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Edited and published at Knoxville, Term., 1889; pp. 100; 
flexible cloth. The supply of this work is exhausted. 


Chicago: The Breeders' Gazette Print, 1895. Cloth; 
pp. 243; figs. 63. 


Columbus, Ohio : Published by the author, 1904. Cloth; 
pp. 99. 


Boston: Ginn & Co., 1906. Completely revised, 1920. 
Cloth; pp. 820; figs. 365. 


Columbus, Ohio; Published by the author, 1911. Cloth; 
pp. 94. 


St. Paul, Minnesota: The Webb Publishing Co., 1912. 
Cloth; pp. 393; figs. 217. 


New York: Orange Judd Co., 1916. Cloth; pp. 590; 
figs. 299. 

Frontispiece. This group consists of the champion judges in the boys' and girls' 
live stock clubs of Ohio in 1921. They won the championships at the Ohio 
State University, about 700 being in competition. From such lads much may 
be expected in the future, for the boys of to-day are to be the stockmen of 





Charles S. Plumb 

Professor of Animal Husbandry in the College 
of Agriculture of the Ohio State University. 
Author of "Types and Breeds of Farm Animals," 
"Judging Farm Animals," "Beginnings in Animal 
Husbandry," etc. 

The Webb Publishing Company 

St. Paul, Minnesota 



w. i 

Made in U. S. A. 


During the past decade the subject of agricultural edu- 
cation for our secondary schools and colleges has received 
much attention. Prior to this period a number of general 
texts on agriculture for schools, elementary in character, pre- 
pared by men trained in general science or classics, were 
published. These texts had a limited distribution, partly 
because of lack of interest in the subject by teachers and 
pupils, and partly because of the methods of presentation. 
These authors saw no way of handling the subject, except- 
ing by a more or less stereotyped style, in which chemistry, 
or some natural science, furnished the reasoning basis. 

The establishment of agricultural colleges, equipped with 
farms, and working laboratories of greenhouses, orchards, 
gardens, field crops, and stables with their contents of farm 
animals and utensils, paved the way to a new and interest- 
ing treatment of agricultural subjects. The introduction of 
popular short winter courses about 1890, was the first im- 
portant step in this direction. Simple laboratory exercises 
in dairying, horticulture, and live-stock judging, appealed to 
students, and added much to the popularity of the in- 
struction. As an outgrowth of these has come the great 
popular movement in America in behalf of agricultural edu- 
cation. Not only the colleges, but many secondary schools 
have adopted agricultural courses, and some have been 
equipped with farms and laboratories, where the students 
are taught the relationship of principles to farm practice. 

The evolution in agricultural education has been asso- 
ciated with the development of texts that have covered a 
wide range of instruction, and which have supplied a vital 
interest quite lacking in most of the books published prior 
to the year 1900. In fact, we have a new agricultural litera- 


492 166 


ture, the direct outgrowth of recent methods of education 
in the agricultural college, as well as the investigations of 
our experiment stations. 

To meet what was regarded as a real need in sec- 
ondary schools and short courses, in 1912 the author pre- 
pared a book entitled "Beginnings in Animal Husbandry," 
the first text of its kind in this field of education, prepared 
for students below college grade. The reception given this 
volume by educators was very gratifying to the author. In 
the passing years, however, much new material has accum- 
ulated, and courses of study have been introduced that were 
not generally given in 1912, and for which no provisions 
were made in "Beginnings in Animal Husbandry." The 
author has, therefore, seen fit to prepare a new text, that 
should more fully meet present needs. It not only discusses 
the feeding, care, and management of animals with some 
detail, as applied to horses, cattle, sheep, swine, and poultry, 
but considers other subjects of present-day importance. These 
include community breeding, something about wool, boys' 
and girls' live-stock clubs, co-operative live-stock shipping, 
and culling the poultry flock. It also contains besides these, 
all the more important matter relative to breeding, the 
breeds, and judging, as set forth in the first text. "Begin- 
nings in Animal Husbandry" consisted of 28 chapters, includ- 
ing 393 pages and 217 illustrations, while the present text 
contains 44 chapters, 540 pages and 256 illustrations. 

In conclusion the author would quote the final sentence 
of the Foreword in "Beginnings in Animal Husbandry" : "It 
is his earnest hope that such lessons as either teacher or 
pupil shall find within these pages, may result in a desire 
for yet wider knowledge of and a more sympathetic interest 
in, farm animals." 
Ohio State University CHARLES S. PLUMB 

Columbus, Ohio 
June 1, 1922. 

































































































The study of domestic animals may be considered both 
a pleasure and a duty a pleasure, because of the natural- 
born interest man feels in all animals ; and a duty on account 
of the service horses, cattle, sheep, and swine play in the 

Figure 1. Hereford bull, Avondale, champion at the 1914 Royal Agricultural 
Society Show, England, exhibited by King George V. Photograph by 
the author. 

world's affairs. Between many people, and even nations, 
and their domestic animals, we find an affectionate, sympa- 
thetic relationship. The people of Great Britain, the world's 
leading stockmen, from the King and Queen to the humblest 
laborer, show a keen and kindly interest in everything 



relating to farm live stock. One of the most interesting 
sights to be seen in Europe is the annual show of the Royal 
Agricultural Society of England, where live stock is made 
the leading feature, and where vast throngs of people go to 
inspect and talk over the animals and watch the judges at 
their work. The average Britisher is a lover of animals, 
and expresses a common, inherited sentiment. This dis- 
position on the part of a people develops the finer, more 
sympathetic qualities, and broadens and strengthens char- 
acter. In the same way, the boy or girl who shows a devo- 
tion to the animal given to his or her care becomes more 
sympathetic and broader minded, and is rendered more 
resourceful and capable. From another point of view, ani- 
mals play a most important part on account of their uses 
for food and labor. The study of animals as, relating to 
farm economy and the markets of the world becomes, there- 
fore, a most important matter. 

The commercial importance of the live stock industry is 
so great that only a brief reference can be made to it here. 
One is unable to comprehend the magnitude of the figures 
which relate to either numbers or values of farm animals. 
According to the report of the United States Census, on 
January 1, 1920, the farm animals in this country made the 
following showing in numbers. 

Class of Live Stock Number 

Horses 21,848,000 

Mules 5,829,000 

Milch cows 20,892,000 

Other cattle* 48,031,000 

Sheep 35,435,000 

Swine 62,007,000 


By these figures we see that we had in 1920 about 195 
million animals on our farms, a number far too big to 
comprehend. The significant thing is simply to realize the 
vastness of our live-stock industry, and the enormous sum of 

*Includes beef cattle of various kinds and oxen. 

Milch cows 
Other cattle 


money here invested, besides the value of the animals them- 
selves. The greatest live-stock producing section of the 
country includes the states of New York, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, 
North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, 
and Texas. The two states of most importance in numbers of 
each kind of live stock in the United States in 1920 are as 
follows : 

Horses / Iowa first, with 1,386,000 head 

\ Nebraska second, with 1,322,000 

Mules / Texas first, with 849,000 

Georgia second, with 407,000 

Wisconsin first, with 2,763,000 

New York second, with 2,081,000 

Texas first, with 4,768,000 

Iowa second, with 3,048,000 

Texas first, with 2,552,000 

California second, with 2,400,000 " 

Swine / Iowa first, with 7,864,000 " 

Illinois second, with 4,640,000 

We see from the above that Iowa ranks first with num- 
bers of horses and swine, Texas with mules, sheep and other 
cattle, and Wisconsin with milch cows. The two states, 
however, that have the greatest numbers of superior farm 
animals of the different kinds are Iowa and Illinois. 

The importance of our live stock may also be seen from 
another point of view in connection with our local markets. 
The city of Chicago is the largest live-stock market in the 
world. The Union Stock Yards of that city cover 500 
acres, and received in 1920 a total of 15^ millions of farm 
animals, valued at over 665 millions of dollars. Nearly 
268,000 car loads of live stock were received in these yards 
in 1920. This is equal to about 734 cars a day, which, at 
an average length of 36 feet to a car, would make one solid 
train of live stock about 5 miles long. There are 
300 miles of railway in and about the yards to handle all 
this great traffic. Some 100,000 people live about the yards 
and get their daily incomes from them. Here are immense 



slaughter houses and meat-packing plants from which meats 
are shipped to all parts of the world. The Union Stock 
Yards and packing houses are noted features of the great 
city of Chicago and are daily visited by tourists from all 
over America and many other countries. In 1920 there 
were 1,897 slaughtering and meat-packing plants in the 
United States, in which were killed and prepared for food, 
under the supervision of United States inspectors, over 65 
millions of farm animals. These figures are given simply to 
show the importance of the live-stock trade and the part 
it must play in American agriculture. 

Figure 2. A view in the Kansas City Stock Yards. Photograph by the author. 

The first use of animals by man dates back to the days 
when there was no civilization, when no written records 
were made, and the people lived as ignorant savages. It 
was in prehistoric times, when the only implements used 
were very crude ones made by hand, of stone, iron or copper. 
That animals lived with man in these prehistoric days, we 
know, because the bones of man and those of horses, cattle, 
and other animals have been found mingled together in the 
remains of prehistoric villages in Europe. As man ascended 


in the scale of civilization, we find that animals became more 
and more associated with him in his daily life. The oldest 
historical works make frequent reference to farm animals. 
In consulting the Bible, one will find in the Book of Genesis, 
dating back over 2,000 years before Christ, repeated refer- 
ence to herdsmen and horses and 'asses, cattle, sheep, and 
goats. In fact, these people of early days were farmers, 
and depended largely on their live stock. 

The importance of domestic animals to man is to be seen 
in several ways. There are some features of special interest 
to the student; namely, (a) the use of animals for clothing, 
(b) for food, (c) for labor, and (d) in relation to maintaining 
soil fertility. Each of these is of sufficient importance to 
justify special consideration. 

The use of animals for clothing refers to the skin, hair, 
and wool or other hairy covering. Earliest man is supposed 
to have used the skins of animals for clothing, especially in 
the cooler regions or during the colder seasons of the year. 

For thousands of years people have woven cloth from 
wool and the hair of camels and goats. At the present day 
the making of cloth from wool is a great industry in differ- 
ent parts of the world. Millions of sheep even now have 
their chief value in the wool that they produce. The lead- 
ing industry of a number of English and American towns 
and cities is the converting of wool into clothing; so we find 
in them great mills employing thousands of people. 

The use of animals for food is of first importance. It is 
for this purpose that cattle, sheep, and swine have been 
domesticated; and the final end of all farm animals except 
the horse, ass, and mule, must be for human food. Meat is 
a concentrated food, rich in the substances that give strong 
physical development. It is said that the meat-eating na- 
tions rule the world; and, when we realize that the people 
of North America, Great Britain, France, and Germany are 
the greatest consumers of this food, we are inclined to be- 


lieve the statement to be true. The average person in the 
United States eats about 150 pounds of meat a year. With 
a population in excess of one hundred million people, it can 
be easily understood that an enormous number of animals 
must be slaughtered for food each year. 

There is also another important source of food from ani- 
mals, that of milk and its products. Cattle have been so 
improved since domestication began, that to-day we have 
cows producing remarkable yields of milk. A yield of 5,000 
pounds of milk a year is very common; a large number of 
cows have produced 10,000 pounds; a yield of 15,000 pounds 
of milk in a year from a single animal is no longer remark- 
able. Milk is a very nutritious liquid food, and supplies a 
place in human diet unequaled by any other substance. 
From milk is manufactured cheese, a valuable food that in 
Europe very generally takes the place of meat among the 
laboring classes. Butter, also a product of milk, is so greatly 
in demand that thousands of creameries engage in its pro- 
duction. In 1920, there were over twenty million cows and 
heifers kept in the United States, primarily for milk. Ten 
states had over one million dairy cows each. 

The use of animals for labor no doubt dates from pre- 
historic days when man subdued the horse. With the culti- 
vation of the fields, both cattle and horses became beasts of 
burden and laborers in the fields. Cattle are commonly 
used for labor in parts of Europe, even dairy cows some- 
times being employed to draw loads. Oxen were much used 
in pioneer days for draft work in America, but have been 
generally discarded on account of their slowness, yet even 
to-day they may be seen serving in place of horses in some 
parts of our country. In the pioneer settlement of America, 
the ox team proved a very important means of transporta- 
tion through the forests and across the wide western prairies. 
The great endurance, steady habits, and ease of keep, make 
the ox a favorite with the pioneer. 



In countries other than our own, where railways do not 
exist, the transportation of freight must be done by animals 
or on the shoulders of men. In many countries the people 
use the backs of animals for this purpose. In northern 
Africa, the camel is known as "the ship of the desert," for 
on its back is carried both man and .freight from the interior 
to the coast. In parts of Asia, the elephant becomes a 
mighty beast of burden, performing wonderful draft service. 
The little donkey, regarded in America as simply a play- 

Figure 3. An ox team in Washington State. Photograph by Bert C. Thomas. 

thing for children, is widely used over the world as a burden 
bearer of the most steady and dependable sort. 

Thus it is seen that domestic animals, even to-day, 
play a very important part in moving merchandise and per- 
forming labor. Although the motor-truck has become an 
important medium for transporting freight in our towns and 


cities, largely replacing the horse in this service, still the 
work horse, and especially the one suited for heavy draft, is 
here in constant demand. The tractor is well adapted to 
certain farm operations, supplanting the horse, but this ani- 
mal is yet indispensable for many purposes on our farms, 
and will always be an important part of farm equipment. 
Professor T. F. Hunt states* that in England it is estimated 
that two horses will cultivate 80 acres of light and sandy 
soil or 60 acres of heavy, or clay, soil. In the United States, 
it appears that one horse or mule of working age is kept for 
every 30 acres of improved land; but in level prairie sec- 
tions far more service than this indicates is expected. 

The use of domestic animals in maintaining soil fertil- 
ity has long been recognized as of great importance. The 
earliest writers on agriculture, who lived just prior to the 
Christian era, about two thousand years ago, wrote more 
or less of the value of manures in keeping the soil fertile. 
The farmer of those days learned from experience that, if he 
took a crop from the land one year, the next harvest from 
the same soil would be smaller unless manure was used to 
replace the fertility removed in the crop. Thus we see that 
twenty centuries ago the farmer learned that he must 
replace fertility in his soil if he expected to reap abundant 
harvests. To secure this necessary fertility, he used the 
manure provided by farm animals; and much was written 
about the value of the excrement from different kinds of 
animals, and the preservation of manures. 

In very recent times, artificial fertilizers have come into 
extensive use. But, in spite of this fact, the natural ma- 
nures of animals have been absolutely necessary to keep up 
the fertility of the soil of most regions where high-class 
farming is practiced. There are lands in Europe to-day, 
said to have been cultivated for 2,000 years, that grow great 
crops, made possible by the use of animal manures. This 
statement may be accepted as a fact, that, except in the case 

*Cyclopedia of Agriculture, Vol. Ill, 1908, p. 11. 


of some great river valleys, like the Nile, which are enriched 
by annual overflow, no agricultural region has continued to 
grow abundant harvests without the aid of manure from 
domestic animals. Each year the wheat fields of Canada 
and the corn fields of the Mississippi Valley yield in reduced 
amounts per acre, unless fertility replaces that removed by 
the crop. Experience has also shown that, where farmers 
keep the most live stock, there the crops are most abundant 
and the people most prosperous. 

We purchase commercial fertilizers to restore fertility 
to the soil; but these lack one thing of great importance 
found in stable manures, and that is vegetable matter, which 
is as necessary to the soil as is the chemical nutriment. The 
rotted manure in the soil makes it more porous and mellow 
and permits the entrance of air and the growth of roots 
through it more freely than where no vegetable mould is 
present. Interesting experiments conducted for more than 
seventy continuous years on the same land, in England, at 
Rothamsted Experiment Station, showed that wheat grown 
on unmanured land yielded just about 12 bushels per acre, 
while a yield of about 40 bushels occurred where stable ma- 
nure was used. A ton of average stable manure is regarded 
as containing about $2.50 worth of plant food. Professor 
Roberts has figured* that the average value of the manure 
produced by a cow each day is 8 cents, while that of a horse 
is worth about a half cent less. The value of stable ma- 
nure, however, depends upon the feed the animal gets. Feed 
rich in grain makes a more valuable manure than that from 
hay only, and so will return more fertility to the soil. 

The animal is a machine for changing coarse into fine 
material. The ideal kind of farming combines the growing 
of grass and grain and the feeding of these to the animals 
of the farm. These raw crops are thus converted into con- 
centrated and high priced products, as represented in meat, 
milk, butter, cheese, or breeding stock. A large percentage 

*Bulletin 56, Cornell University Experiment Station. 


of the food consumed returns to the farm to keep up its 
fertility. Some forms of stock farming remove but very 
little of the actual soil fertility. One reason why dairy- 
cattle farming meets with so much favor is because of the 
small amount of fertility sold from the farm in milk or 
butter. Professor Vivian states* that the fertilizing value of 
a ton of butter is but 44 cents, and that 5,000 pounds of 
milk contain but $4.89 worth of fertility. As much as 80 
or 85 per cent of the value of the food or crop becomes 
animal excrement, and which under a progressive system of 
agriculture is returned to the soil for its upbuilding. 

When, as in case of dairy-cattle farming, much more 
grain is fed than is grown on the farm, then the land steadily 
improves in its producing capacity. The best examples of 
intelligent general farming are to be found where herds and 
flocks are kept as important features of a well-balanced 
farm system. Where the special business is stock farming, 
then the final product in its concentrated form will yield 
far more important and profitable returns in the long run 
than will any other method. One hundred acres of grain 
shipped a thousand miles require a large expenditure of 
labor and money, while this same crop, in the form of a con- 
centrated product like butter or meat, may be transported 
at relatively much less expense. 

Live stock farming is adapted to the cheaper and rougher 
lands. Much land that might not be used for other pur- 
poses can be devoted to pasturing farm animals. The grass 
on the hills is usually finer and sweeter than on the lowlands. 
In various parts of the world where the land is naturally 
poor or of a rough character, stock farming is an important 
industry. In fact, no other kind of farming is so well 
adapted to these conditions. On the Cheviot Hills of Scot- 
land, the principal industry is that of sheep raising, grass 
and sheep being the two crops. In Switzerland, high up on 
the mountain sides are pastures which annually furnish feed 

*First Principles of Soil Fertility, 1908, p. 120-121. 



for many dairy cows. On the rough, cheap hillsides of New 
England, dairy cattle are the most important source of 
income to the farmer. On the high, grassy hills of eastern 
Ohio, western Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, are to be 
found the largest flocks of sheep in this country east of the 
Missouri river. In the Southwest and far West of the United 
States, on the cheaper rolling or broken lands, will be found 
extensive herds and flocks. In the Northwest, among the 
cut-over lands that have been deprived of their timber 

Figure 4. Fat cattle on Ohio hills. Photograph by the author. 

by the lumbermen, dairy cattle and dairymen are being 
developed on a greater scale than elsewhere in America. In 
fact, the farmer generally plans on the use of his cheaper, 
poorer lands as pasture for stock. Rightly handled, these 
lands in most cases greatly increase in producing capacity 
and value. Inasmuch as live stock also finds an appropriate 
place on the more fertile and level farms, we must recognize 
the fact that animals are adapted to greater extremes of soil 
and land conditions than are the staple crops. Thus ani- 
mals in a world-wide sense become subjects of great impor- 
tance and interest. 

The class of people handling livestock, as a rule, repre- 
sents the more intelligent and progressive farmers of the 


community. Their homes and farm buildings indicate com- 
fort and prosperity, when compared with what one sees on 
farms where live stock is not a part of the system of manage- 
ment. There is a pride in the ownership of a fine herd that 
creates a desire on the part of the owner to improve and 
beautify his home. Thus he becomes interested in com- 
munity welfare, and often renders service of a public nature 
that is much to his credit. The most beautiful and attrac- 
tive farm homes one sees in traveling through England and 
Scotland, are occupied by men who are owners of fine flocks 
and herds. In the United States the same condition pre- 
vails, whether we are in the blue-grass region of Kentucky, or 
the wide prairies of Illinois and Iowa, or the alfalfa fields of 
Kansas and Colorado. Should we not, therefore, do all we 
can to create an interest in farm animals, and thus develop 
a higher class of citizenship amongst us? 


1. What people are especially interested in live stock? 

2. How many farms animals we have in the United States? 

3. What states lead in numbers of each kind of live stock? 

4. How many car loads of stock enter Chicago market daily? 

5. When man first domesticated animals? 

6. How much meat we eat per capita a year? 

7. What cattle are used for labor? 

8. How live stock is related to farm fertility? 

9. What a ton of stable manure is worth? 
10. How the animal resembles a machine? 


The word heredity has long been used by scientific men 
when discussing the important subject of breeding animals 
and plants. As commonly defined, it means the reproduc- 
tion in the offspring of the characteristics of the parents. It 
means more than that, however, because the parentage of 
an animal or plant extends further back than one generation. 

The degree or extent that characteristics may be inherited 
from parents, grandparents, and more distant generations, 
can not be absolutely determined. Yet, that animals and 
plants do inherit from other generations than the parents, is 
a matter of common knowledge. In fact, everything found 
in the animal, whether physical or mental, excepting cer- 
tain diseases, has been transmitted through previous genera- 
tions. We know that under average conditions there is a 
certain degree of resemblance between an animal and its 
various ancestors. Yet there are conditions which greatly 
affect heredity. Writing on "the complex nature of hered- 
ity," Davenport says:* "The most disconcerting principle 
in all improvement operations lies back of the obvious fact 
that the offspring is not like the parent. Having two parents, 
he could not of course be like them both. The fact is, how- 
ever, that for the most part he is not like either one of them, 
nor yet is he like the two combined. The most that can be 
said is that the offspring resembles his parents, and that all 
his characters are to be found somewhere in his parentage." 

The persistence of heredity is a most important factor 
in its influence on the offspring. The older and better 
established the family, the more uniform and certain is the 
transmission. We say that an animal, family, breed, or 

*Domesticated Animals and Plants, 1910, p. 154. 



race that transmits its special characteristics with much 
certainty, is prepotent. This word suggests power, and 
really means superior influence. Wild animals and birds 
represent the purest and most prepotent breeding. They 
live and develop under conditions that are most natural and 
uniform, thus resulting in the least change. One wild fox 
differs but little from other wild foxes of the same kind in 
form, color, and mental traits. In the opinion of scientists 
they must have had these characters for a great length of 
time. The same conclusion applies to any other one species, 
the product of wild conditions. 

The most prepotent domestic animals are those that have 
been bred pure for long generations. A breed like Hereford 
cattle, the family relationship of which can be traced back 
for a hundred years, represents a comparatively well-estab- 
lished type and character. In a herd of these cattle we 
should expect to find the typical horn and head, the blocky 
form, the red body and white face, brisket, tail, and feet 
color so universally known. We have examples, however, 
of old breeds that have not been developed by great con- 
structive breeders, and consequently a lack of individual 
excellence among a great number of the animals is found. 
The importance of heredity in stock breeding has long 
been recognized. The men who have been most noted in 
the development of each of the great breeds have agreed that 
the saying, "like produces like," contains much truth. In 
fact, in breeding operations they have placed a premium on 
prepotency and uniformity of character. Bates, the great 
Shorthorn breeder, was a stickler for type and character. 
The same may be said of any other man who has become 
celebrated as a breeder of superior animals. If a man wishes 
to produce race horses, he must use race-horse blood, in 
which speed has been the important feature. Great records 
are being made among dairy cattle to-day, and certain 
families are noted producers. In studying the history of 



the development of the modern dairy cow, one will find that 
the inheritance of milk or butter-fat production is a great 
prepotent feature. This prepotency is illustrated in a strik- 
ing manner in the ancestry of the Holstein-Friesian cow 
De Kol Creamelle. She produced 780.4 pounds of milk in 
a week, her daughter Creamelle Vale 750.2 pounds, her 
granddaughter Dutchland Colantha Vale 765.3 pounds, and 
her great granddaughter Dutchland Pietertje Vale 750 
pounds in a week, a remarkable series of records. Anyone 

Figure 5. Hereford bull, Disturber 12th, owned by Ferguson Brothers of 
Minnesota. Photograph from the owners. 

who attempts to establish and develop a herd without being 
guided by our present-day knowledge of the influence of 
heredity will certainly fail in his breeding operations. 

The importance of an ideal in breeding can not be over- 
estimated. Men who have done much to assist in developing 
breeds and have become famous in this work are com- 
monly called "constructive breeders." In the upbuilding of 
the Shorthorn, the Colling Brothers, Bates, the Booths, and 


Cruickshank were all known as great constructive breeders. 
These men had their ideals or standards, and bred up to 
them as closely as possible. Two men start out with herds 
of cattle of equal merit. One man has ideals of what he 
should do. He carefully studies his cattle and the laws of 
heredity, and seeks constantly to improve his herd. At the 
end of 25 years he has a fine herd, that is a marked improve- 
ment over his foundation stock, and from which he derives 
much praiseworthy fame and substantial profit. The other 
man has no ideals or policy. He is satisfied with things as 
he receives them, he does not study his business, and, as 
might have been expected, his stock becomes inferior and 
unprofitable, he gets in debt, and ends possibly in bank- 
ruptcy. One man is a benefit to his community, the other 
is not; yet each had an equal chance at the start. 

Certain useful and valuable forms of inheritance exist 
among the improved types and breeds of farm animals, and 
the perpetuation of these qualities is most important, if one 
is to make a success of breeding. Some of these forms that 
directly concern the stockman are the following: 

(1) Color markings. One of the most important features 
of breed identification is the color. Some breeds possess a 
solid, uniform color, as the red of the Red Polled cattle, the 
black of the Aberdeen-Angus, the white of the Chester White 
and Large Yorkshire pigs, and the red of the Duroc-Jersey. 
Fach breed has its standard color or colors, and anything 
varying from this, as a rule, causes disqualification. 

(2) Milk production. The Holstein-Friesian breed is 
noted for the large milk flow of the cows. No other breed 
of cows equals these in heavy flow of milk, and no feature 
does more to make the Holstein-Friesian famous than that 
of milk production. 

(3) Fecundity is especially a hereditary character. Shrop- 
shire sheep have been noted for many years for the large 
percentage of twins dropped by the ewes. The Large York- 



shire and the Tamworth breeds of hogs are famous for the 
large litters farrowed by the sows, while of the lard-type 
breeds the Duroc-Jersey is prominent in this respect. 

(4) Temperament. As a rule, animals of a heavy, fleshy 
type are more phlegmatic and less nervous than those of 
more muscular build. Draft horses, beef cattle, mutton 
sheep, and lard hogs all show to a certain extent this relation- 
ship of form to temperament. 

(5) Speed is a striking feature of the horse of light and 
muscular conformation. A study of the pedigrees of run- 
ning horses prominent to-day will in many cases show lines 

Figure 6. Holstein Friesian cow Prilly 40082 at 13 years old, on the left, and 
her three daughters Beauty Pietertje, Cleopatra Gelsches, and Eliza 
Pietertje, all great producers. Photograph from their owner, H. A. Moyer. 

of descent from the Darley Arabian, with long lists of cele- 
brated racers in between, covering the period of over a 
century. In the same way, the record of inherited speed of 
the American trotter may be traced in a most interesting 
way from the present back to about 1822, when Bellfo under, 
the sire of the dam of Hambletonian 10, by many regarded 
as the most noted speed sire in the history of America, 
was imported to this country from England. 


Peculiar or interesting characters are also transmitted 
from one generation to another. We are usually most im- 
pressed with the commonest things in animal inheritance, 
yet there are remarkable characteristics that are well worth 
attention, and such as demand consideration from the 
thoughtful stockman. Usually these are valued as breed 
features, yet in themselves they have no useful attributes. 
Some examples of these are the following: The solid hoof in 
the hog is a rare occurrence, except with one breed, the Mule 
Foot. This characteristic is of no special value, but it has 
been made the subject of much publicity, and many persons 
from curiosity have purchased specimens of Mule Foot hogs! 
A pug-nosed, dished face is a distinct feature of the Small 
Yorkshire breed of swine. Often these pigs are bred so that 
the lower jaw projects with an upward curve beyond the 
short, dished upper jaw, seriously affecting ease of eating. 
Berkshire breeders in America in late years have also had a 
tendency to breed these very short, turned-up faces. Such 
heads are monstrosities, in the same class with those of bull 
dogs and Boston terriers. Five toes on each foot are found 
on the Houdan and Dorking breeds of chickens. This num- 
ber of toes commonly occurs on all good specimens of these 
two varieties of well-known European fowls, although four 
is the usual number with other breeds. 

Latent hereditary characters exist in all animal life. By 
these are meant characteristics that are not visible in any 
form in one or more generations, yet have occurred in the 
past, and may again appear at some time in the future. 
During the past, students of heredity have called such occur- 
rences "atavism/' while stockmen have been in the habit 
of referring to them as "throwing back," or "breeding back." 
For example, we have a case of a family of Aberdeen-Angus 
cattle, which is a black breed. Very unexpectedly a red 
calf is dropped in a herd where not a red animal has been 
known. Yet a careful study of the history of this herd will 


show that at a previous period there was a red ancestor. 
This red color was really hereditary, but lay dormant, or 
latent, as it is termed, for some generations, and then cropped 
out. The stockman usually calls this a "sport." Scientists 
speak of it as a "mutation." The important point, how- 
ever, is that this character really was inherited from gen- 
eration to generation, but did not appear until certain con- 
ditions were favorable. Many similar cases might be cited 
that have caused much comment among stockmen. In this 
connection, it may be noted that mutation occurs less fre- 
quently with old, well-established breeds than with those 

Figure 7. A good example of fecundity, a Duroc-Jersey sow and litter of 14 
pigs. Photograph from Ohio Experiment Station. 

not so old and less under natural than under artificial con- 
ditions. It is also important to remember that sometimes 
mutation results in valuable variations from the parent type. 
Instances have occurred where intelligent breeders have 
recognized the value of such a "sport," and have succeeded 
in reproducing it through successive generations, until it 
became a fixed breed feature. More than one hornless breed 
of cattle and sheep have been founded by the unexpected 
appearance of a polled animal in a horned herd. This 
anomaly applies especially to Polled Jersey, Polled Hereford, 


and Polled Shorthorn cattle, each of which breeds is now 
championed by a registry association for promoting the 
hornless head. 

Variation in animal character is to be seen on every hand. 
No two animals are exactly alike. In a family of the same 
parentage we find marked differences. Within our intimate 
acquaintance, we are often impressed with the striking dif- 
ferences between members of the same family. Among our 
domestic animals differences also exist in no small degree, 
although our attention may not be attracted by them in the 
same manner as in the human family. Yet variation is a 
common occurrence in all life. It is due to this very fact 
that man has been able to improve and develop our farm 
animals to their present stage of perfection. Animal life 
is plastic and more or less susceptible to the influence of 
artificial conditions which man more or less controls. Food, 
habits, surroundings, the care of man, all affect the develop- 
ment of the dumb beast in a notable manner. It should 
be the business of the stockman to study these conditions 
and use them to the material improvement of his own herd. 


1. The meaning of the word heredity. 

2. Under what conditions prepotency is best seen. 

3. Why a knowledge of heredity is important in stock breeding. 

4. What is meant by constructive breeders. 

5. The value of color markings in breed inheritance. 

6. The relation of conformation and inherited speed. 

7. Some peculiar forms of heredity. 

8. The possible value of mutation. 

9. What conditions influence variation. 


10. Report on the best examples of heredity extending over at least 

two generations, in which very similar characters appear. 

11. What is the most prepotent animal in the neighborhood, and why? 

12. Report on any herd showing high ideals of the owner. 

13. Interesting cases of fecundity among brood sows are not difficult 

to find. Look some up and report upon them. 

14. What is the most interesting and peculiar case of heredity 

within your knowledge? 

15. Find a case of atavism worth reporting. 


The principle of selection involves some method by which 
one or more animals are selected for specific purposes. The 
scientist recognizes two great classes of selection, one, natural ; 
the other, artificial. 

Natural selection is the process in operation among wild 
animals by which individuals choose or select their mates. 
Force is an important medium under such circumstances. 
A good example of the application of natural selection is 
found with the deer. The males fight among themselves 
to determine which shall be master of the herd, and the 
strongest, most masterful secures the leadership. This is 
what is sometimes termed "the survival of the fittest." 
Among all wild animals a similar method of selection exists 
to a more or less degree. This system weeds out the weakly, 
inferior animals and promotes the vitality of the race. Refer- 
ring to this subject, Henry Drummond states:* "The 
object of the survival of the fittest is to produce fitness, and 
it does so, both negatively and positively. In the first place 
it produces fitness by killing off the unfit. Without the 
rigorous weeding out of the imperfect the progress of the 
world had not been possible. If fit and unfit indiscriminately 
had been allowed to live and reproduce their kind, every 
improvement which any individual might acquire would be 
degraded to the common level in the course of a few genera- 
tions. Progress can start only by one or two individuals' 
shooting ahead of their species, and their life gain can be 
conserved only by their being shut off from their species or 
by their species being shut off from them." Again he says: 
"If a given number must die, that number must be singled 

*The Ascent of Man. 



out upon some principle, and we can not quarrel with the 
principle in physical nature which condemns to death the 
worst." Natural selection, therefore, represents a progres- 
sive development, with each succeeding generation some- 
what stronger and better bred for meeting the requirements 
of existence. An especially interesting phase of natural 
selection is, that through it the species is developed so as to 
be best adapted to its purpose and condition of living. 

Artificial selection involves the introduction of man. He 
controls the matter of selection, and thereby is able to cause 
the animal to vary more or less from the parent type. In 
the earliest times, no doubt man exercised some control over 
the animals that he found useful, and caused changes in 

Figure 8. The first prize Shorthorn herd, Ringmaster at head, the result of 
a policy in selection. Photograph from The Farmer. 

their development. Thus man's ability to affect the pur- 
pose and value of dumb animals must have appeared evident 
to him long ago. The famous sculptures of Egypt and 
Nineveh, dating back thousands of years, show that domestic 
animals at that time must have been improved by man 
through the practice of selection. The Bible has been 
repeatedly quoted by writers on heredity, to show that the 
influence of selection was recognized prior to the time of 
Christ, as expressed in Genesis. Early writers like Plato, 
Pliny, and Columella, all refer to the improvement of live 
stock by selection. All through the intervening centuries up 


to the present time, interesting references occur in history 
of the seeking of animal improvement through selection. 

Methodical selection is a term used by Darwin to express 
the more systematic artificial process. In his most interest- 
ing work on "Animals and Plants Under Domestication," 
he presents much evidence to show the practical application 
of selection, and especially how by a methodical, carefully- 
planned system, remarkable results have been secured. 
Referring to this method, Darwin says: "Few persons, 
except breeders, are aware of the systematic care taken in 
selecting animals, and of the necessity of having a clear and 
almost prophetic vision into futurity. Lord Spencer's skill 
and judgment were well-known; and he writes: 'It is, 
therefore, very desirable, before any man commences to 
breed either cattle or sheep, that he should make up his mind 
to the shape and qualities he wishes to obtain, and steadily 
pursue this object/ Lord Somerville, in speaking of the 
marvelous improvement of the New Leicester sheep, effected 
by Bakewell and his successors, says: 'It would seem as if 
they had drawn a perfect form, and then given it life.' ' 

In connection with the practice of selection, it is impor- 
tant that the breeder keep in view certain things, if he is to 
be successful in accomplishing his purpose. He must place 
a premium on vigor or constitution, on digestive capacity, 
on superior quality, on conformation or a proper relation- 
ship of all the parts to the whole, and on the strong develop- 
ment of the particular thing desired, such as wool, milk, 
speed, etc., according to the class of animals. 

A policy in selection is essential. Whether one is to breed 
one kind of live stock or another, one should not only have 
carefully considered plans, but should hold to them. One 
of the great reasons for non-success on the part of many 
breeders is the lack of a definite, well-founded policy. A 
man starts to breeding beef cattle, and after a time concludes 
he prefers a dairy breed; so he disposes of his beef stock. 


Thus years of effort may be upset in a few days. More 
than one man in a vainglorious way has stated that he has 
tried all the breeds of this or that kind of stock, and that he 
knows all about them. Such a statement is evidence of 
superficial knowledge and policy, and that he will never 
amount to anything as a breeder. 

Intelligent selection requires severe culling of the herd. 
Men improve the average of the herd through the removal of 
the more undesirable animals. Some persons, however, find 
it difficult to do so, on the plea that they can not afford it, 
or that the misfit will do for the present. Yet the more 
uniform the excellence of the animals in a group, the more 
profitable the results to be secured. George A. Brown 
refers* to a practice followed in many parts of Australia, 
of employing an expert to cull and select the breeding 
animals in Merino stud flocks. Comment is made that, 
when the expert really understands his business, this plan 
has its advantages. A young stockman, by closely watch- 
ing the methods of the expert, will gain a better insight 
into the business of selection for stud breeding than he 
could by any other means. 

Selection as a means of securing desirable characters is 
one of the most easily applied practices. It is common to 
find certain recognized weaknesses or defects within a herd. 
It may be shown, for example, in a heavy, plain shoulder, 
or a weak, narrow back or an inferior hind quarter. The 
necessary thing to do under such circumstances is, first, to 
secure a sire that is especially strong where the females are 
weak; and, secondly, to dispose as rapidly as possible of the 
animals that possess these deficiencies in the most striking 
degree. In the most progressive live-stock communities, 
high-class breeding stock is greatly valued. In fact, we have 
no way of accurately measuring the value of a great, pre- 
potent sire. It is understood by those familiar with many 
British flocks and herds that the best breeding animals can 

*Studies in Stock Breeding, 1902, page 354. 


not be purchased; they are not for sale. It is an old story 
that Edwin Hammond refused an enormous sum for the 
famous Merino ram Gold Drop, his reason being that he 
could not afford to sell his best ram at any price. Brown 
states that on one occasion a wealthy Tasmanian sheep 
breeder offered one of the most skillful island stud owners 
$500 each for the pick of a score of ewes from his stud, and 
the offer was refused. These animals transmitted most valu- 
able qualities to future generations, in no uncertain manner, 
the perpetuation of which qualities was of vital impor- 
tance to the owner. 

At the present time a great and increasing interest is 
shown in dairy cattle, and the marked improvement in pro- 
ducing capacity in many herds is evident through the use of 
sires that come from dams and families notable for milk or 
butter-fat records. Suppose a man desires to purchase a 
bull. Would it not be a fine investment to secure one from 
ancestry that would result in a herd of cows that would yield 
400 pounds of butter-fat, each, per year, as compared with 
a sire producing cows giving only 200 pounds? Think of 
the difference in the final gain to the man and to the breed! 
One thing should be kept in mind in the effort to secure and 
hold desirable qualities, and that is not to breed with a nar- 
row, one-sided policy, remembering that the greatest general 
perfection of form and function should always be the final 
object of the breeder. 

Selection and environment have much in common." By 
environment is meant the conditions of climate, soil, shelter, 
etc. In very recent years the word "genetics" has come 
into use, and will no doubt become more common in the 
future. It refers to breeding scientifically, depending upon 
hereditary transmission, without regard to environment. 
When starting in the business of breeding, it is very generally 
regarded important that animals be selected that are suited 
to the special conditions under which they must live. While 


it is true that domestic animals are adaptable, the different 
breeds are not equally so. Some, as, for example, the 
Shorthorn, seem to. thrive under a wide range of conditions. 
Others are much less suited to change. Large, heavy ani- 
mals are better adapted to the lower -lying lands and richer 
pastures; while the lighter, smaller type thrives in the hill 
country, where herbage is not so abundant. There are cases 
where men have persistently held to a breed under adverse 
conditions, and have selected until an adjustment was. 
reached between the animal and the climate and the breeder. 

Brown says that one of the great triumphs achieved by 
the husbandman, with the aid of selection, has been in stock- 
ing the "great thirst land of central Australia" with Merino 
sheep. When first taken to that country, they deteriorated 
greatly. The wool was reduced to less than half the original 
length, and became dry, very brittle, and open. Many 
sheep farmers gave up the attempt to produce the Merino as 
hopeless, but others persevered, and finally succeeded in 
producing sheep with fine forms and splendid fleeces. If 
one will carefully study breed distribution in America, it will 
be found that in some localities certain breeds are selected 
in preference to all others. For illustration, in the southern 
states Jersey cattle and Berkshire hogs are kept in preference 
to all other breeds. In warm climates a dark-skinned ani- 
mal suffers from the heat less, and consequently hogs and 
cattle with dark skins prevail. Wisdom would justify no 
other policy of selection. 

Feeding must also be recognized as an important 
factor in hereditary transmission. It is amply demonstrated 
that animals transferred from conditions of food scarcity to 
an environment of abundance through successive genera- 
tions take on an increase in size. The Shetland pony on its 
native isles, subject to cold and more or less starvation, is a 
smaller, more inferior animal than that of the same ancestry, 
but which has passed through several generations in the 


prairie country of America, where food is most abundant. 
Men may buy fine animals for their herds; but, unless prop- 
erly fed and cared for, depreciation is sure to follow from 
generation to generation. 

Uniformity in type of foundation stock should be most 
carefully considered. It is a common method for young men 
starting herds, to buy females without regard to uniformity 
of type. The result is that herds thus begun do not attain 
the standing they should, because of variation in the off- 
spring, due to the lack of standards and of methodical selec- 
tion at the start. One might far better begin with three 
females of uniform type and excellence than with a much 
larger number of no uniformity. The final outcome with 
the three would certainly encourage observers to pursue a 
similar method. No great herd was ever developed where 
the breeder did not lay special emphasis on uniformity of 
type from the beginning. 

Rational selection is a thing greatly to be desired on the 
part of breeders. Too many persons are influenced in their 
selection by passing fads. In the past, men have insisted 
on maintaining herds of red Shorthorns or solid-colored 
Jerseys, allowing these fancy points to obscure more impor- 
tant ones. Hogs have been bred with such extreme dish of 
head as to make it impossible for them to eat in a natural 
way. Sheep have been bred with such heavy coverings of 
wool over the face as to prevent the use of the eyes. These 
features should never obscure the vision of the breeder. 
Rational selection requires putting a premium on constitu- 
tional vigor, size, and quality, and then wisely giving fancy 
characteristics of color, head, or covering of wool secondary 
consideration. It is not meant that these features should 
be ignored. In fact, they serve in part as factors in breed 
identity, but so also do other things. Nothing is so essential 
as vigorous constitution, and rational selection would natur- 
ally place a premium on this. One may strike the happy 


medium on fancy points without detriment to his herd, and 
at the same time preserve the desirable qualities, thereby 
attracting buyers. But what could be more unwise than to 
neglect constitution in order to maintain some special color 
character? Yet more than one breeder has been guilty in 
this respect, to the positive injury of his herd. 

A knowledge of breed character is requisite if one is to 
become an intelligent breeder. All our farm animals may 
be grouped into breeds, crosses, grades, or scrubs. Any 
improvement made must come through the breed, or pure- 
bred line. Our breeds are the outcome of systematic selection 
and improvement. Present-day standards are undoubt- 
edly higher than ever, and breeders demand more and more 

Figure 9. Shropshire ewes heavily covered with wool. 1st prize pen 
Royal Society Show, England. Photograph from Sir William Cooper. 

merit in breed representatives. Thus it is highly important 
that the stockman should be quite familiar with the scale of 
points, moulding all the desirable qualities into an ideal 
worthy of the breed, and then endeavor to produce animals 
that come nearest to that ideal. Such knowledge also calls 
for a keen discrimination in selecting the breeding stock by 
which the herd is maintained. 

The selection of the pedigree. One can not practice 
selection and ignore pedigree. Persons familiar with lines 
of family breeding recognize that more merit exists in some 


than in others. The men who have been most successful as 
breeders have always refrained from purchasing animals the 
pedigrees of which showed undesirable ancestry. Auction 
sales of live stock bring out various interesting features, 
chief among which is the relatively higher price paid for 
animals of recognized satisfactory pedigree. While it is true 
that in the past many animals have sold at high prices, 
largely on the basis of pedigree and without merit otherwise, 
the fact remains that, as a general rule, a combination of 
individual excellence and meritorious pedigree brings the 
highest price. The man who combines the capable judge 
and wise interpreter of pedigree is qualified to select his 
animals and improve his herd to the best advantage. 


1. What is natural selection? 

2. What did Darwin say about methodical selection? 

3. What is the Australian method of culling and selecting sheep? 

4. How have great sires been valued by their owners? 

5. What is the relation of animal development to soil and climate? 

6. Why aim for uniformity of type in founding a herd? 

7. What is rational selection? Illustrate. 

8. How important is constitution? 

9. What part should pedigree play in buying breeding animals? 


10. Make a report on Charles Darwin as a student of selection. 

11. What breeders that you know practice methodical selection? 

12. Are there any sires in your county highly valued by their owners? 

If so, what are they, their value, and why so valued? 

13. Give local examples of dairy cows having official records of milk 

or butter-fat production. Axe these the result of careful selec- 


The pedigree of an animal shows the consecutive rela- 
tionship of an animal to its ancestors. Of some animals we 
say that they are pure-breds, while others are known as 
scrubs or mongrels. The pure-bred has a known pedigree, 
while the scrub has not. Men have developed herds of 

Figure 10. Hereford grade steer, sired by pure-bred Hereford bull. Bred on 
the Texas range, fed at Ohio State University. Shows example of the 
influence of superior sire. Photograph by the author. 

animals of similar character and ancestry from w r hich they 
uniformly reproduce the parent type, and have kept careful 
records of the breeding. Such animals form a breed. To 
be pure-bred, an animal must show in its pedigree that it 
traces back wholly within the blood lines from which the 




stock originated. If an animal is not pure-bred, it may 
combine in its pedigree widely differing blood lines that are 
more or less out of harmony with one another. 

A cross-bred animal has a sire of one breed, and a dam 
of another. As a rule, cross-breeding is very undesirable, 
and should be carried only one generation, and then for the 
production of feeding-stock only. Some lines of cross-breed- 
ing, however, have been popular for many years. In Scot- 
land what are known as blue-grays, famous for the quality 
of their beef, are crosses of white Shorthorns with black 
Galloways or Aberdeen-Angus. Another noted example of 
crossing breeds in Scotland is the mating of Border Leicester 
rams on Cheviot ewes, producing remarkably fine mutton. 
These two crosses are for meat production only, and extend 
but one generation. 

A grade animal, in the large majority of cases, has a pure- 
bred sire, but is out of a dam that is not pure-bred. One 
often hears the expression high grade, which means that the 
animal referred to is by a pure-bred sire, and out of a dam 
that contains much pure blood stock. A high grade herd of 
Herefords would consist of a collection of animals that 
started with just common or scrub breeding stock, but in 
which for some generations none but pure-bred males were 
used as sires. Thus a systematic improvement of the herd 
would be made. The degree of improvement may be ex- 
pressed as follows: 

1st generation = Pure sire, scrub dam. f ho offspring 

K blood 

2nd ' 1 A blood dam. 





Thus it can be seen that in time a herd may become practi- 
cally pure-bred, although one will not be able to register this 
high-grade stock in standard American breed registry asso- 
ciations. Yet all pedigrees really start from grade ancestry. 



The value of the pure-bred sire on our American farms 
is far greater than most people seem to realize. When breed- 
ing males are not pure-bred, there is no standard of merit 
in the mind of the breeder. He is like a ship at sea without 

Figure 11. This chart at the left side shows the influence of the pure-bred sire 
in improving the blood through five generations, as compared with the 
grade sire on the right side. Published by United States Dept. of Agri- 

a rudder or an architect without a plan. Herd improve- 
ment can best be secured through the use of pure-bred sires 
of merit. ' This necessity has long been understood in Europe, 


but in America a very large percentage of our breeders use 
only grade or scrub sires, which fact explains why one sees 
so majiy inferior animals on American farms. Recognizing 
the great importance of this subject, many of the American 
agricultural colleges and breed associations are doing every- 
thing possible to induce farmers to replace grades and scrubs 
with pure-breds. Surveys have been made in different parts 
of the country, to learn something of the number of pure- 
bred, grade, and scrub bulls in service. In Wisconsin 
breeders investigated the subject, and offered pure-bred bulls 
at especially low prices, in order to improve the live stock 
of the state. As a result of this special campaign it is esti- 
mated that more than 1,600 pure-bred bulls replaced grades 
and scrubs in Wisconsin, and as many as 191 found places 
in one county. In some counties in the United States the 
people have shown great interest in this matter, and have 
got rid of nearly all the sires but pure-bred ones. The Iowa 
experiment station conducted an interesting breeding prob- 
lem to show improvement from the pure-bred sire. The 
station bought some very inferior scrub cows from a section 
of country where the people had never used pure-bred sires. 
The offspring of these by pure-bred sires, that is, the first 
cross, showed a great increase in milk production. In one 
case this amounted to 107 per cent milk and 112 per cent 
butter-fat. In the next generation, with 75 per cent pure- 
bred offspring, there was secured an increase of 194 per cent 
milk and 138 per cent fat over the original scrub cow parent. 
This experiment should be no surprise, because on every 
hand we see the wonderful influence of the pure-bred sire. 
In fact, whatever of merit we have in our herds and flocks 
to-day, we need not hesitate to say is due to the careful 
work of men who have used pure-breds only. 

The bracket form of constructing a pedigree shows the 
family relationship by means of a series of brackets, after the 
following manner. This is the most common form in use. 



Orion Chief 13333 

Orion II, 6539. 

Mabel 22518 

/ Orion 4901 

\ Ohio Anna 10068 

/ Longfellow 6815 
\ Agnes X 15250 

In making this form of pedigree, the names of the males 
are at the top of each bracket, and the females at the bot- 
tom. This style may be extended from generation to genera- 
tion, the number of ancestors doubling each remove to the 
right. This pedigree shows that Orion Chief, a noted Duroc- 
Jersey, had Orion II for sire and Mabel for dam. Going 
back another generation, it will be noted that, in the line of 
male descent, his grandsire was Orion and his grandam, 
Ohio Anna. On the dam's side, Longfellow is his grandsire 
and Agnes X, the grandam. If we now go back another 
generation, we have four great-grandsires and four great- 
grandams. This form of pedigree shows the complete ances- 
try, and is the only one generally used by stockmen in giving 
the breeding of an animal. One may find many examples 
of this form of pedigree in the sale catalogues of breeders of 
dairy cattle and swine. These publications of pedigrees 
may usually be obtained on application to advertisers of 
such sales in live-sjock and agricultural journals. 

The ancestral line of the dam is another form of display- 
ing a pedigree. This may be illustrated by the following 
pedigree of the Shorthorn bull Villager. 

IMP. VILLAGER 295884. 

Roan; calved March 1, 1906. Bred by C. H. Jolliffe, Darlington, England. 



Rosy Cloud (Vol. 50E) , 

Rosy Dawn 

Rose Blossom ... 



Roan Rosebud 


Rosebud 1st 

Rosebud. . 

.C. H. Jolliffe 
.C. H. Jolliffe 
. S. Campbell 
. S. Campbell 
. S. Campbell 
. S. Campbell 
. S. Campbell 
S. Campbell 
S. Campbell 


Village Beau 295883 Wm. Duthie 
Chorister 295882 Wm. Duthie 

Misty Morning 153603 Wm. Duthie 
Clan Alpine 130852 Messrs. Nelson 

Gravesend 98361 A. Cruickshank 

Banner Bearer 96034 Wm. Duthie 
Borough Member 64872 J. Bowman 
Sir Christopher (22895) R. Booth 
Dipthong (17681) A. Cruickshank 

Scarlet Velvet (16916) A. Cruickshank 

Villager is of special interest to Shorthorn breeders, be- 
cause he is one of the most noted sires in the history of the 


breed during the period between 1910 and 1920, being used 
during this time in very superior Ohio and Iowa herds. 

This form of pedigree shows the bull Villager to be sired 
by Village Beau, a bull bred by William Duthie, a noted 
Scotch breeder. Villager's dam is Rosy Cloud. She was 
bred by C. H. Jolliffe, and her sire was Chorister, also bred 
by William Duthie. The grandam of Villager was Rosy 
Dawn; his great-grandam, Rose Blossom; his great-great- 
grandam, Roselinty; etc. This pedigree goes back ten gen- 
erations, emphasizing the ancestry of Villager on his mother's 
side, with the sire of each female in this breeding. Except 
for the sire, the ancestry on that side of the pedigree is 
entirely left out, and with only a part of the breeding on the 
dam's side given. While it is true that the dam's pedigree 
is thus carried out much further than in the bracket form, 
what one should know most about is the near relationship 
all through, for at least four generations. A Shorthorn pedi- 
gree of this form shows to a more or less degree the tribe or 
family to which the animal belongs, which in this case is the 
Rosebud, which started in the herd of S. Campbell, a famous 
breeder of Kinellar, Scotland. In reference to this pedigree, 
after the name of each male a number is given. This indi- 
cates his registry number in the Shorthorn herd-book. 
When written in parenthesis, it is the English Shorthorn 
herd-book number. Formerly only the herd-book volume 
and page was given for Shorthorn cows, but now the females 
registered in America are given numbers, as is customary with 
all other breeds. The line of female descent pedigree is not 
the best, and breeders generally should use the bracket form. 

The amount of ancestry shown in a pedigree naturally 
depends upon how far back it traces and its completeness 
from generation to generation. The following tabular state- 
ment is given by Davenport,* which shows in a rather strik- 
ing way the percentages of blood in a pedigree at different 
points for ten generations. 

*Principled of Breeding. E. Davenport, 1907, page 595. 



Relative intensity of blood lines and approximately relative influence 
of different generations and individuals for ten generations backwards. 


Number of 

Influence of gen- 
Per cent 

Influence of each 
Per cent 












1.56 + 




0.39 + 









0.006 + 




0.001 + 












The statement set forth by this table shows how little 
influence is derived from one individual in the ancestry ten 
generations back. In fact, until recently a number of our 
live-stock associations promoting and registering pure-bred 
animals would accept for registry individuals that five gen- 
erations back showed impure blood. Yet the value of blood 
lines depends also on the character of the breeding. If the 
ancestry contains the names of animals of distinction within 
the same family lines, then it will mean much more to the 
breeder who understands pedigrees than it will if the inherit- 
ance shows no family names of value. 

The merit value of a pedigree is shown in the character 
of the records made by the different animals composing it. 
This phase of the pedigree receives very careful attention 
from the thoughtful breeder. Some of the most interesting 
examples of constructive breeding that have taken place in 
America in recent years, are clearly brought out in pedigrees 
where record of performance was ever kept in mind by the 
breeder. The following pedigree of Sophie's Bertha, one of 
the great Jersey cows of America, is an interesting illustra- 
tion of such constructive breeding. 



H. F. Pogis 40648 

(H. F. Pogis 9th 55552. 

Sire of 15. 

Ex-champion Jer- / Figgis 76106 
sey sire with 79 cows l 19 Ibs. 15 oz. 

Pogis 99th of H. F.< 

in R. of M., and 33 

Champion A.J.C. 

producing sons. 

f u c /^u: A * 

Sophie's Bertha 
Gold Medal cow. 
Ex-world champion 3- 

C. Gold Medal 
bull. Sire of 82 
R. of M. daughters 
including Sophie's 
Agnes, ex-cham- 
pion, 1,000.07 Ibs. 

Sophie 19th of H. F. 
World's champion 
long-distance cow, 9 
yrs. tests. 6,356 Ibs. 

L> 11* rm Wiiici 

Sire of 4 in R. of M. 
Phil's Scituate 
A 22-Quart cow. 

year-old 14,954. 2 Ibs. 


Torono 25204 

milk, 829.54 Ibs. fat; 
13,242.8 Ibs. milk, 771 
Ibs. fat at 2 yrs. 2mos.. 
16,102.1 Ibs. milk,' 
875.41 Ibs. fat at 4 yrs- 

Lass 66th of H. F. 
271896... ...< 

!H. F. Torono 60326. . 
Gold Medal bull. 
Sire of 73 in R. of M., 
and 25 producing 

Sire of 19 
tested cows. 
Tormentor's Lass 

19 Ibs 8^ oz. 

9 mos. Gold Medal cow. 


Dam of Sophie's Ber- World's champion 
tha 2d 13,393.4 Ibs. senior 3-year-old, 
milk, 691 Ibs. fat. 17,793 Ibs. milk, 

v H. F. Legros 2d ( Phylis 63409 

198171 J 

9 10.60 Ibs. fat. 

She was a very ) 
large and persistent < H. F. Legros 198170 

milker; her owner 

does no testing. 

In a study of the pedigree of a race horse, one should find 
therein the names of many animals with speed records to 
their credit. In the case of a dairy breed of cattle, then milk 
or butter-fat records may be given, as well as the records 
of offspring of sires and dams. With some breeds, a state- 
ment is affixed showing prizes won in the show ring. In 
cases of animals selling at high prices, these facts are also 
sometimes inserted in the pedigree. The important thing 
is to show at different points in the ancestry the richness of 
the pedigree in production. At the present day, one should 
have no difficulty in securing the pedigrees of pure-bred ani- 
mals that will give more or less specific information regard- 
ing performance on the part of individuals in the pedigree. 
The richer the ancestry in record-making achievement, the 
higher the price one usually pays for the animal purchased. 

A pedigree score card suggesting the relative importance 
of near and remote ancestors has been proposed by Prof. 
F. R. Marshall.* In this score card, 24 points are given the 
sire (12 for siring good stock, and 12 for individual merit), 
and 24 points are given the dam (10 for her record as a pro- 
ducer, and 14 for individual merit), with 4 points on similarity 
of type of sire and dam. The grandparents are given a total 
of 24 points, ranging from four to two points each for records 

*Breediug Farm Auimals, 1911, page 110. 


as producers, and individual merit. The great-grandparents 
are accorded one point each on production, individuality, 
and ancestry. This is an interesting score card, that may 
come into considerable use. 

The accuracy of the pedigree is of first importance. It 
may not be accurate for two reasons; first, because of errors 
in writing it, due to carelessness or otherwise; and, second, 
from dishonesty. Mistakes will occur among the most care- 
ful and conscientious. The published herd-books of registry 
associations have in the past contained many errors, although 
conditions now are greatly improved. Also honest men 
have copied from sale catalogues pedigrees that contained 
mistakes, and have republished these errors. The most 
unfortunate pedigree is the "doctored," or crooked, one. 
Fraudulent pedigrees exist, and men have on more than one 
occasion been prohibited from doing business with registry 
associations on account of fraud. If guilty, the penitentiary 
is what they deserve. Integrity is the foundation on which 
the pure-bred live-stock business is based, and all premedi- 
tated cases of fraud should be regarded as of criminal 
character, and be punished accordingly. 

A study of pedigree is a necessity, if one is to become a 
successful breeder of pure-bred stock. There are several 
ways by which one may become familiar with pedigrees. 
Suppose one is to breed Jersey cattle. Then, if in the busi- 
ness in a serious way, one should try to secure the herd-books 
published by the American Jersey Cattle Club. These are 
the original source from which all Jersey pedigrees are made 
up in the United States. 

Bracketed pedigree blanks may be purchased from some 
of the larger associations registering live stock, and publishers 
of some of the special breed journals also supply them. With 
the herd-books at hand, and these blanks, one may, as a 
rule, trace out pedigrees without difficulty, after becoming 
acquainted with the method of doing so. 


Sale catalogues should be saved by the breeder, for they 
will often be found valuable for reference, even though some 
of them are carelessly prepared. The register of merit 
should also be kept for reference, so that information may 
be at hand regarding official records of production. One also 
should read the current literature regarding the breed. Some 
of the more important breeds are represented by special 
journals, which contain a large amount of information con- 
cerning animals of distinction. By these various methods 
one may accumulate much knowledge regarding pedigrees of 


1. What does it show? 

2. What is a grade or high grade? 

3. Explain the bracket form and its value. 

4. What is meant by line of female descent? 

5. How many ancestors does one have in the fifth generation back? 

6. How important is the blood influence of an animal ten genera- 

tions back? 

7. What is merit value of pedigree? 

8. Describe a pedigree score card. 

9. Give two causes of inaccurate pedigrees? 

10. How can one become familiar with pedigrees? 


11. The pedigree of an animal with which you are acquainted. 

12. An example of a bracketed pedigree. 

13. A sample of a Shorthorn pedigree. 

14. Pedigree showing merit, or performance of, 

(a) Dairy cattle 

(b) Race horses 

15. A sale catalogue showing prices paid for animals. 

16. A pedigree containing an error. 


A study of the principles of breeding should be made by 
the stockman who wishes to become 'eminent as a breeder. 
It is not necessary that one should dig deep into this sub- 
ject, but a knowledge and application of the elementary 
principles are essential. No great constructive breeder ever 
lived, who did not carefully apply the law that "like pro- 
duces like," in the development of his herd. The student 
should keep in mind, therefore, no matter in what kind of 
stock he is interested, that these pages are intended to serve 
as a help in producing better and more profitable animals. 
In this connection there are certain things that may well be 
emphasized in starting out to build up a herd. 

Breed for a special purpose. The successful breeders of 
farm animals have always been specialists. The first thing 
to be considered is the purpose one has in mind. Some ani- 
mals, such as beef cattle or swine, are primarily for meat; 
others, as some breeds of dairy cattle, have their chief value 
in yielding milk; the draft horse is of little use except for 
hauling great loads; while Merino sheep are notable for wool 
production. If mindful of these things, and directing ener- 
gies rightly, one may not only secure fame as a breeder, but 
obtain wealth in the doing. A multitude of examples illus- 
trating the policies of successful stockmen with the different 
breeds of farm animals might be given to show the results 
secured through breeding for special purpose. 

Stick to a well planned policy. The breeders who have 
won the greatest success, have been persistent, and have not 
deserted the breed with which they began. One who 
endeavors to keep only a class of live stock that is selling at 



long prices, closing out during depressed values, generally 
fails. Every business, including that of live-stock produc- 
tion, passes through periods of prosperity and of depression. 
Sheep have far too often gone through extremes of values. 
For example in February, 1920, live lambs sold on the 
Chicago market for about 20 cents a pound. During the 
next ten months they steadily declined in value until they 
reached 11J4 cents a pound in December. These great drops 
in prices are always accompanied by big losses, and thus, 
discouraged, many men go out of the business, disgusted. 
But here is just the time to stick. One will have no difficulty 

Figure 12. "Keep a few good ones." Photograph by Prof. John W. Decker. 

in finding plenty of examples to demonstrate that the man 
who stays by his sheep through the years, whether prices are 
good or bad, makes a good profit on his long time invest- 
ment and has a well established credit among his neighbors. 
Keep a few good animals, rather than many that are 
inferior. One may perhaps make money breeding ordinary 
individuals, but the right kind of reputation comes to a 
breeder through his best animals. A buyer, as a rule, will 
try to purchase the choicest stock. If the breeder sells 


these, he will follow the worst possible policy. As has been 
suggested elsewhere, he would better cull out the undesir- 
able animals and rely on a smaller number of good ones to 
build up his herd. A group of uniformly good animals, 
whether grade or pure-bred, is always an attractive sight, 
and serves as an advertisement of the best kind. A motley 
herd, lacking character, is not attractive, and hurts the repu- 
tation of the breeder. 

Pay a premium for merit when purchasing animals. 
Many breeders buy inferior animals because they are cheap. 
From a breeding point of view, one should select animals 
that combine individual merit and pedigree. If there is 
anything in the laws of breeding that has been helpful in the 
past, it is the knowledge that like produces like. Each year 
in the history of a herd should mark improvement, which is 
quite impossible if one purchases beasts of an inferior 
character. The influence of a new animal in the herd is 
usually far-reaching for either good or bad. One should care- 
fully consider this, and be governed accordingly. Some of 
the most profitable breeding animals in history cost a high 
price. The Berkshire boar, Masterpiece, was purchased by 
Mr. W. S. Corsa for $2,500, and proved to be a very profit- 
able animal at what was then a record-breaking price. 

Try to become a judge. If one is to be a breeder, one 
should understand the relation of form to purpose, and 
should be able to select intelligently the right breeding 
stock. It is impossible to conceive of a man's being a good 
breeder who is not capable of judging his own animals 
intelligently. There are many courses of instruction in our 
schools and colleges of to-day in which systematic training 
in judging may be secured. Good judgment in culling out 
the undesirable animals from the herd, and in the purchasing 
of new stock, is highly essential, whether for breeding or 
feeding purposes. Some practical feeders have the reputa- 
tion of shipping only good fat stock to the market, and buyers 


are always on the lookout for animals fed by them, for which 
they are very willing to pay the top price of the day. 

Feed your animals well. One can not purchase high- 
class stock and keep them in good form and state of develop- 
ment, unless properly fed. Many persons buy animals in 
good condition, but neglect them after the animals come 
into their possession. Where men must buy feed, they too 
frequently neglect to give their new purchases enough to 
keep them in thrifty, healthy condition. Food is essential 
to maintain life and produce growth and vigor. It is a 
serious mistake to be niggardly in the use of feed. Further- 
more, no herd can do other than go backward, if the animals 
are not fed wisely. Young growing stock, starved and neg- 
lected, become inferior in development, and in due season 
naturally reproduce inferior offspring. A true stockman 
always enjoys seeing his animals eat, and realizes that some- 
thing is wrong if they do not show a hearty appetite. 

Do not be led astray by fads. Develop a herd that com- 
bines the useful and beautiful in the highest possible degree, 
for these two important features naturally go together. 
Leave out of consideration pedigrees that do not stand for 
merit. Remember that peculiarities of form often are of 
little real value, and that it is. not wise to go to extremes in 
these things. Do not make color a vital object with those 
breeds in which variation in this respect occurs. Whether 
an Ayrshire cow is one fourth or three fourths white, or a 
Shorthorn red or roan, is a very superficial matter. General 
conformation, constitution, and producing capacity are the 
important subjects to consider rather than the color fad. 

Study your local conditions, and endeavor to learn with 
what class of live stock you will be most likely to succeed on 
your farm and with your surroundings. As a rule, it is best 
to keep the breed or kind of animals most common in the 
locality. One should know, however, that, as a rule, the 
heavier type of animals is native to low-lying, fertile coun- 


tries. The largest British breeds were developed in the 
more level, fertile sections of England, while the smaller, 
more active breeds came to their own in the hill country or 
mountains. The farmer of New England should realize that 
his farm may not be suited to the same kind of live stock as 
a farm in Iowa. While for good reasons Merino sheep do 
remarkably well in Ohio, for climatic reasons they would not 
do so well in the far South. The markets are vitally impor- 
tant, and should influence one in directing breeding opera- 
tions. The abundance and kind of food also play their part. 
Compare the type of hog of the corn belt with the sort most 
popular in Canada, where wheat, oats and barley prevail. 

Become acquainted with the families or strains of the 
breed in which you are interested. It is important to know 
something of these. Those breeds that are represented by 
a large number of animals, include families of varying degrees 
of merit. These family traits may be regarded of much 
importance, and may greatly affect values. Prepotency, 
special forms of production, adaptability to certain condi- 
tions, temperament, etc., are features one or more of which 
are stronger in some families than in others. Old experienced 
breeders who are regarded as successful, consider carefully 
matters of this sort, and act accordingly. 

Cultivate the acquaintance of breeders. The man who 
would succeed in his business must gather information from 
every legitimate source. Knowledge is a matter of accu- 
mulation. We accumulate through observation and per- 
sonal contact. We get inspiration from those who succeed. 
It is a fine thing to enjoy the friendship of men who are 
leaders in the line of business in which we ourselves are 
interested. Darwin, one of the greatest scientists, gathered 
a fund of most valuable information from the English stock- 
man and farmer, in whose acquaintance he took great pleas- 
ure. Thomas Bates, the noted English Shorthorn breeder, 
received much inspiration from his acquaintance with the 


Colling Brothers, men who were doing much for these cattle 
while Bates was yet young. Furthermore, co-operate with 
your brother breeders in a generous way for the promotion 
and uplift of live-stock interests, whereby all will be bene- 
fited. Become a member of the local, state and national 
associations that promote the breed in which you are inter- 
ested, whenever possible attend the meetings of these organ- 
izations, and be known as a progressive among your fellows. 
The compensation that comes from this contact can not be 
estimated in money, for it is expressed in friendship, in help- 
ful service, and leads into the larger field of usefulness and 
efficiency to which every breeder with ideals should aspire. 

A private herd record should be kept by every stockman 
owning a breeding herd. Such a record should contain a list 
of the animals in the herd, giving their correct names and 
registry numbers, dates of birth, names of sires and dams, 
and of the men who bred them. A record should also be 
kept of all animals produced on the farm, with facts of their 
parentage. One may keep a card catalogue with a card for 
each animal, giving the essential facts. There are private 
herd-books especially arranged, providing blank spaces for 
the various facts of importance, that can be purchased at a 
reasonable price. If desired, one can prepare his own style 
of private herd-book. The records which go in such a book 
are most important, and all men engaged in breeding should 
feel it a duty to keep them with care. 

Methods of doing business with registry associations 
should be considered by the breeder. Each breed is repre- 
sented by an association of men who prescribe the methods 
of registry and transfer of animals of that breed. It is the 
business of the secretary to furnish breeders with blank forms 
which they may fill out and file with the association, whereby 
they may register their stock from time to time. The secre- 
tary also furnishes the required rules and regulations for 
doing business with the association. It is not necessary for 


a person to be a member of an association for promoting and 
registering a breed, but it is desirable that he should be. As 
a rule, members of registry associations do business with it 
for about half the cost to outsiders ; and if one registers many 
animals, one would soon cover the cost of membership, 
which varies with the breeds from $5 to $100. 



Figure 13. A reduced size example of a registry certificate, as issued by the 
American Jersey Cattle Club. 

The identification of breeding stock on the farm is 
important. For this reason various methods are used to 
mark animals so that they can be identified. Metal ear 
tags, on which is stenciled the name or initials of the owner, 
with a number, are in common use. Such a tag is fastened 
in the ear, a hole being punched through which to pass a 
part of the tag. These tags are often torn out and lost, and 
so are not altogether popular. The tattooing of numbers 
within the ear, by means of a special needle and an indelible 
fluid, is also used to some extent. Hogs and sheep are com- 
monly identified by notches cut in the thinner edge of the 


ear, although metal tags are also frequently used with these 
animals. The hoofs of horses are at times stenciled with num- 
bers, especially in case of importation. Sometimes the horns 
of cattle are marked in a similar way. On the ranges, cattle 
and horses are branded, and sheep are given marks with 
paint, by which owner- 
ship may be identified. 
Some of our breeds of 
dairy cattle, especially 
those of different body 
colors, are identified by 
the location of color 
marks on the body. For 
example, when applying 
for registry of a Holstein- 
Friesian, it is necessary 
to trace on a diagram 
showing the outline of 
body form, the shape or outline of each 
marking. A copy of these outlines 

Figure 14. Branding numbers on the hoof 
of a horse. Picture taken in France of a 
horse to be exported. Photograph by the 

black spot, or 
is made on the 
certificate of registry, so that identification is made easy. 
Every breeder, as a matter of good policy, should have a 
system of individual identification of the animals in his herd. 
Literature relating to the breeds should be made use of 
by every one who owns pure-bred live stock. There are 
standard books sold by publishing houses, in which one may 
obtain a large amount of valuable information regarding the 
breeds. There are also current periodicals devoted exclu- 
sively to promoting the interests of particular breeds, which 
should be well supported by the breeders of the same. Each 
of the different breed associations registering pure-breds, 
publishes herd-books, in which will be found the names and 
numbers of registered animals, with information as to dates 
of birth, names of breeders and owners of sires and dams, 
etc. These books should be on the shelves of the stockman 


who is a student of blood lines or pedigrees. Breed associa- 
tions also publish free literature concerning the breeds they 
are promoting, and as this is official, it is supposed to be 
accurate and desirable information. Real live-stock students 
should inform themselves, and it is to be regretted that there 
are many who know comparatively little about the history, 
development and breeding of their own herds. 

Figure 15. Southdown stock rams in England, showing numbers stenciled on 
the backs. Photograph by the author. 


1. What reasons can you give for an established policy? 

2. Give an example of paying a premium on merit. 

3. Has feed much to do with herd improvement? 

4. Explain the meaning of a live-stock "fad." 

5. Why cultivate the acquaintance of breeders? 

6. What advantage is there in the private herd-book? 

7. Why be a member of a live-stock registry association? 

8. Specify three kinds of identification marks for live stock. 

9. What forms of literature are available for the stockman? 


10. Locate the man who has dealt in some one kind of live stock 

longer than anyone else in your section, and report on his 
methods, after making him a visit. 

11. Report on the most uniform herd within live miles of school, 

giving facts of interest. 

12. Make a sample page for a private herd record and bring to class. 

13. Secure and bring to class samples of application for entry blanks 

for registering and transferring animals of some one breed. 

14. Report on methods of marking animals for identification as used 

by stockmen in your neighborhood. 


What is community breeding? In the origin and im- 
provement of the breeds of live stock, groups of people hav- 
ing certain things in common within limited areas have 
developed most of our breeds. A good example is found in 
the development of Hereford cattle in England. All the 
historical information we have shows that in the county of 
Hereford in England the farmers centuries ago kept a cer- 
tain class of cattle famous for beef production, that were very 
hardy and well-suited to maintaining themselves on grass 
lands. The people in this English county studied their local 
conditions, and during the years greatly improved their cat- 
tle, until they became satisfied they had the best breed for 
their community. Very naturally some breeders were more 
intelligent and more progressive than others, which fact was 
reflected in the class of animals they produced. These men 
found themselves working towards a common end, even 
though the effort was free from organization. Thus in time 
this community became famous for the excellence of its 
herds. In Europe we find many sections in each of which 
a certain breed has developed that has seemed to be especially 
fitted to the local conditions. Many British breeds are 
named after the counties in which they originated, as, for 
example, Berkshire swine, Shropshire sheep, Devon cattle, 
Aberdeen-Angus cattle, Yorkshire swine, etc. 

The importance of community breeding can hardly be 
overestimated, for it always represents improvement and 
progress in breed promotion. Co-operative breeding of farm 
animals has resulted from community breeding. The first 
co-operative movement for the systematic improvement and 



promotion of a breed was probably with the people on the 
Island of Jersey, who in 1763, by legislative action, pro- 
hibited the bringing of other cattle to the island, unless for 
immediate slaughter. In 1833 the people on the island intro- 
duced the use of the scale of points whereby they might have 
a common standard for improving their cattle. In England 
through co-operative effort, as early as 1791, a book was 
published in which was given the names and breeding of 
Thoroughbred horses, and in 1822 a herd-book for Shorthorn 
cattle was published. These first two books of the kind 
were the outgrowth of community breeding. Eventually 
co-operative community organization became a necessity in 
promoting the established breeds; otherwise there would 
have been no means of standardizing the breed and through 
well-planned supervision of protecting its purity. 

Community breeding of farm animals in the United States 
in an unorganized form perhaps first took place in Vermont, 
Pennsylvania, and Ohio, in the breeding of Merino sheep. 
Sheep husbandry in those states between 1810 and 1870 
became a great industry, and the Merino was the universal 
sheep. This result was due to the fact that this breed or 
type of sheep supplied the great demand for fine wool, while 
the wool from other sheep was at a disadvantage in the 
market. So famous did Vermont become as a Merino cen- 
ter, that in far away Australia, to which many of these sheep 
were exported, the shepherds supposed all Merinos from 
America were grown in that state, and they were known as 
"Vermont Merinos." The first organized community breed- 
ing association in America was the Western Reserve Hol- 
stein-Friesian Association, organized at Burton, Ohio, in 
1905. Later the name was changed to the Geauga County 
Holstein-Friesian Association. The purpose of this organ- 
ization was to extend the interest in cattle of this breed and 
promote its welfare by all proper means. In 1906 the 
Waukesha County (Wisconsin) Guernsey Breeders' Associa- 



tion organized, for promoting this breed of cattle. This 
association has had a remarkably successful career, and, 
largely due to its influence, Waukesha County has become 
the leading county in America for producing Guernseys, 
while Wisconsin has become the leading state in herds of 
this breed. Since the organization of these two community 
breeding associations many others have been started in 
America, so that now a great movement is taking place 
in important live-stock centers which must largely benefit 
individuals and local communities in which they exist. 

Figure 16. Geauga County (Ohio) Holstein-Friesian Association on annual 
picnic at the Watt Farm. Photograph by the author. 

A well-planned method in breeding farm animals has not 
been customary with the American stockman. His herd 
more often than not consists of so-called representatives of 
more than one breed, and he develops it without plan or pur- 
pose. The work he does as a breeder makes less efficient 
and valuable the live stock on the average American farm. 
One may travel the length and breadth of the United States 
and find countless examples of destructive breeding of this 
sort. Operating against a host of such breeders of farm ani- 
mals is a comparatively small number of men who with 


fixity of purpose strive to produce pure-bred animals along 
well-planned lines. Their herds and flocks are the salvation 
of the whole live-stock business. It is in groups of com- 
munity breeders that we find the people keenly interested 
in real merit, in efficiency of production, and in what we 
term constructive breeding. 

