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44 Leicester Sqqsre, 






It is not difficult, even after the lapse of 
twenty years, to recall the thrill of pleasure I felt 
when first I came to know something of the work of 
Frederick Sandys. It was the late J. M. Gray, a 
critic of true insight, and no mean judge of a 
beautiful and artistic creation, who wrote the article 
which first showed me something of the strength, 
and something of the tragic glamour pervading the 
drawings and the pictures of this artist ; and though 
since then thousands of 
pictures and drawings have 
passed before me, the plea- 
sure that I derive to-day 
from the works of Sandys, 
and the emotion with which 
they thrill me now, are as 
fresh and as true as in 
the days when critical facul- 
ties were less keen and 
enthusiasms more readily 

The lovely study of Tears 
and the stately woodcuts Jf 
and The Death of King 
Warwulf led me to seek 
for other reproductions of 
the same man's work, and 
fortunately the library to 
which I then had access 
contained the volumes of 
" Once a Week," in the 
pages of which shine such 
further masterpieces as The 
Old Chartist and Rosa- 
mund. To see these was to 
wish to possess, and so 
began the collection of re- 
productions of Sandys' work 
in all genres which is now 
one of my treasures, com- 
plete as it is in every respect 
save that the beautiful wood- 
cut of Amor Mundi still 
eludes my search. 

And then came the red- ..matkr dolorosa' 

XXXIII. No. 139.— OCTOUER, 1904. 

letter days when in some exhibition there was 
to be seen one of his pictures or some examples 
of his superb draughtmanship, and the fatigue 
and discomfort of the consequent pilgrimage 
from the provinces to London were amply 
repaid by the delight to be obtained from seeing 
the handiwork of the master. Since those youth- 
ful days, as may be imagined, one's outlook 
has broadened and one's taste has become more 
fastidious ; but so far as the work of Frederick 
Sandys is concerned, disillusion has not yet come. 
When the opportunity came to me to write some- 
thing about the Preraphaelites, I was brought into 



Frederick Sandys 

touch with the painter by correspondence, and later 
into personal relationship with him; and some of my 
pleasantest recollections are of hours spent in his 
company, listening to his keen comments on men 
and matters, enjoying his fund of good stories of 
the great men of his day (Rossetti and Tennyson, 
Meredith and Swinburne, Millais and Whistler, he 
knew them all), and tempting him to dream aloud 
of the pictures he meant to paint — pictures now, 
alas ! never to be seen of any man. There is in 
the members' book of a certain unique little artistic 
club a slight and rapid sketch by Raven Hill which 
gives an excellent idea of his features, but I know 
of no portrait which conveys to the spectator the 
dignity which belonged to his tall figure, or the 
aspect of strength and distinction which seemed to 
me to be so emphatically characteristic of the man. 
And of his grim and delightful humour, of the 
quiet, level voice in which he related reminiscences 
grave and gay, of the queer admixture of cynicism 
and poetry that character- 
ised his more intimate 
conversation, and of the 
fascination of his scholarly 
mind and magnetic per- 
sonality, there can be no 
record but that which re- 
mains in the memory of 
the few who were privi- 
leged to know him. A 
man of retiring disposi- 
tion, he would never be 
lionised ; he hated to find 
his good stories in print, 
and he was apt to feel that 
with his life, apart from his 
art, the public had no con- 

To turn over the port- 
folio in which are stored 
the photographs of his 
pictures and drawings, and 
the signed proof of his 
woodcuts, is a perennial 
pleasure, so strong, so 
varied, and so accompli- 
shed are even the least 
complete of them. In the 
ideal subjects, the artist's 
dreams, what beauty lies; 
what emoiion in the splen- 
did woodcuts and pictures ; 
what truth and mastery in 
the portraits ! Another 

great painter who survived him but a few days, 
George Frederick Watts, once said, " Some artists 
see, some feel, some imagine — the greatest do all," 
and Sandys not only saw and imagined, he felt as 
well. He was able, too, to visualise his ideals, to 
realise his dreams, and to render them with that un- 
erring touch, that resolute draughtsmanship, which 
is so notable a feature of his work ; that masterly 
handling to equal which we must go back to the 
drawings of Diirer and the panels of the Van Eyck. 
The earliest of the three groups into which his 
work naturally falls comprises the woodcuts and the 
drawings made for them, and it is very interesting 
to see that even in the earliest of these — the 
illustration to George Macdonald's story of The 
Portent — the artist's powers seem mature ; his 
touch is unfaltering, his long, sweeping lines are full 
of strength, and the figure is rendered with a fine 
feeling for form and contour — is instinct with a 
dignity almost sculptural. 



Frederick Sandys 

Sandys himself said 

Fortunately for us a large number of the pen- 
drawings, of which these woodcuts are facsimiles, 
still exist, and many are in the possession of a 
friend of mine, so that I have been able to compare 
the drawing with the engraving, and to realise how 
beautifully these blocks were cut in Swain's work- 
shop. It is customary to-day to say that any 
adequate reproduction of a pen-drawing must be 
made by a photographic process, and to lament 
the fact that the original drawings by the artists of 
" the sixties " perished in the cutting of the blocks, 
while their beauties and their character suffered 
irreparably at the hands of the engravers, and 
Rossetti, for one, made lamentation loud and deep 
about this mutilation ; but my study of these engrav- 
ings and of many of the originals has only resulted 
in a deep respect for the skill the cutters displayed, 
and a sincere admiration of the way in which 
they preserved the style and the characteristics 
of each artist, so that at a glance we can 
tell Walker's work from Keene's, Millais' from 

But this is by the way. 
that Swain's rendering of 
his drawing of Danae was 
perfect, and he was not un- 
critical ; and others, such 

as The Old Chartist (his 

own favourite), seem to 
me to be equally satisfac- 
tory. This fact is possibly 

due to the artist's method 

of working on the block 

after he had made the 

pen -drawing on millboard. 

He told me that his 

first box- wood block was a 

puzzle to him when he 

received it, with a request 

from Thackeray that he 

would supply an illustra- 
tion to a story of George 

Macdonald's for the 

"Cornhill." He knew 

nothing of the correct 

method of preparing it ; 

it was impossible to work 

on its smooth surface with 

either pencil or pen, and 

he finally drew The Por- 

t<nt line by line with a 

brush and Indian ink, 

and found the process 

so simple and the result 

so satisfactory that he always thereafter employed 
the same method. 

Besides these small drawings, a few inches 
square, there exist several on a much larger scale 
lyjudith and Morgan-le-Fay are examples) in which 
Sandys used a pen, as he afterwards used chalk, 
to produce a finished and elaborate study for a 
picture ; but it is in the woodcuts in question that 
we find him at his very best. Indeed, there is 
nothing like them in British art. Each is as much 
a masterpiece as an etching by Rembrandt ; in 
almost everyone we find deep poetic feeling and 
lofty emotion allied to a wonderful decorative 
charm and an unexcelled mastery of the method. 
Turn the portfolio, and we pass from gem to gem. 
How unaffected they are, and yet how individual ! 
What style is there, what serene vigour ! Here is 
the grim tragedy of Manoli, here the opulent 
" body's beauty " of Danae, here the emotion of 
If, here the statuesque grace oi Amor Mundi ; and 
surpassing all these in poignant intensity of tragic 
emotion is the superb Rosamund, than which 
scarcely a finer black-and-white exists in the art of 

sorrow" ( Bv permission of Herbert Treiuh, Esq.) 




(By perviission of Murray Marks, Esq.) 

Frederick Sandys 

England — masterly in the beauty of its design, 
unexcelled in the strength and suavity of its line. 

The last fifty years are notable in British art for 
one thing — they are years that have been fruitful, 
and over-fruitful, in the production of pen-drawings. 
From 1850 to 1900 extends the epoch 'A the rise 
and culmination of the art of pen-drawing among 
us, and from amid all the practitioners of the 
method there stand out four unequalled men of 
genius — Phil May, Charles Keene, George Reid, 
and Frederick Sandys. The achievement of each 
is in its way unique, and Sandys is not the least 
notable of the four. Had we no other work by 
which to judge him but these marvellous woodcuts 
— as virile, as accomplished, and as charged with 
emotion as Diirer's own — we must have hailed him 
great ; and his other work, his paintings and his 
chalk drawings, are far from justifying any weaken- 
ing of the epithet. 

One of these woodcuts, 

the notable illustration en- ' 

titled Harald Harfagr, posses- 
ses in addition to its intrinsic 
beauty the extrinsic interest 
of being the basis of one of 
his delightful works in oils, 
a charming panel known as 
The Valkyrie, in which he ad- 
ded to the dignity of the black- 
and-white the beauties of 
colour fine and pure, of hand- 
ling at once delicate and 
strong. Had he similarly 
transformed others of his de- 
signs, how welcome they would 
have been ! What a picture 
Atnor Mundi would be, en- 
dowed with the charm of rich 
colour that delights us in 
Vivien, with the precise and 
exquisite manipulation and the 
beautiful treatment of acces- 
sories that are so notable in 
Morgan-le-Fay 1 For, indeed, 
we have too few of his pictures 
for our delight ; and if there 
were more they might be 
better known — and to a wider 
circle of admirers — even 
though they could not be 
more sincerely appreciated. 
For, closely and delicately 
painted, searching in draw- 
ing and rich in colour, the 

canvases of Frederick Sandys are among the very 
finest fruits of the wonderful days of Pre- 

One of the ablest of our younger generation of 
artists once said to me, that to paint like Van Eyck 
was to set back the clock, that the method of the 
great primitives was not suited to the necessities of 
artistic expression in the nineteenth century, and 
still less in the twentieth, and that the man who 
handled paint as Sandys did perpetrated an artistic 
anachronism. Of course, if this is admitted, the 
whole of the pictures produced by the English Pre- 
raphaelites are dismissed as monstrosities. Burton's 
Wounded Cavalier, Millais' Proscribed Royalist, 
Wallis' Chatterion, and Windus Burd's Helen are 
consigned with Sandys' Medea to the limbo of 
futility, and this is surely sufficiently absurd. But 
even if the intrinsic quality of such pictures were 

STUDY ( /iy permiisioit cf Haro/d Hartley, Eu/.) BY FREDERICK SANDYS 


Frederick Sandys 

not sufficient refuUtion of my artist friend's state- 
ment, surely his theory can be traversed on other 
grounds. Is not— or, at any rate, ought not — a 
painter's technique to be the outcome of his own 
ideas and requirements, and not the result of the 
fashion of the moment, the fad of the day ? And 
this method of Frederick Sandys, this fine and 
Memlinclike touch, was part of the man himself. 
He once said to me that he never was a Pre- 
raphaelite, and strictly speaking this was so, for 
he was not a member of the Brotherhood ; but his 
spiritual kinship with them was undeniable, his in- 
spiration was identical, and he evolved for himself 
the fashion of painting that he always adhered to, 
the method of Millais in his early days, the method 
for which we have no word but Preraphaelism. 
Thus was he inspired, thus he saw things, and thus 
he rendered them, and it is possible that his reward 
will not be lacking, and that 
pictures so painted will outlast 
hundreds of the perfunctory and 
sloppy canvases that are fashion- 
able to-day. 

These pictures, linked together 
as a series by the individuality 
of the painter, are yet full of 
varying inspiration — are the out- 
come of diverse moods. Some are 
monumental in their intensity, 
others are simple records of beau- 
tiful themes. Of the first type is 
the Morgan-le-Fay, which has been 
already alluded to ; of the second 
are Vivien and Gentle Spring. 
Sandys was always attracted by the 
beauty of a scornful face, and in 
Vivien he renders the proud 
beauty of Merlin's temptress with 
great power, emphasising and ac- 
centuating the loveliness of the 
statuesque head and shoulders by a 
background of charmingly painted 
peacock's feathers ; in the Mag- 
dalen he painted with equal skill 
the simple pathos of grief; and 
in Gentle Spring he strikes a note 
that is purely idyllic. In this beau- 
tifully decorative panel the stately 
and gracious woman chosen by 
the artist as symbolic of spring is 
seen advancing to the spectator, 
while behind her a rainbow gleams 
against grey clouds and an orchard 
glows with a wealth of blossom. 

Her white robe has a border of blue, and in its 
folds she carries flowers ; around her crown of 
auburn hair copper butterflies hover and flutter, 
and beside her spring poppies, gorgeous in colour 
and exquisitely painted. The whole composition 
is peaceful and serene, and its motif is in strong 
contrast to the power shown m Oriana and the 
sombre tragedy that characterises Mtdea. 

It is in the last-named that this phase of his art 
may be said to culminate ; indeed, in this picture we 
find to the full the artist's perfect manual equipment 
fitly employed to render a mighty theme of poetry 
and passion. The canvas shows at half-length the 
unfortunate wife of Jason, distraught with grief, 
at work with spells and enchantments, the instru- 
ments for which lie on a marble slab before her. 
In a gleaming shell lies clotted human blood, from 
a strangely shaped vessel of glass she feeds the flame 


(By permission of W. Connate Esq-) 

(By permission of Sir George Donaldson) 


Frederick Sandys 

of a brazier, and its radiance shines on her white 
dress and on her pallid face and terrible eyes. She 
clutches with one hand her necklet of coral and 
turquoise, while from her anguished lips issue 
irrevocable words of dreadful power. The ex- 
quisite drawing of the hands, the lovely painting of 
the pearly shells with which her dark hair is adorned, 
and the masterly treatment of the other accessories 
need not be enlarged on here, but it may be intei^ 
esting to note (as characteristic of the artist) that 
though the subject is chosen from a classic myth, 
the informing spirit is rather that of Gothic romance. 
The picture is conceived as Cranach or as Van der 
Goes might have conceived it; in treatment it is akin 
to the work of the early painters of the Teutonic 
schools, and the brooding intensity, the dark 
overwhelming horror that characterise the work as 
a whole inevitably recall the hopeless tragedy that 
pervades the stern sagas of the 
North. Altogether it is a mag- 
nificent conception fitly ren- 
dered, a work worthy to rank 
amongst the finest imagina- 
tive creations painted in Eng- 
land in the nineteenth century. 
It is always interesting to 
discuss the differing ideals of 
portraiture, to consider the 
inspiration of Holbein as con- 
trasted with that of Hals, of 
Velasquez as compared with 
Watts ; and it would be far 
from unprofitable to treat at 
some length of Sandys' unique 
achievements in this field of 
art, and to endeavour to see 
(if space did but permit) just 
where as a portrait painter he 
must be placed. That he 
painted some notable portraits 
is well known, and it is equally 
well known that the same 
searching after definite truth 
that we find in his other work 
is to be found in these can- 
vases, which are as far from 
superficiality as from inac- 
curacy, while they are as fresh, 
as vivid, as individual and as 
complete as are the portraits 
of Holbein himself. Sandys 
was not concerned to make a 
portrait the likeness of a man's 
soul; he sought the likeness 

of the physical man, deeming that the soul ex 
pressed itself in the countenance. Nor did he 
treat his subjects as items in a decorative arrange- 
ment ; he gave us his sitter clearly seen and 
searchingly rendered, and not his ghost or his 
shadow. This may not be the fashionable por- 
traiture of to-day, but certainly some of the greatest 
portraits of all time have been painted on this 

Some of these portraits are oil - paintings, the 
superb Mrs. Lezvis and Mrs. Anderson Rose among 
them ; others are chalk drawings, and with these 
drawings we come to the third phase of Sandys' 
art. But whether they are in oils or in chalks, they 
are alike in their characteristics. The portraits of 
men arevirileand forceful and redolent of character, 
the women serene, gracious and graceful, and the 
children as delicious and lovable as any in the 


STUDY (Bv permission of H'. Connal, Esq.) BY FREDERICK SANDYS 


H J 

Frederick Sandys 

whole range of art. To all great artists children 
have been strangely inspiring, and for Sandys they 
would seem to have had many attractions. Not 
for him are the little airs and graces that point to 
an artificial and premature development, not for 
him the eyes of adult coquetry in a baby's face, the 
false charm of Greuze ; to him they are sincere and 
natural creatures, now dainty, now full of the un- 
conscious joy of life, and he drew them wide-eyed 
in a world of wonder, happy and unspoiled. 

These drawings of his must not be confounded 
with pastels. There is no similarity between them 
and the work of Russell, for instance ; but if we 
seek in the art of older days for something analogous 
we shall find it in the drawings of Holbein, of 
Clouet of Dumoustrier. They are drawings in 
chalk, and the method employed was described by 
the artist himself. He said : " In making a chalk 
portrait I first faintly outline 
the features, and then, very 
lightly, with cotton wool, I put 
on a flat, even tint over the 
whole face. It is something 
like a flat wash in water- 
colours, only there is a little 
more colour. Then only do 
I begin to work up the 
features, with black and an 
ordinary red chalk only." It 
will be evident that the result 
is not a flesh-and-blood simili- 
tude of the sitter. What 
Sandys aimed at, and what he 
attained, was a true likeness 
conveyed by means of a con- 
vention at once beautiful in 
itself and charming in its re- 
sults. For a number of years 
he produced these portraits, 
and his subjects ranged from 
Matthew Arnold to John 
Ricltard Green, from Marie 
Meredith to fean Palmer, 
from Henry Graves to Alfred 
Tennyson; one of the most 
interesting of those executed 
in later years being a charac- 
teristically veracious present- 
ment of the well-known sculp- 
tor Percy Wood, v.-hich shows 
him adorned with the eagle's 
feather and other accessories 
incidental to his rank as a 
chief of North American 

Indians ; this chiefship being a unique honour con- 
ferred on the sculptor by the Indians themselves in 
recognition of the skill with which he recorded 
their traits and their outward seeming in imperish- 
able bronze, and in appreciation too, one suspects, 
of his sympathetic outlook and genial attitude to all 
men. A wonderful series are these drawings of 
Sandys, and if they could be displayed together in 
some gallery there is little doubt as to the chorus of 
applause that would greet them. They are searching, 
almost unrelenting, in their drawing, exquisitely 
seen and handled, and as far removed from the 
trivial as from the fantastic ; though thoroughly de- 
finite and detailed, they are not in the least 
"niggled" or tight — in short, they are beautiful 
examples of the draughtsman's art, learned, 
accomplished, and effortless. 

In the same category as these portraits must be 


( By permiision of Messrs. Laurie 




Frederick Sandys 


I'J Harold Hartley, Esq. BY FREDERICK SANDYS 

placed the many elaborate imaginative subjects and 
ideal heads that Sandys executed in ttie same 
medium. Once more let us turn the portfolio, and 
as the pageant of fair women passes before us what 
loveliness is there, and what power and what variety 
in its presentation ! Here is the petulant beauty 
of Proud Maisie, and the mystic radiance of Selene; 
anon we see the exquisite contours of Tears and 
the glorious cascade of the tresses that adorn 
Miranda ; while the pallid, voiceless agony of the 
Ma/er Dolorosa is followed by the terror-stricken 
Cassandra, crying strident prophecies of woe, and 
the lonely Persephone is succeeded by another 
drawing as complete and as important, another 
dream as stately and as perfect, the exquisite Lethe. 
And so the tale of them grows, and Cleopatra and 
Tlu Fayre Mayde oj Avenel, Portia, and Perdita, 
and many another one, bring to us beauty and the 

sense of tears, so often does 
the artist seem to have felt the 
emotion voiced by Browning, 
to have echoed the sigh which 
haunts ttie poet's question : 

" Dear, dead women, with 
such hair, too — what's 
become of all the gold 
Used to fall and brush their 
bosoms ?'* 

and echoing it, to have caught 
and immortalised the vision 
vouchsafed to him of all the 
lovely phantoms of the bygone 
years, so that again they live 
for our wonder and delight. 

It is needless here to ex- 
patiate on the intrinsic beauty 
of these drawings, or on the 
fact that the same qualities are 
to be found in the very 
earliest as in those of his 
maturity. It has recently 
been my privilege to see in 
thehouse of a friend a simple 
black-and-white by Sandys, an 
early drawing of Devotion, 
which is entirely beautiful in 
its rendering of the exquisitely 
slender hands, charmingly 
tender in its whole motif; and 
in this, as in the latest of all, 
he shows himself the thorough 
artist that he was. All through 
the long series of them we can- 
not but recognise the power 
with which the artist deals subtly with the transitory 
and evanescent expressions of lovely faces — the 
perfect draughtsmanship of eyes and lips, the un- 
faltering surety and vigour of the touch, the de- 
licate treatment of the hair, so lovingly lingered 
over, so beautifully drawn in its curves and waves, 
and withal so finely treated as a mass, despite the 
absolute rendering of every strand and coil. 

And it would be futile to insist again upon the 
lofty inspiration of these imaginative works, in 
which majestic beauty alternates with tender grace, 
tragic power with poetic charm, and emotional 
intensity with monumental repose. Suffice it to 
say that in these drawings, as in the woodcuts and 
the oil-paintings, Frederick Sandys reached a level 
of sustained and perfect achievement such as few 
(and those only of the greatest) of his compeers 
have attained to, and showed himself possessed of a 

Swiss Architecture 

soul attuned to stately imaginings, and endowed 
with a manipulative and technical ability which 
enabled him to realise his conceptions to the full. 

In that his works are comparatively few we who 
delight in them have cause for regret ; in that they 
are very perfect we are fortunate. He was an old 
man when he passed from among us ; his work was 
done and well done ; but nevertheless we are indeed 
the poorer by the death of such an one, losing 
from the arena of art one of its mightiest figures, 
one of the giants of our day and generation. 

Percy Bate. 



Those who, in spite of the ever-growing 


cosmopolitanism of our age, still cherish a taste 
for what is national and native to the soil, cannot 
contemplate, without a certain- bitterness of soul, 
the way in which some of the fairest and most 
characteristic landscapes in Europe are being 
spoilt to meet the exigencies of mere material 

Much is being said and written just now about 
the devastations of war, and rightly so, but what 
of those other devastations which are being 
wrought in a state of peace ? War, terrible in its 
destructive force, swe;ps over a land, but soon the 
wounds of Nature heal and flowers spring and 
bloom on the battle-field. But when a landscape 
falls into the possession of those to whom it 
represents nothing more than prospective money- 
bags, its fate is sealed. The fact is that nothing 
can stand before man's rapacity. A country is 
invaded by people 
who do not care a 
fig for its history, 
customs, tradition, 
architecture, whose 
ruling passion is the 
love of gain, people 
with long purses 
and inartistic souls. 
With the glitter of 
gold they corrupt 
the natives, and 
then the ugly work 
of deformation be- 
gins. The best 
minds in the coun- 
try protest, but they 
are in the minority, 
and their voice is 
like that of John 
the Baptist crying 
in the wilderness. 
Take the case of 
Switzerland. Here 
in the very centre 
of Europe we have 
a country incom- 
pirable for itsvaried 
natural beauty, a 
country which more 
than any other 
seems fashioned by 
Nature to minister 
to the sense of the 
sublime and beau- 
tiful in the soul of 



Swiss Architecture 



man. And what do we see ? Not long ago that 
well-known Swiss artist, Mr. Eugene Burnand, 
wrote a letter which is included in a book, by 
Mr. Guillaume Fatio, en- 
titled "Ouvrons les Yeux," 
a book which cannot be 
too strongly recommended 
to all who are interested 
in the past, present, and 
future of Swiss architecture. 
Mr. Burnand begins his 
letter with the significant 
sentences : "Notre pays 
s'enlaidit avec une rapidite 
stupefiante. L'affreuse 
batisse envahit la campagne 
comma un champignon 
veneneux. Et il y a des 
gens qui trouvent cela beau 
et qui s'en enorgueillissent." 
An excursion through 
Switzerland is enough to 
convince us of the truth 
of this. While old Swiss 
castles or fragments of 
them still remain gathering 
a kind of " pathetic power 

and historical majesty " from the past, while Swiss 
chalets and cottages still stand "in the pine shadow- 
on their ancestral turf," and the simple mazotdimg?, 



Swiss Architecture 

M. E. KUNKLER's chalet AT ROLLE 


gate-keeper's lodge AT M. KUNKLER's CHALET 


Swiss Architectiire 





Swiss ArcJiitectitre 



like a nest to the mountain ridge, a host of 
alien constructions have sprung up side by side 
with them in this Alpine worid, many devoid 
of all architectural value, others built in a 
style or styles altogether out of keeping with 
the landscape and its history, having no associa- 
tions either in the soul of the people or the soil of 
the countr)'. Protests have been made by the in- 
tellectual elite of the land, and in some quarters 
the people are waking up, and beginning to 
open their eyes. But, what is more interesting, a 
movement that augurs well for the future has, for 
some time past, been setting in from another 
quarter. If the evil wrought by caprice and mere 
commercial enterprise cannot be remedied, a good 
is growing up which is destined to counteract its 
influence. And this has its rise amongst the best 
Swiss architects. Their aim is resolutely to break 
with the cosmopolitan style a. la mode in Europe, 
and under the influence of which Italian and 
Moresque villas have sprung up, even in the moun- 
tains, side by side with the Swiss chalet, that native 
of the soil. Their watchword is Swiss houses for 
Switzerland. They are seeking to revive the models 
left to them by their ancestors, and to adapt them 

to modem exigencies. Amongst these architects one 
of the most promising is Mr. Edmond Fatio of 
Geneva. His brother, in the book to which we 
have already referred, has rendered signal and 
timely service to his fellow-countrymen by calling 
to their attention just now the significance of 
Swiss architecture in relation to the land, its history, 
climate, customs and requirements. 

Mr. Edmond Fatio, like other Swiss architects of 
the same mind, is endeavouring in his work to 
show how the best traditions of the past are capable 
of present-day application ; in a word, to resuscitate 
a national art that has fallen into desuetude. 

In his admirable articles on Swiss chalets in The 
Architectural Record, Mr. Jean Schopfer says : — 
" The art of building in wood has flourished in 
Switzerland to a special extent since the sixteenth 
century. The finest specimens of wooden edifices 
belong to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
The chalets of those periods are those which have 
the best ornamentation and present the most per- 
fect styles. The farmers' chalets of our own day 
are not so rich, nor in such impeccable taste. It 
is for the edifices of the upper classes to continue 
the sound traditions of the eighteenth century-. All 

Swiss Architecture 

.._<,,•■.• -t-5) 



the elements exist and 
architects have the oppor- 
tunity to make a close 
study ©f the most perfect 
models." Mr. Fatio is 
availing himself of this 
opportunity, and as will be 
seen in the illustrations 
which accompany this 
article, his efforts are being 
crowned with success. 

The character of Swiss 
architecture varies accord- 
ing to climate, altitude, 
and the conditions of 
the life of the people. 
Yet there is an unmis- 
takable homogeneity be- 
tween its varied types. In 
the mountains we have 
the chalet constructed 
entirely with wood, its 
large roof steeply inclined 
to facilitate the quick 



Stc'/ss Architecture 

AmIi'^i cU 9T^- "Run JiC(, „ 

? Tl= 

^3 / 



draining off of water, or, 
as in higher and colder 
altitudes, flattened for the 
purpose of retaining the 
snow. This roof, invari- 
ably very spacious and 
protectingly over-hanging 
the balconies and other 
projecting parts of the 
facades, is generally cov- 
ered in with tiles, some- 
times with big slabs of 
slate, or even wood- 
shingles — these last, how- 
ever, are less employed 
than formerly. 

By their harmonious 
frame-work, the ingenious 
combinations of wood, 
the artistic carving, the 
picturesque windows 
"double and triple united 
in a single frame," these 



Swiss Architecture 





Swiss Architecture 

chalets, in spite of the sobriety of their style, 
present a richness of appearance. This, however, 
they lose if the architect, as is too much the 
fashion now, forgetful of healthy tradition, encum- 
bers the facades with lace-like wood carving. 
It will be seen by an examination of the accom- 
panying illustrations that it was these mountain 
chalets which inspired Mr. Fatio in his happy 
working out of the plans for the villas which 
he has constructed in the neighbourhood of 
Geneva. We here distinguish the two difTerent 
types of the flat-roofed and the gable-roofed 

The principles which obtain in the construction 
of the wooden chalet should serve as guides in the 
erection of the stone house. This, too, should 
have a large roof (which is the main characteristic 
of the Swiss house). Its decoration will also be 


simple, its facades, sometimes white-washed, or 
showing the wood-work or partly covered with 
wood-shingle. In certain cases the tints of 
the window-frame work are ornamental enough. 
The balconies, like those in the chalets, will 
always be sheltered by the roof or protected by 
small projecting roofs which may supply a 
picturesque motij. The wooden house has to be 
erected on a stone base of at least three feet to 
protect it from the dampness of the soil and to 
preserve the superstructure. The balconies of the 
old Swiss chalet are always high up under the roof, 
and never on the ground floor as in some modern 

The chalet Boissonnas (pages 20 and 21), in the 
construction of which wood and stone are com- 
bined, has a particularly interesting character of its 
own. The Langlois chalet, which is illustrated 
on page 22, is entirely of wood 
reared on a base - work of 
stone. It is rectangular in 
plan, and is decorated inside 
with Renaissance wainscottings 
in keeping with its style. 
The Fatio and Kunkler chalets 
are much larger, and are con- 
structed on a more irregular 
plan. In all these buildings 
four different kinds of wood 
have been utilised — fir, pine, 
larch, and arolle — either for 
the exterior or for the de- 
coration of the interior. Fur- 
nished with every comfort and 
convenience these chalets can be 
inhabited all the year round. 

The gable-roofed kind is only 
represented by the Roussy chalet, 
of a quite different form, recall- 
ing to the mind the chalets in 
the Canton of Lucerne. Stand- 
ing on a steep side of the borders 
of the Lake of Geneva, amidst a 
wealth of verdure, it is not, how- 
ever, out of place, and seems in 
happy harmony with its sur- 

Constructed at a high altitude 
in the Jura, in a rude chmate, 
the Villa Duval is of a robust 
and severe style. In this case, 
wood is only used for the frame- 
work and the balconies. Along 
B. FATIO, ARCHITECT the principal facade a spacious 


C. H. Shannons Lithographs 

veranda runs— a shelter from the inclemency of 
the weathtr, and at the same time affording means 
of enjoying the intermittent sunshine. In the 
inside the large dining-hall with its ceiling sup- 
ported by solid beams, a buffet of plain wood 
with wrought-iron decoration, and a fine and lofty 
stove de faience, are the characteristic features. This 
villa is very spacious and contains no fewer than 
nineteen bed-rooms. 

The Kunkler lodge and the chapels at Lancy 
and Cornillon, with their brown /a«^ de hois, are of 
lighter and more smiling aspect. 

The view of the interior of the Kundig Villa proves 
that the modern style of furniture is not out of 
place in a chaht provided that it is neither loud 
no: affected. But there are elements which ought 
to be banished once for all, amongst them the rococo 
and graining, which it is to be hoped have had 
their day and will soon cease to be. 

A glance at Mr. Fatio's work is enough to show 
what is being done and what can be done in the 
interests of a truly national architecture in 
Switzerland. Swiss architects have to accom- 
plish their task not without difficulties and 
sometimes not without opposition ; but in 
keeping their eye fixed steadily on the 
best models of the past, and striving to 
adapt them to modern requirements, 
they are, in the most effective way 
possible, counteracting the baneful in- 
fluence of a purely commercial and 
cosmopolitan spirit that has no respect 
either for the natural beauty of the 
country or the art that is in harmony 
with it. R. MoBES. 



On the alert always for beauty in 
visible life, Mr. Shannon tries too in 
his art, to give a visible beauty to life 
that has passed into the romantic 
atmosphere of his own imagination or 
into literature, and it is given only to 
the few to pass from actual life to 
literature in the pursuit of an emotional 
form of beauty without becoming anec- 
dotal in a way that is apart from art. 
Mr. Shannon's lithographs are very 
perfect as examples of style — that 
secret marriage of the thought with 
the medium through which it finds 

expression ; they have in many cases a subject, 
but it is always one with the drawing part 
of it, as a spirit in a body. In any at- 
tempt to communicate an incommunicable 
thing, to make clear by explanation what by its 
nature must always remain inexplicable, and in 
the end is only to be felt, one courts disappoint- 

It were easy for a shallow criticism of rule-and- 
thumb, unimpressed by the qualities Mr. Shannon 
displays in his lithography, to be busied about some 
detail not made out quite clearly, and to keep 
a greedy outlook for real or fancied false construc- 
tion ; forgetting, as such criticism always does, that 
the artist's hand obeyed a mood concerned only with 
essential form. In work of this kind any standard 
fixed is wrong that is not the standard set by the 
artist's own intentions. One must not judge these 
things by standards which might be right if 
applied to a scheme of decoration and to certain 
kinds of painting, for the mood in which any great 
art is carried through is one which subordinates, 
as Whistler subordinated, everything to a motif 
beyond mere dexterous imitation ; a motif not 
concerned to reconcile itself at every stage with 






C. H. Shannons Lithographs 

photographic restrictions, though often arriving 
at the truest definition through its more elastic 
and sensitive observation. 

As a sonnet, just a few lines grouped to a spell of 
music or to realise in expression a momentary mood, 
so are these lithographs ; they are here for their own 
sake, not insisting on any shape too much, not 
asserting anything — simply flowers, having their 
root in the obedience of hand to form and a 
memory for form, and in an indefinite and beautiful 
imagination. There is revealed to us by this art, if 
only for a moment, how freighted are the hours with 
beauty — and how indifferently we let them pass. 
We are aware of figures coming and going, glowing 
and fading under the artist's hand ; their thoughts 
are turned inward to their own pleasures, and they 
are on their way from a dream to a dream. Their 
half decided gestures are 
arrested, their conversa- 
tions are interrupted, and 
their business ends for our 
desire. Moving towards a 
strange doorway, by the 
light of an unfamiliar 
lamp, they whispered of 
strange things, or they 
were going down to the 
sea; they were playing with 
little babies, bathing them 
in cool stone baths when 
the artist surprised them, 
or they were listening 
where the echoes of their 
music died within the still- 
ness of the room. In the 
drawing called T/ie Cellist 
where the girls rest, with 
instruments in their hands, 
in white dresses folded 
against the white wall, all 
that the artist has delicately 
hinted to our imagination 
by a gift of which he is the 
possessor, is carried un- 
consciously to completion 
by ourselves. We colour the 
hair of the languid girls, the 
gold of their hair and the 
brown violins ; in the suave 
lines of the robes we 
are aware of te.xture as 
though we touched the 
folds with our hands. 
Those lines came there 

for the artist's delight, and they are corrected 
by the straight lines of the perpendicular mirror. 
One feels that that mirror was placed there 
for that reason, the best of artistic reasons, 
and one hopes that Mr. Shannon put so many 
screws on the smaller instrument and so few 
on the large viol, not out of any knowledge of such 
things, and he may have much, but because they 
came thus under his hand, part of the picture as he 
mentally foreshadowed it. It is obvious from this 
drawing that the study of such things sometimes 
tells, but for the moment it is to be believed that 
their placing was instinctive, and as much a matter of 
inspiration as the design of the drapery and the 
balance given by the shadows thrown faintly on the 
wall. Amendment and detail may follow his first 
impulse, in rapid afterthoughts, but his drawings 






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W 'J 


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H O 

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C. H. Shannons LitJiographs 

sometimes seem to contain a challenge as to whether 
we would have held his hand to accuracy at the 
expense of those hardly divined inner motives. 

In the drawing entitled The Three Sisters 
we cannot help sharing some of the delight that 
must have gone into the drawing of the dark case 
against the white of the rest of the picture. From 
his memory of an efifect the artist has set this scene, 
at once one of the most beautiful and one of the 
least attractive of his lithographs. There is some 
ugliness in its composition, yet in its massing of dark 
against grey and grey against white, and in the deli, 
cacy of suggested detail, it goes beyond the other 
drawings here illustrated. In the outlines and the 
folds of the sleeves of the bending figure one feels 
that the quality of the drawing goes about as far 
as it can be taken — further, indeed, than it has 
been taken at any time in the particular modern 
quality of sensitiveness. 
Albeit, the figure in itself 
is not beautiful, and its 
action is not one of grace. 
\t is easy to forestall the 
criticism of anyone who 
is qu'te matter-of-fact as . ;; 

regards this drawing, as to ; |f 

the improbability of the \ If 

positions of the figures and 
of their environment : such 
critics are welcome to their 
trivial standpoint, perfectly 
sound and justifiable so far 
as it goes — which is a 
very little way, not far 
enough to reach any remote 
conception of the unreal 
spirit in which the artist so 
often works with such a 
show of realism. The 
sympathetic quality of the 
drawing of the nude before 
the small round mirror is a 
revelation of Mr. Shannon's 
art; in it one is made aware 
of the appreciation of subtle 
and moving form with 
which he draws those 
nudes of his with their 
delicate and fragile beauty. 
It is apparent how with his 
chalk he has, as it were, 
caressed the drawing, re- 
turning to go over the 
never rigid outline, as a 


musician would strike a note a second time to 
hear again its pleasant sound. 

A description of the lithograph entitled The Shell 
Gatherers is not to be embarked upon ; more than 
any other it claims to be approached in the spirit 
in which it was conceived. Full of meaning and 
of beauty as it is, it has not so transparent and 
tangible a perfection as some of his other works. 
There is about it a certain mood of symbolism, 
emotional rather than intellectual. Fortunately the 
symbolism of some Pre-Raphaelism, bordering as 
it does at times upon the Sunday puzzle, does not 
menace the charm of Mr. Shannon's art. Partly 
its charm lies in its elusiveness — a quality which 
places it with those high arts understood by the few ; 
the few who, arriving at their knowledge after 
a long journey, or born themselves with incomplete 
genius, fall under the spell, having all else 


tP^I ^fffV 


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_. ._ ^!^^^^^^K 



;SS-%i?.£^:iti£3i&.4i-S''r-':i-"-9^-i^i;iSii''^.f--'y,y-l~\v- 1 w^-, r, «.^^,- 







Design in Gold-Tooled Bookbinding 

themselves but the habit of expression. The 
portrait of Professor Legros presents another 
phase of Mr. Shannon's art. In this portrait he 
makes, as it were, a concession to his adverse critics, 
those critics who are not in sympathy with the free- 
dom of fancy apparent in so much of his other work 
— a freedom of fancy which is the explanation of 
their handling, as the restrained handling here is 
explained by the artist's reverence for facts which 
are as much a part of portraiture as they are not a 
part of the remote atmosphere which he is at so 
much pains to create in his other pictures. 

Disembarrassed from false standards, and free 
as air, the spontaneity of these lithographs is 
not a little part of all the pleasure that they give 
us, carried, as they are, so far by a hand that 
leaves them just where its inspiration passes away. 
T. Martin Wood. 



The love for tastefully bound books comes and 

goes ; it waxes and wanes with the ever-varying 
sentiments and temper of successive generations — 
so far, at least, as the general literary world is 
concerned. It is true, of course, that the biblio- 
phile, who represents a class comparatively small 
in number, has always a susceptible corner in his 
heart for a bibliopegic jewel — some choice 
example of craftsmanship which carries, as it 
were, the soul of the artificer, outlined in grace- 
ful curve or clustered loveliness, impressed upon 
its exterior — but in the case of the every-day col- 
lector the fashions of book-decoration change even 
as in all the other arts. Monastic severity is 
succeeded by a kindlier type of beauty ; and this, 
in turn, gives place to more luxurious forms. 
The pleasing, though somewhat formal, strap-work 
intricacies identified with the name of Grolier and 
the Lyonnese school, pass in time into something 
richer and more ornate; until, in the hands of 
Nicholas and Clovis Eve, and those that followed 
in their footsteps, the main design is all but sub- 
merged beneath the excessive profusion of decora- 
tive effort with which their patterns are crowded. 
Later, when the master mind has passed away, 




Design in Gold-Tooled Bookbinding 

and the restraint of the 
artist is no longer there 
to hold in hand the erring 
tendencies of capricious 
workers, degeneracy sets 
in, and beauty luxuriates 
into rankness, running riot 
even to the verge of 
gaudiness and offence. 
Design and artistic repose 
perish, and the degrada- 
tion of confusion and 
eccentricity takes their 
place; until at last, wearied 
of unsatisfying glare, men 
of taste cry out for some- 
thing of a nobler sort ; 
and then, if only the 
artist be at hand to give 
them what they seek for, 
some simpler form suc- 
ceeds that fills the eye 
with pleasure and satisfies 
at the same time the re- 
quirements of true art. 

Book lovers are not 
agreed as to the object 
fulfilled by the richer 
forms of decoration on a 
bound volume. An emi- 
nent authority * on all 
that has to do with books 
has told us, entertaining 
a somewhat fanciful be- 
lief, that the external ornamentation represents, 
in a sense, a portal or gate, on the opening of 
which the contents of the volume are disclosed ; 
and, speaking generally, that no scheme of 
design which failed to fulfil — at least, in ap- 
proximate form — this quaint idea could be 
reckoned amongst the number of the correct. A 
more intelligible theory would, however, seem to 
be that book-covers were adorned simply at first, 
and afterwards with increasing elaboration, for the 
same reason that, at the dawn of civilisation, battle- 
axes, tomahawks, spear-heads, and other weapons 
of war or the chase were scored and zigzagged 
with crude attempts at decoration. As with them, 
portions of such objects presented a plain surface 
capable of being tendered more pleasing to the 
eye, so with the volume bound in a jacket of 
simple leather, there was a field on which the 
craftsman had an opportunity of adding a decora- 

• Tlie l.ile Mr. liernard Quarilch. 



tive something to vary the monotonous uniformity 
of a set of leather-coated books. In fact, the 
desire to decorate a book-cover is one and the 
same with what has led to the ornamentation of 
all other plain surfaces capable of such treatment, 
whether of stone, wood, metal, or glass. 

The leathers available for the binding of a book 
are, of course, many in number ; but not so for 
the binding of a book which is to carry some rich 
design upon its sides and back ; for nowadays the 
artist who decorates a cover in gold-tooling, and 
means his work to live, is practically limited to one 
material — the best morocco. Labour and artistic 
effort are wasted if calf or Russia leather be made 
use of; for after some years, as these leathers are 
now tanned and prepared for market, the joints of 
the volume are sure to become cracked ; and later 
on it is possible that the upper and lower covers 
will drop from the book which they were intended 
to protect and adorn. 


Design in Gold-Tooled Bookbinding 

The artist-binder has, however, no cause of com- 
plaint by reason of this restricted field in the way 
of material ; for, as a matter of fact, the very finest 
results in gold-tooling are only to be obtained from 
morocco ; and the artificer who has once produced, 
upon this leather, some design that satisfies the 
soul of the artist within him, will never willingly 
go back to any other material. 

But it is Design that mainly concerns us here — 
that all-important section of " finishing," or second 
division of the craft of bookbinding. Technique 
of a high order is, of course, essential to a first-class 
" finisher," but skilful technique in a " finisher " 
who works out some ignoble design is calculated 
only, in Hamlet's phrase, to "make the judicious 
grieve." The book may 
be perfect to the touch in 
all the delicacy of its 
polished exquisiteness, the 
lustre of each separate 
gold impression may be 
all that eye could wish 
for ; each tool be grace- 
fully and correctly cut ; 
but the tools, as they 
show in the design, are 

themselves gathered into 

some fantastic medley of 

incongruous detail which, 

though it cover the field 

with brilliancy, yet lacks 

the convincing and satisfy- 
ing effect which is alone 

the outcome of an artist's 

mind working artistically 

within the limits of an 

art that he loves and 


Then, again, a good 

design in the case of a 

" mosaic" pattern may be 

completely spoiled by a 

want of harmony in the 

colours of the inlaid 

leathers; for although gold- 
tooling goes far to soften 

the crudities of clashing 

colours, there are certain 

combinations of hue which 

can never be reduced to 

anything approaching tran- 
quillity when in juxtaposi- 

It is in the case of such 

extravagances — too often met with in recent times 
— one cannot but feel that the first canons of 
artistic treatment have been set aside in the 
framing of the design, or that the designer has 
shown himself to be ignorant of the especial con- 
dition of true ornament — that it be beautiful in 
its place. 

It is undoubtedly a fact, however, that the last 
fifteen or twenty years have seen a vast improve- 
ment in the matter of design in English book- 
ornamentation. For quite a long time previously 
there had been little in the way ot originality to 
commend the work that was being produced, or 
to distinguish it from the somewhat commonplace 
conventional forms which had been adopted by 




Design in Gold-Tooled Bookbinding 

British binders for a period 
of about a century and a 
half — forms, too, which, 
though differing from one 
another in trivial variation 
of their component parts, 
seemed to have been ac- 
cepted, by designers and 
book-lovers alike, as the 
be-all and the end-all of the 
bookbinding craft in this 
country, and as something 
beyond which no one had 
the courage or imagination 
to pass. 

The welcome change 
came at last — an outcome 
of the late Victorian re- 
vival identified so largely 
with the name of William 
Morris — and it soon be- 
came apparent that there 
were new schemes of com- 
position, and fresh possibili- 
ties of tool-designing, which 
— in the hands of an artist 
who cared only to remem- 
ber what was best in the 
past, and who had the dar- 
ing to shake off the yoke 
of routine which for so 
long had stifled all thoughts 
of emerging into originality 
— were capable of produc- 
ing, in the eyes of persons of correct taste, decor- 
ative effects of grace and beauty to which the 
English bibliophile had for more than a century 
been unused. 

Contemporaneously with this renaissance of the 
art there sprang up amongst book-lovers a more 
widely felt desire for the possession of beautifully 
bound books. Such changes of fashion on the 
part of collectors are somewhat difificult to account 
for, but it is possible in this case that the alteration 
of sentiment was to no little extent influenced by 
the Exhibition of bookbinding given by the Burling- 
ton Fine Arts Club in the year 1891, as well as 
by the sumptuously illustrated catalogue published 
shortly after, which contained an extremely large 
number of facsimiles in gold and colours of the 
choicest examples of the decorative work exhibited 
— a volume which, of its kind, is yet without any 

The practical pioneer in bookbinding under the 



new and improved conditions was Mr. Cobden- 
Sanderson ; and his ornamental bindings, in a 
style altogether his own, have not yet been sur- 
passed in any country. 

It is curious that while in England design may 
now be said to have reached a high level, France, 
with all its great tradition of bygone glory in this 
direction, has remained for many years past all but 
stationary. French technique is still of the highest 
order of excellence, but it is mainly expended upon 
imitation ; and when the Frenchman ventures on 
originality the results are too often what Ruskin 
would call " a glittering vacillation of undisciplined 
enchantment." * What is still more singular is 
that French decorative binders believe that the art 
does not exist outside of their own country — such, 
at least, was the view of one of the best of their 
artistic craftsmen, Marius Michel, who, in the year 
1878, when design was no better in P" ranee 

*' Seven Lamp.<i of Architecture," 


Design in Gold-Tooled Bookbinding 

than in England, remarked, " Partout on relie des 
livres, mais la Reliure d'art ne se fait actuellement 
qu'en France."* 

To other eyes than a Frenchtnan's it would look 
as if the art in France had never completely re- 
covered from the ruthless attack made upon it by 
the Revolutionists at the end of the eighteenth 
century, who not only discouraged by forcible 
means the binding of books in luxurious casings, 
but sought out, and actually destroyed, many 
magnificent specimens of the finest work found in 
the libraries of the Aristocrats. It was this sense- 
less crusade which led to the flight to England of 
many Frenchmen, who carried on the craft of book- 
binders successfully as refugees in this country, and 
to some extent to the ad- 
vantage of our English 

The examples ol my 
own designs here illus- 
trated are all "mosaic" 
in character. The de- 
corative effect in such 
cases is largely due to 
a harmonious blending 
of inlaid, or supei imposed, 
pieces of coloured leather 
set in contrast with the 
differently coloured ground 
in which they are, as it 
were, imbedded. The 
labour involved in the 
doing of work of this 
class is, roughly speaking, 
about twice what is ex- 
pended on the production 
of a merely gold-tooled pat- 
tern, each piece of added 
colour having to be at- 
tached with care and neat- 
ness to the spot it is to 
occupy in the general 
scheme of composition. 
The warmer effects pro- 
duced in this way will in- 
variably repay one for the 
extra time and trouble — 
always provided that some 
artistic taste be shown in 
the selection of the colours 
used, and that no violence 

of contrast be attempted in the general arrange- 
ment of the design. 

Each of these reproductions is also meant to 
illustrate a principle which Mr. Cobden-Sanderson 
and other high authorities on the subject have 
constantly sought to inculcate — namely, that artistic 
results in the way of design are more readily to be 
obtained by the use of a few tools than by using a 
large number — the very variety and multiplicity of 
the petiisfers themselves in the latter case always 
tending to minimise or dissipate the direct sim- 
plicity of the main design. 

In one place only is a modified extravagance, in 
colour or design, to be allowed, and where it is 
least likely to offend a bibliophile of taste ; and that 

• "Essai sur la 
tirieure des Livres.' 

Decoration e 
Paris. 1 E78 





is in the "doublure," or inner lining of the cover. 
In ordinary cases this portion of a book is occupied 
by the so called "end-papers," which, through many 
centuries now, have occasionally been of even a 
flamboyant type in pattern and in colour. Accord- 
ingly, when leather takes the place of paper here, 
one does not so keenly resent a deviation from 
simpler methods of decoration as one would if the 
form of ornament adopted were found impressed 
upon the outside of the volume. Besides, the 
exterior of a book is constantly exposed, in a 
greater or less degree, to a wear and tear which 
does not affect the " doublure," owing to the pro- 
tection from rubbing afforded by its position. I 
am at the same time, however, far from advocating 
extravagance in any direction or quarter in the 
matter of a well and tastefully bound volume. 

In the example illustrated on page 34, will be 
noticed a variation from the more usual practice of 
making the upper and the lower covers of a book 
identical in design. In such a case it is well that 
the difference should not be too marked ; and 
however the upper pattern may vary from the lower, 
there should never be wanting some strong sugges- 
tion of relationship between them in the detail or 
general outline of their diversified forms. 

The question whether the exterior design on a 
book should be to any extent symbolical or indica- 
tive of its contents is one which has frequently 
exercised the minds of artistic bookbinders. In 
times past the great Roger Payne was amongst 
those who used — occasionally, at least — to regulate 
his patterns by the nature of the subject-matter of 
the volume which he was binding. Looked at 
from an artist's standpoint, there does not seem to 
be anything against such a practice, so long as 
some obvious and easily intelligible connection 
can be established, by form of tool or general 
scheme of decoration, between the outside and 
the contents of the volume. Marius Michel is 
worth quoting on this matter; and his observations 
may account for the too frequent instances of 
eccentricity with which we are familiar in the 
case of modern French forms of decoration : 
" Ce qui distinguera les reliures artistiques de la 
fin du dix-neuvieme siecle des reliures anciennes, 
c'est la recherche de I'appropriation du decor au 
sujet de I'ouvrage ; recherche qui est devenue le 
desideratum de tous les nouveaux amateurs de 
livres modernes. L'impulsion est donnee, le mouve- 
ment se dessine chaque jour davaniage et malgr^ 
la resistance routiniere de quelques pretendus 
classiques, qui denient toute faculte creatrice aux 
artisans de leur temps et ne veulent encore sur 

leurs livres que des copies, on ne pourra plus 
I'arreter." * 

The danger in adopting such a line seems to lie 
in the overdoing of it ; for the difficulties of devising 
new patterns, appropriate to the extent of being 
emblematic of what is treated in the book, are all 
but insurmountable when the innumerable varieties 
of subject are considered ; and so, on the whole 
the binder, except in some rare moment of in- 
spiration, would do well to confine his efforts at 
appropriateness to some artistic form which will 
not at least be /^appropriate to the character of 
the contents, or the period at which the book was 
composed or printed. 

If he be uniformly successful in doing this, he 
will have gone far towards establishing his position 
as an artist in the truest sense of the term. 

Edw-^rd Sullivan. 



Every master creates a world for himself, and 
the name of Fantin-Latour calls up an enchanted 
world, a melodious fairy-land, where Music herself 
appears personified under the guise of a beautiful 
young woman with angel's wings ; for the melo- 
maniac of Dauphine, compatriot of Stendhal and 
of Berlioz, had the peculiar gift of interpreting on 
canvas the harmonious masterpieces of his favourite 
composers. Hector Berlioz and Richard Wagner, 
Schumann and Brahms, not forgetting Weber and 
Rossini. His work as a painter comprises portraits 
and compositions ; his palette loves the true no 
less than the beautiful : two parallel tendencies 
which have made him the precursor of our reviving 
taste for the discreetly intimate and for the 
immortal— for poetry. His compositions are as 
delicate as his portraits are robust : here are 
invocations, dreams, harmonies ; and love of music 
inspires them all. The history of our art will 
record the blossoming of these brilliant flowers in 
the somewhat ungrateful field of naturalism. 

The misty indefinite medium of pastel naturally 
attracted the music-mad painter. M. Fantin- 
Latour worked in pastel ; and the pastellist has 
treated the same subjects, the same themes of 
musical poetry, as the painter, the wizard of colour, 
and as the lithographer, the resuscitator of his art : 
passing from one process to the other these same 
subjects are transformed, imperceptibly changed in 
aspect without change of meaning, like variants or 

• " L'Orneinciuation des Reliures modernes." Paris. 18S9. 



different readings of a single text. Here are no 
longer portraits, but only dreams. 

At what period of his proud career as an artist 
did M. Fantin-Latour betake himself to pastel ? 
Towards the end of 1S76, when he returned full of 
enthusiasm from Bayreuth — a noteworthy circum- 
stance which fully demonstrates the overwhelming 
influence of his passion for music. The solemn 
inauguration of the Wagnerian Theatre in its rural 
surroundings, and the four consecutive evenings of 
the Ring des Nibelungen, had dazzled his vision ; 
the artist seized the pastel at the same time as 
the crayon of the lithographer, that he might 
record the floating images of his memory at once 
on the brown canvas and on the stone. He did 
not transcribe; he imagined, after 
having seen. The titles alone of 
his first two pastels may illustrate 
both this point of history and 
the artist's method: Souvenir de 
Bayreuth {Baviere) and Scene 
finale de la Walkiire. The Sou- 
venir de Bayreuth is but a free 
rendering of the first scene of 
Das Rheingold — the mocking trio 
of Rhine maidens. These were 
in the Salon of 1877. 

During twenty years, from 
1877 to 1896, M. Fantin-Latour 
exhibited pastels, alternating be- 
tween his beloved musical sub- 
jects and themes more vaguely 
allegorical or mythological ; trans- 
lating the Rinaldo of Johannes 
Brahms, or the lovely duet from 
Les Troyens, a grave melody by 
Schumann, or the chaste rapture 
of some love-lyric ; hymning his 
great compatriot Berlioz and the 
glorious anniversary of his in- 
glorious death; incarnating music 
and musical apotheoses ; or else 
clothing with new life figures per- 
sonifying dawn and night, dreams 
and truth, the amorous utterance 
of Paris ind the lament of Ari- 
adne, magic dances and the 
temptation of a hermit, ingenious 
groups of bathing nymphs and of 
Cupids from pagan legendary lore. 

There were some thirty of such 

pastels, not all in existence to-day, 

for the painter reproduced most 

of them in a less fragile material : 


more than one pistel drawing became a painting. 
Holding aloof, as he did, from the annual Salons after 
the beginning of the present century, the artist, 
moreover, abandoned the above-described me- 
thod. Before the eyes of posterity the pastellist 
will be represented by fewer than a dozen deli- 
cate works ; but with such a master quality 
speaks even more persuasively than quantity. 
Four selected examples will best express his musical 
inspiration : there is the Souvenir de Bayreuth 
(1877), or rather, a charming reduction of the 
lost original, which transfers to the Musee 
du Luxembourg the melodious opening of Das 
Rheingold, wherein the fair nymphs of the ancient 
river spiritually continue the Latin myth of the 


(In the Luxembourg) 


C By perm ission of M. Via u) 



(By perinissioii of M. Viau) 


sirens ; there is Siegfried and the Rhine Maidens 
(iSS6), the meeting of the heedless hero with the 
sprightly water-nymphs before the dark hour of the 
tragical denotiement, a mute dialogue which at the 
time of the last Centennial Exhibition in 1900 
accompanied the grand and touching scene of 
L'Anniversaire ( 1 884), where the feminine creations 
of Berlioz come to pay homage at their author's 
tomb — a poetical idea which touches us the more 
after having so recently celebrated the centenary 
of France's great musician. And then there is 
the tender duet of Beatrice et Benedict (1888), a 
nocturne in the depths of an old park, dimly 
illumined by obscure twilight reflections from a 
fountain. Berlioz and Wagner, those two hostile 
brothers, are reconciled by the sympathy of a 
master of the pencil. 

That inward music spoken of by one of 
Shakespeare's heroines, which every man carries 
in himself, breathes in like 
manner from many other 
allegories. Musique et Poesie 
(1894), L'Auroreet la Nuit 
(1887), Un Jugement de 
Paris (1890), Une Evoca- 
tion (1892), Ondine {i8g6) 
— a nymph whose rosy nud- 
ity is caressed by the blue- 
green wave, and who is 
more of an enchantress 
than the Germanised fancy 
of the Baron de la Motte- 
Fouqud could ever have 
imagined — are all of them 
pastels which attest the 
originality of a beautiful 
dream, and confirm us in 
our admiration for one of 
the masters of our own time. 
Dwelling apart, afar from 
mere ephemeral fashion, 
counselled only by his 
great initiators, Schumann 
and Prud'hon, M. Fantin- 
Latour contrived to endow 
with new life the familiar 
attributes of the ancient 
allegories ; the soul of a 
poet animates his forms, 
rhythmic vapours enshroud 
them ; his scenes are set 
in romantic landscapes ; 
motes dance in the sun- 
beams ; and his figures, 

nobly draped, move easily in their atmosphere. 
Finally, an Etude dated 1882, and as an exception 
almost a portrait, might be entitled L'£ventail 
Rougeand be given asa musical commentaryon these 
lines of Victor Hugo, the painter's favourite poet : — • 
" Voyez-vous, un parfum eveille la pensee. 
Repliez, belle enfant par I'aube caressee, 
Cet eventail aile, pourpre, or et vermilion, 
Qui tremble dans vos mains comme un grand papillon." 

This simple study, the sweet meditation of a fair 
young woman in a white evening dress, is the best 
pastel of the painter who made music visible. His 
very method of vibrant cross-hatching does in fact 
express the melody of the lines ; and he reveals 
himself a musician by his mastery of nuances. 
Nowadays, when painting aspires to become musical, 
M. Fantin-Latour appears the herald of a new 
technique. But to speak fittingly of pastel as 
wielded by a poet it would be necessary, following 


( By permission oj M. EsnauU-Pellerie) 


Tranqitillo Cremona 

the counsel of the philosopher in speaking of 
women, " to dip one's pen in the rainbow, and 
cast upon the page dust from a butterfly's wing." 
Raymond Bouyer. 



Such an artist as Tranquillo Cremona cannot be 
discussed apart from his surroundings ; to neglect 
them would be like painting out the background of 
a picture. To appreciate this Milanese painter we 
must consider the conditions of art at the time 
before and while he was studying, as well as the 
man's quality and revolutionary spirit — for Cremona 
was the most revolutionary painter of his day in 
Italy. We must, therefore, look back to an even 
earlier time than 1836, the year in which he was 
bom, and speak of those who came before him ; 
for all we say of them will 
but add to our admiration 
for this artist. 

