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Full text of "Studies of the human figure : with some notes on drawing and anatomy"

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wrm .fOME Nor&y 



&^ F. Ri>. Y E Rp B U Rj)Y l< 



First Edition 
Spring, 1918 

Text f^rlntrd by The Aberdeen University Press, Ltd. 
Plates printed by G. Puhnan &• Sons, Ltd., IVealdstone. 



Throughout the ages the human form has been the chief inspiration of 
the artist, and proficiency in its representation an enviable distinction among 
his contemporaries. The earliest manifestations of the desire to record things 
seen were crude attempts to represent figures by outline, or in silhouette, 
scratched with sharp instruments, on cave interiors, animals' horns and teeth, 
or rudely carved in any handy material. 

It was in the magnificent civilisation of old Egypt that the conscious 
artist was born, and Drawing, as we understand it to-day, cradled. The 
types of the period were rendered in paintings and sculpture with wonder- 
ful facility and spirit, and decorative compositions produced which involved 
great skill in representing the figure in action and revealed such scholarly 
regard for form and line that much can still be gained by studying them. 

The later development in Greece of understanding in drawing and 
modelling rising to a standard that has never been surpassed, came through 
almost ideal conditions of life. The Greeks were a light-hearted and virile 
people, devoted to graceful pursuits. The manifestations in their games 
and arts were forms of worship, and their entire outlook concerned itself 
with beautiful things as homage to their mythical gods. 

Greek mythology, the inspiration of the immortals, Scopas, Praxiteles, 
and Phidias, four or five hundred years before Christ, has ever since influenced 
sculptors and painters by the opportunities it affords for poetic representation 
of the beauties of the ideal human form. 

The lovely Venus of Milo, the most perfect sculptured representation 
of female loveliness, is but one manifestation of the supreme efforts made by 
the Greek sculptors of old to perpetuate an ideal of their favourite goddess, 
the sea-born Aphrodite. This statue, although without arms and minus its 

I I 


left foot, is yet by far the most inspiring example of perfection in pose and 
form that the world possesses. 

Although it is generally accepted that it represents Aphrodite or Venus, 
owing to the universal worship of this goddess throughout the coasts and islands 
of the i^gean archipelago, there is no record of this attribution being authentic, 
and many other designations have been given by antiquaries. Many suggested 
restorations also have been planned by later sculptors, none of which are in 
any way satisfying as a solution of the enigma of the position of her arms, for 
the additions in every case lessen most obviously the dignity of the original. 

If it is a fact that these Greek artists achieved their wonderful figure 
v^ork without the help of dissected anatomy, the infinite patience and labour 
involved in observing and memorising with thorough mastery the multitude 
of variations in surface form occasioned by the actions of the body, would 
have been a Herculean task for any man's lifetime. Hence it is certain 
that some code of study must have been in use other than this individual 
observation ; — the attachments and play of muscles must have been under- 
stood, and certain formulae laid down by experts for their students' benefit, or 
the perfect school of sculpture associated with the age could not have existed. 

Thanks to the models and notes of the Renaissance painters and sculp- 
tors, and to the investigations of modern scientific surgery, anatomy is now 
the handmaid of drawing. Structure has been so tabulated and explained 
that the student may work from the cast, model, or photograph, and follow 
from charts, diagrams, and descriptions, every bone and muscle affecting the 
drawing he is engaged upon, thus almost automatically obtaining a grip of 
this vital subject concurrently with valuable practice in drawing. 

One of the most able figure-draughtsmen and painters that I know ob- 
tained his mastery over anatomy in this way, and working beside him for 
some time I was greatly interested in his method and progress. He did not 
attend the school lectures on anatomy, and I am sure that he derived exactly 
the same amount of useful information from them as those of us who did. 
Instead, he struck out a line for himself in studying Thompson's " Anatomy " 
in conjunction with the anatomical casts possessed by the school, making in- 
numerable quick sketches, and fitting the names he wished to know by re- 
ference to Thompson, the while paying very special attention to the attachments 


of the muscles, a knowledge of which is invaluable in studying their direction 
and movements in the actual model. When familiar with the whole frame 
and superstructure of muscles as shown in these casts, he carried out the same 
search from the living model, making sketches on the same position as his 
former studies from the casts, and jotting down his impressions of any dif- 
ference or similarity to his conclusions. 

At this stage he made many anatomical sketches from photographs of 
casts and living models, being most enthusiastic in his search for photographic 
subjects to anatomise. Afterwards he would pose the art school models in 
similar positions and get information from points of view other than those in 
the photographs. 

In drawing from life in class from models posed by the masters, he in- 
sisted on making only pencil and chalk studies, taking from two minutes to 
two hours according to his mood. Working at first with the anatomy book 
until he attained complete knowledge of the form and action of all surface 
muscles, most of his early sketches were diagrammatic, and done, as all sketches 
should be, with the sole idea of getting information. They were generally 
written over with notes, and it would be easy to trace from his sketches at 
this period the way to complete mastery over the mechanical or constructional 
side of life-drawing. 

As he became perfectly sure of the underlying reason for everything, 
beautiful drawing gradually emerged from the chaos of notes and diagrams, 
and his work, though always slight, and apparently executed with absolute 
ease, was that of a master, inimitable and satisfying in its slightest manifestation. 

Before finally adopting water-colour painting as his profession he spent 
some few years in teaching, and his instruction, based on personal experience 
and new methods, was of infinite value to a large number of students who 
were fortunate enough to interest him and understand his artistic free-think- 
ing. Many men who first seriously considered photography as a help in study 
at his instigation, have found it extremely useful in numberless ways, and 
others who have so far left it out of their calculations would be wise to con- 
sider it as a material aid in work. 

The eye is the great teacher, and what it constantly conveys to the mind 
the artist in any craft can soon portray or mould with his hands. To-day it 



is by no means the simple matter it was in ancient times to observe from life 
the undraped human figure, male or female, and the help of photography opens 
great possibilities in this direction, insomuch as a collection of photographs 
is constantly available for study. It will constantly suggest new ideas and 
reveal new pictorial possibilities of treating the figure, while serving always 
as a reference for actual facts of form and lighting. 

In addition to their use as subjects to help in the study of anatomy, 
photographs are of use in suggesting poses as standards of comparison for pro- 
portion, and as substitutes for or supplements to models in positions so strenuous 
or difficult that a model can only keep them for a few moments. Last but 
not least, they serve as a source of reference for designers in preparing hurried 
or finished drawings for press-work, book-covers, certificates, testimonials, 
posters, wood-carving, stone-work, painted decoration, pottery, enamels, trade- 
wrappers, show-cards, stained-glass, and the many other things in which some 
representation of the human figure is appropriate and desirable. 

A photograph from a good pose given by a thoroughly well-chosen 
model is a priceless possession to an expert draughtsman who understands 
(' anatomy sufficiently to interpret it intelligently. It is more difficult for an 
untrained man to work from a photograph than from life, but a competent 
one can use photographs in preparing drawings and cartoons for trade pur- 
poses that will be equal to any from actual models, and he will thus save a 
great amount of worry and expense. 

Many draughtsmen and decorators are in the habit of drawing their 
figures entirely from memory. Walter Crane, for instance, seldom used a 
model, and in consequence his figures are simply conventions bearing small 
resemblance to actuality either in form or action. It is impossible to visualise 
figures correctly without a record of some kind from life, and to the man who 
can draw^ photographs give quite sufficent data from which to produce con- 
vincing drawings. 