One breed is better for a community than many. It has 
been well-established in Europe for many years, and more 
recently in America, that in those sections where but one 
breed of a class of animals exists the community is enriched 
thereby. The buyer has a much better chance to select from 
many herds in such a community than he has where the 
herds are few and far between. Buyers have shipped large 
numbers of Holstein-Friesian cattle from Geauga County, 
Ohio, and Guernseys from Waukesha County, Wisconsin, 
because they could find them among the many herds in these 
counties. If there is but one herd in the community, then 
the choice is limited, and the expense of a visit does not 
justify the buyer. Only men with narrow visions see no 
advantage in many herds of one breed in the neighborhood. 

Community breeding stimulates prices and trade. In the 
locality where many herds or flocks of the same breed pre- 
vail, breeders take a keen personal interest in the different 
herds, and place a premium on animals of outstanding merit. 
Here one finds competition in purchase which naturally re- 
sults in stimulating prices and a greater activity in trade. 
In one of our best live-stock communities in America annual 
or semi-annual sales have been held for some years, and the 
demands in most if not all of these places has been for more 
animals, with a healthy increase in values. 

Community breeding promotes confidence in one another 
among the breeders. The primary purpose in breeding asso- 
ciations is co-operation. Working together toward a com- 
mon end eliminates personal selfishness and jealousy. Sus- 
picion and jealousy have done much harm among farmers, 



which is a sad but true statement. Co-operation is an 
evidence of faith in the good intentions or motives of those 
co-operating, and, therefore, is highly commended. This 
spirit is better today than ever before. 

Recognition comes to the man with the small herd in a 
community of interests, as would hardly be possible other- 
wise. In a well-established locality, where there are many 
herds, buyers secure lists of the breeders, and go about among 

Let's Get Acquainted 

Come to the 

First Annual Sale 

of the Lucas County Holstein- 
Friesian Club on 

Thursday, Nov. 20, '19 

At 10:30 A. M. Terminal Bldg., 
Cherry St., Toledo, Ohio 

80 Head of Choice, High Class, 
Registered Holstein-Friesian Cattle 

will be sold to th.e highest bidder, 
without reserve. The consign- 
ments include cows, heifers, and 
bulls of the best breeding, and 
backed by men who stand behind 
every animal offered. ALL OVER 
TESTED. A. R. O. cows bred 
to 30-lb. bulls. Daughters and 
sons of A. R. O. cows. Some well 
bred serviceable young bulls, a lot 
of good young cows, and some 
choice yearlings and calves. Bet- 
ter plan to attend the sale. For 
information and catalog write, 

Keith C. Hoover, Sale M gr., West Toledo, 

Col. D. L. Perry, Columbus, Ohio, Auctioneer. 

Ohio Guernsey 

Breeders Association 

Is consigning 

75 Ohio's Best Guernseys 
at Auction 75 

Columbus, Ohio, June 15, 1920 
A Golden Opportunity to Buy the 
Cow that Produces the 
Golden Product 

Mar's Noble Galaxy (68637) just fin- 
ished an A. R. record of 9,853.0 Ibs. milk 
and 567.02 Ibs. fat in the Roll of Honor 
Class E. E. milked twice a day under 
ordinary farm conditions. A Class 

Chilmark Rival Antonnette (58644) 
Sired by Langwater Rival and out of a 
daughter of Imp. Mashers Galore, will 
complete her record by sale day with 
about 11,410 Ibs. milk and 580 Ibs. fat 
in C. C. 

These excellent cows together with 73 
others of equal merit promising high pro- 
duction even under average conditions 
are features of the Ohio Guernsey 
Breeders' Association's first annual sale. 


A. C. RAMSEYER, Sale Manager, Smithville, Ohio 

Auctioneers New Philadelphia, O. 

Figure 17. Samples of community advertising in agricultural journals. 

them and inspect their animals. Community publicity does 
not favor one breeder more than another. Each has his 
opportunity, and is not likely to be neglected. 

Expense of advertising in community herds is less than 
otherwise. Joint advertising is often engaged in under the 
supervision of the secretary, who attends to publicity work. 
Some associations publish booklets containing the names and 


addresses of the breeders comprising them. One county 
horse association has published a beautifully illustrated 
pamphlet, giving fine pictures of prominent horses owned 
among the members, with a complete list of the officers and 
all others belonging to the organization. Some members of 
community associations unite in co-operative advertising in 
standard breed or live-stock journals, thus reducing indi- 
vidual cost for each person. Following is an interesting 
example of community advertising as described in an article 
written by Mr. R. A. Hayne.* 

"At Lake Mills, Wisconsin, there is a most unusual sight, unusual 
in size and subject, visible a quarter of a mile away, and worth no doubt 
to both town and county uncountable times what it cost. On the side 
of a large brick building right opposite the square and across the street 
from the town park, so plainly in sight that you can not go past or 
through the town without seeing it, is a huge painting of a Holstein cow 
in natural colors, and around her, also plainly visible at a distance, are 
the names of fourteen Holstein breeders and their locations. Who will 
say that Lake Mills did not act wisely in displaying such an advertise- 
ment instead of the famous trade mark of the amber fluid that made 
Milwaukee famous?" 

Fine herds and flocks bring fame to a community, and 

add to the value of the land, two important assets that 
should not be underestimated. This point has been brought 
out in a marked degree in many places, as, for example, the 
saddle-horse industry in Kentucky and Missouri, the Perch- 
eron in Ohio and Illinois, the Guernsey in Wisconsin, the 
Aberdeen-Angus in Iowa, the Merino in Ohio, etc. More 
and more the public will learn of certain communities in 
America famous for their herds and flocks, where the oppor- 
tunities for purchase are more attractive than elsewhere. 

Community breeding encourages the interest of the 
young people, for where practiced we find the most progres- 
sive breeders, the very best examples of farm animals, and 
homes of comfort occupied by an intelligent, gentle people. 
In a community frequently visited by outside buyers who 
come to inspect the herds, the boys and girls learn to respect 
the importance of farm animals, and become deeply interested 

*National Stockman and Farmer, August 10, 1918. 



in their development. The future of our live-stock industry 
is dependent upon the active, intelligent interest of the young 
people of to-day who are to be the stockmen of to-morrow. 
The methods of organizing community breeders' associa- 
tions will vary according to conditions, but the process is 
not complicated or expensive. Five or six men may co-op- 
erate in a locali- 
ty, and agree to 
promote the 
breed they are 
handling, and 
help one another 
improve their 
herds and sell 
their surplus, 
with essentially 
no expense. They 
may not even 
have any written 
agreemen t 
among them- 
selves. But, if many breeders co-operate, it may be a conven- 
ience to have constitution and by-laws, whereby they may 
fully understand just how they are related to each other. A 
common annual membership fee is one or two dollars, and an 
assessment is made for special advertising, for conducting a 
sale, or some similar purpose. In organizing it is customary to 
adopt a name, define the object of the association, provide 
for membership, establish dues, indicate the officers and 
their duties, making amendments, etc., as occasion demands. 
Special provisions may be made for holding periodical sales, 
etc. Through the extension department of the agricultural 
college in any of our states one should secure all necessary 
assistance in organizing a community breeding associa- 

Figure 18. "Community breeding encourages the young 
folks." Photograph by the author. 



1. How did our breeds of live stock originate? 

2. What important step took place in 1763 on Jersey Island? 

3. When did community breeding first become established in 


4. In what two localities in the United States and when did 

organized community breeding begin? 

5. Who are doing most to improve our live-stock conditions? 

6. Do you think one breed is better for a community than two? 

If so why? 

7. What will overcome jealousy and suspicion among breeders? 

8. What did Mr. Hayne see in Wisconsin? 

9. How will community breeding influence young people- on the 


10. To what extent is organization necessary in community 



11. To what extent are mongrels and grades bred. 

12. If any community spirit in live-stock production prevails. 

13. If any one breed is pre-eminent. 

14. To what extent special advertising is attempted. 

15. How much the young people interest themselves in live stock. 

16. If buyers come in on account of superior opportunities for 



The plant as a source of food is of great interest to feeders 
of live stock. All our farm animals eat green plants with 
relish, just as a man enjoys celery. When plants are prop- 
erly dried and cured as hay, their value for feed is not 
thereby affected. All our grains are products of plants; and 
from these directly, or indirectly by milling, we obtain some 
of our most valuable feeds for farm animals. So the facts 
are that the plant, in one form or another, really furnishes 
our horses, cattle, sheep, swine, and poultry with about all 
the food necessary for growth and production. 

The material of which plants are made is taken from 
both soil and air, but largely from the soil. Like animals, 
plants must have food. Chemists say that all matter is com- 
posed of elements, about thirteen of which provide food for 
the plants. The names of some of these are common, such 
as iron, sulphur, and phosphorus. There are four others: 
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen that are also impor- 
tant. Besides these, the plant needs potassium, calcium, 
sodium, magnesium, chlorine, and silica. Most of these ele- 
ments are found in different combinations in the soil, more 
or less dissolved in the water. By means of its roots, the 
plant takes up the water and so carries this food through all 
its various parts. As this water or sap moves through the 
structure of the plant cells, the food in solution is used to 
promote growth. Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen 
are gases in the air. The first two of these unite to form 
carbon dioxide, or carbonic acid gas, which the plant breathes 
in through the pores of the leaves. This gas in the plant 
goes through a change, and the oxygen is breathed out, and 



the carbon is left to be made up into the solid part of the 
plant which serves as the more bulky material of food. 

Nitrogen in the form of a compound is taken up by the 
plant through its roots; but plants of the legume group, such 
as the clovers, cowpeas or soy beans, aided by certain bac- 
teria, have the power of using the nitrogen in the soil atmos- 
phere. Nitrogen is a highly valued plant food, and the 
farmer often purchases it in fertilizer at a good price. These 
different elements unite with one or more others in the plant, 
and form combinations which are familiar to us under vari- 
ous names. Of these, the following are important when we 
come to consider the plant as food. 

Water is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen. It is 
found in all plants, and even in very dry hay. To get the 
water entirely out of the plant, it must be driven out with 
artificial heat. The amount of water in plants differs greatly. 
Common timothy hay and red clover contain about 15 per 
cent, and ordinary corn meal has a similar amount. About 
80 per cent of green pasture grass is water, and some of our 
roots, like the turnip, have 90 per cent. After the water is 
driven from the plant by heat, what is left is dry matter. 
The water in the plant is worth no more than any other 
water, its chief value being to carry food in solution through 
the plant from the root to the farthermost leaf. 

Ash, or mineral matter, of plants, we see, for example, in 
the ashes left from burned wood. When we burn a plant, 
we destroy its form, and all that which burns and disappears 
we call organic matter. That which is left is ash, or inorganic 
matter. There is much difference in the amount of ash in 
plants. Green or very young plants contain the least, and 
old ones the most. Common corn fodder contains about 3 
per cent of ash, alfalfa about 10 per cent, and some of the 
roots as little as 1 per cent. The ash in plants is of value 
for food, if not too abundant. Hogs raised on feeds contain- 
ing but little mineral matter, such as corn, for example, do 


not have as good bone nor do they feed so well as when the 
corn is supplemented with other feeds containing more ash. 
Protein in the plant is a combination in which nitrogen, 
especially, plays a very important part, and is combined with 
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and sulphur. There are differ- 
ent forms of protein, but we do not need to concern ourselves 
about that fact here. This substance is not usually abundant 
all through the plant. Rough stalks contain but little. 
Prairie grass hay has about 8 per cent, red clover hay 13 
per cent, alfalfa hay 15 per cent, cottonseed 19 per cent, 
and soy beans 36 per cent. The growing plant usually has 
its greatest amount of protein when in bloom. Seeds are 
richest in this substance, for as the plant matures it shifts 
the protein to some extent from stalk to seed. In some of 
our mills where seeds are crushed or otherwise treated and 
the hulls removed, the by-products produced are very rich 
in protein. Cottonseed meal and peanut meal are good 
examples. Protein, whether used to feed plants or animals, 
is the highest priced food constituent the farmer can buy, 
when we consider the price he must pay on the market. 
Protein is expensive because it contains so much of the valu- 
able element, nitrogen. 

The carbohydrates are combinations of carbon, hydrogen, 
and oxygen, and contain no nitrogen. These are the most 
abundant of our food substances in plants. There are two 
kinds of carbohydrates, one known as nitrogen-free extract, 
consisting mostly of sugar, starch, and gums; the other called 
fiber or crude fiber, making up the woody part of the plant. 
Most of the fiber is cellulose, the material composing the 
walls of plant cells. The chemist may dissolve out the 
starch and the sugar from the plant cells; what is left is the 
fiber. The starch, sugar, and fiber are all carbohydrates, 
but the first two are much better for food, as they are very 
much more easily digested than the fiber. In general we 
see carbohydrates all about us in plants and plant products. 


The most of the stalk of corn, or any growing plant, consists 
of carbohydrates. Common rice and potatoes are rich in 
this substance. Many of our hays contain from 60 to 70 
per cent. This is, therefore, the cheapest as well as the most 
common constituent of animal feeds. Animals can not sub- 
sist on carbohydrates alone, although they are very valuable 
as a source of heat and energy. The farmer must depend 
largely, however, on materials rich in these substances to 
supply the great bulk of the feed for his stock. 

The fat in the plant is composed of carbon, oxygen, and 
hydrogen in different combinations from which we find them 
in the carbohydrates. Fat, or ether extract, as it is also 
called, is not usually abundant in plants. One to 3 per cent 
is the usual amount with many plants. The seeds ordinarily 
contain the most, some of these like cottonseed, soy beans, 
and flax having large quantities, so that it is extracted for 
commercial purposes, and the by-product rich in protein is 
sold as cake or meal. Fat is of special value in the food, as 
it furnishes the animal both heat and energy. 

The words roughage and concentrate are commonly used 
to-day by persons referring to feeding stuffs. When a farmer 
speaks of roughage, he means hay, corn fodder, or some 
coarse feed of that kind. By a concentrate, he means seeds 
that may be fed, or products made from them, such as bran, 
corn meal, oil meal, etc. Any form of feed for farm animals 
that does not contain a large amount of fiber, and is rich in 
protein or some form of nitrogen-free extract, such as starch 
as it occurs in the grain of rice, is usually regarded as a 
concentrate. Roots differ from roughages or concentrates 
in their general appearance, and, being succulent, contain a 
large amount of water, which often exceeds 90 per cent. 
Thus it may be seen they contain but little nutriment. On 
account of their composition in dry matter, and small 
amount of crude fiber, they are regarded by chemists as con- 
centrates rather than roughages. 


The following arrangement will show how the parts of the 
plant are related to one another : 

All feeding stuffs consist of 

Water and Dry Matter 

Ash, or Organic Matter 

Inorganic Matter j 

Protein Carbohydrates Fat, or 

j Ether Extract. 

Nitrogen-Free Fiber 


The material of which the animal is made is very similar 
to that used in building plant tissue. To begin with, the 
body of the animal is made up of water and dry matter. If 
the water is removed, dry matter is left. If this is burned 
entirely so that even the charcoal is destroyed, the organic 
part disappears and only ash is left. The organic matter, 
while made of chemical substances similar to those found in 
plants, consists mostly of protein and fat, with but little of 
the carbohydrates. The composition of the animal body 
may be well studied a little more in detail. 

Water in the animal body is found in the blood, and in 
the fleshy and bony parts. The amount of water in the ani- 
mal depends upon age and condition. Young animals have 
rather watery bodies. The older an animal becomes, or the 
fatter it gets, the less water is found in the body. For 
example, a calf a week old may consist of 60 per cent water, 
while a fat cow four years old may be but 45 per cent water. 
It will be fairly accurate to say that about 50 per cent of 
the body of an animal under usual conditions is water. 

The mineral matter, or ash, in the animal is more or less 


abundant, according to age and condition. Old animals 
always contain more than young ones, and those that are 
fat less than those that are lean. Usually we find a little 
over 3 pounds of ash for each 100 pounds of body weight. 
A fat, corn-fed hog, however, may be so short of ash in the 
body that the bone will hardly be strong enough to support 
its weight. The ash in the animal is made of the same sub- 
stances as that found in plants. 

The protein of the body is to be seen in the form of 
muscles, tendons, blood, nerves, the internal organs, hide, 
hair, horns, etc. Lean meat with no fat on it is protein, or 
nitrogenous material. The fatter the animal, the less the 
percentage of protein in the body. In the entire body of a 
farm animal under usual conditions we find about 13 or 14 
per cent protein. In the dressed carcass, ready to be sold 
for meat, we find about 17 per cent. 

The fat of the animal body is composed of carbon, hydro- 
gen, and oxygen, or of the same chemical substances as the 
fat of plants, but differing in combination. The amount of 
fat in the body depends much on how an animal has been 
fed. If we take a young growing pig, the body may contain 
only 25 per cent of fat, or even less, but a hog that has been 
well fattened and is ready for the butcher may contain over 
40 per cent. Not often do we find less than 6 per cent of 
fat in the body, or over 35 per cent. In the carcass ready 
for cutting up in the shop, we find about 20 per cent of fat, 
under usual conditions. 

Carbohydrates in the animal body are but contained in 
it, not a part of it, and so this substance can not be regarded 
as a constituent of animal flesh. Carbohydrates, however, 
exist in the body in two forms; one, glycogen, similar to 
starch in composition, found in the liver and muscles; and the 
other, lactose, or the sugar of milk, found in milk. Dex- 
trose, another form of sugar, is also found to a slight extent 
in the blood and tissues. 


The vitamines. Within the past few years a new sub- 
stance known as vitamines has received much attention from 
students of nutrition. Attention was first directed to this 
nutrient when it was shown that a disease of humans known 
as beriberi, caused by eating rice from which the husk had 
been removed, would not occur if the unpolished rice were 
eaten instead. Here was a new substance of nutrition. It 
was given the name of vitamine by Casimir Funk, who first 
investigated the subject. Other able scientists in America 
and Europe engaged in similar study, and it was finally 
agreed that there are three forms of vitamines, as follows: 

(1) Water-soluble vitamines, widely distributed in vege- 
table foods, in germs of seeds, in vegetables and fresh fruits, 
but which seem to be quite lacking in polished rice, patent 
flour, and bolted corn meal; 

Figure 19. The effect of vitamines upon growth. The rat on the left was 
fed five per cent cottonseed oil, the one on the right one and one-half per 
cent of butter fat. Experiments by Dr. McCollum and others seem to 
show conclusively that there is no fat of plant origin that wilHake the place 
of butterfat in nutrition. Photograph from Wisconsin Experiment Station. 

(2) Fat-soluble vitamines, found most abundant in milk, 
butter, egg yolk, germs of seeds, leafy vegetables and cod- 
liver oil, but lacking in the body fat or muscles of animals, 
and in vegetable oils; and 

(3) Anti-scorbutic vitamines, that constituent of food 
which prevents the disease known as scurvy, especially found 
in oranges, lemons, potatoes and fresh fruits and vegetables. 
Cooking injures the vitamine value of this class of food. 


The remarkable thing about the vitamines is, that they 
have never been actually separated out and isolated by them- 
selves for study. Yet already a large amount of experi- 
mental feeding of human beings has clearly shown their 
existence and the important part they play in nutrition. 
Without question the vitamines influence the nutrition of 
farm animals. This fact has been brought out in feeding 
experiments on swine, notably by Prof. Evvard, of Iowa. In 
fact, we may assume that the vitamines in milk, green 
forage, and vegetables account in part for the great value 
credited to these substances by feeders of animals. 

Comparing plants and animals, we see that the plant 
obtains its food from the air and from the mineral matter in 
the soil, from which it develops a form made up of cells that 
are largely carbohydrates. The farm animal obtains its 
nutriment from the plant, from which is created a form, 
also composed of cells, but, in this case, of nitrogenous mate- 
rial. During the day the plant sucks in carbon dioxide from 
the air through its leaves, and holds the carbon, and gives 
off the oxygen. The animal, on the contrary, draws the air 
into the lungs, uses the oxygen from it, and then breathes 
out carbon dioxide. Thus we see that these two great 
groups of living matter, the plants and animals, are of vital 
importance to each other, and have much in common. 
Without the plant or its products the animal under ordinary 
conditions could not live; while by feeding on it the beast 
converts the vegetable substance into a yet more concen- 
trated and more valuable food material for men. 

A part of this vegetable substance, however, is not taken 
up by the animal body; but, following a softening and re- 
ducing process, is excreted as manure. This excretion, 
placed in contact with the roots of the plant, furnishes 
nutriment and stimulates increased production. Thus the 
plant furnishes nourishment to both the animal and vege- 
table kingdom. 



1. Name ten elements, tell where they occur and how taken up 

by plants. 

2. How abundant and useful is water in the plant? 

3. Discuss protein and its occurrence. 

4. Name two kinds of carbohydrates. 

5. Where in the plant is the fat most abundant? 

6. What is a concentrate? Give three examples. 

7. How much water is found in the animal body? 

8. Of what use is the mineral matter in the animal? 

9. What percentages of protein and fat are found in animals? 

10. Where are the carbohydrates found in the animal? 

11. What are the vitamines? 


12. Specimens of elements. 

13. Organic and inorganic matter. 

14. Ashes of different kinds. 

15. The protein of plants and also of animals. 

16. Five kinds of fat. 

17. Roughage and concentrates. 


In order to understand how food is used in the body and 
the part it plays in maintaining life and producing results, 
it is necessary to discuss briefly the simpler features of diges- 
tion and more especially as applied to farm animals. 

The process of digestion begins with the mouth, where 
the food is broken up and softened. The fluid called saliva 
flows from small glands at the base of the tongue, and the 
mixing of this with the food in the mouth is called insaliva- 
tion. This fluid contains substances which act on the starch 
in the food and help change it to a form of sugar, so that it 
may be absorbed more readily. In swallowing, the food 
passes from the mouth through the esophagus, or gullet, 
into the stomach. The horse and hog have but one stomach, 
but cattle, sheep, and other animals that chew the cud, have 
four. The process of digestion, however, is similar in all 
stomachs. The cow chews a mouthful of grass very imper- 
fectly at first and swallows it into the paunch, which is the 
largest of the four stomachs. From here, after more or less 
mixing, the food is forced into a second and smaller stomach, 
called the honeycomb. After it has been churned about and 
softened in these two stomachs, the animal forces back into 
the mouth as frequently as desired a small amount of food 
called the "cud," for further chewing. The cattleman calls 
this operation "chewing the cud." After a bit the cud is re- 
turned, and by a special movement, passes into the many- 
plies, or small third stomach, from which it passes on into 
the fourth, or true, stomach. While in the true stomach the 
food is churned about and mixed with gastric juice, which 
contains a little acid. These juices act on the food, dissolv- 



Figure 20. The stomach of the ox. The lower figure shows 
(a) the rumen, (b) the reticulum; (c) the omasum, and 
(d) the abomasum, or true stomach. The upper figure shows 
by the dotted lines the direction of movement through the 
four sections. Reproduced from "Cattle and their Diseases," 
published by the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 


ing and changing it so that it can pass through the walls of 
the digestive tract and be used in the body. From the 
stomach, by a peculiar wave-like motion, the food is forced 
at frequent intervals into the small intestines, where it is 
mixed with other fluids that aid digestion. The liver, which 
is the largest gland in the body, and the pancreas both pour 
fluids that aid digestion over the food as it moves along the 
way in the small intestine. 

Thus it will be seen that from the time it is taken 
into the mouth the food is constantly acted on and changed 
for use in the body. Most of the food digested is absorbed 
from the small intestine but some passes on into the large 
one, where the last changes take place. During this trip in 
the body the protein, carbohydrates, and fat are changed 
into different smaller and simpler particles. When ready to 
be absorbed, they are taken into the circulation by the blood 
and lymph, and carried all through the body. Left in the 
cells, these particles of protein, etc., which are called nutri- 
ents, serve their final purpose of building up the body or 
producing milk or energy. This process of digestion and 
absorption is rather complicated, and includes many changes 
that need not be mentioned here. 

The capacity of stomach and intestines is much greater 
than many persons realize. Careful study has been made 
of these organs of farm animals, and the following figures 
may be regarded as fairly accurate: 


The ox 337 quarts, or about 2 barrels 

The horse 224 quarts, or over 1 barrel 

The sheep 47 quarts, or about 12 gallons 

The hog 29 quarts, or about 7 gallons 

It is to be noticed that the ox, with its compound stomach, 
has almost twice the capacity of the horse, and the sheep, in 
proportion to size, has much more capacity than the hog. 
The intestines of the ox are about 187 feet long, while those 
of the horse are but 98, and those of the sheep are 107 feet 


long, compared with 77 feet in the hog. The facts brought 
out in these figures show that the horse and hog, with their 
simple stomachs, and smaller relative capacity, should be 
fed more concentrated, or more easily digested, food than 
the ox or the sheep. 

The food in the body is used to maintain or support life, 
to produce growth or energy or to promote certain other 
features, as milk, fat, or wool. On this account persons who 
feed live stock should regulate the kind and amount of food, 
if they desire to secure the most satisfactory results. 

The protein in the food during digestion is acted on by 
what are called digestive ferments. One of these, pepsin, 
assisted by a very small amount of hydrochloric acid attacks 
the protein in the stomach. The action of acid and pepsin 
changes the protein into two more soluble forms known as 
proteases and peptones. These with any of the unchanged 
protein pass into the small intestine, where, by the aid of 
two other ferments, trypsln and erepsin, all is converted into 
a still more soluble form called amino acid. This latter 
passes through the walls of the intestines and into the blood, 
and thence throughout the body tissues. The animal can 
not take the protein in the plant and use it at once as body 
protein, but it must go through these changes in the digestive 
organs before it can be used. The protein in the food is 
changed to body protein, of which lean meat is the best 
example. To some extent it may also be changed into fat. 
Animals that depend entirely upon flesh for food can live 
on protein alone, if necessary. During starvation, the body 
loses a small but rather constant amount of protein. So we 
regard this substance especially valuable for building up 
the muscles, the hair, wool, internal organs, blood, and similar 
tissues that are closely related to the vital processes. 

The carbohydrates in the food are largely changed into 
sugar during digestion. Thus they are more easily absorbed 
into the body. There are different kinds of sugars, but that 


in the food is converted into glucose. This sugar is then 
taken up by the circulation and carried to the liver, where 
it is again changed somewhat, and from here is distributed 
over the body as needed. The carbohydrates are largely 
used in the system to furnish the energy necessary in work, 
and to make fat. Interesting experiments with animals 
show that more fat is stored in the body than can be sup- 
plied by the protein and fat in the food. Dr. W. H. Jordan, 
of the New York Experiment Station, proved that carbo- 
hydrates are used to form part of the fat in the milk of the 
cow. If animals are fed enough foods rich in digestible car- 
bohydrates, the fat in the body will not tend to diminish in 
amount. In other words, such foods protect or conserve 
the body fat. Ihe carbohydrates are also regarded as great 
sources of heat and energy. This phase of the subject will 
be explained a little further on. Feeds containing plenty of 
carbohydrates cost less for the dry matter in them than any 
other feeds, and are valuable for filling the stomach. Sheep 
and oxen must be fed a quantity of roughage, as a filler, if 
they are to do well. 

The fat in the food undergoes no important change in 
the stomach, but in the small intestine, through action of 
the bile poured in from the liver, and the pancreatic juice, it 
is converted into glycerine and fatty acids. The alkali in the 
bile unites with the latter, forming a soap. In this changed 
form of glycerine and soap, the fat finds its way through the 
intestinal wall into very minute projections, known as villi, 
through which it enters into the lacteals and thence on as a 
milky fluid known as chyle into the blood circulation near 
the shoulder. In this changed form the fat of the food be- 
comes a part of the body fat. The fat of the body is usually 
made from the fat and the carbohydrates of the feed, though 
it may be produced to a small extent from protein. There 
is usually but little fat in the roughages fed to stock 

The mineral matter in the food is taken up in the small 


intestine, and goes through no special digestive changes as 
with the other food substances. Mineral substances, such 
as lime and phosphorus, are regarded as of great importance 
in building up the body. Those foods that contain but little 
ash give poor results in feeding, unless the necessary mineral 
material is supplied. Years ago Professor W. A. Henry 
showed that hogs fed only corn had bone just about half as 
strong as hogs fed bone meal or hard- wood, ashes with the 
corn. Farmers give ashes or coal to hogs because these ani- 
mals make a better development when so fed. Without the 
ash, the body is not given proper nutrition. Corn lacks ash. 

Figure 21. The influence of minerals on the development of swine. The 
pig on the left received a ration with sufficient minerals, the other was 
given a ration deficient in minerals. Note the difference in bone and 
growth. Photograph from Iowa Experiment Station. 

A hundred pounds of corn meal contains but a pound and 
a half of ash, while a hundred pounds of oats has more than 
twice that amount. All stockmen rate oats highly for pro- 
ducing hard, strong bone in growing animals. The legumes, 
such as clover and alfalfa, supply much needed mineral 
material in the food of farm animals and so their use should 
be generally advised, especially for cattle, sheep and swine. 
All food has a heat value, just as coal has. If burned, 
coal gives off heat; so does food. All heat comes from the 
sun, and is stored up in the plant, ready to be set free. 
The word calorie represents a measure of heat given off by 
food. One calorie equals the amount of heat required to 


raise the temperature of 1 pound of water 4 F. The word 
therm is now being adopted as more convenient for use in 
referring to stock feeding. A therm equals 1,000 calories. 
If we raise 1,000 pounds of water 4 F, that measures a therm. 
While food is being digested in the body, heat is produced 
by the process. Some foods contain more heat than others. 
The difference will depend largely on the amount of fat con- 
tained. Scientific men consider that the heat values of pro- 
tein and carbohydrates are about alike, but that the heat 
value of fat is 2J^ times as great as either of these. This 
fact partly explains why the Eskimos in the cold North eat so 
much food that is nearly all fat, as the blubber of the whale. 
Corn contains more fat than any of our other common 
grains, which fact accounts in part for its use as a winter 
feed for horses, and also is a reason why it should not be fed 
heavily to stock in su'iimer in the warm season. 

Food has an energy value. When a substance is burned, 
the resulting energy furnishes power to do work. So it is 
understood that what we call a therm represents the energy 
or work necessary to raise 1,530 tons to a height of one 
foot. Part of the energy of the food, to be sure, is lost in 
the process of digestion, partly because not all the food is 
digested. But much of it is saved, and this is used to keep 
the engine of the body going. The horse that pulls the plow 
or hauls a load of hay gets his power from the stored-up 
energy in the food, which is set free in the body during oxida- 
tion in the process of digestion. 

The heat and energy value of food has been worked out 
by scientific men, by means of a calorimeter. This is a very 
strong, round, hollow steel tube. A sample of a food is 
placed in this and burned, and the amount of heat given 
off is measured. Another instrument, called the respiration 
calorimeter, also is used, in which a live animal is placed. 
With this the investigator can study the value of foods, and 
can make a complete record of just what becomes of all 


the energy produced. By means of the calorimeter, one 
measures the heat or energy used in labor, or thrown off from 
the body, or passed off as breath through the mouth. The 
application of this knowledge will be found in the next 
chapter. At the Pennsylvania and New Hampshire Experi- 
ment Stations there are respiration calorimeters made to 
hold the larger animals. In these there have been con- 
ducted very interesting experiments on the energy value 
of foods as fed to cattle under different conditions. 

The palatability, or taste, of food is regarded very im- 
portant in feeding animals. If the food is pleasing to the 
taste, the animal will digest it better, because the fluids used 
in digestion will flow more freely, and thus act more com- 
pletely on the food. Nice sweet hay is greatly relished, while 
that which is somewhat mouldy, or has not been properly 
ripened, or cured, will be poorly eaten or entirely refused. 
The animal that feeds best has a good appetite, and eats 
plentifully. A great Russian physiologist named Pawlow, who 
conducted extensive experiments relating to the effects of the 
appetite on the forming of the digestive fluids in dogs, learned 
that digestion, appetite, and palatability all go together. 

The use of water by the animal is very important. 
Water may keep the entire body in a healthy condition. 
The digestive fluids and blood need given amounts of water 
to do their work right, and water is needed to keep the intes- 
tines open and active, and to regulate body temperature. 
Experiments have shown that farm animals need a certain 
amount of water for every pound of dry matter eaten. For 
example, a horse or sheep needs from two to three pounds of 
water for each pound of dry matter consumed. With some 
foods more water is required than with others. The cow 
that eats corn silage will drink but little water compared 
with the one fed the dried plant or corn stover. 

The nutritive ratio is frequently referred to in discussing 
the use of rations in practical feeding. This term is used to 


express the ratio of the digestible protein to the digestible 
non-protein substances in the food, or the combined car- 
bohydrates and fat to the protein. In order to compare 
these substances on an equal basis, they are reduced to the 
same heat valuation. Protein and the carbohydrates do have 
the same heat value, but a pound of fat is equivalent to 
about 2)4 pounds of either one of these. Consequently the 
chemist, in order to place them on an equal footing in heat 
value, multiplies the digestible fat by 2J^. The nutritive 
ratio is found by adding this to the amount of the carbo- 
hydrates, and then dividing the sum by the digestible pro- 
tein content. The following example will illustrate the 
method of finding the nutritive ratio: 

Oats contain 10.7 pounds of digestible protein, 50.3 
pounds carbohydrates and 3.8 pounds fat. Then the ratio 
is worked out in this manner. 3.8 pounds fat x 2 l /i = 8.55 
= the carbohydrate equivalent of the fat. 
50.3+8.55 -58.85 
10.7) 58.85 ( 5.5 


Nutritive ratio, 1 : 5.5 

The nutritive ratio is obtained in the same way for an 
entire ration, dividing the total amount of the digestible 
carbohydrates and fat by the total digestible protein. A 
nutritive ratio of 1 : 5.5 means that for each pound of digesti- 
ble protein to be found in the ration there are 5.5 pounds 
of carbohydrates or its equivalent. 

A narrow nutritive ratio is one in which the amount of 
carbohydrates and fat is not large in proportion to protein, 
such as 1 : 3, or 1:5; a moderate amount would be 1 : 8; while 
a wide ratio would be 1:12. Highly concentrated foods, such 
as tankage or oil meal, usually have narrow ratios; while 
coarse foods, like the common roughages, of which corn 
stover or timothy hay are good examples, have wide ratios. 



1. What is meant by "chewing the cud?" 

2. How is food taken into the circulation? 

3. What is the capacity of the stomach of the ox? 

4. What digestive fluids are present in the stomach? 

5. How are the carbohydrates changed in digestion? 

6. What is a "calorie"? a "therm"? 

7. How can the energy value of food be shown? 

8. Describe the calorimeter. 

9. What has palatability of food to do with digestion? 

10. Explain the term "nutritive ratio." 


11. How often does a cow chew the cud? Watch to see. 

12. If an opportunity occurs, measure the intestines of an animal 

that may be killed on the farm. Report. 

13. Get samples of what you consider palatable and unpalatable 

foods for stock. 

14. Figure out the nutritive ratio of three plants or other feed 



The process of analyzing a feeding stuff takes place in 
chemical laboratories especially equipped for this work. The 
chemist secures a fair sample of the feed and grinds it in a 
mill to a powder as fine as flour. He then takes a small 
sample of this and analyzes it in the laboratory. He dries 
a weighed portion in an oven and finds j ust how much water 
it contains, and the percentage of dry matter. Then with 
ether he dissolves out the fat, (ether extract) and weighs this. 
With other chemicals he also separates out the protein, the 
nitrogen-free extract, and the fiber. Another sample of the 
feed he burns to learn how much ash or mineral matter 
remains. Thus the chemist is able to determine just how 
many pounds of each of these substances there are in a given 
amount of feed. This investigation of the chemical com- 
position is the first step taken by the chemist in studying 
the value of foods for animals. 

The amount of digestible nutrients in a food, the simple 
chemical analysis, however, did not show. Then there was 
another step forward by the chemist, whereby he learned 
just how much of the total protein, carbohydrates, and fat 
in a given food an animal digested. After analyzing a sample 
of the feed, as much of it was fed as the animal would eat in 
a given time. During the experiment, all the solid and liquid 
excrement passed off by the animal was collected, and samples 
of these were also analyzed. Having learned how much pro- 
tein, carbohydrates, and fat were lost in the manure, the 
chemist deducted these amounts from the total quantity con- 
sumed in the feed, and the difference was regarded as the 
amount digested by the animal. This method was not per- 




feet, but it was a great step in advance. It enabled chemists 
to figure out the amount of each nutrient digested under dif- 
ferent conditions, so that in time they were able to prepare 
for the use of farmers what is called "a table of digestible 
nutrients." This table showed the total amount of dry mat- 
ter in 100 pounds of different kinds of feed, and also the 
number of pounds of digestible protein, carbohydrates, and 
fat in every 100 pounds. In this table, for convenient refer- 
ence, foods of similar sorts are grouped by themselves. For 
example, roughage is all classed together, and this is divided 
into three groups: as dried roughage, fresh green roughage, 
and roots and tubers. Then the concentrates are arranged 
by themselves, and these are also divided into groups. The 
following is taken from a table of digestible nutrients, and 
is used here to illustrate what has just been explained. No 
attempt, however, is made below to group these feeds. 

Name of feed 

Total dry 
matter in 
100 Ibs. 

Digestible nutrients in 
100 Ibs. 





Alfalfa hay 
Timothy hay 
Lespedeza hay 
Cowpea hay 
Corn stover, medium w a"er 
Red clover-green 







Corn silage 

Corn, dent 


Wheat bran 
Cottonseed meal-good 
Linseed meal o. p 

Tankage-Over 60% protein 

Skim milk-separator . . 


This little table, which is made from a much longer one 
giving the digestible nutrients in about all the different kinds 
of food the American farmer is likely to feed,* shows that 100 
pounds of alfalfa hay contains 91.4 pounds of dry matter. 

*Feeds and Feeding. Henry and Morrison, 1917. 


In this 91.4 pounds, of the digestible material of use to an 
animal, we find 10.6 pounds of protein, 39 pounds of car- 
bohydrates, and nine tenths of a pound of fat. The nutritive 
ratio is also 1:3.9. Let us now look further and learn how 
such figures have a practical value to the feeder of animals. 

The kind and amount of food required by an animal very 
naturally depend on the class to which it belongs, its age, 
and use. No one would expect to feed a calf the same as a 
horse, or a sheep like a milch cow. Each must be fed so as 
to supply its needs as completely as possible. As might be 
expected, scientists were a long time getting the necessary 
information to enable men to understand how to feed so as 
to get the best results. 

What we know as feeding standards in the beginning 
were very simple and did not have any real value. The 
working out of useful standards began in Germany, and 
German chemists have done more than any one else to furnish 
us knowledge on this subject. The first plan attempted was 
to give meadow hay a fixed value, and then measure up other 
feeds with that as the standard. That plan originated about 
1810. Some fifty years later, another German chemist sug- 
gested that animals be fed special amounts of protein, car- 
bohydrates, and fat, according to certain conditions. His 
plan was not good, however, because he did not take into 
account the digestibility of the food. He was able to analyze 
a food, but he knew nothing of how much of each nutrient 
the animal digested. At that time there was considerable 
information of the chemical composition of feeding stuffs, 
but the digestibility of the foods had not been figured out. 
Then about 1864, another German chemist, by the name of 
Wolff, proposed that animals be fed dairy certain amounts of 
digestible protein, carbohydrates, and fat, such as were actu- 
ally required by the animals. Wolff was able to make this 
proposal because he had conducted many feeding tests with 
different animals, and had learned much of the digestibility 


of feeds. His studies resulted in what are now known as 
The Wolff feeding standards for farm animals. Two 
things were shown by this great scientist. One was the 
digestibility of the nutrients in different feeding stuffs, and 
the other was the amount of each of these required by farm 
animals under certain conditions. Wolff found that ani- 
mals that were doing no labor, that were not being fattened, 
neither gaining nor losing in weight, required only sufficient 
food to keep the body and the internal organs healthy and 
vigorous. Such an animal required what he called a main- 
tenance ration. A young animal needed a growing ration, 
and cattle intended for meat required a fattening ration. 
A cow producing a large amount of milk must be fed, first 
to supply the ordinary needs of the body, such as might be 
found in a maintenance ration, and, besides this, she must be 
fed still more to enable her to produce the milk of which the 
food is the source. The dry cow may be satisfied on a 
maintenance ration consisting of some form of roughage only, 
such as clover hay, for example; but, if she is yielding a 
good supply of milk, then rich concentrates must be fed, if 
the increased demands of milk production are to be met. 

The standards of Wolff were not entirely satisfactory to 
the Germans, so in 1896 Dr. Lehmann, of the Berlin Agri- 
cultural High School, introduced some improvements which 
became known as the Wolff-Lehmann Feeding Standards. 

Since Wolff first made known this most important dis- 
covery, many other chemists have experimented in the same 
field. Both European and American agricultural chemists 
have extensively studied the science of feeding, so that now 
we know much more than did the student or farmer in the 
days of Wolff. Animals have been carefully studied, and 
the invention of the respiration calorimeter has resulted in 
some wonderful investigations in the fields of chemistry and 
animal nutrition. The work of Wolff was that of a pioneer. 
For many years Americans relied on analyses of German 



feeds, and made use of the standards that came to us from 
Europe. To-day we are able to use a table of digestible 
nutrients which is based on the composition of American 
feeds as studied by chemists of our own country. The Wolff 
standards as improved by Lehmann were introduced to 
America and for some years had extensive use. Wolff used 
1,000 pounds as the standard of weight for animals, and 
assumed that a certain amount of dry matter, and of digesti- 
ble protein, carbohydrates, and fat, were needed for that 
weight under given conditions. The animals were classified 
in groups, as oxen, fattening cattle, milch cows, sheep, horses, 
etc. Then those in a group were classified according to their 
purpose; as, for example, horses into light, medium, and heavy 
work; and dairy cows in four classes, according to the amount 
of milk made per day. The following figures, taken from 
the Wolff-Lehmann feeding standard, illustrate its arrange- 

Pounds required daily for each 1,000 Ibs. live weight. 

Kind of animal 



Digestible nutrients 





Horses, light work .... 
Horses, medium work. 
Horses, heavy work. . . 









This table means, for instance, that a horse at light work 
weighing 1,000 pounds requires 20 pounds of dry matter 
daily, containing 1^ pound of protein, 9J/2 pounds of carbo- 
hydrates, and 0.4 pound of fat, the ration having a nutritive 
ratio of 1:7. These exact standards of daily require- 
ments did not stand the test in American feeding operations, 
and our scientists sought to improve them. As a result of 
the studies of Professors W. A. Henry and F. B. Morrison, 
of Wisconsin University, new standards were introduced. 

Modified Wolff-Lehmann standards. These investiga- 
tors recognized "that feeding standards are but approxima- 



tions," or, in other words, it is impossible to feed an animal 
in common practice to the exact fraction of a pound, and 
give neither too little nor too much food for body require- 
ments. So they adopted the plan of feeding within minimum 
and maximum quantities of dry matter, digestible crude pro- 
tein and total digestible nutrients. In explanation of their 
modified form of the Wolff-Lehmann standards, the authors 

write as follows:* 

"Since progressive feeders throughout the country now appreciate 
the significance of the nutritive ratio of a ration, the approximate upper 
and lower advisable limits of nutritive ratios for the different classes 
have been stated. To correspond with these standards, Appendix 
Table III contains a column showing the total digestible nutrients 
furnished in 100 pounds of each feed. Likewise so that one may see at a 
glance what feeds are high and which are low in protein, compared with 
carbohydrates and fat, the nutritive ratio for each food has been comput- 
ed and given in the table. With these aids it is hoped that the 
standards presented may be of real assistance to students and feeders 
who desire to compute rations substantially in accordance with the 
Wolff-Lehmann method, while recognizing the results of later investi- 
gations in animal feeding." 

The modified form of the WolfT-Lehmann standard, as 
applied to horses, compared with the table previously given 
in this chapter, is as follows: 

Feeding standards for horses, l,000lbs. live weight, modified Wolff-Lehmann. 

Kind of work 

per day 





15-22 Ibs. 

1.1-1.4 Ibs. 

10 0-13.1 Ibs 

1-8 0-8 5 


16-24 Ibs. 

1.4-1.7 Ibs. 

12 8-15.6 Ibs 



18-26 Ibs. 

2.0-2.2 Ibs. 

15.9-19.5 Ibs. 


By this we learn that a horse at medium work requires 
from 16 to 24 pounds of dry matter, from 1.4 to 1.7 pounds 
of protein, and from 12.8 to 15.6 pounds of digestible nutri- 
ents, with a nutritive ratio of 7.8 to 8.3. Compared with 
the old standards, we see that this ration provides a saving 
in protein, but allows for an increased use of total nutrients, 
with a somewhat wider nutritive ratio. 

The practical application of Wolff-Lehmann feeding stand- 
ards has been recognized on thousands of farms in America, 

*Feeds and Feeding, 1917. 


and to the great profit of those adopting them. Probably 
no class of people has studied the standard more carefully 
than feeders of dairy cattle, and it is among herds of this kind 
that we find Wolff -Lehmann standards most commonly used. 
It must be understood that one may not be able to feed one's 
stock so as to follow the standard perfectly, but there is no 
trouble in using it in a practical way as a guide. One may 
without difficulty feed within the limitations of the standard. 
When the animal is fed about right, according to the stand- 
ard, then a balanced ration is being used, or one which, 
without waste, most perfectly meets the needs of the body. 
Many experiments have shown that the balanced ration can 
be relied upon for giving the best results. 

Energy value feeding standards have recently attracted 
attention. Kellner, a German, and Dr. H. P. Armsby, a 
noted American investigator of feeding animals, about 1908 
proposed that the feeding value of foods be measured by 
their energy contents, as shown by the therms of net energy 
they supply. These men accounted for the loss of a part of 
the food energy by the animal in the mastication of its food, 
and in the operations of the internal organs, etc. The energy 
left after digestion they called the net energy and this was 
used by the animal for supplying special needs. Armsby has 
published a set of figures showing the dry matter, digestible 
protein, and net energy value in therms in some of the most 
common feeding stuffs. He has also prepared a maintenance 
ration standard, and one for growing cattle and sheep. The 
following is made up from the latter, to show how this energy 
standard is arranged. 


Age Live weight Digestible protein Net energy value 

3mos. 275 Ibs. 1.10 Ib. 5.0 therms 

12mos. 650 Ibs. 1.65 Ib. 7.0 therms 

24 mos. 1000 Ibs. 1.75 Ib. 8.0 therms 

This table shows that a calf three months old and weigh- 
ing about 275 pounds requires 1.1 pound of digestible pro- 



tein per day, and that the total net energy in the ration will 
equal five therms. This new standard has hardly been long 
enough before the public to be well known, and has been 
used but little in practice but may grow in favor. 

Feeding standards for dairy cows have received quite a 
large amount of special study, especially by Professors T. L. 
Haecker, of Minnesota Experiment Station, F. W. Woll, first 
of Wisconsin and later of the California station, G. C. 
Humphrey, of Wisconsin station, E. S. Savage, of Cornell 
University station in New York, and C. H. Eckles, of Mis- 
souri and Minnesota stations. Professor Haecker was the 
pioneer in this work, and, after many years of careful 
feeding of dairy cows, he concluded that the feed for a cow 
producing milk should be based not only on the daily yield of 
milk, but also on the amount of butter-fat the milk contained. 

The Haecker standard for dairy cows first assumes that 
with a standard weight of 1,000 pounds, the cow independ- 
ent of milk production requires a maintenance ration of 0.7 
pound of crude protein, 7.0 pounds of carbohydrates and 
0.1 pound of fat. Then for each 100 pounds live weight the 
cow exceeds or falls below 1,000 pounds, there is added or 
subtracted one tenth of the standard ration. The following is 
a part of the Haecker standard, given simply for illustration. 
Haecker's Feeding Standard for a Dairy Cow. 

Conditions for support or 

Daily allowance of digestible 




Support for 1,000 pound cow 
To the allowance for support 
For each pound 3.0 per cent milk . 

if ^ Q 
(( (( (( K Q " " 

0.700 Ib. 

0.047 " 
0.054 " 
0.060 " 

7.00 Ibs. 

0.20 " 
0.24 " 
0.28 " 


0.017 " 
0.021 " 
0.024 " 

Prof. Savage has sought to improve this ration some- 
what, by increasing the protein requirements per pound of 


milk from 18 to 20 per cent, for in his experiments he found 
a need for this increased protein over that adopted by 
Haecker. American standards, and especially those applied 
to milk production, are a great step in advance over the 
standards introduced from Germany. 


1. How does a chemist analyze a feeding stuff? 

2. What is meant by digestible nutrients? 

3. How are feeding tables arranged? 

4. Trace the history of the feeding standards. 

5. Explain meaning of a maintenance ration. 

6. What standard of weight is used in feeding tables? Suppose 

an animal weighs more or less? 

7. Discuss the practical use of Wolff-Lehmann standards. 

8. What are the energy value feeding standards? 

9. How does the Haecker standard for dairy cows differ from the 

10. How did Savage try to improve the Haecker standard? 


The selection of a feeding standard is the first thing 
necessary, when one plans to feed live stock on a scientific 
basis. The reader's attention has been called to several dif- 
ferent standards, each of which has certain commendable 
features. The modified Wolff-Lehmann standard, however, 
is the one in most general use for horses, beef cattle, sheep 
and swine, and, in view of its simple application, is here 
recommended. For dairy cattle the Haecker standard as 
modified by Savage is especially good, and may be easily 
applied to a wide range of production. 

The method of calculating a ration is very simple, and 
can easily be put in practice by anyone who knows how to 
add, multiply, and subtract. There is nothing complicated 
about it. The fact that many farmers with only common 
school training figure out the rations for their stock, is evi- 
dence enough to support this statement. Many men feed- 
ing dairy cows study carefully the composition and cost of 
feeds, and then figure out the best rations available, that will 
agree as nearly as possible with the standard. 


The first step in calculating a ration is to find out the 
amounts of dry matter, digestible protein, total digestible 
nutrients, and the nutritive ratio in the ration one is feed- 
ing or is planning to feed. In this chapter, only the most 
common feeds used over much of the United States will be 
considered. We will go through the process of figuring out 
the ration for fattening a two-year-old steer weighing 1,200 
pounds, during the first period of 50 to 60 days. (See feed- 
ing standard, Table B, Appendix.) According to the stand- 




ard, a steer weighing 1,000 pounds would require from 22.0 
to 25.0 pounds of dry matter, 2.0 to 2.3 pounds of protein, 
18.0 to 20.0 pounds of digestible nutrients, and with a nutri- 
tive ratio of 1:7.0 to 1:7.8. Multiplying these requirements 
for 1,000 by 1.2, in order to determine the amount needed 
for the 1,200-pound steer, we find that he will require 26.4 
to 30.0 pounds of dry matter, 2.4 to 2.76 pounds of protein, 
and 21.6 to 24.0 pounds of digestible nutrients. Let us plan 
to feed this steer a daily ration of 10 pounds of alfalfa hay, 
30 pounds of corn silage, 10 pounds of corn and cob meal, 
and 3 pounds of bran. To use a good system in the start- 
ing of the work, we will arrange the different parts in proper 
order for study, which is as follows: 

Ration for 1,200-pound Fattening Steer First Period 






Alfalfa hay, 10 Ibs 

Corn silage, 30 Ibs 

Corn and cob meal, 10 Ibs. 
Bran 3 Ibs 

The second step in calculating the ration will be to find 
out how much dry matter, digestible protein, and total 
digestible nutrients, occur in each of the amounts of these 
different feeds, and write these figures in the proper blank 
places in the table. Turning now to Table A in the Appen- 
dix, you will find shown the amount of dry matter and' 
digestible nutrients in 100 pounds of a number of differ- 
ent feeding stuffs. The composition of each to be fed this 
steer can be easily found. Let us take alfalfa hay for our 
first calculation. 

100 Ibs. contain 
Then 10 Ibs. contain 


Dry matter 
91.4 Ibs. 
9.14 Ibs. 

10.6 Ibs. 
1.06 Ibs. 

Total nutrients 
51.6 Ibs. 
5. 16 Ibs. 



Figuring the corn silage next, we find that 

Dry matter Protein Total nutrients 

100 Ibs. contain 26.3 Ibs. 1.1 Ib. 17.7 Ibs. 

Then 30 Ibs. contain 7.89 Ibs. 0.33 Ib. 5.31 Ibs. 

Figuring the Corn and cob meal next, we find that 

Dry matter Protein Total nutrients 

100 Ibs. contain 89.6 Ibs. 6.1 Ibs. 78.1 Ibs. 

Then 10 Ibs. contain 8.96 Ibs. 0.61 Ib. 7.81 Ib. 

Coming last to bran, we learn that 

Dry matter Protein Total nutrients 

100 Ibs. contain 89.9 Ibs. 12.5 Ibs. 60.9 Ibs. 

Then 3 Ibs. contain 2.70 Ibs. 0.37 Ib. 1.82 Ibs. 

If we have copied these figures as worked out, into the 
blank places arranged for them in the table on page 94, 
then we shall have the following, after we have added up the 

Ration for 1,200-pound Fattening Steer Partly Computed 







Alfalfa hay, 10 Ibs 
Corn silage, 30 Ibs 

9.14 Ibs. 
7.89 ' 

1.06 Ibs. 
0.33 " 

5.16 Ibs. 
5.31 ' 

Corn and cob meal, 10 Ibs. . 
Bran, 3 Ibs. 

8.96 ' 
2.70 ' 

0.61 " 
0.37 " 

7.81 ' 
1.82 ' 


28.69 ' 

2.37 " 

20.10 ' 


Wolff-Lehmann standard . . 

26.4-30 ' 

2.4-2.76 " 

21.6-24 ' 

1 :7-l :7.8 

A shortage of .... 


1.5-3.9 " 

The above table shows that the proposed ration, com- 
pared with the standard, is satisfactory in the amount of dry 
matter, but is from 0.03 to 0.39 Ib. short in digestible pro- 
tein, and lacks from 1.5 to 3.9 pounds of total digestible 
nutrients, with a slightly wider nutritive ratio than the 
standard calls for. 

The third step in computing the ration will be to correct 
or improve it so that it will compare favorably with the 
standard. Not much is really necessary to improve this 
ration, for the dry matter already supplied is properly 
adjusted, and there is but a small shortage in digestible pro- 
tein. We should, however, have at least a pound and a half 



more digestible nutrients, and make the nutritive ratio cor- 
respond closer to the standard. We might use a small 
amount of some commercial feed stuff, to adjust this ration, 
but suppose we use a common home-grown product, and add 
three pounds of oats and note the result. Turning to the 
table of the composition of feeding stuffs, Table A, Ap- 
pendix, we find the following relating to oats. 

Oats Dry matter Digestible Total digestible 

protein nutrients 

100 Ibs. contain 90.3 Ibs. 9.7 Ibs. 70.4 Ibs. 

Then 3 Ibs. contain 2.72 Ibs. .29 Ibs. 2.11 Ibs. 

Adding this to the total in the original ration, we have 
the following: 




Total dig. 


Total original 
3 Ibs. oats 

28.69 Ibs. 
2.72 " 

2.37 Ibs. 
.29 " 

20.10 Ibs. 
2.11 " 



31.41 " 

266 " 

22 21 " 



26.4-30 " 




Excess or deficit 

+ 1.41 " 



This ration contains a slight excess of dry matter which 
is not at all serious, while it is actually balanced in its nutri- 
ents, and very nearly meets the nutritive ratio standard. 
We may, therefore, regard this ration properly calculated 
and corrected to suit the animal's needs. It also has the 
advantage of consisting of feeds easily produced or obtained 
over much of this country. 


The feeding standards for dairy cattle as previously 
stated, are based on the yield of milk as well as the weight 
of the animal. Haecker adopted a standard in which he 
first established a maintenance ration for the support of a 
1,000-pound cow, consisting of 0.7 pound digestible protein, 
7.0 pounds digestible carbohydrates and 0.1 pound digestible 


fat. He then allowed certain amounts of these nutrients in 
the ration, additional to that for maintenance, based on each 
pound of milk of definite butter-fat composition. The stand- 
ard proposed by Haecker was a great step forward, but 
some investigators after extensive trials came to the con- 
clusion that the nutrients recommended fell a trifle short of 
real requirements. Haecker's table was changed slightly by 
Savage, who approved of the maintenance standard, but 
who increased the percentage of protein required, from 18 
to 20 per cent. Savage also combined the total nutrients, 
instead of computing carbohydrates and fat separately. In 
their modified form of the Wolff-Lehmann standard, Henry 
and Morrison arrange for dairy cattle by adopting the 
quantities of protein given in both Haecker and Savage 
standards, as for example 0.054 0.065 digestible protein for 
milk with 4.0 per cent fat. In this case, Haecker recom- 
mends 0.054 pound protein to be fed for each pound of 4.0 
per cent milk produced, while Savage recommends 0.065 
pound. The person figuring out a ration for a dairy cow 
will do well to see that the feed contains enough protein 
to come within the variations of the standard and the ad- 
justment of this nutrient may well receive first consideration. 
There is no fixed standard for dry matter adopted in this 
case, but cows producing one pound of fat a day should 
receive from 21 to 25 pounds of dry matter for 1,000 pounds 
live weight. 

A reference to Table B, Appendix, will show the modi- 
fied Wolff-Lehmann standard given by Henry and Mor- 
rison.* The method of computing the amounts of dry 
matter, digestible protein and total digestible nutrients, 
applies the same in this case as in the example given with 
beef cattle. One must make a special computation, how- 
ever, to establish one's standard, based on the number of 
pounds of milk daily, and its fat content, as previously 
stated. This is determined as follows: 

*Feeds and Feeding, 1917. 


As an example, we will take the case of a cow weighing 
1,200 pounds, producing 30 pounds a day of milk testing 4.0 
per cent fat. Digestible Total digestible 

A 1,000-pound cow requires for t> rotein nutrients 

maintenance 0.70 Ib. 7.925 Ibs. 

A 1,200-pound cow requires for 

maintenance 0.84 Ib. 9.510 Ibs. 

If one pound of 4.0 per cent milk requires 0.054 0.065 
pound protein, then 30 pounds would require 30 times 0.054 
0.065 which would be 1.62 1.95 pounds protein. 

If one pound of 4.0 per cent milk requires 0.346 pound 
digestive nutrients, then 30 pounds would require 30 times 
0.346, or 10.38. 

Adding these to the maintenance ration, we find that the 

required standard would be: D i gest iUe Total digestible 

protein nutrients 

For maintenance 1,200-lb. dairy cow. .0.84 Ib. 9.51 Ibs. 

To meet demands 30 Ibs. 4.0% milk.. 1.62-1.95 Ibs. 10.38 Ibs. 

Total required 2.46-2.79 Ibs. 19.89 Ibs. 

Thus we ascertain that a 1,200-pound cow producing 30 
pounds of milk a day containing 4.0 per cent fat should 
receive daily a ration containing from 25 to 30 pounds of 
dry matter, 2.46 to 2.79 pounds of digestible protein, and 
19.89 pounds total digestible nutrients, with a nutritive ratio 
from 1:7 to 1:8. 

The adjustment of rations to the standard is not usually 
difficult. An increase in dry matter and carbohydrates is 
easily secured with the hays or most of our common feed 
stuffs. If a ration needs some adjustment in the protein, then 
some concentrate such as soy beans, cottonseed meal, lin- 
seed oil meal, or tankage may be selected. The cost of the 
feed is an important matter, and should be carefully con- 
sidered. Some feeding stuffs, like cottonseed meal, oil meal, 
or tankage, that are not common in all localities, are easily 
purchased and shipped in by freight, and may often be used 
with much advantage and profit. These are high-class con- 


centrates, and are extensively purchased by feeders of stock 
in countries where but a comparatively small amount of feed 
is grown, as in England and Holland, for example. 


1. Given a 1,000-pound horse at medium work. He is fed 10 pounds oats, 

10 pounds timothy hay, and 10 pounds ear corn a day. How does 
this agree with the Wolff- Lehmann standard? 

2. A steer weighing 1,500 pounds, nearly fattened, consumes daily 20 

pounds clover hay, 18 pounds corn-and-cob meal, and 5 
pounds cottonseed meal. Is this ration satisfactory? 

3. Make up a ration for a 500-pound brood sow, and figure out how it 

compares with the standard. 

4. Feed 2 pounds alfalfa hay a day to a fattening sheep weighing 100 

pounds. How much and what kind of grain will you feed to 
adjust the ration to standard? 


The coarse feeds, or roughage, include the grasses and 
legumes of different kinds, the cereals (as forage), straws, 
silage, roots, rape, cabbage, or any similar feeds, whether 
green or dried as hay. Anything of a bulky nature, consist- 
ing largely of crude fiber, of which an animal must eat con- 
siderable to obtain much nutriment, is a coarse feed. In the 
dried form, like hay or corn stover, the western farmer has 
been accustomed to refer to them as roughage. In some 
sections of our country, farmers have certain feeds that are 
more common than in other parts of the country. Farmers 
in the North, for example, look to red clover or timothy hay 
for standard roughage; in the South, cowpea hay or Japanese 
clover is common; while in Kansas and Colorado alfalfa is 
a standard. Some plants, however, are more commonly 
grown than others, and so will receive special attention in a 
brief way in this chapter. 


The value of the grasses depends upon their develop- 
ment. When grass is young and very green, especially in 
spring, it contains a large percentage of water, and is greatly 
relished by stock. As it matures, the amount of protein and 
total nutriment increases. Usually we find the food con- 
stituents, especially protein, most digestible when the plant 
is in full bloom. After that period the stalk and leaves grow 
more woody and less nutritious. When left to develop long 
after blooming, neither the pasture nor the hay is eaten with 
great relish. In experiments at the Missouri station, the 
protein in timothy cut for hay was greatest when the plant 
was in full bloom, there being 147 pounds to the acre. When 



the seeds were formed, however, there was but 113 pounds 
of protein per acre, and this amount diminished to 92 pounds 
when the grass was cut for hay and the seeds were well rip- 
ened. The total digestible matter also fell off from 2,113 
pounds per acre when the plant was in bloom, to 1,754 pounds 
when the stage of ripe seed was reached. This evidence 
suggests that the farmer should cut his grasses for hay before 
they become too mature. 

Kentucky blue grass, or June grass, is one of the most 
nutritious and best pasture grasses. It grows extensively 
in the United States east of the Mississippi, though sparsely 

Figure 20. Shorthorn cows on blue-grass pasture. Photograph by the author. 

in the Gulf states. It thrives especially on soils having a 
limestone foundation, and will not do so well elsewhere. 
No other grass is more relished for spring pasture by grazing 
animals. The roots spread out near the surface of the 
ground and form a beautiful sod. In moist weather and 
under fair conditions, the grass furnishes an abundance of 
fine leaves, supplying splendid pasture. During the sum- 
mer, many pastures dry up and look as though dead, but fall 
rains revive them, and they again become green and vigor- 
ous. In some sections, stock is pastured on the dead blue 


grass of winter, not much other feed being given, and with 
very good satisfaction. Kentucky blue grass is not usually 
valued for hay, but is known universally as a valuable pas- 
ture grass. The hay from 'this grass contains about 5 per 
cent of digestible protein, and 52 per cent of digestible nutri- 
ents when grown under average conditions. 

Timothy is a standard grass commonly grown on the 
heavier soils of the North. It is frequently used for pasture, 
and makes a highly valued hay for horses. As a pasture 
grass, timothy is not the best. It does not stand trampling 
as well as some others, having small bulbs at the ground, 
with fine roots just beneath them, which are injured by heavy 
pasturing. This grass is generally somewhat coarse; but, if 
it is thickly seeded, more plants grow to the acre, and as a 
result they are finer and more palatable. Timothy cut and 
cured immediately after the pollen falls from the blossom 
makes better hay than that from an earlier or older cutting. 
Under usual conditions, this is an excellent hay for horses, 
but not so well suited to cattle and sheep. Care should be 
taken to see that timothy hay is bright and free from dust. 
Timothy in full bloom contains about 3.5 per cent of digest- 
ible protein and 51 per cent of total digestible nutrients. 

Millet is grown in a number of varieties. Hungarian 
grass is the smallest form, and reaches a height usually of 
about two feet, with a single, small, bristly head. This 
makes very fair hay, containing about 5 per cent digest- 
ible protein. German millet is somewhat larger and coarser 
than Hungarian, and has a larger head, though of the same 
type. Both these millets may be sown in early summer, and 
under favorable conditions of heat and moisture they make 
a very rapid growth and furnish an abundant hay crop in a 
short season, usually maturing late in August or in Septem- 
ber. Millets are not generally used in pastures. When 
heavily seeded they make very good hay for cattle and 
sheep. Caution should be used in feeding this hay to 



horses, as it is thought by some to cause kidney trouble if 
fed very heavily. The millets may be grown over much of 
the country. 

Redtop is a fine grass in appearance, and makes an excel- 
lent pasture. It is quite common in certain sections North 
and South, but is not generally abundant in the cooler grass- 
growing sections, probably doing better on the damper low- 
lands than elsewhere. It makes a very palatable and 
nutritious hay, with a chemical composition quite similar to 
Kentucky blue grass. 

Orchard grass is common in some sections in the north- 
eastern parts of the United States. It grows in tussocks, 
or bunches, so that the 
turf from this plant is 
somewhat uneven ; hence 
it is not liked so well as 
some other grasses for 
pasture. It starts up 
early in spring, and has 
a strong, rather coarse 
growth, with hardly as 
smooth a stem as timo- 
thy. It is not quite as Fi gu 
nutritious as timothy, 
ranking just below it. It may be grown to advantage with red 
clover, and often is, in the Middle West. It is best suited for 
horses and cattle, though it should be cut as hay before getting 
very ripe. While differing in size and growth from Kentucky 
blue grass, it has a similar composition in digestible protein 
and total digestible nutrients. 

Brome grass in recent years has received considerable 
attention in the Northwest, especially in the Dakotas and 
in Western Canada. Here it has become a very important 
cultivated grass, occupying a position similar to that of 
timothy in the northern corn belt, but which grass it excels 

re 22. A good cover for the hay stack 
lotograph by Prof. A. G. McCall. 


in contents of protein and total digestible nutrients. At the 
North Dakota station this was found to be the best grass for 
permanent pasture. It has the double merit of being palat- 
able, and of being suited to semi-arid regions. 

Bermuda grass in the South is a standard pasture. This 
plant grows a perfect network of roots near the surface, and 
covers the ground as with a mat. It is a very nutritious 
pasture plant, and has a most valuable place in southern 
agriculture. It will stand heavy pasturing, and may be used 
from March to November. If grown on rich soil, very heavy 
cuttings of hay may be expected. Bermuda hay contains 
over 4 per cent of digestible protein and about 43 per cent of 
carbohydrates, excelling in protein any other common grass. 

Sudan grass is one of the new grasses of this country, 
being introduced in 1909. It is a tall grass, having stems 
of the size of a common lead pencil, and is related to the 
cultivated sorghums. It is especially suited to the southern 
states and irrigated regions of the Southwest. As an annual 
grass it will grow in Kansas, but can not survive the winter 
of the North. It seems destined to take the place of Johnson 
grass in the South, because it is fully as productive, and does 
not have the root-spreading habit. In the far South four 
cuttings of hay have been made in a season, yielding over 
seven tons of hay per acre, and a record of nearly nine and 
one half tons per acre is reported from Chico, California, 
these heavy yields coming from irrigation. In feeding value 
this plant ranks somewhat superior to timothy. 

Mixed grasses are frequently sown for pasture in the 
northern states, timothy, redtop, orchard grass, and clover 
forming the usual combination. Prairie grass is usually a 
mixture, and somewhat resembles timothy in feeding value. 


Indian corn is perhaps the most common cultivated plant 
in American agriculture. Except on the arid lands, it thrives 


from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the Gulf to Canada. 
It is the universal crop of the Mississippi Valley, and furn- 
ishes more food from an acre of ground than any other com- 
mon crop. It is keenly relished by horses, cattle, and sheep, 
both in the green state and as dried roughage. No other 
plant in summer furnishes so much succulent feed as Indian 
corn. Grown somewhat thickly, the stalks are finer than 
common, and give a large yield of either green fodder or dried 
forage that is quite completely eaten by cattle and horses. 
In the North, corn produces a smaller plant than in the 
South, and gives a smaller yield of forage. Very large, heavy 
stalks, such as are frequently seen in the corn belt, are not 

Figure 23. Cutting corn with a harvester which ties the corn in bundles. 
Photograph from Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station. 

so desirable for feeding as those of more moderate size. 
About one third of the digestible food is found in the stalk, 
and two thirds in the ear. The complete cured plant and 
ear is commonly known as corn fodder, and after the ear is 
removed it is called corn stover. The dry stover, with the 
help of a little grain, is valuable for roughing stock through 
the winter, if much fattening is not desired. It is a bulky 
feed, and should not be fed heavily to animals from which 
much is expected. The plant contains the largest amount 
of nutriment when the kernels on the ear are beginning to 
glaze or harden, but it may be cut for feeding at any time 


from the appearance of the silk to final ripening. Experi- 
ments have shown that an acre of field corn will yield a total 
of about three tons of digestible nutrients. Fodder left out 
in the shock during the winter is injured more or less in feed- 
ing value, losing in nutriment through mould and weather- 

Oats do best in the cooler sections of the North, but so- 
called winter oats do well in the South. This crop may be 
pastured or cut and fed green when of sufficient maturity. 
In New England many farmers grow oats to cut and cure 
as hay when the grain is in the milk. Oat straw is one of 
the best, both in nutritive value and in being relished by 
stock. A combination of oats and Canada field peas, from 
equal amounts of seed sowed early in spring, makes a very 
desirable green crop for feeding in June and July. 

Rye has been much used both as fall and spring pasture. 
It mats up into a thick growth, and can be grazed with 
advantage to the grain yield if not pastured too long or too 
heavily, or it may be cut green and fed in the stable or feed 
lot. Many persons grow rye and turn stock on it to harvest 
it entirely. Hogs are frequently turned in, and they con- 
sume both stalk and grain. Dairy cattle should not be fed 
rye, except soon after milking, otherwise a strong and 
unpleasant odor in the plant will be likely to give a bad 
flavor to the milk. Rye straw is a very poor feed, having 
less than 1 per cent of protein and a great deal of fiber. 

Wheat and barley may be used after the same manner 
as rye, and have much the same value, though they are not 
pastured as advantageously as the rye. Barley makes a 
nice soft hay, and is relished by stock of all kinds. Of the 
cereal straws, barley ranks close to oats as one of the best. 
The sorghums represent a valuable group of forage 
plants, and are especially suited to the dry-farming lands of 
the West and Southwest. They will thrive under conditions 
of lack of moisture, when corn would not grow. There are 


several varieties of sorghums, some of which are especially 
valuable for forage, notably Kafir, which has quite a leafy 
stem, and also yields well of seed. Some sorghums are 
valued for their sugar content, such as Amber cane, and this 
is more or less grown for feed in the upper Mississippi Val- 
ley. For forage, sorghum should be grown fairly close in 
rows wide enough for horse cultivation. The plant may be 
fed green or cut when the seed is ripe, and cured in shocks. 


Legumes, which include the clovers, alfalfa, beans, peas, 
etc., grow easily over much of the United States. They 
are valuable chiefly because of the large percentage of pro- 
tein they contain, and from the fact that they are highly 
relished by live stock. The lime in the legumes is also a 
valuable feature of these plants, for it is needed in building 
up the animal frame. The legumes have an extensive root 
development, and have the power of fixing the nitrogen of 
the air in the soil, through the agency of a kind of bacteria 
that are found especially in knots or nodules located on the 
roots. These nodules are rich in nitrogen, and, where legumes 
are .grown, the land is increased in fertility and improved in 

Red clover is extremely common in the Mississippi Val- 
ley. One hundred pounds of the dried hay contain about 
7J/2 pounds of digestible protein and 50 of total digestible 
nutrients. As a feed for cattle and sheep, it is regarded 
as excellent. As a pasture it ranks high; and in the corn 
belt a combination of clover pasture in the late summer and 
fall, supplemented, with ear corn, is a favorite ration for hogs. 
Brood sows and sheep do well on clover pasture. A large 
crop of green feed may be cut from a good stand of clover 
during the season, and this makes splendid feed for all kinds 
of farm stock. At the Wisconsin station, as much as 26 tons 
of green feed were obtained in 3 cuttings from an acre of red 


clover. For hay, red clover should be cut when the blossoms 
are in full development, at which time it contains the most 
nutriment. Clover should be cured carefully and protected 
from the wet as much as possible after cutting. When clover 
hay is well cured and reasonably free from dust, it may be 
fed to horses with advantage. 

Alfalfa is one of the most popular plants in America. In 
the irrigated sections of the West it has long been a leading 
crop. In recent years, its cultivation has been greatly 
extended, so that now it is grown with success over much of 
the United States, north and south, and also in parts of 
Canada. From two to five crops a year may be harvested. 

Figure 24. A field of alfalfa in Ohio. Photograph by the author. 

At the New Jersey Experiment Station, 5 cuttings yielded 
26J/2 tons of green forage, equivalent to almost 6 tons of dry 
matter per acre. Alfalfa is a plant that is rich in protein, 
containing from 10 to 11 per cent in digestible form, and 
the dried hay is often compared with wheat bran in composi- 
tion and feeding value. The fact is, that alfalfa is so close 
to bran in protein and carbohydrate content that in some 
sections of the West it is ground and fed in a meal-like form. 
Large quantities of special feed stuffs are made of this alfalfa 
meal, and are sold in nearly all parts of the country. 

Alfalfa makes fine pasturage, especially for sheep and 


hogs, but is not generally so used. It is undesirable to 
pasture it much, as heavy trampling injures the crowns of 
the roots. Neither should it be pastured very closely. A 
combination of alfalfa pasture and corn makes a splendid 
ration. When sheep or hogs are turned on this pasture, they 
should first have a good fill of hay, and should be kept con- 
stantly on the green feed from then on, by which method 
bloat may be prevented. When made into hay, the plants 
should be cut at about the time new shoots begin to appear 
about the crown of the root, and when the flowers are partly 
in bloom. The plant should be cured so as to hold as much 
bright green leaf as possible. As hay, this plant is unsur- 
passed. It is suited to horses, cattle, sheep, and hogs. All 
these animals like it, and do well on it. Corn is one of the 
best feeds to give with it. In the West, large numbers of 
sheep are fattened on corn and alfalfa. Brood sows do well 
on alfalfa hay and a little corn. This plant is one of the 
most valuable feeds used to-day on the stock farm. 

The soy bean has rapidly grown in favor in recent years. 
It thrives over a wide extent of territory, and produces an 
excellent forage crop, and a seed rich in protein and fat. 
This plant combines well with corn, either for forage or the 
silo. It is easily grown and, when not too coarse, yields a 
large amount of very excellent forage or hay. 

The cowpea is mostly grown in the South. It is planted 
to some extent in the middle Mississippi Valley, although it 
does not usually ripen seed in the North. It has a constant 
growth until frost, and so produces a great amount of forage, 
which is much valued for grazing and for plowing under for 
green manure. The peas are rich in protein, and the yield 
is often very heavy. This is one of the most valuable plants 
grown in the South, either for grazing, hay, or seed. The 
hay may be used to some extent as a substitute for bran. 

Canada field peas in the northern part of the country 
make a valuable green crop for soiling, especially if planted 


with oats early in spring. A seeding of oats, followed imme- 
diately by one of peas on the same land, using about one 
bushel and a half of each seed to the acre, gives one of the 
very best green feeds for early and middle summer use. This 
combination may be safely fed to farm animals generally, 
and it is much relished by horses, cattle, sheep and swine. 
If desired, it can easily be cured into a very superior hay. 


Silage is a feed more or less green and succulent, pre- 
served in a tall and usually circular structure known as a 
silo. Green feed is cut and stored in the silo, where it goes 
through a process of fermentation, with slight loss of its pro- 
tein and carbohydrates. Under fair management this loss 
need not be over 10 per cent. The silo is one of the most 
valuable things on the stock farm, for in it a bulky feed can 
be stored more economically than in any other way. 

Silage may be made from a variety of plants; but at the 
present time corn is used nearly altogether, because it com- 
bines the largest yield of the most easily stored and preserved 
forage crop generally relished by stock. Sorghum, clover, 
cowpeas, soy beans, and alfalfa are sometimes used. With 
the exception of sorghum, these plants are not always stored 
in the silo with satisfaction, as they may heat badly and sus- 
tain considerable loss in food value, unless well handled. 
For this reason, corn silage only will be discussed here. 
Sorghum and Kafir corn may be preserved in the silo equally 
well with corn, a feature of importance in the Southwest. 

The importance of silage lies in the fact that it enables 
the stockman to give his cattle and sheep especially a suc- 
culent feed during the winter months of the year, and also 
when the pastures are dead and no green feed is obtainable. 
If one has plenty of silage, then one is quite independent of 
summer drouth. In fact, many owners of dairy cattle feed 
silage the year round. Because of its tender, succulent 


nature and the convenience of handling, it is well adapted 
to all the seasons over most of the United States. 

