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335 71fl 











191 1 


Copyright, 1911, by 


Stanhope ipress 



THE phrase "Motion Study" explains itself. 

The aim of motion study is to find and perpetuate the 
scheme of perfection. There are three stages in this 
study : 

1. Discovering and classifying the best practice. 

2. Deducing the laws. 

3. Applying the laws to standardize practice, either for 
the purpose of increasing output or decreasing hours of 
labor, or both. 

Standardizing the trades is the world's most important 
work to-day, and motion study is the first factor in that 

In presenting this material I have attempted to show 
the necessity for Motion Study and the savings that are 
possible by the application of its underlying principles. 

Thanks are due to the Myron C. Clark Publishing 
Company and to Industrial Engineering for permission to 
use the cuts that illustrate this book. 














1. ANATOMY 10 

2. BRAWN 13 


4. CREED 15 



7. FATIGUE 23 

8. HABITS 32 

9. HEALTH 33 



12. SIZE 36 

13. SKILL 36 


15. TRAINING 40 




2. CLOTHES 45 

3. COLOR 46 


5. HEATING 49 











12. TOOLS 59 







4. COST 70 





9. LENGTH 79 


11. PATH ; 82 


13. SPEED - 84 









1. Non-stooping Scaffold 1 1 

2. Non-stooping Scaffold, "Pack-on-the-wall" Method 12 

3. Gravity Conveyor for Unloading Brick without Stooping 14 

4. Right Way to Pick up Brick from Upper Tier on the Packet ... 17 

5. Wrong Way to Pick up Brick from Upper Tier on the Packet ... 18 

6. Right Way to Pick up Brick from the Lower Tier on the Packet. 19 

7. Wrong Way to Pick up Brick from the Lower Tier on the Packet. 20 

8. The Non-stooping Scaffold for Handling Packs of Brick with the 

Fewest and Shortest Motions 21 

9. The Usual Method of Providing the Bricklayer with Material. . . 22 

10. Standard Practice of Providing Bricklayers with Materials 26 

n. Standard Practice of Providing Bricklayers with Materials 27 

12. Standard Practice for Providing Bricklayers with Materials 28 

13. Pick-and-dip Method of Bricklaying on the Interior or Filling 

Tiers 30 

14. String-Mortar Method of Bricklaying on the Interior or Filling 

Tiers 31 

15. Correct Sequence of Courses and Tiers Laid from Stooping Scaf- 

fold 38 

1 6. Correct Sequence of Courses and Tiers Laid from the Non-stooping 

Scaffold ^ 39 

17. Two-horse Carts with Horses Changed from Empty to Full Carts. 55 

18. Gravity Conveyors for Transporting Packs to Carts 55 

19. The Fountain Trowel in Position for Conveying Mortar 56 

20. The Trucket for Carrying Twelve Packs 57 

21. The Trucket for Storing Packs 75 

22. The Fountain Trowel in Position for Pouring Mortar 76 

23. Common Type of Trestle Horse Staging 79 

24 to 42. Motion Study Pictures of Bricklaying 103-106 

43. "Pack-on-the-wall" Method, Building Exterior Face Tiers 108 

44. " Pack-on-the-wall" Method, Building the Interior Face and Fill- 

ing Tiers 109 



WHEN the editor of a live journal hears of some new 
development in the field to which his paper caters, he is 
neglecting his duty if he does not make every possible 
effort to secure a powerful article by the highest author- 
ity on that development for his readers. Some months 
before " Motion Study" first appeared in the columns of 
Industrial Engineering, we heard that Mr. Gilbreth had, 
by some method or other, made wonderful records in the 
construction of buildings and other engineering works. 
We were curious to know how this had been accomplished, 
and sought an interview. We then learned that for 
years Mr. Gilbreth had been studying the actions of his 
workmen, the conditions surrounding their work, and all 
the other variables which go to help or hinder them in the 
actual construction work. He had paid particular atten- 
tion to the motions made by a given man, say a brick- 
layer, in getting a brick from the pile made by the tenders 
to its final resting place in the wall. He had discovered 
how the number of these motions could be cut down, by 
having the brick brought to the bricklayer in a different 
way than usual, by placing them in a somewhat more 
convenient position, by arranging the scaffolding in an 
improved manner, and by various other little changes, 


some of them slight in themselves, but all together totaling 
an immense saving of time and motions. 

This appealed to us as forming the basis of a good "story/' 
and we immediately made arrangements with Mr. Gilbreth 
to prepare for Industrial Engineering a serial article show- 
ing the importance of these studies in the improvement 
of working conditions in all trades, and how they bene- 
fited both employer and workman. When the manu- 
script of " Motion Study" was first placed in the writer's 
hands, as editor, he examined it with considerable interest, 
but without any idea of the immense importance of what 
he had done in securing this contribution. It was then 
merely another good story for the paper. It seemed to 
him a trifle unfortunate, however, that the author had 
chosen practically all of his illustrations from the brick- 
laying trade. On rereading the article more carefully it 
was apparent that these illustrations were of secondary 
importance and had been drawn from a trade with which 
every one was familiar and which any one could observe, 
also from one so old that it hardly seemed possible that it 
could be improved. It therefore became evident that the 
principles laid down were applicable to every trade and 
industry. This idea was confirmed later, when " Motion 
Study" appeared in serial form. 

We were a trifle disappointed, at first, that it attracted 
less attention than we anticipated. We thought that 
perhaps we were somewhat in advance of our time, and 
that the public was not yet prepared for so long a step 


forward. It now appears, however, that the apparent 
lack of interest was due to the fact that we had presented 
a subject so entirely new that it required some little time 
for people to comprehend its importance and to realize 
its value. By the time the third installment had appeared, 
requests for the earlier installments were flowing in steadily, 
and since its completion many firms have sent for all the 
issues of the paper containing it. To show the wide ap- 
plication possible of the principles laid down in " Motion 
Study," requests for the complete series have come to us 
from the iron and steel industry, from the shoe manu- 
facturing industry, from book-printing and book-binding 
establishments, and many other industries. It was when 
we began to receive these requests that we realized that 
we had done something worth while, and had published an 
article which was of stupendous value, not to one trade 
or group of trades, but to the whole world. 

The writer, in handling the successive installments of 
" Motion Study," became more and more impressed with 
the possibilities which were involved in it. He resolved to 
apply some of these principles in his own office. Natu- 
rally the first point of attack is the one where the greatest 
saving can be accomplished. In our case, it happened to 
be the outgoing mail. A publication has, particularly in 
its circulation department, an amount of outgoing mail 
entirely out of proportion to the volume of business trans- 
acted by it, when measured by the standard of other 
industries. A circulation campaign will involve the send- 


ing out of perhaps twenty thousand duplicate letters, each 
with one or more inclosures. Evidently the saving of but 
one motion on each letter would, in the aggregate, show 
an immense saving of time. Formerly the girls folding and 
sealing the letters were permitted to arrange the work 
to suit themselves. A short observation of their work 
showed that there was much room for improvement. 
The writer studied the question for a short time and made 
several experiments to determine in just what order each 
movement should be made to fold the letter, pick up its 
inclosure, pick "up the envelope, and insert the letter and 
inclosure in the envelope. The first attempt was crude, 
but immediately doubled the output of the girl. Further 
study resulted in improvements which not only eliminated 
motions, but shortened the distance which the hands had 
to move in those that remained. The final result was an 
arrangement of pieces and a sequence of motions by which 
each hand, at the completion of one motion, was in position 
immediately to begin the next. The final motion, that of 
throwing the filled envelope on the pile, was eliminated 
entirely by having a large basket on the floor, directly 
under the point where the letter was inserted in the en- 
velope. The girl simply let go of the envelope, and it 
fell into the basket, gravity doing the work formerly done 
by the girl. The output under the new conditions was 
about four times that obtained when the girls were allowed 
to do the work their own way. 

Several other routine jobs in the office were handled in 


the same way, with a marked improvement in each case. 
By this time the office force had become interested and 
were studying motions on their own account, and improv- 
ing methods of doing work without any suggestion from 
the writer. One of the girls devised a method of stamping 
envelopes which enabled her to work at a speed of between 
one hundred and one hundred and twenty envelopes per 
minute. She piled the letters on edge in a long pile, the 
addressed side facing her. The stamps were torn in strips, 
crosswise of the sheet, so that the stamps were side by side 
instead of one above the other. She fastened to the fore- 
finger of her right hand a small wet sponge, and taking a 
strip of stamps in that hand, fed them across the sponge, 
using her thumb to move the strip, and to guide the stamp 
into place on the corner of the envelope. The left hand 
drew the stamped envelope forward from the pile, the 
thumb of the left hand giving the necessary pressure to 
the stamp while it was being drawn forward, to assure its 
being firmly affixed to the envelope. The motion of draw- 
ing the envelope forward tore the stamp from the strip, and 
the operation was complete. The work was done with 
marvelous rapidity, yet the girl hardly seemed to make 
any motions, except to pull the envelopes forward, and to 
reach for strips of stamps. We do not know just what 
processes were followed in developing the method, as the 
girl studied it out and put it in operation while the writer 
was taking a vacation. 

These incidents, and others, convinced us that there was 


much more to motion study than appeared from a hasty 
survey of the subject. We then began to look around 
in earnest, to discover what had been done in this line 
in other trades than those with which Mr. Gilbreth 
was familiar. We found that practically nothing had 
been done in a systematic, scientific manner, except in 
certain shops where scientific management had been 

We further found, that even in these shops motion study 
had not been made in the scientific manner outlined in 
Mr. Gilbreth's articles. It was a by-product, an incident 
in the installation of scientific management, rather than 
a science of itself. Nevertheless, even treated as an inci- 
dental branch of management it had conferred much bene- 
fit on those shops in which it had been made. We shall 
refer to this later. 

The reduction of the number of motions can be accom- 
plished in two radically different ways: (i) By analyzing 
every step of a process, as outlined by Mr. Gilbreth, 
studying the motions made, and improving or eliminating 
them as a result of the analysis, or by devising an entirely 
new way of accomplishing the same object. (2) By sub- 
stituting a device which is an improvement over that 
formerly used, but which required a greater number of 
motions to operate it, or by the substitution of new motions 
or processes as they occur to the observer, rather than by 
any systematic study of the subject. This last method 
is the one most generally used. It might be termed the 


" accidental" method, as contrasted with the scientific 
one developed by Mr. Gilbreth. 

An example of this latter kind of motion study is familiar 
to every man, woman, or child who lives in even a moder- 
ate-sized city. In the city fire departments much thought 
has been expended on the problem of enabling the firemen 
to start out to a fire in the shortest possible time after the 
alarm has been received. At first the horses stood in 
their stalls with their harness on them. The hitching of 
the horses required the fastening of several buckles. Some 
one then invented the drop harness, now universally used, 
and the number of motions in hitching a horse was reduced 
to three, snapping the collar round his neck, and the 
fastening of the two reins to his bridle by bit snaps. 
Later the horses were moved from the rear of the house to 
a point alongside the engine, so that they had only to travel 
a matter of a few feet to be in position under the harness. 
Some one else then invented a device which released the 
horses from their stalls automatically with the sounding 
of the alarm on the fire-house gong, effecting a further 
saving in time and motion. Instead of having the firemen 
descend stairs from their sleeping quarters, the sliding 
pole was thought of, which eliminated a great number of 
individual motions and saved many seconds. And so 
on, as one device after another was perfected which saved 
motions, and thereby time, it was adopted, until now the 
"motion efficiency" in a fire house is one hundred per cent. 
It is useless to improve it further, because it has reached a 


point where the company is ready to start to a fire before 
it has received the number of the box. The men and 
horses do their part in less time than the electric telegraph 
transmits the complete signal. Yet to attain this efficiency 
has required a period of perhaps thirty years. The subject 
was not studied in a scientific manner. 

Turning now to the machine shop, let us see what mo- 
tion study means there. In an editorial in Industrial Engi- 
neering, in August, 1910, we said: 

Before a task can be set intelligently it is necessary 
to know just what can be accomplished by the best type 
of workman. This usually involves a time study of the 
job under consideration. The time study is more than 
putting a clerk with a stop watch alongside the workman, 
with instructions to see how long it takes him to do the 
job. A proper time study requires that a certain piece 
of work be divided into its component operations and that 
each operation be studied separately, and also in conjunc- 
tion with other operations to which it is related. The time 
of performing these operations is recorded not once, but 
many times, until a fair average has been determined. The 
results are then analyzed to see if the time required can be 
cut down. Usually it will be found that it can. A single 
instance will suffice for illustration. 

In a certain shop with which we are familiar a piece 
had to have several holes of different sizes drilled in it, 
a jig being provided to locate the holes. The drills and 
the sockets for them were given to the workman in a tote 


box. The time study of this job revealed several inter- 
esting facts. First, after the piece was drilled the machine 
was stopped, and time was lost while the workman removed 
the piece from the jig and substituted a new one. This 
was remedied by providing a second jig in which the piece 
was placed while another piece was being drilled in the first 
jig, the finished one being removed after the second jig had 
been placed in the machine and drilling started. It was 
also found that the workman lost considerable time hunt- 
ing in the tote box for his drill, and for the socket to fit it. 
The result was the provision of a socket for each drill, 
which was fitted to it in the tool room, and the further 
provision of a tray alongside the machine on which the 
man could lay out his drills in the order in which they 
were to be used. He was thereby enabled to pick up the 
correct drill without losing any time hunting for it. It 
was also found that it took considerable time to verify the 
size of the drill and socket, due to the figures stamped 
on the drill by the manufacturer being so small as to 
require the workman to go to the light to hunt for the 
figures. Consequently, numbers one-half inch high were 
placed on the drills, so that they could be seen in almost any 
light. To do this it was necessary to grind a flat spot on 
the drill to accommodate the large-size figures. This had 
the desirable but unsought for result of enabling the work- 
man to locate the figures by the sense of touch, and con- 
sequently no time was lost in turning the drill round and 
round to search for the size. 


The above changes, simple in themselves, resulted in 
an increase in output on this particular job of about four 
times that usually obtained before the time study was 

The incident related above is one that the writer dis- 
covered after he began to investigate motion study in other 
lines than those discussed by Mr. Gilbreth. It, too, is 
typical of the " accidental" method. It is sufficient to 
show, however, what scientific motion study could do if 
applied to an entire industry. 

The following letter from Mr. H. L. Gantt to the writer 
illustrates how little people, even the most expert in their 
line, know about the most economical way of doing work: 

Editor Industrial Engineering: 

The series of articles on " Motion Study" by Frank B. 
Gilbreth are particularly valuable as illustrating what a 
man, having an analytical mind and a quick comprehen- 
sion of details, can accomplish. They also illustrate the 
fact that in order to accomplish such results the subject 
must be given a great deal of study. The articles are 
unique in that they describe for the first time the detailed 
application to an art of principles which have often been 
described in more general terms. 

On the other hand, the man who becomes interested in 
making this kind of a study will, if he has the right kind 
of mind, become so fascinated by it that it is on his mind 
almost all the time. The subject opens up so many 
possibilities that those men who can appreciate it are 
simply carried away. While in London with the American 


Society of Mechanical Engineers, Mr. Gilbreth cornered 
an old friend of his and explained to him the wonderful 
results that could be accomplished by motion study. He 
declared that he did not care what the work was, he 
would be able to shorten the time usually required, pro- 
vided that nobody had previously applied the principles 
of motion study to the work. 

A few days before, this friend had been at the Japanese- 
British Exposition and had seen there a girl putting papers 
on boxes of shoe polish at a wonderful speed. Without 
saying what he had in mind, Mr. Gilbreth's friend invited 
him to visit the exposition, and in a most casual way led 
him to the stand where the girl was doing this remarkable 
work, with the feeling that here at least was an operation 
which could not be improved upon. 

