h er bi f O f^on hmls, ^ easily tamed to the purposes 
of domestic kfv, ^qrhcn it it cdnsiilQred tiMH tre have mstmcttd dif likot^ 
la bird ofprcy ftiwayt wild, to pursue the fame, and afterwards to iftuni 
^o the wrist of the fowler? t*be Chinese, living under a muth better 
)i^ioe,moni anctea^and paore^jtjfic tiien we, have acquired an tasiligt 
{iito Nature which mux ^npet«| diipsrds |ifrmiu»d us not ta attain 
(till a much la^er peripd: and^ oudeubcedl/, it is this profound insight 
into Nature which Father k Com^e^ otherwise a man of understandings 
fco;isiders al magk^ pftiended i?t- real, ih which ^:he acknowMges the 
Phitiese surpassed att NattoUiU f^r ny owo part, ^ who am no nn- 
^ician, think I Imve a glimpe^y coo^armablj^ to some of the Works of 
il^ature, of an easy method whereby aerostats may direct their course 
ffcven against the wind; but t woUid not publish it were I ever so certaii^ 
«f if s success. What mitefi^ have not the Jner^cti^g of the r4»mpas|, 
iMid of gufhfowder, brought -upon th^ Human Race ! The dcsirenble 
obje<^t of research is not, what is to reader us more intelligent, but what 
IS to render us better. Science, in the band of Wisdom, is a torch which 
^UmniiMM»,lMtl)raadiihad|y«beta^ the World 

) ^^ WhicU 

}f^ Sequel to the &fv:DiEa of nature. 
>* Which side would you take; that of the Grcekg 
*' or of the Trojans? Justice decknes for (jfreece; 
•^ conipaj^ion and duty for Troy. Your are an 
** Asiatic,** would you then combat in favour of 
" Europe againat Asia? Would you bear arms 
** against Prianiy that father, and that King so 
*^ unfortunate, ready to sink with his family a&d 
" empire, under the arms of Greece? On the other 
" hand, Would you undertake the defence of thjB 
*' ravisher Paris^ and of the adulteress Helen^ 
" against Menelaus htx husband? There is no trup 
*' glory independent of justice. But even though 
^* a free man were able to ascertain, in the quarrels 
** of Kings, on which ade justice lay. Do you con- 
•• ccive that in following it would consist the great-. 
** est possible glory that qan be acquired ? What- 
^ ever applauses conquerors may receive from their 
** compatriots, trust me. Mankind know well how 
** to place thetn, one day, in their proper situation. 
** They have given only the rank of heroes and of 
*' demirgo/dU to those who have merely practised 
" jurtic*, such as Thesem^ Hercuk^, Pirithous. 
** But they have raised to the supreme order 
*' of Deity, those who have been bejieiScent; 
** such as IsUf who gave laws to men; Osiris^ 
^ who taught them the Arts, and Navigation; 
^\ Apollo, Music ; Jfefo^ry, Commerpq; Pan, tlie 
^^ ad't of breeding cattle; JB^icf &ii#, ' the cultiva* 
*' tion of the vine; Cere^, that of corn. I amt 

. • Amtmt ivftt m Sgjrf tiao, aodi^pt wa» w Africft; bi^ tbe AocieDta 

assigned this country to Asia. The Nile sened as a boundary (o Sm 
^ ilie West. Consult FUny, and the ancient Geograjphers. 

' "anative 

^ a native of Gaul/' continued C^has ; *^ it is a 
** Country naturally rich and fertile, but winch, 
^^ for want of civilization, is destitute of tlie^^vater 
^^ part of those things which minister to happiness. 
^^ Let us go and carry thither l^e arts, and thause* 
*^ fill plants of Egypt; a humanje Religion and 
^* social L^ws : we may perhaps bring back same 
** commodities useful to ypur own country. Then 
^^ does npt exist a Nation, however savage it m^ 
^^ be, that does not posseiss some ingenuity, from 
*' which a polished People «jay derive , benefit ; 
". somi ancient tradition/ some rare production^ 
" which is peculiar to it's own climate. It is thus 
*' that Jupiter^ the Father of Mankind, was dc- 
** sirous of uniting, by a reciprocal interchange of 
*^ benefits, all the Nations of the Earth ; poor or 
^* rich; barbarian or civilized. Even if we should 
^ be imabie to find in Gaul any thing tliat can be 

V used in .Egypt,#or w?re we, by some accident, ta 
^f lose the friiit of our. voyage, still there will r^ 

V main for us'oiie thing :of whkh neither death nor 
*' tempests can deprive us; I mean the satisfaction 

V of having done good." 

This di$c(^urse suddenly illuminated my mind 
with a ray of divine light, I embraced C^m, with 
tears in my eyes ; " Let us depart," said I to him, 

V let us do good to Mankind, and imitate tho 
'' Godsf 

My father approved of our project. When I took 
my of him, he folded me in his arms, saying : 
** My son, you are goibg to undertake the most 
** difficult task in th« World ; for yon at« going to 
f engage in laboui* foi the benefit of Mankind. But 

■'■■'' ■ ." if 


" if you can by such means, promote your otvn 
*- happiness^ rest assured that you will render 
" mine complclc.'* 

After having taken leave of our friends, Cephas 
and I embarked at Canopus, on board a Phenician 
▼es^l which was going to Gaul for a cargo of fiirs, 
and for pewter to the British Islands. We carried 
with us linen-cloths, models of waggons, of ploughs, 
and of various looms ; pitchers of wine,"^ musical in- 
struments, and grains of different species ; among 
others, those of hemp and flax. We caused to be 
fastened inchests, round the poop of the ship, on 
the deck* And even along the cordage, slips of the 
vine, which were in blossom, and fruit-trees of va- 
rious sorts. You might have taken our vessel, co- 
vered with vine-branches and foliage, for that of 
Bacchus setting out on the conquest of the Indies. 

We anchored, finit, oti the coast of the Island 
of Crete, to take in some plants which were suitable 
to thf climate of Gaul.^ This island produces a 
greafer quantity of vegetables than Egypt, in the 
vicinity of which it is situated, from the variety of 
it*s temperatures, extending from the burning sands 
» of it's shores, up to the snowy region of Mount 
Ida, the summit of which is/ lost in the clouds. 
But what ought to render it still more valuable to 
it's inhabitants, is it's having been governed by the 
sage laws qf Minos, 

AiaVpurable wind afWrwards drove us from Crete 
to the height3 of Melita * This is a smill island, the 
hilis of which being formed of white stone, appeaf 
at a distance on the Sea, like cloth spread out to 

«<^ Tliia is (he bland now c^led Mdtl^ 

bleach 4ii ^^e 3u|i. We c»$t anebor hf re^ to lay ia 
waicr, whicjl^ is pfes^rvedi io great pujrity, in ©»• 
tem^ In vain should w« have wugH i^ this 
place, for apy other 8peci^% of supply : the klmd it 
destitute of every t^mg^ l^ugh ftom it's sttugtioa 
between Sicilly and Africa, ^ndfmm the v^tf^^txsi^ 
of it's pof ty which is divided into several arms, it 
ought to^ b^ the centre of commerot for aU the Na* 
tions of Europe^ of Afrioa, and even of Asia. It^s 
inhabitants subsist entirely by plunder. We pire-* 
sented them with some seeds of the melop, a^d 
of tiie xylun.* This is an, herb which ^ ti^rives 
in the driest places, and the wool which serv^ fyf 
the manufacture of cteths, extremely white and 
delicate. Though MeIits^ which is^ an entire rock^ 
produces almost nodiing fit fqr the subsistence of 
men and animals, yet there is taken ^HuniiaUy 
about the autumnal £^cpiipo|^ a prodigioiis ^^uaii^ 
tity of quails,! which repose; there, on thek pas^ 

* Tliisisthe cotton oo. a lierb: it is originally a native ofE^pL 
They now manufacture at Malta very beautitul stuflf of it, wliick is ^ 
2>nncipiil source of support to the commoiuiky of tbat island, vHio arc 
^miserably intligentf Thei>e it a scounld species ^todaoe^ m a sfaral^ , 
which is cultivated in Asia aad the West-India islands. Nay^ I believe 
there is a third species that grows in America oa a tall prickly tree ; 
tach care has Nature taken to diffose a vegetable so useful ov^r all the 
warm regions of the Globe ) This much is certain^ tbat the Sava^ge^ of 
the parts of America which are situated between the Tropic^ oade 
for themselves garments and hao^Riockb of cottoju whe.n CUumtui landed. 
•R that Continent. 

t The quails still take Malta in their way, and appear on a day 

named and marked ia the alraaaacks of the country. The custans «f 

. the animal creation do not vary.; b«l th<^se Qf the hoBian ipeciee kmm 



s^ge fMm Europe tct Africa If is an amttsin^ 
spectacle ta see them, ^tdiied as they are, cross 
die Sea in quantities tncredfble. They wait till 
the wind blours from the North; wheny raisitagf onv 
of their wings in the air like ^ sail/ and beating 
with the other like ati oar, the^ graze along the 
wave% having their rumps loaded with fat. Wheil 
they arrive at diis island, they are s<y fitfgtied that 
they might be caught with the hand. A man 
can gather more in one day thati he can make use 
of in a year. 

Fbom Melita, we were wafted by the gale ^$ far a* 
the Isle* of Enosis,* which are situated at the souths 
cm extremity of Sardinia. There the winds became 
contrary and obHgetl us to anchor. These islands 
consist of sandy rocks, which produce nothing; but 
ly a wonderful interposition of the providence of 
Ae Gods, who in placrt the most unproductive find 
the means of supportingMan in a thousand difftrent 
Irays; tunnies are given to these islands, as quails 
are to the rock of Melita* In Spring, the tunnies, 
which make their way from the Ocean into the Me- 
diterranean, pass in such great quantities between 
Sardinia and the islands of £nosis^ that their inha- 

teidergonq coD«i()er:it)Ie cKangcs in that ishnd. SohieGcand-Mastcrs 
of the Order of St. Johfi, to whom the island belongs, have there en- 
§B^ ift projects of public utility; among others, lliey have conveyed 
the water of a rivulet into the very harbour, itlaiiy other undertakings- 
wit'ti still bcbidd undoubtedly^ whicb concern tbd Happiness of the IIu- 
nao Race. 

♦ These are at this tiAie halted ^li^ islands of SaiAt Peter and of 
Si. Aatioehatf. They are Tcry small; but they have a gre^U fishery fot" 
|ttojii«9^ and tke^ fnaaaf&etar« great quantities of saU. 



bitants are occupied, night and day, in fishing for 
them, in salting them, and in extiacting their oik 
I have seen upon their shotes heaps of the burnt 
bones of these fishes, which were higher than thts 
house: But this gift of Nature does not render 
tlie inhabitants afiUient They fish for the benefit 
of the inhabitants of Sardinia^ Thus, we saw sllaves 
oniy in the Island of Enosis, and tyrants alone at 

The whid becoming favourable, we departed, 
after having presented the "inhabitants with some 
slips of the vine, and received from them some 
young plants of the chestnut^tree, which tliey im« 
port from Sardinia, where the fruit of these trees 
grows to a considerable six. '. 

During the voyage, Cephas pointed out to me 
the variegated aspects of the land, not oije of 
which Nature has made similar to another, in 
quality and in form y in order tlut divers plants 
and animals may find, in 'the same climate, dlf-^ 
ferent tetnperat;ures. When nothing was to be per- 
ceived but tlie Heavens and the Water, he caUed 
my attention to men. " Observe," ^aid he 'to me, 
" these sea-faring people, how robust they ai^ I 
"you might take thetn for tritons. BoAly excr- 
" cise is the aliment of health.* It dissipates an 

♦ Certain Phllosopheis have carried matters much farther. Thej 
Lave pretended that bodily exercise was the alizoeot of the suuL £xeiv 
cise of body is good only for the preservation of health; the soul has 
it^s own apart. Nothing is more common thnn to see men of delicatt 
health possessed of exalted virtue, and robust persons i^ery Idefe^tivie 
there. Virtue is no more the result of physical qudUues, tlAii stretig^ 
of body is the eflfecc of moral qualitii^ ' All temperaments are equall/ 
predisposed to vice and to virtue. 

" infinite 


'^ infinite number of di8ea3e6 and passions, which 
^* spring out of the repose of cities. The Gods 
^^ have planted hunum life, in the same manner as 
" the oaks of my countty. The more they aie 
** buifetted by the winds^ the more vigorous they 
*' become. The Sea^" continued he, *^ is the school 
•* of every virtue : there, you live in privations^ 
/' and in dangers of every scurt* You are there 
" under the necessity of being courageous, sober^ 
"chaste, prudent, patient, vigilant, religious.'^ 
" But, answered I, " How comes it that the 
^ greater part of the companions of our voyage 
'* possess none of these qualities ? They are, al- 
^' most all of them, intemperate, violent, impious^ 
" commending and blaming without discernment, 
** whatever they see performed." 

" It is not the sea which has corrupt(2d them,'' 
•* replied Cephas ; they have brought with them 
** the passions ^f the land. It is the love of riches, 
'^ idleness^ and the desire of giving themselves up 
^' to all manner of irregularities, when on shore 
** which determines a great number of men to 
*' entiF into the sea-service, for the purpose of 
" enriching themselves ; ^d as they cannot ac- 
^* quire,, without a great deal of trouble, the means 
Y of gratification on this element, you always see 
" them restless, sullen and impatient, because 
** there is nothing so discontented as vice, when 
" it finds itself in the road of virtue. A ship is 
" the crucible in which morals are put to the test» 
** There the wicked degenerate more andymore^ 
•* and the good become better. Virtue, liow- 
^ ever, can derive advantage fr6m every situation. 

,^ " Profiting 


[* Profiting by their defects, you may here learn 
i* jequ^Uy to despise abuse and id)c applause ; to 
^' act so as to merit your own approbation, and to 
''.have no other witness of your actions but the 
,^[ Gods. He who is desirous of doing good to 
^ Mankind, must innure himself betimes to submit 
*^ to unkind tres^tment from them. It is by the 
'^ labour of the body, and the injustice of meo, 
'' that you are enabled to fortify, at once, both 
'' your body and your soul. It wasby such means 
'' that Hercuks acquired that courage, and that 
'' invincible strength, which have raised his glory 
*^ to thestars*'* . / 

^ I followed then as iar as I was kble, the advice 
of my friend, notwithftanding my extreme youth. 
I exerted myself ii) raising the unwieldy sail-3rar<)s» 
and in managing thp sails. But tbt least raillesy 
from my companions, 'who ridiculed my inexperi- 
ence^ entirely disconcerted me. It would have 
been easier for tne to contend with the boistetoits 
elements than with the contempt of men: such 
aensihility to the opinions of others had my adu- 
catiOQ inspired. 

We passed the straits which sf parates Africa 
fcpm Europe, and ^w on the right and on the left 
the two mountains, Ci^lpe and Abila, \frhich fortify 
the entrance. Our Phenician sailors did not fail 
to inform us, that their Nation was the first of all 
thpse of the Earth which had dared to penetratp 
into the vast Ocean, and coast along it's sbore^ 
even as far as the Frozen Zone. They placed thek 
own reputation far above that of Hcrcnks^ who 
erected, as they said, two pilUrs at tliis passai;?, 

Vot.lY. I with 


<vith the inscription, BcroKD this you caiJ^nox 
PASS, as if the temiination of his labours were also 
t6 be that of jthe researches of Mankind. Cepkdsy 
who neglected ho opportunity of recaUirig nien 
to a sense of justice, and of rendering homage to 
the memory of heroes, said to thetji : " I hare al- 
*• ways heard it said that the ancients ttttght to be 
^ respected. The inventors of a sciente are the 
/^*niosl worthy of commehdatiot), becatise they 
** opMi fht career toother m^n. . It Is l«Ss diffitul't 
" afterwards for tliose ^ho follow thettf to e^ctenA 
^ theit progress. A' Aild mounted^ On the shoiul- 
** ders of a tall man, sees farther thsla the penon 
who 'su^jports him.^'^ Vephas howfever spoke^ to 
theto Without effect ; they would n<!)t deign to ten*- 
der fbe slightest homage to thfe son of AJtfrtdik 
As 'for oursdl^s, we revefed the very sflicrres of 
Sj^D/'^rhere he had kifled the jehrfet-bodied G)> 
fycn. We clowned otff h^^ds With hranfchfes of 
fitfpilar, ft'tid in honour of hitn, pbureld out sonie winfe 
ofThaafeS'onthewkvfe. • • ^ '^ 
'*■ We todtt discovered tht prof<9lffnd anci Vefd)int 
forests which cover Celtic Gaul. It was a^bri-bf 
Jf&iules cvAltii Giiikte^ wliogavetd it'll jnha4)it- 
ants the shnanic 6!f*Galatfans, tk^Gaub. Ilii mtjt 
th«r^ the daughter of one of the Kings df'Celtiea^ 
'tras of a prodigious- stature. She scorned to^take 
iftliusband from among her father's subjecfe ; tui 
when Hercules parsed through Gaul, after the ^e^ 
•feat ofOeryofi, she couM not refuse hef heart and 
haiid to the conqueror of a tyrant. ^ We afterwards 
'entered the channel which "separates Gaul frony the 
'British Islands^ atid iha'few days we itache^ th$ 

' thcfuth 


itioutli of th€ Seine, the green water$ Of which: may^ 
at ^11 times be dij^ngtisi^hed from the azure w^vesl 
of the Sea* ^ ' > 

My joy was cooiplete. We isrere upon the point 
of arriving. Our treips wece fresh and covered with 
leaved/ Several of them, and among others the 
slips 4if the vine, were already loaded Mrithiipe 
fruit ; i • pictured %o mysdf the joyful reception 
^hSch We fvrere going to receive from a people des* 
, titute of the prinoi pal gifts of Natwt, when they 
should s^e ui» disemharked upon thett- shores, 
with the delicate pr^uctions of Bg^pt aiid of 
Crete; Thie labours of agriculture ar£^ alone -raffi* 
cient tofix wandering bid unsettded Kations/ and 
to deprive them of the indiaation^bf siipporti^ghy 
vioyni;^' that life iviifclt Nature Jaus^Uiins with $o 
many blessings^ Nothing nsote thaai a grain .of 
corn is requisite, said I1:o;myself, inioiiQertopoUsh 
iht %hole <Tallic NaJtibn^ by thesd) arts w^kb 
spring from Agriculttire* This arhgle gfasn* of 
flax i$ sUffiiiCi^nt at sewo future period^ lio afSord 
thtm clothing, ^fhe si tp^ of the vivie .may serve 4:6 
diffuse gaiety and joy jover iJheir fWtimls, to tiie 
kt^feft posterity. I dien felt iw w >far superior the 
Wof*ks of Nature are 'to 'those of Man. lliese last 
begin to decay the* nwDment that thjKjr ^appear ; 
tftic othj&i^, on the contrary, tarry in thehoiseires the 
spirit of life which propagates them* Time, whiph 
destroys the monuments of afts, servesonty to Imnl* 
tiply those of Nature. * I peixreived n^dre real be- 
nefits inislosed in a single grdin of seed^ th^a is to' 
be fouttd in Egypt in the treasurittl df horifiings: ' 
I gavemy«tf up to thes* drvin,?AttdilMimane,spe- 
1 2 culati6u^, 


^' ber source contrary to the natural <oui:$e of ri-- 
' vers. At all seaaons alie, separates Jier green 
" waves from the azure billows df Nepftme. , 

'^^ Neva died with regret for the los$ of Jb«r mis* 
** tress J but the Nereids, as a reward for her fide- 
^ Uty, erected to her memory, upon the ahore; a 
'^ monument composed (^ black and u^hite atones, 
" which tnay be perceived at a v^ great distioiGe, 
*-* By a skill divine, thcgr have even inclosed in it, 
♦* an ^cho, in order tb«t M^aa^ after .her, death, 
<* might warn mariners, both by, the eye and by 
^^ Ihe ear, of the dangers of the land,.«as she had 
*.* during her life eautioined the nymph of Ceres 
** against those of the Sea* ^ Yon aee ,her tomb 
*^ from hen^e. It is that steep moimtain formed of 
*^ dismal beds of Uack and white stones. It al- 
" ways bears' the nanle of Hem^. You perceive by 
** those piles of flint-stones with which it's basts i$ 
^^ covered, the efforts used by the enraged Neptune 
^^ to undertriine the foundation ; and you may liear 
** from hence, the roaring of the mountain ^ which 
** warns mariners to take care of thtmselveau As to 
" J^pkitrii^y deeply alfccted by the misfejrlunc of 
^* Seinty and theinfideUty of iVi^pie/Wy sheiiitreated 
V the Nerei(l« to holtow out, that little ba^ which 
** you see upon your left,,at the mouth of.the -rr. 
** verj and it wa^ her intention that it should be 
^^ at all times a secure harbour agaiilst the fiuy of 
:*• her husband Enter into it then at this time, if 

* There is in fact at the mouth of the Seine, op it's left sicIq bank, .% 
idountain fortned of layers of black and white stones, which is called the 
Blve. It sertes ais a laud«iiiiiarL for marinerB, iud iberi ierri ^ erected 
'i|ip>nitfor|iywg?»g«»bt«sbipi-atSea» - ; ^^ iU.Z". n> 

i .[ ■' • . : ''you 

^ you will beraled by me, wWk daylight rcmkins. 
'^.^ I c«Q assure you that I have frequently sees the 
" God of the Seas pursue Seine far up the countiy, 
"^^ and bvertorn every thing which he encountered 
" ift his passage* Be on your guird therefore 
^^ against meetiag a God whom love htts rendered 

^*' furious/ 
t ^* You must surely,'* answered the Pilot to Ce- 
phas *^ take me for a vciy ignorant fellow, when 
*^ Ifdu relate such stories to a person of my age. It 
*• is now forty y^iirs since I have followed a sea- 
*y j^fe. I have anchored night and day in the 
" Th?imes, which is full of sands, and in theTg^gus, 
** which flows with such rapidity ; 1 have seen the 
f^ C9;taracts of the Nile which make a roaring so 
•* dreddful, but never have I seen or heard any 
*^ thi«^ similar to what you have now been relating. 
*^ I shall hardly be simple enough to remain here at- 
^* anchor, while the wind is favourable for going 
'f up the river; I shall pass the night in ifs chati- 
" ncl, and expect to sleep very souiidly.^ 

He spoke, and in concert with the sailors raised 
a h(k)ting, as ignorant and presumptuous meil are 
accustomed to do, when ad\nce is given them 
"Which they do tK>t understand. 

^ Cephas then approached me, and enquired if I 
knbw how to sWini. * ** No,'* answered I ; " I have 
** karat in Egypt evejy thiiog that could render 

' '^ pie.i^spectable among men^ and almost nothing 
'* which, could be useful to myself/' He then said 
tor me : " Let ufe not separate from each other ; we 

. ^f will keep close to this bench of the rowers, and 
" reposg our trust in the Gods,'* 

M4 In 


* • 

In the mean time the vessel driven by the winds^ 
and undoubtedly by the vengeance of Hercuks al* 
so, entered the river in full sail. We avoided^ at 
fosty three sand-banks which are situated at ifs 
mouth; afterwards^ being fairly involved in the 
channel, we could see nothing around us but a vast 
forest, which extended down to the very banks of , 
the river. The only evidence wie had of a country 
inhabited, was some smoke, which appeared rising 
fiere and there above the trees. We proceeded In 
this manner till night prevented us from distin* 
guishing any object ; tlien the pilot thought pro- 
per to cast anchor* 

The vessel, driven on one side by a fresh breeze, 
and on the other by the current olF the river, was 
forced into a cross position in the channel. But 
notwithstanding this dangerous situation, our sai* 
lors began to drink and make merry, believing 
themselves secure froni all danger, because they 
were surrounded with land on every side. They af- 
terwards went to rest, and nota sii^leman remain- 
ed on deck to watch the motions of the ship; 

Cephas and I staid above, seated on one of the 
rower's benches. We banished sleep from our eyes, 
by conversing on the majestic appearance of the 
stars jrhich rolled over our heads. Already had 
the constellation of the Bear reached the middle of 
it's cowse; when, we heard at a distance, a deep 
rqaring noise^i like that of a cataract. I impru- 
dently rose up to see what it could be. I perceived 
^7 the Mfhite^eis of it's foam, a mountain of wa- 
.."". / / . . "tec 

•ter* which approached us from the sea, rolling 
-itself over and oyer. It occupied the whole 
breadth of the river, and, rushing above it's banks, 
to the right hand and to the left, broke with a horr 
rible crash among the trunks of the trees of the 
forest In the same instant it came upon our ve$- 
sel, and taking l^r sidcrways, fairly overset her. 
This mowment tossed me into the water« A 
montmei)^ afterwards, a second surge still more 
elevated than the former^ turned the v^^^l keel 
upward. I recollected that I tbrn heard isiue 
from the inverted wreck a multitude of hollow 
and stifled- screamings : but being desirous of 
calling my friend to my assistance, my mouth 
filled with salt water ; I felt a murmuring noise in 
my ears ; I found myself carrie<l away with incon- 
ceivable rapidity, and soon after I lost all recdlec- 

. I am not s^ible how long I might hav^ re- 
mained in the water, but when I recovered my 
senses, I perceived toward the West the bow of the 
Iris in the Heavens, and to the East the first fifes 
of Aurora^ which tinged the clouds wjtb silvpr and 
vermilion. A company of young girls extremely 
fair, half cl^d in skins, surrounded me: some ,of 
Ihem presented me with liquor^ in shells, others 
wiped me dry with m^iAsc^ and others supported 

♦ This mountain of water is prodacea Jby ^ tides, which force theirs 
w^y from the Sea up the Seine^ and make it to flow backward agamte 
it's cour&e« It is heard coming fh>m a very greariistaftce, espepiaijy in 
the tiight-time. They call it the Bar, because it obstmcts the 
whole course of the Seine. This Bar is usually followed by a second 
Bai* still more elevated, which punucf it at the distance of abQUt'a 
kindred fathoms, ' They run much faster than a borse at soil speed. 


my bead with their haml^. Their ii^iceii bah; fbeit 
vermili^m cheeks, their azure eyes, mc} tsbat celes^ 
tkt somewhat which coitipassioTi alirays portray 
im the cotiQitenance of wqman, mzdd me believe 
l&at I ^ras in Heaven, and that I was atteniied b^ 
the Hours, ^bo opeii the gates of it day hy day 
/or the admission of unfortunate mortals. The 
first fnftotion of my heart wa^ to look for you, and 
the secoml toenquire after you« Ob! CepboM f I 
could not have Mttnf faappilMss complete, even in 
Olympnsy witfaoiit your presence. But the illusion 
was aoon over, when I heard a htnguage barboroiis 
and unknown to nie, issue from the i^sy lips of 
these young females. I then jecoliected by de- 
agrees the circumstances of my shipwreck. I arose: 
I wished to seek for you, but knew not wi^e to 
£nd you again. I wandered about ia the midst 
of the woods. I was ignorant wbether the river, 
in which we had been shipwrecked, was near, or at 
a di8tanee,^€ti my right hand, orbn my left;^ and 
to increase my embarrassment, there was no person 
of whom I could inquire it's situation. 

After having reflected a short tin>e, I observed 
that the grass was wet, and the foliage of the treea 
of a bright green, from which I concluded that 
it must have rained abundantly the j>rece^ing 
night I was confirmed in this idea by the sight 
of the water, which still flowed in yellow currents 
along the roads. 1 farther concluded that these wa- 
ters mu&t, of necessity, empty themselves into some 
brook, atid this brook into the river. I was about 
to foUpw these indications, when $ome na^n, who 

^ J . . . came 


camfi out af an adjoining c«»ttage, compelled mc 
with a threatening tpiie to enter. I then perceived 
that I was free no longer, aad that I had become 
the slave of a people, who^ I once Mattered mjsel^ 
^ould have honoured me as a God. 

I call Jupittr to witness, ph, Cephas! <that the 
affliction of having, been shipwrecked in port, of 
seeing myself reduced to ^ervitgde by thoae for 
who^e ,benefiti I had travelled ao far, of being rele* 
gated to a barbarous country where I could make 
myself understood by no person, far from the de* 
ligbtful count'y of Egypt, and from my relati<m% 
did not equal the. distress which I felt in having 
lost you. I called to f^mcembrance the wisdom of 
your counsels ; your confidence in^.^he.Gods, of 
whose providence you taught me to b^ sensible 
even in the midst of jthe greatest cala^mities ; yow 
obsenrations on the Works of Nature \yhich rcr 
plenished her to me with life and benevolence; 
the tmnquilUty i!n wliiqU youuo well knew bow ta 
xnainjfcain all my passions : and I felt, by. the gloom 
which was gathering arpu*nd my hear?, that I had 
lost in you the first ^f blessings, and that a prudent 
friaid is the most valnable gift which itbe bounty 
qf the Gods can bestow upon Man. • ^ 

Thust I thought of nothing.but of the pxepnsof 
rjegaining; you oneq more, ai^i^ J fiatteredi myself 
that X should succeed, Ijiy makipgmy escape in the 
jniddlei of the night,ji|^ I.CQuld«Qnly reach the 3ea- 
(fpasti . I wM,.persuad^ ,^hat I. pould not he far . 
l;^stant ftom ^it, but I w^ entir^ely ignorant on 
. T ' ^ : , . , /: .7 . ^ ^ which 



which side it lay. There was n6 eminence near 
roe from whence I could discover it. Sometimes I 
mounted to the s,ummit of the most lofty trees, but 
I could perceive nothing except the forface of the 
forest, which extended as far as the Horizon. Of- 
ten did I Vatch ihe flight of the birds, to see if I 
could discover some sea- fowl coming on shore to 
build her nest in the forest j or some wild pigeon 
going to pilfer salt from the shores of the Ocean. 
I would a thousand times have preferred the sound 
of the piercing cries of the sea-thrush, when she 
cotnes during a tempest to shelter herself among 
the rocks, to the melodious voice of the red-breast, 
which already announced, in the yellow foliage of 
the woods, the termmation of the fine weather. 

One night after I had retired to rest, I thought 
1 heard at i distance the noise which the waves of 
the Sea make, when they break upon it's shores ; 
that I could even distinguish the tumult of the 
waters of the Seine pursued by' Neptune. Their 
roarings, which had fonperly chilled 'me with.Kor- 
' ror, at that time transported me with joy. I arose : 
I went out of the cottage, and listened attentively ; 
buit the sounds which seemed to issue from various 
parts of the Horizon, soon perplexed my unde'r- 
Istanding : I began to discover that it was themulr- 
muriifgs of the winrds, which agitated at a distance 
the 'foHage of the oaks, and of the beach-trees! 

I&ometitnes I endeavoured to make the savages 
of niy cottige fcompreh^nd that I had lost a friend, 
lapplied Ay hfetid fp my eyes, to my mouth, arid 
to toy heart ; I pointed to the Horizon, I raised my 


hmd& clasped to Heayeo^ and shed te^irs* They 
understood this dumb language, by whipfa I ex- 
pressed my afflicticm, for they wept witl^ me; bu^ 
by a contradiction for which I could not iccount^ 
they redoubled theirprecautions to preventme from 
making my e$cape. 

I applied myself therefore to learn their lan- 
guage, that I might inform, them of my condition^ 
and in order to interest them in it. They wet^ 
themselves eagerly dispose to teach i^e the names 
of the o^ects which I pointed out to thenu Slavery 
is v^ry mild among the^e Nations,£?i liberty 
excepted^ differed in nothing fromi thatof my iiias- 
tem. Every thing was in common between us^ 
provision^ habitation, and the eart^ upon which wie 
slept wrapped up in skins. They had $ven so ii^ucb 
consideration for my youth, as to give metheeasi-' 
est part of their labours to perforau In a^ short 
ti^e I was able to converse with them. This is 
what I learnt of their government and character. , 

G%ul is peopled with a great n Umber of petty 
Nations, som& of which are governed by Kings, 
others by ^Chiefs, (Sailed larles ; but all subjected 
to the power of the Druids, who unite them all un* 
^er the same religion, and govern them with, so 
much the greater facility, that they are divided by 
a thousand different customs. The Druids have 
persuaded these Nations that they are descended 
from FbitOf the God of the Infernal Regions, whon^ 
they call Hceder^ or the Blind. This is the reason 
that the Gauls reckon by nights and not by days, 
and th^t they reckon the hours of the day from thi; 



midille of the night, contrary to the j^racticeof alf 
other Nations. They adore several other Gods ai 
terrible as Hteder; su6h as ^iorder, the fnaster of 
the ^mds, who dashes vessels on fheir coasts, m 
order they say t» procure them plunder. They ac- 
cordingly believe, that every ship which is wrecked 
upon their shores is sent them by Niorder, They 
have besides, yifeor; or Theutates, theOod of War; 
armed with a dab, which he darts from the upper re* 
gions of th^ftr ; they gave him gloves of iron, and 
a belt, which redoubles his fiiry when it is girded 
around him/ Tir, equally ciAiel ; the silent VMar^ 
whowears shoes of considei-aMe thickness, by mean^ 
©f which he can walk through the air, and upon 
the water, wiljbout making any noise ; ]^mdaly with 
the golden tooth, who sees day and nights he can 
hear the slightest sbiind, cveo that which the grasS 
or the wodl makes as they grow • Ouffer, the God 

^ of the Ice, shod with skates; Lake, who had three 
'children bythegiatitess Aitgherbodey the messenger 
of grief, namely,; the wolf Fcnrh\ the serpent of 
Midgtirdj and the merciless ffela. Hela is deirthl 
They say that his palace is misery ; his table, fa^ 
mine; his door tlie prectpice; his porch, languor; 

' and his bed, consumption. They have besidei^ 
several other Gods, whose ex^loits^re as ferocious 
as their names, Herian, Rijlindiy Svidur, Svidrer; 
Salsk; which translated, mean the warrior, the thun- 
flerer, tlie destfoyer; the incendiary, thd father of 
carnage.. The Druids honour these .Divinities,* 

♦ Respecting the manners and mythology of the Ancient Nations of 
t^jp North, Herodotus may be consuUefl, the Coinmcat^Ies of, C«sar, 
$!/iict6tduait Tacitus, the £da of Mr. Mullet, and the Swedish CoUectiotis, 
translated by tbeChevalier de Keralio. 


•" ^ ARCADIA.' ; ^ ^ ■ ^ -•."-■ Ijif' 
^itli fanfer^l cer^onies, lameutiWe 'dktie«, atid 
humaa sacrifices. This horrible Hiode ^ ^^i^wshi^ 
gives thein so much power over the terrified spirits 
of the Gaub; that they preside in all their eoancilt^ 
anfd deckle upon all their affairs* If any one pw- 
isumes to oppose titek* judgmeiit, he is ^kckided 
from the cotnmunibn rff their mysteries;* a^dfrom 
that moment he is abandoned fey every Qne^ *ot 
excepting his oWn wife and children ; but: it sekloni 
happens that any one ventures t6 resist them ; Ibr 
they arrogate to themselves, exclli^iveiy the charge 
ef educating yx)uth, that they may impress upoti 
iheir Ininds eaVly in life, and in a manner never t5 
he efTaced, these horrible ppinioniS- * 

As for tfhe larles, or Nobles, they have the powet 
of Uft and death over their 'own vassals. Those v/hx> 
live under Kings pay them the half of the triimte 
which is levied upon the commonalty. Others go- 
vern them entirely to their own advantage. The 
richer $ort give ftasts to the poor of their own pari 
ticular class, who accotppahy them to the Vars, 
and make it a point of honotir to die by their side. 
They are extremely brave^ If in hunting they en* 
counter a bear, the Oiief amongst them lays aside 
his arrows, attacks the atiitnal, and kills him with 
one stroke of his cutlass. If the fire catches their 
habitation, they never quit it till they see the burn- 
ing joists ready to fall upon tliem*. Others, on t^e ' 
brink of tHe Ocean, with lance or swoid in hand, 
oppose themselves to the waves which dash Upon 
the shore. Tliey suppose valour to consist, not 

* Cesar says precisely the same thing in his Commentatses. 

» ! , > only 


only in resisting their eneaiies of the human spe* 
cies and ferocipus animals^ but even the elements, 
themselves. Valour with them supplies the place 
of justice^ They. always decide their differences 
by force of armsy and consider reason as the tc- 
source of those only who are destitute oC courage. 
These t^o classes of citizens, one of Avhich employs 
cunning, and the other force, to make themselves 
&ared> completely balance each other; but they 
unite in tyrannizing over the people,; w^^^i^ ^^y 
treat with sovereign contempt. Never can a pie- 
, bian among tho Gauls arrive at the honour of filling 
any public statiali. It would appear that thi6 Na* 
tion exists only for it s Priests and it*s Nobles. In- 
stead of being consoled by the one, and protected 
by the other, as justice requires, the Druids terrify 
them, only in order that the larles may oppress.them. 
Notwithstanding all this, there is no race of men 
possessed of better qualities than the Gauls. They are 
ycry ingenious, and excel in several i^pecies of useful 
arts whii^h are to be found no where else. They over- 
lay plates of iron with tin,* so artfully, that it might 
pas? for silver. They compact pieces of WQpdwith^o 
muph exactness, that they form of them vases capable 
of containing all sorts of liquors. What is stiU.more 

* The Laplande,rs undentand the ait of wire-drawing^ tin to a verj 
^ high degree of perfection. There is in general an extreme ingenuitjl^ 
d»tingaish&bk io atl the arts practised hy savage Nations. The canoes 
and t|ie raqueCtesof the Efquinaaux , the |>ro8 of theifiaoders of the Sout)»> 
Sea; the nctis, the lities, the hooks, the bows^ the arrows, the stone Itet* 
cheti, the habits and the head-dresses of most of those Nation^, have the 
most exect conformity with their necesmties. Pliny tfScribesjhe invent 
tioDofeaslLStothe Gauls. He praises their tin-ware^ their dying ia 


' Arcadia; ' * : ' ff^^ 

woidcrftil, they liave'a method of boHliig water Iii' 
thfrm without thfeir bdng consumed, T^hey makc^ 
flfit stones red-hot, and thfow them into t|ie water* 
^Oiitained ui the Wooden vase, till it acquires the de-^ 
gree of heat which they wish to give it. They 
also know how to kTindte fire without mkkiiag use 
either of steer or offliilt, by tb^ frifction of die 
wood of the ivy atidof the laUret. tTiiqualitie's' 
of their heart are still superior to lliose of theit uti- 
derstanding. They are extremely hospitable. He 
who has little, divides that little cheerfully with* 
him who has nothing. Hiey are so passionately 
fond of their children that they feever treat them 
unkindly. l*hey are contented with brin|;ing 
themb&ck to a sense of their duty Ky rembustfance. 
The result from this conduct is, thit at all tiniea^ 
t\\e most tender afiection unites all the members of 
tlf^ir'faitiiltes^ and l^ftt the young pdc^le tliere lis- 
ten, widi the greatest respect; to the' tpuAsitls of 
thVaged; ' * ' ^ 

i^everthdess, this PfecJphs would life 8[icfed4ly de-^ 
sjroyed by the tyranny of it's Chieftkiiis, did*they 
not dppoite their own passions to tlfem^vei. When: 
ciuattels arise ariiong the Niobilit^;;tbey are s(> 
mudK' utfder the persUasioh! tliat itin* ;miist db^did 
the controversy, land that rcaufdri'hWiidVoicieiii 
tlii *<!l66isioh, t\ik\ thiy are oblfgeU, iti dtdet to me- 
rit pi/piiiir Utfe^^ to follow up thdr\re^ntrtieriti 
to the c^eath,' ' This vulgar prejudice i«;fatkltb^a[ 
^tM rinrti^er of the larles. Op the' other Wnd; 
they give sUi^h credit to the dreid^Vster?es rlUkiM 
By tfee'&uids, lespedting theii^' DiVMtrev aiid 
fear, as is generally tlie case, aJsoCiates with these 
^ V6l. IV. K ** traditions 


tf^ditioAS jcjr^Qumitances soX^xyfyiJ^^ t^at thcj^ 
Pries ts|requent^y tremble mucj] jupreths^n tbepeo-, 
pie before, the idpls wliich tlje^- f be^n$elves hacj fabri*- 
cated. Jt,ai?a thc;|ce.thorQp^hl^^c.onvinced of thel 
trutt| of the.|T)^i^ of our ^a^cr^d 'bpoks^ which 
says-rr/^^^V^r jia^^ ordaine4, that t^ie evil which a 
m^p iJoes tp^ bis f|pllow-crea|^fe 3hc)uld recoil, with 
5evcij-fpl4 vpngeance, upon l^imself, tliftt no^pnc 
m^y find his own happiness in tjljct misery pfjinother. 

fhere aje here apd there amon^ some of the Gal- 
lic .IsJatiop^jKin^S' who es^l^lish their own autho- 
Tity»by undertakipg the defence of tlie weak ; but 
it i^ the wpmen y^hp preserve jthe Nation from ruin. 
Equj^l)y oppressed by the Laws of the Druids, and 
by the ferpcipusj manners ,of the larles, they are 
doon^eji to. the most pain^ul^offic^s^ such as culti- 
vating^ the ground, beating about in thi^ woods for 
their huntsmcr^ and carrying -tli^ baggage of tlic 
men on th^i'r Joiiri^eys/ Thpy. are besides subjected, 
all their life long, to the imperious governance of 
their owa children.' J^verv husband has the power 
of life and de^th over his wife, and when he dies, 
if there arisps the slightest suspicion that his death 
yas not. natural, they put his wife to tlie torture ; 
If through ,the;i^.oi(qpce.of her torments she^plcad^ 
guilty, she. is.copdemnedtp^ the, flames.* ^ , , 

This unfortunate, sex triumph^ over it's tyrant* 
by.their own opinions. As vanity is theii; dpn^i- 
peering pa^ion, the wpipen turi^ them ii^o, ridiculej 
A song simply lis ii^ their bancfs suflficient tp de-, 
•tjt)y the result of ,theii;^gravest assemblies., ,Tl\i^ 
lower classes, a»nd esjxecia][ly the young ^peoplc,/al-^ 

i"-ci ■...:■' ., ... V^^ 

wltys^dtiVotedto their ^(ervice, s€t tbia sotifg itita 
circulation' through the villages and hamteti* It' 
is §utlg daJjr aiid^night : 'he who fe t1i€ subject of it, * 
be who he iti^y, dares -^q^ shew his face bo mortt 
}Ien(;e it comes to f)a$8>tfeit the< wom^n^ scy wekk 
as iticliyidiials,. enjoy collectively the mbs^t urilimit-\ 
ed power. Whether it-bfe the fear of ridicule^ or( 
that they haiie'experienced'the superior disee!;i|j^ 
ment o£ their women, but certain it is the Ghifef*^ 
tainsiindertakenothingof importa-nce; without cbn-* • 
suiting th^tn. Tlieir voice decides' whether it is: 
to be peace. or war. As they are obliged^ by the 
miseries lof Society,, to i^enouhce their owa opinions, j 
and^to take refuge ia the arms of Nature, they are • 
neither blinded nor hardened by the prejudices of: 
the men. Hetice it happens, that they judge nwpffr • 
clearly than the other sex of public . affairs^ and r 
foresee future events with siich supjerior discern*- 
. menUi The common people, whose calamitiies they 
solace, struck at freqifentlyi finding in:thdm a mbne ! 
discriiAtD«]ting understanding than Jriit^itOibsfe^.. 
\Vithout penetrating into . the causes of it, take; ^ . 
pleft$ure in ascribingto them^ something di vine.'*'' ;/ 
Thu3 .the G^Ails. pass, successively and rapidly * 
from soPTQWl^to .fear, and froin/eartd jOy*ri Tiio 
DiHilds terpfy tiiem, the larlesabuse^heni} and tiibi: 
wotnen make them laugh, dance and sirigi Jrheh^i 
religion, their la^^JS and. their manners, beii%fpi^f^^ 
piptually fttr^ariance, jhey liv(t ip a.stateaf cofili- 
n^^]^IIuqtuation, , whkh .constitutes their principal > 
cljairacter/ Iieti>c§ ,aJ9Q may be derived th^xeasotf , 
why they afe so very wriOufe about wi^,. and i^Q ; 

:l -*'* C«ndblur«c»^« on- «ho Manners of the dermiins. ' ** ' 

■'-}':: i K 2 de&iious 


detifOtts of knowing what passes among strangers. 
It is for this reason, that so many aje to be found 
in foreign ewtttrfes^ which they are fond of visiting, 
like all men who are un&appy at home;. 

Th^ despise husbandmen, and of consequence 
neglect agiiculture, which is the basts of public 
prosperity. When we landed in their country, 
they culti¥%ted only those grains which come to* 
perfoction in the space of a summer, such as beaas, 
lentiles, oaCi, small millet, rye and barley. Veiy 
little wheat is to be seen there. Nevertheless the 
earth abounds with natural productions. Tbere is 
a profusion of excellent pasture by the side of the 
rivers. The forests are lofly, and filled with dnxit^ 
trees of all kinds. As they were frequently in want 
of provision, they employed me in seeking it for 
them, in the fields and in. the woods* I found in 
.the meadows cloves of garlic, the roots of the dau- 
cus, and of the drop^^wort. I wmetimei returned 
loaded with myrtk^berries, beeoh-masts^ plumbs,' 
pean alid apples, whicb I ImdL gathered in the fo- 
rest They dressed these fruits, the gmt^ part of 
which cannpt be eaten raw^ on account of thdr. 
harshness. Bkt they have trees there which pro- 
duce fruit of an exquisite flavour. I have often 
admiicd the apple-trees, loaded with fruits of a co«* 
leftar m Imlliant.that they might have been mis«* 
taiGep Ibr the most beautiful fio wen. 

Hiis is what they related respecting the 6rigmi 
of those apple-trees, which grow there in such 
abundance; and of the greatest beauty.^ They tell 
you^ tiiat the beautiful jTArA^, whbm they cilled- 
Frigay jealofia^ uf ;this cirdumst»nce,: JlmJ -at her 

:;..j!.:>Jj nuptials, 


nup^% FtntUf vrhomlheydenomim^/Sm/kc, kad 

carried away the apple which was the pme of 

heauty^ without putting rt in her power. to contest 

it widi the tbre^ Goddeffiet), resolved tDareagelier* 


. Acoordingly, oneway that Fean^ bi(d descended 

on.tlf^s pai;t of the Qallic ahore, ii^ q^st of jiearli 

for her d^^ and of the shells caped t)>e kmie* 

hs^ndl^ fcfr )^v uhi Smiwe,* a trito«i stp)^ ajiray btf 

^FlM^r wh^: ahe had deposited jip4m a roe!^, and 

carri^ j|t ^ the Ojoddf ss <^ the S^ TMti^ ipa? 

mediately .plap^d it's aeeds m the ndghl^Miriqig 

eouiAry^ m perpetuate the iiie»sK>ry of hec levejiigey 

aud^of hirtriiiinpb* I'hjs ig:^he fea^qu, say the 

Celtie/Gauls^ of tl^e greaf; uumher of apple-tieen 

wl|ich^gpf>w inithek CouHtry.,, and of the. singula 

beaiitj^lof theif yfflungvrom^j^t* n 

.;[. . ., ^ .. • Winter 

* TIm Osats, as well as th^'Nalsmis of die Nortb, cMtcd Viiki$i Si' 
ilfiie, mi4C»^ Smn^. Consult. ^ Ste. The moH tfwmidi^blt ««fir 
pon among th« Celt«e was neither the bow , nor the s^ordi b«t th^ 
cutlass. Tliey ^rin^d ^he Dwarfs witl^ it; who, thus equipped, tri^ 
umphed over the sword of the<j1ant8. The' enchantment madi^wkb a 
dagger iwas iooapi^leof being c&^plyieii. It was it diere fo tt > tiait 
^ Gaulish Ctq^id should be anaed, . pot with a bow and a quivei^ 
but with a dagger. The dagger-handles io question are two^vahred 
fish-sheU, lengthened out into the form of a dagger-liahdte, the - name 
of which they bea!r. They are found in great abundanoe aloof the 
lihores of Noramndf, where they bary themselves In.the sbad. 

t And perhaps the law-!snit^ for wfaidh Nonitendy is fipnoaSy as that 
apple was orginally a presentfof dikcord. "h might be possible to find 
oat a cause less remote of thes^' suits at Law/irf tha prodfgbos ouflsbef 
of petty joriatfictiMis wilii which tliat proviace is'Slledy in their litigioii 
usages, and especially in the £offopeaa spirit ef education, which WBji 
to every man from his dUldhood upward : Bt ike fitk. 

It would not be so easy to disdover tfaemoral or^hyiical eaasesof tilt 

isiagulariy remarkabfe beauty of die i^omen of the PiqrB d8€attir,cspe« 

KS ' cMy 


- W'inf^Wca^did on> and I atn unable to expl'es's^my 
t^dWiefamtMit to vyou, when I beheld, for the first 
titiic^'^tlie'HMTvps <iissolve mto white plun^* 
8«iiUi|igtha« t)f birds, the water of the fountains 
become hard as stone, and the trees entirely strip- 
lied of filler 'foiii^; Tiiad never seen the like m 
!R^fpt? i^mi lio doubt but that the GanJ^ Would 
irifltiietilateljf 'k{)ive,^ like the plants 'anid ih^ eW- 
rffeft^f tlWirCoutitry r-and undoubtedly 4!ie ft* 
g6un*f tlie elmiate xvould soon have plit ail endito 
toy fcareeV, bad they hbt taken the ^g'rcateit care 
feytnotfieirieVith ftrs/ ^ Bat how efltsjy- it'Js for a 
persierii Without expeiienc* to be 'darfeiy^H ! { I was 
entirely igridpant of the resources df *Ntf«4i#e'; f6r 
fevery season, ai^^cfll as for dveiy cKmatfeV '^Winter 
}*-' to 'those Northern Nations, la tiftie of fes- 
tivity and of abundance. Thfe rl^et bil^s,'«h0*e?ks, 
the' buffaloes, tiie hares, the deer, and the vi^ild- 
boars/ abound at that Sf^m^n in t\}bSoxJiH%r ^^d. 
apprdach tlitir habitaltorts. They killed' Ikese in 
j)fo(ligtous quantitieis. ' ' ^ '""'-,' ' ^ 

. I.. was not less surprize4 whpn I beheld; the» re;turn 
of Spring, whtch disp]a5^d in those desolate re^ 
gions a'rna^riificence which I had never setp be- 
f9J/?> §ven pn the t^aiil^g of the Nile : the brWblej^ 

'••■■ ^ • '■ • • ■• ' . ' * ' ;*...> 

pially amQ||g,fib^.cojiiritry |[W»*.. Th#y Wye j>lac ey^fs, ^ d^Jicaqy. of (^ 
^ores, afres^pess^Oi^i.coiviplexiuia, i>nc{:^ »bape vybicb woM do Iionpur 
' p) thfi 6r|e&t ladifef i^bput Court. , I ki^vH but of one otbf^- panton in 
ihe wlwU* kjngdaiiiy^n wluofc tfie women, of the lower classcjs ^e equally 
iH^utifuU It 19 .at, ATJgDfHV Beauty tberf; however p^^^^u a di^er- 
(B^- charftt^teiTk They have large ]blacl^,a|)4 ^f^ fiyes, aqiiiljne noses, 
and the heads pyf< w4n^t(^^^X#m^ai|. Till modera Philosophy thmlf 
IN^P^^.-I^f} up ^« qu«4¥>D, W9 may allpw ,the onythoic^y of the 
Gilirffi^e. apsjgn Afcaa^ for .th<» b^faity of their youn^womfsi, by ^, 
ff/^ which the Creeks would not pefhfips have rejected. 

•5 the 

the rasl)be»ty/^t'h« i^|re^.bmr/'l1^?!yifi^^^lT'rt^,■t^f 

t\Hned tfh^seiVtS r&W tfife-Wlttii<s''Bl«the 'Skk^ 
aud suspended fra^''i!fi4 b'^afire''tfla^^^eVfdrtTda 

tti^a iffdiintrras,*\fere ^ll=rlWtH^Sf'Hi'l jib^i^ ai*%S32 

" Egypt ! Wh^'it-bii]f thg'humBl^%x,''it?^ilfrf 
**''iFecaI''thefm^riio?y W-Aiy 'djaMiV; di^fi^i^ 
« 'i^hole Hfe-titiie? Wdyn^^'t^mkT select 9im 
" the pl/<!3''or'^i;f 'Ba\^e: 'it \v6M one ^^^^ 

** fnfdrm th^'dS^iIs 'tit tJf^ naitt^"^i?rf'of tB^trav^ 

' Otie day as 1* was 'eircleavourir/g to dftsf^atfe Vny 
melancholy, by looking at the young girls dancing 
on the fresh graSs,* <!>Ae of tliehi qit^tteH ihe*f)?incers, 
and came and* wepr^tr me : ihi^H, on a'^sitdden, 
she again jomed hePiKmpkhiitts* ^nd contlnuecl Ito 
dance, frisking a&oiif J^aJn'd ahlusing herseff' with 
them. I todk thJ; si/cfdi^iil^rathsfition from jdv to 
grief, and from grref t^i**jt)y* In this young girl; to- 
be the effect of ^tli^^if^i/fal levity of the peo|)fel' 
aritl I di(?nff/^ gh-emyielf Aiich trouble s^bout it;' 
when I saw an ol'd* man* issue from the forest with' 
a red beard, clothed' in a roBe made of the -skins of 
weasels. He bore a liranch of mistletoe in h'fs hftncJ,^^ 

K4 and 

13p 8EIIUEL TO tax, 4T0DXES OF NATt/BE. 

^ad at hk ^dle hung ^ knife of ilbt He was 
followed by ^_ company, of youog peisons in tiic 
flower of . tb^r age, who bad girdles of t^ie same wrt 
of skins, and holding in ttieir hajodsemply gourdst 
pipes of iwui, bullocks' honw, apd other iiwtrwT 
ments of their barbaroi^ musia 

As soon as tljis old man appeared the dai^ping 
ceased, eveiy cQiintenance becsune sad, f^nd ^ 
vhole company removed to i a distance iram me^. 
Even my master and his family retired to tl^r cotr 
tage. Th? wifjccd 0I4 man then apiproad^ ine, 
Wd fastened ajwthprnc^ nfck; then 

^^. satellites forcing 0919 ; to folluw himj dragged 
xi^. along in a^atate of st^ipe^ction, in tb^ sa^ 
QUinner as wolves would carry off a sheep. .They 
conducted me ftcross the^ forest to the . veiy borders 
•f file Seine: U^re the Chief spcinkl^d ine with 
the water of th,e jiver; h^ t^en made me enter a 
large boat, constructed pf the bark of the bircbr* 
tree, tntp which he likewise embarked with 9IL l^i^ 
train. ' . / 

We sailed u^ the S^ne for eight days t9getiief, 
during wjii/cb fivpry one pjliserv^d a profound &i^ 
Ipce. Qn the ni^th we axrived at a little tpwn 
l^utlt in the middl^ of a^ island. They liere made 
i;qe disembark on the Q^ppsite shore, ; on the light- 
l^andbankof the river^.^nd the^ cpniducted tnp 
intp a laxgf 1^ mrithout wipdpufs, which was illu[- 
minated by tprches of fir. They tied m^ ^ b, a^alce 
in the n^i^flL? of the hut, apd those youi]^ men, 
tfho wa>(c|ffl4 pv^ me night and day armed with 
hftcl^fts^p^ilinl:,. npv^r ce^ed to dance around n|ie 


bloFing^ with all their stireogth) through the Wla* 
horns and iron pipj^. Thej aocoix^pfipied thi3 ^e^ 
te^ble muiic with th^^s^ horrihl^ ;^orclai wh^ch 
tbe^sung in chorus. 

\ t' Oh, mrderr Oh, RyUmU! Ohi JS^^drerJ Ob, 
** H^lai Oh, Hela! GodoCCamageandpf Sitonns, 
^^ we bring thee flesh. Receive the hlpc^d -of .this 
" victim, of this chi^ of death. . Oh, Niorier! 
f' 0\,mjlindii0\ Svidreri Oh, Heb! 0\ HdaP 
"W^hilst they pronounced these awful words, their 
eyes rolled about in their heads, and their mouths 
foamed^ M length th<>se fanatics, ovepyhelmed 
with fatigue, fell asleep, except one of j:hem who 
was called Ornfi. T^is name^ in the Celtic tongue^ 
signifies beneficent. Ow^ moved with compa^ 
sion, approached me : /? Unfortunate yo^ng man^** 
said he, - ^ a Cfuel war has broken p^t between t^ 
^ Nations of Great Britain and thqse of Ga^iJ. Thf 
^* Britons pretend to be themaptersof the Sea jwhic^ 
'^ separates their island from us. We have alreadj 
" been defeated by them in. two naval engagements* 
/* The Collei^e of the Druids of Chartres has de- 
'^ termiiied that human victims are necessary tof 
^'^ render ikfar* favourable, whose temple is just by 
^ this place. The Chief of the Druids, who has 
'^ §pie$ over all the Gauls, has discovered that the 
'^ tempests had cast you upon our coasts : he went 
f^ himself to find you out. He i; old ^nd pitiless* 
^* He bears the name of two of our R|pst formidable 
'"* Deities. He U called Tor-Tir.* ]^pose tijiy con* 

^ Perhftpf it may be from the nam^ of those Iw fscuxi Qoi» of Ae 

Kortb, that $he word tortun is derivod. 



'^ade^U VWW^He^ tfdAs of thy JwiT.dbunt'ry/ 
"fdr'thds^eW^G'atl' defri^rld thy blo6d?* "' ' ^^ ' 
'' I Was sehed with slich^teiroi', that t was unaBTe 
to make the least reply to Ortiji: I oniy thanked 
him ty dnftibKhaiion of itfy head, and he immedi- 
ateiy 'ftasf etlt'd from me, lest he should be percefved 
by^any of ^fs cbH)i5ambtis. ' ^ 

At that*'momentl' called to mind the reason 
which itidticed the (jatils, who had made ri^e their 
Wave, to hitider me frr^m removjni^ from their ha- 
bitation; tiie^ wierelijpprehensive'tliat I might fail 
Jtito the Hands of the Druids; but.tliad hot the 
power (Jftescaping my cruel destiny. My destruc- 
tion now appeared so inevilable in my own eyes, 
that I did not believe /wpf/er himself was able to 
deliver me from'fliejaws^ of those tygers who were 
thirstittg; for my' blood'. I recollected no more, oK^ 
t^ephasf ivhzt you * have 'so frequently told me> 
^at the Gods ri^ver abandon irindcence. I did 
libt fertnen remembei* their having saved me fVqm 
shipwreck. Present danger totally obliterates pa,s|C^ 
deliverance from the mind. Sometimes I imagined 
' tliat they had preserved me from the waves, only 
to give me up to a death a thousand times more 
Jjnmful; ' ' 

^Nevertheless I addressed my supplications to Ju-^ 
pitery aiid I enjoyed a kind of repose, ^Jn relying en- 
tirely oin'that Providence which governs the Worlid,^ 
whenift'bf a sudden the doors of the cottage open-, 
edj and'a AUmferous company of Priests entered, 
with Tor-Tir at their head, always bearing in his 
haind A branch of mistletoe from the oak. ' Imme-. 
diately the young barbarians whp surpounded me 
. ' * awoke, 

awofcf , and began their funeral spngs and dance9. 
JfaiNiTir approached me; he plaoied*u|)Dn my head 
«:ctx)wn'of tbeyew-trw, aiid a handftii oFthc meal 
lOfi beans ; afterwards he ptit a. gag in myi mouth, 
>and having u^ed me from my stake, he fastened 
m^ hands behind my hack. A^hin "all his Fetinue 
l>eg^n to march to the sound «6f rtftlr ddleful instjrit. 
4intent^ ancf>two Dmids, supported toe by their 
arms, conduetc^d me to the place of saCrifee. 
t 'Here T^r'/ciw^/perceiving that the spindJe- fell fl-om 
the hands x)fOj^/^«<?tfj and that sh^ turned patej^aid 
4x) her: ^* My daughter, 'it iS time tor youto^^^go'tb 
" reitJ' ' Remember that yiu must risef to-morroiv 
"ibefbre the dawn, ro Mgb to*Mount;Lyc*uin, yrhett 
^^ you have t6 present,* -with your companions, the 
*• sliepherii's ofFeriiijI on the altar of JupittrJ\ Cy- 
4xnea, trembhng all ovet, replied: " My father, 
*^: every thing is ready^^gainst j:he festivjil of to- 
"jnorfdvsr, 'The wreaths of flowers, the wheaten 
^* cakes, the v^sels of milk, arc' all prepared* But 
>^ kis not lateu* .t^hemoon has not as yet illuminat- 
-^.ed the bottom of the valley, «nor have the cocks 
" yet crowed ; it is not trridnighi:. Allow me I en- 
** treat you to stay here till the fend of this; story. 
** My father, I atn near you, and I shall apprehend 
^* no danger." 

Tyrteus looked at his daughter with a smile ; and 
having made an apology to ^W2tf^2> for interrupting 
him, eutrpated he would proceed. , 

He went out of thfe hut, rpplied Amasis^ in the 
middle of a dark night, by the smoky light of fir- 
torches*. We traversed at first a vast field of stones; 
we saw here and there the skeletons of horses and 



#f do^ fixed Qpoa stajoes. From tlience we ar» 
livQdafetbcenti'ance of a lairge cavern, hollowed 
in the side of a rock all over white.* The Lamps 
.of l^pk clotted hloed which had^d around^ 
iti^lmled aq infectious sh^U, and annouBc^ tbi^i to 
J>eth« temple of Jfars. Jn the interior. of tii«r 
frightful deiv nloQg.tbe walls, were r^aged huowi 
heads and booes; and in the middle off it, upon. a 
piece of roc^t a statue of iron reared itself to the 
wminit of the cavern, representing the god M$rs. 
It wM so )9iA-sfaapeu, thatii had more resemblance 
toaUoclLof rusty iroi^ thap to the God of war* 
WeccHild distinguish however his clubi set thick 
with piercing points, his g}oves studded with the 
beads, of nails, aQdhi9 horrible girdle^ .on which 
was portrayed the image of Death. At his &et 
was seated the King of the Country, having around 
him the principal personages of his State. An im- 
tnesise crowd of people were collected within and 
without the cavern, who preserved a melancholy 
nlence, impressed with respect, religion and terror. 
jTar-Ttr, ftddres^iog himself to the whole assem- 
bly, said : •* Oh King, and you larles assembled for 
M the defence of the Gauls, do not believe that you 
^' ever can triumph, over your enemies without the 
^* assistance of the God of Battles. Your losses 

9 Moutmartre is meant, Mom Martis. It h welt known that this 
rising ground, dedicated to Mars, who9e name it bears, is farmed of a 
Tpdc of i^aster. Others it is true derive the name of Montmartre from 
jMons MfftFtifnim. These t^o etymologies may be very easily reconciled. 
If there were, in ancient times, a great many martyrs on tliis moontaiu. 
It was probably owing to it^s being the residence of some celebrated Idol, 
to 'wbkh they were there offered in sacrifice. 

** have 

ARCAX^IA. 1*1 : 

*^,hav€ demonstrated what is the consequence of' 
^* neglecting his awful worship. Blood offered' up 
^ to the Gods, saves the fusion of that whfch nibr- 
*^ tals shed« The Gods ordi£bi men to be bonv only 
** that they may die. Oh! how happy 9ixe yon, 
** that th^ selection of the yictim has not iUleit 
" uponone of yourselves 1 Whilst I was considering. 
*' within myselfi whose life among us would be ac-- 
'* ceptable to the Gods^ and ready to offer ilp my 
**o^ for the good of my Country/ iViwYfcr, dwB 
" God of the S^as, appeared to me in tl:^ gloomy 
** forests of Ch^M^f cs ; he was dripping all over with 
*^ sea- water. He said to me in a voice thunderii^/^ 
''like the tenskpesl: I send to you; for the sMvatiOn 
'^of the'Gaiilsi astranger^ without relations, aad 
'^ witi^t friends. I myself dashed hifn upon the' 
*f western shores;. His Jiilbod will be aoceptable to 
" the Gods of the infernal regions* Thus spslke 
'* Niorder. Niorder loves you, oh^ ye children df . 

S(:arpe\y ha4'7l'r-riV m^de an end of this tent- 
ble address,: when a Ga^l who was seated by tto 
Kjfig, fushpd tow:ard me: it was Cephas. " Ob, 
*' Anmi^t oh, my dear A^^^i^ -^ cried lie. " Oh, 
[^ my barbarous compatriots ! are you going to sa- 
'' crifice a man, who has come from the banks ^, 
*[ the Nile to bring you the most precioiis blessings 
" of Greece and of Egypt? You shall begin then/ 
^* with tne, who first inspired him with this desife, 
•* and w?io touched his heart with pity for the ; per- . 
" sons socf uel to him." As he pronounced th^e ; 
wordi% he (pressed meinhisiaTms, and bathed me- 
with l»is^C8U?. For my part, I wept and sobbed, [ 



without the power of expressing to hiih, iti any 
other yay, the transports of my joy. Immedi- 
atcly the caverti resounded with the voice of mui*- 
murs and>of groans. The young Druids wept, and 
let fell from, their hiands th6 iMtrumeilts jfirf niy sa- 
crifice : for Religion becomes mute whenever 
Nature speaks. Nevertheless, • ri6 one^ in the as-' 
sembly durst even now deliver mfe from the hands' 
of the butchering prieists, when the wonltti; rushing' 
into the tnidst of the assembly, tore asiindet my 
chains, and removed my gag and futteral trowh. 
Thus, for the second tiine, didlowe^m^^ life to the' 
womenofGaul. ^^^ '5 ■'""'* 

The King taking me in his arnte, said*: "What^, 
"-is it you/amhappy stranger, whfem Cephas, has* 
" been in^essanUy regretting ! Oh, ye Gods, the the-* 
" mtes of my Country, do you send bfeilfefafctws hi-* 
" thei'' Only that they may be immolated !" Then, 
addressing himself to the Chiefs of the Nations, he' 
spoke with so much energy of the rights of huma- ' 
nity, that With one accord they all svi^ore, that they 
would never more reduce to slavery, those'* whom 
the tethpest mi^t cast upon their shores ; nfev-ei'tc^^ 
sacrifice, in' future, any 6ne innocent man, ^nd to 
offer tb Mars only the blood of the criminal. ' Tor- 
2%V, ill a rage, endeavoured in vain to oppose this' 
law : he retired, menacing the King and all the tJauls * 
with the approaching vengeance of the Gorfs* 

Nevertheless the King, accompanied- by my' 
friend, conducted me amidst the bcclamati6MS*6f' 
the people into his city, which wis situated Jti the* 
jieighbouring island. Till tl^^momentof <)ur arrival' 
in this island, I had been to much discdfliposed • 


' that I \va? ^^capablc pf a sin j^le r^tioiifil xqflectiop^ 
Every spepl^a of ne^jy rep.resen lotion qF niy^ n^isfor*. 
tunes cpi^fcpct^d my li^^rt,. ^jul^ t>bscupecl my; u^*?. 
derstanding.-. But as soon as I j:^C9v^red tl>e u?e* 
of ;iiy,jeaso»ing gower9,,an(| ]j;^gan t^ refle/:t.<ja. 
the extreme oanger >vhich I had. just escajj^t.;!* 
fainted away. Oh, bow weajc is^man '\n a, payrpxysm. 
of joy! He i^ strong'only tpengountei; woe, 'p^^* 
brpugUt mg \o mjse.lf after the manper of t^e Q^|s,. 
by shaking. about my head, an 4 Wp^^'i'^g Pn ^wy. ' 

face. ' ,,...1. . • . 

When I had recovered ^y s^n's^s, he.topk i^y. 
hand in his, and said to me ; '' Oh, my friend^ hoW: 
*^ many tears you have cost mej^^'hen tiiQ wave3, 
" of the Ocean which overset oiir vessel, had sepa- 
^* rated us, I foun^ myself cast^ .\ knpw uof how,. 
" upon the right-bank of the Seipe, ^ Aly fif^^.cajc* 
^' was to seek for you.. I k.indled' fires upoa /fj^c. 
^* shore; I called you by ijiime; I eriiployed ^ever% 
*^ ral of my compatriots wh.ohajdjgjL^tb^i^d together. 
**^onhearing my cries, to recojiiupitrei in their boa^s,. 
"the banks of tlie r,iver, to see if they could, npt 
•f ifind you ; . all our were ii^^ffectu^L 
•*Thetiay re-appeared, and piesented. to my view 
•' .our .vessel overturned, and her keel in .the air,, 
' •' close .to the shore wl|Cfe I was. It never opcur* 
*^ r^d Jtpjpy tboiights that you might, have landed 
^* on the opposite ^hore, ia my own country BeU 
" giiini, It was not till the third day^ ,tjiat b^h\ev- 
" mg ypu had perished, I resolved to pass over to it^ 
1* tp^vi^it ipy relations. , [JThe greatest part of th^m 
^ had. paid. th|edebjt of Nature dyrjug my ab.^piwjfjj 
•f tbgwjirhi^femain^d /jverwhe^^ with kjnd- 
f\ ^^ ness;/ 


'^ ness ; bat not even a brother can compensate for 
** the loss of a friend. I returned almost immedU 
" ately to the other side of the riven TTiere they 
^^ unloaded our utafbrtunate vessel^ of which no- 
^'^thing had been lost but the men. I soughtyour 
^ body along the sea-shore, and I repeated niy de» 
^^ mand of it evening, ihornihjg, and in the middle 
" of the night from the nymphs of the Ocean, that 
*^ I might rear you' a monument near, to that of 
^' Seoa. 1 should have passed all my lifb I believe 
'' in these vain researches, had not the King, who 
*• reigns on the banks of this river; informed that 
*' a Phenictan vessel was wrecked on his domains, 
•* claimed the property, which according to the 
*^ laws of the Gauls belonged to him. I collected 
" accordingly every thing which we had brought 
•* from Egypt, even to the very trees, which had not 
" been damaged by the water; and I presented my- 
•* self, with these wretched fragments, before that 
•* Prince. Let us bless^then the providence of the 
*^ Gods which has united iis again, and which has 
** reildered your misfortunes more useful to my 
•* Country than *ven your presents. If you had not 
** made shipwreck on ojjr coasts, the barbarous cus* 
*• torn of condemning to slavery those who endure 
^ that calamity, would iiothave beeii abolished ; and 
" if you had riot been c6ndemned Xt)h6 skcti^cfid, I 
" should 'nfi'ost probably never have Seen yo(i mpre^ 
** and the blood df the innocent; would ^ still fcate^ 
*^ smoked upon the altars of the God of Win" '^'^ ] 
Thus spake Cephis. As for the Kih^, he' d6\it^4; 
nOtfamg which he thought AVduli tendto^'mikfe tt^^ 

hardus. He was alrealdy cotisiderably advanced iii 
years, and he wore, according to the custom of \iU 
people, his beard and hair Very long. His palace 
was built of the trunks of firs, laid in rp>Mrs one tipc^n 
another. * It had no other door* e:$:6ept lai^gfe bul- 
Jock6 faidfeS; which closed up the i&^xiiirti. No* 
person was there on guard, for he had nothing td 
iear from his subjects; but. he had employed alhhi^ 
skill and industry to fortify his city against enemies 
from without He had surrounded it witb walli^, 
formed of the trunks of trees, intecmixed Vith sod^ 
of turf, with towers of stone ai the angles and at 
the gates. Sentinds were stationed on the top of' 
these towers^ who watched day and night. King 
Bardus had received this island f¥6m th6 nymph 
Lutetia his mother, and it bore her name. It was* 
at first covered with nothing but trees, and Bardus 
had not a single subject. He employed himself iri 
twisting upon the banks of the island, ropes of thef 
bark of the Kme-tree, and in hollowing alders td 
make boats. He sold these productions of his own 
hands to the mariners who sailed up or down the 
Seine. While he worked he sung the advantages 
of industry and of commerce, which unite toge- 
tlier all mankind. The boatmen freq(uelitly stopped 

. * Gates wef« a matter of rtty difficult coastroettoli ttf stfvagejribet^ 
who did not understand the use of tbe aa^ without which h was almoft 
impossible to redaoe a tree into p]ank«i Accordingly^ when tbejr aban" 
doned a Country^ those i^bo had gates carried them ofi^ with them. A 
Norwegian haro, whose name I do not at present recollecr|be #te dil' 
covered Greenland^ threw his into tbe Se% in order to disooveri^re tW 
Destinies intended to lixhis residence,; and he made a seltlemetit good 
an that pan of Greenlaod to which they were wafted. Ofltt# aad thfit 
tbrsAold ^ei^ lind stiU arty satrei in the last 

Vol- IV, 1^ t« 

H5 sequel to the studies of nature. 
to listen to his ^ongs. They were xej^eated^ aijil 
sprea^d throughout all thpGauls^ amcajgvhom thejf. 
vrere known qxidejr the u^mp of t\}/^ v;craes of the 
Barcjs. Soon after a gr^at PJ,iial?;qr pf pi&oplp cajne^ 
to establish themselves in this }^l^^ fp heajrl^jff) 
sing and to liyp in ^r^ajter secjirity, P|^ f^ph^ 
accumulated wjlhi l)is sf^hject?. The i^Ufi^ v^ 
covered with t|a|)jtations, the Pfigl^bQi^rlpg ii^ests^ 
were cleaned, aqd 19 ^ pliort tin^f pua\ffcfu|j flocks 
covered both tlpe ad^^ceijt jshpref. I^t yf^ ip fiyp^ 
manner t^^at the^op^ Kipg f^j;ii^eO^,^ ?fBW?'? ?4fl?- 
out violence. . Buf )^;Wlp ^j yftt hjs ^?^^d wsf^ ^iqt 
surrounded by wall?, a^d yhile he w^s alre^y pIa^- 
ning to make i^ the centre of pqn)n»ercg fof f U J^ip^ 
Natio.ns of Gaul^ ^ar was<^ fJt^e ppiijt 9|*je:^tji{f^|t 
natingall it's inha^>itants. . .,^ 

One day a |;rpat npiT]t(er pf warrio^3 >y|jp^^^Be 
sailing up the ^^i?e, io pnoe? i??^^^ of thf, b^rf^.pf 
the elm, disemb^^pd upon i^.'^ nortl^^r^^^hore, 4I- 
i[ectly opposi^te to -^ijtftifi. Tb^ Y^'flre linger th^ 
command of the I^f le Carnuty tJ^iy^ soij r^ 7i«<^<^ 
prince qf tl^e North. Capiat was on l^is ^\\\^ 
from layip^ w^^tp^all the co^st^ of the Hj^ p/erbowfiBf; 
Sea, oyer which he had spr^cl fgrpr and deya^t^- 
tion. He was secretly favq^red ^^ Gaul Ijy thjB 
Druids, who, like all weak men, take the side of 
those who have rendered themselves formidable. 
As soon as Carnut had landed, he went in search 
9/ Kiug jBarJw^, ani^ said ; " Let us fight, thpu au4 
'-' I, at the head of our warriors : the weaker shall 
•* obey the strongestV for it is the first Law of Na- 
? turethateyery thing should yi9ld to force/' ^}}% 
<< Bardus replied; *^^ Oh, Cumui! if the pokit^iii 

t w. » "dispute 

''(iisiwate^.V^fc <he.lia«i^Ag of my io{v9i lifci fiar 
" the defence of my ifnd^^ I would mthout besi- 
'^ t^tlQi^ expose it jBut I will ik<)t:ei$p06e the fives 
'^ oftisy :p0QpH w«e it levcmto «ave jiiy own; It 
*';is gpWwll^ apdilot fore* A*hich betife 
<> ^a}o^)Q£ l^ix^j* It is goodness drily H^hicb^tf* 
•?*yQBG9 the World, and it &Bdf\fkyfifortkstpaf' 
^^ pQ$e!ititeUigeiiea aad itrengib^iiehiQh streiabbrdi- 
'*' Mte jto it, as ftretU the oriiej Poifcrs'bf the Uill- 
.^^ v«]»i^! Valitiit ^on of Tmdai^ siiiCd thuki M^sfactt 
^^ tl> gi9V«rii med, litres Cry^; whdt^of thtt'/^ted, 
^^ yi^mlg is the 0ip9tclip^le4f daiB^.tlleknilfMitf. 
\' B#hob) thbs&poor Oauls entirely AakM& Wltfaoitt 
^'making offensive comparisoi)^' I hii^i Sty tmi 
*' ^]p)Mft^l«t^f3d 9lid fc4 <heiih wea to! tihedeiijfJng 
" ?ny«fitf l*otb# and rfood* l^et'msneei what prorfi- 
"4|CB|^^fi« >viU.make for tjheir .wahtfr?; , 
: «C^4^.a««epted.tbeohaHejage. U'wfa^.noiriyii- 
4ii|»A. ; He\i^iH:4t> tbecliace witb^pf^^Atrtor^;^ 
d^i))ii4. ^ gi'/sai *iHPll«^ of birds, stag8» 'ej^smd wifal 
jH)aif$p; : lie afterwards >vith ftll^ flM»^ *f thi»e' atii- 
!Q^% S^,^. ^ gl'^t ^^^ to tli^ inh^itatits lof iin- 
/e^U7|: a^d pl^tb^d in their skkis tl)0»e vi4)o '>tFtt<e 
nake4» Ji^ffig! B^rftus said to hire : '' Son df Tbi- 
^' 42a/i tjboi^ -art a mfght^ hun^sm^f) ^ Ih^rt wili be 
.^'abie^to support, th$ people during. (bt}|«^nMi% 
*' seas<^; but in Spripi^ and during Summer fime, 
" they yill perish with hunger* FoMB^part,:wi^i 
^' my com, the fleeces of my «h$ep>; jjliid the fl»UMf 
** my flocksi I ca|i manitain themthfoughoM^jtl^ 
" whole year. 
Carnut n\ad?;tio reply; but W rcmainw^ en- 
' L 2 camped 

14S SEQUEL rO tKE tttfttf £8 Of NATURE* 

€amped with bis warriors upon tbe banks of Ifae^ 
river and refused to withdraw* 

Bardus perceivinghis obstinacy went to seek bim 
in his tunii and proposed a second chailletage to 
him : ^^ Valour^" said he, '* is the quality 0f a war- 
-^like Chief, but patience is still mprt necJessaiyto 
'^ Kxnga Sinee thou wisbest to reigo/let us try 
-^ which of lis can carry this ponderous \t^ the 
-*.longiest" .it was the trunk of an bttk thirty 
ryears old. Cmnut took it on his back', bttt sdon 
.lonkig patience, hastily tbitew it down again. Bar-^ 
ifttf^iaid it across \m shoolddrs, and bore4iwkhout 
'moving, till after sun«>set, and even titt^t^ night 
Iwas far advanced. 

; IsltwpSktkisCanmt and bSs wafriofs^Wettidndt 

depart. They thus passed the wfiole Wibl*i: *ih- 

ployed in hunttng/ The Spring retnmM^ audlbej 

-1fa)reattflied to destrc^y a rising city; which rdnsed 

tbdo tfeem bottiage'; and they became still greater 

Ibb^ectis of terror, astbey begfto to%eia total waitt 

of foodi ' Bardus did not know ftew to rid himself 

of them, for they were the most powerfd. In vain. 

did he conduit the most aged of his people ; noom 

eottld give him advic^. At last be Ikid his distress 

'before his mother Lutetia, who was ndW very old, 

bnt w^o stitl possessed an excellent understahdtng. 

. Lutetia s&id to him : ** My sod, you arc acqiiaint- 

^' 0d wi^ a great number of ancient and curious 

^ histories^ which I taught you in your infancy ; you 

^^ 'ex€iel in silking : Challenge the son of Tcndal to 

•* a competition in song with you/* 

^Ikrirdua ^eMand found out C^rnir/^ and said: 


^'SoB of T€nde^ it'is not saflficient fdr a King to' 
^ maintaiiii his subjects, and to bie firm dild constant ' 
'^ in his labours : he ought to know likewise how 
^ to haqisb from their minds those miseries of opi* 
*^ nton which render them unhappy : for it is opi- 
^* nion which exercises influence over Mankind, 
^' and renders them good or bad. L«t us see wHe* 
^* ther of the two, thou or I, can exert the greatest' 
*' power over their mindjB. It was not by fighting 
^' merely that Herculm »ttraeted followers in Gaul, ' 
*' but by dlrine songs which flowed from his moulf^ ' 
*^ like chains of gold, <:harmed the ears of those 
^. who listened, and constrained them to folbw him.'*' 

Carnut with joy accepted this third challenge. 
He sung the combats of the Gods of the North on 
the icy mountains; the tempests of Nim^der upon 
the Seas; the tricks o£Vidar in the air; the ra- 
vages of Tkcr on the Earth ; and the empire of H€c^ 
der in the dark regions of Hell. ^To these be added 
the lehearsal of his owh victories, and his tremen* 
dous strains transfdsed the emotions of fury into 
the heart of his warrions, who were on tiptoe to ' 
sprdid universal destructiou* 

As to Kiag Bairdus, the folfewing were his milder 
strams : 

'^ I sing the dawn of the mornkig ; the earliest 
^^ rays of Aupoita which have arisen on the Gauls, 
^^the'ealpire oiFltUo; the blessings of Ceres^ and 
^ the mitfortune of the infant ZoU Listen to my 
'^ songs, ye spirits of the rivA's, and repeat them' 
** to the ^ntks of the aanre mountains,. 
, '^ Gsres ciime, from sbekin^herdainghterPrafei*- ' 
^^^^ over the face c^^the whole £artb« She was' 

h9 ''on 


^^^doa:^ hc»fv 3b9, trpyer^?(4 the $a»{tgti. Qai^^^ 
'' thtfir tracklj^ss o^puntak^ thei* cjesiert tiodUed ^d 
" their glwoay fiegredt^, iKb€« lAftfiwmdfhca? pD^ross' 
*• Stopped by thf' wa^tew <rf Sic^iie,. hfir o^^a^nirmph 
^^ tr^qsfocm«dmtK^iirivf€A. i» / \ 

. *♦ Oa tho opposijie baidc d£ the ScfmBj thereihaf^ 
^' penedat that time to htf a.besatifui boy: witli flassti' 
^* hair* Oiamcd Lo% bathing! himself jut the streaoi. 
^^He,toQk deiigbt to airim' ia the. tmiiBparetift va* 
<^ter$> amlltojuaabQutihakedfOn lhuiiralit9ry v^r^ 
^^ dant downs. The momenttliat he penfeimi! a' 
^^leniale, he flewto.hide himself amidjat ^tuft of 

" My Jpvely child' t cried > Ceres .to hiin with, j^ 
M s^h ;. oooie to me my lovely child ! On- hearings 
^1 the voice of a woman in dtstross^.Zoii^. left his Be*'i 
^[ treat aoiopg the reeds,: .He puts oiv witli hluaheB^ 
^^! his robe of lamb's akin which was iqspendedi on. 
^i a willow, lIietcjo$$es the Semeon abankuofisand'^ 
^' and prssentipgi hbi hsbdd to Ceres^^ sheNni hn a> 
*', pajh throwghj the midistiof .thc/wa*cjrs; 

** Cere^ having passed the; river, gives!:th«> boy- 
*'^^ ^ cak«>, a sbeafcof coiti,,and^ak)^i;k3slBetllen 
" informs him how bread was made from the cowiu 
^':^mA hpw corHfgraweini'tbeifioklB.i'SUanlDs^ faeaU"< 
^' V^om sttanger^v returned .Lm»; iowiiU. oarry ; tO' 
f'^fipiy ipe^en th]S!UMf»Q6pii»dthjr.^«ela>mep«seiite; 

;^'Xfae rQOtherQ£>Xa^.d&fides witiirktsrdiiid atid' 

*Vhud3and tlid.GaJ</t as^A tfajoi kiis# ' The ei^rafiitured' 

/' father cnltivatesi^fiffld)! and Moxvi^ the gwiOi* By ' 

^'. and by the £arthi»ic;i«ktiedauith«a golden Imprest, 

ff I»clacrep«pb4iidi6«9edu9m t^ (Sinlsi tiMit\a 

. ' vi *^Goddess 

«<<5o(Mfess hjftf p**stei?fea it celestial plant to their 
^' fbrtitfnatc ?iAaBiti*e^ : 

** Near to that p^e liv^d a Drutd. He was en- 
*^ tmst^il with thte mspectioA of the forests. He 
'^ ift^aVurtd «iif^ to tfie Gauls, for food, beech-mast 
'' and a'fcWfl's ftoM fh* oak. When he beheld a 
^' field <itiltivaWd, aficP st rich harvest, What be- 
y cottie* 6f tAy p6\^8r; ^ayis he, if men learn to live 

" Md calli'fi^. My pretty little friend, says he, 
^' Whfeftf \f€ti th6a when tfiou feeheldest thestran- 
^' ^*i* who gaip^ thbfe t^ fine ear? of corn, Lo'is^ 
" Appi^eMii/^ tb «^il, cbnduiits him to tlie banks 
^^ of the SelAe. I v^as- says hcj under that silver- 
^neavtd Willow; I #iEl9 i^imning about over those 
*< itto\^y dcdstes : Iffew itf hide myself under these 
*' i*i«ft, iMetJtfusd t W* niked. The treachefoas' 
** Druid smiled : he seizes Lois] skM plunges' hirt 
" ftfto the df [Jf lis of the stream. 

• ♦' Tlife^ mother 6f ZotV sa>i^ her belov^ed <^hild no 
''more. She wandtfs through the woods, calling 
^ aloiCftf: Xo?A* / ^^heicart (hou ? my darling chiWi 
^ Ldis! TKd eclfotfs afenii i^epeat, Zeft>, my darling 
"^(fHlltf, Zas* / 8Hei ru* likfe one distracted afong 
*^ the banks of the Seine* She perceives simething 
'^'Wliitcf by <hfe'edg^<*Pthd water: He cannot be ' 
" ffir G^; sard sift? ,^ there are his bfeloved flowers, 
*' tli^^^are Hii sAflHry * dais!*. Alas ! ?t was Lois, 

• ♦^ W* \if#e|^i, ifhfe '^bahs,' she sighs ; she tikes up 
^ Wlfe#tHftl?bBng^^rilfe the' day-cold body of Lois; 
-^^Wifdtklij^^tt^ies ttf fe^-^^^ bbsomj 

,1? :'.. '• 


'' but the heart of the motSan has no loqger the 
'^ power of communicating wannth to the body of 
^\ jth,e son ; and the clay cold body of the s<m is al- 
'^ ready free;?ing the heart of a mother : she ia cm 
'* the point of expiring. The Druid, moiintfcd on ' 
V an adjoining rock, exults in his vengeance 

*5 The Gods do not always appear at the cry of 
^^ the miserable ; but the voice of a forlorn moUier 
'' attracted the attention of Ceres. The Goddess 
M|^ppeared. -f^s, says shp, Be |liou the most 
^* beautifi^I flower of %hc G^uls, Imme4iatply the 
.<< pa)e cheek§ of Lcifs ei^panded into ^ calix n^re * 
5^ white than the suoyir : hi$ flaxen hairs were tj^qsr 
5^ fprmed jntq ^^apents of gold, ^nd the si^e^tpst^ 
ff of p^lfumes^xhales from them. The limber stem 
ff ri^ejs to>)rar^ Heaven, but the heaji still droopy* 
*f on the banks pf tlje rj vjpr which he Ipypfi, J^ is 
f ' changed injto 9. Ijly. 

" The priest of Plutp beholds this prodigy u^- 
f f mpvpjd. He ri^i3es tP the superior Qodf ap in* 
'^ flamed coif ntenance, apd eye^ sparkling with rage. 
^* He hlasphemeS} he f:hreaten§ C^^; lie ^as going 
** to assault her with an iinpious hmd j ^vhen she 
** crips to hipi aloud : jGlpomy sf^d crucj tyrai^t|' 
f? Remain where thou ^rt 

^^ At the ypice of the Qqddess he becomiN ifll* 
M njpveable. Bpt the rock fpels the powerful cpmf? 
f mand. |t opens into a cleft; t}0t tegi tif the Einjid 
f' sink into it ; his yisage, bea;,r4ed aU oyer, and 
ft empurple^ wjth rage^ rises toward ^eave^ in di- 
1^ yergent crimi|on radiations, a|i4 ^^e garment >vf^ch 

V covered hi$ murclefpiis arpi^ is bristled intp pfio* 

V kles. The Druid is transformed into a thistle. 


illCABIA« . < 15S 

«' Thou, teU the Qoddess of the Hvvestir vbo 
'^ would persevere in feeding men like beasts, be« 
'* come thyself food for aoinials. Coatitioe to be 
^^ the enemy of the harviest after thy death, aatlion 
^'wert during thy life* As for thee, beautiful 
^ flower of Xoif#, be thou the ornament of the 
^^ Seine, and may thy^ victorious flower, in the 
'^ hand of her Kings, one day prevail triumphantly 
*' over the mistletoe of the Druids. 

*^ Gallant followers of Gamut, come and dwell 
*^ in my city* The flower of Lois perfumes my 
^^ gardens ; the virgins, night and day, chant Ins. ad- 
^* venture in my plains. £very one there engages 
^* in easy and cheerful labour : and my granaries, 
•* beloved by Ceres, overflow with piles of grain.** 

Scarcely had ^or^ finished his song, when the 
warriors of the North, who were perishing witb 
Ibun^, abandoned the son of Tendaly and fixed 
their residence in Lutttia. This good King fre- 
quently said to me : ^' Ah ! why have I not here 
^ sopne illustrious bavd of Greece, or of Egypt, to 
^ polish thp minds of my subjects ? Nothing tends 
^^ to much to humanize the heart as the melody of 
^} sweet songs. , With the capacity of composing 
^^fioe verses, and ingenious fictions,, there is no 
^ need of a sceptre to maintain authority.'* = . 

He oarrijed Cephas and me to visit, the spot 
nrhere he had planted tbo trees and the grains re* 
covered from our shipwreck. It was on the decli- 
vity t of ^ hill exposed to the South. I w» tcans- 
portrd with delight^ when I saw the treer which 
fpc had imported, replenished with juices ind vigor* 
) firvt distinguished th^ qujncMree of Cretc^ from' 



Jt^iter^ vS a f^ony gmln^^ iAk iiib«rt; tIMr %- 
title} the ptftsJ; tM^|iear*tveeof Miloht Ida^ witK 
ilfs pywBLuikiiiul f^citCL AH- the^ t^^ vrtw fitirii' 
Hit blarid of €rete; There were fte^des ihe^ticH 
iofThmdBj and- jovatig ohBitvLt'krees of lAie i^bfiitf 
aflSandima; 1 saw s vtot AiUDtrf mitbin tte &Mi 
f^s oi 'm^xM\\gn6tn. Amodg thoM plariH ap- 
peared some wbibh weremy conipatrfot^ sucli sid 
the heri»p and* the flax. These wete th6 vd^ibles 
whick pieb9cd tfa'te King ifiost, tiecatl^ ^ tb«ir 
utility. His hod admfiied t^ sliurfifo into which' 
tbejr are maniiiiactured m Egypt, mngredumMe atiA 
nioie pdiont than the skSris itv i^Hictt^ nfioM; of thtf 
Gaab are habited. Thd Ktn^ took^ dbligMt id' 
vditerklgr those piadt9 M^h hiro^ii hkcrd; anoKin 
dterringrtfaeiD of vreedi^ Att«atH^ thd Bentp of a 
%eautifal grieen,. eaitrieil alt it's hieadb eiqMl rm thd 
MatuTC' d# al Man,^ asid the fltoc' inr hlosro^i ok>tfa«d 
"tiie ground \nth avshadi^oC aisure. ^ 

While €^09 and I WInrel iimavdiy e^^ltiflgi itf 
the itflfctlt)^ of faai^i^ doii«* g6od\^ mfbtigkiioii 
ik^as/i^daived fliat the Biitbfis, elated witli tfadr fd^ 
eent'sQetress^ iiot oontent tb SjspAtc wi«h i^e Gaa£^ 
the emffitd of the 9^ whtok^ei)miei»'^ehim, ^t^ 
preparing 1Jbva$fi^(thbltf>by'I&»d; a«di t%' sri) tip 
l^SeAt, vfitlvin iflt^ftloil t6 eahy < ^er dnd 
fianeiittto tH« v«t^ boM>iiiio^ the Ooitotl*y^ Tb^ 
1^3tal[^ithei]r <{dpar«iiw in^boat» tenud^Mifti^ 
£nmili«|pi«>ri)ont^^df ttieii^iilsiiid; s^pdraeeriVoH 
liie (SotwitteAt' l^ o^ly a natrow stttiit Thejl 
coa8itd)iiAc»igi thd ehdn^! of the^ Oafflti; att^' ^AV 
icad^ ^mtek'theiSeine} the dafagers of "whichiHbjf 

knew ' 

knvw>hf^w to ^eiA, hy punamg iiirta Che ereekft 
which xa^ ( fibelteved frotn the rage o£ Neptumi 
The intended imrasioD af the Britons wte no^ed 
abroad o^vi&r all the GaiiK. from the momeat jilM 
theg^ began to put it into executioi);. for the 
Gauis kindle fir^s on the mouniciifis^ and h^ tht 
SLumbei* of these fires, and the thickneiss of theit 
amoHe, convey ifitelUgoace miich nioTepromtrtijI 
tthaa by th€ flight of a bifdi 

Oir jneeeitiiig. news thfRfthe^ Britons haid embatk^ 
ed- the confederated' troops of the Gaols h^pcn to 
march to defend the nfio<i4fh of the Seine. They ivere 
xanged under, the st^da^rd of their several Chfe& 
tatibs;: these coneisted c& tiae skills of the wc^^ the 
beau*, the vulture,, the eagle, orof some other 'im$«« 
daieviQua animal^ suspended at the extreflMtyipif i 
lotig pole; Thai! of King .Bardus^ and o^ bis isiandi 
pmsented the figui« of c^<sbip, the! s^iiibol of com^ 
jtiefice:. Qsfkas aad I> aceompanied l^e King oik 
iMsfesspeditieni In^ a^ ftir dajrs ail the united forctf 
otiose Gauis was.<x)Uect9d on the sfaoie of the Seai 

Three opinions were^ started lespeeling thetnpdtt 
of defdnce. The fitsi' wasr ta drtre piles along the 
6tost;t0:ijr6¥enli the debaikationiof the'Britona; t 
plwlolida^y Qxee^tion^0C|n9ide«!i^g that outnumr 
l)ti0twese incoboeiveblbp and the foiistirat hmd^ 
Th<^ seo^^nd^Vsisi to;gi1r^ them) battle i the iM>airat 
ibisitA tbe|^ knded;: tbo^ tbirdy not to:6]»p€ish'the 
troops .t9 the op0n atla<r)pofrthe adVa]toiiig;clnenyv 
hi(A to^ aiMaiilt them vAyita landsd^ and srftto ^ey 
^ifqtt ro tan^lf^d i.n< tbie wooda and vnUies. No dm 
<)M)iO»^ Opfqions w^ofi^/ loUovff^ed up;ifbtt.disto0rd 


155 <SQU£L TO TH£ STVlHtS OF NATUfit. 

one was for ccmnnanding, while no one was dts*^ 
posed to obey. While they were wasting time in' 
ddiberation the enemy appeared, and disembarked' 
while we were settlitig the arrangement of our plan* 
But for Cephas we had been undone. Before the 
arrival of the Britons, he had advised King Bardui 
to divide his force into two, composed of the in- 
kabitants of Lutetia, to place himself in ambush 
with the better part in the woods which cpvered 
the oppbsi^ side of the Mountain of Heva; while 
Cephas himself should engage the enemy with the 
other party, joined to the rest of the Gauls. I 
entreated Cephas to detach from his division the 
young soldiers, who panted like myself to come to 
close action, and to entrust me with the command. 
I have no fear of dangei-, said I. Tlirough all the 
proofs which the Priests of Thebes prescribe to 
the initiated I have passed, and know iiot what. 
fear is. C^as hesitated a few moments. At last 
he committed the ytfung men of his division to 
my charge, recommending to them, as well as to 
me, oot to s^arate too £ar from the main body. 

The enemy meanwhile had made good their 
knding. At sight of this, many of the Qauls ad- 
vanced to attack them, rending the air with loud 
cries; but as they cMrged in small parties, thfey 
were easily repuked ; audit would have been im- 
possible to rally a single man of them, had not bur 
rejar afforded them ato opportunity of recovering 
from their confusion. We presently perceived the 
Britons in full march to attack us. The youthful 
band which I commanded was instently. in motion, 
ajid ddvaioced toH^rd tlje^ Btitoftj, »»cdncemed 
" ' * vhcthfr 


whether we were supported hy the rest of IthcCa!- 
lie force or not When we got within bow-shot; 
we saw tfcat the enemy formed only one single 
column, long, broad, and closely embattled, ad- 
vancing slowly upon us, whfle their barfe Irere 
fbrcini^ their way up the river to get upimi our i^n 
I was staggered, I confess, at sight of that multi* 
^de c^half*aaked barbarians, painted with red and 
't>lue, marching along in profound silence, and with 
the most perfect order.* But when all at once there 
issued from their noiseless phalanx, clouds of darts^ 
of arrows, of pebbles, and leaden - balls, which 
brought down many of us, piercing some through 
and through, my surviving companions betook 
themselves to flight. I myself was going to for* 
get that it was my duty to set them an example of 
resolution, when I beheld Cephas by my side ; he 
-was followed by the whole army. ** Let us invoke 
V HercukSj'' cried he, " and advance to the charge.* 
The presence of my friend reanimated all my cou- 
rage, I resumed my station, and we made the atr 
tack with our pikes levelled. The first enemy 
^om I encountered, was a native of the Hebridefl^ 
a man of gigantic stature. The aspect of his arms 
'inspired horror: his head and shoulders were clad 
in the skin of a prickly thorn-back ; he wore around 
his neck a collar, of human jaw-bones, and he bore 
for a lance the trunk of a young fir armed with the 
tooth of a whale. " What demandest thou of 
** Hercules ?^ said he to me, " here he is to attend 
*• thee.** At the same time ne aimed at me a stroke 
of hi« enormous }ance, with so much fury, that if 
it had hit the mark I must have been nailed by it 


IS9 SEQUEL TO rnt sT«;pt^s of natube. 
to./th^ gTQUod, which it pene^ated to a. great 
depth. WWte he was *trifgglipg to 4i8fB«igP ili 
I pierced him through the throat wit|i the iipetr 
which WM in my hand : then ina^toediately k^i 
fyq^ the "wpuiid a i^ream pf hlack and tbiek 
hlo^ ; f lui down fe)l the s^ia^y Britop), bitwg the 
grp^od^ ap^ blaspheipiog the Qod$* 

^^9flwW^ P^ t^90f^, cpUected into imeilrni 
frfl4yi wer^ closely engf^ed with tbfe cd\axm iof 
;^^ jp^emy. ^li^? ^la*Jied with.cjtth* inm^kr 
j)^r?s$<?d pn buckler, lance ciiJ3S§dlfi9tff. Thtia fcw^ 
J&9jr^ bu|ls dispute tbi? empwe of the.m^pv^; 
^h^ hprus entwine ; the^- fpreheada ratUe against 
l^ch^lvsr ; hel)pwi;igj th^y press in o^ositexliMO 
tippsj au4 whether tliey gain pr los© -giwitod, nfJih 
ther i?€j)a^;a,t€s from h\^ r^YftK Tlim we tnain- 
tijined the coBpthat, ho4y to body, . Npverthetep^ 
that Qplui^n which exceeded m in ^vunl^efi waa 
bearing uf d^wn with sn^vior fo^c;^ when King 
JSardm c^me up, and assfiuH^d their rear with his 
troQpf, who came into action with ^.shpQt-^'hieh 
rended tl\e air. Upon t)m a panip tef rpr seji^sed 
those barbarians, wh^ had been flushed with ^ hf^ 
of surrounding us, but wef^ themselves sun:Q^i|de4» 
Thfy des^ted their ranks ip confusion, an4 fled 
toward the shore of the Sea in the hope of r^aift- 
log thcjir barks, which had now cpusictej^bly ad- 
vanced up the stream. A dreadful carnage ensued, 
and many prisoners were taken. 

The combat being finished, I said to Gephoi': 
The Gauls axe indebted for their victory to tl» 
counsel which you gave the Kii3g ; for my part, 
to you J owe the preservation of roy lionoun I 


Iffc^ solicited, ^.p9st wluqh | kn?w ppf Ijqw to fi|l j 
^q^ ^rhq ^j-^ ftij^r fipy JWWW^J bf** Vri^ »a, 
4.§«ps^ f f ^^, I iii|agiqc4 thai jt^pe ipftiatiofig of 

*»nger J feH*:BL is ?«Jf t9 tf >ia>vjB ^i4«i| cppflfcK!^ 
out of which you are sure of escaj^f^ Pfik9^ tl^M^ 
»Pl>Jnp^ • " O 4«W» A ^|^?i:p W i^e for^ijtw|e. in 

*' .«^»P«-*t. If is ffl^W^f V^ \^^^ gi^W ns t^ 

■* T^Jflor V ^j aft^ feip^ j* »f^ »"q>rwft. n)^ 

'^' l^qe; in fhe %id p^ J^e^v^p; alonf; ou)r con^ 
<' d/eii5«,sVil>t*W bf ^fi^' TOle>e ^? )l>y?kliflf 

" SJaiiK^s. 9it: «?. iV<?ffx heJiiA^. ; <;<fu&4^n^ i^ ^ 
J* (j[p4^ ^Vwf i^ f ^fenpe on (?y^y ?id^" , . ; 
, To #e/f »f/e* Y? PQm<^TJ^t«^ pqrt of ^hf ?pp»^ 
t^jE^ ft<iiff\ thf ^ritptts. Thp Druids a^vi;^ U) 
^(^ ^he. ff^ipnerSf be«^ausf ^hi; Qrito&s were i/n usi^ 
tfi.Pf99,t those whom th^y toqk ip^batt|e from thif 
Qi^jS) in this maitner. fipt; } pre^nted npyself ii| 
the asaqnbly 9f the Q^i^]^ ^n^ thus,5^dfh"e^e4 
^hfin : " O ye ^atipq* ! you see irom my es^as^ftSf 
'^ wh^hf J^ the Crods dplight i^ human «a^ifices.. ' 
l' They have fl^posited, the victc^ry in your g/soi'- 
i* rot^ haincM : Will yoi| stain tliein.with the blood 
i^jpf th? niifer^bjier 1^^ there not enough of blood 


** been shed in the rage of battle? Can you nqwsptlf 
•* it, without passion, and in the joy oftritjmph ? 
*^ Your enemies iinmolate their prisoners; Surp^ 
** them in generosity as you surpass them in con- 
" rage.* The larles, and all the wariiors, received 
this' ad vice with loud applause : and it was decreed 
that the prisoners of war should be disarmed, and 
reduced to slavery. ^ 

r was the cause therefore of the abolition of tlicr 
Law^^ich condemned them to the flames. I like- 
wise proved the occasion of abrogating the custom' 
of sacrificing innocents to iWiiw, and of reducing 
the shipwrecked to servitude. Thus I was thrice 
usefol to Mankind in the Gauls ; once by my success,* 
and twice by my misfortunes : so true !t is tfeat the 
Gods can when they please bring good but of jcvil. 

We returned to Lutetia loaded with the' accla- 
inations and applause of the People. The first 
anxiety expressed by the King, on his arrival, was 
to carry us with him to visit his garden. The* 
greatest part of our trees were in great forwardness. 
He admired first how Nature had preserved thefr 
fruits from the attack of the birds. The chesnut, 
still in a milky state, was covered with leather* 
and with a prickly shell. The tender walnut was 
protected by a hard shell and a bitter outwaW 
case, llie soft fruits were defended, previous to 
tiieir maturity, by their roughness, their acidity, or 
their verdure. Those which were ripe Invited th<^ 
hand to gathejr them. The gold-coloured apricot, 
the velviet peach and the cottony quince, exhaled 
the sweetest of perfumes. The boughs of th* 
plumb-tree were covered with violet -frmts^ b6- 
tprinkled with a white powder. The grapes already 

AnCAVlA* iiSi 

of a veimilion hue^ Imngin dusters frotti the vltie ; 
and over tlie broad kwts of the fig-tree, t{ie half- 
epened fig distilled it's juice ia drops of honey and 
crystal. ^* It isdasy to see,*" said the King, ** that 
^* these fruits arjB presents spnt from Heaven. They 
*'are not, like the seeds of our fores t*tree$, at a 
"height which we cannot reach.* They pfetont 
<* thems^lv^s to tb* hand. Their smiliiig ccdours 
•* allure the eye^ their sweet perfumes the organs of 
" smelling, and they seem formed ft>r the moath 
'* from their size and iroundness." Bq|; when tliat 
good King had caught the flavour of them hf hli 
palate: ^*0 real gift of J^E^/V^rr' exclaimed lie^ 
^ nd aliment prepared by human skiU is once to h^ 
^ compared to th^ m ! They excel in sweetnesa 
*^ the honey and the creapa. O, fny dear friemd^ 
^ mndh respected guests, you have bestowed 
*^ «a file a pr^sei^l; of n^pch higher value than my 
<< ffffIS kingdom 1 You have introduced into sar 
^ vage Gaul a portion of delidou^ Egypt I pm# 
'* f«r a akgle one of tliese trees to all the mines 6f 
;*^tin whieh render the Britops so dch and io 
•V haughty,'' 

He Milt for tJie pfjuneip^l inh*bit»nts of ^ 

city, and ^ad* et fjh 9? <bfiw twf ? thf^ wpn4Tonf 
friiits. Hfi lfiflo»i«ffi4?4 ^ tliepi '9W«fwUy f^ 
preiwyfl the UPed^, md tp pst'tJieix? ip ti|;f groan^ 
at tfee pTPper iprik^. frpip tfce joy ejipjjew^d J?y 
ii^s excftlkftt Pji»^v fwd by hiis iPepplj% J w^t^ 
made sensible t^at Man's higheit delight consists 
in doihg ^pq4 t^ hi? fellow-creatures. 

« The wdlni)t «nd chetimilrpw at a jgrestt height; bat t{ie^ ^r^jt^ 
||9^ rth«. fCQtttxd whti^ tb«jr are "pe^ and do not bmk in falling, 
ike the ioh fhiitSj lihich bcsidtt grow oti treM wbidi iira easily sealed* 

VojulV. II CephM 


Cephas said to me : ^^ Now is the time to shevr 
" to my compatriots the use of the Arts of Egypt. 
*' I have saved from the shipwrecked vessel the 
" greatest part of our machines ; but hitherto thejr 
^ have remained unemployed ; nay, I durst not 
'* so much as look at them ; for they reminded 
^* mc too affectingly of tl*e loss of you. The 
^' moment is come for turning them to account. 
[^ Those fields of corn are now ripe ; that hemp 
** and those flaxes arc hastening to be so." 

