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Full text of "A study of Ambrosiaster"

TEXTS AND STUDIES 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO 

BIBLICAL AND PATRISTIC LITERATURE 



EDITED BY 

J. ARMITAGE ROBINSON D.D. 

HON. PH.D. GOTTINGEN HON. D.D. HALLE 

HON. FELLOW OF CHRIST'S COLLEGE 

DEAN OF WESTMINSTER 



VOL. VII. 

No. 4. A STUDY OF AMBROSIASTER 



CAMBRIDGE 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

1905 



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A STUDY OF AMBROSIASTER 



BY 



ALEXANDER SOUTER B.A. 

YATES PROFESSOR OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK AND EXEGESIS 

MANSFIELD COLLEGE OXFORD 

FORMERLY SCHOLAR OF GONVILLE AND CAIU8 COLLEGE CAMBRIDGE 

LATE LECTURER IN LATIN AND LECTURER IN PALAEOGRAPHY 

UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN 



CAMBRIDGE 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
1905 



PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



THE INSTITUTE OF MEDIAEVAL STUDIES 

10 ELMSLEY PLACE 
TORONTO 6, C AH A DA. 

DEC 171931 



VIRO REVERENDO 
HENRICO - BREWER S -I 

CVIVS . LIBERALITATI . BENEFICIIS . QVE 

PLVRIMVM . DEBET 

HIC . LIBELLVS 

GRATO ANIMO 

D-D.D 
SCRIPTOR 



PREFACE. 



THE present work was undertaken in a rash moment, when the 
completion of a year's study of the language of Ambrosiaster's 
commentaries on St Paul's Epistles coincided with the publication 
by Dom Morin of the earlier of his two suggestions as to the 
author's identity. It has since been finished amid interruptions 
of various kinds. During nearly the whole of the period of com- 
position the author's leisure has been scanty. He was, besides, 
resident in Scotland, where no scholar's library exists and private 
libraries rarely contain anything patristic : the kindness of friends, 
which he tried not to abuse, and occasional brief visits to Cambridge, 
had to make up for this. 

Thanks to the liberality of the Managers of the Craven and 
Hort Funds at Cambridge, the Imperial Vienna Academy of 
Sciences, and Father Brewer, his knowledge of manuscript sources 
has been greatly increased during the progress of the work. 

The shortcomings, for which those difficulties, joined to inex- 
perience, are responsible, may be forgiven for the sake of such 
contributions to knowledge as the book contains : the lists of 
manuscripts and the use made of them, the study of the Biblical 
text, now for the first time really attempted, the study of the 
author's language, and new arguments as to his date. 

The work was decidedly worth attempting. The value of our 
author's writings is recognised by the highest authorities. It 
may suffice to quote the opinion of Harnack : ' We ought to call 
him the great unknown ; for what Western expositor of the 
early period or the Middle Ages is his equal ? ' Again : ' The 
" Quaestiones " pass under the name of Augustine, the commen- 
tary under that of Ambrose. Both works are admirable in their 

BQ 



Vlll PREFACE. 

kind, and perhaps the most distinguished product of the Latin 
Church in the period between Cyprian and Jerome.' 

The real reason why the author has been neglected is the 
uncertainty as to his identity. I trust the present attempt to 
make the study of his works easier will cause more attention to 
be paid to them in future. 

The book, such as it is, the work of a philologist, not a 
theologian, could never have appeared but for the kindness of 
various friends at home and abroad. Other contributors to the 
series in which it has the honour to appear, have given me 
ungrudging help; the Editor, who has tended it carefully from 
the beginning; Dr A. E. Burn, the reading of whose article in 
the Expositor first gave me the resolution to attempt the task; 
Mr F. C. Burkitt, and Dr M. R. James. The librarians and 
officials of all libraries I have visited have earned my gratitude : 
they are named in a more fitting place. How much the book 
owes to the inspiration of Professors W. M. Ramsay, John 
E. B. Mayor, and Eduard von Wolfflin, and in its later stages to 
the Oxford patristic school, with its doyen Dr Sanday, and 
contact with the priceless treasures of the Bodleian Library, it 
would be impossible to estimate. But perhaps the brightest 
memories of the progress of the work are those associated with 
Father Brewer, to whose unspeakable kindness the book owes so 
much, memories of converse in the Bollandist Library in Brussels 
and by the banks of the Bacchiglione, as the sun was setting 
behind the Euganean hills. 

It is a pleasure to acknowledge help given me by Mr W. B. 
Anderson, of the University of Manchester, and in the reading 
of the proofs by my wife. Other obligations are acknowledged 
in detail throughout the book 1 . 

THE AUTHOR. 

OXFORD. 

January I5tk, 1905. 

1 Chapter in. of the present work, along with the last three articles mentioned 
on p. xi, has just been awarded the degree of D.Litt. of the University of Aberdeen. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTION. 

1. The Scope of the Present Work and the History of the 

Controversy ......... 1 

2. General Character of the Commentary .... 6 

3. General Character of the Quaestiones ..... 8 

4. Notes on the Manuscripts of the Commentaries . . 12 

List of MSS of the Commentaries . . . . 14 

5. Notes on the Manuscripts of the Quaestiones . . . 17 

List of MSS of the Quaestiones 18 

PART I. COMPARISON OF THE COMMENTARIES AND THE QUAESTIONES. 

Chapter I. Community of Illustrations and Allusions . . 23 

Chapter II. Comparison of Scripture Quotations . . . 41 

Quotations from the Third and Fourth Gospels ... 42 

Quotations from the Pauline Epistles ..... 47 

Chapter III. Comparison of Style and Language ... 63 

(I) Style 64 

(1) General 64 

(2) Particles 70 

(II) Language 78 

Chapter IV. Identity of Thought 149 

1. Favourite Texts of Scripture 150 

2. Interpretations of Scripture . . . . . .152 

PART II. THE AUTHOR AND His BIBLICAL TEXT. 

Chapter V. The Author and his Works 161 

1. His Name 161 

2. His Locality 164 

3. His Date ... 166 

4. His Status and Circumstances . . . . .174 

5. Suggestion as to his Identity 183 

6. The Author's Editions of the Commentaries and the 

Quaestiones 185 



X CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Chapter VI. His Biblical Text 195 

1. General Remarks 195 

2. Notes on the Books in Ambrosiaster's Canon . . 196 

3. References to Biblical Manuscripts and Various Readings 197 

4. His Method of Quotation 201 

5. Old Testament Quotations 202 

Texts of Psalms I, XXIII and L . . . . 203 

6. Gospel Quotations 205 

7. Quotations from Acts ....... 207 

8. Apocalypse Quotations 208 

9. The Text of St Paul's Epistles 212 

Collations of Pauline Quotations in Cyprian's Testi- 
monia and Ambrosiaster with the Latin of Codex 
Claromontanus . . . . . . .215 

Collations of Pauline Quotations in Lucifer and 

Ambrosiaster with the Vulgate .... 240 

INDEXES. I. Latin Words 259 

II. Biblical Quotations 264 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RECENT LITERATURE 1 . 

A. HARNACK, Der pseudoaugustinische Traktat Contra Novatianum, in 

Abhandlungen Alexander von Oettingen zum siebenzigsten Geburtstag 

gewidmet von Freunden und Schiilern (Munchen : Beck, 1898), pp. 54-93. 
G. MORIN, L' Ambrosiaster et le Juif Converti Isaac, Contemporain du Pape 

Damase (Revue d'Histoire et de Littfrature Religieuses, IV (1899) pp. 97-121 

( = 1-25)). 
TH. ZAHN, Der "Ambrosiaster" und der Proselyt Isaak (Theologisches Litera- 

turblatt, xx (1899) pp. 313-317). 
A. E. BURN, The Ambrosiaster and Isaac the Converted Jew (Expositor, 1899 

II pp. 368-375). 
H. ZIMMER, Pelagius in Irland: Texte und Untersuchungen zur patristischen 

Litteratur (Berlin : Weidmann, 1901), pp. 117-120. 
A. SOUTER, An Interpolation in ' Ambrosiaster' (The Expository Times, xin 

(19011902) pp. 380-381). 
A. SOUTER, * Emmaus' mistaken for a Person (The Expository Times, xin 

(19011902) pp. 429-430). 
A. SOUTER, The Genuine Prologue to Ambrosiaster on 2 Corinthians (The 

Journal of Theological Studies, iv (1902 1903) pp. 89-92). 
C. H. TURNER, Pelagius' Commentary on the Pauline Epistles and its History 

(ibid., pp. 132-141). 
H. S. SEDLMAYER, Der Tractatus Contra Arianos in der Wiener Hilarius- 

Handschrift, mit einem Nachwort von Dom Germain Morin (Sitzungs- 

berichte der Kais. Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Phil.-Hist. Kl. 

Band CXLVI (ii), Wien, 1903, 21 pp.). 
G. MORIN, Hilarius I? Ambrosiaster (Revue Btfne'dictine, xx (1903) pp. 113- 

131). 

A. SOUTER, A New View about Ambrosiaster (Expositor, 1903 I pp. 442-455). 
F. CUMONT, La Polemique de V Ambrosiaster contre les Paiens (Revue d'Histoire 

et de Literature Religieuses, vin (1903) pp. 417-440). 
A. SOUTER, Reasons for Regarding Hilarius (Ambrosiaster} as the Author of 

the Mercati- Turner Anecdoton (The Journal of Theological Studies, v 

(19031904) pp. 608-621). 
A. SOUTER, An Unknown Fragment of the Pseudo-Augustinian Quaestiones 

Veteris et Novi Testamenti (The Journal of Theological Studies, vi (1904 

1905) pp. 61-66). 

A. SOUTER, De codicibus manuscriptis Augustini quae feruntur quaestionum 
Veteris et Novi Testamenti cxxvn (Sitzungsberichte der Kais. Akademie der 
Wissenschaften in Wien, Phil.-Hist. Kl. Band CXLIX (i), Wien, 1905, 24 pp.). 

1 For older work on Ambrosiaster, see Arnold's article Ambrosiaster in Herzog- 
Hauck's Real-Encyclopadie, and Schanz's Geschichte der romischen Litteratur iv 
(1904) p. 324 ff. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 

pr =prohoemium. pm=post medium. 

ppr=post prohoemium. aex=ante exitum. 

am =ante medium. ex =exitus. 
m = medium. 



ADDENDA. 

p. 16, add, after no. 36, 

37. Verona, Capitular Library LXXV, s. ix (Gal. Eph. Phil., 1, 2 Thess., Col., 

Tit. 1, 2 Tim. Philem.) 

38. Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, lat. 1761, s. ix (Bom.) 

39. Salzburg, Monastery of St Peter. Of this MS I know neither the number, 

date, nor contents. 

p. 19, add, after no. 15, 

15*. Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, A 61, s. xiv. 

p. 71, porro autem occurs also in Aug. ep. 200, 3. 

p. 72, n. 2, itaque ergo occurs also in Kom. xiv 18 (D). 

p. 73, 1. 9. I find the suggested alteration in the Padua MS. 

p. 105. Add to the examples of emorior qu. 114 17. 

p. 124. On Paulianus and other terms meaning 'a follower of Paul of Samosata,' 
see C. H. Turner, Ecclesiae Occidentalis Monurnenta luris Antiquissima, 
Fasc. i, p. 248. 

p. 148, 1. 19. Other words which might have been added are incommvtabilis, 
adftictio, auersio, uerax, tumesco, uentilatio, uentilo, congratulor, con- 
gruenter, coniugalis, consequens, consideratio, aduersitas. These are all 
favourites with Aug. 

p. 154. Ps. xxiii 7 was thus read by Firmicus Maternus and the Altercatio 
Simonis ludaei et Theophili Christiani also. Halm ought to have 
followed the sole MS in c. 24 4 (p. 115, 13) of Firmicus, and Bratke 
ought to have put the reading of two of his MSS in the text of the 
Altercatio (p. 41, 7 of his edition). So also in Cypr. Test. 

p. 178, 1. 13. Compare also 403 D (in Eph. iii 8). 

p. 189, last line. The quotation in the Irish Liber Hymnorum (cf. p. 164) is from 
the earlier edition of the Quaestiones, and proves that that edition was 
known in Ireland in the eleventh century. This quotation also has 
corripitur. 

p. 197. Since I wrote the above, it has become clear to me that the order in which 
the Pauline epistles appear in Ambrosiaster's MSS was a widespread 
Old-Latin order. Mr C. H. Turner has shown (Journal of Theological 
Studies vi (1905) p. 262) that Titus followed Colossians in Cyprian's 
codex of the epistles. The true significance of the appearance of this 
order in Primasius and Sedulius Scottus is that it was the order in 
their common source, Pelagius. No doubt this is also the explanation 
of the order in the Book of Armagh and the codex Paulinus Wirzibur- 
gensis (cf. Zimmer, Pelagius in Ireland p. 10). 






INTRODUCTION. 



1. The scope of the Present Work and the History 
of the Controversy. 

The present work is concerned with a series of commentaries 
(called in most MSS tractatus) on thirteen epistles of Saint Paul, 
which were wrongly attributed to S. Ambrose 1 until about the 
year 1600, and, since that time, have passed under the rather 
fanciful name of ' Ambrosiaster.' The commentary is clear and 
generally brief; it shows considerable mental acuteness and 
even historical insight. Its praises have been sung by the late 
Bishop Lightfoot 2 , by Dr Jtilicher 3 , who styles it the best com- 
mentary on S. Paul's epistles previous to the 16th century, and 
by others. The commentary has a further value from the fact 
that the writer comments, not on the Vulgate, but on a pre- 
Hieronymian version, which is cited throughout the work. A new 
interest has been given to this commentary by suggestions as to 
its authorship which have been recently propounded by Dom G. 
Morin 4 . 

The present study consists of two parts. The first is a new 
and elaborate argument in behalf of the view that the author of 
the commentaries is also the author of the Pseudo-Augustinian 
'Quaestiones Veteris et Noui Testameuti,' a series of short essays 

1 But see chap. v. 

I 2 Comm. on Ep. Gal. p. 232. 

3 Pauly-Wissowa's Real-Encyclopddie i 3 (1894) s.v. Ambrosiaster. 

4 ' L'Ambrosiaster et Le Juif Convert! Isaac,' in Eev. d'Hist. et de Litt. Reli- 
gieuses, t. iv (1899) no. 2, pp. 97-121; see also Zahn, Theologisches Literaturbl., 
Juli 7, 1899 (col. 313-317), and Kev. A. E. Burn, Expositor 1899 n 368 ff. For 
Morin's second view, see Revue Benedictine, xx (1903) 113-131. 

S. 1 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

on difficult passages of the Old and New Testaments and longer 
tracts on other subjects, some of which are addresses or sermons. 
The view that the commentaries and Quaestiones are from the 
same hand is no new one. It is suggested and reasons are given 
in support of it in the old editions 1 . Langen has supported it at 
some length, and Harnack 2 , Jiilicher 3 and others state it as a 
fact categorically. Marold 4 , however, unconvinced by Langen 5 , 
wrote against the common authorship ; and, though Dom Morin 6 - 
has proved the falsity of some of his statements, it is desirable to 
give a proof which may suffice to settle the question. Recent 
collations of old MSS of both works have revealed many instances 
of identity in language which could not be learned from the 
printed texts, a testimony which is all the more valuable, as the 
common authorship was quite unsuspected till after the invention 
of printing. The Vienna Academy has undertaken to publish 
a new edition of both works in the Corpus Scriptorum Eccle- 
siasticorum Latinorum, the commentaries to be edited by Father 
Brewer 7 , S.J., the Quaestiones by the present writer. 

The second part of this study is an answer to the question : 
Who is the author of these works ? The answer adopted is the 
later view of Dom Morin, which entirely satisfies the conditions of 
the problem ; in this his former suggestion, widely supported as 
it was 8 , failed. A chapter is added on the biblical text of 
' Ambrosiaster.' 

First, however, in a study of this kind it is desirable to gather 
together the names of the various men to whom these works have 
been credited, and here I am indebted to Dr Joseph Langen, Old 
Catholic Professor of Bonn, who in a dissertation 9 published at 

1 See e.g. the Benedictine Augustine, t. in 2 Append. 35 36 (or Migne P.I/, xxxv 
2207 2208). 

2 History of Dogma (Eng. trans.) v 38, n. 4. 

3 Pauly-Wissowa, s.v. Ambrosiaster. 

4 Zeitschr. /. wissenschaftl. Theol. xxvn (1883) 441 ff. 

5 Diss. Bonn. 1880, p. 20 ff. 6 Especially p. 98 n. 3 of first article. 

7 Of the Stella Matutina, Feldkirch. 

8 Theol. Jahresb. xix (1900) 217 : Journ. of Theol Studies i (1899) pp. 154-156. 

9 Entitled ' De Commentariorum in epistulas Paulinas qui Ambrosii et Quaes- 
tionum biblicarum quae Augustini nomine feruntur scriptore dissertatio.' His 
views are epitomised in his later ' Geschichte der Eomischen Kirche bis zum Ponti- 
fikate Leo's I' (Bonn 1881) p. 599 ff. 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

Bonn in 1880 collected various conjectures as to the authorship. 
The commentaries are first quoted by S. Augustine about the 
year 420, who writes (c. duas epist. Pelag. 4. 4. 7) : ' nam et 
sic sanctus Hilarius intellexit quod scriptum est, in quo omnes 
peccauerunt 1 : ait enim : "in quo, id est in Adam, omnes peccaue- 
runt." Deinde addidit : " manifestum in Adam omnes peccasse 
quasi in massa : ipse enim per peccatum corruptus, omnes quos 
genuit riati sunt sub peccato." Haec scribens Hilarius sine 
ambiguitate commonuit quo modo intellegendum esset in quo 
omnes peccauerunt.' The words here quoted appear in the com- 
mentaries of ' Ambrosiaster' at Rom. v 12. Marold 2 , with 
astonishing recklessness, denies that S. Augustine ever takes any- 
thing else from the commentaries. About no author is it more 
dangerous to make general statements than about S. Augustine. 
The following instance ought to have been mentioned by Marold, 
though the borrowing is certainly on the part of ' Ambrosiaster,' 
or rather of his editors 3 , as the passage is wanting in all MSS of 
which I have any knowledge 4 . 

Ambrst., 1 Cor. vi 18. Aug. serm. 162. 2 in Eugippius 

(on the same words). 

Omne peccatum quodcumgue fecerit Videtur enim beatus apostolus, in 

homo, extra corpus est. Quia cetera quo loquebatur Christus, aut exagge- 

peccata etsi per corpus generantur, rare voluisse fornicationis malum 

non tamen animam ita carnali con- super cetera ornnia peccata, quae etsi 

cupiscentia faciunt obstrictam et ob- per corpus committantur, non tamen 

noxiam, quemadmodum commisceri animum humanuni concupiscentiae 

facit animam cum ipso corpore usus carnali ita efficiunt obstrictum et 

libidinis, agens in opere carnalis for- obnoxium, quemadmodum in solo 

nicationis ; quia in tanturn agglu- opere fornicationis corporalis coin- 

tinatur anima corpori, ut in ipso misceri facit animum vis iugens 

inomento nihil aliud cogitare homini libidinis cum ipso corpore, et uuum 

liceat aut iutendere, quia ipsam men- cum ipso quodarn modo adglutinari 

tern captivam subdit ipsa subniersio et deuinctum esse ; in tantum ut 

et absorbitio libidinis et concupis- nihil aliud ipso momeuto et expcri- 

1 Scriptural quotations are italicised. 

2 Marold, op. cit. p. 459 : ' das Citat selbst bleibt darum hochst auffallend, da 
Augustin sonst nichts aus dem Commentar verwendet.' 

3 See Expository Times xm (1902) 380 f. 

4 Or the Benedictines ; see their note. 

12 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

Ambrst., 1 Cor. vi. 18. Aug. serm. 162. 2. in Eugippius 

(on the same words). 

centiae carnalis. Unde subditur : Qui mento huius tarn magni flagitii cogi- 
autem fornicatur cet. tare homini liceat aut intendere, nisi 

quod sibimet addicit men tern, quam 
captivam subdit ipsa submersio et 
quodam modo absorbitio libidinis et 
concupiscentiae carnalis, ut hoc esse 
uideatur quod dictum est : Qui autem 
fornicatur cet. 

It is possible, or rather probable, that Cassiodorus, about a 
century and a half later, alludes to our commentaries as a work 
which he had not been able to find, in his De Instit Diuin. Litter. 
c. 8 (Migne P.L. LXX 1120 CD). His words are: 'dicitur etiam 
et beatum Ambrosium subnotatum codicem epistularum omnium 
sancti Pauli reliquisse, suauissima expositione completum ; quern 
tamen adhuc inuenire non potui, sed diligenti cura perquiro/ 
Amalarius (c. 820 Migne, P.L. xcix), Haymo (|853 Migne 
cxni cxvin), Prudentius (|861 Migne cxv), Hincmar (|882 
Migne cxxv cxxvi) 1 used the commentaries as the work of 
Ambrose. So do the medieval ' doctors,' including Lanfranc, Ivo 
Carnutensis, Gratian, and Peter Lombard. Erasmus, in the year 
1527, was the first to suspect the accuracy of this ascription; 
and thereafter speculation became rife as to the real author. At 
the dawning of modern scholarship, as it is still more clearly at 
the present time, Ambrosian authorship was seen to be an impos- 
sibility. Some guessed that the work was a cento made from 
S. Jerome and S. Chrysostom 2 by some unknown person ; others 
believed it to be by Julian of Aeclanum or some other Pelagian 3 ; 
others by Remigius 4 , others by Tyconius 5 , the author of the 
' Rules,' others by S. Hilary of Poitiers, others by Hilary of 

1 Langen, Diss. p. 4. I add the numbers of Migne's volumes, in which the 
works of each are contained. 

2 Cf. the ' admonitio ' in Migne xvn 41 42. This view was refuted by the 
Benedictines. One can only wonder at its impertinence. 

3 This view is confuted by Petavius, Garnerius, and Natalis Alexander. 

4 Maldonatus' view. How could the passage of Aug. escape him? asks Langen. 

5 But Tyconius is African, while Ambrst. is Italian, to say nothing of difference 
of style. 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

Pavia 1 , others by Hilary of Syracuse 2 ; very many have attributed 
the work to Hilarius 3 , a deacon of Rome. The statement of 
S. Augustine, who undoubtedly meant S. Hilary of Poitiers as 
the author of the quotation he makes, is responsible for the last 
four views. S. Hilary of Poitiers is unhesitatingly to be rejected 
owing to known differences of style 4 . Most of the other names 
are idle conjectures, carelessly thrown out before the days of exact 
method in the study of literature and history. Langen himself 
put forward a view that Faustinus, a Roman presbyter, is the 
author. His proof 5 , built up chiefly from a comparison of the 
language of both works with that of the De Trinitate and other 
writings of Faustinus 6 , is so far from being convincing that it 
certainly shows Faustinian authorship to be impossible. This 
conjecture has had the fate of the others. Dr Marold 7 and Dom 
Morin 8 , for example, explicitly reject it. The recent view, that 
Isaac, a converted Jew, who was concerned in the disturbances at 
the election of Pope Damasus and afterwards relapsed to Judaism, 
wrote the commentaries and the Quaestiones V. et N. Testamenti, 
is due to Dom Germain Morin, O.S.B., of the Abbaye, Maredsous, 
who by his successful researches and independent criticism has 
shown himself a worthy follower of his Benedictine predecessors. 
Dr Zahn 9 and Mr A. E. Burn 10 both called for a fuller treatment of 
the subject. This I have endeavoured to supply, as the special 
study I had devoted to the language of the commentary 11 seemed 
to invite me to the task. I can heartily support Dom Morin's 
second suggestion, that Hilary, the Layman, was the author. 

1 So thought Petavius and Ceillier. 

2 Not mentioned by Langen, but in Morin, p. 4. 

3 See Benedictine Pref. to Ps.-Aug. Quaest. (M. xxxv 2207 2208), or that to the 
commentaries (M. xvu 43). Langen refutes (p. 5). 

4 See e.g. Tract, s. Psalmos, in Vienna Corpus, xxn. 

5 Diss. pp. 33-41. He says (p. 41) that his view ' nullis argumentis refutari 
potest.' 

6 Printed, e.g. in Migne, P.L. xm. 

? Zeitschr. f. wissensch. Theol. xxvii 462-3, especially 464 ff. 

8 Op. cit. p. 4. 

9 Theol. Literaturbl., xx nr. 27 (7 Juli, 1899) 316 : 'ein Anderer wiirde aus dem, 
was Morin kurz und schlagend ausfiihrt, ein dickes Buch machen, und das konnte 
ein interessantes Buch werden.' 10 Expositor 1899 n (Nov.) 

11 For the new Thesaurus Linguae Latinae (Lipsiae 1900 ff.) 



INTRODUCTION. 



2. General Character of the Commentary. 

As the commentary 1 of ' Ambrosiaster ' has received in modern 
times much less attention than its excellence deserves, a few 
words with reference to its general character may be in place here. 
Even the difficulties of the current text, many of which will have 
disappeared in the Vienna edition, need not deter readers from 
giving careful attention to it. The work is in its tone wonder- 
fully in harmony with the critical and objective attitude of 
present day investigation, and will certainly reward close study. 

The commentary (tractatus) on each epistle is prefaced by 
a short argument (argumentum, prologus), giving some account of 
the community or person addressed in it, and of its purpose. The 
comments are as a rule brief and pointed, and follow immediately 
on the verse or clause to which they refer. The treatment of 
the longer epistles is relatively more extended than that of the 
shorter. There is an exception to this rule, however, in the dis- 
cussion, for example, of matters connected with church govern- 
ment. The historical importance of such comments as those on 
Eph. iv 11 12, 1 Tim. iii 12 13, &c., has been fully recognised 
in Bishop Lightfoot's classical essay on * The Christian Ministry.' 

The work is throughout Roman and practical in tone. Com- 
mon-sense explanations are the rule. The tone is rather that of 
the calm dispassionate searcher for truth than of the mystic 
visionary who seeks to soar to the heights of the Apostle's thought. 
We have here none of the spiritual insight of an Augustine or 
a Bengel, but the work of a conscientious writer who seeks in 
Scripture for plain useful lessons which may serve to elevate the 
daily lives of his Roman fellow citizens. The author never loses 
his hold on the ordinary life of the day. The emperor, the magi- 
strates, the laws, etc., ever present to the eyes and minds of his 
readers, are constantly mentioned in illustration. Yet the work 
is intended for Christians, and indeed for orthodox Christians. 

1 The MSS call the commentary on each epistle a tractatus, or simply in epist. 
cet. As far as I can learn, there is no title in the MSS to cover the entire commen- 
tary. The MS of Monte Cassino, in its subscriptions, does not mention the name 
of Ambrose : thus we find simply ' expl. ad Thess.' 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

The current heretical errors are from time to time pointed out 
and stigmatised. Everything written springs from a desire, first, 
to interpret the Apostle's meaning plainly and naturally, and, 
secondly, to enforce the lessons he sought to teach. The alle- 
gorical method of interpretation, introduced by the Alexandrians 
and extensively adopted by S. Augustine and others, is almost 
entirely absent. 

The author had pondered much on the historical background 
of the epistles, and some of his conclusions agree with the latest 
results of historical criticism. For example, he affirms the original 
identity of bishop and presbyter 1 . He has a historical mind and 
recognises the differences of organisation in apostolic times and 
his own. In speaking of bishops in the early period he says 
'adhuc rectores ecclesiis paucis erant in locis' (in Rom. xvi 22). 
Another indication of his insight is his mentioning from time to 
time that Jews are referred to, where they do not appear by name 
in the sacred text. Other examples of this quality in our author 
may be seen in Arnold's excellent article Ambrosiaster in Herzog- 
Hauck's Realencydopadie. 

The commentary seems to be for the most part, if not entirely, 
original. It would be unsafe to draw this conclusion from the 
fact that no previous commentators are referred to by name, or 
even in general terms. Ancient authors, as a rule, were so skilful 
in interweaving the work of their predecessors with their own, 
that the ' sutures ' are difficult to detect. Moreover, with them 
the matter was the important thing, the ascription of particular 
opinions to their authors quite a secondary consideration. But 
there is an independence and a uniformity about the comments 
which convey the impression of originality. The author's ant- 
agonism to Greek 2 authorities makes it improbable that he used 
any. Of Latin authorities the only extant commentator on the 
Pauline epistles prior to ' Ambrosiaster ' is C. Marius Victorinus 3 , 

1 In Eph. iv 11 : See Lightfoot's Philippians (ed. 1) p. 97, n. 2; Rainy's Ancient 
Catholic Church (Edinb. 1902) p. 34 ff. 

2 In Bora, v 14 cet. 

3 The Victorinus referred to along with Tertullian and Cyprian (In Rom. v 14) 
must be the other Victorinus, of Petabio (Pettau). C. Marius Victorinus, since he 
was flourishing in 353 (Hieron. chron. ad ann. 2370), could not be referred to as 
one of the ' veteres.' 



INTRODUCTION. 



whose expositions are so different in character that it is unlikely 
that they were much used by him. We shall probably be right in 
thinking that the commentary drew but little directly from earlier 
authors 1 . 



3. General Character of the Quaestiones. 

The Quaestiones Veteris et Noui Testament^ is in all the older 
and most of the later MSS a collection of one hundred and twenty- 
seven documents, varying in length 3 and character, and purporting 
to be the work of S. Augustine. Several recent MSS offer a 
larger collection 4 , but the additional documents, though certainly 
by the same author, are relatively unimportant. Five late MSS 
contain a smaller collection 5 . In the MSS of the first class, called 
(a) by the Benedictine editor 6 , there is a division between XLVII 
and XLVIII, which are separated from one another by the title 
' Questiones Noui Testamenti! 

Quaestio, in this connexion, means an enquiry 7 or investigation 
into passages of Scripture which are difficult to understand. The 
title is a correct description of the majority of the documents, but 
is not fitly applied to many of the longer tracts which find a piace 
at the end of the collection. The title Quaestiones became a 
common one in religious literature, and the fact that there are 
among the genuine works of Augustine several containing the 
word in their title (De Diversis Quaestionibus LXXXIII liber unus, 

1 It would be an interesting study to compare the comm. of Victorinus, Ambro- 
siaster, and Jerome. The last speaks contemptuously of Victorinus (Praef. in 
comm. ad Galat.) and entirely ignores Ambrst. Has he used either, in spite of this? 
Marold (op. cit. p. 439) thinks that Jerome on Gal. i 2 and iii 1 shows acquaintance 
with our author's notes. 

2 The full title in the MSS is : Liber Quaestionum Sancti Augustlni Veteris et 
Noui Testamenti numero CXXVII. 

3 The difference in length is best shown by the fact that in the splendid MS of 
Keichenau the first half ends with the title of qu. 99. 

4 See 5 infra for details. 

5 In one of these part of the work is attributed to S. Ambrose. See 5. 

6 Pierre Coustant, as Kukula shows (Sitzungsb. d. Wiener Akad. cxxi, 5, p. 56, 
n. 2). 

7 Of. e.g. qu. 97 (col. 2294 42) solent etiam ipsi de deo patre aliam facere quaes- 
tionem, qu. 95 (col. 2290 26) quaestionis singula membra curiose inspicere; more 
examples in Langen, diss. p. 29. 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

De Diversis Quaestionibus ad Simplicianum libri duo, De octo 
Didcitii Quaestionibus liber unus) may have led to the mistaken 
ascription, if it was innocent, or may have been expected to hide 
the fraud, if it was intentional. There is, of course, no mention 
of our work in the Retractations. Examination of old MSS has 
already revealed some important facts about still earlier copies, 
and it is possible that further study will lead to the dating and 
localisation of the archetype, and help to explain the origin of the 
title of the work as we have it. 

In the case of a work so little read as the Quaestiones, some 
account of the contents is necessary. The manuscripts provide 
a table of contents at the beginning, which is very different in 
language from that given in the Benedictine edition, but I do not 
propose to occupy valuable space by printing it here : the printed 
list is sufficient for practical purposes. I merely wish to select 
a few of the titles. The complete table of contents shows in a 
very striking manner how each age finds its own difficulties in 
Scripture. Some of the more important quaestiones are : I Quid 
est deus ? 11 Cur deus mundum fecerit. nil Quare legem non in 
primordio dedit ? XIII Si indicium dei iustum est, quare infantes 
in Sodomis cremati sunt ? xim Quid est ut deus peccata 
patrum filiis dicat reddi ? xvim Quaerendum est si factus Adam 
corpus inmortale habuit. xxi Quid sit ad imaginem et simili- 
tudioem dei fecisse hominem. xxm An ex traduce sint animae 
sicut corpora. XLVini Cur saluator baptizatus sit. Some tracts 
are polemics against the well known enemies of the Catholic 
Church : XLim Aduersum ludaeos, LXXXXI Aduersus Fotinum, 
LXXXXVII Aduersus Arrium, en Contra Nouatianum, CXIIII 
Aduersus paganos. The last is of great historical value, as are 
also cxv De fato (against astrology), and Cl De iactantia 
Romanorum leuitarum. Some are running commentaries on 
psalms 1 , others are discussions of passages in the Gospels 2 . Others 
are on Old Testament heroes, cvim on Melchisedech, cxvn on 
Abraham, cxvm on Job, ex vim on Tobit. This may suffice as 
an indication of the contents and the interest of the collection. 



1 ex on Ps. i, cxi on Ps. xxiii, cxn on Ps. 1. 

2 LXXXXVIII on loh., c on Matth., cini on Luc. 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

Even from this slight account it will readily be seen that the 
contents of the collection are by no means the same in character 
throughout. Further, while most of the tractates are addressed 
to a reader, a few are evidently sermons or homilies. The frequent 
use of the second person singular 1 , and such expressions as ne 
legendi fastidium patiaris (qu. LXXXXV coL 2290 25), de re quae 
nulli aliquando in dubium uenit scribimus (qu. Cl pr), show that 
the work is intended for readers; but such phrases as audistis 
quae contestetur sacrosanclum euangelium (qu. LXXXXV in pr), 
audistis, fratres carissimi (qu. c pr), pascha, dilectissimi fratres 
(qu. cxvi pr), magna dilectio est, fratres dilectissimi (qu. cxvm pr), 
congruum est, fratres carissimi (qu. cxx pr) show unmistakeably 
that the documents in which they occur are spoken sermons. 
Quu. ex, cxi, and cxn, on the three psalms above mentioned, 
have also the appearance of sermons : possibly some others of the 
later tractates are sermons too. 

A few words must be said on the question whether all the 
tractates proceed from one author or not. In favour of common 
authorship is the fact that six ninth-century and two tenth- 
century MSS contain them, each with the full table of contents. 
The style and language are practically the same throughout. I 
could fill many pages with proofs of this, but I hope that the 
later chapter on language will serve to show it. I am of opinion 
that the collection of one hundred and twenty-seven proceeds from 

1 The following list does not profess to be quite exhaustive : uides (qu. 9 col. 
2222 71 qu. 46 col. 2246 56 qu. 80 col. 2273 56 qu. 91 col. 2282 77 qu. 97 col. 
2291 52, 2293 1 qu. 101 col. 2302 49 qu. 102 col. 2310 14) uide (qu. 10 col. 2223 47 
qu. 12 col. 2224 37 qu. 13 col. 2225 7) confer (qu. 13 col. 2224 71) uelis (qu. 12 col. 
2224 10) adde (qu. 13 col. 2225 4) superadde (qu. 95 col. 2290 19) putas (qu. 44 col. 
2242 4) occultas (qu. 78 col. 2271 73) uocas (qu. 78 col. 2272 1) obtendis (qu. 79 
col. 2272 31) redegisti (qu. 79 col. 2272 54) dicis (qu. 91 col. 2283 3 qu. 97 col. 2294 
3) incurris (qu. 91 col. 2283 4) times (qu. 91 col. 2283 4) negas (qu. 91 col. 2284 70- 
71) ignoras (qu. 91 col. 2284 71) quaere (qu. 95 col. 2290 8) inuenies (qu. 95 col. 
2290 8 18 24 38) tene (qu. 95 col. 2290 12) redi (qu. 95 col. 2290 13) perueni 
(qu. 95 col. 2290 15) habebis (qu. 95 col. 2290 16) patiaris (qu. 95 col. 2290 25) 
sis (qu. 95 col. 2290 28) discas (qu. 95 col. 2290 29) retrahe (qu. 95 col. 2290 31) 
computes (qu. 95 col. 2290 39) praedicas, ais (qu. 97 col. 2294 1) fads (qu. 97 
col. 2294 3) aduertas (qu. 103 col. 2313 13). The plu., however, occurs : dicitis 
(qu. 97 col. 2293 61). I owe one or two of these exx. to Langen (diss. p. 30), who 
collects them for a different purpose. 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

one author; also that all (with one exception 1 ) of the additional 
quaestiones supplied by three late MSS are by the same author. 
At first sight the difference in character of the first and last 
documents, which has been already alluded to, suggests different 
authorship. But a close study of the language, aided by ex- 
amination of the lections of the early MSS, which preserve many 
lost readings of importance 2 , shows much in expression that is 
common to all. We must also remember that there is necessarily 
a considerable difference between the quaestio proper, which is 
meant to be read, and a spoken homily. There are, however, one 
or two passages which are certainly interpolated. In qu. LXXV 
the words quod nunc pannosum* aurum appellatur, quia et pau- 
peres exiguntur appear, wrongly, in most printed editions : they 
are inserted from MSS of the second class. The greater part of 
qu. cvini is wanting in the early MSS and in the editio princeps. 
It is not, however, interpolated. Its absence from all but the 
Padua MS is due to an accidental loss of leaves. 

It is extremely likely that the longer quaestiones were circu- 
lated separately at first, and perhaps anonymously. It is probable, 
for instance, that qu. ci, on the boastfulness of the Roman deacons, 
was issued anonymously. It is almost too bitter for a man to 
own it at the time of publication. Again qu. cvini, on Melchi- 
sedech, if, as is almost certain, it is the same tract as was sent to 
S. Jerome 4 , was certainly issued anonymously. The whole col- 
lection was probably afterwards issued, still anonymously, by its 
author, or by some friend of the author anonymously or under 
the name of S. Augustine. It may be that the entire work, as an 
anonymous production, was found among the books of S. Augustine 
at his death and thus became attributed to him. It is easy to 

1 Viz. Quaest. V. T., pars secunda, i (col. 2385 ff.), which looks like genuine 
Augustine. Langen (diss. p. 10) thinks this document is by Minucius Felix. 

2 As I hope to show in my edition. 

3 I have been unable to find any other example of this interesting expression. 
The passage is bracketed in Lugd. ed. of 1561 as in Bened., but appears without 
brackets in Basel ed. (1569) and Lovan. ed. (Colon. 1616). 

4 Ep. 73 (to Euangelus, date 398) misisti mihi uolumen av^w^ov dSfoirorov, et 
nescio utrum tu de titulo nomen subtraxeris an llle qui scripsit, ut perlcuhim fuyeret 
disputandi, auctorem noluerit confiteri: Langen, diss. p. 14, Morin op. cit. p. 120. 
See also Zahn op. cit. for a passage which will be discussed later. 



12 INTRODUCTION. 

speculate on the subject: but discussion as to the authorship is 
properly referred to the second part of this study. 



4. Notes on the Manuscripts of the Commentaries. 

It is necessary to await Father Brewer's 1 account of the MSS 
before the history of the textual tradition of the commentaries 
can be understood. My notes, laboriously gathered and meagre 
as they are, indicate one or two landmarks only in that history. 
Considerable portions of the work were thought to have been lost, 
as authors like Rabanus Maurus and Lanfranc quote as parts of it 
passages found in none or few of our MSS as at present known 2 . 
Yet, as I am convinced from a minute study of the language, the 
text printed in Migne proceeds in the main from one author 3 ; and 
I cannot but think that the work, as we have it there given, is 
complete. Fortunately, the researches of Cardinal (then Dom) 
Pitra 4 , O.S.B., and others in the last century have shown that 
at some period in the early Middle Ages a Latin translation of 
Theodore of Mopsuestia's 5 commentaries on S. Paul's epistles, from 
Galatians onwards, became attached to certain MSS of ' Ambro- 
siaster' after the Second Epistle to the Corinthians, displacing 
the remainder of the original work. The oldest known MS of the 
commentaries, that of Monte Cassino (Casinensis\ belonging to 
the 6th century 6 , shows the real 'Ambrosiaster' throughout, except 

1 Scholars are agreed that the gorgeous form of Ballerini's edition (Ambrosii 
opp. t. in 1877) constitutes its chief merit. 

2 Of. Langen, diss., p. 6. 

3 So Langen, p. 6, who shows that Gal. iii 22 refers to Eom., 2 Cor. ii 5 to 
1 Cor., 1 Th. iv 12 to Ph. ii 27, and gives other proofs, such as unity of thought 
and expression. Marold, p. 470, and G. Kriiger, Lucifer, Bischof von Calaris, p. 89, 
n. 4, are of the same opinion. For one interpolation, see above, p. 3. 

4 Spicilegium Solesmense i (Paris, 1852), pp. xxvi xxxiv, 49-159. 

5 Mopsuhestia is a more exact spelling (M.6\J/ov ea-ria). The town was in Cilicia, 
and was called also Mopsus, Mompsuestia. 

6 The MS was written perhaps as early as 522, but at latest in 568 (Marold, in 
Ztft f. wissensch. Th. 1883, p. 49). A facsimile of part of it is in Thompson's 
Palaeography, p. 202. An imperfect collation of it is in Bibliotheca Casinensis 
(fol.) m. 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

for a part of the commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, which 
is a translation of Origen 1 . The other recension is represented by 
the ninth-century codex Harleianus 3063, the later codex Gor- 
beiensis*, now in Amiens (of the 10th century, probably), and an 
inferior MS in an unknown private library. The Harley MS had 
originally, just as the Corbie MS has, the commentaries of 
' Ambrosiaster ' on Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, in its first eight 
quires, some of which are now lost 3 . The discovery that the 
remaining part in this class of MSS is really a Latin translation 
of Theodore was made independently by Jacobi 4 and Hort 5 . The 
division at the end of Second Corinthians is seen also in codices 
101 and 100 (saec. IX s. x) of the Stifts-bibliothek at S. Gall, 
which form respectively volumes I and II of a single copy 6 . Cod. 
101 contains Rom. 1 and 2 Cor. : cod. 100 contains Gal. Eph. 
Phil. 1 and 2 Thess. Col. (in this order) Tit. 1 and 2 Tim. Philem. 
Cod. 330 (saec. ix) of the same library contains the same epistles 
as cod. 100, and in the same order. The contents of Parisiacus 
13339, Palatinus 169, Ashbumham. 60, Patavinus (scaff. V N. 94), 
and Augiensis cvm (now Caroloruhensis) also go to show that 
complete copies of ' Ambrosiaster's ' commentary were often in 
two volumes, the first containing the longer epistles, the second 
the shorter. It is thus seen that at some period between the 
sixth and ninth centuries, perhaps, the two parts of a copy of 
' Ambrosiaster ' got separated from one another, the division being 
between 2 Cor. and Gal. 7 , and a possessor of the first part had the 

1 Nirschl Lehrbuch d. Patrologie n (1883) 383. 

2 The readings of Harl. and Corb. for the later epp. are given in Prof. Swete's 
edition of Theod. Mops., from which (i p. xiv) I gain these particulars about them. 
Corb. had been published in part by Pitra (op. cit.), as the genuine work of S. Hilary 
of Poitiers (!), and the view even found supporters (Swete i p. xiv, for reff.). Pitra 
afterwards adopted the correct view (Jacobi in Gott. Gel Anz. 1881 1186). Pitra 
alone among savants had seen the third MS, but he was pledged to secrecy about it. 

3 See below, p. 16. 

4 Deutsche Zeitschr. f. christl. Wissensch. u. christl. Leben, Aug. 5-12, 1854. 
6 Camb. Journ. of Class, and Sacred Philol iv 302-308. 

6 I owe my first knowledge of S. Gall MSS to a kind letter of Professor Zahn. 
He examined them in 1893. 

7 The disturbed state of the text at the end of 1 Cor. and the beginning of 2 Cor. 
in many MSS suggests that they ultimately derive from a mutilated copy, the gaps 
in which were supplied in various ways. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Latin Theodore on the remaining epistles copied, believing it to 
be a continuation of the part which he already possessed. 

The Epistle to the Hebrews. The author of the commentary 
did not regard the Epistle to the Hebrews as Pauline. The 
reference to this epistle at 2 Tim. i 3 5 is in the following 
terms : nam simili modo et in epistula ad Hebraeos scriptum est 
(cf. qu. 109). Passages in the undoubted epistles are introduced by 
such words as : sicut dicit, ait, alio loco dicit 1 . It does not there- 
fore surprise us to find that the oldest MSS 2 of ' Ambrosiaster ' 
are without a commentary on this epistle, and that it has been 
excluded by Amerbachius, Erasmus, and the Benedictines. For 
example, S. Gall codex 100 was originally without the Epistle to 
the Hebrews 3 . It has on page 244 in large red characters the 
subscription EXPLICIT EPISTOLA AD PHILEMONEM, and the rest 
of the page remains blank. The exposition of the Epistle to the 
Hebrews begins on page 245 with a new quaternion (no. 17). 
Quaternions 17 21 were bound up with the others afterwards, 
as is seen from the fact that the preceding quaternion (no. 16) 
contains only four folia, not, like the extra five, eight folia each. 
Codex Sangallensis, n. 330, remains even to the present day 
without the Epistle to the Hebrews, as do the Toulouse and Le 
Mans MSS, &c. But Hebrews is found, e.g. in the Monza MS, 
and Vindobonensis 4600. The epistle was introduced later by 
some person or persons who believed in its Pauline origin, and 
considered it indispensable to the collection of commentaries. 

LIST OF MSS OF THE COMMENTARIES. 

An asterisk is appended to those MSS of which complete or partial collations 
are in my possession. 

(a) Complete MSS : 

*1. Monte Cassino (Casinensis) 150 (346 242) s. vi, containing Rom. 
(from iii 9), 1, 2 Cor. Gal. Phil. Eph. 1, 2 Thess. Tit. Col. 1, 2 Tim. Philern. 
(minus 17 to end 4 ). It is by no means certain that this is the best MS, 
though it is the oldest. I agree with the opinion of Dom Morin (p. 121) that 

1 Harold, p. 419. 

2 See the ' admonitio ' in Migne (col. 47 48). 

3 Here I am indebted to a communication of Dr Zahn. 

4 It ends at the word superius. 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

* 1'exemplaire cassinien ne contient qu'un texte fortement retouche, dont on a 
elimine la plupart des traits vraiment interessants.' There is an imperfect 
collation of it in Bibliotheca Casinensis in pp. 316-362. Ballerini used it, 
and records some of its readings (v. also Reifferscheid, Biblioth. Pair. Ital. II 
416 ff.). 

*2. St Gallen Stifts-bibliothek (Sangallensis) 101 and 100, s. ix or x, are 
vols. i arid n of one MS, containing Rom. 1, 2 Cor. Gal. Eph. Phil. 1, 2 Thess. 
Col. Tit. 1, 2 Tim. Philem. (from v. 22 onward in another hand, cf. MSS 
35 and 36). 

*3. Koln (Coloniensis) xxxiv, s. x, containing Rom. 1, 2 Cor. Phil. 
1, 2 Thess. Col. Tit. 1, 2 Tim. Philem. (ending v. 22 solo Christo). 

4. Chartres (Carnutensis) s. x ex., formerly of the monastery of S. Peter 
(cf. Montfaucon's Biblioth. Bibliothecarum II 1243 A). 

5. Toulouse (Tolosanus) 154 (i 7) s. xm ex. 

6. Miinchen (Monacensis} (olim Frisingensis 65) 6262, s. xil. 

7. Miinchen (Monacensis) 27031, s. xv. 

c 2 

8. Monza (Modoetianus\ the cathedral library, - - , s. ix-x, includes 

Hebrews (see Ballerini's edition, and Burkitt's The Book of Rules of Tyconius, 
p. xxvii f, for a description of the MS). 

*9. Oxford, Bodl. 689 (2530) s. xn, including Hebrews. 

*10. Oxford, Bodl. 756 (2526) (olim Saresberiensis) s. xi. 

11. Zwettl (Austria), the monastery library, 33 s. xu. 

12. Bramshill House, iv, s. xn 1 . 

(6) MSS of Portions : 

*13. Paris, Bibl. Nat. (Parisiacus) 13339 s. ix (Rom. 1 Cor. 2 Cor. to 
xi 21). I saw this MS in August 1902. 

*14. Trier (Treuericus) 122 s.vm ex. or ix in. (Rom.). 

*15. Corbie, now at Amiens (Ambianensis, olim Corbeiensis) 87 s. ix or x 
(Rom. 1, 2 Cor.), (vide Bened. edition, wh. reports readings with fair exactness, 
Montfaucon Bibl. Bibl. n 1406, Pitra Spicileg. Solesm. I p. xxvi ff. 49 ff., Swete's 
Introd. to Theod. Mops. I p. xxiii ff.). 

16. St Mihiel 16 s. x (Rom.) (Montfaucon, n 1179). 

*17. Koln xxxix, s. ix (Rom.). 

*18. Vatic. 283, s. xi-xti (Rom.). 

19. Vendome (Vindocinensis) s. xm (Rom. to xvi 11). 

20. Orleans (prob. olim Floriacensis) 85 (82) s. xi (Rom.). 

21. Laon (Laudunensis) 107 s. ix (Rom.) (Montfaucon, n 1296s). 

22. Avranches (Abrincensis) 241 s. xu (Rom. incomplete). 

23. Miinchen (Monacensis) 17043 (Scheftl. 43) s. x (Rom.). 

1 The Florence catalogue, Tom. i (Flor. 1774), mentions a complete MS (with 
Hebr.), of saec. xi, in plut. xiv cod. 6. This MS is mentioned also in Montfaucon, 
Bibl. Bibl. i 272 A. There are also others in Florence, which I have seen. 



16 INTRODUCTION. 

24. Wien ( Vindobonensis} 4600 s. xv (Rom. Hebr.) 

25. Karlsruhe (Augiensis cvm) s. x ex. or xi in. (Rom. 1, 2 Cor.). 
I saw this MS in August, 1901. 

26. Wien (Vindobonensis} 743, s. ix (Rom.) (v. Berger, Histoire de la 
Vulgate, p. 118). 

*27. Vatic. (Palat. lat.} 169 s. ix-x (1, 2 Cor.). This MS once belonged 
to Lorsch (Laureshamensis), v. Reifferscheid, Biblioth. Pair. ItaL I 198 ff. 

*28. Harl. 3063 s. ix (2 Cor. from i 17 [adpajratibus). This MS is 
described in Swete's edition of Theodore of Mopsuestia's Comm. on S. Paul's 
epp. I p. xxv ff., and Catalogue of Anc. MSS in the British Museum, Part II, 
Latin (London 1884) pp. 50, 51. I collated it in July 1901. 

*29. Gand (Gandavensis} 455, no. 129 (159) s. x (1, 2 Cor. Gal. Eph. Phil. 
1 Thess. Col. 2 Thess. 1, 2 Tim. Tit. Philem.), (formerly of S. Maximin in 
Trier). 

*30. Troyes 432 s. ix-x (1, 2 Cor. [Col. was before Tit.] Tit. Philem.). 

31. Wien ( Vindobonensis} 550 s. x (extracts of 1 Cor.). 

32. Bruxelles (Biblioth. Reg. Belg.} 282 (n 953) s. xm (1, 2 Cor.). This 
is not a MS of Ambrst., but contains portions of Ambrst. Comm. mingled with 
external matter. I saw it in Aug. 1901. Brussels has genuine MSS. 

*33. St Gallen (Sangallensis) 330 s. ix (Gal. Eph. Phil. 1, 2 Thess. Col. 
Tit. 1, 2 Tim. Philem.). 

*34. Ashburnham. 60 saec. vm-ix (Gal. Phil. Eph. 1, 2 Thess. Col. 
1, 2 Tim. Philem. Tit.), now in Laur. library at Florence (cf. Delisle in 
Notices et Extraits, &c. xxxn p. 1 (Paris, 1886), p. 35 f.). 

35. Le Mans 229 s. xi (Gal. Eph. Phil, etc., 1, 2 Tim. Philem. (ending 
v. 22 requies non erat nisi in solo Christo}}. 

36. Padova (Patavinus} (Scaff. v N. 94) s. ix (Gal. Eph. Phil. 1, 2 Thess. 
Col. Tit. 1, 2 Tim. Philem. (ending v. 22, as no. 35)). 

This list could easily be extended, but I do not think that any 
valuable MS has been omitted. My original knowledge of most 
of the MSS I owe to Father Brewer : to his rare kindness, also, 
I owe the collations of all those marked with an asterisk except 
9, 10, 28. The classification of MSS must be left to him ; but 
I should like to call attention to the fact that the order of the 
epistles varies in MSS, and that, while this is a means of classi- 
fication, it is also an indication that originally the commentaries 
were issued singly, which is a priori probable. Again nos. 2 
(originally), 3, 9, 10, 35, 36 end with verse 22 of the epistle to 
Philemon (at the words requies non erat nisi in solo Christo) 1 . 

1 The biblical MSS F and Gr omit v. 21 to end (Bernard, Philemon, Epistle to, 
in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible). 



INTRODUCTION. 17 

This is another help to classification, as nos. 1 and 30, for example, 
end at a different point. Photography may show that two parts 
of the same MS are here under separate entries. Finally, I have 
tried to make the above reports of MSS as accurate as possible, 
but not even an examination of good catalogues can altogether 
take the place of personal inspection. 

5. Notes on the Manuscripts of the Q.uaestiones. 

The manuscripts of the Quaestiones Veteris et Noui Testamenti, 
as has already been mentioned, readily divide themselves into three 
classes. The first class contains one hundred and twenty-seven 
Quaestiones, of which the first forty-seven are separated from the 
remainder by the title Quaestiones Noui Testamenti. These alone 
are extant in old MSS and are all that were published at first. 
The last thirty were constituted by the printers a separate section, 
inscribed 'Ex Utroque Mixtim.' Of this class the Benedictine 
editor knew five examples, a Colbertinus 1 which he dates about 
990 A.D., but which is still extant and is of the ninth century; two 
MSS in the library of the Sorbonne, and two in the library of 
S. Victor. Had he followed Colbertinus more closely instead of 
looking at it only occasionally, and had he made some search for 
MSS in Benedictine monasteries elsewhere in Europe than Paris, 
he would have anticipated the gratifying result of my own in- 
vestigations. A study of many catalogues in the Bollandist 
library in Brussels 2 , made possible for me by the courtesy of 
Father Van den Gheyn, S.J., Conservateur a Manuscrits in the 
Bibliotheque Royale there 3 , has led to the discovery of six ninth- 
century and two tenth-century MSS, besides some later copies. 

Of the second class only three examples were known to the 
Benedictine editor, one in the Sorbonne 4 , one in the Abbey of 

1 On the Colbertine library, see L. Delisle Le Cabinet des Manuscrits i (Paris, 
1868), pp. 439-486. 

2 The Vienna Academy has now (1902) published a Catalogue Catalogornm (ed. 
W. Weinberger) for the use of contributors to the Corp. Scr. Eccl. Lat. 

3 He kindly introduced me to the library, and put the services of the obliging 
assistant-librarian at my disposal. 

4 On this library, see Literatur frith, und noch bestehend. europ. o/entL ?/. 
Corporations-BiUioth., von E. G. Vogel (Lpz. 1840), p. 281. 

^ s. 2 



18 INTRODUCTION. 

S. Victor 1 , and one of the Abbey of S. Germain-des-Pres 2 . I am 
unaware whether the two former MSS still exist, but have dis- 
covered two others of this class. This class contains one hundred 
and fifty-one Quaestiones, fifty-six being ' Ex Veteri Testamento/ 
and ninety-five being ' Ex Nouo Testamento.' This larger col- 
lection shows sixty-one (the last giving a title only, not the text), 
which are absent from the first, but wants thirty-seven which are 
found in the first 3 . In the case of some Quaestiones the texts 
of the two collections differ more or less ; and the same Quaestio 
is sometimes treated more than once in the same collection. 

There are at least five examples of a third class, unknown to 
the editors. This third class contains ninety-four Quaestiones, 
with a set of twenty-one added as a separate book, and is not 
entirely derived from either the first or second class. 

LIST OF MSS OF THE QUAESTIONES. 
An asterisk appended indicates that I have collated the MS. 
CLASS I. 

*1. Karlsruhe, Augiensis ix, s. ix ("before 830," Holder). 

*2. Miinchen (Monacensis lat.} 6312, olim Frisingensis 112, s. ix. 

*3. Miinchen (Monacensis lat.} 14537, olim S. Emmerami F. 40, at 
Katisbon (Regensburg) s. ix. This MS is a copy of 2. 

*4. Bruxelles (BiUioth. Reg. Belg.} II 972 antea Phillippsii Chelten- 
hamensis 363, olim S. Ohisleni in Hannonia zzz, s. ix. 

*5. Colbertinus (Parisiacus, BiU. Nat. Lat. 2709) s. ix (cf. Catal. Bibl. 
Regiae (Par. 1744) P. in, T. 3 p. 318). 

*6. Gand (Gandavensis} 95 (156, St Genois 529, old no. 60), formerly of 
the Abbey S. Maximin near Trier, s. x. ex. 

*7. Metz (Met(t}ensis) 322, formerly of the Cathedral of S. Arnulfus, s. x. 

*8. Nostradamensis (Parisiacus, B. N. Lat. 17385), formerly of the 
Chapter of Notre Dame, s. ix. 

9. Utrecht (Rheno-Traiectinus), 46 (Eccl. 253, antea 282) s. xv ("Per- 
tinet Regularibus in Traiecto"). 

*10. Padova (Patamnus) (Scaff. x, N. 191), s. xin. It wants quaest. 
47 to 101, and the end of 127. 

11. Leipzig (Lipsiensis) 231, s. xn. 

12. Paris (Bibl. cP Arsenal 473) s. xiv. 

i Vogel, p. 279. 2 Vogel, p. 278. 

3 Cf. Langen, p. 5. 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

13. Cambridge University Library, Ee. 1. 25, s. xv (date 1442). 

14. Salisbury (Sarisberiensis) 129, s. xii. 

15. Durham (Dunelmemis) B. 2. 12, s. xiv in. 

The editio princeps was edited by Augustinus Ratisponensis and published 
at Lyons by J. Trechsel (1497). 

The inter-relation of MSS of the 1st class is discussed in the 
Sitzungsberichte of the Vienna Academy for 1904. 

CLASS II. 

*16. Bruxellensis 1125 (625-636), s. xv. 

17. Padova, University Library, 1444, s. xv. 
*18. Germanensis (now Parisiacus, B. N. Lat. 12,223) s. xn. 

CLASS III. 

19. Heiligenkreuz, Stift, no. 229, s. xii. 

20. Wien ( Vindobonensis), no. 753, s. xiv. 

21. Wien ( Vindobonensis), no. 1044, s. xi-xil. 

22. Gorres no. 31, on sale in Miinchen in 1902 \ s. xm-xiv. 

23. Leipzig (Lipsiensis), no. 267, s. xm. 

1 I owe my information about this MS to Dr A. Engelbrecht. This is the MS 
which attributes a section of the Quaestiones to S. Ambrose. 



22 



PAET I 

COMPARISON OF THE COMMENTARIES 
AND THE QUAESTIONES. 



CHAPTER I. 

COMMUNITY OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND ALLUSIONS. 

IT will be allowed that illustrations and allusions provide a 
very strong indication of a writer's individuality, and that, when 
we find in those of the commentaries and the Quaestiones a close 
likeness, we have a powerful argument for common authorship. 
The scope of the illustrations in these works is not a very wide 
one, but this fact serves only to strengthen the proof. A prominent 
feature is the large number of them which are derived from 
Government and Law. At first sight, it might seem that such 
as these, being, to an inhabitant of the Roman empire, obvious 
and easily drawn, do not form a sound criterion. But it is 
remarkable that S. Augustine, to take a writer very nearly 
contemporary, is hardly, if at all, given to drawing illustrations 
from this source. An examination of other writers of the time 
would probably show the same result. At any rate, such illustra- 
tions are a prominent feature of the two works under consideration. 
Besides illustrations, allusions to definite statutes and edicts also 
appear. References to the Jews, another marked characteristic, 
are reserved for a later chapter. 

Among terms connected with government, the Imperator and 
his subordinates, often coupled with him, may conveniently come 
first. As an alternative expression, Rex 1 sometimes occurs, and 
regnum Romanum 2 . 'Astrologers and physical philosophers excuse 

1 E.g. 'apud Romanes reges Augusti appellantur ' (144 A); cum stella indice 
temporalis rex soleat designari (qu. 63). The name, as obnoxious to all Romans, 
was scrupulously avoided by the founder of the Empire. (Glover, Life and Letters 
in the Fourth Century, p. 325, has exx. from Symmachus and Claudiau.) 

2 479 B ; 482 B, c; qu. 55; 107 m; 115 pr. The phrase is probably very rare in 
Latin : indeed it is incorrect. 



24 COMMUNITY OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND ALLUSIONS. 

themselves for neglect of God by saying that they use the stars 
and elements as stepping-stones to Him, just as people obtain an 
audience of the rex through the comites. Come ! no one is so 
senseless as to claim that the comes should receive the honour 
due to the rex : any who attempted to confer it iure ut rei 
damnantur maiestatis.' ( People have to see the tribuni and comites 
first, because the king is a mere man, and does not know to whom 
he ought to entrust state business. To win God's favour, one has 
no need of a canvasser (suffragator),' etc. (60 c). ' God appears 
to have addressed His angels as the commander-in-chief or 
emperor (Imperator) his army ' (qu. 45 ppr). ' The rule of the 
Imperator depends on the obedience of his soldiers, but the army 
is not better than, or equal to, the Imperator' (qu. 101 ex). 
' We cannot speak of a common likeness between God and His 
angels, such as exists between the Imperator and his comites ' 
(qu. 45 ppr). 'It is an insult to the Creator that His bondservants 
are courted, while He Himself is slighted ; just as it is, when 
the Imperator is contemned, while his comites receive worship' 
(qu. 114 pr). ' No Imperator allows his tribuni and comites 
to be worshipped in his own name' (qu. 114 am). 'The bust 
of the Imperator has authority in his absence, not in his 
presence ' (456 A). ' God can be said to be seen, only by the 

understanding Similarly, when we do not know the Imperator, 

we see him in figura, non in ueritate' (qu. 71). The mistakes 
that are made in years, months, and the 'days' 1 (dies) of the 
Imperatores are referred to in qu. 44 ex. ' Some things are 
allowable in the company of other people, which are not permitted 
before the Imperator' (qu. 127 ex). ; The tunic of an ordinary 
man, however neat and clean, is yet mean, and not to be worn 
by the Imperator' (qu. 127 ex). 'Those who wait at the table 
of the Imperator must be clothed brightly and neatly' (qu. 127 ex). 
' The fifth (of the elements) is the spirit of man, which is a kind 
of charioteer to drive the body when formed, being a sort of 
Imperator (or commander-in-chief) for it' (qu. 108 pr). 'The 
authority of the earthly Imperator runs through all in order 
that, in all, respect should be paid to him ; so God arranged,' etc. 

1 The birthday (dies natalis) and the anniversary of the first day of his rule are 
meant. Cf. Plin. ep. Trai. 62, with Hardy's note. 



COMMUNITY OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND ALLUSIONS. 25 

(qu. 110 ppr). 'The spirit is the Tmperator of the body, to 
direct the man by the tiller-ropes of the divine law' (qu. 115 am). 
' Men, when oppressed by the governors (rectores) of provinces, 
have recourse to the Imperatores to have their wrongs set right. 
So men, if they fall on evil days, commit themselves in prayer to 
God' (qu. 115 am). 'The Imperator alone can repeal a sentence, 
and pardon one condemned to death : indices cannot recall a 
verdict once passed. If the Imperator can do this, how much 
more God?' (qu. 115 am). 'Christ is the Imperator, whose 
battles are being fought by those who serve in His armour' 
(qu. 126 aex). 'The armour of the Christian bears the devices 
of his Imperator' (334 B). Imperial edicts are referred to from 
time to time : those which are specially named will be found in 
the paragraph about Law 1 . 

' Those who are consuls, or those who are honoured by statues, 
delight in vanity ' (qu. 81 m). ' That consul is named first who 
is elected first' (qu. 107 pm). 'A praefectus can take the duty 
of a praefectus, and a praetor of a praetor : but a person not in 
office cannot carry out the duty of any official position' (qu. 46 m). 
The vicarius, or substitute of the Emperor, appears occasionally. 
' This is, therefore, the image of God in man, that one has been 
made a sort of dominus, from whom the rest were to spring, 
he having the imperium of God, as His vicarius ; because every 
king has the image of God' (qu. 106 aex). 'Christ is the vicarius 
of the Father, and the antistes, and thus He is called also the 
sacerdos! etc. (qu. 109 ex, col. 2329, 68 f.). ' The antistes of God 
must be purer than others : for he is seen to have His role ; 
he is His vicarius : so that what is allowable to others is not 
allowable to him,' etc. (qu. 127 ex). 'The apostles are the 
vicarii of Christ' (210 B ; so also 328 c ; 334 A) : 'a bishop is 
vicarius of the Lord' (254 A) 2 . This is the place to exemplify 
legatus, the older equivalent of vicarius. Besides legatus, the 
title of the office, legatio, also appears 3 . ' God then was in Christ. 
In what way? Quasi in vicario aut legato?' he asks (314 B). 

1 The emperor is often introduced in the Clementine Homilies also. 
- Cf. Langen, diss. Bonn., p. 6. 

3 The image was partly derived from 2 Cor. v 20 and Eph. vi 20, passages in 
the writer's mind in 53 A, 219 c, 263 A, 298 c, 299 c, 402 c. 



26 COMMUNITY OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND ALLUSIONS. 

' Sacerdotes or legati are so named, because they show forth in 
their own person him whose legati they are ; for they are his 
likeness : and thus Christ and the Holy Spirit, having by nature 
the image of God, are named His sacer dotes ' (qu. 109 ex). ' The 
apostles are the legati of Christ ' (263 A). ' The man (in relation 
to the woman) is the legatus of Christ ' (273 B). ' Consuetudo 
et lex est legatis hominum non inferre exitia : qua praesumptione 
et audacia legatis Dei non solum exitia, sed et mors inrogatur ? ' 
(425 A). ' Seeing we cannot reciprocate all God's kindnesses, let 
us at least faithfully and earnestly carry out the duty of His 
representatives (legationem eius agamus)' (513 D). ' lurisconsulti 
or pontifices, quos vacant sacerdotes, have decreed fixed days on 
which cases are to be tried ' (214 A). The title praefectus, so 
frequent in its various applications in Imperial times, is also 
found. One example has already been given (with praetor). ' If, 
in a proclamation (programma) by one praefectus praetorio, the 
rest of the prefects also are said to issue a command, on account 
of the authority of the one power (potestas) : how much more 
suitably in the case of the power (imperium) of one God, if One 
of Three have spoken, will Three be said to have spoken ? ' 
(qu. 97 pm). ' To compare the priests with the bearers of the 
tabernacle and all its vessels, the hewers of wood and the carriers 
of water, is like putting praefecti on a level with their officiates 1 , 
or slaves on a level with their owners and masters ' (qu. 101 ppr). 
' To say that the Sabbath had already lapsed, because the Saviour 
worked on that day, is like saying, if a man be an ex-praefectus, 
and have experienced an injury, that the office of praefect 
(praefectura) has experienced an injury' (2 qu. N. T. 31). The 
officiates are met with again 2 in qu. 101 am: 'whatever honour 
is conferred upon the officiales results in increase to the constituted 
authority: as an honour to a slave works towards the praise of 
his master.' The senatorial class for time had served only to 
make this order in society more distinctive than ever 3 is alluded 

1 These underlings are called also qfficiarii. They wore a special uniform (qu. 
47, quoted p. 27). 

2 See also senatores (1st example). 

3 See Dill, Roman Society in the Western Empire (ed. 1), pp. 176178, 207 
208, and index. 



COMMUNITY OF ILLUSTKATIONS AND ALLUSIONS. 27 

to several times. ' Senatores and officiates are recognised to be 
such by their dress ' (qu. 47 pm). ' It is disgraceful in a man 
of rank to engage in business, and a crime to enter an eating- 
house. It is infamia for senators even to exact interest for 
money lent ' (qu. 102 ppr) \ ' Senatores generant senator es ' 
(qu. 81 m). 'All senators, then, have one destiny: for no senator 
is unlettered; and people who are unlettered have one, and all 
slaves have one fate : for no slave is a senator' (qu. 115 aex, in an 
argument against astrologers, etc.). Fiscalia 2 are mentioned on 
Rom. xiii 6 (172 A): 'ideo dicit "tributa" praestari, uel quae 
dicuntur fiscalia (imperial dues), ut subiectionem praestent/ etc. 

The references to Law in general or to particular statutes are 
unusually frequent. Were the works to any extent apologetic, 
we could understand this frequency: as this is not so, the presence 
of such references must be due to special knowledge and interest 
in law on the part of the writer. In Tertullian the influence 
of juristic training shows itself more in his vocabulary, which is 
well known to be permeated with recondite legal terminology, 
than in the quotation of special statutes. The language of 
' Ambrosiaster,' on the contrary, shows less of a legal nature 3 , and 
his knowledge of law is evidenced mainly by his references 4 . I 
may begin by quoting his derivation of the word 'lex,' which is 
interesting : ' lex a lectione 5 dicta est, ut de multis quid eligas 
scias' (2 qu. N.T. 15). The writer's feeling for Roman law appears 
in the following sentences (366 A B) : ' nam quomodo fieri poterat 
ut Romanis legibus imbuti, quorum tanta auctoritas in seruandis 
mandatis est, nescirent homicidium non esse faciendum : quippe 
cum adulteros, et homicidas, et falsos testes, et fures, et maleficos, 

1 Senatorial order forbidden to trade (God. Thcodos. 5, p. 11, Bitter's ed. and 
13, 1, 21). Cod. Theod. 2, 33, 4 allows them to lend at 6 / and 2, 33, 3 allows 
senators who are minors to lend money at interest (Dill, op. cit. p. 220, n. 1, q.v.). 

2 The word occurs also in Theodos. de situ terrae sanctae 32 (Geyer, p. 150). 

8 There is plenty of legal language, as in all Latin Christian writers, but little of 
a highly technical character. 

4 Of. Dorn Morin, pp. 20, 21. 

5 Modern philologists, too, connect with tigo, but in the sense of "read" (Breal 
et Bailly, Diet. Etymol. Lat. (Paris, 1886) s.v. lex : Lindsay, Latin Language (Oxf. 
1804), p. 260). 



28 COMMUNITY OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND ALLUSIONS. 

et ceterorum malorum admissores puniant leges Romanae? Deni- 
que tria haec mandata ab apostolis et senioribus data reperiuntur, 
quae ignorant leges Romanae, id est, " ut abstineant se ab ido- 
latria, et sanguine, sicut Noe, et fornicatione." ' The ' leges 
Romanae ' excuse fornication (64 c). An edict of Diocletian 
against the Manichaeans is cited 1 , 521 B; 'Quippe cum Diocle- 
tianus imperator constitutione sua designet, dicens : sordidam hanc 
et imparam Jiaeresim, quae nuper, inquit, egressa est de Persida 2 . 
In qu. 127 m. the plural, edictis, is used, also with reference to 
the Manichaeans. Addressing them, the author says : * sancti- 
monium enim profitentes, latenter inmunditiae studetis, quod 
non sol urn privatim sed et edictis prodictum est Imperatorum! 
If these be not rhetorical plurals, and there is no special reason 
to take them as such, the edict of Valentinian I, and those of 
Gratian, against the Manichaeans, Eunomians, and Photinians 
are probably included 3 . If Langen's date 4 for this quaestio 
after 385 be right, room is provided for yet more edicts 5 . An 
edict of Julian, permitting, for the first time in history, the 
divorce of husbands by their wives, is mentioned in qu. 115 pr. 
The author tells us that this permission was abused : ' coeperunt 
enim cottidie licenter uiros suos dimittere.' In the same passage 
another law is mentioned : ' eunuchos 6 in regno Romano fieri non 
licet, apud alios licet/ The oft-repeated expulsion of the mathe- 
matici, or astrologers, from Rome during the Empire 7 is referred 
to with a touch of humour in an argument against them. ' In 
what way,' asks our author, ' will they be said to have been born, 

1 This edict is otherwise known only from the Lex Dei or Mosaicarum et Roma- 
narum legum collatio, xv 3, a work once wrongly attributed to S. Ambrose (see 
Mommsen's edition, Berl. 1890). 

2 The punishment was death and confiscation of property: the edict referred to 
Africa. Cf. Baron. Annal. a. 287, n. 2. For the form Persida see Ihm (Rh. Mus. 
XLIX (1894) 316 f.), and Marx's index to Filastrius. 

3 Socr. H. E. 5, 2; Sozom. H. E. 7, 1: see, too, Cod. Theod. 16, 5, 4-5, for 
a later edict of Gratian. 

4 Diss. p. 19. 

5 Of Valentinian II and Theodosius; cf. *. Manichaei in Wetzer und Welte's 
Kirchenlexikon, vin 2 (Freib. 1893). 

6 For references to the statutes, see Eein, Criminalrecht der Romer, pp. 422-424. 

7 Cf. Tac. aim. n 32, hist, i 22, and the exhaustive note of Prof. Mayor on Juv. 
Sat. 14, 248. 



COMMUNITY OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND ALLUSIONS. 29 

who excluded the astrologers from the city of Rome?' (qu. 115 pm). 
The punishment of the thief is said to be restoration fourfold 
according to the law (inxta legem), exactly as it is laid down 
in Gaius 1 . Ambrosiaster's words are: 'numquid fur deprehensus, 
et iuxta legem in quadruplum condemnatus, ausus est queri ? ' 
(qu. 83 aex). The edict (of Constantine) abolishing crucifixion 2 
is alluded to (qu. 115 aex): 'et antea cruci homines figebantur, 
quod postea edicto prohibitum manet.' The story of the origin 
of Roman Law, derived, no doubt, from Livy, or one of the 
epitomes of Livy 3 , is given in similar terms in both works : 'sciunt 
ergo legem Romani, quia non sunt barbari ; sed comprehenderunt 
nasturalem iustitiam partim ex se, partim ex Graecis : nam leges 
Romanis ex Athenis perlatae sunt : sicut et Graecis ex Hebraeis 4 ' 
(110 D) : ' nam utique in legem erant Romani (inducti), quam 
de Athenis decem uiri missi et post alii duo attulerunt, quae in 
duabus tabulis scripta est, quae in Capitolio obrutae sunt ' 
(2 qu. N.T. 46). With the thought and mode of expression in the 
second extract, compare ' Romani in lege inducti erant ' (180 c), 
and ' in legem [some MSS ' lege '] (Romani) inducti fuerant ' 
(185 D). The principle of adoption is mentioned in qu. 125 pm 
in the following terms: 'in filiis enim, quamuis adoptiui sint, 
patris tamen ex aliqua parte debet uideri substantia. In mundo 
enim, quia res imperfectae sunt, adoptati ab hominibus filii nullum 
pignus sed solum nomen accipiunt.' The contrast is between 
the adopted sons of God, who receive the Holy Spirit, and the 
sons adopted by earthly fathers, who receive no pledge. A story 
is quoted (qu. 115 aex) from quidam iuris libellus, to the effect 
that 'aliquando mulierem quinque peperisse.' There are one or 
two references also to the law-courts, judges, etc. 'Aduocatorum 

1 Gai. 3, 189 : cf. Quint, decl. 361. 

2 See the article crux in Daremberg and Saglio's Diet. Antiq. (a reference for 
which I have to thank Prof. J. S. Keid). 

3 Recent research has revealed something of ancient epitomes of Livy, of various 
size; cf. H. A. Sandars, Die Quellenkontamination im 21. und 22. Buche des Livius 
(Berl. 1897); v. Wolfflin in Arch. f. lot. Lex. 11, 1 ff ; Oxyrhynchus Papyri, voL rv; 
Reid in Classical Review, July, 1904, etc. 

4 .There is, of course, nothing of this in Livy, but the statement is current in 
Christian books. Plato, according to some, borrowed from Moses. (The MSS vary 
greatly here.) 



SO COMMUNITY OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND ALLUSIONS. 

enim more accipe antistites: numquid, si malae uitae sit aduocatus, 
contra susceptum ('client') eius prommtiabitur ? Hoc est officium 
aduocati, ut secundum iuris ordinem suscepti sui causam peroret : 
numquid poterit uita eius, si turpis est, obesse causae suscepti 1 
Persona enim aduocati nee obesse nee prodesse poterit : qualis 
enim fuerit causa, sic et respondebitur ei ' (qu. 102 ex). In 
qu. 115 m. we are told that 'indices cannot recall a sentence 
passed on an accused person. Only the emperor can do this ; 
he can even commute a death sentence ' (see p. 25). Qu. 101 m. 
says: 'et turpe est iudici dicere primiscrinium 1 ' (i.e. because the 
latter is much inferior). In qu. 124 the author makes a statement 
about the venality of the courts, true, no doubt, but requiring 
some courage, probably, to utter it : ' (diuites) securi sunt de 
impunitate, scientes uenalia esse iudicia, et nee redargui se ab 
aliquo' (cf. qu. 4). The courts are alluded to also in 223 c; qu. 2, 
112, 115, 12*7. He refers once in each work to the ancient Roman 
statute forbidding wine to women 2 : (461 A) ' nam et mulieribus 
eorum (Romanorum) castitatis causa uini usus incognitus fuit, 
sicut nunc aquae ; in tantum enim uigebat disciplinae auctoritas 
cet.'; (qu. 115 ppr) 'mulieribus etenim Romanorum multis tem- 
poribus uini usus incognitus fuit. Disciplina enim, facta con- 
suetudine, confirmauit sensum suum, cet.' The autopsy on the 
body of a condemned person in the olden times is mentioned* 
(144 c). Qu. 79 (75) explains that the 'didragma' of Matt, xvii 27 
is a poll-tax, not a land-tax 4 . Qu. 102 refers to the 'professio' 
(returns made at the census). A principle of Roman law is stated 
in 392 A : ' ubi holographa manus est, falsum dici non potest V 
Judges cannot be prosecutors. 'Quasi possint ipsi accusatores 
esse, qui sunt iudices...Nam quis iudex accusatoris sumat per- 
sonam?' (qu. 102 aex). There are several places where ius 

1 Migne primicerium. It is difficult to say exactly what a primiscrinius was. 
Other exx. are in Cassiod. Variae (see Traube's index in Mommsen's ed.). 

2 Attributed to Romulus by Dion. Hal. 2, 25 et TIS olvov cvpeQd-r) iriovffa yvv-f),... 
eavarv ftfuovv ovv^^atv 6 'Pw/ii5Xos (cf. Bruns, Fontes Iuris Romani (ed. 6), p. 6). 

3 Antiqui medici in hominibus morte dignis uel mortis sententiam consecutis 
requirebant quo modo prodessent uiuis, quae in homine latebaiit apertis, ut his 
coguoscerent causas aegritudinis, et poena morientis proficeret ad salutem uiuentis. 

4 What follows in the printed text is not in the MSS of cl. i: see above, p. 11. 

5 This principle holds still in the law of Scotland; a holograph will is legal. 



COMMUNITY OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND ALLUSIONS. 31 

ecclesiasticum is mentioned : ' hoc concessum est iuri ecclesiastico 
ab auctore, ut et paenitentiam det, et post paenitentiam recipiat 
(qu. 102 aex) ; ' sic sunt ei qui uolunt fieri Christiani : accedunt 
ad antistitem ; dicunt ei uota sua ; ille facit uerba iuris ecclesi- 
astici. Si uera uota sunt, suscipiuntur a iudice, cet.' (qu. 102 ex) ; 
' dicitur eis " accipite Spirit-urn Sanctum " : et quia uere ad ius 
ecclesiasticum pertiret, statim subiecit, dicens : " Cuius tenueritis 
peccata, cet." (lohann. 20, 23) (qu. 93); '(forma) ad ius ecclesi- 
asticum pertinet in regenerandis uel ceteris officiis' (qu. 93). 
Finally there is an interesting and important passage near the 
end of qu. 127 (col. 2385) about what is allowed and forbidden to 
ecclesiastics. With it compare the note on 1 Tim. iii 12-13. 

I now turn from illustrations and allusions connected with 
Government and Law to those taken from Astrology, and other 
subjects. 

No Christian writer is more emphatic against astrology than 
' Ambrosias ter.' Among Christian writers we find varying degrees 
of antagonism to the art, and it is much to be desired that some 
one should write the history of the Church's attitude towards it. 
It is now satisfactorily proved 1 that lulius Firmicus Maternus, 
who published his Mathesis, or ' Handbook of Astrology,' between 
335 and 337 2 , is the same as the author of the De Errore 
Profanarum Religionum. S. Augustine, too, tells that he dallied 
with astrology in his youth 3 . The astrologers, spoken of usually 
as scrutatores siderum (though the technical term mathematici 
is also used once or twice, and is coupled occasionally with the 
sophistae Graecorum, the physical philosophers, scientists, or rather 
pseudo-scientists, of the day), are the subject of a considerable 
attack in qu. 115, which has the heading 'De Fato.' The attack 
is well delivered ; the weapon of humour is employed : and the 



1 By Prof. Clifford H. Moore, of Chicago, lul. Firmicus Maternus, der Heide und 
der Christ (Leipz. 1897); see also v. Wolfflin in Archiv f. lat. Lex. x 428 ff. 

2 The date was discovered by Th. Mommsen (Hermes xxix (1894) p. 468 ff.) to be 
between 30 Dec. 335 and 22 May 337. The first half of this interesting work can 
now be read in the edition of Kroll and Skutsch (Leipz., Teubn. 1897). 

3 Gonf. 4, 3, 4 : see Prof. Mayor's note (luu. xiv 248) for more passages from 
Aug. on this subject. 



32 COMMUNITY OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND ALLUSIONS. 

tract is altogether a valuable historical document. Resources 
of learning, very considerable for those days, are drawn upon ; and 
if each statement were traced to the source from which it came, 
we should have some valuable data as to the reading of an 
educated man of the period 1 . On 1 Cor. i 20 the commentator 
writes : Gentiles say ' nihil posse fieri sine commixtione, et 
stultum iudicant (that God should have a Son). Conquisitor 
tamen saeculi hie est, qui constellationibus agi mundum et duo- 
decim signis ortus et occasus fieri decernit calculis, nihil omnino 
sine horum motu putans posse fieri' (199 A). ' Naturalis lex' 
is a better teacher than * cursus siderum ' and ' calculi signorum ' 
(207 A). Again, on Col. ii 18 : ' inflantur enim motum peruidentes 
stellarum, quas angelos uocat cet.' (456 B). On 1 Cor. i 26 appear 
those, 'qui stellarum motus inspiciunt et discernunt' (200 D). 
The best exposition of his view to be found in the commentaries 
is that on Col. ii 8, 9 (cf. prol. to Col.), but it is too long to quote. 
One clause is : ' omnem uim astris adsignantes, carnali rationi 
obnoxii ' (452 D). The whole of qu. 84 is on the observation of 
the moon's course, with which compare 381 B : ' qui cursus 
lunae perscrutantur.' The long and important qu. 115, as has 
been said above, is occupied with astrology. It begins with the 
statement that nothing is so detrimental to the Christian as to 
pay attention to the art of astrology (mathesis) : other statements 
are : * ars matheseos euitanda et fugienda est ' ; ' things are not 
as the "stellarum speculatores " consider them to be.' 'Astrologi' 
are the enemies of the truth (qu. 63). { Abraham, by nature an 
astrologer (Chaldaeus), showed himself a master of faith ; although 
skilled in astrologia, he yet preferred God to human wisdom/ etc. 2 
(qu. 117 m). The enactments expelling astrologers from Rome 
are referred to above. The sapientia carnis of Rom. viii 7 is 
defined as 'primo in loco, astrorum ab hominibus inuenta dis- 
putatio, deinde, uisibilium oblectatio' (125 B). Unbelievers are 

1 Not that such data are wanting : we find them in Ausonius and Symmachus ; 
but while these authors throw light mainly on poetical reading, our author gives 
evidence as to prose reading. In this connexion references in Augustine's con- 
fessions and civitas Dei (see Teuffel-Schwabe, Rom. Lit. 440, 10) are interesting. 

2 Here there is a very natural confusion between the two senses of Chaldaeus, 
both of which occur in 0. T, 



COMMUNITY OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND ALLUSIONS. 33 

blind to the fact that all 'sapientia et scientia' is in Christ; 
because they do not read of 'astrologia' in the Gospels, 'geometria' 
in S. Paul, or ' arithmetica ' and 'musica' in the prophets (451 c). 
Our author thinks of the physical philosophers or materialists 
and the astrologers together. Compare : ' sophistae mundi et 
scrutatores 1 siderum' (282 c); 'sapientes mundi' and ' scrutatores 
siderum ' (qu. 100 am) ; ' dicant sophistae Graecorum cet.' 
(366 AB); 'sophistae et nobiles mundi' (qu. 114 ex): compare, 
too, on 1 Cor. xv 36: 'cum animali homine...agit...^)%5ica 
ratione, de qua sibi blanditur, ut non credat resurgere resoluta et 
emortua corpora cet.' Enough has been written to prove that 
there is an especial antipathy to astrology in both works, finding 
vent in the same terms. 