The corn crop is usually harvested when the kernels are 
turning into the glaze. It then is run through a forage cut- 
te'r and cut into pieces about half an inch long. In this con- 
dition it is spread about in the silo and allowed to settle. 
As usually made, it contains about 1 per cent of digestible 
protein and 18 per cent total digestible nutrients. The dry 
matter in silage is worth no more than that in corn fodder, 
chemically considered; but cattle especially seem to respond 
to this feed with increase of milk flow and a better condition 

Figure 25. A cement silo on a dairy farm. Photograph from The Farmer. 

of body than when on dry fodder. Many feeding experi- 
ments have shown that corn silage is most desirable for dairy 
cows, and in recent years it has grown greatly in favor as a 
feed for beef production. It is well suited to sheep. Horses 
will do well on it when fed with moderation. For hogs, 
however, silage is too bulky and unsatisfactory and is rarely 
fed to them, and then with little benefit in most cases. In 
general, hay and some grain should be fed with silage. For 
cattle, from 25 to 35 pounds a day is a common ration, while 
for sheep from 3 to 4 pounds daily are ample. 



Rape is a plant that belongs to the same family as the 
turnip and radish, and is grown for its succulent leaves. It 
is used exclusively for pasturage for sheep and hogs and is 
well suited to the cooler sections of the country or to cool 
seasons. In Canada and the northern United States rape'is 
an extremely popular pasture plant among sheep breeders. 
Three or four pounds of seed per acre will do for a seeding, 
and stock may be turned on the field after the leaves have 
become large and succulent. Rape will stand considerable 
frost without damage. At the Michigan station, 15 acres of 

Figure 26. Pigs in a field of rape. Photograph from Purdue Agricultural 
Experiment Station. 

rape pastured 128 lambs for 7J/2 weeks, during which time 
they gained 2,890 pounds. From this trial it was established 
that 1 acre of rape pastured 9 lambs 7 weeks, producing 203 
pounds of increase. For sheep and hogs, rape furnishes a 
most valuable late summer and fall pasture. It may also 
be sown in early spring, so that we may secure the pasture 
during the entire growing season. Green rape contains 
about 2% per cent of digestible protein, and compares very 
favorably in feeding value with most green clovers. 



Although all farm animals relish roots, these crops can- 
not usually be grown with profit in America, on account of 
the high cost of labor. In Canada and northern United 
States, roots may be grown with great success on fertile soils, 
but south of latitude 40, as a rule they do not yield so well. 

The mangold, or mangel-wurzel, a large, coarse beet, is 
the most easily and cheaply grown of the roots used for stock 
feeding. The roots consist of about 90 per cent water, and 
of the dry matter only 1 per cent or even less is protein. 
A yield of 10 tons per acre is not uncommon. The chief 
virtue of the roots is that they are succulent and are most 
palatable, and keep the digestive organs of the animal in a 
healthy, open condition. They are usually fed after being 
run through a pulping or slicing machine, which puts the 
root in nice shape for feeding. Many feeders in England 
and Scotland, where roots are extensively used, mix the 
sliced root with chaffed hay or straw and grain, which com- 
bination makes a fine ration. One may feed cattle as high 
as 100 pounds of roots a day, but, as a rule, about 40 or 50 
pounds is best. Sheep do especially well on roots, and in 
Great Britain and Canada from 5 to 7 pounds per day are 
commonly fed to these animals. 

Carrots are slightly more nutritious than mangolds, but 
are more difficult to grow, and do not yield so large a crop. 
A large amount of labor is required in cultivating the carrot 
in its early growth, which serves to discourage the growing 
of this really excellent root. They are raised especially for 
horses, and fed to them with more success than other roots. 
Swede turnips, flat turnips, and rutabagas are all good 
for stock and have much the same wholesome effect as man- 
gels and carrots. They do not yield as heavily, however, 
as the mangold, and thus are more expensive to produce. 
Swede turnips are very popular among British stockmen, for 
they yield excellent crops, and are much relished by sheep. 



1 . Why the feeding value of a grass depends on its stage of development? 

2. Why timothy is a standard grass for horses? 

3. Why, in the opinion of some, millet should be fed with caution? 

4. Where and why Bermuda grass is popular? 

5. Why Indian corn is so valuable to the farmer? 

6. How the legumes add to soil fertility? 

7. Something about alfalfa? 

8. Wherein lies the special value of silage? 

9. Why roots are not grown more for stock in America? 

10. How many pounds of roots a day should be fed the different kinds 

of farm animals? 


11. Bring in small samples of different kinds of roughage used on the 

farm on which you live. 

12. Bring to the class about a half-pound sample of average hay such 

as you are commonly using on the farm. Compare it with the other 
class samples. 

13. Find the nitrogen-carrying nodules on legume roots. 

14. Feed some green rye to a milch cow three hours before milking. 

Note whether the milk is unpleasantly affected. 

15. Learn who puts up the best hay in your neighborhood, study his 

methods and report on them. 

16. How many silos are there in your township or section, and to what 

animals is the silage fed? 


A concentrated feed, as one would naturally suppose, is 
just the opposite of a roughage. The two most common 
forms are seen in the grains of cereals and some other agri- 
cultural plants, and in the by-products of mills, where the 
cereals are converted into flour, breakfast foods, starch, etc. 
There are some other concentrates, that are products of such 
large manufacturing industries as the linseed and cotton- 
seed oil mills, and the packing houses. In addition are also 
what are commonly known as "commercial feeds" these being 
combinations of various grains and concentrate by-products, 
and are sold under trade names on the market. These are 
all called concentrates, because, as a rule, they lack in coarse, 
fibrous structure, and contain larger percentages of protein 
and starchy matter than forage plants. For example, the 
grain of corn is a concentrate, one hundred pounds of which 
contains fully three times as much digestible protein and 
twice as much digestible carbohydrates as are found in corn 
fodder. Using another illustration, gluten feed, which is 
made as a by-product in the manufacturing of starch from 
corn, contains three times as much protein as the same 
weight of corn. 

The cost of concentrated feeds is always much greater 
than that of roughages. In fact, the cost of most feeds sold 
on the market increases as the amount of protein in them 
increases. Feeds like cottonseed meal and tankage, con- 
taining large amounts of this nutrient, are usually high- 
priced, although that fact does not mean that they are 
expensive feeds to use. Sometimes the price of a certain con- 
centrate is low on account of a glutted market or high because 



the supply is exhausted. If, for example, the flaxseed crop 
of America is very poor, then linseed oil meal is likely to be 
high-priced, and perhaps would cost more than it is really 
worth. There is no special rule, however, about that mat- 
ter, and sometimes business combinations control the prices 
of such feeds, so that one must pay without regard to the 
actual supply on the market. Market prices, however, are 
no guide as to the real value of feeds, and we have no satis- 
factory method of determining comparative values. The 
most satisfactory plan thus far devised is to ascertain the 
cost of each pound of total digestible nutrients in a ton of 
feed. For example; if a ton of corn, containing 85.7 per cent 
of digestible nutrients, costs $20.00 on the market, then each 
pound of nutrients would cost 1.17 cents. If hominy feed of 
very similar composition, containing 84.6 per cent of digest- 
ible nutrients, costs $26.00 a ton, then each nutrient will cost 
1.54 cents per pound, which is a decided increase in cost for 
the nutrients in the hominy as compared with those in the 
corn. If one purchases high-priced protein feed, then it may 
be wise to base judgment in purchase on the relative cost of 
a pound of digestible protein from feeds of different kinds, 
as, for example, cottonseed meal and linseed meal. We can 
not, however, entirely determine the value of a feed from its 
chemical composition. Linseed meal is universally recog- 
nized as having a feed value beyond what is brought out by 
the chemist, as shown in its value in conditioning animals. 
Many feeders of roots also claim that a chemical analysis 
does not bring out their real feeding value, which is much 
greater than the figures indicate. 


Indian corn is our most common grain. It is a food rich 
in carbohydrates and fat, and is especially valued for fatten- 
ing animals. It is often called a heating food, on account of 
its heat or energy value. It is greatly relished by all farm 


animals, and may be fed on the ear, shelled, or milled into 
pure meal, or the entire ear may be ground into what we call 
corn-and-cob-meal. While corn is rich in fattening material, 
it lacks in ash, or mineral matter, so that, when fed alone, 
it furnishes a rather one-sided ration. Except during the last 
part of the fattening period, it should be fed along with some 
feed rich in protein and ash, such as bran, middlings, etc. 

There are different races of corn. In the more northern 
parts of the country, as in New England, a small to medium- 
sized plant, with a somewhat slender ear, covered with hard, 
flinty kernels, is grown. This is called flint corn. Over 
most of the country a larger plant, with thicker ears, covered 
with longer kernels, dented at the outer end, is grown. This 
is known as dent corn, and makes up most of the corn crop 
of the United States. Besides these two, we have sugar, or 
sweet corn, which has a rough-surfaced ear that may be very 
small or of medium size, covered with kernels that when dry 
are somewhat shriveled and tough. This sweet corn con- 
tains some glucose sugar, which accounts for the pleasant 
taste of the grain. 

Corn meal is the ground grain without the cob. The 
usual run of such meal on the farm is rather coarse and is 
often cracked or crushed rather than finely ground. In 
some sections, the farmer calls it "corn chop." At the Wis- 
consin Experiment Station Professor Henry for ten consecu- 
tive winters fed two groups of pigs, one with corn meal and 
the other with shelled corn. On the average it required 501 
pounds of whole corn and wheat middlings for 100 pounds 
of gain, and but 471 pounds of corn meal and middlings, a 
saving of 6 per cent. In feeding a bushel of 50-cent corn 
there would be a saving of three cents on a bushel, allowing 
nothing for labor or expense. Thus we can see that it usually 
does not pay to grind the grain, even though it is more com- 
pletely digested than the whole kernel. Some special pur- 
pose grinding may be quite desirable. 


Corn-and-cob meal is the kernel and cob ground up to- 
gether. If the cob is not too coarse, such feed is excellent 
for cattle and sheep. Feeding experiments have shown that 
100 pounds of corn-and-cob meal fed to these animals will 
give returns equal to 100 pounds of pure corn meal. The 
reason given for this is that the ground cob makes the meal 
more porous, allowing the fluids of the stomach in digesting 
the food to mix more easily with the corn and porous cob 
meal than with the pure meal, which is inclined to become 
heavy and soggy. This feed is not good for hogs, unless 
ground very fine, as it contains too much woody fiber. 

Gluten feed is a product of factories where starch is made 
from corn. It consists of what is left of the grain after the 
starch and germ have been removed, and is quite rich in 
digestible protein, containing about 20 per cent. Cattle and 
sheep are fond of it, and it is a mill product of much value in 
balancing a ration for these animals. Gluten meal, another 
product of the starch factory, richer in protein than gluten 
feed, was formerly sold separately. At present it is usually 
ground in with the gluten feed. 

Hominy feed is a by-product of the hominy mill. It 
resembles a fine whitish corn meal when made from white 
corn, and consists of the hulls and other parts of the corn 
grain ground up together. Its feeding value is quite the 
same as corn meal, and it is excellent for cattle, sheep, and 
hogs, all eating it with a relish. Hominy feed is quite popu- 
lar in some sections of the country among men feeding dairy 
cattle in official testing for milk and butter-fat. 

Wheat is not usually fed to animals, unless it is very low 
in price. It becomes somewhat pasty when ground in the 
mouth, as everyone knows who has lived in a wheat country. 
It contains about 9 per cent of digestible protein, and 
belongs in the class of feeds fairly rich in this substance. All 
animals are fond of wheat. It should, however, be crushed 
or cracked before feeding to horses, cattle, or hogs; but need 


not be for sheep. Wheat tends to make animals muscular 
or lean and hence its feeding value is greatly improved by 
the addition of an equal amount of corn. 

Wheat bran is the outer covering of the kernel. In the 
big flour mills, the kernel is crushed to obtain the flour, and 
the thin outer fibrous covering is removed as bran. This 
contains about 12 per cent of digestible protein, and is a 
standard concentrate for feeding horses, cattle, and sheep. 
We say that bran is a laxative, and keeps the digestive sys- 
tem cool and open, a very necessary condition for farm ani- 
mals. Stockmen have always regarded bran as especially 
valuable. It has recently been found by chemists to con- 
tain an acid substance called phytin, which has beneficial 
laxative effects on the digestion. Wheat bran is well suited 
to mix with corn or oats or may be fed alone to stock. Many 
horsemen feed it in the form of a thick, wet, warm slop, 
called "bran mash." Bran is even more of a muscle and 
bone-making food than wheat, and most students of feeding 
use it for young, growing animals. There are brans made 
from spring wheat, such as is grown in the Northwest, and 
from winter wheat. There is not much difference between 
them, but the bran from winter wheat usually contains some- 
what more flour than that from spring wheat. 

Wheat middlings are also a by-product of the flour mill. 
They are commonly of two grades in the trade, flour, or 
white, middlings containing about 15J/2 per cent of digestible 
protein, and standard middlings, containing about 13J^ per 
cent of protein. The total digestible nutrients as given by 
Henry and Morrison are 78.2 per cent for the former and 
69.3 per cent for the latter. Standard middlings contain less 
flour than the other grade, and are quite similar to shorts, 
which is often reground bran. Flour middlings usually cost 
four or five dollars more a ton than the standard, and are 
much preferred to the latter by feeders of hogs, for which 
purpose middlings are mainly used by the farmer. On the 


market middlings usually sell for several dollars more a ton 
than bran, especially when there is an active demand. 

Wheat screenings usually consist of shrunken, broken 
grains of wheat, mixed with weed seeds, pieces of straw, etc. 
The value of screenings depends upon the amount of grain 
in it. They have been very extensively fed to fattening 
sheep in America, especially in the Northwest, near the flour 
mills. Sheep do well on screenings, and, if one can buy at a 
cheap enough price, they are a good feed to use. 

Oats are a standard feed for farm animals in all agricul- 
tural countries. They contain about 10 per cent of digest- 
ible protein, as compared with about 9 in wheat, but have 
less carbohydrates and more fat than the wheat. It has 
often been thought that oats contained some substance that 
gives life and snap to animals beyond that furnished by any 
other grain, but chemists have not been able to find this 
mystical something. Still, it is generally agreed that oats 
do produce a most excellent effect on the horse, far better 
than any other grain. Some oats are more chaffy than 
others. Northern-grown oats are plumper and weigh more 
than southern ones. In fact, oats do better in the cooler 
sections of our country, and yield far larger crops. For 
horses no other feed is so widely used in America or Europe. 
It is not likely to cause indigestion, and is a safe feed. It is 
best suited to cattle and hogs when crushed or ground, while 
sheep will do equally well on it in any form. For young, 
growing animals it is one of the best feeds we have; for, like 
bran, it helps to build up a strong, muscular frame. Often 
oats are very expensive, and their purchase, which may be- 
come a serious problem with the feeder, should depend on 
the cost and the purpose for which they are intended. 

Oat hulls are very poor as a feed stuff, for they contain 
but little nutriment, and are too largely fiber. They are fre- 
quently mixed with commercial feed stuffs to act as a "filler." 

Barley is a very hard small grain, that as commonly 


grown is covered with a strong husk. It is rich in carbo- 
hydrates, and has slightly more protein than corn. It is 
not commonly fed to farm animals in the United States, but 
is very popular in northern Europe. Horses will do well on 
barley, while barley meal as a feed for swine ranks very high 
in Canada and Europe. Experiments have shown that pigs 
fed barley make a superior quality of bacon. It should be 
crushed or ground before feeding. 

Rye is quite similar to wheat in composition. It makes 
a good feed for the same purposes for which wheat is used. 
It has a somewhat stronger flavor than other grains, and, 
when fed to dairy cows, tends to give an objectionable taste 
to milk. If fed, it should be given right after milking. 

Linseed meal is the product of flaxseed. This seed con- 
tains about 30 per cent of oil. The manufacturers of linseed 
oil grind the seed, and extract the oil by pressure, leaving 
long, brown, board-like cakes, as a by-product. These are 
broken up, or ground, and fed as linseed cake or linseed meal. 
It contains about 30 per cent of digestible protein and about 
78 per cent of digestible nutrients. All farm animals are 
most fond of this product, and it is used to some extent by 
many feeders. It softens the skin of animals and gives a 
silky lustre to the hair. It is often used in so-called con- 
dition powders, to make up much of the bulk of them. It 
should form from one tenth to one fifth of the ration, accord- 
ing as the need exists for a highly concentrated feed to bal- 
ance the ration. 

Cottonseed meal is a by-product of the cottonseed oil 
mills. About one fifth of the seed is oil. The usual custom 
is to remove the hard covering, or hull, of the seed, and then 
press a dark brownish oil from the meats, which, when re- 
fined, becomes an attractive golden yellow. The by-product 
remains as long, yellow, board-like cakes. It is one of the 
most concentrated and valuable feeds that we have. Small 
particles of hulls are to be found in the cake, and the greater 


the amount of hulls, the poorer the grade in protein of the 
cake. There are three recognized grades on the market, 
based on the protein content. These grades are as follows: 

(1) Choice cottonseed meal, in perfect condition, sweet in 
odor, yellow in color rather than reddish or brown, free from 
excess lint, and containing at least 41 per cent of crude protein. 

(2) Prime cottonseed meal, which must be sweet of odor, 
reasonably bright in color, and containing at least 38.6 per 
cent of crude protein. 

(3) Good cottonseed meal, containing at least 36 per cent 
of crude protein, otherwise like the prime in character. 

An excellent and justly popular balanced ration consists 
of a combination of corn silage or stover, with some shelled 
or ear corn, and cottonseed meal. Cottonseed meal is not 
a safe feed for pigs or calves, as it has a poisonous effect, 
which may result in serious sickness and death. Cotton- 
seed meal is often one of the most economical protein foods 
that the cattle feeder can buy, considering the character of 
the nutriment it contains. It is fed to some extent in the 
South, along with the hulls, which largely consist of woody 
fiber, and fair gains in steer feeding have come from this com- 
bination. Milk from cows fed cottonseed meal produces a 
harder butter than when corn is used. The fat of steers that 
have been fed cottonseed meal is also harder than that of 
steers fed corn meal. One can easily see that in warm sec- 
tions of the country, as a result of the use of this feed, butter 
will ship better than it might if some other feed were used. 

Cottonseed feed is a mixture of cottonseed meal and hulls, 
containing less than 36 per cent of crude protein. 

Cold pressed cottonseed cake is made by crushing the 
seed under great pressure while cold, thus extracting the oil. 
It contains considerable hulls, and shows about 21 per cent 
of digestible crude protein. 

Tankage, or meat meal, is a product of the beef -packing 
house. It is made from inferior pieces of meat and the trim- 


mings, and from diseased carcasses. This meat is sterilized, 
and dried in air-tight tanks, and is then ground to a meal. 
It is very rich in protein, containing usually from 50 to 60 
per cent, and 11 or 12 per cent of fat. It is especially relished 
by hogs, and since 1900 has been much used in the West 
along with corn to balance up the ration. A mixture of 1 
part of tankage and 6 to 10 of corn gives excellent results in 
hog feeding. While this feed is high-priced, it is no doubt 
one of the most important additions to the rations for swine. 
The glossy coat of hair and hearty appetite of the tankage- 
fed hog are evidences of the value of this feed. 

Milk is not strictly a concentrated food, but will be 
briefly referred to here. As drawn from the cow it contains 
about 87 J/2 per cent of water and 12 1/2 per cent of solid 
material. Of the solids, about 3J/2 to 4 per cent is usually 
fat and 4 to 5 per cent milk sugar. Milk is a most important 
food for all young animals during the earlier stages of growth. 
If new milk is fed, the young animals lay on flesh easily, and 
may take on a strong, muscular development. If the fat is 
taken from the milk, and skim milk is fed, a good frame may 
develop, but the animal will not look so well fed, the skin 
will not be so mellow, nor the hair so glossy. Pigs of any 
age will do well on a combination of milk and a grain rich in 
carbohydrates, which ration makes a very high-class pork. 
Buttermilk has much the same feeding value as skim milk, 
there being almost no fat in either. One should be careful 
to feed only clean milk, produced under healthful conditions. 
Skim milk from a creamery should not be fed, unless it is 
first pasteurized, so that disease germs may be destroyed. 

Whey, a by-product of cheese-making, has a feeding 
value about half that of skim milk. In Europe it is com- 
monly fed to swine. Used to best advantage, it should be 
fed with supplements rich in protein. Dried skim and 
buttermilk powders, mixed with water, are also used 
somewhat as substitutes for the standard products. 



1. What are concentrates? 

2. Why is corn so valuable? 

3. Which is better for cattle, corn meal or corn-and-cob meal? 


4. What special value has bran? 

5. How do oats rank as feed for horses? 

6. In what countries is barley a popular feed? 

7. Why recommend linseed-oil meal? 

8. What can you say about cottonseed meal? 

9. Why feed tankage? 

10. What is the average composition of milk? 


11. Collect samples of concentrates fed in your neighborhood, and label 

with name, composition, and price. 

12. Make up a sample ration, specifying on a card, 

(a) Pounds of each concentrate used. 

(b) Cost of each concentrate. 

(c) Nutritive ratio. 

(d) Kind of stock for which prepared. 

13. Learn what your neighbors are feeding for concentrates, cost, and 

how used. Can you suggest improvements? 

14. Who feeds tankage, under what conditions, and with what results? 

15. Investigate the conditions under which skim milk is sold for feed 

to creamery patrons in your locality, and report. 


The relationship of the animal form to its function is one 

of great importance and offers a most interesting study for 
the live-stock student who would know farm animals. The 
word conformation is used in a general reference to the ar- 
rangement of the parts of the form to one another. When 

Figure 27. Giraffes in the New York Zoo, Bronx Park. Photograph by the 


one says an animal has a good conformation, one simply 
means that the different parts are well balanced and in 
harmony with one another. Scientific study has shown that 
all animals, no matter how odd they may seem, have con- 
formations best suited to their needs and conditions of life. 
The giraffe, with excessively long neck, feeds on the twigs 
and leaves of the trees overhead; the lion, with cat-like form, 
slyly creeps up and springs upon its prey, and tears and cuts 



away its flesh by means of its powerful jaws and teeth; the 
deer, light and most graceful of form, grazes on the grass 
and tender twigs, and bounds away to safety like a flash, 
when an enemy appears. Form, size and color, all have their 
special purposes. Our domestic animals have developed 
under artificial conditions, over which man has had large 
control, with the result that our horses, cattle, sheep, and 
swine become creatures of special purpose to a very unusual 
degree. The great speed of the Thoroughbred, the massive 
size of the Shire, the excessive milk development of the Hol- 
stein-Friesian, and the heavy fleece of the Merino, are all 
fine examples of this special-purpose development. 

The most efficient judge of live stock is the student of 
animal form who can most clearly see and understand this 
relationship of form to function. The qualified judge ob- 
tains his knowledge in two ways: first, by environment, or 
his home surroundings; and, second, by education. The 
average British farmer is a great lover of animals and is 
usually a good judge of a beast, and his children inherit the 
same characteristics. It is second nature for him to measure 
up in a logical way the weak and strong points in an animal 
and judge their values. Yet one may become a capable, 
efficient judge by combination of a natural admiration for 
animals with systematic training in judging. The judge at 
all times should be able to compare the animal before him 
with what he knows to be the ideal or perfect one. The 
ability to compare differs in degree. Beginners are not sup- 
posed to be as proficient as experienced men, yet time and 
experience add to one's qualifications. Even if one lacks to 
some extent the desirable qualities to be found in a success- 
ful judge, one may, nevertheless, be qualified to pass in judg- 
ment on many occasions where the responsibilities are not 
the greatest, and where real service may be rendered. 

The judgment of the stockman should enable him to buy 
and to develop his herd with intelligence. No man is quali- 


fied to manage any business at the present day who does not 
know the difference in the values of the goods he handles. 
Then why should not the man who owns stock on the farm 
be capable of giving an intelligent judgment as to compara- 
tive values among his animals? A large number of herds of 
dairy cattle in the United States have been shown to be 
unprofitable. This fact is not, as a rule, due to the kind and 
amount of food given, but rather to the sort of animals kept. 
The man who knows how to select the right kind of dairy 
cows to build up a herd will find his knowledge a source of 
profit rather than loss, if he makes good use of the same. 
Without doubt, hundreds of thousands of dairy cows are 
unprofitable to their owners. This fact in itself is a good 
reason why one should study the relation of form to pro- 
duction and put into application the knowledge gained. 

Important defects in animals are often passed by un- 
noticed by men who are not capable judges. The man who 
knows nothing of a horse and desires to purchase, if he de- 
pends on his own judgment, is liable to be deceived and to 
buy something he does not want. A side bone or a spavin 
may be a little thing to see, but its presence on the horse is 
a distinct imperfection, as one will quickly learn if one tries 
to sell such an animal. A good judge will discover these 
imperfections and let someone else be the purchaser. On 
every hand are men engaged in buying live stock who 
have given no serious study to qualify themselves for this 
work, hence they are often grievously disappointed. 

Buying immature or green animals that give promise of 
great development is a specialty with some experts. Such 
men are keen students of animal form. It is not difficult to 
pass on the merits of a mature horse that stands before one 
in perfect condition, ready for the show ring. It is not so 
easy a matter, however, to go into the pasture and select the 
best prospect from a bunch of thin yearlings that have had 
no special care during the warm, dry summer days. The 


man who goes to the stock-yards to buy a lot of steers for 
feeding is at the mercy of the dealers there, unless he has the 
necessary judgment, not only to know what kind of cattle 
he wants, but how to sort them 'out. The ability to select 
wisely the green, untrained colt or promising heifer has 
enabled more than one man to find what we sometimes call 
"a diamond in the rough." 

Figure 28. Select the best prospects from a herd of thin yearlings. 
Photograph from Henry W. Vaughan. 

Many capable live-stock judges in one community would 
indicate a superior general average of the animals there, with 
a high valuation from a commercial standpoint. An example 
of this condition is seen in England and Scotland, where good 
judges of stock are comparatively common. It is interest- 
ing to observe, not only that the flocks and herds of those 
countries are much superior to those of any other country, 
but that the people of the rest of the world for generations 
have been sending their gold to England and Scotland to 
exchange for superior stock. Most of our improved breeds 
came from Great Britain, and we sent there for them because 
their merit was seen and appreciated. Suppose the people 
of some one of our states were to give special attention to 
the improvement of their live stock, and the study of animal 
form became popular, what would result? Would there not 
be a great improvement in the live stock of that state, and 


would not its wealth be thereby greatly increased? In the esti- 
mation of the unprejudiced stockman it most certainly would. 

A natural interest by man in animals, as shown in sym- 
pathetic care and affection, offers a good reason for making 
them a subject of careful study. The greater the intelligence 
with which one can look an animal over, the more pleasure 
will be found in the occupation. A business that does not 
offer an incentive to greater effort can not profit a man much. 
The production of beautiful and useful animals can not but 
bring out the best there is in a man's character; while at the 
same time he is rendering a service to his fellow man by 
producing something that adds to the wealth of the com- 
munity. We call a man a great artist who paints on canvas 
a beautiful picture of a magnificent horse, but what shall we 
say of the man who bred and raised this horse to his perfect 
state? Is he not the greater artist of the two? 

The use of the scale of points, or score card, as it is often 
called, is a first step in the systematic education of the per- 
son who desires to learn how to judge live stock. The scale 
of points was first originated about 1828, on the island of 
Guernsey, we are told, *when the fudges introduced it for 
comparison in judging their cattle. The people on the 
island of Jersey also felt that something should be done to 
improve their cattle. So they selected two cows, one of 
which- they thought had the nearest perfect form in the front 
half of the body, while the other was considered to have a 
perfect rear half. Then they placed a numerical value on 
each of these best halves of the body, using these two cows 
to furnish a standard or model with which to judge other 
cows. They also selected two bulls, and made a score card 
for the males by the same process. As a result of this 
unique method, the people on Jersey adopted in 1834, "A 
scale of points for Jersey cows," as it was called. They 
gave the cows 27 points; and another scale gave the bulls, 
and the heifers not in milk, 25 points. The people on the 

*The Guernsey Breed. Charles L. Hill, 1917, p. 52. 



island made a practical application of the use of the scale 
by comparing their cattle with these standards. Much 
benefit came from this method of judging, and their cattle 
were gradually improved. They revised this scale on sev- 
eral occasions, and among other things finally adopted a 
uniform standard of 100 points for each sex. 

Since that time score cards have been much used by men 
interested in other kinds of stock, and scales of points have 
been adopted for most of our improved breeds. Not only 
that, but score cards that apply only to types of stock, such 
as the draft horse, etc., are commonly used in agricultural 
schools and colleges. The following is a copy of a score card 
for Dorset Horn sheep, that was adopted many years ago. 
It is given here on account of its concise form and simplicity 
of expression. 


Points scored 



GENERAL APPEARANCE. Head well up, eyes bright and 
alert; and standing square on legs 


HEAD. Small, face white, nostrils well expanded, nose and 
lips pink in color ' 

HORN. Neat, curving forward, and light in color. . . 
FORETOP AND BELLY COVERING. Good foretop and well 


NECK Short and round set well on shoulders 


CHEST Broad full brisket well forward 


BACK. Broad, straight, with well sprung ribs 
QUARTERS. Heavy, square, set on short, straight legs, well 



LEGS White with small light colored hoof 

WOOL. Medium quality and good weight, presenting an even, 
smooth, white surface 




An example of the use of a scale of points is necessary, 
and this of the Dorset will serve our purpose. Under 
"points scored' ' it will be seen that there are ten things to 
which attention is directed. Each of these ten is given a 
brief description and a number, which represents what the 
stockman calls "points." The number 20 in the column 
named "perfect score" means that a Dorset sheep that 


would exactly answer to the description of general appear- 
ance there given would score 20, or would be perfect in this 
one respect. If in scoring a sheep one had the opinion that 
each part was perfect, then one should give the full value in 
the blank space for "score of animal." In such a case the 
sheep would score 100, and hence by the scale of points would 
be perfect. But we have no such animal. It is rarely that 
one will score 90 points or above, and but few grade as high 
even as 80. Suppose you were scoring a Dorset ram. As 
you examine the animal, you are sure to find him inferior 
to perfection in some points. He may carry his head per- 
fectly, the eye may be above criticism, but you may find 
good reason to criticise the way he stands on his feet. He 
may not be bad in this respect; so you give him 17 points 
for general appearance instead of 20. Narrow chests are 
very common, and our Dorset may show by the close way 
his front legs are placed together, that he lacks a broad, full 
chest; so after consideration you give him 7.5 points for this 
part, which you think is all the credit he should receive. 
Thus one goes through the list of points and examines the 
animal systematically and critically, putting down the score 
from part to part, finally adding the column made, and so 
getting the total points scored for comparison with the per- 
fect Dorset. 

The value of the score card lesson is seen in several ways. 
It trains the student to examine the animal systematically, 
and impresses on the mind the things that should be con- 
sidered in studying form and character. Attention is first 
called to the animal as a whole, when character is considered, 
as it can be studied at no better time, and then the differ- 
ent parts in proper order are carefully examined and rated. 
So one learns to make first a general examination, to get the 
balance of parts, the breed character, the size, quality, and 
condition, and thus measure up the entire animal from the 
standpoint of appearance. Then comes the detailed study 


of the head, next the neck, then the breast, and so on. The 
relationship of each part to the other must be considered so 
as to get a fair idea of the strong and weak points in the 
conformation. Thus in the first lessons in judging, system- 
atic study becomes a feature in the use of the score card, 
which is a very important lesson in itself. 

The relative value of the parts is also shown in the use 
of the score card. When a specimen of a breed is being 
studied, we must remember that we are using a scale of 
points that has probably been adopted, after much careful 
study and comparison, by a committee of experienced men 
most familiar with that breed. Thus we get the best measure 
possible of this breed, and in the scale we learn what parts 
are most highly regarded, and which least. If we are using 
a score card such as relates to a fat hog, where breed is not 
considered, such as is in common use in the agricultural 
schools, then we find that experts have made this up so as 
to give the proper values to the different parts of the body. 
No matter what kind of score card we are using, we may be 
quite sure that it will give a recognized place and value to 
each part or group of parts. The various breeds of live 
stock of much the same type have scales of points that place 
similar values on what may be called their most important 
characters. For example, all the dairy cattle score cards 
give many points to udder, etc., while those of beef cattle 
give special credit for breadth and thickness of back. 

In the use of figures in scoring, it is not well to grade 
any part in too fine a degree. Suppose the ear is given one 
point. When so small a number is used to indicate per- 
fection, grades of .25 or .50 or .75 may be used to express the 
score for that part, and .25 of one per cent is small enough 
to enable one to express reasonably accurate valuation of the 
ear. In any event, decimals should be used, and the person 
scoring should have his column of figures properly arranged, 
with the decimal points in line. When common fractions 


are used, the figures in the column do not stand out so clearly 
in contrast as when the decimal fractions are employed. 

The number of points cut is an expression sometimes used 
when referring to the number of points deducted from per- 
fection. If a part in the perfect score is credited with 10, 
and one gives the animal in question 7 points, then we say 
it has been cut 3 points. Many judges write the 3 on the card 
instead of the 7. This practice is wrong. The points cut 
should not be written down. We are comparing the thing 
as it exists in the real animal, with the ideal, and this com- 
parison is expressed numerically. To put down as points 
that which is lacking, is to compare nothing with something. 
With our two columns, however, one of the imperfect score, 
and the other of the perfect, we are able to draw a proper 
comparison all through. 

The value of the score of an animal should not be regarded 
too highly. The chief importance of the score card lies in 
the first lessons in judging, in which the different parts of 
the animal, their location and relative value are impressed 
on the mind. It is difficult, however, to score an animal 
satisfactorily under the varying conditions of living flesh. 
To-day we may score an animal 75, and to-morrow perhaps 
71. The horse we scored yesterday may show more char- 
acter and style to-day than he showed 24 hours ago. We 
do not know how to express in cold figures these things we 
see in the beast before us. We can tell what we see, and, if 
we have two or more animals before us for judgment, it may 
be an easy thing to place them in their relative order of 
merit, and with good reasons. Yet these reasons can not 
be so clearly shown by a column of figures on a score card. 
On various occasions efforts have been made to judge ani- 
mals on the basis of the scale of points, and to make show- 
ring awards accordingly. This plan has been carefully tried 
by many of our best judges, and has very generally proved 
unsatisfactory, and for the reason given. To-day the scor- 


ing method is generally discarded, except at poultry shows, 
and here it has given such dissatisfaction that it has been 
abolished in many cases. In spite of this criticism, we must 
not lose sight of the value of the scale of points as a standard 
and what it may teach. 

Judging by comparison is the next step to be taken after 
a few lessons with the score card. This means keeping in 
one's mind the essential features of the scale of points, and 
then studying one or more animals of a kind and placing 
mental values on the subject or subjects examined. A per- 
son should make himself familiar with the different types or 
breeds that he is interested in, and at every opportunity 
give personal study to individual animals. In a matter of 
comparison, it is necessary to keep in mind the important 
features to be considered, and then judge the animals as in- 
telligently as possible. In judging by comparison, it is cus- 
tomary to line up the horses or cattle or sheep side by side, so 
that they will face in the same direction. Hogs are usually 
examined in small groups, being kept together with the help 
of hurdles.* The front feet should stand slightly higher 
than the hind feet, and there should be space enough for the 
judge to pass easily between the animals to make his inspec- 
tion. The center of an open space, with a firm, clean floor, 
is most desirable. 

When the heads are lined up, the other parts are in the 
best position for inspection. The judge then begins his com- 
parison, first walking around the line of animals and noting 
from different points of view the general comparison of one 
with another. It is a good plan also to examine the animals 
in single file, one directly behind another. Thus one secures 
quite a different point of view, and obtains an outline of 
head, back and quarters, and easily notes the difference in 
depth of body and length of leg. In British shows the 
judges commonly have the animals parade before them, in 

*A hurdle is similar to a small section of a light panel fence. Some hurdles weigh 
only 3 or 4 pounds and are easily handled. Others may be longer and heavier, 
requiring two men to handle. 


order to study them when in motion, and detect unsound- 
ness, poor action, etc. This custom is steadily growing in 
favor in America. The judge must necessarily place first 
in rank the animal that shows the most breed or type char- 
acter, that has the most complete balance of parts, the most 
perfection in various details, and the least number of faults. 
Emphasis, however, must be placed on the special purpose 
of the animal under consideration, as weight in heavy draft 
horses, udder development with dairy cows, or character of 
fleece with Merino sheep. For example, most of the scales 
of points of the breeds of dairy cattle devote about one third of 
the total scale emphasizing the size, form, etc., of the udder, 

Figure 29. "In British shows the judges commonly have the animals parade 
before them." Photograph by the author on the Island of Jersey at the 
annual Spring show. 

teats, milk veins, and wells. Such special features must be 
kept in mind by the judge as of real importance. 

In placing the animals, it becomes a question of prompt 
decision in sorting out and getting the individuals in one, 
two, three order of relative merit. In large rings at live- 
stock shows, j udges often divide the animals into two groups, 
those that they consider worthy candidates for the prize list, 
and those that are not. The former group is frequently 
referred to as "the short leet," a British expression for the 


choicer individuals. After the short leet is selected, the 
other group is usually sent to the stalls. In most compara- 
tive rings, it is not difficult to find quickly the best animal; 
but as one deals with the stock farther down the line, it 
becomes necessary to decide on the relative demerits rather 
than the merits of each, and to place highest those that show 
the fewest undesirable features, a matter in which judges 
sometimes differ quite a bit. Naturally we do not all see 
things alike; and so the judge who does his work carefully 
and comes to a decision independently of the views of others, 
is assuming his responsibility in the right way. 

Keeping notes on animals under comparison is a very 
good plan. It is customary in classes of stock judged by 
students to give each animal a number or letter. These 
marks may be written on common gummed paper labels, and 
stuck on the rumps of horses or cattle, on the tops of the 
heads of sheep, and on the backs of hogs. Then on a small 
card or folded slip of paper one may give space to each ani- 
mal under its number, and make brief notes of certain fea- 
tures of importance. These notes are often instructive and 
suggestive, and aid the young judge in keeping things in 
mind. In the student's judging contests of to-day, the boys 
are allowed to take notes in this way and use them for 
reference up to the time of appearing before the judges to 
give their reasons. 

In discussing an animal being judged, it is desirable to 
do so briefly and clearly, emphasizing the important things, 
such as character, general conformation, quality, back, body 
capacity, chest development, or hind quarters. Much, of 
course, will depend on the special case in hand. Then, if one 
is describing an animal, or is comparing two or more, the 
frequent use of such expressions as "he has a good back," 
or "she has the best quality," are to be discouraged. The 
words good or best in these cases really convey no specific 
information. Instead, if one says, "He has a long, wide, 


muscular back;" or "She excels the other in quality, as seen 
in a fine, silky coat of hair and a mellow, elastic skin," then 
the reasons given will be clearer and convey more meaning 
than simply "good" and "best." 

The decision of the judge is always open to criticism. 
Being only human, we see things from different points of 
view; so why should we not differ? The courts do not all 
agree, as is often seen, one court reversing the decision of 
another. Two things, however, on the part of a judge are 
most important: one is honesty; the other is knowledge of 
his business. If one has these qualifications, and then comes 
to decisions with independence, regardless of what any- 
one else thinks, one's work as a judge will, as a rule, be satis- 
factory and the judgments will command respect. 


1. The meaning of the word conformation? 

2. Why one man is a good judge and another is not? 

3. The advantage that has come to England from having many 

good judges of live stock? 

4. The condition under which the scale of points originated? 

5. The general application of the scale of points? 

6. How figures should be used in scoring? 

7. The chief importance of the score card? 

8. What is meant by judging by comparison? 

9. What to emphasize in judging dairy cattle? 

10. The most desirable method of discussing animal form? 

11. Some desirable qualifications for a judge? 


12. Who are the most intelligent judges in your county? 

13. Who some of the judges were at your State Fair? 

14. Who judges grade and cross-bred fat cattle at the International 

Live Stock Exposition? 

15. On what basis men are selected as judges, expecially at county 



Farm animals in early days in America were usually very 
inferior. The settlers of New England and the older states 
did not give much attention to live stock. Until we had 
large cities we had no important live-stock markets. The 
farmers produced but little more than was needed for the 
local home sales. In 1830 the first railway was built in 
America. Before that time, people drove live stock long 
distances to market. As early as 1804, cattle were driven 
overland from Ohio to Baltimore to find buyers. West of 
the Mississippi, large herds of cattle and sheep developed 
with the settlement of the country. There were great drives 
of cattle and sheep overland to Kansas City, St. Louis, and 
other places. It was not till 1865 that the Union Stock 
Yards of Chicago opened for business. Now it is much the 
largest live-stock market in the world. 

The study of animal form in a large way really began 
with the selling of stock in the market. At first people 
were not very particular. An increase in population, how- 
ever, increased the demand for meat. Then men began to 
buy from the farmer and to sell animals in the markets. 
These sellers naturally noticed certain differences in their 
stock. They saw that some beasts served a given purpose 
better than others, and that some were really worth more 
than others for the same purpose. So the men who sold in 
the markets began to use special words to indicate the kind 
of stock under discussion. At first it was only a "good" 
animal, or a "poor" one. Then other words came into use to 
show still finer differences. If one examines the market quo- 
tations in the early numbers of the oldest agricultural papers, 



one will find just such words as "good" and "poor", etc., 
used in references to market live stock. In the course of 
time, people began to see that farm animals differed in type. 
The word type, as applied to live stock, refers to the 
special form or purpose of an animal. For example, we say 
that a horse is of the draft type. This term means that he is 
large and strong, and especially formed to haul heavy loads. 
As stockmen use this word, however, it does not mean that 
the animal referred to is perfect. It is simply an expression 
that the horse or cow, or whatever it may be, belongs to a 
special group in which we find others of various degrees of 
merit. The word type has not been used many years by 
stockmen. At the present time, however, all our farm ani- 
mals may be separated into fairly distinct, well-known types. 
The more simple classifications are as follows: 


1. Draft type 1. Beef type 

2. Coach or carriage type 2. Dairy type 

3. Light harness or speed type 3. Dual or general-purpose 

4. Ponies type 


1. Mutton type 1. Lard type 

2. Wool, or Merino, type 2. Bacon type 

All our farm animals may be sorted, and each one placed 
in a group representing one of these types. Each of our 
breeds of live stock, also, has one or more types. Where 
there is more than one type in a breed, it is the result of 
different lines of breeding. 

The grouping of live stock on the market into classes was 
the final result of the development of the modern live-stock 
trade. As the population grew, the demand for variety and 
for special purposes increased as never before. There were 
new uses for horses, and meat animals were sold for a much 
greater variety of needs than used to be thought possible. 
So, to-day, we find in the big markets that all types of live 
stock are grouped into different commercial classes, and then 
each class is graded according to its merit. For example, 



here we have the beef type, and within this a number of 
different classes. One class, known in the larger stock yards 
as beef cattle, is regarded as fattened and finished for the 
butcher, being ready for killing. Another class, known as 
stackers and feeders, is sold to go back to the farms for further 
feeding and fattening. Another class, called butcher stock, 
consists of fat cows and heifers. Then there are various 
other classes of stock, such as calves, butcher hogs, western 
lambs, feeding sheep, etc., all of which are included in the 
different types described. 

The market grades of live stock are also important. 
Each class is divided into different grades. Beginning with 

the best and 
grading toward 
the poorest, these 
grades with meat 
stock in general, 
in each class, are 
as follows: prime, 
choice, good, me- 
dium, common, 
inferior. Some 
other terms are 
often used, such 
as extra prime, 
good to medium, 
etc. These special terms, of course, are used to express the rela- 
tive values of animals of the same general class. A prime 
steer, for example, is one with the largest amount of high- 
priced meat that the butcher thinks will cut out to the best 
advantage. So, in the prime animal the buyer looks for a 
wide back, deep body, thick, meaty hind quarters, and a 
frame entirely covered with a smooth, thick layer of flesh 
that will cut up well with as little offal as possible. To ensure 
small waste, an animal must be what we call well-fattened, 

Figure 30. Beef type, showing market cuts. I, Chuck; 
II, Prime of rib; III, Loin; IV, Rump; V, Shank; 
VI, Plate; VII, Flank; VIII, Round. Photograph 
from Prof. C. T. Conklin. 



and have no coarseness or heaviness of bone. As one goes 
down the line of grades, each of these desirable features is 
less to be seen. Thus an inferior steer would show a small 
percentage of high-priced cuts, would lack in condition and 
quality of flesh, and show much waste at slaughter. These 
grades have the same relative importance in live stock as 
similar terms have in grading corn or wheat. For compari- 
son, we have dent corn for one type and sugar corn for 
another. Dent corn we classify into white and yellow, and 
then grade each 
of these as No. 1, 
No. 2,No.3,etc., 
the best being 
No. 1, compar- 
able to the term 
prime in live 
stock. Put in a 
simple diagram, 
the relation of 
the classes and 
grades may be 
shown as follows : 

Figure 31. The wool producing type, 
the author. 

Photograph by 



[Beef cattle 

\ Butcher stock 
[Stockers and feeders 

|. Choice 
I Inferior 

All markets do not have exactly the same classes and 
grades of stock. The larger a market, the more the dealers 
divide animals into classes and grades, for the widest demand 
for different kinds here exist. In the small market not so 
much attention is paid to the details of class; but the dealers 
are quick to recognize the merits of a grade. In some 
markets we find the people more interested in one kind of 
stock than another. St. Louis is a noted horse market, 



Buffalo has long been famous for sheep, and Chicago is the 
great hog center. These large markets, to a certain extent, 
require other markets, through a live-stock exchange, to 
classify and grade animals so that selling values are fairly 
comparable. In small towns without regular markets, merit 
in an animal is easily seen by men who buy if they have a 
fair knowledge of type and its meaning. 

A knowledge of animal type is necessary if one wishes to 
understand why some animals serve one purpose and some 
another. There is a distinct relation of the form of the 
animal to its special use. The race horse is light of body, 

narrow but deep of chest, 
has splendid lung capaci- 
ty, has slender but strong 
legs, is very muscular, 
and is built for speed. 
The Arab horse, the Brit- 
ish Thoroughbred, . and 
the American trotter each 
has these features well 
marked, if he is a good 
Photograph specimen of the type. 
The less he has of these 
qualities, the poorer he is as a race horse. A Merino sheep 
of the A type is rather narrow of back, long of rib, has short 
fine legs, is very muscular, and the entire body, including 
head and legs, is heavily covered in folds with a fine, greasy 
fleece. This type of sheep is formed to produce wool, and 
has very little value as meat. The Merino sheep of Spain, 
of Australia, or Ohio, if of the A type, are all similar, each 
producing wool of the finest sort. The more the inclination 
to mutton development, the less fine and heavy is the fleece. 
The hog best suited to lard production has a short neck, 
wide back, deep sides, large hams, and short legs; and when 
well fattened, his body is covered with a thick layer of fat. 

Figure 32. The lard hog type, 
by the author. 


This type of hog has been bred in America to produce fat in 
the extreme. The narrower his back, the longer his head, 
neck and legs, the less fat meat will he produce. The race 
horse, the Merino sheep and the lard type hog, each has been 
bred to serve its special purpose. The intelligent stockman can 
tell at a glance whether the animal he is looking at with the 
thought of purchase is of a desired type, whether it will com- 
mand a high place in the market for value, or if its merits 
are such as to attract no special interest. The animals which 
most nearly represent the type are fewest in numbers, and 
bring the highest prices. One reason why we do not have 
more animals of the better kind is because farmers and stock- 
men themselves do not know the importance of type. Be- 
fore one is capable of becoming a high-class breeder or 
feeder of live stock, it is necessary to understand this subject. 
One must know the relation of animal form to the purpose 
it will best serve. 


1. How they shipped cattle to market in early days. 

2. The reason for studying animal form. 

3. The meaning of the word "type." 

4. The meaning of commercial classes of stock. 

5. The relative importance of the grades of stock. 

6. The class of stock in which certain markets specialize. 

7. The relationship of form to purpose. 


8. How meat animals are shipped to market in your vicinity. 

9. What market classes are reported in your local paper. 

10. What types of horses do you find on the streets about town? 

11. Compare the horses on the farm with which you are best 


12. What type of horse is most in demand near your home? 

13. Which is the more popular, beef or dairy type in your county, and 


14. Are there any feeders of stock within your acquaintance, and, if so, 

what type or types are they feeding? 


The origin of the horse was for many years not well 
understood. It used to be thought that the domestic horse 
was descended from the wild ass that lived in A-frica and 
Asia. It is now pretty well agreed that the horse of to-day 
is descended from animals that lived in past geological times. 
Fossil remains of horses have been found in different parts of 
North and South America and in Europe. These are known 
as prehistoric horses, because they lived on the earth before 
man left any recorded history. 

The prehistoric horse in the earliest geological times, say 
three million years ago, was very small. He was probably 
about as big as a fox terrier, and is known as the "dawn 
horse." During the development of the earth's surface, the. 
prehistoric horse passed through gradual and very important 
changes. There was an increase in size, and his body, legs, 
and head became more and more like those of the modern 
horse. The skeletons of these early horses have been found 
in different parts of the world, but more especially in North 
America, in the far West, in Wyoming and the Bad Lands 
of that section. Scientific men have put the fossil parts of 
these horses together so completely that their development 
is clearly understood. From this first period up to the last, 
skeletons more or less complete have been found, showing 
the gradual increase in size and general development through 
which this prehistoric horse passed. In the American 
Museum of Natural History in New York City is a 
remarkable collection of skeletons of the horse, from the 
earliest form through the several stages up to the present 
day form. These prehistoric skeletons are grouped in their 



natural order, thus forming a most instructive collection. 

So we know that the horse has lived in America for mil- 
lions of years. Before the time of Columbus and the early 
explorers nothing is known of the use of domesticated 
animals either in North or South America. 

The first use of the horse by man is supposed to have 

Figure 33. A wild pony captured in Central Asia, owned by the New York 
Zoological Park. Photograph by Edwin R. Sanborn. 

been for food. Later he became domesticated, and was used 
for bearing burdens on his back. There are some forms of 
ponies at the present time that are supposed to be closely 
related in appearance to the more recent prehistoric horse. 
Some years ago in central Asia, true wild horses of pony size 
were discovered by a famous Russian explorer. These and 


the rough ponies of Iceland and northern Europe are prob- 
ably closely related to the later form of prehistoric horses. 

The development of the breeds of horses has been due 
to different conditions. Climate, food, and man, have each 
had a very important influence. A mild climate and abun- 
dant food no doubt caused the horse to become gradually 
larger than where the climate was cold and food not abun- 
dant. The Shetland pony comes from a region in the North 
Sea where the weather is very severe and food is never 
plentiful. So this pony on its native island is very small. 
In his American home, however, on the western prairie, 
where food is -abundant, and the climate mild, he develops 
into a greater size. The horses from hot climates have 
always been more active than those from cold. Thus in 
northern Africa the Arab horse has developed into an animal 
full of grace and activity. So we see that breeds probably 
gradually developed in certain localities, and that different 
causes helped to bring about the final result. There are 
many breeds of horses and ponies in different parts of the 
world. The following, however, are the only ones common 
in America, that should especially interest us. 

The Arab horse originated in the desert region of north- 
ern Africa, where it has been known since long before the 
time of Christ. The Arab is a saddle horse, but usually is a 
pony in size. The horses from Arabia and the Orient have 
had a great deal to do with the improvement of the horse in 
Europe. Between 1700 and 1800, many Oriental horses were 
taken to England. Their blood was mingled with the horses 
of that country, and especially with the race-horse type, by 
which a great improvement in form and speed was secured. 
Arab horses should be from 14 to 14^ hands high, have 
beautiful, intelligent heads; backs especially suited to the 
saddle; and have strong, muscular quarters and legs. The 
pure Arabian may be gray, white, bay, chestnut, or black. 
He is not of special value in America. He was first brought 



to this country about 1760, though but few pure-bred ones 
are here now, and the breed has not grown in favor. The 
white or spotted horses often seen with circuses are rarely 
pure-bred, and perhaps come from Turkey, Barbary, or 
elsewhere in the Orient, or have been foaled in America. 

The Thoroughbred horse is of British breeding. In early 
days in England the horse was used largely for war. He 
had to be strong, in order to carry men who wore heavy 
coats of mail. After armor became unpopular, the people 
began to make more use 
of horses for other pur- 
poses. King James I., at 
the beginning of the 17th 
century, established the 
race track, and since then 
horse racing has been very 
popular in that country 
and in France. It was 
then that the develop- 
ment of the Thoroughbred 
began. The people wanted 
a race horse. They took 
their native light horses 
that showed speed and improved them by the use of Arab, 
Turk, and other racing blood imported from Africa, Turkey, 
and France. The people became much interested in breed- 
ing these running horses, and, as a result, developed the 
Thoroughbred into the fastest and best-bred horse in the 
world. Three imported Oriental horses, the Darley Arabian, 
the Byerly Turk, and the Godolphin Barb played a most 
important part in improving the early race-horse stock in 
England. Descended from these were three English-bred 
horses, Herod, Eclipse, and Matchem, that are very famous 
ancestors of modern Thoroughbreds. This breed of horses 
has a fine, lean, medium-sized head; a long, slender neck; a 

Figure 34. Thoroughbred horse, Hanover, 
one of the greatest American sires of the 
breed. Photograph by the author. 


narrow, deep chest; a long, sloping shoulder; a short, strong 
back; very long, muscular hind parts; and legs that are short, 
lean, and strong, with the best of feet. The skin is thin, and 
the hair fine and silky. The most desired height is 15 to 
15j/ hands, and the most common colors are bay, brown, 
chestnut, or black, though there are other colors. A fine 
disposition and great courage are features of this noted breed. 

The Thoroughbred was first brought to America in 1730, 
and since then, until recently, large numbers have been 
imported. This horse is raced under the saddle with a man 
called a jockey on his back. The fastest record of a horse 
race of any kind was made by Roamer at Saratoga, New 
York, in 1918, he running a mile in 1 : 34 4-5. Thoroughbreds 
have sold for enormous sums, a number of them having 
changed hands at prices ranging from $100,000 to $200,000. 
The Thoroughbred has been much used in the past in America 
to improve our racing stock, but at present is not popular 
excepting for running races in which gambling is a prominent 
feature. As betting at horse races is to-day a violation of 
the law in most states, this fact has done much to discourage 
the breeding of Thoroughbreds in America. In England 
and France, conditions are different. This breed has had 
a great history, and it is unfortunate that it can not be popu- 
lar in America, except as connected with gambling. Many 
persons in speaking of live stock use the word "thorough- 
bred," when they mean pure-bred. Thoroughbred, as applied 
to animals, is correct only when referring to this breed of 
horses, which fact the student of live-stock should remember. 

The American saddle horse is a breed that has developed 
in the United States, especially in Virginia, Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, and Missouri. Its ancestry comes with the mingling 
of the blood of the Thoroughbred and well made, easy- 
moving, native saddle stock. A Thoroughbred horse named 
Denmark, sired by an imported horse, was one of the most 
famous early sires of this breed. The American saddle 



horse shows much style in carriage of head and arch of neck 
and tail. He stands from 15 to 15^2 hands high, and often 
weighs about 1,000 pounds. His most frequent colors are 
bay, brown, or black. This breed of horses is growing more 
and more into favor on account of its extremely easy gait. 
Saddlers may be divided into two classes. One has the walk- 

Figure 35. American Saddle Horse, Kentucky's Choice. 
The National Stockman and Farmer. 

Photograph from 

trot-canter gaits common with all saddle horses. The other 
class has five gaits, the walk-trot-canter, the rack, and the 
running walk, or fox trot, gaits especially found with this 
breed. If a horse can show these five gaits, he is called a 
gaited horse. If he has only the first three, he is known as 


plain gaited. American saddle horses are very popular in 
certain parts of the country. Those of the better class, and 
educated to show their gaits well, bring high prices. In 1913 
the horse My Major Dare sold for $10,000. 

The American trotter or pacer has its origin in the light- 
weight trotting and running horses of Great Britain first 
brought to America. One of these, a Thoroughbred named 
Messenger, imported in 1788, through his great-grandson, 
Hambletonian 10, did much for trotting blood. For many 
years we have had in this country what are known as light 
harness horses which are commonly referred to as trotters. 
They were so called because, when they moved faster than 
a walk, their gait was a trot, a movement of the front foot 
on one side and the hind foot on the opposite side at about 
the same time. The pacer moves back or forward at the 
same time, the feet on the same side of the body. The pace 
is about three seconds faster as a gait than the trot, but is 
not regarded as an attractive movement. Occasionally a 
horse may be taught to trot or pace as desired. Some 
famous race horses have both trotting and pacing records. 

The trotter or pacer is not a true example of a breed, 
because he has been mixed so much in the past in this 
country with all kinds of blood ancestry. The principal 
idea seems to have been to get speed. Trotters of this sort 
are often referred to as "Standard Bred." That means that 
they have official records of 2:30 (2 minutes, 30 seconds), or 
better, or are from stock registered in the American Trotting 
Register. A nice type of trotter or pacer should weigh 
around 1,000 pounds, and have a lean, intelligent head; a 
refined and graceful neck; sloping, well laid shoulders; be 
narrow on top over the shoulders; have a strong, fairly level 
back; a muscular rump with tail set high; a deep, round 
body; and legs short, clean, and fine-boned and good feet. 
This horse picks up his feet with snap, and moves off smoothly 
and easily. The coat is of different colors, with bay or 



brown most common. The disposition is generally good, 
though it naturally varies. This American-bred horse is the 
fastest trotter in the world. Peter Manning holds the world's 
trotting record for the mile, in 1 : 57% (one minute, 57% 
seconds) ; and Dan Patch the pacing record of 1 : 55% for the 
same distance. During 111 years, from August 25, 1810, 
when a horse named Boston trotted a mile in 2:48^, to 
October 6, 1921, when Peter Manning trotted a mile in 
1 : 57%, the mile trotting record was reduced 50% seconds, 
or an average of hardly 
one half second a year. 
Lou Dillon, a beautiful 
little mare, long held the 
trotting record in a race 
against time, making a 
mile, in 1903, in 1 : 58^- 
This record, however, 
was made with the aid 
of a shield to keep the 
wind from affecting her 
speed. There are many 
kinds of records, as half- 
mile, mile, two-mile, 
fastest new performer, 
fastest mare, etc. Thousands of horses have trotted a 
mile in 2: 30, or better, and many even as fast as 2: 10. 

There is a number of famous trotting and pacing fami- 
lies, of which the Hambletonian, Mambrino, Clay, Pilot, Hal, 
and Morgan are the best known. Among the most famous 
trotters that have lived in recent years are the following: 
Maud S. 2:08%, Nancy Hanks 2:04, Cresceus 2: 02%, The 
Harvester 2:01, Lou Dillon 1:58*4 Uhlan 1:58, and Peter 
Manning 1:57%. Among pacers are Hal Pointer 2:05%, 
Star Pointer 1 : 59%, Minor Heir 1 : 59, and Dan Patch 1 : 55%. 
Trotters and pacers have sold for very high prices. Arion, 

Figure 36. Trotting horse Uhlan with record 
1:58. Photograph from National Stock- 
man and Farmer. 


the trotter, sold for $150,000, and Dan Patch, the pacer, 
was purchased for $60,000. The automobile has largely 
displaced the trotting and pacing horse, so that they now 
have no great value outside of purposes for which horses of 
light weight can be used, such as driving, racing, and in 
certain kinds of business where no special draft power is 
required. Our people would be much better off to-day if we 
raised but a limited number of light harness horses, and only 
the higher class ones at that. Unless exhibiting remarkable 
speed, they command very low prices. 

The Hackney horse is a breed that was first produced in 
eastern England, especially in Suffolk and Norfolk counties. 
In these regions the trotting gait has long been popular. The 
claim is made that this breed began important development 
about 1755, with a horse called Shales. He traced back to 
the Darley Arabian, to which the Thoroughbred is related. 
The Hackney is very common in England, but not in Amer- 
ica. It is a breed that varies considerably in size, ranging 
from a pony to a good-sized carriage horse. When of suit- 
able size, standing about 16 hands high, it is what is known 
as a heavy harness or carriage horse. A Hackney of good 
type is very attractive of head; has a long, arching neck; a 
fuller chest than a trotter; is strong and short of back; has a 
long, full-rounded hind quarter; a beautiful round, smooth 
body; and stands squarely on short, clean-cut legs, and good 
feet. Chestnut is a very popular color, as is bay, and brown. 
This horse is noted for the powerful manner in which he 
moves the legs in the trot. He has a bold stride, lifting the 
knees higher than any other breed, and carrying the hind 
legs forward with distinct power. The Hackney gait is a 
model in the opinion of many lovers of high-class carriage 
horses. If he is what is termed a high actor, that is, moves 
his knees up high rather than far forward, he will have a 
short stride which is somewhat slow, and is termed a " trappy 
gait." The movement is both ugly and undesirable. 



The Hackney in his native land is rather noted as a 
horse with considerable speed, and most excellent records 
have been made in driving over country roads. This is the 
most popular breed in the stables of wealthy men who keep 
fine carriage teams, but in recent years the automobile has 
greatly injured the business of breeding such horses. No 
breed of coach horse is popular in America, and this is the 
only one at the present time that should be seriously con- 
sidered. The Hackney has been extensively distributed over 
Europe, North and South America, and Australia. 

Figure 37. A Hackney in harness, giving a striking exhibition of action. 
Photograph from S. L. Howe, British Columbia. 

The Percheron horse 'is of French origin. There is a 
small section of France called the Perche, which is nearly 100 
miles southwest of Paris. It is a beautiful, rolling, or hilly, 
country, where the farmers have fine water, sweet grass, and 
fertile fields. In this region the Percheron originated. The 
breed is very old, and no doubt it has passed through im- 
portant changes during the past century. Fifty years ago 
Percherons were not as big as now, and they could trot quite 
fast along the highways. The demands of Americans during 
the past 25 years have caused the French to develop a larger 



size in these horses. It is now much the most popular draft 
breed in America. Mature stallions in ordinary condition 
weigh from 1,700 to 2,000 pounds, or more, and mature 
mares from 1,600 to 1,800 pounds. The height of stallions 
is from 16 to 17 hands, with mares slightly less. The color 
is usually either gray of some shade or black, though bay, 

Figure 38. Percheron mare, La Belle, a noted prize winner and brood mare, 
owned by W. H. Butler, Sandusky, Ohio. Photograph by Hildebrand. 

brown, or chestnut occurs occasionally. These horses are 
very massive appearing, when of the best type, having big 
bodies, strong wide backs, powerful hind quarters, muscular 
legs, and splendid feet. The legs are free from long hairs, 
this being one of the smooth-legged breeds. The foot is 
shapely, of fine texture and proper size. Good specimens 
have a very active gait and move off well with a load. 

No other draft breed in America has so many representa- 
tives as has this one. These horses are most abundant in 


Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota, Indiana, 
and South Dakota, in about the order named. The two 
leading centers in the United States are in Delaware County, 
Ohio, and Tazewell County, Illinois. During the World 
War some of these horses were taken from France to Eng- 
land, where they have grown greatly in popularity. In spite 
of the depression in the horse industry, due to the automo- 
bile, good Percheron horses have been in demand at very 
satisfactory prices. Many work horses showing consider- 
able Percheron character, have sold at from $400 to $500, 
and in 1910, Crouch and Son, of Indiana, bought a pair of 
Percheron geldings for $2,025, a record price. The stallion 
Carnot, a noted prize winner and sire in France and America, 
was bought by W. S. Corsa, of Illinois, for $10,000. 

The Clydesdale horse is a breed that was developed in 
southwestern Scotland, where it has been known since about 
1715. The Clydesdale is not quite so large as the largest 
draft breeds. It has certain features that perhaps are no- 
table. To begin with the feet, they must be large, round, 
and wide behind at the heel, with a good, elastic frog. The 
bones of the legs should be hard and not round and meaty, 
but the arms and quarters must be heavily muscled. The 
Scotchman thinks his horse has the best of feet and legs, 
and, when either walking or trotting, that he has the best 
movement of any draft horse. It is a fact that many 
Clydesdale horses move with splendid action and carry 
their feet with snap and trueness. This is a hairy-legged 
breed, with long hair on the back of both front and hind legs 
from the knee and the hock down. The body of the Clydes- 
dale is often deficient in massiveness, so that these horses 
appear shallow of body and correspondingly long of leg, 
the principal criticism of this breed to-day. The shoulders 
usually slope well into the back, which fact accounts for the 
easy movement of this horse. The color is usually bay or 
brown, with white markings on the face and on the lower 



part of the legs. There are also chestnut, black, and grays 
occasionally to be found. The height is about 16J^ hands 
for the matured males. Typical Clydesdale mares weigh 
from 1,600 to 1,700 pounds, and the males two or three hun- 
dred pounds more. 

Clydesdales were first brought to America in 1842, being 
taken to Canada, where they are quite common to-day. 

Figure 39. Clydesdale mare, Fairholm Ruth, grand champion at 1918 Inter- 
national Exposition. Bred by R. A. Fairbairn of New Jersey. Photograph 
from Mr. Fairbairn. 

The breed has a wide distribution in the United States, 
though it has not grown in popularity in this country, and 
there are comparatively few horses of the breed in any one 
state. Wherever the Scotch farmer has settled, we are likely 
to find these horses. The stallion Baron of Buchlyvie in 
1911 sold for $47,500, which is the record price of the breed. 
The Shire horse is an English breed of much the same 
general character as the Clydesdale. It is one of the oldest 


breeds in England, and is as popular with the Englishman 
as the Clydesdale is with the Scotchman. These horses dif- 
fer in certain important respects, though they have the same 
color and markings, as a rule, and both have the hairy legs. 
The Shire is a somewhat larger and more massive breed 
than the Clydesdale, and has a wider back and deeper, 
heavier body. Mature stallions should stand about 17 

Figure 40. Shire stallion, Rosco V, in yearling form, owned by University of 
Illinois. Photograph from Prof. J. L. Edmonds. 

hands high and weigh from 1,800 to 2,000 pounds in ordinary 
condition. For many years the Shire was regarded as very 
slow in movement, and lacked good action and quality. In 
recent years, English breeders have done much to improve 
it, and the criticisms of slow movement and coarseness 
are not as correct as they once were. The criticism due to 


the hairy legs is still made, and this breed, like the Clydes- 
dale, is not at all common in America. These horses have 
been brought to America in small numbers since about 
1836, when one was brought to Canada. Perhaps more of 
these horses are in Illinois and Iowa than in any of the other 
states. In 1910 a Shire stallion named Dan Patch sold at 
Chicago for $10,000. In England these horses have com- 
manded very high prices, and in 1913 the stallion Childwick 
Champion sold for $20,664. 

The Belgian horse comes from one of the smallest coun- 
tries in Europe. Belgium has done much to improve the 
draft horse, and the government has paid out large sums of 
money to develop the breed. The people take much inter- 
est in their horses, and their annual draft-horse shows in 
Brussels are among the greatest exhibitions in Europe. 
Draft horses have been bred in Belgium for a very long time. 
Since 1850, however, the most marked improvement has 
taken place. The Belgian is a very compact, wide, deep, 
short-legged sort of draft horse. He has a small head, per- 
haps, for his size; has a broad chest; very wide, short back; 
a deep body; a rump which may be quite wide and muscular, 
yet somewhat steep; very heavily muscled, short legs; and 
medium-sized feet which have been criticised sometimes as 
being too small for such a heavy horse. The legs, like those 
of the Percheron, are free from hair. The Belgians show 
considerable activity when in motion, and are powerful draft 
animals for their weight, which ranges from 1,600 to 2,000 
pounds, usually, according to sex. They stand about 16 
hands high. In disposition these horses are very gentle and 
can be easily handled. Their color is usually bay, brown, 
chestnut, or roan. These horses were first brought to Amer- 
ica in 1866. In recent years, a great many Belgians have 
been imported, and the breed has grown much in favor, 
being second in this regard, probably, to the Percheron. It 
is getting quite a foothold in the middle-western states. 



During the World War the Belgian people suffered great 
losses through German confiscation of their horses, as they 
also suffered from destruction of their breeding operations. 
Some of the best horses, however, were taken to Holland, 
France and England early in the war, and these were care- 
fully guarded, and later were returned to their own country. 
Once again the horse industry of Belgium is coming back to 
normal, and will soon be as firmly established as ever. 

The Suffolk horse is an English draft breed that has 
been bred mainly in Suffolk county, on the east coast of 

Figure 41, Belgian stallion, John De Boise, champion at Ohio State Fair, 1920. 
Photograph by J. C. Allen. 

England, since about 1770. This is a very distinct breed. 
The color varies from light to dark chestnut, with slight 
white marks more or less, such as a star or blaze on the face, 
or white pasterns and ankles. Other characteristic features 
are the tendency to a Roman nose and small ear; an 
uncommonly wide, deep body, showing a paunchy tendency; 
strong quarters and hocks; freedom from long leg hairs; and 



rather small feet for the size of horse. The height ranges 
from 16 to 16J^ hands, and the weight from 1,800 to 1,900 
pounds when in good condition. But few Suffolk horses 
have been brought to America, and the breed is not well 
known here. It is noted in England for its steadiness at 
draft work, and horses of the breed created much favorable 
comment by their work in France in the territory occupied 
by artillery in the World War. In recent years Suffolks 
have grown much in favor in England outside of their 
native county, and bid fair to receive more favorable consid- 
eration by American horsemen. 

The Shetland pony has its native home on the Shetland 
Islands, about 200 miles north of Scotland. These are very 

rocky islands, 
and produce but 
little feed for live 
stock. The cli- 
mate is very cold 
and rough, and 
the winters are 
most severe. 
There are about 
120 islands, with 
a total area of ap- 
proximately 550 
square miles, and 
Mainland is the 
largest of these. These ponies have been bred here perhaps 
for centuries. They vary quite a good deal in type. The best 
sort of Shetland stands from 36 to 42 inches high, and is a 
shaggy, drafty-looking little pony, especially in the winter. 
These ponies should show some of the characteristics of 
miniature draft horses, with full chests, wide backs, long 
ribs, and long, wide, level rumps. The modern type, how- 
ever, is less drafty than formerly, with considerable tend- 

Figure 42. A Shetland Pony, first prize at the Highland 
Show, Scotland. Photograph by the author. 


ency to the carriage type. The head should not be too fine, 
and should have a broad forehead, and a nice, open, clear 
eye, showing the pleasant disposition usual with ponies of 
this breed. There are different colors, but bay, brown, and 
black are most frequent. Shetland ponies are common all 
over eastern America, and are great favorites with children. 
They are very patientand are safe pets for children of com- 
paratively early age. In England, large numbers have been 
used in the coal mines to haul cars loaded with coal. 

The ass is commonly referred to in America as the 
jack, this being the male, while the female is known as the 
jennet. This animal is descended from the wild ass of 
Africa and Asia. There are several breeds of the domestic 
ass, most of which were introduced to America from Spain. 
During the Revolutionary War, George Washington was 
presented with a male and female ass by the King of Spain. 
The American parent stock has largely come from Anda- 
lusia and Catalonia, Spain, and from Poitou, France. The 
jack usually stands about 15 hands high, and the jennets 
14^. A weight of about 1,000 pounds is desirable for the 
jack. The hair is usually brown or black and sometimes 
gray, with a creamy shade around the muzzle or along the 
underside of the body. The ass has long, large ears, rather 
a large head for the body, a short, stubby mane, a round but 
not very large body, rather large legs, and small feet. The 
tail is fine, with simply a brush at the end. This animal is 
slow of movement, very patient, and is a beast of burden 
used mostly among poor people of southern Europe and 
parts of Africa and Asia. In America it is but little used 
excepting for breeding, and it is principally promoted and 
kept in Kentucky, Missouri, and the southern states. 

The mule is the offspring of an ass and a mare. Mules 
differ much in size and value, and have features of both 
parents. The head, mane, tail, and feet resemble those of 
the ass. The mules also bray like the ass. Mules show more 



fineness of bone and more activity than the ass, and are 
used mostly for draft purposes. Large, strong, heavy mules 
are worth more money than small ones. The best mules 
resemble the high-class draft horse in form. In the mule 
markets, these animals are classed according to their size 
and use, as plantation, lumber, railroad, mine, and levee 
mules. Plantation mules are especially suited to draft and 
farm work. There are two subclasses of plantation mules, 
Sugar and Cotton. Sugar mules stand from 16 to 16J/2 
hands high, weigh from 1,100 to 1,400 pounds, and are 

Figure 43. Donkey and a load of peat at Kildare, Ireland. Photograph by 
the author. 

breecly looking and show quality and excellent bone. Cot- 
ton mules stand from 13J/2 to 15^ hands, weigh 900 to 
1,100 pounds, and are not of so high quality as Sugar mules. 
St. Louis is the largest mule market in America. The 
average price for mules is higher than that for horses. 
Mules are invaluable for draft purposes, and are commonly 
used all over the southern states. They are more easily 
kept than horses, and possess more endurance and are 
always patient. 



1. What was the earliest form of the horse, and where was it found? 

2. Give some of the conditions that influenced the development of 


3. Why were Herod, Eclipse, and Matchem famous? 

4. What is the difference between Thoroughbred and pure-bred. 

5. Describe a Hackney horse and his gait. 

6. Where is the Perche, and what is the nature of the country? 

7. Describe a modern Percheron. 

8. In what respect does the Scotchman think the Clydesdale a 

superior horse? 

9. How do the Clydesdale and Belgian differ in color? 

10. Tell of the Shetland Islands and their ponies. 

11. Describe the special features of the ass. 

12. What breeds of horses are found in your neighborhood? 

13. Learn, if possible, of the most important draft horse that has been 

known in your community. Why was he important? 

14. Find out the breeding, if any, of the saddle horses in use in your 


15. Who owns the largest mule in your neighborhood? Can you give 

his height and weight? 


The exterior parts of the horse are referred to by horse- 
men in terms not familiar to all. In order to judge intelli- 
gently and to use the score card, one should know the 
location and importance of these special parts. The accom- 
panying illustration makes the location of many of these 
clear. Without going into too much detail, the following is 
given regarding some of the points least understood. 

The ears should be fine and not large for the animal, and 
be moderately close together. They should be carried in an 
alert, pleasing manner, indicating good disposition. 

The poll is the top of the skull just back of the ears. 

The forehead is the space below the ears and above the 
eyes. A prominent forehead indicates intelligence. 

The cheek is the large flat side of the lower jaw. 

The nose is the more prominent part between eyes and 
nostrils. A wide nose goes with full breathing capacity. 

The muzzle includes the nostrils and mouth. Good 
feeders and animals of strong constitution usually have com- 
paratively large muzzles. 

The lower jaw should be wide and strong. A narrow 
jaw bespeaks a weak conformation and an inferior feeder. 

The crest is the curved line of the neck from the poll 
to the withers. Males should show some crest, but on the 
females this feature is not prominent. Stallions frequently 
have a thick, muscular neck, with a strong crest. This is 
a sign of masculinity, and is objectionable on mares. 

The throat latch is the part where the head and neck 
join on the lower side. At this point the throat should be 
neat and clearly defined. A throat latch that is thick and 




full, is regarded as ugly and very undesirable, being usually 
associated with more or less restricted breathing. 

The shoulders extend from the side of the breast, slop- 
ing nearly to the top of the back. The upper portion of the 
shoulder blade is wide and flat, and should be smoothly laid 
into the body. Muscles are attached to the shoulder blades 
and play an important part in ease of motion. A long, sloping, 
well laid-in shoulder gives the easiest and fastest motion. 

Figure 44. The points of the draft horse: 1, mouth; 2, nostril; 3, chin; 4, nose; 
5, face; 6, forehead; 7, eye; 8, ear; 9, lower jaw; 10, throat latch; 11, 
windpipe; 12, crest; 13, withers; 14, shoulder; 15, breast; 16, arm; 17, elbow; 
18, forearm; 19, knee; 20, cannon; 21, fetlock joint; 22, pastern; 23, foot; 
24, fore flank; 25, heart girth; 26, coupling; 27, back; 28, loin; 29, hind- 
flank; 30, belly; 31, hip; 32, croup; 33, tail; 34, buttocks; 35, quarters; 
36; thigh; 37, stifle; 38, gaskin; 39, hock. 

The withers, the crested, bony prominence between the 
shoulder tops, is the name given to the spine at this point. 
This part is important, being the point of attachment for 



the ligaments or muscles which support and move the head 
and neck, move the shoulder blades and extend the ribs 
forward, promoting deep breathing and providing a powerful 
support to the entire back along the vertebrae. 

The arm is the wider,, more muscular part just below the 
shoulder. The width and covering of muscle of the arm, 
rather than its length, indicate its strength. 