Having gathered those plants, we taught the 
King and his People the use of mills, for reducing 
com to flower^ and the different processes of pre^ - 
paring dough, in order to make bread of it*. Pre- 
vious to our arrival, the Gauls peeled wheat, oats 
and barley, by pounding them with wocden m^U 
lets in the trunk of a tree hollowed out, and satis^ 
fied themselves with boiling the grain in thi$ state 
for food. We afterwards shewed them the me^od 
of steeping hemp in water, to sepaiate the iila-^ 
ments from the straw, of dr}'ing it, of beating it^ 
of dressing it, of spinning it, and of twisting se- 
veral threads together for the purpose of making 
cordage. . We made them observe how those cords, 
by their strength and pliancy, are adapted to acl 
*as the nerves of ^ very species of machinery. We 
taught theni the art of distending the threads .of 
flax on looms, to weave into cloth by means of 
the shuttle; and how these gentle- and useful la- 

* The Gaals lived, as did all other savage . tribes, on pap, or fru- 
menty. The Romans themselves were for three hundred years ignorant 
of the ose^of bread; acpording to F liny ^ boiled grain or frumenty con* 
stitaM the greatest part of their aliment. 



bours might employ the young people, iniioceutly 
and. agreeably, during the long nights of Winter. . 
We instructed them in the use of the a^ger, of 
the gimlet, of the^ plane, and pf the saw, invented 
by the ingenious Dedalus: as these tools furnish 
Man with additional hands, and fashion to his use 
a multitude of trees, the timber of which would 
have gone to waste in the forests. We taught 
them to extract from their knotty trunk powerful 
screws, and ponderous presses, fit for squeezing 
out the juice of an infinite number of fruits, aTw| 
for forcing oils out of the hardest nuts. They did 
not gather tnany grapes from our vines ; but we 
inspired them with an ardent desire of. multiply- 
ing the slips, not pnly by the excellence of the 
fruit from the bough, but by letting them taste 
the wines of Crete, and of the Isle of Thasos,.whicli 
we had preserved in urns. - ;; i 

. After having disclosed to theui |he use of an in- 
iinity of benefits which Nature has placed on the 
face of the Earth, obvious to the eye of map,- w? , 
aided them in discovering those whiqh i|he has de- 
posited under their feet ; how water may be found 
in places the most remote from rivers^ by means of 
wells, invedted by Danaus; in what manner me^ 
.tals are discovered, though buried ija the boweb 6f 
the Earth; how, after having theimnelted into 
bars, they could be liammered upon the stnvil, to 
prepare them for being divided into tablets and 
plates ; in what manner, by a process the most siin- 
ple, clay may be fashioned on the potter's wheel, 
into figures and vases of every form. We sur- 
prised theni mujch more, by shewing thent bottles^ 
1M 3 af 


of gUss tnadt with sand and flint. They were de- 
lighted toextasy, to see the liquor which they con* 
tained manifest to the eye, but secured from the 

But when we read to them the books of Mercu* 
fins TrUmcgistuSy which treat of the liberal Arts, 
and of the natural Sciences, then it was that their 
'^^djniration exceeded all bounds* At first they 
were incapable of comprehending how speech 
could issue from a dumb book, and how the 
thoughts of the earliest Egyptians could possibly 
Jbi^been transmitted to tbeift, on the frail leaves 
of thd!' papyrus. When they afterwards heard the 
recital of our discoveries ; when they saw the pro- 
digies effected by the mechanical powers, which 
move the heaviest bodies by means of small levers, 
jtnd those of Geometry, which can measure dis* 
tances the most inaccessible, they became perfectly 
transported. The wonders of chetoistry and of 
magic, and the various phenomena of physics hur- 
ried them from rapture to rapture. But when we 
predicted to them an eclipse of the Moon, which, 
prior to our arrival they considered as an acciden- 
tal failure of that planet, and when they saw at 
the very moment which we had indicated, the 
prb of night become dark in the midst of a se- 
rene sky, they fell at our feet saying, ** Assuredly, 
ye are Gods '/' 

Omfi, that young Druid who had discovered so 
much sensibility to my afflictions, attended alt 
xsMx lessons of instruction. ^' Front your intelli* 
•* gence,*' said he to us, " and ftom your benefi* 
^^ cence^ I am tempted to believe yott some of the 


*f superior Gods ; but from the ills whiqh you havo 
*^ endured t per<:eive that you are only nien like 
^' ourselves. You mu&t .undoubtedly bave con* 
*^ trived the means of climbing up into Heaven ; 
** or the inhabitanU of the celestial regions murt . 
^^ have descended into highly favoured Egypt, to 
'^ communicate to you so many bewtits, and so 
^* much illumination. Your Arts and Sciences 
^^ surpass our understand ii^ and can be the ff^ 
** fects only of a power divine. You are the dar* 
^'.ling children of the superior Gods; as for us, 
*^\ve are abandoned of Jupiter to the infernal dei« 
'' ties. Our country is covered with unproductive 
*' forests, inhabited by maleficent genii, who dis* 
**seminate through the whole of our existencei 
'* discord, civil broils, terrors, ignorance and mis* 
" chievious opinions. Our lot is a thousand times 
^* more deplorable than thafeof the beasts, which, 
" clothe^ lodged and fed by the hand of Natui^, 
''follow undeviatingly their instinct, without 
*' being tormented by the fears of Hell*' 

** The GodC replied C^has, " have not been 
*' unjust to any Country, nor to any one indivi* 
" dual. Eve?y Country po$aesses blessings pecu^ 
" liar to itselft and which serve to keep up acom^^ 
" munication among all Nations, by a reciprocal 
" interchange of comitaodities. Gaul contains 
'* the metals which Egypt wants; her forests aw 
" more beautiful; her cattle yield milk in greater 
''abundance: and the fleeces of her sheep ai^ 
" greater in quantity, and give a finer wool But 
" wheresoever the habitation of Man is fixed, his 
*' portion U always 'far superior to that of the 
Ms "beasts, 


^ beasts,, because he is endowed with a i^eason 
** which expands in proportion to tl>e obstacles 
*' it surmounts, and because he alone of animals 
** is capable of applying to his own use means 
" which nothing can resist, s,uch as fire. Thus 
^^ Jupiter \iVL% bestowed upon hiip empire over the, 
*' Earth, by illuminating his reason with the intcl- 
*' ligjence of Nature herself, and by confiding in 
" him alone that element which is her prime mov- 
" ing principle." 

Cephas afterwards talked to Omfi^ and to the 
Gauls of the rewards prepared in the World to 
come, for virtue and beneficence, and the punish- 
ments laid up in store for vice and tyranny ; of 
the metempsychosis, and the other mysteries of 
the religion of Egypt, as far as a stranger is permit- 
ted to be instructed in them. The Gauls, 
consoled by his discourse, and enriched by our 
presents, called us their benefactors, their fathers, 
the true interpreters of the Gods. King Bardus 
thus addressed us : " I wnll adore Jupiter alone, 
*^ As Jupiter loves. Mankind, he must" afford pafti- 
** cular protection to Kings, to whom the felicity 
^* of whole Nations is entrusted. I will likewise 
** pay homage to Isis^ who has brought down his 
?* benj&fits to the Earth, that $he may present the 
^* vows of my People to the Sovereign of the 
" Gods," At the same time he gave orders tQ 
rear a temple to IsiSy* at some distance from the 
city, in the midst of the forest; to erect her sta- 
tue in it, with the ipfant Or^i^ in her arms, such, as 

* It. is pretended that this is the ancient Church of Saint-Geneviev^ 
reared to his, prior to the introduction of Christianity among the Gauls, 

, ' i * : • ^ ■ ■ ^ wQ 

we laad brought it with us in our vessel; to ho- 
Hour her with a]l tbei$ju:recl ceremonies of Egypt ; 
4tod that her priestesses clothed in linen, should 
lught and day adore. her with songs^ and by a life, 
of purity which exalts Man to the Gods. 

He afterwairds expressed a wbh to be instructed 
in reading and tracing the Ionic characters. He was 
so struck with the futility of letters, and, that; trans* 
ported with 4eligh^ he su^g t}ie following strains: 

" Behold the magic characters whi4:h have power 
^^ to recal the dead from jhe d^k recesses of tlie 
" tomb. They infornj lis whajt our fathers thought 
*'.a thousand years ago; and a thousand y^ars 
**beace, they will.heJnstrupting our children 
^* wiat we think ^t this day. There is no arrow 
-** that flies so far, neither is there any lance so 
^* strong. They can reach a man though entrench- 
*^ ed on the summit of a mountain; they penetrate 
^' into the head though fortified with the helmet, 
^* and force their way tp the heart in defiance of 
^* Ihexuirass. They calm seditions, they adminis- 
y ter «age counsels, they conciliate affection, they 
** comfort, they strengthen; but in the hands of 
\* a wickfed .man they produce quite an opposite 
^^ effect." 

^* My son," said this good King to me one day, 
^* Af,e the moons of thy country more beautiful 
*^ tha? ours? Hast thou remaining in Egypt any 
" objeCit of regret? Thou hast brought to us 
" fjroai thenge alj the best of human blessings : 
^* plants, arts and sciences. All Egypt ought to 
" be here for thy sake. Continue to live with us. 
^' After my death thou shalt reign over the Gauls, 

M 4 "I have 

l$<i s^auxi. TO Tifif ttOfttes or uTATynx. 
''dhi^e no cBUd, iidte^t aA dfi)y 4atigBtier llaihiKil 
*' G6tha ? to the* i Srill givfe bir ill JiiatHkgfc- ^ 
*^M^htile pedj)W, btlfevc me, b 6f t«6re Valini thi* 
" otie fkftiily, and a good wifl! than the land 6f 
" one- s nativity. Gbtha's I'esidetice U ih that 
*^ Island beloMT, the tr^ei df ti^hich ar* visible fi-bm 
^ thiii ^p6t : for it is prbper that i y6nn^ wbMsii) 
*? $H(>uld be brought u^ ttmott from men, and c^* 
^' pecially at a distance from the Courts of jiings.** 
Th* desire Of tftaking a Nitron happy suspended 
in toe the love of Cbuntry. 1 cphsultdd Ce/^A^^ 
6tt the subject, if h6 idopwd the views of tli* King, 
t besought thdt Prince thfctefore t6 pettiiit tne 
to be conducted to th^ piice of his daughter*^ 
habitation, that, in conformity tp the custoto o^ 
the Egyptidh^, 1 might endeavour to tender myself 
agreeable to the pirsbij Who wa^ 6dc day to be the 
partner of my pains and of ihy pleasures;. The 
Kihg gave Orders to Att igcd female, ' who came 
fevery day to tlte PalaCfe for prOVisiMii to 0otha, 
to cottduct me to her ^re$ente. The ancient lady 
^ade me emi3ark With her in a barge loaded With 
tiecessartes ; and committing pui^selyes fo the 
pourse of the stream, we latided in a very little 
livh|Ie on the island where th^ daughter of Ki^g 
Bardui resided. This islind Was called the Isle of 
Swans, becau$e thfe birds 6t that uaihp i^esorted 
thither in the Spring, to make their ne^ts kmong 
tlie reedis that feufflounded it's shores, and which at 
f^n seasons fed On tb6 dnserina poitnti&a^ pto** 


4 the ansefinh potentUla is M^^ in ge^il alkindanc^ eTii Hhh U^ 
Qf A« 6eiAG, in iSbb \Miiit^ df VMs. ft «>iiietiiikel tiiMti dieM 
mofittf^j y^Wxm, toward the dMe of Sununer^ b/ the odo«r of 


hitii theti m great abundance/ Oa om Iwdiii^, 
^e perc«iv«fd the PrincM* seated utadcr a tohmp 
df alder-trees in the mui^t of a dowh ycltowed 
ill over with the flowers of the aneieraii^. She 
Was edcoitij^assed with Swans^ Vhich Aa^ called 
t6 hei" by dcatteriftig among them the ghiu» of 
dats. Tlloiigh she Wat under the shadd «f the 
tree, she Surpassed those bird^ in whttenfssi ftoitt 
the purity of her eomplexion^ and the ialrntos of 
hef* ermibe robe< Her bki# wn of the most beau* 
tiful black; aiid ^he wore it etteirded^ as well as 
her robe, wi^ a red-eolonred ribbaud4 Two wo^ 
noen, who attended her at some distance^ ailvaaced 
td meet us. l*he l^fae tied our barge to the 
branches of a wiUow ; and the other^ taking me 
by the hand, ptesehted m^ to her mistress. The 
young PriheesA Hftde ine mt down by hefr oh the 
grassy aft^f trbichshe i&Tfted liie to pa^ke with 
her of idfiie flower of laiilet boUed, of b duck 
reacted oft the bark bi the birch^treei with goat 
milk iu the horn of an elk. She theii waited 
Ift modest silence^ till I sboald explain to her the 
Intention of my y»i|. 

. HavifRg taat^d^ in i;omfdiance with tile custonn 
the diahei pitrstfited to Jne> I addressed her thus: 
^' O t^atttjjr«d Gotha, I aspire to the honour of be^ 

it's Sowers. Thh fiovftYi^ ^oM^fofm^y fibdut ttit sii^ of » shilling, 
V<(^tttrisiD| tirpdn ai|t«Hi. It etimin^ ibt grouifd, ss> doei libeWkig 
ilfs fe^Mfi^ whwh ^piPcads vety far 19 forpi of network. Geese are ver^ 
fotd oi Uiis piaot. It's leavesi in form of a goose-footy adhering close! v 
to the gipound^ admit of the water-foxvrs l«r«i%ing ote^ di^isr ii tifdn a 
fS^el, kt^d it^ ^16W t»otit dip ii*^a«fdir8 form a rei|r bmkUM con- 
SHttl ivirh thf mam -rthe river, and tb* verdure of {the trees.; but es- 
l^ially witii the marbled colour of the Geede, which afe perceptible 
jtn tl^s ground al S|^t«at distaooe. 

' "ing 


^ ing 80ii*hi-!aw to the King your father, and I 
^^ Ttsit you with his consent^ to know whether my 
^ suit will be agreeable to you?** 
* The jdaughter of King Bardut^ whh dowacast 
looks^ replied: '' O stranger! I have beea de* 
^* manded in marriage by many larles, who are^ 
^^ from day to chfy making my father nuignificent 
^^ presents, in the hope of obtaiaing my hand; 
** but 1)0 one of them possesses my affection. 
^^ Fighting is tliecmly art which they understand* 
•^ As for thee, I beHeve, if tho« b^omest my has- 
** band^ thou wilt make my happiiifss thy^stjudyi 
** since thou already hast devoted thyself to the 
*^ happiness of my Peopte. Thou wilt instruct me iu 
** the arts of Egypt, and I shall become like unto 
♦* the good/mof thy Coimtry, whose name is men- 
** tioned with such profoui^ respect all over GauL** 

After she had thus spoken, she attentively con- 
sidered the ^iflSwent parts of n^y habit, admired tbe 
fini^ess of their texture, and made her women ex-r 
amine them, who lifted up their eyes to Heaven 
in astonishment. After a short pause, locking at 
me, she thus proceeded: *' Though thou comest 
^* from a Country replenished with ev^y species of 
^ wealth, and every production of ingenuity, do 
^ not in^agine that I am. in want of any. thing, and 
** that I myself am destitute of intelligence. My 
** father has trained me up in the love of labour, 
" and he causes me to live in the greatest abun^ 
,** dance of all tltings.** . ' , 

At the same time she introduced me. into her par 
lace, where twenty of her women were employed in 
plucking rher-fowls^ tomake for her ornaments and 

' robes 

robes of their plumage. She shewed me l^adoetar 
and mats of very delicate rushes, woven by her 
own hand ; vessels of fine pewter in great quanti- 
ties; a hundred skins of wolves, martensand foaSp 
with twenty bear*skins« ^^ All this treasur^^'niil 
%ht to me, *^ ^all be thine,, if thou espousest me; 
^^ but upon these conditions, that thou takcst no 
* ^ other wife but me ; and thou shalt not oblige mc 
^^ to labour the ground, or to go in quest of the 
^* skins of the deer, and of the butSaloes vfakiitho^ 
^ mayest kill in hunting in the forests; for 9udi 
'^ tasks are imposed by husbands on their wives ia 
*^ these countries, but which I do not at all like; 
♦* and that, if at length thou becomest tared of liv- 
^' ing with me, thou shalt replace me in this isfe; 
** whither thou hast come to woo mc^ and wheie 
f* my pleasure consists in feeding the Swans, and in 
** chanting the praises oiSeine, the nymph of C^es.* 
I smiled within myself at the simplicity of the 
daughter of King Bardus, and at the sight of what 
she denominated treasure; but as the true ricliesof 
a wife consist in the love of industry^ candour; 
ftanknessj gentleness, and that there is no dowry 
once to be compared to these virtues, I replied to 
her : " O beautiful Gotha, marriage among the 
.,« Egyptians is a legal ^nion, a mutual interchange 
.« of possessions and of sorrows ; thou shalt be dear 
.« to me as tlie better half of myself/* I then made 
her a present of a skein of flax, which grew and was 
prepared in tlie gardens of the King her father- She 
received it with delight, and said to me: **My 
f friemi, I will spin this flax, atxd have it weaved 



** iDto A robe ibr^ihe day of my espousals." She 
presented me, in her turn with this little dog whidi 
yon see, racorered over with hair that his eyes are 
isearceiy discn'iitbte; She said to me ; '' Th^ namo 
^^ of this dog is Gallus; he is descended from a rice 
'' remarkable for their fidelity. He will follow thee 
•* wheresoever, thOu goest, over the land, o'v^er the 
" snow, and into the water. He will accompany 
^ thde in the chace, nay to the field o£ battle. He 
^< will be to thee, at all seasons, a faithful companion, 
" and % symbol of my affectiicin:" As the day was 
Arawfog to u close sbd reminded me that it was 
time to retire, desiring me In future not to cotne 
down along the current of the river, but to travel 
by land on the banks till I came opposite to heris^ 
land, \rhere her women should be waiting to feriy 
me over, and thus conceal our mutual felicity from 
jealoud tyi$. I took my leave of her, and returned 
to my home, forming in my own mind as I went, 
on my way a thousand agreeble projects 

One day as I was going to visit her, through a 
path cut out in the forest, in compliance with the 
advice which she had given me, I met one of the 
principal larles attended by a great number of his 
vissals. They were armed as, if they had beep in 
in a state of tvan For my part I wore no armour, 
Hkt a man who was at peace with all the World, 
afad whose mind was occupied only with the reve- 
MB of love. The larie advanced toward me with 
a hjiughty air, and thus accosted me : *' What «eckn 
"est thou in thiscduntry of warriors, with these 
I* womanish arts of' thine? Meanest thpu to teach 


^ us how to spin flax, andexpectest tliouto«obtaia 
, '* the beauteoits Gotha as thy recompenoe ? My 
^* name is Torstan. 1 was one of ike compAnions 
** of Carnut I have been engaged in tweaty^two 
^ battles by Sea, and have come off VKtorious iii 
^ thirty single combats. Tliricehave I fought ivitfa 
" Vittiking that renowned Prince of the Not th« | 
'' am going to carry thy hairy seaip and lay it at 
*' the feet of the god Mars, from whom thou madest , 
'' thy escape, and to quaff from thy «kuU the miik 
'* of tliy flocks.'' 

After an address so brutal, I apprehended that tb^ 
barbarian was about to assassinate me; bututiituig 
magnanimity to ferociousness, he took off bts head* 
piece and cuirass, which were of builds hide, a«id 
preseiiting to me two naked swords deei^edine t^ 
make my choice. 

It was useless to think of reasoning with a man 
-under the influence of jealousy and madness, i ae^^ . 
€retly invoked the aid of Jupiter^ the protector «f 
strangers ; and having chosen tlie slK)rter, but tlie 
)ighterof the two swords, though I had ^scaroely 
strength to wield it, a dreadful combat eas«ed; 
while his vassals surrounded us as witness^, ex- 
pecting to see the earth reddened either with the 
blood of their chieftain, or \nth that of their guest. 

My intention at first was to disarm the enemy, 
in the view of saving his life, but he did not leavfe 
this in my option. Rage transported him beyond 
all the bounds of prudence. The first blow which 
he ainted at me carried off h huge spUnter fVom 1 
iretghbouring oak. I shunned the blow by sMopV 
ing down my bead. This movement reddtifeHed^bts 


174 S£<IU£L t^O the: STUDIES or MATURE. 

inaoleBce. ** Wert thou,*' exclaimeil he, ^* to stoop 
••^ down tohell thou aheuldest not escape me/* Thcii«^ 
laking^ im sword in both hands» he fell furiously^ 
«pou me ; hnt Jupiier preserving my senses in com^ 
pletetnmqutllity^ I parried with theback of ray sword 
tliestroke with which he was going to fell me to the 
ground^ and presenting to him the point he vio- 
lently rushed upon it, and run himself through the 
breast. Two streams of blood issued at once from 
the wound and from his mouth ; he fell backward, 
the sword dropped from his hands, he raised his 
eyes to Heaven and expired. His vassals immedi* 
tttely encompassed his body» uttering loud and hor* 
rid cries. But they suffered me to depart without 
the least molestation; for generosity is a prominent 
character in those barbarians. I retired to the city 
aadly deploring my victory. 

I gave an account of what had happened to^Ce* 
p^s and to the King- *' Those larles, said the 
King» *^ give niemuch uneasiness. They tyrannize 
f* over my People. Every prjofligate in the Coun?^ 
"try on whom they can lay their hands^ they take 
"care to wheedle over to strengthen their party. 
" They Sometimes render themselves formidable 
** even to myself. But the Druids are still n>uch 
^* more so. No one dares to do any thing here 
" without their consent. Which way shall I go to 
"work toenfeeWe those two powers? I imagined that 
*' by increasing the influence of the larles, I should 
" raise a bulwark to oppose to that of the Druids,' 
•* But the contrary has taken place. The power of 
" iksi Druids is increased. . It appears as if there 
*• wereaaufl^dkr^tanding between them for the pur- 

" pose 

AMAmjk. 17S 

"^^ pose of extending tl^ir oppression orer the Pa>» 
^ |4e, nay even over my guests. O stpanger,'' said 
ibe to me, ^^ yoiihave had but too much experieooe 
" of thisi*' Then, turning to CephaSj " O my friend," 
added he, ** you who in the course of your travels 
^* have acquired the knowledge necessary to tfa« 
" government of Mankind, give some instmction^ 
*' on this subject to a King who never was beyond 
" the limits of his own Country. Oh! how sen-? 
^' sible I am of the benefit which Kings might de- 
^* rive from travelling." ^ 

" I will unfold you, O King," replied C^Aw, 
^* some part of the Policy and Philosophy of Egypl^ 
" One of the fundamental Laws of Nature is, that 
** every thing must be governed by contraries, 
^'.Frorn contraries the harmony of the Universe re- 
" suits. The same tiling holds good with respect 
^^ to that of Nations. The power of arms and that 
** of Religion dre at variance in every Country* 
** These two powers are necessary to the preservair 
^* ^ion of the State. When the People are oppressed 
^* by their Chieftains they flee for refuge to the 
^* Priests; and when oppressed by their Priests they 
^' seek refuge in their Chieftains. The power of tlus 
'* Druids has increased therefore with you, and by 
^* that very increase of the power of the larles; for 
" these two powers universally counterbalance each 
** other. If ypu wish then to diminish one of the, 
*' t>vo, so far from augmenting it's counterpoise, as 
f * you have done, you ought on the contrary to re* 
" duce it, r . 

" But there is a metliod still more simple, ^nd 
^^ more ipi^^Uibk, pf dijnini^hingat once both tho 
;.->... : «• . ■. i' .t^pOM^eni 


^< powers which are so offbesive to you. It is to 
^ render ywir People happy ; for they will no l«n» 
^ get ramble in quest of proteetion out of ymirself^ 
'^ and these two powers will be speedily annihilated, 
^ as they are indebted for the whole of their influ- 
• enc6 only to the opinion of that very people. In 
^' this you will succeed, by fumishin|; the Gauls 
^ with ample means of subsistence, by the establish* 
** ment of the arts which sweeten human life, and 
*^ especially by honouring and encouraging agri- 
*^ culture, which is it's main support While the 
^ People thus live in the enjoyment of abundance, 
*' the larles and the Druids will find themselves in 
'* the same state. Whenever these two corps shall 
•' have learned to be content with their condition, 
^ they will no longer think of disturbing the repose 
** of others ; they will no longer have^at their dis- 
**posal that crowd of miserable wretches, half- 
** starving with cold and hunger, who for a 
*Vmorsel of bread arc ever ready to abet the 
" violence of the one, or the superstition of the 
** other. The result of this human policy will be, 
*^ that your own power, supported by that of a 
** People whom your exertions are rendering happy, 
** must completely absorb that of the larles and of 
•* the Druids. In'every well regulated Monarchy,^ 
** the power of the King is in the People, and that 
•* of rfie People in the King. You will ^en reduce 
•* your nobility and the priesthood to dieir natural 
•'functions. The larles will defend tlie Nation 
*^ against foreign invasion, and will be no Ion- 
^ ger oppressors at home : and the Druids will 
••no longer govern the Gauls hy 'terror, but 
* wiH comfort them, and by their supenof 

'' illumination 

^.< illuminatioa and) GDoi|>asaiaziiite . eoui^eH i^iU^ 
** assUt li^em in bearing the ilU.ofJjf^ as th^ 
'^ ministers of every religion oughtto do. .; . rr .. 

" By sucli a policy it i^ that'Egypt^ias. attained 
" a degree of pawer, aid of felicity, which readers 
^' her th{i;.c^tre o^the Nations, and that the.wis- 
^^ dam of her priesthood commands so ihucti i^e^^ 
" spect over the face of the whole E^rtjj^ Keep thi$ 
" r^iaxim therefore constantly in viewj Tl)at every 
" excess of power in a religious or military corps, 
** arises out of the w;retchedness of t^e People^ be- 
" cftuse all power is i^erived from th^. TherjEList 
*' no ofhfii way of curbing tb^t excess^ but by ren,-; 
** (dering the People happy, ,, . •, 

" Whpn once your authority shall be completely; 
** esJt^b.lished^ coipinunicate a share of it to Magis- 
^^^ratqs selected from among persons of the most 
" distinguished gpodhess. Lend your chief atten* 
*' tion to the education of the childi^n of the com- 
"monalty: but take care pot to entrust it tathe 
*• first adventurer who may be disposed to un^er^ 
^' take it, and still less to any particular corps, such 
" as that of the Etruids, the. interests of which are 
"always different frpm those of the State. Cota- 
" sider the education of the children, of your Peo- 
^^ple as the most valuable part of your administra- 
^' tion. It alone can form citizens- Without it the 
'* best laws lare good for nothing.. . . '\ * 

** While you wait for the riieans itnd an oppor- 
*' tunity of laying a ^olid fcmtfdatioh Vhercon to 
*' rear the fabric of Qailic felicity, oppose some bar-^ 
" riers to ttitf ills which they endure; Institute 
" a variety of feiJtivals to dissipate tJfeir ihotights 

iW «QtrEt TO THt iitt)M*» O^f ITAtrRE- 

** bjr the clmrte of music iatt'd' damcing. diMnter^ 
^mlkiice irtie united influchce c^ the Farted and 
^ t)ruids ^ ihkt of the wo»ci. Assist these iih 
** errter^tigottt of thciif domestic slavery. Let them 
^* assist sit toe ftrstivc theetibgs acid assemblies, 
•* it4y' at thr religioits feasts. Their" hatul^al gen- 
•*;Aetiess*Will gradually soften the ferocity of both 
** htanners and religion.'* 

^ Your 'pjbservatibns/' replied the Kin^ to Ce- 
phioj^y " are rejiletr with truth, and youf makims 
";^ith wisddto; I mean to profit by them. It is 
^ my rfetttrinmation to fencer the city iHustriouS' 
" for rf s Iriiiustry. In tlie mean while, imy People 

*** theiv aid will be of high bnportance to me. By 
'^ tiieir peans I, shall begm the wdrk of rendering: 
*^my l^eople nappy; at least'fty the influence of 
** Maimers, if I cs^Bot by that of iJawsw^' 
, Wtilc tW '^ood ^foiia was weaking, we per- 
cciycd on the opposite bank of the Seine the body 
01 lorsian^ Itf was stripp^^ naked^ ani appeared 
on the glass Tike a hillocV of snow. His friends^ 
and vassa}s moved solemoty around it, and from 
time tgr time seat the iir with fearful cries. One 
of His kindred crossed the river in a boat, and 
addressed the King in th'es words ;" Blood call* 
"^for Mood; tlie, Egyptian must'be 'put to "death !''. 
The King made no reply, fo this' person; but a» 
spon as \it had retired accosted me in these words : 
" Your defenfcje of yourself was perfectly warrant- 
'^^ablp and le^l; but were this my personal quar- 

5 '^rel 

** fron^ the c^pequq^ces. If yo» femai.n J^ere, 
"yp!4 will be obligf^d, by, the i^^f^,to,^ f^bf one 
«:after another yritli .all the kindred of.T<^rft^nj 
V who are very pumerous, wd aooper or ktjeir fall 
<' y^XL mn%t Oa the pther hand, :if I defend j:qu 
" against them as I mean to do, this rising ci^ 
*' xpu3,t,be. involved in, your destruction; for thf re- 
^* latians, the friends, and the vassals Qf7(?rtfa«, will 
^'ai^u^redly come,and lay siegp to it; and they will 
" .be jpined by multitudes of the fJauls wh9m tlte 
**Pruid^, .irritafted a3 they ,aa:e against you, afe 
^' already ejtciting to vpngean<;e. Nevertheless 1^^ 
** co^ifident of this, you will here.find men det^f- 
^' mined not to abandon you, be the danger ever 
** sathreatgiing.'',. 

^^immediate^, js^ed bis orders to provide ^f^r 

t^^secwty of the city; ^d i^tantjy tiaye. in^^i- 

jk^njts were $e^ in. motion aloz^. ^l^e, fT^n^parts, ^f p^ 

solved tp am£ua«tO;SUnd a siege in my defen^p. 

H^re Xlfi^y coUegt^d:,a huge pile of flint-s^wjes; 

there, they plant^d/prodigious crQSSrbow^, andlq^ 

beampiarmed with.proi|g»0f iron, ^anw^bji^ife 

, perceived innumerable; cf'inen ;i99rqbi|ig 

along tbe banks of .^be Seine in na^c^i^ ^rray. 

They .were the friends, the Hins^i^n, ithq vi^ssais 

of 7br^/a« with thjcir .p^laves; -the .partisans of the 

Druids; such as were jes^lous ofl^ft/KiiigV^rsta* 

blishment, a^d those who from levity ji^f.amd af- 

» feet .novelties. $ppae !floated dowtt ^ the river in 

rboats; ,otheta cro$§ed t;he forest in >bengfhened co* 

tlumns. They took ih^ip station asD on the 

banks adjoining to Lutetian and their number sur* 

N 2 passed 


passed the powers of reckoning. It Was absoliitel v 

impbsSiblc I ever should Tscapei/ttiem.^ ^ lii^ain 

VOuM it, have beeti to make the attempt under fa- 

vout of the darenessj for as sooii as night set iny 

the "besiegers kindled innumei-alble fires, with which 

'thb tiver traS illuriiinated to the very bottom of it'^ 

fclianneh ' • - ' • 

^ * Reduced to thi^ perplexity, I formed ^n'ltiyoVu 

'miitd a resolution which was wdl pleasing to ji(p//er. 

As t no longer expected any thing' good at "the 

hands of men, 1 resolved to throw myself into the 

armsof Virtue, and to sav^ this infarit city by a 

* Voluntary surrender of myselfti the enemy. Scarce- 
ly had I reposed my confidence in the Gods, when 
they appeared for my tlefiVeniTrcie. '* 

Omfi presented himself before \xs; holdhig in his 

hand an oaken bough on Whifch had grown a sprig 

of the mistletoe. At sight of this little shrub, which 

Uad almost proved so fataltome, I shuddered with 

Bbrror: iitit I* was not aware that we are frequently 

i indebted for safety to that which menaced us with 

>de9ttuetion, as we likewise frequently meet de- 

' struetion iit what promised us , safety . " O King r 

i $lBt\d Qftlfiy ^^ O'Gepkas f be composed; I bear io 

\^ my hand therheans of ^aving^youV friend. Young 

V strdogelr," s^id-he to me. « were all the nations 

^^' (A Glauieombiiiea against -tJiee, armed with this 

^♦thou.iniytetf pass through the tlnckesi of their 

^' liMts, white not one of thy numerous foes durst 

r.i^ so much asPlook thee in the face. K is a sprig of 

•^*i themisttetoe; which grew on this oaken branch, 

• <'Pemiit me to- inform you from wliehce" proceeds 
-: v' . . . :: ^ ,/ . '\ . . " : ^< th« 

« ^hefpwer of this p]aRf, eiiually fon^i/d^bk to jtlje. 
*^ Go^s and to the Txiea^orthis coiup^ry.*M JBo/Ar* 

*♦ dreamett he was goi»fr to dx^ Fnga .coiyjwed* 
•^ ^he fire/thc ,inetai5,,thct stouesj di^e^ tiip^wa- 
" tcfitapim^s, wrpept^ rthat ijhey. vo^^4 apt^h^rt 
" her #Qa; aiui tlje ii^sjatatipuj? pfjFryda, v^ere so* 
« pp^T?^f^l tljj^t i«3^hjng c^\d re^^t^tHe^ii, f^ij^r* 
''ipiQgJ^d; ^efpn? in tliq cpi»l?^^§^fc]^ Q<»4s^* 
^< uiklaui^tad aini^H ^h^^^.^f 9 <>f ^J^9E^* '\ >^^. .¥s ' 
"«i^my \v^«f egji^ally; desiroop pfflf^coy^^ tj^e* 
** i:^i|$<^.,of it.; He assumed; the fpvm :o^ an; oJd> 
^ woman, and threw himself in the ^r\f^«* 

« he, to her, faUnf^^t^, son Sialdcrjbtd htfrJt^^^ 

«' havtpl^^gedmtqmlhekw^^ 
'' J^asihe fiow^rqf doingi^^ hat;m. Thk^grace^hq^vs* 
'* I^btfimcd ifespQvy, being possessed, of powes:. j Of 
^j«i;c,/i4?i^:l/^rwA^i/w^/^^^a*Ae<j? itnotybecauseit ap^ 
*^tief^^dtp;^e 0o,f^ble,.tQ pjptitc apprehension. It 
'* Mtherjsd. tqJ.beia,rkcfm,Qak ; arpd^ scarcely ha4thc* 
"* f^vanfagfi,of,ar.ojsf*,^jUiv^duit^ egrth. ,T^e> 
^r$^tf^iff\it,M Mi^l^iP^^^^^ ;ibas^pakei?ri^. Lpke. 
*' svent ip^^^ptly i» qufi^VoftJii.s Uttlejshn^b;.au^ 

• See the Volospa of the Irish. This Kiatoryot Bbtderhzs a singular 
/aioJiMante tb thAt of AcHmeft ^lukged by hb rtkhwr ^AHh in the rivtr ' 
SiyKW^ ^1^ l^ely in order td'feiid^r&im iit«ctti|H^i^le, and ^tcr fiU^ 
killed by » wo^nd in that part of the body which had not beeji dipped^. 
frurn an .arrow discharged by tlie hand of the effeminate Paris, These 
two fictions of the Greeks, and of the Savage Nati6n^ 6f^tht'N«rt?h, con- 
vey % moMl fieining founded in trjith; namely^.thnft the'paweKul pught' 
ney^r to d^se tl|c feeble. ^ »., , * 

' N 3 ** engaged 

lis sEftuEL TO rnt 5Vt;«fA:s of nature. 

*'fiig4gi*d ftV eohtbattritll ttlfelrivuineraWe Ekildir 
** fbi^M^ttfci ire thtir sports, he sipproached the 
'^ blind Ildider. IVherefort, $aid he to him, ttdtlr^ 
*^'kit thbii not likewise weap6n$ against Haider/ I 
'* am Wnij replied Hmdtt, heitker «ito / ptwitiled 
** fcWM atn^. Loki fir^sented to hhix the mistlitoc 
" 6f th« oak, arid irtid : Balder hjust befori Ikie. 
<* Tde blind ffcidef' let fly ihe fatal shafts Batdtr 
<^ falls traiis&Ked and lif^eb. Thus the ihvulnera- 
** Meson of a^Goddcss Mras slain by a twJg of niistte- 
;»'toe, l«iinch*d from the haild df otie blind.. This 
^•1s the Origin of the rfespcct paid in the Gauls to 
<^^lhis shrub. 

^ "^^ 'Gomp^sTonate, Ostrang<rT! ^ People goverhW 
** by terror, becausethe viwcfefef tiaJsoA is not heard 
^^ among them. 1 flattered rfi^seff on thj- arrival. 
** \rith thte hope that tho\i ^e^t destmed to found 
^ and to extettd her em^!r^,hy introducing thfe Arts 
^' 'df Eg:ypt } Juid that I shotiM behold the iccoAfi- 
"])liihtncnt of an aiibieftt tfrstele tinimsally received 
^^"amohg us, by which a destiny the most sublimo 
^ *is itssigned to this city ; that it's temptes shall 
*^Tear their ^eads abov^ the tops of the forests ; 
*'^that it sltajl kssemble wltihin it*s pt*citfctsthe 
*' men of all Nations ; that the ignorant ^hduld 
*^ itSort hither for instru<ition, the /miserabie fbr 
^'consolation; and that there the Gods should 
<f communicate themselves to ti^ii, as in highly 
^* fa%*oured Egypt But, ah, these bapppy times 
^^'ai'e still removed to an awful distance.'* 

ri>elKingtbu^aildres3c4C(5pA/i^ and myself: ^^O 
?f my friends, avaij yourselves without a nKwaaettt'S 
}\ delay, of the ^nccpur which OrnJ^ brings yop,'' 'At 


;^\esamQ tiiiLe 1:^ ^v,e. oi^4^ ^o jp^l^ ^ ^T£f for 

us with two ashen hs^lf-^ikes; ni^upted with steel 
^by his owir hand, a|i^ twa iD^Q^^Qf golcj, the jirst 
fruits of his comi^eTp^. .I^e next eqipiovcii so^^ 
of his coofidcntal secvwts to condiict^i« 'to tlie 
^prr^tory qf the Veneti. ^' They ar e,*' said he to us, 
*' the best Navigators of aU tlie GfiulL THey \vi1l 
^* furfiish 3"ou witfi the means of returning into 
^^ypur own country, for their vessek^ramcup the 
t" Medit^rraaean. Tliey are besides a People of sin- 
** gular goodness. As for you, O my jfrieiidsl your 
^* names shall be wer heJcJ in. honour all over 
*' the Gauls, C^/m# and Am^m shall be tlie 
''(»uxt];^^ 9f my spugs; and. so long as I live 
*' thiefT^oacaes sbi^ fi:c|^ucntly resound along these 

/^Shprfis-" . . . '•., '.': * */ ' • '\ 

Wc; accordingly ^k leave of this good Kiiig, 

^a^ of Oii^ r^y deliverer, Tliey acconipanied us 

t^Q tlfC ^riak of the i^eir^e, dissolve-d into tears, as 

vreqursflres Ukj^;wise vji^re. ^s we pass^ through 

:<3^?jffty* ^craw^spf^peaple. fpU^^w^H us exhibiting 

^the'^i^4i?re^;;Qacks^of aife^tiQn. . llie women car- 

. fliofl^ll^r iQtanfs ^loft in t^eir.arms^ and upoii their 

ftwulfll^i du^layingjto us wifh t^ars in therr'eyes 

;]thqtiineii,garaieQts i|( which they werex:lothcc(. Wc 

.bj4 iwH^^ to Kjng i^^r^i^ and 0;?^^ wlio xoujd 

^bflvd^sSiiPnii^piXjiKjSuffio^Ht resolution/tojiieet the 

:QKi9)e9|t ofseparftix^p.j We perceived them for a 

Iwg ^\m 9ft^^',n^5^t eleyated P.mnacle oi: tlic dt^% 

V^aving tfteU 1\^^ ^ token, of saying farewel. . 

^, .; / r;* " iri " ' and 

}$% SEftUEL TO THi: WtTtjHs Of |^ATURE. 

and ruslicd out to attack us with tremendous shouts. 
But at sight^ of the Mllowed irfifub which I carried 
in my hapdsj'^nd Which I raided into the air, they 
fell prostrate On the bottom 'of ihcir barges, as if 
they had been struck with a power di^iie ; such is 
the forcjB of superstition owr ininds ^enslaved. Wc 
.accordingly passed through the riiidst of them withr 
put sustaining the slight^^t injury. 

We forced pur way up the river during the course 
pf a day. ^ft^r this, having gone ashore, we bent 
pur cour$e upward the West alcross forests almost 
imprapticable. ' The soil \f ai here and there co- 
hered wifh trees, laid low by the hand of time. It 
had throughout a carpeting of moss thick and 
spongy, jntp which \fe sometimes sunk up to -the 
knees. The roads which divide* those forests, and 
whiph serve as bpundaries to different Nations of 
the Gauls,' were sp little fremieiiited, that trees of 
considerable size had shot up'iti the midst of them. 
The tribes which inhabited fhem were stiH more 
savage than their Country. They had no 'oth^r 
temples except some' thunder-^trtick ftw^hrt&y or 
an aged oak m th^"&ranches of Whith" sotke Dnrfid 
had planted an'ox-hbad with thfe \i8fAs. When in 
the night- time theiqliage of ^ihose tfr^(*s vifi* dgitat- 
ed by the Wric(s,;and iUum}i]Jateaby^fh« -light df 
the M©on, they imagined iSiat they salw-tfee Spi- 
rits and the tods of tlieir forests. U|)oWfhiis, 
seized with a relfgioiis }\6t)t6Yy they phistrated 
themselves to the ground, and adored in4th trem- 
jbjing those vain phantoms off 'tJrdt' <iwn iindgirift- 
tjon. Our guides themyfvek'^iilever (durst'htti^ tra- 
yersed those a^vfiiri^^^^^ kKgi^i'lilftl 

''* rendere(| 

rendered formidable in tbeir eyes, had. Mt tbeir 
coi^fideticfe been supportedniiGh^n)<^eb]rltlieibmi>c)i 
of mistletoe with which Ewftsurmed, tha#))3{y 9|r 
our reasoiiibgs, / •' ' • , 

We did not 'find tn tht course of diir fwgimt 
through the Gauls any appestnmce of si rational trqr- 
$hip of the Deity, excepting that one ^v^inpf, op 
our arrival at the summitof a«|loW'Covelledrll1cnl(f|* 
tai^, we perceived there a firt) In the mdfit of « 
grove of beech*trees and firs. A moss^growxi t^fk^ 
hewn out in form of an. a:ltar, served as a health ta 
it. It was surrounded with lajrge .piles 4>f 4rjr 
wood, .and with a large assortment^ i^ear an4 
wolf-skins, suspended on the boilg^ of the^i^glyt 
houring tftes* In every otb^ respect tJb^rjs was 
not perceptible all aroiidd tbis99litude, tbroii^ thf 
whole extent of the Horizon, My oH tn^ pfhur 
man Mbitation. Our guides itiforjued us, that .thi$ 
eipot wa3 consecrated to th^iGpd vhoprcfifles over 
travellers. The word cons^erai^dm^e »ae^udderr 
*' Let us jemove heuqe," said Ipy Qepbas., ,V,Eveiy 
*'' altar in the Q^uls eyck^^a tj^pusand i^^icions 
** in my breast. I will henceforward pay homage 
'* to the Deitt only in the temples of Egypf Ce- 
phas repiWd : " Reject eveiV religion whic1isul)jects 
'^ one man to another in tneOTme'of tVc Diviiiitr, 
^' were it even inEgy^tj ftttt'iii etery pfafee^lfem 
*' the good of Man is studied GOD is acceptably 
/* worshipped, wereJtevenin Gaul Ii«?jevjjrjr jijapp 
'^ the happiness of Men constitutes die,9ilMy of 
** GOp. For my part, 1 sacrifice ak evtiry^'altat 
" where th^ miseries of thQ,, H^pwrx R^pp aje rc; 
•' lieved. " A» he »id tUeae wfir^^ • JUe ^r.wteajteii 
,.;•:..<! '. himself 


]^us&jo& for gipry^ to admit of my neglecting an dp« 
portuiuty of forQiipg an acquaintance with men so 
ii|ustrioMS as the Gr«eks» and especially one so 
lf]|owt)e4. as A§fX3fiemrum. I waited with impa* 
tience ffi[r the return *of a reason favourable to na- 
^gatipfiy for we had reached the Veneti in Win* 
ten We passed that season in an incessant round 
of feastinj;^ conformably to the custom of those 
j^HogfiB. As soon, as Spring returned we prepared 
to embark for Argos. Before we took our depar- 
tMref^om. the Gauls, we learned that our disap- 
pearifig^ffom Lutetia had restored tranquillity ta 
t^ ^^^8r of King Bardus; but that his daugh- 
%8f, the beautiful Gotha, had retired with her 
women i;ito the Tenjple of Isis, to whom she had 
fM>i|seprated herself; ^nd that night and day she 
pi^jde the forest resound with her melodious spngs* 
: I sensibly felt the mortification of this exq^l jent 
Prince, who lost his daughter from the very cir^ 
cumstance of t)ur arrival in his Country, an event 
whi^h wasona 4^y to croyn hiiQ with immortal 
honour ; and I myself experienced the jtruth of 
the laqcient Qi^xim, That public.copsideration:is 
to }fm acquired only at the expence of domestic fe-* 
Koity.r *'. t • J ..-.,..: ' .. ..,.^ '. . , • 

1 Mte^ a. navigation sosne^h&t tedious ye p^s^ed 
the Sttaitsi af Hercuks. I ' felt my sdf transported 
withijpyja* the. sight of the sky of, 4fjfif;a, which 
tecaHed^'to my ;tbQ!i(ghts the climat^ o^fuy native 
arantry. We des»(^rved the lofty. moui^l;^ins. of 
Jjiauritania, Ahila sijti^a ted ; i n the mgrn th of tha 
Straitxif Hetmks^ Aivd thosia wbicfe ?^*call^ ,t|ie 
Seven Brothers, because they sre.ofjtbf sanie^^ele-* 
^■tiidit/; Iiaijbey'»re cjvere^.from %ir#ifaj<niit to 
V . »K\ the 

ARCAfclA. 18§ 

the very water*s edge, with palm-trees loaded with 
dates. We discovered the ftrfile liills of Numidia, 
which clothe themselves twice a year with harvest* 
that rise under the shade of the olive-tree; 'while 
studs of magnificent coiirsei^s pasture at iall seasons 
in the ever-^green vallies. ; '^We coasted a!6ng the 
shores of Syrtis, where tlifc lielicious ftiTit 6f the 
Lotos is produced, which a^iwe are told make stran- 
gers who eat it to forget their Country. We soon 
came in sight of the sands gf Lybia, in the midst 
of which are situated the enchanted gardens of the 
Hesperides ; as if Nature took delight in making 
Countries the most unproductive to exhibit a con- 
trast with the most fertile. We heard by night 
the roaring of tygers and ' lions, which iame to 
bathe themselves in the l^a; ' and by the dawning 
light of Aurdra We coald perceive them retiring 
toward the mountains, ' • ' 

But the ferocity of those animals comes not up 
to that of the men who inhabit this region of the 
Globe. Some of them immolate their children to 
Saturn; others bury their women alive in tho 
tombs of their husbands. There are some, who on 
the death oif their Kings, cut the throats of all 
who served them when alive. Others endeavour to 
allure strangers to their shores, that they may de- 
vour them. We had one <lay nearly fallen a prey 
to those abominable men^eaters ; for while we were 
^ ashore, and peaceably exchanging with them some 
tin and iroii for different sorts of the excelleul 
fruits whicli their Country produces, they had con^ 
trived an ambush to intercept our getting on' 
boards which with no ^mall difficulty we escapee!; 
^ After running such a dreadful risk^ we durst not 



^reDtureagtia to disembark on such inliospitabl^ 
^oni6^ wkich Nature lias to no purpose placed 
vsdei* a sky so serene. 

I was so irritated at the cross accidents of an^c}^ 

j)edition undertaken for the servive of Mankind, 

4iiid e^ci^lly at this last instance of perfidy, that 
I said to Ci^has: '* The ivhole Earth I believe, 
*^ Egypt e^ccepted, is peopled with barbarians. I 
*' am persuaded that absurd opmions, inhuman reli- 
*^ gions^ find ferocious planners, are the natural por- 
*^ tion of all Nations; ajid it is undoubtedly the 
•* will of Jupiter^ that they should be for ever 
^' abandoned to these; for he has subdivided them 
^\ by so many difiinrent languages, that the most 

/^ iMsnei^cent of Mankind, 60 fdx from having it in 
'' his power to reform them, is not capable of sp 

^^ much as making himself understood by them." 

Cephas thus replied : ^* Let us not accuse Jt^piter 
** of the ills which infest Mankind. The human 
'^ mind is so contiacted, that though{We i^metira^s 
'^ feel ourselves much incommoded, it is impossible 
<« for us to imagine how we could mend our con- 
^^ dition. If we riemQve a single one of die natju* 
" ral evils of which w(B so bitterly con^plain,^ we 
^' should behold starting up out of it's absence a 
'^ thousand other evils of m^ch more dangerous 

. " consequ^ice. Nations do not ^nderstan|d €||di 
** other J this you allege is an evil : but if --all 
'f spajke the same language^ the imppstures,ithe 

/* errors, the prejudices, the cruel opinioiis peculitr 
** to, each Na.tian, would be diffused all over the 
" Earth. The general confusioi) which is now in 
" the words, would in that c^e be in the Uiougjit^" 

: ''He 


He pomted to a h^ei^ of, RW!^^-" J¥P^^r ^^ 
he, " has divided the ^upi^n Race into variauV 
^^ languages, as he had.divide^ that cluster iQto 
'^ various berries containing a great iuimbei:{<ol* 
'^ seeds, that if. one part oC^bese seed» should be«^ 
7 come a prey to corrupti<^. the other^ might be 
'^ preserved,* ♦ . 

" Jupiter has divided |li^ laqguages pf men oflly 
y for this end, that they might always bf enabled 
^.< to understand that of Nature. Nature univei> > 
^\ sally speaks to their heart, illumines reaspn, and 
'^ discloses happiness tp them in a mutual com« 
^^ merce of kind offices^ The passions of, Man^ 
" kind, on the contrary, as universally corrupt 
^^ their hearts, darken their understanding, gene* 
'^ rate hatreds, wars, discords and j^uperstitions^ 
^' by disclosing happiness to them pn^y in their 
^^ personal interests, and in the depression of ai^othen 

^^ The division of languages prevents those pjir* 
^* ticular evils from becoming universal; and if 
" they are permanent in a* Nation, it is Jbecausf 
^' there are ambitious corps who make an advau^ 
^* tage of them ; for error and vice- are foreign to 
[^ Man. It is the office of virtue jto destroy those 
" evils. Were it not for vice there would be IttUj^ 

. . * Most traits whith eontaiii an (^grcgfttion of Meds, lis )fK>^[||f|f9iiate^ 
apples^ pears, oranges, and even tb« productions 'of the grainioe<^i^ 
vlantSy such as the ear of corn, bear them divided* by* smbtK skios^ 
imder fr«fil iapndes; bbt the fhiits which coniaiii diily a siia^e "mJ, * 
or rarely two, as the walnut, the hasel-nut, the almond^ tlip«fi|ic89tii|, 
the cocoa, and all the Iternel fruits^ 9u<4i as the cherw, the |>ioni)|> 
the apricot, the peach, bear it enveloped in very hard capsules, of, 
wood, of Itone, or of lej&tfier,' constrncted witii bdmirdSte itu ' K^ \ 
ture has secured tht. prtserviitioti of the aggregated seed8» % amid- 
plying..their little cells, and that 4* lolitairy sc^^di,, bjr ibnifyiog tfattr 


'' roem 


^ room for the cxcrtffic of vfrttie on the Earth. 
^* you arc on your way" *m visit the Greeks. If 
•• what is said of them be true, you will find in 
^Iheir mannfets a politeness and an elegance which 
•* will deltghtyou. Nbthing should hd comparable 
** to the virtdi of thfcir *heroes, having passed 
" through the test of long and severe calamities,'* 

All that I had hfthterto experienced of the bar- 
barism of Nations, sttmtilated the ardour which I 
felt to reach Argos, and to see the mighty Jga^ 
mmnon happy in the midst of his family, hy this 
time we descried the Cape of Tenarus, and had ftl-' 
Biost doubled it, whe!n a furious gale of wind, 
blowing from the coast of Africa, drove us upon 
the Strophades. We perceived the Sea breaking 
against the rocks which surround those Islands^ 
Sometimes as the billows retired, we had a view of 
their cavernous foundations : anon, swelling again 
the surge covered them tremendously roaring 
with a vast sheet of foam. Nevertheless our ma- 
riners persevered in defiance of the tempest, in at- 
tempting to make Cape Ten arus, when a violent 
gust of wind tore our sails to pieces. Upon this 
we were seduced to the necessity of stopping short 
at Steniclaros. 

Tralfi this port we took the road, resolving to 
ttavcl to Argos by land., It was on our way to 
tbis resiclence of the King of Kings, my good 
thepkerd, that we had tlie good fortune to 
meet with you. At present we feel, an incl> 
Sation to accompany you ta Mount Lyceuaii^ 
for the purpose of - beholding the Assent- 
Wy of a People whose shepherds display man- 
.^^ ' • Iters 


ners so hospitable and polite.. As he pronounced 
these last words Amasis loo]i;ed at Cephas^ who ex? 
pressed bis approbation of them by an incUna^oa 
of the head. 

Tirtcus said t<> Amasis : " My son, your relation 
'^ has deeply affected us ; of this you have had a 
"proof in the tears which we have shed. The 
** Arcadians once were more miserable than the. 
^* Gauls.* We shall never forget the reign of 


* It would appenr that tbe first state of Nations is tfa€ state of bar- 
barism. We are almost tempted to believe it, from the example of the 
Greeks, prior to Orpheut ; of the Arcadians, under I^<wm; offhm 
Ciauls, under the Druids; of the Romans, prior to Numa; and of il* 
nost all the savajge tribes of America. 

I am persuaded that barbarism is a malady incident to the infancy 
of Nations, and that it is foreign to the nature of Man. It is frequently 
a re^Mitioo merely of tbe ills which rising N^ktions enduie on the part of 
their enemies. These ills inspire them with a Tengeance so much the 
more fierce, in proportion as the Constitution of their state is mora 
. liable to subversion. Acoerdinglly, the small scmge horded of the New 
World, reciprocaliy eat the- prisoners lafcen in war, though the families 
Qf the clan live tupeiher in the most perfect union. For a similar reason 
it is that the feebler anhnals are much more Tiadictive than the power- 
ful. The bee darts her sting into the hand of any one ^bo cdmes near 
ber hive; but the elephant se^ tbe lurrow of tbe huntsman fly close t^ 
him without turning aside out af his road. 

Barbarism is ^metimes introduced into a grovt Ing State by the indivir . 
duals who join the association. Such was, iu it's first begiiiningS| that 
of the {toman People, partly foriped of the banditti collected by Rontw 
lus, and wtio did not not begin to civilize till the times of Numa. In 
other cases, it communicates itself, like the pestilence, to a people al- 
ready under regular ^Ternment, merely from their coming iuto contact 
with their neighbours. Such was that of the Jews, who potwithstanding 
the severity of tlteir Laws sacrificed their children to idols, after the exr 
ample of the Canaanitcs. |t most frequently incorporates itself with 
the legislation of a People, through the tyranny of a d/espot, as in Ar« 
cadia, under Lycaon^ and still more dangerously^ thpugh the influence 
of an aristocratical corps, which perpetuates it in favour of their own 
authority, even lbroi:^h Uie ages of cavilizaU9Q. Such arc in our owu 

V«L. IV. O days 


^^ Lyceum^ formerly changed into a wolf as at 
^ punisUment of his cruelty. But this sulgect 
** would, circumstanced as we now arr, carry u» 

dajfs tlie ferocious prejadic^ of Religion insdUed into the Indians, in 
other respecu so gentle, by Cheir Bramins; and those, of honoar ioBtUkMf 
into the Japanese to polishedy. by tbeif Nobies. 

I repeat it, for the consolation of the fitumaf» Racer momt evif i# 
foreign to Man, as well as physical evil. Both die one and the other 
spring OQt of deviatious fron the Law of Nature. -Nature bas made^ 
Haa good. Had she made him wicked, she, who is so uniformly con- 
sequential in her Works, would have furnished him with claws, witb 
jan^, with poison, witb some offensive weapon, as she has dose to> 
|liose of tbe beasts whose character is designed to be ferocious. She has 
not 10 mndt as provided him with defensive avmouv like other animals; 
but bas created bins the mosl naked and'^e most miserable, undoubt* 
ediy in the view of constraining, him to have constant recourse to die* 
humanity of his fellow-creatures, and to extend it to them in his turn. 
Nature no more makes whole Nations of men jealous, envious, mali^ 
nant, eagier to surpass each other, ambitious, conquerors, cannibals, 
than she forms Nations -continually labouring under the -leprosy, the 
purpies, the fever, tlie smalUpox. If you meet even an individual, sub- 
ject to these phj^sical evils, impute them without hesitation to some ub« 
wholesome aliment on which he feeds, as to^ a putrid air which infests 
the neighbourhood. In like manner, when yoa find barbarism in a rising 
Nation, refer il solely to the errors of it's pobey, ov to tbe inHnetice of 
it^s neighbours, you would tbe ihisrbievousness of a child, to the 
vices of hb education, or to bad example. 

The course of the life of a People is similar to the coupse of the life 
of a maiV, ais the port of a tree resembles that of it's biariches. 

I hi^ devoted ny atteattony in the text, to the moral progress of po- 
litical societies, barbarism, civilizatiofi, and corruption. I had in this 
note cast a glance, no less important, on tbe natural progress of Man y 
childhood, youth, m^urity, old-age \ but these approximations have been 
extohdbd far beyond tbe proper bounds of a simple note. 

Besides, in order to enlarge his horizon a man most scramble up 
mountams, wkidi are but too frequently t nvolved in stormy clouds. Let 
Us 1^e-desce^d into the peaceful i*allies. Let as repose between the de- 
diviiies Of Mount Lyrfeum, on the banks of the Achelous. If Time, the 
Moses^ and (he Beader*, shall be propljous to these new Sti7di£S, it^ 
wiK be snfficient for my pencil, and for ny ambition, to have painted 
tbe ffleitotows^ the groves and the sbepbe 'ibsses of bl^st Arcadia. 


ARCADIA; 195^ 

" toQ far* 1 give thanks to Jupiier fot having 
^' disposed you, as well as yoilr friend, to pass the 
** approaching day with us on Mount Lyceum; 
'^ You will there behold no palace, no imperial 
'^ city ; but still less will you see Savages and 
^* Druids : you will behold enamelled verdure, 
^^ groves, brooks, and shepherds vying with each 
*' other in giving you a cordial welcome. May. 
'^ Heaven incline you to make a longer abode 
" among us ! You will meet to-morrow, at the feast 
" of Jupiter^ multitudes of men from all parts of 
" Greece, and Arcadians much better informed* 
^' than I am, who are undoubtedly acquainted 
^ with the city of Argos. For my own part, I 
" frankly acknowledge I never heard mention 
" made cither of the siege of Troy, nor of the 
** glory of Agamemmny celebrated as you tellJne 
" over all the Earth. I have employed myself 
" wholy in promoting the happiness of my family^, 
^' and that of my neighbours. I have no know* 
" ledge except of meadows and flocks. I never 
" extended my curiosity beyond the limits of my 
" own Country. Your's, which has carried you 
'* so early in life into the heart of foreign Nations^ 
*' is worthy of a God, or at least of a King.** 

Upon this Tirteus turning to his daughter, said ; 
^\Cyamdy bring hither the cup of Hercules.'' t^- 
anea immediately rose^ hastened to fetch it, and 
with a smile presented it to her father. Tirteus re- 
plenished it with wine; then addresw^ng himself' 
to the two strangers^ said : '* Hercules^ like you,; 
'* my deat guests,, was a great traveller. , Into thisr 


*' hut he dekttid to enter; here he fei^osed, \fha* 
*^ he #*8 ptiriuing fdr at year together the brazen-' 
^ fd'dted'hbd of Mount Erimanthus. Out of thisr 
** cup he drank : you are worthy of drinkitig fr^m 
" it after hiniv I use H only on high festivals, an^* 
*^ Acvcr present it to any but 6iy friends. ^6' 
" jltranger ^*r drank frort it before you/' Htf 
siid, and lendei-ed the ciip t6 Cepfias. It ^atf 
ihade of- the wood of the beech-tree^ and held a 
a/athu^ of wine. Hercules emptied it at a single 
di^ught; but Cephas^ Amasis and Jirteus could' 
Hardly master it, by drinking twice round.- 

Tlrteus afterward-s conducted his guests to an 
aWtjbining chamber. It was lighted by a window 
shut by a texture of vushes^ through the interr 
stice^ of which might be perceivedy by the lustre 
of the Moon, in the plain below, the islands of 
the Alpheus* There wcref in this chamber two^ ex- 
ceilent beds with coverlets of a warm and Kgfht 
wool. Tlicn Tirtem took kare of his gliests, 
iWshthg that Morpheus might pour the balm of 
his gentlest poppy upon their eye-lids. 

As soon as Amasis was left alone with Ctphtts^ 
>ic spake with transports of delight of the tran- 
quillity of this valley, of the goodness of the 
shepherd, of the sensibility and the graces of his^ 
youthful daughter, to whom he had never seca 
any thing once to be compared, and of the plea-^ 
sure which he promised himself the next ^ay at 
the feast of Jupiter , in beholding a whole People 
as happy as this sequestered family. Conversation 
so delightful might have slifecetfened the temaindei? 



<yf tlie riiglrt, to both the one and the other^ 
fatigued as they were with travelling, without the 
aid of sleep, had they not been invited to repose 
by the mild light of the Moon, shining through 
the window, by the murmuring of the wind in 
the foliage of the poplars, and by the di&tant 
ooise of the Achelous, the source of which pre- 
cipitates itself xoaring from the summit of Mouut 

3 THE 


\ THE 



\ • ■ ' 

( ao* ) 



Xn my Studies of Nature, published for the JBrsl 
time in December 1784, I formed most of tfajB 
Wishes which I this day present to the Public, ia 
SeptCTiber 17&9; I must undoubtedly thave falieit 
into frequent repetitions : but the objdot of these 
Wishes, whidi since tbeassembling of the£state9* 
General, have become ioiteresting to tdie whok 
Nation, -are so important that they cairaet be pro- 
sented toe ofden, and &6 e%tensivse 4:hat:itds^a^wayi6 
.possible 40 ^add j^omething new. 

I am >weU ^wane that the illustriaus Members ^ 
pur National Assembly areipursiungthett with.^* 
4)«1 success. I possess not thdr talents ; bot, like 
fhem, I iho^emy Country. Notwithstandrng :my 
inoapacilj^ had health ^permitted, I sKrouhl have as« 
pilled after <the glosy of defending tisithitiwm the 
jpause of <PubUc Liberty : but I hawea sentimeilt 
of per^nal liberty so exquisite and sotono^nting^ 
.Hist it id absolutely impossible for ^md to^Mvain in 
%tn assembly, if the doors are shut, and-^nlesstfae 
^venues are so clear, as toadmit of my ^<iiDg\8wagr 
^the instant I4e$ireit. This .impulse to extrcise 
liny liberty never fails to seisse metiteimomeiit^I 
^hink I have lost it, and becomes .so limpetvoas, 



that it throws me into a physical and moral ma« 
lady which I am incapable of supporting. It ex- 
tends farther thaa to the walls of an apartment. 
During the commotions at Paris, (which com- 
menced on the departure of Mr. Necker, July ISth, 
the same day.of the month which in the preceding 
year had desolated the kingdom by a hail-storm ;) 
when they were burning the liquors at the barriers 
round the city, when the air resounded through 
every street with the alarming noise of the tocsin 
jinging night and day from all the church towers 
at once, and with the clamours of the multitude 
crying aloud that the hussars were already in the 
suburbs coming to put all to the fire and sword, 
God, in whom I had reposed my confidence, gra- 
ciously preserved my mind in tranquillity. I com- 
posed myself for the event be what it might, 
though solitary in a lone house and in a detached 
street, at the extremity of one of the Fauxbourgs. 
But when the day after, on the capture of the 
.Pastile, the withdrawing pf the foreign troops 
whose vicinity had exdted such dreadful appte- 
heosions, and the establishment of patrols of citi- 
zens, I was informed that the gates of Paris were 
sbut^ and. that no one wks permitted to pass, I wab 
instantly seized with a violent inclination to get 
.out myself. While all it's inhabitants were con- 
. gratulaiiiig themselves cm the recovery of their li- 
berty, I considered myself as having lost miiie; I 
^cejckoned myself a prisoner iii that vast capital; I 
: felt myself in confinement. My imagination could 
not regattt itfs former calmness, till I found, as I 
was walking on the boulevard of the Hospital, a 



grated iron gate, the lock and bars of which had 
been burst open, and which was not yet guarded: 
in a moment I flew into the fields, and made a 
Jiundred steps forward to assure myself that I had 
iaot lost my natural rights, and that I was at liber- 
ty to go wherever I pleased. Having thus ascer- 
tained my freedom, I found myself perfectly tran- 
quil, and quietly returned to my tumultuous 
neighbourhood without feeling the least anxiety 
afterwards to go out again. 

Some days after, when heads cut off at the Place 
de Gr^ve without any form of process, and lists pla- 
carded proscribing a great many more, filled all 
thinking persons with apprehension that wicked 
men wett going to employ popular vengeance ia 
gratifying their private ainimosities, and that Parii, 
abapjdoned to anarchy, was on the point of becom* 
ing a theatric of carnage and horror ; certain friends 
offered me. peaceful and agreeable rUral retreats^ 
both within the limits of the kingdom and beyond 
them, where I might enjoy the repose so necessary 
to the pr6secution of my studies ; I begged to be 
excused. I chose rather to remain in that great 
vessel of the capital, battered on every side side bjr 
the tempest, though totally useless in conducting 
the manoeuvres, but in the hope of contributing to 
the general tranquillity. • I endeavoured accord- 
ingly to compose perturbed spirits, or to animate, 
the dejected, as opportunity served; toco-operate 
5n person or by my purse to the support of guards 
-fo necessary to the preservation of the police; to 
fftssist from time to time at tlie Committee of my 
Plstricl^ one of the smallest and the most intelli- 


gent in Ptris, to throw in my luroitl ivii^ii I coidd; 
aoil especially to arrange tliese Wi sn j^sfor tlie ^b^- 
itc felicity, which hare cmji^yed w» for s)x 
nonths past I bare i^ttmqMiiihed, in favoyr of 
this darling olgect, .lahottrs mine easy^ novfi agcee^ 
abk, and more condjoi^wto my piwAte fortune^ 
I have kept in Tiew only that of the State. 

In an nnderiteking so far above my abilifyi I 
liaye frequently troddteun in the footsteps of ttl»e 
National Assembly, and sometimes I haye de^v^ialr 
*ed: 3iut if I had in every instance adopted their 
ide» it imnld ha^e been rtotally uansQpssary ^tp 
pnblisliinune. They pnrsue thejHihliic goodmaccb- 
imgalong the highroads li)^ an^tinhodifid JMRigr« 
tiie cohimns of which afibrd^irmtual Msietftmse, 
.smd sometimes unfofikunately'pf^pctsje le^cb other; 
nrhile I, remote fjrom the /crov^d^ wJthcMt support^ 
bnt wiibhaut interruptiofl, pcoaeed .^ough. byie- 
f>atfas which lead to the same .dest^atimi. lEbey 
iieap, a^ 1 gkan. I.carryrtben >to ithe f^mmni 
/heap a few cais pieked .fe«hind .their .step;?, Bud 
.some jQutof their traok^ in the hope that they wjll* 
4^>ndesoend to bind them up amof^lheir sheaves. 

I. have, however, to justify myadf in hai5ingiprc- 
.^ deviatefrom the route lof .the Kmtional 
A5sen£bly,:and even from -tiieir modes, of expros- 
«ion. iriiey admit, tor examp)^> only two primi« 
>• live powers in the ;m(»sajfchy, the lacf^lative .and 
tiK £x]ccutive. /They .assign the fooner jto^the 
tNatiomandirhe. latter to the King, ^art icanqeiYe 
in Monarchy, as well as in every* other species of 
' Qovemment, a third power necosairy to Ihe sup- 
port of it's hannony, whidi I call ihe moderating. 



With itespeet to thb power, which I cotiaidefed as 
essential to Mbnarehyy by it alone I cbficdve the 
King haa the sanctioning of the Laws ; for the£x^ 
ecflEitiVe Power seems to me to comport only with 
the wtOy which at thb noment excites remoiH ^ 
strances so riolent 

The v^t0 is so Cl4KJely attached to the Executive 
Power^ that it is Teafted eyen in a military Com* 
mander in Chiefs restricted as he is to the execu- 
tion of inhuman orders^ of in a tribunal charged 
with the promulgation of unjust edicts. Turcnne 
bad the right of refusing obedience to the mandate 
of ZotfisXIV. when commanded to burn the Pala« 
tinate; and every magistrate, under Charles IX. 
of publishing the edict of the massacre of St Bar- 
tholomew, as every Frenchman of executing it. 
Every man possesses the right of refusing to exe*. 
cute a political law, when it fli^3 in the face of a 
law of Nature. Now the King intrusted with the 
power of executing laws which he has not sanc-^ 
ttoned, has a right to employ, as well as a subject, 
the veto in cases where some of those laws may 
appear to him contrary to^ the public good, which 
is the natural law of a State. 

"The National. Assembly,'' I shall be told, 
^* has decided what M'as requisite to the liappinesa 
" of the Nation, and it alone can know what 
** is requisite." But is it not^possible for an As« 
sembly to be misled? Whole Nations have beon* 
led astray. Look into the history of our own Na» 
tion ; consult that of the World. 

I acknowledge at. the same time that the royal 

ttta has something extremely harsh in it; and ait 

though in England, Ilie.King to soften i% majy 

<^ . - .... «*tf 


say ; ** I wUl take it into consideration'* k Roi 
s^avUera, the words plainly amount to *' I will not** 
It is undoubtedly alarming for a nation to reflect 
that a law conducive to their interests, passed af- 
.termuch discussion by a plurality of voices m an 
assembly of their deputies brought together not 
without much difficulty^ should be all at once re* 
duced to a state of non-existence by the veto of 
the Sovereign, under the influence of the opposi* 
tion party which will look to this as a last re* 
source. Thus the interests of a whole People may 
be sacrificed to those of a single association, atid 
frequently of a few courtiers, who have moreim- 
mediate access to the Prince ; and all National ef- 
forts, for ages together, may be arrested in an in- 
stant by the simple inert force of the Crown. I 
am not in the least surprized that the apprehension 
aierely of the royaH'ceto should have excited in the 
Palais-Royal a plebeian vetOf at least equally for- 

It is precisely m the view of preventing the 
wto of the executive power in the Sovereign,. that 
I assign to him the sailction of the moderating 
power. These two effects differ as much as the 
causes which produce them, of which I have de- 
monstrated in this Work both the difference and 
the necessity. The veto is a negative power 
which appertains to a slave who feels the authority 
cf conscience, as to a despot who has no such feet* 
ing: but sanction is an approbative power which 
appertains only to the Monarch. A general , pos^ 
messes his vetOy because he will not sanction the or* 
ders which he has received: a King, as Chief of 
Ae Stete,< possesses the right of sanctiouy because * 
Jit eaiifiot oppose t)ie veto to laws «f which h« is 


sopposed to have acknowledged the utility and the 
necesntf • Siwidd the King withhold his sanction 
to a new Law, it ttiust be becaute he believes it to 
be injurious to the State ; in that case he wilt of 
course point out the mischief likely to ensue ; and 
it will be amended and modified. Sanction is the 
quiet discussion of a point between a father and 
his children. ^ 

" But,'* it will be replied, "* should the King with- 
** hold his sanction, or the Assembly their amend- 
*^ ments, the law will be rendered null and void: 
" refusal to approve a law is to oppose the exccu- 
•^ tion of it ; the sanction accordingly involves the 
*' same difficulties as the x)eto.'* To this I reply, 
that the law will not in this case be annulled, as ft 
would be by the veto, but it would remain un- 

**Here then is a new source of contention bc- 
•' tween the People and their Sovereign, strength* 
" ened by the party in opposition." I admit it, 
but every thing in the World is in a state of mu- 
tual opposition : elements to elements, opinions to 
opinions. From their collision all harmony is pro- 
duced. Every virtue is suspended in equilibrio be- 
tween two contraries. Let us maintain then a just 
medium, as justice is the point in question. Lfet 
y US- be on our guard, lest in shunning despotism we 
rush into anatcby. If the chariot inclines too 
much to one side, let us not overset it aJtogether 
on the other; let us resettle it on it's monarchical 
axiif? and it's plebeian wheels, in ordeit to restore 
both it's equilibrium and the power of motiom 
Let it not be itriagined that the Royal sanction it« 
jKilf could leave, like the toeto^XepsX^ivJt 4}uestions 
tiot suaceptibk of »dlution< {t cannot happen 
€ but 


but that 900Der or htet the Kiog ^ould gitir wmyt 
to the reasons which deteroiincd the judgment of 
the Assembly, or the Aasenably to those which di- 
rected the King, as the only object of both is the 
public interest The thing which perpetuates law- 
suits among men is pertinacious adiierence to indi- 
vidual interests. Tiiey agree instaptly where a 
common interest is concerned. Nom% the public 
interest being common to the deputies of the Na- 
tion and to the Monarchy the discussion which 
the Royal sanction may produce, cannot but con- 
duce to the beneiit of the legislation. 

But in this balaqce of opinions respecting the 
same interest, see that the probabilities be found 
in favour of the decisions of the Assembly. Is it 
probable, in the first place, that a few aris- 
tocrats, after having consented to submit their 
interests to the majority of voices in the Na- 
tional Assembly, which has in like manner 
submitted their own to a similar issue, will go to 
intrigue with the King^ to prevent the effect of the 
national deliberations, because these were unfa<* 
vourable to them ? Is it probable tha^t the King, 
out of regard to the interests of those aiistocratj^ 
faithless to their engagements, will refuse to sane* 
tion laws beneficial to the Nation, called fpr by a 
majority of it's Deputies, and by a whole united 
people, capable in support of them, of raising a 
general insurrection? Bestdes, the King being 
obliged to give his assent to the laifs before the 
Assembly Consents to the taxes, should he with- 
hold his sanction from laws voted by a majority of 
the Assembly^ is it not more than probable thi^ 
this tn^Jority will in tlKiir turn withhold 
. . . , . fro . 

witVpaiir, as a ^civilis^B, in commons iriffl Ae^.AsH 
sembly itself, the «flfecU of the Rbyai sanctioD, ate 
th<)8e df a law-suif betwem the MoBarch afadvthri 
Natit)n;»the event of it rnmy berdoiibtfur}; bttl^^ 
will not be so? provided the people, io. securing ttrtos 
their Prince, ishall Haw been just and loyal toi^biirdi 
him'* The people may have done very well iio coofrr 
ding the drscussion of it^slawt tab thefaristocriticafc 
powers^ hitherto the oppdsiers of thrfh- itetistes^t; iwhy) 
might they not confide the power 6f sariction t»:a» 
friendly power, now that' these Jaws are ifkarontaWb 
td th^m ? There is nc occaaon- for the peoplfe ta. 
be distrustful of -their JKing, .p The^r intfirestii «a 
invariably the sattie. la a Kvurd, tlte^IsFaitibnal.AJs- 
sem Wy having proclaimed Lduis X Vi:»^lie.8test4rcir 
of Frendh Liberty; could it re&sstib him the pdwieit 
of sanptionii]^ those *ver^ lawk which ejisure-iliat 
liberty?'. : •. . :. .. ? * ^ •;, ^.- -': '• ' r: vit 
\fhetRoyal sanctioai isneoess?^ tora.llthep6wer» 
>of thd State. 1. . It is a matter of righti as far af 
the King is concernedifffhrspemonal capacity; J£ 
the King were not permitted to sanction the iawBa^ 
he would have* a more circumsciibed pirtrogativd 
than the meanest of ^hisi subjects: for e\'ery iodW 
vidual has the right act only of giving his Volie 
for theestablidiment of » lai^, by his'deputlesi} ^dfi 
he 'finds them bear hards tipoti hhiiV it is in his? 
power to renounce- th€m:ialtogether by abandons 
ing hit Gountry; witholit waiting fo? the consent 
of ^ny one whatever;; but thi$ the King cann^ofe 
do without the eohwnt of the Nation, bwausdJwtp 
absaa^ may involve (he ruin of the State.' tir.Tha 
• Vbr; IV- P sanctioii 

fllO SEQtrCL to T«K itUKflS 0» KAVlTftC.^ 

gancttoH & a mAttst of jw^ttce^ tebitiyrlf t# tlie 
King tf MonandL: The Kivqg beiiig intrusted ir»th 
the executioii of tbe :la!irsy lie. is Supposed, $,% I 
have already said, to aekaovkdgiev in sanctkHua^ 
tbcm, their utility and necessity. 3. The rbyal 
Mixdtkm 18 Becessaiy tiB the iraaquilHty of the Md- 
ioorcliy. Many aristocrats delegated to express 
tiie wiiiies of their hody, aisd ncrabers of the Ni* 
tkm^ AsbemUy^ liarihg declared from tt*a £iiM 
opening, that f hey would acknowledge no oUier 
authority bnt that of the King, and being now 
constrained,, by a hiajoHty bf voices of tbdr A$« 
sembly npd tiie declared sense of the Nation, to 
saxsrifice their frrivilegea^nsght allege that the law 
wUidb obliges them to this is not monarchial^ and 
under that pretext refine submission to it, which 
might h^onie the sonroe of many future troubles. 
4. The royal sanction is necessary to the perma* 
nency of the laws^and to the respect which is due 
to thoB^ )especia}iy on the part of the people. 
1pm merits very serious consideration. Though 
nothing b^. more r^speetabie in the eyes of a Mo^ 
oareh himself than the deciM$ of a Nation assem- 
hied in the persons of it's Deputies, tlie people 
however scarcely see any thing more tlwm men 
Hke themselves in their own representatives, and 
enemies of those of tlie superior orders. Besides^ 
on account of their periodical rotation, they will 
soon cease tOiSee their legislators in their delegates. 
A river which renovates it'i& waters is always the 
same river, because the form of it's banks undergoes 
nochange; but an Assembly which from time to rime 
sene^it's memfaers^ is no longer the sanre Assembly, 
6 because 

fcecaute tki grefttdt part df die teen wJio tibm^ose^ 
it may entertain different opmions, bmdfnnm hjr 
and by new pianb. The people rest theiir atte&r; 
tioa and their respect only mi immoveable pro'** 
jects, or what tliey deem ta be such, aod^whiolii 
have adi impoaing influence upon tfatm^frosi Jtbeii" 
Aagnitiide or their distance. Miffttr t hrngjin^mk 
tA^irmtia; reverenqe iacreaaes as the ol^ect be* 
eomes remotei It is necessary therefore to fix t^O' 
respect of the people on the Throne^ to wbtclt 
they have Hot a near access, as oh a centre piroia* 
nent and worthy of all their homage. Republican 
nations have given to their laws the nune ^ a 
single legislator; such were those of Zakucus 
aniOilg the Loorians, of Lycm^Us at SparM^ ^ 
Sohm at Atliens; and monardiial States^ the namtf 
of the Monarch who had proximlgsted Uletrs^ smd 
eonsequently sanctioned them ; such Were those of 
Ciffu9 in Persia; of Zarofuter^ king of the £aoi 
triaas in Asia; of Mases^ the leader of the He^^ 
brews; of iVMi»«and afterwards JUstinmn atRoine}. 
of Charlemagne in the Western Empire; of Saint 
Louis in France ; of Peter the Great in Russia } of 
Frederic II. in Prussia : such are the laws of Eng- 
kttd, ^tst promulgated in 1040, under the title of^ 
the Laws of King E4!mari^ and afterwafdft estab- 
lished by the Nation it| 1815, undelr the natteof 
the Great Charter* The ancients were so sensible 
o^ the iitiportance of an august sanction, %6 len*^ 
der the laws venerable in the ^es of the people^ 
that they frequently derived their sanction fromi 
the Divinity himsel£ I^s those^ Nkma wM 
tMCtiotaed by the nyliiph Mgeria; tbolse of Zaltu^ 

fi cm 


em^y'Mmiimar: tfaosfet 06 MMftmtt h^ GS>lkiima4 

le^illatob^ bilntiig»tsqk)lbe sequisiJitQajof. ^g^oat adr. 
vantages' to< tfasmsebqcs^ ifiail into^yery: jcoanskder sbler 
UcbtMresmiged;. ^ori evcrjii^hcieffbf d^cepti^n cai^ 
riesr : it^s pmyahiiBiet>t rin . it's ;J|D^|A; ' . . Wh^ii:.- t^vsQ 
lamrscanie to'\bi^iiiapp)i£aUeitOj|:he; coBditiop of «, 
peolfde, oi* xAien at was^jexjirclieajkite Apply th^m to^ 
otilbx^ coantriesyi.tbey ccHibliiiot:be changed, be-> 
datise the^ Deity ivihohadisanc^iooqcl them vf»» tm«^ 
mutable. For tliis reason dw Tmrk& ab^tamedi firorf? 
dfFectitigllie co^i^uestof se\'eralcountxies,:becausd 
thej^ codUirinec) n0i^runmug^>wattrra-for their, legal: 
^Motions; The itfafeeinieas stitt. worse when. nafeiQns, 
on beeoming^^iiHii^teiidd/ came^tQ.kikow: that the; 
l^i?inity ha^itttttft^tnbrfered ta^their legislation ;< 
Ait'^transition JUei^riifaen^a&y tfroin contempt af the 
legislator who i had: imposed upon them, to eon- 
t^m^t of the laW( itself. . Thi^ has befallen several 
St^ies and Religions^ the ruin of whichi can he 
asi^rt bed to no otiier cimse. Laws sanctioned by -ai 
Monarch are^qot exposed to the.same danger, ;for. 
he changes ^them ki concert with his people, a^ 
oecii£bn ' requires; land Tenders .them |)ermanent 
simply by demonstrMiilg thdx.utility. . But as na 
p<ilklt^al liur canU)b:|pDQd, .nnless it Js founded on 
the liJMr^r af Nature/ and a& octhing is permbnenC 
«^h<Mtt tbevsuppoi^ of. Sit aright hor;;il:ii necessary 
tlietiOthA Kk^.shouldi^uictMn our)Cxida99f ^w^ by 
a-^^ig^uf^int^eatiDni. which imay consec^attiit for 
aiWj'fco-vtherfeeliajgtroC the,' heart asi: welbai: to tfae 
l^l^ dit«hy.u']^e»ttbdui^^ llie ttRxh^tttxicikii it- 
sd^l^wdrailf ^drivts^£^bm^s£mctit($^ ^died. Tkb 
"'^'^ .. % solemn 

Ittlaiiitdfffpandblc^^T^isd) bkn^d cdl furitUe styl« 

bkelala^mct^tIff>flelist^^'Ae a^ dci uiif 

tms, fleai«±<foRtijWi*dityTof M4w^ ankl deilisc^ddi 
te1iiBrTEtei!tiHl;^byrtfie:M&iarch(0^ dij urhao 

f^o3!brs ^ whatn}ny?c(msC^frpL>atilig^ 

i^^ifianas jxiseparJDbteiTom tho^ ofiiAM Bcople; ; Wiflk 
itgardr t»ijhe i^iMfde; towardr.tbeifariaHin^(ivishei 
ari} €lkeaiocl/abettk|isfi|l6laok XKOuihem as the IpiixtcSl- 
fobpattioif.'tke Slate**" Perhaps the afFeGtiod whid| 

^qpimctnse:UIi»i<lnt09imysdf;' i^jbhall ^6 perhaps 
*epl6achtdf."WKljb ilaWiig ! re^rkoweHS. tob rrcanfidehtl^ 
m^flieilr'^dflemtio»>'or >^bdF steadintfsis. It WiU 
«idi^abtbdly,beiQJbi^ tame^jtbati their Repre* 
getrtltthrei^^whAwQumbet'f: Wj)ilWi^^ish to ihave 
iqoro^fiii^^th^ Kflttibnai .jltsseml:!^ are already 
but too powerful, seeing thej^bbave effected k|l 
ilM^'StaM avi^dwibii sb>g^!e»t^Hitftt:isto important. 
I/i6vd'^i«pok;eri^ Q^atbat^revciki«i.dn,v)which.ihafc 
jjwb' taktnb plaatVfii&^V-a-n6eeS(?4hr •CdnseqtfeiwJfc 
ofJtIirtapiiftciteiejoflirtfcflg peoplfeVRepJreseirta^tiy^; 
AM ciriifx {)dt»iiuad^d^tt&ati4ia^ ^^dbc^/balaneed^ by 
tlfeif^«tiitrt>er, theL^ig^'bf those df the- dthccftiro 
fer*tt; J ilo^.'pop^ilat' fti«ulTCc«i(M ' Wuid har^ itahciA 
fllfit.'^>'5fcieh' Aiip'ii* Adduced ^it.-iat i& besides a 
ll^sltetf JtaHtd' be resolt^dj-Vbetlidr of the twoj 
iil»«d» jT \f*iiilr ^v«^|«alle<iun to '6^rawe'l;tie ioetpiY 
te1,J<)»rirtie ijjft&ple «hut u[»lrilit; *fl^ 
#flYSffllbKUrti(t*f/^1^rd among tlfe^py'tltttiof tbe 
4j*Ni£uIt7 Ucn: - lij icpl^-ri :• i: v/o. 'l I y i 4hwi 

ei4 SEQUEL TO Va% 8Tt7BteS 0> NATURE. 

three Qrdeis* It voiild be ai. fbliiarqiifstuiiiaf 
^ifficull; discassioa, nHiether the Cteiigy iuid NOtr 
i>ility vf^ld vj>t havp departed mutm «4drlj ffpni 
fthe spirit of moderation than the People, ^ Kkii 
them, tl^ had possessed the plenitude of potren 
The war of i^e line apd that of the froniti. (tJie 
couatrj partr]^ libcppo^t^on to the cpiirt) which 
had ^olAmg' in vieiir but the interests of privU^^ 
iDrdera or.of Fliinces, have yraated iqcoinpantldf 
more bloody. and^in^ manner spuiih moreiUegit^ 
than the msurrecdoo of the-peqple vhioh im Hit 
fuJblic interests fdt it's, object; It wou^ ^ imf 
^t to charge to their account tl^e commotion^ 
lexcite^ b;^ the dearth Of ccmv or tlie l^ighwaj? robt 
heries ccahmittedin several of the.pqrovii^ee. ' Most 
Df those ^^turbasoes halve been stirrefl up by %hcif 
enemies^ in tlK viey of diyidio^ theiii, and df ^wt^ 
ing them against each others <^iie tbiag. ts ceitftiiii 
they have cjvciy wbeifi, widL aH tjieif tnigbt^ opt 
fwDsed those disotdcax ,1. m i; ' 

. Now thaf^^thfi Feoiile of I'rancfr l»ye ifcoivew^ 
.their lihotty by thw cowrage^ they must s^vf 
themselves worfchy Qf it :b^ tl^f^w^ ^isdotn; ^Tbejf; 
jojlgbt to itj^ct' Vith ho^xfA Ifibose^iilegsi f«o^fi|^!y 
tpDA which: \ifoulKl prcicipitetai)themwlvo^'ki|o ti^a 
crimes of lugh-»tr«36n ^Fhicfc they mean tc^ jwnish i 
ihey ought to be on, their guard a^aine^i^mf^ 
which ti!ai]^pprt9 them, a^d for the sake of .th(^ 
pwn interest cuiU in. the prudence of the Ia^H % 
noting mofe^waptipg thi^a caMi^y w^i^d 
by ain eijepiy i»tp. thei^ pinds, jnspiredrby tJie4oV« 
of the pHblic good, to judupe them with ^bfajr 0Wii| 
hands to lay low the hotd'pf the most valuable 
^tiaen*, pPeQ|)le. 

O Pcopie of Pfti^ >v)u> $ery^ ^ an example t|<> 
^ iab^Unts of,th|3. Provinces ^JPe^ple ingeni-;^ 
W^b ^B^y^ g(^» geobious, wbadfa}^ iQto your bo*» 
$<pi tt|B pea of all nations by the urhaiuty of your 
tfmiXUiT^ le&ect that to t^is urfoajii|:y you liave at 
all tuaetbeea indebted' for your moral liberty, pr^- 
IbiTCjd by republicans to their civil liberty itself. 
You have just burst asunder the cbains of despot; 
Urn; take care that you forge DQt for youjvseives 
others still nu)re insupportable, thosie of anarchy, 
TIpbe iorniergaU only on one side^ the latter in every 
duffctiM at once* It k your .union which hai^ 
fio^nstitttted your force, which nothing cpuld resist, 
fiat it IS not to force ^at GO^ ,^y^^ a, durable 
efl9piiie» it 18 to harmony- By. theiri ji^rmony little 
ihiog^ aiclhere and fc^ecoxne great ;.^^(i( it> frcp 
^pwmtj|{^ by mean& of their fqrce that g^eat thi^i^ 
,iiepEira.tei. dash,, bseak in pieces, and b^coqfie ^nxaljj^ 
Wbeaqe aorise so many pretensions of iodividual?^ 
t>f assiidatioqs^i 9f diatrjcts, pf motions and emor 
iiQQfi} iW^puld yo\!i ni^If;^. thiie^CQre citjes of oni^ 
city; and rfijfler .y4>ur pumtple Mfill not the pro- 
vinces ms^p threescof;^ )rjepublips.|fi il^e kiqg^om? 
>¥h|4i) j(% that case wpuld bi^come of .^he^ Ca|»tal? 
CqnniMinAi^ P^ris,, iamuUiplying^yourlaAvs,; you 
yiU <i)ultiply your^boi^dg,; by djvi/djiig you will 
^nfi^le: yourselves ;; l>y , wnoipgvCyejy one to li* 
bcrty Ui his own way, j^u, may fall on^ after , an«» 
4jther iiKta slavery^ or, yfh^t is still worse, iqto ty- 
pjfmy. .What have yoii. atthkday to fear,, yo^rr 
4^9 «iMoe|>^? Yc^r. priuc^Bs^l enemies sivft di$r 
I«s«e4;3ypdr. gn«H Uiu^^t^tpS the Jpipances hat 
iMsn FMt^ifyi to^ypHi; wiflies, and togjethf r with 

P 4 him 


Mirffe-opfA^tis ffi ]jifclfect*c6w5ert"thVc*iiifl?fll«is- 
ters''of the Ci4>w6, animated^ %ttlithd'-Muii0«z«h{ 
tbyotnotc jroar'Iiaiipiness ;^«Hg t^fro fiVtt tHjff(hf«f 
the State ' have triide you sicWficieii'^^efff ist^d 

£l^' iiniJer 'jnour owii 'cdiiimland'pyott^ •'H^ 
li'erits 'your iddmplctc cotifidirnce, notan?j'%« hit^ 
iiigd^iyecfed br'prejiar?*'^ t'K^edisp(isitiofl#,^bufc'«s 
liWihg unrfeserv^dly gfvch'SbhnMlf up'^6'yoa*'4»* 
i^e>sal, ib cdi^hi§'with6tJt''^tlards^ and with«IM ^ 
tectiofli' liit64lhe' nifdsi ctf yturCapitat >^ti'h»' a 

'ifeci\6rt; ^ a feefterSilrHfi iiaaiiferei- wKHdft^rrfhfe 
l^y^ >'t)ii; W\^,''teh<flaitig'yod ar*fj«a-iiri«h 
Kostaie Wa|i6ns'6?'?5very' sttft, 'ttlght'-^ll-^fet 
SrWetherfi^wire' again to -finii^A'yfm-tH^ 6jiJrd«3«i 
^hbm fie soli|;ht.- Ftrt-fli#iov*^(^ hatifatm'llf^mlk- 
dit \i;Hicli tiiereis ftosaHiatibB foF a pec^l«»;j««ffefe 
Ihe' cdi^'of yodf fnti?re€^bfr '^e>igUtftl«i*J«f«yoW 
dfelricH 'c6ttiposfett'<9P' (;^oW^<i6nafinitfeee« i^feV yout 
"distridtW, On •tfef pjlW;"tW^, 'fo^^ tHg'iftiif «f itj** 
opefk«bns,J^ m^mm^ &pyoiii-Mtttti!j|pai>A»- 
sembly,-' fofin^a oPyoay i3i*|Sl«i«j,'- yi'h'oief f^^i^i, 
zeal and c6tiY^,''i6V^H arffct«t-«6^ Hitf^ilWtti*^!*- 

Wus ChiefsildilJm^'5'6ii'ft^4e''^6(iriliilyiiMfllioy(?X 
Jiave presbrvtd ybu *fr<itti ^lie jfJlW^ 'atd-jJfteiiiiie 
Vhh whrcfi ' you" wert5"tHrtat!<4i€a, • l^'jmtfJtX^ 
iricij^rAs8embl^-<»ilfidfe''«i lf» tulT»;iirf*htt inWl- 
lig^ence ■and'^ju«iicft''bf''t*e<Nat<bltef 'AssewMy^ 
V^hicK y6Q liai^(», 'eahj6iiitIj^#i{h^^'iD)aK» &oil» 

i9f' ydbr giie^ai!<j<», <aiid'ln\»e^t<d'iiriMi'Ms^l«(N 

^ '*^ power 

.fr Ji / : 10 itlffKiuaBL^. ^ or j^j>:j«i f IJ 

4K)wef«^.. Qife AJs^-augafit^Asaeaably^ahewa all yon 
ought to ^establish your s^gurity, fpr:j5^s^ubliiiic 
€mph>3rtneflM»^t6 iVrofnote*^1:heliapj>ifc&i ot the 
kingdom at largp^ fry tfttTICgt^^u ^^^^^ y^*^^ inte- 
rests those of Associations, of Provinces ar 
^f 'Jjatio^s;^ by'V*<^oAStitdfYo^'^ sktl^i^ed''^ 


of J^aturer^vfio ffeaiienft^^'paVes*^ di¥btigft 

\h& taidst of '^kahu ty, ftpthe attlinlfneiit '^f grlat 
tiatidiiil fkicitj^, 'as^h^'fecifnd^'of ^Ai'iuttiti^M 
|)rep'a?^a '% tVe /i^ohfiyt WlntbT-; iftfil^vli&'m 

l6iis,* trie hrdst afciindaht iiarv^^ it 

ali^^aa^''()oiiritij^'kXWn his-.^^ biil Const!- 

lutidVf 16 'bt'tbtjiM oklif s^li Wsr 'HSpi^? (mm 

the bosom of my solitude, and the^ storms^^plrhTcli 


^oy^*fe ^P^4p,^^Ps4me;fho't t^ ih^<i'm'hr\ 
prasi; *ti{'t{je^:sit{f^kl ?ttfcii^irMVtfi^ &fifp neeSi: 

*.»''x',; f • ' ID.v T ./^.' 'vi vJ;. -'.^ v;.-T '^p ;j^*j^ rt-;-- 
ji • li 4/..'.. :•-<.'! ;\u,. )^ »•• •:! Mi*i L^vodi t. i.V'- ' 

'to i.;jl?,>;I Mn j' .« ;a»<iii:i'j / " • . ' . rlitlv/ .••*)'«,.' 

\ •/ 


fit 8£<IU£L TO TB£ nQTgtN OF l^ATVBt. 


On tiw ilrst of May of this year 1789, I weot 
4pwii ai Sttn*rise iiUo my g^deii| to see iii 
vhat state it was aft^r such a dreadful Mluter^ ia 
whic^ the TheiTOometer fell, December 31st^ to. IQ 
iic;grees. under the freezing point I called to re« 
membfance* as I dejscended,, the destructive h^ilr 
stoxm. of July Wth, which had spread over the 
whole Kingdom, but which through the kiudness 
of Providence had parsed, over the suburb where I 
reside, without doing any mischief. I said to my* 
a«lf : *; This time nothing in my little garden can 
'^have; es(:ape^ a Winter sevese as those of Petersr 

Ml entered nocole- wort was to be seen, no artir 
chok^^ no whi^e-jasminei no narcissus ; almost all 
|B]f pinks and hyacinths had perished; my fig-trees 
pere dea(^, as well as my sweet«scented )aurel% 
Wibicb used to flower in the month of January. As 
to my young ivies, the branches of most of them 
were dried up, and their foliage of the colour of rust. 

The rest of my plants however were in good 
health, though their vegetation was retarded more 
than three we^ks. My beds of strawberries^ vio- 
Jet% thymes, primroses, were all over diapered witli 
green, white, blue and crimson; and my hedges of 
honeysucklesi ^raspberries, goosberries^ rose-bushes 
and lilachs, were all verdant with leaves and flow- 
er-buds. My alleys of vinesi apple-trees, pears^ 

: peaches^ 

to shew the, parte offi;uc(^fiQS^,ion, .l))ft.the ^lufticif 
fhff apricot-trec w^s.alre*4y fpn*»ed, , 

At this 5^ght I t^us sdiieQtfd: V Cjal^mity J* 

'* good for somettluqg^. Thp 4i«as|;efS vrl^icb- Mfid 

'' one Gouutry luay pwye. Vepeii^s to.-aQQtlief; . Jf 

f all the plants qf soutbeiTiEpropie ^re; ;i}iu^ t^ 

^* staml the Winter^ of Erajuje,, it,i8[,)?vi4eiit'tJ^t 

f* many of tb? ;.fi!uit-.t;i:e^& oC,|"i?*b!iff A^e 

" resist the Winters of- the HqJitJi. ' In f^^pard^ 

f of PetershuFg ife,ispos8iWc,tio|CuWy^e Ihecj^cq^ 

;<!* thfl early p?^,, th? gjcp^gagp,:^ jpjioqti tl|f 

?• ^jpricoj-peacli, ^d aU thefcuiu^p^bje o^i^«i»r 

'' ing in the qourse of a^l^umi^ er ; %,jt;he.£kMX¥p^ w 

f ' still w^met; t;here tlun at Pam.*' 'Pw&i;eflcCi> 

^ afforded ^ ,«P:n|ucl) tl^;i«cjce;p^fMi»i)^ 4^ 

4 bad seen at Petie»abtt%, i* jfTififi, uo- o^- ij-w 

Jbiut tlie. pkej. the servio^. t^.npiaple, ami tbn ^(^ 

„ Thowgh, ihpxe o» tbe^fijof thp.Glab^j^Qjfttber 

landed, proptv^^ f5?,QCj*j|». an«J| ,^v)^^s^ wUh, t)ii((t Jilf 

|le gaiden of the eight^ pari^jpf s^ ^crc; Jjelppging 

tip it, in, the ,Fauxl)ou^-§{^i|it-Marceav,, ^5 jtfd^ 

pleasure in employing my tnoughts there,,^b<)fi^ 

$b«x interest? ,qC ,^hfi Wui^^i}. Baiw; for.jjl^lpfnd 

^s rajt all 8ea3pj(\8^,fti^ i?^ ^yi^^jape?,. u^wd-at^c^itiw 

jtqni/.ne. It i$ iqerJUi^ i^at o^ qhfM^^treofiqunp 

pffgwiiy 6pra. iiii^,.K;wig4wB ©e Poutufti y^^msf 

pi^tu tran^rt^ t)]^ to. Bfipae ^i;^J^u» <Mr^ 

trees, the fruit of which is.oiUed M.l^^ m^tffff 
frm^fti^pm, ^re descetnd^gjn^t ^r $f9^ fwtn 
I tree of thfttspecios fai^u^^by the; 9)Qms»,fwm 


fe*^ SEQCEt. TO tlii^Vtfiis OF NATURE. 

AVitekl'^ «»%B4<!8liftfoliyofPaiw''toH'e'^<!a 
•il,"ittj?iT^i&k''aeWe' iheir origin frdti/ the ArcHJi' 
pfeljigdl ^f^y^iiJlaKW^y from Mount Ma,' and niV 
]>eaches from Persia; iftii' those countries had ben! 
siatijrfg^ed-^y the Abmansi irhosecnslom it was 
W^rfy ttWtlihly'th^ idings Mt tire Tr^cs of their 
eiiemftS-ih'ltrHlnf^fi- into 'their owta -Ctmntry. As 
to We aitiSlte '-^ehrch^rftbre haliituaHjr «se, I cer- 
■tenily' aW i'AtRfbtfed 'foV^ my tobacco, my sugar and 
tty''ctj««fe,^!8 the poor^ negroes of !A?Kcai\viio culi 
ttvatefMwW it! AnWHfta, under the "whips of Euro- 
pean^.'- ^^lj»lm(islHi>fU*ffles comfr'fWfatfe' banks- of 
the O&njf^s.'^iicli^l'He&ifS have-isd^Frequentiy'de- 
soWlliMt" il^m'^dS^bito nfy-bboK^^ m^ inost:del 
licTiftb ferfjdfihifiAi Pfflj'u^der bbiigSficrti'fiir 4hem 
t<>»^he^'<Ain o^tff'i^ifidhs,' 'ahfl iindbul)tcaiy lilte- 
Miik tS'^Ihe?^ knrsfbhufies.' ^T'dth 'l3Auiit!l''therefoi^ 

Ti^'ttf tfc? kbjjfe-Uiaf thtl^''9ho pr^ce^d' itie may 
^S'ibiitfifeut^ to Jt^^Hcity prifl^ci^alljrby thei[ 

*^4t 'catinol'%ci Mit f^^HWotiihskT. owe the mi 
%x^rmhmfi nif^^md^ ib'ifhe'femm to tjrhbni 
T%«ntf'-ltf(f«l?ftfdf<i?%lAt'fiTrft' great siipjjlies of lift- 
i'^tfeS tR«Sfe wli^^rj^^^tefbi- WAif bWad^a-'iripil 
IfeJ^oCafeMl JlWbl^ssJ^/ &d:.V:r meah' the 

&S?'«f feii^ ^^irfc?' '^'^"•'" '^' • "' -' »^ •' ' 

W-ifcVeW^fl^tfed^'d^ikfl&^ca'mnce i^-^ f 
.c. ;rmA. turned 

•aft'- WISHES' or 74 «WMJOTB?r57P •!« Wl 

tmkAoAy tiioughti to othoad e£ntii4(Sti%:a!^ch 
biA tiatomfmkiiedi theis^ as if e^ry. hu)pr)i<idc^«nti(j| 
9mrd>'fiillov(fhigia a^tmih* I IcaU t«m^of!y>Ithii 
imjiruc&titf Edicj^^whicK. had'permitls^ll f Ali83»{MM% 
tad<ii^ e£^g!r&iri; ata time wheti:ire/had';nstjm%d4li 
liitfficient pir6v]»oii^f6r fabme ci^n^uhsptifm!; iiiat 
ffttblicbanlciHiptcy which had huiig kxiremgaii^et 
cMtftrtunes, while the.mjniandoiisjhail^cltfiidrwat 
ifM^fcigv our. plains;, the' total' exhat£$tif)W aisoiik 
ftasncBSv w£ich had given ardeatiah wound) fdnasB]^ 
lM«fi6iies of our Commerce, as tiiat dresdfulfWiiir: 
par kCJi* to many of our fruit-trees ; finally pJliiAl; 
iufiditi^ number of poor work-4iien whohi:thd[3Diii^ 
emrnnte of so many disaster^ most hat^* Ikdbde^ 
stitO;^ci by cold, by famine, ^nd every btherag^itri^ 
oftwiXltch^ness, but for the relief idimttistei«cbd>|| 
t^t bompatriots. . • ^ -: * V; ;;. y^w^ v/ . ici U "* 
•: The Minister of the RdtaW?sithen^€fccu««dit8 
my mind, whose return tia^ fe-estatiU^lyad thoSi% 
KeOedit, and has prdved^ej[>ustttfelsrrtiiat40f Ihe 
ItiOrning star after a stormy mifhr>* itntkifhlm^ 
thoughts turned to the SiatesiGeaeTal^.iOlMnldNl 
^oing with the Spring to renovkte thfe ^€^^ 
tilings, and I said* to myseli^y "^ KitlgdomselKbMi 
1{ their seasons, as the Plains {livis t^iV^ )^tl% huSM 
f their Winter and tlieit Sutnu^rj thenth{(it^tO«ilft 
" and their i^freshingdewsi: 'thtf*Wntei**itf*itllirf 
*f is past, her Spring iisfttt^retog/?avOii?Chls;Ani- 
mided Mith hope, I s^AdfffWM'^the ^let^vA^spSt 
Yri»fr garden^ on a little bJAikrof^tikl^atldniG^biVsuiL 
itfPthe shade of ah app{e>tQ|«44^t(k)s«otf^«1(lpp«»^ 
t«ra hive, the bees of NvM[diMiMili«Qf|biM^i»$iafa^ 
Cidkrali sidesL with a hum^g<MilLi<l nwi: tS^bal 
* >^ • At 

At sigbt tf those bees ^o ittdustriouS) whose liivd 
lutd noodier Atit&t duting the Winter ImttlM 
lu>ll<y0r of a wek) I kcoUected that they htid not 
timmed m the month of June, atd that this had 
teen the esse with raost of tliose of tine kiAgdom^ 
ts if they had foreseett that they would have need 
to be assembled in ^reat numbers, in order to kee|> 
tiiemsehres warm during the Hgour of an extMM^ 
tiniary Winter. On the other han4 ^ I bad wUb^ 
drawn fVom my mine no pari of their honey, mA 
m Aty never export any themselres^ they ImmI 
passed In an abundance of provisions a season in 
iribich multitudes of my countrymen had betn 
^ndied whh want. On observing that the instinct 
#f those little animals had surpassed the intdli*^ 
gence of man, I said within myself; " Happy were 
^* it for the Societies of the Human Race, did they 
^ poiMess the wisdom of those of beesT and I be* 
gta to form Wishes in behalf of my Country. 

I li^resented to myself the twentyrfour miUknis 
«f men which are sdid to constitute the populatioit 
dr France, ttot as the sage bees which come into 
tlie World in full possession of all their instinct, 
toct as a simple individual, who has existed for mors 
^tt three thousand years past, and who, as being 
Man, acquires cxpeHence only by passing through a 
long series of woes, of errors and of infirmities. 

At first fli child during the time o^ the ancieut 
Gtttis, he was ft)r many ages in swaddling clothesi 
l^irt by the Druids with the bands of supenti« 
tiiktt; fben a striplii^ under the Romans, nko 
•nbdued and poUsbedhim, he acquired theknow* 
kdgt^ under tUm^ftOff ftkt of his masters, of the 


Arts, of die Scienoes, of. the . Langu^jgp* vA6r «f 
the Laws which continue to govern him to tkKl 
day: dfterwards^ become i young mbH iuidcarthe 
ttndncipiisMd Franks^ ivho confsmdfd tkktiastlwe^ 
With him, hd M)Andoned: himself^ diiing their 
aiiardhy, to all the violence of youth, and paasetf 
a g^eat many years in the nwdness of ^iril iirwm 
Finally, from the days of Cherkmagne, lUtaiinateA 
with some mys of light, fay the ^vival of lettet a 
which began to he aattuAliMd VkMict FtMndsJu 
Hlce a young nftan who is fbrtning himself .&# tfao 
commerce of the world, he pursued tfaeplea^oits of 
love and glory* His taste for gallantry and heron 
ism reined under Henry IF. and arrived at per^ 
fection under Imus XIV. At this last era, tK4 
love of advantageous conquest seemed principally 
to engage his attei^tion; he became ambitious iikt 
a man with whom the fervour of youth is over^ 
and who is looking about for a solid establishments* 
But soon convinced by e.tperience that i. mancan^ 
ttot find his own happiness by doing mischief to 
another, he began to apply himself to the pirsuse 
of his tme interests, to his Agriculture, his lif anu<< 
^tures, his Commerce, bis High Roadl^ his Co^ 

lonial Esjablishments, &c He then found th« 

necessity of shaking off the prejudices <^ hifiiney^. 
the fklse views of childhood, the vanities of youth, 
and ^ms entered into tlie age of maturity. His 
^ reasoiR made new progress from year to year. H# 
is become sensible at this day, under Mmik XVI.« 
that the glbty of his lyings Consists only m 
his feiicky. Foi* hb own part^ he is iftote con« 
cen^d about ilie me^nsof Reading a ^)m tha« 

* spliendidn 

ffi THS STomzs or v-ltvke. 
mi ^>tendid^ a odmfdrtallile ,tkaftMa'v«iti*glorioiik 
IS&i . : r;: ' " . • : j -c'.'!. > M • r . • -'r 
One fiiight pursue throngh^t very: age; iS^* pe-» 
%ioda .of bis bUaracter^mthoae 6f hb kttatiiiem:^tni 
Aeti$. vBi?ikl>e tim^iofi tbe< abciebt 6aubi» ilnjois* 
m^DodJike^an infant aod.wlithout any cov/rring* txK 
Ittfi head i>ut the bauv«hftMrore only agirdleii Vur. 
^rtfae:&omans^ be dii6a)ed. himself in ago>vti.and 
•hinrt.veaCilifcje ai student * Continually in armour 
uhdertfaft Fxanki^ ^ he; dad liimself in* arm-piece v 
tbSgl^ieceSyiacoat.of.niail'.and.a.helinet* ; From 
Hranci» Ij tp Hekiry-W.. diid even to: Louis ^IVj 
bearrisjred {litaself juva trim^medMoubtet^ in ruffs^ 
in featfa^ri/an. trunk-1)6se^* in ribbands, Muthont 
hdtrever laying :a.^id& his swoi d, like a young man 
wha is majving love. > Under 'Zotft^ XI V% become 
nore gxkve, he added to his idcess. latge .roiling 
«tockings/*and an enormous, {ieriwtg. At.pre«eot^ 
like a maniartived at the sktaid period bf; Ufe.Atho 
studies his conreiuen<lc» he pilefer^ a hat uppn;hi$ 
^d'to.ont; under bib syrrn^ acatxe tota svi^^d^ and 
a'Cl<i»fcU>a wit of armour-; • 
- Whll^tatl^. French .Nation was; disponing itjejif 
by,tn4rtnei:s a>fcl.:phik)so^hy for a life, of grf^at®! 
i?fpp6¥?gs*^ ^^4 foj ft national cftnsolidati(In, Afi'^ 
n^mV(^ips^y,^\xhj0ctpd Xp aiicie»t. fprw^^:^ii^^# 
fcftla\«:ed it'ps ancient cpmise. \ On ,e«ar#i: t^^fh 
||it|ion.of:!the pu.bLkX; mind, -it had ^dpp^J^r new^ 
tews YdibOM* ikhrogaliiig the .old,..,.h§d;,,ipcurre4 
tbV'&i^«Mi[e:5jfr'ee\K- waftti iv^ithd^fe ret^renchjng 
iK|p^^iJbitif9» ^od bestOti^ed *iA^rQ,«atteutfon . oa 
the ^ojitMie tif courtiers vthaniMi i^4t of •subjects. 
yhA^^arl'wn)^ iperitefctl^y ':t»^iiWftJi<«i*^^ t from 
,V V-dv- - impost; 


impost to impost, from debt to debt, Government 
found itself without money and without credit, with 
a people destitute of n[ieans. It then felt itself under 
tlie necessity of assenibling the States-General, to pre* 
sei-ve from universal ruin the nation at lajrge, of whjicii 
the People is every where the fundamental baiSis. 