No sooner had Mr. Gilbreth spied this phenomenal work 
than out came his stop watch, and he timed accurately 
how long it took the girl to do twenty-four boxes. The 
time was forty seconds. When he had obtained this in- 
formation he told the girl that she was not doing the work 
right. She, of course, was greatly incensed that a man 
from the audience should presume to criticize what she 
was doing, when she was acknowledged to be the most 
skillful girl that had ever done that work. He had ob- 
served that while all her motions were made with great 
rapidity, about half of them would be unnecessary if she 
arranged her work a little differently. He has a very per- 
suasive way, and although the girl was quite irritated by 
his remark, she consented to listen to his suggestion that 
he could show her how to do the work more rapidly. In- 
asmuch as she was on piece work the prospect of larger 
earnings induced her to try his suggestion. The first 


time she tried to do as he directed she did twenty-four 
boxes in twenty-six seconds; the second time she tried it 
she did it in twenty seconds. She was not working any 
harder, only making fewer motions. 

This account the writer heard in Manchester, England, 
from the man himself who had put up the job on Mr. 
Gilbreth, and it is safe to say that this man is now about 
as firm a believer in motion study as Mr. Gilbreth is. 

NEW YORK, Oct. i, 1910. 

Enough has been said, and sufficient instances drawn 
from widely diversified trades have been given, to show 
that motion study is a problem of the most vital importance 
to the world. Some day an intelligent nation will awake 
to the fact that by scientifically studying the motions in 
its trades it will obtain the industrial supremacy of the 
world. We hope that that nation will be the United 
States. Already rated as the most progressive nation the 
world has ever seen, it will take a position far in advance 
of all, once it begins to give its earnest attention to this 
subject. Certain it is, that if we do not some other people 
will, and our boasted progress and supremacy will then be 
but a memory. 

When one looks about him and sees the wasted time and 
money in every walk of life from useless motions, the mind 
becomes weary in contemplating the magnitude of the task. 
The bricklayer, the carpenter, the machinist, the shoveller, 
the clerk, even the editor in writing with his pen, make 


twenty motions where one would suffice. The actual 
wealth of the nation is in what it takes from the ground in 
the shape of crops or minerals plus the value added to 
these products by processes of manufacture. If by re- 
ducing the number of motions in any of these processes 
we can increase many fold the output of the worker, we 
have increased by that amount the wealth of the world; 
we have taken a long step in bringing the cost of living 
to a point where it will no longer be a burden to all but 
the very wealthy; and we have benefited mankind in 
untold ways. 

Words fail the writer when he tries to express his appre- 
ciation of what Mr. Gilbreth has done in blazing a trail 
for future investigators. The work he outlines of investi- 
gating and reclassifying the trades by means of motion 
study is worthy of the brains of the most scientific investi- 
gators; it is worthy of the endowments of a Rockefeller 
or a Carnegie; it is worthy of the best efforts of the national 
government. Properly carried to its logical conclusion 
it would form the mightiest tool for the conservation of 
resources that the country could have. Our scientists 
could engage in no more important work than this. 


Editor Industrial Engineering. 








PROFESSOR Nathaniel Southgate Shaler astounded the _ 
world when he called attention to the tremendous waste 
caused by the rain washing the fertile soil of the plowed 
ground to the brooks, to the rivers, and to the seas, there 
to be lost forever. 

This waste is going on in the whole civilized world, and j 
especially in our country. Professor Shaler's book, "Man 
and the Earth, "'was the real prime cause of the congress 
that met in Washington for the conservation of our natural 
resources. While Professor Shaler's book was right, and 
while the waste from the soil washing to the sea is a slow 
but sure national calamity, it is negligible compared with 
the loss each year due to wasteful motions made by the 
workers of our country. In fact, if the workers of this 
country were taught the possible economies of motion 
study, there would be a saving in labor beside which the 
cost of building and operating tremendous settling basins, 
and the transporting of this fertile soil back to the land 


from whence it came'/ would be insignificant. Besides, 
there would still be a surplus of labor more than large 
enough to develop every water power in the country, and 
build and maintain enough wind engines to supply the 
heat, light, and power wants of mankind. 

There is no waste of any kind in the world that equals 
the waste from needless, ill-directed, and ineffective mo- 
tions. When one realizes that in such a trade as brick- 


laying alone, the motions now adopted after careful study 
have already cut down the bricklayer's work more than 
two-thirds, it is possible to realize the amount of energy 
that is wasted by the workers of this country. 

The census of 1900 showed 29,287,070 persons, ten years 
of age and over, as engaged in gainful occupations. There 
is no reason for not cutting down the waste motions in the 
vocations of the other almost half (49.7 per cent) of the 
population ten years of age and upward who do not engage 
in gainful occupations. The housekeepers, students, etc., 
on this list have as much need for motion saving as any 
one else, though possibly the direct saving to the country 
would not be so great. But taking the case of the nearly 
thirty million workers cited above, it would be a conserva- 
tive estimate that would call half their motions utterly 

As for the various ways in which this waste might be 
utilized, that is a question which would be answered differ- 
ently by each group of people to whom it might be put. 

By motion study the earning capacity of the workman 


can surely be more than doubled. Wherever motion study 
has been applied, the workman's output has been doubled. 
This will mean for every worker either more wages or more 

But the most advisable way to utilize this gain is not 
a question which concerns us now. We have not yet 
reached the stage where the solving of that problem be- 
comes a necessity far from it ! Our duty is to study the 
motions and to reduce them as rapidly as possible to 
standard sets of least in number, least in fatigue, yet most 
effective motions. This has not been done perfectly as 
yet for any branch of the industries. In fact, so far as 
we know, it has not, before this time, been scientifically 
attempted. It is this work, and the method of attack for 
undertaking it, which it is the aim of this book to explain. 


Motion study as herein shown has a definite place in 
the evolution of scientific management not wholly appre- 
ciated by the casual reader, 

Its value in cost reducing cannot be overestimated, and 
its usefulness in all three types of management Military, 
or driver; Interim, or transitory; and Ultimate, or func- 
tional is constant. 

In increasing output by selecting and teaching each 
workman the best known method of performing his work, 
motion economy is all important. Through it, alone, when 


applied to unsystematized work, the output can be more 
than doubled, with no increase in cost. 

When the Interim system takes up the work of stand- 
ardizing the operations performed, motion study enables 
the time-study men to limit their work to the study of 
correct methods only. This is an immense saving in time, 
labor, and costs, as the methods studied comply, as nearly 
as is at that stage possible, with the standard methods that 
will be synthetically constructed after the time study has 
taken place. 

Even when Ultimate system has finally been installed, 
and the scientifically timed elements are ready and at hand 
to be used by the instruction card man in determining the 
tasks, or schedules, the results of motion study serve as a 
collection of best methods of performing work that can 
be quickly and economically incorporated into instruction 

Motion study, as a means of increasing output under 
the military type of management, has consciously proved 
its usefulness on the work for the past twenty-five years. 
Its value as a permanent element for standardizing work 
and its important place in scientific management have 
been appreciated only since observing its standing among 
the laws of management given to the world by Mr. Fred- 
erick W. Taylor, that great conservator of scientific in- 
vestigation, who has done more than all others toward 
reducing the problem of management to an exact science. 



Now tremendous savings are possible in the work of 
everybody, they are not for one class, they are not 
for the trades only; they are for the offices, the schools, 
the colleges, the stores, the households, and the farms. 
But the possibilities of benefits from motion study in the 
trades are particularly striking, because all trades, even at 
their present best, are badly bungled. 

At first glance the problem of motion study seems an 
easy one. After careful investigation it is apt to seem too 
difficult and too large to attack. There is this to be said 
to encourage the student, however: 

1. Study of one trade will aid in finding the result for 
all trades. 

2. Work once done need never be done again. The 
final results will be standards. 

We stand at present in the first stage of motion study, 
i.e., the stage of discovering and classifying the best prac- 
tice. This is the stage of analysis. 

The following are the steps to be taken in the analysis: 

1. Reduce present practice to writing. 

2. Enumerate motions used, 

3. Enumerate variables which affect each motion. 

4. Reduce best practice to writing. 

5. Enumerate motions used. 

6. Enumerate variables which affect each motion. 



Every element that makes up or affects the amount of 
work that the worker is able to turn out must be con- 
sidered separately; but the variables which must be 
studied in analyzing any motion, group themselves natu- 
rally into some such divisions as the following: 

I. Variables of the Worker. 

1 . Anatomy. 

2. Brawn. 

3. Contentment. 

4. Creed. 

5. Earning Power. 

6. Experience. 

7. Fatigue. 

8. Habits. 

9. Health. 

10. Mode of living. 

11. Nutrition. 

12. Size. 

13. Skill. 

14. Temperament. 

15. Training. 

II. Variables of the Surroundings, Equipment, and Tools. 

1. Appliances. 

2. Clothes. 

3. Colors. 

4. Entertainment, music, reading, etc. 

5. Heating, Cooling, Ventilating. 

6. Lighting. 


7. Quality of material. 

8. Reward and punishment. 

9. Size of unit moved. 

10. Special fatigue-eliminating devices. 

11. Surroundings. 

12. Tools. 

13. Union rules. 

14. Weight of unit moved. 

III. Variables of the Motion. 

1. Acceleration. 

2. Automaticity. 

3. Combination with other motions and se- 


4. Cost. 

5. Direction. 

6. Effectiveness. 

7. Foot-pounds of work accomplished. 

8. Inertia and momentum overcome. 

9. Length. 

10. Necessity. 

11. Path. 

12. "Play for position." 

13. Speed. 

In taking up the analysis of any problem of motion 
reduction we first consider each variable on the list sepa- 
rately, to see if it is an element of our problem. 

Our discussion of these variables must of necessity be 
incomplete, as the subject is too large to be investigated 
thoroughly by any one student. Moreover, the nature of 


our work is such that only investigations can be made as 
show immediate results for increasing outputs or reducing 
unit costs. 

The nature of any variable can be most clearly shown 
by citing a case where it appears and is of importance. 
But it is obviously impossible in a discussion such as this 
to attempt fully to illustrate each separate variable even 
of our incomplete list. 

Most of our illustrations are drawn from bricklaying. 
We have applied motion study to our office and field forces, 
and to many of the trades, but our results on bricklaying 
are the most interesting, because it is the oldest mechan- 
ical trade there is. It has passed through all the eras of 
history, it has been practiced by nations barbarous and 
civilized, and was therefore in a condition supposed to 
be perfection before we applied motion study to it, and 
revolutionized it. 

Since first writing these articles for Industrial Engineer- 
ing it has been of great interest to the writer to learn 
of the conscious and successful application of the prin- 
ciples involved to the particular fields of work that 
have interested various readers. It was thought that 
unity might be lent to the argument by choosing the 
illustrations given from one field. The reader will prob- 
ably find himself more successful in estimating the value 
of the underlying laws by translating the illustrations 
into his own vocabulary, by thinking in his own chosen 


The practical value of a study such as this aims to be 
will be increased many fold by cooperation in application 
and illustration. The variables, at best an incomplete 
framework, take on form and personality when so con- 



A CAREFUL study of the anatomy of the worker will enable 
one to adapt his work, surroundings, equipment, and tools 
to him. This will decrease the number of motions he must 
make, and make the necessary motions shorter and less 

Examples. i. If the bricklayer is left-handed the 
relative position of the pile of packs to the mortar box is 

2. The staging is erected so that the uprights will be 
out of the bricklayer's way whenever reaching for brick 
and mortar at the same time. (See Fig. i.) 

3. Packs can be piled at a height with reference to the 
height of the mortar box that will enable stock to be picked 
up more easily by bending over sideways than by bending 
forwards. This latter case is, of course, on work where 
the non-stooping scaffold is not used. 

4. The planks on the bricklayer's platform of the non- 
stooping scaffold, if made of two unconnected planks, will 
enable the bricklayer to lean either toward the stock plat- 
form or toward the wall without any other effort than that 



of throwing his weight on one foot or the other, taking 
advantage of the spring of the planks. (See Fig. 2.) 

5. The inside plank of the bricklayer's platform must 
extend in under the stock platform, or the bricklayer's leg 

Fig. i. Non-stooping scaffold designed so that uprights are out of 
the bricklayer's way whenever reaching for brick and mortar at 
the same time. 

will strike the edge of the plank of the stock platform 
when he reaches for stock. 

6. The stock platform must not be wider than the 
minimum width that will permit holding the packets, or 
the lower-priced packet man will not place the packs 
exactly in that position that will require the least amount 
of straining of the high-priced workman, the bricklayer. 




Fig. 2. Gilbreth's patent non-stooping scaffold for bricklaying. 

The numbers show the correct sequence of courses and tiers as laid from 
the non-stooping scaffold for the fewest, shortest, and most economical 



Workmen vary widely as to their brawn and strength. 

When the actual work is being done, due consideration 
should be given to the percentage of efficiency that the 
men available possess. But all calculations should be 
made on the basis of using first-class men only. All data 
should be gathered from observations on first-class men 
only. In fact, so-called first-class men are not good enough. 
The best man obtainable anywhere is the best for obser- 
vation purposes. The data gathered on that best man 
will then be considered as loo-per-cent quality. The men 
finally used can then be considered as of a certain percent- 
age of perfect quality, and it should then be the aim of the 
management to attain loo-per-cent quality. This is one 
of the most important factors in the success of intensive 
management. The manager who wins is the one who has 
the men best suited for the purpose. Intensive manage- 
ment must not only recognize quickly the first-class man, 
but must also attract first-class men. 

Everybody concedes that the size of the output depends, 
first of all, on the quality of the men. 

Example. We have found that a first-class laborer, if 
his work is so arranged that he does not have to stoop 
over, but can do his work with a straight back, can handle 
ninety pounds of brick on a packet (see Fig. 3) day after 
day and keep in first-class physical condition, while laborers 
of a class that does not have the right food cannot handle 


continuously over sixty to seventy pounds of bricks on a 

It is obviously better to have all one class of men, so 
that all instruction cards will be as nearly alike as possible. 
The size of the shovel, the weight of the hammer, the num- 
ber of brick on the packet these are variables that must 

Fig. 3. Arrangement of gravity conveyor for unloading brick 
so that laborer does not have to stoop. 

also be considered when making out the instruction card 
and these are all influenced by the brawn of the worker. 


Contentment affects the output of the worker. If he is 
contented, he will have his mind on his work, and he will 
be more willing to carry out the motions exactly as directed 
on the instruction card. 


The contented worker does not require so large a per- 
centage of rest for overcoming fatigue from his intensive 

Contentment makes for loyalty to the management, for 
cooperating for maintainment of the best conditions, and 
for the protection and preservation of the property of the 


The term " creed" is used to cover religion, nationality, 
etc., everything that might act as a bond of sympathy 
between workers and the people with whom they come in 
contact. On work where the output of each man is re- 
corded separately, the question as to whether the creed of 
the workman is the same as that of his foreman, or super- 
intendent, or employer, is of little consequence. 

In places where the output of each man is not recorded 
separately, it is a recognized fact that instructions of the fore- 
man or employer will be more apt to be carried out where 
there is a bond of sympathy between the employees, the fore- 
man, and the employers. A bond of sympathy between 
the workman and the people who are to occupy the edifice 
upon which they are working will also increase the output. 

The motions of a bricklayer working upon the wall of 
a church differing from his own religion are often vastly 
different from those that he is careful to make when the 
congregation to occupy it coincides with his belief. 

In planning athletic contests also, it is well to group 
men according to their affiliations. 


Example. On engine beds and similar work, where 
the pieces are isolated, assigning gangs of men of different 
nationalities to the different beds will create extra interest 
in the contests. If this is not feasible, put the tall men 
on one bed and the short men on the other, or the single 
men against the married men, or eastern "pick-and-dip" 
men against western " string-mortar " men. 


The matter of classifying men by their relative earning 
power is as important as classifying them by their relative 
brawn. It is better, of course, to have men as nearly as 
possible of one class only, and that the best class. Class- 
ing men by their earning power simplifies the work of the 
planning department in many ways. It enables it to pre- 
scribe the same motions to the entire class of men, to 
place them all under nearly the same conditions, to pre- 
scribe the same tools and surroundings, to place them 
together, and, finally, to have an athletic contest between 
the men of the same class. 

Furthermore, the motions to be made are often entirely 
different for workmen of different earning power. 

Examples. i. With masons and laborers of low earn- 
ing power it is sometimes advisable to place the brick on 
the packets any way that will give the fewest motions for 
loading the packets, and to let the bricklayers lay them 
with their customary numerous motions, until men of 
higher earning power may be obtained to take their places. 


