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Full text of "A Study of coal mine haulage in Illinois"

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UNIVERSITV OF \n-LINOIS BULLETIN 



Vol. XIX 



ISSUED WEEKLY 
July 31, 1922 



No. 49 



[Entered as second-class matter December 11, 1912, at the post office at Urbana, Illinois, under 

the act of August 24, 1912. Acceptance for mailing at the special rate of postage provided 

for in section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 31, 1918.] 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE 



IN ILLINOIS 

BY 

H. H. STOEK 
J. R. FLEMING 
A. J. HOSKIN 



LIB: 

.' OF CAliFO 



ILLINOIS COAL MINING INVESTIGATIONS COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT 

(THIS REPORT WAS PREPARED UNDER A COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE 

ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, 

THE ILLINOIS STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, AND 

THE U. S. BUREAU OF MINES) 




No. 132 
ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA 



r I MIE Engineering Experiment Station was established by act of 
the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois on Decem- 
ber 8, 1903. It is the purpose of the Station to conduct 
investigations and make studies of importance to the engineering, 
manufacturing, railway, mining, and other industrial interests of the 
State. 

The management of the Engineering Experiment Station is vested 
in an Executive Staff composed of the Director and his Assistant, the 
Heads of the several Departments in the College of Engineering, and 
the Professor of Industrial Chemistry. This Staff is responsible for 
the establishment of general policies governing the work of the Station, 
including the approval of material for publication. All members of 
the teaching staff of the College are encouraged to engage in scientific 
research, either directly or in cooperation with the Research Corps 
composed of full-time research assistants, research graduate assistants, 
and special investigators. 

The volume and number at the top of the front cover page are 
merely arbitrary numbers and refer to the general publications of 
the University of Illinois; either above the title or below the seal is 
given the number of the Engineering Experiment Station bulletin 
or circular ivhich should be used in referring to these publications. 

The present bulletin is issued under a cooperative agreement 
between the Engineering Experiment Station of the University of 
Illinois, the State Geological Survey, and the United States Bureau 
of Mines. The reports of this cooperative investigation are issued 
in the form of bulletins by the Engineering Experiment Station, the 
State Geological Survey and the United States Bureau of Mines. 
For bulletins issued by the Engineering Experiment Station, address 
Engineering Experiment Station, Urbana, Illinois; for those issued 
by the State Geological Survey, address State Geological Survey, 
Urbana, Illinois; and for those issued by the United States Bureau 
of Mines, address the Director, United States Bureau of Mines, 
Washington, D. C. 



JJBfiAflY . 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

BULLETIN No. 132 JULY, 1922 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE 
IN ILLINOIS 



BY 

H. H. STOEK 

PROFESSOR OF MINING ENGINEERING 

J. R. FLEMING 

RESEARCH ASSOCIATE IN MINING ENGINEERING 

A. J. HOSKIN 

RESEARCH ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MINING ENGINEERING 



ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

PUBLISHED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, URBANA 



TAi 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

I. INTRODUCTION 9 

1. Scope of Present Discussion 9 

2. Acknowledgments 10 

II. EVOLUTION OF MINE HAULAGE . 12 

3. Early Practices 12 

4. Hand Tramming 15 

5. Animal Haulage 15 

6. Mechanical Haulage 16 

Rope Haulage 16 

Locomotive Haulage 17 

7. Mine Haulage in Illinois 33 

III. THE SHAFT BOTTOM . 37 

8. General Importance 37 

9. Delivering Cars to Shaft-Bottom 38 

10. Storage Space for Loads and Empties .... 39 

11. Handling Cars on Shaft Bottom 41 

Delivery of Cars to Cager 41 

Caging . 47 

Removal of Empty Cars 47 

12. Handling Men on Shaft Bottom 47 

13. Handling Supplies, Equipment, and Refuse . . 48 

14. Handling Sump Coal 49 

15. Arrangement of Offices, Stables, Shops, and 

Supply Rooms 49 

16. Shaft-Bottom Support 53 

17. Typical Shaft-Bottom Plans 56 

18. Shaft-Bottom Delays 64 

19. Shaft Bottoms for Skip Hoisting 66 

3 

788 



4 CONTENTS (CONTINUED) 

PAGE 

IV. MAIN LINE AND GATHERING HAULAGE 70 

20. General Considerations 70 

21. Location of Partings . . 71 

22. Procedure of Gathering 74 

Gathering by Locomotives 74 

Gathering by Mules 78 

23. Performance of Main-Line Locomotives .... 79 

24. Performance of Gathering Locomotives .... 88 

25. Details of Haulage Performance in Typical Illinois 

Mines 89 

26. Mine Cars 97 

Car Body .97 

Truck 98 

Wheel Base 99 

Wheels 99 

Bumpers and Couplings 99 

Capacity of Mine Cars . 100 

Number of Cars Required 100 

Standardization 102 

Repairs 103 

27. Track Construction 103 

Gauge ' 103 

Rails 104 

Ties .104 

Switches 105 

V. UNDERGROUND HAULAGE COSTS 107 

28. Cost Accounting 107 

29. Standardizing Cost Accounts 107 

Generation and Transmission of Power . . .108 

Care and Maintenance of Equipment . . . 108 

Conducting Transportation 109 

Maintenance of Way 109 

30. Itemized Haulage Costs for Typical Large Illinois 

Mines . 110 



CONTENTS (CONTINUED) 5 

PAGE 

VI. HAULAGE ACCIDENTS . . -> . 120 

31. Haulage Fatality Statistics 120 

32. Haulage Accidents in Illinois 121 

33. Comparative Hazards in Locomotive and Animal 

Haulage . ........ . . . . . . . . 130 

34. Accident Prevention Measures 132 

35. Safety Eules for Underground Haulage .... 133 



LIST OF FIGURES 

NO. PAGE 

1. Wheel Buggy in Kansas Coal Mine 13 

2. First Electric Mine Locomotive in United States .21 

3. First Electric Locomotive in Illinois Mines 22 

4. Early Type Locomotive Used at Centralia, Illinois, in 1899 . . . 23 

5. Types of Sprags . 43 

6. Center -track Pusher Locomotive .44 

7. Automatic Caging Device and Use of Sprag ..... 45 

8. Car Lift .46 

9. Underground Stable ........ .... 51 

30. Underground Supply Room . 52 

11. Types of Permanent Shaft -Bottom Supports 55 

12. Map of Shaft Bottom Mine A . . . . '. . , -57 

13. Map of Shaft Bottom Mine B . . 58 

14. Map of Shaft Bottom Mine C . . . -59 

15. Map of Shaft Bottom Mine D ..'.'. .60 

16. Map of Shaft Bottom Mine E ........ . . 61 

17. Map of Shaft Bottom Mine I ...... 62 

18. Map of Shaft Bottom Mine J . . . . ...... 63 

19. Graph of Shaft-Bottom Operations . 65 

20. Map of Shaft Bottom for Skip Hoisting . 66 

21. Vertical Cross Section Skip-Hoisting Shaft . 68 

22. Typical Plan of Mine Partings 74 

23. Diagonal Connections Between Entries . . 75 

24. Methods of Gathering by Locomotives . 76 

25. Haulage Diagram Mine A 90 

26. Haulage Diagram Mine D . . . . . '. -94 

27. Graph of Illinois Coal Mine Fatalities ........ .123 

28. Graph of Illinois Coal Mine Haulage Fatalities ... -125 

29. Graph Showing Percentages of Fatalities by Occupations . . 127 



LIST OF TABLES 

NO. PAGE 

1. Kinds of Haulage in Illinois Shipping Mines 34 

2. Locomotive and Mule Haulage in 1921 35 

3. Shaft-Bottom Data, Including Labor Costs 40 

4. Main Line Haulage in Eight Typical Large Illinois Coal Mines . . 72-73 

5. Main Line Haulage for Eighteen Mines 80-81 

6. Performance of Five 15-Ton Main-Line Locomotives in a Large Illinois 

Mine for One Shift 82-83 

7. Gathering Haulage in Eight Typical Large Illinois Coal Mines . . 84-85 

8. Gathering Haulage in Seventeen Typical Illinois Coal Mines . . . 85-87 

9. Haulage Mine A 91 

10. Gathering Haulage Mine D , . . .95 

11. Main-Line Haulage Mine D 96 

12. Haulage Costs at Twelve Eepresentative Illinois Coal Mines . . 111-113 

13. Haulage Costs at Five Mines of Common Ownership 114 

14. Haulage Costs at Two Illinois Coal Mines 118 

15. Haulage Labor Costs at Four Large Illinois Coal Mines 119 

16. Coal Mine Fatalities Due to Haulage 120 

17. United States Coal Mine Fatalities Due to Haulage Classified as to 

Causes 121 

18. Causal Analysis of Haulage Fatalities in Illinois 122 

19. Eelation between Coal Production and Haulage Fatalities in Illinois . 124 

20. Haulage Fatalities in Illinois Classified by Occupations 126 

21. Eelation of Haulage Fatalities to Production 127 

22. Fatalities in Coal Mining, Franklin County, Illinois 128 

23. Non-Fatal Accidents for Group of Illinois Mines, for Year 1919 . . 129 

24. Underground Haulage Fatalities in Bituminous Mines of Pennsylvania 

and Illinois 130 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 

I. INTRODUCTION 

1. Scope of Present Discussion. Very few, even of those con- 
nected with the coal mining industry, appreciate fully the importance 
and extent of the underground haulage problems in a modern coal 
mine. The transition from mule haulage to modern electric locomotive 
haulage has been so rapid that there has not been time for most of 
those engaged in operating mines to study haulage practice in detail 
as has been done in connection with surface railroads; for example, 
in the tabulation of the ton-miles performance per locomotive per day, 
and similar statistical information. When one considers that at a 
large mine in Illinois 6000 or more tons of coal per day are hoisted 
in 5-ton capacity cars and that 1200 or more cars per day, or 150 
per hour, must therefore be gathered from different parts of the mine, 
concentrated at the shaft bottom, loaded upon the cage over only two 
tracks, hoisted to the surface, lowered to the shaft bottom, and again 
distributed to remote parts of the mine, one realizes that here is a 
condition demanding thought and study if the most effective operation 
is to be secured from expensive equipment. 

The coal mines of Illinois afford an unusually favorable oppor- 
tunity for a study of the haulage problem, for not only are they the 
largest in point of output of any coal mines in the world, but there 
are few if any other coal fields of equal size where the operating con- 
ditions are so uniform. Beginning with primitive methods and 
equipment, the coal industry in the state has grown steadily until 
Illinois ranks third in coal production in the United States. The 
owners of the mines have not only kept pace with those of other 
regions, but they have in many instances been pioneers in installing 
improved equipment such as car lifts, self-dumping cages, and im- 
provements about the shaft bottom. 

An effort has been made in the present bulletin to trace briefly 
the development and history of mine haulage in general and in 
Illinois in particular. Mine haulage practice and costs have been 
considered under the three natural phases of shaft-bottom activities, 
main-line haulage, and gathering ; while particular attention is called 
to Tables 4, 5, 7, and 8 which give the results of detailed studies in 



10 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

a number of the large producing mines of the state, that is, those with 
3000 to 6000 tons per day output. These mines were studied in 
considerable detail and the results as presented in tables and graphs 
show that there is a wide diversity in the results obtained in mines 
of like capacity, with similar equipment, and operating under similar 
natural conditions. The tables suggest that a more detailed study 
of operating conditions in a number of mines of the state would pro- 
duce a greater efficiency in operation even with the equipment already 
installed. This applies not only to the mechanical results obtained, 
as measured by performance in ton-miles etc., but also to the varia- 
tions in costs for mines similarly equipped. 

Approximately one-seventh of all coal mining employees are 
engaged in underground haulage duties, classified under 46 different 
occupations on the account books of different companies. In the 
present discussion of the subject, however, haulage is assumed to 
stop when the car is placed on the cage to be hoisted, thus excluding 
hoisting, although in the matter of cost it is not always possible to 
separate the hoisting cost from the haulage. In such cases, however, 
the hoisting cost is relatively small and does not materially affect the 
total haulage cost. Owing to the diverse accounting systems employed 
by different companies it is difficult to obtain comparative data for 
different mines, although the owners of the mines and the local super- 
intendents have been most obliging in extending privileges for inves- 
tigating haulage operations and in supplying information relative to 
operating costs. 

Every study of an industrial problem should include a con- 
sideration of the accidents connected with the industry; therefore 
some discussion of accidents in mine haulage, based upon the statistics 
given in the Coal Reports of the Illinois Department of Mines and 
Minerals, is included in this bulletin. An analysis of these statistics 
has been made in the effort to show the relation between coal pro- 
duction, number of employees, and the number of fatalities due to 
haulage operations among various classes of mine employees. 

2. Acknowledgments. This bulletin is the outgrowth of a study 
of Mine Haulage undertaken as a research problem under the direction 
of the Engineering Experiment Station of the University of Illinois 
by A. C. CALLEN* while Associate in Mining Engineering at the 

* Now Professor of Mining Engineering, University of West Virginia. 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 11 

University. He prepared much of the historical material and some of 
the statistics for accidents that occurred prior to 1917. 

Upon the resignation of Mr. Callen the study was continued 
under the Cooperative Coal Mining Agreement between the Engineer- 
ing Experiment Station, University of Illinois, the United States 
Bureau of Mines, and the Illinois State Geological Survey. 

The field studies of haulage operation were carried on mainly by 
J. R. FLEMING, who, together with A. J. HOSKIN, prepared the tables 
and graphs giving the results of these field studies. Mr. Fleming also 
supplemented the studies of accidents made by Mr. Callen. Final 
arrangement, checking, and editing of the manuscript was done by 
A. J. HOSKIN and H. H. STOEK. 

The authors gratefully acknowledge the hearty cooperation of 
the owners and operating officials of many of the mines in the state 
in giving assistance, not only through replies to requests for informa- 
tion by mail, but also in carrying on the studies in the mines and in 
permitting free access to the books of the companies in order to 
obtain costs of operation. They are also indebted to J. J. RUTLEDGE, 
Superintendent of the Urbana Station of the United States Bureau 
of Mines, and F. W. DsWoLF, Chief of the Illinois Geological Survey, 
for suggestions during the progress of the investigation, and for their, 
careful review of the manuscript. 



12 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



II. EVOLUTION OF MINE HAULAGE 

3. Early Practices. The primitive method of transporting ma- 
terial from underground mine workings was for men to carry it in 
some form of container, as a tray.* Similar methods are still used in 
a few places where the natural conditions of the mineral deposit make 
them necessary, or where they are economically possible.! The intro- 
duction of wooden sleds was an improvement over carrying. Such 
sleds, or baskets, provided with runners and usually drawn by boys, 
were extensively used in Great Britain in early coal mining, and are 
still used in thin seams where the expense of taking down the roof 
to obtain necessary head-room for cars is prohibitive.^ 

The introduction of wheeled vehicles was the next advance step. 
By using a wheelbarrow heavier loads could be moved with much 
less exertion than by carrying, especially if a plank road was used 
instead of the natural mine floor. Although wheelbarrows are still 
used in many ore mines, they are seldom found in coal mines. 

The four-wheeled truck or car soon replaced the wheelbarrow for 
general use. At first, wicker baskets or wooden tubs were loaded at 
the face and carried to the haulage road, but soon cars or * ' waggons ' ' 
were made of such a size that they could be taken to the face. The 
"buggies," still used in Kansas longwall mining for transporting the 
coal from the advancing face to the road-head where it is transferred 
to the regular mine cars, are illustrated in Fig. l. This buggy is 
run along the longwall face on eight-pound steel rails. The track is 
made up in eight-foot sections with a curve section for the road-head, 
so that it can be easily handled. 

In England the term "tub" is still used for a mine car though 
very few real tubs are used. Pushing cars by hand is known as 
"putting" in England and as "tramming" or "hand tramming" in 
the United States. 



* Agricola, "De Re Metallica." Book VI. p. 56, translated by H. Hoover. 

A. Pliny (XXXIII, 21). 

t Tonge, J. "Principles and Practice of Coal Mining," p. 162, London, 1906. 
t Hughes, H. W. "A Text Book of Coal Mining," p. 224, London, 1904. 
This photograph is furnished through the courtesy of C. N. Fish, general manager of 
the Home Riverside Coal Mines Co., Leavenworth, Kansas. 




FIG. 1. WHEEL BUGGY IN KANSAS COAL MINE 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 15 

1 1 Cast-iron tram plates were introduced in English mines in 1767 
and were in turn succeeded by wrought iron rails and steel rails. ' '* 

The modern coal-mine car bears little resemblance to the early 
''tubs." Samuel Dean, an English mining engineer who has written 
extensively on the coal mines of the United States, attributes the 
larger output per man in the United States to the larger capacity of 
cars used.f 

4. Hand Tramming. Hand tramming, by which is meant the 
manual pushing of cars or trucks, was among the earliest systems 
of transporting mined material. ^ At present it is used mainly in 
coal mines of small capacity wher.e the working face is not far from 
the shaft bottom or drift opening, or in places where the height of 
entry is too small for animal or mechanical haulage. In some coal 
mines miners push the empty cars from a distributing parting to 
the working face; in others, though less frequently, loaded cars are 
pushed from the face to the parting where they are formed into 
trips for animal or mechanical haulage. This system requires suitable 
grades and cars of such capacity that they can be moved readily and 
easily kept under control. The amount of hand tramming in unionized 
mines is generally stipulated in the agreement between the miner and 
the operator. 

5. Animal Haulage. Following the enactment of a law pro- 
hibiting the employment of women or of children under 10 years of 
age, Shetland ponies were introduced in English mines in the year 
1843, as substitutes for the putters employed in conveying the coal 
from the working face to the main roads. J Where coal seams were 
thicker, horses were employed and in England they are still the 
favorite animals for underground labor. In the United States mules 
are generally preferred to horses as they are quicker and more sure- 
footed. Dogs have been used in small Illinois mines for hauling 
coal. In one Ohio mine they are said to have been used for over 
thirty years. Overman, in his "Metallurgy" published in 1852, says 
that the dog-cart was at that time in general use in coal mines of 
the western United States and was a most convenient vehicle for 



* Foster & Cox, "Ore and Stone Mining," p. 373. 

t Trans. Inst. Min. E. Vol. 50, p. 179. 

J B. L. Galloway, "Annals of Coal Mining." Vol. 2, p. 344. 



16 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

handling coal underground.* Oxen have been used for coal haulage 
to a very limited extent. 

Mules, horses, and ponies are still widely used in the mines of 
the United States. Although sometimes employed in main haulage 
their chief use is in gathering cars on short hauls, that is, in taking 
the loaded cars from the working face to a parting where the cars are 
made into trips for transportation by mechanical means. 

6. Mechanical Haulage. The principal forms of mechanical 
haulage now in use are rope haulage and locomotive haulage. 

Rope H*aulage 

Rope Haulage may be divided into four systems : Engine Planes, 
Gravity Planes, Endless Rope, and Main and Tail Rope. 

An Engine Plane is an inclined plane up which a load is drawn 
by an engine or motor. Such a plane may work "in balance," 
the empty cars descending while the loads are coming up, thus par- 
tially balancing the system and reducing the load on the engine; 
or the system may work "unbalanced," in which case the engine 
simply draws the loaded cars up the plane while the empty cars pull 
the rope down again. 

The earliest adoption of mechanical haulage underground was 
about 1812 or 1813, when George -Stephenson so altered an under- 
ground engine at Killingworth colliery, England, as to make it haul 
the coal up an inclined plane to the shaft, t Chains were originally 
used to haul the cars up. About the year 1841 "the haulage of coal 
by ropes was greatly facilitated by the introduction of light, round 
iron wire ropes, "t 

A Gravity Plane is one of such inclination that the loaded cars 
going down the plane pull the empty cars up, the inclination being 
usually over 20 per cent. Such planes are used where the coal 
must be transferred to a lower level; for example, in mountainous 
regions where the mine openings are located at elevations above the 
tipple, and inside mines where the coal beds are steeply inclined. 

An Endless Rope haulage system has an endless rope that is 
operated continuously by a haulage engine at a speed of usually two 
to four miles per hour. The cars are attached lo the rope, either 

* Col. Eng. Vol. 20, p. 684. 

t Galloway, R. L. "Annals of Coal Mining." Vol. 2, p. 340. 

$ Galloway, R. L "Annals of Coal Mining." Vol. 2, p. 344. 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 17 

singly or in groups, by grips or clamps which can be easily fastened 
to or unfastened from the rope. 'Two tracks are required, one for the 
loads and the other for the empties. The system is used mainly on 
short hauls and on steep pitches such as slope openings. 

In the Main and Tail Rope system a trip of loaded cars is 
pulled by the main rope, a tail rope being fastened to the rear 
end of the trip and dragged after it. At the destination the ropes 
are uncoupled from the cars and the tail rope is fastened to the front 
end of the empty trip while the main rope is fastened to the rear 
end. The trip of empty cars is then pulled in by the tail rope and 
the main rope dragged after the trip. The speed of operation is 
usually 6 to 10 miles per 'hour. The system is used mainly on a 
haulage road having undulating grades. 

Rope haulage is said to have been introduced in the United 
States about 1870.* 

Locomotive Haulage 

The different types of mine locomotives that have been used are 
steam locomotives, compressed-air locomotives, gasoline locomotives, 
and electrical locomotives. 

The exact date of the first use of steam locomotives in connec- 
tion with underground mining in the United States is not definitely 
known, but according to B. B. Wilson it was prior to 1870. t 

On account of the smoke and other products of combustion, such 
locomotives should be restricted in their use to the return air-ways. 
At one time they were extensively used in the anthracite region of 
Pennsylvania and from 1883 to 1895 in the Pocahontas region of 
West Virginia, but they have never been used in Illinois. There are 
still a few steam locomotives used in the Pocahontas district at three 
or four of the small mines where the tonnage remaining to be mined 
does not warrant the expense of a change to electric haulage. J 

From 1875 to 1895 may be called the experimental period of 
the compressed-air locomotive. Ten or twelve were built during 
this twenty-year period and were installed by operators who desired 
a haulage system that would eliminate fire risk, be free from the 
dangers of electric wires, and be comparatively safe in a gassy 



* Mines and Minerals. Vol. 31, p. 71. 
t Mines and Minerals. Vol. 31, p. 71. 
t Private communication, Lincoln, J. J. 



18 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

mine. In construction compressed-air locomotives differ from steam 
engines mainly in having, instead of a steam boiler, a large storage 
tank which can be charged with air at a pressure of from 600 to 
1000 pounds per square inch, and a reducing valve set to supply air 
to the cylinders at a constant pressure of 150 pounds. From 1895 
to 1908 great improvements in design and manufacture were made, 
and several hundred locomotives were furnished to mining companies. 

In 1908 the first two-stage compressed-air locomotive was put 
upon the market and, in the three years succeeding, over 100 were 
built.* 

According to the H. K. Porter Company of Pittsburgh, Penn- 
sylvania, there were in 1921 no compressed-air locomotives operating 
in the coal mines of the Mississippi Valley, but in the mines of 
Western Pennsylvania and West Virginia the total number was 
about 150. 

There are two great advantages of compressed-air locomotives: 
first, they are comparatively safe for use in gassy mines, and 
second, they require neither trolley wire nor rail bonding. 

On the other hand they are bulky, and their radius of operation 
is limited by their air-storage capacity. However, in mines having 
ample cross-section of the entries this is not serious as tanks of a 
capacity sufficient for a run of several miles may be used. 

The advantages of a locomotive carrying its own source of power, 
such as a gasoline locomotive, are obvious. It was but natural that 
an attempt should be made to use the internal-combustion engine 
for mining service and, indeed, before the automobile had advanced 
much beyond the experimental stage, a gasoline locomotive was tried 
out for hauling coal. 

Probably the first gasoline mining locomotive made in this country 
was furnished in 1898 by W. F. Prouty of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
and Newark, New Jersey, to the St. Bernard Mining Co. for use in the 
No. 9 mine at Earlington, Kentucky.! This locomotive was in service 
for a year, but was never able to pull a full trip of loaded cars and 
was finally scrapped. 

It is likely that gasoline locomotives had been in use in Europe 
for some years previous to this date. In 1899, in describing the 
explosion-proof gasoline motors used in the coal mines of Belgium, 



* Mines and Minerals. Vol. 31, p. 365. 
t Coal Age. Vol. 5. p 9. 



A STUDY OP COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 19 

M. J. Kersten said, ' ' It is only quite lately that a locomotive working 
with petroleum has been used in fiery mines, ' '* the presumption being 
that they had been used for several years in non-gassy mines. 

The first gasoline locomotive used in Illinois was probably the 
second successful one in this country. It was built by the Sangamon 
Coal Co. and put in its mine at Springfield, 1904. This crude machine 
pulled a trip of seven to nine mine cars, each weighing, when loaded, 
4000 pounds. A few locomotives of this type were built in Chicago 
and in St. Louis about 1905 or 1906, but the St. Louis locomotives 
were returned to the manufacturers as they cost more for repairs 
than the value of the coal they hauled. A few gasoline mine locomo- 
tives were made by Fairbanks, Morse & Co. in 1907. f 

In 1909 gasoline locomotive's were introduced into the lead mines 
of southeastern Missouri where the Desloges Consolidated Co., on 
account of its very excellent ventilation, was able to use them with 
success.^: The George D. Whitcomb Co. shipped one to the Kolb Coal 
Co. of Mascoutah, Illinois, in 1909. This locomotive gave such satis- 
faction that several more were ordered by this company. In 1910 
it was stated that there were three hundred of these locomotives in 
use in all parts of the world. In 1915 about that number were in use 
in the United States. 