This People, nevertheless, arrived at majority 
through so many ages of experience and of misfor^ 
tune, still drags after it the leading-strings of child^ 
hood. Different coips have pcesentied thetnaelves, 
alleging that the charge of the public pupillage was 
committed to them, and have pretedded to brii^ 
it back to the ancient forms of the monarchy, that 
is, to replace it, with. it's illUmitiatioii, it's e^tCAt;^ 
and it's power, in the s^tne crftdle in which it was 
so long feeble, imposed upon and.miserable. 

But what corps of the monarchy could ^t this 
day be brought back to it's aqcient forms? To begin 
with him who i^ the;a^gu«t Icbief of it, Coutd th« 
King be .brought back to the time vfhm the Peoi>le 
in conjunction with the army.alepted him in.t^ 
field of Mars, raisinig him aloft on a buckiei^? ,A]<4 
supposing Lmis XVI. himself were disposed tH 
descend from the throne in order to .re-estab}isU 
the Pedple in their anicient rightSi milst he mot 
throw himself at their feet, to ]beseec)> the^^ soft 
tbidrive hfan into the honrt)r$ of tho«e pivil W4rs 
which polluted with b}opd tips es^ly .ages of tht 
Monarchy, in settUiig the infection of their, ^v^i. 
Would the Clergy be dis{^oaed. to return tot})6«ni) 
cielit times whtn they preached the, Gospel to the 
Gauls, in the attire of Apostles, barC'-fc^ted, in A 
simple jrobe, with a traveller's staff ^ in their han4 

YoL. IV. Q bfooiiic 


become through the xnumficence of that very Pea^ 
plea pontifical crosier? Would the Nobility wish 
to see those ancient times return, when they put 
themselves into the service of the great for the sake 
<^ protection and bread, ready at all times to shed 
their blood in quarrels that did not concern them? 
Let them form a judgment of the state of their an- 
cestors under the feudal Government, by that of 
the Polish Nobility of modern times. In a word, 
would the Parliament itself wish to return to those 
times, not so very ancient, when the greatest part 
trf it*s members were merely the secretaries and 
Agents of the Grandees, who then could not so 
much as write, and valued themselves upon it? 
^ * Feeble Man is universally searching for repose. 
If he wants law^, he rests the care of his legislation 
en a^ liegislatbn If he needs instruction, he casts 
the care of it on a Teacher. Every where he ia 
establishing a basis whereon to support his weak* 
Hess J but Nature every w^here subverts it, and forces 
kim^ after her OMm example, to get up and combat. 
I^^h^rself has composed this Globe and it's inha- 
bitants only of contraries, which are maintaining 
An incessant struggle. Our soil is formed of earth 
and irater; our temperametit of hot and cold; our 
jiay of light tod darkness; the existence ofvege* 
fables and toimals of their youth and of their old- 
ige, of their loveils and of tlieir strifes, of dieir lif€ 
ind of their deafth. The equilibrium of beings is 
efiftablished only oh their collisions. Nothing is 
durable but their. lapse, nothing immutable but 
tlieir mobility, nothing pemianent but their com- 
^ation; and^Nature,. who is every instant vary-^ 
-•^•».^- > ing 


lug their fonns', has no constant laws bttt those* of 
their happiness. .. 

As for ourselves, already so far removed from the 
ancient Laws of Nature, by the very laws of our so^ 
cial union, in which ^he aqcient rights of man are 
misunderstood^ our opinions, our manners^ our usages 
arc varying from year to year. Ages carry us alon^ 
and change our form tp the worse without inter*^ 
ruption, by hurrying us forward to futurity. To 
jrecal to the ancient forms of it's original a People 
illuminatedi powerful, immense, is like forcing back 
an oak into the acorn from which it sprung. 

How is it possible then that our Kings should 
wish to recal the People of France to their ancient 
forms, that is, to their ancient errors and their an^ 
cient ignorance? Is it itot to what they have pro* 
duced in later ages, in other words, to the last fruits 
of their industry^ that our Kings, who formerly 
drank from an elk's horn, wandered up and down 
through the forests of the Gauls, traversing from 
time to time their unpaved capital in a car drawn by 
oxen, that they are indebted at this day for the ele* 
gant delights of their cAa/eato' and the magnificence 
of their equipages ? Is it not by the tardy lessons of 
their experience, that they are no longer under ap« 
preheusion of bting dethroned by the Mayors of 
their Palaces, ^d that they and their successora 
owe their firm establishment on the throne, con* 
formably to laws unchangeable as the love of that 
cnlightmc4 People !~0 ife^ry IV. ! What must 
have become of^your rights, attacked at once by 
Rome, by Spain, and by the ambitious Grandees of 
your own lUngdom, without the love o^your Peo- 

QS pie, 


Vho, in face of the ancient fbtms which Svoulrf have 
placed you in opposition to yourself, called ^p6ii you 
'to deliver them fi 6m their iytants? How* COfolH the 
Clergy, the Ministers of st Religion bteathrng gootf- 
'wlll to ' Mankind, wish to istibject to the ^rfclttit 
forms of Druidistn," the Frihbh natibii uiidtr the. 
feign of Louis 'KVl. ?* It is that same people who, 
Tanging themselves in crowds arOundthe first Mis- 
sionaries x>fth6 Gktils, mkde their barbaroirt Chieft 
to'bend under the yoke of ChHstianity. It was tht 
-feoplc who, hy the all-pbttnerful inflfuence of their 
opinions elevated the abbey in opposition to thfe 
castle, and the steeple to the tower. The/ opposed 
the crosier to the lance, the bell to the^ftitti^et, and 
the legends of the Saints t6 the ar6hiVes of the 
Barons ; monument agaifist monument, bronze 
iagainst bronze, tradition agaitist tradition. Ho\^ 
Could the Nobility of our days look upon the peo- 
ple as blighted from the earliest Antiquity; by th6 
feudal power of their aicestors^ when they them- 
selves reckon in their own order so few famMfei 
Vhich count pedigree beyond the fourteenth ceti* 
tury ? But were it true that their ancestors bad of 
old time reduced the .people to servitude, hbw dnrst 
they at this day exercise their ancient piiVifegei 
upon that same people, not for ha\^hg formerly 
defended or protected them^ as the No'Wes of every 
Nation ought to do, but for having cdiquered and 
oppressed them ; not for halving served but enslaVe^ 
them ; not as the descendanTs of their'Patricians^ 
but of their Tyrants? were these tHe'titii^s Which 
gave distinction m their eyes to-^he l^^i^fiS,' the 
'Bugueisc^ns; the^Crzilons^ liie JSlbhimtrrweis; whft 
•^ ^ ''' -^ performed 

peiforiisied ^^ vftwy g^lbmt actions for the tdke:Qi 
living in; tljeir memory down to tl)e prejs^nt idjQ- f\ 
Wb^t dft J.«ay ! Could our Noblesse, now *) repfcte 
wilh^^hu^wpityy and with refiii honour, in^i> etJighti 
en0d age^d^^pise that multitude of gobdai^di pe^i^r. 
a^ <»^ntwH<^deT9te tiiemsif Ives to mij\\^\frt^it]^^^ 
pleasure^) after: having prcyyii^ed for all their )ne<^s^ 
skies,, and fiiom themas^pf whack issftq those bfiavft 
gtienadiers^ wlwj after having opeaed to tiem tbel 
pfcthr which kad3.tQ)hoftouirs at the priee:&f ,theii! 
own hiof^jiirelpm to. their: pWugb, to serve in oib-s 
scwity tbw.nafiae Country which disposes hfr re- 
Yrards.:with siich paytiality? Roajly, ;Hpw .cpuki 
the Parliament reduce to the ancient fmm of ser-: 
vitude, 4.: people which has conferred. upw tlieln 
lA siWne sort, the tribaniti^l power, an^frcon-whostt 
bofiKW tl?ey,tfean)8el\^ hay^ Hpy^qg?' r \ \ 

h it uqally trui?, .^ftef ,all, that/the Pefeple of 
I'ra^QCQ. have, been, 9lw^ys,i|ni[}er the f^\^4A\ ll^elagQ 
of theif . C^hiefs ? Certgi* write?*: lw>vfs ^^noed. thf^% 
they, were. .<«;iginally sUjfcs. ^t Mfftfitfee;! theijj 
origin be^iwe fif ,4;lie^,G2w}<5^ f^ithfy 
Ronjansj.or of the Fmtiks^r: vhi^i^-^IEez^rtbreQ 
grand iepqqhs of.their.bifi(V»ry,.i{^,1^itf be found 4;half 
tbey.werefaliv^iys free, . ,. ^ , m - : 

. Thp Gwls, who uiider, Jgi*e«wt«':ifly^d«J: Itely^ 
a©d: burned the city <rfrJ8iproe^ rji^d.fe 5?e^t resein- 
bUnce to the Savages o^;Ateefie#,; wbf> esrtoinly.dQ- 
npt make w^t as. slaves, Sljavery fiaoQs itself oply 
aoK^ng xkh atod policed Naltions, ;as thosfci «f Am^ 
aud itis-tbe fwiit of their despotiism which, is ever 
in pjQportioa totheir.iicbes/ Poor an4 Savage Na- 
tions are always, free, and wheii thty;rhahe prison- 
ers of war, they incorporate them with themselves, 

QS unless 


unless they sell them^ eat them, or offer them in sa-^' 
orifice to their Gods. Opulence makes of the same 
citizens both despots and slaves ; but poverty ren* 
ders them all equal We see examples of it in the 
state of society among ourselves. The domestics 
ofarichman, and even his friends, when they are 
poor, come no farther than the antichamber, and 
never appear in his presence but with profound re- 
spect ; but the domestics of our peasants ale fami- 
liar with their masters; sit down at table with 
them, and even obtain their daughters in marriage. 
When the Gauls began to become civilized, and 
to hunt after fortune, they enlisted in the Roman 
armies as free men. Nay, I believe it is a remark 
of Cesar% that there were no armies which did not 
consist in part of Gaulish soldiers. We see from 
Herodotus and Xenophon^ that the Greeks, so ena^ 
moured of their liberty, entered into the service 
even of the Kings of Persia, though the natural 
enemies of their country. We find a similar prac- 
tice prevailing among the modem Swiss. Such 
customs are common to every free people, and they 
have no existence in Nations governed by a des- 
potism, or even by an aristocracy. You will not 
see in the pay of iny of the Powers of Europe regi- 
ments formed of Russians, of Polanders, or of Vene- 
tians. The political constitution of the Gauls, it is 
admitted, granted several unjust prerogatives to the 
Gaulish Chieftains, and to their Druids; as has been 
remarked by Cesar; and it was undoubtedly owing 
to it's anti-popular defects, that it was easily sub- 
verted by that of the Romans. This much is cei^ 
tain, that the Gauls adopted from the Romans, 



tiicir religion, their laws, their customs, nay tbdr 
very dress; We are partly governed at tliis day by 
the Jus Romanunij and our Magistrates, as well $us 
the Professors in our Universities continue to wear 
the Roman toga. The French language is derived 
from the Latin. These revolutions are by no m^ans 
the natural effects of conquest and of the poia^er df 
conquering Nations, but proofs that the conqu^re^ 
are discontent with their ancient constitution, The 
Roirians were jealous of power, but, iiidifF«i[eiitt<> 
every other object. The Greeks prieiierved, vm^ 
their empire, their own Language, Uldr lleligioll^ 
their Laws and their Manners, of whi^ we st|U^|i^ 
ceive some traces under the empire of the Tu{fi% 
In a word, a conquered People remaix>& aftf^iiG^ ^ 
it's Constitution, provided they are sftt^fied wj^ 
it, to such a degree, that they sometiajes ins^e^tbf^ 
conquerors submit to it. This app<;^r^.fioiii.|jt9t 
instance of the Tartars, who bav{ always a4ppt^i| 
the laws and the , customs of. China^ . afkr having 
made themselves masters of that Etopii^*.; On tlie 
other hand, those .moral, revolutions donojt.take 
place in Nations which arc enslaved. It is very rcr 
maikable that the Western Nations of Asia have 
adopted nothing. from the Greeks or from the Ro- 
mans who reduced them under the yoke, not even 
the language. The People of Asia speak neither 
Greek nor Latin. An enslaved People cleave to their 
constitution from a spirit of servitude, a$ a free 
People from the sentiment of liberty, biit Uiese 
last chanL.e it when it ceases to give satisfactioijuj 
Whatever be in this, the Roroan$ gi:£wted .the 
tights of Roman Citizens to the inhabitants ^f 

Q 4 several 


several Cities and even of some Provinces of the 
Gauls ; which they never would have done had 
they been peopled with slaves- Great numbers of 
Romans afterwards settled in the Gauls. The Em- 
peror Julian loved to reside at Paris, ** on account," 
as he said, " of the grave character of it's inha- 
** bitants, which had a resemblance to his own." 
The Parisian character has greatly changed since 
the days of Julian^ though the climate of Paris 
remliM the sim>e. But it is not climate which 
forms the character of a People, as so many Au- 
thors ^htt '•Montesquieu have affirmed; it is the 
l^elitlcd Celbititutfon. The Gauls, simple and 
^iii^lottt^Unde^ the Druids, were serious under the 
^ve^Rdfoans always governed by Law, and gay 
wAti the Franks, the passionate admirers of in* 
dependence, because, having never enjoyed a good 
CdnBtilHitipn, they changed it at these three epochs, 
^Bdfpmdently of the gaiety of the Gauls, which is 
t!0 be dated no higher than the Franks, and which 
IS a «nAral proof of their liberty, I find another no 
less conclusive m this, that the two Nations no 
longer bare different names, which is never the 
case when the conquering Nation does not become 
confounded- with the conquered : witness, in mo* 
dera tinies, the Turks and the Greeks, the Moguls 
and the NaticMis of Indostan, the Spaniards arid 
the Indians of America and Peru, the English andl 
Jsbe Indians of the East, the inhabitants of out 
Colonies and' the Negroes. The Tartars on the 
contrary who have cbnqueried China, confounded 
thlems«lvt$n^ith ' the Chinese, and now form only 
0|ie NatiiMi with tiiem, as well as the Nations, of 
' ' the 


the North and of the Ea^st^ auchas the Vandal^ 
the Gott^ the Normans and others, jwrho amalg^ 
lAatcd themselves with the Natioaw of Europe 
^hom they invaded- . Besides it is proved by his- 
tory that the Gaulish tribes, were free under the 
first race, of the Franc Kings, for they elected 
jthem iu coiyujnction with the Aimy. : ' i ! 

At the time of CAarlemagnei there were great 
jnMpbers of Freemen in Franteu .Goold it have b^en 
with slaves necessarily coiidemi^d .to ignorance in 
an age of barbarism, that this great Prince was 
enabled to form his Schools, hij Acadcinies and his 
Courts of Justice, the members of: which; on the 
pther hand,, could not possibly issue from that 
military Nobksse which then valued nothing but 
the glory of anns? An evident proof of the! exist- 
ence of those freemeli is, that Charlem&gne con- 
yoked them by name to the Assemblies of his 
States-General, together with the Bamns and 
Bishops. Nay more ; in the Assembly of 806, in 
which, a few years before his death, hb divided 
his domains among his three children, by a wilj 
confirmed by the great Ilordfe of Frante,^ and by 
Pope Leo, "Hfileavei to liis People the liberty^ of 
** choosing their own Master'after the death of the 
** Princes, * provided he were of the blood Royal;'* 
a liberty which the President fffnafilt d^ems Mror-. 
thy of being reinarked. " i 

A part of the country People, it is granted^ was 
subjected to bondage with the soil which they cul- 
tivated, by Chieftains who usurped rights that be* 
)onged not t9 tb^m, 'Hear what the President 



JUmmlt says on the subject in his particular re^ 
marks on the Kings of France of the second race : 
• ^' The lands possessed by the Francs, from their 
^^ irruption into the Gauls, may be distinguished 
^^ into salique lands and military benefices. 
. '* The salique lands were those which fell to them 
*' by right of conquest, and these were hereditary; 
^* The military benefices, instituted by the Romans 
- prior to the conquest of the Francs, were a grant 
** from the Prince, and this grant was only for 
" life : it has communicated it's name to the bene* 
*' fices conferred on Ecclesiastics. The Gauls on 
*' tlieir part, united under the same denomination, 
*' continued to enjoy, as in the time of the Romans^ 
*' dieir possessions in full and peifect liberty, the 
V salique lands excepted, of which the French had 
'* ts^cen possession, but these must have been in- 
** considerable, considering how few in liuniber the 
*' French were, and the Monarchy how extensive. 
•* Both the one and the other, whatever their birth 
f* might be, had a right to aspire after employ- 
]^ ments and Governments, and were actually em- 
•/ plpy^d in War, under the authority of the Prince 
** who governed him. The Constitution of France 
" is so excellent, that it never has excluded, and 
** never will exclude Citizens born of the meanest 
V: parentage, from dignities the most exalted." 
(Matharelj reply to Hotmari^ book entitled Francik- 
G^oUia.) ; 

/ "Toward the jbermination of the second race, a 
*/ Ifew fspecies of possession established itself under 
*f the denomination of Fiefs. The Dukes or Go^ 
*^veroors of Provinces, the Counts or Governors 


irjSUES O^ A RxcLura. 835 

^' of Cities^ the officers of an inferior order, availing 
f ' themselves of the diminution >of the Boyal aur 
*^ tbority, rendered hereditary in their famiUes the 
^' titles which till then they had possessed only foe 
'^ life, and having usurped equally both the lands 
'^ and the rights, erected themselves into seignorial 
" proprietors of the places where they were only 
" the magistrals, whether military or civil, or- 
^* both at once. By this was introduced a new 
^^ kind of authority into the State, to which was 
" given the name of Suzcrainetij Sovereignty, 4 
^^ word, says ZoiseaUf as strange, as this species of 
" superiority is absurd. 

" Nobility, unknown- in France till the time of 
^' Fiefs, began with this new kiud of Lordships 
" so that it was the possession of the lands whicli 
^^ made the Nobles, because it conveyed tathem a 
'^ species of subjects denominated vassals, whicli 
" were transferred in their turn by sub-infeudationsj 
'^ and this right of seignory was such, that the 
" vassals M'ere obliged, in certain cases, to attend 
** them in War even against the king himself.'* 

These facts are so well known that they have been 
quoted in a Work published in favour of the Liberty 
of the People, by a Deputy himself of the Noblesse 
of Vivarais to the States-General now sitting. I 
have stated them for the purpose of making two 
reflections of high importance: the first is, thai? 
|E)en loaded with marks of lloyal favpur, consti- 
tuting themselves into an stristocraticaL Association, 
were able to oblige the King'$ subjects to attend 
them in War against himself; the second, that 
nothing is sp easy and sq common as for aristocrat 
5 tical 


tioal confederacies to iencroacb on the ftighu of "i 
People who have no representative with tkeir Prince, 
ami on the intere^».of a Pri«ce \flio con- 
section with the- People: France has no need td 
go back to the usurpation^'of the Dukes, Counts 
and their surrogates during the times of the second 
face of our Kings; we have seen usurpation still 
more gross in our own day. • The Gauls und^r the 
Francs their con<5pieror6, could rise to the first dig- 
nities- of the State, be their= birth what iV might; 
but an ordonnance of the War^^department declared, 
May 22, 1781, under a King who loves, his- People, 
that no person not noble could become a Military 
Officer,' and thus has ex eluded twenty-fotrr millions 
of subjects fiom the honour of attaining so much 
as the rank of a Lieutenant in. the Militia* 
• What becomes then at this day of Mafkarefs 
Hxiom on the excellence of our Constitution, ** whicli 
^^ never has excluded, and never will exclude Citi- 
^ tens born of the meanest parentage,- from digni- 
^^ ties the most' exalted/* Nevertheless no one of 
the corps who pretend to have it in trust to sup- 
port our ancient Constitution, and who wish to bring 
n» back to it, remonstrated against this last act df 
injustice, because it affected only tfee kncieirt 
Rights of the People, and the People have neve* 
been able to cJefend their rights, because tSiey h^ 
pt representatives with their Soverdgfi. ^' * * ' 
Be it as it may, what noble fafftiily of our daiyt 
oould prove it's descent from the usurpers of Nobii 
lity toward' thu termination of the second race of 
dqr Ki«gSj and what conclusion could be deduced 
fmn it to militate agaih^t the libetty of the f eopk ? 
^^ "'^ . '-A family 

A family cf afationd PnnctHiif the ti#ies of thfe 
fcraub, tnfay have been re<fticed t^^^lA^crJnkirder tlife 
Hotnatis J ^tid'a famfly of -slav^ undter'the Riomam^ 
risea to -NobiKty under tihe^ Francs for conquering 
'Nalrion*,' in the vifew of keeping down the People 
Vhcy have subdued, frequently adopt the policy of 
ifcas&ig thati which is exalted, arid oFiexaltii^ that 
^hich ii low/ Where is the man cipkble of provi 
trig at ^his day so much as whether h^ is descend^^ 
ed from the <^auls, the Romans, or the Francs? Cer- 
tain political speculators have imagitifed that they 
dould' recogriize the Gauls in t)ur peasahtty, the 
RonwixV, ih feui bui^gesses, atid the Francs in tht 
nobility. ^ But * the Goths, the Alams, the Nof- 
matis, did iiot they break into the country with 
rncirrsion on incursion, conquest on conqufest, and 
kgain xJdnfound these three ordef s of Citizens ? Hav6 
liot th4 English done' as much, when they madi 
Hiemselves masters of the greatest part of ^Tie king- 
dohi ? 1V> the overturntngs of war succeeded thosfc 
6( commerce. Swarms of Italiuns, Sp'aniaMs, Ger- 
mans, Etiglish, settled in our country, and are still 
every day carrying on * their establishtiierits. All 
these nations havebtenAsd themselves, by alliances, 
with every class of our countrymen; the races cf 
whom have been besfi'des cirossetl, ^rOttt the tnost 
illustrious down to tire liiost hilmble, l)y tnarrrages 
of finance t Oin pcbple* is fdrfned of tKfe ruiiis df all 
those natioiis, jtiiJt'as^fhe' soil which produces our 
harvest is Composed of the wi-eck 6f tfae oaks and 
firs of our ancient forests. Thfere riiaty bfe perhaps 
«6me miserable ckrbiahji-olHng all th'd year round 
friim the bottom of AiiV^gne^ up to Paris, ind from 
^^ : ' Paris 


P^is 4o^¥n to the bottom of Auvergnc, whose fore- 
fathers gave festivals to the Roman People, and 
figured in the Circus in chariots drawn by four 
horses ; and some poor boy who scramble^ up our 
^himnies to sweep them, is descended perhaps from 
those haughty Gauls who set Rome on fire, and 
scaled the Capital. We extract with avidity out 
of the bosom of the earth mutilated urns, effaced in* 
scriptiots, bronzes corroded by verdigrise, to trace 
on them the names of those ancient families ; but 
their descendants are still in life, and we should 
present living medals of them, did we know ho\y 
lo decipher the impressions. One citjrof Italy va** 
lues itself on knowing them, and while the whole of 
that country carries on a commerce in it^s monu* 
ments of stone, Milan furnishes for a very little 
money letters of nobility, and ancient armorial 
bearings, to the most obscure families of Europe^ 
on no other foundation than their names. But to 
what purpose this vanity ? Our Nobility no less 
than our plebeians is the work of time which dis- 
solves and re-composes every thing with the same 
elements. If the sands on the sea-shore are a wreck 
of the rocks, these rocks in their turn are only an 
amalgama of tbe sands. 

Not only is the People composed originally of the 
same families with their Clergy and Nobility, but it 
is the people which in particular constitutes the alone 
cause of the splendour of these two bodies ; from it-s 
bosom it is that the men issue who are entrusted with 
their education, and with the sacred trust of inspir- 
ing them with sentiments of honour and virtue^ The 
People is the principal source of intelligence!, of in* 

' ' * ^ dustry 


dustiy and power, even military power : ih^ People 
alone makes agriculture and commerce flourish. 
What do I say ? the People is all ; it is the uatioiUA 
body, of which the two other orders are nothiilg mofQ 
than accessary members : it can exist without tbejn^ 
but without it they are nothing. Never was therr 
seen a Nation formed entirely of Priests or of Nobler 
but there have been many flourishing Nations forai* 
ed simply, of the People. The Romans subsisted 
long without a clerical order. Their Magisjtrai;cig 
were their Pontiffs. The greatest part of the Gret 
cian Republics/ with the same Government, ^a4 
no body of Nobility; and though certain Writen^ 
may have advanced that Nobility is the firmestsupf^ 
port of Monarchy, it is most undoubtedly certain 
that the most ancient Monarchy in the worlds 
namdy China^ never knew inrhat the word GentU^ 
man meant. No one in China is noble except the 
family of Confucius ; and their Nobility is founded^ 
not on the subjugation of his fellow-citizens tQ 
Confucius by force of arms, by intrigue or by mo- 
ney, but on his havipg illuminated them by hi& 
talents and virtues. His descendants, distinguish^ 
ed by certain honours, have in no other respect any 
right to the employments and dignities of the em* 
pire; to these they rise like other subjects by per- 
sonal merit only. There is no Nobility in the des- 
potic States of Turkey and Persia, where the abjso* 
lute power of their Monarchs has need however of 
^he support of men devoted to them. 
! The People on the contrary is to such a degree the 
basis of public power, even in Monatch|eS| that the 
State is ruined as soon as the Clergy and Nobility 



have sepai^ted tbe^r interests from tlK>8e of thepeo^ 
pie. Tkis is proved by the lower Empire of the 
Gfteksy in which these two orders have ^engrossed 
eveitf thing, under weak Princes; the 'People, desti«i 
tote of patriotism and of property, permitted the 
Turks to 'subvert the Thn>ne. We behold at this 
^y a similar example in the Mogul Empire, where 
ibt People separated from it*s Bramins and Wi 
KtiifB, fiees with indifterence handfuls of Europeans 
seiz^ Hie Government and the Country. We ought 
to recollect ourselves, or rather we ou^lit fot ever 
io forget who thb persons were that kindled the 
civil ^^i^ which so long desolated our Monarchy, 
^d'who did theit utmost to subvert it, by inviting 
even fdreign tit)opsi into ifis bosom : assuredly it was 
sot the pebple. Eut nothing is such a strikihg proof 
Df the feet, as the ev^ts which have recently, taken 
place in Polatid. In the first place the aristotratii* 
eSfl Noblesse of tiiat Country has in all ages undi^t'^ 
gone an uAinterropted series of misfortune, merely 
from being disunited from theit* Commohality ; and 
if in former times they gained-some advantages over 
the Russiaifs, the Prussians, and the States of Aus* 
tria, it was because the Feudal Government of those 
Countries \eas then worse than that of Poland. But 
when the Nobility of those Nations was constrained 
to appr6ae!i toward their Commonalty, not byrais" 
ing them to their own level by equitable Laws, but 
by sinking themselves to the level of the People 
under the pressure of adespotic Government, which 
renders all subjects equal, they formed in conjunc- 
tion a national whole, which the Polish Noblesse^ 
abacndolied to itselij was unable to resist These 



)ist then have seen withiti these fewr yean their 
Monarchy i]ivided among the thnfe ndgbboitring 
Powei^, yrhp employed against their Patrician Di- 
ets, oply a very few ragtHientaof jikbeian sokliers < 
and notwithstanding the fiivourable circainstances 
of the niomenti froth the Turkish ^Bt tn )irhicfa 
Eussiaand Austria* are embroiled^ apd from the 
particular kind disposition of the King of PrtMada, 
they make fruitlea efforts to recover theif hidepeii* 
dence^. because they do not call the People of ^^ 
Country to libeirty^ ' 

The People theti Is all In atf, even bnder Md* 
^archi^ if^ Thp Feopk ate not made for Kings^ 
5< but Kings are made for the People*^ sa^s Mnelen, 
afBer the laws of . universal justice; by a still 
greater force of lemoning, the Clergy and the Ndr 
bility are so* To the People eveyy' tilihg ought 
ultimately to be referred, Priests, Nobles, Officers, 
Soldiei^s^ Magistrates/ Ministers^ Kings $ as the feet, 
the hands, the head, and all the senses are refei^ble 
to the trunjc in the human body, l^he felicity of 
the pieople is the supreme Lav^ saijl the Ancients ; 
Salus popuU suprema leaf esf&. 

From the time of the three Persian Pofientatei, 
Othanes^ Mcgab^m^ and DariuSf i^v^ho reduced t& 
the Democratic, Aristocratic and Monarchic Stats, 
the forms of Government wUcb each of them wish- 
ed toestabl^h in Peniia^ the question bsis been fr4^ 
quently agitated^ which of the three is best; as if^ 
it wert iittposs)l»le fori any other to exist. For my 
own ffxt, considering h^ir iflany difi!erent forma of 
<}ovemtnait haro .m^ot tli^ tijne been sett]^ m 
KToy country, not essen^ebended j[n thise^utneif:* 

•242 SEQUBL 'T.0 THE STffMfi* OF. NATURE. 

\iojf, I believe \hs^ n rNfttipn-r^wy swhmt uvdtr 
HBvery kM of ftjitp, proyadefltlic Pe<i>ple be Iwppy, 
jqst as a u»|n |il»y Hv^ aBy ¥?here, Under ev^^ 
.^neca^sof regJW^rv.prpvi^ed Jwjiorfy })? in.pfrfeut 

X. Jp. ftct, tbfe 'Wdunersof iNftfiiow arc not less 
i^rLsd :|h4n tl^l^ of indn'jidiials. Tbete are na- 
ikom 'Vh\oh live i;i an erfatjc state in deserif, 
MohLSft ^ ^iftbitW' and iT^fteM.; ftii4 ^bws wjio 
iiipwrg^out iofthdroiRrft ocfuirtrjr, m threCbf«fft0: 
there are some who disperse .theoifiif Iw s ^rpr the 
.wijo\fi ewtb, .^ iJie .Jeiw^ And Ar*(«H*s;: ^and 
others )rho kw^i^p w jn4tj|oollr» with aay.aUiin-' 
ger, as the Japbpetf^ : sosod obUmt in swaitnfi; and 
inhabit citie%)te iii the case <9/ppii(^.;iiatiopsi)£()^ 
others s^j^t^er thetflselwe^ about tn «>litft?y f*mili«* 
and live in bippw, W the fefend«rs pf New ^t4- 
lapd. : ' 

The Goy^rnroeijtd of mtn OTe no less dMfeic^ 
thap their manners. To bcgi^ 'witb the at^te pf 
Monarchy) if thexfe feietmy !Couritries;gpveropd by 
one Prince only, «ome Ihave existed in a very flou- 
rishing condition where there wc«5 two at once, a^ 
at Lac^edemon : nay, I belive it vcMJd act be im- 
:po$sible to fiad^sqmeirfio^y ba«iS beeti e^^c^lkntly 
.governed by.alfiuuavh'tttc- Asito theimtm*^ off Mo- 
iiardiies, somearebbiedilarycm the maJe li^e, from 
-fiither to %on, as ouar own ; ptfaers are tso iix favoor of 
iemalds, andfi^om tincleto nephe^v, bsiBC^ain king- 
drains of Afnca aftd x)f Asia ; in ortliers ite SoTeieiga 
leem nominate his sucoessoi-l^issown faipiiy,^ as in 
Turkey, in€Hina, ankiift Ri»iia; others are etec- 
'tivein acorns of Nobility, by theNobksaioBe, w 
^Poland; others ar& balanced by a ^u»to of 


'v^Uistis W A tit d irst: 2^^ 

!t*rfeste'as' ^brfgthfe Je#'8,t)r^ a corps oPtoldii^rjl, 
as at Algiers. With reipedf to Atistbcr4<iJt5^, tht'th 
•are some who have chosen therr Ruf^rk hi a fcdrps 
of Religious Nobles and/Wtarrioifs, ais 'at Malt i? 
Mhei^ In a corps of enslaved solcfiers/ is' the twelve 
ttejf^s of Egypt, chosen fro'iii ate6ttgt1ie ^'falbelucs^; 
others in a Senktie of Civilians as at Genoa apd 
♦Venice. IAs to i)eiWocracies, they tiyct th^iV (jiiefs 
in corps of Merchants, as; in Hbllknd; dr oflilis- 
bandfhieta/a^ in'Svififeerhnd; dr fro'ih atnong stf^n- 
gtifi ^ho 'Mp^\i *tti ])afe^4)y, as ^he '^Ih'all Republic 
df Saiii^-Marin. ^ fMdrs have *een' 'cohiposfed pf a 
mixture of Aristoci^fcjr fetiid Dfeitiocf acy; as the ^e- 
pnblifc 'of ildme'; b^^fa'df iSle t!iree'GWernnien^s 
^tWneS6,^asm-Eii^atra.' ' ''*' ' '' \'/ 
I observe that all these GoverntnfehtsTiaveeguat- 
ly MS f^hh ofi^inkfe; that ^tlipse \i/hicy , liave 
liiB^r attained infcr^iy^;^6r Whichy s't it after bein^ 
required, have'hdd ho'oAer'objecit1n.vie\v.but 4;he 
pd^efr of a Islnglfe e?6r^s': >tich have Tbeeii ihose of 
Pdlind, of Genoa; -dfX^etlfce, of Malta, which Tiave 
sacrlflced-'thfe interests 6f their Cdnimbnalty to those 
of thdir Noblesse. I reriiirk, on the contrary, that 
those which have pYbspefed are sucT^ as haVe pro- 
posed as their only object the ploM^^er or theliappi- 
ness of the l?e6ple: thiis Xacedemon g2ive laws to 
Greece and to i part of 'Asia. She would have, 
like Rome, given law to the universe, had she com- 
prehended in the .number of her citizens hei" hus- 
bandmen, {h6 HeTotes- It is from the influence of 
the People that 'turkey has obtained celebrity by 
her conquests, China by her duration, Holland by 
her commerce, England by her maritime power and 
R « her 


her. superior illuminatiqii, and Switzerland^ . /i^i){ 
n^ore h^ppy^,by l>er liberty and her rqpow?., 

I farti>er remarked . two things of materml im* 
jjortanc^ toward the prosperity of Nations r "/] , 

1. That all those which have flpurishe^ weresueb 
as are jgp\^rned by two opposite powers ; and thajl 
those which crumbled intp ruins hav0 been govern^ 
ed by one. only ;. because Nature ^rms hapmoA^qs 
only by means pf contraries, ^,^ 

8. That there has existed no oneGoyeminenf, 
of what »at^re soever^ but wb^t .h^ had a Chfef^ 
under the D^nominttion of Dpgft of B^y^ of King> 
of Pope, of Sultan, of Emir, pf Dairi, of Empieroi^ 
of Stadtholder, o^ Gra^d-Ma&ter, of : Consul, of 
lAvoyer, &c. because every society stands in Wf4 
of a mpderator,^, . . - . ,. ; ;. ; 

At Lacedemon, ihe powei pf the, Ephori waff;op# 
posei^ to that of the two Kin^^; but for this cout> 
terpoise, the two Kings would have destroyed 
.f hemsclves fwm the jealo.usy pf the Governmjeiit, 
as was the case in the decline of the Roman Empire, 
when t)vo Kniperors on the throne at once aqcel^^ 
rated it's ruin. Among the Chinesie, the jSoyeiieigti 
is despotic only by the Law of the Empiie whicli 
he causes to be put in f^^cutlon ; hut his indivir 
dual will is so balanced and cirfsunisci-ibed by thj^ 
tribunals constituted as conservators pfxh^ %]Q|p;ent^ 
rites, that without their concurrence b? cannot 
change the most trivial custom, even to the fashioii 
of a garment On the other hand, respecjfc for 
those tribunals is inspired into the]>eople fVom the 
tenderest infancy, with such a iieligions awe, that 
each of them might become master of tlie Empire, 


did' they not Ualance one another, and iinlesis they"^ 
h^d the Empci-or as Moderator. * The Case Isi 
©ctrly the same among the Turks, with vvbbm the ' 
power of the Mufti always balances ^hat of the' 
Stdtati ; no one military edict, lio sent^hie of death, * 
can be promulgated by command of the SidtJih' 
vritbotit a rtligiotts ^fw, or permission of ^thc* 

Mufti. '•''.••'' ^^■•; •'. ■—■'■'■■' -'i 
Amoftg the EomaiiSy the pouter of the Tribuhes 1 
Ptdh oppbsed to that of the 'Consuls : but as thesfe^ 
two powers which mpresbnted, the one that of the * 
People, the other that of the Nobtesiie, had no Md- * 
deratorto maintain the equilibrium between them,' 
the State was incessantly agitated by their coiiten- - 
tion6« The Romaits^ percei ve4 ^^^ sensibly, from the 
earliest periods of their Republic?, the necessity of 
calling in a moderating power, that In critical situ^^ 
ations they created a Dictator. The ©imitator >va9 
a dei^pot of a moment^ who reduced everything to ^ 
order. He frequently saVedithe Republic when 
threatened only by foreign wars, but destfoyed it 
when pi vil war broke out In truth; it was possible 
to choose him only in one of the two contrary pow- 
er^, and. then they terminated in disturbing the 
equilibrium between them instead of re*estabHshing 
it^. .This was verified^ in ihc horrible prbsdriptions 
of SyHaaridof Mariusj Sylln/at the head of tliie * 
pitty of the Nobility?, rendlcred himself omnipotent * 
by the Dicta tor^h^)^ Montesquieu celebrates hhn * 
f(ir having^bdraU:e^ it, a» display iag aM^ohderful" 
effort of.courage t he, represents hxm as confounded * 
in the multitude; kloe ar^simple indlViidu^ whom** 
any .•one citizen could call to account for the blood 

R a which 


v^hich he bad shed* As the judgmeob oS l/lmttA* 
qp^en is. of high authorityi I muftt take tjie Mbettgn 
to refute it, becauseitgyv^a currency t^a^^vety grass: 
mistaHc. We cannot b^ tpo njucb.onioiir guard \ 
agfinst the preponderancy of great names. Sy'Us^ 
djd not abdicate; hisOi^ce from greatness oEmind. 
but /rcim weakness^ tha4: be migbt: not present in' 
his own person a central point to the public vbn-I 
glance. To wbofu cQuid -a, Bcimaii citi^sesL have 
addre^s^id bhnself to orbtain justiceofJ^lla bf quglit 
bsick to the •level of a {simple, individual ? Were not 
the Senate, the Consuli, the Tribunes, theSoldii^ry, 
the who]6 JSI^giSitracy of Rome, tbe creatures of 
5yUa,,.acco&atp}ic6S{iBi his proscriptioiis, aitd^ inte- 
rested in quashing all p]K)secut^a]i tm that account*'^ 
What do I say i) Sylll^. a. 'Simple individuail; exet^ 
ci&?d his. tyranny up to the very moment of his 
dfath; ajod W,e a^re furnished with a proof of it in 
his history, •* The day previQus to that on which 
** he died^bieing infdimfled tksXfGnnniu^y who was-in 
^* debt to thb Kublic Treasury,, deferred paymeiiC 
*' in expectatioi^ of his: death, he semt forhinn ^^ 
^M>ad hins^ introduced into his chamber, where the 
"mome^^thP entered, he gave orders to his mini- 
^^s|:ers t^lseifie him and to strangle him in his pre^ 
" sernqCj but by the.eKertiDn of his voice aftd the 
** heatv jpto which heitiireMr himself, be burst the 
^* inward impbsthume w&iah Yni% preying on his; 
"life, and discharged a. great qufintity t>f blood; ' 
•* by which be was sp cikiwai^tedj^ that after |>2*sing 
*'the night in great, agony, he expired • next 
" motoii g/' (/JPiM/a/'cAi^--:*^Wlto tben^ ^\ Quid have- 

• d»ttt • 

drnred to aUlSjrllalo^accbuiil:) u^o *^a6ted one^ 
so rigorously the vttf last day of lw« life ? Finally - 
liis^ credit was still io greati even after hfeidibat^^ 
that the Homaxx ladies, tt) do botiour to his'l^A^-* 
Val o4>9equies, expended su^ns far beyoiftd^wh^had*^ 
e^er been done bdbre, oi^ faai bden done ^Vce 
from respect to any onfe Ifioinafii ** Atnong^othfer 
** things/' says PtUtarcb\ ** tUcy contributed such 
** an einormous quantity of rich spioery and per- 
" ftoties, that besides^ those whkb wer« catfred i» 
'^ turohundredand teniiessds, there was suifideht 
*^ to f4onn a large iatage* r^embliftg Sylla hinis^l^' 
"and another of a Liet^ bearing the ftiseei before^ 
'*him, consisting entirfely of tiie most exqiiiiitfe- 
** incense and cinnamotii" 

Thus the power of » the People was oppressed by 
that of t?% Nobility^ reinfbrGeJ by Sylla with that 
oPfbfr toictatbrshiji. Hot' when Cbsdr; invested' 
liicewise with the oflfece of Dictator, threw Mmself 
into the scale of the People, then the' party of the 
Nobility was oppressed in- it'4 turn. At last^ 
when the Emperors his sncbessors, instead of be- 
ing moderators of the Empire, had united in thbit 
o\ni persons both thte consular and tribunal 
power, the Empire fell, because the two powers 
which served tobaidnce eaeh other, fixed at their 
centre, prodticed mottoh no longer. Thus it is^ 
thit the functions oftiie human body are reduced 
t6' a panilytic state,^ when the blood instead of 
circulating through :the members,^ stagfiates at the ' 
region of the heart/ : : ^ 

We itflF4herefore in'to a very greit error; when 

vfe attemjit Worn' the sentimerit of our.weakness, 

to give hnnabveable fouUdatioiis to a government 

■ * R4 which 

iMift $^kVti 70 Tits SYO^IBT^r VAttJKt. 

which is perpcttttaHy in motkm. Nature detivti 
ix^nstaqt harmottioi only from moveable powers. 
The type of societies, like that of justice; toay ht 
represented by a balance, tfa^ use df which cotisisU 
eotirriy in the 6ouhterpoite of it's two beams; ' 
the restof bodies in in their equilibrium. 

I coacludii therefore that every Government is 
(iourishing ind durable^ when it ih formed of two 
powers whi<^h balahtie each other, it^hen it has a 
head to act as Moderator, And has for it s centre 
the happiness of the People^ These are, in my 
opinion, the onl^ means and the only endwhidt 
confer prosperity and duration on States, whetfaei" 
they be monarchical^ aristocratic or republican t 
and this is demonstrated ty the history of every 
Couiltry in the World; for it is not sufficient to 
|>roduce instances of certain brilKant periodi) of i 
Country^ to justify political principles throwti 
but at faiidom, as most writers have done ; it is ne* 
cessary tosee a whole State flourish and last a long 
time together, in order to form a judgment of the 
jgoGkiness of it's Constitution, as we judge of that 
bf a inai^, not from some particular exertion of' 
strengthf but from a sound ^ml uniform st^te of . 

THere may be started as an objection the case of 
certain societies of men, living according to the . 
I^aws (:)f l^ature^ Who have subsiikted without those . 
internal convulsions, and without a bhief, disposed » 
td promote the happiness of their iState, like bees , 
to the labours of their hi vfe, Iby the sehliment bf 
their fcommt^o intpiresn Biit if their political cWh- 
terpoises were not in their society, they ^v.elre frbiii 
without; I dpuht whether even the \)tth Wht^fi^ 


kfitit8:t ia Ao.s^f would take so nuteii palksto* 
aii£as« prOvisioiis', Ijor dqK)fitt them in tbe ininks df 
treeSi to: iHuM thttt houi^s of wdx, and to Ihre to 
gethi^ iti anity$ unless tb^y had to -contend witk 
the winds^ w|th th^ raini fhb wintisr; ^mdi' tamny 
totherdifferetit^aieinies; exttoial w4i3 ensure their 
internal coxfcosd^ Wl^t ia very liemarkablej each 
fiw^n) has a Moderator in their Queen. Tiui 
hBxnc thing takes place in the habitations ef ants» 
and I. believe of all animals wWh live in Repub- 
lics* Happy wonld it be fot human societies^ if 
they Imd to encounter in like !hi;tnner only tfaeLob^ 
stacles presented by the b^nd of Nktufe ! Hielr 
enjoyments would extend over the face of the 
tvhole Earth, the productions of which, th^ am 
destined to reap ; the human race woidd form 
but one family, whereof every itidividnal would 
stand in need of no other Moderator but GOD 
and his own conscience. But in our badly consti- 
tuteici States, we find all Valuable piDperty of evety 
kind accumulated on a small number of indivi^ 
du;|ls ; thu4, unable to demand them at the haild 
of Natung, wjB are obliged, to dispute possession 
with m^n, aa4 to dir^t our powers against ^mr^ 

Tfai^ prineiples being lud ciown, I finclont 
French Government constituted' like all those 
l«r}^cb/frQm their origin, bate deviated from the 
Laws nf Nature^ It is divided into two powers 
which serve as a iw|tua] dousterbalahce. The bne . 
consists af tiie Cleriii^ Order aad tliat of the No-^ 
bility, who llairfc fpi sjsvbral a^es past united their 
iDterests; the other, «f the order of the People^ 
wW 9F^ beginmiis to acquire iilnnuoation respect- 

3SD SEQUEL TO. TKX^iS«us»ifis 09 Mature. 

ing their dnm. But t^y me very fir Ardm beings 
counterbalattcedL Sbirfe of om^ Kitigs h^ire in- 
deed attempted to. establish* the eqjitiHIIrium, by 
throwii»g;Some wfcifeht iirto the scale of the People, 
ifiiKHB the crectiaii. of the ContmaneSj of Mtinici*- 
pil.Oi&ces, and of Parliameots; but the members- 
of tliese bodies, having most of them a tendency^ 
toward tibe privileges of tlie Nobility, and the 
benefices of the Clergy, the interests of the People 
have remained without a defender. A few iso- 
lated writers alone, who, animated with zeal for 
thixse of Mankind, have been the only Represen- 
tatives of the People, and have set up secret tri- 
btines for them even in the conscience af the great. 
The Kiiig, however, is as much interested as the 
Beople, in the maintenance of the political equi- 
libriuni, as he is the Moderator of it, and as 
oc^ofthe powers which ought to be balanced 
cannot exceed the otber^ without' hrs findfng 
liimself deranged, and rendered incapal)le of put- 
ting any one in motion. 

Not only ought all the Members of the politicaV 
body to be in equilibrium for the interest of the 
People; but to the People also, and to them alone, 
ought to be referred every particular interest. But^ 
tHe Clergy and the Nobility are precisely the con- 
trary ofwhatith^ ought to be, and 'fi-om what^ 
they originkUy have been ; for they are formed' 
into a c*)alition of particular inteifests entirely se- 
parate from the cause of the People. 

.When the King, the Clergy and the ^Nobility 
of a State farm one body with tti'eJb l^eople, tliey^ 
resembie the branches of a^igr^at/tree which, not- 
withstandt!^ the vibleaoe^f th^tc^pe^t^ are re-^ 


wnnz% cur: abecujot. SiSrft 

stored to: their eqyailibnmn hf t^ trunk Miiicfa' 
bears and unites thenu But irlien tbesejpowed. 
have centre&.clii{fereixt &om the IVople^ thejr axe 
like tbose-trrees which gro^ by ohanceonthe sum* 
mtt of ati old taw^: they, fbr some tmed(ia>- 
rate tt^« bat«letneQU ; but with the la^se i>f ages^ 
tbcir rpote force a passage betureeii^ the layeirs.df 
stoned, separata their jowihg^s^, a'&d termiftate ift 
the sub^rsi^oa of the monuiiifeiifr^hkh once sttp^^ 
pcfrteA them. 

Tlie Kihgi the Clergy and the NafciRty have a rela- 
tion so neces^ry with the Pec^le, tiiat Ifris by 
means of it alone they have themselves cotmriote 
relations with each other. Bnt for thePeople they 
would be separated in interests as in fiinctiona. 
They resemble the branches of a trea wbicb all 
have a tendency to diverge, and which have i» 
principle of union among themselves except the 
trunk which combines thenv Though this com- 
parison may be very proper to render intelligible 
the popular inter-connections tb which I wish to 
lead our political powers, yet as^ these mutual con- 
nexions hav6 hitherto no existence among us, and 
as we must distinguish into corps which ha[ve se- 
parate centres; the members of tfle same whole, I 
shall employ an ibage better adapted to represent 
the existing Midle of our Estates-General, and to ' 
flatter the pretensions of the superior OrdersJ ' I 
consider then the King ds the sun, theemblifrHi of 
which is that' of his iJlusttious ancestors; tWe* 

CKirgy and Nobiifty as tiro planetary bodiejf re- 
volving round the Siin, and reflecting his light ; 
and the People! as the obscure globe of the earth' 



which we trample under our feet^ but which never^ 
thelesii supports asd feeds us. Let the powers of 
the Nation ijotisider themselves, therefore as powd- 
ers of Heaven, which in some other respects they 
pretend to be ; but let them recollect at the same 
tiiiKs^ that notwithstanding the privileges which 
they eiypy of moving ih their particular sphere, 
afijd df approaching that of the sun, they Sire not 
the less on that account adapted to the sphere of. 
the People, seeing the sun himself, with all his 
splendour, exists in the Heavens ooly for the hat* 
monies of the Earth and qf the smallest plants 
oa her surface. 

I shall put up prayefs therefore for the harmony 
of the four Orders which at this day compose the 
Nation, beginning with him who is the prime 
mover in it 

Wishes for the KiNa 

MANY writers of high repubatioh cotisider the 
national power in a Monarchyj as divided into 
two ; into a legislative power and an executive 
power ; they assign the former to the Nation, and 
the latter to the King. 

This division appears to ttie defective, for it 
omits a third power essential to every good Go* 
vernment, the moderating power, which in Mo- 
narchy • belongs exclusively to the Sovereign* , 
Here the King is not the siihple Commissioner of 
the Nation merely^ ia Doge or a Stadtholder t he . 
ia t Monarch invested the Ohaifge of direct*., 
ing the public operations. The Clergy^ tbeN«» 
bility, and eVen the People^ Only see and regulate 
each, one in jparticulat) detached parts of the Mo» 


^ WISH £8 OF A nMCtV9t, g^^ 

Harahy, .of which^they are memhew only; the 
King ift this h^art of i(, an4 is i^^lon^ capable <^ 
Jmowing ^d of putting in motion ^e {combined 
whole. Thp tbree bodies of which Monarchy if 
composed ^re continually re-acting one against aur 
other, SQ that left t9 t^jemselvfes^it would sp^ily 
jcome to paf&th^t oxk^ of thcQi must oppress, th^ 
other two, or be oppripssed by thejn, wit(iout it's 
being possible for the |Ci9g> whp would. have th* 
executive powejr only, to dp ^ny thing else but bp- 
comip thjB s^gent of the st^pngesjt paf ly, that is of 
ppprie^sion. The Sovereign xnu^t the/efgre li^v^ 
besides the fnoderating poM^^, that is tp s»y, tliie 
power pf maintaii)ing the equilibrii;Lin, not] only 
between thosp bodies, but to unite th/eir force pxt 
^emally in opposition l^o foreign ppwj^rs, whose ettr 
jti^rpriz^s he. alpne is \n -^ condition to know. It if 
the moderating power which constitute^ the Mpf 
narjcb^ , . 

Thp writers to whom I alluded, have had a pcrr 
peption o^ ^he necessity of this power, in th^ 
King,. an4 have madie it a questipi^ whether it 
jopght to consist in n sii^ple veto, as in ^pgUnd, 
or in a certain number of deliberate voices^ to b« 
fescryed to.hln^ as his royal prerogative: • . 

1}^^ veto is an ipert power papable. of defectr 
ing the be$t conqerted prqj.cct«^ The King oo 
the contrary ought pQ be vested >vith a power of 
sictivity capable of giving them energy and juct 
pes3. The heart lA the human frame, is neve^r ia 
9 state of inaction ; the same ought to be the ca49 
of the Sovereign in a Monarchy. 

As tp delit>erative voices to jbe res^ve^ to th/| 

^£54 SEQUEL T6 ^r^tite S^vmiiB Oy VATtJEE. 

Kmg, it is extremely dtffictitt to determine theft 
wumben I will take the Ilbei^ty to suggest afe^ 
ireflectiorts on the subjecft. The numfber Hf voicA 
fti the National A^isemhly is about t<vdte himdred, 
of ^vhich six hundred belong to the Glergy and 
Kobililry, atid she hundred to the <;!omttionalty. 
Nov, if rbe six huhdrtd Votes of the two first Or^ 
ders itf^ere equal in weight to the six'hutidted cff the 
Commons, as they are in number, thttt would he 
an exact equili1>rittm between theta, and nothing 
toore would be necessary to the SoVefergn but his 
own single voice to ihakfe the balance incHhe which 
way lie pleased : \Vhat do I saj^r The vorce oiT 
the King ^vfcich disposes bf all emplbj^liieWts, pos- 
sesses <5if it s own Nature such a ptiiponAeraticy^ 
that it atone would bear down atl therest, as liap- 
I>ens in despotic States, utiless it tdo had a fcoun- 
taerbaJance. ^ ''*" ' 

It i^ useless therefore to multiply the voice of 
the Kiti^ in the Natltinal Assembly, in ordb to 
|;ive him weight; it is sufficient th^t kbe rttcrvyd 
to him : but it is highly necessary to i^^orm tKe 
national balance itself, to render it susdeptibie of 
equifiWum. Though it's arm may be equal in 
length, it's s<iaks are fey no means so in respect of 
wei^t. It may be affirmed that the 'scale 6f 'the 
ClcJlgy and Nobility is of gold, whefeals that ofthe 
l^ple is of straw. The former is so filled with 
mkres^ ribbands, dignities, governments, magi^* 
tl^aeies, sarvivances already given away, though 
<hey ^grnally belong to ^e Royal authority clt 
even to the People^ that the balance ha^ always 
leaned to t^t-side, in defiance of theetforts made 


by sofanc ofrowrKiiigs to Te-^dtjuit it' Tfaii scale 
accordiogfytprepoiideratesinot only by if« fxropet 
weight, but by that of ftte poyal power, which it 
has attF»ited toitstif; sfiritfaat iii ordar tote^ilore 
the scate'of 'the ^Peopie to an ^ui&brtunir vt woiaM 
l^ tieccssary tliat tte £idg 4;houkl either render h. 
faearier Jby^traosferring to jt a certain prcfibyjMil 
of dig&ities aid exBploymente^ or by inti^afiifig 
tbe length of jA^s aihai, iifi multiplying tbe voiced of 
the Repesenibafiifv^s of the People in the Natidtittt 
^Aasetnblffies. The ptebdan. lever thus hecdiniftg 
thp.longer df the t\)(ro; it^ will require vcvyik^ e& 
i«^t on tide )3tart of the Prinde to gi^ve it ini^lkiaftkni^ 
and the moderating power will act in thd Md^ 
n^Kh^inihe siune maaneras the 'ttiovcacbie Weij^ 
^IcM^ the greater lever of^^tbe Romaa baiafSfceL 
It was oaly by the SKtmber of theif: ovin vowA 
that the Pe^^ of Rome halax»ced the w^ghtdP 
the senatorial voices. In the British Paarliiainettlv 
the Qunsil^r of die members of the Upper House 
does niJt exceed two /hi^ndred and forty-fvrtsv 
whereas that of the members of liie House of 
Commons amounts to five hiradred and fiftjy-eiglir, 
that is to SKKxre tlmn double. Without aa equi- 
valent pje^portion, the plebeian scate.will never be 
able to acquire it's eqailibrium, till the siik hotr 
dred voices which oom|»oseit shall be supparted hfjr 
the voices of the twenty -four milliom of tate 
whom they represent : ia that case, though iff 
scale may be light, it's aruD^ becoming infinitely 
long, it's re^^ction: will be rendered ininitely pow» 
erful. This momait of involution will be 1^ 
proper one for the King to resume his moderatii^ 
powei\ in order to the re-establishment of the m<H 
narchical balance. The 

$S$ S£atJ£t TO THt tTCBttft .OP K AtU &£. 

The royal inOuettco will then iweriibretliat <af 
the Sttn» who balances ia the Heayea^ the Globes 
Vbich evolve ground him^ I 

I have oftener than onne estptesMd a tteslre that 
the Kiog would m^e a progress once eyery year 
over the estates of his kingdom from one eutm^ 
piiQr to tlie otb^r, as the Sup visits by turns every 
jear the two poles of the world* My wishes seem 
to he tm. the point of dccompliefamei^. Xhi^ move^ 
meat will indeed be diifereat, bat the effect wili 
^ t)ie »me. It wilt not be the . motion (Off the 
King toward the People ; bi^t that df the l^opU 
toward their King^ This political system is simr 
pUfied like the astronuniTGal, in which it is sup* 
posed^ with a high degree of probabilily^ ^hat it 
is not the Sun which . revolves round the i^urtb^ 
bat the Earth which revolves on her axis and in 
iter orbit raund the SUn^ presenting to \nm by 
turns her ix:y poljss. '; 

This order seems to itie still better adapted 4«r 
the functions of a Kingyhvhoafterallisonlyaman^ 
and who ought not only to diffuse his light over 
his People^ but who in his turn stands in need of 
receiving illumination from them, The King will 
tecoidingly derive information from tl^ Ifational 
Assembly,; of what is passing in the provinciSal as^ 
H^bMes^^qf )rhat is transacting in the Assemblies 
of the cities; and from those of the citieS| of whaj^ 
is going on in the villager " 

The men like the atBurs of die State will circulate 

under his eyes ; for the meanest peasant may be eli« 

gible as deputy from the assembly of his village ti>^ 

that of the eity in whose district it is situa^idi from 

... thf 

. 1 ri ^ T / ir ISHE8 OF A fiJEC tU«f:.. - ^ r. Vft 

thras^aiAbfy ofosfuoh cify to that of the pto'Biice^ 
and.frdfn tJiat;of kheifMroiaooe to the NatioBalrAV 
i5fflriblyj!> ThttJt*yi*l»i^inode ofrotation, tfac^^De^ 
piitjes o£ thefjNvtiQaal .Assembkf nay jexhibib t9 
the Sovereign all his subjecte imsiicoefisioni jast asr 
titeEnth poiaetits. tid the^Sait alKtfae: parts of 'her 
^3teu0feiciifie.. ') V -.t g .: : .•oiiii?)- \ • 'M;! 
I hereprof^dr oii^ tlie i^suppO^iod tbst> the a»l 
.senaAilio: of tbeiviUages^af^ the citaek ati^ of tht) 
pibvincf^. shall take glace all over €be kii^;d9pivi 
that theyji^U heft once pennaiient atid^pesM}dU 
oaI| in 'Other, words,' that they shall :be^eycr3r>.yeai:' 
renovated , ia at tlg^ird 'psat of their aaeiftberB, aaA 
that the wmt mte. shall he appliiid t6 the NariJcximlr 
AiMViUyv 'liiiAth 6ug)»fc to he tbeic^ntr^lof dl 
tfaoiG[,aABembIie$ : for there should exist ooitiprefeer 
ha&mqtiyin |tll Jfte parts of the.SKite. lb ^r»% 
penvianiacy ^ to i the aietaiblif s ^f viUa^,iaf/(^fiieii 
aauLV proidniqesir^iird to. iritiihol4>it(frcbrrtfae>3Aa«< 
tien^l^\A0seiiib]r)^;..woul4 b6:tho>8a!il0cthiBl^ ^al& a 
llldtoh'Whikise iidimte,' middHo^iaiidi^bw 
alL ifa niotibn^ tttrmtiklraMr the dnai&fiprifii^. . ii i "" 
' ;Frofm«lmpdtx{8iiaicy of the NaAioiul Assembly 
the tresolb^ili^bi^ tiboA no ene Arisfcocraticdliiodyii 
will haveriii initWpower.hflncefbrwatdto interposei 
i^tself betairdRiitlMrdiiiig.aQd the Natioii; and dsat^ 
fi»m^ pdfiadiaiEila:otatiDii of it'&fofaiiihfii^tit kMt 
mot be pokiblfe ffaf itself to d^Beratemto an arie^ 
«ocratk,^uafe6b .lAsi^ Kii^ ^siesseai^f right itli^ 
ejoedntivb jpMier^ nt Ifm coutd ^ssr jb .ifc babTi^hsk 
l»uki»Qflned?&tMli^&^ mld<m^ 

ht;tm laievi^'iilMfiQfMkra pomrifOAtJlkmsm^ 
b^ihei*g'<«nA|iwe^fri»o|^^ <ip/ 


poailtliilercats, lie wHl ahmjis 'possess tke pewet 
<>f sMliitiiaing^ the je^mtiibariiiiiii :of it Nfithsi 
tbtrefeit Jby it's^ opcrationi^ »ir Ay it*^ dtmifiini^ 
wbuld it itt afafe to mAss imy enoioachitreit iditit^ 
trer oil tbe&grslaathilrh^yl . : 
. Itlnay be fti^thdr sUcged, tiiat*itakmei<3ni faci> 
Bute the operations of a good Govemmeilt; «mI, 
by it aloiKi the iiBtfvfrtft nf the King and o£ the 
Peofde, iwfaicii iarer one and tte iMim^' ican be tomuA 
m fMect; mibn.; The iOmg, im ooimnitU^gtotfae 
Dtapntiesiof die Cornmons tike power oFdditodiiig 
thenitenrtsidf the f^sttple^ coraniifts to 4imm at 
IBk 8V« inm tfastof -defi^iiding the inHetertaiKf 
taysdfy^ wMebdiflEeriiinoliUmgfrdmllieprospetJ^ 
of thePMpktbcbsdves, a«dfllioiikliliieielMipyai^ 
as in tones past^ sny iltsorder in AdihiaiNflneioi^ 
Urn iE^eople coaU not acowe ^e King of % mk6 
has;givkn them the p0i|>eliial^vef of mrtiihingitfi 
motioni^nAof proposMgfko hila ihef>i«|KrOTmf dfcn^ 
liMf thu ojoderaotttlnple^ so natmd aud-sogoei^ 
for the /happmeis lof the liiatikin and of thdr 
Pribces! llie taBt*s,ftheananimB»tlK£Mlikm^ 
diMQlrda Btnd liie vass of one. IpMgdom lenmnM^ 
Mmdte itiKossirtves to. another. Whorefbra dnight 
dMCttot fac a awtaal hrtamoBSlRKliiealiiKi of iqooh 
clinl and pwdiAms?- Uscy i»lmtlUf^ then mK 
oaire iSor emr 4ibe ^plaase adiidi jy aindljnidrit 
fiftriiCffosihhomidPeqptel JitBybeohftai^k^fiiMRt 
the gaarijkadeof «H dfatiour ma^^Bam the if^^ 
oasdcrica trantfniittefi itb iihtetea Ikik-^weBta^ 
hBt5««sohlhe^riMe iMtt 1»i«<MiNMi^ttt(ireaf{;^ 
Sqn ilhMbiiM|%a«ntoiis Wolldiii^^lfiaPtitil.ltt»(to^ 
gim ;^r'* Sufficient for mfoy/' Kec plurilkk imfbr. 



It weift most deyottdjrio be wished tliat fJse 
Clet^ had nevier s^atated their iDterestis froth 
tiiose of the PH^file. Howeitr wdl endowed the 
Cleigy bf a:Statt tnay.bej the luin (£ the People 
ipeedily iiivotves theihlikewiai^^ The example of 
the Greeks of Cbiiitaiithiople fa a proof of this, 
whose Patriareba inteniieddled iil; diefanctioas of 
the Eoqperor^ and the JE^nperors in those of the 
Patrfarcfaa. ThePeopk^ dnnttrd by theit Clergy 
aad byihdr Frincei, who had seised every species 
of property, evien that of opitiiooy lost ali sense df 
patriotism: What do I aay? During the siege 
wliicfa terminated in giving the Turks pbsse^ncoH 
of Ooostantiikopte^ this was the general cry^ '^ We 
^ woidd catiier see tiU'bans among us than a Git- 
^ diaal's hat.** I must facfee dbserve thcit «fae rdi^ 
gion of a State is not dways ifc*s firmeat ^support^ 
tta has been so frequdndy advasced ; fot the Greek 
Empire of Cosstantioople fell, and it-s Religion 
remained. The same thing happened to thb King^ 
dom of J»nsalem. On the olter hand^ nfiaby to- 
ligioaa have changied in different States^ the^ Gor^ 
vemments of whieb has contittned to stsbsist : Sitdh 
were the ancient rdigioni of several Kingdoms 4)f 
£utopc^ of Asia and of Africa^ to which havl^ and* 
oeeded the Cbrhtian and JMahomttam^ Reiigioiif , 
whereas many of those 5tates hare notw much a$ 
dragged a dynasty. The happiness of the People 
ii the only immoveable basia of the lu^ptneaa of 
Empires, it ii likewise that of Ae hap pines^ fiaf 
Iheit Clergy. The Gi^eek Cteiggr of GoAstantir 

9s nople 


nople is reduced, und^^the Tiuks^ t9 Wvq on alms, 

in the very places wHere they once nad'tlie power, 

under itheirnatioodl iPrrtees,' io tear the silperb 

Templi^si rill. whicHiat ^Hub |hiy the reUgioQ: of . ah 

enemy tiium^bscf An /ankbitioos Qergy mipavij- 

ii^a it's People, i^ind^'dn^: impdvedshisd ^oplb 

soohpror latdr- reiukra itis! Clei^y niiemU^ . i r. ^ y^. 

-^ I iKTot only is tdief CUrgynian ^nitdd ;to; the iPl^o^ 

-by? the bond cf iatdrest, but b}ftttlii| Af;ditty^< iHe 

iBt die natioDial ladvQcate of ibe iBiseHjld^' aii^l 

obliged tolrelifevb tbenl'Oiit of His oi^n auf^mflmty. 

Mort; part of the .p ropert}^. of.tbsriCliurcbihtirsibeen 

bequea;(hed. eipisi^ly;(iihvler, those 0Qir4ilipns( 'iJ 

vcould^^bayeiv^ihed'/t^eiiefofcerthal; the supctbr 

iCfergy h^d^beeb attbmbeaflicf tbeifflocbs.ioiiie^ 

fehd'tbeff interesits, a^ :in/tfai8ianckatitin9tisrtc)£>dlur 

•Monarch)^, dunagii vhaob • tte ^Beofilisitibfeottebres 

el«teA their awn iFa8tQis:rexprdfesiy.!faf tbisjiiif- 

«pose. : Btttsince those «i£ieiit fornix so rcsfiec t&bie 

In. themtelves . have dhtanged, pven iniabodu^ of 

onen so tenacious ofuheir conservafeidn^: I wisb.att 

kast! that^ltie Ofrgy wduM .instil;!titoJtbe Na* 

tional Assdmbiy (tiie €iralig;£ical.aBk3euiis!»rbieh it 

^' their: bnsrness tot anndu9uc6'i^K»dr Qiux^has^^;^! 

, At not spcak>^f: tibei penoiy.^aW to\Ceitfriby St. 

^Petsr^ inrcftediasce tb> iBS^siCultiST bunrtif^ ifor 

-I iriU/obscinrd'on thi&x)tdcasi0n, :froni-tbe qupstion 

.fivAhy Jks9i&l9atPetUiy and bisanswdr^tbatiiii^was 

not cugtMilr;^ among the Romiins to exact tribute 

•f citizeiil but of strangers.-' Itif clear indeed Irom 

iUktoryidiaftthe RomBnJ Peoples so &r frbin paying 

jmpostSi .wsLs fidqbentljt si^ported iryiargesse&of 

. xcfttif and the tgibute of'^the coaqueredjPmVitices. 

. -. / ^ Among 


An)ong tbe Tiirks, the cizr^cA or 'tribute is paid^ 
only by the Greeks.' , This custpm appears to me to ^ 
haye been generally prevalent oyer Asia.. Jesus 
Christ seems. to extend it to all. the Kingdoms'* 
of the World, as founded'oh n^turj^l justice. * Th« * 
qu'estion after aft perhaps referred to. personal, and ' 
not to tferritorial imposts.* * Be this as it may, see- ' 
ing that from on^ abuse to another the financial 
Government has with us succeeded W the feudal,' 
it is now impossible to 'meet the exigencies of the 
JState without 'levvin": contributions on all ifs 
members. ' The greatest part of our Clergy has ' 
sacrificed in this respect their ancient^ prerogatives ' 
in a veiy generous manner f nevertheless the inte- ^ 
rest df triith obliges me t6 idd, 'that they have Hke- 
wise in' this only done an act of justice, as a- great' * 
deal of property ^s' formerly conferred on -them- 
by the State,' ai Veil as on; the Nobility, to' the 
barthening of even the military service. 

But the Pbople at this day demands of them ' 
other contHbiltiohs, to a considerable extent, of 
property bequeathed to them ty individuals, for 
the benefit of the still more sacfed service, that of * 
the miserable; * In this undoubtedly must be com- 
prehended many of the rich Ecclesiastical' Com-* - 
meidarts, once deitined to the relief of the leprous, ^ 
and of wrenches shut up in Hospitals, 'tet tlie * 
Ctergy^thcii transfuse themselves into thiiXaw of ' 
l^iture, '#hT<*h^ is'the basis,' and the >ultfm'ate ob- • 
jeet of the -Gospd / of thatXaw wKich is^the'^ 
ftoufceW eVtery Virtue-' 'of justice, charily, huma-' ^ 
nil^, patriotisfai, concotcl, beneficence, poUtenesj^, ' 
9nA df*every tfeang irjiich ircndefs '4d^ amiable^ ^ 
»» 5 S3 eveu 

fi68 sEayKL TO th£ studies of vatvrx* 

eyen m the eyes of the men of the World : ^^Do not 
'^ to anodier what you wouldnot another should do 
^* unto you.* Let them consider that this People^ 
Fho in times past so liberally endowed them, is 
pow sinking under a load of unpositiona; that th« 
vices against which they have been so long preach^ 
ing are not infused into Man by Nature, but they 
are th$ necessary results of our political Institu^* 
tions; that they spring out of the entreme opu^ 
lence of a small number of citigBens who have 
swallowed up every thing, and out of the absolute 
indigence of an inconceivable number of others 
who no longer possess any thing; that on the one 
part, opulence produces voluptuousness, avarice,^ 
monopolies, ambition, which of themselves ocoasioQ 
so many woes to mankind; and that on the other, 
poverty reduce^ young wc:)nien to the necessity of 
prostituting themselves, niothers to expose their 
own children, and that it generates sedition, theft^ 
quackery, svperstitjon, and that innumerable mul* 
titude of iniserable beings, who, stripped of every 
thing by the first, are reduced to the necessity of 
finding a livelihood at their expense. 

I could wish therefore that the Cleygy would 
step forth to the reHef pf the wretcbedi and firsl 
of all mak^ provision for th^ nipceasities of the 
poor members of tljeir pwn body ; that thffe ipay . 
not i^ a single E<fClfsiastip destitute of the decent 
meax}s pf supporf. Not a 3ii«ple yilliagf Vicar , 
oug^t Jo be without ik§ acljual necessariw* of lifij • 
so long ail his Pi^op enjoyed a auper^ity* Jt a<?-» 
cordingly appears retftonabila to me, that; Ac N^r... 
fiqiiai Aweffl^ ^^M mfi^i tin M^9«nfa sfi. 


ll^vicli Abbojii^ fouodol.iB^.Qid hy tiie Nation^ ki^ 
4i£itFibuii(iQii, difFuaed >ovinr the .%&d1^ Kingtlony; 
kyXhe prov'itic&iJiAssQroliUm^ to tbe indigent o^ 
Ci$iii»jtri|^^ and i»f evBty ;rattiiauMoa» ki»wniatMl 
ll9i^»(iH/(iV aft^ theexiHnplc lixf thei^goocl Sacfiaii* 
teb) far tbf ohariky cf the Pospel sh^d extend 
(Q^ nien of ertr^ hsiigsm, and Eretseh hoe^italitifo 
tO'tktrmn of aH NatioM. 
. It 4i of esi^Qtial impoctanee tftidt the Ckpgy 
should abolish it) ^eit onm order those alrangsi 
%mL Hh^mefnl cstahUsfanifints^ totali^ imfcuatm to 
thci:<jreokaf the fiomaBS/ zn4 even to tthe Baiii^ii 
thm, I Biea« Convents^ Ivinch in Fnmoe are aiere^ 
^[1011^9 of confinement and eotrection. Those do« 
loroMa abodes, in wlueh Monks undertake, for pay, 
ths inftictioii of dcnnesitic and jpublic vindicfive 
pnwahmenty aris teattered in such mu»iber$ ov^y 
the Kiiisdam, and have faecome so d|ste6«able as 
t/Q tarufbh the very naites of the Saints whom they 
hftve presumed to adopt as patrons^ h» ^vm «# 
the9> are 3t^n to be seen cage^ of iron, the cruel 
invention of Lams XL Most of thdm labour tjea^ 
4er a rcfiitatioii sq disgraceAtl, from tli^penaneea 
which they b^&i^^ ^at a jmmgmOLn, or yoan^^ 
V9II14IH derives more itt&mgr iamk having been 
sin iiimait^ than from having beea shut up m 
a coNsiDon priscrt^ Heoce Maska andlNun^ se-^ 
^fm to hltt$h at eicei^tJagp- : tiie afaoqiinaUe 
fuaettpQt oi gaolets and exeootioiiieirs for the saicti 
of a paltry einolunieat. la it not woodeidKiUy 
i^ra^ge that pertons consecrated tD Qod^ who pto^ 
l|3ss<9q«Uy pleach uphimuniity^.^oiisdfartaoap, aad 
^^ .^V^^m^ ^: iojwses, d^mhii haw suifiiNed 
ti^Mp^i^Ives to be made the instruments of cruelty, 

S4 of 


o£ m&my.and of VisnjgeaHce, to acquire 4 iiu^ 
W^th; and that an the* other hand, tti^ people 
ihould have seea Ike creation of such houde^; nofore 
cruel and mon& degrading than the Bastiie^ •with-' 
out perceiving the maiUfcatcontbtdiction bet^eatf 
the doctrine and the practice of the persons who 
estabiUhed them ?. It belopgs to the State, and not 
the Monks, to punish offenders against the State; ^ 
V J cOAldiarthdrwsh irhat the Clergy, having con- 
tributed from their superftuitf a supply for' indi- 
gence, thie source of so many private vices, would 
tjMlnder their doquence again&t ambition, that 
fertile source of :public and private vke: that they 
would proscribe the first lessons of itin our eohoote, 
into which it has found admission .under the«ame 
of emulation, and from infancy arms fellow citi- 
aens against 'Cach other, by instilling into every 
child Akm pemiciotts maxim, ** Be the first ^ let 
the preaiihers of the Gospel inveighs vehemently, 
in the nanle of GOD, against the atoibition of the 
Potentates of Europe, whioh results from the am« / 
bitious education they procure for tlieir subjects, 
and whi^]^ after having brought afi accumulation 
^misery on their own- People, oonimunicatestHkt 
iviaery to the Huinaiji lUce : let those sacred'lifi- 
mstsfs of Peace attadc the sacrilegibus Laws of 
Warj^ let themsehses desist from the practie«of de-- 
oorating our Temptes dedicated to Charity, with 
banners won by shedding the blood of NatFc^; 
let them strenuously oppose the slavery of -the' 
Negroes, li^: aie our brethren by the Law's 6* 
Nfttiure a»d of Ueligion; ktthem withhold ti^t^ 
benediction fiodi vessels dnplpyed in thisiolhmoUs 

.J i' '•: 

• VisHES OF A RECLUSE. '^ 265 

traffic, as welji as.from the standards arouixii which 
our sanguinary jsoldiers assemble; let tlxem, refuse 
their ministrations to every one who contributes 
toward the increase of human wretchedness; let 
them make the reply to the Powers who would 
engage f hem to consecrate the instruments of their 
politics, wliich .the priestess Theano made to the 
People of Athens when they tried to persuade 
her to pronounce a malediction upon Alcibiades, 
though convicted of having profaned the myste- 
ries of Ceres: " 1 am a Priestess to offer up pray- 
**ers and implore blessings, not. to execrate and 
** devote to destruction.^' .^ 

Let our Priests therf'say to ambitious Potentates : 
' " We' are not sent to excite men to the furies of 
*' war, but , to cpncojd, love and peace ; not to' 
^ proriounce^a blessing on ships pf war, on vessels^ 
" engaged in the Slave-trade, on regipients; but/ 
" after thfe example of the blessed Je^us, on little 
*^ children, dti marriages and qn harmless festivity/'^ 

Thus the French Clergy, by taking a lively in- 
terest in the condition of suffering humari^ty, will^ 
retider themselves dear to the men of all Natioqs.' 
They wiir have the satisfaction of beholding their 
rrfigioiis Etapii^e rfeviVe in the hearts of the People, 
a« in the early ages when 'the 'Gospel was first 
pleached, and, 'when, speaking in the' name of 
Jhe GOD of Peace, they niade t;J^rahts tmi^'AUy . 

it ./ 

' • .: J ff v 



.' .1 . 


' ." • 




MAY that Nobility, who in barharotfs ages pre^ 
seated to the People models of heroism io times oC 
var, and of urbanity iu times of Peace, exhibit to, 
them a pattern of every patriotic virtue in an age 
of illumination ! It is my earnest wish that they 
should not only march, as heretoforej^ at the head 
of their warriors, to defend them against external 
enemies, or to protect the weaker of them from the 
oppression of domestic foes, as in t;h€; days of an- 
cient chivalry, but tliat, rising to the patriclaa 
greatness of old Rome, they would adopt into their 
bosom the plebeian families who. may render them- 
selves illustrious by virtue. Thus \ were the Cato9 
and the Scipios adopted into noble fs^milie^ May. 
they farther, after the exampFe of the Roman No^ 
bility, ally themselves with the people by the bonds 
of marriage ! Augustus^ in the zenith of his glory,, 
gave his only daughter JuBa in marriage to the« 
plebeian -^g-rip/wf; and Tiberius on the throiie, inw- 
lied his grand-daughter Drusilla, and daughter of 
GermanictiSj to Lucius Cassius^ ^* of jin ancient and 
^< honourable plebeian extraction^" toustr the ex^ 
pression of Tacitus. Our owa Kings thom^lve^^ 
Kave often, contracted similar marr|^es. Hqnrjf 
IV. who valued himsdf on being the first Gentle- 
man in his kingdom, took to wife Maty de M^ 
diciSf who descended from a family who were once 
merchants at Florence, The Nobility in our day^ 
it is true, are coming nearer to the people by form- 
ing plebeian alliances, but if they were more fre- 
quent, and had not fortune merely for their ob* 
^.. : ject, 

wtsR^a or A EECWMu , aar 

ject, we $hould uot sei? 9Q many females of iioble 
birth languishixii; in a. stoJtQ of ceUbacy. 

Wherever the People is de&piaed the Nobility ia 
unhappy. It k the fesentmenl of tiw People which 
fosters among the higher orders the spirit of ciitU 
war and of duellipf . l4>olis %t the eternal discords 
of the Polish Nobility- look at the anoient feuds 
of the Barony of England, before liberty ha4 raised 
the people nearer to their lewl; and at ifaose of our 
own Princess and Pukes prior to Lm^ 'KIV. who 
by the e^iercise of his despotism . redueed all his 
subjects to nearly the same standards 

Wherever the People is undervalued, the Nobi- 
lity is of inferior consideration. Where the former 
is in a state of vassalage, the latter sinks int3o a 
ineAial condition. I/)ok at Polandj^ whece thq 
lackeys and domestics of the meanest station in 
great houses are of the Order of Nohility. Whaft 
Frenchman of noble birth \yQuld not at this day 
prefer the service of the People in pur Monarchical 
Government, to the service of a Qrand^e, asi in the* 
time of the feudal d^poti w ? Who would not a 
thousand times rather be a Peer of Great Britain, 
livii^ witb his fawners, and balaneing^ in the 
Hqv^ of iDrds, 9? even in that of Cpm«nons, th/e 
Ji»teres<;s of hi^ Country aufl the dertiny qf ti^' 
Qlohe, %Hn a« Indian Naifr,, whom one Qf tj^. 
cqmmpi^alty d^res not. 90 muph as touch, u^def 
pain of death, hi^t who is himself obhgcid to sacri* ^ 
fice his; conscience and hi^ 1# to tl^e caprices of 
tl}^ despot who fccAps him in pay S 

: Q ye Nobles^ w^ld ypiir Mji$h to ex^t yow; QW^ 

otdrr^rd^set]»ep<i;derof the,Peo|^! Ityf^fiJ^gf^^u 

S ness 


ness of l3ie Rortiarf people wKich constituted the - 
Majesty of the Roman Senate. Tlie higher a pe- 
destal is, tlie loftier is the column reared upon it ; 
the cl6ser the* unibti' bet\(reen the column and it's ' 
pedestal, the greater is ffs solidity. 

It is very renidrlcable that the Romans conferred 
the most fllustrious marks o£^ distinction only on 
those' of their citizens who had merited well of the 
People, '" The Civic Crown/* says Plini/y " was * 
"adeemed 'more honourable, and communicated 
" higher "privileges than thd Miiral, the Obsidional ' 
*' and Naval Crowns, because there is more glory 
*^ in saving a single citizen than in storming cities 
"'-and gaining battles/' * 

' Those marks of distinction; kept in reserve for 
the servants of the people alone, were, in the times 
of the Republic, the'real causes* of the grandeur of 
the Roman Senate, because a People is to be served 
by virtues alone, but they became the causes of her - 
decline, when, 'imder the Emperors, they were Be- i 
stowed on those only who had deserved well of the ' 
Courti because Courtiers are tobe served only by 

vices. '^ 

' ' . * ' . ' 

As we live in an age in* whicHtTie ifrcmbers'oftKe ' 

political body are stiirsound parts, under W Chief* 

restmhliug Marcus AureUus, I feel myst^lf ^ii<^Va ^ 

into a train of wishing that we might iii'some-ftiea- ^ 

siire acquire a resemblante fo the ancient Romans? * 

I could wis'h tbcn, in order tb tin'ite the* Nobility I 

with the PeOpte, and'thte PcopleAvith the Nobility, 

that an order of Cbi'falry ittirfit be institutec^, ih * 

irfiitktibii df the Cfvic Crbwti? This ordet shoiffd 

be conferred Oh tvery citizen who might imxide-^^ 

.( ^ierved 

sprv4d» wiaH of idie |)ec^lc^ib^.the jf iiwkj*p|svhallsyer 
,^rigfet»i«fsitftH^ this (twttWtlw^; shpiad; liPc^rt^uflL days 
of 'the::rfia^ lP¥^ihftl»-i'KH€geof fftd.i^^ tlj^ 

King's i««fefcc»i ^rij^tM»n^i^]i^tQ^^ 

all men who by their virtues had rendered ttj^pfj- 
^lv€^^ wf rthy 4f the^tt^ipition crf.Qov^frow/fDt, . Jhe 

deredon thf •bit^sl^ with thi^^otto;^ J^i; ^yk P^?^ 

Tte Natiohi* A^semkjy aliwe shwW h 
•oftpresc»iti? ithe^Sovcffeign, citiaeni^ysrhom tl^ 
reekqnf d /Wji^^thy of, t)\i8rd|st)nctio% and it sliouhi 
beig^^|j|§d;aradr<JQnfijrred QBly by his Majesty:hii»- 
4elf in^per^fxp. : y j .: . . 

r Tfels:^ Qr4©^of 4hfi People* shpuld be, personal Np* 
hili^y W'njcgpkilptnpble by birth ; ,fpr. i» fixture Uxewc 
oixght t0f be; ao herediiary,^QiiobleiQept». .thcj expe* 
fkncetS all ages mA Qfi^llK^ottntries having assured 
m that Ylftueandivioiiiaireiiot transmissiy^ through 
blood V : ;:-.f ' .;..' ', . . ,. ; . , . . . ^ 

With respect to persons or^naUy. aoble^^^ they 
would preserveifoT their posterity the ancient pre- 
rogatives of rank ; butthey .would ^cquire^ by means 
of this new distinctive order^ the povifer of ad(^ing 
a plebeian decorated with, it ; and ion thi3 ca^e only 
mobility shdold b^eoaie : hereditary m the pfcrson 
adopted Thus the Nobility ' tendered deat 
to the People, from findmg in theao^thepQly i;q«aiif 
of giving perpetuityto^thcif o^vii)i;.@levfl(tiQD;; and tba 
Peo{>]e. woidd fa«c»)m€^.dearito tbe^NolnlUy from 


S90 sEaviOr f • THs 9m>tMM or tsatcuz: 

ifiA^hig ik thMtt tkft means cif iliiittnititig and snp* 
porting g^etttitfMMlliitatened with testis if 
to theB6 ftie added allitiMtt CMtfaeMd by marriage, 
6ttr j^atrieian^ mA {itebeiltts woalA tttl an appmxi* 
ttatiott, n6t prodneedby tends of ttlveraffd gold, 
tme by those ^liTatttre Md VirtM. Sncb att tbe 
ii^hesIforM, that Feofde msiy irme t^wiatdthe No- 
VTity without pride, aftd ttott the NoMUty may dt* 
itcend towiid ihe People iHtfumt snttoing degi*i- 

6n the ^tixet h&nd, aft tiHis very Nobility hsta i»- 
litivet iimuttM^sMe \rhom poverty oonfcundft with 
Ihe lowest classe» of the People, aft I have frequently 
leen in oar Frovittces, pttticuiaity in bfittuny, it is 
ttecessa^ t^ provide iht means of subsiMence Ibr 
thetf). I am persuaded that in this vie# wtis dic- 
tated a itiw years ago that arUcIeof the ordtaance 
of the Military Department which resent to Men 
of Family exclusively the rank of CMtiees in the 
Army. But Gentlemen bom and brought up in 
the bosom of i»digenee^ are neifti capable df dis^ 
charging the functions of an Oficer, for tins rank 
requires with us, especially in these tinles^ an edu^ 
cation and a degree of intelligence not to be at^ 
tamed without the advanti^ of fortttae; 

I recollect my having seen om day in. Lowor 
Normandy a poor man of birth irho earned his live* 
Ithood by making lions of chy. Those Uons^ to 
say the truth, had no great resemblance to lions ; 
but ^y at Ittast indicated a noUe seirtiment in th€ 
MamUhctorer, which poverty had not been able to 
tatthiguish. Nay, this senthnenft propagated itself 
extenstvisly through the mecfinm of the mamifao^ 
tart. 'WhetY a Country GentleiMn a iittle at his 


ease had'pkicdi a pa^ of those lions on two piks-^ 
teps (^ eaith ^lid flitit on t^ tight and left of hii 
avenue^ he could^ m imitation of Princes, call his 
Court<^y9ird a Court of Honour. 

I lo^e tb^&tsL man, and particularly a man of 
family^ find in hinmetf resources, tigiainst the inju4* 
tice of fortune^ and fike a fir on a ro^k maintain an 
er^ct position in spite of the burstings of the tem^ 

An^rt, however insignificant^ is in a state of opu- 
lence a refuge fVom the tyranny of the passionik andF 
from knguoT ; but in a state of indigence it is a re« 
aource against Mrant. Religion among^ the Turks 
imposesit as aduty, even on the Sultans, to learn a 
trade, and to practise it. I know Well that it is not 
inconsistent with tihe character of a Gentleman to 
practise n liberal art, but why not a mechanical one? 
Aliberal art ministers chiefly to luxury, and requires 
talents which ane the progeny of the passions ; ame-^ 
chanicalart is i>eces6ary to the demands of human: 
life, alid calls only for the e:»ercise of patience, the 
inseparable companion of virtue. A man of birth 
it is true may with us manufkcture glass without 
discredit to his rank ; but^why not pottery ? This, 
as far as I Can judge, iis the r^son : as we hav« been 
long accustomed to respect fortune only, w^ hkn 
ennobled every condition that leads to it, of whieh 
is subservient only to luxury : now as glass wasxm-^ 
naHy v^ry scarce, it was an enjoymcftt cotifined 
entirely to the rie^: a Gentleman might therefore 
consistently be a dealer in glass. For the satee rea^ 
son likewise it is competent for him to h»/t a share 
in the East4ndk GmpMky^ to be a Fi^mer^genc^ 


r^l, an Opera Perforipeft: w if a Gentl/e;man m wood« 
en shoes could attain those brilliant; situation!.! Ho 
is at lilj^erty I gr^titto placebos children iii thermi*' 
litary school ; but that institutio|i of X^wU XVl^dcsi 
tined exclusively to the relief of -decayed jNoWHty, 
h nqw hardly, a ri^soiiirce for rpwWns <>f this dc- 
^ription, beQa>»sp it>M ftfquejWKlyJaterceptedby thia 
rich families of thcif 0wn[ even of the com- 
monalty, and is besides insufficient 
. Ijt se^ms to mc then necessary to permit to poor 
men pf birth tl^e.ex^i:cise of all professions what- 
eve ; for if Nol>ilrt^i consists in a mad's being useful 
to his Country, every profession, especially the most 
ordinary, promotes this object, A man cannot 
suffer degredation by practising an ai;t, or carrying 
pn a trade, but by vice only. Eyery age has pro- 
duced characters .rendered illustrious by patriotie 
virtues from all conditions of life. Agathocles^ *hA 
conqueror of Sicily, was the son of a potter; tlie 
Chancellor Olivier j of a Physician ; the Mareschal 
Faber, of a Bookseller; Franklin, the asserter of 
American liberty, of a Printer^ and himself a Pria,-^. 
ter. Christopher ColuwJbm^ before cmbaxking on 
the discovery of the new World, earned his bread 
1^ constructing geographical charts. = There is na 
conditipn so mean as to be incapable of prod uoingf. 
%great man. 

. By permittipg the Nobility withouit .derogating, 
from their digiiity, tp exerciae ^Jl the Arts of peace> a. 
Kingdom will npt be suffered to fall in£o a lethargy:; 
thrqn^h the idleness of it> Nobles, when they a»; 
rich, as is thecjise at this day in Spain, Portugalande 
Italy; noriatq viojeujtponvulsijonsfriswn.tbeif railit3r|f: 
^ spirit. 


spirity when they are poor, as formerly was thecase 
with ourselves as well as with most of the Nations 
of £urope. 

Historians never discern any thing but the results 
>f our calamities^ because they ascribe them solely 
to political causes ; the moral causes which occa- 
sion them always escape their attention : becausey 
concerned only in the fortune of Kings, the inttf* 
rests of mankind are a matter of indifference to 
them. They impute the perpetual Wars which ra- 
vage Europe to the ambition of it's Princes, and 
they are in the right; but it is of high importance 
to remark that the ambition of Princes, and the 
Wars both foreign and domestic which are the ef< 
fects of it, originate, in every state, in the ambitioa 
of the Nobility, who being many in number, and 
having no other means of subsistence but the mili-^ 
tary profession, instigate their Sovereigns to War 
and Conquest, for the sake of getting to themselves 
commissions, pensions and gavernments. The opi* 
nion of Kings is formed entirely on theopinions of 
their Courtiers. Thus in countries where the 
Clergy is numerous and poor, there have arisen^ 
from the spirit of controversy, spiritual Wars with-^' 
out end, equally ruinofis to the Nsttion8^>blit which 
procul'ed for the persons who fomented- and maiiH 
taihed them, doctors' square«caps, benefices; bi^ 
shoptics and cardinals' hats.' In our daya^ whett 
the Potentates of £urq)e, illumined' to the diacef^v^ 
loent of their pecuniary interests, direift d^h" am>^ 
bition toward comn>er6e| it:J9 not tlnel &mgf ur' 
Nobility Who involve, ^us in'natrohal qunrreis; im4» 
COTtimercial tiBsockAbm§.^ -Udw many Wars hay^t 
Vol. 17- T v been 


been kindled and prbp&gated to the extremities of 
the earthy by the European trading Companies, the 
East-India, the Assiento, the Molucca, the Philip- 
pine,, tfee Guinea, the Senegal, the South-Sea, the 
H|idson's-bay, &c The last War which embroiled 
England, France, Spain, Portugal, Holland, the 
Gape of Good Hope, the East Indies, the two Ame^ 
rica^, and which terminated in the ruin &f our fi- 
nances, and bears haid to this day upon the Estates* 
General of the kingdom, originated in the English , 
IndiarCompany, who wanted to extort a tax upon 
tea from the inhabitants of Boston, Thus the late 
storms which desolateed the whole Globe^ issued 
f^om a tea-wai*ehouse. 

, What renders us Europeans so fickle and incon* 
Itant 18 the formation of associations, whose aqibi- 
tion blends itself with that of our. education. By 
the selfishness of corps Countried are rained by k^ 
fisriing Country, exclulsively to themsckesy and by 
dispr iving the People of tli&ir natural relations. That> 
^ich stifles the Sieience^ in any Countiy is the in- 
terposition of companies of Doctors heXwocn the 
People and light, as has happened in Spain, in Italy^ 
and among kmxselyes. That ^vhich ruins Agricult 
tiure ajndjOQBimiepce is theJnterveAtk>n of moAopo- 
liiZio^dampt^mciabetM^n tlieJPfople and the praps,. 
Qt the notouftLctwres^ : Wliat destroys the finf^^iicea 
ia the iptervention of companied to£ Stpc^-Jo^bbens^ 
between this Feopk and the Public T^cmary- Wl^afe 
ruins a lifoiiajcliyisa'Cdipisfxf Nobilky^iiltef^^ 
lietwccmia) l^bpie and ritlijstr Prince, bs in PolaM* 
Wh)atiaiBsic^Be1igtDnris«a aorpsx)f PriesiCs thrusting 
titcnoiselyes b^ween.tbfc JPeopii^»aoid God» ^ *am^ng* 
-' 'v ; tlie 

thi Greeks of the Lower fiiupire and ehewhere. 
Finally, that which involves the Hitman race ih 
destruction^ is when a Country itseM* intolerant, like 
the corps which compose it, inter]k>ses betweeh 
other Countries, and attempts to appropriate to it- 
self exclusively the Science, the Commerce, the 
Power and the Reason of the whole Universe. 

It is absolutely necessary therefore to unite with 
the interests of the People the interests of Associa- 
tions which ought to be only members of it, as 
they involve general ruin when they pursue separate 
interests, and instead of being public vehicles trans* 
form themselves into barriers. It is no less neces- 
sary to refonn the Public Education, as corps en- 
tirely owe their ambitious spirit to the European 
mode of Education, which says to every man froni 
infency upward: ** Be the first j'* and to every 
corps : " Be master." 

The means of acquiring distinction and Nobility 
being henceforward reserved for such citizens only 
as shall have deserved well of the People, the No- 
blesse and the People will feel themselves united 
by the bonds of mutual benevolence, which ought 
to bring all men into contact, those especially of 
the same Nation. 

Menenius Agrippa reconciled the Roman People 
and their Senate by the allegory of the members 
which fell into decay by refusing to labour for the 
Stomach : but what would he have said if the Ro- 
man Senate had itself formed a separation from the 
People, and refused to have any thing in common 
wkh them ? In his ingenious apologue, the Senate 
which governed the fempire might be compared 

Ta ' to 


to the precordial parts of the human btodj j b«t 
with us the authority being tiionarchical^ the No-^ 
bility can in mtny respects be considered only a» 
the armed bands of the Nation* The People, from 
whose bosom issues the solcVery, share this service 
- with them, and by thchr labours, their art and in- 
dustry, ought to consider themselves besides as the 
working hands of the body politic ; they, are like- 
wise it's eyes, the voice and the head, because from 
them proceed the greatest part of the men of let- 
ters, of tl^ orators and philosophers who illuminate 
M well as of the magistrates who govern it ; in a 
word, they constitute the body properly so called, 
as other bodies owe their existence wholly to it, 
exist not themselves but for it, atid are, relatively 
to it, only what the members are relatively tb the 
human body, Iq our monarchical state it is not the 
Nobility which is to be compared to the heart and 
to the stomach of the body politic, it is Royalty 
which possesses this station. The judicious La 
Fontaine was abundantly sensible of this, in apply- 
ing to us the apologue of Meneniiis. This is the 
manner in which he depicts the Royal functions 
and those of the People, in his Fable of the Belly 
and the Members. 

** With Royalty my work should have com- 
** menced; taken in a certain point of view itisty- 
•' pitied by Monskwr Gaster:^ if he feels any want 
" the whole body has a fellow-feeling; The mem- 
" hers however growing tired of labouring for his 

♦ Tlie Gre^ word signifying belly. The adjectit* gastric it derived 
ffo« it J gaitiic hiwsture, ktTat ifi Butrid^us. 

■'y- - -- ^'^.-^ ' ' ^ '^benefit, 


*^ %eiiefit, resolved every one to live }ike a gentle- 
^ man, that is in idleness, pleading the Example of 
** Gasier himself. But for us, said they, he mitst' 
^Tiveon air: we sweat, we toil like beasts of bur- 
*^ dien; and for whom? for him only, without any 
'^ ^profit to ourselves. The end of ail ouf exertions 
*^ is forsooth to find him a dinner. Let us makc^ 
^ holiday, it Is a lesson which he himself has ta«ight 
^- us. No sooner said than done : the haikls and 
^* arms cease from their functions ; the legs and feet 
** refuse to stir; with one voice they told Mr. Gaster 
** he m:igkt4ook out forliim&ejfi Of thtserror however 
*' they hatf speedily ca«i#ei0 repent; the poor crea- 
^* tures fell into a state of languor : no new blood 
••« now circulated round the heart; jevery xneaiher 
'^fufFered; and lost all strength. The mutrnwr^ 
<^ l>ecame sensible that he whom they had accused 
" of idleness, contributed more to the general wel* 
'' fare than any one of them. This fiction is appli- 
^* cable Jto the Boyal dignity. It receives and gives. 
'* and 1}\e benefit is miiCual. For ix every one Ia«^ 
^ hours, apd every ^oue In return derives aliment 
^ from it. Tl^e artisan by it draws subsistence from 
^ the sweat oif bi» brow ; ;t enriches the merchant, 
^ supports the piagistratie, mainjtains the husiband* 
.^ man, pays the soldier; djifus^s it*s sovereign ben,e- 
** ficence in a thousand different channels, and alonQ 
^* preserves the whole Sta,te io health and vigour^ 
•*' It was a happy invention of Mfneifiu^ The Com- 
•^ monalty wason;|thepQint of €Qmd£|g to a jupturq 
^* with the Senate; the malcontents alleged that 
^ the Patricians had engrossed the whole power o^ 
^ tbe empire^ it's treasures, honours, dignities, while 

J 9 ••Jthe 

JT8 sEQUEi^To rm studies o^f mature. 
*^ the whole burden lay on tbeir shoulders, tribirtes, 
** taxes, the fttigues and dangers of war* Thcpco^' 
" pie had already deserted the city, disposed to ge 
*• in quest of another country, when Menenius un- 
<* folded to thetn their mistake hy the fable of the* 
* ^ Belly and Members, and thereby brought tl^m 
^' back to thdir duty/' 

I who possess not XuFdiTfaiWs talent of putting 
into simple and charming verses the profound les- 
sons of politics, shall content mysdf in presenting 
in plain prose an Indian fable, better adapted still 
than the Roman Apologue to exhibit the relation^ 
which our Nobility and even our Clergy have vnth 
the People. 


The palm, loftiest of fruit trees, formerly bare, like 
other trees, it's fruit on it's boughs. One day the 
branches, proud of their elevationand of their riches, 
said to their trunk: *• Our fruits are the delight of 
** the desert, and our ever verdant foliage the glory 
*'^ of it It is by us that caravans in the plains, and 
" ships along the shores regulate their courses. We 
" rise to such a height that the Sun illuminates us. 
" before the dawning of Aurora, and after he is sunk 
*' in the ocean. We are the daughters of Heaven ;. 
** by day we are fed with it's light, and by night 
^' with it's refreshing dews. As for you, dark child 
*' of earth, you drink of waters under the earth, 
^^ and breathe under the shade which we supply ; 
^ your foot is for ever poncealed in the sand ; your 
^^ stem is clothed ^yith a coarse bark only, and if 
^* your head can pyetend to any honour it is that of 

** bearino: 

** bearing us aloft.'' The trunk replied : ** Ungrate- 
^^ ful jdaughtcis, it is I who gav« you birth, and it is 
^ fjrQvn thQ bo$om tf the $auds that my sap ^ipu- 
*^ H^hes you, generates your fruits tq refjMfoducQt 
** them, aad «x3lU you to the Heave«is to prcs^ey^ 
*' t}i€flQ ; it is my strength which supports ^ ii^% 
^ bright your wCTkness against the fury Qf .the 
^* winds/' Scfti^cely liad he spoken, when a buiri- 
cane issuing from the Indian Oceasi spread deva^-^ 
tatiott orer the Country* The paUn -branches ^ti 
tossed down to the ground, are tossed up wtaicl 
again^ are d^hed against each «fber« and atrippedi 
by the noisy tempest, of their fruits. The tvunk 
meanwhile maintains it s ground; not one of itv 
roots but what attracts and sustains from tberboi 
som of the earth, tlie branches agitatpd ihlthe 
higher region of the air. TTanquillity being ;re^ 
restored, tlie branches reduced to a fruitless foliagts^ 
offered to their trunk to place their fririts hence* 
forth as a common deposit on his head, and :. to 
preserve them to their utm»t by covering them 
with their leaves. To this the palm-tree consented, 
and ever since this agreement, the stately plant 
bears aloft on it's stem it's long rows of fruit up 
to the regions of the winds, without fearing the 
violence of the storm : it's trunk is become th« 
symbol of strength, and it's branches that of glory 
and virtue. . 

The palm-tree is the State ; it*s trunk and fruits 
are the People and their productive labours; the 
hurricanes are it's enemies; the palm-brancl>es of 
the State are the Nairs and the Bramins, when 
transformed into the friends of the People. 



THE term Tters-Etat (Third Estate) is a y^ry 
strange one, the appellation given in France to the 
People^ that is to more than twenty millions of 
men, by the Clergy and Nobility, who taken to- 
gether do not constitute at most the fortieth part 
of the Nation. I do not believe that such a deno- 
mination exists in any other country of the World. 
What would the Roman People have said, a Na* 
tion divided like ours into three orders under the 
Emperors, had their Senators and Knights pre* 
}»umed to give them the name of Tiers-Etat ? What 
would the People of England say if such a defini* 
tion were given of them by the Lords Spiritual 
und Temporal of the Upper House of Parliament? 
Is the French People less respectable in the eyes 
of the orders which they support as the means of 
promoting national prosperity and glory ? 

In every country the People is all in all : but if 
it is considered as an isolated body, relatively to 
|;he other bodies which in conjunction with it con- 
^tituti; the State, it is, as has been demonstrated, 
the first in point of antiquity, of utility, in 
number and power, as the power of the other 
bodies emanates from them, and exists only for them. 
J|: seems to me reasonable therefore that the 
body of the People should preserve it's proper 
|iame» as the bodies of the Clergy and Nobility 
have done, ^d that it should be denominated th^ 
order of the People. In place of the name of Ti* 
^rs-£tat might be substituted if you will that of 
Common^, 4S is the case in England, and which 



lias frequently been adopted among ouiaelves^ 
This term commons characterizes in particular the 
people of every Province qf the Kingdom, in all 
ages denominated by the appellation of the^w^ 
mune9 of Dauphin6, of Brittany, of Normandy, &c. 
who united from the communes of the Kingdam. 
This name of Commons has never been given to 
any but the People, as might be proved by the 
authority of Writers who best imdeistopd the 
meaning of expresssions, especially that of Im 
Fontaine. In truth, the interests of the People 
are common not only to each Province, but to the 
ether orders of the Nation, because their felidty 
constitutes the general felicity^ Thin does net 
leiold good as to the interests of the other orden^ 
which are peculiar to themselves. On the other 
hand, the name of Tiers-£tat given to the People^ 
supposes, as /. /. Rousseau has very well remarked^ 
that it's interest is only the third, though it be ill 
it's own nature the first. Now as ipen form at 
the long-run their ideas, not on things, butoa 
words, justice demands that the surname of Tien* 
£tat, imposed on the people for some ages past by 
the privileged bodies, because it reminded them of 
^heir privilegea^ should be replaced by that of 
commons, which it has at all times enjoyedi that 
it may remind all of the common interest. Saba 
^pulf suprema les esto: Let the safety of the 
people be the Supreme Law. 

Well-meaning patriots, commiserating the 
wretched condition of tlie country people, have 
proposed to fojrm them into a body different from 
(hose of the cities ; but this must be guarded 



agattidt with extreme cantioQ. DiviaioH iiit<> 
^o^^ involves division of interested The peasan- 
try ought to be suflScientiy represented in the Pro- 
ymcial Assemblies, and in the National Assembly ; 
thetr demands ought in these to have a preferable 
eooeideration : but it appears to me extremely dan- 
^rooa to make any distinction in the Assemblies 
Iretween the commons of the country and those 
^ the Cities, for their interest are inseparable. 
The eoMtneree of ^ Cities can prosper only by 
the tabonrs of agriculture, and the labours of agri* 
Cttlture only by the commerce of tlie Cities. 
. The power of a Nation depends entirely on the 
^nfonof ifs parts. The higher branclies of a tree 
sahy diverge, but not the fibres of it*s trunk, which 
%nght to be compacted under the same bark. 
Were it possible to divide the trunk of a tree into 
branches, an oak would be reduced to a bush; 
but were all the branches of a bush compacted into 
a single trunk, of a bush you might form an oak< 
This presents a very lively image of wfiat has actu- 
ally taken place in several States. Ho\v many 
Kmgdoms have been reduced to bushes in a vast 
fcxtent of territory, because their trunk ramified 
only into Nobles and Priests! Look at Spain 
and Italy, How many Monarchies and Republics 
have risen ipto oaks, cedars atid palm-trees in 
small territories, because the Nobility and Clergy 
are conglomerated into one mass with tlie People, 
and have but one ' coinmon interest with them ! 
Look at England apd Holland, Call to remem- 
trance the force of the Roman Empire, in which 
the Nobles knew no glory but that of the People. 