The collection of photographs taken by Mr. Yerbury for this book will, 
it is thought, prove an inspiration to the painter, sculptor or decorator, while 
to the student it offers a fine series of figures to anatomise with the aid of 
the diagrams included, or of a standard anatomical book, atlas and anatomical 
casts. Even the rough accomplishment of this task will give a quite new 



conception of the road to competence in drawing, for the amount of know- 
ledge that is gained is surprising in proportion to the work involved, and the 
possession and inevitable development of such knowledge renders work from 
the model infinitely easier and more valuable. 

It is difficult to advise generally on actual methods of drawing from 
antique and life, or to lay down fixed rules without knowledge of the 
peculiarities of students who are to carry them out. There is danger, for in- 
stance, in advising a whole body of workers to make their studies in pencil, as 
it may well be a totally unsympathetic medium to some who would work 
perfectly freely and successfully in chalk, charcoal, or brush. If a student 
adopts one medium at the suggestion of a master, he may for ever fail to dis- 
cover his best means of expression. The common-sense way is to work in 
many mediums until one naturally selects that which gives best results. 
Generally speaking, charcoal is best for large studies and pencil for small ones, 
but the many exceptions make it dangerous to call this a rule. 

The plates given here (plates I- VI I) give examples of some methods of 
preparing preliminary studies in most of the mediums that are in general use. 
Mr. Walcot's supremely facile and decorative pencil study is an admirable 
object lesson to, students in direct and fearless use of simple line. Mr. Arthur 
Mason's three clialk studies, which have inevitably suffered in reduction, are 
masterly drawings in a method that calls for searching and accurate drawing, 
gives a very complete record of the model drawn from, and has much 
to recommend it to both the painter and decorator. Puvis de Chavannes' 
charcoal study is a typical painter's study for a figure to be used in a large 
composition, and the use of charcoal on Michelet paper is an efl^ective and 
easily corrected method of rapid study that every student should try. The 
studies in oil and water colour by Harold Knight are quite large drawings, 
and as records of figures for future use could hardly be more perfect in draw- 
ing, lighting, or technique. Such studies are worth their weight in gold, in- 
somuch as they give every item of information that is necessary in using them 
afterwards ; photographs are their only competitors in usefulness, and they, of 
course, lack colour. 

About the size to make early studies it is possible to be a little more 
dogmatic, and exclude anything smaller than an imperial sheet will comfort- 



ably hold, for drawings other than anatomical notes and diagrams. One's 
efforts should be concentrated from the first on understanding the pictorial 
aspect of the figure in a large way, and it is much easier to detect faults 
when working on a large scale. Life-size is not too large, but some pluck and 
determination are needed to work on this scale in an ordinary art school. I 
remember two students, now well known in the practical art world, who in- 
sisted on working constantly in oils on canvas, full-life, or heroic size ; both 
now work on quite a small scale, but their work is splendidly broad, free, and 
certain in construction as a result of the splendid practice their doubly heroic 
work afforded. 

The chief objection to students working on a small scale is that drawing 
is too easily slurred, and the danger of clever tricks intensified. Many bril- 
liant young producers of effective sketches from life have mistaken the means 
for the end, and lost themselves in admiration of their own achievement. 

One of the pitfalls of the beginner in drawing the figure is the attempt 
at finish of parts before understanding pose and construction, an error in pro- 
cedure tfiat was encouraged by the reverence in official teachers for laboured 
study from the antique as a preliminary to life-drawing. 

The practice must have originated in the grand capacity that statues 
have for keeping still, and the patient disposition of the last generation of 
students, both factors in encouraging laziness in teaching. It was so easy to 
start a student with some stumps on a large sheet of stretched Whatman 
paper and come round once an evening for the next three, six, or twelve 
months and make rude remarks about the depth of tone in the shading of 
surfaces or the disposition of high lights. 

This method of teaching is happily almost a thing of the past, as most 
modern schools are staffed with men who suffered under the old system even 
if they triumphed over it. 

Professor Brown of the Slade was a pioneer of the saner teaching when 
head of the old Westminster School of Art, and from some interesting com- 
ments by D. S. McColl on his appointment to the Slade School professorship, 
the following is quoted : — 

" The business of a real teacher of drawing may be summed up in the 
effort to make the beginner attend to the large fact first, the smaller next, and 



the smallest last. Supposing one has to draw the figure of a man standing 
with outstretched arms : the main, the elementary fact in that figure, on 
which all its action depends, is expressed by two lines crossing one another, 
the line of the body and that of the arms. Note that angle correctly, hit the 
characteristic swing of those two lines, and you have set up a scaffolding on 
which all the smaller facts can be correctly hung, the smaller contours of the 
single limbs, the still smaller contours of the several muscles and so forth. 
But miss the elementary fact and no smaller fact can be rightly stated because 
of this mistake. 

" Now these largest facts that control all others are the last to be appre- 
ciated by the beginner. He sees the flaw in the surface of the marble, but 
he does not see the statue ; he sees the separate hairs, but not the head ; the 
twigs but not the tree : surely it is a waste of time to allow him to state these 
facts with which he is perfectly familiar, which he has no difficulty in stating, 
and which he states with such insistence that the twig becomes more import- 
ant than the tree, when he ought to be learning, ought to be encouraged and 
urged by every device of teaching, to attend to the big things first and let the 
small come in their order. Instead of that he is induced to sit worrying for 
months over the texture of the ' Theseus ' before he has seized the character 
of its forms, and falls into the habit of this brainle ss industry, this pestilential 
practice of a kind of graining, ugly in itself as well as futile. 

" In place of this deplorable waste of time, the practice at the Westmin- 
ster school was to allow the students to make a sufficient number of studies 
from the antique, to familiarise him with his materials and give him some 
control over his hand. These were made in charcoal on Michelet paper, so 
as to be easily obliterated and recommenced, and were never allowed to pro- 
ceed when some radical point of drawing had been missed, that would in- 
validate what followed. After this preliminary practice the student was sent 
to the life-room, and drew from the living model in the same fashion. It is 
probably a sound view that the antique will be better appreciated after study 
from life, and it is a wholesome discipline in alertness of observation to draw 
a form that is always insensibly altering in pose, and is only available for a 
limited time." 

The influence of the manner and matter of training on later work must 



be great, and the absence of definite knowledge of any helpful facts in con- 
nection with an occupation is liable to handicap efforts that would otherwise 
succeed. However good a man's work becomes, there is generally the tan- 
talising subconscious regret that if a little more knowledge had been acquired 
it would be better. To keep this subconscious annoyance within bounds, it 
is wise to thoroughly equip and arm oneself with all available information. 
It can easily be filed in the brain for future reference, and need never come 
out, but it is extremely comforting to find it there if wanted. 

For the figure draughtsman, painter, or sculptor a knowledge of form 
is the essential preliminary to all adventures in execution, and form is con- 
trolled by structure, a hard fact that renders futile much of the work executed 
in schools where life-drawing is encouraged without anatomical training. 
Students who merely draw on the principle of putting down what they see, 
without understanding why, will perhaps get expert in indicating what they 
see, but will find, sooner or later, that there is something missing in their 
equipment as artists ; their figures do not hang together, because they are 
only partially understood and shout painfully their need of structure. 