Cremona, in fact, started 
from a point which many 
of his predecessors had 
regarded as iheir goal ; he, 
too, before he turned to 
real life, worked at aca- 
demic painting in which 
conventionalism reigned 
supreme instead of feeling 
and sincerity. In Italy, as 
in France, the modern 
spirit was soon to wage 
fierce war with academic 
tradition as represented by 
Camuccini and Benvenuti, 
men of talent who followed 
the lines traced in France 
by David. Against this 
school Cremona rebelled ; 
Camuccini, like Benvenuti, 
was a hero in his day, 
and their example was dis- 
astrous ; they encouraged 
students to admire Greek 
and Roman statues, but 
failed to see that their 
imitations were an insult to 
antique art. Ere long, 
however, the battle cry was 
raised ; new ideas were 
in the air, and a new 

way opened up to youthful artists. In various 
exhibitions, beginning with that held at Parma 
in 1870, and in artists' studios, it was easy to see 
that war was declared between tradition and living 
nature. Battles are not fought without captains, 
and these were not lacking in Italy ; they were not 
many, it is true, but they had strength and courage. 
When Cremona was a young student the professor 
01 painting in the Milan Academy was a man still 
affectionately remembered in Italy : Francesco 
Hayez. He was a Venetian residing at Milan, 
where he taught painting through three genera- 
tions ; and though Hayez was academical in the 
manner of his time, he was far from being rigid in 
his views ; nay, among his fellows he was regarded 
as the representative of progress and life m art. 
Everybody in Italy knows Hayez's Bacio (The 
Kiss), the work not of a pedant but of a man who 
uses his palette for the expression of feeling. This 
picture, indeed, was the motive power of Cremona's 



Tranqiiillo Cremona 

earliest attempts, of his pictures before they became 
what we now find so interesting, so free from con- 
ventional formulas. In Cremona's first manner we 
can discern the artist who will tread his own path 
by the light of his own intelligence, and this gives 
the Bacio by Hayez special importance. 

I have, before now, tried to set this popular 
painting in its true light — a pathetic picture of a 
volunteer kissing his betrothed — and I do not 
hesitate to assert that it laid the germs of a stronger 
school, of which Cremona was a leading champion. 
The influence of Hayez on the generation that grew 
up around him was profound. He was no less the 
artist of a transition than 
was Jacopo della Querela 
at the time of the Renais- 
sance, or again, than 
those artists who con- 
structed the Porta della 
Carta at Venice ; and 
they were not so revo- 
lutionary as Cremona, 
for the times were not 
ripe, and would have 
nothing to say to a 
painter who defied all 
systematic trainmg. 

Next to Hayez the 
first place in modern 
Lombard art must be 
assigned to Cremona ; 
even Giuseppe Bertini, 
who succeeded Hayez 
at the Brera Academy, 
and taught Cremona, 
cannot fill it ; for he, at 
the time when Cremona 
had revealed his strong 
individuality, had a few 
followers who, unaware 
of modern tendencies, 
stood apart or allied 
themselves with the re- 
calcitrant party that con- 
demned Cremona's new 
spirit of artistic expres- 
sion, while it attracted 
youthful intellects. 

Thus we see in Cre- 
mona two very distinct 
artists : the painter who 
in his first youth could 
not shake off the influ- 
ence of his surroundings, 

and the painter who influenced Ihem in his turn: 
attracted in his early works by the rominticism of the 
time, and loving form for its own sake in subserviency 
to tradition, while in his later manner we find him a 
master of ripened judgment, having his own ideal, 
and with a giant's stride leaving his teachers in the 
lurch. It is especially interesting to note the vast 
gulf which divided him from them, from his pre- 
decessors and his contemporaries, as soon as his 
individuality declared itself, and led to his second 
manner. In Cremona a new artistic era opened 
for Italy, and as time goes on this becomes more 
and more apparent, even to those who are unwilling 



Tranquillo Cremona 

to recognise his strong personal influence. To them 
Cremona spoke his last word with The FaUoner, the 
most remarkable work of his first period, and a 
really powerful painting. To this period also 
belongs a very charming and romantic picture, 
which might form a pendant to Hayez's Kiss, 
Lovers at the To?nb of Romeo and Juliet, an oil 
painting of considerable merit. Still, it is inferior 
to many another work by the same hand, though 
leading us naturally to The Cousins, a work which 
shows the portents of revolution. 

Before going on to Cremona's second manner, to 
show how unmistakably school-work was the true 
starting-point of his development, I must note that, 
like his predecessors and his contemporaries, Cre- 
mona turned his attention to historical painting. 
At that period every artist sought his ideal in 
ancient history. Such assemblies of puppets were 
as common then as scientific assemblies are now. 
Hayez was an historical painter; but Cremona, 
while paying his tribute to the 
"learned school," was not the 
man to put his imagination at the 
service of others. His view was 
that a work is interesting in pro- 
portion to the absence of history 
and the presence of life and actu- 
ality ; so, after a very brief delay, 
he went forward in the road 
pointed out to him by nature. 

Among the few historical pic- 
tures which Cremona projected or 
executed, Marco Polo in the 
Presence of the Great Khan of 
Tartary shows that such a painter 
as he was can produce historical 
pictures which are at least less 
tiresome than such works com- 
monly are. 

This brings us to the really 
important phase of Cremona's 
career — the riper age, when he 
gave the rein to his ideal and 
his individuality. The pictures 
he then painted enable us to take 
the artist's mental measure— his 
artistic learning and the breadth 
of his views ; and these mature 
works show us not merely an in- 
tellectual transformation, but a 
new scheme of technique, wholly 
subjective and personal, which 
makes us say at a glance, as we 
stand before one of his pictures, 

" That is by Cremona ! " An artist can desire no 
more significant praise. Cremona, in his handling 
alone, is one of the most original of Italian artists — 
I might almost say the most original. In his art the 
brush work is wedded to the drawing, and design 
and colour compose a harmony which has taken its 
rise in the artist's imagination and soul. Nay, in 
his soul even more than in his imagination, for his 
later work is compact of sensibility and emotion. 
Cremona devoted his attention not merely to the 
lines of the figure, but to the inmost spirit which 
gives them their beauty. A line being to him an 
element that can never be dissevered from colour, 
he drew with his brush and palette ; his eye took 
in together the form and the colour of the model 
before him. One of his critics very truly remarked 
that Cremona from the very first touch tried to 
present everything at once, and the soul appeared 
on the canvas with the substance, both being con- 
ceived of as one from the inception of the work. 


Traiiqiiillo Ci'emona 



Cremona reached heights which might seem 
inaccessible. Consider The Svii/e, a masterpiece 
of truthfulness, noble and bewitching. I say noble, 
for the character of the head is dignified and the 
expression intense, giving us an impression stronger 
even than the reality would. Everything smiles in 
the picture — not only the lips and eyes ; and this 
is noble in art, a nobleness achieved only by 
privileged spirits. Although at first the technique 
may seem over-elaborate, it is not so ; the handling 
is spontaneous, and spontaneity is always simple. 
Thus in The Smile we have a most characteristic 
example of Cremona's art. 

It will be noticed from the accompanying illus- 
trations that a strong sense of the beauty of youth 
pervades Cremona's pictures ; children and girls 
in an atmosphere of grace and love. This is true ; 
but nothing can be further from his art than the 
sensual passion which Tolstoi has cursed from his 
pontifical seat. Cremona is always chaste, and 
iniuses into his domestic scents the poetry that 
we find in the religious and narrative works of 

Botticelli in his day, and of Burne-Jones in our 

Cremona, however, did not restrict his subjects 
to studies of youth ; we find in his works many 
figures of older persons. In his series of portraits, 
for instance, that of E. Marozzi, an old Milanese 
gentleman, is one of the finest. The painter has' 
represented him standing with a newspaper in his 
hand, as if he had been suddenly addressed ; and 
the halfalert, half-absorbed look is rendered with 
striking vitality. Another no less life-like, is that of 
Vittore Grubicy, a painter and writer on art, who, 
with his brother Alberto, was one of the first to 
admire Cremona's work, and did much to make it 
more widely known. Cremona attempted every 
style excepting landscape, and also painted in 
water-colour, a technicjue which is little cultivated 
in Italy. 

I did not know Cremona personally, not having 
come to Milan till after his death in 1878 ; I knew 
Grandi, his intimate friend, and we often talked of 
the painter. The time when Cremona lived was 


Tranquillo Cremo)ia 

after, by all but a few young spirits who bore him 
to the skies, he has at last made an impression 
on the Lombardy School; indeed, he is its true 
creator. His pictures were eagerly studied, and 
his bold innovations captivated young painters, 
who, it must be owned, sometimes imitated rather 
than understood him ; but as time went on 
intelligent sympathy took the place of mere imita- 
tion, and artists derived great benefit from the 
study 01 their leader in Lombardy. Cremona 
himself always impressed on young painters that 
style does not consist in the application of prin- 
ciples, whether learnt in the schools or from the 
study of any great master, but in the free, indi- 
vidual expression of a man's personal artistic 
feeling ; and his own art was a continual illustra- 
tion of this axiom, which is worth many an essay 
on esthetics. Alfredo Mei-ani. 


that of " bohemianism," and Grandi would speak 
of his simple and bohemian life, for Cremona's 
later style was not such as was likely to result in 
wealth. And, indeed, wealth is not prized by revo- 
lutionaries ; the master, deserting the beaten tracks, 
knew that he was not painting for the public, who, 
believing in the Academy and its adherents, did 
not believe in the master's merits. 

This has always been the fate of innovators ; of 
Wagner and Berlioz in music, of Delacroix and 
Manet in painting, who were the butt of academic 
coteries. Cremona, if he were still alive, might say, 
like Delacroix : " For twenty years have I fought 
with the beasts ! " And to this day the public and 
some survivors of the academic tribe do not under- 
stand his aims and work. It is only within a very 
few years that a sufficient sum could be collected to 
raise a monument quite unworthy of his memory, 
though marking some little improvement in the 
public taste and feeling. But in the mind of artists, 
at any rate, Cremona has entered into glory. 

Though scorned during his lifetime, and for long 




Swedish Art at St. Louis 

"full moon in JULY" 




With the establishment in Sweden of the 
Academy of Art by King Gustaf III., Swedish art) 
which had practically remained dormant for a peiiod 
of about two hundred years, was quickened into new 
life. This was towards the end of the seventeenth 
century. Since then, down to the present time, the 
encouragement to art, derived from the existence 
of so significant an institution, has borne continuous 
and good fruit. At the outset, celebrated Continental 
instructors were invited to the country for their 
assistance, thus ensuring high standards of technical 
excellence from the very start. So infectious was the 
craze for imitation of foreign ideals, that the general 
tendency of king and country alike favoured the 
introduction of both the languages and customs of 
other peoples. Moreover, this condition has con- 
tinued to prevail until a quite recent date. 
In fact, the absorbing aspiration of a young artist 

has been to realise the time when he might leave 
for a few years — perhaps for life — his mother- 
country with the view of becoming a " recognised " 

The disadvantage, however, of this too ready 
adoption of foreign sentiment was voiced about the 
year 1889 in a strong reaction against it by a set 01 
enthusiastic young students located in various 
art centres of the Continent. The uprising was as 
effectual as it was general. Detached groups of 
artists met and discussed what, to them, seemed to 
be the burning topic of the hour — the artistic 
possibilities of their own land, with its freedom, 
poetry and beauty. And, as it was recalled to 
memory's vision, they talked of its rugged moun- 
tain sides, its plunging cataracts, its peaceful 
ravines and nestling lakes, all balanced in colour 
by the ether above, and by the telling notes 
of tiny red dwellings dotted over the mantle of 
white below ; they talked of the sturdy peasant 
behind the plough, of the Lapp gliding over vast 
stretches of snow under the starry heaven of a 


Swedish Art at St. Louis 

northern winter's night. Thus it happens that 
in no country of the world is art more nationil, 
more animated, or more true than it is in Sweden 
to day, convincing evidence of which is shown in 
the superb display from that country in the Art 
Palace of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 

This is a magnificent collection, notwithstanding 
the fact that but one of the artist leagues is repre- 
sented as a unit. Had all the societies responded, 
several times the allotted space would have been 
necessary for their accommodation and perhaps 
the showing would not have been of such uniform 
excellence throughout as it now is. The fact is, 
however, that the most prominent members of the 
other societies were especially invited to contribute 
work, which they have generously and creditably 
done. The commission was put under the manage- 
ment of A. Schultzberg, who has discharged 
his duties with perfect satisfaction and fairness to 
all concerned. 

In contrast to the purely Swedish character of 
the present exhibit, one may note, perhaps, a 
radical departure from the French influence in the 
work displayed by Baron Gustaf Cederstrom, 
Schultzberg, Bohm, and others at the Chicago 
Exposition. Again, if one or another of the names 
at the latter exposition is missing from the walls at 
St. Louis, we are attracted by the work of several 
youngerartists in their stead — Almqvist, Ankarcrona, 
Bergstrom, Bernhard and Emil Osterman, V. Smith, 
Vallen and Kallstenius — Kallstenius, who, with 
Schultzberg, is ranked as the greatest Swedish 
landscapist of the younger generation. Essays of 
the northern summer especially appeal to Mr. 
Kallstenius, and are rendered with equal facility 
whether enveloped in the full light of day flooding 
over the woods and pine hills, or in twihght wherein 
the deep blue air catches a golden radiance, or 
wrapped in the tender veil of night. With its 
silent reflection in the waters beneath, The Evening 




Swedish Art at St. Louis 



"a winter evening" 



Swedish Art at St. Louis 

Star, by this aitist, is exceedingly poetic. Eleven 
years ago, when the young Schultjberg carried off 
an important medal from Chicago, the critics felt 
secure in presaging a future for this youth, who 
even then was known as " The Snow Painter ; " 
and the prophets have not been disappointed in 
their prediction. To-day Mr. Schultzberg's work 
displays a personal tone and an element of virility 
that easily distinguish his manner as both convinc- 
ing and impressive. A calm dignity pervades his 
canvas entitled Winter Evening, in which a forest 
of evergreens appears beyond the snow- covered 
hill, and from a cleft in which stretches a single 
towering pine that binds the lake, the distant 
mountains, and the sky to the note of white 
in the snow. The songs of music and the song of 
art are so closely allied that nature's melody 
may often be a common theme for musician and 
artist alike, so that one finds oneself wondering 
whether the fact that Mr. Schultzberg is also a 
musician accounts for the ability he possesses to 
attune his brush to the harmonies of his romantic 
land. At all events, a decided minor chord is 

struck in his subject, called The Blizzard, where 
the very spirit of the Norseman, who laughed in the 
teeth of the storm, seems aroused in the swirl of 
the snow, sweeping over intrepid pines, whose 
branches yield in obedience to the wild caprice of 
the tempest Alfred Bergstrom, who excels in 
paintings of sunsets over forests, bays, and mountains, 
shows a typical work illustrating in a true and 
imposing way the peculiar shading of a sunset in 
the Northland. Erik Hedberg's Fox in Afoonlight 
is excellent, his August Evening is full of poesy, and 
Evening in the Wilderness, from the brush of Olof 
Arborelius, is a masterly work. Notice should also 
be made of the two large paintings by Anton 
Genberg and Oscar HuUgren, and of VVilhem 
Behm's Foggy November Day. A work that is 
attracting much attention, and that is almost 
Corotesque in feeling, is The Midsummer Night by 
Knut Borgh. This young painter is one of the two 
youngest landscape artists in Sweden. The other. 
Miss Esther Almqvist, whose work is likewise 
deserving of notice, shows sympathy and decorative 
sentiment in her Full Moon in Tulv. Another of 



Swedish Art at St. Louis 

the several women-artists of Sweden is the land- 
scapist Charlotte Wahlstrom, whose clever technique 
is admirably depicted in her Summer Evening. 
Among other painters of the younger "set" in 
landscape painting, Messrs. Carl Johanson and 
Gustaf Ancarcrona are rapidly carving for them- 
selves enviable positions, and both of these excel- 
lent painters ought to win high renown ere 

In the case of portrait workers the list is not so 
numerous as among landscape artists. Further- 
more, the only element of incompleteness in the 
whole collection is felt in the absence of examples 
from such masters as Prof. Count von Rosen, Prof. 
Julius Kronberg, Richard Bergh, Emerik Stenberg, 
and some others. However, the works by some ot 
the younger men partially compensate for this defici- 
ency. Of these, Olle Hjortzberg, the very youngest 
of all, who holds the Stockholm Art Academy 
" stipendium," has presented an exceedingly striking 
subject in The Holy Maiden on Her Way to the 
Temple (page 58). Wilhelm Smith, also scarcely 
beyond his student and still in his travelling years, 
selects his incident from types and scenery of 
Southern Europe. Already his paintings are being 
purchased for the museums of Stockholm and 
Gothenburg, and his countrymen predict much for 
his future. The (Jsterman twin brothers, who are 

gaining excellent success in their special line of 
portraiture, exhibit four works each. Emil 
Osterman, " the King painter," shows a frank, 
intelligent example of brush-work in his portrait of 
the landscape painter, " J." The inimitable Zom 
is honoured by the space of nearly half a room 
being devoted to his work, the larger proportion of 
which consists of portraits, although some ideal 
compositions are among the number. His Bathing 
Girl is a treatment of restless, easy movement, of 
warm sunshine and of natural, glowing life. The 
drawing. Mother and Daughter^ by Carl Larsson, 
possesses a delightful charm of simplicity and 
truth, a feature that is apparent in all the admir- 
able works he is exhibiting. Exhibits by Gustaf 
Wallen, Fanny Brate, Lotten Bonnkvist, with 
a number of others, are worthy of mention, and 
help to put Sweden far to the front in the modern 
art world. 

Perhaps there is no greater exponent of Swedish 
ait at its best than the clever and resourceful 
painter of wild animals, Bruno Liljefors, a man 
who even in the days of his less impressionistic 
work sought only for truth, and who succeeded in 
breathing into his creations something that was more 
than the mere suggestion of nature. His paintings were 
the very essence and spirit of life, which he declared 
to us through his noble colouring and his wonderful 



Swedish Art at St. Louis 



sense of movement. His Eagle and Hare at St. 
Louis is considered one of his strongest examples. 
In the sculpture group in this section there is 
one work by a young and comparatively unknown 
artist — a lady — which proclaims, in its chaste, 
beautiful lines, a message of dignity, of sweetness 
and even grandeur. It is called The Annunciation, 
and is executed by Miss Sigrid Blomberg. In 
quite another style is the Caliban by David 
Ekstrom, another of the younger sculptors. To 
this class also belong the talented brother and 
sister, Carl and Ruth Mills, who each exhibit a 
number of admirable subjects. Stormy Day in 
Holland by the brother, and Yvonne by the sister, 
are both technically very fine. The three busts in 
porcelain by Herman Neujd attract much attention. 
Teodor Lundberg's Ikaros and Wave and the Sea 
are magnificent works, which well deserve the 
admiration they are receiving ; and the splendidly 
executed bronzes by Gustaf Lindberg evince a 
genial charm that is gratifying indeed. Then that 
powerful piece of modelling, presented by Prof. 
Borjeson, in a bronze representation of The Muser, 
is only one out of eighteen superb contributions 
by a man who has an intelligent and decisive 
command of his craft. The Muser is a masterly 

conception ; it suggests the eternal problem of 
existence, expressed in the meditative attitude of 
the strong, sculptural figure resting eflfectively on 
a large sphere. The composition also has been 
so subtly managed as to collect the interest in a 
cumulative manner, and finally to centre directly 
in and about the head as the objective point. 
The seriousness, the philosophic aspect of this 
work are impressive in their spontaneous directness, 
and in recognising these characteristics the earnest 
student is reminded of but two of the many great 
fundamentals belonging to the type of Swedish 

The opportunity of becoming better acquainted 
with the inspiring style of present-day Swedish art 
is an epoch in the history of art in America, and 
for its privilege the art lovers of the United States 
feel themselves deeply indebted to the St. Louis 
Exposition of 1904. 

M. I. G. O. 

[For the illustrations to the above article we are 
indebted to the courtesy of the directors of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company who have 
kindly allowed us the use of their copyright photo- 
graphs. — Editor, The Studio.] 


Designs for Labourers Cottages 


{See article " Swedish Art at the St. Louis Exposition " ) 



Design for a Row of three Labourers' 

as halls and quaintly-devised ingle- 
nooks. Our instruction that the ele- 
ment of cost would be a strong factor 
in the adjudication of the award should 
have been the starting-point in con- 
sidering the problem, and should have 
been sufficient to indicate an eco- 
nomical arrangement of plan, and a 
simple treatment of elevational features. 
The imaginary client for whom the 
drawings may be supposed to have 
been prepared clearly conditioned the 
whole design by the statement as to 
economy, and we regret that non com- 
pliance with this consideration has 
ruled so many of the competitors out 
of the category of possible prize- 

In this competition we are glad to be able once 
more to recognise a full and interesting response on 
the part of our body of competitors. We again asked 
them to submit drawings embodying their thought 
as applied to the designing of cottages, but we 
made their path easier by drawing a sharp and 
decisive dividing-line separating the small week-end 
home of the man-of ease from the cottage of the 
worker — such as the farm-labourer and the gardener. 
Clear though we meant this line to be, we cannot 
honestly say that all the competitors maintained it, 
and several of the designs included such luxuries 


'THE MUSER" by professor KORJESON 

(See article "Swedish Art at the St. Louis Exposition " ) 

Designs for Labourers Cottages 

I A°tiS°'>^ " "IT °1iTDR.Ff -iAB°m !t-riRir°C°TTA< .E/'j 



The response to the competition was so large 
that we do not propose, on this occasion, to pass in 
view each and every one of the designs submitted, 
but we have made a careful selection from them, 
and proceed this month to deal with the first instal- 
ment of these. 

Sammy (page 63) sends a set vigorously drawn 
in brown ink. Like many others of the com- 
petitors—nearly all, in fact — he disregards the 
annoying condition insisted on by many local 
authorities under which the party-wall must be carried 
above the roof. This would be fatal to his dove- 
tailing arrangement of bedrooms. The plan and 
elevation are both alike simple and well thought 
out ; but it hardly seems likely that the ^50 
allowed in his estimate would be sufficient to cover 
the cost of drains, fences, and water-supply. TyroFs 
plan (page 62) has the advantage of providing his 
hypothetical tenants with a bath, which is an excel- 
lent arrangement, and is here placed in the kitchen, 
in the floor of which it is sunk. Too few of the 
competitors have considered this point. The nine- 
inch exterior walls have reduced the cost of this 
design, but we cannot say that they always prove 
efficacious in keeping out the weather. The design 
of Alex (page 64) is drawn with a very pleasant 
feeling. We cannot be sure of the construction of 
the overhanging walls of the first floor. It seems 

to be asking projecting joists to do rather much 
when they are supposed to carry both walls and 
roof. The arrangement of massing the w.c.'s 
together is far from satisfactory. The small 
scullery, which just takes the sink, is a good 
feature in his plan, seeing that cottagers so largely 
live in their kitchens. In Sandy's set (page 65) the 
bedroom over the kitchen (as presumably the 
others) has but four feet in height from floor to 
plate of sloping roof. The ground-floor project- 
ing windows could not be roofed and ceiled in 
the small moulding shown. Stan sends a vigorous 
perspective which we illustrate on this page, in 
which a happy effect is obtained by eaves of 
considerable projection, while his scale drawing 
(page 60), shows a back elevation which would 
work out effectively. The plan is good and com- 
pact, and the staircase, though a separate feature, 
is economically treated as regards space. The 
scullery recess leading out of the kitchen is a 
good arrangement. Many of the competitors have 
planned the scullery as a room of some size. This 
is unnecessary, as all that is wanted in such cottages 
is a recess large enough to hold a sink and a 
worker, and thus prevent the floor of the kitchen 
from being splashed during " washing up." We 
could wish that Stan had provided the bath that so 
many estate proprietors now insist on as a 


Designs for Labourers Cottages 

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labourers' cottages {second PRIZE: COMP. A LXII) 


labourers' cottages (HON. MENTION: COiU'. A I.XIl) 



Designs for Labourers Cottages 



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labourers' cottages (HON. MENTION : COMP. A LXll) 


Designs for Labourers' Cottages 



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labourers' cottages (HON. MENTION ; COMP. A LXII) 

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Designs for Labourers Cottages 

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labourers' cottages (HON. MENTION : COMP. A LXIl) 




Designs for Labourers Cottages 

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labourers' cottages (HON. MENTION : COMP. A LXU) 

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Designs for Labourers Cottages 

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labourers' cottages (HON. MENTION : COMP. A LXIl) 

necessity. Dogroae (page 64) errs on the extra va- 
gant side in providing a special bath-room. His 
semi-circular gables and redbrick quoins would be 
a happy elevational feature, but we hardly approve 
of his huge stone slab below the chimney cap. 
This would collect wet and only increase the 
difficulty always experienced in preventing it from 
descending the shaft. The pretty little drawing 
of Caliban (on this page) suggests very pleasantly 

a group possessing true 
cottage feeling, but a 
lead flat and a V-gutter 
are things to avoid as 
far as possible. The 
design sent by Pierrot 
(page 67) has a very 
engaging little perspec- 
tive sketch, and a plan 
showing considerable 
ingenuity. Bedrooms 
18 ft. long, two w.c.'s, and 
a first-floor bath-room, 
all, however, suggest 
the middle - class villa, 
rather than the working- 
man's cottage. The plan, 
sent by Tulip (page 63) 
has taken into considera- 
tion, which few of the 
others have, that it is 
necessary, or, at all events, 
desirable for the occupant of the middle of 
three cottages to reach his back garden or yard, 
as the case may be, without crossing that 
of his next - door neighbour. It does not 
indicate, by the bye, how it is proposed 
to light the staircases. The scullery is somewhat 
difficult of access from the kitchen. Stem (page 65), 
shows a washhouse approached from the kitchen — 
never a very wise thing, as giving opportunity 


Tfo tumvon 

MCK r:iJ"-V/3iTic>i 

GfexiriD pi^n 

mn CLhVffl'lO/"! 

labourers' cottages (HON. MENTION : COMP. A LXn) 



BY "CflLIOAfj" 

studio- Talk 


P^ld^ f^ THI^ J^Bou^E^ @^<^ 

; je!vw'-*»e°: 'a'-'a' : 

labourers' cottages (HOX. mention ; COM!'. A LXIl) 

.j?it, -r :^'n 

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" - - - ■ 


or the house to become full of steam on washing- 
day. The pantry, by which one may imagine he 
means larder, is, in each case, some distance from 
the kitchen. Angelina's plan (page 6i) is simple 
and well-contrived, and by a little ingenuity it 
might have been arranged that the doors of the 
back bedrooms of the left-hand house were more 
than about two feet wide. The elevation is quiet 
and cottage-like. Jiosamund {]3a.gti 6i) has obtained 
a pleasant effect by imagining a fall of eighteen 
inches or so in the level of the ground. The plan 
is simple, and the house would be inexpensive, 
though we hardly think it could be carried out at 
so low a price as ^\d. a foot. 

(To be coiitintted. ) 


(From our own Correspondents) 

LONDON. — The Academy is said to be 
contemplating a revival of the class of 
members known as Associate-Engravers, 
which has been allowed for some con- 
siderable time to remain without representatives. 
In past years many of the more distinguished men 
who practised the art of engraving were elected to the 
.Associateship and were accorded by the Academy 
the recognition which was due to them on their 
merits. One of these men, Mr. Stacpoole, is indeed 
still living, but he has been for a long time on the 
retired list and no longer follows his profession. 

Engravers of his type are not now to be found ; 
their place has been taken by the etchers and 
workers in mezzotint, who are certainly producing 
things which are in their particular way quite as 
worthy of attention as the engravings in line or 
stipple which were in fashion generations ago. As 
line engraving is now a dead art the new Associate- 
Engravers will have to be drawn from the ranks of 
the etchers and mezzotinters, and it will be interest- 
ing to see whom out of the many fine craftsmen 
who are available the Academy chooses. If it 
follows precedent, it will presumably prefer workers 
in mezzotint, for they are now, like the line 
engravers of other days, the reproducers of pictures 
old and new, and the translators of popular 
paintings into black and white. But if original 
engravers are required they will have to be sought 
among the etchers, of whom there are many who 
well deserve admission to Burlington House. 
Indeed, the difficulty will be not so much to find 
suitable candidates for the two Associateships 
which are to be filled, as to make the right selection 
from the crowd of men who are available. 

The intention of the Academy to include in its 
winter exhibition a representative collection of the 
works of O F. Watts is entirely to be commended. 
If, as presumably will be the case, it takes care to 
secure a really adequate display of his petform- 



ances at the various periods of his long career, the 
demonstration of the powers of an artist who ranks 
deservedly among our chief masters ought to be 
particularly convincing. The contributions made 
by Mr. Watts to British art in imaginative composi- 
tion, landscape, and portraiture, have been so 
valuable and so important that he is entitled to 
extraordinary consideration ; and the Academy, of 
which he was so long one of the most distinguished 
members, should treat his works with the utmost 
respect. It should not be difficult to fill the 
galleries at Burlington House with his productions, 
and if this is done we shall be spared for once the 



infliction of such shows of inartistic curiosities as 
have been presented there during the last few winters. 



From the few facts which have been allowed 
to leak out concerning the doings of the Academy 
during the past season, it would appear that the 
effect upon that institution of the Chantrey agitation 
has been decidedly beneficial. The number of 
visitors to the spring exhibition was greater by 
many thousands than it was in 1903, and there 
was consequently a considerable increase in receipts. 
As the season was not particularly favourable for 
indoor shows, and as the exhibition itself had no 
sensational features which would be likely to please 
the general public, this accession of prosperity 
could only have been due to the advertisement 
given to the Academy by the proceedings in the 
House of Lords. It is worth noting, however, 
that though there were more visitors than usual to 


Studio- Talk 

the galleries, the sales were decidedly below the 
average, so that obviously the people who came 
were inspired more by curiosity than by any idea 
of art patronage. Possibly the very popularity of 
the show made it unsuccessful as a market. The 
collector is a shy person who likes to ruminate 
in solitude, and he is apt to be scared by a 
crowd. It is very likely that some such reason as 
this accounts for the notorious inefficiency of the 
Academy as a selling place; the man with money 
will not come there to be jostled by thousands of 
sightseers whose only feeling is curiosity. 

The efforts that have been made in recent years, 
both in Europe and America, to improve the 
potter's art have been undoubtedly commendable, 
and the worker in clay is probably at the present 
time nearer the true understanding of the art of his 
craft than has been the case for many years past. 
Honour is due to France for the first important 
lead given to the movement, and France was 
inspired in her work by a careful study of the 




ancient wares of Japan and China. Delaherche, 
Bigot, and Dammouse are among the names which 
stand prominent as leaders in the modern move- 
ment, and in consequence of their initial efforts 
ceramists in Clermany, Holland, Denmark, America, 
and England have been encouraged to new enter- 

We hive, at various times, in the pages of The 
Studio, referred to modern pottery wares of more 
than ordinary merit. Among the best of the recent 
productions are some examples made at the works 
of the Pilkington Tile and Pottery Company, under 
the supervision of Mr. William Burton and his 
brother, Mr. Joseph Burton. At an exhibition of 
this pottery, recently held at (iraves' Callery in 
London, some very distinguished examples of 
crystalline glazes were exhibited of a similar niture 
to those so successfully produced some years ago 
by M. Bigot, and since also essayed by many other 
potters. Messrs. Burton claim, however, to have 
introduced new effects, and the results attained by 
them are of much interest. The s[)ecimens of mixed 




colour glazes also shown by them were very delicate 
in their colour harmonies, and displayed remark- 

able skill in manipulation. 
The "orange skin," "egg- 
shell," and " fruit skin " 
glazes, as well as their 
" metallic " and " trans- 
mutation "glazes, included 
many beautiful examples, 
and showed how very 
closely their Chinese pro- 
totypes have been imi- 
tated. The whole exhibi- 
tion was one of unusual 
merit, and reflected the 
highest credit upon the 
potters responsible for the 
several pieces. Since the 
work of Mr. Taylor, of 
Birmingham, no more 

successful examples of glazed pottery have been 

produced in England. 








Studio- Talk 


The Royal Porcelain Works of Copenhagen have 
in recent years been experimenting in glazes, with 
the result that they have succeeded in producing 
upon porcelain some entirely new effects which 
reflect the highest credit 
on their potters. Their 
modelled pieces are of 
unusual excellence, and 
the example we are 
enabled to illustrate of 
two Polar bears upon 
an ice floe is a master- 
piece of the potter's art. 
Another Danish potter, 
Mr. C. V. Kjer, whose 
productions are in a 
softer clay, has produced 
some most successful ex- 
amples of p'itesur-pate, 
in which the modelling is 
especially good. 

A. Miles, designs for tapestry by Katherine Lyon, 
book illustrations by J. C. Moody, and a majolica 
plaque by Esther E. Tatlow. 

We give some further 
illustrations of works ex- 
hibited at the recent ex- 
hibition of the National 
Competition of Schools 
of Art at South Kensing- 
ton. These include an 
embroidered panel by 
Irene Allen, a leather 
blottercover by Clara 




studio- Talk 


The panel by Mr. Brangwyn, A.R.A., which is 
here reproduced in colours, has notable deco- 
rative qualities and rare beauty of arrangement, 
and yet it is distinguished by that wonderful spon 
taneity of statement and freshness of manner which 

give a peculiar and cha- 
racteristic charm to all Mr. 
Brangwyn's pictorial per- 
formances. He has in the 
highest degree the power, 
which stamps the accom- 
plished craftsman, of con 
cealing the more or less 
laborious processes by 
which his apparently easy 
results are attained. He 
never labours, and he 
never makes any display 
of cleverness for its 
own sake. His method, 
on the contrary, is per- 
fectly straightforward and 
natural, and it has a 
frankness that is pe- 
culiarly attractive. In 
such subjects as this, he 
is seen absolutely at his 
best. The picturesqueness and the decorative 
possibilities of modern life have for him a special 
meaning, and he can give to every-day scenes an 
artistic significance which is quite beyond the 
reach of the ordinary artist. The secret of his 






(NEW cross) 

Studio- Talk 

success lies in the fact that he is by habit and 
instinct a designer, and knows exactly how to 
subordinate to a finely conceived general scheme 
those minor details which a mere realist would 
make irritating by over-insistence. In Mr. 
Brangwyn's work there is never anything trivial. 
He is always dignified, strong, and thoughtful, 
always striving after high ideals, and always 
aiming at a type of beauty which shall be im- 
pressive in its largeness of quality. 




BOOK 11 1 rsl KAI II IN 



that where it happens it is with pleasure we 
allow it to claim our attention. Mr. Fedden is 
frankly experimental. Confining himself almost 
exclusively to the practice of water-colours, there 

From among the younger men 
who this season have challenged 
criticism in oneman-shows, the 
work of Mr. A. Romilly Fedden 
stands out as that of a painter 
having the secret of beautiful 
colour. A painter may possess 
this secret in silence or at least 
not make himself heard amongst 
all the cleverness that riots through 
our exhibitions, unless he advertises 
his work by its eccentricity or 
swims in with cliques whose every 
exhibition is a pose. And yet it is 
scarce enough for a painter to 
harbour a little refinement in many 
feet of coloured canvas, so scarce 



studio- Talk 



the effects he strives for. Though his pictures are 
anything but laboured it is evident that afterthoughts 
which intensify a victory too easily come by are 
not excluded from his work. There are certain 
moods in nature with which Mr. Fedden is most in 
tune, as may be said of any painter whose art is not 
a species of mechanical scholarship to be applied 
at the bidding of the market. Mr. Fedden, whilst 
concerning himself most deliberately with these, 
which may be said to be the more evasive moods, 
rocks upon which the ships of the amateur go 
down, escapes now and then to other things, and 
by the same delicate and tentative workmanship 
arrives successfully at results of another kind. White 
buildings and heavy trees hiding the moon have 
affected his imagination, as they affect the imagi- 
nation of Le Sidaner. Mr. Fedden has something 
entirely his own to say in his emotional rendering 
of window lights inlaid like gold upon the houses, 
silver in the light of the moon. 

is about his work nothing slick or defiantly 
easy, but a real effort is apparent to extract from 
his medium the utmost that careful thought, added 
to his instinctive sympathy with it, can contribute in 

Mr. Fedden, who is a member of the Royal 
Society of British Artists, studied painting at the 
Herkomer School. Now that that school is closing 
it is interesting to see another of its students 






studio- Talk 

"an ARAB CAFE ' 



Striking out into the open field of art, with some- 
thing his own to say and his own way of saying it. 

LEICESTER.— The Arts and Crafts Exhi- 
bition held during August and Septem- 
ber at Leicester was one of exceptional 
variety and interest. It was contributed 
to by nearly all the more prominent of our artist- 
craftsmen, but the Leicester element, as it should 
be, was very strong. In the main gallery the 
architectural drawings of Mr. Edgar Wood, 
A. R.I.B.A., the designs for stained glass by the 
brothers Messrs. Maurice and Edward Detmold, 
and the high quality of the needlework, attracted 
our first attention. A satin table-centre by Miss 
Ann Macbeth, executed by Miss Agnes Skene, and 
an embroidered screen by Miss Frances Pooley, 
Galled for particular notice. Mr. Charles Dawson 
contributed some book-plates, and of a high order 
of merit was the ceremonial silver key by the 
Messrs. T. S. and E. S. Elgood in the same room. 

The jewellery by Mr. Joseph M. Doran, Mr. 
Bernard Cuzner, Miss Gertrude Wadsworth, Miss 
Eleanor Hlagburn, and Miss Mary Barber, and 

the silver clasps of Mr. A. Fowler, show how busy 
our best designers are in ousting what is tawdry 
from the market by the production of so many 
beautiful things. 

The book-binding exhibits were very strong, and 
we reproduce several of the more important ones. 
Those designed by Mr. F. Sangorski and executed 
by Mr. G. Sutcliffe were of an order that places them 
outside the run of such work by the distinction and 
refinement in the tooled designs. The work of 
Miss Jessie King, Miss Alice Shepherd, and Mr. 
S. Poole, done for Mr. Cedric Chivers' vellucent 
binding, was interesting, as work in this method 
always is, especially in the case of so original a 
designer as Miss Jessie King. The designs of 
Mr. J. S. H. Bates, too, contributed to the high stan- 
dard of this section, as also did those of Mr. Francis 
D. Rye, whose bound book of Morris' " Lecture " 
cannot be too highly praised. Mr. C. H. Lawford 
exhibited a very attractive and altogether pleasant 
scheme for a mantel piece, with frieze and grate, 
in which a clock by Mr. R. Holloway and fender 
by Messrs. Elgood were included ; its sim- 
plicity of arrangement and design is something 



. .„,^,2-^^^>'^ 



attracted by the designs 
for leaded lights by Mr. 
Alexander Gascoyne, and 
the designs by Mr. Robert 
Evans, executed by Mr. R. 
Holloway, notably their pro- 
cessional cross. On the first 
floor the chestnut four- post 
bedstead, with hangings, by 
Mr. Ambrose Heal, jun., 
executed by^ Messrs. Heal 
& Son, and some of the 
other pieces of furniture 
designed for this firm, were 
full of novelty and interest 
and of high quality from 
the stand-point of design. 
There was a beautifully 
shaped tea-table by Mr. 
George Walton, and by 
him also a cabinet and 
chairs, restrained and use- 
ful in design, as well as ex- 
cellent examples of sten- 
cilled linen by the same 
clever designer. The 
tapestries by Mr. Cecil 
Millar, for Messrs. Morton 
& Co., especially the wool 
tapestry, Dunkeld, were 
worthy of note, as were 
also those executed by the 

to be emulated in 
schemes of this kind. 
We have an especial word 
of praise for the clock by 
Mr. Holloway. There is 
a debased form of origin- 
ality in vogue in these 
things that nullifies their 
usefulness, but in Mr. Hol- 
loway's design the return 
to the steel hands and 
white face with simple 
figures, whilst forming a 
pleasant contrast with the 
brass clock, makes it a 
sensible thing of beauty. 

In other parts of the 
galleries our attention was 



studio- Talk 



Birmingham Guild of Handicraft, Ltd., from the 
designs of Mr. W. Halford and Mr. A. S. Dixon. 
Excellent also was the three-fold screen, with panels 
in needle work, designed by Mr. R. J. S. Bertram and 
executed by Miss Dorothy Longstaff and Mr. John 
Thompson. On the staircase the card-cases embos- 
sed by Miss Alice Shepherd attracted our attention. 
Other things in the exhibition which called for recog- 
nition were the colour-print designs by Miss L. M. 
Glazier, the designs for the exterior and interior of 
Parr's Bank, Leicester, by Messrs. Everard and Pick, 
proofs of drawings for " Highways and Byways of 
Shakespeare's Country" (not yet published) by Mr. 
E. H. New, and his pen-drawings for " Haunts of 
Ancient Peace " ; and of especial interest were the 
designs of Mr. Heywood Sumner for the sgraffito and 
mosaic decoration of the side apse of St. Agatha's, 
Landport, and the colour-sketch for sgraffito 
decoration of the central apse, and designs 
for stained glass. The case of jewellery designed 

by Mr. J. ^^'. Moore, and executed by himself 
and Mr. T. Collins, the case of pendants, 
containing miniatures by Mr. Joseph E. Southall, 
the Greek lace on Langdale hand-woven linen, 
designed by Mr. Southall and executed by 
Mrs. Southall, and the Ruskin ware by Mr. W. 
Howson Taylor, which latter was to be met 
with in various parts of the exhibition : these 
things, together with works sent from the Essex 
House Press, and the original designs for wall- 
papers by Mr. \\'alter Crane, all helped to bring the 
Exhibition up to that very high standard which, to 
the credit of everyone connected with its arrange- 
ment, it attained. A unique contrast was given to 
the Exhibition by the inclusion of Japanese and 
Indian embroideries, English pottery, Sheffield 
plate, etc., and a room of English eighteenth-century 
furniture, lent by the courtesy of private collectors 
to the Exhibition. Opportunity was thus given 
the student to compare the products of his own 

silver ceremonial key 

designed by thomas s ei.gogd 
executed by e. s. elgood 


Studio- Talk 



time with work produced under conditions and in 
times so different. The object-lesson of the 
eighteenth-century furniture should be of especial 
value as a corrective to a tendency on the part of 
modern designers to ignore the laws of proportion 
and construction. T. M. W. 

Brangwyn, A.R.A., a dark-toned London Bridge, 
touched with something of the sombre spirit 
that marks Mr. Muhrmann's work which is 
also represented, while two examples of M. 
Le Sidaner's glimmering landscape, one of them 
fuller and more coherent in technique than 
is usual with him, and a fine water-colour by 
M. Bloomers represent two phases of continental 
practice ; but apart from these and pictures by Mr. 
J. C. Noble and Mr. Robert Macgregor, the 
interest of the exhibition lies in the work of 



members of the Society. Mr. Campbell Mitchell 
the chairman, whose election as A.R.S.A. was re- 
ferred to here a few months ago, shows a low- 


While this year's 
exhibition of the 
Society of Scot- 
tish Artists lacks the dis- 
tinction previous shows 
have occasionally attained 
through the presence of 
noble or notable loan works 
in sculpture or painting, it 
has its own features of 
interest. Mr. McTaggart, 
one of the honorary vice- 
presidents, has sent a de 
lightfully fresh and spon- 
taneous picture of children 
romping in a lily-gemmed 
garden, and Mr. Frank 



Studio- Talk 

a numberof Orchard scenes, 
over-brovNTi in colour and 
lacking in' atmosphere but 
very dexterously painted : 
and Mrs. R. B. Nesbit, 
Mr. Ford and Mr. R. D. 
Herdman show good por- 
traits. The first room con- 
tains some charming water- 
colours, such as the wonder- 
ful drawings of wild-flowers 
and grasses by Mr. Edwin 


hoiizoned moorland, lying in the shadow of a cloud- 
piled sky, which is not only the most important 
picture he has painted as yet, but is, in its own 
way, one of the finest landscapes produced in 
Scotland of recent years. Several of his smaller 
pictures are marked by similar fine qualities, and 
the time seems come when this artist should be 
hailed as arrive. A big ploughing scene by Mr. 
George Smith, if not quite so satisfactory as the 
Kiwckbreck Moor, is also an admirable perform- 
ance, well conceived and designed and powerfully 
drawn and painted ; and the Lech Fyne of Mr. 
Mason Hunter, although somewhat clumsy in 
drawing and heavy in handling, is perhaps the 
completest thing he has done and a very full 
expression of his preferences in subject and design, 
technique and colour. These are the most out- 
standing works in virtue of size and in relationship 
to the declared aim of the society " to stimulate the 
younger artists to produce more important works," 
but there are others calling for special praise. Mr. 
Robert Burns's The Ring, for instance, simple as it 
is in motive, is one of his most successful studies, 
and shows a greater range of tone than he has 
usually used, ana Mr. Payton Reid's The Slave, 
while wanting in some painter-like qualities and fine 
colour, is an excellent picture of its kind ; Mr. 
Hornel's inlay of children and swans and blossoms 
has a charm of its own ; Mr. W. M. Fraser has 
several pleasing landscapes, and Mr. Robert Noble 


Alexander ; a richly 
decorative and 
beautiful rendering of 
the ballad Binnorie 
by Miss Katherine 
Cameron ; the dainty 
impressionist sket- 
ches of Miss Meg 
Wright, and the 
finely designed, if 
rather muddily 
coloured, landscapes 

of Mr. C. H. Mackie. Two powerful and admir- 
ably put together landscape compositions in black 
chalk by Mr. W. Y. MacGregor should also be 
noted. J. L. C. 

PARIS.— There died at Bure (Orne) on 
the 27th of August, one of the greatest 
of modern French painters — Henri 
Fantin-Latour. Readers of The Studio 
will not have forgotten the long article devoted 
to Fantin-Latour in these pages — an article 
for which the master (one of this magazine's 
staunchest friends and most assiduous readers) 
specially composed a beautiful lithograph. It 
were unnecessary for me now to refer to his work 
as painter and lithographer, seeing that it was 
studied so thoroughly in the article to which I 
have referred. As for his pastels, thanks to one 



who was a constant frequenter of his studio, some of 
them are illustrated m this number. For the rest 
let it suffice to recall that Fantin was born at 
Grenoble on January 14, 1836. Himself the son 
of a painter, he received his first lessons from his 
father, and completed his studies under Lecoq de 
Boisbaudran and Couture. Although a much 
younger man he was in close touch with Legros, 
Corot, Millet, Courbet, and Delacroix, and later 
he became the friend of Manet, Bracquemond and 
Whistler. Political differences separated him from 
Bracquemond in his later days, and he drifted apart. 
In 1 86 1 he made his first appearance at the Salon, 
and soon developed into the sure draughtsman 
and the harmonious colourist with whom everyone 
is familiar. He spent some time in London, and 
there found admirers who have remained true to 
him. At first he was best known as the painter 
of remarkable portraits, including many delicate 
presentments of women, and forcible pictures of 
men, such as L Atelier de Manet (in the 
Luxembourg), which perpetuates the features of 
several great men of our time. Subsequently 
Fantin- Latour gave free rein to his rich imagination, 
inspired by the pure visions conjured up by music, 
for which he had a strong passion, and occasionally 
coming back to his portrait work or to his admir- 
able flower - studies. He lived a retired, dis- 
interested life in his little atelier in the Rue des 
Beaux- Arts, where it was my privilege to see 
him a few months since. He loved to talk there of 
his friends and of those he admired. He remained 
ever faithful to Delacroix, and when the Thomy- 
Thiery collection was displayed in the Louvre he 
celebrated the occasion with fervour, and deplored 
the little attention devoted by the artistic press to 
the master's Rebecca. He was above all things for 
fine colour, and it grieved him to see so many of 
his contemporaries paint "only with straw or 
mud." Such were his expressions, and he spoke 
with enthusiasm of Beethoven, Wagner, Schumann, 
and Brahms, to whom by means of his lithographs 
and his pictures he has raised a monument which 
IS worthy of their genius. H. F. 


Giovanni Costa. By Olivia Rossetti Agresti. 
(London: Grant Richards.) ;£i is. net. — In 
Giovanni Costa the accomplished authoress of this 
fascinating monograph had a most congenial 
subject. She knew and loved well the famous 
Itahan patriot painter, sharing his aspirations for 
the independence of his native land, and apprecia- 

ting his sacrifices in its cause. She is, more- 
over, competent to judge of his art work on its 
own merits ; and, although she is perhaps now and 
then biassed by her personal predilection, her 
criticism is on the whole both shrewd and just. 
The intimate friend and constant companion of 
Leighton, Richmond, Gilbert, Onslow Ford, and 
Mason, as well as of John Howard, now Lord 
Carlisle, and of the Rev. Stopford Brooke who 
was one of his most constant patrons, Giovanni 
Costa had, from the first, a very strong predilection for 
England, where his work is far better known than 
in his own country. The publication in London of 
an account of his life is therefore peculiarly fitting, 
especially as the book is full of new and interesting 
anecdotes of his famous contemporaries. " Rarely 
indeed," says the writer, " does it fall to the lot of 
a biographer to chronicle the career of an artist so 
rich in events as that of Costa " ; to find a parallel 
case it is, she adds, " necessary to go back to the 
glorious period of the Italian Renaissance," when 
Michel Angelo and Leonardo da Vinci divided 
their time between their art and the affairs of state ; 
to find an artist whose life has been so earnestly and 
passionately devoted to his work, yet who has also 
so constantly and actively played his part in the 
public life of his country. For his political 
principles he gave up nearly all his wealth, for his 
ideal in art he resigned popularity, but his name 
will live for ever in the memory of all who have at 
heart the best interests of Italy as a nation, and of 
art as an ennobling and refining influence. Un- 
fortunately the high appreciation that must be 
given to this biography as a piece of literature can- 
not be extended to its illustrations, which can 
scarcely be called representative. They con- 
spicuously fail to do justice to the original paintings 
that place their author in the very highest rank 
amongst modern Italian masters, Segantini alone 
having been his equal in truth to nature and 
originality of style. 

Illustrated Catalogue of a Loan Collection of 
Portraits at Oxford. (Oxford : Clarendon Press.) 
2\s. net. — Those who were fortunate enough to see 
the fine collection of portraits recently exhibited in 
the Examination Schools, Oxford, under the 
auspices of a Committee of the Oxford Historical 
Society, will welcome the appearance of this finely 
illustrated volume, which, however, will be of still 
greater value to the larger public who had not that 
privilege. The Introduction, from the able pen of 
the Director of the National Portrait Gallery, is a 
brief but excellent synopsis of the history of portrait 
painting in England. Mr. Cust points out that Oxford 



is far richer in college portraits than Cambridge, 
yet as early as 1884 and 1885, exhibitions of local 
treasures were held in the latter city. Now, however 
Oxford is waking up to the value of her treasures, 
and the recent exhibition was but the first of a 
series to be held year by year, illustrating the 
history, customs, and habits of the University from 
the earliest times, for, adds Mr. Cust, " most phases 
of her history can be traced in the portraits of her 
great men and benefactors when they are brought 
side by side in contemporary arrangement." Full 
particulars of each portrait, with the main facts of the 
life of the sitter, are given in this excellent catalogue 
raisonni\ and amongst the plates are good render- 
ings of Holbein's beautiful William Warham, a 
fine Portrait of John King attributed to Daniel 
Mytens, and one of Sir Henry Lee, by Sir Antonis 
Mor. It is a pity, however, that one of the finest 
of the paintings exhibited, the Portrait of Queen 
Mary by an unknown hand, lent by the Curators of 
the University Galleries, should not have been 

Alodern Cottage Architecture. Edited by 
M.\URiCE B. Adams. (London : Batsford.) 
IO.S-. 6(f. net. — In view of the rapid growth of many 
towns, especially in the south of England, such as 
Bournemouth, Weymouth, and Ilfracombe, it is 
indeed deeply to be regretted that there are no bye- 
laws restricting the erection of the unsightly villas 
and cottages that are rapidly destroying the beauty 
of the surrounding districts. Fortunately, however, 
though the mischief already resulting from the 
absence of control cannot be remedied, there are 
now signs of reform owing to an improvement in 
public taste. Cottages and small villas of charm- 
ing design are springing up everywhere in the 
country, but unfortunately they are not for the 
occupation of the labouring classes who so long 
monopolised the true rural home, but for well-to-do 
people who like to get away from town for the 
week-end. On them, as well as on the jerry 
builder who sins more often from ignorance than 
from malice prepense, Mr. Adams' valuable volume, 
with its fifty examples of designs by the best archi- 
tects, will confer a true boon, though it seems 
strange that amongst them all there is not one 
with the picturesque mansard roof that gives so 
much room space at small expense. The editor's 
brief essays on such important subjects as sanita- 
tion, water supply, windows, staircases, etc., and the 
plans accompanying the drawings are most valuable. 
Amongst the designs in this valuable collection, 
the best are, without doubt, those by Ernest New- 
ton, Aston Webb, and Leonard Stokes, which 

admirably combine comfort, adaptability, inexpen- 
siveness, and picturesqueness. 

Mural Painting. By F. Hamilton J.\ckson, 
R.B.A, (London: Sands & Co.) — Mr. Jack- 
son has mastered the history of mural decoration 
from the earliest times to the present day. He 
is able to analyse with the skill of a practical expert 
the knowledge he has acquired ; and, which is even 
more rare, he can impart the results in language so 
clear that it can be readily understood even by the 
uninitiated. In this new book, which is one of the 
series of handbooks for the designer and crafts- 
man, he passes in chronological review all the best 
existing examples of the art under notice, con- 
cluding his exhaustive resume with a chapter of 
valuable recipes, and supplementing his narrative 
with a series of thoroughly representative illus- 

Constable'i Sketches, tvith Introduction. By Sir 
James D. Linton, R.I. (London: George Newnes.) 
3.r. ()d. net. — A very special interest always 
attaches to the sketches of a true master in art; and 
when that master is, as Constable was, a pioneer in 
a new departure, it is impossible to over-estimate 
their value. They bear, one and all, as strong an 
impress of dignity and truth and illustrate as fully 
their author's broad and massive treatment of every 
subject as do his large finished compositions. 
Probably one of the very first to work in oils in the 
open air, the John Bull of English art, as Constable 
has been called, was quite uninfluenced by any of 
his predecessors, and founded a school, the basis of 
which was truth to nature : and the influence 
exercised by him over his contemporaries, especially 
over French artists, is one of the most remarkable 
incidents in the history of landscape art. The 
secret of that influence is not, however, very far to 
seek. It will be revealed in the most cursory ex- 
amination of the delightful collection of reproduc- 
tions of typical sketches just issued by Messrs. 
Newnes. To quote but a very few examples : 
The View at Hatnpstcad, The Hay Wain, Wey- 
mouth Bay, The Study for the Leaping Horse, 
Dedham Vale, and the Autumnal Sunset are 
admirable renderings of the originals. They prove 
indeed how truly Constable laid to heart what he 
himself called the best lesson he had ever had : the 
advice of Sir Benjamin West, " Remember that 
light and shadow never stand still ;" for they have 
caught, with rare fidelity, those transitory effects 
that often vanish away before they are realised. 

English Architecture. By J. I). AriciNsoN. 
(London : Methuen.) 35. dd. net. — Although the 
author of this charmingly written and well illus- 



trated little volume disclaims any wish to deal 
with more than the grammar of its subject, he 
has not, fortunately for his readers, been able to 
eliminate the element of enthusiasm that is the 
saving leaven of every treatise, however limited its 
scope. From the useful map of England forming 
the frontispiece, showing some of the natural 
products and characteristics of architecture 
peculiar to different localities, to the 'glossary 
of technical terms at the end, every page bears 
the impress of expert knowledge, and the little 
volume should find a place in every home and 
school library. 

Attraverso gli Alln e le Cartelle, Fasctcolo III. 
By ViTTORio Pica. (Bergamo : Instituto Italiano 
d'Arti Grafiche.) 2 livres 50. — This, the third 
part of a series of interesting reproductions of 
modern black-and-white work, will no doubt be 
as cordially welcomed as its predecessors have 
been. It deals chiefly with posters, and the 
selection of typical e.xamples of pretty well 
every nationality reflects great credit on the 
editor. Signer Pica has done well to revive the 
beautiful advertisement of the "Woman in White," 
by Fred Walker, which was, perhaps, the first 
artistic poster produced in England, and for a 
long time remained a prophecy only. Published 
some fifty years ago, it was not until many years 
later that it was succeeded by anything at all 
worthy to be compared with it. 

Amongst the many effective designs by men 
of the present day or the immediate past may 
be especially noticed the thoroughly representative 
series by Cheret ; the dignified and pathetic 
Aurore, by Eugene Carriere ; the Petite Poucett 
and Pate Dentrifice, by Boutet de Monvel, ad- 
mirably adapted to their subjects ; the dramatic 
affiches Charles Verneau and Mother et Doria, 
by Steinlen ; the Sarah Bernhardt en Jeanne 
d'Arc, by Grasset, in which the mediaeval and the 
modern are felicitously combined ; the tasteful 
Hermitage of Paul Berthon ; and the Estampes et 
Affiches illustres of Paul Helleu, full of the re- 
finement and grace characteristic of that clever 
etcher's work. The numerous Italian posters 
mark a great advance, and are remarkable for 
their distinction, with a total absence of anything 
approaching to vulgarity. 

Benozzo Gozzoli. By Hugh Stokes. (London : 
George Newnes.) y. dd. net. — Those who are 
familiar with the beautiful frescoes of Benozzo 
Gozzoli at Pisa, Montefalco, San Gimignano, and 
elsewhere, will welcome gladly the appearance of 
this excellent monograph, with its scholarly review 

of the master's life-work, and its admirable series 
of reproductions of typical examples of it. Strange 
to say, in spite of Gozzoli's prolific versatility and 
the undoubted merit of his composition, draughts- 
manship, and colouring, he has hitherto been 
neglected, and has not until now been included in 
any of the series of art monographs in course of 
publication. Yet during his life-time he was one 
of the most popular of the Florentine masters, and, 
but for one slight check at the beginning of his 
career, when he failed to satisfy the council at 
Orvieto, assembled to choose a successor to Fra 
Angelico, he was, from first to last, brilliantly suc- 
cessful. The favourite pupil of the saintly monk, 
Benozzo began his art education at S. Marco, and 
was employed by Fra Angelico to assist him in 
his work at Orvieto. Mr. Stokes forms a very just 
estimate of Gozzoli's personality and powers ; the 
painter had, he says, too tender a soul to depict 
scenes of martyrdom ; he was untroubled by the 
miraculous powers of saints, and his compositions 
were painted in a purely secular spirit. His work 
is, however, "glowing with humanity," and though 
his claim to rank with the great artists of Italy may 
be disputed, he must stand as one of the most 
talented and certainly the most fascinating of the 
Early Renaissance painters. 

La Peinlure. By Jules Breton. (Paris : 
Libraire de I'Art Ancien et Moderne.) 3 frs. 50. — 
As in his painting so also in his literary work, the 
veteran French master combines the characteristics 
of the Naturalists and the Romanticists. He goes 
straight to the heart of his subject with the direct- 
ness of the painter whose chief inspiration is 
Nature herself, yet he touches it with the glamour 
of romance through which the poet looks at every- 
thing that comes under his notice. M. Breton 
explains that in his Nos Peintres du Sikle, he 
endeavoured to realise the personalities of the 
artists themselves ; but that in La Peinture his 
aim is to describe their principles, the secret 
springs of their actions, and the guides they follow, 
for, he observes, "Everything can be painted — the 
immaterial being as fully visible to eyes of the 
spirit as is the material to those of the body." 
The sub-title of the new book of this keen thinker, 
who to his other gifts adds that of a true sense of 
humour, is " I'Odysee de la Muse." This prepares 
the reader for what might otherwise come as a 
surprise — the fact that M. Breton has invested the 
Muse of Painting with a tangible form, that of a 
beautiful woman endowed with perpetual youth, 
whose wanderings have been more numerous than 
were those of Ulysses himself To this fair 

Awards in " The Studio" Prize Competitions 

maiden the name of Impression is given, and she 
is characterised as the embodiment of that emotion 
which thrills the soul of every true artist at the 
sight of nature, and is as old as the world itself. 
Impression, who for the nonce is a definition of 
the indefinable, has been, according to M. Breton, 
the constant companion of the true artist ever 
since the first crude attempts were made to inter- 
pret Nature by means of line and colour, but she 
has ever quickly deserted the impostor or the fickle 
lover. She left France, for instance, after the 
French Revolution, and did not return until many 
years after the establishment of the Republic, 
when, to M. Breton's great joy, she came and 
knocked at his own atelier. The concluding 
chapter of this truly remarkable book, with its 
subtle undercurrent of satire, consists of a conver- 
sation between the poet painter and his visitor, in 
which it must be confessed the lady scarcely rises 
to the occasion. As, profoundly moved, the artist 
raised her hands to his lips, feeling them tremble 
beneath his caress, the glorious vision faded, 
leaving him once more alone, but happy in the 
conviction that Impression had been inspired 
during the interview " not only with a divine enthu- 
siasm for art, but also with the love and tenderness 
of a true woman." 