A kindred subject, pagan religion and ritual, comes in for 
occasional mention. Qu. 114 is entitled 'Aduersus Paganos,' 
and, in a list of pagan gods, brings forward, quite unobtrusively, 
one Fruxilla, unknown even to Roscher 2 . The list is : ' lanus 
enim et Saturnus et louis (nomin.) 5 et Mercurius, et Apollo et 
ceteri, item Minerua, et Isis, et Fruxilla 4 , et Venus, et Flora 
meretrix 5 cum ceteris, dii deaeque sunt.' The order shows a fine 
disregard of the relative dignity of the different divinities; and 
where are Juno, Mars, Diana, Vulcan, etc. ? The selection is 
intentionally random, perhaps, and meant in itself to convey 
contempt; or, may the list be considered as indicating the most 
popular worships of the time ? The whole tract is important and 
seems virgin soil for the historian. There is a briefer list of gods 
in the commentaries (239 B) : ' a paganis et sol et luna et cetera 
sidera di caelestes dicuntur : in terra Apollinem Aesculapium 
Herculem Mineruam deos dicunt et dominos.' The veiling of the 

1 The words scrutor, scrutator express close and searching examination (cf. 
scrutari occulta significat penetrare qu. 125 m) : for the verb, in the present 
connexion, cf . scrutantes cursus siderum (60 c) ; scrutatis igitur stellarum motibus 
[Prosper] De Eev. Div. 75. 

2 Lexikon der Mythologie. 

3 For other exx. of this form, see Georges, s.v. 

4 Perhaps one ought to read Phryx ilia, and consider the reference to be to the 
Mater Magna. 

5 The same epithet is applied to Flora in Minucius Felix, c. 25, and in Kiese 
anthol. i 2 , p. 24 carm. c. paganos, v. 112, of date about 390. This poem may 
have been written by or known to our author. 

s. 3 



34 COMMUNITY OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND ALLUSIONS. 

eyes in the presence of the pagan mysteries is attacked (271 B): 
'religionem in qua nihil fucatum, nihil in tenebris uidet geri, 
sicut apud paganos, quibus uelantur oculi, ne, quae " sacra " uocant 
perspicientes, uariis se uanitatibus cernaiit inludi'; (418 B) pagani 
in tenebris mystica sua celebrantes in spelaeo uelatis oculis inlu- 
duntur : and in qu. 114 : ' Illud autem quale est quod in speleo 
uelatis oculis inluduntur ? Ne enim horreant turpiter dehonestari 
se, oculi illis uelantur' etc. (again: p. 2346 15). Again, compare : 
' sententia paganorum turpis et foeda est, maxime quae in Phrygia 
inuenta est, in qua nisi spurcus intersit, sacramentum mutum est 
et torpescit religio' (110 A) with a passage of quaestio 114 (col. 2343 
44 ff.): 'e contra autem paganorum traditio antestites et ministros 
idoneos sibi esse non posse nisi ex uiris transfigurentur in feminas, 
ut licenter et publice muliebria patiantur et discussis in aqua in- 
honeste crinibus mollem quassatamque uocem et turpem emittant. 
Quod si publice facerent, ab omni populo lapidarentur. Et cyno- 
cefalus ille qui nutabundus per omnia se circurnfert loca quaerens 
membra adulteri Osiris uiri Isidis ! ' 

Certain Roman festivals are named in 381 B, on Gal. iv 10 : 
"Dies obseruatis et menses et tempora et annos." The passage 
is worth transcribing, though it mentions Roman rather than 
Galatian practices. "Dies ergo obseruant, qui dicunt, ut puta: 
' crastino proficiscendum non est ; post crastinum enim non debet 
aliquid inchoari': et sic solent magis decipi. Hi autem colunt 
menses, qui cursus lunae perscrutantur, dicentes, ut puta: 'septima 
luna instrumenta confici non debent ' ; ' nona iterum luna seruum 
emptum, ut puta, domum duci non oportet ' : et per haec facilius 
solent aduersa prouenire. Tempora uero sic obseruant, cum dicunt: 
' hodie ueris initium est, festiuitas est, post eras Vulcanalia sunt.' 
Et talia iterum aiunt : 'posterum est, domum egredi non licet/ 
Annos sic colunt, cum dicunt : ' Kalendis lanuariis nouus est 
annus,' quasi non cottidie anni impleantur: sed ut lani illius 
recolant memoriam bifrontis 1 , hac superstitione utuntur, quae 
longe debet esse a seruis Dei." 'Coracina sacra' are mentioned 
on page 61 c (see below for context), and in qu. 114 (col. 2343 
58, 59) : ' alii autem sicut ales alas percutiunt uocem coracis 
imitantes.' 

1 Cf. ' laniqne bifrontis ' carm. adu. paganos v. 93. 



COMMUNITY OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND ALLUSIONS. 35 

The Amazons are mentioned in both works. ' Postquam 
enim mulieres eorum (Scytharum) lege uiri uti coeperunt, quas 
Amazonas prirnitus adserunt appellatas, totam Asiam contra 
naturam subicientes, sic contigit ut et uiri canum more rabidi 
efficerentur, inmanes siluestres, inculti, plus quam barbari, in 
tantum inmutati, ut carne humana uescenda imbuerentur' (461 A): 
' traduntur enim mulieres Scytharum, quae Amazonae dictae 
sunt, quia cum uiri earum occupati bello longinquo diu abessent, 
propter subolem seruis se miscuisse, et omnem marem natum 
necauisse, relictis feminis ita, ut nulla lanificio operam daret, 
sed ab ineunte aetate palaestra et armis inbuerentur. Harum 
tanta uirtus et industria in rebus gestis fuit, ut per multam 
annorum seriem regnantes non nullas gentes subigerent, Asiam 
omnem sub tributo ponentes' (qu. 115 aex). The two passages, 
by their differences as well as their resemblances, constitute in 
themselves an undoubted proof of common authorship. 

The Babylonians and the Egyptians are mentioned in both 
works. On Rom. i 23 the Babylonians are said to have been 
the first to call by the name of a 'god' the representation of 
a certain dead Belus, once a man, who is said 'principatum in 
eos egisse.' They also worshipped a ' serpens draco/ which Daniel, 
the man of God, killed, and whose likeness they possess (61 s) 1 . 
The author asserts (2 qu. N. T. 17) that the Samaritans are well 
known to have sprung from the Babylonians (' erat enim Samari- 
tanus, quos constat ex origine esse Babyloniorum ') 2 . His interest 
in the customs of nations is considerable. * The Persians wear ear- 
rings like women, a thing which here (in Rome) is dishonourable 
and illegal : but that it can be done here also, the priests of 
Mater Magna show'; etc. (qu. 115 ppr). 'It is a custom of 
Moorish women to wear rings even in their noses (ibid.).' In the 
same passage there is a comparison of the several riding customs 
among the Jews, the Romans, the Garamantes, the Persians, the 
Midianites, and the Africans, with respect to the animals used. 

The references to Egypt are rather frequent, and must be 
mentioned in detail here, their significance being reserved for 

1 This is from the apocryphal book 'Bel and the Dragon' (Swete, Introd. to the 
Study of the LXX, pp. 260 ff.). 

2 This fact was got from 2 Keg. xvii 6, 23, especially v. 24 ; xviii 34. 

32 



36 COMMUNITY OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND ALLUSIONS. 

discussion in a later chapter. The most remarkable, perhaps, 
is that to the Alexandrian Library founded by Ptolemy, and the 
proofs there existing as to the signs wrought in Egypt for the 
deliverance of the children of Israel. The passage is as follows 
(qu. 114 aex): 'In monte enim apparuit maiestas Dei ad dandam 
legem hominibus. Et ut huic fides possit haberi, praemisit signa 
multa et prodigia facta in Aegypto, quod hodieque libri testantur 
a Ptolomaeo reconditi in bybliothecam Alexandriae.' This ' testi- 
monium ' has been overlooked by Susemihl 1 , who mentions that 
Justin Martyr (Apol. 2), Pseudo-Justin (Coh.), Augustine (C. D. 
18, 42), and Jerome speak inaccurately of the library (singular) 
founded by Ptolemy. The present passage does not commit 
itself to a statement of the number of libraries founded by the 
king (apart from the possibility that one collection may have 
been stored in two buildings 2 ), and has a certain value as 
evidence. The reference is evidently not to a Greek Old Testa- 
ment, unless we suppose that the author is giving the statement 
on hearsay, or at random, for controversial purposes, knowing that 
it would not be verified. We know from Orosius, who had seen 
the empty shelves 3 , that they were rifled by Theodosius the First 
in the year 389: so the date of qu. 114 is fixed as previous to 
that year. The following quotations will show that the author 
had some connexion with or special interest in Egypt. The 
worship of Apis and of birds is referred to (61 c) : ' Aegyptii 
autem colebant quadrupedem, quam 4 (v. I. quern) dicebant Apern, 
in similitudinem uaccae, quod malum imitatus est Hieroboam, 
uaccas 5 instruens in Samaria, quibus sacrificarent ludaei, et 
uolucres, quia coracina 6 sacra habebant pagani. Harum tamen 

1 Gesch. der griech. Litt. in der Alex. Zeit i (Leipz. 1891), p. 337, n. 39, a 
convenient book for information about the Alexandrian Library (or Libraries) of 
Ptolemy. It is possible that our passage may be from Tert. apol. 18. 

2 This is the view of the writer of 'Alexandria' in Hastings' Diet. Bibl. 
8 Oros. Hist. adu. Pag. 6, 15, 32. 

4 The feminine is curious, as Apis, elsewhere (e.g. Plin. h. n. vm 184 186), 
is a 'bos.' It is possibly meant to express contempt. So the Spaniards, in the 
present time, call out vaca ' to a cowardly bull in the ring. 

8 The LXX has dav.d\eis, the Vulg. uituli (3 Keg. xii 28, 32). Modern criticism, 
too, attributes Israel's idolatry greatly to Egyptian influence. 

6 See qu. 114 also, cited supra, p. 34. We should expect 'coracica' (cf. 
of the mysteries of Mithras ; ' coracina ' has a different meaning 



COMMUNITY OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND ALLUSIONS. 37 

rerum, quas memoraui, simulacra coluerunt Aegyptii, et alia 1 
quae nunc dicere non est necesse.' Compare (qu. 3 pr) : ' Adubi 
autem creuit error generi humano, ita ut etiam filii Israhel contra 
hanc expositionem (i.e. the Biblical account of the creation) in 
Aegypto tradi audirent a philosophis Aegyptiorum, a quibus 
etiam Moyses fuerat instructus omnem peritiam Aegyptiacam 
(Act. vii 22), quae Apim (v. II. Saclam, Salam) quendam mundum 
istum adserit per malos angelos condidisse; hunc quoque principem 
mundi (lo. xii 31) uideri, id est, satanan. Quam sententiam 
Marcion secutus ruit in mortem. Nam et Manichei ab eodem 
satana (v. 1. Sacla) 2 hominem dicunt factum, non mundum istum, 
stultiores ceteris.' The history of the belief in an angel Saclas 
is a somewhat obscure one. Seemingly, it was adopted by the 
Manichaeans from the Ophites. In qu. 106, where the creation 
of the world is again the subject, the mysterious Saclas recurs 3 : 
' quibusdam enim uidebatur (mundus) initium non habere, aliis 
initium quidem habere, sed ab angelis quibusdam fabricatus esse ; 
non nullis uero factus similiter, sed a Sacla (v. II. spiritu, Secla) 
quodam, qui esset deus potestatis aduersae : pauci autem de 
origine, cet/ A knowledge of Church government in Egypt is 
also evidenced (410 c) ; ' apud Aegyptum presbyteri consignant 4 , 
si praesens non sit episcopus. Sed quia coeperunt sequentes 
presbyteri indigni inueniri ad primatus tenendos, immutata est 
ratio, prospiciente concilio 5 , ut non ordo sed meritum crearet 
episcopum, multorum sacerdotum iudicio constitutum, ne indignus 

(raven-coloured). We have here, perhaps, a slip of the author himself, who had 
the Nile delicacy, the coracinus (/co/m/ctj/oj a fish), running in his mind. Some MSS 
have coruina. 

1 E.g. the cat. 

2 Bead ' Saclam ' in the first place and ' Sacla ' in the second. 

3 Saclas is mentioned also in Aug. haer. 46, and in Theodoret, haer. fab. 5, 9 
ou rbv Qebv TOVTO 5ia7rXa<rcu <$>a.aiv (ol TOV Mdvevros Siddoxoi), dXXd rbv Sa/cXav, rijs 
I/XTJS TOV dpxovra. The most important passages are three in Priscillian, kindly 
pointed out to me by Dr M. R. James. 

4 This is the correct reading ; the meaning is perhaps to confirm (by making the 
sign of the cross on the brow with holy chrism). V. Bartlet (Contemporary Review, 
April 1902, p. 541) takes it to mean 'consecrates (or seals).' The word occurs 
elsewhere in this connexion only in Hauler's Latin Didasc. Veron. App., as far as 
I know. 

5 Concilio according to Lightfoci (Philippians*, p. 203) refers to Apost. Const. 
Some MSS read consilio here. 



38 COMMUNITY OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND ALLUSIONS. 

temere usurparet, et esset multis scandalum ' : so in qu. 101 'in 
Alexandria et per totam Aegyptum, si desit episcopus, consignat 
presbyter 1 .' The following analogy has an interest of its own, 
apart from its connexion with the present paragraph: ' Pharaoh 
was the name of the kings among the Egyptians, just as among 
the Romans reges are called Augusti' (144 A). 

Another point of contact between the two writings is found in 
the names of heretics. Hardly any heretic is mentioned in the 
one that does not appear in the other also. Some references to 
heretics in general will be found in Migne's index to the volume 
containing the commentaries 2 : Langen, too (on page 20), gives 
a list of references. The words used are haeretici and schismatici, 
haereses and schismata. A good enumeration occurs in the note 
on 1 Cor. i 13 diuisus est Christus : Fotiniani, Arriani 3 , Cata- 
phrygae, Nouatiani, Donatiani 4 , Manichei (197 A; cf. 72 B). In 
qu. 72 there is another: 'Fotinus 5 , Sabellius 6 , Arrius 7 , Marcion 8 , 
Manicheus 9 .' The whole of tract 102 is directed against Novatian, 
as is qu. 91 against Fotinus and qu. 97 against Arius. The tract 
against Arius is perhaps referred to in qu. 125 ex: 'hie finis 
sit : iam enim in libello aduersus Arriam impietatem digesto 
reliqua plene tractata sunt, quae trinitatis conplexa sunt indis- 
cretam unitatem.' It may be remarked that dead heretics, for 
example Novatian, are addressed as if alive in the persons of their 
followers. 

The previous authors referred to or quoted are Tertullian, 

1 For other occasions on which a presbyter could act only in the absence of an 
episcopus, cf. Synod of Elvira (305 or 306 A. D.) can. 32, Synod of Carthage (387 or 
390 A.D.) can. 4. 

2 The index to the commentaries in Migne is not complete, and there is none to 
the Quaestiones. 

3 This form is far commoner in the best MSS and in inscriptions than the form 
with one r (see s. v. Arrius in the Thes. Ling. Lat.). 

4 Filastrius has the form Donatiani once, never Donatistae. Does Augustine 
know the former ? Donatistae seems the only form in Aug., and is the only form in 
Optatus Mileuitanus. Is the latter form, then, African, and the former Italian ? 

5 Cf. 216 c; qu. 23; qu. 56; 2 qu. N.T. 53; 57. 

6 Cf . in 2 Cor. i 3 (some MSS) ; 2 qu. V.T. 3. 

7 Cf. qu. 23. 

8 Cf. 194 B; 203 A: 216 B; 2 qu. N.T. 53. 

9 Cf. 194s; 2qu. N.T. 53. 



COMMUNITY OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND ALLUSIONS. 39 

Victorinus 1 , Novatian 3 , Cyprian, and Eusebius. Tertullian, Vic- 
torinus and Cyprian are joined together as ' ueteres/ whose 
readings of scripture passages are now impugned (101 A). ' Ter- 
tullian and Novatian possessed no small scientia ; sed quia per 
zelum caritatis foedera perdiderunt, in schisma uersi ad perditionem 
sui haereses creauerunt' (266 A). The liber aduersus ludaeos of 
Tertullian is mentioned (qu. 44 ex) as showing that 490 years 
intervened between the accession of Darius, king of the Persians, 
and the birth and passion of our Lord and the destruction of 
Jerusalem 3 . This is misleading. The book does indeed say that 
490 years elapsed between the first year of Darius and the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem, but Tertullian gives 437^ years after Darius' 
accession as the date of the birth of Christ. The quotation from 
Eusebius, on which qu. 125 is an attack, is introduced thus : 
'memini me in quodam 4 libello Eusebii quondam, egregii in 
reliquis (in other respects) 5 uiri, legisse quia nee spiritus sanctus 
sciat mysterium natiuitatis domini nostri lesu Christi, et admirer 
tantae doctrinae uirum hanc maculam sancto spirit ui inflixisse.' 
Who the Eusebius referred to is, the biographical dictionaries do 
not attempt to say. There can be little doubt that Eusebius of 
Vercellae 6 is meant. I have gathered together here the names 
of all authors expressly mentioned, though Tertullian and Nova- 
tian alone appear in both works. 

The writer possessed acquaintance with apocryphal literature. 
He attributes the sentence 'quod oculus non uidit, nee auris audi- 
uit, nee in cor hominis ascendit, quae praeparauit deus diligenti- 
bus eum ' (1 Cor. ii 9) to the * Apocalypsis Heliae in apocryphis 7 / 
In this he may have made a mistake, as in qu. 112 (col. 

1 See above, p. 7, n. 3. 

2 In 2 Tim. ii 20 bis ; 2 Cor. xii 21 ; 1 Cor. vi 18; qu. 102 (where col. 2307, 34; 
col. 2310, 2225; 67 --68 may be quotations from Novatian's works). A list of 
N.'s works may be found in Bardenhewer's Patrologie 2 , 55. 

3 adu. lud. 8. 

4 For the vagueness of quotation in ancient authors, irritating to us, cf. quidam 
iuris libelhis (qu. 115 aex). 

5 This is what is meant by the expression, cf. qu. 97 in reliquis sunt conuicti 
(col. 2293, 44), the only other passage in the Quaestiones where the phrase occurs. 

6 Mr A. E. Burn (Journ. Theol. Stud, i p. 594) and Dom G. Morin (Revue 
Benedictine xx (1903) p. 115, n. 2) have also come to the same conclusion. 

7 This is a ' testimonium ' to the apocalypse unknown either to Harnack Altchr. 
Litt. i 853 ff. or Steindorff, as Dom Morin (p. 112) points out. 



40 COMMUNITY OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND ALLUSIONS. 

2338, 27) he cites quis gloriabitur mundum se habere cor aut 
inmunem esse a peccatis ? from ' alius psalmus V whereas it comes 
from Prov. xx 9. But it is more probable that the words really 
occurred in that apocalypse, having been adopted by its author 
from Is. Ixiv 4. The statement * Simone mago, qui dicitur in aera 
sursum, ut populum Christi scandalizaret, uolasse ' (in Rom. viii 
38, 39) is doubtless derived from one of the 'Clementine' writings 2 , 
like the other statement (qu. 127, col. 2384, 64), 'sanctus Petrus 
uxorem et filios 3 habuisse cognoscitur V Of lannes and Mambres, 
mentioned in 2 Tim. iii 8, he says ' exemplum hoc de apocryphis 
est: lamnes enim et Mambres fratres erant magi uel uenefici 
Aegyptiorum qui arte magiae suae uirtutibus dei, quae per Moysen 
agebantur, aemulatione commenticia resist ere se putabant. Sed 
cum Moysi uirtus in operibus cresceret, humiles facti, confessi 
sunt cum dolore ulcerum deum in Moyse operatum ' (521 c). 

1 So the MSS. Cyprian, in the Testimonia, makes the same kind of mistake 
sometimes. 

2 Of. Headlam on Simon Magus in Hastings' D. B. iv 522 (second column). 

3 The editors have carefully eliminated the children. 

4 Add this reference to those in Hort's Notes Introductory to the Study of the 
Clementine Recognitions p. 51 ff. If I mistake not, the above references, if they 
should be held to come from the 'Clementine' writings, have some bearing on 
their history. 



CHAPTER II. 

COMPARISON OF SCRIPTURE QUOTATIONS. 

In this chapter I shall consider the text of those quotations 
from the third and fourth Gospels and the Pauline epistles 1 , which 
are found both in the commentaries and in the one hundred and 
twenty-seven Quaestiones' 2 . It is unfortunate for this investiga- 
tion that there are hardly any long quotations. For the longer 
quotations of an author are generally copied directly from the 
Bible, while he trusts to his memory for the shorter quotations. 
Accordingly we cannot be quite sure that we have the ipsissima 
uerba of our writer's bible. Again, as may be seen from the 
Introduction, there are many ancient MSS of the commentaries 
of which I do not possess collations, and these may be of import- 
ance in finally constituting the text. I have, however, decided to 
write this chapter, as I believe that the text of Scripture, as it 
appears in the old MSS of the Quaestiones, will form a test of the 
comparative value of the numerous MSS of the commentaries, and 
simplify the task of editing that work. Allowance must be made 
in this, as in every other investigation of the kind, for the altera- 
tions, conscious and unconscious, which were made in scriptural 
quotations by scribes. 

For obvious reasons I have confined my attention to the 
Gospels and the Pauline epistles. Copies of the Old Testament 
in Latin differed comparatively little in text, but in the Epistles, 
and even more in the Gospels, there is an abundance of variants. 
So many are they, that if, given a sound edition of both our 

1 I have confined the enquiry to two Gospels, as being sufficient for the present 
purpose. 

2 I had not at the time of writing collated the MSS of the extra Quaestiones, and 
therefore leave them out of account. 



42 COMPARISON OF SCRIPTURE QUOTATIONS. 

works, the Gospel quotations were found to be almost identical in 
text, a very strong presumption of common authorship would be 
established, even in the absence of any other evidence. Parallel 
quotations from the Pauline epistles have been selected because 
in the commentaries the text commented upon is quoted in extenso. 
It must be remembered, however, that the very acquaintance with 
the Epistles which the writer acquired in the course of comment- 
ing on them might cause him to quote them more readily from 
memory in a later work. 

In giving the quotations I follow this method. Those quota- 
tions which occur in the commentaries I give in the left-hand 
column according to the Benedictine text, appending all manu- 
script variants known to me. The MSS I have used are indicated 
in the Introduction ( 4) by asterisks, but are not named here, as 
I am not editing the quotations, or seeking to forestall the work 
of Father Brewer. But I have edited the quotations in the 
Quaestiones from rny MSS, having come to recognise that the 
Benedictine text is no less worthless in the scriptural quotations 
than in the rest of the work. 

Finally, I have asterisked all quotations where the text in the 
Quaestiones differs from the Vulgate. 



QUOTATIONS FROM THE THIRD AND FOURTH GOSPELS. 

*Luc. i 3233. 

(Comm. in 1 Cor. xv 2426) (Qu. 86, col. 2280, 17) 

et dabit illi dominus deus sedem et dahit illi dominus deus sedem 

Dauid patris sui, et regnabit in domo Dauid patris sui, et regnabit in domo 

lacob in aeternum, et regni eius non lacob in aeternum, et regni eius non 

erit finis erit finis 

*Luc. ii 29. 

(Comm. in Rom. x 15) (Qu. 127, col. 2382, 8) 

nunc(&it) domine dimitteseruumtumu domine mine dimitte seruum tuuin 

in pace secundum uerbum tuum in pace 

domine dimittis (dimittis domine) (di- 
mitte dornine | add. domine post tuum 



COMPARISON OF SCRIPTURE QUOTATIONS. 43 

*Luc. ii 48. 
(Comm. in Gal. i 19) (Qu. 56, col. 2253, 56) 

quid fecisti nobis, fill ? ego et pater fill, quid fecisti nobis 1 etenim ego et 

tuus maesti et tristes quaerebamus pater tuus maesti et tristes ambulan- 

te tes quaerebamus te 

ins. etenim (et) ante ego nobis sic aliquot codd. 

*Luc. xi 52. 

(Comm. in Rom. xi 810; in (Qu. 102, col. 2307, 37) 

1 Cor. xiii 2) 

uos habetis clauem scientiae et neque uos habetis clauem scientiae et neque 
uos intratis neque alios sinitis iutroire uos intratis neque alios sinitis introire 

claues 

*Luc. xxii 3132. 
(Comm. in Rom. viii 34) (Qu. 79 (75), col. 2270, 16) 

ecce expostulauit satanas ut uos uen- ecce satanas expostulauit ut uos uen- 
tilet sicut triticum ; ego autem rogaui tilet uelut triticum ; ego autem rogaui 
pro te ne deficiat fides tua pro te ne deficiat fides tua 

(et) postulauit J uelut 

*Luc. xxiv 2 1 1 . 
(Comm. in Rom. i 4 cf. in 1 Cor. xv 5) (Qu. 77 (73), col. 2268, 16) 

(nam et discipuli in morte eius dubita- (deuique Cleopas et Emmaus euntes 

uerunt dicente Cleopha in Emmaus) : in uia tristes dicunt inter cetera ipsi 

nos putabamus quia ipse erat qui in- domino nescientes quia dominus est) : 

cipiebat liberare Israhel nos putabamus quia ipse erat qui in- 

et emmau | esset | nos autem putaba- ci P iebat liberare Israhel 
mus quia ipse esset redempturus Israhel amaus (emaus) 

*Io. i 34. 

(Comm. in Gal. iv 26; in Phil, i (Qu. 122, col. 2368, 4) 

1821) 

quod factum est in ipso uita est...et quod factum est in ipso uita est 
uita erat lux hominum 

illo...erat Migne in Phil. codd. Gal. 
(contra codd. Phil, est) 

1 See Expository Times, xm (1902), 429, 430. 



44 



COMPARISON OF SCRIPTURE QUOTATIONS. 



lo. i 5. 

(Comm. in Kom. x 16) (Qu. 64, col. 2259, 41) 

lux in tenebris lucet et tenebrae earn lux in tenebris...et tenebrae earn non 
non comprehenderunt conprehenderunt (an allusion, not a 

quotation) 



(In 2 Cor. vi 1718) 
uerbum caro factum est cet. 



lo. i 14. 

(Qu. 91, col. 2284, 65) 
uerbum caro factum est 



*Io. iii 13. 

(Comm. in Eph. iv 10) (Qu. 89, col. 2281, 51) 

nemo ascendit in caelum nisi qui de- nemo ascendit ad deum nisi qui de- 
scendit de caelo filius hominis qui est scendit a deo 
in caelo 

qui et est 

*Io. iii 16. 

(Comm. in 1 Cor. vi 2, cf. in (Qu. 91, col. 2283, 18) 

2 Thess. ii 1516) 

sic dilexit deus mnndum et cetera sic enim dilexit deus mundum hunc. . . 

deus dilexit | hunc m. (m. hunc) 

*Io. iii 18. 

(Comm. in Rom. ii 16) (Qu. 126, col. 2376, 30) 

qui non crediderit iam iudicatus est qui non crediderit iam iudicatus est 



*Io. v 18. 



(Comm. in Phil, ii 56) 



propter ea persequebantur ludaei 
lesum quia non solum soluebat sab- 
batum sed et patrem sibi proprium 
dicebat deum aequalem se faciens 
deo 



(Qu. 91, col. 2283, 71 ; qu. 97, 
col. 2291, 19, cf. qu. 91, col. 2283, 48) 

non solum enim soluebat sabbatum 
sed et patrem proprium sibi dicebat 
deum aequalem se faciens deo 

Qu. 91 breuior est et habet patrem 
inter sibi et dicebat 



*Io. v 26. 

(Comm. in Gal. iv 26) (Qu. 40, col. 2237, 17) 

sicut enim pater habet uitam... ita sicut habet pater uitam... ita 

dedit et filio uitam filio uitam 



COMPARISON OF SCRIPTURE QUOTATIONS. 45 

*Io. v 26. 

(In Col. i 19) (Qu. 97, col. 2291, 27; qu. 122, 

col. 2368, 6) 

sicut habet pater uitam in semet ipso sicut (enim) habet pater uitam in 
ita dedit et filio uitam habere in semet ipso sic dedit et filio habere ui- 
semet ipso tarn in semet ipso 

om. et pater habet 1 cod. \ ita Qu. 122 | uitam 

habere Qu. 122 | in semet ipso om. Qu. 97 

*Io. v 46. 

(Comm. in Rom. ix 28; cf. in Col. i (Qu. 72 (76), col. 2270, 51 ; qu. 127, 
2324) col. 2380, 70) 

de me enim scripsit Moyses de me scripsit Moyses 

*Io. vi 38. 
(Comm. in Rom. xv 3) (Qu. 91, col. 2282, 48) 

non enim descendi de caelo ut faciam non enim descendi de caelo ut faciam 
uoluntatem meam sed uoluntatem uoluntatem meam sed uoluntatem 
eius qui misit me patris eius qui me misit patris 

me misit 

*Io. viii 44. 

(Comm. in Rom. viii 14) (Qu. 80, col. 2273, 55 ; qu. 90, col. 2282, 

2 ; qu. 98, col. 2297, 48) 

uos de patre diabolo estis uos de patre diabolo estis 

nati estis (qu. 98) ubi Colb. om. nati 

*Io. viii 56. 
(Comm. in Gal. prol.) (Qu. 117, col. 2360, 17) 

Abraham cupiuit uidere diem meum Abraham pater uester cupiuit utuide- 
et uidit et gauisus est ret diem meum et uidit et gauisus est 

Io. x 30. 

(Comm. in Phil, ii 56) (Qu. 97, col. 2291, 33 ; qu. 125, 

col. 2373, 37) 

ego et pater unum sumus ego et pater unum sumus 

unus 

*Io. xiv 9. 

(Comm. in 2 Cor. v 19 ff.) (Qu. 97, col. 2291, 25) 

qui me uidet uidet et patrem qui me uidit uidit et patrem 

uidit uidit 



46 COMPARISON OF SCRIPTURE QUOTATIONS. 

*Io. xiv 11. 

(Comm. in 2 Cor. v 19 ff.) (Qu. 97, col. 2291, 37) 

quia pater in me est et ego in patre quod ego in patre et pater in me 
totum locum om. duo codd. 



lo. xiv 27. 



(Comm. in Rom. xiv 17; in Eom. xv (Qu. 92, col. 2286, 2) 

33 ; in 1 Cor. xiv 33 ; in 2 Cor. xiii 
11; in 1 Thess. v 23) 

pacem meam do uobis, pacem relin- pacem do uobis pacem meam relin- 
quo uobis quo uobis 

Thess. et omnes codd. ubique add. 
meam post alt. pacem. 

*Io. xvi 15 (cf. xvii 10). 

(Comm. in Eph. ii 3, cf. in (Qu. 125, col. 2373, 39) 

Eph. iii 17) 

omnia quae habet pater mea sunt ; omnia (Juae patris sunt mea sunt, et 
et mea patris quae mea sunt patris 

*Io. xvii 3. 

(Comm. in Rom. i 1 (excluded be- (Qu. 3, col. 2219, 39; qu. 113, col. 
cause wanting in some MSS): in 2340, 7) 

1 Cor. xv 24 ff.) 

haec est autem uita aeterna ut cog- haec est autem uita aeterna ut cog- 
noscant te solum uerum deum et noscant te solum et uerum deum et 
quern misisti lesum Christum quern misisti lesum Christum 

et uerum (unus cod. om.) 

*Io. xvii 24. 

(Combined from comm. in Gal. iv 26 (Qu. 79 (75), col. 2270, 25; qu. 122, 
and in Eph. i 2021) col. 2368, 68) 

pater quos dedisti mihi uolo ut, ubi pater uolo ut ubi ego sum et isti sint 
ego fuero, et hi mecum sint et uide- mecum et uideant claritatem meam 
ant gloriam meam ipgi 

sint mecum Gal. 



COMPARISON OF SCRIPTURE QUOTATIONS. 47 

*Io. xix 11. 

(Comm. in Eph. v 2) (Qu. 78 (74), second version col. 2269, 

24) 

non haberes aduersum me potestatem non haberes potestatem in me nisi 
nisi data tibi esset de super data esset tibi de super 

aduersus | tibi data (datum tibi) 



QUOTATIONS FROM THE PAULINE EPISTLES. 

Rom. iii 8. 

(Qu. 126, col. 2377, 56) 
quorum damnatio iusta est quorum damnatio iusta est 

*Rom. iii 19. 

(Qu. 33, col. 2233, 75) 

scimus autem quoniam, quaecumque scimus autem quoniam, quaecumque 
lex loquitur, Us qui in lege sunt loqui- lex loquitur, his qui in lege sunt loqui- 
tur tur 

autem om. \ his | primum post lege 

(Qu. 102, col. 2309, 39) 

scimus autem, quia quaecumque lex 
loquitur, his qui sub lege sunt loqui- 
tur 

Rom. iii 23. 

(Qu. 47, col. 2248, 61) 

omnes enim peccauerunt et egent omnes peccauerunt et egent gloria 
gloria dei dei 

enim om. \ gloriam gloriam 

*Rom. iv 3, (Gen. xv 6). 

(Qu. 44, col. 2241, 46) 

credidit Abraham deo et reputatum credidit enim Abraham deo et repu- 
est ei ad iustitiam tatum est ei ad iustitiam 

illi deo Abraham Aug. \ om. ei Coll. 



48 COMPARISON OF SCRIPTURE QUOTATIONS. 

Rom. vii 23. 

(Qu. 112, col. 2337, 9) 

uideo autem aliam legem in membris uideo autem aliam legem in membris 
meis repugnantem legi mentis rneae meis repugnantem legi mentis ineae 

Rom. viii 9. 

(Qu. 125, col. 2374, 51) 

siquis autem spiritimi Christi non siquis 'spiritum Christi non habet, 
habet, hie non est eius hie non est eius 

Rom. viii 18. 

(Qu. 126, col. 2378, 15) 

non sint condignae passiones huius non sunt condignae passiones huius 

temporis ad futuram gloriam quae temporis ad futuram gloriam quae 

reuelabitur in nobis reuelabitur in nobis 
sunt 

*Rom. viii 2627. 

(Qu. 125, col. 2374, 66) 

(27) qui autem scrutatur corda scit (27) qui scrutatur corda scit quid 
quid desideret spiritus, quia secun- desideret spiritus, quia secimdum dei 
dum deum postulat pro sanctis uoluntatem postulat pro sanctis 

quod desiderat Colb. 

(Qu. 125, col. 2374, 76) 

(26) nam quid oremus sicut oportet (26) nam quid oremus sicut oportet 
nescimus nescimus 

quid enim | secundum quod 

*Rom. viii 29. 

(Qu. 106, col. 2320, 52) 

conformes fieri imaginis filii sui coimaginati filio dei 

consortes 

*Rom. viii 32. 

(Qu. 91, col. 2283,70; qu. 97, 
col. 2291, 10) 

qui proprio filio suo non pepercit qui proprio filio non pepercit 

etiam add. post qui 



COMPARISON OF SCRIPTURE QUOTATIONS. 49 

*Rorn. ix 5. 

(Qu. 56, col. 2253, 21 ; qu. 91, 
col. 2284, 44 combined) 

quorum patres et ex quibus Christus quorum patres et ex quibus Christus 
secundum carnem, qui est super om- secundum carnem, qui est super om- 
nia deus, benedictus in saecula nia deus, benedictus in saecula 

*Rom. ix 16. 

(Qu. 75 (79), col. 2272, 25) 

non uolentis neque currentis sed mise- neque uolentis neque currentis sed 
rentis est dei miserentis est dei 

Rom. ix 18. 

(Qu. 75 (79), col. 2272, 26) 

cui uult miseretur et quern uult in- cuius uult miseretur et quern uult 
durat indurat 

deus add. post cui 

Rom. ix 25 (Osee ii 23). 

(Qu. 44, col. 2243, 9) 

uocabo non plebem meam plebem uocabo non plebem meam plebem 
meam et non dilectam dilectam meam et non dilectam dilectam 

Rom. x 4. 

(Qu. 69, col. 2263, 56) 

finis enim legis Christus finis legis Christus 

*Rom. x 10. 

(Qu. 102, col. 2311, 41 ; qu. 126, 
col. 2377, 33) 

corde enim creditur ad iustitiam, ore corde enim (enim not in 1st reference) 

autem confessio fit ad salutem creditur ad iustitiam, ore autein con- 

in fessio fit in salutem 

Rom. xi 29. 

(Qu. 102, col. 2306, 30) 

sine paenitentia enim sunt dona et sine paenitentia enim sunt dona et 
uocatio dei uocatio dei 

om. sunt | uocationes 

8. 4 



50 



COMPARISON OF SCRIPTURE QUOTATIONS. 



*Rom. xi 33. 

(Qu. 125, col. 2375, 51) 
o altitude diuitiarum sapientiae et o altitude diuitiarum et sapientiae et 



scientiae dei ! quam inscrutabilia sunt 
iudicia eius, et inuestigabiles uiae 



sunt inscr. I eius 



scientiae dei ! quam inscrutabilia sunt 
iudicia eius, et inuestigabiles uiae 
ipsius ! 

om. et I eius 



*Rom. xi 36. 

(Qu. 122, col. 2369, 29) 

quoniam ex ipso et per ipsum et in quoniam ex ipso et per ipsum et in 
ipso sunt omnia, ipsi gloria ipso sunt omnia, ipsi gloria 

add. in saecula saeculorum own. exc. P 
amen P (post saeculorum) Aug. 



*Rom. xiii 1. 

(Qu. 35, col. 2234, 47; qu. 110, 
col. 2330, 38) 

omnibus potestatibus sublimioribus omnibus potestatibus sublimioribus 
subditi estate : non est enim potestas subditi estote ; non est enim potestas 



nisi a deo ; quae autem sunt a deo 
ordinata sunt 

subiaceat | om. est | om. enim | ex 
ordinatae 



nisi a deo; quae enim sunt a deo 
ordinatae sunt 

(second reference omits first enim; and 
in second ref. Aug. Gand. have ordinata) 



*Rom. xiii 3. 



qui principantur non sunt timori bonis 
operibus, sed malis. Vis autem non 
timere potestatem? bonum facito et 
habebis laudem ex ilia 

principes | timoris | opere bono | malo 
fac quod bonum est 

Rom. 



qui enim in hoc seruit Christo placet 
deo 

nam qui | om. in hoc, post insertum 



(Qu. 69, col. 2264, 13) 

principes non sunt timori operi bono, 
sed malo. Vis autem non timere 
potestatem? bonum fac et habebis 
laudem ex ilia 

timeri Brux. timendi Aug. \ autem 
om. Nostrad. 

xiv 18. 

(Qu. 91, col. 2284, 20) 
qui seruit Christo placet deo 



COMPARISON OF SCRIPTURE QUOTATIONS. 51 

Rom. xiv 23. 

(Qu. 9, col. 2222, 69) 

omne autem quod non est ex fide omne quod non est ex fide peccatum 
peccatum est est 

*Rom. xv 8. 

(Qu. 58, col. 2254, 43) 

dico enim Christum lesum ministrum dico enim Christum rninistrum fuisse 
fuisse circumcisionis pro ueritate del circumcisionis pro ueritate dei ad 
in hoc ut confirmaret promissiones confirmandas promissiones patrum 
patrum 

om. lesum | propter ueritatem (niiseri- 
cordiam) | ad stabiliendas 

*1 Cor. i 19 (Esa. xxix 14). 

(Qu. 109, col. 2326, 5) 
(perhaps a recollection merely) 

perdam sapientiam sapientium et perdam prudentiam prudentium 
intellectum prudentium reprobabo 

1 Cor. i 24. 

(Qu. 91, col. 2283, 6) 

Christum dei uirtutem et dei sapien- Christum dei uirtutem et dei sapien- 
tiam tiam 

1 Cor. i 25. 

(Qu. 117, col. 2360, 56) 

quod stultum est dei sapientius est quod stultum est dei sapientius est 
hominibus hominibus 

*1 Cor. ii 1. 

(Qu. 100, col. 2300, 67) 

et ego cum uenissem ad uos, fratres, et ego ueniens ad uos, fratres, ueni 
ueni non cum eminentia sermonis aut non in sublimitate sermonis aut sapi- 
sapientiae entiae 

ueniens | in | uerbi 

*1 Cor. ii 8. 

(Qu. 66, col. 2261, 25; qu. Ill, col. 

2335, 32; qu. 115, col. 2358, 35) 

quam nemo principum hums saeculi quern nemo principum huius saeculi 
cognouit : si enim cognouissent, num- cognouit : si enim cognouissent, num- 
quam dominum maiestatis cruci fixis- quam dominum maiestatis cruci fix- 
sent issent 

dm (deum) inte'llexissent (codd. qu. Ill) 

42 



52 



COMPARISON OF SCRIPTURE QUOTATIONS. 



quod oculus non uidit nee auris audi- 
uit nee in cor hominis ascendit quae 
praeparauit deus diligentibus eum 



*1 Cor. ii 9 (Esa. Ixiv 4). 

(Qu. 112, col. 2337, 21) 
quod oculus non uidit nee auris audi- 
uit nee in cor hominis ascendit quae 
praeparauit deus diligentibus se 



quis enim scit hominum ea quae sunt 
hominis nisi spiritus hominis qui in 
ipso est? sic et quae dei sunt, nemo 
nouit nisi spiritus dei 
autem | om. ea | ita | in deo | cognouit 



*1 Cor. ii 11. 

(Qu. 125, col. 2375, 5 ; qu. 97, col. 2295, 

52; qu. 125, col. 2374, 33) 
nemo scit quid sit in homine nisi 
spiritus hominis qui in eo est : nemo 
scit quae sunt in deo nisi spiritus dei 



in spiritu Mett. 



ego plantaui, Apollo rigauit, sed deus 
incrementum dedit. itaque neque qui 
plantat est aliquid neque qui rigat sed 
qui incrementum dat deus 
inrigat 



1 Cor. iii 67. 

(Qu. 102, col. 2312, 19) 
ego plantaui, Apollo rigauit, sed deus 
incrementum dedit. itaque neque qui 
plantat est aliquid neque qui rigat sed 
qui incrementum dat deus 



templum enim dei sanctum est quod 
estis uos 



1 Cor. iii 17. 

(Qu. 97, col. 2296, 47) 
templum enim dei sanctum est quod 



estis uos 



1 Cor. iv 20. 

(Qu. 100, col. 2300, 69) 

nee enim in sermone est regnum dei quia non in sermone est regnum dei 
sed in uirtute sed in uirtute 

non 

1 Cor. v 6. 

(Qu. 102, col. 2311, 16) 

nescitis quia modicum fermentum nescitis quia modicum fermentum 
totam massam corrumpit? totam massam corrumpit? 

1 Cor. v 7. 

(Qu. 96, col. 2290, 47) 

pascha nostrum immolatus est Chris- pascha nostrum immolatus est Chris- 
tus tus 



COMPARISON OF SCRIPTURE QUOTATIONS. 



53 



*1 Cor. v 12. 

(Qu. 102, col. 2309, 41 ; qu. 110 pr) 
quo enim mihi de his qui foris sunt quo enim mihi de his qui foris sunt 



iudicare? 



quid | est (corr.) 



nolite fieri semi hominum 



iudicare ? 

1 Cor. vii 23. 

(Qu. 91, col. 2284, 23) 
nolite fieri serui hominum 



*1 Cor. vii 25. 

(Qu. 127, col. 2384, 73) 

de uirginibus autem praeceptum do- de uirginibus imperium domini non 
mini non habeo habeo 



*1 Cor. viii 6. 

(Qu. 122, col. 2369, 23) 

unus deus pater ex quo omnia et nos unus deus pater ex quo omnia et nos 

in illoy et unus dominus lesus per in ipso, et unus dominus lesus per 

quern omnia et nos per ipsum quern omnia et nos per ipsum 
ipso 

*1 Cor. x 14 (cf. ap. xiv' 32). 

(Qu. 127, col. 2380, 60; v. 4 also in 
qu. 20, col. 2228, 27 and qu. 72 (76), 
col. 2270, 47) 



nolo enim uos ignorare, fratres, quia 
patres nostri omnes sub iiube fuerunt, 
et omnes mare transierunt et omnes in 
Moyse baptizati sunt in nube et in 
mari et omnes eandem escam spirita- 
lem ederunt et omnes eundem potum 
spiritalem biberunt. bibebant enim 
de sequente eos spiritali petra : petra 
autem erat Christus 

quod | per inter omnes et mare (unus 
cod. habet omn. m. pertransierunt) | 
Moysen | manducauerunt | autem (corr.) | 
spiritali sequenti petra (om. eos) (unus 
cod. consequent! spiritali petra) 



nolo enim uos ignorare, fratres, quia 
patres nostri omnes sub nube fuemnt 
et omnes per mare transierunt et om- 
nes in Moysen baptizati sunt in nube 
et in mari et omnes eandem escam 
spiritalem ederunt et omnes eundem 
potum spiritalem biberunt. bibebant 
enim de spiritali sequenti petra : petra 
autem erat Christus 

fuit (codd. exc. Mett. qu. 20) 



1 Cor. x 13. 

(Qu. 99, col. 2299, 41) 

temptatio uos non adprehendat nisi ternptatio uos non adprehendat nisi 
humaria humana 

1 Cor. xi 3 (cf. Eph. v 23). 

(Qu. 24, col. 2230, 6) 
caput autem mulieris uir caput mulieris uir 

*1 Cor. xi 67 (in the order 76). 

(Qu. 21, col. 2228, 64; qu. 106, col. 

2319, 74 has v. 7 only) 

(7) uir enim nori debet uelare caput, (7) uir quidem non debet uelare ca- 
cum sit imago et gloria dei. (6) uelet put, cum sit imago et gloria dei : (6, 
caput or paraphr. of 6, cf. qu. 106 I.e.) mulier 

autem uelet caput 

autem | im. et glor. dei sit quia imago et gloria dei est (codd. 

qu. 106) 

*1 Cor. xi 27 and 29. 

(Qu. 102, col. 2311, 8) 

a paraphrase 1 . 

(29) qui enim manducat et bibit in- qui indigne sumit gladium sibi sumit 
digne, iudicium sibi ipsi manducat et 
bibit 

om. indigne | om. ipsi 

*1 Cor. xii 11. 

(Qu. 97, col. 2295, 70) 

omnia autem haec operatur unus at- omnia autem haec operatur unus at- 
que idem spiritus diuidens uni cuique que idem spiritus diuidens uni cuique 
prout uult prout uult 

om. autem | om. uni cuique 

*1 Cor. xv 19. 

(Qu. 91, col. 2285, 71) 

si in hac uita tantum in Christo spe- si in hac tantum uita perantes sumus 
rantes sumus, miserabiliores sumus in Christo, miserabiliores sumus omni- 
omnibus hominibus bus hominibus 

sper. sum. in Christo 

1 The editor of the 1531 Paris edition of Augustine (torn, iv) refers to this 
quotation as an instance of carelessness. 



*1 Cor. xv 

(45) factus cst primus homo Adam 
in animam uiuentem, nouissimus au- 
tem Adam in spiritum uiuificantem 

(47) Primus homo de terra terrenus, 
secundus homo de caelo caelestis. 

(48) qualis terrenus tales et terreni, 
et qualis caelestis tales et caelestes 

om. autem | spiritu uiuificante | e | 
om. et 



45, 47 48 1 . 

(Qu. 123, col. 2370, 46) 
(45) factus est primus homo Adam 
in animam uiuentem, secundus au- 
tem homo in spiritum uiuificantem 

(47) Primus homo de terra terrenus, 
secundus homo de caelo caelestis. 

(48) qualis terrenus tales et terreni, 
qualis caelestis tales et caelestes 

et ante ult. qualis P 



2 Cor. iii 16. 

(Qu. 8, col. 2222, 49) 

cum autem conuersus fuerit ad dorni- cum conuersus fuerit ad dominum, 
num, auferetur uelamen auferetur uelamen 

2 Cor. iii 17. 

(Qu. 20, col. 2228, 37) 
ubi autem spiritus domini ibi libertas ubi spiritus domini ibi libertas 

*2 Cor. v 3. 

(Qu. 47, col. 2248, 38) 

siquidem expoliati non nudi inueni- si expoliati non nudi inueniamur 
amur 

*2 Cor. v 21. 

(Qu. 78 (74), col. 2268, 35) 

eum enim qui non nouerat peccatum eum qui peccatum nesciebat pro nobis 
pro nobis peccatum fecit peccatum fecit 



2 Cor. vi 11. 

(Qu. 112, col. 2338, 71) 
os nostrum patet ad uos, o Corinthii os nostrum patet ad uos, o Corinthii 

2 Cor. xi 14. 

(Qu. 27, col. 2231, 13) 

ipse enim satanas transfiguratur uelut ipse satanas transfigurat se in ange- 
angelus luminis lum lucis 

1 The Benedictine editor wrongly refers a quotation which occurs in qu. 27 
(col. 2231, 25) to 2 Cor. ii 11: it really belongs to Apoc. ii 24, of. qu. 102 
(col. 2309, 27). The editor of the 1531 Paris edition had made the same assump- 
tion as his Benedictine successor. 



*2 Cor. xii 910. 



sufficit tibi gratia mea; nam uirtus 
in infirmitate perficitur. libentissime 
itaque magis gloriabor in infirmitati- 
bus meis, ut inhabitet in me uirtus 
Christi. . .cum enim infirmor tune po- 
tens sum 



(Qu. 119, col. 2363, 32) 
sufficit tibi gratia mea; nam uirtus 
in infirmitate perficitur. gaudeo (in) 
tribulationibus meis, ut inhabitet in 
me uirtus Christi... cum infirmor tune 
fortis sum 



dei 



ne iterum cum uenero...lugeam mul- 
tos ex Us qui ante peccauerunt et non 
egerunt paenitentiam super inmun- 
ditia et fornicatione. . .quam gesserunt 

hiis (his) | inmunditiam | fornicatio- 
nem 



*2 Cor. xii 21. 

(Qu. 102, col. 2308, 41) 

ne forte ueniens lugearn multos ex his 

qui ante peccauerunt et non egerunt 

paenitentiam super inmunditia et 

fornicatione quam gesserunt 

inmundiciam (Aug. corr.) \ fornicatio- 

nem (Aug. corr.) 



Gal. i 1. 



Paulus apostolus non ab hominibus 
neque per hominem sed per lesum 
Christum et deum patrern qui sus- 
citauit eum a mortuis 



(Qu. 91, col. 2284, 25) 
Paulus apostolus non ab hominibus 
neque per hominem sed per lesum 
Christum et deum patrem qui sus- 
citauit eum a mortuis 



*Gal. i 12. 

(Qu. 91, col. 2284, 31 ; qu. 91, 

col. 2284, 40) 

neque enim ego ab homine accepi illud neque enim ego ab homine accepi illud 
aut didici sed per reuelationem lesu neque didici sed per reuelationem lesu 



Christi 



nos natura ludaei 



lex autem non est ex fide 



Christi 

edoctus sum (pro didici) v. 40 * 

Gal. ii 15 

(Qu. 81, col. 2274, 24) 
nos natura ludaei. 

Gal. iii 12. 

(Qu. 9, col. 2222, 70) 
lex non est ex fide 



1 The second version is to be preferred, according to the sound rule of 
Bp Wordsworth and Mr White (Nouum Test, i p. 727 f. (epilogus)). 



Gal. iii 13. 

(Qu. 78 (74), col. 2268, 63) 

factus pro nobis maledictuin factus pro nobis maledictum 

Gal. iii 17. 

(Qu. 10, col. 2223, 33) 

post quadringentos et triginta annos post quadringentos et triginta annos 
facta est lex facta est lex 

*Gal. iii 27. 

(Qu. 47, col. 2248, 36) 

quotquot enim in Christo baptizati qui in Christo baptizati estis Chris- 
estis Christum induistis turn induistis 

quicumque 

*Gal. iv 3. 

(Qu. 82, col. 2275, 60) 

et nos...sub elementis huius mundi eramus et nos sub elementis huius 
eramus subiecti mundi seruientes 

Gal. iv 14 

(Qu. 102, col. 2308, 63) 

sicut angelum dei excepistis me sicut angelum dei excepistis me 

*Gal. v 1. 

(Qu. 98, col. 2299, 25) 

state ergo et nolite iterum seruitutis state et nolite iterum seruitutis iugo 
iugo contineri cohiberi 

owi. ergo | seruitutis iterum | cohiberi 

Gal. vi 7. 

(Qu. 126, col. 2377, 21) 

deus non deridetur deus non inridetur 

inridetur 

*Eph. ii 3. 

(Qu. 115, col. 2348, 68) 

et eramus natura filii irae sicut et eramus et nos natura filii irae sicut 
.ceteri et ceteri 

et add. post irae 



58 



COMPARISON OF SCRIPTURE QUOTATIONS. 



mihi omnium sanctorum minimo data 
est gratia haec ut in nationibus euan- 
gelizem inaestimabiles diuitias Christi 
et inluminem omnes quae dispensatio 
mysterii absconditi a saeculis in deo 
qui uniuersa creauit tit nota fiat prin- 
cipibus et potestatibus in caelestibus 
per ecclesiam multiformis sapientiae 
dei 

min. omn. sanct. | haec gratia | inter 
gentes euangelizare | Christi om. \ in- 
luminare (inlumine) | om. omnes | est 
add. ante disp. | innotescat | sapientia 



*Eph. iii 810. 

(Qu. 47, col. 2248, 10) 
mihi minimo omnium sanctorum data 
est haec gratia inter gentes euan- 
gelizare incomprehensi biles diuitias 
Christi et inluminare omnes quae sit 
dispositio mysterii absconditi a saecu- 
lis in deo qui uniuersa creauit ut in- 
notesceret principibus et potestatibus 
in caelestibus per ecclesiam multi- 
formis sapientia dei 



in caelestibus om. aliquot codd. 



Eph. v 18. 

(Qu. 120, col. 2364, 45) 

nolite inebriari uino in quo est lux- nolite inebriari uino in quo est lux- 
uria uria 

add. omnis ante lux. 

*Eph. v 29. 

(Qu. 127, col. 2384, 38) 
nemo carnem suam odio habet sed 
nutrit et fouet earn sicut et Christus 
ecclesiam 



nemo emm umquam carnem suam 
odit sed nutrit et fouet earn sicut et 
Christus ecclesiam 



om. et 



*Eph. 



honora patrem tuum et matrem, quod 
est mandatum primum promissionis, 
ut et bene sit tibi, et sis longaeuus 
super terrain 

om. et 

*Eph 



non est uobis lucta aduersus carnem 
et sanguinem sed aduersus principatus 
et potestates huius mundi aduersus 
tenebrarum harum rectores 

conluctatio | om. aduersus 



vi 23. 

(Qu. 7, col. 2222, 23) 
honora patrem et matrem quod est 
mandatum primum in promissione, 
ut sis longaeuus super terram et bene 
tibi sit 

, vi 12. 

(Qu. 66, col. 2261, 39; qu. 110 pr; 

qu. 115, col. 2351, 72) 

non est nobis conluctatio aduersus 

carnem et sanguinem sed aduersus 

principes et potestates aduersus huius 

mundi tenebrarum harum rectores 

rect. ten. harum Aug. Colb. (sed Colb. 

add. rectoris pout harum) 



COMPARISON OF SCRIPTURE QUOTATIONS. 59 

*Phil. ii 6. 

(Qu. 97, col. 2291, 11) 

qui cum in forma dei esset non rapi- qui cum in forma dei esset non rapi- 
nam arbitratus est esse se parem deo nam arbitratus est esse se parem deo 

*Col. i 1516. 

(Qu. 122, col. 2368, 37) 



qui est imago inuisibilis dei prirno- qui est imago inuisibilis dei primo- 
genitus imiuersae creaturae quia in genitus ante omnem creaturam quo- 
ipso condita sunt omnia in caelis et niam in ipso condita sunt omriia in 
in terra uisibilia et inuisibilia siue caelis et in terra uisibilia et inuisi- 
throni siue dominationes siue princi- bilia siue sedes siue dominationes siue 
patus siue potestates omnia per ipsurn principatus siue potestates omnia per 
et in ipso condita sunt ipsum et in ipsum creata sunt 

creata j uniuersa | ipsum creata codd. exc. Mett. ipso 

Col. ii 3. 

(Qu. 113, col. 2340, 26) 

in quo sunt omnes thesauri sapientiae in quo sunt omnes thesauri sapientiae 
et scientiae absconditi et scientiae absconditi 

thensauri (unus cod.) 

*1 Thess. v 5. 

(Qu. 107, col. 2322, 20) 

filii luminis estis et filii diei non estis filii diei estis et luminis non noctis et 
noctis neque tenebrarum tenebrarum 

lucis 

*2 Thess. ii 4. 

(Qu. 110 pr; qu. 113, col. 2341, 42) 

ita ut in templo dei sedeat ostentaus ita ut in templo dei sedeat ostendens 
se ipsum quasi sit deus se quasi sit deus 

tamquam 

2 Thess. iii 5. 

(Qu. 97, col. 2295, 40) 

dominus autem dirigat corda uestra dominus dirigat corda uestra in cari- 
in dilectione dei et patientia Christi tate dei et (in) patientia Christi 

expectations pat. (con-, in pat.) Nostrad. 



60 COMPARISON OF SCRIPTURE QUOTATIONS. 

*1 Tim. i 910. 

(Qu. 4, col. 2220, 1 ; qu. 69, col. 
2263, 71) 

iusto lex non est posita sed iniustis... iustis lex non est posita sed iniustis 
scelestis et profanis. . .fornicatoribus . ..idola colentibus...fornicatoribus 

iniustis uero | fornicationibus non est lex aliquot codd. qu. 69 

*1 Tim. ii 12. 

(Qu. 21, col. 2228, 67) 

docere mulieri non permittitur neque mulieri docere non permittitur neque 
dominari in uirum dominari in uirum 

uiro 

*1 Tim. iii 7. 

(Qu. 101, col. 2302, 70) 

oportet autem et ilium testimonium oportet enim hunc et testimonium 
habere bonum ab iis qui foris sunt habere bonum ab his qui foris sunt 

eum et | his 

*1 Tim. iv 14. 

(Qu. 93, col. 2287, 15) 

noli neglegere gratiam quae est in te noli neglegere gratiam quae est in te 
quae data est tibi per prophetiam quae data est tibi per inpositionem 
cum inpositione manuum presbiterii inanuum presbiterii 

in te est 

*1 Tim. v 14. 

(Qu. 127, col. 2385, 6) 

uolo itaque iuniores uubere filios pro- uolo adulescentas l nubere filios pro- 
creare creare 

ad ulescentes (spatio unius litterae 
inter d et u relicto) Aug. adolescentas 
Colb. (def. Nostrad.) aduliscentas Mett. 

*1 Tim. vi 8. 

(Qu. 115, col. 2354, 3) 

habentes autem alimeutum et quibus habentes uictum et uestimentum his 
tegamur his contenti simus contenti sumus 

alii om. alii tegimina | sumus simus P 

1 This is a new reference for this form, marked as doubtful in the Thesaurus, 
and seems a better attested example than those given there. 



COMPARISON OF SCRIPTURE QUOTATIONS. 



61 



*1 Tim. vi 15. 

(Qu. 97, col. 2292, 2) 

rex regum et dominus dominantium rex regum et dominus dominorum 
regnantium 

2 Tim. i 6. 

(Qu. 120, col. 2364, 30) 

ut recrees donum del quod est in te ut resuscites gratiam dei quae est in 

te 



dei om. Nostrad. 



*2 Tim. i 12. 



(Qu. 113, col. 2340, 28) 

scio enim cui credidi et certus sum nam scio cui credidi quia potens est 

quia potens est depositura meum cus- depositum meum custodire 

todire 

seruare Colb. 

2 Tim. ii 20. 



in magna autem domo non solum 
sunt uasa aurea et argentea uerum et 
lignea et fictilia 

Bed 



(Qu. 102, col. 2309, 76) 

in magna autem domo non solum 
sunt uasa aurea et argentea sed et 
lignea et fictilia 



*Tit. iii 47. 



(grouped here also) 

cum uero bonitas et humanitas inluxit 
salutaris dei nostri non ex operibus 
iustitiae quae nos fecimus sed secun- 
dum misericordiam suam saluos nos 
fecit per lauacrum regenerationis et 
renouationis spiritus sancti quern 
effudit in nos abunde per lesum Chris- 
tum saluatorem nostrum ut iustificati 
gratia illius heredes efficiamur secun- 
dum spem uitae aeternae 

enim (corr.) \ nostri dei | fecimus nos | 
suam misericordiam | Christum lesum I 
salutarera 



(Qu. 123, col. 2371, 13) 

cum autem benignitas et humanitas 
adparuit salutaris nostri dei, non ex 
operibus iustitiae quas(sic) nos fecimus 
sed secundum suam misericordiam 
saluos nos fecit per lauacrum regene- 
rationis et renouationis per spiritum 
sanctum quern effudit in nos abunde 
per Christum lesum saluatorem nos- 
trum ut iustificati gratia ipsius here- 
des efficiamur secundum spem uitae 
aeternae 

salutaris (corr. saluatoris) Aug. \ om. 
nostri C \ fecimus nos P \ suam om. C \ 
et renou. om. N \ effundit B 



62 COMPARISON OF SCRIPTURE QUOTATIONS. 

Of the twenty-six quotations from the third and fourth Gospels 
found in both works, three agree with the Vulgate. Of the remain- 
ing twenty-two, thirteen agree verbally, four almost verbally. There 
are real differences in the texts of Luc. ii 48 ; lo. xiv 11 ; xvi 5 ; 
xvii 24, and xix 11. lo. iii 13, as it appears in the MSS of the 
Quaestiones, is not a quotation, but a paraphrase. 

There are ninety quotations from the Pauline epistles. Of 
these, thirty-seven, most of them very short, agree with the 
Vulgate, and may be dismissed. Long quotations are these: 
1 Cor. x 14, Eph. iii 810 and Tit. iii 47. In the first, 
taking the variants into account, we find that there is not a single 
difference between the two texts. In the second the only differ- 
ences are inaestimabiles )( inconprehensibiles, est dispensatio )( sit 
dispositio, and innotescat )( innotesceret. The first of the three 
is the only difference of importance ; the second may be merely 
palaeographical ; innotescat is the Vulgate reading. In the third 
quotation the following are the differences : enim (uero) )( autem, 
bonitas )( benignitas, inluxit )( adparuit, spiritus sancti )( per 
spiritum sanctum, and illius )( ipsius. Autem, benignitas, adparuit, 
spiritus sancti, and ipsius are Vulgate readings. Of the remain- 
ing fifty quotations, twelve agree exactly, twenty almost exactly; 
sixteen may be said to show real differences 1 , and two may be 
set down as paraphrases 2 . 

Having regard to the considerations advanced at the beginning 
of this chapter, we can hardly doubt, I think, that the same bible 
lies behind both the commentaries and the Quaestiones. The 
parallels in the gospels are especially striking. 

1 Eom. viii 29; 1 Cor. ii 1 ; 11 ; vii 25; 2 Cor. xii 910; Gal. i 12; iv 3; Eph. 
v 29; vi 2; 12; Col. i 1516; i Tim. i 910; iv 14; v 14; vi 8; 2 Tim. i 12. 

2 1 Cor. i 19; xi 27 29. 



CHAPTER III. 

COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

In this chapter I propose to record some points of contact in 
style and language between the commentaries and the Quaestiones. 
The more I study both works, the more agreements in this respect 
do I find between them. To treat the subject adequately would 
require two volumes, one a complete concordance to both works, 
another an exhaustive study of the style modelled on that which 
Mr E. W. Watson has furnished for S. Cyprian 1 . A mere fraction 
of such a task is attempted here. Only two or three points of 
style are selected for comparison ; but a more or less complete 
account of the uses of various particles is given. Professor von 
Wolfflin, whose great experience entitles him to speak with au- 
thority on such a point, lays it down that the way in which 
particles are employed forms the best means of deciding common 
authorship 2 . The entire agreement between both works in this 
respect is most striking, especially when we consider that the one 
work consists of short comments, the other of essays. The second 
part of the chapter consists of a list of words and expressions 
(other than particles) common to both works, which have struck 
me in the course of repeated reading. The subjective element 
enters largely into the investigation of these. Any other scholar 
going over the same ground would undoubtedly select expressions 
which have been passed over by me. Indeed Dr Langen in his 
brief comparison has quoted some phrases the occurrence of which 
did not strike me. As a general principle I have omitted all 

1 I cannot refrain from expressing the highest opinion of Mr Watson's work (in 
Studia Biblica, vol. iv, Oxford, 1896), which is an honour to British scholarship. 

2 Archiv fur lat. Lexikogr. xi (1900) 577 f, where there are other important 
remarks on this subject. 



64 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

those words the absence of which from our author would have 
caused us some surprise. The investigation, such as it is, has cost 
great trouble, but the result will, I hope, prove convincing. 



(I) STYLE. 

(1) General. 

Scriptural quotations are in both works introduced in the 
same ways. A very frequent practice is to represent the state- 
ment as made inter cetera, 'amongst other things 1 / thus: 
sicut hoc loco inter cetera et unus inquit dominus lesus cet. 
(50 A): other examples are 63 A, 76 A, 85 c, 117 B, 122 B bis, 129 c, 
148 B,D, 206 A, and very often ; qu. 7, 11, 16, 20, 23, 27, 31, 41 Us, 
44, 60, 66, 71, 72, 77 bis, 78, 86, 88, 89, 90, 91 ter, 94, 97 septies, 
100, 102, 105 bis, 106 bis, 113, 120, 122 ter, 125, 127, 2 qu. V.T. 
3, 2 qu. N.T. 26, 49 bis, 54, 57, 62. 'Inter alia' is comparatively 
rare, qu. 69, 71, 91, 97 bis, 106, 123 : cf. inter multa (qu. 93). 
Another method of introducing a quotation is * hinc est unde 2 
ait (inquit)' cet.: 222 c, 254 B, 338 B, etc., qu. 1, 44, 68, 69, 77, 97, 
102 quater, 108, 110, 114, 115, 120, 125. The simpler form 'hinc 
ait (inquit)' is also found: 117 B, 146 B, etc., qu. 115, 2 qu. mixt. 10 
(hinc apostolus . . .scribii), etc. Another variety is c unde ait,' etc.: 
u nde idem apostolus ait 117 B, unde dominus... ait 128 B, unde et 
Moysi dixit 142 A, unde saluator... inquit 182 B, unde dominus... 
inquit 186 c, unde et Salamon... inquit 232 c, cet.: unde et 
apostolus Paulus...inquit qu. 100, unde dicit Paulus apostolus 
qu. 102, unde lohannes apostolus... inquit qu. 102, unde dicit 
in Esaia propheta qu. 106, unde dicit dominus qu. 110, cet. 
The present participle ' dicens ' is very common, generally in the 
nominative or ablative case : sicut et Petrus apostolus testatur 
dicens 50 A, promotum se ostendit dicens 50 B, hie est populus 
quern increpat dominus sub nomine Hierusalem dicens 81 B, cet., 

1 Inter cetera, not introducing a quotation, 163 B, 228 c, 235 c, qu. 117, 122, 
2 qu. mixt. 9 : inter ceteros occurs 53 A, qu. 106. 

2 Hinc est unde is sometimes used, where a quotation is not introduced, e.g. 
142 B, 184 c, 185 B, 193 A, qu. 2, 127 (p. 2379). 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 65 

qu. 125 pm, 127 pr, 2 qu. N.T. 2, 7, 10 bis, 23, 26, 27 and often. 
Examples of the ablative absolute (singular) are: dicente Esaia 
propheta 50 c, dicente Cleopha et Emmau 52 B, cet., dicente et 
probante domino ad ludaeos qu. 117 pr, dicente apostolo qu. 110 
(new part), qu. 125m, 2 qu. N.T. 19, dicente euangelista 2 qu 
N.T. 31, deo dicente qu. 127am, dicente Samaritide ad domi- 
num 2 qu. N.T. 51. There are also examples like 'apostoli uox 
est dicentis' (qu. 127 ex). Besides 'dico/ the verb 'tester 'is 
often used in this connexion: Petro apostolo hoc testante; dicit 
enim quia 150 B, cet., ipso domino testante et dicente qu. 122 ex, 
ipso nobis testante qu. 125 ex, cet. We find also such ex- 
pressions as 'teste apostolo,' introducing quotations, in both 
works. The writer displays much ingenuity in finding these 
introductory expressions, only a few of which are referred to here. 
No attempt at exhaustiveness has been made. One more, how- 
ever, may be mentioned. To avoid the monotonous repetition of 
'sanctus apostolus,' or 'apostolus Paulus/ the writer employs 
'uas electionis' 1 , as Langen has noted 2 : 419 c, qu. 2, 106, 115 
(col. 2348). 

There are certain formulae also, which follow quotations, intro- 
ducing an explanation of their import, for example, HOC DIGIT 
QUIA (quoniam), and HOC DICIT UT. Instances of the former are 
88 D, 89 c, 95 c, 132 B, 133 c, 134 A, 149 D, 150 A, 212s, 214 c, 
104 c, and very often, qu. 112 ex, of the latter, 105 A, 440 B, 477 D, 
etc., qu. 102, 112. We find TESTATUR following on quotations, 
thus : per redemptionem quae est in Christo lesu : gratiam dei in 
Christo esse testatur 83 C; so 435 A, 443 B, etc. sicut praesens 
lectio testatur qu. 119. 

I now select one or two stylistic features, which have struck 
me as specially characteristic of the works under consideration. 
The first is the employment of a pair of adjectives 3 or adverbs 
almost synonymous, where one might be regarded as sufficient 4 . 

1 From Acts ix 15. Augustine introduces a quotation from S. Paul in this way, 
at least once (de bono uiduit. 2, 3), There are examples in other authors also. 

2 Diss. p. 21. 

3 Or participles, used adjectivally. 

4 The founders of the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae were, I believe, the first lexi- 
cographers to recognise the important principle that words, as well as men, are 
known by the company they keep. 

5 



66 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

This construction meets us of course in many authors, and is per- 
haps traceable to rhetorical training. Inhonesta et turpia 49 A, 
turpe . et inhonestum qu. 114, inhonesta et turpia qu. 114, turpia et 
inhonesta qu. 121 (turpis and honestus are used as opposites in qu. 

114, cf. 107 B, c), turpis et foeda 110 A, turpia et polluta 305 A, 
foeda et inlicita 521 B, concessa et licita 64 A, honestum et sanctum 
qu. 114, reprehensibile et turpe qu. 114, sanctum et inreprehensibile 
qu. 114, inhonestum et inlicitum qu. 115, sordidum et contaminatum 
qu. 127, turpiter et obscene qu. 102, turpiter et contaminate qu. 126; 
idoneum et efficacem 450 A, apti et digni qu. 114,/rmo/a et inepta 
qu. 114; par et aegualis 433 A, par . et aequalis qu. 97, ratam et 
integrant 51 A, humilis et stulta 53 D, humilem et mansuetum 334 D, 
stulti et hebetes 94 A, stultus et uanus qu. 100, stultum et inane 
2 qu. N.T. 47, uana et inanis qu. 114, inprouidi . et stulti qu. 114, 
inprouidi et inconsulti qu. 114, inprouidum...et carens ratione qu. 

115, non credendum et stultum qu. 117, stultum . et periculosum 
qu. 117, inprouida et infirma 212 c, tepidi et inprouidi 223 B, pro- 
uida et rationabilis 261 A, superfluam et inanem 370 c, qu. 44, 
neglegentem et inprouidum qu. 5, neglegentes et inprouidi qu. 34, 
neglegenter et inprouide qu. 103, neglegenter et indeuote 435 c, 
prouidenter et curiose 67 B, rationabiliter et prouidenter qu. 113, 
supplices et deuoti 406 D, sollicitis et deuotis qu. 95, sollicitus et 
fidelis qu. Ill, sollicitos . et uigilantes 2 qu. N.T. 62, diligentes et 
sollicitos qu. 102, diligentibus ac sedulis qu. 10, deuoti et fidelis 
468 D, denote et fideliter qu. 126, prudentem et deuotum qu. 5, 
prudens . et astutus qu. 31,facinorosus et inprouidus qu. 43, inualida . 
et inanis qu. 41, inanem et infructuosam qu. 102, t prouidus et 
praescius qu. 46, inualidis et inermibus qu. 92, horrendum et uali- 
dum qu. 102, infirmum et inprobabile qu. 108, infirmum . et fragile 
2 qu. N.T. 50, propitio et prouido qu. 117, alacri et deuoto qu. 120 ; 
releuati et reparati 108 c, munita atque firmata qu. 106, disrupta 
ac resoluta qu. 121, distinctis . et discretis 2 qu. V.T. 20, emortua 
et resoluta 2 qu. N.T. 47 (see below, p. 105), exstinctos et perditos 
2 qu. mixt. 11, cet.; uerum et stabile 69 ^fundatos et stabiles 411 B, 
firmi et stabiles 445 D, 501 A, stabiles et firmi 452 B, uerum et 
manifestum qu. 49, uerum ac manifestum 2 qu. N.T. 49; lenis...et 
inturbata 80 D; inportabilis . ..et aspera 109 c, asperos et duros 130 A, 
graui et aspera qu. 117, aspera et difficilis 2 qu. N.T. 19; fragilis 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 67 

...et incerta 130 A, corruptibilia et mortalia qu. 28, caduca et cor- 
ruptibilia 130c, caduca atque incerta 511 A, cf. infirmum et fragile 
(quoted above); subtilis et uersutus 151 C, subdolis et uersutis 521 A, 
collide et astute qu. 114, cf. prudens . et astutus (quoted above); in- 
reuerens et blasphemus 169 C; pacifici...et quieti 175 B; diffidentes 
et perfidi 196 A; simplicem et incorporeum 207 B, aperta et simplex 
qu. 127, unum...et indifferens 2 qu. N.T. 29, unum...et singularem 
2 qu. N.T. 57, simplici ac singulari 2 qu. mixt. 9; contemptibilis et 
despectus 217 B, despecti et humiliati qu. 126 (col. 2376); participes 
et consortes 249 C ; intractabiles et inconsideratos 223 B; sublimis et 
ineffabilis 280 A, sublimis et magnifica qu. 102, ineffabiliter incon- 
prehensibiliter (sic codd.) qu. 21, magnificum et mirabile 348 C, 
magnificum et gloriosum 447 B, magna et admirabilis qu. 113, 
magnus . et admirabilis qu. 117, praecipua et admirabilis qu. 117; 
plena et perfecta 418 c; plena . et abundans qu. 69, copiosi et abun- 
dantes 479 c; laboriosa et inefficax 370 c; inmensum et inaesti- 
mabilem 406 B; sobrii et modesti 417 A; infesta et inimica 492s; 
humanus et pius qu. 102; 117; clemens et misericors qu. 44, 114, 
misericors et patiens qu. 68, bonus et misericors qu. 119, iniusti...et 
inmisericordes qu. 103; diuinum et supercaeleste qu. 95, diuinam et 
deificam qu. 114; superabundans . et inauditum qu. 78, noua et in- 
audita qu. 104, nouum et inauditum qu. 123, noua . et mirabilis 
qu. 104 (cf. nee mirum nee inauditum qu. 44 and nouum... et... in- 
auditum qu. 115), inpossibilia et inaudita qu. 117; rebelles et con- 
tumeliosi qu. 44, perfidos et rebelles qu. 126, adrogantes...et rebelles 
qu. 110; iustam et salutarem qu. 110, sanctum et salutarem qu. 121 ; 
palam aperteque qu. 89, palam . et manifeste qu. 114 (cf. non palam 
neque manifeste qu. 115); uarius et mutabilis qu. 46 (perhaps the 
only definite reminiscence of Virgil in this author); indigni et 
inutiles qu. 77 (73), bona et utilis qu. 127, inutilia et abicienda 
237 A; inperiti et rusticani qu. 77, inculti et agrestes qu. 106; 
uenenatam...et peramaram qu. 102, conexa...et indiuidua qu. 106; 
continentes et sancti qu. 115; inbecillem et aegrum qu. 115; in- 
trepidus et securus qu. 117; cara et suauis qu. 117; gratum.et 
fructiferum qu. 118; modesta et tranquilla qu. 119; robustus et 
fortis qu. 119; felix et beatum qu. 123; pestiferi et superbi 2 qu. 
V.T. 5, superbis. . .et contumacibus 2 qu. V.T. 10, perfida . et contumax 
2 qu. mixt. 9; pugnantia et inimica 2 qu. N.T. 46 cet. Pairs of 

52 



68 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

comparatives are occasionally found : largior et ulterior qu. 102, 
fortiores et uehementiores qu. 114, fortior . et plenior qu. 117, peri- 
tior et fortior qu. 126. Pairs of superlatives are almost entirely 
absent: one example is mitissima et clementissima qu. 102. There 
are curious mixtures, pessima eorum et pergrauis causa 79 c 
(codd.) ; pessima et impia genera 459 A, inpius et crudelissimus 
(qu. 94); inhonesta et uanissima qu. 114 (col. 2344). 

Similar pairs of nouns, though not so frequent, are also a 
feature of both works. Here are a few examples ; modum et 
rationem 1 47 A, ambiguitas et diffidentia 52 B, turpitudinem et con- 
taminationem 64 A, passionibus et pressuris 87 D, procellis et tempes- 
tatibus 130 A, error et delictum 161 A, uersutia et calliditate 198 B, 
dedecus . et deformationem 305 B, dolo et fallacia 367 B, animositati 
et audaciae 370 A; inbecillitas atque inperitia qn. 18, lamentationi- 
bus et gemitibus qu. 102, lamentatione et gemitu qu. 126, gemitu et 
dolore 2 qu. V.T. 12, caput et originem qu. Ill, caput. . .et principium 
qu. 113, fons et origo qu. 123, subtilitate et astutia qu. 114. astutia 
et subtilitas qu. 115, formidine et metu qu. 114 (col. 2345), cura 
diligentiaque 501 c, qu. 120, ira...et indignatione 2 qu. V.T. 5, 
uitam et conuersationem qu. 84, conuersatio et uita qu. 126, 
pressuras et angastias 2 qu. mixt. 6, cet. 

Allied to this construction is another, intended to produce the 
same kind of emphasis. This is the employment of a special kind 
of * constituent ' genitive. Whereas in classical Latin the govern- 
ing word is generally of wider scope than that of the word in the 
genitive, the two words may here be said to be identical in mean- 
ing 2 . Examples are: aemulatio zeli 157 c, qu. 5, 2 qu. N.T. 7 3 , 
aemulatio inuidiae 79 B, aemulatio .. .inuidentiae 153 D, agonis 
legitimum certamen 523 D, patientiae longanimitas 68 A, tergiuersa- 
tio cauillationis 88 B, infirmitatis suae inbecillitate 108 B, subtilitate 
astutiae suae 137 B, caecitatis obtunsio 158 B, 160 B 4 , subtilitate 
quadam diabolicae uersutiae 450 c, stultitiae inprudentia 463 D, 
conpendio breuitatis qu. 73, dolo simulation/is qu. 75, astutiae 

1 The words modus and ratio are usually identical in meaning, see infra pp. 
107-8. 

2 This idiom is found in other late authors. 

3 aemulatio (2 Cor. vii 11) he explains by zelus, cf . 247 c. 

4 On obtunsio (irtipwis) see Dean Eobinson in Journ. Theol. Studies, vol. in 
(1901) 81-93, or Commentary on Ephesians, pp. 268 f. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 69 

calliditcite qu. 97, temeritatis praesumptio qu. 101, lamentatione 
paenitentiae qu. 102, liuoris sui inuidam uoluntatem qu. 102, simu- 
latio commenticiae ueritatis qu. 118, ingenium naturae nostrae qu. 
120,fornicatione idolatriae 1 qu. Ill,crudelitatissaeuitia qu. 118cet. 
The last peculiarity of style common to both works, to which 
I shall refer, is the use of the ablative absolute of personified 
abstract nouns 2 with the present participle of intransitive verbs. 
This construction is very frequent. With it may be coupled a 
kindred construction, the employment of another noun in appo- 
sition instead of the participle. Examples of the former usage are 
dictante iustitia 191 c, qu. 44 m, hortante iustitia 404 D, paenitentia 
subsequente 219 c, qu. 102 (cf. qu. 6: see also p. 141), manente in 
ea peccato 106 B, manente sententia 121 c, manente iustitia 143 B, 
manente .fide qu. 113, modestia gubernante 98 B, gratia regnante 
104 B, peccato regnante 104 B, superueniente . gratia 104 c, miseri- 
cordia interueniente 155 B, interueniente misericordia sua 183 B, 
interueniente causa aliqua 225 B, interueniente mentis dolor e prol. 2 
Cor. 3 , interueniente lamentatione paenitentiae qu. 102, misericordia . 
ueniente 2 qu. V.T. 10, misericordia adueniente qu. 69, accusante 
conscientia ipsa 172 A, suadente uirtute 200 B, qu. 114, inpellente 
lasciuia 230 A, refrigescente proposito 234 A, necessitate cogente 
346 D,aequitate cogente qu. 100, perfidia obcaecante 305 c,recedente 
infirmitate 314 A, apparente ueritate 456 A, accedente . timore dei 
qu. 115, blandiente consuetudine qu. 114, imperante natura qu. 115, 
recrudescente...crudelitatis saeuitia qu. 118, operante inlecebrosa 
fallacia qu. 114, prohibente pudore qu. 114. Of the kindred con- 
struction I may cite the following instances: teste uirtute 198s, 
201 c, 204 B, 212 c, 340 A, qu. 84 ex, 114 pr (cf. testis uirtus posita 
est 2 qu. N.T. 63; testis doctrinae uirtus est 52 D; uirtus testis 
inuenitur qu. 114 4 ; uirtutis testimonio qu. Ill ex); teste interior e 
conscientia sua 7lc, teste conscientia sua 137 c, 501 D, conscientia 
sua teste qu. 102 bis (an expression suggested by ep. Rom. ix 1); 

1 Fornicatio is here used in the Old Testament sense. 

2 There are of course many examples of this construction with concrete nouns 
also; see above, p. 65, and cf. suadente diabolo qu. 116, dicente scriptura qu. 117, 
deo adiuuante per Jidem 108 c, corporis manente conpagine 105 A, manente in nobis 
xpiritu sancto 129 A cet. 

3 As published in Jouni. Theol. Studies, vol. iv (1902), pp. 89-92. 

4 Cf. also scientiam testem 341 c ; testis est iustitia eius 58 c. 



70 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

teste promissione eius 518 c 1 ; magistra iustitia 98 A, qu. Ill: 
magistra modestia 464 c 2 ; and the common expression duce natura 
or natura duce 71 A, 71 B, 75 B, 100 A, 111 A, etc., natura ipsa 
duce 162 c; qu. 118. 

(2) Particles. 

The study of the uses of particles in the later Latin authors 
may be said to be as yet in its infancy. I have used such works 
as were accessible to me and my own reading of these authors in 
estimating the importance of the usages I have brought forward. 
To me they are convincing, and I confidently leave them to the 
judgment of experts. I aim at exhaustiveness within the limits I 
lay down, and intend this part of my study to be a small contribu- 
tion to the history of Latin syntax. 

Ac PER HOC introducing a sentence or a clause is very frequent 
in both works. It is unnecessary to give examples. Dom Morin 
has noted as many as 121 occurrences in the commentaries and 
more than 65 occurrences in the Quaestiones 3 . The expression 
occurs also in Cypr., Isaac ex-Iudaeo 1544 c, Hier., Aug., Daniel's 
Servius, the commentator on Virgil (R. B. Steele in The American 
Journal of Philology xx (1899) 376), and others. 

NEC NON ET 4 : the presence of this expression in a good many 
late prose authors may be traced to the reading of Virgil at school. 
It occurs in Rom. ii 12; iii 29; in Gal. iii 2; in Col. i 20; in Col. ii 
8-9 (some MSS nee non)', in 1 Thess. v 22; qu. 51 : 71; 97 ppr; 
99pm; 106m; 109 ppr; 109m; 114 pr; 114m; 115 ex; 126 aex; 
127 pm. Nee non etiam occurs in 2 Cor. vii 12, nee non in 1 Tim. 
vi 13-16. (Nee non et is found even in Scripture, e.g. Vulg. Exod. 
xxviii 27.) 

1 Compare too testibus signorum prodigiis 51 B with testibus signis qu. 3. 

2 With these expressions, cf. ministro spiritu sancto qu. 91, ministris angelis 
qu. 100, 115, 119, ministris sideribus qu. 115, ministris dementis 67 c, membris... 
ministris 107 A, cet. 

