Skip to main content

Full text of "Studio international"

See other formats



!'■' ;'.';!'i'i;Ph 





Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



An Illu/tr^ted A^g^^pe 
of Roe ^Applied Art 

5, 1909 






VOL. 47 
No. 195 


J. M. W. TURNER." 



Contents y June 15, 1909. 

SUPPLEMENTS:— A Colovrbd Reproduction or a Pastel dv LEON 
LHERMITTE entitled " Les DpNTBLLiinEs '' ; A Coloured Rbproooc- 
TioN OP AN Oil-painting by l£on LHERMITTE entitled "Les 
PlCHEURS A LA LiCNS"; A Rkproduction in Colours of a Coloured 
Pen Drawing ev ANNIE URQUHART entitled "Gossips" ; a Rbproduc- 
TIOH in Colours of a Coiolked Lithogr<ph ev VICTOR OLQYAI 
entitled "Winter on the Banks or the Garam." 

\AoH LHERMITTE, Painter of French Peasant Life. By FRiDftRlc 

Hknriet. Ten Illustrations 3 


Twenty-three Illuilrations '4 


Dr. Hans W. Si.nckr. Six Illujtrations " 

THE ROYAL ACADEMY EXHIBITION, 1900. Fifteen Illustrations 29 


PARIS. By Henri Frantz- Nine Illustrations 44 

STUDIO-TALK (Frc,H oyrctvn CfmifoiuienU):— 

London, Three Illus., 54; Manchrstbr, Four Illus., 59; Glasgow, 
Four Illns.,60; Paris, One Illus., «]; Vienna, Six Illiu., 64; Beoapbst, 
Seven Illus., 70;, Three Illus. 74 


THE LAY FIQURE: On the Love of Alt k 



:, , thml may 6* lui' 

- -- , vtry effort -wiU be made fo r. 

rtft^tA MSS., ami all Jr-awinet, tfc., rtJteUd < 

hfld hifttttlf rtt^anttbU /Of tht t.%fr CM//tf.Yy ^r refitm thereof. Statnfis /9r retitm tkoutd 
aH-iaddrutit/^tk* tender «UariywiiMn9n€P«tyMS.,drawtHg, ttt. 


The Stodio is registered for transmission to Canada by Canadian Ma^a 








And are to be obUined of all Decorators and Wall Paper Mer(„ 

' Telephof 


DRAWINGS s£rfT on approval POST FREE 



■■'LES DENTELLIERES.'' from the 




Thk painter Leon Lhermittc holds high rank 
among contemporary artists, and is oni- of whom 
we can say without exaggeration that he enjoys, 
at the present time, a world-wide reputation. This 
he owes to the e.vceptional gifts w^ith which Nature 
has endowed him, but — and this is the more rare — 
he has known how himself to foster those talents 
hy stubborn and unflagging labour, by a steadfast 
effort which has never wavered, and by an ardent 
and unceasing striving to attain his ideal, which 
has carried him to the radiant summits of his art. 

It is now forty-five years since Lhermitte first 
attracted attention by his earliest contributions to 
the Paris Salons. At one bound he leapt over all 
those successive phases of convention which are to 
every artist almost a law of nature : his talent took 

at once its definite character, and .so, althougli he 
still continues to wield the brush with an ever- 
young and virile hand, the moment seems to us to 
have arrived in which to take a general survey of 
his work, in order to draw therefrom a synthetic 
ajjpreciation of its aims and significance. 

Lhermitte's biography will not detain us long. 
Like all fortunate people, those artists have no 
history who combine with a pa.ssionate and single- 
minded devotion to their art, the levelheadedness, 
the good sense, which preserves them from adven- 
tures. We will therefore merely occupy ourselves 
with the circum.stances of his childhood, the con- 
dition of his environment, and the hereditary 
influences which may explain the native savour, 
that touch of the soil, the charming rustic fragrance 
which is inherent in all the productions of his 
brush. At the same time we must not fail to try 
and discover the part that his earliest aesthetic 
sensations, experienced on his arrival in Paris, and 

' LA FAMII.l.E ' 

XL\"II. No. 195.— June, 1909. 

( IVashingloii Gallery) 


L^oii Lhctniiitte 

the influence of the students with whom he mixed 
may have had in forming his artistic perception. 

Leon Augustin Lhermitte was born on 31st July, 
1844, ^t Mont-Saint-Pere, a picturesque village in 
the vicinity of Chateau Thierry, situated on a steep 
hill wl'.ich commands a view of the valley of the 
Marne. His father, a native of the district, passed 
here a long and honoured existence as school- 
master. Hillsides planted with \ineyards and 
wooded at their summits enclose the richly-culti- 
vated plains. The countrj' bears a joyous aspect, 
clear and varied : the undulating sylvan landscape 
is alluring rather than severe. Such is the setting 
wherein unfold themselves the countless episodes 
of rural life, the joy and ruggedness of which the 
painter so ably depicts. Leon Lhermitte was sickly 
as a child, and in consequence became solitary and 
meditative. During those long days which he was 
compelled to spend on his back, he copied for his 
own amusement and distraction with pen or pencil 
the drawings in the illustrated papers lent him by 
kindly neighbours. These drawings he executed 
with deceptive fidelity : but far from contracting 

his vision, this often somewhat melancholy occu- 
pation did not prevent him, when at last returning 
health allowed of his essaying to draw from Nature 
— how fair must she not have appeared to him 
after his long seclusion ! — from interpreting her at 
the first attempt with great breadth. His e.xcep- 
tional gifts attracted attention in high quarters and 
gained for the young man a grant from the Govern- 
ment, and also a small pension from the Conseil 
General of the Department of Aisne, which allowed 
of his going to study in Paris. 

In 1863 Lhermitte entered the Ecole Lnperiale 
de Dessin, of which Belloc was the director. This 
constitutes, as it were, a kind of preparatory course 
through which one passes before entering the Ecole 
des Beaux-Arts. Besides the obligatory training 
under the regular masters of the school, Lhermitte 
also took the course of instruction in drawing from 
memory, then recently instituted by Lecoq de Bois- 
baudran. His interest was keenly aroused by the 
novelty of this master's outlook : he appreciated to 
the full his unfettered spirit, liberated from all the 
trammels of conventional methods, and recognising 




■ 7- -. 

Ldoii Llicriiiittc 

in him a true man, a force which had risen superior 
to the ordinary routine of art, became, like his 
friend Cazin, one of Lecoq's most fervent disciples. 
The youth of the day, and notably Lhermitte's 
comrades at Lecoq's studio, had developed a pre- 
judice against the teaching at the Ecole des Beaux- 
Arts, believing it to be opposed to the free develop- 
ment of originality, and Lhermitte left the school 
deliberately, thus renouncing all those advantages 
which it offers to its laureates. This was to take 
the longest road ; but he thereby gained, in that he 
became the product of his own unaided effort ; 
alone he evolved his methods of work and his 
technique, and in consequence has become the 
most individualistic of our painters. 

Lhermitte had then no other teacher than 
Lecoq. This excellent master taught him to see, 
to feel, and to think. He raised before the eyes 
of the young artist the veil of the inner mysteries 
and, as it were, led him to the very threshold of 

the holy of holies. And above all he inculcated 
in his pupil all the es.sentials of drawing — the ulti- 
mate foundation of all works of art, and at the 
same time the practical means of assuring one's 
daily bread ; for he would often repeat, " II faut 
vivre, et qui sait bien dessiner se tirera toujours 

Thus occupied solely with drawing, under a 
master who carried almost to extremes his conten- 
tion that students are always pressed to start 
painting before they ought, Lhermitte, already 
bearing some reputation for his charcoal studies, 
had so far never used a brush. He had been 
anxious to do so certainly, but had rather feared to 
embark upon this branch of art. Possessed of a 
medium over which he had complete control, of a 
means of expression which amply realised his 
imagination, he came to make veritable pictures 
of his charcoal drawings. It was, indeed, only 
natural that he should find pleasure in a style of 




Lcoii Llicniiiftc 


(Boston Museum o- Fine Ar/s) 


work which he had carried to the highest perfection, 
and which began to afford him very appreciable 
results. From England —it is only fair to remember 
it — came his first pecuniary encouragement. A 
former student of the Atelier Lecoq, Alphonse 
Legros, who for some considerable time had made 
London his abode, became a warm supporter ot 
the young artist, and when, afte;' the war in 1870, 
Lhermitte, fearful for the future, deemed it prudent 
to try his fortune in London, Legros made him 
acquainted with Edwards, Heseltine, Seymour- 
Haden, and introduced him to Ed. Si^vre, who 
was engaged at the moment on a publication of 
considerable magnitude on the works of art in the 
collections of England. Struck by the qualities 
of precision and delicacy in the work of the young 
draughtsman, Sievre did not hesitate to enrol him 
among his collaborators. Legros went further, and 
admitted some of his protege's charcoal drawings 
to the Black and White Exhibition, where they 
soon aroused interest. In 1873 Lhermitte again 
sent to the exhibition, again achieved the same 
success, and was unanimously elected a member 
of the hanging committee of the society for the 
ensuing year. 1S74 was a red-letter year for 
Lhermitte, for the Jury of Awards of the I'aris 

Salon granted him a third medal, expressly voted, 
for his large charcoal drawing Le Binidiciti and for 
his picture La Aloisson (purchased by the (iovern- 
ment and placed in the Musee de Carcassonne), thus 
showing that in the field of painting he had not 
been inactive, and henceforth he worked in both 
mediums equally. Lhermitte learnt to paint by 
plunging into the midst of difficulties, in the same 
way as some boys, knowing no fear, learn to swim 
by throwing themselves into the water. 

I^hermitte has scattered through the world 
countless charcoal drawings, themselves amply 
sufficient to make an artist's reputation. What a 
precious document wc should have if their author 
were able to-day to give a list, as certain arti.sts 
have done, a kind of Liber veriiatis of all the 
studies he has made and disseminated I But he 
has flung them far and wide, like the rose tree its 

A draughtsman so sure of himself, so adroit at 
realising by simple contrasts of black and white 
all the effects of which that austere monochromatic 
medium is capable, would, one supposes, find him- 
self not unprepared to use the needle, and, indeed, 
at the first attempt Lhermitte proved him.self a 
successful etcher. It was in London in 1871 that 


Ldoii Lherniitte 

he executed his first plate, etched under the eve 
of Legros, who helped him and superintended the 
biting. The subject was a Renaissance cuirasse 
damascened with foliage, destined for the work 
which Ed. Sievre was editing. The latter was so 
pleased with the result that he at once entrusted 
Lhermitte with the making of a series of plates, 
twelve in number. The " Etcher's Portfolio " 
appealed to his talent, and Arthur Tooth, who had 
been one of the first to presage the success of the 
young artist, commissioned from him two excellent 
landscapes, LEglise St. Madou and La Cathedra'e 
lie Rouen. The limited space at my disposal com- 
pels me to refer the reader to the work in which I 
have described and catalogued the forty-four plates 
which constitute the etched work of Lhermitte 
("Les eaux-fortes de Leon Lhermitte," published 
by Alphonse Lemerre, Paris, 1905). 

When in 1 886, a society of Pastellists was started, 
modelled on the Society of ^\'ater■colour Painters, 
Lhermitte became a 
member, and from its 
foundation took a promi- 
nent place. It hardly 
seemed as though he had 
changed his tnetUr, so 
much at home did he 
find himself at once in 
the new medium, which 
he now used in prefer- 
ence to charcoal, and 
which collectors, ever sus- 
ceptible to the charms of 
colour, seem to the more 

A\'e now hasten on to 
consider the work of the 
painter, following the 
different phases of his art 
from the struggles of his 
tii-biit to the apex of his 
career. The first period 
extends from i866, the 
year of his first appear- 
ance at the Salon, till 
1873, when a very charm- 
ing work, Le Luiriii, gave 
promise of most import- 
ant achievements. The 
second j>eriod starts in 
1874 with La Alois son, 
already named, which 
indicates already the road 
which the artist now has- •• laifalf. 

tens to tread. This period is illustrative of what 
we shall call' the first manner. If it still betrays 
some hesitation in the choice of subjects it num- 
bers certain charming pieces, such as L'Aieiile 
(Musee de Gand) and Le Cahirel (1881), a 
powerful painting of a peasant theme with life- 
sized figures, and, like L'Aieule, containing the 
germ of those qualities which find their fruition 
later in La paye des Moissoneries (1882), a work 
of the transition period still, on account of the 
rather commonplace secondary characters, but in 
which the figure of the resting reaper gives to 
the work its moral significance. This figure is a 
discovery. It symbolises the rugged, yet noble, 
toil of the soil, and harks back to the mother idea 
which formerly inspired the painter. From this 
work — a favourite with the public at the Luxem- 
bourg Museum, and one which has been popularised 
by engraved and lithographic reproductions — Lher- 
mitte's style of painting continues to gain in breadth. 

(In I he G he III Museum) 


■r. -Sj 

Ldoii LIicr})iitte 

He deals more freel)- with his models : he creates 
types, such as, for instance, the old reaper of the 
Salon of 1883, who, under a blazing sky, wipes 
away with the back of his hand the sweat from his 
brow, a symbol of harsh, overpowering, inexorable 
toil. He strives to depict general ideas, as in La 
Veiidaiige, of 18S4 (New York Museum), which 
shows us a fair and buxom village girl with rounded 
arms and swelling bosom : and again in Le Vin 
(Salon 1885), which depicts a winepress, where the 
newly-pressed juice flows abundantly under the 
action of the wheel which two strong vintagers are 
laboriously turning. This picture, which now 
belongs to the Vasnier Clallery at Rheims, is a 
veritable epic of the vine, and who could have 
done it better? La Feuahon, of 1887, shows us 
an aged labourer hammering the blunted edge of 
his scythe with ringing blows that one can almost 
hear resounding through 

the silence of the field, 

and in Le Faucheur (Ex- 
position Universelle, 1900) 
the mower with the regu- 
lar sweep of his scythe 
lays the ripe swaths in 
parallel lines beneath the 

Meanwhile an official 
commission for two deco- 
rative panels, destined 
for the new Sorbonne, 
attracted Lhermitte to 
fresh fields. The first was 
a portrait of the celebrated 
physiologist Claude- 
Bernard, vivisecting before 
the eyes of his colleagues 
a poor unfortunate rabbit 
immolated upon the altar 
of Science. The second 
represented the Professor 
Sainte-Claire-Deville con- 
ducting some chemical 
experiments before an 
audience of savants and 
students, skilfully disposed 
upon the tiers of the lec- 
ture theatre. These two 
works, placed in the Salle 
des Commissions in the 
Faculte' des Sciences at 
the Sorbonne, form a most 
interesting document, con- 
taining as they do por- " le petit FRfeRE" 

traits of all the leading lights of the scientific world 
of that day. The Department of Fine Arts of the 
Prefecture de la -Seine, in their turn commissioned 
from Lhermitte a painting for the Hotel de Ville, 
the subject being one that accorded perfectly with 
the tastes and capabilities of the artist — L' Carreaii 
lies LLal/es, the market square early in the morning, 
where the food and provisions daily consumed in 
the great city were piled up and displayed, 
Lhermitte showed himself, as usual, quite equal 
to the new task, which he executed in a compara- 
tively short time, for he knew exactly what he 
wanted to paint and how to set about it. Li this 
huge composition (Societe Nationale, 1895) a 
great crowd of porters, market-gardeners and pur- 
chasers push and jostle one another, struggling 
around the piles of vegetables, of bright-hued 
fruits, hampers of eggs, crates of poultry, etc. 




Ldoii /Jic/'Jiiiffc 

The picture was first placed in one of the apart- 
ments of the Prefect of the Seine, but as the size 
of the room did not allow of its being seen to 
advantage, it was placed in the Petit Palais of the 
Champs Elysees. 

Lhermitte has not been content merely to de|)ict 
the outward appearance of his models, their 
gestures and their picturesque charms, but has 
aimed, in certain works of a higher order, at 
expressing something of their inner beauty of 
character. Such is L'Ami des Humbles (1894 ; 
Boston Museum), a modern paraphrase of the storv 
of the Journey to Emmaus (p. 7). Jesus appears 
suddenly to a family of peasants who are about to 
partake of their humble meal of soup and remain 
spellbound with devout emotion before the un- 
expected guest who honours their table. We will 
not discuss the intentional anachronisms of the 
picture. Even had he merely intended to insist 
upon the necessity for each and all of us, rich or 
poor, in this lower world, of keeping ever before 
our eyes a sublime ideal, one must praise the artist 
for his noble thought. He returns to the same 
idea in a beautiful painting, shown in 1905 under 
a similar title, Chez ks Humbles (New York 
Museum). Jesus bears the glad tidings of hope 
and great joy to some peasants who are invoking 
for their little ones a divine blessing. Besides its 
excellent qualities of composition and execution, 
always a characteristic of the painter, he has 
imbued this work with an intensity of expression 
which renders it a picture of surpassing beauty. 
In his picture, La Mart et le Biicheron, the artist 
has shown his ability to portray the terror and 
anguish of a poor mortal in extremis. An un- 
fortunate woodcutter, crushed by the weight of the 
branches he bears, falls to the earth unable to 
stagger along any further. He calls for Death, 
and when that grim messenger appears, the poor 
toiler, ice-cold with fright, begs him to assist him 
again to bear his load of faggots. "Plou/ol soufrir 
que mourir" concludes the good La Fontaine ! 
This affecting interpretation of the old fable was 
acquired by the State at the .Salon of 1895. and is 
now in the Musee at .\miens. 

Concurrently with the elaboration of these works 
of highest significance, Lhermitte jiroduced many 
easel pictures, always impeccable in execution, and 
in which the landscape often ])layed the leading role, 
the figures being merely accessories, but neverthe- 
less alive and ever in harmony with the decorative 
scheme and the scenes in which they were placed. 

The pictures of 1908 seem to sum uj) and crown 
in a kind of apotheosis of rustic family life all the 

previous achievements of the artist. He has not 
deserted his Virgilian themes. At the close of a 
fair autumn day, their work done, a family of 
labourers gather beneath a rick preparatory to 
wending their way back to the farm. A young 
couple in the prime of life, the aged parents, the 
children, symbolise the three generations which 
constitute the normal household, not counting 
'"trois grands boeufs blancs taches de roux," which, 
if one may believe Pierre 1 )upont, also form part of 
the family. La Famille (p. 3) is a work of noble 
proportions and classic in the perfect equilibrium 
of the composition. 


(c. 1475-1510) 

(See next arlicle) 


Hispcnio-Morcsque Lustre I Tare 

^\ e had meant to conclude with this crowning 
work of great largeness of vision, but the indefatig- 
able artist carries us on to this year's Salon, where 
he has struck a new note in his Emigrants, a 
souvenir of Wissant, Pas-de-Calais. A family of 
poor folk has halted for a moment by the wayside, 
in a clear and limpid landscape with soft valleys, 
whose simple lines seem to add to the impressive- 
ness of the picture. To the present year belong 
also the works of which reproductions in colour 
accompany this article, a pastel and a painting, 
both bearing witness to Lhermitte's mastery in 
these mediums. 

\\ e have now made a survev, alas .' far too 

FIG. 3. — REVERst UK LLMKK lilbll iij. I475 — I5OO) 

short, of the triumphant career of Le'on Lhermitte. 
To him has been accorded the rare privilege of 
compelling the admiration of the elite who judge, 
and of the crowd that knows no criticism save the 
promptings of its heart. He is classic in the solid 
foundations of his talents, but also innovator in 
certain aspects of his work. He is allied with 
tradition through the clearness, the rhythm, the 
thoughtfulness which are the distinctive qualities 
of our race. He is modern in his love of sunlight, 
of movement, of life, and in the significance of his 
subjects. His work is sane and strong in its 
harmonious unity. It sings in praise of toil in the 
open air, labour in the fields, and of the love 
of God's earth. The genial artist preaches h\ 
example, himself carrying out the precepts of his 
work, for every year he returns to saturate his 
being with the old familiar scenes, and though 

risen to the receipt of many distinctions — he has 
been " Oflficier " of the Legion of;Honour since 
1894, and is a member of the Institut, etc. — 
Lhermitte remains still, as ever, the child of Mont- 
Saint-Pere. F. H. 



The origin of Hispano-Moresque lustre is 
obscure. Some writers have traced it back to 
Persia in remote times ; but, be that as it may, 
there can be no doubt that the secret of the me- 
tallic reflex was known, in the ninth century of the 
Christian era, to the potters of Bagdad, whence, 
through Northern Asia probably, it found its way 
with the Moors into the Spanish peninsula. There 
its manufacture was so far established among the 
invading population as to attract special comment 
and description in the first half of the twelfth cen- 
tury. Unfortunately, however, there is no authenti- 
cated specimen known of this early date ; nor does 
the ware become adequately represented before 
the fourteenth century. Indeed, examples belong- 
ing to this period are so rare that a man may easily 
reckon them upon his fingers. Of the following 
century, however, it is otherwise. Though almost 
always an object de luxe, in the fifteenth century, 
and thenceforward until the practical extinction of 
the craft in the first quarter of the seventeenth 
century, lustre ware became more and more known 
and esteemed. What opus Ang/icanum was among 


Hispano-Morcsqiic Lustre Ware 

FIC. 5. — l.rsTRE ni-II wnil HAKK KI.UE bird and letters (early XV. CENT.) 

works of the needle, that, in the later middle 
ages, was Hispano-Moresque lustre pottery among 
fictiles. It was sought after and treasured through- 
out the civilised world, more especially in Italy. 
Thus is accounted for the large proportion of 
specimens which not only bear Italian coats-of- 
arms, showing them to have been produced for con- 
temporary Italian families of wealth and position, 
but displav shields shaped in such peculiarly charac 
teristic fashions as imply no mere verbal blazoning, 
but that actual drawings by Italian hands must 
have been supplied to the Moorish executants. 
Lustre ware was imported into this country in the 
sixteenth century, if not earlier. King Ren^ of 
Anjou in his private chapel had lava/10 dishes of 
" terre de Valence" (as the Inventory describes this 
kind of pottery, because \'alencia became the most 
notable centre of its manufacture and export) ; and 
.seeing that Rene's daughter, Margaret, became, by 
her marriage with Henry VI., in 1445, queen-consort 
of England, it is probable enough that she may have 
brought over from her father's court, at some time 
or another during her thirty years' residence here, 

specimens of this very ware. 
Excavations at Bristol, not 
many years since, resulted 
in the discovery of a num- 
ber of fragments from an 
early fifteenth-century dish 
of Hispano-Moresque lustre 
and light blue. The design 
is that of a convention- 
alised tree of life between 
two deer, without antlers. 
Each of them stands on a 
ledge ornamented with a 
device similar to that which 
encircles the shoulders and 
base of the drug pot. Fig. 
22, and which is believed 
to l>e derived from Arabic 
lettering. The component 
pieces, thirty in number, 
were found in a rubbish- 
pit, which also contained 
fragments of English pot- 
tery ranging from the 
Norman period to the six- 
teenth century. The dish, 
then, may be assumed to 
have reached this country 
not later than the sixteenth 
century. It was exhibited 
before the Society of Anti- 
quaries at Burlington House, in April, 1901, and 
is illustrated in their published Proceedings. 



Hispaiio-Morcsqiie Lnstt'c II arc 

Of the various ancient writers who have given an 
account of the manufacture of this ware only one, 
in 1585, names the vehicle with which the pigment 
was laid on, to wit, not a brush but a feather; 
with the use of which the admirable vivacity and 
facileness of touch are entirely consistent. This is 
particularly noticeable in the large sweeping curves 
and flourishes with which the ornament of Hispano- 
Moresque ware abounds. Nevertheless, many of 
the broader surfaces must ha\'e been washed in 
with a brush. Acjain, certain minute features, such 

(XV. — XVI. CENT.) 

earlier work ; while the copper-red colour, increasing 
in depth and intensity with the advance of time, is 
the sure sign of a comparatively late date. The 
reason is that the earlier potters were more lavish 
of the precious silver metal, but that, as years went 
on, dictates of economy caused a more sparing use 
of silver. The combined efifect of blue and lustre 
together will also be found to become more rare 
in later work than in early specimens. The 
latest pieces are characterised, not only by less 
\igorous and more meticulous handling, but also 
bv a uniformlv heavy purplish-red tinge in the 

Again, in the earlier period, the reverse side of the 
lustred plate had almost as much decorative care 
bestowed upon it as the obverse. On the contrary, 
in late specimens the ornament of the reverse tends 
to degenerate into thin and meaningless strokes and 
curls. Two dishes in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum (Figs. 3 and 4), depicting respectively 
an eagle displayed and a griffin segreant (a griffin 
formed the badge of a medieval Spanish Order 
of ("hivalry), illustrate the above peculiarity. Had 
these two not been reverses, they might have been 
assigned to the very beginning of the fifteenth 
century. But that such a date is too early the 
character of the obverse abundantly proves. In 
either example the obverse, with its over-fine and 
laboured intricacy, is incomparably inferior from 
the artistic standpoint, though doubtless at the 
time of its production it must have been in accord 
with the taste of the age. Whereas the type of 
design on the reverse, with its old-fashioned flavour, 
was already so far out of vogue and of such small 

as the tendrils of plants or ceriphs of lettering, for 
which feather and brush alike would seem to be 
too pliant, suggest, from the calligraphic qualities 
they present, the use of some such ini[)lement 
as a calamus or reed-pen. 

The ground is usually a soft, cream-tinted glaze, 
or " varnish," as it is termed in the literature of the 
subject. The range of the palette is limited. For 
instance, black and green have been proved un 
suitable for the process. Practically, therefore, the 
only colour introduced beside the characteristic 
lustre is an intense azure blue, without the .slightest 
taint of yellow or green in its composition. As to 
the lustre itself, it admits of almost infinite grada- 
tions of tone from palest lemon-yellow to deep 
ruddy copper, according to the proportion in which 
silver or copper predominates. As a rule the 
faintest and most golden tinge distinguishes the 


HispiVio-Mo)'cs(]iie Lusfir J fa re 


bears in iIk- centre the arms 
of the Aragonese family of 
Puig or Despuig. But for 
this circumstance the occur- 
rence of the initial Y, ten 
times repeated, might be 
thought to denote Queen 
Isabella, King Ferdinand's 
wife, who died in 1504, a 
date which should fix the 
limit of the production of 
objects for her use and 
service. And yet, since the 
Y in the case in point 
cannot be ignored, it may 
either stand for one of the 
Puig family named Isabella, 
or it may mean that one 
of them was attached to 
the court of Queen Isabella 
of Castile. Whether or not 
any significance belongs to 
the thistle-like ornament 
between the Ys it is im- 
possible to say Nor has 
the flower or fruit forming 
the bearings of the shield 

account as to be relegated 
to the less honourable and 
less important position of 
the back of the dish. Both 
Nos. 3 and 4, therefore, 
l)elong to a transitional 
period, nearer to the end of 
the fifteenth century than 
to the beginning. Both are 
of considerable size. No. 4 
measures 17 inches, the 
other an inch or two more, 
in diameter. The latter dis- 
plays on the obverse a coat- 
of-arms believed to be that 
of the family of Cardona, 
of Catalonia. Nos. 6, 7, 
8, 9, 13 and 14 all bear 
armorial shields. Nos. 6 
and 7, charged with dol- 
phins, have on that account 
been supposed to be ob- 
jects supplied for the 
Dauphin of France. The 
conjecture is given for what 
it may be worth. No. 7 



Hispa)io-Morcsqne Lustre IVare 


on No. 13 yet been identified. No. 9 displays a 
wyvern ; while No. 14, a lion rampant holding in 
his dexter paw a fleur-de-hs, probably represents 
some Italian family, notwithstanding the shield 
itself is not of Italian shape. 

Among other examples not yet referred to, five 
comprise representations of various birds, which, 
not being charged upon shields, are to be regarded 
as decorative rather than heraldic. Nos. 2 and 5, 
the former adorned with a fine rendering of a raven, 
are both early examples, dating from the first 
quarter of the fifteenth century. Nos. 15 and 23 
depict birds more nearly like pigeons than any 

others. In the subject of No. i — a late fifteenth- 
century dish in the Victoria and Albert Museum — 
the student of mediaeval natural history lore current 
at the time when the work in question was pro- 
duced will have no difficulty in recognising the 
hoopoe. This bird, according to the passage trans- 
lated from the Latin text of the Bestiarj^, is one 
which "when it finds that its parents have waxen 
old and their eyes dimmed, gently extracts their 
worn-out feathers, salves their eyes, and warms 
their limbs, as who would say to them, 'As ye 



c. 1475—1500) 

have laboured to rear me, so do I in like manner 
for you.' Thus are the parent birds again renewed 
in youth and vigour." The moral — for every such 
fable, no matter how fantastic, always conveys 
some ethical or dogmatic application — is that " if 
brute creatures perform such filial ser\-ice for one 
another without understanding though they are, 
much more ought reasonable human beings to 
render support in their turn to father and mother." 
In the present representation the two young birds, 
depicted on a smaller scale to betoken that they 
are the offspring of the other, are in the act of re- 
juvenating the parent hoopoe. It may be remarked 
that, in the official label, the bird is identified as a 
pelican, to traditional representations of which it 
bears not the slightest resemblance. 

Among the fioral forms which are of most 
frequent occurrence in Hispano-Moresque lustre- 
ware the vine-leaf ornament of the early fifteenth- 
century drug-pot. No. 16 — the earliest of all the 
drug-pots illustrated — and also the bryony scrolls, 

Hispaiio-Morcsqnc Lustre Ware 

leaves and tendrils in No. lo, are two to which 
attention ought chiefly to be drawn. The minute 
net-pattern to be seen surrounding the central 
shield in No. 14, and occurring also in Nos. 8 
and 9, as well as the gadroon ornament in the 
border of the latter and of No. 15, alike betoken 
a somewhat late stage of the art. They will 
scarcely be found in any examples prior to the 
si.xteenth century. On the other hand, the bold 
spirals and dots of Nos. 2 and 5 are characteristic 
of the best period, the first half of the fifteenth 

The aesthetic value of lettering was fully realised 
by Moorish artists. Hence this factor is one 
which constitutes an important element in Hispano- 
Moresque lustre decoration. The lettering which 
forms a ring within the outer rim of plate No. 9, 
a late e.xample, has become a meaningless con- 
vention. Far superior is the sacred monogram, in 
a fanciful variety of black-letter, in the centre of 
the dish. Fig. 10. But the finest of all are the simple 
black-letter characters of the text of the Angelic 
Salutation on the rim of the dish. Fig. 5. One has 
only to picture what the dish would be like without 
them to appreciate how enormously the decorative 



effect of the whole composition is enhanced by the 
series of radiating lines which the principal down- 
strokes of the letters afford. A dish, almost an 
exact counterpart of this one, only with a grey- 
hound in the middle instead 
of the bird, is comprised in 
the famous Osma Collection. 
Other favourite motifs, be- 
sides heraldic lions in great 
variety, are bulls, castles, 
and sailing .ships. The device 
of the castle is commonly 
explained to represent the 
province of (Castile. How- 
ever, in connection with the 
above and with the fact that 
Manises was one of the chief 
seats of the manufacture of 
lustre ware, it is interesting 
to recall that the noble family 
of Boil, lords of Manises, 
bore, for coat armour, quar- 
terly argent three castles 
gules and vert a bull or. 
For instance, it is only neces- 
sary to name the tomb with 
effigy of Don Felipe Boil, 
who distinguished himself 
greatly under King Jaime U. 
and died in 1384. The 
monument was set up in the 
chapter-house of the Domin- 
ican convent at \'alencia. 

Hispaiio-Morcsquc Lustre 11 'are 

It is an infallible symptom of decadence and 
jaded resource when the craftsman, ill-content 
with the limitations proper to his craft, seeks to 
supplement them by adventitious de\ices borroweil 
from extraneous arts and processes. Thus, in the 
earlier and purer products of the Hispano-Moresque 
potters art no such extravagances are found as 
the lumps and ribs which encrust the surface 
of many examples of sixteenth-century work, 
features inspired by the craving to imitate in clay 




the rivets and joints of metal vessels. A slight 
amount of modelling, indeed, such as occurs in 
the embossed leafage of Fig. 23 is legitimate and 
effective ; but the pronounced ribs of Fig. 8 are 
objectionable for two reasons : firstly, because, as 
explained above, they suggest a constructive feature 
false and foreign to the material, and secondly, 
because by breaking up the surface of the plate into 
a series of limited compartments they lend them- 
selves only too readily to a cramped and ener\ated 
littleness which necessarily precludes the free and 
untrammelled exercise of the decorators art. And 
yet, since the applied painting to the last never 


degenerated into realism, lustre ware remains 
unrivalled for its aesthetic qualities among any 
other kinds of potterv in the world. 

AvMER \'allance. 

The writer desires to acknowledge his indebted- 
ness to the works of Senor Juan Riano, Mr. 
Leonard Williams, and Mr. A. van de Put. For 
perniLssion to reproduce Figs, i, 3, 4, 6, 12, 15, 
18 and 21, acknowledgment is due to the autho- 
rities of the Victoria and Albert Museum : and for 
all the other objects illustrated to the proprietors 
of the Spanish Art Gallery in Conduit Street. 


H Z 

I 5 


5 I 

American Etchings by Mr. Joseph Pennell 


(See freeediiig ail uU) 



Mr. Pennell has returned from America, 
bringing with him beautiful things. The country 
has been decried by one of its own citizens as 
antagonistic to art, super-practical. But it does 
not appear so to Mr. Pennell. Before now he has 
seized upon one of its most practical and at once 
characteristic features, the sky-scrapers, and drawn 
inspiration therefrom for superb works of art. 
This year he has chosen his subjects from among 
surroundings still more decidedly American, if 
possible, and such as sound at first hearing still 
more uncouth — Coal, Oil, Steel, the three great 
national passwords. 

To one well acquainted with the numberless 
ways in which Mr. Pennell has put his fascinating 
style of etching into practice, it seems almost 
impossible that there could be any chance for 
further novelty. Vet he will have to admit 
admiringly that there have been new departures. 
I, myself, do not over-rate novelty of treatment, 
and would have been well satisfied to see Mr. 
Pennell's same fine black-and-white convention 
applied to new subjects. An honestly good thing 
does not lose in value by repetition. However, as 
a matter of fact, Mr. Pennell has struck several 
new notes, and at least one of them would seem to 
have been altogether beyond the reach of his 
particular style, before he compassed it. Some 
of the new plates display a remarkable power of 
coloration. Take, for example, the one called 

Steel — Jh tfie . Works at Homestead. It conveys an 
overwhelming impression of thick atmosphere, 
saturated with smoke and grime, and strangely 
lurid with the sulphuric, foggy, yellow light of a 
setting sun. In it all contours are dissipated, and 
approaching objects change from hazy phantoms 
to real things with a startling rush, just before they 
reach you. I recall no instance of an artist's 
mastering colour with brush and oils more force- 
fully than Mr. Pennell has done here with his 
suggestions that depend solely upon the media of 

-^ Another fine new note is that of the hazy, 
grayish vista, splendidly represented by the plate 
called Iron and Steel — Pittsburg, No. 2. No attempt 
at colour-suggestion is in evidence. There is a 
heavy atmosphere of fog and steam settled upon 
the plate. Through it indistinct piles loom up, the 
landmarks of a town of turmoil and trouble. In 
the work itself line as such almost disappears, 
except in the near foreground, and the plate seems 
to have been painted, gray in gray, like a grisaille. 

Mr. Pennell even succeeds in touching new chords 
while working upon his old theme, upon archi- 
tecture. For even some of the new Skyscraper 
plates strike me as an altogether fresh handling of 
the well-tried subject. 

I cannot help myself, I must commit a sacrilege, 
if it is a sacrilege, — Mr. Pennell, I am afraid, will 
be the first to pronounce it one. I personally 
place Mr. Pennell's style of architectural etching 
even above Whistler's. ^Vhistler's undying glory 
was that .of the great innovator, of the developer 
of a true style, at once full of taste and logical. 
But his interest was centred, I should sayexclusively, 
in the beauty of his interpretation The subject 
as such had no real claim upon him. Thus it 
happens that his etchings are essentially the 
same, whether he works in Venice, or in Brussels, 
or in London, Mr. Pennell's convention of black- 
and-white for architecture is, to my taste, just as 
beautiful as that of \\'histler. But over and above 
that, he possesses an extraordinary power of 
grasping the possibilities of subject. How intensely 
Spanish are his Toledo plates, and how clearly do 
they bring to light the very essence of their 
character, — if we may speak of a building or of a 
view as possessing character I That he has the 
refined sense of the poet to see beauty, where 
ordinary mortals cannot penetrate beyond the 
commonplace, is a gift by itself. 

I feel as if we were wonderfully indebted to Mr. 
Pennell for our capabilities of seeing, of enjoying, 
with these new plates. Hans W. Singer. 

-"^ •-' r"';^i' .. -r-«Bfcfct**-ff'• 





C3 -I 
IT tU 
3 Z 

£0 Z 
(/) UJ 
I- Q. 

Q. I 

z S 
o . 

OC o 

< Z 

I- z 




< ul 

< H 


Z =. 

- Q 

I < 


lU CO 
LU Hi 



The Royal Academy Exhibition 

BITIOX, 1909. 


The exhibition which the Academy has provided 
this year is oddly lacking in either shocks or 
surprises : there are few things in it which surprise 
by their superlative merit, and there are also few 
which shock by their obvious incompetence. It 
is by no means badly hung, it is not overcrowded, 
and it gives quite a good idea of what is being 
done by the present-day artists who represent 
reasonably all the more rational schools of practice 
which happen to be in fashion. Indeed, there is 
even a touch of the modern extravagance which 
goes beyond what many people consider rational 
limits, for there is a portrait by Signer Mancini 
which has all his usual tricks and affectations, and 
perhaps rather less than his usual degree of clever- 
ness. But this is the only unexpected note in a 
show that is otherwise quite in accordance with 
precedent, and that will appeal as strongly as ever 
to that section of the public which looks upon an 
annual visit to Burlington House as a social duty 
which may not be neglected. The collection as a 
whole is encouraging in its maintenance of an 
appreciably high level of technical achievement, 
and to some extent disappointing, because it shows 
a diminution rather than an increase of imaginative 
invention among the artists of this country — they 
have learned their trade well, but they are dis- 
inclined to apply this knowledge to the working 
out of ideas which are interesting or important. 

It is this fact that makes particularly memorable 
such an example of riotous imagination as The 
Night Piece lo Julia by Mr. Charles Sims, an 
exquisite painting which combines to perfection 
extraordinary fertility of fancy and the rarest beauty 
of craftsmanship. There is imagination, too, 
simpler and more restrained but sufficiently real, in 
The Tivo Mothers by Mr. Edward Stott, who, 
both in this picture and in another of similar 
sentiment, The Flight, has turned from his 
realistic treatment of pastoral motives to a more 
abstract and in some respects less confident type of 
art. Mr. Hacker, again, has found in rustic life 
suggestions for imaginative painting, and his 
canvases, The Gloaming, The Han-est Moon, 
and The Cow Shed are marked by qualities of 
serious sentiment which deser\e much respect. 
Mr. Byam Shaw's allegory. The Niw Voice, is 
an instance of more didactic sentiment, of the 
presentation of a moral lesson through the medium 
of pictorial symbolism, and it is acceptable as a 

characteristic work by a painter who certainly is 
not lacking in original ideas. Another side of his 
art is shown equally well in his Rude Boreas, 
which is excellent as a statement of shrewdly 
observed facts. A more poetic adaptation of fact 
distinguishes Mr. Campbell Taylor's Bed-time, 
a picture of quiet sentiment painted with charm 
and restraint, and open to adverse criticism only on 
the ground that the size of the canvas is a little 
excessive for so dainty a subject. Mr. J. W. 
Waterhouse, an artist who aims consistently at a 
high order of poetic expression, is represented 
this year by two small pictures, Thisbe and 
Lamia, which are delightful in their delicate and 
yet vigorous individuality and entirely attractive 
in their beauty of colour : and Mr. E. A. Hornel, 
a decorator rather than a painter of sentiment, 
combines happily sensitiveness of design and 
subtlety of feeling in Jiis composition. The 
Chase. Even more sensitiveness — sensitiveness 
to varieties of colour and modulations of tone — is 
to be perceived in Mr. J. M. Swan's Endymion, 
a picture exquisitely conceived and carried out 
with masterly decision. 

Although it has no subject in the ordinary 
and no purpose either didactic or sentimental, Mr. 
Sargent's Cashmere is to be counted as in many 
ways the greatest achievement which has been 
included in the exhibition, so extraordinarily 
accomplished is it in execution and so exact is it in 
observation. Rarely has Mr. Sargent turned to 
such admirable account that intimacy of vision 
which is one of his strongest characteristics, and 
rarely has he displayed such perfect understanding 
of graces of line and delicacies of modelling — this 
picture, indeed, will add appreciably to his already 
commanding reputation as a painter of amazing 
powers. His two portraits of Mrs. Astor, and 
The Earl of VVemyss, and his large decorative 
painting, Israel and the Law, have also very 
definite distinction and help greatly to make the 
exhibition memorable. Mr. J. J. Shannon's most 
ambitious picture is a large group, Frances, Dinah, 
and Kathleen, Daughters of Francis Tennant, Es<].; 
but the one in which he attains the highest success 
is his wholly charming portrait of Chlor, Daughter 
of H. E. Preston, Esq. Mr. Melton Fisher shows 
a very successful group of Bettie, Thea, and Winnie 
Lysler, which has given him an opportunity of 
painting an effect of open-air lighting which he has 
managed with exceptional sensitiveness and with 
delightful spontaneity. Sir Hubert von Herkomer's 
masterly full-length of The Right Hon. Sir John T. 
Brunner, Bart, M.P., Mr. George Henry's clever 


TJic Roval Acadcjiiv Exhibition 

character study of W. Hardy Wilson, Esq., Mr. 
Waterhouse's dainty little picture of Mrs. A. P. 
Henderson., and Mr. G. Hall Neale's splendidly 
robust portrait of Sir Edward Russell are all special 
features of the show ; and Sir William Orchardson's 
supreme technical skill and unrivalled understanding 
of the subtlest refinements of his craft are dis- 
played to perfection in his portraits of Mrs. Moss- 
Cockle and Sir Lawrence Jenkins, Chief Justice of 
the High Court of Calattta. There are other 
notable portraits by Mr. H. S. Tuke, Mr. \\'. 
Llewellyn, Mr. Harold Speed, Mr. Glazebrook, Mr. 
Stanhope Forbes, and Mr. Charles Sims; and there 
is a group, The Golden Age, by Mr. Tom Mostyn, 
which can be highly praised for its originality and 

The landscapes which rise conspicuously above 
the general level are Sir E. A. ^Vaterlow's Arundel 

Park, Mr. Alfred East's Lavingdon Water, Mr. 
Aumonier's Jhe Castle Valley, Tintagfl, Mr. 
Hughes - Stanton's Sunset, Hamble River, and 
St. Jean, near Avignon, Mr. James Henry's In 
Flanders, and Mr. David Murray's In a Grove oj 
Grey Olives. Mr. Murray also shows a sea piece 
which marks in a very interesting way a successful 
departure from his customary type of subject ; 
and there are three other canvases by Mr. East 
which excellently illustrate his methods. All these 
pictures can be sincerely welcomed, and with them 
can be associated in this welcome such sound per 
formances as Tne Idlers, by Mr. Fred Stratton 
Ihe Road to the Marsh, by Mr. Westley Manning 
Twilight in the Birches, by Mr. Adrian Stokes 
The River : Afterg/ori', by Mr. Arnesby Brown ; 
Early Spring, Rydal, by Mr. Frederic Yates ; and 
Mr. W. H. Bartlett's broad and effective coast 




'J - 

> a 

^. X 

The Royal Academy Exhibition 

subject, The End of the Fair: Back to the Island. 
Mr. Leslie Thomson's Holyhead Mountain, as well, 
must be included among the more remarkable of 
the records of nature, so sound is it in handling 
and in its beauty of illumination. Other pictures 
which have a clear claim to attention are Mr. W. 
Llewellyn's The Print Collector, Mr. Clausen's In- 
terior of an Old Barn, and Ttvilight : Interior, 
Mr. La Thangue's Ligurian Mountains, Mr. Walter 
Donne's The Newhaven Packet and The Maritime 
Alps, Mr. Edgar Bundy's City Fathers, Mr. Arthur 
Streeton's St. Mark's, Mr. W. W. Russell's On the 
Beach, Mr. George Harcourt's The Tracing, and 
Mr. Young Hunter's My Lady Charity. 

There is, on the whole, a less convincing display 
of sculpture than has been seen in the galleries in 
recent years. Mr. Goscombe John's bronze statue 
of The Late Colonel Saunderson, M.P., and 
memorial to The Late Bishop Lewis ; Mr. Bertram 
Mackennal's group. Tragedy Enveloping Comedy ; 
Mr. Derwent Wood's Atalanta ; and Mr. F. W. 
Pomeroy's Model of Recumbent Effigy of the Late 
Bishop Lloyd of Neivcastle-on-Tyne, are important ; 

and there are smaller works of great interest, like 
the statuette Destiny, by Mr. F. Lynn Jenkins ; 
La Belie Dame Sans Merci, by Sir George Framp- 
ton ; Sappho, by Mr. Mackennal ; The Inception 
of Uu Modern World, by Mr. Albert Toft ; The 
Late George McCulloch, a relief, by Mr. Drury ; 
and the statuettes by M. Fremiet ; and there are 
several good portrait busts Mr. Brock's half-size 
model of the Justice group which is to form part of 
the Victoria Memorial represents well a sculptor 
whose work is always notable ; and the Memorial 
for the Grave of One who Loved his Fellow Men, 
by Mr. Reynolds-Stephens, is admirably ingenious 
in design and accomplished in treatment. But the 
general run of the contributions is only moderately 

The Trustees of the Chantrey Fund have 
acquired the small picture, A Favourite Custom, 
by which Sir Laurence Alma-Tadema is repre- 
sented in the show. There is already one of 
his works at Millbank, but this belongs to Sir 
Henry Tate's collection and was not a Chantrey 
Fund purchase. 




















ai - 

J5 Q 

O u: 

— < 

< > 

> 'J. 













"i^ ^ 





The Salon of the Socidtd Natioi/ale, Paris 


(Royal Academy. By special permission of the Artist) 




There have been some very hard things said 
about the Salons during these last few years, and 
one cannot but recognise that certain of the re- 
proaches levelled at the two Societies who annually 
hold these large exhibitions are not without good 
foundation. No one will, in fact, deny that 
individually the works suffer by being grouped 
together in such large numbers, and that such 
paintings as those of Menard or Billotte — to take 
two names at random from among the best-known 
— gain immeasurably by being seen in Petit's 
Gallery or in some other such room of restricted 
dimensions. Another complaint that one hears 
very justly made regarding the Salons, and the 
Nationale in particular, is that it contains so very 

little previously unexhibited work. The Salon of 
the Societtf Nationale tends more and more to 
become a closed exhibition, and the invited works, 
that is to say all those by other artists than the 
members and associates, are year by year diminish- 
ing in number. It is therefore most unlikely to 
find here new talent, thus giving good cause to 
these detractors of the Salons. 

On the other hand, were the Salons to be 
suppressed, where should we have a chance of 
seeing those large pictures which naturally cannot 
figure in any exhibitions other than those of this 
class ? I can hardly imagine, in truth, how one of 
M. Auburtin's panels or a work by M. Besnard 
or M. Roll could be shown otherwise than at such 
a show as this. Then again most French painters 
belong to one or other of the smaller societies — 
Internationale, Pastellists, Societe Nouvelle, Aqua- 
rellistes, Peintres de Paris, etc. — but in all 

The Salon of the Socidfd Nationale, Paris 

these groups the foreign artists are in a very 
small minority, and so hardly anywhere save at the 
Grand Palais is it possible to see their work. So 
it is always at the Salons, and there alone, that one 
sees side by side products of the most diverse 
talents and has an opportunity of appreciating as a 
whole the trend of contemporarj' painting. 

The distinctive feature of the Societe Nationale 
this year is that it has received very many more 
large compositions than usual. Many of these pic- 
tures have not, it is true, much interest ; such, for 
instance, as M. Berteaux's, which has a surface area 
of 2 2 square metres (over 230 square feet), and 
is destined for the great staircase at Nantes, and 
several others as well. On the other hand, I have 
lively recollections of three works among the 
decorative paintings which are of the highest im- 

Our attention is at first attracted by M. Besnard's 
large painting for the ceiling of a cupola. This 
great artist has already executed three panels for 
the ceiling of the Petit Palais. The first two, in 
which Besnard depicts with bold symbolism La 
Pensee and La Matiire, figured at the Salon two 
years ago ; the third, La Mystique, has not appeared 
there at all ; and now, in the fourth, which he calls 
La Plastique, he shows us in a magnificent back- 
ground of clouds — as it were an Olympus upon 
the summits of the mountains — four large figures, 
two of which, those in the foreground, are very 
beautiful paintings of the nude. Besnard has here 
depicted with his powerful 
originality, the ancient and 
symbolic legend of Paris 
and the apple ; but Paris 
is here at the same time 
Apollo, god of the Arts, 
grasping the mane of a 
fiery, winged stallion, 
which is one of the best 
features of this masterly 
conception. The work has 
all Besnard's customary 
fine qualities — the very 
striking colouring, that 
beauty of style, and that 
feeling for decorative effect 
which are ever present in 
all his paintings, but have 
never been so completely 
evinced as here. 

In Room I. M. Rene 
Menard shows the series 
of paintings which were " la collation ' 

commissioned by the Government for the Ecole 
de Droit — the most important so far of the pro- 
ducts of his brush. These pictures appear to mark 
the consummation of the painter's art, for Menard, 
now in the complete possession of his technique 
and arrived at the full maturity of his talent, seems, 
so to speak, to sum up his artistic achievements 
in this work. As four of the panels have already 
appeared in The Studio for April, 1909, we now 
give the two others which side by side form the 
centre of the decorative scheme. In them our 
readers will recognise one of those beautiful land- 
scapes of antiquity of which Menard holds the 
secret. All here is of great nobility, and of the 
classic breadth which connects Menard, through 
his affinity with Poussin and Claude, with those 
pure springs of beauty and lofty thought which 
flow from Hellas. 

M. J. Francis Auburtin continues, with much 
distinction and merit, his series of large decorative 
pictures. Disciple of Puvis de Chavannes, he seeks 
above all for harmony and beautiful effects of 
colour in mural painting. His large panel this 
year is entitled L'Essor. As he himself explains 
in the catalogue, he has striven to express in the 
four female figures the stages of human thought — 
first dormant, then awaking, rising upward, and 
finally taking flight into space, free, radiant, and 
immortal. It is a beautiful symbol of a very noble 
conception, treated with much power, and a subject 
admirably appropriate for mural decoration. 


The Salon of the Socidte Natioiiale, Paris 

If these three large decorative paintings are 
those which most forcibly attract one's notice, 
though by very different characters, — Menard 
tracing the continuity of classicism, Besnard allied 
to the traditions of the decorative artists of the 
eighteenth centurj', and Auburtin worthily carrying 
on the style of Puvis — there are still other works 
which deser\-e our attention and even our admira- 
tion, even though they do not display such pro- 
nounced styles. So one finds much charm and 
gracefulness in the panel by M. Roll, the Society's 
distinguished President : also in the Fuite en Egypte 
painted for a church by Madame Wehrle' with 
touching sentiment ; a decided feeling for the 
picturesque in the work of M. de la Neziere, Les 
Keligions de Fhide ; a dramatic power in the 
Episode de iSyo, by M. Pierre Lagarde ; and 
charming drawing in the portrait of Mme. Delarue 
Mardrus, by M. Hubert de la Rochefoucauld. 

The large painting by M. Gillot, Pres la Mine — 
St. Etiemie, deser\es more than a mere mention, 
for it is the work of a member of the Nationale in 
whose talents I have the greatest confidence. 
Gillot is a delightful painter of Paris, and the 
possessor of pronounced individuality ; and this 
individuality asserts itself in every piece of work 
he does. 'WTien commissioned to paint a decora- 
tive panel for the town of St. Etienne, he was quite 
equal to depict with his own palette one of those 
subjects dear to Constantine Meunier or Jules 
Adler. One finds here in Gillot's strong and firm 
work, so exquisite and yet so simple, despite the 
sad severity of the subject, ringing harmonies, such 
as in the reds of certain of the clothes of the workers 
dimly seen through the fog or in the glare from 
the locomotives and from the factory on the left of 
the picture. 

The panel by M. Aman-Jean pleased me much, 




Q c/) 

5 < 

Q ^ 

































w in 

^ < 

2 CO 

H O 2: 
c/^ U < 

Q Q V 

^ ^ < 
z Pi s 



W Q O 

Q W Q 

o 3 >. 
u S m 

The Salon of the Socidtd Natioiiale, Paris 


stoned by the Fntuh Gcn'i 


though in quite a different way. This artist is 
possessed of an extremely graceful vision, and one 
cannot resist the charm and elegance of these 
ladies, seated in a beautiful park, who are being 
diverted by a scene from an Italian comedy played 
by some children. Some of the daintiness of 
those old painters of /hes galan/es seems to linger 
in this work. 

M. Jacques Blanche seemed to me to be amongst 
the best represented of the exhibitors this year, 
and he has seldom shown a more striking assem- 
blage of works or pictures which contain more 
excellent qualities than at this Salon. Though 
considerably influenced by the works of English 
painters — and could one choose better masters? — 
Blanche is becoming every year more himself, and 
may be counted among our very foremost French 
portrait painters. In his contributions to the 
exhibition one finds something of all the subjects 
he affects ; vigorous portraits of men ; a very 
seductive female portrait (Mrs. Saxton Noble), the 
background of which displeased me a little ; a 
brilliant piece of still life, and some flowers painted 
as only Blanche knows how to paint them. 


M. Lucien Simon is also another of the Society's 
strong personalities: — a fact which I have no pre- 
tensions to teach anyone, — but what is worth while 
to note about M. Simon is that he always remains 
himself, the charming colourist that we well appre- 
ciate. After the magnificence of the Cathedrale 
(T Assise, his picture of last year, he has returned to 
his beloved Brittany. This corner of the dining- 
room is already familiar to us, with its big bay 
windows opening upon the tranquil horizon of a 
fair calm autumn sea. It is the painter's own 
house at B^nodet, which we have already seen as 
the setting for portraits of his family, and among 
them Dauchez, M. Blanche's brother-in-law. In 
La Collation also the children gathered around 
the table are members of his family. It is a rnost 
remarkable work of very powerful execution, as 
also is the portrait of the painter by himself. 

M. Gaston La Touche is also one of the best 
known and the most successful of the adherents of 
the Nationale. After the very considerable effort 
of his exhibition last year his energy has by no 
means flagged, as his large panel. Theatre tie 
Verdure, amply attests ; as also do La Marchande 




The Salon of the Socidte Nationale, Paris 

d' Amours, and his " paysage Parisien," works in 
which truth and fantasy are skilfully blended with 
such charming effect. 

M. Hochard, who so faithfully portrays all the 
diverse and numerous aspects of modern life, has 
shown us with what striking success he is able 
to cope with other subjects. His picture, Mme. 
BoViiTj, is an exact re-creation of Rouen at the 
time when Flaubert's heroine came there. 

M. Caro-Delvaille is one of our young painters 
■who gave much promise, and who, is fulfilling those 
expectations. He has already signed a half-dozen 
works, each worthy of a place in one or other of 
the public galleries. His two contributions this 
year will certainly have the success they merit ; the 
one, Groupe Paten, is a powerful study of the nude, 
which artists are unanimous in pronouncing a work 
of the first order ; the other will have more success 
with the general public, for it presents the portrait 
of one of our popular heroines, popular equally in 
Paris and in London — I mean Mme. Simone. 