Although gasoline locomotives have the great advantage of flexi- 
bility and cheapness of installation, their use underground has been 
restricted because of the possible danger from the exhaust gases and 
from the extra mechanical attention necessary to keep them in operat- 
ing condition. Their use underground is steadily decreasing ; storage- 
battery locomotives are replacing them to a very great extent. Gaso- 
line locomotives are restricted in their use to main-line haulage and 
in this to return air-ways only. 

In 1914 the United States Bureau of Mines conducted an investi- 
gation into the vitiation of mine air resulting from the use of gasoline 
engines. According to the conclusions of the Bureau,^ the ventilating 
current in order to safely dilute the obnoxious carbon monoxide ex- 
hausted from a gasoline locomotive should be increased to the extent 



* Eng. and Min. Jour. Vol. 68, p. 724. 
t Illinois Coal Mining Investigations. Bui. 13, p. 179. 
t Eng. and Min. Jour. Vol. 84, p. 346. 
Mines and Minerals. Vol. 81, p 30. 

U Hood and Kudlich, U. S. Bureau of Mines. Bui. 74. Gasoline Mine Locomotives in 
Relation to Safety and Health, p. 7. 



20 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

of from 2610 to 35 140 cubic feet per minute, this additional volume of 
air depending upon the size of the engine and the thoroughness of the 
carburation. These figures are based upon the dilution of the poison- 
ous gas to one part in 1000 parts of air, this quality of atmosphere 
being safe for men and animals to breathe for "short and infrequent 
intervals" only. For continued conditions the dilution should be to 
not more than one part of the engine's exhaust in 2000 parts of fresh 
air. It will be seen that this feature of gasoline locomotives is a serious 
objection to their use underground even upon return air-ways. In 
the attempt to restrict the pollution of the mine air experiments have 
been made with passing the engine exhaust through chemical solutions 
but the results were unsatisfactory. 

The first electric locomotive using current from a dynamo 
was built by Siemens and Halske in Germany, and, at the Berlin 
Trade Exhibition in 1879,* was operated upon a circular track about 
1500 feet long. The introduction of electric locomotives into mining 
service followed almost immediately, and in 1882 the first electric 
mine locomotive was installed in the royal coal mines at Zaukerode, 
Saxony, t This system of haulage was adopted by the Consolidated 
Paulus and Hohenzollern Collieries at Beuthen in 1883, and at New 
Stassfurt in 1884. The locomotives were all built by the Siemens 
and Halske Co. On July 26, 1887, the Lykens Valley Coal Co. put 
the first electric mining locomotive in this country into service at 
the Short Mountain Colliery at Lykens, Pennsylvania.! This loco- 
motive had a 30-horsepower motor wound for 400 volts direct 
current. The conductor was a 25-pound iron rail mounted along 
one side of the entry, current being taken off through four contact 
wheels. The motor and running gear weighed 1500 pounds, but the 
machine was weighted with scrap iron up to 7000 pounds. (See Fig. 2.) 
It was built by the Union Electric Co. of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
This installation was the first of any considerable size in the world. 
The Siemens and Halske locomotives weighed only two tons each and 
hauled a train load of about 10 tons, while the Lykens Valley "Pio- 
neer" hauled a load of 150 tons at a speed of six miles per hour 
over a road about 6300 feet long. It was still in service in 1915. In 



* Sprague, F. J., Elect. Ry., p. 3. . Int. Eng. Cong. 1904, p. 3. 

t Electric Locomotives in German Mines. Karl Eilers, Trans. A. I. M. E. Vol. 20, 
p. 356. 

t Col. Engr. Vol. 8, p. 43. Also Thesis of H. H. Stock. 




FIG. 2. FIRST ELECTRIC MINE LOCOMOTIVE IN UNITED STATES 




FIG. 3. FIRST ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE IN ILLINOIS MINES 




FIG. 4. EARLY TYPE LOCOMOTIVE USED AT CENTRALIA, ILLINOIS, IN 1899 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 25 

1888 the Jeffrey Manufacturing Go. built the first electric locomotive 
used in a bituminous coal mine in the United States. This installation 
was in the mines of the Upson Coal Mining Co., Shawnee, Ohio. 
Instead of a wire or rail as a conductor two parallel 1-inch galvanized 
iron pipes were used. The rails were not bonded, as one of the pipes 
was used for the return circuit. 

The first electric mine locomotive installed in the State of Illinois 
was placed in the No. 3 mine of the Chicago, Wilmington & Vermilion 
Coal Company at Streator in 1888. This locomotive, Fig. 3, was 
designed by Elmer A. Sperry of the Sperry Electric 'Mining Machine 
Company of Chicago, (the predecessor of the Goodman Manufac- 
turing Company), and was built by that company. This was an 
experimental machine and was provided with eight driving wheels and 
a motor of about 30 horsepower. The total weight of the machine 
was about six tons. Referring to this first electric mine locomotive 
in Illinois, C. A. Pratt, Chief Engineer of the Goodman Manufactur- 
ing Company, says :* "It was in operation several months and was 
then replaced by a locomotive of somewhat modified design and of 
greater weight and horsepower. The locomotive which replaced it 
had eight driving wheels distributed on two bogey trucks. These 
wheels were about 20 inches in diameter and the locomotive was 
designed to turn on a curve of 8 or 9 feet radius. The locomotive 
weighed about 8 tons and was driven by one 60-horsepower motor, the 
armature of which was geared to all of the eight wheels. A second 
locomotive of the same description was put into the same mine some 
months later and these two locomotives were operated for many years. ' ' 
As far as can be learned this installation at Streator was the only 
really successful one for several years, though some locomotives had 
been used experimentally at other mines. No further introduction 
of electric haulage was made in Illinois until 1899 when the Jeffrey 
Manufacturing Co. shipped an 8-ton locomotive, Fig. 4, to the Cen- 
tralia Mining and Manufacturing Company of Centralia, Illinois. 

The years 1899 to 1904 may be called the introductory period. 
The increase in installations was slow but steady so that by the 
close of this period each of the important mining districts in the 
state had at least one mine in which electric locomotives were being 
used with success. 



Private communication. 



26 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

The introduction of the electric locomotive and its successful 
operation in main haulage led to attempts to extend this system to 
gathering service. In early practice miners pushed their loaded cars 
to the room necks whence the cars could be hauled to main partings 
by trolley locomotives. When rooms were driven to the rise this 
practice occasionally involved accidents from runaway cars. A loco- 
motive was therefore needed to do such gathering safely, but of 
a type that required no trolley extensions into the rooms. In 
response to this need the cable locomotive was designed. Briefly 
defined, this locomotive is one that can not only operate as a trolley 
locomotive but also travel on track not equipped with trolley wire by 
taking its power through a long flexible conductor or cable that it 
carries mounted on a drum or reel. 

Probably the first successful cable locomotive was constructed in 
1900 in the shops of the Pocahontas Consolidated Collieries Co. at 
Pocahontas, Virginia.* For several years previous this company had 
been trying to develop a storage-battery locomotive but without suc- 
cess. So, in 1900, they mounted on one of these old locomotive frames, 
with the motor, a vertical cable reel, thus making a very good gather- 
ing locomotive known later as the " Wampus'* on account of its 
peculiar appearance. Since 1900 all electric locomotive manufacturers 
have constructed gathering locomotives, the designs being generally 
similar. The cable through which the locomotive receives its power 
when away from the trolley wire is wound either on a reel placed 
horizontally on top of the locomotive, or on a drum placed at one 
end. The reel or drum is driven by an independent motor, by a 
spring device, or by a chain and sprocket wheels from the axle. 

Where the rooms dip rather steeply towards the face it may be 
impossible or undesirable for the locomotive to go to the face for the 
cars. In such instances the "crab" locomotive has been used with 
success. This locomotive is equipped with a drum on which a steel 
cable is wound and which is usually driven by a separate motor, thus 
in reality adding to the locomotive a small hoisting engine for the 
purpose of pulling cars out of steeply pitching places while the loco- 
motive remains on the entry. Under some conditions a gathering 
locomotive is equipped with this "crab" device in addition to the 
cable attachment. 



Mines and Minerals. Vol. 30, p. 13. 



A STUDY OP COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 27 

The rack-rail locomotive was devised for electric haulage on 
heavy grades. Its hauling capacity is not limited to the adhesion 
between the wheels and rails. Instead of driving the wheels the 
motor is geared to a sprocket wheel beneath the locomotive, the teeth 
meshing with a rack-rail laid between the main rails. The locomotive 
is therefore really geared to the track and can haul large loads on 
steep grades, provided the strength of the parts and the power of the 
motor are sufficient. Back-rail locomotives were first brought out 
by the Morgan-Gardner Co. in 1899. They are used in mines where 
the grades are prohibitive to ordinary electric haulage. In some cases 
no trolley wire is used, the rack-rail acting as a conductor for the 
current. In other cases a trolley wire is used on the ordinary haulage 
roads, the rack-rail being used only on occasional grades. 

From the time that electric haulage was first introduced in mines 
it has been the desire of engineers to find some way of dispensing 
with the trolley wire and the bonding of the rails ; first, from a desire 
to save the outlay required by such an installation, and second, because 
of the danger from contact with the wire, and from explosions caused 
by sparking of trolleys and wheels in gassy mines. As regards the 
latter danger the United States Bureau of Mines at the Pittsburgh 
Testing Station is prepared to test locomotives in a gas chamber and, 
if they can comply with requirements, to list them as permissible for 
use in gaseous atmospheres. It is doubtful, however, if any trolley or 
reel locomotive can meet these requirements. This condition, therefore, 
led to the introduction of the storage-battery locomotive, which, while 
it does not eliminate the danger from switch and motor sparks, at 
least dispenses with the trolley wire. 

The commercial development of the storage battery began at 
about the same time as did that of the electric railway, for it was not 
until 1880 that Brush and Faure, working independently, simultane- 
ously produced the pasted plate for storage batteries, resulting in 
lighter and cheaper cells. Naturally the storage battery was looked 
to as the solution of the problem of dispensing with trolley wires or 
other naked conductors. The early development of such locomotives 
took place in England and in Germany, American engineers being slow 
to take up the subject. In 1886 the first storage-battery locomotive 
was tried in the mine of the Trafalgar Colliery Co.* Indicative of the 



* Eng. and Min. Jour. Vol. 42, p. 98. 



28 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

slow development of the early installations was the statement made 
in 1895 that storage-battery locomotives had then reached the experi- 
mental stage only.* Probably the first successful use of a storage- 
battery locomotive in this country was at the mines of the Southwest 
Virginia Improvement Co. in the Pocahontas region of West Virginia.! 
The Baldwin-Westinghouse Co. built this locomotive in 1899 and it 
proved so successful that the company ordered six more. For several 
years prior to this the Pocahontas Consolidated Collieries Co. at Poca- 
hontas, Virginia, had endeavored to develop a storage-battery haulage 
locomotive, three machines actually having been built which were, 
however, only ' * more or less effective. ' ' 

About 1900 the Jeffrey Manufacturing Co. shipped its first 
storage-battery locomotive. During the following ten years there were 
several locomotives of this type put into service but, on the whole, 
development was slow. Beginning with 1911 these locomotives began 
to attract a great deal of attention. Storage batteries had been im- 
proved both in design and construction. The Edison alkaline battery 
with a steel jar had been placed on the market and had given excellent 
service. Mining men did not need to be convinced of the advantages 
in the use of storage-battery locomotives, but they were extremely 
dubious about the ability of a battery to stand up under the severe 
conditions of mining service. In some storage-battery locomotives, 
particularly of the earlier types, batteries were too small and motors 
were of too low capacity for the weight of the locomotive. Whereas 
in main-haulage locomotives of the trolley type motors of approxi- 
mately 10 to 12 horsepower per ton of weight are used, in some storage- 
battery locomotives the motor capacity has been as low as one horse- 
power per ton of weight. This radical difference restricts the con- 
tinuous performance of the storage-battery locomotive for heavy 
work and necessitates extra care to maintain the batteries in proper 
working condition. This places storage-battery locomotives at a dis- 
advantage as compared with trolley and cable-reel locomotives. Re- 
cently storage-battery locomotive manufacturers have shown a tend- 
ency to install larger motors than formerly. 

These locomotives are fitted with motors that are built to with- 
stand heavy overloads. Although their normal ratings may be rel- 
atively low they will stand without injury overloads of 300 to 400 

* Col. Engr. Vol. 16, p. 32. 

t Mines and Minerals. Vol. 30, p. 13. 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 29 

per cent if not too long sustained. For instance, a certain four-ton 
machine is rated at 80 volts and 60 amperes when running at about 
1050 revolutions per minute, this being equivalent to slightly more 
than six horse power.* However, it is not unusual for this machine 
on short hauls to consume 300 to 350 amperes. This practice is based 
upon the following general considerations : These light-weight storage- 
battery locomotives are used to do both gathering and main haulage. 
During the work of gathering the duty is light, perhaps 75 to 80 per 
cent of the working time being spent in hauling one car at a time to 
and from rooms. When a few cars have been collected in an entry 
they are hauled to a parting where a train is made up and the loco- 
motive then hauls -this train to the shaft bottom. Assuming that the 
average distance from parting to bottom is 2000 feet and that a speed 
of four miles per hour is maintained, the run will require less than 
six minutes. For such a short period these motors will easily with- 
stand the overloads, which may be six or seven times the normal 
ratings. 

As regards electric mining locomotives in general, in earlier prac- 
tice, when the hauls were short, seven and eight horsepower per ton 
of locomotive weight was commonly used ; that is, from 70 to 80 horse- 
power on a 10-ton locomotive traveling at a speed of six miles per 
hour. As the requirements became more severe it was found that 
motors of such horsepower overheated, wherefore motor capacities 
were increased to a minimum of 10 horsepower per ton in general 
mining practice. As the loads to be hauled by the main-haulage loco- 
motives increased, manufacturers increased the motor capacities to 
not less than 12 horsepower per ton for locomotives above eight tons 
rating. For long hauls it is now not uncommon to use still greater 
horsepower where the circumstances will permit. Under severe condi- 
tions mine locomotives may be required to develop in excess of 15 
horsepower per ton, and such requirements are fulfilled successfully 
by applying forced ventilation to the motors. 

The chief demand of mining men has been for increased locomo- 
tive capacity without increase in size. In discussing compactness of 
design G. M. Eaton, chief engineer of the Westinghouse Electric and 
Manufacturing Company, cites an electric mining locomotive built in 
1896 that had a ratio of volume (cubic feet) to horsepower of 3.88, 

* This is on the basis of 55-deg. temp, rise in 4 hr., and not on the A. I. E. E. restriction 
of 75 deg. in 1 hr. 



30 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



while a more modern locomotive of the same motor capacity has a 
ratio of 1.54.* 

Manufacturers have experimented to secure equal distribution 
of weight on the driving wheels; to prevent the slippage of one set 
of the wheels, when only one motor is used, by connecting the front 
and rear axles; to determine the best position of the drawbar to 
assure the most advantageous line of pull; to increase the effective 
drawbar-pull by increasing the weight of the locomotive; to so in- 
crease the number of driving wheels as to distribute the weight and 
reduce the load on each wheel; to make possible the use of tandem 
locomotives or of trailers upon which is carried all excessive weight 
(particularly that due to the use of the storage battery) so that the 
driving wheels will carry only the weight desired for the required 
pull; to introduce steel-tired wheels instead of cast-iron wheels in 
order to secure greater adhesion to the rail; to decrease the friction 
in the locomotive by the use of special bearings and improved methods 
of lubrication ; and to mount independent motors in a storage-battery 
locomotive one for trolley current, the other for battery current. 

Improvements and changes in the design of electric locomotives 
have been made principally as follows : 

(a) Details of construction, both electrical and mechanical, have 
been modified to better adapt the locomotives to severe mine service. 

(b) Compactness has been sought to permit use of locomotives 
in restricted quarters. 

(c) Increased capacity and endurance have been secured for the 
electrical equipment. 

(d) Greater flexibility of movement has been obtained through 
the use of cables and storage batteries. 

Among the 'modifications of details of mechanical construction 
may be mentioned the change from ordinary brass bearings to ball 
bearings for armatures; the use of heat-treated or hardened motor 
pinions; the making of all working parts much heavier to take care 
of the increased duties imposed upon them; and the making of such 
working parts more accessible and more readily detachable. 

Locomotive frames were originally made of cast iron. These did 
very well unless collisions occurred, when repairs were difficult. 

* Development of Electric Mine Locomotive. Proc. A. I. E. E., April, 1914. 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 31 

Later, cast steel came into use for frames and to a certain extent 
is used for parts of the frames b^ some builders today, although rolled- 
plate side-frames are more common. Rolled steel is more uniform 
than cast steel and it is less likely to contain blow-holes. Some 
builders have given special attention to the bracing of. the frame at 
the corners to resist blows from collisions or derailment. One company 
equips its locomotives with an auxiliary buffer and interposes springs 
between it and the main locomotive frame to take up the shocks of 
collision, coupling, and starting. This construction results in a saving 
on car hitchings and bumpers and is of assistance in starting trips. 

In the early locomotives axles were too weak, journal boxes were 
too short for the weight, journal springs were not sufficiently flexible 
to meet the conditions of mine track, motor suspensions were often 
too rigid to allow the wheels and axles to follow the track, and brake- 
riggings had springs that reduced the effectiveness of the brakes. 
Many early locomotives were made with a chain drive between the 
axles, but this method of driving has been abandoned by several manu- 
facturers whose locomotives now have either a single motor geared 
to both axles, or two motors, one for each axle. One manufacturer, 
however, continues the chain drive, with good arguments for its 
superiority over direct gearing. 

Amongst the improvements in electrical details may be noticed 
first the use of commutating poles on the motor to prevent sparking, 
and second, the thorough enclosing of the electrical parts, these changes 
at once reducing the danger of fire or explosion and increasing the 
life of the parts. 

In many instances field-windings have been changed from cotton- 
covered wire to strap copper insulated between layers or turns with 
sheet asbestos and the whole wrapped with oiled linen, asbestos tape, 
or other fireproof insulation, baked with varnish. Formerly the fields 
would deteriorate from heating; now life is indefinitely prolonged. 
When necessary it is a comparatively simple matter to repair the 
strap coils without the loss of any copper, whereas, with the wire- 
wound fields repairs to defective or damaged insulation often required 
the purchase of new copper wire or new material throughout. The 
armature coils were generally wire frequently of two or more turns 
per coil, but today they are largely made of bar or strap copper 
of only one turn per coil. The repairing of this type of coil is very 
much simpler and the copper is usually salvaged, whereas with the 



32 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

old type a complete replacement of the damaged parts was generally 
necessary. The material used in insulation is of much better quality 
than that used heretofore, securing increased life of the coil. The 
single-turn coil results in better commutation and less sparking at 
the brushes than was possible with the older construction. 

The improvement in locomotive controllers has been marked. 
Those now used are of the straight type without any auxiliary devices. 
The size and capacity of the blow-out coils have been greatly increased 
and, in the best designs, strap copper with fire-proof insulation is 
used. 

On storage-battery locomotives it is considered best practice to 
have all switches in an enclosed compartment so that they can not be 
thrown when the locomotive is operated under gassj- conditions. No 
attempt has been made to enclose the storage batteries themselves in 
explosion-proof cases, as circuits are not broken while the batteries 
are operating, and there must be ample ventilation about the batteries 
to carry away the gas generated therein. 

An effort has been made to standardize practice in mine haulage 
through a committee of the American Mining Congress for the 
Standardization of Underground Transportation Equipment. Al- 
though the subjects that have been investigated by this committee 
such as track gauge, minimum track curvature for rooms, wheel-base 
for mine cars, types of couplers, and overall dimensions of mine cars 
apply primarily to track and mine-car construction, any standards 
adopted will affect locomotive design. The rating of mine-locomotive 
motors is generally governed by the rules of the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers for railway-type motors. The rated horse- 
power delivered for one hour should not heat the windings more than 
75 degrees C. above the -surrounding air, Standardization Rule No. 415 
being as follows : 

"The nominal rating of a railway motor shall be the mechanical output at 
the car or locomotive axle, measured in kilowatts, which causes a rise of tempera- 
ture above the surrounding air, by thermometer, not exceeding 90 degrees C. at 
any other normally accessible part after 1 hour continuous run at its rated voltage 
(and frequency in the case of an alternating-current motor) on a stand with the 
motor covers arranged to secure maximum ventilation without external blower. 
The rise in temperature as measured by resistance, shall not exceed 100 degrees C. ' ' 

The Electric Power Club has the following standard rule specifi- 
cally applying to mine locomotives : 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE 'IN ILLINOIS 33 

"Mine locomotive motors shall be given nominal ratings which shall be the 
horsepower output at the armature shaft, excluding gear and other transmis- 
sion losses, which the motor will develop for one hour under normal rated condi- 
tions on a stand test with covers removed and natural ventilation, without 
exceeding the temperature rises guaranteed." 

In order that the motor shall have good continuous operating 
capacity, in proportion to its capacity on the hour rating, it is necessary 
to have a liberal radiating surface in addition to the usual requirements 
of ample area of conductors and commutator. 

The manufacturers usually guarantee a certain starting drawbar- 
pull on clean, dry rails, and also running drawbar-pull at specified 
speeds. 

7. Mine Haulage in Illinois. Most of the large producing mines 
in Illinois are being operated in seams of coal which are usually over 
5 feet in thickness, thus permitting the use of cars that are larger 
than the average used in the United States. The largest car in 
use holds about 5 tons and the average about 3 tons. With the 
exception of occasional heavy local grades the coal seams are nearly 
level. The floor is fire clay and affords a good road-bed. These 
conditions permit a systematic arrangement of haulage ways and 
favorable and efficient haulage. Because of these favorable natural 
conditions and because the more modern mines are all designed for 
large tonnages, large capital investments have been made, with the 
result that the more modern Illinois mines are exceptionally well 
equipped. Cars of the capacity noted above require a good track; 
therefore, in most of the mines developed during the past ten years 
40-pound rails have been used on the main entries and 20-pound rails 
in the rooms. In the more recent operations 45- to 60-pound rails have 
been used on the main roads and 25- to 35-pound rails in the rooms. 
Most of the newer mines have adopted a track gauge of 42 inches. 

Statistics for 1920 showed 345 shaft mines, 12 slope mines 
and 10 drift mines. The average depth of shaft was 225 ft. while 
the average slope length was 772 ft. The production from the different 
kinds of mines was : shaft mines, 69 004 807 tons ; slope mines, 
2339167 tons; drift mines, 717006 tons. During the same year 
strip mines produced 367 009 tons or a little more than one-half of 
one per cent of the total production in the state. 

Data from Illinois Coal Reports for the period 1899 to 1921 



34 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



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A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



35 



inclusive indicate a gradual reversal in prominence held by animal 
and locomotive haulage. (Table 1.) In 1899, 87.1 per cent of the 
tonnage in Illinois coal mines was handled by animal haulage. Loco- 
motives hauled 2.5 per cent, ropes 7.9 per cent and tramming 2.5 
per cent, but in 1921 it appears that both ropes and tramming were 
practically obsolete and that 91.2 per cent of the coal was moved by 
locomotives, and only 8.8 per cent by animals. 

In the. early '90 's, several attempts were made to use electric 
locomotives, some of them meeting with considerable success ; but 1899 
was the first year in which an appreciable amount of coal was hauled 
by electric locomotives. Statistics for the number of electric locomo- 
tives in use prior to 1907 are not available, separate from the statistics 
for gasoline and other types. 

Pertinent data on mine haulage were collected, in 1914, by the 
Illinois Coal Mining Investigation and published in Bulletin 13. 
Twenty-four typical mines that used mule haulage had average con- 
ditions as follows : daily coal production, 597 tons ; weight of empty 
car, 1239 pounds; weight of coal per car, 2627 pounds. Similarly 
in 65 typical mines having mechanical haulage, the average statistics 
were: daily production, 1667 tons; weight of empty car, 1753 
pounds; weight of coal per car, 4450 pounds. There were five mines 
using the rack-rail type of locomotive and seven using gasoline loco- 
motives. Rope haulage was used in but six mines. All other mines 
were using trolley locomotives. 

Table 2 gives a classification of the three chief systems of under- 
ground haulage in use throughout the state in the year 1921. Rope 

TABLE 2 
LOCOMOTIVE AND MULE HAULAGE IN 1921 



System 


Mines 


Production 


Ave. Tons 
Per Mine 


No. Per Cent 


Tons 


Per Cent 


Mules only 


109 



33.2 


9 976 493 


12.9 


91 527.5 




Locomotives only 


31 


9.4 


13 731 010 


17.9 


442935.8 




Locomotives for main haulage, mules 
and locomotives for gathering 


189 


57.4 


53 598 971 


69.3 


283592.4 


Totals 


329 


100.0 


77 306 474 


100.0 


234974.1 



36 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

haulage is not included because its use is very limited and the Coal 
Keports do not now segregate it. For the mines covered, this table 
shows how the haulage systems are related to production. 

Statistics for the year 1921 covering 324 producing mines in 38 
counties of Illinois show that electric haulage was used exclusively in 
but 31 mines or 9.6 per cent ; mules performed all the haulage in 108 
mines or exactly one-third; in the remaining 185 mines haulage was 
* ' mixed, ' ' that is, by both locomotives and mules. 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE- IN ILLINOIS 37 



III. THE SHAFT BOTTOM 

8. General Importance. The term "shaft bottom" applies to 
the portion of the mine that is contiguous to the bottom of the main 
hoisting shaft. It includes the terminal tracks for storing the loaded 
cars while waiting to be hoisted,, the storage tracks for empty cars 
while waiting to be taken back to the working faces, and the necessary 
motor and supply rooms, foreman's office, pump rooms, run-arounds, 
shops and waiting rooms. 