The power of a Nattan> I re^ajb it, depetlck en** 
tirely on tJie unbii of it's parts. The miseries «f 
our own Peof^ie have atisen from tkis^ tlmtthtf 
Ckrgy^ aBd NobiHtly kive' among us formed tva 
oidetB sa^mted from tbeir interefits ; those mtse^ 
nti ne? i^r beg^n to diniinisii till despotism^ tm)i^ 
ners, aiid abov^all pbikftophy, iireiighittbeiiii ti^a 
state «>f approximation* It is na k^ fcrue that 
coutifter^alancing poxmrs are as necessary to t^ 
harmony of a State as tiiey aie to tftiat of Eufr^^ 
but thei^ win ever be but too many interests td 
divide men in the jsame Society, were there n* 
other but those of fortam. Thet corps of the No- 
hiiity aad Ciei^y tn our political order^ ought (tt 
be the reverse of what they atee instead of uniting^ 
together agaimt tibe Feoplq they mrght to s^trug^^ 
gte agakst each othbr-'in favomr of the populat iti^ 
teres t^ as the Natibns of fiurc^e eontoid for the 
CreedoQi of their eommerce^ 0f their navigatvMi 
of their fidheries^ 6r ior any other pretext which 
Hiay iAptf^ii the natural rights of mankind : it f^ 
tiH9 right which they incessantly iBrroke, Tha 
Commons of France ou^ht to govern themkelves; 
at le^t as to form, by the same laws which rqofu- 
late the icpmmuni^ of the Human fi«0& 

In pointii^ out the mWos of bringing the Cfctgy 
and Nobility into cofitact with the People, I hare 
likewise indicated those of drawing the People 
fsloser to these two orders,. not by the sentiment of 
ambition, which is calculated only to separate tto 
members of a State, bjiit that of virtufewhich unites 
them. Our people have a propensity but too 
powerful to ri^e; education and example are con- 
nually |>ushiBo; them iipward. They ought to bd , 


tM fsavu. to THE nvviu of KATUHE, 
invited neither to mount nor to descendi but to 
keep in their place; it suits them neither to be a 
tyrant nor a «lave; let it suffice tliem to be free. 
Virtue in every case keeps the middle station; 
there like^iiise i$ to be found sedurity^ tranquillity, 
happiness. I could wish therefore that no Burgher 
f hould ever desire to get out of the ordtt of the 
People ; but should lui feel the restless stimulus of 
gloryi let him ^tiU remain in hi^ station ; for there 
)s no condition of life but what presents a career 
Cipablp of gratifying even the most unbounded 
^ibitioQ, . . 

O Plebeian, wlio diceraest no glory comparable 
|o that which high birth bestows, and who blush-* 
<st at being a man because thou art not noble, 
Art thou a lawyer ? Be the defender of virtue and 
the terrcMT of the guilty. Like another Dupaty^ 
Kscue from. our barbarous codes their innocent 
victims ; declare war i^gainst our Verreses and oup 
Catilines ; undertake and plead the cause of Na* 
tions; consider how Cicero with the thunders «f 
eloquence, protected Kings, ^nd Demosthenes made 
them tremble. . Art thou hot a simple tradesman i 
ii )9 commerce which vivifies flmpires ; to Com* 
merce the two wealthiest States of Europe, £ngland 
and Holland, are indebted for their power ; it is by 
inean^ of Commerce that their Merchants behold 
in their pay, pot only Gentlemen innumerable, but 
Princes and Sovereigns. Commerce exalts even 
to the throne. Call to mind those ancient traders 
of Florence who have, swayed the sceptre in their 
own Country, and given two Queens to your's. 
Art thou only a wretched mariner, wandering like 
Ubfsses from sea to sea, f^r remote from thy ns^* 


Wishes Of a ttfeCLUSt* S8^ 

tivt shores? Thou art the agent of Nations: 
thou providest not only a supply for their necessi* 
ties, but communicatest to them what is most pit^ 
ciou3 among mankind, next to virtue. Arts, Sci'* 
ences, Ki^owledge. By men of your condition it 
was that islands were made known to islands, na- 
tions to nations, and the two worlds to each other : 
but for them the Globe with it's rarest productions, 
would be unknown to us. Reflect on the glory of 
'Christopher Columbus^ to which no glory, even that 
of Royalty, is once to be compared, as he alone, 
by the discovery of America, has effected a change 
)n the wants, the enjoyments, the empires, the rcli^ 
gions, and the destiny of the greatest part of the 
inhabitants of the Globe. Art thou, on the con^^ 
trary, an artist continually sedentary, as Theseus in 
tlie regions below? O how many paths are open 
to thee, from the bosom of repose, that lead to a 
glory sullied by no guilt ! How many of these are 
presented to you in painting, sculpture, engraving; 
music, the productions of which transport with 
admiration and delight ! Nay, how many artists 
are there^ whose names sliaU be renowned to all ge* 
aerations, though their works no longer exist ; so 
eager are men to pursue the celestial traces of their 
genius, and to pick up the minutest particles o^ 
gold which the brilliant current of their reputation 
lolls down the tide of ages ! Is there a Nobleman 
in all Europe whose name is to endurp, and to b^ 
celebrated, like those of the Phidiases and the 
jlpeUeses, who have for t\vo thousand years en* 
joyed tile homage of posterity, and who reckoned 
the Alexanders of their day \n the number of their 


2^: SEQl) EL yo. THE .ST/U«»E| ftFNATURE. 

ww4j:;wHi<d[i 4fiy« f% iorartiiww to thcfiight, 
somctiii<e.ft/to;th0left; Adi»iiU5lfwiticai a& tbe coft 
^Age: aq4:pUlik9 whkb^aiy ([h<e'ji$¥et*almani£uvres ; 
I^oy^l ty; as tkethelm whieb regulates it's course, and 
the King a$ the pilotf ^ Ttetj!i^; interests of the Peo- 
ple rtlKe$^r^ the King is bound priiicipally; to at- 
teipd,.asa pilot pays his chief attentioa to the hull 
of the vessels for if the upper parts, are oreiioaded 
byinasts toplofty, or by au artillery tooponderoas, 
the vessel runs a risk of being oixrset. She is 
equally in danger of sinking, if the worms silently 
c^vtoie her bottoni, and open a passage for adniit- 
tiQg the water. 

hx foHo^^ritlg out this allegory^ the power of 

tlie:Ptople ought to exceed in ponderosity that of 

the. other, two bodies, that the vessel of the' state 

my be always brought back to itV equilrbriuni. 

l^Ow: it happens with the lapseof time in a State,' 

as iii; the courb^iOf a: voyage, ia. a vessel whose hull 

biases lighter and lighter from the consumption 

of provisions and ^hip's-stoies, which are removed 

from the lower part&of the ship to thehighcr. Thus. 

the: People has a constant tendency to riae towards 

tb^jcl^r,tcal audi udb)e.orders, by the attraction of 

Iteuefices. aud/ j^atents of Nobility. : The King 

tberetbr^ .ought fco oppose the power of the helm, 

ta the united preponderating force of the Clergy 

9ud Nobility, ia favour of that of the People,, which 

nedds:tbe counterpoise of thfe Royal power to ktep 

thie balance ieveiii. Hcpce results the neces^ty then 

pf ij^tTcasftugi tilpe fiuxuber of the Deputies of the 

Coniiuosaau the National Aaseiilbly, in ovder to 


pjopcr-pow^r, wWipb'Ootiiitts^ eftiiteljr Jh ihaintain^ 
ing the political equililirium. li fe Ihb prepondi^ 
raucy in number^fithe Representatives of th^ Cohi- 
nions over those i of the iTppg^ House, Wlricli iiS^ 
cures itt Epglaml the Ganstitution of the Statb? 
This is. the reasdn^'that in their pdltiftal cbnteii- 

tioiiSy. il5 & ve^y:ea8a)r^w$to^ecitoatf>e^uiUbriuJSiv 
because tlie lAteresty of the Peoples which -is thi 
natural interest, eyer.pred<iin.iiiate8 the ft^ fv^tn t^a 
superior number of UieirvRepiesientatives'*: We may 
9n the contrary compare sewral Sta?tEs of Europtff 
singularly remarkable. forrtheirfeebienes$> ^eeausl 
the' Glerjafyj^ or. the NobiJity,;or both in concert, dei 
xnineer without the concurrcniPce of the People; W 
vessefai overset, from being top-heaivy^ which a^ 
totally incapable of manoeuvring, but: ^titl k^4p 
floating, because the sm'^>undi1)g^6lla^fe'in a staite 
of jtt«nquillity^ butwliich, thermdment the ston0 
ansesj are in darigdRrbf going to tlie'bwtoilh; -^ * *i' 
. Itk the mean thiJe, >1dilt expQrie^ce'UiaflMlave 'itk^ 
structed: what pr^portiin the ^etgy iaM Nd« 
bksse on tme;part,;aiid*tHeCdittmou&btf'lSiJ oth^l^l 
ought to have Deputies inJtlie Nations^ Assembly; 
to .preserve in it an equilibrium of pqiver, it seems 
to' nie necessary ta reflate it conformably^ io cer- 
tain principals, witl>oiitr"whith iu isun^ossfble-W 
franieany sage prdjett, 'sttll oioi^ ttie^Gkiiite It. '• 
1; The first *p<inoifte 'wMch otiJgbtUo bfe laid 
down is. That w)Iptopo6ition be 'there received oip 
rejected by acclamatit)ny but that at least one day 
be allowed for every '.Dejiuty. to deliberate upon it 
^tieisure; iii's opinion ought to be delivered in 

U 3 • writing 

f JP4 BEQVtf^ 90 THE Sg!XmiW. 9W, ^AT U E£. 

writing, that h€ may be eoiid^ Jte ptese^vc^ by 
e^sminsitiony the liberty of hh juAgmeni, a»d by 
icruti|)y> tbat of h^s suffrage. 

One of the irregitlaritiea which havegirieni ma 
XBOst ofiTepce io tbe (CHHidDCt of our Assemblies ;eir6ii 
thp grarq^tt U the hastiness of their jadgments, 
and the ttrdint^g of my own* I have ueyer heard 
aay 096 ^ue^tion 'propoged in them, but it has 
l^^n driven to a decision before I had time so 
Igmcku to look in it Nor am I the only one who 
Ijias been placed in thki^ukwand sttnation. A cele« 
brated Navigator, whomadethetourof theGlob^ 
j^und himself at first very much embanrassed on 
Itift return 1x> Paris, liis compatriots and friends, 
Sienof inleUigence, qoestioxied him all in a hreadi 
tbout what he had steen m foreign countries. He was 
»t a loss how to j»tisfy tiiem ; but soo^ found him* 
SNetlf very nuich at hi^ ease, fer he perceived that the 
questioners ^m^ his riglit hand idunediately xeptied; 
and d^itivdy, fp those cm hisr left to theenqoiries 
of tho«e on his right,> so that all he had ta^do.^as 
t© i)oM his toftgue. R)r my own part, I acknow« 
UdgGf I ^M incapable, of deckling at :the<.Hi(m>etil 
whether I sibould acce{xta simple invitation toidine 
la the cbuntry, of which laifi very fond, till X>have 
turned it <)ver in my mind f&fi same time, and : by 
myself* I muist first consider, not what kind of 
weather it is Jifcely to be, but the. character of the 
in?k|terftndrai$treaS(Of thehoM^e, that of theirfriends, 
^ their cousins, pf their wits, of thm haqigers-onjof 
, their interlopers ; lest imtead of going to a patty pf 
Ifle^^ure; I should fs^l into a party of an opposite 


#attteif lAi^iageJc^^k^d a fittie ftiStietimi. • 

I'b- rt tiiraCOs ottt' i»hbfi6 A$«etndlies, .Wha»t thtim- • 
ber of thm vfoiil^ cy>ose to dbeile iftsfMitfyiimrft' 
jM'^po^tbii^hii^aliytedhispiwv'aiefoMitie? Haw 
flittdk n^cH^ pdweif al reasoftB ha&lii^4i<«^\^h deu 
liberaitidh wbea the fottiiDe of t^i KaiiiWi< ii at> 
$tak6?^ k is fit thaib that €achH3f^ th«liJ^dti6i^'hdV« 
aB opportunity of examining at leisure what helii 
goifig^ t4 deteavAitie Ibr t^^ wh61e:^ttitiHimt^, and 
i^fievk>QuHy; 4t-iB fsttber proper-that. hfc i^houM 
deliver his deci^n not viva viXif' ssS^^thmiFieaaik 
ftraniiery but iii vrariting after the mannes'of tiiai 
HMnaitsL' N othingraan b&.ixraraitmftiisidtaft irkb 
the) ^^itifitid wisd^mJof a deiiberAtfeiws^hljp 
th4iiiii«a»ittamationv If tli£^ pergoit whoibrii^g^ <<^04 
ward a motion has . a/^^^xyitimattttfoig" voiee^; i:g(Kid 
$tocfc of'ioipudenctfi adtdpartisaiis to support himy 
as aUiifae Ambitious bavB^ he carries the indltitudc 
aiem^ witfa'him, who axe seldom much disposed to 
resi$t'tillo9e iri]o»make«'geea|t deal ofiiolscj:hendl) 
on^tbe spiiriof the »oip«t^ iacUice a wlibleibfifs^fai^ 
b]y to adapt ^Qjects the most damgerous^ rand inn 
mediately bind it down by the obligation' 06 an; 
eath^iand thereby deprive it evendf t^e-miseraJdd 
fC86uiiie of repepytatice. A man ofsende Ivbd &ve^ 
seesibeeonsequiences, wiilf not har^i the xjooraga 
singly to brave apoWecfuVparty; for ftat df cr^fri 
iisg to .hi»self perMwial enemifes, or he will himself 
require time to digest hi& own opinion ia pqrivate/^ 
or he may he deficient in &cility of expresi&ion id 
deliver it in public. Besides, where ate tiie medns 
of leading, prisons to form a judgpieikt oiP their 
U 4 own 

fig^ S£QU£|.:T9*TH£ STU0IBS OP IfATURE. 

own who nev€ii ^xistrlniiiQi the<^u|ifiQ.4^ s^iiQl^ber, 
and of e.Qgag^iiili^: a innl^tMck; ta retr^X ^^tp^w^r^ 
of wjiichitbty.have expressed tlidr approbation ^by 
amappliawe ao h^tfrous? Deliberate Ju^gmcBt^ 
ffr?rtJfed'i»f^thein«oj;; an4)4ecjar€dJn wrif^ig* aije 
li^folfijt^jiwaeof the^einflonvftni^ncejs ; ai^djf pjl^pf^. 
of thisiwri»l«>Pq»«*iOj,»wesJ)o»}fl find them i».tbe4S:i 
aemblte-of^aHwtflligflnt Natlpnp,. ancient .4ntLaH>-, 

4crn. j'ui /.' Oil;, i . t., : ;::* m' • • ■.> '■.••lo h.<» -'^ 

l^ln tbdiNatiPiial Aaa/embly» Qugh&l^e totes^tobe 
edllectediby .otder$ or. individually ?)Tbi^ iqusfiitiQii^/ 
irbich:haijtbeen> the subject ofmicbidbcttssibf^? 
MRbm to-mci to oarry! it^ solution, in it's bbs^mi^ft 
titery .|»ffcieolarDefMftty iis^a mpmher of thmN^kti^ 
<!(idliiABarmhfyy.hki ought tn:l0ae sig^t iati^ j3ii^ tbo 
Hi4iifcrQiti6f ihisiardfirt aQd.dcvttte hi^ whoteiibtfUbioa 
<o»that ojTtlie/^dtioflb. Heottght.thereforfi tPlvote 
as an ind|)i;idual,< like, avcltisieu who ba^^no Gftber. 
object ibut feHe pilbitc intecefi^( andnot byihia.or* 
der9> Jbdqause! every iQixIeF! bas a particular; isitfrestii 
CJBirtaifa;patrioU: have. proposed to admit voting by 
poll'wiieji thr question ooccsrud tlie 'natijanAliin^- 
t€cest>:and by xirdek^s when'tbei)artici42lrmtereBt5>6 
^n order was (kpder.discussioni) ijOulii^hen^ainoK 
tkm which .particularly interests axify order isantto^ 
dmsiid intathe.^NationarAs&embly, it m list be bcn 
Ofme it is .likewise inlieresting to the .Nation at 
larger otherwise iV would not be propoieftb thjpre. 
Da not : the greatest part of publip. abmeis ^ affect 
^foine bflOje iorder In particular? To permit themi to 
be decided by: others, of which each, has dt^refe, 
is the.sjUne^thing as leaving them undecided. . . ' 
Voting by. poll |ias likewiae it's inconveniences; 
^ . ' but 

jkit/Frepeal it; they iire^^ii^^h' only to tlie People; 
for, in order to the niainteiiance oP iheir equilt- * 
briutn, they jnustre?kon iAi tfte vIfO* '6f tJidr ite- 
puties, exposed as it i^t^ very cingerbnis -^sediid-' 
tioi^aiidisn thi still greater virtue of ,thtr deputies 
^f the othct two orders, jbf whotn. tlie^'l^mlcm dc- 
Hands asacnfice of niany priviiegeiSmd^fefe'sedia^^ 
live. \ V- - •' '^'' '^ ■ •^'■'- ' .- ^'^ '■-'- [ 
Other political Writers have proposedf^oVubinit 
certain diflStrult cases /t* the jud'gmeht df^ a-^om- 
rtittee formed of the nidVAcrsf of alf the wee^ or- 
ders. When Rome and Alba, wjsheii fihally to 
terminate thfeir intentions; Rome' Coli^riiif ted the 
management -^^^ her- tausc' to the tTiree^^Jloratii, 
and Alba'of hefs to the three Cutiiitii^ '^j^t'I am 
persuaded, that had the decision been''left to the 
pen, as iii -miany other cases, it wbuld'tifeverhdivc 
cotne to 4 t^etroinatibhv ' The swotH cut'ft' shorty 
becausc'tte cbntending 'parties Hvere two liostllc 
cities: but'the cbi-ps SHifcTJ compose ouV As^enilSlj ' 
are members of the samd Nation;' they ought to 
have a f^statit tetidency to 'unite, kritl never 't5 
' fight,' '^Many^*Deputiesof th* Clergy and'Nooi-* 
lity haW^x'feibited,% idbmittingto sacrifices of 
every kin<i, the most respectable proofs' of gene- 
rosity aiid patriotism! ^'I'n^ order to he'rghten the 
sentiment in all the three Wders, and to fetatlish 
mutual coMdence; imon^ them, I could v/ish that- 
any oto6' order in •embariassirig' cases, instead of 
appomtiiig 'champions of their interests from 
among their -own meinbcrs, would choose them 
on the contrary from atnong those whom they 
esteemed persons of the greatest worth in the Op- 
posite order, By 

99ff 3ECIUEJU tP !m£ iiTiimEt or katurc* 

By siiDfly cbaaging the interest' of the parfies^ 
yery difficuH oases have Qcxm^times been resolved- 
Lot ^p^colltctt as La Foi^aine has given itj the 
testament explained by J^sop. 
J. " A c^tain man had three danghtefB, all of them 
^ of a character extremely difficult, a tippler^ accH 
^^ quet»,d complete miser. . By his wiU^ cGnform-* 
** ably to the municipal laws, he left them his 

V whole property m equsi proportioHf; .^iy'tbf; so 
" mii^l> tp, thc;ir mother, payable when ^acb of 
*' the d^^ghters should no longer 5 po*w»* lhe por-* 
^'>on allotfed to her/' . >.' : . .. , 

Jhe ;C^urt"of Areopagus at firs^ d^vi^ed tiler int 
^ritaaee agreeably to their seYemli,ineliMition3. 

^ Three lots were made up ;, th^ piie codlainiiig 
*^ drinking country-seats, buffets ^^U stcfseiSi under 
'* verdant arbours, plate, bpttle-cisterii^, wine-flag- 
*' go^s, cellars tilled with malmsey, aU the afipa* 
f' latufi of the kitchen, in a word, the w<h(4e pro^ 
^* vocatives to sensual canTiviality. The second 
|\coBtained all the supplies of coqiMttry, the 

V town-house elegai^tly furnishe<l, yaleto de cham<* 
'^ bre, hair-dressers, emjyrpiderers, silks tiild satins^ 
V.jewek; and the third Iqt comprehended the 
" farrn^, the stock, the cattle, the arable, the pas* 
" ture, the men and thebpasts of agriculture." 

^ jB^ut on this allotment, eaph djaughter satisfied 
|vitb the portion assigned to her, the old lady 
f oon found herself penny less ; because /^he was en* 
^tled to nothing till each of her daughters ^^ should 
■ ^,no longer possess the portion allotted to her/* 

Esop distributed their lots very differently ^from 
the decision of the Areopagite&i. • He gave ^* To 

" the 

'* %\ie:CW^Kt^imt^^i^ of loose aiiii Itaom* 
^^ ott^ dissipatio&i to the tipplk^ lady ilie fimn^ 
<^ yard, ?ad^tfa[e ccqpoml^t got thefripiierf/' Vpod 
^s each of t^ifi^j^pviBg l^dki^, didsatidtkd ih^ hn 
kgacy, : presently d^pp^ed o£ iilb m^i tS|^ ; imethn 

gotherdc^yv^rj^ ;;•..-:(/ ;-, . :: .'-^r.'.. ! 

The tl^r^ «i%(dr6 wHbi^^^t itni^Hifig iliififtioris i.p- 
j^licationsj aa?e <hh: tlirt8^^(^ef» : : 9»A tix^r Biolin 
k ^ Nat|osi w})o T€cla49]9:bef dauber out of tfaoii 
partpf t^eiUlMW^ace\;i$]B«f]k^is^ havedisp9seilofi||lr 
If a pcrau^aitioQ:of iatereat simply mayisoaMf 
tiine^ acQOfliSinodatieHia^rSy limagiiiethattipetaH^ 
tation of the interested might lik^wise.bnng^di^ ^ 
parties to agree, wjiichis stiil more difficiiilt*: Of 
this at least I agi <;eftai% t^ every thrag is tb 
be obtained of a iKrQDchin)i|i by Itpplyiog to thd 
sentimeatof honoi^*- Tlie Clergy amd Niotxility 
^ave sacrificed their pecttQJi^ryprivilegesi dnifaavq 
Resisted the ^^primtioti ^f^ their honoitry irighti 
only. But if mvm ipf \h^m nghts lajf hftwj od 
a^icul^Brj^ and if thfrpeop}e, in order to/opposo 
t^ then[) those of h^^a^tty^ were to choose theit 
advocates froixi among the most reipietHiable of tha 
^lergy and Nobility^ I.l^ve no doubt thattiiey 
would bei^ aboU^hed. On the other band, I- ash 
fq^lly ooDvioced that if th$ Clergy aUji /Nobt^ 
)ity were tft: «e}ect frosw the House of Conumms 
the champions of the honorary rights^ graafaed to 
the dignity of tbieir plaoes, or to the virtue of theit 
ancestors, . those rights w^d be ptvrserred* to 
them ; and that if tliey \^ere &und to bc| iodom- 
patible with thisiligiHty of man and with)nafiooal 
^Mty^. tttcy iivtuld rei^ire a i&agnifkiesit:indem« 


990 SEQUEI. TO>M« ^tTDraefor^frATURE. 
Btfofltloby' «ttch as by tfaMe (»f a^ptkms, ^brcK 
mullf itod^r them- - ^ f utiife tlie 'Alenie. sources o^ 
fanftTitarf' Nobility : besides; CdtiM twenty nul- 
IJmftbJF'nimi posstbly be^destitirt^jol^^e'>iifeaTfs >>f 
OQiifefidngltoMHr upontbeirNoble^'^hetitiiose No- 
bles made a voluntary approximatioilto\v^i^sthemi 
" [I shoiild/ iinagiiie therefbre 'thait?« toitiimttee of 
MttMence^.fertMd:it<lpi>d<«ny^of 1^^^^ selectett 
iaodich drder, hythe^fAef'-eppoiWc tfl^it in point 
diu^ict»tf -would* substtttf^ei m 'plkde^^ ^^iiticall 
Isfctigue^ which embarrasses' the- simf^iiCaflTafis, 
tbcfranl^Qess of generosity, wfiich'-Siiriplifies the 
<4nb5t embarrassed. Woald- the ordiers bf out 
Id^ttionai Assembly have less maghlaiuitriity tfaisii 
die anptnt Gauls, our aoceslors, and w^uld they 
}iavef>ies9T6ns£iden(ie lA each c*her than foreign 
NatioMu^haTe mutually expr^sid? • When Annibat 
passed thit^fugh the ^ Gauls, f he • People of that 
Od^^iytstipulated with bim, that if they should 
have any. ground of ^cdttiplaint against the Carina* 
gini|sifis, »they would->ii^fer;it to the dedftidn of tfetf 
Canthagiaian Chie& ^ but thafif the Carthaginians 
initilm* Should ;have any reiasop'to complain of the 
(Saiils^tbe women of the^ pieople last nam^ should 
dwiBe^iM^thejustnesisbf such compiaintss ' These 
twb/Ndtfcnsymust' have lived in perfectly good 
iiiidcvsi;a'ddf)ng with each other,^ thus ifi^tuaUy to 
coiifiid0:iii the principle of generosity^ and to 
choose the. umpires of their di^renoes in that 
ivhidh nas most worthy of respect and confidence 
in.t^e:opposite party. There is reason to believe 
that in certain cases refeirence might have been 
safely made to thje jostice^ of ^wm^a/' hiWiself^ 
; ' ' i I equally 

• t.i TiVfimmofTsnti^ev^tM'''^^ SDH 

equally interested to give sa^sfuctioti to bbth 
parties ; and wDlo^mong other great talents hatd the 
BS't of conciliating the affections of the various na« 
tiohsof Hirhicb his^ army was composed* Where** 
fore shquld not the three orders pf ^our Natkm te« 
pose equals cofafidcfnoe in the equity of ithefKing,' 
who is their natural Mediator^ a;nd whoihasri^'^df- 
ten' sacrificed' his personal to the public /interest?^ 
.2; The second Principle on which the. futum^ 
Const! tGition of the State ought ^o rest, is the per*i 
manency: of the National Assembly, and: the .pe«c 
nodical rotation lof it 's: Members^ ... . ; 17/ -r 

By .HYeans of the permanency of the AssemiAyJ' 
there will be a unity of all the parts of the j^iudsni*^ 
nistration already constituted in a great part of the 
Kingdom, in Aasemblies of Villages, of.Citiet ailti 
of Provinces. The Niational AsseniWy* Avbich 
forms their csentre, ought ta place cQntinuftUjr.jUli- 
4cfr the King's. eye the. men and the aiFair$ #f ^th^ 
Nation, and:e6l;aUlish between him and the Iq|M^ 
of his subjects a perpetual communicatiom of ifir 
tdJigence, of services, of protection and ofj.Mp^ 
port, which it ^hall not be in the power ofjinnjr: 
injteraiediate body to intercept; which would. »l!ot 
fail to happen, were the National Assembly -QDljj 
periodical, as some had proposed* i:iryu 

On the otlier hand, by means of the perio^li 

cal rotation of the Members of the Natiooait Alt| 

$embly; no one of them will be allowed thiiQ'to 

ibdentify himself with his place, and to become.aO 

agent of despotism, by suffering himself to. be.<9)r*r 

rupted by ministerial influence or that of afi^lCH 

craicy^ atill more dangerous, than despotisnuv \-A: .<, 


It.appeaxs'to mctibat/the M<nibei!s of this A** 
aerablyiooght to be rtotvted f^ety Ifliree, ox every: 
five ytars^ as may be ftmiid most expedient, but 
not all at onee, as in £]igUm4 but only die third. 
or iifth part e^ery year, thxt the major part of 
it^s members may be sdways m. the habit of trails^ 
aotiiqf public business. 

B; will never be in the power of the National As* 
semhiy totencroachonthe prerogatitesof the Crown, 
bee^use it's Members will be undergoing an inces- 
aoiit change, because it will be composed of two poww 
ers which balancaeadi other under the inBnence of 
Beryalty, and because it will be a fundamental law 
of the future Constitution, as it is of the Monarchy, 
that no proposition shall receive under it the force 
of ^ law, tiU sanctioned by the King. 

% A third principle essential ta the future Con-^ 
sfitution of France, aijid to the unity of it's parts^ is^ 
fheesCablishmrat of Assemblies at once permanent 
fnd perlodiGal in all the Villages, Cities and Pro- 
>iticed ef the Kingdom, after the modelof the Ni- 
tmal Ass<mfolieS) with which they ought to corre- 

Such Assemblies ought to be formed in every 
tgsAlPtet of Paris, and fVom them should be selected 
defAities to compose the Municipal Assembly, tha$ 
tbiS' ifUjnerise City with it's quarters^ may be- assi* 
|lk2lattod to a Province with its districts. 

These idiafpositions ought to be extended to ou? 

Coloniefi^; but if it be a matter of justice to ad* 

milPtlieir White Deputies into the National Adsem*- 

bl^ it is noiiess to call into it their bkek Ble^ttes^ 

.in the ctasti^ of free blacks ; as beix^giemployed in 

- the 

WJJ^HES OF A RfiUtmC. ' * * $09 

the culture and the defence of our colo4iiea» tjbey 
are not less interested than other citizeofl^ to deli* 
berate on the interests of the Mothei Country. 
Farther, the introduction of free blacks iato^he 
National Assembly will pave the way for the abo- 
lition of slavery in the Colonies, just as the ad- 
mission of freemen into our ancient States-General . 
prepared the way for the abolition of teudal ser- 
vitude which had invaded . a part of the Gauls. 
Finally, those men born under another sky, repel* 
led by their own country, and partaking in thfi 
blessings of ours, will aditothe^roajesty of an As- 
sembly which takes all the unfortunate under i€% 
protection, and they will concur perhaps in secur^ 
ing one day to it's humanity, a glory which cpn- 
querors never derived from their vicborieaj that q£ 
seeing in it's bosom the Pepnties of all N9l*Hsi9 vot^ 
ing tlie prosperity of France. ! 

As to the qxtalifications necessary to an Electoi? 
in the Rural, Municipal, Provincial and Natiooal 
Asseioiblies, it appears to me essentia) to possess « 
portion of arable land, as in England, in order t» 
put respect on agriculture and to prevent the plu*- 
xality of Electors from being composed of indi- 
gent persons, whom necessity might compel ta 
sell their voteisj but on the other hand I deem 
it useless, and unjast to require, as in England, a. 
territorial property stijll greater of each Deputy of 
tiie National Assembly ; for it. is certain that the 
Electors, being ab^ve absolute want, will never be 
ex^posed ^q the da9i;er of corruption by Depu^ 
ties. withwt,,f«rti«fw «xd that, deputes with^^ 
out forh^e, chASen by Electors whom they 
l^-ilpt tii^ uiefinA of conruptiugi must pcMM»$» 
p«r4(jp(l(y|«lUi«fttiaii3 hi|^y Mspectitbk: It jM 
,^ . pwsible 

9M SEftUEttO MTE ffrVtlM OFlTATirRE. 

po^ible witfiout doubt) in tliat elass of men of 
all descriptions^ so very numerous, who have no 
pc^erty-; there may be found citizens superiorly 
enfighteneci and truly patriotic, whose very poverty 
is to be ascribed to their .virtues ; a Socrates, an 
Aristides, kh Epaminondas^ a BelkaritiSy a John 
Jtme^ Rousseau. 

The Deputies ought to have all their expenses 
honourably defrayed, pn this subject I have heard 
some persons maintain a false point of honour, un- 
der a pretence that the Deputies of their Country 
ought to serve her gratuitously. But as all those 
who serve her in corps which are not alw^ays en- 
gaged in th^ public service^ receive payment from 
her, from Cardinals down to Vergers, from Mar- 
shals of Prince down to Sentinels, and from the 
Cbandltior down to the petty Clerk, wherefore 
should it not be so likewise with theJVfetobers of 
the National 'Assembly? It is as juSt thlt those 
who directly serve their Country should live by 
Aeif Country, as that those who minister 
at the Altar^ should live by the Akar. 'It 
is besides the only means of opening the 
doors bf fhose Assemblies to men of iherit who 
happen to be poor. Every Deputy of the National 
Assembly ought therefbre to receivfe an honouable 
main tenancey not from thfe Order of the Province 
which be irepresents, but.frotn the Nation, for the 
express purpose of impressing upon his mind' that? 
he has ceised to be the Dephty of. his- Order arid 
of hisProvince, tiiat he t«ay .beebmie a Member of 
tbe Natiob* <. Thisimaibtenanc** cW^ht to be equaF 
for the Deputies' of all tlje OrdeM,- beckuse their* 
servieep atre equal; ;attd hdwever^ siendfer- It magr^ 
%>iit ought/to.bc vbi^ideretl by ^afeiK>oi?^(«b[^Ml 
oidi '.q 4J, 

- WISHES OF A BECIiU«B*: '^90;^ 

*lks equally hoooUrablewIth that which Itrngf^grsst 
to their AmbassadorSi as they receive it from the , 
People, whose pensioners Kings thertiselves ate; 

These general dispositions being m^e or rectified 
OB the best, plans, there is no specif s of abuse but 
what, in time, the permanent and periodical AsSem* 
blies of Villages, of Cities and of Provipces, might 
reforiia^ and no species of good but what they might 
effect* Most certainly in places where they are es* 
tablished, it has not been perceived that they have 
trenched upon the Liberty of the People, or on the 
Royal Authority, both of which tliey elucidate and 
support : it will apply equally to the National As* 
jembly, which ought to be their centre. 

This being laid down, the Assembly thuis consti^ 
ttt ted under the eyes of the King, as the NatioQ ii- 
self which it represents, ever permanent, and inces* 
santly renovated itself, will devote it's attention to 
the abolition of evil, prior to making efforts tg da 

It will begin with abolishing every thing thit 
bears hand on agriculture, that nursing mother of 
the Stat©, such as captaiilries, game-laws, gabels, 
corves, militia-draught?, and tollage ; those bu;*- 
dens which oppress commerce, such as excessive 
and disproportionate duties, tolls on the navigation 
of rivers, the tax on wines on entering into cities, 
which ought to pay in proportion to their value ;^ 
those which distress the body politic, such as the 
sale of employments, reversions, unmerited pensi-. 
Qus ; finally, those which attack the liberty off Matis 
in his opinions,, in his i;onscience, and even 19 h» 
. Vqjl IV. X person, 


person, miich as the servitude of tlie inhabitatltB r^ 
MoiMt Jura, and the slavery of the Negroes in 
our Colonies. It will procectt to reform oui^ Code 
of Civil afid Criminal Justice ; our mode of Educa* 
ttoo, witkout which no plan of Legii»lation ean %e 
iMttng; and after having remedied the evUs in 
Wbieh OUT posterity is interested, the Aiisembly wiH 
extend Ws views to those which uespect other Na- 
tion6, and conmiunicate thenwdves to us by meani 
J9f the correspondencies which Natnre has esta- 
blished among all the &Kniiies of the human race. 

The provincial reports shew that most of these 
objects have actually been taken into consideration ; 
but I question wlietlierthe National As^mWy, with 
whom the work of reformation lies, have the power 
of ^voviding for them by precise and ittvanabfe 
Laws ; £E>r, as has been said, men can lay hold only 
Off harmonies, that is, of those troths which are al^ 
wayv between two contraries: hence it comes to 
pass that the Laws in every Country are variable^ 
and change with manners and the lapse of thne. 
IVpm these must be excepted the Laws of Nature, 
yhich never vary, because they are the bases of the 
^etieral harmony, which alone is stedfast. By these 
atl the others wusft be regulated. It belongs tlicre- 
fore to the wisdom of the National Assembly lo lay 
hold, on every point of Legislature, of a harmonic 
ntidium^ and to support it'; this Tenders t^ perma- 
nency of the Assembjy a matter of necessity, as 
has been oftentr than once repeated. As *o what 
wmains, many excellent memorials havii>g appear* 
#d on most of those subjects, I shall only svg^t a 

4 ftw GOfieideradqns which ma}^ pek'hapK have hidfni 
overlooked, but which J ideem to he df high iaif* 
portaiiG^y because thej SSect tte Peopti^i vhaw 
• interest is the interest oi the Natioap. 

The Kiiig has already dediarpd his paternal in-^ 
tensions pn the siibject af hi3 .wpt^dntkh which 
dHtPoj, for the sake of the gatbe, thc^ crop^ of thi 
j[>ea$aats, and send to the galteye the ^asants vthq 
destroy tht game. We may flatter oiraejve^ m%h 
ihe hope ^hat, ^ter his Majestyfa extnttpte/ th§ gr€At 
Lofds M(iH of themselves is^lBfteaihi cestriot th^ir 
rl^ts cfchaie, which are lilcetrisepdtty captfti^riefc 
'' Thegabel, that other nurjeryiofgalley-bind% hap 
]ifce^vise attracted the paternal regards bf the Ki|iig( 
there is reasgn'tp hope that this iippbst w»ilbe4094 
away; that the farms of oivr plains Wili ei\joy ift 
abttmlaQee the use of salt, an article so necf sfSiary ^ 
tlie cattle; and that iJie sea, thefourl^ el€me^t^ 
will he rendered asfree taFrenchmisn, a$the ^tih^r 
three elements of the globe. 

May his Majesty, to dravr down the hene4iojyia$l 
of Heaven on the operations of his National A9(90f<w 
biy, liberate from prisons and from gaUey3 thop^ 
of his subjects who are the victims of disa^trftu^ 
Laws; of captainries and of gabds ! : 

The peasantry onght farther to be relieved of the 
burden of service on the highways, or of the mottey 
which they pay to redeem it, by levying a eontri- 
bution for tiieir repair, not only on the abbejis ao^ 
castles of their districts,, but on the trading tow^t 
to whose benelit the great roads are principally svJ^ 
servient, as welt as on tt^av^llers who il]jJu^e^tl)eIn h]t 

X 2 riding 


lidtng on bqrsefaack or in carriages. Tliere Qiigh| 
to be established, fbr this purpose, from post to post, 
gates and tolls, as in Englattcl, in JloUand, and over 
a considerable part of Germany* 

As to the Militia, the Nobility seeiJis to be afraid 
of bearing the burden of it, wliether in person -of 
in money: the defence of the State, however ap- 
pears to devolve principally on them, seeing tha$ 
thisorderhas hitherto been altogetl^er military. On 
this consideration alone were tbeir titles in former 
times conferred with their fiefs and their prerqga- 
tives, which they contrived toirender h^reditarvj 
They have reserved the benefit to themselves,, and 
left the burdeh of it on tlie People. Bui my wish 
being to ease the peasantry of the heavy loadof th^ 
Militia Service, arid, which is worse to Frenchmen, 
from it's stigma, for it is become a mark of rill^- 
age, it must undoubtedly be my desire to have it 
laid on the Nobility. Far from wisiiing to degrade 
Nobility to a state of villanage, my object is to 
raise meanness of birth into Nobility, or rather my 
object is to ennoble virtue, and that vice ouly should 
be deemed a degradation. We.ought thei;efpreto 
rescue from every dishonourable stain agriculture, 
the most noble, of all arts, and the only one, all 
whose functions are compatible with virtue. 

It is likewise devoutly to be wishtiri that the iur 
dustry, the commerce, the urbanity and the opu- 
lence of our cities, miglit be diflnsed over our plains, 
the inhabitants of which are so poor and so misera- 
ble. It is a certain fact that the greater part of our 
burghers concentrate themselves iq cities merely 


. to eva44 the payment of the. fustic impost of tol? 
lage, and to prevent the draughting of their chilr 
dreft iato ,th^ Militw, On the, other band, though 
iHir peasants), who have not the s&nieidea2i<>f honour 
respiting tlic moral nature of impositions, areaem- 
^ible only to their fisfcal pressure, nothing has hi- 
therto been able to reconcile them to the scoi^rgd 
of the Militia, bccaii9e it attacks tlie sweetest feel- 
itfgs .of Nature, by depriving tterti of their chil- 
dren. It is the terror of the Militia which induces^ 
them to seod off their children into. the Cities, pre- 
ferring to make; lackeys of them rather than s()l- 
diers^ From thetollage therefore,, and the Militia^ 
dffiughta, this evil re3ults, that the Country is de^ 
populated, and our Cities overstocked with inhabit- 
ants. As the fisc4l impost of tollage wilt be sup*, 
plied by a territorial assessment, to ,be levied equally ' 
on proprietors' of every rank, here m ill be at once 
one great pbstacle remoyed out of the way of agrn 
culture. As to the personal impost of the .Militia, 
it does not appear $o easy to find a substitute. It 
seems very strange t]iat with us it should be esteem- 
ed an honour to serve the King in a military ca- 
pacity, and a species of disgrace to be draughted 
into the Militia. I perceive two reasons for this^ 
^ntradictioii : the first is that the Militia Service 
is imnosed by force ; the second, as I hav^ already 
suggested., because it is a proof of villanage, forper- 
§oiis of birth are not draughted into it., The former 
of these reasons, ope rates most powerfully on free- 
pien ; the second is no le$s forcible with trades- 
people, whose children are trained to ambition by 
(be Pjul^lie education ; thus the Militia is not less 

X 3 CQiUrary 

510 SEQUEL t6 tMfi Sttf fillSS dl* KATURE* 

contrary to national prejurfiees, thati to ttwe Wtalt. 
jnetkis df Nttitw. 

The fear of the Militia i& likcfwis^ one oftht gttat 
MtiBOms whieh render it an object of aversion tp Mt 
jettag peasantry*. The hbm^ttk heart 16 so jeatotid 
of it's liberty, that though the rank of OifBcer be 
hoDonrable^ ancl the pay liberal^ I am convineed 
that dot a sfingie man of ^mrty woiuld submit M 
aceeptit^ ivere ft to be for<^ upon hiiti. Keep the 
gate of a public garden continually open> and very 
feMr MTill ^^d themselves disposed to esterciie thd 
privilege of wjUking in it : place soldiers at the en^ 
try to force pasfsengers in, and every body will ftec^ 
l^from it ; keep }t close k)cked^ barred andbolt* 
ed^ with a guard to l;eep the curious at a distarree^ 
jmd every o«e will make an effort to get iu^ and ea^ 
gerly pK>duce his ticket of admiesion. 

In order to infuse into our village young mett* 
a taste for the service, I would begin with forbid^ 
ding it to them. So far from making the eondir 
tfon of a militia-man the subject of terror, of shamd, 
and sometimes of punishment^ I would make it 
one of hope, of honour and of reward. I would begirv 
W'nh instructing our young rustics, that it is only 
jtm the courage of it's mo^st virtuous subjects^ fba« 
our Country rests it'^ defence, and I would allbv^ 
odly to the most respectable among them the priv^ 
lege of handling arms on holidays, of shooting at a- 
mark, of learning the military exercise, and the like. 
We shoitld tlien speedily perceive aiftong them as 
nttfcb 2eal to get iiitp tlie Mi^tia, as ttey )m\v dis- 
cover reluctance, Should tvar take place^ iheyi 
IfroBid always be ready tp mafeli, tiot under the* 


c^itomondof our stxfifdeCoutitrj.Geatiemieiiy or tif 
oar |)OTse-^f oiad City Barg^saes^ Ukeoot Provicciri 
Militias, but under that of Officers gtoWn gray in 
^e^wicey who wouM find iki such eoiploydofHt a 
l^tfeat moire agrwabte tlW '(lae Hotel desIiiyalideQ. 
It ur)Mldfaeiieces8f3iry ItkeHi^tte: to aaiieHorftte the 
430tidkia» of oaar soicFiery, whofce pay" b only :fivj$ 
^% ^d) ft day. In the time ^Mmr^ IV. k wis 
Ifkewise five«ols^ but the fiye stels of that period 
jUtidudt to move tiafeoi twraty sols of to^day^ the 
ptioeof provisidas beidi^ token mtia the accoiisi£. 
-All that is teqats^te «> have as nmamy ^men'M-ytm 
p\e^c is to ineri'asie the p^ of oar soidiccy, 19 in 
tfh^ cau^ vif eveiy other profiessjon* TUs inoraase 
of pay ittight be j^ant^d them, hyuemj^Io^Hfl^tfaeto 
iti tbe labours <ff i^ ilig^ays, of the sea^pofrts, of 
the ptiblfc ttirOftuii*e6!6, fisc. jostas the Romfmso^ 
lifers wett employial Oti iht other haitd, th6 mMI- 
tary^nds will find a pe<ri](Tiia^ry increase pit^nc^d 
hy tfte iiftpostd on Ihe hrgh roads, by ti part ^f tl^ 
isums expetid^d on the Royal edifices, by the rents 
of fiefs both noWe and ecclesittstic, formerly bur- 
dened #itb military service, by cfeflitrihutions to bie 
still furnished by the Corparatrons of Cities, in a 
-\?ord by savings to be made on the pensions, by far 
Toq numerous and too ceinsiderable, of llie staff of 
the Army. These resotrffaes stem to me sufficficait 
for the maintenance, and to keep alive theenYilhlJh 
tion, 6f our soldiers, eipeei^y if 'tSiey have the fiif* 
ther eticoufagetnent, as reti-eats and e^tjf^ectaiteiaa, 
of becbmittg crty^guards, high>«^ay f)fttroles, riot <b . 
tnhition agreat ntmtbferof petty eivH employments, 
tfi Ih Prussia; and if there bp presented to them in 

X4 the 


the service itself, a cle^r road to the attainment of 
^very military rank, as is the case in all the coun- 
itries of the World, 

' Military servitude being removed from the necks 
of our mstics, the rivers and sea*ports must b^ 
purged of nautic bondage. No seaman should be 
forced to serve pn board his Majesty's ships of ^an 
though the provision made for mariners in the Na* 
vy is more liberal than that of our soldiery, ^c 
must take care how we imitate, the English, whoj 
in order to obtain seamen to man the Navy in time 
of war, pess them into the service, a practice sftiil 
more unjust than that of our Militia-draughtp. How 
comes it that our merchant ships find, more hands 
ihan they have occasion for ? It is because they 
give good pay. Wherefore then should the State be 
4eas equitable towards seamen than qierchants are^ 
It possesses meap:s incpinparably more abundant 
It may increase the revenue of the Marine, bj^cm- 
ploying in time of peace both it's ships and men ia 
the carryinng trade, and in a variety of nautical 
services : it can hokj the s^men retreats in* 
•numerable in our arsenals, in our ports, on our ri- 
vers, and even in our Colonies. 

Every Frenchman ought to have besides the hope 
jof rising, by merit, to the yery highest rank in th^ 
line of liis profession, without birth, without money 
and without intrigue, To this liberty, and tp those 
prospects it is. that France owed her grjpatness under 
despotism itsejf, find particularly under tJ»at qf Louis 
•XIV, the most absolute of all our despots. It is ob- 
gervable^that ^ipicf tlie d?tjrs of t^s JPrince, talents 

in the pa^j^s af Adim|iist4*£ktion the corp^ of ^^iiick 
bave btcome.ajristocratii?. . Il: is inSni^^ bi^Plfr 
jassuredly that thf Sitate ^kouH be hoaoure^d, €f!^ 
jriched, $aved by the ^on of la p^saot^ thandiir 
^faced, iippoverished, mi^ed by the ^/Ofk pf » 
Pfincpv Thus, as from what the past hsui pn9>d(H^ 
/Cd, ^ man in the rank^^ shall bnve it in his pa^fficf 
tQ b^conie Maresehal of Fr^toce ( a c^ovrnQii Sajlw* 
A Commodore/ and ev*n Admiral ; a private T4i^;ar 
in a Collie, Qy%M ; Almoner; and Advocate; 
jChancellor ; that wtt may see revived aq^ong us 
the Faben^f the Jo^n Bart 9, the Amiois, th^ l^JJih 
pifals of otber times. Rome was indebted ^ all 
perio4$, fprher unity, lie4- power and her 4«V^tio% 
pnly to. hep granting to all h^r cijtizen^.tbe iCap%- 
bility of rising to every ^ thin^g* Af oclprn, &omt^ 
as aqcient lipm^ has .held pu| to all dignjiifa^ ti^^ 
limphs, cmpire^i nay deifif atjcHi; itself^ ^ ^ 

The civil liberty of rising jn ;France: Ita he^ biglj- 
est:emplpyi^l|t, ou|^j[t ther/^fore to be ex^endeil to 
tkW her Citiz^9.3, because i^lsta Frenobfnan'^ right. 
As to i»div)daal or personal .Liberty^ iX appertaiivi 
£0 neural riglit ; e^ ery Frenchman has tb^ right 
idf f|uitting his City, bi^Prpvinpe, and the King- 
dom, Justus he goes vh^n he pleases out of hif 
:<wn bou3e* This liberty can be restrained by pass- 
ports only in timei of trouble* It-is the safety of 
iii}^ pepple which ought to be the rule of theex-? 
ceptioqs nrade, as it ought to be that of every po- 
litical l^w whatever. 

Liberty gf thought ha£ been a subject of much 
^iscussjon. It is self-evident that no Government 
§3,u d.eprive ?^^y penpon Qf it. I may be in my 


Vli SEQUEL Y» ¥l» SttflMfci W «ATUR£. 

6wn Mttid, m ttpttbtkittii ^ a %trub at OMgfM- 
(kidjyie^ Of A Jtw at Gte« Camekttte is ^douttt<> 
«Me taOOD dtily : it is a stit« «tfl of the juri^dk* 
lidnDf 6V«ry t5Taiit I« i^penetvftMe by pei^uask^a 
akme^ and not by fer^e. It ^s a tioiret whi<^h eif^ 
"pMih to the rays of the Sun, but sMc^ shuts tf«- 
self ifcgAit^t the stormy bl&^ Thus {^tfssive lilMrty 
of thoogbt is a right AttWeA from Narture. As lb 
Atti¥t liberty,, or thist of puMl^hin^ (^ Mafi's 
thoughts, it is Mdiiced td Kbeny of iBpeeeh: oOdr 
Kberty ^f speech ought to be tegulated iu d SlaA», 
as tlie liberty of attioo. Most tertaioly perii^^ 
sion eannot be giveti to atiy person to act in a 
xhaimer that is injurious to Society, or to itls 
Ihembers, neither tlierefore ought it 46 be allowed 
to poblUh thoughts ^hich Jiavfe this tttideticy. f 
atH even of opinicsft that theNatieua) A^seiiubly 
ought to eirtct Uwk ihore Tfgorou^ than any yet- 
existing, against CftlUiliniatOrS, Ifhe' most det^ta- 
ble of ail Manlcind, as the misehief done by rfieir 
Ukronls ri greater and A\&ie IsMiftg thM that ^Jtwch 
highvfaymeu eomn>it by tlieir actions. The liberty 
ofpablishhig ofies thoughts, or *he libefty cf tfie 
ftt%s, ought therefore to be regulated !by the «• 
berty of acting, and as this last ought not to be 
objected tQ any coustraim: ivhen the piffcblic hap* 
trrness is coaceraed, the public gMd ought to 'be 
the f ule of the Liberty of the Pfess, 

Jleliglous liberty, or Hbeyty of cotisciiitteti, pro- 
• j)erly so called, is, l?ke liberty of thought, not only 
a branch of natural light, but of the La^ of Na- 
tions: it' flows ftoto that iftajtim of unitersal jus* 
tree: *• Do not to another what you teould not 
♦« wiih done to yourself/* Nqw fts \\c demand in 


ITISHBS OF A leEctutm. $IS 

foreign Cmintries the litderty <yf acercidiig our Re^ 
ligion, we ought to grant strangers, m imf turtt, 
tin s^nie liberty in our Country* Most of the 
ifatioiife o£ Afeiagfiint this to men ofttery deacriji* 
ti&n) witfadYcti tiie liberty of pteachifig in tbeit 
own way^ Without this mutual tdleratabu thtrd 
C0ttlcl be no a^mmuDiCEtiaa of intelligence^ not^ 
eren of commer^d, among mankind. All tatioii^ 
ef men would be sequestrated from e^cfa other zs 
tiie Japanese are frotn Europeans. If by means oS 
intoleraHce iJie doer is shut in iStates against erroiy 
it is likewise shut aigainst truth ; tbe Nattdn isi dp^ 
privfed of the natural right of !*lifch our ancestors 
availed themselves, wheti they fieely r0ceiv*d tlio 
Jleligion. which we profess^ and they besides witb* 
hold the libeity of difiUsing it am^ng other natidns 
to yifhotn we do not ^ant recipfdcal rights. In 
order to etotitk Europeans to arrogate to them* 
selves the ^rero^atire oS] se&dmg 'Miissiomari^t til 
Japln, the Japaneze shiDuld likewise h^ve ptrfect 
Hlieity tio send Missionaries^ to Europ^^ Net^^ 
(heless, ^s the glory of GOD and llie good of 
Mankind ought to be tfete basis of all Legislatiol^ 
it is proper Ikot to tolerate superstitious Reltgions^ 
which subject man to Mai), anbd not Ma® to GOD^ 
dr such as are themselves intolerant, ivhich distiirb 
the communication between Man and Man^ whicli 
dam^i each txther, withput atiy tnutu^l ktiowledgo 
of what they afi^, i^hich t^cb tl)em ia tbrment 
their fdlow-creaturrs, dr themselves, iu the rieUr 
of pteasi«i|^ GO£>, who i§ t^ptwithstanding the fa^ 
ther.and ihe friend of Mafefciiid 

As it Is mt reasonable that the Frendbmair^ho 
Vr|3}ye9 hiifi^^if ^o be ^ee ill Fn^Mre «ho(4d be a 1^- 


ranttnother part9 of the World, it is necessary tor 
abolisb the slavery of the Negroes, in our African 
and American Colonies ; here is committed not only 
the interest of the Nation, but that of the Human 
Race. Maladies physical and moral witbou num<- 
ber flow from this violation in the Law of Nature. 
To say nothing of the wars origiiiatiog in the^ 
Slave-Trade, and which^ like all those of Europe, 
extend to the extremities of the Earth, tl>e physic 
eal maladies of the climate of Negroes, such as 
• the fevers on the Guinea-coast, have carried olff 
multitudes of our seamen and soldiers: others, 
such as the venereal, have become naturalized in 
our Colonies. But piora} maladies are more dan« 
gerous, more durable, and more expansive. 

It were possible to prove that most of the opi- 
mons which at different times have embroile4 Eu* 
rope, are an importation from distant Countries. 
Jansenism, for example appears to have been intro* 
duced from the East by the Croisades, together 
with the Plague and tlie Leprosy : we find at least 
the maxims of Jansenism in the Mahometan The- 
ologians quoted by Chardin. The Plague and the 
Leprosy subsist no longer among us, but Jansen* 
ism maintains it's ground and is making way, it is^^ 
said, even in Spain. It cannot be doubted that 
our opinions in their turn may have troubled the* 
repose of other Nations, witness our religious 
quarrels, which have put the people of China on' 
tiieir guard against us^ and have procured our ex* 
pulsion from Japan. The inquisition, which com- , 
menced at Rome in 1204, during the first Croisades,r 
spread at first over part of Italy, and thence over 

Spain and Portugal; it laid waste, by the general 


ifiter-conmmiiitaitfon with these NadoM, a fMirtoC 
the Coast90f Asia and Africa, and m6re than the 
half of America. In 1566^ 4t constrained the 
Dutch to ^hake off the Spanish yoke, and about 
the same time nearly, it obliged the Nations of- 
the North of Europe to sepamte from the Cburcli 
of Rome; and those to the South whb remsoned 
Catholics, to oppose the most powerful barriers to 
il;. afterti^ardi, like a ferocious wild bcaist, turnh^ 
upoD ifs keepers for want of other prey, it cetaedi 
not to difRise terror over the Countries which had 
given it birth ; it being the will of God, by am 
act of his universal justice, that intoleratit NatioitS' 
shonld find their punishment in the very tribunals 
of their intolerance* 

The slavery of the Negroes, which we havens* 
taWiished in pur Colonies, in iinitation of the Por- 
tuguese ahd Spaniards, haiS produced tactions 
nearly similar; for the inhabitants of the Colmnes 
forming now-a-days, by means of their wealthy al-. 
liances with our high •Nobility, accustom them in^ 
sensibly to consider the whole people who nourisli- 
them in France, as destined to slavery, as well as 
the blacks who cultivate their possessions in Amer* 
rica. It is to the influence of this tyfaimical spi**. 
rit, which has infected even our Administration^ 
that we are tQ impute the strange ordonnance oC 
the War Department already quoted, by which it 
was some year! ago declared, ,that no persoaundte 
the rank of Nobility could serve his Majesty in th^; 
rank of an officer in the Army; an ordonnance 
highly injurious to that French Nal;k)n, And 06 
which I do not believe there is^ an example to bft 
fbuQid in any Nation onrih^rf^ce of the Enrth, wMIr 


4>C Fraifcf' ft quamntioe for Qiefi xfrniiw^ ^o»b€t 
j<md Sea^yUH^ec thf ii^fectiou, by biith^ )>y Itabi( 
and by mterest, of the spirit oP ^Uvery, aod a& the 
4fpiavatioo of minds h still more copitagio^s than. 
luiy bodily distemper^ it is a matter of absolute ne- 
cessity l^at the slaveiy of the Negroes should be 
abolished in our Colonies^ for fear tha^t one day il 
|}iQuI4 ^ten4 itself, througK the iofluence of th^ 
^pini9tt of some opulent individaals^ oyer the 
vhi^ bqt poor Pteople of the Mother Cou»try, 
The Ei^gUsh, who take the lea4 of us in maturitji 
and in. wisdom^ have already taken into c6nsider7 
ttioii^' this cause of the Human Race; it is going 
l$ pleaded in their Parliament as it ought t^ 
liaye I^en in the Court of Areopagus. There i^ 
farmed at Paris as at London a Society, ^the de^ 
cjaffd friends and patrons of tlie poor black slaves, 
al leftst ffi worthy of the public esteem, as that o£, 
lg\M€rcu It belongs to this respectable Society 
to carry the grievances of those unfortunate be-; 
ings before tlie National Assembly. 

tBut ^s we must not go tp ruin the Men whonir 
lire wisli to refpvm, I observe, in favour of the iiH 
l^bitapts of our Colonics, that it will be proper to 
pcQceed gradually toward the. abolition of theser- 
^•itude of their black slayps ; . otherwise it will be- an 
unspeakable calamity to the Kegroes as well as to^ 
t)l^*vr , IVfs^ters. Political revolutions should be 
pcriodioiil Ijke those ^f.^Nature. The first step 
to. be taken,, is to dry up the source of slavery 
^ the islands,.. b|y prohibiting the Slave Trade 
^/the.%coast pf Africau; .afterwards the p?r* 
ai»ii)Ls^viitud§ of the Negroes .m^ be reduced 
%fi that of the glebe ; then that of the glebe 


. M • . : A WISHES Of A nmL^H^^ ; \' ; -' J . $$H 

to tof^itnebisementv Which may he ms^ iio dfif^^^ 
01:1 tibeiit ^>od cottduci ijowardtbeir .M**tifs^Nthiat* 
to them in part thsey may be laid uq^eriobflij^^il 
Ibr the recovery of their liberty. . ;t 

It is the more etsy to effect these chfinge^^ that 
the cultivation: of the ialsimk is much l^^ ^s^inf^l 
and expensive ithait thfttof aJluropeati ^^c^iL There 
is no occasion f<;^ heavy: plpnghs, norhar^iowSyiiav 
horse-haraess, iK)r triple. tiiUngs,, to p^ant the. mat 
jxiocy the maze/ the pot^to«, the coif^/.th^ sugar^ 
can^ the indigo, the cocoa-nut,: the cptton-plant, 
as there is for our corns, o>itfY^Ji^^' pjar flaxes an4 
our hemps. The fidds of Our stands ai? cultiyate4 
like our gardens at home,; wi^h the spade,' the pick- 
axe, the hoe. The women and chiWrep are suffi* 
eiant to raise most of tliei^ crops. ; : r 

' The manufacture of sugars^ it Is true, r^uires 
expensive buildings, and the concunence of many 
. operators. : The partisans of slavery have prelr^uded 
from this to conclude the necessity oC employing 
troo{is of black slaves in the islands. Tbis^consef 
quetice sOTcry feebly supporte4 Js» however, the 
most powerful argument they: have [;to^.^a4dtt0e 
against the liberty of the blacks; I3|t| tbtte^is xilQ 
' nei^ in Europe of workshops .crowded with? 9)4vesf 
to erect and carry on the manufaeturespf^tann^ryi 
of tapestry, of papery of ar^itis,: $f pinSji &c. which 
l-equire a greater concourse of wprktudn^ and more 
nnity)of operation than those of s^igar-iq^ing^ 
Besides a plantet who hfis got a si^r^mill, i^.no 
more occasion to raise aU the caiite o|bjyi]CaatAqi 
to engross the whole prodwce to bim^lf„ thai? the 
proprietor of a wine-press in fiiirguuiiy: |^s pc- 
, Vol. IV. Y casion 

MS SEQUEL 'f^iT«te n^VDUS Or«^ATURfi« 

«asioii to ^engvoiil Kll the VlD^es^anh ido 4iis: ikiii^ 
T'bdse \vfa^wit]i^&'W0Ei\^th«43lotfa 41641^ mMe'tim 

through the streets' fiidlthig b^tjtie^ivgs^ stt^^i^ 
|)irinteiP8'4iod l)6«9c*inafeerB engpse WJtfae^iilaiiU&c- 
tur6'o€ pa{^r. ' it<ist4»1&e rakdi^udoiiiof IhboiiF 
tad arts, ifi the ten4s of fineiMti» thtt <^^ psr* 
fectioninEurDt>e4»S«4iea6eiibe(i. <&nn^ ^tdjier'^ 
ties In the hanAstfif 'artisaaa^ are lieQeMary to th(i 
progress of 4iidustf7i «s Vbos^^ land ^are to^^ 
progness of agrieiiltiH^.' Were'themanufaetaierGf 
sugar ^n'theOofedies toeonlitie faimselF eatireir^ to 
inanufaetur4Dg,>aiHith«<p}aiit0r to ri»singti9ejg:kiiei^ 
h MTould be tmBecessor/td refine the ^wigar of the 
islands afVe^ k cainie 'to £wope. > IThey migbt gpin 
there as in India, Ihe'tM^^df the »ooooa-4iut Jbasie^ 
the'tfirea€lstofl!he'ba»nA<Md the cotton, aad airork 
them into <!orda^BRd <stulis. The ^mrt phtitati^iis 
<]f Saint Didmingo and of the Antijiles^l^dividettlmto 
Small prdpertiies, and vectored to £pGedi>ii^ vwfdd 
beebme ^kewbe 4i^ sottie of indus^ vEiid I'irUl 
Vtsntitt^'to iray ikidlreiagt|epai)le) fram the <facttiti)r ^of 
euUwi^d, add 4^ iteisoptfratare of theiir dimatip, :^Hn 
^sie^nAii %Ml Uhe ^iMsraagtis of fVame, >iVhtr6 Hhe 
winters 4W^ 4&$et6i. Jhef «K»ould Ji|ibiidiai mcuitu 
tisd6 • Of ' 6iii^)oyniei]tts ^and jobs ^0. ^ mvmiiGrS' ^tf . j>ut 
po^r <p6d9auts atxd areti^ers^* v^xhp are^out^of 'Wfxrk ia 
fVa«ce; iaiid«be Ptavters in ouT'OolomoB >wottkl 
^Stit^e^m^^Mes richer, liafp^ier, ' and ly^ra >di;3tin# 
f^^d^Whte'i^tead^f foreign staves ^bejrwoulA 
have fetmersHof <heir^wrn cc>utitrjiiie«i,aii4«igtiio^ 
ties Instead of pikntaMoBs. ' ; ' ' >.. 
:l havc^fto iiecd <o be difflise on «he ftholWon of 
- ' ^' : • ^the 

I'o^ives df fVdiice, '^-Ift^ Hglitt of i^titfiiaiid Hfe 
kW4 6f the G6spa ■ thii tlu%ti6n'6f* tHbi'»tae"a<*'. 
jrtotiWafei the 'JIot*^ Utf tHi i^Hi^ ^t taipii 
The Ckttofii 6# Ssiiiif! Cl^afle ^11 uilfltlritftetffy i^ 
*DlVe Vblinititriiy id itls^idre iifteWy to Fi'iAeh ^ 
satits, iftet the exatti^of ttifeif WrtdlWa Bl«ib^, 
wHhdut being fdrb^ "te It bj^ the mtitftlkf Aiimi^ 
my, xrhkh hks flie ti^t of iidre^n^ ^^ idjtfy 
adrw bate Nation." ' ; ,''? " ' 

YiSchiefs of the P^tt df cWry Wik I T it^feat 1^' 
to 1^ nim^ of Him trhd Itits uttiWtf tfid ijesftitiie* ot 
all m&nkhifl, yo\ir ha,p^iiiess depeiids ina i!tkt<itihi 
Peojite: if yott hate theto, tAey^ffl ftdte ydtfr (Hey 
^Hl ifipiy y6a 'A fitindre* foM t6e'tnisehief yen M 
ifheiih >. But if ydti IdvetNeift, they ^ill lord yda j if 
yoti pifdtect theiii, they'\^ifl prefect you t you will 
be «lTo*^in thdir' sti-eigth, as ydu are wfeafk inr thcilf 
Ifttakiies*. Dd you ^Isfi yourselves to Ibfi in fVife- 
ibfn? nii&kd ltd attempt upon thi^fr liberty : wonldf 
ydU#isfIitd4cquireittttnitiiiation? do not blind theii 
tiHtli j>r^uidteej in order' td tranquilii2e your own.' 
touk, dd-iiot disturb theifslpirits; to ihdintain your' 
own gtexiht^i, dtvhe the means df their deviation:' 
feftidmber that you art the SUmmill df thfci treie of 
tirhkh they afe the st^rti. 

Tbe Natiohat Ass6tobfy 6ught to dfeVott J)articU- 
lar attetation td^the refdwh df thtf cddedf civil an(f 
titimiflai jastic^, wiich in it's pfestot ststtsd is a nid- 

Ysi nument 


nument of the ^^ges of barbarism, ivhen the stronger 
oppressed the feeblen They will reform, for iti- 
stance, that unnatural Law by which the testimony 
of awopi^n is declared to be valid to establish a 
criuiiual Q^arg^, and of no avail toward attesting 
the fijmple taking possessioif of a benefice. They 
will ah^ishf that o^her l^w which gives twOf-third| 
of landed property to the eldest son of the family^ 
tbeothajthird to the younger, brothers tak|?n ton 
getbef^|s;ei|e .diere.adozenof them, an4 simply a 
yo^uger^cjiuldVp9r)Jon to. be divided amoipg all the; 
sister^ v;.c;rej^^ as many in i^upiber as the sons; 
sp thajt jpinjng the exprj^ssion of French gallantry 
to an inhuman- disposition, it declares^ that; a fathe;i; 
wy njariyhis diwghter with a c^aplet'of roses, 
that is, with jm; empty pocket. /Tins Law, wl^cl) 
exists aoiong tJjjs? Nobility of a great part of tjiq 
Kingdom^ appeiu; be an iippor^tion froin t^ 
barbarians of the Northj^ ia as much as it is iq full 
vigour among; even the peasantry of th^l^ part of 
Normandy called the Pajis^de Caux, where theNor-^ 
man Dukes first settled. It is not knpjfn a^ j?ari3 
and it's vicinity, where brothers divide share and 
share alike with their sisters* This Capital of, th* 
Kingdom would never have attained the poi^t^pf 
(^pulence, of urbanity,;of mtelligence and of spleur 
dour, which render it in some measure tjb^ P^pit^^. 
of Europg, had that feudal I^w existed there.. . 

For my own part, in meditating on. the; causes 
which render a city illustrious, and which make it 
the centre.of Nations, I perceivethatit is not the 
magnificence of the public monuments, n^or the pri- 
vHcges. granted to commerce, nor t^he mildness of 



WIS«E« or A HEC ttJ0I. i ^ . ^ 9iS\ 

dimate^ dor even tiie fecundity of tHe soil> but thei 
felidty whit'h thb'iilore ffftiialile portiigft'of the Ini-i 
man species. there ienjoys^M*rheifeate^b^ Globed 
Cities more happily kituated tlmit^Pbii^ ;aiid tvhrch: 

. aroifar lessisrei^6vriiedianHlFar.^p«paslousl Napks> 
i^ in a deliciousl cKmate yj^modewii Rtwieiis a rep6*-t 
sitofy of august mohotxidtits^f iCahstlntittOple is on> 
the limits of three parts bfiBh?>Woi^ld, EuVope^ Asiai 
and Africa; other Cities, > sii^ caiB Hhe Capitals of 
Peru and Mexico, are situated !on^lhq?farink of tTic» 
vadt Ocean, in a soil teeming with gdHi;: with: silver 
and precious stones, and under a temperate sky 
which knows neith^ the bumirig heat of Summer 
nor the severity of Winter: others, such as Xleyloii; 
Amboyna, Java, are in fortunate islands, amidsfc 
forests of cinnamon trees, of tloveSs^' and nuttnegsh 
Nevertheless no one of those citSes is' otxce to be; 
compared with Paiis, because in them the womien» 
are reduced to a civil or moral slavery. There^ar© 
even in France Cities wht<ih prisse&t advaiitages sii^ 
perior to those of her Capijtilj from being under. fi> 
climate taiore genial, or 'nearer tfae^ centre 1 b£ rthd 
kingdom to become the seatof iGoveimment, iotbk 
the shore of the sea tb. maintain a cbrnmunk^feipii 
with all Nations. ^ Rouen, for ekamplev the d9prtal^ 
df the Pais de Caux, a viery considerable sea^iort 
so far back as the times ^of JulitwCiesan, idwighi; 
from the Utility of [the adjaceikt douitiy,riVoiiDthe 
industry of itfs inhabitants, andfrdm it's sitSuatiou; 
on tte Seine near it's influx into the Oosaii, d»Uati& 

^ risen to thb. same degree cfpo#erai^'^theCa{»Ul^ 
of JtoglaiHl, whtclitsgnit^ Dukesitbneesubdi^dJ 
But if Loctodmi^Itcraelf : is l^ome the idvsil>4xfT Paris,; 

♦ . : Y 3 ' it 


il is umlQubtedljr fcom tlie same causes Ikr|s owqd 
it'S'flourishingc^si^Uicm te that which it dcmfbca ovl 
it'3 &tMta tfthai>itauiUi> Wfaev^r ircanen ar? hap*, 
p^, thore yau behold tafilic^ ^lei^ace,- aommeirce,' 
and liberty iboi^ik^iB^/ OThe mbcraUeof all €Knm*t 
tfie^^ vho^eMCvjs'wltens roc^on oti their senistthilijly^. 
oarrjn thjtber theshr>^r^s^ thmr iodustry ani^ tfaeii^ 
hopfis, Hum^h faeiiigs flack thitheri becauae thare 
tyrants ^hx^ nbk to (ip|iea,F.* 'Thf most; renawiied 
CLtiipa of anidqultyt ari thofio iarwhit^h womm wera 
held, in hig|ie9|> dotiid^iiatioii j suph Mas Atrhena 
amqng the jCrrckks ^sbch \viafi a great {tart of Otpece, 
where they teighqd hy the Empire of the Graces^ 
qf InuQCesipe:) an/d of LoTe^ and which has left ^ 
x&fheinb]atioe.«f sbieif sa delicious, the bl^t Arca* 
di^ Warlika; fimne herself ovfod to thera, f|X)m the 
]^vdlege8 whiiph &he graated them, the greatest par^ 
of hcD powpr at^rbarhamus xiatioia.s'who tyrafiOiized 
over their w(iman» #asy to subdue ebemiasf^ 
ysheii yfp faamth^m fefnalo* C0mpan)oiis>for frtepdsi^ 
0cid 0bs^pip4 tjiati 9%lis^ had mope t^mplw at; 
S<i}nQ thaulwanyi other plaoedfthf^A^orid. ifta 
this B^x iipe:»fpr ailb those vrho bote th^ vari<>04 
9|)fi0pafaB|iiS!of jFb?tfM^^^of Jum, of ^^^^^ of C^* 
d^ of ^l^^tia, of jE)ea;3^ of CTera^^ <^ J^'serpim^ 
oSJifumf of ^ffl^ji^/Qfi^ibar^i&e. we^s^ flud 
l^t the ixodditssea were tl^qrehald m still hij^heii 
hanoueth^nthe CftfNob; At flsirli^ i|ieftiiial9 laittts 
^ro IB. higher catffpatian,thari dic^ mal^ Tfiat ca«^ 
|tftal.of Siapct owes it'a prprogatiJres over-all thcp 
djihiffc cities of the hifigdDtn^ ;%ad k^^situ^oee oiser^ 
Biuicipfr^ til the ei^ganoe of* 11^' ^Acta^ to Uw lolJetj^ 
Qf tth$ mf>desiaiidtatfaepfi£tf d^ of naiaeri^hi^t^ 

J yesuU 

miisbiiiMier^Q«v<ef)fiiil t^iiitbe.kigijLyJf tj^jitvcf 

thorn itD^theii;;bu«bftii49iai4 to th^friaitocUi^. 

reank^fs / to Ibem itt aBi^kiMSftbe poil} ftff ilmnckiv I 
a$(iBv0stdA Mfti2i^aiiii»lii^ ntogistrM^ wttsdi) fclpt^^ 
dsfls tbtiQ t^imbgb thiirlwlHsdtf «ttttc»i dfioiiir.lift)th0c> 
legnktomoC lour tetta; 1 q£ «Uf' ii8igM,< aochdwacj 
offBicdpiiiUiiii. 73b«ytaraiifnmQifll£iii^^ 

niaker. witk) ^iaaaa^ Innd tlie%sfgi^ <l€ tho owa%) 
ami: oi ttYfci^eitte. toj^be kdito9;ta»!haiijQiit? atiooooci 
tltoraltao aflid) thokiaexv ait ig ibeyr^Dugllt? in mr) 
young hearts a protectioiiM> bi^ afir<»id«d< ia;npkr' 

Qufli aniiteiider: iflTe^twtfs^ vhi^ &rfi.iii( ai Aiture.poo 
ri9d>t^9effv« Mia.$al^<«i»«Ml:iig|aiiistli tbtrbarbarf^ 

c<»in«k with maon^m tont)ie^^uppmi;;a£ tbtdttiHieafcrf) 
im9^ bgr k v/ri»«^ tA^tti aH ^^«^ ¥itf»cjp ^ a«i itq»4) 

NaliDe^JhaR «a)te^ tb«ni^t^ b^ i]f|irtafc#i»iiaf Qtfr pteft*^ 
MiteiiiTaf^<ir.piir;painsj> ':. -v.. . .:.••• >. . •. ^' i /, . :/. 

,^e^NatM«Aal;AflM»ibl^ tti4ev»*6. 

aiUifiiftioQ tft iib«: e9<«blNila«ii4} Af) tba: 9jiiii« lawa> 
nil 9tier the iBu^^ph .aali^eiilf 9^«be[ 9MM 
aQd>mmwrf«,. fov .^b€ir>iiiir)io9e e£ scuttling: among! 

ciftlBQm^ tll^ lllliQAflfrritfDtittanIi 9^4.C^ 80i 

McaMMy t;(irimhl^ i . ^ 

They iMitt^tikcwise^efii^tl ai refdrty^ i«itbe iCOite of 

CnnttMl JNatittp^irhidii pf(»«9<;siw)bf^^ abuaea. 

y* than 

SS8 • SEQUEL ro THE iTO]>l£S Ot MATURE. , 

than chetTivil Code. Tbeihumanityof our ma^i^* 
trate^i^appiovted. by the will of the Nation Atiid the 
saiictieii)ofIMa§oty/ ^irillfudietrate into the ititrU 

%;<ikfiaiid/th«21)tc^/f< in iordertb strip vkeidfit^s' 
re&igev, a«id>mf»revi^titttU)deiicef)rom^^goii^^ 
Iffi^nseiii^ttoif oi)irti<€oi)4M^ttte nevttlow 

sight of that fjiwri whicfeNaiture has' insci&bed^ not 
oft!6oluiniis of marble oir tablets of bmss; not om* 
patchnieiitsin £gyptia]l;> Hebrew or Latin charac*' 
tits; faut/wfaach >flhe has 'impressed with charac*- 
tak of feeling, that language iof all ages/ <m thp 
GOBfcience of every man, : to be there the etenial 
basis of the justice and the fekicity of Human So** 
ciety : '^'- Do not to another what you would not 
**:hpTedobe to yourself.*? r 

'The consequence wilt be that rewards must be* 
come ccvfBlxion and personal to all Frenchmen, for* 
theisame ^rinues, as pum^nient fi>r tl^ same vices. 
These aire tihk<k]y means of destroying thef^gur 
di^ whli^* boiyftrs hDm>dr oti the whole posteritjr * 
6ti^^famif^ infieompHinentto the glory of one of 
it)i niei^t^era^ or whieh disgraces it for the.orime 
of sill ^iti^lvidifial M the same time all chastise-' 
ments which are infamous and cruel ought to be 
stlil^ished; ^Itfay itappearitojlnereasotiable'toisub- 
t^itttb^ without corporal Mtgmay after the e^ample^ 
<if Che ' Aomatts, the ^miisfameMHsf exile out 6f the 
Jcingdom;' in -place of that; of perpetual imprison* 
ment and of - tlie ^galleys. > A man^ after haTlngcon^ 
mitted a bad action inhis own country/ ictofe he- 
lias been tempted byiindlgeti^^^ seduced by e^am* 
fio, 0f hufcied on by passion, frequent^ refbrms^ 

i himself 

Wmsdf ill ^ fcrdgn cscwmtry wlieie 1«j is man 
}nip|>y, attd cjqpecially ^evt he h unknown^ Ffc- 
^p^^atty, on the contT^Lty^ \m depravation is coai* 
pjeted^ abandoned td himself in a prison^ or blasteii 
iiithesottietjy of citizens by public opihion, wlnch^ 
piirsues^Mfn for ever even i m his; chilHreiu Th«. 
ff^liii^taeiit of deitH <>iiglft Hkewi^ ie very 
rttely iflflidted J it ihiHild take pbsicc oikYy in casts 
<^prexn€ditated ass^si^ation, as in thelawiof Talioi 
among the Hebrews. The punigfamentof <tdeat!i' 
bds bieen abolished in Russia in every case, ^high* 
tteiason excepted, and crimes are much ntfer in that 
^untfy ^an formerly, when this ptmisbment "wms 
^txy common. We ought to imitate the humdiiitf 
of the English, who ^sendmost of their convicts ti»t 
newly distepvisred countries, 'it wpiild likewise W 
ad«r»&Uetid.adi^' their |)cactiide of decmomil^y tlie 
* jadgniaif>ofPeecs and tibevei-dtct of Juries. !Elmt 
Isst model of deteimination may serve equally to* 
ascertain {i|tieperfbwian6e of worthy actions in il»' 
viewof iivwarding them^ and the commissiondE: 
«rini«s mord^r topunisb tjiein. Itis not just tliattliet 
laws should! be always, indicting punishmwt, aadi 
never beitowiiqg rewards ; that a man slsckild bese«ft 
tt> the gaUqf s;or lk>ia dangeon for having ^attache^: 
the fortuafifOr the lift 6f a fdlow citizen, and «€- 
^ei ve no mark'<^ public %vonr for having preserved 
peace in his neighbourboodi and administered ^ 
consdiation to the afflicted. Our code of Justice 
Moplbys but one swoo^d; it knows t>nly to smite: 
it's, balance s^res only to weigh oflfeace% but iie» 
vtar.virtuesv It is tobe ictesired themfoire that our 
tribunals ahoiild have it in dieir pow^ to deoree 
.S teoompenscs 


jgc Mpenao a %ell ^ifMdsfament^ md.tor emk 
ailtis as. well as acaffojfck;, Th^n.fbe 6toiie» q£ omr 
efoi^atrcete: CQiil;biu^y Wf^ted »wjth. i^Aitda «f! 
ttrandldg or of dtjaittr,. wiUceai^ t(»^be^ a» at Gtm^ 
slbnfo. of infamy ; they M^Uli aclquit^ to^ thmsdNea 
hoiiDur/bjr beMiBingiitJie; i^wotdsi Q£ivniiie;^.rT)m 
aorenu6»6nt0 enrckies, ijiAtead af temfyiiig Iitot(flr 
Icfs by exhibiting ^ibbet% wiU invite tbeift tb«ft 
iDiaefeb aft tssfhxxxi by triiiiniylxilr vt3he9:reai^ii>. ati 
]if€ttn% tothes)einor]5 pf meril^fdotis «itize^ - 

SMhMe tbepriiK^i^ abuii}s:Mrbkd»J9 Myopia: 
imncaHliarfeforinatioA. 'itiKKW^roe|eed(^BM^^ 
"^ aoiw if^ectiiMa oa teriiteri^, import wUc^miial^ 
Mp|dy fth^ fftaec of tati^gei .towards clbcbaigmgir 
the debte<»ftke Slate, aiidwiiidiiaught.tQrb^ 
hgr ewvy landed propfeietMi irtlJfKmt exfieptittnw 

.ft a^peais to^me tbatiia4ontoti>ci|ttalbEeW;lBi3^ 
toifal taat.0111 jperscms^. it ovghl) to faekdd^qiirilip^bni 
fertyhes; that k is to aayv; it orght toKciatmoe m; 
pM^HirtMni to the extend a£ each teiK)ed:ptdptTly ^ 
duis the quantit J of land necessary to/ themaian 
ttfUtHceof a iamily bemg deterniiaei^ that qaon-t 
Hty sbeold pay: laore \w paopoytkni ad ibjmigiitE kh. 
CMase in tiic: banife of eachipisoprietecv' The Rqni 
jiians^ iHi theeariiiev ages;pfT«beir Jlepitbikv Hmiiedt 
toaeran dopes the pdkriiofi ef lanci^oessaiT? to the 
sulttiatehce o^ one fami^. J^; w&' axe not sa» 
.tempemti^ as^theapcienrt: Romaiq; as dur eiimate;. 
colder thanr tbot of Italijr, psiquires^largor sappKes;;i 
as: our soil ik less feitilei ; ^ we/ pay titlKS and! ¥S>»< 
rima o<fhrpraipdat8 tinknowa to^then.;^ amd a» theyr 
paaticifi^tad^ mt» th(t cMtravy, In: the tPtbotes* iaw 
|iosed onJocm^rediNatioaisf;^ to lUei?eltef of dte 


tw«ii|t|^a€«ea^.thei9a^lt^o€lajEU^ , 

f^HjmtMmiy* T^a bmog laid dowo^ apud tihe mms 
l^i^g; awfissckl . to at tormoxiei 18^^ 
produco: not.m moii<j^ eafklprefrerl^ eBoeedingr 
tiraDt|y^ acses coiddi keai a loght ^:aflL wh2elp[iii»ig^ 
cl^Qiimated^tipxsiMrplusHfat;^^ ^ This, rate ought' tor 
tefakii by those: >vho*m9j9 F^^^' tw<^ pmpertjsE 
GQQsistiiig of twigntjr ^esieaoh ; it shoaild \e daoo* 
hlciL oa tluee who, have. tilMM> quafqli»i|KkBd do tluMO 
whaWve^ufly amd'SQ oh. Thas wktieiiiilrriilvat 
jUH)|iertiffs;a(fara3aced m atitJuncticai prc^resaon^ !,{ 
% S^ 4) tbe.sQspbi&mtei would it&creastfiin a:geoiii8« 
tfkeA ntio, .1, 4, 8; &2Cv so tbajk it witildjbe'eqwal^ 
^ ^ a pQS9€ss)oik of a t^usasd aora^ tai thsitearito* 
ml ]ai;bpost eoi thoQesadne thmisancbiicMst^iibisbli^ultk 
l^edtmiife QniOne of t^a thousaqd^ <|nadmp^ onond 
of thuee thousand:^ oqtupiei)Danro£f(uctheBaa»du 

Thisi smpjm»mte elK>ui[iimclrefiserwilkt}^ 
ofipKKpertie^ nAim tariffed 4iaaiqiidsia»dc;r}r9talv 
iiisiiijbe&besides fyr Ics^ danserotts^thanibafrof o^evw 
grojrahuBdp<N|se»su>aa oshich ipf&Qibly. jnaeolvc 1^1 
niin <tf a. Staie, asrh^ beeft obserredi bgq JP^trAffrdb 
and Pliny f and applied to Africa, Greece, and; tbd 
Bomaa Empiise. -Toi tfae££;inaianceis may baaddisdy 
J9 the ^aiM.a^^, SLoijjr and pdifa of Aaia,. aaid>, k|^ 
nuMfem tiimes^ Belaud^ Spaii^ aad Stakjq. it is uv 
lil^ipoeBitfMdl therelwQthaA this; mipl]|isKf ale Mtpuld* 
. in France give, a ehecktodieaccmniilatioiLof vartt 
tierntQci^l propecty, mwh bettQ9 than ^e prohibit' 
teiy laws pcomnJjgaJisd:: to qo pui^s^^t Bmio u(n«» 
dcsD the £ibperQES( mho. Itxed thai CG|i;tei]t*Dr the; 
jgoeatest indiviilual fauoded property a* iOOiacres^. 
J^ift alw^psieQ^tainim whep 


ifcefvdsiUtion does* not pujuiie the trahfigt&riMi' oft 
. itolose OB the beds. Cupidity, Kke the other pas«*i 
aicais, liesttmblcs a caf mgegoiiig dos^ hil^; «ml6Sft' 
jbu lock^the whc^l before you reach the declivibyf^ 
llfwsU not be possible to ^top'it half wny doMrii.< -f 

The surplus-rate proposed seemfcto me in .ercry: 
view founded in justice ; for if twenty acres belong* > 
a^to one &mily» pay one half less than twei^ty! 
teres of the thousand which might fall into the 
liands of aistogle proprietor^ on theother hand, these 
twehiyiiacresof the small proprietor, produce jn 
ptoporlion a much greater increase in provisi<wi 
and men* : An estate of a thousand acres^ under a^ 
ategie proprietor, cont^ns, one year irith another^ 
ii'.ftttt diird in fallow, md is cultivated by at most 
ftm fiuniiiosL of domestics of five persons each, that 
is ifky persons in all) including nives and children ;* 
vhereas these thoosand acres, parcelled oiit am<^g 
iifty proprii^tors of twedty acres each, would be 
i^dtivated throughoi^t^ and mtiintahi fi% free in- 
dustrious iisimilies, consisting of two hundred and 
fifty t^iuns./ Now, abundance of pravi^obs an4 
^ osCBi especibUyof freemen, is^e&st wealth of 
Nittttos;. ,'>... 

There urauld be this result from the impost of 
SBcrplus:territ6rial rate, that g^eat properties paying 
nsoie, and ptodueing kss, would become rarer, and 
thM 8«all proprietors paying less aiid producing 
more would become, more common. The former 
would be less eagerly coveted by the rich, especi* 
ally^ when stripped of right to the game, and other 
psirileges injurious to agriculture; and the latter 
MTOuld bea much more desirable objeet to trader 
men of istodetate fortune, whisn no longer oppressed 
L . an 

^nd stigmati;;ed. liy higli:rQail sefvke^. jtnijiti^ 
^ draughts .and, tallage: tb^s, the surplus-rate woul4 
became a .bulwjirk against the extremeof opulence 
and ii^digeiiice^ which are the two sources of na- 
. tiooal vice. , It might be extended to all gre?it pror 
perties in . eoopldjipeaits, in houses, and in money, 
without touching however any one of the gi'cat 
properties already existing, ey^n sup^ as are terri- 
torisd* These Wishes which I form for the public 
felicity, respe^ct futurity only^ and ought not to oc- 
casion present distress to any individual great pro- 
prietor. . . . \,_'-. •(.,..• • • 
Having tja^-own out these hints on the subject of 
landed .propprty, I proceied to ip^ke a few observa^ 
tions on corn^ the most important production of 
ian^,; and which, is from it's nature a national pro* 
perty; The freedoiii. of commerce in grain, ;J^ 
produced a variety of treatises on both sides of tlie 
questioxjL: but .as, from the effect of our ambitious 
education^ no i^ueslion is discussed but with a view 
to\sh jnc, ; jfi ha^ happened that .this ampng the rest, 
simple as, it >is, ha^^been rendered extremely pro* 
blematicaj, jbec^se the ;inqre that a wit handles 
truth, the more he perplexes it. ; _ 

I It is certain that tJiere is no family tolerably a^ 
it's cwe^ but what l>^s a. p^jOfision of money se-? 
cured, whereon to. ^ive fit; leas{;^one year : it is ve^ 
Strang^ that the great family of the State shpul4 
not have i^'s provision; of cornjfiid up tos^^bsist or 
for at lea^ ^t^at ,§pac6 of J;ime« For want of mc^^ 
zines of gra^,. t|]e liberty of op^m^rce in that^^ti- 
cle-hasfrci|ufyitly e:jfha*ii^ted the Kingdom^oCit . j^ 
^ Popul^ c^^fOfifnp tions scarcely jeyei; l^ve jmyiit\^ 



3M SEQUEL tt> *m tkti>ttSS t^ NATURE. 

swifcefcut aeai* 6f C6rtlw CKli ctaetnitt, *<)th ^JO* 

tire open (ot- ^jtp wtatioti, and chrty dtf all *Mt fe ttt 
be sold/ *t i^ftite ver ^iic*, in the foil 4s«tfrtiirde itAt 
\rithin thrb* tndlitb* they iviU able to rt^idl it td 
us with an atJvatitebf a huhdr^ ^emiitt thto iwrt 
rcsefihWe the 'Savages who sdl thdt bed of a ttiMii^ 
tfig, and are tibliged to re-pnrth^ it at night. K 
is necessary thenefbre that the State bef6te the^iti 
pottation of grain is permitted,' shouM hate kid up 
a ppovisibn for at teast one year over and abo^^ th^ 
crop on the ground ; and for this purpose it onghi 
to have puWicinagazihes- In order ta decide ^is 
qnfestioil there h no need of ittlntisterial i»*inott et 
of academical dissertation, tomnioir senie i& snffl* 
ttent! If ebtample is of any Mreight, look at Ge- 
neva, SVitzetknd, and Holland, whose tnhabiiatitd 
•with a soil tmprodnctive or insufiftdent, live in ai^* 
iured abandahee, by means of thifefr pttblie ttiag*i 
amines ; whereas the peasants frequently w4tft fitead 
in Poland and Sici^, the granaries of all Europei 
Monopolies, wis are told, will be the cbnseqtrtne^ 
of having magazines. Did they depend 'oil pri'i^ati^ 
individuals, the objetitfon would be of sdnf*" W^htt 
private maga:2ines are the immediate Cause 6f ^nb- 
Irc scarcity: but nothing of thiis soft is to'bc'appre-i 
liended, if the granaries belong to ilh&^itioi^, iUe 
administration of them be vested in the l^d^ncla! 
AsserliMfes. Thel^rovlnckl AssemMiei- eMti itt 
t*ia3i'i'(?*ferv6 tliem ctotirfelyftrf ftie ttohiitfto 
oiP »lW5r respetitiTe prbvftices, whitb wotddf ettjb^ 
plefttjJ'^hiie , 'their neighbours nrigfit ^ be in #&( i 
%«it th'to'«iev«r can be the ease ttnder *e fefsjifcitiott 
- '-c and 

«nd€i>irmp<niriem:eaf t^e3!^tix^ :wIm^^ 

infmtmidS (Sk Bopdn^uiJance of gmn m ^na 
C^toddy eliditfs ^scapcit^r in another, irouid pn>c«ra 
the Jatei7>ositi4)tt of Hoyai Autbority towauNls mltiii^ 
taniog' trough the wfaote Kingdom the leqaiBbri* 
Hsn of tbe Jirst-Tate support 'of Inittiiai fife. This 
is «aie reason amoDg a thoasand, to evince the Mk 
eesMtyofthat Assembly's permanency, and^ifthe ' 
periodical ckmge of it's members 

Oiiir political Treatises^ to gratify thb l6adis«^cif 
AdmimstratioD, tae much employed in devi«ring tiM 
jneaiis of increasing the Wealth of Nations. Ilreadnii 
that a State <:an tiever have too much winei to<i 
much corn, too m«ch cattl^ and' especially -tod 
much money, for to this all the rest ultimately points 
But bow comes it about that we have always a 
iiipei^uity of that first Wiealtfa of Empires, I voesn 
the hiiman species, seeing dmost dlilover Eufope 
it lb BO ifivetched, and it's cities swanmng- with iih 
habitants wiucb they know not how to dispose of? 
A^hfipbenLdoes not fed himself encumbered Mrilh 
tiie nmnfaor of his sheep ; he does not expose at the 
corKrpf his rlQage tbc litde lamb newly dropped 
ham the^niother; but Others and motheTB every 
doy ifetnioli tlieiT new-bom infants in the squares 
of otir GiticB and at the gates of our HospiKadsi 
l}ie>'Bnmber Df Found&igs in Paris amounts yeaii^ 
to from five to six thousand, a full third of ^tiipm 
idbo are lidrn there. In. thb City so opufeot ind 
•dindigeut, :dieipost miserable lefkae is of sOBid 
Imh^j;. AM isee persons piokisg up atfttetfooinfir <tf 
ftlie stti(Kt% h^mcB, irnkm^ botttdes,' wfaes^ jolid rngB^i 
|»ddcfllt these faiu.b9rpxio% irior^itktfifdrh^ 
i . skin; 


»ldn; one there sets anj rafue on a muer* 
nble human being. That inhabitant of the forto-^ 
Bate kingdom of France, that child of GOD and 
of tL^ Churchy that King of Nature goes about 
aolictting from door to door the indulgence grants 
cd to the house-dog, that of demanding with a ia-» 
mentafale voic^:frbm a being of his own s(>ecies» 
• dT hta own nation, and of his own religion^ a inor? 
ael of bread, which i^ frequently refused. It is much 
Worse at the gate of a nobleman's hotel, where a 
Switfi will not so much as let him shew him^siQl£ 
It is worse still in his garret, from which he is drt? 
yen by famine, when shame, whose bite is keener 
than the tooth of a dog, and more repulsive than a 
Swiss^ forbids him to quit it. 

But beggary itself is no longer the resource of 
indigence, for they put mendicants in pri^n. ' It 
is therefore my wish, in order tomeet the demands 
of the People, that every man in health ont^f em^ 
ploymeut, should have the right of demanding it 
of the Assembly. of his Village or of his District. 
Should it have none to give him, his demand will 
be transmitted to the Assembly of the City, with 
which it is connected ; this. last, supposing the: case 
equal, will carry it to the Provinciad Assebsblyj 
which will take care to transmit it to the Nk» 
tibnal Assembly, should it be in the same state tf 
jknpotency. / • - ^ -^ 

The National Assembly would thus hdv«>faiic.thft 
lart lesDrt the state of all theindigent&qiiit^ In^itbe 
Kingdooi^sit would have thatJofalHheerwan^astl 
of their ces^uicfts,)^ .ivouid luroi^ingly caipidy itflk 
good, offices .witib' itisi ;King:fQr .tfa&ettdihsbiDent 
::/- of 

WiaHSa OF A RECLUSE... tsf 

of his indigeiit fiimilies, in the BroYJiQeea -wheic 
labourers might be wanted ^ in qui^.co1oi|]|€8 hnd 
in tcHintries recently discovered, iuid«r % Ookreiilr 
ment similar to that of the future Cdndt^tuliqii,^ in 
order alvays to unite those Frenohtncm tot %\^ 
€ouiDtry^ and to extend over the whole HtKtth the 
population thi& power, ai^ the felicity Of tih^r^ pi^ 
ittnt land. The3e daily pi;<ftvis»oi»s , 9.r« addit^QQ^ 
leasons to evince the nece$^ty of rendering tb^ 
National Assembly permanent 

Thus Brittany and Bourdeaux with their heatli^j 
Normandy with it*s oouds which the Sea i^.^Q^al^ 
and leaves twice every day; Roch^^le and Roche^' 
fort with their stagnant marches; Provence witli 
it's rocks and plains of flint; Co(r$ica with ^Y^ 
mountains and woods, the Amerii::^^ IsUi^ds wUH 
their solitudes, and so many other lands coqv6y«4 
by grant from the Crown, such ^ those oif Co^sic^j 
givfen away in great Iqta of ten thqMs^nd acresi ^| 
aatrak^, and which cetnamiMincuitiVfited iq the h^nijjf 
of'lbeir great moneylcKif^ ptQpi^i^ors, would ili>4 
themselves raised into Value by be^pg parcelled 
Ottt intQ small allotments^ HAd wQtfldJufni§lvx>pen7 
ipgs without nuniber. far the ovftiflowjpgp of ouf 
hospitals, espeeialiy . for f h^^e^ of > j .l(he . »>un)dUng 
Hospital, ilndigente I3ut clp^;]^y jthft f90t^ wo^ldi 
cease to prodaee mehdiqity, t^eft ^nd p]f<[>s|i^u^ipg| 
which are tl]& natural frdits .^f it^, 49 tQ p^^scj^f 
poor a^d:infirmi'4hey woidd h^ relie'Vesl ^^ tj^ 
own home, or in 'houiidsi o€; ]ii9rcy> froi^ .^he.fvn^l 
raised abd adaliiliistered by the Ads§mfeU?^Pf l^%pt| 
district; to.this pui^ose^niightihftjfR^flrcd-^ 
yevenues of hoattttali/ thosf^ M^ foct^eiik p£ j^^jc 

You IV. Z and 


and q>idemic disease. Besides^ as there would btf 
no longer any healthy poor in the Kingdom, the 
msniber of sick poor would be greatly reduced, . 
Farther, by assigning to the petrtionsof the indi^ 
gent, a period for transmission from Assembly to 
Assembly, it was not my intention to clap fetteri 
cm their liberty; but I wished to suggest assured 
means of relief not only to them, but to the viU 
lages, to the cities, to the provinces, and to the 
State itself. If individuals sometimes have need 
of work, whole societies have frequently need of 
workmen. Michael Montaigne expressed a wish 
to have an Advertising Office established at Paris, 
to which persons in want, or superabounding^ 
might n\utuaUy apply for information, whatever 
the case might be. His idea has been partly ex- 
ecuted by means of hand-bills and newspapers; 
biit these are hardly employed to any any objects 
but those of luxury, such as furniture, coaches, 
horses, houses, lands, but very rarely to advertise 
for men. The establishment should extend tO' the 
demands of the plains, of the cities, of the pro- 
vinces, and of the State itself. Now a permanent 
National Assembly alone isicapable of embracing 
at once all public ^nd private necessities.^, It is be- 
sides an act of justice; for if the State, has a righi 
to exact from the People militia-service, that of 
the royal navy and of the highways, in cases of 
urgent pressure,, the People have likewise, under 
the pressure of want, a light to .demand of the 
State the j»ems of subsistence. Add to this^ that 
every I^reiHchman has a right to address hiinself 
directly to the National As$em|)ly; and if he 
^•* 6 chooses 

' WISHES OF A recluse; * 5311 

chooses to pursue his fortunes out of the kingdom 
he should be at perfect liberty to quit it, las dvety 
stranger ought to have thfet of coming iito it and 
of settling, with the free exercise of his rcligiooj 
in order to fix among us, by^lhe eqiiity df our 
laws, the men whom we attract by the urbanity 
of our irianners. ^ • . : ^/.v : : 

Confidence being restored between ihefthi^ee or* 
ders, th6 interest of the two first harmonized witH 
those of the People, and balanced by that bf the 
. King; the Rural, Municipal, Provincial, ^nd Na- 
tional Assemblies, rendered permanent in their to* 
tality, periodical in tlieir members, and harn^ont^ 
ous in their deliberations ; AgriCukfire delivered 
from all it's shackles, captaihries, gabels,' mflitia^ 
draughts; individual liberty irtade duteto ev*rjr 
Citizen in his fortune, his person; aiKl his cx)n« 
science; slavery abolished iti the Colonies and oil 
Mount Jura ; the code of civil and criiKiiial justice 
reformed"; the territorial impost assesisad propov* 
tionably to the extent of landed pr^p^rty, atid to 
the exigencies- of the State aM of the National 
Debt; the means of subsistence multiplied, and 
secured to the People by the bulwarks opposed 
to the excessive accumulation of property: there 
will be reared, with respect to all those objects, a 
Constitution sanctioned by the King, the execu- 
tion of which will be committed to the proper tri*- 
bunals,-* to be henceforward considered as the na- 
tional Code of Law 

The Assembly has no occasion to make an at- 
tempt to ebmprize, in this Constrttttloti, every 
possible case; they are innumerable, and there 
are some which it would be melancholy to foresee^ 

Z a . and 

and^j^geitui tojHibH^. As tha Assembly ougfa^t 
to be perimnent, it H^ill kqake provision for 
them as they happen to vise. It will have trouble 
^ttfficiient in rectify iog the^pust, ^nd regulating the 
presetit, mthou^t taking fmitkM pains in enacting 
lp,W6 fbr aa. unknown futurity^ 

Whatever wisdom may preside oyer the digest- 
ing of this Code> it iss ^ot to be imagin^ed that it's 
laws are to poises immuil^^bUity. Nothing is 
kdmutaUe, th6 JLaws of ISTature exceptei}, because 
^icic wthor alone, from his infinite wisdom^ 
Intojws the exigencies of all beings at all times: • 
tjbe kgiel^tors of Nations ooi the contrary being 
but fXBeti) m9x^Giijf know the exigencies of the mo- 
nie«K> and c&n have no foresight of those which . 
Iaturity;is^prep<airipg for them. 
r PoiitS(hli' lawfi tbifrefore ought to be variable^ 
becbnfte 4h?y: iitferiist ftipilies only, hodfes of men 
CQVDtjribfl^ DV^^h arejthepselves subject to change : 
Wbd(ti^ I)»ws^f Nature must be penpaifent, be- 
cbAw they, are the Hws of man, and of the bunian 
'fepecles> .whose rig^s are invariable. Now I do 
hot kho^Vi^ Qfie $tate in Eerope but what, has ifen* 
liered ihe. political }aLW^ permanent^ and those 
9f Natw« jSK) variable, that scarcely at the prc- 
lent day is it possible to perceive the traces of tliem. 
The beifeditary rights of Nobility, for example, 
wJbitfa was not Of iginally transmissivei is a political 
law rendered permanent all over Europe : it ought 
nevertheless to vary according to the exigepcies pf 
Stetes; f0r it inust be foreseen that npble families 
wiil luultiply.thiemsQlves piore th^n others, because 
tbf^y. llfL.Ye greater credit, .jyid cpuseqAiently iBOre 
^mi^ifL^)^!^ of subsisting ; /and heofuse |amili^s of 
»ii- ^,. ; opulent 

Opulent tf adcsm^n will have s^ Qoiistant tendency 
to inc6rpor^t;e with them, Ij^y obtaining letters of 
nobility? ' so that the number of persions who do 
nothing bfing continually on the incref^se, and 

. that of the laborious continually dfuii^fshing, the 
State, at ithe expiration of dome ages, ipay fed it- 
self enfeebled by it's owii Gpnstitutioa, 
This in f»ct has actually taken place in Spaiii 

• and other Countries. , Spain ha§ been weakened 
lieitherby wars nor by emigi?itions to America ^s 
ao many politicians have alleged ; but qjx the con* 

* tfary by peace, and the excessive multiplication of 
poble families which has resulted froipj it, Th? 
long and Woody wars of thje League cut , off great 
numbers. of men of family iu France; but France, 

' so ^T from being Mreakened, increased in the po- 
pulatiod and riches up tp the time of Louis XIV. 
The emigrations from £nglaad, a country muck 
smaller Chan Spain, have formed i,n America colo- 
nies much more flourishing and more populoui^ 
than fjhe Spanish; and so far from diminishing 
the strength of England, they WQuld have in^ 
creased it had they been more closely united tg 
the Mother Country, from which they separate^ 
merely in consequence of their strength. 

It i^ becauiie in England theinterests of the No« 
jjility ate linked to those pf the People, and be- 
cause^tu, th^y apply to agriculture, to coixb- 
tuerci^l Navigation w4 Trade. Einall^^ the seve- 
H^.States ill Italy whichi as Genoa, Venice, Naples^ 
jbnd in .&cily, ^q, liave h^d neither wars to sup* 
port nor Colonies to supply, we reduced to a state 
«f W9»ki»ess which is cons^ta^ntly iucreasing, with- 
: . :• 23 * out 


out the possibility of ascribing it to any other 
cause but the inheritance of Nobihty, and fresh 
patents which are continually multiplying the class 
of idle Noblemen, at the expense of the laborious 
classes of the People. 

If the ancient Episcopal Law, which in Europe 
enjoined testators to leave by Will, under pain of 
having their testaments declared null and void, be- 
quests in favour of the Church, with deprivation 
of Christian burial to those who died intestate, had 
not been abrogated, as well as the permission to 
the mortmain gentry to acquire landed property, 
it is undoubtedly certain that all our lands would 
have been long ago at the command of the Clergy, 
as all our dignities are at the disposal of the Nobi- 
lityt It is farther certain, that if the custom 
which permits gentlemen of finance to job in the 
Public Funds, be not abolished, all our specie will 
find it's way into the pockets of brokers. The case 
is the same with privileged companies of every 
kind, Thus a Nation may, merely ^by the per- 
manency of laws and customs, which perhaps 
formerly contributed to it's prosperity, find itself 
stripped at length of it's honour, of it's lands, of 
it's commerce, and of it's liberty. 

A Nation, on the contrary, by rendering varia^ 
hie, ,for the interest of certain bodies of men,T;he 
Laws of Nature which ought to be permanent, 
^bolishps at the long-run most of the rights of 
Man: sometimes they arp thos? of marriage, some* 
fijpaes those of pergonal liberty, as on Mount Jura, 
Smd in our Colonies, &c. ' • > : 

Jt fnu§t t^herefgre be ^ fundameql:a| law of our 

* future 

WISHES OF A &£CL113£« ' 343 

Aitiire Constitution, that the Laws of Nature alone 
shall be permanent, and that every political law 
may be changed and amended by the National A§^ 
sembly as often as the good of the Nation may 
require, as the happiness of a Nation is itself a 
consequence of that Law of Nature which she cani- 
stantly proposes to herself, in the variable harmony 
of her works, the felicity of all Mankind. 

But as the Laws of Nature themselves disappear 
in societies, from the prejudices merely which ane 
instilled into infancy, to such a degree that men 
come in time to believe what is natural to them it 
foreign, atid what is foreign natural, it is necessary 
to rest the basis of our future Constitution, on a 
national education, in order that, should reason 
fail, it may become agreeable to our posterity at 
kast by the allurement of habit 


PREVIOUS to the establishment of a school 
for the citizens at large, there must be formed a 
school for teachers. It fills me with astonishment 
to think that the acquisition of every art requires 
the serving of an apprenticeship, the most difficult 
of all excepted, the art of forming meij. Nor is 
this all. The occupation of instructing youth is 
usually the resource of persons who possess no 
particular talent. The National Assembly ought 
to pay special attention to so necessary an estab^ 
JUhment, They will make choice of men proper 

Z 4 to 


to execirte the oflke of instruGtors ndt fit><l| 
liiiioiig doctors and caballersi as the custotn has 
li^en^ . but emoag respectable fathers of families 
yfiM may have thelnselves edticated their own chtl*- 
dren properly. I do not mean such as have made 
their young people scholan and wits, bat those 
yho liave tendered them pious, modest, ingedioils, 
gentle, oliligiog and happy, that is, who have lelft 
them nearly such as Nature had formed them. 
Theret will be no occasion, in order to fill those 
pieces, either fbr diplomas of A. M. qr D. D, but 
the production of beautiful atid well-disposeti 
jchiidren ; and ^ we form a judgment of the woik? 
Oian by his ivork, that man should be deemed ck^ 
pable of instructing the families of the State, Who 
has educated hb own family wisely and well. 

Those instructors ought to enjoy personal Nts^ 
bflity, in cousideratiou of the dignity of their func- 
tions. They must be under the kiimediate inspec- 
tion of the National Assembly, and haye under 
their superintendance all the masters bf scienc^, 
languages, arts and exercises. They must be ' 
-spread over the principal subdivisions of Paris, 
*ivd through all the Cities of the Kingdom, to es- 
-fablish National Schools in them ; and not -even ^ 
village schoolmaster should be permitted to teacfc 
but by their appointment. 