Many landscapists of talent are, as usual, repre- 
sented at the Nationale, without being able 
however quite to fill the gap left by Cazin and 
Thaulow. An excellent artist who died this year, 
Frederic Houbron, is here present for the last time 
with some superb views of Paris. Raffaelli does 
not exhibit this year, which is a pity, but Billotte 
is very happily represented by various landscapes, 
among which a view of the fortifications struck me 

by its delicious silvery tone. Mesl^ shows some 
charming landscapes somewhat reminiscent of his 
master Cazin ; Chevalier some good sober sea- 
pieces ; F. Desmoulin some very remarkable snow 
scenes; Stengelin some superb pictures of Holland; 
Willaert, the Belgian painter, a capital picture of 
boats under snow; Mr. Waidman has a splendid 
study of the Meuse ; M. Duhem some Flemish 
scenes ; M. Gabriel an extremely beautiful Bar- 
bizon picture ; and there are some very excellent 
pieces by M. Dauchez and M. Le Sidaner. 

I cannot pretend to have passed in review, in 
this article, all the interesting pictures at the Salon. 
There still remain many, such as the admirable 
Jeanne cTArc of M. Boutet de Monvel the elder, 
which deserve more of our attention. But I 
cannot leave the subject of the Grand Palais 
without attracting attention to the several notable 
works there exhibited. Henri Fraxtz. 

We are requested by Mr. Wilson Steer to state 
that the ascription to him of the title of " Pre- 
sident of the New English Art Club " in our first 
article in last month's issue is an error. Mr. 
Steer is a member of the executive committee of 
the Club, but the constitution of the Club does 
not recognise any such ofiice as President, all 
members being equal. This erroneous ascription 
was, we need hardly say, entirely the result of a 
misapprehension, and we regret its appearance. 

"BATEAUX sous LA NEIGE, SUR lA 1,,~, A ..AM. 


studio- Talk 

(From Our O-wn Correspondents.) 

LONDON. — The Exhibition at the New 
Gallery this year was the first held under 
the new system of management by which 
the gallery is to be controlled for the 
future. The old method of selecting works for 
exhibition has been abandoned, and the contribu- 
tions come now from a group of subscribing artists, 
to each of whom a certain amount of wall space is 
allotted ; and the hanging committee is elected 
from the general body of these subscribers. The 
exhibition lost little of the atmosphere which has 
distinguished it in past years, because most of the 
men enrolled as subscribers have been represented 
there by important work year after year. 

imaginative paintings by Mr. R. Anning Bell, in 
both of which he has managed different colour 
schemes with conspicuous success. Mr. Spencer 
A\'atson's Cupid and Psyche was notable for its 
sumptuous richness, and Mr. Cayley Robinson's 
The Faretvcll, for its curiously personal qualities of 
expression and sentiment ; and there was real sin- 
cerity of manner and method in the All-Souls 
Day — Hungary, by Mrs. Adrian Stokes. Mr. 
Wetherbee's A Little Herd Girl, and Mr. T. C. 
Gotch's Midsummer' s Eve and A Study in Reds, 
must not be overlooked. 

Perhaps the best painting in the show was Mr. 
J. J. Shannon's In the Bums, an exquisite variation 
on the conventional portrait group and a delightful 
example of free and spontaneous craftsmanship. 
But there were memorable portraits also by 
Mr. H. de T. Glazebrook, Mr. Harold Speed, 
Mr. Spencer Watson, Mr. Coutts Michie, [^and 
the Hon. John Collier; and two by Mr. W. 
Llewellyn — of Mrs. Manseil Woods, and Nell, 
Daughter of fames 
Givynne Holford, Esq. — 
illustrated excellently his 
decorative manner of deal- 
ing with portraiture. Mr. 
Melton Fisher's dainty 
study of Miss Beatrice 
Ferrar was also import- 
ant as a telling likeness 
and as an agreeable piece 
of painting. 

Landscapes of conspicuous merit were plentiful in 
the exhibition — such excellent records of nature as 
Mr. Alfred East's The Edge of the Pool, Mr. Hughes- 
Stanton's The Mountain Road, Provence, and 
Mr. Leslie Thomson's Over the Sea to Skye, were 
specially prominent, and with them must un- 
questionably be reckoned Mr. J. L. Pickering's 
robustly romantic Gorge of the Arora, and The 
Hills of Carghe, the Moorland near Shap Fells, and 
A Breezy Day on the Upper Fell Country, by 
Mr. Oliver Hall, and the expressive Solitude, by 
Mr. Grosvenor Thomas. Mr. Moffat Lindner's 
sunset subject. Approach to Amsterdam, and his 
brilliant water-colour. Rain Clouds on the Maas, did 

Among the figure pic- 
tures deserving of serious 
consideration must cer- 
tainly be counted Un 
Bain sous le Premier 
Empire by Mr. Talbot 
Hughes; Mr. E. A. 
Hornel's attractive com- 
position, The Blackbird's 
Song, Mr. J. Young 
Hunter's The Orchard 
Door, Mr. P. A. Hay's re- 
markably skilful water- 
colour, The Squire's 
Daughter, and the two 


(New Gallery) BY .MRS. ADRIAN stokes 

(New Gallery) 


studio- Talk 


(Am- Gai!„j) 


ample credit to an artist whose work is always 
fascinating in its power and originality ; and such 
paintings as Mr. D. Y. Cameron's Criffd, Mr. Mark 
Fisher's The River Side, Mr. James Henry's 
Malham Cove and Autumn Morning on the Ure, 
Mr. Coutts Michie's Thi Valley Village, Mr. R. \\'. 
Allan's Towards Sunset, and Mr. Peppercorn's The 
Woodland Dell, add distinction and variety to the 
collection. The sculpture was not very important 
but included some good things by Mr. Basil Gotto 
and Mr. Albert Toft ; and the applied art contri- 
butions of Mr. Nelson Dawson, Mr. and Mrs. 
Arthur Gaskin, Mr. J. P. Cooper and Mr. H. 
Stabler can be frankly commended. 

The Dowdeswell Galleries recently afforded us 
an opportunity of studying the work of the late 
John Fulleylove, one of the most successful of the 
members of the Royal Institute. If the artist 
disappointed in pictures of a large scale, his was 
the not common gift of synthesising many small 
details in a sketch with freedom of touch and 
pleasant suggestion of finish. He was always at 
his best in his sketches, as in those of 7he 
Orangery, Versailles, Ely Cathedral, Edmonton 
Churchyard, and Jesus Lock, Cambridge. 

Exquisite is perhaps just the word to apply to 
the art of Mr. Roger Fry, especially in such 
panels as Rome and the sUvery Verona, and the 
fruit-pieces shown in his recent exhibition at 
the Carfax Gallery, but when out of tender 
colour come monsters, as in his illustrations of 
Dante's "Inferno," we could wish that in concep- 
tion they were less jejune. There was a delicate 
kind of beauty in every panel, but the subjects 
seemed viewed nearly always through a formula — 
never directly. 

We. carried away the impression from the Old 
Water Colour Society's present exhibition that 
it is up to their highest standard if attention 
is not at once claimed by new and imme- 
diately striking works. Mr. R. Anning Bell in 
T/ie Arrow is more interesting than ever, and 
there are some particularly beautiful little works 
by Mr. George Clausen, R.A. The President, 
Sir E. A. Waterlow, and Mr. J. AV. North, both 
contribute in their best vein. Loch Alsh, by Mr. 
Robt. Allan, must rank with the chief of his 
successes. Mr. Francis James has not painted his 
bouquets of flowers more daintily than this year. 
Mr. David Murray in At Bordighera — Grey Day 

studio- Talk 

has a notable success. 
Mr. Hughes-Stanton is 
now handling in his water- 
colours themes which 
have attracted him as an 
oil painter with the same 
command of quiet atmo- 
spheric suggestion. A fine 
picture is Mr. Paterson's 
The Yawl. The reflec- 
tions in the water, into 
which, fortunately, he has 
not been able to intrude 
his ever - prevalent blue, 
make that picture a very 
beautiful piece of water- 
colour painting. Mrs. 
Stanhope Forbes's Spring 
Blossotns is a picture very 
charming in technique 
and colour. Never has 
Mr. Herbert Alexanders 
art been happier than in 

a little lyrical picture of sun shadows drifting over 
velvety downs. As their latest acquisition the 
Society is indeed to be congratulated on the art of 
Mrs. Laura Knight — a brilliant impressionist with 
an art full of freedom and resource. 


At this year's exhibition of the Royal Society of 


(See Manchester Studio- Tali) 


(See Manchester Studio- Talk) 

British Artists the work of a recent member stood 
out prominently — that of Mr. Hayley Lever, espe- 
cially in his Morning : Drying Sails, St. Jves. 
Then The White Lady of Mr. Joseph Simpson at 
once claimed attention. Other works which come 
at once to mind among many others ably surround- 
ing their President, Mr. East's own high achieve- 
ment in The Valley of the 
IVye, were The Hungarian 
Feasant, a study by Mr. P. 
Laszld, The Late Rudolph 
Lehmann, Esq., by Sir H. 
von Herkomer, Porlock, 
by Mr. F. A. W. T. Arm- 
strong, Until the Day 
Breaks, by Mr. Michaelson, 
Atitunui's First Touch, by 
Mr. Walter Fowler, The 
River near Wimborne, by 
Mr. F. \\'hitehead. Mists 
and Dews of the Mornins;, 
by Mr. T. F. Sheard, The 
Evening Hour, by Mr. J.W. 
Schofield, La Salute, by 
Mr. A. Streeton, A Breezy 
Day, by Mr. A.Carruthers- 
Gould, Anstey's Cove, by 
Mr. Lewis F. Fry, Sunset 
on the Afedrcay, by Mr. F. 
F. Footet, and some small 
canvases by J. Muirhead. 

Sfiidij- Talk 

The Royal Institute of Painters in \\'ater 
Colours has just held its one hundredth exhibition. 
The Society was started in 1831 as the New- 
Society of Painters in ^^'ater Colours, as a protest 
by the unattached water colour artists of the da\- 
against the closed doors of the Old Society. 
Certainly the claims which the Society makes in 
its introductory note to the catalogue as to the 
help it has rendered to newcomers to the ranks of 
artists in water colours have been justified. The 
exhibition was worthy of the occasion in its 
completeness of character. 

At the Leicester Galleries Mr. Arnesby Brown 
exhibited a series of cabinet pictures, displaying to 
full advantage his mastery in the treatment of 
sudden effects of sunlight and his skill as a cattle 
painter. In the same galleries Miss Ruth Doll- 
man's water colours of the Sussex Downs showed 
great discretion as to the difficulties they will go 
out and embrace, but all that the artist essays she 
accomplishes in a delightfully sympathetic way. 

At the Ryder Gallery Mr. H. C. Chetwood 

Aiken exhibited interesting pastel and water-colour 
drawings of Dutch and other subjects, but he is 
inclined to use too often the " cumulus " prescrip- 
tion in his skies, and stability of drawing in the 
buildings in such a sketch as Twilight Bristol 
would increase the reality of effect. 

Among other exhibitions which claim notice is 
that of E. T. and E. H. Compton at the Fine Art 
Society. Both artists paint in a quite similar 
\ein, sharing the same admirable qualities of strict 
truthfulness to certain aspects of nature, largeness 
and dignity of composition and scholarly drawing. 
And at this latter gallery Mr. Frank Short's recent 
exhibition of etchings, mezzotints and water colours 
must be mentioned. The distinguished etcher 
remains at his best perhaps still in plates of the 
character of Rye Port, but his excursions into mezzo- 
tints after Turner and others are very interesting. 
The Fairyland of H. J. Ford is familiar to 
many readers of the fairy-tale books by Andrew 
Lang which he has illustrated. The original 
drawings for these were lately shown at the Baillie 
Gallery, together with paintings, some of the larger 


Maiuhcstt-r Studio- Talk) 





of which were of much beaut)'. Mr. Sowerby's water 
colours at the same rooms were pleasant in their 
semi-pre-Raphaelite method. 


ANCHESTER.— The recent annual ex- 
hibition of the Manchester Academy of 
Fine Arts, if not to be congratulated as 
a whole on a higher standard of work 
than its predecessors, or a noticeable enrolment to 
its associates, must be complimented on its more 
carefully thought out arrangements — especially 
noticeable in the hanging of the large gallery. But 
an exhibition containing such sincere and capable 
work as that by Mr. Fred. W. Jackson, Mr. H. S. 
Hopwood, Mr Philip T. Gilchrist, Miss Mildred 
Hall, Miss Gertrude E. Wright, and others men- 
tioned in these notes, is not one lightly to be 

In the first room Mr. Fred W. Jackson's water- 
colour, An Arabesque, attracted by its breadth, 
design and observant treatment of a moving crowd 
in a narrow Moorish street. On the opposite wall 
Mr. H. S. Hopwood's dexterous little sketch in 
body-colour of A Cafi Archway, Biskra, was inter- 
esting, though more of the artist was felt in his Study 
in Rose and White, a tall figure of a lady in a pink 

dress, standing by a half-opened door : gradations 
of white, grey and gold with a restramed use of 
pastel, completing a harmony confident and truth- 
ful. Morning; on the Sussex Downs, by Miss 
Mildred Hall, was a work of rare distinction 
among the water-colours. Other noticeable work 
in the same room claiming attention included 
W. Eyre Walker's Berket Common on the Rivet 
Eden, with its dark sweeping evening sky ; Mr. A. 
J. Mavrogordato's The Parthenon — Moonrise, 
excellent in colour, though the placing of the 
moon was rather disturbing. Immediately below 
was another Moonrise, by W. H. Wilkinson, attrac- 
tive by its contrast in rich tones of brown and 
green. An Anglesea Farmyard, by Mary McNicol 
Wroe, Grey Evening, Conway Valley, by Walter 
Emsley, Spring, by F. M. Monkhouse, and 
Evening, by Ethel Hall, were all full of interest 
and artistic interpretation ; and last, but not least, 
Miss Elizabeth Orme Collie's Mary, a charming 
study in charcoal, produced the desire to see 
more of this artist's sympathetic work. 

In the large gallery devoted to oils and sculpture 
Mr. Fred W. Jackson's October Morning arrested 
one's gaze by its capable painting and atmospheric 
quality — a task handled with an intimate know- 


studio- Talk 

ledge of that early scintillating light over a 
fisherman's bay foretelling a day of heat. In his 
smaller pictures, The Widow's Garden, and notably 
RurtiU'ick Bay, a more decorative treatment was 
e^■ident, and enchanted with its alluring colour of 
red roof-tops, silver)--green and dove-grey shadows, 
crowned by a faint violet sky. Balancing on the 
same wall, Mr, H. S. Hopwood's A Picardy Farm- 
yard commz.nded. attention by its direct observation ; 
perfectly composed and painted, it was a picture 
to be studied, and Mr. Hopwood has seldom given 
us anything more virile. For genuine charm, un- 
stinted praise must be given to Mr. Philip T. 
Gilchrist, R.B.A., whose Temple of the Moon-God 
gives the true feeling of moonlight, the inter- 
pretation of which so many artists treat with an 
inky brush. Bringing in the Boats from the 
Beach, by James W. Booth, R.C.A., had much of 
the breath of the wind and strength of a strenuous 
nature. The River, by Tom Mostyn, showed a 
markedly powerful technical accomplishment and 
decorative quality of painting that one would wish 
had been devoted to a 
more composedly de- 
signed landscape worthy 
of the artist's undoubted 

Making a round of the 
remaining gallery one re- 
marked the brilliant 
colouring of The River 
at Llandulas, by Mr. 
Anderson Hague, R.I., 
whose recent exhibition 
at Mr. Carruthers' show- 
room was of considerable 
local interest. The Farm- 
yard here illustrated being 
from that collection ; A 
Melody, Miss Adelina 
Leon, by Thomas Cantrell 
Dugdale ; the landscape 
work by R. G. Somerset, 
R.C.A. ; the flower paint- 
ing by Miss Fanny Sugars, 
and the more carefully 
composed Geraniums, by 
Miss Tinker ; the genuine 
adherence to nature by 
Mr. Elias Bancroft, 
R.C.A., in his \orkshire 
Beck, and a similar love 
in The Rising Moon, by 

Byron Cooper ; the prominent imaginative and 
\agorous attainments by the president, H. Clarence 
Whaite, P.R.C.A., R.W.S. ; Autumn, by Reginald 
Barber : the architectural studies by Mr. Edgar 
Wood, A.R.I. B. A. : the alluring work in clay by 
Miss Gertrude E. Wright ; and the noticeable 
George Milner, Esq., M.A., J.P., in bronze, by 
John Cassidy, A.R C.A. E. A. T. 

GLASGOW. — Not the least remarkable 
feature of the Glasgow School of Art 
is the measure of individuality it 
seems to develop in many of the 
students who pass through its classes. This is 
particularly so in the case of the women artists, 
whose work, in both fine and applied art, is well 
and favourably known to readers of The Studio. 
Only last month I had occasion to call attention to 
some excellent work by them at a recent exhibition 
held at the school (see Art School Notes, pp. 330 
et seq.). In the course of these notes I mentioned 
the contributions of Miss Annie Urquhart, a former 

'spring" (coloured pen-drawing) 





student, and readers are now enabled by 
the accompanying reproductions to form 
a closer acquaintance with her work. 

Miss Urquhart adopts a method at 
once quaint, decorative and distinctive, 
in her charming pictures of children, 
daintily gowned, and all arranged in 
delightful leafy environment She uses 
vegetable parchment for her drawings, 
her method being to outline first with 
pen and ink and then to stipple the 
colour on with a comparatively dry 
brush. She proceeds slowly and thought- 
fully, and a peculiarity of her method is 
that she divides the sheet of parchment 
into sections and then outlines and com- 
pletely colours a part here and there before drawing 
the other parts. Miss Urquhart groups her pictures in 


a relationship of su 
giving to them an 


bject, method and colouring, thus 
additional decorative value ; but 
a rather curious manner- 
ism slightly mars some of 
them — a figure is bisected 
or a face half hidden by a 
tree trunk or a spreading 
blossom-laden branch. 



Miss J. Maclaurin is 
also a past student of the 
Glasgow School of Art, 
and during her career there 
gave much attention to 
bookbinding, becoming 
efficient both in the actual 
binding of the book and 
the hand - tooling of the 
cover. The example of 
her work now reproduced 
shows an appreciation of 
the value of undecorated 
spaces — an important 
consideration in this class 
of design. J. T. 

PARIS. — The 
Soctete d<s Ar- 
tistes aninialiers 
has held recently 
us lirst exhibition at the 
Cercle Internationale des 
Arts, Boulevard Raspail, 
and the show was full of 
interesting work. It con- 
tained a delightful contri- 
bution from Besnard, Le 

studio- Talk 

cheval arabe, a careful and exact study of the 
animal and its specialised form, and also excellent 
works by Doigneau and Dagnac-Rivifere. M. Stein- 
len has always been par excellence the painter of 
cats ; no one has depicted with greater fidelity 
all the lithe and subtle attitudes of this branch of 
the genus Feiidce. He has made a transcript by 
lithography of one of the 
best of his studies, and 
this, herewith reproduced, 
was used as a poster for 
the exhibition. Lastly, 
there was here revealed a 
young artist of consider- 
able talent, M. Oger, of 
whom I shall have some- 
thing to say on another 
occasion. In his studies 
of birds, lions and dogs, 
M. Oger gives evidence of 
great freedom and a charm- 
ing precision in the use of 
crayon. We shall expect 
much from him. H. F. 

Spring Exhi- 
bition at the 
which was opened by the 
Emperor, is remarkable "tkier and snake ' 


for the comparatively large 
number of really good 
works. Among them a 
large portrait group by 
Josef Jungwirth, repre- 
senting a sitting in the 
Lower Austrian Diet, is 
one of the most note- 
worthy, because of the 
excellence of the compo- 
sition as a whole and in 
detail. The work contains 
no less than a hundred- 
and -twenty portraits, for 
each of which the painter 
received s'ittings. Promi- 
nent among the assembled 
members is Dr. Carl 
Lueger, the Burgomaster 
of Vienna, to whom the 
members are listening with 
upturned faces, illumined 
by the light from their 
green-shaded electric lamps. The entire work occu- 
pied two years in execution, and as may be imagined 
involved a vast amount of preparatory study in the 
shape of portrait sketches and other details. Two 
other important historical works were exhibited, 
both commissioned by the Archduke Francis 
Ferdinand — one by Ludwig Koch, representing 





Sdma Kurz and Prince 
Liechtenstein^ both in his 
best manner and really 
fine achievements. 


General Johann von Spork praying before the 
decisive battle with the Turks at St. Gotthardt in 
1664, and the other by Julius, Ritter von Blaas, 
depicting a charge of dragoons at Kolin in 1757. 

A work which has attracted much attention is 
a painting by John Quincy Adams, called 1 he 
Operation, showing an 
operating - room, with a 
surgeon about to operate 
upon a woman. The 
patient's face is hidden, 
but nearly all the other 
details incidental to such 
a scene are given in vivid 
reality. It must be con- 
fessed that one finds it 
difficult to look at such 
a realistic feat of painting 
without a shudder, and 
clever as it is one feels 
justified in asking whether 
a public exhibition like 
the Kiinstlerhaus is the 
proper place for it. No 
question of that kind can 
arise in regard to the 
same painter's portraits 
of the prima donna 

Portraits as usual form 
a large element in this 
exhibition of the Genos- 
senschaft. That Professor 
von Angeh, despite his 
years, still maintains his 
vigour and artistic feeling 
is shown by his portrait 
of the well-known sculptor 
Professor Weyr. Pathetic 
interest attaches to Laszl^'s 
portrait of the aged actor, 
Ritter von Sonnetithal, 
who died suddenly a short 
time ago, and remarkable 
for its delicate treatment 
is Laszl6's Princess Lilly 
Kuiski. The same is to 
be said of Leopold Horo- 
witz's portrait of his 
daughter, which is indeed a fine performance. 
Arthur von Ferraris's portraits include one of his 
daughter, whose auburn hair and fair face contrast 
well with the greys and dark-blues of the picture. 
Victor Scharf, Heinrich Rauchinger, Kasimir 
Pochwalski, P. Joanowitsch, E. Leviedzki, and 
W. V. Krausz, are all well represented. Nikolaus 


"aUTU.MN splendour in the CASTI E GKOlNIi; 




Studio- Talk 

Schattenstein is making further strides forward, his 
portrait of Frau Raoiil Auerheimer being one of ex- 
ceptional merit. David Kolm's red chalk drawing of 
J^rati Heller-Ostersetzer carries with it a pathetic 
note, as this gifted young lady, whose work as an 
artist has on more than one occasion been repro- 
duced in The Studio, died quite recently. Victor 
Schauffer's portrait of The German Emperor, in 
scarlet mantle over a white uniform and wearing 
the order of the Black Eagle, was commissioned 
by the monarch for presentation to Count Wilczek, 
as a souvem'r of his visit to the Count at Burg 
Kruzenstein some two years ago, and is a dignified 
work. Jehudo Epstein's portrait of a lady in black 
with a green shawl, is admirable. 

There are numerous landscapes and genre 
pictures. Edward Zetsche, Karl Pippich, Otto 
Novak, Alfred Zoff, Hugo Darnaut, F. Brunner, 
M. Suppantschitoch, O. RuziCka, R. Germela, 
H. Ranzoni, E. Ameseder, Hans Larwin, Hugo 
Charlemont, KarlO'Lynch of Town, Adolf Schwarz, 
Franz Windhager and E. Kasparides, are all 
well represented, some of the pictures being par- 

ticularly beautiful in composition and treatment. 
R. Quittner's Paris Boulevard by Night is full of 
bustle, life and movement everywhere ; Otto 
Herschel's studies of drapery and interiors of our 
grandmothers' time are finely treated and delicate 
in colour. Lazar Krestin and Isidor Kaufmann 
are both excellent in their portrayal of Galician 
Jews, whom they have studied in their own country, 
and Karl Fahringer's animal studies are always 
welcome, an excellent example of them being the 
Tiger and Snake reproduced on page 64. Some 
good specimens of graphic art by F. Gold, A. 
Cossman and Tomislav Krizman are among the 
features of the exhibition. 

In the plastic section L. Hujer, Prof. Marschall, 
Karl Wollek, S. Schwartz, Hans Schaefer, show 
medals and plaquettes of high artistic merit ; S. 
Lewandowski sends a marble bust of the celebrated 
Polish poet Count Zygmund Krasinski ; Friedrich 
Gornik A Procession of Monks, which is highly 
praiseworthy, and Leo Bernstein some excellent 
busts, that of Baroness Schey and Prof. Leschetitzky 
being remarkable for the beauty and strength of 


{See Budapest Studio- Talk) 



"QUIET water" (coloured WOOD ENGRAVING) 

treatment, while K. Kundmann and Hans Miiller 
both contribute good work. A. S. L. 



The Interna- 
tional Graphic 
Exhibition held 
here this Spring was the 
first of its kind held in 
Budapest. Owing, how- 
ever, to the immense num- 
ber of exhibits and the 
want of order in their 
arrangement, it was diffi- 
cult to get a comprehen- 
sive view of the whole. 
This is to be regretted, 
for as no attempt was 
made to show the intimate 
character of graphic art 
and its value for purposes 
of decoration, the majority 
of visitors carried away a 
confused idea of the en- 
semble. The exhibition 
was to some extent retro- 
spective ; in addition to work by contemporary 
artists of various countries besides Hungary, 





Sf/idio- Talk 

in graphic art, by means 
ot lectures and exhibitions, 
and also by selling proofs 
at a low price so a!s to 
bring them within the 
reach of art lovers whose 
resources prohibit the pur- 
chase of expensive prints. 
The room devoted to 
works by members of the 
society was one of the 
most interesting in the 
whole exhibition. 



The two etchings by 
Prof. Rauscher now repro- 
duced, not only serse to 
show his methods and 
largeness of vision, but 
prove that he possesses 
the poetic instincts of the 
true artist. He has ex- 
perimented on some new 
methods for aquatinting 

including the best exponents in the 
various branches of graphic art now- 
living, there was a carefully selected and 
interesting representation of work done 
by the Hungarian artists of the past. 
This part of the exhibition was system- 
atically arranged, thanks to the exertions 
of Dr. Gabor de Terey, the well-known 
connoisseur and director of the Museum 
of Fine Art. It is, indeed, owing to this 
gentleman that graphic art in Hungary 
has met with so much encouragement 
on the part of the Government. 

The modern movement in this direc- 
tion began some five years ago when an 
exhibition was held in Budapest. Then 
last year a group of young artists, among 
whom Victor Olgyai, a pupil of Prof. 
William Unger, took a prominent part, 
formed themselves into the Society of 
Hungarian Graphic Arti.sts, and the 
society has quickly justified its existence. 
The President is Professor Lajos Raus- 
cher, who has devoted his whole career 
to the furtherance of graphic art, without 
thought of gain, and Prof. Olgyai is act- 
ing as secretary of the society, the aim of 
which is to awaken more general interest 

KlPliL ' 








■ aIoHi 


V . ■■ ' 

- fite^^;;^; 






studio- Talk 

which he hopes to make known to the world 
presently. Some very good work was shown by 
Oskar Glatz and Istvan Zador, in both cases por- 
traits done in chalk and pencil. Gyula Rudnay's 
washes revealed fine feeling and a freedom of 
execution which added to the charm of his work. 
Gyula Conrad's woodcuts have a peculiar beauty : 
he loves to linger in quiet places and is peculiarly 
happy in such scenes as Quiet Water, now repro- 
duced. The woodcuts by Prof. Victor Olgyai are 
of another genre, strong in line, betraying no sign 
of weakness, no exaggeration in expression, every 
touch sure and firm. This artist conducts a school 
for graphic art, and no one has done more to 
arouse an interest in the subject in Hungary than 
he. Sandor Nagy is a worthy exponent of etching 
in pure line. Robert Levy's plates show a sincere 

and sympathetic touch, free from hesitation ; he 
seeks his inoiifs in such old-world spots as Trebinje, 
Herzegovina, the subject of the plate now repro- 
duced ; B61a Erdossy's linoleum engravings are 
interesting and point to great imaginative power. 
This artist also contributed some etchings of un- 
doubted power and beauty. Andor Sz^kely's 
coloured pen drawings showed a firm grasp of 
material and subject. 

Among the other Hungarian exhibitors of note 
were Rippl-Ronai, Istvan Zichy, Gyula Tichy, 
Imre Simay (a member of the Vienna Hagenbund 
at Vienna, who has made a name for himself by 
his drawings and paintings of animals, monkeys in 
particular), Oskar Mendlik, Sigismund Vajda, 
P. Laszlo, L. Michalek and B^la Benczur. A few 
lady artists contributed to make 
the exhibition interesting, among 
whom should be named Alice 
Szmik, who sent a capital interior 
in pastel, and Madame Fris- 
chauer, whose talent was attested 
by a portrait. 

AN OLD door" (etching) 



I must pass over the work 
contributed by leading etchers 
of other countries. The ex- 
hibition was not, however, com- 
pletely international, for Austria 
and Germany were practically 
left out in the cold. Had these 
countries been adequately repre- 
sented the exhibition would 
have gained greatly in interest 
and its title would have been 
justified. One was glad, how- 
ever, to see so much good work 
done by young Hungarian 
artists, who in spite of having 
learnt in various schools have 
their own personal touch which 
shows itself in its freedom, its 
freshness and a commendable 
absence of conventional 
methods. A. S. L. 

BERLIN. — The Royal 
Academy has been 
opening its galleries 
to the Old Master Ex- 
hibition of the Kaiser Friedrich 
Museum Verein. This society, 
the supporter of the royal 

studio- Talk 



museums, on this occasion only showed the posses- 
sion of about t\vo dozen members, and the dehght- 
ful collection considerably enhanced the interest of 
the interval between the departing winter season 
and the newly prepared annual summer exhibi- 
tions. We were able here to enjoy the ennobled 
truthfulness of Bruyn and Krigel, Morelse and 
Terborch, as well as the delicate work of Nattier 
and Rigaud, and the sombre beauties of Goya. 
Hals and Rembrandt were represented by some 
prominent examples of their various phases, 
Rubens and Van Dyck by fine earlier portraits ; 
and the grand spirit of the Renaissance spoke 
through Raphael, Bronzino and Titian. Portraits 
predominated in the exhibition, but some masterly 
still-life pieces created a pleasant variety. The 
increasing number of classical treasures in German 
private possession is quite astonishing. 

At the Keller and Reiner Salon recently Carl Max 
Rebel again presented himself with a numerous col- 
lection. For some years new works of this painter 
have always been looked for wiih unusual interest 

by some far-seeing collectors. He at one time gave 
promise of a new Bocklin, and his stay in Italy 
was considered a warrant for such realisitions. 
Since then he has always kept up his standard of 
classical romanticism ; but his colouring seemed 
to become rather monotonous with its green and 
violet tints, and his figures as well as his landscapes 
appeared dulled by pessimism. This year Rebel 
seems to have grown freer. He is still the aposde 
of austere beauty, the seer of classical visions in 
fascinating solitude, but we feel a new joy in life 
stirring in some pictures. Something unusual is 
again revealed, but we have still to wait for a real 
fulfilment. A series of female portraits is particularly 
attractive by the selection of rare individualities 
which though rendered in the noble Francia or 
Bronzino style yet look like documents of the Ibsen 
and Maeterlinck age. At the same galleries Leo 
Samberger, the Munich portraitist, also filled a 
whole room with his works. He gave his best in 
strong and serious types, especially in prominent 
male characters. There was also an exhibition of 
the portrait-sculpture of Ferdinand Seeboeck, 


Revic'ci's and Notices 

- KtRAir ul sIu.N .>!];. 

:arl max rebel 

surprising on account of its genuine and sym- 
pathetic mirroring of life. J. J. 

(Owing to the many other demands oti our space 
this month ive are compelled to hold over our Art 
School Notes. — EditorJ 


TTu Etched and Engraved Work of Frank 
Short, A.R.A., R.E. By Edward F. Straxge. 
(London : George Allen & Sons.) £^\ \s. net. — 
To publish in volume form a Catalogue Raisonne 
of the works of a living artist is to honour him 
indeed, especially when he has deserved this 
tribute exclusively by his mastery over the art of 
expression on the copperplate. Mr. Short has long 
been known for an "approved good master" of 
the etcher's art and the mezzotinter's, while indeed 
no process of copperplate engraving has eluded 
his intimate knowledge and his triumphant practice. 
Did he not achieve success with drawings of 
Turners which Ruskin declared could not be 
done by him or any other ? Moreover, Mr. Short 
has shown that the process of mezzotint offers new 

and exquisite possibilities to the artist who knows 
how to handle it as an interpreter of delicate pic- 
torial vision, while all the natural magic of the 
simple line is at the command of his expressive 
etching point. So Mr. Short's plates have become 
prized by the artistic collector, and there was a 
decided need for this invaluable book, the compiling 
of which must have been a labour of love for Mr. 

The Letters of John Buskin. 1827 — S9. 2 vols. 
Edited by E. T. Cook and Alexander Wedderburn. 
(London : George Allen.) — Wonderfully written, 
the letters of John Ruskin are yet, so to speak, but 
foam-drift of his prose. A reputation might rest 
on them, but his reputation is such as to be 
unaffected by their addition. Their unfailing 
eagerness of thought and the originality in them 
cannot fail to stimulate the reader. Intense 
responsiveness to art gave his utterances con- 
cerning it an authoritativeness which no mere 
theorising can ever sweep aside. His mistakes 
and those of his disciples resulted from the con- 
fusion of issues, from confounding experiences of 
aesthetic feeling with those of reason and deducing 

Reviews and Notices 

too rapidly therefrom. As a critic Rusl^in's failure 
seemed in apprehending the essential mystery of the 
finest craft, but writing upon art in its relationship 
to the development of human genius, it cannot be 
denied to him that his work is unapproached for 
profundity and illumination. In this belief we 
could ill afford to omit our appreciation of the 
publication of these letters, or of the task completed 
in them, as the last volumes of the monumental 
edition of Ruskin's works began si.\ years ago. 

A History of Architectural Devclopjnenl. By 
F. M. Simpson. In three vols. Vol. II. Medire- 
val. (London : Longman.) 20s. net. — In this 
second volume of his important work Prof. Simp- 
son pursues the same aim as that which he kept 
before him in writing the first, noticed in these 
pages about three years ago, that aim being to 
trace the development of architecture through the 
planning, construction, materials, and principles of 
design of the buildings described, note being taken 
also of the influences which helped to shape that 
development. While the first volume dealt with 
the evolution and interrelation of the architecture 
of the Archaic nations and of Greece and its subse- 
quent Byzantine development, the present volume 

treats wholly of ecclesiastical architecture through 
the centuries when Romanesque and Gothic art 
flourished. The first half of the volume is occu- 
pied with such details of churches as arches, arch- 
mouldings and labels, columns, piers, capitals, bases, 
walls, buttresses, plinths, windows, vaultings, tow-ers 
and spires, mural decoration, and other ornamental 
adjuncts, all discussed and illustrated seriatim, 
much valuable technical information being given ; 
and the second part is devoted to a consideration 
of the churches as integral structures. Important 
chapters are those on "The Development of Church 
Planning" and "Gothic Architecture in England 
and Scotland," the author commenting in connec- 
tion with the latter on the increasing readiness 
shown by leading authorities to acknowledge 
the beauty of the art of this country, whereas a 
generation ago there was a disposition to belittle 
it. An interesting point emphasized by the author 
in treating of P'rench Gothic is the change that 
took place when the monks ceased to act as archi- 
tects — that is, when the profession became secular- 
ized. The monk-designer's training had saturated 
him with traditional methods which he found 
difficult to discard, and it was to the infusion of 


(See Berlin Studio Talk) 


Reviews and Notices 

secular blood, as he expresses it, that were due 
the enormous strides made in architectural con- 
struction and design in France between 1150 and 
1220. Though the churches dealt with by Prof. 
Simpson have been described many times before, 
there is so much freshness and originality in the 
author's treatment of the subject, the result of 
personal acquaintance with most of the structures 
he deals with, that the work has every right to 
rank among the standard literature of the subject. 
The illustrations to this volume number more than 
250, and are with a few trifling exceptions quite new. 

Florentine Sculptors of the Renaissance. By 
WiLHELM Bode. (London: Methuen.) \2S. 6d. 
net — A very marked difference is noticeable 
between the history of painting and sculpture in 
the great sesthetic revival that took place in Italy 
in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, for whereas 
the former is an unbroken record of progress in- 
fluenced, but not caused, by the new light thrown 
on classic art resulting from the discoveries of 
antique statues and bas-reliefs, the course of the 
latter would probably but for those discoveries 
have taken quite another direction. This signi- 
ficant fact is very clearly recognized by Dr. 
Bode in his well-known monograph on Floren- 
tine sculptors of the Renaissance, of which a 
new and excellent translation has been made. 
Illustrated with a large number of good reproduc- 
tions of official masterpieces, the book is the most 
authoritative work on its subject that has hitherto 
appeared, and combines with much keen technical 
criticism a realization of the personal idiosyncrasies 
of the artists under review such as has been rarely 
achieved by the author's fellow-countr}'men who, 
as a general rule, lose sight of the craftsman in 
their vivisection of his productions. 

In Japan. By Gaston Migeo.v. (London : 
Heinemann.) ds. — Among the large number of 
tourists who now annually visit Japan, there are 
probably extremely few who are so well versed in 
the history and characteristics of its art as the 
talented author of this little work. As Conservator 
of the Louvre Museum, he has had every oppor- 
tunity of studying many phases of that art before 
making his pilgrimage to the Far East. Intensely 
sympathetic with the work of Japan's great painters 
and craftsmen, his impressions of her cities, temples, 
shrines, theatres, gardens, and museums, received 
during a few months' stay in that land of delight, 
are worthy the perusal and consideration of all who 
are interested in Japanese art. 

A Popular Handbook to the National Gallery. 
Vol. I. Foreign Schools. Compiled by Edward 

T. Cook. 7tb edition. (London : Macmillan & 
Co.) io.r. net. — Since the early editions of 
Mr. Cook's Handbook appeared a somewhat 
extensive re-arrangement of the rooms at the 
National Gallery has taken place, and this has 
necessitated considerable revision on the part of 
the compiler. There have also been changes in 
attribution calling for further revision. Besides 
bringing the book up-to-date in these particulars 
Mr. Cook has introduced much additional matter 
in his notes on the pictures, and the opinions and 
criticisms of Ruskin, which have from the first given 
distinction to this Handbook, have been supple- 
mented by quotations from other writers of 
authority. Neatly bound in limp leather the 
book, with its 800 pages of letterpress, is not 
inconveniently large for the pocket. 

Porcelain — Oriental, Continental and British. 
By R. L. HoBSON, B.A. (London : Archibald 
Constable & Co., Ltd.) 6.?. net. In the preface 
to his book Mr. Hobson says his object has been 
to give in compact and inexpensive form all the 
facts which the collector really needs, and in this he 
has been successful. But besides the collector the 
volume should prove useful and interesting to the 
student and the amateur. Not the least helpful 
feature in the book are the lists of marks which are 
given in the various sections, while the illustrations 
form a worthy adjunct to the text. 

Assisi of St. Francis. By Mrs. Robert Goff. 
Illustrated by Colonel R. Goff. With an essay on 
the Influence of the Franciscan Legend on Italian 
Art by J. Kerr-Lawson. (London: Chatto & 
Windus.) 20s. net. — Occupying as it does a 
unique position in the history of the Church and of 
the evolution of Christian ait, Assisi has, as a 
matter of course, been again and again pictured 
and described, whilst its chequered fortunes have 
been related from many different points of view. 
For all that the collaborators in the new volume on 
the much-discussed subject have produced a book 
that will forcibly appeal alike to Protestants and 
Roman Catholics — so true is the insight displayed 
by Mrs. Goff into the personality and aims of the 
man who for so long concentrated the attention of 
Christendom on the httle hill city, and so well has 
Colonel Goff in his beautiful drawings, amongst 
which perhaps the finest are Assisi: the Rocca 
Maggiore, Assisi from Perugia, and the Duomo of 
Perugia, caught the very atmosphere of the scenes 
depicted. The story of the Saint's remarkable 
career is told with an eloquence and an enthusiasm 
that, though the episodes related are all well known, 
enchain the attention of the reader from first to 

Reviews and Notices 

last, and she is equally happy in dealing with the 
men who endeavoured to carry out the work of 
St. Francis after his death. Mr. Kerr-Lawson's 
able essay on the Franciscan Legend well defines 
the singular charm, a reflection of that of St. Francis 
himself, which emanates from the paintings and 
frescoes, several of which are reproduced, of 
scenes from his life. 

Le Second Livre des Monogrammcs, Marques, 
Cachets et ex-Libris. Composes par George Auriol. 
Preface d'Anatole France. (Paris : Henri Floury). 
8 frcs., ed. de luxe, 25 frcs. — " Ce n'est pas peu de 
chose que de bien dessiner une lettre," remarks 
the distinguished French novelist in his appreciative 
preface to this second collection of M. Auriol's signs 
and emblems — the first made its appearance some 
seven years ago. The remark is made apropos of 
an alphabet designed by M. Auriol, but applies 
equally to the designs reproduced in these volumes. 
Most readers of The Studio know something 
about these designs, for a whole group of them 
filled one of its pages two or three years ago, 
and they do not need to be told that in his 
particular field M. Auriol stands alone in the 
modern art world. The charm of his devices 
lies in their very simplicity : the " home-marks " 
or cachets de famille, the monograms, the seals, 
and even the book-plates, betray no sign of 
toil in their production, but seem to have been 
created with a few fluent strokes of brush or pen, 
and though throughout the 500 designs reproduced 
in the volume, the impress of their author is 
apparent, there is no lack of variety. 

WtUiam Callorv, R.IV.S., J'.Ji.G.S. An Auto- 
biography. Edited by H. M. Cund.\ll. (London : 
Adam & Charles Black.) 75. bd. net. — This book was 
originally prepared during Mr. Callow's lifetime 
from notes carefully made by Mrs. Callow, as her 
husband recalled from the diaries and memoranda 
written by him from his early days onwards the 
episodes in his long career, Mr. Cundall's task, he 
tells us, having been to assist the artist's widow in 
putting these notes into a chronological and readable 
form. The book is profusely illustrated in colours 
and black-and-white by some of the most perfect 
examples of his art. The " In Memoriam " which 
prefaces the work gives a very interesting sketch of 
the artist's career, which beginning, so to speak, at 
the early age of eleven, when he commenced to 
gain his livelihood by practising the rudiments of 
his art, may be said to have been consummated 
eighty years later by his " one-man " show at the 
Leicester Galleries in 1907. The first part of the 
book is full of incidents in connection with his life 

in Paris in 1830 and the revolution of that time. 
While in Paris he taught the children of King 
Louis Philippe and many of the French nobility. 
His place in the history of water-colour art in 
England is an unmistakable one. In 1838 he was 
elected an associate of the Old Water Colour 
Society, and a full chronological list is given of his 
pictures exhibited at the Society's shows and at 
the Royal Academy and elsewhere. It is im- 
possible to close the book without being affected 
by the sentiment of a life so prolonged and peace- 
fully lived and by the simple charm of the nature 
which becomes visible through its pages. 

Chats on Old Miniatures. By J. J. Foster, F.S. A. 
(London : T. Fisher Unwin.) 55. net. — Amongst 
the many experts who have recently published books 
on miniatures, Mr. Foster takes high rank on 
account of his insight into the peculiarities of 
technique and appreciation of the difficulties 
with which the exponents of the beautiful art have 
to contend. His work is far more than a mere popu- 
lar chat and gives in a less expensive form pretty well 
all the information contained in his larger volume, 
including descriptions of technical processes such 
as cloissonne and champlevd enamelling, published 
some years ago. It includes an essay on the French 
school, the results of its author's examination of the 
miniatures shown at a recent exhibition at the Biblio- 
thfeque Nationale, Paris. 

In Mr. Grant Richards's publications this season 
are included re-issues of Mr. Grant Allen's Histori- 
cal Guides to Paris and Venice, which have enjoyed 
wide popularity since their first appearance some 
ten years ago. Both volumes (35. 6d. net each) have 
been extensively revised to bring them up-to-date, 
and both are now for the first time illustrated with 
numerous reproductions of works of art. 

A volume entitled Hessische Landes-Ausstellung 
fiir freie und angewandte Kunst, Darmstadt, 1 908, 
published by Alex. Koch, Darmstadt (Mks. 20), 
gives a comprehensive pictorial record of an exhibi- 
tion which was of exceptional interest as reflecting 
the progress of modern art in the Grand Duchy of 
Hesse, whose enlightened ruler has done so much to 
help it forward. As an account of the exhibition was 
given in these pages while it was still an actuality, it 
is only necessary for us to say that this souvenir is 
entirely worthy of the occasion. 

Among the latest accessions to the " Menpes 
Series of Great Masters," now so widely known on 
account of its remarkably faithful reproductions in 
colour of masterjjieces of painting, is Fragonard's 
famous work. The S'wing, of which the original is 
now in the Wallace Collection. 



The Lay Figure 


" Could you tell me who the people are 
that writing men are so fond of describing as art 
lovers ? " asked the Man with the Red Tie. " Are 
there really any art lovers — I mean who lo\ e art for 
herself alone ? " 

" Of course there are," said the Collector. 
" There is a very large number of people who 
have a genuine and sincere affection for art, and 
prove the depth of their affection by generous 
contributions towards the cost of her maintenance. 
What plainer evidence of their feelings could you 
desire than that ? " 

" What, indeed ? " laughed the Critic. " But, 
tell me, are these contributions made out of pure 
disinterestedness, or do these generous lovers look 
for anything in return for their outlay — do they 
regard it as a gift or an investment .' " 

" There you have the whole matter in a single 
sentence ! " cried the Man with the Red Tie. 
" That is what I want to know. Do these people 
we hear so much about want to support art because 
she is the object of their deepest affections, or 
simply because they hope and expect to make 
something out of her ? Is love or self-interest the 
actual inducement ? " 

" What a silly question to ask," returned the 
Collector. " Of course love of art is the reason 
for the expenditure. No man would spend money 
lavishly, with no certain hope of return, except for 
an object about which he felt deeply. If there 
comes eventually a return for his outlay, he looks 
upon that as a fortunate proof of his foresight, but 
not by any means as something which he could 
exactly calculate." 

" Then you would have us believe that all the 
money you have spent on acquiring works of art 
has been laid out simply to prove your affection," 
said the Critic. 

"No, I would not," retorted the Collector. "I 
cannot afford to be extravagant for the sake of a 
, sentiment. I am a business man, and when I 
spend money I must see some way of getting it 
back. Yet I am also an art lover, because by my 
investments, if you like to use that term, I show 
a desire to contribute to the support of art and 
to encourage her activity. I am a discreet lover, 
not a blind and foolish one." 

" A discreet lover, indeed ! " sneered the Man 
with the Red Tie, " a lover who li\es on the earn- 
ings of the object of his affections and profits at 
her expense ! " 

" How do I profit at her expense?" demanded 
the Collector. " If I buy works of art I 
encourage art — that is obvious. Whether I buy 
out of mere admiration for her or in a spirit of 
frank business is a matter which does not affect 
the main principle. 1 am a buyer, anyhow." 

"And being a buyer, you think it does not 
matter whether your manner of dealing with art 
dignifies or degrades her," commented the Critic. 
" You have certainly no sentiment." 

" No, I have to live," replied the Collector. 

" The retort is obvious — I do not see the 
necessity," laughed the Critic. " But, seriously, I 
regard your creed as absolutely pernicious. The 
manner of your buying does affect thfe principle of 
art patronage, and it affects it very definitely. A 
bad spirit in collecting taints the whole art market ;. 
it cramps and restricts the development of art ; it 
makes the work of art a mere article of commerce ; 
and It subjects the whole of art production to those 
arbitrary laws of supply and demand which control 
commercial dealing." 

" Why should art claim exemption from laws 
which are universal ? Why should it not be 
subject to conditions which govern the whole 
system of economics ? " asked the Collector. 
"Why should art be a law unto itself? " 

"Because it is," asserted the Critic; "there is 
no other reason. The love of art is an instinct 
which is entirely independent of economics, a 
passion which suffers no control from expediency 
or commercial prudence. It is an instinct quite 
sui generis, and one which has its origin deep 
down in man's emotional nature — an instinct, too, 
which manifests itself in many subtle ways but not 
necessarily in the acquisition of costly works of 
art, for its possession is independent of wealth — an 
instinct, moreover, quite distinct from that which 
animates and prompts the average collector one 
meets in the auction room buying this that or the 
other thing which he makes a hobby of collecting. 
The true art lover is no speculator with an eye 
always on the market returns ; he is not a dealer 
bribing art to do what pays best ; on the contrary, 
he is a man of a delicate mind who worships 
art because she is pure and uncommercial, and 
because she gives him pleasure of a refined and 
wholesome kind." 

"Then it looks as if my doubts were justified, 
and there are no genuine art lovers," said the Man 
with the Red Tie. 

" I don't go so far as that, but among collectors 
I fear there are not many," replied the Critic. 

The Lay Figure. 



U'illiaiii McTaggart, R.S..-1. 


An intense and passionate love of nature is 
the dominant characteristic of the Celtic tempera- 
ment. To the Anglo-Saxon certain aspects of 
nature inspire dread or fear. In the old Celtic 
literature there is no sense of hostility between 
man and Nature in her wildest or gloomiest moods ; 
thri Celt gloried in the great expanses of earth and 
sea and sky, was sensitive to every passing phase, 
easily stirred to emotional activity and responded 
alike to the influences of storm and sunshine. He 
loved Nature for herself, thinking not of what she 
might produce for him in the way of utility. He 
delighted in the contemplation of the beautiful, 
and rose to the glories of the sublime. 

It is this pure innate love of nature that is the 
inspiring source of the work of Mr. McTaggart. 
It is found in his early pictures, but becomes more 
and more evident with the passing of the years until 
latterly humanity takes its place not as something 
superior to but part of the nature he seeks to paint. 
His career has been a consistent artistic progression 
with no looking backward or divergence into 
wayward paths. It has been a progression from 
grave to gay, from a limited field to a wide 
horizon, from the definite and the minute to the 
freedom of mastery over the means of expres- 
sion, until in these latter days there is no British 
landscape painter who has a more complete 
power of presenting Nature in her richest and 
most glorious effulgence of brilliant sunlight 
than is possessed by Mr. McTaggart. He 
dazzles by the force of the impression he pro- 
duces. Others excel him in repose, equal or 
even surpass him in the mystery and witchery 
of certain aspects of nature, but no Scottish 
artist approaches him in placing on canvas a 
full and complete orchestration of colour or in 
the realisation of motion, whether it be in cloud, 
in wave, in vegetation or in the figure. 

Born in the parish of Campbeltown, where 
his father was a farmer, Mr. McTaggart as a 
boy, working entirely on his own initiative, 
commenced to model from clay on the farm. 
Apprenticed at the age of twelve to Dr. 
Buchanan, who dispensed his own medicines, 
McTaggart utilised his considerable spare time 
in drawing crayon portraits, and then painted 
in oil, though he had neither the benefit of 
teaching nor example. Armed with an intro- 
.\I.\II. No, 196,— Jii.v, 1909. 

duction to Sir (then Mr.) Daniel Macnee, he went 
to Glasgow, and after spending a short time in 
portrait painting in that city he followed Mr. 
Macnee's suggestion and removed to Edinburgh, 
where he entered the Trustees Academy and 
became a pupil of Robert Scott Lauder. There 
he worked in association with Orchardson, Pettie, 
Paul Chalmers and Hugh Cameron, remaining for 
seven years under Scott Lauder's guiding influence 
and also taking some lessons in anatomy. Like 
others of his " brither Scots " Mr. McTaggart made 
excursions to Ireland, not for the study of landscape 
but on portrait painting expeditions to provide the 
wherewithal to carry on the winter studies in Edin- 

It was in the exhibitions of the Hibernian 
Society in Dublin that Mr. McTaggart first showed 
examples of his work, not appearing as an exhibitor 
in Edinburgh until 1855 with portraits in water 
colour. Three years afterwards he showed five 
subject pictures, and from then onwards portraiture 
gradually fell into a subsidiary position, though 
never wholly disappearing from the range of his 
art. In 186 1, his first landscape, The Cornfield, -^sa 
exhibited. It is a noteworthy tribute to the quality 
of Mr. McTaggart's work that while still a scholar 
he was in 1859 elected an associate of the Academy 

rORTRAir OF WII.I.IAM mcta<;gart, r.s. 
IIV Hf;.NRV w. 


JVilliam McTaggart, R.S.A. 

at the same time as J. C. Wintour and Hugh 
Cameron, both of them artists who afterwards 
achieved distinction. During this period Mr. McTag- 
gart showed the pre-Raphaelite influence which 
is very evident in his Past and Present, painted the 
year after he gained associate rank. This influence 
was not only manifest in technique, but in theme, 
and for some years afterwards there was a marked 
choice of serious subjects for his genre pictures. 
Even late in the 'sixties he continued to show this 
tendency, though along with it there was develop- 
ment to a much broader and freer style. His 
diploma work, Dora, which hangs in the Scottish 
National Gallery, has passages of colour and 
breadth of treatment in the landscape that indicate 
the artistic growth that was soon to free the 
painter from all traditional and scholastic restraint. 
But the exhibited Dora was not a first impression. 
It was symptomatic of the painter's mental attitude 

that his first choice was to illustrate Dora's failure^ 
and so he represents her after she had sat with 
the child in the cornfield till the farmer had passed 
unseeing, and " the sun fell and all the land was 
dark." The pathos and mystery of this version of 
Dora appealed strongly to Paul Chalmers, whose 
imaginative spirit was more akin to the sadder 
cadences of Nature than her joyous moods. 

Other pictures that show the serious side are 
E?ioch Arden and The Wreck of the Hesperus, both 
of them works which took a strong hold on the 
popular imagination, though probably if any picture 
were to be selected as that which contributed more 
than any other to draw public attention to his 
work it would be his Willie Baird, inspired by 
Robert Buchanan's poem. These works all in- 
dicate a period of his mental and artistic develop- 
ment when humanity was the dominant note with 
its passion, tragedy and pathos, a period which 

:■. /^ 

'v.- 'W 



William McTaggart, R.S.A. 

was however relieved by intermittent flashes of 
humour that found expression in such subjects as 
Folloiving the Fine Arts — boys running after an 
Italian vendor of plaster figures — and The Press 
Gang — a group of children, some of whom are 
catching others in the sweep of their skipping rope, 
an old Edinburgh frolic which was known by the 
title the artist has adopted. The robust optimism 
of later life is shown in the pictures of which 
Crofter emigration is the theme. In The Emi- 
grants — a group of families leaving a lonely 
Hebridean coast in their fishing- boats to board the 
sailing ship that waits for them in the ofifing — we 
have a picture of the poverty and privation that is 
compelling the departure ; the ditificulties of the 
pathway to a brighter future are indicated in the 
stormy sky and restless sea on which the ship that 
means so much to the voyagers is hardly visible, 
but over it and partly obliterating it with its 
radiance is a shaft of rainbow iridescence that 
lights up the whole scene with its eternal ray of 
hope. The foreground seems but a confused 
setting of human figures, hardly discernible from 

the details of the rocky shore ; but this seeming 
confusion is a studied arrangement, it is the means 
whereby the artist wishes to direct attention not to 
the sad present but to the hopeful future. Another 
theme which has been engaging the artist's attention 
for some years is the mission of St. Columba to 
Scotland; and in two large canvases, not yet 
completed, he shows the arrival of this missioner 
on the Western Coast and his first preaching to 
the Picts on the shores of a Highland bay. 