Ruskin, now a somewhat discredited mentor on art matters, held the 
opinion that a knowledge of human anatomy was not only unnecessary, but 
positively harmful to the artist or sculptor, mentioning Albert Durer as an 
artist whose knowledge of the structure of the figure was so thorough that it 
obtruded detrimentally in his work : his interest in the facial bones, for in- 
stance, making it impossible for him to draw a natural and living face. 

The same view in the milder form that anatomical facts hamper the free 
expression and rhythm of an artist's impressions, is held by many successful and 
sincere art teachers to-day, and it may be quite right in the case of painters 
of pictures, but for the man engaged in any of the applied arts it is clearly 
necessary to have a working knowledge of anatomy and surface muscles if he 
would draw the figure easily and with conviction. 

The following notes, with plates IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, and XIV, from^ 
students' drawings (kindly lent by prominent art schools) on some of which 
the principal bones and muscles are named, will afFord sufiicient information 
to enable students to make similar anatomical renderings of the photographic 
poses, and the effort to do this will fix in the memory a fair working know- 


Plate I, 

A Study in Charcoal 
on Michelei- paper, by P^vts de Chavanues. 

Plati- II 

A Study in Oil Colours 
by Harold Knight, Nottingham School of Art. 

Plate III. 

A Study in Oil Colours 
by H. Ball, Nottingham School of Art, 


ledge of the bones and muscles that determine surface form in the figure, and 
their behaviour in various positions and actions. 

The basis of the human structure is the bony framework of the trunk, 
lower limbs, upper limbs, neck and head shown in plates IX, XI, XIII, and XIV. 

The trunk is kept erect by the vertebral column and its supporting 
muscles the erectores spinas. The lower limbs are connected with the trunk 
by the pelvic girdle which is united with the vertebral column by the sacrum, 
a large wedge-shaped bone, built up by the union of the five lower vertebrae, 
and articulating with the innominatum or haunch bone, on the outer edge of 
which is the acetabulum, or recess for the head of the thigh bone. 

The bones forming the pelvic girdle are separate in childhood, but with 
growth unite and form the haunch bones, one for each leg, united at the 
back by an immovable joint to both sides of the sacrum, and further strength- 
ened by the joint in front called the symphysis pubis. The bony basin 
formed by these two haunch bones and their union with the sacrum is called 
the pelvis, and supports the internal organs. The powerful muscles which 
connect the pelvic girdle with the thigh bone have their attachments on the 
outer edge of these haunch bones. The action of the pelvis is largely instru- 
mental in determining pose. 

The acetabulum is the deep, cup-shaped cavity which receives the head 
of the femur or thigh bone, and forms the movable hip joint. 

The femur is the longest bone in the body, and its peculiar neck-form 
connecting it obliquely with the haunch bone, gives immense freedom of 
movement compared with similar bones in animals, which are limited to 
backward and forward action. The thigh bones, wide apart above, owing to 
the width of the pelvis, slope inwards to proximity at the knees. 

The two bones of the leg are immovably united, as movement would 
weaken them in their task of supporting the body. The tibia or shin bone 
alone enters into the formation of the knee joint, offering a broadened surface 
for the articular surfaces or conddyles of the thigh bone. The lower leg 
muscles are attached to the fibula or supporting bone. 

The muscles of the calf are attached to the heel bone or os calcis, and 
the bones of the fore part of the foot form arches that protect the sole from 
undue pressure and give spring to the movements of the foot. The bones 



of the toes are short in comparison to the corresponding bones of the fingers, 
and the big toes have no power of separation equivalent to the thumbs. 

The shoulder girdle consists of a collar bone or clavicle and a shoulder 
blade or scapula on either side, joined in such a way that a limited movement 
is possible, though the girdle is connected with the skeleton of the trunk by 
one joint on each side, between the upper end of the breast bone or sternum 
and the inner extremity of the collar bone. 

The shoulder blade is only connected indirectly with the trunk through 
its articulation with the collar bone, though the blade bone is attached by 
numerous muscles to the chest wall. 

The shoulder girdle is articulated with the bone of the upper arm and 
plays an important part in giving freedom of movement to the limb. 

The upper extremity of the humerus or upper-arm bone joins the 
shoulder girdle by means of a small and shallow socket on the shoulder blade, 
in which its large rounded head partially rests, surrounded by ligaments or 
fibrous bands which are lax and only slightly limit the possible range of 
movement, giving the joint great freedom but rendering it comparatively 
weak and easily dislocated in comparison to the more deeply inserted femur, 
which has greater strength, but a much more limited range of action. 

The forearm has two bones, jointed in such a way that they work 
freely one upon the other in certain definite ways, called pronation and 
supination, the movements being effected by the rotation of the outer boac^ , 
or radius, over the inner, or ulna. 

The head rests on the topmost cervical vertebra, called the atlas, from 
its function in supporting the globe-shaped head ; the condoyle of the oc- 
cipital bone resting on its two articular surfaces, and rocking to produce the 
action of nodding. The atlas is a ring-shaped bone acting on the axis verte- 
bra immediately beneath it. 

The skull consists of two portions, one, the cranial box or calvaria, en- 
closing the brain, and the other, the skeleton of the face, supporting and 
protecting the lower features. All the bones forming these are immovably 
united with the exception of the mandible or lower jaw which articulates by 
a movable joint with a hollow fossa on the under part of the temporal bone. 

The under surface of the cranial box, which consists of spread plates 



of bone forming a dome-shaped roof, is called the base of the skull, and in 
front unites with the facial bones, the back being rough and irregular, with 
many holes. It affords attachments for many muscles controlling the move- 
ments of the head. 

The bones of the cranial vault are the frontal, forming the forehead, 
two parietals, one on each side, and the occipital, forming the back of the 
head. The portion round the ear is made up of the temporal bone, and a 
portion of the sphenoid fills the gap between the temporal bone at the back 
and the frontal bone on either side. 

The most important bones controlling the form of the j&ce are the 
malar or cheek bones, forming the outline of the orbits on the outer and 
lower side, and lying between the outer portion of frontal bone above and 
the bones of the upper jaw below. They control the prominence of the 
cheeks, and at the back can be felt to be supported by an arch of bone called 
the zygomatic arch, having underneath it a hollow called the temporal fossa, 
extending upwards on either side of the head, in which is lodged the tem- 
poral muscle controlling the lower jaw. 

The lower jaw is divided in two laterally, united in the middle line in 
front, each half consisting of three parts. The body of the jaw, being that 
part which forms the arch supporting the lower teeth, its front determining 
the angle of the chin, and the length of its lower border finishing at a point 
a little short of the ear, where it turns upward forming the angle^ and its con- 
tinuation above the ramus. 

The bony framework, though important in influencing structure and 
pose, only directly controls surface form in those tiny portions of the body 
not covered by the muscles which control its movements and largely determine 
the beauty of its outward form. 

A muscle generally passes from an attachment to one bone to an attach- 
ment to another, the actual connection being a short or long tendon, but there 
are exceptions in which they attach to ligaments, tendinous sheaths, or similar 
non-bony parts. 