They will apply themselves, first of all, to the 
reformation of the whole system of our gothic and 
'barbarous education, of the age of Charlemagne^ 
It is unnecessary to say that they will banist 
from it languor, sadness, tears, corporal chastise- 
^iients ; that they \eiH train up young ones to loVc 


jud not^i wdmftke Cituscm of theii}, not 
Ekves« JBeing thenurelves £u;iiei8 of Jinfipy cli^ 
dren, Nature must have taught theiA much more 
than they could learn from me, a useless bachelor: 
biit as they are Frenchme4a, they ought to be no 
less on their guard again&t the methods which ex* 
?ilt the soul too high, than against those which 
degrade it 

They will therefore banish emulation from their 
schools. Emulation, we are told, is a stimulant ; for 
this reason precisely it oughtto be reprobated. Men 
without art and without artifice, leave strong ^pice- 
lies to those whose taste is weakened ; present not 
to the children of your Country any aliments but 
Such as are gentle and simple like themselves and 
like you. The fever niust not be thrown into 
their blood, in order to make it circulate : permit it 
^o floTV in it*s -natural course ; Nature has made 
sufBcient provision to this effect at an age of 
inch festlessness and activity. The disquietude 
pf adolescence, the passions of youth, the anxi* 
J^titis of manliood, will one day excite an inflamma- 
tioh but top violent to admit of being cooled by 
all your efforts. 

' Emulation is a stimulant of a singular species. 
We do not serve ourselves of it j but it moves and 
(lirects ps at pleasure. While we propose to sub* 
'0ue a rival, .emulation makes a conquest of us. 
Like the Man who bridled and mounted the horse 
at his own request, to avenge him of the stag, orioe 
in the saddle oni opr mind, it forces us. to gp where 
we have no occasion, arid to fun aftor every one 
who goes faster than ourselves. It fills the whole 
jpareer of life with solicitude, uneasiness and vaiq 



de^ire«> and when old-ilge. has slackemed aU our 
jspvementa, it coutiauea tx> stimulate us by unpio* 
fitable regret, 

Pmf eqkitem tedtt afra cura. 

Gloomy care mounts behind the hoiteman. 

Had I any occasion in infancy to surpass my 
companions in drinking, in eating, in walking; iu 
onler to find pleasure in these ? Wherefore should 
It be necessaiy for me to learn to outstrip them 
in my studies, in order to acquire a relish for learn- 
ing? Have I not acquired the faculty of speaking 
and of reasoning without emulation ? Are not the 
functions of the soul as natural and as agreeable 
as those of the body ? If they sadden our children, 
it is the fault of our mode of education, and not 
that of science. It is*not from want of appetite 
on their part. Behold what imitators they are of 
every thing which they see done, and of every 
thing which they hear said? Do you wish thei^- 
to attract children to your exercises ? Act as Na* 
ture does in recommending hers; draw them with 
cords of love, and they will run without a spur. 

Emulation is the cause of most of the ills of hu- 
man life. It is the root of ambition ; for emu^ 
lation produces the desire of being the first; and 
the desire of being the first is the essence of ambi- 
tion, which ramifies itself, conformably to po-. 
sitions, from which issue almost all the mi^eri^s of 

Positive ambition generatei| the love of applause, of 
personal and exclusive prerogatives for a man^s self 
or for his corps, of immense property in dignities, in 



lands atid in employments ; in a word it projcbices 
avarice, that calm ambition of gold, in which all 
the ambitious finish their course. But avarice alone 
drags in it's train an infinite number of evils, by 
depriving multitudes of other citizens of the mean« 
of subsistence, and produces, by a necessary re-ac* 
ti(m, robberies, prostitutions, quackery, superstition* 

Negative ambition generates in it's turn jealousy, 
evil-speaking, calumnies, quarrels, litigation, dueisp 
intolerance. Of all these particular ambitions a 
national ambition is composed, which manifests it- 
self in a People by the love of donquest, and in 
their Prince by the love of despotism : from nati* 
onal ambition flow imposts, slavery, tyrannies and 
war, a sufficient scourge of itself for the human race; 

I was long under the conviction that arabitioa 
must be natural to man ; but now I consider ita$ 
a simple result from our educatioo. We are inr 
volved so early in the prejudices of so many whose 
interest is concerned jto cpmiaiunicate them to us, 
that it becomes extremely ^difficult to distinguish 
through the rest of life, what is natural to us and 
whot artificial. In order to form a judgirient of the 
institutions of our societies, we inust withdraw to 
a distance from them ; but to form a judgment of 
the sentiments of oui' ow n heart, we must retire into 
\t. As ^o mys$?lf, who have been long driven back 
into myself by the public manners, and who. with- 
draw myself more and more from the world by my 
habits, it seem^s to me that man has no natural self^ 
impulse; either to raise himself above his fellows^ or 
tQ $ink belQwthem, but to live with them as their- 



eiqual Tliis aentiiinent i^ comnrK^n to allatiimalsy 
the ivdividuak and specidtf of which have not re* 
diioed each otlier to subjection ; for a more powerful 
ftason it ought to be universal among men, who 
it&nd in need of mutual assistance. The hre of 
ambition^ therefore 18 more natural to the human 
beart than the love of servitude. The love of eqna- 
lity is the medium point between these two ex* 
tremes, like virtue from which it does not differ: 
it 18 the univ^al justice : it is between two coo* 
traries, like the hiirmony which governs the world. 
It is that which ConfuciuscaXh '* the golden jnean/' 
'which he considers as the cause of all that is good, • 
and which he denominates by way of excellence, 
^ the V irtue of the beart. '* He makes tlie principle 
of it to consist in piety, that is in the love of all 
inen in general. He frequently reoommends in hi9 
writings^ *^ not to make another suffer wb^t you 
^ yourself would be loth to suffer.'' On this natu* 
ral basis it is that he has reared the immoveable 
fabric of China, the most ancient Empire in the 
universe. In China children and young people are 
not stimulated to surpass each other. They com- 
prehend not, says the philosopher La Barbinais, 
either our theses or our college disputations. They 
simply undergo an examination on the subject of 
Jnorals, before Commissioners appointed by the 
Court. Tlicse Commissioners select such of them 
as dis?ov?r the greatest capacity without the least 
regard to their condition, to rai^e them, through 
sfaccessive degrees to the rank of Mandarin, from 
Vhicha ftian may riste to the offic? of Prime iVIinist^f 
^f State. 

The emul^jipn with whicji . we jpspire. ov^r chit 
dren, if I cpay venture-to .^eafc, out;, is.afortifi^ 
ambition; for the ambitiQus man wishes at rnqsttgr 
get up to the first place ; but the cmulo^us ytshea 
besides tp raise hinisel( at the. expeoce . of a rivaL 
It is not sufficient for him to g^t to the summit qf 
the mountain; he must have the farther satisfactiooi 
of beholding all his competitors tumbling do viu 
Emulation is a cruel deity» who^ unsatisBed with a 
temple and incense, must have victims likewise;. 

It is remaikable that the emulation i/ifused into 
infant minds produces a more pernicious effect in 
us Frenchmen, and renders n? more vain than any 
other Nation of Europe. Many reasons for this mc 
to be found in our nianners ;. but without goii^g 
farther than our education, I discover a particulai; 
cause of the vain-glorious ambition of pur children^ 
in that of our professors^ In Switzerland, in Hol- 
land, in England, in Germany, in Italy, in Ru&sia, 
and I believe in all the Universities of Europe^ proh 
fessorships lead to Magistracies, to the rank of Aun 
lie-counsellor^ or to other employments which coiii^ 
nect them with the administration of the State: this 
was the case formerly among ourselves, before every, 
thing came to be bought and sold. Those Profesr 
sors in other Countries therefore direct the attentiom 
of their pupils, in part, toward the object which they 
themselves have in view, that is toward public af-» 
fairs. But our French regents, obliged to circum- 
scribe all their ambition within the precincts of ar 
College, can gratify it only by communicating it. 
to the youth committed to their charge, without 
foreseeing the conaequences to th^ coumi unity. 



They establish dtnong them Empires in miniature, 
the crourns and dignities of which they distribute, 
but together with them the jealousies and hatred 
which every where accompany emulation. They 
have nevertheless examples in abundance of it's 
iktal effects both in ancient and modern Nations. 
In return for some talents to how many vices does 
it give birth ! Besides, if emulation has raised up 
some great men in certain Ilepublics, it was because 
the Citizen could there aspire at every thing. But 
among us, with whom mere merit no longer leads 
to any thing, with whom it is impossible to rise 
to the smallest posts without money, to great situ- 
ations without birth, and to no one whatever with- 
out intrigue, the crdwd of ambitious pretenders is 
wholly occupied in levelling all who attempt to 
rise. A traveller, a man of superior merit, said to 
me some time ago : " I this day find sunk into con- 
•* tempt the men whom I left here, lastyedr, in full 
" possession of the highest degree of public esteem. 
" If they deserved it not, why did they obtain it ? 
" And wherefore have they lost it, if it is their due? 
" There is in France an agio of reputation which I 
** never saw in any other country.** 

The emuJation of children is with us the originat 
cause of the inconsistancy of men : as it inspires, 
with it's crosses, it's medals, it's books, it's prizes, 
it*s theses, it's competitions, into each one in parti* 
cular, " Be foremost," it trains them to want of su- 
bordination to their superiors, to jealousy of their 
equals, and to contempt of their inferiors. But as 
extremes closely approximate, this ambitious edu- 
cation is at thfe same time servile to the last degree. 



As it operates only by the love of applause oi the 
dread of censure, it places men all their life long at 
4ihe discretion of flatterers, who for the most part 
understand the art of malignhig fully as well as 
that of praising. The suffrages of otliers, which 
tiiey are eager to captivate, recaptivate them in their 
turn with such force, that it is sufficient for them 
to be encircled withdetractbrs of the most evident 
truth, to ensure their rejection of it; or with puf- 
fers of the most absurd opinion, in order to their 
at length admitting it. Their own judgment bend- 
ing under the load of this tyranny, the yoke of 
which they have been accustomed to bear from 
their youth upward, their conscience forms only 
the versatile opinion of another, which becomes to 
them the only standard of good and evil. 

Our education disposes us no less to obstinacy 
than to inconstancy. It is from the vanity and the 
weakness which it inspires, that the spirit of party 
has so much influence, and that it is suflScient for 
the ambitious man to say to such of^his partisans 
as might be hesitating whether they should support 
faisopinions, "You have no courage," to bring 
them back instantly to his standard. There is 
notwithstanding no great courage but much weak- 
ness in suffering ones-self to be carried along by the 
passions of a man, of his corps, or even of his coun- 
try. It is because that on one hand we have not 
the boldness to resist, and on the other are sur- 
rounded with powers which sustain us, that a man 
believes himself strong. Were he of the opposite 
party, he would be of the contrary opinion from the 


MBif we^knea^^ Wiieti I lec two mm engag^ & 
an eag^s disfAite, ] frequeotly ^ to myself: £adi 
1^ these gentlemen would maimtain an otppoateopo* 
nion» had he been h&rn mi hundred loagucs hehca 
What do I say ? It is ^«j$<:ti?iit toj^jve th« teeadth 
of a singlesheet intervening tO l^^eirer theawora 
enemy of an optaionj, of whichu^ mia would have 
been the most zealous pardsaH^ if b^hbd' beenedo^ 
cated in the opposite \\wkfie, Cbtnge^ ma^'si edu^ 
cation, and you change his HAanoec of life, bia drcsfl^ 
his philosophy^ his nunalfty^. hi^ rdigtQO^ hts patri* 
otism^his every thing. The African will think 
like the European, and the European like the Afri* 
can : the Republican will hold the sentiments of 
the despot^ and the despot those of the repuhlicw,. ^ 
In truth, it is a most humiliating cofisideratieoi to ' 
man, and capable of withdranring us from the in- 
vestigation of truths when we see that oot ooly our 
acquired knowledge but that our feelings, which 
have the appearance of being innate^ depei^d almost 
entirely on our education. 

We are under the necessity therefore, if we love 
truth and our fellow creaturecj,. of coming back te^tho 
Laws of Nature, seeing those •0fr$ociety fill us with 
prejudices from ourchildhood, and fre<picntly render 
us enemies to each other. Now in order todispoj» 
children this way, the spirit of modeiation must be 
instilled into them. That spirit, which enthusiasts, 
fanatics, and the ambitious of every description con- 
sider asan infirmity, is the true courage; for it alone 
dares to resist opposite parties. It is the royalty of 
the soul which^ like thsit of Nature, hold^ the ba^nce 



between eitrfemeiSi and mamtafi:!^ the h&rmonf df 
beings. Virtue's atation is the diddle; Statih'fni* 
4io Viriusi • ' *' ^ - * 

Children must be twined tiifti n*wr to lose 'die 
sentiment of consciancci and to^rdst ittipon that ctf 
Deity, which is no less natural to t&itn. Hiis sen- 
timent will expand in them by si^^y reiidiiig the 
Grospel: thus instead of teaching -^'Aiem to prefer 
themselves to ^tbilrs, from an emnktidh y^ftiich is t6 
<>tfaers and to them a pier^Miial source of vexatioii» 
they will be teft at im tb Afeek eontfctittnettt in 
themselves, that retiring thiiaier durkig ^fc stornni 
of discordant society, they may there at least find 
repose and peace/ They- will sooft be i^tructed to 
prefer others to tfeeittselTers, Jfrorn the kii6wledge of 
their own wants,. for which they ure incapable cff 
tnakitig pfoyision alone. ^ Hence will flotr the l6vte 
of their fathers, df their mother^ of thetr rektibmy 
of their friends, of their coujitay^ of all miaftkind^ 
as well as the exercise of all the virtues which eon» 
stitute the happiness of society. * They will be in- 
structed in all the sciences which correspond to 
these principles. From their education according* 
ly will be retrenched a part of the years Aow'di^ 
voted to'the unprofitable study of the Latin ^lan*" 
gua^e, which may be learnt by use, a shortefr^ k 
surer and a hiore agreeable method than that of 
our grammars ; with this may be combined the iis6 
of the Qreek tongue, the study of which is l^y 
far too much neglected among us. 

The education of all Europe at this day bears tipoil 
these two dead languages, which are in i^o f especft 
subservient to our necessities. Nevertheless I cafH 

Vox.. IV, A a n 



>o^ for the honpuii: of let|»r8» refrain from iiiA)i:in^ 
oae reflcctioa w tl|ig plac^^ it is, that tl)e glory odf 
Empii^es rests on men of letters, and on them a1qn«. 
If QrefH t^4 l4tki are it tljis .^y ^uftiversajiij stu- 
died; i^the vholeof Europ^^p education, from (he 
age of Charffmagpc dpwnward, is founded on tljis 
»tudy { if v© ]tfWfi»o ftqquejiUiy of Gre§qe,jvii4 i|#)y, 
IK^d of ^9ir 4l}cieat JDh^bitaiits, it )s becftusie tb93e 
.Cfwitxia hf^vp ppodufiftd » ilqz«p q^T wri^qfs, wpji 
as ifpjMr, /?A»^o, Hippfermt^^ PM^rcfi^ JCe^noplfm, 
jPenMf^nes, Cicero^ f^rgil, J^<yrf^fin, Opid, Taeitm^ 
PU$% &p. It is thmfore for the sake of a doz^a 
;iii^n qf g€))iii|» of antiqiiity» or tui^o dozenat most, 
tM Qur:D^y«r^tl«s^re.f9)m0ed. sp di^tif,t;hose 
mfB biid wxer.poctf te4, wr abouW hayp *» pMibUc 
education, ^fin4ii9 person ifi Eurppe wQ\|ldi ;i|ty ^r^ 
^Ukt tbje tr0ubl9 tojeaan Gree)^ apd }4Lt4m thfLn t9 
ksttn thf Arabic aad Tarilar la^gliageft, Qfepcfirad 
JRcnte have in triith pmduced many lUustliQPa mep 
^f varioui deseiiptiotts; b^t th^ same thing is, |r^^ 
of many other/ cojwtriefc China, for iniitfince, pf 
whom no mention is mad^ in. Colleges, he^se we 
are unacquainted with ingenious authors who may 
Ju^ve celebrfite^ them. Besides, fhe peirsons who 
Jiafemade i^apqu^inted with the Greeks aqd Ro- 
.insms, bad no Qcc^siofi either foj; their gfeat men, 
or for their citie4, ^to leave us guperh qotop^i^m^^ts ; 
their own genius Supplied theip. It wa^ that^ of 
i%mi?r ^whiph gave existence to thf wanc^ings ^ 
Ulysses, and which created the Gods and, the tlPr 
roes of the Iliad/ That of Virgil, in order; itpfwch 
PI, a^d te descend to latest posterity, ha4><jtfic^siaii 
only fbr^f j»hepherds and shepherdesses. The banks 

: . :0f 

WMHES OF A iiBCitrsfci ' 'SS6 

of the little rills on whi^h he feposeS dfelight lis 
more than those of the Ganges, and the laboiifs of 
hi^ btees interest lis as deeply as the? fijwndatien bf 
the'ltoiiian Empire; Thfedthew have^i* likemat*- 
neri;li<*ir particiular talents. Assuredly they Well 
desfervief^ evfery one of them, to have a few yeotsiJ^ 
early life devoted- to the'fbi^niatioii of an Acquiiitifr 
anct with them, and iiiany years of ltf#to enjoy ithiit 
acquaintance ; but they themselves had too much 
good sense not to disapprove, had they lived afndng 
us, of tnaktng an ^European education rest entirely 
on thtstiidy of thrfr works; Hitcy themselves 
did not pass the whole prim<Jt)f yoiith in learning 
fordign languages, but in itn<fyilig!Pfd bf Which ^- 
they hdve left us pictures so ehchanltng: A Sftran*- 
gel^ having arrrved at Prague, desired Ms' landlord 
to procure him a plan'of tHe CSty, inbtdfer hbiSaid 
to acquire a: knowledge of it. " The plan'of Prague 
^*is at Vienna,"' replied' Ai'hihdlbrd,-^^ we have n6 
^ need of it here ; we fcave the City:^ We intiy hbM 
a shnlfarlanguage respecting the Wofksi ifPtheAn* 
cierits, even the mofst j)e*fect of tllfeto>^'^«<'Wd'hav6 
^* too need of theGeoigics; wehAW^Nfetnre.''-^^ 
Ancients have indeed left bcflfited them* 'much in- 
teresting information* cottfceming the^aEffaii^ and 
the men of their own titnfesj tnit wfe hare fcmht 
patriots of our oWh ^hom- we are* tbrfiM tofllU^ 
mine and to render ittb'ri^HapTf^.' ;' 'P "^ ^*J^ f» A 
If ihescieiiies aWd Ifett^^s ^keri5?S»%arf?nfea^* 
on the prosperity of d'-W&tib^jbf A^fch Tio'do6*fe 
can be entertained, it' wbul^. b^'pefhsij^ftope^ for 
the Nation to elect the ineiiiliers of ^et'^At^demred, 
as she dbcs thoie oPher 'bthcrAsstem6)i^«. • -Jlld^ 
*'**'" AaS mination 


minatjon ought to be m common^ as wellaf.4if 
other riches of the State. Whei^ Academies elec^ 
their own members, they. slege^erate into ari^^crar 
.eies extroifiejy ipjurious (it* the,repi|bUc of |ctteri» 
and science* As admission is to be obtained oply 
by paying court to tlieir Chiefs^ the candidate i3 
obliged to tie himsj^lf up to thejr systems. . Errors 
support theni3e}ves by the credit <^ Assoas^tions, 
Vhereas isolated truth finds no partisans. ^ Thus it 
vas that Universities opposed barriers so pertinar 
tiously defended to the progress of the ^latural 
sciences, by xnaitttaining the philosophy Qf ^Aristotle 
in the face of progrei^sive illumination* ( iT^/er 
complaiiis bitterly of the Colleges of his time. That 
lestorer of astronomy had discovered and demonf 
3tr^ted tljiat Comets are planetary bodies, and not 
aim|>le meteors, as the Universities, zXttx Arktotle^ 
pretended he telb us in one of his letters, that his 
books, which contained a truth so new, and so evi- 
dent, vere entirely disregarded, while those whid^ 
contained contrary opinions were cried up and uipir 
verbally diffused, from the credit which Universi* 
ties had with tl^ Booksellers. ^ What would he have 
5aid of their in^|iaice[<>yer public opinion, if, like 
the 4p^^^nM£s of our days* they had had .all the 
journal^s at their disposal ? X'Ct us call to.remem? 
brance the persecutions which Galilcq underwent 
Irom the corps of Theologians, for havjng deniion* 
atrated the ^notion of ^be ^arth. Behold at this 
day in what a stupor letters and science are k^pt bj^ 
the Academies of Italy. It would perliaps be pra« 
per that they should be assimilated with us to the 
Rational Assemblies; in othqr words^ that being 


. V15HE8 oy A fttetwi. ^ 357 

thbmselves permanent, their members inlght be 
periodical/ and that thcfy might be elected or kept 
in oflbbe by the^ation, 8o Idng as they discharged 
the datres of tbetr itaticm With profn-iety. At any 
rate, as the public schools would be sunder no con* 
tfonl but that bf the National Assembly, there 
could be no room for apprehension that the tyran* 
ny of an Ari^tocratrcd Government would be in^ 
troduced int^o them. 

' We should substitute then in the room of part 
of our grammatical studies of antiquity, those of 
the sciences which bring' us near onto God, and 
render us useful to '<xar fellow men, such as the 
knbwfedge of the Qiobe, of it's climates^ of it's 
vegetables^ of the dKlbrent Nations which inhabit 
it; of the relations Id' whk*i they stand to us by 
means of commerce^, lind^bove all the studj^of tho 
a<t^<donstitutiohi)^cod^, which oughts to be af 
code of patriotism afnd of morality. 

To the exerciseis of the understanding, which 
are to form the heart and mind of children, must 
be joined those wlift^h strengthen the4}ody/and 
qualiify, them for the service of their Country, such 
as swimming, runoipg, 'the military evolutions in 
useami^g the ancients^ whksfa we stddy-sdiosg 
m theory, and to sd Kttle purpose m practice. 
Everyone will be instAicted in an art congenial 
to)ht^i;aiste, that hetUay find in himself resources 
against the revolutions of ^rtune. 
' 'The children will be brought up to a vegietaWe 
regisnen, as being most natural to man. The Na* 
ttons which subsist on vegetable diet are of all 
men the handsodteat, the most robust^ the least 
^ AaS exposed 


. Lalirs, merely to griiiiy the vanity of substituting 
.Others in their places .; From a national education, 
ix^nneoted with our future legislation, there will 
tesiilt a Constitution appropriate to our occasions 
And ta those of our posterity. The effect of this 
irHl be« .that the greatest part of men of superior 
^mindi, being «[o longer repelled from puhlic em- 
ployments, by. their venality,, will not hencefor- 
'Waod seclude tb^sidlits in Academies and Univec* 
'•itiifis, to dfiVote their whide attention to theaf- 
ifnin of Cj6ece.and Rpmcv itt whi^h they oblige us 
' .to adpiine thtirpolversi^f thought, though they 
are scarcely ever employed in the service of their 
, County; like thoteiiaitt^iie. vases which give us 
;f)ltiisuie from the bisauty of their forms, but serve 
Ino piiirpo9e^exf:ept to ma&e a shew in our cabinets, 
:)Mieatisft(^eyi we^ not ikbripatvd for use. 
. : .Having jtade provision for the felicity of the 
FimcH J^ia^ion,. by all the means capable of .perpe- 
tuating the^dunktian of it within the Kingdom, it 
iiroidd ho Worthy, of :tibe« National Assembly to di- 
. nUk ^t's atteoftion .|o tboso which may secure it exr 
4oradd^,lJby pmper at}2angiBn)ents with fore^n Nft^ 


^ly^^ tiaui ppUcy whU;li, for their coininoii iuipr 
l^n^^ vmtf^ aU th^ ^mjlies of a Nation asqopg 
ii^(nfm\^^ (9 vmt^ all the nat^ins of the 
•(yilobe to fa^1;^other».<for they are the fainili^ of th$ 
l^^g^ V^e^, ^Vfimmutnaily Qomwtni^te, even 

.: ;';-. •':■,. .... .• >■. without 

. WIUIES iQ3P A E£€tira£.. . S6l 

wltb<Kit any doubt on tbe subject^ tbeirr^lamities 
and their benefits, from one extretnity'Of tke Earth 
to tbe other. The greatest part of our wars, of our 
epidemic disorders, of ourpr^udices, af ourerrors, 
have come to us from mthout The;saitie thing is 
true as to our arts, our sctenfloi, wA our laws. . But 
without goii^ lartber th^n to the blessings of , Na- 
ture, let us past an eye. on our plains* We are in- 
debted for :ajknost |iU: tfa^ vegetables with, which 
they are enriched, to the Egyptkns, to the Greeks, 
to the Ropians, to ; the AmericaBS,; to savage Na- 
tions. Our flax comes from the banks of the Nile, 
the yine from the Archipelago, the corn-plant from 
Sicily, the walruit-tree from Crete, the pear-tree 
from Mount Ida, the lucern from Media, the po- 
tatoe from. America, the cherry-tree from the King- 
dom of Fqntus, abd so of the rest What a de- 
lightful harikipny is this day formed of the assem- 
blage of. thoae foreign vegetables all over the 
mountains and plains of France I It looks as if 
Nature^ like a King, were there assembling her £s* 
tatesrgencral. We there distinguish different or=- 
ders, as among the men of the country. Here are 
the humble graissy plants, which like the peasantry 
produce useful harvests: out of their bosom rise 
the fruit trees, whose productions though less ne- 
cessary are more agreeable, but which require the 
operation of grafting, and aculture more assidupus^ 
like OUT burghers, v Qu.the higli grounds are the 
o.aks, the firs, and the other poweraof the forests, 
%yho like the Nobility shelter the low^land^ frofn 
the winds, or like the Clergy rai$e theniselves to 
Upayei^ to c^tcph it's refreshipg dews^ in tbe cor» 



ner o£ a TaUcgr art mitseiy gnands like 8clK)ob in 
which ape > feared the joHfths of the orcbarda rad 
of the wooda. No one of their vegetables in- 
jures another -, all enjoy the benefits of the soil and 
of the Sua; all contkibutetnotual assistance, and 
lend ta each otflmr mutal 'graces. The weakest 
serve as ornaibbnts t6 -Tthe most robnst, and the 
Hiore robust as|{^rt to >the feeble. The ever* 
green ivy mantles nmtid thd tiigged*bark of the 
oak; the gilded m«stlefi(>e gKttersthroagh the dus- 
ky foliage of the alder; 'th^^' trunk of the maple 
encirclea itself with garlands ^f honey suckle, and 
. the pyramidical poplar of Italy raises toward Hea-» 
Ten the empurpled clusters of the vine. Each class 
of vegetables has it's proper bird for it's orator: 
the lark warbles as he soars above the swdling har^ 
vest; the turtle murmurs and lughs from the sum^ 
mitof an dm ; the nightingale utters her plaintive 
strain from the bosom ^of a thorny brake. At the 
different seasons of the year, tribes of swallows, of 
quails, of plovers, of loriots, of red-breasts, arrive 
from the North or from the South, build their nests 
in our plains, and go to rest in the caravanseras 
which Nature had prepaied for them. Each of 
them addresses his petition to the Sun, as to a 
King^ and implores the diffusion of his blessings 
over the district which he inhabits. They sojourn 
in our fields, ^ our fallows and our groves, only be- 
cause they recognize in thsm the plants' t>f their 
own country, and find among us the means of liv- 
ing in abundance. Man alone finds no asylum in 
the possessions of Man, if he has the misfortune to 
be ^ stranger. In vain does the Italian sigh at 


vain dMsftlieEnglitbiaaiv ii^ ou^r Fretiob 

plains the fanning bf 3ii^;«wn-«ftiiiitiy<^kQth tki6 

one and tb€ other inay:pe#ia(}»ivi*b*«*^^^ ^ 
midst of ©brJtexuberant <!i5e|w,uiintegs ^y haive 
xmrnc^M axrf :|)erbaps: iri^pmopj if tMty imve im 
passport^ m betong tb^a Natibft at li^r MVJth ui. 

It>if^ is6tr|)y thia.iiidi4S(r^nce ^bout stra^gem 
that the Nfflriohi ^*«I>Etot tttaiiiedJ the poliit ^( 
^nudeixt'WhBKlih ^iks rtti^Wi'thtm the^iitre<tf 
the NatibBli^ They heter ^visit the couiftties of Ear 
rope, tut' they ftttyact to thettselveB the flien of a[ff 
coiiiitiies by €stabltt^in€nt» t^ptete witlh hrnnksiSif. 
The most iosen^dribUfif ob^t of theip teligion to 
the -Princes^ md 4lw opulent Citiz^ens, ii to coa- 
sthict/ibrt^0^atooihitjodation of traveileipd, bridges 
O¥0rtriVer% reservoirs of frtsh wdter'in dtypkocs, 
wd::ca«Fvaaieras iti ithe citiw «»d upon the high! 
raads. -The'ioinbrof'tHe founder fluently mt^ 
dose by^ltbelqobuineiit of :hi«i>beiieiiten€d; aild pro- 
insionaatv-^there 4isti»bnte4 Oil ce'rtain days to 
p^sefigfin of evwy deslniptf oh;^ > The traveller pro- 
^sounopfibUslsings^ cm !the!hand whfchi prepares for 
Ixhn an'Hifk:dpected'rt|)plyi}n^the} ftndstof a desert, 
9110 prdservastohifi^ last brbaih^tbe recollection of 
tbBAl fttnd>of} ' liospitlUil^^i "the'^ri^nt^ists permit' 
to all Nation^ the fnte esimeise ^ their Religiotti ;' 
and if they f«cel^« tiieir Anib«t|mdors/ they ke^ 
thcifa clear of all -expfeiisie du^ng their relsldeiice.- 
Sachj^r^ li^h Aspect^ to ^fttviaajgers, thetnanifers of 
thd Turlcs of the Pei^nsi <ii^ tliie Iiidiatis, of the 
Chinese; <$f thtee N;(tioi)d a^Hiehw^ have the Jn,^ 
£0^1ence to brand ^h thenanle of barbarians 

The study of Nature alooe can diffuse iUununa-> 


tion relative t6 (jhnf rigbU of .MankicSfl, and to' our- 
own .Intolerant as$ti€^tioQ8.)ulv^6 usurped them in 
Europe, during ages xeaily barbarous. Tbey mo- 
nopolized, to their private emolument^ out'h6nmge> 
ourrichesi our iUumiiiation, and our duties; but 
in assuming the empire of .opinion, th6y were un? 
abletoitiake themselves mnters.of dmt Nature.; 
It was : the revival of learnijig whidi ^ broi^ht us 
back to her lairs. The atudy of he)* harmonies first 
appeared among nations of delicftlie tfoiisibility; and 
that of bier.elements among nation? given ti3 reflec-i 
tion. Italy produced poejts. and painters ;.Gei1manvi 
naturalists; and England philos<)i(^h6rs. Light quusk^) 
lyes^tended it's irradiation from the fossil to,tbe ve-T 
gfitable kingdom; Tournefort arose in Franca and; 
lAnrmu^'it^ Sweden. The study of the vegetabld 
world had nvide, toward the commencement of the> 
present century, very considerable pro^^s in Eiigh: 
land. The frieuds of mankind and of Nature, trans^n- 
planted into their gardens the wild plan[jb8 x)f oub 
plains^ and naturalized in our plains the foreign/ 
plants which they cultivated in their* gardv^. A; 
man reposed himself near his house, ondieberiiage. 
of the meadowis u the^foot of the tneos of fehtiforests,^ 
and travelled through the chsunpaign of Euro^ie 
under the shade of tbe great cliesniii.of India; 
and tiie'acafii^.of AmtiFiots. Certaiq philosophers, ; 
among others JSifj^i attempted, to naturalise 
at home thg jlpimals of fpifeigpn. countries; but 
from want of considering th^ tli0 animal king- 
dom is nep^fisairily allied fio tbeiVeg^able^ those ^- 
tempts were attended with sflafcely any success.. 
The rci^-decTi »nd the vigoa of : Penti jrefuped 
5 ' 'to 

.2; » .WISHES, 0« WI.IVECinS^. SdS 

to liv^\\jft oi^r -climates; wfa<ke they foix&d not the 
{dants pf tlieir own country which servcf them for 
fopd. Nevertheless, animals of the warmest cli* 
i^tes, shut ut)( iu^our menageries^ produced youDg 
ones. We have seeqi with surprize the tilim and 
the nuikU of Ala^ag^^ar^ > |i,Qd the paroquets of 
CrAiiuea propagated Jk;i Frajioe. The parentg^ un- 
doubtedly, surrounded by plaintaius, y«casy alo^s; 
thou^ themselyei^ to be in the ^fbresta of Africa, 
and the senthnent of Country^ rekimiled in them 
t^at of love. There ean 1^ no doubt that each of 
them would make hispnest in^jl^ midst of omr. 
fields, did the vegetable which ist^ fee4 his brood 
there produce it's fmit 

• O'^ jbow would be of an enlightened, 
Tidti and generous Nation, to naturalise in it's bor 
som the nien of foreign lairds, and to behpld fami«- 
lies of Asiatics, of Africans, of Americans multi-'* 
plying themselves amidsttfae very plants for which 
we staujd indebted to Uiem ! Our Princes rear in 
Jtheir menageries, in the vicinity of their castles, 
tigers, hyenas, white bears^ lions, and the ferocious 
animals of e%'ery quarter of the Globe, as marks of 
grandeur; it would be much more glorious for them 
to make provision around their Palaces for the un« 
fortunatp of ail Nations, as so many testimonies of 
their humanity. 

Political interest is in truth beginning to difiuse 
tUs sentiment o\'er Europe, and the North has set 
the excmiple of it Russia values herself on having 
in dependence upon her men of all Nations and ol 
all Religions. At the time of the coronation of the 
Empress C)0Mtfrt;fe Ih at MoscoU^ her first painter 
having done me the honour to ask my opinion re- 



specting-t^e componttott oF the picture which be 
waft called upon to produce on that occasion, I ad* 
Tised him to hitrodace into* it the deputies of all 
the Nations which are subjedt to the - Empire' of 
Russia, Tartars, Finlanders, Cosaques; S^hiioMes^ 
livontans, Kamttehadaleti; laj^iaiiders^ Sibei^ians, 
Chinese, Sec. bringing evefy otae as a present some 
peculiar production of His own country. The phy- 
sioaomies, the 'ap{>rop^i4te stresses and the offerings 
of so many -different -tribe* Mrotild have, in my 
judgment, 'figured muCh hetter in that august ce^ 
lemony, thah till fliamond^ and all'tlie gaudy ta- 
pestry of tiie cifeWh. But whether it was tfeat this 
simple and popular idea did not meet thosb bf a 
Court Painter, or that the execution of it Appe4itd 
to him to be too difficii^, he substituted in it^ii 
room the uni]itet!i|^le coAimon^pIace' fictions of 
allegory* 'iPbere were in my own time in the ser^ 
▼ice of Bussia, Frenchmen^ Englishmen, Dutch^ 
Med, Germans, Danes, Sweden, ' Polandek^i Spa* ^ 
siards, Italians, Greeks, Persians... .Russia ovirei 
these enlarged views to Peter the Great. That 
Prince admitted even NegrOes into his military 
service.^ He raised to the rank of Lieutenant* 
General a coast of Guinea Black, named Annibal^ 
whom he had ordered to be instructed from a child, 
and who had attended him in all bis Campaigns. 
He honoured this African with his cot^ence to 
such a degree as to confer on him the place of Du 
rector-General of Artillery; a fact whicb'?t'gfivei 
me pleasure to relaCe, as it expose^the prteitimp* 
tion of th6se who do not suppose Mdck. people 
capable of a certain degree of in telRgeric^.'^rhav« 
9em at Petersburg, in' ne$^ «he sbn-^f this Negroe 
2 General, 

WjIflfES OF A BEpiUSS* ; lS6j 

General, who was Colonel of a regiment^ and.uoi*^ 
versally esteemed^ though a -Mulattp; 
, Wherefore h^ye not wc> f repcbmen, .who look 
jipoi^ ourselY?e^; as much.wftrp poli3he4t!tbaa Rus«> 
siaci8^:hitherto i^ndcved a .^imitar tr>|b!Ute;of ^u^tice 
*o the Nations? I have seejt.iftiieedTTufks iu the 
Kipg> service; but it waS' oa^boatd Ifee 'galkg^i 
Being at Tpulonin 1763,/on the, poiwtiofi eitibarib^ 
ing for Malta, then threatened wi^h ^ w6ge on the 
part of the Turks^ a man ii(ith ajlokig beard, in a 
tuk-banand robe, whp wassitting with his Jiegs under 
bimat the door of the MariQeCoffee-house^embraced 
xny k^ees ^sl came out, and spake in an unknowa 
languagie something which I did not comprehend* 
A naval officer who understood what he had satd^ 
told me that thii person; was a Turkish slave, who 
knowing that I ^as on my way to Malta, and en* 
tel'tainiilg nai dcnxbt that bis Saltan would take 
that : Island, and . reduce to slav^irp every one he 
found there, expressed his concern at niy falling 
SO: nearly in life ioto a destiny siniUar to his, owo. 
I thanked the good Mussulman for the interest lie 
took in mt) and asked the Officer why this Turk 
himself was a slave ia . France, seeing- we were at 
peace with the Turks, nay more, their Aliifes. He 
9aid to me^ "^ThtHtf^his.onan had. been taken- on 
^' board a vessel beldogmgitofhe Barbary Coasti 
^^ but thatjt was. iQejfd!ytftomifegard|to;ithe eti^ 
^'' quette and idignity QfihiSiMajestj^isisepviffie thait 
'f he was ;det»)n€i4 ifi^^Y^y^'. as i^ell a&sdmejothers 
^^ of his : ecnnpatiiiol^r th^:)tlief);^4^ad libn Jtebping 
" up this:^84Qtti,itipwQf;long stapdin^, a'particul 
^f Jar galley called the Turkish j that those on board 

" were 

968 sEQUfit tcy til£ studies op nature. 
•• were treated with the utinost kindhess, and pef- 
•* mitted to do almost whatever they pleased, Only 
** great care was taken to prevent their writing to 
" Cottstantinople, for fear of their being reclaimed 
" by the Porte.'* The tcrnv dignity has fi-equently 
recurred to my mind^ without my being able to 
comprehend what it meant What relation can 
there be between the dignity of our Kings add the 
slavery of a handful of Turks who ne^'^r did them 
an3r harm ? It is undoubtedly for the sake of main- 
taining this same dignity, that men are represent- 
ed in chains at the 'feet^of their statues. But since 
our Kings must have Turks, as the Princes of 
Asia have elephants, it appears to me that it would 
be much more becoming their dignity to place 
them in agood rei^ctorythan on board a galley. 

The Princes of Europe it is true, keep up foreign 
regiments in their pay, and msuntsun Consuls, Re* 
sidents and Ambassadors at Foreign Courts : but 
these Ministers of their politics are frequently the 
cause of our quarrels. Nations ought to unito 
themselves to each other, not by treaties of peac^ 
and commerce, but. by benefits; notby tlie inte« 
rests of pride or avarice^ but by tho6a of humanity* 
and virtue. 

Of this our own Country oi^ht to s^t the example 
to the Nations. We are of all the States of Europe 
that which possess most philanthropy, and we owe 
it to our corrupt institutions* PhilanthFO(>y is uat^- 
iral to the human heart, but Nature has drvided it 
into different degrees, thbt we miy setv^an appren- 
ticeship to it, by passing throdgh the different ^es 



of life. We pass in succession through the love of 
our fatnily, of our tribe, of our country, before we 
are instructed to love Mankind. In infancy we 
learn to love our parents, who have given us birth 
and education ; in youth, the tribe that secures to 
us a situation in which we can subsist, and fdr"* 
tiishes a companion for re-producing ourselves • in 
mature age, the country which associates us to it's 
employ Clients, ^nd supplies the means of establish* 
ing Qur family ; finally, in the decline of life, ddi- 
vered from the dominion of mo^t of our passions, 
we exlet^d our affections to all Matilkiud. Buttliese 
fiuccessrive stages through T^^hich Nature obliges us 
to travel in tlic career of human life, in order to ex- 
tend the enjoyment witht}>e progress, ai^ d*stro^ed 
by sociar habits. 

* The love-tf family is txtipgu5shed, from thed^s 
ortoifncy, by the nursing and boardi tig of childreii 
at a distance from the paternal toof ; that of fribe, 
by the iprrit of finance, which confounds ereiy dis- 
tinction of rank; thatt of conntiy, because we Can 
jfise to nothing in it with^fnt money : nothing then 
temains but to love Ma^ikind, of whom wehaVC 
tio room to complain. Besides, this philanthro- 
pic disposition is whart Nature dematnds of d§ at 
all times ; for she has 6>rmed meh to love and to 
suecotir each other atl^ over !he Globe. Nay it is 
very remarkable that Iriost of the l^attons \vbich 
IwLve tendered themselves illustrious in th* first; de-» 
gree<iifphilanthi*opy, have stopped short there, add 
never attained the Ia8t4 The ChintSse, whose pa-» 
triarehal Government \i foim^led on paternal affec- 
tion^ have sequest^^I^ themsielves fk>hi the rest of 
VoLi IV, B b mankind 


mankind still more by their laws than by their great 
wall. The Indians and the Jews, so attached to their 
casts or tribes, have despised other Nations to such a 
degree as never to contract intermarriages with 
them. The Greeks and Romans, so celebrated for 
their patriotism, considered the other Nations of 
the Earth as barbarians ; they bestowed no other 
name upon them, and made the whole of their own 
glory consist in effecting the conquest of their coun* 
tries. It must be acknowledged however in praise 
of the Romans, that they frequently incorporated 
the conquered Nations with themselves, by com- 
municating to them the privileges of Roman citi- 
zens ; and this humane policy was the real cause of 
their rapid successes, and the source of their great- 
ness. Let the French Nation devote it's exertions 
to promote the felicity of all other Nations ; it is 

. an infallible method to make sure of t}ie.<%nquest 
of the Globe. The Tartars over-ran part by dint 
of numbers; the Greeks under ^/e^^/i^er, by means 
of discipline ; the Romans by patriotism ; the Turks 
by religion; all of them by terror : let us conquer 

. it by love. Their Empire has passed away ; ours will 
be permanent. We have already subjugatied Eu- 

. rope by our arts, our niodes, and our language ; we 

. already reign over the minds of men, let us likewise 
establish a dominion over their hearts. Let us ex- 
hibit to all the Nations of the Universe akgislation 
which ensures our own happiness. Let us invite 

: them, by our example, to re-establish in their re- 
spective countries the Laws of Nature ; and in the 
mean time let us raise them to the enjoyment of their 

• first rights, by offering them an asylum iii our bosom. 

r For 


- Vot the accomplishment of an object so interest^ 
kig, I could wish to have destined to it a vast space! 
in the vicinity of Paris, on the banks of the Seine 
in it's progress toward the Sea* The place selected 
ought to consist of a variegated surface^ formed o£ 
mountains, rocks, brooks, heaths, meidows. It 
might be sown with all the exotic plants already 
naturalized in our climate, or such as may be so; 
the large vetches- of Siberia with blue and white 
blossoms, which produce a copious pasturage ; the 
trefoil of the same country, which is no less proli*' 
£c ; the hemp of China, which rises like a tree to 
the height of fifteen feet ; the different millets; the 
gumof Mingtelia, the corn of Turkey, the rhubarb 
of Tartary, the madder, and so on. Care would be 
taken to plant it in groups with all the foreign trees 
and shrubs which in our gardens stood the severity 
of last Winter, the acacias, the thuyas, the trees of 
Judea and of Sante-Lucie, the sumach, the sorb ap- 
ple, the prelea, the lilach, the andromeda, the li*' 
quidambar, the cypress, the ebony, the amelanc1er> 
.the tulip-tree of Virginia, the cedar of Lebanon, the 
poplars of Italy and Holland, the plane*trees of Asia 
and of America, &c^ Every vegetable would there 
.be in the soil, ami the exposition most suitable to it 
.There we might have contrasted the moveable and 
gay foliage of the birch, with the pyramidical and 
solemn fir ; the catalpa, with broad heart-formed 
leaves, which raises toward Heaven it's stiff braiiiches 
like those of a chandelier, with the Babylonish 
willow, whose boughs, droop down to the gfouftd 
like a long head of hair; ipbe acacia, whose UghV 

l^lfft ifaadft 

573 SEQUEL TO nm 8Tin>iE8 or kature. 
shades play in the nyt df the Sun, with thb thidc* 
leaved mulberry-tree of China vhicfa completely 
obstructs their transmission ; the thuya, whose flat^ 
lened boughs resemble the slices of a rock, with the 
larch which lias it's garnished with pencils like 
tufts of silk. Those groves might be peopled with 
pheasantis, Manilla ducks, India hens, pdatockfl^ 
deer, roe*bucks, and all the innocent animak which 
are able to bear our climate. We 'should see in their 
purlieus the nimble stag bound by the creeping toiv 
toise ; and under tlieir umbrage the shining wood** 
pecker clambertng along the bai'k of the fir-tret^ 
or the Sibei^ian squirrel, of the silvery pearl-grayv 
Springing from branch to branch. On the bosom 
of a brook the swan would stiet his peaceful course 
close by the beaver, busied in building his lodge 
on lt% brink. Many birds would be attracted thi- 
ther by the vegetables of their country, and^ould 
he naturalized like them, when the terror of the 
ibwler was no more. 

This territofy might be dividvd into small pcv- 
3tk}n8 suiiieieiit for the amusement of a fbmily, and 
the property of them compktely transferred to the 
unf^itunate of all Nations, to serve them as a re- 
treat. Habitations might likewise be built in them 
adapted to the demands of Nature, and pronsioh^ 
made for them of Ibod and clothing concsipotiding 
to their native fashions. 

What spectacle more magnifteent, moi^ lovely, 

more affecting, than to behold updti the moilnftuns 

and in th^ vallies of f ranee, t}ie animals oi^allcli- 

tnates) wdtbewMtdtsd&milieB of dlNatitnSy'pw^- 

* '^ ' suing 

suing at perfect ]ili>£rty thdr natural taates^ and 
brought back to happiness by our hospiti^lity. Un- 
der the shade of thepUv?-tcce of Bohemia, or ra- 
tl^er of Syrr^, the odour of which is grateful to 
the people of the East, a silent au4 reserved Turk, 
l^f oaped from the bow-string of the Seraglio, would 
gravely smoke his pipe; while in hia vicinity, a 
Gnek of the Archipelago, delighted at findings 
himself no longer under the rod of a Turkish mas- 
ter, would CMltiyatei singing ^ be laboured, the 
plant which pi:oduce8 the laudanum. An Indian 
©f Mexico would strip off the leaves of thf cocoa, 
trithou t fear of being forced by a Spanish tyrant to go 
and drink in it the mines of Peru ; ^nd close by him 
ibe peni^ive Spaniard would read every book which 
might minister to his instruction, free from the 
terror of the Inquisition. There the Paria would 
|iot be devoted to infamy by the Bramin,. and the 
jBramin in return would not there be opjxr^ssedby 
the Jpuropean. Justice and humanity would ex- 
tend even to the brute creation. The savage of 
Canada would fiot in such a place form a design of 
^tripping the ingenious beairer of ibis sk^n, and no 
^nemy would wish in his turn fo carry off the 
f»calp of the savage. Harmless iqen 41^ aniipals 
.would there find at all seasons a secure asylum^ 
^U l^nglishman ^n a little islaji^d sown. with rye- 
grass^ employing himself in fearing a Weed of 
coursers, or in., the co^stnuctipn ^f ,b/irks still 
fleeter for thip course, would think himself in his 
x^wp CQuntry i , wh^l^ ^ Jew, who n% Ipnger hits a 
Cpuntry, |ro44jCAUt<MfP«ii^i>f2[nce.-ltlia| pf his 
ifofe-fatber^.frpd' «ii?g .the-«fngs ©f ;fion,. Ofi th^ 

B b 9 banks 


banks of the Seine, at the foot of a willow of Ba« 
bylon. A boat made fast to a linden-tree would 
serve as a home to the family of a Putchmani ready 
at all times to navigate up and down the river to 
laccommodate the demands of the Colony ; and a 
tent fixed on wheels, drawn by camels, would 
lodge that of a wandering Tartar, whose care at 
every season is the discovery of a situation that 
suits him best The Laplander^ on the highest 
mountain, would iii Summer lead his herd of rein- 
deer to pasture under a forest of firs^ near a gla^ 
ciere, while at the bottom of the valley, to the 
South, in the most rigorous Winter, a Negro of 
Senegal would cultivate, in a hot-house the nopal 
)oaded with the cochineal A great many plants 
and animals which resist our method of culture, 
would take pleasure to reproduce themselves lA 
the hands of their compatriots; and many foreign 
families which pine and die with regret out 6f their 
own country, would become naturalized in ours, 
amidst thpir native plants and animals. 

Thpre would |)e in this spot of every Nation but 
one singly family, whiph should represent it, not 
by it's luxury which excites cupidity, but by the 
attraction of misfortune, which in all men excites 
a lively interest. These retreats would be grants 
cd not to birth, nor money, ppr intrigue, but to 
calamity, Amojig claimants of the same country, 
the preference would bp given to the man who 
had been made to drink most deeply from the cup 
of afBiction, jind who should seem to have merited 
it the least The (rhoiee would be left to the 
ptber i|4i?^bpt9Ats of the place, who, having passed 



through the same ordeal of experience, must be 
their natural peers and judges. 

Such an establishment would cost the State a 
very small matter. Every Province of France 
might found within itself an asylum for a family 
of the Nation with which it is most closely con- 
nected by it's Commerce. A similar exertion 
might be made by those of our Grandees, who 
having merited well of their own vassals, feel them- 
selves worth)^ of being the protectors of a Nation. 
Finally, foreign powers should be admitted to the 
honour of establishing similar refuges in our Coun- 
try, for a family of their unfortunate subjects. 
Those powers would not be slack to imitate our 
example at home. Most of them have, like us, 
foreign soldiers in their pay, and National Ambas- 
sadors at Foreign Courts, all to display their glory, 
that is, frequently to scatter misery over the World. 
It would cost them much less to do for the inte- 
rests of humanity, what they have been doing so 
long, and to so little purpose, for the promotion 
of their political views. 

The most unspeakable benefits would result from 
it in favour of our Manufactures and Trade. We 
should find in those families an accession of new 
industry, for the improvement of arts and agricul- 
ture; of observations to assist scholars and philo- 
. sophers ; of interpreters for all languages; and of 
centres of correspondence for every part of the 
Globe. Thus, as at Amsterdam, every pillar of 
the Exchange, inscribed with the name of a foreign 
City, is the centre of the Commerce of Holland 
with that City, every fwiily, escaped from the ca- 

Bb4 lamity 


lan^ty would b^ iu this sanctuary, tbc ttnlte of 
tlie liospitality of France with respect to a foreiga 
Nation, A' Frei^ehftian would no longer have oc- 
c'lsuni to travel from lK)nie, in order to acquire 
the knowledge of Nature and of Mankind: he 
might: *ee in the spot I Imve been describing all 
that is most interesting over the face of the Earth; 
the n;pst useful pls^nts and animals; and M"hat is of 
^U other things the most affecting to the heart of 
fiian, ynfortunate beings who have ceased to be 
such. By bringing all these families* into contact, 
we should extinguish among them the prejudices 
find the animosities which inflame their respective 
Nations, and occasion the greatest part of the mi- 
series which they endure. 

Iq th^ niid$t of their habitations there should 
bean uninhabited grove, formed of all the foreign 
trees which h^ve been naturalized by time and 
pulture i;i our pountry, and of those which grow 
spontaneously in our forests, sifch »s the elm, the 
poplar, the oak, and the like.,,. .In the centre of 
this grove there should be plantations of all our 
fruit trees, walnuts^ vines, apples, pears, chesnuts, 
apricots, peaches, cherries, interspersed amidst fields 
of corn, strawberries, and pot-herbs which serve 
for food to man. Amidst this s^ene pf ciiltivdtioi^ 
terminated by a brook with banks sufficiently steep. 
^0 serve as a fence to the animals, should be a vast 
flowi for the canti|iiial pasturage of herds of^oM's, 
flocks of sheep, of goats, a?^d of all the anipfials which 
xiiinister tP the comfort of tmn by their milk, 
their wool, pr thgif services. Toward the. c£jrtre 
pf this down ahpuld he reare^.av2^acipus.il6i[nfilQ» 

; ^' i'u 

in ii^rm of a rotunda, opeii to the four eardinid 
poiats of the Globe, without figures, without ar-» 
naments, without inftcriptions md without gatei^ 
like thoise which iu the early ages of the woild 
were consecrated to the Author of Nature, Oa 
every day of the year, each family woald resort hi- 
ther in it'9 turn, at the rising and setting qS the 
sun, there to recite in the kuiguage of tbeir fa« 
thers, the prayer of the Gospel, which h^ng »d-^ 
4re$sed to God as the Father of Hfenkind, is adapts 
ed to men of aU nations. Accordingly, as most 
re1igio»3 have set apart to God a particular day 
of every week ; the Turks, Friday ; the Jcws,r Sa- 
turday; Christians, Sunday; the Nations of Ni- 
gritia, Tuesday ; and other Nations uvidoubtedly, 
Monday, Wednesday and Tbui'sday, the Deity 
would be approached in this Tempte with solemn 
religious worship every day of the week, and in a 
different laaiguage all the days of the yean 

As happy aninials gather round the habitations 
of men without feai, in like manner, happy meu 
would assemble without the spirit of intolerance 
around the Temple of the Divinity. A sensejpf 
gratitude to God, and to men, would there gradu- 
ally draw to approximation the languages, the cus- 
toms,, and the worship which separate the inha* 
bitants of aU the earth. Natiii;e wofuld there tri- 
umph over political distinction. Th€^ inhabitaats 
of this Colony would there present to God inco^* 
mon the fruits with which be sustains human \ii^ 
in our climates. As the year is a perpetual ciircle 
of hia benefits, and as. every Moon brings jieAv Ishr 
iis^, or .fruits, or pol?-heribKS, . everjp^ »ew H«wi 
would }x the epocha of tlieir crops, of thdr.offerw 



ings, and of their principal festivals. On these hal« 
lowed days all the families might assemble round 
the temple, there to partake in common of a harm* 
less repas^ consisting of the roots of the plants, 
the fruits of the trees, the com of the grasses, and 
the milk of the flocks. Love would bring them 
still nearer to each other. The young people of 
both sexes would there dance upon die down to 
the sound of the different instruments of their 
own Country. The female Indian of the Ganges, 
with a. tambour in her hand, brown and lively like a 
daughter of Aurora, would behold with smiles a 
son of the Thames, smitten Avith her charms laying 
at her feet the rich muslins of which Calcutta 
strips her country. The blessing of love would 
there compensate the rapine of war. The timid 
Indian girl of Peru would there permit her eyes to 
repose on those of a young Spaniard, become her 
lover and protector. The Negress of the Guinea 
coast, with her necklace of coral and teeth of ivory, 
would smile on the son of the European who for« 
merly led her fathers in chains of iron, and would 
desire no other revenge thaii to lock the son, in 
her turn, in her arms of ebony. 

Love and marriage would there unite lovers of 
all Nations, Tartars and women of Mexico, the 
Siamese and Laponian, the Russian and the Algon- 
kine, the Persian and the Moresco, the Kamtscba- 
dale and the female Georgian. Felicity would 
attract thither all men to the practice of tolera^* 
tion. The French woman during the dance would 
with one hand place a garland of tlowers on the 
head of a German, and with the other pour out. 
wine into the cup of a Turk« She would animate 



1^ her frankness and decent graces, those hospitable 
£sasts given in her country to all the tribes of the 
universe, and when the setting sun should lengthen 
on the downs the shadow of the groves, and gild 
their summits with his departing beams, all the 
choirs of the dance collected round the Temple, ^ 
would sing in concert to the Author of Nature a 
hymn of gratitude, repeated by the echoes from' 
distance to distance. 

Ah! why should I not one day see in this Asy- 
lum fcH* the misery of the Human Race, some of the 
wretched beings whom I have met far from their 
native country, without any one to take an interest 
in them ! Gne day in the Isle of France, a weakly 
white slave, whose shoulders were flead by carry- 
ing stones, threw himself at my feet, and besought 
me to intercede for his liberty, of which, for se- 
veral years past, he had been deprived by Eu- 
ropeans, in violation of the Law of Nations, for 
he was a Chinese. I represented his case to the 
tntendant of the island, who having been in China, 
knew him to be a Chinese^ and sent him home to 
his country. But what purpose does it serve to 
be delivered from slavery, if a man must continue 
to struggle with poverty, neglect and old-age? 
At Paris, on a time, an old Negro quite emaciated, 
smoking on a post the stump of a pipe, and almost 
naked in the midst of winter, said to me in a dying 
tone of voice: **Take pity on a miserable Negro.** 
Unfortunate creature said I to myself, What good 
can the pity of such a man as myself do to thee? 
Not only thou, but thy whole Nation stands in 
need of pity from the powers of Europe ! How 
many tiww have children, women, old men, who 

5 did 


did not speak French, presented themsdyes 1p me 
in the streets, unable . to explain (beif dutriesaes 
ai^d their wants but by tears. Not for their sakes^ 
but tor their Sovereign's^ the Ambassadors of their 
Nations reside at Paris. Wei:e there but a siogle 
family maintained there by tl)e State, some one 
at least might be found with whom to weep. Why 
tpay it not be permitted mepne day to behold ia 
the Asylum which I wish to provide for them, 
some of the men of the Nations who have ho- 
noured myself with their hospitality and their 
£^rs ! I have found such in Holland, in Russia^ 
}n Prussia, who said to me ; ^^ Forget a Country 
** which repels you, and pass your days with us.** 
^ome of them have said, what perhaps a rich man 
of my own Country never said to one that was 
poor: ** Accept the hand of my sister, and be my 
** brother.'* But bow could I have accepted a 
l^and which wpuld have given me a companion for 
life and a brother; when at a distance from my 
Country,.! could no longer dispose of my heart? 
1^0, it is not climate nor language by which meu 
are disunited ; but intolerant corps and treacherous 
Courts ; for I have every where found man ajt once 
good and unfortunate. Oh ! with what glory would 
France clothe herself, M'ere she to open in \\er 
liosom a retreat for the wretched of all Nations ! 
Happy, could I consecrate to this hallowed estab- 
lishment the scanty fruits of my labours! liappy \ 
could I but finish my days, were it but i^ % hi|t, 
on some rugged cliff of a nK)u|itain under the fir 
and the juniper, but beholding at a distapc/e, oq 
the hills and in the va|lies, me(i formerly disjoinedi 

irifiHES OF A R£C|.U8f:. 881 

by laDgu&ge» governoient^ reirgioiiy reuctted ii| 
the boftom of abundance and liberty by the hospi- 
tality of France ! 

To you, O Louis XVI ! I address tbese wishes, 
Who in coavoking th^ States^general of the King- 
dom, have invited nae to form and exf>r€fsg them, 
by summoning every subject to the foot of the 
Throne. To yotir attention I recomipend tbeuav 
ye MinisleiSj erf a Religion which bi^eathes goodr 
will to men ; to you I call, generou^ Ndbles, wh« 
have an immortal g^y for the object of your ao- 
faition; ye defenders of the People whose vak:c 
must make itself heard by pointer! ty': you of every 
description, who by virtue, birth, fortune or ta- 
lents, constitute powers in the august AssemWy 
of the Nation. I nominate you as my representa- 
tives in it, ye women, oppressed by the laws, chil- 
dren rendered miserable by an injudicious educa- 
tion, a peasantry oppressed by imposts, citizens 
:forced into ceUbacy, the feudal slaves of Mouirt 
Jiu:a, the Negroes of our Colonies, ye unfortunate 
dfali Nations; could your sorrows and your tears 
make themselves heard in the midst of that As- 
sembly of u|)rigbt and lightened citizens, the 
wishes which I form in your behalf should speedily 
be transformed into so niany laws. 

May these wishcB at length he accomplished ! 
At sight x)f a ehnTcb-spire or nobleman's castlt) 
rising above exuberant harrests,. mKytht splitary 
Widow pursuing her journey on foot, and the siiil 
more unfortunate Mother surrounded by perishing 
infants, secretly rejoice as at the sight of a place of 
refuge destined to protect them, to comfort and 



to nourish them ! Or rather, O France ! througli 
thy rich and extensive plains may no indigent 
person henceforward be seen ; may property of rao» 
derate extent diffuse over thy surface, to the very- 
heaths, industry abundance, and joy ; tn thy mean- 
est hamlets may every young woman find a lover, 
and every lover a faithful wife ; may thy mothers 
behold their crops multiply with their families; 
may thy children be for ever preserved from that 
fatal ambition which produces all the evils which 
befkl mankind ; may they learn from the heart of 
a mother to live only to love, and to love only to 
propagate life; and may thy old men^ the fel- 
low-workers in promoting thy future felicily, 
close their days in hope and tranquillity, which 
are the gift of Heaven to those only who love 
God and Men, 

O France ! may thy monarch walk about un- 
guarded through the midst of his children, and see 
them in return deposit at his feet the cheerful 
tribute of affection and gratitude ? May the Na^ 
tionsof Europe there assemble their States-general^ 
and form with us but one family, of which he may 
be the head ! In a word, may all the Nations of 
the World, whose unfortunate subjects we shall 
have succoured, send their Deputies thither in pro^ 
cess of time, to bless God in every language of" 
the habitable Globe, and to contribute to the re- 
lief of Man in all the exigencies of human life t 


t W3 1 




CERTAIN persons have expressed surprize that 
after having spoken, in my Studies of Nature, of 
the causes which were Kkely to produce the revo- 
lution, I should have declined to accept apy em* 
ployment in it To this I shall make the reply al- 
ready stated : it is that for more than twenty years 
past the state of my health has not permitted me to 
mix in any assembly, political, literary, religious, or 
even convivial, if there be a crowd and the doors 
shut. Some of my friends allege that the desire 
of getting out, and the spasmodic agitations which 
I then undergo, arise from an over exquisite senti- 
ment of liberty: it may be so; but God forbid I 
should endeavour to make my infirmities pass for 
virtues ! My maladies are real maladies ; they are 
produced by a derangement of my nervous system, 
the effect of the rude shocks to which my life has 
been exposed.* Independently of the physical 


* This malfidy is much more ancient than is generally imagined. I find 
the following passage on the subject toward the banning of ihc 54di 
Epistle of Seneea to Lucilius : 

LoDgummihi commeatum dederat mala valetudo; repent^ me ioVai* 
sit Quo genere, inquis ? Prorsiis merito me interrogas: adeo nvUinn 
mihi ignotupi est. Urn tamen morbo quasi assignatat sum, qneln ^are 
Grseco nomine apellem,4iescio. Satis eoim apt^ dici fuspirium potest. 


384 8£au£i r6 f he studies of nature* 

causes which forbid m^ mixing with assemblies, I 
had other reasons of a moral nature. I had acquir* 
jed an experience so long and so discouraging of 
mankind, that for some time past I formed the re- 
solution of expecting no portion wHatever of my 
happiness from them. I had consequently 
retired for several years into one of the 
least frequented suburbs of Paris. There I 
tried to comfort myself with the recolleotion 
of the vain efforts which I had formerly 

Brevis autem^ vald^ & procellae similis est. Intra horam ftrh desiiut. 
Quis enim dieu expirat? Omnia corporis aut incommoda aat pericula 

• ptr me traaaisrutit: noUum mihi tidetar inoIe»tiui : quidni? Aiiud 
ciiim quidquid est egrotare est, hoc est, aniraam agere* Itaque medici 
hanc'iDcditationem mortis vocaiit. 

** My indisposition had given me a considerably long respite ; but 
** attacked me all ofaiudden. Of what Nature is it yoa vtiQ ask^ 
** Good reason yoa bave for putting the qaeation : to such a degree 
** hame I felt every existing species of malady. I am however delivered 
'' up as it were to one distemper, which I cao see no reason for 
** caliini; by a Greek name; for it may with sufficient propriety be 
«< denominated the aighkig illnesa. The paroxysm is very short, and 
*' resembles the violence of a tempest. It generally spends itself within 
** the hour; for who can rr^main long in giving up the ghost? All the 
«' disorders and dangers to which the human body is exposed have 
** pasted through mine, hut I know no one more insupportable. H««r 
** so? Every other disorder, of whatever kind, is only to be sick, but 
*• this is actually dying. Physicians, on this account call it mediutioa 
i« ^f Awtbr 

This malady, if I am not mistaken, h^ a j/erfect resemblance .ta 
|he nervous disorder. It was perhaps to Seneca the source of his 
pliilosophy, which in return alleviated disease: it instructed him ho«r 

; tP support H as well as the atrocities of Nem, Philo«iphy then is 
9ec«»ary to ^1 men, as one may be as violently tormented^ in the 
calmest retreat, by a sigh, as by the most inhuman tyrant. 

Th« Spittks of Seneca to iMcUms are, in my opinion, his best pro- 
ductkm« iU oomposed them in bis old age, after having pesied through 
% long and severe ordeal of afflictiun» 


VISHEa OF A RECLIfftE/ 5ddf 

«er7e my Country ifa rdality, by aiiittlittgf myself 
abou|: its prosperity ib speculation. J itnaginedin 
my retirement that' I had sulfictentiy sioqiiittdd my^ 
self of my duty as a Citizen, by datiug under the 
old Gfovemment, to pi&bUsh the iiisord$rt which 
^»ae going to product this RjsVolution, and thri 
meaoBnihich I deemed necessary to prevent it, by 
jsiigge^ng « remedy for our calamities. I havai 
attacked in my Studies of ^afurCy published fo# 
the firat time in 1 784, the abuse which h^s pervad^r 
ed the Finances, great territorial Proper^^eg, thd 
Nobility, the Clergy, Academies, Univeiijities, 
Education, &c....without help, \nthoat mpiitati^/ 
without corpor^tion-intQrefit, without patrofi^;^^ 
aud without fbttune, which is of itse]f, in tbe'pff^* 
sent state of the world, ei^valent to ev^y o^tit 
iseaoupoe. X hav£ to say Earthier, that I jbad ho m^m4 
4Qf sulbsifltence Except a moderate anD<9a] ^ntuity^ 
irliidt' was entirely at the disposal of the^pattimeiit 
^ose power and irfegularky I hsji chiefly combat^, 
ied^ tfaatof the Finances. The benefit which X de# 
fhV'ed/roift it was so casual, timt it dep^ided from' 
yeai" to y«ar on die good pleasure of theuppcr Clerk,- 
iS^ttd a^^tcrwfirdsi on that of the Mi^iistef, himself liqi 
i^ependeat oa the will of aiiothor, tiiat the»e w^rA 
^fij^ $upoessi vejy in the course of two year& I can^ 
not cow^iyt the poasHwiity of any Writer's *ndi|ig» 
himself in my rituation, evien among those wh<» 
have ilevoted tiiemsfjves naost strenuously to tliff 
fublio cause. Jokii^ James, was persoaaally iCOBnc^qt* 
^d with Grandees who wcriB faad ^f hi« watk^; 
with Ministers w^bo favoured tiae p^Uication of 
j^ifs^i, even i)y coftfijc^ting them; with women o£ 
. y.ojL. IV. Cc teauty 


beauty and fashion who defended them against the 
world; but tvhat is of still more importance; his* 
muaical talents alone were suiicient to procure fainr 
aiji absolute independence on* all the world. For 
my own part, it was a matteif of great dubiety^ 
whether I should have any thing of tlie kinc^ but ifr 
was not totally for want of puffers : for I had em^ 
bi:oiled myself, from the very principles which I 
had laid down, with philosophers who bad at their 
absolute disposal most of the daily journals, tliose 
• trumpeters of reputation. . 

A judgment may be formed of the diflScultiea 
whieh I had to surmount, by. those which I have 
actually encountered in procuring permission to' 
print and publish my Studies of Nature. I had at 
first composed the greater part of that Work, in 
furnished lodgings in the rue de la Madeleine, and 
I arranged my materials in a little turret in the rue 
neuve St. Etietme du-Mont, where I have lived four 
years amidst disquietudes physical and domestic of 
a singular nature. There likewise it was - that T 
enjoyed the most delicious pleasures of mjf life/ 
amidst a profound solitude, and an enchanting ho- 
rizon, . I should perhaps have been there still, had 
I not been obliged by the caprice of the proprietor 
to quit it, as he took a fancy to pull it dovm ; here 
I put the last hand to my Studies of Nature^ and 
here it was I published them. .My first business 
was to apply to Chancery to have my manuscript 
inspected; but a kind of Secretary of the Press* 
department insisted on my leaving it in his cus- 
tody. As it was filled with ideas peculiar to myself^ 
it would have been improper to trust my Work ta 

. ' the 

WISHES Of* A R£CinS£4 287 

the indiscretion or carelessness of a Public Office. 
After repeated solicitations I prevailed so far as to 
have it submitted to the inspection of a Censor. 
He was a very distinguished literary character : it 
received his entire approbation ; but, conformably 
to the regulations, he was under the necessity of 
referring me to a Theologian, because it c6ntaineci 
n^atter of a moral kind. This Gentleman was very 
much offended that I had not applied to him in 
the first instance. He disputed every page of my 
manuscript with me. He imputed dangerous ideas 
to words the most innocent; he found fault, fqr 
example, with my having said that Louis XVt. 
had called the British Americans to liberty; he 
wished me to retrench the word liberty^ cbndemned 
as he alleged, by the Keeper of the Great Seal, as 
being the rally injg; term amongPhilosopherS. It cost 
me no little pains to make him comprehend that I 
did not mean the liberty of thought of the Anglo- 
Americans, but their political liberty, toward ef* 
fecting which Louis XVI. had contributed, as all 
the world knows. He did not choose that I should 
expose the abuses of corps, those of the University 
however excepted, because he was Professor in the 
Royal College, the rival seminary for edufcation,, I 
was astonished to find how many disputes I had to 
sustain with a Theologian on the sul^ect of my 
best proofs of a superintending Providence. Fre- 
quently was I on the point of withdrawiiog 
my papers, telling him I would make my com- 
plaint tx) th^ Chancellor and demand another 
Censor, But the remedy would have been worse 
than the disease.. . The more you change your Ced- 
C c 2 sors 


sbrs the more difficult they become/ The last 
named, from the spirit of corps, or to inake a 
merit of their exactness as well as the first, go on 
depreciating more and more the Work under exa- 
mination, just as clothes-brokers, who observe a re- 
trogade progress in their dffers, all under the pride 
which the first comer had fixed upon a coat I 
^vas under the necessity therefore, whether I would 
or uQt,* to consent to some retrenchments, parti- 
cuUrly on the subject of the Clergy. I suppressed 
one article in my own opinion of very bigh impor- 
t40cp, I proposed in it, as a study equally condu- 
cive to the intereist of Humanity and of Rcligionj, 
<;6'oblige young Ecclesiastics, destine'd to become 
Ministers of Charity, to spend a part of their pro- 
bationary time and labour in Prisons and Hospi- 
tals, in order to their ^learnidg how to cure the ma- 
ladies of the mind, just as studedt^ in medicine arc 
taught in the same places how to remedy those of 
the body. By means ot iagreeing to make some 
other sicriiices, my Theological Censor sent me my 
manuscript at the end of three months. He affixed 
pot a syllable of Approbation to it except his sig- 
nature ; but he shewed me at the same time one 
of a dozen lines, containing a grossly ftrbome cu- 
logium, with these words: ^' Such is the appro- 
** l^ation I besto\y on Works which give me satis- 
f* fsfction ;" It w^s prefixed to a new tranislation of 
Homer's Odyssey, whicb nobody reads. 

I recovered then my' Studied of Nature from, this 

inquisition. But 1 had not y^t reached the perbd 

of iny troubles; the next ^oint was td get them 

pnhtecl. "^ It was likewise e^reiriety reasonable 

S -' that. 

^ WISlfES OF A REcursn. 3§S 

that| situated as I was, I should derive some, pecu- 
niary emolument from my long and painfuUaJ?ours, 
I applied accordingly to a booksell(?r, . a widojy 
lady connected with the Court, whom one of my 
friends, who held considerable employments un- 
der Government, had cried up to me as a persoji 
^of strict integrity, and to whom he bad given me 
a recommendation. ,She received me at first very 
coolly, on the proposal I made that she should 
^ya;nce the cost of printing my book, and aiter- 
wards reimburse herself out of the sales; but. as 
soon as I mention^^d my name and . tbat^pf^imr 
friend, she assumed a^miling. air, and CQngratu> 
lated herself on bis having thought of her, to pro- 
<3ure for her the offer of Works of character. ^I 
$hewed her my maniiscript, and. reqyuested.,sl^ 
would inform me what the expense of the impres- 
sion would amount to, . She reckoned it would 
make six sm^ll volmnes in duodecimo, and that I 
miglit venture pn printing 1500 copies.. She then 
.^^ve me a memorandum of the expense of com^- 
yosingj^ of press-work, of paper, of gathering, of 
warehouse rent, of stitching, of the allowance on 
the sale to country booksellers* .1 took downilie 
particulai» as she dictated them, and having exa- 
mined them at home, I found tlaat I should still 
4?emain somewhat in her debt, even supposing the 
impression to go off rapidly. I then entertained 
thoughts of publishing at ipy own risk in three 
volumes to diminish one-half of tlie expense of 
■stitching and of the abatement to Ijlie' tKide, calcu- 
jated in my memorandum at 15 sols (7id.) a vo.- 
lii.Ri^ which amounted on the wbole sale to thirty^ 

c 3 


four per cent All the money I had in the world 
was 600 livrcs (251.) I found means, with some dif- 
Ificulty, to borrow 1200 more from certain opulent 
friends, and I had no doubt that with such a stock 
of ready money, which now amounted to more 
than a third of the expense, I might enter directly 
into a treaty with a printer, and the rather, that I 
would give up the whole edition to him till he was 
completely indemnified. These conditions were 
itill more advantageous than those on which book- 
sellers deal, who generally settle with the stationer 
and printer by giving in -payment notes at twelve 
and even eighteen months; but I forgot that I was 
only an Author. I went then to one of the most 
noted printers in Paris, in the belief that I should 
have less difficulty to encounter with a wealthy 
and enlightened tradesman. He received me at 
first with profound respect, and shewed me copies 
'of all his finest editions, imagining I came to be a 
purchaser ; but no sooner had I opened my busi- 
iiess, and enquired at what rate he performed prints 
ing, then he changed countenance. He deigned 
riot to answer my question, but- told me he printed 
only on his own account, and that his press was 
entirely dei^oted to works whose merit and success 
werc already decided. A friend pointed out' to me 
another printer, who had received a favourable im- 
pression of me, and who wished for nothing more 
than to enter into treaty on the subject. This 
printer acceded to every condition I proposed, and 
requested that I would put my manuscript into his 
halnds, in order, as he said, to calculate how many 
i^heets of letter-press it would make. He sent it 


,^ek aft^. a |f<ew days, with an intimation, that be 
«mld not engage in it^ because he W|as overtakeii 
.with a gieat press of Uusinessi. I. met with simil^j: 
treatment three ojf four times suicceafsivejy frOjfl^i 
printers of not the kast celebrity in Paris* After 
Jiaying received n>y. manuscript they .delayed put*- 
tii^git to the press under, vario^s^pre^ts; some- 
times it was a wish to raise the price of it, some- 
times th^t of thip paper, and when I bad agreed ,to 
all their demands, they restored it \yitja infofmatiojp 
that. my Work W4s not adapted to jthe taste in far 
shion, that they bad communicated it to jconnpisp 
3eurs, that it never couJd succeed. When thpy 3aw 
jt talie with the Public, they thought proper ,.t^ 
calumniate me, alleging that I had^ate^ 
them with sufficient confidence. , , 

The)?e different obstacles, the detail of which I 
Jiave curtailed, retarded the publication for. three 
;months longer. At .length detennined^itp confide 
no more in reputations so false,, and to r^ecomraeiv 
dations which havis always involved me in distress 
I cast myself pn that Pro videnc^ \vhich never de- 
ceived me. From an impulse of my own mind, 
J applied to a printing-office, and haying, the feli- 
city to address myself to a man of character., M.. 
Baillj/^ I immediately struck a bargain with him 
and with the superintendant pf his business, "NU 
J)idot jthe younger, in whom I met with an accom- 
jnodation .and a probity which I. have every reason 
to celebrate, , . 

^Ijf Work beinj^, printed, t experienced >ne\v dif- 
ficulties in getting i|i^aiinounced. .. I sent copies to 
the most popular pefipdical pubUcalipns, ^but a^s 

■'"Cp 4 ' " " they 

d£M2 SEdUfit TO THE tit^jyifM 6f KATURE. 

tfeey w»t, ac€ordihg to^ oufitorp, for the dedsion olT 
<hc public judgment, that they may coHibrm thck* 
dwn to it, the veiy first among them gave no ac-» 
eounf. whatever of it till four months bad elapsed. 
Tliey began^\fitli inserting certain anonymous sa- 
tirical strictures npon it, and they rejected every 
commendatory criticism addressed to them ; they 
afterwards *irfaintatned perfect silence on the ^ub- 
jecte which ha^l given offence to Academies, and 
ftestowed.pmlse only on the style, to which they 
ascribed the whole success. It was far greater 
than I diinst have expected. Piratical impressions 
were dispersed all over the country. I was in- 
formed from Marseilles that all the provinces weit 
billed with those counterfeits, but surprise was ex- 
pressed that not a single copy of the genuine edi- 
tion could be got It appeared that not only all 
the country booksellers had conspired toward ef* 
fecting the ruin of an Author who durst presume 
to have his Work printed at his own cfost, but that 
the Inspectors, and even the Supreme Regulator of 
the Press gave their countenance to it The In- 
i5pecfor of the Press at Lyons having several times 
received orders to look after certain well-known 
pirates, so far frgm disturbing them in their illicit 
trade, pitied them on the contrary, becattse my 
bookseller refused to make them the allowance 
which they expected* It is certain, notwithstand- 
ing tjiit a multittide' of those counterfeits of my 
Studies were in circulation among the booksellers 
of that "Ci ty, and that one of thetii whom I- have 
elsewhere named,' fiad cwied his assurance so far 
s^ fo'have them adVertisipd for sale at his shop in 


the catalogue* bfli^ipsW' Fair. •• AH mjr r^st^tini^ek>ti9 
tm the subject Ifevtfbc^nffuitless. Tai*!lttoC0ttld 
•I apply ifbr redt^ss? One Jf 'the principal -booktel^ 
Ifers of MarseiHcs itnpotted mfo. that ci^ k'lierg^ 
ia\t of ptratetf copiiesof iny Wdrk w Weit waS! s«i* 
cd; theCharicefy otclfered H to-be confecfttetf iii 
favour i^F f he Boik^ti'ade of IHarseilles, ihit^H df 
the tery ptratcs^^ I iras well k^arc that an uttcoit* 
tiected than had ' ifo chance of obtaining jtiatiee 
against one >^hb betott^cf to a cbrps. Idtfeaniiid 
'therefbre df ofjp'o^rng th'r'corps of Ifterati to 'tlttt 
"of booksielters, birt vanity disunites the ftfmcr, and 
iiiterest cehic^nts the latter. A young ^det, mem- 
ber of several Lyceums and Acidemtcs,- hatitf|f 
come to pa?f nieftc visit, T talked to hirii of the ht-^ 
ttefit whfch mi^htacctife^iihffen of litters ^flfbsed 
hi i-eputabfe ^^socfatMiis afl! over the ktngd6m, If 
'they would" Kautualfy waitcii over each otherV in- 
terests, by setting their fetes against pii-af real pub- ^ 
licatipns. '' 'tHis soh ofjpdlid treated my idea with 
sovei^eign contempt, ft* tvds tiot in inyi povrer to 
;jriake him co^ptfehend that tc/HvC orfthe/A-uitsof 
a manVown labour must bfe rilotfe hdridttrkble than 
to cringe to the great foir a'pen5iorr,"ahdt6 colrffer 
benefits on booksellers more creiditable'' than to re- 
ceive them from such hafids. 

Nevertheless froin amidst so many tht)ms; I 
picked up many flcnvers and some fruit. Letters of 
congratulation crowded m updn me from evciy 
quarter. My ancient'services, bwil/ght ?ntd view* by * 
popular favour^ procured fof me a smalt anntrat gftac- 
tification, which the* King from an impure ttf hh 
own benevolence bestowed '6il ttte. The firsf fkrfte 
.of fortune; joined with soflrer others whidi fed ah 


j994 sequel to Ttf£ S^UpISS OF VATURE. 

appearuc^ of soliditjj * and especially the prcv 
fits of two editions of my book, prprnpted me to 
jrealize a desire which I hj»d long entertained. It 
was. to go and prosecute my Studies pf Nature in 
liie bosooi of Naturis. . I wished to malge myself 
master of a little. spot of ground^ where, remote 
from misn unjust and jealous, | coi^ld go on tp 
iamufe myself with determining the causes of the 
Tides, and of the Currents of the Ocean, wliicli 
^alternately flow from the ices of each Pole by means 
4>f the half-yearly action of the Sun. I, had raised 
the evidence of that important truth up to den>on* 
;»tration; but I was astonished at the iodiiferenc^ 
of our Marine Boards, ai^d of our iVcadepiie^, rp- 
i^cting an object so deeply interesting to Navi- 
gation, »nd to the mutual commerce of mankind,^ 
associations which have fprmed so many enterr 
prizes dreadfully expensiyp, and frecjuently useless 
to the Nation and to mankind. X wished farther 
to collect some new harmonies ia the delicious 
study of plants, and, above all, to continue the Jr- 
cadia^ the first book of which I had published. To 
these ideas of public felicity projects of personal 
happiness attached. The sentiment of this had all 
the sweetness of restoration to health. I was on 
the point of reducing all this to reality when thp 
Revolution took place. 

SQlicited with importunity by the people of the 
quarter >yhere,I resided, who entertained a high 
opinion of mp because I had writte^n a book, I madp 
an effort on my Jie^lth to assist at the first Assemr 
bly of our district. J there learned by experience 
that, my Studies had neittjipr diminished my infir- 
mities, «or the Rcyolutioij inspired the citizen? 

J8 aoi 

with wkdon;. They allspdke at oviice^ iiljrentumi 
to bringfohvard three pippositioifs : Tiittili^ Iliift 
no object should be publicly de1itei4tad j^n im 
three day R' after it had bce»«projioaed, Ih^tfer^wy 
one might pteserve his liberty -ofi^udgJAgj/Tbe 86^ 
cond, That votes should uotbfigiyexisiab'aiMice^ bu| 
by ballot, in-order to preaeryelibcirty; of suffrage} 
The third, That the National Assembly should btf 
permanent, and it's members : rempveable • €veiy 
4;hree years^ by taking in oae-thirdjofufew^ members 
every year. They would not^so isiicb a3 i^ke th^ 
trouble to discuss my propositions^ excqrt jthe sitas- 
ter of a boaiding-boBse, who combatted thci pe^ 
manency of the Assembly, and who was afterwards 
named Elector. They had already conferred thij 
same honour on me, but I gave in my resignj^tiou 
next diayon account of the state of my hcjalt^ 
both moial and physical. I had ; just e^perieft^c^ 
wlmt I knew well enougii befor^,tliiat the Bpp|^ 
desire thepublicgogd, but that Cofps taii>|;anly at 
•private emolument. Besides, , supposing Tnyjindi^^ 
positions had permitted. m& to act^ I shoj^ld havg 
been greatiyat a loss; what part to take. I was 
attached to the People from a sense of dilty, and 
from a principle of gratitude to the Kipg, on whose 
bounty I had subsi&ted for twelve years past. I 
had opposed aristocratic despotism, and I could 
aot flatter popular anarchy. I perceived among 
the leaders of the People men. who had most amply 
profited by Court f^ivour, a»d in the Court-party 
some who had mo;st grps^sly flatteripd theBeople. 
I knew them dn both $ides. to be actuated byam^ 
^it ion, that is, acicordiing to qiy doctrine, mend 


0^ S£at;£Ltt> Tttl:!Stum£» pt ttATVkt, 

tile ta09tldaogeroti8 dhosaiiten They kviow ticK 
t^ng^i^iiiidsbipol'ief ec|imKty^ though the words 
kH inq^sMtly in theii; mouth; if you presume to 
trsAk by iftieir side yois bec^Hie thm enemy^ and if 
hdiini tfaem, their slaive. One is obhged iu their 
Society to he a hypocHte^ or professedly widked. I 
did not vrish 1x> make myself a worse .man^ hy la- 
fwuring to make others batter; Tbert #ere Uke- 
vise, in truths at the head of the Eevolutitm me^ 
virtttcms, disinterested^ sage, enlightened^ whc^ 
tl^OMgh the whole cCuxst of their life,, had never 
dtevifatad from their avowed piinciplea ; but it was 
tiot esksy to gudss into what a train tfads tew order 
of thkigS) whose plan as yet had no existence, would 
Ik^ad e^eh them^ 

AU these changes ptoduced no more iHusion cni 
ihy mind than tha'tof the Theatre, where the same 
^erfbrmers only change druses and names. I foimd 
tg^in itf our new political order our ancient citizens, 
just as in our new geography of France her ancient 
limits. Men succeed each other like runajing wa^ 
ters, but they no more change their passions than 
the Wver does it^s channiel ; the same ambitions at- 
waysr displayed themselvesy with tliis diflference, 
that those of the little had surpassed those of the 
greaJt; all had struggled without respect for the 
laws, atacient and modem. I have myself been 
the victim of this more ways than onei first on ocn 
casion of a burying-ground adjoining to my gar- 
dew, interdicted ass a nuisance eight y^ars ago, and 
seized by the Commune, who have marde it a focus 
jof putrescence by daiiy interments: afterwards oh 
the subject of my WVAis^becMcie a prey to pirateau 


To tie pttppt)se did I present my conlplatfiti td the 
Justice of Peace, to tke Section, to the Mwiioipaiity^ 
to the Department; what is stiU wors^, ztt ^pe^^ 
ance of giving me redress was assumed, and the 
abuses were permitted to remain unreformed, thou^' 
they dk6ct\y attack the^ municipal Taws, and tho 
lights of personal property. The Law may appMis 
deaf to the remonstrances of an indh^idual, because 
it may be supposed taken up with objects of greater 
importance ; but when once it has listened to^them^ 
found them just, and yet gives them no redrms, ifc 
fklfa into contempt from a belief of it?s impoteney« 
I have myself contributed tonrards covering iC9 
weakness, by hot laying my grievances before the 
Public. I considered the Law iti the light of »» 
wretched mother an^dst ungrateful and di^be^ 
ent children. But how could I bave^ enclosed the 
number of them ? Whatever em^oyment I bad tiai^ 
^rtaken, I must have adoptecl th(p iirtesestSiinf a 
party, promised and deceived, obsepved abuses and 
overlooked them, and obeyed the People itt ew»y 
thing, in order to have the appearance of goveirti«» 
ing them. ^ Wi<^ so many reaMns for keeping at^^ 
distance from our tumuitaous Assemi^&^Ibnd 
kt least as many for renouncing my intallvon ^ 
total retirement. Our pUins were in at state of 
still greater agitation that^our citiei* J^jmxl oi^ht 
never to reckon on happinessiout of hiitdself^ andlf 
there be for him an inviolable asylum; itJdaatiKfiq 
where h]U in his- own conscienlse. Ihadfemoii^ 
ftred agreeable and. peaceful ietnaatflciottt <k>f4ls 
Kingdom, but I coulda^thive.stOodJiiaiQFirqfii^ 
of my ovf^ wioA had^va^^aa&nndi^jiiy.^ 


$$9 SEQUEL. TO 7Ht fiJ,Vplt9 Oi KATUtt£ 

ia her »tote of crisis. Though it was not in my 
power toicalm the spirit of anarchy which was sub-^ 
irertin^ every thing, I could exercise some small 
ipfiuence over the minds of individuals, by tem- 
pering the ardor of one, by stimulating another, by 
consoling a third. We assign a value too high ta 
public^ and too low to the private virtues. In x 
9torm no less skill is requisite to manage d gondola 
tlian the Bucentaur. We tpust not form a judg* 
meat of the goodness of machines from the mag^ 
nitude of their movements : if the great produce a 
greater eflfect than the small, it is only because 
their levers are longer. The same thing holds a9 
to the vii^tues. It is unquestionably certain that 
if, at a critical period, every Citizen would re-es* 
tablish order in his own house only, general order 
would iqiQsdily result from the prevalence of uni- 
Tersal domestic order. I comfort myself therefore, 
fettaining in my physical and moral solitude, with 
the persuasion that not hiving adopted the interest 
of a par]ty^ I was more in a condition to discover 
the national interest, a^id that if I was capable of 
promoting it, I could do so in: a manner more,last^ 
ing through the medium of the P4ress,;vyhich I ha4 
attemptaod successiulljf , than by means of speech 
which I had jiot much practised. 

.Bet consequence of . this, though my Studies of 
Katore had to^sne a charm inexpressible, I sus- 
pcndid them: to: engage in those of society. I 
vtPot!c the Hdihes of a Rtobm. Of all my Wbrfcs 
ft is that )on which I have bestowed most labour^ 
md :wil% %hijch I am/thelea3tsatis6ed. My obt 
Jftitia t^ iuiiohxtaId&^ wiis td itecQnciJbs the inte* 


^tsn^a of 'A' ifBVttSt.^ ^ ^" ^ i§^ 

mis of a IPrince u^lio had laid me uiidef 6bHg»ti-»" 
0ns; of a Clergy irho had exprcfesfed fat *nft ^ofti^ 
thing more thaii indifferene^, because Pteid retiiied 
to solicit benefitia at their haiid ; of the Gfr^at trba^i 
repelled ifne; of Minister« \<rho^ Mad deetiwdiintef 
of their Flatterers who had calumniatJed ftiC^of^ 
Acadeftiies which had thwftrted me. The tini«^*o^ 
public Vengeance Wasp come, and I could 'ba^e 
blended my own with it, but faithful to my nhttd; 
I ^ould not so much as restdre in my fViskes ihd 
articles which the Censor liad retrenched in iny 
Studies. The men of whom I had reason to corii* 
plain were too miserable; I chose rather to sap-' 
press some objects of national interest than' gra- 
tify my private resentments, I proposed then to 
myself to preserve the ancient community of my 
Country, only by pruningit^^grtat trees, tb admit 
the air and the sun to the smaller. My wishes 
have been ifar exceeded. We have had lopping off 
by the head, plucking up by the root, and re-plant- 
ing on a very fine plan no doubt; but the trees are 
always the same. The old are incapable Of taking* 
root again, because they are old ; the young will 
be choked for want of being properly disposed; 
there id no hope therefore but from the nursery- 

A solid Constitution can be reared on no other 
foundation but that of a national education. Ntot- 
withstanding my ancient labours, I dared to under- 
take this, by following out the Ichain of natural 
laws, of which I had pointed out some links hi 
my Studies. The Rights of Man are merely re- 
mlu ft9m. them. This great wotk requires timq^ 


tepose, boaltib and .talcfttot M pf tlieffi })iefwis4 
which are fiotaf; my dts^sal; }^t ^t iQs^t J h«iv« 
<lMkftYOuml to fulfil th§ duties of a Citi^^m J 
]iavf» not dvop' l<i9t sight of trap^i^pt circ^msl^^ocfs 
wineb I thought mtgh^ prove of soj^ utility. 
Whifn after th^ King's i-et;uvu firoin the fiT)p tiers the 
Kix^doira divided ifttfO pifo parties^ the one o^ 
wbkh ^raated to change France i^to a Republic^ 
and t^ other to preserve Monai;chy, and every 
thifig wore the appearance of civil and foreign War^ 
I b^^^ to recal the people to a sense of the ancient 
oblig^ltlpnsi which thpy lay und^r to their Monarchy 
and tb? I^onarch to a sen^e of what^ he owed to 
hisr Peppt?. I sen^ ipy obseirvations^^ supported hy 
a pQweGpfifl recoHimpndation, to the Editor of tbo 
M^fCfxryftttd of th« M9^i^Qr, b^t he did not^thial; 
pr^i^ b> publkb tbpm*f: :.; They; »et, with iwi 
' / •. . . . .> .' bettfli 

♦ I did not then know that this Editor had ;iny jnlt^ence over thos^ 
Journsd-s a^ he has since avowed. He haa sit th^ 6abef time )iabHsh«4f 
ID aPetition t^the £lliect<U-t 6f Parii^ thaS he haA rgiQeat deal orer maa 
«^ ^tlBF^ f p^ thait be bad ev^a M. da Bufon in iu^f^y* 

In that same little Work he has the goodness to sympathize with me 
fts the tktlm oF the piracies of bdok»eUers, whdse ddQcears it is true t 
nfi¥m wquldtec^Ttf. Bui: what appeared to m« very straHige kk>i%, is a 
]2y^<MM<m2h»tbrkiga<feirwa0d of making the fortune of Autbqrs, by stt» 
curiQg them the property of their Works for fourteen years : ^ on con- 
** dition that at the termination of such period any bookseHer might b# 
at iXievty t# p>kit-tkcitk'' H^ had done lae the boaour previously ta 
QOffm^mmc?^ ttiis pro^e^s^ t9. me ^acenveirsatio*,} X aipd-to him : ** ^ 
** is ju^t as if ^he gardeacrs of Boulogne demanded that the fine -gardeus 
^' which you have there should fall into their common stock, because 
** ^J6vi IfOve enjoyed them for more tbaft iburMen years paet. Hit 
*tFO|«rtroff ftewjjpiork 9 ^ftU.piOi^ |a^e#: |^. thi|t pC .» fti* 
**4ipn,V^ ^^ replied, *' That such f| taw Wftf* »» Eoglfuicl, «q4 
'' that^ ' he meant to apply for one o€ fi ^milar najuitre, in the Ka^ 
'♦ tiotigl AiSictftWy.* - f dtf irot kapir trh^ther- "i^^fr ^*l«Vr-acto«BJ 
♦ w . -;. ' ^ exists 

^ ^ ' 'iJ^ISHE* <iP A E£0A7§A. * / 401 

better reception^ 'frbm Another Jcyrrfnitl of very 0X- 
.tensive circulatibti. I then expetimc^d what I; 
knew before hand, that'there are Very -ftw public 
papers at the service of a tiiati* ^feb does hot belong 
to any particular corps. Having however, add^- 
std my observations to the Compiler of the Parii 
Advertisier, they wer^ published in itime suffidenlt 

etislSf bat on the supposition that it does, we ought to g6 to oUi" neigh'-» 
\)6{kn in quest 6t good l<iws and not of abused.* TNe-Engli^/.^iit f>p m 
miiiUiid' have uQ^onbteillf txV9 .Kbuailpuit in^ahs of ^pisvaoiiiig^tbe in- 
troduction of eaunterfeitv but Xhis doe^ not hold as to Fnmce. It is 
certain that our ancient Administration/ with their spies^ their guards^ 
their I insi^ectbrs, and the whole of thefr despotism j 'ile^bp eonM pnteat 
the practice, i HoW then ^M diei new que bttrrjr. thqfouit).i!fheA,lib^ 
tf 'Wai eojUironedy a^'at this day, wh^a cities l^ve no gates, 90 barriers^ 
no custom-bouse officers ? IJIms th^n an Author| after having' been for 
fourteen yeai^ a pir^y to pirates must ^t^rinitiate 'his cour^ b^f«Aliag{li|to 
tbie jaws of ibookieiiers*. A merchant, acoordi^dlyi . a i ^lu^^i^^'i}^ « 
mana&cturer, shall ba able to acquire^ by Ibeir labpur, a property trans* 
missable forever to their children, and a literary man, who has'frej^uenuj 
deser\'ed better of his Country, must lie exchidecl from the same H^Mt: 
he ^oald see himself atifipptti bf the propj&rcy of. his Wprls3M ^ <91nI 
of £6urt#en years : . the pursuits of hi£i youth «irould .1^ lon^^c bel^n^ to 
htm in his old age : in defiance of the law?, a parcel of scoundrels woiild 
gulp up the first fruits of theni, and uuder the protection of law^ opulleiit 
Woksetters would Uniab thcr plunder by giving spteniiid editions giijus 
Works. The Assembly i§ too wise not to reject the infamous proposi|ionf 
whose ii^ustice I have iust demonstrated ; it ought on the contrary to 
thunder it*8 indignation against those who employ so many artifices to 
plunder literary men- of t£ie Slowly productive fruits, of (bcir tO<tii^ns 1a* 
Iraurs. The leaded ^f ^dministratioa have hitherto prcjtended that ijiie^ 
|>oasessed not the means. of preventing piracies. , There is o^e niethod^ 
and a very simple One, punish the sellers of them. Booksellers ouglft 
not to Be allowed the p{ca of ignorance ^ eveirf Aiaa 2a ^e U^deiiiiioat^ 
be cHjiable of distingutshiog a^spurious from a- gaoiiioe edition of a bpoli; 
as every goldsmith ought to know the distinction betwepu copper and 
g«ld. " "' ' '• ' • ''*'-'■ ■'■ ••• * 

Vot. IV. D d to 

409 8£avst 39 9B%i0Tvpmff?T)M»7i;rKr. 

to pn^uOe,a:gp«4 efe^t e¥e« mr% Kation^ Afr* 
aemUy. I have M«^e insertf d tj^fi tp^aril |^e ber 
ginntiigpf the A4verti«ciiifn^p«;j|s(ed tft the fojiif t|| 
£(dstiofi of sny Ste4i«f of Katuse. Thfy eoglf^a 
aotbii^ yery remafkable, ^^cept the c|r€i)fn»taii^ 
to which I hftd desthied them, ^d the authority <^ 
Fantlm and of the anciewt I^W9 ^iMhjm respect- 
ing the duties /of Ktngs^ perfectly conformable to * 
the decrees of the Constituept National Assepibly. 
* Skace that qK>cba» I have employed my^i?}f ii^ 
digestii^ aame ideas relative to our Constitution; 
they are a natural sequel to the Whha of a Reekie. 
I haye been so much the more encouraged to pror 
duce the secondi that naany of the first have beett 
realized by the Assembly. Nay, others of thett 
apEffar tior bi^ve been, neglected merely on ^ccoun^ 
ofembarmssing ciicumstanees which attached to 
particular cases. Such is that of the impost of 
JHirphisr^tfi pn great tcrritop^leaU^tes^ wh^^ would 
have become an obstacle to tiie sale of the natkmal 
proper^. This object merits all. the attention of 
the present Legislature,, if it m^ans to give oppoai- 
tipn to the pfogfcsisof an amtociacy which fiMneily 
subverted Greece and the Rom^nt Empire. 

Whfn my Wishes ^ a Reclw9e appeared th^j 
pleased but a very small proportMmof readen. They 
were by no means agreeable to the Clergy and No^ 
hility, because I seemed to them to have extended 
ttudi too fiu- the f^tsof the People^ They would 
have been acceptable to the People whose rights I 
maintained^ i^ at that time I employed m overcom- 


ittg the rcstistsdifce of the OM^if wlficb dp^r^seit^ 
thetn, they haxt nct'lsedtniA ttf «wtettd tiWfif Ks i^«<) 
as their j^aimr. The Comtilibeiif MUrSMfi ^p- 
ported by popular flvouri hftk i^ Wn^^^dH gmi 
muck farther than I did' ii^ my "Wiihek TbM<^ wbtf 
then thought them toohbld^ ha^^ siue^ftHindthfem 
very moderate. On the other h^nd, our Legiriat6t!sf 
were placed ill amobt embairm$ding sitoaCiOtt* TEey 
were^ relatively to the State^ ttnhUhtg klto raio^ 
like architecta surveying a craay' Imilditrg Alrhfcfa ie 
is p>i'(^8td to repair. The hsfaiinier once applied ttf 
the walla^ it is found necessary to paUdio>#n tb^ 
ikbric to the foondatioa. It vrouM have hesn d^ 
sifsble^ no doafat, that a sihglr ^cfait^ct h«d bji^ 
hiaaself traced the whole plan of reeonattuctidn, for 
the sake of greater unity of design^ Notn^thM 
standing the diffibtnt views of out LegishUors, akid 
the diffieukies of every Idiiidl whteh they had to en^ 
counter^ there are partaef oof Cbmlitattan so bt^ 
eethint^ that it aks^ be arflSmed lo be tikiimist coi^ 
doeivetothe bappifteM of thd People at laigtv tfaaA 
has hithert^appeareditt Europe. 

It is with the first fham of ^npiresar with tfadMl 
of OUT aiKtstit Qties;^ mMt of tfaestreetsrsssiinieaa 
winditig: itttccdoQ. I have never eifieii aeen ai^ 
bigb-road in the opeacotuatry dcainKtmaiatnitJisi^ 
from thef biaa which. is nattaral to tmti dbef alk 
pf oeeed in at scrpenthiei ppognsiton. TB» demoii«» 
strates,; that it is not easy i tor advance stmigfab[tt>c^ 
wanisi eve& for' thoae wko^ anean to to dcr so^ Aid 
that Co dmUff his path b; the Imo aii^iiiharlieeii 
of invMialife poittls itb hia horiiUa tfaMrcfliic 

Dd i «tti 


earth are>t«i' be. met wkh) duly in the* Heavens, a^ 
they kqow wjip have^xnide the tour of the Globe. 
. Thare J3. reason: to believ6:tliat;0urnew Constitu- 
tion will he durable, because it is' in a gredt mea- 
sure founded on the Rights of Man, which are 
themselves derived from thb celestial and immuta-^ 
Ue Lawa of Nature. 

All the miseries with whiclr the State was ovcr- 
whehned arose solely from the private ambition of 
eorps. The monie^d men hadgot hold of her finances; 
the Parliaments^ of her justice; the Nobility,, 
of her honour; the Clergy, of her conscience; the 
Academies, of her understanding. All of them held 
the national body fast bound, without the power 
of making the slightest movement but for their par- 
tioular interest^ 

• Happily for die Publrc they did not harmoniw; 
While they were a-quaiWling the Nation disengag-' 
ed her bands, and in part burst asunder her diains: 
The. principle remaining fetter to be shaken off fs 
tiiat of gold; gold alone giving now-a-days the 
means of gratify ingcvery species of ambition, am*- 
bition of every species resolves itsetf into that of 
having gold. It is in cinder: to get golcl that the 
plough and the ship are put In motion,' that a man 
becomes am Artist, a Magistrate, a Pft^t, a SoIdier,^ 
a Doetbr^ that Nations make Peace and WaY, and 
•ur Estates-General themsf Ives assf mbted. Gold 
is iJhe.pime mover of the body social, just as the 
Sun, whrae caiiblbm aiid perliaps ^bose production 
ii iSyXonstituteft that of the uniYerse.1 Butas the Sun 
ItseE-would'deitrOy. tile world did n«t D^v^il^ Wk^ 
Z ^k» '- »* '.. dom 

' '^'-"^ 'w1[SH!E1s'6j^ a'' RECLUSE. - - ' '^ 4W 

dom regiilaV it*s effects) so gbW^oiild deitlfoytt^-' 
(iiety did lib't i sdund policy dtrect itV ihfltifehci^. 
By policy I meah'not the tnftdenif art ".of ^i'eiviD^ 

manatfoti'ftom Sovere^ ivis^omV 

The* greatest mischief >y|ik:h gold can. pr^d^ee in 
a State is whpn it accuniulate^ in a. small jiiimber,of 
hajids ; it i$ as if the rays of the Stiii . w.ere to fix' i n 
the Torrid ioxw, znd ahanjion flie rest of the Globe' 
to darkness aiid acel * tt is neceSsi^ry therefore to' 
keep a watchful eye over men who possess the means 
gf attractjnjgj .to themscTves all thevgold of Ithe IcTng- 

dbiri. . These .aa^e Ministers of Sftaite, pieri of over- ' 

• •'• ^•■- -^.'J^i-'i- •iv-i.>v:-' -r^'l >.ii '^'ii V. .': 

of the?r. money : the JirowLty- W that of arms : the 
Clergy, by that p^ conscience, ^e have to oppose 
to Ministers,' the.Natfonal Assembty.; to liioniea 
men, the oepartrpente; tpihel^pbi^ity, then^^ 
guard^- to the Cterg^^/the m i% 

undouDtecity fu tfi6 vjew of balanciiig tlie forty-four 
thousand Sjgnjoncs and church .pretermentii m the 
Kingdom, wmqh \y;ere at the head of .the military, 
and sp4ritiialpoweY of France, that theiorty-fotir 

dern powers sh^U anialgamate, and object 
but one 'the fehciU^ or Maii; .but, in expectation 
^if tljic^perjod^yheh all resentments^ sKall, be extiii- 
gjuisfie^,' and the national interest $hair,have*tafeen - 
place of the separate interests of corps, w^ are going 

•o.ij ' , ^^3 '^ 

ififir S£<lt7£L TO 79^ a;XVPtZS Of NATUft-E. 

t9#^agff^t ^PJW cfMidfuatioQ nespcctit^ the dan- 
gei;»)nr^hfye|boa,{4»^l}ep^»aodt,))e rei^«dies with 
iitbicb.MP^fi!epr9viidfsd Agfint^ thiem. Tbt^ sm con- 
tfeqampt^ fi tlie veiy Coerce? of the CoQ9tttuen^ 
^mf^\^]fr wl^iicfa didv^t 81^ loag enough to pi:ovUie 
^ ?vf^ case. The ipore abundant it'9 harvest 
has been, the mof^e .^ |>^en left u$ to gl^fUv 

0/ Ministers and ^ the' National Assembly. 

One of the most judicious decrees of the Coosti- 
tucnt Na^iQnal Assembly, is that which declares th^ 
persoxu^ the Kin^ inviolable, and Ministers alone 
responsible for bis mistakes. I shall not here re* 
peat i^h^t I h^ye said elsewhere respecting the per- 
sonal character ^4he King : it is sufficiimt to hint 
that he W9s the pxiine mov^r of our lib^rt)^. He well 
deserved therefore, on moje accaupts ihan one, the 
honourable prerpgatjive ^}\l(^ renders his person 
•acred as the law ijself witii the execution 9! whic|^ 
Ift is enUusted. But; i^ Velongecii to him besides in 
<^ua1lt7 of King; Kiflgs^re deceived only by those 
who fiirround theml Nero hijnself would havo 
Beev eonsjtrained to act virtuously, had ^he ^ipan 
Senate jpunished his Crimes in his Ministers. 