In the process of development Mr. McTaggart 
has pursued his own path uninfluenced by the 
artistic currents of his own or other countries. 
He once spent a holiday on the Mediterranean, 
and on other occasions visited the galleries of 
Paris, Dresden, Prague, Vienna, Antwerp, the 
Hague and Amsterdam, but these excursions were 
merely tourist expeditions undertaken in the 
company of friends without any art motive. Nor 
did he ever associate much with other artists in his 
own country, as for example did Frazer and Bough 
in Cidzow Forest. All that he has accomplished 
has been the result of personal effort. And as 





M^illiam McTaggart, R.S.A. 

already stated his progress has been consistent. 
No period can be assigned for a new departure, 
even if one takes only exhibited work as the 
criterion. The evolution has been gradual, and 
though the artist has now passed the three-score 
years and ten, which generally mean arrestment 
and limitation of the power to express ideas, there 
is today no evidence of lack of originality in 
conception or enfeeblement of technique. Indeed 
his power seems still on the increase. Only this 
spring I saw a seascape which had just left the easel 
that, in the quality of its colour, ihe rendering of 
light and atmosphere, and the realisation of the 
dash and sparkle of breaking waves, has not been 
excelled by his earlier work. Seldom, if ever, does 
he repeat himself, though he has painted so much 
that, as he facetiously remarked to me, his greatest 
difficulty now was to find a new title for a picture. 

For about twenty years Mr. McTaggart had his 
studio in Charlotte Square, and since then he has 
resided at Broomieknowe, within reach of the 
city, but away from its diversions and harassments. 
Here he has constructed a spacious studio with 
semicircular glass roof, as near an approach to 
open-air conditions as can be obtained. An im- 
portant picture will often be years in the making, 
and in these cases he always dates so as to indi- 

cate the year in which it was commenced and 
that in which i: finally left the easel. Many of his 
landscapes have been painted from the garden of 
his house, from which one obtains a view of quietly 
diversified landscape rising in gentle undulations 
towards the Moorfoot Hills, to which he constructs 
a foreground as in Harvest at Broomieknowe, 
reproduced in colour. Born within sound of the 
waves, and in early life much on the water, Mr. 
McTaggart has always felt the magnetism of its 
attraction, whether under the gray skies of Car- 
noustie or Port Seton, or under the rich warm light 
of a summer day at Machrihanish on the peninsula 
of Kintyre, his native district, to which he is 
a regular summer visitor. On few occasions has 
he sent his work to Burlington House, and during 
the last dozen years his pictures have only at rare 
intervals been seen on the walls of the Royal 
Scottish Academy. To public appreciation or 
criticism he is remarkably indifferent, an indiffer- 
ence which has no basis in hostility, but rather in 
a whole-hearted devotion to his work for its own 

The outstanding feature of Mr. McTaggart's 
work is his power of expressing light, colour and 
movement. He excels in the rendering of the 
sunshine of the full day and in wide, open-air 



William McTaggarl, R.S.A. 






... Ull.l.lA.M .'.Ul AL.v.AkT 

William McTaggart, R.S.A. 

effects. There is never a suggestion in his mature 
work that it is other than a picture completed on 
the spot, except in his supersensitive method of 
dating. It has no taint of the studio. Nature's 

fulness and freedom of 
symphonic beauty are 
expressed with rare under- 
standing and fine sym- 
pathy. There is a con- 
vincing certainty in the 
quality of the hght and 
the way in which it is 
affected by different at- 
mospheric conditions and 
the objects from which it 
is reflected. He is not a 
stylist. Order and sym- 
metry occupy a subordi- 
nate place in his mind, 
and thus we seldom have 
him approaching that 
unity of reposeful beauty 
that distinguishes work by 
Mathew Maris or Corot. 
On the other hand, his 
colour effects are orches- 
tral in their variety, richness and fulness of tone. 
In his composition chiaroscuro plays a small part. 
It is thus impossible to translate him into black- 
and-white without grievous loss. He composes in 





" Chosen Pic tines " at the Grafton Ga/tery 

colour. Figures in his landscape are notes in the 
colour scheme and are frequently introduced for 
no other purpose. In his finest and most impres- 
sive work they lack definiteness of form, but it is 
rare to see a figure that is out of relation to its 
surroundings. They blend with and form an 
integral part of the landscape. In many cases one 
receives but a suggestion of their presence They 
are merely human casuals. A great lover of 
McTaggart's work, who is a well-known Scottish 
art connoisseur, was expatiating one day on the 
beauties of a McTaggart picture to a friend of mine, 
and pausing in his remarks, he stepped nearer to the 
canvas and, looking critically at one part, 
he said, " I used to have a wee lassie here, 
but I've lost her 1 " This observation 
characterises in a sentence the elusiveness 
of these child figures. They have often 
to be searched for, they do not obtrude. 
And yet sometimes a foreground will be 
seen to be full of them peeping from behind 
some boulder or tree stem, and frolic- 
some as elves in the sheer joy of living. 

How realistically, too, does Mr. McTag- 
gart convey the sense of motion, whether 
it be that of the clouds scudding across 
the sky, the fishing-boat dancing on the 
sunlit waves, trees bending to the blast, 
the storm-tossed billows of an angry ocean, 
the rippling arpeggios on the shore, or 
the merry gambols of children at play. 
In Coitiider the Lilies how beautifully the 
rhythmic motion of the dancing children 
is expressed. One even feels that the 
lilies sway their graceful stems in sym- 
pathy. In such circumstances to attempt 
precise definition would be to portray 
the false and produce the petrified results 
of a snapshot camera. It is not on such 
an artificial basis that Mr. McTaggart has 
worked. Nature with him is ever-living, 
untrammelled, free. In his desire to be 
true to this great conception of nature it 
must be admitted that sometimes in later 
years Mr. McTaggart has paid too little 
regard to form. But to no artist has the 
power been given to express himself 
fully in all directions, and where Mr. 
McTaggart has failed it has been in that 
which was of least importance to his art. 
Truly may it be said that his motto is 
" Apprenons \ subordonner les petits 
int^rets aux grands." 

A. Eddington. 



If we had been wishing for an exhi- 
bition that would have given us just now the utmost 
satisfaction, it would have been of the character of 
the " Chosen Pictures '' recently brought together 
at the Grafton Gallery, and our wish would not only 
have coincided with its gratification, but with the 
peculiar moment for such an exhibition. For 
there is a tendency now for the various movements 
to draw together, and a burying of hatchets seems 
to be in progress on every hand. During the last 




''Chosen Pictures^' at tJie Grafton Gallery 

twenty years, or even a much shorter period, there 
have arisen separate groups of painters, with little 
apparently in common, but who are now found to 
have arrived at much about the same point. And 
it is at that point that the forecasts of the future 
must be made. These groups have existed in- 
dependently of each other, although inspired by 
kindred aspirations, and in looking round this 
exhibition we were more conscious of the nature 
of these aspirations than of the differences in the 
expression of them. We were also conscious of 
the promise which the exhibition gave, that this 
moment in the development of painting in this 
country will, when looked 
back upon in times to 
come, be recognised as 
one of a temper and energy 
peculiarly its own. 

Among the separate 
groupings of the past 
under which strongly indi- 
vidual aims have pros- 
pered, are those asso- 
ciated with the names of 
Messrs. Charles Ricketts 
and C. H. Shannon ; 
Messrs. W. Nicholson and 
James Pryde; Messrs. W. 
Orpen and Augustus 
John, and the earlier 
" International " cluster. 
To have these aims shown 
together in retrospect was 
an entirely praiseworthy 
idea. We could see a 
little of the direction in 
which things have been 
travelling, and that where 
we sometimes thought 
confusion reigned, the 
general tendency was in 
the one direction — away 
from superficial realism 
or literary symbolism, to- 
wards work of pure feel- 
ing, carrying with it, as an 
expression of that feeling, 
fluency of composition 
and the rhythm of imagi- 
native decoration, or, on 
the other hand, a striving 
for a closer intimacy with 
Nature, a desire for her 
inspiration in as undiluted 

a draught as possible — and in as direct a way as 
possible in the case of " interpretative " art — we do 
not say " imitative," for that word is abandoned 
as meaning scarcely anything which could not be 
put out of countenance by the camera. 

One was struck by the intimate note in so many 
of the landscape paintings, as if the impressionist's 
first intoxication with the brightness of the morning 
and the sunset had given place to the secrets of less 
sensational hours. And as methods have adjusted 
themselves to this refinement, as in Mr. Mark Fisher's 
paintings, popularity is surrendered ; no appeal is 
made to a public which has not yet, and perhaps 



[By permission of the Stafford Gallery) 

(By permission of Messrs. 
Thos. A^iew &• So)i) 



Chosen Pictures " at the Grafton Gallery 

never will, pass the invisible barrier which divides 
them from all that is not obvious. And so all 
these painters have had to make their own public 
and their own appreciators : but all latter-day criti- 
cism has been in their favour, as it never was in 
favour of revolutionists before. Their intellectual 
and self-conscious attitude towards their own aims 
could not fail to enlist the support of writers who 
understand that attitude better than any other. 

But this self-consciousness has not been without 
its deleterious influence. There is not always pre- 
sent the art which conceals art. One of the most 
admirable pictures in the gallery is Mr. Lambert's 
The Shop : but the particular view of the studio, 
with its grouping of the figures in the canvas, is 
all a very consciously arranged pictorial device. 
Such deliberation of composition is always in 
keeping with the nature of purely decorative paint- 
ing ; but in this work the painting of the faces, of 
the actions, and of the clothes of the figures is 

intensely realistic in its suggestion, and that the 
character of the composition may be identified 
with such essentially spontaneous handling, it 
also should be without evidence of too much 
deliberation. The handling presupposes that the 
view is frankly an impression, and the naivete and 
freshness of this impression are only spoiled by the 
formality of the composition — for it is formal 
although it is not conventional. 

A charming portrait is Mr. Francis Howard's 
Portrait of Mrs. Francis Howard, in what is per- 
haps the best modern tradition, or the best that 
modern art has as yet substituted for a tradition. 
The convention which it subscribes to and which 
^\'histler developed and followed more elusively 
and meaningly than anyone else, is one to which 
some of the best portrait painters of the day have 
contributed, giving it a stability which Whistler 
with his ghostly methods was incapable of and did 
not care for. It is that of the figure turning into 


(By permission of Messrs. Win. Marfhant i- Co.) 





''Chosen Pictures'' at the Graft on Gallery 

or walking down the room, and always seen as far 
in the room as within the frame, never standing as 
if close to a window-pane against the picture glass, 
or making those absurd attempts to leave the 
frame behind it, with which latter-day Academic 
portraiture has familiarised us. 

But perhaps it was not in portraiture that the 
excellence and significance of this exhibition were 
to be found, but in the most intimate of all arts, 
such as Mr. Pryde's, and Mr. Rickett's, and Mr. 
Shannon's ; for here we have what seems to 
promise the greatest things for the future of 
imaginative painting — that return to the conception 
of it possessed by the early Italian masters. The 
visions of thought and imagination are fugitive 
and changeable, and the brush which follows the 
fancy, the imagination, must be as free to obey it 
— to obey the shapes in which things come to the 
mind — as it is trained to obey the shapes that 
present themselves in nature. And it is in their 
apparent perception of this fundamental principle of 

imaginative art that we have a brilliant school of 
imaginative and fanciful painters, whose works live, 
because in them afterthoughts are not allowed to 
slay the parent fancy by the substitution of a 
trivial agreement of fact for essential agreement 
between conception as it leaves the mind and as it 
finds its way to canvas. 

The prefatory note in the catalogue of the 
exhibition explained the failure of the exhibition 
to be quite representative ; but this failure is not to 
be regretted if it provides the excuse for the exhibi- 
tion to be supplemented at a later date by another 
of the same order, including, if possible, the works 
of Mr. ^^'ilson Steer, Mr. George Henry, and others, 
who belong distinctly to the time that is covered. 

Except for the purposes of the remarks which 
the exhibition has inspired, it is not our intention to 
discriminate among the individual works gathered 
together, of which the majority have been seen 
before, many of them having already been repro- 
duced in our pages. 






Architcctiiral Gardening. — / V. 

The process of exclusion was well applied, with 
exceptions such as we have instanced. It would 
have been so easy to imperil the exceptional 
standard. Perfection in the management of such 
a show, like perfection in the arts themselves, 
would appear to be recognised by what is omitted 
as much as by what is retained. Outstanding 
names of artists of whose work selected represen- 
tative examples were shown will convey to readers 
of The Studio the range of the exhibition. They 
included Messrs. A. D. Peppercorn, C. J. Holmes, 
Stirling Lee, M. Greiffenhagen, A. John, J. Lavery, 
F. Cayley Robinson, B. Priestman, A. Jamieson, 


Muirhead Bone, A. Ludovici, Max Beerbohm, F. 
Derwent Wood, and those from whose works we 
have selected our illustrations. 

Some painters were very fully represented. Thus, 
Mr. W. Strang, Mr. Charles Shannon, Mr. Ricketts, 
Mr. W. W. Russell, Mr. W. Nicholson, and Mr. 
George Sauter enjoyed plenty of wall-space, and it 
was in the opportunity of seeing their work, not 
in fragments but grouped in this way, and of thus 
studying the art of contemporaries side by side 
that one was able to form some adequate concep- 
tion of the strength, as well as the underlying 
unity, of aims asserting themselves so variously. 
With the same amount 
of wall extended to other 
eminent painters, and an 
effort made by artists and 
management to fill it to 
the best advantage, a 
• repetition of the exhibi- 
tion is sure of welcome. 
For it corrects a fault of 
the modern exhibition 
system, in which works 
appear only to disappear, 
to be replaced by the 
work of the same painters 
in other moods, under 
other influences, and so 
we are kept from any 
certain knowledge of the 
real history of the pro- 
gress of the individual, 
and of our time. 

T. M. W. 

ING. — VI. 
F.R.I. B.A., AND F. 

If what has previously 
been written in recent 
numbers of The Studio 
by way of explanatory 
notes or comments on 
hv ti.MtNi. J. sui.i.ivAN the illustrations for this 


Architectural Gardening. — / V. 

series of articles, and shown by the drawings 
themselves, has not made clear the importance of 
the pictorial element, and of unity, in house and 
garden design, at least two of the principal objects 
we have had in view through the publication of 
these drawings have failed to accomplish their 
purpose. By " pictorial element " is meant the 
studied arrangement of pictures both within and 
without the house, not only as concerns a com- 
position as a whole, but also the details of its 
various parts. T his element in modern domestic 
work is, in fact, one of the real tests and measures 
of its merit, and claims to be considered as archi- 
tecture in the right sense of that much abused 
word ; and a test to be applied just as severely 
as those other better- known ones relating to 
practical planning, construction, and sanitation. 
It is a curious and instructive comment on the 
popular attitude towards architecture that those 
qualities which are concerned with sesthetic prin- 
ciples and are recognised 
to some extent in painting 
and sculpture, are as a 
rule either considered of 
little value or altogether 
ignored in architecture. 
Yet the building of a house 
and the making of a gar- 
den, if they were rightly 
considered, would be 
treated as far more import- 
ant matters, other things 
being equal, than either 
the painting of a picture 
or the shaping of a statue. 
It is so little understood 
that architecture is the 
mother art, and therefore 
the most important of 
them all. What is done in 
building usually remains, 
a permanent credit or dis- 
credit to its author. If the 
painting or the sculpture 
offends it can be destroyed 
with comparative facility, 
and perhaps enjoyment, 
but bad building (and how 
many miles are there of it 
in our own land?) is not 
so easily disposed of; it is 
a constant source of trouble 
and offence, not only to 
those immediatelv con- 

cerned with it, but to the now ever-widening circle 
of the general public that finds genuine pleasure 
in artistic things. 

Another element in garden design which these 
notes have sought to emphasize is that " final 
refuge of the complex '' termed simplicity. There 
is no more important aesthetic quality to be con- 
sidered than that, and yet it is so seldom found in 
modern work that its presence may be regarded as 
a hall-mark of rare distinction. 

It is impossible to overrate the value of sim- 
plicity in garden work when it can be coupled with 
dignity and repose. The very purpose of a garden 
is to afford rest and relief to the mind and eye 
as well as body, and this cannot be accomplished 
if the eye is wearied and the mind troubled by a 
bewildering plan and a complexity of purposeless 
detail. An excellent and striking illustration of 
the want of recognition of this backbone in design 
is often found in the planting of groves or avenues 




Architectural Gardening. — / Y. 





of trees. An avenue of native trees, such as beech 
or oak or elm, can scarcely be surpassed for fine 
and dignified effect, just that effect of reposeful 
simplicity so much to be desired ; but this is 
destroyed at once by the inclusion of other trees in 
the same design, such as mixed evergreens of the 
pine species. This is not to say that an avenue of 

pines cannot be almost as good (when a common- 
sense regard is paid to the locality, for they do not 
look well in all neighbourhoods and -in some are 
altogether out of place) provided they are all of the 
same kind and size, but the indiscriminate planting 
of varieties, with their different shapes and colours, 
must necessarily result in a hard and discordant 



Arcliitictural Gardening. — / '/. 


sequence, triviality and 
discordance, replacing 
the simple and quiet 
effects of ordered beauty 
so characteristic of the 
old work, and which are 
the natural. result of re- 
strained design. 

This same restless- 
ness, incoherence and 
conflict of intention are 
written all over our 
streets and roads and 
lanes in building no less 
than in garden design, 
and comes from a very 
simple and primitive 
cause — the want of 
sound principle and 
knowledge of the first 
laws that should govern 

effect. At Wymondley Priory, in Hert- 
fordshire, is a very ancient quadrangle 
of box, a sort of extra cloister, planted 
by the monks, of a charm beyond 
description, although the whole effect 
is now suffering from age and former 
periods of neglect. At Pinsbury near 
Sapperton, in Gloucestershire, is a long 
alley of yew of such density that a 
heavy rain scarcely penetrates it, and 
there are also the better- known ex- 
amples at Melbourne, in Derbyshire, 
and the great hornbeam hedge in the 
gardens of Levens Hall, Westmorland. 
The chief beauty of effect in all these 
places is undoubtedly due to the fact 
that the trees are all of one kind. 

This it might reasonably be assumed 
would have been self-evident without 
examples of failure or success to teach 
gardeners. Yet the lessons to be learnt 
from the old gardens, which all agree 
in praising, in the making of the new, 
seem to be ignored altogether in most 
cases, or if they are remembered, the 
desire to profit by the lessons the old 
work teaches, is invariably damaged 
by another desire to improve upon 
them, and so restlessness creeps into 
what ought to be "abodes of peace" 
and repose, bringing with it, as a natural 


{See perspective view on page 102) 


Architectural Gardeninz- — t I- 

the production of all fine art. The fantastic pro- 
cess through which modern building was and, for 
the greater part, still is produced, would be a 
subject for mirth if the results were not so serious. 
Our architecture of to - day is a hotch - potch 
gathered from all sources and put together — it 
can hardly be called designed — in an indiscrim- 
inate and unreasoning way. At one time Belgium 
has been searched for "inspirations," at another 
Holland, another Spain, then Italy, Greece and 
Japan, and now with the entente cordiaU France 
comes to our rescue, and we are told to speak a 
kind of broken French (in some excellent London 
examples the pure French of Paris) in our streets 
and country houses. This is almost as sensible 
a proceeding as if it were proposed, as part of 
our future national education, that French should 
replace the mother-tongue. 

The foundation of all sound principles in art 
is, after all, nothing but that provided by reason 
and common sense. Failing all other knowledge, 
house and garden design will, at least, never be 
offensive if these two qualities form the basis of 
the superstructure and it expresses the purpose it 

is intended to ser\-e in simple and natural terms. 
The designs here illustrated show some endeavours 
to keep on that sound basis. 

The little sketch on page 102 of the exterior 
of a small house surrounded by a compara- 
tively large garden shows, together with the plan 
on page 105, an attempt to design a house on 
the most compact and economical lines possible 
for about the sum of ;^75o, exclusive of course of 
the garden. The plan sufficiently explains the 
general disposition of the rooms, and the perspec- 
tive view the external appearance. The roof 
covering is proposed of reed thatching with ordi- 
nary cheap bricks for the walling thickly white- 

The view on page 103 sufficiently explains the 
character of the external design of this house. 
In plan it has all the principal rooms around three 
sides of a central cloister court, the level of which 
is about 4 feet above the top step of the long flight 
from the riverside and about 9 feet below the 
general level of the principal floor where the 
entertaining rooms are placed. The site itself 
falls rapidly to the river, so that the entrance, 

iiiBpii;i tm 




dp:signed and drawn by F. L. GRIGGS 

Arcliitecttiral Garden iiis[. — / '/. 

^^^^^^fei^^^s^g^^^g ^^^^^g&^^^^^a^^^^^ 


which is on the opposite side of the house to the 
cloister court, is about at the same level as the 
principal floors. A covered walk encloses the garth, 
and is connected on the south side by a small 
staircase with the pergola shown in the drawing 
between the east and west wings. The aim in 
this plan has been to obtain the greatest possible 
amount of privacy without sacrificing too much 
the principal advantages of a riverside house. 

The small cloister court with its covered walks, 
and the garth with its pa\-ed ways and central 
fountain would, being exposed to the south on its 
long side, have to the full the benefit of sunlight 
and air. The little round-headed doorway shown 
in the view would connect this court by means of 
the stepped way, through a wild garden, with the 

The materials for the walls and roofs would be 
the local hand-made bricks and tiles — all the 
walling is proposed of brick, some variation in 
colour being obtained by the use of Daneshill 
bricks in the quoins, chimney stacks and pergola. 

An idea for another 
riverside house is indi- 
cated on page 104, and 
assumes a locality where 
reed thatching is the 
natural roof covering 
such as that to bs found 
in parts of the Eastern 
Counties. For the rest 
the building would be of 
brick, common hard well- 
burnt local bricks, thickly 
whitewashed. The house 
plan contains a central 
hall, a living-room with 
a small sitting-room or 
parlour opening from one 
end, and a large work- 
room or studio from the 
other end, but at a higher 
level, as the sketch shows. 
There is also a small 
dining-room to be used 
for that purpose only, 
and eight bedrooms on 
the first floor with four 
attics over. The water 
shown in the sketch is 
suggested as an exten- 
sion to a backwater, and 
joined to the latter by a 
small garden given up to 
water-plants. All the effect of garden would be 
obtained on this side of the house. There would 
be a paddock and orchard on either side to the 
east and west. 

Entirely simple means are relied upon in the 
second design on page 104, both for pictorial 
and practical results. The plan is arranged in 
order to provide a large square hall in the centre 
of the house, to which the round-headed door- 
way, shown in the sketch, leads from the garden 
side. To the right and left of the hall are the 
drawing and dining-rooms, each with a large 
bay window at its narrow end. These principal 
windows look to the west and east respec- 
tively. The kitchen oflSces are on the east 
side of the entrance court, and there are seven 
bedrooms over. The whole design has been 
carefully arranged within a long and narrow rect- 
angle with an unbroken ridge line, in order to 
obtain the maximum amount of accommodation 
at the minimum cost. 

The same desire, applied to a somewhat smaller 


It 'est Conn^'all crs d Skctc/iiiii^ Ground 

house, is illustrated by the sketch on page 105 — 
which shows a portion of the south front. Here 
all the materials are of the plainest description 
and treated in the traditional manner of the 
district. Colour, texture and form are the only 
factors to be relied on in work of this nature for 
natural effects. The small stream form.s a fence 
between the garden and house. 

The plan of the house at Happisburgh, on page 
106, was illustrated by a pencil view in our March 
number, and a description of the proposed altera- 
tions was given then. The property consisted of 
two extremely dilapidated, and not particularly 
interesting, labourers' cottages, with a cow hovel, 
old sheds and a large barn. Nearly all these 
buildings have been retained and brought into the 
service of the new house. It is situated at the 
end of the land reserved for the new golf links at 
Happisburgh, on the Norfolk Coast, about midway 
between Cromer and Great Yarmouth. 

The illustration of a small house and flower 
garden, on page 107, is another view of the house 
which was shown on page 272 of the May number. 
Reference was made there to the materials of 
which the house is to be constructed ; and a plan 
will be given in a future number. The quality 
aimed at here is spaciousness as well as compactness. 
In a small house and a very limited garden, it is 
not well to try to do too much with the area to be 
disposed of in each. The house, although small, 
has at least one large room, and the garden by 
extreme simplicity ought 
not to appear so circum- 
scribed as it really is. A 
similar effect of breadth 
and simplicity has been 
sought in the design for 
the Bowling Alley on page 
108. The same inten- 
tion, as to size and cost, 
has been aimed at as 
described for the other 
designs, and this has kept 
a useful restraint on the 
general treatment. The 
materials would be rough- 
cast, with dressings of red 
bricks, and a roof of red 
tiles. The lawn should 
show that a better effect 
can be obtained in a 
formal way than if the 
so-called landscape man- 
ner were adopted. 



The " Ends of the Earth " ! What combination 
of words fills us with a more delicious sense of 
vague desire ? One would stand on the brink 
looking over the frontiers of space, gazing into the 
unknowable. It is the suggestion of illimitable- 
ness conveyed by the limit that fires our fancy, 
what is distant grows vast through some trick of 
the imagination. The Irish have a saying that 
"Cows in Connaught have long horns," Con- 
naught being presumably distant. John o' Groats 
possesses a distinction unattained by many a more 
important John simply because his home is the 
Ultima Thule linked in indissoluble association 
with the Land's End. To those who live in 
crowded centres the very thought of capes and 
headlands that thrust themselves out into lonely 
seas comes with a sense of relief from the jostle 
and jumble of the intricate scheme of city life. 
In these days of universal exploration, when the 
pursuit of solitude seems in jeopardy of being 
annihilated by the very facilities offered for its 
attainment, the remoteness of this corner of the 
kingdom from the great centres of population has in 
large measure saved it from the vulgarisation which 
has befallen places more accessible. While still 
out of range of the crowd, the luxurious travel- 
ling facilities provided nowadays by the railway 



(By permission of the Fine Art Society) 


JVesi Conn 

mil as a Sketching Ground 

company have popularised U among people of 
moderate means. . 

West Cornwall, or locally West Penwith, is 
certainly not a country that can cUim to be 
unknown. It has Leen the studio of mnumerable 
artists for nearly a quarter of a century, and has 
drawn to itself distinguished writers and poets not 
a few, some to pass and some to stay. 

Novels and tales have been woven out of the 
homespun of the Cornish fisher's life, and countless 
pictures have been painted of him and his sur- 
roundings, painted too with all the resources of 
modern art. Impressionists have attacked . from 
the point of view of light, the grey school have 
seen it under a dull sky, the story-tellers have 
grouped their models, and it would really seem as 
if the last word must have been said long ago ; but 
there is no last word-at least, not as long as human 
personality gocs to the making of each work of art^ 
Each hand shakes the kaleidoscope afresh and 
each eye sees in nature what it sets out to find. 

The station of St. Erth seems to be at the 
parting of the ways. On the right hand, travelhng 
west There stretches a lagoon fed from the waters 

of the Irish Channel. Hayle is set on Us eastern 
fringe, and on the west is the village of Le an t 
^vhose towans, overlooking the great curve of St. 
Ives Bay, call aloud with the allurements of their 
Rolf links. All the three miles of coast round 
whose sinuosities the train ghdes are full of beauty 
to anyone who cares for the free wholesome sea 
breaking in its many moods on sand and rock. 
The little grey town of St. Ives it seems superfluous 
to describe ; hundreds of brushes have shown its 
rocky peninsula, its fleets of brown-sailed 
lagcers, its tortuous streets, and the amphibious 
life upon its busy sands. A whole generation of 
artists have wrought at it, and if it were possible to 
exhaust that duplex combination, the variety of 
nature's moods and the inventiveness of man, then 
St Ives would be a threadbare theme. St. Erth 
is as I say, at the parting of the ways, having the 
landlocked lagoon on the right hand and on the 
left a countr)' of quite another character, but full 
of possibilities for the landscape painter. Here is 
a countrj' of inland farms and villages, of inoor- 
land and marshland and of old mine workmgs 
whose debris is being slowly reassumed and re- 



■ACROSS THE BAY, FALMOITH " ^^' ^^ll-^-^l-Z^y,,, „f „,, Fine Art Society^ 


m S 

ITesf Conni'all as a Skcfchiug Ground 

111-, nil.].. Ki iNhWiiKl IIV OVAlLK-cul. 

BY S. 

[By pennission of t lie Fine Art Society) 

clothed by nature. Like slumbering volcanoes 
these mines periodically come back into life and 
activity in response to some mysterious promptings 
from Tokenhouse Yard, and then i elapse into 
quiescence in sympathy with decreasing dividends. 
The marshlands lie in the hollow of the land 
from whose high lip one looks over the broad bay 
of St. Michael's Mount. St. Michael has a pro- 
prietary interest, it seems, in all lofty and picturesque 
piles of rock and masonry, and one feels the dig- 
nity of his charge. The 
Mount lines the eastern 
shore hard by the little 
town of Marazion, or 
Machel Jew. It insists, 
perhaps a little too ob- 
viously, upon its pictur- 
esqueness. The Mount 
is one of those beauties 
that love to be seen in 
shop windows, but the 
artist and the judicious 
lover have this in common : 
that they like to see the 
effect of their own wooing ; 
their egotism desires that 
the fruition of their hopes 
should come only after 
some assiduities, and not 
drop into their arms or 
canvases without any coy- 
ness. Such beauties are 
common property, they ■-.^inki-.n ki-.ei ton. sketch) 

have no secrets, no "qual- 
iles cachees." 

At the other end of 
the white curve of beach 
stands Penzance, rising 
from the harbour in a 
gentle slant. Artists are 
like rats — they seek water, 
and very much for the 
same reason, because they 
both manage to pick up 
a living more easily about 
the purlieus of harbours 
and wharves or by streams 
than in dry places. From 
the harbour of Penzance 
the grey town rises most 
effectively; the square 
tower of St. Mary's floats 
in the basin amongst 
Norwegian iceships and 
wriggles amongst the steam trawlers with their 
many coloured funnels. The dome of the market 
place, too, reflects itself in the tide, which, how- 
ever, leaves the harbour dry for a good part of 
each day. The little town has some individ- 
uality of character left, in spite of the modern 
streets that spread themselves here and there with 
a depressing uniformity of design. There still 
remain small backwaters where the flavour of older 
days yet lingers. It is a busy little town, and on 



IVest Coniii'all as a SkctcJiiug Ground 

market days is the centre of an agricultural district 
only bounded by the sea. 

From Penzance to Newlyn is but a mile : this, 
again, is one of those places that have been so much 
described and so much painted that it seems as if 
they must be too familiar to everyone, and that the 
familiarity must have bred, anyhow, a weariness. 
But the Newlyn of today and that of the first artist 
settlers twenty-five years ago are two quite different 
places. When Mr. Stanhope Forbes painted his 
fish sale there was no harbour ; to-day there is a 
spacious one which, large as it is, is crowded with 
fishing boats, steamers, sailing vessels and craft of 
all descriptions. All this has brought a life and 
animation that no one would have dreamt of a 
quarter of a century ago. These men in sabots 
and berets are French crabbers, Bretons who 
supply les petites soupers pansiens with delicate 
langouste caught outside our three-mile limit. 
These large men with blue eyes and fair beards 
are Nor4vegians, come down from the North with 
ice to pack the fish in. Yonder black-hulled 

steamer just leaving the harbour is bound for 
Genoa with pickled pilchards to help devout 
Italians through Lent. Here is a circle round a 
man with a hand-bell and high wading-boots ; he 
is selling a "lot" of fish. Carts are being loaded 
up to catch the "Perishable" train. All is 
activity and bustle : but here and there are little 
knots of imperturbable fishermen, hands in trouser- 
pockets, pipes in mouths, who make brief quarter- 
deck turns. Slow of speech are these men, grave, 
and with eyes that seek the horizon. 

Above all this life and movement rises the 
village, gray and for the most part of a respectable 
age : solid granite cottages that climb the hill in 
irregular streets, or lanes cobbled and resounding 
to the footsteps of the heavy- booted fishermen who 
lurch up and down to and from their luggers that 
lie in marshalled lines, each mast having a gull 
standing like an heraldic emblem on the summit. 
Women group themselves at doorsteps gossiping, 
holding babies or chiding children with shrill 
vehemence and petting them with equally strange 




JFesf Coruicall as a Sketching Ground 



epithets. " Come ye here, Thomas Henry, my 
beauty, my worm, come ye here, I do tell ye. Lave 
'im alone, Elizabeth Ann, I'll break your back 
for 'ee." 

In amongst these simple primordial folk who 
get their living by catching sea creatures, there 
lurks that ultra-sophisticated being, the artist, who 
gets his by catching the catcher, immeshing his 
character in lines more or less cunningly set. 
Their studios, old cottages or sail lofts fitted wiih 
big windows, come upon one here and there, as 
well as the newer erections of more pretentious 

Following the winding cliff southward one soon 
comes to Mousehole, a little fisher village as 
primitive as its name might seem to suggest. 
Smaller than Newlyn now, it was once of rather 
more importance. Above the gray granite village 
of clustered and huddled cottages and the small, 
closely-packed harbour rises the hill to Paul, the 
Parish Church. Old Richard Carew, of Antonie, 
tells how, one summer morning — "The three- 
and-twentieth of July, 1595, soon after the sun 
was risen and had cleared a fogge, which before 
kept the sea out of sight, 4 gallies of the enemy 
(Spaine) presented themselves upon the coast over 

against Mousehole, and there in a faire Bay landed 
about two hundred men, pikes and shot, who 
foorthwith sent their forlorne hope, consisting of 
their basest people, unto the straggled houses of 
the countrie, about halfe a mi'e compasse or more, 
by whom were burned, not only the houses they 
went by, but also the Parish Church of Paul, the 
force of the fire being such as it utterly ruined all 
the great stonie pillars thereof ; others of them in 
that time burned that fisher towne Mowgehole ; 
the rest marched as a gard for defence of those 
firers." Here we get a glimpse into the past, the 
summer day, the " faire Bay," the armed Spaniards, 
with shot and pike, the sun gleaming on their 
morions and gorgets, streaming up amongst the 
scattered houses with smoking brands, the frighted 
villagers, men, women and children, seeing from 
afar the flames and blue smoke that represented 
all they possessed. Sir Francis Godolphin played 
the man that day, but in the end the galleys got 
away, having taken all the revenge they could for 
the mishaps of their greit Armada seven years 

At Newlyn and Penzance the land is creased by 
wooded coombes that run between the steep hill 
sides. Here on the south slopss, and sheltered 


ITesf Coni7calI as a Skeff/ii/icr Ground 

from the 

great quantities, for ihe 
spring is caught in the 
labyrinths of these gar- 
dens long before the 
uplands have ihaken ofi 
their winter sleep. If 
one stands on the high 
ground over Penzance and 
looks westward it will be 
seen that towards the 
north the land is piled up 
into tall and barren carnts. 
Stony for the most part, 
these hills have in the 
spring a royal mantle of 
purple and gold in gorse 
and heather. Southward 
the land is an undulating 
table with here and there 
a shallow valley, but the 
uplands are treeless grass 
and fallow lands over 
wind, are gardens of flowers and early which white gulls drop down the wind with wailing 
Narcissi and brocoli are grown in cries as they circle round some brown field that 



(By permission of Messrs. Dowdeswells) 

"the eternal surge" 


IFcst Ci rz/'iL'tr// trs a S/ccfc/iiitu Ground 

(By permission 0/ jilessrs. Dowdeswel/s) 

the farmer is carving with slow, straining horses. 
Possibly he ploughs amongst great granite boulders 
that his forefathers set up some time in the dim 
past, it may be to worship, or, as some maintain. 

as enduring calendars 
10 mark with ihtir point- 
ing fingers the seasons 
for planting as the yearly 
process'on of the heavens 
slowly bends some con- 
stellation to the opposite 

The square - towered 
churches that dot the land 
and here and there a 
roadside Celtic Cross are 
almost the only links that 
bind to-day with the age 
that set up the stone 
circles and dolmens; 
which goes to show how 
much more enduring 
thought is than the 
material adjuncts of life. 
The farmhouses seem to 
have almost no antiquity ; 
fur the most part they are 
hideous in their villa like modernity, absurdly out 
of place on this primitive unchanging peninsula. 
One would like to see some traces of the lives led 
through all the long ages that followed the men 



■; Ml -TIN 

I'Fest Coynivall as a Sketching Ground 

" NEW bridge" 

who left us the British villages 
dwellings, those wonderful surv 
mysterious past. But, after 
all, it is life that kills life, 
each succeeding genera- 
tion obliterating its pre- 
decessor, while in lonely 
deserts Nineveh and 
Palmyra still remain. 

There are several little 
coves and bajs on the 
South coast that harbour 
a small cluster of fisher- 
folk. Crabbers for the 
most part, they also make 
an occasional haul with 
mullet or some such oce in 
dainty. Lamorna, Pen- 
berth, Forth Gwarra and 
Sennen : these coves are 
usually the ends of valleys 
which close in some 
pleasant, murmuring 
streamlet that comes re- 
joicing down between the 
steep hills to the sea. 

Sennen Cove, hard by 


and underground 
ivals from out the 

the Land's End, is the largest of these 
fishing villages, and here, too, artists have 
set up their studios amongst the fishermen's 
cottages. The sea raves and riots amongst 
the reefs and rocks that are strewn about 
the pathless ways of the adventurous fisher. 
The "Armed Knight" and the "Irish 
Lady " and many another jagged mass of 
granite, against which the sea frets and 
moans, all have tales to tell of wreck and 
disaster. Half our coasting commerce is 
constantly skirting this dangerous corner, 
and long trails of smoke mark the passage 
of tramp and liner as they wallow and roll 
round Cape Cornwall and the Land's 
End. Away on the horizon are the gray 
ghosts of what was once (legend tells us) 
the land of Lyonesse, but is today the 
group of Scilly Islands, where fish and 
flowers also form the harvest of the inhabi- 

Beneath the rim of the Atlantic the sun 
quenches its light, and the flashing beacons 
of the Trinity Brethren light up with their 
millions of candle-power these perilous 
waters. The "Bishop," away to the west 
of the Scillonian Archipelago, whirls his 
ominous beam, Pendeen warns the steersman 
on southward-bearing craft, the " Longships " 



Sculpt m-c by Mrs. ronnoh 

"baby" (bronze) 


marks the Land's End, and the "Wolf" flares 
from his lonely tower to the south. The fishermen 
push out in their small craft, launching themselves 
on their fateful calling ; soon their riding lights 
will twinkle on the darkling waters and the world 
ashore settle down to sleep, save that half a mile 
down underground and extending a mile and a 
quarter beneath this terrible sea, other lights are 
glimmering in shafts and galleries where men pick 
and hew ihe very foundations of the deep to gather 
a living for wives and children in the upper air. 

X. G. 




There is a decidedly personal note in 
the work which is being done by Mrs. Bessie 
Potter Vonnoh, the American sculptor. She looks 
at her art with a certain clearness of conviction 
and frankness of intention, which can be welcomed 
as expressive of her sincerity as a worker, and as 
revealing her belief in important fundamental prin- 
ciples upon which all the details of her practice are 
founded. She works, too, it can be seen, under the 
influence of a sentiment which is characteristically 
dainty, which has delicacy without weakness and 
tenderness without sentimentality. 

But one of the greatest inerits of her production 
is its essential femininity — its freedom, that is to 
say, from that affectation of the masculine manner 
which spoils so much of the work for which women 
artists are responsible. Many women, indeed, 
seem to be under the misapprehension that to 
allow their feminine outlook to become perceptible 
in their art is to stamp themselves as lacking in 
aesthetic understanding, and to admit a kind of 
artistic inferiority. They do not try to develop 
the characteristically feminine side of their inspira- 
tion, but seek to put fonvard their ideas in what 
they imagine would be the man's way. Mrs. 
\'onnoh fortunately does not commit this mistake. 
Her sculpture has genuine feeling, and it has, too, 
just the degree of technical power needed to make 
this feeling properly persuasive. Its vigour and 
certainty of handling are unquestionable, but it 
has none of that demonstrative robustness which 
would have resulted from an attempt to convey an 
impression of masculine audacity ; rather is it con- 
vincing in its gentle restraint, its reticence and 
simplicity, and above all, its charm of womanly 

That the artist has looked closely at the Tanagra 
terra-cottas is plainly suggested in most of the 
statuettes illustrated — in The Youii^ Mof/ur, for 


Sculpt lire by Mrs. J^ounoh 



instance, the group Enthroned, the Sketch, and 
most of all, perhaps, in the Cinderella — but 
reference to classic precedent has not made 
her unsensitive to modern life suggestions. Her 
work is agreeably alive, and has a pleasant 
spontaneity which shows that it owes quite as 
much to impressions of the moment as to study 
of antique tradition. 

No doubt, the personal quality of her achieve- 
ment comes to some e.xtent from the manner of 
her training. The only art education she has 
received was during a period of three years' 
study at the Chicago Art Institute ; beyond that 
she must be accounted as self-taught, for she 
has worked in no other school at home or 
abroad, though she has added to her experi- 
ences and enlarged her outlook by foreign travel. 
But on the comparatively slight foundation of 
three years' schooling in art she has built up a 
sufficiently complete executive system, and she 
has by the exercise of her own intelligence found 
out how she can best apply her capacities. That 
she has not wasted her energies is seen by the 
record of her successes — a bronze medal was 
awarded to her at the Paris Exhibition in 1900, 
when she was not more than twenty-eight years 
I 22 

old, and four years later she received a gold 
medal at the St. Louis Exhibition ; and ex- 
amples of her work have been acquired for the 
Metropolitan Art Museum at New York and 
for many other similar institutions. She is, too, 
a member of the American National Sculnture 
Society and of the National Academy of 
Design. Her position in the art world has 
been well earned by sincere effort and by 
thoughtful regard for correct aesthetic principles ; 
and she deserves the recognition she has re- 
ceived because she has been consistent in her 
striving after individuality of the right type. 





Recent Designs in Domestic Architcciiirc 



" Dormers," Bovingdon, Herts, of 
which the drawingreproduced on this page shows the 
entrance front, is a house now nearing completion 
upon a charming site some ten acres in extent, 
about 2\ miles from Boxmoor. The external walls 
are of 14-in. brickwork roughly rendered with 
cement stucco and whitened ; the plinth, chimney- 
stacks and dressings, as well as the walls of the 
forecourt, being in red brick of varied tints ; while 
the roofs are covered with hand-made sand-faced 
tiles. The accommodation consists on the ground 
floor of hall, spacious dining and drawing rooms (the 
longest dimensions in both cases being 23 feet) 
all opening on to the loggia, a morning-room, 
servants' sitting-room and the usual offices. On 
the first floor there are .seven bed and dressing 
rooms, bathrooms, etc. ; and on the top floor, 
in addition to a large billiard or play room affording 
beautiful views over the surrounding country on 
all sides, there are two bedrooms, a bathroom, 
boxroom, etc. An entrance lodge is also being 
constructed in connection with the house. Mr. 
Walter E. Hewitt, A.R.I. B.A., of London, is the 

Our next illustrations have special interest for 

architects who are called upon to make extensive 
additions to an existing building of an unattractive 
type. In the case of " Marrowells," at Walton-on- 
Thames, Mr. Winter Rose had to incorporate in 
his scheme a villa which originated in one of the 
most unfortunate periods of domestic architecture 
in this country (it was built about i860), and it 
was desirable to build in as much as possible of 
this structure while altering the proportions of the 
still remaining features. The problem of planning 
which confronted him was, therefore, by no means 
an easy one. By adopting an angular treatment of 
the plan he was able to give the best rooms an 
outlook on the new garden, which is being laid out 
on architectural lines, and the aspect being south- 
west, a full share of the sun was secured for them. 
The new work, indicated in the plan on p. 127 by 
solid black lines, is designed to be executed in 
solid oak framing and local brick nogging, whilst 
the roof is covered with old and new mingled local 
tiles. The wmdows are metal casements, filled 
with leaded lights. The stables are approached 
through an archway under the chauffeur's quarters 
(shown in the first of the two illustrations on the 
next page), which are grouped around the courtyard 
at the rear of the house. The other view we give 
is of the garden front. Both illustrations are from 
drawings by the architect. 


Recent Desims in Domestic Architecture 



The cottage shown opposite was designed by Dartmoor and the contiguous Cornish moors, and 
Mr G. Berkeley Wills, for an elevated site near intended for use chiefly as a summer residence, the 
Brent Tor. commanding e.xtensive views over requirements of golfers being kept especially in 



Recent Designs in Domestic Architecture 


view. The materials proposed to be used in con- 
struction are local stone with granite dressings and 
stone slated roof : the exterior woodwork being 
painted white. The plan has been made as com- 

pact as possible, 
five bedrooms being 
provided on the first 
floor. A feature of 
the plan is the ver- 
andah overlooking 
an extensive tract 
of country. 

The house illus- 
trated on page 128 
is one which has 
been erected at 
Mapperley Park, on 
the outskirts of 
Nottingham, from 
the designs of the 
late Mr. Harlow 
Butters. It occu- 
pies a fine site with 
an extensive out- 
look embracing the 
city and the country 
beyond. E.xternally 
the walls are rough- 
casted and lime 
whitened, the plinth and chimney caps being 
constructed of 2-inch hand - made bricks from 
Loughborough. From the same place came the 
hand - made sand-faced tiles used for the roof. 








Sfitdio- Talk 



The whole of the external woodwork is in oak, 
that used for the posts and beams forming the 
porch and verandah being old wood supplied by 
the owner. Oak has also been employed internally 
for panelling the hall and lounge, while the other 
reception rooms and Jhe principal bedrooms have 
been treated in white wood. The small inset plan 
reproduced with the perspective sketch shows the 
accommodation on the ground floor. On the 
floor above there are six bedrooms, linen closets, 
a boxroom and bathroom. 

(From Our Own Correspondents.) 

LONDON. — Mr. Clausen's recent exhibition 
at the Leicester Galleries, to which we 
briefly referred in advance when repro- 
ducing some characteristic works included 
therein, represented his prolonged contest 
and many triumphs in a form of art where no 
perfect achievement comes easily or by receipt, 
where the difficulties are new ones on every occa- 
sion, and new to art as well as to the painter. 
The problem of sunlight is more difficult in a 
climate like our own than in southern countries, 

and the comparative greyness of the brightest day 
in England baffles the luminists. There are 
moments when even Mr. Clausen, with his passion 
for light, Js almost betrayed and his art in danger 
of losing the qualities of intimate knowledge, the 
sincere realism, that restrains —but this on the 
rarest occasions, and his exhibition was a series of 
extraordinary triumphs at just those points where 
so many of his contemporaries compromise or 
evade the only logical but greatly difficult issues 
of their encounter with bright light. Under no 
circumstances does the grasp of form of so sensitive 
a draughtsman as Mr. Clausen become obscured. 
With outline melting everywhere, the form remains 
within the effect, shapely, definite and quite matter- 
of-fact. Things prosaic in themselves are lyrically 
treated, but not without license. In the case of 
such a painter nothing could be more welcome to 
the student of modern painting than such a collec- 
tion of his works as that brought together, for only 
thus could an estimate be taken of his achieve- 
ments and the diversity of his talents meet with 
full appreciation. 

Simultaneously with the exhibition of Mr. 
Clausen's paintings Mr. Francis James exhibited a 
collection of his flower-pieces at the Leicester 


Galleries. If the artist has a rival in painting them 
in water-colours it will only be among those to 
whom he has communicated his own point of 
view. In this show his art was at its happiest, 
and in such things as A Studio Note at its very 
highest, the slight suggestive treatment compress- 
ing no end of knowledge of flowers and of art. 
Of Brabazon slightly but very welcomely remi- 
niscent, such studies were yet peculiarly the ex- 
pression of the artist's own attitude towards 

From an exhibition at the Dore Galleries of 
some forty sketches of Victoria, British Columbia, 
by Mrs. Beanlands (nk Sophie T. Pemberton), 
we reproduce one which fully evidences her 
genuine feeling as a landscape painter. Mrs. 
Beanlands is the wife of Canon Beanlands, of 
Victoria, B.C. As a figure and portrait painter 
she studied under Mr. Cope at South Kensington, 
at the Westminster School of Art, and at Julien's 
in Paris, where she won a gold medal for por- 
traiture in the atelier of MM. J. P. Laurens and 
Benjamin Constant, as well as the Smith-Julien 
prize. But as a landscape artist she is entirely 
self-taught, and has developed her own style as a 
student of nature upon the Pacific Coast, a region 
of brilliant sunshine and pellucid atmosphere. 

Mrs. Beanlands has been a frequent exhibitor in 
past years at the Royal Academy and the Paris 

The Fine Art Society were showing last month, 
in addition to a notable collection of Japanese 
prints, a group of paintings in oil and water- 
colours entitled In the Land of the Latins, by 
Onorato Carlandi, characterised by the breadth 
and freedom of treatment which we remarked in a 
previous exhibition of his at this gallery. In a 
later issue we hope to reproduce some examples of 
Sgr. Carlandi's pictures. 

Messrs. Wallis & Son of the French Gallery are 
to be congratulated on the fine selection from the 
works of Josef Israels, Matthew Maris, Henri 
Harpignies, and L4on Lhermitte, of which their 
last exhibition was composed. It is not always at 
its best that the school to which these painters 
belong is represented in public exhibitions. The 
Young Cook, by M. Maris ; La Nourrice, by 
Lhermitte, and A Farm at Mont Fere, by the same 
artist, come back to our mind as amongst the 
treasures of the show, and such a work as A View 
on the Oise stamped itself on the memory as 
representing Harpignies, the great master of still- 
ness and untroubled scenes. 



studio- Talk 

At the Carfax Gallery the Hon. Neville Lytton 
and Mr. Charles Louis Geoffroy held an exhibition 
together. There is some similarity in their aims — 
the cultivation of the traditional. They are both 
very content with scholarship for its own sake, and 
Mr. Lytton adds a sense of romance. As a 
draughtsman in water-colours of landscapes Mr. 
Geoffroy's talent takes an extremely high place, 
but in them again it is nature always viewed 
through old conventions. 

Messrs. Dowdeswell's Galleries were very in- 
teresting last month in the exhibition of the art 
of Jan Steen (1626-1679), with its Hogarth like 
command of dramatic grouping and impulsive 
acceptance of every phase of life for subjects. In 
such single panels as the one of his wife with a 
mandoline, there is, perhaps, most opportunity to 
study the beautiful and intimate qualities at the 
expense of which some of his larger can\ases 
attained their cordial readiness to embrace the 
difficulties of complicated moving scenes. At 
the same galleries Miss Eleanor Fortescue 
Brickdale's drawings, inspired by Browning's 
poems, exhibited all the characteristics of her 
painting to advantage. They showed in many 
fine passages of work advancement even on 
previous success, and an imagination always 
responsive to poetical influence. This respon- 
siveness was refreshing, since the poetic title is 
still adhered to in some quarters only as an 
adventitious interest to the actual painting. 

Mr. Arthur Studd's exhibition at the Alpine 
Club last month was of especial interest. Mr. 
Studd is in love with Venice, and it is to her 
ser\'ice that the chief part of his talent has 
been devoted. He has cared little, however, 
for the many-coloured splendour in which a 
multitude of her lovers has delighted to deck 
her. Instead of the numberless gems of every 
hue, he has chosen the opal alone as the sym- 
bol of her beauty, and has taken pleasure rather 
in evoking through a veil of misty greys and 
blues a subtler variety of shifting tints. He has 
painted her as she has appeared to him, quite 
simply in a mantle of vapour and with her 
girdle of the sea, and has sought in each 
picture to give a kind of lyrical expression to 
the mood induced by what he has seen and 
felt. Next to Venice, he has been particularly 
attracted by the queen of Spanish cities, Seville. 
In the formation of his style Mr. Studd has 
come largely under the influence of Whistler, 

with whom he was on terms of friendship. It 
is evident, at the same time, that he has learned 
much at first hand from some of the original 
sources of inspiration to which the phase of art 
represented by his master is itself indebted. His 
paintings are always agreeable in tone and pleasing 
in design, and they are at the same time clearly 
the work of a refined culture and a loving hand. 

At the Ryder Gallery last month Mr. Stewart 
Dick exhibited a collection of water-colours and 
paintings, principally of Spanish scenes. Mr. Dick is 
much more successful with the medium of water- 
colour, which he handles with greater firmness and 
decision than is apparent in his oils, and in addition 
his water-colours reveal a finer harmony of colour. 
The qualities we refer to were seen to advantage 
in such subjects among others as Vieiv from the 
Bridge of Toledo, Madrid ; Church of San Antonio, 
Madrid : and Trees in Knole Park, Sevenoaks. 



studio- Talk 

'THE GREAT WHITE DOME" (By permission of His Honour Judge Sanders] BY ARTHUR STUDl) 




studio- Talk 

The reredos illustrated on this page has been 
made to the design of Mr. Frank L. Pearson, and 
its execution entrusted to Mr. Starkie Gardner. 
It is of repousse bronze, known as "gilding" 
metal, relieved by a jewelled and enamelled 
border and spandrels of filigree, and measures 
about 7 feet by S feet. The whole has been gilt by 
the mercur}' process and finished to a dull hand 
polish. There is no modelled or applied work in 
the embossing, nor any casting whatever in the 
reredos. The central panel is recessed and beaten 
in high relief, the figure of our Lord being almost 
disengaged from the background, out of which it 
was hammered. Over the panel is a projecting 
domed canopy, and below a projecting tabernacle 
or ciborium — the framing of this central plaque 
being completed by the four archangels also under 
canopies. On either side on a nearer plane are 
scenes of the Passion in bas relief under arcades, 
the spandrels filled in with filigree and jewels. 
Rough models of the figures were produced by 
Mr. Nathaniel Hitch to guide the embossers, to 

whom, as to the rest of the workers, considerable 
freedom was allowed. The arcaded base projects 
a few inches, and the whole is recessed within 
a frame, the splayed member consisting of a rich 
filigree border with cloisonne enamels and jewels. 
These are mostly semi-precious rock crystal with 
its amethystine and topaz varieties, emeralds, 
sapphires, garnets, lapis, pearls and occasional 
translucent enamels. The backing is oak covered 
with old crimson velvet brocade, and the supports 
are of forged and gilded iron. It stands in a 
subdued light, the central object in a crypt of rich 
marble and mosaic work. 

Charles Conder found in the shape of the fan 
both a basis for design and a much needed limit 
ready set to his faculty for exhaustless improvi- 
sation. In the fan which we reproduce, as with 
the Japanese, the decoration is subordinate to the 
character of the object decorated. This is a 
virtue not to be discovered always in later work. 
From some examples of his art it is to be presumed 





/ / 



that he only retained the fan shape 
for the reasons we have indicated, 
and as an excuse for the silk 
surface upon which he preferred 
to work. But the fan is only an 
incident in the story of his paint- 
ing, and to refer to him, as one 
writer did at the time of his death, 
as the master of the fan, is some- 
what to obscure the nature of his 
genius as a painter, which was 
great enough in itself to be alto- 
gether independent of the ends to 
which he adapted it. 