The forearm lies just below the arm and extends to the 
knee, and should be long and broadly muscular. A thin, 
narrow forearm is regarded as a weak conformation. 

Figure 45. The relationship of the skeleton of the horse to body conformation. 
Reproduced from "Diseases of the Horse," U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 

The knee should be broad in front, straight in position 
as viewed from in front, have a good depth, and be strongly 
supported below with a well-placed, superior cannon bone. 

The cannon bone reaches to the joint above the foot, and 
consists of a round-fronted bone, with two small bones back 
of it. There are two tendons lying directly back of the can- 
non bone. The correct shape for the cannon bone is short 


and somewhat flat, an important feature of a strong confor- 
mation. It is especially desirable that the bone below the 
knee be wide, and but slightly cut under at the knee. 

The fetlock joint connects with the lower end of the 
cannon bone. This joint should be straight, deep through, 
and blend neatly and smoothly with the pastern below. 

The pastern is in the main a combination of two short 
bones, and should stand at an incline, because it plays an 
important part in breaking the concussion which takes place 
when the horse is in motion. The shorter and more upright 
the pastern the more liable is the horse to have bone diseases 
and a hard gait. Carriage horses should have the pastern 
show a slope of about 45 degrees. Drafters are usually 
steeper of pastern than the light horse and consequently 
are often somewhat clumsy of gait. The pastern is sometimes 
too long, and lacks the strength to support the body correctly. 

The foot consists of several parts. The hoof proper is a 
very tough, horny bone, and in form should be rather 
round, although the hind foot is never as round as the one in 
front. The top of the hoof should not be narrow and small, 
but should have some fullness compared with the lower part. 
The back part of the hoof makes a sudden turn forward 
underneath, forming a V-shaped portion known as the frog. 
This frog is somewhat elastic, and acts as a buffer on the 
surface of the ground, which under natural conditions it 
should just touch. The frog should never be pared by the 
blacksmith, excepting to remove tag ends or parts grown 
out of shape. A good frog saves the foot hard punishment 
on the road. The sole of the foot is the part between the 
outer wall of the hoof and the frog. This part is slightly 
concave or arched. The entire back part of the hoof is 
called the heel, and this should be neither low nor high, hav- 
ing only enough height above the standing surface to give 
the foot strength and protection. The heel should have 
about the same slope as the front part of the hoof, which is 



from 45 to 50 degrees. The hoof should be free of cracks 
and not brittle, defects that are all too common. The pop- 
ular sentiment is in favor 
of a dark colored hoof, 
most persons thinking it 
tougher than a white one 
and less liable to break. 
The heart girth, or 
chest, is contained within 
the circumference of the 
body just back of the 
shoulders. A deep, full 
chest indicates vigor and 
strong constitution. A 
marked depression back 
of the shoulders is asso- 
ciated with narrow chest 
and cramped space for 
the heart and lungs. 

The back should be 
straight and short with 
the ribs comparatively 
well sprung. A consid- 
erable depression, or sag, 
of the back is a sign of 
weakness. The back 
extends from the lower 
end of the withers to a 
wide, somewhat level and muscular part called the loin. 

The loin is the broadest and flattest part of the back, 
and lies between the last rib and the point of the hips. The 
strength of back lies in the loin, which should be short, wide, 
and heavily muscled. A long, narrow loin is a sign of weak- 
ness and inability to stand up under severe work. 

The coupling is the space between the point of hip and 

Figure 46. The foot of the horse. 1. (a) 
nail properly driven- (b) improperly driven. 
2, A sound foot. 3, A section across 2 at X. 
4, A contracted hoof. 4a, a section across 
at X. 5, A section across 7 at X. 0, A 
sound but flat hoof. 7, A badly contracted 
foot. Reproduced from "Diseases of the 
Horse," U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 


the last rib. A short coupling indicates strength and endur- 
ance, a condition much sought for by horsemen. 

The hip is seen as a point more or less prominent on 
each side, just back of the coupling. The hips on mature 
females are usually more prominent than on the males. 
Symmetry of form calls for the hip to be nicely laid in, with 
a smooth covering of flesh. There are other good reasons 
for not having a wide placing of the points of the hips, which 
need not be discussed here. 

The croup, or rump, is the long, muscular development 
from the point of the hips to the setting on of the tail. 
Great power and strength exist here, and so it is important 
that this part be long, wide, and fairly level. A steep rump 
is unsightly, though quite common on some draft horses, 
and a narrow one has less muscle than a wide one that is 
equally long. Length here is also desirable as affecting speed. 

The thigh extends from the rump down to the large 
joint below, known as the hock. This part should be very 
muscular, and wide from the lower side of the croup to a 
joint below called the stifle. The upper part of the thigh 
is wide, while the lower portion, often termed the gaskin, is 
long, narrow, and very muscular. From the point of the 
hip to the hock one should look for considerable length. 

The stifle joint is located in the front part of the thigh 
close to the body. This is comparable to the knee in the 
human skeleton. By means of tendons some of the strong- 
est muscles of the upper thigh are connected with this joint. 

The flanks refer to the parts where the legs join with 
the body. The front flank is just back of the arm, while 
the hind flank is the high part of the side above and beyond 
the stifle. A low, full flank goes with large body capacity 
and constitutional vigor. Horses high in the flanks usually 
appear long of leg and lacking in feeding capacity. 

The hock is the large joint about half way down the hind 
leg. This is a very important part, and should be wide in 


front, deep through from front to rear, and should be lean 
rather than fleshy. Large, heavy horses tend to have what 
are known as thick, meaty hocks. There are small bones 
in this joint, and they are most important in reducing the 
concussion which comes from the severe use thrown on the 
hind legs when in action. 

The general features of the cannon, fetlock joint, pas- 
tern, and foot in the front legs are essentially the same as 
those behind, but the rear camion bone is flatter and deeper 
from front to rear, and usually shows somewhat more 
length. The hind pasterns also are usually less sloping and 
somewhat shorter than those in front. 

The position of the horse at rest should show the feet 
squarely placed and the legs as perpendicular as possible, 
as indicated by the position of the cannon bones. Horses' 
legs may take a variety of positions. Sometimes they toe 
in, or, perhaps, toe out. In such cases the legs are not 
straight. If the hocks nearly touch, then the hind feet 
usually point out; while, if there is considerable width be- 
tween the hocks, the toes point in. A wide or bowed hock 
shows a very weak conformation, worse than one that is 
too close. Horsemen prefer the hocks to come close to- 
gether rather than to be spread wide apart, for the closer 
position gives the better hock action of the two. 

The horse at the walk should follow a straight line 
when led, not swinging the body to one side. The feet 
should be raised with snap, and carried forward and upward, 
and the knee and hock flexed, as it is termed. In this flexing 
movement, the foot describes a half circle before it strikes 
the ground. Heavy horses tend to swing the feet to one 
side, or paddle or wing, as it is sometimes called. When 
the feet in motion come too close together, the horse is said 
to "interfere," that is, the hoof of one foot will strike the 
ankle of another, interrupting smooth, uniform locomotion, 
and may cause lameness. As the foot is raised, a person 


standing behind a horse in motion should be able to see the 
glisten of the shoe and note the carriage of the foot. 

The movement of the feet in the trot is such that diago- 
nally opposite ones are moved in the same direction; that 
is, the front right and left hind feet move forward together. 
The trot is known as a diagonal gait. 

The movement of the feet in the pace shows the two 
legs on one side of the body in like motion at the same time. 

Figure 47. A good attitude and correct position of legs. Photograph from 
The Farmer. 

The pace is a side gait of an unattractive character, and 
pacing horses are sometimes called "side-wheelers." 

The action of the horse is highly valued. A heavy draft 
horse that has a rapid and true walk will accomplish much 
more work than will the horse of slow movement. A fast 
trot is not necessaiy with the heavy horse; but, when mov- 
ing faster than a walk, a horse should carry his legs with 
spirit and ease. A premium is always placed on the action 


of the carriage horse for the city coach trade, high knee and 
hock action being especially valued. The roadster or trotter 
of first class must have a long, active, true stride, such as 
always goes with superior speed. 

Quality in the horse is shown in the hair, the skin and 
bone, and in the general appearance. A fine, silky coat of 
hair; a thin, mellow skin; and fineness of bone, are features 
that show refinement, or quality. A big, rough head; large 
ears for the size of the body; wiry, heavy hair; too large 
joints and coarseness of bone, indicate lack of endurance 
and weakness of constitution. A large, coarse bone is more 
porous and less strong in proportion than one that is finer 
and smaller. Fineness and softness of skin is an indication 
of good secretions and healthy internal organs. In an ani- 
mal of quality we find the most durability and stamina, or 
power of endurance. 

The disposition of the horse is usually seen in the promi- 
nence and character of the eye and the carriage of the ears. 
If the eye is prominent, the whites clear, and the expression 
pleasant, the disposition will probably be good. A small, 
sunken eye indicates a bad temper. Too much emphasis 
can not be placed on the relationship of the eyes to the dis- 
position, for in general here is an excellent indicator of the 
mental attitude of the horse. Ears that are usually carried 
erect or that point forward show a good temper, but, if 
the horse has a tendency to throw the ears back suddenly, a 
mean spirit is evident. A lopping about of the ears is evi- 
dence of laziness. 

The height of the horse is usually expressed in "hands," 
a hand being equal to 4 inches. The height is measured in 
a vertical line from the ground to the top of the withers. A 
horse 16 hands high would stand 64 inches from the ground. 

The weight of the horse, in a degree, indicates to what 
class he belongs. A mature horse weighing 2,000 pounds 
would naturally be a heavy draft animal. If weighing 1,000 



Figure 48. The age of the horse 
as shown by the teeth. 18 
months old. 

pounds, it might be one of several types. In Europe, the 
height of the horse rather than his weight is looked upon as 
of the most importance. 

The age of the horse is estimated by an examination of 
the teeth. It requires some experience to be quick in rec- 
ognizing the age, which may be t 

determined with fair accuracy 
up to eight years, after which it 
becomes a matter of guess work. 
The following items are the im- 
portant guides to age. 

The colt's teeth. Seven or 
eight days after birth, two incisor 
teeth appear at the front and 
middle of both upper and lower jaws. In the course of 
five or six weeks, two more teeth appear in each jaw, one 
tooth coming in on each side of the two already present. 
Some time between the sixth and ninth month, two more 
appear, one by the side of each outer tooth. These six s pairs 
are known as "nippers." They are the milk teeth, and are 
but temporary. They are not all equally level with one 

another at first, but in the course 
of twelve months or so they be- 
come uniform on the surface. 
The outside of the tooth is a 
very hard, white enamel. This 
covers a hard, ivory-like bone, 
while at the center is a soft, bony 
substance which more easily 
wears away, but is constantly renewed. The ends of the teeth 
have a ridged cutting surface, forming at the centers small 
depressions, or "cups," marks by which the age is deter- 
mined. The cups in the central pair of nippers at first are 
dark of center; in the second year they begin to wear light 
in color, and these cups become smaller than those of the 

Figure 49. Teeth showing 
years of age. 



Figure 50. The teeth showing 
3i^ years of age. 

other four. Similar changes fol- 
low in order in the other pairs. 
The teeth of the horse at 
three years show in the front of 
each jaw a pair of permanent 
incisors, larger than the nippers, 
occupying the place of the central 
pair, which they have pushed out. 

The teeth of the horse at four years show the addition 
of two more permanent large incisors, one on each side of 
the central pair in each jaw, in place of the colt teeth. 

The teeth of the horse at five 
years show the last pair of nippers 
in each jaw replaced by perma- 
nent incisors. At this age there 
appears in the mouth of the male 
four canine teeth, commonly 
known as "tushes." These teeth 
have roundish points, and there 
are two in each jaw, one being on 
each side of the permanent in- 
cisors, and a short distance back 
of them. After the fifth year the 
age of the horse is determined by the extent to which the 
ends of the teeth and the cups previously referred to are 
worn down, the older teeth naturally showing the most wear. 

The teeth of the horse at six 
years show the cups of the central 
permanent incisors in the lower 
jaw somewhat worn. 

The teeth of the horse at 
seven years show that the cups 
of the second pair of permanent 
incisors in the lower jaw are 
Figure 52. The jeeth showing wom away to a no ticeable degree. 

Figure 51. The teeth showing 
4 years of age. 



Figure 53. The teeth showing 
6 years of age. 

The teeth of the horse at 
eight years show the cups of the 
third and last pair of incisors in 
each jaw worn off. By this time 
all the teeth have been worn 
about level, so that the mouth 
mark largely loses its value. The 
cups in the incisor teeth of the 
upper jaw wear off more slowly, 
however, those in the central 

pair disappearing at about nine years. This result is due 
to the fact that the cup in the upper incisors is deeper than 
in the lower ones, and so remains a longer time. 

The six permanent teeth in 

^tftfSBfe^t each jaw at first meet each other 

jjijJF ^liH^ m mucn the same position, their 

mf ^| ends butting directly together. 

As age increases, the teeth gradu- 
ally take a more inclined or slant- 
ing position in each jaw, so that 
they come together at a sharper 

Figure 54. The teeth showing 
7 years of age. 

angle. The older teeth are also 
more worn off at the surface, but 
have grown out longer. In horses from 12 to 16 years of 
age, the ends of the teeth become somewhat three-sided. 

The soundness of the horse is regarded as very impor- 
tant. Many unsound horses are , 

sold to men who think they are 
buying sound ones. Then, when 
the buyers attempt to sell, their 
horses often show a great loss on 
the purchase price. If, therefore, 
one is to be a capable judge, one 
must be able to distinguish cases 
of unsoundness. It is not always 

Figure 55. The teeth showing 
8 years of age. 


easy to do so. Some forms are not clearly apparent until 
well established. If the respiration is not good, this fault 
is brought out in some form of work, such as trotting, 
hauling a load, etc. In the sale markets, horses are hitched 
to wagons with brakes, so that they may be required to 
make quite an exertion in moving along. If a horse is lame, 
or has bad wind, these defects may be seen when he is in 

Heaves is an unsoundness or trouble of the lungs which 
is brought on through dusty feed, bad ventilation, or indi- 
gestion. Broken wind or asthma is apparently much the 
same thing. When the horse expels wind from the chest, 
he lacks the muscular contraction of the lungs that char- 
acterizes the sound animal, and makes a wheezing noise, 
which is sometimes very loud. 

Roaring is another disease in which the horse makes a 
loud noise during breathing. The larynx is affected, but not 
the lungs. This is caused by a paralysis of the nerves and 
muscles of the parts, which results in the noise in breathing. 
Roaring is manifested during exertion, yet a horse may be 
a roarer and be driven some distance without making much 
if any noise. The disease is one of progression, and grad- 
ually becomes worse. Roaring had always been regarded 
incurable until some years ago when Dr. Williams, of Cornell 
University, discovered a method of operating by which it 
might be cured. This is known as the Williams operation, 
and it is now performed with success in America and 

Spavin, commonly referred to as bone spavin, is usually 
found on the inner side and in front of the hock joint. There 
are three forms of spavins. 

(a) The high, or true, spavin, the more serious one. 

(b) The low, or jack, spavin, and 

(c) The blind spavin, which affects the joint surface, but 
causes no enlargement. 



The spavin is caused by a strain 
or injury, or may be due to heredity 
influences or faulty conformation. The 
high or low spavin is shown in a more 
or less thickening of the part, as com- 
pared with a sound hock. The occur- 
rence of spavin is most easily seen by- 
standing directly back of the horse 
and viewing the parts from the rear. 
Spavins cause lameness and a stiff gait, 
and are regarded as a serious unsound - 
ness, greatly affecting sale values. 
They are more common on light than 
on heavy horses. The horse that has 
"a spavined gait," shows a slight hitch 
in the hip on the side affected, with a 
letting down of the opposite hip when 
in action. When the horse first starts 
this defect is most noticeable, for he 
naturally throws his weight on his 
sound leg. With exercise his gait 
becomes more natural; but, after rest- 
ing and cooling, lameness again appears 
when he is required to move. 

Curb is another unsoundness of the 
hock. When in perfect condition, the 
back of the hock, slightly below the 
point, has rather a vertical straight 
edge. If a curb exists, there is a 
bulging or outward curve a short 
distance below the point, that may be 
seen by viewing the hock from one 
side. Hocks that do not have curbs, 
yet tend to round out at this part of 
the leg, are said to have a curby confor- 

Figure 56.-^-The upper pic- 
ture shows a sound hock 
joint; the lower, one with 
a spavin. Reproduced 
from "Diseases of the 
Horse," U. S. Dept. of 



mation. Curbs are due to strains, and, while an unsound- 
ness, as commonly seen, are not of a serious nature. 

Bog spavin is an inflammation of the synovial sac, located 
in the front and inner side of the hock. If pressed, it may 
appear on the outside and rear part of the hock. Accord- 
ing to Dr. F. B. Hadley,* while occurring in horses of all 
ages, it is most common in ' 'loose-join ted" draft colts, and 
rarely results in lameness. Sometimes these swellings dis- 
appear without treatment, 
although this is rarely the 
case with old horses. 

Thoroughpin is a swelling 
in the rear part of the hock 
at its thinnest point. Here, 
under ordinary conditions, 
the hock is curved to form 
graceful outlines with a pro- 
nounced depression. If 
thoroughpin occurs, a swell- 
ing will be noticeable on each 
side of the hock at this point. 
Bog spavins, thoroughpins, 
or a puffed condition about 
the hocks, are seen most fre- 
quently on large, heavy 
horses that have what are 
called thick, meaty hocks. 
Horse dealers are inclined 
to refer to these as little puffs that will disappear with work, 
and so minimize their importance. It is true that heavy 
horses that stand in the stable, frequently swell in the lower 
half of the legs, a condition that exercise removes, but bogs 
and thoroughpins are distinct unsoundnesses that exercise 
will not drive away, and that injure the sale value of the 
horse, especially if the buyer is a dealer. 

*The Horse in Health and Disease. 1915, p. 213 

Figure 57. The hock from one side, 
showing a bog spavin in front and 
a curb behind. Reproduced from 
"The Diseases of the Horse," U. S. 
Dept. of Agriculture. 




Sidebone is found in the rear part of the front foot on 
the coffin bone at the crown or top of the hoof. It is due 
to the hardening of cartilages, whereby they take on a bony 
character, which causes lameness. In well-defined cases, 
the sidebones appear as hard projections just beneath the 
skin, and can be plainly seen or felt. In their early stages, 
sidebones are not so easily 
discovered, and one may buy 
a horse that appears sound, 
yet in a short time the trouble 
will become noticeable. Side- 
bones are most common on 
draft horses, and on those 
used on hard roads or pave- 
ments. This unsoundness is 
severely discriminated against 
and shrewd men will not buy horses that have sidebones. 

Ringbone is a bony deposit which in the form of a ring 
encircles the upper part of the foot or the pastern. On old 
horses this bony enlargement sometimes becomes very con- 
spicuous. It may be due to hard labor, strains, bruises, etc., 

Figure 58. Sidebone shown at A on 
bone in foot of horse. Reproduced 
from" Diseases of the Horse," U. S. 
Dept. of Agriculture. 

Figure 59. Ring bone above the foot, as indicated by the arrow, and spavin 
at lower part of hook near point of arrow. Reproduced from Circular 29, 
Purdue University Experiment Station. 


and, if well developed, causes serious lameness. Ring bones 
are fairly common, but when well developed are easily detected. 
Splint is a bony projection or roughness usually found 
on the inside of the splint bone, which lies close in with the 
cannon bone of the front leg, and is commonly regarded as 
the cannon. This is not regarded as a distinct unsoundness, 
although very common and referred to quite frequently. 
Splints sometimes appear on young horses and then disap- 
pear with the mature development of the animals. Splints 
may often be easily seen while standing in front of the 
horse and looking at the inside of the legs at the cannons. 

Quarter-crack is a splitting or cracking of the bony part 
of the hoof, usually of the front foot. This crack may ex- 
tend the entire length of the 
hoof, and be so bad as to re- 
quire fastening the parts with 
metal clamps or nails to keep 
the cracks from extending or 
widening. Horses with brittle 
or soft hoofs are most affected 
with this trouble. Quarter- 
crack may develop so far as to 

Figure 60. Quarter crack. Repro- -i i ji i j_i_ i 

duced from ''Diseases of the Horse," break through the lower part 

Q. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Qf ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^.^ 

and lameness, although this trouble is not usually serious. 

Toe-crack is similar to quarter-crack, but is usually on 
the hind foot, in the front part, and often extends the length 
of the hoof. 

Founder, or laminitis, as the veterinarian calls it, is an 
unsoundness of the feet. It is due to an inflammation of the 
delicate tissues within the hoof, and is usually found in the 
front feet. It is caused by a variety of conditions, such as 
overwork, overfeeding, exposure, etc. If well established, it 
is incurable and causes the horse much suffering. The com- 
mon symptom of this trouble is lameness, which is often 


very severe. When standing, the horse, as a rule, reaches 
the feet somewhat forward, resting the weight upon the 
heel. The hind feet, which carry most of the weight, are 
placed well under the body. The more perfect the foot, the 
less liable the horse is to suffer from founder. A very flat 
foot, or one with very high hoof walls, or a foot that is quite 
contracted, is liable to be affected with this trouble. 

Navicular disease is an inflammation that occurs in the 
foot also, affecting the sesamoid sheath and the navicular 
bone. This occurs most commonly with race horses and 
those having great knee action. Usually but one forefoot 
suffers from the disease, which is caused by concussion and 
shock to the affected parts. The early stages of the disease 
are not commonly noticed. Attention is first directed to 
the "pointing" of the foot, which is extended forward, the 
weight resting on the toe, and, as the trouble develops, lame- 
ness is noticed, which increases with use of the horse. But 
few cases of navicular disease recover. 

Cocked ankle, or knuckling, is a partial dislocation of 
the pastern or fetlock joint, in which case the pastern be- 
comes more perpendicular than usual, throwing the joint for- 
ward out of natural position. This is not always an 
unsoundness, but is a defect, in that it causes stumbling 
and clumsy action. 

There are some other forms of unsoundness that are 
not especially common. There are also some diseases that 
become chronic as external features, such as fistula and poll 
evil. These two are manifested by swelling and finally 
running sores at the withers or poll, as the case may be. 
When these two diseases are well established as running 
sores, they are difficult to cure, and frequently, in spite of 
medical treatment, extend over a long period of time. 
The various forms of unsoundness described, however, are 
those of common occurrence, and are most likely to attract 



1. Where is the muzzle, and why should it be of good size? 

2. What kind of shoulder is most desirable? 

3. Locate and describe the cannon bone. 

4. Explain why the pastern should be sloping. 

5. Describe the frog and its use. 

6. Discuss good and bad croup conformation 

7. Locate the hock, and discuss its form. 

8. Explain the movement of the feet in trot and pace. 

9. What is meant by a "hand?" 

10. Explain the meaning of milk teeth, and their occurrence. 

11. What are the cups? 


12. Compare "points" on the home farm horses. 

13. Compare horses on the town streets. 

14. Examine feet when at rest. 

15. Observe movements of the feet of horses driven on the road. 

16. Inquire of blacksmiths if they shoe to affect the action. 

17. Examine the teeth of colts and older horses, and obtain practice in 

judging age. 

18. Report on any cases of chronic disease observed in neighborhood 



In the preceding chapter on "the points of the horse," 
the conformation of the horse has been discussed in some 
detail, and the relationship of form to function shown. In 
this chapter, the important purpose is to set forth the more 
distinct features the judge should emphasize in judging 
either the carriage or the draft horse. 

Figure 61. A fine example of high knee action. The mare Queen Pandora, 
owned by Mrs. C. C. Fillers. Photograph from Bit and Spur. 

The judging of carriage, or light harness, horses is done 
on the basis of their value for speed and the drawing 
of carriages and lighter vehicles. This type of horse is 
comparatively light of weight, is long and narrow rather 
than short and thick, yet has a muscular appearance. In 
this class we find somewhat striking differences in type, as 
is seen by comparing a high-class Hackney with a light type 
of trotter. The American saddle horse is also in this class, 
for he has many of the characteristics of form of the carriage 



horse. In order to cause no confusion, a score card for car- 
riage horses is given on page 185. There will be no difficulty 
in most communities in rinding horses of this type which 
may be used for score-card practice. This score card is the 
style commonly in use, containing a blank column in which 
the student as judge may write his own score, with another 
column in which the score of the instructor may be written 
for comparison. 

The height of the carriage horse may vary, but 16 hands 
is a good standard, with 1,100 to 1,200 pounds for weight. 

The general appearance of the carriage horse can best 
be studied by standing at some distance, such as fifteen or 
twenty feet away, and making an inspection which will take 
in the entire form, the quality, and disposition. One should 
not be too close to the animal for this first examination. 
At a distance one also gets an impression of character, as 
shown by the head and neck, that can not be so easily 
noticed otherwise. 

The head of the carriage horse is an important indica- 
tor of intelligence, disposition, and quality. The head, 
therefore, should be trim and neat, with refined, well-set 
ears, and carried in a proud, animated manner. Coarseness 
of head is very objectionable in this type of horse. 

The neck of the carriage horse should tend to be fairly 
long and muscular, carried high and free, with much ease of 
movement. A thin, ewe neck, one that is depressed on 
top is not uncommon with the lighter type of carriage 
horse, and is regarded as a weakness. 

The fore quarters of the carriage horse should show a 
smooth, well laid-in, yet muscular shoulder. While great 
strength is not essential, a wide, strong, muscular arm, and 
long, wide-topped forearm are favored. What is called a clean, 
smooth cannon bone is a very important feature. Cleanness 
and lightness of limb are much valued by buyers of this class 
of horses. Strength and quality go with legs of this kind. 




Scale of Points 




GENERAL APPEARANCE: Total points, 9. 


FORM, long, deep chested, muscular 4 

QUALITY, neat lean head; fine hair; mellow skin; clean 

bone and joints; disposition active and pleasant. 
HEAD AND NECK: Total points, 7. 

HEAD, well defined; forehead broad; eyes bright and 

prominent; muzzle fine, with large nostrils and 

thin lips; ears of medium size, and alert 

NECK, somewhat long and refined 

FORE QUARTERS: Total points, 23. 

SHOULDERS, long smooth and oblique 2 

ARMS, short and muscular; forearm long 

KNEES, wide in front, straight, and deep through. ... 2 

CANNONS, short, flat, strong 

FETLOCKS, wide, and pasterns strong, oblique 45 

degrees 4 

FEET, medium size, slope like pastern; horn dense; 

frog large; heel wide 7 

LEGS, properly placed, and not too close together 4 

BODY: Total points, 12. 

WITHERS, muscular and well set back 1 

CHEST, deep, girth large 4 

BACK, strong, short, muscular, well carried; ribs long 

and arched; loin short and broad G 

UNDERLINE, long, well down in the flank 1 

HIND QUARTERS: Total points, 29. 

HIPS, smooth, fairly wide apart 

CROUP, long, level and muscular; broad; tail attached 

high 3 

THIGHS, long, muscular; quarters strongly muscled, 

and lower thighs long and strong G 

HOCKS, wide, deep, straight, clean cut 5 

CANNONS, short, wide, strong, clean 

FETLOCKS, straight and wide; pasterns oblique, 


FEET, medium size, slope like pasterns; horn dense; 

frog large ; heel wide 4 

LEGS, properly placed for rapid speed, not too close 

together 4 

ACTION: Total points, 20. 

WALK, elastic, quick, balanced 

TROT, rapid, straight, with long stride 

Total score . 




SCORED BY. . , . .DATE. 

.AGE. . . 

The body of the carriage horse will appear deep but not 
thick, and will at its best have a sleek, well-rounded appear- 
ance. By standing off at one side, the judge will get a bet- 
ter view of proportions, and the fullness of chest, and depth 
of both front and hind flanks will be easily seen. A view 
from squarely in front will show the prominence of breast, 


and the thickness and depth of body below the placing of 
neck, which should be smoothly blended into the body. 
There is quite a good deal of variation in the withers of driv- 
ing horses. They should not be very sharp, but fairly well 
muscled and not appear too prominent. Notice whether 
the back is strong and well carried, with the loins broad and 
not much depressed below the level of the croup. The well- 
turned carriage horse will show a fullness of body from 
various points of view. The greater speed he is capable of 
making, the more muscular and angular he will appear. 
This point is illustrated by comparing a carriage horse and a 
working trotter, each being about the same size, but used 
for a different purpose. 

The hind quarters of the carriage horse show power. As 
one stands at one side, the length of croup and its posi- 
tion are easily seen. A long, strong, high rather than low 
croup is desired, with the tail having a free, easy, and some- 
what high carriage. The length from the hips to the point 
of the hocks should be considerable. 

The distance from the hind flank diagonally across to the 
setting on of the tail also should be comparatively long. As 
one stands behind, one should be able to observe some 
thickness below the tail, where the hind legs merge together 
into the thick, muscular quarters. A driving horse is not 
likely to be too thick in the quarters. As one views the 
horse from behind, the legs should reach back, with the 
hocks separated about four inches, and the lower thighs 
showing a strong muscular development from both rear and 
side views. At the stifle joint, where the upper and lower 
thigh connect, fullness rather than depression should occur. 
The hocks should be inspected from the front, at one side, 
and from behind. It is important that they be clean, well- 
turned, and straight. Careful examination should be made 
of this part, for the hocks require much study. The occur- 
rence of bone and bog spavins here, and often a puffy condi- 


tion that is objectionable, may escape notice. A horse with 
weak or diseased hocks is a very undesirable animal to own. 

The legs of the horse must be inspected from in front 
and from one side. A true carriage, in any event, is impor- 
tant. Standing in front enables one to see the straightness 
of limb, and in a way that shows the relation of each leg to 
its mate. From this view we judge whether the ankles will 
interfere when the horse is in motion. Thus we see if a 
true gait is possible. From one side we note the position of 
the legs, to determine balance of action. If front and hind 
legs are tucked too much beneath the body, they are liable 
to come in contact with each other when in rapid action. 
If there is too much stretch and separation between the 
limbs in front and behind, then the action will lack power. 
In a natural pose at rest, the front legs will incline very 
slightly under the body, with the hind legs correspondingly 
extended behind. The picture on page 171, illustrates the 
correct position. 

A foot inspection of the horse begins with the foot at 
rest and in a natural position. Thus one is able to note the 
form, the placing on the ground, shape of heel, and the upper 
condition of foot, with its relation to the pastern and to the 
fetlock joint. The foot, however, should be examined on 
its under side, and so must be raised for inspection. The 
fore foot is usually started easily by running the hand near- 
est the horse down the shoulder and arm to the back of the 
cannon, and pressing on the tendons with the ends of the 
fingers, raising the leg at the same time, using the other 
hand to catch hold of the hoof as it is raised by the horse. 
With one hand the hoof may be easily held, while with the 
other any accumulated material under the foot may be re- 
moved by the use of a small pick of some sort. One may 
then easily examine the lower part of the foot. The hind 
foot is examined somewhat differently. If wishing to inspect 
the left hind foot, the left hand is placed on the croup and 



quietly slipped down over the thigh to the muscle just above 
the hock, where a firm pressure with the fingers is given. 
At the same time the right hand is placed upon the pastern, 
and the foot and leg firmly but quietly raised upward and 
backward, reaching away from the body. The hoof is thus 
brought in front of the examiner, with its lower surface facing 
to the rear, and at about knee height. No great effort 
should be made in raising the feet, for the horse will easily 
support himself on his three other limbs. Young horses re- 

Figure 62. Showing correct method of holding front foot for examination. 
Photograph by the author. 

quire more patience than old ones in foot examination ; but, 
after being shod a few times, a horse of good disposition 
may not be expected to give trouble. It is wise to move 
with care about the hind legs, especially directly behind, to 
avoid the chance of a kick. 

The study of action in the carriage horse is most im- 
portant. His market value largely depends upon his per- 
fection of movement. All carriage horses, and race horses 



in particular, are so shod as to regulate their action, if used 
by men who know the relation of form and weight of shoe 
to foot and leg movement. A fancy driver for a heavy 
carriage should show a snappy, stylish action, with the knees 
and hocks carried rather high and strong. A roadster or light 
race horse will show a longer, more powerful yet plainer gait, 
with not so high or short movement. When action is being 
inspected, the horse should first be led at a walk in a direct 
line toward and then away from the judge, who should care- 
fully note the trueness of 
movement of the limbs 
and the way the feet are 
carried. Next the horse 
should pass by at a walk, 
so that the inspection 
may be made from one 
side, to observe the free- 
dom of movement and 
flexing of the knees and 
hocks. The next step 
will be to require the 
horse to go and come at a 
gait faster than a walk, 
the judge assuming the 
same positions as before 

wViilo tViP wallfino- trait Figure 63. Showing correct position for hold- 

wni waiKing gait ing and examining the hi d foot> Photo . 

was being studied. See- * ra P h by the author - 
ing the horse at the walk and trot, or other rapid movement, 
will enable him to draw a conclusion as to the merits of the 
gait. As 20 points are credited to the action of the carriage 
horse on the score card, it may be seen that this feature is 
highly valued. Persons differ in their appreciation of action, 
and some are naturally much better judges than others. If, 
however, one will study the action from these three points of 
view, one will soon see how horses differ in this regard. 


The method of judging the draft horse is essentially the 
same as that applied to the carriage horse. The purpose of 
the true draft horse, however, is different, and one must 
have in mind at all times draftiness and conformation. The 
following score card on page 192 is arranged for a study of 
the heavy type of horse, such as the Percheron, for example. 

Figure 64. An example of a long, powerful stride in a light harness horse. 
Notice but one foot is touching the ground. 

The general appearance of the draft horse is massive, 
exhibiting great power in drawing a load. Weight and con- 
formation, therefore, are two very important qualities neces- 
sary in draft form. The size must be large, and the nearer 
the weight to 1,800 or 2,000 pounds the better. Such a 
weight is associated with considerable height, and 16J/2 to 
17 hands will measure the height of many of these big horses. 
An examination from any point of view will show this horse 
to be deep and thick, both at the ends and in the middle, 
with a compact, powerful body set on rather short legs. In 
the following part of this chapter are some details the stu- 
dent should keep in mind in this examination. 



Figure 65. Judging horses. Study the action as the horse comes toward you, 
standing directly in front. Photograph from Purdue University. 

Figure 66. Judging horses. Study the action as the horse leaves you, stand- 
ing directly behind. Photograph from Purdue University. 

Figure 67. Judging horses, 
and hock action. 

As the horse goes by at one side, note the knee 
Photograph from Purdue University. 




Scale of Points 




GENERAL APPEARANCE: Total points, 13. 

NOTE HEIGHT weight 1600 Ibs., or more 

FORM, low set, massive in proportion 

QUALITY, showing refinement in head, clean bone and 

joints, fine skin and hair 

HEAD AND NECK: Total points, 7. 

HEAD, lean, medium size; forehead broad; eyes bright 
and prominent; nostrils large; lips even; muzzle 
fine; ears medium size and well carried; disposi- 
tion active and pleasant 

NECK, strongly muscled, carried high, not thick at 

throat latch 

FORE QUARTERS: Total points, 24. 

SHOULDERS, sloping, smooth, well set in back 

ARMS, short and wide; forearm, long, widely muscular 

KNEES, wide in front, straight, deep through 

CANNONS, short, inclined to be fiat, lean 

FETLOCKS, wide, straight; pasterns oblique, strong. . . 

FEET, large, round, uniform; horn dense; frog large; 
heel wide 

LEGS, short, and carried in good form 

BODY: Total points, 9. 

CHEST, deep, wide, low 

BACK, broad, short, level; ribs long, well sprung; loin 
wide, strong 

UNDERLINE, flanks low 

HIND QUARTERS: Total points, 37. 

HIPS, smooth, wide 

CROUP, long, level, wide; tail attached high 

THIGHS, long, muscular; quarters heavily muscled; 
lower thighs wide, strong 

HOCKS, wide, deep, clean cut, straight, well supported 

CANNONS, short, wide, strong 

FETLOCKS, wide, straight; pasterns oblique, strong. . . 

FEET, large, round, uniform; horn dense; frog large; 
heel wide 

LEGS, short, carried in good form 

ACTION: Total points, 10. 

WALK, true, elastic, qviick 

TROT, active for weight, regular 

Total score . . 







The head and neck show considerable size, without 
the delicate chiseling of head of the lighter horse. The neck 
is heavily muscled and will not impress one as having as 
much length as seen in the carriage horse. 

The shoulders of the draft horse are usually less sloping 
than those of the lighter type, and are not laid back in quite 
as smoothly. The slower, more moderate draft action is 
associated with this upright form of shoulder. 



The cannon bone of the draft horse tends to be some- 
what thick and round in the front leg, and flat and deep in 
the hind leg. The leg at this point lacks the refinement so 
often seen in the carriage horse. Emphasis should be placed 
on this bone's being short, comparatively flat, and deep 
from front to rear. A good big draft horse with plenty of 
bone may measure 10 inches around the front cannon. 

The pasterns of the draft horse often appear short and 
rather erect. To give the easiest movement, they should 
have fair length, and a slope of 
about 45 degrees. Some draft 
breeds have a longer pastern 
than others, as, for example, the 
Clydesdale, which is noted for 
length and springy character in 
this respect. A short, stubby 
pastern is very undesirable, and 
goes with a hard gait that pun- 
ishes the feet and causes trouble. 

The feet of the draft horse 
must show considerable size. The 
fore feet in particular should not 
look too small in proportion to the 
rest of the body, and it is well to 
emphasize the quality of the 
hoof. The feet of horses of this 
type, especially those in front, 
are subject to severe strain, due to the great weight placed on 
them and the hard work on the road. This part should be 
most carefully examined. The old English saying, "No feet, 
no horse/' has no greater application than with the drafter. 

The hind quarters of the draft horse especially signify 
power. Great length and breadth of the croup, therefore, 
provide for thick, powerful muscles. As one looks at this 
part, one should be impressed with the power there avail- 

Figure 68. Judging the horse. An 
excellent front position. Photo- 
graph by the author. 



able. A common feature of the draft horse at this point is 
steepness of croup. This is easily seen whether one stands 
at one side or looks from behind. We do not have much 
information on the difference in power between horses with 
steep croups and those having them more level, but it is 
generally agreed that the most beautiful conformation goes 
with the more level condition. The greater the length and 
the more heavy the muscling from the hips to the hock, 
the more powerful will be the croup conformation. 

The legs of the drafter should 
not appear too wide apart at 
either hock or knee. Too much 
spread is a greater indication of 
weakness than is closeness. The 
limbs should come down in a well- 
placed position, to stand slightly 
under each corner of the body, 
as it were. - In viewing the horse 
from in front, one is inclined to 
look for too great width, such as 
goes with a stiff or clumsy gait. 

The action of the draft horse 
is studied in the same way as with 
the driver. More value, how- 
ever, is in this case given to the 
walk than to a faster gait. A 
heavy draft horse is rarely re- 
quired to move faster than a walk. He should have a 
quick walk, however, and be able to move four miles an 
hour in a free, easy manner. Many heavy horses tend to 
carry the feet to one side somewhat when in motion, 
and, in the language of the horse market, "paddle" or "wing." 
This tendency is in a measure due to the straight, open- 
topped shoulder, and while such action is not defective, it is 
not as smooth and attractive as when the feet are properly 

Figure G9. Judging the horse. 
Hind legs too wide apart. 
Photograph by the author. 



carried backward, with no side twist. When watching the 
horse in action, look for a strong, only moderately high 
knee and hock movement, but do not look for much speed. 
The heavy horse, however, inclines to drag his feet, a point 
the judge should carefully note. As one stands behind one 
should clearly see the glisten of the shoe as the foot is raised. 
There are as wide extremes in action among draft as among 
carriage horses, but not so much should be expected from 
the former as the latter. The horse with heavy body very 
naturally is unable to move with the lightness of step and 
activity shown by the horse that has no such weight to carry. 

The opportunities to 
study horses are frequent, 
either in town or country. 
If one will notice the 
horses that are constant- 
ly passing, much infor- 
mation of value will re- 
ward the observation. 
Comparisons may be re- 
peatedly made, for two- 
horse teams always fur- 
nish such a chance, while 
in many public places 
two or more horses are 
often to be seen standing 
side by side, interesting 
subjects for comparison. 
In every community will 
be found excellent horses 
of their class that are well 
fed and cared for. The 
owners of such horses 

usually take a just pride in them, and are always pleased to 
show them to those who are interested. 

Figure 70. Judging horses. A powerful 
draft conformation from behind. The 
camera being nearer the hind legs than the 
front, the former appear much too long 
and out of proportion. Photograph from 
The Farmer. 



1. Features are given the most credit in the carriage horse si-ore card? 

2. Kind of head and neck should the carriage horse have? 

3. Is the relationship of body form to carriage horse type? 

4. Is the best method of inspecting the legs? 

5. Manner of front foot examination is desirable? 

6. Kind of action will be shown by a fancy driver? 

7. Important differences exist in carriage and draft-horse score cards? 

8. Size is desirable in the draft horse? 

9. Slope should the pastern of the draft horse have, and why? 

10. Description can you give of the croup of the draft horse? 

11. Importance should be given draft horse action? 


12. Make or get some score cards, and score a few of the horses at home 

or of the neighbors. 

13. Get up a small horse show among the neighbors and have a 

judging contest. Interest the local horsemen. 

14. Learn, if possible, who owns the best type of stallion in the 

community. Why is he best? 

15. Report on the horse judging at some fair, if you have opportunity. 


The use of the horse, in spite of the automobile, is very 
general in both town and country. He is suited to do many 
things for which the motor is not fitted. He is a more 
economical producer of power in short hauls than is the 
motor, and he is as necessary as ever on the hill farms and 
where small areas are cultivated. According to the 1920 
census we had in the United States some 20 million horses 
and over 5 million mules. These horses had a farm value 
of $2,000,000,000, and the mules were valued at half a billion 
dollars, so we may see that the production of the horse in 
America is a great industry. Iowa, Nebraska, Illinois, Kan- 
sas, and Texas in 1920 were the leading horse-producing 
states, and in the order given, with Iowa having about a 
million and a third. Texas is the leading mule-producing 
state, with Georgia, Missouri, and Tennessee ranking after. 
The use of the mule is steadily growing in favor in the 
United States. The feeding of so many horses and mules 
involves great expense, and, to be intelligently done, requires 
careful study of the requirements of each animal. 

The work of the horse and what he can accomplish de- 
pends upon his weight, his muscular development, and his 
endurance. What is known as horse-power, is the power 
necessary to raise 33,000 pounds at the rate of one foot a 
minute against gravity. The real measure of horse-power 
is based on the unit of a foot-pound, shown in the power 
manifested in raising a pound one foot. The horse works 
in different ways, no matter what his type, weight or size. 
These various forms of work are well expressed as follows 
by Henry and Morrison:* 

*Feeds and Feeding, 1917. 




"His work usually consists of a more or less complex 
combination of the following simple kinds: 

"(1) Locomotion, or traveling along a level course without 
a load ; 

"(2) Raising the body, with or without a load, against the 
force of gravity in ascending a grade; 

"(3) Carrying a load, draft, or hauling a load. 

"A horse drawing a load up a hill combines all these 
types. He is (1) advancing and at the same time (2) rais- 
ing his body. Likewise, he is (3) carrying the harness and 
(4) hauling the load. In descending the hill, the horse will 
be called upon to perform even a fifth type of labor, bracing 
himself to prevent too rapid a descent." 

Feeding standards for the horse have been in use for a 
long time, and, on the basis of what has already been stated, 
the necessity for different standards is very apparent. Here 
weight and work are the two vital factors. The following 
is the modified Wolff-Lehmann standard for horses, as given 
by Henry and Morrison.* 


Required per day per 1,000 Ibs. live weight 

Condition of 



crude protein 

Total digest- 
ible nutrients 



13-18 Ibs. 

0.8-1.0 Ib. 

7.0-9.0 Ibs. 


Light _ 

15-22 " 
16-24 " 
18-26 " 

1.1-1.4 " 
1.4-1.7 " 
2.0-2.2 " 

12.8-15.6 " 
15.9-19.5 " 


It is interesting to note in this standard, that a horse at 
heavy work requires from 5 to 8 pounds more dry matter 
and from 8.9 to 10.5 pounds more total digestible solids 
than one that is idle. A substantial increase in work! of a 
permanent nature should be accompanied by a marked in- 
crease in the protein and total digestible nutrients fed, 
with a narrowing of the nutritive ratio. 

The preparation of the feed for a horse is important. 
The horse has a comparatively small stomach, and so, as his 

*Feeds and Feeding. 1917 


work increases, concentrates should more or less replace 
roughage. Food is prepared in several ways. Dry rough- 
age is often chaffed, that is, cut or shredded. Chaffing re- 
duces the work of the horse for the reason that the more 
the roughage is torn to pieces by mechanical means, the less 
labor will be required of the horse in breaking it up. Men 
who care for horses often make hay or straw more palatable 
by chaffing, then mixing with concentrates, and dampening 
the mass with a light sprinkling of water. Thus prepared, 
more roughage is consumed than would be the case other- 
wise, and the sprinkling reduces the dust, which is in- 
jurious to horses. 

The grinding of grain for horses is not necessary, unless 
in the case of old animals with poor teeth. Whole grain is 
appetizing to the horse, he grinds and breaks it up easily 
with his teeth, and it digests efficiently as thus fed. Crush- 
ing grain may be desirable, and the author has known of 
city stables where oats were run through a mill and crushed, 
and as thus fed gave better returns, in the opinion of the 
management, than were secured from oats fed whole. Cook- 
ing of feed has been resorted to by horsemen in the past, 
more especially in Europe, but this process affects the digest- 
ibility of the proteids, so the practice is undesirable. What 
is known as a bran mash, that is, wetting bran with hot 
water to make a thick, fairly moist feed, is practiced. If 
fed at regular periods, as, for example, once a week, it has 
a cooling, laxative effect. Bran mash is relished by horses, 
and is popular as an occasional feed. The soaking of feed 
may sometimes be desirable, especially in spring when feed- 
ing very hard, dry corn or barley. 

As a rule, it is best that the horse should be watered 
frequently. Drinking a little at a time, is better than 
having too much water at greater intervals, especially if 
an animal is overheated. The air temperature and kind 
of food will affect the amount of water drunk, but about a 


gallon a day for each 100 pounds of live weight may be 
given under fair conditions. 

The feeds most desirable for horses vary according to 
condition of age, work, and locality. Oats in the grain is 
the favorite food for horses both in America and Europe. 
There is no likelihood of danger from overeating oats, 
they are much relished, and from them the horseman looks 
for greater activity than from most feeds. Dry ear corn is 
popular in the corn-growing sections, especially in the South 
and Central West, where hundreds of thousands of horses 
see no other kind of grain. Experiments at the Ohio sta- 
tion, conducted by Prof. Carmichael, show no important 
difference in the feeding value of corn and oats, as fed work 
horses under equal conditions. Barley is fed horses in some 
parts of America, Europe, and northern Africa, and meets 
with favor. Wheat and rye are too pasty for satisfactory 
horse feed. Wheat bran has been fed mixed with oats and 
corn, and gives good results. Corn meal is too heavy for a 
horse feed, unless mixed with bran, oats or chaffed hay, 
when it will do very well. What is known as chop feed for 
horses in some sections consists of varying proportions of 
oats and cracked or crushed corn, the percentage of one to 
the other depending upon the value of each feed in the 
market. As a rule, two thirds oats and one third corn is a 
good proportion. Linseed meal is a most excellent feed to 
be given in small amount once daily, as, for example, a half 
pound a day. This is a fine appetizer, and tends to make 
the skin mellow and the hair sleek and glossy. Condition 
powders or prepared condimental stock foods are not to be 
recommended. The linseed meal will largely serve the same 
purpose and in fact is a popular conditioner. 

Of all the dry roughages, timothy hay in the East is 
the leading favorite. It is usually free from dust and is 
relished by the horse. Any well cured, sweet grass, how- 
ever, will usually prove satisfactory horse roughage. Good 


dry corn stover is excellent horse feed. Alfalfa hay or red 
clover are rich in protein and lime, and may be fed to advan- 
tage when care is used. Dust must be avoided, and the 
leaves should be free of mildew or mould. A combination 
of alfalfa or clover with corn makes nearly a balanced ration 
for the work horse. There is considerable difference of 
opinion among American horsemen as to the suitability of 
these feeds for horses, but in France alfalfa has long been 
extensively fed to horses, while in the western United States 
it has been shown to be an excellent roughage for horses 
when well cured. Corn silage may be safely fed to horses 
in limited amounts, but it is important that it be bright and 
well cured, free of all mouldy matter; otherwise serious 
results may occur. Horses do well on pasture, especially of 
mixed grasses or of some sort of blue grass, of which Ken- 
tucky blue is the more common sort. 

Feeding the brood mare. It is important to keep the 
brood mare in good condition. She should be kept at rea- 
sonably steady work, and fed so as not to lose in weight or 
appear thin and run-down prior to foaling. She may be 
fed as any work horse might be, and kept in good working 
order. If used for breeding purposes only, the brood mares 
are, as a rule, run on pasture for at least half the year, and 
are fed little grain if the grass is good, otherwise special feed 
is also given. A light feed of concentrates, especially oats 
or bran, is recommended. Only a light ration of these con- 
centrates should be given just before foaling. The stall for 
foaling should be very clean and disinfected. At foaling 
time but a light mash should be given, to be followed by 
grain in small amount. If all goes well, the mare may 
gradually go on to regular full feed, and return to work in 
ten days or so. As the colt grows, the need for increasing 
the feed of the mare will become apparent. If she is a good 
mother, and nurses the colt well, furnishing plenty of milk, 
she will need much more good food than she would other- 



Figure 71. A horse ration. (22) 60 Ibs. corn, (26) 40 
Ibs. oats, (27) 40 Ibs. bran. Photograph by the 

wise. If one has some succulent feed, such as roots or silage, 
it will prove very good for the mare. The following are 
two good rations for a brood mare at work: 

(1) Corn 6 parts, oats 4, bran 4, timothy or prairie hay as desired. 

(2) Corn 6 parts, bran 3, alfalfa hay or clover as desired. 

Feeding the 
foal. For the first 
three or four 
weeks the foal 
will depend upon 
the mother's 
milk for food. 
When about 
three weeks old, 
it will begin to 
nibble grain 
from the mother's feed box, if convenient. Then arrange- 
ments should be made to let the colt feed by itself. The 
mare may be tied, and a small feed box in which a little 
oatmeal is placed be fixed convenient to the colt. In a 
week or so some 
bran may be 
added to this. 
When about two 
months old the 
foal may receive 
a mixture of oats 
and bran in 
equal parts by 
weight. When in 
pasture a small 
pen should be arranged in which the colt may be fed grain 
by itself. A common arrangement is to fence off with the 
lower rail high enough for the colt to pass under, but too 
low for the mare. At three months a mixture of equal parts 

Figure 72. Another horse ration. (26) corn, 60 Ibs.; 
(27) bran, 30 Ibs. Photograph by the author. 


of cracked corn, crushed oats, and bran will be relished, to 
which may be added a small portion of oil meal, if desired. 
Bright, sweet, leafy clover or alfalfa hay in season should 
also be available to the foal, or, if these can not be supplied, 
then hay of fine quality is next best. 

The colt in its younger days is kept close to the mare, 
and nurses as often as desired. It is not a wise plan, how- 
ever, to drive the mare and foal to town and back on hot 
days or to cause unnecessary excitement for either. Also, 
the foal should not nurse the mother while she is heated and 
excited, else indigestion will be likely, to occur. Foals are 
usually weaned at from four to six months of age, but the 
time of weaning depends on the amount of milk given by 
the mare and the condition of mother and colt. As a rule, 
' the colt should nurse as long as there is an abundant supply 
of milk, for no other food can equal the mother's milk. 

Feeding growing horses. After weaning it is important 
to keep the colt growing and building up a strong frame and 
body. Muscle-making foods, therefore, are what are needed, 
such as legumes, hays, and oats, bran, oil meal, cottonseed 
meal, and bean meal. Plenty of good roughage should be 
fed along with a small feed of grain. 

At the Pennsylvania station Cochel and Severson fed 
some draft colts for a year and a half, during which time 
they made excellent development. The first winter the colts 
had a feed of 5 pounds of grain daily, in 2 feeds, consisting 
of 5 parts shelled corn, 3 parts oats, 2 parts wheat bran and 
1 part linseed meal. At the end of 3 months this ration 
was increased to 7J^ pounds per day. Silage and hay were 
also fed these colts. The second winter the grain consisted 
of shelled corn 6 parts, oats 2, and bran and linseed meal 1 
part each. Emphasis is placed on the value of pasturage, 
and the wisdom of feeding all the grain the colts will con- 
sume when on pasture. Prof. J. L. Edmonds, of the Illinois 
station, who has conducted extensive experiments in feeding 


horses, in reporting on feeding growing fillies, makes the 
following pertinent statement relative to feeding growing 
colts on Mississippi valley farms:* 

"Alfalfa hay fed with corn and oats gave results of a character 
which indicates that there is little or no need of feeding purchased mill 
feeds to growing horses when alfalfa can be grown on the farm. JVhen 
alfalfa hay is the roughage used, a considerable proportion of the grain 
ration may safely be corn. In this experiment the proportion was one 
half by weight." 

Feeding the work horse. Horses engaged in draft work 
should be fed a limited amount of roughage and sufficient 
concentrates to meet all needs. Of course the amount to be 
fed will depend upon the size of the horse and the work he 
is doing. It is recommended to feed from two to three 
pounds of food for each 100 pounds live weight, the amount 
of concentrates ranging from one half to two thirds of the 
total, according to the severity of the work. Hard working, 
farm or dray horses are usually fed roughage at morning 
and night, with concentrates at noon. The heaviest feed 
should be given at night, because the horse is then having 
his most restful period during 24 hours, and so should eat 
and digest his food to best advantage. Standard foods, 
common to the locality, and suited to horses, should be used. 
Oats meet with most favor in the stables of drayage com- 
panies, while on the farms of the South and Central West, 
corn is very generally used, supplemented in many cases 
with oats and a weekly bran mash. In reporting on feed- 
ing work horses at the Kansas station,! Dr. C. W. McCamp- 
bell states that the following daily rations were exceptionally 
well adapted for horses at hard work that weighed about 
1,150 pounds: 

(1) Oats 4 Ibs., corn 6 Ibs., bran 4 Ibs., timothy hay 12 Ibs. 

(2) Corn 6 Ibs., bran 3 Ibs., linseed meal 1 lb., prairie hay 14 Ibs. 

(3) Oats 2 Ibs., corn 8 Ibs., alfalfa hay 10 Ibs. 

Fattening horses. In some sections of the country, 
especially in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa, thin horses, 

*Bulletin 192, Illinois Agr. Exp. Station. Feeding Pure-Bred Draft Fillies. 
fBulletin 186 Kansas Agr. Exp. Station, 1912. 



three to six years old of draft type, are bought and fattened 
by men who make a specialty of that business. Large num- 
bers of such horses have been fed in northern Ohio, and then 
shipped to New York, Boston, and other eastern markets. 
These horses are usually placed in common stalls in the fall, 
and fed for about 100 days for the spring market. They 
are usually fed corn and oats heavily. They will often con- 
sume 2 pounds of grain for each 100 pounds live weight. 
When first put on feed fattened horses are given bran for a 
few days to cool them off and clean them out, after which 
they are put on a fattening ration of corn, oats, and bran 
and clover hay. When on full feed, a big draft horse will 
eat 10 or 12 good-sized ears of corn 3 times a day, 3 quarts 
of oats each morning and night, and 2 or 3 pounds of bran 
at noon. Horses thus fed are given very little if any exer- 
cise, and gain in weight about 3 pounds a day. 

Watering the horse may be done at any time when he 
is not too warm, and even then a small amount may be 

Figure 72. The noonday drink. From a Scotch photograph. 


allowed. It has been thought by some that horses should 
always be watered before rather than after feeding. Experi- 
ments have shown, however, that it really makes no differ- 
ence. It is best to water frequently, so that the horse will 
not drink too much at one time. It is a good plan to water 
before feeding, and then again in two or three hours, if the 
horse is at regular work. "The one time at which a horse 
requires and appreciates a drink most/' writes Dr. Carl W. 
Gay,* "yet is offered it least frequently, is the last thing at 
night, after having consumed his full allowance of roughage, 
and being ready to lie down to sleep. Every horse having 
worked through the day should be allowed an opportunity 
to drink at this time." Ordinarily water does not need 
to be warmed, but in winter in the colder North it is desir- 
able to give water that has been warmed by a tank heater 
and is not icy cold. The amount of water a horse will drink 
will depend upon the temperature of the air, on his work, 
and food. A horse fed alfalfa will drink more than one fed 
timothy, and, if the food is succulent, such as silage or pas- 
ture, the amount of water is greatly reduced. Kellner re- 
ports f that a horse will drink for each pound of dry matter 
in its food from 4.5 to 6.5 pounds of water. Water is im- 
portant in digestion, because it is the medium by which the 
food is softened, broken up, and moved through the digestive 
tract. As a part of the blood, water carries the nutrients 
throughout the entire body. 

Salting the horse should be provided for, as he will eat 
a small amount of salt with relish. Salt is thought to aid 
digestion, and it makes palatable some feeding stuffs. Too 
much salt, however, stimulates drinking water in excess, 
and so may injure the digestive processes. Under ordi- 
nary conditions a work horse might eat an ounce or two 
a day to advantage. "Lick stones/' or pressed cakes of 
salt have been largely sold in the past to men keeping ex- 

*Produptive Horse Husbandry, 1914, p. 243. 

tThe Scientific Feeding of Animals, By O. Kellner, 1910. 


tensive stables of horses. These are placed in the manger 
subject to the use of the horse at all times. 


1. Where the horse industry is most prominent in America. 

2. What is meant by horse-power. 

3. The relationship of the ration to work performed. 

4. Why some foods are better for horses than others. 

5. The special value of linseed meal for horses. 

6. How to feed the foal. 

7. What feed to use to secure the best growth. 

8. How much concentrates should be fed the work horse. 

9. When the horse should be given water. 

10. If salt is necessary for the horse. 


11. How many horses are there to the square mile in the county in 

which you live? Of what breeds or types are they? 

12. Ascertain how many persons out of fifty in your section feed on 

the basis of the feeding standard. 

13. What commercial feeds for horses are shipped in? 

14. Can you report on any fattening of draft horses? 

15. Study the methods men follow in giving their horses drink. 

16. Report on the salting of horses among your farmer friends. 


Many things might be written regarding the care of 
horses, because the subject is a very broad one and covers 
various items of interest and importance ; but only a few of 
the more important features of management will be con- 
sidered in the limited space here available. 

Regularity in the care of the horse is very important. 
Under ordinary conditions when not on pasture he should be 
fed at the same hour. It is customary to feed three times 
daily at regular hours, and water before going to work and 
again upon return. Grooming also should be done at much 
the same time each day. Where daily exercise is necessary, 
as in the case of the stallion and horses not at work, it will 
be well to give this at regular periods. No animal on the 
farm adjusts itself to regular habits to more advantage than 
the horse. 

The grooming of the horse is quite necessary if kept in 
the stable, although he always responds to this process. 
Dust and dirt on the skin tend to close up the pores, and 
thus to a certain extent affect the health and disposition of 
the animal. Body waste is thrown off in sweating, and a 
good brushing will remove this, stimulate the skin, and leave 
the pores open and in better condition to perform their work. 
If a horse is wet from sweat, it is a good plan to first rub 
him off with a half round scraper, following with a thorough 
rubbing with handfuls of dry straw. This rub leaves a 
horse in good condition for a final brushing. A hard metal 
currycomb is not a good tool for a horse, especially on his 
legs and more sensitive parts. It is better to brush him 
well with a good fiber or hair brush, although a dull curry- 



comb may be used on the body. In connection with the 
grooming work, one should use a strong comb and brush for 
putting mane and tail in order. A heavy sponge is always 
useful for sponging off, and a strong linen towel makes a 
most useful dust cloth for polishing -up the coat of hair. To 
clean out the hoofs, one may use a pick of some sort, such as 
a hay hook, for example. 

Clipping the horse is necessaiy to remove the long hair 
in the spring, after it has begun to shed. Formerly this was 
done with hand clippers, but it is now usually performed 
with clippers propelled by machinery. Clipping is common- 

Figure 74. Brushing off the brood mare. Photograph by the author. 

ly done to get rid of the hairs which become annoying unless 
clipped, shedding off as they do by degrees, and more or 
less covering the clothing of persons driving. Vigorous 
brushing is a help, but long, thick hair had best be removed 
by the clippers. The horse feels better for it, there is less 
danger with a wet coat of his taking cold, and the obnox- 
ious loose hair is done away with. The long hairs within 
the outer ear, which serve to keep out insects, should not 
be cut off. It is also desirable to leave the hair on the 
legs below knee and hock, for this gives protection to the 


skin. If desired, clipping may be done in the fall, thus doing 
away with the necessity of this operation in spring. 

Blanketing the horse is customary in winter in cold cli- 
mates when the animal is unduly exposed. Special made 
horse blankets are used in cold stables, although these 
should not be necessary where the building is properly ven- 
tilated and drafts do not occur. Humane societies require 
the blanketing of horses in some localities, when exposed on 
the streets. A blanket keeps the coat of hair more sleek 
than when it is not used. In summer very light, durable 
blankets or nets are frequently used to give animals protec- 
tion from flies. The man who blankets his horse to give 
protection from either cold or flies is no doubt kindly of 
nature and seeks to make his animals comfortable. 

The care of the feet of the horse is of much importance. 
The foot of the horse is discussed on page 167. Its care is 
another matter. The hoofs should have a uniform de- 
velopment, and not lose their shape. Long toes, lack of 
uniformity of length of hoof on opposite sides, and low flat 
heels, any one of these result in defective feet and improper 
gait. The hoof should be kept trimmed so as to secure a 
natural, uniform shape, with strong walls. The frog should 
never be cut, only the tag ends trimmed off, so that it may 
serve as a buffer when the foot hits the ground. The bars 
should not be cut down, and the sole made concave, a process 
which weakens the foot and narrows the heel, giving a more 
or less contracted foot. It is desirable to clean out each 
hoof with a pick every day and brush out all foreign matter. 

If a horse stands on foul soil or manure, a disease called 
thrush may develop in the frog, and lameness result. Thrush 
appears as a dark colored pus of foul odor in the cleft of the 
frog, which presents a somewhat open appearance when it 
should be dry and close. For treatment the loose parts of 
the frog should be trimmed away, and the foot well cleaned 
and sterilized, after which copper sulphate may be packed 


in the crevices of the foot. An absolutely clean, dry stall 
is a necessity for healthy, good feet. Sometimes the feet 
become too dry and brittle, in which case it is a good plan 
to soak them for a few hours at a time in a shallow pan or 
trough. Capable horsemen, who watch the feet of their 
horses carefully, occasionally rub neats-foot or sweet oil on 
the hoofs, which prevents their becoming too dry. The 
horse should be kept properly shod, and the feet inspected 
from time to time to note the condition of the shoes and 
see that they do not become loose. 

The treatment of sores and wounds on the horse is a 
comparatively simple matter. A first requirement is cleanli- 
ness. In general a sore or wound should first be bathed 
with pure sterilized warm water. A wound or cut should 
be disinfected with some easily-obtained, healing solution. 
Common coal-tar sheep dip, or creolin, diluted 50 times, is 
a popular disinfectant. A three per cent solution of carbolic 
acid in soft water is also recommended for this purpose. Dr. 
Hadley states* that "bandages or other dressings must be 
changed as soon as they become saturated with the wound 
secretions. At this time the wound is cleaned with an anti- 
septic solution. The surface of the wound should be sopped 
instead of rubbed, to avoid irritation and injury to the 
newly formed granulation tissue. A dusting powder, com- 
posed of iodoform or boric acid, or equal parts of iodoform, 
boric acid, and tannic acid, may be sifted on the wound 
to check secretions and promote healing. If pus has a tend- 
ency to collect in pockets, these should be swabbed out daily 
or opened so as to allow free drainage." Tincture of iodine, 
as prepared by a druggist for bruises and wounds, is one of 
the most valuable healing and antiseptic remedies available. 
Where the harness rubs and tends to produce sores, as on 
the shoulders and neck, the pressure on the bruised part 
should be relieved. It is also a good plan to wash the 
shoulders, neck and withers morning and night with salt 

*The Horse in Health and Disease, 1915. 


water, using a tablespoonful of salt to a quart of water. In 
the case of serious sores or wounds the wisest policy will be 
to secure the services of a competent veterinarian for treat- 
ment if the expense incurred is not too great. 

The sanitation of the horse stable is of much importance. 
In those stables where manure accumulates, and the floor 
is moist, a strong smell of ammonia is very common. Here 
we find an unsanitary condition, from which results a more 
or less unhealthy condition of the feet. The stall should be 
kept clean, the manure removed each day, and dry bedding 
of some form supplied. Bright straw or shavings are popu- 
lar materials for bedding, and readily absorb moisture under- 
foot. Ventilation is especially important in the horse 
stable. The temperature of the horse stable should be cool 
rather than warm. Captain Hayes, a noted authority on 
horses, writing on the subject of the temperature of the 
stable, says:* 

"I have had many opportunities in Russia for comparing the relative 
healthiness, during very cold weather, of hot stables and of those kept 
at a natural temperature. In large towns in Russia the practice through- 
out the winter is to have stables at a temperature of from 50 to 60 degrees 
Fahrenheit, the difference between the temperature inside and outside 
being not infrequently over 80 degrees Fahrenheit. Consequently, 
influenza, inflammation of the eyes, and diseases of the organs of breath- 
ing, especially roaring among big horses, are common in these abodes. 
In the Russian cavalry remount depots an entirely different course is 
pursued; for the stables at these places are immensely roomy, very 
lofty, and are ventilated so freely and kept so clean, that even in the 
early mornings, before the horses are taken put, the air inside is free 
from any suspicion of closeness. It is instructive to note that the horses 
kept in them maintain their health during the extremely cold winter in 
the same excellent manner they do in summer." 

The breaking and training of the colt is a most important 
feature of management. A few rules relating to this process 
is all that can be offered here. Colts differ widely in tem- 
perament and disposition, and each one is a problem in it- 
self. It is a good plan to have a friendly relationship with 
the colt when it is very young, long before the process of 
training begins. It should be petted and made familiar with 
its future master, that confidence may be established. The 

*Stable Management and Exercise, 1900. 



use of the halter is first necessary, and it may be put on at a 
very early age, long before being weaned. Next, the colt 
should be taught to stand tied. Some colts, especially of 
the draft type, very readily adapt themselves to halter or 
bridle, as well as to the harness and work. Light horses of 
the hot-blooded sort, are not so easily educated. Prof. 
Roberts, an old horseman, says:* 

"With rare exceptions, the colt on the farm is made usable if, for a 
few hours each day for a week, he is subjected to the restraints of a 
bitting harness in the open paddock. The check and side-rein should 

Figure 75. Putting the collar on the young horse for the first time. Photo- 
graph by the author. 

be left slack at first. Gradually from day to day the reins may be 
shortened; provided, however, they are never made so short as to place 
the head in an uncomfortable position or draw the bit so tightly into the 
corners of his mouth as to make them sore. After the bitting, the colt 
may wear the harness and be driven with lines in the open field, without 
being attached to a vehicle. The next step is to drive him for a few 
hours each day by the side of a good-sized, staid, mature farm horse 
attached to a farm wagon, which should be furnished with a brake. The 
lesson of training should be continued without interruption until he 
knows what is expected of him. When given the command Whoa!, 
accompanied by a firm yet not rough pull on the lines, he should prompt- 
ly stop. When the command "get up" is given, along with a slap of the 

*The Horse By Isaac Phillips Roberts, 1905. 


reins, it means go forward. If it is desired that the horse back, then he 
is given the word "back," accompanied with a backvyard pull on the 
reins. The word "steady" is commonly used to caution a horse as to 
his movements, that he may not act too fast. With farm teams, the 
command "gee" signifies a turn to the right, while "haw" means a turn 
to the left. Ordinarily haw and gee are used in the field when the 
reins cannot easily be used, as in plowing, cultivating, etc. Horses 
should not be required to work until they have matured enough to bear 
the service without injury. If compelled to do hard work before he is 
four years old, his development may be much injured." 

The harness of the horse in its simplest form, consists 
of three pieces, bridle, breast harness or collar, and saddle. 
These and their use may be briefly described as follows: 

Figure 76. A pair of draft horses in harness. Photograph by Prof. W. J. Decker. 

The bridle consists of the bit, cheek straps, brow band, 
throatlatch, and checkrein. There may or may not be 
blinds. There are many kinds of bits, but under most con- 
ditions on the farm a plain single bar bit is all that is needed. 
Sometimes the bar is covered with leather or rubber as bet- 
ter suited to the tender mouth. By adjusting the length of 
the cheek pieces, the bit may be fitted to the mouth, so that 
it will be neither too loose nor too tight, crossing the bars of 


the mouth just back of the tushes. Blinds are used by 
some persons, and some horses handle better with these on 
the harness than without them. A bridle without blinds is 
known as an "open bridle." The checkrein extends from 
the bits to the top of the saddle by way of the poll or through 
loops attached to the upper parts each side of the bridle. 
The checkrein is intended to assist the horse in holding up 
his head and neck in an easy, graceful manner, to keep him 
under restraint so he will not attempt to eat when at work, 
or move the head and neck about so as to disarrange the 
harness. A too tight check is punishment for the horse. 

The breast harness consists of a flat strap which extends 
down over each side of the neck just in front of the withers, 
the ends supporting a breast piece, which connects with the 
tugs by means of which a light vehicle is pulled. The breast 
harness should be carefully adjusted, so that the breast 
piece will pull neither too high nor too low against the breast, 
interfering with free action of limbs or breathing. 

The collar used in heavy work harnesses, in place of the 
breast harness, varies in the material. It should consist of a 
frame of leather or other material, shaped to fit the neck 
and shoulders. Most collars have sweat pads on top and 
sides, so that with work the neck and shoulders will not be- 
come sore. The exterior of the collar has a groove, in which 
fits a pair of hames. At the lower part of each hame is 
attached one end of the heavy tug of leather or other material, 
the other end of which is hooked to the vehicle or implement 
to be hauled. Much care must be used in the fit of collar. 
It should not chafe or bruise the skin or make the rougher 
parts of the shoulder or joint sore. The tugs should be so 
adjusted that when a load is drawn the animal's wind will 
not be shut off and the weight of the load will be properly 
distributed over the collar. Each horse should have his own 
collar, and care be taken to see that it fits the neck right. 
A new collar requires some time for adjustment. 


The saddle extends over the back just behind the withers, 
on the top of which are two rings, through which the driving 
lines pass from the ends of the bits to the driver behind. 
The saddle, which crosses the back, is held in place by several 
pieces. The checkrein may slip over a hook at the saddle 
top. From the rear there extends a backstrap along over 
the spine to the center point between the hips, where another 
strap called the crupper is buckled, which passes under the 
tail. Thus we have a 'continuous line from mouth to root of 
tail, which assists in keeping the harness in place. The 
lower part of the saddle has its ends connected by means of 
a belly band, so that it may be held securely in place. A 
breeching piece which extends around back of the hind 
quarters, is supported in place by straps, the upper ends of 
which are attached to the backstrap at a point between the 
hips. There are many styles of harnesses and methods of 
harnessing; but, no matter what the style, it is of first 
importance that the harness fit right in all its parts, and 
that the horse or mule wearing it be made comfortable in 
its adjustment. 


1. How much regularity should be observed? 

2. What is the effect of grooming? 

3. When is clipping resorted to, and why? 

4. How does a blanket affect the hair? 

5. What should be done to prevent thrush? 

6. Explain how you would treat a wound. 

7. What attention should be given to stable temperature? 

8. How should the colt be trained to use of the harness? 

9. At what age should colts be compelled to do hard work? 

10. What attention should be given to fit of the collar? 


11. How generally is regular grooming resorted to? 

12. Is winter blanketing universal in your neighborhood? 

13. Is the care of the foot left to the blacksmith alone? 

14. What is commonly used for treating sores or wounds? 

15. Are absorbents or disinfectants used in the stable? 

16. How are colts "broken-in" by most horsemen? 

17. What kind of bits are common, (a) for harness horses, (b) for draft 



The first cattle of which we have any information 
existed in Europe in prehistoric times. The bones and skele- 
tons of two very different types of cattle have been found 
in Great Britain and parts of Europe. One of these was very 
much larger than the cattle of to-day, and has been called 
the Giant Ox. The other is much smaller and finer of bone. 
The skeletons of these two forms are quite similar to the 
cattle of our own time. Many bones of these animals have 
been found, and it is believed that even in the stone and the 
bronze age many thousands of years ago people had cattle 
more or less domesticated. Pliny and the earliest historians 
refer to swift and fierce wild bulls, called Uri, that were 
found in the forests and meadows of Germany and other 
parts of Europe at the beginning of the Christian era. The 
early Romans captured specimens of these wild bulls and 
took them to Rome and used them in their brutal festivities. 

Wild White Cattle have been known in England, Scot- 
land, and Wales since earliest historical times. These cattle 
lived in great parks. They had upright horns, were-covered 
with shaggy hair, and were pure white in color, except the 
hair about the ears and muzzle, which was usually a dark 
red or black. Numerous small herds of these cattle are 
kept to-day in Great Britain, the most famous of which is 
at Chillingham Park in northeastern England. This herd, 
which numbers only 60 or 70 animals, runs wild on an estate 
of 1,100 acres. They have never been tamed, but live by 
themselves back among the hills in the forests and meadows. 
It is believed that these wild cattle are descended from the 
Giant Ox, and are the connecting link between the prehistoric 



form and our domesticated cattle of the present time. 
Shorthorn Cattle. This noted breed, formerly called Dur- 
ham cattle, originated in northeast England, in the counties 
of Durham and York. The river Tees flows through a pretty 
valley, and for some distance is the boundary line between 
these two counties. This region, many years ago, was called 
the Teeswater country, and the large cattle found here in 
northern Yorkshire were known as "Teeswater Cattle." In 
southern Yorkshire, in what is called Holderness, was another 
kind of cattle having some things in common with the Tees- 
water. Many of these were black. There were also red or 
red-and-white cattle in other sections not far from here. 

Figure 77. A herd of Wild White Cattle at Vaynol Park, Wales. Photograph 
by the author. 

Some cattle of superior milking qualities were brought over 
from Holland, also, in the middle of the 18th century. From 
these various sources came the Shorthorn. In this section 
of England the grazing was fine; and the city of Darlington, 
by the river Tees in Durham, became in time a great cattle 
market and gathering place for stockmen. 

The improvement of the Shorthorn began over a century 
ago. Two brothers, Charles and Robert Colling, who lived 
on separate farms north of Darlington, did much to improve 


the native stock between 1775 and 1820. Some have called 
them the founders of the Shorthorn breed, but this claim 
is probably incorrect. They improved the local cattle so 
that they matured earlier, fed better, and had less waste at 
slaughter than the parent stock with which they began. 

Thomas Bates lived in this same region, east of Darling- 
ton, and he bred a type of large, handsome cattle, noted for 
both beef and milk production. Shorthorns of his breeding 
during the latter part of the nineteenth century were criti- 
cised for lack of vigor. He produced the Duchess, Waterloo, 
Wild Eyes, Oxford, and other families. Bates died in 1849. 

Figure 78. Shorthorn bull Ringmaster, a noted champion bull and sire. 
Owned by White and Smith of Minnesota. Photograph from The Farmer. 

Thomas Booth, another great breeder, began to keep 
Shorthorns about 1780 on a farm in Yorkshire, southeast of 
Darlington. He had two sons, John and Richard, who also 
became famous breeders. Their cattle had thicker chests, 
were somewhat rougher in form, and perhaps better feeders 
than the Bates cattle, and became very popular. The Booths 
produced the Anna, Isabella, Bracelet, Moss Rose, and some 


other families. The Ceilings, Bates, and the Booths were 
famous as among the greatest improvers of Shorthorn cattle 
that have ever lived in England. 

Early in the nineteenth century a Scotchman by the 
name of Robertson introduced the first Shorthorns to Scot- 
land and began breeding them on his estate at Ladykirk on 
the banks of the Tweed. This was in the South. In 1829 
Captain Barclay brought the first cattle of the breed to 
north Scotland. In 1837, up in Aberdeen, where the winters 
are cold and rough, and the soil not the richest, Amos Cruick- 
shank began breeding Shorthorns, and at the time of his 
death was the greatest breeder in the history of Scotland. 
He developed what are known to-day as "Scotch Short- 
horns." They are noted for their early maturity, compact 
forms, strong constitutions, and fine killing qualities. Scotch 
cattle seemed to produce less milk than those bred by Bates, 
but were thicker-fleshed, so that butchers liked them better. 
Cruickshank produced quite a number of the most popular 
families of to-day, among which the Brawith Bud, Clipper, 
Duchess of Gloster, Lovely, Orange Blossom, Spicy, Venus, 
Victoria, and Violet may be mentioned. Two other great 
Scotch breeders have played a leading part in Shorthorn 
history, on account of their constructive breeding, William 
Marr, of Uppermill, and William Duthie, of Collynie. 