Mi^ister^ alone, then have the means of maiptain- 
ip^ a atrq^le witb the As^^bly, by opposing to 
iirpart of the national force, of which ihe principal 
fterve is mpo^. 1. By ^dangerous. applicatioA. of 
^ revenues of th« civU list, vhich amount to 
Airty millions a year^( l,8«0,000l. ) «. By the dis- 
tribution of many lucrative rmploymeats, which 
ms procure for them creatures innmoerab/e \>Qth 
without and within the Kingdom. S. Because the 
j^eriodof tbeir «dmiiiistiili»»iiot king (tmited, 


of 1th6 Assembly^ who are chinged evefy t«^o yearar: 
Tfcus they haveovdr the Natinoal, Assiembfy a J)Ve- 
potderancy bF ifloney, of credit, atid of time, whifcfr 
alone operates mariy revolutions. 

it is necessary tiferefoffr, I. fhM tlie' Natioti'at 
Assembly shduid look out sharply bv&r tfic dis- 
burseraents of the civil list, in cases'where it in'i^ht 
be efriptoyed to corrupt it's owti mem^fers, bi* evCft 
tfeoi^e of the (department Ass6mtli6s, tntiriiVJjpat 
or priniar5\ This offence is the cixXiid of high- trtJi- 
son against the State ; a Corrupting iSinlst^i^ ought 
to be declared still iriore Culpable £h'ari « corrupted 

II. The National Aisseiii^bly ought liliettrise' to 
pay particular attehtron to the pUtriotic chiracte'r , 
of persons employed* by Ministry as sfefvantsdfthiS 
public. It ought especially to b6 bbserVed, con- 
fofma% to tiie toinstitution, that ?n the^oice 6f 
such persons' regard be had to ability ^nd not t6' 
birth. If this is hot' vigilantly looked after^ it itiay • 
stiortiy happen that* most of tfeose employ e1lMnth« 
functions of the State, Officers in the AVriiy and 
Navy, as well ^as Consuls, foreign Ministers' and 
Ambassadors, selected by ilt-infenlioned Mitiisteri, 
may find themselves in a condition to effect a Couri- 
ler-rcvolution, by operatipii conducted in concert 
both within and withbuttlie klfigdbifi. ItWoiil'd 
be easy for them to rebder this a d^sirabltf object ' 
to thcf I'iople, by contrf viii|j tti pVodtifce a i^carcity 
of corn, by encouraging Hi^uray rdbbeties and re- 
ligious quarrels ; for the'l^eople, fatijgued With thtf 
recent coBcusssions of a "BLevolutitTii^ and beholding 
Dd4 .^ their 


t^eir ca}apiit^^s jnQre;i$e, would not fail to ixx^puto . 
them to the National Assembly which, they have .' 
intrusted with tlie care of remedying theip. They 
would he disposed this way 50 much the more vio- 
lently, that they are naturally given to change, and * 
that living, e^ecially in the capital, on the luicury 
of the great who have there fixed their habita- 
tion, they are witl] respect to these in a state of 
natural dependence, arising from the opulence of 
the one and the necessities of tjie other, a relation 
which does not hpld between these last and the poor 
and transient members of the National A'ssen)bly. 
This disposition to general mutability and discon- 
tent may be farther powerfully stimulated by fac-^/ 
tipus anc} mercenary journalists.. Before the Con- 
stitution was completed, ^very writer undoubtedly 
h^d a right. tQ ^iscuss^ it; but now that it is sanc- 
tioned by tlie JCipg, received hy thp Nation, con- ^ 
filmed by tlie sepoftd ^^seinbly^f it's Deputies ^ 
freely elected,, np farther djjicussion ought to be 
pprinjtted, except with a vigw tq amelioration. Fi- 
ng^lly, the Constitutio^^may \)e st|bverted by a mul- 
titude of unpripcipled indigept y re Inches, most, of 
whppi would sell, their share of public liberty for a 
erQWU-piecej they, might be made so much the^ 
more easily the prjucipal instVumepts of acbun- 
tef-revolutjon, that they recoll^ept tl^eir haying beeii , 
P9werfully effijcjcnt in. producing the first. All these . 
considerations must appear of seriqus importance 
to, the Assembly. They will preyen^ (.hese evils by ^ 
stopping up the source. It ought to be decreed, that 
]VJ[iQJst^rs shall be sesponsihle for the conduct of the 
pil5^l)lic perv^nts vhpm as'they are for ^ 

.H.«.. . V.»:^.. ^f.)^^. ..- ^ .. .-..-^ ..... ,^^^. 

VI&UES OF A REpf U8|;. 4Q9 

the orders of the Severe jga. T^ey. should be mad^ 
^ aiiswer at once for the emanation of thqse.or* 
ders and for their execution. .■ - ' j/,* 

. III. It appears to me that aur Deputies remain 
tQO short tiin^ in place. I cp|ild have wisl)^ that, 
inste/id of t^o ye^rs, three at least had be^n th^^ 
terip^pf their service. Many, of them in fact re-, 
linquish substantial and lucrative situations/or the 
sa,ke of 2^.t^ansitory benefit which scarcely indemni 
fies them , for the sacrj^oes wlajijch they , have, iiiadc*: 
Such are, appi|ig;^thers, Qqn\]^m9n oS Irheli^v w^p, 
h^ve supplied ^so mapy^ssertors of public liberty,. 
I could U)cf\yise h^^ye^ivished. t;hat a third part o£ 
the A^embly had b€ien ,fe«oyated evfeiy^ three 
;j^earSj . Apprehension^^^ras en^tfertaiuedi we are tok|y» 
of th^ir forming tibeBMselvesJlitQ a perpetual ^ris-, 
tocmqy. But n^^y tot their total reyoliition ]i| 
that A>f /the Cqnatitation ? \ Aw^ Assembly ; loses 
2| great ^eal of time, befoore itg^ts into thetramof 
doin^ business. In troublous times a tqtal renova- 
tionn)ay becoQie extremely adyaiitageous. <T}ie 
yeesel of tbp State, by changing her crew in stormy, 
^ealj^jr, niay :.|)e overset uAd$ri9ail» or dtivem out 
qf , her, pouJi^e,' ^vcvy^ moyement h lan objeteC of 
aj}prehensipnin^eriticalsea3i>iia., . Would a-^t^ 
i?iak,e ^ complete renoyatiov^of l^rarmy .lo; ^fet 
sgnfie of the enflmy, : to . replace i it. wjjtli ; ihe^ffiliiri 
e^w!ed troopi^Ji ^ Hqw then, dai»s she in {Hr€i8eitt!«<Qf 
sfi.wapfy enemies tq hfir bfeit interests,, stiJiflli:Htfe 
In room ofijin^ A^^eipbly. wh& hasdefej^d tha^Ofx 
one entirely new, most of whose mj^lit&^dt knw^ 
oftiy ,fhose qfiifiijB jigpartmeiJtSifrhwh.We :rihwted 
%f)^? Ma#yipiQpt|w;«ustel3pjgW&r^^ 

i- -; ^ -V- 

:i?v. ter 

41^ SEQUEL to tH£ StuDtES t)F XATURE. 

tetinio Kkas of public bt^iness, iml put it into a re** 
giAaf train. It is po$9ibl6| hi my opinion, to avoid 
"the danger of a permanent aristocracy on the one 
hiind, tod of a snddeti and total rtfrolutioh on the 
oftfter, in renovating the tnembers of the Assembly 
By 1^ third part every year, in other words, each 
d^^artm^nt should every year turn ouf a third of 
their old Deputies, and elect a new third to supply 
iifs place. There wOuM thence result two gifeat 
bMefltsh to the Nation; it would be able to ex* 
diidfe tfiuAi of the Deputies as might lie under i^us- 
ptdon of being corrupted, without mfitcting a 
flftignia Upon them, as their dismission would be a 
result of the very lair Andef ^irhieh they had h^tn 
Netted, and it wouk) pttservtf perpertually t^e ri^ 
of watching dver the National Representatives, 
and of keeping aKve public spirit in the Assembly. 
The dotation of thtf Assembly might even be^ 
tehgOmied out to five years, by renewing the fifth 
part olit every year. 

Such are the precautions which ! deem neees^ 
Mfy to the duration of the Constitution, and to 
^ve to the National Assembly a preponderancy 
which may render it respectable in the eyes of 
the l^e^fe, and enable it to nvsintain a struggle 
witil advantage against Ministers^ of Sbte. It h to 
be )i»|^ however that they will one day become 
8ttp«fluous, Many of our Ministers appointed by 
Ae Kiftgy are aaiimted by his patriotic spirit, and 
ftd tiiat their glory, tike his, consi«tfr in the Na* 
tlo«al felicity, 

Thcire is one* method, in my apprehenslot), to di^ 
rect tlieit love and glory. Various decrees hav^ 


is poit^ing them qirt t9tbe Natioti as rufiinki, wA 
ump^ing them to becQine «a. They ue M omcb 
IP bq pitted iA hwiof weiy thing to ifeaii f|:am s 
NiUion th»X iQistrMfitstfaem, and yerjriittte jtoliiqift 
ffomn King whoiba^ no Jkmgdr bbpic.HUtttids and 
dijifctidQiPS .to . give ^\ray.. . I could tiridi thenefow 
^t tb^ JffdlioA \v9\xU Msvone. tl^ pr^ro^nivc of 
ke^ai^ts^^ tjsiem ii» a msiones vortby' of htssctf. 
Jhm Klf^ t^i^ y^^ i^rtiqe^Afi Assembly miglil 
V^eiVAUifm of tbeir conduct^ ai^d m the, et^t cif 
it's, being found constitiitioaial anil inrepiOQcfaid^ 
df^mt tbcift the honoiif of astatuiL It noigbtbe 
placed at the bafin uf die KtAjfs, taioed usdet tfao 
ijapola aS a teaiplo flaewd to Atawry 9^x^ decree^ 
io tbe aunrm^naciL /£faen» inateado^ seeing oat 
lUogs ao. horseback^ jeleyia^ed x)ti a jiedeatal, flanked 
by Nations enchained, or by allegorical figuses of 
tlie virtues, wei sjbowlfl sbehold theni coi fi^ot, sur* 
rounded by their ^ood Ministers, of whom qne 
rnight hold Neptune's trident^ another the cadur 
ceuji of Mercury, a (bird the thunder of Jupitir^ 
or, what is still better^j^ hjs horn of plenty* To 
these symbols ipight be added inscriptions and 
^as-reliefs, representing the principal ac^t$ of thek 
j^dtbinistratiqn. This monument^ accessible or 
every side, would figure woade^uUy well in tli^ 
centre of a ^ujblic s^are, or on^ the ban]cs of the 
3eine, accqrdingta the predominaqt inclioatio^ of 
Uu; Prince. The People form a tolecablv accurat^ 
jufi^gment; of ^le character of $ev^ral^ of tbeiv 
|tin^ from the si^MatiQns it> which their »tatues 
ijfic^b|$;ed ; ^^ |)ejiifye tha( touis XY. wa^ fond 



only, of kunting, because his is^jut of the City ; 
Loms XIV. of nmghifidetice, because he 4s sUn 
Rmnded by the grand H&tels of the Place de Vcfn- 
d6ine and that of Victory ; Loms XIII. of the No- 
hility, becaw$e he i5f in the Plaiee Roy ale, in the 
Marats, the ancient residence of the Courts Henry 
IV. of the People, because he is in the centre of 
that popular walk, thePont^Neuf. I should •how-- 
ever deem ifm/y much more respectable, 4id we 
see lat the four angles of his pedestal, instead oiS 
JO nsany slaves in cfaafins, the^tage Dfiples^is Marnayy 
'the upright Suily, the virtuous La iVowe, antl somd 
Qtliers of the.Kiog^ friends who^ like himself^ 
loved the People. ' Our Capital is by no means de-' 
ficient in re^ct of now situations. It's maTket* 
places will present some that arev^ery interesting, 
to such of our Monarchs ;as shsdl place their de« 
fight in the miifetof theplehteousness of tfaeiri^afoi* 

- jectS. /- ' ■ : ,:.'...: ^., '! . . ■ 

Of Mhnkd Men and the' Departments.' 

Gold is the sole mover of bur politics; in order 
to have it, Powers forget the very first * principles 
of morality and justice. However difficult it 
mhy be in these times to refute 'errors sanctioned 
by publip opinion and reduced' to jpractice, t 
shall begin this paragraph by suggesting some rie- 
flections which may serve to guard us against 
them at least for the future. TKe subject "which I 
mean to treat is the InvitatiQU whfch l3ie Mii^rsf ep 
of Finance addressed to the* citizens, to afltaric^ 
the. fourth of their revenue as*a patiiolic conth* 
bution. i. This invitation was subr,epAtious,' be^ 
cause i^hat was' made a civil^ obligatiph whicK^ bord 
the namedf aij plfer purely voluntary. *^'*:^. ^ 


Lav promulgated on that occasion lia impolitic^ 
because men ought never to be tempted to balance . 
between interest and coiiscience ; ^d it in fact 
produced a great number of fs^Ise deplarationfiu 
The Assembly acted very wisely in aot^ permitting 
the farther aggravation of false oaths. . 3* This 
Law is inquisitorial; it obliges citi^ioii publicly to 
disclose the secrets of their fortunes, .after the Ex- 
chequer has for so many siges abuied their confi- 
dence, and when it still continues .the abuse by 
making an obligat<!>ry duty of an act of good will ; 
it reduces sucb of them as apparently are living at 
their ease, but in reality are not kx a condition to 
contribute, to the cruel atternattve of publishing 
tiieir indigence^ or of passing for bad Citizens. 
These considerations, so moral in their natule, ia 
duced Louis XIV* to prevent $he execution . of a 
similar project. With all his des^po^ism, he durst 
BQt penetrate into the secrets of families. He had 
bis qualms of conscience, says the Duke of Saint 
Simon. 4. This Law is inequitable, for it does not 
proportion the contribution to the fortune oi the 
persons assessed^. A man who lives in supeiduity 
is more in a condition to pay the fourth of his in- 
come than one who has barely what is necessary. 
Nay more, he who possesses a revenue of a thousand, 
livres of ground rent is ^ rich agaiaas he who is only 
^ life annuitant, to thatamount and heagainis^tili 
more so than one who derives the like income from 
an employment which he may loser, immediately 
after having psiid his tsontribatton. All the tbfee 
veverttieless, though of wry Unequal, fortune, con-^ 
tribute equally^ whiob is conttary to the .veiy 
•.'..:'-■ .-'.;']' spirit 


profit of from 15 to*SO per cent, without untying- 
their |mrse<>strii%s^ as I have heard one of them' 
boast The departments, I 4m well aware, toler- 
ate this species of abuse in the view of facilitating 
the sale of extensive landed estates; but they 
would accomplish the same object by subdividing^ 
them into small lots of twenty or thirty acres. 
They would obtain more purchasers, and would 
obtain a better price for the * bfenefit = of the Na- 
tion. Monopolists would rufellibly be deterred 
from bidding by laying on the surplus rate, which 
would increase progressively, according as sniall pro- 
perties accumulated in the handsof singleindividuals 
• It is the avidity of great landed proprietors 
which first introduted, and has so long kept up 
over' Europe slavery in agficulturej, ' Where in 
truth are we to exj^ect to find free nien disposed 
to cultivate the earth entirely fdr the benefit of 
another? In Russia/ lands derive their whole va- 
lue from the number of peasants o'n theilft. There 
are in that Country, proprietors possessed of do-' 
mains as extensive as Provinces, and froift which 
they dmw no profit whatever ^or want of slaves.' 
To great proprietors we are indebted for. the intro-* 
dtfction of the slavery of tihe Negroes into Ame- 
rica. Tfee first ISpanfeirds Who indde 'the' conquest 
of the Antilles, of Mexico and; Peru, dividend' the* 
lands among themselves, and^r^Jdiiced their niha** 
bitanfs to slaverjr^ to cultivatie' tWem, but. espe- 
cially for the purpose of workiiig thcfir mines of 
golct^aifd silver. Kotwitbstandifig tfte^politi- 
eai modifications' 'of 'thle -King; of Sp^^^TraC 
iavoitir ' of the '' wfetcheiJ ^itfians, .%is Soldiers 
8crve,d theni as he himi^ellF *ha?d served^ their 
" • '1 ' Princes 

l^tm<^%. Tbey pbm^emi md destmyolk tltemfot 
ihe nmt 9^; thue^^ aftervards made goodi the chi^ 
ci^ocy l>)^ fAav4}ji< ^bt9gp^ A-om tbe Coaiit of Afikut 
The Fr««^b4)4 n^tCfDj^lajrlihaviii tke AirtittM tm 
tbf) yf»«r .1^35, alter the i^^MbltskxasM off t&e^ ti- 
tdk Ci9filt»n^« Unir the Spnriinte Hft ilfidbr tift 
fi^roi^cli of ha^isg. been the ficst £miij»Ht>& fA6 
ftW the blbod of Ateeiicatts^ and iih0 idttodwiA 
(he sUvitry; bf the; N^grcn in«* iAj|l«$t9Mdu d|K 
cringe 4lwa9^ preiiiiCQ^.aAQiliev. Tb^^ des&^ip- 
tbm$ of Aiiacaqd^fe beibgifr ilar<t b^in^ pt^^Md by 
this wkked pblidf, the rabjugftttd Itidiaiifr, the 
ewkved BKegiacs^ the ty nttnical Wh^. Of these 
qndaubte Ay the vridtes ane the tM&t tniMrahfe : hjr 
^ vf f J cenaatkafcie rt^^acCiott of Diyteel jilstke,' th^ 
ha??e fxMtnd dteir pnnisfateeoft k^ tiuit 1^ 'gdd 
v^iiihthejfiOieageilyeov^ltedi Ihey live, ki^ 
£ifit pfaisor ^uiiidst theh* bie^ edpj^-cblbilk^^d 
and Uaik^ m a state of ^«i|^tiial t«m>t of thdr 
nmAng to plundec audi %t^tetmitiit6 ilMA. Theh 
thisy :are under thk/tiec&i9i«y of t^t^dCtifig thehr 
chains by all 4d)eJioinks(Oi0isup^ Kbe^ 

themadfes h^e the yoke «i vetted' j^btid tJkSi' oWii 
tiecikv. Thcf um tjaantokkd Cf^tvh^^^ Whose 

tiaa^st for gold is m kua«i4Me asi tfewi» mM, a»d 
who ^ifi.tfaem of itby statthig 4w» wiflhfhe t«^ 
r»r of tlvB wteUitesofiibe Inqtim«i(m{iii this woiM, 
and of devils in l^e ^xt Gold and sitv«^» watlei^- 
ed with huiaaa tea|s» issae fipm 4^ir fiiijdes otlly 
toenritthMioDMteries. - ^c^> 

£)n the otinef handy theoaBnesof J^iMiaxiteefS ni^ 
«»lessformidafalrtottheni>tfalsui.th8 Itgendtiof Ms- 
Biomries. AhaQdfiilofsdVeMuiws^'iliurMhyihdt 

Vol. IV^ C e same 


tamfi gbld^' ims fVequentl^ diflfii^ed disiiiay over 
4JiKlls6rieII)COiintiries: whose wretc)ied inhabitants are 
jdcitiCute of patriotism. Out colonies 4t tot. suiFer 
Itialaihitiei. ao oppressive^ becaiise they ave poorer. 
.TTbe Naxkaaal iVssembly^ has; made their happiness 
dttlobjjeQt:of attention, by^ restoring to Mulatto^ ttnd 
£tm Nfigrpes the admission into Colotiial Asiem- 
iH^s; which ix>ifi»..XVL had' granted ihenh, and 
phjch^elongitel 40 them as a natural right. Is it 
not rr^^onfthlc^' then, that freemen who cultivate tlie 
groU9d| who jpay the taxes- lievied tipon it, and who 
defend ilt.iti time of .war, jhojtiidihavt^ some share 
in it's Administrqition r Beitheic colour wfiat it may, 
.^re they. 9cft. Citizens ? The white setrtciis had strip- 
l^ert th^!?: pf thjj prerogatives of citiienshipy in^ con- 
j$equepic^^ui\dOfubt^dly of thehr prdud'alliaiices with 
rcmr nobU; .families, buJt they subsisted in tHe Portu- 
;g^9se coVxnies,» I iitve seen imen Cif coh)ur jn the 
.ji[ull enjoyment pf them itk oi»r own Island of fibiu- 
^9K whf>^ fii^t inhabitants married die negtesses 
.^^f ^ladagft^iTjar, [for want oft white women, and left 
jtQ ;^hf ir ! tiMji^jtlo childiteUc their, property, together 
>V^i]i all tthQ. rights of feitiafeiis,./The Frcndhfami- 
]i§& whicbiha^f e,shtce settled there; and amotig which. 
lihgre ajre, senoeml of nbbln'extcactioB, disdobed not 
.^9 f^l^m iaUiadK^ with them* ti It i& vcsry common 
!tf>:S9^ thjEtir ioephews afid niisces,: cousins of both 
^^W^y brothers aiid. listers, fiithdrs and mothers, of 
different floJiouiB^ I Nothinjg, appeared to me more 
interesting than this diversity. .1 have^distinguishK 
(^d in ittiie pl)\|?er qf love, which brings into con- 
tact :whltt oceanfil and the zones of the world had 
separaited. . Those families at once white, mixed 

• and 


and blade, united by the ties of blood, represe? ted 
,to mfe thie union of Etirope and of Africa ipuch bet- 
ter than those fortunate lands tvhet^. the.fir and tkp 
pilm*'tree brlendclheir shades. > It is niMqh $0 be 
«gretted that, under, the influence of grcwindlesp 
^prehension, the Ck>nstituei][t jA^seusbly * ^pul4 
have abolished, byjt's decree of September 179^, 
4;ber|iiiitioe which tit had done to persqns' of colour 
IP IH Autillps, :apd have granted to wh|tie.wie^i 
only the right i^f; cp^sjiituting- themselves: i^ ws^ 
loojckg upon theinfja$ ansome ineasi^re, aliens, to 
ti^ .Kif^gdodif Tbfiy will pne day perceive the 
liecei^ty of forming an intimate union with them^ 
^omf the impossibility; of, in any respect, a selfr 
sufficic^nt i|id€pendqnc9 pf them; ,bu.t before every 
tl\|pg el^^ they ought to attra^ persons of cplouf 
$p, ufiite .with ihein : in this their security and tbeif 
j^^per^ty -are at p;ice conc^ned. If i^ necessary^ 
/pQitbesaqie reaiS9n, fbat they ixiitigate thehard^ 
4}bip«i<^ their .mia^aJi^le slaves, til} ^.tifne coqi^ 
wbroinatbnal wisdg^i, i^si^lf shaH devise^ prudent; 
^leans tp restore them^ to lib^ty. I have ;ndipate4 
some , of : theii[i : this grand revolution is not t^; b^ 
jeffpQted at once, ^b^t gradually, and by giving a 
proper ipdemnifiqatipn tp the proprietors of slaves^ 
,.; But it, is not^^ufficient to pepplq ot|f islands wit^ 
free , and happy t^Iapk/s ; we must introduce inty 
them white labourers,, who are njof^, industrious 
13ais affects equally the inteirests of our Coloni^ 
and of the JVIpther Country. This is nqt alLp tbf 
introdufi^tionof whiteMabourers jnto;,.^eriq^ is a 
necei{iary consequence* of our new Constitution* 
Agi^icultijure 9mI C^msnerce havinjjf; been m France 

Ec« jiet 


Mt fiPM ttota fettcrsi itfoUows that population mmt 
considerably increase at hoine. On the other hand, 
the gulphs which absorbed It being filled up, stK^ 
as the unmarried communities both male and fe- 
male, and the continual wars excited by the ans*' 
bition of the Nobility and Monarchy, whose pre- 
judices are going to be extinguished, it in ar matter 
of absolute necessity that population should fapid- 
1y increase; so much the more that love has there 
an unbounded empire, ftom the temperature of the 
climate, from the ffcrti H ty of the soil> from public 
speptacles^ from the use of wme) and from. the at* 
tractions of the female sex. To these ancient aftd 
mpdern sources of popuhtion most be added thai 
of the influx of foreigners who art already coming 
to settle among us^ from the attraction of our neV^ 
Constitution, which grants ftiH security for libWty 
of conscience. It is therefcre a matter of ^ ntgertt 
intportance to And a vent fet the superMx, t^t df 
the Kingdom, and there is no one moie coimniodi* 
otts, or more within our t^aeh, than cttr Cbloniies. 
We must therefore }ntr€)du<je into them theiagti- 
cttltural labour of white men: for if ^is' method 
Is not employed, France, befbre the expimtion of 
half a century, Will not be iable to support httr ^ 
habitants. * We shall sec among ourselres, as in 
Chhia, circums-cribed by her kws, ^mot^iers ex*- 
posing thefr children, aiid ill the other- cffertea 
which flow from the excess^ of ati indigen% popu- 
lation. The abolition of the slavery of Negroes, 
and the introduction of the agrrculhiral Iab<y^i^ of^ 
whites m Anierfca, flow tKerefbi-eiftotn thte ftfterest 
of whhe$ Injt'mnce, ^rero^ieyTiot cdnset^utfnces 

- . ' • ^'^^ ; of 

: wikw$ at A Bccxvas; r : ^ 4f I 
of the Bights of M^> wKioh art.tW basts of ow 

Certain JU4iiteQtioBed oaen have pretended to ^ 

lege that Europeans are incapable of cultivating the. 

laiirniiig soil of the AmericaB Islands.^ A Tpfiy 

fkanx matter of fact is the most irreatatibk. Th^ 

good Spaniard, JBarihohmGSP de Mm C^suSy had 

brought to St Domingo itielf labourers tf^m thc( 

Mother Country^ who would have dottp very watt 

thtae^ had they tM bcefc de$tro)^e(l by ibe Camib^t. 

provoked by the pillageof tJbe Sf^aoish ^^old^efs, v4iO: 

made a concfiiest of the bland only to r<ivago it; 

We see every day, on ti^ port^ of o^r Colofti^^ 

whore the beat b touch nkore pow^uit than ijp ti^ 

Country, our carf^enters, ourstofie*f:qt<^»emi»)qy«^ 

ed in labours much mo;^ severe ^b^ii thote of tli<fr 

culture of €ofR», of cotton, and of the i?PQQa, wh^ch 

womcu and children are brought up tck. I h^tvo 

aeen in the lale of Franoe white men lev^l part$ of 

£9ve$t8 with their t^n hand^, and <:leai: ^w^y tbft 

ground. They had not however been brougfat.W^: 

to employments w laboriou9> wd spote pf thmt hfid 

even been officem in the service of the Ifk^ X'KiWn 

pany. Ibeolimate of St. Doiriiiigois I grant^im^h 

warmer, Irat the ladeiciit |>int0s and. hmems^n ^ 

that iaiand were tihite; notwithstanding their ex* 

cessii'^ ^tigues they enjoyed good healtl), and 

lifted to a great age. Instead of oor slaves, th^ had 

young articled or apprenticed white servants, sonie^ 

i\tUt% of good ^imijy, who engaged to aerve them 

for" fhe tevm of 'thicty-rsiK naontha, a circumstance 

wliteh ppocniied them a corresponding name. These 

^(j^iuig people wppofte<l lahom^s incomparably more 

E e 3 oppressive 


oppressive than those of our slaveSi of wiiich-we 
have full assurance from authentic relatibnt stiiL 
cxhting. The ancient ImTians who cultivated the 
Antilles, as well as the lands of Peru and Mexico^ 
were of a temperament much more feeble t^n the 
Europeans who exterminated them. Finally, do 
we not seCi by a Just recaption of Divine vengeance/ 
Europeans support in Morocco a slavery more cruel 
than that of the Negroes, under the sky of Africa, 
still more intolerably scorching than that of Ame- 
nca? I have composed on this subject a little 
Drama, in the v\tw of bringing back to humanity, 
by means of feeling, men whom cupidity prevents 
£rom returning to it in the track of reason; but T 
am convinced it iTould be easier for me to get it 
repfesented at Morocco tbijn at Paris. 

It is our interest then, nay that of the Creoles, 
to introduce into our islands white agricultural la^ 
bourers, in order to furnish, in the first place, the 
means of subsistence to 6ur compatriots, and after- 
wards of sprteding themselves over^ the vast soH^ 
tudes of America which are in the vicinity, I know: 
welt tliat several European Powers have taken pos^ 
session of them, I shall not examine whether that 
possession he lawful, and whether the same right 
which they assumed as their authority, for robbing 
the ancient proprietors of their inheritance, might 
not serve in it's turn to strip themof their usUrpa* 
tions. Bad principles ought not to be Ibimded on 
bad' examples. But, however respected the right 
of conquest may be in Europe, it is certain that the 
right of Nature is more ancient. In order to an 
;^uropeaii Prince's takin|{ poaiscsskm of a foreign 
. » Cpuntrjr, 

coufeti^, iWbereiiien. derooct'of'tiiislrust! recef'ced) 
his ships with kindness and hospitality, itis aio^ 
su^ient for l)ini to'get apfatte witb.faifl[ Mtrie in- 
graved on it^ buried clandestinely^ orUd^ haT&ia: 
cross erected, emblazoned witli his c6at.of anhs^ 
by a nmsionaty priest^ who worships it. in ichahi4 
hig a Te Deum^ and.perwading the honest sairagCB. 
who stand expressing their arStouishmetft at thii 
ceremony, thatthi» cross: will^presecve them frotnL 
every kind of evil. . 14 either is k; sufScient for him . 
to construct along a coast,' for.afifty 'ldagnes;toge<-i 
ther, a battery of cannon^ surrounded wkh ditcbesJ 
and palisadoes, to tell the World: M tlato Couti-^. 
nent is mine. The Earth l;>dongs not^to him. vho: 
takes forcible possession, but to hnn : vho ^culti^ 
vates it. The Laws of Nature :ane fiSunded on 
Mith in gseneral as in dietaiL. I saw onis day witb* 
out the gate de €haiBot, a peasant tsowii^ pease 
on a spot of grounds ^uhich had lain long unculti^* 
vated ; I asked. if it heldnged to him : ".No,*' said 
l)e; ''' but every one is. at liberty to sow land 
" which his remained without cultivation for morfe 
" than thhce years.'* I csnnot tell whether tWs! 
usage is fbunded;on the Civil. or Roman Law;^ 
but it r Undoubtedly lis a natural right GOD 
£cNrmed the. Eai-th expfe^^ly to be cultivated I'eveiiii 
iban^ thefefore^ has a i right to settle on a desert 
Besides,* the, iatereat. of the Kings of; Spain and 
Portugal lisj^eonferned toiiiviteanto their immense 
a«),.so^ry.Amencail Ikmiains, .tbei. overflowings 
ioli^iitatits of £un:>pe, toiinbrease the number of 
their subjects. If they ;d/6 vucyt: now allnie them' 
thither in the capacity of husbandnien, they will 

£ e 4 ^ne 


tfqe dajr bfhtkl them knd ia tiie fbnn of eon- 

TW tlM peHod aniins wk0n tlie Fec| S'niietf 
ihall find ^ vpnt'fbr har fbttire population in hn 
Ckikmies and the pMtiiidiit bayotid them, tbe Co* 
loioM theii|8elrc8 nwst far jneTentpii from inter- 
joeptia^ t^ mean of stibeistepee to tke People of 
llntiioe Th^ dra# a( this d^ from th^ AaQerica& 
Isianda a gmit mwj artieloa ef tticb daily con* 
mmfft^n ; ti^ pniicip} of w)ucb are sngai, coffee^ 
to^co and potton. IIuto is scarcely a lauod^csa 
|nit vf)a^ lays out op thpsp difivreiit cODimodittea 
at kast the iialf of her earnings, Tbe monied men 
iDoaopoUzp them Qfi their arrival in our poxts^ and 
tiiisrd^ epbanoe the pricp. The Dquntmenta 
onght to keep a vjgilant eye over such nbuses, 
^ if poasible to destr^ tlve oaosds of thetn. It 
19 a great error in politics to pUcd the Mother 
Countxy ki x state of dependfoce op hft Coloi^ies. 

The 'Departments oug^ t^ieifare t«^ encouragie 
Iflw eukoie df foees, for the purpose of r^plflcinig 
the use of silgar by that of honey, bo h)g^y va- 
lued liy tbe an<tients for it's salutary quali^es, but 
tcjeebed by the moderns fVpm a prejudice under 
H^bicji they labour that it has s^ nedieinal fitivoim 
It isr the quint-iffssence ^f flopers, From tlie ef>tt- 
sittidplioB of i^ an ihilndatioQ of arealtfa would 
poj^r auf pH^rnSf vrhttft so fM^iy pla|^ produce 
^wir etbefeal oi)a i^ vw^ Oiir pcaaant^ wbatd 
lj|^iaaftvpsi|i the ea^ uU havmkss maniN^eifli 
pf faecia, wha in wockahop^. nf^era freedoalt Wvisr 
^giiBj am never fovoed^- ix^. d<dbr to tna|)^ suga». 

irisaBs Off A Rxexrox. .- . j|tf 

to labour utider the ksb of the wir^ like t^ 
wi^tclied Negroes. 

Coffee Ukevtrise might pttba{» be te{>lac€«l bjr 
Sonne vegetable substance of our oim eliniatei^ i 
bavefrciquently wondared that the be«ry of^specien 
of jasmine^ dry, coriaceous^ of a very iyrtter savour; 
^hicb no insect wilif touch, niiich rd^iMd IcM fbt ; 
ages in the foreits of Arabia, should ha^c t^co^e, 
by the operation of roasting, and ifs <H>mbina1aoii 
with sugar and watet*, a beverage of aich ittiversaL 
isse in Eurc^e, that without it whote^jNattons, \xp 
IP the very extremities of the Nortb> could not be^ 
lieve it possiblfe to breakffest or digeit their dinner; 
th^t for it's consumption there should have been 
fitted u|> in every City an infinite nuitiber tif apart- 
inents^ Where the Citizens assemble, and decide, as 
they drink it, the fete of Empires ; that great Cities 
shouhl flourish by the sale of it,>and populous Co- 
lonies by it*s cultute. Of a truth, the grateful 
States of Greece would have dedicated a temple to 
the Dervise who first jdiseovered the use of it^ as 
they had done to Ceres^ to Baeckm and to Mtnercni^ 
who bad taught them how to extract flour from a 
girass, wine fVom the fruit of the vincj and sweet 
oil froni the bitter olive. There may be perhaps 
wch a berry lost in our woods, despised even of 
the animal tribes, which in process of time- shaH 
admiiiis^r an additional comfort to Imman Bib. 
It is the ibusinesi of the Departments to encoufelg^; 
. \f^ piismliftns, experiments: on siiclv as DMglit i\j^ 
f4y ^tbe ptocc of^cofl^. ■ This fruit tof Ttfatur^ hkv^ 
ing beeome ane^fesfeify aliment tiy thisf Pfeopfe, it 
]Voukf be c^fimportande at feist ttfltti aii\^iita* 



kilt mote aubatantial in their own territory. Whevi 
a young man has wasted his time and fortune bjr 
ptfrsuing a/mistressy be is brought back to eco^o* 
ny and his family by many ing him to a womtQ of 
«haracten But nations are always sufficiently 
young to run after novelties^ and they arf fre^ 
^uently too old to renounce inyetenvte habits. 

Of these ont of the atiang^t, aiid die niost dif-* 
£cult to be eradicated, is the use of tobacgo. There 
is no ctte so universally 'difTujied over the gl<^e. 
Tobacco comes originally from America, an^ sa<* 
irages first taught us to smoke it ; but it is smoked 
at thb day from Norway to China, gnd from Arch- 
angel to the land of the Hottentots. In Europe 
great quantities of it are consumed in snufE It 
was gold dust to our capitalists of France, who hadr 
got the farming of it They sold it for more mo* 
ney an ounce thau the pound had cost them in the 
lea£ I have seen a poor labourer expend every day 
jn tobacco the fourth part of his wages. Since the 
Bevolution it's* commerce and culture are became 
free in France, where it grows of an excellent qua* 
lity : it will accordingly fall in price, and the con* 
sumption will prove a farther benetit to Agricul^ 
ture. It were to be Mished that we could in like 
inanner naturalize the sugar-cane and the coffeci 
plant. Sici(y and some> parts of Italy might admit 
of ^is,. ^utftbe climate of France forbiids it I have 
remarked in my Studies^ that. Nature hud render? 
ed thp fwhole Earth capable <?f. producing uniyeri 
SSfUy ^,sani§ substfinces, with.thU differeqQ<^ thi4 
she varies th^ vegetables which beaV them accord? 

iSRi^fl'^^ff^fff^^f ^?^*^M^» Th^ «tvag4?s1*f C^r 

V r . . nada 

nada mjak^'Sugar wMh the sap of th&XDa^|!a|id 
the blacks of Afwfi^.firqduo? wine .from, the, jufcc 
of their p^fiijtrees^j,?! Jhe $s^e,of the ha;i;el-nuti^ 
perceptible^ ii) the. great, i^t^i^f the, coq(^^ and 
the4&(nell of ni^any aroniatic her^ of OYir^ own pj^^i^ 
in the spjce-bearing trees of the Moluccas. Nature^ 
in general, places the consonanqes of :^hei tree$ jof 
the Torrid Zon^, in the shrubbery ^nd ^bage of 
the iQinperate Zones, an^ even iii^-.the inossesanid 
mushrooms of the icy. regions. She has, toward 
the 5outb, sheltered the fruits frona thjeheatby 
raising them. aloft on trees; and as we advance to-. ' 
ward the North, she has sheltered them from. the 
cold, by lowefring them on herbs and grasses, which 
besidest ^jsiag intended to live one Sumnier only^^ 
have no fear of Winter. It is therefore; in the 
humble c}assfs of ovir annual and spontaneout' 
plants that we shall .be. able to fin^ »productiqm 
equivalent toahosc of the magnificent vegetablcai 
of the South* 

Cotton, the use of which is so extensively dij& 
fused among the people, furnishes a new prpof of 
these compensations of Nature. It grows in the 
forests of the torrid regions of Africa and America^ 
on tall thorny trees; in India. on lofty shrubbery; 
and in Malta and the islands of the Archipelago, on 
a; herbaceous plant. We can supply the want of it 
liy employing flax, an annual herb which comes 
originally from Egypt. It has long sufficed, toge* 
ther with the wool of .our flocks, to clothe us even 
to luxury. ; Our wonsen , are still more djsxj^r^ 
in spinmipg; it,, t^n the fenw^tes* of Ipdia, in draw* 
ipg out thiie^^ of cotton. It is worked intp ^clotb 



which far surpasses muslin in imenMs. A conskler- 
able wager was laid on this subject in Bengal^ be- 
tween tin^ agents of th$ Englhfa and Dutch East- 
India Companies, 'the Ddtchttian itodertook to 
prove the affirmative, and the Englishman denied 
it. The latter produced in support of his bet^ a 
piece of muslin delicately fine; but the other car-» 
ri^d it He obtaitied from his own Country a piece 
of cambric which, in the square inch contained 
more threads than a similar piece of muslin. 
Threads of flax in our laces arc much finer than 
{hose of the most curious muslins. It is possible 
to Sifork it into cloths damasked, sattined, *trans- 
i>arent, capable of receiving every manner of co» 
lour. Nevertheless women rich and poor give 
the preference to cottons. Rich women injure the 
industry of our own manufkctures, by the impoif* 
tation of cottons from India; and the poorer wo* 
ittien, who ape the other, injure themselves by 
drawing from a foreign coftntry the raw miterial 
of their clothing. 

Gbvcrnment at the outset thought of favouring 
the culture of cotton in Our Colonies as well as it's 
importation into France. Our monied men soon 
derived sucK profits from it by the establishment 
of innumerable manufactures, that moist of the wo- 
men of lower rank, as well as their children, hab?* 
tually «^ore ituffs of this sort. The use of them is 
far fircwi being wholesome. They are wonderfully 
well adapted to the winters of cotintrics whose in- 
habitkiits go almost naked tire rest of the year; but 
they are too watAi for our Sdmmers, and too eoWL 
iCor 0ur Winters, Iheir use especially is very dan-? 
' gerou^ 

gefons m Wiirter* They citch Hire reiy easily ; tbey 
areotieof tke moBt frequent causes of our txmSiMign^ 
tmm, which often comitaence on a spuk feUing on 
a st3iffed counterpane, or on ti curtain of cottom 
The flieria tmch case$ ia proqpagatedi with amazmg 
fapidiiy^ To my i»owledgpe soTetal chiUten and 
oiM people liave been bumC ali^'e, from haripg fkl** 
len asleep by their own fire?«tde in clotibmg o£l!his 
sort. The Wfaote world Itnows that Staniilam^t^tic 
old Kiiiigr of Foimd, p«ri$)ied in this mainner. Wool 
islial^Ie to laoneoif these iQCo&v^ienee9 : very light 
stnff^ 1P9^ i^ made of n ibr. $i«mwer vin^^.:. The 
<Sre<$taii a«4 ^9«u9i ladies, ' who dres<ed so gtao^ 
i^lly, w)re. mb^ of it at all $e9&(Ki$. I conU wiili 
th»t the Bei^tiQ^ .which bap produced m mtn^ 
ojbani^s ifioiir hw% «Hght pfoduo^ soino in oitr^ 
niaii](>et8| a}|dev0n:in0nr4res&* Thatofn^^^Aitoag 
w, 16 open on aU aides^ ai\d cut ^art« Tfaer«.^ 
nothii^ ^u <^9 oontraiy at once s^ warm and w 
light, so oonmodious W so 4igni6e4 as that of 
the ancSf nl4 If our fem^Iea wuah to engage the 
men toado^ it,* they have only themselv^ to adt^it 
tbe apptopiis^ batkit of thoOreciaii Ironacs^ who 
^jQvtt dfieased but in lii^enaBd woollen. IStmc wifl 
t^nlt ffoni it much benefit to healthy aad to the 
aiie^Q(t4t)l»te i^pcwancc of a whole Nation* Our 
Agrkmlitoise^ oui^ Con)tnoi<2e anxiour MaAn&ctOMa 
wiU derive taimniodi^teidmmtajfefiroA it l.ih«a 
Mgs wtU multiply^ and ooi^kribute to thesisf^ort 
^tlH^pafitr'iianu&ctocy, tfce first mitlQrtaAofwkdk 
Jbegine to grow scarce. It ia impf>99iblfi fli sup((]gr 
it's pbiee by ocAtooxagBt t^ongfa ^cbuiieaf»isiiMA 
mafee ireiy bfcantifiiikp^iei <tf tfaenii af the xtotlahu 
iitt tecQ f^ie4. I ahakAotacarahiehoK:^ tlif 



consider such persons as the most daagenms of 
tfiaotto, to keep them iocesaantly in dreadful sos^ 
fmse betM^en Ufe and death? lu thiji Hgbt the 
People view those who are engaged in tiiie ooqh 
merce of grain. 

In 9tin you tell then oCtbe ^tfese of the neigh- 
Ixxpriag^ Provinces^ of tht scarcity that la felt in the 
Capital: Will they take a greater interest in these 
thaa in the necessities of their own ditldren ? Bo' 
ttcks they are no Idsiger the dupes of that pietndf^ 
ed hununity, iirhidb has so often served as a prct 
text for the dangesons cosmieroe of com. lirbea 
tiaey mtt it exported from tbehr maxketa^ they su&- 
peetf ami vith too much reason, that it is for the 
pncpoise of rabing the price. It is a very ctdpaUe 
negligence therefot^on the part of Adminhtratioii^ 
dnrbg several centuriesy not to have estabitsiacd 
magazines of grain in the Provinces^ and reduced 
bread to a fixed price. Their abject was to dbpaae 
of tke Pieople*s food, m older to goTem them bf 
feminr^ as well as of their fortqne fay imposts; of 
their li£e by foreign uws, and of their consciettce 
hy religious opinions^ Sueh have loag^ been the 
abnaes of onr odioos system of politics ; it is l^igii 
titne to aet about a> refimnation of the most glaring 
<if thenoE. If there fae a motive to indupe the Poo*' 
pie to effeptacounrei^rcvotutioni it is thexlearness 
of faread; it was this ahme whidi. proceed th^ 
ilevolution^ in defiance of the very peraonsi who 
ataspidly betieved they could proireiit it^ by ataorv^ 
iDg the People. 

Idbtil bejcc'subjoinafbv roflectioipire^otiii^gptfao 
hsoitf^brawi^ beoDMd a£ jad|i,,^d]solute netiessity all 
-'..** ' '^ .-..:' MTcn 

oviT Edmpe* Who wouW belitv^ that it liPaa SK-. » 
soe&t of luxiiry ?' Of all t^ose \Ph}ch are serv^ up^^ 
on the table of ttian, though it be the riiost coriASiOD/ 
and rfeni ^rhen matkets are at the lowest, there is no 
QB8 wfatofa costs so dean The grim of which it is^ 
made, is of all vegetable procluctidtis that which de-' 
mands most cultare, maehtaery aiid handling. Be-' 
ftreit is cast into the^xiundi, tbei^ must be ploughs' 
tOLtiUlihe ground, harrows to bt^£ik the ct(!Kls^ dung-- 
hsBs to itoanore it Wkenat begins to grdw, itrmnsf 
he weeded^ whc^ oMie to'ifliatidn/iy/ the siiMM 
must be esinpljDytdi to cgit itdiof^n } flaib,: fafnniir^/- 
bags, barns to thre^ ihmi/t^ torhi^iitnow'' iV and to^ . 
store it ap; miltstoreduceittdfidur, t<»boltit&tf 
to sift it;, cakdiouses where it mu^t he i^neac^^ 
leavened, baked aild cDftver ted inttt breadl' Verily^ 
MasiiiidveT could have eittsted oh «tJiti Eartli, iKiifi 
ktbctn nndei' the nccesrity of darivittghls^fit^t M^ 
triment fvom the <:ot^ pkmci Itfi» Wwheref ibtihff 
iddtgisnotfs. N<8tf>r, itf^ g»iii, ^ fto*ft ' tHe ft>rn? ahf? 
size^ appears much htwtp ^d^pt^'W* HHd hVk^ of 
granis^opolu- bindsT thah :n>«'<ite' A(^ 1^6if 

aomutb at the aweatj^lAr p^nt.'Off'ifi&nkind'^^ts 
iRtJtdi' Jtttnostttli'lhe^etJI)WiJii4«Ja liVe pn^iJf? 
motepM\ttcih9af>iW^ Whibif^n^^ 

nQiOkm prcpaT%tiatkhMim^o<^ti6^^d of itV'phW 
licfe, a^ boilGdi viVMcaUives oii niillist.; Ari^erkf^ 
on manioCj potatoes and dther"ioets& Eveh thes*^ 
snbstancef wecen^ioti tht primitive aftment dl^Mto.^ 
>^atttiv presentfli to iiisii atrfiist his tfood ati^ad|^ 
dressed ia tbei^utec^tteesi^^ibe' plaeedprindpairy 
fiw:t!hia^purpods,ib>r3iMcn ttolM^it^ tb^^ bftnana 
and lim ite^dkM^ti oibtibe'^lXldto^era^it^ Zones, tM 
Vol. IV^ Vf ever- 


eve.r-green^pak, and especially the chesnut tree>^ 
a^4.p^>*hdps in the Frigid Zone, the pine, whose 
kernalft are eatable. But without quitting our own 
climates, the chesnut tree seems to merit the partin. 
GuUr attention of our cultivators. It produces, 
without giviqg any farther trouble, a great deal, 
more substantial fruit than a field of com of the 
sjune extent as it> blanches; it affords besides, in. 
it's incorruptible tiiiiber for carpenter's work,. the* 
ipeans of building duiable habitations. Our de^ 
]iartinent$oitght therefore to multiply^ tree at onqa 
8pbe?tutiful and ao useful on tiie comnKms, on 
beiatbs, and bytbehighnioads; they ought likewise 
to prpmotG in the same places, the culture of ererjr 
species of tree which producea alimentary fruit, aa 
well as that of pqtr herbs of the best sorts. Forthiai 
purpose it would be nieceasary that every Depart-^ 
ment i^ouldh^v<[apublicgad^en» ia which jLtteoiptSL 
Vf^ight Ifi made to natui^^iae all the foieigii vege*. 
l|^bl€9) capable pf fbrpisbiqg new means of aubsiatn 
ence or of iffduftry, in. order, to supply all gardeners 
with tl^f seed* >Rd pl^ts of .them for nothings ^ 

There is no occasion to recommend to the De<e 
^^wau the mteaesta pf the poor. Hqat of thft 
^ec}apa8t}caJ eudowmentshavebeen^becytieatjiedm 
their favour. They pdsMw atill more rtghts^a t^iese^ 
tf]^n the capitalists. It is to be wished tha^ the 
wholie pf these were . not to. be solil out, and tibat 
some pai'cels of them were to be. reserved in each 
]^unicip(ilityj and under it's direction; ib form ia 
thth faYPqr useful estajilishmcnts upon them. 
, Iti$ not su^iciejit to provide for the physical nc-i 
fep^i^S pf %^ inhabitants olioiir plaiiis; t^hr mftn- 

, WISHES OF A nEcttsi;*^^ ' '' ' 435 
ners must be likewise softene^. OuVptiaSanfs ar^ 
frequency barbarous, and their education is tlid 
only cause of it; they freqiientfy beat without 
mercy'their asses, their horsed, their dogs; and some- 
times their wives, because- they theihselvVs Were 
treated so in their infancy.* Fathers and mbthers; 
uhder the deception of certain preteti^ed religious 
maxims, powerfully recommend to schoolmasters 
the correction of their Wildren, in ottiei" words, to 
bring them upa^the^ themselves havte been: thus 
they mistake their' vices for virttfes. Itls^therefore 
essentially necessary to banish from tfie schools of 
children the infliction 6f corporal chastiseniefat, as 
well as the superstition which dfevisfedit, and which, 
not satisfied with torturing their bodies. Stings their 
innocent soiils with thescorpionsof hell: itpropah- 
gates among the children of shepherds the first pria* 
- ciples of that terror which is one day to cbver the 
children oi" KJng? with itVatvful shadlEJ. It is In the 
simple.minds of the' peasantry that dexterous Monks 
have sdattefed abroad sb mahy'legendsi which havfe 
prociireci. them, from the fears ofthis world and the 
iiext, so much riches over th6 couiitry, arid s5 much 
power around thrones. • Thel'feason of peasants 
ought to be illuminaled because they are men. Let* 
them be instructed in the knowledge gf a God in- 
telligent, provident, most bountiful, most gracious, 
most affectionate, and^lone Avorthy pf being loved 
above all things in nature which is bis workman- 
ship, r^thdr'thah in stones, wood, paper, withbu*t 
motion, without life, the \vdrk of mens* hands, and 
but too fre^ufentiy the mbiiuments of their tyrannj*. 


Their manper? 9H8^*i ^^ ^^ pplishedj by introducing 
^mpilg theip a taste for xnusic^ for 4aLn9ing and ru- 
yal festivity, iso well calcyil^tte^ to reqre^te them af^ 
ter their painful toil, ^jid to ipake tbenn in love 
with labour. Thus they ^ill bf included to renounce 
their barbarous sports, the fruit of ibeir cruel edu* 
cation. There is one, ^mpng others, which strikes 
jiie as dctestablp; it is that in which they take a 
live gOQse, suspend bpr by. the neck, and contend 
wbp sball lirst brjug ber down, by ajternately 
throwing a^tick 4t their vit^timr During this lon^ 
.agony, whidj lasts for hours together, the wretched 
animal tas&t^ about h^r feet in the air, to, the great 
satisfaction of her executioners, till at length one 
of them, Bi better marksnjan than the rest, by comr 
pleting a. separatioix of the vertebra^ bripgs to the 
Wound ^be bruised ai»d palpitating c^rpase; he then 
barrie? it off in triumpb* and devours it with his 
(Qi^pani^n^r Thus they transmit injto their own 
[blpoij the .substance of a de^ animal tortured inta 

f.maiines^t These ferpcious ^nd silly diversions are 
ff?<|uently celebrated in the ayenmes lea^ding to the 

' xastles of the N.obilify,. or in the vicinity of cburches, 
without tbe least interruption froip th^ iJpTd/pr the 
;P^isb Priest ; this lastoft?n forbids the yoyn^. girls 
Xq ^ance, fiud permits the youqg naeij to torment 
jinnoceqt birds |o death,, j[t is that in pur C.itips, the 
Priests hunt frp^ thg pburphes women who present 
ihemselye? tbere in hatjf ;'}>nt they respeptfully sa- 

^ lute.jnen^whp <rpme dre^se^ in swoj-jis. Many of 
:them cpnsider it has ajj heippu^ pffepce to go to 
th,e. opera, ^ikd with delgctafiont popteijipl^te f^t a 

|^.i)}l^baiting,. that con|pfi]qpou of^ tbe hu^b^dman^ 


torn in pieces hf k pack of hounds.- Br^iy wjiere^ 
w6 to the weakest! Every where barbarism is a 
virtue with those ih whoise esttmatibii' the ^racel 
are crimes, 

. Tlie cruelty praicti^d on aiiinidLl^: is only an i^ 
^Tenticeshiii t6 the sdence 6t tdrmentinf nwn. ■■ t 
kire endeavoured to find out the origin ^f^tfeier&troi* 
eious custom among but peiisli&ntty bf tottuting tb 
dekth the gdo^^ a hai^mhess and useful U^A, ani 
Vhich sotfietimes Hinder* thi^m tb6 s>?rVice df thfe 
idbg, being like him susci^ptrbkdf^fetiicbmetot, ieM 
^ajiable of ^ef ciring v^^HfenG*. It appeai* to mfc 
that we mufet tkttt ft td fhiJ first GAhIB^ i^htt^ after 
having Inade ih^tn6«lt<«s ftmsl^rs^Rttttii^, Miledm 
their aCt^Mpt tois6iE^'th^'€d<pitol/b6eause the sa- 
cred g^eete of Jt//i#,'U^h&Gli fc^^W'.hd^ *iWef):^tlifcit 
ibrwantof fd^, bytheU^dftfekfiiigWiusedtliegrfairds, 
who M'^re lulled td re^ by^tr&tch}^| ttiid -faligil^. 
Thus the g«eee saved the .Rbm&n ^^tnpirey and dt(- 
featedthe enttiTpHij^efthd'Gfeik. Fimetphi^ 

iates that m his tiffie, utid&r ^TBJdf^; the R6iiiatfs 
continued to cefebrate the deliverance of the CSapi- 
tol by ah anniversary featiVftl, on Whitll*tti€iy tar-^ 
*ried through the streets of Rohife, a dog^hittged, 
because thHr d^gs slept diirifeg A6 eieaiadfe df 1;lie 
-Gauls, ab4 a goose placed 6fe a rtch -ifuShittn, iti 
commeworation of the Mgiimiic df^ose hU^i^, fc 
which they were indebtfttf for IheW safffety. Il is not 
nnlikefy that the Gatf^bt! returning to thfeii^^tlrli 
country adopted tb* oontrafjr pradfcfev and:ev*r(y 
year hanged tip Ftienebg^el^^ oi^o^rtiefrtttieWtit 
the Roman geese, wftfhontTetfectiogthWthfey ««J^ 
.tfaernselves expect from thefli4iin^l«^ ^ii iM^s 
'Via' 4n 


in similar ctriumitances. But man frequently cos . 
^ demm in his enemy what he imould approve in his 
ffiend. Anotlier custonii is introduced to support 
the firbt : it is that practised by our peasants o€ 
Jundting .gr«|it'boii£Kes about Saint Jaftn's day, 
|)erh9ipi. in .ttfitnory of the burning of Rome, which 
JmppeD)Exl.4(:tht» season, according to Plutarch^ 
that (s al)p^t t^e summer solstice. I am well aware 
that leligion h^d in some measure consecrated the 
^tes of iSsfinf John^ but I believe they are of anti- 
iqaity «k«Kre.fe9idte tb&n the Christian i&a, a^ well 
'.as msiny ptberusjages which Christians haveadopted. 
: . Whatever be in tbis^ the Departments ought to 
(abplislii frop} among our peasants those inhuman 
pastimes, and substitute in their room such as ex* 
erci^eboth bo4y and mind^ like those in use among 
the Greeks. SMch are wrestling, running, swim- 
ming, the use pf fire-arms^ dancing, and above all, 
music, which has. such power toward polishing the 
buQian i^md. But we hope to treat these subjects 
more profoun4lj[, when we engage in a plan of na- 
tional .fdiHratipn. 

Our men of capital may powerfully second this 
moral revolution in rural life, hy combining their 
' means 3vith the iUuminatipnsof the Departments. In- 
stead of qjoAopolizing the money and the bread of 
, tihe People, \f)iose curses they draw down upon them- 
:.selvi^, and sometames thf ir vengeance^ it is easy for 
.ti)^ to lay out thchr iponey on undoubted security, 
Arith profit, honour, and pleasure. They could estab- 
lish country b£it^ for the purpose of lending, at a 
:*rood€rate interest, ; small SMinstQ the farmer, who, for 
: wai!^jafA.littki:eady.i|io|^yifr?queotly sees bis pro- 
i X i ' perty 

Jierty g*to ruin* They could (hciAselves dmin 
marches,- clear waste lands, multiply flocks, estab*^ 
lish mauufaptUres^ render amall rivers navigable ; 
instead of acquiring immense tracts pf landed pro-^ 
perty producing a jsmall revenue while in the 
liands of their great farmers, because the half mu^t 
be every year left in fallow, they ought to divide 
them into small portions of four, of six, of tea 
acres, which will yield a perpetual produce, because 
a single family can cultivate them. They m^y, 
plant them out into orchards, enclose them \vith. 
quickset hedges, less expensive, more durable^, 
more agreeable and more beneficial to agriculture^ 
than the long and gloomy stone wails of parks ; 
they may rear on them little smiling alid common 
dious mansions, or even simple cottages, and sell 
or let them to tradesmen who may come thithei^ 
in quest of health and repose. The simple tastes 
of the country will thus be introduced into the ci- 
ties, and the urbanity of chies will communicate 
itself to the country. Our capitalists might ex- 
tend their patriotic estabUshments beyond seas^ 
open new channels to cdmmei'ce and fisheries, dis- 
cover new islands under the fortunate clibiate of 
the tropical regions, and there platit colonies ex- 
empted from slavery. The greatest of islailds ill 
the bosom of the Ocean, if aftet all it be only an 
island, New Holland, invites them to complete 
the discovery of it's coasts, and to penetrate intp 
it^s immense^ solitudes, where the foot oF European; 
ftever yet travelled. They inay, with Prelich li- 
berty and industry, found on it*s shores a ne<v*Ba* 
tavla, which shall attract to itself Ih* ncha^of tWa. 
worlds-, of rather like neliv tycurguses, inay tlie;|r 
' F 4 ' Danish 

•.••f • 


banish money frqm U» ^d, pi it's plapc;, tQtrodtice 
the reign of hpaocence, concord t|i4 happiness! 

Of the Nobility and the National Guards. 
The ambition of the Nobility had acquired en- 
tire possession of honours ecclesiastical, military,; 
parliamentary, financial, municipal, and even of 
those pertaining to men of letters and artists. Let- 
ters of Nobility were requisite to t man's being a 
Bishop, a Colonel, or even a Subaltern Officer, in 
the Army, a Privy Counsellor, the Mayof of a 
Corporation ; they were obtained as a qualifica- 
tion for filling the place of Sheriff of Paris; they 
would soon have become necessary towards obtain^- 
' ing a seat in our Academies, which had all of them 
Noblemen, or pretenders to Nobility, at their 
head.' M. le Ckrc had become M. k Comte de 
Biiffon^ and Voltaire^ M, k Comte dc Ferney : 
others limited their ambition to the ribbon of St. 
Michael; all our noted literary characters aimed 
at present or future Nobility, Poor John James 
alone was contented to remain a man. Besides, 
he had not the honour of belonging to any one 

A Nation consisting of Nobles only, would 
quickly terminate it's career in the loss of it's Re- 
ligion, it's Armies, it's.^ Justice, it's Finances* it's 
Agriculture^ it's Commerce, it's Arts and it!s II-' 
luminatidn : and would substitute in place of these, 
Ceremonies, Titles,' Imposts, Lotteries, Academies, 
ah^ Inquisitions. Look at Spain and a part of 
Italy, particularly Ronie, Naples and Venice. The 
Irencjh National Assembly has laid open the 
pafli of* honour to £very Frenchman;' but in 
order to Jcetep" iff it, 'hiie must run the race himself, 
'• '"' "^ " Liberty 

* ", WISHES OF A it£eiru»B..: •" 
Liberty is nbtiimg but ai perpdtnai esfrcise of .vk^. 
tufi. It is by nposibg oa oofpsr tbafc citkeiu km 
tbe hai>ity aiud very soon' the rewairiis of k. .If so: 
naauy fiishops and Coloaels have been so easily 
stri|)|>ed of their t:redit and tbeir plaiet^, it wasr be* 
'Caus« th^ transferred the disohatge.of their dmtieit * 
from themselv^a to their subatteriw. It was the j 
habk of administering their alms by the hanfds tff ^ 
the Clergy which impoverished ufe People/ aad 
enriched so many religions lumses. It was by g€ft«* - 
ting themsdirei reflated in the mifitary service by ' 
soldsers diatthe Citizens themsdve^^hhd destroyed 
the Eiecative Power, and that thfe ^regiments h«d 
seittd it, lot the profit ef Ithe Nobility. It iras by 
discharging this duty in pecsbn that the Spartans 
maintained their liberty^iand by the oevokition of 
it on mercenary sd^iers, that Athens, lost hers. It 
is necessary iherefbre that the S^iench Gtizena 
shonld themselves serve. I have prdpofeed^ in my 
WiskeSf the means of easily keeping up in France^ 
a very formidable army, whidi shall not cost the 
Country a single farthing in time of peace. ^ It is by 
instituting in the cities and villages militaiy exer-* 
cises, amusements, and prizes among the young peo-r 
pie. Thus they will be formed to subordination, with--' 
out which it is impossible to have either Armly or 
Citizens. Nothing btit obedience to the lattte caw^ 
give security to piSrblic liberty ; it is Ae offibt 
of Virtue and not of am^tidn to train ttien toifc 
, It wasdieambitSi^nof theNobiKty VWch ha*/ 
engrossed every thing, awd* which scorned to ^^t- 
lip a single point, ttett hftd brought ih» Sttfte toq 
the brink of ruia, antf hatiftsued iW th^r4Wft deJ^* 
^ struction. 

^MOctwfL In Tain have tfafy assembled on ouf 
noitliem frontier,' a^d fladter tbeniBeives with tbe 
hopebf fta-cing their' wAy back into France in the 
etojoyment of their exdusrTe privileges, by. the as*- 
sistance of foreign powers. It is. not probable 
that any one of them iinagines it has ^a right ta 
pirevefit the French ^Nation ^from fnoning for her^ 
self whatever constitution she likes best AH £u* 
Vope has regarded with iadmiration Peter the Great 
polishing > his barbarous Empire, and reforming^. 
his Clergy and Boyards, who had seiMd all author 
rity; Would your admiration of him liave been 
diminished, had he brought back a corrupted peo- 
ple towards nature, and. had he destroyed the 
corps which opposed his plans of reform, he^ who 
bloke his oim guards, and, like another Brutus^ 
inflicted the puniishment of de^h on his own 
only son, for having conspired against the Laws 
which: be had given to his Country? What a 
Prince has done, assuredly a Nation is'^ible to do. 
The sovereignty of a Nation resides in itself^ and. 
n^Ctn the Prince, who is only it's sub-delegate; 
It is jn>possIble too frequently to repeat ^bat fun- 
damental maxim of the rights of Mankind: 
''Kings," says Fenehn, ** are made for the People, . 
*Sand TOt the People for Kings." The same 
thing holds good of Priests and Nobli^s. All the 
ofderaof a Nation are subordinate to i(, just as the 
bratrahe? of a tree are, notwithatandiDg^ their ele- 
vation, to the stem, which suppo^-ts. thppv. ./ The 
i&etich Nation has lacQordingly been able to sup- 
press. th0, wder; of Nobility, and tit's ecclesiastical 
ordtert which dared to s}v&w a spirit i^pae1;ory to 


the t^wa, without putttjog it in the pftwcriaf, 
neighbouring nations to sa^r a word an the wh^ 
jctt$. In a dtotm a vessel moored on a daaogennis 
eoa9t; cuts hier cables when she cannot get up.heri 
auehors; l Thns die ^^tionr to savejhe nationdr 
body^ has ciit asunder tte yoke of pmjudtce^whidif 
was dragging her to> deatruction, and which; she 
had neither skill nc^r kisure to disentangle. 

How many great Princes hare at^mpted to da 
as tnuch» and durst not^not being aeooodedby 
the papular power ! The. Emperpr Josefh II. at-^ 
tempted similar reforitis in Brabaot^ and&ilcd. 
Can our ettiigmt^d Nobility believe thdthl^ august 
successor, the. sagefZ^opo/t/^ that oew MarcH^Aur 
relim^ that/riend of JMkMikiiiid^il^ho in Km Tuscan 
dominions had opened every itoad tdrmerit ; that# 
King of Prussia, w1h> has hiaaself p^toed tlirough 
every military rank when Prince. Rpy^l ; that tb& 
Empress oi^ Russia herself, that rival of J^fifmttk^ 
Qreat who stripped his Nobility of the preroga? 
tives of their birth, and exhibited the exau)t>Ie of 
it, by relinquishing that of the throne, and by 
finking himself into a drummer and a. carpenter; 
can they believe, I say, that ail these Sovereigns are 
to coalesce for the purpose of forcing the f reni:h 
to re-establish their ancient abuses, and t6 give, as 
in times past, all employments . to venality, : tq in* 
trigue and to birth? It is absolutely imposmble. 
If neighbouring Princes keep up considerable try 
mies on their frontiers, it as simply W prevent »thi9 
French Revolution fikmr peneM^it^g too. rafidl^ 
into their dominion^, in.ordft ;to shun the 4itm^ 
ders which have |ic«on)panied it If the £ai]^f0M 
of Russia it making to %ur e&if nted ¥<4»iift$ 

]tertic)ikf tebdtfii of service, and id supply m^ 
tiusm with «ioney> it appears e^tremdy probable 
that she withes rather to allure thetn to settte in 
herStates, than tbat^he means herself to make an 
ikBpnmion tipon ours. In troth the rrenoh Ko« 
Uraietiv iMtnicted by- calamity^. would conbibaM 
ttot a: tittle t6 the xsivilisatfon of her! Coimtry^ just 
as the Swiedis^ officers 'did^ Who<were tmnsported 
sMo Siberia after th€f battle of Pulto^iea. • 

iBbt the homage vi)4iieh I <)\i^td)ti^th, and tte^ 
pity irhich I fed for the u^drtunat^, Constrain 1^ 
lieiet^ want ^v exited aobless^ that meet of %\mii 
t^ooid be objects of gtieat compassion in Russia; 
fir6*> from ^eir pfe^urikr mode of edacailoti, whidi, 
arming them fhytnUnian^y isgains^ each other, 
Wdold )Mt aflbrd' ^et)l Aft>ong th^if colfipitfid^ 
tbfcni^tvto that inp^i Which the imfbrltunaie of 
the a^e Kati<Hi toiglit expect, Especially ^htn 
•itpafitriated. I hud tlie experitftce of this oftetfer 
than Ofi(c0< The greatest eneitiie^ which Frendb-* 
men }^W6 in foreign coimtries, are FreDchmefr; 
ihfcirjeiilaniy isa telsulf fmm their ambitious edu* 
ca^n, whieH firotti chilclhood, says to ea^h of 
them, bat especially to nien of noble birth, Bi 
ftmmosU It is t^ue the necessity <)f living lii^ith 
Wen, a0(t * especially witti wohien, spreads a vstr* 
Uislvdf politend'ss dver^this maleficent instinetv arid 
dW%e^ ^' frenchman of family, wfco is Inwardly 
Iwrdttg With a^iSiire to domineer, to appear con^ 
^iftiitty iitt5)rilA:ed with a desire of pleasing ; bnt 
mi& l^fiftlifeiftt lalcteEs onfy excite against him the 
Jlrtdasy bf fdt^ei^Ws, \^ofie Vices shew them^ 
telW}^'i«idisgviiserf.* They detest equally his gaU 
H^Vf 'ana.fti^:p(HHt -6? l^onour; hi^ flaiieing -and 
^ 'v . . 6 ' his 

;, ,. . . y>'iSHf3 QF A »£Cj-v«j:. 44^ 

}iis du^^llingr. |t j$ therefore a melancholy pro^^ 
pect for a GeritleiDaa to pass his life in a strabgf^ 
laad, an object of jealousy tp his compatriots^ >nd 
of hatred tQ the natives* I say nothing of the ri- 
gour of t|ie ipilitary ?eryice in Russia, where suli; 
ordiqation issuqh, that a Lieutenant m^ust not sit 
down in .pjiesenge of hi^ Captain without per- 
mis^on; . AOf of the nxedtocrity of the appointments 
}ti a clifyate whei^e civilized map ha^ ,so manjr 
wjints. : Th^e incqnveniencQS, which/ 1 myself 
have :experienced, are so insupportable, . that most 
of the Qffiqers whom I have seen pass into that 
country, of ApbleeHtraption or not, have been re- 
reduced to. the situatioTv qf Ockit^ls, or governnors 
.to children in the .families pf Russian Noblemei^. 
It is of a truth one of thg ie^^t yrretched resources 
of th^t couptry : but paii it be pjUatable to.a niafi 
of noble, birth, ^vho. Ipf^ Ws Couptry merely be- 
.^ause he, pould uot domipeer.pver his tompsitriots 
at hpme? Must he.irnitjrte Dionysiiu the tyrant 
of Syracuse, who stripped of his sovereignty, o^ 
^med tii^ .^enjploymenjt of school-master at Co- 
rinfh, a^qS having, lost his Empire, oyer men con-* 
trive^ t(^ acquire one ever childreix. , ' 

.]J^e;ther/ha}l I say any thing respecting the se- 

.\Terify of ti)e climate in Russia, for it is a consider-* 

tton ^.T)Q weight, with th.e ambitious ; tp live at 

St Petersburg or in St. Domingo, to serve under 

Bygsiai^s pr to tyrannize over Negroes, is all Qiie 

tOr mpst men, provided they are in the road to for* 

tune.. |t deceives us frequently in these countries 

m in p.tliers. But^when a ijianj to indemnify 

.Ijipjse^f fp^ tlie injustice, of* f9rtuije,' w'ishes to 

, ; "' ' ''^ ''"^'^ ' throW 


throw* Wtnself into the arms of Nature, it toiuat 
))e peculiarly hard upon a Frenchman expatriated 
in Russia^ to compare winters of six tedious months^ 
during which the whole faice of the Earth is cover- 
ed with snow and dusky fir trees, with the mild 
climate of France, and her fertile plains clothed 
with orchards, vineyards^ and meadows. ' It is 
painful, on seeing enslaved peasants driven to la- 
bour by the rod, to call to remembrance the gaiety 
and the liberty of his compatriots; to talk of love 
to shepherdesses who understand not what you 
say, and whose hearts feel tio reciprocal emotion. 
It is a gloomy reflection that his owji posterity 
will one day be blasted by the same slavery, and 
that he himself must never more see the places 
where he learnt to feel and to love. I have seen 
Trenchmen in Russia, of a superior rank in the 
army, so struck w;ith recollections- of this kind, 
that they said to me : " I would rather be a com*- 
'^ mon soldier in France than Colonel of a regiment 

Not that civilized countries are exempted from, 
fiuffering, and this of the most painful soft Phi- 
losophy undoubtedly is able to dwell any where, 
and, if good laws are wanting, may enjoy more 
happiness in the marches of Kamtschatka, in the 
midst of a dog-kennel, than in the bosom of cities 
become a prey to anarchy. 

But, noble Frenchmen, wherefore add to the evils 

^which men may occasion, those whicih Nature has 

'not inflicted upon you? The Nation, you say, 

has been guilty of injustice to you : Why punish 

^yourselves for this? She has deprived you of 


y^t prerogatives, but sW has not taken a^ay 
fit>in yoli ter ctittlJrte, her produdtlons, het arts/ 
ker illuminattoii^ nor any one i^ her most valuable 
po^essions. Yon mean^ to avenge yourselves for 
the inj uries you have sustafeed ; your country- 
sdats have heen burnt to thfe ground : Will * thfr 
burning of villages rebuild them for you ? Men of 
ftimily have been massacred; Will thpe slaughter' 

' of dtktos restore them to life? Believe no longer 
the false promised of yonr orators. -Your hostflt-' 
fies will Only serve to aggravate your distresses,^ 
just as your resistance has done. A c6rps cannot' 
successfully oppose a whole Nation, Do notima-* 

'gine it is in your power to excite civil War lu 
France ! th^re are abundance of patriotic Kdliles 
in the Kitygdom l6 combat the aristocratic 'Nobi- 
lity. ^ Are you going besMfs"to take up -arms 
against that^ Royalty froiri wfcich your privileges 
ar^ deHVed^ arid against a*Kin^, who in coiripH- 
aticc to the gcileral wish of France, has sancrioned 
the Constitution to which yon refuse submission ? 
The second Nailroftar Assembly has proved the 
lawfulness of thfe first. You ovr'e m6re to your 
Niltion than your Order ; thfe maxim of. the sage 
Peneion is not a factious sojihism : " A nian oire^ 
*?«oreto his' Country th^n to his Family." * Will 
jFOU calJ in the pewers of Europe to attack yours r^ 
They will not espouse your quarrel. First, ; they' 
do nothing for nothing, and you ^re without mo* 
»ey and without credit. Wift'you promise tfeem 
to dismemb^ France in theiV favovir, Vherii 'v6u 
had not the power of ' maintaining your own 

. ground? ^ey "wouM be mu'ch tnore afraid ^oj^ 
seeing their o^n sfjubjcctsr adoiiting the Fren'ch 



]9W% than th«y Qouid hofe to m4 FmM6 mbr 

m^Uii\9 to those of Gennfiny or of Russia* The 
Hevolution would pepetrate into their Dominions 
liy m^^lis of t))e very soldiery employed tp subvert 
it \k h^ teijapt^tion could be held out to induce 
them t9 enter France? The pl^nder of Paris^. 
But the fron^ier^ of the Kingdom ^re hedged 
round wjth.fortressrs, defended by a multitude of 
segimen'tsand of national gjuarda, as^l there are ia 
the interior a milljuon of armed citizens, ready to 
replac? them* Would those Powers say \o their 
troops, as an inducement to fight in s^pport of fo* 
reigners whcr never did any thing fpr them : ^^ Go 
** and re-estfiblish the French Nobility in the right, 
<* claimed by eveiy Nobleman from his birth, of 
'' doTBiHeeriDg over men ? If you aire victorious^ 
^' you acquire the honour of subjecting the Frenchi 
^* to a yoke similar to that which you youmtlves- 
•* wear. If jqu perish,, you die faithful to ,yottr 
" Religion, which enjpins you. to obey, and for^ 
'' bids yon to reason.'' France op, the contmr)%i 
would say to her Citizens : *' You are accused by 
jf the Nobility of Rebellion, but that imputation 
** falls upon themselves : Hebdl^on is tb? resist* 
*' ance of individuals or of corps, to the National 
*^ wUL. Rebellion is the subversion oC the 
•' l?LWSj and Revolution is that^ of t^^rantet 
" The Nobility are t;he persons wh^ want to bq 
*^ such in. France, by arming a^inst her ^.King> 
"lemons of foreign soldiers. .: Go and iighti 
"them- .If you. come off viotpriai|s, you se- 
'* curc^ for, ever the liberty, of your fortiine, 98 
^*your talents, .of your eoi^scieacc: if you. 
"die, you; perish in defending tl^e , rights of 

" Human 

*^ iluman Nature. Your cauM is the most ju»t'«i€r 
•*the ttiodt aacfl^ ibr whidia People ever cbn*^ 
** tended : it is that of COD aiid of Mifakilid/' 

Gentlemen of France will ydli mA a^on destru^^ 
tion in defiance of the abuses of vhidh fita your- 
selves b^ve so frequently complained ? The Nation^ 
ycm say^ has deprived you of yout honours. It is 
for the sake of thosei who havti honour, fltid wh« 
do not wish to usurp the hdnouf of anothef, that 
she has willed it to be the privilege of every Frenctt^ 
nian to raise himself by his ovm nierh. Placii youi^ 
selves in the rank df her Qtitens} shehaseldvated 
those of your order^ who iuure distinguirfied them^ 
selves by their virtues, to the stations of President 
of Commandant, of Mayor, of Deputy to her Am^ 
semUy ; to them she has confided her deaf^est in- 
terests; it is for yott particubu^ly thatsht has b^tt 
labtofingi The aneieiit Oo^rament reserved it's 
hotaours for the gftat and the rich ejtclusively ; it 
is now in your pcrw^, by ymir virtues, to oblaia 
that which they required only l^ 4itkt of gold aiid 
amd intrigue. 

If the» be no tonger Nobility fidtn idheri«atioe, . 
t\m% e%er wili be peesonsi Nobility ; besides, the 
iftoiiditioD in which we we bojn haa an influence 
tokom mannert. Coinmer<% iasf^ires &e love otf 
ttonpsy i the bar, oMiMiej ^e arts^ dispose to arti« 
fice, mA rude |abiditt«s W vu^rity; The NobSity^ 
Of th« ancieQe time* of chivalfy, distinguish^^ 
tlMB«MlvM, by their generosity, their ean^^r, 
^ttir politenetsi Noblemen ! ii^o are their ds- 
tcendaafii, add to thest patriotism and iatelligetK;^, 
smd the people of FraBce will ^dVani:e to meet you. 

VoulV. Gg Tpu 


Voir complain of their anarcliy, it is your in^ir- 
irctian on tbt; frontiers wliicli keeps it up. He 
' who sets kb face against the Laws, cann^ot expect 
protection froni tbeni. 

. Patri^istn produced the Revolution and Avill 
maintain it; patriotism it is which, irniting every 
order of i-itizens, baiiisbed from among them the 
fatal pi-ejudices of their ambitious education. It 
has c^miented into one body, at once, those whose 
iluty it was to suggest coikDseH and those who 
were to execute them ; il has scattered to the winds 
till the dislinctiona of rank and iestate. We have 
4Been NoWemeni receiving orders frcmi shopkeepers, 
Priests from laymen, Counsellors from atlornies : 
we hiive ^eensoldierS;. without pay, passing indif- 
ferently from the rank of ^officer to thfet of pri- 
vate: jready at all times, by night ami by day, to 
quit their business, their pleasures, their families; 
proposing totl^emsdves no tAhet recompense but 
that of serving their Coijutry. .Thns were 'ye 
. formed, virtuous National Guards of Paris. Some- 
times, combating Aristocracy, you liavc disarmed 
it without veog'feance ; sometimies^ resisting Anar- 
<^hy, you opposed to it an ioiwmottuiable bulwark. 
Neither the flattery of coitrtieis, nor the insults oF 
the populace, have be^n ajbte fi) make you ^deviate 
fi-om your principles of> modi^rMipn. The on^ ob- 
ject you have kept jn view. is the public tnmquil- 
lity» Generous inhaljitaots of P^is, .,under your 
protection the French Constitution wa^Jwu^il. 
.Y9ur example has been followed by all the Mi^n1^ 
, cipalities q^f .the Kingdom; it \^ill f KtentVHlU'&ir- 
theri ben^^ts propagate. tbe»selMe3 as-w^U ^a^i:al> 
' i- . f V 'J . / '.sucdilies.^ 


surdities. Our gi^ndecs, in thtelf vatn kixui^, had 
adopted the riding-jackets, the horse-braces, tho 
huritcrs, the p6lishcd st^el df Enfgland; you, with 
much greater wisdom, have tak^n for ycJUr share 
her liberty. Already your Constitution, like the 
dove escaped froitt the ark^ is taking a flight over 
the whole Globe; already it hDvers in conl^any ' 
with the eagle of Pdland ; it carries 'm ktl oliv^i 
hranch the rights of mankind ; this is the standard 
of Nature, which is universally thviting the Na- 
tions to libprty. lurdefiaticeofthe suspicious vi-^ 
gilatice of the despotic powers, * which interdict \o 
tfeeir enslaved siabjects ti:<e history of J^dur sud-i 
cesses, the rights of. human natuffe/ translated into 
ail languages, arid f>rintek:l even on the handk^r^ 
chiefs of wometi, hdve penetrated every wh6i?; 
Thus Man, subjorgaa^d in his v*ry boMseiehfce which 
he dares not look-intb^ ^vi 11 fead hi* rights En- 
graven even on the botomof his partner; thus, *^ 
you have exercised an infiaence bV«f the .plcfasdribia * 
of Europe by ycwr fasnkwisj you wiU"*3^tehd t?hat 
influence aver the general happiness by yfedr vir- 
tues. Patriotism brought yom Cogethei* in the 
tempert; and it will keep you united in the calte- 
Receive your fugitive aftd unbstppy brfethfemwithi 
generosity; you owerthem protection, safety; trati-^ 
quillity, support, by^he very^ Constftution to which . 
you invite them. Recollect* that they w^te yOiir 
seniors; share with those who shall e:lepreiss a \visfe 
to be Citizens, the serticcs^ and the honours ^your- 
Country, the common mother of las all; And, re- 
stored to the managelment35f your affairs, .ftkhitJit- 
to your children the example of <^ncord« , 

Gg 2 . 0/ 


Of tktCkrgtf ntnd tie Munkipatitin. 

THE Clergy and the Church ought not to be 
xroafounded with each otiier. The Church is the 
Assembly of the faithful in the same Cdmmuuioa ; 
the Clergy is the CorporatioB of it> Priests. A 
Church may exist without Cleigy ; such was thac 
of the Patriarchs, and such is at this day tliat of 
the Quakers: a Clergy caDnot subsist where there 
is no Churpb. 

Romc^ pluadeitd by barbaiiaWi resumed over 
tbem by the power of q^eecK ^ £mpire which 
she had lost by the feebleness ef ber arms. « The 
wretclied Rations of Gaul embraced with ardouir a 
Religion which preached charity in this world, aad 
promised eternal felicity in thai ilrhich is to cooie; 
they contrasted the virtues of their first lliswm- 
aries with Uie robberies ci their cooquerofs* The 
Priests, supported by popular faVMir, acquired an 
unbounded authority. Master^ of the conscience, 
they soon became so. lihewiae of the fortunes, and 
even of the persons of m^n* As they were the onljr 
men who knew how to read and writCi they became 
the sole depositaries of testaments^ Notaries were 
at that thne dert^s, whose dependence wait on the 
Bishops I a will was good for nothing, unless the 
testator had left a legacy to the Church. The pa* 
rish priests of that period, were obliged to keep a 
register of those who took the Sacrament at £a&- 
tpr^ of those who did noti as well as of their 
good and bad qualities^ and to ti^nspiit the parti- 
culars to. the Bishops^ It is extremely probable 
t^at tli9y kept then as they do now, a register of 
births^ marriages, andhurjab. All alms*deeds were 


adimDistered by the Clfergy, and they were em- 
potviered to rfeoeive gifts jiod bequests of money, 
bo^^m lands, signiortea, tiay evea of slaves. 

Thus, with so many source of inlwiiuition, of 
means and of misthod, the Bishops became all pow- 
erfid. It seems from History in what manner they 
employed power over Kitkg$ in the name of the 
People, in quality of their JPastors ; over tlw Peo- 
ple in the name of GQD, in quality of his Mi*- 
nisters: and over Popes themselves, in the nama 
of the GaJlician Chunch» in qtiality of it's Chiefs* 
T^lieir authority excited the jealousy of Rome. That 
capital of the Christian world opposed to them tb9 
monastic orders, which held immediately of her,i 
though subjected in iippearance to the Bishops. 
The French Ckrgy then divided into two corp5» 
the secular and the re^lar. Every power is en^ 
ieehied by being divided. The K|onks» who form- 
ed the regular Clergy^ being hy their Constitution 
«io» united among themselves^ and acknowledg- 
ing but one onI}( Chief, tlie Pope> extended their 
pfmer mudi farther *han the members of the se* 
eular Ckrgy, ftequently dtstr^^ted by the ifS^m of 
the woild, and* subjected to various Bishops, whor 
bad notalwdt^ysthe samie vieiTs^ The ^^sonlar Clergy 
domineered ifa the Cities, the Monks if WFuiied their 
empire overth* Country. Thcrjr wouW ^00in have 
acquired a decided prepoi^derancy over the \MJi^te 
Kingdom, ha& t4fi&y formed o/Biy one order, like 
the Monks of St fi^ile in Eussi^» But nndfir to 
ipprefaension, peshape, that they sbou)d not be 
^bleas these last to render thetaselVesi indepemt* 
cnt by their riches, Rome her^tf divided her own 

G3 strength 


Strength. She introduced Into France a "great va- 
xiety of rtiligious orders, the superiors of which 
resided at Rome; and who not only parcelled out 
the ecclesiastical functions among themselves, but 
even invaded a part of the secular employments. 
Most of them were originally mendicants, and in- 
troduced themselves under the pretext, so specious, 
of charity. The Dominicans, at first ])reaching; 
biothers, afterwards became inquisitors. The Be^ 
nedictines became t^e record keepers in an age 
when hardly any ope could either read or write^ 
and undertook a part of the public education, 
which communicates so much influence over the 
mind. They were imitated, and speedily surpassr 
ed, by the Jesuits, who united in their own order 
alone the talents of all the rest, and very soon all 
their power. Others did not think themselves de- 
graded by compounding essences, preparing cho- 
colate, knitting silk stockings, and engaging in 
trade. Some were sent as Missionaries into foreign 
countries. Though preaching Christianity, they 
accompanied our soldiers in their conquests, and 
acquired land;» in America, and slaves iu Africa 
to cultivate them. Oriiers, as the Mathurins, en- 
riched themselves by begging for the purpose of 
ransoming Christian captives taken by the barbae 
rian^ of Africa. They redeemed * white slaves . o» 
the Coast of Morocco, because, as they alleged, 
they vrere Christians : many other Monks wc^e at 
Hm $ame time purchasing biack slaves on tha 
CoaM^f Guinea^ to supply their ^ plantations in 
America^ and making. Christians of them. to rivet 
f he chains of their captivity. 


At length th« civil power began to open it's eyes 
to it's o^vn interests. It set out by withdrawing,' 
in part, the piiWic education out of the hamb of 
the Monks and Clergy, by the establishment of 
Universities: aftenvards Municipal Notanes^er^ 
9i])pointed, and to them was confided tifc trust of 
superintending the making and execution of Wills : 
k;w2(s expressly prohibited to beijaeath landed pto- 
perty to. ecclesiasttcat corps, already far too rich :' 
but, tejT one of those contradictions so common in 
our laws, the^rish^^riests were still eftjoined'. t<$ 
keep public regiistcfs: of births, marriages, and 
deaths, in the view of ascertaining the state of po- 
pulation. ' This office cfearly belonged to the Mu- 
nicipaHties; but the People, inured to sel-vitude, 
were like the old mule, to which the Athenians 
granted liberty in consideration of her long ser- 
vices, but. which, from being accustomeid to the 
yoJ^e,, w&at voluntarily and took her place among 
the otMdr OB ules which wiere carrying, stones tothe 
Temple of : Jfi/i^tw. , • 

Since: liberty of conscience has been ftecreed on* 
of roui' rights, -it is tjertain that the Mutiioip^lities 
aioiie can ascertain theistate of the ckize^is in the 
tliBec priiiofpal epochs of existence, binb, marriage 
and death. How could ftoman ei^cle^Jifiitks v^erlfy 
ascitisreji^',? Frenohmen w^iom th«y ddJtidt consi^?^ seeing they look upon theiti as Enemies' to 
•GOD, jivJieii they are ndt of their cotifmunion? 5t 
is larther ewident, that ;the distribution of alftisi 
the superintendance of hospitals and of aU'cbai 
Stable .estabiisln3)e^ts,.'b6lcmgsi'to^tf)e M\il^ie?p^li- 
.tiM.exclli»iirely; • Tfoeif c0mpaA«ft)a#t)e'f«gard^ afi 
diip'to Citizens of every description; whatever 

Gg 4 ^ their 


their religioa im^y he. It is impo66ible tp behold 

without astonishment in the UdteUDi^, 09 the 

hed$ of the sick, }abf Is ]nscribe4 with the wor4 

Confession in )afgc characters. Thus, h^d the Hd* 

teUPieu be(^n at Jerusalem^ th^y woul4 not have 

leceived tb^ S^inaiitaQ't wounded man into i% 

hecause his ben^fadtor w»$ ^ schisniatip, hovere? 

highly oomqiended by Jesus Cutisr! Itis pain** 

ful tQ he informed, that the yming women pIaoe4 

put of pharity in the Salpetrtere, ^re not peniiitt«4 

to pass the gat^s to jtake a. cooptry w^% before 

^hey are twenty years o|d ; and that those ^ho 

havp attained this age pannot gp out, he thp occa« 

sion ever $0 pressing* without piresenti^g to tiie 

porter f certificate of confessions Our hospitals 

jure thus cofiverted into prisons, and poverty is 

pij^Ished 11^ t^n as a crime ! The Municipalides 

fibso)ate|y niast emancipate charitable institutions 

from all ecclesiastical impgaition wl^j|tevtr. Li^ 

hefty of conscience ought to r^gn in theno as 

liberty of breathing : the iiiterest of all TBtn is cou- 

eerned in it^ The pestilential brand of thein<|ui- 

^ition may |ie smothered there, like alt^ otl^r epi? 

(iepnC| i^hy^cal and mora) maladies, and thence 

Q»reaf) we infection over aties. Thepe are many 

fit^ Bjtnja^ whicl) call for TefQim, respectitig the 

application of iimr revei|ues^ thpir police, and ey^ 

|he ikatuieof those estiU>lishinents, which crpivd 

|0 mimy wiftphes into one plape : but I have novr 

Indicated ^ose which appear to ine ^hp most da»- 


Jhere ought to he iM» burying grout^ in t|ie i^ 
ttrior t^ dties ; the .htaltli of theif inhabkanta is 


deeply concerned in this. There are ancient laws 
on this subject which remain unexecuted* The ac^ 
commodation of churcii-wardens and of the ii^ 
rior fry who nwike a gain of interments, is a temp- 
tatiou/ to infringe them, for they persuade the 
people that their religious character is involved in 
the practice. What nevertheless is a church-yard 
in cities? frequently a common foot-path, where 
bones are confounded and piled up in heaps ; there 
you see deep and open ]^uves, which incessantly 
lemit a znephitic exhaiatipn. Ah orphjin frequent- 
^y catches his death there, over thff remains of him 
from whom he derived life. Unfortunate motlier! 
thou fondly helievest that the little hillock over 
jvhich thy te*rs atic jflojiving conuins the body of 
thy daughter: in vain thoti consolest thyself with 
the reooUi^tion of her virgin graces; ber body is 
i»ift the noarhle slab, of an anatomical Mfiphitbeatrc^ 
exposed naked to the eyes, and tp the dissecting 
luufe, of yojiu^g men whom an affected thirst of 
knowledge has a^rippisd of all sense of modesty. 
Ye whfx reveriCtbe Jjshes of your progenitors, re- 
- joiwp them, far fronD places, where the passions of 
||te living intrudje.oi^itlie repose of the, dead. It 
is, oi^ly in tlie 6e)4% and. remote from cities, that 
<l^atli as w^ell aa )ifp ican find a secure asylum, There 
i¥« cauld render uxi^o. GOP what is due tp GOIX 
^1^ to ik^ eleqoefit^ yfh»X W\ong^ to the elements. 
'pheij^ }n aH'y situalfions, bnryipg-groi^nds might 
li>js '/enclosed withw^s^ sepulchraji chapels peareid 
iu %hmy 9Qd ^fjepers placed to guard them frtm 
Vioijiti^. Nay, ^y might be planted with treeaf, 
fF^c)ii would fes^Qne the mephitic air to purity. 



Nothing M'ouldbe more interesting than to 3ee wn- 
der tl^ religious shade of oaks, firs and ash- trees, 
whole generations of carpenters, joiners, cartwrights, 
laid to rest at the foot of the vtry trees which Iiad 
furnished tliem with tjie means of sustaining life. 
Each family, as each corps, might there reserve for 
itself a little spot of earth, to serve as a common 
receptacle for the ashes of relations and friends. 

It is the husiness of the Municipalities to pay 
particular attention to the execution of these laws. 
Magistrates are the real priests of the people. Their 
confidence is to be gained no way but by speaking 
to them ; it is by speech that men are governed. 
The Clergy was the only corps which assumed to 
itself a privilege claimed "by every Citizen among 
the ancients. . The People thcn'mustbc spoken to, 
if not vhd voce, at least by edicts, proclamations, 
journals; the truth must be told them, and re^ 
commended to their affections. On the other 
hand, it is a culpable indifference' in their tulersto 
permit every day mercenary journaliists to alarifi 
ihem by reports which have a tendency to destroy 
the confidence they ought to place in their Repre- 
sentatives, and to subvert the 'Constitution. • The 
opinions of the People ihouH fiot be sported with-; 
if these journalists convey truth, they ought to ht 
recompensed as good citizens ; if tliey have de- 
ceived, they should be punished as calumniators. 
Indiffei^nce in this respect is a crime in Ma^s- 
trates. It is absurd tb consider this licenti^ftnl^s^ 
of the Pres^as a cbniequeace^ of Hbertyt- t-Ko meti 
is at liberty to poison, and calumny is tite fhotit 
dangerous of all j)oisons. Let them pay^veiy^sei^- 


liriSHKS OF A KXCLU8I. i 459 

ous attenti6n to this ; .from dontenrpt of: tiie4aix;{sr 
that of their persons will fdllow, and in process of 
time their ruin. 

Citizens, it cannot be too often repeated: If you 
wish to be freepyou must be virtuous* If you trust 
the national defence to regiments, if you perfonn 
your works of charity by the hands of ecclesiastics,* 
and derive science through the medium of acade^ 
mies, you will l>e, as we may judge by the past, 
very speedily reduced to subjection, plundered and 
betrayed by the persons whom you pay. 

Of all corps tliey are the most poweritri which 
cannot be removed. To their unremqvableness 
principally the Clergy have been indebted &r their 
authority and their riches. Like a ro^k in the 
midst of a river, which is continually. enlarging it's 
basis by the alluvions of the stream, they havie 
seen flowing down by their side families, corporar 
tions, dynasties, kingdoms, still angmehting their 
own power by the vyreetoof the others. The unre- 
movable corps which disputed theppint with thiSm 
no longer existJ The regular Clergy is suppressed 
9S well as the Parliament^t Tber^ is now np coi^u^ 
terpoise except in the assemblies of Citizen^, wUosc 
members are incessantly reaovittd, and diQ* v^ery 
rarely unanimous* ^ - • .; 

In Qfder to, attach Priests to the Gonstitutipi^ , 
they must be converted ioto Citiitns.^ The seca-^, 
lity is' better to hiiid them to it by their interests 
Uian by their oatbfv To obtam this object, one 
very good^ method b»s aheady been employed, in 
mi^kieg them stipendiaries of the State. There is 
•lilk iww^tbw morp cffix^acious, because it brings 



them nearar to the Laws df Nature ; it is that of 
marriage. The ancient Patriarchs, Abraham and 
Jacobs those first Pontiffs of the natural law, those 
holy men wlio mi^ntained an intercourse with an- 
gels^ were surrounded by numerous famihes of 
children : Mase^, to whom GOD dictated the laws 
of the Jews, and Aaron his brother, invested with 
the office of Higb^pricst, were married men. The 
first Catholics married in tlie Primitive Church. 
St Paul ^ty$ poMtively, in his first Epistle to the 
Corinthians^ vii. 2^, 26. '^ Now concerning Tirgins^ 
** I have no commandment of the Lord : yet I give 
^* my judgment as one that bath obtamed mercy of 
^ the Lord to be £uthiul. I suppose therefore that 
^' this isagood for the. present distress, that it is 
^ good for a man so to be." It is evident Uiat St 
Paul is not addressing this advice to the people, as 
ceiibaoy would liave in voived their utter extinction, 
but to ecclesiastics who had slender means of sub* 
sistence in those early times, when the in&nt 
Church was poor and persecuted. But in fact^ 
speaking of their chiefs, he says in another place, 
** Let a Bishop be the husbami of one wife :" that 
is let him marry only one. The priests of the 
iCrFeck Church, w^o have preserved most of the 
vsages of the Primitive Church, still conlfnue to 
marfy. But isit needful to recur to authority when 
w^ have that of Nature ? She produces, all the world 
ovet^ men and women in equal numbers. Now 4 
Prie&t who does^ot marry condemns to a single hfe 
a young MTomah wliom Natnit made his comtem* 
porary, and designed to be hisco^npanion through 
life. What will b^Qome of maiden ladies now ^| 


WISHES OF 4 Rj:cty9£« 4^1 

Convents are abolished? Finally the laws of society 
invite all men to marry. Celibacy may suit an i^<Ur» 
vidual, but never a corps. Priests will beconsegood 
citizens when they become husbands suad fathers to 
families. Many of them: have already set the ex- 
ample, by marfying before the Municipalities, They . 
have yielded obedience to that first law of GOD, 
which accompanies our birth into the world : ^^ In- 
^^ crease md multiply;^ a law observed by the 
priests of the Patriarchal Church; of the Jewish 
Ghurchi of the primitive Chiistian Church, and of 
the Greek Church- The Church of Rome seems to 
have interdicted marriage to her Clergy, only to 
attach thei)^ Qiore closely to her intereats, by sepa- 
rating them from those of family and c<mntiy . All 
the religions in the world would lead men to GOD, 
by aji approximation to Nature, but the greatest 
part remove from her, that they-m^y not approxi- 
mate to each other. > 

It may be affirmed in praise of our Clergy that 
they are the least intolerant of all tbose of the Car- 
tholip chufcK Their liberties, which pass at Rome 
for heresies, l^avf saved the Nation from the ultra- 
montane yoke- They never would admit the ia- 
quisition established in Italy, in Portugal^ in Spaio^ 
and even in the Indi^Si. It i» this odious tribunal, 
extemied by the pqlicy of Rpoie over aU the earth, 
under the pretext of prQtecttng religion,, which 9Cr 
parated from her commuQioa the northern aatiom^ 
of Europe* To it we must impute the revolution of 
Avigi!ion, though it's yoke was very light there, on 
account of the vicinity of France; but tl^rc is no 
one so galUag as that which leads the conscience 
5 captive. 


captive. Every inhabitant of Avignon M'as obliged 
to present at Easter a certificate of confession to his 
parish Priest: it was only a formality, they said; 
biit a man constrained to dissemble where con- 
science is concerned, becomes a knave in every part 
of his conduct* When a man is forced to deceive 
on the subject of religion, he learns to deceive 
without scruple in other matters. All civil order 
bears upon the moral, and this again on religious 
order. The inquisition is thfe alone cause of the 
mistrust, of the falsehood, of all tlie vices of the 
heart, and of all the errors of the mind, with which 
tlie nations are chargeable over whom she has ex- 
tended her empire. This infernal jurisdiction insi- 
nuates itself every vwhere like a serpent; it poisons 
with it's baleful venom the most useful establlish- 
ments, even among nations which reject it; Who 
coiild believe, for e^arhple, that there is at Rome a 
bull which condemns Free-Masons to, death,' a so* 
ciety however which has for it's leading object, to 
succour the miserable of all religions? Does a book 
appear in any part of Europe which acquires cele- 
brity? The inquisition lays hold of it, condemn? 
it, garbles it as interest directs. The most inno- 
cent are frequently the most rudely treated. I shall 
produce one instance of this entirely recent. 1 have 
jnst received a translation into Italian of Panfaftd 
Virginia^ printed at Venice, and approved by the 
Inquisition, who have struck but almost the whole 
dialogue between Pflrw/and'the old Planter^ for no 
other reason, tuuloubtedly, but because the injus- 
tice of the great to merit* and virtue is there ex* 
posed. This tribunal- accordingly is ttie supporter 


of e^ery species of tyranny, even such as ar^ not 
religious. ' What surprized rne their re-* 
trenching from my pastoral, sortie imaojes very live- 
ly and natural; such as that in which Paul und 
Virginia^ buckled alttrnately by their unfortunate 
mothers, are compared to two buds grafted oh trees, 
all whose branches have been broken otf by the 
tempest; and that in which the two children shelter 
themselves from the rain under the same petticoat: 

The Inquisition is an* enemy to Nature and to 
mankind. I think therefore that mankind is bound 
to make reprisals. As she has every where emis- 
saries and fratarnities, it appears to me that the 
National Assembly, which has established tlie 
rights of humanity a«* the basis of the Constitution, 
wduld act very wisely in decreeing : That every 
man allied to the Inquisition should be prohibited 
tofetlter Fiiirice; even though invested with a pub* 
lie character, and that every book approved by 
them sliould be forbidden to enter, as being, by 
that very approb^ion, liable to suspicion of con- 
taining niaxims favourable to her own interests, 
and incompatible with those of mankind. It be- 
cotnes every generous Nation to make perpetual 
war on the enemies of the rights of human nature. 

Though there may have been among, us, at all 
times, Priests who attempted to introduce the In* 
quisition, beginning with a demand of certificates 
of confession and of paschal communion,. ^4 
though there still remain some traces of it in imr 
hospitals, it may be affirmed that the generality of 
our Clergy possesses a large share of patriotism^ 
Of this we have just had experience in the revo- 


hitioo. A great avmber of ecclesiastics the most 
tnlighteBed* and of manners the most pure, have 
taken the side of the People. We ought therefore 
to attach them more and more to the general in* 
tcrests, and nothing is so likely to effect this as 
public pay and marriages. They will become Citi* 
sens in becoming stipendiaTy Ministers of the pub- 
li<^ and fathers of families.* But it is not sufficient 
to unite the Priesthood to the People by the Ixmds 
Society and of Nature, it is necessary to utiite the 
People to the Priesthood and to Relxgioii by the 
bonds of intelligence and feeling. For this purpose^ 
Me must substitute the French knguage in room of 
the Latin, in the prayers of our GMican Church. 

To what absurd practices nmy not habit subject 
reasonable beings? Is it not strange that the People 
of France should pray to God in Latin ? What would 
thry say were their preachers to address them in the 
same language? It would be nothing more however 
than a consequence of the prevailing custom : the 
sermon being, like the service of the church, the 
word of God, it would be natural to make God speak 
to the People in the same language that the People 
speaks to God. This practice has in truth existed 

* On this subject I must obserre^ that k docs not appear to in^jast 
t» deprive Pkriests who. have not taken the oatbs» ol^ their pensions; be- 
caufe Ihej refuse to come under this eif ic ohiagatiott* Tfaeee prasioa* 
Ibaxe bteii granted merely in consideraftioa of that refuse], and of their 
Ibaviag consequently forfeited all Tight to exercise their public funetioas^ 
Aafc they miglit not be left destitute of all »eans of sabsistencf . It 
ipreald ijbe^orc be a violatiott of the spirit of the first decree^ to enact 
the civic oath as a f|ualificatiofi to reeetve those very peaaimis ; it tA 
sufficient to deprive such as eutcr into cabals to overset the Coastitu« 


^itrthg mttiy age*. Th(sin ^»m « tinie tidieii the 
Church of Komp permitted not a tratifl^tioii of the 
Holy Scriptures ifito the vulgar tottgn*. What com- 
.Inuiiication then could sul>siat between Qod 4MHi 
fnen who spoke to each other ia a language which 
^faey did not understand ? It was latd that the ft<h 
mish Clergy, to maintain jfihe respf crj^bility 4/f t9^ 
ligioti; but what a strange religion wiMttbat he 
from which the .lovie of God is hMiehedl. &rv»<> 
audi feeling can existdn prayers' which the nnd^ 
standing compreheccis not^ anid by wUch the bmit 
is incapable of expressing itfs emotions. It ia loqg 
since 6t. jPju/ oondeoined this!abv$(; and what is 
xrery extraordinary; s^id whieh gsfiuras I knonrhas 
neyer been rem^ked^ it was in deso-ibiag the guc 
M the primitive Cimstians, 'prbo had jcoeived ^ 
^ift of tongues, and whoididnottheofiselvesundef- 
^and them^ Hear what he says an <^ subject in 
his first Epistle to the Coirinthimis, xir. %^ 9/ 11^ 
1% 14, 1^. ^^ if the truvnpet give an uncertain 
^ sound, who shall prepare hipiself to the battle? 
^^SQ likewise you, except ye uttar by die <kongue 
'^ wqrdfi easy to be understood, how.idiatU it he 
^ known ivrfaat is spoken P for ye sliaU speak into 
^ the air....therefore if I know not the meaniiig of 
^^ the vcnce, I ^all be unto him that i^afceth a 
^' barbarian ; and he that speakejth shall be a b.arbai- 
^ rian ustto nie....Wheiefore let hitn who ^eaketh 
^ in an unknown tongue, pray that he may tnt^r- 
.^^ pret. For if I pray in an unknown t4>ngue, my 
^ spirit pcayethp but my underst^inding is unfruit- 
^ ful....£l8e when thou dialt bless with the spirit, 
^ How shall he that oceupieth the no^ of the y n- 
Vol.. IV, H b " learned 


: '* letmed say Anneo at tby giving thank v teeing be 
/* nnderstandeth not what thou sayest?"' > 

Since ikre mu^t^speak out, though we had not the 
l^ample of St. JPaul, th$ u^e of the Latin tongue, 
like the ceHbacy of the Clergy ; is an effect of the 
policy of modern Rome, to subjf^ct the nations to 
her empire. By pn^Iuding priests from bavitig wives 
and children, she detached them from family and 
country, and attached them proportionally to tlie 
aggrandizement of her own power, by '. inspiring 
them with aa exclusive affection for her service. Con- 
quering Princes exact similar sacriBces from their 
soldiers ; they permit them not to marry. On the 
other hand, Rome, reserving to Priests alone the 
knowledge of the sacerdotal language, subjected by 
means of it^ the People who comprehended it not, 
to a blind obedience : it is thus that t^e despots of 
the East, employ, in the execution of their com* 
mands, eunuchs and mutes. 

. It is nevertheless very much the interest of the 
Romish Church to propagate religion in all the dia- 
lects of the world. Religions are diffused only by 
languagesi ; our nurses are our first apostles, and 
among most nations, women have been the first mis- 
.sionaries. :: I shall make on this subject; an observa- 
tion of. considerable importance: it is this, that in 
every country religions have shared tlje fate of the 
languages in which they originated, -- The first re- 
ligion of the; Romans perished with the Tuscan dia- 
lect which gave it birth. That of the God Lama, 
JnTartary, overspread the Chinese Empire with the 
7artar% who introduced their language on eflfect- 
)ng the Oonquest of it Judaism remained long shut 

WtSH«S OF A RECLUSE. -: ' ■ 4ff7 

up among the Hebrews ' alone, because. they had 
little communication with other nation^. iBut whep 
Christianity was preached to them,' it penetrated 
with them southw^ into Africa, and there forni- 
ed a religion mixed w%h Judaism, as we see to tfa|s 
day in Ethiopia. When aftei^ward it was announcol 
toward the East, to the Greeks, it extended ^• 
cessively, with thebroken remains of their languiage, 
over the Greeks of the Arcbipetago, among thie 
Greeks properly so called, and to Gonstanlinople^; 
to Moldavia, Russia, part of Poland, fi£nd to all the 
countries where the Sclavontan language is spoken, 
which is derived from the Greek; Wl>en it was 
preached to the Romans, it 'spread to the W^eit 
among the Nations which spake languages derived 
from the Latin tongue, such as the Itali£ins, Spa?- 
niard$, Portugueze and French. Finally, having 
penetrated uortliward among the nations who speak 
'dhe Celtic language, it settled with that tongue 
among those who use the different dialects of it, 
such as the Germans, the Swiss, the Dutch, th^,^^ 
Swedes, the Danes, the English. Thus, as there 
are three primitive languages in Europe, the Greek, 
the Latin and the Celtic, the Christian religioti is 
divided into three great churches, the Greek, the 
Boman, and the Dissident or Protestant, which may 
be denominated the Celtic. Each of them pro- 
duces different communions^ conformably to tlie 
differetit dialects of the mother- tongue : thus fl» 
Greek churph subdivided into^ the different patrU 
archates of Constanttnppte, of Russia, into ^Idro^ 
nite... ; the Latin, into Roman, into Gallican,lk€'. ; 
the Dissident or Celtic, into Lutheraiii Calvinist/ 
'■■ ■ i ' H h 2 Anglican 


AngUcaa, fee. This i$ to true« tliat among the pco- 
fit where them u a mixture of t«ro UagMagea^ there 
19 likeiriie m mixture of two coramunions. Thus 
in Pobod^ where the lasigugye is partly Gxeek, 
fta^if Latio, there is the Greek church and the 
L»tto church ; in Switwrlandp where the Itoguage 
is partly French^ partly German, there are Catholic 
^nd there are Protestant C^ntons^ There would 
have been, in all prohabilSty* a fourth Cbristiaii 
f^rch in Europe, namely the Hebiaic, hid the 
first Jews who embraced ChristisDity become ae- 
dentary ; but their eoQimercecarrying.tlieui towards 
Africa and Arabia, they there established, as I hai^e 
Midi the AbysMuian Christianity blended with Jxl- 
^aiim* and they probably gave birth to M«home- 
lianism^ which is well known to be a aiixtum of 
these two religions. Mahoaaetanism itself, spread" 
ing with the Arabic laoguage.aver the Arabians^ 
ihe Africans, th(^ Turks, the Persians and the lit- 
dians, subdivided into sevipral sects, following d^ 
dialects of that motber-tongae. 

Thus religions partake of the fiite of languages. 
J deduce from this iaaportant observation^ two conT 
ae<|tiences of equal importance; the first is, That a 
People <H>ght to apf^k the language of diair reii* 
fian in Oidjpr to be attached to It It is very re- 
markable thi^ $hp Katious who pray to God in their 
Attive languagj^, mdhpre to their religion much more 
ijrmly thjm those who do fiol;. Such ane the Jews, 
theArdbiaM, tb^Tit^rks; md in Europe, the Pro- 
te^tmt oomm^ions, an»tag whom tlitmore ^nikh 
fewer fenqeitloes tha« ttmong the CadJidios. It is 
]pe?c8sary therefore to. have tjbe Latui offices of our 


churclies -chanted in Fuench, that our people may 
be haniMmized with thair religion, and an unk>n es- 
tablished betvt^een the words and the feelings of be** 
lieir^Fd, as St. Paul recommended. 