2. With bricklayers and laborers of high earning power 
it is better to have the laborers pile the brick upon the 
packets so that the brick will be in that position that 
requires the least amount of motions of the bricklayer to 
pick them up and to lay them. 

It is obvious that all motions performed in handling or 
transporting material before the material is used, cut up, 
or fabricated, should, theoretically, be performed by low- 
priced men, and that the work done by the high-priced 

Fig. 4. Right way to pick up brick from upper tier 
on the packet. 

men should be limited as far as possible to the work of per- 
manent character. As an example of this, the carrying of 
the brick and mortar to the scaffold is done by the mason's 
helper, while the carrying of the brick from the packet to 
its final resting place in the wall is done by the mason. 
This same principle can be carried much further in all 


trades than is usually customary to-day. For example, 
we have found that piling the brick face up and with 
the top side nearest the palm of the bricklayer's hand 
when his arm hangs in a natural position will save an 
average of one motion of the high-priced bricklayer per 
brick. (See Figs. 4, 5, 6, and 7.) 

We have found a great increase in the number of brick 
it is possible to lay, and a decrease in the cost of laying 
them if the brick are placed by the low-priced man in the 
nearest practicable place in feet and inches from the place 
where they will finally rest in the wall. Not only this, 

Fig. 5. Wrong way to pick up brick from upper tier 
on the packet. 

but the receptacle must be left with the material on it, so 
that the higher-priced man can lift the receptacle and its 
contents simultaneously at the exact time the materials 
are wanted to a place still nearer to the place where the 
material will be finally used, to be transported from there 


to their final resting place by a still higher-priced man. 
(See Figs. 2 and 8.) 

This use of "low-priced men" does not mean the use of 
mediocre men. The men used, of whatever price, should 
be the best men of that class obtainable. 


That previous experience is an element to be considered 
is obvious. This fact is so well recognized that the expres- 

Fig. 6. Right way to pick up brick from the lower tier 
on the packet. 

sion "You can't teach an old dog new tricks" may be 
heard around the world. While this may be true with 
dogs, it is not true with workmen. On a short job it may 



not be advisable to attempt to change radically the life- 
time customs of a local workman. But recording the out- 
put of each man separately will tell whether or not it is 
advisable to make out the instruction card in accordance 
with the previous experience of the workman, or in accord- 
ance with the way in which actual records have proved to 
be productive of the highest outputs. Experience varies 

Fig. 7. Wrong way to pick up brick from the lower tier 
on the packet. 

widely, and the habits formed are often difficult to over- 

Example. A bricklayer from certain sections of New 
England has been accustomed to pick up mortar with a 
trowel at the same time that he picks up brick with the 







other hand. This is called the " pick-and-dip method." 
The size and shape of his mortar receptacle, the arrange- 
ment of the brick and mortar on his scaffold, the shape 
of the scaffold itself, the sequence in which he builds the 
vertical tiers and the horizontal courses, and, finally, the 
labor-union rules themselves, are fashioned after the con- 
sequences of using a small trowel, just large enough to 
pick up sufficient mortar for one brick only. 

Fig. 9. The usual method of providing the bricklayer 
with material. 

A bricklayer so trained finds it difficult at first to adapt 
himself to the "string mortar" method of the West. The 
western-taught bricklayer experiences the same difficulties 
in adapting himself to the " pick-and-dip " method with 
the speed of the eastern bricklayer. But their difficulties 


are nothing compared with those that the employer ex- 
periences who puts the good points of both systems on 
any one job. 

Not only do habitual motions become fixed, but also 
the previous experience of the bricklayer is often the 
cause of his making too many motions, i.e., unnecessary 
motions. He seldom, if ever, has been rigidly trained to 
use a certain number of definite motions. It takes time 
and patience to induce him to adopt a standard method. 

On a small job it is advisable to select those men for the 
leads and the trigs who are best fitted to be leaders, that 
is, 'who are best prepared by previous experience to carry 
out without delay the requirements of the instruction 
cards but give due consideration to the previous ex- 
perience and habits of work of the workmen. 

On a large job, however, it is most economical to insist 
on standard methods and standard motions that will pro- 
duce the highest outputs, without regard to the previous 
training of the workmen. Attract and retain those work- 
men who can follow out their instruction card and as a 
result produce the high records of outputs. 


Fatigue is an important : variable to consider when"" 
selecting those motions that will give the most economy 
and that make the " standard motions." It goes without 
saying that the motions that cause the least fatigue are 
the most desirable, other things being equal. 


Fatigue is due to a secretion in the blood. 
To quote from an article signed "I. M. T." in the 
American Magazine for February, 1910: 

"The toxin of fatigue is the phrase the physicians have 
given us with which to jar the attention of those who can 
only be stirred by harsh words. It has been demon- 
strated in the last few years that fatigue is due to an 
actual poison not unlike the poison or toxin of diphtheria. 
It is generated in the body by labor. But the system 
takes care of itself and generates enough anti-toxin to 
take care of a normal amount of toxin or poison. If it 
continues to be produced in abnormal quantities the sys- 
tem cannot grapple with it. There is a steady poisoning 
of the body, with all the baneful effects, mental and moral, 
as well as physical, that poison produces." 

Continuous hard work, however, like proper training, puts 
the body into that condition that best overcomes fatigue. 
Fatigue is due to three causes: 

1. Fatigue due to coming to work improperly rested 
(fatigue brought to the job). 

2. Unnecessary fatigue, due to unnecessary work, un- 
necessary motions, or uncomfortable positions, surround- 
ings, and conditions of working. 

3. Necessary fatigue, due to output. 

Every motion causes fatigue. The same motions in 
the same trade cause about the same fatigue for all first- 
class men, and they all require about the same amount of 
rest to overcome fatigue, provided their habits and mode 
of living are the same outside of working hours. 


p- % 

The amount of fatigue caused and the percentage of 

rest required in many different kinds of work have been 
computed by Frederick W. Taylor with great exactness. / 
He has assigned the various workers to classes and accu- / 
rately computed the "task" from his records. 

We have no such records as Mr. Taylor has gathered, 
but we have numerous records of outputs of different men 
on several kinds of work. We know that the amount of 
rest actually required by a workman increases with the 
discomfort of the position in which he works. We also 
know that the speed, hence the output of the worker, de- 
creases rapidly if there is much fatigue to overcome. 

Example. A bricklayer can lay brick for a few min- 
utes quite as quickly when he picks up the brick from the 
level of the platform on which he stands (see Fig. 9), as 
he can when he picks up the brick from a bench twenty- 
four inches above the level of the platform on which he 
stands (see Figs. 10, n, and 12), but he cannot keep that 
speed up, because he requires more rest to overcome the 
greater fatigue. 

It is not simply for the welfare alone, although that 
reason should be sufficient, but for economic reasons as 
well, that the men should be so j>laced and equipped 
that their work is done under the most comfortable 

Examples. i. It is a recognized fact that a clut- 
tered-up floor under a workman's feet will tire him quite 
as much as the productive work that he is doing. A 







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smooth-planked floor will enable a bricklayer to lay many 
more brick than will earth that has been leveled off. 

2. A bricklayer can stoop over and pick up anything 
from the floor with one hand with much less fatigue if he 
has a place to rest his other hand while he is stooping, 

Fig.' 12. Standard practice for providing bricklayers with material for 
pick-and-dip method of bricklaying when the wall is shoulder high. 

because he puts his weight on one foot and lifts his other 
foot out behind him, which does not tire the muscles of his 
back nearly so much. 

Slow motions do not necessarily cause less fatigue than 
quick motions, and, per unit of work done, may cause 
much more fatigue than quick motions. 

The amount of work done per motion may not be 
fatiguing proportionately to the size of the unit. 


Example. Lifting ninety pounds of brick on a packet 
to the wall will fatigue a bricklayer much less than handling 
the same number of brick one or two at a time. Conse- 
quently with the same amount of fatigue the workman 
will handle several times as many brick on packets as he 
can handle one or two at a time. 

We have, then, under this variable two tasks to perform: 

1. To eliminate unnecessary fatigue. This we do by 
studying and fixing the variables; that is, by standardiz- 
ing the work. 

2. To provide for rest from necessary fatigue, and to 
utilize rest time. 

Under old forms of management workmen " should keep 
busy at something," even if prevented from doing their 
regular work. An idle workman was considered a disgrace. / 
The consequence of this was that the workman took his rest j 
while working, or made believe work while resting. The , 
old-fashioned kind of rest is called " systematic soldiering." 
It is the curse of the military type of management. It is \ 
a form of cheating that has been made respectable ,by the \ 
conditions forced upon the workers by the employers. 

Under scientific management the evils of soldiering are 
eliminated, and the correct definite percentage of rest 
required is recognized and provided for. When a man is 
prevented by causes beyond his control from doing his 
regularly assigned work, he is told to use the opportunity 
for rest, not to take such rest as can be obtained by 
making slow and useless motions, that will give him an 




industrious appearance to the casual observer, but to rest, 
the loo-per-cent kind of rest. 

There are cases where chairs and reading tables have 
been provided with beneficial effect for workers to occupy 
when delayed for a few minutes. They get the rest, and 
their presence at the table acts as a danger signal to the 

When a man is fatigued to the point where it is im- 
possible for him to do his best work he should be made to 
rest. He must not do anything but rest until he is in that 
condition that will enable him to fly at his work and per- 
form it with the fastest standard motions possible. 

Rest does not necessarily mean idleness. The worker 
can spend the rest period reading his instruction card, or 
filling out his record of output on the card, or in some 
other form of restful work. A change of work is often a 
rest. By performing the above two tasks well, we secure 
the greatest output per day and the fewest hours per day 
without injury to the health of the men. 


The habits of the workman have much to do with his 
success in eliminating unnecessary motions and in adopt- 
ing quickly and permanently standard methods. The 
term " habits,'' as here used, includes not only personal 
" habits," so-called, but also habits of thinking, habits of 
working, etc. 

Habits brought to the work may act as a deterrent or 



as an aid to its best performance. They embrace a group 
of sub-variables which are difficult to describe and analyze, 
and are of immense importance in influencing output. 

That acquiring good habits of work makes the worker 
more versatile as well as more efficient is forcefully stated 
by Mr. Gantt in his book on "Work, Wages, and Profits." 
He says: 

"The habits that a man has to acquire to become effi- 
cient in one class of work stand him in good stead in be- 
coming efficient in other work. These habits of work are 
vastly more important than the work itself, for it is our 
experience that a man who has become efficient in one thing, 
readily learns to become efficient at doing other things." 

The health of the worker may be affected by: 

1. Other things than his work and the conditions under 
which it is done. 

2. The work. 

Consideration of other things than the work may prop- 
erly be left to the welfare department. This department 
can most successfully define the scope of its work by 
attempting to improve the man himself and his surround- 
ings in every way that will make him a better and more 
successful worker. This criterion will satisfy both em- 
ployer and employee as to the appropriateness, justness, 
and utility of the work of the welfare department. 

The life of the man when away from work is only in so 
far subject to the inspection and jurisdiction of the so- 


called " welfare" department as that department can show 
itself able to make of the man a more valuable economic 
unit to himself and to the community. 

If the welfare department makes an efficient workman 
the product of its work, the philanthropic by-products 
will take care of themselves. 

The work itself should be laid out in such a way that its 
performance will add to and not subtract from health. A 
proper study and determination of the variables that affect 
the surroundings and the motion will go far to insure this. 
Moreover, standardized work will transform the workman. 

Henry L. Gantt, in a most stimulating paper on " Train- 
ing the Workmen in Habits of Industry and Cooperation," 
read before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
December, 1908, says of workmen: 

"As they become more skilled, they form better habits 
of work, lose less time, and become more reliable Their 
health improves, and the improvement in their general ap- 
pearance is very marked. This improvement in health 
seems to be due to a more regular a-nd active life, com- 
bined with a greater interest in their work, for it is a well- 
known fact that work in which we are interested and 
which holds our attention without any effort on our part, 
tires us much less than that we have to force ourselves 
to do." 

This Mr. Gantt says in speaking of the benefits of the 
"task and bonus" system; but the same thing is undoubt- 
edly true of men working under standards derived from 
motion study. 



Mode of living has been more or less touched upon 
under "health" and " habits." It is a complex variable, 
difficult to analyze and difficult to control. Its effects on 
output are for this reason all the more far-reaching and 
demand scientific investigation. 


This is a subject that has been investigated much more 
scientifically with regard to horses and mules than with 
regard to workmen, but cases are seen on every hand 
where it is more profitable to furnish the most nutritious 
food to the men gratis than to permit them to have the 
usual poor food of the padrones' storehouse. In the build- 
ing of a new town in Maine it was found to be economical 
to spend considerable sums of money for supplying food for 
the men at less than cost, rather than to have them eat 
the food provided by the local boarding houses. The 
nutritive value of various foods and the amount of energy 
which various diets enable one to put forth have been 
made a study in training soldiers. There must be many 
tdata available on the subject, and the government should 
collect them and issue a bulletin for the use of the welfare 
departments of large employing organizations. The army 
might also serve as an example in many other ways to the 
student of economics. The " Tactics" are admirable " in- 
struction cards," conforming to many of the laws of 


motion study. It seems unfortunate that the govern- 
ments of the world up to the present time have confined 
all of their attempts to standardize motions to the arts 
of war, and have done nothing in this line in the arts of 


Size of men, with relation to their motions, has much 
more influence than is usually realized. 

Short men are usually the best shovelers where the 
shovelful need not be raised much in doing the work, such 
as in mixing mortar and concrete. Few foremen realize 
that this is because a short man does fewer foot-pounds of 
work in doing the same amount of shoveling. On the 
other hand, when men are shoveling in a trench, the taller 
the men, usually, the more the output per man. 

Oftentimes a staging is built at a height below a set of 
floor beams that enables the men to work to best advan- 
tage. On such a staging men should be selected of as 
nearly the same height as possible. 


The workman with the most skill is usually the one 
who can adapt himself quickest to new methods and 

Example. A bricklayer who has great skill in his 
trade can instantly lay a brick in the same manner that 
he is once shown. To get him to do so constantly when 
not supervised is difficult, but that can be quickest im- 


pressed upon his mind if he is shown the reason for 
every change demanded of him. 

To make sure that the worker of the future acquires his 
skill properly, is the most important task here. This can be 
done only by insisting continuously on conformity to scien- 
tifically derived standards from the beginning of his training. 

Example. The best results from a motion- study stand- 
point can be attained only by teaching the apprentice 
from his first day to lay the brick with the standard 
motions regardless of the looks of the work. If the work 
is not good enough to permit the brick to remain on the 
wall, a skilled bricklayer should fix it, until the apprentice 
can lay the brick with the prescribed standard motions in 
a manner good enough to permit the work to remain as a 
part of the structure. 

The apprentice should not be permitted to depart from 
the standard motions in any case until he has first acquired 
them as a fixed habit. The most pernicious practice is 
the generally accepted one of first having an apprentice 
do perfect work and then attempting to make speed later. 
The right motions should be taught first, and the work 
taken down and rebuilt until it is up to standard quality. 
This is the only way to get the full benefits of the economics 
of motion study. (See Figs. 13 and 14.) 

The workman who will make the highest outputs of the 
future will be he who has as a habit those standard motions 
that are the most productive when operated under stand- 
ard conditions. 


Fig. 15. The numbers show the correct sequence of courses and 
tiers as laid from the ordinary scaffold for the fewest, shortest, 
and most economical motions. 


The temperament of the man has more to do with the 
motion he uses than one usually supposes. 

Example. Many expert face bricklayers would quit a 
job rather than lay common brick on interior walls, even 



Patent ScmM 
































30 18 

















12 6 



X> \ 8 


Fig. 1 6. The numbers show the correct sequence of courses and 
tiers as laid from the non-stooping scaffold for the fewest, 
shortest, and most economical motions. This scaffold permits 
a much larger percentage of the brick to be laid as " filling in," 
instead of as "backing up," consequently requiring less skillful 

though they might earn higher wages on the inside work. 
Other bricklayers prefer to lay common brickwork, not 
that they doubt their ability to lay the face brick, but 
because they like the strenuous athletic contests for high 


scores of output and high pay. To them there is no 
monotony in laying common brick day after day, for to the 
skilled mason brick are not so nearly alike as are human 

A bricklayer interested in his work will often remember 
the characteristics of one certain brick years after he has 
forgotten the wall upon which it was laid. 