When it is considered that the shaft location may affect the 
haulage grades for the entire mine throughout the life of the mine, 
the importance of preliminary drilling to determine the contour of 
the coal bed is obvious, in order that the shaft bottom may be located 
as nearly as possible at the lowest point in the mine and the loaded 
trips hauled down-grade as much as possible. A shaft bottom on the 
loaded-car side should be either approximately level or at a grade of 
1 to 1.5 per cent toward the shaft. The grades on the empty side of 
the shaft vary with the method of handling the empty cars. 

An adequate shaft pillar should be provided about the shaft 
bottom to protect the shaft and the surface equipment from subsidence. 
In too many cases, however, where the original plans called for ade- 
quate shaft pillars, rooms have been started in the pillar in order to 
get coal quickly. In many cases it has proved very poor economy to 
mine out the coal too close to the shaft, for it should be remembered 
that this coal is not lost but merely deferred in its extraction to the 
time when the mine will be abandoned. Typical shaft bottom arrange- 
ments are shown in Figs. 12 to 18, inclusive. 

The shaft bottom is the heart of the underground workings and 
is the busiest place in the mine. Here the loaded cars must be 
promptly hoisted or dumped and the empties returned to the work- 
ing face to avoid blocking the traffic. In some mines from 1200 
to 1500 cars are handled on the shaft bottom daily during an 
eight-hour shift, or an average of two to three per minute. The 
efficient operation of the whole mine, therefore, depends not only on 
shaft-bottom arrangement and mechanical equipment, but also on a 



38 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

proper balancing of the haulage from the various divisions of the 
mine to the shaft bottom which is the main terminal. 

The first extensive use of self-dumping cages was in Illinois. At 
present they represent the prevailing method of hoisting coal, except 
in the longwall field. At a number of the older and smaller mines 
and very generally in the longwall field the platform cage is still 
used, the car being run off the cage at the surface to be dumped. In 
a few cases, two cars are placed on the cage platform for hoisting, 
either tandem or side by side. The speed of hoisting at the larger 
mines gives two to four hoists per minute. Mine cars vary in 
capacity from two to four tons each. 

The chief items to be considered in the shaft-bottom layout are: 

Arrangement of tracks to permit the locomotive to land a loaded 
trip and to obtain an empty trip without delay, so as to prevent 
interference of one locomotive with another. 

Storage space for loads and empties. 

Shaft-bottom grades. 

System of handling loads and empties, including caging, if the 
cars are to be hoisted. 

Arrangements for safely receiving the men who have been 
lowered; also adequate waiting room for men who have gathered on 
the shaft bottom previous to being hoisted to the surface. 

Suitable arrangements for handling equipment and supplies, such 
as timber, oil, waste rock, sump coal, and broken cars. 

Conveniently located mine manager's office, locomotive barns, 
repair and supply shops, pump-rooms and mule stables. 

The act of haulage is really completed when the car is placed on 
the cage ready to be hoisted, but often haulage and hoisting data 
are not kept separately. Only data upon hoisting, ventilation, and 
such collateral topics as have an effect upon haulage performance are 
considered in this discussion. 

9. Delivering Cars to Shaft Bottom. It is important that the 
main-line locomotives be able to land the loaded trips at the bottom 
and take up the empty trips for the return with the least possible 
interruption. The likelihood of interference increases with an in- 
crease in the number of locomotives hauling to the shaft bottom. With 
two locomotives, one coming from each side of the shaft, there should 
be no interference and no delay, provided there is ample storage for 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 39 

empty cars. Where two or more locomotives come to the shaft bottom 
over the same route, interference on the shaft bottom between the 
incoming and outgoing locomotives is probable unless a definite 
schedule is maintained and proper provision is made in the shaft- 
bottom layout. Three different ways of preventing such interference, 
described later in detail in connection with the several shaft-bottom 
arrangements herein given, are as follows: 

(1) Adequate length of double track in each direction from the 
shaft on the main haulage road, as described under Mine A, p. 56. 

(2) Separate outlets from the shaft-bottom empty-storage track 
to the several sections of the mine, with grade track crossings elimi- 
nated by the use of cross-over bridges, as described under Mine C, 
p. 58. 

(3) A trip despatcher or haulage boss on the shaft bottom who 
is in touch by telephone with flagmen at the junction points, and thus 
directs the incoming trips. 

10. Storage Space for Loads and Empties. Adequate storage 
tracks for loaded and empty cars, and a suitable arrangement of such 
tracks and their approaches should be provided, as these items very 
largely determine the regularity and continuity of cars supplied to 
the eager for hoisting. A shortage of railroad cars on the surface 
or an accident in the shaft may cause delay in hoisting; therefore, 
the shaft bottom should provide adequate storage and flexibility in 
handling cars and incoming trips. 

Data in Table 3 show variations in storage capacity at a number 
of mines studied, and Figs. 12 to 18 show a number of different 
arrangements of storage tracks. In Table 3, "Storage capacity loads" 
means the number of cars that can be stored on the track from the 
shaft to a point where the incoming locomotive ordinarily is cut off 
from the loaded trip; and "Storage capacity empties" means the 
number of cars that can be stored on the empty-car track without 
interfering with the caging operations or with the passage of the 
incoming locomotive. Any extension of storage space that interferes 
with regular operations should not be included as regular storage 
capacity. 

Although the storage capacity on the shaft bottom is figured for 
a certain number of cars, the varying sizes of trips and times of 



40 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 













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A STUDY OP COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 41 

arrival often prevent the ratecl,* capacity from being- available. The 
location of the connections between the main bottom tracks and the 
run-around tracks, often called "the motor runs/' and the points 
where the locomotives are cut loose from the trip determine the 
storage capacity of the shaft bottom to a great extent. For example, 
this cut-off point may be so located that when one locomotive follows 
another into the bottom on the same side, the second locomotive will 
be delayed until the last loaded car of the first trip has passed the 
entrance to the motor run, and the first locomotive will be delayed 
until the second loaded trip has cleared the junction point between 
the loaded and empty tracks on the main entry, unless there is a 
double track on the main haulage road. 

11. Handling Cars on Shaft Bottom. There are three distinct 
operations in connection with the handling of cars on the shaft 
bottom : 

(1) Delivering loaded cars to the eager after the main-haulage 
locomotive has been cut off. 

(2) Caging. 

(3) Taking empty cars from the cage to the empty storage 
track. 

Delivery of Cars to Cager 

There are three methods by which the loaded cars after being 
cut off from the locomotive may be delivered to the cage; first, by 
pushing and spragging, second, by car haul, and third by a small 
locomotive running on a center track. 

(a) When the control of the mine car after the locomotive has 
been cut off is left entirely to the spragger, the grade toward the shaft 
is usually about 1.5 to 2 per cent from the locomotive cut-off point to 
a point about two car lengths from the cage, and from this point on 
to the shaft the grade is increased to about 3 per cent so that the 
loaded car may have sufficient impetus to bump the empty car off 
the cage. Too steep a grade on the shaft bottom is dangerous for the 
spr aggers and switch-throwers. 

If there is a slight up-grade on the approach to the shaft bottom 
so that the locomotive must continue pulling until a cut-off switch is 
reached, such a switch should be automatically thrown by the loco- 



42 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

motive. If the speed at which the trip is cut off is excessive there is 
danger of the cars getting beyond control. If the same employees 
always handle the loaded trips, they become skilled in their work and 
can accurately judge the distance the cars will run and the number 
of sprags necessary, so that very few run-away trips occur although 
this method of handling cars is extensively used. Handling by gravity 
and spragging is a continuation of the method employed when the 
cars were much smaller than those commonly used now. The present 
tendency is to install heavier equipment both in mine cars and in 
locomotives so that the problem of controlling the cars by hand under 
such conditions is much more difficult than formerly. 

Several types of sprags are shown in Fig. 5. The ordinary double- 
cone spoke sprag a is thrust between the spokes of the moving wheels, 
thus causing the wheels to slide on the rail ; the block sprag b may be 
placed on the rail in front of the wheel, or it may have a flat face 
cut out to fit the flange of the wheel c, d, and be placed in front of 
the wheel. The block form gives much greater surface of contact than 
the cone type and one block is as effective as several cone sprags. 
On account of the smaller number of block sprags required, there is 
also a saving in time in the application of sprags. 

(b) A car haul consists of an endless chain to which are 
attached at regular intervals "catches" that engage the axles of 
the cars and push the latter forward toward the cage. A similar 
device may be used for moving the empty cars on the opposite side of 
the cage. 

(c) By means of a relatively small locomotive running on a 
third or center track (Fig. 6), and provided with an arm that can be 
moved in and out transversely on either side of the locomotive, cars on 
either track are pushed forward toward the cage. The advantages of 
this system are that at all times the cars are under control, and they 
may be moved in either direction as desired, the safety on the bottom 
being thus increased. A car-haul can control the movement of cars 
for the length of its construction only perhaps 75 feet whereas an 
auxiliary locomotive will regulate the travel of the loads or the 
empties for the entire length of the bottom with the exception of 
about 50 feet on either side of the shaft. Another fact in favor of 
the auxiliary locomotive is that it proves useful in replacing derailed 
cars anywhere on the shaft bottom. 




FIG. 5. TYPES OF SPRAGS 




FIG. 6. CENTER-TRACK PUSHER LOCOMOTIVE 




FIG. 7. AUTOMATIC CAGING DEVICE AND USE OF SPRAG 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 47 

Caging 

Cars are caged by hand or Ky an automatic caging device, the 
loaded car bumping the empty car off the cage. I^ig. 7 shows an auto- 
matic caging device used at most of the newer mines. A pair of dogs 
nearest the shaft is opened automatically when the cage strikes the 
bottom, thus permitting the loaded car to be pushed upon the cage. 
At the same time a second pair of dogs, farthest away from the shaft, 
is thrown across the track and stops the incoming car. As the cage 
rises off the bottom, the dogs that were across the track open and the 
other pair fall back over the track, thus permitting the loaded car 
to be pushed forward ready to be put on the cage when it next 
descends. In some instances, caging is carried on so rapidly and with 
such precision that the signal to hoist is given before the car has 
come to rest on the cage. 

Removal of Empty Cars 

Owing to unfavorable natural conditions it is often necessary to 
do considerable grading in order that an empty car may run by 
gravity from the cage to the empty-storage track. An arrangement 
often used when the cars are caged from one side only is to have 
the track leading from the cage terminate in a " kick-back" which 
gives the empty cars sufficient impetus to cause them to run by gravity 
to the empty-storage tracks, where they are formed into trips. By 
means of a mechanical car lift (Fig. 8) the empty car may be raised 8 
to 12 feet and thus, in running down a grade, be given an impetus that 
will fiause it to run by gravity directly to the empty-storage tracks; 
or from the car lift it may go first to a "kick-back" and thence to 
the storage track. 

A three-track arrangement with an auxiliary locomotive operating 
on the center track, similar to that described as being used an the 
loaded side of the shaft, has many advantages for handling heavy 
equipment and gives a very flexible method of operation. A greater 
length of shaft bottom on the empty side is necessary for this arrange- 
ment but it provides increased storage space for empty cars and also 
a convenient way for shifting broken cars. 

12. Handling Men on Shaft Bottom. The shaft-bottom arrange- 
ments for handling men depend upon whether the hoisting shaft for 
coal is used also for hoisting men, or whether an auxiliary shaft is 



48 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

used for men and materials. According to the present agreement in 
Illinois between the mine operators and the United Mine "Workers 
of America, the men are hauled to and from the shaft bottom and 
inside partings of the mine. Consequently, greater numbers of men 
may be expected to congregate at one time on the bottom than was the 
case when the men walked to and from their work. This condition 
should be taken into account in the arrangement of the shaft bottom. 

When the men are hoisted at the main hoisting shaft it is 
common practice to run a man cage about nine o'clock in the morning, 
one or more during the noon hour, and one during the afternoon when 
the shot firers enter the mine. These are in addition to the cages 
at the regular morning and afternoon lowering and hoisting times. 
The activity on the shaft bottom during the working hours makes 
traveling dangerous, and in a number of mines special traveling ways 
are provided to the waiting rooms required by the Illinois Mine Law 
so that men are kept away from moving cars. 

The approach to the hoisting shaft and to the escape-way at the 
air shaft should be carefully chosen and easy of access. The waiting 
rooms are usually so located that, in passing to the cage, the men pass 
the "checking" room and turn in the checks given them on entrance 
in the morning. At one mine a waiting room has been made by placing 
flooring about seven feet above the main tracks and providing seats in 
the room thus made. Such an arrangement is possible of course only 
when there is unusual headroom on the bottom. Such gathering places 
for men offer an opportunity for the display of safety signs and 
pictures. Indeed, moving pictures relating to safety might also be 
shown while the men are waiting to be hoisted, though no instance 
of this being done is on record. 

13. Handling Supplies, Equipment, and Refuse. The problem 
of handling equipment, supplies, broken cars, etc. is most successfully 
solved where there is a separate man and materials shaft, which is 
usually the air shaft also. The mines provided with separate hoists 
at the air shaft have this advantage also that all refuse can be hoisted 
and taken to the dump pile without either interfering with the 
hoisting of coal or requiring any changes of chutes in the tipple, as 
is necessary when the same self-dumping cages are used both for coal 
and rock. 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 49 

14. Handling of flump Coal. The method generally employed 
for removing the coal that falls into a sump is to have it hand shoveled 
into a mine car. In addition to the inconvenience of this method 
there is a certain amount of danger attached to it, due to uninten- 
tional lowering of the cage upon the man in the sump or from objects 
falling down the shaft. One solution of this problem is a track laid 
into the sump under the cages at right angles to the cage tracks. Two 
mine cars are run into this sump, one under each cage. When they 
become full of coal they are withdrawn and replaced by empty cars. 
Such an arrangement is possible only where a crosscut or entry on 
the cage landing opens at the end of the shaft, and where the conditions 
are such that suitable grading may be done in order that the cars may 
be hauled from under the cage. 

At the Bunsenville Mine of the U. S. Fuel Company, provision 
has been made whereby cars may be run under the cage landing and 
there loaded from a hopper with a drop-bottom attachment. These 
cars are then pushed to an electrically operated auxiliary hoist and 
hoisted a distance of 13 feet to the shaft-bottom level. 

At some mines a removable box with a drop bottom or side has 
been placed in the sump and fitted into the guides so that when full 
of coal it can be attached below the cage and hoisted the height neces- 
sary to permit the contents to be discharged through a detachable 
chute into an empty car on the shaft bottom. 



15. Arrangement of Offices, Stables, Shops, and Supply Rooms. 
At many mines greater attention could advantageously be given to 
the provision of larger and more adequately equipped mine man- 
ager 's offices on the shaft bottom, where managers and their assistants 
may meet for consultation. 

Where mules are used they are generally stabled underground 
near the shaft bottom. The construction of underground stables has 
been specially provided for in the Illinois mine law, which specifies 
a separate air split, fire-proof construction throughout, automatic 
sprinklers, fire-proof doors, covered bins, and covered cars for hay and 
grain. The worst accident in the history of Illinois mining, the 
Cherry mine fire, was due to the careless handling of "hay. The 
standard stable of one large company operating in Saline County is 
shown in Fig. 9. The construction of this stable is fire-proof through- 



50 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

out, consisting of steel roof support, full-height concrete walls and 
concrete floors, stall partitions, feed boxes, feed bins, and harness 
rooms. The stable feed bins and harness rooms are fitted with steel 
doors. Separate hay and grain boxes are provided for each stall, 
with one water trough for two stalls. An automatic sprinkler 
system is installed directly over the feed boxes. The stall partitions 
are built of concrete 42 inches high, topped with a wire screen 24 
inches high. Hooks are provided at each stall for holding the harness 
when not in use. A track in the center of the stable is used for 
handling supplies and loading out manure. Additional space is pro- 
vided for washing the mules. Drainage is provided by a tile conduit 
extending under the full length of the stable. Every Saturday the 
stable is thoroughly washed out with a hose and thus maintained in 
a sanitary condition. 

The central point for storing locomotives over night or during 
idle periods should be readily accessible from the different sections 
of the mine. The locomotives are left standing along the main tracks 
with the trolley poles down, if no barns are provided for their 
storage. Where storage-battery locomotives are used, provision is 
made for charging stations and these are usually installed in a special 
locomotive barn. 

In connection with locomotive haulage, it is becoming more and 
more common to provide on the shaft bottom a fairly complete repair 
shop in which there are often one or more motor pits. Moreover, time 
might be saved where gathering locomotives are used, by establishing 
at central points in the inner workings auxiliary repair shops fitted 
with motor pits for minor repairs. This has been done at one mine 
in Saline county in connection with an underground sub-station. For 
line repairs and bonding of the rails and also for certain minor repairs 
to locomotives, a specially-equipped portable repair car may be main- 
tained. 

Usually broken cars are hoisted and taken off at the ground land- 
ing to be repaired in the repair shop on the surface; but at a few 
mines provision has been made for making small repairs to mine cars 
underground, particularly to the running gears, couplings, draw- 
bars, etc. A repair room for this purpose is sometimes located near 
to and connected with the empty-storage track. 




FIG. 9. UNDERGROUND STABLE 




Fio. 10. UNDERGROUND SUPPLY BOOM 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 53 

The following is a report of locomotive repair items for one day 
at one of the larger mines in Illinois' where 7 main-line and 19 gathering 
locomotives are used. 

Main-Line Time Spent in 
Locomotives Nature of Ee P airs Repair Shop 

^ No. 21 Arc lights Hr. 15 Min. 

21 Suspension bar down 55 

Gathering 1 10 
Locomotives 

No. 26 Eeel ball race 2 30 

9 Eeel circuit ground 15 

8 New trolley pole ...... 10 

16 Eeel stud broken ..".... 30 

23 Eeel resistance 52 

26 Short circuit 21 

24 Lead off resistance 12 

7 Sand-rod broken 8 

22 New reel armature 20 

4 New reel armature 3 

5 Lead blown off reel motor ... 32 
12 New trolley pole 15 

5 Eesistance blown up ..... 1 

9 Hr. 47 Min. 

Some companies maintain near the shaft a room well equipped 
with supplies needed in connection with the operation and repair of 
mining machines and locomotives. (Fig. 10.) Such a supply room, 
usually in charge of a storekeeper who checks out materials by a system 
similar to that generally used on the surface, aids materially in keeping 
account of the repairs upon each mining machine or locomotive. Oil 
and grease are sent underground in barrels and are usually stored in 
an offset to the empty run-around near the oiling station. On account 
of the fire risk special precautions should be taken when handling and 
storing this material. Considerable sand is used daily in some of the 
mines, at one mine eight tons per day being used for sanding the rails. 
The usual method of handling the sand is to dry it on the surface 
and then send it below in mine cars for distribution to central 
points. Sometimes a pipe through a bore-hole from the surface carries 
the sand to a central distribution point near the shaft bottom. 

16. Shaft-Bottom Support. In some mines where there are 
favorable natural roof conditions and an ample height of coal, very 



54 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

little support to the top and sides is necessary; but in most mines 
a large amount of roof and side support must be used. Much greater 
permanency now marks shaft-bottom construction than formerly and 
in many of the more recent shaft bottoms concrete arches or steel 
I-beams, with wood lagging or concrete roofing between the beams, 
have been installed on the shaft bottom as part of the initial develop-- 
ment. Concrete sides serve the double purpose of sustaining the 
roof supports and the coal ribs. 

Three types of permanent construction are shown in Fig. 11. 
In the first type (a and fo) structural steel is used for the posts and 
the caps, with plank lagging on walls and roof. In the second type 
(c and d) concrete is used for the walls, structural steel for the caps, 
and the lagging is either plank or corrugated or sheet iron. In the 
third type (e) concrete is used exclusively for the walls and the roof, 
the roof being an arch. 

Cost figures for these three general types of support have been 
furnished by Allen & Garcia, Chicago, Illinois, the estimates being 
based upon the average cost of the various materials in place as of 
August 1, 1921, and upon sets being placed at 4-feet centers. The 
constructions illustrated are calculated to withstand top pressures of 
750 pounds per square foot and side pressures of 500 pounds per 
square foot. Concrete is estimated as costing $30 per cubic yard; 
structural steel, 8 cents per pound; iron, 10 cents per square foot; 
and lumber, $65 per thousand board feet. 

For a shaft bottom or double-track entry, Fig. lla, using 6-inch 
H-beams for posts and 12-inch I-beams for caps, the cost was approxi- 
mately $24 per lineal foot. 

For a single-track entry, supported exclusively by structural 
steel, Fig. 11Z>, 6-inch H-beams are used for both posts and caps. The 
estimated cost per lineal foot was approximately $18. 

In the second general type of construction, for both single-track, 
Fig. lie, and double-track, Fig. lid, with walls 18 inches thick at 
the bottom and 12 inches thick at the top, and using for the narrow 
entry 6-inch I-beams for caps, and for the double-track entry 12-inch 
I-beams, the cost per lineal foot in the two widths of entry was re- 
spectively $25 and $30. 

For the third type, Fig. lie, in which concrete is used exclusively 
with walls of the same thickness as in the preceding type and the 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



55 




/;? 



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-Si 









-/6-2- 

~/4'2- 



J 



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/7-^*"- 



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FIG. 11. TYPES OF PERMANENT SHAFT-BOTTOM SUPPORTS 



56 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

arch uniformly 8 inches thick, the cost per lineal foot was approxi- 
mately $31 for the dimensions given. 

A coating of cement put on roof and ribs with a cement gun is 
being extensively experimented with in an effort to prevent spalling 
off of the coal. This cement coating should not be applied until the 
roof and ribs have been thoroughly brushed or cleaned to remove all 
dust and loose fragments of coal, thus ensuring a solid foundation 
for the cement, which would otherwise spall. 

17. Typical Shaft-Bottom Plans. Typical shaft-bottom plans 
for several Illinois mines are shown in Figs. 12 to 18, inclusive. A 
characteristic feature of the bottoms in most of the newer mines in 
Illinois is that the shafts are in the shaft pillars off from the lines of 
main haulage and the tracks leading to and from the shafts are 
approximately at a right angle to the main haulageways. This is 
illustrated in Fig. 13 and is commonly known as the "A" type of shaft 
bottom. If the empty tracks leading from the back of a shaft to the 
main haulageway are not parallel to the incoming loaded tracks, but 
at an angle of 30 deg. to 45 deg., as shown in Fig. 15, the bottom is 
said to be of the ' ' V " or triangular type. 

Data on the general layout, operation and cost of operation for 
ten mines are given in Table 3. A detailed description of the 
particular features of the plans and the methods of operation follows. 
The term "bottom men" as used in this bulletin includes the men 
engaged in handling the loaded cars, i.e., cagers, spraggers, switchers, 
and couplers but not the oilers and sump men who work on the bottom, 
but do not handle the cars. The costs are based on the 1920 wage 
scale as follows: motormen, $7.50 per day with an additional allow- 
ance for hauling men to and from the partings, making the wage 
about $8.03 per day ; trip riders and cagers, $7.50 ; couplers, switchers, 
spraggers, $7.25. 

Mine A 

This shaft bottom (Fig. 12) has a three-track arrangement on each 
side of the shaft. The main-line locomotive, upon reaching the shaft 
bottom with a trip of loaded cars, is stopped at the point a and the 
locomotive cut off. A ground switch is thrown by the trip rider who 
then gets back upon the locomotive, which proceeds to the empty 
storage track. A six-ton auxiliary locomotive (Fig. 6), which is on 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



57 




FIG. 12. MAP OF SHAFT BOTTOM MINE A 



the middle track and is provided with an extension arm, then moves 
the trip under complete control to the shaft where it is caged by an 
automatic eager. 

On the empty-car side of the shaft another six-ton locomotive 
with a movable arm collects the empty cars as they come from the 
cage and places them on the empty-storage tracks. In this mine, 14 
locomotives haul directly from the working face to the shaft bottom, 
seven coming from the north and seven from the south side of the 
mine. At the same mine, the double track extends for 2500 feet on 
the main haulage entry in each direction from the shaft bottom. This 
permits the locomotives to proceed on their return empty trip without 
interruption from the), incoming loaded trips. This double-track 
arrangement also permits the entire number of locomotives if necessary 
to concentrate near the shaft bottom with loaded trips, giving in effect 
a very large loaded-storage capacity which may include every car in 
the mine without interfering with the empty return tracks. The 
empty-car storage shown in Fig. 12 is ample for ordinary operation 
of the mine and provides for the storage of about 45 cars on each side 
of the shaft. Delays on the bottom at this mine are small although 
an average of 1125 cars are hoisted daily, the empty cars weighing 
2750 pounds and holding 4 tons of coal. The shaft-bottom force 
handling cars includes 1 eager, 3 spraggers, 2 couplers and 1 car dis- 



58 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 




FIG. 13. MAP OF SHAFT BOTTOM MINE B 

tributor, at a total daily wage of $51 according to the 1921 wage 
scale, or 1.13 cents per ton. 

Mine B 

On this shaft bottom (Fig. 13) two tracks lead to and from 
the shaft. The main-line locomotives usually cut off from the trips 
at a point a about 100 feet from the shaft and, after passing through 
a switch that is automatically thrown, proceed through the motor 
run cross-cut &. From the point a to the automatic cagers at the 
shaft the loaded cars are controlled by spraggers. The empty cars 
are run by gravity to a kick-back and thence to the empty-car storage 
track where they are formed into trips ready for the locomotives 
that come through the motor run b. Of the six locomotives that come 
to the shaft bottom, four are of the 15-ton type and are used for 
main-line haulage only, while the remaining two, which are of the 
8-ton reel-and-trolley type, are used for gathering as well as for 
main-line haulage. 