As eveyy refofm ought to be made gradually,* 
tihere f[^ould be m0 gr^at harm in )>etnifiting, foi* 
some time, the^aervieeof the mass, and the religioas 
fttfietioiii which cousin mysteries, to subsist iit 
the saii^ei'dotal language ; but into the oth^r officer 
of the Qaltican char^h should be introduced not 
only the Fi^ench psatm^ but prayers and bymns^ 
which ought to have direct relations to the state 
of oiir owh country,' rather than to that of Jenis^ 
lem. It was by similar means that Missionaries^ 
and especially the Jesuits^ prpselyted so many sa*^ 
vage itTations t^ Popery. 

Thie secottdl coti6equetH5e resulting 4Vm} the fd-^ 
laliotis which thie religioh of every Nation has to 
it^^ langiii^ge^ rs, that all conimuiftjoi^ ought to W 
tolerated. ' To d«mn % nnin because he is not j» 
Catholic, iSio send him to hell becai^e he does hoGt 
speak one of the dialects of the Latiil tongue c km 
the otlier Ym4, to save onlf the Italians, t|ie Spa^ 
iiiardtf; the F^e^ch, woiM bp toopeb H^tardu onljt; 
to a Vei^ Itiltel nun^berof the ekct; whom prind«^ 
pal incttitf v^ hiivitig l^en bpra in a carusi* of £u4 
rope, AiAuehiAityilf i^uta small portiimof dbefilqb^ 
aftdiundeubt^ fkrdPnim herng the ssost inaOttiit 
pasrt of it It is aecandKngly to make the isalvatmL 
of meat « »a^r ^ geography^ m- ^ther of gian^ 
SMT. Jmim^^itiLisT didM^tfai%k "in this miamier, 
when kllcime to teoat |he Jewt first to the im^ 

H h S changeable 


changeable Law9 of Nature ; He discovered fto iii-^ 
tention to confide the Empire of conscience and of 
truth to one portion of the Earth, but to Heaven ; 
to no Man, but to GOD ; to nor artificial andoial 
language, but to that of the heart and of feeliAg. 
If Popes then mean to bring back the People, to^ 
GOD, it must be by calling tbena back toNfature, 
>^ithout violence, without trick, witboatioqiiisition: 
Let them practise, on th<5 great scalci the dignity* 
of virtue; let them employ the respect inspired by 
their high rank, their age,; the recollection of ancient 
Rpme^ once mistress of the tvprldi and especially the- 
sublime morality of the Gospel and of Religion ; let 
them stand forth and plead the cause Of the wretch^, 
onesof theEatth, by pronouncitig acurse on those, 
who reduce the Negroes to slavery ; on those who lay 
violet hftndls on the po^scBi^io^fi of the poor Indians ; 
on those who Kindle;war$ qf ambition, A%iK>troubie' 
tikt Nations by their abominable practicea : this lan^ 
gu^ei like that of the Gpspel^ wiU be understood- 
Ijy the whole uniyetae, and thg tiniverse.will then, 
he^Koman catholic. _ , .^ 

Tbere,isaiiotherlangiiage,.yl»ch iaDpoi?et;»tleaat 
as much .upoh ;the People as^ the I^ti^i^ Awdh y(Uch i 
is not much more intelligible, I me%n/^t ^f bells^ 
The ambitiott of: every iCor|)S eiwplqjSSr/WW.Jab- 
gnage& : tbe first spefik* to tlic 4'e% %**» (fftfce w- 
dtmd to the ear by iK>ises; : tthusi il ^et^^wte^ t^ 
t«w> principal- senses of the, soul, wbifibi)ug^ 
accessible only through the medi»in .of xfM^mcn 

,rl have seen in my younger tiay4J^,#ii|pQad«lin .th« : 
streetsdf Paris, over the sbpp*fef twdesmm, ||ftittte-..^ 

i' •• ^ . 'J ■ . I J •• cocks 

oo4k% »x feet high, pearh as large as; casks,^ 
plobms of feathers rising to the tbiriit flo6r; a glov^ 
whose fifigers resembled bratidhes cff ^^ees, i^ 
boot capable of holding several barrels ; a sMail^er 
vould have supposed our <:apital was inhabilAd by 
giants. Those enormous signs nevertllelesd only- 
announced sellers of dhildrens^ toys, of jcwelleff; 
o£ flnory ; glovers, shoe*i)9akers. At^ last^ as tfaegf! 
were cofisstmitly increasing in size, like ail the ath^ 
signs of ambition, the police ordered them to be isea 
duced to a reasonable magnitude, ai they intefs 
cepted the view of the houses, and beseause in n 
gale of wind they nnght be blown down and cni'slf 
the passengers. All this initmstrous es^ibit^otfl 
was a faithful representation 0!f ambitious coitipett^ 
tions; .when every one is eager to distinguish him-' 
self, no one beiiiomes distinguishable; and theii^ 
great general eflPotts frequently issue in th^^nnibi-. 
latxoh. of the individuaL .\..'.. 

The police reforms not the other languages 6§ 
ambition, because they do not affect the life of 
the Citizens : such are tlios^ which ofreljd biily by« 
their noise. The object of all ftmbitkriis.'persbliy 
being to attract the public att^ti%n, It is evidei* 
that the surest method of effecting •this^istainakU' 
a great deal of noise. Welaccordl ngty hear kl'the caps ^ 
tal of the kingdom, mo§t crsifts sttel^ihgl^^ashaW' 
bawl ihe loudest; AH oiir ambulatory deal^tslAyis^ 
their peculiar. cries*} ^ndiiPyoti'join tci^feheuninffeln 
ligible words, th^ shrill noMs of tDitkmiUld^, flkf 
hoarse voices and - cornels of 4vaier-p0rtefSi ' thtt 
oaths of carters, the s(}uallkig 6f .fii$h-W6ttien,'tli^ 
i-attling of chariots, coaches, cabriolets, on noisy 
H h 4 steel 


sieel apringa^ tM okckiog of the pAUty^post^ tJw 
drums of the g^utitds, &a Paris must pas» for the 
most tuAultuoits city In Durope. But aU thin 
]# iBfni oothitig cddipered to the fis^mg irf beUsu 
Tbci Mfibitidh ol* ptrkliea aad of coDventB hanw 
iMoa «oilfccbdiiig.who should have the largest and 
iMftt mitnirouo^ Theit are beHs which make 
mote Boisa alooe than 1(^000 citizens: and a» 
tfiere are ink Paris more than 900 belfrioi) woy one 
may judge vl»t a ftarful tumult these iiumumenta 
mia^ especialLy .Ota rejoicing dlySi It is aasursdi^ 
a aloastrraaa j^ractice, and to trhieh habit dotio 
fbttid reeoneite us^ to heal" hage churdfi-tow^ra 
^Mawitg aloadi and barbalrOus sounds issurng; 
from tbe temjpteb. of peace, even. in the tiight time. 
The b^Its ar6 seb a^ringing on thg eve of 6ar gieat: 
iijativals^ od the day itsdf, and thd day after, of 
pbfbh ehurehes, and evea of petty brodietliooda. 
As the nobe of bells is a cettatn method for an 
Obseuw tradeanms to attmct the noti^ o^ the 
^uai^tdr where he livcsy. he hss his marriage an-^ 
aouuoed by f he tolling of b^H (he baptism of fais 
^ildreo, hf/it espaciaUy tlie interment of hia tela- 
tioasi on tl^t eve ol* the f uDf i^l^ on the day of tt^ 
and th^ last day of the year. N^y he fouaida abi^ 
taajfj apn4ertc^ ^ thfs kind of musip, abd' has hia 
^jqatbt kaoUed to pei^tutty* . Ift a word^ if he ia 
fich^ ha ^c^ls his siting doiv^i. to dinber and sup-* 
per^ for ev«ery lidtel too hsls ijt's, beM. All them 
sptmds tender us the mot»t i^Hy p<opk in EuMpe^ 
9pi| coaftequently .^ha va^isest; f^ if it be tfie prin*^ 
cifial ot^ecir of aanbition to xtmlsc a nois^^ si»so 
likewise has for it's object^ to impik^ ambition* 

We see tlieptoof ofthis in tbeidrumt «id tniM^ 
pets h^ which not men only; hot die veiy faonet 
ar« incited to tlie fight* Accordingly the irtt 
play-thing which mothers with us g;iv« to Utii^ 
little boys is a drum. It is in truth the iirs< ^ 
stmmetit of tfarmott glorions of all aurbitiotis, 
tiiaiof killtn^ men : and if they do not pve Aetn 
hells instted of the other toy^ it is because their 
their tohnd is niot mHitaty. 

I could wish therefoiv that the irnmber, thecliieei 
and the )>eals of molt belli might be dhbimshed^' 
and that die Clergy should make the People cow^ 
pfehend that tb^ have nothiag to do witbnsli- 
gion, even tffter tbqr hav^ been baptiied : they ate 
freqoeady the^ monumentiy not o^ the piety of the 
donors^ but of their amlstioii, as is evident froM 
the coati' of artns impressed on them; The Apos^ 
ties never saw sach a thing. They come txi ns 
from India and from China, as well as. many ocher 
inventions which we have adopted Irom idoktnHM 
nations, and mnltiplied to ekceil. TheTm^kfi^ tM 
Peisiansi the Arabiiana^ far from nsitig them them-* 
selves have forbidden the nse of them to C%irilti|lM 
residilig im their States ; they consider them ai u- 
stnkments of idolatry. Iliey believe diat the hit^ 
man voice alone is worthy to sing the praisee ^ 
God. Among them it is the voke of the MttSse^ 
lima which from the summit of dieir rndsques oaM 
the. People together to prayer. Bells are not mn 
eessary to nnite mankind. " They meet wtthoue 
any summons of this land at the TheHtms^at ilit 
Courts of Justice, in the National AsstBoMif. 1% 
YirotUd be to the purpose therefore t^rrestfekt tlM 


474 8£aU£I. TO.VB£ STaDIES 09 mAtVlit. 

vm of bdUs Ur the anmouncihg^ the hours? of th^ 
day and the pubKc offices* The ringing of pealar 
if^ I admit, an! abuse lucrative to* churches, but & 
qUi^ancc to the. living, arid unprofitable to the 
dead- . • * • ' . 

I4t ds in every thin^ drair ni^ to Nature* 
She enoptoys shrill soiindis !and tumultuous noises 
only to Mtnounce tempests. She introdoceis tfali' 
storm by the rolling of the * thunder s and winter 
Vy the howling of the winds : but slie announces 
'f^r weather, and thecetbrd of Sprb^^ by die sihg-^ 
ing of birds^ Let us' imitate lier in our Cities^ 
Their shrill, hoarse,, threattnirig accents, the noisy 
founds of: drums and bells, »at lei^thsitun die ears^ 
and ^xaii^rate the spirits of the quiet inKabitantt* 
Itt us. replace them by^ sounds adapted to. eter^ 
state; Each of them ought to make a provision 
for the demands of societjr : Let them announce 
themselves then by songs and melodious notes^ 
and we $hall insensibly perceive the organs and 
the characters of the tnhabitatits softened down 
every day will become a festival in the cities, as it 
4^a^t to jbe in the midst of our jplaini^. 

tit is unnecessary here to repeat tliat the Muni- 
cipalitie% especially of. Paris, whos^ example they 
follow, should cause pavements for foot passongeiB 
to be. laid, privies fw the accoiilmodaUon of the 
public to be constructed, the laystals of the envi* 
jQUs to be covered with earth, 'to give to the 
)»pujie$ of the citi^ns dispositions agreeable and 
e<Jmfiiodtf>ui, ^9 have them built Vith stone, as a 
pteservative against fire. The new Cohstkuttoti 
Qills.thesi tci fuactions of a still higher order; 


a^ 2MfkQfini ^.pay at le96t »s inu«h uttie^tiimr 
to th& mor^l .as .the physical wzpts : of tb«| peq4ffs 
'!(lie pr^QCA^j fire^ the pubiiii^/festivtEils/ Fe^^y^ 
s^r^ ife^s^f^y^tpinanklnd/^ Nature basngt ^enx 
so ijaifich ca^^ to decorajte t^^e earth yitbjverd^rf^i: 
Yith &QWV$j with petfatfiesj ; with siagifqg l^i«t 
and to vary the so^Mry! wth forests, mei|dQ.\iis»i 
mountams, rivers whiqh &he etry d^y illumiiies wilh/ 
Uie fires of a new Aurora and of a new setting Smo, ^ 
but in the view of making this Globe the reatdetioc 
perpetual festivity. The beneficent potnp of N»^? 
ture invites man to the; love of his fellow credture^ « 
and of the Divinity- . T|ie People is deprived of i 
this in Cities^ where no rtfclreatiun from kbwir b. 
to be found except religious exhibitions^ fi'equent* 
ly instituted for stra^igetS) larded wi|;h cerectonmi 
tptally . unknown^ ;and .whi.c^h the genet'aUt^f ; n^ t 
more comprehend than the language in which, 
they .address themsf lyes ;to God. If the M^inipi-. 
pfiHties, sometimes tr^a,t| tlitetm with patriotic re- 
jqieing days^ it if on soone murderous oQ(^io|i;T 
when the. thunder f>f 3rtilh;ry summons tl^m to.a 
4ispli*y,of artiflciialjfire.wpfks, .which <ire very ex-. 
pQCtsive, ¥ihi^ last only for amoment, ai^ which., 
.must be vjewed at a distance. * 

JRe6ti]^a)s ^re in the voyage of life, what j^lamisi 
ajf.i|) J^le.bospmi ofvtbs qceap, places of it^/Dej^:^: 
meot and repose. Even the most mystcinpdB h^vCi 
so nmch j>owerj aver ^ the ^ minds of the Peopte^ 
fpm tfa|eirf9i^Q and their pfocessionsi.thattl^y nK)jfn 
be ooi^dered as the |>rincipal means whjch i^t ; 
tract savage nations to the Catholic religion,^ aa4> 
whicli support it among the civilised* What^ 


4KV SEQUEL ttf rat ntVMnOf ITATOftE. 

iraidd i« be wete A tMmX hlin^ed with ^eif p%y^ 
iictl expf^esfiioR ! The Muntci]^aditie» dn^t there* 
fefe 40 66tablifl}i patrietie feaste te Utttch Cil&en^ 
|o «^ Giditstittttfoii. A Sublime essajr hM bees 
made to* tbis effect }d the Field of Mara, ^eftmni* 
nated at that era the Field of Confederation ; imt 
It was a military ^stival m^rely^ bardlj any thhig 
ym to be seen m it bnt itieti in unifbrns. Th^ 
patviotte altar ought to be encompassed with ar 
cral and religious pomp and splendour^ and with 
the national guards i^iould be intermixed chqics 
of yofiiigf women and of boys crowned with flow* 
er% chanting alt^matety, to the masic of flutes 
and hautboysi French hymns similar to the Car^ 
men S^aUbt^e of Horace. In a word, those public 
fcftivab ought to be presided over, aa their tta* 
taval ponttfTs, by the chief men in Ad«yitni#tr«tion, 
bating the King at their head: thus th€ Priest- 
hood will be restored to it's primitive dignity. 

-Tb* Field of Confederation may be rendered for . 
this purpose a spot of dignified importance, by . 
snrroundmg it, like a Roman Circus, with stone 
benches, and tlie statues of our illu^trions men, 
and by todging tile National Assembly itf the Mi- . 
litary-School which terminates it at one of it's eit- 
tretnitiesi But however vast it may be^ I think 
it mucit too small ibr giving' festivals to ^ ^Ve^ 
pte of Paris. 

1 have to pmpose a space much more capacrous, 
more wittim reach, and the architectote of wfeifcfc is 
already completed; There b no one square in Paris 
capable of containing so much as the tentb part 
of her poptrlation; and on the supposition that it' 


were possible to osiembie liie wbok m wotm :«d]a* 
cent plain, such as that of Sablons, it would ev«r 
be an insuonoontable obntade to this tmi^ersal 
assemblage, that the distauioc of the greater pMxt 
pf the iifthabitaitts from their own home, wcaaid be 
ffi.r too r^ote. Paris nearly a league and a baif 
in dian^eten Add to that distance; ^faich nntst 
lie ti^p^ on foot, in the beat of th^^rnn, by oioet 
of the jroffien ^ml children in <x)iiiing apd goins, 
a, cireainstaoce which iarroivi^ in Park, l3ie neces<- 
sity of interrupting the circuiytion of carmges and 
of people on borsebach, the confasion inseparable 
from great muhitodes ni^tiich, ooUected in a single 
snass, bears always hea?y on their autre. 

In order to assendDleoGonmbdiosisiy theBsop^e of 
Paris, they must noti>e)(7itfadnair»toaiiy consideiu 
aUe distance &om the City ; and as ao 0nc place 
in it cancohtain the whole, lostec^iof attracting 
them fh:pi the sdtmrbs toward a eammm ^ceatse; 
it arould be proper, on the contrary, to Ara v, thtm 
from the centre to the mbuibs. AccorAagiy, in 
piace aficativ(b4oiRg tliem, as ander the old Oovem* 
meiit, to t!hat niiserable small Place tk la iGht»e, 
destined to executioDS, which have beeii tfbr 10 
ftiany ^ges polluting the Haiel xk Viik^ they aunt 
a eet ba the Boukvari^ Tber^e tiiey sriil iod a 
spacious walk several kagiaes en lengtti, shaded bjr 
£our rows of trees, without neekoaing those 9%ici| 
are planted on the outside of thfe sraliii; .fteh 
Bpuvdard is within reach of thie Snhahitaats of 
k's own quarter ; and each iahabimot ^im k ia fab 
pmver to maAce tlie tour, on foo^ on JTaraeback, at 
psk a oaiTftage) of tfasft ir^uc f ijrri^lpr isj^ane ysritieh^aaf 



Compim» . Pftris^ enjoyiog at once the city and 
the country, as soon as the walls are levelled which 
intercept the v«iw of it. There restilts from this 
rchoice of situation i^omfi other very considerable 
advantages : suoh as our being able to employ the 
superb buildings of the bdrriers, constructed in 
&rm of rotundos, of colossal columns, of pantbe* 
jona, of Egyptian temples, formerly ajppropriated 
as lodgii^ houses for. the Clerk of the Exchequer, 
to serve in future z% monuments of the great men 
Iivhohavedeserved well of their Country. Their 
fttatnes might be placed between the columns or 
upon tlie entablature of those edifices at the same 
barriers where the roads terminate which lead to 
the plot inces from which such great men originally 
came. Their august images might be made to face 
toward those same provinces, as if they were in*r 
viting the People of the country to the capital to 
take an interest in the inhabitants of the provinces. 
JEach of iihese monuments might be demoted as a 
place of transient hospitality to poor travellers. 
1 htik we should read, on large tablets of stone, 
inacriptions eeUtive to the great men who attained 
the. ranki of tutelary deities from the services 
which they rendered to the unfortunate. On pa-^ 
tribtic feast days, they might be decorated with 
garlands of foliage and flowers ; there it would be 
|>rq>er to make distributions of provision among 
tJse people, and at night they might be illumiiiated 
with rows of lamps. \ Those temples of hospitality, 
of an antique, archxtecturei linked together by a 
tdpli avenue of trecsin irerdurey. filled with a peo* 
people free and happy; woidd form around Parts a 
. V '; crq^n 

-CTtywn of felicity and- glorv w^iob vTMld iQiidbr 
ther the capital of the Nation^. \ < - . -^ 

The Constituent Assenobly decreed tliattbe nMr 
•church of Sainte-Genevieyeshoukl serve asa re- 
' ceptacle for the remaiqs of the gceat men who shafll 
' have merited well of the Nation, As these* Illus- 
trious Citizens are frequently of different cimintt- 
-nions which excommunicate' eacb bther^ it lias 
been deemed proper, that tber^ may be no discord 
among them at least after death, to admit no khid 
of religious worship in the temple where Aeir 
ashes repose. An interesting memoir has appeared 
on this subject^ in which it is proposed to dedicate 
the Altar of that church to the Countey, and 
there to administer the oaths of ofi^ce to Magi- 
strates. Biit where are the virtues which can rest 
on any other foundation than the Supreme Being 
who bestows them, and who alone can suitably re- 
ward them? 

I could wish then that this monument might 
be consecrated to Deity by these words: To 
God, the Father of all Men. Tlie memoir 
to which I have referred, observes that sculpture 
ought to be employed in figurative representations^ 
at the extremipes of the nave^ of four religions, 
^he Jewish, the Greek, the Roman and .the Gat- 
lician. I know not what train of reflection cof^d 
have suggested the symbols of four religions ge- 
nerated the one from the other, which hate and 
persecute each other. It seems to me much more 
conformable to the design, to introduce the primi- 
tive or patriarchial religion, from which all the 
fcst have emanated, and to constitute the first 


M$p$tinkn, the pontiflfo of it IVn wQknt wor- 
Alp, simple and dififowd over tlii^ whol^ earth, 
vwild a^pt itaclf to the great mfn of every com- 
nunion, M they mu§t derive their greatoe^a eu* 
tirely fwm the Mrvicn they have rendered to maa- 
kind. It is the only one which unites men of «ll 
feligionsy for there is im> one but what ^mits 
DxiTT aa it's principle md as it's end. The dead 
mmld thus convey kssons <^ toleration to the 

I etamot terminate this article better, than by 
fttlgeiniQg an oriental anecdote, much calculated 
4oiiuq[»ii« all mexi with muliual religious tokratipn. 






Vol. IV. 


C 483 3 





A^TSorat was a Caflfee-hou&e, the gener4 ren- 
dezvous of strangers after dinner* Qoe afternoon 
stepped in a Persian Seydre, or Doctor of the LaVt 
who had been writing all his life on Theological 
subjects, and who no longer believed in a GOD. 
" What is that you call GOD/' said he? ^'.Whence 
*' comes he? Who made him? Where is he? If he 
^* were a body, he would be visible : w«e he a t^ 
*' jit, he would be intelligent and just j he wo^ld 
** not permit so many buma.n bdngs to be j^niser^ 
** gJble, J myself, after having laboured so long 
" in his service, ought to havrbeen High-Spriest of 
^* Ispahan, instead of beiog forced to. iice fosom 
** Persia, after all my exertions. to enlighten man* 
*'kind. There is no GOD." Thus *he Doctor, 
misled by ambition, by dint of reasoning on the 
fust reason of all thin^, bad at length lost his own^ 
^nd imagined, not that it was his owu i^lligenoe 
which no longer >e^isted, l^ut Xh^ ^j^itelligenoe 
which governs the Universe, Hehadfor a sla;ve a 
cafre almost iiajced, whom he left at the door 
of the CofFee-housa For himself, he went and 
atretched Im limbs, .on A.3qfa, a^ took a cup of 
coquenaa- pr opium. As soon ?is the fwpes of this 
beverage.began to mouq t to hia brftin^ he addresy- 
^d hims^^tp his slay^, who was sitting qn a stonQ 

lis in 



in the Sun, driving away the flies which sucjEIed 
his blood, in these terms: " Miserable black ! Be- 
'' lievest thou there is a GOD?" " Who can doubt 
" it?" replied the Cafre, and as he spake pulled out 
from a shred of pagne which girded his loins, a 
little marmouset of wood, and said: "Behold the 
** GOD who has protected me ever since I came 
" into the world; he is made of a branch of the 
" Feticha-tr^e of my country .•* All the company 
in the coffee-room were no less surprized at the 
slave's answer than at his master's question. 
^ On this a Bramin, shrugging up his shoulders, 
said to the Negro : " Poor ideot? What, carry thy 
" GOD in thy girdle! Know that there is no other 
" GOD but Brama, who created the Wdrld, and 
wiosc temples are on the banks of the Ganges. 
*' The Bramins are his only priests, and it is under his 
** special protection that they subsist for a hundred 
^^ and twenty thousand years past, in defiance of all 
" the Revolutions which India has yndergone." 
A Jew broker immediately took him up, saying; 
^ How can the Bramins believe that GOD hais tern- 
" pies only in India, and that he exists for their 
<* caste only? There is no GOD but the GOD of 
'* Ahrahaniy and He has no othef People but that 
*• of Israel. He preserves them, though dispersed 
'* over the whole Earth, till he shall gather them 
*• together again at Jerusalem, to give them the 
'' Empire of the Nations, when they shall have 
♦* there rebuilt his Temple, forincrly the wonder df 
" the Universe.'' As he pronounced these v^ords,. 
tears started to the Israelites eyes. H^ was going 
to resume his speech,' when an Italian in a blue robe 



interrupted him in great heat : . '^ You make GOD 
** unjust,'' said he, " in pretending that he loves 
" only the people of Israel.. He had rejected them 
" for more than seventeen hundred years past, as 
^^ is evident from their very dispersion. He is liow 
" calling all men into the Roman- catholic Churchy 
". beyond the pale of which there can be no salj- 
" vation." A Protestant Minister of the Danish 
Mission at Trinquebar, growing pale as aslies, re- 
-plied to the Popish Missionary : " Hbw dare you 
" limit the salvation of mankind to your idolatrous 
^^ communion ; Learn that none can be saved but 
" those who, conformably to the Gospel, worship 
** GOD in. spirit and in truth, under the Lawof Je- 
**'sus Chuist." Upon this a Turk, an Officer of 
the Customs at Surat, who was. smoking his pipe^ 
3aid with' a grave air to the two Christians : " Fa- 
" thers, how can you confine the knowledge of 
" GOD to your Churches? The Law of Jf^us has 
" been a^lished ever since Mahomet appeared, the 
" paraclet predicted by ^bsus Christ himself the 
" word of GOD. Your -religion no longer sub* , 
" sists except in a few^Kingdoms, and upon it's 
5* i:uins ours has extended itself over the finest 
*' Province^ of Europe, of Africa, of Asia, and her 
^' Islands. It is at this day ^ated on the Thpone of 
"the Great Mogul.,, and is penetrating into China, 
*' th^t enlightened country. You yoursdv^s di5- 
" cern the .rejection of the Jews, in their present 
'^ state of humiliation ; acknowtedge then the mis- 
*' 3ion of the Prophet in his triumphs. The fbl- 
*Mowers of Alakotnet and of Own/; alone can be 
^aaved; for the <lisciples of ^/i .are in^fidds." 
i. lis At 


At these Weirds, the Scjrdre, who was of Persia, 
where the people arc of the sect of AH, began to 
smik; but a tumult aroate in the Coffee-house, from 
the variety of strangers assembled, who were of sts 
many different religions ; and among the rest Abys- 
sinian Christians, Cophts, Tartarian-Lamas, Ara- 
bian Ishmaelites, and Guebres, or worshippers of 
fire. All these disputed on the Nature of GOD; 
and on the worship he required, every <uie main- 
taining that the true religion existed no where but 
in his owii country. 

There was in the Coffee-liouse a man of letters 
from China, a disciple of Cmfucm, who was tra- 
velling for his improvement He sat in a cornei* 
of the room, drinking tea, and listening to all that 
was said without speaking a word. The Turkish 
Custom-lKmse Officer turning to him^ cried aloud : 
" My good Chinese, who remainest silent^ you 
** know that many religions have made tlieir way 
" into China. The merchants of ypnr countiy who 
*^ had occasion here for my services have told me 
•* so, and ass(tired me that the Religion of Mahomet 
** is the best. Like themdo justice to' the tnith : 
•• what is your opinion of GOD, and of the Reli- 
" gioh of his Prophet ?" This produced a profound 
silence in the Coffee-room. The disciple of Ctm- 
fucius, drawing back his hand into the large sleeve 
of his robe, and crosi^ng tliem on his breast, re- 
hired into himself, and in a gentle and deliberate 
accent thus spake: , 

• " Gentlemen, if I may be permitted to say so, it 
«* is ambition which in every case hinders men to 
" agree: if you will give me a patient hcaringjf 

" shall 

<tH£ COFTEZ-aauaE OF SURA'S. . 4S7 

^' shall produce an instance of^ which i$ still fresh 
•f in my mexaory. When I left China, on my voy- 
" age to Surat, I embarked on bo»rd ian English 
^^ ship which had »ailed routi4 the world. On out 
*^ passage, we cast aqehor on the eastern Coast of 
** Sumatra. Towards nopn, having gone ashore td 
*^ company with several persons belonging to the 
*' vessel, ve went and sat down on the shore of the 
*^ sea, near a little village, nnder the shade of some 
'^ codba-trees, where men of different countries 
*^ weiie enjoying theit repose. A blind man came and 
^'joined the company : he bad lost his sight by toa 
<< close a contemplation of tlie Sub. He had been 
♦* actuated by the wild ambition of comprehending 
** the nature of that luminary, in order to appro- 
f' ptiate his light to himself. He had tried all the 
^ methods which optics, chemistry, and even ne- 
^ CFimiancy can supply^ to shut up one of his rayii 
'^ in a liottle ; not being able to succeed, he said : 
** The light of t/te Sun is mri aftuid, for it cannot be 
^* agitatid iy th€ wind; it i> not a soRd, for the 
** parts of it cannot be stparated; it is notfire^ for 
^' it is not estinf[uishable in water; it is not a 
^f spirUy as it is visible: it is not a body ^ for we can-^ 
" not handk it; it is not even a moving power^ for 
•* it agitates not the lightest bodies : it is thertfore 
*^ nothing at alt. Finally, by persevering efforts, 
^* in contemplating the Sun, and reasoning on his 
*' light, he at length lost his eye-sight, and what 
^* is worse, his reason. He believed that it was 
^ not hia vision, but the Sun which had no exist- 
♦* ence in the Universe. He had a negro to lead 
^^ him about, who having seated his master under 
, ' ' Ii4 "the 


*i the shade of a cocoa-trcc, pickied up one of 

V it's nuts that lay . on the ground, and set 
^habout making a lamp of the shell, a wick of the 
'^ outer husk, and squeexed a little oil from the 
*\ kernel to put into his lamp. While the black 
^^man was thus employing himself, his blind mas- 
^* ter said to him with a sigh : Is there then no suck 
" thhig as light iri the world? Yesy that of the Sun, 
*^ replied the Negro. JVhat is: it you call the Sun, 

V resumed the blind man? / cannot tell, answered 
" the J^frican, all I knofo is, that his rising is the 

V commencement of .my labpurs, and his setting ter- 
" nunatian of them. Bis light interests me less than 
" that of m^ lamp which illumnatcs my cottage; with 
" out it I should not be able to serve you during the 
" ^ght* Then, holding out his little. cacoaHsbell, 
i* said : There is my Sun. At this part of the cour 
^* versation a man of the village, who walked on 
*^ crutches, fell a laughing ; and believing that the 
'^ blind man had been so from his birth, said to 
^' him: Know that the Sun is a globe of jire which 
," rises eoerydayout of the, Ocean, and. sets ecery 
^•* night toward ths fVest, in the mountains ^f Suma- 
" tra. - You would see this* ywrself, as we. all do, 
^^ bad you tfys blessing of sight Hei-e^t fisherman 
" interposed, .and said to the. cripple.: It is easy to 
^^ percdve that you have never travelled Jar beyond 
" the limits of your village. If you, had legs, 
^\afid could ^ape made; ^ the toi^r of Sunuitr^ you 
" mt^ have known t fiat, .the Sun dpcfr^ot^set.inifs 
*^ mountains:, butjie issus every jnorning out \of the 
** SeOf and dij>sJnfo it again pvery .evening fp cool 
^\himself^t^i^,^is\^^hat I se^ cp^y -dci^ai^/igi the 
" coasts of the island.'' *' An inhabitant of the 

" Peninsula 


!* Peninsula of India then «aid to the fishcntiati? 
'^ How is it possible fot a man of common sense to* 
*' belfeve that the Sun is a globe of fire, and fliat 
" he; every day issues from the 0<jean, and plunges' 
" into it at night without extinguishing bim- 
" setf ? Learn then that the Sun is a Denta or 
*^ Divinity of my Country, that he rides every day* 
" through the Heavens in a chariot, turning round 
" the goldoi mountain of Merowa ; that when he 
" iindergoes an eclipse, it is owing to his being 
" swallowed up by the serpents Bagon and K^tou/ 
*' from which ,he is delivered only by the prayers 
^* of the Indians on the banks of the Ganges. It 
** is a very ridiculous ambition for an inhabitant 
" of Suniatra to pretend that .he shines only on 
" the horizon of his Island ; it could have enteped 
^ into the head only of a man whose navigation 
*^ has been limited to the paddling of a canoe.'* 
" A Lascar, the master of a trading vessel tfeat 
" lay at anchor, then spoke to this purpose: 
"It is an ambition still more ridiculous to ima-, 
" gine, that the Sun prefers India to all- coun- 
** tries of the world. I have navigated through 
" the Red Sea, along the coasts of Arabia, to 
**- Madagascar, to the Moluccas, and to the PhiUip- 
** piiie Islands;. the Sun enlightens all those. coun- 
** tries as well as India,' He does not tiiiii tffund 
"a mountain; but rises ife'the Islands <)f' Japani 
'*. which are for 'that reSson called Jepon br'Ge- 
*■ pueo, birth of the Sun, and he s6ts very fat-^to 
*' the West, behind the Rlands of EnglantF/ tim 
** very sure of it, for I have heard it ^cUtei* 'by 
^ my grandfather, when I wate a .child,-in<^ht*4fecf 
" jMuI^d to the very extremities of the Ocean. He 

*' wa$ 


^* was going to proceed, vfhtn an English seaniatt 
^ of our ship's company interrupted him thus :^ 
^ There is no country where the course of the Sun 
'Ms better known than in England: b^ assured 
'* then that he no where rises or sets.* He is inces- 
^* santly making the circuit of the Glt^fae; and I 
'* am perfectly sure of it, for we have just perfonn- 
^* ed the same round,, and met him wherever wer 
*' went" '^ Then taking a ratan from the hand 
** of one of his auditors, he traced a circle on the 
** sandy ^deavouring to eicplain to them the course 
" of the Sun from tropic to tropic; but not being 
** able to make it out, he appealed to the testi- 
** TOony of the pilot of his ship, for the truth of 
*• every thing he would have said. This fukxt wos 
^ a wise man, who h^d heaird the wbole.diapute 
*^ without interposing a single word; hut when he 
^ perceived that all the company kept silenee to 
''hear him, he spoke to this effect: */ Each of 
" you is trying to mislead others, and is himself 
'* misled. The Sun does not turn round the Earth, 
" it is the Earth which turns round him, present-* 
'* ing i|i succession, every twenty-four hours, the 
'^ Islands of Japan, the Phillipines, the Moluccas^ 
'^ 3ilp)atra, Africa, Europe, England^ and a great 
" m^y other countries. The Sun shines not for 
^ 99^ Moufitain only, one Island, oneHorison, one 
"Sea, noF even for one Glohe; bijt he is at the 
" x:^i^tre <;^f the Universe, fr<Hn. whence he illumi* 
"in^tes^ J^gpther ^itU tlje Earth, five other Pla- 
*'o|iets ^Ij^idi iikei^ise revolve around him, and of 
V w^ioh i?9ine ait? piu^h greater .tha» our Globe^ 
^ Wd aft much ^rejitejr diit^ftee than it is from: 


<^ the Sun, Such is, among others^ SatutH, of 
<^ 30,000 leagues Uiameter, mid at the dUtnace of 
*f £85,000,000 of leagues if Om the Sun; I «iy no- 
^* thing of the Mojms which reflect on Planets re- 
" mote from the Suu his Ught, and are not few ia 
" number. Every one of yoa would have an idea 
" of these truths, if he only turned his eyes in the 
'' night towards the Heavens, and if he had not the 
^^ ambition of believing that the Sun shines for his 
" own Country only." " Thus spake, to the great 
^' astonishment of his bearers, the pilot who had 
" steered a ship round the World, and observed 
" the starry Heavens." 

*' It is equally true of GOD, continued the dts- 
" ciple of Confucius^ as of the Sun: every maa be- 
** lieves he possesses him exclusively, in his own 
** Chapel, or at least in his own Country, The Peo- 
" pie of every Nation believe they have enclosed in 
^' their temples Him whom the visible Universe 
^' cannot contain. Is there, however, a Temple 
^' once to be compared with that which GOD faim<- 
^ self has reared for collecting all mankind into 
'^ one and the same communion? All temples in 
*^ the World are made only in imitaticna of that pf 
" Nature. We find in most of them lavers, holy- 
*^ water-cisterns, columns, arches, lampSi statiiiq^f 
^^ inscriptions, books of the law, sacrifices, ^Itar^* 
" and priests. B^t what Temple q^fains s^ qisAeca 
*^ so vast as the Ocean, which 19 noit ^ ^ CQ^tr^^- 
*'eki to a shell? Where do we ^4 floliimn^ so 
^' beautiful as the trees of the. forest, w those of 
'^ the oTQhord loaded with ffuits? Wheve act arch, 
^' so lofty as the vault of Hcyiven^ a«d aJ|?a^p »^ 
'' Mgfat as the Sun? Where shall we behold statues 



** SO interesting as a multitude of human beings 
'* who love each other^ assist each other, talk one 
" to another? Where inscriptions so intelligible, 
***and more religious than the bounties of Nature 
•* herself? A book of the Law so universal as the 
" love of GOD founded on a sense of gratitude, 
** and as the love of our fellow-creatures founded 
**onour own interest? What sacrifices more af- 
** fecting than those of our praises to Him who 
" has given us all things, and of our passions, for 
** the sake of those with whom we are ^bound to 
" share all that we liave ? Where, finally, shall we 
*' look for an altar so sacred as the heart of the 
** good man, whose High-Priest is GOD himself? 
** Thus, the farther that man extends the power 
** of Deity, the more nearly will he approach to the 
" knowledge of Him ; and the greater indulgence 
** he shews to men, the more closely will he imitate 
** tlie Divine goodness. Let him therefore who 
** enjoys the light of GOD diffused over the whole 
**^ Universe, beware of despising the poor supersti- 
" tious creature, who perceives only a little ray of 
** it in his idol ; or even the Atheist who is' totally 
*• destitute of it, lest, as a punishment of bis pride, 
** he should be made to partake of the fate of that 
•^ Philosopher, who, attempting to appropriate to 
*^ himself the light of iht Sun, became blind, and 
'^ felt himself reduced, in order to find his way,lo 
^* employ the lamp of a Negro.'* 
' Thus spake the disciple of Ow/l/aW, ami all ibe 
company in the Coffee-house who had befen con- 
tCTrdfng'f(>r4heexcdleiicy 6f their several Religi- 
oiis^ iffain tamed a- f^pofmrnd' silence. 


* 1^ 




I ■ 




[ 495 1 




ll.£!Ei)El is a little Indian ^ale wliich contain! 
more truths thm many volumes of History. I 
first intended it as a Supplement to the relation <)f 
^ Voyage to the Isle of France, published in 1/73, 
and whiph I propose to have reprinted with addi- 
tions. As I speak there of the Indians which aif 
pn tliat Island, I had formerly the design of an- 
jiexing to it a. picture of the manners of those or 
India, irom notes abimdantly interesting which I 
had procured for the purpose, I had therfefofij 
wprl^ed them into an Episode, interwoven with at| 
hiittoria4 Anecdote, which forms the <K}mnienoe«- 
ttlent of It 'Jliis took it's rise from an association of 
English Jiterati, «e|it, about thirty jrears ago, tQ 
different parts of the Wixrld, ta coUoct information 
respectihg various obj^itts of Sciende, I have v^etx^ 
tioned one of them ii^ particular who capie to In^ 
ciia to posecute th^ research of truth ; but as |2iat 
|lpisod(^ fdrtn^sd a digression too disproportjonate 
to the size of my Work, I thought proper to. toubn 
)i»h it separately. 
I sotprtnly declare th*t I Wver fiifRtit to <brav(r 



ridicule on Academies, though I h^ve much reason 
to complain of them, not for any p^jrsonal offence 
given me, but from regard to the 4i»tf vests of truth*, 
which they frequently persecute when it hap- 


* Science, that Common of the haman understanding) U likewue sub* 
jqgated to, .ilfs arktocracies; tliese ave the Academies. Of -ttfts a Judg- 
ment may be formed from the conduct of one of their principal members, 
relatively to* my Theory of the Tides. 

He began by. ruooing it down with all his eloquence in private cirdfeff 
he prohibited the Journals over which the Academies extend their influ* 
«nce, at least those of most diffusive circtihitiony to admit of any ex- 
tracts from it: He has dten amused lltaself,^ I have been told, in 
lus confidential parties, ydth raisine a .Ufigh at my Ci^stian namea 
^ prefixed to my Studies of Nature, because I have not the ho- 
nour which he enjoys, of subjoining te my family name, a long list of 
academic titles. As, \ri the time^ old Gopwroment, hi^ name 
figured in eviery .new».j^f|^r, and; .hisr^^son ^ every ygijeat man's ante- 
^charober, it was easy for, him tp treat, as he nleased a Jtecluse entirely 
devoted to tlie Study of Nature; but fudging, since the Revolution, that 
^1 his supports of credit might i^c^mge^ fi^yMMrmatual aid, and find* 
ing my labours, notwithstanding all the obstacles wliich he could throvr 
in the way, gradually rising in public estimation, he thought proper to 
alter liis conduct with respect to me. He came to pay me a visit last 
-Summer in the couhtry, whillier I had gotie to pass a Miv'days. ' 'Be had 
previouusiy circulated a report over the n^ighlp^urhood, th^| "^^ ^^^ of 
his good and aiTcient friends. The truth is that I had ^etf^r spoken to 
him, and that, with all his celebrity, Tdid not recollect somtch as ever 
liaving seed him. He camis to the house where I was, 8[ncl we had a 
privat^ oo|iversttion, h<im ipvhich I'.'^^llher^ l^tr^z)Qh/ever^ thing but 
what relates to my Theory of the Tides, the «acret object of his visit. 

After a* complimentary introduction ; *' It Is a great pity, Sir,^ 
^ saye lie, -^that you should hav^ ndvanced, in ybur Stadtes of Na^- 
^ ture^ that the fusion of tlie ^ Polar Ice^«'isi th^" ^ause of ^he Tides. 
^'Itis an opinion* not to be maiiitmned, costraryj^to that of all. the 
** Academies in Europe, and palpably erroneous,— -'* •You ought> 

^'Sir," replied I, "to have" ^ Rfefute what, wliea 

ll3^l» ^^a^ffc fjd^ced po prpoff in tfqpport qf>: your Theory?**-; 

pens to clash wkh tbtfhr systems; I am besides 
under too many obligatioks to seVcral learned Efag 


* There zie twice as many ai Astronehners hare addaced in suppoit of 
** theirs. I could fill vohimes in quarto ^ere' f td collect those only 
*' which I have marked in the relatioiis of Bavigators; After all, f am 
** not without my prosdyteS." ** Oh ! no dependence is to hepUced 
*' oii what is said by certain Journalists, who linow nothing of l^tnat- 

* tct/ I suspected then that he was goii% to mefrtion 1^ exttsKet from 
the* 'EngKsh papers, which had been inserted in Ac Moniteur. « ^ere 
^ there nothing else «n my theory," said I, *" than my gebmetrifcal dbjefc- 

* «mi to the Academicians, w4io, walking in the sisepdof Hff»^ have 
•^^len into nn error, conchiding from the magnitude ^-deigreesttN^wd 

* l!he poles Aatihc Earth was flattened at them, ydu isug^ to hal(re'«e« 
« yaied to it.''— ** What do you understand by a degree?" reptied4«e« 
•** with great waWHth.— That which aH Greometricians under^tat^ w, 
<< it, the SeoA part of a circle.''—" You have lallen kito the Biniifr mfs- 
-« take with M. de la Sirey about ISO yeafrs ogo. It is 4ioe by tbe Jirdh 

* of « xjircle rfmt a degree is to be measured, but by iCs pefrp^ndi(5a* 
« lar.* At tihe same time, in order 4o demonstrate it to me, he puHed a 
bit of chrfklromhts pocket, and began to trace on tkte ditor, ^mdk^ 
two radii, a chord, die «nus, ^c. I stepped him^ «ftying>-*«* Ynu 
<« wander from the question. It is not from ^e •p^rpendicuiar <«rvtie 

* degree of Tomeo, that <lie measure 'was taMk of that which we b»ve 
<« inthe report of Academicians, b*t Irom ifce pottion 4rf the tecres- 

* trkd curve comprehended between two rtM which measure aoeles* 
« tial degree of the meridian. Ihey have found, at «he polar circle, 
** that portion of the circiraifcrence of Ae Ikrth, whidi they as w«tl as 
^1 can a degree, to contain 57,433 fttthoms, whit* we find to esoeed 
^ by 674 fathoms the degree measured in Peru near the Equator^ Ult 
** arch of which degree contains only 56,r48 fathoms; from which they 
•« have concluded that the degrees or portions of the circumference of. 
''< the Earth, corresponding to the degrees of the celestial meridian 
^*went ^n increasing prog^aively toward Ac Poles, and that oona^ 
« quendy the circumference of the Earth was flattened there. Now, 
« if yoo can make that curve constructed oa the diaafteter «f the 
«• sphere,* and formed of degrees greater than diose of the ephere, to 
" fell within the sphere itself, I am in an error." 

Not knowing what reply to make, he thought proper to shift the 
conversation. « You have advanced,' said he, « that «he tides in the 
« South S*a are tw«4vehowp» akeraately, which is not the case."— ♦* I ham 
^ not said lo^" replied I, ** though I am disposed to belitvf it holds 
, Vol. IV. Kk «truf 


lishmen, who, without knowing me, and purely 
from a love of Sciences, have honoured my Studies 


« true of the wiiok Southern Hemisphere; but I am not furuished wkh 

« ^ proof soffident to warrant mj affirming it« I have quoted only fire 

^ or fix places in the South Sea where the tides are of twelve hours. 

<< I have since found several others of a similar duration in the Indian 

^ Ooeatty and eren in our own hemisphere^ among others, those .of 

*< Tonquiuy mentioned bj Dampier,^ As there happened to lie on the 

table a fourth volume of mj Studies of Nature, I shewed him, in the 

advertisement prefixed, the testimonies of Cartartt, Byron, Cook, Clarke^ 

on the subject of the twelve-honr-tides iu the South Sea. After having 

read them, he said: ** Do you understand English?^ This suggested 

to me the qocstaon put by the Mtdedn tnaigrt hii in the play; Prmy^ 

you uwkrttand Laiinf ** No,'' replied I; and I imagined he was going 

to talk to me in English. ^ It is very unsafe,'' said he '^ to quote from 

** translations. I have got your. English navigators in the original laa- 

^ guage ; there b no where such a thing as a tide of twelve hours. I 

. *< am perfectly sure of it, for I have composed a treatise of all the tides 

, " ov^r the Globe, which I have found every where equal to our own«" 

It appeared to me at first very strange that he should have composed 

a treatise on all the tides over the whole Globe, without having quoted 

translations ; but this point merited no reply. *' How," said I, << Do 

. ^ you mean to affirm that translators so enlightened and so accurate as 

.** those whum I have quoted, should have deceived themselves on 

. *i topics of so, much importance to navigation and astronomy, mid 

^ that they should have asserted that there were twelve-hour*tides in 

" many parts of the South Sea, whereas the navigators whom they 

<< translate positively assure us there are noue of more than six? It is 

M impossible/' 

Here I put an end to the conversation, by saying to liim : ^ Attack 
'' my Theory publicly, aud I will answer you." He told me that he had 
no such intention, but that he had come merely to put me right. I have 
given an exact abridgment of our dialogue i the Public will judge on 
whose side integrity and illumination rest. 

I have refuted the error of Academicians by proofs simple aud intelU* 
g^ble to (he meanest capacity. Why do they not employ similar proofs 
. to refute me, if I too labour under a mistake ? 

. The whole argument turns on an elemeiltary geometrical truth. It as 

' certain that half the cirpumference of the earth contains 180 degrees 

and chat it's degrees being for the most part greater than the 180 degrees 


qf Nature With the most flattenug marks of appro- 
bation^ which they have not been afraid to publi$hy 
as may be s<een aqipng others, in an extract from 
their jouriuls, copied by the Mmiteur Fran^ais oi 
FelHruary.Pb,Kl790. The character which: I have 
given qf cm# of their asspciaties^is s^p unequivocal 
jnwff 43f : jBpy esteem .for. tliem. Ui^loubtedly it 
was my du,ty to con^idflf^s a proceijdi^ which 
merits all the girat^u^epf their I^atiopiitiiie attempt 

of the tialf-spere cbnslructed on the samediaoietery k cannot be contain- 
ed w^in them.' J. " 4>. ' 

An .Officer of the ^rtUleiy wrote to M from Mezieres^ a^Ut two j^ars 
agOy that by this sixnple reasoning he had reduced a professor of mathe- 
matics not to sUence, for what professor could ever submit to that I but 
to answer in the lanj^uage of absurdity. ^ 1 said to him,^ writes my OUN 
respofideot, ^ thitf the terrestrial curve being more extended than lihe 
tpheric arch, could not possibly be contained in it, without supposing it 
^' it pressed inwardj> and the poles hollowed into a funnel. Would you 
** believe it P continues he, ^^ I would rather believe/' replied thepi^fes- 
M^, ^ that the Poles of the earth are hollowed like the inside of a funnel 
thim that ^40fon could be mistaken.'' 

Several Newtonians are disposed to adopt my Theory of the Tides bjr 
the fusion of the polar ices ; * this is ahready a great point gained: but 
they insist that I should ^veiip to them the ilattentng of the poles^ with 
the elevation of the Seas under the Equator, by means of the centrifugal 
force ; which is directly contradicted by experience. I could multiply 
volumes in support of my Theoi^, w^e'they to become a pi-ey to pirates, 
like the rest of my works. But where is tiie possibility of refbtingan er- 
ror consecrated by the name of Nitotofif and maintained by all the geo^ 
metricians in Europe? How is it possible for a solitary individual to sup- 
port the contest against Academies in coalition, which shut their eyes to 
evidence, and their journals to the admission of my proofs f 

In spite of their indifference, I venture boldly to predict that this truth 
which they persist in rejecting will oi^c^ day become the basis of the Stu- 
dies of Nature. 

O men of the age in which I live, you are to be interested only by fic- 

Kkg ^ to 

MO SEQUEL T« tfat rttrWfeB^F NATUUE. 

to iittport IlieHIiittiMtionof Ibi^igbMuoimsin^ 
£ttgkti<}, jnst as I c^asi^et' 'tlie. «kpM««i«toii ^ in- 
felligence from Englai^ ihitd wvag^ t:^o«^tttes^ by 
^le Vbya^ of OM»ft mdJBtmki, "as nMri^g the 
grateful acknowledgmelttsf of ^t 1«^hole )miri»D 
tace. Tht fiist haft been knittt^dl ^slttee by OeiB- 
ttiark, otkl lAie sedHi^ by^ ^tbtb^f lMit%iotb the 
tmi vera tti^erablyiinMiCGeiii^ul; fMr^of t\f^t'e 
learned Danish KailgaMts one f>kily i^tiit^^ to 
his country ; and to this day we have no intelli- 
gence of the two French ships of war, employed on 
that mission of humanity, under the commaitd of 
the nAfbrtunate de la Pirttm. ft is iioitihen dciefice 
in if self that 1 blame; but 1 wished to liaake it ap- 
{)ear that learned associatioos, by their ambition, 
dieir jealousy a^d their pftrfudices, serve but too 
frequently as obstacles to it's progress. 

I proposed to myself iln object of stifl greater 
irtility, that of applying a lemedy to the woes. by 
which humanity is oppressed itr India. I have as- 
sumed for my motto, / am kaming to succour the 
i»retc%€di and I ext^d this sentksetit to ail onm* 
kind. If philosophy formerly iravclled fttmi India 
to Europe, why shonld it not at this day be sent 
hack from ei viliKed £iir<^ to the inhabitants of In^ 
dia, become barbatoits in llieit ttitti? A sodety <rf 

* Frflitee fa^ no (xjtasioi^ to imitate £iny l^atio^ whatever, on tlies^ 
two articles ; for a long dme ^mst she has been sending men of intelli- 
gence ibto foreign countnesi' to d^se oirer them her arts* her moiles and 
her language^ bat thfe concemefl her gloiy onljr : it is to be hoped that 
she will direct it to the hapless of maotind by her Bew Coiistitiition. 
Patriotism 19 butii branch of humftBitj, 


iiiteWgftttE^PgtialuBie^b^ justbeeitfopftiied at CaJt- 
cultfty w^ vili perh^pa m time destroy itie pf^nir 
dices of India, aod by this beixefit compensate the 
roisebief which the wars and ihe com.merce of Eu*- 
iropeao^ have introduced into it. For my own 
j>art^ poaaessing no iofluence whatever^ in order to 
coiftmttnicate more grace and favour to my aigu^ 
inent$, X have endeavoured to clothe them with the 
allurements of a tale. It is by means of star}*-tel^ 
ling that men are evciy where renctered attentive to 

In tius respect we all are men of Alheiis^ - 
And at the moment that I write this story. 
If riMt of Ass in LibnVsUn were told ne, 
X should he muofa oeg ketefL 

La FoiMn^9 fmtt ^ fkiUm^ book fiii, fab. 4. 

It has been said with more wit than truth, that 
Fable had it's rise in the despotic regions of the 
jEast, and that it niras necessary to veil the truth 
there, to prevent it's coming too closcf to tyrants* 
But \ ask whether a Sultan would i|iot be much 
more offended to see himself painted uiider the em^ 
blem of an owl or of a leopard, than after Nature^ 
and whether truths of reSeotion would not gaul 
him iuUy as qiuch as truth directly told ? HiomM 
^oWi Ambassador from £nglai)d at the Court of 
Selim-Cha, Emperor of the Moguls, relates that this 
l^rince, ^ despot of the highest order^ having cpmr 
maaded to open in his ppcsence certain chests just 
arrived from England, containing presents fw him, 
was not a little surprised at finding* among the rest 
K k 3 ft picture 


a picture representing Venus leading a Satyr by the 
nose. '' He imagined/' says the Ambassador^ ^* that 
^* this picture was painted in derision of the Nations 
'^ of Asia, that they were represented in it by the 
^^ black and homed Salyr, as being of one and the 
** same complexion ; and that the Venus who led 
^* the Satyr by the nose, was a representation of the 
" unbounded Empire, which the women of that 
^* countiy exercise over the men." 

ThonuuRaw^ to whom this picture was addressed, 
found it no easy matter to counteract the eiFect 
which it had produced on th(? mind of the Great 
Mogul, by giving him an idea of our fictions : on 
this occasion h^ expressly recommended to the Di- 
rectors of the English East India Company, to send 
in future no allegorical painting to India, because 
the Princes, he told them, regarded such subjects 
with a suspicious eye. This is in fact the c|iaracr 
ter of despots. I do not believe therefore that Fa- 
bles were ever any where devised, unless for the 
purpose of flattering them. 

In general, a taste for Fables is diffused over the 
whole Earth, but much more in free countries 
than in those under despotic Government. Savage 
Nations found their traditions on Fable ; there ner 
ver was a Country in which fictions were more 
current than in Greece, where all the objects of 
Nature, Politics and Religion, were only the results 
of some metamorphosis or another. There were few 
illustrious fkmilies who did not reckon some animal 
in the number of their ancestors, and rank among 
their male and female cousins, bulls, swans, night- 
ingales, turtle-doves, rooks and jnagpies. It is 



observable that the English discover a particular 
taste for allegoiy in their literaturCi though truth 
may be spoken among them with the utmost free- 
dom. The Asiatics were of the same character in 
the days of Escp and Lockman; but we no longer 
find fabulists among them, though their country 
be filled with Sultans. 

It is among Nations the nearest to nature, and 
consequently the most firee, that the passion pre* 
vails of adorning truth by fiction : it is from an ef- 
fect of the very love of truth, which is the senti- 
ment of the Laws of Nature. Truth is the light 
of the soul, as physical light is the truth of bodied. 
The two united 6onvey the knowledge of that 
which is : the one illuminates objects, the other 
points out to us their adaptations ; and as in theprih- 
<^iple, all light traces it's origin up to the Sun, all 
truth has it's source in GOD, of whom that lumi- 
nary is the most sensible image. Few are capable 
of supporting the pure light of the Sun. Nature, 
as a relief to the weakness of our eyes, has fur- 
nished us with eye-lids to veil them, to the degree 
that suits them; for the same reason she has 
planted the Earth with forests, whose verdant fo- 
liage presents us with soft and transparent shades ; 
and diffuses over the Heavens vapours and clouds^ 
to temper the too vivid rays of the orb of day. 
Few men are, in like manner, capable of taking in 
truths purely metaphysical. Because of the weak- 
ness of our understanding, Nature has provided us 
with ignorance to serve as an eye-lid to the soul : 
by means of it the soul gradually expands to the 
perception of truth, admits only as much as is sup- 


portabie^ amd ^unroundB bersdf with £sibkSy which 
afe likQso many trboimi under the sfande of which 
she cptitem|date« it ; aod when she wislras t6 me 
up to Deity himself^ ihe veils him in allegory and 
mysteiy that she Inay be able to 8u{>p6tt his lustre. 
We 5bouId not see the light of the Sun, did it 
not f'est on bodies, or at least on clouds. It es^ 
capes us out of our atmosphore^ and dazzles usat it's; 
source. Tlie same thing holds good with respect 
to truth; we should never lay hold on it, did it 
not fix op seusjble events, or at least on metsqiliors 
and comparisons .\rhich reflect it ; there ionust be a 
body to send it back. Our understanding has no 
hold of truths purely metaphysical ; it is dazzled 
hy those which emanate from Deity, and it cannot 
comprehend those which do not rest upon hia 
^(rof ks» For this last reason it is that the language 
of civilized Nations paints nothing, because it is 
filled with vague ideas and abstractioiis ; and that 
of a simple People, not far removed fram Na* 
tuye, is powerfully expressive, because it i^ 
stored with similitudes and images. The first am 
in the habit of concealing their sentiments; the 
second^ of expe^iding theirs. But as it frequently 
happens that scattered cloqds, under a thousand 
fantastic forms, decompound the ra^ of the Sun in 
tints richer and more varied than those which co- 
lour the regular works of Nature ; in like manner 
Fables reflect truth much more extensively than 
real events ; they transport it into all the Kingdoms 
of Nature ; they appropriate it to anhnals^ to trees> 
to the elements^ and call forth a tbotisand Tsrious 
Reflexes of it. Thus the ray$ of the Sun play, wi^«. 



oat €%fiiig«riAhiiig themseires, at the bottom of tlie 
Mraters, rcflwt there the objects of the Earth &nd of 
the Heavens, and multiply their beauties by con<> 

Ignorance therefore is as necessary to truth as. 
«hade is to light, as it is out of the first that the 
baraionles of our intellect are formed, and of the 
second are compounded those of our vision. 

MbraKsts as I have already observed in my StiH. 
di^s, have almost always confounded ignorance 
with error. Ignorance, simply considered, and as 
separate from truth with which it has harmonieaso 
delightful, is the repose of our intellect; itprocures^^ 
oblivion of evils past, disguises those whick ait 
present, and conceals from us such as are stiU fii^ 
tntt ; in a word, it. is a benefit^ for we derive it ftoni 
Nature : error on the contrary is the work of Man ; 
it is always an evil ; it is a false light which shines 
to betray. I cannot find an apter comparison to 
iUastrate it's nature, than that of the light of a ccm- 
flagration which consumes the habitations that it 
illumines* It is remarkable that there does not 
exist a single evil, moral or physical, but what has 
an error for if s [^nciple. Tyrannies, slavery, wars 
are founded on political and even sacred errors ; for 
the tyrants who have set them afloat to establish 
their own power, always derive them from Drity^ 
<»- from some virtue, to make them respectable in 
the eyes of men. 

It is very easy however to distinguish error from 
trutii. Truth is a natural light which shines of it- 
self all over the Earth, because it comes from GOD ; 
error is au artificial gUtr^ which needs to be inces* 



santly kept up, and which never can be universal, 
because it is the work of Man only. TrUth is hcM^ 
ficial to all men ; error is profitable only to a few, 
and is injurious to the generality, because indivi* 
dual interest is inimical to the general, when they 
come to separate. 

Care must be taken not to confound fable with 
error* Fable is the veil of truths and error is it's 
phantom. It was frequently in the view of dissi* 
pating this phantom that Fable presented itself to 
the imagination: nevertheless, however innocent 
It may be in it's principle, it becomes dangeroaa 
when it assumes the principal character of error, 
limt ifry when it turns to the private advantage of 
certain individuals. For example, it was of little 
importance that, in the days of old, they converted 
the Moon, under the nameof 2>ia;iii, into a Goddess 
ever an immaculate virgin, who presided overhunt-» 
ing. This allegory signified that the light of the 
Moon was favourable to huntsmen, for . spreading 
their toils toentrap the game, and that the sports of the 
field were unfavourable to the passion of love. There 
was no great harm done when they dedicated to her 
thcpine*tree* in the forests; that tree became a 


* The oak was in like manner dedicated to Jupiter, die olfre-tree t» 
JfHaenWy Ufa Pine to Pan, the laurel to Apollo, the myrtle to FenuH 
&c.....,.Trees were likewise consecrated to demi-gods and heroes : tfai; 
poplar was the tree of Hercules. Finally, nymphs, shepherds, shepherd- 
esses, shared what was lef^ of the vegetable creation : the jealous Cfyiia 
gave her yellowness and attitude to the sun-flower; Aehnis stained witi^ * 
his blood the flower which bears his name ; and so of the rest. Planttj^ 
and especially trees, were the earliest monuments of mankind. I have 
nceordingly made two cocoa-trees, to serre, in the Isle of France, a$ 



rendezvous for the followers of the chace. Tht 
mischief was not even yet become formidable, when 
^ huntsman, to secure the protection o{ Diana, su»* 
pended on her tree the head of a wolf. But wheat 
the whole skin was displayed on it, persons appear* 
cd who had sufficient ingenuity to turn it to some 
good account ; they built a chapel foi^ the Goddess^ 
where they oifered not only a wolf 's s^kin, but ishe^ 
likewise, as a security to the rest of the flock from 
the jaws of the wolf. Offerings multq)lied wliea 
the head of some tremendous mid boar was exhl* 
bited in triumph, which had been ravaging tte 
vineyards, and collected at his heels all the dogs 
and the youth of the vicinity* The huntsman at- 
tracted pilgrims to the spot, and the pilgrims al* 
lured merchants. A town was speedily formed 
around the chapel, which, resorted to by so many 
credulous persons, did not remain long without it"^ 
oracles. As victories were predicted there, Kings 
sent thither magnificent presents ; then the Chap^ 

monuments of the 'birth of Paul and Virginia, without taking that idem 
from a celebrated modem poet, who has complained of it without reason^ 
1^€ is sufficiently ^r^chin ideas of his own to admit of one^s WrovKUV trom 
him ; but if that idaa were not in Nature, 1 4Could like him have found It 
in the ancientSy his models. It is very common ^mong botanists, who 
determine by new plants the epochs of friendship and gratitude, by giv- 
jing them the vam^ of their patrons and fkvDurites, In a won) astmno- 
mer$ hav^e extended this sentiment 40 the stars; an(| nayigators tq thfi 
coi^ntries, rivers, and islands which they discover, and on whiqh ^heylm<» 
pose the names of the saints, the kings, the commanders, the events, the 
conquests and {he massacres of which thfij mean to preserve (he recol- 
lection. While most of the objects of the Earth and of the Heavens 
serve as monuments to the passions of men, and frequently to> their fren- 
^es, why might nbt I be mdolged the thought of consecrating two trees 
ja a wildj^ness to^'intiocencp and materrial afectioa i *\: 


008 8£aU£I« TO TBI nVJ>lZS OF NATUBr. 

grew iBto 8 Cburcbt aod the Towa ioto a Citjr, 
vfatch Jhad it's Pontiif's, it's Magi$trat^$» it's Da<r 
audub By and by imposts were levied on the Pco^ 
fi€p for building superb Temples like that of JEphe^ 
sits ; and zs fear has stiU greater, power orer the 
iMiman mind than confidence, in order to clothQ 
the worship of Diana with terror, human sacrifices 
wtMt offered np to her in Tauris. Thus omtributed 
to iht misery of the human race an allegory 
imagined to promote the happiness of Man^i because 
it was perverted to the particular profit of a City 
or of a Temple. 

Truth itself is fttal to mankind when it beccxnes 
the patrimony of onr tribe. There is undoubtedly 
an inconceivable distance between the tolerance of 
the Gospd and the intolerance of the Inquisi^tion ; 
hetweoi the precept given by Jesus Christ to his 
ApQBtles, to shake the dust off their feet before 
houses which refused to admit them, and between 
the displeasure which he expressed when solicited 
to call down fire from Heaven : the extermination 
of the ancient Indians of America, or the burning 
piles of an Auto-da-fi^. 

Tliere is in the gallery of the Thuilleries, on the 
right as you enter the gardens, an Ionic coluinn, 
which the celebrated Blondel^ Professor of architec- 
ture, pointed out to his pupils as a perfect model ; 
he made them observe that all those which fol- 
lowed it, progressively diminished in beauty. The 
first, said he is the production of a famous sculptory 
and the others have been successively copied by 
artists who deviated from his graces and proporr 
^ons in the ratio of the distaAce. Tl)e person who 


\m^ «tt^Aipted ^« second/ ntdle a tokitbte itnita- 

tioti ^f 4Jbe iim, but be who ptodoeed the (hii^ 

eo{>kd die «ebotid only $ l^os^ fiiom bopjr ta «k^, 

the kfift falte verf ftr bi^DV Ihe tMigiiiftk i iNtve 

many li time cottip^Mdi the Gospel to ^ot tOMtSftil 

^IkMr^ftheThuilteries, attdilvs wotte-of aftciettt 

CotBi^etitetors to thpM of t^e'^thet«^^iiitis( of thte 

galteiy. £kit W€rewetaf*^t8<ieth«Js^|rik^ 

*he Gommcntatoi's^of diir bu^Mfeys/WKart;forr^ 

-6^uitofi9 wouki thek VWuitt^'iirfesittt! atid "wfio, 

attrid^t the storfnfi whi^ii a^ait' hdi^;^ life diftift 

^^♦ClitUfe to lean li^ them 1 • ;m :f - il 

• iAs^«rtifli is a tay of hdJiveoly KgW, }t>«*tH aIik^ 

tshitie feit all itiatiltitid, provided a tax: is not \t&A 

Wi their ^rittdoVs i but in esre*y departmenl, hour 

ttiany cotps foiimled eitptieBsly to propagate it, 

frofn the verf oirctfrnstanoe of it's bemg perverted 

into a private benefit, substitute in it's place the 

liglit of their oMna tfepers or hmternsi They 

f^uickly go so far, when they have powers, as to 

persecute those trho find it ; and when they har^ 

not, opposed to them an inert power which disables 

them to diffuse it : this is the reason that Ibose 

who love the truth frequently retire from men and 

cities. Such is the truth which I mean to exhibit 

in the following little Work. Happy if I shall be 

able to contribute, in my own Country, to the 

happiness of a single unfortunate wrench, by paint-^ 

ing that of an Indian Paria in his cottage. 

It belongs to you only, august Assembly of the 
Representatives of France, to do good to all man- 
kind^ by levelling the barriers which obstruct the 
progress of truth, as It is the source of every 



bleasiQg^ tttd is difiusod oyer the htc of the whole' 
Earth* Rome ami Athens defended only their K- 
.berty. Modem Nations have aimed at the exten- 
sion merely of their Religion and their Commerce* 
.An have oppressed the Universe; you alone have 
defended it'a rights by sacrificing your own privi- 
leges : MaiUund will . one i^ay take an interest , in 
jfour felicity, as .you h^ve interested yourselves in 
their destiny. M{^ the virtuous Monarch who 
bas called you together^ uxkA .sanctioned youf ii^ 
jMirt^nt jaboi^rs, ever partake of the glory of them ! 
His name will be immortal as your laws. Ancient 
nations fixed their principal epocha from some cir- 
cumstance that materially aiFe<;ted their plea^res» 
their power, or their liberty. The Greel^i: so fond 
cf festivity, from tlieir Olympiads ; the Romans 
so patriotic from the building of Rome ; oppressed 
jpeople dated from the era of their religion ; but the 
nations whom you are recalling to the felicity desr- 
tined for them by Nature, will date the Rights of 
Man, as old as tlie creation, from the reign of 


r 5u ) 



\ A SOCIETY, of inteUigeut Englishmen was 
form^ at London about thirty years ago, the ob^ 
ject of which was to prosecute scientific reseafcH, 
in various parts of the World, for the purpose q£ 
pomoting the illumination and the happiness of 
.mankind. , The expense was to be defrayed by 
subscription, and the list presented persons of 
every description in the Nation, Merchants, Lords, 
Bishops, Universities, and the Royal Family of 
England; to which several of the sovereigns of 
Northern Europe likewise added their names. The 
ingenious travellers engage^ in this service ware 
twenty in number, and the Royal Society of Lon- 
don had given to each of them a volume containing 
a statement of the questions, the soliit^yn of which 
was to be the end kept in view. These questions 
amounted to the number of 3500. Though they 
all differed relatively to each of the learned men 
employed, and were adapted to the countries 
through which each was to travel, they all had 
a mutual relation, so that the light diffused over 
one must necessarily tend to the elucidation of all , 
the others. The president of the Royal Society, 
who, with the aid of hjs associates, had digested 
them; felt completely that the solution of one jiifH* 
8 culty 


culty frequently depends on the successful inres-* 
ligation of another, and this last on one which 
preceded it; which inao inquiry after truth, car- 
ries us much farther than is generally imagined* 
Inaword#«to>qfvail tiy^elf of the eacprossions em- 
ployed by the President himself, in delivering his 
instructions, it was ^he^oMMt ««iperb encyclopedical 
structure erer reared by any Nation to the progress 
tyf human knowledge; a full proof ai^ed 'lie, of 
the necessity of academic associations^ in older to 
lednce to system the truths dispersed over theftot 
«f the whole Earth* 

Each of these learned travellers b»d besides )m 
volume of questions to be resolved, a comdsission 
<o purchase, in the course of his progie9S,llie mt»t 
aacvetit copies of the Bible, and the most cuiious 
manuscripts of every description, m aft least to 
apare &o cost in procuring good <!opies of them. 
ibr this purpose the subscribers had furnished alt 
of them with letters of- recommendation to the 
Consuls, Ministers and Ambassadors of Great Brn 
tain, with whom tliey might come in contact ; nxti 
wiiat is Btitt Ibettcr, with good bills of exchange, 
endorsed by the most eminent Bankers t>f London. 

The Doctor of the highest reputation for leatn* 
mg, who understood Hebrew, Arabic, and Ac 
Hindoo Language, was sent over land to the 
East Indies, the cradle of all -liie Arts and Sei* 
enoes. He began his tour by crossmg over into 
Holland, and visited successively the Synagogue 
at Amsterdam, and the Synod of Dort; in 
France, the Sorbonne and Academy of Sciences 
at fy,m ; In Italy, a variety of Academics, Mu- 
seums and Libraries, among others, the Kfuseum 




of Florence, the Library of Saint Mark at Venice^ 
aAd that of the Vatican at Rome* Being in this 
Jast City, he hesitated whether, before he directed 
his course Eastward, he should go into Spain to 
consult the famous University of Salamanca ; but, 
under terror of the Inquisition, he thought proper 
to embark directly for Turkey. He arrived ac- 
cordingly at Constantinople, where, by dint o^ 
money, he prevailed with an Effendi to grant him 
access to consult even all the books of the Mosque 
of Saint-Sophia. From thence he passed into Egypt 
to converse with the Cophts ; he then visited the 
Maronites of Mount Lebanon, the Monks of Mount 
Cassin; thence to Sana in Arabia; afterwards to 
Ispahan, to Kandahar, Delhi, Agra: Finally, after 
a peregrination of three years, he arrived on the 
banks of the Ganges at Benares, the Athens of In- 
dia, where he held frequent conferences with the 
Bramiu^. His collection of ancient editions of ori- 
ginal books, of rare manuscripts^ of copies, of ex- 
tracts and annotations on every subject, was now 
much larger than ever had been made by any one 
individual. Let it suffice to say, that it composed 
fourscore and ten bales, weighing together nine 
thousand five hundred and forty pounds troy 
weight. He was on the poiiit of embarking for 
London with this precious cargo of illumination, 
transported with joy at the thought of having sar- 
passed the expectation of the Rpyd Society, when 
a very simple reflection occurred, and overwhelmed 
him with vexation. 

He considered that, after hiving tonfetred with 
Jewish Rabbins, Protestant Minister^ Superiut^nd- 

Voi* IVi L 1 ants 


ants of Lutheran Churches, Catholic Doctors, the 
Academicians of Paris, of La Crusca^ of the Arcacli, 
and 9f the other twenty-four celebrated Academics 
of Italy, the Greek Papas, the Turkish Molhas, the 
Armenian Verbiests, the Persian Seydres and Casis^ 
the Arabian Scheiks, the ancient Parsis, the Indian 
Pandects, far from having elucidated any one of the 
3,^00 questions proposed by the Royal Society, he 
liad contributed only to multiply doubts on the se- 
veral subjects ; and as they were all linked toge- 
ther, it followed, directly contrary to what the il- 
lustrious President had suggested, that the obscu- 
rity of one solution perplexed the evidence of an- 
other, that the clearest truths had been rendered 
altogether problematical, and that it was even im- 
possible to disentangle any one out of that vast la- 
byrinth of contradictory answers and authorities. 

The Doctor caught this at a single glance. Among 
those questions, two hundred referred to the theo- 
logy of the Hebrews ; four hundred and fourscore 
to the different Communions of the Greek and Ro- 
man Churches; three hundred and twelve to the 
ancient Religion of the Bramins ; five hundred and 
eight to the Schanscrit or Sacred Language; three 
to the existing state of the People of India ; tsvo 
hundred and eleven to the Trade of the English 
•with the East Indies; seven hundred and tMcnty- 
nine to the ancient Monuments of the Islands of 
Elephanta and Salsette, in the vicinity of Bombay; 
five to the Antiquity of the World; six hundred and 
seventy-three to the origin of Ambergrise, and the 
properties of the different species of Bezoards; one 
to the hitherto uncxploi^d cause of the Current of 



the Indian Ocean, which flows for six months to- 
ward the East ?nd six toward the West ; and three 
hundred and seventy-eight to the Sources and the 
periodical Inundations of the (janges* This fur- 
nished the Doctor with an opportunity of collect- 
ing, by the way, all the information he could, re- 
specting the Sources and the Inundations of the 
Nile, a subject which has for so many ages engaged 
the researches of the European literati. But he 
looked on this as already sufficiently discussed, and 
at the same time as foreign to his mission. Now, 
on each of the questions proposed by the Royal So- 
ciety, he procured, one with another, five different 
solutions, which, for the Avhole 3500, amounted to 
17,509 answers : and on the supposition that each 
of his nineteen colleagues should produce alike 
number, it followed, that the Royal Society would 
have about 350,000 difficulties to solve before 
they were able to establish any one truth on a solid 
foundation. Thus the aggregate of their collec- 
tions, so far from directing every particular propo- 
sition toward a common centre, conformably to the 
instructions given, on the contrary produced a di- 
vergence, which excluded all possibility of approxi- 
mation. Another reflection gave the learned Gen-" 
tleman still greater uneasiness : namely this. That 
though he had employed, in his laborious re* 
searches, all the phlegm of his Country, and a po- 
liteness peculiar to himself, he had made Itjbplaca- 
ble enemies in most of the Doctors with whom.hp. 
had argued. " What then," said he^ ** will become 
" of the tranquil expectations of my countrMnen, 
*' whcfn I have brought back to them, in my four- 
L 1 a *' jcore 



truth of the Sun's having several times changed his 
pourse, rising in the West, and setting toward the 
East ; conformably to the traditions of the Egypt- 
ian Priests, detailed by Herodotus ; and even re- 
specting the epoch of the creation of the Earth, to 
which the Indians ascribe an antiquity of several 
millions of years. Sometimes he thought it would 
be more to the purpose to obtain his opinion con- 
cerning the best form of Government which a 
Nation could adopt, and even concerning the Rights 
of Man, of which there is no Code. any where exist- 
ing ; but these last questions were not in his book. 

Meanwhile, said the Doctor, before every thing 
pipe, I think it would be proper to demand of the 
Indian Pandect, by what means truth is to be found ; 
for if it be by the exercise of reason, themode which 
I have hitherto employed, reason varies all the 
world over : I must likewise demand where truth 
|s to be sought for ; because if we arc referred to 
books, they are all full of mutual contradictions; 
and, finally, whether truth ought to be communi- 
cated to mankind ; for no sooner have we made it 
known to men than we find ourselves embroiled 
with them. Here then are three preliminary ques- 
tions which did not occur to our illustrious Presi- 
dent If the Bramin of Jagrenat can give me the 
solution of these, I shall have the key, of all the 
Sciences, and, what is still better, I shall live in 
peace wirK all the world. 

^uch were the Doctor's private meditations! Af- 
ter travelling ten days he arrived on the Coast of 
the Gulph of Bengal; he met, as he proceeded, 
great pumbers of people returning from Jagrenat, 


,^ .. TfeE INDIAN COTTAGE. il9 

quite enchanted with the wisdom of the Chief of he 
Pandects, whom they had been consulting. On the 
eleventh day, at Sun rising, he perceived the famous 
Pagoda of Jagrenat, built on the shore of the Sea,^ 
over which it seemed to exercise dominion, with 
it's enormous red walls and galleries, it's domes and 
it's turrets of white marble. It rose in the centre of 
nine avenues of ever-green tree?, diverging toward 
the like number of Kingdoms. Each of these ave- 
nues is formed of a different species of tree; of the 
arec- bearing palm, of the teak- wood tree, the co- 
coa^ the manguier, the latanier, the camphire, the 
bamboo, the badamier, the sandal ; and they lead 
toward Ceylon, G9lcouda, Arabia, Persia, Thibet, 
China, the Kingdom of Ava, of Si^m^ and the Is'-. 
lands of the Indian Ocean. The doctor reached 
the Pagoda hy the.avenueof baxnboo^,- which skirte 
the Ganges and the ^^ licious isles which decorate 
it's flux into the Sea. This edifice, though reared, 
in the middle of a plain, is so lofty^ that though be 
came within sight of it at the dawn of the morning, 
it was almost night before he got within the pre- 
cincts. He was struck with admiration, on taking 
a nearer view of it's magnificence and magnitude* 
The gates of brass reflected with a dazzling lustre 
the rays of the setting Sun ; and the eagles hovered 
round it's summit, which was lost in the clouds. It 
was surro»jnded by va^t basons of white marble, 
which from the bottom, of their transparent waters 
sent back to the delighted ey^, it's , domes, it's gal- 
leries^ and it's gates: these were again enclosed hy 
immense courts, and gardens embellished with su- 
" Vi 4' • perb 

$20 SEQUEL TO THE STtjilis OF »Af UR*. 

perb structures for the accommodation of the Bfa- 
mins on duty in the Temple. 

The Doctor's pions hastened to announce his ap- 
proachy and immediately a company of young bai/- 
aderes issued from one of the gardens, and advanced 
to meet him singmg* and dancing to the music oF 
the labour. Their necks were adortied with its- 
toons of the mongris-^owtXy and their waists with 
girdles composed of wreaths of the Jrangipankr. 
The Doctor, encircled by their perfumes, their 
dances, and their music, proceeded up to the gate 
of the Pagoda, at the farther extremity of which he 
perceived, by the light of many lamps of gold and 
silver, the statue of J^agrenat, the seventh incarna- 
tion of Brama, in form of a pyramid, without feet 
find hands, which he had lost in attempting to carry 
the Wofld, in order to save it.* In his presence 
lay prostrated, with their face's to the earth, a num- 
ber of penitents, some of whom promised aloud to 
have tl^emselves hooked by the shoulders to his car, 
on the anniversary of his festival, and others, to 
crush themselves under it's wheelsi. Though the 
sight of those fanatics, wlio lettered deep grqanings 
as they pronounced their horrible vows, inspired 
a degree of terror, the Doctpr was preparing to en- 
ter the Pagoda, when an aged Bramin who guarded 
the door, ^topped him short, and commanded him 
to declare the intention of his visit. i3eing in- 
formed, he said to tl^e Doctor:.". Tliat consider? 
f* ing his quality of franguiy or iwpur^^ he could 
{'not be presented either before Jagrpnat Pi* his 

* Consult Kireher, 

Til* INrifAN CdffAOf:. |fft 

** Higli-priest, tiil he had washed thrice ift otafe 
** of the lavers of the Temf)!*, and till he Wal 
" stripped of every thing whifch had ever belon^^ 
** to any aiiimal ; but especially of covir's-biir, ht^ 
*^ cause she is an object of adoration to the Bt4- 
" mins; and of swine's hair, because she h a*l a6o-' 
" mination to them.'* " What is tote done tbeti,** 
replied the Doctor? ** I bring as U present td the 
" Chief of the Bramtns, a Persian carpet, iMde of 
** the goats-hair of Angora, aiid Chiueie sttiffs 
** which areof silk,'"" AlUhings,'*resuTntd the fira- 
min, ** offered in the Temple of Jagreriat, or pre- 
*' sented to his High priest, are purified by the giflt 
*' itself J but the same thing caiinot be ^liniitteil 
^' as to your clothes." The Doctor was (tnder the 
necessity therefore, of parting with hi» coat of 
English wool, his goat-skih pumps, and bJs bfeavfet* 
hat ; afteu which bfe tftiderwent the cerfttodny of 
ablution three times, by the hands of the 6ld Bra- 
min, who then dressed him in cotton, of the coloiir 
of sandal wood, and conducted him to the door of 
the apartment of the Principal Braniin. The Doc^ 
tor was going to step in, having under BJs arm 
the book of questions prepared by the Royal So- 
ciety, when his Master of the Ceremonies dte^ 
fnanded, what the covering of that book was made 
of. " It is bound in calf," answered the.Dofettoh 
*' How !*' exclaimed the Bramin, in a transji<)f t of 
** wrath, y Did not I warn you that the hfeifer H 
** worshipped by the Bramins ? and dareit thdA 
" present thyself before their Chief with a book 
V bound in calf-skin !" The Doctor would hato 
l^een obliged to undergo a purification In th<$ 



Ganges, had he not smoothed the difficulty, by 
administeriDg a few pagodas,, or pieces of gold, to 
his introducer. He left then his book of questions 
in his palanquin ; consoling himself with this re- 
flection : " When all is done, I have only three 
*^ questions to put to this Indian Doctpr. I shall 
" be perfectly satisfied if he inform me, by what 
" means truth is to be discovered; where it is to be 
^' found ; and whether it ought to be communi- 
" rated to mankind?" 

The old Bramin then introduced the English 
Doctor, arrayed in sandal-coloured calico, bare- 
headed and bare-footed, to the High-priest of Ja* 
grenat, into a vast saloon supported by columns of 
sandal-wood. The walls of it were green, being 
lined with stucco mixed with cow-dung, so smooth 
and brought to such a polish that you might see 
your face reflected. The floor was covered with 
very fine mats, six feet long, and as many broad. 
At the extremity of the hall was an alcove, en- 
closed with a balustrade of ebony; in this recess, 
on a gentle elevation, you had a half view, through 
a lattice of Indian cane of a reddish varnish, of 
the venerable Chief of the Pandects, with his 
white beard, and three threads of cotton passed 
over his shoulder like a. belt, after the manner of 
the Bramins. He was seated on a yellow carpet, 
with his legs crossed, in a state so completely im- 
moveable thathis very eyes seemed motionless. Some 
of his disciples were driving away the flies which 
disturbed him, M'ith fans composed of the feathers 
of the peacock's tail ; others were burning in cen- 
sers of silver^ perfumes of the wood, of alo?s j 



»d Others ivcie playing a most exquisite mijBic ou- 
the dulcimer; the rest, to a very gre^t number^ 
among whom were faquirs, joguis and santons^ 
were arranged in several fows on both sides of the 
hall, in profound silence, with eyes fixedon the 
ground, and arms crossed on the breast. 

The Doctor was going, without farther cere- 
^mony, to advance up to the Chief of the Pandects^ 
to deliver his complimentary addrejss; but his 
conductor kept him back nine mats off; telling 
him that the Omrahs, or great Lords of India, 
were not permitted a iieftrer approach; tlrat the 
Rajah, or {Sovereigns weiit no farther than tlie 
sixth mat; the Princes, the sons of the Mogul 
Emperor, to the third; and that no one, thegr; 
Mogul himself excepted, was allowed the ho 
of coming into contact with the venerablp 
to kiss his feet 

Several Bramin^, me^n while, carried « % 

bottom of the alcove, the telei^cope, the shaWio^ 
the pieces of silk and tapestry, which the Doctor's 
attendants had deposited at the door pf the saloon ; 
and the old Bramin having cast his eyes over 
them, without expressing the slightest mark of ap- 
probation, they were removed into the interior of 
the apartments. 

The English Doctor prepared to utter a- fine flo* 
fid bar^gue in the Hindoo language; when his 
guide prevented him by saying he must wait till 
th^ High-priest thought proper to open the con- 
ference. He accordingly made him sit down oa 
his heels, with legs across like a taylor, according 
to the fashion of the country. The Doctor mur^ 
mured within himself at so many formalities ; but 


524 SEQUEL fO 7ttt StVtitgCtg JTATURE, 

What ^fll a inan not undergo fothe s4ke of find^ 
Big f nith^ afttt having travelled to India in qutst 

As soon as the Doctotr was seated, the music 
leased ; anil after s6nie moments of profound si- 
lence, the Chief of the Pandects caused this 
queMiofi to be proposed ; " What has brought you 
^' to Jagtenat** 

Though the High-priest bf Jagrenat had ex- 
i^ressed himsetf with sufficient distinctness in th^ 
Hindoo tongue, so a^ to be heard by part of the 
Assembly, bis #ords tiwe tralnsmitted by a faquir, 
who conveyed tliem to a second, and this second 
to a third, who delivered them to the Doctor, His 
reply was given in the same language ; and to this 
eifect : " That he had come to Jagrenat to consult 
*^ the Chief of the Bramins, on the faith of his 
" high reputation, respecting the best means of ac- 
^* quiring the knowledge of truth/* 
■ The Doctor's answer was conveyed through the 
medium of the same speakers who had been clharg- 
cd with the question ; and the remainder of the 
dialogue was coririUcted in Irke manner. 

The ancient Chief of the Pandects, after a short 
pause of recollection, replied ; " Truth is to be 
" known only through the medium of the Bra- 
•* mins." On this the whole Assembly bowed the 
head, in admiration of the answer given by their 

" Where is truth to be sotrght," retorted the Eng- 
** lish Doctor 'with considerable vivacity? "All 
" truth," answered the aged Indian Doctor, " Is 
•* comprised in the four Beths, written a hundred 

^ **and 

** and twenty thousand years ago in the Schanjsqrir 
" language, which the Braanins alone understand.'* 

On his pronouncing thes^ words, the hall re<- 
sounded with bursts of applfiuse. 

The Doctor then recovering his temper, said to 
the High-priest of Jagienat: " As God has shut 
*' up all truth in books known only to the firaminsy 
^' ]t must follow then, that God has excluded from 
" this knowledge the greatest part of m^nkind^ 
*^ who do not know that such a being as a Bramiu 
'' exists: now, were it so, God would be unjust.'* 

" Such is the will of Brama," replied the Hxgh^ 
priest " No resistance can be made to the will 
*^ofBrama.'* The shouts of applause, redoublied. 
When the noise ceased, the Englishman proposed 
his third question : '^ Ought truth to be coQiqni^ 
" nicated to miapkind.^'' 

** In many cas^s," said Jhe old Pandept, " pru- 
" dence requires Jt to be concealed frqnx the rest 
** of mankind, but it is an indispen^ble duty to 
" disclose it to the Bramins." 
. ** What! exclaimed the English Doctor, in a 
rage, " Must the truth be niisclosed to Brairiin^ 
•^ who never disclose it to any one? V^erily tl^ 
^* Bramins are guilty of the grossest injustice/' 

No sooner had he uttered these woi^^s than jpt 
dreadful flame kindled in the Assembly. They h94 
heard without one expression of .di^kas,^rfi, Qk^ 
taxed with injustice ; but the case vv^s vf ry difi^^^rj- 
ent when that censure pointed to the,<tMMitoe9* Tli$ 
Pandects, the Faquirs, the Saat0J3is, the Jogui^ 
the Bramins and tlieir pupils were going to argu^ 
all in a breath wilh the English Doctor: but th^ 
High-priest of Ja^roaat.put an end b> the «tuniult, 



by clapping his hands together, and saying in A 
very distinct voicfei " Bramins enter into no dis- 
" putation, Irkc the Doctors of Europe/' Then 
rising up he retired, amidst the acclamations 
of the whole multitude, who murmured aloud 
against the Doctor, and would perhaps have han- 
dled him roughly, had it not been for fear of the 
English, whose influence is irresistible on the banks 
of the Ganges. The Doctor having withdrawn 
from the saloon, his conductor said to him : *'Our 
" venerable father would have given orders to pre^ 
** sent you with sherbet, betel and perfumes, ac- 
^^ cording to custom : but you have offended him :*' 
" I am the person injured,*' replied the Doctor, 
" to have travelled so far for no purpose whatever ! 
^ But of what, pray, does your chief pretend to 
" complain?" " How !" replied his guide, " yoa 
^* presume to dispute with him ! know you not 
" that he is the Oracle of India, and that every 
** word he speaks is a ray of intellectual light?" 
*^ It is impossible to entertain the slightest doubt 
of it," said the Doctor, resuming his coat, shoes 
and hat. The weather had become boisterous^ 
and the night was coming on; he requested per* 
mission to pass it in one of the apartments of the 
Pagoda; but was told be could not sleep there, as 
being a Frangui. The Ceremony having fatigued' 
him very much, he begged to have something to 
drink. They brought him a little water in an 
earthen vessel, which was broken to pieces the mo^ 
ment he had finished his draught,* because, being 
a Frangui, he had polluted it b}^ his touch. Upoft 
this the Doctor, extremely nettled, called for his 
attendants, who lay prostrate hi adoration on the 




steps 6f^4he Pagoda; and springing into his pa- 
lanquin, took the road again through the avenue 
of the bamboos, algng the shore of the Sea, as 
night was setting in, and under a lowering skj\ 
He said within himself, while he trudged on: 
*' Tlie Indian proverb is founded in truth : Every 
" European coming to India learns patience if he 
" has it noty and loses it if he has. For my part, 
*^ I have lost mine. What, shall I never be able 
" to discover by what means truth is to be found, 
" where it is to be sought, and whether it ought 
" to be communicated to Mankind ! Man is 
" condemned, then, all the world over to error 
" and strife : I have succeeded wonderfully in tra- 
*^ veiling to India to consult the Bramins!" 

While the Doctor thus mused in his palanquin, 
he was overtaken by one of those tempests which 
in Indii they call a typhon. The wind blew from 
the Sea, aiid driving the water of the Ganges fu- 
riously up it's channel dashed the foaming billows 
over the islands which guard it's entrance. It 
raised along their shores columns of sand, and 
from their forests clouds of leaves, which it hurled 
across the river and over the plains, to the utmost 
height of the atmosphere. At intervals it at- 
tacked the alley of bamboos, and though these In- 
dian reeds, are as tall as the loftiest trees, tossed 
them about like the grass of the meadow, Througn 
a tempest of dust and leaves appeared the length- 
ening avenue in a state of undulation, on one side 
levelled to the ground, on the other raised aloft 
with a hollow murmuring noise. The Doctor's 
retinue, under mortal apprehension of being swept 
away by the sl^rm, or swallQ\yed up by the waves 
5 -•••"of 


of the Ganges, which alrendy overflowed it's banks, 
directed their course across tlie fields as chance 
led the wav, toward the neighbouring hei«:hts. 
They were at length involved in the shades of 
nighty and travelled ou for three hours in profound 
darkness, not knowing whither they went, when a 
flash of lightning bursting from the clouds, and il- 
luminating the whole horizon, discovered at a 
considerable distance on the right, the Pagoda of 
Jagrenat, the islands of tlie Ganges, the enraged 
Ocean, and close by in front, a narrow valley and 
a wood between two little hills. Thither they 
fled for shelter, and now the thunder was roaring 
tremendously, when they reached the entrance of 
the valley. It was skirted by rocks, and filled 
with aged trees of a prodigious size. Though the 
tempest tore their summits with a fearful noise, 
their enormous trunks reihained immoveable as 
the rocks which surrounded them. This ancient 
forest appeared to be the destined asylum of lan- 
guid Nature, but it was no easy matter to pene- 
trate into it. Ratans winding along it's skirts 
covered the roots of those trees, and liannes in- 
terwoven from trunk to trunk, presented on 
every side a rapipart of foliage through whicji 
caverns of verdure were visible, but which 
discovered no outlet. The Reispoutes however 
Jiaving opened a passage with their sabi-es, the 
Vhole suit entered with the Palanquin. They 
imagined they should here hp under cover 
from the storm, but the rain \vhich fell in 
'torrents formed a thousand cascades around 
them. In this perplexity, they perceived un- 
der the trees, in the narrowest part of the 
valley, a light and a cottage. The masdlM rail 


thlthier to liglit hi» f\9fph€^.\j^; jbut r^tojned h^^ilj 
a f(p\|^ roojppnts ^fter^ pftPtiug fof ^reafh ^ind caHiog 
ftloud : " CoJDC npt titis way j here is a Pari(i.'' Jm- 
Kije^i^tely the tprrified cojnpany joii^ie^ in the <;ry 
Df ^' ^ p^'ip. ! a P^Ti^!" Th/5 Ppctpr, supposing i|: 
to toe ^pjijn^e feirqcious |)ea3t.Qf RT^y, l^i^bold of /liis 
pistftls. /' What is ^ Fari^ ?'• ij^ys hg ^p hrf tpfch- 
yeiLMT. '' A xn^n/' r£f\i^ tj^e pthef, " f^itlikss 
*' ajpid lawless/' ^* He is ^ In^iui/' '.^did^d the 
Chi^f of thp J^wpJOutC^, ^' of a c^st/e ^ inf^pfijqus, 
^* that you ivQ ^t liberty tp kill hiPS ii^ he so ipuoh 
" as tPMCi^CS you. 8hpujd y^Q quter his haf)itatio<>, 
'' Y^ ^\fx^t npt fpr niue JV^qqw «?t foot in any Par 
^* ^Q^!*; i*p4 i^^ w^^r ip he cleansjed frpm ,^l)^e pplr 
*' Jutipp wc iTiu^t ^|)atJbp pine tira^* 'm th* GaijtgeSj 
" ^^1^ have our^flye§ jpj^ishe^ ^9 pftpn ftom.head to 
*^ fqpt with cow> ur^np hy thp h*Lt)4 pf ? Bra^^^io-'' 
AU the ][ndjaus exclfiii»e4 tpge):hpr : '' We willjpot 
*' euter the abo4e of ^ P^ria,?' «< Hqisr did you 
^' kpow/* js^id the Poctortp his torch-bearear, 
*' th^t your couiitryma^ wa^ a ^P^ri^i ip other 
^* words, a wretch faithless ap^ lawless r^ " ^e* 
" cause," replied the torch-bearer, " \irben I ope»p4 
^^ the dpor of his but, I $aw him squatted ]Qlo$e hy 
/< his dpg oa the 3ame viat with his wife« to yrkoui 
" he |»rfis presenting drink jft a cpw> horn.'' Ail the 
perspns of the ,DpQ^r> netifiqe ref^gited alpud: 
** We wiJ^ ?w?t enter-the f^ppf ojf a Paciae" ** Bemaim 
" where you ^re, if you will," naidthc EngUshm?^n ; 
** for n^y part> all the castes of India are the saoip 
** thin^f to me, when shieljter frpjtpi fpul Wea^jsr i* 
•^ihe object;' . - - 

Ju j)rpflpfiiji,C4ng these words he ^aapo^^frcro 1^ 
palanquin, dfid taking his bppk ff^ qifj^tipns ^nci 

Vol. IV, Mm night- 


night-bag nnder his aim, and liis pistols and pipe 
in his handy he advanced alone to the door of the 
cottage. Scarcely had he knocked, when a man of 
a very gentle physionomy opened it to him, and in 
stantly retreated, saying, " Noble Sir, I am only a 
" wretched Paria, unworthy to receive such a guest; 
** but if you will condescend to take shelter under 
" my roofj I shall consider myself as very highly 
" honoured.** ** Brother,'* replied the Englishman, 
" I accept your hospi^table offer with much thank- 
** fulness." The Paria at the same instant went out 
with a lighted torch in his hand, a load of dry- 
wood on his back, and a basket filled with cocoa- 
nuts and bananas under his arm ; he approached 
the persons who composed the Doctor's train, who 
were at some distance under a tree, and said to 
them : " As you will not do me the honour of en- 
" terlng my habitation, here is some fruit in the 
** outer case, which you may eat without being . 
" defiled, and here is firing to dry your clothes and 
•* guard you from the tigers. May God watch over 
*' you!" He immediately returned to his hut, and 
thus addressed the Doctor; ** Permit me to repeat, 
** Sir, that I am only a miserable Paria; but as I 
** perceive, from your fair complexion and your 
" dress, that you are not an Indian, I flatter my-, 
" self you will feel no reluctance to partake of the 
** humble fare which your poor servant has to set 
" before you.''. At the same time he placed on the 
ground upon a mat^ mangos, cream-apples, yams, 
potatoes roasted on the embers, grilled bananas, and 
a pot of rice dressed with sugar -and the milk of the 
cocoa-nut; he then retired to his own itiat and sat 
down by his wife and their child, who lay fast 
€ asleep 


asleep in a cradle by her side. " Virtiibus man/* 
said the Englishman, " you are greatly my supe>« 
" rior, seeing you do good to them who despise 
" you. Unless you honour me with your con^- 
*^ pany on the same .mat which | occupy, I must 
*' conclude that you consider me as a bad man, 
*' and I shall instantly leave your cottage, were T 
'* sure of being drowned by.the rain or devoured 
" by ,tigers." 

The Paria sat down on the same mat with hk 
guest, and both began, to eat. The Docto;r had the 
additional pleasure of finding himself completely 
sheltered and secure in the midst of a storm. The 
cottage was unassailable: besides it's being situ- 
ated in the narrowest part of the valley, it was 
built under a waar tree, or banyan fig, the branches 
of which striking bunches of roots from their ex- 
tremities, form so many arcades which support the 
principal trunk. The foliage of this tree was so 
thick that not a single drop of rain could penetrate 
it; and though the tempest was heard roaring, with 
frequent loud peals of thunder, neither the .smoke 
ascending from the' hearth, and escaping through 
an aperture in the roof, nor the flame of the lamp, 
were disturbed in the least. The D^jctor contem- 
][>lated with admiratron tht composure of the In- 
' dian and of his wife^ still more pkcid than elemen- 
tary tranquillity. The infant^- black and polished 
like ebony, was asleep itt fiiS ,cradle : the mother 
rocked it with her foot,, while she ainlised herself 
in. making him a necklace of red and black An- 
gola pease. The father cast^ looks expressive of 
tenderness alternately on the one and on the oJther. 
M m-2 " In 


In a word, all, down to the very dog, (ftartiolpated 
in the commoh felicity; stretclied along with tim 
cat by the fire-side, he from time to tioe half- 
opened hb eyes, sighing as he looked at his master. 

As soon as the Englishman had finished his meal, 
the Paria presented him with 9 live coaLto light 
his pipe, and having likewise lighted his own, he 
made a sign to his wife, who placed on the mat two 
cups made of cocoa-nut shell, and a large calabash 
full of punch, which she had mingled during the 
repast, of water, arrack, lemon juice, and that of 
the sugar-cane. 

As they smoked and drank by turns, the Doctor 
said to the Indian : " I believe you to be one of the 
•* happiest men I ever met with, and consequently 
" one of the wisest Permit me to ask you a few 
".questions. How can you command such per- 
** feet calmness in the midst of a storm so tremend- 
«* ous ? You are nevertheless under covert only of 
** a tree, and trees attract the tlnmder." ** Thun- 
** der,*' replied the Paria, " never yet fell on a ban- 
** yzn fig-tree." ' " That is something very extra- 
" ordinary,*' said the Doctor, ** the tree then must 
*^ undoubtedly possess a negative electricity like 
*' the laurel." *' i do not comprehend your mean- 
" ing,'' answ€f^)j|the Paria, " but my wife believes^ 
^' it is because the' God Brama took shelter one day 
" under it's leaves ;i^r my own part, I think that 
'^ GOD, in these tempestous climates, having be- 
" stowed on the wmyan fig-tree a very thick fo- 
** liage, and arcades to serve as a shelter to 
'* men from the storm, has likewise been pleased to 
'^ render it thunder-proof " Your reply is a very 

'^ religious 


^* religions om," said the Doctor. *' It is your con- 
^ ficknce in God then that trapcjuilli^es your mind. 
*^ Conscience inspires fprtitude far better than sci- 
" etioe cm. Tell me, I pray, of what sect you are ; 
^ " It is impossible you should be of any of those of 
*^ India, as ro Indian will hoid any communication 
** with you. In the list of intelligent castes whom 
^* I Was to consult in my progress, I find no men- 
" tioB made of the Parias. In what natipri of In- 
" dia is your Pagoda?" " Every where," replied the 
Paria ; *^ Nature is my Pagoda. I adore her Au- 
^^thor at the risipg of the Sun, and pour out my 
" heart in gratitude when he sets. Instructed by 
** calamity, I never refuse assistance to one more 
" wretched than myself. I endeavour to render 
^y my wife and child happy, nay my very cat and 
*^ dog. I look forward to death at the close of life, 
*' as to a gentle sleep when the labour of the day 
** is over.'' " From what book," demanded the 
Doctor, ** have you imbibed these principles ?"* 
" From that of Nature," answered the Paria; " I 
"know no other/' "A grand volume indeed !" 
said the Englishman :" but who taugtt you to - 
" read in it?" " Calamity," replied the Paria: " be- 
*' ing of a caste reputed infamous in my own coun- 
" try, incapable of attaining the rank of Indian, I 
^ made an effort to become. a man; repelled by so- 
*^ ciety, I took refuge in Nature." *^ But you must 
'^ have had at least a few books to relieve your 
" solituck," said the Doctor, " Not one;" returned 
the Paria, " I cannot epren read or write." *^ You 
•* have saved yourself many a doubt," said the 
Doctor, rubbing bis forehead: *' for my own part, 
Mm 3 "I have 


" I have been sent from England, my native coun- 
" try, to search for truth among the intelligent of 
" many nations, in the view of promoting the illu- 
" mination and the happiness of mankind ; but 
" after many a vain research, and many a serious 
** disputation, I have been forced to conclude that 
^^ the investigation of truth is a folly, because, sup- 
** posing^ it found, a man does not know to whom 
" he should tell it, without stirring up a host of 
" foes against himself. Tell me sincerely, do not 
" you think as I do?" " Though 1 be but a poor 
" ignorant creature,*' answered the Paria, " since 
f* you condescend to ask my opinion, I consider 
" every man as laid under an obligation to search 
" after truth, for the sake of his individual happi- 
** ness ; otherwise, he will be a miser, ambitious, 
^' superstitious^ mischievous, nay a cannibal, ac- 
" cording to the prejudices or the Interests of the 
^' persons who may have brought him up." 

Tlie Doctor, who never lost sight of the three 
questions which he had proposed to the Chief of the 
Pandects, was delighted with the Paria's reply. 
^ Since you believe/' said he to him, ** that every 
*^ man is bound to search after truth, tell me then, 
*' first of all, what means are to be employed in 
" order to find it; for our senses dieceive us, and 
*' bur reason misleads us still more. Reason differs 
'* among almost every division of mankind, apd I 
" believe it is nothing more at bottom than the par- 
'* ticular interest of each of them : this is the cause 
*^ that it is so variable all the world oven lliere 
** are no two religions, no two nations, no two' 
V triDcs ; What do I say ? there ar^ no two men, 

' *f whose 


•* whose sentiments perfectly coincide- With what 
'' sense then ought ^ man to investigate truth if 
'' that of his intellect be insufficient?" " I think/' 
replied the Paria, " he should do it with a single 
" heart. The senses and the understanding may 
" be misled; but a single heart, granting it might 
** be deceived, never deceives/' 

** Your answer is profound,** said the Doctor. 
** We ought to investigate truth first with the heart 
*^ and not with the intellect. Men all feel in the 
"same manner, and they reason diiFerently, be- 
" cause the principles of truth are in^ Nature, and 
*' the consequences which they deduce from them 
" are dictated by their interests. With singleuess 
" of heart therefore we should pursue our re- 
" searches after truth ; for a single heart never 
"feigned to comprehend what it did not compre* 
"Jiend, and to believe what it did not believe. 
" It lends no assistance to self-deception, and after- 
*; wards to the deception of others ; thus a single 
** heart, far from being weak, -like those of most 
" men seduced by their interests, is strong, and 
" such as is requisite for investigating -truth, and 
" for maintaining it." " You have unfolded my 
*' idea much better than I could have done," said 
the Paria: " Truth is like the dew of Heaven; in 
" order to preserve it pure, it must be collected in 
" a pure vessel,*' 

" Charmingly expressed, thou man of sincerity ?" 
exclaimed the Englishman : " but the most diffi- 
" cult inquiry is behind. Where are we to go in 
" quest of truth ? Singleness of heart depends upon- 
^^ ourselves, but truth depends on other men. Where 
M m 4 " shall 

SSfi SEQUEL to tfi* tTtTDtM Ot »ATURE. 