Therefore the temperament of the man must be taken 
into consideration when placing the men. When they are 
best placed they follow their instructions on the subject of 
motion, and higher scores will be the result. 


" Training" is so closely related to "skill" and "ex- 
perience" that it is difficult to separate it from them. We 
use the word to mean both the worker's theoretical and 
practical equipment for his work, his entire preparation. 
The problem is to see that the worker has both kinds of 
equipment, acquired in the most useful, balanced method 

The training of the available worker must always be 
considered in estimating the time that it will take him to 
acquire standard methods and the output that can be 
expected of him. The training of the worker of the future 
should be planned to fit him for standard work. The 
training of the apprentice on the work to-day is usually 
defective because he has little or no training in theory 
at the same time that he is getting his practice. Further- 


more, the journeyman who is his instructor not only has 
had no training in pedagogy, but often lacks the benefits 
of the elements of a common-school education. The usual 
time of apprenticeship in the building trades in this coun- 
try is three years, or until the apprentice is twenty-one 
years old. 

On the other hand, the boy taught in the trade school 
lacks training under actual working conditions. The ques- 
tion of dollars and cents to make for the employer,* special 
fitting for high wages for himself, and the knowledge 
of the principles underlying the requirements necessary 
in order to obtain specially high outputs from intensive 
management, are wholly lacking. 

The present apprenticeship system is pitiful and criminal 
from the apprentice's standpoint, ridiculous from a modern 
system standpoint, and there is no word that describes its 
wastefulness from an economic standpoint. 


Before turning to the variables of the surroundings, it 
may be well to summarize. The variables of the worker 
consist of the elements of the equipment that the worker 
brings to his work, both those that he was born with and 
those that he has acquired. These are mental and physical. 

We have concluded : 

1. That first-class men should always be secured if that 
be possible. 

2. That everything possible should be done to preserve 


and to add to the natural powers and capacities that the 
worker brings to his work. 

3. That standard practice derived from motion study 
does add to the natural powers of the worker, and both 
shortens his hours of work and adds to his output. 

4. That training based on the laws underlying standard 
practice will enable the worker of the future to attain still 
higher efficiency and output. 


WE turn now to the variables of the surroundings. 
These differ from the variables of the worker in that we 
can influence them more quickly and more directly. In 
discussing the variables of the worker, we deal more or 
less with the past and the future. The variables of the 
surroundings are each and all distinctly of the present. 


The " standard conditions" maintained by the employer 
are a most important factor for high outputs. It is obvi- 
ous that the appliances furnished the workman and the 
motions used are interdependent on each other. 

Examples. i. The bricklayer could not be expected to 
pick up the brick so that he would not have to spin or flop 
it in his hand unless it were delivered to him in the right 
position on a packet. 

2. The bricklayer could not be expected to have so 
high an output if he had to stoop over in order to pick 
up his stock as he would have to do if the scaffold did not 
have a bench that obviated bending. 

3. The bricklayer could not be expected to lay brick 
without turning around or bending over unless he was 
provided with packs of bricks that could be lifted bodily 


and placed upon the wall in units as large as could be 
economically handled. 

4. The bricklayer could not be expected to do away 
with those motions that are necessary to remove the lumps 
from under a brick if there were holes in the sand screen 
and no pug mill to break up the lumps. 

It is most important that the workman should be given 
" handy conditions" under which to work, that is, the 
"most comfortable," or those that require the " least per- 
centage of rest" to overcome fatigue. 

Examples. i. The bricklayer must obviously have a 
scaffold to stand upon that permits adjusting the height 
of the platform on which he stands to a standard distance 
below the top of the ever-growing wall on which he is lay- 
ing the brick. We have found that the best height is 
from twenty-four to thirty-two inches below the top of the 
wall. If the wall is being laid overhanded, the height 
should not be over twenty-four inches, while if the wall 
is not being laid overhanded, thirty-two inches is the better 

It is obvious that the bench from which the stock is 
picked up should be maintained at a standard distance 
above the platform on which the man stands. Also the 
platform on which the laborer walks should be located at 
the standard distance below the stock platform that will 
enable him to deposit the brick and mortar in a manner 
that will cause the least fatigue. Therefore, the three 
platforms for bricklayer, stock, and tender should be 


fixed with relation to one another, and movable in relation 
to the top of the wall, capable of being hoisted as the wall 
grows without stopping or disturbing the men. 

2. The elevator for hoisting the brick and mortar should 
always be arranged so that it can, when desired, land 
above the top of a staged wall, and thus the brick and mor- 
tar can be wheeled down to the scaffold on the floor below. 
Then the tenders can wheel down with full loads and 
wheel the empty barrows up to the floor above. 

3. Make a table, barrel, or box to put near the work- 
man, no matter what his trade is, so that he will not have 
to stoop over and pick up his tools. Provide something to 
lean his shovel against or to hang his shovel on when he is 
alternately shoveling and wheeling to cut down time and 
to reduce the fatigue of stooping over and picking up the 

The motions to be used and to be avoided are largely 
determined and affected by the appliances used; therefore 
for the highest outputs the right appliances must be de- 
vised, standardized, used, and maintained, otherwise the 
motions cannot be standardized. Furthermore, it is much 
easier to standardize motions with standard appliances 
than without them. 


The clothes that the workman wears may be a hindrance 
or a help to him in his work. Tight or ill-fitting clothing 
may restrict motions. Fear of ruining clothing may 
seriously cut down the speed of the worker. 


On the other hand, clothing designed and specially 
adapted to the work that the worker has to do may in- 
crease output to a surprising extent. 

Not till the advantages have been appreciated of having 
working clothes made the subject of study from the motion- 
economy standpoint will manufacturers provide the gar- 
ments needed. But they are only too anxious to meet 
every demand as soon as they are conscious of it. Once 
let the specialized clothes for the worker be standardized 
and they will be placed immediately upon the market in 
inexpensive, durable, and attractive shape. 

As for their reception by the worker, as soon as he 
realizes that they increase his efficiency, and are a badge 
of specialization and not of servitude, he will be ready and 
glad to welcome them. 


The stimulating effect of color upon workers is a subject 
to be investigated by psychologists. The results of their 
study should be of great benefit, especially to indoor work- 
ers. Motions could undoubtedly be made simpler by the 
proper selection of the color of painting and lighting in 
the workroom. 

In our work we have to deal chiefly with color as a 
saver of motions. Color can be seen quicker than shape. 
Therefore, distinguishing things by their color is quicker 
than distinguishing them by the printing on them. 

Examples. i. The various pipes in a pipe gallery 


can best be recognized by painting them different 

2. The right-hand end of the packet is painted black, in 
order that when carried in the right hand of the laborer 
it can be placed so that the bricklayer can pick up each 
brick without spinning or flopping the brick in his 

3. Painting tools different colors, and also the place 
where they are to be placed in the drawer or the chest 
the same color, saves motions and time of motions when 
putting them away and finding them next time. 

4. When low-priced men bring packages of any kind to 
higher-priced men to use or handle, the packages should 
always be painted, stenciled, or labeled with a distinguish- 
ing color on one end and on top. This will enable the 
low-priced workman to place the package in the manner 
called for on the instruction card with the least thought, 
delay, and motions. It will also enable the high-priced 
man to handle the package with no such lost motions as 
turning the package around or over. 

5. Oftentimes the workmen who are best fitted phys- 
ically for their work cannot read, or at least cannot read 
English. Even if they could, it would take some time to 
read the stenciled directions on the non-stooping scaffold 
to the effect that "this side goes against the brick wall." 
It will greatly reduce the number of motions to paint the 
side that goes next to the wall a different color from the 
side that goes away from the wall. 



Music. The inspiring and stimulating effect of music 
has been recognized from ancient times, as is shown by 
the military band, the fife and drum corps, the bagpipe 
of the Scotchman, down to the band that rushes the 
athlete around the track or across the field. 

The singing of gangs at certain kinds of work, the rhyth- 
mic orders that a leader of a gang shouts to his men, and 
the grunting in unison of the hand drillers, show the 
unifying as well as the motion-stimulating effect of music 
and rhythm. 

That some of the trades can have their motions affected 

time and speed by music, to a point that will materially 

Feet the size of their outputs, is a recognized fact. 

Some of the silent trades have used phonography and 
musical instruments to entertain the men while they were 
working. It was found it paid the employer to furnish 
stimulating records at his own expense, so that the work- 
men would make more and quicker motions, rather than 
to permit the employees to furnish phonographic records at 
random at their own expense. 

Reading. Reading as a stimulus to output has been 
used with excellent results among the cigar makers. 

It is also interesting to read in an article on " Three 
Months in Peonage" in the March, 1910, issue of the 
American Magazine, that story- telling may produce the 
same good results. 


"The four packers under me," says the writer, a Ger- 
man white, who was working with peons at packing tobacco 
in Mexico, 'knew no greater joy than to listen to a fairy 
tale with the regulation princess and dragon, and if I 
could but tell them one, or one of their number did so, the 
work went twice as fast, and they were happy." 

The excellent and direct effects of entertainment upon 
health, fatigue, etc., are subjects for the scientist to study 
and the planning department and the welfare worker to 
apply. The effects of entertainment upon output should 
be studied by the student of motion economy. This 
variable alone furnishes a vast field for investigation. 


Heating, cooling, ventilating, and humidizing are closely 
allied, because all can be done with one and the same 
apparatus, and all greatly increase the workman's comfort, 
health, and possible number of motions. 

Maintaining desired temperature in summer as well as 
winter by forcing into workrooms air that has been passed 
over heating or refrigerating coils has a great effect on the 
workman. Many factories, such as chocolate factories, 
have found that cooling the ai-r for better results to the 
manufacturing process also enables the workers to pro- 
duce more output an output quite out of proportion to 
the cost of providing the air. 

In many trades requiring great alertness and physical 
strength the proper heating and ventilating will allow 


the workman to dress in a costume specially adapted to 
his work, or to strip almost to the athlete's suit, with a 
consequent increased number and effectiveness of motions. 

The degree of temperature and the percentage of humid- 
ity desired for each day of the year should be determined. 
The man in charge of the heating should receive no bonus 
for small consumption of fuel unless he also maintained 
the temperature and humidity called for on his instruc- 
tion card. 

The subjects of heating, ventilating, etc., are well cov- 
ered by Mr. Hugo Diemer in his book on " Factory Organ- 
ization and Administration." The proper time to consider 
these subjects is when the building is designed, but too 
often at that time the all-important question is, How 
cheaply can the building be built? Ultimate saving will 
justify almost any conceivable first costs. 


The subject of lighting has, indirectly as well as directly, 
a great influence upon output and motions, as upon the 
comfort of the eye depends, to a large extent, the comfort 
of the whole body. 

The arrangement of lighting in the average office, fac- 
tory, or house is generally determined by putting in the 
least light necessary in order that the one who deter- 
mined the location of the light may be able to see perfectly. 
This is wrong. The best light is the cheapest. By that 
is not meant that which gives the brightest light. In fact, 


the light itself is but a small part of the question. Go 
into any factory and examine every light, and you will 
notice that as a rule they are obviously wrong. A light 
to be right must pass five tests: 

a. It must furnish the user sufficient light so that he 
can see. 

b. It must be so placed that it does not cause the user's 
eyes to change the size of the diaphragm when ordinarily 
using the light. 

c. It must be steady. 

d. There shall not be any polished surfaces in its vicin- 
ity that will reflect an unnecessary bright spot anywhere 
that can be seen by the eyes of the worker. 

e. It must be protected so that it does not shine in the 
eyes of some other worker. 

The use of polished brass and nickel should be aban- 
doned wherever it will shine in the worker's eye. 

For work done on a flat surface, like the work of a book- 
keeper or a reader, the light should be placed where the 
glare will reflect least in the worker's eyes; where the 
work is like the examining of single threads, the relative 
color and figured pattern of the background, as well as 
good light, is important. This is obvious. So is nearly 
everything else in good management. Go into the build- 
ings among the workers, the students, and the scientists 
and see how rarely it is considered. All of this is not a 
question of getting the most out of the light. Light in 
a factory is the cheapest thing there is. It is wholly a 


question of fatigue of the worker. The best lighting con- 
ditions will reduce the percentage of time required for 
rest for overcoming fatigue. The difference between the 
cost of the best lighting and the poorest is nothing com- 
pared with the saving in money due to decreased time for 
rest period due to less fatigued eyes. 

It is a similar case to the taxicab concerns they 
charge their drivers with gasoline and tires and mileage, 
accidents, etc., but they furnish the lubricating oil free. 
The fallacy of the common practice of putting the lighting 
in the hands of the man whose merit is measured inversely 
as the coal bill is obvious. 

The sub-variables involved make the problem as to 
exactly what lighting is most desirable difficult of solution. 
The proper solution will have such a beneficial effect, not 
only upon the man's work, but also upon his welfare, that 
no time or effort expended upon it can be too great. 


It is essential to the use of standard motions and the 
resulting large output that all material used shall be in 
exactly that state in which it can be most easily handled 
by the worker. 

Examples. i. If there are lumps in the mortar, due to 
pieces of brick or shavings or lumps of lime, or cement or 
coarse pebbles in the sand, it is impossible for the bricklayer 
to do his best work. 

2. If the sand is not selected with reference to the thick- 


ness of joints, if the sequence of tiers and courses (see 
Figs. 15 and 16) and the thickness of joints is determined by 
the whim of the bricklayer on the lead, instead of by the 
planning department, it is out of the question to expect 
high outputs. On the other hand, if the material is of 
exactly that consistency with which it can be best handled, 
and the other conditions are determined on the instruction 
card, much better speed can be obtained. 

3. When using cement mortar made of cement and sand 
and no lime, the bricklayer will do more and better work 
if a tender is kept on the stock platform tempering the 
mortar to just the right consistency for the bricklayers. 

4. If the brick are all handled in packs on packets from 
the time that they arrive upon the job until they reach the 
bricklayer's hand, they will each be of better quality, due 
to there being little or no chipping from handling and 
throwing about. The bricklayer will then be saved the 
useless motions of picking up brick that are chipped and 
discarding them again, to be used only when laying in the 
filling tiers. 


The stimulus that rewards and penalties give motions 
is obvious. The discussion of reward and punishment 
would come under the head of compensation. It must be 
left to the cost reducing system to determine just what 
system of compensation will induce the men to do their 
swiftest, best work. 



The most advantageous size of unit to use is a difficult 
problem to solve, and is often controlled by some outside 
factor. For example, the most economical size of brick 
has been determined by the cost and other conditions 
relating to the making and baking, and not by the con- 
ditions of handling and laying. When the conditions of 
laying are studied scientifically, as they are to-day, one is 
forced to the conclusion that, for the greatest economy, the 
size of common brick should be changed materially from 
that of the present practice in America. The usual size of 
the brick used in England is much larger than the cus- 
tomary size used here. 

It is obvious that there is some size of unit that is the 
most economical to make the standard package for han- 
dling brick in bulk. We have found it to be ninety-two 
pounds for a first-class laborer, either for piling or loading 
and unloading brick from carts. (See Figs. 17 and 18.) 

Careful examination of brickwork with the object in 
view of selecting the most profitable motions has entirely 
revolutionized the methods of bricklaying. For example, 
the size of unit that is picked up when loose brick are 
handled must be one brick for each hand. The packet 
enables us to pick up about eighteen brick at once. 

The fountain trowel permits us to pick up and carry to 
the wall and spread mortar for twenty-one brick at one 
time without dropping the regular trowel which forms a 
temporary handle to it. (See Fig. 19.) 


Fig. 17. Two-horse carts with horses changed from the empty 
to the full carts will require fewer and cheaper motions than 
any other methods of transportation. 

Tig. 1 8. Loading carts with go-pound packs of brick fed on 
gravity conveyors. 


