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Full text of "Studies on wine-sterilizing machines"

LIBRARY 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 



RECEIVED BY EXCHANGE 



Class 



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



VITICULTUEAL STATION, BUTHEEGLEN, VICTOEIA. 



STUDIES ON VINE-STERILIZING 
MACHINES, 




U. GAYON, 

Professor of Physical Sciences in the University of Bordeaux. 



Translated by 
RAYMOND DUBOIS, B.Sc. (Paris), 

Diplome E.A.M., Director of the Viticultural Station, Chief Inspector of 
Vineyards for Victoria, 

AND 

W. PERCY WILKINSON, 

Consulting Analyst to the Board of Public Health and the M. and M. Board 
of Works, Private Assistant to the Government Analyst. 



ROBT. S. BRAIN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, MELBOURNE. 

19O1. 

10050, 



4 JOti 









PLATE 



WINE FERMENTS. 




1.-WINE YEAST. 



2.-MYCODERMA VINI. 

(Disease known as Flower.) 




3.-MYCODERMA ACETI 

(Vinegar Disease.) 



4.-AMERTUME. 
(Bitter Disease.) 



PLATE II. 



WINE FERMENTS. 




7.-MANNITIC 
FERMENT. 



8.-GRAISSE. ^ 
(Disease peculiar to White Wines.) 



OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 




TRANSLATORS' PREFACE. 



The deterioration of wine has always been a source of 
constant financial loss in all wine-producing countries. 
During many centuries the causes of deterioration, souring, 
<fec., of wine remained unknown, and the only treatment 
wine was subjected to in the hope of preventing or amelior- 
ating the evil, consisted in repeated racking, fining, and 
sulphuring. 

It was reserved for Pasteur, in a series of classical 
researches commencing with the study of putrefactive fer- 
mentation* in 1863, to prove in a decisive manner the origin 
and causes of deterioration in wine and other fermented 
liquors, which were traced to the action of micro-organisms 
(disease ferments) of various kinds, and to show that the 
numerous diseases known in wine were due in each case to 
a characteristic micro-organism. At the same time, Pasteur 
developed a rational method of treatment, rendering it 
possible to keep wine perfectly sound, and to guard against 
diseases or alterations due to micro-organisms for a prac- 
tically unlimited period. This method, depending on the 
application of heat, although previously empirically applied 
by Spallanzani, Scheele, and Appert,f is now known as 
sterilization or pasteurization. 

The machines used for the practical application of 
Pasteur's discovery are generally called pasteurizers. 
They exist in very varied forms, according to requirements, 
for the sterilization of wine, unfermented wine, beer, 
milk, &c. 

* Compte rendus de 1'Academie des Sciences [Ivi. ], 1863. 

t As early as the year 1765 Spallanzani heated extract of meat in closed 
flasks, and demonstrated that the contents remained unaltered until air 
was admitted. From this he concluded that the germs which developed 
in the open flasks had come from the air. Later on, in 1782, C. W. Scheele 
showed in his work " Anmarkninyar om sdttet att conserva dttika "that 
vinegar could be prevented from decomposing by the application of heat. 
In 1810 Appert published his book "Le livre de tous les menages, ou I'art 
de conserver pendant plusieurs annees toutes les substances animates ou 
vegetales," in which he described a method of preserving various foods and 
organic liquids by means of heat. In the 4th edition, which appeared in 
1831, Appert gave directions for the treatment of wines, the method 
being essentially the same as that used nowadays under the name of 
" Pasteurization. " 

214603 2 



As no comprehensive description of these machines and 
their efficiency as applied to wine has yet appeared in the 
English language, we undertook the present translation of 
Professor Gayon's "Etude sur les appareils de pasteurization 
des vins, en bouteilles, et en futs"* with the desire of 
benefiting the Australian wine industry. 

The large quantities of off-wine annually distilled 
throughout Australia would be greatly reduced by the 
general adoption of pasteurizers as part of the outfit of 
every fermenting house and wine cellar ; much wine at 
present condemned to the still could be then easily saved 
through pasteurizing at an early stage, or, in other words, 
by preventive sterilizing in every case of latent disease, \ 
obviously with considerable practical advantage to wine- 
makers and merchants. 

The application of pasteurization to the young wines 
destined for our rapidly increasing export trade would insure 
their withstanding the extreme variations of temperature 
which occur during the sea voyage and transit across the 
equator, and consequent arrival in sound condition. 

Although the benefit of pasteurization is more or less 
admitted by many Victorian wine-makers, it is regrettable, 
when the small initial outlay as compared -with the final 
gain is considered, that they have delayed availing them- 
selves of the decided and obvious benefit which would arise 
from the use of these appliances, which are recognised as 
of essential importance in all hot viticultural countries 
where the difficulties of conducting fermentation under 
strictly normal conditions present much trouble. 

The wine-makers in the hot climates of the South of 
France, Algeria, Spain, Italy, and California having already 
proved the immense commercial advantages of pasteurizing 
wine, we may express the hope that Victorian wine-makers 
will derive some practical gain from the present translation. 

RAYMOND DUBOIS. 

W. PERCY WILKINSON. 

Viticultural Station, 
Rutherglen, March, 1901. 

* Revue de Viticulture, Vol. iii. and Vol. iv., 1895. 
t See pages 11 and 12 for means of detecting latent disease in 
wines. 



GENERALITIES. 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING 
MACHINES.* 



By U. Gctyon, Professor of Physical Sciences in the 
University of Bordeaux. 



I. 
GENERALITIES. 

The word ''pasteurization" has become synonymous with 
sterilization. It .applies to most of the alimentary liquids, 
but more especially to fermented liquors, such as beer or 
wine. A liquid- may be pasteurized cold by filtration 
through porous earthenware tubes or plates, such as 
Chamberland candles, &c., or by heat, by progressive eleva- 
tion of temperature up to the degree recognised as necessary 
to kill the germs causing diseases. 

We will only study pasteurization by heat, the efficacy of 
which was established long ago by Pasteur, as a result of 
his special studies on diseases of wines, their causes, and the 
means of preventing them. 

1. Effect of Heating. Everybody now knows the results 
of Pasteur's studies. Notwithstanding the greatest care, 
Vines do not always improve with age. On the contrary, 
they sometimes undergo grave alterations and lose their 
essential qualities. They are then said to be diseased. 
Pasteur pointed out that all these diseases (tourne, graisse, 
pousse, bitter, acetification), apparently spontaneous, are 
always correlative to the multiplication of microscopical 
organisms or microbes ; that these micro-organisms invari- 
ably exist in wine, and that they develop and multiply whe;i 
circumstances are favorable. 

All the usual manipulations in vinification have for their 
object, either the mechanical elimination of those germs or 
the prevention of their development by constantly modifying 
the chemical constitution of the liquid, fining, &c. Most of 
these manipulations would be unnecessary if the liquid were 

* Revue de Viticulture. Vol. III. and Vol. IV., 1895. 



6 STUDIES ON WINE-STEKILIZING MACHINES. 

completely free from living germs if it were " sterilized." 
Heat enables one to reach this object without injuring the 
development of the natural qualities of wines (maturation), 
as proved by Pasteur. 

Pasteur's experiments were made about 30 years ago, 
with wines in bottles, varying greatly in quality, from the 
most common kind of wine to the finest Bourgogne (Nuits, 
Volnay, Chambertin, Romance, Voujeot). The results were 
most conclusive, and the Commission appointed to taste and 
report upon heated wines and non-heated wines, the year the 
heating was done, and several years after, were unanimous 
in recognising the " immense results achieved." 

More recent experiments made under the direction of 
Gayon, with Bordeaux wines, have fully confirmed the above 
results. 

There cannot be any doubt now, whatever may be the 
origin and nature of wines, that properly applied heating 
preserves them from all diseases ; and, further, that this 
operation does not alter the colour or bouquet, or injure the 
maturing, neither hastening or retarding it, and that it is 
practical and cheap. 

The advantages resulting from this method of preserva- 
tion of wines have been quickly appreciated, and a great 
many heating machines were invented, directly after the 
publication of Pasteur's discoveries. Since then, a number 
of vine diseases (phylloxera, mildew, &c.) by their indirect 
action on the qualities of wines have rendered pasteurization 
more necessary than ever. New machines have been in- 
vented, considerable improvements made, and viticulturists 
and wine merchants now recognise heating as one of the 
most important processes in vinification. 

2. Conditions for effective pasteurization. Heating can 
only preserve wines from developing diseases after leaving 
the vat. It is naturally powerless against alterations taking 
place during the fermentation of must. This is why it 
cannot prevent the production of mannite, but can arrest 
its formation after de-vatting. Before describing the 
machines most in use, we will indicate the essential condi- 
tions for erfective pasteurization. 

Firstly, the wine must be bright, if not, the matters in 
suspension might be partly re-dissolved under the action of 
the heating, and communicate, at least transiently, a special 
taste to it, altering its finesse and natural bouquet. Conse- 
quently bottled wine should be heated soon after bottling, 



GENERALITIES. 7 

and wine in casks should be filtered, if necessary, before 
entering the pasteurizing machine. If we desire to sterilize 
old bottled wine it should be previously decanted to separate 
it from the deposit. 

Selection is necessary in the case of a filter, as it is 
important not to submit recently Derated wine to the action 
of increased temperature. Filters working out of contact of 
air, under reduced pressure, should be preferred. If they 
are not available those allowing the use of carbonic acid or 
sulphurous acid gas in moderate amount should be selected. 

For wine to preserve all its required qualities, and not to 
age too rapidly, it must be heated and cooled in the same 
closed recipient, so as not to come in contact with the air, 
or absorb oxygen at any moment during the operation. 
Under these conditions, which are, as far as possible, realized 
by heating in bottles, not only is the destruction of the 
existing germs complete, but, also, the introduction of out- 
side germs rendered impossible, therefore the preservation of 
the wine is assured indefinitely. The wine also preserves its 
limpidity, colour, and bouquet, and acquires with age all the 
qualities compatible with its constitution, origin, and vintage. 

If, on the contrary, during pasteurization the warm wine 
comes in contact with the air or if, for instance, it is placed 
in casks without previous cooling the colour and taste get 
modified, and it may acquire, according to the temperature 
reached, the characteristics of old wine. 

It is therefore possible to produce artificial ageing, which 
may sometimes be useful for blending purposes. This pro- 
cess, however, is only used for very common wines, and, if 
applied carefully to fine wines, it may enable them to reach in 
a few years the most favorable point for their consumption. 

3. Degree of Temperature. The degree of temperature 
to be reached varies between 55 and 65 C. (131 to 149 
F.), according to the composition of the liquid. For light 
wines deficient in acids it is advisable to go up to 65 0. 
(149 F.). For wines of average constitution 60 C. (140 
F.) are sufficient, and wines rich in alcohol and acids only 
require 55 C. (131 F.). If there is no disadvantage in 
over-reaching the temperature fixed beforehand, there is, 
however, economy in keeping as close as possible to it. 

The above temperatures have been determined by practice, 
but experiments were necessary to determine more precisely 
the action of heat on the different ferments of wine. Gayon 
and Dubourg made researches on the subject, the main 



8 STUDIES ON WINE- STERILIZING MACHINES. 

results of which were published in 1891 in the Memoir es de 
la societe des sciences, physiques et naturelles de Bordeaux. 
They studied more specially the Mycoderma aceti, M. vini, 
Alcoholic yeast, and Tourne. 

4. Action of Heat on the Tourne Ferment. The tourne 
ferment is certainly the most dreaded of disease-ferments ; 
for under various shapes it attacks all wines fine, common, 
rich or poor in alcohol or colour. Much more frequent 
than the bitter (amertume), it is the main cause of alteration 
of wines (off wines). Its germs, which are generally present 
in the fermenting vat, when the alcoholic yeast starts to 
multiply, are not always easy to eliminate by ordinary 
manipulations ; they often start to multiply again when the 
wine is bottled, rendering it unfit for consumption. 

With the object of ascertaining the effects of temperature 
on this ferment, wine recently attacked was selected, and a 
series of small cylindrical glass tubes of 1 mm. in diameter 
filled with its sediment. Each series was placed in a water 
bath, the temperature of which was kept constant, during a 
time varying between a quarter of a minute and two minutes. 
After rapid cooling the heated ferments were placed on 
proper cultures, kept during one month, in a stove at 35 C. 
Microscopical examination and analyses were made to deter- 
mine the ferments which remained fecund and those which 
were sterilized by the heat. 

Repeated trials with different tourne wines proved that 
the temperature of 60 C. (140 F.) was always sufficient, 
even when acting only one-quarter minute, to destroy all 
germs, but when below that temperature the results were a 
function of the alcoholic strength of the liquid and of the 
duration of heating. 

The following table gives comparative examples : 



Time, in minutes. 



; Alcohol, 8% ; Acidity, 3-1 grm. 



i 55 C. 56 57 58 59 60 



Alcohol, 12% ; Acidity, 2'8 grm. 




55 56 57 58 59 60 



The sign - indicates non-sterilized ferments. 
The sign -f indicates those sterilized. 



GENERALITIES. 



9 



We see that with wine containing 8 per cent, (by volume) 
of alcohol, the tourne ferment was not killed in one-quarter 
minute at 59 C., neither in one-half minute at 58 C. or 57 
G., neither in one minute at 56 C., neither in one minute 
and a half at 55 C., while with a wine containing 12 per 
cent, of alcohol three-quarters of a minute was sufficient 
from 56 C. and one minute and a half at 55 C. 

It results from the ahove that pasteurization may be 
efficacious below 60 C., but the weaker the wine is in 
alcohol and acids the longer the heating must be continued. 
In practice it is simpler to adopt a minimum temperature of 
60 C. 

5. Action of Heat on Mycoderma aceti and Mycoderma 
vini. Analogous results have been obtained with Mycoderma 
aceti and Mycoderma vim, in so far that duration of heating 
balances temperature attained. Their germs were killed in 
one-quarter minute at 60 C. as shown by the following 
table : 



Time, in J minutes. 


Mycoderma aceti. 


Mycoderma vini. 






40C. 45 50 55 60 


40 45 50 55 


60 


1 


+ 


_ 


+ 


2 


+ 


- 


4- 


3 


+ 


+ 


+ 


4 


+ + 


+ 


-r 


6 


+ + 


+ 


4. 


8 


- - - + + 


~ ~~ ~ + 


+ 



The sign indicates non -sterilized ferments. 
The sign + indicates those sterilized 

6. Action of Heat on Alcoholic Yeast. Gayon and Dubourg 
repeated the same experiments with alcoholic yeasts after 
failures obtained by wine merchants who had pasteurized 
sweet wine, or mixtures of musts artificially prevented from 
fermenting, with old dry wines. These wines, perfectly 
heated up to 60 and 65 C. in excellent machines and stored 
in casks sterilized by steam, slowly started to ferment, after 
weeks or months, without any apparent cause. Micro- 
scopical examination showed in all of them young wine- 
yeasts multiplying, but no ferments of diseases. It was 
simply an alcoholic fermentation of the sugar remaining or 
added, but " How could this yeast have been brought there ?" 
There are certainly germs of Saccharomyces floating in the 



10 



STUDIES ON WINE-STEKILIZING MACHINES. 



atmosphere of a cellar, but they could not have fallen into 
the casks for they were bunged and placed on the side and 
had not yet been racked. The only explanation was there- 
fore that the heat had left some of the cells of Saccharoniyces, 
which are always found in wine, alive, and that these, dis- 
tributed throughout the mass, had slowly developed and 
multiplied. Experiments proved this explanation to be the 
correct one. The following table is a condensed account of 
the results obtained, by heating, in small tubes, two liquids 
of different alcoholic strength, still fermenting and sowing 
them afterwards with grape must : 

Alcohol, 9-2/ ; Acidity, 2'9 grm. 
55 C. 60 



Alcohol 4'/ c 


; Acidity, 1 7 grin 


Alec 


Time, in J minutes 








55C. t>0 


65 70 


55 


1 .. . - | 2 8 


-f 15 




~2 





2 2 


15 15 


1 


3 





2 14 


+ + 




4 







2 + 


+ + 




6 


, 


, 


2 + 


+ + 


1 


8 




2 + 


+ + 






70 



21 



The figures printed above show that there has been 
development of the yeast, and also show the number of days 
which elapsed before the alcoholic fermentation was noticed. 
The sign + indicates cultures which remained sterilized 
after one month in the stove. 

We see, in this case, that the effect of heat on the yeast 
depends on the duration of its action, the temperature 
reached, and the composition of the liquid. In any case the 
cells of alcoholic ferment resist heat better than the germs of 
diseases ; this is perhaps due to their relatively large size. 
When pasteurization is done on a large scale, with large 
machines, in which the wine travels rapidly and only 
remains a short time in the calefactor, the temperature of 
60 C. to 65 C. which is sufficient to preserve the wine 
against alteration by diseases, does not necessarily prevent 
the alcoholic ferment from starting vinous fermentation 
sooner or later. 

To obtain this special result it is necessary to bring the 
liquid up to 70 C. (158 F.) ; this temperature being a mini- 
mum, if it is of average alcoholic strength, or to let it remain 
at least one minute in the machine at 60 C. We will later 
on indicate the devices realizing these conditions. 



GENERALITIES. 11 

The yeast remaining in heated wines is sometimes only 
one variety of those which produced the initial fermentation ; 
this is in accordance with the well known facts of the 
physiology of Saccharomyces, which are often isolated from 
one another by progressive heating. 

It is therefore possible by pasteurization to preserve the 
vinous yeast alive, while killing the ferments of diseases. 
This fact is particularly advantageous in wines remaining 
sweet when racked off the fermenting tank, their fermenta- 
tion not having been completed, on account of the tempera- 
ture rising too high and the vinous yeasts remaining in a 
dormant state, handicapped in their multiplication by 
numerous foreign microbes. By destroying the latter, the 
former are left free to resume their natural activity. A 
healthy secondary vinous fermentation starts in the casks, 
and proceeds without check. 

7. Characters of Pasteurized Wine. When should wine 
be pasteurized ? It is best not to wait until deterioration 
<;an be detected by tasting, for heating is only a preventive 
and does not restore a diseased wine, it only arrests the 
progress of the disease. If the taste and bouquet of a wine 
have already deteriorated, it is rarely that it will improve 
with time, notwithstanding the effects of slow etherification. 

If the wine-maker does not desire to heat all his wines in- 
differently, and wishes to perform this operation only on 
doubtful wines or those in which disease is latent, he may 
easily ascertain at any time, if they are really endangered 
and to what extent, even if nothing can be detected through 
tasting. 

Microscopical examination gives the surest indications. 
If, when the wine and lees are carefully examined through a 
microscope, no filamentary or rod microbes are detected, 
and if the matters in suspension are only colouring matter, 
crystals, or alcoholic yeasts, nothing is to be feared. 

New wine, it is true, generally contains numerous fila- 
ments, which develop in the fermenting vat, and certainly 
constitute a serious danger for its future. As a rule, if wines 
are well constituted, and if proper care is taken of them, the 
germs do not multiply in the casks, and are gradually elimi- 
nated with the lees. Microscopical examination after each 
racking is a means of verifying if this elimination really 
takes place. 



12 STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 

The measurement of total acidity, and especially volatile 
acids, performed after each racking completes the results 
given by the microscope, for if a wine remains healthy these 
matters do not sensibly increase. If, on the contrary, the 
amount of acidity increases between two rackings, if for 
instance, the amount of volatile acids reaches 1 per 1,000, it 
is necessary to pasteurize. 

The age of the wine is of no importance, as there is no 
disadvantage in heating wine during the first months fol- 
lowing the vintage, if the alcoholic fermentation has been 
completed, and if it has acquired its normal characters. It 
has even a great advantage, as the wine may be left in casks 
lightly bunged, thus saving future manipulations. The heat- 
ing of new wines in bottles saves the losses resulting from 
successive rackings, which during the first three years 
reaches at least 20 per cent, of the initial volume. 

Many wine-makers complain that wines heated in large 
machines acquire a special taste (cooked taste), this accident, 
which is extremely rare if the operation x is properly con- 
ducted, seems due to momentary overheating, or insufficient 
cooling, or to the machine not being in good order; however, 
after a while, this taste disappears and the wine resumes its 
normal taste and qualities. 

This cooked taste is never observed when wine is heated 
in bottles. 

According to Pasteur, heating in bottles realizes the ideal 
process of sterilizing, for, " after the wine has been heated, it 
is promptly brought down to the surrounding temperature, 
and is never in contact with the oxygen of the air either 
before, during, or after the operation.'' 



HEATING WINE IN BOTTLES. 



13 



II. 
HEATING WINE IN BOTTLES. 

1. Preparation of the Bottles. The corks of bottles con- 
taining wine to be pasteurized, should be securely fastened, 
if not, the liquid, expanding under the influence of heat, 
would push them out and come in contact with the air. The 
excess of liquid will simply exude between the glass and the 
cork, sterilizing those parts. When the corking has been 
done with a machine, and the bottles well capsuled, this 
precaution is often unnecessary. 

A cheap and handy method of fastening the corks is 
shown in Fig. 1. One man may with a little practice 
prepare 1,000 bottles in a day. 

2. Boldt and VogeVs Cork Clamp. Many cork clamps 
which may be used repeatedly, have been invented. One of 
the most practical is shown in Fig. 2 ; it is made entirely 
of iron, with two vertical claws, one of which A is soldered 




Fig. 1. Mode of securing 
Cork with String. 



Fig. 2. Boldt and 
Vogel's Cork Clamp. 



Fig. 3. Gasquet's Cork 
Clamp. 



14 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 



to a kind of nut B, the other A / is articulated on that nut. 
A bar C passing through the centre of the nut, presses upon 
the cork and bears an helicoidal plate D at its upper extremity, 
upon which the hook of claw A rests. This little device is 
placed as shown in the figure, the helicoidal plate turned 
from left to right presses the bar C upon the cork, which 
cannot come out. It is easy to remove this clamp after the 
sterilizing is finished. 