From 1200 to 1500 cars are caged per day on this bottom. 
Occasionally there is some congestion when the trips reach the bottom 
in rapid succession, due to lack of empty-storage space and a single 
track on the main haulage roads. This congestion could be obviated 
by double-tracking the main haulage roads for a distance of 200 to 
300 feet inbye from said junction with the empty-storage tracks, and 
by increasing the empty-storage trackage. This could be accomplished 
by cutting off the locomotive at the point c and having it go through 
the cross-cut d, the loaded cars being controlled from c to the eager 
by spraggers. 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



59 



The average daily tonnage hoisted at this mine is 5200 tons or 
1245 cars, each holding 4.3 tons'.' The average hoists per hour are 
155 and the bottom employees are 4 cagers, 6 spraggers and blockers, 
2 couplers, and 1 car distributor and switcher. The total daily wage 
according to the scale prevailing in 1921 was $95.25, giving a shaft- 
bottom labor cost per ton of 1.83 cents. 

Mine C 

The bottom arrangement (Fig. 14) provides for a separate 
haulage way to each of the four sections of the mine 1, 2, 3 and 4. 
There are two tracks on each side of the shaft, and after the locomo- 
tive is cut off at the point a the cars are moved to the shaft by spraggers 
and automatic cagers. The main-line locomotives approach the inbye 
end of the shaft bottom, Z>, by different routes, but all of them are 
detached from the loaded trips at the point a and pass through the 
motor runs, c, to the empty storage tracks. At two places, e, where 
crossings are necessary, overhead bridges permit the loaded trips 




FIG. 14. MAP OF SHAFT BOTTOM MINE C 



60 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 




FIG. 15. MAP OF SHAFT BOTTOM MINE D 



to pass over the empty trips. From the junction points, /, of the 
loaded and empty tracks the haulage roads inbye are single track. 
The two ' ' proposed tracks ' ' parallel to the main bottom were intended 
as an extra locomotive run-around for sections 2 and 3, but they have 
not been needed to date. 

The empties run by gravity from the cage to the empty storage 
track, d, where they are coupled to the empty trips. 

With this arrangement a daily output of 4500 tons or 860 cars, 
each holding 5.25 tons of coal, is handled with 1 eager, 2 spraggers, 1 
coupler, and 1 switcher, at a daily labor cost of $36.50 or 0.81 cents 
per ton. 

Mine D 

The roads leading to the shaft bottom (Fig. 15) are single-track 
and the locomotives are cut off along the main entry at a and, by 
flying a switch, run upon the parallel side track 6. After the trip has 
passed the motorman brings the locomotive up behind the trip and 
pushes it to the automatic eager if this be necessary, or the trip may 
have sufficient momentum to run to the eager and may have to be 
controlled by sprags. The locomotive backs to the junction joint in 
the empty-storage track, c, and there picks up the empty trip. A 
mechanical car-lift and kick-back sends the empties by gravity to the 
empty-storage track, d. 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



61 



Two locomotives operate in each of the east and west sections 
of the mine. Movements of trips to and from the shaft bottom are 
controlled by telephone communication from the several partings to 
the haulage boss who knows that the road is clear before giving the 
right-of-way ; thus only one locomotive from each section is permitted 
on the shaft bottom at one time. 

Five thousand tons or 1440 cars per day are handled on this 
bottom by 8 men, 3 cagers, 2 spraggers, 2 couplers, and 1 switcher, 
at a total labor cost per day of $58.75 or 1.18 cents per ton. 

Mine E 

This shaft bottom is that shown in Fig. 16. The locomotives 
are detached from the loaded trips on the main entries, the loaded 
cars proceeding by gravity to the shaft under control of sprags. 
Caging is done by hand. The empty cars are elevated by a mechanical 
car-lift and run by gravity from a kick-back switch to the empty- 
storage track. The daily output is 1600 cars or a total of 3800 tons. 
The shaft-bottom force includes 3 cagers, 3 spraggers, 2 couplers, and 
3 switchers at a total daily labor cost of $82.50, or 2.17 cents per ton. 

Mine F 

The shaft-bottom arrangement is similar in general to Mine A, 
but the loads are pushed by ten-ton locomotives operating on the 




FIG. 16. MAP OF SHAFT BOTTOM MINE E 



62 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



I LJ<LJ_J< >i it x >i M >L_||~I 

LJ C3 CD CD CZDEDaCZ] U 




FIG. 17. MAP OF SHAFT BOTTOM MINE I 



middle of three tracks instead of by a six-ton locomotive as in Mine A. 
Only two locomotives come to the bottom, one from each side of the 
mine, and a combined main and gathering system is used; whereas 
in Mine A the locomotive hauls directly from the working face to the 
bottom, the trains consisting of from 10 to 20 cars. The empty cars 
are elevated by an electrically operated drag-line and then run by 
gravity to the empty-storage track. 

With the present arrangement, and hoisting per day 800 cars 
that hold 4.5 tons each, the labor force is 1 eager, 3 spr aggers, 2 
couplers, and 1 switcher. The total labor cost is $51.00 per day, or 
1.42 cents per ton. 

Mine G 

The shaft bottom is triangular in shape, similar to that shown in 
Fig. 15. There are two tracks on the shaft bottom and cars are con- 
trolled by spraggers after the locomotive is cut off. On the main 
east approach there is a slight up-grade, and a small electric drag-line 
is employed to pull the loads a short distance upon the main track. 
An automatic eager is used and the empty cars run from the cage 
to the empty-storage track by gravity. The location of the motor 
run is similar to that in Mine B and the empty-storage tracks extend 
beyond the shaft, as in Mine C. 

For an output of 2600 tons per day, or 800 cars of 3.3 tons 
capacity, the labor force is 2 cagers, 3 spraggers, 1 coupler, and 1 
switcher, at a labor cost of $51.25 per day or 1.97 cents per ton. 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



63 



Mine H 

This shaft bottom is similar to Fig. 13. The daily output of 
3400 tons is handled in cars holding 3.25 tons each, by 1 eager, 2 
spraggers, 2 couplers and 1 switcher, at a total shaft bottom labor 
cost of $43.75, or 1.29 cents per ton. 

Mine I 

This shaft bottom, Fig. 17, differs from the A or V type commonly 
used in Illinois, as the hoisting shaft is in line with the main entries 
that extend east and west from it. Coal is hauled to the shaft bottom 
from both directions, but caging is done from the west side of the 
shaft only. The locomotives are detached from the loaded trips from 
the west at one of two points a and obtain their empty trips at ft. The 
loaded trips from the east are pulled past the shaft on track c and 
backed in on the loaded tracks at a. The locomotives that are hauling 
to the east side go along c to the entrance to the empty storage, d, 
to obtain their empty trips. 

The repair shops are conveniently located on the west side of 




FIG. 18. MAP OF SHAFT BOTTOM MINE J 



64 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

the shaft, and the motor barn in which is the charging station for 
the storage-battery locomotives, on the east side of the shaft. A switch 
is provided near the shaft for sidetracking cars for oiling. 

For an output of 4000 tons per day, or 1330 cars each holding 

3 tons, the labor force is 1 eager, 3 spraggers, 1 switcher, and 1 coupler, 
and the total cost per day $43.75 or 1.09 cents per ton. 

Mine J 

Fig. 18 is a sketch of a shaft bottom somewhat similar to that 
in Mine E. Here, however, the entries are parallel. The empty cars 
can be hauled out along either of the main entries to the north or to 
the south. The daily production averages 3200 tons and is hoisted 
at the rate of 134 cars per hour with a shaft -bottom force of 1 eager, 

4 spraggers, 1 coupler and 1 switcher, at a daily labor cost of $51.00 
or 1.59 cents per ton. 

18. Shaft-Bottom Delays. At one mine a detailed study of 
delays on the bottom was made for one day, and the results are plotted 
in Fig. 19. Starting at 7:00 A.M., as shown by the diagram, there 
were 78 loaded cars on the bottom ready to be hoisted. There were 
also 8 empties. The loads were hoisted by 7:40 but the first trip 
did not reach the bottom until 7:57, thus causing a delay of 17 
minutes. The diagram also shows delays in hoisting extending from 
8:20 to 8:30; 8:50 to 9:00; 11:11 to 11:15, due to no cars being 
received on the bottom. Eight times during the forenoon at 8:05, 
8 :09, 8 :35, 9 :07, 9 :15, 9 :31, 9 :40 and 9 :56 the diagram shows that 
the incoming trips reached the bottom just as the last car was hoisted, 
thus probably causing a slight slowing up in the hoisting. The 
number of cars in each trip is shown by vertical components of the 
graph. For instance, at 7:57 the first trip of 12 cars was landed at 
the locomotive cut-off point. As shown by the number in the circle, 
the locomotive was standing still one minute before proceeding through 
the motor run. Letters N and 8 indicate the side of the mine from 
which the trips arrived. Occasionally trips arrived simultaneously 
from both sides of the mine, as at 11:19 A.M. 

On the day when this time study was carried out 61 trips came to 
the shaft bottom. The 24 trips with a total of 357 cars from the N 
side were delayed 1 hour 19 minutes, and the 37 trips with 878 cars 
from the 8 side were delayed 3 hours 24 minutes; that is, the loco- 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



65 



K 












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oo 2 1 



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ooO/ 

oeG 



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66 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 




FIG. 20. MAP OF SHAFT BOTTOM FOR SKIP HOISTING 

motives waited a total of 4 hours 43 minutes before proceeding from 
the cut-off point to the empty-storage track. 

19. Shaft Bottoms for Skip Hoisting. Prior to 1917 there were 
in Illinois only three installations at which skip hoists were used. Two 
of these were at small-capacity mines and the end-gate type of car 
was used ; the third mine had an average daily production of between 
three and four thousand tons and a bottom-dump car was used. 

Since 1918 there have been opened several large shaft mines in 
which skips, rotary dumps, and solid-end cars are installed. The 
capacity of these skips is between 10 and 12 tons.* At one of the 
mines noted, a trial record of 1000 tons in one hour was obtained in 
1920. The rotary dump permits the use of the solid-end car, thus 
giving a more rigid construction, one of the greatest sources of trouble 
in mine-car construction being the loose end-gate; it also simplifies 
track layout as the car may be run in either direction. Thus, at one 
mine the track layout is such that the position of a car on alternate 



* A detailed discussion of skip hoisting will be found in an article by Allen and Garcia 
in the Trans. Am. Inst. Min. & Met. Engr. for 1921. reprinted in "Coal Age," March 17 and 
24, 1921. 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 67 

trips from the shaft bottom to the face is reversed, which could not 
be the case with the ordinary self -dumping cage layout. 

The average shaft bottom arrangements for several mines at which 
skips are used are shown in Fig. 20. As all these mines are still in 
the development stage, costs per ton for handling coal on the bottom 
are not yet available. 

The locomotives coming to the shaft bottom are detached from 
their trips at points a, passing thence into the empty-return entries, 
while the loaded cars move toward the main shaft under control of a 
pusher locomotive or shunter traveling on the auxiliary track c. All 
loads pass the hoisting shaft over a single track and through a rotary 
dump. The empties return from & through the return entries to be 
picked up by the locomotives and hauled back to the workings through 
entries d. Double trackage in 6 permits a continuous influx of empty 
cars without interruptions due to outgoing empty trips. The auxiliary 
or air shaft is conveniently located on the main haulage entry for 
cage hoisting when necessary. Fig. 21 shows in vertical cross-section 
a typical skip-hoisting equipment, including rotary dumps, storage 
hopper, and automatic measuring hopper. 

The shaft bottom at one skip mine includes a rotary car-dumper 
and skip hoist for a capacity of 7000 to 8000 tons daily. The mine 
is divided into four sections, northeast, northwest, southeast, and 
southwest. On the west side of the shaft the locomotives cut off, pass 
through a run-around, obtain their empty trips in the back entry, and 
then proceed westward along the back entry to the main west haulage 
roads. From the east side of the mine the loaded trips are pulled past 
the shaft along the back entries to the west main shaft approach. The 
locomotives are detached at the same point as are those from the 
west, then pass through the run-around to the back entry where they 
obtain their empty trips and proceed directly to the northeast or 
southeast portions of the mine. Loaded cars are handled singly by 
a mechanical car-haul to the weigh scale. A special track is provided 
for switching broken cars. All material is handled at the auxiliary 
hoist shaft located to the west of the main shaft. The installation is 
made complete by a motor-generator room and necessary repair and 
supply shops near the auxiliary hoist shaft. 

At another mine the shaft-bottom arrangement includes a skip 
hoist for the coal and an auxiliary air-and-materials shaft provided 
with cages. The main-line haulage locomotives cut off in the main 



68 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



ra/seJtt t/)f sk//? asce/yds. 




FIG. 21. VERTICAL CROSS SECTION SKIP-HOISTING SHAFT 



entry and go through the empty run-around to the empty-storage 
track back of the shaft. A pusher locomotive pushes the loaded trip 
toward the shaft as described in connection with Mine A, page 56. 

The empty side of the shaft beyond the skip-pit is provided with 
two tracks so that the empty cars can continue to pass to the storage 
tracks, even though the locomotive may be pulling out an empty trip. 
The auxiliary shaft is so located that cars may be conveniently sent 
from the main haulage to the cages or returned from the cages to the 
main haulage. 

The arrangement at still another skip mine provides for the loaded 
cars to be detached along the main haulage road at a point where the 
locomotive enters the cross-cut leading to the empty run-around, and 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 69 

the loaded trip continues to the clump by gravity, assisted by three car- 
hauls. These hauls are electrically driven and operated by one 
dump-man located near the shaft. On the empty-storage side the 
locomotive is coupled to the end of the trip and, after the cars have 
passed through the car-dump, pulls it toward a switch, then pushes 
it through one of the cross-cuts at the right or left to the empty 
tracks where the main-line locomotives receive their trips. Instead 
of using car-hauls on the loaded side of the shaft and a locomotive 
on the empty side, the same arrangement of tracks can be used and 
the loads carried by gravity to the dump, while the locomotive may 
pass through the run-around and take the empty trip from the tracks 
back of the shaft. An arrangement of tracks at the auxiliary shaft 
is such that the coal may be caged from either side of the shaft and 
the empty cars returned to the same side from which they were caged. 



70 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



IV. MAIN-LINE AND GATHERING HAULAGE 

20. General Considerations. Main-line haulage means that por- 
tion of the haulage system between the shaft bottom and the gathering 
partings where the cars are collected from the rooms and made into 
trips. 

The questions to be considered in connection with the main haul- 
age are, therefore, supply of ample power, condition and grade of 
track, kind and condition of equipment (such as locomotives and 
cars), speed of travel, suitable' and properly-spaced turnouts or pass 
partings when single track is used, maintenance of a schedule of 
trips that will cause a minimum of delay at the terminal point and 
at the pass partings, and prevention of accidents. 

The data for the mines studied show that the time spent by the 
locomotives on the main line is generally less than that consumed 
in making up trips on the partings, delivering loaded trips on the 
bottom, and picking up empty trips on the bottom for return to the 
parting, providing the main-line haulage distance is not more than 
one mile. The workings from which each locomotive receives the 
cars should be concentrated so that the locomotive does not have to go 
to widely separated gathering partings. There should also be an 
adequate reserve of empty cars on the shaft bottom so that the in- 
coming locomotives are not required to wait for their return trips. 

Satisfactory performance on the main haulage is not so much a 
factor of speed of running as it is of continuous and regular operation. 
If the haulage system is properly laid out and operated, a high speed 
of haulage is unnecessary. A slow, uniform speed gives increased 
safety to employees, both to those engaged in haulage and to- others 
who may be compelled to use the haulage roads. A conservative speed 
results also in less spillage of coal- along the track, less raising of 
dust, and less cost for repairs to equipment. Usually a maximum 
speed of six to eight miles per hour can be adopted with increased 
safety. Only occasionally need the trips be run at higher speeds, as 
when making up time lost through unusual or irregular causes. 

The trolley type of locomotive is generally used for main-line 
haulage and is fairly well standardized for the conditions that exist 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 71 

in Illinois mines. The locomotives vary from 6 to 20 tons in weight, 
many of the recent installations being of the 15-ton type. In the larger 
mines as the length of main-line haul increases the size of the locomo- 
tive used for this duty also increases; because generally the greater 
the capacity per locomotive the smaller number required for a given 
tonnage, provided the haulage layout is properly designed and there 
are ample side-tracks. During a shift of eight hours and under suit- 
able operating conditions, a 15-ton locomotive should easily haul on the 
main line from 1500 to 2000 tons of coal a distance of one mile, but 
as shown in Table 4 this is being done in very few of the mines 
studied. 

Generally the main-line haulage and gathering are kept separate. 
At a few mines, however, the locomotives used on the main haulage 
also gather from the faces and thus run directly from the faces to 
the shaft bottom with comparatively small trips of cars. 

21. Location of Partings. In connection with the gathering of 
the cars from the rooms, the location of the partings with respect to 
the room entries materially affects the efficiency of both gathering and 
main haulage. 

It is important that the work of gathering be concentrated so as to 
reduce the number of partings, the number of cars required, and the 
distance that either mules or locomotives must travel in unproductive 
work. The partings should be so advanced that they will always be 
within a certain standard distance of the working face. This distance 
varies widely in different mines, but for mule haulage it is generally 
about 800 to 1200 feet and for locomotives 800 to 2000 feet. In some 
mines the partings are placed centrally with respect to four panels, 
the cars being back-hauled from two panels to the parting. The dis- 
advantage of back-hauling from the older panels, in which there may 
be only a few rooms working, may be more than compensated for by 
the advantages given to newly developed territory from which the 
bulk of the hauling is done. Thus each time a parting is moved, 
whether it be after intervals of two, three or more years, the point 
should be selected to insure the greatest return for the expense in- 
volved; that is, it should be as close as possible to the "center of 
production" of the tonnage to be produced during a given installation 
period. Partings are made either by widening a single track entry so 
that a double track may be installed or by driving an extra passage in 



72 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



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A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



73 



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74 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 




FIG. 22. TYPICAL PLAN OF MINE PARTINGS 



the pillar as shown in Fig. 22, which shows also a diagonal arrange- 
ment at the entry crossings. Fig. 23 shows the diagonal connection 
between entries at a prominent mine. 

22. Procedure of Gathering. The methods of distributing cars 
to and gathering them from the rooms vary with the method of work- 
ing, the agreement between operators and miners, the track arrange- 
ment, and the weight of the car. In Illinois, although each miner is 
assigned a definite room, two men usually load together in one room 
while an adjoining room is being undercut, so that on any day, even 
if the entire working force of miners is busy, coal will be loaded in 
only half the total number of rooms. Unless the car is too heavy or 
the grade conditions unfavorable, the miners usually push the empty 
car to the face but the loaded car is always taken from the face by 
a locomotive or a mule. 

Gathering by Locomotive 

The procedure in gathering by locomotive usually conforms to 
one of the three methods, illustrated in Fig. 24 for a panel of 14 rooms 
on each entry : 

1. The empties are left at the room necks but the locomotive 
goes to the room face for each loaded car. There are two variations 
of this general method, (a) and (b). 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



75 



(a) The locomotive pushes the empty trip into a given panel, 
and distributes the empty cars 'to and gathers the loaded cars from 
seven rooms, as numbers 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13, assumed to be working 
on a given day. Assuming that the miners from rooms 1 and 2 are 
loading in room 1, an empty car is detached from the inbye end of 
the trip and delivered into the switch for room 2 which has been or 
is being cut by the machine men. Proceeding inbye, cars are switched 
into rooms 4, 6, 8, etc. to room 14. The locomotive takes the loaded 
car from face of room 13 as far as the switch for room 11, where it 
is detached from the locomotive. At this time the condition is as 
shown in Fig. 24a. The locomotive next takes the loaded car from 
room 11. This car is coupled to the. car from room 13 and the loco- 
motive proceeds outbye, similarly taking the loaded cars from rooms 
9, 7, etc. When the loaded car has been taken from room 1, the trip 
contains seven cars which are then hauled to the parting. The miners 
then push the empty cars to the working faces. 

(b) The locomotive collects the loaded cars as in (a) and takes 
the loaded trip to the parting; then, returning with an empty trip, 
leaves the empty cars in the necks of the rooms that are being worked, 




FIG. 23. DIAGONAL CONNECTIONS BETWEEN ENTRIES 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 




W//////AY//////AV//////^^^^ 




E/npty Car L ceded Car ^ 
FIG. 24. METHODS OF GATHERING BY LOCOMOTIVES 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 77 

as rooms 1, 3, 5, etc. After leaving the last empty car in room 13 
the locomotive goes through the last open cross-cut to the parallel 
entry, as shown in Fig. 24&_, and collects the loaded cars on its way out ; 
or if this is not practicable it proceeds without any cars to another 
entry to make up a loaded trip. 

2. Cars are taken to and from the working face by the locomotive 
by either of two systems, (c) or (d). 

(c) An empty car is cut off at each of the rooms 1, 3, 5, to 13 
as the locomotive proceeds along the entry. When the empty trip 
has thus been distributed and room 13 is reached, the empty car is 
pushed into the face of room 13 and coupled to the loaded car which 
is then pulled out and pushed along the entry to a point just inbye 
of the switch into 13, and there blocked and uncoupled from the 
empty car. The locomotive then returns into room 13 with the empty 
car which is pushed to the working face and there left. The locomotive 
returns to the loaded car at the mouth of room 13 and takes it to 
the switch just inbye of room 11, where the locomotive is uncoupled. 
The empty that has been left at the mouth of room 11 is then pushed 
up to the face and coupled to the loaded car. This procedure is 
repeated at each of rooms 9, 7, etc. After an empty car has thus 
been placed at the face of each room the trip of 7 loaded cars is taken 
to the parting. Fig. 24c shows the condition along the entry after 
the locomotive has gathered two loaded cars from rooms 13 and 11 and 
is pulling the loaded car out of room 9. 

(d) The loaded cars are taken successively from the faces of 
rooms 13, 11, 9, to 1, and the loaded trip of 7 cars is hauled out to 
the parting. Returning, the locomotive pushes the empty trip past 
the switch of room, 1, where it is blocked. Then the car next to the 
locomotive is uncoupled from the empty trip and is pushed by the 
locomotive to the room face. Similarly, the locomotive pushes an 
empty up to the face of each of rooms 3, 5, to 13. Fig. 24d shows the 
locomotive pushing an empty car into room 3. The locomotive then 
proceeds to the parallel entry through a cross-cut at the face ; other- 
wise it backs along the same entry to the main entry and thence to 
another gathering section. If track is maintained in both of the 
room entries A and B it saves time of the locomotive to connect these 
entries with a track through the last cross-cut. This method requires 
the loaders to wait while the locomotive go.es to the parting with 
a loaded trip and returns with an empty trip. 



78 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

3. The empty cars are taken to a room cross-cut switch near 
the face by a locomotive or mules. In this way the distance that 
a car is pushed by the miner is decreased. The method is therefore 
intermediate between methods 1 and 2 in the amount of hand-pushing 
of the cars, and is particularly applicable also when the cross-cut is 
worked more as a separate room or place than as an ordinary narrow 
cross-cut. The empty cars are placed in order just "inside the room 
necks, from room 1 to room 13, as the locomotive proceeds toward the 
face of the entry. At room 13 an empty is pushed up into the room and 
placed on the cross-cut switch. The loaded car is then taken from the 
face to a point on the entry just inbye the switch to room 11. The 
empty in the neck of room 11 is then pushed to the room cross-cut 
switch and the loaded car at the face of room 11 is brought to the entry 
and coupled to the car from room 13, as shown in Fig. 24e. 

If a room cross-cut is being driven wide so that it is practically a 
room, and its loaded car is in the cross-cut, the empty will be left 
just beyond the cross-cut switch along the room track while the 
locomotive goes into the cross-cut for the loaded car. If the loaded car 
is at the face of the room the empty is placed on the cross-cut switch 
and the loaded car then taken from the face of the room. 

With this method track need be maintained in one room only, 
while two or more rooms on each side are served by spur tracks 
through the last open cross-cuts. In this practice the locomotive 
enters room 1 with two empty cars which are switched at the face and 
the loads are then taken out by the locomotive. Extra switchlaying is 
required each time the room is advanced a cross-cut length, but this 
outlay is compensated for by the saving of both time and upkeep in 
room haulage and equipment. Moreover, there is some advantage in 
a shorter travel of the mining machine in these rooms which, being 
kept off the entry haulage roads to a greater extent, interferes less with 
haulage. 

Gathering by Mules 

For hauling cars in rooms and for short entry hauls mules are 
effectively used, hence the parting should be kept as close to the 
working face as practicable. The procedure is very similar to that 
followed in gathering by locomotives except that smaller trips are 
necessary. Usually from two to three cars only are hauled to the 
parting while, at times, on account of adverse grades, a mule can pull 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 70 

only one loaded car. When the driver delivers the empty cars to 
the room faces he does so on the return trip after the loads have 
been taken to the parting. 

In some mines the loaded cars are taken from the room faces to 
the entry by mules and there made into trips by the gathering locomo- 
tive and taken to the parting. While the locomotive is returning 
with the empty cars the same driver and mule are employed in gather- 
ing a similar trip of cars from the rooms in the adjoining entry. 
In delivering the empty cars the locomotive pulls the cars into the 
room entry where the trip rider cuts off one car from the rear of the 
trip at each working room. If a track has been laid through the last 
open cross-cut between two panel entries, the locomotive, after deliver- 
ing all of the empties in one entry, can pass through the cross-cut to 
the adjoining entry, gather the cars in that entry into a trip, and take 
them to the parting. 