The distribution of Shorthorns is world-wide. It is the 
most common breed of English-speaking countries, and more 
great improvers of live stock have been found among Short- 
horn breeders than any other one breed. So common is the 
Shorthorn, and so well is it suited to different conditions, 
that long ago it was nicknamed "The Universal Intruder." 

The introduction of the Shorthorn to America occurred 
in 1783, when a few were imported into Virginia by Gough 
and Miller. These men imported still others about 1792. 
From this time on the Shorthorn continued to be brought to 
the American states along the Atlantic coast. In 1834 a very 


important shipment came to Ohio, selected for the Ohio 
Importing Company. Since then many thousands of Short- 
horns have been imported, and are found distributed widely 
in North and South America. 

The characteristics of the Shorthorn are very marked. 
The color is red, red-and-white, pure white, or a mingling 
of red and white hair forming what is called a roan. No 
other breed possesses this peculiar Shorthorn roan color, 
which has long been very popular among the breeders. In 
size this is one of the largest breeds, and bulls at maturity 
should weigh in ordinary condition 2,000 pounds or more, 

Figure 79. A fine Shorthorn matron on an Ohio Farm. Photograph by the 


and cows 1,400 pounds and upward. The head should be 
lean and shapely, and short from between the eyes to the 
muzzle, which should be of flesh color, dark noses being un- 
popular. The horns usually are of medium size and of a 
white or waxy color, in most cases curving around in front 
like a semicircle rather than standing upright. Shorthorns 
should have wide strong backs and large bodies. The hind 
quarters are noted for their thick, meaty development, 
though the rump and tail head tend to be patchy and rough. 



Shorthorns have been criticised for having plain, somewhat 
prominent shoulders, and for being rather long of leg. These 
criticisms, however, do not so generally apply to cattle of 
Scotch ancestry. In disposition the Shorthorn is unexcelled. 
As a butcher's beast fair examples of the breed rank high, 
the fattened animal dressing out well at slaughter and 
producing a superior quality of meat that is a favorite on 
the market. Although especially suited to the range, Short- 
horns do almost equally well under conditions of arable farm- 
ing, where extensive use of pasturage or range is not available. 

Figure 80. A first prize Milking Shorthorn at the show of the Royal Agricul- 
tural Society of England. Photograph by the author. 

The Shorthorn in milk production ranks at the top among 
the beef and so-called dual-purpose breeds. It is a common 
thing for dairy Shorthorns to produce 5,000 or 6,000 pounds 
of milk a year. Many cows of the breed have produced 
over 10,000 pounds, while Rose of Glenside made the wonder- 
ful record of 18,075 pounds in a year. There have been 
some remarkable records of production during continuous 


years, among which Darlington Cranford 5th gave over 
100,000 pounds of milk during ten years. Shorthorn milk 
tests around 4 per cent fat, and many excellent butter-fat 
records have been made. At least 300 pounds of fat should 
be made in a year by a fair example of the breed. An 
Australian cow, Melba VII, produced 868 pounds in a year, 
and Rose of Glenside, in her test above referred to, made 735 
pounds of fat. Milking Shorthorns have grown greatly in 
popularity in recent years. Among the more favorably known 
families are the Clay, Waterloo, Kinsella, and Buttercup. 

Remarkable prices have been paid for Shorthorn cattle 
now for over a century. In 1811 at the sale of Charles 
Colling the bull Comet sold for $5,000. In 1873 at the New 
York Mills sale, 109 animals sold for $381,990, an average 
of $3,504, the cow Eighth Duchess of Geneva bringing the 
top price of history for a cow, $40,600. In 1919 the bull 
Gartley Lancer sold in Scotland for $23,750, while two other 
bulls brought $21,000 each. 

Polled Shorthorns are bred and registered separately, 
although from pure Shorthorn ancestry. They were first 
called Polled Durhams, but since 1919 have been known as 
Polled Shorthorns. They do not differ from ordinary Short- 
horns except that they are polled. They have not greatly 
grown in popularity. 

The Hereford breed of cattle originated in the county of 
Hereford, in southwest England. There are many beauti- 
ful meadows and grassy hills in this region. The cattle 
graze here the whole year and are rarely kept under roof. 
We know but little of the origin of this breed. Cattle have 
thrived in this part of England for centuries. One noted 
English judge of live stock over a hundred years ago gave 
the opinion that the Hereford might have been the first breed 
on the island. Some time before 1671, white-faced cattle 
were brought from Holland to Hereford, and some think the 
Herefords get their white faces from these cattle Late ill 



the eighteenth century, the common color of the breed was 
red with a white face. As with the Shorthorn, a number of 
men became noted Hereford improvers and did much for 
these cattle. The Tomkins family is the most famous of 
early days. There was Benjamin the Elder, who died in 
1789, and Benjamin the Younger, who died in 1815. These 
men produced many famous animals and did much for the 
breed. William Galliers, John Price, and John Hewer also 

Figure 81. Hereford bull, Richard Fairfax, purchased for $50,000 by Ferguson 
Brothers of Minnesota from L. A. Pinnard. This is the highest price paid 
for a beef bull iu the United States. Photograph from Ferguson Brothers. 

did much to improve the Hereford. John Hewer sought for 
more size, quality, and uniformity of color. He bred many 
famous animals during the middle of the last century. Here- 
fords were first brought to America by that famous states- 
man, Henry Clay, of Kentucky. He took much interest in 
pure-bred live stock. Mr. W. H. Sotham, a native of Here- 
ford, who emigrated to America in 1840, brought some of 


these cattle to Albany, New York. Mr. Sotham did much 
to make the breed popular in this country during the middle 
of the nineteenth century. 

About 1875, men in Illinois, Indiana, and the West, who 
owned a great deal of land, became interested in the Here- 
ford. Since then these cattle have become very popular 
in the grazing sections of the West, and are found in large 
numbers beyond the Mississippi, although choice breeding 
herds are to be found in Indiana, Kentucky, Minnesota, and 
Illinois. Recently the Hereford has obtained an important 
foothold in the Gulf Coast states east of the Mississippi. 

The characteristics of the Hereford are very marked. 
The color is its most striking feature, the head being white, 
as is often also the top of the neck, the breast, brush of the 
tail, and legs below knees and hocks, the rest of the body 
being red. The red color varies from light to dark, the pre- 
ference being for a bright cherry red. The skin at the 
muzzle should always be of a clear flesh color. The white 
head, which is short from muzzle to eye, often somewhat 
dished of face, and crowned with beautiful, forward curving 
waxy-white horns, represents the ideal for stamina, sex char- 
acter, and feeding capacity. In size and weight the Here- 
ford closely resembles the Shorthorn. Hereford cattle are 
conspicuous for their wide backs, deep bodies, and short 
legs. They frequently show considerable dewlap and 
brisket, and have beautiful smooth shoulders. The hind 
quarters, however, tend to be somewhat narrow and rough. 
They are noted for their hardiness and adaptability to all 
sorts of grazing conditions, thriving well with the least grain 
and -shelter. The heavy curly winter coat of hair and thick 
mellow skin gives the Hereford protection which other breeds 
lack in an equal degree. Hereford cattle mature early and 
are noted for baby beef production, attaining 1,000 to 1,200 
pounds when well fed, at less than two years of age. In the 
market Hereford steers are popular with buyers, and kill 



out a high percentage of carcass to offal. The cows of the 
breed are inferior milkers, as a rule, though yielding an excel- 
lent grade of milk. In disposition Herefords tend to be 
more or less nervous and restless as compared with the Short- 
horn and are not so well suited to stable confinement. 

The quality of "rustling," as they say in the West, 
fine constitution, and ability to make early beef, have made 
the breed extremely popular in the range country in the 
United States, Canada, Argentina, and Australia. Among 
the popular families are the Anxiety, Beau Donald, Corrector, 
Disturber, March On, Perfection, and Prime Lad. High 
prices have been paid for Herefords, and in 1917, 1918, and 

Figure 82. An exhibitor's herd of Herefords at the fair. Photograph from 
The Farmer. 

1919 very high prices prevailed. In 1919 Mousel Brothers, 
of Nebraska, sold 50 head for an average price of $3,845, and 
in 1919 W. T. McCray, of Indiana, sold 120 head for an 
average of $3,635, the record for any breed of cattle. In 
1919 the bull Richard Fairfax was bought by Ferguson 
Brothers, of Minnesota, for $50,000, then the world's record 
price for a bull. Two bulls sold in 1918 in England, one, 
Ringer, for $45,000 and the other, Resolute, for $40,000. 

Polled Hereford cattle of much merit are bred to-day in 
large numbers. This line of breeding first started with grade 



cattle in Kansas. About 1900, through an effort to secure 
pure-bred stock from regular Hereford ancestry, a number 
of polled bulls and cows were secured by Warren Gammon, 
of Iowa. Since 1900, when a Polled Hereford Association 
was organized, cattle of this type have been built upon a 
pure foundation tracing back to horned Herefords. Polled 
Herefords are now widely bred in America, with Iowa the 
central point of importance. 

The Aberdeen-Angus is a Scotch breed of cattle that was 
first developed in and about the county of Aberdeen, in 
northeast Scot- 
land. This sec- 
tion is about a 
thousand miles 
north of the lati- 
tude of Chicago. 
The winter cli- 
mate of this re- 
gion is rather se- 
vere, and the soil 
is not the best, 
though the graz- 
ing is good. Some 
think these ani- 
mals are de- 
scended from 
the Wild White Cattle. It is a hornless breed. They 
first became celebrated through Hugh Watson, a tenant 
farmer at Keillor. He loved his cattle and studied carefully 
the improvement of his herd. As a result he produced more 
early-maturing, heavier-fleshed, and more compact cattle 
than had before been known in Scotland. He had a cow 
named "Old Grannie" that lived to be 36 years old, and was 
the mother of 25 calves, a wonderful record for a cow of any 
breed. William McCombie was another famous breeder of 

Figure S3. A Polled Hereford bull. Photograph by the 



Aberdeen-Angus cattle. He improved on the work of Wat- 
son, and his cattle became celebrated for the prizes they 
won in the shows of Scotland and France. Sir George 
McPherson Grant, who died in 1907, was the most noted 
breeder of recent days, and from his herd came some of the 
greatest cattle of the breed. 

The first Aberdeen-Angus cattle were imported to Amer- 
ica in 1873, by George Grant, of Kansas. Later in the 
seventies a few head were taken to Canada, New York, 

Figure 84. Aberdeen-Angus bull, Balatum, owned by J. S. Caldwell & Son 
of Ohio. Photograph by the author. 

Illinois, and other states of the central West. It is only in 
rather recent years that these cattle have become popular in 
America and recognized as one of the really great breeds. 
The characteristics of Aberdeen-Angus cattle are espe- 
cially marked in color, head character, and quality of flesh. 
The standard color is a hard, clear black, although at rare 
intervals red will occur. This red is inherited from past 
generations, for at one time there were many reds, browns, 
and brindles among the cattle of Aberdeen. The head is 



polled, although abortive horns, or scurs, occasionally develop. 
Even though coming from pure-bred sire and dam, the red 
color or scurs prohibit registering in the books of the Amer- 
ican Aberdeen-Angus Cattle Breeders' Association. In size, 
cattle of this breed are essentially in the same class as the 
Shorthorn and Hereford, although they in fact weigh slightly 
less under average conditions. Aged bulls will weigh about 
2,000 pounds, and cows around 1,400, although it is claimed 
that some bulls of the breed have weighed up to 3,000 pounds, 
this weight being credited to the noted bull Justice. 

Figure 85. Aberdeen-Angus cow, Queen Milly of Sun Dance 3d, owned by 
C. D. and E. F. Caldwell of Missouri. Photograph from the owners. 

In body conformation the Aberdeen-Angus cattle are 
inclined to be a trifle prominent in the shoulder, their 
backs are only moderately wide, the loin being rounding 
rather than flat like the Shorthorn and Hereford. There is 
a tendency towards a sag in the back, the hind quarters are 
round and full, though the tail-head is often somewhat 
prominent, due to a falling away on each side of the rump. 



These cattle stand on short legs, and are very compact. 
They graze well, mature early, fatten smoothly, produce 
meat of the choicest grade, and kill out with the least waste. 
The Aberdeen-Angus is a great favorite with the butchers 
on account of the smoothness of carcass and small per cent 
of waste in dressing. In the fat stock shows in recent years, 
in America and England, no other breed has won so many 
grand championships. In slaughter tests the bullocks have 
dressed out 72 per cent carcass to offal, which is a very high 
record. Many of the cows are good milkers, and produce 

an excellent 
grade of milk. 
In disposition 
the Aberdeen- 
Angus are nota- 
bly nervous, 
more resembling 
the Hereford 
than the Short- 
horn in this re- 

These cattle 
are growing 
much in popular- 
ity. With Iowa 
as the great breeding center, many fine herds are found in 
the corn-belt states. There are some excellent herds in the 
southern states, where the breed has comparatively recently 
obtained a foothold. Among the more popular families of 
Aberdeen-Angus cattle are the Erica, Queen Mother, Pride, 
and Blackbird. During recent years very high prices have 
been paid for these cattle, the highest being for the bull 
Blackcap Bertram sold in 1919 for $45,000. Some of the 
bulls have sold for over $10,000 each, while this sum repre- 
sents the highest price paid for a cow, being paid in 1919 for 

Figure 86. Fyyie Knight 2d. Grand champion steer, 
1918 International Live Stock Show. Shown by Purdue 
University, Indiana. Photograph from American 
Aberdeen-Angus Association. 



Blackcap McHenry 151st. Aberdeen-Angus show steers 
topped the market many times, the highest price ever 
known, $2.50 per pound live weight, being paid for the grand 
champion steer Fyvie Knight 2nd, exhibited by Purdue 
University at the 1918 International Live Stock Exposition. 
The Galloway is a beef breed that originated in south- 
west Scotland in what is known as the Galloway country. 
It is a hilly region, with plenty of grass, and has a somewhat 
cool and rather moist climate. These cattle have been bred 
here for centuries. They are black, though other colors 
formerly occurred, are polled, have long, shaggy coats of 
curly hair, and are hardy 
and rather wild by 
nature. They are not 
quite as large nor so com- 
pact of body as the 
Aberdeen-Angus, and do 
not fatten so easily. They 
produce a very high 
grade of beef, fine of 
grain and inclined to be 
free from extra fat, such 
as is often found in high- 
ly fed Shorthorns or 
Herefords. The Gallo- 
way is a breed that can endure severe winter conditions better 
than most others, on account of the protection of a thick hide 
and a long, thick, silky coat of hair. Very beautiful robes are 
made from Galloway hides with the winter coat of hair. 
This breed was first brought to America about 1850, or 
perhaps some years before. It is not popular and the herds 
are rather scattered, more being in the northwestern states 
and in Canada than elsewhere. The exhibit of the breed at 
the fat-stock shows and fairs is usually small compared with 
the Shorthorn, Hereford, and Aberdeen-Angus. 

Figure 87. A Galloway steer. 
by the author 




1. The relationship of Wild White Cattle to improved breeds of 


2. The difference between Teeswater and Holderness cattle. 

3. The parts played by the Collings, Bates, Booths, and Cruickshank. 

(a) When and where did they live? 

(b) What did they do? 

(c) What families did they produce? 

4. A few marked characteristics of the Shorthorn. 

5. Striking points of identity of the Hereford. 

6. Why the Hereford is a superior breed for the range. 

7. What Hugh Watson and William McCombie did for the Aberdeen- 


8. How the Aberdeen-Angus passes the killing test. 

9. The conditions under which the Galloway originated. 

10. The kind of coat worn by the Galloway. 


11. Find out if any pure-bred herds, and what kind, occur in your 

neighborhood or township. 

12. Make a map and locate the herds upon it. 

13. Ascertain what kinds of pure-bred beef bulls are used in grade 

herds, and why? 

14. Report on what you think the best pure-bred beef herd in the 

county, and your reason why? 


In judging beef cattle, we have different classes and con- 
ditions of animals. Examples of these may be found in 
mature bulls or cows, and young stock in breeding herds; 
and in fat cattle ready for the butcher, or in feeders that 
are not yet in condition for killing. If of about the same 
age and condition of flesh, however, we shall find that they 

Figure 88. Victor, Grand champion steer at the 1911 International Live 
Stock Exposition. Fed and shown by Iowa State College. Photograph 
from The Farmer. 

have much in common in type and form. In a study of 
beef cattle through the use of the score card and the scale of 
points, it is customary for classroom work to make use of as 
good examples of such animals as are obtainable, judging 
them as fat cattle. The following scale of points is espe- 
cially arranged for the scoring of fat cattle, and its use is 
discussed herewith. 




Points of Score of 
Scale of Points perfect score cattle judge 


Weight, score according to age. At 12 months 

850 Ibs., at 24 months 1,250 Ibs., at 30 months 

1,500 Ibs 8 

Form, broad, deep, compact, low set, top and 

underline straight 10 

Quality, fine bone, mellow elastic hide, soft and 

silky hair 10 

Condition, deep, even covering of smooth, firm 

flesh, the cod and flank indicating finish 10 

HEAD AND NECK, 7 Points. 

Muzzle, broad, mouth large, nostrils large 1 

Eyes, large and bright, with placid expression 1 

Face, short, wide, slightly dished; cheeks fleshy; 

jaw strong 1 

Forehead, broad, full 1 

Ears, medium size, not coarse, well set 1 

Neck, thick, short, throat clean, blending well 

with shoulders 2 


Shoulder vein, full and smooth 2 

Shoulders, well set, compact on top, smoothly 

covered with flesh 3 

Breast, wide and full, brisket extending forward, 

with little dewlap 2 

Legs, straight, short; arm full; shank fine, smooth; 

toes pointing directly forward 2 

BODY, 31 Points. 

Chest, deep, wide, girth large, crops full 5 

Back, broad, level, thickly and smoothly fleshed .... 8 

Loin, broad, thick 8 

Ribs, long, well arched, thickly and smoothly 

fleshed 8 

Flanks, deep, full, underline straight from front 

to rear 2 

HIND QUARTERS, 15 Points. 

Hips, smoothly covered, not wide apart, nor 

prominent 1 

Rump, long, wide, level, free of patchiness, 

tail head smooth 4 

Thighs, thick, broad, deep, full 4 

Twist, deep, full 4 

Legs, well placed, short; hocks straight; shank 

fine and smooth; toes pointing straight forward ... 2 

Total.. ..100 



In judging fat cattle, either by the score card or other- 
wise, the general appearance should be first considered. As 
one walks about the animal, or as it may be observed in 
parade, the size is compared with what one thinks it should 
be for its age requirements, while special note is also taken 
as to the general form, quality, and condition. The subject 
of weight is a comparative one, but in judging it is customary 
to discriminate against the animal that is too small for its 
age or that shows evidence of being naturally undersized. 

Figure 89. The points 9f a beef animal. Reproduced from "Judging Farm 
Animals," by the author. 

The form of the beef animal, as indicated by the score 
card, should show breadth, depth, and compactness. Then, 
if this includes an excellent degree of fatness over the body, 
known as condition, the butcher will obtain from such a 
carcass the greatest percentage of the most valuable cuts. 
Some writers on live stock have compared the body of fat 
cattle to a rectangle, when viewed from one side. The body 
of the animal, excepting the head, neck, and legs, would 
very well fill a rectangular form. Viewed from either the 



front or the rear, the body should fill a square. Long ago 
English writers made use of this illustration of correct beef- 
cattle form, and judges of to-day very generally approve of 
the same description. 

If we should examine a body that is usually de- 
scribed as "blocky", it would be noticed that those parts con- 
taining the highest-priced meats are well developed. The 

Variation in Retail Prices for Different Cuts of Beef 


Pounds 53 47 
Percent I _ , 7 , R 4 
TotalwgtC 86 7 ' 6 * 

Figure 90. Cuts of beef and their relative values in 1919. 
Swift & Company. 

By courtesy of 

part from the hips forward to the last rib comprises the loin. 
The highest-priced meat is found here, and makes up about 
16 per cent of the carcass. The section of the back and ribs 
from the loin up to the sixth rib, known as the rib or prime- 
of-rib cut, makes up about 9 per cent of the carcass, and is 
worth several cents less a pound than the loin. The part of 
the back at the shoulders, the chuck, makes up about 21 per 


cent of the carcass, and is still cheaper than the prime-of- 
ribs. If we view the steer from behind, the rump and 
quarters fill out into one of the heaviest and meatiest parts, 
comprising 16 per cent of the carcass, and ranking third in 
value of the different cuts. 

Thus it can easily be seen that the more completely 
the frame of the animal is developed in these parts and 
covered with a thick, smooth, uniform layer of good 
meat, the greater its value will be for beef. The head 

Figure 91. Judging beef cattle. Handling the hide to study quality and 
thickness. Photograph by the author. 

neck, belly, and legs are classed as cheap meat, and, there- 
fore, these parts need not be heavily developed. The ani- 
mal with big paunch and long leg is discriminated against 
by buyers, who realize that in killing considerable waste is 
sure to result. High-class fat cattle will kill out as much as 
70 per cent, or even more, of carcass to offal, while a com- 
mon or inferior animal of leggy conformation will dress 
around 50 per cent. Thus the butcher who caters to a 
discriminating trade usually prefers to buy the better class 
of animals, which dress out 60 per cent or more. 



The indications of quality in beef cattle are fineness of 
bone; a silky, heavy coat of hair; a mellow, elastic skin; 
and refinement, as seen in the head in particular, and in the 
entire form in general. Large ears, heavy bones and joints, 
a hard thick skin, and coarse wiry hair are all evidences of a 
poor digestive capacity and lack of quality. In the case of 
beef cattle, smoothness and uniformity of covering are also 
indications of quality. In the carcass, fineness of grain of 

Figure 92. Judging beef cattle. Feeling for thickness of flank. Photograph 
by the author. 

flesh and a good distribution of fat particles among the fibers 
are measures of the quality of the meat. If the ribs and 
back have lumps or rolls of fat, and the rump is also rough, 
then the quality of carcass will be of inferior grade. Such 
a condition should be easily observable. 

The condition of a beef animal refers to the covering of 
flesh or degree of fatness. Thin animals are spoken of as 
in thin condition, while fat ones are in fat condition. The 
condition is determined mainly by the eye of the judge. 



The well-fattened animal shows plumpness of body. His 
more exposed portions, like the hips and shoulder points, 
are covered with flesh. When a fat steer moves, the flesh 
about his breast and in his flanks shows more movement 
than is seen in a thin-fleshed animal. The hand may also 
assist the eye in inspecting fat cattle. When using the hand, 
the ends of the fingers are kept together, and are pressed 
along the middle of the back and on the sides over the ribs. 

Figure 93. Judging beef cattle. Feeling for depth of covering of the back. 
Photograph by the author. 

The thickness and firmness of covering is easily determined 
by the touch. A mellow, yet firm resistance to the hand 
pressure should be felt. A common custom among buyers 
of fat cattle is also to feel the covering of the end of the 
rump and the point of the shoulder, and to grasp in the 
hand the hind flank, which should be low and full in a well- 
finished beast. A thin, hard covering at these points shows 
that the animal lacks in condition. 

After giving the necessary consideration to general ap- 
pearances, our attention will next be given to the detailed 



features of conformation. Beginning with the head, we 
seek for evidences of the good feeder and a pleasant dis- 
position. A broad muzzle, with shortness from this point 
to the eyes, usually indicates constitution and feeding capac- 
ity. A clear, prominent eye denotes a pleasant disposi- 
tion; and the broad, full forehead, a comparatively high de- 
gree of intelligence. The eye is an important guide to the 
disposition, and should be carefully considered. The ears 

are a guide to quality; 
for, if large and thick 
and heavy at the base, 
they indicate coarseness. 
The reason for desiring 
a short neck is to reduce 
the amount of cheap 
meat. The short, thick 
neck is also an evidence 
of constitutional vigor, 
for it is connected with 
a wide, full breast. Back 
of this should be a ca- 
pacious chest, with am- 
ple room for the vital 
organs. A strong, vigor- 
ous constitution is very 
important with all kinds 
of stock. One must see the character of neck from the 
side and top, and may easily note the way it joins both 
head and shoulders. From the side, one notes the 
placing of shoulders, their slope and smoothness of covering, 
the blending of the neck with the shoulder at the so-called 
" shoulder vein," and the spread between the blades at the 
top. The wide-spread shoulder top is not desired, because 
it means lack of covering of flesh and indicates a narrow floor 
of the chest. From in front, the fullness of breast, the car- 

Figure 94. Judging beef cattle. Inspecting 
the rump and feeling for condition. 
Photograph by the author. 



riage of brisket, and length of leg are easily seen. The 
brisket, being the portion that extends forward between the 
fore legs, is the sternum proper, and with the best of fat 
cattle is usually thick and prominent. Beginning at the 
brisket, extending upward from the front of the neck, is a 
thin fold of skin known as the dewlap, which is undesirable 
to have in any great amount. As a rule, the dewlap is not 
prominent on beef cattle, being more in evidence on lighter- 

Figure 95. Judging beef cattle. Feeling covering at the shoulder. Photo- 
graph by the author. 

fleshed stock, and in certain breeds. The front legs should 
be short, and the feet stand squarely on the ground, the 
toes pointing straight ahead. The bone just below the knee, 
known as the shank, which is termed the cannon bone with 
the horse, should be reasonably fine and short, an important 
indication of quality. When the front legs stand well apart, 
we usually find plenty of chest capacity. The body of the 
beef animal requires large size and capacity, the wide back 
giving room for the valuable cuts already described. Full- 



ness and depth of body also go with the digestive capacity 
sought for in a good feeder. A study of the body capacity 
and value should be made from one side and from above the 
animal, to observe the thickness and spring of rib. Emphasis 
may be placed on this last feature, for a well-sprung, long 
rib means thickness and depth of body. Shortness of coup- 
ling from the hip to the nearest rib is also important, if we 
are to have compactness of form. An examination of the 
hind quarter is made from a point opposite the thigh, and 
from directly behind. Good length from the hips to the 

end of the body near 
the tail, to what are 
called the pin-bones, is 
important; for here we 
find large, heavy muscles 
of very good quality for 
meat. The longer, broad- 
er, and fuller this part, 
the more flesh one 
should expect to find. 
The thighs, which extend 
to the hocks, should show 
length and thickness. 
From a side view, the 
distance from the point 
of hip to the hock should be great, with the hind flank ap- 
pearing low down. From the rear, the thighs should appear 
thick and straight of edge on the outer part, with the space 
between filled in full and low. Between, where the thick 
lower part of the upper thigh meets the lower thigh, is lo- 
cated the twist. On high-class fat cattle, the twist has a 
very short, wide curve. The poorer the hind quarter from 
a beef standpoint, the less noticeable the twist. The hind 
legs, from behind, should appear straight, with the points 
of the hocks well separated and the toes directed straight 

Figure 96. Roan James, reserve grand cham- 
pion steer, 1910, International Live Stock 
Exposition. Photograph from The Farmer. 



ahead. If the hocks touch at the points and the toes turn 
out, the animal is called "cow hocked." This bad position 
throws the thighs close together and prevents the desired 
thickness. It is also important that the shank bones, from 
a side view, stand nearly vertical, thereby supporting the 
parts above so as to provide the best conformation. 

In judging breeding beef cattle, certain essentials should 
be kept in mind. Masculine character of head and neck are 
important with the males, and feminine features with the 

Figure 97. Oakdale Pride 2nd, a masculine type of calf, owned by 
F. R. Edwards. Photograph by Hildebrand. 

females. The head of the bull is usually large, is rougher- 
haired at the forehead and poll, and carries a strong horn, 
if of the horned sort. The neck is also thicker and more 
crested than with the steer, and the shoulders usually are 
somewhat prominent, though not necessarily so. The cows 
have refined heads, with light horns, and the neck is of but 
medium thickness and length. The udder, also, should show 
plenty of capacity. In general form of body, breeding cattle 
should possess the important features already described, but 
should lack in flesh as compared with fat stock. 



1. What three features are given most credit in the scale of points? 

What six the least? 

2. Describe the generally approved form. 

3. What is the relationship of paunch and leg to killing value? 

4. What is condition, and how is it determined? 

5. Why is a short neck 'desired? 

6. How prominent is the dewlap on beef cattle? 

7. What is the significance of shortness of coupling? 

8. Why are "cow hocks" objectionable? 

9. Wherein does the head of the bull differ from that of the cow? 


10. Score one beef animal or more on the home farm. 

11. Make a comparative study of two or more animals without the use 

of the score card. 

12. Organize a beef-cattle judging contest between two teams. 

13. If in a beef calf club, study the conformation of the calves and 

note their comparative differences. 



In the feeding of beef cattle we have two distinct groups 
of animals, one used in the breeding herd, and the other to 
be fattened for the butcher. While the final end of all meat- 
producing animals is killing for human consumption, those 
used for breeding purposes should be of far greater value 
than for meat alone. Some breeding cattle have proven 
themselves of so great value, that it would be impossible to 
estimate their real worth to the breeds and herds they rep- 
resent. One could have put a butcher's value on the great 
Shorthorn bull Avondale or the Hereford bull Perfection 
Fairfax, but their real value lies in what they have done 
in the improvement of Shorthorn and Hereford cattle. 

The feeding standards for beef cattle will apply satis- 
factorily to either breeding or fattening cattle. The follow- 
ing table gives the essential requirements, as based on the 

modified Wolff-Lehmann standard.* 

A s based on actual live weight 

Live weight. 
Growing, fattening steers 

150 pounds 

Fattening 2-yr. old steers, 
full feed. 
First 50-60 days 
Second 50-60 " 
Third 50-60 " 
Ox at rest in stall 
Wintering cow in calf . . . 

Digestible Total 
Dry matter crude digestible 
protein nutrients 
3.11 Ibs. 0.49 Ibs. 2.58 Ibs. 
6.40 0.74 ' 4.42 ' 
9.72 0.87 ' 6.32 < 
11.95 1.04 ' 7.88 ' 
15.83 1.41 ' 10.35 * 
18.17 1.78 ' 12.22 ' 
19.66 1.80 ' 13.51 ' 
Per day per 1,000 Ibs. live weight. 
Digestible Total 
Dry matter crude digestible 
protein nutrients 
.22-25 Ibs. 2.0-2.3 Ibs. 18.0-20.0 
.21-24 " 1.9-2.3 " 17.0-19.5 
.18-22 " 1.8-2.1 " 16.0-18.5 
.13-21 " 0.6-0.8 " 8.4-10.4 
.14-25 " 0.7-0.9 " 9.0-12.0 



*Quoted from Feeds and Feeding. Henry and Morrison, 1917. 



This table brings out several facts of interest. As we 
might suppose, with increase of weight in growing fatten- 
ing cattle comes an increased demand for nutrients, with the 
nutritive ratio very slightly widening from 400 to 1,000 
pounds. On the basis of 1 ,000 pounds weight, however, there 
is a steady decrease in requirements of nutrients. In the 
case of the two-year-old fattening steer from the first to 
the third fattening periods, we note also a marked decrease 
in amounts of dry matter, protein, and total nutrients neces- 
sary, but with a constant nutritive ratio. The ox at rest 
in a stall or the breeding cow going through the winter in 
calf calls for a wide nutritive ratio and a comparatively 
small amount of protein and total nutrients. 

The feeding of breeding beef cows is a comparatively 
simple matter. They should be kept in moderate flesh, but 
not allowed to become fat. Economical management re- 
quires the extensive use of roughage, pasture, forage crops 
and silage, with a light feed of grain except when nursing a 
good-sized, vigorous calf. If one has plenty of legume 
roughage, such as alfalfa or clover, it will be much relished, 
and with a very small grain portion will furnish most desir- 
able feed. At the Illinois Experiment Station ten cows were 
fed 140 days during the winter on a daily ration of about 8 
pounds of shock corn, (containing about 50 per cent ears), 
about 11 pounds of oat straw, and 3J/2 pounds of clover hay, 
and gained 106 pounds per head. At the Pennsylvania sta- 
tion extensive experiments on the use of corn silage for beef 
cattle has shown that breeding beef cows can be maintained 
in good condition on a ration of silage to suit the appetite, 
with 1 pound of cottonseed meal per day. At the Wyoming 
station breeding cows showed an average gain per week of 
2j/ pounds when fed 140 days on 10 pounds of alfalfa hay 
and 15 pounds of oats and pea silage, and no grain. When 
on good pasture grain need not be fed cows, except in hot 
weather. When flies are biting hard, some grain may be 


profitably used to keep cows in proper condition, especially 
if nursing calves. During the growing season, when pas- 
ture is not abundant, it will pay to furnish the cows with 
green corn fodder, sorghum or any of the legumes palatable 
to cattle. 

The beef bull, like the breeding cow, needs to be kept 
in good vigorous condition, but not fat. Care should be 
taken to see that he is not overfed; for, with some owners, 
lack of exercise and too much feed make the bull too fat 
and injures his value for breeding service. He should receive 
but a light amount of fattening food, relying mostly on 
roughages and protein concentrates. The beef bull is better 
off for having exercise, and should be given work, if possible, 
as is so commonly done in continental Europe. 

The feeding of beef calves. For the first four months, 
and even more, the calf nurses its mother and receives such 
other feed as local conditions permit. On the range milk 
and grass make up the daily diet of the calf. Where farm- 
ing is on smaller areas, the calves may or may not run with 
the cows. Very young calves, however, usually do, but in 
the hot days it is better to keep them in the darkened stable 
during the day, protected, if possible, from flies, allowing 
them to nurse the dams morning and night. In some beef 
herds, the calf is taken from the cow in three or four days, 
and given milk in a pail. Mr. J. Dean Willis, one of the 
most noted Shorthorn breeders in England, raises his calves 
on milk in the pail. The new milk may be given until the 
calf is about three or four weeks old, when skim milk may 
gradually replace the new milk substituting about a pound 
a day of the skim for the other, until nothing but skim milk 
is fed. It is important that this milk be sweet, and per- 
fectly clean, and fed at blood temperature in absolutely 
clean buckets. A tablespoonful of dried blood in the bucket 
of milk once a day will assist in keeping the digestive tract 
of the calf in healthy condition, preventing scours. 


One must guard against overfeeding. Ten or 12 pounds 
a day of milk at first, divided into three feeds for the first 
week or two, then gradually increasing, so that at six or 
eight weeks of age some 12 to 15 pounds of skim milk are 
fed, and this with age increased to 18 to 20 pounds a day, 
for vigorous, well-grown calves. Skim-milk calves, which 
should be weaned at four to six months old, grow strong 
frames, and produce growth more cheaply than with whole 
milk. Calves should be given bright clover or alfalfa or 
some other sweet hay to nibble at, and be taught to eat 
grain. Shelled corn is relished by the young calf, and fits 
well into a skim-milk diet. At first a mixture of equal parts 

Figure 98. Feeding beef calves. 

corn meal, ground oats, and bran should be fed, after giving 
the milk. This mixture may later be changed to shelled corn 
and whole oats, two parts of the former to one of the latter, 
when the appetite for grain is well established. Thriving 
calves should gain from one and a half to two pounds daily. 
Growing breeding cattle should be brought up to mature 
form with a strong and well-rounded-out frame. As a rule, 
calves dropped in early spring go through the following 
winter on a ration of some good roughage, preferably a 


legume, and silage, with a comparatively small grain feed. 
It is important that the growth be constant during the win- 
ter, so that as a yearling the next spring it will go on grass 
in right condition. Over much of the country, if pastures 
hold out well, the yearlings get no grain, depending entirely 
on grass. In case of dry weather and short grass, however, 
it will pay to give some extra feed. Green corn or silage 
are invaluable at this time. In those sections where good 
blue-grass pastures prevail, cattle will do well, even though 
the grass lose much of its succulence. The second winter 
much the same treatment may be followed, with a larger 
feed of silage, but not much increase in grain. It is desir- 
able to bring the breeding heifers up to calving as econom- 
ically as is consistent with satisfactory growth. One should 
always keep in mind that the requirements for growth are 
protein foods, with suitable minerals therein, of which alfalfa, 
the clovers, and cowpeas are good examples. 

The feeding of fattening cattle calls for other treatment 
than that used for the breeding herd. We have another 
purpose in preparing cattle for the butcher, hence a different 
combination of foods is needed. In the fattening of cattle 
we have several conditions under which feeders operate, 
namely, producing " baby' ' beef, summer feeding, fattening 
yearlings and two-year-olds, and preparing short-fed cattle. 
Each of these methods is herewith briefly considered. 

"Baby" beef represents a class of cattle weighing from 
800 to 1,200 pounds at 12 to 20 months of age, and are of 
superior beef blood, conformation, quality, and finish. To 
be finished as baby beef, these cattle must have been well 
fed from the start, and maintained their calf fat from the 
milk-diet period. In beef of this sort, it is necessary to feed 
a larger proportion of concentrates and a smaller amount of 
roughage than is fed to older fattening cattle. If one is to 
grow baby beef, it is preferable to have the calves come in 
the early spring. Begin grain feeding early, before weaning, 


after which in fall put them on full feed, which should con- 
tinue until the calves reach the desired condition and weight. 
Mr. E. S. Bayard recommends* 10 pounds of corn silage 
and 4 or 5 pounds of alfalfa or clover hay daily, along with 
a mixture of 6 parts shelled corn and 1 part of cottonseed 
meal, fed on the basis of 2 pounds for each 100 pounds of live 
weight. These spring calves should be ready for market 
by August of the next year. Fall calves should be carried 
through the winter in good condition, be turned on grass 
early in spring, and be fed during summer all the hay and 
grain they will eat, feeding 8 parts of corn to 1 part of 
cottonseed meal or linseed meal. Choice western calves, of 
superior beef breeding and condition, dropped in the spring, 

Figure 99. Making beef in comfortable quarters in the Corn Belt. 

are often bought in the fall, at weights around 350 to 450 
pounds, and are put in the feed lot, where they are fed for 
an early market, with silage, clover or alfalfa, and suitable 
grain mixture, corn and cottonseed meal being the favorite 

Summer feeding of steers relates to the practice of put- 
ting cattle on grass in the spring, and turning them off on 
the market in fall or early winter. These cattle may have 
been fed grass only or have received concentrates. Cattle 

*Beef Production, Bulletin 23.'), Pennsylvania Dept. of Agriculture, 1913. 


fed grass exclusively, as a rule, do not become fat as com- 
pared with those receiving grain. In some localities in the 
blue-grass sections of Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Kentucky, thin cattle put on flesh rapidly and 
do remarkably well, but even then a ration of corn in addi- 
tion produces a better class of fattening. In a study of this 
subject at the Missouri Experiment Station, conducted by 
Dr. H. J. Waters, where concentrates were fed on pasture, 
summer-fed cattle made an average daily gain of 2}/ pounds, 
covering a period of 209 days. It required about 8 pounds 
of grain for each pound of gain in live weight, as compared 
with 10 pounds with winter-fed cattle, a saving of 18J/2 P er 
cent in grain. Dr. Waters gives the following advantages 
of fattening on pasturage, compared with dry-lot feeding:* 

1. Grass is cheaper than hay. 

2. Summer gains require less grain than winter gains. 

3. Steers fatten more quickly and can be made thick and prime 
on corn and grass with greater certainty, more uniformity, and the 
smaller use of expensive supplements like cottonseed meal and linseed 

4. Hogs following the steers make larger gains, and return more 
profit, with a lower death rate. 

5. In summer the grain only is drawn; there is no roughage to 

6. The steers are usually fed but once daily. 

7. The manure is scattered by the cattle themselves. 

The feeding of yearlings or two-year-olds is commonly 
practiced where no attempt is made to produce baby beef. 
In this case calves usually come in the spring, and are car- 
ried on pasture the first summer, going through the first 
winter with dry roughage, such as corn stover, alfalfa, or 
clover, and perhaps silage, with a light feed of some con- 
centrate, preferably cottonseed or linseed meal. The second 
summer is spent on grass without grain. The second winter 
the natural tendency would be to feed these cattle in the 
dry lot, and market them in the spring, when in fairly good 
condition. Some prefer to market them in the fall, follow- 
ing grass the third summer, while others feed corn on the 
grass, to get a better condition. Steers fed under these 

*Circular 24, Missouri Experiment Station, 


conditions should weigh 1,000 to 1,200 pounds when ready 
for the market, though, if finished off with grain, even more 
weight should be secured. Steer feeders who buy on the 
market select cattle thin in flesh in the fall, and feed them 
in the dry lot for a period of six months or more, marketing 
them as fat in the spring, or carrying them over through the 
summer, and then fattening as already explained. At the 
Purdue University Experiment Station during the years 1907, 
1908, and 1909 a comparative study was made of groups of 
steers fed in the dry lot and those on pasture. The cattle 
in the dry lot were fed shelled corn and cottonseed meal, 

Figure 100. A herd of grade yearling steers at the Ohio Experiment Station. 
Photograph from Ohio Station. 

and mixed clover and timothy hay. As based on this ex- 
perimental feeding, Professors Skinner and Cochel state:* 
"From the three years work it would be safe to conclude that high 

grade calves showing beef type, early maturity, quality and capacity 
for feed, can be profitably finished as prime yearlings if given full feed 
during a nine months period; that dry-lot feeding is superior to pasture 
feeding in finishing yearlings, is shown by the rate of gain, finish secured, 
profit per steer, price received per bushel for corn, and interest on the 

Short-fed cattle are those that are given a heavy grain 
ration for a period of about three months. In such feeding, 
the cattle, if bought on the market, are comparatively soon, 
say within fifteen to twenty days, put on full feed. Short- 

*Bulletin 142, Purdue University Agr. Expt. Station, 1910. 


fed cattle, are usually heavier of weight at the beginning of 
feeding than are those fed for a longer period. In 1908 the 
Purdue station started a load of short-feds on feed on August 
1st. At the end of the first 10 days these steers were eating 
11 pounds shelled corn and 2 pounds cottonseed meal each 
daily. By September 1st they were eating per head 13J/2 
pounds of shelled corn, 3J/2 pounds cottonseed meal and 25 
pounds of silage. The heaviest grain feed given was on the 
third month, when 20 pounds of corn and 4 pounds of cotton- 
seed meal were fed each steer, and the silage was reduced 
to 20 pounds. On November 27 these cattle were shipped 
to Chicago, where at the International Live Stock Exposi- 
tion they won the short-fed carload championship. 

Figure 101. Feeding roughage on the range. 

The feeding of steers roughage in the early stages of 
fattening, may vary according to the purpose. Steers to be 
fed a long period may start in with roughage alone, and then 
gradually be brought to grain feed. At the Pennsylvania 
station, for example, one lot of steers was fed corn silage for 
roughage, and 2^ pounds cottonseed meal each, for the 
first 56 days of the experiment, after which a feed of ear 
corn was given daily in addition to silage and cottonseed 


meal. A second lot started with the complete ration of 
silage, cottonseed meal and ear corn, but did no better than 
the first lot, and in fact returned a less profit. It is desir- 
able, however, to feed corn with the view of finish for market, 
and the addition of this grain to the roughage might well 
begin within a month after feeding begins. If one wishes 
to carry cattle over for a late market, a heavier feed of rough- 
age than usual may be justified. 


1. What is the relationship of weight to nutritive ratio? 

2. What ration was used for wintering cows at the Illinois station? 

3. When should grain be fed on pasture? 

4. How should the calves be handled with their dams? 

5. Why is skim milk a valuable food for calves? 

6. How should the spring-dropped calf be wintered? 

7. What is meant by baby beef? 

8. On what basis should grain be fed to baby beef? 

9. To what extent should grain be fed to steers on pasture, if at all? 

10. Give four of the advantages of pasture fattening as outlined by Dr. 


11. What are short-feds? 


12. To what extent beef production occurs in the vicinity of your 


13. Whether or no local feeders use grain on pasture. 

14. Do calves follow their dams at foot on pasture? 

15. Who, if any one, in your section feeds baby beef? 

16. Is beef production a profitable industry in your vicinity? If not, 

why not? 


The person breeding and feeding beef cattle finds it 
necessary to consider a number of things which are factors 
in problems of management as well as feeding. Some of 
these are herewith considered in this chapter. 

Figure 102. An excellent type of Shorthorn steer. Photograph by the author. 

The influence of type in beef production is manifest in 
several ways. Prime steers, representing the blockiest and 
best killing type of beef cattle, are especially valued for the 
high percentage of the more choice cuts, for the quality of 
the meat, and the superior dressing out of the carcass. Cattle 
of this type do not, however, necessarily show greater gains 
in weight from a given quantity of food than do inferior 
steers on the same ration. One may expect to sell the bet- 



ter grades of cattle for the higher prices; but, if purchased 
as feeders, their initial cost may be so great as to result in 
a loss rather than profit. Several American experiment sta- 
tions have proven this fact in feeding steers of different 
types. One of these of special interest was conducted by 
the Iowa station. Four steers of beef type and four of dairy 
type were fed during the year 1903. Two of the steers 
were pure-bred Aberdeen-Angus, two grade Herefords, two 
Jerseys, and two Holstein-Friesians. When the experiment 
started the average weight of the beef steers was 685 pounds, 
while the dairy-type steers averaged 574 pounds. It is 
interesting to note that the average gain of the beef steers 
was 606 pounds, while that of the dairy type was 598 pounds 
per head. The average cost of a pound of gain with the 
beef type was 7.81 cents, while that of the dairy type was 
but 7.63 cents. The average selling price per pound for the 
beef type, however, was 4.89 cents, while the dairy type 
brought but 3.75 cents per pound. In this Iowa experi- 
ment, it was demonstrated, 

(1) That the gains made from food consumed, were 
much alike with each type. 

(2) That the beef type uses his food to the best advan- 
tage in developing the more valuable cuts. 

(3) That the beef type steer shows the greatest profit to 
the feeder. 

(4) That the dairy type produces the most offal and the 
greatest amount of tallow. 

(5) That while there is little difference in per cent of 
valuable cuts in the two types of steers, those of the beef 
type were thicker, better marbled and of superior color. 

The influence of breed in beef production has been to 
some extent shown in the preceding section in type discus- 
sion. In this case steers of different breeds were compared, 
with the results noted. In various feeding experiments in 
beef production, in which the question of the comparative 


merits of breeds was considered, no essential difference has 
been shown in the gains in weight and cost of production 
with cattle of several breeds of the beef type. The carcasses 
also have been shown to be quite similar in value. If, how- 
ever, breeds of widely different types, such as beef and dairy, 
were compared, then it has invariably been shown that, 
while there might not be much difference in the gains in live 
weight and cost of the same, there was a marked difference, 
when it came to the slaughter test, in favor of the beef 
breeds in carcass value and percentage of offal. 

The influence of age on beef production is quite marked. 
Quoting various experiments reported on by Henry and 
Morrison,* the older the age of the animal fed, the smaller 
the average daily gain and the greater the cost of produc- 
tion. At the Ontario Agricultural College, Prof. Zavitz fed 
a steer three years. It made an average daily gain of 2.2 
pounds the first year, with a total gain of 785 pounds; the 
second year the average daily gain was 1.2 pound with a 
total gain of 456 pounds, while the third year the average 
gain per day was but 1 pound, the total gain for that year 
being 350 pounds. At the Ontario Experimental Farm at 
Ottawa, in four years of feeding, including 153 steers, the 
average cost for 100 pounds gain live weight was $4.22 for 
the calves, $5.31 for the yearlings, $5.62 for the two-year- 
olds, and $6.36 for the three-year-olds. 

Two age factors are important in feeding operations 
to-day. The market demands a younger, lighter weight 
steer than was the case a few years ago, and heavy cattle 
around two years of age sell at a discount. A second factor 
is that of the condition of the animals when placed on feed. 
Cattle that are thin respond more quickly to feed than do 
those in good condition, so that many feeders prefer to buy 
thin yearlings or two-year-olds, on account of the greater 
gains that will be secured. If the condition of flesh were 
the same with cattle of different ages when put on feed, then 

* Feeds and Feeding, 1917, pp. 432-434. 



there would be a steady increase in the requirements of food 
from calf hood to maturity to produce a pound of gain. 
Messrs. Skinner and Cochel made a survey of beef feeding 
in Indiana, in which they found that, of 929 feeders, 76 per 
cent fed two-year-olds, 16 per cent yearlings, and 7 per cent 
calves. The average weight desired in a two-year-old was 
1,000 pounds. "Some feeders preferred steers three years 
old or over, the reason being that such cattle usually carry 

more flesh and make 
more rapid gains, thus 
requiring a shorter feed- 
ing period. They also 
need less grain to finish 
them, utilize coarser 
food, feed out more uni- 
formly, and withstand 
severe weather better." 
The influence of 
quality in beef produc- 
tion is of great import- 
ance. Animals that show 
coarse joints, heavy bone 
and hide, and marked 

Figure 103. A crossbred Hereford-Aberdeen- 
Angus steer, showing superior quality. 
Photograph by the author. 

paunchiness, lack in 

quality and may be expected to dress out a comparatively 
large amount of offal, and have a carcass of inferior quality. 
When the more valuable cuts are thin and the fat is un- 
evenly distributed in patchy form, then the carcass brings 
much less money than the one with thick and well- 
marbled cuts, with the external fat smoothly distributed. 
On all discriminating beef markets, this matter of quality 
plays an important part in values. 

The influence of shelter in beef production has attracted 
attention among feeders for many years. Some breeds are 
better suited to exposure than others. Certainly the West 



Highland cattle of Scotland, with their thick hides and 
heavy coats of hair, do not require the same shelter from 
inclemency of winter as would most other breeds. Even 
on our western prairies the need of shelter in winter would 
not be nearly so apparent for Hereford cattle as for Short- 
horn or Aberdeen-Angus, due to an ancestry of out-of-door 
living and a constitution especially suited to range condi- 
tions. Beef cattle, however, have comparatively thick, mel- 
low hides, and heavy coats of hair in winter, and so do not 
need the warm stables usually provided for dairy cattle. 

Figure 104. Beef cattle barns and concrete silos at Curls' Neck Farm, Virginia, 
Photograph by the author. 

Various experiments have shown that steers fed in open 
sheds, rather than barns, do better and gain more in weight, 
and at less cost than those confined in closed stables. 

The self-feeder for beef cattle is a box-like affair called 
a hopper, with closely boarded sides, having a trough-like 
arrangement at the bottom on two sides. The hopper has 
a roof, to protect the contents, and inside the bottom in- 
clines like an inverted V to each slot. Feed is put in through 
a door at the top and this by gravity settles down and 
works out through slots into feed troughs 24 to 30 inches 


above the ground. Self-feeders of the smaller size may be 
portable so as to be moved from one point to another. This 
feature is an advantage when the ground about the feeder 
becomes muddy and unsuitable for cattle to stand in. Prof. 
Mumford gives a plan of a self-feeder* that is 12 feet 2 
inches long, 5J/2 feet high, and 4 feet 4 inches broad, which 
holds about 180 bushels. Self-feeders for cattle are used to 
some extent, but are not in general use. Commenting on 
its use, Mumford says that its chief advantage is as a 
saving of labor, and that " where its proper use in the 
economy of cattle feeding is understood, it is not necessarily 
a wasteful or hazardous method of finishing cattle." In 
experiments with the self -feeder at the Illinois station, Mum- 
ford and Allison found that the self-fed steers consumed a 
slightly heavier concentrate allowance, and were brought to 
full feed in a shorter time than hand-fed ones. In the hands 
of a careful manager, if the cattle are brought to full feed 
before being turned to the self-feeder, the results will prob- 
ably be satisfactory. 

The paved feed lot for cattle is desirable rather than 
requiring them to move about in yards deep in mud and 
manure. It is a common thing during winter and spring to 
find cattle confined more or less in yards that are covered 
with wet manure or mud, absolutely unsanitary, a fine place 
for promoting disease. Lots may be paved with brick or 
concrete; in fact the latter material has come into consider- 
able use for this purpose. In an experiment at the Illinois 
station, a carload of steers fed in a mud lot gained about the 
same as one fed in a paved lot, but brought ten cents less a 
hundred in the market, on account of their dirty appearance. 
Also pigs following steers in the paved lot made much bet- 
ter gains than those in the mud lot. In the Illinois experi- 
ment the steers in the mud lot had access to an open shed 
with bedding where they could lie down and be comfortable, 
which fact accounts for their making the good showing they 

*Beef Production, 1908. 


made. Prof. Mumford says, however, that "steers sub- 
jected to a mud lot with no suitable place to lie down must 
suffer, and when a steer is uncomfortable he is not making 
gain economically." He also believes that cattle will not 
drink as much water as they need, if obliged to wade through 
mud to obtain it. 

The margin in beef -cattle selling is the difference between 
the cost per hundred of the feeder on the market and the 
price per hundred received for it when sold. For example, 

Figure 105. An English feed lot near Faringdon, Oxfordshire, paved with 
macadam. Photograph by the author. 

if a steer weighing 500 pounds costs $6.00 per hundred when 
put on feed, its total cost would be $30.00. Should it gain 
500 pounds in live weight at a feed cost of $35.00, then each 
100 pounds of gain would cost $7.00. Assuming the value 
of the manure will offset the cost of labor, the 1,000-pound 
steer has now cost the owner $65.00, the equivalent of $6.50 
per hundred in the feed lot when ready to sell. In order to 
break even on this feeding transaction, the owner would 
need to obtain enough more at time of sale than the original 
cost of the steer, to offset its total cost per hundred, which 


would be 50 cents, which is known as the "necessary margin" 
to prevent loss. If the steer is sold for $8.00 per hundred, 
then we have an actual margin of $1.50 per hundred, which 
is the difference between the actual price received at sale 
and the original purchase price. 

There are numerous things which influence the margin, 
as already brought out, as first cost, first weight, cost of 
gain, delivery to feed lot and later marketing, and time of 
year and feed conditions. "The heavier the cattle to be fed, 
and the better their condition when placed on feed, the nar- 
rower will be the necessary margin. The higher the price 
of feed stuffs, the wider should be the necessary margin, 
while cattle on pasture, making inexpensive gains, naturally 
require a narrower margin than winter-fed stock. 

Separate care of beef cattle of different ages and sexes 
is given in all well-regulated herds. Young calves of both 
sexes may run together until three or four months old, after 
which time they should be fed and cared for separately. Heif- 
ers to be retained for breeding should be fed and cared for 
in lots by themselves. Cows with calves require very close 
attention in feed and care, while dry cows require less feed 
and supervision. Bulls should not run with the herd, but 
should be provided good yards, affording plenty of exercise. 

Tuberculosis is one of the most common diseases affect- 
ing cattle. It is caused by a form of bacteria known as 
Bacillus tuberculosis, a very minute, slender rod-shaped 
organism, or what we commonly term a germ. A tubercular 
animal may be affected in various ways. The lungs, liver, 
spleen, small glands, udder and intestines in well-advanced 
stages develop lumps or tubers, containing cheesy-like matter. 
When the lungs are affected, animals cough and expectorate 
sputum, which contains the germs through which the disease 
is spread. Germs are also passed off in the excrement, and 
so may be found anywhere in manure that comes from tuber- 
cular cows. In advanced stages of the disease, cattle may 


become very thin, the coat of hair is more or less harsh 
and staring, there is diarrhea, bloat and weakness, and cough- 
ing may ensue when rising after lying down. 

Tuberculosis is very contagious, and one affected cow 
will spread the disease amongst a herd and ruin it. The 
germs live for a long time in dark stables, in mangers and 
manure trenches, etc. When the udder is affected, they 
also pass off in the milk, and, if this is fed to healthy calves 
or pigs, they usually contract the disease. The tubercular 
germ is killed by a few hours exposure to sunlight, and is 
destroyed in milk that is heated up to 145 degrees for 25 
minutes, and then suddenly cooled to 40 degrees. For 
family use, milk heated to 165 degrees for 5 minutes and then 
cooled to about 40 degrees, will be safe to use. 

The universal method of determining whether a cow has 
tuberculosis to-day is by the tuberculin test. A serum is 
produced in the laboratory by growing the germs of the 
disease, in a solution, which at a certain stage of develop- 
ment is boiled to destroy all germ life. If some of this solu- 
tion is then injected beneath the skin of a tubercular cow, 
her temperature during a few succeeding hours will go 
through a rather steady rise of two degrees, and then fall. 
If she has no tuberculosis, her temperature will not change. 
There is also another test, the intradermal, in which the 
serum is injected between the outer and inner layers of skin, 
and still another test, the ophthalmic, in which tuberculin 
is applied in the eye. 

Every herd should be tuberculin tested, and each reactor 
should be killed, subject to inspection. If the carcass itself 
is not affected, and the disease is confined to the organs 
that are removed, the meat is suitable for food. In 1921 at 
10 Armour Packing Houses, 4,728 cattle were held by the 
Government inspectors for further examination, because of 
suspected tuberculosis. Of these 76.48 per cent were con- 
demned as unfit for food.* 

^Progressive Beef Cattle Raising. Published by Armour & Co. 1922. 


Accredited herds are now being established all over the 
United States by the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry, in 
co-operation with state veterinarians or cattle commissioners. 
An accredited herd must pass a 100 per cent tuberculin test 
for three successive years, showing it to be free from tuber- 
culosis. There are now thousands of accredited herds in 
this country with interest in this subject steadily increasing. 

As there is no known cure for tuberculosis, the thing for 
the stockman to do is to use preventive methods. The 
stable should be well lighted and ventilated. In making 
the highest grade of milk that is, certified it is recom- 
mended by the U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry that each 
cow be allowed at least 4 square feet of window light and 500 
cubic feet of air space. Sunlight is a stable disinfectant. 
Water troughs and mangers should be kept clean, as the 
disease is distributed through these mediums. The stables 
should be kept whitewashed, or sprayed at frequent intervals 
with disinfectants, as, for example, a 5 per cent solution of 
creolin, which may be purchased at most drug stores. 

Lump jaw is a disease that appears as a hard swelling or 
tumor on the jaws of cattle. It is caused by a fungous disease 
that grows on some forms of grasses and stubble. If the 
jaw is badly diseased, it becomes ulcerated, the cattle find it 
difficult to chew their food, and sometimes die. This disease 
is not communicated to other animals by one that is affected. 
What is known as iodine treatment may cure the disease in 
its early stages, but as a rule, it is recommended to fatten and 
slaughter cattle having this disease, as the carcass is suitable 
for food when only the head is affected. The udder of the 
hog is sometimes affected by this disease. 

Blackleg is a very contagious disease caused by a germ 
known as the blackleg bacillus. The animal becomes in- 
fected through an abrasion on the skin, and the disease is 
transmitted by contaminated animals by discharges from the 
skin wounds. The symptoms are first a high fever and loss 


of appetite, difficulty in breathing and in locomotion. The 
membranes of the mouth later become dark red or purple, 
and swellings appear on the more muscular parts, as thighs 
and shoulders, which may spread to other parts of the body. 
Under these swellings a bloody fluid develops, and the flesh 
of the legs takes on a dark color, hence the name blackleg. 
As the disease is not curable, preventivemeasuresareadopted. 
Healthy cattle are vaccinated with a vaccine produced in the 
laboratory from the disease germs. This treatment is very 
effective in preventing the malady. 

Foot and mouth disease especially affects cattle, although 
it may occur with swine and sheep. The disease is indicated 
by a fever, and by the appearance of water blisters on the 
mouth, a great flow of saliva, and sore feet. This is a very 
contagious disease, but is not usually fatal, although it does 
great damage to herds. While very prevalent on the contin- 
ent of Europe, it has never had a permanent foothold in the 
United States, because of the fact that it has been stamped 
out by our government through a strict policy of quarantine 
and slaughter. 

Foot rot of a contagious nature, which occurs with cattle 
and sheep, though more commonly with the latter, is due to 
germs which develop between the toes and under the hoofs. 
The foot becomes hot and swelled, and finally pus is formed 
and discharged when the swellings break. The sores develop 
under the shell-like part of the hoof, and in bad cases the 
outer horny layer may drop off. Naturally the animal be- 
comes very lame, and may hardly be able to walk. The pus 
which comes from the sore scatters the disease among the 
healthy animals of the herd. For treatment the diseased 
tissue should be trimmed away, the foot thoroughly washed 
with strong disinfectants, and if need be bandaged. An 
excellent disinfectant is a strong solution of copper sulfate. 
Sometimes in extreme cases of diseased hoofs, pure copper 
sulfate crystals are packed about the hoof. Foot rot is very 


hard to cure, and, when discovered in a herd, should be 
treated vigorously and the treatment repeated frequently 
enough to cure the trouble. For preventive measure cattle 
and sheep may be walked through shallow troughs containing 
a 5 per cent solution of copper sulfate, repeating the treat- 
ment every two or three weeks. Yards and stables heavy in 
manure and mud are great breeding grounds for foot rot. 

Hemorrhagic septicemia occurs with cattle, sheep and 
swine. In swine it is a form of cholera. Little is known of 
the origin of the disease. Animals that are sick show a strong 
fever, swell about throat and brisket, and have difficulty in 
breathing. If the intestines are affected, the animal may 
act colicky, and the solid excrement may be bloody. After 
death hemorrhage is found under the skin and in the in- 
testine walls, with bloody spots about the membranes of the 
heart and diaphragm in particular. The disease may be 
acute, which is very fatal, or sub-acute, when from five to 
fifteen per cent of the herd may die. This disease is most 
common with cattle on swampy pastures or where the drink- 
ing water is stagnant and unsanitary. Prevention is more 
satisfactory than treatment, and so stock should be kept on 
well-drained land and given good drinking water. Water 
troughs and mangers should be frequently cleaned, and 
disinfectants used liberally in the stable. 

Anthrax, or charbon, is a germ disease that affects many 
kinds of animals, especially cattle, horses and sheep. It is 
most abundant in warm, moist climates. Low-lying, moist 
pastures may be infected with the disease for many years. 
There are several forms of the disease. One acts like 
apoplexy, in which the animal becomes suddenly sick, staggers, 
falls, and dies in convulsions. The abdominal form is as- 
sociated with swelling and pain in the abdomen, diarrhea, 
etc. The thoracic form exhibits bloody discharge from the 
nostrils, salivation, swelling of the throat and rapid breath- 
ing. Swellings or carbuncles occur with each of these forms. 


There is no known cure, but by vaccination animals may be 
made immune from the disease. All anthrax carcasses 
should be burned. Great care should be exercised by men 
in working among animals having anthrax, for the disease is 
readily communicated to humans through abrasions on the 
skin. Occasionally persons handling hides from foreign 
countries have contracted anthrax. 

Warbles are caused by a large fly, which lays its eggs on 
the hair of cattle. The animal licks its hair and swallows the 
eggs, which hatch in the gullet, where the young grubs 
work their way through, finally to locate in the tissue just 
beneath the skin of the back. Here they develop, so that by 
spring one notices little tumors in the skin, in the center of 
which is a small hole. Through these holes the grub works 
its way and drops to the ground where it develops into a fly. 
The holes made by the grub greatly injure the hides for 
commerical use, if there at time of slaughter. 

Milk-fever is a disease especially noticeable among cows 
that are heavy milkers and occurs most commonly after the 
third, fourth, and fifth calving. It usually occurs two or 
three days after the calf is born. There is no absolute 
knowledge as to the cause, although some think blood con- 
gests in the udder, while others believe it due to poisons 
developed in the milk. Cows sick with milk fever show the 

following symptoms, as described by Dr. F. B. Hadley.* 

"The symptoms of milk fever start with excitement and end in 
complete loss of consciousness, the animal going through much the 
same stages as when given a general anesthetic, such as ether or chloro- 
form. The patient has a wild look in the eye, switches her tail, trembles, 
weakens, staggers, lies or falls down, tries to rise but is unable to do so 
on account of paralysis of the muscles. She then loses all sensation and 
passes into a state of unconsciousness cr coma, with her head tucked 
into the right flank. The breathing is deep and slow. Later the cow 
stretches out flat on her side." 

Treatment for milk-fever is simple and effective, consist- 
ing in pumping air into the udder. It may be best applied 
by means of a milking tube on the end of rubber tubing, 
using a bicycle pump for inflation. The milking tube before 

*Priuciples of Veterinary Science 1920 p. 340. 


using should be thoroughly sterilized, and the ends of the 
teats cleaned and disinfected. Care should be taken not to 
pump too great a pressure of air in the udder. "To prevent 
escape of the air," writes Dr. Hadley, "the end of the teat is 
repeatedly pushed into itself until it stays of its own accord." 
Other veterinarians recommend tying strips of muslin or 
tape around the ends of the teats to prevent escape of the 
air. If recovery does not become apparent within four or 
five hours, the treatment should be repeated. 


1. Type, (a) In making gains. 

(b) In production of high priced cuts. 

(c) In selling values. 

2. Breed. What have feeding experiments shown? 

3. Age. (a) Gains in weight. 

(b) Cost of production. 

4. Quality, and its relationship to values. 

5. Shelter, (a) Comparing breeds. 

(b) Types of shelter. 

6. The self-feeder. 

7. The paved feed lots compared with the dirt lot. 

8. The margin; what is it, how affected. 

9. Tuberculosis and lump jaw. 


10. The type of cattle fed in your neighborhood. 

11. The popular ages in feed lots. 

12. The kind of shelters provided. 

13. The use of the self-feeder. 


The Jersey breed of cattle originated on an island of 
that name located off the coast of France in the English 
channel. There is a small group of what are known as the 
Channel Islands not far from the coast of Normandy. In 
fact, from Jersey on a clear day one may see the French 

Figure 106. Raleigh's Fairy Boy 83767, a famous Jersey bull, both as an 
individual and sire. Owned by C. I. Hudson of New York. Photograph 
by the author. 

coast. There are four principal islands, of which Jersey, 
the largest, contains about 40,000 acres. The climate here 
is quite mild and balmy much of the year. The cattle, of 
which there are about 12,000, live out of doors during a very 
long season, each one grazing tethered by a chain and rope 
fastened to an iron pin in the ground. The herds are small, 
and these and potatoes are the chief sources of inconi? o.i 



Jersey. There are perhaps 60,000 people on the island. 

Jersey cattle are supposed to have originated from stock 
in the neighboring districts of Normandy and Brittany in 
France. They have been kept pure of blood for much over 
a century. As early as 1763 the people on the island adopted 
laws to regulate the importation of cattle from France. For 
a very long time no foreign cattle have been allowed to enter 
Jersey, except such as were butchered within 24 hours after 
landing. In 1833 the people organized a society to improve 
the agriculture of the island, and the next year they drew 
up a scale of points for the bulls and cows. Since then it 
has been changed and improved a number of times. The 
people made notable progress in improving their cattle, and 
no doubt the competition of the show ring and the butter 
and milk tests which were established inspired them to study 
to secure this improvement. 

The Jersey was first brought to America about 1850, 
Connecticut and Massachusetts men being the importers. 
Since then large numbers have been brought to this country, 
and have been widely distributed over the United States and 
Canada, so that now this is the most common dairy breed 
of cattle known in North America. 

The characteristics of the Jersey are as follows : The size 
is medium, though many seem small. Mature bulls should 
weigh from 1,300 to 1,400 pounds, and cows 850 to 900 
pounds, though many animals exceed these weights. The 
color is fawn, but of various shades, some being the color of 
the deer or lighter, others very dark, approaching black. 
White occurs, though it is not popular in America, and but 
comparatively few animals show distinct white markings. 
The form is distinctly of the dairy or triple wedge type. The 
head is very attractive, having a somewhat large and promi- 
nent eye, a dished face and small refined horn; the neck is 
thin and of medium length; the withers thin; shoulders 
somewhat prominent; body of moderate depth and feeding 



capacity; rump of fair width and length, and thighs thin 
and incurving. There is a tendency for the hocks to stand 
somewhat close together, and the rump is often narrow and 
steep. The approved type of udder comes up high behind, 
is carried level and well forward along the belly, with the 
front quarters especially well developed. The teats should 
be of convenient size and squarely placed, to permit com- 
fortable manipulation in milking. In recent years we have 
heard more or less about American-type and Island-type 

Figure 107. Jersey cow, Simple Interest 4th. Photograph taken in the field 
by the author on the Island of Jersey. 

Jerseys. The former is somewhat larger, coarser, plainer- 
headed, and less symmetrical in udder than the latter. 
Many American-type Jerseys have udders that are poorly 
developed in front, showing the whole much out of balance. 
The most striking features in the appearance of the Jersey 
are the color; the wedge form; the short, dished face; the 
prominent, beautiful eye; the fine bone, and the deer-like 
character of the calves. The disposition of the cows is very 


good, but the bulls at maturity are liable to be nervous and 
are often cross. Jerseys mature very young, compared with 
other breeds. 

The milk of the Jersey is usually yellow in color and 
rich in butter-fat. The skin of these cattle show something 
of this rich yellow color, especially in the small, wax-col- 
ored horns, in the ears, and about the udder. The Jersey 
of good breeding produces a fair amount of milk, and 5,000 
pounds a year may be regarded as common, while many 
cows have produced over 10,000 pounds a year each. Up 
to May, 1921, over 1,500 two-year-old heifer records of Jer- 
seys average 7,691 pounds of milk, while 1,459 cows five 
years old or over show an average of 9,701 pounds of milk. 
The cow of this breed showing the most remarkable pro- 
duction is Sophie 19th, of Hood Farm, that during nine 
consecutive years produced 110,938 pounds of milk. The 
heaviest milk record of a Jersey cow in a year was 19,694 
pounds by the cow Passport. Jersey milk usually contains 
4 J/2 to 5 per cent of fat, and makes a high grade of butter. 
Many cows have produced enough milk in a week to yield 
14 or more pounds of butter. Some few have records of 
over 20 pounds in a week. Many Jerseys have produced 
enough milk within a year to yield 500 pounds of butter, 
and some have even exceeded this. Up to May 1, 1921, the 
1,543 two-year-olds noted above gave an average annual fat 
yield in the milk of 356 pounds, while the 1,459 aged cows 
averaged 510 pounds of fat. Up to 1921 three Jersey cows 
have produced 1,000 pounds or more of milk fat in a year, 
Plain Mary having 1,040 pounds and Vive La France 1,039 
pounds, and Sophie's Agnes 1,000 pounds. In nine con- 
secutive yearly records, Sophie % 19th, of Hood Farm, pro- 
duced a total of 6,354.6 pounds of milk fat. 

There is a number of noted Jersey families, of which the 
Golden Lad, Oxford, Financial Interest, Signal, St. Lambert, 
Coomassie, Eurotas, Tormentor, and Owl-Interest are espe- 



cially well-known; but many Jerseys in little known families 
have made remarkable milk and butter-fat records. 

Prices for Jersey cattle under average conditions are very 
reasonable. In the past, however, many animals have 
brought what may be regarded as very high prices. In 1919 
Edmond Butler broke Jersey price records, selling 47 head 
for $158,250, an average of $3,367.02. At this sale the bull 
Sybil's Gamboge was sold for $65,000 to Mr. L. V. Walkley, 
the record for a male, while in 1921, at Mr. Walkley's sale, 

Figure 108. Jersey heifer calf, Buttercup's Jasmine. Owned by C. I. Hudson 
of New York. Photograph from Mr. Hudson. 

the cow Gamboge Oxford Gem sold for $18,000, the high 
price for a cow of the breed. 

The distribution of Jerseys is world-wide, but they are 
generally common in the United States and Canada. They 
have an especially strong foothold in the states of Ohio, 
Texas, Tennessee, Missouri, New York, Pennsylvania, and 
Oregon. The American Jersey Cattle Club, with head- 


quarters in New York City, is the official national promoter 
of the breed. Activity in promoting Jerseys is shown in that 
up to May, 1921, there were organized 167 state and local 
Jersey clubs, 70 bull clubs, and 61 calf clubs. 

The Holstein-Friesian breed of cattle came originally 
from Holland. Here the people have kept dairy cows for 
centuries. The country is very low, much of it lying below 
sea level, the water being held back by dykes. There are 
many meadows that are separated by canals. On long, 
narrow strips of pasture, with water on each side, one sees 
beautiful herds of black and white cattle, a most common 

Figure. 109. The Kuperus herd and barn near Leuwarden, Holland. Photo- 
graph by the author. 

summer sight in Holland. We do not know the origin of 
these cattle. They are perhaps descended from the Giant 
Ox. The present cattle are usually black and white, though 
red and white rarely occur. Cattle were brought to America 
from Holland by the early Dutch settlers of New York and 
vicinity. In 1795 the Holland Land Company sent some 
cattle to central New York. Later on, Dutch cattle were 
taken to Vermont and other eastern states. Along in the 
middle and later part of the last century many were imported 



into America, but in recent years importation has been pro- 
hibited, owing to foot-and-mouth disease which is more or 
less prevalent at all times on the continent of Europe. 

The characteristics of Holstein-Friesian cattle are as fol- 
lows : in size they are the largest of the common dairy breeds, 
mature bulls often weighing from 2,000 to 2,500 pounds and 
cows from 1,200 to 1,500 pounds or more. The color, which 
is a striking feature of the breed, is black-and-white spotted, 
the amount of one color or the other varying greatly in dif- 



Figure 110. Holstein-Friesian bull calf, Carnation King Sylvia, bought in 
1918 for the record price of $106,000 by Carnation Stock Farms. 
Photograph from the owners. 

ferent animals. In recent years, however, cattle that showed 
much more white than black have been in most favor. The 
heads incline to be a trifle long and narrow; the horns seem- 
ing small for such a large breed; the body is capacious; the 
rump is long and often steep; and the thighs are large and 
in many instances tend to be somewhat thick and beefy. 
The udder is a notable feature of the breed, tending to be 
pendant, and with age hanging low rather than being held 


fairly close to the belly. In some cases the udder attains 
immense size and capacity. 

There are three recognized types of this breed: 

(a) The thin-fleshed, wedge-shaped type; 

(b) Those that carry somewhat more flesh; and 

(c) Those that are rather broad over the withers and 
thick in the quarters, and show more beefiness than dairy 
cattle men usually admire. 

Many persons approve the medium between the two 
extremes, if the cow is a satisfactory producer of milk. An 
animal of beefy form, with a thick pair of thighs, is not to be 
commended. Among the noted Holstein-Friesian sires one 
finds extremes in type, some animals possessing conforma- 
tion that is far from what might be regarded as ideal. 

The milk of the Holstein-Friesian is about average, or 
below, in quality, not being noted for butter-fat content. 
But in production of quantity of milk, this breed leads all 
others in a marked degree. A large number of cows have 
produced yields of over 100 pounds of milk in a day, 
Cascade Johanna Illustrites having the remarkable record of 
161.4 pounds in 1 day and 3,546 pounds in 30 days. There 
are many records of over 25,000 pounds of milk in a year. 
Most remarkable among these is that of Tilly Alcartra, a 
California cow that has produced in eight consecutive yearly 
records a total of 201,138 pounds of milk, a yearly average 
of 25,142 pounds. The greatest yearly production of milk 
by a cow of the breed was by Segis Pietertje Prospect, of 
37,381 pounds, completed in 1921. 

Holstein-Friesian milk usually contains a small per cent 
of fat, 3 per cent being common, and 4 per cent unusual for 
cows not being in official test. Breeders, however, are 
steadily improving the breed in this respect, so that no 
doubt there will be an improvement in the average amount 
of fat. On account of the large milk yield, however, the 
butter-fat in one day may amount to a very important total. 



In 1919 the cow Rolo Mercena De Kol produced 51.93 
pounds of estimated 80% butter in her milk in a 7-day test, 
while during 30 days she produced 201.17 pounds. From 
1915 to 1921 Duchess Skylark Ormsby held the world's rec- 
ord for a year's production of butter-fat, 1,205 pounds, 
or 1,506.36 pounds of estimated butter. In 1921 Bella 
Pontiac, however, completed a record for a year of 1,258.8 
fat, equal to 1,587.5 pounds of butter. Up to 1922 there have 
been official advanced registry (A.R.O.) records made by 
50 cows of 1 ,000 pounds or more of butter-fat in 365 days or 

Figure 111. Holstein-Friesian cow, Springbrook Bess Burke 2d, one of the 
most noted dams and producers of the breed. Photograph from the 
owners, E. C. Shroeder Farms, Minnesota. 

less. In May 1921, the President of the Holstein-Friesian 
Association of America stated* that "the Advanced Registry 
contains milk and butter records to the number of 125,000, 
and last year there were added thereto about 17,000 records," 
which showing is remarkable. 

Among the noted Holstein-Friesian families are the 
Bess Burke, Clothilde, De Kol, Johanna, Korndyke, May 
Echo, Netherland, Ona, Pauline Paul, Pietertje, and Segis. 

*Hoard's Dairyman, June 3. 1921. 


Prices for Holstein-Friesian cattle range from ordinary 
to the highest that have been paid for cattle of any breed. 
A considerable number of animals sold during the period 
following the World War for from $10,000 each or more. 
The bull Carnation King Sylvia, a son of the famous cow 
May Echo Sylvia, sold in 1918 for $106,000. 