3. Gasquefs Cork Clamp. Gasquet has recently de- 
vised a clamp, which is simpler than the above, and which 
he calls " bride-goulot." It is made of a very soft copper 
ring A (Fig. 3) to which is fixed a brace of hard metal B. 
The ring, which is larger than the welt of the neck of the 
bottle, is passed over it, and fixed by a little wooden wedge, 
C. This clamp is very strong, and holds the cork firmly in 
position. 

When the sterilization is over, the unfastening is easily 
performed by drawing out the wooden wedges. This clamp 
may be used over and over again. 




Fig. 4. Portable Wine Heater. 



HEATING WINE IN BOTTLES. 15 

4. Portable Heater. When a small quantity of wine 
only is to be pasteurized, any kind of open heating tank 
may be used, the bottles being placed in it, side by side, as 
in Fig. 4, and the tank filled with cold water. If the tank 
is without a false bottom, folded cloths may be placed under 
the bottles, to prevent the heat from acting too suddenly on 
the glass and wine. In any case, a few bottles filled with 
water and provided with a thermometer T passing through 
the cork, must be placed amongst the wine bottles to in- 
dicate the real temperature of the wine, which is always 
below that of the surrounding water. 

Gas as a source of heat is simpler and easier to regulate 
than wood or charcoal fires, these, however, may be used. 

As soon as the required temperature is shown by the 
thermometers, the fire is put out, the tank emptied, and the 
bottles taken out and left to cool down. If a greater num- 
ber of bottles are to be pasteurized, one half only of the 
water in the tank is removed, but the water contained in the 
bottles provided with thermometers must be renewed. 

It happens sometimes that corks come out partly, not- 
withstanding the clamps. In this case they are driven down 
again after cooling. 

Corks should never be replaced after the heating has 
taken place, for the wine would come in contact, not only 
with air, which would affect its quality detrimentally, but 
also with new corks, which, not being sterilized, would 
destroy the effects of pasteurization. It is simply through 
not observing these self-evident precautions that wine- 
makers have met with failures, and denied the efficacy of 
pasteurization. 

5. Fixed Heaters working on a large scale. Only a few 
machines have, up to the present, been made to heat bottled 
wine on a large scale, but those in use for the pasteurization 
of beer in bottles may be used, with slight modifications. 

Such is that represented in Fig. 5. An open rectangular 
iron tank A which may contain 100 bottles, is heated from 
a lateral fire-grate, the heat from which distributes over the 
bottom of the tank ; movable frames (Fig. 6) allow a num- 
ber of bottles to be plunged easily in the water, and taken 
out as soon as the temperature shown by the thermometer 
in the water bottle has reached the required degree. An 
exit tap B/ and an entrance tap R allow the water to be 
changed rapidly. 



16 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 



In a large installation, it is advisable to heat the water 
tank from a steam-boiler, and move the bottle-frames with 
a small horizontal crane. 




6. Boldt and VogeVs arrangement. Some merchants 
use an arrangement allowing the sterilization of a 
large number of bottles simultaneously, heated by steam 
only, as invented by Boldt and Vogel, of Hamburg. 



HEATING WINE IN BOTTLES. 



17 



Two vertical sections of the complete machine are shown 
in Figs. 7 and 8. It consists of a large iron tank, into 
which an iron truck with two shelves, holding 500 quart 
bottles, is wheeled upon rails. The entrance is shut by an 
iron door, provided with thumb screws. 




Fig. 6. Movable Frames. 



When the bottles are in position, cold water is filled in up 
to the -level of the opening b of the siphon tube a and 




Fig. 7. Boldt and Vogel's Pasteurizer (longitudinal section). 

steam slowly introduced through the tube e. The regulat- 
ing is done by the two taps c. The steam travels through 
the worm / bubbles through the water, heating it and the 
inside of the iron case, gradually. 



10050. 



18 



STUDIES ON WINE-STEKILIZING MACHINES. 



The thermometers d indicate the temperature inside. 
Too rapid heating should be avoided, as it tends to break 
the bottles. 




Fig. 8. Boldt and Vogel's Pasteurizer (transversal section). 

When the required temperature has been reached, the 
steam is turned off and the machine left to cool down, after 
which the front door is opened and the truck drawn out. 
The whole operation, including the heating of the bottles 
and the cooling of the machine, requires about one hour. If 
a second truck is in use, this time may be used to load or 
unload that previously taken out of the machine. 

The temperature as shown by the thermometer can only 
be determined by experience, to assure that the temperature 
inside the machine reaches the required degree for effective 
pasteurization. The temperature could be better ascertained 
by means of an electric thermometer, plunged in a bottle 
filled with water and placed in the tank. 

Boldt and Vogel's machine, which we have seen at work, 
answers perfectly for pasteurization on a large scale. It 



HEATING WINE IN BOTTLES. 



19 



enables one to heat from 4,000 to 5,000 bottles per day. It 
costs 70. The installation does not require much room. 

Instead of iron mac- 
hines, large stove-rooms 
are sometimes built w r ith 
a double wall, inside 
which 10,000 bottles can 
be piled together. They 
are slowly heated with 
steam, and then left to 
cool down. 

These large stove-rooms 
have the defect of not 
allowing perfect control \ 
of the temperature in all f 
parts of the room, and the t 
piling up and removal of ^ 
the bottles requires a very 
long time. Cooling takes 
place very slowly, as the 
room is well isolated, and 
the wine remains warm 
longer than necessary, 
thus injuring its quality. 
Such conditions are only 
good if we require to 
mature wines quickly ; 
and, in this case, they 
have the advantage of 
offering more security 
from the point of view of 
disease than the rapid 
means used in the South, 
as the wines are perfectly 
sterilized. 

When machines heated 
by steam are used, the 
bottles may be placed 
horizontally one above 
the other, or vertically 
side by side ; but when 
a water tank is used, we 
should always place them ________ , 

vertically with the corks out of the water, so that, should it 




STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 




happen that the temperature diminishes during the opera- 
tion, the water will not penetrate through the cork and get 
mixed with the wine. 



HEATING WINE IN BOTTLES. 



21 



7. Gasquet's arrangement. The machines so* far described 
have the disadvantage of being intermittent, and, therefore, 
of requiring tedious and costly manipulation. Gasquet over- 
came this with his continuous machine, which is both simple 
and cheap ; it should render great services to wine-makers 
and wine merchants. A plan of it is shown in Fig. 9, and 
the perspective in Fig. 10. 

It consists of a large rectangular tank made of wood 
lined with zinc, resting on two props S and divided into 
compartments I., II., III., &c. These compartments com- 
municate by means of openings made through the partitions ; 
a kind of iron frame B filled with bottles, fits into each of 
them. 

A stove R heats the water, and communicates with the 
tank by two tubes T connected with the pump P. The 
fuel used is generally coal or charcoal. When the machine 
% works regularly, the temperature gradually rises from the 
compartment No. I. to compartment No. XII. If the wine 
is at a temperature of 10 C., and has to be heated up to 
60 C., the water in the tank will rise from 15 to 60 C. in 
the following ratio : 



Compartment. Temperature of Water 


Compartment. 


Temperature of Water. 


I. 


15 Centigrade 


VII. 


40-41 Centigrade 


II. 


18"-19 rr 


VIII. 


45-46 


III. 


22-23 n 


IX. 


50-51 // 


IV. 


26-27 D 


X. 


55-56 


V. 


30-31 


XI. 


60-61 


VI. 


35-36 3 


XII. 


65 



The thermometer, immersed in a bottle filled with water 
placed in the last compartment, indicates when the tempera- 
ture of 60 C. has been reached. 

When this temperature is reached, the frame No. 24 is 
taken out and replaced by the frame No. 23 ; 23 is replaced 
by the frame 22, and so forth, until the 24 frames are shifted, 
a new one being placed in compartment No. I. The whole 
operation is done in less than one minute. 

The substitution of frame No. 11 for frame No. 12 slightly 
lowers the temperature of compartment XII. The pump is 
then worked to introduce a small quantity of warm water 
and raise the temperature to 65 C. 



22 STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 

This pumping is repeated every five minutes ; the cold 
wine takes one hour to rise gradually to the temperature of 
60 (J., and another hour to gradually fall down to the 
initial temperature. 

According to size, the machine pasteurizes from 24 to 
300 bottles per hour, with a very small expenditure of fuel 
and labour. 

It requires one hour to start the machine. All the frames 
charged with bottles are placed in the compartments, the 
tank filled with cold water up to the required height, and 
the water in the stove rapidly heated. When the latter has 
reached 65 C., the water of compartment I. is sucked 
with the pump and pumped in the stove, the rate of flow 
being regulated in such a way that the temperature of 65 
C. in the stove is not lowered by the regular flow of cold 
water. 

The water pumped into the stove displaces an equivalent 
amount of warm water, which travels towards compartment 
XII. The overflow of the latter passes into compartment 
XI., the overflow of XI. goes into X., and so forth, till it 
reaches compartment I., the level of which is lowered through 
the suction of the pump. 

The ratio between the temperatures in the different com- 
partments is gradually established, and when the water in 
compartment XII. reaches 65 C. the machine is ready ta 
work continuously. However, the bottles in the frames 14 
to 24 which have not been sufficiently heated require to be 
pasteurized over again. It seems rather useless to cool the 
bottles very slowly, as is done with other arrangements, 
and with this machine they are simply taken out of the tank 
and left in contact with the air. 

But Gasquet's arrangement has a double advantage. 
Firstly, it prevents the sudden cooling which might break 
the bottles, and secondly, as every compartment receives at 
the same time a frame cooler, and another one hotter than 
the water it contains, the mean temperature is not affected. 
The double movement of the bottles in opposite directions 
serves, therefore, to maintain a regular heat, and to insure 
effective working of the machine. 

8. Filling up Pasteurized Bottles. Whatever mode of 
heating be' adopted with bottles, a certain quantity of the 
liquid always leaks out round the cork, and after cooling, a 
vacuum is always produced under the cork. This vacuum 



HEATING WINE IN BOTTLES. 23 

does not interfere with the preservation and the maturing of 
the wine, but certain buyers object to it now that they have 
adopted the habit of filling the bottles completely by means 
of the needle corking machine. Many devices have been 
constructed with the object of filling up this vacuum with 
pasteurized wiue. So far the best results seem to have been 
obtained with a little device due to Rene Merman, of Bor- 
deaux, which enables bottles to be completely filled without 
uncorking them and without exposing the wine to contact 
with air. We regret that the inventor refuses to authorize 
us to describe it. 



24 STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 

i 
III. 

HEATING WINE IN BULK. 

The machines used for heating wine in bottles are com- 
paratively few and not generally used. This is due no doubt 
to the fact that bottled wine is generally of superior quality, 
and that it has acquired during two or three years keeping 
in casks, a relative resistance to germs of diseases, conse- 
quently pasteurization is rarely necessary. 

This does not apply to the machines used for heating wine 
in bulk. They answer a far more general demand, and have 
been designed under many different forms since Pasteur's 
studies on the diseases of wines. 

1. Arrangements tvithout Refrigerators. We will not de- 
scribe the pasteurizers constructed for direct, intermittent, or 
continuous heating, without refrigerators, as in these machines 
the wine comes out warm and remains so a long time in the 
casks, oxidizes, and matures too rapidly. .They are useful 
in special cases, but they generally modify the qualities of 
wine to too great an extent, to allow us to recommend their 
use in the case of simple sterilization. 

2. Intermittent arrangement with Refrigerators. The only 
machines realizing to the fullest extent the conditions for 
perfect sterilization of wines in casks are those in which 
complete cooling takes place before the wine reaches the 
cask. The majority of them are worked with a continuous 
current. There is one, however, which has been recently 
constructed and is intermittent. We will describe it first. 
It is W. Kuhn's sterilizer. 

3. Kuhn's Sterilizer. This machine was first invented for 
the sterilization of beer, and was slightly modified for the 
heating of wine. It is composed of a large cylindrical tank 
closed at both ends, with double walls, and resting on two 
cast-iron stands. (Fig. 11.) Inside this is a long tube run- 
ning from one end to the other, bent in the shape of a spiral, 
with the spires very close together. The two ends of the 
tube D and P pass through the wall of the cylinder, and are 
used for the exit of either warm or cold water. A coupling 
tube P N allows the space comprised between the two walls 
of the cylinder to be filled with warm or cold water, as the 
case may be. The wine to be pasteurized is brought into the 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 



25 



central part of the cylinder and warm water injected through 
the spiral tube, then directly the thermometer plunged into 
the wine records the required temperature the warm water 
is replaced by cold water. The pasteurized wine is therefore 




Fig. 11. Kuhn's Sterilizer (transversal section). 

cooled ^ as quickly as it was heated, and during the whole 
operation is never exposed to contact with air. It is there- 
fore returned to the casks at its initial temperature, as if it 
had simply been submitted to racking. 

Fig. 12 shows the complete installation of the plant. 

UL 




Fig. 12. Kuhn's Sterilizer. 



26 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 



With Kuhn's sterilizer one may pasteurize at a single 
operation a great bulk of wine. If the cylinder was left 
immobile during the whole operation, the wine would lose its 
homogeneity ; to prevent this the cylinder is mounted on 
rollers, and may be easily oscillated so as to mix all parts of 
the liquid. 

The movement of the cylinder during the cooling has also 
the advantage of facilitating the re-dissolution of gases, 
which might have been liberated during the heating and ac- 
cumulated in the vacuum left in the top of the cylinder. 
These disengaged gases, however, are not very abundant, on 
account of the compression caused by the expansion of the 
liquid retaining them in solution. ' This machine has been 
tried at Bercy and gave satisfactory results. 

4. Arrangement with Refrigerators and Continuous Circu- 
lation. These machines should be formed of four parts, joined 

n 






Fig. 13. Diagrammatic section of machines with refrigerators and 
continuous circulation (after Pasteur). 

together as shown in the diagram (Fig. 13) borrowed from 
Pasteur's Etudes sur le vin, if they are to work cheaply and 
foe complete. These parts are : 
1 st. A heat generator A. 

2nd. A water jacket B heated directly by the heat 
generator, transmitting this heat to the vessel 
containing the wine. 






HEATING WINE IN BULK. 27 

3rd. A vessel C in which the wine reaches the maxi- 
mum temperature of sterilization, the liquid 
entering at the bottom and overflowing at the 
top. 

4th. A refrigerator D receiving the hot wine from 

the top and letting it flow from the bottom at 

the initial temperature. The cooling is 

obtained by the wine itself, which, arriving 

from the cask, enters the recipient E and 

gradually rises as it becomes warmer. 

With this arrangement the movement of the liquid 

harmonizes with the various densities due to the heating or 

cooling in different parts, the heated wine always rising and 

the cool wine always descending. 

5. Economic yield. Raulin has studied the working of 
heat generators and established the following rules : 

1st. With machines constructed on the same model 
and geometrically similar, the rate of flow in 
the unit of time varies as the square of the 
linear dimensions and is proportionate to the 
quantity of fuel used. 

2nd. With machines having an equal volume but 
differing in structure, the yield is proportionate 
to the surface heated, the fuel used being 
equal per unit of time in each case. 

3rd. As a practical result it is found necessary to 
increase as much as possible the surface heated 
under a given volume, so as to obtain as 
great a yield as possible with small machines. 

The shape of these surfaces and their area has therefore a 
preponderating influence on the yield. They also have very 
great importance with regard to the sterilization and the 
mounting and dismounting of machines. 

6. Principal types of Machines. Continuous pasteurizing 
machines may be, from this point of view, divided into 
three classes : 1st, those with coiled tubes (worms) ; 2nd, 
those with tubular bundles ; and 3rd, those with cylindrical 
or helicoidal compartments. 

Let us assume these different parts placed in similar 
recipients, and let us compare the area of the surfaces 
through which the exchange of temperature may take place, 
-assuming the recipients to be cylindrical, and measuring, for 
the sake of argument, 1 foot in diameter by 4 feet in height. 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 



In such a cylinder a worm S made of a tube f inch in 
section and having ten spires of 8 inches in diameter each 




(Fig, 14) may be easily placed. A simple calculation results 
in the following figures for each spire : 

Length of tube 
External surface 

And for the whole worm 

Total length 

Total surface opened out ... 



25'2 inches 
0-4327 sq. ft. 

21 feet 
4-3057 sq. ft. 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 29 

The heating or cooling surface is, therefore, in this case, 
less than 5 square feet. 

Let us substitute a tubular bundle formed of vertical 
tubes 0-4 inch in diameter a (Fig. 15) for the worm. They 
may be placed 0*4 inches apart in concentric circles of 9-J, 8, 
6, 4|, 3J-, \\ inches in diameter. 

The number of tubes in each row is 

Circle 9 inches diameter ... 37 tubes 

o" 01 

O O.'..-'" ... 01 

1 25 

4J 18 

r ^8" '' ... 12 

1 ... ... 6 



Total 



If we add to this a tube in the centre we have a bundle 
of 130 tubes, with a surface for exchange of temperatures 
of: 

For each tube ... 0-4058 sq. ft. 

For the whole bundle ... 52-7450 

The tubular bundle has, therefore, a surface of exchange 
ten times greater than the worm. 

If instead of tubular bundles we use concentric compart- 
ments placed vertically 0*4 inch in thickness, b (Fig. 15) and 
having diameters corresponding to those of the circles of 
tubes in the previous arrangement, their total in horizontal 
projection will be : 

For the compartment 9|- inches in diameter, 29^ inches 
- <^4 







4 i ., n 

3| 

-"-2" 



10 

77 



Total 8ft. Sin. 



As each compartment has two surfaces and measures 4 
feet in height the total surface of exchange of temperature 
will be 8ft. Sin. x 4 x 2 = 69ft. 4in. It is, therefore, 
larger than that of the tubular bundles. 



30 STUDIES ON WLN'E-STEIIILIZING MACHINES. 

The vertical compartment, helicoidal in shape, c (Fig. 15) y 
having six spires with diameters corresponding to the six 
cylindrical compartments, would offer a surface of exchange 
practically equal to that of the previous arrangement. 

These tubes, therefore, show very great differences, but 
for the comparison to be complete we must take into account 
the corresponding volumes of liquid and their respective 
capacities. These volumes are : 

For arrangement with worm, 3^ pints. 
For arrangement with tubular bundles, 21 \ pints. 
For arrangement with cylindrical or helicoidal com- 
partments, 7 gallons. 

The ratio of the surfaces of exchange expressed in square 
feet and the volumes previously expressed in pints are in 
round numbers : 

For worm ... ... ... ... 20 

tubular bundles ... ... ... 40 

cylindrical or helicoidal compartments 20 

' These figures are comparable, and it results from them 
that worms and cylindrical or helicoidal compartments offer 
relatively greater surfaces for the exchange of temperature 
than tubular bundles. 

The rate of flow for the same difference of level, not taking 
friction into account, is (all things being equal) a function 
of the horizontal sections, that is to say, proportionate to the 
following figures : 

With worm ... ... ... ... 3 

tubular bundles ... ... ... 102 

cylindrical or helicoidal compartments 265 

From the above figures it follows that machines with 
cylindrical or helicoidal compartments offer the greatest 
advantages (all dimensions being equal). Their yield and 
surface of exchange (absolute and relative) are greater. But 
their construction presents special difficulties, and it is only 
during the last few years that they have been overcome in a 
practical manner. 

The machines with tubular bundles, or worms, are much 
more generally used because they are easier to construct and 
easier to manage. 

With all types of machines it is important to have them 
constructed in such a way that all their parts may be easily 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 31 

dismounted and cleaned, so that those in charge may ascer- 
tain before every operation if the tinned tubes are in perfect 
order. 

If the whole surface in contact with wine is not tinned 
the machine should not be used, as the wine would attack 
the copper and become contaminated. On the other hand, 
if there is the slightest hole in the tube the machine should 
not be used, as pasteurization cannot be effected, on account 
of the heated wine becoming mixed with non-heated wine 
containing disease germs. Pure tin worms are much more 
practical, for they are made with stout strong walls without 
soldering, and are not attacked by wine. 

The first condition a pasteurizer should realize is to bring 
all parts of the wine to the required temperature, and to 
maintain it at that temperature for a certain time. 

It would not be sufficient, for instance, for a mixture of 
cold and heated wine to accidentally reach that temperature 
when coming out of the calefactor, for the ferment of the 
former would not remain long enough at the temperature to 
be killed, and the mixture would not be asepticised. With 
machines provided with worms, the complete heating of the 
liquid is assured by the length of the tube and by its slant- 
ing position, which forces all parts, varying in density on 
account of their different heat, to strike against each other, 
become mixed, and come several times in contact with the 
hot walls of the tube. In other machines, in which the axis 
is generally vertical, the wine rises evenly and vertically, 
and one might fear that that remaining at an equal distance 
from the walls did not get sufficiently heated. But as a 
matter of fact this accident is always avoided, for the liquid 
travels through a very small column, and the height, together 
with special arrangements, are always sufficient to force it 
to become mixed during the course of the operation. 

All these machines with continuous circulation and 
refrigeration operated by means of cold wine, never bring 
wine back exactly to its initial temperature. For fine wines 
this difference should be reduced as much as possible, and 
never be over 4 ; if the machine used gives a greater 
difference, the wine must pass through a water refrigerator 
before reaching the cask. 

We will first describe machines with worms (coiled tubes) ; 
second, machines with tubular bundles; third, machines 
with cylindrical or helicoidal compartments. 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 



A. MACHINES WITH COILED TUBES (WORMS). 

1. Perrier-Deroy's Sterilizer. The first machine of this 
kind was invented in 1869 by Perrier Bros., of Nimes, 
and is described in Pasteur's work. It is now constructed 
by Deroy, of Paris, and presents the following features 
(Fig. 16) :- 

The heat generator is composed of : 

1st. A tubular boiler, with a fire grate inside, 
heating the water jacket. 