The two- wheeled trucket permits carrying twelve packets, 
or 216 brick (see Fig. 20), while the hod carries 18 brick, 
and the one- wheeled barrow carries 60 loose brick. 

Fig. 19. The Fountain Trowel for conveying and spreading 
mortar for 21 brick. The regular trowel forms a temporary 
handle for lifting and guiding it. 


Only the careful student of management realizes how 
much the speed of the worker can be increased by providing 
him with all possible aids toward doing work. 

Mr. Fred. W. Taylor, in his paper on "Shop Manage- 
ment," tells of a study he made of overhauling a set of 

"He [the writer] did all of the work of chipping, clean- 


ing, and overhauling a set of boilers, and at the same time 
made a careful time study of each of the elements of the 
work. This time study showed that a great part of the 

Fig. 20. The two- wheeled trucket for carrying 12 packs. This 
trucket is so perfectly balanced that it causes less fatigue 
than the ordinary wheel-barrow. 

time was lost owing to the constrained position of the work- 
man. Thick pads were made to fasten to the elbows, 
knees, and hips; special tools and appliances were made 
for the various details of the work. . . . The whole scheme 
was much laughed at when it first went into use, but the 
trouble taken was fully justified, for the work was better 
done than ever before, and it cost only eleven dollars to 


completely overhaul a set of 300 horse-power boilers by this 
method, while the average cost of doing the same work on 
day work without an instruction card was sixty-two dollars.'' 
In reading this, it must be remembered that the fatigue- 
eliminating devices were only one element in increasing 
speed and reducing costs. But, on the other hand, it 
must be remembered also what a large element they were 
in adding to the comfort and ultimate well-being of the 


"Surroundings" have been previously discussed under 
" Fatigue," "Appliances," etc. It is only necessary to 
say here that the surroundings of the worker should be 
standardized, the standard being derived from a study of 
all the variables. 

It is obvious that the highest possible records of output 
cannot be obtained unless the workers are furnished with 
a standard instruction card made out by the best man 
obtainable, one who knows more about their work than 
they do, and who can, and does, provide them with stand- 
ard conditions that fulfill the most economical conditions 
of motions. Even then daily outputs and unit costs must 
be watched, so as to take advantage of the slightest change 
of conditions that affect costs. In practice, the unit costs 
must always also include the wages of the recorder, other- 
wise one cannot tell when the wages of the recorders are 
not deceiving as to actual unit Costs under this intensive 



The influence of the tools used upon the output is large. 
No workman can possibly comply with standard motions 
unless he has the standard tools. No worker should ever 
be obliged to furnish his own tools, if large output is ex- 
pected. When workmen are obliged to furnish their own 
tools (due to their having too much thrift, lack of money, 
or fear of having them stolen), they usually use one size 
only of the same kind of tool. On many kinds of work 
greater output can be obtained by using two or more 
sizes of a tool. 

Example. The bricklayer should use a smaller trowel 
on pressed brick and a larger trowel on common brick. 

Again, where workmen furnish their own tools, they use 
them after they are too much worn. A shovel with a 
worn blade will require several motions to push it into 
the material to fill it. It is cheaper in this case to cut 
off the handle of the shovel, so that the men cannot use 
it. Where no records are kept of their individual outputs 
the men always choose the shovel with the small blade. 

It is especially important that apprentices should be 
supplied with proper tools. According to the usual prac- 
tice the apprentice is taught with any tool procurable. 
He becomes adept and skilled, but often becomes so ac- 
customed to the poor tool he has used that he finds it 
difficult to adapt himself to the use of a better new tool. 
This seriously hinders his complying with demands for 
standard quantities of output. 


Tools should be of standard size and pattern. Workmen 
should invariably be made to use a tool that will enable 
them to make standard-sized outputs instead of using 
a tool that may seem "handier" to them. You cannot 
expect a man to comply with standard motions unless he 
has the standard tool for which his standard instruction 
card was made out. 

The customary method in the past for determining the 
best weight of tool to use was to guess at it, and to 
use that size of tool which was thought to be the 
" handiest," or which it seemed could be used with the 
least fatigue. 

Makers of hand tools cater to the whims of the local 
workmen, and, as a result, hand tools are made of many 
different designs in different parts of the country. Makers 
spend and waste great sums of money making experi- 
ments and conducting selling campaigns of odd or new 
designs of tools that have no merit from a motion-economy 
standpoint. There should be a bureau of testing, where 
the actual value of new shapes, designs, and sizes of tools 
could be tested and rated in percentages of efficiency from 
the standpoint of motion study. 

Critics will say that such a scheme will crowd out new 
designs, and the benefit of the individual's inventions will 
be lost. But it would not; on the contrary, the testing 
would give great stimulus to inventors, designers, and tool 
makers, for they could then obtain the immediate atten- 
tion of the buyers, because they would have the standard 


stamp of merit that comes from the record of a test that 
excelled previous standards. 

We have testing stations for everything else. Think 
what the societies for testing materials have done for the 
progress of the world! Their records are usable forever, in 
any part of the world, once they are made. 

When machines have to be tended, two separate sets of 
motions must be provided for: 

1. The set that the worker uses when he is tending the 

2. The set that the worker uses to prepare tools and 
material for the machine while it does not require his 

All machines have to be tended more or less. Even 
automatic machinery has to have attention, and it is most 
important here to have motion study, because of the earn- 
ing value of the machine being lost while it is shut down. 

One sees occasionally a machine that can have any and 
every lever operated without the operator taking a single 
step, but comparatively few machines are constructed 
with this in mind. 

Machines requiring constant starting and stopping and 
hand feeding or adjusting should have their various levers 
so positioned that the "laws of least effort of simultaneous 
motions" are complied with. 

These laws will be discussed under "Variables of the 
Motion." It is only necessary to say here that motions 
should be similar on each side of a fore and aft vertical 


plane passing through the body. It is so necessary to 
have the motions similar that often counterbalances and 
springs can be installed to reverse the motion, thus also 
causing the hardest work to be done in the most convenient 

Anything that is used very often can be returned to 
place better, as well as with less motions, by gravity, or by 
the application of the gravity by some such means as a string 
and a weight. It requires some skill to use a wrench, but 
it requires no skilled motion or thought to return the wrench 
to its exact resting place with handle pointing in the most 
economical direction for picking up the next time it is used. 

The average machine to-day is designed for a short 
demonstration of quick output, with less regard for the 
least percentage of rest required for overcoming fatigue 
due to continuous operation. With demand will come 
supply of machines that fulfill all economical motion re- 


The local rules of some unions are sometimes a hin- 
drance to standardizing motions and thereby increasing 
output. The higher wages from higher outputs under 
intensive management soon convert the desirable members, 

Many unions believe that extremely high outputs per 
man are against the interests of the union as a whole, on 
the theory that they may "work all of their members out 
of a job." Furthermore, they often think that the sacri- 


fice that their one union may make in the world's en- 
deavor to reduce the cost of living generally, is not properly 
offset by having any one trade or any one locality practic- 
ing intensive outputs. A few practical object lessons of 
the general increase in business resulting from higher 
wages and simultaneously created lower-production costs 
will, however, always convince the most prejudiced be- 
liever in artificially restricted maximum outputs. 

The compensat : on of workers will not be discussed here, 
although the basis of compensation does affect motions. 


Generally speaking, the weight of the unit moved is of 
three kinds: 

1. The weight of that part of the body that is moved. 

2. The weight of a tool used, such as a hammer or 
a trowel. 

3. The weight of material used, such as a brick, or 
the mortar on the trowel. 

Other things being equal, the less of the body moved the 
less fatigue. 

The weight that the tool should be is determined by 
the use of the tool. In the case of a sledge hammer, in- 
creased weight means increased efficiency. A twenty-five 
pound sledge might break a block of granite in halves 
in five blows, while a ten pound hammer might require 
one hundred blows. In the case of a trowel, increased 
weight means decreased efficiency. The heavier the trowel, 


the greater the fatigue with no accompanying gain in 

We have determined that a cutting-out hammer for 
brickwork should weigh, exclusive of the handle, 3.75 
pounds, but that a hammer for drilling plug holes in granite, 
for making dog holes in heavy stone blocks, should weigh 
4 pounds. 

The weight of units moved should be standardized. 

Example. There is undoubtedly a certain sized load 
in a shovel that will enable a first-class man to accom- 
plish the largest output with his maximum effort. Taylor 
has found his weight to be 21.5 pounds. The size of 
shovels that should be used should therefore be desig- 
nated on the instruction card accordingly, and exactly 
21.5 pounds should be the standard unit of weight of 
material shoveled. 


This discussion of the variables of the surroundings, 
etc., is not detailed because general discussion is self- 
evident, and detailed discussion must be too specialized 
to interest the general reader. 

It is only necessary to call attention to the general laws, 
logical and psychological, which underlie these variables, 
and their effect on standardizing motions. Each student 
naturally applies these laws to his own field, and sees for 
himself the opportunities for further study and application. 


A DISCUSSION of variables of the motion opens up a field 
so large that it is only possible here to attempt to show 
the method of investigation, and to show that each vari- 
able is a necessary factor in making motions standard, 
leaving to the universities and to properly created and 
equipped bureaus of the national government the task of 
reducing motion study to an exact science. 


In considering acceleration of speed as an element of 
any motion, we must determine: 

1. The amount of acceleration that it is possible or 

economical to obtain. 

2. The means by which the acceleration can be obtained. 

3. The effect of the acceleration on 

a. Economy in time required to make the motion. 

b. Economy in time required for rest to overcome 

the fatigue of having made the motion. 

Examples. i. Laying brick on a wall from a floor, 
from the height of the floor level up to three feet eight 
inches high above the floor, can be done with greatest speed 


when the brick to be picked up are each maintained at a 
height of one foot three inches, plus two-thirds the height 
that the wall is higher than the level of the floor on which 
the bricklayer stands. The brick to be picked up should 
never be higher than three feet eight inches under any 

By maintaining the height of the brick to be laid in this 
relative position to the height of the wall, the brick will 
always be in a position that permits the bricklayer to 
accelerate the speed of transportation of the brick by using 
the path of the quickest speed. 

While bricklayers know nothing about this in theory, 
they very soon discover it in practice by means of their 
higher recorded output. Greater outputs will be notice- 
able as an immediate result of maintaining the brick as 
nearly as possible at the heights above stated. 

2. In laying the filling tiers in any one course, it is most 
economical to lay the farthest filling tier first and the next 
farthest tier second, and so on. This enables the brick- 
layer to accelerate the speed of transportation of the brick 
up to the instant that it is deposited in the mortar. 

The above practice is, of course, much more important 
on shove-joint work than on brick-and-brick construction. 

3. The possible benefits from acceleration should be 
taken into consideration when determining the sequence 
in which the tiers shall be laid. The position of the feet 
of the bricklayer is an important factor in obtaining the 
acceleration desired. For the best results the feet should 


be on separate springy planks, so that the transportation 
of the brick can be speeded up, in addition to the speed of 
the arms by simply throwing the body by the aid of the 
spring of the plank. (See Fig. 13.) 


Nearly all often-repeated motions become automatic. 
This is especially true of motions that require no careful 
supervision of mind or eye. 

The automaticity of motions is of great assistance to 
the worker whose training and methods conform to stand- 
ardized motions. This fact makes it necessary to have 
the apprentice taught the right motions first, last, and 

The automaticity of motions is a hindrance to the 
worker who has been accustomed to old-fashioned sur- 
roundings, equipment, and tools, and who must adapt 
himself to standard surroundings. 

Example. A remarkable example of making unneces- 
sary motions as a matter of habit is noticeable in places 
where the local bricklayers have been accustomed to laying 
brick that have a decided difference in the top and bottom. 
This difference makes it necessary to lay no brick upside 
down on the line. When these bricklayers first worked 
from packets with the brick in the right position to seize 
right-side up, they would invariably flop and spin each 
brick in their hands, first wrong-side up and then back 
again to the original right-side-up position. 


The worker who has been trained wrong also finds it 
difficult to change his habits when he conforms to standard 

Example. Occasionally we find the bricklayer who 
will spin or flop a brick that is to be laid in the middle of 
the wall, although it makes no difference which face of the 
brick is uppermost in these tiers. 

The best way to cure motions that are not necessary but 
that are made from force of habit is to count the motions 
aloud, endeavoring to keep down to the standard number 
of standard motions. 

When work is done by both hands simultaneously, it 
can be done quickest and with least mental effort if the 
work is done by both hands in a similar manner; that is 
to say, when one hand makes the same motions to the 
right as the other does to the left. 

Most work is accomplished when both hands start work 
at the same time, and when the motions can be made at 
the same relative position on each side of a central fore 
and aft vertical plane dividing the worker's body sym- 

Even if motions cannot be planned to be similar for 
each hand and performed simultaneously, the plane in 
which the work is to be done should be carefully located. 

If motions are so arranged as to be balanced, as sug- 
gested, it is possible not only to take advantage of automa- 
ticity, but also to cut down jar to the body. It is on this 
well-known principle that the shockless jarring machine is 


built. Balanced motions counteract each other. The result 
is, less bracing of the body is necessary, and less fatigue 


A motion may be combined with motions that are 
(a) similar to it, and (b) dissimilar to it. 

(a) If the motions combined are similar to it, advantage 
must be taken of the automaticity. Care must also be 
taken that all the motions made in a series of similar 
motions are necessary. Sometimes one effective motion 
is preferable to several not so effective. 

Examples. i . When tapping a brick down to grade 
with a trowel, one brisk tap will do the work as well as 
several light taps, and with much less time and effort. 

2 . If it is necessary to spread mortar on a face tier, one 
stroke of the trowel will do the work as well as several. 

(b) If the motions combined are dissimilar, two motions 
may often be transformed into one. 

Example. The motion used to spread mortar may be 
combined with the motion used to butter the end of the 
brick laid just before the mortar was thrown. Thus, the 
two operations may be transformed into one, and a saving 
of time and motions will result. In fact, so doing may 
have other distinct advantages, such as leaving better 
keying for plastering direct upon the wall. 

This subject of combinations of motions can barely be 


touched here. Its full treatment involves all other vari- 
ables, and it can never be considered standardized till 
each separate motion is a standard. 


The cost of motions, absolute and relative, is a subject 
too large for any person, firm, or corporation to hope to 
cover. If complete data are ever to be gathered on it, the 
cost keeping, recording, and deducing will have to be done 
by the government. 

But all work done by the individual investigator will 
result in real cost reducing, with increase of output, which 
is the ultimate purpose of all motion study. 

The relative cost of labor and material must be considered. 

Examples. i. A bricklayer should never stop to pick 
up dropped mortar. The mortar dropped is not so val- 
uable as the motions necessary to save it. 

2. That quality of mortar that is easiest handled by 
the bricklayer is usually cheapest. The cost of grinding 
up the lumps in the sand, cement, and lime is less than the 
cost of the motions necessary to pick the lumps out with 
a trowel. 

3. It is usually cheaper to fill a closer, say less than one- 
half a brick in size, on the interior tiers, with even the best 
of cement, than it is to cut a special piece of brick to fit or 
to walk a few steps to find one the right size. The extra 
cost of the mortar is negligible compared with the cost of 
the motions. 


The relative cost of motions of higher and lower grades A/ 
of labor must also be considered. 

It is obvious that, other things being equal, it is cheaper 
to have a low-priced man instead of a high-priced man 
make the same motion; but only the most careful study 
can determine all of the motions that could be taken from 
the high-priced man and allotted to one or more grades of 
lower-priced men. This can never be wholly or properly 
accomplished until our present trades, with their inher- 
ited conditions and traditions, have been reclassified to 
meet modern conditions. 

In some trades it is very difficult to effect such division 
of work, as unions are opposed to having anything relating 
to skilled work done by laborers. ; 

Examples. i. In the most highly unionized districts 
carpenters only are allowed to unload the rough lumber 
from the cars, and none but carpenters are allowed to 
transport, lift, and erect, as well as to fabricate it. 