Class A. Decorativk Art. 
A LXII. Dksign for a Row of Three 
Labourers' Cottages. 

First Prize {Three Guineas) : Stan (Stanley T. 
J. Mobbs, 8 Durham Road, Bradford). 

Second Prize {Two Guineas) : Angelina (William 
Greenwood, 13 Feilden Street, Blackburn). 

Hon. Mention : Jiosamund (L. N. Sanderson) ; 
Tyrol {\j. L. Dussault) ; Sammy (William J. Moun- 
tain) ; Tulip (Walter E. Overthrow) ; Dogrose (A. 
Spence Atkinson) ; Alex (A. Scott Carter) ; Stem 
{ Edgar Prain) ; Sandy (Gordon Sanderson) ; Caliban 
(James Evving) ; Pierrot (Harold Kemp) ; Acorn 
(Douglas H. Smith); Alpha (H. P. King); Alton 
(C. W. Allen) ; Averpop (J. Herbert Jones) ; By 
Gad (Edgar C. Nisbet) ; Blois (Harry Glenn); 
Bobsman (Julian C. Burgess) ; Corinthian (J. R. 
Williams) ; Chickaroo (Ernest W. Pedley) ; Dogrose 
(F. E. Tabberer) ; Down South (S. P. Scase) ; Der- 
went (P. B. Houfton) ; Epoh (J. P. Salwey) ; 
Economy (C. M. C. Armstrong) ; Esperanza (H. J. 
Richardson) ; Gaville (B. E. Lisle) ; Grey Fox (H. 
W. Mann) ; Game (J. F. J. Goodacre) ; Gahpoo 
(Ivor P. Jones); Iris (G. W. Poultney); Janus (R. 

A. Wilson) ; Khyaam (G. H. Williams) ; The Kid 
(E. F. Ferry); KydJe (S. N. Cooke); Kenelm (F. 
W. B. Yorke) ; L'Elcve ( We.\. Lindsay) ; Lamartit.e 
(Basil Procter) ; Miller's Daughter (A. E. Taylor) ; 
Mick (Ernest Smith) ; Mercia (C. B. Sherwin) ; 
Marc (John Wallace) ; Nemo (E. H. Rouse) ; Old 
Mercer (E. T. Coldwell) ; Pencil (B. Ashworth) ; 
Poor Man (F. Crossley) ; Petimrth (Cecil T. 
Payne) ; R. S. C. (R. S. Cooper) ; Toby (P. O. 
Dunk) ; Tync (W. J. C. Coulson) ; Villain (F. H. 
Morley) ; Vectis (F. H. Portnall) ; Wee Macgregar 
(Cecil G. Rayner). 

A LXnr. Design for a Sporting Cup. 

First Prize (7%r«« Guineas): Tramp (David 
Veazey, 27 Rectory Place, Woolwich). 

Sbxond Prize {Tiin Guineas) : Ryde (Hugh 
Slade, 737 Norwood Road, Heme Hill, S.E.). 

Hon. Mention : Mac (Elis Bergh) ; Scorcher (J. 
Schorfield) ; Hamish (J. B. Crockart) ; Craftsman 
(Geo. Wilson) ; Light (S. R. Turner) ; Alark Tapley 
(W. C. Dixon) ; Dogrose (A. S. Atkinson) ; Peter 
(P. Brown) ; Lamplighter (J. P. HuUy). 

Class B. Drawings in Black andWhite. 

B LVn. Design for a Set of Six Initial 


First PRiZE(C//f Guinea): /ah (J. J. Crook, Avon- 
more, Cambridge Road, King's Heath, Birmingham). 

Second Prize {Haifa-Guinea) : /sea (Miss 
Ethel Larcombe, Wilton Place, St. James's, Exeter). 

Hon. Mention : Wooltonian (C. M. Hibbs) ; 
Tnrami (W. A. Burton) ; Clubs (G. F. Burton) ; 
Uladh{?. V. MacEnaney); Pansy {Frances Butt); 
StarJlower{M3ecs&xei Steele); Alpha (Scott Calder) ; 
Penna{E. G. Hallam) ; Glanvilie (H. G. Spooner) : 
IV. Xie (Winifred Christie) ; Black (Norah C 
Dominy) ; Amaryllis (Josephine A. Meyer) : Arro'w 
(Sidney Holt) ; Artifex (T. C. C. Mackie) ; Astra 
{ Annie Eastwood ) ; Brush { P. Lancaster ) ; 
Elephant (Gertrud Pape) ; Gobbo (Maud C. 
James) ; Line (A. G. Greenhalgh) ; Mahle {]. W. 
Northcott) ; Malabar (P. Thesiger) ; Marathon 
(Miss G. V. Griffin); Afcadows ( H. T. Meadows- 
Taylor); Peter {Y". Brown); .S'/,v(Elsa Hammir) : 
Smyth (H. Leasdale). 

Class C. Photographs fro.m Nature. 

C XLV. Study of Boats on the Sea. 

{Illustrations held over till next month.) 

First Prize {One Guinea): /'/c'<) (W. Wallace, 
1 38 Calder Street, Queen's Park, Glasgow). 

Second Prize {Ha'fa-Guinca) : Stot (Maurice 
Peacock, 6 Park Road, Forest Hill, S. E.). 

Hon. Mention : Discobolus (W. Eastwood) ; 
Elephant (Gertrud Pape) ; Eslrella (O M. Robert- 
son) ; Italia (J. C. Ashton). 

^\l \, 

















Awards in " The Studio" Prize Competitions 






■< -3 

i "S^^a 


1' R\\ 




The Lay Figure 



Dots it not strike you as rather 
curious," asked the Art Critic, " that though there 
was a very marked increase in the number of 
visitors to this year's Academy exhibition, there 
should have been a serious falling off in the sales 
there ? One would have thought that if a show 
contained so many works of interest that it would 
draw people by the thousand to come and see it, 
there would have been among these works a good 
many which collectors would desire to possess. 
It seems something in the nature of a paradox that 
so-called art lovers should crowd to look at things 
which no one wants to buy, does it not ? " 

"You are very fond of solving puzzles," replied 
the Man with the Red Tie ; " have you no solution 
to suggest for this one ? " 

" Certainly," said the Critic ; " I have a theory 
which I think exactly fits the case ; but as I am 
always anxious to study new lights on any question 
in which I am interested, I would like to hear your 
view. I shall probably disagree with it ; I notice 
that you and I hardly ever do agree, but this very 
fact makes our little discussions all the more in- 

" Well, if you really do want to know what I 
think," answered the Man with the Red Tie, "I can 
tell you in a few words. My honest belief is that 
exhibitions, and especially large ones like the 
Academy organises, will always be useless as selling 
places, because the pictures which are given the 
best places in them are things of such very poor 
quality that they neither deserve nor receive any 
attention from people of taste. No one with any 
sense would dream of buying the sort of stuff that 
hanging committees love to honour. Just imagine, 
if you can, anyone trying to live with a collection 
of pictures all of which had been on the line at the 
Academy. What a torture it would be to a sensitive 
man to be condemned to pass all his waking hours 
among such painful surroundings ! " 

" Now you are talking nonsense," broke in the 
Successful Painter. " I have sold a great many 
pictures which have been on the line at the Academy 
and other galleries, and the people who have bought 
them have been so well satisfied that they have 
come to me for more. But I quite admit that 
there are plenty of artists who do not find exhibi- 
tions as profitable as I do ; and I am certain that 
they suffer because in the larger galleries there 
is no one to look after their interests. For instance, 
there would be a great many more sales at the 

Academy if some steps were taken to call the 
attention of visitors to the fact that the works 
there are not merely lent by the owners. There 
ought to be a priced catalogue, and there ought to 
be some official present who would make it his 
business to help would-be buyers to make up their 

"In fact, you would like to see a gang of shop 
walkers on duty in the galleries," sneered the Man 
with the Red Tie. " You want to be greeted at 
the turnstile by a smiling person who asks what he 
may have the pleasure of showing you to-day, 
and assures you that everything on the premises 
is hand-painted, and in quite the newest fashion. 
Well, the modern collector is a man of commercial 
instincts, and I daresay he would feel happier in 
the shop atmosphere ! " 

" I do not think either of you understand the 
position in the least," said the Critic. "Plenty of 
saleable pictures can be found in good places in 
the different exhibitions, and the reason why they 
do not sell is certainly not because there is no 
salesman to persuade the reluctant collector. The 
priced catalogue I do believe in, because I feel 
that artists ought not to be ashamed to let the 
public know what they are prepared to accept for 
their works. But in the increase of visitors and 
the falling off in sales at the Academy I see cause 
and effect. Of the people who go to a large 
exhibition the great majority are sightseers pure 
and simple, who are seeking not for satisfaction of 
their esthetic instincts but solely for new sensa- 
tions. They crowd the galleries and make foolish 
comments on what they see there ; and they elbow 
out of the place the few sincere ait lovers who have 
come to buy. Therefore the greater the mob the 
less the chance for the true collector. He is, if 
you like, a bit of a fanatic, but his fanaticism is of 
a quiet and contemplative kind, and only becomes 
effective in the right atmosphere. When he finds 
himself jostled by a horde of giggling school-girls, 
and yawning society people who are doing the 
show as a painful social duty, he gets cross and 
goes away to spend his money in a sale-room or a 
private gallery where he meets only men of his 
own order. You are quite mistaken if you fancy 
that the blandishments of a salesman would have 
any good effect upon him; they would probably 
merely increase the irritation he feels at being 
wedged into mobs that he despises for their 
stupidity and hates for their unajstheticism. No ! 
the collector must be h-eated more discreetly than 
that if you want to get anything out of him." 

The Lay Figure. 




R. P. Bonington 

BONINGTON, 1801— 1828. BY 

There are some men of genius whom no 
changes of opinion, no steps in the evolution of 
taste, can rob of the privilege of eternal youth. 
Richard Parkes Bonington is one of these. 
Naturalism succeeds to romanticism only to give 
way in its turn before impressionism, and still 
the water-colours and the oils from this artist's hand 
retain all that freshness of charm, all that modern 
feeling, which is as enchanting for us as for our 
fathers. In fact, this youthful genius, endowed 
with an inspiration as pure as it was spontaneous, 
had no time to lose his inborn characteristics or to 
feel the evil influences of the caprices of fashion 
and of the temptations of success. For genuine 
originality his work stands unrivalled ; never in 
the least forced, it flashes out distinctly like a 
sudden blaze of torchlight, and once e.xtinguished 
leaves no fading glow behind it. His every pro- 
duction has the charm which those alone can give 
whom the Muses love, and therefore condemn to 
an early death. How fascinating is the story of 

this sickly young life, sapped by a passion for art, 
bom in the grasp of fever, and half conscious of its 
approaching end : of this romantic and delicate 
personality, which recalls that of Keats, as true an 
artist as Bonington, who was sufi'ering at the same 
period as he under the same Italian sky. 

Thus of Bonington we can never tire of talking, 
and in him interest should from time to time be 
revived, if only to show how living his work always 
remains, how modern is his peculiar style, in which 
the characteristics of the English landscape 
painters and those of the P>ench romantic school 
seemed blended together, to delight at once the 
eye and the imagination. Richard Parkes 
Bonington was born in the village of Arnold, near 
Nottingham, on October 25th, 1801. His father 
appears to have been at one time an artist, and 
even after he had become a business man con- 
tinued to take an interest in the productions of his 
son, both in directing them and even sometimes in 
collaborating in them. From his childhood young 
Bonington showed an unusual aptitude for painting, 
and was always sketching, in the green English 
country, trees, houses, barges — anything which 
attracted his attention. In 18 16 his father set up 


XXXIII. No. 140. — NovEMHKR, 1904. 

(In the lollfflioii Cluramy) 

BY R. 1'. BONlNGrON 


R. P. Bonington 

house in Paris, in the rue de la Tournelle, where 
he established a business in connection with the 
lace trade of Nottingham. After his preliminary 
education among English country scenes, after 
having already begun to fall under the spell of the 
sea during a short stay at Calais, young Bonington 
went to seek counsel from the old masters of the 
Louvre. He set to work to copy their pictures, 
in water-colour as well as in oils, especially those 
of the Flemish masters. Throughout his life, 
indeed, he took great pleasure in interpreting, from 
time to time, rather than imitating some canvas of 
the great masters. There is, for instance, the fine 
copy after Van Uyck in the Cheramy collection ; 
there was also another after Rubens in the Villot 
collection, which vies with the original in its bold- 
ness and strength. While painting at the Louvre, 
Bonington became acquainted with Delacroix, from 
henceforth his friend and devoted admirer. The 
latter thus describes the meeting in a letter, dated 
1850, to the artist Silvestre : "When I had the 
good fortune to meet him, I was studying in the 
Louvre. I noticed a tall 
young fellow, in a short 
coat, who was also working 
in silence at a study in 
water-colour from a Flem- 
ish artist. In this style 
of work, then newly intro- 
duced from England, he 
already showed an aston- 
ishing activity." It is easy 
to realise from this de- 
scription the appearance of 
the young giant, who was 
copying so seriously at 
the Louvre ; and, indeed, 
there is in the Cheramy 
collection a small water- 
colour by Bonington, or 
rather a slight and rapid 
water-colour sketch, repre- 
senting Copley Fielding 
and Bonington, the latter 
lying on his back, his 
hands clasped behind his 
head, with his thin, refined 
profile and light, rumpled 
hair. While he was study- 
ing the old masters in 
the Louvre, Bonington 
did not fail to appreciate 
the picturesque aspects of 
the city itself. There is 

a splendid canvas 01 his (also in the Chdramy 
collection) which represents the quays and Notre 
Dame from La Tournelle (illustrated on page 99), 
and there is another small piece from the same 
point of view. The confidence of their technique, 
however, and the masterly way in which the old 
cathedral is depicted standing out boldly against 
a setting sun, pro%'e these pictures to have been 
later in date. It is probable — for a water-colour 
belonging to M. Bracquemond, the etcher, con- 
firms it — that from this time Bonington began to 
devote attention to subjects taken from the streets 
of Paris. By a short stay in the studio of Gros 
the young artist learned nothing new. Gros, in- 
deed, advised him to follow his own bent and the 
promptings of that talent, which, as Delacroix says, 
" he already admired." Bonington, then, strength- 
ened by his studies in the Louvre, sure of his 
hand and master of its every movement, and with 
all a veteran's self-control, began his wandering life 
in the year 1820. 

He started for Normandy, and followed step by 


{III the IValliue Colled ion) 





V---^ e^ 


'"^ ^.v^, ^y , v-y^-— r^ 


J?, p. Bonington 

house in Paris, in the rue de la Tournelle, where 
he established a business in connection with the 
lace trade of Nottingham. After his preliminary 
education among English country scenes, after 
having already begun to fall under the spell of the 
sea during a short stay at Calais, young Bonington 
went to seek counsel from the old masters of the 
Louvre. He set to work to copy their pictures, 
in water-colour as well as in oils, especially those 
of the Flemish masters. Throughout his life, 
indeed, he took great pleasu"-" '" irit-Amri^finor frnm 
time to time, rather than imi 
the great masters. There is 
copy after Van Uyck in th 
there was also another afte 
collection, which vies with t 
ness and strength. While ] 
Bonington became acquaints 
henceforth his friend and c 
latter thus describes the mee 
1850, to the artist Silvestr 
good fortune to meet him, 
Louvre. I noticed a tall 
young fellow, in a short 
coat, who was also working 
in silence at a study in 
water-colour from a Flem- 
ish artist. In this style 
of work, then newly intro- 
duced from England, he 
already showed an aston- 
ishing activity." It is easy 
to realise from this de- 
scription the appearance of 
the young giant, who was 
copying so seriously at 
the Louvre ; and, indeed, 
there is in the Cheramy 
collection a small water- 
colour by Bonington, or 
rather a slight and rapid 
water-colour sketch, repre- 
senting Copley Fielding 
and Bonington, the latter 
lying on his back, his 
hands clasped behind his 
head, with his thin, refined 
profile and light, rumpled 
hair. While he was study- 
ing the old masters in 
the Louvre, Bonington 
did not fail to appreciate 
the picturesque aspects of 
the city itself. There is 

a splendid canvas 01 his (also in the Cheramy 
collection) which represents the quays and Notre 
Dame from La Tournelle (illustrated on page 99), 
and there is another small piece from the same 
point of view. The confidence of their technique, 
however, and the masterly way in which the old 
cathedral is depicted standing out boldly against 
a setting sun, prove these pictures to have been 
later in date. It is probable — for a water-colour 
belonging to M. Bracquemond, the etcher, con- 
firms it — that from this time Bonington began to 






J\. p. Boniugton 

step the green banks of the winding Seine, painting 
its water-scenes and its picturesque farms, and its 
simple peasants. At Rouen he stayed for some 
time, fascinated by the old-world city, where he 
tendered with his light touch its Gothic churches, 
their cunningly carved towers poised in the clear or 
cloud-flecked sky, its old houses, and its narrow, 
crowded streets 

It was, however, above all, the coast which 
attracted him — the alluring charm of the shore at 
low tide, with the high cliffs on one side towering 
up to the sky, and on the other the grey or blue 
line of the sea, and the fishermen, with their boats 
drawn up high and dry. At HavTe, at Dieppe, 
at Boulogne, at Saint Jouin, where he painted 
his famous Mill, at Yport, and other places, 
he studied the life of the seaport, the move- 
ments of the fishing-boats, the landing of the fish, 
and all those picturesque scenes which cannot 
but strike the most indifferent observer. In these 
few words has been summed up the story of one 
whole period, perhaps that in which Bonington's 
work was most vigorous. Turning to those coast 
scenes — in oil or in water-colour, which collectors 
strive for so assiduously, and which museums 

exhibit so proudly — it may be said, in brief, 
that all his works in this style belong to one 
type. Yet how varied is the rendering of each one 
of them, how striking their freedom of execution, 
how amazing their artistic feeling. With what ever 
fresh joy and surprise one passes from one to the 
other of these masterpieces — first, to those in the 
Wallace collection, where we shall later examine 
different manifestations of this great talent ; from 
there to the Coast Scene of the Nottingham Art 
Gallery to the splendid canvas entitled On the 
French Coast, Calais, in the Humphrey Roberts 
collection, and the Low Tide of the Groult collec- 
tion, to the Musee de Montpellier, and to the other 
collections which possess specimens of his work. 

During the remainder of his life Bonington was 
continually making expeditions on the coast of 
Normandy. Besides the fact that these later works 
are marked by a freer style, it is impossible to 
avoid noticing in those produced between his first 
and his last stay in Normandy their extraordinarily 
modern character. In truth they belong to no age, 
so vigorous are they, so unrestrained, so directly 
inspired by life itself, that they might be expected 
to bear the signatures of artists of our own day. 



(In the collectio 



R. P. Bonington 

In 1822, after several expeditions across Nor- 
mandy, Bonington made his debut at the Salon 
with a View of Lillebonne and a View of Havre, 
two charming water-colours bought at the ridicu- 
lous price of 430 francs by the Societe des 
Amis des Arts. He also collaborated in a Pictu- 
resque Journey in Italy for the publisher Oster- 
wald ; while Isabey, Fielding, Robson, and, above 
all, Bonington himself, in his delightful Vieiv of 
Catana, dazzled the world by their fresh and 
vigorous water-colours, in such striking contrast to 
the learned caligraphers of the day. 

In the Salon of 1824, where Delacroix scored a 
triumph with his Massacre of Scio, and where 
the Englishmen, Constable, Fielding, Varley, Prout 
and Harding, amazed by their splendid audacity 
the timid group of David's pupils, Bonington, 
fresh from the North of France, exhibited a Study 
in Flanders, a Sandy Shore, and Fishermen un- 
loading their Fish — vigorous efforts which con- 
temporaries, and particularly the art critic Jal, 
considered mere monstrous isolated phenomena, 
though after the advent of impressionism they seem 
to us the direct precursors of new developments. 

"reading aloud" by r. p. boni 

(In the Wallace Collection) 


We have described the manner and place in 
which occurred the meeting of Delacroix and 
Bonington. The young Englishman became day 
by day a closer friend of the French artist. In the 
letter already quoted occurs the passage, " He was 
one of the most delightfully talented men that have 
ever brought distinction to England. The ease 
with which he worked was extraordinary ; he 
acquired the most perfect skill the very first time 
he grasped a pencil or a brush. His water-colours 
have always been full of majesty and fire, in strik 
ing contrast to his own calm appearance. I met 
him again later, and soon grew very intimate with 
him." He adds, " His was a great and noble 
nature. His character was perhaps rendered 
complex by a touch of melancholy. He had, too, 
at the end of his life the weakness to regret that 
he had painted no large pictures. I did my best 
to console him, and told him ' Raphael would not. 
have done as well as you have done ' ; and, indeed, I 
believe it : he ivas absolute sovereign of his own 
domain.'" If one wished to draw up a catalogue of 
Bonington's oil paintings and water-colours (as M. 
Bouvenne has done for his etchings and litho- 
graphs) his work might well be divided 
under three general heads, which in- 
deed are brought into prominence by 
the study of the splendid group in the 
Wallace collection, consisting of no less 
than ten oils and twenty-four water- 
colours. The most prominent feature 
in Bonington's art was his work as a 
painter of the sea and the country. 
Among the paintings of the latter type 
there occur at once to the mind the 
Heath Scene in the Robinson collec- 
tion and the Cheyne Walk in the 
Tate Gallery, so full of atmosphere, 
with its trees and houses standing out 
dark against the setting sun (he de- 
lighted in seeking out such effects of 
light shining behind buildings), its light 
wreaths of smoke, and in the fore- 
ground the glittering banks of the river 
— in a word, infinite suggestions of 
landscape contained on these few square 
inches of paper. 

In a second category, now to be briefly 
examined, is a series of works in which 
the imagination is all powerful. Boning- 
ton became more closely attached to ro- 
manticism, and followed a course parallel 
to that of Delacroix ; nay, perhaps it would 
be more exact to say that he followed him. 


m Z 

S o 

< > 















'— ' 














R. P. Bonington 

This comradeship begun in 1825 in the studio 
in London, which the two artists now shared, 
resulted, as far as Bonington was concerned, in the 
production of a small number of imaginative 
pictures, taken either from Eastern subjects, then 
very much in vogue, or from historical scenes. 
Admirable in colour as they are, their sparkling 
charm, their luxuriant richness, their translucency, 
their subtly blended tones, make them almost 
unique in the history of painting. One of these 
works, exhibited in 1826 in aid of the Greeks in 
the Lebrun gallery, depicted a Turk enjoying a 
Siesta, which became the property of Mr. Birchall 
of London. It is thus described by Burger: "The 
dreamer sits full-face, with legs crossed, in the 
dusky light against a great red curtain. He has on 
a white turban, a vest, dark-green "short" clothes, 
and red sandals. In his right hand he holds list- 
lessly a long pipe. The background is of a pearly- 
grey of a Velasquez tone. The whole has a touch 
of M. Eugene Delacroix's style of colour, but the 
drawing is more delicate and expressive." In the 
same category may be included some justly cele- 
brated historical pictures — Mazarin and Anne of 
Austria, Francis I. and the Queen of Navarre, 
which was purchased by the Delessert gallery in 
1869, and Henri IV. receiving the Spanish Am- 
bassador (once in the San Donato collection). It 
is of the second of these that Charles Blanc wrote : 
" All the romanticism of the day is summed up in 
this little masterpiece. Its colour is that which 
covered the palettes of Titian and Paolo Veronese, 
the light is restrained and mysterious, like that of 
Rembrandt. The figures are full of delightful grace 
and extreme distinction. The Henri III. of the 
Wallace collection (bought in 1S60 for 49,000 
francs) is yet another masterpiece, which was ex- 
hibited in 1827, and in which the artist revels in 
all the richness of the costumes and the profusely 
scattered flowers. All the paintings of this series 
are well worth a description ; it is impossible, how- 
ever, to give it, and all that can be done is to cite a 
few in which Bonington gives full play to all his 
delicate imaginative faculties : Francis I. and the 
Duchesse d' Etampes, Anne Page and Slender, in- 
spired by the " Merry Wives of Windsor," and the 
cherished possession of Th^ophile Gautier (both 
now in the Rothschild collection), and the Invalid 
Girl, the Billet-doux, the Antiquarian and Medi- 
tation (all four engraved by William Reynolds). 

Lastly, a third series would include the Italian 

works of Bonington, a few delightful canvases, full 

of warmth and passion, painted by one already 

under the hand of death, yet inspired with all the 


intoxication of the sunlight, during the course of a 
trip with his friend Rivet. How full of charm are 
these productions, all shimmering with light, all 
overflowing with the glorious rays of that Italian 
sun of which their young author had so often 
dreamed. Everywhere we can picture him trans- 
ferring to canvas, with all the ardour of an inspired 
colourist, the heroic or melancholy scenes which 
allured him. At Milan he painted a chapel in- 
terior, at Venice a little pearl, now in the Tate 
gallery. The Riva della Schiavoni, and the Colleoni 
of the Louvre, with several of the works in the 
Wallace collection. Bonington went no further 
than Bologna ; he sickened with that sign of ap- 
proaching death, a longing for the scenes of his 
childhood. In 1827, on his return to Paris, he 
exhibited at the Salon for the last time. His last 
pictures of 1827 and 1828 are the Swan-song of 
this splendid talent. To study in the Louvre his 
View of the Tuileries, and his Artificial Waters at 
Versailles, with their skies flecked with scudding 
clouds, their depth of atmosphere, their groups of 
people so full of life and movement, and their 
harmonious statues, is to realise to the full the 
greatness of that artistic ability as independent in 
style and technique as the most advanced of the 
painters 01 our day, and with a true mastery of the 
most complicated problems of life and atmosphere. 

It was in these last few months, too, that he 
painted that vigorous piece of work. Portrait of my 
Nurse, presented by M. Flameng to the Louvre. 

Wonderful, indeed, is the devouring activity of 
this young artist, who in seven years produced so 
great a number of perfect works in such different 
styles. For, even while he was painting these light 
luminous water-colours, which are among the best 
of their class, he found time, too, to devote atten- 
tion to lithography. He joined several others in 
working for a miscellany called "A Picturesque 
Journey in Old France" for four years, from 1824. 
His two most famous plates are the Great Clock 
Tower at Evreux and La Rue du gros Horloge 
d Rouen. Besides these monuments of Normandy 
he also rendered some of the churches and historic 
sites of Franche-Comte. These last were, as a rule, 
executed after sketches provided for him, to which 
he added all the figures ; while, on the other hand, his 
streets of Caen, Lillebonne, Dieppe, and Rouen, 
are all his own work entirely from nature, in which 
by the simple process of lithography he obtains 
admirable colour effects. 

In the spring of 1828, Bonington went to 
England to pay a visit to Sir Thomas Lawrence, 
who gave him the most cordial welcome, after which 



Koloman Moser 

he returned to Paris, and settled in St. Lazare, full 
of grand plans of active work. He was not to bring 
them to fulfilment. Already he was growing weaker 
and weaker day by day. He now longed to return to 
England, to the misty distances, the green scenery, 
the silvery rivers to which he owed his first inspira- 
tions. He breathed his last in London on 
September 23rd, 1828, and was buried at St. James' 
Church in the presence of Sir Thomas Lawrence, of 
Howard, and of Robson. Bonington, I consider, 
shares with Turner the title of the mo3t luminous 
colourist of the English nineteenth-century school. 


It is in 
Board of 


the choice of teachers that the Austrian 
Education best shows its interest in 

modem applied art ; 
for, by the appointment 
to professorships of 
young men, rich in ideas 
and untrammelled by 
traditions, men in every 
way able to follow the 
lines they themselves 
have laid down, namely 
freedom in art, a new 
school has been found- 
ed, a school eminently 
" Viennese." Prominent 
among these young pro- 
fessors, both as teacher 
and artist, is Koloman 
Moser, who has for five 
years held the post 
of Professor of Applied 




Art at the Kunstgewerbe- 
schule (School of Applied 
Art). He began his 
artistic career at the Im- 
perial Academy, where he 
studied painting under 
Professor Rumpler, a man 
of broad ideas, who, not- 
withstanding his leaning 
to the old school, fully 
recognized that its day was 
over, and that, in art as 
in nature, the old must 
give way to the new. To 
him Moser says he owes 
his exactness in drawing 
and firmness in technique. 
The artist's next teacher 
was Professor Trinkwald. 
But an important change 
was made in the Arts and 
Crafts Schools, namely 
the appointment of Pro 
fessor Match as teacher of 
decorative painting and 
illustration, and taking 
I 1 I 

Koloman Moser 

advantage of only in the abstract. What value can the most 
this Koloman beautiful design have for every-day life, if the 
Moser left the artist knows nothing of the method of applying it, 
Academy for or the materials upon or in which it is to be 
the Schools, a executed, or is ignorant of the technical elements 
step which was in its manufacture ? To put this theory into 
to have great practice Professor Moser, when still a student, 
influence on his spent six months at different glass-making establish- 
future career ; ments in Bohemia, a period which proved of the 
for, already at greatest value not only to the artist himself, but 
the first exhibi- also to manufacturers. The artist acknowledges 
tion of the how much he himself owes to practical work, 
students' work, and the world sees the result in the beautiful, 
his designs tall, slender-stemmed glasses manufactured by 
attracted so Backalovitch of Vienna. These glasses. Pro- 
much notice fessor Moser says with pride, can now be 
both on the manufactured entirely in one piece instead of in 



part of the authorities and the public, 
that he was offered an appointment 
as assistant to Professor Match. 
He promptly refused the position, 
for it would have deprived him of 
much valuable time. Two years 
later he accepted the office of 
Ordinary Professor at the Schools, 
an appointment which he still 
holds. His influence there is to be 
seen in the number of students who 
seek admission to his classes, and 
already several of those who have 
studied under him have begun to 
make names for themselves. 

Moser is one of the leaders of 
the Vienna Secession. His creed 
is the union of the artistic and 
practical ; but, in order to under- 
stand how to bring about this union, 
he fully recognises that the practical 
side must be cultivated quite as much 
as the purely artistic, for no amount 
of designing, painting, and modelling 
will make a real artist if treated 



Koloman Moser 


two or more pieces as formerly, with the stem 
joined to the foot and calyx. It is indeed only a 
question of time before these glasses will be made 
as slender-stemmed and as thin and delicate-looking 
as those now made in three pieces. It is no ex- 
aggeration to say that 
Koloman Moser's glass is 
known far and wide ; and 
naturally, too, there are 
many imitations ; but 
these, fortunately, can 
easily be recognised. 
Nor is it in designs for 
glass alone that he excels ; 
for, possessing as he does 
an exquisite taste and 
feeling for the work, com- 
bined with thorough un- 
derstanding of the har- 
mony between theory and 
practice in art, he has 
applied his talent to all 
kinds of material, ^\'e 
see it in his noble de- 
signs for electric - light 
pendants, with various- 
hued globes of tinted 
glass, sending tender 
tones of light below ; in 
his standard lamps, in his 
•designs for jewellery, for 
furniture and for textile 

fabrics. Consistent with 
his fixed opinions, that 
in all things theory and 
practice alone are good as 
far as they go, but only 
when combined can they 
be of real value, Pro- 
fessor Moser devoted many 
months to the study of 
weaving and the materials 
out of which woven goods 
are made : silks, wools, 
cottons and what not. 
For the furtherance of his 
ideas he wandered from 
factory to factory, every- 
where eagerly learning, 
everywhere seeking and 
finding something to take 
him a stage further in 
his work. And it was 
the same with metals, 
and woods ; hence his skilful and artistic blend- 
ing of various kinds of wood, in his designs 
of furniture : satin - wood, rose - wood, ebony, 
mother-of-pearl, silver, brass, ivory being em- 
ployed for inlay in one piece of furniture, 



Koloman Moser 

such as a writing-desk, a 
chair back, a table, or a 
side- board. 

The desire for the really 
artistic has been greatly 
stimulated in Vienna by 
Koloman Moser and a few 
other young and ardent 
art-lovers who were not 
afraid of expressing their 
love outwardly, men who 
could and did choose 
for themselves, and were 
not afraid to throw off the 
fetters of tradition. But 
now tradition in art is 
dead, or nearly so. Gone 
are the ornaments, atro- 
cious in form and colour, 
with which the shop- 
windows used to be filled ; 
gone too are the hereditary 
patterns of the rococo 
times, for as Kolo Moser 





says : " We are now 
living in the times 
of automobiles, elec- 
tric cars, bicycles, 
and railways ; what 
was good style in 
stage-coach days is 
not so now, what 
may have been 
practical then is not 
so now, and as the 
times are, so must 
art be." And this 
is echoing what 
Herr Hevesi, the 
art critic, wrote for 
the inscription on 
the "Secession" 
building : 

" Der Zeit Ihre Kunst, 
l)er Kunst Ihre Zeit." 
(To Time its Art, 
To Art its Time. ) 

There is no reason why one should not be both 
artistic and modern ; it is only extravagance in one 
or the other direction which produces bad art, or 
better still sterilises it. Professor Moser is in no 
ways a sinner. His artistic balance is well poised, 
both his hand and his judgment are unerring. 
There are those who accuse him of having been 
too much influenced by English styles ; others say 
that old English furniture is Japanese : forgetting 
that creative art is peculiar to no one nation, and 
that the fundamental basis is common to all. 
Professor Moser is a true artist and knows how 
much nations owe to one another in art as in all 
things ; and his innate feeling for real beauty of 
form, design, and colour has instinctively led him 
to pick out what is good in all things, with the 
result that something entirely new has been evolved 
by him, an art which is peculiarly his own, and 
makes his work at once recognisable. 

There is hardly a branch of applied art to which 
Koloman Moser has not turned his hand. Fertile 
in his designs he possesses an exuberance of rich 

Koloman Moser 

inventive faculty, a masterly hand governed by 
perfect taste and right feeling ; his tones are finely 
modulated, and his sense of colouring highly 
developed, at the same time that he is eminently 
practical in his designs. This is seen in his textiles 
manufactured by Backhausen & Co., Vierma, in 
his wall papers, in the rich blending of colours, in 
his placards, and the harmonious effects of his 
woods. A dining-room suite, which the artist calls 
The Draught of Fishes, is of maple stained brown- 
greens, the design of fish being carried out alter- 
nately in mahogany and satin-wood ; while the 
mountings are of brass. The effect is at once 
beautiful and restful. Another striking piece of 
furniture is a cabinet of maple inlaid with satin 
wood, part of the decoration of which consists of 
long, slender figures of women holding rings 
upward in their hands. The materials used are 





the Hohewarte, is very effective and homely. The 
uphotetery is pale terra-cotta, with a faint yellow 
line, and the wood maple stained yellow brown. 
The panelled walls have spaces filled in by photo- 
graphs or mezzotints in keeping with the tones of 
the decorations. The yellow-striped carpet is not 
so pleasing : reminding one as it does of the days 
of druggets, it is a little disturbing. The fireplace 
is of beaten copper, and the writing-table has an 
intarsia of pewter. 

Some of Moser's best work is to be seen in 
the fresco on the outside of the Secession build- 
ing, and in the stained-glass window over its 
entrance. The former represents those tall grace- 
ful women moving in the circles of the dance, for 
which the artist is so much and justly admired. 
The proportions are admirably preserved and the 

ebony, ivory, mother- o'- 
pearl, satin-wood, silver, 
and other metals. 

It is only within the last 
two years that Professor 
Moser has taken to design- 
ing the entire furniture 
of rooms, though, through- 
out his artistic career, he 
has designed various 
articles of furniture. His 
lady's writing-room in 
Dr. Henneberg's villa on 





Koloman Moser 

colouring is very effective. The fine deep terra- 
cotta reds of the outline of the garments show well 
in contrast with the grey-white of the walls and the 
blacks of the hair and outline of the faces and limbs. 

How Professor Moser, in conjunction with a 
devoted few, worked for the " Secession " is now 
history, but these same few are still working, seek- 
ing and finding, unwearied and unconquerable. If 
in their earlier days they were a little too wilful, it 
was only to serve the better to bring about their 
aims and make them possible. One no longer 
sees excess of colour : the ultra-bright hues which 
seem to have no right place in a great city, even 
in such a one as Vienna upon which the sun does 
shine and whose sky is more often than not of a 
pure celestial blue, have disappeared. The very 
placards help to tell the story of the revolution. 
The great wave has swept past, tearing up tradi- 
tions by the roots and carrying them out into the 
wide ocean to disappear in its hoary bosom, 
while the heavens smile down encouragingly on 
those who helped to raise the storm on Koloman 
Moser and his friends. It is hard to think this took 
place such a very short time ago — six years only. 

All the strength and energy of these devoted few 

was brought to bear on the art of the then future, 
and the outcome was a new school ; not a school 
founded on the ruins of the old, but something, 
astonishing in its audacity, and something, too. 




textile fabric 


which has come to stay, for now that the 
storm has abated one can judge how 
terrific it was, carrying as it did so many 
with it by sheer force. When the history 
of modern art in Vienna comes to be 
written in detail, the historian will start at 
the Secession ; and when he comes to 
personalities it will be found that in one 
branch — namely, applied art— no one is 
worthier of a prominent place than Kolo- 
man Moser, for in the space of a few 
years he has created a school and (what 
is more) has helped to educate not only 
his pupils but also a public as eager to 
learn as they, and manufacturers ready to 
produce things which are artistic besides 
being useful. 

As a teacher, Professor Moser lays chief 
stress on the study of the living model, 
which he rightly says is the best means 
of measuring good drawing. He attaches 
great importance, too, to the necessity of 
having a workshop suitably fitted up, 
so that a student may also learn to 
execute his own designs and so awake 
the sense of true workmanship ; and 


Koloman Moser 



it is an outcome of this that students are already 
able to have practical experience of hand-weaving, 
the potter's wheel, the needle in embroider)-, 
metal-work, calico printing, and other simple 
technical work. So far the results have been 
highly satisfactory. Professor Moser's whole 
strength is devoted to the task he has before him ; 
he is a conscientious teacher, and takes a keen 
interest in his pupils' work and welfare generally. 
Tfiis is not surprising, for it is only natural that so 
good an artist should be a good teacher, for only 
those who are truly gifted can show the path to 
others. A. S. Levetus. 

We have received the following communication 
from our Antwerp correspondent. " The Triennial 
E.xhibition of 1904 was a very successful one. 
Although it contained, like all its predecessors, 
two or even three hundred exhibits which were 
works of art in name only, about half the rooms 
were occupied by a series of paintings and 
sculptures of striking individuality and of original 
composition. It is important to note that, for 
the first time for many years, this exhibition 
triumphantly asserts the renaissance of the Ant- 
werp School, which for so many years has been 
hampered by old-fashioned rules and conventions. 
It is a good sign that this renaissance is chiefly 
due to a return to sincerity, not to the following 
of some formula, which must of necessity be a 
merely temporary movement. It is represented by 
a large group of artists, the eldest of whom has 
not yet reached his 40th year, whilst the majority 
are but now making their first appearance. In a 
word, they adopt no special style and form neither 
a club nor a school, for each paints in his own way 

without regard to his neighbours' proceedings. 
The most noteworthy pictures of the Exhibition 
were from the following artists; — Baertsoen, Buysse, 
E. Claus, F. Charlet, J. Smits, K. Mertens, E. 
Laermans, Hens, R. Baseleer, de Laet, Morren,. 
van Mieghen, Vaes, Mutsers, Opsomer, Roessing, 
Posenaer, Gogo, Bosiers, Crahay, Ernest, Hage- 
man, Vloors, Wiethase, T. Verstraete, Luyten,, 
de Smeth, Looymans, Rul, Verhaeit, Farasijn, 
J. Diercken, Mile. Marcotte, J- de N'riendt, J. Ros- 
seels, E. Verstraeten, de Sadeleer, Gustav de Smet, 
Mme. A. de \Veert, Willaert, von Cauwelaert ;. 
Verheyden, M. Melsen, A. Ronner, R. AVytsman,, 
Mme. W'ytsman, Franck, and Coppens. 




Victor Gilsoiil 





Victor Gilsoul is one of the truest living 
followers of the old Flemish school. One sees re- 
flected in his work much of the rich heritage left 
by the masters of Flanders— a heritage priceless in 
its influence on the art of all time. Bom in the 
capital of Belgium in the year 1867, Gilsoul played 
as a child in an environment rich in memories of 
Rubens and Van Dyck. His earliest inclination 
was towards art, and at 
fourteen years of age he 
began his studies at the 
Academie des Beaux-Arts 
in Antwerp. By the time 
he was fifteen he had won 
the first landscape prize 
and had seen enough of 
the difficult side of painting 
to make him determined 
in his desire. 

On returning to Brus- 
sels after barely eighteen 
months' study in the Ant- 
werp Academy, he came 
under the influence of 
d' Artan and Franz Courtans, 
the two men who gave him 
his first taste of open air 
painting, a charm which 
quickly enwrapped him, "a flemish mill" 


and which has done more, perhaps, than anything 
else to determine his ambition. When seventeen 
years old he got his first painting admitted into the 
Brussels Salon — a simple little study of a wind- 
mill, but it won the youthful painter his first 
taste of public distinction, and he has ever since 
been well represented in the Brussels, Antwerp, 
and Ghent Exhibitions. 

Gilsoul's first big success was about fifteen years 
ago, with a picture representing a train in a cutting 
at night. This picture was shown at the Voor- 
waerts Club, in which the artist made his debut — 


Victor Gilsonl 

an association of young painters of which he 
and Laermans were the chief figures. This 
society ceased to exist in 1897. 

Gilsoul's reputation grew rapidly from 1897 to 
1899, both in his own country and other conti- 
nental art centres. He had several fine paintings 
of this period bought by foreign collectors. His 
Fi'c/ieur au filet, painted at Nieuport, Belgium, was 
bought by the reigning Prince of Bavaria : the 
Canal en Atttomne belongs to the Grand-Duke of 
Saxe- Weimar ; and the Lever de Lune became the 
property of the Crefeld Museum. In 1899 the 
young painter was admitted into the Champ-de-Mars 
Club in Paris as one of their "partner members," 
and the same year he sent there three canvases, 
Une Place en Flandre, which has since been bought 
by Mr. Thomas of Brussels, Vieitx Pignons and 
Un i,tang en Brabant, the success of which 
was so remarkable that Monsieur Benedite was 
commissioned by the French Government to visit 
the studio of the young Flemish painter and to 
buy one of his pictures for the Musee du Luxem- 
bourg. He chose Un Etang, a picture remarkably 
fine both in composition and treatment. 

It was in 1900 that Gilsoul had his first one- 

man exhibition at the Cercle Artistique in Brussels. 
This was visited by the King of the Belgians, 
Leopold II., who warmly congratulated the artist 
and gave him a commission to paint a series of 
fifteen pictures for his private yacht the Alberta. 
These pictures, exhibited in the artist's studio in 
February, 1902, show how well the painter loves 
and understands the calm and reposeful nature of 
the Brabant and Dutch country. 

About this time Gilsoul received a commission 
from the Belgian Government to execute four 
panels representing the principal sites and build- 
ings of historic interest in Brussels which are 
fast disappearing through the " modernising " of 
the town. These panels are being placed in the 
Hotel de ViUe. 

It was in 1897 that Gilsoul submitted to the 
Brussels Universal Exhibition three paintings: 
Ete en Brabant, Une Place en Flandre, and Un 
Canal d. Vilvorde. The jury accepted the first 
two, but refused the third. This one, however, 
was afterwards exhibited at the Munich Salon, 
where it won the gold medal, and was bought 
by a Leipzig collector. At the Belgian Exhibi- 
tion he was awarded a silver medal for the two 

"dimanchk matin' 


Victor Gilsoul 

paintings accepted at Brussels, and the Minister of 
Fine Arts supplemented this award by nominating 
Gilsoul a Chevalier de I'Ordre de Leopold. 

At the Paris Exposition of 1900, Gilsoul was 
given a silver medal for his Lueurs Crepusculaires, 
a picture that awakened much interest for the 
Belgian artist. At the Paris Salon, 1901, he 
showed a landscape entitled Environs de Niatport, 
which was bought by King Leopold IL Two 
of the best landscapes shown in the Vienna 
Kunstlerhaus last spring were by Gilsoul. They 
were rich in colouring and superb in tech- 

■ What Gilsoul aims at in his art is not difficult to 
see. He loves everything that is healthy, power- 
ful, and robust in art. Since the very beginning of 
his career he has given his best thought to the 

development of his style, which he wants always to 
purify more and more. Yet this desire does not 
absorb his appreciation of the importance of other 
qualities which go towards the completion of every 
man's truest expression in art. He knows that in 
order to reach the vast synthetic impression which 
he pursues the colouring must also be refined, 
must always be more subtle, the light always more 

This was most forcefully shown some three years 
ago at the moment when his mastership had become 
undisputed, and he was at what seemed to be the 
very height of his success. It was at this moment 
that he was suddenly seen to begin searching, like 
a student, to modify his work — to be going through 
a stage of deep uncertainty, as it were. But he 
knew what he was doing nevertheless, and after a 







H , 

O ( 

^ : 

Victor Gilsottl 

short period of hesitation became quite sure of 
himself again, and more complete in the control of 
his talent. He had eliminated certain bad tones 
which had long embarrassed him, with the result 
that he was capable of making the light vibrate still 
more wondrously in his beautiful, rich landscapes. 

Gilsoul's studies are made direct from nature, 
and he loves best the land of his fathers for his 
inspirations. The canals of Flanders, the old 
windmills, rugged and sturdy against the sky, 
the softly flowing streams, rich in reflections of 
swaying branches, splendid trees standing out 
in golden softness against the sunset afterglow ; 
these are the things in nature which Gilsoul 
best loves to paint, and these are the things 
that his temperament is undoubtedly best suited 
to interpret. 

He spends most of his time at Nieuport on the 
Belgian coast, one of the most beautiful spots in 
the country, where most of his pictures had their 
conception. His life is wrapped in his art, and few 
of the delights which other men find in other pur- 
suits and pleasures hold the least attraction for him. 
His is not the temperament of the dreamer, but 
rather that of the restless spirit always in search of 
fresh delights in nature, of still deeper charms to 
fathom, and he continually seeks for new inspira- 
tions and new methods of dealing with them when 
they come to him. 

It comes to but few artists in their early thirties 
to know the high reputation that has fallen to 

Victor Gilsoul, but so splendid is his ambition, and 
so modest his opinion of his own success, that to 
him there seems but little accomplished so far. 
Nothing could bode more happily for his future 
than this, and little by little, in response to his 
craving for a gathering of all that is finest and best 
in his art, his work will no doubt finally reach a 
point of development that will establish him per- 
manently amongst the first rank of present-day 
painters in Belgium. Lenore van der Veer. 

By the deaths recently of Mr. Arthur Melville 
and Mr. James Archer the British school loses two 
artists of distinction. Both were members of the 
Royal Scottish Academy, in which Mr. Melville 
held the rank of Associate, and Mr. Archer that of 
Academician. Mr. Archer had attained the age of 
eighty years, and during the long period over 
which his working life extended he was prominent 
as a painter of portraits and historical pictures. 
Mr. Melville was his junior by some thirty-four 
years, and held a position in the front rank of the 
Scottish painters of the younger school. His oil 
pictures were strongly handled and marked by 
much originality of manner, but, perhaps, the 
highest manifestation of his capacities was given in 
his admirable water colours. Of this branch of 
art practice he was undeniably a master. He was 
elected an Associate of the Royal Society of 
Painters in Water Colours in 1888, and a full 
member in 1900. 



(In potsesiion of H.M. the King of the Belgians) 

'A VILLAGE STREET,' from the painting by V. GILSOUL. 


" o 

o a 

w o 


1-1 >: 

Recent Designs for Domestic ^ rchitecture 





The subject of Modern Domestic 
Architecture is one that has always received atten- 
tion in The Studio, and the designs of architects 
who have put away the tendency to fashion new 
houses out of the ruins ot bad old styles, and of 
those who have shown artistic individuality and a 
sane originality of thought, have always been sure 
of sympathetic consideration in these pages. It 
is intended in the future to devote even more 
space than hitherto to the subject, and general 
architectural articles, accompanied by illustra- 
tions comprising recent designs for houses, will 
appear in nearly every issue of the Magazine. 
This month, illustrations are given of NeOiersivell 
Manor, Gloucestershire, designed by Mr. Guy 
Dawber; of a House near Edenbridge by Mr. 
Robert Weir Schultz ; of Chapelwood Manor, 
Sussex, by Mr. Andrew N. Prentice ; and of a 
House and Garden at Berkhampstead, by Mr. T. H. 
Mawson and Mr. Dan Gibson. Netherswell 
Manor, Gloucester, is situated overlooking a stream 
on the southern slope of one of the numerous 
valleys intersecting the Cotswold Hills. It is 
built of local stone — quarried on the estate — of a 
warm cream colour, with a stone slate roof, done in 
the local manner, with the slates graduated in size 
and thickness ; the valleys are done without lead, 
the slates being carried in a soft curve, thus avoid- 
ing the hard lines that cut so many modem roofs 
up into different planes. Mr. R. W. Schultz's 
house, which has been designed to harmonise with 

the traditional type of small manor-house in the 
district, is in course of erection on a site about 
two miles from Edenbridge in Kent. The 
materials employed are mostly those obtainable 
in the neighbourhood, the lower part of the house 
being constructed of red bricks from Dunton 
Green, while the upper storey is hung with 
red tiles from the same place, and the roof is 
covered with darker tiles from the Ashford dis- 
trict. The interior is being finished quite simply, 
but the staircase and the doors of the principal 
rooms will be of oak ; and there will be oak-beams 
in the hall. The walls of the rooms generally will 
be finished white. 

Chapelwood Manor, Sussex, designed by Mr. A. 
N. Prentice, is situated on the borders of Ashdown 
Forest. The base of the building is of local sand- 
stone, built in narrow courses ; and above this is 
half-timber work, in Odessa oak, with an average 
thickness of 4 ins., framed and pinned after the 
manner of the old timber houses to be found in 
this locality, while the chimney-stacks are in red 
brick. The interior has been finished very simply. 
The hall, pannelled in oak, will form the principal 
living-room. Its principal feature is a large open 
fire-place, in radiating red brick and stone. The 
House and Gardens at Berkhampstead is on the 
southern slope of Whitehill. The house (which 
is of brick, and slated) was built five or six years 
ago. The garden, of which a good idea can be 
obtained from the illustration, is from the design 
of Mr. T. H. Mawson, whose valuable help has 
also been requisitioned in laying out the gardens 
and approach drives of Chapelwood Alanor. 

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Tobacco Pipes 


Artistic pipes, used either for smoking tobacco, 
hemp, or coltsfoot, are found in all countries. 


(In the Blackmorc Museutn) 

temporary with the long passed away animals 
which they frequently depicted. The designs 
of the pipes, though sometimes very simple in 
form, often represent the heads of animals, 
such as the raccoon, bear, wolf, beaver, etc. 
Fig. I shows a few in the Blackmore Museum. In 
each specimen it will be noticed that the object 
faces the mouthpiece, or drilled end. It may be 
safely assumed that the North American Indian 
inherited the practice of smoking through genera- 
tions of ancestors from prehistoric man. The 
North American Indians smoke the calumet, or 
" pipe of peace," as a token of amity, and the 
tomahawk, or "pipe of war," as a symbol of the 
fight. In the British Museum there are a 
number of specimens of the calumet. The 
bowls of some of the specimens are made 
of catlinite (a red stone), called so after the 
great explorer Catlin, who first traced it to 
its bed. The stem is of wood, either plain or 
carved spiral. The tomahawk pipe was origin- 
ally made of blackstone and metal. In Fig. 2 
will be seen some pipes from the British Museum, 
the bowls of which were made in this country, 
and used as barter with the Indians ; they 
were much sought after and prized by them. 
The Indians often engraved the blades of the 
tomahawk pipes, or decorated the stem with eagles' 
feathers, etc. 

The one in the illustration, so ornamented. 

In the present article 
I wish rather to bring 
before the reader those 
pipes made by more or 
less savage or uncivilised 
people in different parts of 
the world. As America is 
the home of the tobacco- 
pipe, I will commence 
with that country. In the 
Blackmore Museum at 
Salisbury there are, taken 
from the Ohio mounds, 
some interesting stone 
pipes which were found 
lying side by side with 
stone implements. 

The immense antiquity 
of these is self - proven, 
since they have been ex- 
ecuted by men of the 
stone age, who were con- 


(/n the British Museum) 

Tobacco Pipes 

belonged to Strongbow, Chief of the Seneca 
Indians. It is curious to notice that the more 
forbidding - looking pipe is usually the better 
decorated and more artistic. 

The inhabitants of Vancouver Island form 
some very curious pipes out of solid blackstone, 
covering them often with an infinity of grotesque 
images of figures, snakes and lizards, etc. In 
Fig. 3 we have three very curious specimens from 

(in the British Museum) 


the British Museum. They were originally in the 
celebrated Bragge Collection. 

They are what may be termed Noah's Ark-like 
looking pipes, with a rude 
house on each ; the chim- 
ney of each forms the bowl 
of the pipe, and the stem 
the keel of the boat ; the 
house, in most cases, has 
glass \\-indows, and the boat 
stem is inlaid with bone. 

Some of these pipes are 
made entirely of slate, but 
they are rather more com- 
mon than the above speci- 
mens. Eskimo and Siberian 
pipes display a great deal 
of Art and Natural History 
combined, as will be seen 
in the illustration (Fig. 4). fig. 5.— pipes 



{In the British Museum) 

The first four are made from whale's bone, carved 
from one solid piece. On the second will be seen 
a number of animals in reHef (bears, deer and dogs, 
etc.), and incised ornament on the sides and back, 
the lines being filled with black stopping. In the 
third will be seen a man in a sledge, and other 
animals in relief. The last pipe came from the 
valley of the River Lena, East Siberia, and is 
carved from Mammoth ivory, with a wooden 
mouthpiece. These are all in the British Museum, 
and may be termed Arctic pipes. 

In South America some very interesting and 


Tobacco Pipes 

curious pipes are found, as will be seen by 
examining Fig. 5. 

The centre three came from Paraguay. They 
are made of wood ; at the large end is a 
conical hole, in which is inserted a roll of 
tobacco leaves, at the other a small reed for a 
mouthpiece. The sides are incised with designs 
representing a large serpent, leopard, figures, and 
other ornaments, the lines being filled with 
white. These were used by Paraguay chiefs. 

The two upright pipes are from the River 
Maayali, Peru, and are quite plain and simple in 

Now, if we turn to Africa, we shall find that 
pipes are made of nearly every possible material, 
and are full of design. Take, for instance, 
those shown in Fig. 6. They come from 
Ashantee, and are all made of red clay, in various 
forms, such as a leopard, with dots and incised 
lines filled with white, a bird preening its feathers, 
a padlock, a copy of some European specimen 

FIG. 7. — PIPES 


FIG. 6. — PIPES 

seen by a native, and two with globular bowls, the 
usual form ; these are also ornamented with incised 
lines, and filled with white. 

In Fig. 8 are represented a group from East 
Central Africa, with wood 
and earthenware bowls, 
and gourd mouthpieces. 

It will be seen from the 
illustration that the main 
point in pipe-making 
among the natives of this 
district is to be liberal as 
regards the size of the bowl. 
This is often larger than 
in the great porcelain 
pipes of Germany. These 
are what are called Dinka 
or Nile Valley pipes. The 
bowl is generally of reddish 
clay, worked on the out- 
side into a kind of pattern, 
like that of frosted glass, 
the stem is of bamboo 
and very thick, the junction 
between the stem and the 
bowl is made tolerably 
air-tight by binding a piece 
of raw hide round it, and 
a long and narrow gourd 
forms the mouthpiece. If 
we go a little further .south, 
to the Zambesi River, we 
find pipes made on the 
hookah principle, with 
stems, or rather mouth- 
pieces, of horn ; a reed 
some five or six inches in 



Tobacco Pipes 

length, on which is fixed 
a bowl, sometimes of stone, 
earthenware, or wood. 

Those in the illustration 
(Fig. 7) are made of the 
Situtunga antelope's horn, 
which is elegant and spiral. 
The stem is fastened in a 
hole about half-way down ; 
the reed, which has already 
been attached to the bowl, 
is thrust into it, the junc- 
tion, of course, being made 
air-tight The horn is nearly 
filled with water. The bowls 
in the above specimens are • 
made of wood. They are 
used for smoking the wild 
hemp (Cannabis Indica). 
The second pipe has a 
curious board in front ot 
the bowl, and presents 
somewhat the appearance 
of a carpenter's plane 

FIG. 9. — PIPES 

FIG. 8. — PIPES 




Round pipes of a gourd- 
shape with red clay bowls 
are also used very largely 
in the Zambesi River dis- 
trict of East Africa. 

If we go to South Africa 
we find the Kaffirs making 
pipes {see Fig. 9) with 
carved serpentine bowls 
of green and white and 
mottled-brown colours. 
The bowls of some show 
a decidedly European influ- 
ence ; in fact, they very 
much resemble the Dutch 
wood pipes, which, no 
doubt, was their original 
model. The natives set 
a great value on this 
kind of pipe. 

Now let us turn to Asia, 
where pipes are found made 
of all kinds of material, 
and in a great variety 
of forms. In China, 
where, it is said, there are 
three hundred millions of 
smokers, pipes are made 
in immense numbers. 

Tobacco Pipes 

There are three kinds of pipes in use in China: 
the water pipe, smoked by the ladies, often 
beautifully decorated with either enamel or chased 
engraving ; the straight pipe, with the small 
metal bowl ; and the opium pipe, some of which 
are made of jade and tortoiseshell, as well as of 
polished shagreen, enamel and bamboo. They 
often have bowls of rare porcelain and richly- 
wrought silver, while some are finely chased and 
painted in colours or in gold. The stems of 
the opium pipe are often of carved ivory. 

In Burma the most common pipe is one 
made of bamboo ; it is cut at the knot, and a 
smaller bamboo or other tube is inserted as the 
stem. Curious vessels much in use in Burma 
are the nicotine tubes or small gourds. The 
nicotine is first boiled down, and then placed 
in these tubes or small vessels. These the natives 
present to each other on meeting as a friendly 



greeting : the tip of the finger being dipped into 
the nicotine, and then placed on the tongue. 

Another type of pipe is that made from 
a gourd. The one illustrated (Fig. 12) 
came from the Aracan hill tracts. It was 
brought over by a gentleman who had seen 
it smoked by its owner. The length of the 
gourd is thirty-nine inches, and hanging 
from it is the rib of a European umbrella, 
which is used as a pricker in cleaning it 
out. It is smoked through water like 
a hookah. 

In Asiatic Russia curious pipes with 
one, two, and three bowls are found, in 

which different kinds or blends of tobacco 

are smoked simultaneously ; the smoker 
wishing to inhale three differents kinds 
of tobacco at the same moment. 
RMA The pipes illustiated in Fig. 13, are in 

the British Museum, and came from the 
Caucasus. They all have 
silver mounts and silver- 
wire nielli, and one of 
them has a silver chain 
and pricker. 

The pipes of Java and 
Sumatra are very curious 
and interesting. Four 
from the latter island are 
here illustrated (Fig. 14). 
They are all made of 
brass, and average thirty 
inches in length. The 
top one is what is 
called "hammer-headed." 
The stems of the others 
, are ornamented with 


Tobacco Pipes 

curious interlaced 
knobs are in high 

ornament and knobs. The 
rehef, and in most cases a 

FIG. 13. — PIPES 

( lu the British Mnstuni) 



f (III the British Museum) 

FIG. 15. — PIPES 

(In the British Musewn) 

pricker is attached with a short chain. This is 
for cleaning out the bowl. These pipes from 
Sumatra are also in the 
British Museum collection. 
And now, if we turn to 
New Zealand, we shall see 
one of the most extra- 
ordinary of pipes (Fig. 15). 
It is made of iron-wood. 
Two figures are carved on 
the basis 01 a real briar 
structure, and terminate in 
a spike, to be stuck into 
the ground. The Maori, 
in smoking this work of art, 
would sit in a squatting 
posture, and so enjoy 
the fragrant weed. The 
figures are carved to repre- 
sent Moko tattooing on 
the face and limbs, so the 
whole pipe is thoroughly 
characteristic. This speci- 
men is in the British 
Museum also. 