The muscles closing the mouth and eyes are circular, and called orbi- 
cularis oris and orbicularis palpebrarum respectively ; the former being the 
centre for most of the other muscles of the face, the latter connected only 



with two unimportant muscles, the pyramidalis nasi concerned with wrink- 
ling the skin of the nose, and the occipito-frontalis, an upward extension of 
the first, concerned with wrinkling the forehead. 

The orbicularis oris, only slightly connected with the jaw bones, is made 
up of fibres which, passing from side to side, turn upwards and downwards at 
the angles of the mouth. The muscle blends at its outer border with the 
elevators and depressors of the lips and angles ; and with the cheek muscles 
also closes the mouth, brings the lips together, narrows the mouth, and causes 
the lips to protrude. 

There are two elevators of the upper lip, the levator labii superioris et 
alae nasi, the fibres of which pass to the lips and blend with the orbicularis at 
the sides of the wings of the nostrils, and the levator labii superioris proprius,| 
or special elevator of the upper lip, arising from the upper jaw bone in front, | 
close to the lower edge of the orbit and inserted in the tissues of the upper lip. 

The levator anguli oris and zygomaticus major and minor are elevators 
of the angles of the mouth, the levator anguli oris is attached to the front oi| 
the upper jaw bone under cover of the levator labii superioris proprius, and 
passing downwards and outwards is inserted in the upper border and outer side 
of the angle of the mouth. The zygomatici, two muscular slips arising from 
the outer surface of the cheek bone, are also inserted in the angles of the mouth 
which they draw upwards and outwards in smiling. 

The depressors of the mouth angles are the depressor anguli oris, anc 
the fibres of the platysma towards the angle. The former arises near th( 
lower border of the lower jaw, on either side of the centre. It is triangula 
and attached by its pointed extremity to the tissues of the mouth angle on it I 
lower side. The platysma myoides passes up from the neck to its connectioi! 
with the muscles of the lower lip, while certain of its fibres, grouped under th| 
name of the risorius muscle, arise from the cheek fascia in front of the cal 
and are attached to the skin at the angles of the mouth, which they widen. 

The lower lip is depressed by the depressor labii inferioris, which arise; 
beneath the depressor anguli oris in front of the lower jaw. Square anj 
therefore sometimes known as the quadratus menti, it passes upwards to ii! 
insertion in the tissues of the lip, blending with the orbicularis oris, and assiste 
in its action by fibres of the platysma. 




The levator menti, a small muscle arising from the front of the lower 
jaw below the teeth, runs downwards and forwards, spreads, and is in- 
serted in the skin of the chin. It raises the chin and controls the lower 


The action of the cheek muscles in laughing and crying cause a deep 
furrow between the cheek and the nose wing, which sweeps downwards and 
outwards round the mouth, and fades at the mouth angle. 

The ramus supports two processes, the condoyle at the back articulates 
with the temporal bone in front of the ear, and is separated by the coronoid 
notch from the coronoid process lying in front of it. When the jaws are 
closed this process passes underneath the zygomatic arch and forms the inser- 
tion for the temporal muscle. 

Covering the ramus of the jaw and concealing its outline is a powerful 
muscle called the masseter, rising from a fixed attachment to the side of the 
iskuU and acting with the temporal in elevating the inferior maxilla and so 
Iclosing the jaw and controlling mastication. 

The most important muscle influencing the drawing of the neck is the 
iStemo mastoid, which has two origins, the inferior from the anterior surface of 
|the breast bone by a thick tendon and other fibres from the inner third of the 
collar bone. The solid mass of muscle formed by the union of these two at- 
tachments passes upwards and backwards to the base of the skull immediately 
behind the ear, where it is attached to a rounded blunt formation of bone 
called the mastoid process of the temporal bone. 

The sterno mastoid passes obliquely across the side of the neck, dividing 
it into two triangles, the anterior, in front and above, the posterior, behind 
and below. The V formed by the divergence of the two sterno mastoids, 
rom their origins in the breast bone, is the surface hollow known as the pit 
of the neck. Sharply defined in the male, it is in the female softer and more 
rounded. Above this depression, in the interval between the sterno mastoids, 
ibove the hyoid bone and below the border of the lower jaw, are the muscles 
:ontrolling the tongue and floor of the mouth, the blood vessels and the sali- 
vary glands ; one of the latter fills the interval between the ear and angle of 
aw. Under cover of this angle is another gland, giving fullness to the sur- 
face as it passes inwards and downwards to the hyoid bone. 



Behind and below the sterno mastoid are the superior fibres of the tra- 
pezius, the muscle arising above from the base of the skull close to the middle 
line behind, and passing downwards, outwards, and forwards, is inserted in the 
outer third of the top edge of the collar bone. The space between the tra- 
pezius and the sterno mastoid constitutes the posterior triangle of the neck, 
which in muscular men and thin women shows very clearly. The ileck has 
one prominent vein influencing surface form, the external jugular, which oc- 
curs at the side, running from the angle of the jaw to a point above the collar 
bone, just outside the origin of the sterno mastoid. 

The trapezius is named from the four-sided figure formed by the sides 
of the muscle, and is comparable to a tippet hung over the shoulders down 
to the spine of the last thoracic vertebra. Its inferior parts are attached to 
the top of the spine of the seventh neck vertebra and to the spines of all the 
thoracic vertebras and to ligaments connecting them. Spreading from this 
extensive attachment the fibres are inserted into the outer third of the posterior 
border of the collar bone in front, and the entire upper border of the acromion 
process and spine of the shoulder blade at the side and back. The method of 
insertion involves much alteration in the direction of the parts of the muscle ; 
thus the fibres arising from the occiput and neck pass downwards, outwards, 
and forwards to the collar bone and acromion, and those springing from the 
lower thoracic spines ascend and incline outwards to the root of the spine of 
the shoulder blade. f| 

The rounded form of the back on either side of the middle line is not 
due to the trapezius, which is here only a thin layer, but is caused by the 
tullness of the underlying erectores spinas group. 

There are three muscles beneath the trapezius attached to the inner 
border of the blade bone — the two rhomboids and the elevator of the angle 
ot the scapula. Considering them as one whole muscle, it is attached along 
the middle line up to the lower half of the median ligament of the neck, 
passes downwards and connects with the spine of the seventh neck vertebra. 
These muscles exercise some influence on the surface, accentuating the relief 
of the trapezius which covers them. The elevation of the angle of the 
scapula (levator anguli scapula) arises from the transverse processes of the 
higher neck vertebras, and is inserted into the inner border of the blade bone 


above the level of the spine. Although covered by the trapezius, it assists in 
giving a rounded form to the neck. 

The broad serratus magnus muscle arises by fleshy strips from the outer 
surface of the eight upper ribs. The fibres from the lowest five or six slips 
of origin converge fan-w^ise to be inserted in the lov^er angle of the inner 
border of the blade bone, forming a fleshy prominence, w^hich, though not 
uperficial, influences surface form, its covering muscle being thin. The 
ower and anterior portion of the serratus magnus is superficial, and directly 
influences form ; it comprises the four slips which arise from the surfaces of 
the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth ribs, fleshy, pointed processes called digi- 
:ations, which interlock with similar slips of origin of the external oblique 
ibdominal muscle. 

The pectoralis minor has its origin in the front of the chest wall, under 
he great pectoral, its fibres arising from the third, fourth, and fifth ribs, and 
)assing upwards and outwards are inserted by a tendon into the caracoid pro- 
ess of the shoulder blade. 