2. In bricklaying the case is slightly different. The 
work of transporting the brick to the place where they are 
to be laid has always been done by tenders and laborers. 
The bricklayer never wheels or carries brick. This is a 
tradition long handed down. Yet he is most jealous that 
no part of his own work shall be done by a tender or 
a laborer. 

During the time that brick construction was practically" 
without competitors in its field, the bricklayer could insist 
on his ancient privileges and prosper. 


The inroads of concrete, both plain and reinforced, how- 
ever, have changed conditions, and the bricklayer himself 
is, more than any other one factor, the cause of many cases 
of substitutions of concrete for brick. 

The architecture of any country is determined by the 
relative cost of building materials in place, and the history 
of the world shows that the way to get the most of any one 
thing used is to make it the lowest in price. 

The one thing that will reduce the price of brickwork 
more than any other is to reduce the cost of the motions. 

After the laws underlying motion study have all been 
applied, the cost of motions can still be reduced from one- 
third to one-half by separating the motions of the brick- 
layer into at least two classes, such as, for example: 

1. Those that require skill. 

2. Those that require nothing but strength, endurance, 
and speed. 

Those that require skill should be divided into several 
classes, according to the amount of skill required; those 
that chiefly require skill should be handled by mechanics, 
and those that chiefly require strength, endurance, and 
speed should be handled by specially trained laborers. 
This is the only way to enable brickwork to compete with 
concrete, when all of the architects, engineers, owners, 
and contractors shall have learned the full possibilities of 

It will be urged that such division of the work of 
bricklaying will lower die general skill of the bricklayers 


as a class. Far from it! All operations requiring skill 
will remain in the hands of the bricklayer, who, escaping 
all work that unskilled hands could do, will have the more 
time and energy to devote to the "art" element of his work. 

But we are not at this time discussing "brickwork as a 
lost art" -we cite bricklaying here as an example of the 
cost of motions, the result of the effects of cost of motions, 
and of the possibilities and importance of motion study as 
a method of attack in cost reducing and in standardizing 
the trades for the greatest possible economy. 

What greater service can the bricklayer do both his trade 
and the people who own or occupy houses than to reduce 
the cost of the motions in brickwork without reducing his 
own wages or increasing his hours? 

The elimination of wastes is the problem that has been 
forced to the attention of the entire world to-day, and of 
America particularly. The elimination of wastes in the 
trades offers the largest field for savings. 

Every trade must be reclassified, and must have the 
brawn motions separated from the skill motions. Scien- 
tific division of the work to be done is as sure to result in 
higher wages and lower production costs as did F. W. 
Taylor's separating the planning from the performing. 

The reason that our country is not astounded and con- 
fused at the appalling unnecessary loss to its inhabitants 
on account of unnecessary, wasteful, and improper mo- 
tions of its workers is due to ignorance of the existence of 
this loss, and to ignorance of any method of eliminating it. 

-. , 


The loss due to the present classification of the trades 
alone is probably more than sufficient to pension, under 
full pay, one-half of the workers of the country; is cer- 
tainly enough to enable all of the women and children in 
the trades to remain out of the trades and be paid at 
their regular wages. 

While such action is not even recommended, the illus- 
tration is used to emphasize the enormous waste going 
on daily and yearly. 

That we go on year after year submitting to this waste 
because our present trades are handled in accordance 
with ancient conditions entirely out of place in our pres- 
ent civilization, is no longer necessary and without 

Let the government t:all its scientific managerial experts 
together and make a test of one trade, reclassify it, and 
publish the data. The object lesson thus presented will 
cause to be taken the necessary further steps to remedy 
the present system of handling the trades. The workers will 
each be able to earn higher wages when the unions see that 
they are benefited, and the labor interests will cooperate. 
The cost of living will be reduced as by no other means, 
and all this by scientifically reclassifying the trades! 


In most cases, the direction of a motion that is most 
economical is the one that utilizes gravitation the most. 
Oftentimes delivering material to a high-priced work- 



man by leaving the material in a high position also makes 
easy unloading for the low-priced workman. 

Example. Stacking up packs 2 feet high saves motions, 
and saves stooping when the laborer unloads his trucket. 
(See Fig. 21.) 

" Direction" admirably serves as an illustration of the 

Fig. 21. Trucket for storing reserve packs stacked up 2 ft. high, 
to save stooping when it is being unloaded. 

close interrelation of the variables. It is closely con- 
nected with "path." It involves discussions of anatomy, 
acceleration, and speed. It demands consideration of all 
variables of surroundings, equipment, and tools. 

The best " direction of motion" is not only important 
in itself for increase of output; it must also be kept con- 
stantly in mind in standardizing the placing of both 
materials and men. 



Effectiveness has been touched upon in discussing 
" combination with other motions." 

An effective motion is one that produces the desired 
result. Oftentimes whole processes, methods, and oper- 
ations can be so changed as to make the succeeding 
motions much more effective. 

Example. --The introduction of the fountain trowel, 

Fig. 22. The Fountain Trowel. 

used in connection with an ordinary trowel, made each 
motion in handling mortar much more effective. (See 
Figs. 19, 22.) 

After all, a human being or a work animal is a power 
plant, and is subject to nearly all the laws that govern 
and limit the power plant. It is a law of motion study 


that, other things being equal, the less number of footr ( j 
pounds of work done by the workman, the smaller percent4 
age of working hours he must devote to rest to overcome^ 

It is therefore of great importance in obtaining the 
largest possible output that the work shall be so arranged 
and the workman so placed that he can do his work with 
the least possible amount of foot-pounds of work done per 
unit of output accomplished. This is where the philan- 
thropic employer has often been rewarded without know- 
ing it. In his desire to make conditions such that the 
workman was most comfortable while working, he .re- 
duced the number of foot-pounds of work to that which 
was absolutely necessary to do the work. He surrounded V 
the workman with conditions that enabled him to have no 
fatigue, except that which was acquired from the motions 
of the work itself: He made conditions such that the 
workman was enabled to overcome the fatigue from his 
motions in the quickest possible time. (See Fig. 23.) 


There are two ways by which the amount of inertia 
and momentum may be reduced. 

i. By standardizing surroundings and equipment so 
that the inertia and the momentum are limited to practi- 
cally that of the materials, and not the materials plus 
arms and body. 


Example. Picking up ninety pounds of brick at one 

2. By so standardizing motions that as few starts and 
stops as possible occur from the time the material leaves 
the sto?k pile till the time it is in its final resting place in 
the work. 

Example. In laying brick by the " pick-and-dip " 
method on face tiers, a brick is lifted in one hand and a 
trowel full of mortar in the other. The brick must come 
to a full stop in the bricklayer's hand while the mortar is 
being laid and the bed prepared, and then move to its 
final resting place, unless brick and mortar are dropped in 
two different places. 

In laying brick by the " stringing- mortar " method, the 
mortar is laid and the bed prepared before the bricks are 
lifted. The brick are conveyed from the pack to the wall 
without interruption or delay. 

Standard methods of performing work may enable the 
worker to utilize the momentum. 

Example. If the bricks are conveyed from the stock 
platform or pack to the wall with no stops, the momentum 
can be made to do valuable work by assisting to shove 
the joints full of mortar. If, instead of being utilized, 
the momentum must be overcome by the muscles of the 
bricklayer, fatigue, not full joints, will result. 

The ideal case is to move the brick in a straight 
path and make the contact with the wall overcome the 




A general rule of motion economy is to make the short- 
est motions possible. 
Eliminating unnecessary distances that workers' hands 

Fig. 23. Common type of Trestle Horse Staging. Bricklayers cannot be 
expected to lay as many brick per day when working in this position as 
when standing up between a wall and a stock platform, each 2 ft. high. 

and arms must travel, will eliminate miles of motions per 
man in a working day as compared with usual practice. 

Example. Put the wheelbarrow body as close as pos- 
sible to the pile that is to be put into it, so that the dis- 
tance the packets are carried from the pile to the barrow, 


or the sand from the pile to the barrow, will be the shortest 
distance possible. 

Of the necessary distance to be walked or reached, 
have as much of it as possible done by the low-priced 
man, and have as little of it as possible done by the high- 
priced man. 

Example. - With brick, have the tender put the pack 
of brick as near the final resting place of the brick as con- 
ditions will permit, so that when the high-priced man picks 
up a pack of, say, eighteen bricks, he requires a short mo- 
tion only. 

Have the high-priced worker always use first the stock 
that is nearest, this rule requiring the shortest motions 
in conveying the stock to its final resting place. 

Example. In picking up brick from a packet or a 
scaffold the nearest brick should be picked up first. The 
brick that are farthest away serve as a reserve stock pile, 
to be picked up only in the emergency of not having any 
others nearer to pick up. It may be that the brick farthest 
away may not need to be used on that piece of work at 
all, or at least their place will not be occupied so many 
times by bricks to be transported with longer motions. 

Standard tools, equipment, and surroundings are essen- 
tial if length of motions is to be made standard. 

As already said when discussing clothes, the workman 
of the present should have even his overalls, belt, and 
clothes so designed that they will hold the different kinds 
of tools that are oftenest used, so that they may be picked 


up in the shortest time that is, with pockets for nails, 
clips, clamps, etc. The tools should be so placed that 
the least and shortest motions can be used after they are 
picked up, as cartridges are placed in a cartridge belt. 


The necessity of the motion is such an important vari- 
able that an investigator is tempted at first glance to 
divide all motions into necessary and unnecessary, and 
to eliminate with one stroke those that appear to him 
unnecessary. A more thorough investigation will be 
apt to prove that no such summary elimination is 

A motion may be an unnecessary motion in a necessary 
sequence, or it may be a necessary motion in a certain 
sequence, but the whole sequence may be unnecessary or 

Example. In opening a paper bag of cement the aver- 
age untrained laborer usually cuts the bag in two and re- 
moves the paper in several pieces and with many motions. 
The correct way is to cut the bottom with a shovel and 
pull the bag upward in one piece by grasping the bag just 
above the string. 

This example shows both how motions may be unneces- 
sary in themselves and how they may belong to a sequence 
that is unnecessary. 

The only final solution as to the necessity of a motion 
will come when the trades are completely standardized. 


It is impossible to determine whether or not a motion is 
absolutely necessary until the method of doing the work 
in which it is used is standard. 

Examples. i. Motions which were relatively proved 
necessary in laying brick by the "pick-and-dip" method 
or " stringing-mortar " method, the brick being lifted from 
the stock platform, became absolutely unnecessary when 
the "packet-on-the-wall" method of handling brick was 

2. The same thing is true of motions eliminated by 
handling mortar in a fountain trowel. 

The final solution of the problem of necessity of motions 
will be discussed later, though the subject is so large that 
no amount of discussion could do more than touch it. 


The determination of the path which will result in the 
greatest economy of motion and the greatest increase of 
output is a subject for the closest investigation and the 
most scientific determination. Not until data are accu- 
mulated by trained observers can standard paths be 
adopted. The laws underlying physics, physiology, and 
psychology must be considered and followed. In the 
meantime, merely applying the results of observation will 
reduce motions and costs and increase output to an 
amazing degree. 

The path most desirable is usually that which permits 
gravitation to assist in carrying the material to place. 


Example. We have found that the most economical 
height for laying brick is twenty-four inches above where 
the bricklayer stands, while it is most economical to pick 
the brick from a height about three feet above where the 
bricklayer stands; that is, about one foot higher than the 
top of the wall where the brick is to be laid. 

The path is affected by the direction that the material 
is to be shoved as it moves into its final resting place. 

Examples. When the packet is placed on the wall it 
should be placed so that the brick can be picked up and 
moved in a comparatively straight line with the direction 
that the brick will be shoved for filling a joint. 

In theory the ideal path would be in a line of quickest 
speed from the stock platform to the wall. 

In practice it is seldom that the most economical path for 
carrying a brick or mortar from the stock platform to the 
wall is exactly a straight line from one to the other. It 
will generally be most economical to move the brick in 
the path that will bend the arms the least and that will 
permit almost a swing from the shoulder. 


Each motion should be made so as to be most eco- 
nomically combined with the next motion, like the bil- 
liard player who plays for position. 

The direction in which a motion is made may affect the 
time required for a subsequent motion. 

Example. In laying brick the motion of placing the 


mortar for the end joint can be done quickest if it is done 
in the direction of the next motion, such, for example, as 
the next motion that puts the trowel in the position to 
cut off the hanging mortar. 

The sequence of motions in bricklaying, that determines * 
when the particular motion is to be made that puts the 
mortar in the end joint, depends upon whether the "pick- 
and-dip" or the " stringing-mortar " method is used. 

When the motions are made in the correct sequence, 
many of them can be combined so that two, and in some 
cases three, motions can be made as one motion, in but 
little more time than is required for one motion. 

Example. Cutting off mortar, buttering the end of the 
laid brick, and reaching for more mortar all as one motion, 
in the "pick-and-dip" method. 


Usually, the faster the motions, the more output. There 
are other advantages to speed of motions besides the fact 
that they require less time. Speed increases momentum, 
and this momentum may be utilized to do work. 

Example. The momentum of the brick helps to shove 
the mortar better into the joint. 

Again, high outputs are generally the result of the 
habit of speed in motions. Habits of speed are hard to 
form, and they are hard to break. 

Next to fewest motions, speed of motions is the most 
important factor of high record of outputs. 


The list of variables here given makes no claim to being 
complete. The field of study is so immense that it is im- 
possible as yet to give a complete and detailed method of 

It will be noted in reading the discussion of the vari- 
ables that it has been found extremely difficult to handle 
each one separately. It is needless to tell the student, the 
investigator, the cost-reducing manager, that, difficult as 
the task is, for the best results each variable must be 
studied alone. The effects of all variables but one must 
be eliminated, or, better perhaps, all variables but one 
must be maintained constant. 

Quicker results may often be obtained by studying 
several variables simultaneously, and for short jobs this 
may be advisable. But for long jobs of repetitive work 
there is no way so accurate and satisfactory as studying 
one variable at a time. 




CONSIDERED in relation to the time during which it has 
been applied to the trades, scientific motion study can show 
most satisfactory results. 

The workers in the field as well as in the office have been 
quick to appreciate and adopt the new methods suggested 
by motion economy. 

This has been especially the case in the crafts. Nearly 
every proficient workman loves his trade. He loves the 
joy of achievement. He can achieve most when useless 
motions have been eliminated for him, and he welcomes 
improvements, as the bricklayers have welcomed the brick 
coming right side up on the packet. 

To the casual reader it may seem that the task of evolv- 
ing standard practice from usual present practice, and 
from the best practice, is simply a case of observing, re- 
cording, and eliminating. The student will see that it 
requires the closest concentration to do even the necessary 

scientific observing and recording, while to deduce and 


XV ^ OF 


systematize standard motions for any one trade would 
furnish a life work for several trained scientists. 

It is a difficult task for an inexperienced or untrained 
observer to divide an operation correctly into its motions. 
Enumerating the variables that affect each motion is a 
task big enough to satisfy the most ambitious student of 
waste elimination. 


We have found it helpful in recording our observa- 
tions to use charts. Some such form as that shown on 
pages 88 and 89 is used. 

This chart is one made during an observation of bricklay- 
ing before the invention of the packet, the packet scaffold, 
and the fountain trowel. 

The operation of laying a brick was divided into the 
motions of which it consisted (column i). The usual 
(present) practice of the time (given as "the wrong way," 
column 2) showed the units into which the operation was 
divided. The best practice of the time ("the right way," 
column 3, now obsolete) was charted in such a way that 
its relation from a motion standpoint to the usual practice 
was clearly shown. 

Column 4 shows how the usual practice may be trans- 
formed into the best practice. It would serve as an in- 
struction card to the workman, showing him not only 
where his method needed to be improved but also exactly 
how to improve it. 








o o 

42 fl 






F-H 3 

ft ^ 






c 3 




v. ^ 










rt ^ 





tfl 0) 








j^ ^ 

.S 1 ! 


i i 




2 B 





than 4 














flj fH 

s l 











o m ft 

a:s * 

<u' '*' 

13 *"" > 





f right consistency. Exa 
can get through. Keep 
up right. 

ft. apart, no stepping w: 
not nearer than i ft. noi 


u ,2 m 



"rt D 3 
s* 3 


S rt 

t!* &" 





In 2 



rried from pile to wall at 
without pause or jerk. 