The other two pipes 
in Fig. 15 are from the 
Solomon Islands. The 
one is made from a shell 
{Miira episcopalis), the 
other, similar in form, is of 
stone, with short wooden 
stem. There are several 
other forms of artistic 
pipes to be found in 
India and Persia, but 
the space at my disposal 
will not permit of my 
describing them ade- 
quately in the present 

I here beg to express 
my thanks to Mr. Read 
for kindly permitting 
me to make a selection 
from the pipes in the 
Ethnographical Rooms 
of the British Museum. 
All the other illus- 
trations accompanying 
this article represent pipes 
in the Horniman collec- 

Richard Quick. 


Wych Street 


Clifford's Inn 




Staple Inn 


5 "> 











Needlework at Liverpool 









Of all the handicrafts of old time, none is 
more pleasant and more beautiful than the most 
ancient study of needlework, none better fitted, 
as Adrian Poyntz put it some three hundred years 
ago, to ''sattisfy the gentle mindes of vertuous 
women." Once it was a great and noble occu- 
pation, an essential of all completed education, 
a means of recording the 
triumphs of war and of 
the chase, of displaying by- 
gone histories and familiar 
moralities in a convenient 
manner which added sub- 
stantially to comfort if not 
to edification. From the 
great achievements of 
tapestry — the epic period 
of the craft — it declined, 
by way of the adornment 
of chasuble, cope, and altar 
frontal ; and further, but 
still pleasantly, by that of 
the making of lace and 
book-binding, to the 
samplers and needlework 
imitations of pictures of the 
eighteenth and early nine- 
teenth centuries; and again 
to the crochet and tatting 
of the early Victorian age ; 
preserving even at this 
lowest level an uncommon 
amount of unintelligent 
ingenuity and misapplied 
purpose. It has remained 
for our own generation to 

restore something of its ancient worth and dignity 
to the time-honoured industry, to invest it with 
new forms and new uses, and to place it once 
again on the high-road to ite ancient office. 

We have, nowadays, little occasion — perhaps 
unhappily, little time — for the making of tapestry 
hangings. The Church is once again demanding, 
and to some extent receiving, the services of skilled 
needlewomen. But secular employment abounds ; 
and the finely-furnished house offers large and 
generous opportunities for good and artistic work. 




Needlework at Liverpool 

The question to be solved is that of supply. 
Where is right training to be obtained ? For of 
all the handicrafts, that of needlework is apt to 
degenerate into a mere riot of technique, so great 
is the fascination of multiplying stitches and colours 
for the bare pleasure of labour. This does not 
accord with the modern ideal of good design. We 
recognise the value of all materials, and do not 
desire that one or another shall be degraded into 
an ineffective accessory. Even of the ground- 
cloth, we remember that well-woven silk or linen 
has its own beauty, and, if not hidden away by 
overweight of pattern, enhances rather than de- 
tracts from the richness of the adornment applied 
to it. In London these principles are recognised 
and well appHed by institutions such as the Royal 
School of Art Needlework. In the provinces, some 



of the leading art schools have found reason to 
cultivate the craft, and among them none is doing 
better work than that of Liverpool. 

The class in the Mount Street School was 
instituted by the Principal, Mr. F. V. Burridge, 
R.E., some three years ago, with a view of giving 
some of his students who showed an aptitude 
in that direction, a definite application for their 
designs. It has been necessary for them to work 
out their own salvation in many respects. There 
is no instruction in the technique of embroidery, 
each student bringing her own personal attainments 
to bear on the work, with such slight hints as sug- 
gested themselves to Mr. Burridge, or his Master of 
Design, Mr. Baxter. The result is, from the technical 
standpoint, an unusual and very wholesome free- 
dom from formality, the " stitchery " — to use Mr. 
Burridge's expressive 
term — being just what 
the immediate purpose 
required, and not 
hampered by convention- 
ality of any kind whatso- 
ever. Some severe critics 
might object to these 
liberties, and even dub 
them barbaric ; but no 
one who knows the 
superb results obtained 
by the Japanese em- 
broiderers will feel the 
slightest inclination to 
join in the rebuke. In 
embroidery as in the 
other arts, blind ancestor- 
worship is a crime. 

Of particular in- 
stances, some few have 
been selected as repre- 
sentative of the general 
style and merit of the 
whole. The embroidered 
table cloth by Miss Gwen- 
dolen Parry is very charm- 
ing and simple in design 
and excellently well suited 
to its purpose, the orna- 
ment being so placed as 
to interfere as little as 
may be with the practical 
use of the cover. Much 
the same may be said 
of Miss Frances A. 


BY lEssicA c. WALKER Joncs s embroidered cot- 

Needlework at Liverpool 


cover, the lines of which fall quite easily and grace- 
fully into their right places. In this design one 
almost catches a hint of a Gothic theme, curiously 
but effectively intermingled with an essentially 
modern treatment. Miss Jones has just gained a 
scholarship at the Royal School of Art Needlework. 
Another design, for a sideboard cloth, by Miss 
Parry is perhaps less original, but pleasing and suit- 
able for its use. Miss Jessica C. Walker has 
accomplished an effective treatment of the figure 
in her panel for a portiere in embroidery applique, 
though in a style somewhat reminiscent, so far 
as the drawing goes, of that of Mr. R. Anning 
Bell ; but her placing of it and technique are quite 
her own. Perhaps one of the most completely 
satisfactory works is that of Miss Helena Shaw, a 
finely wrought and prettily devised piano-front, with 

the appropriate motto, 
" Rouse the Night-owl in a 
Catch " (page 150). The 
emblem — for such it is, in 
the dainty old sense of the 
word— is delightfully worked 
out, and adapted to the re- 
quirements of the object with 
quite uncommon skill. Other 
good work is done by Miss 
Dunlop and Miss Laverock. 
Perhaps enough has been 
said to show that Mr. Bur- 
ridge has succeeded in creat- 
ing at Liverpool a school of 
needlework which claims 
real and serious recognition. 
It is still young, but possesses 
undoubted individuality and 
character, displayed with 
reticence and good taste. It 
has started on right lines. 
If it pursues them faithfully 
it may, even in our day, 
acquire and bequeath to 
succeeding generations an 
inheritance of great renown. 
Edward F. Strange. 

Mr. E. H. MacAndrew's 
paintings and sketches in oil 
and water-colour, which were 
on view during October at 
the Modern Gallery, have 
some claim to be noted as 
sincere attempts to record the 
charm of nature under 
various conditions. Most ot the works in the 
collection were studies of landscape painted 
strongly and directly, and without any sacrifice of 
freshness of statement for the sake of surface finish. 
The artist attains his results by simple means, and 
his straightforward method can be frankly praised. 
In addition to his landscapes, he showed a few figure 
subjects and some portraits, the best of which was 
a half-length of an old lady, sympathetically painted, 
and with good understanding of character. 

The School of Art Wood-carving, South Ken- 
sington, has been re-opened after the usual Summer 
vacation, and we are requested to state that some 
of the free studentships maintained by means of 
funds granted to the school by the London County 
Council are vacant. 


Designs for Labourers Cottages 





Design for a Row of three Labourers' 

In continuance of our remarks on this compe- 
tition, we would like to remonstrate mildly with 
those of our competitors who have a penchant 
for " high-art " printing. The information they 
give on their drawings is meant to be read, we 
imagine, and letters that, if not normal, are at all 
events legible, conduce to this end. 

Khyaam (page 154) — should not this be 
Khayaam? — sends a good set, marred, however, 
by the smallness of the rooms. His parlour, 
for instance, is only 8 feet by 8 feet \\ inches. 
Iris draws strongly and vigorously, but the stairs of 
his middle house would be dark, as would also those 
of Pencil. The window shown in the middle 
house in the former plan only lights the cupboard 
under the stairs, and not the stairs themselves. 
Few are so generous in the size of rooms as Grey 
Fox, who provides an ingle-nook, and whose sitting- 
room is 2 1 feet 6 inches long. We do not like the 
direct entrance into this shown to each of the end 
houses. This last is a criticism that must be made 
of the design of S.R.C. (if that is the readmg of 
the competitor's monogram). Both of these two 
competitors introduce hanging tiles into their 
elevational treatment. The conditions very clearly 
ask for " brick and rough cast." Vectis, on the 
other hand, shows a halt-timbered elevation, thus, 
on his pari, not adhering to the requirements 
laid down. His living room, f8 feet long 
by only 1 1 feet broad, means an awkward 
proportion, and is over generous in length. The 
amount of lighting area, compared with the super- 
ficies of his room, is clearly insufficient. Several 


competitors err in this direction ; for instance, 
Kydde (page 155) shows a lighting area which is 
clearly 50 per cent, below the usual proportion of 
one square foot of opening to ten of floor space. 
Whether this be, as is generally the case, a condi- 
tion imposed by the Local Authority or not, it is a 
working rule that experience shows to be a valid 
one. The steep pitch of Kvdd^s roof, verandah, 
etc., entails expense. Even at his moderate 
estimate of '^d. a cube foot, the three cottages cost 
;£i,22^. Corinthian, on the other hind, may 
claim the economical gain due to the employment 
of the Mansard roof treatment, but even then it is 
more than doubtful if the building could be done 
for ^400. It would be interesting to know, by- 
the-bye, how he would construct in tiles the circular 
part of the dormer-gables. The Kid (page 156) 
sends a good plan, symmetrical, and centrally 
grouped, which we reproduce with his perspective. 
The semi-circular windows are a pleasant change. 
The plan of Gayville (page 157), again, is ingenious 
and picturesquely arranged. His bedrooms, how- 
ever, on the first floor of the centre house are only 
6 feet wide. His roof is a particularly good bit of 
grouping, except perhaps the gablet near the stairs 
in the right-hand house, which does not seem very 
necessary. Bobsman has a nice treatment of the 
porch, but his set is spoiled by a fault we have 
already adverted to, the staircases being so badly 
lighted. Allowing for the studding in the bed- 
rooms the available area of these would not be as 
large as appears on the plan. The arrangement of 
bath, shown by Acorn, who places it in a wash- 
house apart from the cottage, cannot be commended. 
It is obvious that, on a winter's night, the getting 
to one's bedroom after a hot bath might be 
dangerous, especially for those who do not indulge 


Designs for Labourers Cottages 

in the luxury of dressing-gowns. The Miller's 
Daughter (page 154) sends a pretty group and a 
simply and naturally arranged plan. The verandah 
is apparently roofed with stone slabs, which another 
of the competitors, Mick (page- 157), also employs 
for his roof. This he arranges with its eaves about 
the level of the first floor, and thus obtains the 
lowness of effect so pleasant in cottage work. 
Blois, on the contrary, shows on his elevations a 
tiled roof. This would be impossible for the 
centre portion where the pitch is less than 30 degs., 
which is the least that even slates demand. Mercia 
(page 158) shows a design with a nice cottage feel- 
ing, rather marred by the tall and villa-like staircase 
window on the end elevation. The stairs of the 
centre house have not been very carefully thought 
out. In a length of 8 feet the occupants would 
have to get up 9 feet, and, as shown, this seems to 
mean a tread of 6 inches. Down South (page 158) 
introduces a kind of porte-cochere-\\V& porch, which 
possibly is meant to be used as a verandah. 
Gahpoo has a good plan, but, like several of the 
others, uses a 9-inch external wall, which is not 
commendable. Simple as the elevation is, we do 
not think he ought to hope to build his cottage for 
^\d. a foot. The spirited little sketch of Tyne 
(page 159) shows a balanced arrangement of plan 
with small square turrets enclosing the staircases. 
The oval windows in these seem a little large and 
out of scale, and his little staircase is shown 
lighted by a window on plan, which on elevation 
seems to be only a fanlight. Nine feet by 8 feet is 
small even for cottage bedrooms : a remark that also 
applies to the plans of Averpop (whose rooms are 

8 feet 6 inches by 7 feet 9 inches) and Old Mercer 
(page 159). The kitchen, also, of the latter, thanks 
to the chinmey-breast, is even smaller than the 

9 feet 6 inches by 9 feet he figures it. Gad (page 
160) also shows square towers, here enclosing the 
parlour, and apparently restricting the width of 
this to 9 feet 8 inches. Between the towers he runs 
a long verandah. Derwent also shows a verandah 
common to the three cottages. His provision ol 
a separate bath room is a little extravagant, but 
hardly so much so as the case of Peirvorth, who gets 
not only a bath-room but a first-floor w.c, and this 
he arranges on the opposite side of the building to 

he rest of the drainage system. His bedroom 
No 3, measured from the chimney-breast, is only 
5 feet 3 inches wide, and it seems impossible to 
place in it both bed and bedroom furniture. The 
same criticism applies to fanus, part of whose 
front bedroom is only 5 feet wide. Alpha sends 
three designs. In his No. i the arrangement of 

coals near the entrance porch, and out of the wash- 
house is not good planning. We prefer his plan 
No. 2, which also has a quiet and simple elevation. 
In No. 3, the bedroom windows of the side houses 
seem to have sills only 2 feet, and window-heads 
only 5 feet 6 inches, above the floor. Economy in 
his plan No. i lives up to his name ! — e.xcept 
that he employs a good deal of lead on the flat 
roof of his dormers. Of his two elevations that 
of No. 2 seems the more pleasing, but the absence 
of centring of the windows in any of the gables is 
not very pleasant. In Wee Macgreegor's {■psLge 160) 
inexpensive design we could wish he had not 
economised to the extent of making his wash-house 
6 feet by 5 feet. Alton also has considered 
economy of cost, but under very few Local 
Authorities is one allowed to build a cavity wall of 
two 4i-inch brick thickness. The 9-inch external 
walls laid down in the Model By-Laws of the 
Local Government Board are usually insisted on. 
It would be difficult to place the beds in the two 
middle bedrooms of L'El'eve's (page 161) plan, 
thanks to the steep slope of the ceiling. Epoh 
sends what is distinctly the most original plan and 
treatment. We can only regret that his inventive- 
ness is marred by the fact that the windows 
that light the bedrooms on the kitchen-garden side 
apparently allow only about half the proper propor- 
tion of light. To increase the size of these dormers 
would go far to spoil the picturesque quality of his 
design. That is unfortunate, but after all a properly 
lighted room is a consideration of greater importance 
than picturesqueness. The Villain (page 161) sends a 
carefully drawn little set of sketches. His living-room 
is of the inordinate length of 23 feet, and we are 
afraid his staircase will be pitch dark. The porch 
shown in Kenelms spirited coloured-sketch is but 
meagre. His entrance is barely 3 feet. Esperanzo has 
evolved a complicated plan, in which, by-the-way, the 
kitchen of the centre house only shows a space of 
6 feet 6 inches between the dresser and the chimney 
breast. The elevation is rather lofty, but would be 
pleasing from its simplicity. Lamartine's plan is 
also complicated and his scheme is very pleasantly 
set forth in pencil sketches. He keeps his design 
quite simple, and relies upon massing his flues 
together to enable him to make his chimneys into 
the important factor of his design. 

Amongst others from whom we have received 
designs showing a fair amount of ability and 
resource are Poor Man, Nemo, Toby, Game, Marc 
and Chickaboo ; and on the whole, in spile of the 
shortcomings that have been pointed out, the 
competition may be regarded as a successful one. 


Designs for Labourers Cottages 

labourers' cottages (HON. MENTION : COM P. A LXIl) 


»i^ -sirglilS^l/^ 

: rco^T Lj_ivrt rit/* 

PI/6A rce thkz rr: 



A-mvn or MiLt sap yrwii;/ ; 

BY "THE miller's DAUGHTER' 

Designs for Labourers Cottages 


labourers' cottages (HON. MENTION ; COMP. A LXII) 


- DE^lGn- ^oR^( QTr \6L^^ - ( ^PCrmori .^.LX!!.- ^ 


T ii iiT ii mT + ^ 


J^fjetBAL^ -- OvJpCAi Ofcm 

BY *'THE kid' 

Designs for Labourers Cottages 

^ ^ OF lABOU^^S GontMafi? 

5ECTi&^"A;B j5^o,r^r ^O^JH EUK^mSH 

labourers' cottages (HON. MENTION : COMP. A LXIl) 


fi20AT UlSt7\0R : 

scf^ 'f rtcT 

\ TR?C-E@TA(hriBr ^ 

: CZ'iGo f^e. lis 

■ T 1 



; apt L^WCK : 

BY "DOWN south" 

Designs for Labourers Cottages 






*<:itiiii n ^. 


©"s^lT.caa 5^^ 

labourers' cottages (HON. MENTION: COMP. A LXIl) 






Designs for Labourers Cottages 

labourers' cottages (HON. MENTION : COMP. A LXIl) 


■iFriloN -A--A. 


Th^StoW^" Alxi, F«<HTEir^ 

1 60 


Designs for Labourers Cottages 

-scAf rcg Ti iii f iiii f ? + 4 

- PLANS jQcvE li i iifinif — : — ?— ? ¥ %v>ja-cn,>i| 

labourers' cottages (HON. MENTION : COMP. A LXIl) 

BY "l'eLEVE" 





studio- Talk 


(From our own Correspondents ) 

LONDON. — The two recent additions to 
the collection in the National Gallery 
can be welcomed with something like 
enthusiasm. Titian's famous portrait 
of Ariosto is a most desirable acquisition— though 
there is in some quarters a disposition to carp at 
the price paid for it — and it gives us an example of 
a branch of his practice which has been unrepre- 
sented hitherto in Trafalgar Square. The other 
picture, the portrait by Sir John Millais of Sir Henry 
Thompson, is of hardly less importance. It is one 
of the finest works ever produced by an artist who 
has a right to a place among the great portrait 
painters whose names are recorded in art history ; 
and it is certainly worthy of comparison with any of 
the other masterpieces which have been gathered 
in the National Gallery. It lacks, of course, the 
glamour of age, but technically it is superb. 

Mr. G. LI. Morris has recently completed some 
admirable interior decorations for a west-end 

mansion. The restrained treatment is very 
characteristic. The walls of the billiard-room, 
illustrated on page 163, are lined with oak 
panelling, and lead up to a chimneypiece in the 
same material ; a few spots of mother- o'-pearl 
inlay give a touch of varied colour and brighten 
the sober tone of the room. This pleasant 
form of contrast is also noticeable on the mahogany 
chimney-piece in the dining-room and the brass 
interior of the hall chimney-piece. 

Without departing from our English tradition for 
true and sober design, Mr. Morris obtains an 
original effect in an almost elusive fashion, and 
gives to the whole room an unaggressive and 
reticent personal note. 

The entrance hall, here illustrated, is panelled 
in pine and painted white, with a Bratl and 
Colbran chimneypiece designed by Mr. Morris. 
This interior shows the same refinement and 
delicate detail. The plaster ceilings and cornices 
of these rooms are kept well in hand, although 
the moulded ribs in the hall seem a trifle 



BY G. Ll. morris 


heavy in comparison with the rest of the 
work. . 

We give opposite a reproduction in colours of a 
drawing entitled Auiiann, by Mr. Yoshio Markino, 
the clever Japanese artist who has been residing 
and working in England for some time. 

The present exhibition of the Institute of Oil 
Painters has an unusual interest, because it is the 
first that has been held since the decision of the 
society to show only the work of its members and 
of a few specially invited artists. For this change 
of policy the general excellence of the show 
provides ample justification. Not for a long time 
has the Institute presented a collection of such 
admirable all-round quality or so attractive in 
appearance. Only two hundred and fifty works 
are hung in the galleries, and consequently the 
walls are not overcrowded with things that jar one 
with the other because they are too closely 
juxtaposed. Indeed, the hanging can be especially 
praised ; it proves that the committee responsible 
for it has worked with a sincere intention to make 

the most of the available material, and with the 
best discretion. On the whole, if the particular 
attractiveness of the show is, as it seems to be, the 
outcome of the new regulations, the society can 
be heartily congratulated on the success of its 

Plenty of good things are to be found in all 
sections of the exhibition. Among the landscapes 
the best are Mr. J. Aumonier's delightfully delicate 
and luminous Meads in Spring ; Mr. Alfred 
Hartley's strong and expressive Summertime, and 
Wayfarers ; Mr. Tom Robertson's subtle note, 
Moonrise in Normandy ; Mr. Leslie Thomson's 
admirable canvas On the Marshes ; Mr. Hughes 
Stanton's powerful composition The Motdh of the 
Exe, and his charming atmospheric study Evening 
Twilight; Mr. J. S. Hill's broadly treated Near 
Harlech; and the contributions of Mr. VV. Llewellyn, 
Mr. D. Y. Cameron, Mr. Bertram Priestman, 
Mr. A. G. Bell, and Mr. Gabriel Nicolet. The 
most notable figure pictures are Mr. E. A. Hornel's 
decorative Blossoms ; Mr. Coutts Michie's Wait- 
ing ; Mr. G. Spencer Watson's important canvas, 





Studio- Talk 

of a lectern recently designed by 
Mr. C. Harrison To\vnsend for 
the Union Church at Woodford. 



A Girl Reading ; At the Play, and Choosing a Fan, two 
clever technical exercises by Mr. Talbot Hughes ; Sir J. D. 
Linton's Good Quarters, and Off Guard; Mr. W. Lee 
Hankey's In the Shadou' ; a couple of dainty studies, 
Summer, and Study in Red, by Mr. S. Melton Fisher ; 
and the well-imagined and vigorously treated composition 
Saved, by Mr. St. George Hare ; and there are also excellent 
portraits by Mr. Robert Brough, Mr. J. Coutts Michie, 
Mr. George Henry, and Mr. Talbot Hughes. Particular 
attention must be given to Mr. Byam Shaw's remarkable 
racecourse picture, Sun, Silk, and Sinew, and to Mr. G. C. 
Haite'.s sparkling Venice, one of his happiest achievements. 

We give illustrations of two drawings by Mr. \\. Russell 
Flint — A London Street Market and The Peaks of Arran. 
Mr. Flint worked for nearly six years as a lithographic artist 
for a firm in Edinburgh, subsequently coming to London, 
where he studied at Heatherley's. We also give an illustration 

Mr. Tom Mostyn's exhibition of 
landscapes at the Dore Gallery is 
memorable as one of the best dis- 
plays of robust and expressive paint- 
ing that has been seen in London 
for some considerable time. He 
has a remarkable sense of style 
and treats his subjects with thorough 
conviction, but he is pleasantly free 
from mannerism or conventionality. 
As a student of nature he is unusually 
intelligent, and he records his im- 
pressions freshly and honestly with 
a directness of statement that proves 
the shrewdness of his insight. In this 







exhibition he can be studied to particular advantage, 
for it illustrates many phases of his practice, and 
shows how competent he is to deal with different 
aspects of Nature, and how successfully he can 
realise her variety. An artist of his power is very 
welcome ; few of the younger men are so well 

qualified to uphold the best traditions of our 
landscape school. 

At the Leicester Galleries a mixed show of work 
by Mr. Charles Conder, Mr. W. Rothenstein, and 
Mr. C. H. Shannon has lately been presented. 
Perhaps the most interesting contributions were 
those of Mr. Conder, a number of decorative 
paintings on silk, eminently attractive as dainty 
fancies prettily rendered, and as colour harmonies 
most sensitively treated. Mr. Conder has a way of 
arriving at charming results without striving to 
reach any high standard of draughtsmanship or 
executive skill ; his decorative instinct, however, is 
so happy, and he is so clever in hiding his limita- 
tions, that it is quite possible to forgive the absence 
of thorough craftsmanship in his work. The 
pastels by Mr. Rothenstein and the oil paintings 
by Mr. Shannon were of less importance ; they did 
justice to neither artist. Among Mr. Shannon's 
works there were, however, some chalk drawings 
of admirable quality, wonderfully graceful and 
delicate and yet exceptionally decisive in touch. 


1 68 


The water-colour drawings of the Channel Isles, 
by Mr. H. B. Wimbush, shown lately in the 
galleries of the Fine Art Society, belong to a class 
of topographic painting which needs more than 


studio- Talk 

common skill in interpretation to be made artis- 
tically interesting. This skill the artist can hardly 
be said to have displayed in this particular col- 
lection. In executing the drawings he appears to 
have concerned himself so much with veracities of 
record that he forgot the importance of tempering 
topography with some measure of atmospheric 
charm and with a little of nature's tenderness. 
His exhibition was more a pictorial guide to the 
Channel Islands than a show of works of art. 

We give illustrations of the trowel, casket, and 
mallet used by the King for the laying of the 
foundation stone of the new buildings of St. Bar- 
tholomew's Hospital. The motif adopted in the 
trowel is the defeat of Death by Life when helped 
by Sympathy and Affection. In the blade of the 
trowel, in the narrow circle of the golden hours, is 

the figure of Life — "a fair young lusty boy 
such as they feign Dan Cupid to have been, full 
of delightful health and lively joy, decked all with 
flowers and wings of gold fit to employ " — tying 
the hands of Death the reaper, with the face 
almost hidden and in the shade. The figure of 
Life is attended by two little figures representing 
Love and Sympathy. Above all this arises a rich 
sheltering canopy, surmounted by the royal crown 
in gold ; and from this springs again the handle, 
enriched by the titles of the King, and surmounted 
by a little figure releasing itself from the thorns or 
pains of affliction. The 7notif in the casket is 
Love bearing another's burden (as amplified in 
the corners by the supporting loves), and rising 
superior to Pain by the little figure wrestling with 
the thorns. 




Mr. James Clark has added some more to the 
series of stained glass windows which he is design- 
ing for St. John's Church, Windermere. These 
windows illustrate the Parables, and the sub- 
jects chosen for the latest additions to the series 
are The Labourers in the Vineyard and The Pharisee 
and the Publican. The decorative value of Mr. 
Clark's designs cannot be too highly commended. 
He understands admirably how to combine a due 
measure of actuality with the amount of formal 
arrangement needed in the right treatment of stained 
glass. He does not commit the common mistake 
of making his work too pictorial, but at the same 
time he avoids those archaic angularities to which 
too many men resort in their effort to escape excess 
of realism. The spacing of the various parts of 
his design is especially well considered, and the 
distribution of the dominant lines is planned with 
thorough appreciation of structural necessities. 
Altogether, these windows are achievements of 
far more than ordinary merit; and their decora- 
tive value is enhanced by the accuracy of the 
symbolical and archaeological details introduced. 
Mr. Clark's travels in the Holy Land and close 
study of the history of the East enable him to 
deal with such matters in a specially authoritative 



The clever decoration by Mr. A. U. Soord, an 
illustration of which appears on this page, was 
recently unveiled at St. Andrew's Church, Bethnal 



Studio- Talk 

ST. I\'ES.— Mr. T. Millie Dow has recently 
designed a window (illustrated page 172) 
which, under his directions, has been 
very admirably executed and set up in 
St. John's Church, Halsetown, Cornwall. Halse- 
town Church is an outlying chapel of- ease to St. 
Ives, and stands amongst deserted mine-shafts and 
old tin-streaming refuse, where it presides over 
the relics of a decayed industry, but with the grand 
sweep of St. Ives Bay at its feet. 

Of the design of Mr. Dow's window it is needless 
to speak, as the reproduction gives its essential 
qualities of line and mass, and shows how the 
difficulty of filling the narrow spaces of the lancet 
has been met and overcome. It is the great 
beauty of the translucent colour, which no repro- 
duction can give, that seems to deserve especial 

remark ; Mr. Dow has trusted entirely to glass and 
lead to say what he had in his heart, and except 
for the head and hands there is throughout no 
painting used. So the beautiful fragments, jewel- 
like in their intensity and purity — divided from 
each other by the strong dark lines of lead — carry 
with them all the loveliness of light, untainted as 
though it were passed through a crystal prism and 
yet showing forth all the spiritual and artistic 
meaning that is desired for them by the artist. It 
is a poem in glass of the joy of life penetrated with 
a sense of the beauty of the universe, the words of 
which are colours of exquisite purity and charm 
giving yet another voice to the text : 

" Heaven and earth are full of the Majesty 
of Thy Glor>-." 

In the choosing of colours Mr. Dow has not 
limited himself 
to those tints 
with which we 
are familiar in 
old windows, 
nor to those 
which have fol- 
lowed in docile 
submission the 
traditions that 
have come 
down from the 
makers of 
ancient glass. 
He has taken 
from the rain- 
bow whatever 
tints he wished 
and, piecing 
all together, 
has made a 
window the 
charm of which 
is that of 
mingled sur- 
prise and ac- 
quiescence — 
emotions which 
seem to me to 
have in them 
the germs of 
almost all the 
pleasure we 
feel in works 

"/^/W«;'"" ^^ PVorkitfg'^ 


(See Londan Studio-Talk ) 

" Payins;" 


of art. 

N. G. 

mim ■'■ 

^i, mm if! 


KJi i:i: 

I ntAVtN ANU tAKIH.^j 



(See St. Ives Studio-Talk) 

studio- Talk 

PARIS.— M. Gabriel Rousseau, 
one of Moreau's pupils and 
by no means the least of them, 
recently exhibited a group of 
views of the Rhine which deserve atten- 
tion, first on account of their technical 
merit, and secondly because they reveal 
on the part of their author a desire — 
to my thinking a most praiseworthy desire 
— to devote himself to landscapes of 
which nature alone does not constitute 
the whole charm, but which are en- 
nobled by lovely ruins. 

Although this young artist reverts in a 
measure to the historical landscape, it 
must not be imagined that he is retro- 
gressive, for his technique is essentially 
modern ; as a matter of fact, he has 
passed through three phases. At the 
outset he was too much inspired by the masters : 
then he indulged in the extravagances of k pointil- 
lisme ; now he appears before us sobered but 
personal, and without rashness one may predict a 



brilliant future for him, if only he continue in 
the way he has now chosen. 


Vallgren, the able Finnish artist, excels 
equally in sculpture great and small. 
His little statuettes are like Tanagras 
of our own day ; though somewhat 
more restless, more troubled, more 
modern, in short. In these little works 
he sometimes contents himself with 
attempting the indication merely of a 
movement, studied directly from nature ; 
sometimes, on the contrary, he gives us 
such admirably finished works as those 
reproduced here. In one of these the 
decorative feeling is of the highest 
quality, while the other vibrates through 
and through with restrained tenderness. 
As regards modelling, the back of the 
woman bending towards her child is a 
masterly achievement. 

Emile Galle is dead. I have already 
described the great artist in glass in 
the pages of The Studio. In him we 
lose the master of the Nancy School, 
and one who was certainly our greatest 
decorator — a French William Morris. 



M. Bcnedite has just had the happy 
idea of organising an exhibition of 
Henry Monnier's works at the Mus^e 
du I^uxembourg. The men of that 
generation are certainly being better 

studio- Talk 

understood and appreciated every day ; and our 
contemporaries delight in reviewing society as it 
was thirty to fifty years ago, faithfully portrayed 
by such as Daumier, Gavarni, or Guys. Thus 
Monnier in his carefully - elaborated, painstaking 
little compositions, shows himself as truthful 
a depictor of bourgeois society as could possibly 
be found. For his personages are placed with 
delightful naturalness in their appropriate sur- 
roundings, in the manner of the seventeenth 
century Flemish artists ; and with him decorative 
arrangement makes its entry into the field of 
caricature. With his scenes from the life of actors 
and actresses, his idylls of the Quartier Latin, his 
artists at home, his financiers in their private 
rooms, the artist who created Joseph Prudhomme 
takes his place definitively beside Gavarni. 


ONCARNEAU.— Brittany has been for 
many years the chosen home of painters. 
Not only Frenchmen, but painters of 
all nationalities have found inspiration — 

and still find it — in this land of ineffable charm. 
With its art-colonies at Pont-Aven and Concarneau 
we associate the names of Bastien Lepage, Dagnan 
Bouveret, Jules Breton, and Bouguereau, and in 
more recent years those of Simon. Cottet, etc. 
Some men have wandered to Benodet, and other 
isolated places, seeking solitude and fresh subjects 
for their work, striving to go even deeper into the 
heart of Nature and the life of the people than did 
the pioneer workers of thirty years ago. Brittany 
offers an almost inexhaustible treasury of interest. 
Besides fine sea-coast and glorious sea, it has also 
wild inland scenery, with tracts of moorland and 
forest ; and restful villages like Pont-Aven and 
Quimperl^, where rivers flow through scenery 
similar to that of Wales. In addition to these 
surroundings there is the life of the people to 
study, a simple life, lived close to nature, but varied 
in a remarkable degree according to environment. 

It is at the excellent inns, glorified by the names 
of hotels, that artistic life finds a centre. Living 


{See Paris Studio- Talk ) 


Studio- Talk 



at their ateliers, as so many 
do at Concarneau, and 
coming to the hotels for 
their meals ; or working 
in the ateliers at the Hotel 
Julia at Pont-Aven, the 
artists all meet at table 
and have the benefit of 
social intercourse. The 
Hotel des Voyageurs, or 
Villa Julia, at Pont-Aven 
has been well known to 
the artist world since 
1862, when Girardet, 
Leroux, and Edward Lewis 
founded the colony still 
existing. Colin Hunter 
and Walter Langley came 
thereabout 1880, and there 
Adrian Stokes and his 
talented wife first met, and 
left specimens of their 




Studio- Talk 



early work. The salle-ci-manger is panelled with 
pictures by various artists, and in the fine salon of 
the annexe hang works by F. Fleuiy, Robert VVyllie, 
Mrs. Adrian Stokes, and many others ; all gifts to 
Mademoiselle Julia, the 
owner of the hotel and 
presiding genius of the 

One of the most interest- 
ing names at Concarneau 
is that of Monsieur Alfred 
Guillou, a native of the 
place, whose paintings have 
obtained much success in 
France, though they are 
almost unknown in Eng- 
land. His work expresses 
his natural bonhomie, and 
also the other side of 
his nature, which feels the 
tears that linger so near 
the smiles of life. Nearly 
every year a large and 
cosmopolitan gathering of 
artists visit Concarneau, 
but the real interest 
lies with the small colony 
of habitues, who have 
worked there for many 
years. Nothing could be 
of greater value than to visit the studios of these 
serious workers and study the variety of technique 
and temperament shown in their work. 


What Capri is to Italy, 
and Newlyn to Cornwall, 
Concarneau seems to be 
to Brittany. It is an ideal 
home for artists, full of 
movement, colour and ex- 
pression, almost southern 
in character, and wholly 
unexpected to those whose 
ideas of Brittany have been 
formed by Pierre Loti's sad 
and beautiful romances, or 
Daudet's sketches. In 
summer the whole popula- 
tion of Concarneau works 
at the sardine industry, and 
winter is the artists' best 
time for work, as the sardine 
workers are idle then, and 
only too glad to pose as 
models for a trifling pay- 





Studio- Talk 



Among the many painters resident in Concar- 
neau is Herbert S. Hunt, who has worked in 
Brittany for more than ten years. He is more in 
touch with French than English methods, and most 
of his work has remained in France. 

Charles Fromuth, an American, and the possessor 
of a Munich gold medal and a Paris silver medal, 
is well known for his marine studies in pastel. He 
has worked assiduously for eleven years at Con- 
cameau, and often exhibits at the Champs de Mars, 
at the International, and elsewhere in England. 
His style is vigorous dignified, and grave, with a 
strength of line and depth of colour not usually 
associated with pastel. These marine pictures 
represent the true life of Concarneau in its working 
aspect, and breathe the very spirit of the sea with 
its latent melancholy. 

J. Bulfield's pictures are full of sunshine ^wAjoie 
de vivre. They are, for the most part, oil paintings, 
on a small scale, of figure subjects of Concarneau 

folk, chatting in groups, or buying and selling 
at the market booths ; fresh and spontaneous 
studies of outdoor life, with a touch of southern 
gaiety, all rendered with a free and forcible 

Miss Margaret Houghton is one of the few 
women painters who have taken up their abode in 
Concarneau. Since coming from Canada to 
Europe she has worked at Capri, St. Ives and in 
Holland, and has exhibited at the Salon and else- 
where. \Vell known to the art world is John H. 
Recknagel, an American, who studied first at 
Stuttgart, and afterwards in his own country under 
Mr. Siddons H. Mowbray. He is an extremely 
facile and prolific painter, working rapidly and with 
great effect, especially in portraiture, and revels in 
warm and rich colours. J. Milner-Kite is one of 
the few Concarneau painters who have exhibited 
at the " International." The picture here repro- 
duced, " Re tour de la Pcche," is from a large can- 
vas which was exhibited at the Champs de Mars 


studio- Talk 

Salon of 1 90 1. It represents a characteristic scene 
of Concarneau : the sardine boats drawn up in 
harbour, and the fishers carrying their spoils to 
market. Emile B. Hirschfeld's name happens to 
stand last, but is by no means unimportant in the 
art world. Though still a young man— born at 
Odessa in 1867 — he has already established his 
reputation. Some of his finest pictures were 
painted at Concarneau ; indeed it was at this place 
that he began to work in colour. Apart from the 
painter's fine technique and gift of composition, 
Hirschfeld has the artist's poetic feeling, and those 
who know how Biittany stirs the emotions will feel 
a peculiar pleasure in his work. The above-named 

painters, with De Rolle, Florence, Howard, Klein, 

Marmitsch, Renti, and Terrick Williams, represent 

the Concarneau colony of late years. The majority 

have been influenced by Monet and Manet and 

Puvis de Chavannes, but all are bent on personal 

expression, apart from the 

established formulas. It is 

noteworthy that most of 

those painters hold the 

doctrine that a student 

should confine himself to 

the practice of black-and- 
white while in the schools, 

and begin to work in 

colours when face to face 

with Nature. Most of their 

best work has been done 

at Concarneau, and these 

days of bon camaraderie 

and strenuous work in 

Brittany will be a phase 

of life not easily forgotten. 

J- Q 

This year there 
has been some- 
thing like a se- 
cession of the young artists. 
Many who were in the 
habit of exhibiting at the 
annual Promotrice have 
collected their works to- 
gether in the ground-floor 
rooms of the Palazzo 
Corsini, kindly lent to 
them for the purpose. 

not be considered as an actual secession ; for 
several artists have exhibited simultaneously at the 
Societi. Promotrice and at the Palazzo Corsini. 

A separate room was allotted to the Belgian 
artist, Henry de Groux, who sent several historical 
and symbolical compositions executed in his 
fantastic sketchy style, more successfully exemplified 
in some pastels of children. 

Another Belgian artist, more firm and accurate 
in drawing, is Charles Doudelet, specially notable 
for his illustrations of subjects from Maeterlinck. 

In the Italian section various tendencies may be 
noted, especially in the rooms devoted to oil-paint- 
ings. One tendency in particular shows a recurrence 
to the spirit of our traditions, although not confined 
to one old master alone, nor to a single period ot 

But this attempt to 
show independence must 

"mother and child 





the Renaissance. Adolfo De Karolis has taken up 
wood-cutting again, and his vignettes for Gabrielle 
D'Annunzio's Figlia di Torio bear testimony to his 
love for the fourteenth century. Oscar Ghiglia 
and Giovanni Costetti also show themselves tradi- 
tionalists, though more untrammelled, both in their 
drawings and in their portraits in oils. These two 
young portrait-painters, of whom we are sure to 
hear more, have deservedly attracted much atten- 
tion in a short time. Their colour is warm and 
telling, but that of Ghiglia is more heavily loaded 
and that of Costetti more fluid. We may mention 
the latter's Portrait of a Gentleman, and a drawing 
in red. The Conqueror. 

Oscar Ghiglia, besides an exquisite drawing of 
Two Heads, has exhibited an admirable half- 
length of Signor Salvetti. 

More modern and impressionist tendencies are 
represented by the landscapes of Plinio Nomellini, 

the symbolical compositions and the ex libris of 
Galileo Chini, some delicate landscape drawings 
by Lodovico Tommasi, The Return to the Sheep/old 
by Giuseppe Viner, and various other works by 
Giorgio Kienerk (painter and sculptor), Cesare 
Vinzio, Cesare Ciani, Romiti, De Albertis, Graziosi, 
and by Ulvi Liegi. 

It may be truthfully said that the success of the 
exhibition has been complete. Let us hope 
that this excellent undertaking may be repeated 
every year. R. p. 

BRUSSELS.— The " Societe Royale des 
Aquarellistes " (the last exhibition of 
which took place in December) has some- 
times been accused of being too exclusive, 
but the " Societe Nationale des Aquarellistes et 
Pastellistes " (whose exhibition was opened last 
June) might with equal justice be reproached for 
acceding too readily to the many requests for 


Studio- Talk 

selves the Pemtres indepeiidants. They will hold 
an exhibition every year at Brussels, and every 
three years at Antwerp, Ghent, and Liege. Amongst 
the names of the members are those of MM. 
Heymans Clans, Morren, Ensor Buysse, and 
Lemmen, with that of Mdlle. Boch. 


ARSEILLES.— The work exhibited this 
year by the painter in water-colours, 
Louis Jullien-Rousset, is more ambi- 
tious in composition and displays a 
greater mastery of technique than anything he has 
hitherto shown. This artist's great charm consists 
in the fact that he is true to his own convictions, 
and represents nature exactly as it impresses him, 
and with the very simplest means. All his work is 
done in the open air ; he catches with wonderful 
rapidity the fleeting effects of light, and he refrains 
from finishinET-touches in his studio. 

" LE violoniste' 


admission to its ranks. The number of incompe- 
tent amateurs on the roll of the society is really far 
too great, and their valueless contributions militate 
very much against the 
general effect of the Salon. 

In spite of this, how- *" "'^ '" 

ever, there are some few 
remarkable exhibits. To 
name but two, the works 
of MM. F. Gailliard and 
W. Delsaux are very fine. 
The Studio has already 
reproduced several draw- 
ings of market scenes by 
the former, and the latter 
has exhibited some Zealand 
landscapes of varying merit, 
but all interesting and full 
of character. 

Jullien-Rousset has never allowed himself to be 
seduced from his own straightforward style by any 
aiming at tours de mains or experiments with 
different methods. Sincere and devoted to his 
art, he interprets with great simplicity the im- 
pressions made on him by effects of light on the 
ponds, picturesque lanes, villages prettily situated 
on some hill-side slope, or some deserted scene of 
the Provencal coast. Like many another modern 
French master, Jullien-Rousset has worked a great 
deal at Martiques — he has, indeed, almost exhausted 

The controversy aroused 
by the last exhibition of 
the "Libre-Esthetique" 
Society, resulted in the 
formation of a new group 
of artists who call them- 



Studio- Talk 

EIPZIG. — The 
two well-kno^vn 
Leipzig artists, 
M. Klinger and 
D. Greiner, have taken to 
themselves a worthy partner 
in the person of a talented 
young engraver, Bruno 
Heroux, who, though akin 
to them artistically speak- 
ing, is an independent 
individuality, and has at- 
tracted attention already 
by his engravings, litho- 
graphs, and woodcuts ; for 
even the veterans Adolf 
Meruel and M. Klinger 
have recognised their 
merits. Very masterly is 
his treatment of the human 
figure, as may be seen 
in an Anatomical Atlas 
that district, rich though it is in charming themes illustrated by him ; and his other work is no less 
— so much so that it is difficult to say which dignified and artistic. He has produced some capital 
deserves more admiration, Jullien - Rousset for portraits and a number of book-plates (ex-libris) in 
having been able to find there so many different various styles of engraving which have been much 
motives, or the village of Martiques itself for praised, and are admirable examples of their kind, 
the inexhaustible inspiration it has been to so Heroux's chief characteristics are his simple breadth 
many generations of artists. Jullien - Rousset, of treatment, especially in wood-engraving, purity of 



however, has not confined himself to Martiques line, and fine draughtsmanship. 
alone, but has worked in 
several other districts of 

Provence, interpreting r - ' . ' '-^ 

them under many different 
aspects. The water-colour 
drawing here illustrated, 
Paysage a Gap, is a 
characteristic example of 
his work. Another note- 
worthy work in the ex- 
hibition was one repre- 
senting a little stream 
flowing through a mass of 
verdure, beneath a well- 
interpreted stormy sunset- 
sky. In a word, this last 
exhibition has justified 
the high esteem in which 
Jullien - Rousset is held, 
fulfilling the prediction, 
made at his de/uit, that he 
would become a great 
painter in water-colours. 
G. B. 

K. E. 







KLAGENFURT.— Another proof has been 
given of the interest the Austrian Govern- 
ment takes in the artistic development of 
her peoples, for, thanks to a subvention 
granted by the Ministerium for Cultus and Unter- 
richt, it was made possible to hold an exhibition in 
Klagenfurt, the capital of Carinthia. All the 
artists taking part in this 
exhibition are natives of 
this province, who have 
chiefly received their 
artistic training at the 
Imperial Arts and Crafts 
Schools, Vienna. And 
another local interest was 
given by the fact that all 
those manufacturers who 
executed the designs ot 
these young artists are also 
natives of Carinthia. They 
had never previously at- 
tempted the making of 
artistic productions, but 
the new impulse given is 
likely to be a permanent 
one, for more than half of 
the exhibits were sold and 
many orders taken. The 
province of Carinthia has 
produced many rising 
young architects, such as 

Julius Keller, Karl Witz- 
mann; sculptors such as 
Friedrich Gornik, Leopold 
Resch, Michael Mortl, 
and others ; etchers such 
as Aug. Veiter, Eduard 
Mannhart, besides many 
who have devoted them- 
selves to other branches 
of art. Friedrich Gornik 
has a predilection for 
depicting animals. His 
designs for electric light- 
ing apparatus are very 
characteristic, whether they 
be in the form of an owl, 
a tiger or other animal, 
or bird, and many of 
his days have been 
spent at the zoological 
gardens at Schonbriinn, 
near Vienna, modell- 
ing these creatures. His 
picture The Storm is Coming On is a very 
realistic description of what takes place when 
those who live in huts in the high Alpine lands 
fear a storm. The shepherd immediately springs 
on the nearest horse's back, rushes up to the 
top of the mountain, and with eyes strained 
looks into the distant clouds. Such scenes the 






studio- Talk 



young sculptor has himself often ex- 
perienced. Many of the interiors offered 
scope for designs in which to combine 
the artistic and the practical. A dining- 
room by Georg Winkler is of elm, so 
stained as to have the appearance of 
palisander. It fulfils all the modem 
requirements, and is very pleasing to 
the eye, two very requisite things in the 
art of to-day. Another interior by the 
same artist is a bedroom, in which he 
has utilised a scarcity of room by placing 
the bed between two cupboards and 
building a third one above the washing- 
stand. The coverlet and towels were 
designed and executed by Fraulein 
Unterkreuter, of Villach; while a boudoir 
stained outwardly pale pink and inwardly 
with green, thereby forming an agreeable 
contrast, is very effective. Another in- 
terior, a reception room by Karl Witz- 
mann, is of grey maple, and shows that 
the artist is a rigid disciple of the modern 
school. There is a great demand for 
such interiors as these, and in giving art 
of this kind to the country a high pur- 
pose has been served. The young artists 
are kept very busy, so that the material 
advantage to themselves as well as the 
artistic result is very satisfactory. 

A. S. L. 


The annual ex- 
hibition of the 
Victorian Art- 
ists' Society was formally 
opened at the Galleries, 
Eastern Hill, by Mr. 
Deakin, on July 9. On 
the whole, the Society is to 
be congratulated on the 
high standard of the work 
exhibited. For this high 
standard many reasons tend 
to contribute. Australians 
who migrated to London 
and Paris some years ago to 
enlarge their local training, 
are in many instances re- 
turning ; and they now in 
their turn, both by example 


and tuition — for it is only the very, very few who in 
Australia can hope to live solely by the proceeds 
of their work — influence others. The hanging 
committee, therefore, were able to exercise a 
wise discretion, and by fixing a high standard 
excluded much of the amateurish work which has 
been so much in evidence in previous exhibitions. 
It is earnestly hoped that this good precedent will 
be persevered in. 

The last exhibition included pictures in oil 
and water-colour, miniatures, etchings, sculpture, 
pastels, auto-lithographs, and applied arts — a 
total of about 240 exhibits. Of the figure painters 
Mr. Hugh Ramsay easily took precedence with 
several large portrait canvases — all of which were 
pleasing in colour and technique, but as pictures 
they had the defect of showing the sitters too- 
obviously posed. This doubtless is a fault which 
time and experience will correct. His Portrait 
Sketch was, however, free of the defect, and was 
altogether charming. 

Mrs. Muntz-Adams showed strong work in 
My Lady, as also did Mr. Bernard Hall in the 
portrait of H. H. Champion, Esq., and in some 
exquisitely painted still-lifes — notably the Gardener's 
Workshop, Naseing Hall, £w?.v —painted during a 
recent visit to England. Mr. Leslie Wilkie is to 
be commended for the fine qualities shown in his 
portrait My Sister — the best of his several works. 
Mr. John Hennessy's Sisters of Mercy was also an 
admirable piece of work. 

In the landscape section the finest work was 
shown by Mr. Albert Enes in two fine pictures — 
exquisite alike in feeling and treatment. Both were 
painted in a low key of colour, and his RainboTv, 
especially, showed a keen appreciation of one of 
Nature's most elusive effect-;. Mr. Enes is a com- 
paratively young man, who ought eventually to 
contribute handsomely towards the building up of 
a truly national school of painting in Australia. 
Mr. J. Sommers' Nature's Embroideries was also 
fine in colour and movement, while Mr. Rupert 
Bunny sent his picture The Tritons from Paris. 

Mr. Delafield Cook's Forest Glade was the most 
dainty in colour and effect of his several contribu- 
tions. Mr. Walter Withers — usually a prominent 
exhibitor — sent one very finely painted Landscape, 
and some good water-colours — all noticeable for 
their qualities of colour and mastery of material. 
Mention should also be made of the work of 

Messrs. F. Hayward, P. Lindsay, Beament, and of 
Mrs. B. Colquhoun's Waterpool (an unpretentious 
but finely painted work), and of Mr. Dancey's deco- 
rative Motherhood. Among the water-colours in 
the central gallery mention must be made of Mr. 
Mather's two fine Healsville landscapes. Evening 
and Autumn — full of colour and warmth and sun- 

Mr. Blamire Young sent several works, decora- 
tively conceived and executed, — as did also a 
kindred spirit, Mr. H. J. Weston. Mr. Macgeorge 
and Miss Buchan contributed good work, and Mr. 
Enes' decorative pastel Fan excited favourable 
notice for its charming freedom and good colour ; 
as did also Miss Norris's Web Weaver, and Mr. 
Tom Carter's GirFs Head — both in the same 
medium. Other works of promise were Mr. A. 
Fischer's auto-lithograph The Fiver, and the char- 
coal studies of Messrs. Brindle and Hennessy — and 
among the sculpture Mr. Web-Gilbert's Problem oj 
Life and Crest of the Wave. The absence of works 
by Messrs. McCubbin, Douglas Richardson, and 
J. Ford Paterson— all old members of the society 
— was regrettable. J- S. 


The Art of George Morland. By Dr. G. C. 
WiLLi.'^MSON. (London : George Bell & Sons.) 
255^. net. — It is somewhat remarkable that George 
Morland should have had to wait so long before 
any really exhaustive account of his life and work 
has appeared, for none of the biographies hitherto 
published, though trustworthy enough so far as 
they go, give an all-round picture of the man and 
artist. As is well known, four lives were published 
soon after the gifted master's premature death at 
the early age of forty-one, but these are all out of 
print ; and as is pointed out by Dr. Williamson in 
the Preface to his richly illustrated and deeply 
interesting monograph, only a very few libraries 
contain copies of them all. They however 
formed the basis of a well-written little volume by 
Mr. Ralph Richardson, published in 1895 ; and in 
1898 a critical notice of the work of Morland, by 
the animal painter Mr. J. T. Nettleship, was 
included in Messrs. Seeley's Portfolio Series. 
Possibly the exceptionally melancholy circum- 
stances of Morland's career, vitiated as it was by 
dissipation, may have led to the reserve that 
has hitherto been generally maintained, but the 
result of that reserve has been that considerable 
injustice has been done to the memory of a man 


who altogether lost the charm that distinguished him 
in his boyhood. Dr. Williamson has, however, now 
changed all that. With the unwearying and conscien- 
tious care that distinguish him, he has unravelled 
thetangled skein of hearsay and tradition, and though 
he does not condone the errors of his subject, he gives 
due weight to every extenuating circumstance. He 
dissipates finally, for instance, the accusation that 
Morland neglected his wife, for he proves that in 
the artist's worst straits for money, he never failed 
to supply her with luxuries as well as necessaries. 
^^'ith equal judgment the author of this new 
biography, which will no doubt take rank as a 
standard authority, examines the work of the 
master, tracing the various influences that affected 
him, but at the same time establishing his claim to 
the original genius that entitles him to rank 
amongst the immortals. The fine reproductions 
of some fifty typical examples of the paintings of 
Morland leave absolutely nothing to be desired ; 
the frontispiece in colour of the Interior of a 
Stable is an exceptionally happy rendering of an 
old favourite, and amongst the collotypes will be 
found many of little known paintings in private 
possession, including several sea-scapes, such as 
the Day after the Wreck, that prove how great 
was Morland's versatility. 

Paris and its Story. By T. Okey. (London : 
J. M. Dent.) 2\s. net. — In his new volume the 
author of the fascinating " Venice and her Story " 
had a subject that was evidently far less congenial 
to him, and one that on account of certain 
inherent peculiarities it was far more difficult 
to treat satisfactorily than the poetic City of 
the Lagoons. Venice remains what she has 
been for centuries — the Queen of the Adriatic, 
whose subjects have held her every characteristic 
sacred. Paris has been successively the victim of 
one master after another, who, however much they 
may have differed in other respects, were alike 
in the ruthlessness with which they have destroyed 
or suffered to be destroyed the heirlooms bequeathed 
to them by their predecessors. As a result, the 
story of the Paris of to-day has to be written 
chiefly in the past tense. To quote but one case 
in point, the cite, than which, Mr. Okey says, there 
are few spots in Europe where so many associations 
are crowded together, retains scarcely a trace of the 
long ago. "Some notion," he remarks, "of the 
changes that have swept over its soil may be con- 
ceived on scanning Felibien's 1725 map, where no 
less than eighteen churches are marked, scarce a 
wrack of which remains." " We must imagine," 
he adds, " the old medinsval cite as a labyrinth of 

crooked and narrow streets, with the present broad 
parvis of Notre Dame of much smaller extent, 
encumbered with shops and at a lower level." It 
is the same throughout the volume ; imagination is 
the one thing that can really in any great measure 
recall the past of a town still a leader in art and 
science, " where," says Mr. Okey, " all the best of 
the realms of nature and art in the whole earth are 
open to daily contemplation " ; though he neglects 
to add that it is in the museums that this aesthetic 
and intellectual treat is to be attained. Accepting 
the inevitable, however, the author of what is prac- 
tically a history of the French monarchy rather than 
of Paris or of its people, has produced a most read- 
able and trustworthy text-book, which will be of the 
utmost service to all who wish to become acquainted 
with the French capital as it now is. The numerous 
illustrations well supplement the text, and although 
unfortunately some of the colour - blocks are not 
very well printed, the light and atmosphere peculiar 
to Paris are well interpreted. Miss Kimball's pen- 
drawings, that recall the work of Joseph Pennell, but 
are scarcely equal to it in draughtsmanship, render 
happily many characteristic details ; but the inclu- 
sion of reproductions of paintings that have abso- 
lutely nothing to do with the text — such as 
Poussin's Shepherds in Arcady — rather detracts 
from the homogeneity of the book as a whole. 

Westminster Abbey. Painted by John Fulley- 
LOVE, R. I. ; described by Mrs. A. Murray Smith. 
(London : A. & C. Black.) 7^. dd. net. — In this 
brightly written, chatty volume, the accomplished 
authoress of the " Annals " and the " Roll Call of 
Westminster Abbey" proves yet anew, how close 
and living is the sympathy that binds her to the 
venerable building with which, as is well known, 
her whole life has been intimately associated. She 
dwells but little, it is true, in her new book on the 
art point of view ; her aim evidently having been to 
bring into prominence the historical associations 
of her subject rather than its ajsthetic character- 
istics. For all that, however, she sums up in her 
introduction, clearly though succinctly, the story of 
the growth of the present group of buildings out 
of Edward the Confessor's Benedictine abbey, and 
she prefaces her imaginary walk through the sacred 
precincts by a summary of the leading architectural 
features. She calls attention, for instance, to the 
graceful arcading of the triforium of the nave, 
suggesting that her companions should " carry the 
eye to the root, 100 feet above their heads ; and 
thence along the clustered columns and arches ; " 
adding enthusiastically, " The whole resembles 
that magnificent and peculiarly English beauty, an 



ancient beech avenue, with its arching and inter- 
lacing boughs reaching up to heaven." The 
absence from the text of the technical details that 
appeal to a comparatively limited audience is amply 
atoned for by the excellent descriptive notes that 
accompany Mr. FuUeylove's beautiful illustrations 
that are reproduced with the skill and care for 
which Messrs. Black are justly noted. With few 
exceptions the drawings interpret well the details 
chosen ; but occasionally, as in the Chantry Chapel 
of Henry V., with St. Edward's Shrine, and the St. 
Edmund's Chapel, with the tomb of the Duchess 
of Suffolk, the full beauty of the pointed arch is 
scarcely brought out ; while the cutting off of the 
towers of the West Front has an irritating effect. 
On the other hand, the views of the North and 
South Ambulatories and of the Interior of the Nave 
and the North Transept are thoroughly convincing 
and satisfactory. 

From a Holiday Journal. By Mrs. E. T. Cook. 
(London: George Allen.) ioj. 6(/. net. — A deeply 
pathetic interest attaches to this delightful pot 
ioiirri of holiday impressions, written as it was by 
a now vanished hand, but bearing on every page 
the impress of the wonderful vitality that was 
characteristic of the authoress of " Highways and 
Byways in London." Mrs. E. T. Cook, who died 
in June, 1903, combined the rare gifts of imagina- 
tion, insight into character, and sense of humour, 
which enabled her to place herself at once en 
rapport with those with whom she was brought in 
contact in her wanderings. In her last Holiday 
Journey, when she seemed to have many years of 
successful work still before her, she penetrated into 
several outof the-way villages in Italy, Germany, 
and Switzerland, where, attracted by her fasci- 
nating personality, many of the unsophisticated 
natives revealed to her their true selves as they 
would never have done to an ordinary traveller. 
Mrs. Cook's word pictures, supplemented by photo- 
graphs and sketches taken by herself direct from 
nature, and well reproduced, some in colour others 
in photogravure, in this volume, bring very vividly 
before her readers the scenes in which she evidently 
played an important part. The Passion Play on 
the Italian Lakes is especially noteworthy, bringing 
out as it does the deep religious feeling of the 
peasants who took part in it, and at the same time 
incidentally throwing something of a new light on 
the motives of early Italian religious art, that are so 
often puzzling to the uninitiated. 