There are two important muscles arising from the trunk and passing to 
heir attachments in the bone of the upper arm, the latissimus dorsi or broad 
luscle of the back, and the pectoralis major or great muscle of the breast, 
^he former has an extensive origin from the lower six thoracic spines and the 
Dines of the lumbar and sacral vertebrae, also from the posterior end of the 
rest of the haunch bone, the origin forming a fibrous layer constituting the 
osterior layer of the lumbar aponeurosis. At its origin from the lower six 
loracic spines it is overlapped by the trapezius, and in turn it overlies the 
-ector spinae. The full attachment of the muscle to the aponeurosis is shown 
y a curved line drawn from the upper part of the muscles attachment near 
le middle line, to its inferior attachment to the iliac crest. From this at- 
1 chment the fibres converge towards the posterior fold of the arm-pit, become 
lick and influence the roundness of that fold, then pass forwards to their in- 
rtion in the upper part of the humerus. The upper fibres of the muscle 
iiss horizontally outside across the back, over the inferior angle of the blade 
i)ne. The lower fibres and those from the last three ribs pass upwards, cor- 
isponding in direction to the outline of the upper arm when the limb is 



The pectoralis major, or great muscle of the breast, arises from the 
anterior border of the inner half of the collar bone, its fibres converge in pass- 
ing to the upper arm, the highest passing downwards and outward in front of 
the lowest, which pass upwards and outwards. Those springing from the 
breast bone lie horizontally when the limb hangs. The passing of the lower 
behind the upper fibres in passing from the chest to the arm increases the 
thickness of the fleshy fold at the hollow of the arm-pit in front, the muscle 
narrowing, and being inserted by a flat tendon in the outer lip of the occi- 
pital groove of the humerus, under the deltoid. The fibres which spring 
from the breast bone and ribs form a triangle, the apex of which overlies 
the front of the upper arm, its base corresponding to the surface on both 
sides of the centre of the breast bone. The prominence formed by these fibres 
causes the median furrow, the lower line corresponding to the breast bone. 
The muscle when well developed conceals the framework of the thoracic 
wall, but the ribs and cartilages may be observed beneath it in poorly developed 

Of another group of muscles having their insertion in the humerus, the 
deltoid or great triangular shoulder muscle, which raises the arm, is the 
principal. It arises from both bones of the shoulder girdle, from the anterior 
surface of the collar bone in front, above the shoulder from the point and 
outer margin of the acromion process of the shoulder blade, and behind from 
the whole length of the lower border of the spine of the scapula, its whole 
origin corresponding with the insertion of the trapezius, of which it may he 
considered a continuation downwards to the arm, after interruption by tlic 
bones of the shoulder girdle. The remaining muscles of this group are the 
infra spinatus, arising from the back of the blade bone below the spine, the 
teres minor arising from attachments along the external border of the blade 
bone (both of which are inserted in the great tuberosity of the humerus) and 
the teres major arising from the posterior surface of the lower angle of t^ 
blade bone, its fibres running parallel to those of the teres minor, but attached 
in tront ot the humerus by insertion into the bicipital groove. 

The abdominal wall consists of a number of ensheathing muscles attached 
by their edges to its boundaries. Connected with the lumbar vertebrae arc 
sheets of condensed tissue called aponeuroses, springing from the spines airf 

1 6 

Platk VI. 

A Study in Pencil 
by Arthur Mason, Birmingham School of Art. 


^ . }C>-^ 




A Study in Pencil and Wash on Tinted Paper 
by W. Walcot. 

Plate VIII. 

A Study from the Antique 

// is probably a sound view that the antique will be better appreciated 

AFTER study from life. 


Plate IX. 


'process 81 ^ 



'(//net as -- 

Maanc/i bone- 



r^oo<^eA {or ^es^ J X^j 


,/,.Afrc/c//e. Sl 
Vf)a/angeS - (fo e yo'/n /r J 

A Study of the Skeleton 
by John Wat kins, St. Martin s School of Art, London. 



Plate X. 


^S Zona i 

2J*. /ntter • --. 

Steeps cul//-<'' 

tensor am rat/ /ono.. 
if' - - i/«/r>. 

Ot/^ojuiorr oi mumh- — 
£»tt com a'af/ora/n. 




l^s/u^ ex feme/ f' 

Jnhema/ Cof^c/oy/c- 

Jib/ 3, suScu/dneoc/f . 

 ■•%f.jaf. ///<?c ffiine, 
..Pecflmus I 

>^J'X ' ^2/io f3so4s 

'** ^..-Adejcjc/ir ion^af 

l^cfuS *&n>ortJ* 
/3anc/ J^/?kQ- 


. " Lon<^ tyitnsbr of vf- foe. 

Lotto tuMn/or af'- 
^ ^ /So fefi^n.> 

A Study of the Muscles of the Body 
by John Watkins, St. Martin's School of Art, London. 


Platk XI. 



Occjpjta/ Bona 
tttbrna Occip'ihl R-otohe. 

,.Demf30faJ JHone 
..3rontal Bone 

^ffjornatic /\rck 

Ms far Of Cheek Sdtit (tp) 

,.../i1andi6le ' 
■" Dorsa/ VeriebrQA 

CJavicfe. j 

Xtfna . 



Iff 'C^ft>ufa 


A Study of Back View of the Skeleton 
by Eugenie Richards, Nottingham School of Art. 


Plate XII. 

.''^>'i x>, 

^Lfinhar 7iponeuros/s .  

/^e3c^ cTf^u/a 


r\'^' -^CK vary/ *^ '-^^x 

\ • G!ufeafMe<//as 
> ' "^"^ -Tensor fasc/ae femon'r 
'" I ^ 'Posterior sv^r/or ///sc sme 

. - Adduc/or msqnus 
'JJio iihral band 
'Vas/us extern us 

• • Semi/enc/jnos-us 


'Biceps orT/)^icf/L 
Semi mem^isn opus 
(]' Jar/on us ^ 

,^''\Pop///ejl pp3cff or ham. 
i- Inner /)e3c/ ofass/^ocnemius' 

 -.PeroneuP JonacW 
'eroneup £re\//f 

.... 7en<Jo Ac/?/7^r 
Sx/em^f ,3nnaJar Jfaamen^ 

Op cahjp 

A Study of the Muscles of the Body 
by Eugenie Richards, Nottingham School of Art. 

I'lATI \I 

Studies of the Skeleton and Muscles 
by Ethel Marsh, Maidstone School of Art. 

Hj.atk XI\' 

Studies of Muscles and SKEij-rrox 
by R. F. Wtlson, Nottingham School of Art. 


processes, and enclosing the erectores spinas in a fibrous sheath. In these 
aponeuroses certain muscles of the flank originate ; their fleshy fibres forming 
three muscular layers, the external oblique, the internal oblique, and the 
transversalis, which reach a short way forwards on to the abdominal wall and 
are there again replaced by aponeuroses. The aponeurosis of the intermediate 
muscle divides on approaching the middle line, and unites in front and behind 
with the aponeuroses of the inner and outer muscle respectively, enclosing the 
longitudinal fibres of the straight or rectus muscle at the side of the linea alba, 
the fibrous cord formed by the fusion of the aponeuroses of the flank muscles 
in the middle line. 