2nd. A worm tube immersed in the water, 
passing into the central collecting cylin- 
der, surrounded by warm water. 

3rd. A fire grate surmounted by straight tubes 
communicating with the funnel. 




Fig. 16. Perrier-Deroy's Sterilize 



The refrigerator consists of a cylindrical tank, containing 
the worm, one end of which communicates with the heat 
generator, the other end serving for the exit of wine. 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 33 

The cold wine enters the machine by the tube L, and 
passing through a delivery controlling tap, reaches the 
bottom of the refrigerator, fills the annulary space, form- 
ing a kind of worm parallel to the first worm. It then 
reaches the heat generator (calefactor) through the horizon- 
tal tube K, then descends into the worm of the calefactor, 
rises through the collecting cylinder C, intermixing 
thoroughly, and from there reaches the worm of the re- 
frigerator through the tube G, where it becomes cooled by 
contact with the cool wine surrounding the tube. 

Thermometers, t, t' , t" record the temperature of the water 
jacket, and that of the wine coming out of the calefactor, 
and out of the refrigerator. 

Before starting, the steam generator is filled with water, 
through the plug M. When the level of the water reaches 
the over-flow tap N, the plug M is closed, and the fire 
lighted. 

Directly the thermometer t records 80 C, the tap is 
opened to allow air to escape, and the wine is introduced 
through the delivery controlling tap L. When the wine has 
filled the worm, collector and steam generator, it reaches the 
tap, which is closed, and the flow of liquid, as well as the 
fire, are regulated in such a way that the thermometer t' 
continuously records the required maximum temperature for 
pasteurization. 

When the operation is finished the fire is put out, and all 
the parts of the machine are emptied by taps fixed for that 
purpose. 

Perrier-Deroy's machine may be easily dismounted for 
cleaning, and the re-tinning of the tubes performed without 
difficulty. It is easy to supervise, and*. requires very 
little fuel. 

The cost and the yield are as follow : 






Wine Treated per hour. 


Cost. 


No. 1 
No. 2 


66 gallons 
132 


32 

48 


No. 3 


220 ,, 60 


No. 4 


440 


88 



10050. 



34 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 



2. BourdiVs Sterilizer. This sterilizer, patented in 1876 
and 1884, is extensively used in the southern regions of 
France. A plan of it is shown in Fig. 17. 

It is composed of a vertical column for heating the wine 
C, and of one or two other cylindrical columns R and R x con- 



nected by tubes a and 
cast-iron bed plate. 



the whole machine resting on a 




Fig. 17. Top and side views of Bourdil's Sterilizer. 

The wine heater consists of a water jacket, heated by a 
central fire grate F, inside the cylinder. Between the outside 
wall and the fire grate, are two worms with concentric 
spires S, immersed in the water, through which the wine 
circulates. The thermometer t surrounded by a copper 
tube to prevent it from getting broken, is placed at the exit 
of the column, and records the maximum temperature 
reached by the wine. 

The construction of this machine may be slightly modified 
so as to allow the use of coal, gas, or steam, for heating. 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 35 

Each refrigerator is made of tinned copper, formed by a 
completely closed column, filled with non-pasteurized wine, 
in which a double worm S'S", conveying the heated wine is 
completely submerged. 

The exchange of temperature takes place through the 
walls of the worm, in such a way that the wine which has 
not yet been treated enters the calefactor already warm, and 
the treated wine leaves the machine at its initial tem- 
perature. 

In each column the wine enters from the bottom, rises, is 
collected by the tube a a! curved vertically, and carried to 
the following column, or to the worm of the calefactor. 

The machine is fed from a tank placed at a certain height 
above it (tank, vat, cask) or by a pump P, the forcing hose 
of which is coupled at r, at the bottom of the first re- 
frigerator. 

Owing to the pressure exerted in this way, the gases in 
the wine do not become disengaged and the treated wine 
may go back to the casks even if they are placed above the 
level of the machine. 

The calefactor is filled with water up to the level of the 
over-flow tap placed at its upper part. All the taps are 
closed except that of the exit /, which should be left open to 
allow the air to escape ; a rubber hose is coupled to the tap / 
the other end dipping into the cask which is to be filled. 
The coupling r, is then connected with the pump or the tube 
coming from the tank and the wine forced into the machine 
so as to gradually fill all its parts. When it starts flowing 
through the exit tap the pump is stopped and the fire lighted. 
A few moments after wine is forced through, at intervals, to 
measure the temperature of the liquid in the calefactor, and 
when the required degree has been reached the machine is 
worked continuously. The inflow of wine and the fire are 
regulated according to the temperature indications of the 
thermometers. 

The first portions of wine coming out of the machine are 
not sterilized and should be passed through again. 

When the work is finished the fire is drawn and the 
wine emptied through taps fitted for that purpose, if the 
machine is not to be worked the following days, it is cleaned 
with warm water until it runs out of the machine quite 
clear. 



c 2 



36 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 



Bourdil's machine is one of the cheapest to work, as shown 
by the following table, giving the yields and cost for the 
different models : 



Cost. 



i Yield per Hour, i 



Number of 
Columns. 









Without Additional 
Refrigerator. 


With Additional 
Refrigerator. 




Gallons. 








No. 1 ... 


55 


2 11 


22 


No. 2 ... 


120 


2 


20 


40 


No. 3 ... 


220 3 


26 


53 


No. 4 ... 


330 3 34 


66 


No. 5 ... 


440 3 48 


88 


No. 6 ... 1 660 3 60 


120 


No. 7 ... 880 3 


80 


152 



A second refrigerator is necessary in warm climates, 
especially in summer, to allow the wine to be completely 
cooled before returning it to the casks. This necessarily 
increases the cost of the machine. 

Owing to the double worms used in this arrangement, the 
wine remains in contact with the warm water or the cool 
wine a long time, therefore all its parts get completely inter- 
mixed ; much more so than with machines having a single 
worm. All parts of the liquid reach the temperature of 
pasteurization, this is a very great advantage, especially for 
wines which have not finished fermenting and have remained 
sweet. 

In special cases, to increase this mixing of the different 
parts, Bourdil adds to his ' sterilizer a collecting cylinder 
made of tinned copper provided with taps placed on different 
levels. 

The wine coming out of the calefactor is received in the 
collector, remains in it from one to five minutes (this is 
regulated by opening one of the taps at a certain level) and 
passes on the refrigerating columns. 

The rate of flow is not altered, but the prolonged action 
of the heat kills even the most resistant disease germs. 

The addition of this special collecting recipient increases 
the cost of the machine by 10 per cent. 

Bourdil's machine has been imitated in a very rough way 
in other countries. 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 



37 



3. Velteris Sterilizer. Velten, who was the first to use 
heat for the preservation of beer, invented a machine for 
heating wine in 1886. Although this machine is not 
generally used we will describe it, for it is simple, and its 
disposition allows the wine to remain several minutes at the 
temperature of sterilization, which renders it very useful for 
the treatment of sweet wines. ' jS=tJ J 

The calefactor is composed of a worm tube B (Fig. 18), 
made of tinned copper or tin, submerged up to the level of 
the tap N, in warm water, heated by a fire grate F, or by a 
steam pipe if steam is used. 




Fig. 18. Velten's Sterilizer. 

The refrigerator A contains two worms C and D, the first 
one surrounded by cold wine, the second surrounded by 
cold water. 

The wine enters through the tap E, gradually becomes 
warm by contact with the worm 0, in which the warm wine 
circulates ; from there it passes into the bottom part of the 
worm B, and gradually gets warmer as it rises up to the 
level of the thermometer T, which is placed a little below 
the level of the water in the calefactor. 



38 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 



This thermometer records the maximum temperature the 
wine reaches, which can be regulated either by the tempera- 
ture of the water or by the rate of flow. 

After the wine has reached the required temperature it 
continues to rise in the worm B, instead of entering the 

refrigerator directly, 
as in other 
ments, and 
tains its 
certain 
which 
worm 




arrange- 
it main- 
heat for a 
time, after 
it reaches the 
C, where it 



begins to cool in con- 
tact with the cold 
wine, which is to be t 
heated. It passes into 
the worm D, where it 
finishes cooling in con- 
tact with cold water, 
which enters the re- 
frigerator at G- and 
flows out at H, and 
finally cooled it flows 
out of the machine 
through the tap M, to 
which a hose may be 
coupled. 

4. Brehier's Steril- 
izer. All the ma- 
chines we have so far 
described are com- 
posed of several 
columns, and there- 
fore occupy a consider- 
able space. Breeder's 
machine, on the con- 
trary, is formed of a 
single column , and 
occupies a very small 
horizontal space. 

The calefactor A and the refrigerator G (Fig. 19), are 
concentric, and isolated from one another by an air space of 
a few inches. 



Fig. 19. Barrier's Sterilizer. 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 



39 



The wine enters through the coupling tap J, into the 
hottom part of the refrigerator, fills the whole space between 
the spires of the worm, penetrates into the calefactor, where 
it circulates in a worm, and through a vertical collector 
both surrounded by warm water. 

The heated wine flows out of the calefactor, passes through 
the box E, provided with a thermometer, and reaches, 
through the tube F, the worm of the refrigerator submerged 
in the cold wine ; finally, it flows out of the machine, 
through the coupling-tap I at its initial temperature. 

The water in the calefactor A is heated from the metallic 
walls of the fire grate and through the vertical tubes carry- 
ing the gases of combustion to the chimney. The level is 
maintained constant by an overflow tap C. If this level 
diminishes during the operation it is raised again by intro- 
ducing more water through the plug B screwed on the 
cover. The taps H and H 7 are used when filling the machine 
to allow the air to escape, and during the operation to allow 
the escape of gases which might accumulate in the tube 
system, and prevent the free circulation of wine. Thjs, 
however, may be avoided by forcing the wine under suffi- 
cient pressure. 

The cleaning taps K L and M allow the wine and water 
remaining at the end of each operation to be emptied 
out. 

Brehier s machine has the advantages of being very com- 
pact, and very simply constructed. The heating may be 
done with either coal, gas, or steam. 

The following table gives the dimensions, together with 
the cost, of the principal models actually constructed : 



Yield per Hour. 


Height. 


Horizonta 


Projection. 


Cost. 


Gallons. ft. in. 









88 


5 3 


27| in. 


x 274 in. 


40 


110 


6 6 


3H in. 


x 314 in. 


44 


132 


6 10 


354 in. 


x 354 in. 


50 


176 


7 


374 in. 


x 374 in. 


58 


220 


7 4 


39 in. 


x 39 in. 


68 


330 


8 3 


43 in. 


x 43 in. 


96 



5. Grenet aud Baurens* Sterilizer. Grenet, ex-demon- 
strator to Pasteur, with the object of doing away with 
recipients or compartments made of tinned copper, 



40 



STUDIES ON WINE-STEKILIZING MACHINES. 



constructed, together with Baurens, & pasteurizer with con- 
centric worms (Fig. 20) made completely of pure tin that 
is to say, unaffected by wine. 

This machine, which realizes in a practical way a mode of 
construction already applied to Gervais' machine in 1827, is 
composed of two principal parts, viz.. a calefactor A and 
refrigerator B. 

\ 




Fig. 20. Grenet and Baurens 1 Sterilizer with concentric worms. 

The calefactor is formed by a cylindrical tank containing 
warm water, which may be heated by coke, coal, wood, gas, or 
any other fuel, or even by steam. An automatic tempera- 
ture regulator may be added to it. A worm is submerged 
in this tank, receiving the wine from the refrigerator by a 
tube T'; the wine reaches the required temperature, and 
flows out of the worm by the tube T, in which a thermometer 
G is placed. 

The tube T enters into the tube T' at I, and these two 
concentric tubes coiling together, form the refrigerator. 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 41 

The tank B surrounding this worm, may be filled with 
cold water to increase the cooling power. 

The two concentric tubes, the dimensions of which are 
calculated in accordance with the friction of the liquid, are 
introduced one into the other before coiling, and the space 
between them is maintained by small bosses a fixed on the 
outside of the smaller tube, leaving a uniform annular space 
between the two tubes. 

At the exit of 'the tank B, the two concentric tubes 
separate. The tube T is connected with the tank by means 
of a small glass tube M and a tap ; the tube T is bent 
and connected by means of a second small glass tube L 
with a hose used for filling the casks. The thermometer H 
shows the temperature of the wine after the cooling opera- 
tion is finished. 

The wine leaving the feeding tank passes through the tap 
C, penetrates inside the worm T of the refrigerator, rises 
into that worm, reaches the bottom of the calefactor, rises 
into the worm of the calefactor, and continues its course 
through the annular space a, till it reaches the exit 
tube F L. 

At the beginning of the operation all the tubes are filled 
with water, leaving the taps I, J, Kopen, to allow all the air 
to escape. When the tubes are filled with water, these taps 
are closed, and the heating begins. When the thermometer 
(T shows the temperature at which the wine is to be 
sterilized, the wine is forced through the tube G, pushing 
the water before it. A small glass tube L allows one to 
ascertain when the heated wine comes out. 

When the operation is finished, water is again forced 
through the tube C, pushing the wine remaining in the 
machine before it, and the fire is put out. 

If the pasteurizer is not to be used again, it should be 
filled with a solution of borate of soda. This cheap anti- 
septic has the double advantage of preventing any alteration 
in the water and of keeping the inside of the tubes perfectly 
sterilized, therefore dispensing with frequent cleaning. 

The yield of the pasteurizer with concentric worms is in 
direct relation to the height of the feeding tank. It may 
therefore be modified at will. 

As the wine travels under pressure, the gases and aromas, 
which would have a tendency to become disengaged under 



42 STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 

the influence of heat, are held in solution, or, at any rate, are 
dissolved gradually and completely during the course 
followed by the wine in the refrigerator. 

On account of the large size of the worms, the surfaces of 
exchange of temperatures are considerable. Grenet and 
Baurens' machine has also the advantage of the worms 
being entirely made of pure tin tubing, without any solder- 
ing. The wine^ therefore, is never in contact with any other 
metal, as is the case with other machines made of tin and 
copper soldered with compounds containing lead. 

Other constructors have also applied the principle of 
concentric tubes to calefactors or refrigerators. We have 
two examples of this in the pasteurizers of Gasquet, of 
Oastres, and Perillot, of Bordeaux. 

6. Gasqaefs Sterilizer. This machine is made of two 
very distinct parts first, a pile of tubes, serving the purposes 
of a heater or refrigerator ; second, a water jacket, provided 
with a thermo-syphon. 

The pile of tubes is in the shape of a quadrangular worm, 
formed with tubes equal in length, assembled together by 
Tight-angled couplings. 

The word " worm," which does not seem to apply to an 
assemblage with right angles, indicates, however, very well 
in this case the winding round of the tubes, which have a 
uniform slope of J inch per foot. 

It is formed of two concentric tubes, made of tinned 
copper. One of them A, is 1 inch in diameter ; the other 
B, 2 inches (Figs. 21 and 22). 

The bottom spire of the worm is provided with a third 
outside tube C C' C" V" of 4 inches in diameter. The 
union of these three tubes form the calefactor, while the 
rest of the worm forms the refrigerator. 

The mode of assembling the tubes is such that, by using 
bent couplings of a special make, the mounting and dis- 
mounting are easy, and, notwithstanding the wider part 
formed by the couplings, the liquid current, which is to flow 
through the tube B, and inside the tube A, is not compressed 
at the points of junction of the straight tubes of the worm. 

The tube A remains perfectly concentric to tube B. No 
accumulation of air or vapour is possible during the filling 
or during the working of the machine, and no liquid can 
remain in the tubes after the machine has been emptied. 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 



43 



In the same way the large tubes C of the lower spire are 
coupled, so as to remain perfectly concentric to the two 
smaller tubes. 




The tubes C rest on four cast-iron bed-plates, varying in 
height, and regulating the slope of ^ inch per foot. The 
rows of tubes B are started at regular distances by cast-iron 
straps D, joining them together and keeping them at the 
required distance apart. 



44 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 



This whole frame of tubes connects on one side by the 
tube E with the feeding tank, and on the other by the tube 
P with the casks to be filled with sterilized wine. The heat 
generator is composed, as shown in the longitudinal section 
(Figs. 21 and 22) of a vertical copper cylinder F, forming the 




Fig. 23. Gasquet's Sterilizer (horizontal projection). 

fire grate, narrowed at the top part so as to form a funnel. 
A door p allows the fuel to be placed on the grate e. Another 
cylinder G, also made of copper, forms, with the first one, 
an annular space constituting a water-jacket. The top of 
the latter cylinder is the shape of a collar g opened, and 
isolated by a lining of wooden plates H. 

The water jacket is fed automatically by the box J, with 
which it is connected through a tube K, the box J being fed 
through a flowing tap/', maintaining the water at constant 
level. 

This box may be displaced vertically, as ifc is fixed by a 
nut upon a screw bolted on the body of the generator, and 
worked by means of a special spanner. By turning the screw 
one way or the other the box may be lowered or raised. . 

The top of the water jacket is connected by tube I, with a 
tube U (Fig. 23) at the highest point of the tube C, and the 
bottom is connected by the tube I ' with the tube T at the 
lowest point of the tube C //x . The whole of these tubes 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 45 

form a true thermo-syphon. The water jacket is mounted 
on a cast-iron frame forming a double basin, one of which is 
perforated and constitutes an ash tray M. The cast-iron 
ball m works as a valve, preventing the air passing through 
it. The draft passes through the other basin N. 

Working. The wine to be treated enters the worm at 0, 
travels through the tube A, filling it and pushing the air 
before it. It reaches the point T at the bottom of the pipe, 
arrives at the box t' (Fig. 23, section ab) in the direction of 
the arrow, and returns through the tube B in the annulary 
space if' left between the two tubes. The wine rises through 
the tube B up to the point 0, and reaches the cask through 
the hose P. 

On the other hand, the water arrives at a constant tem- 
perature through the branch I and the thermo-syphon, 
travels through the tubes C, C', C", C" 7 , becomes cool in con- 
tact with the tube B containing the wine, which it heats, and 
returns through the water jacket by the branch I' to regain 
its temperature. 

The wine travelling through the tube B reaches the 
maximum temperature at the precise moment when it leaves 
the point n, that is to say, at the point where the flow of 
water is at its maximum temperature. The maximum tem- 
perature of the wine is recorded by the thermometer V, fixed 
in a brass cage to protect it. 

The warm wine surrounding the tube A, which contains 
cooler wine travelling in an opposite direction towards the 
source of heat, exchanges its temperature with it during the 
whole course it follows from the bottom to the top of the 
worm, and gradually gets cooler till it comes out at a tem- 
perature equal to that at which it entered the machine. 

The flow is regulated at the exit by a delivery controlling- 
tap X, the opening of which depends on the pressure of the 
wine in the tube and the temperature at which it is to be 
heated. The temperature in the water jacket is maintained 
constant by a special device from which the heat generator 
takes its name thermo-regulator . 

Let us assume that the height at which the box J must 
be fixed for the temperature of the water not to exceed 
64 C. (a temperature sufficient with this machine to 
pasteurize a wine at 60 C.) has been ascertained. 

The water bath, the tubes I, I', and the space between 
the tube C and the tube B, are completely filled with water 



46 STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 

before lighting the fire. The level of the water is evidently 
the same in the water bath as in the box J, as those two 
vessels communicate by the tube L. 

The fire is lighted, the water expands in volume, and its 
circulation in the thermo-syphou begins. But as the heat 
gradually gets higher the volume of the water increases and 
its level rises in the water jacket, remaining fixed in the box 
J, which is prevented by a special device from receiving the 
warm water. 

When the temperature reaches 64 C. the level of the 
water in the water jacket is precisely that of the top of the 
collar g. The slightest elevation of temperature will cause 
the water to overflow in the space Q (Fig. 21) and reach, 
through the tube R, the basin N, where it closes the draft 
from the fire grate. 

The basin is provided with a very small hole, which allows 
the water to slowly run out in order to establish, after a few 
minutes, the normal draft of the fire grate. 

Immediately after the overflow of water from the water 
jacket an inflow of cold water takes place from the box J, and 
compensates the excessive heat due to the activity of the fire. 

For these reasons the water in the water jacket can never 
exceed the maximum temperature fixed beforehand. This 
is one of the main advantages of Gasquet's pasteurizer it 
avoids any excess of temperature in the calefactor, and there- 
fore any " cooked " taste in the wine. 

The machine is not provided with taps for the escapement 
of air or gases, as they are not needed here first, because the 
wine is heated at the lowest part under its maximum pressure 
due to the height of the worms and the height of the feeding 
tank above the machine ; second, because the vapours, 
ethers, or gases are (notwithstanding the pressure, they 
might have disengaged under the influence of heat) imme- 
diately carried away by the slope of the liquid flow towards 
cooler parts, where they are redissolved. 

The great length of the tubes in the calefactor and in the 
refrigerator, and the small thickness of the walls of the 
central tubes, assure the complete heating and cooling of the 
wine. 

The temperature of the treated wine might be still lower 
if the few top rows of tubes were surrounded with hessian 
cloth kept wet. The evaporation produced would cause the 
wine to flow out of the machine cooler than it entered it, and 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 47 

this could be done by using a very small volume of water. 
One might in this way dispense with the use of auxiliary 
refrigerators, the use of which is often necessary in warm 
climates, and usually greatly increases the cost of some 
machines. 

In the illustration the water bath and the worm tubes are 
shown on the same level. It is better in practice to raise 
the worm on four cast-iron columns, so as to bring the bottom 
of the calefactor level with the tube I of the water bath. The 
space between the four columns may be used for the filter or 
the casks to be filled with the treated wine. 