GLASGOW. — Miss Marion 
Wilson, one of the many 
alumni of the Glasgow 
School of Art to develop 
marked individuality, works in such 
metal mediums as brass, copper, steel 
and block tin ; selecting her subjects 
from the full figure, cherubs' heads, 
ships in full sail, the peacock, the night 
owl, and the decorative rose ; with 
these and other motifs she embellishes 
screens, overmantels, hanging and table 
clocks, jardinieres, mirror frames, vases, 
plaques, sconces, door furniture, electric 
bell pushes, switch plates, and other 
adjuncts employed in the decoration of 
the house. In every case the designing 
and craftsmanship are alike distin- 


guished, and the method adopted by the artist, 
of throwing the deeper parts of the work into 
shadow by smoking the whole metal surface in 
the flame of a candle, thereafter polishing the 
raised parts, enhances the effect materially. In 
such work as that now illustrated, the detail is 
all executed with assiduous care, and particularly 
in the steel -panels and those in "antique brass," 
the contrast of almost black-and-white resulting 
from the process described, is most striking. 
Like many other modern artists Miss Wilson is 
not limited to one department of art ; she paints 



studio- Talk 

and models ; and her pictures and casts arc to be 
seen from time to time at many of the local 

The art of embroidering is extensively practised 
here, and no one brings greater charm of 
execution to it than Verona T. \V. Smith. Her 
design is always striking, but its chief merit lies in 
the skill with which the colours are blended, the 
foundation and pattern forming a harmony at once 
complete and pleasing. This is a strong point 
with artists of the Glasgow School, as frequenters 
of exhibitions know ; in applied art it is particu- 
larly marked. Miss Smith does not confine her 



attention to needle-work ; enamelling has great 
attractions for her, and she has drawn many fine 
examples from the kiln. 

In the ever-widening circle of artistic workers in 
Glasgow, Miss Ue C. Lewthwaite Dewar takes a 
deservedly high position ; her work showing 
imaginative charm and executive ability. She is a 
native of Ceylon and her portfolio contains a strik- 
ing series of sketches of that sunny island ; her 
studio is rich in water-colour and illuminated draw- 
ings, beaten metal work, enamelling, engraving, 
dainty work in jewellery — for which the fingers 
of a woman seem specially fashioned, and book 
illustration, to which Miss Dewar brings a wide 
culture and a full devotion that ensures alike 
interest and success. The triptych here illus- 
trated is a striking example of the artist's method ; 
the simple directness in the design of (Glasgow's 



coat- of - arms, in which the incident connected 
with Saint Mungo is too often hopelessly involved. 





,is in keeping with 
the restraint that 
characterises the 
outside of the 
casket, ^\'ithin, 
the rich cham- 
pleve enamel 
with sumptuous 
lustre, is in strik- 
ing contrast, 
typical of the- 
varving moods of 
the artist. The 
small casket in 
silveroid on this 
page, set with 
lumps of enamel 
as jewels held in 
position by per- 
forated straps of copper, represents a successful 
experiment in enamelling. J. T. 

PARIS. — At the Salon des Artistes Fran^ais 
this year, the work of M. Vila y Prades, 
a young Spanish artist of considerable 
talent and a robust style, attracted notice. 
His previous contributions already made us ac- 
quainted with his undoubted gifts, and notably 
his large triptych called Le dernier Ami, 
a mournful page from Breton life. It has 
not, however, been this side of his art that has 

announced his "arrival." Of Spanish descent he 
finds in the subjects of his own country the best 
expression of his art. This fact he has brilliantly 
attested this year in his large work Le Depart, an 
episode from the races at Valencia in the eighteenth 
century, and of which further description is ren- 
dered unnecessary by the reproduction which 
accompanies these notes. It is the work of a 
brilliant colourist, who has broadly and boldly 




" LE LAIN ■ 

distributed his light and shade, and who has here 
succeeded in giving us those extraordinary con- 
trasts which constitute the secret of the Spanish 
school of painting. M. ^'ila y Prades is a disciple 
of Sorolla y Bastida, and one can with truth assert 
that the pupil is worthy of the master. Like him, 
Vila is an excellent painter 
of seascapes, and his pal- 
ette renders the loveliest 
cerulean and glaucous 
tones of the Mediterra- 
nean. I will only cite his 
painting Dans Feait here- 
with reproduced, which 
shows us a woman wad- 
ing through the breakers. 
The picture Le Bain is 
on account of its light 
equally excellent. Up till 
now Vila y Prades has 
been little known in 
France. He had a trium- 
phant exhibition at 
Buenos Ayres, and I trust 
it will not be long before 
we see an ensemble of his 
works either in Paris or 
BY I. VILA V PRADES in London which shall 




be crowned with the 
indubitably deserres. 

success which his talent 

' .^n exhibition of paint- 
ings by Claude Monet is 
always an important event 
in Paris, and furthermore 
it is the case with this great 
artist, as with Rodin, that 
no matter what pictures he 
exhibits, no matter what 
criticisms may be levelled 
against him, one finds ever 
in his work new evidence 
of a strong and noble per- 
sonality and of great con- 
scientiousness. M. Claude 
Monet showed recently in 
the Durand-Ruel galleries 
forty-eight paintings, the 
fruits of his work during 
the last five years, to which 
he has given the general 
title of Les AWmphcas, pays- 
age d'eau, each depicting at 
different seasons of the year 
and differertt hours of the 

day the diverse aspects of a little lily pond in the 
artist's garden at V^theuil. In this series Monet 
has returned to a method, already followed with 





{By permission of MM. Durand-Ruel) 


much success in his paintings of cathedrals and 
other subjects, in which his great talents as a 
colourist are triumphantly displayed. 

The ^vorks on exhibition formed a very beautiful 
enstmble, and will certamly rank as one of the most 
notable artistic achievements of recent years. One 
could not have imagined it possible to depict, as 
the artist has done with so much grandeur, these 
few square yards of water, in which the sky is 
reflected — now restless and stormy, now calm and 
still. Only a painter of Claude Monet's refined 
and delicate vision could have succeeded in 
capturing our attention and fascinating us by a 
repetition forty-eight times of the same theme ; in 
fact, the lines and drawing remain always the 
same, although the colouring and lighting vary 
every time. I am convinced, however, that these 
pictures will gain immeasurably by being seen 

apart from one another, and that to appreciate 
them at their full value we must wait until they 
appear separately in the various galleries and 
private collections. H. F. 

VIENNA. — Some seven years ago a youth 
begged admittance as a student at the 
Imperial Arts and Crafts School here. 
He was poor and unknown, his German 
was so scanty that he could not make himself 
understood, but the drawings he showed spoke so 
eloquently that Baron Myrbach, the then director, 
at once accepted him as a pupil in his own special 
class. This youth was Tomislav Krizman. He 
had run away from his home in a tiny place in 
Croatia, resolved to undergo all hardships rather 
than enter the commercial life for which he had 
been trained. His parents had no sympathy with 
art, but in the boy the artistic impulse was all- 



powerful. Before he came to Vienna he had 
never had a lesson in drawing, but at a very early 
age his talent showed itself. He used to sell his 
drawings, and carefully hoarded his small gains in 
preparation for his flight. In Vienna he had to 
keep himself going by designing placards, never, 
however, losing sight of his larger aims. He has 
already begun to reap the rewards of his persever- 
ance. With the proceeds of two exhibitions, held 
in his own studio, he has been able to go to Paris, 
where he is now studying and experimenting, in 
the hope of finding some new methods in graphic 
art. His prints have also been acquired for the 
Albertina and other collections. An etched por- 
trait he exhibited at the Kiinstlerhaus attracted 
the notice of the Emperor, who gave him a 
commission to go to Bosnia and make a series of 

Krizman is a wood engraver and an etcher, and 
has distinguished himself both in portraiture and 
landscape. For portraits he prefers large plates, 
which, after etching in the usual manner, he 
finishes with touches of the dry point, so as to 
obtain that softness which he considers essential 

in such cases.- But it is perhaps in his scenes 
from Dalmatia, Herzegovina, and Bosnia that his 
individuality of perception and method is best 
displayed. These form the subject of numerous 
wood engravings and etchings, and have been 
rendered with much poetic feeling. The pro- 
cedure he pursues in his coloured etchings is inter- 
esting. These are much smaller than his portrait 
plates ; they are drawn with the needle, but the 
etching is deliberately allowed to go deeper than 
usual in order that greater softness and gradation 
of tone may be achieved. For the colour impres- 
sion, obtained from the same plate, he uses oil 
colours, which he works in with his fingers, mixing 
them in this way as he goes along. By this 
means he obtains the fine colour and atmospheric 
effects and the soft tones by which these etchings 
are characterised ; and it should be added that he 
never dots or lines his plates or avails himself of 
any kindred device often resorted to for guidance. 
Krizman does his own printing, which requires 
much delicacy of manipulation. 

The Spring Exhibitions of the Hagenbund have 
always a fresh exhilarating feeling about them 






about Graf's vivid colour- 
ing, which has given rise 
to some criticism, few 
will be found to cavil 
with his delightful land- 
scapes, chiefly of Southern 
Tyrol ; many of these are 
nothing more than simple 
chalk drawings, but all 
alike are full of genuine 
artistic feeling. August 
Roth, Hugo Baar, Alex- 
ander Goltz, and Gustav 
Bamberger are other 
painters who contribute 
beautiful landscapes from 
various parts of the 
Empire. Josa Uprka's 
scenes of village life in 
Moravia should also be 
named, for they bear the 
impress of an artist who 
has spent his life among 
the people. Nor must I 
omit to mention in this 

which makes them fully 
in keeping with the time 
of year, and the present 
one is no exception. 
All the rooms save two 
(which were assigned to 
Josef Urban) were en- 
trusted to Oskar Laske for 
arrangement, and he has 
again given proof of his 
good taste and judgment 
in the management of in- 
teriors. The exhibition 
contains an admirablL- 
selection of works, num- 
bering just over two 
hundred Of particular 
interest are the contri- 
butions of Ludwig Fer- 
dinand Graf, chiefly 
pastels, especially notable 
being his portrait of 
Madame Laurent, who 
is wearing a diaphanous 
over -dress of orange, 
beneath which is visible 
a gown of rose colour. 
Whatever may be said 










studio- Talk 

colours, book ornaments, 
besides a few works in 
oil, and I hope to say 
more about him on 
another occasion. I must 
also name some excellent 
drawings by Prof. Meh- 
offer, of Cracow, whence 
also come some good 
sketches for stained glass 
windows by Kasimir 
Sichulski, and a painted 
window by Henryk von 

tii.\ ^i_ <J Ll' U K L L> lHALKs; 

iiV l.l 1>U li, 1 . l.kAK 

The sculpture, though 
not numerically strong, 
is good in quality ; 
Josef Heu's fountain 
group, Fruhlingser7uachen, 
in Untersberger marble 
(see p. 146), and his bust 
of Frail Graf, being 
among the chief items, in 
which should also be 

brief notice such capital landscapes as those 
by Professor Hegenbarth, Walter Hampel, 
Ferdinand Uorsch, A. Gross, and the two 
Prague artists, Josef UUmann and Alois 

Of the portrait and figure subjects, besides 
those by Graf above named, there are some 
good examples by Leo Delitz, A. O. Alex- 
ander (whose Disharmonie, a group of nude 
female figures enveloped in mist, is remark- 
able for its daring interpretation of light). 
Prof. T. Axentowicz (who shows some fine 
pastel portraits), August Roth, A. D. Goltz, 
G. J. Buchner, Ludwig Vacatko, and others. 
The Czech artist, Ottokar Nejedly, achieves 
a noteworthy success in his Fest/ag, a view 
of the ancient city of Prague en file, with the 
Hradschin in the distance ; and Vaclav Mai)', 
another Czech painter, in a scene from the 
Bohmenvald, showing a religious procession 
in progress, is no less successful. 

Graphic art is well represented on this 
occasion by Richard Lux, Franz Simon and 
Rudolf Junk. The last named is an artist 
of much originality and variety ; he exhibits 
coloured etchings and wood-engravings, water- 



studio- Talk 

is still to be utilized for exhibitions, 
and its galleries lend themselves admir- 
ably to this purpose, as was apparent 
on that occasion. The Exhibition of 
the " Societe " was not large, but it 
was characteristic. About 50 artists 
exhibited, and there were some 170 
works hung in the very best light and 
seen to the best advantage. Painting 
predominated, the sculpture being 
exceedingly sparse, though of value 
and well placed. 


It may be said that in these taste- 
fully arranged Galleries, the works of 
three groups of Swiss artists were on 
view : those of M. F. Hodler and 
the Hodlerians ; those of a strongly 
individual and mature group, and those 
of our young and promising painters. 
As to the first, M. Hodler himself 
contributed three pictures ; the prin- 
cipal of vast dimensions, in which the 
artist gives us a repetition of his well- 
known figures. Here once more, it 
would seem, he seeks to give expres- 
sion to that theory of parallelism on 
which so much of his painting is 

included Karl Stemolak's Halbjigur. Franz 
Bar\vig's wood - sculpture is well known to 
readers of The Studio, and on this occasion a 
large and interesting group of his figures adds 
greatly to the attractions of the show. In these 
he has revivified the types of past centuries — 
merchants and burgomasters and their wives, 
tradesmen, peasants, huntsmen, and so forth ; 
his equestrian figure of Rudolf von Habsburg 
being an especially fine bit of work. I must 
also name here some clever wood intarsia pic- 
tures by Count Herbert Schafifgotsch, who has 
for some years been executing this kind of 
work, and has now attained a wonderful facility 
in blending his various woods to form pictorial 
compositions. A. S. L. 

GENEVA. — The recent Exhibition, 
organised at the Rath Museum in 
Geneva, by the Societe des Pein- 
tres, Sculpteurs et Architectes 
Suisses, was of a highly interesting and indi- 
vidual character. The Rath Museum — the 
artistic wealth of which is being removed to 
the splendid new Historical and Art Museum, 
soon to be opened in another part of the city — 




studio- Talk 


based. To my thinking, in spite of certain merits, 
this work indicates no further progress in the 
artist's development. M. Hodler's best work is, 
without doubt, to be seen in his frescoes, such 
as those which adorn the National Museum at 
Zurich, and those he has just executed for the 
University of Jena. In such achievements as 
these, the artist's extra- 
ordinary vigour of 
draughtsmanship and that 
archaic sentiment as of 
the old Swiss painters, so 
strong in him, find their 
native expression ; but 
not in such work as the 
vast and nameless canvas 
which he contributed on 
this occasion. Unfortu- 
nately M. Hodler has, 
among some of our young 
painters, imitators who 
lack his peculiar gifts. 
They would do better to 
endeavour to give expres- 
sion to their own artistic 
faith, as is the case with 
M. Hermes, who, though 
one of M. Hodler's di.s- 
ciples, has a distinct vision 
of his own, evident in his 
well - executed drawings 
and portraits. 

Of the contributions of 
the members of the second 
group, one cannot speak 
too highly. They were the 
works of artists who have 
no special theory to pro- 
claim, who are devoted to 
their metier for its own 
sake, and many of whom 
have attained the plenitude 
of their power, while all of 
them have that passion 
for nature so strong in the 
race from Rousseau down- 
wards. These artists con- 
stitute in themselves a 
modern Swiss school of 
landscapists whose works 
are an honour to the 
country and deserve to be 
more widely known than 
they are. Amongst them 
may be mentioned MM. A. Rehfous, L. Dunki, 

D. Estoppey, H. Coutau, G. de Beaumont, E. 
Silvestre, E. Ravel, G. Crosnier, H. de Saussure, 
O. Vautier, G. Guibentif, E. Vallet, A. Cacheux, 

E. Franzoni, G. Maunoir, A. Trachsel, and others. 
Their contributions have the charm and value of 
work done, not with a view to an e.\hibition, but 



studio- Talk 

in the untrammelled and frank delight of the exercise 
of their art face to face with nature. They deal 
for the most part with Swiss landscape and life, 
not in the higher Alpine regions, but by the lake 
side or in the canton of Valais, which has of late 
evidently had a special attraction for our artists. 
Noteworthy amongst these were the Brume ei Soleil 
and Lac de Moral, by M. Estoppey ; the Paysage a 
Savieze and L'hiver a Savihe by M. Silvestre ; La 
route de Saiilon, Interieur en Valais and La 
Sarva ( Va.'ais), by M. Rehfous ; Les Femtnes de 
Savieze, by M. Vautier; Les Rives dii Lac and 
Portrait de Mile. M. G., by M. H. de Saussure ; 
Ztf Printemps est proche and Femme battarit k 
beurre, by M. Vallet ; Genlve, crifusctile and Chant 
de printemps, by M. Rheiner, and M. Forestier's 
contributions of still life. Mention also deserses 
to be made of the splendid enamels of MM. 
Dumont and Demole. 

this exhibition gave a very clear idea of certain 
tendencies in modern Swiss art to which I have 
already alluded, and afforded the opportunity, not 
always to be had at exhibitions, of seeing the 
artist at work, not with an eye to the public, but 
with an eye to his metier. R. Mobbs. 

BE RUN. -The death of Professor Alfred 
Messel this spring has bereft Germany 
of one of its best architects. Berlin 
especially has to lament this heavy 
loss, as it was Messel who seemed destined to 
lead architecture into the way of distinguished 
simplicity and harmonious monumentality. Fortu- 
nately a number of public and private buildings, 
especially the great Wertheim warehouse (p. 152), 
will long remain to impress on the minds of 
Berlin architects the lessons he taught. When 

The exhibits of the artists of 
the third group speak well for 
the future. Full of promise is 
work of such distinction as 
M. Duvoisin's Vue d'Ltalie, not 
to mentionhis treatment of still 
life and of portraiture. The 
same may be said of M. S. 
Pahnke, whose L'autre misere 
is admirable alike from the 
point of view of composition 
and the purity of its drawing. 
Amongst our young painters, 
the works of MM. Jacobi, 
E. L. Baud, A. Blanchet, 
J. Helld, G. Kohler, G. Tur- 
rettini, G. Matthey, E. Morrard, 
M. Sarkissoff, and last, but not 
least E. Hornung, revealed a 
sincerity of purpose, an audac- 
ity of research and an indivi- 
dual talent, rich in possibilities. 

Though the sculpture occu 
pied a comparatively small 
place, it was of noteworthy 
quality, specially the two busts 
contributed by that powerful 
Swiss sculptor, M. Vibert, and 
a remarkable Beethoven, by 
M. Hubacher. To these may 
be added a vigorous Etude de 
taureau in bronze, by M. 
Sarkissoff. Taken altogether, 




studio- Talk 



studio- Talk 

early in his career he came hither from Darmstadt, 
where he was born some 56 years ago, and where 
the new National Museum testifies to his genius, 
he found Berlin a far different city to what it is 
now. Then it was scarcely more than a provincial 
capital, but he lived to see it become a huge "Welt- 
stadt." He helped to bring about a considerable 
improvement in the architectural amenities of the 
city, though far from as much as he would have 
wished. When he started practice here the type 
of architecture which found general favour could 
not but repel a man of his artistic sensitiveness. 
Fantastic, meaningless decoration was considered 
indispensable ; the virtues of simplicity were 
ignored, and rarely was any thought paid to the 
need of congruity between the general design and 
plan of a building and the purpose for which it 
was destined. Messel, who, though not to be 
classed as one of the "Moderns," deserves to rank 
as their noblest leader, did his best to introduce 
more rational principles. He was the founder of 
the modern typical " Warenhaus-Stil," but the 
splendid corner annexe to the " Haus Wertheim " 
(see illustration below), dating from 1905, betrays 
cravings for something far beyond mere practica- 

bility — the longing of the master-architect for real 
beauty. In Messel's art Gothicism, Renaissance 
and Barock have undergone an ennobling re-birth. 
He died in the middle of his work for the new 
Berlin museums. 

Some of the best examples of Prof. Messel's 
designs in domestic architecture are to be found in 
the West End of Berlin and in the villa-colony at 
Grunewald, about half-an-hour's journey from the 
centre. The general aim which the founders of 
this colony had in view was to build houses with 
a reposeful, artistic environment for the man of busi- 
ness. Two of the houses in this colony which Prof. 
Messel designed are illustrated, the one a large house 
with a lodge (also illustrated),the other a small com- 
pact villa, comparatively inexpensive in construction. 


PITTSBURG, Pennsylvania. — Two hun- 
dred and ninety-six works were included 
in the catalogue of the annual exhibition 
of the Carnegie Institute, and of these 
more than half were sent from abroad. Of all 
the nations Great Britain was probably most 
largely represented, though the French, including 





Americans residing in Paris, made also generous 

Of the seven awards, four went to British 
painters ; a medal of the second class, with a prize 
of $i,ooo, being given to Mr. George Sauter, for 
The Bridal Morning, and honourable mentions 
being accorded to Mr. Arnesby Brown for The 
Gate ; to Mr. Stanhope A. Forbes for the Village 
Industry, and to Mr. E. A. Hornel for one of his 
inimitable paintings of children in a flowery field, 
entitled Amusement. The medal of the first class 
went to Mr. E. C. Tarbell, of Boston, for a 
masterly little interior. Girl Crocheting \ and the 
medal of the third class to Mr. Bruce Crane, of 
New York, for an impressive transcription of a 
bare hillside in November. 

A special feature of this exhibition was a group 
of paintings by Mr. Alfred East, who was a 
member of the international jury. By invitation 
of the Director of the Department of Fine Arts of 
the Carnegie Institute, Mr. John W. Beatty, twenty- 
five of his landscapes were shown ; one entire 
gallery being allotted to them. The majority of 

these had previously been exhibited in England 
and on the Continent, but two were very recent 
works, made, in fact, after Mr. East arrived 
in Pittsburg. The American landscape painter, 
Mr. Henry W. Ranger, likewise, by special in- 
vitation, contributed a large group. Some 
excellent landscapes were also included in the 
main section of the exhibition. 

In portraits, numerically, the exhibition was not 
especially strong, but the few which were shown were 
of peculiar interest. In the first large gallery were 
to be seen a clear-cut portrait by Miss Cecilia 
Beaux, of a Mother and Son, sculpturesque in its 
strong modelling and frank demarcation of 
planes ; Gari Melchers' portrait of ex-President 
Roosevelt in riding costume, a work just failing 
to attain greatness ; and John W. Alexander's 
masterly portrait of Miss Helen Beatty, painted 
in an e.xceedingly decorative and characteristic 
manner. In the adjoining gallery an excellent 
portrait of Mrs. A. W. Drake, by Irving Wiles, 
was to be specially remarked, and in one of the 
smaller room.s, excellent work of this kind by 
Louise Belts and Ellen G. Emmet was noted. 


studio- Talk 


The transcription of sunlight seemed to have 
absorbed much attention, and in many instances 
was cleverly accomplished. Of these, Miss Lillian 
Genth's chaste nudes deser^■e special mention, as 
does also Senor Sorolla's delightful little Spanish 
beach scene. Of the figure paintings much might 
be said, but in addition to those winning honours, 
reference can only be 
made to Childe Hassam's 
Spring Morning, impres- 
sionistic in treatment ; to 
Gari Melcher's Mornitig 
Room, a frank, realistic 
statement none the less 
lovely ; and to Charles W. 
Hawthorne's toneful and 
sympathetic rendering of a 
Mother and Child. L. M. 

though a young 
country^ devoid 
of any art tradi- 
tions and without many 
wealthy patrons, Canada 
is making rapid headway 
in painting and sculpture. 
A few years ago pictures 
were an unknown quan- 
tity, and whilst works of 
a merely decorative char- 


acter were to be found 
in some houses, there was 
no serious thought of art 
in its higher sense, and 
but little interest was 
taken in furthering the 
aim and scope of the 
artist to produce any- 
thing more than the mere 
work of colouring a land- 
scape or producing a like- 
ness in portraiture. All 
this has been changed, 
and in a marvellously 
short space of time there 
has been created a taste 
for the best that art can 
produce. Many private 
collections have been 
made, and a desire to 
possess the best works of 
the greatest men has 
actuated many of the 
wealthier class here, in Montreal and other large 
centres. Perhaps in no other country can be found 
finer examples of the Barbizon painters or of the 
nineteenth-century Dutchmen than will be seen by 
a visit to a dozen fine private galleries in Canada. 
Magnificent paintings by Israels, Mauve, the 
Maris brothers, Weissenbruch and others of the 




studio- Talk 


(Cof>yi-ight thoto by N. E. Montross) 

modem Dutch school, and splendid works by 
Corot and his fellow artists, as well as worthy 
examples of the works of Reynolds and the other 
great English portrait painters may be seen, where 
once were bare w^alls or indifferent decorations. 
The spirit, being once awakened, seems to have 
accomplished magical results. Not content with 
foreign pictures, the collectors turned to the native 
field, and by their sup- 
port and discrimination 
have given a great im- 
petus to our own artists. 
Finding that the public 
taste and appreciation are 
being educated and devel- 
oped, Canadian artists 
realize that it is no longer 
of any avail to go on 
painting inanimate soul- 
less work. They, too, feel 
that they must strive after 
higher aims and e.xecu- 
tion than satisfied the 
people of a quarter of a 
century ago, and the 
result is a restless but 
thoughtful effort is now 
being made to raise Cana- 
dian art from its [last 
formal and lifeless con- 
dition to the plane of 

As one of the chief con- 
sequences of this change 
in both the public patrons 
and the professional artist, 
the creation of The Cana- 
dian Art Club was inevit- 
able. It came into 
existence in the necessary 
course of events. It 
depends on ten or twelve 
aggressive spirits who 
have cut themselves adrift 
from local prejudices and 
opinions, and who feel 
that there is more in art 
than blind obedience to 
rules and regulations. 
These men have recently 
given their second annual 
exhibition, and it has been 
a revelation to the public 
and a matter of great 
pleasure and pride to Canadian collectors and 
connoisseurs to see what can be done when the 
artist is untrammelled and free to do his own 
bidding. There is no unity of colour or treatment, 
for each man has struggled to give expression to 
his individual thought and observation. There is 
not the slightest evidence of the conventional, and 
it would be difficult to trace the influence of any 




{Copyright photo by Montross) 



Sfiidio- Talk 



school or academic canon 
in any of the productions. 
They are spontaneous, 
vital, personal. Differing 
widely as they do in 
colour, technique, and 
treatment, the pictures 
appeal to the eye, not as 
isolated examples of diff- 
erent methods, but as a 
whole, the underlying con- 
necting bond being vigour 
and a high degree of indi- 
vidual excellence. 

Without going over the 
numbers in detail, it may 
be remarked individually 
that Mr. Curtis William- 
son, in his life figure 
Vaudeville Girl, struck a 
high note in painting. 
Mr. Homer Watson, whose 
vigorous landscapes are 
well known in England 
and elsewhere, and who 
is the President of the 
Club, reached far ahead 
of anything he had for- 
merly done. His Nut 
Gatherers in the Forest 
impressed one with the 
charms of a Rousseau. 
Differing from the French- 
man widely as it does in 
technique, it has the same 
mark of genius, and some 
day will be thought a fit 
companion to hang beside 
the great master. To the 




studio- Talk 

The work of Mr. J. W. Morrice, formerly of 
Montreal, but now working in Paris, is marked by 
all that delicacy of colour-value and exquisite 
tonality which distinguish the man who feels and 
paints subjectively. Some landscapes by Mr. E. 
Morris and some beautiful and skilfully painted 
winter scenes by Mr. M. Cullen were notaDle 
contributions to the exhibition, in which also 
Mr. Brownell, another excellent painter, was well 
represented. Mr. Russell, a young Canadian now 
in Paris, exhibited two or three figure pieces show- 
ing remarkable skill in drawing and colour. The 
bronzes by Mr. A. Phimister Proctor, of New 
York, also added very much to the interest 
and value of the exhibition. 



There were other meritorious works among the 
eighty exhibited, but without going over them in 
detail, it \vill suffice to say that art has gained 
much by this aggressive and determined effort on 
the part of the club to give to the world some 
original and individual views of its members, and 
to express themselves as the inner promptings of 
research and feeling dictate. 

E. F. B. Johnston. 

writer, it has finer qualities in the way 
of colour, tone and sentiment than 
any like subject heretofore painted in 
Canada. Mr. Horatio Walker, a native- 
born Canadian now settled in New- 
York, was represented by a large oil 
called Ploughing — The First Gleam — a 
wonderfully dramatic picture and a 
noted example of Mr. Walker's po\ver. 
It calls to mind some of those psycho- 
logical renderings of Josef Israels, in 
which the strong and vital elements of 
nature and man are subordinated to 
and dominated by the artist's genius. 
Mr. J. A. Brown revels in the land 
of dreams and the poetry of nature. 
A tender harmony dominates his pic- 
tures, Slumbering Waters and A Mid- 
summer Night. Mr. W. E. Atkinson is 
another exponent of nature through the 
eye of sympathy and peace. There is 
in his Evening Willows a feeling of 
quiet communion, a very sympathetic 
touch, and a simplicity and breadth of 
treatment which always influence the 
aim and expression of this highly appre- 
ciated artist. 



Art School Notes 



APE TOWN.— The shield illustrated on 
page 158 was designed and executed 
by Mr. Denis Santry of this city as a 
trophy to be competed for annually 
by the public schools of a group of districts in 
Cape Colony. It is of beaten silver, mounted on 
oiled teak. The floral decoration is based on the 
most typical flower of South Africa, the Protea, 
or "Sugar Bush," and the design at the top of 
the shield is derived from the beautiful old 
Colonial Dutch architecture, which the late Cecil 
Rhodes always strove to preserve and encourage. 
Above the shield is a boss bearing the arms of 
Cape Colony in enamel. The height of the shield 
is 42 inches over all. Until he took to craft-work 
Mr. Santry was an architect. 

The portrait of Sir Henry de Villiers, K.C.M.G., 
President of the South African National Con- 
vention, is from a wood engraving executed by 
Mr. J. M. Solomon, and is one of a series he has 
been doing of leading members of the Convention, 
from whom he has received personal sittings, 
including e.x-President Steyn, General Botha, 
Sir Percy Fitzpatrick, Mr. Merriman, Generals 
De Wet and De la Rey. Mr. Solomon is an architect 
by profession. 

PRETORIA.— Mr. Antony van Wouw, 
whose bronze figure of a Sleeping 
Basuto is here illustrated, was born in 
Holland in 1862, and received his 
trainir.g at the Art Academy, Rotterdam. After 

holding a leading position in a well-known 
Dutch architect's office, he emigrated to the 
Transvaal in 1890, and, in addition to architec- 
tural work, made a speciality of Kaffir busts. 
In 1895 he became professor of drawing, and in 
the same year obtained a commission for the 
monument to President Kruger, which was about 
to be erected here when the war broke out. 
This commission occupied him three years, which 
he spent in Europe. Since the war he has 
executed several notable works, architectural and 
otherwise; but latterly he has devoted himself 
almost exclusively to typically South African 
bronze statuettes. F. V. Engelenburg. 


LONDON.— The delegates from the 
London students' sketching clubs who 
met to choose the subjects for the 
Gilbert-Garret Competition of the 
coming autumn are to be congratulated upon their 
selections. Except in sculpture they cover the 
widest possible range, and in the figure, animal, 
landscape and design sections no student will 
have any right to complain that the chosen sub- 
jects are unsuited to his particular scope of treat- 
ment. The subjects in these sections are, for 
figure, Labour ; landscape, A Cloudy Day ; design, 
A Poster for a Pageant ; and animal. The End of 
the Day. In sculpture the subject Samson and 
Delilah is one with which few competitors can 
find fault, and it ought to inspire some spirited 
and picturesque models. The delegates by whom 
the subjects were chosen included representatives 
of the Royal Academy, South Kensington (Royal 
College of Art), Lambeth, Westminster, Calderon 
Animal School, St. Martins, Gilbert-Garret, Birk- 
beck, Heatherley's, Grosvenor, S. W. Polytechnic, 
and Clapham. In addition to these it is probable 
that many other London students' sketching clubs 
will take part in this always interesting competition 
and endeavour to wrest from South Kensington 
the award of honour gained in 1908. It is a pity 
that the award of honour — the championship of 
the sketching clubs — does not carry with it some 
sort of challenge shield or other tangible memorial 
that could be held for the year by the victorious 
school. Long ago, when the competition was in 
its infancy, one of its originators (Mr. A. W. Mason, 
of the Birkbeck School) proposed that a silver 
palette should be provided and held as a trophy 
by the winners of the award of honour ; but this 
suggestion, unfortunately, was never carried out. 


Art School Notes 

Madame Louisa Starr Canziani, who died 
recently in London, was the first woman student 
of the Royal Academy who succeeded in carrying 
ofT the gold medal for historical painting. That 
was in December, 1867, nearly forty-two years ago, 
and it is curious that despite the vastly increased 
opportunities for training that women artists have 
since enjoyed only one of them, and that one a 
contemporary of Madame Canziani, has equalled 
her achievement. The fact that no woman has 
won the medal since the victory of Miss Jessie 
Macgregor in 187 1 ought to call forth special 
efforts from the clever girl students at Burlington 
House who are now making preliminary studies 
for the pictures of Dives and Lazarus that will be 
submitted for the competition of December. 
Madame Canziani, who was of American parent- 
age, was a young girl when she won the gold 
medal with an illustration of the subject, David 
with the Head of Goliath, brought before Saul, and 
to her friends she often told the story of the 
difficulty she experienced in finding a model for 
Goliath. She found him at last in a local milk- 
man who was blessed with an exceptionally shaggy 
head, and except for a habit of falling asleep at 
inopportune moments the milkman served admir- 
ably as the impersonator of the giant of Oath. 

When Madame Canziani joined the Academy 
Schools, Miss Herford, who had first gained for 
women the right of admission, was still a student. 
The story of the way in which this lady opened 
the doors of the schools to members of her .sex 
has been frequently but not quite accurately told. 
The well-known fact that she was admitted on the 
strength of a drawing signed with initials only, 
which the Council took to be those of a male 
competitor, doubtless led to the common accep- 
tance of the theory that accident thus forced the 
hand of the Academy and obliged that institution, 
against its will, to admit women students. This, 
however, is far from the truth. There is, indeed, 
a strong suspicion that Miss Herford's action was 
connived at by the authorities, and the following 
quotation from the Report to the Academicians in 
1 86 1 (now probably made public for the first time) 
proves that the Academy welcomed rather than 
resisted the admission of women. 

beyond a congratulatory recognition of the circum- 
stance." Miss Herford was not long alone, for the 
Report of the following year announces that the 
number of women students had been increased to 
four. The 1863 Report shows that there were ten 
in that year, and that for the first time " a female 
student's drawings being satisfactory she was ad- 
mitted to the painting school to work from the 
living draped model." The next year showed a 
further increase of women students, who now 
numbered thirteen, and this was as many as the 
Academy schools, then at Trafalgar Square, were 
able to accommodate. So, although applications 
for admission were numerous, the doors were shut, 
and the thirteen pioneers received no reinforce 
ments until the removal to Burlington House two 
or three years later provided ample room for both 
male and female students. ' 

Mr. A. S. Cope, A.R.A., will act as Visitor in 
the School of Drawing at the Royal Academy 
until the end of the summer term. The Visitor 
in the School of Painting is Mr. Charles Sims, 
A.R.A. : in the School of Sculpture, Mr. H. A. 
Pegram, A.R.A. ; and in the School of Archi- 
tecture, Mr. John Belcher, R.A. 

Commenting on Miss Herford's success the 
Report says : " The admission of a female student 
who had successfully gone through the required 
probationary studies, being at present an excep- 
tional case, does not appear to call for any remark 

Li the John Hassall Poster Competition, held 
at the New Art School, Logan Place, Earls Court, 
most of the designs submitted showed a lack 
of that particular kind of knowledge that can 
only be obtained by special training. It is not 
enough for the would-be poster artist to be able 
to draw and colour, even when these qualities 
are combined with some feeling for design. Some 
of the rejected works in the recent competition 
were well enough drawn, not inharmonious in 
colour, and occasionally good in idea, but they 
were the work of students who were unable to 
concentrate and make the best use of their quali- 
ties because they had little or none of the practical 
knowledge that an accomplished poster designer 
might impart to them in a few lessons. The 
ideal poster is attractive alike on the artistic and 
on the commercial side, striking and harmonious 
in pattern, and calculated to advertise the particular 
thing to which it is intended that attention should 
be drawn. But the student who essays poster 
designing usually neglects the commercial side — 
upon which, after all, the whole thing depends — 
and in his effort to make something strikingly 
artistic is apt to over-elaborate his design and to 
lose the simplicity that is one of the first essentials 
of a picture for the hoardings. Nor can he with- 

Reviews and Notices 

out special training appreciate the importance of 
selecting colours that are not difficult or expensive 
to reproduce and that will not fade quickly in the 
sunlight to which the poster will probably be 

More than a hundred designs were submitted to 
the judges, Mr. Cecil Aldin, Mr. F. W. Gibson and 
Mr. Charles Holme. They came from all parts of 
the kingdom, and in subject covered the entire 
field of advertisement, including even the Suffra- 
gette agitation. After a careful examination the 
first prize was awarded by the judges to a bold and 
strong design advertising Allsopp's beer. This 
design, by Mr. S. Bagdatopulos, of Ealing, showed 
a red-faced seventeenth-century toper, black robed 
and with mandoline on his arm, leaning back with 
an expression of intense appreciation of the con- 
tents of the tankard he has just drained. The 
design by Mr. J. \\ Lias, of Newton Abbott, 
which gained the second prize, was clever both in 
idea and execution. It was for Colman's Mustard, 
the pungency of which was amusingly suggested 
by the figure of an old man frying his dinner, by 
its heat alone, on a tin of mustard. The poster 
for Skipper Sardines, by Mr. G. A. Boden, of Lin- 
coln, with its wooden pier and black-sailed boats 
on the high horizon, was in some ways admirable ; 
but the orange toned sky was unfortunate in colour 
and out of harmony with the blue sea beneath it. 
To Mr. Boden was given the third prize ; and 
honourable mentions were gained by Miss G. Hall 
for a clever design advertising Suchard's Chocolate ; 
by Mr. F. ter Gast for a " Faust " poster ; and by 
Miss B. Severn, Miss W. Roberts, Mr. E. Hastain, 
and Mr. S. Rogers. At the New Art School, 
where the poster competition was held, the teach- 
ing staff has just been strengthened by the 
addition of Mr. Richard Jack, the well-known 
portrait painter. Mr. Jack will take charge of 
the life classes, where a great advance on the 
good standard of drawing already achieved is con- 
fidently expected. 

Last month, at Mr. Faulkner's gallery in Baker 
Street, the Calderon Art Society held its first 
exhibition. The Calderon Art Society is com- 
posed exclusively of past and present students of 
the School of Animal Painting, and studies of 
animal life therefore predominated in the exhi- 
bition. Landscapes too were plentiful, and it 
was interesting to see among them a charming 
little painting by Sir Ernest Waterlow, R.A., who 
is a past student in so far that he has worked 

with the class several times in the summer open- 
air sessions, held in the country. The prominent 
artists who have worked with the class also include 
Mr. Vereker M. Hamilton, who showed at the 
exhibition some vigorous, sunny studies of Ken- 
sington Gardens, and Miss Mildred Butler, 
A.R.W.S., who was represented by a characteristic 
water colour, Shades of Evening. Miss Jessie Hall, 
another past student whose work is frequently 
seen in London exhibitions, showed a poetic little 
drawing of sheep in a fold, Otu Summer Nigkl ; 
and Mr. Edwin Noble, R.B.A., was at his best 
in The Goat Herd. Miss Kate A. Smith, a student 
who has been trained entirely at the School of 
Animal Painting, exhibited a picture of sleeping 
dogs. Tired Out, that was full of promise ; and 
Miss C. M. Sprott, in her oil study of a horse, 
The Half-clipped Bay, showed an appreciation of 
tone and a painter-like quality that should lead 
her to greater achievement later on. Of several 
landscapes by Miss Grace L. M. Elliott, the best 
was one of a willow-bordered river ; and close to 
it hung a sympathetic painting of horses in a 
meadow at twilight, with the moon rising above 
the horizon, by Mrs. Guillemard. Countess 
Helena Gleichen in Thistles had an interesting 
painting of a stretch of open country with a rough, 
weedy foreground ; and other noticeable works in 
colour were by Miss M. H. Congdon White, Miss 
Agnes M. Goodall, Miss E. Blacklock, Miss 
Caroline St. C. Graham, Miss M. Gilmore Mcllroy, 
Mr. R. C. Weatherby, Miss M. Hollams, and 
Mr. Frank Stonelake. A special word of praise 
is due to the clever sketch portraits by Mrs. H. 
B. Weiner. Miss Olive Branson, Miss M. E. 
Hamilton, Mr. Cecil Beeching, and Miss Kate 
A. Smith showed commendable drawings in 
black-and-white, and Miss Mary A. Swan an ably 
modelled bronze of a greyhound. The President 
of the Society, Mr. \V. Frank Calderon, contri- 
buted to the exhibition some admirable studies of 
animals, both modelled and painted, as well as 
his picture. How Four Queens Found Sir Lancelot 
Sleeping. W. T. W. 


Hampshire. Painted by Wilfrid Ball, R.E., 
described by Rev. Telford Varley, M.A. (London: 
A. & C. Black.), 2o.f. net. — Hampshire is a county 
so full of interest, whether in respect to its historical 
connections or the great variety and beauty of its 
landscape, as to make it a subject equally attractive 
to the scholar and the artist. Both the literary and 


Reviews mid Notices 

artistic contributions to this recent addition to the 
well-known series of colour books issued by 
Messrs. Black deser\e the highest encomium. Mr. 
Ball's work is individualistic, yet always delightful 
in its simplicity and modesty. The charm of an 
old English village, with its thatched or red-tiled 
cottages and its ancient church, is by no artist 
more happily expressed than by this painter. No- 
where in England are there more subjects worthy 
of his pencil than in Hampshire, and it is needless 
to say that he has taken as full an advantage as the 
natural limitations of a single volume permitted 
him in presenting a worthy record of a delightful 

Fatitin-Latour, sa vie et ses amities. Lettres 
in^dites et souvenirs personnels par Adolphe Jullien. 
(Paris: Lucien Laveur.) '2-1 frs. — M. Adolphe 
Jullien, one of the leading Paris critics, who has 
done much for the fame of Wagner and Berlioz, 
was, during thirty years, the intimate friend of 
Fantin-Latour, with whom he also corresponded 
a good deal. He has now brought together, in a 
charmingly illustrated volume, all his reminiscences 
of the great painter. Never have we been able to 
enter so deeply into the art of this fascinating 
artist, one of the greatest and truest of the French 
school of the nineteenth century. It is most 
interesting to find in M. Jullien's book, Fantin's 
views on art, and not only on his art, but also on 
music and literature, and to realise how exquisite 
the friendship of the master was. 

Pewter Marks and Old Fewler Ware. By 
Christopher A. Markham, F.S.A. (London : 
Reeves & Turner.) zij'. — Mr. Markham, who is 
well known as the author of various books on 
plate and as editor of Chaffers' " Hall Marks," 
has bestowed an enormous amount of trouble in 
getting together a mass of information which all 
collectors of old pewter will find of utmost value. 
While disclaiming any intention of going deeply 
into the history and other aspects of pewter work, 
which have been fully dealt with by other writers, 
he gives in the preliminary sections a brief 
historical survey of the craft, followed by descrip- 
tive accounts of domestic and ecclesiastical pewter, 
together with some useful notes on the manu- 
facture, composition, cleaning and repairing of 
pewter. But from the collector's point of view, the 
value of the book centres in the concluding four 
sections occupying more than half the volume, for 
these contain important lists which should be of 
material service to him in making selections. First 
there is a list of freemen of the Pewterers' Com- 
pany ; then a list of touch plates at Pewterers' 

Hall, with transcripts of 200 of the touches and 
descriptions of the remainder (about 1168 in all), 
and finally an index of members of the Company 
from 1450 to the present time. 

French Chateaux and Gardens in the XVlth 
Century. A series of reproductions of contempo- 
rary drawings, hitherto unpublished, by Jacques 
Androuet du Cerceau. Selected and described by 
W. H.Ward, M.A.,A.R.I.B.A.(London: Batsford), 
25X. net. — By what must be regarded as a stroke 
of good fortune, Mr. Ward discovered at the 
British Museum a collection of drawings by 
J. A. du Cerceau, one of the leading French 
architects of the i6th Century. The drawings 
turned out on investigation to be mainly the 
originals for the plates published by du Cerceau 
in his work " Les plus excellents Bastiments de 
France," now exceedingly rare and, of course, 
costly, but closer comparison showed them to be 
much finer and fuller of detail than these plates. 
They came to the British Museum with thp 
library of George HI., who, it is thought, pur- 
chased them from some emigre, possibly one of the 
descendants of du Cerceau, at the time of the 
Revolution. Students of architecture will be 
grateful to Mr. Ward and his publisher for putting 
these drawings within their reach in the shape of 
beautifully clear collotype and other reproductions. 
Besides being an architect and designer, du Cerceau 
was an etcher and engraver, a fact which probably 
accounts for his remarkably skilful draughtsman- 
ship. He illustrated numerous works on ancient 
and modern architecture, besides engraving a 
multitude of designs for decoration, furniture of 
every kind, plate, jewelry, etc. The drawings 
reproduced in Mr. Ward's folio volume represent 
a selection from those at the Museum, and give a 
fairly complete picture of architectural evolution 
in France during the i6th Century ; they illustrate 
not only the work of du Cerceau himself, 
but that of such architects as Philibert de 
rOrrae, Pierre Lescot, Jean Goujon, Jean 
BuUant, besides many others, and the buildings 
shown include many of great historic interest 
(though not in all cases of supreme architectural 
value), such as the chateaux of Chambord, St. 
Germain- en -Laye, Fontainebleau, Ecouen, Jjt. 
Maur-les Fosses, Ancy-le- Franc, Anet, the Palaces 
of the Louvre and the Tuileries. Du Cerceau's 
own work is represented principally by drawings 
of the chateau of Verneuil-sur-Oise and some 
" ideal " chateau.v, which, notwithstanding certain 
bizarre elements, fully establish his position as one 
of the great architects of the sixteenth century. 

Reviews and Notices 

A brief account of him and his family precedes 
the plates, and these are accompanied by an 
epitome of the history of each building. 

A Spanish Holiday. By Charles Marriott. 
(London: Methuen & Co.) 75. 6d. net. — Mr. 
Marriott does not pretend to have written a book 
that tells us much about Spain, but gives us the 
simple record of a simple holiday that he made in 
that country, accompanied only by his waggish 
travelling companion James. They started, at the 
suggestion of the latter, to go to Genoa, but finding, 
after missing the steamer that was to take them 
there, that the name Bilbao held a magic attrac- 
tion for them of which they had been hitherto 
unaware, they determined to make this their desti- 
nation. From this place they rambled through the 
Basque provinces, through Castile, seeing Vitoria, 
Burgos, Madrid, Toledo, and so back to Bilbao 
again, the book forming practically a diary of the 
trip. The author has a pleasant discursive style, and 
his comments upon the things he saw, the places 
he visited and the people he met are often amusing 
and almost invariably interesting. With the several 
charming wash drawings by Mr. A. M. Foweraker 
and the excellent photographs by the author, it 
forms an interesting record of a pleasant holiday. 

The Decoration and Furniture of English Man- 
sions during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Cen- 
turies. By Francis Lenvgon. (London : T. 
Werner Laurie.) -^xs. bd. net. — With few exceptions, 
as the author explains in his introductory note, the 
examples of decorative work and furniture selected 
for illustrating this volume are derived from a col- 
lection at 31 Old Burlington Street, an early 
Georgian town mansion which has undergone only 
very slight alteration since it was built by Lord 
Hervey in 1720. The illustrations, which number 
close on 300 and are for the most part mounted 
on grey paper, convey a good idea of the 
sumptuous appointments of a nobleman's town resi- 
dence of the period covered by the volume. 
Many of them show complete apartments, but 
the majority consist of individual articles which 
exemplify the exquisite workmanship of the old 
master-craftsmen and their respective schools ; 
William Kent, the brothers Adam and their 
schools, with that of Grinling Gibbons, being 
especially well represented. Embracing as the 
illustrations do every imaginable class of domestic 
decoration and furniture, including tapestries, 
velvets, damasks, carpets, gesso-work, wood panel- 
ling, chimney-pieces, plaster ornamentation, sconces, 
lanterns and chandeliers, they should prove of 
great value to the designer ^nd craftsman of 

to-day. A useful feature of the volume is the 
list of books on furniture and decoration pub- 
lished before 1800. 

Memoirs of Monsieur Claude. Translated by 
Katharine Prescott Wormeley. (London: 
Archibald Constable & Co.) 12^. (>d. net. — At 
the time of the first publication of these memoirs 
in 188 1, a writer reviewing the work in the Spec- 
tator said that there was no reason to doubt the 
accuracy and veracity of the author. In the present 
volume, which is an abridgment of five out of the 
ten original volumes, we have an extremely inte- 
resting and valuable inner history of the strange 
and exciting happenings in France during the 
reign of Louis- Philippe and up to the overthrow 
of the Second Empire and the establishment of 
the Republic. Monsieur Claude was Chief of 
Police under Napoleon IIL, and his memoirs shed 
an interesting sidelight upon the characters and 
lives of the important personages with whom he 
came in touch, of some of whom there are photo- 
graphs included in the volume. 

Messrs. Cassell's annual publication Royal 
Academy Pictures and Sculptures is this year pub- 
lished in one volume at 3.?. net in paper wrapper 
and 55. net in cloth. The reproductions, which are 
excellent, and number over 200, comprise practi- 
cally all the principal pictures included in this 
year's exhibition, besides a representative selection 
from the sculpture. 

Mr. Edmund H. New has recently completed a 
pen-drawing of The King's Hall and College oj 
Brasenose, Oxford, forming the second of a series 
suggested by the bird's-eye views of David Loggan 
in his "O.xonia Illustrata" of 1675, and an ex- 
cellent photogravure reproduction of the drawing 
by Emery Walker, is offered to the public. The 
drawing, which is a fine example of Mr. New's 
skilful and accurate draughtsmanship, and has 
been approved by the authorities of the College, 
shows the group of buildings with the three quad- 
rangles and the new front in High Street (not yet 
completed). Decorative effect is given to the 
drawing by appropriate heraldic features. 

Mr. Frederick Hollver has added to his 
numerous list of permanent reproductions of works 
by notable artists, half-a-dozen of Mr. A. D. 
Peppercorn's landscapes. Owing to the peculiar 
difficulties of effectively reproducing these land- 
scapes, he has employed a special method (to 
which he gives the name " Ombrotype "), enabling 
him to achieve a more successful rendering of their 
depth and range of tone than is possible by 
ordinary monotint processes. 



The Lay Figure 


" I WANT very much to arrive at the 
right distinction between the art lover and the 
collector," said the Man with the Red Tie. " If it 
is true that few art lovers are to be found among 
collectors, what is the motive that induces the 
collector to spend his money so frequently on art 
objects ? " 

" You must not talk as if all collectors had the 
same motive, or as if all collectors were of the same 
type," laughed the Art Critic. " There are many 
varieties of the acquisitive instinct ; nearly everj'one 
gives way to it in one form or another, and goes to 
some expense to satisfy it. But the particular 
direction in which it is manifested depends upon 
individual preferences, and these are largely a 
matter of temperament." 

" I do not quite understand you," returned the 
Man with the Red Tie. " If the manifestation of 
the acquisitive instinct is the reflection of a 
temperament, then the collector of works of art 
must be a man with artistic instincts and inclina- 
tions — an art lover, in fact." 

" By no means," replied the Critic ; " a man 
may collect works of art because he sees a chance 
of selling them again at a profit, or because he 
thinks that a gallery will add to his social distinc- 
tion, or because he likes to pose as a patron of the 
arts and as a person of taste. He may be absolutely 
indifferent to art of all kinds and yet be a persistent 

" Surely that is absurd," broke in the Plain Man ; 
" it is not conceivable that anyone would buy art 
work if he cared nothing at all about it, unless, of 
course, he were a dealer and meant to sell it 

"Not so absurd as you think," said the Critic. 
"There are scores of collectors who have no 
artistic tastes or inclinations whatever, and you 
may know them by their habit of competing among 
themselves merely for the things which happen to 
be in fashion, and by their total disregard of all 
art that has not become popular. They care 
nothing, and what is more, in many cases know 
nothing about the merit of what they buy, all 
they ask is that the stuff they pay for should 
be fashionable." 

" Does the art lover never follow the fashion ? " 
asked the Plain Man. 

" Only by accident ; never of set purpose," 
answered the Critic. " The art lover is a wor- 
shipper of beauty and of fine achievement. It is 

a matter of indifference to him whether the things 
he admires are popular or not, and he is always 
ready and willing to recognise merit wherever he 
may find it." 

" But can he free himself from the influence of 
the moment ? " inquired the Plain Man. " I 
mean, can he preserve his independence of mind 
and keep his taste from being affected by the 
general trend of public opinion ? " 

" Of course he can," interrupted the Man with 
the Red Tie. " He would not be a lover of art if 
he was not indifferent to popular clamour and if 
he did not set the promptings of his own tem- 
perament far above the silly suggestions of 

" Quite so ; and it is in this that he shows how 
markedly he differs from the typical collector," 
said the critic. " The collector whom I call 
typical — the man who, as I say, buys art work 
though he cares nothing about art — is possessed 
by a hobby. The idea that dominates him is 
that he must acquire rarities, things with a 
history, or curiosities that are accidentally interest- 
ing. If he satisfies his hobby by collecting 
pictures, he wants canvases that have gone 
through strange adventures or that have gained a 
fictitious importance by having been at some time 
in the possession of a famous personage. If he 
buys china it must be of a particular period or 
stamped with a special mark ; and if he collects 
prints they must be unusual states or imperfect 
impressions which can be proved to be unique. 
The pictures may poorly represent the painters 
responsible for them, the china may be inartistic 
or in the worst possible taste, the imperfect print 
may be not nearly so good as the more numerous 
later impressions from the plate, but the collector 
does not trouble himself about such unnecessary 
artistic considerations — he has satisfied his hobby 
and he has triumphed in a struggle with some 
other collector as deluded as himself, so he feels 
he has not lived in vain. But I do not think he 
has proved himself to be the possessor of a properly 
balanced mind or of anything but a foolish spirit of 

" I see what you mean," commented the Plain 
Man. " The collector's hobby is a mild form of 
insanity to which he cannot help giving way. The 
fact that he collects works of art is either accidental 
or a mere concession to fashion." 

"Just so," replied the Critic. "The collecting 
of the ends of cigars smoked by famous men 
would give him quite as much pleasure." 

The Lay Figure. 


z o 

Frederick Geonje Cot ma u, R.l . 



Perhaps one of the greatest disabilities against 
which a young artist has to struggle at the outset 
of his career is too near relationship to a man 
of marked eminence in the same profession. The 
son of a famous artist starts life handicapped 
by his inheritance of a name which is associated 
in the public mind with a certain type of produc- 
tion and a special standard of achievement, and it 
is far more difficult for him than it would be for a 
worker with no such associations to make in his 
own way a place for himself in the art world. Not 
only is there too much expected of him before he 
has gained the experience which makes fine accom- 
plishment possible, but there is a tendency to insist 
that he shall carry on a kind of family tradition 
and not be free to chose his own direction. 

The judgment of the public on an artist in this 
position is, indeed, apt to be a little unreasonable. 
He must not be independent, he must not break 
away from the tradition which his predecessor is 
popularly supposed to have established, and he 
must be at least the equal of this predecessor in 

ability if he is to receive even a passable amount 
of consideration ; and yet, if in all these matters 
he satisfies the popular demand, he will never be 
counted as anything more than a man who has 
succeeded to a ready-made place in his profession 
— to one, in fact, that he could not help filling un- 
less he was entirely lacking in capacity. But if, on 
the other hand, he happens to have an independent 
mind and to wish to work out for himself the 
artistic problems in which he is interested, if he 
seeks to escape from the family tradition and to 
build up a reputation as he thinks best, then he 
will find himself surrounded by a host of detractors 
who will reproach him for discrediting an honoured 
name and attack him in season and out of season 
for forgetting the duty he owes to his ancestry. 