Stretching from the higher level of the superior spine of the ilium to the 
pubic spine there exists a band of fibrous tissue called Poupart's ligament, 
formed by the lower fibres of the sheet-like tendon of an abdominal muscle. 
The convexity of the curve between its points of attachment is directed 
downward, corresponding to the furrow separating the lower abdominal region 
from the front of the thigh. 

The ilio femoral ligament is important in preventing excessive backward 
extension of the thigh on the trunk ; it is attached to a part of the ilium im- 
mediately above the acetabulum, spreads fan-wise and is united with the thigh 
bone below along a rough line called the spiral line. 

The gluteus maximus, or buttock muscle, has an extensive origin from 
the posterior fourth of the iliac crest, from the aponeurosis of the erector 
spinae muscle, from the side of the lower part of the sacrum, from the side of 
the coccyx, and from the surface of a ligament stretching from the sacrum to 
the ischium, the great sacro sciatic ligament. The fibres of the upper half of 
the muscle, and the superficial fibres of the lower half are inserted by an 
aponeurosis into the fascia running down the outer side of the thigh. The 
rest of the fibres of the lower half are attached by a flattened tendon to a 
rough ridge on the back of the thigh bone, called the gluteal ridge. The 
gluteus maximus is superficial, and its outline masked by an outer layer of 
fat. In the female this layer is much thicker than in the male, and the 
gluteal fold is more strongly marked in consequence, and transversely of 
greater length, while the overhang of the gluteal projection is more pronounced. 

The tensor fasciae femoris is the muscle separating the buttock region 

17 2 


from the anterior aspect of the thigh, its origin is tendinous from the anterior 
extremity of the iUac crest ; going downwards and backwards towards the 
trochanter, it reaches about three inches below it and blends with the fascia, 
forming a band along the outer side of the thigh. 

The gluteus medius is another fan-shaped muscle, its superior attachment 
spreading over the outer surface of the iliac expansion of the haunch bone, 
and its fibres gathered inferiorly into a flattened tendon inserted into a line 
running obliquely downward and forward on the outer surface of the tro- 
chanter ; it is a powerful abductor of the thigh. 

The thigh muscles in front are known as the extensor group, those at 
the back the flexor group. The extensors are four in number, the crureus, 
with the internal and external vasti on either side, and the rectus femoris 
superficial to the others, arising by tendons from the iliac portion of the 
haunch bone. All are inserted into the patella, and act as powerful exten- 
sors of the knee, in straightening the leg. 

The sartorius, the longest muscle in the body, originates above fi-om the 
anterior superior iliac spine and bone immediately below, passes obliquely 
across the front of the upper part of the thigh to the middle of the inner side, 
passes down and behind the most prominent part of the internal condoyle of 
the thigh bone and along the inner side of the knee, and becomes below a 
thin expanded tendon turning forward under the inner tuberosity of the tibia, 
inserted into the subcutaneous surface of that bone close to the front tubercle. 
Its action is to flex the knee and hip joints. 

Above and to the inner side of the sartorius lie the adductor muscles, 
stretching from the front of the pelvis to the upper part of the thigh bone, 
they assist in forming the base of the depression immediately below the groin, 
called the hollow of the thigh. 

The adductor group includes the gracilis, which draws the knees to- 
gether from the outspread position, arising by a thin tendon from the bone, 
close to and parallel with the symphysis pubis ; in direction it coincides with 
the upper and inner aspect of the thigh in profile from the front. It curves 
forward below the internal tuberosity of the tibia, and is inserted under the 
sartorius into the inner aspect of the upper portion shaft of the tibia. 

The flexor group consists of the hamstring muscles on the back of the 




thigh, comprising the biceps of the thigh, the semi-tendinosus, and the semi- 
membranosus, all originating from the tuberosity of the ischium and inserted 
in the leg bones, two into the tibia or inner bone, and the other into the 
fibula or outer bone. 

The muscles of the front of the leg are the tibialis anticus, the extensor 
proprius hallucis, the extensor longus digitorum, and the peroneus tertius, 
which arise partly from the tibia, partly from the fibula, and from the mem- 
brane connecting the two bones which separates the front muscles of the leg 
from those which lie at the back. The tibialis anticus is the innermost of 
the group, and lies along the outer side of the tibia, arising from the upper 
two-thirds of it and its external tuberosity ; it is inserted into the inner sur- 
face of the internal cuneiform bone and the base of the metatarsal bone. 
The long extensor of the toes arises fi-om the external tuberosity of the tibia 
in front of the point of its articulation with the head of the fibula, from the 
head of the fibula, from the anterior surface of the fibula, and from the ad- 
jacent surface of the interosseus membrane. Those fibres which arise from 
the front of the fibula unite in front in a tendon which passes down the an- 
terior edge of the muscle in the lower leg. Under the anterior annular liga- 
ment it divides into four slips, which pass to the upper or dorsal surface of 
the four outer toes, forming expansions which have insertions into the bases 
of the second and third phalanges of these toes. The fibres from the lower 
quarter of the anterior surface of the fibula form a small slip called the 
peroneus tertius, which passes by a tendinous insertion into the dorsal sur- 
face of the metatarsal bone of the little toe. The great toe has a special ex- 
tensor arising from the middle three-fifths of the anterior surface of the shaft 
of the fibula, and from the adjacent surface of the interosseus membrane. 

Of the peroneal muscles two lie on the outer side of the long extensor of 
the toes. These are the peroneus brevis, arising from the lower two-thirds of 
the external surface of the fibula below the peroneus longus, and attached to 
the fifth metatarsal bone, and the peroneus longus, arising from the head and 
upper half of outer surface of fibula attached to the under side of metatarsal 
of great toe. Both act as extensors of the foot, and assisting the peroneus 
tertius in raising the outer border of the foot, turning the sole outwards. 

The superficial muscles constituting the prominence of the calf at back 



are the soleus and the gastrocnemius. The soleus is the deeper ; it arises from 
the head and upper fourth of tibia and fibula and is inserted at the back of 
the OS calcis. The gastrocnemius rests upon the soleus and has no attachment 
to the leg bones ; it arises by two heads from the back of the thigh bones, 
above the condoyles, and is inserted by the tendo Achillis into the back of the 
OS calcis. Both muscles are extensors of the ankle. 

The tendo Achillis, the combined tendon of the soleus and gastrocnemius, 
occupies the lower half of the back of the leg, receiving the fibres of the gas- 
trocnemius in its upper surface, and those of the soleus on either side as they 
approach the middle line of the calf 

The important surface muscles of the foot are (i) the abductor poUicis 
pedis, which fills the hollow under the internal ankle, passing from the os 
calcis to the base of the first phalanx of the great toe ; (2) the lower part of 
the tendons of the extensor brevis digitorum, which arises under the external 
ankle and connects with the toe bases of the great and next three toes, con- 
necting with the tendons of the long extensor. 

The drawing of the arm is extremely important and should be specially 
studied, as this limb is more often exposed than any part of the body in illus- 
tration. The most important muscle is the triceps, which covers the entire 
back part of the upper arm, its function being the extension of the forearm. 
It is attached to the olecranon process of the ulna and to the scapula, the latter 
attachment giving it power to draw the arm towards and behind the trunk. 
In repose it is almost imperceptible, but is evident in violent action. 