At the end of the operation the fire is removed, and the 
worm tubes completely emptied by means of the tap Z, fixed 
at their lowest point. 

All the wine in the tubes A and B comes out at this tap, 
and can be collected cool after cold water is substituted for 
warm water in the tube C, which might easily be done by 
connecting it with the tank supplying the cold water. The 
tubes are then washed with warm water, and the tap Z left 
open to allow them to drain. 

If after the machine has been in use for a long time the 
tubes become covered with tartar, and if the tartar cannot 
be dissolved easily, one may pull the machine to pieces and 
scratch-brush the inside and the outside of the tube without 
difficulty. It is easy with Gasquet's machine to ascertain if 
there is any leakage by plugging the extremities of the tubes 
and filling them with water. The complete machine, with 
water bath and 358 feet of tubing, sterilizing from 220 to 
264 gallons per hour, is sold for 80. 

7. Perillot's Sterilizer. The refrigerator of this machine 
is also composed of concentric straight tubes 6ft. 6in. in 
length, piled parallel to one another, and numbering 25. 
They are fixed slantingly, so as to allow the cold wine to rise 
while the treated wine descends in the opposite direction. 

The calefactor is submerged in a water jacket placed on one 
side, heated with coal, gas, or steam, but to allow the wine 
to remain longer at the temperature of pasteurization it 
circulates through a long tube surrounded with warm water 
flowing from the water jacket in a thermo-syphon arrange- 
ment. Thermometers fixed at different points show the 
temperature reached by the wine. 

We regret being unable to give an illustration of this 
machine. 



48 STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 

B. MACHINES WITH TUBULAR BUNDLES. 

1. Terr el des Chene's and Victor Febvre's Sterilizer. 
This machine, described by Pasteur in 1868, was probably 
the first constructed with tubular bundles. 

Victor Febvre has constructed it since 1875 in a slightly 
modified form. It is composed of : 

1st. A water jacket B (Fig. 24) made of galvanized 
iron, a fire-box of copper, with a funnel pro- 
vided with a damper, running through the 
centre of the water jacket. 

2nd. A calefactor C, made of multiple worms sub- 
merged in the water. 

3rd. A refrigerator R, in the shape of a horizontal 
ring fixed to the water bath, to which it is 
concentric, and containing a bundle of fine 
tubes, through which the warm wine and the 
cold wine exchange their temperature. 
The cold wine enters the ring through the coupling E, 
circulates round the small tubes, and after travelling right 
round fl >ws out through the tubes s and enters the calefactor 
at e. After reaching the maximum temperature it flows out 
of the calefactor at ', records its temperature at a thermo- 
meter tkj and enters the refrigerator through the tube e', 
again travels right round, but inside the small tubes, and 
finally flows out through the coupling S at a temperature 
equal to that at which it entered the machine. 

The mounting, working, and supervision of this machine 
are easy and simple. 

The feeding is effected by means of a pump, or by a tank 
placed at a certain height above the machine. In the first 
case the regulating is effected by pumping at a suitable 
speed. In the second case it is done by means of a tap 
placed on the feeding pipe, in this case the regulating is 
much more effective. The man attending the machine 
generally opens the tap more or less, according to the 
indications of the thermometer, but it would be easy to 
adapt an automatic regulator, checking the flow of wine 
into the calefactor. 

The heating may be done with coal, gas, or steam, 
except in the case of the large machines treating 1,000 to 
2,000 gallons per hour, which are all heated by steam 
generated by a boiler. 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 



49 



When the operation is finished the fire is removed, and 
the warm water pumped out and sent through the tube in 
a direction opposite to that which it normally follows, that 
is to say, forced through S and flowing out at E. The 
deposit always left after the machine has heen used a certain 
time may he easily removed in this way. 




10050. 



Fig. 24. Victor Febvre's Sterilizer. 
D 



50 STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 

Taps provided for the purpose allow the calefactor and 
water bath to be completely emptied. The following table 
gives the dimensions, rate of flow, and cost of the principal 
models : 



Nos. 


Weight of the Horizontal 
Machine. Surface. 


Height 
Total. 


Yield per 
Hour. 


Cost. 









3| gallons 


4 8s. 


1 


110 Ibs. 5 sq. feet 


6 feet 


110 


15 


2 


154 ,, 


7 ,, 


/ , , 


220 


23 


3 


308 ,, 


15 


7ft. 9in. 


440 ,, 


37 



Febvre's machine has therefore the advantage of occu- 
pying a very small space, and of being light and easily 
portable from one cellar to another. Its cost is very small 
when compared with its yield. The refrigerator R and the 
calefactor C may be easily removed, and the tank used for 
heating water for the purpose of cleansing the casks. In 
this case the taps r are used. 

2. Ricaumont's Sterilizer. Ricaumont, a wine mer- 
chant at Libourne, has heated wine in bulk since 1875. 
He used Terrel des Chene's machine at first, but that being 
too small for his purpose, he himself constructed, in 1884, a 
large sterilizer, which has been in use in his cellar ever 
since. It is built on the same principle as that of Terrel 
des Chine's, and is composed of three principal parts, viz., 
a water jacket and calefactor A (Fig. 25), arid two 
refrigerating cylinders, one C working with the cold wine 
before it is treated, and the other D, with a continuous 
current of cold Avater. All these parts are coupled 
together with tubes 2^ inches in diameter. 

The calefactor consists of a large vertical tank, in the 
centre of which are two parallel collecting tubes B and B', 
communicating by a number of secondary tubes G, \ inch 
in diameter, and forming so many horizontal circles. The 
whole of these tubes are submerged in warm water, which is 
heated by means of steam. The tank is completely closed 
and provided at the top with a safety valve. The excess of 
water produced by the condensation of the steam flows 
through a pipe into a condenser, and is used for feeding 
the boiler. The refrigerators are both 1 2 inches in diameter 
and 16 feet in length. They are coupled together, both 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 5} 

sloping in opposite directions, so as to facilitate the flow of 
liquid. They are fixed to the wall of the cellar by braces 
T, near the calefactor, and, notwithstanding their great 




Fig. 25. Ricaumont's Sterilizer. 

length, are not cumbersome. They contain 200 secondary 
tubes of a diameter equal to those of the calefactor, joined 
in bundles, and in communication at both extremities with 
transversal boxes or collectors, dividing the wine regularly 
through the small tubes, mixing all its parts together and 
insuring regularity of flow. The wine, forced by a pump 
into the tube N, flows into the top refrigerator C ; sur- 
rounding the bundles of small tubes it reaches the exit tube 
E, through which it flows into the calefactor. After flowing 
through the division tubes G it leaves the calefactor, records 
its temperature at a thermometer H and enters, through 
the tube F on the left, the top collector of the refrigerator 
C. It travels through the bundles of small tubes, gets 
cooler, reaches the collector I, and from there passes in the 
bundle of small tubes of the bottom refrigerator D. It 
finally flows out through the tube L into the casks. The 
water for cooling purposes enters through the tube P and is 
discharged through the tube 0. 

Ricaumont's machine cannot, on account of its large 
dimensions, be used by wine-makers for one year's vintage 
only, but it is found very useful by wine merchants to heat 
large quantities of wine. 



52 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 



Taps placed at M allow three distinct operations to be per- 
formed, the wine following the same course the whole time. 
* 1st. To completely cool the wine and bring it down to 
the temperature of the water in the second refrigerator. 

2nd. To allow the wine to flow out at a mean temperature 
between the initial degree and the degree of pasteurization. 
This is done by using the top refrigerator alone. 

3rd. To heat the wine and allow it to flow out warm. 
This is done by preventing the cold water and the cold 
wine from flowing in the refrigerators, and in this case the 
wine flows directly into the calefactor from the tube M. 

3. Landers Sterilizer. Land^, of Libourne, condensed 
all the parts of the above sterilizer into one single column. 




Fig. 26. Lande's Pasteurizer. 



Fig. 27. Landers Pasteurizer (horizontal section). 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 



53 



His machine is portable, not cumbersome, and one of the 
most practical. Fig. 26 shows the whole machine, and Figs. 
27 and 29 give horizontal and vertical sections of it. 

It is composed of three concentric parts a water bath 
E, a calefactor C, and a refrigerator R (Fig. 27), forming one 
column resting on a single bed-plate. The water bath is 
tubular, and maybe heated with coal ; the tubes t, dividing the 
mass of the water, considerably increase the heating surface, 
and allow the better utilization of the heat of the fire. On 
top is a kind of conical plug, the weight of which is calculated 
to allow the water to overflow if the temperature rises too 
high through the inexperience of the workmen. This water 
drops on the fire and puts it out, preventing any accident. 




Fig. 28. Lande's Pasteurizer (new arrangement of fire-box). 

This machine is also modified, so as to allow heating with 
either gas or steam. In the first case, a gas stove is sub- 
stituted for the fire grate. In the second case, steam from a 
boiler arrives through the cock V (Fig. 26) in a worm, ending 



54 STUDIES "ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 

with a special device to prevent the noise resulting from the 
condensation of steam. The overflow of this condensation is 
removed by a lateral tube maintaining the level in the boiler 
constant. The newest machines, heated with gas or coal, 
have a fire-box of special construction, allowing rapid and 
regular heating. The fire-box (Fig. 28) is composed of a 
rectangular case C, surrounded by water, on the top of which 
a funnel is fixed. A series of tubes, inch in diameter, are 
fixed between the top and lateral walls of the fire-box, as 
shown in the figure. These small thermo-syphons offer a 
surface of heating of 21 to 43 square feet, according to the 
size of the machine. For heating with gas, a plate D is 
inserted, closing the bottom of the fire-box, and gas-burners 
B, placed on it. These have a large section, to allow the free 
access of air and the complete combustion of the gas. A 
small mica window placed on the side of the fire-box allows 
supervision of the burners. The water in the water jacket 
reaches 65 or 70 C. in 15 minutes. 

The calefactor C is formed of a bundle of small vertical 
tubes 0, allowing the two collectors to communicate. The 
whole device is submerged in the warm water. The wine 
from the refrigerator flows into the bottom collector througli 
the tube N, rises into the bundle of small tubes, reaching the 
top collector, from which it flows by the tube M. 

The refrigerator R, opened out in vertical projection in Fig. 
29, is composed of two hollow rings, joined like those of the 
calefactor by a large number of small vertical tubes v'. It 
is formed of four adjacent boxes D, D', D", D f// , communi- 
cating by openings made through the partitions. 

The cold wine arrives at A, flows in the four compartments 
surrounding the small tubes, and begins to get warmer. It 
then flows into the calefactor through the tube n, where it 
reaches its maximum temperature. It flows out of the cale- 
factor through the tube m, and returns to the refrigerator, 
passing through the small tubes, where it becomes cold. It 
passes successively through the collectors 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, and 
flows out of the machine at B, at the initial temperature. 
The thermometer t (Fig. 26) indicates the maximum tem- 
perature of the wine coming out of the calefactor. 

The refrigerating power of the machine may be increased, 
without altering its dimensions, by simply increasing the 
number of compartments, thus forcing the wine to remain 
longer in contact with the cooling tubes. 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 



55 



The gases and volatile matters disengaged by the heat are 
collected in the top of the machine by small tubes n, n 1 (Fig. 
29), connected with two independent horizontal tubes p and// 
carrying them into the cold wine, where they are again 
dissolved. 




% Taps placed at the lowest part of the machine allow it to 
be quickly emptied and cleaned. 

Landers machine has all the advantages of machines with 
vertical tubular bundles, great division of the wine, and, 
therefore, large surface of heating and cooling, all parts of 
the wine reaching the required temperature of pasteurization ; 
minimum internal friction of the liquid, as well as upon the 



56 STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 

walls of the recipient ; rapid circulation, and large yield. It 
occupies a very small space, is easily pulled to pieces, 
examined and cleaned, and may be worked with large or 
small differences of level. 

With the new improved machines the outer walls may be 
removed, exposing the whole bundle of tubes, and allowing 
them to be cleaned. Following is the cost of the different 
models: 



Nos. 


Yield per Hour. 


Cost. 


Supplementary Cost of Heating 
with 


Gas. 


Steam. 


1 
2 

3 
4 
5 


99 to 110 gallons 
198 to 220 ,, 
330 to 440 ,, 
500 to 572 
660 to 770 ,, 



49 
62 
80 
104 
152 



6 
8 
9 
10 
12 
i 


S. 
2 
3 
3 8 
4 
4 8 



4. Pommier de Saint- Joannis*' Sterilizer. This steri- 
lizer, invented in 1872, is one of the most generally used in 
the South of France, Spain, and Algeria. The calefactor is 
provided with a worm tube, and the refrigerator with a 
bundle of small straight tubes. The section (Fig. 30) shows 
the arrangement of the different parts of the machine, and 
Fig. 31 gives a view of the complete machine. The wine is 
pumped into the tank C, reaches the bottom of the refrige- 
rator through the delivery controlling tap E, rises between 
the interstices of the bundle of small tubes, and flows into 
the second refrigerator or into the calefactor, as the case 
may be. It circulates in the calefactor from bottom to top, 
and gradually gets warmer in contact with the warm water 
as it rises. The maximum temperature reached is recorded 
by a thermometer H. .The wine passes through the tube 
D, in the top of the calefactor, descends through the small 
tubes, reaches the bottom of the calefactor, and is carried 
by a tube G, to the casks. 

The gases, ethers, or vapours disengaged during the opera- 
tion collect in B, and are condensed in a tube traversing the 
wine-feeding tank, reaching the exit tube at G. 

When the operation is finished, the wine contained in the 
machine is emptied through small taps placed towards the 
bottom ; the water in the water jacket is left in the machine 
as well as the fire, while cold water is forced through the 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 



57 



machine until it comes out quite clear. It is only after this 
cleaning is finished that the water jacket is emptied and the 
fire removed. 

If the flow of liquid diminishes through deposition of 
tartar, cleaning is effected in the ordinary way, simply add- 
ing 1 per cent, of hydrochloric acid to the water. The 
following table shows the capacity of the different model s r 
together with their cost : 



Nos. 


Number of 
Refrigerators. 


Yield per Hour. 


Cost of Machines heated with 


Coal. 


Gas. 


Steam. 







Gallons. 











1 


1 


. 33 


18 


.. . 




2 


1 


66 


32 


... 




3 


1 


132 


52 


56 


48 


4 


2 


286 


68 


84 


92 


5 


2 


440 


92 


112 


124 


6 


2 


660 


128 


152 




7 


2 or 3 


990 


182 


208 


... 


8 


2 or 3 


1,320 


240 


260 


... 



5. Houdart's Sterilizer. This sterilizer is one of the best 
on the market. It is composed of three parts. 

1st. A calefactor C (Fig. 32), in which the wine is- 
heated in contact with Water through a, 
bundle of parallel tubes of very small 
diameter, tinned inside and outside, or, better,, 
made of pure tin. 

2nd. A thermo-syphon water jacket D, where the water 
is heated. This may be done either by gas or 
steam. 

In the first case (Fig. 32) the gas passes through an 
automatic regulator, and is carried to burners, the flame of 
which is directed towards the interior by expanded copper 
tubes, which reach the funnel after passing two or three 
times through the water. 

In the second case (Fig. 33) steam from a boiler passes 
through an automatic regulator, and is carried into the 
tubes of the water bath. 

The warm water flowing out of the calefactor rises through 
the large tube M (Fig. 32), reaches the wine heater, and, 
after becoming cold in contact with the wine, returns to the 
calefactor through the tube N, which completes the thermo- 
syphon. 



-58 STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 

The thermo-syphon is fed from the water contained in the 
recipient E. 

3rd. A refrigerator B, in which the wine flowing out 
of the calefactor is cooled by contact with cold 
wine, through bundles of tubes similar to 
those of the wine heater. 




Fig. 30. Pommier's Sterilizer (section). 



The wine flows into the tank A, its level being kept 
constant by a tap connected with a floater. It travels 
through the vertical tube H, which is provided with a 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 



59 



delivery controlling tap I, reaches the bottom of the wine 
refrigerator, rises outside the bundle of small tubes, and 
ilows through the tube J, which carries it to the bottom of 
the wine heater. It rises through the bundle of tin tubes. 




Fig. 31. - Pommier's Sterilizer with two refrigerators. 

After completely absorbing the heat of the water it flows 
through the lateral tube K, reaches the tubular bundle of 
the refrigerator, becomes cold as it descends, and finally 
leaves the machine through the tube L at the initial 
temperature. 

Two thermometers indicate, one the maximum temperature 
of the heated wine, the other that of the water in the water 
jacket. A self-registering thermometer is often added. This 
allows one to follow the course of the operation in all its 
details, and to check exactly how it was conducted. 



60 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 



The gases and aromatic products disengaged from the 
wine under the action of heat collect in the top of the 




Fig. 32.-Houdart's Sterilizer, heated by gas. 

calefactor and of the refrigerating column, and pass through 
small tuhes immersed in the tank A containing the wine. 
They are condensed there and carried into the tube L r 
where they are re-dissolved in the cold wine. 

The combustion of the gas is regulated so as to insure a, 
constant and uniform temperature, and prevent any sudden 
elevation of temperature. This is done by means of the 
combination of a spirit worm (Fig. 34) and regulator 
(Fig. 35) connected by a small tube. 

The worm G is immersed in the upper part of the 
refrigerator in the hot wine coming out of the calefactor 
through the tube K. The spirit expands under the 
influence of heat, and exerts a certain pressure on the 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 



61 



membrane M of the regulator, which is placed at a short 
distance from the opening of the tube N, through which the 
gas arrives. This gas, coming out of the tube P, feeds, 
therefore, more or less, the burners of the *ther mo-syphon. 

The box of the membrane communicates with a bottle 
filled with water and surmounted by a graduated tube D, 
open at the top. When the spirit expands it rises more or 
less in the tube, and indicates the pressure upon the 
membrane M. It is therefore easy to regulate the pressure. 
The tube is only fixed after the hot wine has filled the tank 
of the spirit worm G for twenty minutes at least. 

In the case of the orifice of the tube N being completely 
closed through the membrane being too much raised, a 
second tube of small diameter feeds a small gas burner 
(pilot) which keeps the burner in the calefactor alight. 

Spirit is poured into the tube A where the worm starts 
till it reaches the bottom of the tube D. The tube A is then 
closed, being careful not to introduce any air into the 
machine. 




Fig. 33. Houdart's Sterilizer, heated by steam 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 



The tank E is filled with water (Fig. 32) so as to 
completely fill the water jacket D, and the column of the 
calefactor C to a level of J inch to 1 inch from the bottom' 
plate E. It is necessary to leave that space to allow for' 

the expansion under the in- 
fluence of heat. During this 
operation the tap must 
remain open, to allow the air 
to escape, and it is closed 
half-an-hour only after the 
work is started. 

The wine in the tank A 
is introduced through the 
delivery controlling tap I ? 
and passes round the tubes 
of the refrigerator B. It fills 
the tubes of the calefactor 
and arrives in the tube C ; 
when it flows through the 
small tap fixed on the top of 
this tube, this tap and the 
tap I are closed and the fire 
lighted. 

If the heating is to be 
done with gas, the whole 
battery of burners, which is 
articulated at the bottom, 
is thrown backwards ; the 
taps of all the burners are 
closed, and the damper of the funnel being open, a few wood 
chips are burnt in the smoke box on the opposite side to create 
a draught. When the draught is sufficient the burners are 
lighted and the battery thrown up again in its normal 
position, being careful that the end of each burner corre- 
sponds with the entrance of each tube. The flames are 
drawn through these tubes and the gases from the combus- 
tion escape through the funnel. When the thermometer 
N indicates 60 C. the tap I is slightly opened, so as 
to allow the wine to flow out at K at the required 
temperature of pasteurization. Soon after the wine 
which has been heated flows out of the tube L r 
thoroughly cooled, and passing through a hose, enters the 
cask. 




Fig. 34. Spirit worm of the regulator of 
Houdart's Sterilizer. 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 

The rate of flow is regulated with a thermometer K, and 
a delivery-controlling tap I. The heat is regulated auto- 
matically with the spirit regulator already described. 

Houdart's machine does not require any special super- 
vision after the start. If the heating is done by steam, 
that steam, coming out of the regulator, arrives in the worm 
of the calefactor (Fig. 33), where it condenses, and the 




Fig. 35. Spirit regulator of Houdart's Sterilizer. 

taps at the entrance and exit must be regulated in such a 
way as to allow only water to pass out. When the operation 
is finished the gas or steam is turned off, and the machine 
emptied by means of taps provided for that purpose. 

Houdart's machine fulfils all the conditions required for 
effective pasteurization. The wine is heated and brought 
back to its initial temperature out of contact with air, the 
heating is regular and automatic, the temperature of the 
water is only slightly above that to which the wine requires 
to-be heated, and the wine retains all its gases and aroma. 
The thermometers are easy to examine, the delivery 
controlling tap is at a convenient height for the workmen 
to use it when necessary, it requires a very small space 
horizontally, and owing to its large area for heating and 
cooling, the wine comes out of the machine at a tempera- 
ture only slightly above that at which it entered it. 



64 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 



The dimensions and costs of the different models put on 
the market are as follow : 











Heating with Gas. 


Heating with Steam. 




Total 




Yield 






Nos. 


Height. 


Projection. 


per Hour. 


Without 


With 


Without 


With 










Regulator. 


Regulator. 


Regulator. 


Regulator 




Ft. In. 


Ft. In. 


Gallons. 





s. 


S. 





1 


8 6 


2 7 


110 to 132 


79 


87 10 


67 8 


72 


2 


8 6 


4 


220 to 222 


134 


144 


119 


124 


3 


9 9 


6 8 


440 to 484 


220 


236 


202 


208 



6. BesnarcFs Sterilizer. Besnard has recently constructed 
a pasteurizer in which the heating is done by kerosene. It 
offers great advantages to small proprietors or consumers, or 
those who desire to sterilize a small quantity of wine only. 
Although not provided with a bundle of small 'tubes this steril- 
izer belongs to the group of machines with tubular bundles. 