The Alps. By W. Martin Conway and 
A. D. McCormick. (London : A. & C. Black.) 
2o.f. net. — The pubhshers of this most fasci- 

nating volume are to be congratulated on having 
secured the services of two such experts as 
Sir Martin Conway and Mr. McCormick, both of 
whom know and love Alpine scenery well. They 
are, moreover — which is far more rare — able to give 
expression to their appreciation in a form as true 
as it is attractive. In spite of the inevitable limita- 
tions of the three-colour process of reproduction, 
the illustrations interpret with great felicity the 
characteristic colouring and atmospheric effects of 
typical Alpine landscapes ; avoiding the mistake 
so often made of attempting to give too much 
detail, yet at the same time omitting nothing of 
importance. Specially noteworthy are the Lucerne 
and Lake from the Drei Linden, with the grand 
background of storm-clouds gathering about the 
summit of Pilatus ; the Cloud-Burst over Lucerne, 
with its vivid realisation of the transitory bright- 
ness that so often heralds an atmospheric convul- 
sion ; At Meiringen, with the distant view of the 
Briiing Pass ; Twilight on the Matterhorn, with its 
grim suggestion of tragedy ; and Fliielen, under 
the sombre influence of the Fohn wind. No less 
satisfactory are the verbal descriptions of Mr. 
McCormick, who began his career as a moun- 
taineer at the age of seven by climbing Snowdon. 
He admits his readers very frankly into his con- 
fidence from the first, explaining that his aim is not 
to make people see with his eyes, but to recall to 
them what they have already gazed upon with their 
own. In this limitation, however, he does himself 
less than justice, for every sentence of his work bears 
the impress of thorough knowledge of his subject. 
He is familiar with the Alps, not only as they are 
now, but as they were — indeed, even as they will 
be in the future, for he is a practical geologist as 
well as a shrewd observer and an experienced 
climber. Even without his collaborateur's sketches, 
his book will be an aid to the serious student no less 
than to the ordinary tourist ; making it a matter for 
regret that, as is the case with the rest of the series 
of " Beautiful Books," there are no headings to the 
chapters or index. 

Phil May in Australia. (Sydney : "The Bulletin" 
Newspaper Office ; London: Dunlop&Co.) £1 \s. 
net. — A valuable opportunity is afforded to admirers 
of Phil May for comparing his earlier and later 
work, by the publication of this interesting series of 
examples of his social and political cartooning and 
humorous sketches, suppUed between 1885 and 
1894 to the Sydney " Bulletin." As is well known, 
the career of May had been one long struggle from 
the death of his father when he was only nine 
years old, until in 1885 he obtained a regular 


journalistic appointment ; he having been able to 
take the place of the artist who had undertaken, but 
failed, to do the principal drawing for the previous 
Christmas number. As related by Mr. A. G. 
Stephens in the sympathetic biography prefacing 
the new publication, the chance turned the young 
artist's destiny, and he was earning from ^8 to 
^lo a week on the staff of " St. Stephens " when Mr. 
W. H. Traill, managing director of the " Bulletin," 
enticed him to Sydney to work for it. Phil May 
drew exclusively for the " Bulletin " for nine years, 
contributing no less than 900 drawings to it, of which 
those reproduced in this book are carefully selected 
examples. They prove the truth of Professor 
Herkomer's criticism that " Phil May's line was 
like the stroke of Joachim's bow" for what Mr. 
Stephens calls the "quality of athletic skill" was 
never surpassed in any other work from the same 
hand. They are, moreover, an incidental proof of 
the great change that has come over the attitude 
of Australia towards the mother country during the 
last twenty years, for such caricatures as those of 
the " Queen signing the Coercion Bill " and the 
"Queen and the Statue "would not now be tolerated. 
Venice by Mortimer Menpes. Text by Dorothy 
Menpes. (London : A. & C. Black.) 20.?. net. — 
Although it cannot be said to equal in beauty the 
companion volume on Japan, which is certainly the 
best of the colour books hitherto produced by Mr. 
Menpes, this new volume is full of delightful 
sketches, which interpret well the ever-varying, yet 
ever-fascinating charms of the City of the Lagoons. 
Specially satisfactory are the Custom House and 
Church of S. Maria Salute with the fishing-boat 
in the foreground, giving just the needed touch of 
strong colour ; the Dogana and Salute bathed 
in the true Venetian atmosphere ; the fine night- 
effect of the Ospedale Cirile the S. Giorgio 
Maggiore, glowing in the evening light ; the Canal 
in Giudecca Island, that seems to palpitate in the 
sunbeams, and the Choggia Fish Market, with the 
delicately suggested distance. On the other hand, 
in some few of the drawings there is a strange 
crudity of colouring and carelessness of execution. 
In the All Saints' Quay at S. Trovaso houses 
and water are one blur of the same tone, the Old 
Doonvay is commonplace and uninteresting ; and 
A Chioggia Fishing Boat is quite wanting in 
charm or character. As is generally the case 
in Mr. Menpes' publications, the letterpress of 
the " Venice " is not equal in merit to the 
illustrations. It is Mr. Menpes' whim to attribute 
the text to his daughter, but he often forgets he 
has done so, as in the chapters in the present 

volume, called " A Glimpse into Bohemia " and 
" Gondolas and Gondoliers," neither of which 
could possibly have been penned by a young girl. 
The author or authoress has also an irritating habit 
of jumping abruptly from one subject to another, 
as when he or she says : — " In San Giorgio there 
is a wonderful entombment by Tintoretto. This 
is the place for red mullet from the Adriatic," as if 
the painting — which, by the way, has not even the 
dignity of a capital letter — and the fish were of 
quite equal importance. The personal pronoun 
also changes constantly from I to you, one to they, 
in a confusing manner ; but, in spite of these 
drawbacks, the result probably of haste, the book 
is a notable one, full of shrewd remarks on people 
and things. 

William Blake. By Irene Langridge. (Lon- 
don : George Bell & Sons.) 10^. (yd. net. — The 
publishers of this most appreciative study of the 
life and work of William Blake are greatly to be 
congratulated on having secured the services of one 
so thoroughly in sympathy with her subject as 
Mrs. Langridge, who has the full courage of her 
convictions, and is able to give expression to them 
in virile and effective language. During his life- 
time, the gifted but strangely limited artist was 
never fully appreciated as he deserved ; and since 
his death he has been all but forgotten except by a 
limited number of enthusiasts. Yet there can be 
little doubt that some of the best decorative illus- 
tration of the present day was inspired to a great 
extent by his original genius, as will be conceded 
at once by those who study carefully his inter- 
pretations of the Book of Job that are amongst 
the many reproductions in Mrs. Langridge's 
book. Although, perhaps, the claim put forward 
by his new biographer, that "William Blake was 
one of the greatest spirits that ever made art 
his medium," will scarcely be fully conceded, the 
greater part of her able criticism will be endorsed 
by all who see in his work the reflection of a heart 
in tune with the infinite, who never dwelt in beauty 
for its own sake, but only when it was spiritually 
significant. That a man of character so unusual 
should have met at the very outset of his career 
with a nature truly akin to his own in the young 
girl who became his wife is one of those romances 
of real life that are stranger than fiction, and the 
touching story of their mutual devotion, their plain 
living and high thinking, their genuine love of 
poverty for its own sake, a love almost like that of 
St. Francis himself, will enchain the interest of the 
reader to whom the strangely weird work of Blake 
fails to appeal. That he should do great things 



for small wages, said Swinburne, was a condition 
of his life ; and to Crabb Robinson the artist 
himself declared : " I should be sorry if I had any 
earthly fame, for whatever natural glory a man has 
is so much taken from his spiritual glory." What 
Ruskin well defined as the "beautiful purpose and 
warped power " of Blake's work are well brought 
out in Mrs. Langridge's detailed examination of 
typical examples of that work in every medium, 
amongst which not the least interesting are the 
plates from the " Songs of Innocence," several 
quotations from which are given in the text ; a pub- 
lication printed by the author's own hands, the 
alpha, says his biographer, of a long series of 
engraved books produced by him " in faith and 
gladness, relying in that mystical power in himself 
which took and used his eye and brain almost 
without his will." 

The Venture: An Annual of Art and Literature, 
1903. Edited by Laurence Hous.\i.\n and W. 
Somerset Maugham. (London : John Baillie.) 
— The volume is illustrated entirely by woodcuts. 
The most distinguished designs are The Dove Cot, 
by C. H. Shannon ; Psyche's Looking Glass, by 
Charles S. Ricketts, and The Blue Moon, by 
Laurence Housman. The literary contents include, 
amongst other things, one of G. K. Chesterton's 
fascinating essays, a poem by Thomas Hardy, and 
contributions by such well-known writers as Mrs. 
Meynall, Netta Syrett, Stephen Gwynn, Havelock 
Ellis, Laurence Binyon and Laurence Housman, 
and some original contributions from less well- 
known pens of exceptional promise. A long life 
for the annual is to be hoped for; there is room for 
a magazine for the encouragement of artistic effort 
which by its virtuosity is unsuited for the uses of 
popular journalism. 

La Peinture a F Exposition des Primitifs P? an(ais. 
By Co.MTE Paul Durrien. (Librairie de I'Art 
Ancien et Moderne, Paris.) — No more charming 
memento of the unique Exposition des Primitifs 
Frangais, recently held in Paris, could be imagined 
than the richly illustrated and scholarly essay of 
Comte Paul Durrien, who discourses upon the 
most noteworthy works there collected with the 
finely-balanced judgment and incisive critical 
acumen that distinguish him. With the aid of 
what he characterises as " relics saved in the ship- 
wreck of old French paintings," he pieces together 
the story of the development of the early French 
school, concluding his delightful resume with a 
congratulation to his fellow-countrymen that it 
should have been possible to collect so many works 
that originated on the soil of old France, proving 

that the art of painting was there so largely practised 
by schools endowed with truly remarkable vitality 
and fecundity. 
The Treatment of Drapery ifi Art. By G. Woollis- 
CROFT Rhead, R.E., A.R.C.A. Lond. (London: 
G. Bell & Sons.) 6s. net. — As is clearly explained 
by the author in this most useful little handbook, 
it makes no pretence of dealing with the history of 
costume, but is simply 'an inquiry into the 
principles of the folds of drapery pure and simple, 
the formation of the individual folds, the lines 
which drapery takes upon the human figure, and 
the general behaviour of drapery under different 
conditions." Written in a very clear and lucid 
style, and copiously illustrated with examples of 
the treatment of drapery by great masters in paint- 
ing and sculpture, it will be an invaluable guide to 
the teacher as well as to the student, and should 
find a place in every art school. 

Paolo Veronese. By Mrs. Arthur Bell. 
(London : George Newnes, Ltd.) — This is one of 
Messrs. Newnes' now celebrated series devoted to 
the great masters. The volume contains over 60 
illustrations excellently reproduced, and apparently 
considerable trouble has been taken to secure 
reproductions of some of the less known and least 
accessible of the painter's chief works. The 
introductory essay by Mrs. Arthur Bell shows 
extensive knowledge of her subject and apprecia- 
tion of the qualities that place the art of Veronese 
in its exalted position. Written with the charm we 
have learned to expect from her pen, Mrs. Bell's 
short biography places concisely before the reader 
the artist's relation to the art of the time and the 
character of his temperament as we may judge it 
from his work. The bulk of the pages in this series 
are devoted to illustrations, and Messrs. Newnes 
are attempting by this means to familiarise the 
public with the work of the separate masters in a 
way that is impossible except where reproductions 
of their individual work can be collected in more 
than the usual quantity and studied together in 
one book. 

Pierre : A Tale of Normandy. By Mrs. Arthur 
Bell. (London : J. M. Dent & Co.)— This is a 
book charming in its sentiment. Mrs. Bell has 
given the interest of locaUty and probability to a 
short story of the simplicity of the faith of the 
Normandy peasantry. She has caught the spirit 
that animates their superstition, written of it 
reverently and woven a pretty story from it. The 
illustrations by S. A. Lindsay are perhaps a little 
unequal, but some of the small drawings at the 
ends of the chapters are very pleasing. 


Awards in " The Studio" Prize Competitions 


New Series. 

Class A. Decor.^tive Art. 

A I. Design for a Terra-Cotta Vase. 

We regret to have to withhold the awards in this 
competition, as in the opinion of the judges none 
of the designs sent in can be considered satisfactory. 
The vase designed was to be suitable for a standard 
bay-tree, but none of the designs fulfil the 
requirements of such a receptacle. One of the 
first necessities of a vase of this kind is that the 
plant within it shall be readily removable without 
injury to the roots, but where the upper part of the 
vase is constricted, as in many of these designs, this 
removal of the plant is impossible without damage 
to the roots or injury to the vase itself. Another 
obvious requirement is that some means shall be 
provided by which a firm hold may be obtained of 
the vase in order to move it from one place to 
another. And finally it is necessary that the 
design should not be an imitation of a wooden 
structure, but should be frankly a piece of earth 
moulded in characteristic fashion. Many charming 
drawings have been sent, but most of them err in 
the body of the vase being larger than the aperture 
at the top. Others are distinct imitations of 
wooden structures, while in others the handles 
would not be nearly strong enough to be of 
service in moving the vase from place to place 
without risk of breaking. 

We intend to set this competition again at a 
later period, and beg our competitors to bear in 
mind that the first essence of design is to make the 
object designed fulfil its purpose in the most 
satisfactory way. 

Class B. Pictorial Art. 
B I. A Summer Landscape in Water-Colours. 

This being our first competition for landscapes 
in water-colour, we are particularly gratified with 
the large number of thoughtful and pleasing 
drawings that have been submitted. Many of them 
disclose marked talent, and it has indeed been 
somewhat difficult to pick out the two best. Those 
which have been selected for prizes are followed 
closely in point of merit by two sent in by Black- 
thorn and Ceres respectively, which in the opinion 
of the judges are worthy of special mention. 

We regret that in the present number it is 
impossible for us to reproduce any of these 
drawings in colour. Half-tone reproductions 
would not do justice to the originals, and we 
therefore decide to defer reproducing them at all 

for the present. We shall, however, shortly be 
setting another competition on similar lines, and 
hope then to have an opportunity of giving a 
selection of these drawings in colour, along with 
others which may be submitted in connection with 
this fresh competition. 

The First Prize {Tivo Guineas) is awarded to 
Bungeworgorai (F. G. Martyn Roberts, Gladstone 
Road, Brisbane, South Queensland), and the 
Second Prize {One Guinea) to Mab (Miss Mar- 
jory A. Blunt, Dorchester, Wallingford). Those 
deserving special mention are Blackthorn (Helena 
E. Jones) and CVrM (Antonio Ribas Oliver). Hon. 
Mention is accorded to Bardie (Eric H. Swin- 
stead) ; Black (Norah C. Dominy) ; Buckivheat 
(Miss A. Beken); C/-(J^ww« (Geo. Wilson); Dreamer 
(Thirza M. Hounsfield) ; Dolores (Miss D. B. 
Leigh) ; Eadgythe (Edith A. Langdon) ; Five 
(Hannah M. Lendis) ; Fram (M. E. Hamilton) 
Influx (Cyril C. Pearce) ; Jason (Dudley Kibbler) 
Jap (Mrs. M. A. Chambers) ; Kit (Miss Leigh 
Clare) ; Grand Manner (Miss M. C. Rotheram) 
Loidis (Alf. Wildsmith) ; Li7io (Clifford J. Beese) 
Laira (R. B. Smart) ; Max (Miss V. Waddington) 
MacGtegor (J. E. Cowlman) ; Michaelmas (Miss 
Edith Ellis) ; Ozzy (O. Garside) ; Petielope {W\%?, J. 
C. Halford) ; Peter (Peter Brown) ; Rythm (Albert 
B. Marston) ; Rex (Dora A. Greatorex) ; Reigate 
(Miss H. E. Grace); Sol (Scott Calder) ; Sans 
Souci (J. C. A. Traill); Teddie (Miss A. M. 
\Villiams) ; Thomas James (T. J. Dadson) ; Wat 
(W. J. West) ; Yorks (H. Wanless). 

Class C. Photographs from Nature. 
C. I. A Harvest Scene. 
First Prize {One Guinea) : Nomad (Emile 
Frechon, Blangy-sur-Bresle, Seine-Inf., France). 

Second Prize {Haifa-Guinea) : Dellburn (Dan 
Dunlop, 4 Hamilton Street, Motherwell, N.B.). 

Hon. Mention : Gum (Ch. Sollet) ; Montana 
(Violetta M. Fowler) ; Morello (Leila C. Neale) ; 
Summer (W. Northwood). 

Picture Titles Competition. 

I'IRST Prize of Ten Founds : Southern Cross 
(Edward Hepburn, Nordheim, Sidcup, Kent). 

Second Prize of Five Founds: Dalziel (Dan 
Dunlop, 4 Hamilton Street, Motherwell, N.B.). 

Five Prizes of Two Founds each : Genre (Gray- 
stone Bird, 38 Milsom Street, Bath) ; Fyro (F. W 
Andrew, Royal Thames Studio, Abingdon) ; Wys- 
dael (J. C. Richards, Bourneville) ; Westivood 
(W. Wheelock, 18 Jesmond Avenue, Toller Lane, 
Bradford) ; Tripod (I. F. Lewis, 2S6 Birchfield 
Road, Birmingham). 



The Lay Figure 


' I OFTEN wonder," said the Man with 
the Red Tie, " whether people in the mass have 
any glimmering of artistic taste. The more one 
sees of the ways of the public in art matters the 
less possible is it to understand on what principle, 
if any, the popular favourite is elevated to the 
position he occupies." 

"It is not so incomprehensible as you imagine," 
replied the Successful Painter ; " any artist can be 
popular if he has the good sense to study the likes 
and dislikes of the public and to give them what 
they want." 

" But do they know what they want ? " asked 
the Man with the Red Tie. " Is there any marked 
popular preference which would justify you in say- 
ing that any particular class of art is specially 
likely to be accepted ? I cannot discover that the 
public have the pronounced likes and dislikes that 
you talk about ; their attitude seems to me to be 
simply one of stolid ignorance. They will become 
violently enthusiastic over every charlatan who 
advertises himself with sufficient impudence. 
Merit, certainly, is the last thing they are capable 
of appreciating." 

" Nonsense!" interrupted the Successful Painter ; 
"you are only showing your own lack of judgment 
by making such remarks. I consider that you are 
gratuitously offensive when you suggest that every 
painter who becomes a popular favourite is a 
charlatan. Why, some of the greatest artists who 
have ever lived have been worshipped by the public 
and have enjoyed the widest popularity." 

" But many more have been utterly neglected, 
and have lived and died in obscurity," replied the 
Man with the Red Tie. " You are only proving 
my point, that the public have no taste and are 
incapable of discrimination. I am certain that for 
ever)' great artist whom you can instance as having 
gained popular acceptance I can quote a hundred 
fourth rate men who have been quite as highly 
favoured. Surely you would not contend that 
throughout the history of art merit has always been 
rewarded as it deserved ! " 

" Certainly it has been rewarded as it deserved," 
rephed the Successful Painter. " If a man chooses 
to sacrifice himself in the pursuit of art for art's 
sake — to use the jargon of the unsuccessful — he 
does not deserve more than he gets. The artist 
works, or should work, for the public, and he should 
be prepared to do what they demand of him." 
"Great Heavens, what a creed!" sighed the 

Man with the Red Tie ; " now I understand why 
you resent my gentle suggestions about the popu- 
larity of the charlatan. I apologise. I did not 
realise what extremely rude remarks I was making.'' 

" Please do not wander off into personalities," 
broke in the Art Critic. " Let us try and keep, 
just for once, to the main point ; I very much 
want to hear what recipe our friend has for 
attaining popularity." 

" Recipe, indeed ! " replied the Successful Pain- 
ter, " it is not a matter of recipe but of common- 
sense. People want to be interested, and the man 
who paints interesting things will always have a 
following. Therefore I urge all artists to choose 
for their pictures only that material which will 
satisfy the great demand which exists for attractive 
art. What is the use of wasting one's energies on 
work that hardly anyone cares to look at twice? 
If I am ignored I have failed in my mission be- 
cause I have not properly felt the public pulse, 
and my failure comes from misuse of oppor- 
tunities which I have not had the sense to turn 
to proper advantage." 

"In other words," said the Critic, "you regard 
art as only a means to an end, and that end is to 
be the pleasing of as many people as possible. 
But the unfortunate thing is that, when you lay 
yourself out to amuse the crowd, you have to con- 
sider the preferences of the many who know 
nothing about art before you can give any atten- 
tion to the wishes of the critical few who know 
accurately the difference between what is good and 
bad. Therefore it is difficult to raise your work 
above the very low standard which suffices to 
satisfy the ignorant. When you have received the 
adulation of the mob only an abnormal conscien- 
tiousness would induce you to continue to strive 
for the approval of the real experts. Every day 
the temptation to be content with the trifles that 
delight little minds grows stronger, and every day 
your higher aspirations seem less worth the struggle 
that is necessary for their realisation. As you be- 
come more popular it appears to be more and more 
advisable to choose the subjects that your clientele 
understands best, and to paint them with that 
easy dexterity which passes as cleverness with people 
who know no better. But meanwhile it is the 
public that is educating you ; and you who might 
have been a leader of men are sinking into a slave. 
This is surely a heavy price to pay for the satisfac- 
tion of an unworthy ambition. And I really think 
that if you blacked your face and took a banjo to 
the seaside you would amuse a far larger crowd." 
The Lav Figure. 



/. R. JVeguelin 


It is by no means an easy matter to define 
exactly the place which Mr. J. R. Weguelin 
occupies among present day artists. At one time, 
it is true, he might have been ranked with the 
classicists, for he showed some tendency to 
attempt those reconstructions of the life of the 
Greeks and Romans which have engaged the 
attention of many painters in this country and 
abroad. But this phase of his art was not a lasting 
one, and even while it continued was not marked 
by pedantic insistence upon the dry facts of 
archaeology. He was content for the most part to 
realise the classic atmosphere by a comparatively 
free adaptation of the records of the antiquarians 
and to deal in a more or less irresponsible way with 
the material which he collected from the history of 
ages long past. At no period of his career did he 
fix himself down to strict observation of the 
particular formula which satisfies the archffiological 

Instead, he preferred to choose subjects which 
allowed him to work in the true spirit of classicism 

and to enjoy to the utmost the poetic charm of 
Pagan fancy. He used the motives of antiquity 
with a freshness and daintiness of touch which 
gave to them a living interest, and with the keenest 
appreciation of the opportunities which he found 
in them of presenting beautiful things and attractive 
incidents in an essentially personal manner. As 
his art has matured the tendency of it to insist 
upon beauty for beauty's sake has become more 
pronounced. It has lost the leaning which it had 
at first towards classic episode and has grown more 
imaginative and more truly expressive of his innate 
jestheticism. A student of the classics he was, and 
is still, but his study is directed now not so much 
to the acquisition of details in the domestic history 
of the ancients as to the perfecting of his own taste 
by examination of the principles by which their 
exquisite achievement was controlled. 

Therefore, he can best be described to-day as a 
painter of classic abstractions, who has absorbed 
so completely the poetic feeling of the men who 
lived in remote centuries that he can amid the 
materialism of the modern world think and work 
as these men did. The delightful sensuousness of 
his art, its pure enjoyment of delicacies of form 
and subtleties of colour, its charmingly illogical 

"OLD LOVE renewed" 

XXXIII. No. 141. — December, 1904. 


J. R. PVegiielin 

preference for fantasies which make no pretence of 
being didactic or even serious, are all in the best 
spirit of Paganism. If Mr. Weguelin had been a 
contemporary of Horace, he and that attractive 
worshipper of the bright side of existence would 
most certainly have been intimates ; there would 
have been the strongest bond of sympathy between 
them, and they would have rollicked together with 
perfect contentment. But as he happens to belong 
to an age which has forgotten how to enjoy itself 
in the Horatian manner, he seeks instead to re- 
create the world which his predecessor found so 
pleasant and to people it with figures which would 
have satisfied the fastidious taste of Horace himself 

Circumstances, beyond doubt, were in great 
measure responsible for the development of Mr. 
Weguelin's particular preferences in art. He was 
born — in 1849 — ^t the village of South Stoke, near 
Arundel, of which his father was rector, but several 
years of his early boyhood were spent in Italy and 
chiefly at Rome, so that during the most impres- 
sionable period of his life he was brought into 
very close contact with just what was needed to 
fill him with a love for classic achievement. He 
went, indeed, to the very fountain-head, and the 
knowledge he imbibed there has guided him 
rightly through all the effort of his later years. 
Such surroundings to anyone of his temperament 
could not fail to be permanently inspiring ; they 
definitely determined his direction, and had upon 
his character an influence which has certainly not 
diminished with lapse of time. 

He had no regular art training while he was 
living in Italy — nothing, at all events, which could 
be regarded as efficient preparation for the pro- 
fession which he has followed since Some lessons 
were given him by an Italian drawing master, but 
these came abruptly to an end when the teacher 
disappeared to join Garibaldi and was not heard 
of again. He did not actually begin serious study 
until he had arrived at the comparatively mature 
age of twenty-two, when he became a student at 
theSlade School, which was then — in 187 1 — under 
the direction of the present head of the Royal 
Academy, Sir Edward Poynter. From this sound 
teacher Mr. Weguelin obtained just that strict drilling 
in the principles of design and composition which he 
needed to make his artistic conceptions properly effec- 
tive, and he acquired then a grasp of his craft which 
has never failed him since. He remained for some 
years at the Slade School, and during the latter 
part of his stay there was taught by Professor 
Legros, who had succeeded Sir Edward Poynter in 
the professorship. 

His first appearance as an exhibiting artist was 
made in 1875 or 1876, when he sent to the Dudley 
Gallery a water-colour drawing called The Death of 
the First-born. Oddly enough, though he has 
since achieved such remarkable success as a water- 
colour painter, he showed, after this first attempt, 
nothing more in that medium for nearly twenty 
years He devoted himself instead to oil painting ; 
and as about this time he fell strongly under the 
influence of Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, he began 
the series of pictures which shows the extent of his 
concession to pictorial archeology. How far this 
influence affected him can be judged from such an 



/. R. JVeguelin 



example as the Old Love Renewed (page 193), and 
from a few other works in which he tried to solve 
the same sort of problems. But, as has been 
already said, this was but a passing phase, and 
he soon recovered his independence. 

To the Academy, in 1878, he contributed a 
picture of some note, The Labour of the Danaides, 
and from that year onwards he has been a con- 
stant exhibitor at one or other of the London 
galleries. At the Academy have appeared, among 
other works. The Feast of Flora (1882), The 
Maiden's Race (1883), Herodias and her Daughter 
(1884), The Swing Feast (1885), Cupid bound by 
the Nymphs (reproduced here in photogravure), 
and The Piper and the Nymphs (1897); at the 
Grosvenor Gallery, The Tired Daticer (1879), 
and The Ro>nan Acrobat (1881) ; and at the 
New Gallery, Bacchus and the Choir op Nymphs 
(illustrated on this page), and The Gardens of 
Adonis (1889). There have been seen also such 
admirable paintings as The Captive Wood Nytnph, 
Floivers from a Roman Garden. Spring (page 194), 
Dotvn to the Summer Sea, Wishes, and The Toilet 
of Faunus, with many others in which he has 
demonstrated effectively his admirable originality 
and his excellent sense of technical responsibility. 

Perhaps of all his oil-paintings, none could be 
quoted which embodies more completely the most 
salient characteristics of his art than The Piper and 
the Nymphs (page 195). Here at all events there 
is none of the Alma-Tadema influence remaining, 
and there is instead a very full measure of 
Mr. Wegueliii's personality. The whole thing is 
essentially fanciful, and to find any authority for 
it we must go back to the Greek myths which 

peopled every grove with supernatural beings. 
The piper, making music as he walks through the 
wood, has drawn from their hiding places the little 
dryads who peep and listen half in fear and half 
in admiration. Such a motive for a picture on an 
important scale seems slight enough ; and yet, treated 
as it is here with thorough conviction and exquisite 
delicacy, it is amply sufficient. But a successful 
result would only have been possible with an 
artist whose mind was perfectly in tune with 
the legend, and who saw plainly from the first 
how much scope the subject gave him for 
the expression of his own leanings towards classic 
fantasy. Had he had less poetic instinct, the 
picture would have been merely a variant on the 
Bathers Surprised theme which has been worked 
to death by many generations of materially-minded 

It was not until 1893 that Mr. Weguelin seriously 
took up water colour work ; but in that year, he 
exhibited at the Academy a drawing called The 
S'wing. A few months later he was elected an 
associate of the Royal Society of Painters in Water 
Colours, and his promotion to full membership 
followed in 1897. The fortunate result of this 
election has been to establish him as one of the 
most deservedly prominent water colourists whom 
we have amongst us. Incidentally it has also 
greatly diminished his activity as an oil painter, for 
the preparation of his drawings for the exhibitions of 
the Society has taken up so much of his time that 
he has had but little to give to practice in oils. But 
for this abstention the perfection of the work which 
he has been showing during the last ten years, in 
the gallery in Pall Mall East, makes ample amends. 



























J. R. IVegiielin, 

He could not now be spared from the ranks of the 
water-colour painters, for there is certainly no one 
who could take his place, or who could handle his 
class of subjects with the same marvellous combi- 
nation of strength and subtlety. 

The change of medium has not induced him to 
depart in any perceptible way from the path he 
previously followed ; he has continued to deal with 
the same fantasies that have occupied him so long 
in his pictures. With a few exceptions, such as 
The Clerk and the Farmers Wife (illustrated on 
this page), A Real Princess, and that record of 
medieval vanity, Vnietian Gold (page 201), his 
water-colours have reflected either his love of 
classic legend or his fancies about the mythical 
creatures of the sea. Nymphs and mermaids 
have been his chief creations, though now and 
then, as in A Battle oj Floivers, he has 
realised pretty incidents in Greek life. 
But in Pan the Beguiler, the Mer- 
maid on the Sea Shore, The Racing 
Nymphs, The Afemiaid of Zennor 
(reproduced here in colours), Under 
the Hollow Hung Ocean Green, The 
Captive Dryad, and in Solutis Gratia 
Zonis, an especially charming com- 
position of nude female figures, he 
has depended solely upon his imagina- 
tion to supply him with his motive, 
and upon his consummate sense of 
artistic fitness to make that motive 
wholly credible. Always what he has 
produced has been dignified by tech- 
nical qualities of exceptional import- 
ance, by elegance and suppleness of 
draughtsmanship, by broad and certain 
directness of brushwork, and above 
all, by the most dainty refinement of 
colour. In his craft, indeed, he is a 
master of the first rank ; the com- 
bination of precision and fluency in 
his water-colours implies a perfection 
of knowledge that almost amounts 
to inspiration. 

There is one other branch of prac- 
tice in which he has achieved distinc- 
tion. As an illustrator he has done 
much that deserves to be remembered, 
and his contributions to various pub- 
lications have been numerous and 
interesting. He has been responsible 
for special illustrated editions of 
Anacreon and Catullus, for drawings 
for " Harper's " and " Scribner's " 

Magazines, and for many things which have 
appeared in the " Graphic." For this last paper 
he has on several occasions written short stories 
accompanied by explanatory drawings, and he 
also supplied the illustrations to the serial story 
" Montezuma's Daughter." Altogether, his activity 
has been considerable, but it has been invariably 
well directed, and it has been dominated through- 
out by a most praiseworthy aesthetic intention. 
Not often, indeed, is there to be found such 
correctness of relation between the matter of an 
artist's work and his method of technical expres- 
sion. Mr. Weguelin has realised admirably how 
much the meaning of a subject can be enhanced 
by careful appropriateness of executive treatment ; 
and his interpretation of the motives he selects is 
marked always by the happiest combination of 
daintiness and distinction. 

" N(nu, when they heard the husband coming . . . the wife begged the 
clerk to creep into a lar^e empty chest which stood on one side in a 
<ro7-H«;-."— (From "Little Claus and BigClaus," byH.<insC. Andersen. 



o w 






a3. & S>&. 

From a Sketch by Arnold Mitchell 

From Sketches by Arnold Mitchell , 


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(jautances, SJeejale 



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From Sietches by Arnold Milchell 


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<M1EHS a 3. 39 



/Vow Sketches by Arnold Mitchell 


Paul Schultze-Naumburg 


In Germany during the last twenty years 
some new " movement " in art has almost 
annually been announced, discussed, jeered at, 
defended, seized upon, worked out, lived through, 
misunderstood, and forgotten. Looked at from 
near by, this hurried process appears a wild 
chase after new fashions and new sensations. 
From a higher standpoint one may recognise that 
in passing through dangerous errors and still more 
dangerous half-truths our art has progressed to- 
wards one necessary, great, and noble end, as 
though she had been conscious of it from the first. 
And she was conscious of it. In individual chosen 
minds a prophetic vision of the future has always 
lived and worked. 

It is not yet possible to relate the history of this 
strange tortuous evolution. But we may trace its 
inner sense by considering the isolated cases of 
those who have not tamely trodden the beaten 

pathway, but, having always the distant goal in 
eye and heart, have hastened on towards it from 
strength to strength as the bent of their natures 

Paul Schultze-Naumburg was born in Thuringia, 
at Naumburg on the Saale, in 1869. In 1887 he 
went to study painting at the Academy of Carls- 
ruhe. What he was taught there remained devoid 
of significance as regarded his after productions. 
His strong natural inclination towards spiritual 
depth in his work was not understood, was even 
repressed ; and such mere external facility as he 
developed there was more hurtful than advan- 
tageous to him. 

As soon as he himself became aware of this he 
left Carlsruhe and went to Munich. This was in 
the year 1893. At that time foreign influences 
had brought ferment and revolt into the stagnant 
life of art. The beginnings of the movement were 
much older ; but the decisive combat was only then 
being fought out. " Plein-air," "impressionism," 
^'pointillisme," were the watchwords ; a hitherto un- 
usual manipulation of oil-colour was the universal 
sign of recognition ; the separation of the " Seces- 
sion " from the rest of the artistic fraternity was 


2 I I 

Paul Schultze-Naumburg 

the decisive act of the artist-poh'ticians ; recognition 
of the "new painting" by the public was the 

Schultze-Naumburg did not adopt the revolu- 
tionary methods merely as such, but he tested 
their quality, and appropriated what was sound 
in them. His pictures of this date bear witness 
to a continual study of the newly-raised problems 
■of light and colour, and of the technical methods 
of dealing with them. He took part in the founda- 
tion of the "Secession," and, being a teacher and 
educator, both by natural gifts and by the strong 
bent of his whole nature, in his first book, " Studium 
und Ziele der Malerei " (" The Study and Aims of 
Painting ") he tried logically to make clear the 
principles for which they were fighting, and to 
bring home to the general comprehension all that 
was as yet unfamiliar in those principles. This 
book already contained the suggestion of a far 
higher and more distant aim, just as his pictures of 
that period were signalled out from among those of 
his fellow-artists by a markedly individual, peculiarly 
poetic and dreamy feeling ; and for this reason he 
was never recognised by the Secessionists as quite 
one of themselves. 

The new discoveries had originated in the in- 
vestigation of certain hitherto undetected optical 
phenomena in the constitution of the visual picture 
of nature. The danger of this was lest an art 
which concentrated itself upon this one aim should 
over-externalise, should place the appearance above 
the essential reality, the optical illusion above the 
emotional concept. As a matter of fact the 
movement as a whole fell into this snare the 
moment it had at last attained to public and 
official recognition. 

By that time Schultze-Naumburg was already 
standing quite outside the movement. His release 
had come about naturally ; he had returned to his 
home. The haunts of his childhood, where every 
tree, every stone, every house, was known and 
loved, awakened in him such a deep love of home 
and of his native land, such joy in its charm and 
tender poetry, that he ceased to regard the problems 
of light and colour, the fascinations of painting, 
facile technique, and the laborious striving after 
new impressions, as the highest objects of his en- 
deavour. He wanted so to represent his home 
that in his pictures every one should see and 
appreciate that wonderful and little known country. 



Paul Schiiltze lYauJubnrg 







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'a moonlight night" 


with its thickly-wooded ranges of hills, extensive 
tablelands, quiet valleys, beautiful rivers with 
ancient castles on the heights above them, vine- 
clad hillsides, snug little towns nestling in hollows, 
with all the varied beauty that a German country- 
side can show. 

For this he needed new modes ot expression. 
It is a very different matter whether one sees in 
forest, meadow, mountain, and sky only the chance 
vehicles for tone and colour values, or whether one 
wishes to present the things themselves as they 
live and as they appeal to the heart. It was in 
drawing that he first embodied these new views. 
By delineating the forms of his landscape with the 
sharp point, deliberately and carefully guided in 
long clear lines, he was most successful in setting 
forth all its characteristic features distinctly and 
individually, freed from any appearance of insub- 
stantiality. It was an irksome and a lonely path 
that he pursued in his studies. Such strivings were 
at that time looked upon by living men as inartistic, 
and it was only the great dead that could here 
point the way : J. A. Koch, Tischbein, Preller, 
Ludwig Richter, Rethel. That he recognised 
them for the mighty masters they were, and for the 
patterns they should be to all specifically German 

art, is proved by his personal action. He did not 
copy their forms of expression, but rather remodelled 
them for himself, face to face with nature, with that 
same thoroughness and studious devotion that had 
guided those others before him. 

The picture had now to be developed from the 
preliminary sketch. However useful his previous 
schooling in //f/« air problems was eventually to 
prove, for the moment it was a hindrance to him. 
For the study of colour in nature according to the 
practice of that day tended to reduce his large 
formal conceptions into quite other proportions, 
dependent on the accidental disposition of the 
light. Only one kind of light really showed him 
natural objects simplified, brought together, 
separated, just as his inner conception demanded 
of them, and that was the twilight of evening. In 
that wonderful hour when day has ended and night 
not yet begun, he recognised once more on the 
banks of the Saale, the picture that from his 
earliest years T/ie River (page zii) had meant 
to him, with the whole spell of secret mystery that 
surrounds the word. 

In another experiment, A Moonlight Night 
(illustrated on this page), the impossibility of 
direct study from nature led him a step further 


Paul ScJmltze-Naiinibuvg 



in the independent formation of his conceptions. 
The process that I have indicated here by reference 
to two pictures only, was in reality long and tedious. 
Out of the poetical dreamy impression derived 
from nature, there was evolved by a natural process 
the untrammelled imaginative conception of what 
had been seen. 

His home gave him more than the resurrection 
of his childhood's dreams, which he was now able 
to reproduce in pictorial beauty. He found 
traces there of an artistic conception of actual 
life such as had by process of time become 
unknown to us. Vestiges of an important artistic 
culture, distinctively German in character, 
dating from the end of the eighteenth and 
beginning of the nineteenth centuries, have been 
preserved in Thuringia with a greater tenacity 
than elsewhere. Houses and household furniture, 
gardens, parks, vineyards, roads, bridges — all that 
man contributes to the formation of the landscape, 
still speak plainly of the time when Goethe 
wandered there and halted for a while at each of 
the most lovely and charming spots. The 
remains of that particular period are but little 
prized by us, are even despised on account of their 
admixture of classical elements ; people do not see 
that besides this admixture of classicism (which is 
observable in all our German mental hfe), we have 
here the only starting-point nowadays available for 
a new artistic cult of life. Schultze-Naumburg is 
one of the few who have fully realised this. 

Towards the end of the nineties there arose in 
Germany what we may call by the cant name of 
the "decorative movement." This was partly in- 
spired by English influence ; it was at first directed 

towards applied art, and only afterwards to the 
sphere of fine art. Schultze had always con- 
sidered it a matter of course, and a fundamental 
artistic principle, that the artist's activity ought not 
to end with the mere framing of his picture. 
Experiments in applied art, to which for a time he 
now wholly devoted himself, were therefore not 
new to him. His productions were distinguished 
by plain sober usefulness and efficiency. For it was 
his conviction that after the terrible rage for prttti- 
ness prevalent during the sixties and eighties, a com- 
pliance with the entirely neglected claims of the 
practical must be the chief consideration ; and he 
contended that the construction of articles for 
domestic use is artistic if their form perfectly 
expresses their purpose. His book " Hausliche 
Kunstpflege" (The Study of Domestic Art) sets 
forth his views upon the question logically and 
practically. His treatment of the subject is 
authoritative, because based on the immediate 
contemplation of an ancient artistic culture forti- 
fied by tradition ; it is new, because it assimilates 
everything admirable that our own time has 
accomplished in the way of scientific thought and 
■ technical invention ; and it is popular, because it 
has in view, not the individual taste of the 
resthetically refined few, but the deep needs of an 
entire nation. His work has exercised great influ- 
ence in Germany. 

These practical experiments reacted upon his 
painting. His studio picture had now to be re- 
garded as the ornament of a room to whose lines 
and colours it must organically accommodate itself, 
without making the wall-surface which it decorates 
appear to simulate a piece of nature. 

Paul Schidtze-Naiimbiirg 

The first difficulty to be encountered was of an 
external and technical character. Oil-colour, treated 
as a thick paste and laid on without much manipu- 
lation, had proved the best medium for pkin-air 
subjects, but here it no longer sufficed. In the 
old masters interior effects could be noted that 
were pleasing to the eye, but their constitution 
was a riddle. With the energy that he brought to 
every task, Schultze set himself to re-discover the 
technical methods of past ages, and to experiment 
scientifically with all the new processes that our 
modern industry provides. His intimate study 
of the old masters, particularly those of the 
early Renaissance, gave him the key to a long- 
sought- for secret. The visible picture of nature, 
even in the full witchery of some special 
mood, when reproduced on the canvas certainly 
repeated the impression made upon the eye ; but 
it did not give the mental sensation that the vision 
of nature had evoked. He now learned from the 
old masters that a piece of natural beauty must be 
translated into pictorial beauty, in order that we 
may experience, at sight of the latter, what we ex- 

perienced on beholding the former. And this 
pictorial beauty follows the same laws that in 
applied art regulate the " pleasing " or the 
" repellent " sensation. Thus from the imaginative 
conception was evolved the decorative conception. 

His picture Schonburg (page 214) may serve 
as an example to show how true to nature were 
the pictures that he based on decorative considera- 
tions, just because they did not copy the beauties 
of nature, but created them anew for the purposes 
of the picture. The wall-picture became Schultze's 
special task. 

The " decorative movement " in Germany 
threatens likewise to become over- externalised and 
superficialised. Imitation of the foreign or of the 
old-fashioned, on the one side, and on the other, a 
restless striving after the novel, the unusual, the 
eccentric, have much distorted its original character. 
Schultze-Naumburg has been saved from these 
dangers by the last new development of his artistic 
personality. In his practice of decorative art he 
had discovered what he had long suspected in the 
case of pure art — namely, in what intimate relation- 


(See article on E. A. Taylor) 



A Glasgow Designer: E. A. Taylor 

ship beauty of outward appearance stands to 
the moral value of a work of art and of its 
creator ; nay, further, that in sensuous beauty we 
possess none other than the visible form of all 
human perfection and moral goodness. This dis- 
covery is no new thing ; but it is constantly lost 
sight of as soon as a particular artistic development 
inscribes on its banner the famous " L'art pour 
I' art" 

To possess and to comprehend in the material 
beauty of things, not only their momentary charm 
for the eye, but their deep inner essence : that is 
the idea which has become the motive power of 
Schultze's work. Its significance, both for the 
enrichment of artistic creative work and for the 
ennobling of our moral attitude towards life, is as 
yet not fully to be estimated. It is marvellous to 
witness the lucidity with which Schultze applies 
this idea to practical everyday life, and translates 
it into every conceivable form. 

The illustration on page 2 1 o, The Rainbow, exhi- 
bits a more powerful and striking comprehension of 

Schultze's Thuringian home-land than he has ever 
attained before. It is Earth herself, mighty and 
fruitful, blest by the rain, and over whom the Creator 
has set His bow in the clouds as a sign of His good 
pleasure. Schultze has reached this height of ex- 
pressive power by regarding objective beauty in 
the new light of a wider outlook on the world. 
Thus from the decorative conception was evolved 
the monumental conception. 





Much has been written and spoken of thecomplete 
understanding that ought to exist between the artist 
and the craftsman, and the unlikelihood of satisfac- 
tory results being obtained without the aid of this 
co-operation. The whole history of the domestic arts 
does not disclose a closer union between art and craft 
than exists to-day, and this is due almost entirely to the 
modern movement. In 
"the modern school" there 
are men by this arrangement 
occupying foremost places 
to-day, who have risen to 
their positions through a 
series of early failures, 
brought about by a lack 
of sympathy between the 
two forces, or from an 
insufficiency of technical 

No such difficulty 
marked the opening career 
of one of the foremost 
designers in Glasgow, 
E. A. Taylor. 

By training, artistic tem- 
perament, and whole- 
hearted devotion to the 
new idea, no one is better 
fitted to take a leading part 
in the movement. 

Early in life he had to 
choose between a rural 
and an urban occupation, 
and the call of the fields, 
the woods, and wild things 
was imperative ; there and 
then began that study 
and appreciation of the 
subtlety of colour, that 

A Glasgow Designer : E. A. Taylor 

was so powerfully to" influence the artist's life and 

From the school of nature to the school of art, — 
where in spite of the damping effect of friendly 
discouragement, the young student made rapid 
progress, taking and passing examinations under 
many difficulties — and from the school of art to 
that of practical experience was but the common- 
place round of the artist. Meantime ways and 
means had to be considered, and the daily 
life of the workshop and studio afforded little 
leisure for a fuller study of nature, for which those 
earlier opportunities had created a craving. Of a 
strongly imaginative and poetic temperament, while 
attracted by the genuine qualities of the work of 
the old schools, he had little sympathy with slavish 
modern imitation of the styles of a by-past age, — that 
text -book of inspiration so necessary to the designer 
of ten years ago, yet so fatal to his individuality. 

Long before he came consciously within the 
scope and influence of the modern movement, our 
artist recognised the creative possibilities of a 

decorative treatment based on rational form, natural 
colour, and modern requirement ; and he decided 
to abandon a cherished ambition, that of a stage 
or pulpit career, — attractive chiefly because of the 
leisure this seemed to promise for the cultivation 
of art, — and to devote his whole energies to 
the work of rationalising and beautifying the 

With such a temperament this work becomes a 
passion; no Whistler locked in a room with deco- 
rative peacocks could be more absorbed than is a 
true artist of the modern school in his work. It has 
often been urged that the failures of the old school 
were due chiefly to the fact that no efficient head 
supervised the separate details of a scheme, but 
that many inefficients frequently vied as to which 
would be most successful in disturbing the 
harmony of it. The success of the new school is 
due in great measure to the fact that each scheme, 
to the minutest detail, is carefully considered, 
planned, and executed by and through a respon- 
sible, intelligent, and sympathetic head, whereby it 





K O 


A Glasgow Designer : E. A . Taylor 

assumes the stamp of individuality and completeness, unfamiliar 
under the old system. 

Every craftsman should be an artist, as every artist should be 
a craftsman ; for no one can thoroughly comprehend design without 
a fundamental idea of construction. 

Take any of the pieces of furniture designed by E. A. Taylor, 
examine every line, note each detail, and complete rationalism of 
design and correctness of construction will be detected, and if 
rational design is a strong point in his schemes, it may be claimed 
that colour is a stronger. 

Some modern authorities proscribe the use of certain colours, 
because of the disturbing eiTect they are alleged to have on 
others ; the reply of E. A. Taylor is to show how, by skilful 
arrangement of complementaries, almost any colour, particularly 
some of those most strongly condemned, can be successfully 
used in the decoration of the house. 




The Study of the harmony and 
relation of colour is sadly neglected 
even by professional house-furnishers 
and decorators. It is so important, and 
exercises such a powerful influence on 
many of the relations of life, that one 
marvels it does not form the basis for 


A Glasgow Designer: E. A . Taylor 



here given ; and in the modern dining- 
room and drawing room, here illus- 
trated, examples are given of what 
can be done with an unfavourable 
basis. The scheme of colour in the 
drawing-room is moss-green in the 
body of the carpet, with a soft grey 
border, the pattern of which is formed 
by green, purple, and rose-pink. 

The furniture and wood-work are 
of maple, stained grey, to a shade 
arrived at after many experiments, 
enriched with inlay of coloured woods, 
opal and opalescent glass panels, and 
an application of block tin, a service- 
able and inexpensive substitute for 
silver. The wall panels are covered 
with green linen, the frieze is a con- 
ventional treatment of the rose on a 
cream ground, repeating more faintly 
the colours in the carpet. 

The furniture is inexpensive and 
unobtrusive — placed for a purpose, 
not for show ; the simple but artistic 
lines and colour of the leaded -glass 
panels in the window complete a 

popular instruction in every 
school. In a recently de- 
livered lecture, E. A. Taylor 
said " Nothing apparently 
is further from the thought 
of modern decorators than 
that their efforts should, 
however indirectly, lead 
anyone to think." It is this 
intelligent expression, or the 
lack of it, that forms the 
dividing line between much 
of the work of the old 
schools and the new. 

At times there is over- 
lapping : the designer is 
not always fortunate in 
having a clean sheet to 
work upon, he often has 
to take the construction 
of the room as he finds 
it, and efface or conceal its 
unsympathetic features as 
best he may. 

This is the case in 
some ot the illustrations 



nF<;ir;N con q-taimch n\ acc 


T. L. Shoosmitlts IVater- colours 

strikingly effective room. In the drawing-room 
on page 219, a novel treatment is adopted ; all 
the furniture being of maple stained a rich violet ; 
the carpet of apple-green colour ; the strapping, 
and graceful dividing screen is in ivory-coloured 
enamel, and the wall panels are lined with an 
unpatterned willow-green silk. 

The complete effect here is pleasingly graceful, 
considering the daring nature of the conception. 

Stained glass for domestic purposes has long 
attracted this artist ; many of the effects he has pro- 
duced in this ancient medium of decoration, both 
in beauty of line and arrangement ot colour, being 
quite unique. 

In this work he takes the most infinite pains, 
making drawing after drawing, altering a line here, 
and a colour there, until he gets the e.xact idea he 
wishes to express, before entrusting the work to the 
craftsmen. He visits the workshop again and again 
while it is in progress, the guiding idea of the artist 
being that no detail, however secondary it may 
appear, is unimportant. 

That E. A. Taylor does not limit his attention 
to decoration and design, 
the Royal Scottish 
Academy and other ex- 
hibitions from time to 
time demonstrate. 

In some of his water- _^ 

colour drawings there is con- 
siderable originality. He 
prefers nature in her subtler 
moods, seeing rich tones 
of colour divided by 
graceful lines, as the sandy 
shore, the blue sea, and 
the grey sky. Here is 
a whole scheme of colour 
which can be enlivened 
by delicate touches of 
brightness introduced in 
the right places. Like- 
wise in landscape, the 
beauty of line and harmony 
of tone appeal most 
strongly to him ; and his 
endeavour is not so much 
to discard the methods 
of other artists because 
he disapproves of them, 
but rather because they 
do not enable him to 
interpret nature as he 
sees it. 

The work of the designer and decorative artist 
of to-day is no sinecure, particularly if he proceeds 
on what is popularly known as " modern lines." 
He begins by encountering a certain amount of 
prejudice, he speaks in a comparatively unfamiliar 
tongue, he has to arrange every detail, to see the 
work carried through ; and if the completed result 
falls short of what at times is unintelligently ex- 
pected, the undivided responsibility and blame is 
laid at the door of the artist. 

Notwithstanding this, the progress of modern 
decorative art in Glasgow is remarkable, and that 
progress has been materially effected by E. A. 
Taylor. J. T. 



It is possible for a water-colour painter's work 
to be quite spontaneous, though the painter may 
have taken a long time in arriving at his results. 
Every touch may have been spontaneous in the 








T. L. ShoosinitJis Water-colours 

circuitous route, every one of them nervous and 
none of them mechanical. On the other hand, as 
with Mr. Shoosmith, the artist may arrive at his 
result directly. Directness is not essential to 
spontaneity or the reverse, and it is possible to 
paint a thing directly without it having any spon- 
taneity in it. The secret of attaining that quality 
is the secret of the artist knowing exactly what he 
wants to do, and he may not want to do a simple 
thing, but something which is built up, one kind of 
quality willingly lost to make a foundation for 
another. No one shall say that any particular 
method in water-colour painting is wrong. In some 
ways it is the most fascinating of mediums ; it is less 
dependent on any particular method than almost 
any other medium, and having once learnt to control 
the running water any painter may find in it qualities 
for him alone. Style comes from the reconciliation 
of the restless vision of the artist with its hard-and- 
fast limitations ; its beauty lies in the evidence that 
virtuosity has schooled it. To use water-colours 
for a purpose purely of imitation, and not to wait 
on its waywardness and to avail himself of that way- 
wardness for accidental effect, is for the artist to 
prove himself holding a false ideal of its practice, 

and to be dead to a beauty in it which will teach 
him beauty, water and colour in themselves holding 
such delicate secrets as in the art from Girtin to 
Whistler have been the dream of its masters. 

The essential qualities of water-colour painting 
are perhaps even less understood by the lay mind 
in art than the qualities of good oil painting ; it 
seems difficult for the layman in these matters to 
appreciate and reconcile the variety of treatment 
of which it is capable with his unsophisticated 
vision of nature. Unable to disembarrass his 
mind from an ideal of only imitative success, 
there is often lost upon him all the accidental charm 
which is its characteristic. Rightly understood, it 
is less an imitative medium than any other, and 
nowhere in art does mere imitation set the highest 
standard. Its peculiar qualities render it par- 
ticularly sensitive to individual treatment, so that 
with one man it is a means towards realism, 
with another an excuse for fantasy, and no medium 
can become more personal to the artist or give 
more intimate expression to his peculiar vision. 

Upon whatever terms a painter stands with 
nature, if he is fortunate enough in his art to 
stand upon any at all with her and retain a 

'THE passenger's STEPS, TREPORT ' 

ij 'I'lTIIMiTf 



T. L. Shoosmitlis IVater-colours 



public, there is always the study of how much 
he cares about the quahties of water-colour for 
its own sake, for the sake of those accidental 
charms and its expressiveness. 

Mr. Shoosmith has wished to comprise so much 
on his paper, he has wished to give such a crowded 
impression of the colour and form brought together 
by the accident of men's business and a natural 
scene— sombre-coloured sails against old houses of 
faded red and grey that stand on the quay, and the 
traffic in old streets — that in attempting to give 
permanency of vision in art to momentary impres- 
sions he has had to formularise. Maintaining a 
certain quality of paint throughout, he has seen 
his subject through his paint, translating life into 
water-colour and trying to keep the spirit of the 
medium throughout. Though there can never be a 
perfect work of art, no man being complete enough 
m himself to produce it, criticism often seems to 
pretend that there can, and forgets the qualities an 
artist has whilst blaming him for those he has not. 

Looking for what is characteristic 
of Mr. Shoosmith's work, one is re- 
warded by his pleasant juxtaposition 
of bright colour, and of grey, and 
by the restraint of his execution. His 
is an art intensely synthetic, reducing 
his large vision and quick apprecia- 
tion into a simple method, though 
arrived at only through much thought. 
Still young in years and training, Mr. 
Shoosmith'd art seems older than himself; 
it might be feared lest he has found 
himself too quickly, for his hand exhibits 
mastery the only explanation of which 
is that his mind has travelled a long 
way to give it the apparent ease his 
works display. It is clear that the art 
of the old water colourists, almost 
every kind of water-colour painting, has 
been studied by him. His own formula 
seems constructed from this study, for 
otherwise he is entirely self-instructed ; 
his chief business would now seem that 
of fitting his view of nature into the ap- 
^ preciation of technique he has arrived at. 

g Such is his easy cleverness that there 

is a suggestion of sleight-of-hand, almost 
of artificiality, in some of his drawings; 
but the qualities that make them so 
promising are their originality, modified 
by precedent, his ability to think in 
paint — to make his view of things one 
with his expression of them — and his 
faculty of synthetic selection. Since Mr. Shoo- 
smith has done one kind of thing so well, it 
would be interesting to see what fresh harmonies a 
fresh field would bring from his palette, what secrets 
a complete change of subject would hold for his 
inquisitive vision. The sense of the possibilities 
in his fresh, spontaneous art is at present one of 
its most delightful characteristics, for the ability 
that has brought it such a long way, disciplined 
only by self-training, should hold in the future 
pleasurable surprises for us. 

In the groups of figures clustered at street 
corners in his pictures there is movement — the 
buying and selling in the market-place is a real 
thing, not a trace of artificiality of pose is in the 
small figures. He displays a distinct gift in depict- 
ing life within his streets ; just here and there 
perhaps limited practice from the figure prevents 
him realising quite sutificiently for his purpose the 
suggestion of form, but the " incident " which he 
brings into his paintings shows the most careful 


T. L. Shoosmith's IVater-colours 



observation. It is, perhaps, in the variety in com- 
position that Mr. Shoosmith's work at first interests 
us ; his drawings do not give the impression that 
he has walked round a town to find a picture, but 
he seems to have found in each some accidentally 
arrived at point of view. 

He has a preference for standing in under the 
shadow of a tall house, watching the sunlight pour 
across the street ; he has depicted this effect more 
than once, and herein lies a danger, the danger 
of doing several times easily what at first perhaps 
was not easily done. Such freshness in com- 
position as is shown in the painting of T}ie Steps at 
Trouville, and the courage that is in the colouring 
of the Place des Halles, Malaix, show the painter 
at his best. 

The water in the former picture does not seem 
so limpid as it might. As every painter has 
his favourite subjects, so he will have favourite 
objects with a surface which he likes to realise 
in paint. Mr. Shoosmith is drawn to the rendering 
of old masonry and of old roofs with their warm- 
coloured tiles. Perhaps he does not love the 
reflections and the movement of water as he loves 
the stillness of the houses and the movement on 

the quay. Lately in art we have not cared much 
about the picturesque, we have felt rather con- 
temptuous towards it, we have proved for ourselves 
that any subject may be picturesquely rendered. 
We find Mr. Shoosmith is concerned with what 
is picturesque in the old sense. One of the sources 
from which he has learnt has been Prout, and he 
has embraced to some extent Prout's view of what 
was picturesque. We will hope that he will not 
impair his personal outlook by too close an 
approach to conventions which were of the 
character of their time, but which are empty when 
not inspired by a contemporary method of vision. 
Economy of means, as black-and-white artists 
understand it, has been striven after by Mr. Shoo- 
smith ; but it has not been that the easiest path 
has been chosen. His work is not a studied form 
of indolence that can be dismissed with the word 
" slight " ; he has chosen to paint thus, not so 
much because he recognises his work as sketches 
as that everywhere for his eyes life presents fresh 
pictures, and, with the eagerness of an impression- 
able nature, he has hastened to translate its beauty 
into the delicate and direct touches that character- 
ise his technique. T. Martin Wood. 



German Arts and Crafts at St. Lojtis 


As in the case of Austria, Germany has installed 
her art exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase Exposi- 
tion in two different localities. But while the 
Austrian annexe, so to speak, has been placed in 
the national pavilion, and has been entered as one 
of the Fine Arts groups in the official catalogue, 
the German overflow from the Art Palace is not so 
listed. Neither is it displayed in the German 
building, but in the Palace of Varied Industries 
instead ; nevertheless it far surpasses anything in 
the nature of an applied arts exhibit hitherto pro- 
duced by German art craftsmen. Indeed, accord- 
ing to the verdict of their best critics, the German 
work seen at Turin, which had previously been 
unprecedented, was mediocre as compared with 
the St. Louis showing, both in the matter of excel- 
lence and of extent. 

However, the fact that this exhibit was not 

placed in the German pavilion has been a fortunate 
circumstance. That structure, being a fine example 
of an earlier period, is interesting certainly, yet it 
would be in no sense appropriate to the daring 
features of the modern school. Therefore Germany 
has wisely provided a special architectural enclosure 
for the accommodation of all her exhibits allotted 
to the Varied Industries Building. And it is in this 
imposing edifice that the series of palatial rooms 
comprising the Art-Craft exhibit by prominent 
architects of the country, has been arranged. 

Although radically distinct in character, material 
and treatment, these rooms have in common all 
the subtler qualities of harmony. In them, refine- 
ment of intention and elegance of execution are 
the leading lines of expression, the result being 
successfully accomplished through the employment 
of an infinite variety of motives. The beautiful 
and the useful are so united in sentiment and in 
substance, as to yield an equilibrium of repose. 
The eflTect produced, then, is of springing, vital 
activity, intelligently balanced by a corresponding 
degree of stability. With the " tertiary " principle 



German Arts and Crafts at St. Louis 

everywhere present, in line as well as in colour, the 
feeling of dignity and reserve is strikingly apparent. 
One marvels at the amount of detail to which 
an object has been finished, without its being in 
the least too ornate. Bits of ornament daintily 
fashioned, touches of bright, contrasting colour, a 
repetition, an echo here and there afford the 
necessary accents for character. Arrangements of 
mother-of-pearl, metal and ivory appear on some 
sombre, dull-finished object with the effect of 
resplendent jewels in the darkness of night, — never 
so dazzling, however, as to detract from the chaste 
simplicity of the whole. Fine carvings and delicate 
inlays frankly evince the artisan's sympathy with 
the general scheme. Pictures in applique, articles 
in drawn work and embroidered panels are ample 
testimony to the proverbially unrivalled skill of the 
German needlewoman. 