The distribution of Holstein-Friesian cattle is very wide- 
spread. In the United States, New York holds first place as 
a center for the breed, with Wisconsin, Ohio, Pennsylvania, 
and Michigan ranking in numbers of animals in the order 
given. A large percentage of the cattle of this breed are 
located in the Middle Atlantic and Central States. The 
breed is promoted by the Holstein-Friesian Association of 
America, with about 20,000 members, and by many state 
and local breed associations. The breed has had a wonder- 
ful development in the United States, and is constantly 
growing in favor. The great feeding and producing capacity 
of the cows, and their quiet disposition, have added much 
to their popularity, especially among men supplying milk to 
creameries or the city trade. In recent years, especially 
during and since the World War, Holstein-Friesians or 
Friesians as they are termed there, have grown in great 
favor in Great Britain. 

Guernsey cattle originated on the island of Guernsey, 
another of the Channel Islands, and come from much the 
same ancestry as the Jersey. The people of Guernsey 
adopted plans for keeping out foreign cattle, similar to those 
of Jersey. The earlier Guernsey cattle show less careful 
breeding, however, and, as a whole, have not been selected 
and improved as much as those on Jersey. Guernsey is a tri- 
angular, hilly island, of about 15,500 acres in area, and sup- 
ports a population of perhaps 45,000 people. The climate 
is balmy and healthful. The people make a specialty of 
flowers, vegetables, and cattle. The island of Alderney is 
officially a part of Guernsey, and the cattle on this island 



are the same as the Guernseys, being so regarded by Guern- 
sey and American breeders. In early days, though not at 
present, all the cattle from the Channel Islands in England 
and America were called Alderneys. These cattle were first 
introduced to America, it is thought, in 1830. 

The characteristics of Guernsey cattle are very compar- 
able with the Jersey. The two breeds are certainly closely 
related in their origin. The Guernseys are somewhat larger, 
than the Jerseys, standard weights being 1,600 pounds for 
the mature bulls and 1,100 pounds for the cows. The color 

Figure 112. Guernsey bull Langwater Advocate. Photograph from Lang- 
water Farm, North Easton, Mass. 

is usually yellow or red fawn, although white spots are very 
common, some of the most noted animals of the breed show- 
ing considerable white. The face is somewhat straighter 
than with the Jersey, and a very light creamy or ' 'mealy " 
ring of hair extends around the muzzle and about the eyes. 
A flesh-colored muzzle is preferred by breeders, a dark slate 
color being decidedly unpopular. Guernseys are often plain 
of head and rough of shoulder, and lack the beautiful front 



udder development so often found on the Island Jerseys. 
These cattle are noted for the yellow skin and secretions, 
the milk being especially high in color. Guernseys are 
usually of a quiet disposition, and the bulls are perhaps 
rather less nervous than are Jersey males. 

The milk of the Guernsey from the standpoint of quality 
and butter-fat production is unsurpassed. The milk has a 
natural rich yellow color, and tests 5 per cent or better in 
butter-fat. The cows make surprisingly high yields of milk, 

Figure 113. Guernsey cow, Langwater Phyllis. Owned by F. L. Ames, 
Langwater Farms, Massachusetts. Photograph from Mr. Ames. 

and some 10,000 cows officially tested, up to December, 
1920, showed an average production of 9,068 pounds, con- 
taining 454 pounds of fat. Great individual records have 
been made, the leading one in milk production being that of 
Murne Cowan of 24,008 pounds for a year, ending in 1915, 
while Countess Prue secured the lead in butter-fat produc- 
tion, by producing 1,103.28 pounds during a year ending 
in 1921. A wonderful two-year record was made by Kath- 


erine's Trixie, in a yield of 18,945.7 pounds of milk, contain- 
ing 791.48 pounds of fat. Among the great butter-fat 
producing Guernseys are Murne Cowan with a yearly record 
of 1,098 pounds, May Rilma, 1,073 pounds, Nella Jay 4th, 
1,019 pounds and Langwater Nancy, 1,012 pounds. 

The American Guernsey Cattle Club was the first breed 
association to establish what are known as official tests for 
milk and butter production, conducted by disinterested 
experiment station or agricultural college employees. Since 
the Club began this work, the Guernsey has made a remark- 
able showing. Some of the largest butter-fat records made 
by cows of any breed have come from the Guernsey. 

The prices paid for Guernsey cattle average fairly high, 
compared with those of other breeds. In 1918 the average 
price of 1,318 head sold at public auction was $330, while 
the average of 2,464 head sold in 1920 was $508. On May 
13, 1921, at the Eastern Guernsey Breeders' Association 
sale 56 head brought an average of $1,087. Some very high 
prices have been paid for individuals, one two-months-old 
bull calf, Florham Leader, selling for $25,000. 

The distribution of the Guernsey is not so extensive as 
either Jersey or Holstein-Friesian. Wisconsin is the leading 
state in promoting Guernseys, while the Middle Atlantic 
states, New England, and the North Central states largely 
furnish the American support of the breed. The American 
Guernsey Cattle Club, with headquarters in New Hamp- 
shire, is the official promoter of the breed, and there are also 
state and local Guernsey clubs. 

The Ayrshire is a Scotch breed that originated in the 
region Robert Burns has made famous, the county of Ayr 
in southwest Scotland. It has rather a cold, damp climate 
in winter, but there is good grazing in summer. Except 
near the sea, the country is more or less hilly. The Ayrshire 
is a dairy breed, and one of the youngest of the prominent 
breeds. Cattle were taken to the Ayrshire country from 


various places, for Shorthorn, Highland, Dutch, Guernsey, 
Devon, and Hereford cattle are said to have been owned 
by the farmers of that region. From the mingling of color 
of these breeds we get the red, brown, and white markings 
that are features of the Ayrshire. At the beginning of the 
nineteenth century there were cows in southwest Scotland 
that were famous milkers, and by offering prizes for compe- 
tition, the Scotch people have still more encouraged large 
milk production.' Ayrshires were first imported to America 
early in the nineteenth century. 

Figure 114. Three beautiful Ayrshire cows owned by Arthur H. Sagendorph 
of Massachusetts. Photograph from American Agriculturist. 

Characteristics of the Ayrshire. The mature bull should 
weigh about 1,500 pounds, and the cow about 1,100. The 
color is red and white or brown and white, with white most 
abundant in recent years. The head is one of the striking 
features of the breed, with its rather long, large and erect 
horns. While a true dairy breed, the Ayrshire inclines to 
be a trifle fleshy, with more thickness over the withers, along 
the back, and about the thighs than in case of the Jersey or 



Guernsey. Some of the bulls are too beefy for the best dairy 
form, but there are many cows that show beautiful dairy 
type. No other breed has such a uniformly well-developed 
udder as the Ayrshire, the fore part being much extended, 
and the rear udder carried well up behind. A big show of 
Ayrshire cows, without exception, makes a most uniform 
and attractive exhibit. 

The milk of the Ayrshire is of standard quality, testing 
from 3J/2 to 4 per cent fat. It makes excellent cheese, and 

Figure 115. Ayrshire bull Bargenoch Bonnie Scotland owned by John Sherwin 
of Ohio. Photograph by the author. 

most of the famous cheddar cheese of Scotland is made from 
Ayrshire milk. Very fine records in milk production have 
been made, a number of cows producing over 25,000 pounds 
of milk in a year. The great record of 25,329 pounds of 
milk in a year was made by Garclaugh May Mischief, while 
Lily of Willowmoor, one of the great cows of the breed, in 
five years produced a total of 84,991 pounds of milk, an 
average of nearly 17,000 pounds a year. A considerable 


number of excellent records in milk fat production have been 
made, with Lily of Willowmoor holding high rank with 955 J^ 
pounds to her credit in a year. 

The distribution of Ayrshire cattle in America is largely 
in the northeastern states and in Canada, where many 
excellent herds are found. A few herds are found here and 
there in the western states, as far as the Pacific slope, but 
the Ayrshire is not popular in the West. These cattle are 
hardy and do well in the more northern climates. 

Brown Swiss cattle originated in Switzerland. In color 
they are usually a dark brown, with lighter or cream-colored 

Figure 116. Brown Swiss cow McAlpine, a noted prize winner owned by E. M. 
Barton of Illinois. Photograph by the author. 

hair about the muzzle and along the top of the back. They 
incline to be heavy of head and neck, and coarse-boned; are 
likely to be somewhat fleshy, and often have rather meaty 
thighs. The cows produce a very good grade of milk, and 
some very excellent records have been made by Brown Swiss 
cows, College Bravura 2nd having produced 19,460 pounds 
in a year, containing 798 pounds of fat. While they often 
impress one as dual-purpose cattle, the association promo t- 


ing them has officially declared the Brown Swiss to be a 
dairy breed. These cattle are not popular in America, and 
but few herds are found in any part of the country, these 
being mostly confined to New York and the Middle West. 

The Dutch Belted breed of cattle was developed in Hol- 
land. It is of the dairy type, and is noted for its black color, 
marked off by a white stripe or blanket of varying width 
which extends entirely around the body between the hips 
and shoulders. It has not made much of a reputation for 
milk or butter-fat production, and, so far as public evidence 
goes, it is one of the poorest dairy breeds. There are very 
few herds in America, and they attract more attention from 
their peculiar markings than for actual merit. 

The French Canadian is a breed that has had special 
development for 200 years or so in Quebec, Canada. These 
cattle are black or very dark fawn in color, and probably had 
their origin in France, from the same sources as the Channel 
Island cattle. This is one of the small breeds, the mature 
cow weighing about 700 pounds. French Canadian milk 
tests slightly above 4 per cent in fat. Some large milk 
records are reported from Canada, but the specimens of the 
breed to be found in the United States do not seem to be 
important producers. It is regarded as a very hardy breed. 
There are few herds in the United States, these being located 
in the northeastern portion, though especially in New York. 

The Kerry is an Irish breed that has long been bred in 
Ireland. It is black in color, though white sometimes occurs 
about the udder of the cow. It is of small size, and will 
exist where most breeds would starve, hence it is the poor 
man's cow of Ireland. It is strictly a dairy type, and pro- 
duces an excellent milk, testing about 4 per cent fat. Some of 
the cows give a large yield of milk, considering their size. 
Milk records in Ireland supervised by the Department of 
Agriculture, show yields in a year up to 8,124 pounds. There 
are but few Kerries in America. 


The Dexter is another Irish breed, of uncertain ancestry 
but closely related to the Kerry. These cattle may be black 
or red in color, and are the smallest breed found in America. 
Many of the mature bulls and cows stand only 36 to 40 
inches high. The cows often produce excellent yields of 
milk, testing above 4 per cent fat. Cases are on record 
where cows of this breed weighed around 500 pounds and 
produced in a year over 8,000 pounds of milk. These dimin- 
utive cattle may never be popular for general dairying in 
America, but they will grow in favor for family use. 

The Devon is red in color, and originated in Devon, 
southwest England. It is a breed that is found to be either 
beefy or dual-purpose in form. It is a very old breed, and 
was brought to America by the early settlers of this country. 
Devons are not popular, and but few herds exist. It has 
lost ground in this country while other breeds have gained. 

Recently, however, the few members of the American 
Devon Cattle Club have attempted to establish official test- 
ing of Devons, and to demonstrate that they have cows of 
real merit in milk and butter-fat production in this dual- 
purpose breed. This awakening interest is largely among 
eastern breeders, in a section where dairy production is of much 
greater interest to cattlemen than is the growing of beef. 

The Red Polled, as its name shows, is red, and without 
horns. The breed originated in Suffolk and Norfolk coun- 
ties in eastern England. Red mulley cattle have been known 
in America since the early settlement of the country, but the 
first importation of the breed recorded was in 1873. These 
cattle are regarded good for both beef and milk production. 
The cows make a very good grade of milk, but, as a rule, are 
not heavy producers, although some excellent milk records 
have been made. The cow Jean DuLuth Beauty produced 
20,280 pounds of milk in a year, containing 89 lJ/ pounds of 
fat. Red Polled cattle are most common in the Middle 
Western states, especially Iowa, Illinois, and Wisconsin. 



1. What did the people of Jersey do to protect the purity of their cattle? 

2. What is the difference between Island and American type Jerseys? 

3. How productive is the Jersey in milk and butter-fat? 

4. How large are Holstein-Friesian cattle? 

5. What would be average Holstein-Friesian milk yields, and how do 

these compare with heavy records made? 

6. How adaptable is the Holstein-Friesian breed to American con- 

ditions? Where is it most abundant? 

7. In what respects do Guernseys and Jerseys resemble each other? 

8. How do Guernseys rank in official milk tests? 

9. In what section of the United States are Guernseys most popular? 

10. What is the color of the Ayrshire? 

11. Why is Lily of Willowmoor a noted cow? 

12. Are Brown Swiss dairy or dual-purpose type? 

13. What is the difference between the Kerry and the Dexter? 


14. A comparative study of two or more dairy herds of different 


15. Making a township or county map of pure-bred herds. 

16. Getting records of production from different herds. 

17. Studying lines of breeding in one or more herds. 

18. Investigating the use of pure-bred sires in grade herds. 

19. Locating the best bred sire in the community. 


The following discussion of judging dairy cattle is based 
on the scale of points in the score card in this chapter. This 
is general in its character, and is suited to the dairy cow 
irrespective of breed. Each of the national breed associa- 
tions promoting dairy cattle has its official standard for 

Figure 117. Holstein-Friesian cow Maplecrest Pontiac Application, a fine 
example of dairy type. She has a record of 1,075 pounds of butter-fat 
in 365 days. Photograph from American Agriculturist. 

each sex, and this may be used to advantage in breed 
study. The contents of this chapter are in harmony with 
the principles and practices involved in judging, and so 
should be a fitting introduction to score card work with 
the breeds. 

The size of the dairy animal is not material, unless in the 
case of a breed that has certain size requirements. Among 




grade animals may be found valuable producers at wide 
ranges of size. There are large producers in each breed, from 
the little Dexter, weighing 500 pounds, up to the Holstein, 
weighing 1,800. For this reason, size is of minor importance, 
if producing capacity and proper conformation exist. 

The general form of the dairy cow should be somewhat 
wedge-shaped, often referred to as the "triple wedge." This 
shape really means a narrowness in front and heaviness be- 

Figure 118. Jersey bull, Fontaines Raleigh. Photograph from the owner, 
C. I. Hudson of New York. 

hind. As one looks at a typical dairy cow from one side, 
the front part seems less deep than that behind. If a stick 
of ample length were laid along the back, and another were 
placed in a similar position against the under side of the 
body, they would meet at a common point in front, if suf- 
ficiently extended. Thus we see one of the wedge features. 
If one stands in front and looks towards the rear of the ani- 
mal, it will be noticed that the thickness through the front 
quarter at the shoulder is less than that of the hind quarter 


at the hips or just below. This view shows a second wedge 
conformation. The third wedge is seen by standing at the 
shoulder and looking down over the withers and ribs. From 
the withers the ribs gradually widen out to form a notice- 
able wedge in the upper half of the body. Thus we may 
see the three wedges in the conformation of the dairy cow. 

The general form of the dairy bull shows much less of 
the wedge shape than the cow. The best bulls, however, 
have a certain amount of thinness at the withers, and the 
body is long and muscular. The depth at the hind quarter 
is much the same as at the fore quarter, although the males 
are frequently somewhat high at the rear flanks. While the 
thighs, from a side view, appear muscular, as is the case 
with the cow, from the rear they should be thin and widely 
and highly separated. A beefy appearance of the thigh in 
this type is most undesirable. 

Quality in dairy cattle has certain features in common 
with the beef type, such as fineness of hair and bone and 
mellowness of skin. The chief difference is in the thickness 
and length of the coat of hair, which is usually much shorter 
and thinner on dairy than on beef cattle. The dairy ani- 
mal, as a rule, has the thinner and more elastic hide of the 
two. Those cattle that are of Jersey or Guernsey blood have 
very mellow, most elastic hides, that sometimes resemble a 
mole skin in their soft, pliable nature. Yellow color in the 
ears, skin, and horns is regarded as evidence of quality, and 
indicates the production of milk rich in color. The Guernsey 
Cattle Club places such a high value on the color of the secre- 
tions, that 15 points are allowed this feature in their scale 
of points. 

The temperament of the dairy animal should show plenty 
of nervous force. This does not mean an excitable disposi- 
tion, but lively rather than phlegmatic. Dairy bulls usually 
show plenty of nervous force, as compared with beef stock. 
The cow is constituted to produce milk, a task which requires 



a large amount of vitality and nervous energy. Indications 
of the temperament are easily seen in the prominence and 
character of expression of the eye. Some claims have been 
made that prominence of the spine indicates a large spinal 
cord and active brain, being a further indication of nervous 
force. There is very little information on this subject, how- 
ever, that will justify drawing conclusions. 

In judging dairy cattle, further than stated, there are 
certain things of importance to be considered that especially 
apply to this type, as set forth in the following score card 
for a cow with the mammary parts well developed : 


Scale of points 




SIZE, large, medium, or small 
FORM, wedge shape from front, side, and top; mus- 


QUALITY, hair fine, silky; skin mellow, loose; bone 


TEMPERAMENT, active, showing nervous force 
HEAD AND NECK: 7 Points. 
MUZZLE, broad; face lean, shapely 
EYES, prominent, bright; forehead broad 
EARS, medium size, not coarse 
NECK, somewhat long, not thick, well placed; clean at 
throat; light dewlap 
WITHERS thin and lean 




SHOULDERS, light, oblique 
LEGS, straight, short; shank fine 
BODY: 20 Points. 
CHEST, deep, girth large; crops not much depressed. 
BACK, lean, strong, well defined 
LOIN, broad, long level 
RIBS, long, well sprung below, giving large capacity, 
with low flanks 
HIND QUARTERS: 13 Points. 
HIPS, wide apart, not fleshy 

4 ' 




RUMP, broad, long, not droopy; pin bones wide apart 
TAIL, long, fine; good switch 
THIGHS, thin, long, wide apart 
LEGS, straight, short, wide apart; shanks fine 
UDDER, large, carried well in front along the belly, 
and high up behind; thick, mellow; quarters even 
not much grooved between 
TEATS, 3 to 4 inches long, well placed; an easy milker 
MILK VEINS, large, long, tortuous or winding, enter- 
ing large wells 





Total points 



The head should be lean and shapely. In general, the 
wide muzzle, short face, strong jaw, prominent eye, and 
broad forehead are desired. In most cases, a "dished" face 
is popular. This feature is a slight depression of the head at 
the lower part of the forehead and between the eyes. Yet 
all breeds do not have it. The dish-face is very character- 
istic of the Jersey, but is not so pronounced in the Holstein- 
Friesian. A broad muzzle, short face, and strong, wide jaw, 

Figure 119. The points of the dairy cow, as reproduced upon Ormsby Jane 
Segis Aaggie 150,943, champion Holstein-Friesian cow. As a senior 
four-year-old she has a seven-day record of 44.4 Ibs. of butter, (Re- 
produced from "Judging Farm Animals", by the author.) 

indicate a vigorous feeder. The eye should be prominent 
yet show a mild disposition, as indicated by clearness of the 
whites and quietness of expression. Dairy bulls often have 
eyes that indicate very clearly their character. The ears 
should be medium of size and thin of texture, and be neatly 
attached to the head. A yellow or orange color within the 
ear is desirable. The horns, when present, should show re- 
finement, and not be large and heavy at the union with the 


head. A small horn is preferred on the females, and some 
of the best known dairy sires have had rather small horns. 
A thin, muscular, somewhat long neck on the cow, and a 
strong, heavily-muscled, rather crested neck on the males, 
are desirable. When the neck blends well with the head, 
there is no unnatural fullness at the throat. The union of 
the neck with the shoulders should also be smooth. Dairy 
animals sometimes have a heavy dewlap, which, being 
an evidence of coarseness, is rather objectionable. 

The fore quarters of the dairy animal incline to be some- 
what prominent and are often rough. This appearance is 
in most cases due to the lack of covering of flesh. The 
smoothness of the .shoulder found in the beef animal is not 
to be expected with the dairy type, but the blades should 
extend well into the back and not be coarse. The withers 
above the shoulders should be lean and somewhat sharp. In 
fact, dairy cattle judges place a premium on thin, sharp 
withers. Many great-producing cows, however, have some 
thickness or fleshiness at this point. Occasionally, one will 
find dairy cows with the shoulder points noticeably separ- 
ated from the body. This characteristic is what is called a 
spread shoulder, and shows a weakness of the muscular 
attachment. Such a cow has an undesirable appearance, 
but otherwise is not seriously affected. 

The body of the dairy cow should be deep at the chest, 
yet not thick. As one views the animal from one side, the 
depth from the top of withers to bottom of the chest should 
be much greater than the length of leg. From a front view, 
the chest appears somewhat narrow. Not much depression 
back of the shoulders below the withers, at the point known 
as the "crops," is desired, for this indicates weakness in 
heart girth. The same criticism will apply at the fore flank. 
The back should be well and strongly carried, with the spine 
easily seen above and beyond the shoulders. A strongly 
arched rib will give a wide back and a muscular loin, which 



are most desirable, while plenty of additional length of rib 
will mean ample digestive capacity. In examining the body 
with the hands, one should be able to place two fingers held 
side by side easily between the last ribs of mature dairy 
cattle. The opinion prevails, that with dairy animals there 
should be length of body with the ribs less closely placed 
together than is the case with beef cattle. Consequently, 
a body of considerable length meets with favor. Some 
judges prefer the hind flank to be somewhat high, but this 

Figure 120. Judging dairy cattle. Viewing top lines from the rear, 
graph by the author. 


quality is associated with lack of depth of body, signifying 
a deficient digestive capacity. 

The hind quarters of the dairy animal have been the cause 
of much discussion. The hips of the cows should be some- 
what prominent and lean. With the males, less prominence 
of hip is desired. In the case of each sex, much length and 
breadth, with level carriage of rump, is wanted. Below this 
part, the thighs, as viewed from one side, should appear 
muscular and long. From the rear view, the thighs should 
seem thin and placed wide apart, giving ample room between 
for a large udder. We sometimes say that the thighs are 



incurving, meaning that from the point of the rump, or 
pin bone, each thigh curves slightly for a distance towards 
the body before curving outward to form the top of the 
hock. The tail should have a neat placing on the body, and 
its fleshy part should hang in a perpendicular position to the 
hocks, showing considerable space between it and the thigh 
as viewed from one side. A beefy character of any part of 
the hind quarter is very undesirable. The tendency is to 
show fleshiness at the top of the rump over the hips and 
pin bones and on the thighs. A straight, wide carriage of 

the legs is most essential, as 
has already been explained and 
as will be brought out further 
on in relationship to the udder. 
The mammary develop- 
ment of the cow includes the 
udder, teats, and milk veins 
and wells. It is necessary to 
examine this part carefully 
with both eye and hand. 

The udder consists of two 
large glands suspended between 
the legs. One gland is the right 
half of the udder, and the 
other the left. Each gland is also divided into two halves, 
known as quarters. As we view the udder at one side, we 
see the front and hind quarters of the gland. The form of 
udder that is most approved follows the line of a circle in 
part, although we look for the rear portion to be carried up 
high beyond the line of the circle, and the fore part to extend 
well along under the belly, on a uniform level. These udder 
lines above and below extend beyond the circle. Viewed 
from the rear, the udder should appear thick, and should 
occupy completely the space between the thighs, and extend 
up high along the thigh. Examination with the hand should 

Figure 121. Judging dairy cattle. 
Estimating the length of rump. 
Photograph from The Farmer. 



show no deep separation or division between the glands or 
quarters, but only slight grooves. As a rule, the hind udder 

Figure 122. Judging dairy cattle. Two Jersey cows, the one on the left 
showing depth of body and constitution, the one on the right showing a 
short rib and poor feeding capacity. Photograph by the author. 

is somewhat narrower than the fore udder, due to the limited 
space between the thighs. Thus one may see the importance 

Figure 123. Four hind end presentations of dairy cows, showing good and 
bad placings of the legs. Photograph by the author. 

of having the thighs widely separated to provide room for 
the udder. 

The teats should be of convenient size for grasping by the 



average-sized hand, and a length of three to four inches is 
satisfactory. They should be placed at a fair distance 
apart, to permit of easy milking, without having the hands 
in the way of each other. The judge should examine each 
teat carefully, and see that it milks without difficulty, 
and is all right. The form of the udder is rather variable. 
The most common weakness is an inferior front develop- 

Figure 124. A beautiful udder on a great show cow of dairy type Bosnian's 
Anna, owned by C. I. Hudson of New York. Photograph from F. R. 

ment, with the teats of this part placed much higher than 
those behind. The smaller the fore udder in comparison 
with the hind part, the less its producing capacity. 

With age, the udder often becomes pendant; that is, 
hangs low down. This feature is especially characteristic 
of those cows that become heavy milk-producers. In act- 
ing as a judge in the show ring, one may find it desirable to 
request that certain cows be milked. Some cows have meaty 


udders of quite limited capacity, and to make a fair study 
of this gland, one should see it both full and empty. When 
empty, the glands should be considerably shrunken, and, 
when pressed by the hands, should feel uniformly mellow 
and smooth to the touch. The judge should take the udder 
in his hands and press it between the palms, and examine 
it generally as to its condition, noting whether smooth of 
tissue, or if lumps or knots occur. Again, examination may 
show imperfect quarters or defective teats. 

The milk veins are located along on the belly from the 
udder forward. Usually there is 
one vein on each side, and some- 
times a shorter one between. 
Through these veins the blood 
passes from the udder to the 
heart. A side view of the cow 
shows something of the vein 
on that side. On young cows 
it is smaller and less prominent 
than on old ones. It varies in 
size, length, and form. To 
examine it carefully, it is neces- 
sary to bend over enough to 
look up beneath the body and 
see the whole milk-vein system. Usually the vein is about 
five eighths of an inch wide, and, after extending along 
the belly half way or so from udder to fore legs, dis- 
appears through a hole in the belly wall, known as the "milk 
well." Sometimes the veins are very large and long, and 
have a more or less tortuous, or serpentine, course. The 
larger and longer the veins, the greater the cow as a milker. 
Sometimes we find the belly immediately in front of the 
udder covered with small veins, and occasionally they also 
occur on the udder. All these small veins are indications 
that the cow is more than an average milk-producer. 

Figure 125. Judging dairy cat- 
tle. A common type of poor 
udder, especially defective in 
front. Photograph by the 



Figure 126. Judging dairy cattle. Locating the milk well, 
by the author. 


The milk wells vary in size, from those so small that 
they are not at once discovered to those so large that the end 
of the finger can be placed therein. Small wells are 
associated with similarly small veins, and together they 
limit the supply of blood passing; through the udder and 
thus affect milk production. 


1. How much emphasis should be placed on size? 

2. What is meant by the triple wedge form? 

3. What are some of the evidences of quality? 

4. How is dairy temperament indicated? 

5. What three features of mammary development are emphasized, and 

how many points do they total in the scale of points? 

6. Should a "dished" face be sought in the Hplstein-Friesian? 

7. Are the withers important factors in conformation? If so, how? 

8. W r ould you place a premium on length of body? If so, why? 

9. Why are thick thighs objectionable? 

10. What type of udder should be sought? 


11. The relationship of size to production. 

12. The relationship of color of skin and horn to quality of milk. 

13. The relationship of form to production. 

14. A comparative study of types of udders. 

15. A score card study of "the best cow." 


The dairy cow as a producer of food occupies a very high 
place in animal economy. As a producer of meat she is of 
secondary importance, but her milk furnishes the most easily 
digested food and, under fair conditions, she returns in it 
a pound of nutriment at less cost than comes from an equal 

Figure 127. The dairy cow as a producer of food. This cow made nearly 
20,000 pounds of milk in a year. Photograph by the author. 

amount of food from beef cattle, sheep, or swine. This fact 
has been brought out in an interesting way by Dr. C. H. 
Eckles, in his feeding experiments at the Missouri 
Experiment Station.* A comparison was made of the milk 
produced by a Holstein-Friesian cow in a year and the car- 
cass of a fat steer weighing 1,250 pounds. The cow gave 

*Darry Cattle and Milk Production, 1911. 



a yield of 18,405 pounds of milk, which contained 2,218 
pounds of dry matter, all of which was digestible. Deduct- 
ing 56 per cent of the weight of the steer's carcass, which 
was water, there was left 548 pounds of dry matter, which 
included a considerable part that was not edible, such as 
hair, hide, bones, and tendons. "The cow," writes Dr. 
Eckles, "produced proteids sufficient for more than three 
steers; nearly fat enough for two, ash enough to build the 
skeleton for three, and in addition produced 920 pounds of 
milk sugar, worth as much per pound for food as ordinary 

A comparison of dairy with beef-type cows in milk pro- 
duction under fair conditions will show the dairy-type ani- 
mal to be much the more economical producer of the two. 
Prof. Haecker of the Minnesota station has brought this 
point out in a striking experiment. He selected four types 
of cows; (a) beef, (b) not so beefy, (c) spare, but lacking 
depth of rib, and (d) dairy type. As might have been ex- 
pected, he found that the amount of dry matter consumed 
in the feed and the cost of the feed for each pound of fat 
produced steadily decreased from the beef to the dairy type. 
Here we have a striking argument in behalf of dairy-type 
cattle where milk production is sought. 

The productive cow compared with the unproductive. 
Every herd of cows shows more or less variation in produc- 
tion of different animals. This difference is due to various 
causes. Each owner of a milking herd should, therefore, 
keep a careful record of the production of each cow from 
day to day, and determine for himself which ones are return- 
ing a profit, and which are not. During recent years many 
cow-testing associations have been organized, and herd 
owners have given careful study to this subject. Of two 
cows of the same type, one may be a very profitable pro- 
ducer, and the other what is termed a "boarder," not return- 
ing enough milk to pay for her food. This cow may be 



unproductive for one or more reasons, as, for example, in- 
ferior ancestry in milk production, being a poor feeder, ill 
health, age, etc. 

The influence of the breeds hi milk production is very 
marked. What may be termed standard milk consists in 
about 87.2% water, 3.8 fat, 3.5 proteids, 4.8 fat and 0.7 ash.* 
As a rule, the larger the yield of a cow, the smaller the per 
cent of butter-fat and of total solids. This rule will apply 
within a breed. If we compare the breeds, on the basis of 
many thousands of records, we find that the Jersey and the 

Figure 128. Czarina 2nd, a thick fleshed type of Shorthorn cow. Photograph 
by F. H. Haskett. 

Guernsey produce the milk richest in total solids and butter- 
fat, while the Brown Swiss, Ayrshire, and Holstein-Friesian, 
in the order given, produce milk with a smaller amount of 
total solids and fat. According to Prof. Larsen,f Holstein- 
Friesian milk consists of about 12.25 per cent of total solids 
and 3.48 per cent of fat, while Jersey milk tests 14.87 per 
cent of solids and 5.19 per cent of fat. The fat globules in the 
Holstein-Friesian milk are smaller than those of the Jersey 

*Larsen's Farm Dairying, 1919. 
tFarm Dairying, 1919. 


or the Guernsey and lack the deep yellow color of the latter. 
Whether one breed is more profitable than another largely 
depends upon the individual animals, the amount of milk 
produced, and its cost of production. 

The influence of age on milk production has been care- 
fully studied by various investigators. On this subject 
Eckles states* that "a dairy cow, on the average, as a two- 
year-old may be expected to produce about 70 per cent; as 
a three-year-old around 80 per cent; and as a four-year-old 
about 90 per cent of the milk and butter-fat she will pro- 
duce under the same treatment when mature. " As a rule, 
we expect a cow to be at her best from six to eight years of 
age, but there are remarkable records that have been made 
by cows well. along in years. The Jersey cow Pogis Irene 
2nd, at 18 years of age produced 9,930 pounds of milk, which 
would be an excellent record for a Jersey in her prime. 

The influence of the period of lactation on milk produc- 
tion is of interest. Under normal conditions a cow should 
be milked about ten months, go dry two, and produce a 
vigorous, healthy calf. The natural tendency is for the cow 
of dairy type to keep up her milk flow fairly well for the 
first seven months, after which it gradually declines. Prof. 
F. W. Woll made a study of the production of some 300 
cows in the Wisconsin Dairy Cow Competition, 1909-1911, 
and he reports f that "the normal decrease in the flow of 
milk in well managed dairy herds is about 5 per cent a month 
during the second to seventh month of the lactation period, 
about 10 to 12 per cent during the eighth and ninth months, 
and 20 per cent for the tenth and subsequent months." 

The relationship of condition of the cow to the quality 
of her milk is very marked. If the cow is in good flesh, she 
will yield more and richer milk than if in thin flesh. It is 
a well recognized fact to-day, that dairy cows fattened and 
in high condition when they come fresh, produce a milk 

*Dairy Cattle and Milk Production, 1911. 
fProductive Feeding of Farm Animals, 1915. 


abnormally rich in fat. For this reason, most persons who 
are engaged in officially testing their cows, start them on 
test in as good condition as possible; for the body fat is 
more or less milked off into the pail, especially during the 
first two or three weeks. It has been estimated that the 
milk during this time will contain from 1 to 2 per cent 
more fat than is usual in ordinary flesh. Eckles, in express- 
ing his objection to seven-day official tests, referring to those 
of the Holstein-Friesian says: "The average per cent of fat 
for the breed is 3.45, but many seven-day tests are now 
reported with a per cent of fat over 4.50, and several above 
5 per cent." 

A comparison of first and last drawn milk shows that 
the first milk contains a larger per cent of water, and less 
total solids and fat than the last drawn. This fact suggests 
that, if one is to feed part of the milk from a single cow to 
a calf, it will be wiser to feed the first drawn and reserve the 
last for family use. 

The influence of the weather on milk production is quite 
marked. If the weather turns cool and the cattle are exposed 
to rain in an unusual degree, the probabilities are that the 
milk yield will fall off to some extent, but will show some 
increase in butter-fat content. Warm weather under ordi- 
nary food conditions would, therefore, promote milk flow 
rather than do otherwise. If there is a drouth, and the 
cows are kept on pastures that are badly dried up, then the 
milk yield may rapidly diminish, unless there is resort to 
extra feeding. It has been assumed that in hot weather the 
biting of many flies reduces the milk yield, but the evidence 
on this point is lacking. In fact, such information as we 
have indicates that flies have little or no effect on milk yield. 

The effect of different foods on the flavor and quality of 
milk is very marked. Cows that eat wild onions or garlic 
transmit the characteristic flavors of these to the milk. 
Rye and turnips, unless fed soon after milking, give an 


objectionable flavor. These flavors are due to the volatile 
oils in these feeds, whereby they impregnate the milk while 
in the body of the cow. The effect of some feeds is to pro- 
duce hard butter-fat, while others make it soft. Butter 
made from milk from cows fed cottonseed meal has a high 
melting point, while corn meal has the opposite effect on 
the butter-fat, although not in any serious degree. The fat 
in the milk takes on a more yellow hue when the cows are 
turned on pasture or when they are fed carrots, bright green 
alfalfa hay, or new silage. This yellow color is due to what 
is known as carotin, which is more abundant in carrots and 
green feeds than elsewhere. 

The effect of the different kinds of food on the milk 
yield may be quite marked, cows responding more with 
some foods than others. The yield will fall off with the use 
of coarse, dry, unpalatable foods, and increase with those 
of finer quality that are succulent and palatable. The kind 
and character of the feed, however, can not materially change 
the quality of the milk. A cow fed rye straw, a very low 
grade food, may fall off in her milk flow, but there will be 
no essential change in the character of her milk. If it were 
possible to change the composition of milk by feeding, then the 
individuality of the milk of the Jersey or the Ayrshire might 
be changed, thereby seriously affecting its character and value. 

Frequency of milking no doubt has a bearing on the 
yield. Under most conditions cows are milked twice daily. 
As the official testing of dairy cows has progressed, however, 
the custom has developed of milking three or four times 
daily, as conditions justify. Heavy milkers, such as Hol- 
stein-Friesians, are milked at least three times and in many 
cases four times. In Holland in common practice the cows 
are usually milked three times daily. If there is the same 
period of time between each milking, the milk will show 
quite uniform tests of total solids and butter-fat. If, how- 
ever, there is a considerable difference in the number of hours 



periods, the milk will show the greater percentage amounts 
of solids and fat in the shorter interval. 

Regularity in milking is important. The dairy cow, to 
do her best, should not only be fed regularly, but milked 
with equal regularity. Thus, as a matter of habit, she will 
respond to the care of the milker, and will give down without 
restraint. Experiments at the Ontario station showed that 
when the cows were milked irregularly the practice some- 
what reduced the yield and the per cent of fat in the milk. 

The influence of the milking machine on production, 
when properly manipulated and cared for, may be very 

Figure 129. Milking with the De Laval cow milker. Photograph from 
De Laval Separator Company. 

satisfactory. Cows milked by the machine seem undis- 
turbed by its action, and give down their milk as in ordinary 
good hand milking. It is necessary, however, to watch the 
machine with reasonable care, and, as a rule, the cows must 
be stripped by hand after the machine has done its work. 
The most important factor in the successful use of the 
milker is a competent man, who has an intelligent knowledge 
of machinery and who will take proper care of it and see 


Figure 130. Hand milk test- 
ing machine. Reproduced 
from Burrell & Co. catalog. 

that it is always kept in good repair 
and in a sanitary condition. 

The testing of milk for its fat 
content is in practical application 
daily in thousands of creameries 
and on dairy farms. The Babcock 
test, the invention of Dr. S. M. Bab- 
cock, of Wisconsin University, is the 
one in almost universal use, and is 
made as follows. A fair sample of 
milk is taken, in which the fat is 

well distributed. For example, if it is desired to test the milk 

of a cow, after it is drawn it is poured from one pail into 

another and then back again, to see that it is well mixed. 

Then with a glass pipette, 17.6 cubic centimeters of milk 

are measured, and this sample is placed in a small test 

bottle with a slender neck 

which is graduated up to ten 

per cent. Next 17.5 cubic 

centimeters of commercial sul- 
phuric acid, having a specific 

gravity of 1.82, are measured 

off in a glass graduate, and this 

is poured into the bottle and 

mixed with the sample of milk. 

It is best to hold the neck of 

the bottle in a slanting position 

when pouring in the acid, 

turning the bottle during the 

operation, so that any milk 

which may have adhered to 

the neck will be washed down. 

This combination is attended 

with ^omp hpflt thp pnnfpnt5 Fi e ure 131. Milk testing equip- 
W1I [ICdL, I ment. 1 pipette; 2 milk bottle; 

t^f tVta K/~kf1o 4iir-n o V>lorl'ioVk ^ acid measure. Reproduced from 

01 tne Dottle turn a uiackisn Burreii & Co. catalog. 


brown, and all the solids in the milk excepting the butter- 
fat are destroyed. If this small bottle containing the milk 
sample is then placed in a well balanced centrifugal machine 
made for the purpose, and is turned for five minutes, the 
fat is thrown to the surface of the fluid. Hot soft water is 
then placed in the sample bottle, until it reaches the neck, 
after which it is rotated in the centrifugal two minutes 
longer. Then more hot water is added, to fill the neck high 
enough to permit reading the per cent of fat, which accumu- 
lates as a solid column when the bottle is whirled a minute 
more in the centrifugal. One usually measures the fat by 
use of common dividers, setting the points at the lower and 
upper line of fat, after which one point is placed at the 
mark, while the other point indicates the per cent of fat in 
the milk. The fat should always be measured while hot, 
before it has contracted by cooling. Every dairy farmer 
should have a Babcock test outfit, and carefully test the milk 
of his herd. 

Cow-testing associations have assumed much impor- 
tance in the United States in recent years. The first asso- 
ciation of the kind is said to have been established in 
Denmark in 1895,* while the first one in America was organ- 
ized in 1905 at Fremont, Michigan. In 1921 there were 
452 of these associations in the United States, with Wiscon- 
sin in the lead with 103, Pennsylvania second with 45, and 
Ohio third with 35. The purpose of the cow-testing associa- 
tions is to secure disinterested records of the individual cows 
in the herds of a community. A group of farmers form a 
co-operative association, adopt rules for conducting the tests 
of herds and employ an expert or official tester to supervise 
the work. This person visits each- herd at least once a 
month, when he weighs each milking of the day, and takes 
samples of the milk, which he properly tests. He may also 
make a record of the kind and amount of food fed on the 
day in question. Unless two small herds are close by, in 

*Farm Dairying, By C. Larsen, 1919. 


which event they may each be tested the same day, as a 
rule but one herd a day is visited. The number of tests 
in a month, however, will depend on the size of the associa- 
tion, which should not consist of over 26 herds. On July 1 
1921, the 452 associations in the United States had 11,209 
members, and the herds averaged 17.3 cows each. 


Of the Average Cow ititke United States 
and Dairy Countries 


kBi fi ""* cw 37,384 18& 

^Dist of Columbia 

NY-Mass -Oregon- Wis. 


Pr.p.re4 by th. Ddr TUtta. 
U. S, Department o< Agricultut*.' 

Figure 132. Showing the milk production of the average cow in the United 
States and dairy countries. 


1. The dairy cow as a producer of digestible food? 

2. The relative merits of beef and dairy cows in milk production? 

3. The composition of Jersey and Holstein-Friesian milk? 

4. The effect of the cow's age on milk production? 

5. Decreased milk flow and stage of lactation? 

6. Securing high butter-fat records in official testing? 

7. The effect of different foods on the flavor of milk? 

8. The effect of the milking machine on production? 

9. How the fat content of milk is determined? 

10. Cow-testing associations? 


11. Note the type of cows being milked. 

12. Determine what breeds are in most favor. 

13. Learn what per cent of the cows are over eight years old. 

14. Study the milk sheets in the stable. 

15. Note the rations being fed. 

16. If milking machines are used, ascertain with what success. 

17. Compare, if possible, some tested with untested herds. 


The most careful study has been given to the feeding of 
dairy cattle. The experiment stations have done exten- 
sive work in feeding, and many practical dairymen have 
used feeding standards and made up carefully balanced 
rations in efforts to work out their home problems. 

The feeding standards for dairy cattle cover young and 
growing animals and those producing milk. There is not 
much difference in the growth requirements of dairy and 
beef cattle. Slightly more protein is recommended for the 
latter, with about equal amounts of carbohydrates. The 
amount of food given to milk-producing cows depends largely 
on the yield of milk. The Wolf-Lehmann tables here quoted 
are from Feeds and Feeding, by Henry and Morrison. 

I. Wolff-Lehmann feeding standard for growing dairy cattle. 


2- 3 
3- 6 

live weight 

150 Ibs. 
500 " 
700 " 
900 " 

Per day for 1,000 Ibs. 
Dry Digestible 
matter protein 

23 Ibs. 4.0 Ibs. 
24 " 3.0 " 
27 " 2.0 " 
26 " 1.8 " 
26 " 1.5 " 

live weight 
13.0 Ibs. 
12.8 " 
12.5 " 
12.5 " 
12.0 " 


2.0 Ibs. 
1.0 " 
0.5 " 
0.4 " 
0.3 " 


. 1:4.5 

II. Modified Wolff-Lehmann standard for dairy cows. 

For maintenance 1,000 Ib. cow . . .0.700 Ib. digestible crude protein 
.7925 total digestible nutrient. 

To allowance for maintenance add : Digestible crude Total digestible 

protein nutrients 

For each Ib. of 3.0 % milk 0.047-0.057 - 0.286 


0.049-0.061 0.316 

0.054-0.065 0.346 

0.057-0.069 0.376 

0.060-0.073 0.402 

0.064-0.077 0.428 

0.067-0.081 0.454 



Feeding milk to the dairy calf, as practiced in the United 
States, does not vary greatly in method among intelligent 
breeders. The calf is usually allowed to stay with the mother 
in a box stall for 3 or 4 days after it is born, nursing at 
will. Some persons, however, take the calf away within 
24 hours or at once. It is a good plan to allow the calf to 
nurse the cow until the milk is fit to use, being careful not 
to overfeed, for the massage and frequent nursing of the 
calf will help to reduce udder inflammation. The milk for 
the first 3 or 4 days contains a substance called colostrum, 
which makes fresh milk more or less sticky, arid this material 
acts as a desirable physic with the new-born calf. 

After being taken from the mother, the calf must be fed 
whole milk, preferably from the dam. Calves are fed this 
new milk for from 1 to 3 weeks, starting with 8 to 10 pounds 
a day, divided in 3 feeds. Then skim milk is gradually 
substituted for the whole, adding each day a pound until 
only skimmed milk is fed. The milk for the young calf 
should be sweet and always be fed in perfectly clean pails 
under sanitary conditions, at a temperature of about 100 
degrees, or as it may come from the separator. Care should 
be exercised not to overfeed. A good rule to go by is to 
feed 1 pound of milk for each 8 or 10 pounds of live weight. 
For example, a Holstein-Friesian calf weighing 100 pounds 
might be fed 10 or 12 pounds. Skim milk may be profit- 
ably fed, when cheap or abundant, up to 8 or 10 months of 
age, when the calf should be weaned. Whole milk is too 
expensive for calf feeding unless for some special purpose, 
while the skimmed milk under proper conditions produces a 
strong-framed, vigorous animal. 

Feeding roughage to the dairy calf is a very simple mat- 
ter. If a handful of fine leafy hay or clover be placed in 
the stall when the calf is 2 or 3 weeks old, it will begin to 
nibble on it, and its consumption of this roughage will grad- 
ually increase. This dry coarse feed will distend the stom- 



ach and increase its feeding capacity. The most popular 
hay fed dairy calves is either clover or alfalfa. A 200-pound 
calf will consume 2 or 3 pounds of hay a day. 

Feeding concentrates to the dairy calf begins, as a rule, 
at 2 to 3 weeks of age. The best plan is to have a small 
feed box in the manger or stall, in which a handful of some 
palatable meal may be placed. A mixture of equal parts 
of corn meal, bran, and oats will be relished. Messrs. Hulce 
and Nevens, of the Illinois station, recommend* a mixture 
of ground corn 10 parts, by weight, oats 50 parts, wheat 
bran 30 parts, and oil meal 10 parts. One may feed shelled 
or cracked corn in the milk, if desired. When skim milk is 
fed, the calf should not be fed oil meal or foods rich in pro- 
tein, because the nutritive ratio of skim milk is extremely 
narrow (1:1), so 
that some food rich 
in carbohydrates 
should be used in- 
stead, and corn 
serves this purpose 
very well. The calf 
should be fed 
enough g'rain and 
roughage along 
with the milk to 
keep it gaining from 
a pound to a pound 
and a half a day. 

Raising calves with a milk substitute has not met with 
general success, unless begun after 2 or 3 months of age. 
Substitutes for milk have been made and sold on the market, 
and teas have been made from hay and mixed with concen- 
trates, but these are not entirely satisfactory. Milk in some 
quantity for a time is really essential, if the calf is to do 
well. Hulce and Nevens say: f 

*Circular 202, Univ. of 111. Ag. Exp. Station, Feed and Care of the Dairy Calf, 
flbid. p. 6. 

Figure 133. Feeding the young dairy calf, 
graph by the author. 



"It is necessary in using a milk supplement other than skim milk 
to feed a considerable amount of whole milk. The amount of milk 
required is about a pound daily for every eight pounds of live weight 
until the animal is four or five weeks old. At that age a milk supple- 
ment may be substituted gradually for the milk. Such a supplement 
may be prepared as a gruel mixture made up of equal parts of oil meal, 
blood meal, hominy and flour. The gruel is made by pouring hot water 
over the meal while it is stirred vigorously, after which it is allowed to 
stand before being used. The gruel may be fed at such a rate that the 
animal receives the equivalent of one fourth pound of dry meal daily 
at the beginning, the amount being increased about one fourth of a 
pound daily each week for four weeks. As a rule the use of milk should 
be continued until the calf is at least 60 days of age. At two months of 
age the calf will have received about 400 pounds of whole milk in addi- 
tion to the milk supplement." 

Feeding the dairy heifer after weaning calls for securing 
a consistent, strong growth by the use of as much good 
roughage as possible and a relatively small amount of 
grain. There is nothing better for this purpose than legume 
hay, corn silage, and 2 or 3 pounds of grain a day. In an 
extended report* on experiments on " winter rations for 
dairy heifers," Prof. C. H. Eckles offers some practical sug- 
gestions from which tffe following is abstracted. 

(1) When silage and legume hay is available, a ration of corn 
silage, alfalfa, clover, cowpea or soy bean hay at will, and 2 pounds 
daily of grain also, if the calf is under 10 months old, is recommended. 
Corn may be fed, or a mixture of other grains if the cost is less. From 
2 to 5 pounds of grain a day should be fed heifers within 3 months of 

(2) When legume hay is not available but corn silage is, use silage 
at will with some other dry hay or fodder. Two or 3 pounds of some 
concentrates should be fed daily, half of which should be rich in protein, 
such as gluten feed, linseed meal or cottonseed meal, the other half 
being corn, bran, or any other mixture if cheaper than corn. 

(3^ When legume hay is abundant, but no silage, a ration of alfalfa, 
clover, cowpea or soy bean hay at will, and 2 pounds of corn daily will 
make a satisfactory ration. On a ration of legume hay dairy heifers 
will do fairly well but will not make a normal growth. It is economical as 
a rule to feed a limited amount of grain in addition. 

(4) When corn fodder, or Kafir corn or timothy hay is available, 
but no silage or legume hay, it will be wise to buy legume hay. The 
suggested ration is half and half legume and timothy hay, with corn 
fodder at will. For concentrates with this roughage feed a mixture of 
one part gluten feed, or cottonseed meal, or linseed meal, and two parts 
corn. If legume hay is not at all available, then more grain must be fed. 

Feeding the milk-producing cow offers an opportunity 
to make up many combinations of rations. It must be 

*Bulletin 158 Missouri Station, October, 1918. 


agreed, however, on the basis of extensive experimental as 
well as practical feeding, that legume hay and corn silage, 
with standard grains such as corn and oats and mill prod- 
ucts like bran, gluten feed, linseed meal and cottonseed meal, 
furnish the most palatable and satisfactory list of feeds for 
common use in milk production. It is not necessary to have 
a great variety in order to secure satisfactory results from 
the feeding. If one studies the composition of rations of 
cows that have made high records in official testing, one 
will be impressed with the fact that comparatively simple 
rations have given very fine returns. Where one buys feed, 
the market price has an important bearing on the selection, 
but it must be kept in mind that the cow yielding a generous 
milk supply should have a ration in which proteid foods 
play an important part. 

A common standard for the amount of concentrates to 
be fed is 1 pound for each 3 or 4 pounds of milk produced. 
Cows producing rich milk require slightly heavier feeding 
than those producing poor milk. From 30 to 50 pounds of 
silage are usually fed daily, according to size of cow and 
milk yield, with a free use of dry roughage. When on good 
pasture, no silage or roughage is fed, and oftentimes but 
little grain will then be eaten. Care should be taken to see 
that each cow is fed as an individual, and that she has enough 
to meet all requirements. Many cows are underfed. It is 
very important to know that of the food eaten 40 per cent 
is used to support the demands of the body, and 60 per cent 
goes to milk production. Any reduction in the amount of 
nutrients necessary will be shown in a falling off in weight 
of the cow and in a lessened milk supply. Thus it can be 
easily seen that it is of vital importance to feed enough to 
the cow. 

Various factors play an important part in making up 
rations, two of these being especially so in common practice, 




?> 03 







o <& 


s >> 





namely, availability and cost. The following recommended 
rations are by well-known American authorities on feeding 
dairy cattle, and for that reason are here given. 

Prof. E. S. Savage of Cornell University writes.* "The 

Figure 136. The result of feeding too much wheat bran and poor roughage. 
This cow was fed a mixture of 6 parts wheat bran, 4 parts corn stover. 
Millers' bran disease resulted the cow aborting six weeks before her time. 
Reproduced from Bulletin 302, Wisconsin Experiment Station. 

mixture I am suggesting for dairy cows this summer is as 
follows : 

300 pounds wheat bran . .Cost $3.43 

. " 4.52 



hominy .... 

gluten feed 

oil meal 

will cost. . 


Cost 14.83 

" 1.49 

The above is for cows on pasture." 
Prof. A. C. McCandlish, of the Iowa State College,recom- 
mends the following concentrate rations in a pamphlet on 
feeding dairy cattle, f it being assumed that corn silage 

*Holstein-Friesian World, July 9, 1921. 

fCircular No. 64, Iowa Exp. Station, March, 1920. 



and some one or another of the legume hays will also be fed. 

400 Ib 

ground oats, 
wheat bran, 
cottonseed meal, 
linseed meal. 
s. cracked corn, corn-and-cob meal, or hominy feed, 
ground oats, 
gluten feed, 
wheat bran. 

Ration A. 400 Ibs. cracked corn, corn-and-cob meal, or hominy feed. 

200 " ground oats. 

100 " cottonseed meal. 

100 " linseed meal 
Ration B. 400 Ibs. cracked corn, corn-and-cob meal, or hominy feed. 

Ration C. 

Among 13 rations recommended by Prof. F. W. Woll* 

the following are selected: 

(1) Hay 20 Ibs., oats 3 Ibs., corn-and-cob meal 3 Ibs., linseed meal 
2 Ibs. 

(2) Hay 10 Ibs., corn stalks free, wheat bran 3 Ibs., corn meal 

2 Ibs., cottonseed meal 2 Ibs. 

(3) Hay free, corn silage 30 Ibs., oats 4 Ibs., linseed meal 2 Ibs., 
cottonseed meal 1 Ib. 

(4) Alfalfa hay 20 Ibs., oats 4 Ibs., corn meal 2 Ibs. 

(5) Corn silage 30 Ibs., cottonseed hulls 12 Ibs., cottonseed meal 

3 Ibs., bran 6 Ibs. 

Prof. C. H. Eckles, of Minnesota University, gives the 

following among "some good dairy rations: "f 

(1) Corn silage 25 Ibs., clover hay 10 Ibs., corn 4 Ibs., wheat bran 

4 Ibs. 

(2) Corn silage 30 Ibs., alfalfa or cow pea hay 10 Ibs., corn 6 Ibs., 
wheat bran 2 Ibs. 

(3) Clover hay 20 Ibs., corn 4-5 Ibs., wheat bran or oats 2-4 Ibs. 

(4) Clover hay 20 Ibs., corn-and-cob meal 6 Ibs., gluten or cotton- 
seed meal 2 Ibs. 

Prof. C. Larsen, of South Dakota State College, recom- 
mends the following two rations : 

(1) When corn silage and alfalfa hay or clover hay are fed, then 
use a mixture of 25 per cent ground corn, 55 per cent ground oats, 20 
per cent wheat bran. For large producing cows add two to four pounds 
linseed meal daily. 

(2) When cows are fed corn silage and prairie hay, or brome grass 
hay, or timothy hay for roughage, then the following basic grain ration 

is recommended. 

Ground oats 45 per cent 

Ground barley or spelt 20 " " 

Wheat bran 20 per cent 

Linseed meal.. ..15 " " 

*Productive Feeding of Farm Animals, 1915. 
tDairy Cattle and Milk Production, 1911. 
Farm Dairying, 1919. 


Among the 15 rations given above, it will be noted are 
those suited to the far North, the Central West, the Western 
states, the South, and New England. 

The feed for dry cows, as a rule, largely consists of silage 
or roughage. It is important, however, that they be in good 
condition at calving, in order to meet the drain of milk pro- 
duction. Farmers who sell milk or butter usually plan to 
have their cows freshen late in the fall, so that they may be 
milked during the period of higher prices, and also at a time 
when they can give more individual attention to live stock. 
Pasture, therefore, may be about the only feed the cow will 
receive on many farms. As the pastures get short, silage 
or legume hay should be fed, if possible, and enough grain 
given to put the cow in condition for freshening. In cases 
where official testing is conducted, dry cows are often fattened 
to fit them for record-making milk production. 

Feeding cows on pasture requires careful oversight. 
When the green stuff is abundant, other feed may be un- 
necessary. As the grass gets short in July or August, it 
should be supplemented, if possible, with silage or with 
some soiling crop, such as corn, sorghum, clover, alfalfa, etc. 
Further, some grain is desirable when the pastures get short. 
The cows should be kept up in production as much as pos- 
sible at this time, and a light grain feed will help. Experi- 
ments on feeding grain to cows on pasture were conducted 
at Cornell University for some years, when it appeared 
that the extra milk yield did not pay for the feed; but there 
was a secondary result from the feeding of the grain on 
pasture.* "It was found in the Cornell experiments that in 
the second year the cows that had received grain while on 
pasture the year before did better than those that received 
no grain. 

"Prof. Roberts holds that the benefit of grain on pasture 
was an especially marked one in the development of the 
young stock. This combination of feed showed up in their 

*Prof. E. S. Savage in Holstein-Friesian World, July 9, 1921. 


greater production, greater size and stretch than those 
receiving no grain on pasture." 

Feeding the dairy bull. Many persons neglect the bull, 
and feed him very meager rations, so that he often looks thin 
and poorly fed. The bull should never be fat and in high 
condition, but he should look in good muscular form, full of 
vigor and ambition. He should have plenty of suitable 
hay and feed of concentrates in which protein is abundant. 
If he is at the head of a large herd and in service, then he 
should be fed about the same amount of nutrients as a 
dairy cow, otherwise less food is needed. From 5 to 10 
pounds of grain a day may be fed, depending upon the size 
and work of the animal. Some persons object to silage for 

Figure 137. Dairy cows on pasture. Photograph by the author. 

the bull, thinking that this food makes him sterile, and do 
not feed it, but in the author's experience it may be fed 
satisfactorily if in not too great an amount, as 10 or 12 
pounds, for example. Prof. Larsen, however, states* that 
he has discontinued feeding silage to dairy bulls in service. 
Some succulent food, however, is desirable, and in summer 
green food may be fed, and in winter sliced roots in small 
quantity are recommended. 

Exercise for health and vigor is a most desirable 
thing for the dairy bull. At the Ohio State University for 

*Farm Dairying, 1919. 


some years we have had a strong cable stretched between 
two high iron posts about 100 feet apart. A strong rope 
about 10 feet long is fastened at one end in the ring in the 
nose of the bull, while the other end is tied to an iron ring 
which slides on the cable. The bull thus fastened is given 
a fine opportunity for exercise and is yet under control. 
The University has also exercised a Jersey bull by harness- 
ing him and hitching to a small wagon, driving him about 
with reins, and using him for hauling loads of moderate 
weight. Under most conditions, as a matter of safety to 
attendants, the bull should be dehorned. 

Salt for dairy cattle is very necessary, and should be sup- 
plied with regularity. Some persons at regular intervals 
throw a quantity of salt in each manger. Many feeders, 
who study their feeding carefully, sprinkle the necessary 
amount of salt in the feed at regular times. Others have 
salt boxes in yards, where the cattle may lick it at will, or 
throw heaps on the ground where it will be eaten. Accord- 
ing to our best authorities, a cow weighing 1,000 pounds 
should be fed from 1 to 3 ounces of salt a day, depending 
upon the amount of milk produced. 

Water for the dairy cow. It can be readily seen that a 
cow producing a great amount of milk, say 100 pounds in a 
day, must require a large amount of water to supply her 
body needs. The amount of water necessary, however, de- 
pends largely on the kind of food eaten and the milk yield. 
If rich pasturage, a soiling feed, silage or roots are eaten, the 
demand for water will be comparatively light, while, if dry 
pasture or hay, especially a legume, is the main source of 
roughage, large amounts of water may be drunk. A warm 
temperature also adds to the demand for drink. Under fair 
conditions of production, probably 75 to 100 pounds of 
water daily will suffice. The Holstein-Friesian cow Mis- 
souri Chief Josephine at Missouri University, according to 
Prof. C. H. Eckles, on a seven-day test, averaged in excess 


of 100 pounds of milk each day. She ate about 18 pounds 
of alfalfa hay, 10 pounds of silage and 14 to 20 pounds of 
grain, and drank from 216 to 307 pounds of water daily, or 
approximately from 27 to 38 gallons a day. 


1. What is meant by a feeding standard? 

2. How long after birth should a calf be allowed to nurse its dam? 

3. What is a good ration for a calf weighing about 200 pounds? 

4. Is there a satisfactory substitute for milk for raising calves? 

5. What is a good winter ration for a dairy heifer? 

6. How much grain should be fed to the producing cow? 

7. What per cent of the food goes into milk production? 

8. Will you give a good ration for my dairy cow? I have plenty of 

silage and legume hay, cracked corn, oats, bran, gluten feed. 

9. Under what conditions should dry cows be fed grain? 

10. Does it pay to feed grain to cows on pasture? 

11. How should a dairy bull be handled and fed? 

12. How much salt should be fed? 

13. What is the relationship of water consumption to milk production? 


14. Are balanced rations commonly used? 

15. In what way and how long are the calves fed milk? 

16. What form of roughage is fed the calves? 

17. Can you secure two or three sample rations and exhibit them to your 


18. Who feeds grain to cows on pasture? 

19. How are the aged bulls exercised? 

20. When and how are the cows salted? 

1 1 


Before taking up the study of sheep, it is desirable to 
first give some consideration to the subject of wool, in order 
that one may understand its relationship to sheep hus- 

The commercial production of Wool is a world-wide 
industry, with some countries giving it much more attention 
than others. According to estimates of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, the wool crop of the world 
for 1921 amounted to 2,608,445,000 pounds. Australasia, 
including Australia, New Zealand, and Tasmania, is the lead- 
ing wool-producing part of the world, being credited with 
798 million pounds. South America, more especially Argen- 
tina and Uruguay, produced in 1921 approximately 460 million 
pounds, while North America ranked third, producing about 
250 million pounds. The only states in this country which 
in 1920 had over 2,000,000 sheep each of all ages were Texas, 
California, Idaho, Ohio, Montana, and Oregon in the order 
given. In past years the United States has under average 
conditions used in her mills about 550 million pounds of 
wool, of which about 250 million pounds have been pro- 
duced in this country. Boston is the great wool market of 
America, and London of the United Kingdom of Great 

A study of the structure of wool is very interesting. 
This fiber grows, from the skin, and is similar in its origin 
and composition to other skin tissues, such as nails, horns 
and feathers. Wool grows from a gland known as the hair- 
follicle located in the dermis, or middle layer of skin. This 
follicle secretes a small amount of oil, and minute sebaceous 




glands in the skin also give off wool fat. The wool fiber is 
made up of three distinct parts, an outer layer, or epidermis, 
consisting of flattened cells or scales which lap over each 
other much like the shingles on a roof; the cortex, which con- 
sists of cells more or less long from which the fiber gets its 
form and strength; and the medulla, or pith, at the center. 
The epidermis of wool differs from that of common hair, 
because the scales project outward, giving a serrated ap- 
pearance, while on hair the scales more nearly butt together 
and give a much smoother surface to the fiber. In the case 
of wool, the projecting edges of a mass of fibers, when brought 
together under certain condi- 
tions, lock or felt. It is this 
quality of felting which gives 
wool its special value for cloth 
making, a property not pos- 
sessed by ordinary hair. These 
scales differ in size on different 
breeds of sheep; but, while very 
small, may be seen under a 
common microscope, especially 
if the fiber is first exposed a 
moment to boiling water, or to 
acid or alkali, which will cause 
the overlapping edges to open 
up still more. These scales 
have a very hard, smooth surface, and are more or less trans- 
lucent, so that the cortex below may be seen through them. 
The finer wools, such as Merino, have scales that are often 
smooth and straight along their edges, while the scales on 
the larger, coarser wools have serrated, more irregular edges. 
From the scales of the epidermal layer comes a quality known 
as lustre in the wool trade, which is highly valued. This is 
due to the unbroken reflection of light from the scales. 
When. the scales are regular and uniform in their arrange- 

Figure 138. Comparison of varieties 
of wool fibres. M Merino. T 
territory, C coarse. Reproduced 
from "Textile Fibers," by Dr. J. M. 


ment, with their edges fitting closely together, the fiber will 
be smooth and lustrous, a quality especially noticeable in 
the long, coarse wools, like those of the Cotswold and Lin- 
coln. The qualities of rigidity or pliability of wool are due 
to the scales. If they fit over each other loosely, with 
prominent projecting points, they felt most easily, and will 
be soft and pliable, while, if they fit close, with little over- 
lapping, as in hair, they will have little or no felting quality 
and will be stiff and resistant. 

The cortex of wool consists of a quantity of more or less 
long, straight cells, united to give the fiber its round form. 
From the cortex the fiber derives its tensile strength and 
elasticity. If the fiber is very fine, the cells of the cortex 
are more or less uneven in length and grouping, so that it 
takes on a wavy appearance or what is commonly termed 
crimp. This property is most marked with Merino wool, 
where we may find 25 crimps to the inch, while it is least 
seen in the long wools, where only 2 or 3 crimps 
usually occur. The degree of crimp adds much to the 
elasticity and spinning quality of the wool. 

The medulla, or pith, of wool consists of round cells in 
the center of the cortex. Sometimes the medulla occupies 
from one fourth to one third of the diameter of the fiber, 
and again it may be barely present, or even not at all. Pig- 
ment, or coloring matter, is frequently found in this part, 
and is especially present in the medulla and cortex of colored 
wools. The medulla acts as a tube for transferring nutrition 
the length of the fiber, and also as a medium for introducing 
dyes and so artificially coloring the wool. 

Some features of wool that are important in the trade 
should receive brief consideration here. 

The fleece refers to the entire covering of wool on the 
sheep or the same removed and tied in a bundle in the wool 
warehouse. The fleece differs in its length and quality 
according to the part of the animal from which it comes. The 



best and longest wcfol on the body is found over the shoulders 
and ribs. The back and neck wool also rank high. That 
on the belly is very fair, but short, while that on the thighs 
is the poorest. 

The length of fiber varies from one and a half to eight or 
nine inches for a year's growth, the former for the fine or 
short wools, the latter for the coarse or long wools. 

The fineness of fiber varies greatly, microscopical measure- 
ments showing it to range 
from about T gVo' f an mcn 
with the finest Merino, to 
-g-J-g- of an inch with Cots- 
wold or Lincoln. In the 
British and some other mar- 
kets the fineness of wool is 
indicated by the number of 
times 560 yards, or 
"counts," can be spun from 
one pound of combed wool. 
A 70's count, which repre- 
sents Merino wool, means 
that every pound of combed 
wool may be spun 70 times 
560 or 39,200 yards. 

The density of fleece al- 
ludes to the thickness of 
Photo- the wool fibers in a given 
space on the body, as, for 
example, a square inch. Naturally the finer the fiber the 
denser the fleece. In some Merino fleeces as many as 60,000 
fibers grow on a square inch of the body. Fineness of fiber 
and density and weight of fleece are naturally associated. 

Triteness of fiber refers to its uniform condition from its 
attachment to the skin to its tip. It must be uniform in 
diameter, without any swellings or contractions. 

Figure 139. A fleece of wool, 
graph by the author. 


Soundness of fiber means that it will 'stand a very good 
tension without showing a weakness at any one place. Such 
a fiber must come from a healthy animal. 

Unsoundness of fiber is manifested in two ways. In some 
cases of sickness or unfavorable conditions of feed or water, 
the fiber becomes "tender," and easily breaks when subjected 
to tension. Another form of unsoundness may occur from 
sickness, starvation, or change of feed, in the fiber'? contract- 
ing, forming what has been termed a "break." This is easily 
seen by the eye, and it is not uncommon to find cases where 
a break shows clearly at one point through the fleece. Such 
a fiber is very defective, and easily breaks on tension. 

A cotted fleece results when the wool on the sheep gets 
entangled in its own scales, and thus goes through a natural 
felting. This condition especially occurs when sheep are 
not in good health, and are packed close together in pens, 
so that the wool is placed under pressure. Cotting occurs 
more commonly with long-wool sheep than other breeds. 

Kemp is a hard hair, found mostly on the head and 
thighs, that will not take a dye. It is commonly white, 
although there is dark colored kemp. A fleece that has 
much kemp is very inferior. 

The yolk, or grease, of wool is the oil from the sebaceous 
glands which naturally works up the fiber toward the tip, 
where it takes on dust, so that the exterior of the entire 
fleece appears more or less dark and greasy, according to 
the kind of sheep. This yolk washes out to some extent in 
clear water, but in the woolen mills it is removed by a process 
of "scouring," that is, being washed in water containing 
alkali, which removes all the external grease. "The differ- 
ence in loss of yolk," says Professor Hawkesworth,* "is great 
when you deal with an average clip of Merino, and one of 
an extra fatty nature. The former will lose about 20 to 25 
per cent, and the latter .45 to 60 per cent (exclusive of dirt) 
when both are thoroughly cleaned." American Merino wool 

*Australian Sheep and Wool, Alfred Hawkworth, 1906. 


of the heavy sort frequently scours out 65 per cent. Wool 
buyers do not like to purchase fleeces heavily saturated with 
yolk on account of this loss. The yolk should be evenly 
distributed through the fleece, and preferably be of a light 
creamy or white color. 

The grading of wool refers to the process of examining 
each fleece and assigning it a place with other wool of the 
same kind. After being removed from the sheep on the 
farm, the fleece in America is usually placed in large burlap 
sacks, holding from 200 to 400 pounds, according to the kind 
of fleece, Merino being the heaviest. These sacks are shipped 
to the wool warehouse, where they are opened by ripping 
the seam on one side, and the fleeces graded. A man usually 
stands at a small table, with a number of large baskets on 
wheels ranged before him. A helper takes the fleeces from 
the wool sack and places them on the table before the grader, 
who looks them over rapidly, and then throws each into a 
basket along with others of the same grade. The contents 
of each basket is placed in a separate pile with other wool 
of its kind, where it is left for examination by the buyer. 

The market classification of wool. Commercial wool is 
graded into three great classes, namely: 

(1) Clothing wool, of short, fine staple; 

(2) Combing wool, somewhat coarser than clothing, and 
ranging from two to eight inches long, and 

(3) Carpet and knitting wools, which are coarse and long. 
Clothing wools are short, being two inches or less in 

length, and are put through a carding process owing to their 
shortness. When thus handled the fibers lie interlaced in 
various directions. These wools are of fine grade, with con- 
siderable crimp, matting, and felting together. Combing 
wools usually are two and one half inches long, or more. In 
these the fibers are combed out parallel with one another 
preparatory to being spun into yarn. Carpet and knitting 
wools are of combing length, and are used in making the 


coarser sorts of cloth. To make this subject somewhat 
clearer, the following is quoted from a well-known authority :* 

"According to their length of staple, wool fibers are graded into 
two classes: tops and noils. The former includes the longer stapled 
fibers, which are combed and spun into worsted yarns, to be manufac- 
tured into trouserings, dress-goods, and such fabrics as are not fulled to 
any extent in the finishing. The latter class consists of the short-stapled 
fibers, which are carded and spun into woolen yarns to be used for 
weft and all classes of goods which are fulled more or less in the finishing 
operations, where a felting together of the fiber is desired. On compar- 
ing worsted and woolen yarns, it will be noticed that the former are 
fairly even in diameter, and the individual fibers lie more or less parallel 
to each other, whereas in woolen yarns the diameter is very uneven, and 
the fibers lie in all manner of directions." 

Wools are classified somewhat differently, according to 
the locality in which they are produced. Domestic wools 
refer to those of the eastern United States, especially Ohio, 
Pennsylvania, Michigan, New York, Wisconsin, Missouri, 
Kentucky, and other states producing similar wools. These 
are often termed the "fleece wool states." Territory wools 
originally referred to all wools produced west of the Missouri 
river, but at present the territory wool states are Montana, 
Wyoming, Idaho, Washington, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado. 
The wools of Oregon, California, Arizona, New Mexico, and 
Texas are now classified separately from the territory 
grades. Domestic wools are commonly classified as follows: 

Combing wools. Clothing wools. 

Delaine XX and X fine. 

Half-blood combing. Half-blood clothing 

Three-eighths combing. Three-eighths clothing. 

Quarter-blood combing. Quarter-blood clothing. 
Low quarter-blood combing. 

The grade XX comes from superior Merino blood of the 
wrinkly sort, while the X grade is slighly coarser. Delaine 
wools should usually be from two and one half to four inches 
long, are of superior quality, and naturally the product of 
smooth-bodied Merino sheep. The terms half-blood, three- 
eighths, and quarter-blood, originally were used to indicate 
that these grades were from sheep showing such percentages 
of Merino blood, but this distinction no longer applies, for 

*The Textile Fibers. J. Merritt Matthews, 1908. 



now much of our wool will grade within this classification 
and show no Merino blood. The use of the word "low" 
indicates a somewhat inferior quality of the grade next above 
it. Braid is the coarsest grade we have, and is the product 
of long-wool sheep, such as the Cotswold or Lincoln. 

A scale of points for judging wool has recently been pro- 



GRADE. . . .Student's Name 

QUALITY OR FINENESS: Fine fiber, breed or grade 
considered. Not a mixture of fine and coarse fibers. 
Not a wide difference between shoulder and breech. 
Finer areas large; coarser ones small 20 

LENGTH: Should be clearly of combing length for the 
grade; that is fine, 2^4 inches; Yi blood, 3 inches; 
Ys blood, 3>/2 inches; l / blood, 4 inches. Lengths 
more than % inch greater of no additional value 
except in wool coarser than l /i blood. Fibers that 
lie together, all the same length. Little variation 
over main parts of the fleece. A minimum of short 
wool 15 

SOUNDNESS: Strong throughout; no weak spots; fibers 
of uniform thickness from base to tip except for 
tapering of yearling fleeces 15 

PURITY: No hair, kemp, or black or dark brown fibers. 
Score heavily for beard hairs on wrinkles of fine 
wooled sheep, dark fibers mixed through the fleece of 
Downs, and coarse hair on the breech of croi 
breds 12 

CHARACTER: (a) Fiber, evenly crimped throughout, 
crimp close and distinct, fibers parallel except for 
sufficient binders to hold the fleece together. Tips 

free from wastiness. No frowzy wool 6 

(b) Soft and springy to touch; elastic under pressure 

COLOR: White, bright. Main fleece free from stains. 
Minimum of stained areas around breech and on 
belly 4 

CONDITION: (a) Yolk, moderate in quantity, light 

color, evenly distributed 3 

(b) Free as possible from naturally adhering sand 

and dust, and from heavy tags and sweat locks .... 3 

(c) Free from burrs, chaff, seeds or other foreign 
matter, not mouldy or mothy; free from excessive 
paint, not tied with sisal or rough jute twine, or 

with excessive amounts of twine. Not cotted .... 20 

Total points . . 




WEIGHT OF FLEECE. (Actual or estimated ) 

SHRINKAGE. (Per cent estimated weight clean wool ) 

FINAL SCORE. (Total score, times estimated weight of clean wool ) 




The above scale of points was prepared more especially for scoring commercial 
wool, of combing class, rather than wool of a breed, or of clothing or braid class. 


posed by Professor C. I. Bray, of the Colorado Agricultural 
College.* In view of its excellence, and because it very 
appropriately follows the preceding discussion of wool, it is 
herewith reproduced. 

The shearing of sheep is an important operation that 
requires skill and a good system of handling. Briefly de- 
scribed, the sheep is placed on its rump, the back resting 
more or less against the knees of the shearer. There are 
several methods used by skilled shearers to remove the fleece, 
of which the following is one. The shears are started in at 
the right front flank and the fleece is cut close to the body 
in a direct line to the hind flank. Then, by successive 
strokes, the wool is shorn over the belly, beginning at the 
brisket, and running the shears from the right side to the 
left, so that the wool here may be laid over like a blanket to 
the left side. Next the wool is removed from the hind legs, 
working from the right to left side, cutting it away about 
the thighs and just over the tail head, so that the sheep 
may rest on a shorn rump. In doing this part, the sheep 
should be placed in a reclining position, so that the end of 
the rump may be covered with the shears. 

The sheep is then placed more erect, the shearer hold- 
ing it by the jaw with the left hand, while cutting the fleece 
upward from the brisket along the lower right side of the 
neck to the end of the jaw. After the fleece is removed 
from the lower side of the neck and over the left front leg 
and shoulder, the shearer removes the fleece about the head, 
and then in successive strokes, beginning at the top of the 
neck, removes the fleece to the back of the neck, and then 
down, from the line between the two left flanks, he runs his 
shears around to the middle of the back, turning the sheep 
meanwhile as needs be. Having removed the fleece on 
the left half of the neck and body, the shearer starts at the 
top of the neck again, and continues down as before, but on 

*Breeder3' Gazette, October 13, 1921. 



the right side, removing the fleece from the neck and body 
in proper order. If the job is well done, the shearer will 
take off his fleece, like a blanket, and spread it out as a con- 
nected whole, the inner part down, the locks together. The 
sides of the fleece are then turned in toward the center, and 
commencing with the head wool, the entire fleece is rolled 
up to make a neat bundle, which is tied together with stand- 
ard wool twine, no more than is necessary, just two to four 
times around. 