It is composed of an annulary tank R (Fig. 36), through 
which passes a series of flat vertical tubes T ; through these 
the exchange of temperature takes place. The tops of these 
tubes are in communication with the top of the recipient, the 
lower ends are fixed on a circular plate resting on the bottom 
of the tank, and are in communication with the annulary space 
K under the plate. This space is connected with a tube A 
for the exit of the treated wine 7 and the entrance tube is 
connected with the recipient T a little above the space K. 

A system of tubes t, and a lens-shaped vessel L, com- 
municates with the water heater C, through the tubes D and E, 
these exchange their heat with the wine at the upper part of 
the machine. This system constitutes a veritable thermo- 
syphon through which the warm water rises in E up to the 
lens L, and returns to the water heater through the tube D 
after being cooled in contact with the wine. 

The non-treated wine arrives in a tank provided with a 
tap and a floater M, and reaches the pasteurizer through the 
tube Q, which is connected with a delivery controlling tap S ; 
it rises in the recipient R surrounding the tubes T, absorbing 
the heat of the treated wine which descends through these 
tubes ; it continues heating in contact with the tube t and 
the lens L, descends through the flat tube where it gradually 
gets colder, and flows out of K at a temperature only 
slightly above the initial temperature. 

The gases, ethers, and other volatile products of wine 
which become disengaged under the action of heat, are 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 



65 




10050. 



Fig. 36,-Besnard's Sterilizer, heate J with kerosene. 
E 



6(3 STUDIES ON WINE- STERILIZING MACHINES. 

gathered in N at the upper part of the machine, pass 
through' the tube and arrive in the worm 1, where they 
condense in contact with the cold wine contained in the tank, 
and are restituted in P to the cold wine just before its exit. 
The aperture of the tube S is regulated by observing the 
thermometer for a few minutes ; when it indicates a con- 
stant temperature the regularity of working is assured, for 
the level of the wine in the upper tank remains constant as 
the tap M, provided with a floater, prevents the pressure in 
the tube Q from varying. 

Before starting the machine, water is poured through the 
funnel e after having opened the taps G and H. When the 
whole system is full, the kerosene lamps are lighted, the 
wicks being raised as high as possible, without however 
allowing them to smoke. As soon as the water in the 
lens-shaped vessel L begins to get warmer, the tap S is 
opened, and the tank R rilled with wine until it begins to 
overflow through the tube A. The circulation of wine is 
only completely established when the thermometer placed 
on the top of the machine indicates the required temperature 
of pasteurization. This temperature is maintained constant 
by opening the delivery controlling tap more or less. 

If the pasteurization is to be stopped (for the night for 
instance), the machine is left completely filled with the 
liquids, and, next morning, the lamps are lighted and the tap S 
opened when the required temperature is reached. When 
the machine is to stop working for several days it is com- 
pletely emptied through taps, ad hoc, the couplings 
unscrewed, and the tank separated from the water jacket. 
All the thumb-screws are undone, the top plate and the 
outside cylinder removed so that the tubes remain visible 
from the outside ; those tubes can also be removed as they 
simply rest on the bottom of the tank. 

All the surfaces in contact with wine are easy to examine 
and clean. 

This pasteurizer differs from all the machines we have 
studied in so far that the mode of heating with kerosene 
is new, and that its compactness and lightness make it easily 
portable. Following is the cost of the different models : 



Nos. 


Total Height. 


Yield per 10 Hours. 


Cost with Wheels. 


1 
2 


6ft. 6in. 
7ft. 4in. 


/>50 gallons 
1,320 gallons 


22 
40 



The expense of kerosene is a little over IJd. per 1UO 
gallons of wine treated. 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 67 



C. MACHINES WITH CYLINDRICAL OR 
HELICOIDAL COMPARTMENTS. 

Giret and Vinas' machine (1866) was the first in which 
cylindrical compartments were used for cooling the wine, 
but the number of these compartments was too small, the 
surfaces for exchange of temperature were therefore too 
much reduced. 

1. Raulin's Sterilizer. Raulin adopted later on a more 
rational disposition of the compartments, and utilized 
annulary boxes made of a series of concentric cylinders for 
the hot-air box, water-heater, calefactor, and refrigerator. 
His machine, which was described in the second edition of 
Pasteur's Etudes sur le vin for the first time, is shown Fig. 
37. It consists of -four similar groupments of cylindrical 
boxes made of copper v e. Each of these is made of an 
annulary recipient 6, open at the top, closed at the bottom, 
and containing a smaller recipient 0, similar in shape, and 
closed at both extremities. The open recipients are in com- 
munication. They are full of water, and serve as a water 
jacket ; the closed recipients are independent of one another, 
and constitute the wine heater or calefactor. All the parts 
in contact with wine are tinned. The fire grate is shown in 
F. Heated air circulates through the space f between the 
different groupments of boxes, and reaches the funnel. The 
cold wine enters the three boxes at the same time by tubes 
a, reaches the bottom and passes out through the tubes b, 
reaching the bottom of the central box v t. It rises through 
that central collector, all its parts intermixing as they rise to 
the temperature of 60C. It is then received in a hori- 
zontal collector, from which it flows towards the casks 
through a tube s, after recording its temperature at a ther- 
mometer t. 

The level of the water in the water jacket is kept constant 
by pouring water through the glass funnel i, connected with 
the water jacket by a closed tube. 

This machine has no refrigerator, but if .one were needed 
it would be easy to add to the machine an annulary box 
closed at the top by a movable circular box, containing 
another one completely closed. The cold wine would enter 
the machine through one of these boxes, and the treated 



E2 



68 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 



wine would go out through the other. In this arrangement 
the shape of the boxes, and their large volume, prevent any 

obstruction and any ir- 
regularity in heating. 

The feeding tubes and 
exit tubes for the wine 
are connected to the boxes 
by a rubber hose. It is 
therefore easy to pull the 
machine to pieces quickly, 
and to clean it easily. The 
whole machine may be 
easily inspected, tinned 
again, or leakage stopped, 
as when the different parts 
have been pulled to pieces 
they are simply so many 
independent boxes. 

Raulin's machine does 
not seem to have been 
generally adopted. 

2. Nabouleix's Steril- 
izer. In January 1892, 
Nabouleix patented a pas- 
teurizer in which the sur- 
faces for exchange of 
temperature were made of 
helicoidal boxes. 

This machine is com- 
posed of three distinct 
parts 

1st. A boiler D (Fig. 
38), in which the water 
is heated. The warm 
water comes out of the 
calefactor through the tube 
F ol the thermo-syphon, 
and re turns to it when cold 
through the tube G. The 
heating is done with gas or 
coal, but gas is preferable, 
because it is easier to 
regulate. 




Fig. 37. Eaulin's Sterilizer. 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. OVJ 

2nd. A refrigerator B, made of plates rolled round 
parallel to each other, and forming* two vertical, helicoidal 
boxes, independent of one another, fixed in such a way 
that the cold wine circulates in one of them, while the hot 
wine circulates in the other. 




Fig. 38. Nabouleix's Sterilizer. 

The box containing the cold wine is provided with a tube 
H, and the box containing the warm wine is in communica- 
tion with the calefactor O, an opening being made through 
the partition separating B and C. 

3rd. A calefactor C, containing a helicoidal compartment 
into which the wine flows, is heated at the expense of 
the water of the ther mo-syphon. The wine flows out from 
the centre, records its temperature at a thermometer N, and 



70 STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 

then reaches the refrigerator B through the vertical tube I, 
which has a large diameter so as to keep the wiue a longer 
time at the temperature of pasteurization. After the wine 
has been brought down to the initial temperature it travels 
through the tube J towards the casks. The degree of cool- 
ing depends on the number of spires contained in the refri- 
gerator B. By increasing the number of plates rolled in 
spiral shape, one may reduce the temperature to a degree 
equal to that at which the wine enters the machine. All the 
gases escape in B or C, are collected in the tube I, pass 
through the box M, and are carried into the cold wine near 
its exit, to be re-dissolved in it. 

The boiler D and the thernio-syphon are only necessary if 
the heating is done with gas or coal. If steam is used it is 
carried directly into the water jacket C, therefore the 
machines used with steam are cheaper. 

The working of Nabouleix's sterilizer is very simple, and 
the regulating is easily done with the delivery controlling tap 
A, and the thermometer K Following are the different 
models and cost : 







Cost. 


Nos. 


Yield at 60C. per Hour. 


Steam Heating. 


Gas Heathig. 






I 

























132 to 154 gallons. 


60 


72 


1 


264 to 352 


80 


102 


2 


550 to 616 


140 


156 


3 


990 to 1,100 ,, 


232 


250 



3. Laurent 's Sterilizer. This machine, known under 
the name of Sterilizer-Recuperator is built by the General 
Aerohydraulic Co. It is shown in Fig. 39, and consists of 
two principal parts, A and B, connected by two tubes, U and 
V, and both bolted on a truck C D. 

The column B is the calefactor and water jacket. It con- 
tains a worm surrounded by warm water, through which the 
non-treated wine travels from bottom to top. The heating 
is done with gas or coal, in the latter case the draught is 
regulated by the damper X. 

The cylinder A has a refrigerator or recuperator. It con- 
tains two vertical helicoidal compartments side by side, 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 



71 



independent in all their parts. They are formed of two 
metallic sheets kept a few tenths of an inch apart by 
narrow braces. They are rolled in spiral shapes round a 
central tube, the end of each sheet being soldered in such a 
way as to obtain a system of two winding channels 
parallel and adjacent. 




Fig. 39. Laurent's Sterilizer-Recuperator. 

The space between the plates and their stanchness are 
secured by rubber bands, and by the pressure of the two 
plates closing the cylinder at top and bottom. 

In the horizontal section (Fig. 40), one of the compartments 
is shown in black, and it is in this that the warm wine 
coming out of the calefactor travels. The cold wine travels 
in the other compartment (shown in white) before returning 
to the calefactor. The two liquids, warm and cold, travel in 
opposite directions through a very long circuit in which the 
exchange of temperatures takes place regularly and 
gradually, and is as complete as possible. 



iS STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 

The recuperation of the heat is an important advantage 
from an economical point of view, as the fuel consumption 
is diminished. According to the constructors, 3 J Ibs. of 
coal are sufficient to treat 220 gallons per hour under a 
pressure of 6ft. lOin. The wine enters the machine through 
the coupling E, passes through the filter G, and descends in 




Fig. 40. Laurent's Sterilizer (horizontal section). 

Z. It travels from the centre towards the periphery, and 
passes out through the tube U, is sterilized in the calefactor, 
flows back through the tube V in the recuperator after 
recording its temperature at the thermometer I. It 
circulates now in the second compartment from the periphery 
towards the centre, where it is collected in tube W, and 
delivered in the cask through a hose coupled at N. A 
thermometer may be placed in H to record the temperature 
of the wine coming out of the machine. 

The machine works under pressure, and for this reason as 
well as on account of the long course the wine has to follow 
during its cooling, the gases contained in the wine only 
disengage in very small quantities, and are totally restituted 
before the exit. A pressure gauge M, records the pressure 
at which the machine is working. 

Before starting, the water bath is filled with water, and 
the wine introduced into the recuperator till it overflows in 
N. The fire is then lighted, and when the thermometer 
indicates the required temperature the feed tap is slowly 
opened to avoid a fall in the temperature, and the rate of 
flow as well as the draught in the fire grate are regulated. 
The first 10 gallons passing through the machine must be 
treated again. 



HEATING WINE IN BULK. 73 

At the end of the operation the sterilizer is completely 
emptied by opening the three tubes J 3' and K. The 
whole machine is cleaned with a strong current of water, 
and after being cleaned is kept full of water. 

Laurent's machine has the advantage of occupying a very 
small space (3ft. 5in. x oft. Tin. x 3ft. Tin.), and -of being 
easily portable and shifted from one cask to another in the 
cellar. Finally, it requires no special installation and is 
sold ready mounted. 

The arrangement of bolts allow both compartments to be 
pulled apart as often as required to ascertain if there is 
any leakage. This is done by completely emptying the 
machine -and unscrewing the coupling V ; when this is done 
the tap of one of the compartments being left open, water is 
forced into the other. If there is any leakage the water 
will come out of the open tap. 

The cost of the complete machine, which treats about 220 
gallons per hour under a pressure of 6ft. lOin., is 80. 



74 STUDIES OX WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 

IV. 

STERILIZATION OF CASKS. 

It is of the utmost importance to receive the treated wine 
in sterilized casks if we desire not to lose the benefit of 
pasteurization. This precaution is above all necessary if 
the casks previously contained diseased wines, for in this 
case the disease germs would start multiplying in the 
sterilized wine and alter it again. 

Casks may he sterilized by washing them with boiling 
water, but it is safer and handier to steam them. Any 
boiler can be used for this purpose, for instance we 'may use 
the boiler of the pasteurizer. This is shown in Fig. 33, 
page 61. The steam arrives under pressure in a vertical 
pipe, above which the cellarman places the bung-hole of the 
cask. It spreads inside all over the cask, and the condensed 
water falls through the bung-hole, the cask being at the 
same time cleaned and sterilized. 

Different types of boilers have also been constructed for 
this purpose. One of the best is that of Bourdil, which, 
under a small volume, can be used as water heater or steam 
generator. It is composed of three superposed recipients, 
A, B, C (Fig. 41), through which a vertical funnel passes, for 
the escape of the gases of combustion. The top recipient A 
is used as feeder, and receives the cold water, which comes 
down through a perforated tube E to the bottom of the cale- 
factor B. The warm water flows into the top part of the 
tube E', which carries it to the bottom of the boiler C. The 
calefactor B is in communication with the outside by tube 
B'. A glass tube H serves to ascertain the level of the 
water in the boiler. 

A safety valve K is fixed on top of the boiler, and a 
whistle M can be connected at L if the boiling water is not 
used, or a rubber hose may replace the whistle if boiling 
water is required. 

In the first case the whistle indicates when the water is 
boiling. This boiling water is taken out through the tap R 
and poured directly into the cask to be sterilized. In the 
second case the safety valve limits the pressure in the boiler, 
and the hose N is used to inject the steam into the cask. 

The fire and feeding tap should be regulated in such a way 
us to keep the level of the water in the boiler constant. 
After the casks have cooled and drained they are sulphured 



STERILIZATION OF CASKS. 



75 



Bourdil's boiler is portable, and is made in two sizes, they 
cost respectively 14 8s. and 16. 

When the machine is stationary the top tank is provided 
with a tap connected by a rod to a floater reaching the 
boiler. When the level of the water diminishes in the boiler 
the floater is lowered and the feeding tap opened. The level 
of the water rises in the boiler and closes the feeding tap. 

In large cellars, working constantly with a great number 
of pipes or hoses, it is desirable to completely sterilize casks 
and pipes by injecting steam through them to clean them as 
well as to kill all serins of diseases. 



E 




tf. 41. Bourdil's Boiler for Sterilizing Casks. 



76 STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 

When once a wine has been carefully sterilized it is not 
subject to diseases. It can immediately be put into casks, 
kept bung sideways, racked or fined, and later on bottled, as 
if it had not been sterilized at all. Experience has proved 
that the few germs which might fall into the wine during 
these manipulations can never develop. This naturally 
would not apply to blends of sterilized wine and diseased 
wine in which the microscope has shown the presence of 
disease ferments. This is self evident, and we are astonished 
to see in a great number of cellars blends made of treated 
and non-treated wines, destroying the eifect of steriliza- 
tion. 



APPENDIX. 77 



APPENDIX. 



PRESERVATION OF UNFERMENTED 
GRAPE-MUST. 

By FEEDEEIC T. BIOLETTI and A. M. DAL PIAZ. 



Bulletin No. 130, University of California, 1900. 



The use of unfermented grape-juice or 
beverage, both in health and sickness, has been common in 
vine-growing countries from time immemorial. It has, 
however, until lately been restricted to the immediate 
vicinity of the vineyards and the season of ripe grapes. 
This is owing to the great facility with which fruit juices of 
all kinds spoil within a few days after being expressed from 
the fruit, unless preserved artificially. The great progress 
made within the last few decades in methods, both legitimate 
and illegitimate, of food preservation, has made it possible 
to keep grape-juice for an indefinite period, and to make use 
of it as a beverage at all seasons and in all places. Accord- 
ingly the manufacture of grape-must has attained notable 
proportions in some European countries, and in most parts 
of the United States. Its use, however, has up to the 
present day been almost exclusively medicinal, although it 
is one of the most wholesome and agreeable beverages 
known, in health as well as disease. The cause of this 
restricted use is twofold. In the first place, in order to 
simplify and cheapen the processes of manufacture, injurious 
preservative agents have been made use of by the unscrupu- 
lous, and in the second place, the lack of the necessary 
special knowledge and technical skill has resulted in many 
failures of attempts to preserve the must in a legitimate 
manner, so that the price has been necessarily too high for 
the regular consumer. 

It is to remedy this lack of knowledge on the part of the 
manufacturer, to warn the consumer against the injurious 



78 STUDIES ON WINE-STEEILIZING MACHINES. 

effects of antiseptics, and to call attention to the merits of 
this delicious beverage, that this Bulletin is written. More 
stress is laid on general principles than on actual methods, 
as the methods will vary considerably according to the scale 
on which the manufacture is conducted and according to the 
facilities and appliances at the disposal of the individual 
manufacturer. The business can be conducted profitably 
with either small or large quantities, but must necessarily 
be commenced on a modest scale by the inexperienced. The 
directions given here should enable almost any grape-grower 
to commence operations, and gradually, as he acquires 
confidence and skill, to engage more largely in what should 
be an important industry in California. 

Composition of Grape-must. A consideration of the 
following table, showing the constituents of the normal 
juice of lipe grapes, will make clear its value as a nourishing 
beverage in health, and also, its therapeutic efficacy in 
certain cases of disease : 

Parts in 1,000. 

Grape sugar (dextrose and levn lose) .. ... 180 to 280 

Free organic acids (tartaric, malic, tannic) ... 1 to 10 
Salts of organic acids (cream of tartar, potassium 

malate, calcium tartrate, calcium malate) ... 4 to 8 
Ash (containing potassium, sodium, calcium, mag- 
nesium, ferric oxide, phosphoric and sulphuric 

acids) ... ... ... ... ... 3 to 5 

Nitrogenous matter (proteids, amido-compounds) .. 3 to 10 

This table shows that some of the principal constituents 
of wine, such as alcohol, glycerine, &c., are totally lacking 
in pure grape-juice ; and it is to be noted that it contains 
no unwholesome substance of whatever kind. 

Grape-juice should and can be delivered to the consumer 
so as to contain no other substances than those shown above. 
If chemical analysis shows any other ingredients, a fraud 
has been practised, and as all the additions usually made 
are in the nature of antiseptics or preservatives, they are all 
more or less injurious. All the antiseptics used are easily 
detected by more or less simple chemical tests, and if an 
effective pure-food law were in operation it would be easy 
for the consumer and the honest producer to protect them- 
selves by occasional chemical analysis of the various brands 
of grape-must on the market. In the larger European 
countries, where such laws do exist, the use of injurious 
adulterants is rendered dangerous, if not impossible. 



APPENDIX. 



79 



An analysis of a pure grape-mast made by a Government 
chemist in Austria, and one of must put up by Swett and 
Son, at Martinez, made by Mr. G. E. Colby at this station, 
gave the following results : 



Austria. 




California. 


Per cent. 




Per cent. 


. 21 -62 




20-60 


none 




none 


78 


t 


53 


01 


t 


03 


. 19-62 


. 


19-15 


61 


_ 


59 


03 




07 


37 




19 


02 




04 



ANALYSIS OF GRAPE-MUST. 



Solid contents, by spindle (Balling) 

Alcohol 

Total acid (as tartaric) 

Volatile acid . . . 

Grape sugar ... 

Cream of tartar 

Free tartaric acid 

Ash ... 

Phosphoric acid 

No cane sugar, starch sugar, or antiseptics were found in 
the California or the Austrian musts. Artificial (aniline) 
colouring matter, salicylic, benzole and boric acids, 
formalin and fluorides were tested for in the California must 
but none were present. 

This is approximately what should be shown by any pure 
grape-juice. It is instructive to compare this with some 
partial analyses made at this station of some of the beverages 
offered to the consumer in California under such titles as 
" Unfermented Wine " and " Pure Grape-juice," recom- 
mended for invalids and for communion purposes. 



SAMPLE 1, 

Solid contents, by spindle 
Total acids (as tartaric) 
Sulphurous acid (antiseptic) 

SAMPLE 2. 

Solid contents, by spindle 
Alcohol, by volume ... 
Salicylic acid (antiseptic) 



Per cent. 
22-00 
59 
06 

Per cent. 

28-80 

2-00 

3-90 



The first sample was sold as a " curative for throat and 
lung troubles." The amount of sulphurous acid it contained 
was sufficient to cause throat and lung as well as digestive 
troubles in a healthy person. The second sample was sold 
as " pure unfermented grape-juice," but besides containing a 
large amount of the injurious antiseptic, salicylic acid (more 
than twenty times as much as was necessary to preserve it), 
it contained 2 per cent, of alcohol. Even healthy persons, 
much more invalids, tuould contract severe indigestion from 
the use of such a product, which is a fraud upon the public. 



80 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 



Causes of spoiling. In order to make clear the nature of 
the problem which must be solved in order to preserve 
grape-juice indefinitely, a short account of the causes of 
spoiling will be useful. When grapes, or any fruits, are 
gathered, the surfaces in contact with the air have the spores 
of various fungi, yeasts, and bacteria adhering to them. All 
these spores are microscopic, but an idea of their appearance, 
when sufficiently enlarged by the microscope to become 
visible, may be obtained by reference to Fig. 42, which shows 
various forms of these organisms developed on the skin of a 
muscat grape. 