23. Performance of Main-Line Locomotives. In order to secure 
comparative data in regard to performance at different mines operating 
under different methods of main-line and gathering haulage, a study 
was made of the number of cars,, the weight of coal, and the distances 
hauled, both in gathering and on main haulage; thus data were 
obtained for ton-miles per day per locomotive, which is the measure 
of performance used for comparing the operation of locomotives on 
standard surface roads. 

Table 4 gives a summary of performance data for main-line loco- 
motives at the mines listed as B to I, inclusively, under the shaft 
bottom discussion, pages 58 to 63. The mines covered by Table 4 are 
all large producers and have modern equipment. This table shows a 
considerable variation in the daily performance at different mines 
such as the average number of cars hauled per trip, the average number 
of cars hauled per day, and tonnage or cars per day per parting, 
but the real basis for comparison is the average ton-miles of coal 
hauled per locomotive and the average locomotive-miles per day. The 
detailed study of several of these mines shows a similar variation in 
the work performed by different locomotives in the same mine, sug- 
gesting that at many mines a re-adjustment of locomotive schedule 
might be made with advantage. With the exception of Mines B and E 
in each mine of this group the main-line locomotives average over 1000 



80 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



tons of coal per day delivered to the shaft bottom. At Mine H two 
locomotives average 1585 tons per day with an average hanl of 
3440 feet. The total ton-mileage per locomotive varies between 290 
and 3386; the two greatest averages, 2479 and 2209, being made at 
the two mines having the longest average hauls of 6217 and 6087 feet 
respectively. Of the two mines that lead in production one shows 

TABLE 5 

MAIN LINE HAULAGE FOR EIGHTEEN MINES 
Group, of Mines Producing between 1500 and 3000 Tons Daily 



Mines 


Ave. 
Daily 
Tonnage 


No. 
Years 
in 
Oper. 


Mine Car 


Loco. 


No. 
Part- 
ings 


Ave. 
Dist. 
Haul, 
feet 


Empty 

Wt. 

tons 


Coal 

Wt. 
tons 


No. 


Wt. 


1 


2200 


15 


1.25 


3.20 


3 


12-ton 


5 


3500 


2 


2000 


14 


1.00 


3.05 


2 


14-ton 


8 


4000 


3 


2.500 


9 


1.50 


4.25 


2 


12-ton 


10 


4025 


4 


1800 


12 


1.45 


3.25 


2 


13-ton 


7 


27(K) 


5 


2250 


15 


1.43 


2.25 


3 


10-ton 


10 


4400 


6 


2200 


17 


1.00 


2.40 


2 


10-ton 


7 


.-,(101) 


7 


1800 


17 


0.75 


2.00 


2 


10-ton 


6 


5000 


8 


2500 


22 


0.70 


3.00 


3 


10-ton 


7 


3750 


9 


1700 


15 


* 


2.75 


2 


12-ton 


4 


2700 


10 


2500 


4 


1.06 


2.90 


3 


10-ton 


8 


1950 


11 


1770 


20 


* 


2.20 


3 


12-ton 


5 


5280 


12 


2200 


20 





2.25 


3 


12-ton 


5 


6600 


13 


1500 


15 


* 


2.00 


2 


13-ton 


5 


6000 


14 


2000 


15 


* 


2.50 


3 


15-ton 


6 


7000 


15 


3000 


20 


1.50 


3.00 


4 


13-ton 


11 


6000 


16 


1700 


31 


1.50 


3.00 


3 


13-ton 


7 


4500 


17 


1800 


15 


1.15 


2.70 


3 


10-ton 


6 


5100 


18 


1600 


16 


1.10 


3.00 


3 


10-ton 


6 


3500 


Ave. 


2100 


16 


1.18 


2.78 


3 


12-ton 


6 


4500 



*Empty car weight not available. Total ton-miles per loco, approximately 1.81 times ton-miles coal. 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



81 



the greatest average daily mileage per locomotive while the other 
shows the least. It is interesting to note that Mine B, having the 
greatest production, puts the least average duty in total ton-miles 
per day upon its locomotives, but at the same time puts both extremes 
of such duty upon them. This mine has also the fewest ton-miles of 
coal per locomotive per day. 

TABLE 5 (CONTINUED) 

MAIN -LINE HAULAGE FOR EIGHTEEN MINES 

Group of Mines Producing between 1500 and 3000 Tons Daily 



Mines 


Ave. 
Cars 
per 
Trip 


Ave. 
Trips 
per 
Day 


Ave. 
Cars 
per 
Loco, 
per 
Day 


Ave. 
Tons 
Coal 
per 
Loco. 


Ave. 
Ton- 
Miles 
Coal 
per 
Loco. 


Ave. 
Ton- 
Miles 
per 
Loco. 


Ave. 
Loco. 
Miles 
per 
Day 


1 


15 


16 


240 


700 


465 


750 


20 


2 


18 


24 


430 


1300 


1000 


1670 


36 


3 


20 


15 


300 


1250 


950 


1620 


23 


4 


20 


15 


300 


900 


460 


690 


15 


5 


20 


17 


340 


750 


600 


1350 


28 


6 


23 


20 


460 


1100 


1000 


1830 


38 


7 


22 


20 


440 


900 


850 


1500 


38 


8 


18 


16 


280 


840 


600 


900 


23 


9 


18 


16 


280 


850 


440 


* 


16 


10 


12 


24 


280 


840 


310 


510 


18 


11 


16 


17 


270 


600 


600 


* 


34 


12 


20 


Ifi 


320 


700 


900 


* 


40 


13 


16 


20 


320 


650 


740 


* 


45 


14 


17 


16 


270 


670 


900 


* 


42 


15 


15 


16 


250 


750 


850 


1700 


36 


16 


12 


16 


190 


570 


490 


980 


27 


17 


22 


10 


220 


600 


580 


1080 


20 


18 


10 


18 


180 


540 


360 


620 


24 


Ave. 


17 


17 


300 


800 


670 


1320 


29 



*Ernpty car weight not available. Total ton-miles per loco, approximately 1.81 times ton-miles coal. 



82 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



TABLE 6 

PERFORMANCE OF FIVE 15-ToN MAIN-LINE LOCOMOTIVES IN A LARGE ILLINOIS MINE 

For One Shift 



Locomotive 


(a 


l) 


a 


) 


(c 


) 


No Trips 




14 




13 




15 
















Ave No Cars per Empty Trip .... 




18 




18 




18 
















Ave No Cars per Loaded Trip 




19 




18 




18 
















Total Loads 


3 


75 


3 


42 


2 


92 
















Total Tons Coal 


11 


33 


1 


97 


12 


03 


Ave Distance Hauled 


48 


50 


37 


00 


49 


50 
















Ton-Miles Coal 


10 


40 


^ 


00 


11 


30 










. 






Locomotive Miles 




26 




18 




28 
















Analysis of Time 


Min. 


Per Cent 


Min. 


Per Cent 


Min. 


Per Cent 


Running Time on Main Line 


197 


43 


197 


43 


198 


44 


Loaded 


102 




94 




105 


















Empty 


95 




103 




93 


















Switching Time 


102 


22 


87 


19 


92 


20 
















Motor Run 


24 




22 




28 


















Empty Run Around 


27 




20 




23 


















Inside Parting 


51 




45 




41 


















Total Running Time 


299 


65 


284 


62 


290 


64 
















Total Delavs . . 


161 


35 


177 




163 


















Delays at Shaft Bottom 














Blocked by Loads 


87 




79 




52 


















Waits for Empties 


15 




19 




21 


















Delays, Inside Partings 














Waits for Loads 


59 




36 




90 


















Repairs 






43 






















Total Operating Time 


460 


100 


461 


100 


453 


100 

















A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



83 



TABLE 6 (CONTINUED) 

PERFORMANCE OF FIVE 15-ToN MAIN-LINE LOCOMOTIVES IN A LARGE ILLINOIS MINE 

For One Shift 



Locomotive 


(c 


I) 


A^ 


r e. 


(e 


)* 


No. Trips 




14 




14 




14 
















Ave. No. Cars per Empty Trip 




23 




19 




16 


Ave. No. Cars per Loaded Trip 




23 




19 




15 


Total Loads 


I 


43 


2 


88 


I 


JOS 


Total Tons Coal 


14 


13 


1] 


86 


J 


557 
















Ave. Distance Hauled 


47 


50 


4 


62 


11 


500 
















Ton-Miles Coal 


12 


70 


1C 


35 




340 
















Locomotive Miles 




25 




24 




8 


Analysis of Time 


Min. 


Per Cent 


Min. 


Per Cent 


Min. 


Per Cent 


Running Time on Main Line 


189 


44 


195 


43 


118 


26 


Loaded 


98 




100 




68 


















Empty 


91 




95 




50 


















Switching Time 


92 


21 


93 


21 


55 


12 
















Motor Run 


34 




27 






















Empty Run Around 


24 




24 




46 




Inside Parting 


34 




43 




9 




Total Running Time 


281 


65 


288 


64 


173 


38 
















Total Delays 


150 




163 




278 


















Delays at Shaft Bottom 














Blocked by Loads 


90 




77 






















Waits for Empties 


23 




20 




201 


















Delays, Inside Partings 














Waits for Loads 


37 




56 




77 


















Repairs . . 






10 






















Total Operating Time 


431 


100 


451 


100 


451 


100 



* Locomotive (e) does relay duty. 



84 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



II 

.fe 

3 



P 
si 



f W 



S 



J - 



I I 







;T 



a 

" i 
s s 

1 



*l 

.{ 

b i 3 ^ 
I I 2 

& a^ 

Q I 9 > 



S '5 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



85 





. 


4 


1C 


. 


:,v 


,, 


j CO 

1 


CO 


1C 









11 

h 


d 





rH 




CO 


M 


- 


1 

CO 


(N 








03 


t> 


CO 


: 


1C 


1C 





CO 


1C 






oo M 


1 


6 


S 


S 


s 


8 


00 
CO 


CO 
1C 


3 




w 




d 


05 


CD 





L 


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l& 


a 


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a. 
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CD 
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co 


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1C 00 


s 

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t* 
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co co' 


CD 
t> 


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co 


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J 
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M 

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CD 


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d 


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OS 


35 


CD 
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li 


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ll 


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5 


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1C O5 
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co 


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co 


1C 


O C^J 


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H 
o 


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d 


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00 -I 


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1C 
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s 


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p 

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05 


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05 


il 


o 
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P 


1 


i 


1 


11" 


1 


1C 
(N 


I 


c 

(N 


M 



i 

o S 


H 

1 


Oh 

O o 




_d 


i 


l-H 


iO O 


g 


1 


s 


55 


1 


*\ 

J3 * 

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O 


1 


X 


o 

% 


1 


*C 00 

JS 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


M 1 

li 




la 


1 


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1 


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CO 

% 


i 


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8 

IN 


I s 
^ j 

2 "5 




1* 

3 


| 


1 


g 


o 


o 


OS 

00 


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1 


oo 

00 
(N 


a 
1 1 

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00 


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86 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



TABLE 8 
GATHERING HAULAGE IN SEVENTEEN TYPICAL ILLINOIS COAL MINES 



Mine 
No. 


Avc. 
Daily 
Ton- 
nage 


No. Men 


No. 
Ma- 
chines 


No. 
Mules 


Locomotives 


No. 
Part- 
ings 


in 
Entries 


in 
Rooms 


No. 


Wt. 


Kind 


1 


2200 


32 


178 


21 


11 


6-ton 


Reel 


5 


2 


2600 


26 


154 


17 





13 


6-ton 


Reel 


8 


3 . 2500 


76 


170 


22 





14 


6-ton 


Reel 


10 


4 


1800 


58 


130 


17 





8 


6-ton 


Reel 


7 


5 


2250 


66 


217 


15 


25 . 








10 


6 


2200 


40 


164 


17 


5 


8 


5-ton 


St. Bat. 


7 








7 


1800 


40 


164 


17 


2 


8 


6-ton 


St. Bat. 


6 








8 


2500 


50 


190 


18 


17. 


1 
3 


6-ton 
6-ton 


St. Bat. 
Reel 


7 


9 


1700 


30 


113 


11 


12 








4 








10 


2500 


.Vl 


349 








14 


5-ton 


St. Bat. 


8 


11 


1770 


49 


132 


18 


24 












12 


2200 


41 


177 


22 


28 
1 








5 

1 








14 


2000 




300 





12 


4 


5- ton 


St. Bat. 


8 








15 


3000 


23 


252 


11 





12 


5-ton 


St. H:,t. 


6 


16 


1700 


16 


200 


2 


2 


6 


5-ton 


St. Bat. 


7 


17 


1800 


46 


125 


20 


4 


2 
5 




St. Bat. 
Reel 


6 


18 


1600 








20 








6 









A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



87 



TABLE 8 (CONTINUED) 
GATHERING HAULAGE IN SEVENTEEN TYPICAL ILLINOIS COAL MINES 





Mine 
No. 


Ave. 
Dist, 
Haul, 
feet 


Ave. 
Car 

Trips 


.\ve. 
Trips 
per 
Day 


Ave. 
Cars 
per 
Loco, 
or 
Mule 


Ave. 
Tons 
Coal 
per 
Loco, 
or 
Mule 


Ave. 
Wt. 
Tons 
Coal 
per 
Car 


Ave. 
Ton- 
Mi. 
Coal 
per 
Loco, 
or 
Muls 


Ave. 
Ton- 
Mi, 
per 

Loco, 
or 
Mule 


Ave. 
Loco, 
or 
Mule- 
Mi, 
per 
Day 


1 


L. 1500 


6 


11 


63 


200 


3.20 


56.8 


102.0 


6.24 


2 


L. 1100 


8 + 


8 


67 


200 


3.05 


41.7 


69.8 


3.34 


3 


L. 1650 


5 


8 


40 


170 


4.25 


53.1 


90.6 


5.00 


4 


L. 850 


7 


10 


70 


225 


3.25 


36.2 


68.8 


3.22 


5 


M. 800 


1 1 A 


27 


40 


90 


2.25 


13.6 


30.9 


8.18 


6 


L. 1000 
M. 500 


6 + 
3 


14 
15 


85 

45 


200 
110 


2.40 
2.40 


37.9 
10.4 


70.8 
18.9 


5.30 

2.84 


7 


L. 1000 
M. 500 


7 + 
3 


14 
16 


100 

48 


200 
100 


2.00 
2.00 


37.9 
9.5 


66.4 
16.3 


5.30 
3.03 


8 


L. 900 
M. 900 


7 
1-2 


10 
25 


70 
32 


200 
100 


3.00 
3.00 


34.1 
17.0 


52.5 
24.6 


3.41 
8.53 


9 


M. 1000 


3 


17 


50 


140 


2.75 


26.5 


49.7 


6.44 


10 


L. 1200 


6 + 


10 


62 


180 


2.90 


40.8 


70.4 


4.54 


11 


M. 1000 


1 


32 


32 


70 


2.20 


13.2 


24.8 


12.11 


12 


M. 800 
M. 650 


1 

1 


35 
40 


35 

40 


40 

75 


2.25 
2.25 


6.1 
9.2 


11.4 
17.2 


10.60 
9.85 


14 


L. 1200 
M. 800 


7 
2 


12 
20 


80 
40 


200 
100 


2.50 
2.50 


45.4 
15.1 


82.2 
28.3 


5.45 
6.06 


15 


L. 1100 


6 


14 


83 


250 


3.00 


52.1 


103.9 


5.83 


16 


L. 1000 
M. 700 


6 
1 


15 
24 


87 
24 


260 

70 


3.00 
3.00 


49.2 
9.3 


98.7 
18.8 


5.68 
6.36 


17 


L. 1800 
M. 1300 


7 + 
1 


11 
32 


80 
32 


210 

85 


2.70 
2.70 


71.5 
20.9 


136.3 
39.0 


7.50 
15.75 


18 


M. 900 


1 


27 


27 


80 


3.00 


13.6 


23.7 


9.20 


Ave. 
Per- 
form- 
ance 


109 Loco 


1227 




11.05 


71 


204.9 


3.04 


46.94 


84.98 


5.21 


54 Reel-trolley Loco. 


1341 





9.30 


61 


197.0 


3.39 


49.26 


86.80 


5.10 


55 St. Bat. Loco. . . . 


1115 




12.76 


80 + 


212.4 


2.70 


44.67 


83.20 


5.30 


152 Mules 


869 




27.36 


36 


82.5 


2.18 


13.60 


25.30 


9.05 



88 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

Somewhat 'similar data arc given in Table 5 for 18 mines having 
a variation in production from .1500 to 3000 tons per day. Most of 
these mines, being older than those listed in Table 4 and therefore 
having mine cars that are generally of less capacity, have lower ton- 
mileages. 

Table 6 has been prepared from data taken in one of the 
largest coal mines of Illinois to show the average daily performance 
of the main-line locomotives. These data cover one full shift of eight 
hours. The average distance traveled by a locomotive per round trip 
was 1.72 miles. Each locomotive was on duty approximately 94 per 
cent of its full shift, and an analysis of its actual operating time is 
given. Thus locomotive (a) was on duty 460 minutes or during 
96 per cent of its 8-hour shift, but of this time it actually operated only 
299 minutes or 65 per cent of the 460 minutes. Four kinds of delays 
consumed 161 minutes of this locomotive's time and the average delay 
per locomotive per shift was practically 2.72 hours. 

24. Performance of Gathering Locomotives. Table 7 covers the 
data on gathering haulage for the same mines as, and in a manner 
similar to, Table 4 for main haulage. Table 8 similarly covers seven- 
teen of the mines in Table 5. Owing to the constantly changing dis- 
tances that cars are hauled in gathering from the same territory, it 
was impossible in the time available to obtain accurate data for each 
car moved during the period when the study was made in each mine, 
but a distance from a central point in the panel to the parting 
was assumed as the average travel for the cars gathered from the 
given panel, and the average weight of coal per car was also assumed 
for the mine during the given period. While these assumptions may 
not give exact results for any given day, they probably represent the 
average operating conditions of any given mine and are of value in 
comparing the performance of locomotives in different mines and in 
different sections of the same mine. 

Gathering is performed by locomotives exclusively in five of the 
selected eight large Illinois coal mines, by mules exclusively in one of 
these mines, and by both locomotives and mules in two mines. These 
eight mines utilize for gathering haulage 108 locomotives and 25 mules. 

Improvements in reel and crab locomotives permit their use in 
even the most difficult working places. 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 89 

The average distance covered by main-line haulage in these eight 
typical mines is 4555 feet, while the average distance traveled in 
gathering in these same mines is but 1141 feet, or approximately one- 
fourth the main haulage travel. The sizes of trips in the two stages 
of haulage are as 7 cars in gathering to 19 cars in main haulage. In 
main-line haulage a locomotive averages 31.3 miles per day, whereas 
in gathering it averages but 4.8 miles. In total ton-mileage per 
locomotive the figures for the two classes of haulage are as 111 in 
gathering to 1985 in main haulage, or about as 1 to 18. 

As the activities of coal mining continually alter underground 
workings, the tables must be accepted as statistically accurate for a 
relatively short period only, and only for the dates upon which the 
data were secured. The method of diagramming and listing the data 
for each of the mines is illustrated by giving the diagrams and tables 
for Mine A, having one-stage haulage, and for Mine D, having two- 
stage haulage. 

25. Details of Haulage Performance in Typical Illinois Mines. 
The detailed methods of representing the workings diagrammatically 
and of tabulating the haulage data used in compiling Tables 4 and 7 
are given for two mines only in Table 9 for Mine A, and in Tables 
10 and 11 for Mine D. In Mine A, cars are hauled directly from the 
rooms to the shaft bottom by one set of locomotives, while in Mine D 
there is a distinction as to gathering and main-line haulage. 

The following data regarding the handling of cars from the 
face to the shaft bottom will supplement the shaft-bottom data given 
in connection with Table 3. 

Mine A 

The daily production is 4500 tons. Each mine car weighs 2780 
pounds empty, and holds four tons of coal, and there are 474 cars 
in the mine. Approximately equal amounts of coal reach the shaft 
bottom from the north and south sections of the mine, and the cars 
are brought directly from the working face to the shaft bottom by the 
same locomotives that gather the coal and operate on the main line. 
All empties are similarly hauled from the shaft bottom directly to 
the workings. It is believed that the system of gathering directly to 
the shaft 'bottom involves fewer delays. 

Although the shaft was sunk at the approximate center of the 
original property the later development of the mine has been such that 



90 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



Shaft B- 



5&6W.S. 



3X4, . 



t&e. EN. 



4 Loco. 



/008T 



2 E.S. 



{TA/sj>ortio(>_ 



<0 



3*4 ES. 



2 Loco. 



64 27 



/Loco. 



389 T 



Loco. 



/66T. 



Loco 



740 



ff 



A// hav/age d/r&cf fr-o/r? ^ 
faces to s/?aff boffo/n. 



FIG. 25. HAULAGE DIAGRAM MINE A 



at present the shaft is near one side of the operating portion of the 
mine thus giving a rate of advance for the haulage roads about double 
that for a centrally located shaft. Fig. 25 is a diagrammatic sketch 
of the haulage roads in Mine A. 

The main-haulage road is double track for 2500 feet in each 
direction from the shaft, north and south, so that there is no inter- 
ference of incoming and outgoing trips. Adequate pass-partings also 
permit trips to pass conveniently in the cross-entries. Switch throwers 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



91 



TABLE 9 
HAULAGE 'MiNE A 



Territories 


Locomotives 


Approx. 
Dist. 
Hauled 


No. 
Cars 
per 
Day 


Tons 
Coal 
per 
Day 


Ton- 
Miles 
Coal 
per 
Loco. 


Total 
Ton- 
Miles 
per 
Loco. 


Daily 
Mile- 
age 
per 
Loco. 


No. of Men in 


No. 


Kind 


Entries 


iRooms 


3 and 4, ES.... 


2 


Reel 
and 
Trol- 
ley 


6230 


60 


242.98 


387.20 


690.85 


19.39 


6 


52 


7000 


21 


83.30 


6300 


79 


316.20 


5 and 6, ES . . . . 


2 


Reel 
and 
Trol- 
ley 


5550 


78 


313.90 


403.74 


720.36 


21.88 

. 


10 


48 


6600 


33 


123.45 


5640 


75 


302.60 


Main S, & 5 
undG, WS... 


3 


Reel 
and 
Trol- 
ley 


6700 


25 


95.30 


307.21 


548.13 


15.51 


18 


55 


5000 


74 


300.10 


5300 


74 


298.85 


7300 


40 


156.60 


2 ES 


1 


Reel 
and 
Trol- 
ley 


8230 


49 


195.00 


409.05 


729.83 


24.61 


4 


15 


7800 


18 


71.15 


17 & 18S.-2ES 


1 


Reel 
and 
Trol- 
ley 


7000 


123 


492.80 


653.33 


1165.68 


37.12 





38 


1 and 2, EN ... 


, 


Reel 
and 
Trol- 
ley 


6900 


77 


310.35 


769.95 


1373.75 


41.84 





28 


6825 


61 


243.05 





28 


7500 


9 


35.35 


4 ! 


3 and 4, EN ... 





Reel 
and 
Trol- 
ley 


7075 


88 


366.80 


353.85 


631.34 


20.57 


25 


7760 


41 


166.50 





13 


7900 17 


67.30 


10 





7375 85 


340.65 





27 


8150 


17 


66.55 


8 





Averages . . 






6707 






410.80 


732.95 


22.50 











92 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

are stationed at main junction points and extra flagmen are placed 
as required. The locomotives in this mine are combined trolley and 
storage-battery locomotives, and, while the greater part of the haulage 
is done by using current from a trolley wire, current from the bat- 
teries enables the locomotives to reach the working faces. This system 
is here held preferable to the use of reel locomotives in that it 
reduces delay in changing from trolley service and lessens the peak 
loads on the power circuit. Each locomotive averages daily seven 
trips of from 6 to 14 cars each. The grades in the room are nearly 
level and about 95 per cent of the empty cars are left by the locomotives 
at the room necks, but the loaded cars are gathered from the faces by 
the locomotives. The average haul of a locomotive is 6707 feet. 

Mine A has the same daily production as Mine C in which the 
haulage is divided into two stages. For Mine A the average total 
ton-miles per locomotive is 733. In Mine C the average total ton-miles 
per locomotive per day in gathering is 119 and in main haulage is 
1624, and the general average for all locomotives is 420. Similarly, 
the respective total of ton-miles for gathering haulage and main haul- 
age in Mine D (which has a daily production of 5000 tons) are 144 
and 2047, and the average for all locomotives, 544. The average 
data for the eight large mines in Tables 4 and 7 are respectively 111 
and 1985 with a general average for all gathering and main locomo- 
tives of 497. These statistics would indicate that the duties imposed 
upon a locomotive in a single-haulage-system mine are heavier than 
those imposed on a locomotive in a double-haulage-system mine. This 
may be explained by the fact that the weight and capacity of all 
locomotives in the two-stage-haulage mines will average less than in 
mines having single-stage haulage. 