The brachialis anticus is attached to the lower anterior surface of the 
humerus, below the coronoid process, and separates the biceps and triceps. 
The coraco brachialis is attached to the apex of the coronoid process of the 
scapula, and the inner side of the middle of the humerus, anterior surface ; it 
is a proper adductor of the arm, and occupies a position between the biceps 
and triceps above the brachialis anticus. The biceps cubiti has attachments, 
one above the glenoid cavity and another on its apex of corocoid process of 
scapula, also by a tendon to the back of bicipital tuberosity of the radius ; 
this tendon spreads over the fascia of the flexor muscles of the forearm. 

Three muscles previously dealt with, the teres major, latissimus dorsi, and 
pectoralis major, have much influence on the drawing of the upper arm— the 



teres major coming from the back of the scapula, the dorsal from the iliac 
crest, and the pectoral from the chest wall, are all inserted in the humerus 
about the bicipital groove. 

The two groups of muscles of the forearm operate on the wrists and 
hands as flexors and extensors. The supinator radii longus is the chief 
muscle of the extensor group ; its attachments are to the upper part of the 
epicondjdoid ridge of the humerus and base of the styloid process of radius. 
Others are : — The extensor carpi radialis longoir, attached to the lower part of 
ridge of the humerus and base of the metacarpal bone of the first finger ; the 
extensor carpi radialis brevoir, attached to the external condoyle of humerus, 
and the metacarpal bone of second finger ; the extensors pollicis, from back of 
ulna and radius respectively to bases of three bones of the thumb ; the extensor 
communis digitorum from external condoyle of humerus by four tendons to 
the last two bones of the fingers ; the extensor minimi digiti by tendon to the 
external condoyle, thence to base of last two bones of little finger ; the extensor 
carpi ulnaris from external condoyle to back of base of fifth metacarpal bone ; 
the anconeus from back of external condoyle to outer side of ulna. 

The flexor or front group consists of the pronator radii teres from the 
inner condoyle ridge to middle of outer side of the radius, the flexor carpi 
radialis from inner condoyle to base of second metacarpal bone, the palmari 
longus from inner condoyle to fascia of palm, and the flexor digitorum sublimis 
from inner condoyle to sides of second phalanges of fingers. 

The arms are capable of being turned round in the actions of pronation 
and supination, two movements enabling the hand to rotate through an arc of 
half a circle, bringing either the palm or knuckles upwards. The forearm 
has nineteen muscles, four concerned with the movements of pronation and 
supination, nine with the thumb and fingers, and six with the wrist. One 
of the most important wrist muscles is the flexor carpi ulnaris as it influences 
form by giving the sharp line beneath the wrist on outer side of forearm. 
The muscular formation of the wrist and back of hand is shown in the diagram, 
plate XII. The fingers have no muscles, giving attachments only to the 
tendons of their controlling muscles in the arm and hand. The form of the 
fingers is due to the fat and fascia beneath the skin, hence the bony appearance 
of the hand in emaciated persons. 



For the study of the musculation of the arm and hand I advise students 
to get plaster casts in prone and supine positions for reference, and trace the 
various attachments and movements of muscles from them and the living arm, 
until so thoroughly conversant with the formation that it becomes a simple 
matter to zn^LtomisG from memory the many photographic records of arms and 
hands here given. 

In closing these remarks I cherish the fond hope that the notes on 
anatomy will by their very brevity induce students to assimilate and apply 
them thoroughly in connection with the photographs, and thus aid them to 
acquire the rudiments of power in expressing the figure, and peradventure the 
useful desire to pursue the subject further with the aid of such valuable 
text-books as Thompson's " Anatomy for Art Students," Hatton's " Figure 
Drawing," VanderpoeFs " The Human Figure," or other books dealing 
exhaustively with its many phases. 





Frontispiece, MODEL No. 4, is an exquisite contemplative pose, the body entirely at 

rest, and consequently greatly fore-shortened in com- 
parison with an erect position. 


I, A study in charcoal on Michelet paper, by Puvis de Chavannes. 
II, A study in oil colours by Harold Knight, Nottingham School of Art. 

III, A study in oil colours by H. Ball, Nottingham School of Art. 

IV, A study in pencil by Arthur Mason, Birmingham School of Art. 
V, A study in pencil by Arthur Mason, Birmingham School of Art. 

VI, A study in pencil by Arthur Mason, Birmingham School of Art. 

VII, A study in pencil and wash on tinted paper, by W. Walcot. 

VIII, A study from the antique. 

IX, A study of the skeleton, by John Watkins, St. Martin's School of Art, 

X, A study of the muscles of the body, by John Watkins, St. Martin's 

School of Art, London. 
XI, A study of back view of the skeleton, by Miss Eugenie Richards, 
Nottingham School of Art. 
XII, A study of muscles of the body, by Miss Eugenie Richards, Notting- 
ham School of Art. 

XIII, Studies of the skeleton and muscles, by Miss Ethel Marsh, Maidstone 

School of Art. 

XIV, Studies of the muscles and skeleton, by R. F. Wilson, Nottingham School 

of Art. 
XV, Model No. i, A charming decorative pose, showing arrested move- 
ment and balance in an excellent silhouette of a figure 
from the side. The composition of line is unusually 
interesting, the whole weight of figure is on the right 
leg, the other touching the ground with toes alone. 




XVI, Model No. i, A pose useful for the allegorical representation of 
crafts or music, the hands in such positions that 
emblems can be placed in them. 
XVII, Model No. 2, A child of fifteen in a pose that shows well the effect 

when the main weight is on left leg. 
Model No. 3, A position showing effect of three supports, used simul- 
XVIII, MODEL No. 3, standing with the torso bent slightly forward showing 

the anatomy of the neck and shoulders. A useful 
classic pose that should drape well. 
XIX, Model No. 4, A superlatively useful pose for the study of anatomy, 
and composition of line. Note the marked contrast 
of subtlety and strong definition in the two sides of 
the figure. 
XX, Model No. 3, is a caryatid pose, the weight evenly distributed on 
both feet, the torso slightly twisted. 

XXI, Models Nos. i and 3, are two arabesques of extremely graceful lines, 

useful as anatomical studies. The first is poised on 
both feet, the other stands on the right leg. 

XXII, Model No. i, arrested movement, a pose of lovely contrasting lines, 

useful pictorially for a carrying pose and decoratively 
as a supporting figure in design. 

XXIII, Model No. i, is an arabesque dancing figure, perfect as a composition 

in itself and useful in showing various movements of 
the limbs, and the graceful taper of the arms. 

XXIV, Model No. 5, A muscular female figure in pose that shows well the 

slope of the body above the waist when the arms arc 
lifted to support an object above the head. 
Model No. 3, is a pose indicating Sorrow. The shoulder muscles well 
XXV and XXVI, MODEL No. i, back views of poses that are lovely in line. 

The former useful pictorially as Charity or Contem- 
plation, the latter a Hairdressing or purely decorative 
pose. The comparative anatomy of the torso in the 
two poses is am interesting study. 




XXVII, Model No. 3, A vigorous pose that shows the same effect as in 

Model 5, Plate XXIV, but from a different point of 


XXVIII, Model No. 3, A useful decorative pose, showing the effect of the use 

of the left arm as a support in resting on a high scat. 