Either way he is faced with troubles that he will 
have to fight hard to overcome, and by his success 
in this fight his ability can be measured. The man 
who can emerge from the shadow of a great 
predecessor, and who with all the disadvantage 
of possessing a name that someone else has already 
made famous can establish himself as a popular 
favourite, has certainly more than ordinary strength 
of personality and unusual steadfastness of purpose. 
If he has chosen an independent way in art and 

i dafcg r-^ 

" CHRiSTi iium H, hamisiiire" (oil) 

f^The properly oj the Rl. Hon. John Uoyd Wharton) 

XLVII. No. 197. — August, 1909. 


Fn-derick George Cot man, R.I. 

yet has risen to the front rank of his profession he 
is clearly a fighter whom no disability can hold 
back, and he is endowed with the power of con- 
vincing other people that his art is worthy to be 
judged on its own merits and without any reference 
to what has gone before. 

It is just this endowment that has enabled Mr. 
F. G. Cotman to take the place which he holds 
among our present-day artists. The nephew of 
that admirable painter, John Sell Cotman, who is 
justly counted among the greater British masters, 
he needed special gifts to be able to assert, as he 
has, his own independence and to secure the 
approval of art lovers who were no doubt disposed 
at first to quarrel with him for thinking for himself 
and for not treading in his uncle's footsteps. But, 
as the work he has done during the past thirty 
years proves clearly enough, Mr. Cotman has 
preferred to follow the promptings of his own 
temperament in the wise conviction that in this 
way only could he do justice to his capacities. As 
an imitator of his distinguished relative he might 
have attained, no doubt, a considerable degree>of 
popularity, but it would have been at too great a 
cost, for it would have necessitated the sacrifice of 
all his better aspirations. It was worth while 
risking the neglect of the public for the sake of 
satisfying his artistic conscience. 

Fortunately, he lost nothing by taking this risk. 
The persuasiveness of his work in oil and water- 
colour gained him quickly so large a measure of 
support that he was able to enjoy the advantages 
of a well-established reputation within very few 
years after he had commenced seriously the 
practice of his art. This early development was 
not due to any of those special educational 
opportunities which he might have been supposed 
to have enjoyed as a consequence of his relation- 
ship to a famous artist, for he was not born till 
1850, eight years after John Sell Cotman 's death, 
and therefore owed none of his youthful inclina- 
tions towards an artistic career to his uncle's 
precepts or example. His instincts and tastes 
were innate, and they were trained in the way that 
suited him best, without being forced by a domina- 
ting influence into a prescribed direction. 

Mr. F. G. Cotman was educated at Ipswich, his 
native place, but at the age of eighteen he came to 
London to follow a systematic course of Art 
training in the schools of the Royal Academy. 
During his boyhood, before he became a student 
at the Academy, he had acquired considerable 
proficiency as a painter in water-colours, and he 
painted in this medium a number of street scenes 
at Ipswich which were of such undoubted merit 
that he found no difficulty in selling them, and in 



LOVVEbTul 1 

{By pciiui^^iou 0/ i/u Coi'iOi ation of Ipswich) 











































Frederick George Cot man, R.I. 

keeping himself in pocket money by this means 
while he was studying in London. Among the 
purchasers of his water-colours were, it may be 
noted, both Leighton and G. F. Watts, so even at 
that stage his ability was sufficiently conspicuous to 
attract the attention of men well qualified to form 
an opinion about his work. It is also worth re- 
cording, as evidence of his early proficiency as an 
executant, that he was engaged by Leighton to 
assist in the painting of the Daphnephoria, and by 
H. T. Wells to do similar work on the canvases of 
that fashionable portrait painter. 

Mr. Cotman's career as a student was marked 
by many successes. He took several medals, and 
among them the gold medal for historical painting. 
The picture which gained him this award, 'I'he 
Death of Eudes, now hangs in the Town Hall at 
Ipswich, where there are also two more of his 
works, portraits of mayors of the town. It was as 
a portrait painter that he made his first bid for 
notice after the period of his studentship had 
expired, and though he has since found many 
other directions in which he can express himself 
most convincingly, portrait painting has always 
been an important branch of his practice. His 
large group of the Marchioness of ^Vestminster, 

Lady Theodora Guest, and Mr. Guest, playing 
dummy whist, made a great impression when it 
was exhibited some years ago, and there have been 
others, like his full-lengths of Lady Theodora 
Guest and Miss Gibbs, and his excellent portraits 
of the Bishop Suffragan of Nottingham, Admiral 
Sir G Richards, and Mr. Prideaux Brune. which 
must be counted as distinct achievements. 

But the popularity of his portraits has not by 
any means induced him to neglect other kinds of 
subject matter. His genre pictures are admirably 
sound in accomplishment, and his landscapes in 
oil and water-colour have qualities of a very high 
order. The examples of his figure painting which 
are reproduced here show well with what a happy 
combination of vigour and restraint he can deal 
with modern life motives, and how sensitively he 
can manage tone and colour effects ; while his 
landscapes, by their grace of composition, their 
harmony of well-related colour, and their delicacy 
of atmospheric suggestion, take rank among the 
better things which have been produced by our 
modern school of nature painters. 

Particular prominence has been given in this 
series of illustrations to his landscape work, because 
in some respects it represents the fullest outcome 



9 < 

Frederick George Cot man, R.I. 

of his artistic experience and sums up most com- 
pletely the results of his mature conviction. His 
paintings of open-air subjects are by no means the 
obvious statements of fact which come so often 
from the figure painter who goes out to look at 
nature in his spare moments ; they are felt and 
understood in a way that is possible only to the 
man who can see beyond mere actualities into 
the subtleties which nature suggests, and who is 
by temperament responsive to poetic inspiration. 
There is unquestionably poetic sentiment of a very 
delightful type in such pictures as the Winter Sun- 

rise 071 the Aldi, the decoratively treated Heming- 
ford Grey, the Harbour Lights, Lowestoft, and the 
spacious composition, Exeter from the Countess 
Weir ; and in others, like the Ancient Fort, Suffolk, 
Christchurch, Tivilight : the Banks of the Orwell, 
Sundown, Orford, and Oti the Waveney, and espe- 
cially the Wells Cathedral — Sunset, there is the 
happiest appreciation of the charm of nature's quiet 
moods, and there is thorough understanding, too, 
of her inexhaustible variety. This acuteness of 
understanding can, however, be perceived in every- 
thing that Mr. Cotman undertakes. 

"SUNDOWN, orford" (OIl) (In the possession of H. M. Jaekaman, Esq.) 












































Frederick George Cotmari, R.I. 



It can certainly be said for him that in all the 
phases of his art he is an earnest student with 
remarkable powers of obser\-ation and expression 
and with a vigorous individuality which gives a 
clearly defined character to his work. 

That these qualities have been widely recognised 
can scarcely be disputed ; his pictures have found 

their way into many of the chief public galleries — 
into the Walker Gallery at Liverpool, where there 
is a large canvas, One oj the Family ; into the 
Oldham Corporation Gallery, where there is another 
large picture, Her Ladyship's first Lesson ; and into 
other permanent collections which represent what 
is best in our modern art — and he is ranked by 

the possession of T. R. Parkington, Esg. ) BY F. G. cOTMAN 

The New EnsHsJi Art Club 

men who properly estimate the value of present- 
day achievement among the true supporters of that 
sound tradition which is one of the best assets of 
the British School. As a member of the Royal 
Institute of Painters in Water Colours, to which he 
was elected in 1882 when the fusion between the 
Old Dudley Gallery supporters and the Institute 
was arranged, he has helped by the consistent 
quality of his contributions to keep up the standard 
of pure water-colour work as it was practised by 
the greater masters in the past. 

It is possible that some of the distinctive 
character of Mr. Cotmaii's paintings is due to the 
fact that his training was carried out entirely in 
this country. Unlike so many of the artists of our 
times he has not studied abroad and has limited 
his excursions beyond the confines of the British 
Isles to merely sight-seeing expeditions. His visits 
to foreign Galleries have not affected his manner 
of regarding nature, and have not 
aroused in him any desire to de-nation- 
alise his technical methods. He is a 
successor, legitimate and direct, of the 
painters who a century ago built up 
the British School and put it in a 
position of commanding importance, 
and though he has not hesitated to 
look at modern life with the eyes of 
the modern man he has accepted the 
responsibilities of this succession with 
all needful respect for the past. He 
has, too, followed the example of some 
of the most characteristically British 
masters — Constable among them — by 
making himself to a great extent a 
painter of a district. Round his native 
place he has found a remarkable variety 
of subjects which have attracted him 
by the opportunities they have afforded 
of studying nature under specially 
engaging conditions. He has re- 
sponded readily to the inspiration of 
the scenery in the Eastern counties, to 
the peculiar seductiveness of the flat 
landscape with its dimly suggested 
distance and expansive sky ; he has felt 
and yielded to the appeal which a 
country of this type makes to the 
imaginative painter, and of this appeal 
he has evidently been conscious, even 
when he has wandered far from his 
favourite haunts near home in search 
of fresh material. 

A. L. B. 



In arranging for their summer exhibition 
to be held in the galleries of the Royal Society of 
British Artists in Suffolk Street, the executive of 
the New English Art Club took a wise step, 
for there the qualities which essentially denote the 
club came into fuller view than at any of their 
exhibitions for some time past. Of all societies of 
exhibiting painters this one could least afford to 
cramp itself for space even for the sake of exhibiting 
in such a romantically unpretentious place as their 
former gallery. One must have distance for the 
revelations of Mr. Wilson Steer's art, and, indeed, 
for appreciation of the aims which inspire the 
dub as a whole. Canvas after canvas enters 
into a contest with the difficulties of sheer 
problems of lighting, to which everything, especi-" by f. g. cotman 

{ The property of Joseph Jemiens, Esq. ) 


The New Ens[lisJi Art Chib 

ally the character of the handling, subscribes : 
and the spectator's first glance at each canvas must 
be corrected at the proper distance. In a gallery 
devoted to such experiments we cannot have too 
much elbow room. The painting of effects of the 
nature indicated strains the resources of the scien- 
tific palette to the utmost ; the desire to paint 
them is to no small extent the outcome of the 
conscious entrance of science into ever)' field of 
human thought and activity. And yet this kind 
of painting is the most emotional of all. Artistic 
emotion we might almost think of as of two kinds, 
active and passive, and as seniitnent when it is 
merely passive. Sentiment, instead of greeting the 
present aspect of life, favours the past and turns 
naturally to the commemorative forms of decora- 
tion. Against the art of Mr. Sargent, Mr. Steer 
and Mr. Orpen, of the first kind, we have to set 
such art as Mr. McEvoy's and Mr. John's. Mr. 
McEvoy goes back even for his choice of colours 
to days when to be sentimental was to be English, 

and if the woman of Mr. John's feminine type is, 
as we are told, in advance of present time, it is not 
for ever)'one to find this out, for though now 
designing most of her own dresses, she has not 
quite abandoned the Victorian mode. 

In the "interior" genre which the club has now 
taken up so much, we find that with the majority 
of the exhibitors it is still the effects of nature her- 
self that are pursued indoors, where the sun is 
throwing its beams upon flowers in a room. Their 
problem is that of the artificial conditions in which 
these pure elements of nature thus come again 
together. It is an aspect of "interior" work, 
however, quite different from that adopted by Mr 
and Mrs. McEvoy, who would, so to speak, call 
the sun into the room when they wanted it, for the 
dramatic setting of a psychological moment, but 
would not dream of hastening to a room with 
palette set, though even by some strange contri- 
vance of the hours Helios himself had been en- 
trapped therein. They conceive of interior subjects 







The New English Art Club 

as being in their very nature quite different from 
those of the open air. The out-of-door world is 
significant of every aspect of nature ; the indoor 
world is sacred to human nature only — and, per- 
haps, some privileged cats and parrots. 

In Mr. Orpen's large Portrait Group, an eminent 
group of modern writers and painters are gathered 
round a table under Manet's famous painting 
of Mile. Gonzales. More than one of the 
group, we may add, has, in his own art, kept 
tradition bright in Manet's way — by contact with 
nature, the keeper of all the best traditions. 
Many of our readers will, no doubt, recognise the 
members of the group. At the left of the picture, 
reading to the others, is Mr. George Moore; Mr. P. 
Wilson Steer is seated at the table just under the 
Manet picture, while the four others at the right, 
reading from back to front, are Mr. D. S. MaccoU, 
Mr. Walter Sickert, Sir Hugh Lane and Mr. W. 
Tonks. At the time that this picture was painted, 
Manet's canvas was temporarily housed in Mr. 
Orpen's studio by its owner. Sir Hugh Lane, before 
it left England as part of .Sir Hugh's splendid gift 
to the Dublin Gallery. In those days the fate of 
the picture was, we believe, not quite certain : 
much rested with the action of the City of Dublin, 
and the picture — a symbol of all that is best in 
modern movements — was much in the mind of 
Mr. Orpen's sitters ; they sit, as it were, in its 

atmosphere ; and it is this, I think, Mr. Orpen has 
suggested, as well as with his extremely subtle 
painting the full outward beauty of the studio 
surroundings in the afternoon sun. 

As regards these surroundings, the greatest tech- 
nical difficulties have been surmounted, especially 
in the difficult problem of white surfaces in the 
walls, the plaster cast, the table-cloth, the white 
porcelain tea-service and the picture of Mile. 
Gonzales in the white dress — nowhere is there any 
sense of whiteness, white itself with Mr. Orpen 
being a colour. Mr. Connard does not quite achieve 
this result in a similiar problem in his May Morn- 
ing (p. 184), where the white is sometimes almost 
chalky in effect; -but his is a very distinguished 
picture all the same, showing an e.xtraordinary 
controlling sense of decoration, extended from 
forms to colour and to the very effects of light in 
themselves. In Tlie Guitar Player, another pic- 
ture by this painter, the black of the cat against 
the enamel-like quality of a child's face and a dark 
red hat, showed the painter securing an achievement 
of colour contrast in which he has not always had 

Mr. William Rothenstein places his family group 
in a modern sitting-room which seems to suggest a 
little of the ultra-modern affection for Victorian 
associations. It is part of his exquisite art in 
details that among the things above the mantel- 

' THE pheasant" (WATER COLOUR) {By permission of Win. B. Palerson, Esq.) by Joseph crawhall 



The Neiv English Art Club 

shelf, the framed picture should, for a moment, 
awaken interest in itself only to evade us as a mere 
suggestion of colour admirably tuned to the vase 
of flowers against it. The whole painting is, for 
the observant, made up of transitions from one 
subtlety to another. 

In his Hunt the Thimble Mr. Tonks gives his 
methods up to a colour scheme which as a whole 
is not beautiful even if true ; forgetting it as a 
scheme and looking into it we find drawing and 
technique and minor passages of colour as expres- 
sive and fascinating as Mr. Tonks has ever given us. 

The paintings of interior getire in the present 
exhibition were unusually numerous, indicating 
quite a movement in this direction. The Cosy 
Corner, by Mr. S. N. Simmons, which we have 
pleasure in reproducing, is a brave attempt to cope 
with the difficulties of a bright green 
panelled room. As regards tone, repro- 
duction always gives good evidence of 
the difficulties surmounted. We also 
include among our illustrations Mr. F. 
H. .Shepherd's musical painting, The 
Bach Player, using the word musical 
in both its senses. For harmony of 
colour, lacking in so many of Mr. 
Shepherd's pictures, has, as if in sym- 
pathy with the subject, come into this 
one. Colour contrasts present their own 
problems ; harmony, as we speak of it 
here, is not essential in painting, but 
Mr. Shepherd hitherto has not suc- 
ceeded so well with the other thing ; 
his results have suffered and so been 
the wrong results. It should be men- 
tioned that although Mr. Shepherd's 
picture is here reproduced as a full- 
page, it is a work of small proportions. 
We have noticed before a gift which 
belongs to Mr. Charles Stabb, and 
which he shares with the old masters — 
the ability to give an air of inevitable- 
ness to his subjects, to pose his model 
without giving away the fact that she is 
only posing. Thus we get an illusion 
that we have surprised some one in 
the midst of their every-day life. With 
interior genre, which ostensibly deals 
with every-day life, to have this illu- 
sion is, we might .say, essential — but it 
is rare enough, and if Mr. Stabb has to 
stop short of the most difficult things 
of all— or prefers to stop short of them 
— at least all that he gives us is in- 

teresting and sensible ; and there are sometimes 
occasions in the New English Art Club when to 
be sensible is to be quite startling. Other works of 
\\\vi getire which should be named are The Weaver, 
by Miss Clare Atwood, and the Inteiior of a 
Religious Hou^e, by Mr. A. Croft Mitchell. 

The landscapes were this year of the most highly 
satisfying character, and of course the larger gal- 
leries counted greatly in the question of appreciating 
them at their worth. Mr. Steer's two most inter- 
esting landscapes were subjects on the river Wye, 
canvases full of mysterious effects of shifting lights, 
great light clouds hanging over the valley of dark 
trees and mirrored in the river. Prof. Holmes, in 
Diifton Pike and Cross Fell : Morning, and other 
landscapes, carefully sought agreement between the 
actual style and plan of apicturc and the motive of its 


TJie New English Art Club 

subject. And of this sympathy between method 
and subject there was also an instance in Mr. W. 
McTaggart's Consider the Lilies (motion under cool 
sunlight), a scheme of movement with a restless 
swiftness of execution as an accompaniment of the 
scampering children and blowing lilies. Close to 
this picture there was Mr. ^^^ \\. Russell's The Home 
Farm, its problem being that of the most uneventful 
English weather, the scene one of the most un- 
eventful in the world. Mr. Russell's art is restrained 
by, and at the same time interprets, the poetry in 
his subject. The canvas was quite a contrast to the 
effects generally chosen in this exhibition, the 
choice, perhaps, determined less by the artists than 
by Nature, who during the last sketching season 
could not keep the rain-clouds out of the sky. 
Professor Brown interpreted in his perfect way in 
Foole Harbour, an effect of weather which seems 
to belong as much as anything 
on earth to England, and a 
similar subject was most ad- 
mirably treated by Mr. John 
Everett in Norden Heath. 
Notable also among the land- 
scapes which so well repre- 
sented Professor Brown was 
The Return from Milking. 

In the matter of landscape, 
perhaps Mr. Sargent was never 
so interesting as he was this 
year. His so brilliant hand- 
ling takes nothing to itself from 
the charm of the subject and 
the scene ; instead, in The 
Black Brook, his unchallenge- 
able art lifted the simple in- 
cident up into the realms 
where only the highest lyrical 
art can live — lyrical because 
the notes cannot be separated 
from the song itself. In his 
picture The Hermit, the 
achievement seemed again of 
a miraculous order, and his 
other landscape seemed to 
have some of the delightful 
inconsequence of the now- 
famous Cashmere ol\!n\% year's 
Academy. An Old Barn, 
Gloucestershire, by Lily 
Blatherwick (Mrs. Hartrick), 
was a landscape fine in treat- 
ment. Appreciation was shown 
of the value of such a note "a family r.Rour 

of colour as a red cart, without in the least 
vamping that note to the destruction of the 
dignity of all the picture, as happens with nine 
artists out of ten when accident or nature springs 
as a surprise some delightful touch of contrast 
before their eyes. The e.xhibition contained 
many smaller panels which reflected considerable 
knowledge of effects that are artistically worth 
attaining — notably such a one as Miss Alice 
Farmer's White Perambulator, or Mrs. Evelyn 
Cheston's beautiful little still-life group Glass and 
Pottery, or the fantastic little still-life The God and 
some Mortals, by Mr. C. Maresco Pearce. 

Mr. John has striven very hard not to hamper 
the expression of his thoughts or their freedom by 
anything generally accepted, but already a disciple, 
Mr. Henry Lamb, accepts all Mr. John's inno- 
vations as traditions — and in his Portrait adds a 



The Neiu English Art Club 

few of his own in the matter of colours, giving the 
once despised magenta a place of honour. The 
mere mention of magenta and green together 
would probably have brought the life of Whistler 
to an end, had anyone had the temerity to mention 
them before him. He pushed harmony to such 
conclusions, that for the present perhaps we can 
advance no further, but the situation is not saved 
by such a shock as Mr. Lamb prepared us in the 
other way. There was much however that was really 
decorative and not untrue in effect in the green- 
haired children of this painter's Under the Cliff — an 
effect discovered of impressionism and adapted to 
the ends of design. Design is a matter of feeling 
and of course it is a mistake to think that it does 
not admit of the most naturalistic effects. Of Mr. 
John's own works in this exhibition, he has in 
power of painting never surpassed his portrait of 
Mr. William Nicholson. Too much is involved 
for us to attempt here 
criticism of his other sig- 
nificant canvas, The Way 
down to the Sea. We have 
still to mention Mr. Orpen's 
Dead Ptarmigan, a canvas 
in which it would seem 
his art has allowed itself a 
canter after intense paint- 
ing in carrying the interior 
problem to the point he 
carries it. 

Before passing to the 
water - colour and black- 
and-white room we should 
not forget to dwell a 
minute on Mr. Chowne's 
flower pieces, which in 
Violas and Anemones 
showed more beautiful 
mastery on the artist's part 
than ever. Flowers we had 
in vases like these in many 
interior pictures in the 
gallery ; there they became 
part of a scene, hinting at 
their own life without as- 
serting it inartistically. 
Here they stood for their 
portraits, getting from Mr. 
Chowne just the intimate 
sympathy which is claimed. 
The Alhambra, by Mr. 
Spencer F. Gore ; Early 
Spring — Grasse, by Mr. 

Alfred Hayward ; IVillows, by Miss Florence E. 
WoUard ; Nasturtiums, by Miss M. Hewett, are 
other works calling for comment by younger 
exhibitors. Mr. David Muirhead was well repre- 
sented by The Church in the Fens ; Mr. AV. G. 
von Glehn, by The Old Elm, Colne Valley ; Mr. F. 
'^\.2,-)-Qx\yj Market Place, Montreuil : Mr. Bernhard 
Sickert by a beautiful interpretation of a snow 

Other canvases which we are not able to touch 
upon at any length now were the Flowers of 
Mr. Mark Fisher, and his landscapes. Pasturage, 
Coming from Market and the Tilled Field, and Mr. 
W. Rothenstein's portraits, The Rt. Hon. Charles 
Booth and Mrs. Charles Booth. Like A Family 
Group, these last are interiors, and the same qualities 
are pre-eminent in all three paintings, but perhaps 
it is in the one of Mr. Booth that an endeavour to 
command all the truths of relative values and at 


The Neiu English Art Club 




the same time the beauty of contrasted local 
colours is most noticeable. Yet far before this 
portrait we should prefer that of Mrs. Booth, 
which has all the simplicity and dignity that the 
inclusive scheme of local colours does not admit 
of. In our opinion the portrait of Mrs. Booth 
must rank among the finest achievements of 
modern portraiture. Some defiance of the traditions 
of portraiture goes with Mr. Rothenstein's other 
schemes, and we are, perhaps, led to gather from a 
study of them that there are certain traditions 
which cannot be defied — which seem based, if all 
unconsciously, upon some of the simplest laws of 
natural vision. When we are absorbed in a 
personality to the extent which a portrait presumes, 
we cannot possibly be making a draper-like com- 
parison between the shades of tablecloths and 
curtains. No, the simpler scheme in the lady's 
portrait more nearly accords with the view that is 
taken by the normal vision ; only the colour that 
is near the figure catching the eye which otherwise 
is forgetful of everything but a gracious presence. 

The water-colour and black-and-white section 
seemed to have burst forth this year with unusual 

energy. For one thing it had the benefit of rooms 
to itself, and the sudden appearance of Mr. Max 
Beerbohm with over a dozen full-sized caricatures 
made a difference to the walls. Upon this we 
might say official recognition of Mr. Beerbohm's 
art, the art world is the subject for congratulation 
as much as Mr. Beerbohm. Apart altogether 
from the merits of his satire, his line has qualities 
which are to be recognised among the best black- 
and-white art of the day, though we may regret 
that in such a caricature as Trktinial Negotiations 
between Mr. Heinemann and Mr. Hall Caine, there 
is something quite repulsive in Mr. Beerbohm's 
convention for an eye, and that his grasp of form 
in the round often belies that appreciation of the 
grace of life which he has made clear to us as 
his own in literature. 

Mr. Walter Sickert contributed several drawings 
this year to the black-and-white room, and this 
was a notable thing in itself. Some of the most 
interesting figure drawings were sent by Mr. Albert 
Rothenstein, such for instance as his Arabella, 
Firelight Study, and Souvenir of Covent Garden 
In this department a fine Study in Colour well 


The New English Art Club 





Lithogyaphs and Etchings by J. L. Forain 

represented Mr. A. E. John, but especially was 
one of his pencil drawings to be studied for the 
sake of seeing what knowledge one single line can 
contain running instinctively without correction 
down the back of a figure. Miss Edna Clarke 
Hall's drawings always discover an artist through 
and through. Mr. W. van Hasselt's Gipsy Girl 
was among the very best things in these rooms. 
The Calhrdral, Burgos by Mr. Gerald Summers, 
the Vai/ey of Arqiies by Mr. W. W. Russell, 
Men/one Tu7vn by Mr. C. M. Pearce, Richnond 
Bridge by Mr. W. Kneen, come back to our 
mind, as does Mr. W. Dadd's The North Country, 
with sunlight giving an illusory charm to a sordid 
district of brick. Mr. A. W. Rich's water-colours 
were more supreme in his way than ever, his 
Chichester Cathedra/, Millmead near Guildford, 
and Plumpton Place being especially notable. This 
year he has avoided the sweetness of tint that 
has on occasion detracted from the dignity of his 
colour. A delightful monotype, Cloudy Weather, 
was the work of Mr. A. H. 
Fulwood. And we wel- 
comed the appearance of 
Mr. Joseph Crawhall's per- 
fect drawings upon the 
New English Art Club 
walls. T. M. W. 


A LARGE number of the 
artists who supply the 
comic papers of Paris with 
humorous designs have 
chosen to strike that popu- 
lar note which delights in 
an extravagant — boisterous, 
it might be called — style 
of caricature. The black- 
and - white convention of 
men like the late Emmanuel 
Poir6 (well known by his 
nam de guerre " Caran 
d'Ache ") depends upon 
eccentricity for its effect. 
The absurdity and the con- 
tortions of the pen, as it 

were, are what excite laughter. Great is the 
contrast between their broad farce and the refined, 
esoteric wit of the other school, at the head of 
which Forain may justly be placed. Their work 
has no tag upon it ; its humour does not lie upon 
the surface. Whereas the one class aim at amuse- 
ment upon a broadly popular basis only, the other 
are perforce at once satirists. Caran d'Ache 
published drawings, sets of drawings, indeed whole 
albums, without any letterpress at all ; but Forain's 
design is, taken by itself, almost always a torso, 
not to be properly appreciated without the ac- 
companying text. This is generally felt to be true, 
and consequently people have always been par- 
ticularly interested in discovering what relationship 
exists between drawing and letterpress in Forain's 
work, whether he illustrates other people's flashes 
of wit, or whether they adapt texts to his designs, 
or, if he is the author of both, whether he first 
conceives the picture or the words. 

Forain himself explained the genesis of his 



Lithographs and Etchings by J. L. Foraiii 

modern Demo- 

work, upon interrogation, some years ago to an 
interviewer — one of the few who were fortunate 
enough to overcome all obstacles and penetrate 
the privacy of this master (for, like many other 
great delineators of public life, he presents the 
anomaly of himself shunning publicity). Having 
once formed some general notion, Forain, it would 
appear, is the true artist in so far as an experience 
of the eye and not of the governing mind is the 
primary thing with him. Some situation that he 
has seen furnishes the impetus to his work. In 
the course of elaborating the design, and while 
he is handling his figures and groups — sometimes, 
indeed, only after he has quite finished with them — 
does the pass of wit or the caustic remark which 
they are destined to illustrate occur to him. As 
he quaintly puts it : "I question them, and they 
tell me." 

His literary note is one of 
critus, a scoffer of the 
foibles of modern civilisa- 
tion. The moral key-note 
is one of irreverence, as 
has been justly pointed 
out. He likes above all to 
expose the undercurrent 
of ridiculous fallacy and 
insincerity in all the con- 
ventionalities of our daily 
life, which personal in- 
terest, empty authority 
and disingenuous coward- 
ice take so much trouble 
to keep up. His satire 
is all the more pungent 
because of its restriction 
to innuendo. He never 
lashes openly, never 
speaks out the word itself, 
but always disposes text 
and drawing like two con- 
verging lines which stop 
shortly before their point 
of meeting, but which 
indicate it with such clear- 
ness that no one can fail 
to hit upon the word or 
thought that Forain him- 
self refrains from uttering. 

The same sort of re- 
ticence is a distinguishing 
characteristic of Forain's 
artistic mood. It is a 
modern conviction that 

the very soul of black-and-white art is elimination. 
How wonderfully various are the possibilities of 
putting this theory into practice ! Forain's choice 
of method is one of the most fascinating. He 
never elaborates either form or tonality ; he rests 
satisfied with suggesting. Since the times have 
become awake to the truth of the theory, many 
a man has supposed that putting it into practice 
were an easy thing, and he " leaves out " gaily and 
inconsiderately. But this fragmentary presenta- 
tion of nature is not convincing, and much of 
the work that parades a certain bold, unmeaning 
sketchiness falls below the standard of the sten- 
ciller. It requires the keenest artistic feeling to 
know exactly when you have to stop in the 
process of reducing the multiplicity of nature 
to simple forms, in the process of discarding 
superficial traits and retaining only the essential 
ones of the figure you depict. For elimination is 




Lithographs and Etchings by J. L. Forain 

only half the game ; selection makes up the 
rest. The sureness with which Forain stops just 
upon the border-line proves his genius. However 
unrealistic his line may have become, it has never 
been pushed beyond the point where it remains 
intensely suggestive on to the decline where it falls 
into meaning and spiritless trifling. 

If this justly sets forth the visible shape of 
Forain's art, its contents may be summed up as a 
never-flagging study of expression. At bottom of 
all that he creates there lies the desire to make 
his figures betray their thoughts without speaking. 
With the acute observation of a dumb man he 
has entered upon the study of mimicry, gesticula- 
tion, facial expression and that other no less 
telling kind of expression which depends upon our 
general bearing, upon the way we hold our Hmbs 
and body, while we are trying to convey our 
thoughts and intentions to our neighbours. With 
the wonderful means at his disposal he passes on 
the fruits of his studies to us in the form of 
marvellous designs that grasp all sorts of human 
expression with an unerring hand. 

Most people will have learned to know Forain 
by the medium of the comic papers, in which his 

drawings appear in the shape of mechanical repro- 
ductions. Only a comparatively small number 
of connoisseurs are acquainted with his original 
lithographs and etchings. By this time he has 
done a good many of both of these, but the edition 
is very limited in every case, and there are very 
few lithographs or etchings of which more than 
twenty-five copies have been issued. I have be- 
come acquainted with them at the Dresden Print 
Room, the Director of which. Prof. Lehrs, has always 
been among the very foremost to recognise talent 
and genius among the living men. It was to be 
expected that in this Print Room, which possesses 
the finest collection of modern work in public 
possession, Forain would be conspicuous, and 
Prof. Lehrs has brought together the splendid 
collection of the work of Forain (upon whom he 
is about to publish a study in a Viennese con- 
temporary), from which our illustrations have been 

Forain's lithographs are perhaps not so much 
a departure from as a refined improvement upon 
the drawings in the comic papers, which every one 
has come across. Monsieur Ch Gue'rin is upon 
the point of publishing a catalogue of them, which 



L mM 


Lithographs and Etchings by J. L. Foraiii 

is expected to appear before the year is out. 
Forain has lithographed desultorily for many years. 
He has reser\ed for this method of work, subjects 
that appeal to the experienced connoisseur rather 
than to the general public. Many among them 
have very little " story " to tell ; they are decidedly 
"V art pour rart." Some few themes recur with 
many variations, such as Tke Bath and the 
Cabinet particuUer and The Strike. One of the 
most ravishing designs is the Dejeuner du Matin, 
in which a servant brings breakfast to her mistress 
in bed. The Le Tableau de Papa (p. 196), quite 
different in execution, is scarcely less captivating. 
This seems to me one of the happiest instances of 
Forain's singular power to compass expression. 
To use a hackneyed phrase, the picture speaks 
volumes, and, what is more, it liberates at a single 
stroke ideas within us that it would take pages to 
jot down. Has ever anybody succeeded better 
than Forain has with this little girl ? Her 
enthusiasm is genuinely touching without the 
faintest suggestion of any maudlin sentimentality. 
The picture is all the more noteworthy since it is 
seldom, to my knowledge at least, that Forain the 

pessimist strikes so sympathetic a chord, full of 
warmth of feeling, as he has done here. 

The etchings, on the other hand, do con- 
stitute a new departure in the life-work of our 
artist. Forain etched, ten or a dozen years ago, a 
set of small plates. They might well be missed, 
and seem to say that at that time the style of work 
did not appeal to him. Lately, however, he has 
taken up etching once more, and this time in 
quite a different spirit. His new plates are large, 
and all of them important ; in fact they disclose 
new powers which he has not heretofore developed. 

As far as their style goes, they are not all 
uniform. Occasionally he betrays a keen sense of 
the beauty of his material, as, for example, in 
La Traite des Blanches, which brings out the special 
characteristics of dry-point admirably. At other 
times — for example, in the Mile. Mere— he adopts a 
powerful breadth of line. Some of the soft ground 
etchings recall to mind Daumier, and other plates 
are conceived in the grand spirit of Legros and 
Millet. The nude girl seated upon a bed (p. 198) 
tends to purity of outline and surer draughtsman- 
ship only. Then again he broaches the problem of 





'■ p: .. 


Recent Desi^i/s in Domestic Architecture 

at the law courts. The plate of the Ttmohis 
au Freioire (p. 1 90) is replete with the finest obser- 
vation. The old woman has the harassed look 
of one who has given evidence against kith and 
kin. There is a mar\ellous twinge of inborn 
coquetry in the furtive glance that the little girl 
shoots at us, and the boy in his look of surprise 
mingled with self-consciousness has plainly for 
the first time in his life been hoisted to a 
position of importance, which, however small it 
may have been, was still in no wise the result 
of his own deserts. Le Prisonnier ei son Enfant 
is perhaps the finest of all the plates. The 
besotted expression of the prisoner, debased and 
corrupted from birth, a true specimen of a 
degenerated race, surpasses anything of the kind 
I have seen. The presentation of his little child 
by its young mother is a most powerful moment 
in the comidie hiimaine, at a moment where that 
co?nedie becomes singularly tragic. H. ^^'. S. 

"I-EMME NUE" (etching) 




balancing his blacks against his whites, as in his 
Prodigal Son plates (pp. 193, 197). The majority 
of the plates display a certain super-nervousness of 
line. They look as if the rapidity of execution had 
been immense. I imagine that when Forain does 
eventually come to elaborate his own proper style, 
which, as this diversity of attempts shows, he has 
not yet attained, it will be 
this nervous line that he 
will cultivate and probably 
temper, for it seems to me 
to lack simplicity, occa- 
sionally, at present. 

For the present, how- 
ever, his attentions are not 
directed that way ; they 
are rather engrossed by the 
same pursuit after mastery 
of expression. And they are 
full of superb instances of 
such mastery having been 
compassed, as even our 
reduced illustrations will 
show. One of his favourite 
topics, the same that he 
has discussed already time 
and again in drawings for 
the magazines, are scenes 

The illustrations which have ap- 
peared under this heading in our recent issues 
have almost without exception been those of 
English houses ; but on this occasion, by way of 
variation, we give some examples of houses and 
interiors designed by a firm of German architects, 
Messrs. Runge and Scotland, of Bremen, whom 
many of our readers may remember as the 
desigrners of some luxurious cabins on the North 



Recent Designs in Domes fie Architectnye 



German Lloyd steamship " Kronprinzessin Cecilie," 
which were illustrated in The Studio for December, 
1907 (pp. 238-240). Apropos of the 
work of these architects in relation to 
domestic architecture generally, and 
specifically in regard to the designs now 
illustrated, we quote the remarks of one 
of our German correspondents. 

Two factors (he says) have played an 
important part in the recent evolution 
of country-house architecture in Ger- 
many ; first, much attention has been 
paid to the traditional style and methods 
of building peculiar to a particular dis- 
trict, and secondly, there has been a 
more general recognition of the principle 
that between a house and its physical en- 
vironment there should always e.xist as 
much congruity as possible. 1 1 is gener- 
ally recognised, for instance, that it 
would be a gross perversion of architec- 
tural propriety to build a Swiss chalet 
in one of the flat expanses of Northern 

Europe, or to transplant the style of a peasant 
cottage of Lower Saxony to the Bavarian highlands. 



Recent Designs in Domestic ArcJiitectnre 



At the same time the architect of the modern 
school holds that it is altogether inconsistent with 
the conditions of life at the present day to build 
houses in the style of these peasant dwellings for 
the strenuous city worker in need of relaxation. 
These may answer very well for a temporary 
abode during the summer, but the country house 
which the townsman wants nowadays differs both 
from this peasant house and from the pseudo- 
castle which the wealthy merchant used not so 
long ago to be fond of erecting in emulation 
of the landed aristocracy. The tendency is to 
place considerations of utility in the foreground 

Messrs. Runge and 
Scotland have from the 
first pursued a middle 
course. While they have 
in the planning of the 
houses designed by them 
sought to satisfy the crav- 
ing of the hard- worked 
city man for rest, light 
and air, they were led by 
their own predilection for 
the creations of peasant 
art which the dwellings 
of Lower Saxony offered 
them in rich abundance, 
to turn to account such 
useful and attractive 
features as they could 
discover therein. The 
elongated ground -plan, 
permitting of a favour- 
able arrangement of the 
rooms in regard to sun- 
shine, the picturesque 
sloping roof, the large 
windows made up of 
numerous small panes, 
are elements derived from 
the architecture, of Lower 
Saxony, and the houses 
in which they are intro- 
duced have the appear- 
ance of springing from 
the soil and consequently 
accord well with the sur- 
rounding landscape. 

The inhabitants of 
Bremen have, through the 
close commercial intercourse which the town has 
long enjoyed with England, learned to appreciate 
the advantages of separate dwellings, and in fact 
preference has for centuries been shown here for 
this mode of living. Messrs. Runge and Scotland 
therefore found in this locality a favourable field 
for their activity. The numerous commissions 
which were entrusted to them in the course of a 
comparatively brief period, brought them face to 
face with a succession of novel problems, the solu- 
tion of which aftbrded them an opportunity of 
displaying their skill by reconciling the practical 
needs of daily life with the ideal requirements of 
the present age. Amongst their more recent 

and to ignore, or at all events to assign a sub- 
ordinate place to, the picturesque character of achievements, the house which they themselves 
the elevation. occupy as a private residence and atelier (two 

Recent Designs in Domestic Architecture 

illustrations of which are here given), and especi- 
ally the two country houses designed for Dr. 
Vassmer and Herr Friese, both of them admirably 
exemplifying the combination of practicability with 
{esthetic qualities, have made their name known 
among wider circles. 

The accompanying illustrations of the "Land- 
haus Vassmer " show that the architects appreciate 
the beauty of quiet nooks, such as the loggia over 
the main entrance and the veranda and terrace 
outside the dining-room on the garden side. The 
white of the external walls combines with the 



red-tiled roof and broad expanse of green turf to 
impart an aspect of cheerfulness to this house. 
The plan (page 199) reveals a thoughtful distri- 
bution of the apartments. As will be seen, the 
entrance divides off the domestic offices from the 
family apartments ; the latter consisting of a hall, 
through which are reached the living - room 
( Wohnzinimer), the dining-room {Speisezimmer), 
measuring approximately 23 ft. by 15 ft., and 
leading out of this the children's day nursery. 
On the other side of the dining-room is a servery 
communicating with the kitchen, beyond which is 
the larder, the remaining 
offices being a wash-room 
with direct access to the 
garden, and an ironing- 
room. From the house 
which Messrs. Runge 
and Scotland have de- 
signed for Herr Friese, 
we give two illustrations 
of the principal bedroom, 
reproduced from draw- 
ings made by the archi- 
tects. On each of the 
two shorter sides of the 
room are a pair of fixed 
wardrobes or cupboards, 
with drawer at the bottom 
of each, and between 
them are recesses respec- 
tively intended for the 
bed and the washstand. 
That the practical con- 
siderations which so 
largely influence their 
designs do not exclude 
a feeling for decorative 
effect is amply demon- 
strated both in the design 
of this bedroom and in 
that of the living-room, 
illustrated on p. 202, in 
which elegance and com- 
fort are aptly blended. 
Here there are unmistak- 
able reminiscences of the 
best Empire form, but it 
is in their shrewd blend- 
ing of old and new-, com- 
bined with a cultivated 
taste which does not 
shrink from utilising con- 
ventional motives, but 

The Exhibition of SivedisJi Applied Art at Stockholm 




^/.i \ 

merely shuns what is trivial, that the chief strength the arts and the crafts, and never more so than 
of these architects lies. during the last few years. 


Although the Swedes 
as a nation are perhaps the 
oldest in Europe, having for 
some five thousand years 
held possession of the land 
they were always proud to 
call their own, and although 
their history teems with re- 
cords of doughty deeds and 
brilliant exploits through 
many centuries, they are yet 
a people which in youthful 
and vigorous energy and 
pregnant enthusiasm will vie 
with any — a fact which is 
constantly being made mani- 
fest within the different fields 
of human work and enter- 
prise, amongst them especially 





The Exhibition of Sivcdish Applied Art at Stockholm 






The subject of this article is one instance 
amongst many bearing out what I have just said. 
It would seem rather a venturesome undertaking 
to hold a large and costly exhibition solely in- 
tended for Swedish applied art and art-industry ; 
but the result has, in the happiest manner, proved 
the soundness of the idea, which, in the first 
instance, emanated from Dr. E. G. Folcker, who, 
as he himself modestly says, cast the small grain 
of mustard seed which grew into the big tree. 

The one man, however, to whom the exhibition 
owes more than to any other, is the famous archi- 
tect, Mr. Ferdinand Boberg. Not only has he 
conceived and worked out in detail the whole of 
the charming and original exhibition buildings — 
admirable in their plan as they are singularly 
picturesque in their aspect — but to him is also due 
the credit of having designed scores of exhibits- 
furniture and hangings, metal-work and glass, in- 
cluding some of the most striking and most 
meritorious items shown. True, Mr. Boberg 
laboured under favourable conditions : the site 
simply perfect, in a lovely old park on the 
brink of the waterway to Stockholm, the power 

to do virtually what he pleased, and behind him 
a host of helpful and responsive friends. Boberg's 
art is to be recognised in the bold contours of 
several of the structures, in the restful expanses of 
unbroken wall, in the quaint and charming court- 
yards, and more especially in the decorative devices 
and ornamental tnotifs in which his artistic person- 
ality perhaps finds its happiest and most character- 
istic expression. 

So much for the buildings, an exquisite little 
white city within the great setting of magnificent 
old trees. Whilst colour is thus banished from 
the exterior, it abounds within, more particularly, 
as might be expected, in the textile sections, 
which must be counted amongst the exhibition's 
greatest attractions, also on account of the fact 
that they, to a great extent, are the outcome of 
two distinct national movements, now, in a way, 
running parallel, viz., an old craft of peasant 
weaving, lace-making and needlework, and an en- 
tirely modern departure of great artistic merit, 
both, however, essentially Swedish and brought to 
such high degree of perfection that they may safely 
challenge comparison with all comers. 


TJie Exhibition of S^ccdish Applied Art at Stockholm 

Foremost amongst the several concerns which 
have taken up modern artistic textile work, and 
which have the aid of some of Sweden's most 
famous painters, stands the organisation known as 
" Handarbetet's Vanner" (the Friends of Handi- 
work), to which I have more than once had 
occasion to refer in the pages of The Studio. 
It is a self-contained and state-subsidized institu- 
tion, which is being worked on strictly artistic 
and disinterested lines, and is instrumental in the 
making of a vast quantity of charming textile 
work, from large and costly "Gobelins" to small 
cushions and bags, all de- 
signed by able craftsmen 
and artists and worked 
under the supervision of 
the " Handarbetet's Van- 
ner" by a large number of 
lady workers, who thus 
5nd a pleasant and suitable 

Handarbetet's Vanner, 
of which Mile. Carin 
Wastberg is now the artis- 
tic leader, have three or 
four charming interiors at 
the exhibition, foremost 
amongst which is a large 
room arranged as a chapel 
with several altars, decked 
with altar cloths and ante- 
pendiums of great beauty. 
The Swedish Church, like 
the English, has retained 
its ancient equipment of 
sundry sets of altar cloths, 
etc., according to the 
seasons of the Church, and 
especially of late years a 
great impetus has been 
given to this kind of work. 
Jn Swedish homes, too, 
the craving for beauty has 
grown with leaps and 
bounds during the last 
decade, and a sense that 
even the most common- 
place article of use may 
be endowed with a simple 
beauty of its own, is assert- 
ing itself more and more. 
Cause and effect often 
overlap each other, and 
" Handarbetet's Vanner " 

have undoubtedly done much to foster that craving 
for beauty, which it has now become their busi- 
ness to satisfy. It is unfortunately impos- 
sible to enumerate, let alone describe in detail, 
even the more important work in the Handarbetet's 
Vanner exhibition, which comprises considerably 
more than a hundred items. Suffice it to mention 
the names of some of the artists who are repre- 
sented here. Amongst the ladies there are 
Mile. Maria Sjostrom, Mile. Maria Adelberg, 
Mile. Maria Andersson, the artistic leader Mile. 
Wastberg and several others, and amongst the men 


z ^ g 

< " kJ 

p^ g S 

< r o 
u R o 

w w ^ 

< w ^- 

^ p^ y 

^ o J 

^ N ; 


Z ^ W 

« < m 

w >- >; 

- Q "^ 

w^ Cii W 

kJ g - 

w 5 < 

< w w 

^ o [^ 

z . J 

w ^ w 

W S H 

^ W 5 

U S < 

CO c/} ffi 

The ExJiibition of Sii'cdish Applied Art at Stockholm 



such eminent artists as Carl Larsson, Ferdinand 
Boberg, Gunnar Hallstrom, etc. Carl Larsson is 
represented by an important haute-lisse tapestry, 
Venus and the Water-Sprite (p. 205), a typical 
work of its famous and eminently popular de- 
signer, the head and the hands of the fair goddess, 
more especially, being possessed of that subtle 
Larssonian grace so entirely his own. The figure 
itself is perhaps not quite so interesting, but 
otherwise this Gobelin is deserving of loud praise. 
I used to look upon England as being far 

ahead of any other country in the matter of 
colour, but it must be admitted that some of 
Sweden's textile artists have attained to such 
admirable results that they in any case have 
become formidable rivals. The study and 
production of vegetable colours has become 
quite an art by itself, and one sees, in 
modern Swedish work, blendings and constel- 
lations essentially new and extremely beautiful, 
harmonies in blue or purple, or even such 




sombre colours as grey 
and brown. The exhibi- 
tion of the Handarbetet's 
Vanner abounds in 
examples of this craft, 
and also contains speci- 
mens of novel and modi- 
fied weaving methods, 
upon which it would be 
tempting to enlarge. 

Miss Agnes Branting, 
who some years ago gave 
up the management of 
Handarbetet's Vanner in 
order to start the " Li- 
cium " an establishment 
originally intended more 
especially for church 
work, but which soon, 
however, s;rew into a more 


TJie Exliihitioii of S^i^edish Applied Art at Stockholm 

comprehensive affair, is probably the greatest 
authority in Sweden in the matter of artistic textile 
work, ancient and modern alike, and she has 
published several verj' able essays on these sub- 
jects. The "Licium" section at the exhibition has 
a number of exquisite specimens both of church 
work and other kinds — hangings, banners, etc. Of 
special interest is a three-winged Gobelin, repre- 
senting scenes from Dalecarlia, designed by 
Sweden's most famous painter, Anders Zorn, him- 
self a true Dalecarlian, and his aged mother is 
depicted as one of the peasant women leaving the 
church. The weaving is done in the old Gobelin 
manner, but the subjects and the colours are treated 
in a more realistic style than is generally the case with 
textile work, and the result is most effective. There 
are also large, decorative hangings by other pro- 
minent artists, amongst them Gunnar Wennerberg, 
and some magnificent antependiums intended for 

Swedish cathedrals — altogether a perfect collection 
of artistic textile work, of which Miss Branting 
and her fellow-worker, Mrs. Borjeson have every 
reason to be proud. 

The most important and, when all is said and 
done, the best textile exhibit, however, is the large 
Gobelin, of which a coloured reproduction accom- 
panies this article. Designed by Mr. and Mrs. 
Ferdinand Boberg, and woven at the atelier of 
the Nordiska Company, this, too, represents 
a scene from Dalecarlia (Mr. Boberg likewise 
hails from this historic province) — a funeral at 
Leksand, a subject which has been made to admir- 
ably answer its purpose, and which, in itself, is a 
singularly picturesque function, owing to the quaint 
and striking national dresses worn by the peasantry, 
one of the mourning garments, for instance, being a 
large bright yellow apron. Mr. and Mrs. Boberg 
have, in spite of the actuality of the scene depicted, 



The Exhibition of Sivedish Applied Art at Stockholm 

wished to maintain the character of the Gobelin 
proper, and with this end in view the colours have 
been somewhat mellowed and toned down with 
exceeding skill. I am inclined to think that this 
Boberg Gobelin, which I understand is only the 
first of a series — all having for their subjects 
Dalecarlian scenes — can claim its place in the verj' 
front rank of modem Gobelins. 

In the same room as this Boberg tapestrj' are 
also to be found several pieces of furniture, exhi- 
bited by the same company and designed by 
Boberg, including an elaborate — almost too 
elaborate — cabinet in black wood, the inside with 
inlaid work in diverse colours. Altogether some 
of the designers of furniture appear to be rather 
too much given to the application of colour, even 
in such hea\7 pieces, that hardly call for ornamen- 
tation of this nature. Nordiska Kompaniet is also 
showing several interiors equipped with furniture 
designed by Mr. Blomberg, an architect who has 
a fine sense of line and proportion, and thoroughly 
understands how to turn the different kinds and 

colours of wood to the best possible account 
Birch has of late years become a popular medium, 
both in Sweden and Denmark, and its satin-like 
surface, which admits of being stained in different 
tones, is often productive of most excellent results. 
The Nordiska Kompaniet are likewise exhibiting 
a quantity of metal work, beaten and wrought, 
by able artists. 

Mr. Alfred ^Vallande^, who is the artistic leader 
both of the large Rorstrand porcelain works and of 
the Giobel Art Slojd concern, is represented by 
numerous exhibits — textiles, furniture, china, etc., 
including furniture for the librar}' and the smoking 
room, in polished birch, and possessed of a very 
attractive, simple and selfcontained style, rugs, 
curtains, cushions, chandelier, and more especially 
a large hauie-lisse Gobelin, Verdure (p. 202), all 
combining to make the Wallander interiors some 
of the most taking in the exhibition. The Gobelin, 
old-time in design, is rich in its colouring and ver\' 

Essentially modern and altogether original are a 




'^ 2 a 


o u 



H H 

•2 « 
5 « 

Ed ffl 

H 5 o 
p« «: z 

2 " s 
>■ - 

c a 
z *-■ 

a Ed 

The ExJiibifion of Sii'cdish Applied Art at Sfockho/in 

series of six haute-lisie 
hangings designed by the 
eminent painter, Gustaf 
Fjastad, and in many re- 
spects reminding one of 
his works in oils. They 
are naturahstic represen- 
tations of such scenes 
as Running Water, A 
Winter's Night, Thatv, 
etc., highly effective in 
their way, and exceedingly 
clever — no other artist 
probably depicts such 
nature's moods with any- 
thing approaching Fjas- 
tad's talent — still, some 
good judges have taken 
exception to this applica- 
tion of their revered 
haute-lisse. Fjastad also 
has some heavy furniture 
in carved pine, like his 

hangings, extremely personal, and possessing a 
quaint, rustic, and robust decorative effect. 


On a smaller scale than those hitherto mentioned, 
but still very charming, is a collection of textile 




The Exliibition of Swedish applied Art at Stockholm 

work arranged by the "Bikupan" (the Beehive), 
and which contains many articles of considerable 
merit. (See illustration below.) 

The old crafts of weaving, lace- making, knitting, 
etc., general amongst the peasantry in days gone 
by, still prevail in many parts of the country, and 
have of later years again grown in favour, and that 
at a rapid rate, in several provinces. Societies for 
the advancement of this home industry have been 
formed in many parishes, and are receiving the aid 
of able artists and others interested in the move- 
ment. Some of the Dalecarlian parishes, such as 
Leksand, Rattvik, Feoda and Mora, are particu- 
larly to the fore, and their rooms at the exhibition 
are most attractive, ^^'eavings, more or less elabo- 
rate, but mostly gay with bright colours, red and 
yellow, blue and green, lace caps in many colours 
and patterns, embroidered pouches, woollen gloves 
bedecked with many-coloured flowers, linen work, 
furs and leather specially treated to suit the local 
fashion, cleverly hammered and twisted ironwork, 
baskets and wooden wares, crowd these rural show- 

rooms, which are among the most interesting at the 
exhibition. Volumes could be and, as a matter of 
fact, have been written about this multifarious out- 
come of " home slojd," and many of the articles 
produced, especially the weavings, are constantly 
finding their way into artistic Swedish homes, and 
generally prove to be of pronounced decorative 
value. There is an endless variety of patterns, in 
the ribbons, for instance, which adorn the women's 
caps ; they are probably to be counted by the 
hundred, each parish in some districts having its 
own peculiar patterns, which have often been 
handed down through many centuries. Some parts 
of the country excel in woollen rugs and hangings, 
others again in cotton and linen work, white and 
red or white and green or white and yellow checked 
or striped. These materials go so admirably with 
a Swedish wooden villa, which is not timbered of 
sombre beams as sometimes seen in Norway, but 
with the boarding gaily painted in various colours, 
for the Swedes love colour, and colours abound, 
in nature, in art, and in the national dresses. 



The Exhibition of Sivcdish Applied Art at Stockholm 



Several villas and cottages, completely furnished, 
are shown in the exhibition grounds, bearing out 
what has been said above, and evidencing the 
high degree of perfection to which this branch of 
Swedish architecture has been carried. This, too, 
has, in fact, a touch of the national move- 
ment about it, going hand in hand with the 
endeavours to procure for as many Swedes 
as possible, peasant and artisan, merchant 
and artist, an " own home." 

Within the limits of an article such as 
this it would be impossible to deal sepa- 
rately with other groups of exhibits, in 
almost all of which able craftsmen have 
been at work. Swedish glass deserves its 
high repute, and the large Porcelain works, 
Rorstrand, to which I have already referred, 
and Gustafsberg, of which Mr. Gunnar Wen- 
nerberg, a charming painter, is the artistic 
leader, are working energetically ahead, 
although in this field Sweden cannot yet vie 
with Denmark. The same remark, as far 
as I could see, applies to the craft of the 
goldsmith and silversmith ; there certainly 
were many meritorious exhibits, but they 
have not had in Sweden such an eminently 
gifted and original draughtsman within this 
sphere as Denmark had in the late Thorvald 

The more old-fashioned system of crowd- 
ing a number of more or less hetero- 
geneous articles into one large hall has 
been entirely discarded at the Stockholm 
Exhibition, where a series of smaller com- 

partments and rooms have 
been provided, with 
a special view to the 
individual requirements 
of the different exhibitors. 
This is a great boon, 
above all to the people 
displaying furniture, most 
of which is shown so 
as to form complete in- 
teriors. Of such there 
is a great variety, and on 
the whole the designers, 
as well as the makers, 
deserve much praise. The 
furniture as a whole 
lacks, perhaps, some of 
that stamp of nationalism 
which is a distinct virtue 
in so many textile exhibits, 
although it must be admitted that no outside 
influences make themselves unduly felt. Much 
is possessed of a certain severe dignity, 
dimensioned, and designed to serve the 


intended practical purpose, and the effect produced 




Sttidio- Talk 


des:gned by gustav wennerberg 

is in many cases restful and harmonious. 
I should like to draw particular attention to that 
designed by Mr. R. Ostman, the well-known archi- 
tect, for Nordiska Moblerings Aktiebolaget, in- 
cluding a very handsome set of dining-room 
furniture, in exceptionally good style, simple in 
lines but elaborated with inlaid ornamentation. 
Another striking dining-room, in what is called 
modernized Keltish-Xorthem style, has been de- 
signed by M. Carl Jonsson (see p. 213). 