3 Dom Morin, I.e. p. 102. 

4 See Archiv f. lat. Lexikogr. vm 181, n. 2 ; x 390 for examples, which could 
be greatly increased; add e.g. [Aug.] serm. 188, 1; 307, 3; 48, 1. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 71 

The pleonastic expression PORRO AUTEM introduces sentences: 
in Rom. ii 8 porro autem dei natura ab his passionibus inmunis est 
(so one MS, where Migne has nam); in 1 Cor. vi 18; in 2 Cor. xi 4; 
in Col. ii 13 ff; qu. 2; 14; 27; 69; 102 bis; 106; 109; 114 bis; 
115; 117. (This expression is common in Cyprian's latest writ- 
ings and in some of his epistles : Mr E. W. Watson in Studio, 
Biblica iv pp. 239, 316. It occurs also Boet. cons. phil. iii 11 
(p. 79, 74).) 

The remarkable combination, ADUBI autem 1 , which is of rare 
occurrence in Latin, occurs several times in both works 2 . As the 
old editors were naturally rather suspicious of this strange ex- 
pression, I have had to restore it sometimes from the manuscripts 3 : 
in Rom. v 13 (where the Cologne edition of 1616 corrupts to at uero 
ubi); in Gal. prol. (one good MS : Migrie (358 B) at ubi) 4 ; in Eph. iv 
11 f. (410 B) codd. ; in 1 Tim. iii 12 f (497 c) codd. (Migne at ubi 
uero); qu. 3 pr; 4; 37; 44 bis; 104; 106; 115 (col. 2350 1. 52); 
127; 2 qu. N.T. 17; 2 qu. mixt. 3. 

Quo MODO ERGO (interrogative "how then") is a frequent man- 
nerism at the beginning of a sentence: a few examples are: quo 
modo ergo non inputabatur peccatum, cum lex non esset ? (in Rom. 
v 13); quo modo ergo hoc ad corpus potest refem ut..J (in Phil, ii 
10 ff); quo modo ergo possunt deum Abrahae scire, qui...? (in 
Tit. i!6); quo modo ergo personarum acceptio non est apud 
deum? (qu. 32); quo modo ergo, post quam baptizatus est, dictum 
ei a domino deo est cet. ? (qu. 54); 91; 102; 105; 107; 110 (new 
part); 114; 115 (col. 2354); 115 (col. 2357); 127 quinquies, 2 qu. 
N.T. 62 cet. 

QUANTO MAGIS, interrogatively, is often used in argument: 
60 c; 67 A: 90 A; 94 c; 96 A bis; 98 A; 99 c; 102 B; 130 A; 132 B; 
133c; 186 B; 196c; 205 c; 224A; 231B; 237 c ; 242c; 245 c ; 
273 B; 298 c; 330 B; 335 B, c; 361 c, etc. 5 ; qu. 27; 38; 45; 46; 91; 

1 In the MSS sometimes atubi (or at ubi) autem. 

2 See the article adubi in the Thes. Ling. Lat., which has none of my examples. 

3 Here, and elsewhere often, I have refrained from mentioning Migne's wrong 
reading, where the MSS give a different but correct reading. 

4 Also in the text of scripture, Gal. iv 4, in three MSS, where Migne at ubi. 

5 Also in the text of liom. xi 24. 



72 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

97 quater; 101; 102 bis ; 110; 111; 113; 114 bis: 115 bis; 
122 for; 125; 127 ter; 2 qn. N.T. 50. 

QUID EST UT, with the subjunctive, equal to quid est cur, quid 
est quod, quid est quam ob rem, ut quid, quare, cur, the latinity of 
which was denied by one of the old editors of the Quaestiones, 
occurs : in 1 Cor. iii 23 ; iv 5 ; in 2 Cor. xi 26 ; in Gal. i 14 ; 
ii 3 ; etc. ; the titles of qu. 14, 17, 22, 24, 37, 53, 57, 61, 62, 67, 
85 ; and occasionally in the documents themselves as well, e.g. 
qu. 112, 115. 

When a negative answer is expected, questions are introduced 
by NUMQUID, never by num or numquidnam 1 . The following are 
examples: in Rom. i 22; in Rom. ii 3; in Rom. ii 6; also 88 A; 
100 A; 104 B; 118 D; 120 A; 127 A; 209 c, D, and often: qu. 1; 
41 bis; 43 quater; 44; 46 ter; 69; 83 bis; 91; 97 ter; 101 to; 
102 bis; 106; 107 to; 112; 114 bis; 115 (twelve times); 122 bis; 
123; 125 bis; 127 quater; 2 qu. N.T. 34,61, 62 etc. (The word is 
found also in the following verses of scripture quoted by the 
author: Gen. xx 4; Esa. xlii 14; xlv 9; Luc. xviii 7; lo. x 21; 
Rom. iii 5; ix 14; x 17; sed dico: numquid Israhel non cognouit; 
hoc est, cognouitne? x 19 (cf. qu. 107 (col. 2321, 73), qu. 123 
(col. 2369, 64)); xi 11; 1 Cor. i 13; ix 4, 5, 8, etc.) 

The reduplication of inferential particles, which is compara- 
tively rare in Latin 2 , is a feature of both works. IDEO ERGO is 
found: in Rom. ix 22; in 1 Cor. vii 2; in 1 Cor. xiv27; in 2 Cor. 
i!8; in 2 Cor. xl; in 1 Tim. ivlO; qu.37; 53; 75(79); qu. 2 N.T. 
19; 61; qu. 2 mixt. 3: ERGO IDEO occurs in 2 Cor. x 4 (where 
some MSS have enim ideo); in Gal. 16; IDCIRCO ERGO: (Migne 
enim) in 1 Cor. xv 3; qu. 16 ; ERGO IDCIRCO : in 2 Cor v 16 ; qu. 
107; IDCIRCO IGITUR: in Gal. ii 10 3 . 

Both works agree in placing ENIM third, and est second, if these 

1 numquidnam is common in Aug., and occurs even in Cic. In this author 
aliquis often = quisquam, and introduces interrogative sentences where a negative 
answer is expected, e.g. qu. 83 pr. 

2 The only outside examples I can find are itaque ergo Ter. eun. 317, Liv. 1, 25, 
2; 3, 31, 5; 9, 31, 16; 28, 12, 12; 39, 25, 11; Peregr. Ether. (Archiv f. lat. Lex. iv 
269); ergo igitur Plaut. trin. 756, most. 848, Apul. met. (Koziol, der Stil des L. 
Apuleius, p. 145). 

3 Quare ergo occurs qu. 104, perhaps oftener. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 73 

be two out of the first three words in the sentence ; for example, 
ipse est enim (93 B codd.) ; homo est em'ra...(249 A) ; officium est 
em'm...(261c codd.); ibi est enim (314 c codd.); hoc est enim 
(31 9 c); degenerare est enim (399 B codd.); non est enim (449s, 
492 c) ; praedestinatus est enim 491 B ; quid est enim (491 c) ; 
superfluum est enim (468 B) ; asperum est enim (502 c) ; peri- 
culosum est e?im...qu. 97; hoc est enim qu. 97; capax est enim 
qu. 123; signum est enim qu. 123; ipse est enim qu. 125. The 
MSS should be altered probably in qu. 114 ex; 127 (p. 2382). For 
Cicero's rule see Dr Reid's Acad. Index. 

ETENIM usually occupies the second place in a sentence 1 . 
Originally, as in the best prose, etenim comes first in the sentence, 
being really two words, et enim, where the enim occupies its 
natural place as second in the sentence. When it became one 
word, prose writers began to give it the place of enim in the 
sentence, influenced perhaps by the poets, like Lucretius, Horace 
and Propertius 2 , who for metrical reasons gave it this position. 
The following prose writers 3 among others employ this construction, 
Tertulliari, Apuleius, Novatian, Lucifer of Cagliari, Paulinus of 
Nola, and Jerome. I have noted no example in Augustine 4 . In the 
works concerned, we find : ostendere e. imminens periculum bonum 
est 114 A; duo e. genera hominum hie continentur 156 B; sunt 
e. pessimae uoluntatis 156 B ; peccantibus e. ignoscere misericordia 
est 166 A; tribus e. discipulis gloriam suam in monte ostendit 
209 A ; indigni e. sunt resurgere cum sanctis 286 B ; insultantis 
e. uerba sunt 286 D ; ideo e. non dixit... 320 A; sic e. de domino 
dictum est 384 c ; tune e. exerta potest esse libertas 485 A ; tune 
e. addiscentes uera esse sciunt quae audiunt 485 B ; fidei e. gratia 
hanc habet potestatem 492 D ; praefectus e. potest... qu. 46m; 
sic e. de carne... qu. 51 (b) ; ideo e. (cf. 320 A) a nocte... qu. 64am ; 
omnia e. suis uoluminibus... qu. 69 pr; omni e., inquit,... qu. 70; 
scripturae e. dominicae qu. 95 pr ; Anania e. cum qu. 102 pr ; utquid 

1 Etenim occupies the first place; 95 A (printed text), 258 D, 490 A; qu. 64, 72 
(76), 90; 2 qu. N.T. 32. In this and in the following list the MSS are followed. 
They often offer enim for etenim of the printed text, and vice versa. 

2 See Georges s.v. 

3 Georges gives one passage from Plin. h. n., but etenim is not now read there. 

4 But it occurs in Cons. ap. Aug. ep. 119, 5. 



74 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

e. c annis qu. 102 ppr; peccatores e. eos polluunt, qui consentiunt 
mails eorum qu. 102 aex ; duo e. genera sacrificiorum qu. 103 ; sic 
e. inuenitur et Cain peccasse qu. 103 ; ideo e. (cf. 320 A supra) per- 
missum est... qu. 104; triginta e. dies qu. 106 ppr; in principio 
e. qu. 106 ppr (in-principio counting, of course, as one word) ; sic 
e. dicit qu. 106 aex ; quis e. hominum dicat... qu. 107 ppr ; Moyses 
e. cui legitur qu. 109 am ; nemo e. potest... qu. 109 pm ; legimus e. 
in psalmo qu. 109 ex ; sunt e. eius imago qu. 109 ex ; ipse e. Abra- 
ham qu. 115 pr; mulieribus e. Romanorum qu. 115 ppr; cogitantibus 
e. nobis qu. 115 am; educens e. hunc dominus qu. 117 ppr; sub 
Hester e. regina (cf. qu. 106 ppr) qu. 120; nihil e. medium est qu. 
122 ex ; coquit e. ignis qu. 123 am ; lucem e. habitat qu. 125 m ; 
contuendum e. est qu. 125 m ; hinc e. quis uidetur qu. 126 pr 1 . 

ALIQUANDO ALIQUANDO: a. deum a. hominem significat 50 A; 
a. laudat a. commonet 126 A, B; a. corripit a. laudat 194D; cet. : 
a. diligi a. timeri qu. 1 ppr ; qu. 66 ; 80 pr ; 97 ex ; 99 m ; 125 pm ; 
127 ex. ter ; 2 qu. mixt. 6 bis; etc. For this double aliquando see 
Archivfur latein. Lexikogr. n 246 f. 

DENIQUE always has the first place in the sentence, cf. 55 c ; 
63 C ; 133 A ; 247 D ; 254 A, c ; 280 D ; 350 D ; 357 B ; qu. 2 ; 3 ; 
47; 57; 61; 73(77); 77(73); 74(78); 75(79); 91; 95; 97; 
98; 102 bis; 103; 107; 113; 115; 2 qu. N.T. 37 : 46. 

The usual equivalent for ' not only ' ' but also ' is NON SOLUM 
SED ET; less common is NON SOLUM UERUM ETIAM. Non 
solumsed et occurs e.g. 88 A codd.; 219 A ; 221 B ; 224 A ; 236 c ; 
239 A ; 249 A ; 251 D ; 252 A ; 261 B ; 265 B ; 269 B ; 276 c ; 281 B; 
281 c; 294 A; 302 B; 305 A; 306 C; 313 C; 318 B; 330 B; 331 c 
(where there is an extra et clause) ; 332 B ; 340 A, c : 346 c ; 351 A ; 
352 A; 359 D (so Act. xxi 13 quoted); qu. 4; 13 ; 14; 28 ; 32 ; 
41 bis; 44; 45; 46 bis; 47 bis; 56; 61; 78 (74); 81; 89; 97; 
102 bis; 109; 111 bis; 112 bis; 114; 115; 118; 122; 123 fos; 
124 bis; 127 ter (cf. non solum sed nee qu. 115) (so lo. v 18 

1 The writer found this use in his Bible : Act. xvii 28 ap. 2 qu. N.T. 51 sicut 
quidam ex uobis dixerunt: "huius e. genus sumus " \_Vulg. ipsius enim et genus 
sumus]; Rom. viii 16 ap. 2 qu. N.T. 49 Spiritus e. testimonium perhibet cet. 
\Vulg. Ipse enim Spiritus testimonium reddit cet.]: in comm. with neither etenim 
nor enim. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 75 

quoted in qu. 97 ; 2 Tim. ii 20 in qu. 102). Non solum uerum 
etiam occurs e.g. 233 D; 247 A ; 404 B ; 415 C; 431 D; 442 c ; 
qu. 5; 23; 33; 34; 61; 76 (72) bis- 79 (75); 93; 95; 115; 
127 ter. The following combinations occur only sporadically 1 : 
non solum sed etiam (305 c ; 395 A) ; non solum sed (325 A 
codd.; 372 A; 468 A; qu. 43); non solum uerum (446 A); non 
tantum sed et (85 D; 505 D; qu. 2; 79 (75); 113; 127); non 
tantum uerum etiam (529 c ; qu. 118) ; non . tantum sed (qu. 102). 
These are all the combinations found, non modo, for instance, 
being entirely absent from both works. 

Si QUO MINUS, 'but if not,' d Se pij etc., is an expression which 
seems to have escaped the lexicographers and grammarians entirely. 
Dr Sanday and Mr C. H. Turner alon'e, as far as I am aware, have 
taken note of the expression, as occurring in one of the Old Latin 
texts of the New Testament 2 . It appears in the text of Ezech. iii 
19 3 , quoted both in the commentaries and in the Quaestiones. 

I have collected all the examples: nee dominus utique 
adorari se pateretur, nisi quia deus est: si quo minus, usurpasse 
dicendus est 138 D; hie enim induit Christum. ..si quo minus, 
non sunt induti lesum Christum dominum 175 A; spiritus enim 
sanctus tune permanet in eo, cui se infuderat, si permaneat in 
proposito regenerationis : si quo minus, abscedit 208 B; cuius 
filii sunt in utroque, si credant : si quo minus, peiores erunt 
gentilibus 232 A; ut...non quaerat uxorem ; ita tamen ut a ceteris 
temperet. Si quo minus, quid prodest desiderium carnis pre- 
mere ? 234 A : missus enim seruus a domino facit, etiam inuitus, 
quod sibi praeceptum est: si quo minus, adstringatur plagis 
necesse est 243 c ; forma ergo uult esse ceteris, ut ubi uident non 
expedire, etiam licitis non utantur : si quo minus, de licito fient 
rei 244 A ; pro utilitate enim nostra gesta sunt, ut si terrore horum 
in dei timore manserimus, gloriam illis promissam accipiamus : si 

1 Perhaps the text ought to and will be altered in some cases. 

2 See Old Latin Biblical Texts No. II, p. cxxiii (two examples in the S. Matthew 
of k) and Dr M. K. James' Apocrypha Anecdota n (1897) p. 143. Add Ezech. iii 21. 
Si quo minus is found also in [Ambr.?] serm. 26, 5 (Migne, P. L. xvn 680 B). Dom 
Chapman points out to me that the expression occurs also (twice) in the Vulgate. 
Iren. (lat.) also has examples. 

3 In 300 B (in 2 Cor. ii 16) correct Migne's sin to si (MSS). 



76 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

quo minus, geminabitur nobis poena illorum 248 B; ideo...dixit..., 
propterea quia ilium sciunt dominum : si quo minus, non uide- 
bitur eis dignus esse uocari dominus 250s; despectis...exhortatio 
necessaria est, per quam addatur illis aliquis honor, ut fiant utiles : 
si quo minus, ipso contempt u neglegentiores circa se erunt 
262 B; haec potestas est quam superius optat esse otiosam...si 
quo minns, exercere se in hac 356 B ; quid iam sonat, nisi quia 
cessit... ? Si quo minus, quo modo uerba aut sensus seque- 
rentur ? 368 A ; omnia enim eius manifesta sunt, ut seruans legem 
uiuat: si quo minus, necesse est plectatur 374s; ecclesiae caput 
est Christus, si tarn en omnes unum sentiant caelestes et terreni, ut 
sint Ecclesia... : si quo minus, truncati capite totius corporis..., 
amentia quadarn et uanitate bacchantur 448 A ; si...accipiantur, 
bona sunt: si quo minus, mala erunt 488 D ; expectat ut irnpii 
credant, et peccatores emendent : siquominus, plectentur qu. 68 ; 
suspendit sententiam, ut hic...habeat spatium paenitendi: si quo 
minus, redit in ilium sententia cumulata qu. 69 ex; deus...non 
ex se habet quod deus est: si quo minus, nee apud deum deus 
esse diceretur neque...appellaretur qu. 122 pr ; propterea mandata 
data sunt...ut ex his dei cultura appareat : si quo minus, audient 
qu. 126 ex. 

PROPTER QUOD is the prevailing form in both works. Other 
forms are almost entirely absent 1 . Propter quod is found in 
Apuleius, Cyprian 2 , Irenaeus (lat.), the Vulgate, and the Bible 
used in the works before us 3 , for example. Examples are : 50 B ; 
84c; 100A; 101 B; 128A; 132A; 153c; 162 A ; 177A; 189A; 
262 A codd. ; 307 A ; 315 B; 319 B codd. ; 338 A ; 395 B; qu. 37; 
46 ; 47 ; 76 (72) Us\ 81 ; 100 ; 101 ; 102 ter ; 104 ; 106 ter ; 110 ; 
112 bis; 114; 116; 122 bis; 127; 2 qu. N.T. 55. Enim is 
never put between the two in the MSS, but always after, thus : 
propter quod enim. Propterea quod occurs 127s; 260 D; 276 c; 
330 c ; 359 A ; qu. 59 (only ex.) ; and propterea quia (126 B) 4 176 A ; 
250 B ; 470 A codd. ; qu. 41 ; 97. 



1 E.g. quapropter, qu. 62; the MSS at 319 B have propter quod. 

2 See Mr Watson, op. cit. p. 316. 

3 E.g. Rom. xv 7; 22. 

4 Some MSS omit propterea. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 77 

QUIPPE CUM = ' since,' with the subjunctive, is a favourite 
usage in both works. Examples are : 56 A ; 67 c ; 73 B ; 76 D 
(sed v. n. crit.) ; 79 B ; 83 A ; 98 A; 109 c ; 117 A; 130 D; 142 B ; 
159 C; 171 A; 179 c ; 186 B; 204 D ; 208 A; 213 B,D; 221 D ; 
229 B; 260 C; 281 D ; 283 A ; 308 A ; 366 A; 370 D ; 377 D; 
383D; 406A; 413o; 419B; 457s; 469A; 478 c ; 493 D ; 496c; 
500 A ; 502 C ; 504 B : 508 c ; 510 c ; 511 A ; 521 B ; 524 c ; qu. 1 ; 
2; 20; 31; 38; 46; 61; 66; 79 (75); 81; 83to: 91 ter ; 94; 
97 to; 101; 102 ter; 108; 111; 112; 113; 114 to; 115 to; 
122 ; 2 qu. N.T. 57 ; 62. 

PER ID QUOD is a favourite mannerism. Examples are : per 
id quod neglegit, non bona se fecisse quae fecit ostendit (in Rom. 
ii 3); per id quod praescientiam non habet (in Rom. iii 4 
(codd.)) ut, per id quod inhabitat in eo, iustificatus appareat esse 
filius dei (in Rom. viii 10); se uerum praedicatorem per id quod 
a Christo dei uoluntate missus est adseuerat (in 1 Cor. i 1) ; 
216c; 226D; 227c; 232 A ; 382c; 446 D ; 448 c ; 472A; 499 c ; 
ut...gaudeat in sese per id quod opere suo uidet se meliorem 
qu. 1; qu. 20; spem...esse...uult intellegi per id quod subiecit 
dicens qu. 39 ; qui peridquod inpraescius est uarius et mutabilis 
est qu. 46; potest enim homini suaderi quod nescit per id quod 
scit qu. 59 ; qu. 89 ; qu. 97 ; qu. 106 ; qu. 112 ; qu. 115 to; qu. 123 ; 
qu. 125 ter. Where another particle also occurs at the beginning 
of the clause, the writer places the complete expression first and 
then the other particle. The printed text must be altered to agree 
with the manuscripts ; e.g. per id quod ergo 226 D ; qu. 20 ; per id 
quod autem qu. 59 ; per id quod enim qu. 97 ; qu. 114 (col. 2344) 
are the correct readings where the editors have transposed the quod 
and ergo, etc. In conformity with this rule I do not hesitate to 
emend per id enim quod of 2 qu. N.T. 61 to per id quod enim 1 . 

To Mr E. W. Watson belongs the credit of first pointing out 
the expression CUM QUANDO 2 . I am glad to be able to add the 
following examples: ostendit quam uim creatura patiatur nostri 
causa, cum quando nos...ingemescimus (in Rom. viii 23); quid 

1 I have since found it in the chief MS. 

- In Hilary of Poitiers (Mr Watson in Journal of Philology xxvm (1901) p. 84). 



78 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

enim opus erat summam hanc ponere totius deuotionis, cum 
quando singula membra... memoret (memorat?) (in Rom. xii 11); 
solet per iram peccari cum quando quis furore commotus plus 
exigit quam postulet causa delicti (in Rom. xii 19) ; hoc est, nequid 
contra legem admittatur, cum quando quod lex non prohibet 
uitatur (in 1 Cor. vii 2) ; presbyterum autem intellegi episcopum 
probat Paulus apostolus cum quando Timotheum quern ordinauit 
presbyterum instruit cet. (qu. 101 : so all MSS) ; quo modo ergo 
anteriores se putant pagani, cum quando quod colunt post deum 
est? (qu. 114 col. 2346 : so all MSS). 



(II) LANGUAGE. 

(An asterisk indicates that a word, sense, or construction is wanting 
in Georges' Handworterbuch and Benoist-Goelzer* s Dictionnaire.) 

abdico : abdicatis ludaeis qu. 44 pr ; abdicatis ludaeis 
146 A; nihil ultra potuit donare credentibus, quam ut filii dei 
dicantur, perfidis abdicatis 92 B ; ne laborum suorum fructibus 
abdicentur 349 D ; ne similes gentibus inuenti adoptionis nomine 
abdicentur (abdicantur is misprint in Migne 1 ) 473 D. 

absolutus (cf. Thes. Ling. Lat. I col. 178 53 ff.) : absolutum 
est ei qui legi factorum...subiectus est... non inputari meritum ad 
mercedem 86 C; absolutum est quia accedens ad Christum 
relinquit legem 371 B; absoluta sunt haec, nee interpretatione 
egent 436 A ; absolutum est non nos lunam colere qu. 84; ecce 
absolutum est donum dei multo plus gratiae concessisse homini 
tempore saluatoris qu. 123 ; cf. the adverb absolute : -w absolutius 
doceat quia...conspiciuntur 59 C ; ut hoc absolutius ostenderet 
233 C ; quod ut adhuc absolutius traderet qu. 122. I must 
mention here a usage which occurs several times in the Quaestiones, 
though it does not as yet appear in the printed form of the 
commentaries. It is in absolute est: cum in absolute sit 
inmundum bonum dici non posse qu. 9 pr (this is the correct 

1 I use throughout the exceedingly careless reprint of 1879. Volume rv is as 
bad as the other three, stigmatised in Theolog. Litter aturzeitung, 1903, no. 3, by 
Jiilicher. The Quaestiones, on the contrary, is well printed : I have counted about 
ten misprints only. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 79 

reading, to which the MSS point); non otiose illud mandasse 
Joseph filiis Israhel in absolute est qu. 25 ; in absolute est 
Samuhelem minime fuisse sacerdotem qu. 46 (col. 2246 1. 1); in 
absolute est per septem mulieres septem ecclesias esse signi- 
ficatas qu. 47 pr; quia autem et hie possent fieri in absolute est 
qu. 115 (col. 2349). 

acceptabilis : 52 D; 198B; 203 c; 208 D; 210 D; 215 C; 
299 D; 327s; 340 A ; 387 A ; 473 A; 504 D; 515 B : qu. 120; 
qu. 2 N.T. 1. 

accipio : in the phrase accepto ferre 1 =the classical accep- 
tum referre : accepto ferri ambobus iustitiam fidei 70 A; quod 
a deo Abrahae accepto feratur fides ludaeorum 183 c; ut... 
sacrificium eorum possit accepto ferri sanctificationis causa 184 B 
codd. ; in re quae accepto ferri non posset fidelis 280 D codd. ; 
accepto tulisse Christum, cuius legatione fungebatur 298 c ; 
putantes iam non accepto ferre deum 347 B; non dubitent ilia 
accepto ferri apud deum 443 c ; accepto ferre deum 444 A; 
hoc enim libenter accepto fertur 445 c; ut per haec quae bona 
sunt accepto ferantur et mala 478 A; ut sub nomine eius epis- 
tula accepto ferri non possit quae non fuerit manu eius sub- 
scripta 486 D ; dignum est plane et accepto ferendum pro spe, 
quae est in deo, pati persecutiones 501 A; accepto ferri putant 
quod non probant mandatum qu. 114 pr; ut etiam id. ..accepto 
ferri debeat qu. 127 am ; hoc dicit quia oblationes et holocausta 
tune accepto ferri haberent qu. 112 ex. 

accuratus : laetum est caput siue cetera membra si pedes 
fuerint accurati uel sani 262 D; mundum spernendum adserunt 
et semper accurati procedunt 521 B; nemo enim imperatori 
ministrat non accuratus qu. 127 ex; bonae uoluntatis hominibus 
qui accurati magis uita sunt quam sermone qu. 100; causa accu- 
rati sermonis 339 c. 

adaeque : sanctum praecipit creari episcopum adaeque et 
diaconurn 496 c and probably oftener 2 ; lonas adaeque propheta 
praeceptum...inrupit qu. 109 (col. 2326); et malum recusatur cum 
adaeque (Migne illud aeque) natura hoc praestet qu. 115 (col. 

1 The phrase occurred in his Bible : Kom. iv 6, beatitudinem hominis, cui 
deus accepto fert iustitiam sine operibus. (Of. 671 A of Migne, 17.) 

2 The word caused difficulty to scribes, and may be lurking in some passages. 



80 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

2348 4); alius adaeque (Migne qui aeque) naturae suae rem 
exsequens (Migne exsequitur) praemiis adficeretur qu. 115 (col. 
2348 13); condiscipulus autem eius adaeque sanctus Petrus 
cet. qu. 127 (col. 2384). 

adbreuio, and cognates: multa quae misericordia dei ad- 
breuiarit 49 B; quae (fides) adbreuiata ex lege est 146 D; 
adbreuiata ergo lege 146 D; adbreuiatio facta legis est 49 B ; 
tempus pressurae adbreuiabatur 350 A; sola fides... adbreuiata 
ex lege 357 c ; breuiatum legis uerbum qu. 44am; semper 
breuiata propositione sensum occultas qu. 74 (78); nisi breuiati 
fuerint dies illi qu. 102am; breuiatos uult esse dies dominus 
249 A; adbreuiatio facta legis qu. 44pm ; per adbreuiatioriem 
legis qu. 44 pm. 

addisco : not in the sense of " to learn on and on," or " to 
learn in addition," but = * the simple disco 1 : (a) c. ace. obi. addi- 
scere spiritalia 56 D; addiscentes bonam vitam 110 A; aliquid 
ex lege Moysi addiscentes 111 A : fides (non) operibus addiscitur 
sed corde creditur 113 c ; res dei non potest sine Spiritu dei 
addisci 205 D ; naturali... lege... addiscitur 207 A; ut perfec- 
tionis verba mererentur addiscere 208 c; ut addisceret (Migne 
errore addiceret) dei maiestatem 265 A; quaestionum solutionem 
addiscit 267 D ; integram praedicationem se addidicisse 312 B ; 
addiscentes caritatem apostoli erga se 322 c; cum nihil amplius 
ab illis addiscatur 339 A; temperantiam...debent addiscere 
422 c; ut donum dei addisceret 439 D ; per quod...fidei suae 
addiscerent sensum 452 B ; addiscunt mysterium dei 454 B ; 
ut...addiscerent ueritatem qu. 83 pr; hinc enim addiscitur 
nobilitatis eius aeternitas qu. 97 ppr; ut...regem gloriae Christum 
addisceret qu. Ill aex; addiscere sacramentum qu. 113 pr; 
nulla in hac causa alicuius documenta addiscens qu. 118 pr codd. ; 
dum sacramentum Creatoris addiscit qu. 127 am. (b) c. ace. 
et inf. ut in hoc ceterae gentes addiscerent non esse alium 
deum... 144 B; magnalibus Christi addiscere hunc non posse 
fallere 157 A; carnem non edere bonum esse addiscunt 180 A; 
ut nullam illi gloriam. . .dandam addiscerent 197 c (codd.) ; (pass.) 

1 Disco itself is, however, found often : 266 c (?) ; 267 c ; 312 B ; 363 D ; 364 A bis 
cet; qu. 91 pm bis ; 118 ; 2 qu. N.T. 53 cet : also the compound edisco 472 D, 474 c, 
qu. 113 pr, 2 qu. N.T. 53 ; but no other compound. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 81 

(Marcus) Barnabae adfinis addiscitur 465 B; ut addiscerent non 
impune sibi futurum qu. 14 pm. (c) c. indir. interrog. addisce- 
rent principes huius saeculi quid admisissent mali 206 D ; addi- 
scentes quae promissa sunt bene uiuentibus 322 B (fort, sub (a) 
inserendum) ] ut per hanc quid agendum sibi esset addiscerent 
466 B; ex imagine, quam praecellat ueritas, addiscitur 511 A; ut, 
adhaerentes ei, addiscerent, unde illi calumriiam facerent 515 A. 
(d) c. quia (="that," in statements): a Tito autem addiscens 
quia dolorem paterentur 324 B; addiscentes quia in aduentu 
domiui priores resurgent 475 A; addiscens quia " uerbum caro 
factum est" qu. 76 (72). (e) c. inf. simpl. legem per quam 
addiscerent rectum a peruerso distinguere 76 B ; ut bene uiuere 
addiscerent 489 A. (f) absol. tune etenim, addiscentes, uera 
esse sciunt quae audiunt 485 B. 

adimpleo : non utique lex exinanitur per fidem, sed adim- 
pletur 85 B; ut adimpleret exhortatione sua uoluntatem illorum 
in opere bono 328 B ; omnia in passione saluatoris consummata et 
adimpleta sunt qu. 105. 

adinuentio : rectum et manifestum est non nos adinuen- 
tioni Adae...obsecundare debere 127 c ; mendacium adinuentio 
diaboli est qu. 113. 

adiudico : (a) *c. inf. quippe cum Sodoma et Gomorra per 
ignem adiudicatae sint deperire 98 A; Achar quoque filius 
Charmi, cum peccasset, consumi cum omnibus suis adiudicatus 
est qu. 127 pm. (b) simpl. cognouerunt adiudicatum esse prin- 
cipem huius mundi qu. 89; nam solemus de aliquo dicere "ad- 
iudicatus est" 2 qu. mixt. 6. (c) c. dat. poenae: non utique sine 
corpore adiudicabitur bono aut malo 311 c. (d) c. obi. interrog. 
unum quemque adiudicat quid mereatur qu. 34. 

adstruo : (a) c. ace. obi. hoc nulla ratione adstrui potest 
227 A ; ut heretici animum suum uerbis, non sensu, legis 
adstruere uideantur 496 D; proprium enim sensum (legis) uerbis 
adstruunt legis 532 A; ad causam istam adstruendam qu. 41 pr ; 
ut causam furoris sui adstruat 2 qu. N.T. 50; stabile esse quod 
uerbis adstructum erat qu. 93; sed tu hoc sic adstruis, ut... 
uidearis qu. 102 ex. (b) c. ace. et inf. adstruentes nihil posse 
fieri praeter quam mundi continet ratio 125 B (so Hier.). 

aduerto is used = " to observe," almost to the entire exclusion 

s. 6 



82 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

of animaduerto, which occurs, e.g. qu. 12; 73 (77). Examples are: 
cognomen ludaeis tripartite genere significatum debemus aduer- 
tere 73 A; ludaeos pro noxiis (so most MSS) suis traditos sibi non 
aduertebant 74 c (animaduertebant cod.) cet. ; si uelis aduer- 
tere, non incongruum uidebis qu. 12; ut nimis impium facinus 
Sodomitarum possit aduerti qu. 13; the word occurs also in 
qu. 64; 98; 102 (p. 2310); 103; 105; 113; 115 (p. 2348). 

adultero in the metaphorical sense : libenter acceperant 
doctrinam sub nomine Ghristi adulterates uerbis 55 A; uerba 
legis adulterat 100 D (cf. non sunt adulteri legis lllc; mala 
enim et adultera doctrina 211 A); sophistae Graecorura... 
adulterarant scripturam 366 B ; si enim in carnem, quae ex se 
est, peccat, bis utique se ipsum adulterat 2 qu. N.T. 50 cet. 

ago: in the phrase sub lege agere 1 : sibi uiueret aliquis, si 
non ageret sub lege 176 C; scirent se sub lege agere non 
debere 53 A; sub lege enim agentes male intellegunt Christum 
53 B; sub lege agebant simpliciter 55 D; ad eos loquitur qui 
agunt sub lege 84 C; nam sub lege agentes obnoxii sunt 
(peccato) 122 c cet.; sub lege agens qu. 47m; agentes sub 
lege qu. 59 ex; agentes enim sub dei lege qu. 99 pr; sub 
dei lege agentes qu. 110 ex; sub dei lege agere qu. 33; sub 
lege agere qu. 15 cet. (Esse (e.g. 108 A; qu. 47 ; 102 (p 2307)) 
and uiuere (e.g. 112B; qu. 22) are much rarer.) 

ambigo, ambiguus with negative words, or in quasi-negative 
sentences: nemo ambigit animae esse peccatum 62 B; facta quae 
hominibus non ambigerent displicere 64 B; qui non ambigitur 
cuncta ex nihilo fecisse 208 A etc.; non ambigit sed nefariis 
pernegat uocibus 2 qu. mixt. 9; quam...dare non ambigit qu. 
117 pr; non ambigens impleri debere quod iubet deus qu. 
117 ex; non ambigitur etiam ipse esse de deo, ut in sancto 
spiritu patris esse substantia et diuinitas non ambigatur qu. 
125am; nemo fidelium ambigit 2 qu. N.T. 64; non ambigere- 
mus qu. 95 pr; non ambigebant qu. 91 (p. 2283); non ambige- 
retur qu. 97 (p. 2293) ; 104 ; non ambigitur qu. 97 (p. 2295) ; non 
ambigantur qu. 106 (p. 2319) ; iwn ambigatur qu. 109 (p. 2326) ; 
non ambigit qu. 109 (p. 2326); ut nemo ambigeret qu. 114 aex. 
Examples in quasi-negative sentences are: quid ambigitur 

1 Cf. sub potestate agere 172 A; sub principe agere qu. HO (new part); sub fato 
agere qu. 115. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 83 

qu. 125; 2 qu. N.T. 11; quis ambigat qu. 91 (p. 2284); quis 
ambigeret qu. 109 (p. 2325); quis ambigit qu. 110. 

non est ambiguum with ace. and inf. Instances are : 
201 A; 248 A; 263 D; 371 C; qu. 56; 91 (p. 2283); 95; 97 
(p. 2295); 123: also, non fuit ambiguum qu. 43; non esset 
ambiguum qu. 91 am; ambiguum non est qu. 102 aex ; nulli 
est ambiguum qu. 108 pm. 

amputo : in a metaphorical sense ; nearly always perfect 
participle passive in the ablative absolute construction: amputate 
errore 75 D; amputates erroribus 393 B; qui errorem hunc 
amputaret qu. 12; ut errorem amputet qu. 122pm; omni 
eniin amputata discordia 152 C; amputata omni discordia 
erroris humani 187 B ; amputata enim sollicitudine rei uxoriae 
235 c ; ut amputata caligine...digni fierent uidere gloriam dei 
358 B; amputata erroris nebula 437 D ; amputata totius 
traditionis humanae cultura 453 c ; superbiam ergo amputat 
248 B ; fide et uigilantia sua omnem offensionem neglegentibus 
amputat 316 A ; ut hac tergiuersatione fructum amputet 
paenitentiae qu. 102 pr; non uoce sed effectu paenitentiam 
amputas qu. 102 pm. ut illis amputet quod prius per errorem 
uolebant audire 278 A. amputandum est tamen ne sibi uel de 
eo ipso blandiatur iniquitas qu. 97am. (Literally amputauit 
auriculam qu. 104.) 

apertus : in the phrase apertum est 1 : apertum est quod 
dicit 307 c ; 387 B ; 476 c cet. ; qu. 110 pm : quid tarn apertum 
(sometimes followed by quia 2 ) ? 222 c ; qu. 46 ; 59 ; 91 ; 97 ; 98 ; 
123; 127 ex: apertum est quia followed by the-indic.: 140 A; 
157 c; 214 A; 266 A ; 296 c ; 350 B ; 352 D ; 356 B ; 361 A; qu. 44 
(col. 2242); etc.: apertum est with ace. and inf.: 152 B; 267 A; 
qu. 97 (col. 2296); 2 qu. V.T. 3 etc. 

apophoretum : ut quasi dedicatio regni Christi hanc gratiam 
credentibus pro apophoretis largiretur 405 B; in magna uota 
maxima dantur apophoreta 404 B; cum id elaborare soleant 
diuites, ut in die festo natalis sui exquisita inuitatis dent 
apophoreta qu. 123 aex. 

1 Frequent varieties are uerum est, manifestum est (see below), nulli dubium est, 
non est obscurum, non est ambiguum (see above), followed by ace. et inf. or quia. 

2 Cf. quid tarn euidens quia qu. 47 (col, 2249) (codd). 

62 



84 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

apostasia : ' quo modo cecidit de caelo Lucifer ' casum et 
apostasiam significans 157 B; si uirum suum causa fornicationis 
dimiserit, aut apostasiae 230 A ; participes apostasiae suae 
uolens efficere homines 454 A; adsentientes apostasiae eius 
(diaboli) 506 C; diaboli apostasiam qu. 2; nemo fidelium dubitet 
diabolum apostasiae suae auctorem non habere qu. 98; ut post 
apostasiam regressis remittat peccata qu. 102 (col. 2305). 

apostate: diabolus cum alta sapuit apostatauit 168 B; si 
tamen apostatauerit uir, aut usum quaerat uxoris inuertere 
230 A; filii Hierusalem terrenae apostatarunt a deo qu. 40. 

apparentia (never apparitio): ut multifaria apparentia 
fidem resurrectionis (lesus) firmaret 276 A; apparentia enim 
sua dum (saluator) lacessit desiderantes liberari, ' cepisse ' illos 
dicitur 408 D; de antichristi apparentia et damnatione 479 B ; 
apparentia maiestatis suae inbecillitatem mentis eius roborauit 
489 B; apparentia comminantis angeli qu. 16; sub dei appa- 
rentia et nomine qu. 46 (col. 2245); per stellae apparentiam 
Christum regem ludaeorum natum intellexerunt qu. 63 ; et in 
aduentu et in apparentia spiritus sancti qu. 93 (col. 2286); ex 
apparentia ineffabilis gloriae qu. 114 (col. 2346). 

audacia in the exclamatory expression qua audacia, etc. : 
qua praesumptione et audacia legatis dei non solum exitia, sed 
et mors inrogatur 425 A; qua igitur audacia dicunt ludaei non 
nostra nos lege uti qu. 44 (col. 2242) ; qua audacia diceret infra 
templum cet. qu. 97 (col. 2296); quod uisibile est et sentitur et 
tangitur qua audacia uocatur aeternum ! qu. 28; quae audacia 
est presbyteris ministros ipsorum pares facere! qu. 101 (col. 2301). 

baiolo : grandis animi erat in baiulandis infirmitatibus 
fratrum 317 A; si aequo animo fuerint baiulatae (tribulationes) 
qu. 119. 

baiolus, in the ablative absol. construction with another 
noun: baiulis nubibus 475 c; baiulis leuitis qu. 46 (col. 2246). 

brutus : sensu bruta est omnis caro 321 A ; creaturam 
hylicam...quaeutiquesensu brutaest qu. 41 (a)aex; (gens) quae... 
sensu bruta erat 153 D ; (caro) bruta natura 121 B. 

cado : in the phrase non cadere in 1 : quia non cadit in 
deum, ut iniquus sit 78 D; in rerum naturam non cadit 91 B; 

1 Morin, 8. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 85 

uidens hoc in rerum naturam non cadere 281 B; (res) in huma- 
num sensum non caderet 205 c ; ea quae .. in uituperationem 
non cadunt 442 c ; natura eius in reprehensionem non cadit 
qu. 73 (77). 

calco : met. (Hier. etc.): calcata iactantia 432 D; inpudentia 
calcata qu. 121; calcata morte 409 A; partem legis naturalis... 
calcauerunt 98 B; si desideria eius (carnis) calcentur 106 B; ad 
calcandam horum maliuolentiam 429 A ; legis auctoritas ratio- 
nem calcat fatorum qu. 115 pm. 

caligo : especially in the phrase caliginem abstergere 1 : ut... 
abstergeretur caligo ab oculis mentis eorurn 160 C; ut purificati 
homines dono dei, abstersa caligine, possint uidere gloriam 
Christi 302 D ; carnalis error obstabat, caliginem praestans 
humanis cordibus, ne cognoscerent creatorem...Christus, qui hanc 
caliginem abstergeret qu. 12; cf. nondum adhuc discussa 
erroris caligine 2 qu. mixt. 9, cet. 

causa : the ablative case, governing 2 the names of both persons 
and things (or qualities) in the genitive, prefixed or postfixed to the 
governed word indifferently, is one of the most frequent construc- 
tions in both works 3 . I. Genitive of Persons: (a} Nouns, causa 
patrum 58 B; 70 A ; qu. 14 ex; c. Corneli 183 B; causa Achar 
qu. 36; hominis c. 406 c ; qu. 127pr; hominum c. qu. 114pm; 
inimicorum...discipulorum c. qu. 104. (b) Adjectives, multorum 
c. 293 B; infidelium c. 436 c ; malorum c. qu. 115 pm. (c) Pro- 
nouns, nostri c. 135 A ; 415 B; tui c. qu. 102 ex; sui c. 326 D; 
439 B ; 440 A ; 443 B ; horum c. 324 A ; 368 A ; qu. 106 pr ; illorum 
c. 357 B ; cuius c. 487 A ; qu. 102 ex ; quorum c. 79 B ; 242 B ; 294 c ; 
409 A; 472 B; 518 B. (c?) Present Participles, c. credentium 4 
292 B ; 321 A ; credentium c. 394 A ; perstrepentium c. 299 A. 
II. Genitive of Things or Qualities : (a) causa, prefixed (1) the noun 
being unqualified in any way c. peccati 82 C ; 93 A (see below) ; 

1 Which, by the way, I have found in Paulin. Nol. ap. Aug. ep. 94, 1, caligine 
dubitationis abstersa: see Thes. Ling. Lat. s. u. and C. Weyman in Bursian's 
Jahresbericht Bd. cv (1900 n) p. 79. 

2 Not to the exclusion of such expressions as hac causa, nostra causa, cet. 

3 Propter is occasionally found, however; e.g. 409 c, 468 D, 469 A. In each 
section, examples, where causa comes first, are first given. 

4 This writer uses credentes and dijfidentes practically as nouns, e.g. 72 A, see 
below s. u. 



86 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

303 c; 308 B ; 315 B ; 358 B ; 365 A ; 371 D ; 379 B ; 379 c ; 491 c ; 
qu. 27m; qu. 112 aex ; c. credulitatis 151 B; c. incredulitatis 
161 A ; c. indignitatis 218 B ; c. fornicationis 230 A ; 234 A ; c. apo- 
stasiae 230 A; c. delietorum 292 A; c. delicti 323 c; c. fidei 309 B ; 
c. deuotionis 532 D; c. uirtutum 318 B; c. quietis 348 A; c. legis 
349 c; 365 B ; c. terroris 397 A; c. dilectionis 421 A; c. inuidiae 
435 A ; c. blasphemiae 491 C; c. admin istrationis qu. 25; c. facinoris 
qu. 68 (a); c. magisterii qu. 79 (75); c. sanctitatis qu. 123 aex; 
c. gaudii 2 qu. N.T. 37 ; c. deitatis qu. 88 ; c. uentris 225 C 
(2) With a pair of nouns; or, sometimes, a qualifying adjective or 
genitive with one noun c. suae religioiiis 56 B ; c. timoris illorum 
370 B; c. timoris dei qu. Ill m; c. tarn admirabilis et inuisibilis 
praemii 440 B; c. conuersationis mundanae 464 c; c. communis 
fidei 508 B; c. fidei sincerae 513 A; c. impietatis et stupri et cete- 
rorum qu. 76 (72) ; c. peccati Adae qu. 123 aex. (6) causa postfixed 
(95) (1) the noun (pronoun) being unqualified in an} r way 
peccati c. (93 A (codd.)); Ill D ; 126 c ; 127 A ; 128 c; 164 B; 287 A 
bis ; 463 c ; 532 D ; qu. 64 (a) ; qu. Ill am ; peccatorum c. 292 A ; 
qu. 42 ; qu. 102 ppr ; castitatis c. 461 A ; orationis c. 497 D ; amoris 
c. 502 c; affectus c. 532 B; incredulitatis c. 77 A; 153 c; 159 c; 
385 B; eius c. 131 A; 131 C; horum c. qu. 115 ex; perfidiae c. 
159 B ; peregrinationis c. 187 c ; fidei c. 188 c ; 191 B ; qu. 76 (72) ; 
qu. 108 ppr ; gloriae c. 197 c ; generis c. 191 B ; contarninationis c. 
220 A; ventris c. 317 A; caritatis c. 239 A ; 240 c ; peritiae c. 
240 B ; dedicationis c. 247 B ; delicti c. 249 B ; 323 B ; qu. 112 pr ; 
uenerationis c. 251 c; schisrnatis c. 255 B; ordinis utique c. non 
propriimeriti 263 B ; inoboedientiae c. 265 c ; correptionis c. 291 C; 
salutis...c. 293 A ; quaestus c. 293 D ; 469 A ; infidelitatis c. 303 c ; 
reatus c. 304 c ; iactantiae c. 313 A ; auaritiae c. 341 D ; signaculi 
c. 357 D ; firmitatis c. 369 A ; legis c. 383 A ; infirmitatis c. 432 c ; 
terroris c. qu. 4 m ; purifications c. qu. 49 ; paupertatis c. qu. 32 ; 
dignitatum c. qu. 46 m ; exempli c. qu. 59 pm ; misericordiae c. qu. 
60 ; necessitatis c. qu. 61 (a) ; sanctitatis c. qu. 91 m ; idolatriae 
c. qu. 102pm; signorum c. qu. 104 ; antiquitatis c. qu. 114 aex; 
inimicitiarum c. qu. 127 ppr. (2) With a pair of nouns ; or, some- 
times, a qualifying adjective or genitive with one noun com- 
mendationis suae c. 213 c ; non religionis c. sed quaestus 225 c ; 
peccati et imprudentiae c. 232 c ; subiectionis suae c. 254 B ; 






COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 87 

unitatis et mysterii c. 255 c ; peccati proprii c. 297 c ; proprii 
honoris et quaestus c. 300 D ; libertatis c. et purae oonscientiae 
318 B ; gaudii et laetitiae c. 404 B ; condicionis c., non naturae 
421 C; quaestus c. aut gulae 441 A; peccatorum suorum c. 454 B ; 
malorum (subst.) memoratorum c. 459 C ; plebis solius c. 466 c ; 
humanae salutis c. 468 B ; qu. 104 ; uentris c. aut pecuniae 485 A ; 
non quaestus c. magis quam defensionis 503 A ; caritatis c. et 
magisterii 515 B; non deuotionis c. sed quaestus 527 A; praeteriti 
peccati c. qu. 42 (a) ; diffidentiae et malae uitae c. qu. 68 (b) ; 
incredulitatis suae c. qu. 74 (b) ; iustitiae et sanctitatis c. qu. 
105 pm. 

certus of persons, followed by a noun clause, either ace. and 
inf., or quia : certi quia quod sub dei creatoris nomine editur 
non potest polluere 251 B; certus deinceps quia et uitia eorum 
paulatim corrigerentur prol. 2 Cor. (published in the Journal of 
Theological Studies iv (Oct. 1902), no. 13, pp. 8992); certi 
quia pro salute fidelium animas suas traderent usque ad mortem 
321 A; certus quia obaudirent bona opera facere 329 B ; certus 
apostolus quia exitia...auctore diabolo ministrantur 423 c ; certi 
quia omnes...odio habentur 522 A; certi quia pro salute sua 
corripiuntur 530 B; certus ex hoc quia obsequeretur et mandatis 
eius 533 B; certus quia...possit occidi (qu. 5); certus uanitatem 
uulgi mortuos magis ut deos uenerari quam uiuos (qu. 25); certus 
dei uoluntatem non debere ab homine retractari (qu. 109 col. 2326); 
qu. 115 (2352), etc. Cf. certum est ergo quia non ascendit (qu. 
74 (78)); and certi ergo sancti uiri quod deus iudicium...exceperit 
(qu. 119). 

cesso, regularly of the Law or the Old Dispensation, is a very 
frequent expression in both works, for example, in the phrase 
cessante lege. I give some references merely: 49 B; 55 D; 67 B ; 
85 B; c quater; 87 A ; 89 c ; 108 A; 111 C ; 113 c; 128fi6w; 
142 A; 160 c; 180 A; 229 A codd. etc. : qu. 44 passim; 50 bis ; 
69 bis; 107; 112; 115 bis; 125; 127 passim; 2 qu. N.T. 15 ter ; 
26 ; 29 ; 31 bis; 60 ; 2 qu. mixt. 11, etc. 

ceterus : in the phrase de cetero : ut d. c. scirent quid 
euitare deberent 103 A; d. c. non peccantes 104 c; ut d. c. hanc 
uitam sequamur 105 B ; si...d. c. non peccemus 105 c ; ne d. c. 
peccet 108 A ; ut d. c. non peccaretur 108 B ; qui d. c. abstinent se a 



88 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

peccatis 110 B ; ut d. c. Christ! simus serui solius 112 B; sciens homi- 
nem ad Dei indicium d. c. pertinere 114 C; ut ea...d c. uitarentur 
116 A; ut d. c. inimico dei resistat 117 B; ut... genus humanum... 
d. c. possit resipiscere 120 B ; ut d. c....detinere non audeat 124 B ; 
ut d. c. nihil tale agamus 128c; ne d. c. possint ueritatis uiam 
aspicere 156 B; ne d. c. possit fidem recipere 156 B; ne d. c. 
possint credere 157 A; ut...d. c. non intellegerent 157 A; utd.c.... 
dei amorem in nos prouocemus 164 A ; utd. c. corrigant 255 c ; d. c. 
accepturos se boni operis mercedem a domino 287 B ; ut d. c. 
obaudientes facti laetificarent eos 296 D ; si d. c. desinat 298 A ; 
ut iustificati d. c. non peccent 302 A; ut d. c. mors eos...tenere 
non possit 315 c ; ut d. c. timeatur 354 c; ut d. c....a morte non 
tenerentur 354 D; si quis d. c. legem seruandam putat 362 A; 
sed unit illos d. c. perseuerare in bono 383 B ; d. c. nulli eorum 
credentes 386 D; ut...de cetero thesaurizet sibi in futurum 414 C; 
d. c. orandum hortatur ut...484B; d. c....iudicii diem expectent 
488 D; ut...homo d. c. in dei fide maneret 493 B; ut d. c....ab ea 
teneri non posset 493 c ; iam d. c. se ab usu feminae cohibentes 
497 B ; ut d. c. appellarentur ciues Romani 524 A ; ut d. c. sciret 
quid faceret qu. 5 am ; ut d. c. cessaret circa mcisio qu. 50 ; d. c. 
aperta est ad caelum uia qu. 83 pin ; ut d. c. traditio ista...crede- 
retur. ..ut...d. c. inuisibiliter dari non ambigeretur qu. 93 pm ; ut 
d. c. permaneant in mandatis eius qu. 98 aex ; ut d. c. corrigentes 
emendarentur qu. 102 pr; ut d. c. acceptae legis redderent ratio- 
nem qu. 102 pr; ut d. c....nullo modo ueniam consequantur qu. 
102 m ; d. c. temperare ab his quae admiserat qu. 102 m ; ut d. c.... 
actus sui redderent rationem qu. 112 pr; ut d. c....relinquerent 
errorem qu. 113 pm. 

christianitas appears 204 A ; qu. 39 ; 114 bis ; christianismus 
49 B ; 111 B bis ; qu. 3 bis (codd.). 

circumspectus : non, sollicitus de cura Timothei, tarn cir- 
cumspectus est, sed propter successores eius 510 B; nee enim 
tarn circumspectus potest aliquis esse, ut nusquam erret qu. 
Ill (col. 2333). 

coimagino : mori mundo, et commori Christo, aeternae quo- 
que uitae ac salutari coimaginari 106 B; ut autem imago dei 
esset homo, quia dono dei coimaginari haberet filio dei qu. 106 ex. 
(The word is cited once from Hilary: see also chap, ii p. 48.) 






COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 89 

commendo often in the passive with testimonio as an in- 
strumental ablative: his dictis commendat credentes ludaeos 
77 A; iniustitia nostra dei iustitiam non commendat (=Rom. iii 5). 
Si autem commendaret... 78 c ; ut et caritatem dei commen- 
daret in nobis 94 A; uirtutis, quae maior res est, testimonio 
commendatur 94 B; adfectum saluatoris erga nos commendare 
94 D; commendans apostolus fide in 1 03 C; nee enim ludaeos poterit 
commendare praerogatiua patrum 151 B; originem commendat 
ludaeorum 182 B; aliorum ideo refutare personas, ut suam com- 
mendaret 197 B; ut doctrinae ueritas ipsa se commendaret 
198 B; deus praedicationem suam non testimonio uerborum 
uoluit commendari sed uirtutis 203 c ; per hypocrisin commen- 
dati 208 D; commenta erroris commendare non possunt 210 C ; 
ipsis nos magis, quia meliora sunt, cornmendemus 213 A; 
eloquentia commendati 215 C; quod tantis testimoniis com- 
mendat 243 B; etc. etc.; uir laudabilis et dei testimonio corn- 
mendatus qu. 46; nullo diuino testimonio commendatur qu. 
46 ; signorum uirtutibus commendata qu. 95 ; per hoc commen- 
datur Christus non inclinatur qu. 97 ; nullo testimonio com- 
mendati qu. 100; ita tamen ut duarum rerum testimonio 
commendentur qu. 120; commendet orationem cum ieiunio 
qu. 120; orationem et ieiunium Corneli misericordia commen- 
dauit qu. 120 ; si dei iudicio commendetur qu. 127 etc. 

The comparative of the past participle passive occurs : 233 c, 
390 c ; qu. 93. 

commixtio : nihil dicit posse fieri sine commixtione 199 A; 
nihil enim existimat posse fieri sine commixtione 207 B; cf. ne 
(credendum sit) aliquid corporeum sine rerum admixtione generari 
452 D cet. 1 ; quia nihil sine commixtione generatur in hoc mundo 
qu. 97am; ut nihil aestiment posse fieri sine commixtione 
spiritali et simplici 2 qu. N.T. 47 ; ex commixtione filii homi- 
num homines sunt qu. 122 (p. 2366). 

compago and cognates, compagino, compaginatio, are 
frequent: corporis manente compagine 105 A; compaginatio 
humani generis 410 D; compaginati fidei eius subministraute 

1 e.g. sine commixtione uiri uirginem peperisse 112 c ; sine elementorum com- 
mixtione 246 c; commixtione elementorum qu. 20. 



90 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

euangelio 456 c, cet. ; discretis enim ab inuicem substantiis facta 
compaginatione mundus uocatur qu. 2 ppr; primum oportebat 
domum compaginari qu. 23pm; cum ergo corporis liniamenta 
compacta non fuerint, ubi erit anima ? qu. 23 aex ; ante com- 
paginationem niundi qu. 106 ppr; nunc enim compaginatur 
in specie mundus qu. 106 m ; substantias ex quibus mundum 
compaginaret quo cornpacto qu. 106pm; ...ex quibus com- 
paginatus est mundus qu. 107 pr; compaginata in speciem 
linguae unius qu. 108 aex. 

comparatio : in the phrase ad comparationem c. genii. 
(Hier.) = "in comparison with": ad comparationem legisllSfi; 
ad comparationem eius 127 B ; ostendit parua esse, quae hie pos- 
sunt a perfidis inrogari, ad comparationem decreti muneris in 
futuro saeculo 129 D; ad comparationem aeternorum uana sunt 
130 D ; ad comparationem earum 237 A ; in hac ergo uita 
paruuli sum us ad comparationem futurae uitae 267 A ; ad com- 
parationem spiritalium haec nulla sunt 309 c; homo enim ad 
comparationem sancti spiritus caro est 391 B; haec omniadetri- 
menta deputans ad comparationem promissionum saluatoris 
439 A; ad comparationem autem ceterorum, qui res diuinas 
neglegentius curant, perfecbi dicendi sunt 440 B ; aliquando ad 
comparationem meliorum immundum dicitur qu. 9; ad com- 
parationem pulcherrimarum rerum qu. 9; plumbum ad com- 
parationem auri immundum est qu. 9 ; ad comparationem 
temporum et gratiarum qu. 20; ad comparationem ceterorum 
qu. 42 (a); ad comparationem domini qu. 91 pr; ad cuius 
comparationem minimus dicitur Abraham qu. 109 pr ; sed 
ad comparationem eius imperfecta sunt qu. 123 ppr; ad com- 
parationem enim infidelium nos perfecti sumus qu. 123 arn ; 
ad comparationem lucernae tenebrae non tantum obscurae 
sed et sordidae sunt, ad comparationem autem stellarum 
lucerna caligo est, ad solis uero comparationem stellae nebu- 
losae sunt qu. 127 ex. 

compendium : the abl. *compendio (Hier.) is characteristic, 
also *per compendium, etc. (a) abl. compendio : abbreuiatio 
facta legis est, quae compendio daret salutem 49 B ; ut possit com- 
pendio medellam uulneris inuenire 90A; docens quo compendio 
citius itur ad deum 237 A ; et non potius compendio per fidem 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 91 

salutem quaerere 488 A ; compendio loquitur scriptura qu. 16; 
aliquando compendio loquitur scriptura qu. 16 (6) per com- 
pendium : per compendium dixit hoc saluator qu. 16; hoc quod 
per compendium propositum est qu. 77; ut securi per compen- 
dium possint deo seruire spiritaliter 2 qu. N.T. 46. (c) Ordinary 
use : ut utar compendio 143 c ; compendium est male agentibus 
si citius moriantur quam si diutius in peccatis uersentur 221 C ; 
solent qui compendium quaerunt errare 228s, almost exactly 
repeated in frequenter, qui compendium quaerit, solet errare 
qu. 72 (a); compendio breuitatis studens euangelista qu. 73(77); 
do compendium qu. 95 ex. 

compete 1 : never in any part but present tense, indie., subj. t 
infin. or pcpl. ; when any case follows, it is the dative : *(a) c. dat. 
quod utique homini competit 50 B; quia hoc homini com pet it 
78 c; fructus est competens naturae 95 B; sicut competit eius 
diuinitati 133 c ; nee enim competit ei ut iniustus sit, cuius 
beniuolentia tanta apparet 145 A ; hoc competit deo 155 B; 
quod nee loco ipsi competit 167 A; scit non sibi competere in 
quo illi potest inuideri 250 B; non competit fidelibus audire 
linguas quas cet 271 A; cum sciant sibi magis competere ut in 
domo dei precibus uacent 273 c; quod soli conditori competit 
417 c; ei hoc competit 434 D ; ut ipsi soli magis competat in 
ueritate 490 c ; quid cuique personae competat demonstravit 
qu. 3 ex; quod nee animae ipsi competit qu. 23 pr; planctum 
Rachel filiis dicit competere qu. 62; persona cui competat 
detur. quare Christo non competat cet. qu. 91 pm ; quod deo non 
competit qu. 97 pr; nee iusto uiro competit aliquem accusare 
qu. 102 aex ; dei nomen non competit creaturae qu. 122 pr; 
haec nulli alii possent competere nisi filio dei qu. 122 ppr; 
quarnquam enim bona sunt, dei tamen personae non competunt 
qu. 127 ex; his competit 2 qu. N.T. 55. (6) absol. uindictam 
competentem 170 A; damnatio enim in eo competit quia 
uoluerunt 416 D; competens locus 493 B; tempore competent! 
qu. 46 aex ; qu. 110 pm. The substantive competentes appears in 
neither work. 

complector met. = 'include': totum enim hie complexus 

1 A favourite word of Augustine also, in the same sense, "to fit, suit." 



92 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

uidetur 99 D etc.; omnia enim peccata cornplexus est qu. 102 
(col. 2307) etc. 

condignus followed by the dative, of which construction there 
are only two examples in Georges : tria ergo alia posuit increduli- 
tati condigna 69 B; ne... solus habeat nomen deitatis sibi soli 
condignum 459 B; ilia sectari quae iusta sunt et legi (codd.) 
dei condigna 527 c; maiestati suae minime hoc condignum 
opus qu. 48; illam puram et ipsi professioni condignam cognouis- 
semus (codd. : Migne ipsa professione dignam) qu. 114 (col. 2342). 
There are examples of the absolute use in qu. Ill ; 112 bis. 

confoueo metaphorically used (Hier.): confouens animos 
illorum 244 B; animum suum confouet mentis alacritate 513 B; 
also 179 D; 244 c ; inpudentia calcata, uerecundia confota, ani- 
mabus ad caelum data facultas qu. 121. 

confugere ad deum etc. is a characteristic phrase : magis 
gratia dei et donum in plures abundauit confugientes ad se 101 c ; 
fides enim data est quae iustificat confugientes ad se 122 c; 
praedicata misericordia est quae ad se confugientes saluaret 
162c; ideo est ad dei misericordiam confugieiidum 117 Bete.; 
ad dei auxilium confugere qu. 2 ; (dominus) uult nos ad auxilium 
suum confugere qu. 102 (col. 2306); dominus ad auxilium 
suum uult confugere seruos suos qu. 112 (col. 2336); confugere 
ad dei clementiam qu. 112 (col. 2338); ad auxilium eius con- 
fugiens qu. 115 (p. 2352); confugientibus ad deum qu. 115 
(p. 2353). 

confusio : in the phrase *ad or in confusionem cet. : haec 
ad ludaeorum confusionem pertinent 81 c; ad confusionem 
ludaeorum 265 B ; (dum coeperint) omnia falsa commenta uel 
dogmata in confusionem deduci 151 A; hoc decreuit ad con- 
fusionem illorum, qui cet. 204 B ; auctoritatem...conseruare, ad 
confusionem diaboli 253 C; ad confusionem (v. L destructionem) 
prudeutium mundi 94 B; 468 B ; qu. 121 ; hoc saluator ad confu- 
sionem illorum fecit 2 qu. N.T. 33; ut superior creatura ad 
confusionem suam...disceret qu. 2 am cet.; ad confusionem 
gentilium 264 c; ad confusionem Photini qu. 56; ad confusio- 
nem obstrepentium qu. 109. 

congruus and congrue: si congruarn paenitentiam agant qn. 
102 ; nee gratias congruas possunt ei agere qu. 123 ex ; congruas 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 93 

poenas qu. 44; 126; in auctorem congrua (codd.) datur uindicta 
qu. 14; congruum fuitc. ace. et inf. 2 qu. N.T. 1 ; congruum est 
enim creaturae credere et uenerari suurn conditorem 71 c (some 
MSS differently) etc. etc. Qui congrue intellegunt Christum 
372 B; cui congrue respondit 282 A etc.; iam uide si non con- 
grue ilia in parte uel tale signum accepit qu. 12; ut dies pente- 
costes unde et qua ratione tract us sit congrue dinoscamus qu. 
95 (col. 2289) etc. Incongruus and incongrue are also used (see 
below). 

conloco : in the phrase *conlocare meritum, with (sibi) 
apud deum usually added. (a) c. sibi ad deum: ut discant 
quemadmodum apud creator em meritum collocatur 98 B ; ideo 
non magna iustitia legis est, nee meritum collocat apud deum 
150 B ; apud deum sibi collocat meritum 168 A ; meritum sibi 
collocat apud deum 232 c ; apud deum meritum illi collocat 
237 c; quae (uia) meritum collocat ap ad deum 264 B; spiritalia 
enim sunt, quae seruata meritum collocant apud deum 362 B ; 
ad haec eos facienda hortatur, quae meritum collocant apud 
deum 461 B ; ex diuersis causis meritum collocatur apud deum 
526 A; ut...uoluntas... meritum ei collocet apud deum qu. 115 
ex. (b) simpL: sic meritum quis collocat, dum in tribulationi- 
bus patiens inuenitur 133 A ; meritum sibi collocat et coronam 
234 A; non quia mala sunt, sed quia parua sunt ad meritum 
collocandum 440 A; meritum sibi collocans per laborem 2 qu. 
N.T. 63; uti maius meritum collocares 2 qu. mixt. 6. 

constituo : in the phrase reum constituere : reus consti- 
tuitur qu. 61 (a); lex per Moysen data reos constituit peccatores 
qu. 76 (a); ut nee gloriari possit de bonis, nee reus constitui de 
malis qu. 80 (a); reum constituens a quo occiditur 200 D ; 
omnes rei sunt constituti 128 c ; qu. 2 bis ; 102 ; 112 ; etc. (Reum 
facere and reum tenere are also common : reum facere occurs e.g. 
108 A; 219 A; qu. 61; 116; 124; reum tenere e.g. 103 c; 108 A; 
lllBfcw; 113 B; 122 c; D; 162 c; qu. 31 ; qu. 69.) Constitutes, 
for the missing present participle of sum, is conspicuous by its 
rarity (218 D ; 362 D ; qu. Ill ; 113 ; 2 qu. V.T. 17) : positus is the 
regular equivalent in these works (see below, p. 125 f.). 

consto : the phrase cum constet : cum constet omnes 
subditos esse legi natural! 70 A (cod.) ; cum enim constet omnes 



94 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

inimicos fidei falsa tenere pro ueris 207 D ; cum constet dominum 
et auctorem nostrum Christum aliter...interfatum 208 D ; cum 
constet multis officiis opus esse 261 A; cum constet. ..homines 
resurgere 285 B codd. ; cum constet hunc legem defendere et 
custodire 392 B; cum constet primum mandatum ita contineri 
422 A; cum constet Christum hominem esse et deum 434 A; 
cum constet uiuere ilium cum his omnibus 458 B ; cum constet 
apostolum exemplo usum domus diuitis et opulentis (u. I. locu- 
pletis) 519 B; cum constet omnem instructionem uiri ecclesiastic! 
in epistula contineri 524 A; cum constet nos semper omnia 
aspicere qu. lex; cum enim mundum constet hominis causa 
fabricatum qu. 3 (col. 2218); cum constet apud omnes personae 
sublimi maxima debere offerri rnunera qu. 5 (col. 2220); cum 
constet omne factum sententiam secum babe re qu. 6 ; cum 
constet fidem stultam...minime prodesse qu. 43; cum constet 
exempli causa locutum hoc saluatorem qu. 59; cum constet 
a Dauid...xvn esse generationes qu. 85; cum constet utique 
omnes. ..non fuisse in templo qu. 94; quern cum constet scire ac 
facere posse bonum qu. 98 (col. 2299); cum constet omnes ante 
qtiam credant in deum peccare qu. 102 (col. 2307); cum constet 
omnia dei esse qu. 106 (p. 2318) codd.; cum constet dei auxilio 
ipsum etiam ab hominibus uinci qu. 113; quos cum constet 
homines fuisse qu. 114 (col. 2342); cum constet in scripturis 
omnes bonos oboedire prophetis 2 qu. N.T. 34. 

constringo (as also adstringo 1 ) in a metaphorical sense, 
especially the participle constrictus: 'angustiae' uero sunt quibus 
constrictus sententia tribulabitur in poena 69 B; ludaeis in 
peccatis constrictis 81 D; ideo non debet quis constringi 
229 B; non ita lege constringitur uir sicut mulier 230s; lege 
maritali constricta (uxor) 236 B ; constrictus carnali ratione 
489 B etc. ; sibi prius subueniret in eadem necessitate constricto 
qu. 112; in multis constrictus qu. 118; carnali constrictus 2 
ratione qu. 59 (col. 2254) etc. 

consubstantiuus (never consubstantialis): mulier consub- 
stantiua uiro est 420 c (here the Benedictines, following "alii 

1 See the Thes. Ling. Lat. s. u. and qu. 102 (col. 2304) adstrictus lege\ qu. 6 
acrius adstringendum eum. 

2 Migne corruptly instructus. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 95 

MSS," have consubstantialis, for which I have no MS authority: the 
MSS have either consubstantiua, or consubstantia, which points to 

it): sp. s consubstantiuus ei (i.e. deo) qu. 41; quod uerbum 

idcirco filium nuncupauit ut ostenderet de se ilium exstitisse 
et esse sibi consubstantiuum qu. 48; per id quod enim con- 
substantiui sunt, qui unum uidet ambos uidet qu. 97 (col. 
2291); consubstantiuus esse deo Christus non ambigeretur 
qu. 97 (col. 2293); aequale esse et consubstantiuum cum eo 
quod aeternum est qu. 97 (col. 2293) ; quo modo ergo dici potest 
de spiritu sancto quia nescit natiuitatem filii dei, si consub- 
stantiuus est ei qu. 125 (col. 2373); si consubstantiuus non 
est deo et Christo qu. 125 (col. 2375). 

contrarius, used absolutely, is very common : ne ueriiens 
introeat atque animo contraria suadeat 121 B; quae aut ante 
petuntur quam peti debeant, aut sunt contraria, non sinit fieri 
133 A; non euitans hanc uelut contrariam 176 A; ab eis quae 
infructuosa sunt et magis contraria declinantes 179 B; ut res 
contrarias et absurdas nominis dignitas faciat acceptabiles 210 D; 
hoc quantum ad uerba pertinet uidetur contrariurn 416 c etc.; 
quod si cui adhuc forte uidetur esse contrarium qu. 64 (p. 2259); 
qui suggesserunt faciendum quod contrarium est qu. 115 
(p. 2351); non se ingerunt ad contraria suggerenda ibid.; sug- 
gerunt cum blanditiis contraria ibid. ; quantum ad uerba pertinet 
uidetur contrarium 2 qu. mixt. 7; hoc quantum uidetur con- 
trarium est qu. 71; fecit enim et non fecit contrarium est 
qu. 78 (74); quid uidetur contrarium... qu. 74 (78); non est 
contrarium qu. 97 (p. 2295); contrarium non est quod unius 
corporis est qu. 114 (p. 2345) ; also 118 ; 127 bis (p. 2381 ; 2384) ; 
2 qu. N.T. 1 ; 36 ; 46 ; 54 ; 62. 

contueor: contuendum est unum esse sensum et in nullo 
ditferre 102 A cet. ; contuendum itaque est quia non a Pilato 
sed a ludaeis saluator crucifixus est qu. 65 ; contuendum etenim 
est quo modo dictum sit qu. 125 (p. 2375); contuens apostolus 
Petrus uenenatam malitiam hominis qu. 102 (p. 2310); contuens 
factum apostoli Petri qu. 104; hoc contuens iudex qu. 112 
(p, 2337); magnam prouidentiam in hoc opere et ordine con- 
tuemur qu. 106 (col. 2320); quern sensum contuemur in lege 
<iu. 127 (col. 2379). 



96 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

conuello, metaphorically used : ideo ut haec temptatio 
conuellatur admonet cum terrore 248 c ; nunc excusationem 
iracundiae conuellit 534 B ; multa poterunt diuinis solidata 
oraculis unius conuelli degeneris testimonio qu. 97 (col. 2293); 
quod facile puto conuelli qu. 102 (col. 2310); ut prauam adseue- 
rationem conuellat qu. 106 (col 2318); conuellatur si alienum 
est a meritis Abrahae qu. 108 (col. 2323). 

conuenio: in the phrase conuenit 1 : sednonconuenit, quia... 
qu. 23 pr; non conuenit quia... qu. 23 aex ; istud et ration! 
conuenit qu. 91 aex ; abnuatur si non conuenit rationi qu. 108 
(p. 2323); sed hoc non sic conuenit rationi qu. 108 ex; quo- 
modo conuenit ut...sit in aeternum ? qu. 109 ex; illud facit 
quod conuenit rationi qu. 83 ex ; ex aliqua parte conuenient 
rationi qu. 113; ut omnia deificae rationi conueniant qu. 114 
(col. 2346). 

corrigo intransitively, like the English 'reform': ut corri- 
gatis 217 B; solent enim aliqui pudorem pati et corrigere, cum 
de se audiunt bona 224 c; ut de cetero corrigant et sciant hoc 
uerum 255 c ; 270 c codd. ; non uos abicio sed ut corrigatis 
moneo 320 c ; accepit autem cum didicit corrigere uelle 324 A 
codd. ; 324 B codd. ; ut corrigant in quibus reprehenduntur 334 A ; 
si corrigant 347 B ; non enim destruuntur qui arguuntur ut 
corrigant (so best MSS : others and edd. corrigantur) 356 B; ut 
de cetero corrigentes emendarentur qu. 102 pr. The evidence 
for this use is too strong to be upset by palaeographical considera- 
tions. Compare the intrans. use of emendo (below) and reformo 
(qu. 126 codd. p. 2377, 67). 

coruscus, as a masc. substantive, is rare in Latin ; it occurs 
once in each work : datur illi prudentia non ex litteris sed corusco 
spiritus sancti, ut cor habeat inluminatum 259 C codd. (igne after 
sancti is an editorial insertion); corda eorum inluminata sunt 
spiritali corusco qu. 112 (col. 2337). 

credo : the present partic. *credens, used in the sing, and 
plur.&s a subst ="believer(s)," 2 opp. to *diffidens "unbeliever(s)": 
credens honorificentior est propter Abraham, diffidens autem 

1 Morin, p. 8. 

2 Also in Ambrose and in Vulg. act. 4, 32 etc. (See Achelis in Theologische 
Liter aturzeitung xxix (1904) 242.) 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 97 

peius tractandus est 69 c ; sicut per conscientiam suam laudautur 
credentes, ita et per conscientiam suam accusantur diffidentes 
72 A ; 76 D (codd.); honorabilior erit credens 92 A ; quae (lex fidei) 
credentes liberaret a dominio legis 113 B; credentes accepto 
spiritu prophetabant 165 B cet. ; propensior credentis est merces 
et minor poena diffidentis...credentibus...diffidentibus qu. 
122 am. 

crementum is used almost to the entire exclusion of incre- 
mentum. Its opposite is detrimentum. The printed texts some- 
times offer decrementum 1 , which is probably a 'ghost-word,' a mere 
scribes' error for detrimentum. Examples are : luna crementum 
(some MSS) et detrimentum facit 94 C; non poterit qui tribuit iuxta 
dei uoluntatem dei nutu non augeri crementis (codd.) huiusmodi 
ad amplificandum fructum iustitiae 332 B; crementum enim 
faciunt scientiae et plenius fundantur in fide 429 D ; crementum 
faciunt deo quia ex perditis adquiruntur 456c; crementum (codd.) 
operum eoruni cum scientia uult fieri 445 D ; ut praedicatione eius 
crementum (codd.) faciat in saluandis disciplina dominica 511 c 
etc.; ipsi filii nequissimi crementum faciunt malitiae qu. 14; 
huiusmodi crementum faciunt bonorum qu. 34 ; ex magna demi- 
nutione lux quae dies est crementum incipit accipere qu. 53; ex 
eo dies coepit crementum accipere qu. 55; usque dum fidei semina 
iacerentur ad crementum qu. 93 (col. 2287); post crementum 
solis ac lunae qu. 105 (col. 2316) ; cursus facit lunae in detrimentis 
et crementis qu. 106 (col. 2318); ut semen fidei per hanc 
crementum faceret qu. 114 (col. 2345); cuius ut superabundans 
crementum (codd.) fidei nosceretur qu. 117 (col. 2361) ; non haec 
a deo permitti nisi ad crementum (codd.) meritorum nostrorum 
qu. 119; nisi crementum (codd.) faceret in dei perceptione qu. 
127 (col. 2382); nee enim deus aliquid dehabet, ut crementum 
faciat per nos 2 qu. N.T. 49 ; crementum facit in nobis diuinitas, 
ideo in eis qui ab eo recedunt detrimentum est 2 qu. N.T. 49. It 
is interesting to observe how the editors have treated the com- 
mentaries differently from the Quaestiones. The former they 
regarded as an important work, which must not bear the taint of 

1 E.g. Adam ad hoc renocatur ad quod fuerat foetus sed cum detriment*) (codd.; 
M. decremento) qu. 127 (p. 2384). I am aware that the form is cited from other 
authors. 

s. 7 



98 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

the tmclassical form crenientum, and altered nearly all the examples 
of it to incrementum. The Quaestiones was not valuable enough 
to make it worth while to alter the form which appeared in the 
manuscripts. 

cumulus: hoc ad cumulum uerae protestationis adiecit 
51 B codd. ; ut ad cumulum nobis iustificationis proficeret, resur- 
gens praeceptis suis auctoritatem tribuit 92 D ; haec tamen ad 
cumulum adhuc addens grauat causam 243 A ; ut augeantur 
his ad cumulum possessionis aeternae 349 D; ut...factum diaboli 
...ad cumulum reatus eius proficeret qu. 2 m (cf. 92 D supra)] ut 
addant ad cumulum confessionis suae qu. 114 (p. 2344, 32) codd. ; 
accedit ad cumulum gloriae eius qu. 119 ex (cf. Cic. Clu. 74). 

custodire in the sense 'keep' (the law, etc. as in Plin. ep.), is 
common in both works. I have not collected examples. Cus- 
todire se ab also occurs: membra nostra custodientes ab omni 
turpitudine 107 D; custodiens se a peccato qu. 19 cet. 

defendo with ace. of the thing and dat. of the person, in the 
sense of uindicare 1 , ' to claim': inde enim sibi defendunt generis 
praerogatiuam 343 A etc. ; dum uult sibi regnum impia prae- 
sumptione defendere qu. 2 (col. 2216); ut tibi hoc defendere 
uidearis qu. 102 (col. 2311); sibi locum uolentes defendere qu. 
110 (col. 2331); quae res...arbitratur rationis sibi ueritatem posse 
defendi qu. 114 (col. 2346) 2 . 

defero *with dat. of person, 'to defer to one': personis defe- 
rentes et alterum alteri praeponentes 353 c ; sic ei deferentes 
quasi ipsi auctori domino 382 c ; qua ratione Dauid Saul...christum 
domini uocat et defert ei? qu. 35 (MSS); putantes enim se deo 
patri deferre qu. 97 (col. 2292); quippe cum uideant non sic 
defer ri sacerdotibus qu. 101 (col. 2302). 

dehabeo : ut inuicem sibi praestent quod dehabent (Migne 
debent) 260 c; ab alio sumat quod dehabet (Migne non habet) 
263 c ; quare pater dicitur dedisse, cum ipse qui homo factus erat 
nihil dehaberet? 433 c; hominis natura dehabet scientiam qu. 
125 (col. 2373); nee enim deus aliquid dehabet 2 qu. N.T. 49. 

depute is very common, I. esp. c. ace. et dat. (a) the dat. being 

1 Which is also common : e.g. 84 D; 197 A ; qu. 14; 46; 97; 106 ter. 

2 Without the dative, si enim ex solo nomine putant hoc debere defendi qu. 108 
(p. 2323). 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 99 

'A person: promissio regni caelorum iustis deputata est 90s; nee 
eilis claritas et maiestas alicui de creaturis deputetur 98 B; qui 
baptismatis eius gratiam hominibus deputabant 197 C ; antiqui- 
tatem promissi Christ! aliis deputat 216 C; interitus carnis 
homini deputatur 219 C; ut quod illi soli debitum est deputetur 
creaturae qu. 1 aex (cf. 98 B sup.) ; hoc apostolus sancto spiritui 
deputat qu. 97 aex; si gloriam et nomen eius aliis deputauerint 
qu. 114 ppr; ideoque deputatum est ei ad iustitiam (cf. Gen. 
xv 6) qu. 117 am; gloriam eius aliis deputant qu. 127 am (b) 
the dat. being a thing or quality: omne uisibile carni deputatur 
126 A; Adam. ..carni deputatus 128 A; uitia et delicta... carni 
deputantur 128 A; omne enim quod uidetur carni deputatur 
(cf. 126 A supra) 457 A; omnis error carni deputatur 478 B; ut 
qui...eligeret carni deputaretur qu. 115m; partem Israel... 
perditioni deputatam 154c; ipsa officia deputata membris 
165 A; ius diuinum humanis auctoritatibus deputatum 171 B; 
mali actus tenebris deputantur 174A; gentes istud risui depu- 
tant 199 A ; hoc personae suae deputat 216A; ceteri ergo ludaei 
filii sunt carnis. ..nee deputari possunt merito Abrahae 140 A; 
"diuisiones autem gratiarum" sunt officiis ecclesiae non humanis 
meritis deputatae 259 B ; quod non humanis meritis deputat 
305 A ; hoc enim deputatur naturae quod sequitur 399 A ; qui 
singulis elementis diuinitatis diuersitatem deputant ad culturam 
453 A; cum uiderit membium quod sibi deputatum officium est 
165 A; auctoritatem harum (legum) idolis deputantes 222s; de- 
putatus est gregi satanae 496 A; nox enim diei deputata est qu. 
106 ppr; dominus...diei deputatur qu. 107 pm ; ut quidquid... 
dicitur stultitiae deputetur qu. 115pm. II. c. ace. et inf., the 
infiii. (as with habeo) not being expressed, or with inter c. ace. cet. : 
(a) c. predicative ace. haec omnia detrimentum deputans (Phil, iii 
8) ad comparationem promissionum saluatoris 439 A ; non parici- 
dium hoc deputans sed holocaustum qu. 109 ppr. (b) c. inter et 
ace. cum inter Leuitas deputatus esset qu. 46 ex; inter quas et 
nos deputamur qu. 47 pr; inter perfidos deputatus qu. 115 
m. (c) c. extra et ace. si extra unius dei honorem deputetur et 
gloriam qu. 97 ex. (d) c. cum et abl. neque scium cum inscio 
deputari qu. 125 ex. III. = credo, committo, trado: (in) officio 
deputato 516 B. 

72 



100 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

desum : non deesse often appears in the MSS of both works in 
the curious form *de non esse 1 : et de non sunt qui dicant 
' mala est ' qu. 3 (col. 2219); hodie de non sunt qui latratus canum 
intellegant qu. 31 (col. 2233) ; Samuhel non egit sacerdotium quia 
de non erant sacerdotes qu. 46 (col. 2245, 70 : corrupted to qui 
del non erat sacerdos (Migne)); cetera autem de non est qua 
subrepant qu. 110 (Journ. Theol. Stud., Oct. 1904); quamuis de 
non sint qui difBdant qu. 122 (col. 2367); de non erunt qui 
imitentur 442 A ; quibus de non erat, qui...praestaret 518 B; de 
non sunt qui prope cottidie baptizentur aegri 497 c. 

So *de non fieri : non ut abundet sed ut de non fiat 506 A 
(cod. Casin.: alii non desit ; Migne non deficiat) (never in Qnaest.). 

deterioro : with its opposite, melioro 2 : a fidelibus enim et 
bene agentibus melioratur natiuitas : ab infidelibus autem et male 
agentibus deterioratur qu. 127 m. II. *intrans. ut calliditate 
sua non solum nihil profecisse se doleat, sed et deteriorasse 
qu. 127 pm ; aliqui enim profecerunt in melius, alii deterioraue- 
runt. alii permanserunt 2 qu. Y.T. 6 ; Iudaei...qui proficere magis 
debuerant, deteriorauerunt 147 D; putantes aliquid se proficere 
doctrina pseudoapostolorum deteriorauerant 248 B 3 . 

detineo : asecunda morte detineri 58 A; detinebat homines 
in inferno propter delictum Adae, ut de cetero...detinere non 
audeat 124 B; ab ira detinemur 170 A cet. ; ut animas eorum 
duabus ex causis in errore detineret qu. 84 (col. 2279); hac 
uersutia paganos detinet in errore qu. 84 (col. 2279) ; hi detenti 
sunt apud inferos qu. 83; ut iam detentus aurem quae abscisa 
fuerat restitueret qu. 104; detinent homines quasi compedes 
desideria saecularia 2 qu. N.T. 19. 

deuinco, in the phrase deuicta morte : cognosci se uoluit... 

1 Cf. the correct text of Phil, ii 30, preserved by the Padua MS, id quod de ex uobis 
erat. This and the parallel form prode esse (=prodesse), which is preserved once or 
twice in the best MS of the Quaestiones, and in other authors, seem to indicate that 
some compounds of esse were not as thoroughly formed as others. Prof. Conway 
tells me that inscriptions frequently have DE ESSE. 

2 For which, see below: the writer uses also minoro (e.g. qu. 116). Compare the 
words certioro, deminoro, peioro, which he does not use. 