Figure 140. Shearing with hand machines at the Ohio State University. 
Photograph by the author. 

Some important rules in shearing must be followed, if 
the work is to be done right and superior Wool placed on the 
market. The author will assume that the fleece is clean 
and free of dirt, chaff, and burrs. 

(1) Shear on a level, smooth floor that may be kept clean. 

(2) Cut the wool as close to the body as possible, using the 
shears but once in the same place. A second cut produces 
short fiber, which injures the selling value of the fleece. 

(3) Never pull the wool or push it back with the left 
hand while shearing, as the skin is thus elevated and is quite 
likely to be cut. 


(4) Use as little force as possible in handling the sheep. 
Some are nervous and struggle, and should be handled gently. 
If shearing is done in warm weather, see that a struggling 
sheep be not exhausted and overheated. It might better be 
freed, as it may die if the struggle is continued. 

(5) Do not shear when the fleece is wet. In this condi- 
tion it will mould and the fiber be weakened. Wet wool 
may also get stained if dung locks are present in the fleece. 

(6) Use only standard wool twine, such as paper or hemp. 
Binding twine is a positive damage. Its vegetable fibers 
catch in the wool and can not be removed except by hand 
labor after they are woven in the cloth. 

(7) Leave out all dung locks and coarse belly and britch 
wool from the fleece, selling this separately. Thus you 
establish a better reputation for your wool as a dependable 
product. In Australia the common practice is to skirt the 
wool, removing the inferior, coarser parts at the neck, legs, 
and sides, and selling these separately. This custom has 
given Australian wool its fine reputation. 


1. What are the leading wool-producing countries? 

2. What is the felting property, and what is natural felting? 

3. How does wool differ from common hair? 

4. Can you explain the significance of the word "count"? 

5. What is the relationship of soundness of fiber to its usefulness? 

6. Why do wool buyers object to fleeces containing a large per cent 

of yolk? 

7. What is meant by grading wool? How is it done? 

8. How do combing and clothing wools differ? 

9. What grades of combing wools are there? Can you give them? 

10. What are some good rules to follow when shearing? 


11. Examine some fiber of wool and hair under a microscope. 

12. Note the difference in the character of the wool on one sheep. 

13. Collect ounce samples of fleeces for comparison. 

14. Make up a collection of market grades, and obtain their market 

prices per pound? 

15. Report on the kind of shearing practiced in your neighborhood. 

16. Try your hand at shearing and note the result. 

17. Bring in samples of worsted and woolen cloth for class inspection. 


The origin of the domestic sheep is generally believed to 
be from several kinds of wild sheep found in different parts 
of the world. One of these is found in the hilly or mountain- 
ous parts of Asia, and is known as the Argali. It is much 
larger than our domestic sheep, has big horns, and a coat of 
black or dark-red hair, below which is a covering of white 
wool. Another form, called the Musmon, is found at the 
present time on the islands of Sardinia and Corsica in the 
Mediterranean sea, where they have become more or less 
domesticated. Rocky Mountain Sheep are another sort liv- 
ing on the higher mountains of North America. Wild sheep 
have always been found in the elevated parts of Africa and 
eastern Asia. All these sheep have certain features in com- 

Just how long sheep may have been subject to the control 
of man we do not know. Neither have we any definite 
information as to the wild family from which the domestic 
form originally came. It is probable, however, that sheep 
have been domesticated longer than any other farm animal. 
Bones of sheep have been found among the remains of the 
lake dwellers of Switzerland, a people who lived before 
the dawn of history. The very earliest writings, including the 
Bible, show man to have had large flocks of domestic sheep. 

Three distinct classes or groups of sheep are recognized, 
depending largely upon the character of the fleece. These 
are fine or short, medium, and long or coarse wools. These 
classes are somewhat due to the sorting over of the fleeces 
by the wool merchant, who finds that each class serves a 
special purpose in his business. Another grouping is also 




sometimes made, consisting of the fine-wool, or Merino, class 
and the mutton breeds. This last arrangement, however, 
is more commonly referred to by shepherds than by wool 
dealers. There are many different breeds of sheep, some 
of which are but little known in America, and the following 
are the only ones of importance in this country. 

The Merino is a very old breed that had its important 
early development in Spain. Here for centuries the monks 
and wealthy people owned large flocks that were noted for 
their very fine wool. As long ago as the first century, the 

sheep of Spain 
were famous, 
and the manu- 
facture of wool 
into beautiful 
cloth was a great 
industry in that 
country in the 
thirteenth cen- 
tury. When the 
people of the 
other European 
countries learn- 
ed of the fine 
wool that was 
produced there, they sent to Spain and obtained some of 
the Spanish sheep. Specially selected flocks were taken to 
Germany and France in the latter part of the eighteenth 
century where they later met with much favor. 

The first Merinos were brought to the United States in 
1793. Three head were smuggled out of Spain by William 
Foster, of Boston. He gave them to a friend, who killed 
them for meat, not knowing how valuable they were, until 
he later paid $1,000 for a ram of the same breed. Seth 
Adams of Massachusetts, later of Ohio, imported a pair in 

Figure 141. Merino ram, "Shorty." Of B type. Photo- 
graph by the author. 


1801, and in 1802 Colonel Humphreys, of Connecticut, 
brought to America nearly 100 head. These Humphrey 
sheep proved very valuable, and from them some of the best 
flocks in America started. Much interest followed these two 
importations. Soon other people began to import Merinos 
into the United States, and very high prices were paid for 
them. During 18 months ending in 1811, nearly 20,000 of 
these sheep were brought to this country. The people went 
wild over Merinos, as high as $1,500 being paid for individual 
animals. As our country developed, the Merino became 
widely distributed and but few of any other kind were kept 
for many years. During this time our people cared but little 
for mutton, but high prices were paid for wool, for which 
the Merino was especially valued. These sheep grew greatly 
in popularity in all wool-producing countries, so that even 
to-day there are more sheep of this breed than any other, 
for immense flocks of pure-breds and grades are found in 
Australia, South America, and over much of the United 
States. The production of wool, however, is less profitable 
than formerly, so that shepherds are gradually changing to 
the mutton breeds or are giving up their flocks altogether. 
Several different Merino families have been developed 
in America. They all had their origin in the sheep of Span- 
ish breeding, but in the hands of certain men each gradually 
developed special features. In this way families of Merinos 
were established. For a great many years all sheep that 
had heavy folds over the body were known as Spanish 
Merinos. Later the people came to refer to sheep of this 
class that had been produced in America, as American or 
A-type Merinos. In time, a larger sheep, with few folds or 
none, developed, that produced a longer and somewhat 
coarser grade of wool especially suited for certain cloth manu- 
facture. These became known as Delaine, or C-type Mer- 
inos. These sheep also produced a good grade of mutton. 
What are known as B-type Merinos show a moderate amount 


of folds, especially at neck, breast, and hind quarters. Among 
the Delaines are some family branches of interest, though 
not widely bred, as, for example, the Dickinson and the 
Blacktop. Most of the Delaine improvement of importance 
has taken place in Ohio and western Pennsylvania. 

Some of the most important features of the Merino may 
be considered here. These sheep produce the finest wool 
known, grading as XX, or X fine, or Delaine. It is so fine 
that over 1,500 fibers may be laid side by side within an inch 
space. The fleece covers the entire body, often coming 
down over the face to the nostrils, and covering the legs even 
to the toes. From sheep having folds or wrinkles over the 
body we should get the finest and shortest wool. The fewer 
folds over the body, as a rule, the larger the sheep and the 
longer and coarser the fleece. Average Merino wool is about 
2J^ inches long. 

On the outside of the fleece we usually find more or less 
grease or oil, or yolk, as it is called, mixed with dirt. This 
mixture easily washes out, even in cold water. The cloth 
manufacturer removes this by scouring. Some fleeces in 
this operation lose 75 per cent of their weight. Wool buyers 
do not like a very heavy amount of yolk, on account of this 
shrinkage when the wool is scoured. A common weight for 
a fleece is 8 or 10 pounds, but some fleeces have weighed 
over 40 pounds when taken from the sheep. Rams weigh at 
maturity 130 pounds or more, and ewes around 100 pounds. 
Those with folds weigh the least, while the smooth-bodied 
ones are larger. Merino sheep are very hardy and thrive 
on ordinary pasture. They run together in flocks much 
better than any other breed, and so are easily managed 
by shepherds and dogs when on great ranges or pastures. 
Large numbers of sheep that have Merino blood in them 
come into the markets, but really are of mutton parentage. 
They make excellent mutton, and are liked by butchers 
because they are neither too large nor too fat. More pure- 



bred flocks are found to-day in Ohio than in any other state, 
although Pennsylvania, Michigan, West Virginia, Oregon, 
California, and Texas have many flocks. West of the 
Mississippi there are large numbers of grade Merinos on 
the range, and without doubt they will continue popular 
there as long as sheep husbandry is an important industry. 
The Rambouillet sheep is a breed of Merinos that has 
been especially developed by the French Government. In 
1786 King Louis XVI of France sent a Mr. Gilbert to Spain 
to bring back a selection of Merinos. These were brought 
to one of the royal farms about 40 miles west of Paris, at a 

town named 
Here on this es- 
tate the govern- 
ment ever since 
has bred the de- 
scendants of 
these sheep . 
They were intro- 
duced into 
America in 1840, 
and for many 
years were 
1890 the name 
the term French 
all the common 

Figure 142. Champion Rambouillet ram, 1920 Ohio 
State Fair. Photograph by the author. 

known as French Merinos. About 
Rambouillet came into use, and now 
Merino is rarely used. These sheep have 
features of the smooth-bodied Merino. It is the very larg- 
est family of this breed, however, and has been at times 
called the " Elephant Merino." The rams weigh about 185 
pounds at maturity, though some have weighed over 250 
pounds, and the ewes weigh around 150 pounds. This fam- 
ily is known as a mutton Merino, and the mutton form is an 
important feature. Thus one may expect a broad back and 
a thick leg of mutton in a good specimen of the Rambouillet. 


There are two types of Rambouillet sheep, the B and C. 
The B type is marked with folds on neck, breast, front and 
rear flanks, and hind quarters, while the C type has a smooth 
body, with possibly one or two folds at the neck and breast. 
The C type represents what the more progressive Ram- 
bouillet breeders have had in mind in producing a dual- 
purpose sheep. The fleece of 12 months' growth should be 
about 3 inches long, and compact over the body, with but 
little yolk or dirt on the outside and grade as fine, fine- 
medium, or Delaine. Well-bred Rambouillet flocks shear 
about 10 or 12 pounds of wool per head. These sheep have 
grown in popularity in recent years, for they mature early, 
are hardy, and seem well suited to most parts of the United 
States where sheep husbandry thrives. On the western 
range and on the Pacific slope are found most of the very 
best and largest flocks in America. There are also numer- 
ous choice flocks in Ohio and other central western states. 
Rambouillet sheep have been bred to a considerable extent 
in northern Germany, and large numbers are now kept in 
South America, especially in Argentina. 

The Southdown is one of the oldest breeds of sheep. Its 
native home is on the Southdown hills in Sussex county in 
southeast England. These hills are of white chalk, and are 
covered with soil on which grass and the small grains do very 
well. About 1780 a man named John Ellman, who lived 
in Sussex, began to improve the native sheep and kept at 
this work for over 50 years. Through his efforts the South- 
down developed into the best mutton sheep known, having 
splendid vigor, fattening easily, maturing rapidly, and pro- 
ducing a carcass with but little waste at slaughter. While 
the fleece was not heavy, its quality was fine. Following 
Mr. Ellman came Jonas Webb, who lived about 60 miles 
north of London, on the estate of Babraham, near the city 
of Cambridge. He was also one of the great English breed- 
ers. His Southdowns had more size and were a still better 



mutton sheep than were Ellman's. As a mutton sheep, the 
Southdown has occupied a most important place for a cen- 
tury or more, being still regarded the model sheep for that 
purpose. It has been used to help improve more breeds 
than any other. Southdowns were first imported into 
America about 1800, and since then many very excellent 
specimens of this breed have been imported to this country. 
The Southdown has been noted for its short, neat head, 
which is more or less covered with wool down over the red- 
dish-brown face. It 
has a short, thick neck, 
broad chest, wide 
back, thick meaty leg 
of mutton, and short 
red-brown legs. No 
other breed matures 
earlier, and it is not 
lacking in hardiness. 
Southdowns are well 
suited to grazing on 
the better class of 
pastures, but are not 
so good for the range 
and poor pastures as 
are some others. The 
flesh is very fine of 

grain and is not inclined to be overfat. Butchers especially 
admire this sheep because it kills out so well, with small 
amount of loss. The Southdowns, or sheep with more or 
less of Southdown blood, have won more prizes in fat-stock 
shows where the carcasses were considered than has any 
other breed. At our great International Live Stock Expo- 
sitions, the Southdown has usually won the grand-champion- 
ship in the dressed carcass exhibit. Mature rams weigh 
about 180 pounds, and the ewes 135 pounds. These sheep 

143. Southdown 
George V of Englan'd. Owner Ohio State 


bred by King 

Photograph by the author. 



have been criticised as being too small for the American 
farmer. The average fleece is short and light of weight, 
though of fine quality, often grading as three-eighths cloth- 
ing, and this has also made the breed generally unpopular 
in America, although it is looked upon with much favor in 
Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia. In spite of these 
criticisms, the breed commands universal respect, and many 
choice flocks of Southdowns are found all over the civilized 
world, especially among English-speaking people. 

The Shropshire sheep originated from a number of dif- 
ferent types native in and about the county of that name in 

western Eng- 
land. This is a 
rather hilly re- 
gion, with many 
fine pastures, 
and is well suit- 
ed to these ani- 
mals. A num- 
ber of different 
men were inter- 
ested in the im- 
provement of 
the Shropshire, 
prominent among whom were Messrs. Meire and Adney. 
Some of the early sheep were very coarse and had horns, 
and Mr. Meire worked to improve the quality, to get 
rid of the horns, and to develop a better mutton sheep. 
In this respect he succeeded. Shropshires became some- 
what prominent in England about 1853, when they were first 
exhibited at the Royal Agricultural Society Show. About 
1880 much attention was given the breed, and large exhibi- 
tions were made at English shows. These sheep were first 
imported into America in 1860, by Samuel Sutton, of Mary- 
land. Twenty years later they were imported in larger 

Figure 144. Shropshire ram, 2nd prize, 1920 Ohio State 
Fair. Photograph by the author. 


numbers, and since then, more especially in recent years, 
thousands have been brought to the United States, where 
this is the most popular of all the mutton breeds. 

In size the Shropshire sheep is medium, the mature 
rams weighing about 225 pounds and the ewes about 
160 pounds. The head often has a covering of wool, or 
"cap," down to the nose, which is covered with dark brown 
or nearly black hair. The back is broad, the leg of mutton 
very good, and the body is usually deep, showing good feed- 
ing capacity. The legs are dark brown in color like the face, 
and are covered with wool to the knees in front and to the 
ankles behind. The quality of mutton is most excellent, 
being second to the Southdown only. The fleece is usually 
about 3J/2 inches long, in typical specimens grading as three- 
eighths, and is of very good quality. A twelve months' 
growth from fair specimens of the breed weighs about 9 or 
10 pounds, and entire flocks have averaged even more. 

The good combination of size of body and weight of 
fleece has done much to make this breed popular with Amer- 
ican farmers, as a great general-purpose sheep. Further- 
more, the Shropshire is our most prolific breed, many ewes 
having twin lambs. Flocks are very common all over the 
so-called corn belt of the United States, especially east of 
the Mississippi and in Canada. The American Shropshire 
Sheep Association is the largest organization of its kind in 
the world, and has done much to promote the breed. 

The Oxford Down sheep comes from the county of Oxford, 
in south-central England. It is a beautiful rolling country, 
with good pastures, and where wheat and small grains thrive. 
This is one of our youngest breeds of sheep, and comes from 
a combination of Cotswold and Hampshire blood. About 
1833 Samuel Druce began to breed these sheep, and finally 
produced one of the largest English mutton breeds. For a 
long time the wool, though abundant, was rather inferior, 
but the size and the mutton quality of the sheep made it 





popular. A few of these sheep were brought to Delaware 
in 1846, and since then the Oxford Down has been much 
improved and has been gaining in popularity in America. 
As stated, it is a large breed, the rams at maturity 
often weighing 275 pounds or more, and the ewes about 200 
pounds. The color of the hair on the face, ears, and legs is 
a very dark brown, quite like the Shropshire. Oxfords are 
not so heavily wooled over the head, and often the face is 
rather free of wool, and the ears incline to be rather smooth 
and large. Typical specimens have quite wide backs, fairly 
good legs of mutton, and deep bodies. During recent years 

the breed has 
been much im- 
proved, the flesh 
growing finer in 
quality, and the 
fat being laid on 
more smoothly. 
The fleece, which 
fre quently 
weighs 12 
pounds, is long- 
er, more open, 
and coarser than 
that of the Shropshire and grades usually in most of the 
flocks of the country as quarter-blood combing. 

This breed has made a favorable impression on farmers in 
the Middle West, where fairly early maturity, size, and heavy 
fleece are wanted. The ewes are quite prolific, and, though 
not equaling the Shropshires, make a very good showing. 
The Oxford may be regarded as one of the most promising 
breeds for future development. Recently flocks have been 
extensively distributed to many sheep-growing countries. 
There are more of these sheep on the fertile farms of 
Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, New York, and Ohio, than 

Figure 145. Oxford Down ram, 2nd prize Ohio State 
Fair, 1920. Photograph by the author. 



elsewhere in America, for they are heavy feeders and require 
rich pastures or forage crops in order to do their best. 

The Hampshire Down sheep, like the Southdown and 
Oxford Down breeds, originated in southern England and 
under much the same conditions of climate and soil. Their 
ancestors were of two kinds, one with white faces and horns, 
and the other with dark faces and horns. Southdown blood 
was mingled with these two, from which came the more im- 
proved Hampshire, without horns and with an almost black 
face, ears, and legs. William Humphrey was the most im- 
portant early improver of these sheep, and, later, James 

Figure 146. Hampshire ewes on farm W. J. Cherry, Ohio, 
the author. 

Photograph by 

Rawlence did much for them. The Hampshire is one of 
the largest breeds, mature rams often weighing over 250 
pounds, and ewes nearly 200 pounds. The head is" one of 
the striking features of the breed. The nostrils, lips, and 
face are quite black; the nose is very strong, or Roman in 
character; and the ears are dark, very large, and incline for- 
ward in a heavy style. Wool rarely extends much beyond 
the forehead. The body is large, and the form is of the 
usual mutton type. Hampshire sheep often seem some- 
what coarse of bone and large of limb. The fleece, which 
grades as three-eighths or quarter-blood, is about 4 inches 


long, inclines to be coarse and open, and usually does not 
shear much above 7 pounds with 12 months' growth. 

Hampshires have long been popular for early or spring 
lambs, which are regarded as excellent quality. This breed of 
sheep has grown greatly in favor during the past few years, 
and large importations have been brought to the United 
States. On the western range lambs sired by Hampshire 
rams and out of ewes with some Merino blood are quite 
popular. Early lambs of this cross are also valued in the 
eastern market. This breed requires fertile pastures and 
plenty of feed in order to do well. Hampshires are widely 
distributed in North and South America, in Europe and 
Australia. In the United States, important flocks are kept 
in the northern states east of the Mississippi, especially in 
Pennsylvania, Kentucky, New York, and Michigan, and in 
the Rocky Mountain and Pacific coast states. Idaho leads. 

The Dorset Horn sheep receives its name from the 
county of Dorset, in southern England, where it has long 
been bred. It is an improved form of two native, horned, 
white-faced breeds found in Dorset and Somerset counties. 
The modern Dorset Horn belongs to the middle-wool class, 
and is of medium to large size, rams weighing about 225 
pounds and ewes 165. Both sexes have horns, those of the 
ram at maturity being large and having spiral turns, while 
those of the ewes are small, and bend in a simple curve 
around toward the face. The head, ears, and legs have a 
covering of white hair, and the nostrils are of flesh color. 
The neck is often short, the back wide, and the body of large 
capacity, with a fair leg of mutton. Dorsets are popular as 
lambs, and for mutton, although the quality of the mutton 
is not of the best. The lambs feed well and lay on flesh 
rapidly. As wool producers, this is a breed that should do 
better. The fleece, which grades as three-eighths or quarter- 
blood, tends to be short and the weight light, ranging around 
6 pounds for average animals. These sheep were first 



brought to America in 1885, and, while there are numerous 
flocks in the eastern states, more especially in Pennsylvania 
and New York, the breed as yet can hardly be called popular. 
The Cheviot sheep comes from the Cheviot Hills in the 
border country between England and Scotland. Here the 
land rises into grass-topped mountains, reaching nearly 4,000 

Figure 147. A pen of Horned Dorset ewes, champions at a show of the Royal 
Agricultural Society of England. Photograph from The National Stock- 
man and Farmer. 

feet above the sea. Grass is the universal crop, and here 
this breed of sheep has been raised for long beyond a cen- 
tury, and gradually improved during the passing years. 
To-day the Cheviot is a medium-wool, fair-sized sheep, the 
rams weighing around 200 pounds at maturity, and the 



ewes 150 pounds. This is one of our most beautiful breeds. 
The head is entirely free of wool, and the face and ears are 
covered with white hair, on which black specks occasionally 
occur. The nostrils are black, the nose tends to be a bit 
Roman, the eye is large and prominent, and the erect ear is 
usually pricked up as though listening. The Cheviot in- 
clines to be somewhat narrow of back, with a moderate 
depth of body and fair leg of mutton, though in recent years 
it has been much improved. The fleece covers the body to 
the back of the ears and down to the knees and hocks, the 

Figure 148. Cheviot sheep on their native Scotch hills. Photograph by the 


rest of the leg being covered with white hair. The fleece, 
which grades as three-eighths or quarter-blood combing, 
tends to be somewhat open and is usually about 3J/ inches 
long and a year's growth weighs 6 or 7 pounds. The fiber 
inclines to be coarser than that of the Shropshire, American 
breeders using the latter for a standard. 

Cheviots are very hardy, and in their native home on the 
mountains rely altogether on grass the entire year. They 
are active and independent, and do not flock as do other 


breeds. For this reason the Cheviot has never been suited 
to the range country. The quality of Cheviot mutton is 
very superior, having very fine grain, and lacking surplus 
fat. In mutton carcass contests in the English and Scotch 
shows, this breed and its cross-breds have always held a 
high place. It is not widely distributed outside of its native 
home, though found in the United States in New York, Ohio, 
Illinois, Wisconsin, and in other states of the Middle West. 

The Suffolk sheep comes from the county after which 
it is named, in southeastern England. It belongs to the 
medium- wool class, and is a mutton breed of distinct merit. 
In the carcass contests of the Smithfield Club Show in Eng- 
land, it has been a leading prize winner. The head, ears, 
and legs of the Suffolk are distinctly black in color, 
giving a group of these sheep a very striking appearance. 
Mature rams weigh about 250 pounds and the ewes 175 
pounds. The fleece is not heavy. Suffolks are not exten- 
sively bred in England, although growing in popularity and 
but few of them are to be found in America. In fact, they 
are very rare here, and are not often seen at our sheep shows, 
neither have they been much advertised in America. 

The Tunis sheep takes its name from Tunis, in northern 
Africa, where it is supposed to have originated. In 1799, 
General Eaton, United States Consul at Tunis, received a 
gift of a number of these sheep, two of which survived a 
voyage to America. Other importations followed this one 
of General Eaton. These early importations were kept in 
the eastern and southern states, and little was done to im- 
prove them. They are peculiar in having a large, fat tail, 
and have often been called "Fat Tailed Sheep." In recent 
years, especially since about 1893, they have been bred in 
small flocks, in different parts of the country, but especially 
in Indiana, Kentucky, and New York. They are of medium 
size, with brown, or mottled brown and white faces, and 
brown legs. The tail is cut off soon after birth, as with 



other lambs, but the hind parts of the Tunis are somewhat 
heavier than corresponding parts of other breeds. The Tunis 
makes an excellent feeder, and lambs of this breed have met 
with much favor from stock buyers and the fattened lambs 
have sold for high prices on the market. The fleece is of 
excellent quality, of three-eighths grade, averaging about 3 
inches long, and frequently containing red or brown fibers. 
But few of these sheep are to be seen, and fairs rarely make 
classes for them in the premium lists. 

The Leicester sheep (pronounced Lester) originated in 
central England in the county of that name. Here Robert 
Bakewell, one of the most 
famous live-stock breeders in 
English history, developed and 
improved the native stock 
into the New Leicester. This 
was really the first improved 
breed of sheep known in Eng- 
land, and for a great many 
years it was extremely popu- 
lar. Some of these sheep 
were brought to America, it is 
said, before the War of the 
Revolution. In 1800, New Leicester sheep were known 
about Philadelphia. In the early part of the nineteenth 
century, many were imported and sold for high prices. 
This is a large breed, and belongs to the long, or coarse, 
wool class. The entire head and ears are covered with 
white hair, the wool not growing beyond the back of the 
head. The ears are large but thin, and are usually carried 
in an erect position. The nostrils are black, the nose is 
somewhat prominent, and the eye bold and attractive. 
The Leicester has a full, wide breast; broad, flat back; 
wide rump; and fair leg of mutton. The body form is 
broad rather than deep, and sometimes these sheep 

Figure 149. Border Leicester ram. 
Photograph by the author. 



appear long of leg. They fatten rapidly, and the rams at 
maturity weigh around 250 pounds, and the ewes 175 pounds 
or more. As mutton producers, they are not popular, be- 
cause they lay on too much fat. They require good pas- 
tures, and are not the hardiest sheep in the world. 

The Leicester is the smallest of the long-wool breeds, and 
has a curly fleece of low quarter-blood or braid grade that 
does not shear very heavily, 7 to 9 pounds being about a 
year's growth. These unfavorable criticisms account for 
there being so few of them to-day either in America or 

elsewhere. Once 
a popular breed, 
this is now the 
least known in 
America of all 
the so-called 
common breeds 
of sheep. In 
northern Eng- 
land, in the 
border country, 
is an improved 
form or family 
known as the 
which is the more common type to-day. This differs from 
the English Leicester in having a more vigorous constitution, 
an especially lively carriage of head, and a clear white face, 
while the old breed has a bluish tinge to the skin of the face. 
The Cotswold sheep gets its name from the fact that in 
early times in England these sheep were sheltered in what 
were called "Cots," and were pastured on the treeless hills 
known as "Wolds." That was in southwest England, where 
this breed has been kept for centuries. It is written that 
in 1464 King Edward IV gave permission to transport some 

Figure 150. Cotswold ewe, champion, 1916, Ohio State 
Fair. Photograph by the author. 


Cotswold sheep to Spain. About 100 years or more ago, 
Cotswold and Leicester flocks were mixed a great deal in 
blood, by which crossing it is said the former was improved. 
These sheep were brought to America as early as 1832, and 
once were very popular, especially in the states east of 
Illinois and north of Tennessee. This is a large, long-wooled 
breed, larger than the Leicester, mature rams weighing from 
250 to 275 pounds, and ewes 200 to 225 pounds. The head 
is somewhat large, and is usually white, though it may be 
gray or brown in tint. The nose is rather prominent, and 
the ears incline to be large and are carried somewhat heavily. 
If the forehead of the Cotswold is protected, long curly locks 
of wool hang down in front, often hiding the eyes. Sheep 
of this breed have a broad breast, wide, flat back and broad 
rump, and show a greater width than depth of body in the 
best specimens. While the Cotswold feeds very well, if on 
good pasture and under favorable conditions, it is not a breed 
suited to scant pastures. The well-fattened carcass is too 
large, coarse, and fat for the present demand. The fleece, 
which grades as low quarter-blood or braid, is coarser and 
the curly locks larger than with the Leicester. Good Cots- 
wold wool is noted for its lustre, a quality much valued by 
the English breeders. A twelve-months' fleece is usually 
from 8 to 10 inches long, and weighs about 10 pounds. 
There are not many Cotswold flocks in the United States, 
and the breed is more popular in Canada than here. The 
demand for a smaller sheep and a different grade of wool 
make it difficult for this breed to become popular in America. 
The Lincoln sheep comes from the county of that name 
on the east coast of England. This is a very old breed, and 
its improvement began while Bakewell was developing the 
New Leicester. Some Lincoln sheep were brought to Amer- 
ica before 1800, and they have been imported in a small 
way ever since. This is a large breed, being somewhat larger 
than the Cotswold, and having much in common with the 


latter. The head is large, and is gray or white in color, or 
gray mixed with white. The wool does not cover the entire 
head, but a small tuft of short locks commonly extends over 
the forehead. The ears are large and usually have no wool 
on them. The body form is much like that of the Cotswold, 
though perhaps deeper of rib. These sheep fatten easily; 
but the carcasses get too heavy and have too much external 
fat for the present-day trade, and so the mutton is not 
popular. The Lincoln requires good grazing to do its best, 

Figure 151. A group of Lincoln ewes owned by William Shier, of Michigan. 
Photograph from the American Sheep Breeder. 

as it is too heavy for the hill country. The Lincoln produces 
a fleece in long, wavy locks, which grades as low quarter- 
blood or braid, and which is not so curly but has the same 
lustre as the Cotswold. A year-old fleece is usually 8 inches 
long, and may weigh 10 pounds or more. Lincoln sheep have 
grown in popularity in their native home on account of the 
demand for them in Argentina, where large numbers are 
kept. Very high prices have been paid for them in England, 
and in 1906 a ram sold for $7,400, the highest sum on record 
for the breed. In the United States, Lincolns have not 
gained in favor and there are very few of these sheep in this 
country, these being mostly in Idaho and Oregon. 



The Romney Marsh sheep, also known as the Kent breed 
in its native home, originated in southeast England, in the 
county of Kent, on the marshes after which the breed is named. 
The land here is low, rich, and moist. These sheep seem 
especially suited to the local conditions, as they do not suffer 
from foot rot as do other breeds. The head and legs are 
white, the back is broad, and the body is of compact form. 
These sheep fatten very well on rather limited areas, and 

make a fair grade 
of mutton. The 
fleece, which 
usually grades 
as a quarter- 
blood combing, 
weighs about 8 
pounds, after a 
year's growth, 
and is in good 
demand. Large 
numbers of Rom- 
ney Marsh sheep 

Figure 152. Champion Romney Marsh ram. Owner are nOW f OUnd in 
Mr. A. Matthews, New Zealand. Photograph A^ ^' i 

from A merican Sheep Breeder. Argentina, and 

importations to 

America have been made on a small scale. An associa- 
tion for promoting this breed was organized at Chicago in 
December, 1911. Since it is essentially an untried breed 
in America, its merits for our conditions remain to be 
shown. The Romney Marsh belongs to the middle-wool 
class, producing a fleece of low quarter-blood grade. 

The Black-faced Highland sheep has long been known 
in the highlands of Scotland, where it grazes on the grass 
and heather on the highest mountains. In this breed, as in 
the Dorset, both sexes have horns, those of the ram being 
spiral and very large and showy at maturity. Highland 



sheep have black or mottled black and white faces, with no 
wool beyond the forehead. While these sheep, which are 
from small to medium size, produce a very fine grade of 
mutton on their native pastures, they are slow growers, and 
can not be ranked as feeders, as we view sheep in America. 
Their chief value lies in their adaptability to rough, hardy 
conditions, enabling them to live through winters when most 
other breeds would perish. The fleece, which grades as a 
low quarter-blood or braid, is very coarse, long, and open, 

falling from the body 

in wavy locks. Some 
Black-faced Highlanders 
have extremely coarse 
wool, with more or less 
hair about the lower 
thighs. In disposition 
they are wild and not 
so easily handled as 
other breeds. A few of 
these sheep have been 
brought to America, but 
they are not likely to meet with general favor. 

The Angora goat derives its name from the district of 
Angora, in Asia. These goats were first brought to America 
in 1849, when the Sultan of Turkey presented some to Dr. 
J. B. Davis, of South Carolina. Large numbers are found 
to-day in the United States, especially in the far western 
and southwestern states. The Angora is smaller than the 
common goat, individuals usually weighing from 60 to 100 
pounds. The color is pure white. The head has a pair of 
horns which slope backward and curve widely outward, with 
some twist in those of the buck, but none in the doe's. The 
ears are large, often six inches long or more, and droop down- 
ward slightly. The Angora makes very good mutton, but 
is not valued for this as much as for its fleece, commercially 

Figure 153. Angora goat King Cromwell. 
Photograph from American Sheep Breeder. 



known as mohair. In fair specimens this covers the body 
in silky, wavy ringlets, which in a year should become about 
10 inches long. The fleece ought to show a curl quite to the skin. 
An average weight is about 3 pounds. The better grade of 
goats produces a mohair that is highly valued for making 
certain kinds of dress goods, plushes for upholstering work, 
etc. Angoras have been regarded with favor by some for 
clearing land of underbrush. They eat the tender twigs 

and bark, and 
thus gradually 
kill the bushes. 
Goats have been 
used for this pur- 
pose in northern 
Michigan, Mis- 
souri, and else- 

The milk goat 
is common all 
over the world, 
especially in the 
warmer climates. 
It has been much improved, especially in Switzerland, 
Germany and southern Europe. There are many breeds, 
of which the Toggenburg, Saanen, Nubian and Maltese 
are noted as the greatest producers. The milk of the 
goat contains slightly more than 5 per cent fat, and about 
15 per cent solids. It is digested very easily, and is free 
from tuberculosis germs, as the goat does not suffer from 
this disease. Goats thrive with very ordinary care, and 
should be kept more extensively the United States. 

The Toggenburg goat has its native home in the Toggen- 
burg valley in Switzerland. It is a medium brown in color, 
with a white band along down each side of the face from 

Figure 154. Toggenburg doe El Chivar's Natalie, on 
milking stand. This doe has a record of 2,090 pounds 
of milk. Photograph from the owner, Winthrop 
Howland of California. 


eyes to mouth. Toggenburgs are usually hornless, though 
not always, are slender and lean of body, and the does often 
possess udders of large capacity, many of which produce 4 
or 5 quarts of milk a day. The doe El Chivars Geneva in 312 
days produced 2,158 pounds of milk testing 3.37 per cent fat. 
The Saanen goat derives its name from the Saanen val- 
ley in Switzerland, its native home. This is a white or 
creamy colored goat, is regarded as hornless, though horns 
sometimes occur, and is usually covered with short hair, 
excepting along the spine, thighs and flanks, where the 
hair is longer. This breed is noted for milk production, 
and the best of them, according to Peer, give from 5 to 
6 quarts of excellent milk a day. The two-year-old doe 
Swiss Echo produced 2,374 pounds of milk in less than 8 
months, which is a remarkable record. 


1. The three classes or groups. 

2. How the Merino breed was introduced and promoted in America. 

3. Some of the features of Merino wool. 

4. Who Ellman and Webb were, and what they did. 

5. What the Southdown is valued for to-day. 

6. Why the Shropshire is popular. 

7. The origin of the Oxford Down. 

8. The color markings of the Southdown, Shropshire, Oxford, and 


9. What breeds of mutton sheep have horns in both sexes. 

10. Why the head of the Cheviot is attractive. 

11. What breed of sheep Bakewell improved. 

12. Why mutton from the large breeds is not popular. 

13. Where the Lincoln is popular and the prices it brings. 

14. What the fleece of the Angora is, and its use. 

15. How much milk a good milk goat will produce in a year. 


15. What kind of sheep is most common in the state you live in? 
M>. Who among your friends has the largest flock of pure-bred 

17. How many breeds can you learn of within ten miles of home? 

18. As far as you can learn, what is the heaviest fleece produced 

in your county, and from what breed and sex? 

19. Can you get some samples of wool of pure-bred sheep? 

20. What kind of sheep exhibit do you have at your state fair? 

21. What kind of goats are kept in your neighborhood? 

22. Are goats worth while for family use? 


The catching and holding of a sheep for inspection is 
usually a simple matter, if correctly done. To catch the 
sheep, seize a hind leg at the hock or flank and gently pull 
him to the location desired. Never grasp and pull the wool, 

Figure 155. The points of the sheep. Reproduced from "Judging Farm 
Animals," by the author. 

for the "more the fleece is pulled the harder the sheep will 
struggle to escape. Next place the left hand below the jaw, 
palm up, and quietly hold the head and throat, and then 
reach back to the right hind quarter with the right hand and 



pull the sheep squarely in front of your legs and close to the 
body. If it is desired to move the sheep forward, it will be 
necessary only to press gently forward with the right hand. 
If that effort is not enough, then place the finger tips at and 
beneath the root of the tail, and the sheep will move forward 
without trouble. Sheep that are accustomed to handling 
may, as a rule, easily be held by placing the left hand under 
the lower jaw and holding the back of the head or neck with 
the right hand. In judging- work at a school, a small rope 
halter will be found useful in simplifying the matter of hold- 
ing and the use of attendants. 

To examine the under side of the sheep, it is desirable 
sometimes to place the animal on its rump. To do so, one 
should pass the left hand under the neck and grasp the right 
forearm. Then reach forward and under the sheep with the 
right hand and grasp the right hind leg at the hock; by a 
slight pull of the right hand, and a push of the body against 
the sheep, the animal will naturally swing down upon its 
rump. When in this position, the sheep is held with the left 
hand, with the sheep's back resting against the holder's 
knees. This operation becomes easy with a little practice. 

How to study the sheep. During much of the year, 
except for a short time after shearing, perhaps, the bodies of 
sheep are covered with wool. This varies greatly in length, 
but is frequently 3J/ to 4 inches long. With this covering 
of wool, it is impossible to judge the merits of the animal, 
except with the assistance of the hands; for the fleece covers 
defects that may be felt, but not so readily seen. Men who 
exhibit sheep usually trim the wool, or block it out, as it 
is termed, so as to make the animal look very symmetrical 
and attractive. While one should survey the general appear- 
ance of the sheep, as in the case of other animals, the use of 
the hands is an added necessity. While examining a mut- 
ton sheep, one should keep the fingers of each hand close 
together, and then press them flat on the wool, not allowing 



single fingers to stick into the fleece. In order to pre- 
vent the entrance of dirt, do not open the fleece, except 
at places where it naturally parts or breaks between two 
locks. The back wool, especially, should be kept closed. 
With the fingers one may press the wool firmly enough to 
feel the flesh below, to determine the extent and uniformity 
of fattening or covering over the frame, and whether the 
wool hides defects of conformation, such as narrow back, 
droopy rump, etc. Practice, of course, enables one in time 
to use the hands with much freedom, without detriment to 
the fleece, but inexperienced persons should be very careful 
not to disturb the wool. The skin of a sheep should be of 
, . a healthy pink color. It is as- 
sumed that this color indicates 
the animal to be in fine physi- 
cal condition ; but some breeds 
that are noted feeders, like the 
Shropshire and Oxford, have 
dark-colored skins oftentimes, 
and so it may be said that 
we do not know the real signif- 
icance of skin color. Yet the 
skin in any case should look 
clean and healthy, and not pale 
and bloodless. 

The age of the sheep is easily determined up to four or 
five years. A short time after birth, the lamb has in the 
front of the lower jaw eight small, narrow teeth, which are 
commonly called the milk teeth. The front part of the 
upper jaw has no teeth, but simply a tough, fleshy pad. 
When about 12 months old, the two middle milk teeth drop 
out, and two larger, permanent teeth occupy the place. At 
about 24 months, two more teeth push out two milk teeth, 
one on each side of the two that came in at 12 months. At 
36 months two more come in, and at 48 months the corner 

Figure 156. Judging sheep, 
covering over the back, 
graph by the author. 




teeth are replaced by larger permanent ones. It is easy to 
tell the age up to four years. After that one must do some 
guessing. It is to be noted, that with age the teeth wear 
down or break away in the middle first, and old teeth slant 
forward more than those of less age. The teeth should be 
examined when judging or buying; for they are a guide to 
age and the condition for feeding and future usefulness. 

A systematic inspection of the mutton sheep should take 
place after the following manner. So far as conformation 
is concerned, look for the same blocky fullness of form that 
would be expected in a fat steer. 

1. Survey far general ap- 
pearances in the usual 
manner as previously 
described with horses 
and cattle. 

2. Rest the lower jaw of 
the sheep in the left 
hand, and place the 
right about the back of 
the head or upper part 
of neck. Then raise the 
point of the jaw some- 
what, and part the lips 

gently by use of the forefinger and thumb of the left 
hand. One is thus enabled to inspect the front teeth, 
which are found in the lower jaw only. 

3. Inspect muzzle, face, eyes, forehead, and ears. 

4. View the breast and position of fore legs while stand- 
ing in front. Then with the hand feel for thickness 
of brisket and spacing between the legs. 

5. With the right hand grasp the neck and feel for its size 
and attachment at the head. 

6. Notice the union of neck to shoulders, the covering of 
the latter and the position of the blades. 

Figure 157. Judging mutton sheep. 


3 for width of loin, 
y the author. 




7. Place the right hand on the back, just behind the 
withers, and the left hand between the legs, on the 
floor of the chest. One is thus better able to secure 
an estimate of the depth of body. 

8. Press the hands on the crops 
and front flanks, to deter- 
mine thickness of chest. 

9. Press firmly along the back 
with one hand, the fingers 
pointing in the direction of 
the neck, to determine the 
covering of flesh. With 
both hands get the breadth 
and character of the cover- 
ing of back and loin. 

10. Place the fingers of the 
hands over the hips and 

note their covering of flesh and distance apart. 

11. After examining the 
hips, draw the hands on 
down to the rump, and 
feel its length, breadth, 
position, and covering of 
flesh. With the right 
hand, grasp the point of 
rump and note width, 
position, and covering of 
the root of the tail. 

12. Grasp the thigh, usually 
termed leg of mutton, 
with the hands, the left 

Figure 158. Judging mutton sheep. 
Feeling condition at the dock. 
Photograph by the author. 

Figure 159. Judging mutton sheep. 
Feeling the leg of mutton. Photo- 

graph by the author " 
hand with open thumb taking in one side of the leg, 
and the right hand and open thumb grasping the other 
side. Thus by freely moving the hands about the 
leg, one may determine fullness of hind flank, the 


thickness of muscle, fullness of twist, and size of leg. 

13. Place the left hand on the rump at tail and right hand 
between the thighs at the twist, and estimate the 
depth of hind quarters. 

14. With the palms of the hands facing each other, press 
against the outside of thighs, to determine whether or 
not the hind parts are thick. 

15. Step back a few feet and notice position of hocks and 
placing of hind legs and feet. 

16. From one side, view position of legs and feet. 

In the examination of fat mutton sheep, no great em- 
phasis is placed on the covering and kind of wool. The 
butcher values the wool, but, in buying, it receives slight at- 

Figure 160. Three types of Merinoes, (a) on right, (b) in center and (.c) on 
left. Photograph by author. 

tention. In the show ring, most mutton judges examine the 
wool of fat sheep scarcely at all. If judging breeds, then 
the wool must be examined as well as the frame and cover- 
ing of flesh. Nine points are allowed wool in the following 
score card for fat sheep of the mutton type. 

The method of judging fine-wool sheep is somewhat dif- 
ferent from that of the mutton type. In the case of classes 
A and B, the hands are scarcely used, excepting to part and 
inspect the wool on different parts of the body. In other 
words, the hand serves only in studying the fleece. In ex- 




Scale of points 



AGE Number of permanent teeth 


WEIGHT, score according to age 6 

FOEM, low set, medium long, broad, deep, sym- 
metrical 10 

QUALITY, hair and wool fine; bone neat; skin 

healthy; features refined 

CONDITION, deep, even covering of firm flesh in 

valuable parts. Note especially back, loin, 

ribs, and root of tail 10 

HEAD AND NECK: 7 Points. 

MUZZLE, fine; lips thin; mouth and nostrils of 

good size 

EYES, large bright, placid 1 

FACE, short, features well defined 

FOREHEAD, broad and full 

EARS, fine, carried alert 

NECK, thick, short, smooth, blending nicely at 

shoulder 2 

FORE QUARTERS,: 7 Points. 

SHOULDERS, smooth, compact on top, nicely 

covered with flesh 4 

BRISKET, thick and prominent, extending in front 

of legs 

LEGS, straight, short, strong, wide apart; shank 

fine; feet well placed 1 

BODY: 27 Points. 

CHEST, wide, deep, comparatively large girth .... 5 

BACK, level, medium long, wide, smoothly fleshed 8 

LOIN, broad, long, thick fleshed 

RIBS, well sprung, long, close together, smoothly 


FLANKS, low, thick, furnishing straight underlines 
HIND QUARTERS: 16 Points. 

HIPS, smooth, level, medium wide apart 2 

RUMP, long, level, wide to tail-head, smoothly 

fleshed 5 

THIGHS, thickly and fully fleshed 5 

TWIST, plump, deep, wide angled 

LEGS, straight, short, strong, shank fine 1 

WOOL: 9 Points. 

QUALITY, fine, soft, uniform over body 

QUANTITY, dense, even, of fair length for age 

CONDITION, bright, clean, sound, moderate 

amount yolk 3 

Total points. . 100 

amining this, the locks should be separated on the shoulder, 
back, and thigh, and compared in length, quantity, and 
quality. With the hands one may feel to determine the 
softness and density of covering. Density may also be seen 
with the eye, as shown in the covering of the head, the belly, 
and legs, as well as in the general appearance of the out- 
side of the fleece. When wool production is of special 
importance, examinations of the bare spots on the belly next 



to the legs, and the general under covering, are essential. 
This requires placing the sheep on the rump. This position 
allows not only the wool covering to be studied, but the full- 
ness of breast and the condition of the feet may also be 
noted. In the examination of the fine-wool fleece, look for 
a light-colored yolk that should be evenly distributed through- 
out the fleece. Quite often the yolk will accumulate in 
spots or streaks, giving an uneven character to its dis- 
tribution. This feature is most likely to happen with fleeces 
containing a large amount of yolk. 

The score card for the Delaine or Class C Merino is here- 
with given on 
page 364, and 
contains the scale 
of points that 
can be most com- 
monly used with 
fine- wool sheep. 

In judging 
this type one 
must consider 
the form as ap- 
proaching very 
closely to that of 
the ideal mutton 
sheep. The fact is that the C type is a general-purpose Merino, 
with mutton an important feature. Yet one need not ex- 
pect to find as much thickness of chest, breadth of back, 
fullness of quarter, or covering of flesh, as with a Southdown 
or other more highly developed mutton breed. 

Things to emphasize in a study of the Class C type. 

1. The head should be short and broad at forehead, with 
a slight dish of face in the ewes, and a fullness of nose 
with the rams. Slight wrinkles often occur over the 
nose, which should be covered with fine, silky hair. 

Figure 161. Inspecting the wool on the side, 
graph by the author. 





Scale of points 



AGE Number of permanent teeth 


WEIGHT, score according to age. Mature rams 

150 Ibs., ewes 125 Ibs 3 

FORM, low compact, symmetrical, uniformly 

covered with flesh 7 

QUALITY, bone and wool fine; skin pink and 

healthy 7 

CONDITION, even covering of firm flesh, of moder- 
ate thickness . , 7 

HEAD AND NECK: 7 Points. 

MUZZLE, broad; mouth and nostrils good size; 

lips thin 1 

EYES, bright, of good size, placid 

FACE, short, broad between eyes 1 

FOREHEAD, broad . 1 

EARS, medium to small, set wide apart, covered 

with silky hair 1 

NECK, short on top, long below, smoothly at- 
tached 2 

FORE QUARTERS: 12 Points. 

SHOULDERS, well placed 2 

BREAST, deep and medium thick 

BRISKET, carried well forward, with some breadth 

and fold or apron 2 

LEGS, straight, short, strong, well set; arm full; 
shank smooth; feet of good horn and point- 
ing straight forward 3 

BODY: 15 Points. 

CHEST, broad, deep, full behind shoulders 

BACK, straight and medium wide 

LOIN, strong and muscular 

RIBS, well sprung and deep 3 

FLANKS, low, making straight underline 1 

HIND QUARTERS: 13 Points. 

HIPS, smooth, not too wide apart 2 

RUMP, long, level, moderately wide 

THIGHS, straight, short, strong, stifle full; feet of 
good horn, and pointing straight forward .... 
WOOL: 29 Points. 

QUALITY, fiber fine, with close and uniform crimp, 

free of weak fiber or hair 10 

DENSITY, compact all over body 7 

LENGTH of fiber uniform, at least 23^ inches for 12 
months growth 

CONDITION, rich and soft in handling, with moder- 
ate amount of well distributed yolk; free of. 
foreign matter 5 

Total points . . 


The ears also should have a covering of fine hair. 
Excepting the muzzle, nose, and ears, the head should 
be well covered with wool. Bareness of the face is 
regarded as very objectionable by Merino critics. 
2. Favor shortness of top of neck, with no heavy folds 
or excess of apron below at the breast. 



3. The tendency is towards narrowness at the withers 
and fore ribs with sag of back. Thickness is desirable 
here, with not too prominent a shoulder. 

4. A peaked, droopy rump is a common Merino charac- 
teristic, but is very ob- 
jectionable, and should 

be severely scored. 

5. Look for a thick, well de- 
veloped leg of mutton. 

6. See that the hocks are 
straight, and that the 
sheep stands well on all 
four legs. Defective po- 
sition is not infrequent. 

7. Merino sheep have pcor- 
er feet than any other 
breed, and require care- 
ful attention. The toes frequently grow to one side 

or are too long, and the horn 
grows under so as to give the 
foot a bad position. 

In judging breeding sheep 
of any class, the same essential 
features must be considered 
that have already been dis- 
cussed in preceding pages. 

A heavy condition of flesh 
is objectionable, a muscular 
animal in good health being 
most desirable. Sex affects the 
character of head and neck. 

Figure 162. Judging Merino sheep. 
Examining the back locks. Photo- 
graph by the author. 

Figure 163. Judging Merino sheep. 
Inspecting thigh wool. Photograph 

by the author. 

With ewes, some length and refinement of these parts must 
prevail, while rams must show a larger, heavier, bolder type 
of face and eye than the ewes, and a thick muscular neck. 
The Merino rams, as a rule, have heavy horns at maturity, 



while the females are hornless. With Dorset sheep, the ewes 
have a slender, one-curve horn; while the rams have a heav- 
ier, different type of horn, of spiral form. Hardly as much 
compactness is sought with breeding sheep as with those for 
fattening purposes. Special attention should be given to 

the fleece in judging breeding 
stock. Each breed is char- 
acterized by a type of fleece 
that careful judges recognize, 
although the staple of two dif- 
ferent breeds may approach 
each other in grade, as, for 
example, Shropshire and Ox- 
ford. The age, constitution, 
and general health should be 
considered, with trueness to 

Figure 164. Judging Merino sheep 
Inspecting belly wool. Photograph 
by the author. 

breed type and 

strong sex 


1. How should the animal be caught and held? 

2. What is the correct method of examining the fleece? 

3. How do you use the hands in determining covering of flesh? 

4. Describe the method of inspecting a leg of mutton. 

5. Where on the body are the different grades of wool found? 

6. Describe types A, B, and C. 

7. How should the fine- wool type be examined? 

8. How do the scales of points of mutton and fine-wool sheep 

especially differ? 

9. What kind of defects of the feet may occur with the Merino? 

10. How do breeding sheep differ from others in character? 


11. Use the score card at home, if you have sheep. 

12. Compare several animals on the following points: 

(a) The sex character shown in head and neck. 

(b) Amount and quality of wool. 

(c) Covering of flesh. 

(d) Thickness of chest. 

(e) Character of rump and hind legs. 

13. In shearing season, judge one or more animals before, and again 

after the fleece has been removed. 



The adaptability of sheep to feeding under very different 
surroundings is remarkable. We find them thriving un- 
der the most variable conditions, subsisting on the simplest 
fare. Sheep are found on the comparatively barren islands off 
the North British coast, on the grassy uplands of Scotland, 
and on the rich meadows of central England. They thrive on 
the wide stretches of more or less arid lands of the western 
United States. In Australia they are the only domestic ani- 
mals of consequence over vast areas of desert range; while 
on the far-away Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic, near 
to the antarctic circle, sheep husbandry has long been the 
chief industry. Sheep respond well to good feed and care. 
They should, therefore, be given proper attention. 


Class of sheep 

Per day 1,000 Ibs. live weight. 






(a) Fattening lambs. 

Weight 50-70 Ibs. . . 
" 70-90 " 
" 90-110" 
(b) Maintaining mature sheep 
Coarse wool 












Fine wool 

(c) Breeding ewes, with lambs 

The feeding standards for sheep are not in as general 
use as conditions might justify. The simplicity of diet uni- 
versally recognized as suited to successful sheep husbandry 
no doubt very generally meets the needs of these animals. 
Under conditions of arable farming, and dry-lot feeding, 



however, it will be wise to recognize the requirements set 
forth in the previous table arranged from the modified 
Wolff-Lehmann standards given by Henry and Morrison.* 

The important features of this table are in harmony with 
those applied to other classes of live stock, that is, as the 
period of fattening increases less protein is required, and 
the nutritive ratio is gradually widened. It is also interest- 
ing to note that, under conditions of fattening, lambs of 
1,000 pounds live weight, require less protein than fatten- 
ing pigs, but somewhat more than fattening steers; but 
the same relationship in total solids applies to these three 
groups of animals. 

The effects of age on the growth of sheep is quite com- 
parable with that of other animals. The first year the 
growth is most rapid, and gains in weight are made more 
slowly thereafter until maturity is reached. Coffey quotes 
a French investigator, Senequier, f who observed the weights 
of ten ewes from birth to maturity and found that the most 
rapid gain in weight was during the first two months, while 
three fourths of the increase was made the first year. At 
the fifth month about one half the total mature weight was 
attained, while between the eighth and ninth months three 
fourths of the weight was reached. During the second year 
the rate of gain was still diminished, and continued falling 
off from the twenty-fifth month to maturity. Lambs are 
most popular for feeding, as they generally respond best to 
feed, and so are the logical animals to be fed. Yearlings and 
wethers are relatively scarce and tend to feed into heavy 
mutton, which is not popular on the American market. 

The form of food to be fed sheep naturally depends 
upon the class of animals and conditions surrounding them. 
A fine type of roughage such as alfalfa, for example, is more 
easily handled in the small mouth of the sheep than is 
heavy, coarse material. The finer legumes and hay are, 

*Feeds and Feeding, 1917. 

t Productive Sheep Husbandry, 1918. 


therefore, preferable to the heavier ones. It is rarely neces- 
sary to cut or chaff roughage for sheep. Roots and cab- 
bage, however, should be sliced, for they can be fed to best 
advantage either alone or mixed with grain or chaffed hay. 
It is unnecessary to grind grain for mature sheep, for they 
digest entire seeds very effectively. Young lambs, on the 
contrary, should be fed cracked or ground feed. Where lin- 
seed cake is to be used, it will be found desirable to purchase 
"pea" size for sheep, for this form is palatable, is not likely 
to be adulterated, and does not gum up in the mouth as 
may happen with the meal. 

The influence of breed in feeding sheep. In general 
the large breeds make the greatest daily gains in weight, 
and the fine wools the least. Feeding trials at the Iowa 
station showed that wethers of the long-wool breeds did 
not consume quite so much grain for 100 pounds of gain in 
live weight as did the lighter-weight breeds, although the 
Oxford Down, which attains heavy weight, consumed essen- 
tially a maximum amount of grain per 100 pounds of gain. 

The proportion of grain to roughage for sheep very 
naturally will depend upon conditions. When pastures are 
good, it is not usually necessary to feed breeding sheep grain, 
although in the case of nursing ewes an exception may be 
made. In the dry lot, when roughage and grain are used, 
and fattening is in progress, the weight of roughage, as a 
rule, exceeds that of the grain. Reports on feeding experi- 
ments, nevertheless, show plenty of examples with a con- 
trary result. Henry and Morrison in reporting on 17 experi- 
mental lots, including 1,180 lambs being fattened on corn,* 
show that where unlimited corn was fed, it required 400 
pounds of grain and 436 pounds of hay to make 100 pounds 
of gain, while, in the case of a limited corn feed, it required 
but 288 pounds of grain and 655 pounds of hay for 100 
pounds of gain. At the Illinois station Coffey "found that 
it was possible in a period of 98 days to feed 100 pounds of 

*Feeds and Feeding, 1917. 


corn to every 86 pounds of alfalfa hay. This ration pro- 
duced a prime market finish and was satisfactory in all 
respects except that it required close watching at times to 
keep the lambs from going 'off feed'." Prof. Coffey also 
calls attention* to the fact that "lambs fed 100 pounds of 
corn to every 203 pounds of hay for a period of 98 days 
were graded as prime." 

The breeding flock is represented by the ewes, one or 
more service rams, and the lambs reserved for flock increase 
or sale. Such stock should be kept in attractive, vigorous 
condition, but not fattened to any marked extent. 

Figure 165. Oxford Down ewes on a field of rape in England. Note the 
hurdle fencing. Photograph by the author. 

Feeding and caring for the breeding ewe require watch- 
ful attention from the shepherd. The ewes to be reserved for 
breeding should be carefully selected during the summer, 
when on pasture. If ewes are to be brought in for winter 
shelter, they should be kept on pasture or forage crops as 
late in the fall as possible. Any good standard pasture 
grass will suit their needs; but, if rape or green legumes can 
be had, they will prove very satisfactory. Rape forage 
makes an unexcelled pasture for sheep of any kind, and 
they may be turned in any time after the plants have at- 
tained a height of eight or ten inches. But very little grain 

*Productive Sheep Husbandry, 1918. 


should be given with good pasture or forage. The ewes 
should lamb ordinarily any time after January first, accord- 
ing to location, and condition of keep. Lambing is logically 
earlier in the South than in the North. In and about lati- 
tude 40 North, many lambs come in February and March. 

Ewes that are to lamb should be accustomed to a vigor- 
ous outdoor life, and also to clover hay, alfalfa or roots, and 
little or no grain should be given until about a month before 
lambing. Even then, if in good form, but quarter to half 
a pound of grain a day will be necessary, bran or oats, and 
a little oil cake being very satisfactory. Prof. Frank Klein- 
heinz recommends a mixture of one and one half part oats 
and one part bran for ewes about to lamb.* Just prior to 
lambing, the udder should be closely watched to see that it 
is in good shape, and any wool that may interfere with the 
nursing should be trimmed off. The locks about the thighs 
and tail-head that tend to become foul with excrement, 
should also be trimmed away. At lambing, the ewe should, 
if practicable, be separated from the rest of the flock and 
given quiet quarters where she will not be disturbed and 
where she may be assisted during lambing, if necessary. 
Her feed, after lambing, for three or four days may well be 
a little bran, which is a valuable laxative. After this, in 
addition to such good roughage as may be available, pref- 
erably a legume, she may be fed concentrates. Good, 
bright, well ripened corn silage, not too acid, fed at the rate 
of 2 pounds a day for each 100 pounds live weight, makes 
a valuable succulent feed. A grain ration of 1 part shelled 
corn and 2 parts oats, with 10 per cent linseed cake added, 
is recommended. The ewe of average size, say 140 pounds, 
rarely needs over half a pound a day of this grain feed. 

Feeding and caring for the lamb demand most watch- 
ful attention. As soon as it is dropped the shepherd should 
see that the lamb is cleaned, especially about the head. 
Sometimes lambs appear somewhat smothered and lacking 

*Sheep Management, 1911. 



in life, and in this case the shepherd should blow gently in 
the mouth, and he also may move the front legs apart, and 
then together, alternately, to stimulate breathing. Soon 
after birth, the lamb should stand up, and in a few minutes 
it will want to nurse. This operation the shepherd may 
assist the first time, perhaps, by helping support the lamb 
and guiding its mouth to one of the teats. Thereafter the 
lamb will probably gain strength rapidly, and nurse as de- 
sired. If the mother disowns the lamb, she should be tied 

in a small pen 
where she will be 
unable to inter- 
fere with her off- 
spring's nursing. 
If the lamb gets 
badly chilled, it 
may be warmed 
by inserting all 
but the head in 
warm but not 
hot water, and 
kept there until 
circulation is re- 
stored, after 
which it should 
be taken out and 
rubbed dry and 
then placed with the ewe in a comfortable temperature. 

The udder of the ewe should be watched carefully. 
Sometimes it gets caked and inflamed, and again she may 
produce more milk than the lamb can use. The caked 
udder should be bathed, with hot applications, then rubbed 
dry, and the milk drawn off. It may also be painted with 
tincture of iodine several times, but care should be taken 
not to blister the udder. Lambs begin to nibble at grain 

Figure 166. "Feed my lambs." John, XXI, 15. Photo- 
graph by the author. 


in ten or twelve days, and from then on their appetite for 
such food increases. A mixture of equal parts ground corn, 
oats and bran, and one tenth part linseed meal, makes an 
excellent feed for young lambs. Later the corn and oats 
may be fed unground. In the West barley or Kafir corn 
may replace ordinary corn, if desired. Lambs soon take to 
roughage of a palatable sort, like fine clover or alfalfa, or a 
bright leafy hay. What is known as a lamb-creep should 
be made in the pen, by partitioning off a space, into which 
the lambs can creep, in which special feed may be placed for 
them that can not be reached by the ewes. When the lamb 
is four weeks or so old, it may be eating a quarter of a pound 
of grain a day, while when two months old this may be 
increased to three fourths of a pound daily. Lambs are often 
weaned when about four or five months old. They should 
then be separated from the dams, and given plenty of good 
feed, on pasture or dry lot, as seems best. If they are to be 
marketed, they should be fed grain until sold and shipped. 
The feeding and care of the rams are comparatively sim- 
ple. The ram lambs should be separated from the ewe lambs, 
and given such attention, that they may grow into strong, 
muscular individuals. During the season they should have 
excellent pasture or forage, with not much if any grain. In 
the late fall, when they go into winter quarters, they may be 
fed preferably some legume and a small ration of equal 
parts of corn and oats. A light feed of silage is also excellent. 
Great care must be taken in feeding roots to rams, as they 
tend to create a lime deposit, known as calculi, in the kid- 
neys, frequently causing death. In the feeding of more 
mature rams, plenty of good legume roughage, and a light 
feed of 4 parts of oats, 2 parts of corn and 1 of linseed cake, 
is recommended. The important thing is to keep the rams 
in strong condition, but not fat. A fully matured ram, even 
in breeding season, should rarely need over one pound of 
grain a day, and half this amount may do. 




Rations for fattening lambs. Lambs are fattened on 
various feeds, but the most popular ration in the corn-pro- 
ducing sections is one of corn with legumes. At the Illinois 
station Prof. Coffey fed various combinations of clover and 
corn to fattening lambs. He secured his best gains in a 
98-day experiment, with western lambs averaging 65 pounds, 
feeding daily 1.3 Ib. shelled corn and 1.3 Ib. clover hay. To 
make 100 pounds of gain with this ration required 432 
pounds of corn and 449 pounds of clover. The average 
daily gain was 0.295 pound. At the Purdue station lambs 
fed daily 1.54 pound corn silage, 0.64 pound clover hay and 
1.10 pound concentrates, consisting of 7 parts shelled corn 

Figure 167. Western lambs in an eastern feed lot. Photograph from the 
National Stockman and Farmer. 

and 1 part cottonseed meal, made an average daily gain of 0.28 
pound from Oct. 28 to Jan. 26.* To make 100 pounds of 
gain it required 393 pounds of concentrates, 228 pounds of 
clover hay, and 548 pounds of silage. In a comparison of 
corn, alfalfa, and pea silage with barley, alfalfa and silage 
fed lambs at the Wyoming station, there was an average 
daily gain of 0.25 pound for the corn lot and 0.23 pound for 
the barley-fed lot, with the cost in favor of the former, f In 

*Bulletin 221, Sept. 1918, Purdue University Agricultural Experiment Station. 
tBulletin 109 Wyoming Station, November, 1915. 


experiments in fattening range lambs by the Texas station, 
excellent results were secured from feeding cottonseed meal, 
cottonseed hulls, milo and feterita chops, and sorghum from 
milo and feterita.* In the state of Colorado, and especially 
in the San Luis valley, large numbers of lambs are each year 
turned on to fields of peas containing a small per cent of oats 
or barley, where they fatten in from 70 to 120 days. Many 
Colorado lambs are fattened on alfalfa hay and corn also. 

The fattening of yearlings or wethers is not so extensively 
conducted as it was formerly. The tendency is to turn the 
sheep off as fat lambs, as the heavier-weight wethers are 
unpopular sellers. In some markets it is difficult to sell 
them at all. Even in the British market large joints no 
longer meet with the favor they enjoyed prior to the World 
War. In fattening heavy sheep, the gains made will largely 
depend on previous condition of flesh and whether or not 
the teeth are in good shape. The cost of gain in fattening 
sheep of the older class will exceed those made on lambs, 
while the selling price will be less. 

The feeding of winter, or hot-house, lambs, is a special- 
ized industry in a limited way in some sections of the eastern 
United States. If the ewes lamb in November and Decem- 
ber, the lambs will go on market in 10 or 12 weeks, weighing 
50 to 60 pounds. Dorset Horn, Tunis, and Merino ewes 
are used, with dark-faced rams like the Hampshire, South- 
down or Shropshire for sires. It is important that the ewes 
kept produce plenty of milk. The lambs should be taught 
to eat grain as soon as possible that they be well started at 
two or three weeks of age. The grain for the first month 
should be broken or cracked, but after that time whole grain 
may be fed. Early lambs relish shelled corn, and this with 
alfalfa or clover hay will give good results. Some variety 
of grain, however, with a bit of molasses mixed with it, will 
prove appetizing. The following ration is recommended f by 

*Bulletin 186 Texas Station, March, 1916. 

tHot House or Winter Lamb Raising upon Canadian Farms, Pamphlet No. 11. 
Dominion Department of Agriculture, 1915. 



Figure 168. Hothouse lambs on farm of G. M. Wilber, Ohio. Photograph by 
the author. 

a winter lamb raiser in eastern Canada: by weight 1 part 
each of barley, oats and cracked corn, and 2 parts of bran. 
Salting sheep is a common practice where due consider- 
ation is given the needs of these animals. Many flock- 
masters east of the Mississippi river keep salt in small boxes 
in the pens or feed lot where it is always available to the 

Figure 169. Salting a flock of W. U. Noble's Southdowns. This is an ideal 
woods pasture for sheep. Photograph by the author. 


flock. This is a good plan, for then the sheep are not likely 
to eat more than they really need. According to Kellner,* 
an ordinary mature sheep should have from one eighth to 
one fourth ounce of salt a day, and, in case the food is 
difficult of digestion, the amount of salt may be increased 
to a half ounce. 

Water for sheep is essential, although the strange impres- 
sion seems to prevail in some quarters that sheep do not 
need water. It is true that sheep will go without water 
longer than other farm animals, especially when on pasture; 
but they unquestionably do best when they have an un- 
limited supply. A variety of conditions affects the body 
demands for water, such as temperature, kind of food, con- 
dition of shelter, and covering of wool. According to Henry 
and Morrison f a sheep needs from one to six quarts of water 
daily, according to feed, temperature, and weather. 

The use of the self-feeder with sheep has not proven 
generally satisfactory. Most of the feeding experiments 
conducted with the self-feeder have shown that more con- 
centrates are eaten when self-fed than with ordinary feed- 
ing, and the cost of gains in weight is consequently too 
great. On the basis of three years of trial with self-feeders 
at the Michigan station, Prof. Mumford writes : "Fattening 
lambs by means of a self-feeder is an expensive practice, and 
economy of production requires more attention to the varia- 
tions in the appetites of the animals than can be given by 
this method." At the Nebraska station, Prof. Gramlich 
found the use of the self-feeder containing corn and oil meal 
in comparison with a heavy feed of corn supplemented with 
alfalfa hay did not prove economical. It resulted in an in- 
creased gain, a greater consumption of corn and concentrates, 
but a much higher cost per 100 pounds gain.t 

*Scientific Feeding of Animals, O. Kellner, 1910. 

tFeeds and Feeding, 1917. 

Bulletin 128 Michigan Agr. Exp. Station. 

t Bulletin 170, Univ. of Nebraska Exp. Station, 1918. 




1. Their adaptability to a wide range of conditions. 

2. The relationship of age to growth. 

3. The condition of preparation of the food. 

4. The proportion of grain to roughage that is desirable. 

5. The amount of grain necessary for a ewe before and after 


6. How to restore a chilled lamb. 

7. Why it is necessary to be careful in feeding roots to rams. 

8. How much silage should be fed daily to fattening lambs. 

9. Why it is not desirable to fatten yearlings. 

10. To what extent salt should be fed. 


11. Are the feeds carefully selected for the sheep? 

12. Are feeding standards used in your vicinity? 

13. Note if roots or cabbage are fed, and how prepared. 

14. Who pastures on rape, and with what results. 

15. Who feeds sheep silage, and with what result. 

16. How many shepherds use lamb creeps in your vicinity. 

17. Secure samples of several rations used in fattening. 

18. Ascertain what arrangements are made for watering sheep in 

flocks in the neighborhood. 


The establishment of a flock of sheep requires deciding 
upon the type or kind to be kept and the initial number with 
which to begin. As a rule, pure-bred sheep may be pur- 
chased at a modest price, and, for one who loves animals, a 
flock of pure breeding is to be recommended. To keep the 
breed most common in the neighborhood is preferable, for 
thus one secures a larger opportunity both to buy and sell 
than by keeping an uncommon breed. In the eastern United 
States from 15 to 25 ewes will be enough with which to be- 
gin. Then, with experience, the flock may be increased to 
fit local conditions. On the average small farm, however, 
a flock of 50 ewes will do better than a larger number. West 
of the Mississippi river on the larger farms and the range, 
sheep husbandry is a special commercial proposition, in which 
the flock, divided into groups or "bands," as they say in the 
West, may number from hundreds into thousands. The 
ewes to be selected should be uniform in type, have good 
breed character, show strong feminine sex, and give evidence 
of shearing well. A first-class ram should head the flock, 
strong in masculinity, but of the same type as the ewes. 
Great care should be exercised to select a really good ram, 
both in individual merit and pedigree. 

Grouping the flock of sheep according to age and sex is 
important. After weaning, the ewe lambs should be fed by 
themselves, the ram lambs and wethers being kept by them- 
selves for special attention and feeding. The yearling ewes 
also require individual attention as they come to breeding 
age. The ewes with lambs at foot run together, and should 
be by themselves; but, when the lambs are weaned, the dams 



are given separate pasture and shed room. The service 
rams are best handled by themselves. Although subject to 
certain oversight, they may run with the ewe flock when the 
ewes have no lambs at foot. This grouping of the flock is 
in keeping with the most careful management, but circum- 
stances alter cases. Each shepherd must, therefore, handle 
his flock as best he can. 

Methods of marking sheep, so that they may be identi- 
fied without question, are in general use in pure-bred flocks. 
There are various methods of marking, as by metal ear tags, 
tattooing within the ear, or by stenciling a large number on 
the back or side of the body. The most common marking 
system in America is the use of the metal ear tag. These 
tags are of band iron, about a quarter of an inch wide, and 
an inch long, on which are stamped such initials or name, 
and numbers as may be desired. A special ear punch goes 
with the ear tag, with which a hole is punched in the ear. 
Then the tag is inserted through the hole, when the ends 
are pressed together with the punch, thus making a good 
fastening. These tags tear out easily if fastened in the ends 
or lower part of the ears, if caught in wire fencing or else- 
where; but, if put in the top of the ear, they are not likely 
to tear out. Lambs should be tagged early. Prof. Frank 

Kleinheinz, of Wisconsin, says:* 

"It is a common statement among some sheep breeders that lambs 
should not be marked when very young, because the ear label, they 
believe, will make the lamb's ear hang downward instead of remaining 
erect. This idea is false. At this station (Wisconsin), all lambs are 
marked either the first or second day after birth, and they surely carry 
their ears just as high and erect as if they had no labels in them." 

A tattoo system is extensively used among British flock- 
masters. A series of needle points within a punch-head, 
arranged to form desired numbers, prick the skin within the 
ear, after which India ink is rubbed well into the punctures. 
On white ears this ink produces permanent bluish figures. 
A purple ink is used on black ears. The tattoo system is 
not uniformly satisfactory, because the ink is not always 

*Sheep Management, 1911. 


well applied, and the numbers are lacking in distinctness. In 
speaking of the "brist-mark," commonly used in England 
and Scotland, W. Sutherland* says: 

"The brist mark which is put on the sheep immediately after they 
are shorn, usually consists of the initial letter, or letters, of the owners' 
name, the stamp being formed of stout sheet-iron, attached to a handle 
about two feet in length. Boiling tar or pitch, or a mixture of the two, is 
the substance generally employed." 

A private flock book is very important with the pure- 
bred flock. A card catalog system may serve the same pur- 
pose. A careful record in ink should be kept in the book 
or on cards, giving the name and private flock number as 
well as the association registry number. It is the common 
custom to have a private ear tag in one ear, and the registry 
number furnished by the association in the other ear. The 
date of lambing, names and numbers of both sire and dam, 
names of breeders, sources from which obtained, if pur- 
chased, and cost. Space should also be provided for mak- 
ing record of disposal by sale or otherwise. Dealers in 
shepherds' supplies sell st r adard private flock books, or one 
may be easily made by using a wide-paged record book. 

Shelter for sheep is desirable in winter, when storms pre- 
vail and snow is abundant. A common, inexpensive shed, 
open to the South, will serve the purpose. It is a good plan 
to have swinging doors, which may be hung inside overhead, 
and lowered in very severe weather. A wind-break of trees 
often furnishes excellent shelter in winter. On the hills of 
Scotland where hundreds of thousands of sheep roam the 
year round, no shelter is usually provided, excepting that 
found in the nooks in the valleys. On the western range 
many sheep perish in severe winter storms because of lack 
of artificial shelter. The important thing is to keep the 
sheep dry and protected from snow and heavy winter winds. 

Exercise for sheep is essential under certain conditions. 
As a rule, sheep have exercise enough, but in snow-bound 
regions, they should, if possible, be driven out into the yards 

*Sheep Farming. A treatise on sheep, 1892. 


and near-by fields, and caused to exercise by eating rough- 
age scattered about. Prof. B. O. Severson recommends* 
at least twenty-five square feet of space for each mature 
sheep. Mature stock rams should always have plenty of 
exercise, and be kept in muscular, vigorous condition. 
Breeding ewes that have plenty of exercise in the open will 
drop stronger lambs than will those that are kept closely 
housed and not exercised. During summer, when on pas- 
ture or grazing forage crops, sheep, as a rule, get plenty of 

Figure 170. The interior of a model sheep barn, showing feed racks, on the 
estate of Oakleigh Thome of New York. Photograph from Mr. Thome. 

exercise; but, during the season when they are often more 
or less penned up, exercise should be provided. 

Dipping of sheep is a necessity in all well regulated flocks, 
in order to kill ticks, scabies, or lice. Standard sheep dips 
are sold in all countries where sheep husbandry is carefully 
managed. Those most commonly used in America are coal 
tar or tobacco products. A metal dipping tank may be 
purchased from manufacturers of shepherds' supplies or of 
regular water tank manufacturers. A tank may easily be 
made of cement that will render the best of service. The 

*Sheep Raising, Extension Circular 49, (1916), Penn. State College. 


tank is usually set about two feet in the ground, and rises 
about two -and one half feet above the surface. A width of 
22 inches at the top, and 12 inches at the bottom, and a 
length of 10 feet at the top and 6 feet at the bottom, with 
one end having an inclined rise of 45 degrees, on which a 
metal ladder or concrete, non-slipping steps may be laid, 
gives the proportions for a common farm flock. The tank 
is filled to a depth of about 3 feet with a 2 to 5 per cent 
lukewarm solution, according to the dip used. A run- 
way should lead up to the vertical end of the tank, while 
at the other end a drainage platform should be provided, so 
that the dip dripping from the sheep will run back in the 
tank. The sheep is dropped into the tank and entirely 
submerged, the head being pushed under for an instant. 
The sheep is then left in the dip about a minute, after which 
it is driven up the incline to the drainage platform. When 
the flock is reasonably free from ticks or lice, one dipping in 
the spring, following shearing, and another in the fall, prior 
to going into winter quarters, will answer. If the sheep are 
very ticky or lousy, two dippings at about 14 days interval 
are recommended. The first dipping kills the live parasites, 
but not the eggs; but the second treatment will catch the 
crop of young ticks from the newly hatched eggs. 

Intestinal parasites in sheep, more especially the stom- 
ach worms and tapeworms, cause serious injury in many 
flocks in the eastern part of the United States. 