Mine D 

The daily production is 5000 tons. The mine cars weigh 2400 
pounds empty and hold 3.50 tons of coal. The mine is developed 
uniformly, two-fifths of the production coming from the eastern sec- 
tion and three-fifths from the western. Two main-line locomotives 
operate in each section, each locomotive serving from three to five 
partings and averaging 26 trips of 15 cars each per shift of eight 
hours. The average length of main haul is nearly one mile. The 
system of train despatching minimizes the time lost on the partings, 
as the haulage-boss at the shaft bottom keeps in telephonic communica- 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 93 

tion with a man stationed at each, parting and, whenever a trip is 
reported as made up there, sends a locomotive to that point. 

Tables 10 and 11 give the data obtained by a detailed study of 
Mine D ; and Fig. 26 is a skeleton diagram of the haulage system at 
the time the observations were made. All main-line haulage is done 
by four trolley locomotives. 

Table 10 gives the territories covered in gathering by fifteen loco- 
motives and five mules. Two of the partings are served by both loco- 
motives and mules. One point brought out by this tabulation is that 
although mules do not handle as great tonnage per day as the 
locomotives, they travel considerably farther. The mules in this 
mine average 8.5 miles of travel daily whereas the locomotives average 
but 4.4 miles. 

Mine B 

One-third of the production comes from the north side and 
two-thirds from the south side of the mine. Four 15-ton main-line 
locomotives haul an average trip of 15 to 16 cars over an average 
distance of 4630 feet, making slightly more than two round trips per 
hour. One 15-ton relay locomotive operates between two main partings 
and forms part of the main haulage system. Two other locomotives 
not only haul to the shaft bottom an average of six trips of eight 
cars each per day, but also gather the cars from the working faces. 
The grade on the main haulage road is generally in favor of the 
loaded cars and in some instances the grade is so steep that the 
loaded trips must be limited in size so that they can be safely handled 
by the locomotives. 

The empty cars are taken to the working faces and the loaded cars 
obtained there by the gathering locomotives. In some of the rooms 
4.5 per cent grades are encountered, thus taxing the gathering loco- 
motives. The average capacity of the gathering partings is thirty 
cars, while the average main-line trip is 17 cars. Hence a supply of 
empties can be left on the gathering partings between main-line trips 
and the gathering locomotives need not wait for the return of the 
main-line trip before returning to the room faces. 

Mine C 

The mine is divided into four separate, nearly equal sections 
served by three main-line trolley locomotives, one hauling from each 
of two sections and one handling the tonnage of the other two sections. 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



ft 

sS 



I! 

$> ^ 



5| 

r 



'M'N 



'0 










M'g* 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



95 




96 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



TABLE 11 
MAIN-LINE HAULAGE MINE D 



Partings 


Locomotives 


Ap- 
prox. 
Dist. 
Haul'd 
Feet 


Cars 
per 
Trip 


Trips 
per 
Day 


Care 
per 
Day 


Tons 
per 
Day 


Ton- 
Miles 
Coal 


Total 
Ton- 
Miles 


Mile- 
age 
per 
Loco. 


No. 


Wt. 


Kind 


1st N. E 


(A) 1 


15-ton 


Trolley 


4400 


14 


14 


200 


700 


1157 


1943 


51 . 6 




3d S. E 


5700 


10 


8 


80 


290 




7E, 3dS. E 


5300 


14 


7 


90 


310 


5th N. E. 


(B) 1 


15- ton 


Trolley 


4800 


14 


8 


100 


350 


1186 


1996 


48.7 




9th N. E 


5200 


15 


12 


175 


615 


7th S. E 


5400 


15 


7 


100 


350 




1st S. W 


(C) 1 


12-ton 


Trolley 


4500 


23 


8 


180 


620 


1081 


1837 


37.7 




OW, 1st S. W 


4500 


16 


7 


100 


350 


3d N W 


4000 


14 


8 


100 


350 




7 W, 5th S. W. . . . 


(D) 1 


1 5- ton 


Trolley 


5700 


15 


4 


50 


180 


1381 


2411 


56.7 


5W, 5th S. W 


5500 


16 


3 


45 


155 


1 W, 9th S.^W. . . 


5900 


16 


4 


60 


225 


Main W 


6900 


14 


3 


40 


140 


7th N. W 


5500 


15 


12 


180 


620 



Letters in parentheses refer to territories indicated on the diagram of this mine, Fig. 20. 



Grades are uniformly level. Each of the four sections of the mine has 
a separate current of air and a minimum number of self-closing, double 
doors. No trappers are employed. 

Mine E 

The two main sections of the mine furnish nearly equal produc- 
tion and two main-line locomotives operate in each section. In the 
northeast section the round trip averages over 3 miles. 

Mine F 

The east and west sections are laid out symmetrically and have 
about equal productions. One main-line locomotive operates in each 
section. 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 97 

Mine G 

The mine has two sections, easfr and west, which produce about 
equal amounts. There is one main-line locomotive for each section. 

Mine H 

There are two partings in the east workings and three partings 
in the west workings, each set of partings being served by one main- 
line locomotive. 

Mine I 

The eight partings in this mine are so grouped into pairs that 
all main haulage is performed by four trolley locomotives. An average 
of 500 tons of coal goes to the shaft bottom daily from each parting. 
Gathering in this mine is mixed, but not in the sense that both locomo- 
tives and mules are used in the same territories. Instead, 3 mules are 
used exclusively in gathering to one parting, while 14 locomotives 
handle the remaining seven-eighths of the mine. The mules haul but 
one car per trip. 

26. Mine Cars. In Illinois as in other coal-mining states many 
kinds of cars are in use even in mines of a single district, worked in 
the same seam, and with all conditions essentially common. When a 
particular type of pit-car is once adopted it is a difficult and expensive 
process to modify that type. It may thus happen that two neighbor- 
ing mines, perhaps of common ownership, may be equipped with unlike 
cars and that in consequence the haulage and hoisting arrangements 
are so dissimilar that any interchange of cars for convenience or 
emergency is impossible. The regularity of the pitch, the thickness 
and the depth of the seam, the nature of the roof, the type of haulage 
system to be used, and the extent of the mining property all have 
weight in determining the design of mine cars. 

Car Body 

Formerly all coal-mine cars were constructed with wooden bodies, 
steel and iron being used in the wheels and axle and for stiffening the 
body. Indeed there are still some operators who, with strong argu- 
ments therefor, retain those wooden cars and there are some mines 
which have both wooden and steel cars in service. General practice, 
however, is restricting usage to either type of car exclusively in any 
one mine, and the all-steel car is coming more generally into use and 



98 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

has now wholly superseded the wooden car in many mines. There 
are several reasons for this change. 

One desideratum in the design and construction of a serviceable 
car is the utmost stiffness and strength in the trucks or running 
gear. The axles should always be in true alignment, and, since these 
members are held in their relative positions by their attachment to 
the floor of the car, stiffness in the car floor is of great importance. 
Without this rigidity there is a tendency for the car-wheels to climb 
the rails, frequently with derailment. The greatest stiffness is afforded 
by steel floors, and the all-steel car is much stiffer in this respect than 
is the car with a steel bottom but with wooden sides and ends. 

Wreckage of mine cars occurs often at derailments. Experience 
proves that the all-steel car is the more resistant to injury or deforma- 
tion, hence is less likely to be injured in such accidents and causes less 
delay to haulage. On the other hand, repair work on the steel car is 
frequently the more difficult and expensive. 

There is no fixed ratio between the relative weights of the two 
general types of cars. Much depends upon the design, which in turn 
depends upon the methods used in dumping the loaded cars. A car 
used with rotary dumpers may be lighter in weight than one of equal 
capacity used with automatic-dumping cages. A steel car will be 
slightly less in width than an equivalent wooden car, this affording 
more clearance along the sides. The superior rigidity of the steel car 
causes it to travel more smoothly. Consequently there is less spillage 
of coal along the roads and loads may therefore be topped higher than 
is practicable with wooden cars. A steel car ordinarily has a longer 
life than a wooden car, but this feature is considerably offset by its 
greater initial cost. The expense of construction and upkeep may be 
less for steel cars than for wooden cars when the figures are distributed 

to cost per ton of coal ultimately handled per car. 

I 

Truck 

A car truck comprises two axles with their bearings. Strength 
and minimum weight are prime factors in the design of the ideal truck, 
but frequently an axle is too small to withstand its imposed duty. 

Recently the outside- journal bearing, similar to that used on 
railway cars, has been successfully used 011 heavy steel coal cars for 
slope or drift mines. These journals possess merit for such service; 
yet the spragging of such cars is difficult and hand brakes become 



A STUDY OP COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 99 

necessary, thus rendering the cars poorly adapted to service in self- 
dumping cages. 

Wheel-Base 

The length of wheel-base in Illinois is ordinarily between 16 
and 30 inches, the maximum being 42 inches. A 24-inch wheel-base 
is general for a car 7 to 8 feet long, and a 30-inch wheel-base for a 
car 10 feet long ; while, when short turn-outs are necessary, a shorter 
wheel-base is used. An advantage of the short wheel-base is the 
greater ease with which a car may be re-railed, owing to a more 
easily balanced load. The increase of a couple of inches between 
axles may add many pounds to the weight lifted by the miner in 
re-railing a car. A long wheel-base is generally conducive to easy 
running and minimum derailments from cars climbing the rail. 

Wheels 

The car wheel should have as great a diameter as possible con- 
sidering the distance between roof and rail and the capacity of the 
car. The greater the diameter of the wheel the less is the power re- 
quired to move the car, but the net load carried may be less. The 
diameters used in Illinois vary from 14 to 20 inches. The tread of 
the wheel, to provide the best service, should be of chilled steel while 
the angle between the flange and the tread is approximately 100 
degrees. Both plain and roller bearings are used extensively. Wheels 
are now often self-oiling regardless of the type of bearing, and the 
cost of lubrication is a feature that cannot be lightly ignored. 

Bumpers and Couplings 

In designing bumpers two factors control : the safety of the 
coupler, and the greatest mechanical efficiency. Thick, round, single 
bumpers with a single link-and-pin coupling seem to be most generally 
used in this state. Their advantages are that cars do not become locked 
on curves and that less slack is found between cars when a trip is 
starting or stopping. The twin-bumper car is also used in Illinois. 
The type of coupling used with the twin bumper varies. In some 
mines the gravity coupling has proved satisfactory under unusually 
severe conditions. Recent designs feature a spring drawbar with a 
link coupling that decreases the jerking of trips and the accompanying 
loss of coal. With this spring drawbar fewer cars are derailed at 



100 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

starting, trips require less power in starting, and the general wear 
and tear on the car is less. Partially offsetting these advantages are 
a greater initial cost and additional repair expenses. 

Capacity of Mine Cars 

The weight and capacity of a mine car are important items in 
connection with the handling of the car by men. If the cars are 
pushed to the face by the miners, the number of cars taken to the 
parting by the gathering locomotives is increased in proportion to 
the time saved by the locomotive in not having to run into the rooms. 
This time may amount to several hours per day and can be utilized 
by the locomotive in haulage on the entry. 

If cars are taken to the faces by the locomotive they should 
have the maximum capacity for the given conditions as the time con- 
sumed in taking a single car to the face is no greater for a large 
than for a small car, and the larger the car the longer it remains in 
the room during loading. The largest car now used in Illinois contains 
about 5% tons. 

Number of Cars Required 

The number of cars in use in any mine is equal to the number of 
loaders plus a variable reserve. Although each man usually has a 
separate working place, two loaders generally work together in a room 
while the adjoining room is being undercut by a machine. Therefore, 
the car supply at the mine should include for each room where cars 
are being loaded one car in the process of being loaded and one in 
transit between the room and shaft bottom or drift mouth. In addi- 
tion there should be a certain number of surplus cars on the shaft 
bottom or tipple landing and on the various partings, to prevent 
delays and to replace those undergoing repair. 

The minimum empty-car reserve on the shaft bottom for each 
main-line section of the mine should be not less than the average 
number of cars per trip for that section. For instance, if there are 
two main-line locomotives hauling to the shaft bottom, one from each 
side of the mine, delivering to two tracks on the shaft bottom, and 
if the average trip for each side of the mine is 15 cars, there should 
be storage space for at least 30 empty cars on the shaft bottom, so that 
the incoming locomotive may find an empty trip ready to couple to 
as soon as it has uncoupled from its loaded trip. Likewise to prevent 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 101 

delay on each of the partings there should be a trip of loaded cars 
ready for the locomotive as soon at it has uncoupled from its empty 
trip. As shown in Table 3, the empty-car reserve varies widely at 
different mines. 

The factors that influence the number of cars required for a given 
daily output are : the car capacity, the length of haul, the system of 
haulage, and the method of operating the haulage system. The greater 
the capacity per car the fewer the cars to be hoisted per day for a 
given output, and the longer the haul the more cars will be required. 
Mechanical haulage should require fewer cars than mule haulage as 
the cars are moving more rapidly and usually cars of larger capacity 
are used. 

An unnecessary reserve of cars is objectionable on account of the 
extra capital they represent. The average life of a mine car is five 
to eight years and, assuming cost of the cars as $160, about $20 per car 
must be charged off each year for a life of 8 years. According 
to Table 3, a car is loaded on an average 2.05 times per day and the 
average capacity is 3.64 tons per day. In a year, or 200 days, a car will 
handle 1492 tons. On this basis the mine-car depreciation charge is 
approximately 1.34 cents per ton of coal hauled. This does not include 
the cost of repairs but only the gross depreciation per car of $20 per 
year. 

For a simple calculation consider a mine having four main 
partings of equal production which for a given day will supply an 
equal number of cars, say 300 each, or a total of 1200 cars for a 
mine producing between 4000 and 5000 tons. If the "turn" runs 
four cars per loader, 75 loaders will furnish 300 cars from each of 
four districts or 300 loaders will be required for the total. Consider 
one unit of this group, and assume that 75 loaders will produce 300 
cars and that the parting is 5000 feet from the shaft bottom. Assume 
also one main locomotive under ordinary operating conditions, 16 
trips of 19 to 20 cars each at the rate of one trip every half hour, on 
the basis of ten minutes running time each way and ten minutes for 
switching at the two terminal points, this being an easy operating 
schedule. Under favorable conditions a gathering locomotive should 
deliver at the parting 100 cars per day, assuming the same number of 
trips per day as for the main-line locomotives, a running time of 6 
minutes, a switching time of 24 minutes, and 6 to 7 cars per trip. 
This is, however, considerably higher than the average Illinois gather- 



102 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

ing performance. At most mines four locomotives are required to 
handle 300 cars as assumed, operating on the same schedule with 
five-car trips, and gathering approximately 75 cars per day per loco- 
motive. On a practical operating basis with a fixed running schedule 
of one trip every half -hour, the empty reserve on the parting is zero, 
as the times of arrival of main and gathering locomotives should be 
within a few minutes of each other, just as in the schedule operations of 
ordinary 'town or city trolley cars. The total empty reserve in such 
instances is held practically on the shaft bottom. 

There should be some possible combination of the "turn" and 
the number of rooms per panel that will make it possible to determine 
the frequency of trips and the number of cars per trip for the most 
economical gathering schedule. Cars should be distributed at uniform 
intervals throughout the day. If the ''turn" is to be 8 cars for two 
men then a trip every hour should be regularly established. The 
larger the car, the longer the time required for loading and the 
fewer the cars required for the "turn." If the car is of such capacity 
that a six-car "turn" gives the desired tonnage, a trip every 80 
minutes will be adequate. 

Standardization 

With the object of bringing about more uniformity in design and 
construction, efforts have been made to establish acceptable standard 
specifications for a few of the main features of coal-mine cars. A 
committee of the American Mining Congress for The Standardization 
of Underground Transportation Equipment, cooperating with The 
Industrial Car Manufacturers' Institute, has recommended the follow- 
ing specifications for the design and construction of coal-mine cars : 

(1) A track gauge of 42 inches should be adopted for all new 
coal-mining developments. 

(2) The most desirable wheel-base is 42 inches. 

(3) The overall length of a car-body should be three times 
the wheel-base, thus making the standard length 126 inches, or 10 
feet 6 inches. 

(4) Standardized automatic couplings, comparable to those of 
surface railways, should be used. For a car with 16-inch wheels the 
center of such a coupling should be 10 inches above the top of 



A STUDY OP COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 103 

rail, with a variation of 1 inch above to accommodate 18-inch wheels 
and of 1 inch below for 14-inch wheels. 

Discussion of these features elicited the following statements: 
About 80 per cent of all new track- work in coal mines of this country 
is of 42-inch gauge. This gauge will fit all mine conditions and will 
accommodate any appropriate car-body. A 42-inch wheel-base is 
theoretically correct and practical ; it minimizes derailment, increases 
speed possibilities, and tends to lengthen the life of cars. 

Repairs 

The expense of maintaining mine cars is not generally known; 
hence the following data upon this matter gathe'red by one large 
Illinois coal-mining company are of interest. During a period of eight 
months or 117 operating days there were 400 cars in service. The 
average weight of an empty car was 2000 and the average load of 
coal per car, 5000 pounds. The total tonnage hauled was 292 877, 
with the daily average per eight-hour shift, 2503. There were used 
9279 board feet of oak, besides bolts and washers. At this mine one 
carpenter would finish all the repairs to a two-ton wooden car in from 
8 to 16 hours. The average life of a car was 5 years. 

27. Track Construction. Proper track construction and main- 
tenance are important in any haulage system, as the expected benefit 
from expensive rolling equipment may be offset by a poor track. In 
many mines the defects in track construction would be much more 
apparent if the track could be lifted out intact and reproduced in all 
its variations on the surface. In development work track of a tem- 
porary nature only is laid. In the rooms where track is intended only 
for locomotives with one or two cars moving at a slow speed light 
construction is used. But on the main-haulage track the construction 
should be designed for the heavier locomotives and longer trips of 
cars that are now generally used. 

Gauge 

The gauge of track has a direct bearing upon the capacity of 
coal-mine cars. A narrow gauge permits a longer wheel-base on sharp 
curves but as a rule the car is subject to more derailment. Gauges 
varying from 36 to 42 inches are common in Illinois bituminous mines. 
The maximum gauge in the state is 48 inches. Other conditions being 



104 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

equal, the wider the track gauge the wider may be the car and the 
greater its capacity. In low coal this is a pertinent factor. Good 
roof conditions permit wide gauges. Entries are usually driven 12 
feet wide and the 42-inch gauge has proved well adapted to such 
entries. 

Rails 

Until a few years ago 40-pound rails on the main entries, 30-pound 
on the cross-entries, and 20-pound in rooms were considered adequate ; 
but with the advent of larger cars, heavier locomotives and longer 
trips, the weight of rails and sizes of ties and spikes have increased 
considerably. Numerous large companies have adopted as standard 
not less than 50-pound rails for the main entries and 30-pound for 
rooms and cross-entries. In some instances 60- to 70-pound rails are 
used on main entries with excellent results. Where large cars and 
gathering locomotives are used 30-pound rails possess considerable 
advantage over 20-pound rails for rooms and cross-entries, as the 
repair cost for the heavier rail is but slightly more than that for the 
lighter, while the added initial expense both for the material and 
labor is usually justified by the rails lasting longer. 


Ties 

Timber ties of the following sizes are generally used: main 
entry, 5x6 inches ; cross entry, 4x5 inches ; rooms, 3x4 inches or 
4x5 inches. Oak is used if obtainable, although considerable quan- 
tities of elm, hickory, and sassafras are consumed. Hewn ties with 
the bark removed are generally used, and are spaced 18 inches in 
entries and 36 inches in rooms. The sizes of spikes used are : for 40 
or 50-pound rail, % x 4 inches ; for 30-pound rail, % x 3^2 inches ; for 
20-pound rail, % x 2~y 2 inches. 

Steel ties are used to a limited extent both for entries and rooms. 
Their advantages are : 

(1) They afford additional height of from 2 to 4 inches above 
the rails, thus permitting the use of higher coal cars and heavier 
loading of low cars. 

(2) The ties are lighter in weight and more easy to handle than 
timber ties, therefore are more readily laid and taken up. 

(3) The rails being held by lugs the track is easily kept at a 
true gauge and the spreading of rails is prevented. 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 105 

(4) Because of the less height of rail from the ground a de- 
railment can be more readily remedied. 

Switches 

Switches may be classed under three general heads according to 
the method of operation : 

(1) Ground track, in which the lever lies close to the ground and 
moves either parallel to or at right angles to the track. 

(2) Switch stand, in which the lever moves either perpendicular 
to the track or rotates. 

(3) Automatic or partly automatic, in which ^the lever is thrown 
by contact with a locomotive, or by motormen or trip riders without 
leaving the locomotives. 

All switches for main haulage roads should be substantial and 
reliable. To avoid wrecks and to properly care for the rolling stock, 
the lead should be as long as possible and should be definitely calcu- 
lated. Manufacturers of track equipment recommend a 4- to 6-foot 
switch-point to be used with a No. 4 frog, the length depending on the 
length of locomotive wheel-base. Some operators prefer the kick 
latch in place of the switch-point operated by the switch-stand. If 
the roads are kept clean the kick latch has some advantages on 
secondary haulage roads. 

The cost of switches varies with the design. The following rep- 
resents average requirement of material and labor and the costs will 
vary with their fluctuations. The materials will be : one No. 4 riveted 
frog with 6-foot switch-points; one switchstand with bridle and con- 
necting rods complete; forty 5x6 inch ties; sixteen y 2 x 4 inch 
spikes, and eight special bonds and wiring. The labor will include 
delivering material to place, cost of laying the switch and bonding. 

If gathering motors are used, the room turnouts are similar to 
the main-line switches upon a smaller scale. Good practice at the 
larger mines demands the use of the maximum radius, which varies 
usually from 25 to 35 feet. These radii are very nearly those 
used with No. 2 and No. 2% frogs. If it is desirable to carry the 
track along the rib it may be necessary to change the radius of the 
curve entering the room. It can readily be seen that it would be 
impossible to enter a room neck 10 feet wide with a turnout of 25- 
foot radius if the neck were driven at right angles to the entry. 



106 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

A room switch costs much less than a turnout or parting switch 
because of the smaller size of the rail and its shorter length. The 
salvage value is greater because it is more quickly removed. Cast-steel 
frogs are used at present for secondary haulage and have proved 
entirely satisfactory, their chief advantage being their low initial cost, 
and their chief disadvantage the difficulty of holding the frog in place. 

With mule haulage the switch is much simpler and consists of 
one frog-point, one straight rail, and one turn rail. The length of 
lead will vary between 8 feet 6 inches and 12 feet 6 inches, depending 
on the gauge and the wheel-base of the car. Empty cars enter rooms 
by being slewed over the open fixed point by the driver. On the 
return the loaded car is shunted to the entry road with little jar. 



A STUDY OF COAL M^NE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 107 



V. UNDERGROUND HAULAGE COSTS 

28. Cost Accounting. Copies of the cost-accounting sheets of 
sixteen well known companies were studied for the purpose of con- 
structing a table that would show how the companies itemize their 
haulage costs but, owing to the lack of any uniformity in this practice, 
the tabulation proved impossible. Some companies maintain no special 
account for Haulage but place all wages for this branch of mining 
under General Expense. Companies frequently include haulage and 
hoisting under Transportation, with so few sub-items as to prevent 
analysis. 

Cagers are charged by four companies to Haulage, by three to 
Hoisting, by five to General, by one to Transportation, and by one 
to Caging, while six companies do not carry this item. Four accounts 
place tracklayers under Haulage, six under General. Trappers are 
charged to Haulage by but one company, this occupation being usually 
charged to Ventilation or General. The only occupations that are 
uniformly charged to Haulage are switchmen, greasers and sand 
driers. Of the 13 companies that itemize trip riders, 11 consider 
them as chargeable to Haulage. 

It is even more difficult to secure cost under the subdivisions of 
shaft-bottom haulage, main-line haulage, and gathering haulage 
the three general divisions into which mine haulage may logically be 
divided and which are necessary for a satisfactory comparison of 
details. Hoisting and haulage are often combined. The hoisting cost 
is, however, small in comparison with the haulage cost and it is more 
nearly uniform for different mines than is the haulage cost. 

29. Standardizing Cost Accounts. The lack of uniformity in 
the accounting of coal-mining costs applies not only to haulage but 
to every other phase of the industry, as operating companies naturally 
object to the radical changes in bookkeeping necessary for the adop- 
tion of a universal system. Thus, close comparison of expenses and 
profits of companies operating under either similar or dissimilar 
natural or commercial conditions a study that would yield informa- 



108 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

tion of value in dealing with commercial and industrial problems 
has been impossible. 

The Committee on Standard System of Accounting and Analysis 
of Cost Production of the National Coal Association has prepared 
the following schedule of the natural subdivisions of the work in and 
around a coal mine : 

1. Mine Office 

2. Superintendence 

3. Engineering 

4. Mining 

5. Timbering 

6. Deadwork 

7. Tracklaying 

8. Drainage 

9. Ventilation 

10. Haulage and Hoisting 

11. Dumping and Tallying 

12. Preparation 

13. Railroad Car Loading and Yard Expense 

14. Power 

15. Repairs to Buildings and Permanent Structures 

This same committee explains that haulage and hoisting should 
be accounted as follows: 

Generation and Transmission of Power 

This item includes the proportion of expense of generating power 
chargeable to haulage and the construction and upkeep of transmis- 
sion lines and haulage circuits. 

Care and Maintenance of Equipment 
This item covers : 

(a) Hoisting and haulage engine repair parts, lubricants, pack- 
ing and waste, and wages of hoisting engineer and mechanics employed 
in care and repair; hoisting and haulage ropes, cage repairs, and 
replacements; safety devices, guides, and sheaves. 

(b) Care and maintenance of motors; when motor haulage is 
used, repair parts and labor of care and repair. 