XXIX, Model No. 3, A decorative pose with much variety of movement that 

makes it interesting as an anatomical basis. 

XXX, Model No. 3, putting on sandals, a useful decorative pose giving the 

foreshortening of many parts of the body. 

XXXI, Model No. i, A decorative pose of beautifully flowing lines, radiating 

from the hands clasping the right knee. 

XXXII, Model No. 3, A contemplative or reading pose of simple flowing 

lines, the left arm and hand is particularly graceful. 

XXXIII, Model No. i, A decorative or "announcement" pose of great ana- 

tomical possibilities. 

XXXIV, Model No. i, Vanity, a pose of infinite usefulness, pictorially, decora- 

tively, and anatomically. 

XXXV, Model No. 3, is a sitting pose, the right arm resting on corner of 

chair back and the left on corner of seat, giving a 
double thrust upwards to the shoulders. The left 
foot is resting on two levels. 

XXXVI, Model No. 3, A decorative pose of sharp contrasts in direction of 

line that is very effective. A difficult and useful 
anatomical exercise. 
XXXVII, Model No. 5, contemplative. Reading or bathing pose of simple 

definite lines. 
MODEL No. I, is a pose expressing sorrow or regret. 
XXXVIII, Model No. i, A wonderful pose expressive of hope and vitality. 

The foreshortening is extremely well caught, and an 
anatomical rendering of the pose is an interesting task. 
XXXIX and XL, MODEL No. 3, are two decorative kneeling poses, complement- 
ary to each other, and useful for sculpture or church 
decoration work. 




XLI, MODEL No. I, is a beautiful side view of a sacrificial pose, giving the 
figure in very true proportion for anatomical study. 

XLII, MODEL No. 3, A pose of exaltation or entreaty, well caught by the 

photograph, and useful both pictorially and in de- 

XLIII, Model No. i. Two poses of pictorial interest, the former remarkable 

for its simplicity of line, the latter useful for its sense 
of poised and graceful arrested action in kneeling. 

XLIV, Model No. 4, A pose that shows usefully the poise of head and neck 

and soft contours of shoulders in female. 
MODEL No. 3, An interesting decorative pose in which the upper arms 
and lower legs make a straight line. Anatomically 
an extremely useful exercise. 
XLV, MODEL No. I, A contemplative or reading pose of pronounced de- 
corative quality. 
MODEL No. 3, A combined action of kneeling and stretching with 
body half turned. 

XLVI, Model No. 5, " Waking," a beautiful recumbent pose, with useful de- 
tail in the foreshortening of the right arm and thighs, 
and the finely modelled left arm and shoulder. A 
painter's or modeller's subject, and an interesting ana- 
tomical study. 

XLVI I, Model No. 5, is a useful decorative pose, interesting in the turn of 

the upper part of torso supported by right arm. The 
pose is a development of that photographed in Plate 
XLVIII, Model No. 3, Two recumbent poses that give a vivid idea of the 

difliculty of drawing such unless the anatomy is 
thoroughly understood. 
Model No. 5, the shoulder muscles in the upper and the chest and 
abdominal muscles in the lower are plainly marked, 
and both are valuable anatomical subjects. 

XLIX, Model No. i, is a study in flowing lines, useful for decorative work. 

The left forearm and hand is beautifully shown in 



L, Models Nos. 6 and 7, a group showing a charming caryatid pose in 
the little boy of five, and a useful and unusual con- 
templative pose of a woman holding one object and 
looking at another. 

LI, Ditto, Ditto, In an exquisite combination of line that offers sug- 
gestion to the sculptor and decorator, and is anato- 
mically interesting owing to the curved thrusts of the 
whole body line in both models. 

LII, Ditto, Ditto, In a decorative group that suggests sculpture. 
LIII, Model No. 8, A fine study of a well-developed male of twenty-four, 

in which the anatomy of the torso is evident. 

LIV, Model No. 9, A beautifully balanced figure of a man with catapult 

with the muscles of the back and arm finely shown. 

LV, Model No. 10, An unusually beautiful pose of an athlete stretching 
forward on the right leg and thrusting both arms out 
and back. 

LVI, Model Na 10, A throwing pose in which the arms make an interest- 
ing decorative line. 

LVII, MODEL No. 9, A fine anatomical study of a man pulling up a length 

of rope. 

LVIII, Model No. 10, i. The aspect of a body completely opposed to the 

direction of the legs. 2. A development of the pose 
in Plate XLIL "The Vision." 

LIX, Model No. io, is a man striking, harpooning, leaning on a staff, or 

bending to look over a precipice. The various fore- 
shortenings make a useful anatomical exercise. 

'Various poses of young men, or poses that are useful as 
anatomical studies. The first photograph on Plate 
LX and those on Plates LXI and LXIII are 
excellent line compositions, giving some decorative 
suggestions in addition to their value as subjects to 

LXIV, LXV, LXIX, MODELS Nos. 8 and 12, are decorative studies of brothers 

at play. 


LX, MODEL No. 8, 

LXI, Model No. 8, 
MODEL No. 8, 



LXVI, Model No. 8, Two poses from the same model. The upper indica- 
tive of grief or weariness, the lower an athlete com- 
mencing to run, both giving useful opportunities for 
anatomical study. 

LXVII, Model No. 12, is a boy of twelve climbing on to a sofa, an unusually 

-interesting study of arrested movement. 

LXVIII, MODELS Nos. 8 and 11, are two decorative studies of young men in 

which the anatomy is well shown, and which suggest 

LXX, Model No. 10, A beautiful semi-recumbent pose, useful for the de- 
corator, sculptor, or painter. The uplifted arm is 
finely shown, and the flowing lines of the body and 
legs suggest development of the underlying muscles 
that should be an interesting study. 

LXXI, Model No. 8 (left) A young man picking up a stick, beautiful as a com- 
position and plainly showing the muscular develop- 

Model No. i 2 (right) A boy playing on a pipe — a young faun. 

LXXII, LXXIII, LXXIV, Model No. 12, Various studies of a boy looking up, 

listening, warning, lifting and stretching. 

LXXV, Model No. 6, Two poses of a boy aged five years. 

LXX VI, Model No. 8, A Greek study of an artist looking at a piece of craft 

work, monumental in its dignity, and a splendid sub- 
ject for an anatomical study. 

LXXVII, Model No. n, is a man with a catapult: a vigorous standing pose, 

and a good straightforward anatomical subject with 
the knee bones and thoracic muscles plainly marked. 



Platk LI 1 1, 

Model No. 8. 


Model No. 9. 

ri.ATi; LV 

Model No. 10. 

Pl.ATI L\I. 

Model No. 10. 

Pr-ATE LVn. 

Model No. 9. 


Model No. 10. " thk vision. 

I'l.ATi: LIX, 

Model No. 10. 


Model No. 8. 

Plate LXI, 

Model No. 8. 


Model No. 11. 

Model No. 8. 

Pf.atk LXfll 

Model No. 8. 

Plate LXIV. 

Models Nos. 8 and 12. 

Plate LXV. 

Models Nos. 8 and 12. 

Plate LXVI. 

Model No. 8. 

Model No. 8. 


Model No. 12. 

Plate LXX. 

Model No. 10. 


I'l.MI l.XXII. 

Model No. 12. 




Model No. 8. 


Model No. 1 1.