Fig. 42. Micro-organisms on Grapes 

a, a', a" Various forms of Mold -(mvcor). 

c, d, e Various forms of yeasts, molds, and bacteria. 

When the grapes are crushed and the juice expressed, the 
latter may be contaminated by these spores washed off the 
skin. In the air they are dry, and therefore inert ; but very 
soon after they are surrounded by the must, which is a very 
favorable medium for their growth, they assume an active 
form and commence to multiply. If the must is warm, this 
change to an active state occurs very soon and the consequent 
increase in numbers is proportionately rapid. If, on the 
contrary, the grapes and therefore the must be cool, the 
increase is much slower ; but eventually, if left alone, the 
organisms increase until the must ferments. This fermenta- 
tion consists principally in the changing of the grape-sugar 
into alcohol and carbonic acid, and is the essential part of 
the process which changes grape-juice into wine. 

The main object, then, of the producer who wishes to place 
" pure unferinented grape-juice " upon the market, is to per- 
manently prevent this fermentation. Besides this, the grape- 
juice must be quite clear, in order to present an attractive 
appearance to the consumer. 



APPENDIX. 81 

To attain the first object there are two general groups of 
methods, which may be called respectively chemical and 
physical. All the chemical methods consist in the addition 
of germ poisons or antiseptics, which either kill the micros- 
copic organisms of fermentation or permanently prevent their 
growth and increase. Of these substances the principal used 
are, besides salicylic and sulphurous acid already mentioned, 
boric acid, saccharin, and of late, formalin. Many patent 
preservatives are found on the market, but they nearly all 
contain one or more of these substances as their active 
principle. They are all injurious to digestion and in other 
ways ; and it may be said in general that any substance 
which prevents fermentation will also interfere with digestion, 
and is therefore to be avoided. 

The physical methods work in one of two ways : they, 
remove the germs by some mechanical means, such as a 
filter, or a centrifugal apparatus ; or they destroy them by 
heat, cold, electricity, &c. The methods which depend upon 
the removal of the germs are inapplicable, as this cannot be 
done thoroughly except with very small quantities of liquid, 
and the minute organisms with which we have to deal will 
soon increase sufficiently to spoil the liquid, if a single 
one escapes the filter. One yeast-cell, for instance, at 
ordinary temperatures will increase to ten millions in three 
or four days ; and if the temperature is warm the increase 
will be still more rapid. We are then reduced to those 
physical methods which destroy the germs ; and of these the 
only one which has been found useful in this connexion is 
the use of high temperatures. This method depends on the 
fact that when a liquid is heated to a sufficiently high tem- 
perature all organisms present are killed. This temperature 
is called the " death point" and differs for each particular 
variety of organisms. The death point will also differ 
according to the composition of the liquid in which the 
organism is immersed. Yeast, for instance, is killed at a 
lower temperature in must than in water, on account of the 
acidity of the former. Time also, is a factor in determining 
the death point. An organism may not be killed if heated 
to a certain degree quickly, and as quickly cooled ; while if 
it is kept at that same degree for some time it will be 
killed. Some tests made at this station with a pure* yeast 
isolated from California wine illustrate these facts. The 

* Pure in this case means a yeast consisting of only one variety of micro-organism. 
10050. F 



82 STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 

yeast was placed in must which had previously been 
completely freed from all germs, and was heated to various 
temperatures for various length of time, with results as 
follows : The initial temperature of the must was 20 (. 
(68 F.), and the yeast was killed by heating it gradually 
up to 60 C. (140 F.) in fifteen minutes ; that is to say, 
the time taken to bring the temperature from 20 C. 
(68 F.) to 60 C. (140 F.) was fifteen minutes, and at the 
end of this time the must containing the yeast was allowed 
to cool in a room at 20 C. (68 F.). This same yeast was 
not killed when heated in twenty-five minutes from 20 C. 
(68 F.) to 50 C. (122 F.), nor even when kept at the 
latter temperature for five minutes longer. But when kept 
at this temperature for ten minutes longer, all the yeast 
cells were killed. Another test with the same yeast showed 
"that if heated from 20 C. (68 F.) to 45 0. (US 9 F.) in 
twenty minutes, and then kept at the latter temperature for 
twenty minutes, few or none of the yeast cells were killed, 
though in thirty minutes most of them were rendered in- 
capable of growth. However, even in the last case some 
Were left alive, and ultimately spoiled the must. We learn 
from these tests that heating to 45 C. (113 F.), even for a 
somewhat prolonged time, cannot be depended on to sterilize 
grape-must, and that even 50 C. (122 F.) requires too 
much time to be practical. A heating to 60 C. (140 F.), 
however, would probably be quite safe, provided that only 
this particular variety of yeast were present in the must. 
In practice, however, we have an unknown number of kinds 
of micro-organisms present, and some of these may be able 
to withstand a somewhat higher temperature than this. 

It must be kept in mind also that fungi, including yeasts, 
exist in two states, the vegetative or growing state, and the 
spore or resting state. The latter is more resistant than 
the former ; and it has been found that yeast spores, for 
instance, to be killed must be heated about 5 C. (9 F.) 
higher than the same yeast in the growing state. The 
above tests were made with yeasts containing no spores ; 
but, as in practice spores may be and undoubtedly are 
present, a temperature 5 C. (9 F.) higher than indicated 
would be necessary. Practical experiments made at this 
station indicate that must can be safely sterilized at a 
temperature of 76 C. (167 F.) or 80 0. (176 F.) if all 
the precautions indicated below are observed. At this 



APPENDIX. 83 

temperature the flavour of the grape-juice is hardly changed, 
though at between 90 C. (194 F.) and 100 C. (212 F.) 
it is slightly affected. 

Another property of fungi and their spores, which is of 
importance in this connexion, is their great resistance to 
heat when dry. Yeast can be heated in a dry state to a 
temperature above that of boiling water without being 
killed ; the spores of some fungi (e.g., common mold) are 
even more resistant. The bearing of this upon the preser- 
vation of must is that during the final sterilization, which 
takes place in glass bottles or similar vessels, portions of 
the inner surface of the cork and of the bottle above the 
liquid are comparatively dry ; and if any spores should be 
adhering to these parts there is danger that they will not 
be killed, and that afterwards when they come in contact 
with the must, they will grow and cause fermentation or 
mold. For this reason both the bottles and the cork must 
be thoroughly sterilized before being used. This can be 
accomplished for the bottles by boiling them for at least 
half-an-hour after thorough washing, and then allowing 
them to drain in a place where they are exposed to no 
draughts or dust. This boiling should be done as short a 
time as possible before filling the bottles, and they should 
be handled carefully, taking care not to touch their mouths, 
for with the greatest care the hands cannot be kept free 
from mold , spores. To sterilize the corks this method is 
not always sufficient, as spores that may be in cracks are 
liable to escape. For sterilizing the corks, some closed 
receptacle should be used which will safely withstand 
considerable pressure. The corks when placed in this 
receptacle can best be sterilized by steam under pressure, 
which is allowed to flow in until the pressure, as shown by 
a gauge, is at least 10 Ibs. This pressure indicates a 
temperature of about 115 C. (239 F.), and should continue 
for at least twenty minutes. 

Apparatus required. The apparatus necessary for pre- 
serving grape-must on any but the very smallest scale 
consists of: 1, a continuous pasteurizer; 2, a pressure 
filter ; 3, a pressure sterilizer for corks (this may be dis- 
pensed with) ; 4, a bottle pasteurizer ; 5, a boiler for 
pressure steam. Certain other ntensils are, of course, 
necessary, but they are such as are found in every wine 
cellar. 



84 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 



The manner of operating. The method of proceeding is 
as follows : Sound, clean grapes, preferably those having 
high natural acidity, are picked carefully, while cool, into 
clean boxes. They should not be too ripe or the must will 
be too sweet and difficult to clear. They should be crushed 
as soon as possible after picking, and the juice run into 
perfectly clean puncheons or other receptacles which have 
been previously steamed. If the must is cold 15 C. 
(59 F.) or under it may be safely left to settle for 
24 hours or more. This settling is an advantage as it rids 
the juice of most of the floating solid matter, and facilitates 
the subsequent filtering. During the settling the must 
should be closely watched, in order to anticipate even a 
commencement of fermentation. After this settling, when 
the must has become almost clear, it is run through a 
continuous pasteurizer, of one form of which Fig. 43 gives 
an idea. 

It is heated in this to 80 C. (175 F.) and should come 
out cool, not warmer than 25 C. (77 F.) and should pass 
into fresh settling receptacles. For this purpose puncheons 
or other casks may be used, if they have been thoroughly 
sterilized by steam, though the best receptacles would doubt- 
less be casks or vats of metal lined with enamel, such as 
are now made. The greatest care must be taken to avoid 




Fig. 43. Continuous Pasteurizer. 

ST. Steam pipe. H. Outlet for hot pasteurized must. U. Inlet for unpasteurized must. 
W. Water bath. P. Outlet for cooled pasteurized must. T, T. Thermometers. 



APPENDIX. 85 

contamination of the must as it flows from the pasteurizer. 
It should pass directly, by means of a block-tin pipe, from 
the pasteurizer into the receiving casks. The end of this 
pipe should be thoroughly sterilized by plunging* into 
boiling water, and should never be allowed to touch the 
hands or any exposed surface. When a receiving cask is 
full it should be closed immediately with a wooden bung, 
sterilized preferably in the way already described for corks. 
If all these operations have been conducted with the requisite 
care, and the casks, kept in a cool cellar, the must must 
remain without fermenting for many days or even weeks. 
During this time it deposits more or less sediment which 
has been formed in heating. It is then, ready for 
filtering. 

Filtration. -This filtration is best accomplished by means 
of a filter so constructed that the must passes upward through 
the filtering medium, under pressure. Such a filter, made 
by the International Filter Co., of Chicago, is shown in 
Fig. 44. 

This filter consists essentially of two shallow bowls 
clamped together mouth to mouth with the filtering medium 
between them. The unfiltered must enters the lower 
bowl through the pipe on the right of the figure, passes 
through the filtering medium into the upper bowl and makes 
its exit, when clear, through a faucet a little to the left of 
the middle of the figure. The small faucet at the bottom 
of the lower bowl is for the purpose of cleaning the filter. 
Occasionally, when filtration becomes slow, this faucet is 
opened for a few moments. This allows the sediment 
accumulated at the bottom to escape and at the same time 
the entering must takes a rotary course in the lower bowl, 
thus cleaning off the surface of the filtering medium ; so 
that when the cleaning faucet is closed filtration proceeds 
as before. On a large scale, a filter press, such as is used 
in large wineries and in beet-sugar factories, might con- 
veniently be used. 

It is impossible to prevent a certain amount of contamina- 
tion by fungous spores during filtration ; but it should be 
minimized as much as possible by the greatest cleanliness, 
and attention to sterilizing everything with which the must 
comes in contact. In this regard it should be kept constantly 
in mind that in the ordinary room or cellar, where there is little 
dust, there is comparatively little danger of contamination 



86 STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 

from the air, the main danger being from the solid sur- 
faces with which the must comes in contact. The must 
may be bottled directly as it flows from the filter, or it may 
pass into a sterilized temporary receptacle from which it is 
bottled. It should, however, be placed in its final receptacle 
(bottles, &c.) the same day on which it is filtered, corked 
immediately, and sterilized as soon as possible, preferably 
within 24 hours. 




Fig. 44. - Filter for Clarifying. 

Final sterilization. On account of the recontamination 
during filtration, a final sterilization must be made after the 



APPENDIX. 



87 



bottles are corked. This is accomplished by means of a 
bottle sterilizer which the producer can construct himself. 
A simple and efficient form is shown in Fig. 45. 

It consists of a wooden box or trough provided with a 
wooden grating placed about 2 inches from the bottom. The 
bottles, after being filled with the filtered must and corked, 
are placed in perforated or wire baskets which rest upon the 
grating. The trough should contain enough water to com- 
pletely submerge the bottles. The water should be kept at 
a constant temperature of about 85 C. (185 F.) by means of a 
.steam coil placed beneath the grating. The bottles should be 
left in this pasteurizer for exactly fifteen minutes if they are 
one-quart champagne-bottles. For other sizes it is necessary 
to make a test with a bottle of must in which a thermometer 
has been placed in order to determine how long it takes for 
the entire contents of the bottle to reach the required tem- 
perature. It has been found at this station, that although 
the *must in the upper part of a quart champagne-bottle 
readies 75 C. (167 F.) in eight minutes, when surrounded 
by water at 85 C. (185 F.) it requires fifteen minutes before 
the must at the bottom of the bottle acquires that tempera- 
ture. The sterilization in bottle should be conducted at a 
temperature at least 5 (.). (9 F.) lower than that reached 
in the continuous pasteurizer. Thus, if the water in the first 
case was kept at 90 G. (194 F.) or 95 C. (203 F.) and 
the must attained a temperature of 80 C., the water in the 
bottle pasteurizer should be kept constantly at 85 C., and 
the time of pasteurizing so chosen that the must in the bottles 
will attain a maximum temperature of 75 (J. (167 F.). If 
the final heating is higher than the jirst, it may cause a pre- 
cipitation of solid matters which will make the must cloudy 
in the bottles. 




Fiy. 4f>. Cork Clamp and Pasteurizer for must in bottle. 

DR. Double bottom. ST. Steam pipe W. Water bath. T. Thermometer. 

(Bottle shows method of adjusting a cork holder of sheet metal.) 



88 STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 

During this sterilization in bottle the corks are liable to 
be expelled by the pressure developed. To prevent this they 
may be tied down with strong twine ; but it is a great saving 
of time and labour to use some such contrivance as that 
illustrated in Fig. 45. 

By this operation the must is thoroughly sterilized and 
will then keep unchanged for years, or until the bottles are 
opened. If, however, the bottles are to be capsuled, or kept 
in a very damp place, there is one other cause of spoiling 
that must be guarded against. However carefully all the 
various operations are conducted there are sure to be mold 
spores on the upper surface of the cork. If this surface 
remains dry these spores will not grow, and are harmless. 
But when the cork is covered with a capsule the space 
between the capsule and the surface of the cork finally be- 
comes moist, and any spores there will develop. Some molds 
have great penetrating power, and may force their way 
either through the cork or between the cork and the neck of 
the bottle (especially if the very best quality of corks has 
not been used) and finally reach the must. The molds which 
enter in this way do not, as a rule, grow into the liquid, on 
account of the small amount of air present ; but they make 
a moldy layer on top, which lessens the selling value of the 
must, if it does not actually spoil it. This danger can be 
avoided by dipping the top of the neck of the bottle into a 
2 per cent, solution of bluestone and water, in such a way 
as to wet the upper surface of the cork, before putting on 
the capsule. The same object may be attained by dipping 
the neck, in the same way, into very hot, melted paraffine. 
The bluestone acts by killing any spores that may be 
on the cork, or which may find their way there later. 
The heated paraffine kills the spores present, and prevents 
later infection by completely covering the cork and keeping 
it dry. 

The quality and character of the grape-juice prepared in 
this way will vary greatly according to the variety of grape 
used ; and a pleasing variety may be obtained by using r 
partially or wholly, grapes of high aroma, such as Muscat, 
Isabella, &c. The colour will, however, always be white or 
yellowish, except with a few grapes, such as the Bouschets, 
which have pink or red juice. Red must, however, can be 
obtained by a modification of the process described. If the 
must, after it passes through the continuous pasteurizer, is 
allowed to come out hot and flow into a vat containing the 



APPENDIX. 89 

skins of red grapes, almost any desired depth of colour may 
be obtained, depending on the variety of grape used and the 
time during which the hot must is left in contact with the 
skins. Must prepared in this way, however, differs in other 
respects than in colour from the white must. Besides colour- 
ing matter various substances are extracted from the skins, 
the principal being tannin. This makes the composition 
of the red must more like that of red wine, though, of course, 
it still contains no alcohol. A grape-juice of this character 
might appropriately be called a Unfermented Wine," and 
would, doubtless, be useful in medicine, as it would possess 
certain tonic properties not found in the white must. The 
regular consumer, however, would in all probability generally 
prefer the white must. 

Grape-must, containing as it does generally from 20 to 24 
per cent, of sugar, is too sweet for many palates and consti- 
tutions, but it may be diluted with water by the consumer to 
any desired extent ; and a mixture of equal parts of grape- 
must and carbonated or mineral water makes a beverage much 
appreciated by many people. In Europe a certain amount of 
sparkling grape-juice is put up, i.e., grape-juice which has 
been carbonated, or charged with carbonic acid gas. This, 
though an addition to the natural juice of the grape, cannot 
be looked upon in any sense as a fraud or adulteration, and 
makes the beverage more palatable to many ; besides, if 
properly done, it has no injurious effects on the health of the 
consumer. 

In conclusion the following brief summary of the main 
precautions to be observed in the manufacture of unfermented 
grape-must may be useful : 

1. Only clean and perfectly sound grapes should be 

used. 

2. The grapes should be picked and handled when 

cool. 

3. The greatest cleanliness is necessary in every stage of 

the process. 

4. All utensils and apparatus used should be cleaned and 

sterilized immediately before using, and as short a 
time as possible after using. 

5. The last sterilization should be at a temperature at 

least 5C. (9F.) lower than the temperature used 
in the first sterilization. 

6. Reliable thermometers should be used, and the tem- 

perature watched very carefully. 



90 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 



CONVERSION OF THERMOMETER SCALES. 

CENTIGRADE = FAHRENHEIT. 



Centigi ade Fahrenheit. 


Centigrade = Fahrenheit. Centigrade 


-z Fahrenheit. 


100 


212 65 


149 30 


86 


99 


210-2 64 


147-2 29 


84-2 


98 


208-4 63 


143-4 28 


82-4 


97 


206-6 62 


143-6 27 


806 


96 


204-8 61 


141-8 26 


78-8 


95 


203 60 


140 25 


77 


94 


201-2 59 


138-2 . 24 


75-2 


93 


199-4 58 


136-4 23 


73-4 


92 


197-6 


57 


134-6 22 


71-6 


91 


195-8 


56 


132-8 21 


69-8 


90 . 


194 


55 


131 20 


68 


89 


192-2 54 


129 2 19 


66-2 


88 


190-4 53 


127-4 18 


64-4 


87 


188-6 52 


125-6 


17 


62-6 


86 


186-8 51 


123-8 


16 


60-8 


85 


185 50 


122 15 


59 


84 


183-2 


49 


120-2 


14 


57-2 


83 


181-4 


48 


118-4 


13 


55-4 


82 


179-6 


47 


116-6 12 


53 -6 


81 


177-8 


46 


114-8 11 


51-8 


80 


176 45 


113 10 


50 


79 


1742 44 


111-2 9 


48-2 


78 


172-4 


43 


109-4 8 


46-4 


77 


1706 


42 


107-6 


7 


44-6 


76 


168-8 


41 


105-8 6 


42-8 


75 


167 


40 


104 5 


41 


74 


165-2 


30 


102-2 


4 


39-2 


73 


163-4 38 


100-4 


3 


37-4 


72 


161-6 37 


98-6 


2 


35-6 


71 


159-8 36 


96-8 


1 


33-8 


70 


158 35 


95 





32 


69 


156-2 


34 


93-2 






68 


154-4 


33 


91-4 






67 


152-6 


32 


89-6 






66 


150-8 


31 


^7-8 ' 







APPENDIX. 



91 



CONVERSION OF THERMOMETER SCALES continued. 
FAHRENHEIT = CENTIGRADE. 



irenheit = Centigrade. 


Fahrenheit = Centigrade. 


Fahrenheit = Centigrade. 


212 


100 


167 


75 


122 


50 


211 


99-4 


166 


74-4 1 121 


49*4 


210 


98-9 


165 


73-9 


120 


48-9 


209 


98-3 


164 


73-3 


119 


48-3 


208 


97-8 


163 


72-8 


118 


47-8 


207 


97-2 


162 


72-2 


117 


47-2 


206 


96-7 161 


71-7 


116 


46-7 


205 


96-1 160 


71-1 


115 


46-1 


204 


95-6 159 


70-6 


114 


45-6 


203 


95 158 


70 


113 


45 


202 


94-4 157 


69-4 


112 


44-4 


201 


93-9 156 


68-9 


111 


43-9 


200 


93-3 155 


68-3 


110 


43-3 


199 


92-8 154 


67-8 


109 


42-8 


198 


92-2 153 


67-2 


108 


42-2 


197 


917 152 


66-7 


107 


41-7 


196 


91-1 151 


66-1 


106 


41-1 


195 


90-6 150 


65-6 


105 


40-6 


194 


90 149 


65 


104 


40 


193 


89-4 148 


64-4 


103 


39-4 


192 


88-9 


147 


63-9 


102 


38-9 


191 


88-3 


146 


63-3 


101 


38-3 


190 


87-8 


145 


62-8 


100 


37-8 


189 


87-2 


144 


62-2 


99 


37-2 


188 


86-7 


143 


61-7 


98 


367 


187 


86-1 


142 


61-1 97 


36-1 


186 


85-6 141 


60-6 96 


35-6 


185 


85 140 


60 


95 


35 


184 


84-4 139 


59-4 


94 


34-4 


183 


83-9 138 


58-9 


93 


33-9 


182 


83-3 


137 


58-3 


92 


33'3 


181 


82-8 


136 


57-8 


91 


32-8 


180 


82-2 135 


57-2 


90 


32-2 


179 


817 134 


56-7 


89 


317 


178 


81-1 133 


56-1 


88 


31-1 


177 


80-6 132 


55'6 


87 


30-6 


176 


80 131 


55 


86 


30 


175 


79-4 130 


, 54-4 


85 


29-4 


174 


78-9 


129 


53-9 


84 


28-9 


173 


78-3 


128 


53-3 


83 


28-3 


172 


77-8 


127 


52-8 


82 


27'8 


171 


77-2 


126 


52-2 


81 


27-2 


170 


76-7 


125 


517 


80 


26-7 


169 


76-1 


124 


51-1 


79 


26-1 


168 


75-6 


123 


50-6 


78 


25-6 



92 STUDIES ON WINE-STEEILIZING MACHINES. 

CONVERSION OF THERMOMETER SCALES continued. 
FAHRENHEIT = CENTIGRADE. 