Considering the chambers separately, one is 
impressed fey the appropriateness of the centralised 
theme of each and by the presence of a decided 
novelty, without undue exaggeration, in at least one 
feature of the furnishings. For example, in the 

Byzantine severity of Prof. Behrens' " Reading 
Room," the tables and chairs are rendered attrac- 
tive and sanitary by their coverings of white pig- 
skin, which can be washed daily without injury. 
The lights disposed along the middle ridges of the 
desks, as well as those suspended from the ceiling, 
are enclosed in cubical ground-glass boxes, making 
the light subdued and yet adequate. The use of 
the cube is continued, either in itself or in its face 
(the square) throughout the room. The most 
important detail here is the granite clock, embedded 
in the wall, with two conventionalised female figures 
forming the sides, beyond which are niches lined 
with ceramic panels in flat ornament. A note 
also that is unique, without, however, affording the 
element of practicability, is the panelled arrange- 
ment of silk squares in Prof. Olbrich's " Living 
Room," hung with the seams thrown out on the 
right side, the edges frayed for decorative effect — 
incidentally for the accumulation of dust. 

A number of the rooms in this exhibit are dis- 
posed about Prof. Joseph M. Olbrich's " Court in 
a Summer Residence of a Lover of Art," the 

gentleman's study 


German Arts and Crafts at St. Louis 





German Arts and Crafts at St. Louis 

charm of which many travellers declare has repaid 
them for visiting the Exposition. A certain classic 
stateliness pervades this enclosure, which is virtu- 
ally in two divisions — one, the central portion, 
containing the fountain and basin, and the other, 
the roofed ambulatory encircling the former. In 
the latter, inviting little semi-enclosures with seats 
and tiny fountains are met with in unexpected 
corners. The entire architectural conception of 
this court is so complete and yet so unostentatious, 
that it is very nearly flawless. Its lines are well 
chosen, and although the walls are white, sufficient 
colour has been introduced, through metals and 
tiling, as to contribute to the general atmosphere 
of cheerfulness. The suite of six rooms, com- 
prising a " Reception Hall," a " Music Room," 
" Living Room," " Dining Room," " Smoking 
Room," and " Tea Room " at the head of this 
court, are also designed by this architect. The 
same noble dignity that distinguishes the outer 
court, is maintained throughout this group of 
rooms. If a selection and comparison were to be 
made between them, the " Tea Room " would be 
considered the most trivial, while, on the other 

hand, the most serious work would be recognised 
as having been accomplished in the " Reception 
Room." Here the walls are made to harmonise 
with the series of high gray-stained oak wainscotings, 
above which and reaching from the floor in formal 
panels extend piers of inlaid woods. In front of 
these, stand pedestals, supporting objects of sculp- 
ture and art pottery. Then, to fulfil the vertical 
precedent of the scheme, the half-cylindrical backs 
of the chairs are panelled on the outside in upright 
divisions. The floor-covering is green, and the 
arched ceiling is white, stencilled in gold. A like 
feeling of unity is sensed in the adjoining room, 
which is the " Music Room." Here, again, the 
pictorial contribution is incorporated as a portion 
of the whole decoration. And in this connection 
should be mentioned the strong work in tempera 
by J. V. Cissarz, representing an oarsman guiding 
his bark on a limpid sea, that is eloquent in its 
blue-green depths. 

Near this room, we find the twin rooms by 
Prof. Karl Hoffacker, called respectively " Hall " 
and " Reception Room of an Art Collector." 
These two rooms are heated by grates opening 




German Arts and Crafts at St. Louis 


i>esii;nf,ii by irof. w. kreis 

into a green-tiled chimney, which at the base, 
is soHdly built into the partition separating 
the rooms ; above, however, the wall is cut away 
from this construction, so as to permit of interest- 
ing openings from one room to the other. In 
both rooms the use of paintings, panelled as fix- 
tures in the walls, is charmingly displayed. An 
excellent bronze relief entitled Cecilia is noticeable 
in the " Reception Room." The predominating 
colours in the " Reception Room " are a neutral 
green for furnishings, with lead and olive brown 
walls ; and, in the " Hall," mahogany with white 
walls. Prof. Max Laeuger sends an exceedingly 
interesting contribution in his " Living Room " 
Here waxed oak in natural colours is utilised for 
the furniture and for the finely-considered wains- 
coting. Decorativfe paintings arc provided by 
Prof. Ludwig Dill. Leather upholstering in pale 
ashes-of-roses add to the tonal scheme, and green 
silk curtains modify the light at the windows. 
Against the wall facing the windows stands a basin 
for running water by Prof, Laeuger, which is a 

leading element in the decoration. This is exe- 
cuted in tiles, with glass mosaics. One of the 
dainty surprises that greet one while strolling 
through the galleries of the open court is another 
design of this character by Prof. Fridolin Dietsche, 
representing a superb wall-fountain in white 

It is not definitely stated as to how many in- 
dividuals the Lady .Artists Society represents. Yet 
it is evident that, if they had limited their number 
to one in the St. Louis exhibit, the results would 
have been more satisfactory. Granted that there 
is much good material shown, it fails as a whole 
for lack of continuity. The autumn landscape, 
forming a frieze about an alcove at one end of the 
room, is especially good. The floor, at this end, 
is raised a few inches, and at the centre of the 
dais, so-formed, is a seat upholstered in heliotrope 
velvet. The windows are ornamented by a grill 
effect. The lower half of the walls is a greenish 
tan, while above the colour is a blue-black. The 
" Directors' Room " by Prof. W. Kreis, is a very 


German Arts and Crafts at St. Louis 

.: , ^ 


^'^\ f ' / 

/ y y 

^^'\// ■• 


'^ . 



< / 


i ,. •' 



( By permission of Mr. C. Klackner, London and New York) 


praiseworthy conception. Its walls and beams 
of grey oak would suggest heaviness, were it 
not for the nicety of proportion shown in the 
various panellings. The table, chairs and fittings 
are produced from yellow-stained cherry. The 
clock, the electric wall-fixtures, as well as the 
chandelier, are majolica, and were modelled by 
Prof. Karl Gross. A room, which, for rich- 
ness and softness, gives 
the impression of velvet, 
is that displayed by a 
group of Magdeburg 
artists for a "Gentleman's 
Study." In this room, 
the high wainscoting and 
wall cabinets are executed 
in ash that has been 
stained a tender green ; 
the walls above and the 
ceiling are tinted a greyish 
chocolate ; one of the 
tables and a couple of 
chairs are of ash. The 
" Ante-room to a Dining 
Room," by Anton Huber, 
is particularly pleasing. It 
is furnished in mahogany, 
and is separated by a firm 
railing from the dining 
room below. The spiral 
columns in the " Living 
Room " by Adelbert Nei- 
meyer and Karl Bertsch 

are rich, if not restful. Among a number of 
rooms having especially exquisite treatments of 
woods should be mentioned the " Music 
Room," in dull walnut, by Prof. Rankok ; the 
" Reception Room," in grey-stained maple, by 
Rank Brothers, of Munich ; and the " Library," 
in grey-stained oak and ash-inlaid ceiling, by 
Bruno Paul. 


{By permission of Mr. C. Klackiur, London and New York) 



recent studies done by Miss Hyde while in the studio of 
a Japanese painter in Tokio, a master with whom she 
has worked for the past three years. Her first studies 
were carried on in the Chinese quarter of San Francisco, 
a portion of the CaHfornian town affording picturesque 
material, there being hundreds of Japanese, as well as 
Chinese, to be seen about the streets in the costume 
of their country. She quickly exhausted local oppor- 
tunities, however, and as quickly set out for Japan ; her 
artistic intuition telling her how largely the charm of 
Oriental studies depends upon the atmosphere of poetic 
harmony to be found only in the dreamy distances and 
mellow sunlight of the Orient. 

On first taking up her studies in the flower countr>'. 
Miss Hyde found a suitable studio in an old abandoned 
Buddhist temple at Nippo, where in true Japanese fashion 
she was made to study effects with her paper spread 
out flat on the floor, while she and her teacher, a famous 
master in the Court Schools of the country, knelt and 
painted with the great native brushes. It was in this 
studio that Miss Hyde achieved her first success. The 




( By firmission of Mr. C. Klachier, I^naon 
and New York) 



Japan has always been a captivating land for 
painters, its dreamy beauty and alluring pic- 
turesqueness seeming to be in no way affected by 
the encroachment of European customs, or by the 
extraordinary ambition to keep up with the pro- 
cession which dominates so large a percentage of 
the Japanese to-day. 

Many times previously, The Studio has drawn 
attention to some special form of Japanese Art, and 
once in particular to the work of Miss Helen Hyde, 
the young American artist whose woodcuts of 
Japan have brought her recognition both at home 
and abroad. The examples of her work which 
we here reproduce are gathered from the most 

"IN HIS father's shoes" 

(fly ttermissiono/Mi: C. Klackncr, London and New York) 

Cli roino-Xylographs 

fapanese Madonna, which has attained to distinction through its 
wonderful technique and the delicate play of light on the upturned 
face of the woman. King Baby was another success ; and later, when 
studying in Tokio, Miss Hyde wrested from a number of native 
artists the Tokio art-exhibition prize for the best and most dis- 
tinctive colour-print on Japanese paper. It showed two native 
women of the aristocratic type, cooing in true feminine fashion over 
a beautiful baby held in the 

arms of one, and was called i 

The Mojiarch of Japan. I ^.^<t''^ f^ 

To go back to the beginningi 





(Bv permission of Mr. C. Klackiier, 
London and New York) 




( By permission of Mr. C. Klaikmr^ 
Londo7i and Neiv York) 


( By permission of Mr. C. Klackner^ 
London and New York) 

Miss Hyde has been in- 
terested in art all her 
life ; and, strange enough, 
Japanese colour prints 
had, as a child, a great 
fascination for her, and 
she would sit for hours 
copying them in water- 
colours. During her 
studies in Japan, Miss 

Hyde has developed a wonderfully intuitive grasp of the 
Japanese personality ; not an easy thing to do when one con- 
siders how totally unlike in every way the people of Japan 
are to Europeans, Much of the success of this artist's work is 
doubtless due to this innate understanding of these fascinat- 
ing people with whom she has lived for several years in such 
close relationship. In fact it might almost be said that the 
American artist sees her subjects through Japanese eyes, so 



entirely faithful is she to the methods 
of her native master. Especially is this 
true of the more recent examples from 
her brush, which seem almost the work 
of another hand, so widely do they 
differ from the artist's earlier work. 
Her colour has taken on softer and 
more varied tints, and she is more at 
home with her draperies, which at one 
time seemed a little beyond her skill, 
for the manipulation of such pic- 
turesque simplicity of costume is an 
art in itself, and one possessed by 
the Japanese artist to an absolute 
perfection of detail. But just as one 
must watch closely an animal in motion 
to get the equilibrium in a study, so 
one needs to be familiar with the 
natural poses and undulations of the 
figure while in movement, if one hopes 
to reproduce the same drapery effect 
— and the people of Japan walk in 
quite unlike ourselves ; their steps 
and mincing, while the body seems 
move from the knees, instead of the hips. This 


(By permission of Mr. C. Ktackner 

London and New York) 

a manner 

are short 

only to 


(By fief mission oj Mr. C. Klathner, London and Ntnu York) 

characteristic is very pronounced, and naturally an 
artist is given little insight into such peculiarities 
unless he takes up his life amongst the people. 
Perhaps the greatest triumph in Miss Hyde's 
work lies in the suc- 
cessful rendering ot 
atmosphere, which is 
delicately suggestive of 
the flower - blossom 
country. In The Rainy 
Day we have this quality 
at its best. Going away 
into the dreamy distance 
one sees two figures, a 
woman and a child, the 
grey of whose garments 
half obliterates the out- 
line against a misty blue 
horizon as they plod 
heavily onward through 
softly falling rain. 

Japan must, of its very 
nature, always seem a 
play country to the chance 
visitor, everything is on 
so small a scale and so 
dainty, while the air of 
the people suggests only 
what is restful and calm 
contentment, a land of 
flowers and dreams and 
tender memories, a land 
in which the hard things 

Charles Lcandre 

of life seem not to enter, and where there is sun- 
shine on the hills and in the hearts of the people. 
One reads all these things in the studies by Miss 
Hyde, and, having regard to this success, one need 
see no reason why she should not rise to a place 
among the first of her fellows. 

The home-life of Japan is, and always will be, 
closely hedged in by conventionalities, a condition 
which shows its trace on the child-life as it does on 
their elders. The wee fares are joyous enough, 
but there is never the air of roguishness nor of 
absolute freedom from constrained good behaviour 
about them, which one sees in other small folk. 
Miss Hyde has given us some pleasant pictures 
of these serious little people, character studies 
snatched from the people and the homes of the 
rich, and they each tell how little of freedom, as 
the European child knows it, the Japanese boy and 
girl enjoy. We reproduce one of these chubby 
figures, wearing a gaily quilted silk robe, and hold- 
ing a kitten close in its arms. Surely a most de- 
lightful bit of character-drawing and an exquisite 
touch of colour. 

Little Chtrry Blossom, a colour study which is 
now quite out of print, proved, I believe, the artist's 

most engaging study of Japanese child-life — a 
chubby almond-eyed lassie in a quaintly padded 
coat of yellow-silk, stood looking wonderingly 
out, her fat arms filled to overflowing with cherr)-- 
blossom boughs. So successful indeed did this 
study prove, that a successor, in the form of another 
" blossom " child, was demanded so soon as the 
block for the first one became exhausted. 

The feminine subjects chosen by Miss Hyde 
possess an alluring charm for the ordinary picture- 
lover and the collector as well. They are so 
daintily feminine and altogether pleasing in their 
naive picturesqueness ; the artist has dipped into 
the inner mysteries and discovered some of the 
secrets which bring the look of contentment and 
quiet happiness to the faces of these soft-eyed 
women whose lives are in such perfect harmony 
with the flower-land of their birth. 

Miss Hyde has chosen the medium of wood- 
cuts through which to give interpretation to her 
art, and she finds that the fullest possibilities for 
blending the myriads of delicate colour-tones which 
characterise the art of Japan are best achieved 
through this medium. 

L. VAN DER Veer. 





O D E R N 

A SINGULAR destiny, 
that of the painter drawn 
by an unexpected current 
towards the wide publicity 
of journalism. He becomes 
popular by the very excess 
of his qualities, and soon 
is known to the great mass 
of the public only as a 
graphic humorist, or as a 
caricaturist of contemporary 

This is what happened 
to Leandre, a delicate 
refined artist, a draughts- 
man precise as Ingres, and 
a distinguished colourist 
to boot. Down to 1894, 



Cliarles Ldandre 

the date of the foundation of the Rire^ to the 
illustration of which journal he was called on to 
devote himself almost every week, Leandre found 
little appreciation save on the part of most of his 
fellow artists, a few art publishers, and a certain 
number of cultured amateurs, who even then 
sought after his drawings, his pictures, and especially 
his pastels — delightful things, opulent in material, 
extraordinary in their freedom and grace, exquisite 
in texture, clear, bold, ingenious in colouring, and 
harmonious altogether. 

Leandre, who like Gaston La Touche, is a pure 
Norman, born in the neighbourhood of Bagnoles- 
de-L'Orme, came to Paris some little time before 
1880. While still quite young he decided to study 
drawing with a worthy old painter of historical and 
decorative subjects. Bin by name. In his studio 
Leandre had as comrades, Eliot, Thevenot, Laurent, 
Des Rousseaux, and de Richemond, and as pre- 
decessor, Joseph Blanc, now a member of the 

About the year 1885, Leandre entered the studio 
of Cabanel, which still enjoyed a high reputation, 
but the old painter of feminine nudity was not 
destined to do much more. Full of years and 
honours, after having guided the steps of so many 
distinguished pupils into the path of glory, he ex- 
pired a few years later, leaving his official mantle 
on the shoulders of his disciple Leandre, whom 

Cabanel thought to be already on the high road to 
Rome and destined for the Academies. The young 
artist escaped this solemn destiny, and he may he 
congratulated thereon. Left to his own resources 
after the decease of the great apostle of cold nude 
mythology, he was obliged, ere he discovered his 
triumphal course, to seek his venelle, as they call it 
in Normandy. He composed a number of studies 
of his native landscape, and devoted himself 
especially to portrait work, using for choice the 
pastel process, which even to the present day 
remains his finest method of interpretation. 

With Charles Leandre there is considerable indi- 
viduality, both in his manner of artistic vision and 
in his execution. His principle, he declared to 
me when I paid him a visit at his Montmartre 
studio, is to seek out with infinite patience the 
character of his subjects, and to draw again and 
again the faces he desires to paint, while accentu- 
ating their expression almost to the borderland ot 
caricature. By this means it is that the portraits 
bearing his signature are so extremely /«/wj, and 
stand out in strong relief, life like in aspect, and 
showing a resemblance such as few painters of to- 
day succeed in giving to the features they repro- 
duce. In his view colour and form are indissolubly 
united — of necessity wedded, so to speak — the one 
being the complement of the other. He holds 
that as decoration is to architecture, so is colour to 




Charles Ldandre 

^^^^^^^^^^^^m " 


6 ■ 

^^^^Hf /' 












the noble- lines of a well-executed drawing, a sort 
of rational viise-en-place, demanding a very exact 
sense of harmony. A fine drawing, he contends, 
and very truly, will always hold its own, even 
though its tonalities be somewhat defective; whereas 
if the most perfect colouration is not sustained from 
beneath by a firm and solid construction, the work 
will always lack life, and \vill soon perish. Here, 
as we may see, we have highly classic theories, 
such as might have been emitted by the painter 
1 )avid or the petit pere Ingres. 

I^eandre seeks at one and the same time not 
colour only, but design ; for he is a pastellist born, 
and on all occasions reveals himself the most 
zealous advocate of that medium, whose matter 
lends itself so easily to the two consecutive objects 
— line and tone. One must not assert in his 
presence that the process to which he is so 

passionately attached is 
adapted only to that which 
is light, delicate, and at- 
tenuated ; he would protest 
with the utmost vigour ; 
would reply that the crayon 
tendre is full of strong 
colour, and that in the 
hands of one who under- 
stands it, and has mastered 
its difificulties, it is capable 
of producing solid and 
durable work as well as 
mere pretty little blond, 
bedecked figurines. 

Leandre's pastels often 
have the appearance of 
strong oil paintings ; even 
the most experienced eye 
might be deceived. To 
my mind they are proof 
against all criticism. To 
produce artist's work all 
methods are good, and 
It would be absurd to 
introduce prejudice into 
questions of process and 
effect, and to assign to 
pastel painting certain 
light subjects while for- 
bidding it to enter into 
competition with oil 
colours. Everything is in 
the result. Methods are 
forgotten when a master- 
piece appears. Nature 
never drew up rules as to how her various forms 
were to be reproduced. 

Charles Leandre does most of his pastels on 
canvas, and his portraits are the most striking 
testimony to the sureness of his theories. Whole 
pages of illustrated description would scarce suffice 
me were I to attempt to express the blending of 
tones in his backgrounds, the dazzling flesh tints 
of his women and children, the efflorescence of 
those fascinating eyes, the laughing lips of the 
tall, romantic, nervous creatures whose accredited 
painter he is — evoking as they do the far-off 
heroines of Murger, of Balzac, or of Georges Sand. 
To conclude, I venture to declare that Charles 
Leandre is, if not the greatest pastellist of today, 
at least the artist who can the most eloquently 
and the most forcefully utilise the infinite resources 
of the process. 
































Recent Designs for Domestic A rchitecture 





Swinton Grange, near Malto?i, of which 
Mr. Frank A. Tugwell is the architect, is being 
erected for Captain and the Honourable Mrs. Clive 

Behrens on a site two miles to the north 
of Malton, adjoining the Castle Howard 
Road. The style of the house is in 
strict accordance with the Yorkshire 
manor-houses erected in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, which still 
remains one of the most interesting 
forms of architecture in the county. 
The outside of the building will be 
formed of rough cast, with Ancaster 
stone dressings, and a hard West Riding 
stone for the chimney caps, etc. The 
JL] elevation is relieved by the chimney 

jHj stacks being carried out into red sandy 

^H rubbers, with wide mortar joints and 

dark red and brindled blue Staffordshire 
roof-tiling. The hall and drawing-room 
will be carried out in walnut and oak, 
and the dining-room in white painted 
deal. The gate-keeper's lodge is already 
complete, and the illustration shows that 
the design is in harmony with the main building. 
The other illustration on this page shows a large 
" living-room hall " in a riverside house designed 
by Mr. Leonard Wyburd. The staircase is arranged 
to go up over the ingle-nook, having a small 
window looking down into the hall itself. The 



Recent Designs for Domestic Architecttire 






Recent Designs for Domestic Architectttre 

main feature is the recessed [fireplace with its 
beaten-copper hood, and large face of stone and 
green bricks. 

The leading feature governing Mr. T. Phillips 
Figgis' plan of Wraybrook, Reigate, is the inner 
hall for reception and entertaining purposes, the 
walls of which are wood-panelled all round. The 
walls of the house are of brick covered with rough- 
cast and weather tiling, and the roof is covered 
with tiles. 

The House at Farhold, Lancashire, of which Mr. 
J. Hargreaves is the architect, is situated 
on a slope, with a very charming view 
towards the south. Following the fall 
of the ground necessitated placing the 
rear portion of the house on a higher 
level, which enables the servants to 
gain access to the upper rooms with- 
out entering the hall, thus doing away 
with a back staircase. A recess under 
the staircase and the ingle-nook are not 
so high as the rest of the hall, the ceiling 
of which has the joists showing. The ex- 
terior is rough-cast, with Stourton stone 
for the porch and door openings, and 

Accrington pressed-bricks on edge for the steps 
and floor of the entrance. The casements are 
of wood with square leading, and the roof consists 
of green slates. 



liOlial. \1 rAklluLD, LANCASHIRE 

r. har(;rba\es, AKcmiKcr 


studio- Talk 


(From our Own Coriespondents) 

LONDON.— The Statu- 
ette called The Chate- 
laine, by Miss Eleanor 
Fortescue - Brickdale, 
here illustrated, is on view at 
the Leicester Galleries. Made 
of coloured plaster, it realises 
a romantic and reminiscent 
mood, as of some figure that 
has moved through Scott's 
novels, the lady of some castle, 
or the guardian, perhaps, of an 
imprisoned queen. The gold 
pattern worked upon the dress 
is carried out with consider- 
able boldness, but remains 
subordinate to the general 
rich scheme of colour that 
emphasises the careful model- 
ling and arrangement of the 

In the exhibits of book- 
binding at the various arts 
and crafts exhibitions, our 
attention has been aroused by 
the vigour with which the art 
is being prosecuted, and by 
the fact that the designs seem 
to be getting better in so far as 
they approach nearer a right 
understanding of the limita- 
tions of the art. A truer 
knowledge is gradually being 
arrived at, by experience, of 
what is suitable and of what is 
in good taste. At the same 
time there is a constant 
reaching out for fresh im- 
pulses in design, and whole, 
some attempts are evident 
everywhere to make the art a 
living art, as it should be in an 
age so great in letters as our 
own. Perhaps to Mr. G. 
Sutcliffe and his partner Mr. F. Sangorski, the 
highest praise is to be awarded for the example 
they are setting in holding fast to the essential 
principles of beautiful binding. They have carried 
their designs perhaps further in the right direction 
than any modern exhibitors; and they have, at the 
same time, evolved many designs of originahty, 


not Startling originality, for a 
startling book cover is a vul- 
garity ; yet perhaps from their 
hands has come the most 
daring design in recent work. 
We have seen at their bindery 
a book-cover with a peacock 
with tail in gold tooling, that 
carries that craft about as far 
as it has been taken. The 
examples which we are enabled 
to give here will show how 
perfectly they have understood 
the beauty that lies in the 
legitimate practice of the art. 
In Southampton Row Messrs. 
Sutcliffe and Sangorski have 
a school, and from this school 
some of their pupils are 
sending good work ; it is 
pleasant to know that as long 
as they study there the right 
principles of the art are being 
instilled into them daily. 
Some years ago Messrs. 
Sutcliffe and Sangorski 
bought a large consignment 
of Niger skins, no two of which 
are exactly the same in tone; 
and with the insight of true 
artists, these craftsmen use 
the slight variation as part of 
their art. We have been 
privileged to see at their 
premises a set of several 
volumes of one work bound 
in this leather, and the slight 
diversion from uniformity of 
colour in the volumes is a 
thing beautiful in itself ; while 
the slight natural stains, which 
the machine-perfection ideal 
of the ordinary binder would 
lead him to reject, are by 
these artists sometimes used 
to lend a subtle variation 
to the background of inlaid 
coloured leathers and gold tooling. The skins 
are brought from Karo, which is about i,ooo 
miles up country from Lagos, and the last con- 
signment brought to this country was about two 
years ago by the Royal Niger Company. 

It must always be remembered that there is 





nothing democratic in bookbinding as an art ; and 
by democratic we do not mean, of course, any- 
thing to do with social questions. Artistically, the 
art of the poster, of the magazine cover, may be 
said to be democratic ; the art of a man who binds 
a classic, who binds it for connoisseurs of his art, 
as the art of a man who paints a painting for the 
appreciation of the cultivated of his craft, is per- 
force aristocratic in its limited appeal, in the fact 
that its virtues put it out of court where every-day 
and popular uses are essentially to be considered. 
And in remembering this we have to judge the 
highest kinds of bookbinding by the highest tests 
— the test of asking of what claims to be a high 
art the very highest. Applying this test, and con- 
sidering the examples of the art we have before us, 
we are led to believe that not in any period has 
the binder's art been more healthy. The day has 
passed when the few books made were carefully 
bound, as wisdom with much care turned into 
words. To-day everything escapes into writing, 
from the trivialities of penny magazines upwards 

to the high thought of our best thinkers ; and by a 
kind of natural law each finds its suitable binding, 
so that there is no need for pessimism because there 
are some indifferent bindings in the world. Surely 
some of the trashy things printed to-day, by every 
law of fitness, should, if bound at all, be badly 
bound ; and as long as those to whom we entrust 
the binding of our best books exercise their art 
with such high purpose and with such a right 
understanding of its ideals as recent work proves 
them to be doing, we should be happy. 

At John Baillie's Gallery during November 
exhibitions were held of the works of W. Westley 
Manning, J. Hodgson Lobley, and Dorothy H. 
Grover. Mr. Manning's paintings show us a 
serious landscape - painter much concerned to 
benefit by the best traditions, but who has followed 
no one influence too far. This exhibition makes 
apparent that this impressionableness to so many 
influences is due to his ability to follow sympatheti- 
cally the impulses of different schools ; yet he 
keeps very genuinely in touch with nature, in some 
paintings more than in others making her his 
own. In his pictures of The Cob, Lyme Regis : 
Glanford Mill, Cley, Norfolk : Blue and Rose, Loch 




Tyne, and Across the Moor he is seen at his best, 
showing in them distinction and refinement of 
vision ; and in his paintings called the Merry Month 
of May much decorative feeling. Of Mr. Lobley's 
pictures, Harved Time, Near West Kirby, Albert 
Gate, A Welsh Cottage, One Summer Day, and an 
Iiiyll, all went to show that Mr. Lobley takes a 
place of promise amongst our student landscape- 
painters. The works of Miss Grover, though show- 
ing some inequality, prove her, when at her best, 
possessed of originality and freshness of view. We 
believe this to be her first exhibition ; in future ones 
we shall look to see good results when her 
originality finds more spontaneous expression. 

The Gilbert-Garret Competition for Sketching 
Clubs which took place in November at South 
Kensington, was this year extremely gratifying in 
the quality of the competing work. The judges for 
the year were Mr. Mark Fisher, Mr. Wilson Steer 
and Mr. H. Pegram. The prizes were given away 
by Mr. Seymour Lucas. The sculpture seemed 
especially promising, and some of the landscapes 
showed the careful observation and close study 
which in competitions of this kind is so much to 
be encouraged. 

That Sir Charles Holroyd can be counted 






among the few really original etchers whom we 
have amongst us at the present time is hardly to 
be disputed. There are qualities in all his etched 
work which show him to have not only a true grasp 
of the essentials of etching but also a very correct 
taste which enables him to select the best material 
for his work and to deal with it in the most appro- 
priate manner. That, as a pupil of Professor 
Legros, he has been trained in a specially good 
school may be conceded, but his etchings have in 
them much more than could be obtained by train- 
ing alone. If he had not learned his craft so well 
he would very likely have been hampered by the 
difficulties of a process which especially needs to 
be mastered before it can be used to fully express 
the artist's intentions. But knowing his craft, he 
can make it serve him admirably in the statement 
of a very personal and independent conviction. 
The sense of style, the decorative feeling, and the 
perception of nature's sentiment, which appear so 
plainly in all his excellently handled plates, have 
not be acquired from the teaching of any master, 
out are inherent qualities which come directly from 
his temperament. Not often has he shown them 
better than in his etching, A Becchwocd Avenue, 

Stitdio- Talk 













Sttuiio- Talk 

New Forest, which, simply true as it is as a record 
of nature's facts, has all that is requisite for a noble 
design and for a carefully planned artistic achieve- 
ment. It sums up completely what is best in his 
art, and reveals his mastery in a most convincing 

Mr. Borough Johnson's work is so well known, 
and with the pencil he has arrived at such happy 
results, that his work with the latter medium sets 
an example always of value to the student. The 
example that we give here from his painting 
Darby and Joan is interesting, as showing how the 
character of his work is maintained and the same 
qualities sought for whether he works in paint or 
pencil. The work in pencil by Mrs. Borough 
Johnson that we give shows that to her the pencil 
has become as ready a means of ex- 
pression as it is with her husband ; 
and, whilst in her work there is an 
equal appreciation of its capabilities 
as a medium for something more than 
tentative sketching, so there is in her 
sketches an individuality which is quite 
her own. The study of a child sucking 
an orange that is illustrated in colour 
displays draughtsmanship masculine in 
its mastery, expressing what is feminine 
in its tenderness of outlook and choice 
of subject and sympathetic handling 
of that subject with its half-humorous 
side. The children in the street-scene 
have been carefully noted and studied 
from life ; as character studies they are 
perfect. The earnestness which is so 
characteristic of these studies does not 
allow Mrs. Borough Johnson to depart 
from reality to the careless technique 
which so easily overtakes an artist if 
the difficulties of fresh subjects are 
shirked, and constant comparison with 
nature avoided. 

Mr. J. Lavery's collection of pictures 
and sketches on view at the Leicester 
Galleries is made particularly memor- 
able by the inclusion in it of the de- 
lightful picture Spring, which was 
recognised, when it was exhibited not 
long ago at the New Gallery, as the 
greatest of all his performances. 
More recently this opinion has been 
fully endorsed abroad, for the canvas 
has been purchased by the French 

Government, and it is to find a permanent 
resting place in the Luxembourg Gallery. As a 
technical exercise, dealing successfully with very 
difficult problems of tone and colour, it is unques- 
tionably most memorable ; it has qualities which 
can be sincerely praised, and it proves that the 
artist, unequal as he is, can rise, when the occasion 
comes, to remarkable heights. That there is 
nothing else in the exhibition of the same level 
must be admitted, but there is much nevertheless 
that claims approval on the score of technical 
cleverness and originality of view. Mr. Lavery 
achieves most when he gives the freest rein to his 
own individuality ; and of the pictures he has 
brought together the most enjoyable' are those in 
which he has not sought too obviously to imitate 
Whistler and other masters. That he should ever 




K,^m^' i' 




Studio- Talk 


choose to follow in the wake of any of his prede- 
cessors is much to be regretted, He has a definite 
personality, he has strength and judgment ; and it 
is by dependence on these qualities, rather than 
his imitative faculty, that he will gain the position 
that he is entitled to in the art world. 

BRIGHTON.— The Autumn Exhibition of 
Paintings in the Public Art Galleries 
undoubtedly is the best which has been 
held under the auspices of the Corpora- 
tion. The contributions number considerably over 
300, most being of high order of merit. The 
fact that the municipal authorities now vote a sum 
for the purchase of works for the permanent 
collection doubtless has not been without influence 
in regard to the quality of the exhibits. Many of 
the paintings have already been on view in the 
London galleries and, therefore, do not call for 
further notice, but it may be said that, of these, 
Mr. Melton Fisher's Flower Makers, with its 

exquisite colouring and 
grouping, Mr. W. H. 
Bartlett's Bound for thiir 
Island Home, and the 
North - Western Breeze — 
the Arun, by Mr. Jose 
Weiss prove very attrac- 
tive to the visitors. A 
number of the landscapes 
represent scenery and 
effects in the South Downs, 
where there is now 
quite a school of young 
painters, including Mr. 
C. Lambert, whose 
Saddlescombe and Arundel 
are excellent, Mr. Lang- 
dale and Mr. Bond, 
whose productions are full 
of truthful work. The 
water-colour section is of 
very considerable interest. 
It contains striking land- 
scapes by Mr. Mackintosh 
Gow, Mr. Rowbotham, 
Miss Mary Churton, Mr. 
C. Harrington, Mr. Albert 
Kingsley, R.I., Mr. Cyril 
Ward, and others. In 
addition there is a collec- 
tion of about 150 of the 
sketches and finished 
works of the late A. F. 

Grace, who spent so much of his artistic life in 

depicting the Downs country. 


The Second Public Exhibition of the Brighton 
Arts Club, the members of which are all 
Brighton or Sussex men, which was open for 
a fortnight only, was of considerable interest. 
The most notable exhibits included works by 
Mr. Ginnett, Mr. Longhurst, Colonel Gofif, Mr. 
J. S. Hale, Mr. C. Harrington, Mr. Gerald 
Harrison, Mr. Conrad Leigh, Mr. Lainson, and 
Mr. Burleigh. 

The Exhibition, at the Brighton Arts Club, 
of water - colour drawings by Mr. Alfred W. 
Rich, proved very attractive. The paintings 
consisted entirely of views in Sussex, and most of 
them, strongly suggestive of the earlier water-colour 
school, appealed rather to the educated lover of 
art than to the casual visitor. Mr. Rich's work is 
of strong type, with a characteristic element 



of Bornkop. The figure 
IS a striking one, and the 
modelling testifies to Mr. 
C. L. Hartwell's ability 
and power. B. 

growing inte- 
rest in art in 
Ireland — and 
more especially in native 
art, an "art made by the 
people for the people " — 
has been manifested in 
many ways during the 
past few months. The 
picture exhibitions we 
have always had with us, 
more or less ; and though 
the interest I speak of has 
shown itself in larger at- 
tendances of the public 
at these and more direct 
encouragement of native 
painters, it has extended 
far beyond the realm of 
the easel-picture. 



Perhaps the most note- 
worthy example of the 
newly-awakened desire to 
foster Irish artistic genius 


subdued colour, and with 
undoubted evidence of 
keen artistic appreciation 
of nature. 

The County Memorial 
to the Sussex men who 
fell in the recent South 
African War has been 
unveiled at Brighton, 
where it has been accorded 
a fine position on the 
sea -front. The work is 
thirty-two feet in height, 
and consists of a stone 
pedestal with tablets, and 
a bronze figure over seven 
feet high of a bugler of the 
Sussex Regiment sounding 
the advance at the battle 

(See Copenhagen Stuaio-Talk) 



(See Copenhagen Studio Talk) 


(Sie Cofienha^en Stuaio-Talk ) 



Studio- Talk 



is the enterprise which has been undertaken by 
Miss Sara Purser, R.H.A., who, in the midst of a 
busy career as a portrait painter of high merit and 
marked originality, has found time to establish in 
Dublin a workshop for the manufacture of stained 
and painted glass. "An Tur Gloine " — "The 
Tower of Glass " — is at once a craft school, where 
instruction in every detail connected with the 
designing and production of stained glass is given 
to the workers, and a factory from which some 
beautiful work has already appeared, and which 
threatens eventually to banish altogether mechanical 
Munich windows from Irish churches. The estab- 
lishment of this art industry in Ireland is an example 
of what may be done by meeting a demand that 
already exists. Hundreds of thousands of pounds 
were annually being sent out of Ireland, where 
church building has gone on actively for the past 
two decades, for ecclesiastical stained glass that 
was, generally speaking, bad in design, in quality, 
and in workmanship. Amongst the windows that 
have been completed at " An Tur Gloine " are 
a set of six for the new cathedral at Loughrea, 

a church in which, for the first time in modem 
days, all the decorative work is Irish in feeling 
and inspiration, as well as in execution. The 
establishment of a modern school of stained glass 
in Ireland, such as " An Tur Gloine," is a most 
hopeful event, as it provides what has hitherto 
been lacking, a practical field for the talent and 
energy of the Irish art-student to work in. 

E. D. 

COPENHAGEN.— Louis Moe is a Nor- 
wegian by birth, but he has for a number 
of years been domiciled in Copen- 
hagen, whence he every summer 
betakes himself to his beloved and picturesque 
mountain home in Telemarken. He was originally a 
painter in oils ; but by degrees he has almost com- 
pletely discarded this medium, and instead taken 
to pen, pencil, and needle. He is an admirable 
and very popular illustrator ; and although the 
first of the score of etchings he has so far pub- 
lished only appeared some three or four years ago, 
he is already an etcher of repute. The evolution 


gambolled on sunny meadows or in shady groves, but he 
also turns to account wth much ingenuity medieval tales 
and superstitions, often drawing from them, in his own 
half-humorous and half-satirical way, a regular philosopher's 
moral. In some of his work a certain Northern weirdness 
is perceptible, at other times he is more German in senti- 
ment ; but his art is always remarkable for the invention 
and verve of which it bears witness. G. B. 

BRUSSELS. — The name of the Brussels sculptor 
Godefroid Devreese has often been mentioned 
in these pages, and some of his works have 
been reproduced here: among others some 
characteristic busts and the design for the great monument 
to commemorate the battle of Courtrai. On the present 
occasion it is as a medallist that we have to consider him. 


" A FOREST imp" 


of his technique is interesting. Beginning with the 
generally accepted academic method, Moe soon, 
when he had done half-a-dozen etchings, modified, 
not to say reversed, the process. He now etches 
without any asphalt coating, so that the darkest 
portions (and strongest contours) are first drawn 
and etched, then the next strength is drawn, and 
the whole etched : and so on through a number of 
grades, this method, Moe holds, giving more free- 
dom and softness. In some of his latest efforts 
two or more colours have been introduced with 
much discretion, and with admirable results. 

Moe is likely to become a very prominent etcher, 
inasmuch as he, apart from his pronounced tech- 
nical skill, is endowed both with a pregnant imagi- 
nation and a distinct decorative sense. For his 
subjects Moe not only goes back to the time when 
the world was young, when fauns and nymphs 


'nymph and young bear" 



Godefroid Devreese was born at Courtrai in 
1 86 1. From the age of fifteen he practised 
sculpture in the studio of his father, Constant 
Devreese, who executed the statues of the Counts 
of Flanders which adorn the fagade of the Hotel 
de Ville at Courtrai. In 1881 the young artist 
came to Brussels to attend the Academie des Beaux- 
Arts, and he worked diligently there for several 
years under the direction of the admirable Brussels 
sculptor, Charles Vander Stappen, whose remark- 
able qualities as an executant are equalled by his 
gifts as a teacher. 

The great success achieved by his Lace-maker 


in 1 898 has led Godefroid Devreese,'able 
sculptor though he is, to devote a con- 
siderable portion of his time to the 
execution of medals and plaques. He 
has had the honour of being the first 
Belgian medallist represented at the 
Musee du Luxembourg, whose eminent 
curator, M. Leonce Benedite, obtained 
some specimens of his work in 1899. 

The catalogue of his works published 
in 1903 by the French "Gazette Numis- 
matique " already comprised nearly thirty 

His first plaque was modelled in 1895 ; 
the three that followed did not appear till 
1898, among them being the Lace-maker, 

the badge of the members of the Provincial Council 
of Brabant. The artist thus personified the pro- 
vince of Brabant by means of its best known artistic 
industry, Brussels lace. 

Two other plaques were executed in 1899, and 
in 1900 the Young Polish Girl. In 1901 he com- 
pleted six medals, ornaments, and plaques, of 
which one was the medallion of M. Charles Buls, 
burgomaster of Brussels from December 1881 to 
December 1899, the Communal Council having 
unanimously decided to present him with a 
portrait-medallion. This was a remarkably success- 
ful piece of work, 

In 1902 he produced a larger number still : 12 
medals and plaques, comprising among them one 
for the Belgian Photographic Association ; the 
medal presented by the Belgian exhibitors to the 
art critic, M. Fierens-Gevaert, Commissioner- 
General for Belgium at the Turin Exhibition in 
1902 ; the medallion (this one is cast, the others 
were struck), of M. Alphonse de Witte, Secretary 
of the Royal Numismatical Society of Belgium, and 
President of the Dutch and Belgian Societe des 
Amis de la Medaille d'Art ; and the medal made 
to celebrate the golden wedding of Baron de Vos 
van Steenwyk. All these showed an advance in 
the medallist's powers. 


studio- Talk 


STUTTGART.— Thegalleries of the " Kunst- 
Verein " here have just opened an in- 
teresting show of the work of Eberhard 
Ege, a Suabian by birth, who has, how- 
ever, lived far away from his home for several 
years past, having settled at Vicovaro, in the Sabine 
Mountains. Professor Ege was originally an archi- 
tect, but crossed over to painting, and went through 
some training at the Academie Julian before he 


Further, in 1904 iwe have the extremely clever 
medal presented to M. G. van den Broeck, late 
Treasurer of the Royal Numismatical Society of 


The work of Devreese the medallist is re- 
markable for various qualities : the characteristic 
construction of the faces ; the clean cutting of the 
profiles ; ingenuity of invention in composition ; 
and sureness in the placing of the subject. It is 
to be hoped that the numerous proofs he has 
given of these qualities will induce the official 
authorities to entrust him with the execution of 
their numismatic work. F K. 


decided to go to Italy. Vicovaro is rather an out- 
of-the-way place, some 30 miles from Rome, beyond 
Tivoli, to which and from which news comes sparely. 
As this is the first occasion upon which the painter 
has exhibited his works in an accessible place, 




studio- Talk 

it is scarcely to be wondered at that he is less known 
than he deserves to be, according to his merit. 

Ege has braved the dangers of the malaria coast 
and the heat and fevers of Southern Italy in search 
of picturesque spots, always displayingan inclination, 
not altogether common in our day, towards such as 
are haunted by interesting old memories. One of 
his most clever canvases shows us that stretch of 
the Fluvio Busento where, according to — is it 
history or myth ? — Alaric was buried, in armour 
and on his steed. Another shows us the site of the 
" Sabinum " of Horace, on Mount Lucretilis. The 
painting Along Virgilian Shores takes us farther 
south to the Punta Palinuro, opposite to which 
Aeneas' pilot is supposed to have dropped into the 
sea, after having fallen asleep at the helm of his ship. 

When we come to investigate Professor Ege's 

aims as a painter pure and simple, they are 
nothing less than an attempt to rejuvenate what 
was once admired and has since been ridiculed 
under the name of " Heroic Landscape." The quon- 
dam admiration was contemporaneous with the rise 
of the art itself, and was governed by an appre- 
ciative feeling for what the men from Koch down 
to Preller aimed at. The ridicule was more recent, 
and was the result of our perceiving how utterly 
inadequate were the technical equipments of these 
men. But though they failed, there is no say- 
ing that such an art as an Heroic Landscape 
art is an impossibility. It is doubtless feasible to 
elevate the style of landscape painting to a stage 
above naturalism without becoming bombastic. 
And it must be possible, likewise, to people such 
landscapes with figures taken from antique history 
or myth, without sinking the painter-like qualities of 
the work altogether into the story. In short, one 
can well imagine a Nicolas 
Poussin of our day, though 
as far as I know he has 
not yet come. 

As to Professor Ege, 
he himself is the last to 
believe that he has already 
come any way near that 
goal. The first step towards 
it is to obtain mastery 
over technical difficulties, 
and with what Ege ex- 
hibits this time, he only 
desires to show that he is 
to be taken seriously as 
one who looks at landscape 
with the eye of a modern 
painter and has a modern 
painter's command over 
his materials. All the 
pictures but the one named 
Along Virgllian Shores 
are only studies, and even 
that one, though already 
indicating in what fashion 
he is going to try to 
evolve a style, is a paint- 
ing without figures. 



The numerous studies 

are all very fresh and 

spirited. The brush work 

is free, but it is not so 



heavy or rough-and-ready as it would appear to be 
according to some of the photographs from 
which the accompanying illustrations are taken. 
There is a wealth of sunlight and rich 
colour in the majority of these studies, and 
as " plein-air " paintings of localities in Southern 
Italy, they are a sort of revelation. At any rate, 
German painters have not heretofore brought 
from thence work of this nature ; but till Professor 
Ege's advent we have had nothing but beautiful line 
and a clear sky — an altogether colder style of art. 

Without pretending to be able to predict from 
these essays that attainment is clearly and safely 
within Professor Ege's reach, I still find them 
interesting enough to wish him all success on his 
way, and to give him the encouragement he 
deserves. H. VV. S. 

PARIS.— The Studio's Special Number 
upon Daumier and Gavarni has created 
as much attention in Paris as it has in 
other art-centres of the Continent, and 
it has been the means of bringing to light a 
number of interesting works by these two artists 
that might have remained hidden indefinitely in 

private collections but for the revival of interest 
created by the publication of the Special Number. By 
the courtesy of M. Frederic Hebert we are enabled 
to give an illustration of an extremely beautiful 
fan by Gavarni. Painted by him for the well- 
known firm of Duvelleroy, it was exhibited with 
another one, also by Gavarni, at the Paris Exhibi- 
tion of 1855. One of the fans was purchased by 
the Emperor Napoleon III., and the other by 
M. Hebert, father of the present owner. 

George Romney : A Biographical and Critical 
Essay, with a complete Catalogue Raisontie of his 
Works. By Humphrey Ward and W. Roberts. 
(London : Thos. Agnew & Sons.) Edition de 
Luxe, ^12 12s. Ordinary edition, ^8. Sj-.— It 
is a noteworthy fact that, although George Romney 
painted the portraits of nearly all the most cele- 
brated men and women of his day, he never came 
into real intimate touch with any of them, except 
with the one fascinating personality against whose 
attractions no male armour seems to have been of 
any avail : Emma Hart, better known as Lady 
Hamilton. "Reynolds," says Mr. Humphrey Ward 
in the interesting biography accompanying the 

'along virgilian shores" 




(In the possession oj M. FrecUric HSert) 


costly volumes just issued by Messrs. Agnew, 
"charmed, or at least impressed all his sitters; 
Gainsborough's artistic self-assertiveness acted often 
like a challenge ; but Romney, though we happen 
to know that he used to try and make his sitters 
talk, remained in their eyes just a maker of 
portraits .... He was, indeed, a recluse at heart 
.... he belonged to but one small club, and 
after 1772 he refused to exhibit a single picture 
except in Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery." As a 
result of this extraordinary and suicidal reserve, 
though the work of Romney is as well known to 
the present generation as that of any of his great 
contemporaries, the real man is only now beginning 
to emerge from obscurity. 

In the clearing up of the many misconceptions 
that have arisen on the subject of their Mono- 
graph the collaborators have spared no pains ; and 
now, for the first time, has been pieced together in 
its entirety the true life-story of a very unique 
personality, prominence being given to the deep 
undercurrent of disappointment that had so much 
to do with the shadows that so early gathered 
about a brilliantly successful career. That Romney 
was deeply in love with Emma Hart, whom he 
interpreted as did no other master, is now proved 
beyond a doubt; and this must intensify the sym- 
pathetic admiration felt for a genius who, though 
appreciated as a painter, was never understood as a 
man in his lifetime. 

The actual biography of Romney forms but a 

small portion of the new work, for it is supple- 
mented by a complete verbatim transcript of 
the artist's Diaries kept between 1776 and 
1795, acquired with other treasures by Mr. 
Humphrey Ward at the sale of Miss Romney's 
effects in 1894. These will be of priceless value 
to the future student, as will also the exhaustive 
Catalogue Raisonne of all the artist's wotks 
drawn up by Mr. Roberts, and representing many 
years of close and arduous toil ia deciphering his 
notes, collecting newspaper references, etc. The two 
volumes, indeed, form a perfect library of Romney 
lore, and their numerous fine photogravure plates 
include a number of portraits scarcely known to 
the general public. Specially fine are the render- 
ings of the Warren Hastings, a noble interpretation 
of a noble theme ; The Lady Arabella Ward ; 
the William Hayky; Mrs. Catherine Clements ; 
Sir Harry Grey ; Lady Morshed ; Mrs. Ann Pitt; 
Mrs. Tickell ; Sir William Garrow, and Mrs. 
Russell and Child; — the last, one of Romney's 
happiest creations. 

The Microcosm of London. Three volumes. With 
illustrations by PuGiNand Rowlandson. (London: 
Methuen.) ^^3 3,?. net. — Belonging to the series 
of reprints of standard and curious works of the 
past, these three volumes are founded on the 
edition issued in 1808 by Rudolph Ackerman, 
then the chief fine-art publisher of the day. They 
were at the time of their production, thoroughly up to 
date ; and they vividly reflect many different phases. 



not only of London life as it was at the beginning of 
the nineteenth century, but also of the relations 
that then obtained between artists and publishers, 
as well as between both and their patrons. The 
very title-page, with its presentment of Britannia in 
her triumphal car and the coat-ofarms of the 
Prince of Wales beneath the deferential dedication 
to His Rojal Highness, is redolent of the time when 
the greatest authors and painters felt no shame 
in soliciting the patronage of" the highly- placed. 
Equally significant of trade relations widely difTerent 
from those of the opening of the twentieth century 
are the three deprecatory Introductions in which 
the publisher naively commends his wares to the 
British public, dwelling, not as his modern successor 
would do, on the expert specialised knowledge they 
display, but " on the variety of subjects (dissimilar 
to eachother,it mustbeconfessed)thattheir contents 
embrace." The name of the author is not given, 
but it is just possible that Augustus Charles Pugin 
— the collaborator in the production of the plates 
■with the more celebrated Thomas Rowlandson — 
may have written the descriptive text. In it the 
Corn Exchange, the Society of Painters in Water 
Colours, Fleet Prison, Newgate, The Foundling 
Hospital, Freemasons' Hall, Guildhall, and many 
another characteristic feature of the London of the 
day, are dwelt upon with loving enthusiasm, much 
valuable historical information being given as it 
were incidentally. 

Kijig Arthur's Wood. Written and illustrated 
by Elizabeth Stanhope Forbes. Ordinary 
edition ^f 2 2s. Edition de Luxe ;^3 3s. (London : 
Simpkin, Marshall & Co.) — To few, indeed, is it 
given to retain after their first youth the conscious- 
ness of the deep mystery that lies hidden beneath 
the simplest and most familiar forms of natural 
beauty ; whilst even rarer are those who combine 
with that consciousness the power of giving expres- 
sion to it in a form that appeals alike to the child- 
like and simple-hearted, the experienced and the 
travel-worn. Such are the true poets, who still live 
in the heaven that lies about us all in our infancy, 
but is, alas ! as a general rule, too soon obscured 
by the garish light of the commonplace. That 
Mrs. Stanhope Forbes is the possessor of these rare 
gifts is already well known to all who are familiar 
with her exhibited paintings ; but in the ideal fairy- 
story, with its exquisite illustrations, each one of 
which is a poem in itself, that she has recently 
published, she will come into touch with a far wider 
public. Even without the tale within a tale told 
by the goblin to the widow's boy, the book would 
be a treasure-house of beauty; so touching is the 

picture of the humble little home on the side of the 
hill, so Millet-like the interpretation of the pathetic 
side of the peasant's toil ; but with the golden 
thread of Arthurian romance woven into the weft 
of every-day life, it becomes a veritable idyll. Mrs. 
Forbes has been exceptionally fortunate in the 
interpretation of her exquisite water-colour and char- 
coal drawings. In the former her fine sense of colour 
is brought out with wonderful force ; and in the 
latter, for which two blocks have been used, the 
subtle gradations of tone, with the warmth so 
characteristic of the original medium, are rendered 
with exceptional fidelity. The one drawback to the 
delightful volume is its unattractive cover ; that, 
however, makes the brilliant yet ethereal beauty of 
the contents come with a shock of surprise when 
the book is opened. 

The Work of George /oy, with an Autobio- 
graphical Sketch. (London : Cassell.) J[,2 25. net. 
— It has been justly said that every honestly 
written autobiography must be alike interesting and 
instructive ; but unfortunately as a general rule, 
those whose lives are most worthy of detailed record, 
are too absorbed in living them to have any time 
to spare for describing their experiences in Hterary 
form. To this, however, Mr. George Joy is a very 
notable exception ; for, with his art gifts, he com- 
bines the pen of a ready writer, whilst his naive 
belief in himself saves him from the mauvaise honte 
that so often engenders reserve in self-portraiture. 
Frankly taking it for granted that he has the full 
sympathy of his readers, he tells the whole story 
of his successful career, quoting without hesitation 
the favourable verdict on his work of several of his 
great contemporaries, and incidentally bringing their 
personalities into vivid relief. He had the privilege 
of numbering amongst his friends Millais, Leighton, 
Watts, Gerome, Cabanel, Jules Breton, Bonnat and 
the less well-known Jalabert, with the last of whom 
he worked for a considerable time; whilst amongst 
his fellow students at the Royal Academy were Her- 
komer, Samuel Butler and Lord Carlisle. Of his 
life in Paris, he tells several interesting anecdotes, 
paying, by the way, a tribute of gratitude to the 
great French publisher M. Goupil, the father-in- 
law of three artists, including Gerome, who were 
all living near to each other at Bougival, and used 
to meet together of an evening. When Mr. Joy 
passes from the personal to the technical, and 
in his critical notes on his own pictures in- 
cidentally passes judgment on the work of certain 
masters of the past, he is still interesting though 
not perhaps quite so convincing. There is 
nothing very original in the remarks he makes, 


and the rules he lays down with regard to 
the medium, pigments, etc., employed, are such 
as are already familiar to every practical artist. 

Old Cottages and Farm-houses in Shropshire 
Herefordshire, and Cheshire. By G. A. Ould, 
F.R.I. B.A. (London : B. T. Batsford.) 2 if. net. 
— Turning over the pages of this richly illustrated 
volume, the regret of every true lover of the beauti 
ful and the fitting must be intensified, that the 
charming buildings represented in it are so entirely 
survivals of the past and in no sense prophecies 
for the future. Exquisitely proportioned, their 
ornamentation, an integral feature of their structure, 
they satisfy alike the sesthetic and the practical 
sense. Well indeed would it be for the cause 
of rural domestic architecture if the modern builder 
would turn to them for information, remembering, 
as did their designers, that local material is more 
suitable for local environment than that brought 
from a distance. The author of the instructive 
letterpress accompanying the admirable collot)^e 
plates, numbering more than 100, after Mr. 
Parkinson's photographs, expresses a fear that the 
venerable subjects will be allowed to tell their own 
tale in their own way, and that no one will read his 
comparatively uninteresting remarks. In this, how- 
ever, hedoeshimself considerable injustice, for hehas 
a thorough grip of his subject, and writes with an 
enthusiasm that cannot fail to be infectious. He 
prefaces his notes with a useful summary of the 
difference between the timber architecture of the 
counties under review with that of Southern Eng- 
land, treated in a companion volume, and. concludes 
his notes with an eloquent plea for a revival of the 
old style. An eminently suitable style, he says, 
" if a client be worthy of living in a timber house 
. . . but not a cheap style ; nor one to give to a 
fidgety or exacting client who will attribute the 
natural behaviour of the materials to some neglect 
on the part of the builder. . . No style." he adds, 
" will harmonise so quickly and completely with its 
surroundings, and so soon pass through the crude 
and brand-new period, and none continues to live 
on such terms of good fellowship with other 
materials, whether rosy brickwork, lichened masonry 
or pearly flag-slates, which last it loves most of all." 
Tlie Liverpool School of Painters. By H. C. 
M.\RiLLiER. (London: Murray.)— The Art of 
Liverpool has long been in need of an historian. 
Mr. H. C. Marillier has essayed to fill the gap in 
our art annals ; but he has not succeeded. The 
book is doubly defective : its contents do not 
correspond with its title, and they are sadly in- 
accurate. The sub title limits Mr. Marillier's 

scheme to " An account of the Liverpool Academy 
from 1810 to 1867, with Memoirs of the principal 
artists." The Liverpool " School " of Painters, if 
such a description is to be admitted, was not con- 
fined to the period between these dates ; still less 
accurate is it to appropriate the title for a small 
group of men who for a few years in the fifties 
happened to come under a common influence. 
To describe them as the Liverpool " School " is 
much as if one were to speak of the Grosvenor 
Gallery Group as the "London School." The Liver- 
pool School, if definable, has a far wider reach ; 
and its historian must be a much more painstaking 
annalist, biographer and critic than Mr. Marillier 
has shown himself in this instance. The specific 
errors as to matters of fact are beyond what 
is pardonable in a book that claims to be a history, 
and in the production of which haste was un- 
necessary. A preliminary list of " Errata " admits 
six mistakes, but it might with advantage have 
been extended to as many pages ; some of the un- 
detected blunders actually occurring in the same 
sentences as those specified. A few of them will 
suflSce to show that the book is untrustworthy for 
purposes of reference. A picture. Waiting for the 
Verdict, by A. Solomon, which had a most 
momentous effect upon the fortunes of the 
Academy, is ascribed to Abraham Cooper, although 
previous writers from whom Mr. Marillier has 
drawn considerably, give the proper ascription. 
In the next sentence it is stated that W. G. Herd- 
man " drew off" from the Academy, which was not 
the case. Richard Ansdell is said to have come to 
London " in the late fifties " : a reference to the 
catalogue of the R.A. or to Bryan's Dictionary 
would have shown Mr. Marillier that he was at 
least ten years wrong. William Huggins is de- 
scribed as the successor of Ansdell, which is 
doubly untrue. They had nothing in common 
but that they both painted animals, and they both 
made their appearance as exhibitors in the same 
year. The Corporation of Liverpool is severely 
taken to task because it "never had a penny piece 
to spare " for works by William Davis, regardless 
of the fact that he went to London before and died 
almost immediately after they had began to meddle 
in art ; long before they had an art gallery. So 
only dealers have suffered. Mr. James Orrock is 
dubbed "R.A.," and William Huggins is stated 
on either side of one leaf to have died in 1884 and 
1886 ; while the Liverpool Academy is in one place 
stated (correctly) to have been founded, and in 
another, to have been "reconstituted " in 1810. 
The Drawings of Holbein. By A. Lvs B.\ldry. 



(London : George Newnes.) 7^^. dd. net. — The 
publication of this collection of extremely fine fac- 
simile reproductions of the drawings of Holbein, 
at a price bringing it within reach of the general 
public, is an incidental proof of the rapid spread of 
art education of late years. Not so very long ago 
such a book would have appealed but to the select 
few, whereas now the probability is that the first 
edition will soon be exhausted. In the delightful 
essay that accompanies the drawings — amongst 
which the Elizabeth Lady Audley, the Sir 
John More, and the Portrait of a Young Man in a 
plumed hat, are amongst the most beautiful — Mr. 
Baldry gives a brief summary of the artist's bio- 
graphy, and passing lightly over his characteristics 
as a painter, dwells on the technical qualities of 
the drawings. " Their rare charm," he justly says, 
" comes principally from the exquisite combination 
they present of delicacy and vigour" ; adding, " not 
often is there to be seen such sympathetic manage- 
ment of simple line and broad flat masses of tone, or 
such accurate placing of small details of modelling " 
— a criticism proving how true a judge is its writer 
of the distinctive peculiarities of Holbein's work. 