A STUDY OP COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 109 

(c) -Care and maintenance of ; pit-cars; labor and material used 
in keeping pit-cars in repair; new cars to replace wrecked or worn- 
out cars, and additional cars necessary to maintain output by reason of 
increasing length of haul after mine has reached its contemplated 
output capacity. 

(d) Care and maintenance of live stock, harness, stable supplies, 
grain and hay, wages of stablemen and veterinary, clipping and 
shoeing, etc. 

Conducting Transportation 

This item includes wages of drivers, boss drivers, motormen, trip 
riders, couplers, cagers, pushers, oilers, trappers, switch throwers, 
jackmen, and that part of 'hoisting- engineer's wages not charged to 
Maintenance and Repairs. 

Maintenance of Way 

This item includes repairing roads, cleaning roads, relaying track, 
also new ties, rollers for rope haulage, etc. 

Under the head of Tracklaying the committee report says : 

' ' While track is immediately connected with and necessary for the transporta- 
tion of coal to the shaft bottom, and hence a necessary item incident to Haulage, 
it has long been regarded as a significant item in the cost sheet, and should 
stand by itself. To this account should be charged rails, ties, spikes, and fasten- 
ings, and the labor of grading roads and tracklaying in advancing work. Eepairs 
to track should be charged to Haulage and Hoisting under" Maintenance of Way. 
Purchases of track material should be charged to Track Material Account, and 
as the material is taken into the mine it should be credited and charged Track- 
laying. ' ' 

The committee's explanation of the item Tracklaying (usually 
called Trackwork by operators) illustrates a common reason for dis- 
agreements between haulage costs as estimated by various companies. 
As noted above, rail^, ties, etc. for advancing roads are charged under 
a separate item Track, while relaid track is a part of haulage under 
Maintenance of Way. If track is pulled out of an entry and used in 
a new entry is it to be considered relaid and chargeable to Haulage 
or as advancing work and chargeable to Tracklaying ? This is merely 
an instance of the difficulty of defining any system of segregated items 
so clearly that it is not open to misinterpretation. 

In its wartime collection of costs the Federal Trade Commission 
asked for haulage costs under the following heads : 



110 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

Haulage : 
Animal 
Mechanical 
Equipment Repairs 
Stable Expense 
Labor 
Supplies 
Total 

The following items in the Instructions for Compiling Coal- 
Mining Costs have direct bearing upon haulage : 

Labor Haulage. This account shall include the wages of hoisting engineers, 
cagers (top and bottom), motormen, brakemen, trip riders, switchmen, couplers, 
greasers, spraggers, stable boss, drivers, sand dry*ers, and other labor employed to 
operate the haulage facilities other than standard gauge railroad equipment. 
Wages of employees, such as electricians, blacksmiths, trackmen, car and locomo- 
tive repair men, and men engaged in maintaining haulage equipment and tracks, 
shall be charged to Maintenance Account. 

Maintenance and Eepair. This account shall include the cost of labor em- 
ployed in repairing and maintaining (1) the tipple, powerhouse, tracks, and other- 
mine structures; (2) mining machines, pumps, fans, boilers, engines, motors, 
locomotives, mine cars, and other mining equipment. 

Feed and Other Stable Supplies. This account shall include the cost to 
the operator of feed, bedding, and other stable supplies. 

Supplies Maintenance and Repairs. This account shall include the cost 
(1) of supplies used, in maintaining and repairing the tipple structure, power- 
house, and other mine buildings and structures, and (2) of supplies and parts used 
in repairing mining machines, pumps, fans, boilers, engines, motors, locomotives, 
mine cars, tracks, and other mining equipment. 

Here are four separate items for haulage, any one of which might 
be quoted from a government publication and be misleading as cover- 
ing only part of the haulage costs. 



30. Itemized Haulage Costs for Typical Large Illinois Mines. 
Table 12 gives transportation costs for twelve mines itemized as sug- 
gested by the Coal Association except that the cost of hoisting has been 
deducted when possible. Two of these mines G and H are also listed 
in Table 3 of shaft-bottom costs. In general the average daily produc- 
tion of the mines in Table 12 is less than of those in Table 3. The 
costs per ton in Table 3 apply only to the shaft-bottom labor, whereas 
the costs in Table 12 cover all haulage labor. 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



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112 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



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A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



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ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



The effect of daily production on shaft-bottom costs is shown 
by Table 3, for the average labor cost per ton in the six largest mines 
is 26.33 cents while in the six smaller mines it is 41.32 cents. Similarly 
the average is 39.51 cents as against 58.22 cents in the six smaller mines. 

As shown by Table 3, there is cost advantage in handling large 
cars on the shaft bottom ; not only is this cost lowest where the largest 
cars are used and highest where the smallest cars are used which 
might be accidental but the average cost in four mines where cars 
holding 4 tons and over are used is 1.31 cents per ton, whereas in 6 
mines where cars holding less than 4 tons are used it is 1.51 cents per 
ton. 

In Table 13 hoisting costs are given for comparison with haulage 
costs. The effect of tonnage upon costs is more pronounced in hoisting 
than in haulage. 



TABLE 13 

HAULAGE COSTS AT FIVE MINES OF COMMON OWNERSHIP 
In Cents per Ton 



Items 


Period 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


Averages 


Gathering 
Main haulag" 





10.73 
4 16 


10.55 
2 67 


10.61 
5 80 


9.88 
3 89 


13.63 
4 07 


11.08 
4 12 


Track work 


2 


4 42 


13 91 


8 08 


17 06 


8 03 


10 30 




^ 














Total haulage 


1 


19.31 


27 . 13 


24.49 


30.83 


25.73 


25.50 


Tons mined 
Hoisting 
Days worked 


' 


47602 
1.47 
25.00 


88018 
1.09 
26.00 


41 702 
2.04 
26.00 


73 758 
1.30 
26.00 


37928 
3.81 
25.00 


57802 
1.94 
25.60 


Gathering 




10.60 


11.57 


12 47 


8 73 


26 12 


13 90 


Main haulage 
Trackwork 




4.05 
4.98 


2.20 
13.54 


6.78 
9.98 


3.20 
8.88 


5.59 
4.65 


4.36 
8.41 


Total haulage 




19.63 


27.31 


29.23 


20.81 


!<;.:; 


26.67 


Tons mined 





28 921 


55 951 


28 541 


61 121 


4 418 


35 790 


Hoisting 


S 


2.44 


1.72 


2*58 


1 89 


15 87 


4 90 


Days worked 




13.00 


15.00 


18 00 


20 00 


3 00 


14 00 



















In Mines I and V gathering is by mules; in the other mines it is by storage-battery locomotives. 
All main haulage is by trolley locomotives. 

The sub-items considered in obtaining the above costs are as 
follows : 

Trackwork Tracklayers, helpers, handling track material, grading track 
(laborers). 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



115 



Gathering Mule feeder, blacksmith,, (part time), drivers, veterinary service, 
boss driver, motormen on gathering motors, trip riders on gathering motors, 
battery charger, electrician (part time), labor on repairs, trappers, and naggers. 

Main Motormen, trip riders, electrician (part time), switch thrower, wire- 
men (part time), other labor on repairs, trappers and flaggers. 



The following are labor costs chargeable to Haulage, exclusive of 
generation and transmission of power, at an Illinois mine which pro- 
duces an average of 5000 tons daily : 



1 eager 

2 eager helpers .... 
2 blockers . . . . 

2 couplers 

2 oilers 

1 switcher 

2 sump cleaners 

7 drivers 

19 motormen 

19 trip riders .... 
19 tracklayers .... 
16 track helpers . 
11 repairmen .... 

4 cleaning falls 

7 brushing 

1 sprinkling roads . 
1.5 cleaning roads ... 

3 hauling dirt .... 

1 mule feeder 

2 electric bonders . 

4 locomotive repairmen 

Total . . . 
Haulage wage per ton 



$ 7.50 

14.50 

14.50 

14.50 

14.50 

7.25 

14.50 

52.50 

152.76 

142.50 

142.50 

116.00 

80.00 

30.00 

, 50.75 

7.50 

12.50 

22.50 

7.50 

15.00 

, 30.00 

$949.26 

18.99 cents 



Labor, delivery of material and supplies: 

1 eager 

1 eager helper 

5 drivers 



$ 7.50 

7.25 

37.50 



Total . $52.25 

Daily wage per ton 1.04 cents 

Total haulage labor cost per ton 20.03 cents 



116 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

At another large mine with an average daily output of 5200 tons 
the average number of employees engaged in haulage operating and 
in maintenance of way, and their total wages, are as follows : 

3 haulage bosses . $ 24.18 

29 motormen 233.74 

29 trip riders 217.50 

32 trappers 128.00 

6 jackmen 43.50 

6 repairmen ......'... 45.00 

2 electricians 15.00 

1 oiler './..' 7.25 

33 tracklayers . 247.50 

27 track helpers 195.75 

18 timbermen . . . . . . 130.50 

8 road cleaners 58.00 

1 sprinkler '. 7.50 

2 bonders 15.00 

4 cagers . .... . . , . . 29.50 

6 blockers . . . . . . . . 43.50 

1 switcher . . .- . 7.25 

2 couplers 14.50 

Total ............ $1463.17 

Total haulage wage cost per ton ...*... 28.14 cents 



At one mine producing 4500 tons daily, the following items cover 
the daily labor costs of maintaining and conducting haulage : 

Maintenance : 

1 chief electrician, half time $ 6.50 

1 shop foreman, half time 5.50 

1 motor charger, half time 7.50 

1 sub-station attendant, half time 4.52 

1 motor oiler 7.50 

1 electrician 7.50 

23 tracklayers at $7.50 ' . ... . . 172.50 

16 track helpers at $7.25 ..... .... 116.00 

6 road cleaners at $7.25 . . . . '. . . . . . 43.50 

2 sump cleaners at $7.25 14.50 

4 car repairers at $7.50 " . . 30.00 

1 oiler 7.50 



Total ...... ' . .$423.02 

Total maintenance wages per ton . 9.4 cents 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 117 

Conducting : 

16 motormen at $8.06 . .$128.96 

16 trip riders at $7.50 . . ..." . . .' . . . 120.00 

1 motor boss . . . t . .. . '....... 11.00 

1 eager ..... .V . . . . . . . . . 7.50 

2 spraggers at $7.25 ..... "' . ' . . . . . 14.50 

1 coupler . . . .... . ,:'... . 7.25 

1 switcher 7.25 



Total $296.46 

Total conducting wages per ton 6.6 cents 

This represents high efficiency. No trappers are employed. 
Double swinging doors are opened automatically by the locomotives, 
but the item of maintenance of doors is not included in cost. 

At this same mine the electric-power costs for haulage for the year 
1919 were : 

Kw-hr. 

Total kw-hr. used by trolley locomotives 130 210 

Total kw-hr. charging battery locomotives .... 129 650 



Total kw-hr. for haulage 259 860 

The cost of this power at the rate of 3.5 cents per kilowatt-hour 
was $9094.10. During the year the mine produced 373 847 tons of 
coal, thus making the power cost for haulage about 2.4 cents per ton. 
The complete haulage costs, not including any materials, were per 

ton: 

Cents 

Wages for maintenance 9.4 

Wages for conducting 6.6 

Power 2.4 



Total ; . . . ... 18.4 

Table 14 details the haulage costs in cents per ton for two large 
Illinois mines during January and February, 1921. 

These two mines operate under similar natural conditions. 
Mine A has the longer hauls and there is no division between main 
and gathering haulage, whereas Mine F has two-stage haulage. Al- 
though general conclusions must not be drawn from these two mines 
nor for such a short period, the marked difference in cost between the 
two systems suggests the desirability of a more extended study of 
the two systems. 



118 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



TABLE 14 

HAULAGE COSTS AT Two ILLINOIS GOAL MINES 
In Cents per Ton 



Item 



Mine A 



Jhn. 



Feb. 



Mine F 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Tonnage for month 92 500 

Tonnage Daily 4 500 

Occupations: 

Motor Bosses 0.63 

Motormen 3.54 

Trip Riders 2.63 

Couplers 0.26 

Cagers 0.42 

Other Bottom Men 1.16 

Flagmen 1.71 

Jackmen 0. 17 

Maintenance of Way 3.35 

Trappers 1.06 

Track Bosses 0.26 

Tracklayers 2.70 

Track Helpers 2.35 

Totals 20.24 

Repairs: 

Labor on Mine Cars 1.92 

Supplies for Mine Cars 2.17 

Totals 4.00 

Labor on Locomotives 1.36 

Supplies for Locomotives 1.14 

Totals... 2.50 



62 188 
4 480 

0.93 
3.36 
2.64 
0.29 
0.48 
1.12 
1.59 
0.17 
2.32 
0.89 
0.36 
2.02 



17.68 



88 072 
3500 

0.32 
4.64 
4.02 
0.40 
0.83 
0.79 
4.26 

2.68 
0.50 

7.21 
4.46 



30.71 



2.19 
2.95 



3.22 
1.07 



5.14 



4.29 



1.43 
2.38 



2.09 
2.79 



45 383 
3700 

0.62 
4.43 
3.83 
0.38 
086 
0.72 
3.35 
0.13 
2.01. 
0.67 

7.03 
5.03 



29.06 



2.60 
2.58 



3.81 



4.88 



5.18 



Total Cost per Ton Exclusive of Powci 
and Track Equipment 



-i, 63 



39.88 



39.86 



Table 15 gives the haulage employees and the total labor costs in 
cents per ton for four large Illinois mines. 

The following estimates of haulage wages are for mines having 
electric haulage exclusively. The figures cited as ranges of costs per 
ton are distributed under four items. Main-haulage and general wage 
costs are about equal and each is about double the shaft-bottom wage 
cost per ton. The labor cost of gathering haulage usually equals or 
exceeds the sum of the three other items. 

Shaft-Bottom Haulage . . . . . . . . . . . 1 to 3 cents 

Cagers, spraggers, blockers, couplers, car distributors, and all 
other employees handling cars on shaft bottom only 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



119 



Main Haulage . . . " . . . . 2 to 6 cents 

Motormen, trip riders, trappers^' trackmen, timbermen, wire- 
men, road cleaners, switch throwers, etc., engaged directly on 
main haulage. 

Gathering Haulage 8 to 15 cents 

All employees engaged in hauling coal on the inside divisions, 
including motormen, trip riders, drivers, trappers, and all track- 
men and such timbermen as are necessary for maintenance of 
way. 

General 2 to 6 cents 

All employees connected with haulage as a whole, as oilers, elec- 
tricians (unless strictly main haulage), repairmen, sump cleaners, 
etc. 

Total operating haulage labor cost thus may vary between 13 cents 
and 30 cents per ton. As the tonnage varies at a given mine on 
different days there will be a variation in the daily haulage cost per 
ton, even with the same working force. 



TABLE 15 

HAULAGE LABOR COSTS AT FOUR- LARGE ILLINOIS GOAL MINES 
In Cents per Ton 



Occupations 


Mine 1 


Mine 2 


Mine 3 


Mine 4 


Main 


Gather. 


Main 


Gather. 


Main 


Gather. 


Main 


Gather. 


Motormen 
Trip Riders 
Tracklayers 
Track Helpers 
Switch Throwers 
Wiremen 


3 
3 
11 


12 
12 
16 
16 


4 

4 
2 
2 

1 
4 
4 


2 
2 
8 
8 
5 

9 
2 
12 


3 
3 
1 


15 
15 
21 


4 
4 
7 
7 
1 


14 
14 
15 
15 

14 

4 
2 


Timbermen 






1 


2 




Mule Feeders 
Road Cleaners 


Totals 


18 


58 


21 


48 


7 


53 


23 


79 




Total Cost Labor. . 


$131.41 


$437.48 


$144.41 


$283 . 08 


$54 . 12 


405.10 


$172.10 


$542.27 


Tonnage Daily 


4500 


3800 


3400 


4000 


Labor cost per ton: 
Main 
Gather 


3.0 


9.7 


3.8 


7.4 


1.6 


Li.O 


4.3 


13.5 


Total per Ton, cents 


12.7 


11.2 


13.6 


17.8 



120 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



VI. HAULAGE ACCIDENTS 

31. Haulage Fatality Statistics. Table 16 gives the coal mine 
haulage fatalities in the United States and in Illinois for the period 
1901 to 1920 inclusive, together with the average percentage of all 
fatalities for each five-year period. For the past ten years haulage 
fatalities have been second in importance only to those from falls. 
These two classes, which make up from 60 to 70 per cent of the number 
of deaths underground, occur for the most part singly or in small 
groups, hence do not attract public attention to the same extent as 
do explosions, which are third in importance. The number of deaths 
from falls is remarkably uniform year after year, forming almost 50 
per cent of the total fatalities. Haulage deaths have been constantly 
increasing in per cent of the total and therefore should be given more 
attention as they seem to a great extent to be preventable. 

In Illinois the percentage of deaths from falls of roof and pillar 
coal approximates that for the United States but the percentage of 
deaths from haulage is higher and shows a decided increase during the 
past decade. Such haulage fatalities are due not only to mine cars and 
locomotives but also to electricity and animals as shown in Table 17. 



TABLE 16 

COAL MINE FATALITIES DUE TO HAULAGE 
By Five- Year Periods 



Period 


United States 


Illinois 


Total 
Underground 
Fatalities 


Haulage 
Fatalities 


Per Cent 
of 
Total 


Total 
Underground 
Fatalities 


Haulage 
Fatalities 


Per Cent 
of 
Total 


1901-1905 
1906-1910 
1911-1915 
1916-1920 


8428 
12017 
11 424 
10771 


1097 
1649 
1939 
2201 


13.0 
13.7 
17.0 
20.4 


668 
1024 
753 
904 


84 
145 
191 
278 


12.6 
14.2 
25.4 
30.8 


Totals 1901-1920 


42640 


6886 


16.1 


3349 


698 


20.8 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



121 



TABLE 17 

UNITED STATES COAL-MINE NATALITIES DUE TO HAULAGE 
CLASSIFIED AS TO CAUSES 









Year 






Causes 


1916 


1917 


1918 


1919 


1920 


1. Mine Cars and Locomotives: 


17 


6 


15 


12 


6 




12 


7 


11 


6 


13 


Falling from Trips 


43 


29 


36 


17 


26 


Run over by Car or Locomotive 


147 


187 


203 


149 


163 


Caught between Car and Rib 


87 


122 


113 


105 


98 


Caught between Car and Roof . . 


12 


20 


27 


23 


18 


Runaway Car or Trip 


42 


67 


68 


42 


43 


Miscellaneous 


30 


50 


33 


27 


38 














Totals 


390 


488 


506 


[381 


405 














2. Electricity: 
Direct Contact with Trolley Wire 


66 


46 


55 


39 


29 


Bar or Tool Striking Trolley Wire 


5 


2 


4 


2 


3 


Contact with Locomotive Parts 


1 


4 


1 


2 


3 














Totals 


72 


52 


60 


43 


35 














3. Animals ... 


8 


9 


8 


2 


4 














Total Fatalities Chargeable to Haulage 


470 


549 


574 


426 


444 














Total Fatalities Due to Coal Mining 


2226 


2696 


2580 


2317 


2260 


Per Cent Due to Haulage 


21.1 


20.4 


20.2 


18.4 


19.7 



Even falls are frequently caused initially by derailed cars knocking 
out roof supports. 

Table 17 gives the classification of the causes of haulage fatalities 
in the United States for the five-year period, 1916-1920. 

32. Haulage Accidents in Illinois. Table 18 gives a more de- 
tailed causal analysis of haulage accidents for Illinois, and the accom- 
panying graph, Fig. 27, shows the variation of the percentages of 
haulage to total fatalities throughout the period 1902-1921. The 
latter half of the period is fairly indicative of present operating condi- 
tions. For the past ten years haulage fatalities have averaged 27 per 
cent of the whole. During the years 1918 to 1921 inclusive the average 
number of employees in Illinois coal mines was 88 274 per year. These 



122 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



TABLE 18 
CAUSAL ANALYSIS OF HAULAGE FATALITIES IN ILLINOIS 



Causes 


Period 


1902-05 


1906-10 


1911-15 


1916-20 


1921 


Totals 


Switching and Spragging 


5 

11 
12 
9 

5 
7 
3 
2 
3 
7 
5 
1 
1 
2 
1 


8 
1 
39 
15 
12 

9 
11 
10 
3 
6 
6 
5 

7 
4 
3 


5 
5 
31 
29 
20 

4 
2 
7 
8 
5 
13 
62 
1 
8 
12 


7 
13 
22 

72 
29 
4 
7 
10 
11 
11 
8 
15 
54 

7 
18 
4 


1 
3 
3 
24 
4 

2 
3 


3 
2 
8 
8 

3 
1 


26 
23 
106 
152 
74 
4 
25 
33 
31 
24 
25 
43 
134 
10 
23 
39 
10 


Coupling Cars 


Falling from Trips 


Run over by Car or Locomotive 


Caught between Car and Rib 


Caught between Car and Face 


Caught between Car and Roof 
Caught between Cars (not Coupling) 
Runaway Car or Trip 


Jumping on or off Car or Locomotive 
Collisions 


Derailments 


Killed by Cars, not Stated 
Roof Falls 


Animals 


Contact Trolley Wire 
Miscellaneous 


Total Haulage Fatalities 


75 


139 


213 


292 


65 


782 




Total Coal-mining Fatalities 


611 


1122 


856 


1020 


222 


3831 


Per Cent Haulage Fatalities. . . . 


12.3 


12.4 


24.9 


28.6 


29.3 


20.4 


% 



four years are selected because they represent recent average condi- 
tions and the statistics are complete. The average number of haulage 
employees per year was 12 493 ; hence the duties of mine haulage 
required more than one-seventh of the entire number of coal mine 
workers in the state. For these same years in Illinois there were 243 
fatalities directly attributable to haulage as against 870 total coal- 
mine fatalities. These fatalities averaged respectively, 60.75 and 217.5 
annually. Since 60.75 haulage fatalities were sustained among 88 274 
employees, this was 1 for each 1453 men employed about coal mines. 

Even among those 75 781 employees who positively had no duties 
connected with haulage, Table 19 shows that the annual haulage fatali- 
ties for this same four-year period averaged 19.25, or one in 3937, 
thus leaving an average of 41.5 haulage employees killed each year in 
the discharge of their duties. There being 12 493 such employees, it 
follows that the mortality was one per 301 men. 

The number of deaths occurring year by year naturally increases 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



123 



with increase in production and number of men engaged. Thus, as 
shown in Table 19, while the production has increased rapidly, it has 
always been more than 1 000 000 tons of coal per fatal haulage acci- 
dent, the best record being in 1905, slightly more than 3 000 000 tons, 
and the lowest in 1913, 1 124 476 tons. The average for the whole 
period is about 1 500 000 tons. 

The graph, Fig. 28, shows a periodicity in the fatalities directly 
attributable to underground haulage. It can be seen that the peaks 
and depressions do not coincide with similar features of the curve for 
total coal-mining fatalities, Fig. 27. The large numbers of fatal 




03 04 05 '06 '07 '08 '03 '10 // 12 '13 '/4 '/3 '/6 77 78 '19 '0 ' 

Year 
FIG. 27. GRAPH OF ILLINOIS COAL MINE FATALITIES 



124 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



TABLE 19 
BELATION BETWEEN COAL PRODUCTION AND HAULAGE FATALITIES IN ILLINOIS 



Year 


Production 


Total 
Haulage 
Fatalities 


Total 
Fatalities 
Haulage 
Employees 


Fatalities 
Non- 
Haulage 
Employees 


Fatalities 
to Drivers 


Fatalities 
to Motormen 
and Trip Riders 


Tons per 
Haulage 
Fatality 




Per 




Per 












No. 


Cent 


No. 


Cent 




1902 


30 021 300 


15 


13 


2 


10 


66.70 






2 001 420 


1903 


34 955 400 


19 


15 


4 


14 


73.11 







1 839 757 


1904 


37 077 897 


29 


21 


8 


16 


55.17 






1 278 544 


1905 


37 183 374 


12 


9 


3 


8 


66.66 






3 098 614 


1906 


38 317 581 


22 


18 


4 


15 


68.18 


1 


4.54 


1 741 708 


1907 


47 798 621 


29 


22 


7 


17 


58.62 


1 


3.44 


1 648 228 


1908 


49 272 452 


35 


31 


4 


25 


71.42 






1 407 784 


1909 


49 163 710 


30 


23 


7 


18 


60.00 


'2 


6.66 


1 638 790 


1910 


48 717 853 


23 


23 





20 


86.95 


1 


4.34 


2 118 170 


1911 


50 165 099 


37 


30 


7 


22 


59.45 


3 


8.10 


1 355 813 


1912 


57 514 240 


40 


32 


8 


20 


50.00 


5 


12.50 


1 437 856 


1913 


61 846 204 


55 


37 


18 


22 


40.00 


6 


10.90 


1 124 476 


1914 


60 715 795 


45 


35 


10 


20 


44.44 


10 


22.22 


1 350 352 


1915 


57 601 694 


36 


25 


11 


13 


36.11 


9 


25.00 


1 600 047 


1916 


63 673 530 


44 


29 


15 


18 


40.90 


5 


11.36 


1 446 443 


1917 


78 983 527 


70 


48 


22 


28 


40.00 


14 


20.00 


1 128 336 


1918 


89 979 469 


74 


51 


23 


20 


26.66 


21 


28.00 


1 199 726 


1919 


75 099 784 


55 


36 


19 


14 


25.00 


16 


28.57 


1 341 067 


1920 


73 920 653 


49 


25 


24 


9 


18.38 


7 


14.29 


1 508 585 


1921 


80 121 948 


65 


54 


11 


18 


27.69 


28 


43.08 


1 232 645 


Aveand 




















Totals 


1 122 130 131 


784 


577 


207 


347 


44.25 


129 


16.45 


1 431 287 



accidents that occurred in 1905, 1910, and 1915 were caused by serious 
disasters such as fires and explosions but it would seem, that haulage 
employees suffered least of all the classes of underground employees. 
The peaks in the curve for haulage fatalities, Fig. 28, preceded the 
peaks of total fatalities by a year or two in each instance and the ques- 
tion suggests itself, did not the haulage employees naturally become 
more careful after each time of heavy loss and in consequence conduct 
their duties with special attention to "safety first"? 