Fahrenheit = Centigrade. 


Fahrenheit = Centigrade. 


Fahrenheit - Centigrade. 


77 


25 


59 


15 


41 


5 


76 


24-4 


58 


14-4 40 


4-4 


75 


23-9 


57 


13-9 39 


3-9 


74 


23-3 


56 


13-3 38 


3-3 


73 


22-8 


55 


12-8 


37 


2-8 


72 


22-2 


54 


12-2 


36 


2-2 


71 


21-7 


53 


11-7 35 


1-7 


70 


21 -i 


52 


11 -I 34 


1-1 


69 


206 


51 


10-6 33 


0-6 


68 


20 


50 


10 32 





67 


19-4 


49 


9-4 




66 


18-9 


48 


8-9 




65 


18-3 


47 


8-3 




64 


17-8 


46 


7'8 




63 


17-2 


45 


7-2 






62 


16-7 


44 


6-7 






61 


16-1 


43 


8:1 






60 


15-6 


42 


5-6 







APPENDIX. 



93 



ALCOHOL TABLES. 



BY OTTO KEENER, F.C.S.* 



-^11 i" 

> A < 

jo 52-lfS 1 


3-oN 


.- e 
*-* 


If* Illlllll ,~I 




<lil i 


!lli, 


111 


. S s 


Slrt'i 


|2** 


1$, 


10000 


o-oo 


o-oo 


o-oo 


9959 


2-33 


2-93 


513 


9999 
8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 


0-05 
O'll 
0-16 
0-21 
0-26 
0-32 
0-37 
0-42 
0-47 


0-07 
0-13 
0-20 
0-26 
0-33 
0-40 
0-46 
0-53 
0-60 


0-12 
0-23 
0-35 
0-46 
0-58 
0-70 
0-81 
0-93 
1-04 


8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 



2-39 
2-44 
2-50 
2-56 
2-61 
2-67 
272 
278 
2-83 


3-00 
3-07 
3-14 
3-21 
3-28 
3-35 
3-42 
3-49 
3-55 


5-25 
5-37 
5-49 
5-61 
574 
5-86 
5-98 
6-10 
6-22 


o 


0-53 


0-66 


1-16 














9949 


2-89 


3-62 


6'34 


9989 


0-58 


0-73 


1-28 8 


2-94 


3-69 


6-47 


8 


0-63 


0-79 


1-39 7 


3-00 


376 


6-58 


7 


0-68 


0-86 


1-51 


6 


3-06 


3-83 


672 


6 


0-74 


0-93 


1-62 


5 


3-12 


3-90 


6-84 


5 


0-79 


0-99 


1-74 


4 


3-18 


3-98 


6-97 




0-84 


1-06 


1-86 


3 


3-24 


4-05 


7-10 


3 


0-89 


1-13 


1-97 


2 


3-29 


4-12 


7-23 


2 


0-95 


1-19 


2-09 


1 


3-35 


4-20 


7'36 


1 


1-00 


1-26 


2-20 





3-41 


4-27 


7'49 





1-06 


1-34 


2-34 










9979 
8 
7 
6 
5 

3 
2 
1 


1-12 
1-19 
1-25 
1-31 
1-37 
1-44 
1-50 
1-56 
1-62 


1-42 
1-49 
1-57 
1-65 
1-73 
1-81 
1-88 
1-96 
2-04 


2-48 
2-61 
2-75 
2-89 
3-03 
3-16 
3-30 
3-44 
3-58 


9939 
8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 




3-47 
3-53 
3-59 - 
3-65 
371 
376 
3-82 
3-88 
3'94 
4-00 


4-34 
4-42 
4-49 
4-56 
4-63 
471 
478 
4-85 
4-93 
5'00 


7-61 
774 

7-87 
8-00 
8-13 
8-26 
8-38 
8-51 
8-64 
877 





1-69 


2'12 


371 










9969 


1-75 


2-20 


3-85 


9929 


4-06 


5-08 


8-90 


8 


1-81 


2-27 


3-99 


8 


4-12 


5-16 


9-04 


7 


1-87 


2-35 


4-12 


7 


4-19 


5-24 


9-18 


6 


1-94 


2-43 


4-26 


6 


4-25 


5-32 


9-31 


5 


2-00 


2-51 


4-40 


5 


4-31 


5-39 


9-45 




2-06 


2-58 


4-52 


4 


4-37 


5-47 


9-58 


3 


2-11 


2-62 


4-64 


3 


4-44 


5-55 


972 


2 


2-17 


2-72 


476 


2 


4-50 


5-63 


9-86 


1 


2-22 


2-79 


4-89 


1 


4-56 


571 


9'99 





2-28 


2-86 


5-01 





4-62 


578 


10-13 








* Analyst, 1880. 









STUDIES ON WINE-STEKILIZING MACHINES. 

ALCOHOL TABLES continued. 



Is 


lit! 


.2.-J- 


> 


S--I-S 

Hll 




ill! 


if! 


i/2 " in 


<^& 


<j-<5,a A 


A* OT p. OD"CS " 5 




^<,^ p 


f M*a 


9919 


4-69 


6-86 


102(5 -9869 


8-00 


9-95 


17-43 


8 


4-75 


5-94 


10-40 


8 


8-07 


10-03 


17-58 


7 


4-81 


6-02 


10-54 


7 


8-14 


10-12 


17-74 


6 


4-87 


6-10 


10-67 


6 


8-21 


1021 


17-89 


5 


4-94 


6-17 


10-81 


5 


8-29 


10-30 


18-04 


4 


5-00 


6-24 


10-94 4 


8-36 


10-38 


18-20 


3 


5-06 


6-32 


11-08 


3 


8-43 


10-47 


18-35 


2 


5-12 


6-40 


11-21 2 


8-50 


10-56 


18-50 


1 


5-19 


6-48 


11-35 


1 


8-57 


10-65 


18-65 





5-25 


6-55 


11-49 





8-64 


10-73 


18-81 


9909 


5-31 


6-63 


11-62 


9859 


8-71 


10 82 


18-96 


8 


5-37 


6-71 


11-76 


8 


8-79 


10-91 


19-11 


7 


5-44 


6-78 


11-89 


7 


8-86 


11-00 


19-27 


6 


5-50 


6-86 


12-03 


6 


8-93 


11-08 


19-42 


5 


5-56 


6-94 


12-16 


5 


9-00 


11-17 


19-58 


4 


5-62 


7-01 


12-30 




9-07 


11-26 


19-73 


3 


5-69 


7-09 


12-43 


3 


9-14 


11-35 


19-89 


2 


5-75 


7-17 


12-57 


2 


9-21 


11-44 


20-04 


1 


5-81 


7-25 


12-70 


1 


9-29 


11-52 


20-19 





5-87 


7-32 


12-84 





9-36 


11-61 


20-35 


9899 


5-94 


7-40 


12-97 


9849 


9-43 


11-70 


20-50 


8 


6-00 


7-48 


13-11 


8 


9-50 


11-79 


20-65 


7 


6-07 


7-57 


13-27 


7 


9-57 


11-87 


20-81 


6 


6-14 


766 


1342 


6 


9-64 


11-96 


20-96 


5 


6-21 


7-74 


13-57 


5 


9-71 


12-05 


21-11 


4 


6-28 


7-83 


13-73 


4 


9-79 


12-14 


21-27 


3 


6-36 


7-92 


13-88 


3 


9-86 


12-22 


21-42 


2 


6-43 


8-01 


14-04 


2 


9-93 


12-31 


21-57 


1 


6-50 


8-10 


14-19 


1 


10-00 


12-40 


21-73 





6-57 


8-18 


14-35 





10-08 


12-49 


21-89 


9889 


6-64 


8-27 


14-50 


9839 


10-15 


12-58 


22-06 


8 


6-71 


8-36 


14-66 


8 


10-23 


12-68 


22-22 


7 


6-78 


8-45 


14-81 


7 


10-31 


12-77 


22-38 


6 


6-86 


8-54 


14-96 


6 


10-38 


12-87 


22-55 


5 


6-93 


8-63 


15-12 


5 


10-46 


12-96 


22-71 


4 


7-00 


8-72 


15-27 


4 


10-54 


13-05 


22-88 


3 


7-07 


8-80 ' 


15-42 3 


10-62 


13-15 


23-04 


2 


7-13 


8-88 


15-56 2 


10-69 


13-24 


23-21 


1 


7-20 


8-96 


15-70 


1 


10-77 


13-34 


23-37 





7-27 


9-04 


15-85 





10-85 


13-43 


23-54 


9879 


7-33 


9-13 


15-99 


9829 


10-92 


13-52 


23-70 


8 


7'40 


9-21 


16-14 


8 


11-00 


13-62 


23-86 


7 


7-47 


9-29 


16-28 


7 


11-08 


13-71 


24-03 


6 


7-53 


9-37 


16-42 


6 


11-15 


13-81 


24-19 


5 


7-60 


9-45 


16-57 


5 


11-23 


13-90 


24-36 


4 


7-67 


9-54 


16-71 


4 


11-31 


13-99 


24-52 


3 


7-73 


9-62 


16-86 


3 


11-38 


14-09 


24-69 


2 


7-80 


9-70 


17-00 


2 


11-46 


14-18 


24-85 


1 


7-87 


9-78 


17'14 


1 


11-54 


14-27 


25-01 





7-93 


9-86 


17-29 





11-62 


14-37 


25-18 



APPENDIX. 

ALCOHOL TABLES continued. 



95 



-C' 1 1 iT 

> r -? 4-J ^ ^H 5 *^ 

O = o 'o'>i '3''? S 


111 


.t:' !| 


|||p 


S 

ill! 


||| 


ffl*n rH ^" 


Q <r^ & * < 


"\-*f[ J-*- O 1 


C-i C P-* 


02 win 


<5 **3 -Q* i* 


"^ "^ -C U 


t- yi i * 


9819 


11-69 


11-46 


25-34 


9769 


15-75 


19-39 


33-96 


8 


11-77 


14-56 


25-51 


8 


15-83 


19-49 


34-14 


7 


11-85 


14-65 


25-67 


7 


15-92 


19-59 


34-32 


6 


11-92 


14-74 


25-83 


6 


16-00 


19-68 


34-50 


5 


12-00 


14-84 


26-00 5 


16-08 


19-78 


34-66 




12-08 


14-93 


26-17 


4 


16-15 


19-87 


34-82 


3 


12-15 


15 02 


26-33 


3 


16-23 


19-96 


34-98 


2 


12-23 


15-1-2 


26-49 


2 


16-31 


20-06 


35-14 


1 


12-31 


1521 


2666 


1 


16-38 


20-15 


35-31 





12-38 


15-30 


26-82 





16-46 


20-24 


35-47 


9809 


12-46 


15-40 


2699 


9759 


16-54 


20-33 


35-63 


8 


12-54 


15-49 


27-15 


8 


16-62 


20-43 


35-79 


7 


12-62 


15-58 


27-31 


7 


16-69 


20-52 


35-95 


6 


12-69 


15-68 


27-48 


6 


16-77 


20-61 


36-12 


5 


12-77 


15-77 


27-64 


5 


16-85 


20-71 


36-28 


4 


12-85 


15-86 


27-81 


4 


16-92 


20-80 


36-44 


3 


12-92 


15-96- 


27-97 


3 


17-00 


20-89 


36-60 


2 


13-00 


16-05 


28-13 


2 


17-08 


20-99 . 


36-78 


1 


13-08 


16-15 


28-29 


1 


17-17 


21-09 


36-95 





13-15 


1624 


2846 





17-25 


21-19 


37-13 


9799 


13-23 


16-33 


28-62 


9749 


17-33 


21-29 


37-30 


8 


13-31 


16-43 


28-78 


8 


17-42 


21-39 


37-48 


7 


13-38 


16-52 


28-95 


7 


17-50 


21-49 


37-65 


6 


13-46 


16-61 


29-11 


6 


17-58 


21 -59 


37-83 


5 


13-54 


16-70 


29-27 


5 


17-67 


21-69 


38-00 


4 


13-62 


16-80 


29-43 


4 


17-75 


21-79 


38-18 


3 


13-69 


16-89 


29-60 


3 


17-83 


21-89 


38-35 


2 


13-77 


16-98 


29-76 


2 


17-92 


21-99 


38-53 


1 


13-85 


17-08 


29-92 


-| 


18-00 


22-09 


38-71 





13-92 


17-17 


30-09 





18-08 


22-18 


38-87 


9789 


14-00 


17-26 


30-26 


9739 


18-15 


22-27 


39-03 


8 


14-09 


17-37 


30-45 


8 


18-23 


22-36 


39-13 


7 


14-18 


17-48 


30-64 


7 


18-31 


22-46 


39-35 


6 


14-27 


17-59 


30-83 


6 


18-38 


22-55 


39-51 


5 


14-36 


17-70 


31-03 5 


18-46 


22-64 


39-68 


4 


14-45 


17-81 


31-22 4 


18-54 


22-73 


3984 


3 


14-55 


17-92 


31-41 3 


18-62 


22-82 


40-00 


2 


14-64 


18-03 


31-61 2 


18-69 


22-92 


40-16 


1 


14-73 


18-14 


31-80 1 


18-77 


23-01 


40-32 





14-82 


18-25 


31-99 


18-85 


23-10 


40-48 


9779 


14-91 


18-36 


32-19 '9729 


18-92 


23-19 


40-64 


8 


15-00 


18-48 


32-38 8 


19-00 


23-28 


40-80 


7 


15-08 


18-58 


32-56 7 


19-08 


23-38 


4098 


6 


15-17 


18-68 


32-73 6 


19-17 


23-48 


41-15 


5 


15-25 


18-78 


32-91 


5 


19-25 


23-58 


41 -33 


4 


15-33 


18-88 


33-08 


4 


19-33 


23-68 


41 -50 


3 


15-42 


18-98 


33-26 


3 


19-42 


23-78 


41-68 


2 


15-50 


19-08 


33-44 


2 


19-50 


23-88 


41 -85 


1 


15-58 


19-18 


33-61 


1 


19-58 


23-98 


42-03 





15-67 


19-28 


33-79 





19-67 


24-08 


42-20 



96 STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 

ALCOHOL TABLES continued. 



-II 


... 







&il 


.LT 







'i^'d 


folk 


V g 

"5 "o 5 c 


ug 


?^"d 


.S^-?* 5 
"S "3 .~P c 


o) ^ 4^ 
5 2 g 


.,-' 


Ooo^ 


I'D | ^ 


"p-of 


"o-'c * 


60^ 


Ills 


HI* 


"oT " 


w S 


<gL 


5^s, 


Pirc- 


1-1 s 






2-g. 


9719 


19-75 


24-18 


42-38 


9669 


23-69 


28-86 


50-57 


8 


19-83 


24-28 


42-55 


8 


23-77 


28-95 


50-73 


7 


19-92 


24-38 


42-73 


7 


23-85 


29-04 


50-89 


6 


20-00 


24-48 


42-90 


6 


23-92 


29-13 


51-05 


5 


20-08 


24-58 


43-07 


5 


24-00 


29-22 


51-21 


4 


20-17 


24-68 


43-25 


4 


24-08 


29-31 


51-37 


3 


2025 


24-78 


43-42 


3 


24-15 


29-40 


51 -53 


2 


20-33 


24-88 


43-60 


2 


24-23 


29-49 


01-69 


1 


20-42 


24-98 


43-77 


1 


24-31 


29-58 


51-8 4 





20-50 


25-07 


43-94 





24-38 


29-67 


52% 


9709 


20-58 


2517 


44-12 


9659 


24-46 


29-76 


52-16 


8 


20-67 


25-27 


44-29 


8 


24-54 


29-86 


52-32 


7 


20-75 


25-37 


44-47 


7 


24-62 


29-95 


52-48 


6 


20-83 


25-47 


44-64 


6 


24-69 


30-04 


52-64 


5 


20-92 


25-57 


44-81 


5 


24-77 


30-13 


52-80 


4 


21-00 


25-67 


44-99 


4 


24-85 


30-22 


52-95 


3 


21-08 


2576 


45-15 


3 


24-92 


30-31 


53-11 


2 


2115 


25-86 


45-31 


2 


25-00 


30-40 


53-27 


1 


21-23 


25-95 


45-47 


1 


25-07 


.'$0-48 


53-42 





21-31 


26-04 


45-63 





25-14 


30-57 


53-56 


9699 


21-38 


26-13 


45-79 


9649 


25-21 


30-65 


53-71 


8 


21-46 


26-22 


45-95 


8 


25-29 


30-73 


53-86 


7 


21-54 


26-31 


46-11 


7 


25-36 


30-82 


54-00 


6 


21-62 


26-40 


46-27 


6 


25-43 


30-90 


54-15 


5 


21-69 


26-49 


4643 


5 


23-50 


30-98 


54-30 


-j. 


21-77 


26-58 


46-59 


4 


2557 


31-07 


54-44 


3 


21-85 


26-67 


46-75 


3 


25-64 


31-15 


54-59 


2 


21-92 


26-77 


46-91 


2 


25-71 


31-23 


54-74 


1 


22-00 


26-86 


47-07 


1 


25-79 


31-32 


54-88 





22-08 


2695 


47-23 





25-86 


31-40 


55-03 


9689 


22-15 


27-04 


47-39 


9639 


25-93 


31 -48 


55-18 


8 


22-23 


27-13 


47-55 


8 


26-00 


31-57 


55-32 


7 


22-31 


27-22 


4770 


7 


26-07 


31 -65 


55-46 


6 


22-38 


27-31 


47-86 


6 


26-13 


31-72 


55-59 


5 


22-46 


27-40 


48-02 


5 


26-20 


31-80 


55-73 




22-54 


27-49 


48-18 


4 


26-27 


31-88 


55-87 


3 


22-62 


27-59 


48-34 


3 


26-33 


31-96 


56-00 


2 


22-69 


27-68 


48-50 


2 


26-40 


32-03 


56-14 


1 


22-77 


27-77 


48-66 


1 


26-47 


32-11 


56-27 





22-85 


27-86 


48-82 





26-53 


32-19 


56-41 


9679 


22-92 


27-95 


48-98 


9629 


26-60 


32-27 


56-55 


8 


23-00 


28-04 


49-14 


8 


26-67 


32-34 


56-68 


7 


23-08 


28-13 


49-30 


7 


26-73 


32-42 


56-82 


6 


23-15 


28-22 


49-46 


6 


26-80 


32-50 


56-95 


5 


23-23 


28-31 


49-62 


5 


26-87 


32-58 


57-09 





23-31 


28-41 


49-78 


4 


26-93 


32-65 


57-23 


3 


23-38 


28-50 


49-94 


3 


27-00 


32-73 


57-36 


2 


23-46 


28-59 


50-10 


2 


27-07 


32-81 


57-51 


1 


23-54 


28-68 


50-25 


1 


27-14 


32-90 


57-65 





23-62 


28-77 


50-41 





27-21 


32-98 


57-80 



APPENDIX. 

ALCOHOL TABLES continued,. 



97 



f ii 


-S-Hj-g 


gafd 


_ 1J - 


""> 


'^5 


3- l-e 


. 


s* *"* O 




2. 2 


-.' 9 


*H O 


rfl 


1^11 


* fl 

, M ^ (U 


85 


if*!! 