It is with regret that I bring my somewhat 
cursory remarks about the exhibition to an end. 
Before it closes next month it is to be hoped 
many of The Studio readers may find it con- 
venient to pay a visit to Sweden's beautiful capital 
and see for themselves to what admirable results 
the Swedes have attained within this field. The 
exhibition is under the patronage of the King of 
Sweden, and His Majesty's youngest brother. 
Prince Eugen — an eminently talented painter — is 
Honorary President. G. B. 

(From Our Own Correspondents.) 

LONDON.— The career of the late Mr. E. J. 
Gregor)', R..A., President of the Royal 
Institute of Painters in Water-Colours, 
whose death we regret to record as 
having taken place in the last days of June at the 
comparatively early age of 59, will be the subject 
of an article in an early issue of this magazine. 
Arrangements for such an article were made (with 
the approval of Mr. Gregory himself) some three 
or four months back, at a time when there was no 
reason whatever to suppose that when it appeared 
it would have to be an obituary notice, for though 
the distinguished painter was not then in the best 
of health, there was nothing in his condition fore- 
boding an imminent termination of his life. 

At the Leicester Galleries the exhibition of Ford 
Madox Brown's works was a notable event, plunging 



( The praptrty of Henry Rodjin^ton. JzsyJ 



studio- Talk 

us back into the atmosphere of the romanticism 
of half a century ago. There was an early " attri- 
buted " work, full of beautiful mysterious qualities 
that the modern student strives to get, but which 
(if we may assume the work to be his) Madox 
Brown threw away in favour of the principles of 
pre-Raphaelitism. These, however unintentionally, 
excluded myster)', in feeling as well as practice. 
Abstractly as well as technically the pre-Raphaelites 
were limited to very few truths, because, in their 
own words, they pledged themselves to " the whole 
truth and nothing but the truth," which is rarely 
possessed about anything. Their narrowed range, 
however, made possible the concentration which 
produced such beauty of brooch and watered 
ribbon, folded baby-lips and hands, such intensity 
of representation in trifles as is attested in the 
picture Waiting, which we reproduce from the 
original, kindly placed at our disposal by Mr. 
Henry Boddington. Such qualities were possible 
to pre-Raphaelitism alone, and shown by no one 
more than Madox Brown, the father 
of pre-Raphaelitism, and, when all 
is said, perhaps its truest master. 

The romantic period of which 
the Madox Brown exhibition re- 
minded us was revived again with 
even greater force at the Tennyson 
Centenary Exhibition at the Fine 
Art Society's, where the early illus- 
trations of Millais, the pictures by 
Arthur Hughes and the Rossetti 
drawings formed, with the small 
version of Holman Hunt's Lady 
of Shalott and J. W. Waterhouse's 
large painting of that subject, the 
chief artistic interests in an exhibi- 
tion not as rich in them as we 
should have thought it possible to 
make it. 

The panel which Mr. Alfred 
Drury has executed for the front of 
the new offices of the Grand Trunk 
Railway in Cockspur Street (the 
formal inauguration of which took 
place last month) is certainly one 
of the best things he has ever pro- 
duced in this branch of his practice 
— one of the most admirable in its 
qualities of design and execution, 
and in its attractive individuality of 
style. (See illustration on p. 216.) " 

The Pastel Society's Exhibition was disappointing 
this year because of its neglect to encourage the 
qualities which essentially belong to pastel exclu- 
sively, some of the finest things in the exhibition 
bearing only a slight relationship to the medium. 
Among the works in which its qualities were 
observed to its truest advantage, we must place 
those of Messrs. R. Gwelo Goodman, Simon Bussy, 
S. Melton Fisher, Terrick Williams, H. S. Tuke, 
A.R.A., Henry Muhrman, J. M. Swan, R.A., W. L. 
Bruckman, and Miss Anna Airy. 

In recent exhibitions we have encountered some 
noticeable etchings by Mr. Laurence Davis, and we 
have pleasure in submitting to our readers two 
examples of his work. It is not difficult to see 
that Mr. Davis has subjected himself to the best influ- 
ences, but his line succeeds in being very interesting 
on its own account, giving evidence that he must 
be counted among the later arrivals who are quite 
at home within the principles of the difficult art. 










































studio- Talk 

Mr. Gutekunst has held one of the most inter- 
esting of his recent exhibitions of etching in that 
of the work of Anders L. Zorn, whose etchings are 
not so familiar to the English collector as they should 
be. There exists little work to compare with the 
Swedish etcher's for power of drawing, depths of 
black and play of light and genius for portraiture. 

The second London Salon organized by the 
Allied Artists' Association was held during last 
month and the beginning of this at the Albert 
Hall, the unsuitability of which for such a purpose 
was again only too obvious. Over 1,700 paintings, 
water-colours, and miniatures were crowded into 
the promenade gallery at the top of the building, 
some fifty or sixty large paintings and decorative 
works were hung in front of the grand tier bo.xes 

downstairs, and a collection of drawings, etchings, 
applied art productions, and sculpture occupied 
the arena. We shall not attempt to notice in 
detail the vast and incoherent assemblage of 
works as that which the executive of the Associa- 
tion here brought together — the bulk of them 
contributed by British artists, though many foreign 
countries, including the United States, were repre- 
sented. Such an assemblage could hardly be 
other than incoherent seeing that the sole qualifi- 
cation for exhibiting is the payment of an annual 
subscription to the Association, whose members 
are entitled to send in three works (last year 
the number was five) without having to run 
the gauntlet of a selection jury. On the whole, 
however, this year's display left on us a distinctly 
better impression than last year's. Some few artists 
of the highest repute were repre- 
sented, and the number of those 
whose performances, though falling 
short of the highest level, always 
claim respect, was far greater on this 
occasion. We would suggest that 
next year's exhibition might show 
a still further improvement if the 
total number of works included 
were reduced by lowering the quota 
of each member from three to two, 
or perhaps a better arrangement 
still would be to give the committee 
power to reject one or even two out 
of any three works sent in — a plan 
which would enable them to elim- 
inate a large proportion of the 
feeble achievements whose presence 
is very prejudicial to the really 
meritorious work. 

( Sei' Edinburgh Studio- Talk) 

At the Baillie Gallery the water- 
colour drawings by Mr. T. L. 
Shoosmith, whose work we have 
often admired, while marking further 
development in his interesting 
talent, showed him lapsing into an 
exaggeration of colour, which, gay 
and at first sight sometimes effec- 
tive, was there at the expense of the 
truer obsen-ation through which 
nature yields to the landscape 
painter qualities newer than any 
to be made by ingenuity of palette 
— qualities based upon the indivi- 
dual vision, ensuring individuality. 




EDINBURGH.— The Society of Scottish 
Artists' Exhibition, which was opened in 
the Royal Scottish Academy Galleries at 
the end of June, is one of the most 
interesting collections that has been brought to- 
gether by this association of the younger painters. 
In respect of the loan work, the contributions by 
those who are now more identified with the 
Academy than with the Society in whose origin 
and development they took a leading part, or the 
pictures by the younger men to whom the associa- 
tion means ever)-thing in corporate life, the exhi- 
bition has reached a higher artistic level than has 
probably been attained at any of the fourteen 
previous shows. 

Of the loan work exceptional interest attaches 
to the portrait by Sir Henr>' Raeburn of little 
William Sinclair, lent by the Archdeacon of 
London. It is the nude figure of a boy with curly 
golden hair, set against a crimson curtain back- 
ground, the rich colour of which is reflected in the 
warm flesh-tones of the figure, so sweet, winning 
and persuasive. Raeburn, if I mistake not, painted 
eight portraits of the Sinclair family, who were 

rather notable in the social life of the Scottish 
capital at the end of the eighteenth century. 
Sir John, the father, married a daughter of 
Macdonald of the Isles, and the family of thirteen 
were all over six feet in height, which led the 
Edinburgh people to name the pavement oppo- 
site their house in George Street "The Giants' 
Causeway." The subject of the picture became 
eventually Rector of Pulborough. A portrait by 
Sir James Guthrie of the Rev. Dr. Alexander 
li^iyte, which though painted some years ago has 
not previously been exhibited, Orchardson's A 
Tender Chord, and William McTaggart's The 
North Sea, one of his most masterly compositions, 
are also amon^ the loaned works. 

Turning to the work of the members of the 
Society, one cannot but note with pleasure the 
advance made by Graham Glen, the new chairman 
of the Council, in An old-time Melody, the 
literar>' sentiment of which will be explained by 
the accompanying illustration. There is a robust 
quality in the painting which is characteristic of 
the artist's later work, and a certainty of touch and 
sense of the relationship of colour values which 

studio- Talk 

augurs well for his future. Mystic subjects liave 
appealed to few Scottish artists, and it is thus 
of the nature of an innovation to find such a 
picture emanating from an Edinburgh studio as 
John Duncan's Heptu bidding fareivdl tj the 
City of Obb. The fabled hippogryph has been 
variously described. Mr. Duncan has bettered 
Ariosto with his twentieth - century modification 
by an aeroplane tail. This wondrous anatomical 
combination, bearing its nude rider to the land 
of sweet dreams, soars over a landscape and 
through an evening sky of mystic beauty. It 
is a charming fantasy. Two fine examples 
of the work of Hornel and George Smith adorn 
the great room, and W. M. Frazer is represented 
by A Alisty Morning on the Fens, of good 
atmospheric quality and with a Corot-like treat- 
ment of the trees. 

small seapiece with formidable billows, conveys 
some sense of the grandeur of ocean waves. In 
Springtime, Glen Dochart, Marshall Brown has 
caught the spirit of the open Highland valley 
sweeping upward to the silent hills over which 
the storm clouds brood. E. A. Walton's Mid- 
summer landscape has a jewel-like brilliancy in the 
sapphire blues which are interwoven with juicy 
greens, and J. Campbell Mitchell in Early 
Summer, Midlothian, shows much purity of colour 
allied to quiet dignity of composition. 

A beautiful modulation of reds and blues 
harmonised in a scholarly way is the distinctive 
feature of Charles H. Mackie's Farm Pond — a 
Normandy subject. Mason Hunter reaches a 
higher level than usual in his Silver Morning. 
Frequently confusing the impression by the 

J. Campbell Noble, 
one of the staunchest 
friends of the Society 
among the Academi- 
cians, has seldom 
been better repre- 
sented than by his 
Trossachs landscape 
with its glowing sunset 
warmth on the low 
hills, and cool, repose- 
ful foreground. Robert 
Noble sends one of 
the richest apple blos- 
som pictures he has 
painted, and a spring 
effect on the Tyne 
which realises the cool 
atmosphere of the ver- 
nal season on the East 
coast. Robert Burns 
— painting, evidently 
from the windows of 
the new Art School — 
shows a view of Edin- 
burgh Castle with the 
roofs of the squalid 
West Port houses as 
a foreground under a 
winter effect that is 
an extremely clever 
composition as well as 
being an alluring study 
in pearly greys ; and 
James Paterson, in a 



studio- Talk 


multiplicity of detail, Mr. Hunter is here 
simple, reposeful, atmospheric and sincere. In 

the picture of Highland cattle drinking at a 
mountain stream, by Andrew Douglas, the land- 
scape has a rich quality of colour and luminous sky. 
Curiously mi.xed sensations of weirdness and humour 
are suggested by George Pirie's painting of a watch- 
dog in a farmyard by moonlight; R. Duddingston 
Herdman's Dryad has charm of line and an ap- 
propriate setting ; James Riddell's Silver Poplars 
shows a growing purity and naturalness of colour, 
and W. S. MacGeorge is seen to advantage in a 
woodland landscape with its foreground of hyacinth 

Among the younger figure painters Robert 
Hope evinces great fertility of modification in 
design and his passionate love of the beautiful 
finds most satisfying expression in The Blue Veil — 
the colour key to a charming study of a young 
woman holding a slender vase of roses. E. A. 
Borthwick has made a great step forward in his 
Cupid, a ruddy child figure poised in air who has 
just sent a dart earthward. In colour and modelling 


{^Saion des Humoristes, Paris) 





(Salon des Hurnoristes^ Paris) 

it breathes the influence of Watts. A recent 
member of the Society, Alexander Grieve, has 
attained remarkable success, both in colour and 
composition, with his picture of a girl playing a 
Beethoven pianoforte work. David Alison, also 
one of the young members, shows much promise 
in his portrait of Sir Michael Nairn ; J. Ford has 
an excellent portrait of Dr. Calder, and W. G. Skeoch 
Gumming a good equestrian portrait of Major 
Graham Watson. The only interior of note is 
that of a crofter's kitchen by H. J. Bell. 

In the water-colour room the place of honour is 
given to a drawing by R. Anning Bell of the 
Amazon Guard at Queen Hippolyta's Bath, in 
which strength of colour is more evident than 
beauty of line. R. B. Nisbet's Breezy Upland svigge.&ts, 
that the artist's recent incursion into oil painting is 
giving greater purity of colour and directness of 
touch to his work as an aquarellist ; William Walls 
has an impressive drawing of a black panther 
stalking his prey ; James Cadenhead a silvery Dee- 
side landscape. Miss Kate Cameron a refined 
picture of rose blooms in a vase ; Miss Emily 

Paterson a clever drawing of one of the tree- 
shaded streets of Dordrecht, and Miss Mabel 
Dawson a boldly executed study of horses 
drawing a reaper. A. E. 

PARIS. — The Salon des Humoristes has 
this year again met with much success, 
and visitors thronged the galleries of the 
Palais de Glace in order to sample the 
wit of some of our most individualistic artists. It 
almost seems as though the general public is tired 
of the large conventional pictures of the Salons, 
and finds infinitely more pleasure in looking at the 
little drawings and water-colours of the French 
masters of humorous art. The exhibition of 1909 
was much like its predecessor of 1 90S, in that it re- 
vealed nothing sensational — no new talent hitherto 
ignored or but little appreciated. Many of the 
works exhibited had already appeared in the 
comic papers, but one saw them again in the 
original with added pleasure. All the diverse 
phases of French wit were here represented ; low 
comedy in the work of L''andre and Faivre, modern 
elegance by Fabiano, bucolic drollery in the 

(Salon des humoristes, Paris) 



^ '"^^^ A^a.: 


{Salon dt:s Hiimorisfcs, Paris) 


pictures of Delaw, political satire in Forain's 
drawings, and character sketches by Guillaume. 
There was also work by Louis Morin, than whom 
there is no more witty spectator of Parisian life. 

Certain of the men represented in this Salon are 
extremely modern in their outlook, as, for instance, 
Roubille, Poulbot, Grandjouan, Pre'jelan, while 
others, on the contrary, seem to be enamoured of 
old-time traditions. Such a one is M. Neumont, 
whose work, I was delighted to notice, is inspired 
by the muse of Gavarni. M. Dr^sa is himself 
attracted by the courtly school of the eighteenth 
century, and though painting with an entirely 
modern palette he presents the idyllic charm of 
the fetes galantes or of the old Italian comedy 
with infinite wit and daintiness in his pictures. 
Sculpture also occupied an important place on 
this occasion, and in this branch M. Gir excelled 

in his studies of dancers ; M. Galantara gave proof 
of a very Rabelaisian spirit in his plaster figures ; 
M. Leymarie and M. Doncieux were to the fore 
with their carved chestnuts, and M. R^alier-Dumas 
made a pleasant impression with his admirable 
carvings of dogs. Several retrospective sections 
completed a most interesting ensemble, particularly 
attractive being a collection of little pieces of 
sculpture — famous politicians, celebrated artists, 
literary men, and others — by Prosper d'Epinay. 

As readers of this magazine are already familiar 
with the delightful monograms, seals and kindred 
emblems which constitute M. George Auriol's/t/r/f, 
the accompanying page containing a selection from 
a large number he has executed during the past 
few years, does not call for special comment. 

Among the best sculpture shown at the last 

"musiciens arabes" 

[Old Salon y Paris, tgoi^) 


L'u\ mincuR 


Sl/iiiio- Talk 


( Grosse Berliner Kunst-AussteUiiiis;) 

Salon of the Society des Artistes fran^ais, 
one ought to mention the group sent by 
M. L'Hoest and reproduced on page 226. 
This artist excels in his studies of Eastern life, 
every phase of which appears to be quite 
familiar to him, and he must be counted as 
one of our most brilliant sculptors, and one 
of whom much is to be expected in the future. 

Dr. Cazalis — better known as Jean Labor — 
who died in Geneva on July i, was not only one 
of our greatest modern poets but an art critic of 
great merit. He was certainly the first in France 
to understand William Morris and Burne-Jones, 
both of them friends of his, and tried to make 
them known on the continent, not only by his 
articles but also by his lectures delivered in all 
the great towns. H. F. 

BERLIN. — The general impression con- 
veyed by the Great Berlin Art Exhibi- 
tion is again satisfactory. In chambers 
arranged with skill and taste a good 
many interesting works are to be studied, but the 
lack of real inspiration, the predominance of the 
merely respectable, cannot in the long run remain 
unnoticed, and is accentuated by the division of 
the whole building into too many very small com- 
partments. Instances of imaginative invention 
are rare, history and religion evoke very little 
enthusiasm, portraiture offers some attractive con- 
tributions, landscape is rather indifferent, and genre 
triumphant. We extract most enjoyment from 
some one-man shows and from an excellent collec- 
tion of the classical portraits of prominent painters 
and sculptors of last century, most of which are 
valued acquaintances. 

The much debated Oskar Zwintscher from 
Dresden, who has tenaciously kept his ground as 
one of the most noteworthy German artists, may 
here be studied completely. His individualism 
speaks from every picture. He remains the vision- 
ary and the naturalist in his own style, queer but 
superior, dependent on no laws except the one 


(Grosse Berliner Kiinst-Ausslellung) 


Studio- Talk 


{Grosse Berlino Kunst-AussteUui 

within him and those dictated by nature and 
lofty ideals. The very type of his Venus sums 
up his artistic character. She is delicate and rigid, 
impressing more by soul and intellect than by 
physical charms. Zwintscher's colouring is some- 
what dull, but latterly he has operated cleverly 
with Velasquez's contrasting colours. His painting 
The Academician is a case in point. Its perpen- 
dicularity cannot be pleasing, but the 
originality of its conception and the 
mastery of execution compel closer study. 

Hans Unger, from Dresden, arrests atten- 
tion by the beautiful austerity of his female 
type, which makes us seek for the mys- 
teries of Psyche behind majestic com- 
posure. In him we have another seeker 
after beauty, but with this classicality a 
mondaine element intermingles. Otto H. 
Engel is strengthening his position as one 
of the favourite Berlin masters by sym- 
pathetic and solidly executed paintings. 
He is the realist who draws fresh strength 
from favourite haunts on the Frisian coast, 
with their lingering traces of local peasant- 
culture. His excellent portrait of the 
painter Franz Stassen, which, in its straight 
lineaments, mirrors so luckily the art- 
character of the sitter, is quite deserving 
of its place among our best portraiture. 

Ludwig Dettmann, the naturalist, with 
a strong bent for the emotional, has 
fathomed the technicalities of impression- 
ism. His observation of sunlight is ver)' 

fine, and he can attain 
fascination by a mastery of 
gradation. Franz Hoff- 
mann-Fallersleben is the 
most sympathetic renderer 
of landscape in Northern 
and Central Germany. 
Whether he settles down 
to paint woodland, heath 
or moor, poetrj' weaves its 
charms round finely-mir- 
rored details. He loves 
retreats where myth or 
history have their abode, 
whence weather-beaten 
altars or moss grown seats 
whisper tales from long ago. 
Carl Vinnen, the Worp- 
swede master, is success- 
fully striking out a new line in a series of sea and 
harvest pictures, full of the life of surge and foam. 
In a series of scenes from real life, Rene' Reinicke, 
the renowned Munich illustrator, commends him- 
self as an artist whose colourism equals his wit 
and psychology. Old Saxon-history time has found 
a monumental and effective delineator in Otto 
Markus, who does not possess elevating powers 




(Grosse Berlitiei Ktmst-Ausstellung) 



' A'i{iist-Ausstellung) 


but sound realism and a pleasant seasoning of 
good humour. 

Among the portraitists, Georg Ludvvig Meyn 
rises conspicuously above the general level with 
his portrait of the sculptor, Pagels, a delightful 
variation to the conventional portrait, and a 
display of supreme understanding of the subtlest 
refinements of his craft. Schulte im Hofe, Vogel, 
Kiesel, Pape, Bennewitz von Lofen and Else 
Preussner (who is rather reminiscent of Whistler) 
are also noteworthy, and Fenner-Behm;r remains 
the successful interpreter of female elegance and(r//;if. 

We can sincerely welcome some landscapes of 

renowned masters like Bracht, Bohrdt, K. Lessing, 
Hamacher, Langhammer and of younger favourites 
like Hartig, Licht and Wendel. R. Eschke is 
visibly rising, and some pupils of the Kallmorgen 
School, like Kocke, Tiircke and Wildhagen, arrest 
attention by individual notes, the two former 
especially, by careful draughtsmanship. 

Genre paintings testify to the diversity in this 
domain. The president of the Academy, Pro- 
fessor Arthur Kampf, is again the vigorous 
dramatist with a scene from Bajazzo's family-life. 
He works out his point by a subtle gradation of 
tone, which becomes strongest where the catastrophe 
is pending. His climax, however, is evolved with 




(Grosse Berlinn Kiinst-Atisitelhing) 


such colouristic distinction that the sensationahst 
is sunk in the artist. Skarbina is at home 
among rococo witcheries, Mohrbutter and Pfuhle 
penetrate into the mysteries of psychic events, and 
Stroher understands how to spirituahse the female 
nude. Osmar Schindler, whose Mocking of Christ 
is the best religious contribution of the exhibition, 
is a sure reader of interesting male characters, and 
C. Messerschmidt betrays astonishing talent as the 
depicter of a jolly Biedermeier picnic. There are 
not wanting new achievements from the gifted 
hand of Herbert Arnold, who has this time drawn 
inspiration from the Schwalm, that queer peasant 
conclave in Hessen. Hughitt Halliday dwells with 
the muses, and her vision is original but rather 
earthly. Marie Eickhof - Reitzenstein envelops 
women of the Aman-Jean style in a Leonardesque 
atmosphere, and Ludmilla von Flesch-Brunningen 
lavishes pictorial distinction on the subject of 
female self-admiration. Richard Nitsch is the 
painstaking renderer of the picturesqueness of the 

Sihsian Peasant Womart^ and his patient art does 
not neglect human features. Hamacher mirrors 
powerfully and delicately the mariners and their 
element, and Klein-Chevalier and Miiller-Miinster 
successfully carry out kindred subjects. Otto 
Seeck has finely observed the play of light in a 
workshop of busy tailors. H. Looschen and 
Anderley Moller secure attention by charming 
still life works. 

The rooms of the three Munich groups, 
Kunstler Genossenschaft, Luitpold Gruppe, and 
Kiinstlerbund Baiern, look so similar that differ- 
ences of tendency are quite effaced. If we name 
the portraits of Raffael and Georg Schuster- Woldan, 
Wirnhier and Papperitz, landscapes by von 
Petersen, Kaiser, Sieck, Marr's effective Lux 
Tertebris, Grassel's ducks and Herrmann-Allgau's 
nuts — we have almost exhausted the list of meri- 
torious works. Vienna occupies us somewhat 
longer. Egger-Lienz's large Death-dance of 1809, 

{Grosse Berliney 
Kunst ' A usstellu ug) 


studio- Talk 

genre scenes, witty in colour and observation. 
The Karlsruhe artists have arranged a single- 
man show for the pride of German landscape 
painters, Schonleber. He exhibits only discreetly 
coloured drawings, but affords supreme enjoy- 
ment. Lieber and von Volkmann help to aug- 
ment the fame of their school for landscape. 

Turning to this year's display at the Seces- 
sion, I regret to say that even the friend of 
progress cannot leave it with a feeling of satis- 
faction. On starting his study of the new offer- 
ings of the artistic vanguard he is for some 
time refreshed and interested by the variety 
and originality of what is really good work. 
But the further he proceeds, the more vexatious 
becomes the intrusiveness of the experimenter 
and the incapable. A selection which presents 
many pieces that look really like artistic blas- 
phemies, seems to make rather for retrogression 
than true development. 

"THE clown" r,V .'iRTHUR KAMPF 

( Grosse Berliner Kunst- AusstcUung) 

with its veracious types of Tyrolese peasants, is 
impressive by its note of passionate resolution and 
hopelessness, but the painter indulges in a strange 
monotony of russet tones. A group of portrait 
painters like Adams, Joanowitsch, Krauss, Schatten- 
stein and S;harf, with 
their charms of arrange- 
ment and execution, and 
the landscapes of Kas- 
parides, von Poosch, and 
Baschny are worth sing- 
ling out. Among the 
Dusseldorf artists Alex- 
ander Bertrand stands 
forth by a funeral scene 
in a convent, in which 
black dresses contrast 
peculiarly with the sun- 
light, the white and yellow 
flowers and the deep blue 
of the chapel background. 
Josse Gossens proves 
himself an effective deco- 
rative painter somewhat 
dry in tone, von Wille 
and Liesegang are the 
prominent landscapists, 
and Schreuer arrests by 

Among the refreshing sights we encounter 
works by artists who are carrying on good 
traditions as well as sympathetic modernists. 
Prof. Max Liebermann's interest in the life of 
The Jewish Quarter in Amsterdam has not dimin- 
ished, as the increased area of the canvas indicates, 
but somehow, in spite of his convincing charac- 
terisation of market-life we miss his electric pulse ; 
and his impressionistic joy in effective colour-spots 

{Berlin Secession) 


studio- Talk 





has made him over accentuate subordinate objects. 
Levis Corinth is again ambitious to hold a 
prominent position as the painter of feminine 
nudity, and his Bathsheba deserves laurels for 
sheer animalism. Professor Max Slevogt's Lady 
in Yillow looks crude in spite of good placing 
and modelling. Hans Baluschek perseveres in 
his representation of gutter life and the pro- 
letariat, but we must not overlook the socialist's 
aim in this merciless mirroring of reality. If a 
sculptor like Fritz Klimsch has found a recep- 
tion within the Areopagus of the Secession it 
clearly means that seekers for beauty are also in 
demand here. Two colossal statues. Reposing 
Youth and Reposing Maiden, remind us for the 
moment of the Michael Angelo Medici figures, yet 
they look of modern descent in spite of all simpli- 
fication of line. A special Walter Leistikow room 
does homage to the much lamented founder of the 
Secession, and it is a pleasure to linger among 
these confessions of a true poet, from which deco- 
rative charm and spiritual depth are never absent. 

Painters who incline towards old methods are to 
be met with in several instances. Hans Thoma 

represents nationality in the worthiest style, and 
melodiousness of tone and conscientiousness of 
execution testify that love is the fountain-head 
of all his art. Carl Strathmann practices finish 
with pre-Raphaelitic patience, but this virtue has 
a curious accompaniment in a sarcastic turn. 
The voice of the artist, however, is more distinct 
this year than that of the caricaturist. Count 
Kalkreuth's works always command esteem, but 
it seems a pity that this aristocrat prefers a certain 
bourgeois stamp Several new portraits by Jan 
Veth again recommend the subtle draughtsman 
whose colouring only lacks some full-bloodedness. 
An interesting acquaintance is the Swedish portrait- 
painter, Ernst Josephson, whose qualities are best 
summed up in his Portrait of the Journalist 
Renholm, a masterpiece in naturalness of character- 
isation. Uhde is still fascinated by the sun, but too 
close an observation of his reflections and flicker- 
ings has led the artist to an indefiniteness of form 
which arouses longings for the perfect fusions in his 
grey-air period. 

Some staunch followers of the Secession con- 
tribute favourably to this exhibition. Ernst Oppler 


studio- Talk 

Breyer seems growing in 
figural possibilities. The 
portraits of Pankok are 
tasteful and reliable stud- 
ies, but suffer from a 
certain tightness of flesh 
and pose, l.epsius's Lady 
in White is more highly 
organised in spite of too 
much looseness, and yet 
not altogether pleasing in 
shape and tone. J- J- 



"DIANA" {Berlin Seecssioii) 

works with finest tonalities in some small frames, 
and Carl Moll's effective Phlox, an excerpt from 
the exuberance of garden - vegetation, reveals 
unexpected possibilities for the selective eye in 
this domain also. Heinrich Hiibner is advancing 
as the renderer of finely-selected interiors, and 
Ulrich HUbner's brush has the lightness of touch 
for breezy atmosphere and dancing wavelets. 
Fritz Rhein is coming to the front this year in 
portraiture, landscape and genre. His Interior, with 
its cleverly observed 
figures of modern society, 
seems, perhaps, to indi- 
cate the path he is best 
fitted to travel. From his 
stay under the oriental 
sun Leo von Konig has 
caught new colour inten- 
sities. Linde-Walther and 
Philipp Franck, the one 
in his simplifying, the 
other in his complicated 
style, successfully con- 
tinue endeavours to render 
realistic truth. Sterl is a 
good delineator of orches- 
tral musicians at full 
work, but he sacrifices 
draughtsmanship to direct 
statement of colour- 
scheme. Walser and Orlik 
provide enjoyment as 
original designers, and 

At the 
Spring Exhibi- 
tion of the Seces- 
sion this year 
the general quality of the 
work shown was good, 
while the decorative 
arrangements effected by 
architect Robert Orley won universal praise. The 
division of the building into a number of rooms 
radiating from a central semi-circular space was a 
highly-pleasing feature. 


There were but few portraits, but the quality 
made up for lack of quantity. Josef Engelhart's 
pastel portraits of tiny children, and Ludwig 
Wieden's portrait of an auburn-haired young lady 
in black velvet standing before an old-gold brocade 

'A DUTCH village" 

( Viawa Secession) 


( Vienna Secession) 



screen will linger long in the memor)-. Adolf 
Levier, Alfred Offner, and Maximilian Lenz were 
well represented, as also Friedrich Konig, who sent 
three portraits, all of ladies, including one of Vera 
Schapira, the well-known pianist, a work of refined 
and delicate 

Among the 
Ian d scapes 
were not a 
few of much 
Richard Marl- 
finger's lake 
scenes showed 
marked pro- 
gress on his 
work. One of 
his pictures 
has been ac- 
quired by the 
Alois Haen- 
isch gave 
proof of his 
poetic and 
sensitive vis- 
ion in some 
bits of old 
Vienna gar- 
dens; and the 
same quali- 
ties were dis- 
cernible in 
Anton Nov- 
ak's pictures 
of mountain 
Ferdin and 
Schm u tzer, 
who for the nonce has returned to painting, sent 
three works. An Old Dutch Village being perhaps 
the best of them. Ernst Stohr's dreamy land- 
scapes and old-world scenes revealed a true poetic 
nature. Karl Schmoll von Eisenwerth exhibited 
several works, among them the reproduced deco- 
rative panel. Oswald Roux, Karl Miiller, Leopold 
Stolba, Max Kahrer, Max Liebenwein, R. Jettmar, 
Maximilian Lenz, and A. Zdrazila all contributed 
good examples of their work ; and mention should 
also be made of F. Gelbenegger's paintings of old 

Vienna. F. Kruis has been spending some time 
in Holland, and the series of pictures he now 
showed proved him to be a sympathetic interpreter 
of Low Country themes. Of peculiar interest were 
some paintings by F. Hohenberger, his subject 

being the coal 
wharves on 
'--^ t h e N o r d- 




( Vienna Secession) 

Karl Eder- 
er's strong 
and vigorous 
animal pic- 
tures and the 
collection of 
works by the 
Munich artist, 
Leo P u t z, 
who had a 
room to him- 
self, were wel- 
come features. 
Albin Egger- 
Lienz, who 
has seceded 
from the 
e.xhibited sev- 
eral works, 
some of the 
most interest- 
ing of them 
being scenes 
in the life of 
the Tyrolese. 
In the reli- 
gious genre 
the work of 
Andri always 
com mands 
respect, and 
that which he exhibited on this occasion — a series 
of paintings with the martyrs as their subjects, 
which are destined for a church in Vienna — 
lacked none of the qualities which are essential 
in a painter of such themes. A young English 
artist, Percy Siljan, who has studied in Prague, 
showed great promise in a still-life painting he 
sent. Some Polish artists were also among the 
guests this time, as they frequently are. Vlastimil 
Hofmann is one of these, and his Madonna is 
characteristic of what one sees to this day in the 

Studio- Talk 




villages of Galicia. The snow pictures by S. Filip- 
kiewicz are likewise characteristic of his fatherland, 
where the snow falls thick 
and freezes before it falls. 

German, and Dutch artists being represented. 
Those included in the French group — MM. Henri 

Amongst the sculpture 
exhibited Josef Mullner's 
equestrian statue, to be 
executed in polished 
bronze with coloured eyes, 
is an admirable work. 
Anton Hanak's figures, 
hewn out of his favourite 
Untersberg marble, 
showed complete mastery 
of technique and a de- 
cided leaning to style. 
Good work was also 
shown by Alfonso Can- 
ciani, O. Schimkowitz, 
Alfred Hofmann, Jan 
Rembowski, a talented 
young Pole, and Ivan 
Mestrovic, the Croatian. 

The second exhibition 
organized by the "Kunst- 
schau " proved highly in- 
teresting, and the more 
so because it was inter- 
national, French, British, 

{-' KuHsls.-hau." \Uinia) 


studio- Talk 

Manguin, Charles Guerin, Aristide Maillot, Felix 
Vallotton, Eugen Spiro, Pierre Bonnard, Maurice 
Denis, Jean Puy, and a few others, were entirely 
new to Vienna, and their methods gave occasion 
for considerable diversity of opinion, arrived at 
generally with inadequate knowledge of their mean- 
ing. An interesting display of graphic art by 
British artists was an agreeable feature of the 
exhibition, among those represented being Messrs. 
Charles Shannon, Muirhead Bone, Joseph Pennell, 
Alphonse Legros, Charles Ricketts, Gordon Craig, 
and W. Nicholson ; and work by various British 
architects and designers, such as W. Baillie Scott, 
Ernest Newton, C. F. Voysey, Charles Macintosh, 
C. R. Ashbee, J. Paul Cooper, the Artificers' 
Guild, and others, attracted considerable notice. 
Many German artists of note also contributed. 
Count Kalkreuth sent three excellent portraits, 
and Max Slevogt, Max Liebermann, Prof. Triibner, 
B. Pankok, Ernst Stern, and Prof Taschner were 
also well represented. 

leading spirit. His seven pictures — each a poem 
in itself — were exhibited in a room decorated in gold 
and white. His Hoffuung (Hope) is a work of 
commanding power. In it he has sung a solemn 
hymn of praise to motherhood. A young woman 
stands nude before us, her face framed in golden 
hair and radiant with hope, while behind her is 
grim Death, with Misery, Hopelessness, Sickness, 
Dejection, and Sorrow in his train, symbolic of 
the evils which lie in wait for her. Carl Moll 
likewise contributed excellent examples of his art 
as did W. Legler, J. Auchentaller, W. List, M. 
Kurzweil, P. Breithut, Emil Orlik, L. Blauenstem, 
and other well-known artists. 

Among the Austrians Gustav Klimt was the 

The mere mention of the names of sculptors 
who were represented is guarantee for the quality 
of their work : — George Minne, Hugo Lederer, 
Franz Metzner, Max Klinger, Richard Luksch and 
Julius Meisel. There was a fine show of ceramics 
from Nymphenburg and from the Vienna School. 
The architects represented were Josef Hoffmann, 
E. J. Wimmer, Otto Prutscher, Karl Witzmann, 




' A'tinstschnu," Vieiiiia) 


Art School Notes 



Otto \\'agner, Kolo Moser, Paul Roller and O. 
Schoental ; and there was a memorial exhibition 
of Olbrich's work. A series of sketches, costumes 
and other objects illustrated the growing co- 
operation of artists in matters pertaining to the 
theatre. Among the contributors of these were 
Kolo Moser, C. O. Czeschka, Emil Orlik, Karl 
AValzer, E. J. Wimmer, Ludwig von Hoffmann 
and Gordon Craig. Finally, some beautiful arts 
and crafts objects from the Wiener Werkstatte and 
artistic embroideries by various artists helped to 
make the exhibition not only interesting but 
instructive. A. S. L. 


OSCOW. — Konstantin Somoff has in 
recent years almost entirely abandoned 
painting in order to cultivate one or 
other species of graphic art, and the 
one-time portrait and landscape painter is now 
giving place more and more to the decorative 
illustrator and miniaturist In this new role 
SomofT shows no less a mastery than in his 
earlier achievements. The illustration on this page 
is a reproduction of a chromo-lithograph composed 

by him for the Scorpion Press to 
ser\-e as the cover for a volume of 
poems by the well - known poet, 
Balmont, bearing the title " Zhar- 
Ptitza," which is the name given to 
the fabulous Flame-bird of the old 
Russian fairy tales, here symbol- 
ized by the artist under the form 
of a female figure flying upwards 
and wearing the national koko- 
schtiik or headgear with streamers 
of ribbon and a semi-oriental dress. 
The design in its combination of 
ornament and colour is reminis- 
cent of the eighteenth - century 
style which this artist has an 
affection for. P. E. 


LONDON. — Mr. F. W. 
Pomeroy, A.R.A., who 
acted as judge last month 
in the competition of 
the Lambeth Art Club, is one of 
the many eminent artists who have 
owed their early training to the 
famous South London school that 
is now under the direction of Mr. 
T. McKeggie, A.R.C.A. At the 
meeting and exhibition of the Art Club, held at 
the school, the visit of the sculptor A.R.A. was 
made the occasion for showing an excellent collec- 
tion of modelled work. It was retrospective, and 
included Miss Whittingham's design for a memorial 
tablet, and Mr. G. E. Bradbur)''s design for the 
decoration of a concert hall, which gained a gold 
and a silver medal respectively in recent National 
Art Competitions. In the main, however, the 
exhibition was composed of the works submitted 
in competition for the local prizes offered to 
members of the Art Club, all of whom are past or 
present students of the Lambeth school. Some 
good work was shown in the various classes into 
which the competition was divided. 

For figure composition, a subject to which par- 
ticular attention has always been paid at Lambeth, 
competitors were invited to illustrate " A Fairy 
Tale." They might choose their own story, but it 
was a condition that the illustration should be 
upon a large scale. The prize was taken by Miss 
Annie Barber, with a clever sketch of Tlie Lost 
Child, in which the frightened little girl is s^en ori 

Art School Notes 

a steep hillside at twilight, with gnomes and other 
fantastic figures dancing round her and racing up 
and down the slopes. Honourable mentions in 
this section were given to Miss Sybel Tawse 
and Miss M. Chidson. The prize for the best 
portrait was awarded to Mrs. Walsh for a paint- 
ing of a woman in a white dress and large 
black hat, the colour and quality of which were 
alike commendable. Miss Dorette Roche gained 
a well-deserved honourable mention for a dex- 
terous little portrait of a girl in water colour. 
There were many competitors for the prize offered 
for the best study of a head in oil. It was 
carried off by Miss Charlotte M. Legg with a 
spirited painting of a man in the character of a 
jester, and honourable mentions were given to Miss 
Winifred Haxell and Miss Mary Dew. Miss Sybel 
Tawse won the prize for black and white with a 
dainty pen-and-ink drawing illustrating Herrick's 
poem "Upon Julia's Hair in a Golden Net," and 
Miss E. K. Burgess the prize for design in colour, 
with illustrations of "The Swineherd " and " Ole 
Luk." The prize for landscape was given to Miss 
E. Herbert for a pleasant study in water colour of 
old red houses, with a 
glimpse of a grey river in 
the background ; for still 
life to Mr. J. G. Martin for 
a commendably careful 
painting on a small scale ; 
and for poster design to 
Miss Gertrude Brodie. 
The prize for a design 
for a dessert plate was 
awarded to Miss Con- 
stance Bult, and the prize 
for a design for a fan was 
divided between Miss 
Mary Simpson and Mr. 
Eric Bradbury. 

exhibition of igoS. This was particularly notice- 
able in the paintings and drawings from the nude. 
The painting of a female figure that gained the 
first award in its class for Mr Norsworthy was 
admirably observed and put in, although in 
colour it was, perhaps, a trifle monotonous. 
Breadth and vigour and the right impression of 
the subject as a whole, are the things especi- 
ally aimed at in the life classes at this school, 
in which the principal teachers are Mr. William 
Nicholson and Mr. George W. Lambert. The 
students are not allowed to worry over the detail 
until the figure has been drawn and built up with 
approximate accuracy, and in one or two not 
quite completed paintings from the nude (executed 
in Mr. Nicholson's class) the faces, to which many 
students devote their first attention, were still mere 
blank ovals of paint. In the men's life class the 
first prize for drawing from the nude was taken by 
Mr. Richter, and in the women's class by Miss 
Sandford (afternoon) and Miss Hynes (morning). 
In the sketch class, for drawing in black and white 
from the life, under the direction of Mr. Joseph 
Simpson, the first prize was gained by Miss 

The London School of 
Art held its annual exhi- 
bition of students' work 
last month at the studios 
in Stratford Road, Ken- 
sington. The group of 
compositions was, owing 
to special causes, smaller 
and less important than 
last year, but in all other 
departments the work 
showed a distinct advance 
upon that included in the 



Art School Notes 

Dorothy Stevens and 
M. G. Lightfoot (equal) 
the second prizes. The 
prize of £,2, for fine art 
anatomy has been 
awarded to Violet Hellard. 
W. T. W. 



Pennethorne. The painting of still life is always 
encouraged at the London School of Art, and in 
this class the quality of the work shown was 
exceptionally good. Here, again, was evident the 
attempt to make the students see and render the 
whole thing portrayed in its right relation to the 
background. The influence of Mr. Nicholson was 
shown in the directness and simplicity of the work, 
in the evidence of a restricted palette, and, perhaps, 
in the curiously coarse canvas afiected by some of 
the students. The first prizes for still life were 
awarded to Miss Marsh (morning) and Miss Beloe 
(afternoon). Minor prizes in the various sections 
were taken by Mr. Barr, Miss Jennings, Miss 
Jackson, Mr. Pipes, Mr. Richter, Miss Hynes, Miss 
Marsh and Mr. Sherwood. The Director of the 
School, Mr. C. P. Townsley, has recently instituted 
classes for the study of anatomy, and weekly lectures 
on this subject have been given by Miss Uellina W. 
A. Parkes. 

At the Slade School the scholarships in fine 
art of ;^35 per annum, tenable for two years, have 
been awarded to M. Gertler and F. A. Helps ; and 
the Melvill Xettleship prize for figure composition 
to Elaine T. I<essore and W. L. Claus (equal). 
Other prizes for figure composition have been 
gained by J. D. Innes and Winifred Phillips 
(equal) : for figure painting, first prizes 
(equal) by Edith M. Lush and 1\L G. 
Lightfoot, and second prizes (equal) to 
W. L. Claus and R. Ihlee. The first 
prizes for painting heads from the life 
(equal) were also taken by Edith M. 
Lush and M. G. Lightfoot, and the 
second prize by W. L. Claus ; and the 
prize for painting from the cast by 
M. G. Lightfoot. In figure drawing 
R. Ihlee took the first prize, and 

society bearing 
the name 
".•Emilia Ars" 
was formed in this city, 
which is the centre of 
the .^imilian region, lome 
years ago for the development on artistic and 
philanthropic lines of various decorative handi- 
crafts. The brass-work, ceramics, furniture, bind- 
ing, etc., though good of their kind, have not 
attained sufficient importance to demand very 
special attention. But one branch has flourished 
so admirably that it is now recognised all over 
Italy, and, to some extent, in other countries, as 
being a real artistic revival. This is the linen 
work. Its success is fully justified by its technical 
excellence, the admirable choice of materials and 
designs, and the useful character of even the most 
elaborate pieces. 

This development is almost entirely due to the 
initiative of Countess Lena Cavazza, of Bologna, 
who, besides collecting old models and designs, 
took in hand the difficult organisation of the in- 
dustry, showing a rare power of compelling numbers 
of isolated women-workers (able enough technically, 
but devoid of artistic knowledge) to appreciate the 
importance of making their work interesting, and 
of infusing into their minds the sense of the 
necessity of co-operation. Every collaborator, 
however humble, after receiving full pay for her 
work at the highest possible rate, has a share in 
the profits to the extent of 35 per cent. The 
work is distributed amonir women in their own 


Reviews and Notices 

liomes, not only in Bologna, but also in the small 
towns and villages of the province. Tablecloths, 
sheets, tea-cloths, and napkins are of course the 
staple products, but the lace-stitches can also be 
used for finer work. Several artists are endeavour- 
ing to design in modern style for the work, but, so 
far, few of their efforts have been very successful. 
(Of the four examples reproduced only the lower 
one on p. 243 is modern, the others being old 
designs dating back some three centuries.) The 
old simple geometrical designs are still the best 
adapted to the material used. C. H. 


Indian Sculpture and Painting. By E. B. 
Havell. (London : John Murray.) ^3 3^. net. 
— This is a work of exceeding interest to students 
of Oriental art. The author has studied his subject 
clo.sely, and writes with an intimate knowledge of 
the magnificent examples of glyptic art for which 
India b famous. His definitions of the ideals of 
the native sculptor are clearly presented, and help 
his readers to a juster appreciation of the examples 
which still remain more or less intact as a witness 
of the ffisthetic culture and technical skill of the 
craftsman in past ages. Among the excellent 
photographs with which the work is illustrated is a 
particularly interesting series from the shrine of 
Borobudilr, which Mr. Havell considers to be one of 
the finest monuments of Buddhist art in the whole 
of Asia, although it is " an obscure and neglected 
ruin, the name of which is hardly mentioned in 
Europe or in Asia." The author laments, with 
much justice, the ignorance of art students of 
these and other similar examples in India, and 
expresses the desire that reproductions should be 
made, in order that native art students may have 
the advantage of being able to examine the best 
of their own art " instead of European casts from 
' the antique,' " a desire in which we cordially join 
with him. Some charming reproductions of Indian 
I)aintings and miniatures, together with some 
valuable chapters on the development of painting 
in India, complete a work of extraordinary value 
and interest. 

Fresco Painting : its Art and Technique. By 
James Ward. (London: Chapman &: Hall.) loj-. dd. 
net. — That fresco painting should have become 
a lost art in England has long been a matter of 
regret to many, but fortunately there have been 
of late years signs of the possibility of a true 
revival. Certain secrets of the beautiful craft, it 
must be owned, still elude discovery, but experts 

appear to be on the right track, and some of the 
recent work done in London seems likely to 
endure. A special cause for congratulation is the 
fact, proved beyond a doubt by the author of 
the valuable monograph on ancient and modern 
mural decoration, that the dampness of the British 
climate is not wholly responsible for the decay of 
the frescoes in the Houses of Parliament and 
elsewhere, but "the ignorance of artists of the 
chemistry of colours and the after action on them 
of caustic lime." Mr. Ward's useful book defines 
very clearly the essential qualities of the best 
ancient, medieval, renaissance and modern frescoes, 
describes the colours used, the preparation of the 
walls and methods of execution in the past and 
present. He gives reproductions, including several 
in colour, of typical examples both of fresco-bromo 
or true fresco and spirit-fresco, devoting con- 
siderable space to a searching examination of the 
present state of the masterpieces of Giotto, Fra 
Angelico, Benozzo Gozzoli, Perugino, Raphael, 
Ghirlandajo, Pinturicchio, and Michael Angelo 
that are still in situ. 

Essex. Painted by L. Burleigh Bruhl. De- 
scribed by A. R. Hope Moncrieff. (London : 
A. & C. Black.) 20s. net. — As compared with the 
other "home" counties, Essex is not so well 
known as it should be to those living beyond its 
borders. It is commonly supposed to be flat and 
uninteresting as a whole, but this volume, with 
its numerous coloured illustrations reproduced 
from pictures by an artist who has a keen eye for 
the beautiful, and whose knowledge of this parti- 
cular county is perhaps unique, should effectively 
dissipate this notion, and should be instrumental 
in bringing the county into more favourable repute 
— among artists at all events. Flat, of course, it is 
in certain parts — those that abut on the metropolis 
and the river more particularly ; but flatness in 
itself is not a blemish to the landscape painter in 
search of atmospheric effects — witness the land- 
scapes of the Low Countries by the great Dutch 
and Flemish masters. Away from the riverine 
marshes, however, the county is pleasantly undu- 
lating, and in the northern portion the richness 
and variety of the scenery long ago received a 
testimonial in the landscape paintings of Constable. 
From the historical and archa;ological points of view 
again, as Mr. Hope MoncriefPs entertaining record 
indisputably establishes, Essex abounds in interest- 
ing associations. The volume is therefore to be 
welcomed as a timely vindication, and we are glad 
to see it represented in Messrs. Black's excellent 
series of colour books. 


Revieivs and A^ofices 



An Ehren und an Siegen Reich. (Vienna : 
Max Herzig.) Salon ed. 150 Kronen; Imperial 
Jubilee Ed., 1,000 Kronen. — This magnificent 
work, which elicited general admiration when it 
was shown at the last exhibition of the Hagenbund 
in Menna, is at once of historic and artistic 
interest — historic because of its fine reproductions 
of pictures by talented artists representing a series 
of stirring episodes in the history of the Austrian 
empire, a descriptive account of which is given in 
the text accompanying them, and artistic because 
of the amount of talent bestowed on the embellish- 
ment of the volume, some idea of which will be 
gained from the illustrations we give of the cover 
and title - page. These, with other decorative 
features, are the joint work of Heinrich T.efler and 

Josef Urban, both of 
them well known as 
decorative designers 
of the first rank in 
Austria. In the case 
of a volume of this 
character, with a defi- 
nitely historical pur- 
port, it was only 
natural that the orna- 
mental designs should 
embody traditional 
elements, but while 
this is so, there is at 
the same time abun- 
dant evidence of the 
originality for which 
these artists are noted. 
The work is dedicated 
to the Emperor 
Francis Joseph, to 
whom as its patron a 
copy of the larger 
jubilee edition was 
presented. A similar 
volume was produced 
some time ago with 
German history as its 
subject-matter, and a 
third volume is con- 
templated in which 
British history will be 

Drikkehorn og Solv- 
toj fra Aliddelalder og 
Renaissance. Udgivet 
ved JoRGEN Olrik. 
(Copenhagen : G. E. 
C. Gad.) — This folio volum.e, published under 
the auspices of the Danish National Museum, 
gives an account of the important collection of 
drinking-horns and silver plate in the museum, as 
also of the large accumulation of silver treasure- 
trove which has come to the museum from 
different parts of Denmark, consisting of a large 
variety of articles, ornamental and useful, supposed 
to have been hidden by their owners during the 
wars of the seventeenth century. Some very fine 
specimens of the drinking-horns for which Denmark 
(and, in fact, Scandinavia generally) is noted 
are illustrated, many of them being ornamented 
with elaborate silver decoration. That the craft 
of the silversmith was an exceptionally flourishing 
one in Denmark in Mediaeval times is shown by 

Reviews and Notices 

the treasure-trove just named and other evidence, 
which points to a fairly general use of silver spoons 
in the later Middle Ages, until the country was 
visited by the ravages of war. It is a commend- 
able feature of the Danish law in relation to 
treasure-trove that it encourages the preservation 
of such finds in the National Museum, the com- 
pensation given to finders being very liberal. 

Douris and the Painters of Greek Vases. By 
Edmond Pottier, Member of the French Insti- 
tute. Translated by Bettina Kahnweiler. (London : 
John Murray.) 75. dd. net. — Prefaced by a scholarly 
note from the able pen of Dr. Jane Harrison, this 
excellent translation of M. Pottier's essay appears 
at a very opportune moment, when interest in 
antique pictorial art has been intensified by recent 
discoveries. The author has a very thorough grip 
of classic lore, and in spite of the paucity of 
information respecting Douris and his contem- 
poraries, he has succeeded in calling up a very 
realistic picture of the artist craftsman, 

and to describe, as if he had been him- 

self an habitue of a Greek workshop, all 
the processes employed in the produc- 
tion of art pottery. Artists and students 
of antiquity will no doubt delight in the 
illustrations and detailed descriptions of 
the masterpieces of ceramic art, that 
reflect the characteristics of the art 
paintings produced in the golden age of 
Pheidias and Praxiteles ; but the book 
should also make a strong appeal to 
the outside public, much of the work 
of Douris and his followers having been 
done for the use of the people, giving 
scenes from their daily life. 

T/i€ Architecture of the Renaissance in 
Italy. By Willi.^m J. Anderson. 4th 
edition, revised and enlarged. (London : 
B. T. Batsford.) \is. 6d. net. — Origin- 
ally published in 1896 as the outcome of 
a series of lectures delivered at the 
Glasgow School of Art, this perspica- 
cious sketch of the Architectural Re- 
naissance in Italy has earned a well- 
deserv-ed popularity among students, 
especially since its revision and enlarge- 
ment in i8g8, when in addition to other 
improvements there was appended a very 
useful chart of the principal Renais- 
sance buildings in Italy, tabulated in 
chronological and topographical order. 
That the work still maintains its popu- 
larity is .shown by the demand for a 

fourth edition, the preparation of which has been 
entrusted to Mr. Arthur Stratton of King's 
College, who has found it unnecessary to make 
any considerable alterations in the text, but has 
materially increased the value of the work to the 
student by adding many photographs and measured 
drawings. The collotype plates, which are a 
unique feature of the book, are also much more 
numerous than in previous editions, but in spite 
of this large accession of new material the price 
of the volume remains the same. 

From the office of the Munich weekly journal, 
" Jugend," we have received a small quarto volume 
containing 3,000 black and white reproductions of 
pictures by artists of various nationalities (chiefly 
German) which have appeared in colours in that 
periodical during the past thirteen years. The 
reproductions though small (there are nine and 
occasionally more to a page), are remarkably 
clear. The price of the book in cloth is 3 marks. 




The Lay Figure 


" I WANT to get away into the country," 
said the Art Critic, " to some place where artists 
will cease from troubling and even critics can 
be at rest. Where can I go ? " 

" Surely there are plenty of places where you can 
hide yourself and hear not even the faintest mur- 
mur from the Art world," laughed the Man with 
the Red Tie. " Seek out some stronghold of the 
Philistines and consort with them ; Art will not 
trouble you there." 

" But I do not want to associate with Philis- 
tines," protested the Critic. " The Philistine 
would only make me yearn for Art as a sort of 
antidote to his blatant want of taste. I want 
Nature, pure and unsophisticated, frank, free 
Nature ; and I want to sit at her feet and learn 
from her how I can best judge Art." 

" Is that all ? " scoffed the Man with the Red 
Tie. " Nature is everywhere ; you need not go 
far to find her." 

" But the Philistine is everywhere, too," com- 
plained the Critic, " and he gets in my way 
wherever I go. He intrudes offensively between 
me and Nature, and I am perfectly certain that 
nothing will ever make him realise how bitterly 
I hate his interference." 