5 C/2 


1 y 

Lu HH 



I 1 




O . 

q s 

Provide mortar ol 
so that no pebbles 
keep mortar worked 

If tubs are kept 4 
keep brick in a pile 




S o'-S 

^ s 
!3* a 




^ j.S 


H D be 



6 2 

a H 



2 -3 3? 







Q H 


5 & ^j 









W W 




* JN 


t i 



o _ 















































H NO * in ' , *O t^ oo 







* o 






3i . 



"o * 









K, * 














^ 3 





T " 







f 5 








^ c 

o o 



rt *> 












3 "' 


S a 




c ' 



= . 


-^ J 

J3 ? 







55 > 


w d^ 


3 S 


c M * 





; mortar must be thrown so as to 
ortar runs up on the end of the pn 
be filled out. 








out this space if the brick is held s 
ick is kid on mortar it presses moi 
i brick. It takes no longer to cut 

ien this mortar is cut off it can be 
laid, or it can be carried on the trt 

he mortar is of the right consistenc; 
d, and the bricks are as wet as poi 
the trowel will be necessary. 





not cut off the mortar oftener tha 
, do not let it fall to the ground; 
another motion by throwing it at 
as another motion. 

:al number of motions per brick. 


fi B tS 

E- 1 o> 3 







ti E 8 









^ * 






& "u 

I 1 : 







O rt 




























"u o 

S C 








a 1 1 








'?, u 







rO T 



This chart, together with a plan showing the workman 
where he should put the stock and where he should place 
his feet (Fig. 14), and with pictures showing how he should 
lay the brick, etc., proved most successful for instruction 
as well as for recording. 

At first glance this chart, and the others like it, which 
we used at that time, seem very crude. In fact, compared 
to what has since been done to standardize operations, 
they are crude. But they mark a distinct phase of motion 
study. They show plainly, as careful reading will prove, 
that an earnest study of motions will automatically pro- 
mote the growth of the study. 

For example, study of column 4 in the sample chart 
given led to the invention of the packet scaffold, the 
packet, the fountain trowel, and several other of the best 
devices, and the u packet-on- the- wall" method now used 
in brickwork. 

These inventions in their turn necessitated an entirely 
new set of motions to perform the operation of laying a 

i So, likewise, the progression also went on before the 
days of conscious motion study: observation, explanation, 
invention, elimination, and again observation, in an upward 
helix of progress. 

The great point to be observed is this: Once the vari- 
ables of motions are determined, and the laws of underly- 
ing motions and their efficiency deduced, conformity to 
these laws will result in standard motions, standard tools, 


standard conditions, and standard methods of performing 
the operations of the trades. 

Conformity to these laws allows standard practice to be 
attained and used. If the standard methods are deduced 
before the equipment, tools, surroundings, etc., are stand- 
ardized, the invention of these standard means is as sure 
as the appearance of a celestial body at the time and place 
where mathematics predicts that it will appear. 

It is as well to recognize first as last that real progress 
from the best present method to the standard method can 
never be made solely by elimination. The sooner this is 
recognized the better. Elimination is often an admirable 
makeshift. But the only real progress comes through a 
reconstruction of the operation, building it up of stand- 
ardized units, or elements. 

It is also well to recognize the absolute necessity of the 
trained scientific investigator. The worker cannot, by him- 
self, arrange to do his work in the most economical manner 
in accordance with the laws of motion study. Oftentimes, 
in fact nearly always, the worker will believe that the new 
method takes longer than the old method. At least he 
will be positive that many parts, or elements, of the pro- 
cess when done under the new method take longer than 
under the old style, and will not be in sympathy with the 
scheme because he is sure that the new way is not so 
efficient as his old way. All of which shows that the worker 
himoelf cannot tell which are the most advantageous 
motions. He must judge by the fatigue that he feels, or 


else by the quantity of output accomplished in a given 
time. To judge by the quantity of output accomplished in 
a given time is more of a test of effort than a test of mo- 
tion study, and oftentimes that element that will produce 
the most output is the one that will cause the least fatigue. 

The difference in amount of merit between any two 
methods can perhaps be best determined by timing the 
elements of the motions used in each. This is the method 
of attack usually accepted as best, because it separates each 
motion into its variables and analyzes them one at a time. 
It is out of the question to expect a workman to do such 
timing and to do his work at the same time. Furthermore, 
it is an art in itself to take time-study observations, an art 
that probably takes longer to master than does shorthand, 
typewriting, telegraphy, or drafting. 

Few workers have had an opportunity to learn the art 
of making and using time-study observations, because 
our school educators have not had any mental grasp 
of the subject themselves. Add to the difficulties to be 
overcome in acquiring the knowledge of observing, re- 
cording, and analyzing the time-study records, the knowl- 
edge necessary to build up synthetically the correct method 
with each element strictly in accordance with the laws 
of motion economy each by itself and when used together 
in the particular determined sequence, and you will see 
the reason why the worker by himself has not devised, 
cannot, and never will be expected to devise, the ultimate 
method of output. It does not then, after all, seem so 


queer that the workman's output can always be doubled 
and oftentimes more than tripled by scientific motion study. 
Again, scientifically attained methods only can become 
Ultimate methods. 

Any method which seems after careful study to have 
attained perfection, using absolutely the least number of 
most effective, shortest motions, may be thrown aside 
when a new way of transporting or placing material or 
men is introduced. It is pitiful to think of the time, money, 
strength, and brains that have been wasted on devising 
and using wonderfully clever but not fundamentally de- 
rived methods of doing work, which must inevitably be 
discarded for the latter. 

The standardizing of the trades will utilize every atom 
of such heretofore wasted energy. 

The standardizing of the trades affords a definite best 
method of doing each element. 

Having but one standard method of doing each element 
divides the amount of time-study data necessary to take 
by a number equal to the number of different equally good 
methods that could be used. 

The greatest step forward can be made only when time- 
study data can be made by one and used by all. A system 
of interchange and cooperation in the use of the data of 
scientific management can then be used by all persons 

This reduction and simplification of taking time study is 
the real reason for insistence upon making and maintain- 


ing standards for the largest down to the smallest insig- 
nificant tool or device used. 

Much toward standardizing the trades has already been 
done. In this, as in almost countless other lines of activity, 
the investigator turns oftenest with admiration to the 
work of Frederick W. Taylor. It is the never-ceasing 
marvel concerning this man that age cannot wither nor 
custom stale his work. After many a weary day's study 
the investigator awakes from a dream of greatness to 
find that he has only worked out a new proof for a problem 
that Taylor has already solved. 

Time study, the instruction card, functional foreman- 
ship, the differential rate piece method of compensation, 
and numerous other scientifically derived methods of de- 
creasing costs and increasing output and wages these are 
by no means his only contributions toward standardizing 
the trades whose value it would be difficult to overesti- 
mate; they are but a few of the means toward attaining 
standards which have been placed by Taylor, their dis- 
coverer, within the hands of any man willing to use them. 

The great need to-day in standardizing the trades is for 
cooperation. In other times all excellent methods or 
means were held as "trade secrets," sometimes lost to the 
world for generations until rediscovered. The day for 
this is past. Thinkers of to-day recognize that the work 
to be done is so great that, given all that every one has 


accomplished and is accomplishing, there is room and to 
spare for every worker who cares to enter the field. Co- 
operation and team work is the crying need. 

Conservation and comparison of knowledge, experi- 
ments, data and conclusions are what we need. The 
various engineering journals are to be commended for 
recognizing the importance of this, and for furnishing an 
excellent means for recording and spreading much needed 

The ideal conservator of knowledge in this, as in all 
other branches, would be the United States government. 
The government should maintain a permanent bureau, with 
experiment stations, as is done with the Department of 

Individual investigators, corporations, and colleges, all 
would be willing to turn over the results of their work to 
such a government bureau. The colleges would cooperate 
with such a bureau, as do the agricultural colleges with 
the Department of Agriculture. The bulletins of such a 
bureau would be invaluable to the men in the trades, as 
are the agricultural bulletins to the farmers. 

The Department of Agriculture is an excellent model. 
The form for a department or bureau of trades is all at 
hand. It is only necessary to translate the language of 
agriculture into the language of labor. It is only through 
such a bureau that the trades can formally be standardized. 

Such a bureau would have two main tasks: (i) To sub- 
classify the trades; (2) To standardize the trades. 


The first task should be successfully completed before 
the second is undertaken. 

We have spoken briefly, in considering cost of motions, 
, o" the necessity of separating those motions that require 
* skill from those that require nothing but strength., and 
{ endurance. 

This sub-classifying of the trades according to the types 
or grades of motions that they use, or according to the 
brawn, brain, training, and skill required to make the 
motions, will cut down production costs. It will raise 
the standards of all classes. It will do away with differ- 
ences between employers and employees. It will eliminate 
unnecessary waste. It will raise the wages of all workers. 
It will reduce the cost of living. 

We might call such a sub-classification as desired a 
functional " classification of the trades. 

For example, for brickwork we recommend five classes: 

Class A. Ornamental and exterior face brick and 
molded terra cotta. 

Class B. Interior face tiers that do not show at com- 
pletion, where strong, plumb, and straight work only is 

Class C. Filling tiers where only strength is needed. 

Class D. Putting fountain trowels and brick packs on 
the wall near the place, and in the manner where the other 
three classes can reach them with greatest economy of 

Class E. Pack loaders, brick cullers, and stage builders. 



The pay of the A and B classes should be considerably 
higher than is customary for bricklayers. The pay of the 
C, D, and E classes should be lower than is customary for 
bricklayers, but much higher than the pay of laborers. 
This classification will raise the pay of all five classes 
higher than they could ever obtain in the classes that they 
would ordinarily work in under the present system, yet 
the resulting cost of the labor on brickwork would be 
much less, and each class would be raised in its standing /) 
and educated for better work and higher wages. 

In the case of brickwork this new classification is a cry- 
ing necessity, as the cost of brickwork must be reduced 
to a point where it can compete* with concrete. Im- 
provements in making, methods of mixing, transporting, 
and densifying concrete in the metal molds of to-day 
have put the entire brickwork proposition where it can be 
used for looks only, because for strength, imperviousness, 
quickness of construction, lack of union labor troubles, 
and low cost, brickwork cannot compete with concrete 
under present conditions. 

Having sub-classified the trades, the second step is to 
standardize them. 

And both classification and standardization demand 
motion study. 

The United States government has already spent mil- 
lions and used many of the best of minds on the subject 
of motion study as applied to war; the motions of the 
sword, gun, and bayonet drill are wonderfully perfect from 


! the standpoint of the requirements of their use. This same 
study should be applied to the arts of peace. 

It is obvious that this work must and will be done in 
time. But there is inestimable loss in every hour of delay. 
The waste of energy of the workers in the industries to-day 
is pitiful. But it is far more important that the coming 
generation of workers should be scientifically trained. 

The science of management of the future will demand 
that the trades be taught in accordance with the motion 
standards of a United States Bureau of Standardization 
of Mechanical Trades. The present method of teaching 
an apprentice is the most unbusinesslike event that takes 
place in any of our industrial institutions. 

We have never heard of a trades school, manual training 
school, or technical school that makes any attempt to 
solve questions of motion study. The usual process is to 
teach a student or apprentice to do his work well first, 
and after he has finally accomplished the art of making or 
doing the thing in question, then to expect him to learn 
to do it quickly.^ This process is a relic of the dark ages. 
A novice should be taught to do what he is trying to do 
with certain definite motions, and to repeat the opera- 
tion until he is able automatically to use the standard 
motions and do good work. // 

If an apprentice bricklayer, blacksmith, or tool sharpener, 
for example, is not instructed to count his motions when 
doing a certain piece of work, he will surely get into the 
habit of making extra motions that cannot be omitted 


later without almost as much effort as that spent in learn- 
ing the trade. There is little incentive for an old mechanic 
to teach a boy so that he will excel his teacher, and per- 
haps run him out of a job about the time that he, the 
apprentice, becomes expert. 

One of the most common causes for neglecting the 
important subject of motion study is that the boss of the 
establishment is not himself really a master of the trade 
that is being taught, or, if he was master once, has for- 
gotten it because there are no books or systems that have 
so described, charted, and illustrated his trade as to refresh 
his memory^ 

Again the teacher is often a mechanic who is not trained 
to impart what knowledge he has, has never studied peda- 
gogy, and is expected to do a full day's work at the same 
time that he is teaching his apprentice. 

The arts and trades of human beings should be studied, 
charted, photographed, and motion-pictured, and every em- 
ployer, apprentice, and student should be able to receive 
bulletins of his trade for a sum equal to the cost to a farmer 
of a bulletin from the Department of Agriculture instruct- 
ing how to increase the outputs of cows, hens, and bees. 

One great aid toward cutting down the work of every one 
out of the trades as well as in, would be the standardizing 
of our written alphabet to conform to the laws of motion 
study. The most offhand analysis of our written alpha- 
bet shows that it is full of absolutely useless strokes, all of 
which require what are really wasted motions. 


Consider the single example of the first stroke on the 
first letter of each word. Here is a motion that can be 
eliminated wholly. While its existence is necessary in type 
that represents handwriting or imitates engraved plate 
work, and in enameled separate letters of window signs, its 
adoption and use in handwriting is of no purpose and is 
wrong from the standpoint of motion economy. 

Each letter of our written alphabet is a natural devia- 
tion from our printed alphabet that is the result of leaving 
the pencil on the paper. 

Now the time has arrived for revising our written lan- 
guage by means of a new scientifically invented alphabet 
specially devised for the purpose of securing clearer writ- 
ing, made of connected letters, each designed of itself and in 
connection with all the other letters, so that it conforms to 
the laws of motion economy. This is not a suggestion that 
we should adopt stenographic signs for words or sounds, 
although a general knowledge of one standard steno- 
graphic system would also be a great benefit to a nation. 

The suggestion is, that in as much as it is the aim of 
our nation that all citizens should be able to read and 
write, a new written alphabet should be devised for us 
that shall conform to the laws of motion study, that we 
all can increase either our outputs in writing or else that we 
all may be able to do such writing as we are obliged to do 
in less time. 

It is to be hoped that an international society of highly 
trained educators, similar to those composing the Simplified 


Spelling Board, may be called together, as was the Sim- 
plified Spelling Board, to give this matter immediate 
attention. A written alphabet for all languages of the 
world should be determined and used not only by the 
users of each language, but also by the societies advocating 
and promulgating such world's second or international lan- 
guages as Volapiik and Esperanto. 

One great drawback to the more rapid progress of any 
artificial or second language has been the difficulty of 
reading the correspondence between enthusiasts who were 
proficient in speaking their thoroughly agreed upon inter- 
national language. 

It would not be desirable to abandon our present written -*- 
alphabet. There are now literally hundreds of different 
styles of lettering that all can read, yet how few of them 
can any of us make with pen or pencil. 

To add one more style of lettering to the now existing 
hundreds could scarcely be considered as confusing by even 
those who are constitutionally opposed to changes in any- 

Therefore, there should be devised one more style of 
lettering, specially adapted to cutting down the time of 
writing and adding to the general legibility when written 

Let this be our second written language. Let us use 
the present system and the new one. Let the generations 
to come have the benefit of the application of science to 
their future writing, and let the present style be also used, 


provided it does not die the natural death in the combat 
of the survival of the fittest. 

We may have to wait for international coinage, inter- 
national postage stamps, international courts, international 
arbitration, and international weights and measures; but 
there can be no reason for not having an international 
system of written alphabetical characters, and while hav- 
ing it let us decide in favor of that system that fulfills 
the requirements of motion study, both of the hand in 
making, and of the eye in reading. 


In the meantime, while we are waiting for the politicians 
and educators to realize the importance of this subject and 
to create the bureaus and societies to undertake and com- 
plete the work, we need not be idle. There is work in 
abundance to be done. 

Motion study must be applied to all the industries. 
Our trade schools and colleges can: 

1. Observe the best work of the best workers. 

2. Photograph the methods used. 

3. Record the methods used. 

4. Record outputs. 
'5. Record costs. 

6. Deduce laws. 

7. Establish laboratories "for trying out laws." 

8. Embody laws in instructions. 

9. Publish bulletins. 

10. Cooperate to spread results and to train the rising 


This is the era now. We have a scientific method of 
attack, and we have also scientific methods of teaching. 