3 I have since found this use in ps. 37, 6 (ap. [Ambr.] Epistula Nicetae episcopi 
de lapsu Susannae deuotae, ed. Burn 49) compntruerunt et deteriorauerunt 
(vulg. corruptae sunt) cicatrices meae. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 101 

morte deuicta 51 D; deuicta morte res-urgens 150B; Christus 
...descendens ad inferos deuicta morte 315 c; Christum susci- 
tauit a mortuis deuicta morte 403 B ; Christum... res urrexisse 
deuicta morte 468 B ; quam diu deuicta morte resurgeret a 
mortuis 49 8 c etc.; deuicta morte res-urgens clarificatus est 
dominus qu. 93 (col. 2286); ut deuicta morte liberarentur de 
inferno qu. 105; morte per mortem deuicta qu. 116; quando 
mysterium dei declarari haberet deuicta morte qu. 123 (col. 
2371) etc. (Varieties are mortis euictae 58 A ; 92 c, which ought 
perhaps to be altered ; uicta mors 93 A, uicta morte qu. 123. Com- 
pare the indicatives mortem uicit 111 D, and mors deuicta est 
qu. 121.) 

dicatio appears, in addition to dedicatio (which occurs e.g. 
405 B; qu. 95; 123; 127): dicatio idolorum 258 D; per quod et 
dicationem suam et meritum eius probaret qu. 5 (col. 2220); ne 
quod dicationi eius impedimentum adferret qu. 117 (col. 2361). 

dignitosus : ut ostendat et dignitosos credere 188 B (my 
certain emendation, agreeing with old editions) ; quando enim 
uident dignitosum uirum erroris causa corripi, necesse est ut 
sibi caueant 506 B; dignitoso enim homini negotiari deforme est 
qu. 102 ppr codd; dedecus est enim dignitosi filium esse sine 
honore qu. 44 am codd. 

dignus is frequently used with the PLAIN INFINITIVE: ne 
digni iam essent addiscere spiritalia 56 D ; ut digni fiant dici 
filii dei 90 A : other exx. of the constr. are 92 c bis ; 107 c ; 139 c ; 
218 c bis ; 250 B ; 271 A ; 302 B ; 303 c ; 358 B ; 369 B ; 386 A ; 514 A: 
ut dignus esset accipere qu. 79(6); digni fuerunt in Tartaro 
remanere qu. 83 ; qui filii dei digni sunt appellari qu. 91 m ; 
dignos eos fieri sacerdotes qu. 101 ex; dignus erit stare qu. 
lllam; digni sunt et uidere qu. lllpm (so 358 B); dignum 
esse Christum dici regem gloriae qu. Ill ex; ut... dignus sit acce- 
dere qu. 112 pm ; saluatorem uidere dignus exstitit qu. 117 pr; 
dignus existit ab omnibus liberari peccatis qu. 126 pr; ut dignus 
fieret etiam in praesenti uidere cet. qu. 127m; filium generare 
dignus qu. 127 aex, etc. 

Another frequent construction is dignum est with ut and the 
subjunctive: dignum fuit ut... ilium promitteret 51 B, c ; dig- 
num est ut pereant 70 B; dignum est ut...haec non adipiscatur 



102 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

247 A ; dignum est ut filii caput pater dicatur 252 D; dignum 
fuit ut cuperet uidere Petrum 364 A; nee dignum est ut deus 
inmutetur in carnem 434 A etc.; dignum ergo fuit ut in alto ap- 
pareret qu. 42; dignum fuit ut...praeuideret qu. 117; dignum 
enim erat ut ipse...esset qu. 49; sic enim fuit dignum ut... 
largiretur qu. 102 (col. 2306); non est enim dignum ut his detur 
remissio peccatorum qu. 126 (col. 2377). Dignum est sometimes 
takes the accus. and infin. construction, e.g. 62 A; 208 c ; qu. 33; 102. 
The expression is also used absolutely, e.g. qu. 114; 2 qu. mixt. 3. 

There are various phrases with dignus, common to both works : 
deo dignus (usually of persons) 75 B ; 208 c : 502 D ; qu. 5 ; 46 ; 
77 (73); 112; 114; 117; (domino dignus qu. 117); poena dignus 
65 B; qu. 114 ; 115 ter ; laude dignus 91 c ; qu. 97 ; 115 ; 118 ; 
123; 126. 

The word is found with the genitive and dative, as well as the 
ablative, cases: mortis 159c; gloriae 305 A ; honoris qu. 101: 
creatori qu. 5 ; operi qu. 6 ; ei qu. 97 (col. 2294) (so indignus : 
rem sibi indignam qu. 113 (col. 2340); see also condignus); with 
ad and the accusative gerundive, ut digni fierent ad excipiendum 
annum domini qu. Ill (col. 2334) etc. 

dilucido : saepe repetit, ut dilucidet 118C; diuersa sunt 
ingenia, ut disputatione planiore dilucidentur 272 B; idem 
sensus est, quern ut dilucidet, repetit 334 A ; haec...obscura sunt, 
ac per hoc adhibitacura dilucidanda sunt 454 c; omnis quaestio, 
ut dilucidari possit, ad originem reuocanda est qu. 99 (6). 

discordare a : discordabat a doctrina apostolica 58 A ; 
a natura animarum et loquendi ratione non discordat 150 c; non 
discordat a bene agentibus 169 B; per id quod discordarent 
a traditione apostolica 213 c; 353 B cet. ; nisi enim discorda- 
uerit a diabolo qu. 92 ; hie ergo a mundo discordat qu. 92; si a 
mundi lege discordant qu. 115 (col. 2352). 

dissimulo : in the construction Missimulare ab 1 : a lege 
dissimulans 2 50 c ; dissimulant a ueritate 59 B; dissimu- 

1 As this interesting construction seems to be nowhere noted (except 1 ex. fr. 
Aug. in Georges), I append all the examples I have seen : Tert. Scap. 4 ppr ; Aug. 
Serm. 351, 1; 355, 2; ep. 44, 9; 88, 6; 113 bis. Georges' example, de ciu. Dei 1, 
9, 1 is simply thrown into his article, with a translation. 

2 Occasionally we find dissimulo used otherwise e.g. with de, 199 B ; c ; absol. 
419 B. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 103 

lantes ab eo (neiit.) 60 B var. lect. ; intellegat autem ideo a se 
dissimulari, quia non in hac uita indicium Dei promissum est 
futurum 68 A; ab ira dissimulandum monet [explanation of 
"date locum irae "] 169 D; ab hac (lege) praesenti dissimulare 
171 A; dissimulare ab ea (creatura) 176 B; ab intentione edendi 
aut non edendi dissimulare nos docet 179 A; a quo crimine mali 
doctores aut dissirnulabant aut neglegentius arguebant 220 B ; 
si enim ipsi discesserint, dissimulandum ab his (incise.) 231 D; 
ab scientia dissimulandum docet caritatis causa 240 c ; ceteris 
apostolis propter scandalum ab hac re dissimulantibus 241 B; 
doctus dissimulare a ludaismo 365 A; si, praesentibus ludaeis, 
dissimulasset a gentilibus, timens scandalum 370 B ; auaritia, 
a qua dissimulamus 417 A; ut...dissimulet ab eo (masc.) 
419 B; ab his autem omnibus, quae in firmamento et sub finna- 
mento sunt, dissimulandum 458 B; si enim rector populi ab his 
(neut.) dissimulat, neglegit gratiam datam sibi 501 c ; ideo 
dissimulandum ab his (masc.) est 520 B; a quibusdam neo- 
tericis dissimulat qu. 2 pm; deus a tali sacrificio dissimulauit 
qu. 43pm; si uero dissimulet ab iniuria qu. 69 ex; a potestate 
sua dissimulans 2 qu. N.T. 7; a notable use derived from the 
above is: auctorem legis *hinc dissimulare non posse qu. 115 pm. 

dubius: sine dubio is very frequent in both works: 51 c; 
78 A; 84 D; 155 B; 196 c; 200 c ; 240 c ; 282 A ; 342 B etc. ; qu. 
2; 3; 6; 16; 30; 40; 46; 51; 62; 76; 81; 83; 90; 97; 100; 
102; 105; 108; 109; 111; 114; llobis; 125; 127 ter; 2 qu. 
N.T. 15; 53. Procul dabio is rare (195 c; 491 B; qu. 3 ; 102): 
absque dubio is, I think, entirely absent. 

Various other expressions with dubius: (1) dubimn non est: 
dubium non est omnes Graecos reos esse mortis 82 A ; quod de 
lacob rnulti sinfc perfidi dubium non est 140 c etc.; non est 
dubium non datum esse credentibus spiritum qu. 93; dubium 
non est qu. 102 ; 112 ; 125 etc. (2) mdli ditJbium est (Hier. Aug.): 
nulli enim dubium uerba uirtuti cedere 58 A; nulli enim 
dubium est quia pagani obruti sunt 81 D; quod nulli dubium 
est 86 A; and often; nulli dubium est bona omnia a deo esse 
qu. 34; nulli dubiurn est diabolum esse hominis inimicum 
qu. 70; paganos elementis esse subiectos nulli dubium est 
qu. 82; itaque nulli dubium est prodesse ieiunia qu. 120; 



104 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

nulli dubium arbitror mundum istum hominis causa esse fabri- 
catum qu. 127 pr etc. (3) in dubium uenit : ipsum decreuisse nulli 
in dubium uenit 60 A, and often; ea quae latebant aut in 
dubium ueniebant qu. 72 (76); quod temptatur in dubium 
uenit qu. 99; also in 91; 101: cf. in dubium uocari 2 qu. N.T. 10. 

dumtaxat is employed in both works in a restrictive or 
explanatory sense, 'at least/ 'of course,' as in Hier. This word 
is probably wanting in many Latin authors 1 . Examples are : 
gratias ergo agere se dicit, deo suo dumtaxat, quia cet. 54 A; ut 
eminentia uirtutis eius appareat, per homines praedicatores dum- 
taxat 307 A; ut efficaciam eorum tarn ueram probet quam est 
et praedicatio eius ad eos, in correptione dumtaxat 324 c; deum 
testem dat ut quae dicit facile credantur, et propter eos dumtaxat 
qui eum non ut uerum apostolum honorificabant 347 c ; mani- 
festato creatore et ratione ostensa quam sequi debeat creatura, in 
fide dei sui dumtaxat, contestatur illos cet. 412s; apparere 
enim debere significat exercitii profectum, in doctrina dumtaxat 
et in gestis 502 A ; temptatio ut nos adprehendat exoptat, sed 
humana dumtaxat qu. 99; non enim qualiscumque honor est 
antistiti dei seruire, in ecclesia dumtaxat, ut sacerdos totius 
honoris ecclesiastici dignus habeatur qu. 101 (col. 2302) ; constat 
autem ex quattuor elementis terra aere aqua igne, deo auctore 
dumtaxat qu. 108 (col. 2323); lucem etenim habitat inaccessi- 
bilem, creaturae dumtaxat qu. 125 (col. 2374). 

ecclesiasticus is employed with the same or similar substan- 
tives : examples are : officium 259 A ; qu. 109 ; salutatio 357 A ; 
disciplina 491 B ; regula 492 A ; ordinatio 531 D ; potestas qu. 93 ; 
ius 524 A codd. ; qu. 93 bis ; 102 bis ; traditio qu. 93 ; honor qu. 
101. In qu. 127 (col. 2385) ^ecclesiasticus must be a subst. 
' an ecclesiastic': ante quam ecclesiasticus quis sit, licet ei nego- 
tiari. So also 516 A 'ecclesiasticus idcirco deo se probat,' and 
509 B 'ecclesiasticus maxime qui sublimis loci est.' So Hier. 

emendo used intransitively *'to amend,' 'to reform': qui 
emendare nequiuerant prol. 2 Cor.; componentes se qui adhuc 
non emendauerant 333 D ; non omnes adhuc quos in prima 
epistula corripuit emendauerant 353 B (editors add se); sine ' 

1 There is one example only in Tacitus. See also Prof. J. S. Reid's note on 
Cic. Mil. 5 (Pitt Press Series). 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 105 

dubio enim prodest ei qui corripitur, ut emendet 353 B; si enien- 
dare prornittunt 507 c (one MS and edd. add se); ludaei autem dum 
emendare erubescunt non cogitant futurum indicium qu. 44 ex; 
exspectat enim ut impii credant et peccatores emendent qu. 68 
(editors add se) (see corrigo above). It will perhaps be argued 
that the above examples are errors, and that the passive should 
be read, or se added. I submit that the excellence of the manu- 
scripts and the number of instances are strong enough evidence 
that the usage existed. 

emorior : compare ' ut non credat resurgere resoluta et 
emortua corpora (edd. soluta et mortua) 282 B with 'et emortua 
et resoluta corpora non posse rursus reddi ad uitam ' 2 qu. N.T. 
47. (The phrase was doubtless in part suggested by Rom. iv. 19.) 

euangelicus is used similarly in both works : examples are : 
doctrina 56 A ; sermo 115 D; ueritas 153 A; 185 c ; disciplina 
172 c ; 2 qu. N.T. 55 ; opus 188 D ; ius 223 C ; qu. 95 ; praedicatio 
qu. 95 ; auctoritas qu. 107. 

examen : in the sense of 'judicial examination ': tibi examen 
datum est potestatis iudicandi de malis 67 B; dum enim examen 
coeperit fieri omnium rerum in die iudicii 151 A; gaudium uero 
fretum futurae spei testatur examen 166 B ; infidelium potius 
exarnina requirebant 193 B; examen futurum est accipientium 
corpus domini 257 B etc.; ut examen circa se iudicis mitiget 
qu. 112. (Examino and examinatio also occur.) 

exclude in a metaphorical sense especially, 'to put out of 
court/ is a favourite word: ut omnem tergiuersationem cauilla- 
tionis excludat 88 B ; ut et diaboli regnum excluderetur et dei 
imperium ignorantibus praedicaretur 104 c ; ut... ueritas omnem 
fraudem excludat 221 B; ut fornicationem excludat 229 A; ex- 
cluditur promissio 376 B; ne pauci temporis diuitiae excludant 
aeternas qu. 32; uerum excludere nituntur qu. 100; exclusa 
est ergo Nouatiani impie cornposita adsertio qu. 102 (col. 2304) ; 
exclusa est adseueratio tua qu. 102 (col. 2307); exclusum est 
fatum qu. 115 (col. 2349); ratio fatorum... exclusa est qu. 115 
(col. 2357); exclusit omnem controuersiam et argumenta terrena 
qu. 122 (col. 2367); ut... excludat ueritatem qu. 127 (col. 2380); 
excluditur desperatio 2 qu. mixt. 11. 

exemplum is used in many phrases common to both works, 



106 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

but only one use, that of the ablative of manner with a genitive 
dependent on it, will be mentioned here. Instances are: ex- 
ernplo eius 92 B; exemplo corporis 165 A; exemplo legis 170 B; 
exemplo domini 181 c; exemplo (this is the correct reading: 
edd. ex ore) asinae qu. 46 (col. 2245); huius exemplo qu. 117. 

exhibeo : compare ' spiritus animalium magno gemitu artatur 
ad exhibenda seruitia' 131 B, and 'propter timorem dei iusta 
et fidelia unit hominibus exhiberi seruitia' 423 A with 'ut... 
inciperent exhibere seruitia dominicis caerimoniis' qu. 46 (col. 
2247): compare also 'neque aliquam legi reuerentiam exhibe- 
rent' qu. 115 (col. 2348). 

exsuscito met. : exsuscitatur dolor 141c; dilectio in his 
dei exsuscitatur memoria patrum 161 C; (2 Cor. iv. 14 ap. 
Ambrst.): tune exsuscitatur libido... qu. 120; exsuscitatur 
enim desiderium animae erga opera salutaria qu. 120 codd. ; 
exsuscitantur ad sollicitandos nos qu. 115 (col. 2351) codd.; 
(declaratio mysterii) maiores exsuscitauit diffident! bus poenas 
qu. 122 (col. 2367). 

fabrica: in the expression fabrica mundi : fabrica mundi 
testificante 59 B; notitia dei manifesta est ex mundi fabrica 
59 c ; ipsa enim fabrica mundi praedicat creatorem 153 B; cet.; 
descripta mundi fabrica qu. 3 aex ; ex ipsa mundi fabrica 
intellegi...diuinitatem suam qu. 83; ad mundi fabricam profe- 
cerunt qu. 107 pr; ad mundi fabricam proficerent qu. 122 pr; 
mundum fecerunt uocari, cuius in fabricam profecerunt qu. 106 
(col. 2318). Cf. caeli f. 59 A. 

fiducia : freti fiducia Jidei 68 c and qu. 115 (col. 2347), same 
order. 

firmo is constantly used in the meaning and with the con- 
structions of confirmo 1 , and is very much commoner than the latter. 
References are: 56 A; 58 A; 72 A (cod.); 77 A; 79 D; 82 C; 85 B; 
91 c ; 98 B ; 110 c ; 116 D ; 138 c ; 153 A ; 165 B ; 180 D ; 183 c ; 
185 B; 189 B; 205 c ; 226 A ; 232 B etc. etc. ; qu. 29 ; 54 ter\ 59; 
75; 77; 97 ter; 104; 105; 106; 108; 114; 123 (codd.); 2 qu. N.T. 
10; 14; 37; 46; etc. etc. 

femes : .metaph. qui fomitem praebeant delictis illorum 66 B; 

1 Which occurs e.g. 94 A; 182 A; 186 c; 192 A etc. 

2 As this metaphor is fairly common, its occurrence in both works has 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 107 

quod., peccfindi fomitem pntebeant 79 C; nee illi (uirgini) ingerat 
fomitem nuptiarum, quam uideb nubendi uoluntatem non 
habere 237 B ; satellitibus in hac re fomitem conspirationis 
praebentibus qu. 2 ppr; delinquendi illi fomitem praestat 2 qu. 
N.T. 49. 

The extreme rarity of forinsecus, which is a favourite word 
of S. Augustine, is significant. The word occurs once only in the 
Quaestiones (qu. 108), not at all in the commentaries. Foris is 
common in both works, by itself, and in deforis. 

The words fragilis and fragilitas are often used of the human 
race (so Hier.). Examples are: homo autem fragilis est 117 B; 
fragile est genus humanum 302 A; humana fragilitas in 
1 Cor. xv 45 (some MSS) ; fragilitatem humani generis 
qu. 102; fragile genus humanum qu. 102; 126; fragilitatis 
humanae qu. 108, cf. qu. 109. 

ftilcio in the passive, metaphorically: qui dignitate doctoiis 
fultus erat apud ludaeos 363 A; dei legem quam utique uidet 
non uerborum strepitu fulciri sed rerum uirtutibus qu. 100; 
legem uirtutum testimoniis fultam qu. 114 (col. 2342); quis enim 
dignitate fultum uirum et diuitem arguere audeat ? qu. 124 
(col. 2372). 

genus (= modus) : in the phrases hoc genere 1 =hoc modo : hoc 
igitur genere reos facit eos 144 c; hoc etiam genere antiqui medici 
cet. 59 c; hoc utique genere, id est, per sacerdotem qu. 46 am: 
eodem genere 2 : eodem genere iudicandos angelos a nobis, quo 
et mundus iudicabitur 223 A; eodem genere uisus est et a lacob 
447 A; eodem genere, quo loseph uocabatur filius esse lesus, ita 
erat... qu. 56; eodem genere sacerdos est Christus in aeternum 
quo et Melchisedech qu. 109 ex ; see also below. Most characteristic 

probably only a cumulative force: see lexx.; Index to Peiper's Cyprian i Hepta- 
teuchos s.v. (Vindob. 1891) ; Mayor's Latin Heptateuch 106 35 ; add Aug. serrn. 
153, 2; Acad. 2, 5 pr. ; [Aug.] serm. 7, 1; 66, 2; 175, 2; Anthol. (Riese and 
Biicheler) n 546, 6; [Ambr.] epist. 1, 3; prec. 1, 3 ; paen. 14; 26; hymn. 75, 23. 

1 Morin 8. Hoc modo (103 B ; 135 c ; qu. 34 ; 59 ; 81 ; 89 ; 107 ; 115 ; 2 qu. V.T. 8) 
and hac ratione (qu. 2; 64; 91; 107; 112; 122; 2 qu. N.T. 57) are, however, also 
found. The latter expression occurs in Martial at least twice, though the word 
ratio finds no place in Friedlander's index. 

a But also eodem modo (99 A; qu. 44; 59; 95; 97; 110; 115); eadem ratione 
(qu. 34; 56; 91). 



108 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

of all is duplici genere 1 = duobus modis. It occurs 70 B ; 72 A ; 
114 c; 170 B; 198 B; 220 c ; 222s; 263 A; 293 D; 315 c; 336 B; 
352 c; 375 B; 381 c; 383 C; 425 A ; 515 A; 527 A ; qu.14; 20; 
103; 110; 112 6w; 115 (p. 2355); 119; 124; 2 qu. N.T. 36. lean 
find no example of this expression in any other author. Triplici 
genere occurs 124B 2 ; tripartite genere 72D 3 . Simili genere is 
much less common than simili modo 4 or similiter 5 . It appears 
91 A, Nullo genere occurs 309 A (haec subiecit quibus nullo 
genere deficere se probat quo minus...); 433 c (quod nullo 
genere nulla ratione conuenit) ; qu. 78 (74) (qui non solum nullo 
genere peccauerat sed et multis uitam donauerat) ; qu. 75 (79) 
nullo genere ex his liberi arbitrii poterit causa turbari 6 . Omni 
genere occurs 437 D; 457 B; qu. 59 ex 7 . Uno atque eodem genere 
occurs 208 D; qu. 127 pm. Eo, quouis and quo (except with eodem) 
genere are wanting in both works 8 . 

gesta (plur. neut.) is very commonly used for *deeds y especially 
Divine achievements. Actus is also used for deeds, rarely, if ever, 
acta. Examples of gesta are : uerbis et gestis dominicis 71 D; 
ne...cum dei serui dicimur, gestis serui diaboli inueniamur 
108 C; ut dei gestis repugnent 125 C; nolebant enim uerba 
gestis comparare 149 A etc. etc.; gesta ueterum qu. 95 (col. 
2289) ; gesta dominica qu. 102 ; humana autem natiuitas beatitu- 
dinem adquirit per gesta qu. 109 (col. 2326); quamuis enim quis 
posset gesta eius imitari qu. 118 (col. 2361); formam praebens 
mirabilium gestorum qu. 118 (col. 2362); gesta saluatoris 
qu. 127; gesta et dicta domini 2 qu. N.T. 1 ; 2 etc. 

1 But duplici modo 59 D; 278 D; 403 D; qu. 44; 45; 69; 78; 102. Duplici 
ratione does not, I think, appear, but gemina ratione qu. 52. 

2 triplici ratione qu. 110. 

3 tripartita ratio (nom.) 87 B. 

4 simili modo (often first in the sentence): 99 A; 102 c; 104 A; 127s; 141 B; 
163A; 176 c; 199 A; 202 c; 211 c cet.; qu. 7; 20; 37: 44; 52; 91; 97; 102; 109; 
115; 127; 2 qu. V.T. 8; 2 qu. N.T. 9; 49; 60; 2 qu. mixt. 6. 

5 similiter e.g. 102 c. It is characteristic of these works to have similiter as the 
first word in the sentence (e.g. 165s ; qu. 93; 102; 109; 115; 2 qu. N.T. 9). 

6 nullo modo 129 B; qu. 97; 102 bis] 109: nulla ratione 433 c (supra) ; nullo 
pacto nulla ratione qu. 113. 

7 omni modo is apparently wanting in both works ; omni ratione 459 A. 

8 una ratione 85s; qu. 115; ea ratione qu. 97; 122; quauis ratione 180 c; qua 
ratione 108s; 163s etc.; qu. 58; 91; 95 bis-, 97; 107; 109; 114; 115 ter; 123; 
125 bis; 127; 2 qu. N.T. 47 etc. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 109 

The combination gloriosus apparere (perhaps from 2 Reg. 
vi 22 or Prov. xxv 6) is strangely frequent ; quid est ut elati iudi- 
cemur quasi pro nostra propria utilitate praedicare, ut glori'osi 
appareamus 306 A ; ut gloriosus in his appareat magister 
gentium 427 D ; dignum est enim ut, qui pro illo obprobria patitur 
et exilia, in regno eius gloriosus appareat 517 Bete.; Moyses 
ergo quia non peccauerat gloriosus apparuit qu. 8 ; nonne 
partem ipsam humanis uultibus ingerit ut appareat gloriosus 
qu. 12; nullus sanctorum in mundo gloriosus apparuit qu. 115 
(col. 2354); in regno Christi gloriosi appareant qu. 126 (col. 
2376) etc. 

habeo (= 'must') followed by pres. inf. pass. 1 (cf. Hoppe, Syntax 
u. Stil des Tertullian, p. 44). The editors sometimes alter to debeo 
against the MSS. Examples are : quia nebula carnis circumcidi 
haberet qu. 12 ; quia per fidem saluari haberent homines 
qu. 29 ; quia dono dei coimaginari haberet filio dei qu. 106 
(col. 2320) ; quia oblationes et holocausta tune accepto ferri habe- 
rent qu. 112 (col. 2339) ; quando mysterium dei declarari haberet 
qu. 123 (col. 2371). No examples appear in the printed text of 
the commentaries. 

The writer is very fond of hebes, hebeto, and hebetude. 
Examples of the second and third will suffice ; occurrences of 
the first are numerous. We have: (homines) stupore quodam 
*hebetasse ad honorandum deum 60 A (the intransitive use is 
unknown to the dictionaries): ut magis ac magis hebetati ad 
omnia mala admittenda fierent promptiores 64 B; nemo sic poterit 
hebetari qu. 53 ; in tantum hebetati ut ipsum dominum sub 
fato egisse contendant qu. 115 (p. 2358); mirabatur enim stupore 
hebetatus 2 qu. N.T. 9: quanta hebetudo quanta stultitia hos 
sapientes appellare 61 B ; recte fides hebetudini comparatur 
qu. 117 (col. 2360); qua tamen hebetudine...praedicant qu. 97 
(col. 2293). 

honorific, honorificentior, and honorificentia are charac- 
teristic expressions. Honorifico occurs e.g. 60 B; lOOfi; 158 A; 
280 A bis ; 347 c ; qu. 32 ; 35 bis (cf. lo. v 23 as quoted) ; honori- 
ficentior 69 c ; 158 A ; honorificentia 60 c ; 61 B ; 76 B ; 96 B ; 99 B ; 

1 The active, which appears in Cicero, is found also: deus...despicere habet 
deuotum sibi cet. qu. 102 (p. 2312). 



110 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

253 B ; 259 A ; qu. 8. (Honoro (61 c ; 182 c ; 188 c ; qu. 35) and 
even inhonoro (62 c, codd. ; 74 B ; 182 D ; 422 c) also appear.) 

ignis, with a personal noun in apposition: ignem tortorem 
patietur 391 c ; igne ultore poenas pateretur qu. 115 (col. 2348). 

ignore : non ignore is very common, e.g. 60 A; B; 66 A ; 67 A; 

82 c ; 97 c ; 137 B (nee ign. 98 A ; neque ign. qu. 91) etc. ; qu. 14 ; 
16; 58 6w; 102 bis-, 113; 114; 115; 120; I25quater; 127. (Cf. 
non ignotum 97 c ; nan nescius qu. 94, nee nescius qu. 115 ex ; non 
ignarus qu. 109.) 

^impraescius 1 : permisit se diabolo saeuienti sed impraescio 

83 D; inimicus (i.e. diabolus) impraescius futurorum contra se 
416 D; (homo) qui per id quod impraescius est uarius et muta- 
bilis est qu. 46ppr; ne ergo uelut impraescius (dominus) haec 
pati uideretur qu. 104 am. 

impulsus : in the abl. sing, impulsu : non uoluntate, sed 
impulsu eius uidebuntur peccare 79 A ; ornnem dixit concupis- 
centiam operatam in homine impulsu diaboli 114 B; cuius 
(peccati) impulsu 118 A; loquitur non impulsu aeris...sed sicut 
competit eius diuinitati 133 c; contra hanc regulam fidei impulsu 
malorum doctorum sentientes 224 c ; si impulsu carnis perseue- 
rare se uiderint non posse 229 c ; non uoluntate haec facit, sed 
impulsu naturae qu. 2 aex ; ea quae impulsu carnis suggeruntur 
qu. 115 am cet. 

in, with accusative, of purpose, this accusative representing *a 
person 2 . This usage is scriptural e.g. 1 Reg. iii 20 ap. qu. 46 fidelis 
est Samuhel in prophetam (so MSS : Migne propheta without in) 
domino (efc irpo^ri^v TO> Kvpiw LXX (B) ; propheta esset domini 
Vulg. cf. LXX (A)), and Ps. xcviii 6 ap. qu. 46 fiant Moyses et Aaron 
in sacerdotes eius (ev rot? iepevo-w avrov LXX; in sacerdotibus eius 
Vulg.). The following examples occur: a deo adoptamur in filios 
92 B ; deo in filios adoptari 159 c ; ex perditis iterum reformauit 
sibi illos in seruos 177 A; ut suscipiat nos in filios 319 c; Agar 
ancillam suam obtulit uiro suo Abrahae in concubinam 383 c; 
ut. . .adoptarentur in filios deo 395 B; in filios hos adoptare 467 A; 
credentes sibi adoptare in filios 473 B; adoptatos...a deo in filios 
474 B; in filios sibi adoptauit 491 A ; istos in filios suscepit qu. 44 

1 impraescientia occurs 416 D. 

2 Cf. of things haec luminaria in iigna temporum qu. 84 ; in turres qu. 105. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. Ill 

(col. 2242); eis qui in reges imguebantur qu. 49; Damd iam 
unctus in regem qu. 61 ; himc esse Christum qui patribus appa- 
ruisset in deum qu. 71 ; semper in deum uisus a patribus est 
qu. 71 ; principum ludaeorum quos propheta significauit in turres 
qu. 105 (p. 2315) codd. ; natus de deo patre in regem non inmerito 
Christus appellatur qu. 114 (col. 2346) ; apud maiores enim nostros 
qui in reges unguebantur qu. 114 (col. 2346). 

inaestimabilis 1 : used of God and his attributes : inmensum et 
inaestimabilem cognoscere deum, omnia excedentem maiestate 
uirtutis suae 406 B ; igitur deus est... lux inaccessibilis, inuisibilis, 
inaestimabilis, infinity s... qu. 1 pr; qui potentiam dei inaesti- 
mabilem praedicas qu. 97 m. 

inanio, in a metaphorical sense: ut gloriam diaboli...inaniret 
103 D (codd.); non utique legem inaniri dicit per fidem sed 
impleri 85 B (codd.); ne gratiae beneficium inanire uideamur 
113 B; hie inariit (Migne exinanit) fatum qu. 115 (col. 2356) ; ut 
omnia quae fati putantur esse inariirent (Migne exinanirent) qu. 
115 (col. 2357); inanitus infernus qu. 121; mors per peccatum 
inaniuit infernum 315 c, etc. Much commoner in these works 
are exinanio, euacuo, in the same sense. 

incarno : gerundive incarnandus : deus deduxit ilium 
(lesutn) in caelum cum corpore unde uenerat incarnandus 151 A ; 
cur dominus noster de sacris et caelestibus sedibus ad terrain 
incarnandus uenisset qu. 113 (p. 2340). 

inclino transitively and metaphorically, *' to humble,' often 
with the reflexive se, and sometimes with the dat., of that before 
which one humbles oneself: ne uentris causa inclinaretur 317 A ; 
uim auctoritatis inclinant 326 A; etiam a licitis temperaret ne 
inclinaretur 333 c; hic...inclinat se et comparat se inferioribus 
335 c ; inclinat se ut manifestet etc. 350 c; auctoritatem potes- 
tatis...non inclinat 353 B; humilitas enim etiam superbos solet 
inclinare 390 B; si nos erigeremus inclinaremur 390 C; ut...in- 
clinemus nos 432 A; ante quam se inclinari permitteret 432s; 
caro factus hominibus se inclinauit 433 A; his inclinari quorum 
gubernaculis humanum regitur genus 457 D; qui enim uult audiri 
inclinare se debet 494 A etc. ; quo soluto non solum scandalo non 

1 The epithet is doubtless derived from the famous verse, Baruch iii 36 hie deu 
noster : non aestimabitur alter ad eum (quoted in q. 97, p. 2292, 50). 



112 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

esset exactoribus neque inclinaretur requisite auxilio ad sol- 
uendum qu. 79 (75) (col. 2270); cuius auctoritati inclinandum 
hunc putant qu. 97 (col. 2292) ; nihil de se praesumentes diuinae 
se uoluntati inclinant qu. 100; uanitas cui qui se inclinat cet. 
qu. Ill (col. 2333); magnificum si hie qui dignitate et copiis 
commendatur incline t se qu. 124 (col. 2372) etc. The opposite is 
erigo. 

inconcessus, especially in the phrase inconcessa praesu- 
mere : ne ab licitis se abstinentes inconcessa praesumerent, 
sicut faciunt Maoichei 228 B; corrumpit autem corpus qui incon- 
cessa praesumit 391 B; dum aut inconcessa praesumuntur 
aut concessa inordinate fiunt qu. 1 (col. 2215); qui enim incon- 
cessa praesumit reus est qu. 110 (col. 2331); in qu. 46 and 127 
without praesumo. (Cf. inlicita praesumerent qu. 46 (col. 2247).) 

incongruus in the phrase ^incongruum est : imago enim dei 
incongruum est ut celetur 253 B; iricongruum est ut pater 
subiciatur filio 280 A ; non esse incongruum inquiunt his in- 
clinari 457 D ; incongruum erat ut facta uiro subiecta diceretur 
esse imago dei 460 C etc.; non incongruum uidebis quod putas 
diuersum esse a ratione qu. 12; incongruum enim erat ut dei 
films in corpore peccatis subdito nasceretur qu. 49; incongruum 
deprehendimus tenebras ante lucem creatas adserere qu. 107 
(p. 2322); incongruum enim uidetur personae eius hoc opus 
subisse qu. 113 (cf. Veget.) ; incongruum est enim ut...apud 
inferos teneatur qu. 123 (col. 2371) etc. (The adverb incongrue 
qu. 97.) 

incresco occurs e.g. increscere cupientes mala 66 B; ne 
peccata increscerent 102 D; dies super rioctem increscere 
qu. 55; ut ex eo nox increscat super diem qu. 106 (col. 2317); 
coepit dies increscere super noctem qu. 106 (col. 2317); in- 
crescit illi calor qu. 115 (col. 2351). 

incurro : (1) c. ace. obi. ne diu hie positi damnum incurrant 
(faciant cod.) promissae uitae 68 c; ne...poenam, quam euasimus, 
incurramus 104 D ; ultionem legis incurreret 115 c; omnis enim 
cogitatio foras respiciens incurrit delictum 128 A; ne...ea omnia 
quae euasimus.. .incurramus 128 D; ne incurrat sententiam 
euangelicam dicentem... 151 A ; homo qui possit culpam incurrere 
nescius 214 A ; ne et damnum ad praeseris et offensionem forte 



COMPAKISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 113 

incurrat 223 D; ne...illi incurrant quod nos timemus 235 A ; 
egredientibus fluminibus incurrebat periculum 345 c; ne... 
incurrant uindictam 473 D ; per quam rem elatus incurrit 
laqueum diaboli 495 c ; diuisio incurrit peccatum qu. 5am; ne 
incurrerent peccata patrum qu. 14 m; maledictum nos incur- 
suros qu. 127 ppr; non natiuitas crimen incurrit qu. 127m; 
incurris quod times qu. 91 pr; nimia iustitia incurrit peccatum 
qu. 15; non incurrit peccatum qu. 110 (Journ. Theol Stud. Oct. 
1904) cet. *(2) absol. solent uiduarum iuniores incurrere ("to 
be guilty") 238 A. *(3) c. ut et subi. ex quacumque causa in- 
currebant ut inmundi essent 148 A; incurrit ut patiatur quod 
sibi fieri non uult qu. 69 (a) humana conuersatio... incurrit ut 
peccet qu. 110 (J. T. S. 1. c.) ; omnis inquietus... frequenter incurrit 
ut membra corporis laedat qu. 112 aex. 

indisciplinatus : cuius exemplo indisciplinata coercenda 
iuuentus est 501 B ; rion solum male sentientibus am arum est, 
uerum etiam indisciplinatis qu. 76 (72); omnis inquietus uel 
indisciplinatus frequenter incurrit cet. qu. 112 (col. 2339); qui 
de turpibus honestos facit, de indisciplinatis modestos qu. 114 
(col. 2342). (Cf. indisciplinatio qu. 97 (col. 2294).) 

inexcusabilis occurs e.g., ut inexcusabiles deperirent 145 c; 
qui enim audientes legem peccant inexcusabiles sunt 171 c; ut 
his infidelitas accusata inexcusabilis pereat 498 A ; qui ad hoc 
surgit ut peccet, inexcusabilis eifectus pergrauem habet causam 
qu. 126. 

ingenitus, 'unborn/ of God the Father, as contrasted with 
Jesus, the Son: pater ingenitus est, filius uero genitus 472 D; 
pater ingenitus est, filius uero genitus (the identical words) 
qu. 97 (col. 2292); in carne uisus neque patrem neque matrem 
habuit, hoc est ingenitus apparuit qu. 109 (p. 2329). 

ingero : met. (Hier.) nee illi (uirgini) ingerat fomitem 
nuptiarum, quam uidet nubendi uoluntatem non habere 237 B ; 
ut passim et importune uerba religionis ingererent tempore 
inimico 167 B; diaboli qui per subiectam sibi carnem suggestiones 
malas ingerit animae 121 A ; nonne partern ipsam humanis 
uultibus ingerit, ut appareat gloriosus ? qu. 12; di paganorum... 
non se ingerunt ad contraria suggerenda qu. 115 (col. 2351); 
aliquando occupatae menti non se ingerunt qu. 115 (col. 2358). 

8 



114 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

inmerito : non (nee) inmerito is a favourite litotes, e.g. : 
47 A; 93 D; 149 A ; 266 B; 315 B ; 407 D; 418 B; 451 D; 459s; 
474B; 509c; 513A; 524 B; qu. 56 ; 85; 98; 102; 105; 106; 
110 (new part); 111; 112; 114; 116; 123; 125. 

inmunis a, with the ablative of something objectionable, such 
as punishment (Hier.) : poena occurs 67 B ; 82 c (codd.) ; 416 c ; qu. 
67; 111 (col. 2333); qu. 115 pr; 2 qu. V.T. 17: passionibus 69 B; 
morte 97 B; crimine 119 A; 219 A; 247 B ; criminibus 224 B; 
malitia 95 B (codd.) ; seueritate sententiae qu. 14 ; eis quae dei 
legi aduersa sunt qu. 110 (col. 2331) ; fornicatione idolatriae 
qu. Ill (col. 2333); uulnere qu. 118 (cf. Prov. xx 9 ap. qu. 112, 
peccatis) etc. The word is absolutely used e.g. 219 A; 251 A; 
qu. 115 (col. 2351). 

inpossibilis, especially in the expression inpossibile est : 
credidit enim quod mundo i. uidetur 91 B; quod mundo inpossi- 
bile est 92 A; inpossibile est non peccare 99 B ; quod enim i. 
iudicabat possibile declaratum est 199B; quod humanae ration! 
i. uidebatur 205 c; quod omnino creaturae inpossibile est 206 A 
etc.; quod i. wdetur qu. 6; quamuis...fallere eum inpossibile 
sit qu. 10; inprobabile et inpossibile est qu. 28; serpentem 
subtilitatem istam composuisse inpossibile est qu. 31 ; inpossi- 
bile est enim discordare unius spiritus uiros qu. 66; quern falli 
utique inpossibile est qu. 71 ; inpossibile prorsusest ut... qu. 
73 (77); quidquid hominibus i. uidetur qu. 97 (col. 2294); also qu. 
102 (col. 2306) inpossibile est enim homini ut non peccet (cf. 
99 B above); inpossibile est non peccare qu. 110 (Journ. Theol. 
Stud., Oct. 1904); 112; 115 (col. 2353); 117 (col. 2361); 2 qu. 
N.T. 10; 46; 60 etc. 

inprobabilis : peregrini homini s i. origo in terra aliena est 
94 B; hie enim qui laudatur inprobabile est an dignus sit 214 D 
etc. ; i. et inpossibile est qu. 28 ; quod i. est qu. 56 ; ut adseueratio 
nostra non inprobabilis uideatur qu. 112 (col. 2339) etc. 

instruo is used once or twice passively, implying *a construc- 
tion in the active with two accusatives, such as doceo has in 
classical Latin: 'ab his tamen uiam domini diligentius instructus 
est' 188 A; compare that with: ' Aegyptiorum, a quibus etiam 
Moyses fuerat instructus omnem peritiam Aegyptiacam' qu. 3 pr. 
interuenio in the abl. absol. constr. : for example : quid est 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 115 

enim paenitere nisi iam ab errore cessare, interueniente mentis 
dolore ? prol. 2 Cor. (Journ. Theol Stud., Oct. 1902, p. 90); mine, 
interueniente causa neglegentiae uel erroris, dissidere inter 
se uidentur apostoli 369 c ; nulla interueniente lamentatione 
paenitentiae qu. 102 (col. 2306); interueniente gemitu et fletu 
qu. 102 (col. 2306); cf. interuentu paenitentiae qu. 102 (col. 2308); 
interuentu misericordiae qu. 105 (col. 2315). 

intimo (verb): legem...spiritus, non litteris utique scriptam, 
sed per fidem animis intimatam 304 B; non illis hoc intimarunt 
352 c; ordinem ipsum...exponit...saricto spiritu intimante 475 A; 
etc.; caelestibus huius modi intimatur doctrina qu. 47 (col. 
2248); qui sensum isturn prior intimauerat dicens qu. 57; 
Marcus autem rem quae ab illis praetermissa fuerat uoluit inti- 
mare qu. 65; noua per Christum praecepta populis iutimata 
qu. 127 (col. 2379) etc. 

inuenio is frequently found (with a personal subject) in the 
passive, almost with the force of sum, and generally with an adjec- 
tive or participle in the predicate : a few examples out of the 
great number are : cum diffidunt, peiores inueniuntur 70 c ; ne 
...cum dei serui dicimur, gestis serui diaboli inueniamur 108 c; 
inn en t us est in eo reus in quo accusabat 111 D ; semper diffidentes 
inuenti sunt ludaei 153 C; hominibus adsentientes inuenti sunt 
157 A; si in altera (re) inaequalis fuerit inuentus qu. 108 (col. 
2324); Tobias in temptatione robustus et fortis inuentus est qu. 
119. 

irritus : in irritum with various verbs : dei gratiam in 
irritum deducentes 1 79 D; accusatio illorum in irritum iam 
deducta est 207 D; affectum et gratiam dei patris in irritum 
habuerunt 138 A; qui beneficium eius in irritum ducunt 256 D ; 
iudicium enim saluatoris in irritum ducunt 377 B; promissio... 
in irritum uenit 89 B; beneficium et misericordiam dei in irri- 
tum deducentes qu. 44 pm. 

ianua in iainiae tartari: obligatus peccatis exire ianuas 
tartari non potest 446 B ; tartari ianuae confractae qu. 121. 

iuxta : prep. c. ace. = "in accordance with," or ''in respect of" 
is frequent (Hier.): e.g. verbis quae infirraa iuxta uirtutem sunt 
203 c ; libere enim et i. ueram fidem sine aliqua adulatione 

1 Cf. in dubiuin deducitur 311 D. 

82 



116 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

Christum praedicantes 216 D ; i. historiam (so in Jerome), in- 
intrauerunt in Macedonian! 321 B ; tertius psalmus i. historiam 
post quinquagensimum est qu. 102 (p. 2304) ; proposition suum, 
quo prius i. carnem uigebat 362 c ; i. physicam rationem mundum 
factum a deo 245 A cet. ; qui sine dubio i. ea quae supra dicta 
sunt septem uindictas exsoluit qu. 6 cet. : also iuxta quod intro- 
ducing a clause (Hier.): ad dei filium pertinet iuxta quod deus est 
50s; iuxta quod deus est, a patre hunc non separari sed unum 
esse cum patre 377 D; qui iuxta quod scriptum est sciebat... 
qu. 18 ; iuxta quod Hieremias prophetauit qu. 44 (col. 2243) ; (cf. 
iuxta illud quod Petrus apostolus dicit (Hier.) qu. 66); a Christo 
iuxta quod deus est et a patre deo esse qu. 91 (col. 2284) and 
often. Cf. secundum quod supra ostendimus qu. 106 (col. 2316) ; 
secundum quod statuerat Moyses qu. 46 (col. 2247). Hier. has 
secundum illud quod. 

latet, impersonal or semi-impersonal, with the accusative of 
a person is very frequent in some late authors, for example, 
Augustine, and is common in both works: quern nihil utique 
latet 61 A; quern utique nihil latet 214 D; latebat quis esset 
74 A; ut quid unus quisque dignus esset non lateret 99 c; quos 
nihil latet 137 D ; quod latuit genus hominum 192 B ; (res) quae 
...caelestes potentias lateret 205 c etc. etc.; nee non et ipsum 
puerum latet usque ad horam necis qu. 109 (col. 2326). Cf. quid 
proficiant, quamuis non la teat, taceri tamen non debet qu. 120 ; 
quod non latet qu. 114. 

liquidus : the adverbial phrase ad liquidum : si ad liqui- 
dum quaeras, nullus hominum dignus potest uideri uicarius esse 
Christ! 514 A; ad liquidum non colligimus qu. 44 ex. (Liquido 
(Hier.) occurs e.g. qu. 14 ; 102.) 

magia (subst. fern.) : magi uel uenefici Aegyptiorum qui arte 
magiae suae uirtuti dei...resistere se putabant 521 c; non nulli 
gesta dominica magi as appellant qu. 102 (p. 2307, 14). 

magis is occasionally found with adjectives and adverbs already 
in the comparative (cited from Plaut., lust., and Apul. only in 
lexica, but see more authorities in Journ. Philol. xxn (1894) 194 ; 
Arch. f. lat. Lex. xm (1902) 148): magis melius 429 D (codd.); 
magis dignior 495 B; magis subtiliora qu. 1 ; magis potentioribus 
qu. 102; magis propensior (but see propensior) qu. 122; magis , 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 117 

amplius qu. 14; magis honorificentiores qu. 32; magis honora- 
bilior 92 A. 

magister gentium is often applied to S. Paul (never doctor 
gentium): instances are on 57 c ; 184 B ; 335 A, B ; 385 c ; 407 c ; 
427 D, and in qu. 112 ; 113, and often. 

magnalia is used occasionally for 'miracles/ e.g. 52 B; 157 A; 
467 c ; qu. 102 (p. 2307) ; 2 qu. N.T. 57. Mirabilia is found (e.g. 
qu. 114 (p. 2346); 127 (p. 2380)). But far the commonest terms 
are uirtutes, signa, prodigia, which correspond respectively to 
Svvdfjieis, o-rj/juela, repara, and are commonly found in groups of 
two. Miracula is, I think, entirely absent. 

maior and other comparatives are sometimes employed 
with *a genitive after them, where in classical Latin the super- 
lative would be employed : (in the text of 1 Cor. xiii 13 maior 
autem horum est caritas: cf. the text of Apoc. ii 19 (qu. 102 
col. 2309, 16) opera tua nouissima meliora priorum); omnium 
sublimior 422 c ; omnium maior 461 c; qu. 26 (where Migne 
omnibus) ; fortior omnium qu. 92 (codd. ; Migne fortissimus) ; 
Melchisedech non ideo melior Abrahae dicitur qu. 109 (col. 2325); 
m el iores Moysi non sunt qu. Ill (col. 2334). 

*malignum as a noun: facientem maligna et consentientem 
facientibus morte dignos ostendit 66 c; ut malignum eorum 
nullum interuallum haberet qu. 85 ; ut cum maligna praedicat 
bona putentur qu. 110 (col. 2331). (Cf. maligni 156 A, malignantes 
185 B; 190 A (from Ps. xxv 5), and especially qu. 85, which 
throughout rings the changes on malignus and its derivatives.) 

mancipo : c. ace. et dat. : malis mancipati bonos, si posset 
fieri, deuorare uolebant 80s; dei dominio mancipati 92 A ; 
priusquam se manciparet morti 117 c; quia enim mancipauit 
se per assensum peccato 119 A; ne...turpiter abiectus tenebris 
mancipetur 175 A; ut sub nomine Christi aliis dogmatibus 
populum manciparent 185 A ; manciparunt se legi factorum 
360 B; per eum mancipabitur gehennae 412 D; uoluptates 
mundanae, quae omnibus illecebris mancipatae sunt 519 D; cui 
(corpori peccatorum) mancipati, facti sunt potestatis eiusdem 
65 c; ut non sit quod nos...mancipet mundo 2 qu. N.T. 19. 

manifestatio, manifeste, manifesto (verb 1 ), manifestus are 

1 manifesto (adv.) does not appear, being entirely displaced by manifeste. 



118 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

favourite words, especially the expression manifestum est : 
manifestum est 1 with the accusative and infinitive or *quia and the 
indicative: manifestum est quia occurs 355 A; 372 A; 374 A; 
396D; 403D; 405A; 437 D ; 47lc; 495 B; 522c; 533 A cet.: 
manifestum est quia...erat qu. 106 am; manifestum est quia 
...facit qu. 110 m; manifestum est quia...distat qu. 112 m; 
2 qu. N.T. 7 cet. The ace. and inf. construction is less common : 
e.g. 2 qu. V.T. 12, 2 qu. N.T. 57. 

medella 2 is a characteristic word for 'cure': 79 B (cod.); 
90 A ; 108 B ; 143 B ; 259 D ; 396 B ; 493 A ; qu. 49 ; 112 (col. 2336) ; 
120. Remedium, medicina and medicamentum are also found: the 
first e.g. twice in qu. 102, the second in qu. 112, the last in qu. 83. 

melioro 3 : exercitio eriim bonum naturae suae Justus melio- 
rabit 95 B ; ad fidem hanc melioratae resurrectionis 282 c ; 
meliorata tantum substantia 282 c; quidam ex Cretensibus 
melioratus per disciplinarn dominicam 527s; si quid amplius 
ad culturam melioratae conuersationis excogitauerint 440 B ; 
si bonum naturae suae exercitio melioret, honore sit dignus...non 
dedit operam ut melioraret se bonis qu. 1m; Abraham fidei 
suae signum accipiens, non deformatus est, sed melioratus qu. 12; 
meliorati temporis qu. 60; non solum est instauratus sed et 
melioratus qu. 123 et iterum\ a fidelibus enim et bene agentibus 
melioratur natiuitas : ab infidelibus autem et male agentibus 
deterioratur qu. 127m; meliorata substantia qu. 116; quo (cor- 
pore) reparato et meliorate per fidem qu. 127m; per culturam 
melioranda erant semina qu. 127 pr; omnia...multiplicata et 
meliorata super terrain qu. 127 pr; meliorari se credit dum 
sacramenturn creatoris addiscit qu. 127 am ; melioratur natiuitas 
ut plus rnereatur...qu. 127 am ; *intr. uidentes domini meliorasse 
seruos et in reddendis obsequiis fideliter profecisse 422 D. 

mereor with an infin. (Hier.) is a characteristic phrase : 304 A, 
B; 310 D ; 346 C : 416 B ; 460 B ; 470 D ; 480 B and often : qu. 8 ; 26 ; 
115; 121 etc. etc. (in qu. 115 (col. 2349) consumi mererentur appears 
in our texts as consumer entur, a double case of haplography). 

1 Cf. apertus, s.v. 

2 Such is the correct spelling given by the first hand of MSS nearly always, but 
often altered later. It conforms to Lachinann's rule (see Munro 011 Lucr. i 39). 

3 Cf. its opposite deterioro supra, with note. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 119 

meritum as a subst., especially in the instrumental ablative 
singular, occurs an enormous number of times : e.g. 67 B ; 69 A ; 
70 A ; 73 A, B bis ; 75 A bis ; 76 A, B, c ; 79 D ; 85 B ; 86 B, c ; 89 A ; 
91 c; 92 D; 93 c ; 95 A ; 104 c ; 129 B; 132 B,D; 138 B; 140 A ; 
141 D; 143 D; 144 A; 151 B; 161 c ; 162 A, c ; 232 A ; 306 B etc. 
etc. : qu. 11 ter ; 22 ; 26 (five times) ; 27 ; 35 ; 37 ; 43 Us ; 44 ter ; 
81; 83; Soquater; 102 bis ; 105; 108 ter] 109 ter; III bis; 113; 
117 (five times); 118; 119 quater ; 122 bis ; 123; 126; 127 ter; 
2 qu. V.T. 18 ter] 2 qu. N.T. 4; 46 ; 2 qu. mixt. 6 bis, etc. 

minis, in the expression quid mirum ? ('what wonder?'): 
et quid mirum cum hodieque tales mulieres reperiantur? 63 C ; 
et quid mirum si serui moriantur pro bono domino 136 B ; sed 
quid mirum si in hoc loco Christum deum...loqueretur 138 c ; 
quid ergo mirum si post resurrectionem corpus... inmortale futu- 
rum credatur 349 A cet. ; quid mirum ergo si imminentem prope 
mortem potuit praeuidere qu. 27; nam quid mirum si diabolus 
sapientior erat bestiis qu. 31; sed quid mirum cum inter cetera 
dicat qu. 91 (col. 2284); et quid mirum cum, quern... viderit,... 
dicat qu. 97 (col. 2295) ; et quid mirum? qu. 97 (col. 2296); et 
quid mirum si auctor mundi fecit quod non potest mundus qu. 
115 (col. 2352) etc. (cf. nee mirum si qu. 44; 64). 

multifarie intellegere : in carne esse multifarie intelle- 
gitur 112 B; hoc multifarie intellegendum est 166 A; in- 
quinarnentum carnis (2 Cor. vii 1) multifarie intellegendum 
est 320 A; consilium impiorum (ps i 1) est conspiratio malig- 
norum multifarie intellegenda qu. 110 (the new part, first 
printed in Journ. Theol. Stud. Oct. 1904). 

mundi or mundana ratio is frequent; the former occurs 
e.g. 91 c ; 92 A ; 125 A ; 199 A ; 212 B ; qu. 43 ; 97 ; 115 ter ; the 
latter, e.g. 94 A ; 200 A, c ; in the plural, 125 A etc. 

mustela : it is remarkable that the author should single out 
this particular animal in referring to the prohibitions of the 
Mosaic law (cf. Leu. xi 29) : cessat enim factorum lex, id est obser- 
uatio sabbatorum neumeniarum circumcisionis, escarum discretio, 
animalis mortui aut sanguinis mustelae obseruatio 89 c, D; haec 
ludaeis data sunt propter duri tiara cordis illorum : utsimustelam 
forte quis mortuam calcasset, aut tetigisset aliqua morticina, aut 
si sorex in uas ruisset, inmundum diceretur 148 A; si autem san- 



120 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

guis mustelae pauimentum maculasset 148 B; de escis aut con- 
iugiis aut neomeniis aut sanguine mustelae uel domo inmunda 
527 c; sanguinem mustelae magna cura expiandum 531 B; onera 
legis quae ad duritiam cordis ludaici fuerant data in escis neu- 
meniis mustelis (Migne sabbatis et caeteris) qu. 69. 

mysterium: in the combination mysterium Trinitatis 1 : dei 
cognitionem in mysterio Trinitatis 76 A; ostendit mysterium 
Trinitatis 52 A; ueritas est mysterium Trinitatis 202 A; 
Trinitatis mysterium a nullo sic potuit explanari 206 A; ut 
Trinitatis mysterium in unius dei natura et potestate clau- 
datur 259 c ; cf. the evidence of C. Marold, Der Ambrosiaster nacJi 
Inhalt und Ursprung (Zeitschr. f. wissenschaftl TheoL t. xxvti, 
1884, pp. 415 470), p. 465, "sehr haufig gebraucht der Ambro- 
siaster den Ausdruck mysterium Trinitatis"', intra unius dei 
fidem sensum nostrum concludentes mysterio Trinitatis qu. 97 
ex; colere unum deum in mysterio Trinitatis qu. 114 ex (a 
definition of Christianity); unus deus sciatur in mysterio Trini- 
tatis 2 qu. N.T. 26. 

nebula like caligo 2 , is common in a metaphorical sense: erroris 
nebula 3 is five times in Comin. 60 B ; 76 A ; 182 c ; 357 c ; 437 D ; 
quia nebula carnis circumcidi haberet a cordibus hominum per 
fidem Christi qu. 12. 

nociuus (1 Tim. vi 9): omnia enim sola insuauia sunt et 
nociua ; quia nee pauis solus bene editur, nee reliqui cibi sine 
admixtione grati sunt, sed nociui 238 c ; utilia solet iudicare 
quae nociua sunt qu. 127 am (inutilis, like dvtofaXtfs, carries with 
it sometimes the idea of hurtful, injurious). 

nomen, in the phrase sub nomine 4 with genitive (Plin. ep. 
Tac. lust.), is very frequent : the genitive is usually Christi ; s. n. 

1 Cf. Morin p. 103, whose list is not quite complete. I should perhaps not have 
cited the expression, which is in Tert. and Cypr., had others not done so : mysterium 
is frequent in combination with almost everything divine, dei, natiuitatis, fidei, 
diuinitatis, saluatoris, ecclesiae, cet. ; the word is almost banished from Cyprian, 
see Watson's model study (Stud. Bibl. iv p. 195). 

2 See above, p. 85. 

3 Perhaps from luu. Sat. 10, 4 ; see Classical Review for October, 1900 : erroris 
tenebrae occurs in this author, and in Aug. ep. 93, 3; see also Archiv fur latein. 
Lexikogr. xi (1898) 245. 

4 But eius nomine simply (qu. 114, p. 2343). 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 121 

Ghristi 55 A, c ; 185 A, B ; 193 A; 210 c ; 338 c cet.; 2 qu. mixt. 
10 cet.; s. n. saluatoris 56 D; 2 qu. N.T. 57; s. n. Hierusalem 81 B; 
s.filii sui n. qu. 44 ; s. n. eius qu. 99 ; s. eorum n. qu. 107 ; s. eius 
n. qu. 107 ; s. dei n. qu. 110 bis ; 127 ; s. uno misericordiae n. 166 A ; 
s. unofallacis n. idolatriae qu. 114 ; s. n.fatorum qu. 115 ; s. unius 
dei n. 2 qu. N.T. 29 (cf. with adjectives: s. uno n. qu. 102 bis', s. 
tiio n. qu. 102 ; s. eodem n. qu. 108, and the analogous expressions 
*sub uocabalo animae 127 A; sub uno uocabulo 166 A; sub uocabulo 
noctis qu. 107 (col. 2321): sub eorum specie 196 C; sub specie ido- 
lorum 99 B : sub hac significations 73 B : sub bona professions 505 B. 

notabilis 'notorious/ 'disgraceful'; with it the adverb notabi- 
liter : dignitoso enim homini negotiari deforme est et popinam 
ingredi notabile est qu. 102 (col. 2305); multum expedit nubere 
quaiu sub bona et pia professione notabiliter incedere 505 B 
(this sense of the adjective is quoted only from Rufinus, and this 
sense of the adverb is unrecorded).* 

notitia, nearly always notitia dei, of the knowledge of God 
(objectively); cognitio dei is also used : 47 A; 59 B; 98 B bis', 149 A; 
173 c; 299 c etc.; qu. 3; 4; 5; 83 bis- 114 bis', 119; 125; 127; 
2 qu. mixt. 3 etc. All these are examples of notitia. 

nouellus is used of persons in a way which is unrecorded : 
ipsi etiam nobiles, per quos superstitionis suae originem anti- 
quitati adsignant DOS nouellos dicentes 201 A; quamuis futura 
credant fideles, tamen inter ipsa primordia pressurae nouellis 
faciunt scandalum 292 C; 'uitulos' ergo dicens, populum nouel- 
lum significauit qu. 112 ex. 

noxia, which scribes were apt to confuse with noxa : ludaeos 
pro noxiis (codd.) suis traditos sibi non aduertebant 74 C; in 
Aegypto pro noxiis (codd.) patrum plexi sunt filii qu. 13. The 
author's knowledge of law would prevent him from using noxa, 
which is technically the crime of a slave. 

nudus, in the words nudis uerbis : e.g. destruitur ergo dum 
sine testimonio nudis uerbis adseritur 201 c ; hi non uerbis 
nudis sed uirtute operum spiritalium dignos se ostenderent ab 
apostolo uisitari 218 c ; qui contra disciplinam hanc sentiunt 
errare noscuntur, quia nudis uerbis adsertionem suam adlegare 
nituntur qu. 3 (col. 2218); ut hoc subiecto non nudis uerbis sed 
cum testimonio regem gloriae Christum addisceret qu. Ill 



122 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

(col. 2335); quod si nudis uerbis diceret, non erat ei credendum 
qu. 114 (col. 2342); nullis uirtutum signis adtracti sed nudis 
uerbis quae sacra uocant percepimus qu. 114 (col. 2344); cum 
nudis uerbis credidimus aut cum rebus qu. 114 (col. 2344). 

nullius egere is used of God (perhaps suggested by Act. 
xvii 25): quod quidem obsequium non illi utique proficit qui 
nullius eget 127 D; solum deum esse qui nouerit omnia consilia 
et hunc unurn esse qui nullius egeat 1C3A; ille cum sit dominus 
et nullius egeat obtulit se pro nobis 400 D etc.; deus est... in- 
aestimabilis infinitus perfectus nullius egens aeternus qu. 1 (col. 
2215); deus certe perfectio est et nullius egens qu. 48 ; haec 
enim uera laus est si sic illi proficiat quaesita dignitas ut nullius 
egeat qu. 81 ; Christus enim nullius egens pacem offert in- 
ualidis et inermibus qu. 92; si sic perfectus factus esset ut nul- 
lius egere t, non fuerat homo sed deus qu. 123. 

nunc usque = the classical usque adhuc, quoted by the lexica 
from Ammian only, but found in other authors 1 also : traduntur 
nunc usque ut contumeliis adficiant corpora sua 62 B; originis 
enim illius nunc usque sunt homines qui dicuntur corpora sua 
dehonestare inuicem 62 B; ex quibus rami aridi exstant nunc 
usque 194 A; cuius films nunc usque iniurias patitur pro nobia 
449 c (N.B. usque modo of 1 Cor. iv 13 is explained by usque 
nunc) etc.; post deum enim patrem diabolus deus dici uoluit, quod 
et nunc usque contendit qu. 113 (col. 2340); cum gestarum 
nunc usque appareat umbra... uirtutum qu. 114 (col. 2345). 

nutus, in the ablative, nutu del, 'by the will of God 2 ': eius 
(dei) nutu ac prouidentia 67 c; nutu eius (dei) 79 A; qu. 115; 
cuius (Christi) nutu 190 A; ipsius nutu dei 229 B; dei nutu 
282 B ; 331 B ; 332 B, c ; 336 c Us ; 447 D ; 467 B ; 513 c ; qu. 122 



1 I have noted it in [Aug.] serra. 164, 2 ; loh. v 17 ap. Aug. gen. Man. i 33 ; 
Aug. spec, praef. ; retr. i 13, 7 bis ; gen. ad litt. 5, 23 bis ; qu. hept. 7, 49 : usque 
nunc is in Hier. (Lewis-Short) : usque modo, in the same sense, I have found in 
Gen. xxxii 4 ap. Aug. loc. hept. i 119; loh. v 17 Vulg.; 1 Cor. iv 13 ap. Ambrst.; 
[Aug.] serm. 1, 9. 

2 The editors in one passage (qu. 55) have taken the trouble to alter nutu to 
uoluntate. The word has been left unharmed in other places. These old editors 
evidently skimmed over the pages of the works they were 'editing,' and capriciously 
made alterations here and there, which were based upon very slender knowledge of 
the language. 






COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 123 

(col. 2367); qu. 127 Us; nutu patri.s qu. 55; diuino nutu qu. 56; 
63; etc. (cf. alterius nutu qu. 75 (79)). 

oblige, metaphorically: cum obligati essent terrenis et 
carneis (Migne carnis) nexibus 236 c; totos se del rebus obli- 
gantes 332 c; quid est ut libertatern suam obligauerint uinculis 
legis 363 A ; obligatus peccatis exire ianuas tartari non potest 
446 B etc. (cf. 2 Tirn. ii 4 nemo enim militans deo obligat se ne- 
gotiis saecularibus); ita ut huic malo etiam filios suos obligarent 
qu. 98 (col. 2299); nou nulla autem sunt quae sola corpora obli- 
gant infirmitatibus qu. 115 (col. 2351); non illis mundus praestat 
per quae obligati teneantur humanis rebus obnoxii qu. 115 (col. 
2354); nos obligates impedimentis carnalibus 2 qu. N.T. 19 etc. 

oblittero : non potest enim in aliquo omne bonum penitus 
oblitterari 142 B; hos tamen omnes in baptismate oblitterari 
87 C; cum consuetude peccandi hoc oblitterasset 115 B; ut 
oblitteratis peccatis utilis reuerteretur 534 A; quia...rnala, quae 
oblitteranda erant, exemplauerunt qu. 14 pm ; non ergo iustitia 
in uindicta oblitterata est qu. 69 (a) ex ; lamentatione et gemitu 
impetrat oblitterari peccatum qu. 126 prn ; de cetero peccatis 
oblitteratis qu. 112 pr; non quod penitus (lex) oblitterata 
esset qu. 4; ut eorum opera oblitterarentur qu. 13; cum 
peccatutn suum.^sacrificii oblatione oblitterari putaret qu. 112 
(col. 2339); cum unius dei notitia oblitterata esset in mundo 
qu. 114 (col. 2346); Solon et Lycurgus multa statuerunt...quae 
paulatim... oblitterata sunt qu. 115 (col. 2350). 

obnoxius, with the dative of something evil, 'liable to (suffer)': 
damnaticmi 59 D; 504 c; legi 70 A; 86 B (codd.); peccatis 82 A, B; 
86 D; 387 D; 478 D; peccato qu. 112 bis; uiro 253 B (the irksome 
authority of the husband is referred to); maledicto 374 c; corrup- 
telae 391 B ; perditioni 104 A (codd.) ; 447 D ; qu. 102 ; 110 6w; 112; 
114; morti 108 B (codd.); 493 c; qu. 106; 115; 119; abolitioni qu. 
28; passioni qu. 28; poenae qu. 110; delictis qu. Ill; desperationi 
qu. 114; contradictioni qu. 114; seruituti qu. 115; humanis rebus 
qu. 115 ; pimitioni qu. 115 etc. (The absolute use is also common 
to both works: e.g. 108 c; 121 B; 122 c; qu. 36.) 

otiose, in the phrase *non otiose 1 , = 'without force, meaning': 

1 Also employed by Ambrose frequently, e.g. neque enim otiose dictum est 
homini (expos. Luc. prol. 6 (p. 7, 14 Schenkl)). 



124 COMPARISON OF STY^E AND LANGUAGE. 

non otiose ergo prohibitum se dicit 56 D; quos non otiose 
Romam uenisse manifestum est 188 A; quod puto non otiose 
iteratum 191 C, codd. etc. ; non otiose aliquid 1 aut inprouide 
diuina loquitur scriptura qu. 10; non otiose illud mandasse 
Joseph filiis Israhel qu. 25 ; non enim otiose hoc factum ratio 
probat qu. 108 ; etc. (Cf. nihil otiose dicit apostolus 222 c; non 
est itaque otiosum quia uoluerat ire 294 c ; unam dixit esse 
generationem requirentium deum, et quaerentium faciem dei lacob, 
quod non est otiosum qu. Ill (col. 2334); non est otiosa carnalis 
natiuitas qu. 115 (col. 2351).) 

pario, in a metaphorical sense, is a favourite word ; examples 
are : nequitia, cuius adfectus inuidiam parit et homicidia 64 c; 
omnis contentio et zelus inimicitiam parit 174 c; disceptatio 
discordiam parit 179 A; ne horum forte segnitia offensionis 
occasionem pareret discipulis 316 B cet. ; ne neglegentia pareret 
uitae praecipitium qu. 1 (col. 2315); offensio legis parit egestatem 
qu. 34; diuina temptatio perniciem parit qu. 99; uides quid 
pariat uana praesumptio qu. 101 (col. 2302); officium eius offen- 
sionem non parit qu. 102 (col. 2307) ; est corruptio quae parit 
mortem qu. 110 (col. 2330); inuidia quam parit defensio ambarum 
partium qu. 114 (col. 2343); illud adserere quod perniciem pariat 
qu. 114 (col. 2343); per luxuriam et uoluptatem fit intem- 
perantia et inquietude quae parit incontinentiam et iracundiam 
qu. 115 (col. 2350). It will be observed that the verb com- 
monly occurs in the pres. indie., third sing., and in general 
sentiments. 

Paulianus, a follower of Paul*; Pauliani (codd.) et Petriani 
et Apolloniaci dici uolebant, non Christiani 193 A (prol. 1 Cor.); 
cum apostolus condemnet si quis dicat se Paulianum aut alterius 
alicuius qu. 102 ex. 

perduro : in opere sibi decreto perdurant elementa rerurn 
60 A; si homo in eo quod factus est perdurasset 121 B; in mails 
suis perdurauit 144A; in coepto malo perdurant 145D; si in 
inimicitiis perdurauerint impietate mentis suae 170 c; qui in 
fide eius perdurat 371 c; cet.; quia in eo (peccato) perdurant 
qu. 112 ppr ; sententiam...w qua assiduis uocibus perdurantes 
qu. 65. 

1 illiquid = quicquam here, and usually, but not always, in this author. 






COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 125 

perhibeo (cf. Rom. ix 1 ; x 2) : in the phrase testimonium 
perhibere, usually with dative : 71 A; 93 c; 134 c; 152 B ; 218 A ; 
295 c; 313 B; 324 c ; 350 c ; 367 c (cf. Act. xvi 2); 373ccodd.; 
386 A; 465 B; 524 A ; qu. 44 m ; 84; (95); 115 bis; 118; 2 qu. 
N.T. 10 ; 2 qu. mixt. 8. 

permitto with the accusative and infinitive construction 1 , 
especially of our Lord in the phrase cruci figi (pati) se permisit : 
pro peccatoribus filium suum deus occidi permisit 95 c; saluator 
noster corpus suum diabolo cruci figere permisit 111 c; nt non 
illam permittat ire quo uult 119 B: quern Christus ut redimeret, 
cruci figi se permisit 240 C; permisit eos loqui linguis 271 c 
(so 272 B); deus... qui pro nobis filium suum mori permisit 400 c; 
(deus) ilium occidi permisit 416 C; ante quam se inclinari 
permitteret 432B etc.; non utique uir iustus permisisset se 
adorari qu. 27; quid causae fuit ut illo tempore cruci figi se 
permitteret dominus qu. 55; quare autem cruci figi se per- 
miserit qu. 114 (col. 2345); cum ille uoluntatis suae horam 
significauerit qua se pati permiserit qu. 115 (col. 2358); 
descendit, hoc est, pati se permisit 2 qu. V.T. 17; tempus quo 
se pati permisit qu. 104 ; etc. 

plecto, "punish," is a characteristic expression. I have found 
even the perf. partic. pass., previously unknown, *plexus (see 
below). Examples of this word are : necesse est enim seueriori 
poena ut plectatur 68 B; cum iustam esset plecti illos 102 A; 
similiter et in Aegypto pro noxiis patrum plexi sunt filii qu. 13 ; 
quam ob rem inste plectendus est quern cum constet scire ac 
facere posse bonum agit malum qu. 98 (col. 2299). 

positus, as in Ambr. Hier. supplies the place of the missing 
participle* of sum, very rarely constitutus*, which is Cyprian's 
favourite 3 . The most characteristic phrase in which it occurs is in 
cruce positus, of our Lord : in poena enim positus sine fructu 
paenitentiae paenitebit 68 A ; ne diu hie positi damnum incurrant 
promissae uitae 68 c ; in carne positi (reference to S. Paul's 'non 

1 This construction is found with all verbs of command, request, or permission: 
e.g. mando 167 A; peto 110 C; qu. 68; 112; praecipio 97 A; 173 B; postulo 143 A; 
qu. 30; 68 bis; 112; precor qu. 112; hortor qu. 102. 

2 comtitutus e.g. 218D; 362D; qu. Ill; 113; 118; 2 qu. V.T. 17. 

3 Cf. Mr E. W. Watson, St-udia Biblica iv 311, and in Wordsworth and White's 
Vulg. loh. v 13, Marx's index to Filastrius, s.v. 



126 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

estis in came' (Rom. viii 8)) dicuntur non esse in carne 126 A; 
prius in carne positi exemplo Adae uiuebamus subiecti peccatis 

127 D; in domini et creatoris potestate posita creatura non utique 
sponte subiecta est uanitati 130c; habet in labore posita (crea- 
tura) hoc solacium 131 A; in dolore positi 132 D; ludaei in lege 
positi...deteriorauerunt 147 D; in necessitate aliqua posito uel 
oppresso opem ferre misericordia est 166 B; iam in manifestatione 
positi 173 C; quis enim in poena positus iacturam non facit 
211 B; Moyse in monte posito apud deum 247 B; deus praesidia 
sua non negat in necessitate positis 293 B ; in inopia positis adfuit 
pastor deus 307 B ; in corpore positi spiritaliter uiuimus 334 B 
etc.; in postremis positi qu. 13; eis in carne adhuc positis qu. 
20 ; inter errores positi 2 qu. N.T. 15 ; amisit merit urn spiritale 
quod positus in carne quaesiuerat qu. 27; in ipsa enim necessitate 
positus qu. 118 (col. 2362); gentilem in potestate positum qu. 
35; in itinere positus qu. 61; in Galilea positus qu. 74(78); 
Aegyptius positus in obscuro qu. 97 (col. 2293); in ignoraiitia 
positus qu. 126 (col. 2376); si autem in ipsa necessitate posito 
auxilium feras qu. 83 (col. 2276); alicui in dolore posito 2 qu. 
N.T. 62; in misericordia positis lege...uti non licet aspere qu. 
104; aliis se subiciat in potestate positis qu. 110 (col. 2330) eta; 
adhuc in cruce positum 52 B; et dominus in cruce positus 
postulat pro inimicis 173 B ; quid est quod in cruce positus 
saluator ait...? qu. 67; quippe cum etiam in cruce posito in- 
sultarent ei qu. 94 etc. 

possibilitas : unus quisque iuxta uotum suum donum dei 
habet ut si uelit ipsius nutu dei possibilitatem consequatur 
229s; ambigenti Mariae de conceptu possibilitatem angelus 
praedicat qu. 51 ; sic enim deus instituit genus nostrum ut sine 
sensu nascamur, possibilitatem tamen habeamus discendi siue 
bona siue mala qu. 80. 

praeiudicare, with the dative, is common : nihil (adverbial 
ace.) ergo praeiudicatur deo patri cum adoratur Christus ut 
deus 138 D and often 1 ; illis qu. 61; filio dei qu. 125; spiritui 
sancto qu. 97 ; 125 ; uni deo qu. 97 ; ueritati qu. 84 ; 114 (p. 2345) ; 
unitati qu. 122. 

1 I have accidentally omitted to record further examples from the comm. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 127 

praerogatiua: semper ludaeum anteponit praerogatiua 
patrum 69 c; nee enirn praerogatiuam generis sequitur 70 A ; 
ex praerogatiua parentum est ut dicantur Israelitae 72 D ; non 
recipiendo saluatorem praerogatiuam patrum et promissionis 
meritum perdiderimt 138 B; sibi praerogatiuam defendunt, quod 
filii sint Abrahae 141 B ; nee enim ludaeos commendare poterit 
praerogatiua patrum 151 B; qui praerogatiua patrum digni 
erant 159 B ; filii sunt bonorum, quorum praerogatiua et merito 
plurima a deo beneficia perceperunt 161 c ; ludaei, qui sibi prae- 
rogatiuam uindicant patrum 185 A; inde enim sibi defendunt 
generis praerogatiuam 343 A; praerogatiua praeteritorum ope- 
rum uidua commendatur 504 A ; dum quidam eorum (ludaeorum) 
sibi uindicarent praerogatiuam originum patriareharum 531 B; eo 
quod commendentur praerogatiua illorum qu. 13 ; legis ueteris 
praerogatiua qu. 95 pr; (res) nulla munitur praerogatiua sig- 
norum qu. 100 ppr ; pauper enim, cum nulla praerogatiua commen- 
dareturqu. 124; quasi istud ad praerogatiuam pertineat magni- 
tudinis qu. 101 aex ; praerogatiua enim honoris eius ac meriti 
fides est qu. 117 pr; cognitio dei hanc habet praerogatiuam, 
ut...qu. 126 pr ; ut per hoc non sibi praerogatiuam generis 
uindicarent 2 qu. V.T. 6. 

praescius, of God, with *a noun clause dependent on it : 
examples are: praescius itaque deus malae illos uoluntatis 
futuros 141 c ; praescius utique quod futurus esset bonus 142 c; 
cui praescius eram quod misericordiam daturus essem 142 D; 
praescius deus errores futuros in mundo 204 B; praescius quia 
ludas proditor erat futurus 255 A ; praescius enim ludaeos se 
inimicum legis dicturos 2 qu. N.T. 8 ; and often. 

(Also absolutely used: e.g. qu. 104; 2 qu. V.T. 11, and with 
genitive, e.g.: deum qui omnium praescius est 275 A ; praescium 
se huius rei qu. 104.) 

praesens: in the adverbial phrase ad praesens 1 "for the 
present," " at present ": 67 D ; 98 A codd. ; 150 B ; 323 B ; 332 c bis ; 
378 A; 441 c; 452 D; 469 c ; 477 B; 507 D ; 508D;509c; 531 A 
cet. ; qu. 68 (6) ; qu. 99 ; qu. 105 prn ; qu. 110 (new part) ; qu. 124 ; 
qu. 126 aex ; 2 qu. mixt. 5 bis cet. 

1 in praesenti occurs, however, 98 A (but see above), 238 A, qu. 124 ter perhaps 
oftener ; hoc in tempore )( in aeternum 332 B. 



128 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

praeuaricatio : praeuaricatio Adae of Rom. v 14 (so Vulg. 
also) is referred to also 106 c mortale corpus est ex causa prae- 
uaricationis Adae, qu. 112 peccatum quod ex praeuaricatione 
Adae humano generi imperabat, and qu. 127 pm per praeuarica- 
tionem autem Adae. 

praeuarico, active (as sometimes in Old Latin versions, 
cf. Ronsch Ttala und Vulgata?, p. 298) : hie (Adam) beneficium dei 
perdidit dum praeuaricauit 97 B ; praeuaricauit enim (Adam) 
putans se hominem futurum deum 99 A ; neque circumuentus 
praeuaricasset (Adam) qu. 123 (col. 2369); Eua uirgo adhuc 
praeuaricauit 2 qu. V.T. 8; necesse est ut praeuaricetis 2 qu. 
N.T. 46 (col. 2403). 

primordium is a favourite word 1 for 'beginning'; ut ipsa 
primordia peccati ostenderet 96 c; ostendit hoc inter primordia 
fidei non requiri 161 c ; sicut in primordio epistulae memoraui 
175 B; sicut in primordio epistulae memoraui 180 c; hoc est 
quod in primordio epistulae dicit 190 c; inter ilia primordia, 
cum ambo utique essent gentiles 230 c ; quod dudum in pri- 
mordiis ipsi didicerant 255 Dcet.; lex... in primordiis suis seueri- 
tatem exercuit qu. 102 (p. 2303); in primordio renascibilitatis 
qu. 115 pr; in primordio legis 2 qu. V.T. 10; inter ipsa primor- 
dia pressurae 292 ccet. ; inter ipsa primordia (without ganitive) 
348 A; 409 C; 410 c; qu. 83 (col. 2277); qu. 87; qu. 102 (col. 
2303). 

pristinus : \\i...ad pristinum statum reuocaret meliorata 
substantia qu. 116; ad pristinum redditus statum qu. 123 pr; 
ut reddamur ad pristinum statum Adae qu. 127m; ad statum 
pristinum reuocata sunt 2 qu. V.T. 8 ; ad institutum pristinum 
reuocatur qu. 127 ex; non redeamus ad mala pristina 104 D; 
reparatus...ttc statum pristinum 121 c; ad pristinum statum 
redditus est qu. 102 ; ad statum suum pristinum reformari qu. 
102; reddita pristina uita 448 A ; pristinae calliditatis suae 
qu. 118; pristina conuersatio qu. 126; errores pristinos 381 c ; 
etc. 

professio, as a Christian term, is ignored by the ^dictionaries : 
it is very frequent ; ut in professione et fide sua essent perfecti 
55 D; ratam habentes fidei suae professionem 57 A ; qui non 

1 exordium and initiuin also appear: inter initia sua qu. 102. 






COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 



129 



solum bonae professionis sunt sed et uitae 69 A; non solum facta 
significat sed et perfidias professionem 69 B; ut professio 
nostra animi iudicio promatur 109 A; propter unius dei profes- 
sionem 138 B; gratia dei... non quaerit gemitum aut planctum 
aut opus aliquod nisi solum ex corde professionem 161 c; cum 
sint unius professionis 191 A; quidquid sub dei creatoris pro- 
fessione fit sanctum est 231 A ; nescire religionis et professionis 
suae fidem 355 B etc. ; propter quod integrae professionis sunt 
qu. 76 (72); ut professione nostra ab eo cuius mundus est con- 
demnemur qu. 79 (75); sub unius dei professione qu. 97 (col. 
2296); trinitas quam in salutari professione retinemus qu. 97 
(col. 2294); mundus hie diuersae professionis con tinet homines 
qu. 102 (col. 2310); ut...alterius essent et professionis et con- 
uersationis qu. 108 (col. 2323); ut professionem sine bona uita 
non ualde proficere ostenderet qu. Ill (col. 2333); illam (legem) 
puram et ipsi professioni condignam cognouissemus qu. 114 
(col. 2342) ; etc. 

proficio : (1) a very favourite construction is proficio ad or 
in with the Ace., expressing growth in a *bad l direction 2 : iam 
enim deprauati proficiunt in peius 80 B; in peius proficiant 
180D; quod deterius est, in peius profecisse 217 B; uidebat eos 
in peius proficere 381 c ; dant enim quibusdam occasionem, ut 
in peius proficiant 518 A; ut in peius proficiant qu. 76; ne in 
peius proficeret qu. 101 pr; sciens hoc ad iniuriam proficere 
creatoris 132s; contaminatio erit, quia ad iniuriam proficit 
creatoris 393 D; ut ad eius iniuriam proficiant 499 c ; quod 
ne ad iniuriam eius proficeret qu. 44 ex; ut deo proficiat ad 
iniuriam patris qu. 97ppr; ne ad iniuriam dei proficeret qu. 
122 pr; ne ad dei iniuriam proficeret qu. 25; quod quidem ad 
iniuriam proficit saluatoris qu. 123 aex; ad iniuriam promis- 
sionis patrum proficiebat 2 qu. N.T. 17 ; in iniuriam creatoris, 
quae proficiet ad perditionem dubitantis 178 B; non illis ad 
iustificationem proficiebant sed ad exitium qu. 44m; istud ad 

1 The use is not unknown to Scripture : plurimum enim proficiunt ad inanitatem 
2 Tim. ii 16; nequam autem homines et deceptores proficient in peius (frequent 
above) 2 Tim. iii 13. 

2 The good sense is often seen in our author, too, e.g. 106 c; 181 c; qu. 99; 
122 pr; cet.; the word is used absol. too, e.g. 364 D, 430 A, 502 A. 

S. 9 



130 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

necem proficere ludaeorurn qu. 44 pr; eis qui pro Christo tribu- 
lantur, (fides) ad salutem proficit: illis uero qui tribulant, ad 
perditionem 430 B; ut celeri motu proficiant ad perditionem 
500 D; quod sic sumunt, ut ad detrimentum proficiat 244 A ; 
ilia ei dare quae ad uitam proficiant, non ad luxum 246 A; ad 
dedecus enim et deformationem eius proficit 305 B; ne illis in 
scandalum proficeret 341 B; ad contumeliam eius proficere, 
si... 371 D; superstitione humana, quae ad nihilum proficit, nisi 
ad damnum 456 B ; mali in deterius proficiunt 522 A; ad accu- 
sationem eorum hoc proficere qu. 60 ; ut ergo ad condemnatio- 
nem proficeret ludaeorum qu. 71; ad diminutionem nostram 
hoc proficere qu. 99 ex; obsequia proficient illis ad poenam 
170 c; ad poenam proficiet, non ad praemium qu. 114 pr; ut ista 
omnia ad sanctorum proficiant gloriam, ad diaboli uero poenam 
qu. 118 ex; horum enim natiuitas proficit ad poenam qu. 127 
am ; proficiens in interitum carnis 2 qu. N.T. 49. 