*' shiU we find Jt, if those wbosurrtuiid Uitftiettdneed 
** by their prejudiceiB, or corruf)ted by their interest^, 
''is h generally the case? I have tiiaretred over 
*' m^Dy coutttrfes ; I h4ve rAnsickftd their Kbf^tries ; 
*' I hive consulted their Doctors, and I havt eviry 
•' where found contraditioni only, dotobts iiid^opi- 
" nions a thousand times iftore Viridus thfth their 
" Idnguages. If thefl truth is nttf to be found in 
" the most celebrated repdsitoHes of hum^tt knaw- 
** ledge, whither are we to go in searchdf It ? IV'hat 
*^ ^oald singlene^ps of heart avail among men whose 
** heai-t is depraved, and their understatidihg per- 
*' vened ?" ♦* Truth wofuld come to me in a Very 
♦' sUflpicioui form," rejplied the PaHa, ^^ if It were 
** tratasmltted only through tht foediuifn of mcB : 
^' it h not tt\norig them^we ai^e to search Tot it, but 
*^ in Nitiire, ^lature id theitoiiree of ^Very thing 
" that cjiists J her language U -hot uiiiirtelfigiblc 
^ And variable like thatof ineh and of their books. 
*' Meh made booksj but Nature make* tbirfgs. To 
'J fbund troth u^ori a bd(!flc, is ¥nu=ch tlig saiird >^tli 
" founding it on a J>ictiir6, of dft a ^^tu*i Mlich 
*^ is cdpAble of iiiterefetihg bnlb ctiujitry difljr, ihd 
*^ vhich tftfe haitd of ti^e is impairing fevefy day. 
" Every fwofc h the ait tif a niab, but Nittire is 

*' You are perfectly right^'' fe^im^ the Doctor, 
*^ Nature is the sourc? of natural truths ; but where 
'' is, f^ instanffe, the Wuiicfe ctf histbrteai trVifh^ *ex- 
" cept in books ?• ^herc is the ^blsibiKtjr then of 
'^ ascertaining, al this day, i\ie ivhth of a ftct whicU 
'^ happened two thousand j^ears *go ? Were the per- 


<* sons ¥i^l*8 Mt6 tmtisrttifttid it fa US Ttde ftoiti pte* 
^' ju^ic*, Ma ff6tti the sfpirit &f pivtyt Did tb^y pos- 
** sesi sitigltiies^ i>f heart?. Bfesided, the books too, 
^* \yhich iffe th6 iwedium dP trans^iieiSioiij dd they 
*^ not h^Cd t^ be copied, priftted^ cottimeiiti^d 60, 
" tran^fitM ; aridiii pas^iivg through so many hatids, 
** is Bot truth less or more liable to ^It^atioi^? As 
^ y6\jt very w«U ex{)feiJs€d it^ a baok 16 nothing 

**/ ttidre than thd aft of man. We muiSt tbfereford 
'* rijnotitice ^1 hi^tOrieal truth,, as it can reach \xi 
"only through the iniervention of men liable td 
*' error." '^ Of trhat ifltpbrtan^ t6 our bappine^,'* 
'* isaid the Indian, " ife the history of thiftgs past? 
" The history of what i^, is the History ^ What has 
^' beeny and of that which shall bd.'* 

" Tery well," says the Englishman ; " but yoU 
'^ must admit that moral tinths are necessary tof 
^* the' felitity of the hntoaa rarce. How then are vr6 
^ to fi«d them in Nature? Aniiifials in that state 
" Vi^e wir, kill and devour each othei* ; the very 
" dem«nts( c^ntefid with elements: will intn act 
" the sdme ji^ri toward one o^nothel-r" " Oh ! no," 
replied the good Paria, " but every man willfind 
** the rule of his condocl in his own lieart, pro- 
'* vidcd 4i$. heart be single, Natnre has inscribed 
*' this M"^ \»pon it : Do not to others whal^yon would 
^* wi* wis-h vthisrs should do to you.'' '^ It is true,** 
answerfed tlie Doctor; '' site has rcgnlated the in- 
^* tei^ests of mankind by tlrc standard of our 6wn : 
^* b«t as i6 religions truths, How shall we discovei* 
^' theit attiidst tte multitude of traditions and 
^ modes of worship which divide the nations of 

. ^' tlse earth P '^ In Natwe herself," returned the 



Paria; " if we consider her with singleness of heart, 
** we shall behold iu her, Deity in his power, in his 
" intelligence, in his goodness ; and as we are weak, 
•* ignorant and miserable, here is enough to engage 
*^ us to adore him, to pray to him, and to love him 
" all the days of our life, without disputing/' 

" Most excellently said !*' cried the Englishman. 
** but now tell me, supposing we have discovered a 
** truth, Ought we to communicate it to other 
** men ? If you publish it, you will be persecuted 
** by nmltitudes who live in the opposite error, in- 
•• sisting that this very error is the truth, and that 
** every thiog which has a tendency to subvert it 
" is itself an error.** ** The truth," replied the Paria, 
** must be told to men of a single heart ; that is to 
** the good, who are in search of it^ and not to the 
^^ wicked who reject it. Truth is a fine pearl, and 
** the wicked man a crocodile, who cannot put it i^ 
** his ear, for he has none. If you throw a pearl to 
•*^a crocodile, instead of decking, himself with it, 
^* he will try to devour it, at the risk of breaking 
** his teeth with the effort, and will then fly upon 
•* you in a rage/' 

** There is only one objection I have to make," 
said the Englishman; " From what you have said 
**^ it must follow that men are condemned tp error, 
*' though truth be necessary to them ; for, as they 
*' persecute those who tell it. Where is the teacher 
•Sbold enough to undertake the task of instruct- 
*' ing them ?" ** A teacher," replied the Paria, 
" who himself persecutes men to force the know- 
pledge of truth upon them; Calamity." ^^ Oh! 
** for once, Man of Nature, ' cried the Englishman, 

"I believe 


^ I believe you must be raistakcn. Calamity 
** plunges men into superstition ; it degrades l)Oth 
** the heart and the understanding. The more 
** wretched that men are, the more contemptible, 
" credulous and grovelling they become,** " It is 
" begause they are not sufficiently wretched," re- 
plied the Paria. " Calamity resembles the black 
" mountain of Bember, at the extremity of the 
" burning kingdom of Labor : as long as you arc 
'* upon the ascent, you see nothing before you but 
" barren rocks; but when you get to the summit, 
^^ you perceive the Heavens over your head, and 
" the kingdom of Cachemire upder your feet." 

" Delightful and just comparison !" exclaimed 
" the Doctor : " every one has, in truth, through 
'^ the progress of life, his own mountain to scramble 
** up. Yours, virtuous recluse, must have been a 
^' very rough one, for you have risen higher than 
" ever I knew man do.r Have. you been then very 
'^ wretched ? But tell me first of all, Wherefore is 
^ your caste so vilely degraded in India, and that 
f^ of the Braniins so highly respected? I am just 
" on my return from ^ visit to the Superior of the 
** Pagoda of Jagrenat, who has no more sense than 
** his idol, and who nevertheless exacts the adora- 
'' tion due to GOD." " The reason is," replied the 
Paria^ '* that the Bramins allege they originally 
'* issued out of the head of the God Brama, and 
^* that the Papas sprung from his feet; they far- 
'* ther pretend, that Brama one day, b^ing on a 
'* journey, asked a Paria to give him something to 
" eat, and that the Paria presented him with hu- 
*^ man flesh ; in consequence of this tradltipn their 

" caste 


^< <riist6 14 venerated, and ours held in exlsc]tatk)n 
" «li «ver India. We arc not permitted to ap- 
*' ftt^tii a City ; and every Nal'ir or Retsponte 
^ itifdy fiftt U9 to death, if we come within reach of 
** breathing on them," " By St George,'' cried the 
£jigli9hfndny ** it is ridiculously absurd and dgtest- 
^ ably nnjust ! How hive the Bramins been Me 
*' to peranade the Nations of India to adopt a folly 
•* so very grofisr" " By inculcating it tipon them 
*' from infancy," said the Paria, •* and by inces- 
'* santly repeating it : men are taught Irke parrots." 
** Unfortunate man f said the Englishman, " Hov 
** did you contrive to escape from that abyss of 
" infamy into which the Bramins had thrown you 
" from your birth ? I consider nothing to be so 
*' oppressive to a man, as to be rendered vile in his 
•* own eyes; it is to rob him of the first of huirian 
*^ consolations : for the most assured of all, is that 
" which he^finds on retiring within himself/* 

" I said to myself first of all," replied the Paria, 
" Can the history of the God firama be founded in 
" truth ? It is related only by the Bramins, who 
*' have an interest to feerve in claiming a celestial 
?* origin; They have undoubtedly feigned the 
" story of a Paria's attempt to render Brama a can- 
" liibal, to avenge themselves of the Parias, who 
** trere slow to admit their pretensions to superior 
** sanctity. I proceeded to reason within myself: 
" Supposing the fact to have a foundation in 
*' truth; GOD is just; it is impossible for hjm to 
** impute to a whole caste the culpability of one 
" of it's members, land in which the community 
'* has had no concern. But on the supposition 

« that* 


^* that the whpl^ csy&tie pf tl}€r Par^. haij- bpea ia- 
*f volV'Cd i^ tjiaf c^imiuflity, tlj^r p^terity co^iW 
^' Boit .hiave ^)^ep accoipftplices. GOpi ?io more 
^^ punish^ on. children tbe sii^s of thei^- jforjefethew 
*^ wh<w they pev€r;^w, thj^n be W9uJ4 puw«^i oa 
" gcatidf^th^DS ^he $j»s <9f tl^xt ,gK»p(;Jcbi|df©ii 
'* wha bltd 5ot yejt come jixtp tjie F9^1d Rut let 
** us go fm. to wpposc tb^t J ^ this 4?y iayolyed 
**m the; piimsbin^nt of i y^ia pexfi^iaus to hi* 
" God many thQuf a^d years ago, without heing 
" at all accegsaiy Jo hjs qrii^e ; Wheiie is the pps- 
** sibility «(f ^ny -thipg subsisting i^nrf^ r rthe difr- 

pkasur^ of GOP, withoitt being itistantly ^e^ 
^^stroyed? Wer« I under the curse of (iOD 
^^ nothing that I planted woyld grow. JFin^Uy, 
^* said I to nayself : supposing I lie upder the dis»» 
^* pleasure «f GOD, wh<^ i«^ lopptiuually .^pi^ag me 

good; I will ende^vo^ir to render myself accept.- 
" able to him, by following Ajs example, in dping 
^* good to ^Qse whom I ought to hate," 

" But,'' ask^d the Engli^hnjan, " How .did you 
" contrive to live, th^s beppme aa outcast fxom 
" society?" " First," ^v^ys ^e Indian, " I^rgued 
" thus with .myself: If the whole world is thine 
" enemy, be thine own friepd. Thy calamity sjtirr- 
^^ passes not the patiety:e ^d fprtitude pf a ;nan. 
** Be the ;rain;.ever so fecftvy, a Iktlp bird fee}s ))ut 
^* a single dw>p at onqe. I weijii: ^nfo tl}e wppds 
'^ and along the banks pf riv^^rs in fliiest of fppd; 
" but all I could do Wfi».|io^v ajid thjEaa tp pick »up 
*' some wild fruits, ftpd fill .the whil^ wder the 
'^ terror of falling a prey to ferocipus apiwals* 
^^Hence 1 discovered that IS^^tijire h#^^ ^^V^Bf^y 

" done 





*' done any thing for solitary man, and that Ai6 
•* had attached my existence to that very society 
** which spumed me from it's bosom. On this I 
•* began to frequent abandoned regions, which 
*' abound in India, and I always found in theih 
'' some alimentary plant which had survived the 
" ruin of him who cultivated it. I travelled thus 
" from Province to Province, assured of finding 
•* every where the means of subsistence in the re- 
•* fuse of agriculture. When I found the seeds of 
** any useful vegetable, I resowed them, saying, 
" If not to myself, this may prove beneficial to 
" others. I found myself less miserable, seeing it 
" was in my power to do some good. I con- 
" ceived a violent inclination for one thing, name- 
** ly, to see the interior of some great City. I had 
*' admired at a distance their ramparts and their 
** towers, the prodigious concourse of barges on 
" their rivers and of caravans on their great roads, 
" loaded with merchandize to be delivered thejls 
" from every point of the horizon ; troops of sol- 
*• diers on their march thither to mount guard, 
" from the remotest Provinces ; Ambassadors 
'* with their numerous and splendid retinues ar- 
" riving from foreign Kingdoms, to announce 
" prosperous events, or to form new alliances. 
•* l^ approached the avenues v;hich led to theiti 
" as near as I durst, contemplating with astonish- 
•* ment the lengthened columns of dust raised by 
** such multitudes of travellers, and my heart 
** thrilled with desire at hearing the confused 
" noise which issues out of great Cities, and which 
^* in the adjacent fields resembles the marniuring 

•* of 

•the INDIAN COT'i'AfeE. 543 

" of the blllo>*rs when they break on the shore of 
** the sea. I said within myself; A vast asseni- 
" blage of men of so many different conditions, 
" contributing toward the common stock their in- 
" dustry, their riches' and their jqys, must render 
" a City the habitation of delight. But I must 
" not enter it by the light of day; What hinders 
" my stealing in under tlie cloud of m'ght? A 
*^ feeble mouse who has so many enemies, goes 
" and comes whithersoever she lists, under the 
** covert of darkness; she passes from the hut 
*'.of the poor man to the palace of Kings. She 
" finds the light of the stars sufficient to conduct 
" her to the enjoyment of life; wherefore should 
** that of the Sun be necessary to me r" 

** I was in the vicinity of Delhi when these 
" reflections passed through my mind;' they em- 
" boldened me to such a degree that I ventured 
** to enter the City as night was setting in: the 
" track I pursued was by the gate of Labor* At 
" first I traversed a long solitary street, formed, 
" to the right and left, of houses skirted by ter- 
*' races, supported by arcades, containing the 
" shops ^f tradesmen. From interval to interval 
" I encountered magnificent caravansaries care- 
" fully shut up, and vast bqtzars or markets, in 
** which the most profound silence reigned. As I 
*' penetrated into the heart of the City, I per- 
*^ vaded the superb quarter of the Omrahs^ con- 
" sisting of palace3 and gardens situated along 
'*^ the^ banks of the Gemna. Here the air re- 
*' echoed with the sound of instruments of music, 
" and of the songs of the Bayaderes^ who were 
l|p **cjancing 



'^daDciugOD the river's side by torch light. , I 
" drQ^y nigh the gate of fi gardeiQ to ciyoy ^ spec- 
*' taclc so delicious ; but was driven h^cl^ by the 
*^ slaves, u ho put tlie mi3erable to flight by dint 
" of blows. As I drew from the quarter of the 
^ great, I passed dose by si^ver^l of th^ Pagodas 
** consecrated to my religion, where crowds of mi- 
" serable wretches, prostrated on the ground, were 
" crying bitterly, I hastened away from the 
** sight of those monuments of superstition and 
" terror. Farther on the shrill voices of the Jlfol- 
'^ hahs, announcing from on high the hours of 
^^ the night, informed that I was under the turrets 
" of a Mosque. Close by were the factqries of 
" the Europeans distinguished by their several 
'^ flags, with watchmen incessantly calling ^loud: 
^^kaber darl^ Ti^ke care! I afterw»rds encom* 
" passed a very large building, which I percpived 
" to be a pdson by the clanking of chains and tlie 
" groans of the inhabitants. I soon after he^rd 
** the shrieks of pain issuing from an immense 
" hospital, which was vomiting forth whole Qart- 
" loads of dead bodies. As I proceeded, I met 
" parties of thieves fleeing along the streets, ^d 
'* patrols of guards in close pursuit of them 5 
" groups of beggars who, regardless of the strokes 
♦* of the ratan, were soliciting at the gates of Pa* 
" laces, for some of the fragments of their feasts ; 
'* and at every comer women prostituting tliem- 
" selves j)ublicly for bread.. At last, after a 
" tedious walk along the same street, I ar» 
'* rived at a prodigious square, which surrounds 
I' the fortress inhabited by the great Mogul. 

m *'it 


** It was filled with the tents of the Rajahs, orNa- 
*^ bobs of his guard, and of their squadrons, distin!- 
*^ guished from each otiher by fiambeaas, standardly 
" and tall canes terminated by.the cow-tails ofThi- 
** bet, A brqad ditch full of water, and fortified 
^^ with artillery, enclosed, as well as the square, the 
** royal fortress on every sidle*, I surveyed, by the 
** help of the guards' fire lights, the towers of the 
*' Castle, which pierced the clouds, and the length 
" of it'& ramparts, whi^^h lost themselves in the ho- 
" rizon. I felt a strong inclination to get to tHfe 
*' inside; but large fter^As, or whips, suspended 
** from stakes, soon cured me lof aU desire of SO 
** mlK;h as entering the* squave. I stopped short 
" therefote at one of it's extremities, close by some 
" negro slaves, whiJ permitted me to rest myself 
" near afire round which they \»^ere sitting. I thence 
" cqmemplated, with admiration, the Imperial Pa- 
'* laoe : This th«, said I to myself, isthebabitatioit 
" of the happiest of mankind ! To ebkuirc subjection 
'•' to his authority so many Rdigioos preach; to 
** promote hi« glory so many Ambas^dors arrive j 
"to fill his treasures so many Provinces are ex- 
■ ^ hausted ; to minister to hi5;p}eas^esomany Ca- 
" favans travel; and to preserve his security it i& 
" thiit so many armed men keep wakch in silence !** 

*^ While I was engaged in making these reflcc- 
" tionsj loud shouts of joy filled th« square^ and I 
** saw eight camels pass, decorated with streamers. 
'* I found they were loaded with the heads of rebels 
" which the Mogul's Generals had sent him from 
** the Province of Decan, whete one of bis own 
*' sons, whom he had appointed Governor of it^ 

Vol. IV. N u t' waged 




•* ewaged wir against him for three years pasit- Soon 
'*! after arrived, at full speed, a courier mouuted on 
" a dromedary ; he came with. news of the loss of a 
-^* frontier City of India, through the treachery o^ 
'*^ one df his Commanders, who had given it up to 
•'*: the King of Persia. Scarcely had this messenger 
'.^♦gbne b}', when another, dispatched by the Go- 
•'* vernor of Bengal, brought ibtelligeuce tliat cer- 
" tain Europeans, to whom the Emperor for theex- 
" tension of commerce, granted permission to es- 
'* tabKsh a factory at the mouth of. the Ganges, 
" had erected a fort on the spot, which conanaand- 
*' ed the navigation of the river. A few moments 
" after the arrival of these two couriers, an officer 
*^ ai^)eartd,. coming out of the Castle at the head 
" of a detachment of the guards. The Mogul had 
'* giveii him orders to repair to the quarter of the 
" OmrahSy and to bring to him three of the liighest 
^^ rankin.irotis, to answer a charge of carrying on 
" a secret intelligence with the enemies of the State, 
f*' He.had commanded a Mulbah to be arrested the 
:" evening befoa*e, for having in one of his sermons 
*' pronouncejcKan.eulogium on tlie King, of Persia, 
'* and for baviag dt« tared openly that the Emperor 
^\ of the Indies :wasau infidel, because in violation 
■*' of the Law of Mahomet ^ he draak wine. FinaUy, 
** it was confidently affirmed, that one of his wives 
^* had just been strangled and thrown into the.Gejn- 
." na,. with two Captains of his guard, convicted 
" of being accessory to the. rebellion of Ijis son." 
" While I was meditating on these tragical evf*ntSL 
^^ a long column of fire suddenly burst from the 
, ** kitchens 

'* kitcheiis of the ISeraglid : a vast stream (if Smolce 
*' arose arid mingled with the ddiids, and the f ilddy 
'* glare illutninated the t6\vers of the fdrtress, it's 
" fosses, the square, the spiles d^ the City, antl ^k- 
" tended to the boundaries of th'd hoHzon. liilme- 
^* diately the huge cdpper tyrttb'als, and the Jcdfnas, 
^' Or great hautboys 6f the guard, sounded the 
'* alarm with a fearful noise: squadron^ of caralry 
'•gallopped over the City, breaking open the doors 
" of the houses adjoining to the Castle, and driving 
" their inhabitants with reiterated strokes of the 
<' korahy to assist in extinguishing the flames. ' I 
"myself had proof how dangerous the vielnity of 
"the great is to the little. The great are like the 
'* fire, which burns even those who thrdw incense 
*' into it, if they approach too nigh. I wished to 
" make my escape, but all the avenues of the square 
" were obstructed. It would have been i hi possible 
" for me to get away, unless, by the Providence of* 
" GOi), the side on which I took iny station had 
*^ been that of the Seraglio. As the eunuchs were 
'* removing the women on elephants, they facilitated 
** my elopenient. For while the guards on all sides 
** were whipping the people to hasten them to assist 
** at the Castle, the elephants, by dealing about 
** strokes of their proboscis, obliged thein to re- 
" treat. Thus, sometimes pursued by the otle, 
*' sometimes driven back by the other, I att length 
" got clear of this frightful chaos : and by the.light 
*' of the conflagration, I reached the farther extre* 
** mity of the suburb, where, under huts, and far 
'^ removed from the great^ the people were resting 
N n 2 ' *' quietl/ 


** from their Ijibours. Tliere I begaa to recav^f 

" breath. I said within myself : WeU then, I have 

•* seen a City f I have seeu the ^hode of the Lords. 

•^ ©f th^ Nations ! Oh ! of how ma^y masters are not 

" they themselyes the slaves t They obey^ even at th« 

** season of repose,, the tyrants of voluptuousness, 

" of ambition, of superstition, of avajice : they are 

^ expoi^ed, even in sleep, to a multitude of misera* I 

^ ble and malefic beings wJ>o surround them, rob* 

*' hers, mendicants, caurte^aus, incendiaries, to say 

** nothing ef their soldiers, their grandees, and their 

** priests. What. must a City l^e in the day time^ 

** if it be tlius disturbed ip the i^ight? The calami- 

" ties of man increase with his eixjoymeuts. How 

" much is the Emperor to he pjtied, in. whom they 

" all centre ? He has danger to apprehend from wars 

" foreign and domestic, nay from the very objects 

** which are his consolation and defence, his gene- 

" rals, his guards, his mal/iahs, his wives audhischil- 

•' dren. The ditches which encpmpass his Castle 

** are unable to exclude the phantoms of supcr- 

" stition, and his elephants^ so curiously disci- 

** plined, upable tp keep gloomj care at a di^tauce 

*' from him. Foil my own part I ai^ haunte4:With 

** no such terrors: no tyrant exercisjesdon^inion 

" over either my body or my i^iind* I have it in 

*^ my power to serve GOD according to my con- 

" science, and 1 have nothing to fear from Man, 

" unless I choose to bcpome a self- tormentor : of a 

" truth a Paria is less miserable tlian an Emperor, 

V On uttering these words the teai-s rushed to my..->' 

? eyes; and falling on my knees, I offered up thanks 

' . ^ ''to 

*^* to Heaven far having, to teach me how to siip- 
^* port my own cfistresses, shewn me wretchedness 
*^ far more intolerable tlrnn*' mine. 

^' FroAi that titnc ^orwaid I eon fined my rani- 

'^ bles towards I>eWr? to tlie snt)urbs j irotA 'thence 

•** I beheld the staf^ iHumine the habitations of 

^^ men, ami mingle with their fires, as iftlie HeaVen's 

*^ and the City had formed but one domain. When 

^' the Moon a'ppeareiJ to enlighteit tliat landsca'pe, 

^' I perceived c<^l®ttrs diffused av^r it varying fi'om 

'*' .tiae tints of day. I ad mired the towers, the houses 

"*' and the trees, a!t oince silvered over and clad in 

^' sable, softly r^ectedata distance fi-©m tliesmootk 

" surface of the Gemiia. I ti'aversed i« perfect li- 

^' berty the vast solitary and silent quarters tfliat sur- 

^* round the capital, and then it was I considered the 

'' whole City as my own. Humanity,* nevertheless!, 

-'^ would have refused me a handful of rice in it, ia 

'^^ sueh a detestable li^:rt had Religion placed me. 

*** Unable therefore to find subsistence among the 

'^' living, I went in quest of it among tl^ dead : I 

•** frequented the cemeteries, and ate the food de- 

•*' posited by pious aflfection dil tlie torti-lis of de- 

^' parted relatibns. Irl places siich as these I de- 

Ughttd to mu^e^ I said to mys^W: This is tlic 

City of peace ; h6r^ powej- andpride are seen no 

more; innocence and vijtue are incomplete se- 

'- curity : her^lie'dead all the t'drrors which haunt- 

^' ed life, even tKat of dying: this is the inn where 

^' the carman has for eVer unyoked \m t«am, and 

^^ virhcre the Paria finds repoi^e. Im meditating 

^* i:hlis, dc^ath appeared to m6 an ^tject of desire, 

N fl 3 '' and 




** aiid I began to look down upon the world. I 
*' turned iny eyes toward the Ejist, out of which 
" every moment arose a multitude of stars. Tliough 
'^ iheir destinsition was unknown to me, I felt that 
^* their destiny was allied to that of Man, and that 
f* Nature who has accommodated to bis necessities 
^^ so mi^ny objects which he spes not, had at least 
f^ rendered visible objects a matter of importance to 
^* him. My soul then ascended into the firmament 
*^ wjth the stars, ai\d when Aurora returned to blend 
f' with their gentle and unchanging lustre, her own 
• * rosy tints, I thought myself at the gates of Hea- 
•^ ven. But as soon as the dawn, brightened into 
*^ the fire of day, gilded the Pagados, I disappeared 
•' like a shadow: I withdrew, far from the haunts 
^* of men, to rest myself in the fields at the foot of 
*' a tree, where I was lulled to sleep by the music of 
** the grove." 

" Sensible and unfortunate mortal 1" said the 
Englishman, "Your story is wonderfully affecting : 
^* most Cities, believe me, can bear to be viewed 
" only in the night, After all. Nature arrays her- 
" self in npctumal beauties, whiqh are not the least 
** attractive ; an eminent Poet of my country has 
*^ celebrated no other, But, tell me; how did you 
" at last contrive to render yourself happy by the 
"light of day?" 

*' It was a great point gained," replied the Inr 
dian, ** to be happy in the night. Nature resembles 
*^a beautiful woman, who in the day time exhibits 
" the charms of her face only, to the vulgar eye, 
** and unyeib more hidden beauties to her lover 

^* when 


** when it is night. But if solitude has it's pecu-* 
"liar enjoy menta,.. it it likewise subjected. ;to it's* 
'* privations : ifr apptars to the child. of inisfortaoe 
" as a quiet harbour frcw whence he. beholds the- 
"tide of other men'g^'pjlssions roll. on, without be-- 
^Mng himself hijrried'^ODgf by the current; but, 
'i^ while h&congiatulates blfliselfon beiug inimove- 
*f aWe, 4:iHic is insensibly rcarrying him down the 
"stream; ^Thfjre is no such thing as casting an- 
" chor in the river of human; life ; it sweeps away 
" together •the man who struggles against it's flux, 
" and him who, voluntarily goes with it ; the wise 
" man and the ifool, and both reach the tjermination- 
" of life, the one after having abused it, and the 
"other without having enjoyed it. .1 did not 
" pretend to be wiser than Nature, nor to fiad my 
'* happiness without the sphere of. those laws which 
" she has prescribed to Man. I longed above all 
" things for a friend to whom 1 could communicate 
V my, pleasures and my pains. I sought him long 
'^ among my equals, but found no one who was not 
" under the dominion of envy. I nevertheless at 
" length lighted on one possessing sensibility, sus- 
" ceptible of gratitude, faithful, and inaccessible to 
" prejudice; : he was not indeed of my own species, 
" but one of the brute creation ; the veiy dog you 
^ see there. He had been exposed while quite a 
" whelp at the- corner of ,a street, where he lay pe- 
** rishing with hung(?r. JVIy compassion was ex- 
*' cited; I lifted him^ up; he conceived an attach- 
^' ment to me, and Imadehim my inseparable coni- 
*' panion. This was not yet sufficieut ; I §tood. in 
N n 4 ^' need 


*' need of a friend still more wretched than a dog; 
'^ one who knew all the evila>of human society, and 
'^ who could assist me in supporting them ; one 
^^ who desired only the blessings which Nature b^ 
** stows, and with whom I could enjoy them. It 
" is only by interlacing their branches that two 
*^ feeble shrubs are capable of resisting the storm. 
** Providence gratified my desire to the uttermost 
" in giving me a good wife. It was at the very 
^* source of wo that I found the fountain of Miss. 
" One night being at the burial place of the Bra- 
" piins, J perceived by moon-light, a young woman 
'* of that caste, half covered with her yellow veil. 
^* At sight of 4 female of the blood of my tyrants, 
" I recoiled with horror, but felt myself attracted 
^* towards her by compassion on seeing tl>e occu- 
** pation in whi?;h she was engaged. She came to 
^* deposit victuals on a little hillock which covereici 
" the ashes of her mother, who * had lately been 
^* burnt alive with the body of her father, confor- 
" mably to the practice of her caste ; and she was 
" now burning incense over it as an invocation of 
" the departed spirit. Tears started to my eyes at 
** sight of one more unfortunate than niyself. I 
" thus meditated : Alas ! I am bound in fetters of 
" infamy, but thou in thos^of gjory : Hive at least 
^* in tranquillity at the bottom of my precipice ; and 
" thou art always trembling on the brink of thine. 
■* The s^me destiny which has robbed thee of thy 
*' mother, likewise threatens to rob thee one day of 
^' thy own life. Thou hast received but a single 
hie and art doomed to die two deaths : if thy 

*' own 



•* own carry thee not to the tomb, that of thy lius- 
** band will drag thee thither while yet alive. I 
" wept, and so did she : our eyes, diffused witti 
** tears, met, and spoke to each other the language 
of the unfortunate : she turned away hers, dropped 
** her veil, and withdrew. 

. ** The night following I repaired to *the same 
*' place. This time she had placed a more ample 
** provisioti on her mother's tomb ; she took it for 
** granted that I might stand in need of some ; aiicl 
** as the Bramins frequently poison those funereal 
" messes, to prevent their being devoured by the 
** Parias, that I might have full confidence in the 
" wholesomeness of hers, she had brought nothing 
** but fmit I was deeply aflfected by this display 
*' of humanity ; and by way of expressing to her 
^' the respect which I entertained for her filial ob- 
*^'lation^ instead of taking lier fruits, ladded fl*>w- 
^* ers to them* They were poppies, stgnifieant of €hc 
*' interest which I took in her sorrow. Next night 
** I saw, with joy, that my homage had been ac- 
** ceptible to her ; the poppies had been waterei^ 
** and she had pat a new basket of fruits at a little 
** distance from the tomb. Pity and gratitude em- 
**'boldened me. Not daring to speak to her as a 
** Paria^ for fear of lowering her dignity, lattempt- 
" ed' as a man to express to her all the affefctidris 
** which'shehad excited in my bosom. According 
** to the custom of India I borrowed the languiig^ 
** of flowers to convey my meaning ; I added ihaJri;^ 
*' goklK' to poppies. The night after I found my 
■* poppi^ and my marigolds copiouslybesprinWed 

*' with 


*< ^^t6 }% venerattdy and ours hd4 in rxi^ofatlon 
" mil tiJvef India. We arc not permitted to ap* 
*' jWOa^ch a City ; and every ISl^ir or Reispoote 
^ HUdy f ftt us to death, if we come within reach of 
*' breathing Ott tliem/' ** By St George,"" cried tht5 
Efiglishmciny ^Mt is ridiculously absurd and detest* 
*' ably nnjust! How hive the Braihins been able 
'^ to persuade fhei Natiolis of Indk to adopt a foHy 
•* so very grdss?'" " By inculcating it upon them 
^' from infamry," said the Paria, ** and by rnces- 
'* santly repeating it : men are taught Irke parrots/' 
*' Unfortunate man !" said the Englishman, " How 
" did you contrive to escape from that abyss of 
" infamy into which the Bramins had thrown you 
" from your birth ? 1 consider nothing to be so 
•* oppressive to a man, as to be rendered vile in his 
" own eyes ; it is to rob him of the first of human 
'* consolations : for the most assured of all, is that 
" which hevfinds on retiring within himself/* 

" I said to myself first of all," replied the Paria, 
" Can the history of the God Brama be founded in 
" truth ? It is related only by the Bramins, who 
" have an interest to Serve in claiming a celestial . 
5* origin: They have undoubtedly feigned the 
** story of a Paria's attempt to rendfer Brama a can- 
" tiibal, to avenge themselves of the Parias, who 
** '^ere slow to admit their pretensioAs to superior 
*' sanctity. I proceeded to rea^n within myself: 
** Supposing the fact to have a foundation in 
*' truth; GOD i« just; it is impossible for h?m to 
** impute to a whole caste the culpability of one 
" of it's ^lembers, land in which the community 
^* has had no concern. But on the supposition 


^* thftt thp whplij ca^ icjf tl}e Par^» ha4* hfea JHr 

^/BOit .hiive J^ep accomplices- GOD P^^ more 
•** punisbes ^ children the s^ns of thei^- jforjefetbew 
" whofm they pever saw, ih^^ be wpuW pu^is^oH 
** gcafidfethens fUe s|i>s fff tl^ir ,gr*pii?cbil4i'©n 
" who^b»d ^at yejt opme j<itp t|3e .^<j«ld Rut let 
** us gp f}^ tf) suppose tl)^t f ^ tl^is 4?y iuy^olved 
**iB the. pitttisjbniient of i ^^i^ pejrfi^liaus to hi« 
" God iwupy thQufai?d years ago, without being 
** at all acc^sary to his fznme ; Wheije is the pps- 
^* sibility «ff any -thipg §i^b$istitjg. i*nflf r .^le difi- 
^ pleasure of GOP, _ without being instantly ^e*- 
*^stroyed? Were I under the curse of 6QD 
^* nothing that I plantjed would grow. ^Fin^Uy, 
'^* aaid I to naysi^lf : suppqsiqg I lie upder the dis»» 
^^ pleasure of GGD, w\^o is jOpntiBually 49i^ag xne 
** good; I ¥?ill endeavour to render myself accept- 
/\ able to him, by following Jijs example, in dping 
^' good to ^Qse whom I ought to hate, '^ 

" But," askpd the Englishman, " How ,did you 
" contrive to live, th^s heppnae an outcast from 
" society?'* " First," s^ys the Indi^n^ *^ I ^gued 
" thus with .niyself : If the whole world i^ thine 
^^ enemy, be thine own friepd, Thy pajaniity sjtiri- 
'^ passes not the pa^iot^ce gnd fortitude pf a ;nan. 
*' Be the rainiever «o licftvy, a little bird fee}s })ut 
- ^ a single drop at pnoe. J w^eqit ^n(o tlje wopds 
^^ and along the bank^ pf riv^^^ in fl^est of fppd; 
^^ but all. I could do wa« ]io^ afid tl^pn tp pick .up 
'' some Avild fruits, ^pd ^11 ,tbe w]>iJ^ i|pd/er ^he 
'^ terror of falling a pr^^y to ferocious anipjals* 
^^Hence .1 di^covei^ that N^t^re b^^ ^^^^Sf^y 

" done 


*' done any thing for solitary man, and that sh& 
•* had attached my existence to that very society 
•* which spumed me from it's bosom. On this I 
" began to frequent abandoned regions, which 
*' abound in India, and I always found in thenfi 
" some alimentary plant which had survived the 
" ruin of him who cultivated it. I travelled thus 
" from Province to Province, assured of finding 
" every where the means of subsistence in the re- 
** fuse of agriculture. When I found the seeds of 
" any useful vegetable, I resowed them, saying, 
** If not to myself, this may prove beneficial to 
" others. I found myself less misetable, seeing it 
** was in my power to do some good. I con- 
" ceived a violent inclination for one thing,, name- 
** ly, to see the interior of some great City. I had 
" admired at a distance their ramparts and their 
** towers, the prodigious concourse of barges on 
" their rivers and of caravans on their great roads, 
" loaded with merchandize to be delivered thejie 
" from every point of the horizon ; troops of sol- 
*• diers on their march thither to mount guard, 
" from the remotest Provinces ; Ambassadors 
" with their numerous and splendid retinues ar- 
" riving from foreign Kingdoms, to announce 
" prosperous events, or to form new alliances. 
•* ly approached the avenues v;hich led to them 
" as near as I durst, contemplating with astonish- 
** ment the lengthened columns of dust raised by 
" such multitudes of travellers, and my heait 
** thrilled with desire iat hearing the confused 
" noise which issues out of great Cities, and which 
'-' in the adjacent fields reseiYibles the murmuring 


*rHE INDIAN COT'i'AfeE, 543 

" of the btllo>^^s when they break on the shore of 
** the sea, I said within myself; A vast assem-^ 
** blage of men.of so many different conditions, 
" contributing toward the common stock their in- 
" dustry, their riches' and their jqys, must render 
" a City the habitation of delight. But I must 
" not enter it by the light of day ; What hinders 
" my stealing in under tlie cloud of night? A 
'^ feeble mouse who has so many enemies, goes 
" and comes whithersoever she lists, under the 
"covert of darkness; she passes from the hut 
*' of the poor man to the palace of Kings. She 
" finds the light of the stars sufficient to conduct 
" her to the enjoyment of life; wherefore should 
** that of the Sun be necessary to me r" 

** I was in the vicinity of Delhi when these 
** reflections passed through my mind;* they em- 
** boldened me to such a degree that I ventured 
" to enter the City as night was setting in: the 
" track I pursued was by the gate of Labor. At 
"first I traversed a long solitary street, formed, 
" to the right and left, of houses skirted by ter- 
*' races, supported by arcades, containing the 
" shops y>f tradesmen* From interval to interval 
" I encountered magnificent caravansaries care- 
** fully shu.t up, and vast bgzat^s or markets, in 
" which the most profound silence reigned. As I 
*' penetrated into the heart of the City, I per- 
" vaded the superb quarter of the Omrahs^ con- 
" sisting of palaces and gardens situated along 
'** the^ banks of the Gemna. Here the air re- 
** echoed with the sound of instruments of music, 
" and of the songs of the Bayaderes^ who were 
^ "cjancing 



"dancing on the rivjefs 8i4e by torch 4ighl- ^ I 
" drew nigh the gate of ^ garcjcn to tiyoy ^ spec- 
" taclc so deliciop$ ; biit was driven b^cjj: by the 
" slaves, who put the miserable to flight by dint 
" of blows. As I drew frpm the quarter of the 
** great, I passed close by $pveral of thp Pagodas 
" consecrated to my religion, where crowds of mi- 
" serable wretches, prostrated qn the grpund, were 
" crying bitterly. I hastened away from the 
" sight of those monumepts of superstitjon and 
" terror. Farther on the shrill voipes of the Jllol- 
" hahsy announcing from on high tlie hours of 
*' the night, informed th^t I was under the turrets 
" of a Mosque. Close by were the f^tpries of 
" the Europeans distinguished by tlieir sev^eral 
" flags, with watchmen incessjintly calling ^loud: 
^^kaber dor I Take care! I afterwards encom- 
" passed a very large building, which I perceived 
•* to be a prison by the clanking of chains a|id ^\e 
" groans of the inhabitants. I soon after he^rd 
** the shrieks of pain issuing from an immense 
" hospital, which was vomiting forth whole (jart- 
" loads of dead bodies. As I proceeded, I met 
** parties of thieves fleeing along the streets, and 
" patrols of guards in close pursuit of them ; 
" groups of beggars who, regardless of the strokes 
** of the ratan, were soliciting at the gates of Pa* 
" laces, for some of the fragments of their fe^ts ; 
*^ and at every corner women prostituting tliem- 
** selves j)uWicly for bread. ^ At last, after a 
*' tedious walk along the same street, I Rr- 
"rived at a prodigious square, which surrounds 
1' the fortress inhabited by the great Mogul. 

ii "It 


^ It was filled with the tents of the Rajahs^ orNa- 
*' bobs of his guard, and of their squadrons, distin- 
^' guished from each otlier by flambeaus, standards^ 
'' and tall canes terminated by the cow*tails of Thi- 
** bet. A brpad ditch full of water, and fortified 
" with artillery, enclosed, as wellas thesquare, the 
** royal fortress on every sidle*. I surveyed, by the 
" help of the guards' fire lights, the towers of the 
" Castle, which pierced the clouds, and the length 
" of its ramparts, which lost themselves in the ho- 
" rizon. I felt a stt^ong inclination to get to tlf& 
'* inside ; but large koraks^ or whips, suspended 
** from stakes, soon cured me <of ali desire of 56 
** mOch as entering the square. I stopped short 
" therefore at one of it's extremities, close by some 
*' negro slaves, who pcnnittted me to nest myself 
" near afire round which they ^eresiitting, I thence 
" cqnitcmplated, with admiration, the Imperial Pa- 
'* lace : This then, said I to myself, istheliabitation 
" of the happiest of mankind ! To enkuve subjection 
'• to his authority so many Rdigioos pi^ach; to 
*^ promote his glory so many Ambassadors arrive j 
" to fill his treasures so many Pi^vinces are ex- 
^' hau8^ed ; to minister to his pleasure so many Ca* 
■ ' ravanj^ travel; and to pi*^serve his accurity it \^ 
" thibt so many armed men keep walbch in silence !"• 

*^ While I was engaged in making these reflec- 
" tions, loud shouts of joy filled the square, and I 
" saw eight camels pass, decorated with streamers. 
'* I found they were loaded with the lieads of rebels 
" which the Mogul's Generals had sent him from 
** the Province of Decan, where one of jbis o^xt 
*' sons, whom he had appointed Governor of it^ 

Vql. IV. N n ': waged 



•* .waged war against him for three years past Socm 
•5 after arrived, at full speed, a courier mounted on 
" a dromedary I he came Mnth news of the loss of a 
-?* frontier City of India, throngh the treachery of 
'*^ one df his Commanders, who had given it up to 
^*: the King of Persia, Scarcely had this messenger 
^/♦gbne by, when another, dispatched by the Go- 
•*• vernor of Bengal, brought ibtelligeuce that cer- 
" tain Europeans, to whom the Emperor for theex- 
** tension of commerce, granted permission to es- 
** tabHsh a factory at the mouth of. the Ganges, 
*' had erected a fort on the spot, which cpmmand- 
*' ed the navigation of the river. A few moments 
" after the arrival of these two couriers, an officer 
" appeared,, coming out of the Castle at the head 
" of a detachment of the giuu-ds. The Mogul had 
'* giv'eii him orders to repair to the quarter of the 
" OmrahSf and to bring to him three of the lughest 
*^ rank. in. irons, to answer a charge .of carrying on 
" a secret in*elLigencfe with the enanies of the State. 
f^ I^eihad commanded a Mulbah to be arrested the 
y evening befoi'e, for having in one of Iiis sermons 
** pronouncecKan;eulogium on tlie King. of Persia, 
.'* and for; haviog dfe<i:lared openly that the Emperor 
^f of the Intilies.wasau infidel, because in violation 
•** of the Law of Mahomet ^ he drank wine. Finally, 
** it was confidiently affirmed, that one of his wives 
** had just Ixen istrangled and thrown into the Gejn- 
." na,. with two Captains of his guard, convicted 
" of being accessory to the;rebellion of Ijis 3on." 
' " While I was meditating on thcsetragicalevents: 
^^ a long column of fire suddenly burst from the 

" kitchens 


'* kitcheiis of the Seraglid : a vast stream ^f shvoke 
" arose arid mingled with the dldiids, and the faddy 
** glare illuminated the t6\vers of the fortress, it's 
" fosses, the square, the sjiiies 6t the City, anil ^k- 
'* tended to the boiilldari^s of th'd hoHzon'. Itrlme- 
*' diately the hage bdpper tyiltb'als, and the KdrnctSj 
*' Or great hautboys 6f the guard, sounded the 
"alarm with a fearful noise: sqtiadronfe of cavalry 
'• gallopped over the City, breaking open the doors 
" of the houses adjoining to the Castle, and driving 
" their inhabitants with reiterated strokes of the 
*' korahy to assist in extinguishing the flames. : I 
"myself had proof how dangerous the vidnity of 
"the great is to the little. The great are like the 
'* fire, which burns even those who thrdw incense 
" into it, if they approach too nigh. I wished to 
" make my escape, but all the avenues of the square 
" were obstructed. It would have been iriipossible 
" for me to get away, unless, by the Providence of* 
" GOD, the side on which I took iny station had 
" been that of the Seraglio. As the eunuchs were 
'* removing the women on elephants, they facilitated 
*' my elopement. For while the guards an all sides 
" were whipping the people to hasten them to assist 
** at the Castle, the elephants, by dealing about 
"strokes of their proboscis, obliged thein to re- 
" treat. Thus, sometimes pursued by the otle, 
** sometimes driven back by the ofher, I at length 
" got clear of this frightful chaos : and try the. light 
** of the conflagration, I reached the farther extre* 
" mity of the suburb, where, under huts, and far 
'' removed from the great, the people were resting 
N n 2 ' *' quietly 


** from their Ijibours, Tliiere I begaa to recmeir 

" breatk I said >v]thiiiiiiyself : Well then, I have 

" seen a City f I have seea the ^Uode of the Lords 

•^ ef thf Nations ! Oh f of how maay masters are not 

" they tliemsely«s the slaves ! They obey, even at th«t 

** season of repose^ the tyrante of yoUiptuoushess, 

" of ambition, of superstition, of avarice : they are 

" exposed, even m sleep, to a multitude of misera- 

^ ble and malefic beings vsho surround them, rob- 

*' bers, mendicants, caufte;cau3, incendiaries, to say 

** nothing ef their soldiers, their grandees, and their 

** priests. What must a City i^e in the day time, 

*' if it be tlius disturbed i^n the i^ight? The calami- 

" ties of man increase with his enjoyments. How 

" much is the Emperor to be pjtied, in whom they 

" all centre ? He has danger to apprjehendfrpm wars 

" foreign and domestic, iiay from the very objects 

** which are his consolation and defence, his gene- 

" rals, his guards, his malhahs^ his wives and. his chil- 

" dren. The ditches which encompass his Castle 

*^ are unable to exclude the phantoms of super- 

'' stition, and his elephants^ so ciiriously disci- 

•* plined, unable to keep gloomy care at a distance 

*' from him. Foil my own part I ai^ haunte4: with 

** no such terrors : no tyrant exercisjes^donnnion 

" over either my bo^y of my i^iind. I have it in 

•* my power to serve GOD according to my con- 

" science, and 1 have nothing to fear from Man, 

'^ unless I choose to bepotne a self- tormentor : of a 

" truth a Paria is less mjserable tlian an Emperor. 

V On uttering these words the teai-s rushed to my 

*:' eyes; and falling on my knees, I offered up thanks 

'' * *^to 

**^ to Heaven for having, to teacli me how to siip- 
** port my owti distresses, shewn tne wretchedness 
^^ far more intoleraWe'tlmn'' mine. 

^^ Frofh that tifnc ferwaid I conftneti my rani- 
'** bles towards I>dTn to tlie sut)drbs ; jtotA' thence 
^* I beheld the star^ ilKmune the habitations cff 
" men, ami mingle withthcirfire6, as if tlie H^aVens 
* * and the City had formed hit t one domain. When 
^* the Moon appeared to anli'ghten' that land^ca'pe, 
** I perceived colours diffiised ov^r it varying from 
'*M3fie tints of day. I ad mired the towea-s, the houses 
^* and the trees, 2^ oi*ce silvered aver and clad in 
'* sable, softly reflected ata distance from tliesmootk 
*^ surface of the Gemna. I traversed in perfect li- 
*' berty tlie vast salitary and silent quarters fliat sur- 
^* round the capital, and'thcnit was I considered the 
^' whole City as raiy own. Humanity,- nevertheless!, 
•** would have refused me a handful of rice in it, ia 
'*' such a detestable li^i* had Religion placed me. 
**' Unable therefore to find subsistence among thfe 
**' living, I went in (joest of lit among tlie dead : I 
•** frequented the cemeteries, and ate the food de- 
^* posited *hy pious affection riil t^he toiiilis of de- 
^* parted relatidns. Iri places siich as tfeese I de- 
^' Ugh ted to tnuic. i said foWyseTf : This is tlic 
** City of peace ; ti^i' poweo* aind pride are seen no 
'^more; innocence and virtue ai^ incomplete se- 
^' curity : heree lie* dead all tl^ tl^rrofs which haunt- 
^* ed life, even tWat of dying : this^ is the inn where 
*^ the carmiu has for ever unyokjed \m team, and 
^' where the Paria finds repoS^e. la meditating 
^' ihiis, dc'ath apj^eared to me aja atyect of desire, 
N o 3 *' and 


^* and I began to look down upon the world. I 
** turned iny pyes toward the E^st, out of which 
** every moment arose a multitude of stars. Tliough 
f' their destination was unknown to me, I felt that 
** their destiny was alHed to that of Man, and that 
'* Nature who has accommod^ited to his necessities 
^^ so m»ny objects which he sees not, had at least 
^* rendered visible objects a matter of importance to 
^' hiui. My soul then ascended into the firmament 
*f wjth the stars, an^d when Aurora returned to blend 
f' with their gentle and unchanging lustre, her own 
" rosy tints, I thought myself at the gates of Hea- 
** ven. But as soon as the dawn, brightened into 
** the fire ofd?iy, gilded the pags^dos, Idisappeared 
^^ like a shadow : I withdrew, far from the haunts 
^* of men, to rest myself in the fields at the foot of 
** a tree, where I was lulled to sleep by the music of 
*^ the grove," 

*' Sensible and unfortunate mortal !" said the 
^Englishman, "Your story is wonderfully affecting : 
■^ most Cities, believe me, can bear to be viewed 
" only in the night, After all. Nature arrays her- 
" self in nocturnal beauties, whiqh are not the least 
" attractive ; an eminent Poet of my country has 
'^ celebrated no other. But, tell me; how did you 
" at last contrive to repder yourself happy by the 
"light of day r 

^' It was a great poipt gained,'* replied the Inr 
dian, ** to be happy in the night. Nature resembles 
"a beautiful woman, who in the day time exhibits 
" the charms of her face only; to the vulgar eye, 
*' and unveil^ more hidden beauties to her lover 

^* when 


** when it is night. But if soiitude has it's pecu-* 
" liar enjoy ments^.^ it it Ukeivise subjecied./to it's' 
'* privations : ibappt^trs to tlm child. of misfortune 
" as a quiet harbour from ivh^ce ha beholds the- 
"tide of otlier- jneU'a^'pglssipirs roU.oti, without be-* 
^/ ing hiaiself h<jrHed*along-Tby the current; but, 
*if while he congratulates hlji>3eJfon beipg iiDmove- 
*-.aWe, 4;iHie is iiwensibly rcarrying him clowu the 
"stream; .There is no sqch thing, as casting an- 
" chorin the river of human; life ; it sweeps away 
" together-the mi^n who struggles against it's flux, 
" and him whOj- voluntarily goes with it; the wise 
" man and the fooK and both reach the t;ermination' 
" of life, the one after having abused it, and the 
" other without having enjoyed it. . I did not 
*' pretend to be wiser than Nature, nor to find my 
'' happiness without the sphere of. those laws which 
" she lias prescribed to Man. I longed above all 
*^ things for a friend to whom 1 could communicate 
V my, pleasures and my pains. I sought him long 
" among my equals, but found no one who was not 
" under the dominion of envy. I nevertheless at 
"length lighted on one possessing sensibility, sus- 
*^ ceptible of gratitude, faithful, and inaccessible to 
" prejudice : he was not indeed of my own species, 
*^ but one of the brute creation ; the very dog you 
^ see there. He had been exposed while quite a 
" whelp at the- corner of ,a street, where he lay pe- 
'* rishing with hunger. My compassion was ex- 
" cited; I lifted hin\ up; he conceived an attach- 
^' ment to me, and Ipjadehim my inseparable com- 
^' paniou* This was npt; yet suflScieut ; I §tood. in 
N n 4 ^' need 


^* need of a friend still more wretched than a dog; 
" one who kne«r all the evil»of human society, and 
^^ who could assist me in supporting them ; one 
** who desired only the blessings which Nature b^- 
** stows, and with whom I could enjoy thenri. It 
^' is only by interlacing their branches that two 
^^ feeble shrubs are capable of resisting the storm. 
** Providence gratified my desire to the uttermost 
" in giving me a good wife. It was at the very 
" source of wo that I found the fountain of Miss. 
*^ One night being at the burial place of the Bra- 
" mins, I perceived by moon-light, a young woman 
'* of that caste, half covered with her yellow veil. 
^* At sight of 2\, female of the blood of my tyrants, 
" I recoiled with horror, but felt myself attracted 
^* towards her by compassion on seeing the occu- 
" pation in whip h she was engaged. She came to 
^* deposit victuals on a little hillock which covered 
" the ashes of her mother, who - had lately been 
^* burnt alive with the body of her father, confer- 
** mably to the practice of her caste ; and she was 
" now burning incense over it as an invocation of 
•* the departed spirit. Tears started to my eyes at 
** sight of one more unfortunate than myself. I 
" thus n>editatecl : Alas ! I am bound in fetters of 
" infamy, but thou in thoseof gjory : Hive at least 
^* in tranquillity at the bottom of my precipice ; and 
" thou art always trembling on the brink of thine. 
■^ The same destiny which has gobbed thee of thy 
" mother, likewise threatens to rob thee one day of 
^* thy own life. Thou hast received but a single 
^^ life and art doomed to die two deaths : if thy 

** own 


•' own carry thee not to the tomb, tliat of thy hoas- 
** band will drag thee thither while yet alive. I 
" wept, and so did she : our eyes, diffused with 
^ tears, met, and spoke to each other the language 
of the unfortunate: she turhed away hers, dropped 
** her veil, and withdrew. 

. ** The night following I repaired to *th^ same 
*' place. This time she had placed a more ample 
** provision on her mother's tomb ; she took it for 
*' granted that I might stand in need of some ; arnd 
** as the Bramins frequently poison those funereal 
" messes, to prevent their being devoured by the 
*' Parias, that I might have full confidence iti the 
" wholesomeness of hers, she had brought nothing 
'* but fmit I was deeply aifected by this display 
*' of humanity ; and by way of expressing to her 
" the respect which I' entertained for her filial ob- 
*^'lation^ instead of taking her fruits, ladded fltnr- 
^'^ers to them. They were poppies, significant of the 
** interest which I took in lier sorrow. Next night 
** I saw, with joy, that my homage had been ac- 
** ceptible to her ; tlie poppies had been waterei^ 
** and she had pat a new basket of fruits at a little 
** distance from the tomb. Pity and gratitude em- 
** boldened me. Not daring to speak to her as a 
** Pariaj for fear of lowering her dignity, lattempt- 
" edas a man to express to her all the affiefctidris 
*^ which'shehad excited in my bosom. Accordlnj^ 
** to the custom of India I borrowed the languiig^ 
** of flowers to convey ray meaning ; I added ihrfri:^ 
** gokls' to poppies. The night after I found my 
■* poppi^ and my marigolds copiously besprinkled 

'' with 


'* with water. Next night I waxed bolder ; to tlie 
'* poppies and marigolds I added a flower ofjoulsa- 
** paite^ employed by shoemakers to dye their lea- 
'^ ther black, as the expression of an humble and 
" unfortunate love. I flew to tlic tomb with the 
'^ first dawn of the morning; but had the mortifi^ 
" cation to see the foukapatte withered, because it 
*' liad not been watered. The following night I 
'^ planted, with a trembling band, a tulip whose 
'^ red petals and black heart represented the flame 
*' which preyed upon me. In the morning I found 
'^ my tulip in the same state with Hie Joukapatfe. 
•* I was overwhelmed with grief; nevertheless the 
'' day after I brought to the place a rose-bud with 
** the thoras upon it, the symbol of my hopes, 
*^ blended with mortal apprehension. But who can 
*^ describe my despair, when I saw, by the rays of 
**. Aurora, my rose*bud removed entirely from the 
** tomb ! I thought J should have gone distracted. 
" Let what would be the consequence, I resolved 
** tospeak to her. The night following, as soon as 
" slie appeared, I threw myself at her feet, but 
" without the power of utterance, presented my rose 
" to her. She broke silence, and said ; Unfortunate 
** man ! thou talkest to me of love, and in a little 
" while I shall be no more. I must, like my mo- 
" ther, accompany my husband to the funeral pile. 
" He is just dead. He was an old man, I was mar- 
** ried to him while a child : farewel; retire, and 
"forget me ;. in three days I shall be reduced to a . 
" handful of ashes. She uttered these words with 
•' a sigh. Penclrated with grief, I said to l\er: 

^' Wretched 


^^ Wretched Prsitnine, Nature has burst asunder the 
V ties which Society had imposed uppn thee; finish 
" th^ work by breaking off those of superstition. 
*^ It rs now in your power, in accepting me as your 
" husl>and. How ! replied she, in a flood of tears, 
*M flee from death to live .with thee in a state of 
*f degradation I Ah if thou lovest me, leavp me and 
*'Iet me die, GOD forbid, exclaimed I, that I 
^^shouid attempt to draw you outr of your own <?a' 
•* lamities, only to involve you in mine! My be- 
*MQved,3raminc, let us flee together to the reccs^ 
*^ of tbe/prests ;« it is still better to put confide^ncc 
^' in tigers than in men. But that Heaven in which 
• ' I trust will uot abandon us. Let us flee : love, 
*' the nigiat, thy unhappy situation, thy innocence, 
^* all, all favour us. I^t us make haste, ill-fated wi- 
" dow ! Thy funeral pile is already prepared, and 
*' thy dead husband is calling thee to it. Poor 
'* downcast ivy r^st thy feebleness on me. I will 
" be thy supporting palm-tree. On this she cast, 
" with a sigh,. ,ft look on her mother's tomb, then 
** raising her eyes to Heaven, and dropping one of 
'* her hands into mine, with the other she accepted 
♦* ray rose. I immediately caught her by the arm, 
** and we began our march, I. threw her veil into 
♦' the Ganges, to make her relations believe she had 
*• drowned herself in it. We travelled several nights 
*' by the rive? side, concealing ourselves during the 
•' day in the rice-grounds. We at length arrived 
'* in this part of the country which war had for- 
'^ n^erly thinned of inhabitants, I penetrated into 

'' the 


** die bosom of this wood, where I have built the 
** <*ottage which' now covers you, and planted a 
" little garden ; and here w« live hi perfect happi- 
" ncss. I revere my wife as the Sun, and I love 
*• het zn the IWoOrt. In this solitude we are the 
^* i^hole world to each other : we were despised of 
•• mankind ; but as we mutually esteem each othcr^ 
* the prtiises which I bestow on her, or receive 
•* from her, cofrnminrcate to us a purer delight than 
•* the applausi^ of Nations could confer.** As he 
pronounced these words', he looked first on his in- 
font in the crddle, then oii his wife who was shed- 
in^= tears of joy. 

The Doctor, as he vnptd away his own, said to 
his host: " Of a truth, that which iS' highly ho- 
** noured of men frequently merits their contempt, 
** and what tiiiey despise often*deserv*es to behrghly 
" esteemed- But GOD is just : you afe a thbusand 
** times happier m your obscurityi than the Chie^ 
*' of the Bramitls of Jagrenat in all his glory. He is 
^* exiposcd, as is his whole caste, to afll the revolutions 
"of fortime; on the Bramins principally fall most 
** of the plagues occasioned by the civil and foreign 
" wars which have for so m^ny ages desolated your 
*• beautiful country: to them aiie addressed the de- 
^' mands of forced contributions, b^fcauseof the emV 
^* pirc which theyexercise over public opinion. Bat* 
" themostciiiel circumstance in theif condition is 
** this, they are themselves the first victims'of their 
" owninhuman Religion. By dint of preaching error, 
^* they embibeit themselves sothorongWy as to lose 

** all sense of truth, of justic?^ of humanity,, of 
" piety ; tlxey ar* bpuqcl ip X\\e: fetters of supersti- 
" tion whjch they wb^Jto r^vet raun4 the necks of 
** their country mea; they are obliged to peribrni 
^^ ince^ant ablutioB3 an4 purifications, and ri- 
'^ gorou$}y tp $iit)sjt;aii> froin innumerable harmless 
" enjoyiTicnts j finally, what cannot be mentionedi 
** without hprrar, as one of the consequences 'of 
" their barbarous dogmas, they heljpld their near^ 
^' est fcmaje relations burnt ajive, tlieir mothersi 
*' their sisters, their own daughters : thHs No^ure^ 
^' whose larws they violate, intiicts p^pishmcnt ctu 
" them. As for- you, it is in your pp^wer tphf sin-^ 
*^ cere, good, just, hospitable, pious.; wxd ypu es- 
'^ cape the strokes of fortune apd the mischiefs of 
*' opinion, by the very meanness of your station,'* 

After fhis conversation, the Paria J:ook leave^ 9f 
his guest, and left him to enjoy l^ijs repose, and 
retired with his wife and his child in th^ cradle^ 
into a small adjoining apartment 

Next morning, at the dawn, the Doctor was 
awakened by the singing of tl.e birds, . nestled in 
the branches pf the Indian fig- tree,^ and by the 
voices of tlie Paria and his wife, who were offers 
ing up together their m^tin prayer- He arose, 
and was not a little vexed, when on the good 
couple's opening their door tp bid him good 
morrow, he discovered there wa* no bed in tha 
cottage but the nuptial couch, and th^t they had 
watched all night long to accpmmodiite him with 
it After ha viijg saluted him with the sulam^ they 
hastened to prepiare breakfast Meaawhile he went 


558 SEQUEL to tHE stuDfi;s ar natubIt- 

to take a turn in the garden : he found it, like the 
hut, encompassed by arcades of Indian fig-tree, so 
closely interw^oven as to form a hedge impenetra- 
ble even to the eye. He only perceived rising 
above the foliage the red-coloured sides of the 
rock which flanked the valley in every direction : 
there issued from it a small spring which watered 
the artlessly disposed garden. In all the wild \'a- 
riety of Nature were to be seen the mangaustan^ 
the orange, the cocoa, the litchis; the durion^ the 
mango, the jacquie7% the banana, and many other 
vegetables, dressed in flowers or loaded with fruits. 
Their very trunks were covered with them ; the 
betel winded round, the arequa palm-tree, and the 
pepper plant along the sugar-cane. The air was 
impregnated with their perfumes. Though most 
of the trees were still in the shade, the first rays 
of Aurora already illuminated their summits ; there 
were to be s^en fluttering about the colibris, spark- 
ling with the glowing tints of the ruby and the 
topaz, while the Bengali and the sensa-soulisy or 
five hundred voices, concealed under the humid 
foliage, emitted their delicious liotes in con- 
cert from their nests. The Doctor was w^alking 
under these enchanting shades, totaUy disengaged 
from scientific and ambitious ideas, when the Paris 
came out to call him to breakfast. " Your garden 
" is ddightfuV* said the Englishman :' ** I find no 
" fault with it, but that it is too small: had I been 
" in your place I should have enclosed a spot for 
"a bowling*green, and borrowed a httle more 
" from the forest." *' Sir,' replied the Paria, " the 
" less room one occupies, the more easily is he 

** sheltered: 


*/ sheltered : a single leaf serves for a nest to tire 
^* humming-ibird." While he spake they entered 
the cottage, whei:e they found the Paria's wife id a 
coiiier suckling her infant: she had ^rved up 
breakfast.; iAfter a silent repast; the Doctor pre- 
paring to take his leave, ^ the Indian said to \Amt 
" My, much respected guest, the plains are still in- 
". undated with the rains of the night; the road)? 
",are unpassable; spend this day with us." It is 
"not in my power," said the Doctor, *^my retinue 

^' J6 itK)0^ numerous/' "I sed how it is/' ansM^ered the 
Pa,ria, . *^ you aie in ha^s^te to guit.the country of 

" the Bramins, and to return- to that .6f Christians, 
" .whose religiop. teaches all men to livp together 
'' as brothers." The Doctor rose from his plate 
with, a sigh; on which the Paria made a sign, to 
his wjfe,; who, with downcast eyes, 'and ^without 
utteripg a^ word, presented the Doctor with a' has-* 
ket of flowers and fruit. The Paria, supply inglher 
W4pt. of speech, said to the Englishman; ''Sir,* 
^/ have the goodness to excuse our poverty: we* 
*' have neither ambergrise i?Qr aloes wood to pcr- 
" fume our guests, after, the manner of Jndi^; .wc 
"have on^y flowers anc| fr;^its ; but I hope yo^ix 
" -will not disdain to accept this little basket filled 
" by the hands of my wife : it coataips neitlier 
" ppppies nor marigolds, but jasmin, some mougris- 
" and bergamot, the symbol, from the d^iration of 
" their perfumes, of the aflfection which we bear 
'^ you, and of which the recollection will remain 
" with us when we shall see you no more." The* 
Doctor took. the basket and said to the; Paria: " I 
*' want language to express the grateful aensc. I 
5 *'have 


•* have of your hospitality, and to convey an idea 
^* of the esteem I bear you : please to accept of 
^ this gold watch; it is one ofGraham\ the most 
** eminent artist in London ; it nei^s winding up 
" cmly once a year/* " Sir," replied the Paria, 
** we have no occasion for a watch : there is one 
" provided for us whose motion is pei^etual, and 
*' which is never out of order : I mean the Sutu^^ 
" My watch strikes the hobrs,'- subjoined the Doc- 
^ ton Our birds sing them," answered the Paria. 
*^ Accept, at least'' said the Doctor, ^^ of these 
" strings of coral to make red necklaces l^or your 
" wife ami child.'* '' My wife and child,** replied 
•* the Indian, call never want red necklaces so 
•• loi^g as our garden shall product tire peas0 of 
'* Angola.'* *• Take then,'^ said the Doctor, « these 
•* pistols to defend you from thieves in thfs soli- 
•' tude.'* " Poverty," said the Paria, ** is A bulwark 
•* which keeps all thieves at a distance; thesilrer 
" mounting of your pistols would be a ttmptatioii 
** to attack u$. In the name of the G^if wlw pro- 
•• tects us, and from whom we expect «our re^va^d. 
** do not seek to rob us of the price of dnr hos- 
^ pitality/*- ^* I could wish however,'* J-e|ilied the 
£ngtishman) '" to leave; some token of remem- 
•* fera!i<>e behind me.*^ ** Well, my honoured 
"guest,"' said the Paria, " since you iusistupon 
*^ it, may I presume to propose an exchange? 
*^ Give me your pipe, aiid accept of mine: as 
" often as I smoke from yoursj I shall grate- 
•* fully recollect that tl>e European Pandect 
" did n^ot think himsdf dishonoured- in accept- 
•Mng 1*16 hospitality of a poor Paria/' On this 



the Doctor prwented to him Ws pipe o£ Englidi 
kather-manufacture, the moudi of which was cf 
yellow amber, axui received that: of the Paria in r«« 
t^ro, whose tube \m a bamboo, ajid the^bowl of 
baked earth. 

He then wmmonedUf; attendanjts^who were quit# 
stupefied with the comfortless night whkh they ha4 
passed ; and, having embraced the Paria, mounted 
his palanquin. The Paria's wife, iq tears, stopped at; 
the threshold of the* cottage, with her infamt in heir 
arms ; but the husband accampa^ed the Doctor to 
the outlet of the wood, pouring out his he»rt in bl^s* 
sings^upon him. ^'May God reward you,'* said jte> 
** for your goodness to the miserable ! May He ac- 
** cept me as a sacrifice in your stead ! May he grant 
*^ you a prosperous voyage to England, that land of 
** learned men and friends, who range over the whole 
** Globe in quest of truth, to promote the happiness 
•* of mankind!'* The Doctor replied; "I have visited 
" half the Globe, and lound, wherever I went, error 
*• and discord only i never did I meet with, truth and 
" happiness till I entered your cottage/' As he pro- 
nounced those words they separated from each other, 
not without shedding 'tears. The Doctor had made 
a considerable progress over the plain while he still 
perceived the good Paria at the foot of a tree, waving 
his hands in token of bidding him a last adieu. 

The Doctor, on his return to Calcutta, embarked 

for Chandernagore, and thence set sail for England. 

Being arrived at London, he sent his fourscore and 

ten bales of manuscripts to the President of the Royal 

VoL.lV. Oq Society, 



I ...» 

Sodety^who deposited them in the Bridsh Museum^ 
where the literati and journalists continue to employ 
themselves to this day in making translations of 
di^m, concordances, panegyrics, dissertations, criti- 
dsms and pamphlets. As to the Doctcn: himself^ he 
was satisfied with retaining the P^uia'sthree answers 
relative to truth. He frequently smoked from his 
pipe ; ind when interrogated respecting the most 
useful discoveries he had made on his travels, he 
replied : *' Truth must be sought for with singleness 
** of heart ; it is to be found only in Nature j it is 
^ to be told only to the good :'^ to which he added : 
^ a man is happy only with a good wife, " . 


HLUfytr, Prittter, Bri^ge-Strcety Blackfriars, Londaiw 

■ .■;■ -^ r JOPTWVBippHi 


•• .\raged war against him for three years past Soon 
•** after arrived, at full speed, a courier mouutcd on 
** a dromedary ; he came withnews of the loss of a 
-^* frontier City of India, through the treachery of 
'*^one off his Commaoders, who had given it up to 
**. the King of Persia. Scarcely had this messenger 
•*?<'gbne by, \rhen another, dispatched by the Go- 
*• vernor of Bengal, brought itatelligeuce that cer- 
** tain Europeans, to whom the Emperor for the cx- 
" tension of commerce, granted permission to es- 
^* tabHsh a factory at the mouth of the Ganges, 
*' had erected a fort on the spot, which command* 
*' ed the navigation of the river. A few moments 
" after the arrival of these two couriers, an officer 
'' api)eartd«. coining out of the Castle at the head 
" of a detachment of the guards. The Mogul had 
" giveii him orders to repair to the quarter of the 
" Omrahy and to bring to him three of the lughest 
" rank. in. irons, to answer a charge of carrying on 
" asecret mtelligence with the enemies of the State. 
f' I{eihad eommanded a Malbah to be arrested the 
;^' evening befoi*^, for having in one of his sermons 
*' pronounceicKan;eulogium on the King, of Persia, 
^* and for luving dtclared openly that the Emperor 
^\ of the In^eaAvasau infidel, because in violation 
■** of the Law<;)f MahomQt^ he dranjc wine. Finally, 
** it was confidently affirmed, that one of his wives 
•* had just been strangled and thrown into the.Giejn- 
." na,. with two Captains of his guard, convicted 
" of being accessory to the. rebellion of Ijis son." 
" While I was meditating on thesetragicaleventsi 
^* a long column of fire suddenly burst from the 

** kitchens 

tnt li^biA^ coTtAtiE. " 647 

'* kitcheiis of the Ser^glid : a vast stream 6'f smoke 
*' arose arid mingled ^vith the dlduds, and the fUddy 
^* glare illuminated the t6wers of the fdrtress, it's 
" fosses, the square, the spires 6^ the City, an*d ^k- 
'* tended to the boundaries of the hoHzon. liilme- 
^' diately the huge cdpper tymbals, and the Rarnas, 
*' Or great hautboys Of the guard, sounded the 
"alarm with a fearful noise : sqtiadronfe of cavalry 
*• gallopped over the City, breaking open the doors 
" of the houses adjoining to the Castle, and drivltig 
" their inhabitants with reiterd.ted strokes of the 
^' korah, to assist in extinguishing the flames. ' I 
"myself had proof how dangerous the vielnity of 
"the great is to the httle. The great are like the 
'* fire, which burns even those who thrOw incense 
" into it, if they approach too nigh. I wished to 
" make my escape, but all the avenues of the square 
" were obstructed. It would have bebii ihipossible 
" for me to get away, unless, by the Providencfe ot^ 
" GOD, the side on which I took my station ha(( 
" been that of the Seraglio. As the eunuchs were 
'* removing the women on elephants, they facilitated 
*' my elopement. For while the guards an all sides 
" were whipping the people to hasten them to assist 
** at the Castle, the elephants, by dealing about 
** strokes of their proboscis, obliged fherii to re- 
" treat. Thus, sometimes purlsued by the oile, 
*' sometimes driven back by the ofher, I att length 
" got clear of this frightful chaos : and by the.light 
*' of the conflagration, I reached the farther extre- 
" mity of the suburb, where, under huts, and far 
'^ removed from the great^ the people were resting 
N n 2 ' u qyj^iQii^ 



" from their labours. Tliere I begaa to rccm« 

" breath. I said )vithiu myself : Well then, I have 

*^ seen a City f I have seen the abode of the Lords 

•* ef thf Nations ! Oh I of how maay masters arc not 

" they tliemselves the slaves I They obey, even at tht 

** season of repose^ the tyrants of voUiptuoustiess, 

" of ambftion, of superstition, of avarice : they are 

** exposed, even m sleep, to a multitude of misera- 

^ ble and malefic beings who surround them, rob* 

*' hers, mendicants, courteous, incendiaries, to say 

** nothing of their soldiers, their grandees, and theif 

priests. What must a City l^e in the day time, 

** if it be tlius disturbed in the i^ight? The calami- 

" ties of man increase with his enjoyraeuts. How 

" much is the Emperor to he pjtied, in whom they 

" all centre ? He has danger to apprehend from wars 

" foreign and domestic, nay from the very objects 

" which are his consolation and defence, his gene- 

" rals, his guards, his malhahs^ his wives and his chil- 

*' dren. The ditches which encompass his Castle 

*^ are unable to exclude the phantoms of supcr- 

*' stition, and his eleph;ants, so curiously disci- 

•* plined, unable to keep gloomy care at a distance 

*' from him. Foil my own part I aip haunted with 

"no such terrors: no tyrant exercises dominion 

" over either my body or my mind. I have it in 

" my power to serve GOD according to my con- 

" science, and 1 have nothing to fear from Man, 

** unless I choose to bepome a self- tormentor : of a 

" truth a Paria is less iniserable tjxan an Emperor. 

V On uttering these words the tears rushed to my 

V eyes; and falling on my knees, I offered up thanks 

. * *'to 


**' to Heaven for liaving, to teacH me how to sup- 
^* port my own distreslses, sliewn me wretchedness 
*^ far more intolerable tlmu mine. 

'^' FroAi that titne ^rwaii'd I eon fined my rani- 
''^ bles towards I>dTn to tlie stifcurbs; frotA thence 
^* I beheld the stats inuniine the habitations cff 
" men, ami miBgle with their fires, as iftlie H^aVens 
*^ and the City had formed but one domain. When 
^' the Moon appeared to enlighteiV tliat landscape, 
** I perceived c^l(i>uTS diffused ov^r it va;rying from 
•*M39ie tints of day. I ad mired the towers, tlie houses 
^* and the trees, a!t once silvered over and clad in 
^' sable, softly reflected ata distance from tliesmootk 
** surface of the Gemna. I travfirsed m perfect li- 
'* berty the vast solitary aiitl silent quarters t^aatsur- 
^* round the capital, and then it was I considered the 
'' whole City as my own. Humanity, * nevertlieless^ 
*^ would have refused me a handful of rice in it, in 
^^ such a detestable li^:rt; had Religion placed me. 
*** Unable therefore to find subsistence among the 
*** living, I went in (joest of it among tile dead : I 
•*• frequented the cemeteries, and ate the food de- 
^* posited by pious affection riil tl^e tomlis df de- 
*^ parted relatibns. Iri places siich as tfeese I de* 
^' Ugh tied to ta\ii€. I'saW tomyst\iz This is tlie 
*' City oi^ peace; KcHi' powej- aind pride are seen uo 
'"more; innocence and virtue ar<e incomplete se- 
** curity : her^ He'dead all the ti^rrors which haunt- 
^* ed life, even that of dying : this is the inn where 
^^ the carman'has for ever unyoked^hiV t^am, and 
*' where the Paria finds rcpoi^e. In meditating 
*' £hjus, dc'ath appeared to m6 an ^Dlyect of desire, 

N « 3 "and 


^* tABte k venerated, and ours hdd in ex^ciSation 
'< flli tivtt India. We are not pennitted to ap- 
•* j^Oa^h a City ; and every Nalw or Retspoate 
^ ttiiy fn% us to death, if we come within reach of 
** breathing on them/* " By St George,'' cried the 
Eftglishmdn, *' it is ridiculously absurd and dftest- 
^ ably nnjust ! How hive the Bramins been able 
** to persuade the Nations of India to adopt a folly 
^ so very gross?'* " By inculcating it upon them 
^* from infancy," said the Paria, ** and by races- 
'* santly repeating it : men are taught like parrots." 
^* Unfortunate man T said the Englishman, '' How 
" did you contrive to escape from that abyss of 
*' infamy into which the Bramins had thrown you 
" from your birth ? 1 consider nothing to be so 
** oppressive to a man, as to be rendered vile in his 
'' own eyes ; it is to rob him of the first of human 
*^ consolations : for the most assured of all, is tha( 
*' which lievfinds on retiring within himself.** 

** I said to myself first of all," replied the Paria, 
" Can the history of the God Brama be founded in 
"truth? It is related only by the Bramins, who 
•' have an interest to Serve in claiming a celestial , 
** origin: They have undoubtedly feigned the 
" story of a Paria's attempt to render Brama a can- 
" hibal, to avenge theniselves of the Parias, who 
^* were slow to admit their pretensions to superior 
" sanctity. I proceeded to reason within myself: 
" Supposing the fact to have a foundation in 
*' truth; GOD is just; it is impossible for him to 
•* impute to a whole caste the culpability of one 
" of it's piembers, ^nd in which the community 
** has had no concern. But on the supposition 

" thati 

^¥5 fijrpiAiff C9;TTA9E, ^4,1 

^* that \h^ whole csu&lte 9f tl}e Par^» had* hpea iar 
*f volved m tjiat cyimiaiUity, t^^r p^terity cc^iUl 
'* BOIt .hive j^evi accop^plices. .GOJll ipo mpre 
•** punishes on children tbe s^ns of thei^- jforefethew 
*' whoim ihey pev€r saw, thj^n be wpuW pu^isJ^pn 
" gcafidf^theip the m^ ffi tl^eir gr^jai^childreii 
" wha h*d '^at yejt oome jiitp t})e W9fi^* But let 
** us go ^on tp suppose tb^t f ^ this 4*y iuyolved 
^ in the; pupishment of ^ f^i^ perfidious to h» 
" God maqy thoujai^d years ago, without bekig 

^ " at all ai5<3€3saiy tp hjs Qriunfi ; Wher»e is the pps- 
** sibility «tf ^ny thipg subsisting w^fl^r rtbe difi- 
^ pleasure of GOP, without being instantly d^ 
*^stroyed? Were I under the curse of idrOD 
** nothing that I plantted would grow. JFin^Uy, 
<* said I to nays^lf : supposing I lie upder the dis^^ 
^^ pleasure of GOD, who is ^pntinually 4oi^g xne 
** good; I will endeavour to render myself accept- 

_ ." able to him, by following >bis exanfipk, in dping 
^* good to .^ojse whom I ought to hate," 

" But,'' ask^d tbe Englishman, " How did you 
** contrive to live, th^is bepome aiji outcast fxom 
" society?" " First,'' s^ys ihe Indijan^ ** I^gued 
" thus with .myself: If the whole world is thine 
" enemy, be thine own friepd. Thy qalaniity spri- 

. ** passes not the patietijce snd fortitude pf a pian. 
** Be the rain^ever so hcftvy, a littlp bird feeU f)ut 
■^ a single drop at pnoe. J weijit ^n^o tl^e woods 
** and along the bank^ pf riv^f^ in fl»est of fpqd; 
'* but all. I could do wai poiiv ajid tbpn tp pick ,up 
*' some wild fruits, ftpd fill ,|be whil? Hpd^r \hM 
*^ terror of falling a prey to ferocious apiwals* 
" Hence .1 discovered that N^tijire hg^ ^q^vf^fly 

" done 


** done any thing for solitary man, and that shft 

•* had attached my existence to that very society 

•* which spumed me from it's bosom. On this I 

** began to frequent abandoned regions, which 

^' abound in India, and I always found in thend 

*' some alimentary plant which had survived the 

" ruin of him who cultivated it. I travelled thus 

** from Province to Province, assured of 6nding 

** every where the means of subsistence in the re- 

•* fuse of agriculture. When I found the seeds of 

" any useful vegetable, I resowed them, saying, 

** If not to myself, this may prove beneficial to 

•* others. I found myself less miserable, seeing it 

** was in my power to do some good. I con- 

" ceived a violent inclination for one thing, name- 

** ly, to see the interior of some great City. I had 

'^ admired at^ a distance their ramparts and their 

** towers, the prodigious concourse of barges on 

•' their rivers and of caravans on their great roads, 

" loaded with merchandize to be delivered therfe 

" from every point of the horizon ; troops of sol- 

** diers on their march thither to mount guard, 

" from the remotest Provinces ; Ambassadors 

" with their numerous and splendid retinues ar- 

" living from foreign Kingdoms, to announce 

" prosperous events, or to form new alliances. 

•* I approached the avenues v;hich led to therti 

" as near as I durst, contemplating with astonish- 

*' ment the lengthened columns of dust raised by 

** such multitudes of travellers, and my heart 

•* thrilled with desire at hearing the confused 

" noise which issues out of great Cities, and which 

'•' in the adjacent fields reseilibles the murnmring 

•• of 


" of the blllo\*rs when they break on the shore of 

** the sea. I said within myself: A vast assem- i 

** blage of men of so many different conditions, 

" contributing toward the common stock their in- 

"dustry, their riches' and their jqys, must render 

" a City the habitation of delight. But I must 

" not enter it by the light of day ; What hinders 

** my stealing in under the cloud of night? A 

*^ feeble mouse who has so many fenemies, goes 

" and comes whithersoever she lists, under the 

** covert of darkness ; she passes from the hut 

** of the poor man to the palace of Kings. She 

" finds the light of the stars sufficient to conduct 

" her to the enjoyment of life; wherefore should 

" that of the Sun be necessary to me ?'* 

*^ I was in the vicinity of Delhi when these 
" reflections passed through my mind;' they em - 
•* boldened me to such a degree that I ventured 
" to enter the City as night was setting in: the 
" track I pursued was by the gate of Labor. At ^ 
" first I traversed a long solitary street, formed, 
*' to the right and left, of houses skirted by ter- 
" races, supported by arcades, containing the 
" shops ^f tradesmen. From interval to interval 
" I encountered magnificent caravansaries care- 
" fully shut up, and vast bazaf^s or markets, in 
*^ which the most profound silence reigned. As I 
*' penetrated into the heart of the City, I per- 
** vaded the superb quarter of the Omrahs^ con- 
" sisting of palaces and gardens situated along 
'** the^ banks of the Gemna. Here the air re- 
*^ echoed with the sound of instruments of music, 
" and of the songs of the Bayaderes^ who were 
^ "c|ancing 


*^ dancing on the river's side by torchlight I 

*^ drew nigh the gate of a gordcfl to enjoy a spec- 

*^ tacle so delicious ; but was dnven famcl^ by the 

^^ slave$, who put the miserable to flight by dint 

" of blows. As I drew from the quarter of the 

^ great, I passed close by several of the Pagodas 

" consecrated to my religion, where crowds of oii- 

" serable wretches, prostrated pn the ground, were 

" crying bitterly. I hastened away from the 

" sight of those monuments of superstition and 

" terror* Farther on the shrill voices of tl>e Mol- 

*^ hahs, announcing from on high the hours of 

'^ the night, informed that I was under the turrets 

" of a Alosque. Close by were the factories of 

^' the Europeans distinguished by their several 

*^ flags, with watchmen incessantly calling aloud: 

** kaber darl^ Take care! I afterwards encom- 

** passed a very large building, which I perceived 

** to be a prison by the clanking of chains aiid tl^ 

" groans of the inhabitants. I soon after he^^^d 

^ the shrieks of pain issuing from an immcDse 

" hospital, which was vomiting forth whole ?art' 

** loads of dead bodies. As I proceeded, I met 

** parties of thieves fleeing along the streets, and 

"patrols of guards in close pursuit of them; 

" groups of beggars who, regardless of the strokes 

♦* of the ratan, were soliciting at the gates of Pa* 

" laces, for some of the fragments of their feasts; 

** and at every comer women prostituting tliem- 

" selves j)ublicly for bread.. At last, after a 

" tedious walk along the same street, I ar* 

'* rived at a prodigious square, which surrounds 

'' the fortress inhabited by the great Mogul. 

ifr '<It 


** It was filled with the tents of the Rajahs, orNa- 
*' bobs jof his guard, and of their squadrons, distin:- 
*' guished from each other by flambeaus, standards, 
" and tall canes terminated by the cow-tails of Tlii- 
" bet, A brgad ditch full of water, and fortified 
" with artillery, enclosed, as well as the square, the 
" royal fortress on every sidle*. I surreyed, by the 
" help of the guards* fire lights, the towers of the 
" Castle, which pierced the clouds, and the length 
" of it's ramparts, which lost themselves in theho- 
** rizon. I felt a strong inclination to get to tlf& 
^' inside ; but large korahs, or whips, suspended 
•* from stakes, soon cured me «of all desire of SO 
^' mUch as entering the squaue. I stopped short 
" therefore at one of it's extremities, close by some 
" negro slaves, who permitted me to nest myself 
" near afire round which they ^erc sitting. I thence 
** CQnitem|>lated, with admiration, the Imperial Pa- 
'^ lace : This then, said I to myself, is.theliabitation 
" of the happiest of mankind ! To enkuve subjection 
'* to his authority so many Rdigioos pi?each ; to 
** promote his glory so many Ambas^dors arrive j 
^^to fill his treasure's so n^uiy Puovinces are ex- 
*^ haunted ; to minister to bif^pleaswesomany Ca- 
*' ravans travel; and to pi'^serve hts oecurity it is 
" thJkt so many armed men keep wakch in silence !" 

^^ While I was engaged in making these reflec- 
" tions, loud shouts of joy filled tli« square, and I 
*^ saw eight camels pass, decofatetl with streamers. 
*' I foupdthey were loaded with the lieads of rebels 
*' which the Moguls Generals had sent him from 
** the Province of Decan, where one of bis own 
^* sons, whom he had appointed Governor of it^ 

Vol. IV. N u [' waged 


•• Ai aged war against him for three years pa^t Soon 

V after arrived, at full speed, a courier mouutcd on 
." a dromedary ; he came with news of the loss of a 

V frontier City of India, throogh the treachery of 
'*^ one df his Commaoders, who bad given it up to 
'V the King of Persia, Scarcely had this messenger 
*?«gbne by, when another, dispatched by the Go- 
'• vernor of Bengal, brought ibtelligeuce that cer- 
** tain Europeans, to whom the Emperor for the ex- 
" tensioti of commerce, granted permission to e5- 
** tabKsii a factory at the mouth of the Ganges, 
'' had erected a fort on the spot, >vhich command* 
*' ed the navigation of the river. A few moments 
" after the arrival of these two couriers, an officer 
" ap{)eartd,. coming out of the Castle at the head 
^* of a detachment of the guards. The Mogul bad 
** giveii him orders to repair to the quarter of the 
" OmraliSj and to bring to him three of the liighcst 
" rank in. irons, to answer a charge of carrying on 
^^ asecret tntelligeuc^ with the enemies of the State. 
^^ Uc.had commanded a Mulbah to be arrested the 
.*' evening befoie, for having in one of liis sermons 
*' pronouncecKan.eulogium on tlie King, of Persia, 
** and for luiving declared openly that the Emperor 
'f of the IntiUes.wasau infidel, because in violation 
^^ of the \A\v<^ Mahomet^ be drank wine. Finally, 
** it was confidently affirmed, that one of his wives 
** had just been istrangled and thrown into the.Geni- 
." na,. with two Captains of his guard, convicted 
" of being accessory to the. rebellion of Ijis son." 
• " While I was meditating on these tragical events: 
^' a long column of fire suddenly burst from the 

** kitchens 

'* kitcheris of the Serigliof : a vast stream 6f smoke 
" arose arid mingled Vith the ddiids, and the filddy 
^' glare illuminated the t6\vers of the fdrtress, it's 
" fosses, the square, the spiles dt the City, anil ^k- 
'* tended to the boatldari^s of the hoHzon. Ihlme- 
*' diately the ha'ge cdpper tymbals, and the MrMSj 
*' Or great hautboys Of the guard, sounded the 
"alarm with a fearful noise: sqtiadronfe of caralry 
*• gallopped over the City, breaking open the doors 
** of the houses adjoining to the Castle, and drivhig 
" their inhabitants with reiterd-ted strokes of the 
^\ korah, to assist in extinguishing the flames. : I 
"myself had proof how dangerous the vielnity o^ 
"the great is to the little. The great are like the 
** fire, which burns even those who thrOw incense 
*' into it, if they approach too nigh. I wished to 
" make my escape, but all the avenues of the square 
" were obstructed. It would have bebn irii possible 
" for me to get away, unless, by the Providende of* 
" GOD, the side on which I took my station had 
** been that of the Seraglio. As the eunuchs were 
'' removing the women on elephants, they facilitated 
*' my elopement. For while the guards an all sides 
** were whipping the people to hasten them to Assist 
** at the Castle, the elephants, by dealing about 
** strokes of their proboscis, obliged therii to re- 
** treat. Thus, sometimes pursued by the otle, 
*' sometimes driven back by the ofhef, I stt length 
" got clear of this frightful chaos : and hy the light 
*^ of the conflagration, I reached the farther extre* 
*' mity of the suburb, where, under huts, and far 
'^ removed from the great, the people were resting 

N n 2 ' •' quietl/ 


'^ done any thing for solitary man, and that sli6 

•* had attached my existence to that very society 

•* which spumed me from it's bosom. On this I 

•* began to frequent abandoned regions, which 

*' abound in India, and I always found in theih 

'* some alimentary plant which had survived the 

" ruin of him who cultivated it. I travelled thus 

" from Province to Province, assured of 6nding 

** every where the means of subsistence in the re- 

•* fuse of agriculture. When I found the seeds of 

" any useful vegetable, I resowed them, saying, 

" If not to myself, this may prove beneficial to 

** others. I found myself less miserable, seeing it 

** was in my power to do some good. I con- 

" ceived a violent inclination for one thing, name- 

** ly, to see the interior of some great City. I had 

*^ admired at a distance their ramparts and their 

** towers, the prodigious concourse of barges on 

•' their rivers and of caravans on their great roads, 

" loaded with merchandize to be delivered theit 

" from every point of the horizon ; troops of sol- 

** diers on their march thither to mount guard, 

" from the remotest Provinces ; Ambassadors 

" with their numerous and splendid retinues ar- 

•* living from foreign Kingdoms, to announce 

" prosperous events, or to form new alliances. 

•* I approached the avenues v;bich led to theiti 

" as near as I durst, contemplating with astonish- 

•* ment the lengthened columns of dust raised by 

such multitudes of travellers, and my heart 

•* thrilled with desire at hearing the confused 

" noise which issues out of great Cities, and whidi 

•♦* in the adjacent fields resembles the niurnmring 




" of the blllo\*rs when they break on the shore of 
** the sea. I said within myself: A vast assem- 
** blage of men of so many different conditions, 
" contributing toward the common stock their in- 
"d us try, their riches' and their joys^ must render 
" a City the habitation of delight. But I must 
" not enter it by the light of day ; What hinders 
*' my stealing in under tlie cloud of night? A 
*^ feeble mouse who has so many fenemies, goes 
" and comes whithersoever she lists, under the 
** covert of darkness; she passes from the hut 
*' of the poor man to the palace of Kings. She 
" finds the light of the stars sufficient to conduct 
" her to the enjoyment of life; wherefore should 
'* that of the Sun be necessary to me ?'* 

" I was in the vicinity of Delhi when these 
" reflections passed through my mind;* they em - 
" boldened me to such a degree that I ventured 
" to enter the City as night was setting in: the 
" track I pursued was by the gate of Labor. At 
" first I traversed a long solitary street, formed, 
" to the right and left, of houses skirted by ter- 
*^ races, supported by arcades, containing the 
'* shops ^f tradesmen. From interval to interval 
" I encountered magnificent caravansaries care- 
" fully shut up, and vast bazaf^s or markets, in 
** which the most profound silence reigned. As I 
*' penetrated into the heart of the City, I per- 
** vaded the superb quarter of the Omrahs^ con- 
" sisting of palace3 and gardens situated along 
'*' the^ banks of the Gemna. Here the air re- 
*^ echoed with the sound of instruments of music, 
** and of the songs of the Bayaderes^ who were 
^ ^'cjancing 



'^dancing on the river*3 fticjc by torch 4ighL I 
" drew nigh the gate of $t garden to enjoy ^ spcc- 
*' tacle so deIiciou$ ; but was driven b^cl^ by the 
^^ slaves, who put the miserable to flight by dint 
" of blows. As I drew frpm the quarter of the 
^ great, I passed close by Sjsver^l of th|^ Pagodas 
" consecrated to my religion, where crowds of mi- 
'' serable wretches, prostrated on the ground, were 
•* crying bitterly. I hastened away from the 
'^ sight of those monuments of superstition and 
" terror* Farther on the shrill voices of the AloU 
*^ hahSy announcing from on high the hours of 
^' the night, informed that I was under the turrets 
" of a Alosque. Close by were the fact:Qrics of 
" the Europeans distinguished by their several 
'^ flags, with watchmen incessantly calling s(loud: 
^^kaber dor I Take care! I afterwards encom* 
** passed a very large building, which I perceived 
*^ to be a prison by the clanking of chains and tlie 
" groans of the inhabitants* I soon after he^rd 
*^ the shrieks of pain issuing from an immense 
" hospital, which was vomiting forth whole Qart* 
** loads of dead bodies. As I proceeded, I met 
** parties of thieves fleeing along the streets, and 
** patrols of guards in close pursuit of them ; 
" groups of beggars who, regardless of the strokes 
♦* of the ratan, were soliciting at the gates of Pa* 
*' laces, for some of the fragments of their fe?^t« ; 
*' and at every corner women prostituting tliem* 
** selves j)ublicly for bread. At last, after a 
" tedious walk along the same street, I ar* 
'* rived at a prodigious square, which surrounds 
'' the fortress inhabited by the great MoguL 


^ It was filled with the tents of the Rajahs, orNa- 
*' bobs of his guard, and of their squadrons, distin- 
*^ guished from each other by flambeaus, standards, 
^^ and tall canes terminated by the cow-tails of Thi- 
^* bet. A brqad ditch full of water^ and fortified 
" with artillery, enclosed, as well as the square, the 
** royal fortress on every sidle*. I surveyed, by th6 
" help of the guards' fire lights, the towers of the 
" Castle, which pierced the clouds, and the lengtli 
" of it's ramparts, which lost themsetves in the ho- 
** rizon. I felt a stix>ag inclination to get to tl% 
" inside ; but large korahs, or whips, suispended 
•* from stakes, soon cured me lof aU desire of SO 
*• mUch as entering the square. I stopped short 
" therefore at one of it's extremities, close by some 
" negro slaves, who permitted me to nest myself 
" near afire round which they ^ere sitting. I thence 
** conitemplated, with admiration, the Imperial Pa- 
^^ lace : This then, said I to myself^ isthebabitation 
^^ of the happiest of mankind! To enquire subjection 
'* to his authority so many Religious pi^each; to 
*^ promote his glory so many Ambassadors arrive j 
" to fill his treasures so n^uiy Pi^ovinces are ex- 
*^ hausted ; to minister to hi$;p}easu;vesomany Ca- 
*' ravans travel; and to pi*^serve his eecurity it is 
^* thiU so many armed men keep waibch in silence T 

*^ While I was engaged in making these reflec- 
" tions, loud shouts of joy filled th« square, and I 
" saw eight camels pass, decoratetl with streamers. 
*' I found they were loaded with the lieads of rebels 
" which the Mogul's Generals had sent him front 
** the Province of Decan, whete one of bis own 
" sons, whom he had appointed Governor of it^ 

Vol. IV. N n [' waged 



•* Ai aged war against him for three years pa^t Soon 
•V after arrived, at full speed, a courier mouutcd on 
" a dromedary ; he came withnews of the loss of a 
-** frontier City of India, through the treachery of 
'*♦ one Off his Commanders, who had given it up to 
'*: the King of Persia. Scarcely had this messenger 
•*Mgbne b}', when another, dispatched by the Go- 
•*• vernor of Bengal, brought ibtelligence that cer- 
** tain Europeans, to whom the Emperor for the ex- 
" tensioni of commerce, granted permission to es- 
** tabKsh a factory at the mouth of the Ganges, 
'' had erected a fort on the spot, which cpmmasd- 
*' ed the navigation of the river. A few moments 
" after the arrival of these two couriers, an officer 
^' appeared,, coming out of the Castle at the head 
'* of a detachment of the guards. The Mogul bad 
'* giveii htm orders to repair to the quarter of the 
" OmrahSy and to bring to him three of the lughest 
" rank. in. irons, to answer a charge of carrying on 
** a secret intelligence with the enemies of the State. 
>' He had eommanded a Mtilkah to be arrested the 
" evening befoie, for having in one of his sermons 
*' pronounceicKan.eulogium on tlie King, of Persia, 
^* and for having dfeclared openly that the Emperor 
" of the Intilies.wasau infidel, because in violation 
"** of the Law of Mahomet^ he drank wine. Finally, 
** it was confidently affirmed, that one of his wives 
** had just been- jstrangled and thrown into the Gem- 
" na,. with two Captains of his guard, convicted 
'^ of being accessory to the. rebellion of Ijis 3on." 
" While I was meditating on these tragical events: 
^' a long column of fire suddenly burst from the 

*' kitchens 

'* kitcheris of the Sersifflicf : a vast stream 6f Smoke 

*' arose and mingled with the douds, and the f ilddy 

^' glare illuminated the t6\vers of the fdrtress, it's 

" fosses, the square, the Sfiiies dr the City, anil ^x- 

'^ tended to the bouildarids of the hoHzon. Ihlme- 

** diately the hage cdpper tjriUbals, and the fcdrnas^ 

'* Or great hautboys Of the guard, sounded the 

" alarm with a fearful noise: sqtiadronfe of caralry 

*• gallopped over tlie City, breaking open the doors 

" of the houses adjoining to the Castle, and driving 

" their inhabitants with reiterd-ted strokes of the 

<^ korah, to assist in extinguishing the flames. : I 

"myself had proof how dangerous the vidinity of 

"the great is to the little. The great are like the 

** fire, which burns even those who thrOw incense 

" into it, if they approach too nigh. I wished to 

** make my escape, but all the avenues of the square 

" were obstructed. It would have been ihipossible 

" for me to get aWay, unless, by the Providende of 

" GOD, the side on which I took my station ha(t 

** been that of the Seraglio. As the eunuchs were 

'' removing the women on elephants, they facilitated 

** my elopement. For while the guards an all sides 

** were whipping the people to hasten them to Assist 

** at the Castle, the elephants, by dealing about 

*^ strokes of their proboscis, obliged thein to re- 

** treat Thus, sometimes pursued by the otic, 

*' sometimes driven back by the ofhef, I dt length 

" got clear of this frightful chaos : and liy the light 

*^ of the conflagration, I reached the farther ex tre* 

*' xnity of the suburb, where, under huts, and far 

'^ removed from the great, the people were resting 

N n 2 ' •' quietl/ 



^^ from their labours. Tliere I begaa to reco^^ef 
^ breath; I said withia myself : Well then, I have 
•* seen a City f I have seen the abode of the Lords 
^ ef thf Nations ! Oh ! of hoif ma^y masters are not 
" they tliemselves the slaves ! They obey^ even at the 
^^ season of repose,, the tyrants of v.oUiptuoustiess, 
" of ambHioHy of superstition, of avarice : they are 
** exposed, even in sleep, to a multitude of misera- 
^ ble and malefic betngs who surround them, rob- 
*^ hers, mendicants, courtezans, incendiaries, to say 
*^ nothing of their soldiers, their grandees, and their 
priests* What must a City l^e in the day time, 
** if it be tlius disturbed in the ijight? The calami- 
" ties of man increase with his enjoyments. How 
" much is the Emperor to be pjtied, in \Fbom they 
" all centre ? He has danger to apprehend from wars 
" foreign and domestic, nay from the very objects 
" which are his consolation and defence, his gene- 
" rals, his guards, his mal/whs, his wives and his chil- 
*^ dren. The ditches wWch encompass his Castle 
*' are unable to exclude the phantoms of supcr- 
" stition, and his elephants^ so curiously disci- 
** plined, unable to keep gloomy care at a distance 
*' from him. Fot my own part I aip haunted with 
"no such terrors: no tyrant^ dominion 
" over either my body or my i^iind. I have it in 
•* my power to serve GOD according to my con- 
" science, and 1 have nothing to fear from Man, 

V unless I choose to become a self- tormentor : of a 
" truth a Paria is less miserable tloan an Emperor. 

V On uttering these words the tears rushed to my 

V eyes; and falling on my knees, I offered up thanks 
' - ' *'to 


^'^ to Heaven far having, to teach me how to sup- 
" port my own distresses, shewn me wretchedness 
^^ far more intolerable than mine. 

^' Froih that titne ^rwaid I .confined my rani- 

'*' bles towards DeJIn to the siibiirbs; jroiA thence 

■*' I beheld the star^ ilkmiine the habitations of 

" men, ami mingle with their €res, as iftlic H^aVens 

* * and the City had formed bit t one domain. When 

*' the Moon appeared to enlighten: tliat landscape, 

" I perceived coWurs difFused ov^r tt vaiying fi'om 

•*Miie tints of day. I admired the towers, thfe houses 

^* and the trees, j^ ohcc silvered over and clad in 

^' sable, softly r^ected at a distance fi*©m tliesmootfe 

** surface of the Gemna. I ts'aversed is perfect li- 

" berty the vast solitary arid silent quarters that sur- 

^* round the capital, and'thcnit was I considered the 

'* whole City as my own. Humanity,' nevertlielesa, 

•** would have refused me a handful of rice in it, ia 

'*' such a detestable liglirt: had Religion placed me. 

*** Unable therefore to find subsistence among thfe 

*** Hying, I went in cpiest of it among tile dead : I 

•** frequented the cemeteries, and ate the food de- 

^* posited hy pious affection riri \ke tomlis of de- 

^' parted relations. lit places such als tJiese I de- 

^' iFghtbd to muse^ I saW f6 imys^l'f : This is tlie 

*^ City of peace ; lieii' powej- and pride are seen no 

'^more; innocence and virtue are incomplete sc- 

'* curjty : her^e lie' dead all tl^ ti^rrors which haunt- 

'* ed life, even that of dying : thi^ is the inn where 

^^ the carman'has for ever unyokjed'bW tieam, and 

^^ where the Paria finds repoi^e. Im meditating 

^' ihlis, dc'ath appeared to mt an at)ject of desire, 

N « 3 *Vand 


** aiid I b^gan to look down upon the worid. I 
*' turned my pyes toward the E^st, out of which 
" every moment arose a multitude of stars. Tliough 
'^ iheir destination was unknown to me, I felt that 
** their destiny was allied to that of Man, and that 
^* Nature who has accommodated to bis necessities 
^^ so m»ny objects which he s^es not, had at least 
f^ rendered visible objects a matter of importance to 
^* him. My soul then ascended into the firmament 
*^ wjth the stars, an,d when Aurora returned to blend 
f' with their gentle and unchanging lustre, her own 
" rosy tints, I thought myself at the gates of Hea- 
*^ ven. fiut as soon as the dawn, brightened into 
** the fire of day, gilded the Pags^dos, I disappeared 
" like a shadow : I withdrew, far from the haunts 
** of men, to rest myself in the fields at the foot of 
*' a tree, where I was lulled to sleep by the music of 
'' the grqve/' 

*' Sensible and unfortunate mortal !'* said the 
Englishman, "Your story is wonderfully affecting : 
^^ most Cities, believe nie, can bear to be viewed 
" only in the night. After all. Nature arrays her- 
^* self in nocturnal beauties, whiqh are not the least 
" attractive ; an eminent Poet of my country has 
" celebrated no other. But, tell me; how did you 
" at last contrive to render yourself happy by the 
'flight of day?*' 

*' It was a great point gained,'* replied the Inr 
dian, ** to be happy in the night. Nature resembles 
*• a beautiful woman, who in the day time exhibits 
" the charms of her face only, to the vulgar eye, 
" and unveil? more hidden beauties to her lover 

^' \Yl^en 

• THE- IN PI AN COTTAGE- . 551'. 

** wheo it is night. But if solitude has it's pecu-* 
" liar enjoyments,, it it likeivise subjected. .to it's' 
'* privations : ib appmrs to the child. of misfortune 
*' as a quiet harbour from whence he beholds the 
"tide of other meU'd-'passions roll on, without be- 
*f ing himself hiirried-^ong • by the current ; but, 
*i/ while he congratulates biiiiselfon being immove- 
*^.able, 4:iHi€ is insensibly (carrying him down the 
" stream. : Thure is no such thing as casting an- 
" chorin the riv«r. of human; life ; it sweeps away 
" together-the man who struggles against it's flux, 
" and him who,- voluntarily goes with it ; the wise 
" man and the f©ol> and both reach the termination- 
" of life, the one after having abused it, and the 
" other without having enjoyed it. . I did not 
" pretend to be wiser than Nature, nor to fiad my 
" happiness without the sphere of. those laws which 
" she has prescribed to Man. I longed above all 
"things for a friend to whom 1 could communicate 
[^ my^ pleasures and my pains. I sought him long 
" among my equals, but found no one who was not 
" under the dominion of envy. I nevertheless at 
" length lighted on one possessing sensibility, sus- 
" ceptible of gratitude, faithful, and inaccessible to 
" prejudice : he was. not indeed of my own species, 
" but one of the brute creation ; the very dog you 
^ see there. He had been exposed while quite a 
'* whelp at the- corner of ,a street, where he lay pe- 
" rishing with hunger. My compassion was ex- 
^* cited; I lifted him^ up; he conceived an attach- 
^' ment to me, and I made him my inseparable coni- 
" paniout This was not yet s.ui^cient ; I stood in 
N n 4 *' need 

558 8£aUt:L TO THX f TXJ mfcB or ITATURC. 

*' nred of a friend still more wretched than a dog; 
" one who knew all the evils of human society, a&d 
** who could assist me in supporting them ; one 
^' who desired only the blessings which Nature b^ 
'^ stows, and with whom I could enjoy them. It 
** is only by interlacing their branches that two 
'' feeble shrubs are capable of resisting the storm. 
" Providence gratified my desire to the uttermost 
" in giving me a good wife. It was at the very 
** source of wo that I found the fountain of Hm. 
** One night being at the burial place of the Bra- 
" jnins, I perceived by moon-light, a yonog M^oman 
'* of that caste, half covered with her yellow vril. 
" At sight of 4 female of the blood of my tyrants, 
*^ I recoiled with horror, but felt myself attracted 
^* towards her by compassion on seeing tlie occu- 
** pation in whiph she was engaged. She came to 
^' deposit victuals oi> a littlp hillock which covered 
** the ashes of her mother, who • had lately been 
" burnt alive with the body of her father, confor- 
" ipably to the practice of her caste ; and she was 
** now burning incense over it as an invocation of 
** the departed spirit. Tears started to my eyes at 
*' sight of one more unfortunate than myself. I 
** thus n>editate(l : Alas ! I am bound in fetters of 
" infamy, but thou in thost^of glory : Hive at least 
^* in tranquillity at the hottoni of my precipice; and 
" thou art always trembling on the brink of thine. 
•* The same destiny which has ^-obbed thee of thy 
" mother, likewise threatens to rob thee one day of 
^* thy own life. Thou hast received but a single 
^* lilb and art doomed to die two deaths : if thy 

*' own 


•'own carry thee not to the tomb, that of thy Ihis- 
** band will drag thee thither while yet alive, 1 
** wept, and so did she : out eyes, diffused witti 
*' tears, met, and spoke to each other the language 
of the unfortunate: she turned away hers, drop|>ed 
** her veil, and withdrew, 

. ** The night following I repaired to *th^ same 
*' place. This time she had placed a more ample 
** provision on her mother's tomb ; she took it for 
** granted that I might stand in need of some ; afnd 
*' as the Bramins frequently pbison those funereal 
" messes, to prevent their being devoured by the 
*' Parias, that I might have full confidence iti the 
" wholesomeness of hers, she had brought nothing 
*' but fmit. I was deeply affected by this display 
*^ of humanity ; and by way of expressing to her 
" the respect which T entertained for her filial ob- 
^'lation, instead of taking lier fruits, I added fl^»w- 
^*;ers to them* They were poppies, signifieaiit of the 
** interest which I took in her sorrow. Next night 
*' I saw, with joy, that my homage had been ac- 
** ceptible to her ; the poppies had been watere<l 
"and she had pat a new basket of fruits at a little 
" distance from the tomb. Pity and gratitude em- 
"boldetted me. Not daring to speak to her as a 
/* Paria^ for fear of lowering her dignity, lattempt- 
" ed as a man to express to her all the affefctioris 
" which'shehad excited in my bosom. According 
** to the custom of India I borrowed the language 
^* of flowers to convey ray meaning ; I added riiefn^ 
"^* golds- to poppies. The night after I found my 
■* poppi^ and my marigolds copiouslybesprinWed 

'' with 


'' with water. Next night I waxed bolder ; .to tlie 
'* poppies and niarigolds I added a flower ofjouha- 
^* paiie^ employed by shoemakers to dye their lea- 
'^ ther black, as the expression of an humble and 
" unfortunate love. I ilew to tlie tomb with the 
" first dawn of the morning; but had the mortifi- 
*' cation to see t\\t fouhapattc witheredi because it 
** liad not been watered. The following night I 
" planted, with a trembling band, a tuKp whose 
'^ red petals aad black heart represented the flame 
" which preyed upon me. In the morning I found 
'* my tulip in the same state with the fotdsapatte. 
•* I was overwhelmed with grief; nevertheless the 
*' day after I brought to the place a rose-bud with I 

** the thoiDS upon it, the symbol of my hopes, 
*^ blended with mortal apprehension. But w ho can 
'* describe my despair, when I saw, by the rays (^ 
*^ Aurora, my rose-bud removed entirely from the 
•* tomb ! I thought I should have gone distracted. 
*^ Let what would be the consequence, I resolved 
** to speak to her. The night following, as soon as 
" slia appeared, I threw myself at her feet, but 
" without the power of utterance, presented my rose 
" to her. She broke silence, and said : Unfortunate 
*' man ! thou talkest to me of love, and in a little 
*' while I shall be no more. I must, like my mo- 
" ther, accompany my husband to the funeral pile. 
" He is just dead. He was an old man, I was mar- 
•* ried to him ^vhile a child : farewel; retire, and 
"forget me ;. in three days I sha