The stereoscopic camera and stereoscope, the motion 
picture machines, and the stereopticon enable us to observe, 
record, and teach as one never could in the past. 

The following motion study pictures, charts, and diagrams are typical 
and have been used for teaching journeymen and apprentice bricklayers 
our standard methods. 


Fig. 25. Cutting off mortar before the 

Fig. 24. Spreading mortar on exterior brick is laid on exterior face tier, 

face tier. 

Fig. 26. Buttering the end of the laid Fig. 27. Cutting off the mortar after the 
brick on the exterior face tier. brick is laid on the exterior face tier. 



Fig. 28. Throwing mortar on interior Fig. 29. Spreading mortar on interior 
face tier. face tier. 

Fig. 30. Cutting off mortar before brick Fig. 31 . Tapping down brick after lay- 
is laid. ing on interior face tier. 

Fig. 32. Cutting off mortar after brick 
is laid on interior face tier (here work- Fig. 33. Handling mortar for two brick 
ing left to right). at one time on interior face tier. 



Fig. 34. Working right to left. Spread- Fig. 35. Working left to right. But- 
ing mortar on exterior face tier. tering end of laid brick on exterior face 


'ig. 36. Working left to right. Cutting 
off mortar after brick is laid on exte- 
rior face tier. 

Fig- 37- Working right to left, Spread- 
ing mortar on the interior face tier. 

j. 38. Working left to right. Cutting 

mortar after brick is laid on exte- Fig. 39. Working left to right. Spread- 
rior face tier. ing mortar on the interior face tier. 




Fig. 40. Working left to right. Spread- 
ing mortar on the interior face tier. 

Fig. 42. Working right to left. Butter- 
ing right-hand end of brick in hand to 
be laid on interior face tier. 

Fig. 41. Working left to right. Throw- 
ing mortar on the interior face tier. 

The " pack-on-the-wall "method is the 
latest development and is an actual direct 
result of motion study. It has again 
changed the entire method of laying brick 
by reducing the kind, number, sequence 
and length of motions. It reduces the 
fatigue of the bricklayer and he is there- 
fore able to make more rapid motions. 



s ~ S 2 

.s -ij i 

"o 2 ij c 3 

2 32 1 

I U I 




*i**,|;*iu e 

B 8-1 Jl< 





'y ) _43 a^ ag^S MC-C 

^ Mg, 


&1 -^ s "i 

" w *- u .ti P 

o ; 



This shows conect height of stock plaifon 
xtoiior face tier is being built header 








jacked up at all - 
2. | 1 . tier is being built 

/ it should never 









| 2 

H plus-4"foi 

if 10 brick. 

-clearance * 



1- ' /face tier, and neve 
/ / below the top of 
/ /the filling tiers, un- 








5 B 


54 6 
18 5 
15 4 
6 3 



/ / I . v t^ g - tierS " 




4 4 

3 2 


1 /face tier, in which cas 








/ the top of filling tiers. 







1R 5 

- -a. 













54 6 


1 1 




s . 


in 5 

Fig. 43. Location of the pack on the wall while building the exterior 
face tiers. Pack-on-the-wall method. 




lisplaremtnt i 
line with this 

*hen jacking u 
faceofthil u 

ScadoM. t 

le ends of a 



>er must be 


If tend., 
cleats up 

run U too sp 
again* und. 
e 3 planks a 


SC tH 



S." a ~ of hudwood. or Ts. Ls. or l. etc. for face blkk left oter | 
1 1 C (P when read, to back-up 



needed heieaj the 

/ G3 

= fcd= 






ngy, nail 
-.ide and 

This spac 
brick si 1 




> for brick 

the other 
ace of the 







( _0e no ph 
more than 

Wheeler. piT^f 
top layer of, ,Un 
| 4 so that the wheel 
1 -J | Of up at the end 

0". ide nor. 








... rj 








\ / 






lr 1. 




biiik sp 







La, cen 


erj.lank ha 
this uprigh 








%^- Hj 


Fig. 44. Location of the packs while building the interior face and 
filling tiers. Pack-on-the-wall method. 


The economic value of motion study has been proved 
by the fact that by means of it workmen's outputs have 
been more than tripled, production costs lowered, and wages 
increased simultaneously. 

This book is written for the express purpose of calling 
to the attention of the nation that what has been done in 
a few trades can be done in each and every trade. 

The most important matter before the public to-day is 
the creation and operation of a department at Washington 
for discovering, collecting, conserving and disseminating 
data relating to Taylor's method of Intensive Management 
commonly called Scientific Management. 


Acceleration, 65-67. 

amount of, 65. 

effects of, 65. 

effects on output of, 66. 

means for obtaining, 65. 
Alphabet, written, standardizing of, 

"American Magazine," article on 

fatigue in, 24. 
article on value of entertainment 

in, 48. 
Anatomy, 10-12. 

adapting equipment to, 10. 
adapting surroundings to, 10. 
adapting tools to, 10. 
adapting work to, 10. 
usefulness of study of, 10. 
Appliances, 43~45- 

relation to motions of, 43. 
Apprentices, supplying of tools to, 59. 
Apprenticeship, defects in present 

system of, 41. 
Automaticity, 67-69., 
value of, 67. 

Brawn, 13, 14. 

arrangement of work to utilize, 13. 

influence on instruction cards of, 

importance as a variable of, 13. 

variation in, 13. 

Bricklaying, necessity for division 
of work in, 71-73. 

reducing of cost in, 72. 

value of illustrations from, 8. 
Brickwork, subclassifying of, 96. 

Charts, form for, 87. 

place in motion study of, 90. 

value of, 87-94. 
Clothes, 45-46. 

help of proper, 45. 

hindrance of improper, 45. 

importance of utility of, 80. 

motion-economy value of, 46. 

necessity for specially adapted, 

shortening of motions by, 80. 

Color, 46-47. 

motion saving properties of, 46. 

selection of, 46. 

stimulating effect of, 46. 
Combination with other motions, 


Conservation, congress for, i. 
Contentment, 14-15. 

advantages of, 15. 

effect on fatigue of, 15. 

effect on output of, 14. 
Cooling, 49, 50. 
Cooperation, need for, 94. 
Cost, 70-74. 

deducing, 70. 

keeping, 70. 

of living, reduction of, 74. 

recording, 70. 

reducing, 70. 

relation to output of, 70. 
Creed, 15-16. 

definition of, 15. 

grouping men according to, 15. 



Devices for eliminating fatigue, 56. 
Diemer, Hugo "Factory Organ- 
ization and Administration," 50. 
Direction, 74-75. 

relation to other variables of, 75. 

relation to "path" of, 75. 
Division of work, necessity for, 71. 

Earning power, 16-19. 

classifying men according to, 16. 
prescribing motions according to, 


Effectiveness, 76. 
attaining of, 76. 
definition of, 76. 
Elimination of wastes, importance 

of, 73- 

Entertainment, 48-49. 
effect on fatigue of, 49. 
effect on health of, 49. 
effect on output of, 48. 
Equipment relation to standard 

practice of, 91. 
Experience, 19-23. 

effect on learning of standard 

methods of, 23. 
influence of, 20. 

"Factory organization and admin- 
istration," 50. 
Fatigue, 23-32. 

"American Magazine," article on, 

causes of, 24. 

eliminating devices, 56. 

necessary, rest from, 29. 

overcoming of, 24. 

percentage of rest for, 25. 

relation of quick motions to, 28. 

relation of slow motions to, 28. 

unnecessary, elimination of, 29. 

First-class men, importance of using, 


First steps, the, 102. 
Foot-pounds of work accomplished, 


relation to fatigue of, 77. 
Fountain trowel, advantages of use 

of, 54- 

usefulness of, 76. 
Future work in standardizing the 

trades, 94-102. 

Gantt, H. L., A. S. M. E. Paper, 

Dec., 1908, 34. 
"Work, Wages, and Profits," 33. 

Government, place in scientific man- 
agement of, 74. 

Government bureau, need for, 95. 

Gravity, application of, 62. 

Habits, 32-33. 

changing of, 68. 

definition of, 32. 

H. L. Gantt on, 33. 

incorporating standard motions 

into, 37. 
Health, 33-34. 

H. L. Gantt on, 34. 

relation of work to, 34. 
Heating, 49-50. 

effect on clothing of, 50. 

provision necessary for, 50. 
High-priced man, arrangement of 
material for, 75. 

arranging distances for, 80. 

cost of, 71. 

prescribing work for, 17, 18. 
Humidizing, 49. 

provision necessary for, 50. 

Inertia overcome, 77-78. 
limiting of, 77. 


Interim system, place of motion 

study in, 4. 
Investigator, trained, need for, 91. 

Large jobs, selection of men for, 


Length, 79-81. 
Length of motions, effect of clothes 

on, 80. 
Lighting, 50-52. 

advantages of proper, 51. 

five tests of, 51. 

influence on motions of, 50. 

influence on output of, 50. 

problems involved in, 52. 

usual arrangement of, 50. 
Low-priced man, arranging dis- 
tances for, 80. 

arranging of work of, 75. 

cost of, 71. 

definition of, 19. 

prescribing work for, 17, 18. 

Machines, demand for properly de- 
signed, 62. 

sets of motions for tending of, 61. 
tending of, 61. 
Magnitude of work to be done, 86- 

"Man and the Earth," Shaler's 

book on, i. 
Mechanical Trades, U. S. Bureau of, 


Methods, standard, use of momen- 
tum in, 78. 
Military system, place of motion 

study in, 3. 
Mode of living, 35. 

effect on output of, 35. 
Momentum overcome, 77-78. 
limiting of, 77. 
work done by, 78. 

Motion, variables of the, 65-85. 
Motion economy, utilization of, 86. 
Motion study, aim of, 3. 

cost reducing value of, 3. 

description and outline of, 1-9. 

earning capacity of workman in- 
creased by, 2. 

field of, 5. 

immediate need of, 103. 

increase in output by, 3. 

method of attack of, 3. 

necessity for, i. 

past, present, and future of, 86- 

place in scientific management 

of, 3- 

possible economies of, i. 

present stage of, 5. 

problem presented by, 5. 

savings by, 2. 

steps in, 5. 

steps in study of, 102. 

successful applications of, 8. 

usefulness to all types of manage- 
ment of, 3. 

value of, 4. 
Motions, balanced, 68. 

combination of, 69. 

counting of, 98. 

dissimilar, 69. 

necessity for classifying of, 72. 

planning of, 68. 

sequence of, 69. 

similar, 69. 
Music, effects of, 48. 

Necessity, 81-82. 

importance of, 81. 

use as a criterion of, 81. 
Non-stooping scaffold, advantages 

of, n, 12. 
Nutrition, 35-36. 


Nutrition, importance of "welfare" 

work on, 35. 

lack of scientific data concerning, 

Output, effect of "Contentment" 

on, 14. 
influence of quality of the men 

on, 13. 

influence of surroundings on, 58. 
relation to cost of, 70. 

Packet, advantages of use of, 54. 
Past, present, and future of motion 

study, 86-110. 
Path, 82-83. 

determination of, 82. 

ideal, 83. 

relation of gravitation to, 82. 
Penalties, 53. 

relation of cost reducing to, 53. 

stimulus of, 53. 

Percentage of rest, provision for, 29. 
Phonography, usefulness of, 48. 
Playing for position, 83-84. 

definition of, 83. 

Quality of material, 52-53. 

effect of output on, 52. 

relation to standard motions of, 

Quality of men, importance of, 13, 


Reading, stimulus of, 48. 
Reclassifying of trades, 73. 
Reducing the cost of living, 96. 
Rest, compulsory, 32. 

provision for, 29. 
Rest time, utilization of, 29, 32. 
Reward, 53. 

influence on cost reducing of, 53. 

stimulus of, 53. 

Savings by motion study, 2. 
Science of management, demands of, 

Scientific investigator, necessity of, 

Sequence, 69-70. 

determining of, 84. 
Shaler, "Man and the Earth," i. 

work of, i. 

"Shop Management," 56. 
Short men, selection of work for, 36. 
Singing, stimulus of, 48. 
Size, 36. 

relation of motions to, 36. 

selection of men according to, 36. 
Size of unit moved, 54-56. 

determining of, 54. 

relation to economy of, 54. 
Skill, 36-38. 

acquiring of, 37. 

Small jobs, selection of men for, 23. 
"Soldiering," evils of, 29. 
Special fatigue eliminating devices, 

Speed, 84-85. 

advantages of, 84. 

habit of, 84. 

importance of, 84. 

relation to output of, 84. 
"Standard conditions," relation of 

output to, 43. 

Standard length of motions, 80. 
Standard methods, utilizing mo- 
mentum in, 78. 

Standard motions, aid of standard 
appliances toward, 45. 

forming habits of, 37. 

necessity for, 37. 

necessity for standard tools with, 


Standard practice, benefits of, 42. 
derivation of, 91. 


Standard tools, necessity for, 80. 
Standardizing the trades, future 

work in, 94. 
need for, 93, 95, 96. 
Subclassifying the trades, need for, 

Surroundings, 58. 

relation to standard practice of, 91. 
relation of output to, 58. 
specifications in instruction cards 

on, 58. 

standardizing of,_58. 
variables of, 43. 

Tall men, selection of work for, 36. 
Taylor, F. W., data on "rest," 25. 

laws of management, 4. 

separating planning from per- 
forming by, 73. 

"Shop Management," 56. 

wonderful work of, 94. 
Temperament, 38-40. 

effect on output of, 40. 
Temperature, importance of regula- 
tion of, 49. 

The first steps, 102-110. 
"Three Months in Peonage," 48. 
Time study observations, making 
of, 92. 

using of, 92. 
Tools, 59-62. 

bureau of testing of, 60. 

hand, 60. 

"handiness" no just test of, 60. 

importance to apprentices of 
proper, 59. 

influence upon output of, 59. 

necessity for standard, 59. 

necessity of providing proper, 59. 

rating as motion savers of, 60. 

relation to standard motions of , 59. 

relation to standard practice of, 91. 

Tools, standard patterns of, 60. 

standard sizes of, 60. 

testing stations for, 61. 
Trades, necessity for study of, 99. 

reclassifying of, 73. 

standardizing of, 93. 
Trades school, methods of, 98. 
Training, 40-41. 

definition of, 40. 

effect on output of, 40. 

necessary scope of, 41. 

Ultimate methods, definition of, 93. 

Ultimate system, place of motion 
study in, 4. 

Union rules, 62-63. 

hindrance to standardizing mo- 
tions of, 62. 

U. S. Bureau of Standardization of 
Mechanical Trades, 98. 

U. S. government, work to be done 
by, 95- 

Value of charts, 87-94. 
Variables, definition of, 6. 

difficulty in separating, 85. 

difficulty of enumerating the, 87. 

divisions of, 6. 

incompleteness of list of, 85. 

list of, 6. 

method of study of, 7. 

necessity for application of, 9. 

of the motion, 65-85. 
field of, 65. 

of the surroundings, 43-64. 
equipment and tools, 6. 

of the worker, 6, 10-42. 
definition of, 41. 

study, on long jobs, of, 85. 

study, on short jobs, of, 85. 

test for study of, 8. 
Ventilating, 49-50. 

effect on clothing of, 50. 



Waste, elimination of, 73. 

in bricklaying, 2. 

of motions, 2. 

prevalence of, i. 

Shaler's book on, i. 

utilization of, 2. 
Weight of unit moved, 63-64. 

elements of, 63. 

relation to fatigue of, 63. 

standardizing of, 64. 
Welfare Department, work of, 33, 

Work accomplished, 86. 
Work, arrangement of, 77. 

division of, 74. 
Work to be done, magnitude of, 86- 

"Work, Wages, and Profits," H. L. 

Gantt's book on, 33. 
Worker, variables of, 10-42. 
Written alphabet, standardizing of, 


Written language, need for stand- 
ardizing of, 101. 







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Macewen, H. A. Food Inspection 8vo, *2 50 

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