(2) The second frequent construction is proficio with a 
* Dative, of persons or things 1 , (a) Dak of Persons : quod quidem 
obsequium non illi utique proficit... quod proficit nobis 127 D; 
proficit enim hominibus natis in mundo, ut...discant 130 D; 
nos quibus obsequium eius proficit 132 B ; nostra obsequia pro- 
ficient illis ad poenam 170 c; non sibi proficere vult, ne 
libertatem arguendi humiliet 243 B ; sciens hoc sibi magis pro- 
ficere ad futuram salutem 243 B; scientia... proficiens omnibus 
ad utilitatem 267 C; ut proficiat ceteris studium eius 269 A ; 
ad occultandos sensus incredulis proficiunt linguae 271 A; 
refectus est spiritus eius in his, quibus profecerant; sibi enim 
dicit datum, quod proficithis quibus uoluit 290 B; ac per hoc com- 
mendatio haec istis magis proficit 301 A; ut (euangelizare) nobis 
proficiat forte ad tempus 306 A ; ut abundans donum...multia 
proficiens afflueret... 308 D ; si...intelligitur...Corinthiis pro- 
ficere dicit 312 c; ut rnors iusti peccatoribus proficeret 
315 C; certus hoc sibi proficere apud deum 316 D; ut nobis 
proficiat 326 D; ueritas haec his magis quam ei proficeret 
338 c ; in tantum eis proficere uoluit, ut... 341 A; ne illis in 
scandalum proficeret 341 B; auxilium dei mitibus proficit, 
non elatis 348 B; commendatio enim haec istis proficit 364 D; 

1 like^rosww. 






COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 131 

ut gentibus proficeret 365 D; ut illi ad meritum proficiat 
in die iudicii 374 c ; ut non illi sed nobis proficeret. Nos 
enim etiamsi nobis non proficeret 400 D ; omnibus enim pro- 
ficit mors saluatoris 401 c; ut praedicatio ecclesiastica etiam bis 
proficiat 404 c; hoc enim dicit sibi ad uitam proficere 429 A; 
hoc secutus est quod proficeret fratribus 430 A ; eis qui pro 
Christo tribulantur ad salutem proficit: illis uero qui tribulant, 
ad perditionem 430 B ; labores eorum qui adquisiti sunt profi- 
cient eis, quorum... 442 B; nee enim sibi natiuitas sua proficit, 
sed nobis 447 B ; (discipuli) bona conuersatio proficit magistro 
471 c ; ut etiam illi proficiat, qui facit 477 B ; quamuis ad prae- 
sens proficiat suinenti, nihil tamen proderit in future danti 
477 B ; eis dicit fallaciam iniquitatis prodigiorum eius proficere 
483 A; difficile proficient audientibus 485 B ; medicina...quae 
neque dubiis proficit, neque inuitis 492 D; nee enim possunt 
bene illi proficere, qui sic ilia sumit 499 D; quod rectori plebis 
duobus proficit modis 502 A; quod non solum ordinatis pro- 
ficit, sed et plebi 506 B; pauci conderent quod pluribus posset 
proficere cum eorum ipsorum emolument*) 509 B; ad hoc enirn 
data est (scriptura), ut proficiat imperitis, et instauret deformes 
522 c ; non illis ad iustificationem proficiebant, sed ad exitium 
qu. 44m; ut passio eius proficeret nobis qu. 78; oblatio enim 
ludaeorum profecit gentibus... qu. 74(6); sic illi proficiat 
quaesita dignitas qu. 81; ut proficiat sibi qu. 92; ut deo 
proficiat ad iniuriam patris qu. 97 ppr; donum dei proficere 
posse deuoto sibi qu. 102 ex; bona eius mihi possent proficere 
qu. 102 ex; non enim erant adhuc quibus proficerent officia 
eorum qu. 106 pm; ut et nobis proficiat qu. 118 pr; donum 
dei his proficere qui... qu. 126m; quod illis proficiat ad 
salutem 2 qu. N.T. 62. (6) Dat. of Things : actus nostri iustitiae 
dei proficientes, non mundanae iustitiae 107 C; ut alimentis 
seruorum dei proficiant 132 B ; in fructibus, qui humanae pro- 
ficiunt utilitati 261 B ; ut... nihil proficeret aduentus eius 
saluti illorum 288 D; ut potestas data saluti proficiat non 
elationi 336 B ; ut proficiat saluti plebis suae 501 c ; ut saluti 
eorum proficeret 2 qu. N.T. 51 ; ut...bonum opus proficiat mer- 
cedi promissae 391 D ; uidens monita sua proficere utilitatibus 
nostris 415 A; cui rei proficit humana cupiditas...? 509 A; semen 

92 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

fluxu quodam non proficit natiuitati qu. 23pm; quod quidem 
errori profecit ludaeorum qu. 60 ; hoc proficere religion! 
qu. 102 ex. 

promereri, especially in the formula ad deum promeren- 
dum : ad deum ... promerendum suffragatore non opus est 
61 A; seruitus quae ad deum proficeret promerendum 131 B; 
ad deum promerendum animus eruditur 235 C; quaerens causas 
ad promerendum eum (Christum) 439 B ; pietas cuius opera 
multorum precibus adiuuatur ad dominum promerendum 500 B; 
ut ad dominum promerendum orationibus uacet 503 C ; qui 
propter deum promerendum uirgo manere uult 237 A; inter- 
positis temporibus ad deum promerendum 228 c codd. ; nee 
ille deum promeretur 232 B; promerebitur dominum 463 A; 
etc.; ut non utique iam multis utatur praeceptis ad deum pro- 
merendum qu. 44 (col. 2241); haec satis non faciunt ad deum 
promerendum qu. 47 (col. 2248); formam praebens mirabilium 
gestorum ad deum promerendum qu. 118 (col. 2362); ut 
uitarn suam frenaret ad promerendum eum (creatorem) qu. 
127 (col. 2379); quaestus pecuniae propter deum promerendum 
repudiatur qu. 115 (col. 2350); deum promereri 2 qu. 
N.T. 34. 

propensior (compar. adj.) and propensius (compar, adv.) are 
both characteristic : the positive and superlative of both are 
absent 1 : (a) Adj. tanto magis in dei rebus propensiores essemus 
129 C; propensius enim malum est dignitatem perdidisse, quam 
non habuisse 138B; propensiores enim erant in dei deuotione 
188 A; ostendit in qua re melius est esse propensiorem 229 B ; 
sub creatoris ueneratione nati sunt propensiore ex parte 231 A; 
propensiores et uigilantes in diuinis operibus 234 D; ut monitis 
eius... propensior em poenam niereamur inoboedientes 248 A; 
propensior in hac parte fit 268 D; ut propensiores simus in 
eius amore 303 B ; ut enim deuotionem suam adhuc propensiorem 
in dei rebus ostendat 309 A; in dei rebus propensior erat 322 A ; 
eadem fecit, quae faciebant apostoli, qui propensiores (v. I. 
potiores) uidebantur 339 B; uerum est quia faciliores et propen- 
siores in bono circa fratres esse debemus 391 D; propensiores 

1 An interesting study would be that of adverbs used almost entirely in the 
compar. and superl., or one only of these two, e.g. expressius in Aug. cet. 






COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 133 

fient circa excolendam religionem...propensiores fient necessario, 
cum cognouerint 396 D; nunc alacritatem suam propensiorem 
factam ostendit 443 A ; hos significat propensiorem affectum 
habere circa eos, qui... 444 C; quanto magis propensior erit in 
del deuotione, quern... 463 A; propensiori delicto rei facti 483 B ; 
propensior ad peccandum est qu. 1 pm ; in dei creatoris deuo- 
tione propensior qu. 25; propensiores in idolis erant qu. 33; 
in eo enim quis iudicatur in quo propensior est qu. 73; erat 
enim propensior in seueritate qu. 102 pr; propensiores in 
exercitio implendae legis qu. 110 ex ; tanto magis propensior cre- 
dentis est merces qu. 122am 1 ; propensiori dei testimonio qu. 
127 ex. (b) Adv. 2 cum utique propensius deberet seruiri deo 
quam diabolo 109 C ; solemus enim in alienis causis propensius 
uigilare 131 C ; propensius domino nostro seruire debemus 227 D; 
diminuta enim sollicitudine saeculi, in dei rebus propensius 
uigilatur 235 C ; ut... propensius illi seruiant 313 c ; sua pro 
eis impendere et propensius impendere (with reference to 
"superimpendam" of 2 Cor. xii 15) paratum se dicit 352 A; ut 
propensius gratias agant deo per Christum 400 B; propensius 
agnita uoluntate dei 445 c ; commonet tamen ut propensius 
id agant 474 A ; propter dei timorem propensius obsequuntur 
suis uiris 529 A. 

propositum : ut impleret propositum uoluntatis suae 55 c ; 
propositum et uotum suum ostendit 56 B ; ut in proposito 
erroris et malignitatis permaneant 96 A ; propositum gratiae 
dei erga genus humanum ostendit 96 C; ut et nos de proposito 
nostro abstrahat 170 D ; propositum suum non custodit 175 c; 
ut unus quisque in proposito cordis sui maneat 180 B; remitti 
illos in proposito cordis sui 180 c ; confirmans propositum 
eorum in Christo 184 B; dei enim propositum est ut ueritatem 
eius...disceremus 202 A; si permaneat in proposito regenerationis 
208 B ; propositum liberum est 214s; propositum religionis 
custodit 231 A ; quo modo propositum deo deuotum custodiat 
236 A ; significat confabulatione malorum hominum euerti posse 
bonurn propositum 281 c, and often: ut propositum mysterii 

1 magis is elsewhere found joined to a compar. : see above ; but, in the absence 
of propensus, it is here more natural than in other cases. 

2 Not, apparently, in Quaest. but the examples are added for completeness. 



134 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

impleretur qu. 54; ut mali propositi impleant uoluntatem qu. 
115 (col. 2348); propositnm deo dicatum qu. 118 (col. 2362); 
qui degenerem dicunt spiritum sanctum del pulsant pro po si turn 
qu. 125 (col. 2375) etc. etc. The word is not found in the plural 
in either work. 

protectio, in the phrase del protectio (Ps. xc 1) : tutus enim 
est protectione et misericordia dei 393 A etc. ; quippe a quibus 
dei protectio amota uidetur qu. 27 ; securi de eius (i.e. dei) 
protectione qu. 115 (col. 2359): (cf. protectione diuina qu. 
36: precibus deum inuocabant ad protegendum populum suum 
qu. 46 (col. 2246)). 

prudens in the expression prudentes mundi 1 : ad con- 
fusionem pruderitium mundi 94 B ; o prudentes mundi, qui 
putant... 125 B ; ne stulti uiderentur prudent ib us mundi 198 B; 
prudentibus mundi qu. 109 ppr; prudentes mundi qu. 100; 
ad confusionem prudentium mundi qu. 121 (cf. sapientes mundi 
in carne sunt 125 c; sapientibus mundi qu. 100; quidam mundi 
sapientes qu. 117 am; sophistae et nobiles mundi qu. 114 ex); 
per prudentiam mundi 194 B; mundi sapientia et ratio 198 B. 
Cf. prudentes saeculi 53 D; qu. 109. 

*pseudo-apostolus occurs in both works with its parts sepa- 
rated: pseudo enim apostoli erant qui et nocebant illis 320 c ; 
pseud o enim apostoli forrnam auaritiae dari sibi optabant 469 B ; 
pseudo enim apostoli, cum circumuenirent gentiles credentes,... 
2 qu. mixt. 10. (Some MSS in the passages of the commentaries 
give pseudo apostoli enim.) 

quaestionem facere : de edenda carne et non edenda quaes- 
tiones fiebant 48 A ; non habet unde incipiat facere quaes- 
tionem 88 B ; quaestio hinc fieri non debet 175 D; eadem dicit 
non debere fratri... fieri quaestionem 180 A etc.; non est de hac 
re facere quaestionem qu. 103; quaestiones non de deo fiunt 
sed de uerbo dei qu. 122 (col. 2366); sic solent dubii facere 
quaestiones 2 qu. N.T. 46 etc. 

quantum ad. . .pertinet, as a parenthetical expression, the 
origin of French quant d, occurs frequently. Though the verb is 

1 The expression is derived from 1 Cor. i 20 ; 21 ; iii 19, where, however, 
sapientia, not prudentia, is the word; prudentia carnis, however, is in Rom. viii 6 
and is glossed = sapientia by our writer. Rom. viii 7, too, has sapientia carnis. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 135 

omitted in some authors, it is always present here. Examples 
are : q. a d locum istum p. 95 A ; q. ad sensum et prouidentiam 
p. 120B; q. ad te p. 169c; q. ad ludaeorum uotum p. 205 B ; q. 
ad honorificentiam dei p. 209 D ; q. ad ministerium p. 209 D ; q. ad 
...magistrum p. 229 A; q. ad mentem loci p. 247 D; q. ad idoneos 
praedicatores p. 295 B ; q. ad praesentem uitam p. 318 B; 501 A ; 
q. ad ludaeos p. 375 A; q. ad legis culturam p. 438 A ; q. adpersonas 
p. 472 D; q. ad scientiam eius pertinebat 497 D; q. ad praesentem 
uitam p. ... q. uero ad promissam salutem 501 A (this and the 
following examples are not really exceptions to the rule above 
given) ; q. ad aetatem p., iuuenis erat ; q. ad mores et conuersa- 
tionem, senior et grauis 501 B ; q. ergo ad comparationem cete- 
rorum p. ... q. uero ad rem ipsam 514 A ; q. ad tempus p. illud 
ludaeorum 531 B ; q. ad ordinem lectionis p. non q. ad dignitatem 
qu. 107 ; q. ad mundi rationem p. qu. 107 ; q. enim p. ad Petrum 
qu. 104 ; q. ad numerum p. qu. 87 ; q. ad bonam mentem p. qu. 97 ; 
q. ad sensum p. qu. 78; 97; q. ad causam nostram p. qu. 102; 
q. ad conscientiam eius p. ... q. autem ad praescientiam qu. 11 ; 
q. ad historian! p. qu. 31; 62; 112; q. ad personam p. qu. 97; 
q. ad leges Romanas pertinuit qu. 65 ; q. ad euangelistam p. 2 
qu. mixt. 2 ; q. ad fidem ueri p. qu. 71 ; q. ad nomen p. qu. 108; 
q. p. ad ritum ludaeorum qu. 115; q. ad reliquas p. partes qu. 
115; q. ad effectum p. qu. 122; q. ad uerba p. qu. 10; qu. 2 
mixt. 7. 

qui enim fieri potest ut ? is found several times in the 
MSS of both works, but is generally corrupted by scribes and 
editors; e.g.: qui fieri poterat ut tempore Christi prohiberen- 
tur? 98 A; qui enim poterat fieri ut sine apostolis regnarent ? 
215 D; qui enim (quomodo autein Migne) fieri potest ut auarus 
fidelis sit? 509 D; qui (Migne quomodo) enim fieri poterat ut 
arte magica adtraheretur uir...? qu. 27; qui fieri potest ut 
ista, quae clemens est, non recipiat paenitentes? qu. 102 (p. 2304); 
si enim apud ueteres nostros paenitentia habuit locum, qui 
(quomodo Migne) fieri potest ut hoc tempore locum non habeat? 
qu. 102 (col. 2306); qui (quomodo Migne} enim fieri potest 
ut aliquis super haec sit quae colit ? qu. 84; also qu. 109 (p. 2327, 
4) cod. Quo modo in the same phrase is common in both works 
(e.g. 94 D ; 434 D ; qu. 46 (posset) ; 66 (poterat). 



136 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

refuto ' to reject ' (oblata offers, gifts) : donum promissum 
patribus refutauit 69 C; non pecuniam refutaret 352 c; gloria 
pseudo-apostolorum in pecuniis erat accipiendis, ideo apostolus hoc 
refutauit 341 D; oblatos sumptus refutauit 340 B; non refu- 
tabat at sumptus oblatos 241 c; si praepositus ideo oblata 
refutet, ut libere arguat 353 B etc.; utquid Abel sacrificium 
acceptatum est et Cain refutatum? qu. 5 (col. 2220) ; ut etiam 
oblata munera refutarent qu. 115 (col. 2350); illorum testimo- 
nium refutauit 2 qu. mixt 8; Dauid (genit.) precem suscepit et 
Saul (genit.) refutauit qu. 18 etc. 

*remissa 1 (plur. neut. = remissio*) : et necesse est ut sit sub 
lege, quam diu remissa non accipit 108 A; quando coeperunt 
homines remissa (Migne remissam) peccatorum accipere 514 B; 
sciens dominus conuersis dari debere peccatorum remissa (Migne 
remissionem) qu. 102 (col. 2304); duae causae sunt quae habent 
peccatorum remissa (Migne remissam 3 ) qu. 126 (col. 2377) ; 
cognitio dei hanc habet praerogatiuam ut peccatorum consequatur 
remissa (Migne remissam) qu. 126 (col. 2376). 

*renascibilitas 4 : in caritate renascibilitatis!89A; forma 
renascibilitatis est a Christo coepta qu. 50 (a); renascibili- 
tatis donum qu. 54; in primordio renascibilitatis qu. 115 pr; 
non ergo accusat renascibilitas natiuitatem qu. 127 m. 

reparo, used reflexively or in the passive, of ' moral reforma- 
tion': examples are: ut possent reparare se ad uitam 113 B; 
digesto enim impedimento reparat se uoluntas robustiore uirtute 
229 c; qui enim semel peccauerit reparare se debet ne denuo 
peccet qu. 1 (col. 2215); ne in re aspera uictus abscedat et fiat 
reus, uix aut tarde se reparans qu. 1 (col. 2216) ; ut post peccata 



1 For the form see C. Weyman in Archiv /. lat. Lexikogr. ix 138; Kev. E. W. 
Watson in Studio, Biblica iv 249, n. 2: add Aug. Migne P. L. XLIII 217 last line, 
and 218, 1. 3 (in cod. Bodl. Laud. 130). 

- Remissio is of course very much commoner (e.g. 79 c; 87 D; 92 c; 102 A; 
104 A, B; 108s; 110 A; lllcjqu. 102; 126; 2 qu. N.T. 29). 

3 This example of the feminine form, derived doubtless from Paucker, must be 
struck out of Benoist-Goelzer's Dictionnaire. The fern, form occurs, however, 
385 B (codd.). 

4 Cf. Morin p. 102, who quotes examples of nascibilitas, innascibilis and innasci- 
bilitas from Isaac ex-Iudaeo : nascibilis is in Tert. ; innascibilis is in Tert., Victorin. 
Petab., Hil. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 137 

haberent quo modo se repararent qu. 102 (col. 2308); qui se 
dolet uictum reparat se qu. 126 (col. 2376); de hoc spes est quia 
potest se reparare qu. 126 (col. 2376); ut autem totus homo 
minime reparatus fuisset Christi gratia ad statum pristinum 
121 c; per ipsum reparatum est genus humanum 147 B ; eruti 
a lege quae illos habebat obnoxios et releuati et reparati... 
wtOs. . .repugnarent 108 c; ut uirtute eius reparati fortiter re- 
pugnemus qu. 102 (col. 2306); Niniuitis, peccata deflentibus, 
imminente morte reparata est uita qu. 102 (col. 2305); nulli 
est ambiguum idcirco in ipso reparatum esse quod fuerat 
amissum qu. 108 (col. 2324) ; omnibus maculis ablutus et repa- 
ratus qu. 112 (col. 2338); neque emortua et dissoluta corpora 
rursus reparari ad uitam qu. 114 (col. 2344) ; animae autem 
peccato maculatum est corpus quod reparat o et meliorato per 
fidem consilio abluitur qu. 127 (col. 2382). 

retracto, a legal term, 'to revise' (a judgment): iustus est 
deus: scit enim quid faciat, nee retractandum est eius iudicium 
142 c; in deo cuius consilium retractari non potest 212 c; hoc 
placuit deo cuius consilium retractari non potest 395 c etc. : dei 
iudicium retractari non conuenit qu. 18; ut iudicium dei 
retractari prohiberet qu. 75 (79); dei uoluntatem non debere ab 
homine retractari qu. 109 (col. 2326); factum eius retractari 
nefarium ducit qu. 115 (col. 2347); uerba saluatoris retractare 
infidelis est 2 qu. N.T. 20; horum testimonium retractandum 
putat 2 qu. N.T. 26. 

rubor: ut ipso rub ore non se iactarent 161 D; plures credunt, 
quam non credunt, ad illorum ruborem 201 B; non ut ruborem 
uobis faciam 217 B; ad ruborem eorum ait 223 B; ruborem ergo 
incussit eis 341 A; ruborem illis incutit 382 B ; ut duplici genere 
(= modo) confundantur, et de errore suo et rubore apostoli, quern 
patiebatur apud eos 383 c ; nee in apostolo est, quod ad ruborem 
pertineat 513 c cet. ; cui ignoscitur, non est sine rubore, nisi loco 
suo fuerit redditus, ut dignitas loci ruborem excuset qu. 112m; 
etc. 

securus de (Cic. Liv. etc.) is frequent; e.g.: 79 c; 94 A ; 

114 D; 135 c; 178 B; 190 c; 195 c; 215 D; qu. 14 ; 111; 112; 

115 ; 117 ; 119 ; 124 ter ; 126. The word is also often used abso- 
lutely, and is even followed by quia (qu. 100). 



138 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

spurcus, as *substantive : sententia paganorum turpis et 
foeda est, maxime quae in Phrygia inuenta est, in qua nisi spurcus 
intersit, sacramentum mutum est et torpescit religio 110 A; et 
maligni et spurci babent pacem .356 D ; meretrices et spurci 
2 qu. N.T. 53. 

stupor (especially modified by quidam): stupore quodam 
hebetasse ad honorandum deum 60 A; stupore quodam non con- 
siderant 71 D etc.: omnes enim stupore quodam in morte 
domini dubitarunt qu. 77 (73); res enim inaudita...stuporem 
hominibus faciebat qu. 91 (col. 2283); admirationem autem et 
stuporem facit cum dicitur quod auditum est numquam qu. Ill 
(col. 2335); mirabatur enim stupore hebetatus 2 qu. N.T. 9. 

subaudio : in the 3 sing. pres. indie, pass, subauditur 1 , " is 
understood," only: quid " dominus corpori " ? subauditur : immor- 
talitatem resuscitato praestabit 225 D ; " et uirum uxorem non 
dimittere ": subauditur autem, excepta fornicationis causa 230 B ; 
si enim ii...facultatem habent accipiendi, quanto magis nos ? et 
subauditur, uestri apostoli 242 c ; "quid et nos periclitamnr ? " 
et subauditur: nisi quia speramus futuram resurrectionem 281 A; 
"gratia domini nostri lesu Christi uobiscum": et subauditur, 
qui diligitis dominum lesum 290 D cet. ; hoc est " neminem 
uoluit scire": et subauditur, a suis noluit nuritiari alicui... 
qu. 77 (a). 

subiaceo, metaphorically, with the dative : examples are : 
(uita) quae occasui subiacet 107 B; uitiis et peccatis subiace- 
bamus 112c; ut uoluntati subiaceant 175 D; (cum ipse pro 
aliena salute periculis cottidie et morti subiaceat Prol. 2 Cor. in 
printed editions) 2 ; sic enim ea condidit ut uoluntati eius sub- 
iaceant qu. 115 (col. 2352); in saeculo sunt obprobrio et iniuriis 
subiacent qu. 126 (col. 2376). 

subicio =" to add" 3 (in statement), is a very favourite expres- 
sion : a common phrase is subiecit, with or without dicens 



1 See subintellego below. 

2 I have rejected the prologue in Journ. Theol. Studies (Oct. 1902), but give 
this quotation from it, as it may belong to another edition. 

3 Not to the exclusion however of addo, e.g. 346 B; 366 B; subdo, e.g. qu. 
112 pm; adicio, e.g. 80 A; 288c; qu. 77; qu. 106pm. In the sense, "I subject," 
subicio occurs 360 c bis, 363 A, 399 A cet., qu. 80 (a) qu. 82 pr. cet. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 139 

added: post autem subiecit etiam de eis gentibus, quae non 
credunt 72 A ; ac per hoc subiecit: "si autem..." 78 A ; c; 
ideoque subiecit "quorum damnatio iusta est " 79 B ; peiora 
subicere 80 A; other examples are : 101 B; 131 A ; 167 B; 174 C; 
191 C , et quae esset subiecit, dicens " hoc autem dico..." 196 C; 
et ideo non subiecit, dicens 230 B ; et quae sit subicit, dicens 1 : 
" numquid non. . . ? " 241 c ; other examples are 242 A ; 252 c; 276 D; 
280 c; 290 c; 305 B; 309 A; 316 B; 328 c ; 341 A ; 349 c ; 361 c; 
367 D; 372 B; 384ccet. cum dixisset,... subiecit qu. 26; per id 
quod subiecit, dicens qu. 39; subiecit euangelista dicens qu. 
57; denique subiecit... inquit qu. 59; et subiecit "in testimo- 
nium illis" qu. 60 (a); item subiecit quia qu. 93 pr; statim 
subiecit, dicens qu. 93ppr; et subiecit... qu. 97 pr; et sub- 
iecit... qu. 107 in cet. 

Specially characteristic is the use of the neut. plu? participle 
perfect passive, as a *noun, in the sense of " the following," " what 
follows": subiecta (-orum), nearly always in in subiectis : 
his subiectis cumulauit ad poenam hebetudinis 61 B; quod in 
subiectis monstrabimus 98 D; possunt tamen credere, quod ex 
subiectis aperit 141 c; exemplum Isaiae prophetae in subiectis 
ponit 160D; quorum doctrinam prauam in subiectis significat 
196 C; qualis autem ipse erat, mox in subiectis ostendit 229 A ; 
quae sit scientia, non statim dicit, sed in subiectis ostendit 
dicens 238 B; per haec subiecta declarauit in idolio edere... 
mimicum esse deo 251 D; hoc mox in subiectis absoluit 264 B; 
uerum hoc ad meritum non ascribi sed ad dei gloriam subiectis 
ostendit 265 A; quod supra significant et adhuc in subiectis 
plenius manifestat 334 A; in quo erratum est, in subiectis ostendit 
370 A ; et in subiectis: "tollite portas..." 404 c ; quod in sub- 
iectis aperit, dicens 432 c; statim ipsum in subiectis esse deum 
agnoscimus 475 B; quo ordine populnm disciplina ecclesiastica 
imbueret, in subiectis ostendit 491 B; si tamen non ab iis 
declinet, quae in subiectis habentur 495 A ; et in subiectis... 

1 Cf. Aug. ep. 98, 3 noil eovum defensionem continue subiceret, dicens. 

2 155 c hoc subiectuin in Isaia legitur "dedit illis..." is perhaps an example of 
the sing. 

3 A solitary example of the phrase in the literal sense is : ut lux, quae in 
supernis erat, tieret in subiectis, ut lampas in domo qu. 107 aex. 



140 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

inquit qu. 41 ppr ; et in subiectis: "Ego dedi..." qu. 44 m ; 
in subiectis propheta testatur dicens qu. 47 aex ; hunc sonum in 
subiectis uocem appellat qu. 59 (a); denique in subiectis ait 
qu. 91 pm ; et in subiectis: "Ego locutus sum..." qu. 97 pm ; 
quod in subiectis pandemus qu. 101 pr; ait enim in subiectis 
qu. 102am; sicut in subiectis apparet qu. 106 pr ; et in sub- 
iectis "et die tertio cet." qu. 107 m (codd.); et in subiectis... 
inquit qu. 122 am ; et in subiectis qu. 122 aex; et in subiectis 
2 qu. V.T. 12; cf. fit quaestio...de subiectis qu. 110 (the newly 
discovered part in Journ. TheoL Stud. Oct. 1904). 

subintellego : esp. in the form subintelligitur : et sub- 
intelligitur : quid est ut uos... 366 c ; quia supereminentis 
est scientiae, et subintelligitur humanae 406 c ; haec in prima 
tabula contineri subintelliguntur 422 A cet.; nam aliquando 
compendio loquitur scriptura, quae subintelligi uult ex proposita 
ratione qu. 16; sine dubio per compendium dixit hoc saluator, ut 
subintelligantur sacerdotes ludaeorum qu. 16; multa enim 
subintelligi uult scriptura qu. 26. 

subintro (see Benoist-Goelzer 1 s. u.); subintrantibus gen- 
tibus quae sine deo prius erant 141 c 2 etc. ; non aliter principi 
tenebrarum nisi per noctem potuit subintrari qu. 64; si dominum 
non uidisset subintrantem qu. 64; quo modo quos male tenebat 
amitteret et subintraretur ei qu. 83 (col. 2277); illud autem 
quo modo subintrauit quod tradidit Moyses ? qu. 115 (col. 2349); 
si per sensus non subintrarent peccata ad animam qu. 115 (col. 
2351); per mortem ergo morti interitus subintrauit qu. 116; 
ut alii significarentur subintrare 2 qu. V.T. 6 etc. 

sublimo : honore patrum sublimantur 75 A ; omnes aut 
confundi propter diffidentiam dicit aut sublimari causa creduli- 
tatis 151 B ; qui nulla commendatione sublimati sunt 159 c etc. ; 
et patrum et sua iustitia sublimantur qu. 14; quanto magis qui 
potiores sublimandi sunt qu. 101 (col. 2302); quorum increduli- 
tate plus sublimatur fidelissimus Abraham qu. 117 (col. 2361) etc. 

subsequor : in the phrase paenitentia subsequente : si... 

1 Georges gives 'eccl.' merely. 

2 Cf. Gal. ii 4. 

3 The best collection of examples of this word is in Mayor's Latin Heptateuch, 
p. 79, 15 ff. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 141 

erubesceret,...non interiret, paenitentia subsequente 219 c ; 
ut...Nineuitis ignosceretur paenitentia subsequente qu. 102 
(p. 2306); quia paenitentia subsequente erratum suum ama- 
rissime fleuit qu. 102 (p. 2304); qui paenitentia subsequente 
circumuentum se dolet qu. 110 (Journ. Theol. Stud. Oct. 1904). 

suffragium simply = " help " J ; saluatorern ergo relictum nobis 
dicit ad suffragium uitae 147 A ; ubi enim deficiebat humanum 
eis suffragium, aderat Christus 246 D ; sequebatur enim ut 
humanis suffragiis deficientibus adesset ad auxilium tribuendum 
272 D; sanctorum suffragio 328 A ; ut dei suffragio liberaretur 
348 A; uidens enim ex nulla parte se habere suffragium 503 B; 
ab aduersa parte suffragium quaerit 526 A etc.; nullum suffra- 
gium habet iustitia qu. 27; ab idolis suffragia requirentes qu. 
44 (col. 2240); ut...humilitate suffragii quaereret a quo solue- 
retur qu. 79 (75); nullo requisite suffragio qu. 81 (col. 2275); 
ut nullius lateris esset suffragium qu. 85: (compare sujjragor 
(always abl. absol. pres. pcpl. plur.) qu. 14; 120; 124 ; suffragator 
61 A). 

suggero and suggestio are characteristically employed of the 
actions of the Evil One and those under his influence ; dum mala 
suggerit 119 D; ut suggestiones aduersarii reprimere non 
posset 116 B; ut decipiat hominem suggestionibus malis 118 B; 
diaboli qui per subiectam sibi carnem suggestiones malas 
ingerit animae 121 A; animus... spiritu sancto adiuuante malas 
suggestiones potest spernere 121 B; ut de suggestionibus 
diaboli non sit sollicitus 122 A; qui suggestion! quae efficitur 
per carnem obtemperat 124 C etc.: inimicis qui suggesserunt 
faciendum quod contrarium est qu. 115 (col. 2351); numquid 
aliquis ad aliquam rem alicui dedito aliud suggerit qu. 115 (col. 
2351); suggerit mala contra eundem spiritum 2 qu. N.T. 61 (in 
the same document occurs the opposite : spiritus enim bona 
suggerit); officialitas quae per suggestiones malas seu bonas 
nunc plurimum potest qu. 101 (col. 2302). In comparing the 

1 Auxilium is frequent ; adiutorium, which occurs hundreds, perhaps thousands, 
of times in Augustine, is found only five times in the Quaestiones, and a correspond- 
ing number of times in the commentaries. It may be recalled that the comitia had 
ceased to meet in the early part of Tiberius' principate (A.D. 1437). The word 
suffragium, if kept, had to change its meaning. 



142 COMPAKISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

large number of examples from the commentaries with the few in 
the Quaestiones, it must be observed that most of the examples in 
the former work occur in one context (in Rom. vii and viii). 

superaddo : nunc enumerat omnia mala quae illis super- 
addita sunt 64 B; superadde adhuc ad caput primi mensis dies 
septem et decem qu. 95 (col. 2290). 

supercaelestis 1 : qui supercaelestia cogitant 458 A; quae 
inuisibilia et supercaelestia sunt qu. 84 pr; diuinum et super- 
caeleste qu. 95 am. 

supergredior : supergredi enim uidetur ipsam iustitiam, 
cum, quod licet, ut melior sit, non facit caelestis iustitiae imitator 
168 D; incipit iterum nox de magriitudine, qua supergre- 
ditur diem, minorari usque ad finem quarti temporis qu. 106 
(col. 2317). 

supra memoro 2 : ex supra memorata praescientia dicens 
144 D; sicut supra memoraui 145 B; 148 B; 161 B; 198 c; 212 B; 
243 B ; 266 A ; 267 B ; 349 c ; 389 c ; 478 B ; qu. 93 (a) ex ; 2 qu. 
mixt. 6; hoc dicit quod supra memoraui 157 B; 298 c ; 399 D; 
illos autem quos supra memorauit 159 D; sensus et ratio est, 
quam supra memoraui 247 B; ita ut...sanctis proficeret supra 
memoratis 287 D; secundum quod supra memoraui 324 A ; in 
tribulatione Pauli et Sileae, quam supra memoraui 325 B ; hos 
fratres memorat, quos supra 330 B; ilia... quae supra memorat 
346 D ; qui legem per supra memoratos angelos acceperunt 
377A; hoc dixit quod supra memoraui 378 B ; lex... haec, quae 
supra memorauit, fructificat 389 B; hoc est quod supra sum- 
matim memoraui 401 B; sicut et supra memoraui 433 B; istos 
et potiores supra memoratis fratribus ostendit 444 c ; hoc est 
quod supra memorauit 448 C; desiderii supra memorati causas 
expressit 471 D; quam regni Romani abolitionem superius in- 
tellegendam memoraui 482 B; illi...quos supra memorat 51oB; 
sicut superius memoraui 519 B; cet. ; ex parte...qua supra 
memoraui qu. 82 (a); ut supra memorauimus qu. 95pm; ad 
decem et nouem supra memoratos qu. 95pm; sicut supra 

1 Georges 'Eccl.'; Benoist-Goelzer, 'Hier.' 

2 With variations, such as : sicut in primordio epistulae memoraui 175 B; *prae- 
memoro 362s; supra dico, e.g. qu. 82; 2 qu. N.T. 11. Two exx. of compar. superius 
also are noted in Comm. , and 1 in Qu. 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 14:3 

memoratum est qu. 98 pm; supra memorati ludaei qu. 102m; 
haec omnia supra memorata qu. 107 pm ; quae supra memorata 
sunt qu. 110 pr; hoc est quod superius memorauit qu. Ill pm ; 
principes supra memorati qu. Ill aex ; hie sensus est quern 
supra memoraui qu. 112pm; Herodes filius supra memorati 
Herodis 2 qu. N.T. 11; talis est etiam supra memoratorurn 
uersutia qu. 127 ppr ; cet. 

suscipio 1 (with a personal object), and snsceptus (subst.), 
cum suscipit confugientes ad se, iustitia dicitur, quia non susci- 
pere iniquitas est 83 A; aliquanti exierunt cum illis in heremum 
Aegyptii, quos suscipere iubentur 85 A; generi quod te ut ex 
malo bonus esses suscepit 158 D; regressi ad fidem suscipientur 
cum laetitia 161 c ; credentes suscipi, ut saluarentur 163 B ; 
dominum nostrum Iesum...suscepturum nos in adfectu caritatis 
suae 320 A; Titus ab apostolis...susceptus est incircumcisus 
366 c ; cet.; istos in filios suscepit, quos uidet imitatores esse 
suae gloriae qu. 44m; ultro...uenientes ad fidem non suscipere 
inuidiae erat qu. 73 (77); qui confitentes sibi suscipit peccatores 
qu. 112; quis enim medicorurn non arguat susceptum suum 
neglegentius se tractantem 293 A ; numquid si malae uitae sit 
aduocatus, contra susceptum eius pronuntiabitur ?...hoc est 
officium aduocati...ut suscepti sui causam peroret...obesse causae 
suscepti...suscipiuntur a iudice (and thrice more in this cui.) 
qu. 102 ex cet. 

tango 'touch on/ 'allude to,' 'strike': tangens et Romanes 
ut his oboediant quos ad profectum gentium audiunt laborare 188 A; 
per quod etiam tangit illos quos neque Christus miserat, neque 
uerum erat quod dicebant 193 c; nunc hos tangit qui in idolio 
recumbentes putabant non esse peccatum 247 B ; quos occulte 
tangit 344 A; tangit horum contumaciam qui emendari nequi- 
uerant Prol. 2 Cor. (/. T. S. IV (Oct. 1902) 90) etc. ; nunc ipsa 
genera peccatorum tangit qu. Ill (col. 2333); ipsum ratio 
tangebat qu. 113 (col. 2340); auctorem tangit uituperatio qu. 
115 (col. 2348); etiam nunc lex tangitur qu. 115 (col. 2355) 
etc. 

1 Cf. susceptus subst. = " patient (of a physician)," 293 A; for which add also 
Migne xvn 659 A to lexx. In above sense, we have in susceptione hominis M. xvn 
1197 c. 



144 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

tegmen : in the phrase, sub tegmine 1 , used *metaphorically 
sub tegmine continentiae alias decipiunt 234 A; sub tegmine 
melioris spei uitam et conuersationem suam mundiali cura et 
sollicitudine occupantes 236 c; sub tegmine simulacrorum dia- 
bolus colitur 249 D; sub tegmine amicitiae lateat hostis qu. 
109 pm. 

tempus : the phrase ad tempus : ad tern pus caecatos illos 
ostendit 159 D; illos quos excaecauit ad tempus 160 A: ad 
tempus caecitatis obtunsio data est ludaeis 160 B; qui ad tempus 
aliquo pacto euadunt 171 B; etsi seruus sit ad tern pus... libertus 
fit domini 232 c ; dei uirtute sine elementorum commixtione ad 
tempus creata 246 C; ut semper irnitentur, non ad tempus, sicut 
pridem 383 B; quamuis enim deus haec dederit, sed ad tempus 
401 B cet. ; ad tempus non intelligi qu. 51(6); ad tempus 
uindicet qu. 68; data ad tempus est 2 qu. N.T. 15 cet. 

tergiuersatio 2 is a favourite word : examples are : neque 
tergiuersatione aliqua poterat tegi crimen 219 B; tergiuersa- 
tione hoc agere apostolum adserebant 353 A; atrocissimos hostes 
et omni tergiuersatione callidos 424 A ; alius qui calliditate 
tergiuersationis rem ueneno plenam . proponit, ut est Arrius 
et Fotinus 531 B; ut omnem tergiuersationem cauillationis ex- 
cludat 88 B ; qui per potentiam leges contempserunt aut tergiuer- 
satione inluserunt qu. 4; aliud iterum adsolent sua tergiuersa- 
tione proponere qu. 97 (col. 2294); ut hac tergiuersatione 
fructum amputet paenitentiae qu. 102 (col. 2304); quia enim 
aperte repugnare non audet auctori, tergiuersatione id agit ut 
et deo iniuriam faciat qu. 115 (col. 2347). 

titulo (verb): tarn enim deuota uidetur fuisse, ut omnis domus 
eius signo titulata esset crucis 466 B; hie liber euangelium est 
quod CATA IOHANNEM titulatur (Migne intitulatur) qu. 76 (72) : 
psalmus quinquagerisimus titulatus est (Migne intitulatus est) 
qu. 112 (p. 2335). 

titulus in the ablative (as in Livy) : prior peccans mortem 

1 Cf. apud nos nihil astute nihil sub *uelamine 271 B ; quasi sub uelamine 482 B ; 
diabolus sub uelamine latens qu. 27, quae sub uelamine erant qu. 72 (76) ; quasi sub 
uelamine erat intellegentia eius 2 qu. V.T. 3. 

2 The scribes sometimes write as two words, not knowing the existence of tergi- 
uersor. Tergiuersator appears also, e.g. 481 c; qu. 14. 



COMPAKTSON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 145 

nobis hereditatis titulo dereliquit 127 o ; his duobns titulis sub- 
tilitatem fallaciae suae prodidit inprotiidus satanas qu. 27 ; strange 
examples of the word are: signa temporum certis titulis neces- 
saria qu. 106 (p. 2319, 2); nariis titulis obsequentes 500 c. 

torpesco in connexion with the opposite idea, uigeo (uigor) 1 : 
ne causa uentris uigor euangelicae ueritatis torpesceret 225 c; 
ne uigor euangelicae auctoritatis torpesceret 242 D; ne uigor 
euangelicae potestatis torpesceret 340 c; numquid utile corpus 
est, cuius quaedam membra uigent, quaedam torpescunt? qu. 
127 pr. 

*tractare apud se : quamuis enim sibi uideatur minirne reus 
qui non credidit, quia apud se tractare istud non potuit, ratione 
tamen conuincitur 72 A ; nee enim (deus) tractat apud se quid 
faciat aut quid non faciat, deliberans an expediat qu. 125 (col. 
2375); qui enim audiuit et tractauit apud se et uotum habet 
peccandi... durum est ignosci ei qu. 126 (col. 2377); gentilis si 
coeperit infirmari et in ipsa uitae desperatione tractet apud se 
de fide et spe promissa qu. 126 (col. 2377). Hier. says tractare 
secum. 

tradux, employed exactly as in Tertullian, is very common : 
I merely give some references: 99 B; 119 Bfo's; 140 B; c bis ; 
qu. 23 ; 46 ; 56 bis ; 81 bis ; 83 ; 106 ; 108 ; 110 ; 112 bis ; 114 bis ; 
123. 

transpungo, peculiarly *used : quia aduersarius eius deuictus 
potentia Christi non auderet, transpuncta sententia primae 
mortis, hominem sibi defendere 121c; qui enim accipit eum 
(i.e. spiritum sanctum) et manet in eius dilectione, transpuncta 
(Mig. transacta 2 ) hac uita, pergit in caelos ad eum cuius spiritum 
habet qu. 123 (col. 2371). The abstract noun transpunctio, 
hitherto known only from an Old Latin version of Esai. xxix 10 
ap. Cypr. laps. 33 3 , occurs once : propter spem uitae futurae quam 
hi idcirco ridendam censent, ut iure dehonestare se et aliena 
adpetere auida cupiditate uideantur, quasi post hanc transpunc- 
tio nem nulla sit uita 412 D. 

1 So Sil. in lexx. 

2 This very phrase occurs 304 c (transacta hac uita). 

3 The reference is given by Benoist-Goelzer. Georges and others want the word 
entirely. 

s. 10 



146 COMPAEISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

triumpho as a transitive verb : ut gloriam diaboli quam de 
triumphato homine quaesierat inaniret (deus) 103 D; trium- 
phata morte qu. 112: perhaps elsewhere also. 

tuitio (some MSS tutio) : examples are : calicem mysticum 
sanguinis ad tuitionem corporis et animae nostrae percipimus 
256 B; habebit et dilectionem simul et deum eorum ad tuitionem 
perpetuam 356 D ; quia post ascensum domini non minorem aut 
degenerem ad tuitionem habit uri essent pastorem aut regem 
qu. 93 (col. 2286); tuitionem etiam deferens deuotis fidei qu. 
93 ex ; dei nostri tuitio (Migne assistentia 1 ) imploranda est ad 
tutelam qu. 115 (col. 2351). 

uices : in the phrase uicem reddere 2 ' to pay one back,' ' to 
give tit for tat': iustificati sunt gratis, quia nihil operantes, neque 
uicem reddentes, sola fide iustificati sunt dono dei 83 c; quando 
enim uicem malis reddere non uult, pacificus est 169 B; inimicis 
non solum uicem reddere prohibet dominus per Salomonem, 
uerum etiam humilitate ad amicitiam prouocare hortatur 170 c; 
ne uicem reddamus inimicis 170 C; si prouocati ab illo uicem 
illi non reddamus 170 D; non resistendo ulli neque uicem in 
malis reddendo, sed semper se subiciendo 217 B; qui ergo pretio 
emitur, magis seruire debet, ut aliquatenus uicem reddat emptori 
233 A; ministris euangelii reddere uicem 290 A; uicem red- 
dere, in quantum possumus, debemus beniuolentiae dei 303 B ; 
ut uicem ei reddant 312 D; non quasi homini uicem reddentes 
sed deo 313 c ; haec est aequalitas ut...reddantur (some MSS 
reddatur) illis uices in futuro 327 D ; prouocat eos ad sancti- 
tatem, ut et ipsi audeant reddere uicem sanctis in salutations 
357 A; sibi pro iustis actibus in die iudicii uicem reddere 423 A; 
ut uel in aliquo illi uicem possit reddere 439 B ; seriioribus 
uicem reddentes parentibus 500 B; necesse est reddi illi uicem 
a suis, sicut et ilia reddidit propinquis 503 B; iuxta hoc ergo 
conuenit uicem nos ex aliqua parte reddere redemptori 513 D; 
dum uicem non reddit malo... reddere enim uicem iustitia est 

1 I have shown in Arch. f. lat. Lexikogr. xm 2 (1903) p. 286 f. that this is a 
' ghost- word.' The part of Gradenwitz Laterculi Vocum Latinarum (Leipzig, 1904), 
containing it, was printed off before my note appeared. 

2 (Once plur. uices reddere.) The phrase is in 1 Tim. v 4 mutuam uicem 
gratiarum reddere parentibus. Cf. quasi uicem rependentes ministerio illorum 
327 c (so Prop, in lexx.). 



COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 147 

qu. 69 ex: si pro hac misericordia *uices (nom. sing.) illi aliqua 
redderetur 1 qu. 83 pr; se illi uicem reddere profiteantur qu. 
83 (a). 

I had at first thought of adding to this chapter an epitome of 
its results, but have now decided to omit this, as it partakes too 
much of the nature of a series of arithmetical calculations. Be- 
sides, the use of clarendon type and asterisks at once ' insulates ' 
the expressions. The eye of the cursory reader easily fixes itself 
on the lemmata, while the minute investigator of style and 
language must read the chapter in detail ; and for him a summary 
is unnecessary. 

Many will think the chapter too long. It could be made much 
longer, and profitably longer, if I had made much use of the earlier 
edition of the Quaestiones, contained in manuscripts of the 
" second " class, and if it were at present possible to undertake 
several fresh lines of investigation into the language. A valuable 
criterion of diction in Christian authors is the use of theological 
and ecclesiastical terms, which in Cyprian's case has been so 
well carried out by Mr Watson 2 . It is a very great mistake to 
bundle all the Christian authors together and label them ' eccl.', 
as lexicographers down to our own time have been too much 
in the habit of doing. Every writer employs definite expressions 
according to his taste or school, and avoids other expressions, 
which are employed by authors of a different taste or school. 
Many students have forgotten that men, on coming over to 
Christianity, did not cease to be human beings, but retained the 
most definite traces of their early environment and education. 
Nothing could more vividly illustrate this than the likeness be- 
tween the style of two such men as Apuleius and S. Cyprian. 
How different their spirit was, it is hardly necessary to say. The 
Christian author is no mere ecclesiastical machine, turning out so 
many theological terms with more or less regularity, but a being, 

1 The existence of a nom. sing, is denied by Georges, and Benoist-Goelzer. We 
have now two examples, if reddatur be read in 327 D, as I believe it ought to be. 
See 'A Nominative for Vicem' in the Classical Revieio xvn (1903) Feb. There is a 
third example in Schol. luu. 9, 82 tantorum beneficiorum quae in te contuli mil hi 
gratia uel uices rependitur (where Jahn wrongly altered to merces). 

2 Stadia Biblica iv (Oxf. 1896), p. 243 ff. 

102 



148 COMPARISON OF STYLE AND LANGUAGE. 

pulsing with thought and feeling, eager to instruct or inspire his 
fellow men. As often as not, he is a highly educated person, 
a lawyer like Tertullian, a government official like Ambrose, or 
a professor like Augustine. To the investigator these authors 
present different characteristics in the use of theological terms, as 
they do in temperament, and in language and style generally. 
Cyprian's hostility to Greek terms has been noted by Mr Watson. 
This hostility is not shared by our author. 

Another test is the spelling and declension of Hebrew or 
Hebraeo- Greek names. A striking instance in our works is 
Moyses, which in the manuscripts, which we ought to follow, 
invariably makes the genitive Moysi and the accusative Moysen. 

A third line of investigation would be to take all the particles 
and discuss their uses thoroughly. 

Finally, I am confident that the most remarkable results would 
be elicited from the compilation of a list of words, found in con- 
temporary authors, which are absent in our author, and yet might 
well have been used by him. Such, for example, are absconsus, 
adpropio 1 , subsano (Tert. Hil. Hier. Aug. cet. 2 ), and typhus (Aug.). 
Ambrose and Jerome seem to be nearest to this author in voca- 
bulary. Some words noted above occur in Jerome. 

I may find it possible at some future time to perform some or 
all of these tasks. Such delicate investigations, however, cannot 
be carried out until Professor Brewer's edition of the commentaries 
is published. 

1 For which see Mayor's article Visio Pauli in Journal of Philology xxn (1894) 
196. 

2 Exact references in Mayor, I.e. p. 197. 



CHAPTER IV. 

IDENTITY OF THOUGHT. 

A comparison of the theological positions in the commentaries 
and Quaestiones has satisfied Langen and Harnack among others 
that the two works proceed from the same pen. I do not propose 
to enlarge on this subject here. If any further treatment of the 
question be desired, it must come from one who has made a close 
study of the theology of the Western Church in the early centuries, 
and can distinguish the elements which are special to particular 
Latin writers. In studying the genesis of Ambrosiaster's theology 
the Latin writers of most importance are perhaps Irenaeus, 
Tertullian, Pseudo-Clement, Victorinus of Pettau, and Hilary of 
Poitiers 1 . 

Two tasks of a much humbler character are attempted here : 
the first is to show that the favourite texts of Scripture in the 
one work are as a rule favourites in the other also 2 ; the second to 
prove, by a comparison of the interpretations of various Scripture 
passages commented on in both works, that these interpretations 
proceed from one mind. I include some instances of favourite 
topics of this author, such as ' the second death.' 

1 Father Brewer first pointed out to me the connexion with Hilary and Irenaeus. 
I regard the expressions creatura hylica (qu. 41 (a), qu. 106, p. 2318), hylicae sub- 
stantiae (qu. 106, p. 2318), and hylicae res (qu. 127, p. 2381) as borrowed from 
Irenaeus (e.g. i, 1, 9). Our author knew only the translation of Irenaeus, which I 
believe to be a fourth-century product. For Pseudo-Clement, cf. p. 40. For Ter- 
tullian and Victorinus, see pages 38 39. The interpretation of Esai. iv 1 in 
quaest. 47 is derived from Victoriuus (Migne P. L. v p. 320 BCD, p. 321 A). 

a Ezech. iii 19 (21) is a notable exception. It occurs three times in comm., 
nowhere in quaest. 



150 IDENTITY OF THOUGHT. 



1. FAVOURITE TEXTS OF SCRIPTURE. 

Every person who reads Scripture frequently has favourite 
texts, and the Christian writers of antiquity are no exception to 
this rule. A very interesting and curious book could be written 
on this subject. While it is true that there are certain great 
texts, which occur in all theological authors, there are others 
which may almost be said to be peculiar to an individual, and 
which would never have struck any other person in the same way. 
Augustine, for Qxample, is extremely fond of a verse, which is 
seldom quoted by others, Wisdom viii 1 adtingit ergo a fine usque 
ad finem fortiter, et disponit omnia suauiter 1 . I venture to think 
that some verses quoted below are unfamiliar even to attentive 
students of the Bible. The quotations are given in the order in 
which they occur in the Septuagint of the Old Testament and the 
Vulgate of the New. I omit the Gospels of Luke and John, and 
the Pauline Epistles, quotations from which have been already 
collected in the second chapter for a different purpose. 

Ps. Ixxv 2 notus in ludaea deus : quoted 101 A, 146 B ; qu. 109 (p. 2329), qu. 
Ill (p. 2334). 

Ps. Ixxxiv 12 ueritas de terra orta est: quoted 52 B, 397 c ; qu. 47 (p. 2248), 
qu. 109 (p. 2327), qu. 113 (p. 2341). 

Eccle. vii 17 noli iustus esse multum: quoted 170 A, 414 A ; qu. 15 (subject). 

Esai. xiv 12 quo modo cecidit de caelo Lucifer: quoted 157 B ; with the next 
clause, qui mane oriebatur 285 D ; qu. 2 (p. 2216). 

Esai. xlii 14 tacui: numquid semper tacebo? quoted 67 D (note 64) ; qu. 1 
(p. 2215), qu. 68 2 . 

Esai. lix 20, 21 (Rom. xi 26, 27) ueniet ex Sion qui eripiat et auertat impietatem 
db (a, ex) lacob ; et hoc illis (erit) a me testamentum, cum abstulero peccata 
eorum : quoted 50 c, 148 c, 378 B ; qu. 44 (p. 2240, without cum eorum), 
qu. 47 (p. 2248, only down to lacob), qu. 76 (a) (p. 2271, as far as lacob). 

Hier. xxxviii (xxxi) 31, 32 (Hebr. viii 8, 9) ecce uenient dies (dies uenient), dicit 
dominus, et consummabo domui Israhel et domui luda testamentum nouum, 
non secundum (testamentum) quod disposui (dedi) patribus illorum (eorum) 
in die qua adprehendi manum illorum, ut educerem illos de terra Aegypti, 
quia ipsi non permanserunt in testamento meo, et ego neglexi eos, dicit 
dominus : quoted 85 c (as far as eorum), 148 B (a paraphrase, dabo illis 
testamentum nouum, non quote dedi patribus illorum}, 270 B (as far as the 

1 Peiper has not recognised this quotation in Boet. cons. phll. p. 84, vv. 59, 60. 

2 For Esai. liii 9, see p. 153. 



IDENTITY OF THOUGHT. 151 

first illorum} ; qu. 44 (p. 2240), qu. 60 (exactly the same paraphrase as in 
148 B). 

Bar. iii 36 38 hie deus noster : non aestimabitur alter ad eum. Hie adinuenit 
omnem uiam scientiae, et dedit earn Jacob puero suo, et Israhel dilecto sibi. 
Post haec in terra uisus est, et inter homines conuersatus est : quoted 134 B 
(/lie deus noster only), 319 c (with the omission of non aestimabitur dilecto 
sibi, the other two parts being given apart from another) ; qu. 97 4 (p. 
2292) (portions twice). 

Ezech. xviii 4 (or 20) anima quae peccauer'it (peccat} ipsa morietur : quoted 
107 A, 127 A, 343 A ; qu. 14 (p. 2225). 

Ezech. xviii 32 (cf. xxxiii 11) nolo mortem morientis, quantum ut reuertatur et 
uiuat: quoted 298 D ; qu. 102 2 (p. 2304), 4 (p. 2306), qu. Ill (p. 
2333). 

Ezech. xx 25 propterea ego dedi illis praecepta non bona et iustificationes, in 
quibus non uiuent in eis: quoted 148 B (without ego and et in eis} ; qu. 
44 (p. 2242, without propterea), 2 qu. N.T. 46 (without propterea ego and 
et in eis}, cf. 2 qu. V.T. 10. 

Ezech. xxxiii 12 iusto nihil proderit iustitia eius, in qua die exerrauerit, et 
iniusto nihil oberit iniustitia .sua, cum se conuerterit : quoted 178 C (a 
paraphrase, iustitia iusti non projiciet, si errauerit : this quotation and the 
surrounding words are wanting in the older Bodleian MS) ; qu. 102 9 
(p. 2309) (in the form iustitia iusti non liberabit eum, in die qua errauerit, 
et iniquitas iniusti non nocebit ei, cum conuerterit se}, qu. 126 (p. 2376). 

Matth. xii 31, 32 omnia peccata et blasphemia remittentur hominibus ; spiritus 
autem sancti blasphemia non remittetur hominibus, et qui dixerit uerbum 
contra filium hominis, remittetur ei ; qui (cumque} autem peccauerit inspiri- 
tum sanctum, non remittetur ei, neque hie neque infuturo (futurum} : quoted 
227 B (omitting spiritus autem remittetur ei} ; qu. 102 3 (omitting omnia 
remittetur ei : cf. v. 55 of same section), qu. 102 6 (omitting omnia 
hominibus (first) and quicumque futuro). 

Act. iv 12 nee enim aliud datum est nomen sub caelo, in quo oporteat saluos 
fieri: quoted 51 A, (with non est aliud nomen datum} 88 c ; 2 qu. N.T. 26 
(exactly as 88 c, with the addition of nos before saluos}. 

Act. xv 10 quid inponitis iugum super ceruicem fratrum, quod neque nos neque 
patres nostri potuerunt portare? quoted 148 c, quid inponitis iugum 
fratribus, quod neque patres nostri neque nos potuimus portare? 374 A, quid 
inponitis iugum supra ceruicem (ceruices 527 v} fratrum, quod neque patres 
nostri neque nos potuimus portare ? 401 B, 527 D ; 2 qu. V.T. 10 (same as 
148 c, except that it has potuimus}, 2 qu. N.T. 46 (p. 24023) (same as 
401 B, except that it has super}. The author's Bible doubtless had the 
verse as it appears in 2 qu. N.T. 46. 

1 Petr. v 8 sobrii estote et uigilate, quia aduersarius noster diabolus circu(m}it 
fremens sicut leo quaerens quern deuoret : quoted 228 D (ecce diabolus ut leo 
rugiens circuit quaerens quern deuoret}, 525 A (without sobrii estote et 
uigilate} ; qu. 2 (p. 2217) (with uester for noster, and tamquam leo rugiens 



152 IDENTITY OF THOUGHT. 

circuit), qu. 102 5 (p. 2306) (with uigilate, sobrii estate, uester, fremens 
sicut leo circuit}. 

1 loh. iii 2 scimus quia cum apparuerit similes ei erimus quoted 105 c, 129 c, 
304 c ; qu. 105 (p. 2316) (cum enim apparuerit, similes ei erimus}, qu. 106 
(p. 2320). 

Apoc. ii 24 ignoratis altitudinem satanae is quoted correctly in its context in 
qu. 102 8 (p. 2309), but elsewhere it appears as a question, an ignoratis 
altitudinem satanae ? The references are 137 A ; qu. 27 (p. 2231), qu. 31 
(p. 2232). Some of the old editors, thinking the quotation was from 
2 Cor. ii 11, poured scorn on the author's inaccuracy. 

Apoc. xiii 8 agnus qui occisus est a constitutione mundi: quoted 101 B, 275 B ; 
qu. 3 (p. 2219). 

I have little doubt that, given complete indexes, the number of 
such quotations could be increased. 



2. INTERPRETATIONS OF SCRIPTURE. 

'Man is the image of God, but not woman' is the opinion 
advanced in quaest. 21, 24, 45, 106, and also on 1 Cor. xi 5-7 
(253 B), xiv 34 (273 B) and on Col. iii 8-11 (460) 1 . The argu- 
ment is the same in both works. The Pauline statements that 
the husband is head of the wife, and must not veil his head 
because he is the image of God, while the wife must veil hers, are 
taken as proofs of the inferiority of the latter and the impossi- 
bility of her likeness to God. That man and wife are, neverthe- 
less, of one substance is not denied. 

The dignity of the priests' order has nothing to do with the 
moral character of the holder of the office, but is transmitted by 
and depends on ordination only. Of this Caiaphas is a standing 
example, who, though an evil man, prophesied. Compare quaest. 
11, 101 (p. 2302), 102 ( 12, 13), 109, etc., with in 1 Cor. xii 28 
and in 1 Cor. xiii 2. In quaest. 46 and in 1 Cor. xiii 2 the parallel 
case of Balaam is brought forward, and he is in both places called 
ariolus. 

The treatment of the text, 2 Cor. v 21 eum qui non nouerat 
peccatum (peccatum nesciebat), pro nobis peccatum fecit, is the same 
in the commentary on that place and in Question 78 (74). Christ 

1 For the passages, see Morin, Revue d'Hist. et de Litt. Relig. iv (1899) 104 f. 



IDENTITY OF THOUGHT. 153 

was made sin in two ways, first, by the incarnation, by which He 
received a body of sinful flesh, and second, by being offered for sin. 
In both passages the analogy with the hostia of the Old Dispen- 
sation, which was called 'sin/ is mentioned. The same verse, 
Esai. liii 9 qai peccatum non fecit, nee inuentus est dolus in ore eius, 
is brought into connexion in both places : 

In 2 Cor. v 21 Qu. 78 (74) 

homo ergo foetus est Christus causa primum enim fecit ilium peccatum^ 

peccati, quem non tangebat sors neque dum incarnari ilium uoluit, ut quern 

dignitas nasci hommem...e quoniam sors non tangebat de peccatrice came 

oblatus est pro peccatis, non inmerito corpus acciperet, per quod dicitur 

peccatum factus dicitur, quia et hostia factus peccatum. Deinde dum offert 

in lege, quae pro peccatis offerebatur, ilium pro peccatis, fecit ilium pecca- 

peccatum nuncupabatur. turn. Hostia enim in lege pro peccatis 

oblata peccatum uuncupabatur. 

Qu. 74 (6). 

hie utique quem sors et condicio non 
tangebat hominem procreare... pecca- 
tum ergo factus dicitur, quia secun- 
dum legem hostia, quae pro peccatis 
offerebatur, peccatum nuncupabatur. 

At the close of the first version of quaest. 78 (74) and in the 
middle of the second, Gal. iii 13 factus pro nobis maledictum appears 
with comments, and on turning to the treatment of this verse in 
the commentaries we find it identical. 

The attack on Novatian, quaest. 102, on which Harnack has 
written a long and valuable paper 1 , is paralleled in the com- 
mentary on 2 Tim. ii 20, in magna autem domo non solum sunt 
uasa aurea et argentea, uerum (sed) et lignea et fictilia, et quaedam 
quidem in honorem, quaedam uero in contumeliam. Novatian, says 
our author, interprets the ' great house ' not as the Church, but as 
the whole universe, which contains men of different types (519 A; 
qu. 102 9 p. 2309 f). Hymenaeus and Philetus, as well as the 
church of Corinth, are mentioned in illustration in both passages. 
The reason for this interpretation by Novatian is that he regards 
his own church as the pure church, composed of perfect Christians 

1 Abhandluntjen Alexander von Oettingen (jeicidmct (Miinchen, 1898) pp. 5-1 93 
' Der pseudoaugustiuische Traktat Contra Nouatianuin.' 



154 IDENTITY OF THOUGHT. 

only. One sentence appears in almost exactly the same words in 
both works : thus 

Tract, in 2 Tim. ii 20 (519 c) Quaest. 102 9 (p. 2310) 

nam in una dome omnes sub uno in una enim domo otnnes sub uno 
sunt nomine : uno enim domini sui sunt nomine ; quamuis enim moribus 
nomine censentur omnes. mundus diuersi sint, uno tamen domini sui 
autem diuersae professionis continet nomine censentur in professione 1 . 
homines, ita ut dispares profiteautur mundus autem hie diuersae professi- 
se habere deos et dominos. onis continet homines, ita ut dispares 

profiteantur se habere et deos et 

dominos. 

1 Cor. v 12, quo mihi de his, qui foris sunt, iudicare? is quoted 
in both contexts. 

There is another parallel in the note on 2 Cor. xii 21, a verse 
which is quoted in quaest. 102. In the commentary and in the 
Question the writer shows that the certain inference from this text 
that some Corinthians repented of fornication disposes of Novatian's 
doctrine that it is an unpardonable sin. 

In both books it is stated that the name Hebrei is to be 
derived from Abraham, and not from Heber, as some say. 
Naturally, the name would be Habraei, but the letter was changed 
for euphony, just as medidie became meridie (in Phil, iii 5 ; qu. 
108, cf. qu. 44, p. 2242). The treatment in qu. 108 is the longest, 
but is in perfect agreement with the first. 

A remarkable, perhaps unique, interpretation of Psalm xxiii 
(xxiv), verses 7 and 9, is found in both works. Not only is the 
interpretation wonderful, but the text on which it is based is 
equally so, and is perhaps worthy of a place in Dr Swete's list 2 . It 
reads in this author, and not uncommonly in authors, such as 
Hilary of Poitiers, who employ an old Latin version, thus : tollite 
portas principis uestri ; et eleuamini, portae aeternales 3 . Here are 
the comments : dicitur ergo his principibus, qui in errore sunt in 
caelestibus, sine ministris ems in terris, ut auferant portas principis 
sui, id est diaboli, de mentibus suis, per quas multorum deorum 
adserendorum error intrauit. Sunt enim temporales, quia omnis 



1 professio is the airoypa.^, the returns made at the census. 

2 An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek (Cambr. 1900) p. 330 ff. 

3 The MSS of course confuse this with the ordinary reading. 






IDENTITY OF THOUGHT. 155 

fallacia tempore clauditur : ' iter enim impiorum peribit' (Ps. i 6). 
Ut autem aeternas portas eleuent, hortante iustitia ammonentur, 
quid ueritas in sempiterna saecula perseuerat (in Eph. iii 10 
p. 404 c, D) : hi ergo dicunt ad principes et potestates aduersus quas 
nobis conluctationem esse dicit apostolus (Eph. vi 12), ut tollant 
portas principis sui, id est diaboli, qui est princeps principum in 
errore constitutor um, per quas itur in gehennam. Hae portae 
perfidia est et fallacia idolatriae...illae autem portae quas dixi 
perfidiam esse et fallaciam idolorum, temporales sunt, quia omne 
mendacium non permanet Docentur ergo ut tollant portas prin- 
cipis sui, id est, ut amoto multorum deorum errore unius dei fides 
introducatur in Christo . . .tollendas dicit fallaces portas diaboli 
subtilitate conpositas (qu. Ill p. 2334). The same passage 
is quoted, with the same interpretation, also in qu. 113 (p. 
2341). 

The 'second death' holds an important place in the author's 
system of thought. The expression appears in Scripture only in 
the Apocalypse, a favourite book with the writer, who is chiliastic 
in tendency 1 , and greatly interested in 'the last things.' The 
longest Scripture quotation he makes is from the second chapter of 
the Apocalypse 2 . The definitions of the expression 'second death ' 
are alike in both works. Compare in Rom. v 12 (97 B) mors autem 
separatio animae a corpore est. Est et alia mors, quae < secunda ' 
dicitur, in gehenna, quam non in peccato Adae patimar, sed eius 
occasione propriis peccatis adquiritur ; a qua boni inmunes sunt 
tantum, quod in inferno erant, sed superior e, quasi in liber a 3 , qui in 
caelos ascendere non poterant, etc., with qu. 47 (p. 2248) per fidem 
enim peccatis ablutus et a morte secunda, quae ex sententia data in 
Adam homines apud inferos detinebat, alienus, nullo detinente,pergit 
in paradisum dei patris*. 

The author twice compares the treatment meted out to Saul 
and David after committing sin, in a note on Rom. ix 16, and in 

1 See Journal of Theological Studies v (1904) pp. 611615. 

2 Chap, ii 1726 in qu. 102 8. 

3 This is short for libera custodia, and is as yet unparalleled. 

4 See also 51 A, 92 c, 99 c, 102 A, 106 D, 110 A, B, 112 A, c, 116 B, 120 c, 122 A, 
127 c, 164 B, 298 A, 313 B, 371 D, 448 D, 459 c ; qu. 34, 78 (74), 115 pr (Langen, 
diss. p. 22). 



156 IDENTITY OF THOUGHT. 

Question 18. The subject is referred to in almost identical terms 
in both works: Saul pecca.ns, cum petisset ueniam, nee accepit ; 
contra Dauid peccans et ignosci sibi postidans ueniam consecutus est 
(in Rom. ix 16, p. 143 A) ; quare Saul peccans petit orari pro se ut 
ignosceretur ei, et inpetrare non potuit, Dauid autem peccans postu- 
lauit et ueniam consecutus est? (qu. 18 title). 

In the note on Rom. xii 13 hospitalitatem sectantes, Abraham is 
mentioned as one who obeyed this command. In quaest. 109 
(p. 2325) Abraham is said to have obeyed the Saviour's commands 
before they were proclaimed. This clause is then quoted 1 , and it 
is suggested that the Apostle learned the value of hospitality from 
Abraham, who exercised it conspicuously. 

Pascha is defined as immolatio, not transitus, as some 2 think, 
both in 1 Cor. v 7, and in quaest. 96, where the question is asked 
whether the Greeks are to be followed in interpreting the word as 
transitus, or not. 

Practically the same words are used about manna in 1 Cor. x 
3, 4 and in quaest. 20 : hie ergo panis aut cibus non mundi lege 
creatus est commixtione elementorum, sed de super uenit spiritali 
ratione prouisus . . .ideo autem ' angelorum panis ' dictus est, quia ea 
uirtute creatus est qua angelica natura subsistit et uiuit (qu. 20) ; 
manna et aquam...dicit spiritalia, quia non mundi legeparata sunt, 
sed dei uirtute sine elementorum commixtione ad tempus creata... 
ideo et ( panis angelorum ' dictus est, quia uirtute qua angeli 
subsistunt creatus est (in 1 Cor. x 3, 4). 

The same account of the original relation between episcopi and 
presbyteri is given in both works : (in 1 Tim. iii 8-10) post episco- 
patum tamen diaconatus ordinationem subicit . quare, nisi quia 
episcopi et presbyteri una ordinatio est? uterque enim sacerdos est, 
sed episcopus primus est, ut omnis episcopus sit presbyter, non 
tamen omnis presbyter episcopus : hie enim episcopus est, qui inter 
presbyteros primus est. Denique Timotheum presbyterum ordina- 
tum significat, sed quia ante se alterum non habebat, episcopus erat 
etc. : (qu. 101) presbyterum autem intellegi episcopum probat 
Paulus apostolus, cum quando Timotheum quern ordinauit pres- 

1 Not Hebr. xiii 2, as the editors wrongly suppose. 

2 Jerome (epist. 78 2) holds with 'the Greeks.' 



IDENTITY OF THOUGHT. 157 

byterum instruit qualem debeat creare episcopum. Quid est enim 
episcopus nisi primus presbyter, hoc est summits sacerdos? 1 

The frequent mention of the imparity of contact with the 
mustela is common to both writings, as may be seen from the 
occurrences of the word given in Chapter in, page 119. 

Such are some of the striking parallelisms between the two 
works, and the only relation between them to which they point is 
that of common authorship 2 . 

1 Cf. chap, i, pages 37, 38. I append a translation of this passage : ' after 
dealing with the office of bishop, he treats also the appointment of deacons. Why 
does he do this, except that the bishop and presbyter have one position ? For both 
are sacerdotes, but the bishop is the chief : so that every bishop is a presbyter, but 
not every presbyter a bishop : for he is a bishop, who is first among the presbyters. 
So he indicates that Timothy had been ordained a presbyter, but, because he had 
no one higher in rank, he was a bishop? ' See also in Eph. iv 11 quoted and trans- 
lated in chap, v, section 4. The Editor would compare with this account the 
system obtaining in the monastery church of Nitria : (krw 6 d^yo^/mevot irpevpt- 
repoi TaiJTrjs rrjs KK\T)(rias etVtV, ev rj ^t^/ots on ffj 6 Trpwros IT peer fiur epos aXXos ouSets 
Trpo(r(ppei, oi>x o/ziXe?, ov dtKdfei, dXX' ^cri^ws avrip irpocn<adovTa.i i^bvov Palladius, 
Hist. Laus. vn (p. 26, 9 of Dom Butler's edition, in Texts and Studies, Vol. vi, 
No. 2 (1904)). Surely this passage offers an important analogy to what must have 
been the usual polity in the Early Church. 

2 The identity of opinion in both works is dealt with excellently and at great 
length by Langen, Diss. pp. 19 31. 



PAET II 

THE AUTHOR AND HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 



i 



CHAPTER V. 

THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 

1. His Name. If all ancient authors had imbedded their 
names in their works as Thucydides did, the problems of the 
authorship of ancient books would be sensibly reduced in number. 
As it is, the fact that the title of a work written on papyrus was 
usually inscribed on a slip pasted on to the edge of the roll, and 
therefore easily detached, has contributed to our ignorance of the 
actual or complete names of many early writers. Whether our 
author's works were first issued in the roll form is a matter of 
doubt, as he belongs to the transition period, in which the codex 
was first becoming really popular. However that may be, as it 
appears that nearly all the author's books were issued anony- 
mously, it will be seen that we have here a problem of no ordinary 
difficulty. How are we to recover the name of an author, who 
lived in a particularly prolific literary age, when he, or destiny, 
seems to have done everything possible to conceal it ? 

Clearly our first step is to see what the manuscripts can tell 
us, if anything. But here we are met by a diversity of testimony. 
The oldest manuscript of the commentaries, Casinensis of the 
sixth century, gives in the subscriptions merely the titles of the 
epistles, and presumably the author's name was wanting also in 
the general heading to the book, which is now lost. All the 
other manuscripts of the commentaries, in number about seventy, 
attribute them to S. Ambrosius, with or without the designation 
episcopus Mediolanensis 1 . Even where this designation is want- 
ing, it is certain that the great Ambrose of Milan is meant, as no 

1 One attributes that on Romans to Origen (Arnold in Herzog-Hauck's Real- 
s. v. Ambrosiaster). 

8. 11 



162 THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 

other Ambrosius of that period is known 1 . If, as is highly probable, 
our commentaries are the commentaries attributed to Ambrose 
which Cassiodorus had heard of but had never seen, then we have 
authority coeval with Casinensis for the attribution to Ambrose. 
There is another ascription, that to Hilarius. This occurs in no 
existing MS of any book of the commentaries, but the celebrated 
reference by S. Augustine to sanctus Hilarius*, showing that the 
commentary on Romans existed under that name in Africa in the 
early part of the fifth century, has recently been reinforced by 
evidence proving that the same part of the commentaries was 
known in Ireland, probably about the same period, and certainly 
as early as the eighth century, under the same name 3 . That this 
title was solely due to the reference in S. Augustine seems hardly 
possible, even in a country where Pelagianism was a great force 
and the Anti-Pelagian treatises of S. Augustine were doubtless 
well known. The Irish authorities as yet noted are three, the Book 
of Armagh 4 , the codex Paulinus Wirziburgensis 5 and the old cata- 
logue of the library of the Irish foundation of Bobbio 6 . The first 
contains the preface to the Romans, giving it as 'Hilarii'; the 
second cites amongst its numerous Latin glosses on Romans some 
from 'hi', 'hel' 7 , which are found on examination to be Ambrosi- 
aster 8 ; the third gives c Hilarii super Romanes ' as one of its books. 

1 M. Scha,nz,Geschichte derromischenLitteratur iv 1 (Miinchen 1904), has no other. 
3 See page 3. 

3 See H. Zimmer, Pelagius in Irland (Berl. 1901) pp. 117120 and Mr C. H. 
Turner's review in Journal of Theol. Studies iv (19012) p. 132 ff. This is not the 
only trace of connexion between Africa and Ireland. The gospel codex k, which 
gives a pure African text, was brought by S. Columban to Bobbio. (Cf. Old-Latin 
Biblical Texts, No. II p. xii ff.) 

4 S. Berger, Les Prefaces Jointes aux Livres de la Bible dans les Manuscrits de la \ 
Vulgate (Paris, 1902), p. 26. I owe this reference to Dean Robinson. 

5 See Stokes and Strachan, Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus i (Cambr. Press), p. ( 
xxiii ff , 503. 

6 G. Becker, Catalogi Bibliothecarum Antiqui, No. 32, p. 65. 

7 The contraction helis due to the spelling helairius, which is found, e.g., in 
the Old Irish MS, Rawlinson B. 512 of the Bodleian Library (1. 138), edited by 
Kuno Meyer in Anecdota Oxoniensia, Mediaeval and Modern Series, part vm (Oxford : 
1894). 

8 I take the passages from Zimmer's book, p. 117. They are Rom. i 22, 24 ; 
ii 5, 7, 8 (four times), 9, 13, 14 ; iii 2 ; iv 6, 17, 20 ; ix 6, 24 ; x 8, 12 ; xi 12, 24 ; 
xii 6 ; xiv 5, 16, 17, 18 ; xv 4 ; xvi 14. At each of these verses occurs a citation 






THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 163 

This triple testimony belongs to the eighth and ninth centuries, 
but in view of the fact that the Irish church occupied a position 
of isolation for a long period before that time, we may treat it 
as though it belonged to the fifth century. We thus reach 
the conclusion that in two widely removed countries of the 
Western world, Africa and Ireland, the commentary on Romans 
was known as the work of Hilary in the fifth century. It appears 
then that neither Augustine nor the Irish had anything but the 
commentary on Romans, which is often found by itself still, and 
sometimes occurs in conjunction with commentaries of Remigius 
on other epistles 1 . It seems likely that copies of Romans with 
the name Hilarius attached represent the first edition of that 
commentary. If the later edition (or editions) was issued anony- 
mously, the discrepancy of title in the manuscript tradition would 
be sufficiently explained. 

The titles of the manuscripts of the Quaestiones need not 
detain us. There is no MS which gives the work as anonymous, 
but the tone of the one hundred and first Question DE IACTANTIA 
ROMANORVM LEVITARVM makes it practically certain that, whether 
it was issued by itself or in the whole collection only, there can 
have been no name attached to it. The case of Question 109 
DE MELCHISEDECH, if, as is generally believed, it is identical with 
the uolumen avwvv^ov dSeaTrorov which Euangelus sent to Jerome 
in 398 2 , points the same way. It is highly probable that all three 
editions of the Quaestiones were issued anonymously, and that their 
attribution to S. Augustine is a guess of the fifth or sixth century. 
The ascription of a section of the third edition to Ambrose in the 
Gorres MS may be due to knowledge of the commentaries on 
the part of the scribe, but is in any case an absurdity, as both 
sections are clearly from the same pen 3 . Alcuin used the Quaes- 

from Ambrosiaster after the symbol hel or hi. There are altogether 29 quotations 
from Ambrosiaster among the glosses of this codex. Rom. ii 10 has hi attached by 
mistake for pi (i.e. pilagius or pelagius) ; contrariwise pi is attached instead of hi at 
Rom. i 19, 23, 24, 25, 28 ; ii 21 ; iii 8 ; iii 19 (cf. Zimmer pp. 127 f ). Ambrosiaster 
is also the origin of many other explanations, where the glossator has forgotten to 
add the name. 

1 As in Paris and Florentine MSS which I have examined. 

2 Hier. Ep. 73. 

3 See page 19. 

112 



164 THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 

tiones for his own Quaestiones in Genesim, but, in the ancient 
manner, without any acknowledgement whatsoever 1 . The work 
was also known in Ireland, as an extract from Question 79 (75) is 
found on one page of the llth century manuscript of the Irish 
Liber Hymnorum. There also no author's name is mentioned 2 . 

I have attempted to claim a recently published fragment on 
the twenty-fourth chapter of Matthew for this author. This piece 
is found in the celebrated eighth century MS at Milan, which 
contains the Muratorian Canon, and, like the other pieces com- 
prised in that strange farrago, is anonymous 3 . 

Dr Sedlmayer has unearthed from a notable Vienna papyrus 
a fragment contra Arrianos, which is in proximity to Hilary of 
Poitiers on the Trinity, and which Dom Morin has with great 
probability claimed for our author. The mistaken combination 
would be explained, if our author's name were also Hilary 4 . 

The name Hilary was not so rare as the names Augustine and 
Ambrose, and it seems probable that one of ' Ambrosiaster's' names 
was Hilarius. I shall return to this point later in the chapter, 
where I seek to follow Dom Morin in identifying the author. The 
alternative is to consider Hilary to be Hilary of Poitiers, and to 
regard this ascription as on the same plane with those to Ambrose 
and Augustine. If this view be adopted, then the first edition of 
Romans was very possibly issued before the death of Hilary of 
Poitiers, which took place in 367. 

2. His Locality. When the study of late Latin authors has 
reached such an advanced stage of development that the peculiari- 
ties of each are well known, then and then only will it be possible 
to tell from a writer's style the district to which he belonged or 
the school in which he was trained. Some features pointed out 
in the third chapter will doubtless have some value in the attempt 
to reach a definite conclusion as to the part of the Roman world 
in which our author spent his youth. But they can have little 

1 See the foot-notes in the Benedictine edition to quu. 4, 5, 11, 12, 13. 

2 See the Irish Liber Hymnorum i (London : 1898) p. 42. 

3 The fragment was published by G. Mercati in Studi e Testi, No. 11 (Eorna 
1903) and C. H. Turner in the Journal of Theological Studies, Vol. v (1904) 218 
241 ; see my paper in the latter, pp. 608621. 

4 Sitzungsberichteder Kais. Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien (phil.-hist. KL), 
Band CXLVI (1903) n, 21 pp. 



THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 165 

value until the texts and styles of all surviving writings of his 
period are known. By far the majority of distinguished Roman 
writers were not natives of Rome, or even of Italy, if we except 
the great plain in the North. The great Christian authors of the 
second half of the fourth century came from other countries than 
Italy : Prudentius was of Spain, Hilary and Ambrose of Gaul, 
Jerome of Dalmatia. Ambrosiaster very likely came from one of 
these regions. 

This, however, is little more than conjecture. What we do 
know is that the writer lived in Rome at the time of writing the 
Quaestiones, and probably the commentaries also. In question 115, 
which, like question 114, breathes a thoroughly Roman atmo- 
sphere, he expressly says 'hie enim in urbe Roma, quae sacratissima 
appellatur, licet mulieribus uiros suos dimittere ' (page 2349). A 
natural misinterpretation of the force of the adjective Romanus 
led the Benedictine editor to the conclusion that Questions 55 
and 84 must have been written somewhere else. The passage in 
quaest. 55 is as follows: in regno itaque agens Romano, non nisi 
vni Kal. Apr. pati debuit, quando aequinoctium habent Romani ; 
that in 84 reads thus : in primo mense, in quo aequinoctium habent 
Romani, sicuti et nos, ea ipsa obseruatio ab his custoditur. It is 
quite clear from the context that Romans here are contrasted, not 
with inhabitants of other cities, but with Christians, who had 
adopted an equinox at the Council of Nicaea : ' Romans ' is in fact 
practically the equivalent of pagans 1 . The acquaintance with 
church affairs in Rome, shown in Questions 101 and 102, 'on the 
boastfulness of the Roman deacons ' arid ' against Novatian ' 
respectively, proves conclusively that the author was resident 
there. The former sheds a gleam of light on the conduct of these 
influential and self-important officials ; the latter shows us that 
even in the second half of the fourth century Catholic Christianity 
had to defend itself against the followers of Novatian in Rome. 
The author several times lays stress on the primacy of S. Peter, as 
for example in quaest. 127 (p. 2384), where it is mentioned that 
marrying and begetting of children did not hinder Peter from 
holding the chief position among the apostles. The manner in 
which he speaks of Damasus, and the liturgical usages to which 
1 Dom Morin, Revue d'Hist. et de Litt. Relig. iv (1899) p. 99 f. 



166 THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 

he refers lead to the same conclusion 1 . Other references in 
quaest. 115 point to Rome: quaedam mulier fuit in urbe Roma 
quam constat undecim maritos habuisse (p. 2357), and ne quis de 
urbe Roma transuolet in Hispaniam (p. 2349). On page 2357 
there is a tale of a girl in Campania, who became a man and 
was afterwards conveyed to Rome. On the same page we hear 
of a man, named Samsucius, whose devotion to the emperor 
Constantius led him to pretend insanity for thirty years, that he 
might by his oddities afford that prince a relaxation from cares of 
state. It has been shown by M. Franz Cumont in a learned 
paper that the references to definite pagan worships in Question 
114, CONTRA PAGANOS, are specially applicable to Rome 2 . 

3. His Date. The period at which our author wrote is 
happily easy to determine. In the commentary on First Timothy, 
chapter iii, verse 15, we find the words: ut cum totus mundus dei 
sit, ecclesia tamen domus eius dicatur, cuius hodie rector est Dama- 
sus: which show that he wrote that book between the years 366 
and 384. As some, however, have regarded the sentence as an 
interpolation, it will not be out of place to gather together all the 
other indications of date, which show conclusively that the author 
wrote at that period. The sentence just quoted does seem strange 
at first, and its character rather supports the idea of interpolation. 
But this view is not supported by any manuscript which has been 
examined, and most scholars who have recently written on Am- 
brosiaster regard the sentence as genuine. It must be explained 
as either an assertion of the supremacy of the Roman Church over 
the Catholic Church, an idea which probably arose in Damasus' 
time and is quite in accordance with Ambrosiaster's thought ; or 
we must regard it as an emphatic statement of the side the writer 
took in the quarrel between the party of Damasus and the party 
of Ursinus. If the latter be the correct view, it entirely disposes 
of the claim of Isaac the ex-Jew to be considered the author, as 
he was one of the most strenuous opponents of Damasus : nor is 
the former view much more favourable to the idea. 