" Who are the Philistines ? " broke in the Practi- 
cal Man. " How do they come between you and 
Nature? Talk plain English for a change and 
explain what you mean." 

" The Philistine, as he appears to me," said the 
Critic, " is that annoyingly practical person who 
thinks that his schemes and his ideas are the only 
things in the world that matter. He looks upon 
Art as a kind of immoral eccentricity unworthy 
of any serious attention and upon Nature as a 
useless idler, who is to be flouted and outraged in 
every possible way." 

"What are you talking about?" cried the 
Practical Man. "The Philistine, as you call him, 
goes his own way, and Nature, I suppose, goes 
hers. Where can they clash ? " 

" Can you not give us an illustration ? " asked 
the Man with the Red Tie. " I am afraid cur 
friend cannot understand you when you talk in 

" Well, what better illustration can I give than 
that of the advertiser who plasters the whole 
countryside with notices of his wares ? " replied the 
Critic. " The advertiser, I suppose you will ad- 
mit, is an e-xtremely practical person, always on the 

look-out for chances of asserting himself ; he is to 
me the typical Philistine who caring nothing for 
the feelings of decent people comes unblushingly 
between me and Nature and robs her of her charm 
to serve his own sordid ends." 

" The advertiser's notices are only intended to 
tell the public where they can get the things they 
want, and naturally he puts them where they are 
likely to be seen," said the Practical Man. " Surely 
you cannot blame him for understanding the 
fundamental principles of business and for merely 
exercising his common sense." 

" I do blame him ; I blame him very seriously," 
returned the Critic, " when he makes the exercise 
of his common sense a matter of offence to me. I 
cannot take a railway journey now without being 
irritated by a hideous notice-board whenever I 
want to look at some particularly charming piece 
of scenery. It is an annoyance from which it is 
impossible to escape at home or abroad. Look at 
the fringe of advertisements beside the English 
railways ; look at the hedge of notices which shuts 
in the line from Boulogne to Paris ; look at the 
staring letters which grin disgustingly from this cliff 
or that mountainside. Are not these things an 
interference between me and Nature ; are they 
not objectionable and unnecessary — are they 
not in fact a serious blot on what we call our 
civilisation ? " 

" You are too sensitive ! " sneered the Practical 
Man. " If there were anything in what you say 
people would object. They would write letters of 
complaint to the papers, and I am sure that public 
opinion would soon put a stop to any real abuse 
of advertising." 

" The papers you must remember live by adver- 
tisements and therefore would scarcely publish 
letters of that sort for fear of offending their best 
supporters," laughed the Man with the Red Tie, 
" so there is no chance of organising public 
opinion in that way." 

" But there is a very vehement public opinion 
agamst this very real abuse of advertising," said 
the Critic, "and a great many people would be 
ready to echo my complaint. But what is the 
remedy ? I do not know. Perhaps it would do 
some good to tax the owner of the land on which 
these notice-boards are stuck up. I am sure no 
one could say that the value of his land, as a place 
for displaying advertisements, has been enhanced 
by any exertions of his : what has he done that he 
should profit ? He is enjoying an unearned incre- 
ment anyhow, and he might well be made to pay 
for it." The L.\y Figure, 





Modern Inferior Painting 


The man of genius is not fastidious. Far from 
searching with pain for beauty, he cannot escape 
its presence until he goes blind. And the paradox 
is not to be rejected that the same scene is a 
different one for every painter, confronting him 
with his own problems, and above all assuming 
the complexion of his mind, whether classic or 

If Charles Lamb had been a painter I think he 
would have been an interior painter, — he had the 
genius for being indoors. And yet something of 
this genius, this sense that indoors the world is 
quite different from what it is out-of-doors, counts 
too in the constitution of a landscape painter ; for 
to whom does nature offer such a cup as to him 
who steps out into the sunlight from a room ? 
But with the sun coming through the window we 

are conscious that nature environs us indoors as 
much as out, transforming the moment while 
attuning us to it ; and it is this, if anything, which 
lives, this music — preferring the word to poetry — of 
the moment, for that lives in art which, born of a 
moment, continues for ever the spirit of the 
moment in which it was born. Who could fail 
to be attracted to M. Blanche's picture of The 
Dining Room at Ofirativille, in which the very 
happiness of nature itself seems descending to the 
breakfast table ? We are not separated from the 
spring morning by the French windows ; all things 
are lyrical indoors as well as out, and the light on 
cups and tea-spoons is as silvery as the dew. 

Interior painting deals with the pervading air of 
a room, and often the more hygienic the less ro- 
mantic, for a dusty atmosphere brings mystery and 
the charm of it ; dust itself being but the poudre 
d'amour on the face of faded things. It is with 
old and curious and beautiful things that so many 
of the modern interior painters are dealing. But 


XLVII. No. 198.— September, 1909. 



Modern Interior Painting' 

the true artist to some extent does not even choose 
his subjects. Objects of art are at hand in which 
beauty has already been consciously achieved ; then 
why not add beauty to beauty — that of a thing itself 
to the interpretation of it in a picture, which com- 
memorates it and makes us further conscious of it ? 

Old things are reminiscent of past associations ; 
such associations themselves can be carried into 
the picture, though the art of doing this is the 
rarest of all. It was done by Charles Conder, it 
is still done by Mr. James Pryde and one or two 
others, masters not only of the aspect of things but 
somehow of their secrets, of that for which we 
generally turn to literature. But analysis of the 
legitimate literary quality in such art is in itself 
a subject 

Often, as in M. Bracquemond's Interieur chez le 
Graveur or M. Blanche's Chintz Cover, the painting 
is the pure expression of a painter's pleasure 
in his problem, but the latter, like Hammers- 
hoi's Old Fiafio, is modern in something besides 
the nature of the problem. It is full of a human 
interest, created by inference alone where older art 
would have felt the introduction 
of a figure to be necessary. And 
this kind of inference has been 
made so consciously and success- 
fully only in present times, to a 
lately acquired responsiveness in 
the modern mind. 

In the paintings of Hammers- 
hoi, the modern Danish painter, 
the room that is painted is gener- 
ally quite empty, but the. partly- 
opened door is eloquent of some- 
one that went out. The painter 
is a poet ; we find ourselves won- 
dering what vanished presence is 
reflected still in the empty room, 
in the things preferred and arranged 
there, ever)'thing in the room, as 
in any great interior painting, bear- 
ing witness before all to the life 
that has been lived in it. This is 
why a studio-arranged interior is 
the least interesting of all interior 
paintings, because the least human. 
One thing is here and another there 
for the sake of an effect, but this 
effect, whatever else it may give 
the picture, cannot give it the 
spiritual and dramatic interest 
occasioned by the casual disarray 
in any living room. After all, it 

is the human associations which are behind every- 
thing that are eloquent to the painter with the 
gift of painting the interior of a room. Of course 
all true painters love things for themselves. We 
doubt very much whether a painter could paint 
perfectly in his picture a piece of good porcelain 
if he did not love its surface for itself. It gives 
a fine painter pleasure to paint almost anything, 
for the possibilities in everything appeal to his art. 
Might it not almost be made a test as to the 
worthiness or unworthiness of any object to form 
part of the furniture of a room, whether it would 
be accepted or rejected by a painter of genius for 
representation in his picture ? 

In studying the character of the resistance an 
object offers to the light, and in this connection 
regarding the shapes of things as partly determining 
their colour ; in painting effects with transcendental 
forgetfulness of their causes, modern painting 
enters into its kingdom. And it is as painting 
becomes subtler in its appreciation of an infinity 
of variation, where the untrained eye would see no 
variation, that it approaches finish. 





(By permission of 
John J. Cowan y £sf/.) 


Modern Interior Painting 

In the old Dutch interior paintings, in their still 
life paintings — for these two go together — we feel 
the pleasure which the painters took in each little 
incident they painted. How they loved to make 
everything so very real though all on a doll's house 
scale. They were like children with a doll's house. 
It has significance, perhaps, that the present return 
to all this interior incident began in Mr. William 
Rothenstein's The Doll's House. Mr. Rothenstein 
had to go on to other things, for a true artist 
scarcely directs himself. Perhaps Mr. Orpen has 
expressed himself best in interior painting, because 
of his pleasure in glasses and picture frames, in 
papers and trays, in sunny spaces of wall and 
bright things shining from the shadows, in the 
curiously pale and rainbow gleams of old porce- 
lain — and above all, because his art is so evidently 
the expression of his pleasure in these things, his 
and their owner's — for he paints the portraits of 
collectors, I believe, for the sake of their collections. 
He has shown this pleasure in art which is also 
expressive of the purest pleasures of painting itself. 

Mr. Walter Russell has more than once been 
attracted by the problem 
of light coming through 
large windows, invading 
the room to such an extent 
that the contrast between 
the indoor and out-of-door 
values becomes almost 
hypothetical. But this 
excess of light multiplies 
rather than diminishes the 
difficulties ; the flowers 
near the window greet it, 
it flashes pleasantly upon 
them ; but it wars upon 
the kind of beauty in- 
trinsic to interior objects 
seen in a partial light. 

To take pleasure in a 
kind of surface beauty, 
which is only to be found 
indoors, as the old masters 
took pleasure in it, and 
yet to be compelled to 
lose sight of it, to dissolve 
it all into tones, and out of 
these to reconstruct it all 
over again with a miracu- 
lous incorporation of the 
light of which it is partly 
made — this is the pro- 
blem of modern painting. 

By embracing truths which were beyond ancient 
vision, which are impossible to realize by ancient 
methods, this is how the not yet complete history 
of interior genre desires to complete itself. To 
preserve the right relationship of the whole 
scheme of values, the picture must be conceived 
not in parts — which admit of easy elaboration — 
but, once for all, as a whole. This condition 
it is, of course, that makes the difficulties in 
obtaining that finish of touch -in detail which 
seems as essential to the true expression of these 
things as it might be out of place in an 
" impression " of the wind-driven sea. It is an " im- 
pression," as with a sea piece, but if of anything 
at all, of surfaces precise and smooth, to which 
in the end the paint must accommodate itself. 
Many canvases, of course, give a very charm- 
ing rendering of the precious quality of detail, 
at the expense of all sense of atmosphere and 
harmony. It might almost be said, I think, 
that harmony and the sense of atmosphere go 
together, that they are scientifically inter-dependent, 
the result of the same law in the phenomenon of 


(/« the fosscssion of Lc, 


'■li Bonuh-k, Esq.) 



~ 2d 

H pq 

^ 5 

Arthur Street on 

vision. The eye embracing a whole scene is 
appealed to by a general sense of colour, but if 
first one object is looked at and then another, the 
colour of each one of them is seen as a separate 
sensation. With such separate sensations we have 
the beauty of contrast so greatly desired of the 
primitives, and inevitably impressionism evolved 
towards the art of Whistler, hovering at the very 
border of purely musical and harmonic expression. 
The precision of the Dutchmen enabled them 
to excel with the beauty of surfaces in the most 
trifling things, things which you cannot make 
mystic. It is perhaps those whose failure is with 
the beauty of this world who plunge into mysticism. 
The old ideal of a realism perfectly finished and 
intelligible is not usurped, but supplemented by 
the desire for the sensation of space and air. 
But the hands of the modern painter are embar- 
rassed with a knowledge which makes everything 
mysterious. The edges of things evade him, and 
he has always found it impossible for him to 
paint what he sees with receipts still in his hand 
for the old things. T. Martin Wood. 



The career of Mr. Arthur Streeton 
affords an admirable illustration of the way in 
which a man of clear artistic conviction and 
vigorous individuality can make for himself a 
position of distinction in the art world without 
having enjoyed the advantages of any systematic 
traming. The artist who is self-taught, who has, 
that is to say, acquired the necessary knowledge 
of the practical details of his profession by his own 
exertions, is apt to develop in a manner that is 
more or less une.xpected. He has no ready-made 
system of working provided for him by masters 
who make it their business to smooth the student's 
way to a complete knowledge of craftsmanship; he 
lias no opportunity offered him of profiting by 
the experience of men who have reduced executive 
processes to rule, and who can prescribe exactly 
the methods he should employ to express his ideas 
and impressions. He learns no school tricks and 
no time-saving devices which enable him to attack 




Arthur Streeton 

the more abstruse problems of art whUe he is still 
little more than a beginner. He has to find out 
everything for himself, to construct his own system, 
to build his foundation of technical knowledge in 
his own way, and upon this foundation to base the 
manner of expression which is to be his throughout 
his life. 

But though, no doubt, self education involves 
some loss of time for the student, because he has 
to hunt out unassisted all the short cuts, instead of 
having them pointed out to him by a master who 
knows the whole of them by heart, it encourages in 
him a very valuable habit of self reliance and an 
entirely personal attitude towards the principles of 
artistic practice. Best of all, it gives full scope to 
his individuality and saves him from the risk of 
having his instincts conventionalised. In a 
school there is necessarily a clearly defined course 
of training to which every student has to conform, 
and this conformity is apt to limit in after life the 
powers of initiative which these students naturally 

possess, and to incline them to work by rule rather 
than by inspiration. It takes much strength of 
character to enable an artist to break away from 
the dogmas which have been imposed upon him 
by an art school and to allow him to be frankly 
himself: the memory of the things he was told to 
do when he was too young and too inexperienced 
to have much will of his own has a surprising power 
to affect him in his maturer years, even though 
with a wider understanding of his craft he has come 
to recognise that many of these things are actually 
prejudicial to his art and interfere with his proper 

In Mr. Streeton's case there has certainly been 
nothing to hamper the evolution of his personality. 
From the first he has been free to work out his 
artistic destiny in the way that seemed best to him, 
and to choose the course in art which was most in 
accordance with his temperament. He was born 
in Australia — at Melbourne in 1867 — and in 
Australia he remained until he was thirty years old. 




Arthur Street on 


SO that he had not only no art school teaching, but 
also none of that education by association which is 
possible to the youth who in European cities has 
ample opportunities for studying and comparing 
the works of the masters of all periods. But 
during these thirty years he was making himself an 
artist of a very notable 
type by the best possible 
mode of training — in- r 

cessant contact with and 
study of nature — and he 
acquired in this way 
shrewd habits of observa- 
tion and sound methods 
of direct and significant 
execution which have 
ser\ed him admirably ever 

It must be noted, how- 
ever, that at this period of 
his life he was not entirely 
without artistic compan- 
ionship. He was one of 
a small group of able 
young Australian artists, 
all enthusiastic students 
of nature, and his associa- 
tion with these men, who 
were well able to sym- 
pathise with him in his 

aims, was no doubt help- 
ful, because it enabled 
him to measure his work 
against theirs, and be- 
cause it brought him into 
a surrounding where 
frank and kindly criticism 
of his efforts was to be 
expected as a matter of 

An eminently practical 
outcome of this associa- 
tion was a kind of open- 
air studio, an artist's 
camp in which he spent 
several years with Tom 
Roberts and Charles 
Conder, and worked per- 
sistently out - of - doors, 
gaining steadily in com- 
mand over the practical 
details of craftsmanship 
and learning surely how 
to look at nature under 
all sorts of aspects. The pictures he painted at 
this time have a singular attractiveness, a vivid 
and decisive actuality which is remarkably con- 
vincing. They bear the stamp of an indisputable 
sincerity and of frank unquestioning faith in the 
sufficiency of nature as a guide, and they are dis- 





Arthur Street on 


tinguished by a brilliant directness of statement 
which proves clearly how sure he was of himself 
even at that early stage, and how well his instincts 
served him in his choice of methods of expression. 
These qualities in his art were promptly recognised 
when he began to show his paintings in European 
galleries. Art lovers will remember the excellent 
impression made by the canvases he contributed 
to the exhibition of Australian art which was 
held some years ago at the Grafton Galleries. 
His first Academy picture, too — Golden Summer, 
which was at Burlington House in 1891 — was 

awarded an honourable 
mention at the Paris Salon 
in 1892, and was bought 
by a well-known collector, 
Mr. Charles Mitchell, of 
Jesmond Towers. 

It was not until 1897 
that Mr. Streeton decided 
to leave his home in 
Australia and to establish 
himself in London. For 
five or six years previously 
he had been working in 
New South Wales and 
had got together a con- 
siderable collection of 
pictures which he ex- 
hibited at Melbourne 
before his departure. On 
his way to Europe he 
visited Cairo, proposing to spend a week there, but 
Egypt so fascinated him that he remained for five 
months painting assiduously and turning to full 
account the artistic opportunities which were so 
amply available in these new surroundings. He 
added further to his experiences by spending 
a month at Naples ; and when at last he arrived 
in London he had considerably widened his out- 
look and had begun very definitely that evolution 
in his practice which has produced such remark- 
able results during the last ten years. 

The effect upon his art of this move from 





fe Qi 

Arthiiy Street on 

Australia to England has, indeed, been as marked 
as it has been interesting. Directly he came to 
London he began quite perceptibly to feel the 
influence of the stylists in painting, and under this 
influence he became conscious that he possessed 
decorative instincts which as yet he had hardly 
attempted to develop. So upon his robust 
actuality he grafted in a very individual way 
refinements and subtleties of expression which 
increased the delicacy and charm of his work 
without diminishing its power. He gave more 
attention to the adjustment of the details of his 
design and to the working out of a consistent 
scheme of pictorial arrangement, and he learned 
more surely the value of intelligent suggestion 
in his transcription of nature's facts. He added, 
in fact, to his art just that touch of restraint and 
just those qualities of 
orderly contrivance 
which were necessary to 
make its vitality fully 
effective, and to give to 
its masculine originality 
the right degree of 
Eesthetic interest. 

For the last ten years 
there has been no inter- 
mission in this process of 
development, and there 
has been no pause in 
Mr. Streeton's progress 
towards that position in 
the front rank of British 
artists to which he is 
entitled by virtue of his 
unusual ability. He 
has matured steadily, 
thoughtfully, and with 
a sense of responsibility 
that deserves admiration ; 
and he has acquired a 
complete control over 
his resources without 
sacrificing any of those 
essential characteristics 
which have from the 
first accounted for the 
attractiveness and the 
unusual distinction of 
his achievement. He has 
exhibited much at the 
Academy, the New Gal- 
lery, and many other 
galleries in this country 

and abroad, and his work has always more than 
held its own wherever it has been shown. In 1906 
he went out to Australia and had exhibitions of 
his pictures at Melbourne and Sydney, in both 
of which cities he was welcomed with enthusiasm 
and received the most practical proof of the 
opinion that was held there of his powers. 
Several of his paintings were purchased for the 
art galleries of the different states, and he had a 
host of private buyers besides. 

He returned to London at the end of 1907, 
and, in January 1908, was married to Miss Nora 
Clench, the well-known violinist, and shortly after 
he went for some months to Venice, where he 
painted a series of pictures which are in many 
respects the most important he has as yet produced. 
It is decidedly instructive to compare these 


(Sec tiext arlicU) 


Italian Art at tJie Venice International Exhibition 

^"enetian canvases, the finely felt study, T/ie Rialio, 
the dignified Three Palaces, the poetically suggested 
San Geremia, and La Salute, and the splendidly 
spacious Grand Canal, with his admirably decor- 
ative Hay Barges on the Thames, and with his 
expansive and expressive landscapes Australia 
Felix and Sydney Harbour, or with that delightful 
piece of impressive design, the Bamborough Castle. 
By this comparison it can be seen how rightly 
adaptable he is and how judiciously he responds 
to the spirit of the place in which he is working. 
His Australia Felix, which, by the way, has just 
been awarded a bronze medal at the Salon des 
Artistes Frangais, is, as might have been expected, 
singularly happy as a record of the Australia he 
knows so well ; but the acuteness of vision which 
makes this picture supremely memorable gives not 
less authority to his Venetian and English subjects, 
and accounts equally for their brilliant power. 
Mr. Streeton, indeed, is an artist with a natural 
equipment which will ser\-e him well in any 
situation, and the habits of self-reliance which he 
has acquired by the manner of his training make 
possible to him the highest type of achievement, 
because he has no conventions to cramp his 
freedom of action. W. K. \\'est. 



The chief attraction of the eighth International 
Art Exhibition of Venice, and without the slightest 
doubt that which has obtained the unanimous suf- 
frage of admiration and esteem of public and critics 
alike, consists of the groups of individual exhibits 
by a few amongst the most characteristic Italian 
painters of the present day, to each of whom has 
been assigned an entire room or adequate wall 

Though we may admire at this exhibition the 
subtle and profound charm of the art of Besnard, 
the Frenchman, the fantastic power of Franz Stuck, 
the German, the plastic vigour of Zorn, the Swede, 
the realistic methods of Kroyer, the Dane, the 
evocative and illuminating work of Glaus, the 
Belgian, these great foreign artists are so well 
known in their various pictorial manifestations to 
the readers of The Studio, that I think it will 
be more opportune for me to speak to-day of the 
Italian artists who figure prominently in Venice. 

The most complete individual collection among 
the Italians, and the one before which the crowds 

" LE cable' 



Italian Art at the l^eiiice International Exhibition 

seem to linger with the greatest pleasure, is that of 
Ettore Tito, who exhibits forty-five pictures, large 
and small. Tito is a keen obser\-er of ^'enetian 
life, a brilliant colourist, sensuous and emotional, 
unsurpassed as a draughtsman, excelling in popular 
subjects, and full of vivacity and brio. 

Another typical exponent of modern Venetian 
painting, free and dashing, is Guglielmo Ciardi, who 
excels in landscapes and sea pieces. He generally 
turns for inspiration to the ancient and glorious 
Queen of the Adriatic, and reproduces now with 
delicacy, now with vigour, the perennial beauties of 
the City of the Lagoons, or the varied aspects of 
sea, lakes, rivers, mountains and plains of Italy, 
from the extreme north to the remote south of the 
peninsula. Side by side with Guglielmo Ciardi, who 
though now close on sixty-seven is still hard at work 
and full of energy, we must mention his son and 
daughter, Beppe and Emma, 
worthy offspring of their father. 
Beppe Ciardi exhibits a lu- 
minous and powerful Alpine 
scene, also a perfectly charm- 
ing picture of children at play 
in a meadow, while Emma 
Ciardi shows two poetically 
suggestive Italian villas peopled 
with seventeenth-century 
figures, a genre of which she 
has made quite a speciality. 
Of Mario de Maria, who for so 
many years preferred to be 
known by the romantic pseu- 
donym of 'Marms Pictor," I 
have already more than once 
had occasion to speak to the 
readers of The Studio. As I 
have told them, I consider him 
to be one of Italy's most expres- 
sive and original painters, one 
of whom Italy is justly proud. 
Of his imagination, often weird 
and whimsical, of the peculiarity 
of his style and principal tenden- 
cies, of his elaborate technique 
and enlightenment, we have 
evidence in the numerous can- 
vases portraying so many dif- 
ferent subjects and impressions 
that now so worthily represent 
him in Venice. 

Hard by the two Venetians, 
Tito and Ciardi, the Bolognese, 
De Maria, and the Ligurian, 

Cesare Tallone, whose ability as a portraitist is 
represented by works of unequal merit, are the 
Tuscan, Francesco Gioli, the Triestian, Girolamo 
Cairati, and the Sicilian, Ettore de Maria-Bergler. 
One and all — whether in oils or pastels — they 
have depicted the different well-defined charac- 
teristics of Italy from north to south. 

The Roman painter, Camillo Innocenti, stands 
pre-eminent. He was requested by the jury of the 
Exhibition to make a special exhibit of his works 
— a great distinction, as he is still a comparatively 
young man. Of such a high tribute Innocenti 
was well worthy, as he is without question the 
most brilliantly endowed of the young artists 
whose talents have been discovered and en- 
couraged by the biennial exhibitions in Venice. 
We admire in him the infinite variety and deli- 
cacy, the ability he shows in reproducing his 

liV AklUKO .NUCl 



































Italian Art at tlic rciiicc lutcniatioiial Exhibit ion 


conceptions, the directness with which he presents 
the picturesqueness of the manners and customs 
of the people, the grace and beauty of the women, 
the charm and intimacy of family life, with ever- 
varying and graduating progression of colour and 
kaleidoscopic effects. 

Besides those already mentioned there are 
four celebrated Italian painters who have died 
during the last ten years — Pasini, Fattori, Signo- 
rini and Pellizza. Alberto Pasini was a very clever, 
conscientious painter, who sought his inspiration 
from the East. He brought out in his paintings the 
particular atmosphere of 
the Orient. Giovanni 
Fattori, although at times 
uneven and erratic, and 
perhaps too prolific, was 
always original, vigorous 
and insinuating ; his chief 
aim was to express with 
his brush the instanta- 
neity of life in movement. 
Telemaco Signorini was a 
realistic, sincere and con- 
vincing painter. During 
his long career he culti- 
vated figure as well as 
landscape painting and 
etching. He had a very 
facile pen, which he used 
most dexterously in 
artistic polemics, and 
although perhaps less 
spontaneous, less original 

i n controversy than Fattori, 
he showed himself, never- 
theless, powerful and 
thoroughly at home amid 
all the conflicting ele- 
ments of argument regard- 
ing technique, &c. 

Giuseppe Pellizza, of 
Volpedo, who died by his 
own hand in 1907, before 
reaching the age of forty, 
and who has already been 
the subject of a notice 
in The Studio (October, 
1908, pp. 65, et seq.), 
was one of the band of 
enthusiastic and faithful 
followers of the division- 

l,lU.-!lLl'IE lELl.IZZA . . , . , , , 

istic technique, the school 
of Seurat and Signac, 
which he in common with Segantini, Morbelli, 
Grubicy, Previati, Lionne and Balla did not follow 
unreservedly. However, at the Venice exhibition 
the outcome of his novel technique and naturalistic 
tendency is brought into prominence in a series 
of canvases, large and small, which conquer our 
admiration by their exquisite poetical sentiment. 

The work of the other Italian painters is distri- 
buted throughout the various rooms allotted to 
each province of Italy. Among the Venetians I 
must mention Bezzi, who sent in a beautiful winter 
scene with snow effects, in which is found all the 



H r; 


















.— . 

















Italian Art at the Venice International Exhibition 

exquisite delicacy of his poetical fancy. Fragiacomo 
exhibits two pictures, of considerable interest 
though not perhaps among his happiest efforts ; 
Costantini, a charming rural scene, in which he 
expresses with masterly skill the solitude of the 
dim twilight ; Chitarin, an autumnal landscape, 
showing fine effects of light ; and, among the 
younger men, Lino Selvatico, with a graceful 
portrait of the beautiful Contessa Morosini ; Zanetti- 
Zilla, and Scattola. Prominent among the bc-t 
known draughtsmen is Martini, with a series of 
masterful illustrations for Poe's works. 

In the Lombardy School I must name besides 
Carcano, Gola, Mentessi, Bazzaro and Belloni, 
who maintain their high reputation with works of 
pronounced merit, Carrozzi, with two very large 
mountain views of remarkable perspective ; Grubicy, 
with three small pictures in which clouds, land and 
water are admirably delineated under the mobile 
play of light and shade ; Mariani, who with two 
scenes full of liveliness and vivacity, transports us 
into the feverish surroundings of the Casino of 
Monte Carlo; Rizzi, who gives an excellent portrait 

of his wife; and Chiesa, with a festive triptych full 
of sun and infantile grace. 

Of the Piedmontese group, besides Grosso with 
his dexterously painted Society portraits and 
sketches, and Maggi, with his snow scenes, the 
following painters are conspicuous : Giani, with 
two tender female figures of romantic expression ; 
Tavernier, with a broad flowery expanse of meadow- 
land ; and two young artists who are exhibiting in 
Venice for the first time — Carena, who sent up a 
beautifully modelled nude figure delicately tinted ; 
and Casorati, who made a great impression with 
his two groups of wrinkled old women and fresh 
young girls full of expression and contrast. 

Among the Tuscans, Romagnolis and Emilians; 
a special word of praise is due to Gioli, Tommasi, 
Graziosi, Discovolo, Majani, Lori, Lloyd, Protti, 
and Miti-Zanetti ; and among the Neapolitans, 
Campriani, Migliaro, Casciaro, Caputo, De Sanctis 
and Pratella are conspicuous. 

Special praise also is due to the Roman group, 
as besides the fine pictures of Innocenti, already 
alluded to, and Sartorio's sketch for a magnificent 



Ifaliaii Art at the J'eiiice liitcniational Exhibition 



decorative frieze for the great new hall of the vases by Lionne ; a female figure by Noci, besides 
Italian House of Parliament, there are two noble excellent works by Coleman, Carlandi and Ricci. 
portraits by Mancini ; two very interesting can- As for Italian sculpture, which as a rule has 



Architectural Gardening. — / V/. 

won such well-deserved triumph in former Vene- 
tian exhibitions, it is this year on the whole some- 
what disappointing and insignificant, in spite of the 
majestic classic "high relief" exhibited by Ca- 
landra, some good busts by D'Orsi, Jerace, 
Ximenes, Alberti and Bazzaro, and some exqui- 
sitely modelled figures of animals by Bugatti, 
Tofanari and Brozzi, and some groups by Trou- 
betzkoi, Apolloni, Origo, Ciusa, Andreotti, 
Nicolini, Nono, Pellini, Graziosi, Prini, Camaur, 
Cataldi, Ugo and Sortini. 

Italians may well feel elated at the great strides 
which decorative painting has made in Italy during 
the last few years. This is strikingly exemplified 
at this Exhibition, notably in the works by Sartorio, 
Galileo Chini and Plinio Nomellini. V. P. 


In the previous notes on this subject one of the 
principal intentions has been to show by the illus- 
trations as well as by the letterpress the close 
relationship that should exist, in a good scheme, 
between the house and garden, and particularly in 

those portions of the garden immediately adjoining 
the house. This should be evidenced not only in 
things pictorial (such as the grouping of the strictly 
architectural portions of the gardens with the 
main building) but also in the equally important 
questions relating to the disposition and general 
arrangement of the whole in order to secure the 
maximum amount of convenience and simplicity 
in the practical working. There is also to re- 
member the added interest and charm which a 
studiously contrived garden plan will give to the 
living rooms it adjoins. 

The design shown in the perspective view of a 
riverside house and garden on the opposite page, 
and the plan in explanation of it on this page, have 
been specially designed to illustrate some of these 
points. A casual glance at the sketch might 
prompt the question as to the manner in which 
this view illustrates the subject of these notes at 
all, but a reference to the plan will show that the 
garden, so far from being a subsidiary part of the 
general plan, is the dominant factor in the design, 
and controls the planning of the house as it should 
in a scheme for a summer residence. 

This house has been designed to meet the 
special requirements asked for in a house and 
garden used principally in the summertime, and 
proposed to be built on the banks of a well known 
river. Here the life would, in favourable summers. 

7/,V////M/777/J7777r^/7n7r77^77 7^^^/Z77- '/7 77//M '/// 

{L c^ ^^. Q 


2 ^ 

■ — ' ,^ 

< c 


< < 

ArcJiitectitral Gaydeiiiiig. — VII. 

be spent chiefly out-of-doors, and the principal 
amusements centred on the river, and general out- 
door sports and pastimes. Therefore it is desirable 
that the greatest possible advantage should be taken 
of the water and of the surroundings of the water, 
and of the interest which the landscape itself lends 
to the whole. But it is also necessary to remember 
that while the fullest advantage should be gained 
from these things, it should not be gained at 
the expense of the comfort and privacy of the 
house dwellers. The river is a public one, and the 
problem that requires solving is, obviously, how to 
keep all the advantages just referred to with the 
maximum amount of privacy within the boun- 
daries of the garden. 

As the site has a gentle slope to the riverside, 
an advantage is gained at once by setting the 
house back from the immediate banks of the river 
and forming a water-garden between the two. In 
this garden the river water can be diverted directly 
with great effect by a simple connection as shown 
in the centre of the sketch. By enclosing the 

garden with a screen wall on one side all the 
necessary amount of privacy is secured from the 
river. The ground floor of the house, being 
higher up on the bank, raises the living rooms 
well out of sight from the river, and yet gives 
all the advantages of the river from the rooms as 
well as a clear view, from the principal windows, 
of the landscape beyond. The water garden sunk 
in front of the house in this manner would also 
form a pleasant foreground, with its boundary lines 
partly formed on each side by the pergolas in front 
and the conservatory on one side and loggia or 
open-air living room on the other. All this upper 
level would, of course, have the full benefit of the 
river and landscape. 

Another gain from this arrangement of the plan 
on the natural levels of the site is that all the 
living rooms, both external and internal, are raised 
high above highwater mark, giving, as just men- 
tioned, across the wide river, fine views of the distant 
scenery. The principal windows, it will be seen on 
reference to the view, are placed in the centre of 





A)'cJiitcctHral Gardening. — / Y/. 


the garden, and look through the wide break 
between the pergolas on each side. At the level 
of the water garden itself an open arcade or 
walk runs round the four sides, and is inter- 
rupted only by the central archway from the 
river and the boathouse on the opposite side. 
This lower level forms an almost complete 
cloister, oblong in shape, the central space or 
"garth" being occupied by water and flowers. 
Under the small terrace between the bay win- 
dows the boathouse is placed, and access to the 
garden from the upper level is obtained by the 
steps arranged on each side of this small terrace 
and the bridge opposite. 

This scheme illustrates, perhaps as clearly 
as any in this series, the idea that the term 
" Architectural Gardening " is intended to con- 
vey, viz., the arrangement, within preconceived 
and definite architectural lines, of the garden in 
relation to the house. 

The same central idea in design of square 
bays with a recessed space between, is shown 
on page 278 in the design for a garden court. 
In this plan the lower part of the central space 
is occupied by an open loggia, which serves the 

double purpose of a garden entrance linking 
together the- drawing- and dining-rooms, and also 
of an open-air living-room. As the sketch in- 
dicates, an important part of this plan is the 
treatment of the water, which is arranged as a 
square pond placed on the centre line of the 
loggia. This water being on the south side of 
the house would form a cool and pleasant space 
with its reflections of the house and trees and 
flowers, viewed from the shade of the loggia, on 
hot summer days. 

In a matter of important detail one of the 
pleasantest and certainly one of the most useful 
features in an English garden is (or rather should 
be, for the point is nearly always ignored or 
forgotten) an outdoor sitting- or living-room 
where meals can be served and enjoyed in com- 
fort. When some attention has been given to 
this point, the provision made is such that it 
is usually quite inadequate, and those who wish 


■•I : C 



o o 



— ^ 





































Architectural Gardening. — / 7/. 

to take their meals out of doors are either driven 
to windy and exposed corners of the house, or to 
the making of temporary provision in the shape 
of unsightly tents or structural additions to the 
house in the shape of unattractive verandahs 
where, when in actual use, most of the people 
who would use it are found outside, because of its 
tightness in planning. 

In spite of the English climate, and with all its 
drawbacks, gardens are used a great deal for sitting 
in, badly planned and arranged for that purpose as 
they usually are. In a carefully planned and con- 
structed loggia breakfast, at least, would be possible 
in the open air during the greater part of the year, 
and during summer months nearly all the family 
meals could be taken there, to the great gain not 
only of pleasure but of comfort and health. 
The greatest care in the planning of such spaces 
is necessary, however, not only in regard to their 
size, position and aspect, but also as to their 
relation to the domestic working of the house on 
the one hand and to the garden on the other. 

The plan on page 279 
shows an endeavour to 
illustrate one method of 
accomplishing this. The 
loggia in this scheme is 
on the north-east side of 
the dining-room, and is, 
in fact, but an extension 
of it in the garden. In 
this way it can be made 
to serve the double pur- 
pose of a garden room 
and as a convenient ad- 
journing place for after 
dinner, smoking and 
coffee. It will be seen 
that this space is planned 
so as to be readily ac- 
cessible to the kitchen 
service and independent 
of approach from the 
dining-room. It has, as 
touching its connection 
with the garden, the 
benefit of two pleasant 
vistas, one looking down 
the narrow paved path 
between two hedges 
shown in the sketch on 
page 280, and the other 
looking down the length 
of the pergola. This 

plan may serve to indicate some of the practical 
and pictorial advantages of the open - air living- 
rooms, and to show one way in which they can 
be made interesting and attractive parts of the 
general scheme. 

Another, and quite a different plan, is shown 
by the view on page 284, called " A Garden 
Entrance." Here the loggia takes a position on 
the east side of the dining-room, and opens from 
it between two bay windows, the southern one of 
which is shown in the sketch. That portion of the 
space next the house is recessed and protected, 
whilst the other portion has the benefit of three 
different vistas in the garden. 

The drawing on page 281 represents the entrance 
front of a north country house, as it would appear 
from a small oval pool enclosed by yew hedges 
round which the drive circles. The enclosing 
hedge being open at either end does not interrupt 
a view down the drive from the house, and at the 
same time gives interest to what is otherwise so 
often a drear)- expanse of gravel. 




Architectural Garden ills'. — / //. 

The plan on page 282 shows a scheme of house 
and garden \vhere an endeavour has been made to 
contrive a series of set pictures from each of the 
principal rooms and at the same time to arrange a 
serviceable outdoor living-room which should also 
form a part of the pergola in the centre of the 
flower garden, and in addition is the garden entrance 
to the hall, dining- and drawing-rooms. This out- 
door living-room is placed in the centre line of the 
staircase so that from this a view is obtained 
through the loggia and the length of the pergola to 
the landscape beyond. On the occasions when the 
loggia or garden entrance is used for meals, over- 
flow parties could extend to the pergola as far as 
necessary, whilst the shade from the pergola would 
not in any way obstruct the access of light to the 
principal rooms or to the loggia. It will be observed 
that the end windows of both the dining- and 
drawing-rooms look on to grass glades planned 
through the orchards on each side, 
whilst a different picture alto- 
gether, of flowers and flagged paths, . 
is given to both rooms through 
the windows on the long sides. 

In the general conception and 
arrangement of a garden scheme 
it is often desirable that it 
should include provision for some 
places of shade in direct connec- 
tion with the house and in such a 
manner that it is possible to gain 
access to the more important parts 
of the garden without discomfort 
either in summer or in winter. 

One of the most effective ways 
of accomplishing this end is by 
the intelligent placing of loggias 
and open-air living rooms as just 
described, but another and still 
more beautiful and practical 
method is by an arrangement of 
covered walks in cloistered form. 

These can be planned in imme- 
diate contact with the house, as 
shown opposite in the sketch of 
a courtyard garden, where the 
connecting walk is indicated to the 
left of the sketch, or the cloister 
can be treated as an independent 
feature in itself, and made to form 
a serviceable part in a scheme of 
conservatories and glasshouses. 

The drawings on pages 283 and 
285 show parts of a house and 

garden supposed (for the purposes of this article) to 
be remodelled from a farmhouse and adjacent barn ; 
plenty of such opportunities are to be found in the 
Eastern counties, the barn and a high enclosing 
wall forming backgrounds for two sides of the 
quadrangular cloister. In the drawing on page 283 
is shown a central bay on which all the inexpen- 
sive ornament the house receives is centred, which 
is immediately opposite the summer-house (a com- 
panion feature in the scheme) shown opposite. 
The thatched roof of the barn is brought down 
lower to form a covering for the cloister on that 
side, and is continued along the wall. The garden 
itself is crossed by flagged paths, bordered with 
Virginia stock, and at the crossing in the centre is 
a sundial. In a garden such as this shade and 
shelter and cosiness would be gained at once, 
and the pleasure a garden affords could be 
enjoyed on more days of the year. 



ArcJiitectural Gardening. — VII. 






The National Competition of Schools of Art, igog 

appearance from any things of the same kind 
that had . been seen before. There was a wel- 
come sanity about the general tone of the work 
at South Kensington this year, and a fairly high 
level of accomplishment, both in design and 
craftsmanship, but, nevertheless, looking at the 
exhibition as a whole, it 
is impossible to help 
agreeing in some mea- 
sure with the views 
expressed in the report 
of the judges in the 
pottery section. They 
complain of the paucity 
and poverty of the 
designs for domestic 
articles — which were 
confined this year to 
plates, cups and saucers 
— and regret that the 
attention of the students 
trated almost exclusively 

fashion to call " art " pottery. This tendency 
was noticeable also in other sections of the 
National Art Competition. The things that 
most of the students design and make are too 
ornate and too expensive for common use, and 




seems to be concen- 
upon what it is the 



ART, 1909. 

If we may judge by the 
exhibition of the National 
Art Competition works 
held at South Kensington 
last month the " New Art " 
craze of a few years ago 
no longer influences our 
young designers. Of eccen- 
tricity there was, indeed, 
very little trace in the 
exhibition, and although 
originality was not lacking, 
there was evidence-in much 
of the work shown that 
the designers had aimed 
at fitness and at what they 
regard as beauty, rather 
than at the production 
of objects whose chief 
quality was difference in 



The National Competition of Schools of Art, igog 

insufficient attention is given to the production 
of objects with qualities of simplicity and 
beauty, independent of costly materials and 
elaborate workmanship. 

It is unfortunate, of course, that at the 
present time the beauty of simple things does 
not appeal to the majority, and that the market 
for them is therefore limited, but it should be 
the object of the artist-designer to endeavour 


to elevate the standard of popular taste, 
and already there are signs, faint enough 
to be sure, of improvement in this 
direction. And nothing can do more 
to further this improvement than the 
development of beauty in the objects 
of ordinary use, the things we see and 
handle and have about us in our daily 
life. " Have nothing in your houses 
that you do not know to be useful or 
believe to be beautiful " was a ma.\im 
that Morris impressed again and again 
upon the members of the Birmingham 
Society of Art and School of Design 



when he delivered in their presence that admirable 
address known as "The Beauty of Life," which 
deserves to be read and studied by every artist. 

Although in craftsmanship and design the 
general level of the National Art Competition 
E.xhibition was as high as last year, or even higher, 
it contained nothing so fine as the best examples 
of 1908. There was, for instance, nothing among 
the pottery to compare with the bowls and pots 
in silver and ruby lustre that Mr. C. E. Cundall 




The National Coiupetitioii of Schools of Art, igog 

given to Mr. Silas Paul, of Leeds, for a 
steel presentation trowel accompanied 
by a leather case with metal fittings. 
It is difficult to agree with the judges 
concerning the beauties of Mr. Paul's 
trowel, the "excellent design, great taste 
and masterly execution " of which they 
praise in the report. The compara- 
tive freedom from eccentricity of the 
National Art Competition works was 
nowhere more marked than in the 
jewellery, among which were few, if 
any, pieces that could not be worn. 
This is more than can be said for some 
of the jewellery exhibited in London 
during the past three or four years by 
French artist-craftsmen, whose exquisite 
skill has too often been devoted to the 
production of ornaments fitter for the 
showcases of museums than the head 
or neck of a woman. Among the hair- 



showed last year, or, in another section, with 
the beautiful enamels contributed by Miss 
Kathleen Fox and other students of the Dublin 
School of Art. Among the works in metal 
shown this year the elegance of the sugar-basin 
in silver with a plain glass bowl, by Mr. Clarence 
V. Frayn of Bradford, deser\-es high commen- 
dation. The highest award made by the 
examiners in this section is the gold medal 






combs in the National Art Competition Exhibi- 
tion one of silver, with enamel roses and foliage 
round a centre opal, by Miss Carrie Copson, 
and another of pierced silver with foliage in 
green enamel, by Mr. Herbert Shirley, deserve 

The National Coiiipctition of Schools of Art, igog 



and several attractive door handles in brass and 
bronze by Mr. John S. Clegg, Mr. Frank H. 
Morris, and Mr. Albert E. Woffinden of Birming- 
ham (Margaret Street). Mr. Frank Outram of 
Birmingham (Margaret Street) showed some fire- 
dogs in wrought iron with brass inlay. Other 
good examples of metal work were the enamelled 
christening cup by Miss Effie Luke, of Dublin, 
the vase in copper and silver by Mr. Lelant Black, 
of Islington (Camden), and a copper bowl of 
distinction by Mr. Alfred M. Wright, of Birming- 
ham (Vittoria Street). 

One or two of the few examples of leather work 
in the exhibition were unusually good. Perhaps 
the best was the black tobacco-box, with inscrip- 
tion, by Mr. Arthur E. Thomas, of Birmingham 
(Margaret Street). The hand-mirror by Miss 
Florence Gower, of Regent Street Polytechnic, 
with its quaint Elizabethan decoration in gesso, and 
the vellum covered caskets by Miss Rosa Gibb, 
Miss Eleanor M. Woolmer, and Miss Eva Batley, 
all students at the Ipswich school, should be 
noticed among other minor pieces of design and 
craftsmanship in this section. With them, for some 
unexplained reason, was shown a capital little 

particular notice. Both were the work of 
Birmingham (Vittoria Street) students. 
Another good piece of jewellery from 
Birmingham (Margaret Street) was Miss 
Alice M. Camwell's necklet and pendant 
of silver, green enamel and opal. The 
colour was the least attractive feature of 
Miss Camwell's jewellery. From Leicester 
came a nice necklet in silver by Miss 
Annie M. Taylor, and a dainty pendant 
in gold and pearls by Miss Ethel M. 
Charnle)'. An effect at once original 
and pleasant was obtained by Miss 
Florence Milnes, of Bradford, by the 
combination in her necklet of dull silver 
with clear, transparent and almost 
colourless stones. 

The key, which the hands ot the 
craftsman of an earlier period trans- 
formed into a thing of beauty, still fails 
to attract the young metal worker of to- 
day. There was not a single key in 
the exhibition, but there were several 
pieces of door furniture, including an 
elaborate lock-plate in wrought iron by 
Mr. Albert E. Utton of Camberwell, 



TJie National Competition of ScJwols of Art, igog 



model in plaster of a turkey cock from life by 
>fr. Ernest S. Stainton, of Birmingham (Margaret 
Street), that should have been included among 
the work of the sculptor students. 

The enamels were altogether inferior to those 
of last year. The best of the enamels from 



Dublin that were shown then were not so much 
pictures as beautiful pieces of colour, in the 
arrangement of which the designers had kept 
always in view the qualities and the limitations 
of the material in which they were executed. 
This year the students have strayed from the 
right path, and in almost every instance their 
work was an attempt to emulate in enamel the 
effect of pictures in oil or water colour. In 
this attempt Mr. Oswald Crompton, of Sunder- 
land, succeeded as well as any with his repre- 
sentation of the Virgin appearing to Bernadette 
in the fields at Lourdes. It was, however, less 



happy in other respects than the plaque for 
which Miss Dora K. Allen, of Dublin, has been 
awarded a silver medal. The small pieces of 
pottery shown in an adjoining case included a 
sgraffito vase with a pleasant design based on 
the teazle, by Mr. Norman Walker, of Leeds ; 


The National Competition of Schools of Art, igog 



a nice bowl, by Mr. George Goodall, of Salford ; 
a small vase, with heraldic lions, by Mr. Albert 
E. Barlow, of the same school ; and a lustre vase, 

was nothing of outstanding excellence 
or originality. The simple pattern of 
interlaced lines in the cover shown by 
Miss Rose Swain, of Islington (Camden), 
looked well by the side of the more 
ornate designs in the same group, and 
the cover of "British Ballads," by Miss 
Maud B. S. Bird, of Birmingham 
(Margaret Street), was attractive, despite 
the somewhat affected treatment of the 
lettering. The e.xaminers praise in high 
terms the design for a gesso panel of 
" Orpheus," by Mr. Burman W. 
Morral, of Exeter, to which a gold 
medal has deservedly been awarded. 
But the colour — yellow on a mahogany 
ground — was far from pleasant. Less 
striking in pattern but better in colour was another 
work in gesso, a design for the decoration of a 
mirror frame by Miss Gertrude De La Mare, of 




by Mr. Alfred Hill, of Burslem. \n the pottery 
cases several wineglasses were shown, but in no 
single instance was the result happy. There seems 
to be no room for the further development of 
design in the wineglass. 

An admirable panel in pottery, square in shape, 
with a medallion in the centre showing a vigorous 
design in high relief of a man on a bare-backed 
horse, was contributed by Mr. Reginald T. Cot- 
terill, of Burslem. The tiles shown in this section 
were poor in comparison with those of other years, 
particularly with those of 1907, but there was 
something attractive about the odd, archaic-looking 
design in red by Miss"Denise K. Tuckfield, of 
Kingston - on - Thames. The glazed and lustred 
panel, with classical figures in relief, by Miss 
Mary E. Munday, of Burslem, the lustre plate in 
grey, green and purple, by Miss Nellie Strain, of 
Oldham, and the design for a holy-water stoop by 
Mr. Albert Mountford, of Burslem, were all above 
the average in quality. 

About the bookbindings there is not much to 
say. They were in most instances pleasing in 
design and good enough in execution, but there 

Regent Street Polytechnic. The wood earnings in- 
cluded a frieze for a reredos by Mr. William E. Roe, 
of Manchester, much better than anything else of its 




The National Competition of Schools of Art, igog 


class, and an oak firescreen, in the decoration of 
which Mr. William G. Donaldson, of Carlisle, 
displayed an ingenious development of the 
well-known linen-fold pattern. The designs 
for lace, cut linens and embroideries rarely 
rose above mediocrity. One of the best 
was the design for a collar in cut linen, 
by Miss Maud Canning, of Aston Manor. 
Other good designs were those for an em- 
broidered cut-work tablecloth, by Miss 
Minnie Jones, of Dudley, which has been 
awarded a silver medal, and for a panel by 
Miss N. Porteous, of Leeds. 

Miss Evelyn M. B. Paul, of Islington 
(Camden), who gained a gold medal last 
year for her designs for colour prints, has 
again carried off an equally high award. 
She showed nothing this time of the 
Rossetti-like quality of her dusky, richly 
attired maiden of 190R, but Miss Paul's 
work on the whole is of remarkable promise, 
and this promise was indicated perhaps 
more strongly in the sheets of suggestions 
and sketches than in the more finished 
studies that represented her in the recent 
exhibition. There was nothing else among 
the designs for colour-prints to rank with 
the efforts of Miss Paul, but mention 
should be made of the vigorous landscapes 
by Miss Lillian Mills, of Lambeth, the 
quaint elegance of the drawing of a bride 
and bridegroom, by Miss Vera Dendy, of 
the same school, the floral calendar by 
Miss Constance Purbrook, of West Ham 
and the auto-lithograph in colour of 

Mr. Alexander Horsnell, 
of Chelmsford. The book 
illustrations and black- 
and-white designs were 
better than usual. Mr. 
Frederick Carter, of 
Regent Street Polytechnic, 
carried off for the third 
year in succession a gold 
medal for designs for book 
illustration that showed 
a distinct advance upon 
those of 1907 and 1908. 
Mr. W. F. Northend, of 
Sheffield, also takes a gold 
medal for a piece of work 
that could be accom- 
plished probably by very 
few students or designers. 
The printed copy of "The Rhyme of the Ancient 
Mariner" was produced by Mr. Northend unaided 


(• \4i5frcss rrui}i uAtm 

O i/Uu^ AX\A KiAi'; ijouj- o-ui- 

okiir can. -*"i5' ImcK KlgK 

» arui Loiu: 

Orip no hixthi^ prtrti^ 

joumi^s cnSL in. lovtx5 

^vcr4 u?lsc rfvw\5 5on cioti^ 
* kr\ou> 

^ Kir LslovtVfes ivot • ' 

" Prcsour nvtrcH Ivitli y^csu^r 

Sp; WKj-CS CO camx. \i stiU uniuK 
^ In. diLu( txlXC LUi ru> 

soJCCt-irui- tuJcrvrx{: r 

\'oulhi i scuif lulU notr 



The National Competition of Sc hoots of Art, igog 


by any other hands. He designed the illustrations, 
decorative borders, initials and tailpieces, and 
printed and bound the volume. The pages are 
printed in red and black, and the little illustrations 
are certainly creditable. It was, of course, hardly 
to be expected that they could realise for us the 
magic of Coleridge's marvellous verses, that have 
yet to find their real illus- 
trator. More of our 
younger artists might with 
advantage try their hands 
on " The Ancient Mari- 
ner," and give a little rest 
to Omar Khayyam. Other 
illustrations in the exhibi- 
tion that are worthy of 
praise were by Miss Enid 
Ledward, of Putney, and 
Miss Ethel Whittaker, of 

It is perhaps due, indi- 
rectly, to the influence of 
Mr. Brangwyn that the 
exhibition of the National 
Art Competition con- 
tained so many designs 
for composition in which 
the modern shipwright, 
wharves and docks are 
the motives. Mr. Leslie design iok au lu-LinioukAiu 

M. Ward, of Bournemouth, has re- 
ceived a gold medal principally for 
his designs of this kind, and there were 
others more or less good by Miss 
Dorothy Bateman, Miss Violet E. 
Hawkes, Miss Minnie P. Cox, and Mr. 
James A. Grant, all of Liverpool. 
Mr. Grant was seen to greater advan- 
tage in his design for a painted panel 
in oil, with ladies in Watteau dresses, 
gardens, fauns and cupids. The exe- 
cution, light and free in handling, and 
in colour tender and harmonious, was 
exactly fitted to the subject. Some 
of the best work in illumination and 
lettering came from Miss Mildred 
Armstrong, of Newcastle-on-Tyne 
(Armstrong College) ; Miss Ivy E. 
Harper, of Birmingham (Margaret 
Street) : Miss Daisy Tuff, of Islington 
(Camden); and Mr. Will Mellor, of 
jManchester. The designs for printed 
nursery cotton hangings, by Frank 
Middleton, of Regent Street Polytech- 
nic, were quaint and amusing, and among the few 
posters should be mentioned those of Mr. William 
S. Broadhead, of Sheffield ; Mr. Harold Dearden, 
of Rochdale, and Miss Winifred Fison, of the 
Royal Female School of Art. 

Work in sculptured marble is rarely to be seen 
at the National Art Competition exhibitions, and 


Recent Designs in Domestic Architecture 



> \ 



rarer still is an example of such competence as 
the panel for a chimney-piece, by Mr. Harmon J. 
Cawthra, of Leeds. The modelling from the life 
fairly maintained the higher standard reached in 
recent years, and there was obsers-- 
able a welcome tendency to work on 
a larger and bolder scale than for- 
merly. The drawing and painting 
from the living model appeared 
generally to have retrograded rather 
than advanced. One of the best 
pieces of painting in the exhibition 
was an admirable still-life study in 
oil by Miss Hilda S. \\'edekind, of 
Beckenham. \\'. T. Whitley. 

WoRMLEV M.iNOR, of which we give 
an illustration opposite, has been built near Brox- 
bourne, Herts, from the designs of Mr. R. A. 
Briggs, F.R.I.B.A. It is situated in a high 
part of the country, and the estate is surrounded 
by a luxuriant belt of trees. The house con- 
tains five reception rooms and a hall, and 
twelve bed and dressing rooms. The windows 
for the most part are sash windows, but those 
to the staircase and corridor are muUion windows 
with iron casements. The walls externally are 
faced with red bricks, and the roofs were 
covered with tiles from the Hailey Brick Com- 
pany. The principal external doors are of oak, 
the rest of the woodwork being painted white. 
Mr. John Bentley, of Waltham Abbey, was the 
general contractor. The drawing which we 
reproduce was exhibited at the Royal Academy 
this year. 

Our next illustration is a view of the en- 
trance forecourt of a house just finished from 
the designs of Mr. E. J. May, F.R.I.B.A. This 
house, which is situate at Bramshott, near Hind- 
head, is built of red brick with tile hanging and 
tile roof. All the external woodwork is oak left to 
weather to a silver grey, and oak is also largely 

Among recent accessions to the 
Scottish National Gallery at the 
Mound, Edinburgh, of which Mr. 
James L. Caw is director, is a fine 
landscape painting by Sir W. Fettes 
Douglas, a former President of the 
Royal Scottish Academy. This work 
was purchased at Christie's by 
Messrs. Wallis & Sons on behalf of 
the gallery for a small sum. Three 
water-colours by the same painter, 
purchased at another sale, have also 
been added. 