T/ie Pedlar's Pack. By Mrs. Alfred Baldwin, 
with illustrations by Charles Pears. (London : 
W. & R. Chambers.) 6s. net. — In her Dedication 
to her sister, Lady Poynter, for whose delectation 
these fairy tales were first told, Mrs. Baldwin 
reveals the secret of their success. " Deep in our 
hearts unchanged are we," she says, adding a hope 
that " among the varied wares of her Pedlar's 
Pack may lurk some antidote for cares, some charm 
to call our childhood back." That charm is cer- 
tainly present in each one of her " wares," for they 
are all brightly written, healthy toned, and delight- 
fully impossible tales, realising the point of view of 
those who still dwell in the magic-land of the imag- 
ination, where nothing is too wildly improbable 
to be believed. Among the most beautiful are 
" Conrad of the Red Town," and " Hubert the 
Shepherd," both prose poems in their way, with an 
undercurrent of pathos, that, though it may escape 
the notice of children, will appeal forcibly to their 
elders. Some of the illustrations, especially He tvas 
the most beautiful Baby in the World, well interpret 
the text ; but certain of the others, such as the Conrad 
and the Little Men, are comparatively common-place. 

The Brown Fairy Bcok. Edited by Andrew 
Lang. Illustrations by H. J. Ford. (London : 
Longmans.) ds. net. — The new feast provided for 
young and old by the indefatigable caterer for their 
delight, yields nothing in fascination and variety 
to any of its predecessors. As is the case with its 

many companion volumes, the stories in it come 
from all quarters of the world ; and not the least of 
its many charms is the fact that each one bears 
its own distinctive impress, yet is rendered into 
thoroughly idiomatic English. It is the spirit 
rather than the letter that is in every case inter- 
preted, and the delightful olla fodrida incon- 
trovertibly proves that the human child is every- 
where alike, whether cradled in the luxury of a 
European home or allowed to grow up untutored 
in the wilds of Central Australia, on the arid plains 
of South Africa, or in the ice-bound districts of Lap- 
land. No less successful than the literary renderings 
ot the wonderful tales are the fine illustrations of 
Mr. H. J. Ford, who proves himself as much in 
touch with their inner meaning as Mr. Lang himself. 

The Christmas season brings with it, as usual, a 
great variety of illustrated gift -books, calendars, 
almanacs, and other annuals. Those issued by Mr. 
Ernest Nlster include some excellent productions, 
amongst which we note Shakespeare's Heroines, by 
Anna Jameson {^s. 6d.) ; Marcus, by Manville 
Fknn (5^-.) ; With Richard the Fearless, by P. 
Creswick (35. bd.) -j/ohn Hassali's Comic Calendar, 
with words by G. E. Farrow (3^. 6d.) ; and several 
wall-calendars of artistic design. Mr. W. Kidd's 
Baa, Baa, Black Sheep (Dean & Sons, 2s. 6d.) is both 
attractive and original ; and Mr. Leslie Brooke's 
treatment of The Three Little Pigs and Tom Thumb 
(F. Warne & Co., \s. net each) is sure to meet with 
the approval of many little critics ; as will also The 
Wonderful Story of Henny Penny, pictured by 
W. D. Adams (Heinemann, \s. net). 

It is always with a certain amount of interest, 
not unmixed with apprehension, that persons of an 
artistic turn of mind look forward to the appear- 
ance in the shop-windows of the year's Christmas 
and New Year's cards. Last year a distinct sign 
of improvement showed itself in the artistic quality 
of the designs, and our souls were buoyed with 
hope for the future. This year, however, the 
improvement has not been maintained ; and 
although both the leading firms of producers — 
Messrs. Raphael Tuck and Messrs. Hills & Co. 
— have issued some pleasant enough cards that 
will doubtless appeal to the tastes of a large 
number of persons, the evolution of the Christmas 
card towards a work of art appears to have sud- 
denly stopped short. This is all the more regret- 
table, owing to the undoubted existence of a large 
amount of artistic talent in England only awaiting 
an opportunity to be diverted into a proper channel. 

Awards in " The Studio " Prise Competiticms 

If the Christmas card is worth doing at all it is 
worth doing well, and if it is to be done well the 
work will have to be entrusted to artists who are 
not artists in name only. If some serious step is 
not taken soon the Christmas and New Year's card 
will join the late unlamented \'alentine. 

In the September Number of The Studio 
there appeared a coloured reproduction of one 
of Mr. G. S. Elgood's water-colour drawings, 
which was erroneously described as representing 
Penshtirst, Kent. For the sake of accuracy it 
should be stated that the drawing in question 
is a view of Compton Wynyates, the beautiful 
\\'arwickshire seat of the Marquis of Northampton. 



Cl.ass a. 

Old Series. 

A LIV. Design for the 

Front and Back of a 

Banquet Menu. 

First Prize {Three 
Guineas) : Curlew (Lennox 
G. Bird, lo Gatestone 
Road, Upper Norwood, 
London, S.E.). 

Second Prize {Two 
Guineas) : Pan (F. H. Ball, 
85 Scotland Road, Carlisle). 

Hon. Mention : Doric 
(G. W. Mason) ; Mac (G. 
Macintosh); ^/ca- (A. Scott 

New Series. 
A III. Design for an 
Embroidered Fall for 

a Church Lectern. 

First Prize {Two 
Guineas) : King (Oswald 
Eaton Prest, 47 Haver- 
stock Hill, London, N.W.). 

Second Prize {One 
Guinea) : IV. A/a.v (Albert 
Boucher, 20 rue de 
Bruxelles, Paris). 

Hon. Mention: Ma- 
rone (Mary C. Buzzard) ; 
Auspal (James Tarney) ; 
Alicia (Alice H. Watts); 

Decor.\tive Art. 

Jan (Miss Janetta La Trobe) ; Fir (Clara A. 
Lavington) ; Helga (Josephine Hicks); Jay (Rev. 
O. J. Jones); Penelope (Mrs. Walton); Toby 
(Ethel W. Whenman) ; Turlium (Emma L. 

Class B. Pictorial Art. 

B II. A Page from an Architectural 

First Prize {Two Guineas) : Teddie (Miss A. M. 
Williams, Walcot, Shaa Road, East Acton, 
London, W.). 

Second Prize {One Guinea) : Phil (Jasper P. 
Salwey, c/o Ravencroft, Son, & Morris, Reading). 

Hon. Mention : Peter (Peter Brown) ; Sea 
Gull (Mrs. F. E. Forbes) ; Alpha (H. P. Hing) ; 
Architrave (C. P. Wilkinson) ; Bux (Bernard A. 
Porter); Horseshoe (Percy J. Westwood) ; Kitty 
(Mile. N. Deschamps) ; Pencil (C. M. Walshaw) ; 


" king' 

Shamrock (Wellesley 
Bailey) ; Triforium 
(Harry Collings). 

Class C. 
Photographs from 

C II. Rustic Scene 
WITH Figures. 
The reproduction 
of the photograph 
to which the first 
prize is awarded is 
not as satisfactory as 
we should have 
wished it to be, 
owing to the print 
being on rough paper. 

Awards in " The Studio^ Pn,e Competitions 


(See opposite page) 

First Prize {One 
Guinea) : Dan' I 
(David Hunter, The 
Leazes, Goodmayes, 

Second Prize 
{Half- a - Guinea) : 
JVomad (Emile Fre- 
chon, Biskra, Al- 

Hon. Mention : 
Ancestor (J. C. War- 
burg) ; Bonnie (F. 
Joergens); Pyro 
(W. G. Meredith); 
Sunlight (W. North- 
wood); (F. A. 




Awards in ''The Studio'' Prize Competitions 



" auspal' 




i'i.llia. _Uwjw. 

■ — ..'ffiiUi 


^v -^ 

Awards in " The Studio'' Prize Competitions 






The Lay Figure 


" Do you know," said the Art Critic, " I 
actually saw the Lord Mayor's Show this year." 

" I am surprised at you," replied the Man with 
the Red Tie. "Really I think you might have found 
some better employment." j^-l 

" Oh ! it was quite by accident, I assure you," 
returned the Critic. " I had forgotten all about the 
thing. I was on my way to see something much 
more important, but I got caught in the crowd, 
and had to wait till the procession had gone by." 

" The excuse seems very thin," laughed the Man 
with the Red Tie, " but if it is the best you have 
to offer I suppose we must accept it. However, I 
conclude that finding yourself in such an unfortu- 
nate position you did not keep your eyes shut. 
Tell us what you thought of the show." 

" To tell you the truth," replied the Critic, " I 
found it decidedly depressing. The whole per- 
formance seemed to me so childish, so rudimentary, 
that it made me quite sad. Yet it so obviously 
delighted the crowd that I must admit that I had 
an idea that it was fulfilling some sort of mission. 
Silly, tawdry, and ridiculous as it was, it seemed to 
give a great deal of pleasure to a great many people, 
and so to be not entirely a wasted effort." 

" Little things please little minds," retorted the 
Man with the Red Tie. " How can there be any- 
thing except a waste of effort in a performance 
which, as you admit, is quite ridiculous ? I say that 
everything of the sort is merely pandering to the 
lowest tastes, and that such exhibitions ought to 
be suppressed, because they are absolutely harmful." 

"You are wrong," broke in the Designer. 
" Such exhibitions ought not to be suppressed ; 
they only want to be properly organised and 
directed. I do not mind confessing that I have 
often gone to see the show, and though I too have 
been more often saddened than pleased, I cannot 
help feeling that it has possibilities which would 
be worth developing." 

" But how is it ever to be made anything but 
an absurdity ? " asked the Man with the Red Tie. 
" Britannia in a tin helmet and with a stuffed lion 
waggling at her feet, or East End nymphs, in mis- 
fitting tights, shivering in a November fog, must 
always be absurd objects. Why should we go 
on repeating the old stupidities simply because 
they will collect a few thousand gaping loafers who 
come chiefly to make fun of them ? " 

" If it were only a question of repeating ancient 
absurdities, I should be quite prepared to agree 

with you," said the Designer. "But why should 
we not organise something fresh, which would 
please people of taste as well as the loafers ? It 
is no argument to say that because things have 
been badly done they ought not to be done at all." 

" Exactly ! " cried the Critic. " Why should we 
not try to revive the splendid pageants of the 
middle ages, those gorgeous affairs which were the 
delight of all classes of society. The love of 
pageantry is, I believe, quite as great now as it was 
centuries ago, but we never seriously do anything to 
satisfy it. We have grown so terribly matter-of-fact, 
so over-mastered with the notion that utilitarianism 
is the mainspring of life, that we are forgetting 
the educational importance of artistic efforts of this 
type. Really we are all to blame for the stupidities 
of which we complain. The show has become 
what it is because we are ashamed to take any 
interest in it, and because we will not consider how 
it could be made to satisfy a perfectly legitimate 
demand. Tin helmets, stuffed lions, and tights 
are the direct results of a lapse of duty on the part 
of the artists of this country, who could, if they 
chose, design something much more appropriate. 
It is the missing of good opportunities that makes 
these exhibitions depressing ; but we never stop to 
think that they reflect our own inartistic evasion of 
our responsibilities." 

" Yes, and the pity of it is, that this want of 
thought makes doubly difficult every effort to im- 
prove matters," said the Designer. " We are in 
danger of losing our taste for decoration, and of 
sinking into an existence without colour, without 
aesthetic display, without anything to relieve its 
sordid commonplace. I am convinced that there 
is nothing which would do more to impress upon 
the popular mind a desire for better art in every- 
day existence than the occasional pageant arranged 
on soundly artistic lines. Think, too, what a joy 
it would be to the designer to be called upon now 
and then to plan out a thing like the Lord Mayor's 
Show. How he would revel in the chances of 
inventing appropriate details, of ordering brilliant 
colour schemes, of interesting thinking people by 
his ingenuity, and yet of delighting the masses by 
the appeal he would make to their quite permiss- 
ible tastes. What if there is no direct educational 
result to be proved from this use of his capacities ; 
at any rate he has prepared the way for still better 
things, and has made a lapse into the old absurdities 
less likely. And what a number of men there 
are who could acquit themselves with distinction 
in such an undertaking ! " 

The Lav Figure. 




AN AUTUMN SCENE, from the pastfi ry JAMFS KAY 

A Russian Painter 



The Imperial Academy of Arts in St. 
Petersburg had a' ways held fast to the traditions and 
teachings of the old school, and it was only some 
five years ; o that, alive to the rising power of the 
new move ent, it decided on a great step — it 
admitted ; Jiongst its jury a few of the younger 
palnteis, whose fame was only just beginning. 
Until then they had been passed over on account 
of their modernisms. However, their individuality, 
the strength and beauty of their art, had to be 
recognised and acknowledged. From that time 
the whole style of the Academy .exhibitions was 
changed, and many new names came to the 
front. Among these one of the most prominent is 
undoubtedly that of Mr. Pourwit. His talent is 
alike recognised by the adherents of the most 
modern schools and those who still cling to the 
old style of painting. It was in the Academy that 
he had his earliest training, and it was the Academy 
that bought for its museum the picture which hid 

earned him his first prize, the Prix de Rome. He 
worked, while in the Academy, in the studio of 
Kouindgi, a well known landscape painter, whose 
teaching had, according to Mr. Pourwit, a great 
influence on his artistic development. Mr. 
Kouindgi had no fixed rules, no precepts, to im- 
part for all alike, sanctioned by and according to 
tradition. He let his pupils paint in the way best 
suited to each : they were to try and attain an effect, 
work hard, and study nature. 

That studying of nature is, to my thinking, the 
keynote of all Pourwit's works : all his paintings 
are true to it. Not one stroke of the brush is laid 
on without his having first ascertained, through 
endless study and observation, that that shape, that 
colour, really could have existed. Although, when 
he once sets to work, he paints with extraordinary 
rapidity, he often paints for a whole year or more 
at the same picture before he finishes it, if he is 
not quite sure of the effect he is trying to repro- 
duce. He waits for the same time of year, goes 
back to the same neighbourhood, and tries to catch 
I he same effect over and over a^ain : then, and not 


XXXIII. No. 142.— January, 1905. 


A Russian Pamter 


before, does 
his picture. 

he return 
His Le dh 

to his studio and complete 
"/ au Prinfemps was painted 

in that way. It is one of 
his earliest pictures, and 
the drawing in it is not 
so good as in his later 
works ; but the atmosphere, 
the crisp and bright, yet 
mellow tone of a day in 
early spring, when the sun 
is warm and the wind is 
fresh, are wonderfully well 

On the other hand, his 
experience and knowledge 
of technique are so great 
that many of his best 
pictures are done almost 
without studies. When an 
effect strikes him it often 
makes such an impression 
on his mind that he is 
able to reproduce it later 
on with inconceivable truth and facility. He is 
one of the most modern of painters in that he 

Bv w. POURwrr 




A Russian Painter 



loves to paint nature, not 
grand landscapes composed 
and thought out in a 
studio : he loves nature 
in all her moods, and sees 
and feels her poetry. For 
him there is beauty every- 
where : in the seemingly 
uninteresting peasant's 
cottage of his native Kur- 
land, in the solitary tree 
growing on the hillside, in 
the pale moonlight of a 
winter landscape. He also 
loves the soft mists, the 
equally soft browns and 
deep greens of the autumn ; 
above all, he loves that 
moment in early spring 
when the whole countiy 
looks apoem ofmeltirgfnow 
and dark, rushing water. 



A Russian Painter 


Pourwit speaks most enthusiastically of the 
modern Norwegian and Swedish painters ; for 
them impressionism is not an end, it is a means of 
attaining their ideal. I think Mr. Pourwit's own 
works are a brilliant instance of the same principle. 

It is only about a few years since he began 
to exhibit abroad, and yet his fame is rapidly 
rising, and great things are e.xpected from him. 
It was the wonderful mixture of technique and 
"stimmung" in all his paint- 
ings that struck so much 
the artistic world, when 
he exhibited two of his 
pictures at the International 
Exhibition at Lyons. A 
diplome d'honneur, with 
premitre m'edailk d'or, was 
awarded him then; also a 
croix de mhite and the rank 
of painter of the first class 
for two of his pictures — 
Sokii en Mars and Nuif 
dti Nord. The last is 
assuiedly one of his best 
pictures, but no photo- 
graph can give the delicate 
colouring of the moon- 
lit snow and the soft, _ _ .. 
dark tones of the woods ; "■ 
the faint, exquisite, pinkish 
wliites, the creams, the 
greys, the deep blues, " i.'or d'auto.mne' 


', 4'i 

are remarkable in their 
harmony and truth. 

In the spring of the same 
year, at the International 
Exhibition in Munich, 
Pourwit had already re- 
ceived a gold medal of 
the second degree, and 
before that, at Paris, a 
medal of the third degree. 
The impression produced 
by his paintings was 
universally so favourable 
that he has received invi- 
tations to send his pictures 
all over the Continent : 
Frankfort, Hanover, Berlin, 
Dresden, Diisseldorf, and 
Carlsruhe have all invited 
him to join in their Ex- 
hibitions. In Russia 
Pourwit exhibits at the 
Imperial Academy and at the exhibitions arranged 
by Diagileff. His permanent residence is Riga, 
where his studio attracts the artistic public. 

Probably nothing in the rendering of nature's 
accidental effects has held for the painter's art 
greater difficulties, or, where successful, greater 
triumphs, than the painting of snow ; snow which 
makes white linen look dark, and which is so much 
whiter in itself than any white. A scheme of tones. 


A Russian Painter 

all of them representing the white of the snow, 
has to be subordinated to the white paint which 
is to stand for the high lights where the sun shines, 
and this white paint, which on the palette represents 
the brightest light of the snow, is darker in reality 
than snow under shadow. 

The problem of affixing an arrangement of colour 
that shall give sunlight in a picture, is intensified 
where light has to be rendered reflecting itself in 
iridescence from particle to particle of snow. This 
has been the particular 
triumph of Mr. Pourwit, and 
another triumph is his also, 
that of seeing colour in 
the dark trees cresting the 
snowy hills. 

Only to the trained 
vision does colour remain 
apparent in nature under 
snow. The arbitrary dis- 
tinction between the black 
woods and the white hills 
is alone apparent to un- 
trained superficial observa- 
tion, and yet it is in 
such moods as these that 
nature holds her greatest 
secrets, has her most deli- 
cate effects, the harmony 
of which ' so well repays 
the student who has attuned "au bord d'un ruisseau" 

himself to them. To keep 
light in the skies that float 
over these white snows, 
not to make them heavy 
and dark, presents yet 
further problems. Pourwit, 
by the knowledge that 
years of patient study 
have secured to him, is 
enabled to do this. Some- 
thing else there is in his 
art less difficult in the 
problem it presents, which 
has fascinated him so that 
in picture after picture, 
though under always vary- 
ingconditions, we find it ren- 
dered. I refer to the long, 
slim broken shadows or 
the thick angular shadows, 
as the case may be, from 
different trees falling 
in the sunlight on the 
Their perspective and the 
pattern that they make he has used often to give to 
his pictures that decorativeness that is so character- 
istic of them. The repeated pattern in fainter 
greys of the pattern of the upright trees, he 
has managed w^ith such efifect that many of 
his pictures make panels which in themselves 
might be used in the service of decoration. 
They unite to this decorative feeling a feeling of 
the mysterious poetry of winter, and retain those 


broken snow-paths. 




Cla7icic Haves 



Claude Haves was a 
sailor at twenty one years 
of age, at twenty-five he 
was an artist exhibiting at 
many exhibitions. From a 
sailor's life to a pastoral 
scene is a far cry, and he 
who can go from one to 
the other and remain him- 
self under the varying cir- 
cumstances attracts the 
interest and sympathy of 
the average man. 

There is something 

qualities which are so 
essential to realistic land- 
scape painting. It is doubt- 
ful whether the painter 
could make a picture in 
which the balance of masses, 
the composition, did not 
unconsciously assume the 
disposition of conscious 
design, so that it is the 
more curious that this 
instinctive tendency to 
decoration in no case has 
led the painter away from 
that worship of accidental 
effects or from his attempts 
to render faithfully the 
mysteries of winter atmo- 
sphere ; and it has not 
altered the humility of his 
attitude as a painter towards 
nature. The beauties of the 
particular phases of nature 
that he has cared most to 
reveal are so changeable 
and various that he has re- 
turned to them over and 
over again in his art ; but 
in every fresh canvas he 
has advanced further in 
his knowledge of nature 
and of the resources of 


Claude Haves 


genial and casual in a sailor's life which makes 
one think of rollicking good nature and com- 
radeship, and there is the suggestion of quiet 
reserve among pastoral scenes which betrays a 
very fascinating silent strength. 

Certainly the man who can enjoy and enter into 
both one and the other would object to be labelled 
as a one sided man or a painter of one particular 
subject. Claude Hayes, above others, might fit- 
tingly be called an all-round man. His clever 
studies of heads, his treatment of snow, his luminous 
water sketches show us that his art is not a trick, 
but there are reasons why his pastoral scenes 
and studies of sheep should attract particular 

In 1897, in the November number of The 
Studio, Mr. Arthur Thomson, writing of William 
Estall, says — 

" There is perhaps no other painter besides 
Mauve who has in him developed to such an extent 
the faculty for e.tpressing truthfully and artistically 
a large concourse of sheep ; and it is for this reason 
I have specially referred to Estall as a painter of 
sheep, although in his pictures other sorts of beasts 
are naturally to be found, and I have never seen 

any that were not expressed in an adequate and 
dignified manner." 

The same may now be said of Claude Hayes, for 
in his pictures we find other animals successfully 
portrayed, but since the death of his friend and 
brother-in-law, William Estall, we venture to think 
there is no other painter whose pastoral scenes 
gain such immense strength and character by the 
introduction of sheep. 

Properly treated, there is no other animal that 
lends itself so successfully to English landscape 
painting. The introduction of the patient beasts 
does not disturb the stillness of a summer even- 
ing, nor detract from the quiet calm of a country 
lane. They are objects that are familiar to every 
one and impart a home-like appearance to the 
scene, but few men have attained to the perfec- 
tion of rendering them part of the landscape, so 
that they neither attract too much attention nor 
remain insignificant. In Claude Hayes' pastoral 
pictures they quietly signify much. 

They carry the ideas along some lines upon 
which it is pleasant to dwell, they obviate the 
difficulty of dealing with desolate country, they 
afford a human interest without the objectionable 


Claude Hayes 

" figure " being dragged in. In the picture repro- 
duced in colours — the property of the Rev. G. 
Davies — we get all the characteristics of Claude 
Hayes' colouring, and when we look back only a 
few years, to the autumn of 1897, when Mr. 
Thompson regretted the impossibility of showing in 
any adequate way the colouring of William Estall's 
sketches, we may be proud of the art which, thanks 
to The Studio, has made such strides that to-day 
we obtain a reproduction of the delicate colours 
that only an artist can bring together successfully 
on his canvas. 

No one seeing this picture of sheep will doubt 
that they are faithful studies from life, as is also 
the reproduction on page 296 of the drawing 
on brown paper of a sheepfold in early morning, 
with the modern appliance for cutting roots, and 
the shepherd, so unlike the conventional arcadic 
effect obtained by the 
ordinary artist's shepherd. 

Early on such a misty 
morning in spring Claude 
Hayes may be seen work- 
ing at such subjects — 
working till the very cha- 
racter of the sheep is known 
to him. A line here and 
there is enough to print 
on his brain the effect 
which the chilly morning 
and bleating sheep give, 
and slight as his studies 
in chalk are, they are 
individual and not con- 
ventional sheep. 

Claude Hayes comes 
from a stock of painters, 
and as soon as he left 
school he determined to 
be an artist. Before he 
went to sea and while he 
was a sailor, he was con- 
tinually drawing for his 
own amusement, but it was 
not till he was twenty-two 
years old that he became 
an art student in every 
sense of the word. While 
studying at the Royal 
Academy Schools, he was 
much influenced by the so- 
called Romanticist Schools, 
examples of which continu- 
ally came before his notice 

at Christie's, where the Saturday sales of pictures 
were to him an education in themselves. A warm 
and mutual friendship sprang up between him and 
William Estall, which may have further confirmed 
him in his love for this style of painting at a time 
when Constable was out of fashion and Corot was 
not a word to conjure with. 

We do not know to what extent this deep and 
lasting friendship affected the lives of both men, 
but we know that Claude Hayes owes much that 
is worth having in life to William Estall, for at his 
house he met Mrs. Estall's beautiful sister, whom 
he afterwards married. 

At the age of twenty-five he was elected a 
member of the Royal Institute of Painters in 
Water -Colours, and since his first picture. The 
Loiterers, was hung on the line in the Royal 
Academy, no year passes without a large number 




Clatidc Hayes 

"caravan LIFE: winter' 

|! I 


Claude Hayes 





F. Der^uent IVood 

of paintings being on view at the various well- 
known galleries. 

The Eastern Counties have particularly appealed 
to his sense of beauty, as they must to all lovers of 
Constable and Corot, and nearly every year he 
makes East Anglia his sketching ground. His 
home is, however, in Surrey, overlooking the 
Thames, a typical home for an artist, the river 
below winding through Chertsey meads, where, in 
the winter mornings one may hear the larks 
thrilling with song the still air. Surrey has for 
some time been his home, and the neighbourhood 
of Whitley first attracted him, in common with 
other well-known artists. 

Claude Hayes is still a young man, and has his 
life before him, and if he carries out his ideal in 
art, we expect the tide to flow towards him, as it 
did — but, alas 1 all to late — towards his friend and 
brother-in-law, William Estall. 







Perhaps the most striking thing 
in the career of Mr- Derwent Wood is 
the unusual rapidity with which he has 
made for himself a place of particular pro- 
minence among our younger sculptors. 
\\'ithin the short space of ten years he has 
advanced from the position of a brilliant 
and successful student in the Royal Academy 
schools to the rank of an even more brilliant 
and successful producing artist, whose works 
are in general request and whose capacities 
are widely recognised. This success has 
been gained, moreover, not by any de- 
liberate postponement of his first appeal for 
attention until he had arrived at more than 
usually mature years. He is now only thirty- 
two, so that It can be plainly seen that 
he must have come before the public with 
definite confidence in his powers at an 
age when most artists are still feeling 


F. Derwent IVood 

their way more or less tentatively towards the 
proper expression of their convictions — at an age, 
indeed, when many men have scarcely decided 
what are the convictions by which they propose to 
be guided in their practice. 

He was born at Keswick in 1872; but while 
he was still a young child he was taken abroad, and 
when he was nine years old he commenced his 
education at Lausanne. At the age of fifteen he 
went to Karlsruhe, where he remained for two 
years ; and then he returned to England. His 
first practical experience as an art worker was 
obtained in his uncle's potteries ; but he worked 



there for only a brief period. In 1889 he gained 
a National Scholarship, and began a course of 
study of modelling under Professor Lanteri in the 
Royal College of Art at South Kensington ; and 
that he made rapid progress under the supervision 
of this admirable teacher is proved by the fact that 
only two years later he was able to take a post as 
assistant to Professor Legros at the Slade School. 
This post he held until 1893, when he became a 
student in the schools of the Royal Academy. 

His career at the Academy was comparatively 
short, but it was exceptionally distinguished, and 
culminated in 1895 with his success in securing 
the gold medal and travelling scholar- 
ship for sculpture with a group, half 
life size, of Dirdahis and Icarus. 
During the period covered by his 
Academy studentship he was working 
in the day-time as an assistant to 
Mr. Brock, and at night in the schools, 
so that he was learning the practical 
side of his profession under the best 
possible guidance, and was laying an 
admirable foundation of knowledge 
upon which to build in after years. 
To such good use did he put the ex- 
perience which he had so far accumu- 
lated, that he was able in 1897, soon 
after the expiration of the term of his 
travelling scholarship, to gain an award 
at the Paris Salon for a group. Charity, 
and so to rank himself, when barely 
five-andtwenty, among sculptors of 
established repute. By this time the 
preparatory stage of his professional 
life may fairly be said to have come to 
an end ; he had acquired something 
like mastery over the details of his 
craft, and was well qualified to attempt 
independent undertakings of an im- 
portant kind. 

When he returned to London after 
his stay abroad, he rejoined Mr. Brock ; 
bat not long afterwards he was offered, 
and accepted, an appointment at the 
Glasgow Art Schools. He began, too, 
to find that his services were in request, 
and that there were at his disposal 
many commissions for portrait busts, 
and for architectural sculpture. So 
with quite justifiable confidence in his 
future, he took a studio and set to 
work earnestly to realise his ambitions. 
He had no reason to be dissatisfied 


F. Derwent Wood 


STONK FIUUKK: " l'krhl,\' K ■■ 


with the results of this venture ; he was soon busy 
with things which gave him plenty of scope for 
the display of his capacities as a designer and 
executant, and he made more than one success 
in important competitions. As the outcome of 
one of these competitions came a commission to 
execute four statues for the Kelvingrove Art Gallery 
at Glasgow ; and besides he was responsible for a 
series of figures for the adornment of the Central 
Station in that city, for others for a large building 
in Bothwell Street, and for busts of Lord Over- 
toun and his sister, which have been placed in 
the Bible Training Institute. 

After this excellent beginning at Glasgow he 
quickly found opportunities of greatly extending 
his sphere of activity ; during the past seven yeais 
he has, indeed, multiplied the evidences of his skill 
in many directions. There must be noted his 
statues of Queen Victoria, for Patiala, India ; of 
Sir Titus Salt, for Saltaire ; and of the Rev. C. H. 
Spurgeon, for the Baptist House in Southampton 
Row; his busts of Queen Victoria and Queen 
Alexandra, for the Cavalry Club, Piccadilly ; of 
Cecil Rhodes, for Pretoria, Johannesburg, and 





F. Derwent JVood 

Kimberley ; and of Sir Blundell Maple, for Univer- 
sity College Hospital ; and his delightful medallion 
portrait in low relief of Sir Joshua Reynolds, which 
forms part of the memorial recently erected in 
Plympton parish church to the famous painter, who 
was born in the schoolhouse beside the church in 
which he is now commemorated. Then there is, 
in addition, a considerable array of portrait busts, 
among which those of Mr. Harrison To wnsend, Signor 
Arturo Stefirani,and Mr. Robert Brough deserve to be 
specially noted. And there is a long succession of 
statues, reliefs, and statuettes, like his Ophelia, Cupid 
and Psyche, Leda, St. George, and the mural monu- 
ment which has for its motive, Love and Life, Sacred 
and Profane, in all of which can be perceived the 
purposeful and intelligent working out of a very con- 


sistent aesthetic intention. Undoubtedly he has in 
this succession of productions been guided by 
eminently individual preferences, and has sought 
for qualities of design and accomplishment which 
would satisfy his own particular tastes. 

There is one group of woiks — the four niche 
figures for Shipley Hall, and the bronze fountain 
for Wixton Hall — which has certain interesting and 
well marked characteristics that suggest significantly 
his tendencies as a decorator. It is possible, of 
course, that these figures represent but a passing 
phase of his art, and that the style chosen for them 
is not necessarily one to which Mr. Derwent Wood 
proposes to adhere, but they are not on that 
account less deserving of attention. They reveal 
the closest study of French decorative sculpture at 
its most suave and elegant 
period, and they are in- 
spired obviously by the 
performances of those 
artists who brought into 
their work in bronze or 
marble the same spirit 
which made fascinating the 
piciures of Boucher and 
his contemporaries. Yet 
in the elegance of line 
and the studied grace of 
pose and movement which 
characterise these personi- 
fications of Venus, Diana, 
Ceres, and Juno, there is 
more than simple imitation 
of the productions of the 
earlier French decorative 
school. Their suavity is 
not a mere convention, 
and is not gained by the 
sacrifice of those qualities 
of design and handling 
which come from correct 
understanding of nature. 
They lack no essentials of 
sound construction and 
firm modelling, and there 
is a due measure of modern 
realism in their interpreta- 
tion of a traditional style. 
That Mr. Derwent Wood 
has learned much from his 
French predecessors is 
evident enough, but not 
less clearly can it be seen 
that he has the good 


]l- |r- 



F. Derwent Wood 



judgment not to ignore the better principles of 
the art of his own time, and that his thorough 
acquaintance with the methods and mannerism 
of one particular school has not had the efTect 
of diminishing the independence of his effort or 
of narrowing the scope of his observation. 

Indeed, in his other works he proves indisputably 
that he has a grasp of artistic essentials that will 
always save him from sinking thoughtlessly into 
imitative conventionality. His sense of character 
is shrewd enough and his knowledge of nature is 
profound enough to guide him aright in giving a 

convincing expression to his ideas. His busts of 
Mr. Harrison Townsend and Mr. Robert Brough 
have, with all their distinction of manner, the 
fullest measure of actuality ; and there is in them 
no suggestiori^ that facts have been sacrificed for 
the sake of/satisfying the artist's preconception in 
matters of style. His Cecil Rhodes, too, is suf- 
ficiently uncompromising in its statement of a 
rugged, and in some respects inelegant, personality, 
in its forcible presentation of a strong type, which 
would have lost its meaning if its angles had been 






Recent Designs for Domestic Architecture 




technical side of his craft 
grows more assured he is 
gaining steadily in the 
power to put his nobler 
conceptions into a credible 
shape. His work has lost 
none of its charm, none 
of its ease and fluency, 
but to these qualities has 
been added something 
which makes them more 
persuasive and more 
capable of creating the 
right impression upon 
people who are not con- 
tent with simple prettiness 
no matter how efificient it 
may be in its technical 


One of the notable results 
of what may be fairly styled 

rounded off or its asperities smoothed away. And 
in his charming Portrait Bust of a lady he has not, 
by straining after excessive graces, missed those 
small but appropriate peculiarities of feature and 
facial expression which give to the work its value 
as a likeness. In everything he does there is per- 
ceptible just the right amount of discretion required 
to guide his art into its proper direction, and to 
prevent him from being led by his love of elegance 
into characterless arrangements of line. Stylist 
though he is, he is very far from being a slave to 
tradition, and he has avoided hitherto all tempta- 
tions to make an easy compromise with his artistic 

In fact, there are many signs that he is just now 
making a definite step in the direction of robuster 
and more dramatic performance. His recent achieve- 
ments deal with motives which require for effective 
reahsation a good deal more than a faculty for com- 
bining harmoniously a variety of graceful details, and 
which imply an understanding of great seslhetic 
principles as well as of more or less exacting 
intellectual problems. He is showing clearly that 
his view of the mission of sculpture is becoming 
more extended, and that as his command over the 



Recent Designs for Domestic Architecture 





Recent Designs for Domestic Architecture 

the renaissance of British architecture, is the 
large and growing number of English architects. 
who, without striking any note of great originality, 
are turning out sound work upon right lines. It 
is sometimes urged as a reproach that they are 
lacking in enterprise and too ready to follow in 
safe and accepted paths, rather than strike out any 
distinct line of their own individuality ; and there 



may be a certain amount of truth in th'"s reproach. 
But in any case a change from the vulgar reign 
of hybrid villadom is a very welcome one. Simpli- 
city and good taste may not call for any extrava- 
gant praise, but if it is good how much preferable to 
the degraded productions which disfigured so much 
of the country during the Victorian era. 

And in the work of Messrs. Buckland and 
Farmer, of Birmingham, 
the chief interest lies in 
the simplicity, both in 
plan and elevation, which 
is its leading characteristic. 
The House at Edghaston 
is planned with the in- 
tention of obtaining the 
maximum of accommo- 
dation everywhere. The 
contrast of the projecting 
gables, front and back, 
with the long slope of the 
roof, is pleasing, and gives 
an appearance of solidity 
to the house. 

There are many people 
to whom the question of 
obtaining the greatest ac- 
commodation, combined 
with good architecture, at 
a low cost, is an important 
one. Such a house as 
this, which is well built 
upon sound lines, and in 
parts is even luxuriously 
fitted, and which was built 
at a cost not exceeding 
;^i,2oo, should certainly 
appeal to them. 

In the House at Kenil- 
worth there are points 
due to and showing 
the individuality of the 
owner, some of which 
have interest as far as 
they affect the struc- 
ture of the house itself 
The recessed balcony on 
the first floor, which 
leads from one of the 
bath-rooms, and was built 
to indulge a highly- 
cultivated love of fresh 
air in the early morn- 


ARCHITECTS >"& prescnts rather a 




Recent Designs for Domestic ArcJiitecture 


curious break in the line of windows, and also gives 
a suggestion of weakness to the chimney imme- 
diately above ; but perhaps the gain in deep 
shadow compensates in part for this. The piazza, 
with seats, serving as verandah, and the box-room 
on the ground floor, are little American touches 
which have something to commend them. 

The architects have recognised also the import- 
ance of the garden in setting off the dwelling, and 
the most has been made of the slope of the land. 
The somewhat formal terrace and steps leading to 
the lower garden and lawn are in keeping with the 
dignity of the house, and, what is quite as important, 
are consonant with the old-world neighbourhood in 
which they are placed. 

Messrs. Buckland & Farmer are young archi- 
tects. Mr. Buckland has for some years past been 
architectural lecturer at the Birmingham Central 
School of Art, in association with Mr. Bidlake, 
and is to some extent under the influence of his 

Mr. Buckland has recently been appointed archi- 
tect to the Birmingham School Board. In this 
important post we may hope he will be enabled to 
maintain his stai-dard of excellence while grappling 
with the inevitable and arbitrary problems presented 
by the necessities of scientific lighting and venti- 
lation, which have to be so strictly adhered to. 
Simplicity may be joined to dignity, and there is 
no reason why utility need be unattractive. 

Mr. \Valter Caves two 
houses here illustrated — 
Warren Mount, Oxshott, 
and Belgaum, Woking 
— are both very character- 
istic of their clever and 
resourceful designer. 
Warren Mount is covered 
with cream-coloured 
rough -cast, with red tiles 
for the roof and gables, 
and a brick terrace runs 
all the way round the 
building. Belgaum, 
Woking, is also in rough- 
cast, with red tiles. 

Messrs. Bedford & Kit- 
son's Redhill, Headingley, 
was finished some two 
years ago. It stands in a 
very high and exposed 
position on the outskirts of 
Leeds. The ground floor 
is constructed of quarry- 
dressed local stone, and the upper part is tile-hung, 
with a gable of half timberwork ; the whole of the 





Recent Designs for Domestic Architecture 





Recent Designs for Domestic Architecture 


:ave, architect 

'warren mount," OXSHOTT : TUB HAIL 



Recent Designs for Domestic A7'cliitecture 





Recent Designs for Domestic Architecture 

external woodwork being of oak left clean from the 
tool. The dining-room is panelled in oak, as is also 
the hall. The drawing-room has a dado of deal 
painted white, and the walls above are white, with 
a moulded plaster ceiling representing the signs of 
the zodiac. 

The hall, designed by Mr. James Gibson, and 
executed by Messrs. Marsh, Jones, Cribb & Co., 
has a ceiling with beams and rafters showing, after 
the type of the old English manor houses, and the 
wide inglenook, with red stone mantel and open 
hearth, has also been adapted as one of the best 
features of the old Yorkshire type of house. The 
original feature in the whole scheme is that it is 
carried out, not, as one usually expects in work of 
this kind, in oak, but in mahogany, which is relieved 
with a little simple inlay in ebony and box, and 
slightly polished. The walls are divided by means 
of pilasters, the caps of which are inlaid with the 
white rose of Yorkshire : and this rose has been 
taken as the motif throughout the room, appearing 
on the embroidered cloth wall-panels and on the 

carpet (which is a hand-tufted plain centre, with 
the Tudor rose and briar-stem forming the border), 
and also in the furniture, which has been designed 
on simple lines. To further carry out this idea of 
the Yorkshire rose in the frieze, which is composed 
of mahogany laths on a white plaster ground (after 
the type of the half-timbered work), there have 
been introduced over the inglenook, and at the 
opposite end of the room, two painted panels illus- 
trating the beginning and the end of the Wars of 
the Roses ; the first depicting The Quarrel in the 
Temple Gardens, and the other The Battle of Bos- 
ivorth Field. A feature in this room are two book- 
case fittings at the sides of the window, and 
underneath the window is placed a sofa, with 
brackets or tables at the side to support a lamp, 
so making a comfortable or cosy seat for the 
reader. All the electric fittings and mounts on 
the furniture are in a very low tone of oxidised 
silver, almost a dull pewter colour. 

The House in Poland, designed by Mr. Baillie 
Scott, here illustrated, represents a slightly modified 



Recent Designs for Domestic Architecture 

version of a plan originated by a client of the archi- 
tect's — a plan which in some respects exemplified the 
practical application of certain principles of house- 
planning advocated by Mr. Scott in The Studio. 

Of these principles thus exemplified one of the 
most important is the substitution for the usual 
conception of the house as a series of isolated com- 
partments without unity and cohesion the idea of a 
central room from which other rooms open, so that 
on entering the house one gains, as in a cathedral, 
for instance, an impression of the interior as a 
whole ; and instead of feeling enclosed within four 
remorseless walls, in all directions one may obtain 

a vision of the beyond through pleasant vistas. In 
a country like Poland, where the severe conditions of 
climate make it necessary to create an interior which 
shall compensate for the loss of the outdoor world, 
and where, to quote from the architect's letter of 
instructions, " the cosiness, serenity, and gaiety of 
the home must make us forget the grim desolation 
out of doors, and all must tend to elevate the 
spirit and help it to bear cheerily its winter 
captivity," such an open treatment of the interior 
is specially desirable. The severity of the climate 
has influenced the plan in other ways — suggesting 
the reduction of window areas and the provision of 



H X 

O ^ 
CO < 

W . - 
'^ O 


Hans van Bartels 

double-glazing in these ; the use of thick walls ; 
the treatment of the roof without internal gutters, 
where snow might lodge ; and the heating of the 
interior by artificial means, supplemented by the 
indispensable cheerful blaze of the wood fire on 
the great open hearth. 

The materials of which this house is to be built 
have happily escaped the ordeal of the modern 
factory. The timber, felled and wrought on the 
spot, still retains some suggestion of its woodland 
home. The bricks for the walls, too, are home- 
made, and these also, in escaping the fatal discipline 
of mechanical manufacture, contrive to retain some 
characteristics of mother earth. And thus here, in 
that intelligent manipulation of materials which is 
such an essential attribute of good building, the 
character of each is retained and coaxed to the 
surface by human handicraft instead of being 
ruthlessly obliterated by a machine. 



Hans von Bartels holds a place at once 
personal and distinct in modern German art. His 
outlook may not be altogether broad nor his field 
of working as extensive as his great talent would 


seem to justify, yet in his chosen limitations there 
is no other painter of the moment who tells so 
personal a narrative in so forceful a manner. His 
work takes one near to nature, and to the primitive 
emotions. Turning to the people who are in them- 
selves very near to nature, and too primitive to 
seem other than they are, a man must also have 
within himself that nameless sympathy of under- 
standing without which none of the fine things of 
life can ever be made known to him. 

Von Bartels knows himself absolutely, knows 
well the rugged qualities which underlie and 
constitute his vigorous conception of art and the 
qualities he loves best to grapple with in his 
chosen subjects. He turns to the simple fisher- 
folk and workers of the fields, and through them 
he both expresses and interprets the attributes of 
his own personality. 

Hans von Bartels was born in Hamburg in 
1856, and there he spent his boyhood, watching 
the big ships lying at anchor, and others fading 
away into the distant grey of the sea. More and 
more was their charm wrapped about him, until in 
his childish phantasy he grew to feel that in some 
way he must give expression to all they awakened 
in him. Nothing could keep him from the shores. 
He would lie for hours watching the play of light 
and shadow on the time-soiled sails, and in fancy 
follow the great ships steam- 
ing away to distant lands, 
and follow them safe home 
again through calm and 

Perhaps he would go to 
sea some day, he thought, 
and that might satisfy his 
love of all this ; but no, 
there must be something 
more complete than that, 
and by and by he found 
his great passion made clear 
to him through a little pad 
and pencil. 

Then there came a day 
when he was to have his 
first drawing-lessons, and 
he was put to study with 
Karl Oesterley, who lived 
in Hamburg, and who was 
a great enthusiast on the 
Norwegian fjords. These 
early lessons opened up to 
the boy the ambition of his 
life — to paint the sea and its 



Hans von Bart els 

'mother and child" 


fisher-folk, the fields and their workers — an ambition 
that has never for a moment ceased to increase more 
deeply its hold on the artist ; and if his work is looked 
upon in some quarters as being too narrow in its 
scope for greatness, it is certain that to those who 
look deeply enough into his art there comes a full 
sense of satisfaction that a talent so complete as 
von Bartels can be concentrated into so simple 
an expression of its aim. 

From 1876 to 1877, von Bartels studied at the 
Diisseldorf Academy under Adolph Schweitzer, 
and in 1881 he went to the Berlin School of Art. 
After several journeys to the South and to the North 
he came to Munich, where he has since lived. It 
would be of small use to try to find out the true 
literal influence on his work of his various teachers. 
There is no question though, that the student soon 
overtook his masters, both in technique and in 
feeling, and he was always himself. In going over 
the history of his work, one cannot find any trace 
of direct influence ; it shows itself to be purely the 
output of a personal talent, grown richer by the 
passage of time. 

In the impulse in modern art towards naturalness, 
von Bartels may be said to be one of its truest 

followers. Nobody understands better the simple 
way to convey nature's moods to canvas. 

The first pictures to draw the attention of the 
public to the artist were painted under the in- 
fluence of von Rugen and von Bornholm, soon 
after which he went to the far South to paint the 
beauties of Capri and Bellaggio ; but the love he 
had for the vigorous coast-scenes of his home 
country, together with the memories of perfect 
days in Holland among her peasant folk, drew him 
back, and he eventually placed the impressions of 
Holland before all else, and went to paint her 
quaint old cottages and simple lives in a manner 
that brought out the very fullest and best of his 
talents. It was here he began painting in oils, 
a medium that seemed to be his from the first, but 
giving him no truer expression than water-colours. 
It is extraordinary the strength he puts into this 
delicate medium, and many of his most important 
pictures are done in it. 

The artist belongs to the class of men whose 
work always proclaims a convincing truth of an 
immediate impression won from nature. 

Von Bartels has a similarity in his temperament 
and work with his great predecessor, Andreas 


Hans von Bartels 

Achenbach ; or rather, one might say, that the two 
men have grasped the same qualities. The one 
has not in art pointed out those qualities to 
the other, though there are many things in common 
between the two painters, the one of the past, the 
other of the present. 

The sea; the homely fishing boats safe in 
harbour ; peasant folk resting from toil ; weather- 
beaten old mills standing out in splendid colour 
against the blue skies of Holland ; little fishing 
villages with their red towers and the interiors of 
low rooms with their solitary figures in the rich 
glow of the fire light, are the pictures that Hans 
von Bartels loves to paint, and paints so well. 

L. VAN DER Veer. 

to attract at first sight ; and therefore, perhaps, 
it is not as highly appreciated as it deserves 
to be. The work of many of the Impres- 
sionists impresses us on the spot, but Tholen's 
has a soothing influence like the charm of 
sweet music. Tholen has a particularly good 
knowledge of water and its varied movements and 
reflections ; he is likewise thoroughly acquainted 
with the beauty and picturesqueness of his own 
country. His style is, as I have already suggested, 
quiet and sympathetic ; he understands true values, 
and his drawing is careful, but we would like to 
see a little more passion and warmth introduced 
into his work. An exhibition of Dutch water- 
colours was recently held at Amsterdam, but the 
selection of the works left a good deal to be 

We have received the 
following note from our 
correspondent at the 
Hague : " Most of the pic- 
tures of Tholen have found 
a home in England, and 
we, who live in the 
artist's country, are not too 
well acquainted with his 
works. An exhibition, such 
as that recently held at 
Preyer's, was therefore an 
agreeable opportunity for 
many of us to get a small, 
if not complete, insight into 
his style of work. And what 
was the outcome of it all ? 
What did we learn ? We 
learnt that the works of 
Tholen are excellent as a 
whole ; that he has great 
facility in dealing with his 
subjects ; that he is a close 
observer of atmosphere, and 
of the play of light at all 
seasons of the year ; that 
in his landscapes he 
thoroughly explains to us 
that there is a close con- 
nection between the light 
that shines and the objects 
upon which it shines ; that 
he does not see a landscape 
without realising, at the same 
time, that it is peopled by 
mankind. The work of 
Tholen lacks, as the work 
of Gabriel does, the power 


Dutch Art at St. Lotas 

desired. A. Allebe had seven drawings on view, 
of which Crocodile and Monkeys were excellent. 
M. Bauer was best in Ava Sophia, in which the 
nonchalance of form and outline went unobserved 
in the importance of the whole. T- Bosboom was 
represented by one of his usual church interiors, 
full of charm and elegance, finely drawn, and, 
at the same time, bright and pleasing. Other 
works worthy of special note were The While 
Horses, by Breitner, a water-colour in every way 
praiseworthy; Snoek, by Dysschlof; P. J. C. 
Gabriel's drawn ngs ; Josef Israels' Sandhaulers 
and Going Home; Jacob Maris' powerful draw- 
ings ; and Mauve's drawings. The examples of 
Albert Neuhuys were good in colour but want- 
ing in imagination. George Poggenbeek was 
broad and good in his Cows in a Meadow seen 
in a soft sunshine. W. B. Tholen exhibited 
two of his finest water-colours, J. H. Weissen- 
bruch was well represented in his IVinter, and 
Witsen showed A Small Canal. This exhibi- 
tion was decidedly interesting, although the work 
of many important artists was conspicuous by its 



For one who had witnessed the Dutch 
loan collection, commemorating the eightieth 
birthday of Josei Israels at the Chicago Art Insti- 
tute last winter, it would be unreasonable, in com- 
menting upon the Dutch exhibition at St. Louis, 
not to dwell with pleasure upon the memory of 
the earlier show. Upon close analysis, however, 
the impossibility of a just comparison became 
evident. In fact, the essential features of the 
two were seen to be so widely divergent, that to 
parallel them would be unfair. The former, having 
represented the evolution of Dutch art during the 
half century just closed, was reminiscent and un- 
deniably impressive, and being composed also 
of selected specimens existing on American 
shores of modem Dutch masters, it was of a 
lofty standard. When we examined more carefully 
the material at St. Louis, we observed that, aside 
from a few examples from the palettes of such men 
as Maris, Israels, and Blommers, almost the entire 

'THE OLD scribe' 


Dutch Art at St. Louis 

display was the work of young artists, standing 
for an altogether different generation from that 
whose genius had made the movement great — a 
generation with its own problems to solve, but 
one which, if we mistake not, feels that it will be 
justified "in solving the problems along the identical 
lines of its predecessors. 

Still it may yet be too premature to make such a 
statement, because we observe that, when the 
younger men are relieved from academic bonds, they 
are broad and fearless in an individual, though 
always national, way. In our objections we speak 
only of what might be the racial tendency, but the 
exceptions to such a rule are very evident. There 
are young Dutchmen who feel the benediction of 
their peaceful, plodding home-land, who respond 
with frank inspiration to its charm, and who speak 
with authority and conviction. They are earnest 
souls, well abreast of the modern tide. They are 
catholic, at the same time individual and national 
— such men, while conforming to the best 

recognised canons, could never be restricted to the 
prescribed limits of any locality or period. Not 
that they will necessarily accomplish that which 
will be an interpretation of art for all time, nor do 
they, in every case, present their art in an 
appreciably original way, but they feel that 
they have their own humble messages to impart, 
and that their messages should be personal 
and sincere — an element which after all is an 
important essential to true genius. 

Take, for example, the Evening, exhibited by 
Dirk Wiggers, with its effective bands of opal clouds 
across a rich silver sky, and its insistence of hill-line 
to sustain a carefully regarded foreground ; one is 
convinced that this young man of thirty-eight years 
is conscientiously true to the poetry about him. 
Noting the happy balance of separated fields, 
with clumps of trees and hayricks, one believes 
that the director of such a brush is an independent 
thinker ! Another canvas of similar intention, 
although entirely different in rendering, was The 



Dutch Art at St. Louis 

Culture oj Bulbs, by Anton Louis Koster. Here a 
more realistic treatment was observed. The parallel 
rows of gay spring flowers in well graded perspec- 
tive formed a sufficient foreground to maintain the 
hazy distance. The composition, with its single 
denuded tree in the middle distance, its faintly 
outlined city roofs on the horizon, was simple 
and unaffected, and it declared a refreshingly 
optimistic understanding. Turning from this 
to the crisp snow scene from the palette of 
Van Soest, we noted the remarkable modelling 
of foreground, the delicate variations of colour, 
the satisfactory balance of masses. Another ex- 
ample of earnest, personal sentiment was the 
romantic landscape, entitled Evening, by Bernhard 
Schregel. A weird grace animated this effort, 
particular interest being centred in the spectral 
tree-trunks. In them was expressed, not so much 
the action as the spirit of the wind, with a certain 
subtle accent in the solitary figure near the left of 
the picture. 

In reference to the depicting of peasant life, 
what nation is there that portrays genre subjects 
with such tender sympathy as does Holland? 
The mighty Israels, for example, apart from 
his debatable technique, possesses that rare 

gift of ennobling the humble avenues of life 
with an eloquence which bids one approach his 
works in an attitude of reverence, not for the 
things themselves, but for the principle which they 
represent — human brotherhood. The St. Louis 
collection contained six oil paintings and one etch- 
ing by this modern master. That the sureness and 
vigour of his hand is undiminished at this his 
advanced age, was evidenced by the telling canvas 
called Painful and Joyful^ihe latest essay from 
his brush. A domestic interior, a soft light flowing 
into the little abode, a pale woman beside the 
crude cradle, comprised the minutiie of the settings ; 
but the "human touch" was so expressed that one 
turned from this subject with moistened eyes. The 
work, however, for which Mr. Israels was presented 
the Grand Prize, was entitled The Skipper. This 
production was a masterly example of the manner in 
which accessories may be made powerful and yet 
subordinated to the central idea. All the mystery 
and the eloquence of the sea were told in the frothy 
surf that contributed so marvellously to the 
grandeur of this painting. The three simple 
masses were rather arbitrary as to placement, 
although they were connected in thought, if not in 
position. Mounted on his faithful old horse, the 
























Dutch Art at St. Louis 



principal figure was majestic and almost phantom- 
like in its grim discharge of duty. The loyal dog 



to the left, turning to look up at his master, and 
the portion of a vessel in the upper right hand 
corner, were effective notes in harmony with the 
general theme. The Old Scribe, another of Israels' 
best works in this collection, was a large canvas, 
expressing an equal richness of sentiment, but 
without quite ' the same fortunate arrangement. 
One felt that it was overdrawn — that it was 
theatrical, rather than dramatic. Blommers, in 
The Shell Fisherman, struck a cheerful vein. 
The warm light of a summer sun pervades this 
picture and envelops the interesting group, the 
chief personage of which is the fisher- lad bending 
over the well-filled net that is to be emptied into 
the rustic cart. The other actors in this scene are 
the two inquisitive mites of humanity directing 
attention toward the older boy, a patient, sturdy- 
looking horse, and a pitiful-looking dog. The 
conception is bright, sincere, and very real. Willy 
Martens, the delegated commissioner, in his work 
called Harvesting Rye, showed another delightful 
genre, rather too refined, but still exceedingly true 
and dignified. This was one of four pleasing sub- 
jects, all of about equal force and directness, from 
the brush of Mr. Martens. It solved an agreeable 
colour problem in the golden browns of autumn, 
juxtaposed against the grey green masses of foliage 
and the tones of blue in the sky and in the gar- 
ments of the women. The composition was well 
knitted and poetic in treatment. We observed 
serious, mature interpretation in the Winter 
at Katwijk, by Willy Sluiter, who is scarcely more 
than a youth. Possibly the strong contrasts mrght 
be criticised, but such a solidity and power of action 

Dutch ^rt at St. Louis 

as were expressed easily 
compensate for this. The 
material of the work was 
composed in two horizontal 
divisions, the upper portion 
being dark in interesting 
line against a foreground 
of snow. A glimpse of sea 
and a leaden sky afforded 
a substantial background 
for the horses and men at 
work with their boats. A 
still younger man, Hendrik 
F. de Court Onderwater, 
sent the result of an intelli- 
gent and very conscientious 
study of values in Laren 
Interior. Rich, harmonious 
colour, well placed, threw 
its accent into a polished 
jug by the side of a thrifty 
housewife, the deep orange 
wall, and the sunlit beams 
of the outer room. Pro- 
cession at Laren, by Frans Deutmann, showed a 
decorative tendency. A high horizon and a knot 
of happy little girls were utilised in a fortunate 
arrangement. George Hendrik Breitner sent two 



exceedinglyclever oils, the Street Scene i}i Amsterdam 
being rather the stronger work. In it the hurrying, 
metropolitan spirit was manifest, a lively note being 
struck in the figure of the woman in a brown cape 



Dutch Art ai St. Louis 


coming out of the picture. The colours in this 
work were neutral but quite definite. A particularly 
forceful portrait was presented by Miss Therese 
Schwartze. The salt brine of the sea was characteris- 
tically expressed in some oils and a water colour 


by Hendrik Willem Mesdag. On the Dutch Coast 

was full of fresh, breezy movement. A Stormy Day 

was also a notable production. 

Among the works of deceased masters, James 

Maris's remarkable Viiw of Amsterdam was shown. 
In this painting such a 
collection of sails, hulls, 
piers, and distant architec- 
ture are brought together, 
that, if the values were 
not so perfect, the result 
would be bewilderment, 
instead of simplicity. 

Upon the occasion of 
the opening of the Dutch 
section, Francis Wilson, 
the actor, who was one of 
the guests of honour, 
purchased some choice 
works, among them being 
the water-colour by Johan 
Hendrik Mastenbroek, 
called Unloading. This is 
a subject which is ap>- 
proached in a large way, 
both in respect to colour 
and to form, and still it is 
not at variance with the 
medium. But the real gem 
ot the water-colour collec- 
tion was The Violin Player, 
by Albert Roelofs, one of 
the very youngest men ex- 
hibiting — a significant fact, 
since Israels, the oldest of 
the group, leads in the oils. 
One cannot but reflect 
BY THERESE scHWARTZK 33 to what such virile 


D}ttch Art at St. Louis 

4w ^^^^l^H^H^Hl^a^B^HK. 

1^'; -"^ 

-■1^ v" -. » — r^ 



E ^ -^ ^ - ^t.l ^ ^ 


"the shell fisherman' 



Dutch Art at St. Louis 


work will bring the artist in later years. The 
subject in question is almost a monochrome, and 
yet it is handled with a deftness and ease that 
render the result even brilliant. The picture is so 
well filled, too, by the figure seated in profile, that 
there is no sense of emptiness, neither is there a 
feeling or overcrowding. 

A very noticeable feature 
of all the paintings in this 
section, was the impres- 
sion given by their frames 
that nothing better could 
be obtained for the price, 
and that no money had been 
spared in their purchase. 