The author mentions the emperors Nero, Vespasian, Domitian, 



1 Dom Morin, I.e., p. 99. 

2 Revue d'Hist. et de Litt. Relig. vni (1903) p. 417 ff. 



THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 167 

Diocletian, Constantino, Constantius 1 and Julian, but no later 
emperor, Julian's reign lasted from 355 to 863, and the manner 
in which the author speaks of him shows that he had been dead 
some little time. The following are the references to him : 
mysterium iniquitatis a Nerone coeptum est, qui zelo idolorum 
apostolos interfecity instigante patre suo didbolo, usque ad Diocleti- 
anum et nouissime lulianum, qui arte quadam et subtilitate 
coeptam persecutionem implere non potuit, quia desuper conces- 
sum non fuerat (482 B.C.) ; quantum autem possit timor legis, hinc 
aduertamus. Ante luliani edictum mulieres uiros suos dimittere 
nequibant. Accepta autem potestate, coeperunt facere quod prius 
facer e non poterant : coeperunt enim cottidie licenter uiros suos 
dimittere (quaest. 115, foot of p. 2348) 2 . 

That Julian's reign was not long past is shown by the vivid 
way in which the author speaks of persecution in both works. 
Compare (in 2 Thess. i 6 9, 480 B.C.): quid tam 'iustum ' quam ut 
hi, qui in saeculo deprimunt bonos et extorres eos faciunt persecu- 
tion! bus, infuturo eadem patiantur quae faciunt; illi autem ut sint 
in requie cum ceteris sanctis, qui de magna tribulatione uenientes 
regnum accipient aeternum in aduentu domini de caelo, cum coeperit 
uenire cum caelesti exercitu suo et ministro igne ad dandam uindic- 
tam in paganos...et ludaeos: with (quaest. 102 12 p. 2311) nonne 
persecutor odio Christiani nominis professionem persequitur, non 
conuersationem ? primo in loco sciens hoc proficere religioni, cum 
confitemur esse nos Christianos, sacrilegus 3 confitentibus nobis credit 
quod non uult audire quia odit. . .ut quid a sacrilego persecutionem 
patior, si non hoc sum quod tu (Nouatiane) es ? nam si hoc de me 
profiterer quod tu de me dicis, persecutionem non paterer. There 
is another passage similar in view in 6 of the same Question, 
where we read: tortus huius modi et exungulatus hoc uerum esse 
dicit quod sequitur (p. 2307), of the courageous Christian. In 
another place he speaks of the rest from persecution which 

1 Nero 482 B ; Vespasian quaest. 44 ; Domitian quaest. 76 (72) ; Diocletian 482 B ; 
521 B ; Constantine quaest. 115 (p. 2357) ; Constantius quaest. 115 (p. 2357, MSS). 
For (Constantine's) edict abolishing crucifixion, see page 29. 

2 Cumont is certainly wrong in supposing that the jurisconsult Salvius lulianus 
is meant here (Revue d'Hist. et de Litt. Relig. VHI (1903) 419 f.). 

3 Sacrilegus =hereticus (cf. Mommsen, Rdmisches Strafrecht, p. 600, n. 4), and 
includes of course pagans and Jews. 



168 THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 

Christians enjoyed at the time : in hoc tempore quo pax est (in 
Rom. xii 11). The contrast between the quotations admirably 
suits the period of Valentinian (364 375), who held paganism 
and Christianity in equal esteem 1 . We see from Question 35, hinc 
est unde gentilem, in potestate tamen posit urn, honorificamus, licet 
ipse indignus sit, qui dei ordinem tenens gratias agit diabolo, that 
the Christians of the day were alive to the possibility that another 
pagan emperor might come to the throne. The fear of persecution 
was continually before their minds. 

In Question 44 (p. 2243) it is stated that about three hundred 
years have passed since the destruction of Jerusalem. This 
brings us to about 370. In Question 115 (p. 2353) there is 
another means of dating : quid dicemus de Pannonia, quae sic 
erasa est ut remedium habere non possit ? These words refer to 
the devastation of that province by the Quadi and Sarmatae in 
374, and must have been written shortly after the disaster, as 
Pannonia recovered and flourished 2 . A rather interesting point 
of contact seems to me to connect this Question in time with 
the commentary on 1 Timothy. The first words of quaest. 115 are : 
Nihil tain contrarium Christiano quam si arti matheseos adhibeat 
curam. This turn of expression is exactly reproduced only in 
two passages, as far as I have observed, of the commentaries, 
and these are in close proximity to one another. They are in 
1 Tim. v 14, 15 (505 B) nihil enim tarn periculosum est quam si 
professioni gesta repugnent] in 1 Tim. vi 9, 10 (509 B) nihil tarn 
asperum tamque perniciosum est quam si ecclesiasticus . . .diuitiis 
huius saeculi studeat In view of the extreme rarity of this form 
in the author, and the way that such phrases have of repeating 
themselves when an author is in a particular condition of mind, 
it seems not altogether fanciful to suggest that quaest. 115 and 
the latter part of the commentary on 1 Timothy were written 
about the same time. Doubtless quaest. 115 was written first, as 
the author would take special care with the beginning of such 
an important pamphlet. An argument like this will appeal very 
differently to different minds. 

1 Cf. Harnack Abhandlungen Oettingen, p. 76. 

2 Cf. Morin, I.e., p. 99; Cumont, I.e., p. 419 f, who shows that Jerome, Chron. 
2388, uses the same word eradere of the same disaster, and holds that it is derived 
from some official document. 



THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 169 

Question 114 has also a voice in settling the date. In it 
paganism appears in full force. The worship of Bacchus, the 
Great Mother, Isis, Mithras, and many other divinities is openly 
carried on. Cumont points out that such a state of affairs is an 
impossibility after the year 382, in which Gratian confiscated the 
property of the temples and deprived the pagan priests of their 
privileges 1 . He rightly remarks that if this blow had fallen on 
them before the time of writing, the author could not have failed 
to refer to it. For the best commentary on Questions 114 and 
115, dealing with the paganism and astrology of the period, I 
must refer the reader to Cumont's article. 

In quaest. 125 we find another indication of date. "There 
Eusebius of Vercelli, who died in 371, is referred to in such a 
way that he must have been dead at the time. The words are 
ADVERSVS EVSEBIVM. Memini me in quodam libello Eusebii 
quondam, egregii in reliquis uiri 2 , legisse quid nee spiritus sanctus 
sciat mysterium natiuitatis domini nostri lesu Christi, et admiror 
tantae doctrinae uirum hanc maculam spiritui sancto infliodsse. 
The bald reference to Eusebius points to an Eusebius, who 
would be well-known to his Latin readers. This can be none 
other than Eusebius of Vercelli. It looks, too, as if the author 
were resident in North Italy when this Question was composed. 
The works of Eusebius may, however, have been known in Rome 
also. 

Question 101 contains the name of a Roman deacon, veiled by 
the phrase quidam igitur qui nomen habet falsi dei. In all the 
editions the sentence reads quidam igitur qui nomen habet Falcidii. 
It is strange how such a sentence could have passed muster for 
over four centuries. In the eyes of some people anything is good 
enough to be Christian Latin. Yet the writer shows clearly by 
the use of the word quidam that he could give the name of the 
Roman deacon if he chose, and from friendship does not so choose. 
For the correct reading, now recovered from the manuscripts, is 
falsi dei, and Falcidius must disappear from the biographical 

1 Cumont, I.e., p. 421, where he refers to Wissowa, Religion und Kultus der 
Romer, p. 88. 

2 This is the correct punctuation, as quondam belongs to legisse. Morin, 
Revue Benedictine, xx (1903), p. 115, n. 2, seems to punctuate at Eusebii. 



170 THE AUTHOK AND HIS WORKS. 

dictionaries. Who is then to take his place ? I think it probable 
that the deacon meant is Concordius, who is known to have lived 
at that time 1 ; then the divinity alluded to will be Concordia. 
This Concordius, according to the Liber Pontificalis, was a deacon 
of Rome and one of the prosecutors of Damasus on a capital 
charge. He was expelled from the Church by a synod of bishops 
about the end of 378, or the beginning of 379. If he be the 
person meant by Ambrosiaster, then Question 101 was written 
before 378. 

This very Question 101 is largely drawn upon by Jerome in 
his 146th letter (to Evangelus). No one can read the two com- 
positions without seeing that there is a close connexion between 
them. Vallarsi considered the Question to have been composed 
from the letter; I hold the contrary view. Both tracts are an 
answer to a statement of quidam, that deacons are superior to 
priests. In Jerome he is simply quidam : in Ambrosiaster he is 
quidam qui nomen habet falsi dei. It is unfortunate that the date 
of the letter is uncertain. If it be really, as is believed, addressed 
to the same Evangelus as epist. 73, the only other addressed to a 
person of that name, and if we may state it as a probability that 
both were written about the same time, this brings us down to 
398, and is sufficient proof of the side on which the borrowing lay. 
But the contents themselves, I think, support my view. The 
Question is nearly twice as long as the letter. There is an air 
of reality about the circumstances of the Question which is not 
shared by the letter. The writer of the Question is obviously in 
close touch with the circumstances, is anxious to obey the dictates 
of affection, and is afraid of censure. Jerome is interested only 
in the false teaching, and plunges at once into his argument. 
The proof-texts of Scripture are not the same in both cases. 
Ambrosiaster has more from the Old Testament than Jerome; 
Jerome more from the New than Ambrosiaster. But the order of 
topics corresponds. Both works mention that originally presby- 
ters and bishops were the same. About the middle of each piece 
the peculiar position of the church of Alexandria is mentioned. 
Ambrosiaster refers to the fact that in Alexandria and throughout 

1 Duchesne, Liber Pontificalis, i, p. 212. Cf. M. Bade, Damasus, Bischof von 
Rom (Freib. i. B. 1882), p. 33, n. 2. 



THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 171 

Egypt, when a bishop is not present, a presbyter confirms 1 . Jerome, 
who was well acquainted with the church of Alexandria, mentions 
that from the time of Mark the Evangelist till the episcopate of 
Heraclas and Dionysius the presbyters always chose one from 
among themselves and appointed him bishop. Compare also the 
following passages, given in the order of their occurrence : 

AMBROSIASTER JEROME 

istos (diaconos\ quibus consessus in presbyteri ... episcopum nominabant, 

ecclesia datus est minime...nunc enim quo modo si exercitus imperatorem 

uidemus diaconos temere quod sacer- faciat...sed dices ' quo modo Romae 

dotum est agere per conuiuia, et in ad testimonium diaconi presbyter or- 

oratione id uelle ut respondeatur illis, dinatur ?\ . .in ecclesia Romae presby- 

cum istud solis liceat sacerdotibus... teri sedent et stant diaconi, licet .. .inter 

tollunt hoc de memoria adsiduae sta- presbyteros, absente episcopo, sedere 

tiones domesticae et officialitas... 1 sed diaconum uiderim et in domesticis 

testimonioj mquit, ' diaconi Jit pres- conuiuiis benedictiones presbyteris 

byter\..imperator^ ut imperator ap- dare, 
pareat, ordinatur obsequio militari. 

There is enough originality in Jerome's letter to save his credit, 
but he has clearly borrowed argument and illustration from his 
predecessor. 

The title of the set of gospels in our author's Bible was 
EVANGELIVM, and the special headings were CATA MATHEVM, CATA 

MARCVM, CATA LVCAN (in 1 Cor. XV 5) and CATA IOHANNEM 
(quaest. 76 (72)). It was the same in Cyprian's Bible, and pro- 
bably universally in the West till the publication of the Valgate 
Gospels, which bore SECVNDVM in their superscriptions. The 
CATA is still found in Filastrius (383), Etheria's Peregrinatio, and 
the commentary on Mark attributed to Jerome. 

The author's attitude to the Epistle to the Hebrews is also 
characteristic of the same period, but not of a later period. Just 
at the time he wrote, the West was coming into line with the 
East in regarding the epistle as Pauline. Ambrosiaster showed 
sufficiently that he agreed with earlier Western opinion by writing 
commentaries on the thirteen letters which were accepted every- 
where as Paul's, and leaving out the Epistle to the Hebrews, But 
he also shows it in the few instances where he has occasion to 

1 Jerome confines this to bishops (dial, contra Lucifer. 9). 



172 THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 

quote the epistle. As the editors have garbled the evidence of 
the Quaestiones on this point, and modern books on the Canon 
have suffered in consequence 1 , it will be necessary to present 
the evidence in full. In the commentary on 2 Tim. i 3 5, 
we find the words : nam simili modo et in epistula ad 
Hebreos scriptum est quia Leui, qui decimas accepit, decimas 
dedit Melchisedech 2 , etc. (p. 512 D). In Question 109 there are 
several passages which must be mentioned, one of them because 
it has been falsely referred to the Epistle to the Hebrews, when it 
undoubtedly belongs to the Epistle to the Romans. The first is 
on page 2325, first line : Legimus in libra geneseos de Melchisedech, 
simili modo et in epistula data ad Hebreos, quia obuiauit, inquit, 
Melchisedech sacerdos dei summi Abrahae reuertenti a caede 
regum, et protulit panes et uinum, et obtulit ei, et benedixit 
eum, dicens; Benedictus es, Abraham, a deo excelso, qui fecit 
caelum et terram, qui tradidit inimicos tuos sub manus tuas 3 . 
Et ut sigjiificaret quid intellegendus esset idem Melchisedech, 
adiecit : sine dubio enim, ait, quod minimum est a meliore bene- 
dicitur 4 . The next reference is not to Hebrews, but to Romans. 
The Benedictines were very careful and full in their references, 
but here they have taken over a reference from earlier editors 
without verification. On page 2325, line 64, occur the words 
apostolus hospitalitatem sectandam magnopere docet, and this is 
referred by them to Hebr. xiii 2, which reads in the Vulgate 
hospitalitatem nolite obliuisci. The reference, however, is certainly 
to Rom. xii 13, which in Ambrosiaster and the Vulgate reads 
hospitalitatem sectantes; and apostolus is quite in place. The 
third passage is on page 2327, lines 11 and 19, where the first 
part of Hebr. vii 1-4 is introduced by the words si legem respici- 
amus,plurima adhuc et potiora dicentur, and the second by the 

1 Of. Julicher's Einleitung in das Neue Testament (3 4 te Aufl., 1901), page 427 ; 
Zahn's Grundriss der Geschichte des Neutestamentlichen Kanons (2 te Aufl., 1904), 
page 68, note 10. 

2 Cf. Hebr. vii 9. 

3 As far as regum this is Hebr. vii 1 : et protulit panes et uinum is Gen. xiv 18 ; 
et obtulit ei, is not Scripture at all ; the rest is Gen. xiv. 19, 20, with the omission 
of one clause, KO.L evXoyyTbs 6 6ebs 6 I^ICTTOS, before qui tradidit. 

4 Hebr. vii 7. The editors have altered the reading of the MSS in five places in 
this short passage, the most serious alteration being the insertion of apostolus before 
significant. 



THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 



173 



words adiecit and ait, without any subject expressed. So is it 
throughout the rest of the Question. Where quotations are 
made, they are introduced by dicit, adiecit, addit, ait, but without 
apostolus or any other subject. Arnbrosiaster is consistent 
throughout. To him the author of the epistle was unknown ; 
and this is another indication that lie wrote at the period for 
which I have argued. 

It cannot be a mere accident that the five questions sent by 
Damasus to Jerome for solution in the year 384 are all included 
in the first twelve of Ambrosiaster's collection. Further, the 
order in which they are given is, with one exception, the same in 
both collections. Here are the titles : 






AMBROSIASTER 

quaest. VI. Si Lamech occidit Cain, 
sicut putatur ? (The verse quoted 
opposite is referred to in the body of 
the Question.) 

VI 1 1 1. Si omnia deus bona fecit, 
et bona ualde, quid est ut dicat ad 
Noe de mundis et inmundis indue 
tecum in arcam, cum in absolute sit 
inmundurn bonum dici non posse ? 
(Acts x 14 is quoted in the body of 
the Question.) 



X. Cum deus dicat ad Abraham 
de filiis Israhel, quod quarta progenie 
exituri essent de potestate Aegypti- 
orum, quid est ut e contra lex dicat 
quinta progenie exierunt filii Israhel 
de, terra Aegypti? Valde uidetur 
contrarium. 

XII. Quare Abraham fidei suae 
signum circumcisionem accepit ? 

XL Si uiri iusti uoluntas bona 
est, quid est ut Isaac, non Esau 
quern uoluit, sed lacob quern noluit 
benedixit ? 



DAMASUS-HIERONYMUS 

quaest. I. Quid sibi uult quod in 
Genesi scriptum est omnis, qui occi- 
derit Cain, septem uindictas exsoluet ? 

II. Si omnia deus fecit bona ualde, 
quare Noe de mundis et inmundis 
animalibus praecepit, cum inmundum 
nihil bonum esse possit ? et in nouo 
testamento post uisiouem, quae Petro 
fuerat osteusa, dicenti absit, domine, 
a me, quoniam commune et inmundum 
numquam introiuit in os meum, uox 
de caelo respondent quod deus mun- 
dauit, tu commune ne dixeris? 

III. Cur deus loquitur ad Abra- 
ham, quod quarta progenie filii 
Israhel essent de Aegypto reuersuri 
(v.l. exituri), et postea Moyses scribit 
quinta autem progenie exierunt filii 
Israhel de terra Aegypti? quod utique 
nisi exponatur, uidetur esse con- 
trarium. 

IV. Cur Abraham fidei suae sig- 
num in circumcisione suscepit 1 ? 

V. Cur Isaac, uir iustus et deo 
carus, non illi cui uoluit, sed cui 
uoluit deceptus errore benedixit ? 



Read accepit : the confusion is exampled elsewhere. 



174 THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 

That the connexion between the two sets is close no one will 
deny. Observe the substance, language and order of the ques- 
tions. The two which are omitted, namely the seventh and the 
eighth, dealing respectively with the contents of the tablets of the 
law and the brightness of Moses' face when he was descending the 
Mount, are of an obviously simpler nature. Most of the first five 
are of a very general character, and would have tempted Jerome 
to be more discursive than Damasus desired. It seems to me 
clear that what happened was this. Damasus had taken up the 
Quaestiones after publication, perhaps some years after publication, 
as men who are full of official business can never keep pace with 
current literature, and had been dissatisfied with the answers to 
some of the Questions. He therefore writes to Jerome, whom he 
obviously regarded as his most learned friend, to get better answers. 
This happened in the year 384, according to Vallarsi's dating; 
and it can be inferred that the Quaestiones was published before 
that date. 

Further considerations which indicate the same period are the 
theology, which Langen has shown to be pre-Augustinian 1 , the 
pre- Vulgate biblical text quoted, and the language, which has 
many analogies with that of Jerome. The heretics named are 
especially the Arians, the Photinians, the Marcionists, who are 
dying out (499 B), and the Manichaeans. These were the chief 
enemies of the Catholic Church in the period 370 to 380 2 . 

It is clear from the considerations advanced that the professed 
date of Ambrosiaster is correct, and that he wrote between 366 
and 382 A.D. 

4. His Status and Circumstances. It will be well to begin 
by trying to decide whether the author was a clergyman or a 
layman, as his works supply some material for arriving at a 
conclusion. A failure to consider this question is conspicuous, 
perhaps pardonably so, among all investigators prior to Dom 
Morin. 

If the author was, like nearly all the ancient Christian writers, 



1 See my fourth chapter, p. 157, n. 2. 

2 Harnack, Abhandlungen Oettingen, pp. 55, 73, gives other arguments as to 
date, which I have omitted, as I cannot estimate their value. 



THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 175 

a clergyman, it is likely that he was bishop, presbyter, or deacon 1 . 
He cannot have been a Roman deacon, because no deacon could 
have written against his fellows in the contemptuous and scathing 
manner of the 101st Question. His references to bishops, ' our 
bishops/ lead one to suppose that he did not himself hold the 
office : see in 1 Tim. ii 1-4 haec regula ecclesiastica est, tradita a 
magistro gentium, qua utuntur sacerdotes 2 nostri, ut pro omnibus 
supplicent, etc., a most important passage historically : quaest. 109 
(p. 2325) nostri sacerdotes super multos cottidie nomen domini et 
uerba benedictionis inponunt, sed in paucis effectus est. Est iterum 
quando meliores se benedicunt : and a little before in the same 
tractate, hie Melchisedech non utique sic benediocisse intellegitur 
Abraham, sicut faciunt homines sacerdotes, where homines sacer- 
doles is not to be interpreted contemptuously, but with reference 
to the context in the Epistle to the Hebrews 3 . There is nothing 
to prove that he was not a presbyter. An important passage in 
this connexion is in Eph. iv 11, 12, of which I append a transla- 
tion to the text. Ideo non per omnia conueniunt scripta apostoli 
ordinationi quae nunc in ecclesia est, quia haec inter ipsa primordia 
sunt scripta. Nam et Timotheum, presbyterum a se creatum, 
episcopum uocat, quia primi presbyteri episcopi appellabantur, ut, 
recedente eo, sequens ei succederet. Denique apud Aegyptum 
presbyteri consignant, si praesens non sit episcopus. Sed quia 
coeperunt sequentes presbyteri indigni inueniri ad primatus tenendos, 
inmutata est ratio, prospiciente consilio 4 ut non ordo sed meritum 

1 The minor officials lector, exorcista, etc., need not be taken into account. 

2 The best account known to me of the meaning of sacerdos in Christian Latin 
is contained in Professor E. W. Watson's article in Studio, Biblica et Ecclesiastica iv 
(Oxford, 1896), p. 258, n. 1, where he states that 'Jerome is the earliest writer to 
waver in the matter ' of the use of sacerdos. The name of our author should be 
substituted for Jerome here. Sacerdos is clearly 'bishop ' in 1 Tim. ii 14 above, 
but it is equally clearly 'presbyter,' priest,' in 1 Tim. iii 810 uterque (i.e. bishop 
and presbyter) sacerdos est, sed episcopus primus est (see chap, iv, p. 157, and also 
in this chapter, p. 175 f.). The author uses for 'bishop ' also episcopus, rector and 
praepositus. 

3 Hebr. vii 8 et hie quidem decimas morientes homines accipiunt, or vii 28 lex 
enim homines constituit sacerdotes infirmitatem habentes. 

4 The printed texts read concilio, which was referred by Lightfoot to the 
Apostolical Constitutions. The MSS are, I think, unanimous for consilio, and it 
is less likely that concilio would be altered by scribes, than the reverse. 



176 THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 

crearet episcopum, multorum sacerdotum iudicio constitutum, ne 
indignus temere usurparet et esset multis scandalum. 'The Apostle's 
writings are not in entire agreement with the system now existing 
in the Church : for they were written at the very beginning of all 
things. For example, Timothy also, whom he had himself made 
a presbyter, he calls a bishop (for the presbyters first in rank were 
named bishops), so that on his retirement the next in order might 
succeed him in that office. Indeed in Egypt presbyters confirm, 
if no bishop is present 1 . But because the presbyters next in rank 
came to be found unworthy to take the first places [i.e. to succeed 
as bishops], a change of method was made, the design of which 
was to secure that merit and not rank should make a bishop, who 
should be appointed by the judgment of a number of priests [i.e. 
bishops, at least three in number] that no unworthy person might 
lightly take office and be a stumbling-block to many.' 

His attitude to clerical matters is that of an external observer 
and critic. He thrice uses ecclesiasticus as a substantive, for 'an 
ecclesiastic,' a use of which the dictionaries have no example (see 
page 104). He is the earliest authority for the expression ius 
ecclesiasticum, which means ' the power of the Church to forgive 
sins 2 .' He certainly did not coin the expression, and the reason 
why he and the Donatist bishop Macrobius are the only two men 
of their time who employ it, is probably the fact that both occupied 
a position apart from the Catholic clergy. Those in the inner 
circle would naturally use the pronominal adjective of the first 
person in referring to this power. It seems, then, that the author 
was not a clergyman. There is, however, a difficulty to be removed. 
Questions 100 and 116 121 are notes for sermons, and qu. 120 
commences in a way which seems to make it certain that the 
author was a bishop : congruum est, fratres carissimi. . .dei sacer- 

1 This is introduced as bearing out the idea that, if ' primus presbyter ' is not to 
the fore, 'sequens' naturally takes his place. 

2 I have used here Harnack's paper in the Sitzungsberichte der kgl. preuss. A kad. 
der Wissenschaften for 1903, pp. 212226, entitled ' Ius ecclesiasticum. Eine 
Untersuchung iiber den Ursprung des Begriffes.' See also his Die pseudo- 
cyprianische Traktat De Singularitate Clericorum, ein Werk des Donatistischen 
Bischofs Macrobius in Rom (Texte u. Untersuchungen, Neue Folge ix 3, Leipsic 1903). 
The references are [Aug.] quaest. 93 ; 102 bis : [Cypr.] de singularitate clericorum 
36 (p. 212, 1 Hartel), 



THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 177 

dotern et praepositum plebis Christi exhortari populum, sub euro, 
sua positum, in doctrina sana. This sentence, however, cannot 
outweigh the strong evidence against it. We shall probably be 
right in regarding these Questions, either, with Dom Morin, as 
mere notes for sermons, jotted down for the sake of some bishop 
who was lacking in eloquence 1 , or as exercises not actually intended 
for delivery. It may be noted that none of these Questions are in 
the earliest edition, and some will in consequence say that the 
author became a bishop before he died. 

Having, then, concluded that the author was a layman, we 
must seek for some indications of his position in society, his 
circumstances generally, and his experience of life. These must 
be gathered from his works, and, being inferences with an unavoid- 
able subjectivity behind them, may be regarded as fanciful. Such 
as they are, it seems best to put them before the reader, as they 
have not been lightly arrived at. 

First, then, it seems clear that the writer was of high birth. 
We have seen that he draws many illustrations from the emperor, 
the highest state officials, and the senatorial order. He has a 
keen sense of what it is fitting for them to do. He has a respect 
for dignities and class distinctions, such as aristocrats and their 
servants alone have. He knows exactly the duties of all officials, 
the significance of the programma of a prefect of the praetorian 
guard, the dress of various classes 2 , etc. Such illustrations come 
readily to him, and the only way to explain their occurrence in 
this author, marking him out among the Latin Christian authors, 
is to suppose that he himself was a senator and a high official in 
the state. References to his works need not be repeated here 8 . 
His Question 124, that any particular sin differs (in sinfulness) 
according to the wealth or poverty of the person who commits it, 
is in complete harmony with this view. In it he compares 



1 Revue Benedictine xx (1903) 118. 

2 In quaest. 46 (p. 2246) he mentions that in his day deacons, as well as 
bishops, wore the dalmatic. I have not found this reference in any book on 
church antiquities. 

3 See chap, i, pp. 2331 ; cf. Morin Rev. B^nSd. xx (1903) 119121, who gives 
one or two passages omitted by me. See also Curnont Rev. d'Hist. et de Litt. Relig. 
vm (1903) 437440. 

8. 12 



178 THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 

throughout the sinfulness of the chief sins, when committed by a 
rich and a poor man respectively, and shows much fairness and 
knowledge of the world. Compare quaest. 16 uiri sublimis culpa 
graue peccatum est. Quanta eniin persona eius suspicabilis est, 
tanto magis leue delictum ems acerbissimum est peccatum 1 , and 
quaest. 102, 3 (p. 2304) ' sed forte regi ignosci oportuit, humilibus 
autem ignosci non debet?' cum magis potentioribus difficilius 
ignoscendum uideatur. Dens enim personam hominis non accipit. 
Quanta enim quis sublimior est, tanto magis, licet leue peccatum eius, 
graue est crimen, etc. In quaest. 5 we are told that every one 
knows that the greatest gifts ought to be offered to a person in 
high position. The same thought is repeated in quaest. 103, qai 
offert potentiori, munera electa offert. I may add that only a man 
of high position could have been on terms of friendship with the 
Roman deacons 2 , of whom there were only seven, and these 
persons of great consequence. 

References in both works seem to point to the fact that he had 
also held high administrative posts. I have noted in the first 
chapter references to definite statutes, the iudices, etc. I have 
not there, or elsewhere, given any collection of examples of his 
legal terminology. It is not highly technical in character, but 
exactly such as an experienced administrator would employ. It 
runs the whole gamut of legal procedure, from the decision of the 
magistrate that there is a case up to the declaration of the verdict, 
and even to the revision of a judgment and the recall of a sentence. 
A few examples are accusationem recipere, reum tenere, reum con- 
stituere, iudiciis off err e, accusare, causam dicer e, professio, suscipere 
(cf. p. 143), iudicare, rennuere causam, pronuntiare, sententiam 
dare, absoiuere, damnare, iudicium retractare, sententiam reuocare, 
ignoscere. Tertullian's language forms a good contrast. He was 
a trained lawyer, and employs terms such as are never found in 
our author, circumscribere, elogium, libripens, etc. Cumont's con- 
clusion is * Les passages ici rassemble's, et dont le nombre pourrait 
etre aisement accru, me paraissent demontrer suffisamment que 
1'auteur des Quaestiones et des Commentaria avait fait des etudes 



1 The editions have corrupted the text badly here. 

2 Quaest. 101 pr. 



THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 179 

juridiques. Peut-etre meme avait-il occupe quelque fonction 
publique avant de devenir un docteur de 1'Eglise.' 

The author's interest in law and custom is remarkable ; though, 
as far as I know, one modern author alone has given him his 
rightful place in the history of thought 1 . Ambrosiaster was not a 
mere mechanical administrator of the law as he found it, but one 
who had thought much on what was behind law in general. He 
was profoundly interested, for example, in natural law and its 
relation to the Mosaic Law, in the origins of Roman law, in the 
problem of slavery, in the position of the emperor and his special 
relation to God, in the question of woman's relation to man. 
Church law has no less interest for him. The proper method of 
blessing and its significance' 2 , the procedure followed in becoming 
a member of the Church 3 , the ius ecclesiasticum, for the mention 
of which he is the earliest authority 4 , and the rules governing the 
conduct of ecclesiastics : for example, they must be celibate, and 
must not engage in trade or business of any kind 5 . He has a 
consciousness of the fitting place, not only of the secular magistrate, 
but of each order in the Church. His whole attitude marks him 
out as an experienced administrator, with no slavish worship of 
the letter of the law, but an independent mind, which can discern 
the eternal principles implicit in it. His position is that of a 
highly placed and detached observer and critic. 

As we might expect in the case of an experienced governor, 
there are indications that he had travelled much. These indica- 
tions consist of both general and particular statements. Of the 
former, there occurs in Rom. v 5 the following : Peregrini hominis 
improbabilis origo in terra aliena eat, an illustration which would 
hardly drop from any one who had not travelled, or had much 
to do with foreigners in court. A number of countries are 
referred to in the Quaestiones, especially the 115th. Such are 



1 Rev. A. J. Carlyle in A History of Mediaeval Political Theory in the West, 
vol. i (London : 1903). See the excellent index, s.v. Ambrosiaster. 

2 Quaest. 109. 

3 Quaest. 102, near the end. 

4 Of. Harnack, Abhandlungen Oettingen, p. 73 f. See also page 176. 

5 Quaest. 127, near the end ; in 1 Tim. iii 810, where the correct reading is 
negotia tamen publica turpia uilia non habentes, etc. 

122 



180 THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 

Africa, the country of the Garam antes, Egypt, Sicily, Sardinia, 
Spain, Gaul, Pannonia, Asia, Phrygia, Persia, besides Italy, and in 
it Etruria and Campania. It is true that most of them are 
mentioned only once, but they are mentioned with a naturalness 
and ease quite alien to erudition and perfectly suited to personal 
experience of them. The recital of the riding customs of ancient 
countries (quaest. 115, p. 2350) is, I think, unique. A man who 
had lived all his life in one country would not draw so many or so 
ready illustrations from other countries. Africa and Egypt are 
oftener mentioned than the others, and it seems very likely that 
the author had lived in these countries. The passages referring 
to Egypt have already been given in the first chapter. Their 
character can best be explained by the supposition that the writer 
had held office there, had been perhaps either dux or comes 
Aegypti. 

It was perhaps in Egypt that he acquired his remarkable 
interest in the Jews. He is interested primarily in the Mosaic 
Law, but also in the customs of the synagogue and the position of 
Jews in the world. Though, like some other great Christian 
authors of the West, he wrote his polemic against the Jews 1 , 
there is throughout his works a breadth of attitude towards them 
that has nothing either patronising or hostile in it. He has in his 
commentaries the insight to see where Jews are meant, though 
not explicitly mentioned, and shows from time to time that customs 
of the synagogue have been taken over by the Church. Several 
pages could be filled with quotations from his works, in which the 
Jews are spoken of, but here I must confine myself to the most 
striking and important. * The name ludaei dates from the time 
of Judas Maccabeus (58 B, quaest. 81),' but is derived from Judah, 
son of Jacob (73 A). Romans, chapter vii, verse 5, uitia peccatorum 
quae per legem ostenduntur is meant as an attack on the Jews, 
he tells us; and chap, ix, verses 11 to 13, also refer to them: 
cf. verse 28, ' Not a few of the Jews have believed' (155 A). He 
wrongly confines the reference in the ' altar ' of First Corinthians ix 
13 to Jews, while the ' temples' refer to Gentiles. Chapter ix 
of First Corinthians, verse 20, ' to them that are under the law,' is 

1 Quaest. 44, 



THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 181 

referred to the Samaritans : legem enim solam accipiunt, id est, 
quinque libros Moysi. The ' doctores ' of 1 Cor. xii 28 are defined 
as those qui in ecclesia litteris et lectionibus retinendis pueros 
imbuebant more synagogue. Verses 30 and 31 of the fourteenth 
chapter, 'bat if a revelation be made to another sitting by, let the 
first keep silence, for ye all can prophesy one by one, that all may 
learn, and all may be comforted,' are explained thus: haec traditio 
synagogae est quam nos uult sectari, qida Ghristianis quidem scribit, 
sed ex gentibus factis, non ex ludaeis, ut sedentes disputent, seniores 
de dignitate in cathedris, sequentes in subselliis, nouissimi in 
pauimento super mattas. Some of the false apostles of 2 Cor. ii 
17 had a zeal for the traditio ludaica. The Jews are specially 
meant in 2 Cor. iv 3, ' them that are perishing.' The analysis of 
Galatians, chap, iii 17, is an excellent example of the author's 
skill, but is much too long for quotation. The 'magistri' of 
Eph. iv 11 are defined in the same way as the 'doctores' of 
1 Cor. xiii 28, with an alternative meaning: magistri uero exorcistae 
sunt, quia in ecclesia ipsi conpescunt et uerberant inquietos, sine hi 
qui lectionibus iinbuendos infantes solebant imbuere, sicut mos 
ludaeorum est, quorum traditio ad nos transitum fecit, quae per 
neglegentiam obsoleuit. In Philippians i 13 he strangely interprets 
praetorium as ludaismus, and the ceteri omnes as the uniuersae 
ecclesiae gentium. His interest in the derivation of Hebrei has 
been already referred to in the fourth chapter (page 154). On 
Col. ii 16 17 he says that the Jews attack the Christians for 
disdaining to have anything to do with their festivals, or their 
new moons, or their sabbaths, which they pass in ease, banqueting 
and luxury. The opponents of Paul's gospel in 1 Tim. i 3 4 are 
Jews, who will perhaps give the people a delight in the fabulis, 
quas narrare consueti sunt ludaei de generatione suarum originum, 
de Abraham Isaac et ceteris patriarchis, et de circumcisione et his 
quae postea tradita sunt a Moyse. On Titus iii 9 occurs this 
passage : fabulosa autem non lex, sed heresis est, quantum ad tempus 
illud pertinet ludaeorum, dum quidam eorum sibi uindicarent 
praerogatiuam originem patriarcharum, qui de matrimoniis orti 
sunt, cum ex hoc nullum meritum sit apud deum. quidam uero 
urceorum et ceterorum uasorum baptisma et sanguinem mustelae 
magna cura expiandum, et quia ideo Moysi sepultura abscondita 



182 THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 

est y ne a magis excitaretur ; quod si uerum esset, et ceterorum 
sanctorum abscondenda fuerat sepultura : et quid Solomon adiutorio 
daemoniorum templum aedificauit, in quo opere ing ens multitudo 
laborauit, quid tarn fabulosum? Perhaps our author had read 
some of the Jewish apocryphal books 1 . On First Timothy, 
chapter v, verse 1, he remarks apud omnes utique gentiles honorabilis 
est senectus, unde et synagoga et postea ecclesia senior es habuit, 
quorum sine consilio nihil agebatur in ecclesia. Quod qua neglegentia 
obsoleuerit nescio, nisi forte doctorum (the bishops, of course) desidia 
aut magis superbia, dum soli uolunt aliquid uideri. His interpre- 
tation of the 'cloke' passage (2 Tim. iv 13) is so important and 
interesting, that it must be quoted in full. " Paenulam quam 
reliqui Troade apud Carpum ueniens adfer, et libros, maxime 
autem membranas." Apostolus natura ludaeus fuit, nee quicquam 
habuit alienum. unde ergo illi paenulam ? sed quia erat a Torso, 
quos constat in societatem Romanorum receptos, ut de cetero dues 
appellarentur Romani 2 , idcirco necesse est eos et curiam habere, in 
quam more Romanorum paenulati conueniant. quicumque enim illo 
tempore cum muneribus obuiam eocissent Romanis, inmunitate 
perpetua donati, dues Romani et fratres eorum nuncupabantur, 
teste eodem apostolo. Potest ergo fieri, ut, si non suam, quia totum 
se legi dederat, patris sui haberet paenulam. From this passage 
it seems clear either that the toga had been given up as the 
official dress of Roman senators, or that paenula had changed its 
name, and come to mean toga. It was at one time deemed 
unbecoming for a senator to wear the paenula*. We hear of 
pleaders in court wearing it in late times, but this is the only 
passage, seemingly, where it appears as the official dress of a 
senator. The author knows perfectly well what he is speaking 
about, and we may safely conclude that about 375 A.D. senators 
wore the paenula in the senate. In Question 127 (p. 2379), in 
speaking of the blessing of created things by their Creator, he 
says : quo modo ergo did potest male fieri aut non licere, quod ex 

1 See also chapter i, p. 40. 

2 Some MSS put dues before Romani. It is better, probably, to leave it out 
altogether, cf. qu. 107 m. nam quia Romani regnum liabent, Hispani et Galli et Afri 
et ceteri subiecti eis sub eorum nomine Romani uocantur. 

3 Gellius Noct. Att. 13, 22 (21), 1. 



THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 183 

dei benedictione et ipso fauente augmentum facit ? cuius rei traditio 
et in synagoga mansit et mine in ecclesia celebratur, ut dei creatura 
sub dei benedictione iungatur ; non utique per praesumptionem, quia 
ab ipso auctore data est forma. In quaest. 115 ppr the reason is 
asked why, in spite of the great multitude of the Jews throughout 
the whole world, there is never a case among them of conversion 
to paganism, while there are though rarely cases of con- 
version to Judaism among the pagans. In quaest. 82 (a) the 
rudiments of the world, under which the Jews are in bondage 
(Gal. iv 3), are thus described : obseruant enim neomenias, sabbata, 
pecorum sacrificia, initio mensis septimi tuba canere, quinto decimo 
autem die mensis septimi medullas palmarum et ramos ligni spissos 
et ramos solids circumferre et in casis septem diebus habitare 1 . 
These passages will suffice to show the author's great interest in 
Judaism 2 , and may close this section of our chapter. 

5. Suggestion as to his Identity. Dom Morin, after long 
study of this author and his period, has suggested the name of 
Decimius Hilarianus Hilarius as that of the author. This 
suggestion is, I think, the best that has been made, and those 
who differ from it will have to read the works of the author 
carefully in the forthcoming Vienna editions before coming to a 
conclusion on the subject. Much light will be thrown on the 
surroundings of the problem, if specialists in all branches will be 
kind enough to give the author their attention, and report what 
they find in him of interest in their departments. At present, 
one like myself, who seeks to treat the subject as a whole, is 
continually checked by inability to find an answer to many 
questions. But when the students of liturgies, creeds, Church 
organisation, Biblical criticism, the Christian literature of the first 
four centuries, and the Latin language, have studied him, then the 
problem will be easier. I hope I have shown that authorities on 
the general history of the period cannot safely neglect our author, 
though Tillemont alone seems to have read him. 

Decimius Hilarianus Hilarius, who is commemorated in an 
inscription 3 of Bedja (anciently Vaga) in the Roman province of 

1 This passage is omitted in quaest. 82, which I regard as the later form. 

2 See Dom Morin Revue d'Hist. et de Litt. Relig. iv (1899) 111114. 

3 Corp. Inscr. Lat. vm 1219. 



184 THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 

Africa, which corresponded in extent to the region which is now 
Tunis, was a Christian layman, who flourished in the second half 
of the fourth century and the early years of the fifth. He was 
proconsul of Africa in 377 ; a law was addressed to him as 
praefectus urbi (Romae) by the emperors Gratian, Valentinian 
and Theodosius on February 19th, 383 l ; in 396 he was praefectus 
praetorio Italiae, and had four laws addressed to him by the 
emperors Arcadius and Honorius during his tenure of that office, 
on March 19th 2 , May 30th 3 , June 16th 4 , and December 28th 5 , 
respectively. He held the office of praefectus urbi (Romae) a 
second time in 408, as we know from the fact that a law was 
addressed to him by the emperors Arcadius and Honorius on 
January loth of that year 6 . Letters 38 42 of the third book of 
his pagan contemporary Symmachus are addressed to him. These 
letters belong probably to the year 397. 

In connexion with this family Professor Otto Seeck, of 
Greifswald, has made what may be regarded as a certain conjecture. 
Jerome in his 54th letter, section 6, addressing a Roman lady of 
the name of Furia, uses the following words : pater tuus, quern ego 
honoris causa (i.e. with all respect) nomino, non quia consularis 
et patricius, sed quia Christianus est, impleat riomen suum, 
laetetur filiam genuisse Christo, non saeculo. Furia's father, 
then, must have had a name connected etymologically with the 
idea of rejoicing. The name cannot have been Gaudentius, as 
Jerome would then have used gaudeat, such plays upon words 
being in good taste in ancient literature. Again, no important 
person of the name of Laetus is known in that period. The word 
hilaresco, apart from its comparative rarity, is rather too long to 

1 Codex Theodosianus v 1, 3 IMPPP. GBAT. VALENTIN. ET THEOD. AAA. AD HILARIVM 
p.v. The corresponding passage of Justinian gives HILABIANVM. 

2 Cod. Theod. xm 11, 7 IMPP. ARCAD. ET HONOR. AA. HILARIANO. It is doubtful 
whether this be the same person. 

a Cod. Theod. vn 4, 22 IMPP. ARCAD. ET HONOR. AA. HILARIO P.P. 

4 Cod. Theod. vn 4, 23 ,, 

5 Cod. Theod. xi 21, 2 ,, HILARIO. 

6 Cod. Theod. xim 4, 8 ,, ,, HILARIO P.V. I mention this 
law because Morin has done so, but no doubt we ought with Theodosiani Libri xvi 
ed. Mommsen and Meyer, i (Berol. dated 1905, really 1904) to regard this Hilarius 
as a different person. 






THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 185 

express just the kind of point that is wanted. Yet there can be 
little doubt that the name Hilarius is meant. His rank, his age, 
and his religion suit the situation perfectly. We know that the 
wife of Hilarius had been Titiana, deceased at the time (about 
394). She was the daughter or sister of Furius Maecius Gracchus, 
who, when prefect of Rome in 376 377, showed his zeal for 
Christianity in a very striking manner by destroying a speleum or 
cave, devoted to the worship of Mithras. The three mentions of 
the speleum in our author 1 acquire new meaning in this light. 
Other particulars of the family are also known. 

It will be seen that there is much to recommend this hypo- 
thesis, but its weakness must be pointed out. There is not a 
scrap of evidence to prove that this Hilarius wrote books. Of 
course there is also no evidence to show that he did not. Further, 
the suggestion is difficult to reconcile with the silence of Jerome. 
Neither in the De Viris Inlustribus nor in the preface to his 
commentary on Galatians does he mention the commentaries of 
Ambrosiaster. The former was composed at Bethlehem in 392, 
the latter at the same place in 386. It seems incredible that 
Jerome, with so many friends and an eager thirst for biblical 
literature, should have been ignorant of this important work. 
Marold thinks 2 that he knew it well enough, and used it. If he 
did, then he had some strong reason for ignoring it on these two 
occasions. It is difficult to see what reason he could have had, if 
Decimius Hilarianus Hilarius were the author. Perhaps its 
anonymity was the cause of its omission ; or Jerome hated the 
author, who may have been a rival for Damasus' favour and was 
certainly as good a catholic as himself, though with no interest at 
all in monachism. Perhaps some day it will be possible to elicit 
from Jerome's works a hint as to the identity of this author. 

6. The Authors Editions of the Commentaries and the 
Quaestiones. By a new edition of an ancient book I mean the 
same as authors in the present day mean, namely, that there are 
a considerable number of changes in the way of amplification, 
curtailment and the correction of minor errors: I do not mean 
what publishers in modern times sometimes mean by the term, 

1 In 1 Cor. xiv 2425 ; quaest. 114 bis. 

2 See page 8, note. 



186 'I 1 1 IE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 

the mere correction of a few misprints. There was something in 
ancient times corresponding to that, namely, the correction of 
clerical errors, which had been made by the original copyist. 
But it is to be understood that I use the term here in the 
former sense. 

The subject of authors' editions of ancient books is one about 
which we hear very little from the authors themselves, and we 
must sometimes judge from the manuscript tradition what really 
happened. We know that Cicero made two editions of his 
Academics. Of the original edition the second book survives ; 
of the second edition, which was in four books, we possess only the 
first book (incomplete) and fragments of the others 1 . The poet 
Martial tells us that he prepared a selection from Books x and XI 
of his Epigrams for the use of the Emperor Nerva ; this is no 
longer extant 2 . The researches of Blass have led him to 
suggest that the author of the third gospel and the book of 
Acts issued two editions of each work. Such are some of the 
instances of which record has been preserved. There are also 
instances of works which were revised in ancient times, but not 
by their authors. The discovery by Mercati of the 5th century 
Quirinian fragment of Cyprian's Testimonia has shown that at 
an early date this collection of biblical quotations was carefully 
worked over to bring them into harmony with the Vulgate. It 
is this recension which von Hartel gives in the Vienna edition. 
The case of Niceta's Ad lapsam uirgiiiein libellus, just edited by 
Dr A. E. Burn, is not so certain. There exists a longer recension, 
quoted in his critical notes, which is in some MSS attributed to 
Jerome, arid in others to Ambrose. While there is no doubt that 
the shorter form is by Niceta, it is not as yet possible to say 
definitely who was the author of the longer form. 

Of all instances of authors' editions known to me the most 
interesting and important is that of Ambrosiaster. We possess 
in complete form three editions of the Quaestiones, of which two 
at least emanate from the author. We also have represented in 
our MSS two editions at least of the commentary on the Epistle 
to the Romans, and two of the commentaries on the First and 

1 Middleton and Mills, The Student's Companion to Latin Authors, p. 80 f. 

2 Epigr. xxii 5 ; Middleton and Mills, p. 300. 



THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 187 

Second Epistles to the Corinthians, The proper treatment of 
these editions of the oommeotarioa must be reserved for Father 
Brewer. I content myself here with a proof resulting from my 
own researches in the Bodleian MSS, premising that this question 
has been discussed between us since my notes were made. 

In spite of the well-known instance of Blass's Attische 
l>ctr<{x<unk('it t it is the almost invariable rule that later editions 
are longer than their predecessors. This amplification results 
from the inevitable increase of knowledge, as the author continues 
working, and also from the fact that clearness is generally best 
achieved by expansion. We shall be justified then, I think, in 
considering that the shorter form represented by cod. Bodl. 756 
amongst others, represents an earlier form than that given by 
many MSS. By way of anticipating the likely objection that the 
additions in the longer form were really made by another person, 
and are therefore interpolations, I must state that the additional 
parts are unquestionably of the same style as the main body of the 
work. There is at least one interpolation in all the editions 1 ; 
there may be others. But the instances I am about to give few, 
out of a large number cannot be regarded as such. The thick 
type represents what is common to both editions, the italic type 
the additions of the later recension. 

The prologue to Romans, which is often found apart from the 
commentaries in MSS, differs very greatly in some authorities 
from the form which is found in the Benedictine edition, 
/immer has shown the form it has in Irish authorities 2 . The text 
of the Bodleian MS, just mentioned, is also considerably different. 
Apart from minor omissions and differences, the whole block, 
p. 49, lines 19 28 (non tota, quid - - omnino non essent) is 
wanting; as also the section, p. 50, lines 34 38 (sed non 
peccata eorum). In Rom. i lu' Igitur uirtus del est quae 
inuitat ad fidem et dat salutem omni credent!, dum peccata 
remittit et iustificat, ut a secunda morte detineri non 
possit signatus mysterio crucis. Praedicatio enim crucis 
Christ! indicium est mortis euictae, dicente apostolo lohanne 
Al) HOG ENIM VEN1T FILIVS DEI VT SOLVEUET OPERA DIABOLI, 

1 The words quia cetera carnalis. undc subdititr (1 Cor. vi 18). 

- I'l'liiiiina in Irland, p. 118 f. 



188 THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 

at omnis credens non teneatur a morte, quia signum habet quod 
uicta mors est. IVDAEO PRIMUM ET GRAECO, etc. Here we get 
a glimpse into the author's study. After the publication of the 
first edition he had thought of a Scripture proof of his statement, 
and now adds it. 

There is another example on the same page, lines 33 39 (in 
Rom. i 17) IVSTITIA ENIM DEI IN EO REVELATVR EX FIDE IN 
FIDEM : quia in illo qui credunt, siue ludaeo siue Graeco, 
iustitia dei manifestatur. lustitiam dei dicit, quia gratis iustificat 
impium per fidem, SINE OPERIBVS LEGIS, sicut alibi dicit : VT 

INVENIAR IN ILLO NON HABENS MEAM IVSTITIAM QVAE EX LEGE 

EST SED ILLAM QVAE EX FIDE EST. Quae ex deo est iustitia in 
fide, ipsam iustitiam dicit reuelari in euangelio, dum donat homini 
fidem per quam iustificetur. Ostenditur enim in ipso ueritas 
et iustitia dei dum credit et profitetur etc. 

The note on the clause SED EVANVERVNT IN COGITATIONIBVS 
svis (Rom. i 21) appears in different language in both recensions, 
but both are by the same author. 

B. Migne. 

Vere uanitas est hoc, ut cognoscentes l Euanuerunt ' : uidentes enim mun- 

ueritatem cogitarent aliud colendum dum miro ornatu aptatum ab eo, quern 

quod nesciebant uerum esse, ut dis- eius opificem cognouerant, dissimula- 

simulantes a deo colerent idola. uerunt. 

The note on Rom. i 25 is very different in different MSS, as 
the Benedictines have observed. There is also a great discrepancy 
at verses 29 and 30 of the same chapter, and again in verses 31 
and 32. Many others are recorded with fair accuracy in the 
Benedictine notes. From et tamen (in Rom. ii 17) down to ludae 
defendunt, in other words, nearly the whole of the comment, 
belongs to the later recension : there is no word of this omission 
in the Benedictine notes on MSS. The Bodleian MS is an 
excellent one, as may be seen for example from the fact that it 
provides callosis rightly, where the MSS cited by the Benedictines 
in their note on Rorn. v (i 7, give callidis; and also from the 
character of its text in the later epistles. It omits unde idem 

apostolus esse satanae (in Rom. vii 14) ; hoc est quod singuli 

mundi nos teneri (in Rom. viii 23) ; exempla igitur propheta- 

rum unde audiunt a saluatore (in Rom. xi 8 10), for which 



THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 189 

it has quam sciens prudensque abnuit ; aut sibi ipsi quod 

contra nos est (in Rom. xii 19); in tantum denique miserebitur 

deus (in Rom. xv 27). 

The verse 1 Cor. x 24 with the comment is wanting. There 
are great disturbances in 1 Cor. xii 21 and the following verses. 
The whole block, verses 34 and 35 of 1 Cor. xiv, with commentary, 
is transferred to the end of the chapter, after verse 40. The notes 
on chapter xv, after verse 51, as represented by the Benedictines, 
do not exist in the Bodleian MSS, and there is confusion from that 
point to the end. There are two prologues to Second Corinthians, 
both of which are probably by the author. There are also con- 
siderable differences in the authorities for the first few verses of 
the first chapter. 

These notes may suffice to show that the author really issued 
two editions of the longer epistles. 

We have already seen that the Quaestiones exists in three 
editions. Of these, that preserved in the manuscripts of the 
Benedictine Coustarit's second class must be regarded as the 
earlier. It gives the tractate against Arius in a very much 
shorter form than it has in the edition of the 127 Quaestiones. 
The title Quaestiones is also more descriptive of this collection 
than it is of the 127. The latter contains many documents at 
the end which are not Quaestiones at all, but the old title was 
kept because the later edition contained much that was common 
to the first. In the collection of 127 there are wanting many 
short Questions which are found in the other, while no long ones 
are absent in the 127. Those which are discarded are brief, and 
of little value. It seems then certain that the collection of 127 
is the later of the two. As to the third class, it was very likely 
put together out of the other two by someone of a later period 
than the author. 

I propose first to give a specimen of the alterations made in a 
Question between the publication of the earlier and the later 
editions ; and for this purpose I select quaest. 79 (of the 127) 
= quaest. N.T. 59 of the other collection. 



190 



THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 



N.T. 59. 

CVR SALVATOR PRO SE TANTVM ET 
PETRO DIDRAGMAM SOLVIT, NON ET 
PRO CETERIS APOSTOLIS, QVIPPE CVM 
OMNES EVM SECVTI SVNT, DERELICTIS 
OMNIBVS SVIS ? 

Didragma capitum uel tributi 
exactio intellegitur non praediorum, 
quod nunc pannosum aururn appel- 
latur, quia et pauperes exiguntur. 
nee euim saluator aliquid possidebat 
in mundo, cum sit dominus mundi ; 
et mortuus alienis inpendiis sepelitur: 
et nos, quibus mundus extraneus est, 
facultates augere cupimus, ut, mori- 
entes, mundum a nobis inuasura non 
tantum uoce sed et litteris con- 
testemur, ut professione nostra ab eo, 
cuius mundus est, condemnemur. 
Hinc dominus qui non, inqmt, re- 
liquerit omnia et secutus fuerit 
me, non potest meus discipulus 
esse. 

Didragma igitur ab his exigenda 
est, qui aliquid negotii gerunt, uel 
danda pro artibus : saluator igitur, 
qui nihil horum curabat, neque dis- 
cipuli eius, exigendus non erat. Sed 
quia diabolus inimicus semper in 
insidiis erat, occasionem quaerens 
inclinandi saluatorem, exactorum di- 
dragmae animos occupauit, ut eius 
facerent uoluntatem ; et accedentes 
ad Petrum, qui primus inter dis- 
cipulos erat, solui debere ab eorum 
magistro dicunt didragma, qui ab his 
oneribus liberi erant. nihil enim 
agebant in mundo quod esset mundi ; 
quia non erat unde soluerent, aut his 
scandalo esset, aut certe humilitate 
suffragii quaererent a quo solueretur. 
et dominus, ut inprouidum diabolum 
et aduersus se ipsum semper machinas 
instruentem inluderet, ad mare ire 
Petrum apostolum iubet, quasi cui 



LXXVIIII (LXXV). 

CVR SALVATOR PRO SE TANTVM ET 
PETRO DIDRAGMAM SOLVIT, NON ET 
PRO CETERIS APOSTOLIS, QVIPPE CVM 
OMNES EVM SECVTI SVNT, DERELICTIS 
OMNIBVS SVIS ? 

Didragma capitum exactio intel- 
legitur, non praediorum; nee enim 
saluator aliquid possidebat in mundo, 
cum sit dominus mundi. mortuus 
autem alienis inpendiis sepelitur : 
et nos, a quibus mundus extraneus 
est, facultates augere cupimus, ut, 
morieiites, mundum a nobis inuasum, 
non tantum uoce, sed et litteris con- 
testemur, ut professione nostra ab eo, 
cuius mundus est, condemnemur. 
hinc dominus qui non, inquit, re- 
liquerit omnia et secutus me 
fuerit, non potest meus dis- 
cipulus esse. quicumque ergo sic 
habet facultates suas, ut spem in illis 
non habeat, paratus autem sit pro 
fide illas abicere, uiam ambulat qua 
itur ad Christum dominum nostrum. 

Didragma igitur ab his exigenda 
erat, qui aliquid negotii gerebant aut 
artibus operam dabant. saluator 
autem, qui nihil horum curabat, 
neque discipuli eius, exigendus utique 
non erat ; sed quia inimicus diabolus 
semper in insidiis erat, occasionem 
quaerens si posset inclinare salua- 
torem, exactorum didragmae animos 
occupauit, ut eius facerent uolun- 
tatem, ut accedentes ad Petrum, qui 
primus inter apostolos erat, solui 
debere ab eorum magistro dicerent 
didragrnam, qui ab his oneribus liberi 
erant. nihil enim agebant in mundo 
quod esset mundi ; ut, quia non erat 
unde solueret, aut his scandalo esset, 
aut certe humilitate suffragii quaereret 
a quo solueretur. tune dominus, ut 
inprouidum diabolum et aduersus 



THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 



191 



N.T. 59. 

curarn domus delegauerat, et capti 
piscis os aperire et illic inuenire 
modum exaction! debiturn, ut non 
esset scandalo exactoribus, neque 
humiliaretur requisite auxilio ad 
soluendum, et ut signum uirtutis 
maximae demonstraret, per quod 
captos a diabolo ad se traheret, ut 
argumento et astutia sua diabolus 
torqueretur. 

Dicunt ergo exactores didragraae 
ad Petrum apostolum magister 
uester non soluit didragma; 
quo dicto, magistrum, ut pro omnibus 
discipulis solueret, conuenerunt. tune 
saluator, cum pro se et Petro dari 
iubet, pro omnibus soluisse uidetur, 
quia, sicut omnes in saluatore erant 
causa magisterii, ita et post salua- 
torem in Petro continentur : ipsum 
enim post se reliquit pastorem. 
denique dicit illis ecce satanas 
expostulauit ut uos uentilet 
uelut triticum; ego autem ro- 
gaui pro te ne deficiat fides 
tua; et tu aliquando conuersus 
confirma fratres tuos. Mani- 
festum est itaque omnes contineri : 
rogans enim pro Petro, pro omnibus 
rogasse dinoscitur : semper enim in 
praeposito populus aut corrumpitur 
(conicio corripitur 1 ) aut laudatur. 



LXXVIIII (LXXV). 
semet ipsum semper machinari osten- 
deret, ad mare ire Petrurn apostolum 
iubet, et capti piscis os aperire, 
et illic inuenire modum exactioni 
debitum, quo soluto, non solum 
scandalo non esset exactoribus, neque 
inclinaretur, requisite auxilio ad 
soluendum, uerum etiam signum 
uirtutis maximae demonstraret, per 
quod captos a diabolo ad se traheret, 
ut argumento et astutia sua diabolus 
torqueretur. 

Dicunt ergo exactores didragmae 
ad Petrum apostolum magister 
uester non soluit didragmam; 
quo dicto, magistrum, ut pro omnibus 
discipulis solueret, conuenerunt. sal- 
uator autem cum pro se et Petro 
dari iubet, pro omnibus soluisse 
uidetur, quia, sicut in saluatore erant 
omnes causa magisterii, ita et post 
saluatorem in Petro omnes con- 
tinentur. ipsum enirn constituit esse 
caput eorum, ut pastor esset gregis 
dominici. nam inter cetera dicit 
discipulis uigilate et orate ne 
intretis in temptationem ; et 
Petro dicit ecce satanas ex- 
postulauit ut uos uentilet uelut 
triticum; ego autem rogaui pro 
te ne deficiat fides tua; et tu 
tandem conuersus confirma 
fratres tuos. quid ambigitur? pro 
Petro rogabat, et pro lacobo et 
lohanne non rogabat, ut de ceteris 
taceain ? manifestum est in Petro 
omnes contineri, quia et alio loco 
dicit ego pro his rogo quos mihi 
dedisti, et uolo ut, ubi ego sum, 
et ipsi sint mecum. 

Nunc uideamus quid sit didragma, 
hoc est, qui modus sit ponderis, uel 
quantitatis, aut in qua substantia 
[the rest is lost]. 

1 I have since found this obvious correction to be the reading of the Padua MS. 



192 



THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 



In spite of the incompleteness of the later form, which may 
have been given entire by the Padua manuscript before its mutila- 
tion, this is a good example of the author's method in revision. 

I must now give a conspectus of the contents of the three 
editions of the Quaestiones. The first column in Arabic nume- 
rals gives the Questions in the order in which they appear 
in the manuscripts of the ' second ' class, which in my opinion 
represent the first edition of the book. The second column gives 
in Roman numerals the numbers which these Questions bear in 
the MSS of the ' first ' class, which in my opinion represent the 
second edition of the work. This second edition has alone of all 
three survived in manuscripts of the ninth and tenth centuries, 
and forms the main part of the forthcoming Vienna edition. 
The third column in thick Arabic numerals and thick Roman 
numerals represents the contents of MSS of the third class. This 
class consists of three sections, Questions from the Old Testament 
numbering 1-38, Questions from the New Testament numbering 
39-94 (or, separately numbered, 1-56), and a * liber questionum ' 
numbering I XXI. I am disposed to regard the third class as 
belonging to a later period than the author, and as the compilation 
of some one who selected from the first and second editions ; but 
I have been unable as yet to enter into the problem thoroughly. 
The conspectus, which now for the first time appears in print, 
has been made through the kind help of Drs Brewer, Burn, 
Engelbrecht and Giinther, and shows at a glance the contents of 
each edition, and the number of editions in which each Question 
occurs. 



QVAESTIONES VETERIS TESTAMENTI. 



3 II 

4 III 

5 IIII 

6 V 

7 VI 

8 VII 

9 VIII 
10 VIIII 



1 


11 


X 


10 




12 


XI 


11 


2 


13 


XXXV 


29 


3 


14 


XII 


12 


4 


15 


XIII 


13 


5 


16 


XIIII 


14 


6 


17 


XV 


15 


7 


18 


XVI 


16 


8 


19 


XVII 


I 


9 


20 


XVIII 


17 



THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 



193 



21 


XVII1I 


18 


42 






22 


XX 


19 


43 


XXXVI 


32 


23 


XXI 


20 


44 


XXXVII 


V 


24 


XXII 


21 


45 






25 


XXIII 


22 


46 






26 


XXIIII 


23 


47 






27 


XXV 


24 


48 






28 


XXVI 


25 


49 






29 


XXVII 


26 


50 






30 


XXVIII 


II 


51 






31 


XXVIIII 


31 


52 


XXXVIII 


VI 


32 


XXX 


III 


53 


XXXVIIII 


33 


33 


XXXI 


27 


54 






34 


XXXII 


28 


55 


XL 


34 


35 


XXXIII 


IIII 


56 


XLI 


VII 


36 


XXXIIII 


30 




XLIII 


36 


37 








XLIIII 


VIII 


38 








XLV 


37 


39 


XLII 


35 




XLVI 


vim 


40 








XLVII 


38 


41 













QVAESTIONES NOVI TESTAMENTI. 



1 


XLVIII 


39 (N.T. 


1) 


22 








2 


LXXXVII 


78 ( 


40) 


23 








3 




77 ( 


39) 


24 


LVIIII 


50 


(N.T. 12) 


4 




76 ( 


38) 


25 


LXI 


52 


( 14) 


5 




75 ( 


37) 


26 


LXIII 


54 


( 16) 


6 




74 ( 


36) 


27 


LXII 


53 


( 15) 


7 




73 ( 


35) 


28 








8 


LXXXV 


72 ( 


34) 


29 








9 


XLVIIII 


40 ( 


2) 


30 


LVII 


48 


( 10) 


10 


L 


41 ( 


3) 


31 


LVIII 


49 


( 11) 


11 


LIIII 


45 ( 


7) 


32 








12 


LII 


43 ( 


5) 


33 








13 


LI 


42 ( 


4) 


34 


LXIIII 


55 


( 17) 


14 


LIII 


44 ( 


6) 


35 


LXV 


56 


( 18) 


15 


LV 


46 ( 


8) 


36 


LXVII 


58 


( 20) 


16 


LVI 


47 ( 


9) 


37 


LXVI 


57 


( 19) 


17 








38 


LXVIII 


59 


( 21) 


18 








39 








19 








40 


LXXII 


63 


( 25) 


20 


LXVIIII 


60 ( 


22) 


41 


LXXIII 


64 


( 26) 


21 


LX 


51 ( 


13) 


42 









13 



194 



THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORKS. 



43 






86 LXXXIIII 


71 (N.T. 


33) 


44 






87 LXXXVIIII 


79 ( 


41) 


45 






88 XC 


80 ( 


42) 


46 


LXXXVI 


XIIII 


89 XCII 


82 ( 


44) 


47 


LXXV 


X 


90 XCII I 


83 ( 


45) 


48 






91 XCVI 


86 ( 


48) 


49 


LXXVI 


XI 


92 






50 






93 XCI 


81 ( 


43) 


51 






94 XCVI1 


XVI 




52 






95 






53 






LXX 


61 ( 


23) 


54 


LXXVII 


66 (N.T. 28) 


LXXIIII 


65 ( 


27) 


55 






LXXXVIII 


XV 




56 


LXXVIII 


67 ( 29) 


XCIIII 


84 ( 


46) 


57 






XCVIII 


87 ( 


49) 


58 






C 


88 ( 


50) 


59 


LXXVIIII 


68 ( 30) 


CI 


XVII 




60 






CII 


XVIIII 




61 






cm 


XX 




62 






CIIII 


89 ( 


51) 


63 


LXXX 


69 ( 31) 


cv 


90 ( 


52) 


64 


LXXXI 


XII 


CVI 


XXI 




65 






CVII 






66 






CVIII 






67 






CVIIII 






68 


LXXXII 


70 ( 32) 


ex 






69 






CXI 






70 






CXII 






71 






CXIII 


91 ( 


53) 


72 






CXIV 






73 






cxv 






74 


XCVIIII 


XVIII 


CXVI 


93 ( 


55) 


75 






CXVII 






76 






CXVIII 






77 






CXVIIII 






78 






cxx 


92 ( 


54) 


79 


LXXXIII 


XIII 


CXXI 


94 ( 


56) 


80 






CXXII 






81 






CXXIII 






82 






CXXIIII 






83 






cxxv 






84 


XCV 


85 ( 47) 


CXXVI 






85 


LXXI 


62 ( 24) 


CXXVII 







CHAPTER VI. 

HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 

1. General Remarks. The importance of the biblical text 
employed by Ambrosiaster is due first to its date, and secondly 
to the locality in which it was employed. It must be at least as 
old as 370, that is, thirteen years older than the Vulgate Gospels : 
how much older still, is a question for students of the history of 
biblical texts to determine. At any rate, it is at least coeval with 
our oldest complete manuscripts of the Greek Bible, and thus pre- 
supposes a Greek text anterior to them. 

It is specially fortunate for our purposes that this text was in 
use in Rome, and that it was in use among Catholics. We have 
seen that the author was of high social position, a member of the 
Catholic Church, and a supporter of Damasus. This being so, the 
text employed by him was presumably that commonly employed 
in Rome at the time, and identical with that form of the Old 
Latin, of which Jerome speaks as the ' vulgata editio.' Are we 
not, then, justified in concluding that this text was continually 
before Jerome's eyes in his revision of the New Testament ? May 
we not even go further, and suggest as a great probability that 
this was the only Latin text of the New Testament to which 
Jerome paid any regard at all ? If these suggestions be right, 
then it is of the highest importance to find out what that text 
was, as we can then estimate with certainty, where it is quoted, 
the extent of Jerome's revision. 

While the author has been bountiful with his right hand in 
giving us a complete text of St Paul's epistles, he has been 
niggardly with his left : for the quotations from the rest of the 
Bible are very short, with the exception of three complete psalms 
which I have edited and put together in this chapter, a fairly long 

132 



196 HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 

quotation from Luke, and a really long quotation from the 
Apocalypse. The other quotations are often accurate, as far as 
they go; but many are mere paraphrases, and do not help us much. 
The value of Ambrosiaster's text of the Pauline epistles could 
not be exaggerated. Properly edited, they are equivalent to a 
complete fourth century pre-Vulgate Latin codex of these epistles, 
such a treasure, in fact, as does not exist outside this author. The 
reports of Tischendorf in his eighth edition are practically value- 
less, as they are based on uncritical editions. Many a time the 
real evidence is exactly the opposite of that which he gives, and 
Ambrosiaster's witness has to be placed in the other scale. I 
have, on Mr Burkitt's suggestion, drawn up a double set of 
collations, which include all the quotations from these epistles 
made by Cyprian and Lucifer, and ought to be of value to students 
of the Vulgate and Codex Claromontanus (d 2 ) as well. If this be 
the text which Jerome altered to make the Vulgate, then, when 
the Bishop of Salisbury and Mr White have given us the Vulgate 
Epistles, and Father Brewer the commentaries of Ambrosiaster, 
we shall have a comprehensive view of Jerome's methods, such as 
has never been possible before. 

2. Notes on the Books in Ambrosiaster's Canon. Of Old 
Testament Books Ambrosiaster quotes all, except Ruth, Nahum, 
Susanna and perhaps one or two others. We have no reason 
to doubt that he regarded these books as canonical. The reason 
why he did not quote them is that he did not recollect or require 
passages from them. 

As to the New Testament, a more detailed examination is 
necessary, especially as wrong statements have been made about 
the contents of his New Testament 1 . The truth is : Every book 
in the New Testament is quoted by him, except Jude. It is un- 
necessary to give references for all the other books, but, in view of 
prevailing error, the references to 2 Peter, James and 3 John 
must be given. 2 Peter is quoted on Philippians i 3-5 sicut Petrus 
apostolus inter cetera dicens, ut sitis, inquit, consortes diuinae 

1 The latest book on the Canon, Zahn's Grundriss der Geschichte des Neutesta- 
mentlichen Kanons (2. Aufl.), p. 69, is wrong on this point. He states that of the 
Epistles, 2 Peter, James, Jude, 2 and 3 John, Ambrosiaster cites only 2 John. 



HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 197 

naturae (2 Pet. i 4), and again on 1 Timothy ii 1-4 wide dicit 
Petrus apostolus omnis scriptura indiget interpretatione (2 Pet. 
i 20). The epistle is alluded to at least twice in the Quaestiones. 
Quaest. Ill 3 reads: ut doceret omnem omnino terram domini 
esse, et quae sunt in ea, ut nihil esset exceptum, quod non eius sit ; 
sicut putant quidam heretici, qui secundum dictum apostoli Petri 
dominium deo abnegant (2 Pet. ii 1 or 10): so 6 ne, quia puni- 
endos ostendit, qui, sicut dim, dominium deo abnegant. The Epistle 
of James is quoted on Gal. v 10 dicente lacobo in epistula sua 
qui conuerti fecerit peccatorem, saluabit animam eius, et operiet 
multitudinem peccatorum (lac. v 20) 1 . On Romans xvi 23, Gaius 
is identified with the Gaius, ad quern scripsit lohannes apostolus. 

The Gospels ought to be arranged, says the author, in the order 
Matthew, Luke, Mark, John (2 qu. N. T. 2). No Old Latin 
authority known to me, and no MS mentioned by Berger in his 
Histoire de la Vulgate, gives this order, but Dr Sanday informs me 
that it is advocated in Clement of Alexandria. The titles of the 
gospels have already been given 2 . The title of Acts was ACTA 
APOSTOLORVM. The prevailing order of the Pauline epistles in 
manuscripts of Ambrosiaster is Rom., 1 Cor., 2 Cor., Gal., Eph., 
Phil., 1 Thess., 2 Thess., Col., Tit., 1 Tim., 2 Tim., Philem. It 
would be hazardous to affirm that this was the order in which the 
Epistles occurred in Arnbrosiaster's copy of the Apostle. The 
Benedictines tell us that this is the order of the epistles in 
Primasius and Sedulius (presumably, Sedulius Scottus), but it is 
not found in any MS of the Vulgate examined by Berger. It 
differs markedly also from that in the Roman Canon of 382 and 
other ancient canons 3 . As we have seen, the Epistle to the 
Hebrews is not regarded as Pauline 4 . 

3. References to Biblical Manuscripts and Various Readings. 
I will now give those passages in the author's works which make 
reference to manuscripts of the Bible which differ from one 
another in text. 

1 lac. ii 23 is wrongly given by the editors at quaest. 115 11. 

2 Page 171. 

a 1 and 2 Thess. stand before Col. in x 2 (Bodl. Laud. 108 E. 67) of the Pauline 
epistles; see Gregory Textkritik des N.T. (n) p. 613. See Addenda. 
4 Page 171 ff. 



198 HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 

The most interesting of all is that which comes earliest (in 
Rom. v 14). The verse reads: ' sed regnauit mors ab Adam 
usque ad Moysen, et in eos qui peccauerunt in similitudinem 
praeuaricationis Adae.' After expounding the text in this form, 
he says that the interpretation stands, ' even if the law be said not 
to be laid down thus in the Greek. For it said that the Greek 
reads that death reigned even over those who did not sin after the 
fashion of Adam's sin.' His Latin MS (or MSS) was, then, with- 
out the negative. Some cursives, as well as Origen sometimes, 
MSS known to Augustine, and d 2 (Claromontanus), agree with 
Ambrst in omitting the negative. But what follows in Ambrosi- 
aster is of even greater interest. He has a strong feeling against 
those, whose cry is ' back to the Greek manuscripts.' His stand- 
point is, therefore, quite different from Jerome's, though at the 
time his words were written Jerome had not yet begun to write. 
The words are these : et tamen sic praescribere nobis uolunt de 
Graecis codicibus, quasi non ipsi ab inuicem discrepent ; quod fecit 
studium contentionis. Quia enim propria quis auctoritate uti non 
potest ad uictoriam, uerba legis adulterat, ut sensum suum quasi 
uerbis legis adserat, uti non ratio sed auctoritas praescribere 
uideatur. Constat autem quosdam Latinos porro olim de ueteribus 
Graecis translatos codicibus, quos incorruptos simplicitas temporum 
seruauit et probat : post quam autem a concordia animis dissiden- 
tibus et hereticis perturbantibus torqueri quaestiones coeperunt, 
multa inmutata sunt ad sensum humanum, ut hoc contineretur 
litteris, quod homini uideretur. Unde et ipsi Graeci diuersos codices 
habent. Hoc autem uerum arbitror, quando et ratio et historia et 
auctoritas conseruatur: nam hodie quae 1 in Latinis reprehenduntur 
codicibus, sic inueniuntur a ueteribus posita, Tertulliano et Victorino 
et Gypriano. The author's point of view is briefly this. Those 
readings which appear both in the Latin bible of his day and in 
the old authors, Tertullian, Victorinus and Cyprian, are correct. 
They are so, because the Latin translations used by these authors 
were made from Greek manuscripts which had not been corrupted, 

1 Tischendorf, who could not make the easy emendation hodie quae for 
hodieque of the printed editions, misunderstood the meaning of the passage. 
Haussleiter (Zahn's Forschungen iv 32) made the emendation, which is confirmed 
by at least three MSS. 



HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 199 

as the later Greek manuscripts were, for doctrinal or other pur- 
poses. There is of course much that is true in this view, and 
the labour which Ronsch spent on the study of Tertullian's 
Bible and Dr Sand ay and Mr Turner are spending on that of 
Cyprian, is of the highest value for the attainment of the original 
text. 

At Romans ix 17, the text with comment runs thus: dicit 
enim scriptura ad Pharaonem quia ad hoc te ipsum reseruaui 
(v. 1. seruaui), ut ostendam in te uirtutem mearn, et ut nuntietur 
nomen meum in uniuersa terra. Alii codices sic habent: quia ad 
hoc te suscitaui, ut ostendam in te uirtutem meam. Sine 
reseruaui (v. I. seruaui) sine suscitaui units est sensus etc. The 
reading reseruaui, if we may judge from Tischendorf s silence, is 
unique in the N. T. ; it corresponds to the ^ier^pr^dri^ of Ex. ix 16. 
The next instance is at Rom. xii 11: tempori seruientes : in 
Graeco dicitur sic habere, deo (should be domino) seruientes, quod 
nee loco (ipsi) conpetit. Quid enim opus erat summam hanc ponere 
totius deuotio7iis, cum quando singula membra, quae ad obsequia 
et seruitia dei pertinent, memoret. In omnibus enim his quae 
enumerat plenum deo seruitium exhibetur. ' seruire tempori ' quid 
sit, alibi soluit, etc. With regard to this variant Tischendorfs 
admirable note should be consulted. Ambrosiaster has here the 
whole weight of modern criticism against him. On chapter xvi 11 : 
salutate eos qui sunt ex Narcissi domo (qui sunt) in domino, we 
find Narcissus hie illo tempore presbyter dicitur fuisse, sicut legit ur 
in aliis codicibus...Hic ergo Narcissus presbyter peregrini officio 
fungebatur. This variant is also unique. At 2 Cor. v 5 the text 
first commented on is : siquidetn induti non nudi inueniamur... ; 
then comes Alii codices sic habent: siquidem expoliati non nudi 
inueniamur, which is in its turn explained. He betrays no 
preference for the one over the other. The first is the reading 
of the great uncials (evSvcrd/jievoi,) ; the second is ' Western ' 
(eicSvo-dfjievoi). The comment on Gal. ii 1-2 contains the follow- 
ing : praeterea, cum legem dedissent non molestari eos qui ex gentibus 
credebant, sed ut ab his tantum obseruarent, id est, a sanguine et 
fornicatione et idolatria, nunc dicant sofistae Graecorum, qui sibi 
peritiam uindicant, naturaliter subtilitate ingenii se uigere, quae 
tradita sunt gentibus obseruanda? quae ignorabant, an quae 



200 HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 

sciebant ? sed quo modo fieri potest ut aliquis discat ea quae nouit ? 
ergo haec inlicita esse ostensa sunt gentibus, quae putabant licere : 
ac per hoc non utique ab homicidio prohibiti sunt, cum iubentur a 
sanguine obseruare . sed hoc acceperunt quod Noe a deo didicerat, 
ut obseruarent a sanguine edendo cum carne . nam quo modo fieri 
poterat ut Romanis legibus imbuti, quorum tanta auctoritas in 
seruandis mandatis est, nescirent homicidium non esse faciendum, 
quippe cum adulteros et homicidas et falsos testes et fures et 
maleficos et ceterorum malorum admissores puniant leges Romanae? 
denique tria haec mandata ab apostolis et senior ibus data repperi- 
untur, quae ignorant leges Romanae, id est ut obseruent se ab 
idolatria et sanguine, sicut Noe, et a fornicatione . quae sofistae 
Grecorum non intellegentes, scientes tamen a sanguine abstinendum, 
adulterarunt scripturam, quartum mandatum addentes ' et a 
suffocato obseruandum (v. I. abstinendum); quod, puto, nunc dei 
nutu intellecturi sunt, quia iam supra dictum erat, quod addiderunt. 
In other words, the true text of Act. xv 29 contains only three 
prohibitions, from blood, fornication and idolatry. The learned 
Greeks through want of understanding have added a fourth, a 
prohibition from things strangled. The author takes a mistaken 
view as to the meaning of this extra clause, but he is quite right 
in attributing it to Greek authorities, as Codex Bezae alone 
among them wants it, while the bulk of Latin authorities are 
without it 1 . The text of Gal. ii 5 reads: ad horam cessimus sub- 
iectioni, without the negative. In a long argument he defends 
this reading, which is found in nearly all the Latin authorities, 
against the nee ad horam cessimus of the Greeks. 

Ambrosiaster, who had evidently little or no knowledge of 
Greek, holds firmly to his Latin text, and has no respect for the 
original languages. He is an entire contrast to Jerome, who 
always keeps the Hebrew or the Greek in view. Jerome's custom, 
in commenting on Old Testament passages, is to consult the 
Hexapla, place before us the various readings therein given, and 
then offer his decision. Our author had probably never seen the 
Hexapla, and would not have known very well how to use it, if he 
had. Yet his very conservatism makes him a more important 
witness to the Latin text as he knew it. 

1 See either Tischendorf 's or Wordsworth and White's note on the passage. 



HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 201 

4. His Method of Quotation. Ambrosiaster's knowledge of 
Holy Scripture is extensive : as we have seen, he quotes from 
nearly every book of the Bible. But it is remarkable that he rarely 
chooses a long passage for quotation, and in his short quotations, 
unless I am doing him an unintentional injustice through inability 
to confront him with his Bible, is not always particular about 
exactness. In this he shares a general characteristic of ancient 
writers, who were satisfied if they gave the substance of a passage. 
We may safely assume in him, as in other writers, that, if the 
quotation go beyond one verse, it is copied from the open Bible. 
If he had written half-a-dozen pages after the manner of Cyprian's 
Testimonia or Lucifer's works we should be able to tell much more 
about the text of his Bible outside Acts and the Pauline epistles 
than we at present can. 

To illustrate his general method, I have chosen at random 
some quotations from Question 102, ' Against Novatian.' On 
page 2305 Matth. xvi 19 is quoted thus : hie aut ligantur aid 
soluuntur peccata (cf. xviii 18) : the Vulgate reads: quodcumque 
ligaueris super terram erit ligatum in caelis, et quodcumque 
solueris super terram erit solutum in caelis. On the next page 
Prou. xx 9 is quoted : nemo gloriabitur mundum se habere cor, 
but the LXX have rt? /cav^o-erai dyvrjv e^eiv (rr/v) fcapSiav; On 
the same page occurs Hiob xiv 4, 5 nemo sine sorde, nee infans 
unius diei ; but the Greek is r/9 yap icaOapos ecrrat, CITTO pvjrov ; 
a\V oiJ#e/9, edv real fiia fjjjLepa o /3to9 avrov eVt rfj? 7779. On the 
following page we find Luc. xi 52 thus : uos habetis clauem 
scientiae, et neque uos intratis neque alios sinitis introire, which is 
very different from any known form of the verse. My last example 
shall be Matth. xiii 47-49 from page 2309, where we read it thus : 
simile est regnum caelorum retiae missae in mari, quae ex omni 
genere piscium colligit . cum autem uenissent ad litus, bonos segre- 
gauerunt in uasa sua, malos uero foras miserunt . sic erit in 
consummatione saecidi : exibunt angeli, et segregabunt de regno dei 
omnia scandala, et eos qui iniquitatem faciunt. At the beginning, 
this text is almost identical with a (Vercellensis) and b (Vero- 
nensis) ; in the middle it is rather a paraphrase ; at the end it is 
contaminated with verse 41. 

The specimens here given are not encouraging to the investi- 



202 HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 

gator, but an extensive examination of quotations from all parts 
of the Bible has shown me that quotations as inaccurate as these 
form in reality a small proportion of the whole. There is plenty 
of material in the author for the formation of an opinion as to the 
character of his Biblical text. 

5. Old Testament Quotations. I have spent much time in the 
examination of the quotations from the Old Testament, in the 
hope that I might reach some results that would be of use to the 
editors of the larger Cambridge Septuagint. I have to confess 
failure to attain this end, and have come to realise that after all 
their simplest course will be to consult the indexes of Scripture 
quotations which will be provided by the editions of the Vienna 
Academy. Having an authoritative standard in the valuable 
collations of Greek MSS in their possession, they will be able 
without trouble to estimate the character and value of our author's 
quotations. Here I propose to give briefly the results of the 
comparison of a few passages with the material provided by Dr 
Swete in his Old Testament in Greek, and to offer to the student 
of the Septuagint the text of three psalms, critically edited. It 
will be observed that their text is almost identical with that of 
the Codex Sangermanensis given by Sabatier. 

Ex. xx 11 (qu. 106 16) agrees with AF against B. 

Deut. xxxii 8, 9 (qu. 109) B F. 

los. v 15 (qu. Ill) A BF. 

Title of Ps.xxiii(qu. Ill) A BtfU. 

Ps. xxiii 3 (qu. Ill) BK KU. 

Ps. xxiii 6 (qu. Ill) B others. 

Ps. xxiii has the DIAPSALMA where Bj< have it : A has none. 

Ps. 1 8 (qu. 112) has cordis, where all the Greek authorities have a-ocfrias : 

but the St Germain MS, and quotations in Ambrose agree with 

Ambrosiaster. 
Ps. 1 16 (qu. 112) sanguine, which presupposes at/iaro?, for which there is 

no authority. Is sanguine merely an attempt to smooth the Latinity 1 

In the same verse domine is contained as in Btf, against RT. 
Ps. Ixxxviii 34 (qu. 112) has avr&v RT against BAN. 
Ps. cxx 6 (qu. 107) agrees with N against ART. 
Ps. cxxxv 6 (quu. 107, 111) agrees with ART against N. 
Prou. iv 19 (qu. 110) has omnes, which is unrepresented in Greek. 
The title of Canticles is CANTICA CANTICORVM, agreeing with A against BtfC. 
Os. vi 6 (qu. 103) agrees with B against AQ. 



HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 203 

Mai. i 8 (qu. 103) differs from all Greek authorities. It reads :Si 
adducatis ad uictimam caecum aut claudum aut aegrum, non est bonum. 
Offers (this is imperative) autem ea duci aut praeposito tuo, si suscipiet 
te, dicit dominus omnipotent 1 . In qu. 5 it is different. 