1"? > ^ 




^SSi 


5 






ohsis 


rO ^ *. fl) 


*4<K 


Ht! 


dha 


^^^! 


wj&S. 


fijI'lL 


9619 


27-29 


33-06 


57-94 


9569 


30-50 


36-76 


64-43 


8 


27-36 


33-15 


58-09 


8 


30-56 


36-83 


64-54 


7 


27-43 


33-23 


58-24 


7 


30-61 


36-89 


64-65 


6 


27-50 


33-31 


58-38 


11 


30-67 


36-95 


64-76 


5 


27-57 


33-39 


58-53 


5 


30-72 


37-02 


64-87 


< 


27-64 


33-48 


58-67 


g 


30-78 


37-08 


64-98 


3 


27-71 


3:? -56 


58*82 


3 


30-83 


37-14 


65-10 


2 


27-79 


33-64 


58 -97 


2 


30-89 


37-20 


65-21 


1 


27-86 


33-73 


59-11 


1 


30-94 


37-27 


65-32 





27-93 


33-81 


59-26 





31-00 


37-34 


65-43 


9609 


28-00 


33-89 


59-40 


9559 


31 -06 


37-41 


65-55 


8 


28-06 


33-97 


59-53 


8 


31-12 


37-48 


65-68 


7 


28-12 


34-04 


59-65 


7 


31-19 


37*55 


65-80 


6 


28-19 


34-1 1 


59-78 


6 


31 -25 


37-62 


65-93 


5 


28-25 


34-18 


59-90 


5 


31-31 


37 -69 


66-05 


\ 


28-31 


34-25 


60-03 


4 


31 -37 


37-76 


66-18 


3 


28-37 


34-33 


60-16 


3 


31-44 


37-83 


66-30 


2 


28-44 


34-40 


60-28 


2 


31 -50 


37-90 


66-43 


1 


28-50 


34-47 


60-41 


1 


31-56 


37-97 


66-55 





28-56 


34-54 


60-53 





31 -62 


38-04 


66-68 


9599 


28-62 


34-61 


60-66 


9549 


31-69 


38-11 


66-80 


8 


28-69 


34-69 


60-79 


8 


31-75 


38-18 


66-93 


7 


28-75 


34-76 


60-91 


7 


31-81 


38-25 


67-05 


6 


28-81 


34-83 


61-04 


6 


31-87 


38 33 


67-17 


5 


28-87 


34-90 


61-16 


5 


31-94 


38-40 


67-30 


4 


28-94 


34-97 


61-29 


4 


32-00 


38-47 


67-42 


3 


29-00 


35-05 


61-42 


3 


32-06 


38-53 


67-55 


2 


29-07 


35-12 


61-55 


2 


32-12 


38-60 


67-67 


1 


29-13 


35-20 


61 -69 


1 


32-19 


38-68 


67-80 





29-20 


35-28 


61-82 





32-25 


38-75 


67-92 


9589 


29-27 


35-3-) 


61-95 


9539 


32-31 


38-82 


68-04 


8 


29-33 


35-43 


62-09 


8 


32-37 


38-89 


68-17 


7 


29-40 


3551 


62-22 


7 


32-44 


38-96 


68-29 


6 


29-47 


35-58 


62-36 


6 


32-50 


39-04 


68-42 


5 


29-53 


35-66 


62-49 


5 


32-56 


39-11 


68-54 


i 


29-60 


35-74 


62-63 


4 


32-62 


39-18 


68-67 


3 


29-67 


35-81 


6276 


3 


32-69 


39-25 


68-79 


2 


29-73 


35-89 


62-90 


2 


32-75 


39-32 


68-92 


1 


29-80 


35-97 


63-03 


1 


32-81 


39-40 


69-04 





29-87 


36-04 


63-17 





32-87 


39-47 


69-16 


9579 


29-93 


36-12 


63-30 


9529 


32-94 


39-54 


69-29 


8 


30-00 


36-20 


63-43 


8 


33-00 


39-61 


69-41 


7 


30-06 


36-26 


6355 


7 


33-06 


39 68 


69-53 


6 


30-11 


36-32 


63-66 


6 


33-12 


39-74 


69-65 


5 


30-17 


36-39 


63-77 


5 


33-18 


39-81 


69-76 


4 


30-22 


36-45 


63-88 


4 


3324 


3987 


69-88 


3 


30-28 


36-51 


63-99 


3 


33-29 


39-94 


69-99 


2 


30-33 


36-57 


64-10 


2 


33-35 


40-01 


70-11 


1 


30-39 


36-64 


64-21 


1 


33-41 


40-07 


70-23 





30-44 


36-70 


64-32 





33-47 


40-14 


70-34 



10050. 



98 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING: MACHINES. 



ALCOHOL TABLES continued. 



t. 


*s 


* 

8-l-g 


. 


|ii 


s-iu- 




.g^S-g 


4! 






3 O P g 






3 o.fc 


3 3 C 








3.C"3 o 


'S.'S 8 




JJA 9> 


'3' c 'o o 




iQ 


03 ^ ^ 


gg" 


s:s 


Ss 


8* " 






M SIS 


S^^B. 


$3 


, t3!5 


S >> S 

%%. 


3ffc 




9519 


33-53 


40-20 


70-46 -9469 


36-06 


43-01 


75-37 


8 


33-59 


40-27 


7057 8 


36-11 


43-07 


75-48 


7 


33-65 


40-34 


70-69 


7 


36-17 


43 13 


75-59 


6 


33-71 


40-40 


70-81 


6 


36-22 


43-19 


75-70 


5 


33-76 


40-47 


70-92 


5 


36-28 


43-26 


75-80 


4 


33-82 


40-53 


71-04 


4 


36-33 


43-32 


75-91 


3 


33-88 


40-60 


71-15 


3 


36-39 


43-38 


76-02 


2 


33-94 


40-67 


71-27 


2 


36-44 


43-44 


76-13 


1 


34-00 


40-74 


71-39 


1 


36-50 


43-50 


76-24 





34-05 


40-79 


71-48 





36-56 


43-56 


76-34 


9509 


34-10 


40-84 


71-58 


9459 


36-61 


43-63 


76-45 


8 


34-14 


40-90 


71-67 8 


36-67 


43-69 


76-56 


7 


34-19 


40-95 


71-76 


7 


36-72 


43-75 


76-67 


6 


34-24 


41-00 


71-85 


6 


36-78 


43-81 


76-78 


5 


34-29 


41-05 


71-94 


5 


36-83 


43-87 


76-88 


4 


34-33 


41-11 


72-04 


4 


36-89 


43-93 


76-99 


3 


34-38 


41-16 


72-13 


3 


36-94 


44-00 


77-K) 


2 


34-43 


41-21 


72-22 


2 


37-00 


44-06 


77-21 


1 


34-48 


41-26 


72-31 


1 


37-06 


44-12 


77-32 





34-52 


41-32 


72-41 





37-11 


44-18 


77-42 


9499 


34-57 


41-37 


72-50 


9449 


37*17 


44-24 


77-53 


8 


34-62 


41-42 


72-59 


8 


37-22 


44-30 


77-64 


7 


34-67 


41-48 


7268 


7 


37-28 


44-36 


77-75 


6 


34-71 


41 53 


72-78 


6 


37-33 


44-43 


77-85 


5 


34-76 


41 -58 


72-87 


5 


37-39 


44-49 


77-96 




34-81 


41-63 


72-96 


4 


37-44 


44-55 


7807 


3 


34-86 


41-69 


73-05 


3 


37-50 


44-61 


78-18 


2 


35-90 


41-74 


73-14 


2 


37-56 


44-67 


78-28 


1 


34-95 


41-79 


73-24 


1 


37-61 


44-73 


78-39 





35-00 


41-84 


73-33 





37-67 


44-79 


78-50 


9489 


35-05 


41-90 


73-43 


9439 


37-72 


44-86 


78-61 


8 


35-10 


41-95 


73-52 


8 


37 -78 


44-92 


78-71 


7 


35 15 


42-01 


73-62 


7 


37-83 


44-98 


78-82 


6 


35-20 


42-06 


73-72 


6 


37 -89 


45-04 


78-93 


5 


35-25 


42-12 


73-81 


5 


37 -94 


45-10 


79-04 




35-30 


42-17 


73-91 


4 


38-00 


45-16 


79-14 


3 


3535 


42-23 


74-01 


3 


38-06 


45-22 


79 -25 


2 


35-40 


42-29 


74-10 


2 


38-11 


45-28 


79-36 


1 


35-45 


42-34 


74-20 


1 


38-17 


45-34 


79-46 





35-50 


42-40 


74-30 





38-22 


45-41 


79-57 


9479 


35-55 


42-45 


74-39 


-9429 


38-28 


45-47 


79-86 


8 


35-60 


42-51 


74-49 


8 


38-33 


45-53 


79-79 


7 


35-65 


42-56 


74-59 


7 


38-39 


45-59 


79-89 


6 


35-70 


42-62 


74-68 


6 


38-44 


45-65 


80-00 


5 


35-75 


42-67 


74-78 


5 


38-50 


45-71 


80-11 




35-80 


42-73 


74-88 


4 


38-56 


45-77 


8021 


3 


35-85 


42-78 


7497 


3 


38-61 


45-83 


80-32 


2 


35-90 


42-84 


75-07 


2 


38-67 


45-89 


80-43 


1 


35-95 


42-89 


75-17 


1 


38-72 


45-95 


80-53 





36-00 


42-95 


75-26 


38-78 


46-02 


80-64 



APPENDIX. 



99 



ALCOHOL TABLES continued. 



f". 


||fl 


Absolute 
Alcohol 
by volume ; 
per cent. 


l 


| 

co "8 J3 


ill 


loll 

Illl 


ffl 

S'B, 

P*0fi fc 


9419 


38-83 


46-08 


80-75 


9369 


41-35 


48-80 


85-53 


8 


38-89 


46-14 


80-86 


8 


41-40 


48-86 


85-62 


7 


38-94 


46-20 


80-96 


7 


41-45 


4891 


85-71 


6 


39-00 


46-26 


81-07 


6 


41-50 


48-97 


85-81 


5 


39-05 


46-32 


81-17 


5 


41-55 


49-02 


85-90 


4 


39-10 


46-37 


81-26 


4 


41 60 


49-07 


86-00 


3 


39-15 


46-42 


81-36 


3 


41-65 


49-13 


86-09 


2 


39-20 


46-48 


81-45 


2 


41-70 


49-18 


86-18 


1 


39-25 


46-53 


81-55 


1 


41-75 


49-23 


86-28 





39-30 


46-59 


81-64 





41-80 


49-29 


86-37 


9409 


39-35 


46-64 


81-74 


9359 


41-85 


49-34 


86-47 


8 


39-40 


46-70 


81-83 


8 


41-90 


49-40 


86-56 


7 


39-45 


46-75 


81-93 


7 


41-95 


49-45 


86-65 


6 


39-50 


46-80 


82-02 


6 


42-00 


4950 


86-75 


5 


39-55 


46-86 


82-12 


5 


42-05 


4955 


86-84 




39-60 


46-91 


82-21 


4 


42-10 


49-61 


86-93 


3 


39-65 


46-97 


82-31 


3 


42-14 


49-66 


87-02 


2 


39-70 


47-02 


82-40 


2 


42-19 


49-71 


87-11 


1 


39-75 


47-08 


82-50 


1 


42-24 


49-76 


87-20 





39-80 


47-13 


82-59 





42-29 


49-81 


87-29 


9399 


39-85 


47-18 


82-69 


9349 


42-33 


49-86 


87-37 


8 


39-90 


47-24 


82-78 


8 


42-38 


49-91 


87-46 


7 


39-95 


47-29 


82-88 


7 


42-43 


49-96 


87-55 


6 


40-00 


47-35 


82-97 


6 


42-48 


50-01 


87-64 


5 


40-05 


47-40 


83-07 


5 


42-52 


50-06 


87-73 


4 


40-10 


47-45 


83-16 


4 


42-57 


50-11 


87-82 


3 


40-15 


47-51 


83-26 


3 


42-62 


50-16 


87-91 


2 


40-20 


47-56 


83-35 


2 


42-67 


50-21 


88-00 


1 


40-25 


47-62 


83-45 


1 


42-71 


50-26 


88-09 





40-30 


47-67 


83-54 





4276 


50-31 


88-18 


9389 


40-35 


47-72 


83-64 


9339 


42-81 


50-37 


88-26 


8 


40-40 


47-78 


83-73 


8 


42-86 


50-42 


88-35 


7 


40-45 


47-83 


83-83 


7 


42-90 


50-47 


88-44 


6 


40-50 


47-89 


83-92 


6 


42-95 


50-52 


88-53 


5 


40-55 


47-94 


84-02 


5 


43-00 


50-57 


88-62 


4 


40-60 


47-99 


84-11 


4 


43-05 


50-62 


88-71 


3 


40-65 


48-05 


84-21 


3 


43-10 


50-67 


88-79 


2 


40-70 


48-10 


84-30 


2 


43-14 


50-72 


88-88 


1 


40-75 


48-16 


84-39 


1 


43-19 


50-77 


88-97 





40-80 


48-21 


84-49 


43-24 


50-82 


89-06 


9379 


40-85 


48-26 


84-58 -9329 


43-29 


50-87 


89-15 


8 


40 -90 


48-32 


84-68 8 


43-33 


50-92 


89-24 


7 


40-95 


48-37 


84-77 7 


43-39 


50-97 


89-33 


6 


41-00 


48-43 


84-87 6 


43-43 


51-02 


89-41 


5 


41-05 


48-48 


84-96 5 


43-48 


51-07 


89-50 


4 


41-10 


48-54 


85-06 4 


43-52 


51-12 


89-59 


3 


41-15 


4859 


85-15 


3 


43-57 


51-17 


89-68 


2 


41-20 


48-64 


85-24 


2 


43-62 


51-22 


89-77 


1 


41-25 


48-70 


85-34 1 


43-67 


51-27 


89-86 





41-30 


48-75 


85-43 





43-71 


51-32 


89-95 



100 



STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 

ALCOHOL TABLES mntin 



!i ! . 


3 ?* 


o> 


^ 


'>-,- 


g ^ 


X 




fii 


lit! 


Hfl 


** H. 3> 


I2o 


"S "o .:f = 

"^"o 


Iff! 


11- 


02 JH 


<5<J-3 . 


> O, 


ewaTp. 


X B <-t 


<<SjX! p. 


<J<3.o'a, 


A"* 


9319 


43-76 


51-38 


90-03 


9269 


46-05 


53-77 


94 -22 


8 


4381 


51-43 


90-12 


8 


46-09 


53-81 


94-31 


7 


43-86 


51-48 


90-21 


7 


46-14 


53-86 


94-39 


6 


43 90 


51-53 


90-30 


6 


46-18 


53-91 


94-47 


5 


43-95 


51-58 


90-39 


5 


46-23 


53-95 


94-55 


4 


44-00 


51-63 


90-48 


4 


46-27 


54-00 


94-64 


3 


44-05 


51-68 


90-56 


3 


46-32 


54-05 


94-72 


2 


44-09 


51-72 


90-64 


2 


46 -36 


54-10 


94 -SO 


1 


44-14 


51 "77 


90-73 


1 


46-41 


54-14 


94-89 





44-18 


51 -82 


90-81 





46-46 


54-19 


94-97 


9309 


44-23 


51-87 


90:89 


9259 


46-50 


5424 


95-05 


8 


44-27 


51-91 


90-98 


8 


41) -55 


54 "29 


95-13 


7 


44-32 


51-96 


91-06 


7 


46-59 


54-33 


95-22 


6 


44-36 


52 01 


91-14 


6 


4()-(i4 


54-38 


95-30 


5 


44-41 


5206 


91-23 


5 


46-68 


54-43 


95-38 


-j. 


44-46 


52-10 


91-31 


4 


46-73 


54-47 


95-46 


3 


44-50 


52-15 


91 -39 


3 


46-77 


54-52 


95-55 


2 


44-45 


52-20 


91 48 


2 


46-82 


54-57 


95-63 


1 


44-59 


52-25 


91-56 


1 


46-86 


54-62 


95-71 





44-64 


52-29 


91-64 





46-91 


54-66 


95-79 


9299 


44-68 


52-34 


91 -73 


9249 


46-96 


54-71 


95-88 


8 


44-73 


52-39 


91-81 


8 


47 -00 


54-76 


95-96 


7 


44-77 


52-44 


91-90 


7 


47-05 


54-80 


IM'ri M 


6 


44-82 


52-48 


91-98 


6 


47-09 


54-85 


iw-12 


5 


44 86 


52-53 


92-06 


5 


47-14 


54-90 


96-21 


4 


44-91 


52-58 


92-15 


4 


47-18 


5495 


96-29 


3 


44-96 


52-63 


92-23 


3 


47 -23 


54-99 


96-37 


2 


45 00 


5268 


92-31 


2 


47-27 


5504 


96-45 


1 


45-05 


52-72 


92-40 


1 


47-32 


55-09 


96-53 





45-09 


52-77 


92-48 





47-36 


55-13 


96-62 


9289 


45-14 


52-82 


92-56 


9239 


47-41 


55-18 


96-70 


8 


45-18 


52-87 


92-64 


8 


47-46 


55-23 


96-78 


7 


45-23 


52-91 


92-73 


7 


47-50 


5527 


96-86 


6 


45 27 


52-96 


92-81 


6 


47-55 


55-32 


96-95 


5 


45-32 


53-01 


92-89 


5 


47-59 


55-37 


97-03 


4. 


45-36 


53-06 


92-98 


4 


47 64 


55-41 


97-11 


3 


45-41 


53-10 


93-06 


3 


47-68 


55-64 


97-19 


2 


45-46 


53-15 


93-14 


2 


47-73 


55-51 * 


97-27 


1 


4550 


5320 


93-23 


1 


47-77 


55-55 


97-36 





45-55 


53-24 


93-31 





47-82 


55-60 


97-44 


9279 


4559 


53-39 


93-39 


9229 


47-86 


55-65 


97-52 


8 


45-64 


53-34 


93-48 


8 


47-91 


55-69 


97 60 


7 


45-68 


53-39 


93-56 


7 


4796 


55-74 


97-68 


6 


45-73 


53-43 


93-64 


6 


48-00 


55-79 


97-77 


5 


45-77 


53-48 


93-73 


5 


48-05 


55-83 


97'85 




45-82 


53-53 


93-81 


4 


48-09 


55-88 


97-93 


3 


45-86 


53-58 


93-89 


3 


48-14 


55-93 


98-01 


2 


45-91 


5362 


93-93 


2 


48-18 


55-97 


98 -09 


1 


45-96 


53-67 


94-06 


1 


48-23 


56-02 


98-18 





46-00 


53-72 


94-14 





48-27 


56-07 


98-26 



APPENDIX. 

A LCOHOL TABLES continued. 



101 



>. 


.. 







j| 


- 


OJ 




r " 
2?o 

H 


fit! 


fill 

J|f| 


-w 

... c 

*!_. -k^ 0> 

Its 


i& 

. CO >P 


III! 


|||! 


.. c 


cc 313 


<!<t!,o o. 




fMO} U 


CC "Sin 


<!-<X5 & 


<!<3.a'ft, 


A^cc A 


9219 


48-32 


56-11 


98-34 


9209 


48-77 


56-58 


99-16 


8 


48-36 


56-16 


98-42 


8 


48-82 


56-63 


99-24 


7 


48 41 


56-21 


98-50 


7 


48-86 


56-68 


99-32 


6 


48-64 


56 '25 


98 '59 


6 


48-91 


56-72 


99-41 


5 


48 50 


56-30 


98-67 


5 


48-96 


56-77 


99-49 


4 


48-55 


56-35 


98-75 


4 


4900 


56-82 


99-57 


3 


48-59 


56 -40 


98-83 


3 


49-04 


56-86 


99-64 


2 


48-64 


56-44 


98-91 


2 


49-08 


56-90 


99-71 


1 


48-68 


56-49 


99-00 


1 


49-12 


56-94 


99-78 





48-73 


56 54 


99 08 





49-16 


56-9*8 


99-86 










9199 


49-20 


57-02 


99-93 










Proof 8 


49*24 


57-06 


100-00 




STUDIES ON WINE-STERILIZING MACHINES. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Pag-e 

TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE .. ... ... ... ... 3 

I. GENERALITIES ... ... ... ... ... .. 5 

1. Effects of Heating ... ... ... ... ... 5 

2. Conditions for Effective Pasteurization ... ... ... 6 

3 Degree of Temperature ... ... .. ... ... 7 

4. Action of Heat on the Tourne Ferment ... ... ... 8 

5. Action of Heat on Mycoderma, acefi and Mycoderma riiri ... 9 

6. Action of Heat on Alcoholic Yeast ... ... ... 9 

7. Characters of Pasteurized Wine ... ... ... ... 11 

II. HEATING WIN T E IN BOTTLES ... ... ... ... 13 

1. Preparation of the Bottles ... ... ... ... 13 

2. Boldt and Vogel's Cork Fastener ... ... ... ... 13 

3. Gasquet's Cork Fastener... ... ... ... ... 14 

4. Portable Heater ... ... ... ... ... 15 

5. Fixed Heaters working on a large scale ... ... ... 15 

6. Boldt and VogeFs Arrangement ... ... ... ... 16 

7. Gasquet's Arrangement ... ... ... ... ... '21 

8. Filling up of Pasteurized Bottles ... ... ... ... 22 

III. HEATING WINE IN BULK ... ... ... ... ... 24 

1. Arrangements without Refrigerators ... ... ... 24 

2. Intermittent Arrangement with Refrigerators ... ... 24 

3. W. Kuhn's Sterilizer ... ... ... ... ... 24 

4. Arrangement with Refrigerators and Continuous Circulation 26 

5. Economic Yield... ... ... ... ... ... 27 

6. Principal Types of Machines ... ,.. ... ... 27 

A. MACHINES WITH COILED TUBES ( WORMS) ... ... ... 32 

1. Perrier Deroy's Sterilizer ... ... ... ... 32 

2. Bourdil's Sterilizer ... ... ... ... ... 34 

3. Velten's Sterilizer ... ... ... ... ... 37 

4. Brehier's Sterilizer ... ... ... ... 38 

5. Grenet and Baurens' Sterilizer ... ... . . 39 

6. Gasquet's Sterilizer ... ... ... ... ... 42 

7. Perillot's Sterilizer ... ... ... ... 47 

B. MACHINES WITH TUBULAR BUNDLES ... ... ... 48 

1. Terrel des Chene's and Victor Febvre's Sterilizer ... ... 48 

2. Ricaumont's Sterilizer ... ... ... ... ... 50 

3. Lande's Sterilizer ... ... ... ... ... 52 

4. Pommier de Saint-Joannis' Sterilizer ... ... ... 56 

5. Houdart's Sterilizer ... ... ... ... ... 57 

6. Besnard's Sterilizer ... ... 64 

C. MACHINES WITH CYLINDRICAL OR HELICOIDAL COMPARTMENTS 67 

1. Raulin's Sterilizer ... ... ... ... ... 67 

2. Naboiileix's Sterilizer ... 68 

3. Laurent's Sterilizer ... ... ... ... ... 70 

IV. STERILIZATION OF CASKS . ... . 74 



GENERAL INDEX. 

APPENDIX, 

Page 

reservation of unfermented grape-must. By F. T. Bioletti and 

A. M. dal Piaz. Bulletin No. 130, University of California, 1900 77 

Composition of grape-must ... ... ... ... 78 

Causes of spoiling ... ... ... ... ... 80 

Apparatus required ... ... ... ... ... 83 

The manner of operating ... ... ... ... ... 84 

Filtration ... ... ... ... ... ... 85 

Final sterilization ... ... ... ... ... 86 

Conversion of Thermometer Scales ... ... ... ... 90 

Alcohol Tables. By Otto Hehner 93 



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