An attractive etching 
was exhibited by Charles 
Storm van's Gravesande 
under the title of Drifting 
Ice on the Rhine. In it, 
the loose flowing lines 
were ably manipulated to 
conform with the skilful 

Of the contributions in 
sculpture, Mr. Charles van 
Wijk's series of six bronzes 
were particularly note- 
worthy. Abraham Hesse- 
link showed a refined, 
sympathetic plaster, which 
he called Arabian Woman. 
One of the leading tenets for which the manage- 
ment worked in organising the Exposition was that 
the Art Palace should devote equal prominence to 
every class of art, removing all distinctions between 
"fine" and "applied art." And Holland was one 
of the few countries which have responded in all 
departments. Her artcraft exhibit was unusually 

'viking" chair 



Ancient Chairs 


praiseworthy. A set of mahogany chairs uphol- 
stered in dark tapestry and a stained-glass fire- 
screen by Nieuwenhuis, a screen decorated with 
pearl fowls by Disselhof, a cushion in a neutral rose 
tint of leather with pink and sage silk inlay, by 
Mrs. Hingst de Clercq, and examples of the 
" Rozenburg," "Thistle" and "Delft" pottery, 
were among the most charming exhibits in this 



It will be seen from the photograph reproduced 
here of one of Dr. Figdor's rooms that he has not 
confined himself to collecting works oi art of any 
particular period or of any particular branch, though 
we must confine ourselves in this article to chairs 
alone. Of these Dr. Figdor has been successful in 
collecting nearly a hundred and fifty different speci- 
mens dating from the twelfth to the seventeenth 
century. They help to furnish his rooms, with the 
other treasures he has gathered together, for he 

lives among them, and the warmth oi the home 
atmosphere is of inestimable value as compared with 
the inevitable coldness in museums, where one is 
warned every moment " not to touch." Besides 
these he has a number of old pictures, miniatures, 
illuminations, and other helps to the study of 
how our progenitors in the days of old passed their 
days within doors. In the study of benches and 
chairs such records are of great assistance, for 
articles that could be easily moved about from 
place to place soon suffered destruction, while 
heavy furniture, wardrobes, and suchlike have come 
down to us in fair numbers. Damaged chairs were 
as much in the way with our ancestors as with 
ourselves, and so passed from lord to peasant, 
as did also other movables, such, for instance, as 
wedding-coffers, many beautiful specimens of which 
have been found in Continental stables, where 
they were used for storing hay or corn for horses, 
in the same way as they are often used in England. 
The chair, though not frequent in olden times, 
always possessed a peculiar dignity as the place of 
honour ; it had its prerogatives, and demanded 
respect. Mary Queen of Scots prepared herself tc 


Ancient Chairs 



receive sentence of death " seated on an armchair." 
Unless the Speaker be seated on his chair, or the 
Lord Chancellor on the woolsack, no business can 
be transacted in the House of Lords or Commons ; 
and the cries of " Chair, chair ! " at meetings 
show that honour and respect are due to the 
•person occupying it. In the homes of our an- 
cestors the men sometimes stretched themselves 
on canopies, while the ladies sat on chairs or 
stools. From old pictures we gather that the 
master of the house and his male guests in very 






Ancient Chairs 



olden times reclined at table as do the Orientals 
to this day, the women occupying chairs or 
benches. The modest folding stool, the bench 
and the chair each had its use in the homes 
of our forefathers. The primitive stool, or 
escabeau, was like our three-legged one, and is 
described by M. Viollet-le-Duc as "a seat much 
lower than the bench or chair." It was practical 
and easily moved from place to place, and was 
useful as a weapon when no other means of 
defence was at hand — a use not unknown to 
us in our present stage of civilisation. The 
escabeau had its place in courts of justice, for 
prisoners had to sit on it while the cause of 
arrest was made known to them, the sellette, or 
stool of repentance, being reserved for those forced 
to submit to interrogation. We learn also that 
those lowest in rank always occupied stools at 
meal-times, while the master of the house sat on 
the throne, or chair of honour, for in olden days 
the two words were practically synonymous terms, 
the honoured guests taking their places on high 
backed immovable benches on either side of the 
host, a disposition still to be seen in parts of the 

Tyrol. The guests lowest in rank were the first to 
leave the table, which was then cleared, the host 
and guests of distinction remaining sitting during 
the operation, after which cerde was held. 

At first stools were only made of simple wood ; 
later the fashion of adorning them with velvet and 
rich stuffs, or painting them, came into vogue, 
the final development being carving. As they 
increased in beauty so did they in honour, for in 
the course of centuries the humble three-legged 
stool developed several variations in form, and 
gradually assumed a more dignified character, for 
we hear that Catherine de Medicis possessed as 
many as twenty-two of them, and that they were in 
high favour at Court. 

Next in order came the bench, which, in its 
primitive form, was like those in the kitchens of 
the present day. In its final stage of development 




A ncient Chairs 

it was richly carved, and had a place of honour in 
the homes of the upper classes. Such stools and 
benches as those reproduced on page 332 are very 
rarely to be met with. Both are from the North 
of France, and date from the end of the fourteenth 
century. They are very fine in form and con- 
struction. The man under whose intellect and 





hand they grew was filled with the dignity of his 
labour ; the grip of the tools was sure. Centuries 
have rounded and smoothed the edges, but, in 
spite of this, we can be certain that the work was 
severe and e.xact. 

The chair had its own particular place in the 
homes of our ancestors. It was sacred to its par- 
ticular owner, an honoured custom still kept up in 
many houses. In the North of Germany it was 

child's high chair 

sixtee.nth century 



A)icient Chairs 

usual for the bride to bring two chairs to her 
husband as part of her dowry. Both were pro- 
vided with arms, but that for the man was higher 
than -that for the woman — a compUment to his 
superior standing. 

When king, archbishop, noble, or judge went on 
a journey, his chair went with him. These were 
invariably folding chairs, and none but the possessor 
dared occupy them. 

Such was the faldisterium, old French faudestuel, 
modern French fauieuil, which, in its primitive 
meaning, was equivalent to the English folding- 



child's chair 


carving. The bosses are formed of lions' heads, 
which are wonderfully expressive, the gilded claws 
being tightly closed over small animals. 

chair. There were two forms of this — one which 

has come down to us from the Romans and 

that of the Middle Ages reserved, as we have 

seen, for sovereigns and persons of authority 

in Church and State. The oldest metal one 

which has come down to us is the throne of 

Dagobert ; the oldest wooden one is at the 

Monastery of Nonnberg, near Sakburg. 

This was made about the year 1240, though 

the pictures on the ivory inlaid rungs and 

the gold ornamentation belong to a later 

date. The crossed legs are painted red 

and decorated with gold, for the fashion 

of painting furniture preceded that of chair from romacna 



Ancient Chairs 

The advance made in 
Gothic art can easily be 
traced in the illustrations ; 
the ancient faldisterium 
gradually assumed arms 
and a back, which in its 
turn took various shapes, 
but keeping its cross legs, 
so that it could be easily 
folded together, till the 
time when the crossed legs 
gave way to four uprights, 
and we get the stiff, hard- 
looking chairs with their 
baldachin-formed tops and 
footstools, these forming 
a great contrast to the 
light, graceful, and easily 
moved folding-chair. 





Dr. Figdor possesses many 
of these old faldisferia, or 
X chairs and stools, which 
formerly had honoured places 
in the monasteries of Padua, 
Florence, and other Italian 
cities, and which date from 
the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries. The one repro 
duced above came from a 
Carthusian cloister at Brunn, 
in Moravia. It is, as are 
most of these old seats, in a 
very good state of preserva- 
tion, even to the velvet 
cushion and tassels. Dr. 
Figdor never makes the 
mistake of having his 
treasures doctored. The 
carving is bold, and the 
design simple ; every stroke 
of the chisel has told well, 
the evident desire of the 
workman being to make his 
work worthy of the dignity 
it was to support. Backs 
and arms were added to the 
folding-stool soon after the 
Christian era, and by the 
fifteenth century their propor- 
tions had become symmetri- 
cal. On page 335 is illustrated 
one of these from Romagna 

Ancient Chairs 

which was evidently made for a wedding 
gift, the carving on the back representing La 
Fontaine d' Amour. This has the same form as 
the judge's chair, and of that known as the 
Abbot's Chair at Glastonbury, which dates 
from the time of Henry VIII. The specimen 
reproduced here, however, is less severe in 
outline and subject, as befitting the joyous 
occasion for which it was made. The lower 
one on page 336 is a very rare X stool, the 
bars being vertical, whereas the usual form was 
horizontal. It came from a miller's at Eppau, 
near Bozen, in South Tyrol, but originally 
belonged to the monastery of St. Michael. 
Except for the apes, which are of a later 
period, the stool dates from the fifteenth 
century. The ground-form is unusual in 




chairs, but as is to be seen in old missals, on 
miniatures, and also in stone-relief in the choirs of 
churches. In St. Stephan's Cathedral there is a 
fine example in stone, which represents Pilatus 
seated on such a faldisterium, Christ standing 
before him. The one of the fifteenth century 
was evidently made for a lady's use, it is so 
dainty and graceful. That of the seventeenth 
century on page 343 is much more severe, and may 
have served for general use, for by that time the X 
chairs had partly ceased to be destined for any par- 
ticular use. The modern armchair was not un- 
known to our forefathers in the early Middle Ages. 
On page 330 two views are given of a Norwegian 
chair from the church of Roe, in Tellemarken. 
The carving on the top bar represents six figures, 
hands joined, and of graduating heights, the two 


Ancient Chairs 

lateral being in the centre. Below to the left, on 
horseback, is the herald, blowing his horn, and 
facing him a warrior also on horseback. These two 
figures are separated by the grotesque head of a 
man bearing leaf-shaped horns surmounted by a 
cross. Below the balustrade which supports this 
bar is an X design with traceries between the 
cross-bars. According to the newest publica- 
tions of Northern scholars who have given 
much thought to this special chair, which is 
in an excellent state of preservation, it can- 
not be earlier than the fourteenth century, 
and may possibly be of the fifteenth. Du 


Chaillu, in his " Viking Age " where this par- 
ticular chair is reproduced, antedates it, being 
misled by the Roman-archaic character of the 
construction and the ornament. In any case, 
this is one of the rarest specimens in exist- 
ence. The footstool attached was added later. 
The chair on the left of page 334 may have been 
a Pope's stool, for Raphael has painted a portrait 
of Pope Julius VI. seated on such a throne. 
The stool reproduced has the original leather 
mountings, and dates from the early sixteenth 
century. The lower one on page 333 is from France. 



The carving is very rich and delicate, and repre- 
sents the grape and leaf of the vine. The motive 
is continued on the supports of the chair. The 
bossed rosettes above the back and the trellis work 
below are done by a sure hand. The chair tells its 
tale, health and goodwill, for it was destined for 
the use of honoured guests. 



Ancient Chairs 





dolls' CHAIRS 



Ancient Chairs 

The long-backed chair on page 332 (with detail 
shown on page 333) is late fifteenth century, 
and came from the Strozzi Palace, Florence. 
It has fine contours, and was probably designed 
by the then architect of the Strozzi family. The 
three legs have been retained, but they are 
stronger and more severe. The tall back is 
surmounted by the arms of the Strozzi family. 
Several Gothic and Renaissance backs, which, being 
less destructible than the 
other parts, have been 
preserved intact, are here 

The revolving chair, 
which dates from about 
1500, bears a remarkable 
affinity to the modern 
American office-chair. 
On pages 341 and 344 are 
shown two views of a re- 
volving chair of another 
period, the date, 1649, 
being carved conspicu- 
ously in front, while the 
back bears the coat-of- 
arms of its first possessor, 
"a nobleman of Lindau." 
Other illustrations include 
armchairs of the sixteenth 
century from various 
lands. There are Spanish, 
Italian (with fine leather 
mountings having a deli- 
cate scroll tracery), Salz- 
burg (the one arm showing 
that the left arm was left 
free for spinning), a Swiss 
"window" chair, and 
chairs of the Italian re- 
naissance, the last having 
very fine rounded contours 
and rich carving. The one 
on page 343 is a Scotch 
chair, which is dated 1690. 
It will be seen by these 
illustrations how various 
chairs were in form, and 
that though there is some- 
thing common to all, 
yet each country repre- 
sented has its individual- 
ities. The guilds each 
had their own particular 
form of chair, having chair backs 


their arms carved on the backs, and different 
districts had their own peculiar designs, generally 
representative of the trade to which the owner 
belonged. The style was patrician, and was only 
distinguished from such by bearing the badge 
of the workman. The miller, the shoemaker, the 
farrier, the carpenter, each had his own special 
chair. That of the Millers' Guild (page 344) is 
so white from the flour of past ages that it has 





Ancient Chairs 



(See illustration, page 344) 



Ancient Chairs 

grown to look like ivory. Merely to describe some 
of these in detail, and to mention some not illus- 
trated here, would go far beyond the length of such 
an article as this. But children, and what has 
belonged to them, always have a great interest. 
Notice how carefully the chairs have been built for 
them, and their fine architectural construction ; 
they are firm, like a house that is to resist all 
shocks, however violent they may be. The Gothic 
one of the fifteenth century is ornamented with a 
heart, symbolical of love; and the back of that 
of the seventeenth century is formed of hearts 
entwined, and was probably a birthday present to 
some child. The high chair is of the school of 
Lyons ; it is a very beautiful specimen of the 
French renaissance, and the colour of the wood is 
so toned with age that it has the appearance of 
Florentine bronze. The child was probably tied 



to the chair, or it was only designed to be 
placed at table, for it is so heavy that not even a 
very strong child could have succeeded in toppling 
it over. 

The dolls' chairs here illustrated are exquisitely 
made, with far more thought and attention to 
detail than those of the present age. These re- 
miniscences of bygone centuries must have been 
piously put away by the hands of careful mothers 
of those days — hence they have come down to us 
in a good state of preservation. These, too, come 
from various lands, for Dr. Figdor possesses true 
instincts, and in his desire to make his collection 
as full as possible he has travelled in distant 
countries and searched for himself — taking nothing 
on trust. A. S. Levetus. 







(From our Own Correspondents) 

LONDON.— The winter exhibition of the 
Royal Society of Painters of Water-colours 
provided a more than usually interest- 
ing mixture of works illustrating the 
most diverse applications of the medium. The 
society includes artists of so many schools of prac- 
tice and with methods so definitely individual, that 
it sums up with some approach to completeness 
all the more important phases of the art of water- 

(See illustration, page 341) 

colour painting, and gives a brief but effective asser- 
tion of the possibilities of this fascinating form of 
technical expression. In this exhibition there were 
many things of memorable quality. Perhaps the 
best were Sir E. A. Waterlow's vigorous landscape, 
Dorsetshire Downs, Corfe Castle, Mr. Robert 
Little's The Clyde from Glenan, Mr. James Pater- 
son's delicately atmospheric Barbuie, Moniave, and 
the splendidly dignified Autumn on the Tay, by Mr. 
D. Y. Cameron ; and, among the figure composi- 


millers' guild chair 

seventeenth century 






tions, Mr. J. R. Weguelin's The Garland, Mr. J. 
Walter West's The Quakeress and A Silver Cord, 
Mr. Anning Bell's The Sestina and The Magic 
Crystal, and the exquisite fantasies of Mr. Arthur 
Rackham. Mr. J. M. Swan's Jaguars, Mr. 
Reginald Barratt's Summer Evening, Venice, and 
Mr. Napier Hemy's sea piece, The Reef, have also 
a particular claim to be remembered. 

Edge of the Wood: Mr. 
Francis Bate a very sound 
and sincere portrait study, 
The Fan ; and Mr. J. S. 
Sargent a couple of bril- 
liant and expressive 
sketches astoundingly 
direct in handling and 
sensitive in their manage- 
ment of tone relations. A 
note must also be made 
of Mr. L. A. Harrison's 
Hydrangeas, Mr. James 
Henry's Yorkshire Moor- 
land Village, Mr. Mark 
Fisher's A Garden JValk, 
Mr. Bernhard Sickert's The 
Butts, Brentford, Mr. A. S. 
Hartrick's Playmates and 
A. M. tuULKAKKK Crmvning the May Queen, 

Mr. W. Rothenstein's De- 
serted Quarry, Mr. W. 

Orpen's Improvisation on the Organ, and the portrait 

oi Mrs. Jervis White Jervis by the late C. W. Furse ; 

and of the drawings by Mr. Tonks, Mr. F. E. 

James, Mr. George Thomson, Mr. Brabazon, Mr. 

A. W. Rich, and Mr. Muirhead Bone. 

Some really remarkable achievements gave 
importance to the exhibition of the Royal Society 

Although the recent 
show of the New English 
Art Club was a little un- 
equal and to some extent 
spoiled by the admission 
of a certain number of 
obviously misdirected 
efforts, there was in it a 
quite reasonable proportion 
of pictures and drawings 
which were quite in accord- 
ance with the best tradi- 
tions of this association of 
young artists. Mr. P. W. 
Steer contributed two ad- 
mirable landscapes, Twi- 
light and The Storm, and 
a cleverly handled Portrait 
in Black; Mr. W. W. 
Russell an excellent study 
of low life. In the Queen's 
Arms, Chelsea, and a 
graceful landscape, The 







of British Artists. Mr. F. F. Foottet's large 
decorative composition of dancing figures in 
a landscape, The Hours, ranks indisputably 
" as one of the best illustrations that he has 
ever given us of his peculiarly personal 
artistic conviction. He has treated the 
picture with delightful sensitiveness and 
with a rare degree of poetic inspiration. 
Good things came also from Mr. Wynford 
Dewhurst, whose Nature's Mirror— Sunrise 
and Au Cafe deserve to be remembered as 
subtle impressions set down with scholarly 
completeness ; from Mr. R. Vicat Cole, 
whose Spring is come gives a very attractive 
view of nature ; and from Mr. Tom Robert- 
son, who can be specially commended for 
the delicacy with which he has managed his 
large picture, Venice. Of much value to 
the exhibition were also Mr. W. A\'estley 
Manning's The Return from the Chase, 
Mr. Walter Fowler's Norfolk Marshes, Mr. 
A. E. Proctor's Spring Morning, and the 
contributions of Mr. A. Carruthers Gould, 
Mr. Alexander Maclean, Mr. John Muir- 
head, Mr. W. Wells, and Mrs. Jopling. The 
most distinguished of the water-colours 
were Mr. Ayerst Ingram's Running before 

an Easterly Gale, Mr. G. C. Haite's Bellagio, 
Mr. G. H. Lenfestey's Evening Grey, Mr. Talbot 
Kelly's On the Irraivady, Mr. Frank Southgate's 
A Find, and Mr. F. Cayley Robinson's To Faslures 

We give a reproduction in photogravure of a 
mezzotint by Mr. John Finnie, which contains 
many of those admirable qualities which have 
placed this clever artist in the high position he 
so deservedly occupies. 

There was recently held at Messrs. Dowdes- 
well's Galleries in Bond Street an exhibition of 
very dainty miniature paintings on silk, embel- 
lished with embroidery, by Miss Dora Holme, 
whose work will be familiar to readers of The 
Studio through the portrait of Lady Stone, done 

"on the sands" from the MINIA- by DORA HOLME 





- o 


studio- Talk 




in the same manner, which was illus- 
trated in colours in the issue for April, 

We give a reproduction in colours 
of a drawing by Mr. Walter West, 
representinga private view in the early 
days of the old Water-colour Society, 
which celebrated the one hundredth 
anniversary of its foundation last 
November. This important centen- 
ary will be celebrated shortly by the 
issue from the office of The Studio 
of by far the most ambitious Special 
Number ever yet attempted, which 
will contain no fewer than forty fac- 
simile reproductions in colours of 
characteristic drawings by past and 
present members of the Society. 

The Society of Portrait Painters 
succeeded in bringing together a 
decidedly interesting collection of 
works for their annual show at the 
New Gallery. The special feature 
was a group of Lenbach's paintings, 
among them portraits of T/ie Emperor 
Williatn /, Prince Bismarck, and 
Countvon Moltke; and therewerealso, 
to commemorate painters recently de- 
ceased, The Marchioness of Granhy 
and The Late Sir Leslie Stephen, by 
G. F. Watts ; Philip Comyns Carr, by 
Sir E. Burne-Jones ; and a fairly good 
study by Whistler, Rose et Or, La 
Napolitaine. Chief among the con- 
tributions of living men were Mr. 
Robert Brough's The Rev. Alexander 
Ogilvie, M.A., LL.D., Mr. H. de T. 




"you can never enter It without find- 
ing four or five pretty women, that's 
a fact; pretty women with pretty pInK 
bonnets peeping at pretty picturea." 

studio- Talk 



Glazebrook's Anthony Hope Hawkins^ Esq. and 
Elsie, Daughter of R. A. Eairclough, Esq., Mr. 
George Henry's The Late J. Staals Forbes, Mr. W. 
Strang's Portrait Study of Mr. Chamberlain, Mr. 
J. J. Shannon's Daughter of A. Bailey, Esq., and a 
charming portrait of a child byMr.'S. Melton Fisher. 
Of excellent quality were also Mr. W. Llewellyn's 
portrait of himself, the Hon. John Collier's Lady 
Buckley, and the works of Mr. Harold Speed, Mr. 
Richard Jack, and Mr. Neven du 
Mont. A series of remarkable drawings 
by Frederick Sandys was included, and 
there was some notable sculpture by 
Mr. John Tweed, Mr. Basil Gotto, 
Mr. A. G. Walker, and Mr. F. Derwent 

Messrs. Agnew's annual exhibition 
for the benefit of the Artists' General 
Benevolent Institution consisted of 
about a score of masterpieces by the 
greatest painters of the British school. 
Among them were two very fine Rae- 
burns, Grace Lockhart Ross of Balg07vn 
and Sir Ale.xander Muir Mackenzie, 
Gainsborough's Duchess of Gloucester, 
Romney's Lady Milnes and Lady 
Hamilton as Mirth, a superb full- 
length of Lady Elizabeth Compton by 
Reynolds, and an unusually grace- 
ful portrait by Hoppner of Lady 
Caroline Wrottesley. A dignified mural decoration 

Mountainous Landscape by 
Gainsborough, and some 
good canvases by Lawrence 
and Morland were also given 
places in the collection. 

Mr. Clausen's pictures 
and sketches, shown at 
the Goupil Gallery, gave a 
decidedly pleasant impres- 
sion of his capacities as a 
sympathetic and accom- 
plished painter. A few 
pictures on a fairly import- 
ant scale were included, and 
of these the most deserving 
of attention were the land- 
scapes, Mo'ii'ing the Orchard 
and Willow Trees at Sunset, 
and the cottage interior. 
The Sleepy Child. But 
the bulk of the collection 
and studies in oil, water- 
with charming technical 
qualities and definite distinction of manner. 
Among these smaller examples were several 
flower studies of more than ordinary beauty, and 
sketches like The Barn Door, TIw Village 
Street, and the pastel Sunset, which, by their 
freshness and spontaneity, merit a place in the 
front rank of his achievement. 

consisted of sketches 
colour, and pastel, 










Mr. W. L. Wyllie's water-colour drawings of the 
Thames from Westminster to the sea, which have 
lately been on view at the Leicester Galleries, can, 
perhaps, be accused of presenting the river under 
an aspect which is too consistently gay ; but this 
one defect in them is of small account beside their 
other good qualities as well studied interpretations 
of extremely picturesque subjects. Mr. Wyllie 
knows intimately the characteristic scenery of the 
lower reaches of the river, and renders it with the 

fullest confidence in his knowledge. That his 
confidence is quite justifiable was plainly proved 
by this fascinating exhibition, 

We regret to learn of the death, on the 24th 
November hst, of Dr. Christopher Dresser, who, 
both as a zealous worker in and writer upon deco- 
rative design, has done more to further the good 
taste of his countrymen than many men whose 
names have been more prominently before the 

studio- Talk 

public. In wall papers, carpets, glass, pottery, and 
metal work, he was equally original and happy in 
his conceptions. His interesting and beautifully 
illustrated book on " Japan, its Architecture, Art, 
and Manufactures," more nearly touches and eluci- 
dates the artistic genius of the Japanese people 
than any other volume written upon the subject. 
His earlier works, " Unity in Variety," " Principles 
of Decorative Design," etc., have been studied 
with profit by thousands of students of art. He 
was a man of exceptional talent, a strenuous worker, 
and of a happy and genial temperament. 

We understand that his daughter. Miss Ada 
Nettleton Dresser, who inherits much of her father's 
talent, and was of great help to him in his later 
years, will continue, with a staff of competent 



assistants, the studio at Elm Bank, 
Barnes, London. 



Amongst our illustrations are 
included a portrait bust of Pro- 
fessor Flinders Petrie by the clever 
Australian sculptor, Miss T. Cowan ; 
a necklace and "Daisy Chain," by 
Miss Ethel Kirkpatrick; a couple of 
drawings by Miss Jessie M. King, 
somewhat different in character 
from the work by which she is best 
known : two landscapes by Mr. 
A. M. Foweraker ; and some ex- 
cellent mural decorations recently 
completed by Mr. W. J. Neatby. 

A tinted reproduction is here 
given of a drawing, entitled SiTi^''!>ig 
Sprite, by Mr. Herbert J. Draper. 
This drawing is included amongst 
the collection of clever studies by 
Mr. Draper now on view at the 
Leicester Galleries, Leicester Square. 

LEEDS.— By entrusting 
each of the departments 
to sub-committees, with 
some one well known to 
have technical knowledge of their 
subject at the head of each, the 
Leeds Corporation Gallery, in 
arranging their Arts and Crafts 
Exhibition, safeguarded themselves 

studio- Talk 

against the admission of 
inferior work. To the excel- 
lence of their arrangements 
a successful exhibition was 
due. Hardly any artist-crafts- 
man of importance was un- 
represented. In the West 
Room was a large display 
of original and interesting 
pottery, experiments from 
Messrs. Doulton's, the "Delia 
Robbia " Pottery, Messrs. 
C. W. Gibson & Co., and 
from the Lancasterian Pottery. 
Some bronzes were sent from 
LaMaison Moderne, designed 
by Charpentier, Hoetger, 
and by Meunier. Exhibits 
of Mr. Edward Spencer's 
ironwork, and some ware 
designed by Mr. M.J.Adams, 
noteworthy among the latter 
a sundial, were also included. 
In the same room were 
enamels by Mr. S. H. 
Meteyard, an electric light 
sconce by Mr. Alexander 
Fisher, and a well-executed 
silver medallion of St. Cecilia 
by Miss Jean Milne. Cases of 
jewellery included some ex- 
cellent designs by Mr. A. H. 
Jones, Mr. J. E. Willson, and 
the Bromsgrove Guild of 
Applied Arts. A silver cup 
by Mr. Edgar Simpson was 
noticeable by the restraint 



and elegance of its design. The jewellery ex- 
hibited by Miss F. Stern and Miss G. ConoUy, 
and by W. S. Hadaway, was of a high order. 
Some of the pieces by Mr. Joseph Hodel we're 
of particular beauty, and we reproduce two 
designs for buckles from among them. On one 
side of the room was exhibited a large design 
by Mr. Frank Brangwyn, A.R.A., full of his best 
characteristics. Much jewellery was exhibited, and 
the prevailing quality of it was high, though certain 
designers stood out whose names have become 
established by their output of beauty. 




In the South Room Messrs. Heal & Son ex- 
hibited some characteristic furniture designed by 
Mr. Ambrose Heal, jun. There was an interesting 
decorative panel, The Conquest of Fire, by Mr. E. 



ItKliliiltii al till UUtsltr tiattery.) 


Caldwell Spruce, some 
fireplaces of exceptional 
merit designed for and 
exhibited by the Teal 
Fireplace Co., Ltd., a 
design for a silver sport- 
ing cup by Miss Mary 
C. Buzzard, a walnut 
armchair designed by Miss 
M. MoUer, executed by 
Miss M. Hield, an oak 
inlaid settle by Mr. M. 
Baillie Scott, a sketch 
panel and some statuary 
by Mr. Henry C. Fehr, 



a degree of excellence that made them distinctive. 
In needlework the embroidered panel. The Meadmv, 
by Miss Lily Yeats, and the applique needlework 



a plaster design for panel, Love's Last Gift, by 
Miss Frances Darlington, a mahogany dining-room 
chair from the Guild of Handicraft — all of which 
designs in their separate branches were carried to 




studio- Talk 

good exhibit of bookbind- 
ings was in this room, and 
worthy of mention were 
designs by Mr. B. Riley, 
the Essex House, Messrs. 
Sangorski & SutcHffe, Mrs. 
Rae Macdonald, Miss Alice 
Pattinson, and Mr. George 
Fisher, and a folding screen 
in oak and embossed 
leather designed by D. 
Wordsworth and executed 
by Mrs. Simpson. 


pictures designed by Mrs. 
by Miss Sybil VVolton, 
bedspreads by Arthur H. 
Lee, were original and 
well executed ; there was 
a coverlet by the Hasle- 
mere Weaving Industry 
which had beauty of 
colour ; and we were 
struck with six doyleys by 
Miss A. M. Appleton, 
which were dainty and 
elegant, and a very clever 
decorative landscape 
tapestry designed by 
Luther Hooper and exe- 
cuted by C. Y. S. Brock. 

R. Reason and executed 
and embroidered linen 

In the Staircase Hall 
there were some good book- 
bindings by Walter Spink 
and Miss Ethel Slater. In 
one or two of the designs 
of the former, however, 
there was a tendency to 
cheapen the appearance of 
the work by over-embellish- 
ment. An embroidered 
panel of roses by Miss 
C. A. Walker was well 
done. On the Balcony the 
leaded glasses designed by 
Andrew Stoddart, and 
those designed by A. 
Gascoyne, were particularly 
interesting. There was an oak inlaid secretaire by 
Mr. M. Baillie Scott, executed by J. P. White, 


In the East Room the 
colour-print drawings for 
book illustrations by Miss 
F. H. Laverack were of 
exceptional merit. A very 






which was restrained in design and useful. There 
was a clever design for stained glass by Miss Emily 
Ford, and cartoons for windows by Mr. Silvester 
Sparrow of dignity and good design ; but the best 
of this kind of work was sent by Mr. Anning Bell, 
whose work, with the original designs exhibited by 
Mr. Walter Crane, and some of the books from 
the Essex House, set that high standard of decora- 
tion which is of such value to the less experienced 
decorative artists who exhibit in these exhibitions. 

E. S. 

DUBEIN. — When the Irish Arts and 
Crafts Society was founded, now some 
ten years ago, there was little evidence 
of an awakening of the artistic spirit 
amongst Irish designers and ciaftsmen. The 
movement had its rise not, as in England, amongst 
the craftsmen, but amongst a group of amateurs 

and connoisseurs weary of the time-worn conven- 
tions of the Irish designer. Their first exhibition 
was held in 1895. 

The work at that first Arts and Crafts Exhibition 
reflected very clearly the condition of Irish art 
industries at the close of the nineteenth century. 
Technical skill there was in plenty — the inherited 
traditions of a race once famous in Europe for its 
jewellery and metal-work, later for its plaster-work 
and cabinet making. 

Since that first exhibition the schools of art in 
Ireland have come under the control of an Irish 
IJepartment, whose headquarters are in Dublin ; 
and the last year or two has seen a revival of 
interest in the decorative arts and the starting 
of several new enterprises. The Arts and Crafts 
Exhibition held in Dublin last November illus- 
trates these developments very fairly, though in 
one important direction hardly so fully as one 
would have wished. Quite the most noteworthy 
event in the recent history of Irish arts and 






crafts has been the starting of a workshop in 
Dublin for the manufacture of stained glass by Miss 
Sarah Purser, H.R.H.A. For many years 
most of the orders for stained - glass 
windows for Irish churches have gone 
to Munich, and the glass thus imported 
into Ireland has been in nearly every case 
feeble in design and poor in quality. 
The windows now being made at "The 
Tower of Glass," under the direction of 
Mr. Child, Mr. Whall's talented pupil, 
for Emly and Loughrea Cathedrals, are 
in every respect worthy to rank with the 
best modern work, and Irish stained glass 
promises to become famous in the future. 
It is to be regretted that, owing to the 
difficulty of putting up a window in the 
hall in which the Arts and Crafts Exhibi- 
tion was held, only three small panels 
from Miss Purser's workshops were 
shown. These, however, were quite ad- 
mirable, both in colour and design ; the 
treatment of the two armorial panels for 
the base of a window at Emly being 
particularly good. 

for presentation to H.M. 
the King by the workers 
in the Killarney furniture 
industry. The cabinet, 
which stands about lo ft. 
high, shows great technical 
skill in the carving and the 
finish of the whole ; but 
as it is a replica, with 
modifications, of an old 
model, it fails to interest as 
much as a piece of ori- 
ginal work. Miss St. John 
Whitty's work is good in 
intention, if at times a little 
over-elaborate. Her most 
ambitious effort was a 
triptych with crucifix ; but 
she was more successful in a little cupboard with 
copper panel. Her fire-screen, in wood and leather, 

The work in the exhibition was 
divided into thirteen classes : Wood- 
work; leather- work; bookbinding; print- 
ing, etc. ; modelling ; stained glass ; 
marble inlaying and mosaic ; pottery ; 
metal-work ; carpets and tapestry ; em- 
broidery; lace and crochet ; and designs 
for lace, damask, etc. In the wood- 
work section the most imposing exhibit 
was the large carved oak cabinet made 











so short a time that it is hardly yet pos- 
sible to judge of its work ; but in other 
sections of the exhibition some admir- 
able work was shown from Dun Emer in 
tapestry and carpet weaving and em- 
broidery. It is only two years since 
Miss Gleeson, the Misses E. and L. 
Yeats, and some other artistic workers 
took a house at Dundrum, near Dublin, 
and started hand-printing, embroidery, 
and weaving, with village giris as workers. 
" A wish to find work for Irish hands in 
the making of beautiful things " was 
their object ; and the success which has 
attended their efforts was shown by the 
specimens of their work at this exhibi- 
tion. Miss Yeats's embroideries were 
admirable, especially a portiire worked 
on Galway flannel, with design of pea- 
cocks. The Royal Irish School of Art 
Needlework also sent some good em- 

In the" section devoted to modelling 
in plaster Mrs. Vanston's work showed 
refinement and skill. Some of Miss 






is a clever piece of work, but the design 
of the inlaid border does not harmonise 
well with the central portion. Three 
exhibits by the Irish Decorative Art 
Association, Belfast — a corner cupboard, 
a firewood box, and a bowl and stand 
— deserve special attention. Here there 
is obviously an attempt to be original, 
so far, at least, as the decoration is con- 
cerned ; but the result is not happy. 
Indeed, these exhibits must be con- 
demned as wrong both in design and 
treatment. They are all made of oak, 
stained green — a very doubtful improve- 
ment on the rich brown of Irish oak, 
which is capable of taking a high polish, 
as shown in the cabinet from Killarney. 

The sections devoted to leather-work 
and to bookbinding were not large. In 
the former the best examples came from 
the schools of art in Dublin and Belfast. 
The Dun Emer bindery has been started 

"OLD fisherman" ( Si'i Kiel Studio-Talk) by a. wilckens 

studio- Talk 

"a friesland interior" 


An advance has been made, 
and the Arts and Crafts 
Society of Ireland may be 
congratulated on having 
helped materially to bring 
about a renaissance of Irish 
art industries. E. D. 

KIEL.— There are, 
perhaps, few pro- 
vinces in North 
Germany so at- 
tractive for the purpose of 
artistic exploration in regard 
to their local character as 
the county of Schleswig- 
Holstein " Meerumschlun- 
gen." Ocean-embraced by 
the rolling breakers of the 
North Sea and the soft 
ripples of the Baltic, the 
landscape presents nearly 

Beatrice Elvery's small 
statuettes and a panel in 
relief were charming in 
their naivete and grace. 
In marble inlaying there 
were two important ex- 
hibits — marble mantel- 
pieces — shown by Messrs. 
Sharp and Emery, who 
claim to have discovered 
the lost method of Bossi, 
the great Italian who de- 
signed and carried out so 
many of the beautiful 
mantelpieces one finds 
scattered throughout Ire- 
land. Some mosaic work 
by students of the Dublin 
School of Art, where this 
craft is now being taught, 
was also worthy of praise. 
Enamelling is another art 
that has been recently 
revived in Ireland, and 
quite a number of enamels 
were shown. 

On the whole, the ex- 
hibition was a'most interest- 
ing and suggestive one. 

' SUNDAY morning" 



every variety of picturesqueness, from the dense, 
low, misty tones of our rough and flat western 
sea-board, with its somewhat dry poorness of 
heather, potato, and cornfields on the more 
elevated, undulating ground of the middle hill- 
range, to the rich and pure splendour of light 
and colour in the summer and autumn months on 
the Baltic coast. 

Since first mentioned in The Studio four 
years ago, provincial art feeling of a good tra- 
ditional and, at the same time, modern character 
has slowly but surely been gaining ground 
among artists as well as the general public here ; 
this movement was initiated and well kept up by 
dint of frequent exhibitions, such as those held by 
the Art Society {Schkswig-Hohteinischer Kunst- 
verein), the Kunstgenossenschaft, and the Thaulow- 
Museum in Kiel, as well as in the annual Wander- 
aussellungen (travelling exhibitions) at Altona, 
Neumiinster, Itzehoe, Husum (the native town of 
the poet Theodor Storm), and other provincial 

scape and interior views in the neighbourhood of 
Hadersleben her speciality. 

Among the native artists 
of reputation contributing 
to these exhibitions we 
have already pointed out 
Professor Hans Olde 
(Director of the Modern 
Art School of Weimar). 
We may also mention 
Professor Adolf Briitt 
(Berlin), the sculptor, speci- 
mens of whose first-class 
work are at present on view 
in the entrance-hall of the 
Thaulow-Museum. A sur- 
vey of this artist's life and 
work will be presented 
shortly to the readers of 
this magazine. 

The views of old-fashioned peasant and fisher- 
men's dwellings, containing their traditional fur- 
niture, stores, and utensils, with the characteristic 
types of the people living, like their forefathers 
did, in this same " milieu " since childhood, are 
most attractive. 

The illustration on page 365 — Sunday Morning 
(an old peasant woman reading Scriptures) and the 
portrait on this page — are the clever work of 
H. P. Feddersen. 

W. S. 

PARIS. — The exhibitions one by one are 
opening their doors, as is the case every 
year about this period, and while we are 
awaiting the International Exhibition at 
the Petit Gallery mention may be made of the 
success won by the first display of the etchers in 
colours — the Aquafortistes en Couleurs — a new 
society over which that excellent artist, Rafifaelli, 

Two other interesting 
workers are August 
Wilckens and Char- 
lotte von Krogh, both 
from Hadersleben, in 
North Schleswig. Mr. 
Wilckens is at present 
studying features and folks 
on the islands of our west 
coast, while Miss von 
Krogh has made the land- 



presides. So interesting is this collection that 1 pro- 
pose to refer to it at greater length in the near future. 

At the Drouet Gallery M. Maurice Denis is 
displaying a collection of pictures he has brought 
back from Italy. In these one discovers again his 
delicate feeling and his gifts as a colourist — at 
times a rather frigid colourist, to my thinking. At 
a time when there is so much talk of suppressing 
the teaching that the artist may obtain from Italy 
and the Italian masters, it is somewhat amusing 
to find one of the most modern and most inde- 
pendent of our artists deriving several of his finest 
inspirations from classic soil. H. F. 

Memeriah of the Martyr King. By Allan 
Fea. (London : John Lane.) jQ$ ^s. net. — Mr. 
Fea's strong sympathy with Charles I. has long 
been known, and has been eloquently expressed in 
previous publications ; but in the " Diar)'," with 
which he prefaces his new volume, of the two last 
melancholy years of a life marked from first to last 
by a strong element of tragedy, he has gathered up 
all his knowledge into an enthralling narrative, that 
must fully satisfy the admirers, and command the 
respect of the most hostile critics of the sufferer, 
as they watch the gradual tightening of the coils of 
his enemies about him. From day to day the 
fluctuations of hope and fear, with the futile efforts 
at escape, are traced with an unerring hand — the 
character of the king emerging from each fresh 
trial, not strengthened to avoid the mistakes of the 
past, but chastened to meet the fresh trials of the 
future. Indeed, as Charles recognised the hope- 
lessness of his position more fully his attitude in- 
creased in dignity, till it culminated in the majestic 
bearing of the death scene ; so that, in spite of the 
foregone conclusion, the heart of the reader of 
Mr. Fea's finely-written story cannot fail to throb, 
and his pulse to quicken, in response to feelings 
akin to those of the faithful remnant of the friends 
of the doomed monarch. The Diary is enriched 
with representations of the various castles and houses, 
etc., in which the king was imprisoned, or where he 
took refuge from lime to time ; amongst the latter 
of which might well have been included the still 
standing cottage on Cheriton Down, near Aires- 
ford, with a large oven behind the chimney, in 
which he lay concealed for some time after his 
escape from Hampton Court. A very great num- 
ber of priceless heirlooms are reproduced in 
photogravure, and include facsimiles of the certifi- 
cate given by the king to Sir Thomas Herbert — 

who attended him to the very last — and bearing 
date January 28th, 1648 (that would, of course, be 
1649 in modern reckoning); the title-page of the 
prayer-book used on the scaffold, and of the 
binding of the Bible given to Bishop Juxon, of 
which that of Mr. Fea's book is a slighdy modified 
copy ; with many of the actual garments worn at 
the execution, such as the blue silk vest and the 
extra shirt — apropos of which Herbert relates that 
on the morning of the fatal day his master said to 
him: "Let me have a shirt on more than ordinary, 
by reason the season is so sharp as probably may 
make me shake, which some observers will imagine 
proceeds from fear." The story of the relics com- 
pleted, the author proceeds to give verbatim the 
narratives of several gentlemen who were in close 
attendance upon the king during the latter part of 
his reign, including Dr. Hudson, the chaplain after 
the Battle of Edgehill, who was with Charles in 
his flight from Oxford in 1646 ; Sir Thomas Her- 
bert — a facsimile of a leaf of whose memoirs is 
given — who knew the King's heart and mind more 
intimately, perhaps, than any of his adherents ; 
Major Huntingdon, who wrote from memory 
thirty-two years after the martyrdom ; Sir John 
Berkeley, who was the agent employed in the 
most important negotiations with Cromwell ; and 
John Ashburnham, the close friend and confidant 
of Charles, who differs greatly from Berkeley in his 
opinion on many essential points; with the compara- 
tively fragmentary accounts of certain minor episodes 
by Colonel Edward Cooke and Sir Henry Firebrace 
— the former written in 1648, the latter in 1675 — 
supplemented in a useful appendix by copies of 
letters from certain officers in the Parliamentary 
service, so that the whole forms a perfect encyclo- 
paedia of information on the subject dealt with. 
The numerous portraits of the king — amongst 
which, however, many will miss with regret that in 
the memorial medal struck soon after his execution, 
that John Evelyn considered the best likeness of 
Charles in his latter years — have been reproduced 
with the utmost care. They include the group of 
three heads of Vandyck that led Bernini to pro- 
phesy a violent death for their subject and all the 
most celebrated presentments of the nnnarch, 
together with many comparatively little known, such 
as the gruesome likeness in his own hair stained 
with his blood, owned by the Shelley family ; but 
it seems a pity that a copy — though a fine one, 
that by Lely — of the picture destroyed by fire 
should have been chosen as the frontispiece. 

Altmoriah oj Ed'ioard Biime-Jones. By G. B.-J. 
(London: Macmillan.) Two vols. 30.?. net. — No 



more deeply interesting biography has appeared of 
late years than this tribute to the memory of Sir 
Edward Burne- Jones from the pen of his widow, 
whose life was bound up with his from her early 
girlhood to the end. Engaged to the penniless 
young artist at sixteen, she was drawn by him into 
the stress and strain of his probation years ; and 
her eloquently written story is an unconscious 
revelation of her own beautiful nature, of which 
receptivity was one of the most marked char- 
acteristics. Neither she nor her lover had any 
aesthetic associations to inspire them ; she was the 
daughter of a dissenting minister, he was intended 
for a clergyman, and his sympathies were with the 
High Church party. Yet at their very first meeting 
soul spoke to soul as well as heart to heart. Never 
was there any faltering on the part of the young 
girl, who found herself breathing an atmosphere 
quite unlike that of her home, brought into close 
touch with the remarkable group of men who were 
to bring about a revolution in the art of England. 
No truer picture has ever been given of Rossetti 
and Morris as young men, or of Ruskin in his 
prime and Madox Brown in his strenuous middle- 
age, as is here touched off with sympathetic hand, 
yet there is not one word that could have wounded 
the susceptibilities of any of them. I^ady Burne- 
Jones naively reveals the utter unpreparedness of 
the gifted artists, who worked together at Oxford, 
for the profession of their lives — the waste of time, 
of energy, and of material that might have been 
saved had they studied in the life schools of Paris 
for a few months, before they embarked on their 
mad enterprise to decorate the Union. With equal 
candour the writer makes no disguise of her own 
ignorance of domestic economy or of her husband's 
deficiencies as a man of business ; but through all 
their mistakes and misadventures runs the golden 
thread of unselfish devotion to each other and of 
united high endeavour, making their lives a true 
poem of human happiness and of their home an 
earthly Paradise, into which whosoever was privileged 
to enter went forth with fresh courage for the struggle 
without. The book will be full of inspiration not 
only to the as yet inarticulate artist who feels his 
power but cannot express it, but to every true 
worker in whatever field. Its one drawback is the fact 
that the illustrations are not in the least representa- 
tive of Sir Edward Burne- Jones. The portraits 
are, of course, interesting and the caricatures 
amusing ; but they might well have been supple- 
mented by at least a few of the pictures that most 
clearly reflect his unique genius. 

Sketches on the Old Road through France to 

Florence. By A. Hallam Murray, accompanied 
by Henrv VV. Nevinson and Montgomery Car- 
michael. (London: John Murray.) 2\s. net; 
Edition de Luxe, ^2 2s. net. — In his brief Introduc- 
tion to this most delightful volume Mr. Nevinson 
comments on the charming name of Traveller's Joy 
given to the wild clematis, and makes it the text 
of an interesting and amusing dissertation on the 
different kinds of joy distilled by travellers from 
their wanderings. He himself found his chief 
pleasure in recalling the noble associations of the 
past in the road through France, but he also touches 
off the salient characteristics of the present time, 
bringing the people he met vividly before his readers. 
On the threshold of Italy he had reluctantly to turn 
back, a task he says he found most difficult of 
all ; and the narrative is continued by Mr. Car- 
michael, whose long residence in Tuscany as 
British Vice-Consul, and constant journeys to and 
fro in the land of art and song have rendered 
him familiar with it and its inhabitants. He 
writes with the easy grace of one who has a 
deep reserve fund of knowledge to draw upon, and 
even manages to give freshness to such hackneyed 
themes as the cremation of Shelley's remains, and 
the origin of San Remo. He tells, for instance, 
an incident that shows Zibibbi, the finder of the 
poet's body, in quite a new light, and he really 
seems to have solved the mystery of the name of 
San Remo. Both of Mr. Murray's collaborateurs 
indeed supplement well the charming series of 
admirably reproduced water-colour drawings that 
are the most distinctive feature of the book. 
The artist has the rare gift of knowing what to 
select, and has shown considerable tact in the 
grouping of his figures, that never fail to har- 
monise well with their surroundings. Perhaps the 
one weakness of a very accomplished painter is his 
somewhat matter-of-fact treatment of water, as 
instanced in the ignoring of surface and literal 
rendering of reflections in the Castle of Chenonceau 
and Castle of Amboise, that would have gained 
greatly by more freedom of execution. 

French Songs of Old Canada. Pictured by W. 
Grah.'VM Robertson. (London : \V. Heinemann.) 
31.5. 6d. net. — As full of poetic feeling and as 
thoroughly in touch with their subjects as are the 
charming drawings of " Old English Songs and 
Dances " and of " A Masque of May Morning," 
these beautiful interpretations of " French Songs 
of Old Canada " will be welcomed with enthusiasm 
by all who are able to appreciate their delicate 
beauty of form, harmonious colouring, and original 
composition. Mr. Robertson displays a truly 


remarkable intuition into the spirit of his themes, 
that so vividly reflect the light-hearted yet deeply 
sensitive temperament of the old French Canadians, 
whose hereditary characteristics were tempered and 
chastened by the sterner conditions of life in the 
land of their adoption. Pathos and humour, joy 
and sorrow, are inextricably woven together in the 
quaint old words of many of the songs, even the 
gayest of them recalling the touching words of the 
German writer, Hermann Neumann : 

" Hush, joy ! Ah, have a care, 
Speak softly, Sorrow lies sleeping there." 

How wonderfully, for instance, is the whole story 
of Cecilia told in the two first drawings. No need 
for her sailor to look so forlorn as her father 
leads her off, for it is very evident that she is 
leaving her heart behind her. Who can help 
feeling a serrement de ca-ur at the sight of the 
handsome young gallant about to lay down his life 
for the careless Isabella, fully repaid by the slight 
touch from her hand as he goes to his fate ? What 
a perfect poem in colour are the drawings for 
Zfou viens fu, Bergire, with their suggestions of the 
chill breaking of the dawn and of the awe the 
shepherds seem to have communicated even to 
their sheep, over the miracle of the birth in the 
lowly manger. What character there is in each 
one of the group gathered about the murdered 
duck in En roulant ma boule, and how delightfuU}- 
natural is the forgiving glance bestowed by one of 
the mourning maidens on the author of the tragedy. 
The greatest care and skill have been shown in the 
translations of the drawings, the colouring having 
been added by hand. The reproductions are 
indeed worthy interpretations of the originals, and 
form, with the finely printed text and the music to 
which the lays are set, a perfect treasure-house 
of delight. Full completeness is given to what will 
certainly be one of the most popular gift-books of 
the year by the addition in a separate pamphlet 
of good translations into English of all the songs 

Sandro Botticelli. By Julia C.\rt\vrii;ht. 
(London: Duckworth & Co.) 21^. net. — 
AUessandro Filipepi, generally called Sandro 
Botticelli, is one of the many Italian masters of the 
Renaissance to whom full justice was not done until 
the dawn of scientific criticism was broadening into 
day. Yet now, as is well pointed out by Mrs. Ady, 
in her delightful monograph on his life and work 
both schools of modern aesthetic thought are agreed 
in their admiration of the versatile Florentine, his 
" poetic charm, his profound religious feeling, and 
his strong human sympathy" appealing to those 

who think more of matter than of manner, "his 
mastery of design, his grace of line, and charm of 
colour," satisfying the most rigid dissector of 
technique. No more delightful guide could be 
imagined in the study of the personality of Fili- 
pepi, the environment in which he lived, and the 
work which was the outcome of them, than Mrs. 
Ady, who in many charming works has shown 
herself in accord with the spirit of the Renaissance. 
Her work forms, as did the life of the painter, a 
homogeneous whole, that is, however, somewhat 
marred here and there by certain strange manner- 
isms, such as the use of the word shop as a 
translation of the Italian bottega, which comes as 
a shock to the reader. 

Imperial Vienna. By A. S. Levetus. (London : 
John Lane.) i8j. net. — Although Vienna is 
thoroughly in touch with modern scientific progress, 
boasting well-organised systems of electric tramways 
and metropolitan railways, the author of this 
exhaustive account of her past history and graphic 
description of her present appearance claims that 
" much of the old mediaeval charm still hovers over 
her, giving to her a certain air of sanctity." Even 
before she set foot on her threshold, she adds, she 
had peculiar attractions for her, and it is this 
instinctive affection that has enabled her, whilst 
keeping strictly to the truth, to give to her narrative 
something of the same fascination. Without 
sympathy there can be no true appreciation, but 
with it comes the insight that can invest the driest 
details with interest. Beginning with the arrival, in 
1 142, at the little Roman settlement of Vindobona, 
of Duke Heinrich Jasomirgott of Brandenburg, 
Miss Levetus traces the chequered life story of 
Vienna from the foundation of the great Cathedral, 
dedicated to the first Christian martyr, down to the 
actual present, winding up with a most vivid series 
of pictures of the people of to-day, their religious 
ceremonies, their work, and their play. Unfortu- 
natelythe numerous illustrations byErwin Puchinger 
ate scarcely equal to the text they supplement; 
they lack character and atmosphere, and are devoid 
of the feeling for their subject which is so distinc- 
tive a charm of the work of Miss Levetus. 

City Development. By Patrick Geddes. 
(London and Edinburgh : Geddes & Co. Bir- 
mingham : St. George Press.) — As explained by 
the author, who has a very thorough grip of his 
subject, this volume is issued in response to an 
invitation received by him from the Carnegie Dun- 
fermline Trust to report as to the laying out of 
the Park, and the buildings in or around it 
needed or desirable for carrying out the work of 


Awards in "The Studio" Prize Competitions 

the Trust. It is supplemented by many useful 
plans and drawings, and should be studied by all 
members of County Councils who have at heart the 
turning to account of the possibilities offered in 
provincial cities for the providing of recreation 
grounds, etc., for the use of the people. Mr. 
Geddes advocates many useful reforms, and dwells 
especially on the desirability of the employment 
of women for the care of aviaries, poultry farms, 
zoological gardens, etc., dwelling eloquently on their 
qualifications for such posts, and quoting the excel- 
lent work done by Lady Warwick in that direction. 

Sir Anthony Van Dyck. By Hugh Stokes. 
(London : Newnes.) y. 6d. net. — In his brief 
but fluently written Preface to the new volume of 
Newnes' useful and beautiful Art Library, Mr. 
Stokes tells once more the well-known story of the 
life of Van Dyck, but he wisely refrains from any 
attempt to add fresh criticism to the vast amount 
of literature on the subject already in circulation. 
The selection made from the numerous master- 
pieces of the great portrait painter is, on the 
whole, a good and representative one, and the 
reproductions are admirable. 

-Five Etc/lings. By John Shirlow. (Melbourne: 
Ambrose.) — It is always a pleasure to us to see 
work from the Colonies, and particularly so when 
that work is of more than average artistic excellence, 
as is the case with these etchings. In an intro- 
ductory note Mr. Shirlow tells us that they have 
hitherto been seen only at the various art exhibitions 
at Melbourne, and that their publication in a port- 
folio is, he believes, the first attempt of the kind in 
Australia. Considerable technical ability is shown in 
these five etchings, which depict scenes in Melbourne 
or its vicinity. We look forward with interest to 
seeing further work by this promising young artist. 

The Calendarium Londinense, published by Mr. 
Elkin Mathews of Vigo Street, is embellished 
with a charming etching of " Old Westminster," by 
Mr. William Monk, R.E., whose work is familiar 
to most of our readers. At the price of two 
shillings and sixpence many will be glad to pos- 
sess the almanac, if only for the sake of the etching. 

The utility of Who's Who as a year book is so 
well recognised that it is unnecessary to say any- 
thing in praise of the issue for 1905, except that it 
shows signs of considerable expansion. To pre- 
vent the book from becoming unwieldy, the 
preliminary tables are now published separately 
under the title Whds Who Year Book. Another 
useful annual is The Englishwoman's Year Book 
and Directory, containing a veritable mine of 
information of interest to women in all walks 

of life. These three books are published by 
Messrs. A. & C. Black, at the prices 7^. dd., is., 
and 2s. 6d. net respectively. 


We regret that, owing to an error arising from 
the close resemblance in the titles of two different 
pictures, a few of the first copies of The Studio 
" Whistler " Portfolio were issued containing, 
amongst the ten plates, a reproduction of a water- 
colour belonging to Messrs. William Marchant & 
Co., of the Goupil Gallery, Regent Street, London, 
instead of the sea piece advertised in the pro- 
spectus, which was included by kind permission of 
Mrs. Knowles. 


A IV. 


Class A. Decorative Art. 

Design for a Carriage Gate in Wood. 

The designs sent in for this competition will 
form the subject of an article in our next issue, and 
the awards will then be announced. 

Class B. 
B III. Sketch from Nature. 

A large number of drawings have been sent in 
for this competition, but the great majority of them 
are not of sufficient merit to call for notice. 

First Prize {Two Guineas): Furple Monkey 
(Henry T. Wyse, 5 Craighouse Terrace, Morning- 
side, Edinburgh). 

Second Prize {One Guinea) : A Freak (Miss 
Constance M. Fawsett, Salmonby, Northdown 
Avenue, Margate). 

Hon. Mention: Anakreon (Julius Singer); 
Grandmatnma (Miss M. C. Rotherum) ; Peppercorn 
(Miss R. H. Baker). 

Class C. Photographs from Nature. 
C III. A Portrait. 

First Prize {One Guinea) : Bruzz (Gilbert N. 
Futcher, 12 Sycamore Road, Bournville, Birming- 

Second Prize {Haifa-Guinea) : Bruges (Arthur 
Marshall, King Street, Nottingham). 

Hon. Mention : Omar Khayyam (J. P. Steele) ; 
Plaiina (Anna Kiihn) ; Thistle (D. Dunlop) ; Ariel 
(Edith L. Willis) ; Castitian (J. E. B. Greene) ; 
Friedcl {\i&x\% Iten); The Gum-Splodger (Miss A. B. 
Warburg) ; Lilac (J. R. Capey) ; Marian (Marian 
Silveiston); JZ/^j (Helena Padgett) ; Pickle {^\i% 
I. Biles) ; Thyme (Mrs. P. Cholmeley). 




















The Lay Figure 



' Has it ever occurred to you to notice," 
began the Art Critic, " what a curious love of ugli- 
ness has grown up of late years among artists of a 
certain class ? Wherever I go now I am confronted 
with things, professing to be pictures, which seem 
to me to lack some of the most essential qualities 
of true works of art. What does it mean ? Are 
we losing our perception of beauty, or is this cult 
of the repulsive merely a passing craze which will 
die out as soon as some new fad or fashion is 
invented ? " 

"What does it mean?" said the Decadent. 
" It means, if you could only understand it, that 
our artists are at last learning that the foolish ideals 
on which they have harped so tediously are useless 
to stir the pulse of our modern civilisation ; they 
have begun to realise that the classic formula is as 
dead as the classic languages, and that the pretti- 
ness which pleased the simple minds of primitive 
people will not satisfy the complex and cultured 
intelligence of the men of today. We live in the 
twentieth century now, and it is with its problems 
that our art has to concern itself" 

" I presume you wish to suggest," replied the 
Critic, "that a squalid civilisation ought to produce 
a squalid art. But I object to such an argument. 
It is not the mission of art to grope in the gutter 
in search of the nasty things which have been 
swept there out of the way of cleanly people. And 
I deny that beauty does not appeal to modern 
men. I believe there is just as much love of 
beautiful things as there ever was, and artists have 
no right to offend this legitimate taste by glorifying 
offensive ugliness, in what seems to me to be a 
spirit of perverse sensationalism." 

"Surely, though, the artist has a right to paint 
what he likes," interposed the Man with the Red 
Tie. " You are going too far when you dictate to 
him how he should, use his capacities. If he is 
attracted by what you think is ugUness, why should 
he not paint it? I believe in every man doing 
what he thinks to be best." 

" Not when his belief is an unwholesome one, 
and compounded partly of affectation and partly of 
mental depravity," said the Critic. " There are 
some savages who will not eat meat until it has 
been buried in damp ground for a month. They 
say it brings out the flavour ! But I think you 
would object if they put some of their food on 
your table. The twentieth century problems which 
our friend considers so suitable for artistic treat- 

ment are almost as unsavoury, so why should they 
be waved about under our nostrils ? " 

" What a coarse mind you have ! " sighed the 
Decadent. "I despair of ever convincing you. You 
cannot see how subtle are the thoughts of these 
students of our times, and how significant are their 
suggestions. We who sympathise with their efforts 
think that the artists you malign are most satisfying. 
They are searchers after what is more important 
than mere beauty, for they seek to find the key to 
the mysteries of the wonderful life which it is our 
privilege to live : they touch us, and we love 

" Do you like meat that has been buried for a 
month ? " laughed the Man with the Red Tie. 
'' I must admit that some of your friends do paint 
beastly pictures ; but then I never look at them, so 
they do not worry me." 

" But I have to look at them," replied the Critic, 
"and they both worry and offend me. Your 
argument that every artist should be allowed to do 
what he thinks best is, I feel, not admissible in 
this instance. If a man put a noxious pig-sty 
under the windows of your house you would 
prosecute him as a nuisance ; and when an artist 
paints, not the pig-sty — that might be picturesque 
— but people and things only fit to be housed in it, 
I contend he is tainting the whole atmosphere of 
art, and ought to be suppressed. I might possibly 
have some glimmering of sympathy for his mis- 
directed efforts if he were only sincere. But 
what I complain of is that this advocacy of 
everything that is hideous is nothing but a conven- 
tion affected by the very young and the very 
foolish, who delude themselves with the idea that 
there is a sort of manly independence in going 
wilfully outside the bounds of what is generally 
held to be good taste. Besides, they have dis- 
covered that some labour is involved in the attain- 
ment of beautiful results, and that some education 
is needed before they can hope to be successful in 
the legitimate walks of art. They shirk the labour 
and they will not give the time for education ; and 
as their chief desire is to get talked about they 
choose the easiest way, and devote what energies 
they possess to the representation of the offensive 
objects which older and wiser men carefully avoid. 
They are clever, some of them, I admit ; but their 
cleverness only makes them more objectionable, 
because it makes them more likely to impose their 
convention upon other young artists who are 
capable of better things. Evil communications, 
you know, corrupt good manners." 

The Lav Figure. 


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