Esai. xiv 13 (qu. 113) agrees with X against BAQT. 

Esai. xxx 25 (qu. 105) agrees with B against AOQr. 

Esai. xliii 26 (qu. 112) BA K. 

Hier. vii 22 (qu. 103) AQ B. 

TEXTS OF PSALMS I, XXIII AND L. 

PSALMUS I (quaest. 110). 

(1) Beatus uir qui non abiit in consilio impiorum, 

et in uia peccatorum non stat, 

et in catedra pestilentiae non sedit : 

( 2 ) sed in lege domini uoluntas eius, 

et in lege eius meditabitur die ac nocte. 

(3) et erit tamquam lignum quod plantatum est iuxta decursus aquarum, 

quod fructum suum dabit in tempore suo, 
et folium eius non defluet : 

et omnia quaecumque fecit prosperabuntur. 

( 4 ) non sic impii, non sic, 

sed tamquam puluis quern proicit uentus a facie terrae. 

(5) ideo non resurgent impii in iudicio, 

rieque peccatores in consilio iustorum : 

(6) quoniam scit dorninus uiam iustorum, 

et iter impiorum peribit. 

PSALMUS XXIII (quaest. 111). 

(1) Domini est terra et plenitudo eius, 

orbis terrarum et omnes qui habitant in eo. 

( 2 ) ipse super maria fundauit earn, 

et super flumina praeparauit illam. 

( 3 ) quis ascendet in montem domini, 

aut quis stabit in loco sancto eius? 

( 4 ) innocens manibus et mundus corde, 

qui non accepit in uano animam suam, 
nee iurauit proximo suo in dolum. 
(s) hie accipiet benedictionem a domino, 

et misericordiam a deo salutari suo. 

1 In the rare instances where comparison is possible, the text of the prophets is 
practically identical with Weingartensis. Ambrosiaster has not been used by 
Mr Oesterley (in The Journal of Theological Studies) for passages from the Minor 
Prophets. 



204 HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 

(e) haec est generatio requirentium ilium, 

quaerentium faciem del lacob. DIAPSA.LMA. 
( 7 ) Tollite portas principis uestri, 

et eleuamini, portae aeternales, 

et introibit rex gloriae. 
(s) quis est iste rex gloriae ? 

dominus fortis et potens, 

dominus potens in proelio. 
(9) tollite portas principis uestri, 

et eleuamini, portae aeternales, 

et introibit rex gloriae. 
(10) quis est iste rex gloriae ? 

dominus uirtutum, ipse est 

rex gloriae. 

PSALMUS L (quaest. 112). 

( 3 ) Miserere mei, deus, secundum magnam misericordiam tuam, 

et secundum multitudinem miserationum tuarum dele iniquita- 
tem meam : 

( 4 ) usque quaque laua me ab iniustitia mea, 

et a delicto meo munda me. 
(s) quoniam iniquitatem meam ego agnosco, 

et delictum meum contra me est semper. 
(e) tibi soli peccaui, et malum coram te feci : 

ut iustificeris in sermonibus tuis, 

et uincas cum iudicaris. 
( 7 ) ecce enim in iniquitatibus conceptus sum, 

et in delictis concepit me mater mea. 
(s) ecce enim ueritatem dilexisti, 

incerta et occulta cordis manifestasti mihi. 
( 9 ) asparges me hysopo et mundabor, 

lauabis me et super niuem dealbabor. 
(10) auditui meo dabis gaudium et laetitiam : 

J exultabunt ossa humiliata. 
(n) auerte faciem tuam a peccatis meis, 

et omnes iniquitates meas dele. 

(12) cor mundum crea in me, deus, 

et spiritum iustum dedica in uisceribus meis. 

(13) ne proicias me a facie tua, 

et spiritum sanctum tuum ne auferas a me. 

(14) redde mihi laetitiam salutaris tui, 

et spiritu principal! confirma me. 
(is) doceam iniquos uias tuas, 

et impii ad te conuertentur. 

1 Perhaps propterea exultabunt. 






HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 205 

(16) libera me de sanguine, deus deus salutis meae : 

exultabit lingua mea iustitiam tuarn, (17) domine. 
labia mea aperies, et os nieum adnuntiabit laudem tuam. 

(18) quoniam si uoluisses sacrificium, dedissem utique : 

holocaustis non delectaberis. 

(19) sacrificium deo spiritus contribulatus, 

cor contritum et humiliatum deus non spernet. 

( 2 0) benigne fac, domine, in bona uoluntate tua Sion, 

et aedificentur muri Hierusalem. 

(21) tune acceptabis sacrificium iustitiae, 

oblationes et holocausta: 

tune inponent super altare tuum uitulos. 

6. Gospel Quotations. The statements made here are the 
result of an examination of almost all the gospel quotations in the 
commentaries and Quaestiones. To give the quotations in full 
would demand far too much space. They are for the most part 
short, and require to be critically edited, before they can be used. 
It is possible that it will be found necessary to present them in 
full elsewhere, but here I must content myself with a few 
examples, and with a statement of the results at which I have 
arrived. 

The general conclusion is that the quotations harmonise to a 
considerable extent with the text given by Codex Veronensis (b), 
of the early years of the fifth century, which is generally regarded 
as the best specimen of the European recension. If the gospel 
quotations given in the second chapter be examined, this will be 
found to be the case. When they do not agree with b, they 
usually agree with some other representative of the European 
recension. There are at times distinct agreements with ff^ if we 
can trust the published reports of the readings of that MS. In 
Luc. xxiv 13 6 alone gives the order cleofas et ammaus, the same 
order as that of Ambrosiaster 1 . John xiv 27 agrees with 6 and q ; 
John xvii 3 with b e q Cyprian, Novatian and Victorinus Afer. 

But there is a large element in Ambrosiaster's text which is 
individual to him, and cannot be paralleled from Tischendorfs 
apparatus, such as the insertion of ambulantes in Luc. ii 48. The 

1 The only other Church Father known to me, who refers to Emmaus as a 
person, is Ambrose, e.g. exp. euang. Luc. x 173 (see Migne's note). The Ambro- 
siaster passages are in Bom. 14; in 1 Cor. xv 5; quaest. 77 (73). 



206 HIS BIBLICAL TEXT, 

author undoubtedly had proprium sibi in John v 18, but there is 
nothing exactly like this elsewhere except the proprium in the 
margin of one of Wordsworth and White's MSS. 

I will take one or two of the few long quotations, and illustrate 
them by comparison with other Old Latin texts and the vulgate. 



Matth. xv 36 (quaest. 16). 

quare et uos praeteritis mandatum del, ut traditionem uestram statuatis? 
nam dixit deus : Honora patrem et matrem, et Qui rnaledixerit patri aut 
matri, morte moriatur : uos autem dicitis : Quicumque dixerit patri aut 
matri : omne mimus quodcumque fuerit ex me, tibi proderit, et non honorabit 
patrem aut matrem suam 

om. et q transgredimini a b djf 1 g vg sine intellects estis in q propter 
traditionem uestram a b d g q vg propter uestram traditionem ff l deus dixit 

abff 1 gvg deus enim dixit d q aut d patrem tuum a b g q vg matrem 
tuam a b q quicumque a maledicit a d om. aut matri a habent uel 

matri bff 1 q vg morietur a d ff l maledixeritjf 1 uel a b Jf' 1 g q vg matri] 
+ corbam quod est b freus erit gehennae ignis quod ff l (et tune non etc.] quod- 
cumque... proderit] quod a me melioratus fueris q quod ex me tibi prodest d omne 
om. a b d g q vg fuerit om. a g, habent est b vg et om. a b d g honorifi- 
camtabjf' 1 honorificabit g q vg honorauit d patrem suum a b d ff l g q vg 

aut matrem suam] om. ad et matrem b uel matrem suam ff l aut matrem g vg 
et matrem suam q 



Luc. i 6872 (quaest. 105). 

Benedictus est deus Israhel, quia uisitauit et fecit redemtionem plebi suae ; 
et erexit cornu salutis nostrae in domo Dauid pueri sui, sicut locutus est per 
os sanctorum prophetarum suorum, qui a saeculo sunt : et liberauit nos ab 
inimicis nostris, et de manibus omnium qui oderunt nos, ad faciendam 
misericordiam cum patribus nostris 

(a is somewhat mutilated here) benedictus deus a b etc. benedictus dominus 
deus d vg salutem d populo a d plebis b c etc. suo d eleuauit d 
nobis a b d vg suorum prophetarum q. ab aeuo s. b q. a. s. s. prophetarum 

eius vg suorum] eius d sunt om. d et 1. n. ab mini. nos. et de manibus] 
salutem de manu inimicorum nostrorum et d salutem ex i. n. et de manu vg 
manu b d vg nos oderunt a b ad faciendam] facere a d 






HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 207 



loh. viii 44 (quaest. 90). 

uos de patre diabolo estis, et concupiscentias patris uestri uultis facere. Ille 
homicida fuit ab initio, et in ueritatc non stetit, quia ueritas non est in eo ; 
cum loquitur mendaciurn, ex suis propriis loquitur, quia mendax est, sicut et 
pater eius 

ex b f q vg concupiscentias d Cijp desideria afqvg concupiscentiam 6 

erat a q vg ueritatem a stat d quoniam a d ueritas non est in eo d m q 
non est ueritas in illo a ueritas in eo non est b I r non est ueritas in eo / vg 
quando & de suo a d e de suis 6 ex suis propriis cjf^lq aur ex propriis 

fvg de suo proprio r quoniam a b d om. sicut dfqvg om. etjf 1 (?) 1 



loh. xiv 1517 (quaest. 93; 97). 

si diligitis me, praecepta mea seruate ; et ego rogabo patrem, et alium 
paracletum dabit uobis, ut uobiscum sit in aeternum ; spiritum ueritatis, 
quern mundus non potest accipere, quia uon uidet nee cognoscit emu ; uos 
uidetis eum et cognoscitis, quia apud uos manet et uobiscum est 

mandata a d vg custodite c ff 2 r aduocatum a c e m q qui m q 

maneat uobiscum i. a. vg u. in aeternum sit b maneat in aeternum uobiscum d 
hie mundus a b etc. quoniam a non uidet ilium nee agnoscit a non uidet 
eum nee cognoscit eum b non uidet eum nee scit eum vg non uidet eum nee 
adnoscit eum d uos autem d uidetis eum et cognoscitis] agnoscitis eum a 

cognoscitis eum vg scitis eum d quoniam d uobiscum manet et in uobis 

est a apud uos manebit et in uobis erit vg apud uos manet et in uobis est d 

The readings of the Old Latin codices in John vi 71 explain 
why in quaest. 104 Judas Iscariot is called simply Simon Scarioth. 

7. Quotations from Acts. The text of Acts employed can be 
identified without difficulty. It was almost to a letter identical 
with that of the celebrated MS gigas (Holmiensis), of the 
thirteenth century. A comparison of Ambrosiaster's quotations, 
edited from the manuscripts, with the text of gigas, as collated 
for the Oxford Vulgate by Dr Henrik Karlsson 3 , shows this quite 
clearly. The same text was employed by Lucifer of Cagliari, and 
it is of interest to know that gigas represents also a text employed 
in Rome anterior to the publication of the Vulgate. There can be 

1 I bave borrowed largely from Wordsworth and White here. 

2 For further variants, see Wordsworth and White. 

3 Kev. H. J. White kindly favoured me with the proof-sheets of the Vulgate 
Acts, before it appeared. 



208 HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 

little doubt, then, that the ultimate original of gigas contained, 
instead of Ely mas, the form etoemas (or etoemus) in Acts xiii 8. 
Codex Bezae (d) has etoemas, Lucifer has etoemus, and Ambrosiaster 
(quaest. 102) has etimas 1 . Instead of the form Silas, the manu- 
scripts of Ambrosiaster are consistent in offering the form sileas 
(syleas), which seems to have been the prevailing form in Old 
Latin bibles, and is found in some Vulgate manuscripts, in spite 
of the scant courtesy dealt out to it in the Encyclopaedia Biblica. 
It was the form in the bibles used by Cyprian, Lucifer, Irenaeus, 
Jerome, Auctor Itineris Burdigalensis, gigas, etc. While it is 
easy to believe that Silas is the pet form of Siluanus, it is rather 
difficult to explain the form Sileas. From the character of the 
comments on the three passages of St Paul's Epistles where 
Siluanus is mentioned, we are justified in inferring that our 
author did not connect him in any way with the Sileas of the 
Acts. 

8. Apocalypse Quotations. The Apocalypse was a favourite 
book of the author, who had imbibed an interest in Chiliasm, 
perhaps from Victorinus. He quotes it with fair frequency, and 
the longest New Testament quotation he makes, apart from the 
Epistles of St Paul, is from the second chapter of the Apocalypse, 
verses 12 26, 29. The possession of this quotation at once 
makes it unnecessary to collect the others, and reveals to us the 
character of his text. For purposes of comparison I have chosen 
the Old African text as preserved by Primasius of Hadrumetum, 
and the Vulgate as it appears in Amiatiaus and Fuldensis. It is 
unfortunate that the text used by Victorinus is not available, as 
there is no doubt that our author used the works of Victorinus, 
without, however, adhering to the Biblical text employed by him. 
In the first column 1 place the text of Primasius, and those of 
Ambrosiaster and the Vulgate follow, the seniority being from 
left to right. 

1 The printed text has Elymas, but the evidence of the MSS is as follows: 
ethimas (corr. m. 2 elymas) P, etymas (corr. m. rec. elemas) M, atrmas C, tymas N, 
thimas FEGAB. The form had naturally a very precarious existence, and in 
quaest. 69 (a) (of first edition) it no longer survives. 



HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 



209 




JS 




4-502-*JO?G00-4Je8 

IfiiHIi 

8 o : a g *4 * ^ a 

2 ^ .1 5 .- tg o 

l^fPti 

I 3 <s '3. M J 



,3 -a 



g-s i 

v. J S 



s 



I i*J 



fl *r 

0*'fl 



^f- ^^ 



r.--| 

"^ :3 o g ^ 

1 . 2 a -3 -3 ^ 

rt .^ S3 * rt .1 ^ 

S^^llsa" 
1 o S I 1 II :1 

liliftili 

TSPQcacSTS ftce on 

O |0 



I 




14 



210 



HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 




r 



HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 211 

From this comparison we can gather that both the earlier 
texts were before Jerome in his revision of the Apocalypse, and 
that he followed now one, now the other, deserting both at times 
in favour of a translation more nearly representing the Greek. 
The alteration et in diebus (1. 5) brings the text into conformity 
with AC and other Greek authorities. The only Greek authority 
for the omission of quia (1. 9) is C. Cor am (1. 11) is an improve- 
ment of the Latinity and closer to the Greek : Jerome was always 
anxious to give good Latin renderings, and again and again in his 
writings criticises harsh renderings of the Old Latin. The Vulgate 
is alone in omitting an object to edere (1. 11). In 1. 13 Jerome 
agrees with the great uncials in connecting similiter with what 
precedes. Aurem (1. 14) is literal : the Greek is ou? (so 1. 48). 
The only Greek uncial which omits suos in 1. 21 is A. In the 
same line Jerome deserts literalness for smoothness. In 1. 22 the 
change from scio to noui is one which Jerome has made elsewhere, 
perhaps from a desire to keep the old distinction in meaning 
between the two words. In 1. 24 the only uncial without the 
t-uam is K. In 1. 25 meliora is unique, and priorum is an interest- 
ing survival of the genitive after the comparative, borrowed by 
the early translators from the Greek. In 1. 26 the only Greek 
uncial authority for multa (TTO\V) is N. In 1. 27 the Old Latin 
Zezabel, of which Tischendorf has nothing to say, is removed by 
Jerome. Here also the Greek authorities are reversed, the 
authorities for tuam being AB, while those who omit are XCP. 
It is as difficult to answer why Jerome kept the Greek word 
idolothytis in 1. 29, as to say why he retained dyscolis in 1 Pet. ii 18. 
In 1. 35 in morte is an example of more literal adherence to the 
Greek, as are scrutans in 1. 37, and altitudines (1. 42). In 1. 38 
Ambrosiaster follows B, the others ACP ; N omits the word. In 
1. 43 the future is read by BN, the present by ACP. 

It has been noted that the text of the Apocalypse in the Liber 
Comicus, a seventh century service-book of Toledo, printed by 
Dom Morin as the first part of his Anecdota Maredsolana 1 , has 
analogies with that of our author. But this text has also analogies 
with that of Primasius, and has also obviously been contaminated 
with the Vulgate. It is possible that in its original form it may 
1 Maredsoli: 1893, pp. xiv + 463, 4to. 

142 



212 HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 

have been identical with that of Ambrosiaster, but, if that be so, 
few similarities are now left. 

9. The Text of S. Paul's Epistles 1 . It is proposed in the 
present section to examine the character of the text of the Pauline 
Epistles, which Ambrosiaster used and incorporated complete in 
the commentaries which he wrote on these epistles. Two sets of 
collations are provided. The first tests the text for 'Africanisms'; 
the purpose of the second is to examine the character of its 
' Europeanism.' The two sets are also linked together in a way 
presently to be described. 

For the first set, all quotations from S. Paul's epistles in 
Cyprian's Testimonia are, in company with the same verses as 
quoted by Ambrosiaster, collated with the Latin side of Codex 
Claromontanus, the celebrated bilingual manuscript of the epistles, 
which is generally known as D paul or D. 2 , to distinguish it from 
Codex Bezae (D). For the second, all quotations found in the 
works of Lucifer of Cagliari are, in company with the same verses 
as quoted by Ambrosiaster, collated with the Clementine Vulgate. 
Both Cyprian and Lucifer quote with exactness and are preserved 
in good manuscripts ; they are therefore admirable witnesses for 
our purpose. 

The value of the collations has been increased by the cross 
references which have been added throughout. Every reading in 
the first apparatus, which is found in the Vulgate, has added to it 
the letters vg ; every reading in the second, which is found in d 2 , 
has similarly added to it the symbol c 2 . 

It is hoped that the great trouble which has been taken to 
make these collations perfectly accurate will result in their useful- 
ness to students of the biblical texts of Cyprian, Lucifer, the 
Vulgate and Claromontanus, as well as that of Ambrosiaster. I 
have been enabled to purify the text of Ambrosiaster in the 
second set by the kindness of Father Brewer, who lent me many 
valuable collations in his possession, and in both sets by the use 
of the Bodleian manuscripts, which are, for the most part, almost 
as good as any of the older MSS. 

1 The plan of the present section is due to Mr F. Crawford Burkitt, University 
Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge, who very kindly gave me the benefit of his 
advice. 



HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 213 

The Migne text of Ambrosiaster is far from satisfactory. It 
would have saved me much trouble, if I had allowed myself to 
edit the quotations first, and then presented them edited. But I 
have preferred to be honest with the reader, and let him see for 
himself wherein the differences from the printed text exactly 
consist. There need be no hesitation in regarding as the genuine 
text of Ambrosiaster such readings as are common to the MSS of 
Ambrosiaster and Cyprian on the one hand, and the MSS of 
Ambrosiaster and Lucifer on the other. In such cases the printed 
text is absolutely valueless. Its errors are due to three causes, 
harmonisation with the Vulgate in MSS and in editions, errors 
of manuscripts, and the adoption of readings from the Roman 
edition of Ambrose (1579). 

The Roman edition of our commentaries is probably the best 
in existence. It was based on good manuscripts and on the whole 
resists the seductions of the Vulgate. But for two reasons it 
cannot always be relied on. As the title-page naively confesses 1 , 
the text of the Epistles has often been brought into harmony with 
quotations found in ' the other works of Ambrose.' Further, I 
cannot divorce from myself the suspicion that at times the worthy 
editors wrote the text for themselves. When all deductions are 
made, however, there remains enough to give the edition as great 
distinction as its paper and typographical arrangement promise. 

Different persons will draw different conclusions from the facts 
here presented. The collations are intended to be much more 
useful than any deductions I draw from them. It must be 
remembered that the study of the Latin texts of the Pauline 
epistles is as yet in its infancy. Few except Ziegler and Corssen 
have faced the subject seriously. If, then, my conclusions seem 
either puerile or wrong, that does not affect the value of the 
evidence on which they are based. 

The texts of Cyprian and Ambrosiaster are obviously far apart 
from one another. Take a long passage like 1 Cor. i 1 7 24, for 
example, and see how often Gyp stands alone ; or, again, such as 
Rom. iii 8, 1 Cor. xv 4749, 2 Cor. ix 12, 2 Tim. ii 23 f. Yet, 
there is some sort of a connexion between them ; else, how could 

1 ' Textus sacrae scripturae turn ex commentariis ipsis, turn ex aliis auctoris locis 
conquisitus, ad germanam sancti Ambrosii lectionem fideliter est restitutm.' 



214 HIS BIBLICAL TEXT. 

both have the renderings legis constitutio (Rom. ix 4), festa 
(1 Cor. v 8), expono (Eph. iv 22) ? If Cyprian's be the earliest 
Latin text of the epistles, as seems possible, it underwent a single 
or double revision to become Ambrosiaster's. 

The texts of Lucifer and Ambrosiaster, who were contem- 
poraries, are, on the contrary, closely related. Their relationship 
may be either that of brothers, the latter being the more cultivated 
of the two, or that of father and son. If the second view be correct, 
then I see nothing to prevent us regarding Cyprian's version as 
the earliest Latin version of the epistles, Lucifer's as a thorough 
revision of that, and Ambrosiaster's as Lucifer's text polished. We 
do not know when the text employed by Lucifer was introduced 
into Sardinia. This may have happened some generations before 
his day, and it was probably brought from Rome. 

One thing seems to be clear, namely that Claromontanus is 
Lucifer's text, contaminated with the Vulgate in the longer 
epistles. The agreements seem too close for any other explanation. 

The differences between Ambrosiaster's text and the Vulgate 
are such as Jerome might have made, according to his usual plan 
in revision. The Latinity of both is about equally good, and 
Ambrosiaster's text must have been known to Jerome, whether it 
was the basis of his revision or not. It will be seen that the 
differences between them are due sometimes to Greek authorities, 
sometimes to improvements, as Jerome would regard them, of the 
language. In Eph. iv 16, for example, Jerome adds the words 
secundum operationem from good Greek authorities like BKA. 

Our author's text is a good 'Western' text, from which editing 
eliminates many errors. It will readily be observed from the 
collations provided that it was not possible for Tischendorf to 
represent the text properly. Sometimes ' Ambrst ' has to be 
struck out of his apparatus, sometimes the weight of his evidence 
has to be transferred to the other side. I hope it may be possible, 
after the appearance of Father Brewer's edition, to publish a 
recension of Ambrosiaster's Pauline text apart from the com- 
mentary. 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS IN CYPRIAN'S TESTIMONIA I 

AND AMBROSI ASTER WITH THE LATIN OF CODEX CLAROMON- 



Ambrst = Ambrosiaster Commentaries as in Migne. 

B= Codex Bodleiarius 756 (s. xi) 1 quoted only when they give a different 
Bo = Codex Bodleianus 689 (s. xii)J text from Ambrst. 
vg= Clementine Vulgate of the New Testament, except in Galatians, 

where it is Dr P. Corssen's text (Berol. 1885). 
rom=The Roman edition of Ambrose (1579), seldom cited. 



Rom. i 25 f. = Gyp 122. 

et coluerunt et seruierimt creaturae potius quarn creatori qui est benedictus 
in saecula amen. Propterea tradidit illos deus in passionis ignominiae 

relicto creatore Gyp om. qui amen Gyp 

propter quod Gyp passiones Gyp Ambrst vg 



Rom. ii 1 = Gyp 139. 

Propterea inexcusabilis es o homo omnes qui iudicas In quo enim alterum 
iudicas te ipsum condemnas eadem enim agis qui iudicas 

quare Gyp quapropter Ambrst sine causatione (corr. 2 m. excusatione) Gyp 
om. omnes qui iudicas Gyp omnis Ambrst vg In quo alt. iudicas om. B 

iudicas alium Gyp iudicas alterum Ambrst vg quae Gyp Ambrst vg 

1 By Cyprian's Testimonia I mean the text offered by L (codex Vindobonensis 
962, s. ix), of which Dr Sanday very kindly lent me a complete photograph. This 
has enabled me to give occasionally a more accurate report of its readings than 
that of Hartel, whose pages I add. 

3 I use Tischendorf's superb apograph (Lips. 1852), the use of which was 
granted to me by the Editor of this series, and later by Dr Sanday. 



216 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 



Rom. ii 3, 4, 5, 6 = Cyp 139, 147. 

Existimas autem hoc o homo qui iudicas eos qui talia agimt et facies ea quia 
tu efiugies iudicium del an diuitias bonitatis eius et patientiae et longani- 
rnitatis contemnis ignorans quoniam benignitas del ad paenitentiam te 
adducit secundum autem duritiam tuam et sine paenitentiam cor then- 
saurizasti tibi irani in die irae et reuelationis iusti iudicii dei qui reddet 
unicuique secundum opera eius 

speras Cyp ergo B om. hoc B hoc o homo] tu Cyp eos] de iis (his B Bo) 
Ambrst talia] mala Cyp facies ea] eadem facis Cyp facis ea Ambrst vg 
facies ea (corr.) B quoniam B tu] ipse Cyp an add numquid Cyp 

opulentiam Cyp patientiae et longanimitatis] sustinentiam et patientiam Cyp 
et longanimitatis] om. B contemnis] contestinis errore Cyp ignoras B Bo vg 
quoniam] quia Cyp bonitas Cyp Ambrst ad] in Cyp adducit B vg prouocat 
Ambrst secundum autem] tu autem secundum Cyp autem dur. B] dur. 

autem Ambrst sine paenitentiam cor] cor iupatiens (errore pro inpaenitens) Gyp 
inpaenitens cor Ambrst vg cor inpaenitens B thesaurizas Cyp Ambrst vg 

diem Cyp eius B vg~\ sua Cyp Ambrst 



Rom. ii 12, 13 = Cyp 178, 177. 

quicumque enirn sine lege peccauerunt sine lege peribunt et quicumque in 
lege peccauerunt per lege iudicabuntur. Non (enim) auditores legis iusti 
sunt aput deum sed factores legis iustificabuntur 

quicumque bis] quodquod Cyp om. enim Cyp sine lege bis] inique Cyp 
et ante peribunt Ambrst, om. B Bo vg peccauerint B lege] legem et Cyp 
legem Ambrst vg om. enim Cyp om. sunt Cyp 



Rom. iii 8 = Cyp 178. 
faciamus mala ut ueniant bona quorum damnatio iusta est 

ut ueniant] dum ueniunt Cyp condemnatio Cyp 

Rom. iii 234 = Cyp 94. 

omnes enim peccauerunt et egent gloriam dei iustificati gratis per ipsius 
gratiam per redemptionem quae est in Christo lesu 

gloriam B claritate Cyp gloria Ambrst vg iustificantur autem dono 

ipsius et gratia Cyp iustificatis (corr.) B ip. gr.] gr. ip. Ambrst vg re- 

demptione Cyp 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 217 

Rom. v 25 = Gyp 119. 

gloriamur in spe gloriae del Non solum autem sed et gloriamur in tribulati- 
onibus scientes quod tribulatio patientiam operatur patientia autem probati- 
onem probatio autem spem spes autem non confundit quia caritas dei diffusa 
est in cordibus nostris per spiritum sanctum qui datus est nobis 

claritatis Gyp filiorum add. Ambrst (non B) vg oin. autem B pressuris 
Gyp add. nostris Ambrst quoniara Gyp quod (d in ras.) B pressura Gyp 
tolerantiaua Gyp tolerantia Gyp prob. autem] prob. uero Bo dilectio Gyp 
infusa Gyp om. in Gyp uestris B 

Rom. viii 16 f. = Gyp 132. 

(quod) simus fili dei si autem fili et heredes haeredes autem dei coheredes 
autem Christi si ita coupatimur ut et simul glorificemus 

(quod) simus] sumus Gyp Ambrst vg filii Gyp bis Ambrst bis eg bis 

om. haeredes autem Gyp autem alt.] quidem Ambrst vg si ita] siquidem 
Gyp si tamen Ambrst vg conpatimur Bo conpatiamur Gyp Ambrst simul 

glorificemus] commagnificemur Gyp simul glorificemur Ambrst 

Rom. viii 18= Gyp 132. 

indignae sunt passiones huius temporis ad futuram gloriam que reuelabitur 
in nobis 

non sunt condignae Gyp Bo vg non sint condignae Ambrst passionis Gyp 

superuenturam Gyp claritatem Gyp uobis Gyp 



Rom. viii 2L = Gyp 151. 

spe enim salui facti sumus spes autem que uidetur non est spes nam quod 
uidet quis quid sperat si autem quod non uidemus speramus per patientiam 
expectamus 

enim om. Gyp salui facti] saluati (ex saluti) Gyp saluati Ambrst autem] 
enim B Bo quod enim Gyp si autem] sed si (si in ras. Bo) Ambrst 

patientiam expectamus] exspectationem speramus Gyp 

Rom. viii 3537 = Gyp 133. 

Quis ergo nos separauit a caritate Christi tribulatio an angustia persecutio 
an faruis an nuditas an periculum an gladium sicuti scriptuin est quia propter 
te morti adficimur tota die extimati sumus quasi oues occisionis. Sed in lii.s 
omnibus superainus propter eo qui dilexit nos 

qui (corr.) Gyp Bo qui B om. ergo Gyp Ambrst separabit Gyp Ambrst 
vg ab agape Gyp (2m. s. 1. dilectione) pressura Gyp om. an pr. B angustiae 
Gyp an ante persec. Gyp Ambrst fames Gyp Ambrst vg gladius Gyp Ambrst vg 
sicut Gyp Ambrst vg quoniam Gyp causa tui Gyp mor. adf.] occidimur 
Gyp morte (om.Bo) adf. (adficiuntur B afficiamur (corr.) Bo) Ambrst deputati 
Gyp aestimati Ambrst vg ut Gyp uelut Ambrst uictimae Gyp superuincimus 
Gyp pro Gyp eum Ambrst vg qui] quod Gyp 



218 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 

Rom. ix 35 = Gyp 70. 

optabam cnim anathema esse ipse ego a Christo pro fratribus meis qui suut 
cognati secundum carnem qui suiit Israhelitae quorum adoptio est filiorum 
et gloria et testamenta et legislatio et obsequium et prornissa quorum patres 
et ex quibus Christus secundum carnem qui est super omnia deus benedictus 
in saecula amen 

ego (pro enim) Gyp ego ipse a. esse Ambrst vg a. esse ego ipse B ipse 
ego a. esse Bo om. ego Gyp a om. (add) Bo om. meis Gyp cognatis meis 
qui sunt Gyp cognatis Ambrst om. est filiorum Gyp claritas Gyp testa- 
mentum Gyp vg legis latio et testamenta Bo legislatio] legis constitutio Gyp B 
famulatus Gyp promissiones Gyp saecula saeculorum B om. amen Gyp 

Rom. xi 20$. = Gyp 117. 

noli altum sapere sed time si enim deus naturalibus rarnis non pepercit ne 
forte nee tibi parcat 

Rom. xi 33 3 = Gyp 155. 

altitudo diuitiarum en sapientiae scientiae dei quarn inconprehensibilia 
indicia eius et inuestigabilis uiae eius quis enim cognouit sensum dei aut quis 
consiliarius eius fuit aut quis prior dedit illi et retribuetur illi quoniam ex 
ipso et per ipsum et in ipsum omnia ipsi gloria in saecula amen 

en sap. sci.] et sap. et sci. Gyp sap. et sci. Ambrst vg inexscrutabilia Gyp 
inscrutabilia Ambrst (non Bo) sunt post inexscr. Gyp post inscr. Ambrst post 

inconpreh. Bo vg et inuestig. uiie eius] et cetera Bo et quam Gyp in- 
uestigabiles Gyp Ambrst vg ipsius Ambrst eius B vg domini Ambrst vg (pro 
aut post fuit) uel Gyp eius] illi Ambrst eius B Bo vg fuit] add. et 

ostendit illi Bo illi pr.] ei Gyp reddetur B Bo illi] ei Ambrst vg ipsum 
alt.] ipso Gyp Ambrst vg sunt omnia Gyp Ambrst vg claritas Gyp in 
s. am.] om. Ambrst amen] saeculorum Gyp 

Rom. xii 14 = Gyp 126. 
benedicite et nolite maledicere 

benedicentes et non maledicentes Cyp 

Rom. xii 17 = Cyp 140. 

nulli malum pro malo reddentes 

nulli] non enim Bo nemini Gyp Ambrst 

Rom. xii 19 = Cyp 180. 
mihi uindictam ego retribuam dicit dominus 

et ante ego Ambrst sine et B Bo vg 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 210 

Rom. xii 21 = Gyp 140. 
noli uinci a malo sed uince in bono malum 

non Cyp 

' 

Rom. xiii 3- Gyp 149. 

iris ante ni non tirnere potestatem bonum fac et habebis laudem ex ilia 
om. autein Cyp bona B facito Ambrst ex] ab Cyp ilia] ea Cyp 

Rom. xiii l& = C 118. 



reddite ergo omnibus deuita cui tributum tributum ciii uectigal uectigal cui 
timorem timorem cui honorem honorem nemini quidquam debeatis nisi ut 
inuicem diligatis 

om. ergo Cyp quae debentur Cyp debita Ambrst vg 

Rom. xiv 4 = Gyp 139. 

tu quis es qui iudices alienum seruum suo domino stat aut cadet stabit 
autem potens est enim deus statuere eum 

qui Cyp iudicas Cyp Ambrst vg domino suo Cyp vg stat Cyp B vg 
aut stat Ambrst cadit Cyp Ambrst vg enim] autein Bo deus om. B 
eum] ilium Ambrst vg 

Rom. xiv 17 = Cyp 164. 

non e.st enim regnum dei esca eet potus sed iustitia et pax et gaudium in 
spiritu sancto 

om. est Bo om. enim Cyp dei regnum Bo et Cyp Ambrst vg 

1 Cor. i lQ = C 174. 



Obsecro autem uos fratres per nomen lesu Christi domini nostri ut id ipsum 
dicatis omnes et non sint in uobis scissurae sitis autem perfect! in eodem 
sensu et in eadern scientia 



domini nostri lesu Christi Cyp A mbrst vg dicatis] iudicatis Cyp scismata 
Cyp Ambrst vg perfecti] compositi Cyp scientia] sententia Cyp vg 

1 Cor. i 1724 = Gyp 169, 63. 

non enim misit me Christus baptizare sed euangelizare non in sapientia 
uerbi ut non euacuetur crux Christi Verbiim enim crucis pereuntibus stultitia 

om. non enim Cyp om. baptizare sed Cyp adnuntiare Cyp sermonis 
sapientia Cyp ne inanis fiat Cyp pereuntibus] add. quidem Ambrst vg 

stultitia est his qui pereunt Cyp 



220 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 

est his autem qui salui fiunt uirtus dei est scriptum est enim perdam sapien- 
tiam sapientium et prudentiam prudentium reprobabo Ubi sapiens ubi scriba 
ubi conquisitor huius saeculi nonne stulta fecit deus sapientiam huius mundi 
nam quia in sapientia dei non cognouit mundum per sapientiam domini 
placuit deo per stultitiam praedicationis saluos facere credentes quoniam 
quidem ludaei signa petunt et Graeci sapientiam quaerunt nos autem prae- 
dicamus Christum crucifixum ludaeis quidern scandalum gentibus autem 
stultitiam ipsis autem uocatis ludaeis et Graecis Christum dei uirtutem et 
dei sapientiam 

saluantur Gyp scr. est enim add. in Esaia Ambrst et (eras.) ante pru- 

dentiam Gyp intellectual Ambrst saeculi huius Gyp infatuauit Gyp stultam 
fecit Ambrst vg nam quia] quoniam quidem Gyp nam quoniam Ambrst in 

(eras.) sapientiam Gyp mundus Gyp Ambrst vg domini] deurn Ambrst vg 

conplacuit Gyp saluare Gyp quidem] om. Gyp Ambrst et vg petunt] desi- 
derant Gyp prudentiam Gyp autem] uero Ambrst et Gr.] atque gr. Ambrst vg 

1 Cor. iii 1 3 = Gyp 115. 

et ego fratres non potui loqui uobis quasi spiritalibus sed quasi carnalibus 
quasi paruolis in Christo lac uobis potum dedi et non escam nondum enim 
poteratis sed neque adhuc potestis adhuc enim estis carnales Cum enim sit 
inter uos aemulatio et contentio et dissensiones nonne carnalis estis et 
secundum hominem ambulatis 

quidem post ego Gyp uobis loqui Gyp Ambrst vg infantibus Gyp lacte 
uos potaui Gyp om. et Ambrst vg cibo Gyp adhuc pr.] nunc Gyp 

Ambrst vg estis carnales Gyp B Bo carnales estis Ambrst vg ubi enim 

Gyp nam cum B Bo om. sit Gyp Ambrst in uobis Gyp Ambrst (aem. in uobis 
Bo) aemulatio Gyp B Bo aemulationes Ambrst contentio et dissensiones] 
contentiones sint Ambrst non Gyp (m. 1) carnales Gyp Ambrst vg 

1 Cor. iii 16 f. = Gyp 142. 

Nescitis quia templum dei estis et spiritus dei habitat in uobis si quis 
templum dei uiolauerit disperdet ilium deus 

quis] qui Gyp uiolabit Gyp ilium Gyp B Bo vg eum Ambrst 

1 Cor. iii 18f.= ) 170. 



Nemo uos seducat banis uerbis si quis uidetur sapiens esse inter uos in hoc 
saeculo stultus fiat ut sit sapiens sapientia enim huius saeculi stultitia est 
aput deum scriptum est enim adpraehendam sapientes in astutia eoruni 

uos seducat] se decipiat Gyp se seducat Ambrst vg om. uanis uerbis Gyp 

Ambrst vg quis uidetur] qui putat Gyp sapiens] sapientem se Gyp in 

uobis Gyp in hoc saeculo] saeculo huic Gyp sit] fiat Gyp saeculi] mundi 
Gyp Ambrst vg adpraehendam] reprehendes Gyp reprehendens Ambrst ipso- 
rum Gyp B Bo 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 221 

1 Cor. iv 7 = Gyp 116. 

quid autem habes quod non accepisti quod si accepisti quid gloriaris quasi 
non acceperis 

autem B Bo vg enim Gyp Ambrst acceperis Cyp si autem Gyp Ambrst vg 
accepisti* Bo 

1 Cor. iv 20 = G-yp 177. 

non enim in sermone est regnum dei sed in uirtute 
uec Ambrst om. enim Cyp 

1 Cor. v 7 f. = Gyp 125. 

expurgate uetus fermentum ut sitis noua consparsio sicut estis azymi Etenim 
pascha nostrum iinmolatus est Christus itaque diem festuni celebremus non 
in fermento uetere neque in fermento malitiae et nequitiae sed in azymis 
sinceritatis et ueritatis 

nam et Cyp etenim Cyp B Bo vg om. Ambrst diem festum] festa Cyp 
Ambrst ueteri Cyp Ambrst vg nee Ambrst 



1 Cor. vi 1 f. = Gyp 151. 

Autdet aliquis uestrum aduersus alterum negotium habent iudicari aput 
iniustos et non aput sanctos aut nescitis quia sancti de hoc mundo iudi- 
cabunt 

audet Cyp Ambrst vg quisquam Cyp habens neg. Ambrst vg (sed 

h. n. a. a. vg) neg. habens Cyp disceptare Cyp iniquos Ambrst vg 

omnes (exp. m. 2) sanctos Bo om. aut Cyp ignoratis Ambrst quoniam Ambrst 
vtj de hoc mundo B Bo vg] mundum Cyp hunc mundum Ambrst 



I Cor. vi 7 9 = Gyp 151. 

quidem omnino delictum est uobis quia indicia habetis inter uos quare non 
magis iniuriam patimini quare non magis fraudamini sed uos fraudatis et 
iniuriam facitis et hoc fratribus aut nescitis quoniam iniqui regnum dei non 
possidebunt 

quidem] iam q. Cyp Ambrst vg omnino] in totum Cyp est uobis] in uobis 
est Cyp Ambrst (i. u. o. d. B) quod Ambrst vg inter uos] aduersus inuicem 

Cyp patimini Cyp B accipitis Ambrst vg fraudem patimini Cyp Bo vg 
fraudamini B fraudem Ambrst fr. et ini. fac.] ini. fac. et fr. Cyp Ambrst vg 
fratres Cyp an Ambrst rg quia Ambrst vy iniusti Cyp consequuntur Cyp 



222 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 

1 Cor. vi 9 11 = Gyp 167. 

neque iupudici neque idoliseruientes neque adulteri neque molles neque 
masculorurn concubitores neque fares neque auari neque ebriosi neque 
maledici neque rapaces reguum. del possidebunt Sed haec aliquando fuistis 
sed abluti estis sed sanctificati estis sed iustificuti estis in nomine domini 
lesu Christi et in spiritu dei nostri 

fornicarii Gyp Ambrst vg iJolis seruientes Gyp Ambrst vg neque masc. 

cone.] et neque idolis seruientes (n. i. s. eras.) neque masc. adpetitores Gyp 
n. a. n. f. Bo auari] fraudulent! Gyp raptores Gyp consequentur Gyp 

sed] et Gyp Ambrst vg haec Cyp B Bo vg hoc Ambrst aliquando] quidem 

(corr. quidam et delude rursus corr. quidem) Gyp quidem Ambrst quidam vg domini 
add. nostri Ambrst vg om. in Ambrst 

1 Cor. vi loff. = Cyp 166. 

nescitis quia corpora uestra menbra Christi sunt tollens ergo menbra Christi 
faciam membra ineretricis absit Aut nescitis quia qui se iungit meretrici 
imum corpus est erunt enim inquid duo in carne una qui autem se iungit 
domino unus spiritus est 

quia Gyp B Bo quoniam Ambrst vg Christi sunt Cyp B Bo snnt Christi 
Ambrst vg tollam Ambrst tollens B Bo auferens Cyp om. ergo Cyp et 
ante faciam Ambrst (non B Bo) fornicariae Cyp om, absit Cyp an 

Ambrst vg om. qui Cyp se iungit] conglutinantur Cyp adhaeret Ambrst 
vg fornicariae Cyp est] sunt Gyp sit B fit Ambrst om. enim Ambrst 

om. inquid Cyp coniunxerint Cyp adhaeret Ambrst vg deo B sunt Cyp 

1 Cor. vi 18 = Gyp 167. 

Ornne peccatum quodcumque fecerit homo extra corpus est qui autem 
fornicatur in corpus suum peccat 

delictum Cyp 

1 Cor. vi 19 f. = Gyp 123. 

non estis uestri empti enim estis praetio glorificate deum in corpore uestro 

praetio] magno Cyp pretio magno Ambrst vg clarificate et portute Cyp 

Ambrst glorificate et portate Bo vg dominum B 

1 Cor. vii 17 = Cyp 145. 

bonum est homini mulierem non tangere propter fornicationes autem unus- 
quisque suam uxorem habeat et unaqueque suum uirum liabeat Uxori uir 

tangere Bo vg contingere Cyp B p. fornicationes autem] tamen p. forni- 

cationem Ambrst suam uxorem B Bo vg uxorem suam Gyp Ambrst uirura 
suum Cyp 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 223 

debitum reddat similiter autem et uxor uiro mulier sui corporis potestatem 
non habet sed uir .similiter autem et uir sui corporis potestatem non habet 
sed mulier nolite fraudare inuicem nisi forte ex consensu ad tempus ut 
uacetis orationi et iterum ad id ipsum ne uos temptet satanas propter 
intemperantiam uestram hoc autem dico secundurn consilium non secundum 
imperium uolo autem omnes homines esse sicut et me ipsum sed unusquisque 
proprium habet donum a domino alius sic alias autem sic 

om. autem Gyp B mulier] uxor Gyp sui corporis] corporis sui Gyp 

habet (bis) Gyp B Bo vg habeat (&/') Ambrst om. autem Gyp Ambrst cor- 
poris sui Gyp mulier] uxor Gyp fraudari (con: m.2) Bo om. forte 

Gyp Ambrst conuentione Gyp et ante ad Gyp iterum] add. reuertimini 
Ambrst vg temptet uos Gyp vg incontinentiam Gyp vg uestram om. Gyp 
autem om. Gyp consilium] ueniam Gyp indulgentiam Ambrst vg iussum Gyp 
uolebam Ambrst om. et Ambrst vg om. ipsum Gyp donum habet Ambrst vg 
carissima error e (carisma) Gyp a B ex Ambrst vg domino] deo Gyp Ambrst vg 
alius pi:] add. quidem Ambrst vg autem] uero Ambrst vg 



1 Cor. vii 10f. = Cfyp 175. 

His autem qui matrimoriio iuncti sunt praecipio non ego sed dominus 
uxorem a uiro non discedere quodsi discesserit rnanere innuptam aut uiro 
reconciliari et uir uxorem ne dimittat 

his Gyp B Bo iis Ambrst vg qui m. i. sunt] quae nupserunt Gyp iuncti 
(corr. coniuncti) B uincti Bo denuntio Ambrst (praecipio B Bo vg) discedere] 
separari Cyp quodsi] si autem Gyp recesserit Gyp uiro reconc.] reconc. 
uiro Gyp uiro suo reconc. Ambrst vg uir] uirum Cyp Ambrst ne demittat] non 
dimittere Cyp Ambrst 

1 Cor. vii 29 31 = Cyp 123. 

tempus breuiatum est relicuum est ut et qui habent uxores tanquam non 
habentes sint et qui flentes tanquam non flentes et qui gaudent tanquam non 
gaudentes et qui cmunt tanquam non possidentes et qui utuntur hunc 
mundum tanquam non utantur praeteriit enim habitus huius mundi 

collectum Cyp et ante rel. (om. B Bo) Ambrst superest ergo Cyp ita sint 
ac si (quasi Bo) non habentes Ambrst tanquam pr.] quasi Cyp Bo flent Gyp 
Ambrst vg quasi Cyp quasi Cyp gaudentes] add. sint Bo quasi Cyp 
hoc mundo utuntur Cyp utuntur hoc saeculo Ambrst quasi Cyp noii om. B 
praeterit Cyp Ambrst vg figura Cyp Ambrst vg 

1 Cor. vii 3234 = Cyp 145. 

qui sine uxore est sollicitus est quae sunt domini quomodo placeat domino 
qui autem cum uxore est cogitat quae sunt huius mundi quomodo placeat 

qui est] caeleps Gyp soil, est] cogitat Gyp Ambrst ea in ros. ante 

quae Cyp domini sunt Ambrst vg quomodo placeat domino om. Ambrxt 

habent B Bo deo Cyp B Bo vg cum uxore est] matrimonium contraxit Cyp 
sollicitus est Ambrst rg post cogitat ea in ras. Gyp mundi huius Cyp 



224 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 

uxori diuisa est et mulier et uiro quae innupta est cogitat quae sunt domini 
ut sit sancta et corpore et spiritu quae an tern nupta est cogitat quae sunt 
mundi quomodo placeat uiro 

diuisa innupta est] sic et mulier et uirgo innupta Gyp om. et ante mulier 

Ambrst uirgo Ambrst nam quae non est nupta Ambrst quae autem n. e. n. B 
q. autem innupta e. Bo cogitat add. ea in ras. Gyp sollicita est de iis (his B 
Bo) Ambrst dom. sunt Ambrst vg et ante corp. om. Bo quae autem] nam 
quae B Bo quae uero Ambrst nupta est] nupsit Gyp cogitat add. ea de his 
(ea s. I.) Gyp mundi add. huius Gyp Bo huius mundi Ambrst 

1 Cor. vii 39f. = C 166. 



Mulier alligata est quanto tempore uiuit uir eius quodsi dormitionem uir eius 
acceperit liberata est cui unit nubat tantum in domino beatior autem est si 
sic permanserit 

uxor B Bo uincta Gyp Ambrst add. lege Ambrst (Bo 2 m. legi vg) quanto 
tempore] quamdiu Gyp Ambrst quodsi] si autem Gyp Ambrst dormitionem] 
dormierit Gyp rom rg mortuus fuerit Ambrst om. uir eius Gyp rom om. acce- 
perit Gyp Ambrst vg uult] uolet Gyp felicior Gyp est] erit Gyp Ambrst vg 
manserit Gyp 

1 Cor. viii Z = C 139. 



quodsi quis se existimat cognouisse aliquid nondum cognouit quemadinodum 
oporteat scire 

quodsi] si Gyp vg se existimat] putat Gyp existimat se Ambrst cogno- 

uisse aliquid] scire aliquid Gyp vg aliquid scire Ambrst scire B Bo cognouit] 
scit Gyp scire Gyp B Bo eum scire Ambrst vg 

1 Cor. viii 8 = Cyp 164. 

esca autem nos non commendat deo neque enim si manducauerimus abunda- 
uimus neque enim si non manducauerimus egemus 

esca] cibus Gyp om. autem Gyp om. enim ambo Gyp ederimus Ambrst 
abundabimus Gyp Ambrst vg om. alt. enim Ambrst vg mand. alt.] ederimus 

Gyp Ambrst egebimus Gyp deerit nobis Ambrst 

1 Cor. ix 24f. = C 141. 



Nescitis quoniam qui in stadio currunt omnes quidem currunt unus autem 
accipit brabium sic currite ut conprehendatis omnes autem qui in agone 
contendit ab omnibus se abstinet illi quidem ut corruptibilem coronam 
accipiant rios autem incorruptibilem 

quia Gyp sed unus Bo vg autem] tamen Gyp pal in am Gyp Ambrst 

occupetis Gyp omnes abstinet] om Gyp omnis Ambrst vg et ante illi Gyp 

Ambrst vg incorruptibilem B incorruptam Gyp Ambrst vg 






COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 225 

1 Cor. x l = Cyp 42. 

Nolo eriim uos ignorare fratres quod patres nostri omnes sub nube erant 
quia Gyp Ambrst fuerunt Gyp Ambrst vg 

I Cor. x lZi. = Cyp 139, 175. 



Itaque qui te putant stare uideat ne cadat temptatio uos non adpraehendit 
nisi humana fidelis autem deus qui non patietur uos temptari super id quod 
non potestis sed faciet cum temptatione etiam prouentum ut possitis susti- 
nere 

itaque] et Ctjp propterea et Ambrst putat se Bo te] se Gyp Ambrst vg 

putant] putat Gyp Ambrst adpraehendit] occupabit Gyp adprehendat Ambrst vg 
om. qui Gyp supra Ambrst vg super B om. id Gyp Ambrst quod Bo vg 
quam Ambrst om. non Gyp Ambrst vg sed] et Gyp prouentum] euadendi 
facultatem Gyp tolerare Gyp Ambrst subtinere B sustinere Bo vg 



1 Cor. x 23 = %) 176. 
Omnia licent sed non omnia expediunt omnia licent sed non omnia aedificant 

licent (bis) Gyp B Bo mini licent (bis) Ambrst vg non omnia pr.] omnia non 
Bo 

1 Cor. xi I9 = 0yp 176. 

oportet enira et haeresesse ut et probati manifest! fiant inter uos 

om. enim Gyp haereses esse Gyp Ambrst vg ut et] ut ut Gyp probati] 
qui probati sunt Ambrst vg fiant] sint Gyp inter uos] in uobis Gyp vg 

1 Cor. xi 27 = C 176. 



Itaque quicumque manducauerit panem aut biberit calicem domini indigne 
reus erit corporis et sanguinis domini 

om. itaque Gyp ederit Gyp Ambrst panem add. hunc Ambrst vg indigne 
Gyp B Bo vg indigne domino Ambrst 

I Cor. xi 33f. = > 164. 



conuenientes ad manducandum inuicem expectate si quis esurit domi man- 
ducet ut non ad iudicium conueniatis 

cum conuenitis Gyp Ambrst vg ad alt.] om. Gyp in Ambrst vg 
S. 15 



220 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 

1 Cor. xiii 2 8 = Gyp 115. 

et si habeam omnem fidem ita ut montes transferam caritatem autem non 
habeam nihil sum Et si in cibos diuisero omnem substantiam meam et 
tradidero corpus meum ut ardeam caritatem autem non habeam nihil prodest 
mihi Caritas patiens est benigna est caritas non aemulatur caritas non est 
perpera non inflatur non ambitiosa est non quaerit quae sua sunt non 
inritatur non cogitat malum non gaudet super iniquitatem congaudet autem 
ueritati omnia sufferit omnia credit omnia sperat omnia sustenet caritas 
numquam excidet 

habuero Gyp Ambrst vg caritatem sum om. Ambrst agapen Cyp ml (dilec- 
tionem Cyp m 2) haberem Cyp ml in cibos diuisero] erogauero Ambrst om. 
in Cyp m 2 add. pauperum post cibos Cyp w2 vg distribuero Cyp vg (sed d. i. c. 
vg) omnia mea Cyp add. si post et Cyp Ambrst vg caritatem habeam om. 
Ambrst agapem Cyp prodest mihi] proficio Cyp mihi prodest Ambrst vg 
agape Cyp et sic constanter magna anima corr. magnanima Cyp magnanima 
Ambrst agape ante benigna Cyp benigna] iucunda Ambrst est om. Bo 1m 
om. caritas ante non est perp. Ambrst vg n. inn. n. perperam agit Ambrst agit 
perperam Cyp vg perperam agit Ambrst non ambitiosa sua snnt om. Cyp est 
ambitiosa B vg super iniquitatem Bo vg in iniquitate Ambrst iniquitate B 

super iniustitiam Cyp conlaetatur Cyp iu ueritate Cyp sufferit] 

diligit Cyp tolerat Ambrst o. sp. o. sust.] omnia suffert omnia sperat B Bo 

sustinet Cyp Ambrst vg cadlt Ambrst sed B Bo excidit vg 

1 Cor. xiii 12 = Cyp 155. 

Videmus nunc per speculum in aenigmate tune autem faciem ad faciem nunc 
scio ex parte tune autem cognoscam sicut ego cognotus sum 

uero Ambrst faciem pr.] faciem (m exp. et eras.) Cyp facie Ambrst vg modo 
Ambrst uero Ambrst (om. B) cognosce B sicut ego] sicuti ego Cyp sicut 
et Ambrst vg cognitus Cyp Ambrst vg 

I Cor. xiv 34 f. = Cyp 152. 

(missing in Claromontanus) but there is no gap between 33 and 36 

1 Cor. xv 33 = Cyp 177. 

corrumpunt mores bonos conloquia mala 

mores bonos] ingenia bona Cyp conloquia mala] confabulationes pessime 
Gyp 

1 Cor. xv 36 = Cyp 159. 
insipiens tu quod seminas non uiuificatur nisi prius moriatur 

stulte Cyp Ambrst quod tu Bo si non Cyp om. prius Cyp B mor- 
tuum fuerit Cyp 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 227 

1 Cor. xv 41 44 = (fyp 159. 

stella enim stellae differet in caritate Ita et resurrectio mortuorum seminatur 
in corruptionem surgit in incormptionem seminatur in contumeliam surgit 
in gloria seminatur in infirmitate surgit in uirtute seminatur corpus animale 
surgit corpus spiritale 

om. enim Gyp differt a stella Bo stellae] a (ab) stella Gyp Ambrst vg 

differt Gyp Arnbrxt vg claritate Gyp Anibrst vg sic Gyp vg erit et Ambrst 
post seminatur pr. add. corpus Gyp corruptione Gyp vg corruptela Ambrst 

surgit pr.] resurget ex resurgit Gyp surget Ambrst vg in incorruptionem] sine 

corruptela Gyp in incorruptelam B (-a Ambrst) contumeliam] iguominia Gyp 
Ambrst surgit alt.] resurget ex resurgit Gyp resurget vg Ambrst gloriam B Bo 
surgit tert.] resurgit Gyp surget Ambrst vg seminatur ult.] semina (corr. m 2) 

Bo surgit ult.] resurget ex resurgit Gyp surget Ambrst vg corpus ult.] om. Gyp 

1 Cor. xv 4749 = Gyp 75, 123. 

Primus homo de terra terrenus secundus homo de caelo qualis terrenus talis 
et terreni et qualis caelestis talis et caelestis sicut portauimus imaginem 
terrestris portemus et imaginem caelestis 

terrae limo Gyp om. terrenus Gyp post caelo add. caelestis Ambrst vg 

ille e limo Gyp tales Ambrst vg qui de limo Gyp tales Gyp Ambrst vg 

caelestes Gyp Ambrst vg quo ruodo Gyp igitur sicut Ambrst vg portamus B 
eius qui de limo est Gyp illius terreni (t. i. Bo) Ambrst eius qui de caelo est 
Gyp huius caelestis Ambrst 

1 Cor. xv 5355 = Gyp 159. 

oportet enim corruptible hoc induere incorruptionem et mortale hoc induere 
inmortalitatern [Cum autem corruptible hoc induerit incorruptalitatem et 
mortale hoc induere ininortalitatem] tune net sermo qui scriptus est absorta 
est mors in uictoria ubi est mors stimulus tuus ubi est mors uictoria tua 

corruptiuum istud Gyp incorruptibile B om. (?) hoc B incorruptelam 
Z>' Bo cum autem inmortalitatern om. Gyp corruptibile et om. Ambrst vg 
induerit Ambrst vg sermo qui scriptus] uerbum quod scriptum Gyp absumpta 
Cyp uictoria] contentionem Gyp uictoriam B stimulus tuus B Bo aculeus 
tuus Cyp uictoria tua Ambrst vg uictoria tua B Bo contentio tua Cyp 

stimulus tuus Ambrst vg 

2 Cor. iii 1416 = Gyp 42. 

obtunsi sunt sensus eorum usque in hodiernum diem id ipsum uelamen in 
lectione ueteris testamenti manet dum non rebelatur quoniam in Christo 

hunc Cyp hoc eodem uelamento Cyp hoc (id B Bo vg) i. u. Ambrst vg 
manente Cyp quod non Gyp et nondum B reuelatur Gyp Ambrst quia Cyp 
Ambrst 

152 



228 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 

aboletur Sed usque in hodiernum cum legitur Moyses uelamen est positum 
super cor eorum cum autem conuersus fuerit ad deum auferetur uelamen 

euacuatur Gyp Ambrst vg et Gyp add. diem Ambrst vg si 

quando Gyp Moses Gyp uelamentum Gyp om. positum Gyp B Bo 

supra Ambrst mox Gyp es Gyp dominum Gyp Ambrst (B ex deum) vg 

aufertur Gyp uelamentum Gyp 



2 Cor. v IO = Cyp 96, 157. 

(nam) omnes uos manifestari oportet ante tribuna Christi ut ferat unus- 
quisque propria corporis secundum quod gessit siue bonum siue malum 

o. enim Ambrst vg nos Gyp Ambrst vg tribunal Gyp Ambrst vg ut 

unusq. (ex unusq. ut) recipiat B reportet Gyp recipiat Ambrst sui corporis 
propria Gyp secundum quod] secundum quae Gyp prout Ambrst vg egit 

Gyp bona Gyp Ambrst mala Gyp Ambrst 

2 Cor. vi 14 = Gyp 166. 

nolite iugum ducere cum infidelibus Quae enim participatio iustitiae cum 
iniquitate aut quae societas lucis ad tenebras 

iugum ducere] coniungi Gyp enim] autem Gyp partic. add. est Gyp cum 
iniquitate] et iniquitati Gyp B Bo societas] communio est Gyp lucis] lumini 
Gyp Ambrst luminis B luci Bo ad tenebras Bo vg cum tenebris Ambrst 

2 Cor. viii 12f. = C 114. 



(Nam) si promptus animus est secundum quod habet acceptus est non 
secundum quod non habet non enim ut aliis sit remissio uobis tribulatio 

si enim Ambrst vg uoluntas prompta Gyp Ambrst vg quod habet] quod- 

cumque habuerit Gyp facultatem (uoluntatem B Bo) Ambrst acceptabile Gyp 

acceptabilis Ambrst habuerit Gyp habeat Bo non enim] neque Gyp sit 
remissio] refrigerium Gyp refrigerium (refugium Bo) sit Ambrst tribulatio] 

pressura sit Gyp autem angustia Ambrst 



2 Cor. viii 14 f. = Gyp 113. 

uestra abundantia ad illorum inopia ut et illorum abundantia sit ad uestram 
inopiam ut fiat aequalitas sicut scriptum est qui multum non abundauit et 
qui modicum non minorauit 

om. ad Gyp vg inopiam suppleat Gyp vg inopiam Ambrst om. ut Ambrst 
a. a. u. i. u. f.] uestrae inopiae sit supplementum (vg) et sit Gyp fiat ad uestram 
inopiam ut fiat Ambrst ut fiat vg aequitas B Bo (B a. f.) add. habuit multum 
post multum (alt. multum eras.) Gyp add. habuit post multum Ambrst indiguit 

CUP 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 229 

2 Cor. ix 6 7 = Gyp 113. 

qui seminat parce parce et metet et qui seminat in benedictione de bene- 
dictione et metet unusquisque sicut proposuit corde non ex tristitia ant 
necessitate hilarem enim datorem dicit deus 

parce seminat Gyp Ambrst rg et q. s. i. b.] q. autem i. b. s. Ambrst bene- 
dictione pr. ] benedictionem Gyp om. de Gyp in habent B Bo et ante metet 
om. Bo autem add. post unusquisque Gyp sicut corde proposuit Gyp secun- 
dum propositum cordis (cor Bo) Ambrst add. quasi post non Gyp aut] uel ex Gyp 
aut ex B Bo vg diligit Gyp Ambrst vg 

2 Cor. ix 1011 = Cyp 113. 

Qui autem subministrat semen seminanti et panem in escam subministrauit 
et multiplicabit semen iiestrum et augebit nascentia iustitiae uestrae in 
omnibus locupletati 

om. autem Cyp administrat Gyp vg semen * * * (m in ras.) Bo seminanti 
(ex seminantis) Cyp ad edendum Cyp Ambrst ad manducandum Bo vg 

praestabit Cyp Bo vg ministrabit Ambrst seminatiouem uestram Cyp ampli- 
ficabit Ambrst nascentia] incrementa frugum Cyp Bo vg fructum Ambrst ut 
i. o. locupletemini Cyp Ambrst 

2 Cor. ix 12 = Cyp 113. 

ministratio officii huius non solum replens ea quae desunt sanctis sed et 
abundat per multarum gratiarum actionem deo 

administratio Cyp ministerium Ambrst 1 rom vg huius officii Gyp vg solum 
om. Bo tantum Cyp suppleuit Gyp subplet Ambrst vg sanctis desunt Cyp 

habundauit Cyp abundabit Ambrst multam Gyp multorum Ambrst multarum 
B Bo actiones Ambrst (non B Bo) vg in deum Gyp in deo Ambrst 

2 Cor. xii 7-9 = ) 119. 



datus est mini stimulus carnis angelus satanae ut me colaphizet propter hoc 
dominum ter rogaui ut discederet a me et dixit rnihi sufficit tibi gratia mea 
uam uirtus in infirmitate perficitur 

add. meae post carnis Cyp Bo vg qui Cyp B vg add. ut non extollar Gyp 
ne extollar Ambrst post colaphizet quod Gyp Bo vg ter dominum Cyp Ambrst 
vg ait Ambrst dixit B Bo vg 

Gal. i 10 = Cyp 156. 

si adhuc hominibus placere Christi seruus non essem 

om. adhuc Cyp add. uellem post placere Gyp placerem Ambrst vg seruus 
Christi Ambrst Christi seruus B Bo vg 

1 Printed text mysterium. The two words are very often confused in MSS 
(misterium and miisterium). 



2.30 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 

Gal. iii 69 = Gyp 43. 

Abraham credidit deo et reputatum est ei ad iustitiam cognoscite ergo -quia 
qui ex fide sunt hi sunt fill Abrahae prouidens autem scriptura quia ex fide 
iustificat gentes dens pronuntiauit Abrahae quia benedicuntur omnes gentes 
igitur qui ex fide sunt benedicentur cum fideli Abraham 

credidit Abraham Ambrst reputatum Bo vg deputatum Gyp aestimatum 

Ambrst in ex ad Gyp cognoscitis Gyp Ambrst om. pr. sunt B Bo hii Gyp 
Bo ii vg filii Gyp Ambrst vg praenuntiauit Gyp Ambrst vg benedicentur 
Gyp Ambrst vg et post in illo Gyp in te Ambrst vg ergo Ambrst om. sunt 
Bo benedicti sunt Gyp benedicuntur Ambrst benedicentur B Bo vg ex Ambrst 
cum B Bo rom vg 

Gal. iv 4 = Gyp 73. 

postquam uero uero uenit plenitude temporum misit deus filium suum 
factum ex muliere 

at ubi Gyp Ambrst vg adubi (at ubi) autem B Bo 1 om. uero uero Gyp Ambrst 
vg adinpletio Gyp temporis Gyp Ambrst (s in ras. Bo) vg factum Ambrst 
vg natum Gyp natum (na m2 in ras, quae add. s. 1. factum) B de Gyp 



Gal. v 14f. = %? 115. 

diges proximum tuum sicut te ipsum quodsim mordetis et inaccusatis inuicem 
uidete ne consummamini 2 ab inuicem 

diliges Gyp Ambrst vg tamquam Gyp om. ipsum Gyp si autem Gyp 
quod (quod * Bo) si Ambrst vg m. inuicem Ambrst iuuicem m. vg incusatis 
Gyp criminatis Ambrst om. inuicem Ambrst vg ab inu. COUP. Ambrst vg 
consumamini Gyp Ambrst (exc. B) vg inuice Gyp 

Gal. v 17 = Gyp 167. 

nam caro concupiscit aduersus spiritum spiritus autem aduersus carnem 
haec enim inuicem aduersantur ut non quaecumque uultis ista faciatis 

om. nam Gyp nam caro] caro uero B spiritus autem Bo vg] et spiritus Gyp 
spiritus uero Ambrst inuicem Bo inuicem sibi B sibi inuicem Ambrst vg ad- 
uersantur add. sibi Gyp quaecumque] quae Gyp ea quae Ambrst ista] ipsa 
Gyp om. Ambrst 

Gal. v 19 24 = Gyp 167. 

Manifests autem s'unt opera carnis quae sunt adulteria fornicationis immim- 
ditia inpudicitia idololatrocinia beneficia inimicitiae contentiones aemulationis 
autem sunt Bo sunt autem Ambrst vg om. autem B opera] facta 

Gyp adulterium Ambrst fornicationes Gyp fornicatio Ambrst vg in- 
munditiae Gyp impuritas Ambrst inpud.] spurcitiae Gyp obscenitas Ambrst 

idolatria Gyp Ambrst ueneficia Gyp et add. homicidia Gyp ueneficia Ambrst vg 
aemulationes Gyp vg simulationes Ambrst 

1 See above, chap, m, p. 71. 

2 This confusion with consumo is frequent in MSS. 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 231 

irae inritationes dissensiones haeresis inuidiae homicidiae ebrietatis comisati- 
ones et similia his quae praedico uobis sicut et praedixi quia qui talia 
agunt regnum dei non possidebunt. Fructus autem spiritus est caritas 
gaudium pax patientia bonitas mansuetudo fides lenitas continentia castitatis 
aduersus huiusmodi non est lex qui autem Christ! carnem crucifixerunt cum 
passionibus et concupiscentiis 

irae] animositas Gyp inrit.] prouocationes simultates Gyp simultates Ambrst 
haereses Ambrst om. homicidiae Gyp B Bo habet homicidia Ambrst vg ebrie- 
tates Gyp Ambrst vg ebrietas B commemorationes B et] add. quae sunt 

Ambrst his similia Gyp Ambrst vg quae quia om. Gyp et om. Bo vg 

quia] quod hi (hii Bo) Ambrst ut supra sed consequentur vg regni dei Ambrst 
hereditatem non consequentur Ambrst uero Ambrst caritas] agape Gyp 

patientia] magnanimitas Gyp longanimitas Ambrst vg benignitas Ambrst vg 
mans, fid.] fid. mans. Gyp spes Ambrst om. lenitas Gyp castitatis] castitas 
Gyp castitas bonitas Ambrst aduersus lex om. Gyp autem] enim Gyp 

Christi] sunt Christi Gyp Ambrst vg Christi sunt B carnem] add. suam Ambrst 
vg passionibus] uitiis Gyp Ambrst vg 

Gal. vi 1 f. = Gyp 120. 

considerans imusquisque seipsum ne et ipse temptetur Alter alterius honera 
portate et sic impleuitis legem Christi 

in contemplatione habentes Gyp om. unusquisque Ambrst vg om. seipsum 
Cijp temet (te Bo vg) ipsum Ambrst ipse temptetur] uos temptemini Gyp tu 

tempteris Ambrst vg alter alterius] alterutrum Gyp inuicem Ambrst honera 
Bo onera Gyp, Ambrst (add. uestra), vg sustinete Gyp adirnplebitis Gyp vg 
implebitis Ambrst 

Gal. vi 14 = Gyp 124. 

mini autem absit gloriari nisi in cruce domini nostri lesu Christi per quern 
mihi mundus crucitixus est et ego mundo. 

autem Bo vg uero Ambrst cruceni Gyp om. nostri lesu Christi B 



Eph. ii 17f. = %? 94. 

et ueniens euangelizaui paceru uobis qui longe et pacem his qui iuxta quia 
per ipsum habemus accessum ambo in uno spiritu ad patrem 

cum uenisset Gyp adnuntiauit Gyp euangelizauit Ambrst vg uobis 
pacem Gyp his B Bo hiis Gyp iis Ambrst vg om. qui Gyp prope Gyp vg 
om. accessum Gyp utrique Ambrst 

Eph. iv 22 24 = Gyp 124. 

deponere uos secundum priorem conuersationem ueterem hominem eum qui 
corrumpitur secundum concupiscentiam seductionis renouamini autem spiritu 
exponite prioris conuersationis ueterem hominem Gyp ut exponatis (deponatis 
Ambrst) s. p. c. u. h. B Bo om. eum Gyp Ambrst vg concupiscentias Gyp 

desideria Ambrst vg deceptionis Gyp erroris Ambrst vg iniiouanuni Gyp 



232 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 

sensus uestri et induite nouum hominem qui secundum deum creatus est in 
iustitia et sanctitate et ueritate 

sensu (spiritu rom vg) mentis uestrae Ambrst vg induimini Ambrst homi- 
nem] add. eum Gyp constitutus Gyp om. est Bo in iust. et sanct. et uer.] in 
uer. et iust. Ambrst in iust. et uer. Bo et (ante sanct.) om. Gyp 

Eph. iv 26 = Gyp 120. 

irascimini et nolite peccare sol 1 non occidat super iracundiam uestram 

delinquere Gyp 

Eph. iv 2931 = Gyp 126, 120. 

omnis sermo mains ex ore uestro non procedat sed si qiiis bonus ad aedifica- 
tionem fidei ut det gratiam audientibus et nolite contristare sanctum spiritum 
dei in quo signati estis in diem redemptions omnis amaritudo et ira et 
indignatio et clamor et blasphemia tollatur a uobis 

de Gyp Ambrst prodeat Gyp om. si quis Gyp et non citat Gyp 
contristari B Bo 2 spiritum sanctum Gyp Ambrst vg auferantur Gyp au- 
feratur Ambrst 

Eph. v 3 f. = Gyp 150. 

nee nominetur in uobis sicut decet sanctos aut turpitude aut stultiloquium 
aut scurrilitas quae ad rem non pertinet 

stultiloquium (corr. ex stultol.) et scurilitas (sic B) quae ad rem 11011 pertinent ne 
nominentur quidem in uobis Gyp ut supra exc. inter uos (in uobis Bo vg) et per- 
tinent (pertinet B Bo vg) Ambrst turpitudo] turpido B 

Eph. vi 16 = %) 170, 171. 

Fili obaudite parentibus uestris hoc enim est iustum honora patrem tuum et 
matrem Quod est mandatum primum in promissione et bene tibi sit et eris 
longae uitae super terrain Et patres nolite ad iracundiam prouocare filios 
uestros sed et nutrite eos in disciplinam et correptionem dornini Serui 

filii Gyp Ambrst vg obsequentes estote Gyp obedite Bo vg uestris] add. 
in domino Ambrst (non B Bo) vg iustum est Ambrst vg promissionis Ambrst 
et ante bene] ut Gyp B Bo vg ut et Ambrst sit tibi Gyp Ambrst vg eris] 
sis Gyp Ambrst vg longae uitae] longaeuus Gyp Ambrst vg uos ante patres 

Ambrst (non B Bo) vg ad] in Gyp prouocare] mittere Gyp om. et ante 
nutrite Gyp Ambrst vg educate Ambrst vg illos Ambrst vg disciplina Gyp 
Ambrst vg correctione Gyp correptione Ambrst vg 

1 My copy of Migne xvn (1879) has sed. There must be over a thousand mis- 
prints in this reprint. What is said of the three preceding volumes (see Jiilicher 
in Theologische Liter aturzeitung xxvin (1903) 102 f.) is equally true of this. 

2 Contristari (depon.) is hitherto unexampled. 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 233 

obaudite dominis carnalibus cum timore et tremore in simplicitate cordis 
uestris sicut Christo non ad oculum seruientes quasi hominibus placentes sed 
ut serui Christi 

oboedite Gyp Ambrst vg timore] metu Gyp uestri Gyp Ambrst vg 

homini Gyp sicut] sicut et Bo sed orn. Bo ut serui Christi om. B Bo 

ut] quasi Gyp 



Eph. vi 9 = Gyp 171. 

Et dorniui eadem facite ad illos rernittentes minas scientes quia et uestruin 
ipsorum doniinus est in caelis et personarum acceptio non est aput deum 

uos post et Gyp Ambrst vg eos Gyp laxantes Gyp dimittentes B Bo 

iracundiam Gyp quod Ambrst uester Ambrst et ante ipsorum Gyp B Bo 
(illorum Ambrst) exceptio personarum Gyp non est acceptio Ambrst aput 
deum] in illo Gyp apud eum Ambrst (apud deum B Bo) vg 



Eph. vi 1217 = Gyp 183. 

quia non est uobis colluctatio (sic) aduersus sanguinem et carnem sed contra 
potestates contra huius mundi rectores tenebrarum harum contra spiritalia 
nequitiae in caelestibus Propterea accipite arma dei ut possitis resistere in 
die malo et omnibus operis stetis praecincti lumbos uestros in ueritate 
induentes loricam iustitiae et calciati pedes in praeparationem euangelii 
pacis in omnibus adsumentes scutum fidei in quo possitis omnia iacula 
nequissimi candentia extinguere et galeam salutaris et gladium spiritus 
quod est uerbum dei 

om. quia Gyp quoniam Ambrst vg nobis Gyp vg conluctatio Gyp Bo 
(inluctatio B lucta Ambrst rom, unde nescio) vg caruem et sanguinem Gyp 
Ambrst vg contra] aduersus Gyp Ambrst vg potestates] principatus Ambrst 
principes Bo vg contra (alt.) contra] et principes h. m. et bar. t. ad Gyp et 
potestates h. m. aduersus (om. B Bo aduersus) t. h. rectores aduersus Ambrst 
spiritalis Gyp ante in hob. quae sunt Ambrst (om. B Bo) propterea] propter 
hoc Gyp ideo Ambrst accipite] induite Gyp tota ante arma Gyp uniuer- 

sitatem armorum Ambrst om. dei Gyp Ambrst om. in die B Bo malo] 
nequissimo Gyp et omn. op. st.] ut cum omnia perfeceritis Gyp et in omnibus 
perfecti stare Ambrst vg p. 1. u. i. u. om. Gyp succincti Ambrst vg ueritate 
Gyp B Bo rom vg caritate Ambrst et induti Ambrst vg iustitiae] fidei B 
praeparationem B Bo praeparatione Gyp Ambrst vg in] super his Ambrst 

poteritis Amlrxt i. n. candentia] ignita i. n. Gyp tela maligni (ncquissimi Bo) 
ignita Ambrst saluationis Gyp salutis Ambrst vg post salutis Ambrst accipite 

(non B Bo) spiritus] sps (s. alt. in ras.) Gyp quod] qui Gyp B sermo Gyp 

[Col. follows Eph. in Claromontanus, then Phil, follows Col.] 



234 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 

Phil, ii 611 = Gyp 79, 149. 

qui cum in forma del constitutus non rapinam arbitratus est esse se'aequalem 
deo sed semetipsum exinaniuit formam serui accipiens in similitudine homi- 
num factus et habitu adinuentus ut homo humiliauit se ipsum factus obaudiens 
usque ad mortem mortem autem crucis propter quod et deus ilium exaltauit 
et donauit illi nomen super oriine nomen ut in nomine lesu omne genii flectat 
celestium (sic) et terrestrium et infernorum et omnis lingua confiteatur 
quoniam dominus lesus Christus in gloriam dei patris 

om. cum Gyp figura Cyp constitutus] esset Ambrst vg aequalem Bo vg 
parem Ambrst semetipsum] se Cyp (149) inaniuit Cyp (149) similitudinem 
Ambrst vg hominis Cyp inuentus Cyp B Bo vg repertus Ambrst om. ut 
(s. 1. add. 79) Cyp semet Ambrst om. ipsum Cyp oboediens Ambrst vg et 
om. Cyp (149) ill. exal.] exal. ill. Cyp vg superexal. ill. B ill. superexal. Bo 
superexal. eum Ambrst illi Cyp B Bo vg ei Ambrst ut sit . . ante super (. .fuit 
au, et su sunt in ras. 79) Cyp quod est super Ambrst vg omne genu flectat] 
omnes genu curuent Cyp omne g. flectatur Ambrst vg om. et ante terr. Ambrst 
vg quia Cyp Ambrst vg om. Christus Cyp B gloriam] gloria est Cyp 
Ambrst vg 

Phil, ii 14 f. = Cyp 127. 

(v. 13 prout placet) Omnia facite sine murmurationibus et detractationibus 
et sitis sine crimine et sinceres fili dei inmaculati 

pro bona uoluntate Ambrst vg omnia] add. autem pro delectatione Cyp 

detract.] reputationibus Cyp haesitationibus Ambrst vg ut Cyp Ambrst vg 
sine quaerella Cyp vg inreprehensibiles Ambrst om. sinceres Cyp simplices 
Ambrst vg inmaculati filii dei Cyp sicut filii d. inm. Ambrst 

Phil, ii 15 = Gyp 141. 

lucetis sicut luminaria in hoc mundo 

lucete Cyp om. hoc Cyp Ambrst vg 

Phil, ii 21 = 0^124. 

omnes enim sua querunt non quae lesu Christi 

nam omnes Ambrst om. enim Cyp quae sua sunt Ambrst vg add. et 
ante non Cyp post quae add. sunt Cyp vg om. lesu Cyp 

Phil, iii 19 21 = Gyp 124. 
quorum finis est interitus quorum deus uenter est et gloria in confessione 

est pr. om. Bo est uenter Cyp gloria eorum Bo confusionem Cyp 

pudendis 1 Ambrst confusione B Bo vg 

1 So the Koman edition rightly, as is shown by the comment, and also by the 
fact that the text is twice elsewhere quoted with pudendis (in Rom. ii 29; in 
Tit. ill); Migne has confusione here. 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 235 

ipsorum qui terrena sapiunt nostra enim conuersatio in caelis constituta est 
unde et saluatorem expectamus dominum lesum Christum qui transfigurauit 
corpus humilitatis nostrae conformatum corporis gloriae suae 

ipsorum om. Bo eorum Cyp Ambrst (in Bom. ii 29, Tit. i 11) illorum Ambrst 
autem Cyp Ambrst vg om. constituta Cyp Ambrst vg om. et B Bo dominum 
add. nostrum Ambrst eg transformauit Cyp transfigurabit Ambrst conforme 
Ambrst corpori Cyp Ambrst vg claritatis Cyp vg 

Col. i 15 = Cyp 63. 
qui est imago dei inuisibilis primogenitus oranis creaturae 

dei inu. Cyp B Bo vg inu. dei Ambrst et post inuis. Cyp totius Cyp 
uniuersae Ambrst 

Col. i 18 = Cyp 63. 

primogenitus ex mortuis ut sit in omnibus ipse primatum tenens 
a Cyp fieret Cyp fiat Ambrst 

Col. ii 11= Cyp 45. 

circumcisi estis circumcisione non manu facta in expoliatione corporis carnis 
in circumcisione Christi 

expoliationem Cyp Ambrst spolatione B Bo om. corporis Cyp add. sed 
post carnis Cyp vg 

Col. ii 20 = Cyp 124. 

Si mortui estis cum Christo ab elementis mundi quare tanquam uiuentes in 
hoc muiido decernitis 

si ergo Ambrst (non B Bo) vg essetis Bo elementis] add. huius Cyp Ambrst 
vg quid Cyp B Bo quid adhuc Ambrst vg tamquam Cyp B Bo vg uelut 

Ambrst om. hoc Cyp vg decernitis] uaua sectamini Cyp 

Col. iii I 4= Cyp 124. 

Si ergo consurrexistis cum Christo quae susum sunt quaerite ubi Christus est 
ad dextram di(aic) sedens quae susu sunt sapite non quae in terrain mortui 
enim estis et uita uestra absconsa est cum Christo in deo cum Christus ap- 
paruerit uita uestra tune et uos cum illo apparebitis in gloria 

om. ergo Cyp enim Ambrxt conresurrexistis B Bo om. cum Cyp in 
dextera Cyp vg ad dexteram Ambrst dei Cyp Ambrst vg sursum s. Cyp Bo vg 
s. sursum Ambrst ea ante quae Ambrst in terram] terrena sunt Cyp super 
terram Ambrst vg abscondita Cyp Ambrst vg cum Christus] cum autem 
Christus Cyp apparebitis cum illo (ipso B Bo vg) Ambrst vg om. cum illo Cyp 

Col. iv 2 = Cyp 184. 
Oration! instate uigilantes in ea 

instate oration i Gyp ilia Ambrst 



236 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 

1 Th. iv 6 = ? 175. 



ut ne quis supergrediatur et circumueniat in negotio fratrem suum quia 
uindex est dominus de omnibus his 

ut om. Gyp ne quis] non Gyp om. supergrediatur et Gyp et] neque 

Ambrst vg circumuenire Gyp quoniam Ambrst vg uindex] ultor Gyp 

dominus] deus Gyp omnibus his] his omnibus Gyp Ambrst vg 

1 Th. iv 12f. = Cfypl59. 

Nolumus autem uos ignorare fratres de dormientibus ut non contristemini 
sicut et ceteri qui non habent spem Si enim credimus quia lesus mortuus est 
et surrexit sic et deus eos qui dormierunt per lesum adducet cum eo 

ignorare uos Gyp iis (his B Bo) qui dormiunt Ambrst ut non] ne Gyp 

Ambrst spem non habent Ambrst vg Nam si Ambrst quod Ambrst vg 

resurrexit Gyp Ambrst vg illos Ambrst per lesum] in lesu Gyp 



1 Th. v 2f. 

dies domini sicut fur in nocte ita ueniet cum dixerint pax et munitio tune 
subitaneus illis apparebit interitus 

ut Ambrst om. in Gyp Ambrst noctu Ambrst sic Ambrst adueniet Gyp 
cum enim Ambrst (non B Bo) vg dicit B munitio] firmitas Gyp B Bo rom 

securitas Ambrst vg sub. ill.] ill. repentinus Gyp repentinus eis (illis B Bo) 

Ambrst vg adueniet Gyp superueniet Ambrst vg 

2 Th. iii 6 = (7y^l69. 

Praecipimus autem uobis fratres in nomine domini lesu Christi ut subtrahatis 
uos ab ornni fratre inquiete ambulante et non secundum rationem quam 
acceperunt a nobis 

denuntiamus Ambrst vg om. fratres Gyp domini add. nostri Ambrst vg 
ut om. Ambrst subtr. uos] discedatis Gyp secern i (secernere Bo) uos Ambrst 

omnibus fratribus Gyp inquiete ambulante] ambulantibus inordinate Gyp 

intemperauter ambulante Ambrst traditionem Gyp Ambrst vg acceperunt 
Gyp B Bo vg accepistis Ambrst 

1 Tim. ii 914 = Cyp 148, 152. 

similiter et mulieres in habitu ornatu cum pudore et sobrietate ornantes se 
non ornaturis capillorum et auro aut margaritas (sic) aut uestitu praetioso sed 

similiter et] sint Gyp mulieres add. uestrae Cyp om. in habitu ornatu Cyp 
ordinato (di exp. Bo) Ambrst ornato vg pudore] uerecundia Gyp Ambrst vg 

sobrietate] pudicitia Cyp Ambrst * * pudicitia B ornantes] componentes Cyp 

semet ipsas Ambrst ornaturis capillorum] in tortis (sic Hartelius sed fortasse 

intortis) crinibus Cyp vg tortis crinibus Ambrst et...aut] neque... neque Cyp 

aut... aut Ambrst vg margaritis Gyp Ambrst vg ueste Cyp Ambrst vg pretiosa 
Cyp Ambrst vg 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 237 

quod decet mulieres promittentes pietatem per opera bona Mulier in silentio 
discat cum omni obsequio docere autem mulierem non permitto neque 
dominari supra uirum sed esse in silentio Adam enim primus formatus 
est deinde Eua et Adam non est seductus sed mulier seducta in praeuari- 
catione fuit 

quod] ut Gyp profitentes Ambrst pietatem] castitatem Gyp opera 
bona] bonam conuersationem Cyp bona opera Bo in] cum Gyp cum 

Ambrst vg] in Cyp B Bo obsequio] summissione Gyp subiectione Ambrst vg 
d. autem B Bo vg nam d. Ambrst mulieri Gyp Ambrst vg permittitur 

Ambrst dominari supra uirum] praeposita esse uiro Cyp dominari uiro (uiro ex 
uiri B) Bo d. in uirum Ambrst vg sed silentio om. Cyp creatus Ambrst 

seductus non est Gyp sed mulier] mulier autem Gyp Ambrst (B om. autem) vg 

seducta] seducta est Cyp seducta facta est Ambrst in praeuaricatione fuit 
om. Cyp praeuaricationem B fuit om. Ambrst 



1 Tim. v 3 = Cyp 171. 
Viduas honora quae uere uiduae sunt 

honora * * Bo uere uiduae sunt] reuera sunt uiduae Cyp 

1 Tim. v 6 = Gyp 171. 
quae autem in deliciis agit uiuens mortua est 

quae autem] nam quae Ambrst vg in deliciis agit] delicata est Cyp in deliciis 
est B vg (add. uidua post est Ambrst) uiuens] uiua Cyp 



1 Tim. v 8 = Cyp 171. 

si quis autem suorum ex maxime domesticorum curat non habet fidem 
denegauit et est infidele deterior 

ex] et Cyp Ambrst vg curat non habet] non agit curam Cyp curam non habet 
Ambrst vg denegat Cyp negauit Ambrst vg deterior infideli Cyp infideli 

deterior Ambrst vg 



1 Tim. v llf. = %> 171. 

Adulescentiores autem uidiias deuita cum enim in deliciis egerint in Christo 
nubere uolunt habentes damnationem Quia primam fidem inritam fecerunt 

iun iores Cyp B Bo adulescentulas Ambrst autem Cyp B Bo vg uero 

Ambrst praeteri Cyp in deliciis egerint B Bo] indeliciatae fuerint Cyp uitam 
in deliciis egerint Ambrst damnationem] indicium Cyp quia] quoniam Cyp 
inr. fecerunt] reprobauerunt Cyp 

1 Tim. v 19 = Cyp 172. 

Aduersus praesbyterum accusationem noli recipere 

aduersum Ambrst praesbyterum] maiorem natu Cyp noli recipere] ne 

receperis Cyp Ambrst (B n (i.e. non) rec.) 