Recent Desisfus in Domestic Architecture 



used internally. This drawing also was in the we give two views on pages 296 and 297, has 

recent Royal Academy exhibition. been designed by Mr. Stanley Hamp (of Messrs. 

The house at Gerrard's Cross, Bucks, of which Collcutt & Hamp) for a beautiful site at Gerrard's 

vie '-.2'' <'''-' K 




Recent Designs in Domestic Architecture 





Cross, from which extensive views can be obtained, be panelled with oak. The side next the drawing- 
It has been designed for an artist, and the studio room is made movable, so that the two rooms can 
(shown at the left of the drawing above) has be used as one large reception room. The flooring 
been so arranged that at any future date it can be all through this room is to be of polished oak. 
used as a garage. The hall and dining-room are to Old red, sand-faced bricks are to be used for 





Recent Designs in Domestic Architecture 

facings, with rough cast and old tiles for the roof. 
The window frames and half timber work will be 
of English oak. The garden falls rapidly from 
the terrace towards the lawns and rose garden. 

Mr. Stanley Hamp has also designed the group 
of cottages illustrated on the opposite page. These 
cottages are intended for the employees on an 
estate near Beaconsfield, Bucks, and the accommo- 
dation consists of two living rooms and three 
bedrooms to each. The half timber work is to be 
of English oak, and the roof is to be covered with 
old tiles from barns which have been pulled down 
on the estate. The contract price for these cottages 

Howe Combe, Watlington, Oxon, illustrated on 
page 298, is built in a combe of the Chilterns 
overlooking Howe Hill on the road from Watling- 
ton to Oxford. Its position was selected and the 
planning largely influenced by the desire that all 
important windows should command picturesque 
views of valley and hill. Externally, the design 
follows — in material at all events — methods tradi- 
tional to the district, the walls being faced with a 


mixture of grey and brown flints quoined and dia- 
pered with red bricks — a combination which quickly 
weathers to the tint of older buildings. Hand made 
Leicestershire tiles have been used for the roofing. 
All the arches over the windows are of tile, and the 
recessed arch over the porch has voussoirs and key 
of the same, this material being also used in 
patterns where emphasis was considered desirable. 
Tile " straights " are u.sed over all lead soakers, and 
this, a thoroughly practical expedient, effects a 
more pleasing junction between wall and roof than 
the stepped lead cover flashings commonly em- 
ployed. The internal treatment is of the simplest, 
but care has been bestowed upon all points of 
constructive interest, the fireclay enamel sur- 
rounds for fireplaces, with the decorative panels, 
having all been made from the architect's drawings, 
as have all mantels and other fitments, such as 
book-cases, sideboard, etc. The door furniture of 
iron, " sherardised " and armour bright, was also 
designed by the architect to harmonise with case- 
ment fastenings of the same material, the latter 
being copies of old examples. The entrance 
door has bronze furniture also speci- 
ally designed for its position. Leaded 
lights and metal casements are used 
throughout the main building. The 
floors of the principal rooms are of oak, 
the remainder (except the offices, which 
are tiled) being of wood blocks on the 
ground floor and on the upper floors of 
narrow width deal. The external pavings 
are of brick, those in the more impor- 
tant parts being of two-inch bricks laid 
herring-bone fashion. The work, in- 
cluding drive, garden walls, lodge and 
entrance gates, was designed and car- 
ried out for A. H. Pawson, Esq., by 
Mr. T. Frank Green, A.R.LB.A., of 
London, the general contractors being 
Messrs. Hacksley Brothers of Welling- 

Arts and Crafts Exhibition 
SociETV. — Under the presidency of 
Mr. Walter Crane, this Society, founded 
in 1888, held annual exhibitions during 
the first three years of its existence ; 
but from the beginning of the late Mr. 
\\'illiam Morris's presidency (1893-96) 
the exhibitions have been triennial. 
Thus, though the Society is more than 
twenty years old, its forthcoming exhibi- 
tion to be held at the New Gallery in 

Recent Desims in Domestic Arcliitecture 



January next will only be the ninth of the series. 
This will consist of contemporary work in design 
and handicraft (limited to the last twenty years 
and not having been previously shown in London), 
such as — Designs, cartoons and working draw- 
ings, decorative painting, hand-woven textiles, 
tapestry, embroidery, lace, stained-glass, table- 
glass, metal-work, jeweller)-, enamels, goldsmiths' 

and silversmiths' work, pottery and tiles, modelled 
and carved work, plaster-work, cabinet-work and 
furniture, book-decoration, black-and-white design, 
calligraphy and illumination, printing and book- 
binding, wall-papers, leather-work, and other 
kinds of work at the discretion of the Committee. 
The receiving day will be Tuesday, December 28, 


studio- Talk 




(From Our Oivn Correspondents.) 

LONDON. — At the last Election of the 
Royal Academy, Mr. J. J. Shannon, who 
became an A.R.A. in 1897, was elected 
full Academician in place of the late Mr. 
Gregory. His first impor- 
tant picture at the Royal 
Academy was exhibited in 
i88r, three years after his 
arrival in England from 
America, in which country 
he was born, the inter- 
vening period being spent 
at the South Kensington 

On this page we give 
an illustration of the 
covers of an illuminated 
trophy and roll of honour, 
presented to the Council 
of the Shakespeare Fes- 
tival, Stratford-on-Avon, 
by Cedric Chivers, Esq., 
J.P., of Bath. The " Roll 
of Honour" is intended 
to perpetuate the names 
of winners in the old 
English games and sports, 
held at the annual festival. three enamels on copper in silver frame 

It is in book form, bound 
in purple levant ; in the 
outer cover, is inlaid a 
"vellucent" (colour under 
transparent vellum) panel, 
bearing the arms of Strat- 
ford. The surrounding 
gold tooling is by Miss 
Alice Shepherd. The two 
covers are appropriately 
decorated on the inside, 
the work being also 
covered with transparent 
vellum, tooled and inlaid 
with mother-of-pearl. The 
book itself is made up of 
pages of vellum, on which 
will be engrossed the 
prize winners' names from 
year to year. The work 
has been designed and 
executed by Mr. Samuel 

Poole, and carried out at Messrs. Chivers' bindery 

at Bath. 

We also reproduce a set of three enamels on 
copper in a silver frame, by Ernestine Mills, which 
was among the most notable efforts in this medium 
in the last Academy. A drawing. Sunset, by 






studio- Talk 

Mr. Allan Barraud gives 
by a method of black- 
and-white drawing which 
is the artist's secret, an 
unusually skilful render- 
ing of effect. 

The Chapel of the As- 
cension, Bayswater Road, 
grows towards comple- 
tion. Two large and three 
small paintings have just 
been added to its walls 
from the hand of Mr. 
Frederic Shields, being 
the fruit of his past year's labours. 

The Great National Loan Exhibition, or the 
Pageant of Old Masters as it has been called, 
which is being organised with a view to augmenting 
the National Gallery funds for the purchase of 
works of art, and which is to be held at the 
Grafton Galleries, promises to be as uniquely repre- 
sentative as it should be. The committee includes 
the Keepers of the National, the National Portrait 
and Tate Galleries, the First Commissioner of Works, 
the Vice-President of the International Society and 
several members of the Royal Academy, besides 
the Presidents of the Royal Scottish Academy, the 


Royal Society of Painters in Water-colours and 
the Royal Society of British Artists, the Officers 
of the National Art Collections Fund and many 

We reproduce on this page three examples of 
decorative work by Mr. George Rushton, principal 
of the Ipswich School of Art. The two panels below 
were worked in coloured relief, that of Bacchus 
and the Nymph, in which the predominating colours 
are blue and gold, being modelled upon a pro- 
jecting surface and placed upon carved figures at 
the end of a room in a private house ; while the 
other was executed for a passenger steamer's 






'** 111*?*"! miuju junn^Biwpi— >BSiii»iji|»g»tm 

"virtue thrusting evil from the path of youth," and " INDIAN FAMINE RELIEF" : TWO PANELS FORMING PART 

smoke-room. The panel, called The King, in 
which reds and greens form the colour scheme, was 
executed for a theatre staircase. 

Mr. D. S. MacColl is greatly to be congratulated 
on his recent departures in hanging at the Tate 
Galler)-. An important innovation is the hanging of 
drawings in water-colour and pencil, etchings and 
lithographs in the one room, No V., which has 
been cleared for this purpose. Recent acquisitions 
are the water-colours by William Muller left by 
Lady Weston, and etchings by Whistler, Muirhead 
Bone, D. Y. Cameron and Frank Short, lithographs 
by Mr. Charles Shannon, a pencil portrait of Mr. 
Henry Newbolt by William Strang, and eight 
plates by Wilkie, presented by Sir J. C. Robinson 
through the National Art Collections Fund. Mr. 
Muirhead Bone is represented partly by his beauti- 
ful plate of St. Jafnes' Hall, which was reproduced 
in this magazine some time back. The fine ex- 
amples of H. B. Brabazon's water colours are also 
among the valuable works of the modern school 
now to be seen at the Tate. ' Room V. contains, 
too, the notable studies in sanguine by Alfred 
Stevens for his Isaiah, the cartoon itself of Isaiah 
for St. Paul's Cathedral being in an adjacent room. 

LIVERPOOL. — A general appreciation or 
the late Right Hon. Samuel Smith, who 
strenuously supported many schemes of 
world-wide range, productive of benefits 
to his fellow-men, led to a public subscription for a 
memorial to be erected in Sefton Park. The recent 
unveiling of the memorial by the Lord Mayor of 
Liverpool was attended by a large gathering 
of other prominent citizens. The memorial con- 
sists of a polished red granite obelisk 60 ft. high on 
a pedestal, the architectural details being designed 
by Messrs. Willink & Fluckness. The two panels 
here reproduced, representing Virtue thrusting 
Evil from the Path of Youth, and Indian Famine 
Relief, which, together with a medallion portrait 
and a descriptive tablet, occupy the four sides of 
the pedestal, were all designed and modelled by 
Mr. Charles J. Allen, and cast in bronze by Mr. 
A. B. Burton, of Thames Ditton. H. B. B. 

BIRNHNGHAM.— Our coloured illustra- 
tion on the opposite page recalls an 
interesting incident in the recent visit 
of their Majesties the King and Queen 
to Birmingham, when the Lord Mayor, on behalf 
of the city, presented to the Queen a beautiful 




necklace designed and executed by Mr. and Mrs. 
Arthur Gaskin. Our illustration is reproduced 
from an autochrome photograph taken by Mr. 
Harold Baker, of Birmingham. The necklace, 
consisting of chain and pendant, is executed in 
1 8 carat pale gold, and, as will be seen, is a very 
delicate piece of workmanship. The exquisite hue 
of the two large cabochon sapphires at the centre 
of the chain and pendant supplies the dominant 
note in the colour scheme. Around the sapphires 
are emeralds, pearls, and pink topaz, while small 
diamonds set in trefoils add little points of light to 
the ornament as a whole. Mr. Gaskin, we need 
hardly mention, is head-master of the special 
school for jewellers and silversmiths in Vittoria 

PARIS. — After a retirement of several years, 
during which time he has devoted him- 
self exclusively to his art, M. Charles 
Milcendeau has made his reappearance 
before the Parisian public, in an exhibition at the 
Dewambez Galleries of an entire series of most 
interesting pictures. One knows well that M. Mil- 

cendeau has always possessed the reputation of 
being an untiring and a conscientious recorder of 
different aspects of life, and certain of his works, 
so minutely, and yet again at times so boldly, 
executed, are pre-eminent in respect of their sin- 
cerity of observation and their unfaltering technique. 
For long he devoted his talent to the portrayal of 
the peasant life of La Vendue, but now he returns 
with the fruits of a few years' sojourn in Spain — 
not the Spain of the tourist, but a Spain poor, sad, 
melancholy, with rugged barren landscapes and an 
indigent population, but all, notwithstanding, full 
of character. A very charming feature of these 
pastel drawings of Milcendeau is the absence of 
trickery and conventionality; he never makes it 
his deliberate aim to be seductive, though he 
frequently succeeds in arousing our sympathy and 
enthusiasm by the great strength which betrays 
itself in his work. 

Among recent works to which M. Eugene 
Bejot has given his signature, the two plates here 
reproduced are particularly notable as recording 
those aspects of Paris with which he is so much 



studio- Talk 

enamoured, and which he knows so well. The 
one entitled Port Saitit-Nicolas represents a part 
of the Seine just below the Louvre where the 
little steam boats are constantly loading and dis- 
charging their cargoes, while further off, forming a 
fine sweep, the Institute building, the quays, and 
" La Cite " unfold their splendid outlines. From 
the point of view of the graver's technique, this is 
admirable in its strength and precision ; and the 
tree in the foreground is executed with that assur- 
ance which belongs to the greatest masters. The 
view of Le Pont Mirabeau is an equally fine plate. 
By means of black-and-white alone the artist has 
succeeded in giving us in an eminent degree the 
impression of colour, of shimmering water, of 
sparse vegetation, and of a vast expanse of sky 
interspersed with tenuous clouds. 

M. Santiago Rusinol is the ^lamlex par excellence 
of Spanish gardens — those wonderful gardens in 
which one knows not whether one ought to admire 
most the handiwork of man — seen in such things 
as the marble masonry, the statuary and vases — or 
the work of nature. In any case nothing in M. 

Rusinol's work is finer than the resourceful way in 
which he manages to extract beauty from these 
two elements, both of which have provided him 
with motives for many notable canvases. It was 
about a dozen years ago that M. Rusinol exhibited 
at the Bing galleries his first series of Spanish 
garden pictures, and aroused our enthusiasm by the 
poetic sense which he revealed in common with 
other gifts. And since then this Spanish painter's 
panels have become for many one of the chief 
attractions at the National Society's Salon. These 
admirable Spanish gardens — those of the Balearic 
Islands, of Cordova and of Seville — have no longer 
any secret to yield up to Rusinol ; at one time he 
permits us to penetrate the mysteries of groves 
where box and yew surround some old moss- 
covered vase ; at another time we get a glimpse of 
Majorca with its masses of orange trees in full 
flower. Everywhere and always Rusinol is in the 
truest sense of the word an artist ; he is a man of 
much culture and rare taste, as is once more proved 
by the beautiful work reproduced on page 308, 
the dignified ordering of which will be appreciated 
by all. M. Rusinol besides being a painter is also 


(By fcrmissioii of Messrs. James Council b' Sons] 







"— > 




































a poet of much talent, and one who has played 
an important part in the renaissance of Catalan 
literature and art. 

The Socidte Nationale des Beaux Arts has again 
organised, this year, an interesting retrospective 
exhibition in the charming eighteenth -century 
pavilions. This consists of portraits of women who 
lived in the days of the three French Republics, that 
is at the end of the eighteenth century (after 1789), 
in 1848 (second Republic), and after 1872. Of the 
first period we have a few remarkable examples, 
such as the admirable portrait of the Marquise de 
Pastoret, by David (1748 — 1825), into which this 
classical painter has put so much life and reality. 
Baron Gros is also represented by portraits of the 
actress Mile. Meseray and Afme. Luaen Bonaparte, 
which show us typical beauties of that period. 
Greuze is represented by the portrait of his wife, 
Mme. Vigee-Lebrun by portraits of herself, and 
Mme. de Talleyrand Prudhon by a portrait of 
Mme. Mayer. Among the less known artists, 
Mme. Labille-Guiard,' with the portrait q{ Duchesse 
tTAiguillori, Antoine Vestier, with one of Mme. 
de Genlis, ]. B. Isabey, with a portrait of Clemen- 

tine de Reiset and Heinsius with a portrait of Mile. 
Bazin, are very interesting. The little works of 
Boilly are also representative of the period ; 
they charm by their admirable perfection. With 
the Republic of 1848, we find the romantic school 
in full bloom, but the works of Delacroix, Dev^ria, 
Henri Lehmann, Ary Scheffer are not amongst the 
best of this period. Of the first years of the third 
Republic we have also a few good portraits, such 
as a head of a girl, by Beraud, works by Bracque- 
mond pere, Carolus-Duran, John Sargent, Carriere, 
Delaunay, Hebert, Gervex, and especially Manet 
with three beautiful portraits, all unnamed. 

In all periods painters have found themselves 
lured to depict the fleeting and transitory aspects 
of the life of Paris, her streets, her theatres and 
her restaurants. Among those who have done 
very personal work of this nature, one must give a 
place to M. Jean Lefort. In his Concert des 
Ambassadeurs one finds him, not indeed in the 
expression of it, but rather in the idea itself, hark- 
ing back to the traditions of Toulouse Lautrec and 
Constantin Guys. The artist has depicted with 
consummate ability the appearance of the crowd 

"concert des ambass.\deur» 


studio- Talk 

" l'allee des acacias " 


of spectators seen from the back with the stage in 
the distance. The other painting which we repro- 
duce renders with much truthfuhiess a charming 
and graceful vision of the Allee des Acacias. 

In the exhibitions organised by them at their 
galleries in the Rue Richepanse, MM. Bernheim 
give proof of the utmost eclecticism. Certainly 
that with which they brought their season to a close 
must be reckoned among the most interesting of 
the year. It was an exhibition of the works of 
Forain, who is without doubt one of the most 
captivating personalities in French art, and a worthy 
descendant of Daumier and the powerful carica- 
turists of the school of 1840. It is 
above all in caricature that Forain's 
reputation has been made; for more 
than a quarter of a century he has been 
castigating the politicians in power just 
as Daumier did Louis Philippe and his 
Ministers, and that with a wealth of in- 
vention, a sharpness of satire, and an 
ingeniousness of verbal comment, such 
as no one before him has possessed. Cut 
Forain is at the same time a painter of a 
most robust order ; in the austere realism 
of certain of his canvases he approaches 
very closely to Degas. H. F. 

BERLIN. — The admirable portrait of the 
German Emperor by Mr. Philip Laszld, 
which we are enabled by courtesy of 
the Berlin Photographic Company to 
reproduce in colours, is, without doubt, one of the 
artist's most successful achievements. In addition 
to this portrait of His Majesty, Mr. Laszlo executed 
at the same time portraits of the Empress and 
other members of the Imperial family, and the 
exhibition of all these portraits at Schulte's gallery 
was one of the notable events of the past season. 

The Berlin Royal Arts and Crafts Museum has 
arranged an exhibition of furniture trimmings with 

The next Autumn Salon will have as 
special features an exhibition of Italian 
Art and the works of the German painter, 
von Marees. 


{Exhibition of Furniture Trimmings, Berlin.^ 




{Exhibition of Fiimilure Trimmings, Berlin) 

the idea of infusing fresh life into a somewhat lagging 
industry. This undertaking is sure to achieve its 
purpose, as the fabrics on view offer an interesting 
study and are presented in an exceptionally ap- 
propriate setting. The architect, Paul Thiersch, 
has erected within the beautiful state-hall of the 
museum a kind of peristyle containing different 
rooms, an altar-niche and a funeral decoration, to 
prove the utility and fine effect of such 
modern textiles applied to interior deco- 
ration, and many exhibits are besides laid 
out in single cases. Modern manufac- 
turers have recognised the necessity of 
adapting such wares to the simpler and 
more constructive style of our day ; they 
have produced braids, tassels and fringes 
after designs by well-known craftsmen. A 
collection of historical trimmings from the 
Middle Ages down to the nineteenth cen- 
tury convinces one of the excellence of old 
textiles, especially those of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries. They are dis- 
tinguished by lightness, richness of design 
and interesting technique, which makes 
but slight use of the wooden filling. 
Modern trimmings have profited by the 
teachings of the past, and at the same 
time answer the demands of our day. 
In their modest colouring and cleverly 
adapted design they appear desirable com- 

pletions of the furniture, and good substitutes 
for friezes and borders. Objections will certainly 
be made- by friends of stone or wooden wall 
ornaments, but these woven or plaited additions 
are of great solidity, and can improve a plain 
style as well as enhance elegance. The different 
rooms offer welcome object lessons. Professor 
Bruno Paul, the manysided craftsman, upholds 
his reputation for distinguished and solid taste 
by a room in grey velvet with trimmings in 
green and black, and by a fine choice of single 
articles. Professor Franz Seeck has designed 
a very neat and bright bedroom in sand-colour, 
with wall-borderings of olive satin set in narrow 
braids of black with silver and gold. The sofa 
recess, after the design of the architect Paul 
Thiersch and Fraulein Feldkircher, with its 
intense notes of ochre and blue, is intended to 
carry a strong colour accent into an interior of 
reserved tenor. Director Dr. Jessen and superior 
craftsmen like Professor Schulze-Naumburg, the 
Berlin Municipal Weaving School, some emi- 
nent architects and technical teachers, as well as 
various first-class manufacturers, have co-oper- 
ated to create this original and useful exhibition. 

The Berlin Joiners' Guild has been holding in 
the extensive buildings of the Zoological Garden 
an exhibition of interior decoration and Berlin 
wood fabrics, which is proving one of the strongest 
attractions of this summer season. The valuation 
of our artisans has been somewhat neglected by 


(Exhibition aj Furniture Trimmings, Berlin) 

Studio- Talk 

plus rigoureuse de la forme." 

" couR ensoleillee" by marcel jefferys 

the successes of leading craftsmen, and the effect 
of such a show as this is to restore the proper 
balance. An almost inexhaustible suite of com- 
plete appartments and single rooms demonstrates 
the preference for historical styles, but shows at the 
same time the strong in- 
fluence of modern ideas. 
This clearly traceable fea- 
ture ought to generate in 
our leading furniture 
makers a friendly attitude 
towards progressive ideas. 
Good technique and good 
taste are fully demon- 
strated, and the whole is 
so sumptuously arranged 
that the pecuniary success 
seems well deserved. 


Among the 
young artists 
whose talents 
have been brought to our 
notice through the recent 
and numerous art exhibi- 
tions, one must mention 

among the foremost M. " fabrique incendiee' 


Marcel Jefferysof Brussels. 
He contributed a large 
number of works in great 
variety to the Salons of 
Liege, Brussels, Paris, and 
lastly to that of the Ind^- 
pendants de Bruxelles, 
works which attracted 
attention by their brilliant 
colouring, their fine exe- 
cution and the enthusiastic 
spirit in which they were 
conceived. As M. Octave 
Maus wrote in L'Arf 
Moderne : " Par le con- 
traste des ombres et les 
lumieres, par la justesse 
des relations tonales, par 
I'exacte observation des 
refiets, M. Jefferys affirme 
un temperament de 
peintre que nous avons 
deja signale et qui 
trouvera son expression 
definitive dans une etude 

The large bronze group, Za Liitte equestre, by 
Count J. de Lalaing, which was greatly admired in 
the last Salon de Bruxelles, has been set up at the 




ICO. Lt-ur^ Amis. !>i'i)9.' 

Mons. G. Devreese with the execution of a plaquette 
bearing the double portrait of the directors, which 
we here reproduce. Several reproductions of M. 
Devreese's talented work have already appeared in 
The Studio, and this last piece from the hands of 
the Belgian sculptor — of whose work, by-the-bye, 
the Mus^e du Luxembourg already possesses an im- 
portant ensemble — in no way falls short of the high 
standard of his previous achievements. F. K. 


UNICH. — The Kunstverein of Munich 
recently held an exhibition of land- 
scapes in water colour by Fritz Bequer 
de Latour, their subjects being derived 
partly from England and Paris and partly from the 
artist's native homeland, the country of the Rhine. 
In the midst of the crowd of oil-paintings with which 
the Kunstverein is from time to time inundated 
these mature and delightful drawings of Bequer's 
left a very agreeable impression. They were all of 

entrance to the Bois'de la Cambre, the fashionable 
promenade of the capital. The work is of very 
striking allure, and in composition most cleverly 
conceived. It is rather a pity, perhaps, that its 
position, albeit chosen by the artist himself, does 
not allow of the group being sufficiently isolated. 
Had it been mounted on a rather higher pedestal 
and on a site that would have permitted of its 
silhouette being seen from all sides, one would 
have had a better opportunity of appreciating the 
felicitous disposal of the masses and the spaces, 
and the essential lines of this remarkable group. 

The authorities of the town of Brussels without, 
as is the usual custom, having recourse to the 
lottery of a public ballot, have- confirmed for a 
further period of nine years MM. Kufferath and 
Guide in their appointments as directors of the 
Theatre royal de la Monnaie. The life of Brussels 
is so inextricably bound up with that of the 
The'atre de la Monnaie that all that concerns the 
latter has, as some one has very truly remarked, all 
the importance of an official civic occurrence. The 
expression of sympathy and approbation towards 
the artist-directors has met with warm support on 
all sides. Their friends and admirers, as a mark 
of the affectionate esteem in which they hold the 
directors, and with a desire to commemorate in 
tangible form the first period of MM. Kufferath 
and Guide''s fraternal collaboration, entrusted 







regarded as the highest attainment in the water- 
colour technique at the present time. Wherever 
possible he utilizes the characteristic property of 
water colour — its transparency — and laying one pure 
colour over another instead of mixing them achieves 
in this way, along with clarity of tone, great depth 
and illuminative power. 


quite modest dimensions, 
but in spite of this they 
held their own amid their 
surroundings by virtue of 
the admirable qualities 
which distinguished them 
— a straightforward, honest 
technique from which all 
trace of cheap artificiality 
is absent, and a refined and 
sincere attitude towards 
nature — an attitude in pur- 
suance of which the aim 
is not exclusively to repro- 
duce the subjective impres- 
sion but to pay due regard 

to the objective aspect of things. At the same 
time Bequer de Latour is far from being a painter 
who selects a pretty bit of scenery merely in order 
to please. His innate good taste, which his visits 
to England and Paris have been instrumental in 
disciplining, has always kept him from that. 

Bequer de Latour received his training as an 
artist at Diisseldorf, Munich and Paris, and for the 
last two years he has been working in England. 
He is, as already indicated, a native of the Rhine 
country, his home being Coblenz. He is devoting 
himself exclusively to the water-colour medium, 
and endeavouring to secure for it greater favour 
among artists — a laudable undertaking, but one 
which in presence of the almost tyrannical sway 
of the oil medium is not 
likely to prove easy of 

In that branch of art 
which is concerned with 
the production of medals 
and plaquettes Germany is 
behind England and France, 
for she is without the tra- 
dition which these coun- 
tries possess both in respect 
of the technical methods 
associated with the art and 
in regard to its apprecia- 
tion among connoisseurs. 


The works included in the exhibition comprised 
many di\'erse themes, such as the Champs Efysees, 
Westminster Abbey, Marxburg on the Rhi7ie and the 
Chapter House. In the drawing of The Drachenfels, 
now reproduced in colours, the artist has completely 
realised the romantic sentiment of a moonliglu 
night on the Rhine, and yet has avoided that 
sweetness and affectation which, as a rule, render 
Rhine pictures so unpalatable. He has a whole- 
some contempt for that bravura method of work 
and that mania for elimination which are so often 


Studio- Talk 



Much as this is to be deplored (especially in the 
interests of the creative artist), it is equally difficult 
to see how any improvement can be brought 
about. In Germany the erroneous belief is still 
widely entertained that for the 
purposes of portraiture the 
medal is proper only to 
crowned heads, generals, and 
other great men ; there is no 
recognition of the fact that in 
point of worth it is equal to 
the painted portrait and at 
the same time is far more 
enduring ; least of all has it 
dawned upon the German 
people at large, how incom- 
parably more valuable a medal 
or a plaquette must be as a 
record to hand down to 
posterity than a photograph, 
which soon becomes faded, and never perhaps had 
any artistic merit 

or are entrusted to the medal factories, 
in which art receives much less than her 
due. It is therefore very gratifying to find 
that generous support and encouragement 
for the medallist is forthcoming from a 
private individual, a man possessed of a 
keen sympathy for art and who has 
spared no efforts to induce German sculp- 
tors to interest themselves in medal work, 
who has liberally supported their achieve- 
ments and secured for them an increasing 
patronage among the public. This gentle- 
man is Herr Georg Hitl, formerly pro- 
prietor of a Bavarian Minting establishment. 

It is from the series of medals and plaquettes 
published by Herr Hitl that the accompanying 
illustrations have been se- 
lected. To discuss in detail 
all the works of this character 
which have made their appear- 
ance under his auspices would 
carry us too far, and these 
few examples must suffice to 
show the broad eclecticism 
which animates this generous 
patron of the medallic art. 
Besides the artists represented 
in these reproductions, his 
collection comprises works 
by various other men promi- 
nent in modern German art, 
such as Ludwig Habich, 
Josef Kowarzik, Theodor von Gosen, Benno 
Such being the condition of Elkan, Georg Wrba, Paul Sturm, C. Starck and 



things the artist who has devoted himself to this 
class of work 
has found him- 
self making 
perpetual sac- 
rifices and 
rarely reaping 
any compensa- 
tion in return 
from the pub- 
lic ; for such 
few commis- 
sions as are 
given by the 
State and other 
public bodies 
nearly always 
fall into un- 
worthy hands 

others. Prof. Rudolf Bosselt of Diisseldorf, besides 




a marriage medal and several others, has contri- 
buted one which serves as a title or emblem for 
the series. Some years ago Bosselt won the first 
prize in a competition for a baptismal medal, 
organised by the Kultusministerium of Prussia. 
One could have wished that Prof. Hermann Hahn 
had been represented in the series by further 
examples besides his Lenbach medal — for instance, 
the plaquettes dedicated to the architects Alfred 
Messel and Stadtbaumeister Hoffmann. The late 
Franz Christ, of Munich, in addition to an admirable 
Schiller medal, contributes to the series a plaquette 
dedicated to Winter Sport ; the obverse, showing 
the goddess of winter riding on a polar bear, is 
admirable, but the reverse betrays a leaning to 
that affectation and sweetness of manner which the 
later Munich school are so fond of, but which is 
not, on that account, any the more appropriate to 
the essential character of the medal. Hugo Kauf- 
mann's medals are among those which show a 
laudable endeavour to emphasize those points 
which express clearly the purpose of the medal 
without recourse to supplementary means. It is 
a pity his beautiful Goethe medal is not in the 
series. Prof. Heinrich Wader^, of Munich, is 
represented by a confirmation token and marriage 
and ordination medals, in which the chief point of 
interest is the reverse, the obverse, representing 

biblical figures, being somewhat too academic in 
treatment, though it must be acknowledged that 
herein he had not an altogether free hand. 

In the work of the artists above-mentioned there 
is traceable the influence of the French medallists, 
from whom something has undoubtedly been 
learnt by the Germans, especially in regard to the 
technique of bronze casting and machine reduction. 
Two artists, however, have to be named who are 
not to be classed in this category — Georg Romer 
(Florence) and Max Dasio (Munich), whose par- 
ticularly expressive technique either recalls — 
Dasio's especially — the coins and engraved gems of 
the Greeks and Romans or follows a wholly inde- 
pendent line. Both these artists are endeavouring 
to revive the old steel die process. If that could 
be done it would be a good thing, and no doubt 
collectors would pay especial attention to examples 
produced by this method. H. E. K. 

DRESDEN. — The Grosse Aquarell- 
Ausstellung in the Academy Building 
on the terrace is a good deal more 
comprehensive than its name — Water- 
colour Exhibition — would imply. In fact, no colour- 
technique has been ruled out except pure oils. 
Water colours, body colours, pastels and even 



studio- Talk 



paintings in tempera, so long as the medium work in which the 
employed was water, have been hung. The awk- colour or pastel, its 
wardness of the exhibition 
halls has been well over- 
come by the Dresden 
architect, Martin Pietzsch, 
who has laid out and 
decorated a surprisingly 
pleasant series of rooms, 
where ordinarily — unless 
special efforts of this kind 
are made — badly lighted 
and ungainly shaped halls 
are the plague of exhibi- 
tion committees. 

nique proceeds clearly on 
water or body colour 
lines, vie in spirit, con- 
ception and general char- 
acter with the work of 
the painter in oils. These 
are the paintings — can- 
vases I had almost said 
— which are enclosed in 
heavy frames with no 
mount intervening be- 
tween frame and picture, 
and the large important 
works of Von Bartels, 
Herrmann, Skarbina, J. 
Ufer and others are cer- 
tainly marvels of skill. 
It is surprising how close 
they can come to the 
effects of the painter in 
oils. In the end, however, 
one likes to revert to the 
specific character of water- 
delicacy, its fleeting touches. 

Work on a large scale, 
work that in its thorough 
finish and general aspect 
competes directly with 
the art of the painter in 
oils, occupies the main 
hall with its recesses. 
There are tempera pic- 
tures, such as a Self- 
fortrait, by J. Mogk, and 
Among the Pistrian Hills, 
by Dora Hitz, which can- 
not be distinguished from 
oil paintings, and there 
are many other pictures 
which, though their tech- 


(By permission of Messrs. Gerlach if Wiedling, Vienna) 

Studio- Talk 

excellent work, amongst 
which that by the late 
R. von Alt and the beau- 
tiful, delicate miniature- 
like art of \V. Hampel, 
particularly struck me. 
Setting aside all rules, the 
Austrians have been 
allowed to hang a series 
of etchings in colour — 
not to the improvement 
of the general effect. 




{See Slockholm Stiidio- Talk, page 724) 

its capricious way of resting upon such portions 
of the subject as are particularly interesting and 
hurrying over the rest, are 
brought out to full advant- 
age. '■ 

The Exhibition is the 
best of its kind that I have 
seen for years, and the 
Committee, consisting of 
the Kunstverein and a 
number of representatives 
chosen from the various 
artists' societies of Dresden, 
are to be sincerely congrat- 
ulated upon their success. 
About 660 pictures have 
been hung out of a total 
of 2,000 submitted to the 
jur)', it is said. It is an in- 
ternational afTair. Austria 
is brilliantly represented, a 
small room being devoted 
entirely to the fascinating 
colour illustrations by H. 
Lefler and J. Urban. The 
large room contains much 

Belgium has sent in 
large effective paintings 
by Leempoels, Van der 
Waay, Marcette, Delau- 
nots, Baseleer, Luijten. 
The recess, devoted exclu- 
sively to the Dutch mas- 
ters Mesdag, Kever, 
Bastert, Apol, etc., is, 
however, more impressive, 
in spite of the single 
works being smaller and 
less pretentious. Among 
Frenchmen I note P. 

Signac, J. T. Raflfaelli, Gaston La Touche, E. 

Cross, Vuillard, Aublet, Walter Gay (whom we 




(See Stockholm Studio- Tali, page 324) 

studio- Talk 

may call a Parisian at least if not a Frenchman) ; 
among British artists Th. Shoard, J. R. Reid, J. W. 
Hamilton, R. W. Allan, D. Y. Cameron, Miss 
Jessie King, etc. Maurice Boutet de Monvel has 
sent only one small picture, but it is one of the 
best things in the Exhibition ; the same holds true 
— it goes without saying — of the four wonderful 
little paintings F. Khnopff has contributed ; and I 
must not forget to mention Carl Larsson. 

Fine Art Exhibition, which we have to do without 
this year, because the grounds are occupied by the 
International Photographic Exhibition. 

All the many schools of Germany are represented 
pretty well, above all the Dresden artists, as was 
to be expected. Otto Fischer, A. Fischer-Gurig, 
G. Kuehl, E. Hauptmann, F. Beckert, J. Ufer, 
are a few of the names selected at random, which 
show how well our local artists are able to hold 
their own in the general race. There are one-man 
shows — on a moderate scale — of F. von Lenbach, 
Herman Prell and G. Kuehl. The first of these 
might well have been dispensed with, since none 
but the very late pastels have been secured for 
exhibition, and Lenbach does not show up to 
advantage in them. Taken altogether, the exhibi- 
tion is, as I mentioned before, an excellent one, 
and not a bad makeshift for the large, general 

This latter is, indeed, a sight for this year's 
visitors to Dresden, and a huge one at that. The 
show has been preparing for many years, and has 
been laid out on a carefully-thought-out and large 
plan. Nearly every fashion and form of photo- 
graphy and every branch of human activity in 
which photography has played a part are shown 
from the early days down to our own. H. W. S. 

STOCKHOLM. — The illustrations we give 
on these pages from the Exhibition of 
Swedish Applied Art at Stockholm are 
intended to supplement those we pub- 
lished in the article on the exhibition which 
appeared in our last issue. As our readers were 
therein made acquainted with the chief points of 
interest in this unique display of Swedish design 
and craftsmanship, detailed comment on these 
supplementary illustrations is unnecessary. We 
are glad to be able to give some views of the ex- 
hibition buildings as evidence of the resourceful 




Art School Notes 


talent of their architect, Ferdinand Boberg, who 
has done and is doing so much for the furtherance 
of Swedish architecture and the various arts and 
crafts ancillary thereto. 


LONDOX.— At the St. Martin's Sketch 
Club the summer season was wound up 
in the customary fashion by an exhibi- 
tion, to which each member contributed 
a set of works submitted in competition for prizes 
awarded by Sir Hubert Herkomer. On the night 
of the exhibition there was a large gathering in the 
principal studio at St. Martin's School of Art, in 
which the drawings and paintings were arranged. 
When Sir Hubert arrived the exhibition room was 
temporarily cleared while the judge, accompanied 
by the Head Master, Mr. J. E. Allen, and the Club 
Secretary, Mr. W. P. Robins, inspected the work. 
Sir Hubert's examination was made in the most 
thorough fashion, and he found it difficult in more 
than one instance to decide between two compet- 
ing sketches — " judging pictures at the Academy 
was nothing to it," he jocosely remarked. However, 

finally he gave the first prize to Mr. Herbert 
W. Wright, the second to Mr. W. P. Robins, the 
third to Mr. F. A. Bishop, and the fourth to Mr. 
H. C. C. Turner. A special prize for decorative 
work he gave to Mr. F. A. ^^'hincap, with honour- 
able mentions to Mr. W. R. Reeve and Mr. A. H. 
Hookham. The judging finished, the students 
begged for a speech, but Sir Hubert unfortunately 
had prepared nothing. Still, he would say some- 
thing if they liked, and, asking their permission to 
be seated, he sat himself down on the arm of a big 

" Now," said Sir Hubert, " ask me something. 
What do you want me to tell you ? " Some of the 
students asked for a criticism of the work on the 
walls, but Sir Hubert said that he had already 
looked at and judged the work, and that there was 
not much more to be said about it. A tendency 
towards seriousness and breadth seemed to cha- 
racterise it generally, and he was glad to see that 
it was unaffected by that curse of our times, the 
cult of ugliness. "But," said the famous artist, "in 
your work you all appear to have had patterns in 
your eye. A good pattern may be all very well, 

Art School Notes 

but in any case it is a dangerous thing." And he 
went on to tell them how he, too, in his youth, had 
had a pattern, and that it had been almost a life 
struggle to get rid of it. He was obsessed by Fred 
Walker, and the obsession blocked his way — even 
now he was furious to think of it — for he could 
only see in nature what Walker saw. It had 
been curious to him to have seen recently, at the 
Quilter sale at Christie's, Walker's Bathers side by 
side with his own Chelsea Pensioners, the picture 
in which at length he freed himself from the bond. 
" And yet," he said, " I hated the Pensioners be- 
cause it was so unlike Walker." Many other 
stories, autobiographical and otherwise, did the 
artist tell the students, to whom he confidedthat 
he had never been able to sketch, and that he 
envied those who could, and that his present 
obsession was the development of a certain form 
of black-and-white — the making of a new art out 
of an old one. Sir Hubert told them something, 
too, of the history of his house at Bushey, and 
then, as if a thought had struck him, said suddenly, 
" But I can tell you much better about this in the 
house itself. Come and see it, come all of you, as 
soon as I come back from my holiday in Ger- 
many." It is perhaps unnecessary to say that the 
invitation was joyfully accepted. 

Some excellent examples of design and crafts- 
manship were shown at the exhibition held at the 
end of the summer term at the Central School of 
Arts and Crafts, Southampton Row. The exhibi- 
tion was composed of works submitted in compe- 
tition for the London County Council scholarships 
and exhibitions, in which for the first time the 
judges were assisted in making the awards by the 
repre-sentatives of the newly organized Consultative 
Committees, composed of employers and employees 
selected by the various Associations and Trades 
Unions. In the examinations Sir George Frampton, 
R.A., Mr. Charles Ricketts and Mr. Selwyn Image 
acted as judges, assisted by Mr. H. Wilson and 
Mr. C. J. R. Smith, representing the Goldsmiths, 
Silversmiths, Jewellers and Allied Trades, and by 
two delegates from the Committee on Book Pro- 
duction, Mr. Emery Walker and Mr. Douglas 
Cockerell. The exhibition, which included, among 
other things, examples of cabinetmakers' work, 
bookbinding, jewellery, pottery, printing, engraving, 
stained glass, book illustration, and many kinds of 
design, was admirably arranged, but its value was 
discounted by the absence of a catalogue, and of 
those portions of the aggressively orange-coloured 
labels that showed from which school each work 

had come. And if the exhibition could be kept 
open for a month instead of only two or three days, 
it would be an interesting object lesson to the 
hundreds of provincial students who come to 
London in the autumn to see the National Art 
Competition works 

The principals of the St. John's Wood Art 
Schools are entitled to congratulation on the 
result of the recent examination of students for 
admission to the Royal Academy. Out of a total 
of five from all England they passed in three, one 
being the only girl student admitted. 

At the Heatherley School in Newman Street 
Mr. Henry G. Massey intends during the coming 
winter still further to develop the Quick Sketch 
classes from the nude, by posing models not singly, 
as before, but in groups of two and three. These 
classes, which are on the same lines as the cours de 
croquis in the French schools, were so popular last 
year that many applicants were unable to obtain 
admission to the Heatherley School in the early 
part of the winter. ^^ • T. ^\ . 

BI R M I N G H A M.— A Day School of 
Architecture has been founded at the 
Municipal School of Art in Margaret 
Street with the object of providing 
architectural students in the Midlands with a 
thorough training in all the branches of their 
profession and preparing them for the examina- 
tions of the Royal Institute of British Architects. 
The school course will be spread over four or 
five years. It is intended that the first two 
years shall be spent at day classes and that they 
shall take the place of the first two years of 
articled pupilage. The latter two or three years 
will be spent at evening classes and will run 
concurrently with articled pupilage. A large 
number of prominent architects in the Midlands 
have promised to forego the whole or a portion of 
the fee ordinarily received by them in the case of 
pupils who shall have attended the school. The 
syllabus for the first year includes lectures on archi- 
tectural history, building construction, elementary 
physics and geometry; demonstrations and prac- 
tical work in stone-masonry, carpentry and brick- 
laying ; simple planning, elementary design ; per- 
spective drawing and lettering. For the second 
year, studies in ancient architecture, including 
measuring ; practical work ; lectures on the historic 
styles and on iron and steel construction, physics, 
etc. ; design. The third and fourth years will be 


Reviews and Notices 

devoted mainly to design, advanced physics and 
kindred subjects. The teaching staff of the School 
of Architecture consists of Messrs. J. L. Ball 
(General Director) ; E. F. Reynolds (Soane Medal- 
list, 1903); W. H. Bidlake, M.A., A.R.I.B.A. 
(Pugin Scholar, 1885) ; F. B. Andrews, A.R.I.B.A., 
John B. Surman, A.R.I.B.A. 


The School of Madrid. By A. de Beruete. 
(London : Duckworth & Co. ; New York : Charles 
Scribner's Sons.) 7^-. 6d. net. — The gifted son of 
a gifted father, Senor A. de Beruete — whose valu- 
able work on the School of Madrid has been well 
translated by Mrs. Steuart Erskine — has ably 
carried on the investigations inaugurated some ten 
years ago into what has been aptly called the terra 
incognita surrounding Velasquez and his followers. 
The dominating personality of the great Court 
painter had practically swallowed up all lesser 
lights, but many of the works assigned to him are 
now claimed to have been produced by certain of 
his contemporaries, who, though not exactly his 
pupils, were all more or less strongly influenced by 
him. His book, the illustrations of which include 
several pictures not before reproduced, as well as 
much information now for the first time published, 
carries on the history of painting in the Peninsula, 
so ably begun by his father in his important 
work on Velasquez, down to the time of its decline 
under the alien influence of the Italian Luca di 
Giordano. The writer devotes the bulk of his 
space to the great master's son-in-law, Juan Bautista 
Martinez del Mazo, who has been practically dis- 
covered by the Beruetes, and to whom are given 
several celebrated paintings hitherto unhesitatingly 
attributed to Velasquez. Three of these are cele- 
brated works belonging to London collections, and 
with other less well-known works are dissected by 
the brilliant young Spanish critic with a discern- 
ment that, whether the opinions he advances be 
endorsed or not, cannot fail to command respect 
and attention, every point of affinity and disparity 
between the styles of the two artists being so clearly 

Brush, Pen and Pencil. The Book of Tom 
Browne. (London : A. & C. Black.) — Mr. Tom 
Browne is well and favourably known to readers of 
Punch, The Tatler and other English papers, by 
his excellent humorous sketches. The little 
monograph on his work contains many favourable 
examples, culled for the most part from various 
periodicals, and supplemented by some unpub- 

lished notes from his sketch-book. The coloured 
examples from his more serious work do not show 
him at his best. 

How to Appreciate Prints. By Frantz Weiten- 
K.\MP. (London : Grant Richards.) "js. 6d. net. 
Very simple and straightforward, yet most difficult 
of achievement is the aim of the author of this 
book, for he makes no claim to historical complete- 
ness for his work, but gives only such data as 
illustrate the principles he wishes to enforce. His 
dominant motive is to enable authors to share his 
own keen delight in masterpieces of etching, en- 
graving, and the kindred arts, and were it possible 
to communicate the critical spirit with which he 
is himself endowed his book would no doubt add 
largely to the number of true connoisseurs. As it 
is, it is to be feared that it will be read only by 
those who are already in sympathy with the writer's 
enthusiasms, many of whom, whose knowledge is 
not equal to their taste, will welcome the clear 
explanations of processes with which each section 
is prefaced, and appreciate the numerous good 
reproductions of famous etchings and engravings 
enriching the text. 

Stained Glass Tours in England. By Charles 
Hitchcock Sherrill. (London : John Lane.) 
7^-. 6d. net. — In this book the author has done for 
England what he did in a previous work for France. 
He conducts the reader through various tours to 
Cathedral cities and other places of interest, where 
fine examples of stained glass may be seen. Mr. 
Sherrill has all an American's enthusiasm for things 
English, and writes as interestingly and as sym- 
pathetically about stained glass in this country as 
he did in " Stained Glass Tours in France." The 
various itineraries he maps out for the reader 
strike one as being extremely well arranged, and 
apart from its undoubted charm, the work should 
prove of very practical value as a guide book. 

A Catalogue Raisonne of the Works of the Most 
Eminent Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century. 
Based on the work of John Smith, by C. Hof- 
stede de Groot. Translated and edited by 
Edward G. Hawke. (London : Macmillan & 
Co.) Vol. II. 25^. net. — The second volume 
of Mr. Hawke's excellent translation of the Dutch 
edition of the well-known Catalogue Raisonnd of 
John Smith, deals with Albert Cuyp and Philips 
Wouverman and well maintains the high level of 
excellence of its predecessor. As in the latter, the 
work of the learned Hofstede de Groot has been 
supplemented by notices of many pictures not 
mentioned by him, and an index of the painters 
and engravers mentioned in the text has been 

Reviews and Notices 

added. The one thing that somewhat mihtates 
against the weight of the conclusions arrived at by 
the Dutch editor is his naif admission that he has 
suppressed criticism likely to give offence to col- 
lectors, so as, to quote his own words, " not to risk 
depriving himself of their co-operation, without 
which the completion of the enterprise would be 
to some extent involved in doubt." 

The Arts Connected with Building. Lectures on 
Craftsmanship and Design delivered at Carpenter's 
Hall, London. Edited by T. Rafkles Davison. 
(London : B. T. Batsford.) ^s. net.— With the 
laudable aim of stimulating the ambition of crafts- 
men towards a high ideal of attainment the 
Carpenter's Company instituted the series of 
lectures which, after being delivered at "the 
Company's Hall in the spring of this year, are 
now, by publication in permanent form, placed 
within reach of a wider public. Thirteen lectures 
were delivered — three by Mr. Weir Schultz on 
" Reason in Building " ; two by Mr. Voysey on 
" Ideas in Things " ; two by Mr. F. W. Troup 
on " The Influence of Material on Design in 
Woodwork" and "External Leadwork," and single 
lectures by Mr. Guy Dawber on " Woodwork," 
Mr. Romney Green on " The Influence of Tools 
on Design," Mr. Baillie Scott on "Ideas in Building, 
False and True," Mr. Charles Spooner on " House 
and Church Furniture," Mr. L. A. Turner on 
" Decorative Plasterwork," and Mr. Starkie Gard- 
ner on " Decorative Ironwork." The papers, which 
are illustrated by numerous fine examples of old 
and contemporary work carefully selected to give 
point to the remarks of the lecturer, teem with 
thoughts and suggestions of the utmost importance 
to all concerned in the arts and crafts connected 
with building, and though ostensibly addressed to 
young craftsmen and students of architecture and 
design, they provide profitable and exhilarating 
reading for many who have left their novitiate 
far behind. 

Pastel: A Treatise fo7- Beginners. By J. R. K. 
Duff. (London : Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, 
Kent & Co.) \s. 6d. net. Mr. Duff disclaims any 
intention to teach artists, although he thinks that 
those accomplished in other mediums may learn 
from his notes something about pastel to their 
advantage. It is probable that the artist may 
learn something, and certain that the student can 
learn a great deal from Mr. Duff, who is him- 
self a master of the medium of which he writes. 
His book contains practically all that the young 
pastellist can learn by reading. The other things 
— and the best — in pastel as in all other branches of 

the arts, can only be learnt by incessant study and 
practice. The hints given by Mr. Duff on sketch- 
ing from nature, and on the outfit necessary for the 
worker in pastel, are especially valuable. 

Trees and Tree Drawing. By Edward C. 
Clifford, R.I. , R.D.S. (London: George 
Rowney & Co.) is. A knowledge of the character- 
istics of trees is of essential value to the student 
of landscape, who can make good some of his 
probable deficiencies in this respect by studying 
Mr. Clifford's manual. He gives careful and 
elaborate drawings of the commoner English trees 
in their summer garb, and separate studies of the 
trunks and leaves of each. These drawings are 
accompanied by descriptions of the families of the 
trees and of their habits of growth, and the student 
who consults this book will not be likely to make 
such blunders as that of the painter of a picture 
described by Mr. Clifford, in which young silver 
birches were shown growing in the shade of a 
thick beech wood. 

Mr. D. J. Rider, Bookseller, London, has just 
published, under the title of Three Literary Lions, 
a series of caricatures by Joseph Simpson, of 
certain well-known London literary men. Mr. 
Simpson has earned for himself a foremost place 
among modern caricaturists, and his reputation will 
be well maintained by three forceful drawings. 

The fourteenth annual issue of Repertoire 
General des Collectionnmrs de la France, com- 
piled and published by E. Renart, "libraire- 
expert" of Maisons-Alfort, Seine, price 15 francs, 
is a stout volume of nearly 900 pages, con 
taining comprehensive lists of collectors of every 
kind of object, scientific, artistic, literary, &c. ; also 
of learned and artistic societies, museums, libraries, 
auctioneers, dealers in antiquities and second-hand 
books in France and its dependencies. In the list 
of collectors, pictographic symbols are employed 
to indicate the speciality of each. M. Renard, who 
has also compiled similar directories for foreign 
countries, has evidently bestowed a prodigious 
amount of labour on these publications. 

A dainty booklet, which those who contemplate 
buying furniture will find interesting reading, 
comes to us from the well-known establishment of 
Messrs. Heal in Tottenham Court Road. It is 
written by Mr. Joseph Thorp, who tells how, in 
himself, a dormant a;sthetic sense, willing to 
tolerate even mid-Victorian monstrosities, became 
in time awakened to extreme and lasting pleasure 
by a close study of the work and methods of 
Messrs. Heal & Son. 



The Lay Figure 


"Would you count gardening among 
the Arts?" enquired the Practical Man, "I notice 
that some people talk about gardens as if they 
had a real artistic value; is such a point of view 
reasonable ? " 

"Of course it is," replied the Critic, "gardening 
is undoubtedly an art, and an important one too. 
It oflfers very valuable opportunities for the e.xer- 
cise of ingenuity in design and for the display 
of trained taste, and it is certainly capable of 
producing quite beautiful results. What more could 
you want?" 

"But surely it is an unpractical art," objected 
the Practical Man; "what is the use of it and in 
what measure does it contribute to the national 
welfare ? " 

" Do you look upon a garden only as a place in 
which you can grow cabbages ? " interrupted the 
Man with the Red Tie. " Can you not think of it 
as productive of something else besides edibles — 
as a source of pleasure to men of refined minds, 
and as a means by which true aesthetic instincts 
can be rationally satisfied ? " 

" On the contrary, I think for myself I 
should be more inclined to count the mere 
pleasure garden as a waste of good land," returned 
the Practical Man. " The person who appropriates 
for his own enjoyment ground which could be 
better employed is a selfish being, surely, and to 
argue that he is encouraging the art of gardening 
by his appropriation, seems to me but a lame 

" Then, I gather that in your opinion the 
national welfare demands the suppression of 
artistic invention," said the Critic. " If you 
regard the gardener's art as merely a waste of 
good material, then you would also regard all other 
forms of art as wasteful, purposeless, and of no 
use to the community — that seems to follow as a 
matter of course." 

" Well, when you come to think of it, all art 
work is unproductive," retorted the Practical 
Man. " It is in a sense waste ; but it 
cannot be urged against the painter or the 
sculptor, like the gardener, that he is wasting 
something that is in general demand, and that 
can be used for the benefit of a large number of 

"Your argument would apply equally to the 
land which is covered by our cathedrals and other 
historical buildings," broke in the Man with the 

Red Tie. " Do you consider that that land is 
wasted ? " • 

" No, the two cases are not quite the same," 
replied the Practical Man ; " we are always told 
that such buildings are useful as architectural 
examples, or that they have associations which 
justify their preservation. There is something to 
be said for that contention and I am quite willing 
to accept it." 

" But the contention is equally applicable to 
gardens," cried the Critic, "or at all events to 
those gardens which deserve to rank as illustrations 
of the art of gardening, and there are scores of 
them in this country. As an illustration of a 
special and valuable form of design, a fine piece 
of garden making is every bit as worthy of preser- 
vation as the cathedral or historical building, which 
you admit has a right to exist. The land which 
that garden occupies is most distinctly not wasted 
if it is used for the display of a real artist's work." 

" Yet it is of no public benefit," argued the 
Practical Man, " because it is the property of a 
private owner. It gives pleasure to him and his 
friends only, and the community derives no enjoy- 
ment from it whatever." 

" Is that not true also of the pictures and pieces 
of sculpture in a private collection ? " asked the 
Critic. " Would you say that these works of art 
should not be preserved because they are not 
public property ? " 

" I believe that some people look upon works of 
art as a sort of national asset," replied the Practical 
Man. " I do not take this view myself, but I am 
prepared, as a reasonable man, to allow freedom 
of opinion to others in such a matter." 

" Then you cannot deny it to the lovers of the 
art of gardening," said the Critic, "for the gardens 
which are artistically important, are as fittingly to 
be reckoned among the greater possessions of a 
nation as the pictures and statues which are 
treasured in public and private collections. Such 
gardens owe their perfection to the unceasing care 
of many generations of art lovers and to the con- 
stant attention of art workers who have made 
a special study of their subject. They are of 
inestimable value as object lessons for the designer, 
and they serve as schools in which the garden 
makers and designers from other countries can learn 
how to apply the principles of their craft. Any 
economic change which might cause the old gardens 
to be neglected or destroyed, would be nothing 
short of a national disaster. That would be a 
waste indeed — a waste of the artistic activity of 
centuries." The Lay Figure. 

N Studio international