The relative hazards incident to the occupations of those killed 
in connection with haulage are shown by Table 20 and the graph, 
Fig. 29. It can be expected that with the more extended use of 
mechanical haulage, with increased speed and size of equipment, and 
with the utilization of haulage ways as traveling ways, the hazard to 
employees other than haulage employees will be increased. During 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



125 



the period 1902 to 1921, inclusive, non-haulage employees sustained 
28.8 per cent of the total haulage fatalities, as shown by Table 20. 

Since 1915 the number of non-haulage employees killed each year 
has exceeded the number of motormen and trip riders killed; and, 
since 1918, has even exceeded the number of drivers or motormen and 
trip riders killed the largest groups among haulage employees. The 
classes of employees included in haulage fatalities are given in Table 
20 in which the first ten occupations are essentially connected with 
haulage. It seems that the accidents to non-haulage employees can 
be most readily prevented and should be given special attention. 

Table 21 gives a comparison of the haulage hazard for various 
counties in the state for a period of nine years. As Franklin county 
not only has the largest number of fatalities per million tons, but is 
now the -largest producing county in the state, a detailed study of the 
casualties in that county was made (Table 22). Of the mine fatalities 




'02 '03 '04 '06 '06 '07 '08 '09 '/O '// 72 '13 '/4 76 76 '/7 78 73 'SO 

Year 

FIG. 28. GRAPH OF ILLINOIS COAL MINE HAULAGE FATALITIES 



126 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



TABLE 20 
HAULAGE FATALITIES IN ILLINOIS CLASSIFIED BY OCCUPATIONS 



Occupations 






Perio 


d 






Haulage Employees: 


1902-O5 


1906-10 


1911-15 


1916-20 


1921 


Totals 


Drivers 


48 


95 


97 


89 


18 


347 


Trip Riders 
Trappers 



6 


5 

7 


24 
11 


44 
16 


19 
5 


92 
45 


Motormen . . 








9 


17 


9 


35 


Track and Road Men 


2 


2 


3 


9 


2 


18 




1 


2 


1 




1 









1 


2 


2 


o 


5 




o 




1 


3 


o 


c 


Electricians 











4 





. 


Grippers 










o 





1 
















Total Haulage Employees 


57 


114 


148 


185 


54 


558 
















Non-Haulage Employees: 


14 


12 


38 


59 


* 

7 


130 


Laborers 


2 


8 


11 


17 


1 


39 


Managers and Assistants . . 


1 


1 


4 


12 


1 


19 


Cagers 


o 


3 


9 


5 


1 


18 


Timbermen 


o 


1 


2 


4 


1 


g 


Pipemen and Pumpmen 











3 





3 


Machine Runners 











2 





2 


Bratticemen 








o 


2 





2 


Blacksmiths 








o 


2 





2 


Hoist Engineers 


1 








o 


o 


1 


Shot-firers 


o 


o 





1 


o 


1 


Mining Engineers "... 








1 





o 


1 
















Total Non-Haulage, Employees 


18 


25 


65 


107 


11 


226 
















Total Fatalities 


75 


139 


213 


292 


65 


784 
















Per Cent, Haulage Employees 


76.0 


82.0 


69.5 


63.4 


83.1 


71.2 


Per Cent, Non-Haulage Employees . 


24.0 


18.0 


30.5 . 


36.6 


16.9 


28.8 



in Franklin county during 15 recent years, 22 per cent have 
been due to haulage, while during the last five years 28 per cent 
have been due to the same cause. Undoubtedly, large producing 
mines, large capacity cars, and high speed are the chief reasons for 
the increased number of haulage fatalities. 

Table 23 presents statistics for one year for the non-fatal accidents 
that occurred in a selected group of typical Illinois coal mines. In this 
same year, 1919, the total number was 2620, so that roughly speaking 
this table covers one-third of all such accidents in the state. 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



127 



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^ ^ 04 03 '06 '07 08 '09 '10 'II K 13 '14 '15 '/6 '17 '/8 'Id '80 '81 
FIG. 29. GRAPH SHOWING PERCENTAGES OF FATALITIES BY OCCUPATIONS 

TABLE 21 

RELATION OF HAULAGE FATALITIES TO PRODUCTION 
For Period of Nine Years in 19 Coal-Mining Counties of Illinois 



County 


Tonnage 


Fatalities 


Fatalities per 
Million Tons 


Franklin . . . 


69 263 400 


97 


1 40 


Montgomery 


26 259 295 


29 


1 10 




6 948 458 


7 


1 01 


Vermilion . 


26 908 926 


24 


90 


Williamson 
Saline 
Fulton .... 


80 906 264 
38 700 228 
19 595 117 


72 
33 

14 


0.89 
0.83 
71 


Christian 


18 901 802 


13 


70 


Madison 


35 766 010 


25 


0.69 


Sangamon 


53 303 653 


36 


68 




49 194 248 


33 


67 


Washington 
Perry 


4 483 649 
19 182 399 


3 
12 


0.67 
62 


La Salle-Bureau* . . 


39 369 969 


21 


53 


St. Clair 


43 627 890 


19 


44 


Peoria 


9 773 729 


4 


41 


Clinton 


10 988 907 


4 


36 


Randolph . 


q 103 5 9 7 


\ 


11 


Marion 


9 453 052 


o 


00 










Totals 


570 730 523 


447 


78 










Bal. of State 


24 848 819 


9 


0.36 










Total of State 


595 579 342 


456 


76 











*Northern Longwall Field 



128 



ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 



I 



K 






1261 



0261 



6T6I 



8161 



ZI6I 



9161 



SI6I 



H6I 



8161 



2161 



1161 



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A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 



129 



TABLE 23 
NON-FATAL ACCIDENTS FOR GROUP OF ILLINOIS MINES, FOR YEAR 1919 



Occupations 


No. Injured 


No. Shifts Lost 


Haulage Employees: 


44 


1 Oil 


Trip Riders 


112 


3448 


Trappers, Spraggers 


15 


301 


Couplers 


10 


440 


Trackmen 
Electricians ... 


26 
20 


689 
352 








Total Haulage Employees 


227 


6 241 








Other Underground Employees 


572 


15 869 








Surface Employees 


71 


1485 


Total Non-Fatal Accidents 


870 


23 595 








Per Cent, Haulage Employees 


26.1 


26.4 









Comparing injuries by the relative losses of time sustained by 
the victims, the average time lost per accident was 27.1 shifts, this 
applying to all occupations of coal mining, both underground and 
surface. Although the electricians' duties should properly be dis- 
tributed between haulage, coal-cutting, and illumination, they are 
charged to haulage exclusively. On this basis, we have a total number 
of 227 injuries that caused a loss of 6241 shifts or approximately 
27.5 shifts per accident. The significance of this analysis is that the 
injuries sustained from haulage appear to be about equal in severity 
to the average of all coal-mining non-fatal injuries. This of course 
has no direct bearing upon relative hazards nor upon fatalities. This 
appears in a different manner in the last line of Table 23 which shows 
that haulage employees sustained not only 26.1 per cent of the acci- 
dents but also 26.4 per cent of the lost time. 

Table 24 is presented to compare coal mine haulage fatalities in 
Illinois with those in the bituminous district of Pennsylvania. The 
Pennsylvania data are from the Statistical Analysis of Coal Mine Acci- 
dents compiled by the Insurance Department of Pennsylvania. This 
table covers the 5-year period, 1916-1920, thus representing present con- 
ditions, and shows production tonnages for several classes of employees. 
Pennsylvania produced more than twice as much coal as did Illinois 
with about twice as many coal-mine employees. Various interesting 
comparisons may be noted in the column of Ratios. 



130 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

TABLE 24 

UNDERGROUND HAULAGE FATALITIES IN BITUMINOUS MINES 

OP PENNSYLVANIA AND ILLINOIS 

5-Year Period, 1916-1920 



Items 


Pa. 


111. 


Ratios 


Comments 


Total Coal Production 
Total No. Men Employed . 
Tons Coal per Employee . . . 


831 877 000 
864878 
961.8 


381 656 963 
427 273 
893.2 


2.18:1 
2.02 : 1 
1.07 : 1 


Pa. double 111. 
Close 


Haulage Fatalities: 
Total 


557 


292 


1 91 1 


Almost 2 * 1 


To Non-Haulage Em- 


221 


103 


2 14 1 




To all Haulage Employees 
To Loco. Employees 
To Mule Drivers 


318 
209 
99 


189 
61 
89 


1.68:1 
3.43 : 1 
1.11:1 


5:3 
Notable difference 
Nearly even 


Percentage of Haulage Fatal- 
ities: 
Suffered by Haulage Em- 
ployees 


5709 


64 72 


1 1 13 


' 


Suffered by Loco. Em- 


6572 


32 27 


203-1 


Pa double 111 


Suffered by Mule Drivers 


31.13 


47.09 


1 : 1.51 


111. 51 per cent greater 


Tons of Coal Produced for 
each Fatality: 
Haulage 


1 493 495 


1 307 044 


1 14 1 




Haulage Employee 
Loco. Employee 
Mule Driver 
Non-Haulage Employees . 


2 615 965 
3 980 272 
8 402 798 
3 764 149 


2 019 349 
6 256 671 
4 288 280 
3 705 407 


1.29:1 
1 : 1.57 
1.96 : 1 
1.01 : 1 


Pa. double 111. 
Practically equal 


No. of Employees for each 
Fatality: 
Due to Haulage 


1552.7 


1463.3 


1.06 : 1 




To Haulage Employees . . . 
To Non-Haulage Em- 
ployes 


2719.7 
2913.5 


2260.7 
4148.3 


1.20 : 1 
1 : 1.42 




To Loco. Employees 
To Mule Drivers 


4138.2 
8736.1 


7004.5 
4800.8 


1 : 1.69 
1.82 : 1 





33. Comparative Hazards in Locomotive and Animal Haulage. 
The question arises as to whether or not locomotive haulage is more 
dangerous than animal haulage. Analysis of Illinois statistics on this 
subject shows that a direct answer to the inquiry is imposible, but 
the statistics in the Annual Coal Report of Illinois for the year 1921 
may be accepted as fairly representative of present-day conditions. 
In that year there were in the coal mines 2892 locomotive men, 4229 
drivers, and 278 boss drivers. Of all classes of underground employees, 
numbering 81 708, 39 men were killed by locomotive haulage and 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 131 

26 men by animal haulage, a total of 65 fatalities (see Table 19). Of 
these 65 fatalities, 54 were among the 23 453 employees connected with 
haulage. There were 7399 men employed in moving trips of coal, 
2892 of these being motormen and trip riders and the remaining 
4507, mule drivers. Of the 54 haulage-employee victims 8 were men 
other than trip men (5 trappers, 2 tracklayers, and 1 spragger), 28 
were locomotive men, and 18 were drivers (see Table 20). Beside 
the 7399 trip men, there were 6054 haulage employees such as trap- 
pers, spraggers, trackmen, stablemen and electricians. (In the case 
of electricians it is assumed that about one-half their time is occupied 
with mining work connected with mining machines, illumination and 
pumping. ) There were 19 haulage fatalities among the 74 309 em- 
ployees other than trip men. Of these 17 were due to locomotive 
haulage and 2 to mule haulage. In 1921 there were 2.03 locomotive 
men per locomotive and 1.19 mules per driver. 

From the above data several deductions are possible : 

(a) Of the 4507 drivers and boss drivers 18 were killed in their 
occupation. This is a rate of 3.994 men per thousand. 

(b) Of the 2892 locomotive men 28 met death in their duties, 
this being a rate of one man per 103 men or 9.682 men per thousand. 

(c) Locomotive men were thus under a hazard 2.42 times greater 
than were mule drivers. 

(d) Among all classes of underground employees, locomotive 
haulage, with its 39 fatalities, was but one and one-half times as 
dangerous as mule haulage with its 26 fatalities. 

(c) Among the 74309 employees other than trip men (motor- 
men, trip riders, drivers) fatalities were 19, this being a rate of one 
death per 3911 men or 0.256 men per thousand. The risk assumed by 
such workmen appears reasonably small. In comparing the 17 locomo- 
tive haulage fatalities with the 2 fatalities due to mule haulage we 
run upon the striking fact that, to nearly 91 per cent of all under- 
ground employees, locomotive haulage is eight and one-half times as 
dangerous as mule haulage. 

Such calculations and deductions, however leading to the con- 
clusion that locomotive haulage is much more dangerous than mule 
haulage have been based upon the numbers of employees only, 
whereas recent practice refers vital coal-mine statistics to tonnage of 
production. 



132 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

There is a slow but general lessening of mule haulage on main 
lines. The last statistics gathered on this point those for the year 
1921 show that mules hauled less than one-tenth as much coal over 
main lines as did locomotives. The superiority of locomotives over 
mules for main haulage became fully evident to Illinois coal operators 
about fifteen years ago. Mules handled their maximum annual ton- 
nage on main roads in 1907. Since that year, there has been a general 
diminution of this mule haulage with a simultaneous increase in the 
annual tonnage handled on main roads by locomotives. Using data 
from Table 1 and Table 19 for the years 1908 to 1921 inclusive, we 
find that for a total of 674 766 930 tons of coal hauled by locomotives on 
main lines there were 334 fatalities and that for 185 986 960 tons 
hauled by mules there were 321 fatalities. This means that the re- 
spective tonnages per fatality were 2 020 260 and 579 398 and indicates 
that mule haulage is nearly 3.5 times as dangerous as locomotive haul- 
age when computed from the standpoint of tonnage handled. 

34. Accident Prevention Measures. The safeguards or measures 
installed to prevent accidents are usually determined by their relative 
necessity. Generally speaking favorable natural conditions of haulage, 
with easy grades and good roadbed, standard haulage equipment in good 
repair, and strict enforcement of safe practices are prime requisites 
for safe haulage and efficient operation. There are dangers inherent 
to such acts as switching, spragging, coupling, jumping on and off 
cars and locomotives, and handling animals, but these risks may be 
minimized by. strict adherence to and practice of safety-first prin- 
ciples. If these accidents are due to inadequate or poorly maintained 
equipment or to failure to inculcate safety principles among the 
employees, certain responsibilities must be assumed by mine owners. 
It is not, however, the purpose of this discussion to decide upon 
specific methods of minimizing the accident hazards that attend mine 
haulage but to study the occurrence and relative numbers of such 
hazards in the different occupations. When each operator duly an- 
alyzes the accidents that occur in his mine he will be in position to 
undertake corrective measures that will apply to his particular prop- 
erty. The frequent recurrence of accidents to a given group of 
workers emphasizes the need of accident-prevention regulations for 
that group. Statistics covering a period of years reveal the underlying 



A STUDY OF COAL MINE HAULAGE IN ILLINOIS 133 

causes, and from them may be formulated more effective methods of 
combating the hazards. 

For example, as the work of distributing and collecting cars 
underground must be maintained with a certain amount of speed, 
narrow haulageways with scant illumination are constant sources of 
danger. This hazard increases with the speed of haulage. In order to 
reduce this risk whitewash is applied to the walls and roofs of 
shaft bottoms in the larger mines of the state. The benefit of this 
treatment is especially marked in bottoms without concrete linings, 
but it is considerable even where concrete supports are erected. Mine 
superintendents believe that their men work more freely and cheer- 
fully in the better illumination and that there are fewer accidents. 
Whitewash, moreover, possesses sanitary features that recommend its 
use in stables, first-aid rooms, offices, and waiting-rooms. Along main- 
haulage roads whitewash should be used in all manholes or refuges 
and upon all doors, as means of additional safety to employees. At 
partings and at all entry branchings in portions of mines remote from 
electrical lighting, whitewashed ribs and roofs greatly enhance the 
illumination and thus reduce accident hazards. There are several 
recipes for making whitewash which has the properties desired in 
underground use. The washes may be applied by either brushes or 
sprays preferably the latter. Two or three coats should be applied 
with intermissions for due seasoning. 

In all districts the personal factor is often the controlling element. 
It is generally agreed that such accidents as those due to falls, haul- 
age, and handling explosives, have much in common and that mental 
and physical alertness and knowledge of the hazards are the essential 
safeguards. Workmen grow thoughtless of their own personal interests 
when continually subjected to dangers. It is very probable that the 
majority of the deaths classified by causes in Table 18 were due to 
carelessness of the victims themselves. The final responsibility is 
therefore placed to a very great extent on the individual worker. 

35. Safety Rules for Underground Haulage. Keep locomotives, 
cars and track equipment in good repair. 

Standardize car equipment, such as bumpers and couplings. 

Illuminate haulage ways so that men need not carry individual 
lights on motor tracks. 



134 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 

Have head-lights on locomotives and markers, gongs or lights 
on rear cars of trips. 

Have safe clearance between cars and one or preferably both ribs 
of entry. 

Maintain whitewashed refuge holes at regular intervals. 

Use block fillers to top of rail-web in flangeways and wedge- 
spaces in frogs and switches. 

Use low- voltage trolley current; support wire at short intervals, 
so that sag will not exceed 3 inches; guard trolley with boxing 3 
inches lower than wires, especially where men travel, as at junctions 
and stations where man-trips are made up. 

Start locomotives only on signal from trip riders and after giving 
warning bells. King bells before all junctions. 

Keep car-doors and latches in repair and inspect reclosing. 

Give special instructions for spragging and blocking cars. 

Place limitations on speed of travel. 

Maintain special instruction for motorinen and trip riders re- 
garding the making-up of trips. 

Give instructions in coupling cars. 

Impress on all working in the mine the necessity of personal 
caution. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE ILLINOIS COAL MINING INVESTIGATIONS 



Bulletin 1. Preliminary Report on Organization and Method of Investigations. 1918. 
None available. 

Bulletin 2. Coal Mining Practice in District VIII (Danville), by S. O. Andros. 1913. 
None available. 

Bulletin 3. Chemical Study of Illinois Coals, by S. W. Parr. 1916. None available. 

Bulletin 4. Coal Mining Practice in District VII (Mines in bed 6 in Bond, Clinton, 
Christian, Macoupin, Madison, Marion, Montgomery, Moultrie, Perry, Randolph, St. Clair, 
Sangamon, Shelby, and Washington counties), by S. O. Andros. 1914. None available. 

Bulletin 5. Coal Mining Practice in District I (Longwall), by S. O. Andros. 1914. 
None available. 

Bulletin 6. Coal Mining Practice in District V (Mines in bed 5 in Saline and Gallatin 
counties), by S. O. Andros. 1914. Free upon request. 

Bulletin 7. Coal Mining Practice in District II (Mines in bed 2 in Jackson County), 
by S. O. Andros. 1914. Free upon request. 

Bulletin 8. Coal Mining Practice in District VI (Mines in bed 6 in Franklin, Jackson, 
Perry, and Williamson counties), by S. O. Andros. 1914. Free upon request. 

Bulletin 9. Coal Mining Practice in District III (Mines in beds 1 and 2 in Brown, 
Calhoun, Cass, Fulton, Greene, Hancock, Henry, Jersey, Knox, McDonough, Mercer, Morgan, 
Rock Island, Schuyler, Scott, and Warren counties), by S. O. Andros. 1915. Free upon 
request. 

Bulletin 10. Coal Resources of District I (Longwall), by G. H. Cady. 1915. None 
available. 

Bulletin 11. Coal Resources of District VII (Counties listed in Bulletin 4), by Fred H. 
Kay. 1915. None available. 

Bulletin 12. Coal Mining Practice in District IV (Mines in bed 5 in Cass, DeWitt, 
Fulton, Knox, Logan, Macon, Mason, McLean, Menard, Peoria, Sangamon, Schuyler, Tazewell, 
and Woodford counties), by S. O. Andros. 1915. Free upon request. 

Bulletin 13. Coal Mining in Illinois, by S. O. Andros. 1915. Free upon request, 

Bulletin 14. Coal Resources of District VIII (Danville), by Fred H. Kay and K. D. 
White. 1915. Postage four cents. 

Bulletin 15. Coal Resources of District VI, by G. H. Cady. 1916. Fifteen cents. 

Bulletin 16. Coal Resources of District II, by G. H. Cady. 1917. Fifteen cents. 

Bulletin 17. Surface Subsidence in Illinois Resulting from Coal Mining, by L. E. 
Young. 1916. Mailing weight, one pound. 

Bulletin 18. Tests on Clay Materials Available in Illinois Coal Mines, by R. T. Stull 
and R. K. Hursh. 1917. Mailing weight, one pound. 

Bulletin 19. Coal Resources of District V, by G. H. Cady, 1919. Mailing weight, 
one pound. 

Bulletin 20. Carbonization of Illinois Coals in Inclined Gas Retorts, by F. K. Ovitz. 
1918. Postage two cents. 

Bulletin 21. The Manufacture of Retort Coal-Gas in the Central States, Using Low- 
Sulphur Coal from Illinois, Indiana, and Western Kentucky, by W. A. Dunkley and W. W. 
Odell. 1918. Postage two cents. 

Bulletin 22. Water-Gas Manufacture with Central District Bituminous Coals as Gen- 
erator Fuel, by W. W. Odell and W. A. Dunkley. 1918. Postage two cents. 

135 



136 PUBLICATIONS OF THE ILLINOIS COAL MINING INVESTIGATIONS 

Bulletin 23. Mines Producing Low-Sulphur Coal in the Central District, by GK H 
Cady. 1919. Postage two cents. 

Bulletin 24. Water-Gas Operating Methods with Central District Bituminous Coals as 
Generator Fuel, by W. A. Dunkley and W. W. Odell. 1919. Pmtage two cents. 

Bulletin 25. Gas Purification in the Medium-size Gas Plants of Illinois, by W. A. 
Dunkley and C. E. Barnes. 1920. Postage four cents. 

Bulletin 26. Coal Resources of District IV ( Peoria- Springfield , by G. H. Cady. 
1921. Mailing weight, 2 pounds. 

*Bulletin 72. TL S. Bureau of Mines, Occurrence of Explosive Gases in Coal Mines, by 
N. H. Darton. 1915. Thirty-five cents. 

*Bulletin 83. U. S. Bureau of Mines, The Humidity of Mine Air, by R. Y. Williams. 
1914. Ten cents. 

*Bulletin 99. U. S. Bureau of Mines, Mine Ventilation Stoppings, by B. Y. Williams. 
1915. 

'Bulletin 102. U. S. Bureau of Mines, The Inflammability of Illinois Coal Dusts, by J. 
K. Clement and L. A. Scholl, Jr. 1916. 

'Bulletin 137. U. S. Bureau of Mines, The Use of Permissible Explosives in the Coal 
Mines of Illinois, by James R. Fleming and John W. Koster. 1917. 

'Bulletin 138. U. S. Bureau of Mines, Coking of Illinois Coals, by F. K. Ovitz. 1917. 
Twenty cento. 

'Technical Paper 190. U. S. Bureau of Mines, Methane Accumulations from Inter- 
rupted Ventilation, with Special Reference to Coal Mines in Illinois and Indiana, by 
Howard J. Smith and Robert J. Hamon, 1918. 

'Technical Paper 246. Water-gas Apparatus and the Use of Central District Coal as 
Generator Fuel, by W. W. Odell. 1921. Five cents. 

'Technical Paper 268. Preparation and Uses of Tar and its Simple Crude Derivatives. 
W. W. Odell. 1922. 

Bulletin 91. Engineering Experiment . Station, University of Illinois, Subsidence Re- 
sulting from Mining, by L. E. Young and H. H. Stoek. 1916. None available. 

Bulletin 100. Engineering Experiment Station, University of Illinois, The Percentage 
of Extraction of Bituminous Coal, with Special Reference to Illinois Conditions, by C. M. 
Young. 1917. Free upon request. 

Bulletin 113. Engineering Experiment Station, University of Illinois, Panel System of 
Coal Mining, A Graphical Study of Percentages of Extraction, by C. M. Young. 1919. Free 
upon request. 

Bulletin 119. Engineering Experiment Station, University of Illinois, Some Conditions 
Affecting the Usefulness of Iron Oxide for City Gas Purification, by W. A. Dunkley. 1921. 
Free upon request. 

Bulletin 125. Engineering Experiment Station, University of Illinois, The Distribution 
of the Forms of Sulphur in the Coal Bed, by H. F. Yancey and Thomas Eraser. 1921. Free 
upon request. 

Bulletin 132. Engineering Experiment Station, University of Illinois, A Study of Coal 
Mine Haulage in Illinois, by H. H. Stoek, J. R. Fleming, and A. J. Hoskin. 1922. Free 
upon request. 



* Copies may be obtained by addressing the Director, U. S. Bureau of Mines. Washington, 
D. 0. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
THE STATE UNIVERSITY 

Urbana 
DAVID KINLEY, Ph.D., LL.D., President 



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The Summer Session (eight weeks) 

Experiment Stations and Scientific Bureaus: U. S. Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion; Engineering Experiment Station; State Laboratory of Natural History; 
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State Water Survey; State Geological Survey; U. S. Bureau of Mines Experi- 
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The Library collections contain volumes and pamphlets. 

For catalogs and information address 

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