238 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 

1 Tim. v W = Cyp 172. 

peccantes autem coram omnibus argue ut et ceteri tiniore habeant 

delinquentes Ambrst om. autem Gyp vg horainibus Bo corripe Gyp 

om. et Ambrst timore] metum Gyp Ambrst 

1 Tim. vi 7 lQ = C 165. 



nihil enim intulimus in hunc mundum uerura quoniam nee effere (sic) 
possumus habentes autem uictum et uestitum his contenti sumus nam 
qui uolunt diuites fieri incident in temptationem et laqueum diaboli et 
desideria multa inutilia et nociua quae mergunt homines in interitum et 
perditionern radix enim omnium malorum est cupiditas quam quidam 
adpetentes errauerunt a fide et se inseruerunt doloribus rnultis 

om. enim Gyp hunc Gyp B Bo om. Ambrst om. quoniam Gyp quia Ambrst 
auferre Gyp Ambrst vg possumus] add. quicquam Ambrst autem] itaque Gyp 
uictum] exhibitionem Gyp alimentum Ambrst alimenta vg uestitum] tegumen- 
tum Gyp quibus tegamur Ambrst vg (B om. et quibus tegamur ob homoeoteletiton, 
puto, et habere debet tegumentum uel uestimentum) sumus B vg} sirnus Gyp 

Ambrst nam qui] qui autem Gyp incidunt Gyp Ambrst vg laqueum diaboli 
Bo vg] museipula Cyp laqueum Ambrst om. inutilia Gyp et ante inutilia 

B Bo nocentia Cyp demergunt Ambrst hominem Gyp inter, et perd.] 
perd. et inter. Cyp exitinm (exitum B) et inter. Ambrst om. enim Bo auaritia 
Ambrst cupiditas B Bo vg errauerunt] naufragauerunt Cyp Bo se inser.] 

inser. se Cyp Ambrst vg 

2 Tim. ii 4 : = Gyp 124. 

nemo militans inplicat sae negotiis secularibus et ei qui se probauit placeam 
si autem et certet quis non coronatur nisi legitime certauerit 

nemo add. enim Ambrst militans] add. deo Cyp Ambrst vg obligat Gyp 

Ambrst negotiis ac mysteriis (2m ministeriis) Bo molestiis Cyp et ei 

placeam] ut possit placere ei qui se probauit Cyp ut placeat ei cui se probauit 
Ambrst ut ei pi. c. s. p. Bo vg . si certet] sed et si certabit Cyp et si (B nisi) 
certet (certe Bo) Ambrst coronabitur Cyp Bo pugnauerit Cyp 

2 Tim. ii 17 = Cyp 172. 
sermo eorum et (sic) cancer serpit 

sermo add. enim Ambrst et] ut Cyp vg sicut Ambrst 



2 Tim. ii 23f. = Cfyp 156. 

Stultas autem et sine disciplina quaestiones deuita sciens quod generaut lites 
seruum autem domini non oportet litigare sed mitem esse ad omnes 

sine disciplina] ineruditas Cyp Ambrst euita Cyp quia Cyp Ambrst vg 

lites generant Cyp dei Cyp 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 



239 



2 Tim. iv 



169. 



erit tempus cum sanam doctrinam non sustinebunt sed ad sua desideria sibi 
coaceruabunt rnagistros prurientes aures et quidem a ueritate auditum auert- 
ent ut fabulas autem conuertentur 

enim post erit Ambrst vg quando Gyp ad] secunduin Gyp sibi coac. 
mag.] coac. sibi mag. Gyp vg mag. sibi aggerent (B s. I. uel coaceruabunt) Ambrst 
aures] in audiendo scalpentes aures Gyp auribus Ambrst vg q. a u.] a u. q. Gyp 
Ambrst vg ut] ad Gyp Ambrst vg d fabulas uero com periit in B uero Ambrst 

2 Tim. iv 6 8 = Cyp 131. 

ego enim delibor et tenpus meae solutionis instat Certamen bonum certaui 
cursum consummaui fidem seruaui de cetero reposita est mihi iustitiae corona 
quam reddet mihi dominus in ilia die iustus index non solum autem mihi sed 
et his qui diligunt aduentum eius 

enim] iam Gyp enim iam Ambrst vg libor Gyp meae solutiouis i.] i. ad- 
sumptionis Gyp s. m. i. Ambrst resolutionis meae i. Bo vg certamen b.] b. 

agonem Gyp certaui B Bo vg decertaui Ambrst perfeci Gyp de cetero reposita 
est] iam superest Gyp quod reliquum est r. e. Ambrst in reliquo r. e. vg iust. 
cor. B] cor. iust. Gyp Ambrst vg reddet mihi] mihi reddet Cyp ilia] illo Gyp 
die] add. ille Cyp iustus iudex] iudex iustus Cyp autem om. Bo et om. 

(add. s. I. w2) Bo his] omnibus Gyp us (his B Bo) Ambrst vg dilexerint Gyp 



Tit. iii 2 = Cyp 180. 
neminem blasphemare non litigeos esse 

de nullo mali loqui (i.e. maliloqui 1 ) nee litigiosos esse Cyp n. b. non litigiosos 
esse Ambrst vg 

Tit. iii 10 f. = Cyp 172. 

Haereticum hominem post unam correptionem et duo deuita sciens quoniam 
peruersus est huiusmodi et peccat cum sit a sernetipso damnatus 

hereticum Cyp Ambrst primam Ambrst om. et duo Cyp Ambrst *euita 
Gyp quod Ambrst delinquit (derelinquitur Bo) Ambrst vg cum sit] et est 
Cyp om. Ambrst 

1 Of. maliuolus, maliuolentia quae formae fere semper in codicibus apparent, 
non maleuolus, maleuolentia. 

Cf. bemuolus Matt, v 25 A; d vg codM ; Terence, Hec. 761; uemuoli Lc. xxii 25 d ; 
maliuoli Plautus Stick. 385 (not 208 A) (tPoen. 393). [F. C. B.] 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS IN LUCIFER AND 
AMBROSIASTER WITH THE VULGATE. 



Symbols. 

Lucif IlfacteVa edition of Lucifer Calaritanus (in Vienna Corpus}. 

Vulgate. The edition mainly used was published at Venice, 1697 ; for the 

Epistle to the Galatians, the edition of P. Corssen (Berol. 1885) has been 

compared. 
c? 2 =the Latin side of D (Claromontanus s. vi) of the Pauline epistles (ed. 

Tischendorf Lips. 1852) 1 
Cass= codex Casinensis, p. 14 (n. 1). 
Sang (pr) = Sangallensis prior, p. 15 (n. 2) 
Colon Colomeusix, p. 15 (n. 3) 
.Z?o=Bodleianus, p. 15 (n. 9) 
J5=Bodleianus, p. 15 (n. 10) 
Par=Parisiacus, p. 15 (n. 13) 
7 T r^er=Treuericus, p. 15 (n. 14) 
<7or6 = Corbeiensis, p. 15 (n. 15) 
Colon aft = Coloniensis, p. 15 (n. 17) 
Fotf = Vaticanus, p. 15 (n. 18) 
PaZ=Palatinus, p. 16 (n. 27) 
#arZ=Harleianus, p. 16 (n. 28) 
6^=Gandauensis, p. 16 (n. 29) 
7Voy=Troyes, p. 16 (n. 30) 
Sang alt= Sangallensis, p. 16 (n. 33) 
Ashburnhamensis, p. 16 (n. 34) 



These MSS of Ambrosiaster's 
Commentaries are referred to 
only when they disagree with 
the printed text (Ambrst), and 
I do not profess to give the 
readings of each in full. 



Rom. i 28 32=Z^/p. 158 Hartel. 

Et sicut non probauerunt deum habere in notitia, tradidit illos deus in 
reprobum sensum, ut faciant ea quae non conueniunt, repletos omni iniquitate 

et qnoniam estimauerunt deum non habere horum noticiam B notitiam 

Lucif (alio loco notitia) Corb Treuer Bo om. ea B conueniant Lucif alio loco 



1 p. 105 Tischendorf for xiu read in. 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 



241 



malitia fornicatione auaritia nequitia, plenos inuidia homicidio contentione 
dolo malignitate, susurrones, detractores, deo odibiles, contumeliosos, superbos, 
elatos, inuentores malorum, parentibus non oboedientes 1 , insipientes, incon- 
positos, sine adfectione, absque foedere, sine misericordia, qui, cum iustitiam 
dei cognouissent, non intellexerunt quoniam qui talia agunt digni sunt morte, 
et non soluni qui ea faciunt, sed etiam qui consentiunt facientibus 

fornicatione B inpudicitia Lucif Ambrst cupiditate Lucif homicidiis 

Lucif Ambrst ( = d 2 ) malis moribus Lucif susurrones Bo ( = d 2 ) susurratores 
Lncif Ambrst elat. contum. superbos Bo superbos sibi placentes gloriantes inu. 
Lucif inoboedientes Bo non obsequentes Lucif Sang pr B affectu Lucif 
sine misericordia (om. B) Lucif cognouerint Lucif (-unt d. 2 ) talia B haec 

Ambrst et om. Lucif Ambrst ( = d. 2 ) Q u i om - Ambrst ( = d. 2 ) faciunt ea (B 
om. add. s. 1.) Ambrst ilia Lucif ( = d) ea add. post facientibus Lucif 

Rom. ii 4 6 = Lucif 64. 

An diuitias bonitatis eius et patientiae et longanimitatis contemnis, ignoras 
quoniam benignitas dei ad paenitentiam te adducit? Secundum auteru 
duritiam tuam et iupaenitens cor thesaurizas tibi irani in die irae et 
reuelationis iusti iudicii dei, qui reddet uui cuique secundum opera eius 

numquid sustinentiam Lucif patientiam contemnis, ignorans Lucif 

patientiam Colon om. et longanimitatis B ignorans Ambrst ( = d 2 ) Ignoras B Bo 
bonitas Lucif Ambrst prouocat Ambrst adducit B Bo tu autem secundum 
dur. Lucif duritiam autem Ambrst (non B) cor inpaenitens Lucif Corb B 

operam Lucif sua Ambrst (non B) 

Rom. viii 16 18= Lucif 289, 314 

Sumus filii dei : si autem filii, et heredes : heredes quidem dei coheredes autem 
Christi, si tamen conpatimur, ut et conglorificemur. Existimo enim quod 
non sunt condignae passiones huius temporis ad futurarn gloriam, quae reue- 
labitur in nobis 

Simus d. 2 dei post filii Lucif dei post heredes Lucif her. quid, dei om. Lucif 
si quidem Lucif compatiamur Ambrst (non Bo) simul glorificemur Lucif 
Ambrst ( = d 2 ) existiino non esse condignas Lucif alio loco enim B Bo ergo 
Ambrst sint Lucif Ambrst (non Bo) superuenturam Lucif futuram Lucif 

alio loco 

Rom. viii 28 29= Lucif 146. 

Scimus autem quoniam diligentibiis deum omnia cooperantur in bonum, iis, 
qui secundum propositum uocati sunt sancti. Nam quos praesciuit, et 
praedestinauit conformes fieri imaginis filii sui 

dominum L ucif procedunt Lucif A mbrst ( = d, 2 ) (710/1 Bo) his Lucif ( = </ 2 ) 
B Bo sancti om. Lucif ( = d. 2 ) om. nam Lucif B Bo et praedest. errore om. 
Ambrst (legitur in septem saltern codd. et rom) imagiui Lucif eius Lucif ( = d. 2 ) 

1 Ambrst et Bo hie textum corruptissimum exhibent, ab insipientes usque ad 
misericordia : itaque cod. B solum cito. 

s. 16 



242 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 

Rom. viii 3537=1^/72, 299. 

Quis ergo nos separabit a caritate Christi ? tribulatio ? an angustia ? an 
fames? an nuditas ? an periculurn ? an persecutio ? an gladius ? sicut 
scriptum est : quia propter te mortificarnur tota die : aestimati sumus sicut 
oues occisionis. Sed in his omnibus superamus propter eurn qui dilexit nos 

qui B ergo om. Lucif Ambrst om. an ante angustia B an persecutio ante 
an fames hoc or dine, Lucif Ambrst ( = d. 2 , sine an) morte adficiemur Lucif occi- 
demur Lucif alio loco morte amcimur (adficiuntur B) Ambrst ( d> 2 ) amcimur 
ex afficiamur (sine morte) Bo ut Lucif uelut Ambrst 

Rom. x 10= Lucif 113. 

same in all three. 

Rom. xii 17 18= Lucif 159. 

Nulli malum pro malo reddentes, prouidentes bona non tantum coram deo, 
sed etiam coram omnibus hominibus : si fieri potest, quod ex uobis est, cum 
omnibus hominibus pacem habentes 

nemini Ambrst non enim Bo non tantum etiain om. d.-, solum Lucif pr. 
omnibus om. Lucif ( = d 2 ) B post uobis add. ipsis Lucif 

Rom. xiii 8b= Lucif 176. 
same in all three. 

1 Cor. ii 9= Lucif 316. 

oculus non uidit, nee auris audiuit, nee in cor hominis ascend it, quae prae- 
parauit deus iis, qui diligunt ilium 

nee oculus uidit Lucif dominus diligentibus se Lucif deus diligentibus 
eum (se Paris Bo) Ambrst ( = d 2 ) 

1 Cor. iv 4 a = Lucif 324. 
Nihil enim mini conscius sum 

in nullo mihi mali Lucif quidem Ambrst (mult codd enim ( = d.,)) 

1 Cor. v 17 = Lucif 23, 169. 

Omnino auditur inter uos fornicatio et talis fornicatio, qualis uec inter 
gentes, ita ut uxorem patris sui aliquis habeat. Et uos inflati estis, et non 
magis luctum habuistis, ut tollatur de medio uestrum qui hoc opus fecit. 

'sic' which Hartel reads before 'omnino' as part of the quotation, really 
belongs to Lucifer's own 'dixit,' see H.'s index s. v. sic in uobis SG Par Cass 
Vat B in nobis Bo et talis fornicatio om. Lucif (23) add. est post gentes B ita 
ut quis uxorem Ambrst sui om. Lucif (23) Ambrst ( = d. 2 ) potius Lucif Corb 
Gent ( = d 2 ) tolleretur Lucif Ambrst ( = d z ) e Lucif 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 243 

Ego quidem absens corpore praesens autem spiritu iam iudicaui ut praesens 
eum qui sic operatus est, in nomine domini nostri lesu Christi, congregatis 
uobis, et ineo spiritu, cum uirtute domini nostri lesu, tradere hirius modi 
satanae in interitum carnis, ut spiritus saluus sit in die domini nostri lesu 
Christi. Non est bona gloriatio uestra. Nescitis quia modicum fermentum 
totam massam corrumpit? expurgate uetus fermentum, ut sitis noua con- 
spersio, sicut estis azymi 

sicut inser. Lucif SG Par Pal B Bo ante absens (cf enim ut d 2 ) hoc admisit 

Ambrst sic operatus est Par ita o. e. Gent Corb pr. nostri om. Lucif Cass 
Gent Corb pr. Christi om. Lucif ( = d. 2 ) B spiritu meo Lucif ( = dj) nostri 
om, B Bo post lesu habet Christi Lucif: ut Vulg Lucif bis alias hunc pro 
huiusm. Ambrst (non Bo) post huiusmodi ins. hominem Lucif fiat Gent 

Corb lilt, nostri om. Ambrst ( = o* 2 ) (non Bo) non eat om. Lucif B Bo om. 

est d 2 bona est (sine non) ? Ambrst ut Lucif 

1 Cor. v 9 11= Lucif 23. 

Scripsi uobis in epistula : ne commisceamini fornicariis, non utique forni- 
cariis huius inundi, aut auaris, aut rapacibus, aut idolis seruientibus : alio- 
quin debueratis de hoc mundo exisse. Nunc autem scripsi uobis non 
commisceri : si is, qui frater nominator, est fornicator, aut auarus, aut idolis 
seruiens, aut maledicus, aut ebriosus, aut rapax, cum eius modi nee cibum 
sumere 

non misceri Lucif non commisceri Corb Gent ( = o* 2 ) raptoribus Lucif 
idololatris 1 Lucif idolatris Corb Gent ( = d 2 ) exire Gent Vat Bo B ( = d 2 ) ne 
commisceamini Ambrst si quis f. n. fornicator Lucif (cf. d 2 ) si quis f. n. et est 
fornicator Bo B inter uos post nominatur ins. Ambrst (om. Corb Gent Vat Bo) 

idolorum cultor Lucif ( = d 2 ) idolorum seruiens Par huiusmodi ne c. quidem s. 
Ambrst huiusmodi nee c. s. Bo huiusmodi nee c. quidem s. B 

I Cor. vi 1520 = Lucif 24. 

Nescitis quoniam corpora uestra membra sunt Christi ? Tollens ergo membra 
Christi, faciam membra rneretricis ? Absit. An nescitis quoniam qui 
adhaeret meretrici unum corpus efficitur I 'Erunt' enim, inquit 'duo in 
carne una.' Qui autem adhaeret domino unus spiritus est. Fugite forni- 
cationem. Omne peccatum quodcumque fecerit homo extra corpus est : qui 

quia Lucif Sang pr Par Gent Corb Vat Bo B ( = o* 2 ) Christi sunt Lucif 

( = cl,) B Bo tollam Ambrst (tollens B Bo) et ins. post alt. Christi Ambrst (non 
Bo) aut Lucif Gent Corb ( = d. 2 ) quia Lucif Ambrst ( = d. 2 ) se iungit Lucif 
( = </ 2 ) couiungit se Corb Gent est Lucif Corb Gent ( = d, 2 ) fit Ambrst sit B 
enim om. Ambrst iungit se Lucif (cf. se iungit d 2 ) deo B fugite fornicationeni 
om. B Bo quod Lucif 

1 It is very possible that we ought to read the short form in Lucifer, but I have 
seen the long form in excellent MSS of authors as late as Hier. and Aug. 

162 



244 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 

autem fornicatur in corpus suum peccat. An nescitis quoniam membra 
uestra templurn sunt spiritus sancti, qui in uobis est, quem habetis a deo, 
et non estis uestri ? Empti enim estis pretio magno. Glorificate et portate 
deum in corpore uestro 

corpus uestrum Cork Gent ( = d. 2 ) [v. 19 An nescitis... deo et non citat Lucif] 
quia Ambrst ( = d 2 ) corpora Ambrst est Anibrst om. qui est B Bo magno 
om. Lucif Sang pr Gorb Gent Vat ( = d 2 ) clarificate Ambrst (non Bo) dominum 
Lucif B 

1 Cor. vii 23 = Lucif 170. 

same in all three. 

1 Cor. xv 33 = Lucif 25. 

enim inserted after corrumpunt. It perhaps belongs to Lucif. himself. Ambrst 
and Vulg agree. 

2 Cor. iv 16 = Lucif 296. 

licet is qui foris est noster homo corrumpatur, tamen is qui intus est 
renouatur 

cum uetus homo noster Lucif licet si exterior h. n. Ambrst et si qui foris est 
h. n. d 2 corrumpitur Lucif Ambrst ( = d 2 ) tamen is om. Lucif sed Ambrst d 2 
interior Ambrst innouetur Lucif (fort, ob orat. obliq. pro innouatur) 

2 Cor. v 1 = Lucif 297. 
si terrestris domus nostra huius habitations dissoluatur 

d. nostri corporis dissoluitur Lucif nostrae Corb Gent 

2 Cor. v 6 10= Lucif 191, 297. 

dum sumus in corpore, peregrinamur a domino : per fidem enim ambulamus, 
et non per speciem : audemus autem et bonarn uohmtatem habemus magis 
peregrinari a corpore, et praesentes esse ad dominum : et ideo contendimus, 
siue absentes, siue praesentes, placere illi. Omnes enirn nos manifestari 
oportet ante tribunal Christi, ut referat uuus quisque propria corporis, prout 
gessit, siue bonum, siue malum 

d. s. i. c.] positi i. c. Lucif olio loco inhabitantes in hoc (om. hoc Bo B) c. 
Ambrst ex fide Lucif et om. Lucif Ambrst ( d 2 ) aud. etiam b. Lucif aud. 
etiam d. 2 aud. ergo et cousentimus Ambrst habentes Lucif ( = d 2 ) deum Ambrst 
et ideo] ideo enim Bo B ideo om. Lucif ( = d 2 ) enitamur Cass (Vat) conamur 

Gent imitamur Corb siue p. siue peregrinantes Ambrst siue p. siue a. d% 

nam omnes Lucif ( = d z ) oportet manifestari Lucif ut unusq. recipiat B ferat 
Lucif (=d 2 ) recipiat Ambrst secundum quod Lucif ( = d. 2 ) bona Ambrst 

mala Ambrst 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 245 

2 Cor. vi 14 18 = Lucif 28, 285. 

Nolite iugum ducere cum infidelibus. Quae enim participatio iustitiae cum 
iniquitate? Aut quae societas lucis ad tenebras? Quae autem comientio 
Christ! ad Belial ? Aut quae pars fideli cum intideli ? Qui autem consensus 
templo dei cum idolis ? Vos enim estis templum dei uiui, sicut dicit deus 
quoniam 'inhabitabo in illis, et inambulabo inter eos et ero illorum deus et ipsi 
erunt mihi populus.' Propter quod 'exite de medio eorum et separamini, dicit 
dominus,' et ' inmundum ne tetigeritis : et ego recipiam uos ' et ' ero ' uobis 
' in patrem, et ' uos eritis ' mihi in filios et filias, dicit dominus omnipotens ' 

ad iniquitatem Harl et iniquitati Sang Par B Bo et iniquitate Corb lumini 
(luminis B Harl Sang Gent Vat) cum tenebris Ambrst luci ad tenebras Bo quaeue 
(om. ue B) consensio C. cum B. Ambrst quae confessio C. cum B. Bo partici- 

patio Harl Sang Par Vat Gent Corb B Bo infidele Lucif Ambrst aliq codd ( = 0%) 
uel (om. B) quae conuentio Ambrst enim] autem Bo templum estis d. u. Ambrst 
(d. e. u. Harl Sang) t. d. e. u. B Bo (om. uiui Bo) scriptum est enim Lucif 

dixit Ambrst quia Corb habitabo B inter illos ambulabo Lucif \. eos a. 
Lucif bis alias, Ambrst ( = d. 2 ) inter eos inambulabo Bo illi B (aed infra ipsi) 
quapropter Ambrst (ut supra codd) illorum Gent Corb B nolite tangere 

Ambrst suscipiam Ambrst mihi eritis Lucif 

2 Cor. xi 1 3 = Lucif 267. 

Utinam sustineretis modicum quid insipientiae meae, sed et supportate me : 
aemulor enim uos dei aemulatione. Despondi enim uos uni uiro uirginem 
castam exhibere Christo. Timeo autem ne sicut serpens Heuam seduxit 
astutia sua, ita corrumpantur sensus uestri et excidant a simplicitate quae 
est in Christo. 

s. pusillum i. m. Lucif s. pusillum insipientiam meam Bo s. pnsillum im- 
prudentiam meam Ambrst portaretis pusillum insipientiam meam d. 2 patimini 
Ambrst aemulans enim uos Deo aemulor Lucif ( = d 2 ) zelans e. u. D. zelo 

Ambrst Statui Lucif ( = d 2 ) paraui Ambrst enim om. Sang Par Bo B 

assignare (non Bo) Ambrst enim Sang B ita om. Lucif ( = d z ) sic Ambrst 
s. u. c. (hoc ordine) Ambrst et excidant om. Lucif Ambrst ( = d 2 ) castitate 

Lucif Ambrst c. dei Harl Gent Vat Bo B c. et simplicitate d z post Christo 
habent lesu Lucif Ambrst 

2 Cor. xi 1315 = 1^/267. 

Nam eius modi pseudoapostoli sunt operarii subdoli transfigurantes se in 
apostolos Christi. Et rion mirum ; ipse enim satanas transfigurat se in 
angelum lucis. Non est ergo magnum, si ministri eius transfigurentur uelut 
ministri iustitiae, quorum finis erit secundum opera ipsorum 

huiusmodi enim p. Ambrst operarii sunt B dolosi Lucif ( = d. 2 ) nee 

mirum Lucif nee mirandum d 2 nee utique mirum Ambrst transfiguratur 

Ambrst sicut angelus lucis Lucif ( = d. 2 ) uelut angelus luminis Ambrst non 
magnum Lucif ( = d. 2 ) non ergo magnum Ambrst non magnum ergo Bo Sang Par 
Corb Gent Vat et ministri Ambrst transfigurantur sicut Lucif Ambrst (codd 
uelut) (-d. z ) est Luc (f( = d.,) operationem Lucif eorum Ambrst 



246 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 

Gal. i 69 = 1^7279. 

Miror quod sic tarn cito transferimini [Corssen transferemini] ab eo qui uos 
uocauit in gratiam Christi in aliud euangelium ; quod non est aliud, nisi snnt 
aliqui, qui uos conturbant, et uolunt conuertere euangelium Christi. Sed licet 
nos aut angelus de caelo euangelizet uobis praetor quam quod euangelizauimus 
uobis, anathema sit. Sicut praediximus, et nunc iterum dico : si quis uobis 
euangelizauerit praeter id quod accepistis, anathema sit 

transferemini d. 2 ab eo om. Lucif uocauit uos Ambrst ( = d 2 ) gratia 

Lucif ( = ^ 2 ) per gratiam Ambrst Christi om. Lucif Bo B quod aliud om. 

pleriq. codd-Ambrst aliqui sunt Ambrst conturbant uos Ambrst ( = d 2 ) in- 
uertere rom euertere Bo 1 et si Ambrst uos Ambrst nos B Bo euangeli- 
zauerit Lucif Ambrst ( = d%) euangelizat B Bo uobis pr. om. Lucif B Bo quod 
om. Lucif ( = ^ 2 ) err - B uobis alt. om. Ambrst adnuntiauerit Ashb ( = d 2 ) ad- 
nuntiauerit quam quod Lucif praeterquam quod Ambrst ( = d 2 ) 

Gal. iii 1 = Lucif 280. 
insensati Galatae 

stulti Lucif Ashb 

Gal. v 79 = 1^/30, 31. 

Currebatis bone : quis uos inpediuit ueritati non oboedire ? Persuasio haec 
[om. Corssen] non est ex eo qui uocat uos. Modicum ferrneritum totam 
massam corrumpit 

uobis Lucif nemini consensistis Ashb nemini consenseritis, suasio uestra ex 
deo est q. u. u. Lucif suasio uestra non est a Deo q. u. u. Ambrst suasio ex eo est 
qui uos uocat d% nescitis quia ante modicum habet Lucif 

Gal. v 19 21 = Lucif 158. 

Manifesta sunt autem [autem sunt Corssen] opera carnis, quae sunt fornicatio, 
inmunditia, inpudicitia [om. Corssen], luxuria, idolorum seruitus, ueneficia, 
inimicitiae, contentiones, aemulationes, irae, rixae, dissensiones, sectae, 
inuidiae, homicidia, ebrietates, comessationes, et his similia; quae praedico 
uobis, sicut praedixi, quoniam qui talia agunt, regnum dei non consequentur. 

autem sunt Lucif Sang duo Ashb Cass ( = d 2 ) Bo om. autem B adulteria 
fornicationes Lucif (=d 2 ) adulterium f. impuritas obscenitas Ambrst om. 

luxuria Ambrst idololatria Lucif Ambrst ( = d 2 ) idololatrocinia d z simula- 
tiones 2 Ambrst (om. Sang alt) sed c. a. i. rom simultates Ambrst (pro rixae) 

haereses Lucif Ambrst ( = d 2 ) om. homicidia Bo B ebrietas B et quae sunt 
h. s. Ambrst et ins. ante praedixi Ambrst ( = d 2 ) (non Bo) quia Lucif ( = d 2 ) 
quod hi (hii Bo) Ambrst regni dei hereditatem Ambrst 

1 This is an error as the comment shows, and is due to the contraction. 

2 This error is due to dittography of the final s of contentiones and the thought 
of the word simultas. 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 247 



Eph. ii I 3 = Lucif 31. 

Et uos, cum essetis mortui delictis et peccatis uestris, in quibus aliquando 
ambulastis secundum saeculum niimdi huius, secundum principem potestatis 
aeris huius, spiritus qui nunc operatur in filios diffidentiae : in quibus et nos 
omnes aliquando conuersati sumus in desideriis carnis nostrae, facientes 
uoluntatem carnis et cogitationum, et eramus natura filii irae, sicut et ceteri 

cum uos Bo sec. saec. m. h. om. Lucif huius mundi Ambrst spiritum 
Ambrst filiis Lucif Ambrst (=d. 2 ) omnes om. Ambrst conuersati sumus 
aliq. Lucif ( = d 2 ) concupiseentia Lucif ( = d 2 ) uoluntates Lucif Sang alt 
uolumptates d 2 uoluptates aliq. ut Cass Sang pr Bo B om. carnis B con- 

siliorum Lucif ( = d 2 ) consiliorum eius Ambrst naturales Lucif 



Eph. iv 7 18 = Lucif 200 ff. 

Uni cuique autem nostrum data est gratia secundum mensuram donationis 
Christi. Propter quod dicit * ascendens in altum captiuam duxit captiuitatem, 
dedit dona hominibus.' Quod autem ascendit quid est nisi quia et descendit 
primum in inferiores partes terrae ? Qui descendit ipse est et qui ' ascendit ' 
super omnes caelos ut impleret omnia. Et ipse dedit quosdam quidem 
apostolos, quosdam autern prophetas, alios uero euangelistas, alios autem 
pastores et doctores ; ad consummationem sanctorum in opus ministerii, in 
aedificationem corporis Christi, donee occurramus omnes in unitatem fidei et 
agnitionis filii dei, in uirum perfectum, in mensuram aetatis plenitudinis 
Christi ; ut iam non simus paruuli fluctuantes, et circumferamur oinni uento 
doctrinae in nequitia hominum, in astutia ad circumuentionem erroris. Veri- 
tatem autem facientes in caritate crescamus in illo per omnia, qui est caput 
Christus, ex quo totum corpus conpactum et conexum per omnem iuncturam 
subministrationis secundum operationem in mensuram unius cuiusque membri, 
augmentum corporis facit in aedificationem sui in caritate. Hoc igitur dico 
et testificor in domino ut iam non ambuletis, sicut et gentes ambulant, in 

dignationis Lucif domini nostri (n. om. Cass Sang arnbo B) lesu ins. ante 

Christi Ambrst (eras. Bo) ascendit Cass Sang ambo B Bo altitudinem Ashb 
etiam Ambrst et descendit etiam Bo primum om. Lucif ( = d. 2 ) prius Ambrst 
(om. Sang ambo Bo B) inferiora terrae Lucif Ambrst ( = d%) et qui desc. Lucif 
ipse est qui et Ambrst (et om. Ashb Sang ambo B) adimpleret Lucif ( = d z ) 

quosdam u. eu. Lucif quosdam autem eu. d 2 quosdam a. past. Lucif (=d%) quos- 
dam uero past. Ambrst magistros Ambrst (non Bo) unitate Lucif Cass Sang 
duo agnitione (Sang duo) dei Lucif agnitionem f. d. Ambrst ultra Ambrst 
p. neque fl. Ambrst remedium err. Lucif Ambrst ( = d 2 ) crescamus in c. Lucif 
semel, suis prob. uerbis usus (bis ut supra) augeamur in ipso Ambrst augeamus 
in ipsum omnia Sang ambo Bo B omnem om. Lucif secundum op. om. 
Lucif Sang ambo B Bo ( = d) partis Lucif Ambrst ( = d. 2 ) incrementum Lucif 
Ambrst ( = d 2 ) ad Ambrst itaque Lucif ( = d 2 ) ergo Ambrst tester A mbrst 
non amplius Lucif iam om. Ambrst 



248 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 

uanitate sensus sui, tenebris obscuratum habentes intellectum, alienati a uita 
dei, per ignorantiam quae est in illis propter caecitatem cordis ipsorum 

mentis suae Lucif Ambrst ( = d, 2 ) tenebris om. Lucif Ambrst ( = d. 2 ) obscu- 
rati in intellectu Lucif insensati Lucif, olio loco, sno prob. uerbo usus obscurati 
intellectu Ambrst ( = d^) om. a B fide Ambrst ign. q. e. i. i. p. om. Lucif 
olio loco, breuiter sententiam perstringens per ignorantiam quae est in ipsis. 
Propter ignorantiam quae est in illis Bo B propter ign. Ambrst ipsis Ambrst 

propter caecitatem] et duritiam Bo B et caec. Ambrst illorum Ambrst 

Eph. iv 21 25= Lucif 203. 

sicut est ueritas in lesu, deponere uos secundum pristinam conuersationern 
ueterem hominem qui corrumpitur secundum desideria erroris. Eenouamini 
autem spiritu mentis uestrae, et induite nouum hominem, qui secundum 
deum creatus est in iustitia et sanctitate ueritatis. Propter quod deponentes 
mendacium, loquimini ueritatem nnus quisque cum proximo suo 

deponentes s. p. Lucif ut deponatis (exponatis Cass Sang ambo B Bo 1 ) s. 
Ambrst priorem Ambrst ( = d%) h. eum q. Lucif (d 2 ) concupiscentiam 
Lucif ( = d 2 ) sensu (rom spiritu) m. u. Ambrst sensus uestri Lucif ( = d 2 ) 

induimini Ambrst om. est Bo iustitiam et sanctitatem et ueritatem Lucif 

iustitia et sanctitate et ueritate d 9 in ueritate et iustitia Ambrst in iustitia et 
ueritate Bo propter quod om. Lucif deposito mendacio Ambrst ad 

proximum suum Lucif 

Eph. v 6 11 = Lucif 31. 

Nemo uos seducat inanibus uerbis : propter haec enim uenit ira dei in filios 
diffidentiae. Nolite ergo effici participes eorum. Eratis enim aliquando 
tenebrae, nunc autem lux in domino. Ut filii lucis ambulate : fructus enim 
lucis est in omni bonitate, et iustitia, et ueritate, probantes quid sit bene- 
placitum deo, et nolite communicare operibus infructuosis tenebrarum, magis 
autem redarguite 

decipiat (a 2m) Ashb p. hoc ( = d 2 ) n. (sine enim) Lucif propterea Ambrst 

itaque fieri Lucif ( = d 2 ) fuistis Ambrst om. enim Cass B Bo sicut Lucif 
( = 0*2) nam fr. luc. in Ambrst luminis (pro alt. lucis) Lucif ( = d 2 ) est post 
ueritate Ambrst probate quid sit quid (quod C ass Sang ambo Bo B) placet deo 

Ambrst acceptum Lucif (aliter d 2 ) autem et obiurgate Ambrst autem et 

redarguite d 2 

Eph. v 15 17= Lucif 199. 

Videte itaque, fratres, quomodo caute ambuletis, non quasi insipientes, sed 
ut sapientes, redimentes tempus, quoniam dies mali sunt. Propterea nolite 
fieri imprudentes, sed intellegentes, quae sit uoluntas dei 

ergo Ambrst igitur Ashb fratres om. Lucif Ambrst ( = d 2 ) ut ins. Ambrst 
quia Lucif ( = d z ) Ideo Ambrst effici Lucif Ambrst ( = o" 2 ) est Cass Sang 
ambo B dei Bo d 2 domini Lucif Ambrst 

1 See above, p. 231. 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 249 

Eph. vi 10 18 = Lucif 296, 301. 

De cetero, fratres, confortamini in domino et in potentia uirtutis eius. In- 
duite uos armaturam dei, ut possitis stare aduersus insidias diaboli, quoniam 
non est nobis colluctatio aduersus carnem et sanguinem, sed aduersus prin- 
cipes et potestates, aduersus mundi rectores tenebrarum harum, contra 
spiritualia nequitiae in caelestibus. Propterea accipite armaturam dei, ut 
possitis resistere in die malo et in omnibus perfecti stare. State ergo suc- 
cincti lumbos uestros in ueritate, et induti loricam iustitiae, et calceati pedes 
in praeparatione euangelii pacis, in omnibus sumentes scutum fidei, in quo 
possitis omnia tela nequissimi igriea extinguere ; et galeam salutis assumite 
et gladium spiritus (quod est uerbum dei), per omuem orationem et obsecra- 
tionem orantes omni tempore in spiritu et in ipso uigilantes 

om. fratres Lucif Cass Sang ambo B Bo ( = d 2 ) confirmamini Lucif con- 
fortamini Lucif alio loco ( = d. 2 ) et ante induite Lucif induti Lucif al. loc. sine 
et induimini Ambrst uos om. Lucif ( = d 2 ) arma Lucif Ambrst ( = d 2 ) armis 
Cass Sang ambo B rom aduersum Cass Sang alt B remedia Lucif remedium d.-, 
nationes Ambrst damnationes (dam eras.) Cass om. diaboli Ambrst Anne 

< machi > nationes ? uersutias diaboli rom quia Lucif ( = d 2 ) uobis Lucif 
Ambrst ( = d. 2 ) lucta Ambrst rom conluctatio codd sed contra potestates 

contra huius mundi r. t. h. Lucif ( = d z ) principatus Ambrst (non Bo) pot. 

huius mundi adu. (om. adu. Cass Sang ambo Bo B) tenebrarum h. rectores aduersus 
s. n. quae sunt (om. quae sunt B Bo) i. c. Ambrst ideo Ambrst arma Lucif 

( = d 2 ) uniuersitatem armorum (sine dei) A mbrst in die om. Cass Sang ambo B Bo 
state ergo om. Lucif Ambrst ( = d. 2 ) praecincti Lucif ( = d 2 ) caritate Ambrst 

err. typ.? (ueritate codd rom) et om. Lucif ( = d 2 ) induentes Lucif ( = d. 2 ) 
lorica(m) fidei Sang ambo B praeparationem Bo B ( = d%) super his omnibus 
Ambrst adsumentes Lucif Ambrst ( = rf 2 ) poteritis Ambrst iacula Lucif 
( = d 2 ) maligni Ambrst (non Bo) candentia Lucif ( = d 2 ) igmta, Ambrst galea 
Cass assumite om. Lucif ( = d%) accipite Ambrst (om. Cass Sang ambo B Bo) 

qui Cass Sang ambo B orat. et precem Ambrst in omni temp. Ambrst ilium 
Lucif illo rf. 2 ipsum Ambrst (ipso Bo B) 

Phil, ii 6 8 = Lucif 125, 304, 311. 

qui cum in forma dei esset, non rapinam arbitratus est esse se aequalem 
deo, sed semetipsum exinaniuit, formam serui accipiens, in similitudinem 
hominum factus, et habitu inuentus ut homo. Humiliauit semetipsum factus 
obediens usque ad mortem, mortem autem crucis 

non est rapinam arb. Lucif parem Ambrst (non Bo) accipiens serui Lucif 
semel (errore librarii prob) similitudinem et om. Lucif factus hominis Sang 
alt repertus Ambrst (inuentus B Bo) s.] se Lucif se ipsum d 2 factus 
obediens om. Lucif autem om. Cass 

Phil, iii 2 = Lucif 32. 

Down to operarios : same in all three. 



250 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 

Phil, iii 4 11 = Lucif 207. 

Si quis alius uidetur confidere in carne, ego magis, circumcisus octauo die, ex 
genere Israel, de tribu Beniamin, Hebraeus ex Hebraeis, secundum legem Phari- 
saeus, secundum aemulationem persequens ecclesiam dei, secundum iustitiam 
quae in lege est conuersatus sine querela. Sed quae mihi fuerint lucra, haec 
arbitratus sum propter Christum detrimeuta. Verum tamen existimo omuia 
detrimentum esse propter eminentem scientiam lesu Christi domini mei, 
propter quern omnia detrimentum feci et arbitror ut stercora, ut Christum 
lucri faciam, et iuueniar in illo non habens meam iustitiam quae ex lege est, 
sed illam quae ex fide est Christi lesu, quae ex deo est iustitia in fide, ad 
cognoscendum ilium et uirtutem resurrectionis eius et societatem passionurn 
illius, configuratus morti eius, si quo modo occurram ad resurrectionem quae 
est ex mortuis 

si quis autem (alter d. 2 ) putat se fiduciam habere Lucif ( = d. 2 ) om. alius Ambrst 
(habet rom) carnem Sang alt circumcisione octaua Lucif ( = d 2 ) circumcisus 
octaua Ambrst circumcisione octaui diei Cass Sang alt rom de Lucif ( = d%) 
de om. Lucif Bo (add. 2m) B Sang ambo ( = d 2 ) de tribu om. Gass zelum Lucif 
( = d 2 ) dei om. Lucif B Cass Sang ambo ( = d 2 ) ex Ambrst (in B) cum essem 
ante sine Lucif (=d 2 ) sed om. Lucif ( = d%) B Bo fuerunt lucra Lucif ( = <1 2 ) 
lucra fuerant (fuerunt B Bo Sang ambo) Ambrst existimaui Lucif ( = d 2 ) damna 
Ambrst tamen] quidem Ambrst omnia arbitror Lucif Ambrst et omnia 

arbitror B Bo et arbitror omnia d. 2 damna Ambrst detrimenta d 2 eminentiam 
scientiae Christi lesu Lucif ( = d 2 ) Ambrst (om. sci. Cass Sang ambo B Bo) nostri 
Lucif damna Ambrst damnum d 2 passus sum Lucif duxi Ambrst arbitro 
Cass nt om. Lucif Ambrst ( = d. 2 ) (habet Bo) lucrificiam Lucif ut ante inueniar 
Ambrst (om. B Bo) est ex lege Lucif ( = d a ) eam Ambrst (non B Bo) per 
fidem lesu Christi (om. est) Lucif est (om. Cass Bo B d^ per fidern Christi (sine 
lesu) Ambrst ( = d 2 ) quae ex deo fide om. Bo iustitiam super fidem Ambrst 
agnoscemlum Lucif eum Ambrst et om. Bo in uirtute Bo et soc. pass, 
ill. om. Cass communicationem Lucif Ambrst ( = d 2 ) eius Lucif Ambrst ( = d.,) 
cooneratus morte (morti (d 2 )) ipsius Lucif ( = d%) conformatus morti (Latinius) con- 
formans me morti ipsius Ambrst in resurrectionem eius Lucif in resurrectionem 
rf 2 a Lucif (=d z ) 

Phil, iii 14 = Lucif 286. 
Ad brauium supernae uocationis 

palmam supernae dei (om. dei Sang alt B) uocationis Ambrst sursum uocationis 
Lucif 

Phil, iii 17 19 = Lucif 199, 305. 

Imitatores mei estote, fratres, et obseruate eos qui ita ambulant, sicut habetis 
formam nostram. Multi enim ambulant, quos saepe dicebam uobis (mine 
coimitatores Lucif ( = d. 2 ) mihi Ambrst (mei B Bo) considerate Ambrst sic 
Lucif Ambrst ( = d%) quod Lucif semel 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 251 

autem et flens dico), inimicos crucis Christi, quorum finis interitus, quorum 
deus uenter est et gloria in confusione ipsorum, qui terrena sapiunt 

uero Ambrst (non Bo) est post finis Lucif Ambrst ( = d 2 ) (non Bo) ante finis 

habet et Sang alt est post uenter om. Sang ambo pudendis 1 Ambrst gl. eorura 
in confusione Bo illorum Ambrst (om. Bo) 

Col. ii 4 = Lucif 19. 
Hoc autem dico, ut nemo uos decipiat in sublimitate sermonum 

itaque Lucif autem om. Ambrst (ergo habet Ashb enim Bo) circumueniat 
Ambrst ( = d 2 ) subtilitate Ambrst (=d%) uerborum Lucif sermonis Ambrst ( = d. 2 ) 

Col. ii 8 9 = Lucif 19. 

Videte ne quis uos decipiat per philosophiam et inanem fallaciam secundum 
traditionem hominum, secundum elementa mundi, et non secundum Christum ; 
quia in ipso inhabitat omnis plenitudo diuinitatis corporaliter 

depraedetur Ambrst seducat Ashb seductionem Lucif rom ( = d> 2 ) elementum B 
ante mundi habet huius Ambrst habitat B Bo Sang alt ( = d%) deitatis Sang alt 

Col. ii 18 19 = Lucif 20. 

Nemo uos seducat uolens in humilitate et religione angelorum quae non uidit 
ambulans frustra, inflatus sensu carnis suae, et non tenens caput, ex quo 
totum corpus, per nexus et coniunctiones subministratum et construction, 
crescit in augmentum dei 

conuincat Lucif ( = d, 2 ) decipiat Ambrst deuincat BoB Cass Sang pr sensus 
post humilitate Lucif animi post humilitate Ambrst superstitione Ambrst 
quae nidetur (uidit d. 2 ) ambulans sine causa Lucif ( = d 2 ) ea quae uidet (in his 
quae non uidet rom) extollens se frustra Ambrst mente Ambrst illudpost caput 
Ambrst omne Lucif Ambrst ( = d< 2 ) conexum et coniunctionem productuni 

crescit Lucif conexum et conductione submini stratum et prouectum crescit rf 2 
compagines (compages Bo) et couiunctiones Ambrst compaginationes et colligatio- 
nes rom compaginatum Ambrst compactum rom conputatum (?) Cass fidei Lucif 

I Thess. v 21 22 = Lucif 200. 

Omnia autem probate ; quod bonum est tenete ; ab omni specie mala 
abstinete uos. 

Examinate, bonum continete Lucif ( = d 2 ) autem om. Ambrst (liabcnt B Bo) 

tene Cass uos abstinete Ashb continete Lucif 

2 Thess. iii 6 = Lucif 18. 

Denuntiamus autem uobis, fratres, in nomine domini nostri lesu Christi, ut 
snbtrahatis uos ab omni fratre ambulante inordinate, et non secundum 
traditionem quam acceperunt a nobis 

praecipimus Lucif ( = d%) secerni Ambrst secernere Cass Sang ambo Bo 

inquiete ambulante Lucif ( = d, 2 ) intemperanter ambulante Ambrst accepistis 

Ambrst (acceperunt B Bo) 

1 See above, p. 234. 



252 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 



1 Tim. i 8 14 = Lucif 171, 207. 

Scimus autem quia bona est lex, si quis ea legitime utatur : sciens hoc quia 
lex iusto non est posita, sed iniustis, et non subditis, impiis, et peccatoribus, 
sceleratis, et contaminatis, parricidis, et matricidis, homicidis, fornicariis, 
masculorum concubitoribus, plagiariis, mendacibus, et periuris, et si quid 
aliud sanae doctrinae aduersatur, quae est secunduni euangeliurn gloriae beati 
dei, quod creditum est mihi. Gratias ago ei qui me confortauit, Christo lesu 
domino nostro, quia fidelem me existimauit ponens in ministerio, qui prius 
blasphemus fui et persecutor et contumeliosus, sed misericordiam dei con- 
secutus sum, quia ignorans feci in incredulitate. Superabundauit autem 
gratia domini nostri cum fide et dilectione quae est in Christo lesu. 

quoniam Lucif ( = d 2 ) lex bona est Bo certum habens Ambrst quod 
Ambrst iusto lex Lucif Ambrst ( = d 2 ) iniustis autem (uero Cass Sang ambo 

B Bo) Lucif ( = d 2 ) inoboedientibus et Lucif non oboedientibus et Lucif al loc 
( = d 2 ) inobsequentibus Ambrst et scelestis (sceleratis al loc) et profanis Lucif 
( = d 2 ) 1 Ambrst (sine pr et) patricidis Bo B Cass Sang ambo Lucif ( = d 2 ) patri- 

cidiis (parr- al loc) homicidis om. Lucif al loc d 2 ord. turbat hie in latina, Ambrst 
add. et ante forn. B Bo inpudicis Lucif ( = d. 2 ) fornicatoribus (fornicationibus 
Cass) homicidis (homicidiis Cass=:d 2 ) Ambrst et ante periuris om. Lucif Ambrst 
( = d 2 ) sec. euang. est Lucif al loc (=d 2 ) et ante gratias Lucif Ambrst ( = d 2 ) 
confortauit me Lucif in ante Christo Ambrst ( = d 2 ) nostro om. Lucif quod 
Lucif Bo B Sang ambo ( = d 2 ) aestimauit Lucif Ambrst (=d 2 ) (existimauit B Bo) 
me post ponens Ambrst (om. B Bo) ministerium Lucif Ambrst (=d 2 ) quia 

(err. typogr.) Ambrst (qui B Bo) fueram bias. Lucif ( = d 2 ) eram (fui Bo) bias. 

Ambrst iniuriosus Lucif ( = d%) m. sum consec. Lucif m. consec. sum Ambrst 
( = d 2 ) quod Lucif (=d 2 ) qui B nondum credens Ambrst sunt Ashb 



1 Tim. ii 1 k = Lucif 250. 

Obsecro igitur primum omnium fieri obsecrationes, orationes, postulationes, 
gratiarum actiones pro omnibus hominibus, pro regibus et omnibus qui in 
sublimitate sunt, ut quietam et tranquillam uitam agamus in omni pietate et 
castitate. Hoc enim bonum est et acceptum coram saluatore nostro deo, qui 
omnes homines uult saluos fieri et ad agnitionem ueritatis uenire. 

obsecra d% exhortare Ambrst exhortor rom ergo Ambrst primo Lucif 

Ashb f. deprecationes Ambrst post, deprec. orat. Bo pro ante omnibus 
Ambrst (non Bo) sublimiori loco positi sunt Ambrst tranquillam et quietam 
Lucif rom placidam (placitam B Bo) et quietam Ambrst degamus Ambrst 

cum pietate et grauitate Lucif cum pietatem et castitatem d. 2 est om. Lucif 
( = d 2 ) B Bo salutari Lucif Ambrst ( = d 2 ) saluatore B Bo deo nostro B in 
Ambrst ( = d 2 ) 

1 ^2 re ally has est caelestis. 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 253 

1 Tim. iv 1 2 = Lucif 305. 

Spiritus autern manifesto dicit, quia in nouissimis temporibus discedeut 
quidani a fide attendentes spiritibus erroris et doctrinis daemoniorum, in 
hypocrisi loquentium mendacium et cauteriatam habentium suam con- 
scientiam 

manifesto Ambrst (err. typ.?) 1 recedent Lucif Ambrst (=d.,) recedant 

B Bo sp. seductoribus Lucif ( = cl 2 ) spiritus fallaces ac doctrinas Ambrst 

et om. Lucif Bo B Sang ambo ( = d 2 ) simulatione Ambrst dissimulation e d. 2 
mendaciloquentium Lucif mendaciloquorum d 2 falsiloquorum Ambrst et om. 
Lucif Ambrst ( = d 2 ) conscientiam suam Lucif B Cass Sang ambo mentem et 

conscientiam suam d. 2 (non in graeca D 2 ) suam om. Ambrst 

I Tim. v 20 22 = MCT/25, 250, 251. 



Peccantes coram omnibus argue, ut et ceteri timorem habeant. Tester coram 
deo et Christo lesu et electis angelis, ut haec custodias sine praeiudicio, nihil 
faciens in alteram partem declinando. Manns cito nemini imposueris, ncque 
communicaueris peccatis alienis. Te ipsum castum custodi 

deliuquentem Cass delinquentes autem Ambrst peccantes autem d 2 et 

om. Ambrst metum Ambrst discrimine Lucif partem aliam declinans 

Ambrst aliam Lucif ( = d 2 ) post partem semel sed aequitatem custodire sine 

declinando Lucif te commaculaueris Ambrst rom temet i. Ambrst serua 
Lucif ( = 0*2) 

1 Tim. vi 25 = Lt<,ci 25 f. 



Haec doce et exhortare. Si quis aliter docet et non acquiescit sanis sermoni- 
bus domini nostri lesu Christi, et ei, quae secundum pietatem est, doctrinae, 
superbus est, nihil sciens, sed languens circa quaestiones et pugnas uerborum, 
ex quibus oriuntur inuidiae, contentiones, blaspherniae, suspiciones malae, 
conflictationes horninurn mente corruptorum et qui ueritate priuati sunt, 
existiraantium quaestum esse pietatem 

et (ante non) om. Sang ambo B adquiescet Cass huic Cass Sang ambo 
B Bo inflatus est autem Lucif ( = d. 2 ) superbit autem Ambrst superbus autem 
Cass superbit autem et Sang ambo B Bo aegrotat Lucif ( = d. 2 ) uerborum 

rixas Lucif ( = o* 2 ) fit inuidia Cass Sang ambo B nascuntur Lucif ( = dj 

fiunt Ambrst malae post, non ante coufl. Jiabet Lucif conflictiones Sang ambo 
B Bo qui corrupt! sunt mente Ambrst a ueritate destitutorum Lucif desti- 
tutorum a ueritate a. 2 q. (om. Cass Sang ambo B Bo) u. caruerunt Ambrst 
(caruerant B) existimantes Ambrst post pietatem add. discede ab huiusmodi 
Lucif (non d z ) add. et dei culturam : discede ab huiusmodi Ambrst 

1 manifesto is the classical form of the adverb, but it was probably extinct at 
this time. 



254 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 

1 Tim. vi 20 21 = ZMCI/ 26. 

O Timothee, depositum custodi, deuitans profanas uocum, nouitates et 
oppositiones falsi nominis scientiae, quam quidam promittentes circa fidein 
exciderunt 

o om. Ambrst (habent B Bo) Thimothee Lucif ( = d. 2 ) commendatum 

Ambrst depositum commendatum Bo deuita Cass scientiae falsi nominis 

Lucif ( = d 2 ) fallacis (fallaces Sang ambo B Bo) n. s. Ambrst 

2 Tim. ii 16 17 = Lucif 28. 

Profana autem et uaniloquia deuita : multum enim proficiunt ad impietatem, 
et sermo eorum ut cancer serpit 

profanas (autem add. d 2 ) nouitates uocum deuita Lucif ( = d. 2 ) profanas autem 
uocum nouitates (inanitates Ashb) deuita Ambrst plurimum Ambrst proficient 
Lucif Cass Bo B Sang ambo (==d 2 ) inanitatem Ambrst (at Cas. et rom, ut supra, 
imp.) sermo enim (sine et) Cass Sang ambo B Bo sicut Ambrst 

2 Tim. iii 15 = Lucif 305. 

in nouissimis diebus instabunt tempora periculosa : erunt homines se ipsos 
amantes cupidi elati superb! blasphemi parentibus non obedientes ingrati 
scelesti sine affectione sine pace criminatores incontinentes imrnites, sine 
benignitate proditores proterui tumidi et uoluptatum amatores magis quam 
dei, habentes speciem quidem pietatis, uirtutem autem eius abnegantes ; et 
hos deuita 

aduenient Lucif ( = d. 2 ) periculosa tempora B emm post erunt add. Ambrst 
et erunt (sine enim) Bo Cass Sang ambo erunt (sine enim) B sui tantum amatores 
Ambrst auari insolentes superbi Ambrst cupidi superbi fastidiosi Lucif auari 
fastidiosi superbi d. 2 obsequentes Ambrst scelesti] impii Ambrst sine aff. 
sine pace] sine fide (foedere Cass) sine dilectione Ambrst fide (ubi supra pace) Lucif 
( d 2 ) detractores Lucif ( = d 2 ) bonorum inimici Ambrst (ubi supra sine 

benig.) inflati Lucif ( = d. 2 ) et om. Lucif Ambrst ( ~ d 2 ) amatores uoluptatum 
Ambrst formam Ambrst quidem om. Lucif Ambrst ( = d. 2 ) autem om. Sang 
ambo B Bo ipsius negantes Lucif ( = d%) 

2 Tim. iii 8 9 = Lucif 305. 

quemadmodum autem lannes et Mambres restiterunt Moysi, ita et hi resistant 
ueritati, homines corrupt! mente, reprobi circa fidem ; sed ultra non proficient ; 
insipientia euim eorum rnanifesta erit omnibus, sicut et illorum fuit 

lamnes Lucif (ed. princ.) Cass Sang ambo Ashb m 2 B Bo sic Lucif ( = d 2 ) isti 
Bo resistent Lucif resisterunt d z meiite* Lucif (mentem an mentes ?) et 
ante reprobi Lucif non prof, ainplius Ambrst (proficiunt B) ignorantia 

Ambrst enim om. Lucif euidens Ambrst 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 255 

2 Tim. iv 34 = Lucif 306. 

Erit enim tempus cum sanam doctrinam non sustinebunt, sed ad sua desideria 
coaceruabunt sibi magistros prurientes auribus, et a ueritate quidem auditum 
auerteut, ad fabulas autem conuertentur 

enim om. Lucif ( = d. 2 ) propria Cass magistros sibi aggerent (aggregabunt 
rom) Ambrst aures Lucif (=d 2 ) auersabunt Cass uero Ambrst 



Tit. i 5U = Liicif 196, 277. 

Huius rei gratia reliqui te Cretae, ut ea quae desunt corrigas et constituas 
per ciuitatos presbyteros, sicut et ego disposui tibi. Si quis sine crimine est, 
unius uxoris uir, filios habens fideles non in accusatione luxuriae aut non sub- 
ditos. Oportet enim episcopum sine crimine esse sicut dei dispensatorem 
non superbum non iracunduni non uinolentum non percussorem non turpis 
lucri cupidum, sed hospitalem, benignum, sobrium, iustum, sanctum, con- 
tinentem, amplectentem eum qui secundum doctrinam est fidelem sermonem, 
ut potens sit exhortari in doctrina sana et eos qui contradicunt arguere. 
Sunt enim multi etiam inobedientes, uaniloqui, et seductores, maxime qui de 
circumcisione sunt, quos oportet redargui, qui uniuersas domos subuertunt 
docentes quae non oportet turpis lucri gratia [Dixit quidani ex illis proprius 
ipsorum propheta] : Cretenses semper mendaces, malae bestiae, uentres pigri. 
[Testimonium hoc uerum est.] Quam ob causam increpa illos dure, ut sani 
sint in fide, non intendentes ludaicis fabulis et mandatis hominum auer- 
sautium se a ueritate 

deerant Lucif ( = d. 2 ) presbyterium Lucif ( = d. 2 ) sicut ego tibi disposui 
Lucif ( = d. 2 ) tibi disposui Ambrst est sine crimine Lucif Ambrst ( = d 2 ) 

mulieris Ambrst accusationem Lucif ( = d. 2 ) non subiectum Lucif non sub- 
iectos o* 2 inobsequentes Ambrst disp. dei Lucif proteruum Lucif Ambrst 

( = d 2 ) uino deditum Ambrst turpilucrum Lucif ( = d 2 ) turpia lucra appe- 

tentem Ambrst sobrium] prudentem Ambrst tenacein eius sermonis q. s. d. 
fidelis est Ambrst id quod Lucif ( = d. 2 ) fidem uerbi Lucif fideh's uerbi d. 2 
sana om. Lucif et contradicentes reuincere Lucif Ambrst ( = d%) (euincere Troy 

Sang ambo se uincere B) etiam om. Ambrst non subditi Lucif ( = d. 2 ) non 
obeolientes Ambrst et n. o. Cass Troy Sang ambo B, (et exp.) Bo deceptores 

Lucif ii (hi Cass Troy B' hii Bo) ante qui Ambrst ex Lucif ( = d.,) sunt ex 
circumcisione Ambrst ex circ. sunt d 2 euertunt Lucif ( = d. 2 ) dixit propheta 
non sunt ap Lucif citata ipsis Ambrst eorum Ambrst ( = d z ) testimonium 
est wow sunt ap Lucif citata rem Lucif argue Ambrst acriter Lucif 
(=d z ) attendentes rom auertentium rom (=d. 2 ) aduersantium Bo 1 

Tit. ii Q 8 = Lucif 197. 

luuenes similiter hortare ut sobrii sint. In omnibus te ipsum praebe exem- 
iuuiores Ambrst continentes esse Ambrst in omnibus cum anterioribus iungit, 
et per omnia ante te ponlt Lucif per omnia temet (te B Bo et Troy) ipsum Ambrst 
formam praebens Lucif praebens formam d. 2 praebens exemplum Ambrst 

1 This error is one of the most frequent in MSS. 



256 COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 

plum bonorum operum, in doctrina in integritate in grauitate, uerbum sanum 
irreprehensibile, ut is qui ex aduerso est uereatur nihil habeus malum dicere 
de nobis 

in sermone sanum inrepreheusibilem Luc if sermonem sanum inrepraehensi- 
bilem d t ut aduersarius reuereatur Luc if ( = d. 2 ) is] his B fort, recta 

e (ex Bo) diuerso Ambrst reuereatur Ambrst ut ante nihil ins. Sang pr 

m. d. d. n.] quod dicere malum de nobis Lucif quod dicere de nobis malum d. 2 
dicere de nobis (bonis B uobis Bo) dignum reprehensione Ambrst 



Tit. ii 11 15 = Lucif 198, 277 f. 

Apparuit enim gratia dei saluatoris nostri omnibus horninibus erudiens nos 
ut abnegantes impietatem et saecularia desideria sobrie et iuste et pie uiuamus 
in hoc saeculo, expectantes beatam spem et aduentum gloriae magni dei et 
saluatoris nostri lesu Christi qui dedit semet ipsum pro nobis ut nos redi- 
meret ab omni iniquitate et mundaret sibi populum acceptabilem sectatorem 
bonorum operum. Haec loquere et exhortare et argue cum omni imperio. 
Nemo te contemnat 

inluxit Lucif Ambrst ( = d. 2 ) corripiens Lucif ( = d. 2 ) abiiegata impietate et 
saecularibus desideriis Ambrst (non Bo) ac des. saec. Lucif semel sobrie] 

temperanter Ambrst et pie et iuste Lucif (at semel ut Vulg) in Lucif beati 
Ambrst (at Bo rom ut supra) pro nobis se ipsum Lucif ( = d 2 ) liberaret nos 

Lucif ( = d. 2 ) redimeret nos Ambrst (non Bo) mundet Lucif ( = d. 2 ) emundaret 

Ambrst (rnundaret B) accept.] abundantem Lucif Ambrst ( = d. 2 ) peculiarem 

rom aemulatorem Lucif Ambrst (=d 2 ) sectatorem (sectatorem eras.) et 

emulatorem Bo 



Tit. iii 1 7 = Lucif 278. 

Adrnone illos principibus et potestatibus subditos esse dicto obedire ad omne 
opus bonum paratos esse neminem blasphemare non litigiosos esse sed 
modestos omnem osteridentes mansuetudinern ad omnes homines. Eramus 
enim aliquando et nos insipientes increduli errantes seruientes desideriis et 
uoluptatibus uariis in malitia et inuidia agentes odibiles odientes inuicem. 
Cum autem benignitas et humanitas apparuit saluatoris nostri dei rion ex 
operibus iustitiae quae fecimus nos sed secundum suam misericordiarn saluos 

principatibus Ambrst magistratibus Lucif dicto om. Lucif ( = d. 2 ) Cass 
Sang alt B Bo Troy oboedientes Lucif ( = d 2 ) ostendentes omnem mans. Ambrst 
E. e. a.] Nam eramus (e. enim Cass Troy Sang ambo Ashb B Bo) quondam Ambrst 
fuimus Lucif ( = d 2 ) aliquando et nos] et nos quondam B Bo et nos aliquaudo 

Lucif stulti et incredibiles Lucif (=d 2 ) iuconsulti inobsequentes Ambrst (non 
sequentes Troy Sang alt) odio nos i. habentes Ambrst alterutrum Lucif 
sed cum Lucif ( = d 2 ) cum uero Ambrst bonitas Ambrst inluxit Lucif ( = d z ) 
Ambi'st salutaris dei nostri Ambrst (B Bo ut supra) nos fecimus Lucif Ambrst 
(f. n. Bo) misericordiarn suam Ambrst (non Bo) 



COLLATIONS OF PAULINE QUOTATIONS. 257 

nos fecit per lauacrum regenerationis et renouationis spiritus sancti quern 
effundit in nos abunde per lesum Christum saluatorem nostrum ut iustificati 
gratia ipsius heredes secundum spem uitae aeternae 

per spiritum sanctum Lucif ( = d 2 ) effudit Lucif Ambrst (vg dem d 2 etc.) 

nobis Lucif honeste Lucif ( = d 2 ) Christum lesum B Sang ambo illius 

Ambrst efficiamur (simus Bo) add. post heredes Lucif Ambrst ( = d 2 ) aeternae 
om. Lucif 

Tit. iii 9 11 = Lucif 30. 

Stultas autem quaestiones et genealogias et contentiones et pugnas legis 
deuita: sunt enim inutiles et uanae. Hereticum hotninem post unam et 
secundam correptionem deuita, sciens quia subuersus est qui eiusmodi est et 
delinquit cum sit proprio iudicio condemnatus 

autem] om. Lucif ergo B originum enurnerationes Ambrst contentionem 
Cass Troy Sang ambo B Bo lites Lucif ( = d. 2 ) primam Ambrst et secun- 
dam om. Lucif Ambrst ( = d%) correptionem] add. et duo d z quoniam Lucif 
( = d 2 ) quod Ambrst peruersus Lucif Ambrst ( = d 2 ) qui eiusmodi est om. 

Lucif huiusmodi (pro q. e. e.) Ambrst ( = d 2 ) peccat Lucif ( = d 2 ) derelin- 

quitur Bo cum sit om. Ambrst propr. iud.] a semet ipso Lucif Ambrst ( = d 2 ) 
damnatus Lucif Ambrst ( = d 2 ) 



S. 17 



INDEXES. 


I. LATIN WORDS. 


abdico 78 


apostate 84 


abscondo : absconsus 148 


apparentia 84 


absoluo : absolutus 78 f. 


(assistentia) 146 


abstergeo 85 


astrologia 32 f. 


ac 70 


audacia 84 


acceptabilis 79 


Augustus 38 


accipio 79 


autem 71 


accuro: accuratus 79 




accusatio 178 


baiolo 84 


actus 108 


baiolus 84 


adaeque 79 f. 


breuio 80 


adbreuiatio 80 


brutus 84 


adbreuio 80 




addisco 80 f. 


cado 84 f. 


addo 138 


calco 85 


adicio 138 


caligo (subst.) 85 


adimpleo 81 


cata 171 


adinuentio 81 


Catafrygae 38 


adiudico 81 


causa 85 ff. 


adiutorium 141 


certus 87 


adpropio 148 


cesso 87 


adstringo 94 


ceterus 64, 87 f. 


adstruo 81 


Chaldaeus 32 


adubi 71 


Christianismus 88 


aduerto 81 f. 


Christianitas 88 


adulescenta 60 


circumspicio : circumspectus 88 


adultero 82 


coimagino 88 


aemulatio 68 


commendo 89 


ago 82 


commixtio 89 


aliquando 74 


complector 91 f. 


aliquis 124 


Concordius 170 


Amazona 35 


condignus 92 


arabigo 82 f. 


confoueo 92 


ambiguus 83 


confugio 92 


amputo 83 


confusio 92 


animaduerto 82 


congrue 92 f. 


aperio: apertum est 83 


congruus 92 f. 


apophoretum 83 


conloco 93 


apostasia 84 


conpaginatio 89 f. 



260 



INDEXES. 



conpagino 89 f. 

conpago 89 f. 

conparatio 90 

conpendium 90 f. 

conpeto 91 

consigno 37 f. 

constituo 93, 178; constitutus 93, 125 

consto 93 f. 

constringo 94 

consubstantiuus 94 f. 

contrarius 95 

contristor (depon.) 232 

contueor 95 

conuello 96 

conuenio 96 

coracinus 34, 36 

corrigo 96 

coruscus (subst.) 96 

credo : credens 96 f. 

crementum 97 f. 

cum (cow;.) 77 f. 

cumulus 98 

custodio 98 

dalmatica 177 
(decrementum) 97 
defendo 98 
defero 98 
de no 100 
dehabeo 98 
denique 74 
depute 98 f. 
de sum 100 
deterioro 100 
detineo 100 
detrimentum 97 
deuinco 100 f. 
dicatio 101 
dico 64 f. 

didragma 30, 190 f. 
diffido : diffidens 96 f. 
dignitosus 101 
dignus 101 f. 
dilucido 102 
discordo 102 
dissimulo 102 f. 
Donatiani 38 
dubius 103 f. 
dumtaxat 104 
duplex 108 



ecclesiasticus (adj.) 31, 104, 179 

ecclesiasticus (subst.) 104 

egeo 122 

emendo 104 f. 

emorior 105, Addenda 

enim 72 f. 

ergo 72 

et 70 f 74 f. 

etenim 73 f. 

Etimas 208 

euangelicus 105 

examen 105 

excludo 105 

exemplum 105 f. 

exhibeo 106 

exordium 128 

exsuscito 106 

fabrica 106 
(Falcidius) 169 
fiducia 106 
firmo 106 
fiscalia 27 
fomes 106 f. 
forinsecus 107 
fornicatio 69 
fragilis 107 
fragilitas 107 
Frux ilia 33 
fulcio 107 

genus 107 f. 
gero: gesta 108 
gloriosus 109 

habeo 109 
hebes 109 
hebeto 109 
hebetudo 109 
hinc 64 

bolographus 30 
honorificentia 109 f. 
houorificentior 109 
honorifico 109 
lionoro 110 
hortor 125 
hylicus 149 

ianua 115 
idcirco 72 
ideo 72 



INDEXES. 



261 



igitur 72 
ignore 110 
in 110 f. 

inaestimabilis 111 
inanio 111 
incarno 111 
inclino 111 f. 
inconcessus 112 
incongrue 112 
incongruus 112 
incresco 112 
incurro 112 f. 
indignus 102 
indisciplinatio 113 
indisciplinatus 113 

inexcusabilis 113 
ingenitus 113 

ingero 113 

inhonestus 66 

inhonoro 110 

initium 128 

inmerito 114 

inmunis 114 

innascibilis 136 

innascibilitas 136 

inpossibilis 114 

inpraescientia 110 

inpraescius 110 

inprobabilis 114 

inpulsus 110 

instruo 114 

interaenio 114 f. 

intimo 115 

inuenio 115 

irritus 115 

iudicium 178 

iuxta 115 f. 

lateo 116 
lex 27 

liber (adj.) 155 
liquido 116 
liquidus 116 

magia 116 
magis 117 
magister 117 
magnalia 117 
magnus: maior 117 
malignus (etc.) 117 
mancipo 117 



mando (command) 125 
manifestatio 117 f. 
manifeste 117 f. 
manifesto (verb) 117 f. 
manifestus 117 f. 
mathesis 32 
medella 118 
melioro 100, 118 
raemoro 142 f. 
mereor 118; meritum 119 
minoro 100 
mirabilis 117 
minis 119 
modo 122 
modus 68, 107 f. 
Moyses 148 
multifarie 119 
mundanus 119 
mundus 119 
mustela 119 f. 
mysterium 120 

nascibilis 136 
nascibilitas 136 
nebula 120 
nee 70 
nociuus 120 
nomen 120 f. 
non 70 
notabilis 121 
notabiliter 121 
notitia 121 
nouellus 121 
uoxa 121 
noxia 121 
nudus 121 f. 
nullus 122 
numquid 72 
numquidnam 72 
nunc 122 
nutus 122 f. 

oblige 123 
oblittero 123 
obnoxius 123 
obtunsio 68 
offero 178 
otiose 123 f. 

paenula 182 
pannosus 11 



173 



262 



INDEXES. 



pario 124 

Paulianus 124, Addenda 

per 77 

perduro 124 

perhibeo 125 

permitto 125 

pertineo 134 f. 

peto 125 

plecto (punish) 125 

pono : positus 125 f 

porro 71 

possibilitas 126 

postulo 125 

praecipio 125 

praeiudico 126 

praememoro 142 

praerogatiua 127 

praescius 127 

praesens 127 

praeuaricatio 128 

praeuarico 128 

precor 125 

primiscrinius 30 

primordium 128 

pristinus 128 

prode sum 100 

professio 128 f., 178 

proficio 129 ff. 

programma 177 

promereor 132 

pronuntio 178 

propendo : propensior 132 f . ; propensius 

132 f. 

propono: propositum 133 f. 
propter 76 
protectio 134 
prudens 134 
pseudo apostolus 134 

quaestio 8, 134 
quando 77 f. 
quantus 71, 134 f. 
quare 72 
quidam 169 
quippe 77 

quis (indef.) : si quo minus 75 f. 
quis (interrog.) : quid 72; quo modo 71 ; 
qui (adv.) 135 

ratio 68, 107 f., 119 
recipio 178 



reddo 146 f. 
refute 136 
remissa (sing.) 136 
remissio 136 
remitto : remissum 136 
renascibilitas 136 
rennuo 178 
reparo 136 f. 
rependo 146 
retracto 137, 178 
reuoco 178 
reus 178 
rubor 137 

sacerdos 175 f. 

Saclas 37 

sacrilegus 167 

secundum 116 

securus 137 

sed 74 f. 

sententia 178 

si 75 f. 

Sileas 208 

similiter 108 

Simon 207 

solum 74 f. 

sophista 33 

speleum 34 

spurcus (subst.) 34, 138 

stupor 138 

subaudio 138 

subdo 138 

subiaceo 138 

subicio 138 flf. 

subintellego 140 

subintro 140 

sublimo 140 

subsanno 148 

subsequor 140 f. 

suffragator 141 

suffragium 141 

suffragor 141 

suggero 141 f. 

suggestio 141 f. 

superaddo 142 

supercaelestis 142 

supergredior 142 

supra 142 f . 

susceptio 143 

suscipio 143, 178; susceptus 143 



INDEXES. 



263 



tango 143 
tegmen 144 
tempus 144 
teneo 178 
tergiuersatio 144 
tergiuersator 144 
testis 65 
tester 65 
titulo 144 
titulus 144 f. 
torpesco 145 
tractatus 6 
tracto 145 
tradux 145 
transpunctio 145 
transpungo 145 



triumpho 146 
tuitio 146 
turpilucrus 255 
turpis 66 
typhus 148 

uas 65 
uelamen 144 
uerum 74 f. 
uices 146 f. 
uigeo 145 
uigor 145 
unde 64 
usque 122 
ut 72 



II. BIBLICAL QUOTATIONS. 



Ex. xx 11 202 

Deut. xxxii 8f 202 

los. v 15 202 

Psa. i 203 

xxiii title 202 

xxiii text 203 f. 

xxiii 3, 6 202 

xxiii 7, 9 154 f. Addenda 

1 204 f. 

18 202 

1 16 202 

Ixxv2 150 

Ixxxiv 12 150 

Ixxxviii 34 202 

cxx 6 202 

cxxxv6 202 

Prou. iv 19 202 

xx 9 40, 201 

Eccle. vii 17 150 

Cant, (title) 202 

Hiobxiv4f 201 

Sap. viii 1 150 

Os. vi 6 202 

Mai. 18 203 

Esai. xiv 12 150 

xiv!3 203 

xxx 25 203 

xliiU 150 

xliii26 203 

Iiii9 153 

Iix20f 150 

Ixiv4 40 

Hier. vii 22 203 

xxxviii (xxxi) 31 f 150 f. 

Bar. Hi 36-38 151 

Ezech. iii 19 (21) 149 

xviii4 (20) 151 

xviii32 151 

xx 25 151 

xxxiiill 151 

xxxiii!2 151 



Math. xii31 f 151 

xiii 41 201 

xiii 47-49 201 

xv 3-6 206 

xvi 19 201 

xviii 18 201 

Luc. i 32 f 42 

i 68-72 206 

ii 29 42 

1148 43, 205 

xi 52 43, 201 

xxii 31 f. 43 

xxiv 13 205 

xxiv21 43 

loh. i3f 43 

15 44 

114 44 

11113 44 

11116 44 

iii 18 44 

v!8 44, 206 

v26 44f. 

v46 45 

vi38 45 

vi 71 207 

viii 44 45, 207 

viii 56 45 

x30 45 

xiv 9 45 

xiv 11 46 

xiv 15-17 207 

xiv 27 46, 205 

xvi 15 46 

xvii 3 46, 205 

xvii 24 46 

xixll 47 

Act. iv!2 151 

xiii 8 208 

xv 10 151 

xv29 199f. 

Rom. i 25 f. . . 215 



INDEXES. 



265 



Kom. i 28-32 240 f. 

ill 215 

ii3-6 216 

H4-6 241 

ii!2 f. 216 

iii 8 47, 213, 216 

iii!9 47 

iii 23 47 

iii 23 f 216 

iv3 47 

v2-5 217 

v!4 198 f. 

vii23 48 

viii9 48 

viii 16 f 217 

viii 16-18 241 

viii 18 48, 217 

viii 24 f 217 

viii 26 f 48 

viii 28 f 241 

viii 29 48 

viii 32 48 

viii 35-37 217,242 

ix3-5 218 

ix4 214 

ixo 49 

ix 16 49 

ix!7 199 

ix!8 49 

ix25 49 

x4 49 

xlO 49, 242 

xi20f. 218 

xi29 49 

xi33 50 

xi 33-36 218 

xi36 50 

xiill 199 

xiiU 218 

xii!7 218 

xii!7f 242 

xii!9 218 

xii21 219 

xiiil 50 

xiii 3 50, 219 

xiii7f 219 

xiii8 242 

xiv4 219 

xiv!7 219 

xivlS 50 

xiv 23 ... , 51 



Eom. xv8 51 

xvill 199 

1 Cor. i 10 219 

i 17-24 213, 219 f. 

i!9 51 

124 51 

125 51 

ill 51 

118 51 

119 52,242 

iill 52 

iii 1-3 220 

iii6f 52 

iii 16 f. 220 

iii 17 52 

iii 18 f 220 

iv 4 242 

iv7 221 

iv20 52, 221 

v 1-7 242 f. 

v6 52 

v7 52 

v7f. 221 

v8 214 

v9-ll 243 

v!2 53, 154 

vil f 221 

vi7-9 221 

vi9-ll 222 

vilSff 222 

vi 15-20 243 f. 

vi!8 222 

vi 19 f. 222 

viil-7 222f. 

vii 10 f 223 

vii23 53, 244 

vii25 53 

vii 29-31 223 

vii 32-34 223 f. 

vii39 f. 224 

viii 2 224 

viii 6 53 

viii 8 224 

ix24 f 224 

xl 225 

xl-4 53 

x 12 f 225 

x!3 54 

x23 225 

xi3 54 

xi 6 .. , 54 



266 



INDEXES. 



1 Cor. xi? 54 

xi!9 225 

xi27 54, 225 

xi29 54 

xi33f 225 

xiill 54 

xiii2-8 226 

xiii 12 226 

xiv34f 226 

xv 19 54 

xv 33 226, 244 

xv 36 226 

xv 41-44 227 

xv45 55 

xv47f 55 

XV 47_49 213,227 

xv 53-55 227 

2 Cor. iii 14-16 227 f. 

iii!6 55 

iii 17 55 

iv!6 244 

vl 244 

v3 55 

v5 199 

v6-10 244 

vlO 228 

V 21 55, 152 f. 

vi 11 55 

vi!4 228 

vi 14-18 245 

viii 12 f 228 

viii!4f 228 

ix6f 229 

ixlOf 229 

ix!2 , 213,229 

xil-3 245 

xi 13-15 245 

xi!4 55 

xii7-9 229 

xii9f 56 

xii21 56 

Gal.il 56 

i6-9 246 

ilO 229 

i!2 56 

ii5 200 

ii!5 56 

iiil 246 

iii 6-9 230 

iii 12 56 

iii 13 57,153 



Gal. iii 17 57 

iii 27 57 

iv 3 57 

iv4 230 

iv 14 57 

vl 57 

v 7-9 246 

v 14f 230 

v!7 230 

v 19-21 246 

v 19-24 230 f. 

vi 1 f 231 

vi 7 57 

vi 14 231 

Eph. ii 1-3 247 

ii3 57 

ii 17 f 231 

iii 8-10 58 

iv 7-18 247 f. 

iv!6 214 

iv 21-25 248 

iv22 214 

iv 22-24 231f. 

iv26 232 

iv29-31 232 

v3f 232 

v6-ll 248 

v 15-17 248 

v!8 58 

v 29 58 

vil-6 232f. 

vi2 58 f. 

vi9 233 

vi 10-18 249 

vi!2 58 

vi 12-17 233 

Phil. ii6 59 

ii6-8 249 

ii6-ll 234 

ii!4f. 234 

ii!5 234 

ii21 234 

iii2 249 

iii 4-11 250 

iii 14 250 

iii 17-19 250f. 

iii 19-21 234f. 

Col. i 15 235 

i!5f 59 

118 235 

ii3 .. .59 



INDEXES. 



267 



Col. ii 4 


. 251 


1 Tim. vi 8 


60 


ii 8f. 


. 251 


vi 15 


. 61 


ii 11 


235 


vi 20 f. 


254 


ii 18f 


251 


2 Tim. i6 


61 


ii 20 


235 


i 12 


61 


iii 1-4 ... . 


235 


ii4f 


238 


iv 2 


235 


ii 16 f. 


254 


1 Thess. iv 6 


236 


ii 17 


. . 238 


iv 12 f 


236 


ii 20 


61 


v 2f. 


236 


ii 23 f . 


213, 238 


v 5 


59 


iii 15 


254 


v 21 f. 


251 


iiiSf 


254 


2 Thess. ii 4 


59 


iv 3f 


239, 255 


iii 5 


59 


iv6-8 


239 


iii G 


236 251 


Tit. i 5-14 


255 


1 Tim i 8-14 


252 


ii 6-8 


255f. 


i9f 


60 


ii 11-15 . . 


256 


ii 1-4 . 


252 


iii 1-7 


256 f 




236 f. 


iii 2 


239 


ii 12 


60 


iii 4-7 


61 


iii 7 


60 


iii 9-11 


257 


iv If 


253 


iii 10 f 


239 


iv 14 


60 


lac. v 20 


197 


v 3 


237 


1 Petr v 8 


151 f 


v6 


237 


2 Petr. i 4 


196 f 


v 8 


237 


i 20 


197 


v 11 f. 


237 


ii 1 


197 


v 14 


60 


iilO... . 


197 


v 19 


237 


1 loh. iii 2 


152 


v 20... 


238 


Apoc. ii 12-26, 29 


208 ff 


v 20-22 


253 


ii 24 


55, 152 


vi 2-5 


253 


xiii 8 


152 


vi7-10 . 


.. 238 







CAMBRIDGE : PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 



TEXTS AND STUDIES 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO 

BIBLICAL AND PATRISTIC LITERATURE 



EDITED BY 

J. ARMITAGE ROBINSON D.D. 

HON. PH.D. GOTTINGEN HON. D.D. HALLE 

HON. FELLOW OF CHRIST'S COLLEGE 

DEAN OF WESTMINSTER 



VOL. VII. 

THE MEANING OF HOMOOUSIOS IN THE 
'CONSTANTINOPOLITAN' CREED 

S. EPHRAIM'S QUOTATIONS FROM THE GOSPEL 

CODEX 1 OF THE GOSPELS AND ITS ALLIES 

A STUDY OF AMBROSIASTER 



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