Stomach worms are about an inch in length, of the size 
of a small needle, and reddish in color. The female worm 
lays a large number of eggs, which pass off in the manure 
when the sheep are on pasture. Here the eggs may hatch 
in as soon as two days, and, in due time, after going through 
some changes, the embryo worms climb up on the fresh 
blades of grass, which are eaten by the sheep, and thus the 
worms are conveyed to the stomach. This process is re- 
peated over and over, so that enormous quantities of the 


worms develop in the fourth or true stomach. Here the 
worms suck blood from the stomach lining, and in time 
the sheep shows emaciation, a whitish or "papery" skin, the 
fleece looks out of condition, and there is diarrhoea and 
more or less coughing. Many lambs die. The stomach 
worm is the most serious pest the flock-master has to contend 
with in the pasture regions where rain keeps the grass fresh 
and green. The only satisfactory and practical method of 
keeping this pest from our flocks is by rotating pastures, and 
feeding forage crops. If the flock can be placed on fresh 
pastures each year, stomach worms need not be feared. For 
medical treatment, the most universal one at present is the 
following: Dissolve 1 pound of pure crystals of copper 
sulphate, or blue stone, of good dark color, in a gallon of hot 
water, after which add enough warm water to make 9 gal- 
lons. Preparatory to giving this substance, the sheep should 
be kept off feed during the night, treated the next morning, 
"on an empty stomach," and not given water for from 12 
to 24 hours after dosing. About a tablespoonful is a dose 
for a lamb 4 months or so old, to be increased by one half 
for a 6 months lamb, while a mature sheep may be given 2 
tablespoonfuls. The medicine is given with a syringe or 
long-necked small bottle. Treatment should be repeated at 
intervals of 2 weeks, if the flock seems badly affected. 

Tapeworms are found to some extent with sheep; but, 
as a rule, are not a serious source of trouble. The late Prof, 
J. A. Craig recommends* 2 drams of extract of male shield 
fern in a half cup of milk, followed in 2 hours by 4 ounces 
of castor oil; this treatment for a mature sheep, and after 
going without food and water for 12 to 24 hours. 

Nodular disease is due to a parasite which forms knots 
or lumps on the insides of the intestines. Sheep do not 
commonly die from this disease, but it more or less affects 
the digestion and condition of the sheep. There is no satis- 
factory method of treatment. 

*Sheep Farming in America, 1913. 



Trimming the feet of sheep is frequently necessary, 
especially where the soil is soft and moist and free from 
gravel. Sheep that run on level, rich pasture, or that are 
kept more or less stabled, are troubled much .in that the 
toes grow long or otherwise out of shape. The foot of the 
sheep is cloven, and the hoof consists of a comparatively 
thin upper shell and a soft under pad. With the small blade 
of a big, strong pocket knife one may easily trim the hoofs 
to a proper shape. If careful attention is given, it will re- 
quire comparatively little labor to keep the feet in good 

Figure 171. Students trimming hoofs of sheep at Ohio State University. 
Photograph by the author. 

shape; but, if neglected, the hoofs may grow so out of shape 
as to give the feet a very bad posture, quite difficult to cor- 
rect. Some breeds, as the Merino, are bad in this respect. 
The docking of sheep, that is cutting off the tail of the 
young lamb, is a very important practice. It should be 
removed ten days or so after birth. A very satisfactory 
way is to cut the tail off with the large blade of a sharp 
pocket knife. The lamb may be held between the legs of 
the operator. With the left hand the tail is raised slightly 
above horizontal, while at the same time with the right 
hand the knife blade is laid against the bare underside about 




an inch and a half from the body. Holding firmly to the 
lower part of the tail, which is then depressed, a quick up- 
ward stroke is given with the knife, which easily separates 
the tail, leaving it in the operator's hand. Occasionally a 
lamb may bleed quite a bit, but bleeding usually stops soon, 
and fatalities are not common. Bleeding may be stopped 
by tying a string tightly about the stump for an hour or so, 
or the wound may be seared with a red-hot iron. Lambs 
are also docked by other methods, as chopping off with a 
chisel, using a red-hot pincers, etc. The method described, 

Figure 172. A good feed rack for sheep. Reproduced from Farmers' Bulletin 
810, United States Department of Agriculture. 

however, is commonly used and is very satisfactory. The 
wound, after it stops bleeding, should have an antiseptic 
applied to it, and it should be watched to see that it heals 
rapidly. Tails are useless, they accumulate filth, and on 
the ewes interfere with breeding operations. Docked sheep 
are also more attractive than those with tails. 

A hurdle for handling sheep is an adjustable or temporary 
fencing. Hurdles are universally used in Europe where sheep 
are grazed on forage crops or valuable pastures. Types of 



hurdles differ according to the section of the country. In 
England one can see them made in woven sections, with 
strong sharpened stakes at intervals, so that an area of 
ground may be quickly enclosed for pasturing a flock. In 
the sheep pens hinged, two-section paneled hurdles are a 
great convenience for separating out individual sheep for 
special purposes. Also, when of sufficient length, hurdles 
may be used to divide yards or pens into smaller temporary 
quarters. Hurdles for use in the pens need not be over 

Figure 173. A reversible movable grain trough for sheep. Reproduced 
from Farmers' Bulletin 810, United States Department of Agriculture. 

thirty-six inches high, and should be constructed of light 
strips of lumber, preferably about four inches wide, and 
dressed down to seven eighths of an inch in thickness. 

Feed racks for sheep should be so constructed that the 
seeds and chaff from hay or clover will not readily get into 
the fleece. They may have either a solid front, except a nar- 
row space of 4 inches through which the sjieep may gradually 
pull hay, or a slat face in its lower half, with solid board 
front in the upper part. A popular combination hay and 
grain rack may be like that on page 386, which is a V-form, 
fitting into the center of a wide feed trough, with 4-inch strips 


along the front to keep the grain from being spilled. Mov- 
able grain troughs are used, these being 8 or 10 inches wide, 
with 4-inch sidepieces, and either fastened along the sides of 
the pens, or with strong legs by which the trough is elevated 
12 or 14 inches above the floor. Feed troughs should be 
cleaned out daily, and frequently washed or scalded, that 
they may be sweet and clean. 


1. How to separate sexes and ages for special attention. 

2. When to ear tag a lamb. 

3. What to record in the private flock book. 

4. The amount of space to be allowed each sheep in shelter. 

5. What dip should be used, and with what per cent of solution. 

6. How stomach worms develop. 

7. A good system of overcoming stomach worms. 

8. How to keep the feet in good order. 

9. When and how to dock the lamb. 

10. A method of keeping the wool free of chaff. 


11. How are the flocks adjusted to the size of the farms? 

12. Are pure-bred or scrub sires used? 

13. What methods of marking are used? 

14. Whether private flock books are used? 

15. What arrangements are provided for dipping? 

16. Do flocks suffer from stomach worms? If so, what is done to 

prevent their occurrence? 

17. Is docking general, and how is it performed? 

18. What forms of feed racks and troughs are used? 



The wild hog, or wild boar, as it is usually called, of 
which there are different forms, is found in widely separated 
parts of the world. The common wild boar from which the 
improved breeds of to-day are descended has been known in 
Europe since early historical times. This boar was common 
in England until the time of Henry II, about 1250. Boar 
hunting was a favorite pastime not only with the Romans, 
but even in the 
present day, in sec- 
tions of Germany 
and eastern 
Europe, wild boars 
furnish royal sport. 
In India these an- 
imals are hunted 
extensively by men 
on horseback, in a 
sport called "pig 
sticking." The wild 
hog is larger than 
the domestic one, 
and is very swift and strong. It is grayish-black in color. 
The rough skin is covered with short, wooly hair, over 
which are laid stiff, coarse bristles, especially along the 
spine. When the boar is angry or excited, these bristles 
usually stand erect. The head is rather large, long, and 
rough, and the older animals have short, heavy tusks that 
curve backward and away from the snout, and which are used 
in fighting. The wild hog is native to marshy forests. 


Figure 174. The Wild Boar. From photograph 
of boar at Iowa Experiment Station. 


The early forms of the domestic hog were found in sev- 
eral countries, but more especially in Great Britain, south- 
ern Europe, and China. Large herds of swine, according to 
Youatt, were in existence in England prior to the Christian 
era. It is said that in Greece large droves were cared 
for by swineherds perhaps 3,000 years ago. In Italy these 
animals - have long been valued, and the blue-skinned, thin- 
haired, long-legged Neapolitan hog of that country was im- 
ported into England perhaps two centuries ago to improve 
the Berkshire and the coarse white hogs of Great Britain. 
The Chinese produced a class of white pigs that American 
and British sailors bought on their travels and brought home, 
which were used to improve the native stock. Red hogs 
bred on the west coast of Africa were also brought to America 
over a century ago, and their blood mingled with our com- 
mon stock. From this ancestry, after long years of careful 
breeding, in Great Britain and the United States, have come 
our present highly improved domestic breeds of swine, of 
which the following are of interest. 

The Berkshire hog is a native of England, and receives 
its name because of its early development in the shire of 
Berks. This is a region of mild temperature in south-central 
England, well suited to live stock. The Berkshire was 
known as a breed late in the eighteenth century. Then it 
was black, or reddish-brown in color with black or light 
spots, and had large ears hanging down in front. It was 
small-boned and fattened easily for those times, and fre- 
quently weighed over a thousand pounds. It was improved 
by the use of Neapolitan and Chinese blood in particular. 
In the middle of the nineteenth century, when it was re- 
garded the best breed in England, the Berkshire was still 
reddish or sandy-colored, with more or less black spots, but 
was not so large and coarse as those of the previous century. 
In the early days, Richard Astley and Lord Barrington did 
much to improve the Berkshire. This hog was first brought 



to America in 1823 by an English farmer who lived in New 
Jersey. Soon after others were imported, and during the 
latter half of the nineteenth century many Berkshires were 
brought to America. In recent years, however, but few of 
these pigs have been imported to this country. 

The following are some of the most important features 
of the Berkshire to-day. The color is black, with more or 
less white on the face, feet, and tail. When all four legs, 
the face, and tail are marked thus, they are termed the "six 
points." The head is fairly short, the nose slightly 

Figure 175. A fine type of Berkshire sow, champion at Ohio State Fair. 
Photograph by J. C. Allen. 

curved up or the head "dish-faced," as it is termed, and 
the ears are erect, pointing slightly forward. The head of 
the Berkshire is one of its most distinctive breed features. 
In size this may be classed as medium, although there are 
individuals of superior breeding that attain a large size. 
Boars often weigh 500 pounds and sows about 400. There 
has, nevertheless, been a feeling among corn-belt pork pro- 
ducers that the Berkshire lacks in size, and this has affected 
its popularity in face of the present-day demand for big- 
type hogs. The Berkshire should have a strong and fairly 


wide back, but it lacks the spring of rib of the Poland-China 
or Chester White, and neither does it have the high arch 
as often seen with representatives of some other breeds. 
The average Berkshire ham is not so round and thick as 
with the more distinct lard-type hog, being narrow rather 
than thick in the hind quarter. Good examples of the breed 
are neat of bone and stand well on .their feet. The sows far- 
row medium-sized litters, averaging about eight pigs. 

Berkshires are fair feeders, and mature just moderately 
well under ordinary conditions. If not fed too much corn, 
they make a grade of pork that is unsurpassed. In the corn 
belt of America, with the feed and care given by western 
farmers, the Berkshire may be regarded as a lard hog; while, 
if fed a variety of grain, with corn only a moderate part of 
the ration, it makes a superior bacon. It has always been 
a popular breed in England, and for many years held a 
premier position in America, but recently it has lost much 
of its popularity in the great pork-producing sections of the 
country, due to lack of size and a tendency to slow maturity. 
Berkrihires have their greatest hold to-day in the eastern 
United States and the South. In spite of its loss in prestige, 
the breed is noted for its very superior pork, and in carcass 
contests at the International Live Stock Exposition, and at 
the Smithfield Show in England, it has an unsurpassed 
record for winning championships. 

The Poland-China is an American breed of swine that 
originated in southwestern Ohio in Butler and Warren 
counties. This is a rolling country, and produces extensive 
fields of corn, wheat, and grass. There is no better region 
in America in which to raise hogs. In that section the early 
settlers kept large numbers of hogs, fed off their corn, and 
drove the hogs overland to the Cincinnati market. Differ- 
ent so-called breeds came into Ohio, including the Russian, 
Byfield, Big China, Irish Grazier, and Berkshire, the latter 
being taken to the state in 1835. From this mixture, in 


time came the Poland-China. At first this was a big, coarse, 
spotted hog, which was rated as a good feeder. The coarse- 
ness was gradually reduced, no doubt the Berkshire blood 
bringing a very great improvement. 

The prominent early breeders of the Poland-China were 
the Shakers and other farmers in Warren county. John 
Harkrader did much to improve them, and following him 
D. M. Magie, of Butler county, no doubt did much for the 
breed. Pigs of his breeding were widely known at one time 

Figure 176. Poland-China sow, Champion at 1920 Ohio State Fair. 
Photograph by J. C. Allen. 

as /'Magie hogs." During the last half of the nineteenth 
century there were many noted herds in Ohio, Indiana, and 
Illinois. Although the Poland-China was long a black and 
white spotted breed, a change took place in this respect, 
and black, with a small amount of white, especially on face 
and feet, became popular, and is so to-day. 

In present color markings the Poland-China much re- 
sembles the Berkshire. The head is of medium length, 
and rather straight in the face; the ears, which should be 
somewhat thin, point forward and then break over to form 


what is called a lop ear. A good head lacks coarseness, and 
inclines to be wide between the eyes, and is somewhat short, 
but is never dished. The body form of this breed is quite 
distinctly its own, the neck being short, the back wide and 
frequently strongly arched, and the hams highly developed. 
These features of head, arch of back, and thickness of hams 
are Poland-China characteristics. In comparatively recent 
years, dating perhaps with the opening of the present cen- 
tury, there has been a marked change of type in this breed. 
The tendency had been to produce a hog deficient in bone, 
that finished off in feeding into too small or tidy a type, 
while the sows were seriously criticized for under size and 
small litters. This criticism resulted in a movement for 
improvement, out of which has come what is known as the 
"big-type" Poland-China, a pig of pronounced length of 
body, great arch of back, immense bone and great weight. 
In this connection, brood sows of marked increase of size 
and prolificacy have been developed. In the opinion of com- 
petent critics, Poland-China breeders are now going to the 
extreme on weight and bone, for many boars have attained 
weights of 600 to 700 pounds, while a few have even surpassed 
1,000 pounds. Unquestionably the present-day movement 
has revived interest in the breed, which following the World 
War has undergone great popularity. This is one of the 
more important breeds in the American corn belt. Poland- 
Chinas put on fat easily, and are noted as feeders. When 
properly fattened, the carcass dresses out well and is pop- 
ular with butchers. 

The Spotted Poland-China is a type of this breed that 
first began to attract attention about 1912, and has since 
grown much in favor in the corn belt, especially Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa. The body of the Spotted Poland- 
China is of large size at maturity, is covered with large black 
and white spots, is strong of bone and hair, and impresses 
one as being somewhat coarse. This type is promoted by 


the National Spotted Poland-China Breeders' Association. 
The advantages claimed for it are its size and vigor, its 
adaptability to the feed lot, and the superiority of the sows 
in producing and raising large and uniform litters. 

The Duroc- Jersey is a red or sandy-colored breed of 
swine that no doubt obtained its special color markings 
from the coarse red hog brought from Africa, and from sandy 
or reddish English hogs,, such as the Tarn worth and sandy 
Berkshire. Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, the famous 
statesman, imported some red hogs from Portugal in 1852, 
which reached America about the time of his death. In New 

Figure 177. A herd of Spotted Poland-Chinas. Photograph by the author.. 

Jersey large red hogs had been grown for many years, where 
they became known as Jersey Reds. In New York state 
another variety of red pigs developed that were called 
Durocs. They were smaller and finer in bone than the 
Jersey Reds. The blood of these two families was mingled 
together, from which was developed what we now call the 
Duroc-Jersey. The present-day Duroc-Jersey is red in color, 
of which there are various shades, ranging from sandy or 
light red to a cherry color or dark red. A medium red shade 
is the most popular. The head has a straight face, and the 
ears lop over forward. The back is usually slightly arched 


and the ribs are well sprung. The hams do not show quite 
the thickness of the Poland-China, but are not to be regard- 
ed as specially deficient in this respect. 

In recent years there has been developed a great move- 
ment among Duroc-Jersey breeders to produce hogs of con- 
siderable scale and bone, of the true big type, with 
marked length of body, strong arch of back, and superior 
bone. The average individual of the breed will perhaps be 
somewhat larger than either Poland-China or Chester White, 

Figure 178. Duroc-Jersey boar, Great Orion Sensation, grand champion 
National Swine Show, 1919, 1921. Owned by Ed. Kern, of Nebraska. 

and weights of mature boars are often given at 600 to 800 
pounds, and sows at 500" to 600 pounds. In size, however, 
the Duroc-Jersey and Poland-China are in the same class, 
with more extremes to be found in the latter than the former. 
Duroc-Jerseys mature fairly early, and finish off in fatten- 
ing at 200 to 250 pounds, at six months of age. The breed 
has not thus far made much of a showing in carcass test 
competition. The sows usually have large litters, this being 
the most prolific of the lard-type breeds. Duroc-Jerseys 
are extremely popular in the middle-western states where 


corn is abundant. In fact this breed since 1900 has had a 
wonderful growth in public favor, and many herds of Poland- 
Chinas and Berkshires have given way to the Duroc-Jersey. 
The breed is widely distributed over America, but is more 
especially prominent in Ohio, Iowa, Illinois, Nebraska, Mis- 
souri, Minnesota, Indiana, and South Dakota. 

The Chester White breed of hogs gets its name from 
Chester county, Pennsylvania, where it has been bred for a 
great many years. Claims have been made that the early 
colonists brought over coarse white pigs to Pennsylvania. 
In 1820 a Captain Jeffries, of West Chester, Pennsylvania, 
brought some white hogs from England. Others of the same 
color also found their way into that section. White hogs 
were brought to Ohio at an early date, and the Todd fam- 
ily in that state became noted for developing what is known 
as Todd's Improved Chester White. During the latter part 
of the nineteenth century, Mr. L. B. Silver, of Ohio, devel- 
oped a strain of this breed, which is now known as the Ohio 
Improved Chester White. This is frequently called the 
O. I. C. hog. All these different families or blood lines 
represent the same breed, however, and differ only in minor 
details. The Chester White, as its name indicates, is white. 
Occasionally, small, black spots occur on the skin, but 
they are occasionally found in all the white breeds. The 
head rather resembles that of the Poland-China, in that the 
face is straight and the ears lopped over. The Chester 
White is a true lard type of hog. It is a splendid feeder, 
and, when well fattened, carries a very broad, arched back 
and has an excellent ham. The quality of bone in the legs is 
frequently too fine, and mature animals often stand badly 
on their feet. In recent years, in keeping with the develop- 
ment of the Poland-China and Duroc-Jersey, breeders of 
Chester Whites have emphasized scale, and the tendency 
has been to breed a larger, heavier-boned hog. The Chester 
White type, however, has not gone through so great a change 


as have the others, and the extremely high back and up- 
standing form has not been so noticeable with this breed. 
The usual run of mature boars will weigh around 600 pounds, 
and the sows 500 pounds. The sows farrow good-sized lit- 
ters, the breed ranking close to the Duroc-Jersey in this 
respect. Sows commonly have nine pigs to the litter. The 
quality of pork is excellent, although inclined to have a large 
per cent of fat. In the carcass contests at the International 
Live Stock Exposition, grade and cross-bred Chester Whites 

Figure 179. Chester White sow, Buehler's Wonder, grand champion National 
Swine Show, 1921. Bred and shown by William Buehler, of Nebraska. 
Photograph from Mr. Buehler. 

have made excellent records. Chester Whites are widely 
distributed as a breed in the North, and especially east of 
the Mississippi. In the South any white breed is unpopular 
on account of color, white hogs blistering under the sun 
more than red or black ones. There are many herds of 
Chester White hogs in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Minnesota, 
and the breed is well adapted to the northern corn belt. 


The Hampshire breed of swine for many years was 
known in America as the "Thin Rind." It is black hi color, 
with a white belt at the shoulders which encircles the body. 
No one knows the fountain head of these hogs in America. 
In 1904 breeders of these hogs assumed that they came from 
Hampshire, England, and adopted that name. In view of 
the fact that there was an English black breed of this name 
in Hampshire, the author has thought the selection of this 
name for the American breed was unfortunate. Belted hogs 

Figure 180. A Hampshire brood sow. Bred and owned by J. Crouch & Son, 
Indiana. Photograph from the owners. 

have been found in different parts of Europe, and in very 
recent years, especially since the World War, a breed of 
this sort, known as the Wessex Saddle-back hog, has received 
much attention in England, and especially in south Hamp- 
shire. The claim is made by promoters of the Wessex that 
it is an old British forest breed. 

For many years "Thin Rind" hogs were bred in a limited 
way in Kentucky, southern Indiana, and southern Illinois, 
and these were of the bacon type. Finally the breed was 


taken up by men in the corn section of Illinois, and it has 
gradually changed in form to a broader-backed, thicker kind, 
more nearly of the lard type. This transformation shows how 
a corn diet will change the form of an animal. Hampshire 
swine have straight and medium-long faces, especially with 
the males, and the ears vary from erect to leaning forward. 
The back is of medium width and the body is usually very 
smooth along the sides. The hams lack fullness, being more 
of the Berkshire type than of the Poland-China. The 
Hampshire is a good feeder, maturing fairly early, and pro- 
ducing a carcass with an excellent proportion of lean meat 
to fat. In carcass contests, hogs of this breed or its crosses 
have usually made an excellent showing, and Hampshire 
pigs or their grades, find great popularity with the butchers. 
This is not a large breed, mature boars weighing around 
500 to 600 pounds, and sows 300 to 350 pounds. The sows 
are fairly prolific, which fact is a much-desired character- 
istic. Hampshires have undergone a great wave of popu- 
larity, and the breed may be classed as common, especially 
in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, South 
Dakota, Alabama, and Georgia. 

The Large Yorkshire, called in England the "Large 
White," is one of the oldest breeds of swine. Large, coarse, 
white hogs were bred in eastern and northeastern England 
before distinctions of types and breeds were known. Eng- 
lish writers of over a century ago refer to these large, slow- 
maturing, narrow-backed, coarse white hogs. They were 
improved by selection and breeding, and this work was done 
in part by factory hands and laborers in the middle of the 
last century. Joseph Tuley was prominent in this work. 

The Large Yorkshire belongs to the bacon class. As 
grown to-day, it is one of the largest breeds. Boars at ma- 
turity often weigh 700 pounds or more, and sows 500 pounds. 
The head inclines to be a trifle long, from an American point 
of view, and is sometimes slightly dished. The ears should 


be carried erect, but with age they usually incline forward. 
The body of the Large Yorkshire should show considerable 
length and have smooth deep sides, from which bacon may 
be cut to the best advantage. The back lacks the width 
and the ham the thickness of the lard type. The legs often 
appear long for the depth of body. Large Yorkshires do 
not mature early nor fatten and finish off so readily as do 
hogs of the lard type. They rather tend to continue their 
growth until they have attained considerable size before lay- 

Figure 181. Large Yorkshire sow, Ohio State Lady 463, grand champion, 
Ohio State Fair, 1920. Photograph by J. C. Allen. 

ing on much fat. Even then they will never fatten like our 
lard hogs, although they will gain as much or more in weight 
per day. This hog is well adapted for grazing on clover 
and other green feeds. The quality of the meat is of the 
very best. More prime bacon is made in Great Britain and 
Denmark from the Large Yorkshire than from any other 
breed, the Danes making bacon production a great industry. 
Large Yorkshire sows are noted for farrowing many pigs 
in a litter, this being one of the most prolific breeds. On 



account of its bacon, this is the leading breed in Great 
Britain and Denmark. In America, these hogs, though bred 
for many years, have never been so popular as hogs of the 
lard type. They are bred in sections of the North, espe- 
cially in Canada, and in the northwestern states. 

The Small Yorkshire, known in England as the "Small 
White," is of English origin. It was developed early in the 
nineteenth century, when certain men wished a small, very 
fat type of pig. This is distinctly a small breed, weighing 
at maturity about 200 pounds. The head is often short and 
. , extremely dish- 
ed, so much so 
that easy feed- 
ing is impossible. 
In fancy speci- 
mens the head 
is almost dis- 
torted, the ears 
are erect, the 
neck short, back 
very wide, hams 
short and thick, 
and legs short. 
The Small Yorkshire matures early and fattens easily for 
its size, making a very fat type of pork. The sows are 
not prolific. The breed has been getting less and less com- 
mon so that but few are found in America or Europe. There 
is no demand of commercial importance for it here or abroad, 
and the Royal Agricultural Society of England has recently 
denied it a place on its premium list. 

The Tamworth is an old English breed of extreme bacon 
type. Its native home is central England, where it was 
known early in the last century. It is red or chestnut in 
color and of varying shades from very light to dark. In 
size it is large, the boars often weighing 600 pounds or more 

Figure 182. A Tamworth gilt at the Ohio Agricultural 
Experiment Station. Photograph by the author. 


and the sows 450. The head is often undesirably long and 
straight. The ears at maturity are large and coarse, and 
lean heavily forward. The body is narrow, the depth of rib 
is short, the hams lack thickness, and the neck and legs are 
long. It does not fatten easily, and is slow to mature, 
but produces excellent bacon. The sows are prolific. There 
are few of this breed in England or America. There are a 
few herds in the Mississippi Valley, and the breed seems 
to be gaining in favor. At the National Swine Show in 1921, 
there was a large and fine display of Tarn worths. 

The Cheshire is a medium-sized, white breed of the lard 
type, mostly bred in New York state, the place of its origin. 
The breed originated about 1855, with the Large Yorkshire 
as an important blood line in the parentage. It resembles 
what the Englishman calls the Middle White, which is really 
a more compact, broader-backed, heavier-hammed, lardier 
type than the Large Yorkshire. It has a fair size, weighs 
well, matures early, and feeds and fattens to advantage. 
The sows farrow comparatively good-sized litters. This is 
one of the least known of American hogs. 


1. The appearance of the wild boar? 

2. How long ago herds of swine were kept in England? 

3. When the Berkshire was first brought to America? 

4. Criticisms made of the Berkshire? 

5. Where the Poland-China originated? 

6. The Poland-China as feeders and breeders? 

7. How much mature Duroc-Jerseys weigh? 

8. Who originated the O. I. C. strain of Chester Whites? 

9. How packers value the Hampshire carcass? 

10. The large Yorkshire as a bacon producer? 


11. What breeds of swine are most common in your vicinity or 


12. A comparison of size of litters of sows of different breeds. 

13. Are big type pigs popular and profitable feeders? 

14. Make a map of the distribution of some one breed in your county. 

15. If white hogs are grazed in your vicinity, do they blister? 

16. Secure a breed scale of points, and score one or more pigs of some 




Two distinct market types of hogs exist in America, the 
lard and the bacon. The lard type prevails in all those sec- 
tions of North America where corn is an important farm 
crop. In fact, the bacon type is produced in but a small 
way in this country, and comparatively few are found in the 
market. The study of the lard type should, therefore, re- 
ceive most attention. 

A score card for the fat hog may be used in general prac- 
tice for either 
pure-bred or 
grade animals. 
The following 
scale of points is 
given discussion 
in the order of its 

The weight 
and size of the 
hog depend nat- 
urally on the age 
and breeding. In 
the general mar- 
ket, animals that 
weigh about 250 pounds are most satisfactory for slaughter. 
The average weight of the millions of hogs sold in Chicago 
stock yards is about 225 pounds. The market demands dif- 
ferent hogs for different uses, however, so that all market 
hogs are sorted somewhat on the basis of weight, condition, 
and purpose. For this reason, a criticism regarding weight 


Figure 183. Two types of pigs, bacon on left and lard 
on right. Note difference in thickness. Photograph 
by the author. 




Scale of Points 


of hog 


WEIGHT, score according to age, 175 Ibs. for 6 mos.; 300 Ibs 

at one year 4 

FORM, broad, deep, low, symmetrical, compact, standing 

well on feet 10 

QUALITY, hair fine; skin smooth; no coarseness of bone. ... 10 

CONDITION, deep, firm, even covering flesh, giving 

smooth finish 10 

HEAD AND NECK: 7 Points. 

SNOUT, neither coarse nor long 

FACE, wide between eyes; cheeks full, without wrinkles. . . 

EYES, mild, good size, to be easily seen 

EARS, not coarse, of medium size, neatly attached 

JOWL, smooth, broad, full to shoulder 

NECK, thick, short, broad on top 

FORE QUARTERS: 12 Points. 

SHOULDERS, broad, deep, full, smooth, compact on top. ... 6 

BREAST, wide, roomy 4 

LEGS, straight, short, strong, wide apart, well set, pasterns 

upright, standing well upon toes 2 

BODY: 32 Points. 

CHEST, deep, wide, large girth; flanks, well filled 

BACK, slightly arched, very broad, thickly and evenly 

fleshed 9 

LOIN, wide as back, full and strong S 

SIDES, fairly deep, not too long, smooth, and full from ham 

to shoulder 

BELLY, straight, wide, trim, not paunchy 4 

FLANKS, full and low 2 


RUMP, same width as back, long, level, wide 

HAMS, deep, wide, thick, not wrinkled, fleshed well to hock 10 

LEGS, straight, short, strong, wide apart, well set; pasterns 

upright, strong, standing well on toes 2 

Total points 100 

should take into consideration the special purpose involved. 
At 6 months of age 175 pounds would be a satisfactory 
weight, while at 12 months of age, when fairly well fed, a 
fat hog should weigh from 300 to 350 pounds. 

The general form of the hog may be studied from differ- 
ent points of view. A short cane or stick is useful to change 
the position of an animal in order to observe it to the best 
advantage. Hogs tend to keep the head close to the ground, 
and rarely stand with the four legs in good position beneath 
the body. For these reasons it is well to keep animals of 
this class more or less in motion while judging. Width of 
back and depth of rib should be noted from overhead or 
from one side, while a fullness of both front and hind parts 


should be easily seen from front and rear. In this inspec- 
tion compactness of form, and quality, should be manifest. 
One may easily determine the quality by eye examination, 
but a feel of the hair will reveal marked differences in qual- 
ity, that along the neck and front part of the spine being 
always the coarsest. While condition may be easily seen 
and estimated by the eye, if one will press with the ends of 
the fingers along on the back and sides, a better idea will be 
had of the depth and evenness of covering and condition of 
skin. In the case of aged boars, there will be noted a very 
thick, coarse development of skin over the shoulders, known 

Figure 184. The points of the hog. Reproduced from "Judging Farm 
Animals," by the author. 

as the "shields." This is an inheritance from the wild 
ancestors, and really served as a shield; for, when fighting, 
pigs strike with their heads against the shoulders of the 
opponents. The tusks of the boar can not easily tear through 
this shield. Yet this thick, heavy covering of hide is very 
objectionable, and the best show animals do not have it. 
Symmetry of form is important; if the front part of the body 
is thick and heavy, and the hind part narrow, the form cer- 
tainly will not appear symmetrical or well balanced. 



Quality in hogs, as in all other animals, is of great impor- 
tance. This is shown in the condition of the hair, the size 
of bone, and the development of the head. There should 
be a plentiful coat of hair that is neither very fine nor very 
coarse. If too fine, lack of constitutional vigor is indicated; 
but heavy bristles along the back, tell us surely that 
a coarse-grained, low grade of killing hog may be expected. 
The quality of the hair is an index to the quality of bone. 
Coarse hair naturally goes with coarse bone. Among ex- 
perienced swine breeders, a bone of fair size, yet not coarse, 
is especially desired. The well-fattened hog requires strong 
bones to support the heavy body weight. A common criti- 
cism is that pigs are too 
small of bone and lack 
support of the body. For 
this reason, m^ny breed- 
ers and feeders are look- 
ing for a hog that has 
plenty of size and bone, 
without coarseness. In 
passing judgment on an- 
imals of this class, one 
must be mindful to secure 
as much size as possible, 
consistent with quality. A large head for the body, with 
coarse thick ears, also indicates inferior quality. Many 
young hogs are too small and refined for their age, and never 
mature into animals of enough feeding or breeding capacity. 
Excess of refinement is, therefore, to be avoided. 

The condition of the hog relates to its depth and even- 
ness of covering of flesh and fat. This should be uniform 
and smooth, no matter what the purpose of the animal. 
One common defect, more especially of the lard type, is the 
prevalence of seams, or creases, on the body. These are 
particularly noticeable about the neck and the fleshy part 

Figure 185. "The quality of the hair is an 
index to the quality of the bone." Photo- 
graph by the author. 


under the jaws, known as the jowl, and along the shoulders 
and sides. These creases contain more or less hair that is 
hard to remove after scalding. In the larger hog-killing 
houses, the hair is removed by automatic scrapers. It can 
easily be seen that the more creases there are on the body, 
the more difficult it will be to remove the hair from them. 
In such cases hand work is necessary to finish the job. 
These seams are also an indication of uneven fleshing. 

The head of the hog varies so in size and form, accord- 
ing to breed, that it seems best to emphasize only certain 
features that should be common to all breeds and grades. 
The large, coarse head is an evidence of waste, hence buyers 
prefer a short type of head, indicating smaller loss in this 
portion in killing. Even with the long-headed breeds, the 
degree of refinement is measured by length and coarseness 
of snout. A narrow face, often seen on a long head, indi- 
cates a poor feeder and mean disposition. The eyes should 
always be easily seen, with the whites clearly showing. The 
eyes of the hog of the lard type tend to become surrounded 
by excessive fat, so that the sight is very poor. The ears 
are good indicators of quality. They should be easily car- 
ried, and not be heavy and coarse where attached to the head. 
None of the lard-type breeds naturally have coarse ears. 

The jowl of the hog is the thick, fleshy part of the lower 
jaw and throat. Sometimes it is very large and round, and 
is a great mass of fat. Often deep, hairy creases occur here. 
The jowl can not be studied to advantage unless it is both 
seen and felt. If the animal keeps its head close to the 
ground, the jowl can not be thoroughly examined. The 
jowl in its best form is short, smooth, free of creases, and 
firm to the touch. 

The neck of the hog should be reasonably short and 
broad on top, and blend smoothly into the shoulders. A 
common fault is a thin neck, fitting roughly in the shoulders 
which stand out in a prominent manner at the shoulder vein. 



Figure 186. "The neck of the hog should be reasonably 
short." Photograph by the author. 

The shoulders of the hog vary considerably. The ten- 
dency is for them to be heavy or coarse, and open on top, 
the blades not lying back in close. The shoulders are valu- 
able for meat, 
and the more 
they are covered 
with flesh the 
better they are. 
While the breast 
of the hog does 
not appear as 
prominent as 
with other ani- 
mals, on account 
of the low car- 
riage of the head, 
if the shoulders 
are placed right, the breast will be wide and full and the front 
legs will come down in good form. By means of the hand 

one can feel the 
end of the breast 
bone, which 
should extend at 
least beyond the 
legs. Such a 
breast develop- 
ment shows good 

The legs 
should be strong 
and stand 
straight and well 
apart, a position associated with a wide chest and vigorous 
constitution. The pasterns of the hog are often found to 
be very weak and too sloping. At the back of the leg, 

Figure 187. "The shoulders of the hog vary consider- 
ably." Photograph by the author. 



just above the pasterns, are two small toes that are known 
as dew claws. When the pasterns are too sloping, the dew 
claws often touch the ground, showing a weakness of leg. 
In the days when hogs were driven overland to market, it 
was very important that the legs should be strong, capable 
of endurance, and weak pasterns were then very objection- 
able. While we do not drive hogs .much to-day, it is still 
necessary in many localities to do so; and, whether driven or 
not, the hog should stand up strong on its toes on short pas- 
terns, as an evidence of ability to carry its weight well. If 
it can not do so, then the pasterns are weak. The toes of the 

hog should be 
close together, 
and point direct- 
ly forward. 
Sometimes, when 
weak, they will 
spread apart and 
do not have a 
strong position. 
Such feet are an 
indication of im- 
proper feeding 
and show a lack 
of bone and too much forced growth of the young pig. 

The body of the hog should show depth, width, and com- 
pactness. The chest should especially show plenty of girth. 
If the shoulders are wide on top, the chest below may ap- 
pear narrow, unless the fore flanks are very full. A front 
view displays the width of chest, 'while from the side we 
may note its depth and fullness of flank. 

The back is one of the most valuable parts; for here the 
butcher secures the choice chops and roasts. The wider 
and better the condition of back and loin, the more high- 
class cuts the butcher will be able to obtain from the car- 

Figure 188. "The legs should be strong, capable of 
endurance." Photograph by the author. 



cass. In the older and larger fat hogs, the layer of fat over 
the back is very thick, ranging from two to three inches. 
Such animals are frequently referred to in the market as 
"fat backs," and long strips of the fat are cut from this part 
and rendered into lard. A wide back is an indication not 
only of the condition of flesh, but also of the capacity below 
for the vital organs and the digestive system. Generally, 
a long rib and large chest capacity go with width on top. 
In inspecting the back, as viewed from one side, emphasize 
a strong carriage, with a slight 
arching. Young pigs fre- 
quently have a depression 
behind the shoulders, which 
fills up on fattening. A full, 
strong development at this 
place is very desirable. 

The sides of the hog 
should be fairly deep and 
smooth, and uniformly so 
from front to hind flank. 
This part furnishes the bacon 
cuts; hence a smooth, uni- 
form condition of flesh is 
important. Creases very 
commonly occur along the 
upper part of the sides and 

Figure 189. "The layer of fat over the 
back is very thick. ' Photograph by 
the author. 

give a bad appearance to the 
body. Often one may easily insert the fingers in these 
creases. The lard type does not have a long side, as a 
rule; neither is it quite flat, as viewed from one side. The 
form tends to be somewhat oval, especially in hogs with 
Poland-China, Duroc- Jersey, or Chester White blood, con- 
sequently the upper part of the side projects some beyond 
the lower portion. Emphasis also should be placed on 
smoothness of fleshing, and quality of skin. 



Figure 190. The back should have a strong carriage, 
with a slight arching. Photograph by the author. 

The belly of 
the hog should 
suggest as little 
waste as pos- 
sible. A paunchy 
condition, that 
is, a round, sleek 
form, indicates 
excess offal. A 
clean, straight 
line, as viewed 
from one side, 
with full flanks, 
is what is wanted. Where an excess of belly occurs, as in 
the case of old sows, buyers throw off a certain amount of 
weight, or, as they say in the market, "dock" the animals. 

The hind quarters of the hog include the rump and hams, 
the most valuable part of the carcass. The hams represent 
a high-priced and heavy-weighing part, so that a thick, full 
development is here sought. Standing behind the hog, one 
should note that the width is carried full, from the hips back 
to the end of the 
body. The thighs 
should be wide- 
spread on the 
outside, and very 
thickly muscled 
between, with 
the twist extend- 
ing low down 
toward the 
hocks. The tail 
should not be set 

T C* + ^v^V. Figure 191. "The sides of the hog should be fairly 

. Great depth deep and smoot h." Photograph by the author. 



of hams is of prime importance ; for, if lacking here, they 
will be deficient in the amount of flesh carried. 

From one side, the rump should be long on top, level 
rather than steep, and long also from hip to hock. A very 
steep rump is often seen, with the legs carried under the 
body, thus furnishing a weak support. The steep rump does 
not allow a good position of legs. Side or rear view should 
show a very meaty ham, somewhat bulging in its lower part. 
Smoothness of covering of ham is important, as wrinkles 
and uneven condition injure the value in the meat trade. 

The legs of the hog, as viewed in front, at one side, and 
from behind, should be short and straight, and not coarse 
of bone. The 
front legs some- 
times nearly 
touch at the 
knees, giving 
what is termed a 
buck- kneed 
effect. This usu- 
ally accompanies 
the narrow chest. 
The hind legs 
frequently are 
close together at 
the hocks with the feet widely spread below the body. Such 
a position usually goes with a narrow thigh, or ham. Pasterns 
and feet have already been discussed in this chapter, and 
need not be referred to again, except to emphasize the. correct 
position of these parts as most important in supporting a 
heavy-weight body. 

In judging breeding stock of the lard type, the same 
general features are to be considered, making exceptions for 
sex character and a leaner condition. The mature male 
requires a head showing great vigor and masculinity, with 

Figure 192. A good leg attitude of the hog. 
graph by the author. 




a strong jaw, prominent tusks, breadth of forehead, a strong 
neck, and some thickness of shoulder. Most breeders also 
prefer breeding stock which have very good length, and are 
not too short and compact. More bone is looked for in the 
boar than in the sow or fat hog. In fact, breeders rarely 
criticise a boar for having too heavy bone. As has already 
been brought out in the discussion of breeds, big-type hogs 
have a strong arch of back and great length. A big-type 
boar at 12 months of age, for example, often stands high, 
is long, strongly arched of back, and appears short of rib for 
his length. With maturity he fills out, however, so that he 
really does not seem especially leggy after all. The same 

Figure 193. "The brood sow should show good size and length, and have 
a strong, well-supported back." Photograph by the author. 

may be said for the big type sow at 12 to 18 months of age. 
Irrespective of type, however, the brood sow should show 
good size and length, and have a strong, well-supported back. 
Depth and length are most valued qualities in her case, as 
these indicate large reproductive capacity. Sows frequently 
are too light in bone for their weight, and this defect should 
be noted. The sow should be quiet, yet active, but not 
nervous and excitable. An irritable sow is almost sure to 
make a bad mother and one does the wise thing to dispose 
of that kind, when such disposition is proven. 




The bacon type of hog is produced in comparatively 
small numbers in the United States; but, on account of the 
steadily increasing demand for bacon, no doubt more hogs 
of this sort will be bred in the future in this country. 

A score card for the bacon hog gives a very good idea of 
the special features emphasized in this type. 


Scale of points 


of hog 

WEIGHT, market hogs should weigh 160-220 Jbs 
FORM, long, smooth; level back; belly neat 
QUALITY, hair fine; skin smooth and free of wrinkles; bone 
strong but not coarse; flesh firm 
CONDITION, well covered with firm flesh, especially on back 
and loin 




STYLE, active and sprightly, walking true, standing up well 
on toes . 


HEAD AND NECK: 8 Points. 
SNOUT, medium long; face, broad at eyes 



JOWL, not very wide, muscular, smooth; neck medium long, 


FORE QUARTERS: 12 Points. 
SHOULDERS, smooth, well laid in; breast, full 
LEGS, medium long, straight, well placed, not coarse; 
pasterns erect and straight 
BODY: 33 Points. 
BACK, medium width, slight arch neck to tail; loin same 
width, strong, full 



RIBS, well sprung, long; side, long, smooth, medium deep. . 
CHEST, full, even with shoulder; flanks full and low 
BELLY firm trim thick not flabby or shrunken 


HIND QUARTERS: 13 Points. 
RUMP, same width as back, long, level 
HAMS, full, not flabby; thigh tapering toward hock, without 
folds or wrinkles ... ... 


LEGS, medium long, hocks well set apart, straight, bone 
good, pasterns erect 


Total score 


Judging the bacon hog requires keeping in mind certain 
important features wherein this type differs from the lard 
hog. Bacon is the first consideration. This comes from the 
sides; the side that is longest and smoothest, with fair depth, 
therefore, is the most valuable. But bacon must not be 
heavy in fat; hence the condition of the body must show 
only a moderate amount of flesh. For these reasons, the 



Figure 194. "The shoulder of the bacon hoj 
should be smooth and not heavy like the larc 
type." Photograph by the author. 

bacon hog shows a comparatively narrow back, but con- 
siderable length of body. Over the back of the bacon hog, 
a uniform depth of about one inch of fat is ample, rather than 
the ordinary thickness of the lard type, for a muscular car- 
cass with a moderate amount of fat is what is desired. 

The shoulder 
of the bacon hog 
should be smooth, 
and not heavy like 
the lard type, but 
should nicely 
blend into the 
body. The thick- 
ness between the 
shoulders is not 
great, and a front 
view shows a relatively narrower neck and chest and longer 
leg, compared with the lard type. 

The ham of the bacon hog lacks in thickness, yet should 
be long on top, and 
taper off into a lean 
type, with no great 
amount of fat. From 
a side view, the ham 
cuts away more on its 
under part ; while from 
behind, the thighs are 
thin and are usually 
well split up between, 
producing rather a 
shallow twist. 

The belly of the bacon hog should show just as little 
fullness as possible, consistent with being a good feeder. 
Any evidence of paunchiness or thickness here is objection- 
able. The lower part of the body line should be smooth and 

Figure 195. A comparison of hams of bacon and 
and lard type pigs. Photograph by the author. 


trim, and give evidence of the least amount of offal. A 
straight, trim line from front to hind flank is desirable. 

The general appearance of the bacon type is that of a 
narrow, long-bodied, smooth-sided, long-legged hog, not too 
fat in any portion. The excessive length of leg, which often 
prevails, is to be criticised; otherwise these features of con- 
formation are very desirable and should be maintained. 


1. Quality as an important feature of the hog. 

2. The occurrence of seams, or creases, and why objectionable. 

3. The pasterns, past and present. 

4. The five features most highly rated in the scale of points. 

5. The "shield" and its significance. 

6. The relation of breast to shoulder and constitution. 

7. Where the most important "cuts" are found in the carcass. 

8. Differences between breeding stock and that for the butcher. 

9. The meaning of bacon type. 

10. Relation of bacon form to offal. 


11. Place on a township map the locations of market feeders of 


12. Do feeders breed or purchase the stock fed? 

13. What attention is given to quality by men buying hogs? 

14. Does the lard or the bacon type prevail in your locality? 

15. Bring to class a score-card record of some animal in the home 


16. Organize a local swine-judging contest. 



The production of pork is a great industry in America, 
the United States being the acknowledged leader of the 
world in this field of live-stock husbandry. This leadership 
is largely due to the fact that pork is produced more cheaply 
than any other meat, and the average man can feed and care 
for pigs with more satisfaction, and better prospects of gain, 
than in the case of any other farm animal. In the corn 
belt hogs and corn seem a natural combination, so that in 
the great Mississippi Valley swine husbandry is highly devel- 
oped. By the 1920 United States Census there were almost 
sixty million pigs of different ages in this country. The 
states having three million or more swine are the following, 
in relative order: Iowa 7,864,000; Illinois 4,640,000; Mis- 
souri 3,888,000; Indiana 3,757,000; Nebraska 3,422,000, and 
Ohio 3,084,000. Three states were in the two million class, 
namely 'Minnesota, Georgia, and Texas. 

The food requirements for swine have been studied more 
extensively perhaps, than of any other farm animal. This 
fact is due in part to the ease with which swine may be 
handled and fed, and records made of growth and fattening. 
Exact feeding standards, however, are not generally applied 
in pork production. The following standards, the modified 
Wolff-Lehmann, as given by Henry and Morrison,* show the 
actual needs for fattening pigs, and brood sows with pigs. 

A study of these standards makes clear that, as a pig 
increases in weight while fattening, there is a steady decline 
in the body requirements for dry matter, digestible crude 
protein, and total digestible nutrients, while the nutritive 

*Feeds and Feeding, 1917. 




ratio steadily grows wider. Digestion experiments with 
breeding swine during growth show also the same decline 
in the need for dry matter, protein, and total nutrients. In 
other words, the body requirements of the pig in either 
growth or fattening call for a gradual lessening of the protein 
in the ration with an increase of carbohydrates. 


Age and condition 






Fattening pigs 
Weight 30-50 Ibs. . . . 
50-100 ' . .. 
100-150' . .. 
150-200 * . .. 
200-250 < . .. 
250-300 ' .... 
Brood sows with pigs 




1 :5.0-5.6 
1 :6.0-7.0 

Figure 196. Yorkshire brood sows on an English pasture, owned by Sanders 
Spencer, Holycraft, St. Ives, England. Photograph by the author. 

The type of food best suited to the pig is of a concentrated 
form. The pig has a single stomach, rather limited in capac- 
ity, and, therefore, it can not consume roughage like the cow 
or sheep with their compound stomachs and much greater 


relative capacities. It is true that hogs will do well on succu- 
lent forage crops and pastures, but even then the total 
amount eaten is comparatively small. The older class of 
hogs in winter will eat the leafy roughage of alfalfa or clover 
to some extent, but too much of this should not be fed. 
The standard grains, and mill products are best suited 
to the digestive tract of the hog. 

The preparation of the food for swine has received con- 
siderable attention. Various experimenters have amply 
demonstrated that cooking the food for swine injures the 
digestibility of the proteins, and that better results are ob- 
tained by feeding raw rather than cooked food. Soaking 
grain may be advantageous, especially in the case of old 
corn that is hard and dry. In comparative experiments in 
feeding soaked whole wheat and dry whole wheat, conducted 
by the author at the Indiana station, and by Snyder and 
Burnett at the Nebraska station, a slight advantage came 
from soaking the grain. The grinding of grain for hogs has 
been somewhat advantageous. Prof. W. A. Henry, of Wis- 
consin, fed ground and shelled corn in comparison for ten 
winters,* and found that on the average it required 501 pounds 
of whole corn and wheat middlings for 100 pounds of gain, 
and only 471 pounds of corn meal and middlings for an equal 
gain. Evvard, of Iowa, and King, of Indiana station, have 
found that no special advantage is secured by grinding corn 
for young pigs, but as they pass beyond 3 or 4 months of age 
somewhat better gains are made from ground or soaked grain. 
Corn-and-cob meal is not to be recommended for the pig, 
but, if fed, the cob should be ground fine. 

The relationship of age of pigs to digestibility of food and 
gains in weight has been shown in digestion experiments 
conducted by Prof. Evvard, of Iowa. He found that a pig 
weighing 60 pounds digests corn fed in different ways with 
somewhat more efficiency than one weighing 200 pounds. 

*Feeds and Feeding, 1917. 


It has long been known that, as pigs grow older, other things 
being equal, it requires more grain for 100 pounds of gain in 
live weight. If we apply the relationship of age to weight, 
then of a large number of animals fed at different weights, as 
shown by Henry and Morrison,* the amount of food required 
for 100 pounds gain in live weight steadily increased from 
293 for a pig weighing from 15 to 50 pounds, up to 535 pounds 
for one weighing from 300 to 350 pounds. It is important, 
however, to note that, as the pig gained in weight, there was 
a decrease in the amount of food eaten daily for each 100 
pounds of live weight. The average daily gain in live weight 
increased up to 300 pounds, after which it fell off slightly. 

The influence of breed in pork production, so far as the 
relationship of food consumed to gains in weight is con- 
cerned, is problematical. In experiments reported upon by 
Prof. G. E. Day, of Canada, f in which five tests were con- 
ducted upon six breeds at the Ontario Agricultural College, 
and in three tests at the Iowa station, no very satisfactory 
results were secured. "Why, for instance," writes Prof. 
Day, "do Berkshires, Yorkshires, Duroc-Jerseys and Poland- 
Chinas range all the way from the top to the bottom of the 
list in the different tests; and why would an average of the 
Ontario tests give a rating of the breeds which is entirely 
different from an average of the Iowa tests? " In the opinion 
of many practical swine breeders, some breeds produce pork 
more economically than others, but we have very insufficient 
evidence to prove that one breed is better than another. 

Mineral food for swine is of first importance. When 
we realize that an animal can not live without iron in its 
blood, and that over 90 per cent of the bony system con- 
sists of calcium and phosphorus, we must appreciate the 
importance of these substances in the food. For many 
years swine growers in the corn belt have been accustomed 
to placing ashes or soft coal in the pig lots. This was eaten 

*Feeds and Feeding, 1917. 
fProductive Swine Husbandry, 1915. 


by the pigs, but why, the farmer did not know. Prof. Henry, 
of Wisconsin, early in experimental swine feeding demon- 
strated that the bones of hogs that had been fed corn alone 
were deficient in ash, and broke much more easily than those 
of hogs fed corn and mineral matter. Since then other 
experiments have clearly demonstrated that minerals are an 
actual necessity in the diet of swine as well as of other farm 
animals. If hogs are fed on clover or alfalfa, with corn, 
they will obtain in the legumes considerable mineral matter, 
but where concentrates are largely relied upon for feeding, 

Figure 197. Hogs on alfalfa pasture, Oregon Agricultural Experiment 
Station. Photograph by the author. 

especially corn, minerals in some form are a necessity. A 
mixture of equal parts by weight of ground limestone, fine 
bone meal, and salt will make a satisfactory mineral for 
swine. Various kinds of mixtures are used by different 
feeders, many of whom also use flowers of sulphur, copperas 
and salt, for medicinal purposes, in addition to the other 
minerals used. For brood sows Prof. W. W. Smith recom- 
mends* a combination of 12 parts charcoal, 3 parts air- 
slacked lime, ground bone or ground rock phosphate, and 1 
part common salt. Wood ashes in the same quantity as 

*Pork Production, 1920. 


the lime he thinks would improve the combination. But 
very little salt seems to be needed by swine. 

Water for swine seems to have an unusual place in the 
animal economy; for, besides its customary use as a drink, 
it is used extensively to prepare slop foods, and is also highly 
esteemed by the hog for bathing purposes. In cold weather 
hogs do not drink so heavily, excepting through slop feed, 
but in warm weather they need more water. Commenting 
on the fact that a new born pig's body consists of 80 per cent 
water, while that of a fat hog weighing 400 pounds con- 
tains 35 per cent, Prof. Evvard says.* 

"The main point is that all pigs require a lot of water regardless of 
their own water content and we should aim to give it to them liberally. 
We should allow more water in summer than in winter, because of the 
higher temperature. Some of our sows in January drank around four 
pounds of water per head daily, whereas in April they daily drank 24 
pounds. The water consumption per pound of dry matter ranged from 
1.3 pound in cold winter up to 7.6 pounds in warm springtime." 

Pigs greatly relish a bath in warm weather, and will 
throw themselves down in any wet place, and wallow. They 
do not cool off as freely as other animals by the radiation 
of moisture from the pores of the skin, and so obtain relief in 
a wallow. Some of the more progressive swine growers sup- 
ply drinking water to the stock through fountains attached 
to barrels holding water, and also provide shallow con- 
crete-lined bathing pools. 

The feeding of the brood sow prior to farrowing calls for 
a ration fairly rich in protein. For fall farrowing, a legume 
pasture, or rape forage, and corn make an excellent diet. 
If for spring farrowing, then during the winter it is advisable 
to feed a little leafy alfalfa or clover hay and a mixture of 
10 parts corn, 5 parts middlings and 1 part tankage or meat 
meal. Prof. Smith states f that a mature sow in breeding 
condition can be maintained, as a rule, by a little less than 
one and one fourth pounds of average grain daily for each 100 
pounds of live, weight. The brood sow should be brought to 

*Pamphlet published in 1921 by Hampshire Swine Association. 
fPork Production, 1920. 



farrowing in good condition, but not fat. About three 
weeks before farrowing the sow should have her ration 
changed to a combination of 5 parts each by weight of bran 
and middlings, and 1 part each of linseed meal and tankage 
or meat meal. She should also receive some skimmed milk 
in her ration, if available. After farrowing, this ration may 
be continued for a few days, until the pigs and the mother 
get strong on their feet, when the ration may be changed 
again to allow the use of part corn. If one is not able t o 
make up this ration, one should endeavor to give as nearly 

Figure 198. Interior of model Iowa piggery, containing sanitary pens, wallow 
and dipping tank. Photograph by E. J. Hall. 

a balanced ration as possible, not relying too much 
on corn, but using in part some form of protein food. 

The feeding of suckling pigs is at first largely of the 
mother's milk. When about 2 weeks old the young ones, if 
given a chance, will begin to drink some slop along with the 
mother. Then a creep should be provided for them, and 
a small trough arranged, in which is placed a thin slop of 
milk, wheat middlings, and oatmeal or sieved ground oats. 
As the pigs get older they may be fed lightly of shelled corn 
scattered around, preferably soaked for very young pigs. 


It is important that these pigs be kept growing, and have 
plenty of exercise. They may be weaned at 10 to 12 weeks 
of age, under ordinary conditions. 

The feeding of young breeding pigs after nursing is over 
is largely a proposition of making a good growth and strong 
muscular body. For stock of this kind it is desirable to 
feed in summer on pasture of legumes or rape, with 1 to 2 
pounds of grain for each 100 pounds of live weight. In winter, 
feed a small amount of legume hay and a mixture similar to 
that given the brood sow some weeks prior to farrowing. 
Nothing is more valuable for young growing pigs than skim 
milk, which should be supplied. Where corn is the main 
concentrate available for feeding, meat meal or tankage 
should by all means be purchased, as it does much to balance 
the ration and also adds to the palatability. 

In feeding the boar one should keep in mind that he 
must never be fat, but be muscular, vigorous and healthy. 
Some green food is desirable in summer, but not too much. 
If legume or rape forage is available, then a light feed of 
corn may be given, although a mixture of equal parts of 
corn and middlings would be better, with 5 per cent tankage 
added. The boar should have plenty of exercise in a well- 
fenced lot in which shade and housing is provided, and 
he should eat his food with keen appetite. 

The fattening of pigs in the corn belt is usually based 
on a generous use of corn, along with pasture of some kind 
in summer and fall. Pigs on legumes, with corn for con- 
centrates, have essentially a balanced ration, and thrive 
thereon. Pigs fattened in the diy lot may be fed such con- 
centrates as are available, according to the section of 
country. A large per cent of the hogs reaching the Chicago 
market are fed on corn and tankage, a combination of 10 
parts of the former and 1 of the latter being very satisfactory. 
Skim milk is invaluable in fattening, and supplies much 
needed protein and ash with such a mineral-deficient carbo- 






hydrate as corn. Wheat middlings is a popular concentrate 
used in fattening hogs, but Prof. Evvard states* that in the 

tests at the Iowa sta- 
tion they have found 
that it takes about 150 
pounds of wheat mid- 
dlings and tankage, 
when fed on good past- 
ure, to produce the 
same amount of gain as 
100 pounds of shelled 
corn and tankage. One 
of the difficulties with 
the wheat middlings, 
especially if of a low 

Figure 199. Chart showing result of hog rrrnrlp i fVifit it rlnp 

feeding trials at the Purdue University^ grade, IS tnat It < 

Experiment Station, showing advantage not prmtnin pnrvncrh npf 
from feeding skimmilk to fattening hogs. 

Reproduced from "The Cow the Mother of pnprtrvr nnit for pnfVi rvnp 

Prosperity," International Harvester Co. ergy UmtS I 

hundred pounds. The 
adaptability of the hog to consuming a wide range of 



Figure 200. Two lots of hogs fed at the Ohio Experiment Station. The 
two at the left were fed corn alone in dry lot, those at the right corn and 
tankage. Photograph from Ohio Experiment Station. 

food stuffs makes the subject of fattening a relatively 
simple matter. Over much of the United States corn is 

*Hampshire Swine Association pamphlet, 1921. 



the chief concentrate used, but in the Northwest, on the 
Pacific slope, in Canada, and Europe barley is com- 
monly used, and is regarded as making the best grade 
of pork. In the West and Southwest Kafir corn is a 
satisfactory substitute for corn, while in much of the South 
peanuts are becoming an important factor in fattening hogs. 
Peanuts, however, produce a soft pork, and so must be fed 
with care. Cottonseed meal has been fed to some extent; 
but, as it contains an ingredient poisonous to hogs, it is unsafe 
as a hog feed, excepting in very small amounts for periods not 

Figure 201. The self-feeder for hogs. Photograph from The Farmer. 

exceeding 40 days. Meat meal, or tankage, on account of 
its high per cent of protein and its freedom from carbohy- 
drates, makes an invaluable material for using with corn, 
barley, rice, and millstuffs of similar composition. 

The self-feeder for swine has come into great popularity 
in recent years. This is a b.ox-like arrangement, with the 
back vertical, and the front at a slant after the style of a 
letter V. The food is placed in the wide top, and gradually 
sifts out at the bottom point into a feed trough. Self- 
feeders contain two or more compartments, a different 


kind of food being placed in each one. The pig goes to the 
self-feeder and eats to suit himself. This has been called the 
''cafeteria" or "free choice" system of feeding. Experiments 
at a number of our stations have shown that pigs fattened 
by this method gained more rapidly than those hand-fed, 
and essentially balanced their rations themselves. The 
labor bill with pigs thus fed is greatly reduced, and there is 
less waste of feed than there is where corn is scattered over 
the ground. In experiments conducted by Prof. Evvard at 
the Iowa station, in comparison with hand-fed under differ- 
ent conditions, the free-choice-fed pigs had the advantage 
in gains in weight and cost of production. In experiments 
conducted by Prof. L. A. Weaver at the Missouri station,* 
pigs fattened with the self-feeder gained more rapidly than 
those which had been hand-fed, but with no difference in 
economy of gain. 

"It is apparent," writes Prof. Weaver, "that the advantage which 
the self-feeder method will have in any specific instance over hand- 
feeding, in regard to rate of gain, will depend to a large degree upon the 
ability of the person doing the hand-feeding to feed so that the hogs will 
consume a maximum amount of feed. In practically all cases, when 
the self-fed hogs gained more rapidly than those which are hand-fed, 
they also consumed more feed." 

The self-feeder is not generally suited to breeding stock, 
where it is necessary to assume control over the amount 
of food eaten in order to prevent fattening. Prof. W. W. 
Smith, however, regards the use of the self-feeder during 
the winter, for pregnant sows and gilts, as a safe method, f 
He recommends to feed in it a good quality of alfalfa or 
clover hay cut fine or ground and mixed with corn, and 
the proportion of hay so regulated that the consumption 
of corn will not exceed the amount necessary to maintain 
the proper condition and weight. "However," he says, 
"great care must be exercised that the consumption of corn 
is not excessive. In the hands of a careless feeder, the in- 
discriminate use of the self-feeder would prove disastrous." 

*Self-Feeders for Fattening Swine. Bulletin 144 Mo. Ag. Exp. Station, 1917. 
fPork Production, 1920. 



1. Where the industry centers. 

2. Of the relative needs of protein and digestible nutrients in gains 

in weight with fattening pigs. 

3. As to how food should be prepared. 

4. Of the amount of food required for 100 pounds gain at different 


5. If the Duroc- Jersey will feed more profitably than the Poland 


6. What part mineral matter plays in growth and development. 

7. How the nursing sow should be fed. 

8. When a pig creep should be used. 

9. Of the part .corn plays in fattening market swine. 

10. Of results from using the self-feeder. 


11. How do each of ten farmers prepare their concentrates for their 

sows and pigs? 

12. To what weight do your neighbors feed their pigs for market? 

13. Make up a statement of mineral foods fed by different farmers. 

14. Note the provisions for watering swine on several farms. 

15. At what age are pigs weaned in your community? 

16. Give five rations in use for fattening swine for market. 

17. Make a self-feeder and report on its construction and cost. 

18. Ascertain if self-feeders are in use about home, and with what 



The care of the sow and pigs at farrowing requires watch- 
ful attention. The sides of the pen in which the sow farrows 
should be provided with guards to prevent the mother from 
lying on her pigs. This guard may consist of a plank or a 
2x4 piece fastened about 6 inches above the floor, and 8 or 
10 inches out from the side of the pen. But very little bed- 
ding should be placed in the farrowing pen; for, if it is too 
thick, the small, more or less weak newly born pigs may get 
tangled in it, and have difficulty in getting about their mother. 
The dam should not be disturbed while farrowing, and the 
pen should be as quiet and comfortable as possible, and 
protected from cold drafts and dampness. Some careful 
herdsmen remove the pigs from the dam as fast as farrowed, 
and place them in barrels or baskets partly filled with straw. 
In cold weather a jug of warm water buried in the straw will 
keep the little pigs at a comfortable temperature. The 
young pigs should be allowed to nurse the mother every 2 or 
3 hours the first day, and then after 24 hours be left with 
her for good. If, however, she is nervous and irritable, it 
may be well to keep the pigs from her 2 or 3 days, allowing 
them to nurse at intervals. 

The separation of pigs into different groups, according to 
sex, age, and condition, is important, if one is to care for them 
properly. When the pigs are weaned, the gilts should be 
separated from the boar pigs, and each group fed and cared for 
separately. The older gilts should receive attention pre- 
paratory for sale or placing in the breeding herd, while the 
mature sows naturally must be fed and cared for by them- 
selves. The service boar requires a strong pen or paddock, 



where he may be kept under restraint and properly fed. 
Hogs being fattened for the market naturally receive different 
feed from the breeding stock, and so must be kept by them- 
selves. On many farms the careful separation of the animals 
into groups as indicated may not be possible in all details, 
but the more carefully this separation is observed, the more 
success will attend the herd development. 

The sanitation of the swine quarters is of first importance. 
The pens should be kept free from filth and an unnecessary 
amount of manure, and the floors should be kept reasonably 
dry. One may keep swine in almost any kind of building, 
but a dry floor and clean conditions are equally important 
whatever the kind of house occupied. The drainage about 
the swine quarters should be away from the buildings and 
yards, to promote sanitation. Unfortunately there are too 
many farms where the hogs are obliged to live and wallow in 
mud and manure, where disease germs abound. Sanitary 
conditions in the swine building may be improved by the 
free use of slacked lime sprinkled on the floors of the pens, 
and by freely whitewashing the walls. 

The bedding of swine is customary in the northern sec- 
tions of the country, especially in winter. The house or 
shelter should itself be comfortable, so that too much bed- 
ding will not be used. Wheat straw makes the best bedding; 
but, if so much is used that the pigs bury themselves in it in 
cold weather, when they come out to be fed, they are liable 
to catch cold due to sudden change of temperature. Only 
a moderate amount of straw, therefore, should be used. In 
the South very little bedding is needed in winter, while in 
the warm season no bedding is required in the North. 

Exercise for swine is regarded as a necessity. The tend- 
ency in cold weather is for the pigs to huddle close together 
under the straw and move about in the air as little as possible. 
In the latter stages of fattening, exercise is not so important, 
but with the breeding herd it is quite different. If the sows 


are to have strong, vigorous pigs, they must have enough 
exercise to keep them healthy and strong. Many boars are 
useless, because from lack of exercise they take on too much 
flesh and become inactive. On this subject Prof. W. W. 
Smith well says,* 

"Exercise promotes a loose, open condition of the bowels and does 
much to maintain a healthful functioning of the other organs of elimina- 
tion, exercise contributes strength and vitality, reduces the chances of 
disease, costs nothing, and is an indispensable factor in the maintenance 
of health and breeding thrift." 

In winter it is a good plan to drive the pigs about in the 
lots or near-by yards, scattering some corn and causing 
them to move about in search of it. When snow is on the 
ground, it is not so easy to do so ; but, if the pigs live in 
colony houses and come to central feeding troughs, they will 
be compelled to move about more than they would other- 
wise and so will secure some exercise. 

The care of pigs in hot weather has much to do with their 
successful development. They should be provided with 
shade, if possible. A woods-pasture is invaluable as a shelter 
from the hot sun. Portable pens or cots, that have a free 
circulation of air across the floor through openings on oppo- 
site sides, will furnish shade and may be fairly comfortable. 
A flat-roofed, low, open-sided shed in the pig lot, that costs 
but little for labor and material, will also furnish shade. 

A wallow in warm weather gives the hog supreme satis- 
faction. The unsanitary character of mud wallows is to be 
strictly condemned, but the use of the modern concrete 
wallow, in which water may be kept reasonably free of filth, 
is to be highly commended. 

Parasites affecting swine are both internal and external. 
Hogs are very often infested with round worms which may 
be as large as a common lead pencil, and are a serious drain 
on their vitality. The eggs and embryo forms of the para- 
sites are found in muddy, filthy yards and lots. If one is to 
have healthy quarters, it will be very important to keep 

*Pork Production, 1921. 



the yards really sanitary, and rotate the use of feed lots 
and pastures, so that they may not become infested. 
If hogs feed on land that has been continuously used for this 
purpose, parasites are sure to prevail. One may treat hogs 
infested with worms as follows, with very satisfactory results. 
From 3 to 5 grains of santonin and from 5 to 8 grains of 
calomel, are used for each 100 pounds live weight of pig. 
The hogs should receive no feed for 10 or 12 hours, after 
which they are turned to the feed trough in which there is 

Figure 202. A woods-pasture and feed yard for pigs. Photograph by the 


slightly moistened ground feed, over which the necessary 
amount of powder has been sprinkled. The hogs should 
then be kept from other feed for 10 hours or so, in order to 
give the medicine time to do efficient work. 

External parasites, such as body lice, often become very 
abundant. These are easily destroyed by giving the skin a 
brushing of crude petroleum. If many hogs need treatment, 
they should be driven through a dipping vat, in which water 
has been filled nearly to the desired height, on the surface 
of which should be placed about an inch of the crude oil. 
It is a good plan to spray the interior of the hog plant occa- 



sionally with crude oil and especially the sleeping quarters. 
Hog cholera is one of the most common diseases of swine. 
It is caused by a very minute germ. The symptoms of the 
disease are general sickness, inflammation and ulceration of 
stomach and intestines, enlargements of the glands, weak- 
ness of the legs, causing staggering, stiffness, etc. Pigs may 
be sick for several weeks or months before they die. A 
large amount of 
research work 
has been given 
this disease, and 
swine plague, 
which is much 
the same, but 
without satisfac- 
tory results. In 
recent years it 
has been satis- 
factorily demon- 
strated that pigs 
may be made 
immune from 
cholera by in- 
jecting into 
healthy animals 

a serum prepared from the blood of swine. There are two 
methods of vaccinating, one, the "single method," in which 
serum alone is injected into young pigs, which 
makes them immune for 3 months or so. In the 
other, the "simultaneous method," the serum is intro- 
duced and, at the same time in another place, a small amount 
of blood that has been taken from a hog sick with cholera. 
This serum is injected under the skin of the inner thigh of a 
pig, or behind the ear of a large hog. A large percentage 
of the herds of swine given treatment to prevent cholera 

Figure 203. Injecting serum into thigh of pig to prevent 
cholera. Photograph from Dr. Edgerton, Ohio State 


are made immune. As cholera is highly contagious, great 
care should be used to prevent any exposure of healthy pigs. 
It is even unsafe for a person working with healthy pigs to 
visit a diseased herd, on account of the danger of conveying 
the disease by means of his shoes. Every farm on which 
cholera prevails should have a sign at the entrance to the 
farm, stating that cholera is in the herd. 

Tuberculosis among swine is common, especially in herds 
fed skim milk or buttermilk that has not been pasteurized. 
This disease is most common, therefore, among pigs fed in 
dairy districts. When fed in connection with healthy cattle, 
pastured on forage crops, and given concentrates, tuber- 
culosis is not a common disease among swine. The best 
method of preventing it is to feed no milk excepting with the 
certainty that it comes from a healthy source and to keep a 
herd of cattle known to be free from this disease. Pigs 
valued at millions of dollars are condemned at packing houses 
each year on account of having tuberculosis. The affected 
pig can not be cured. 

Removing the tusks of the boar often becomes a neces- 
sity. A mature boar, with long sharp tusks, is a source of 
danger, as a person may be seriously injured by them. They 
are, therefore, usually removed in well managed herds. The 
following method is recommended by Prof. G. E. Day:* 

"The boar is first made fast to a post by means of a rope noosed 
about his upper jaw back of the upper tusks. Then one man takes a 
crowbar and another a sharp chisel and a hammer. The sharp edge of 
the crowbar is placed against the tusk near its base, and held firmly in 
position, and the edge of the cold chisel is placed on the opposite side of 
the tusk directly across from, and even with, the edge of the crowbar. 
A sharp blow with the hammer on the cold chisel does the job." 

Marking the litters of pigs is very necessary in pure-bred 
herds. The young pigs may be given ear tags, when 3 or 4 
weeks old, as indicated on page 54, but these tags often get 
torn from the ears of pigs, and the tag is then lost. Numbers 
may be easily tattooed in the ears of pigs of the white breeds, 
as is commonly done in England. In the United States 

*Productive Swine Husbandry, 1915. 


various methods of notching the ear of the pig at 2 or 3 weeks 
of age are used. With a common punch, such as is used for 
cutting holes in leather, a shallow notch is cut in the edge of 
the ear of the pig. The following method is in use at the 
Ontario Agricultural College, and its application is thus 
clearly described by Prof. Day.* 


Figure 204. A method of number- Figure 205. Another method of 

ing pigs by ear marks. numbering piga by ear marks. 

"The accompanying diagram shows the plan of numbering with 
explanation of its use. For example (Figure 204) all the pigs in the first 
litter would have a nip taken out of the lower edge of the left ear next to 
the head, which represents No. 1, No. 2 is indicated by taking a nip out 
of the lower edge of the left ear half way between the base and the tip; 
and the pigs in the third litter have a nip taken out of the tip of the left 
ear, and so forth. Between 5 and 10 two nicks are necessary. Thus, 6 = 5 
+ 1,7 = 5+2,8 = 5+3,9 = 5+4. For No. 10 we go to the lower side of the 
right ear next to the head. Larger numbers call for various combinations, 
for example, 11 = 10+1, 12 = 10+2, 17 = 10+5+2. etc. The nick should 
not be made deep, or it will disfigure the ear; just a little deeper than the 
thickness of the skin is sufficient. If the piece is cut out cleanly, the 
mark will stay as long as the_ear lasts." 

A private swine herd book should be kept by every breeder 
of swine. In this he should enter the name and number of 
each animal, the date of farrowing, name and number of sire 
and dam, from whom purchased and price, with space for 
recording name and address of persons to whom sold. In 
addition to these facts, a diagram of head and ear should 
be shown against each animal recorded, with the ear notches 
shown thereon. A card system is especially favored by 
swine breeders, the main facts as above given being on one 
side of the card, while the pedigree is given on the reverse 
side. Space is also available for listing the litters of sows. 

A feeding platform for swine is often used among feeders 

*Productive Swine Husbandry, 1915 


in the corn belt, on which the hogs may feed without wallow- 
ing in mud. Cement platforms, on which feed troughs are 
placed, are best, for they furnish a substantial floor, when 
well made. They are easily made rat-proof, and are free 
of the holes or cracks so likely to occur with board floors, 
and are kept clean with little trouble. 

Shelters and houses for swine vary greatly. There are 
two types in common use, a centralized building, with a 
series of pens, a room for feed, etc., and a colony or individual 
house of a single room. The centralized building should 

Figure 206. An Iowa piggery, showing concrete foundation and outside feed- 
platform. Note the large 
)tograph by E. J. Hall. 

ing platform. Note the large amount of sunlight provided through the roof. 

be located where drainage is good, and with feed lots and 
pastures conveniently connected. This house should be well 
lighted, so that sunshine will penetrate easily to every par.t. 
In an interesting report from 332 farmers in Kansas,* 130 
different dimensions of hog houses were reported. The 
majority of the houses reported on were from 8 to 20 feet 
wide and from 24 to 60 feet long, the average house being 
16 by 40 feet, suitable for 10 farrowing sows. Such a house 
would have a central four-foot alley, with five 6x8 pens on 
each side. The windows should be placed so as to secure 
the greatest amount of sunshine possible within the house. 
The floor may be earthen, wood, or cement. In 316 Kansas 

*Hogs in Kansas. Report Kansas State Board of Agriculture, 1919. 


reports on the kinds of floors used, 150 reported earth, 5 
earth packed over woven wire, 2 gravel, 59 wood or plank, 
70 cement or concrete, 2 boards over cement, 8 part earth 
and part cement, 8 part board and part cement, 6 part wood 
and 6 stone. Concrete is easily kept sanitary and rat-proof; 
but, unless well bedded, is inclined to cause rheumatism 
and pneumonia. Earth floors are cheap and are liked by 
hogs, but are easily rooted up, and may be very dusty or 
unsanitary. A movable wood floor over concrete is expensive 
but ideal from a health point of view. A single colony 

Figure 207. Hog cots and lots at Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station. 
Photograph by the author. 

house should have a strong frame work, a roof that does not 
leak, and sides that are not drafty in cold weather. It 
should be placed on runners so that it may be easily hauled 
to a new location whenever desired. A house 5 feet wide 
and 7 feet long is of convenient dimensions. A house with 
a gable roof, or a two-thirds-span roof, or one with roof and 
sides like the letter A, is the more common. The economy 
"A" house advocated by Iowa Experiment Station, is very 
popular. It combines low cost, simple construction, and is 
easily adjusted for changes of temperature. Its 5'x 7' floor 
is sufficient for a good-sized sow and litter. 



1. How would you protect the young pigs from being lain on by 

the sow? 

2. What would you do to provide sanitary quarters? 

3. Why limit the amount of straw bedding in the pens in cold 


4. What kind of a wallow should be provided? 

5. How destroy external parasites? 

6. At what age would you give serum treatment to prevent cholera? 

7. What may be done to prevent tuberculosis? 

8. When may the tattoo system of marking be used? 

9. What is the advantage of a concrete feeding platform? 

10. Of what should one be mindful in erecting a centralized house? 


11. Are guard rails used in farrowing pens? 

12. Are the pigs kept separate according to sex and age? 

13. Is the drainage good about the pens? 

14. What winter protection is given? 

15. Is treatment for parasites given, if so how? 

16. What methods are in use to prevent hog cholera? 

17. Do boar owners remove tusks from old animals, and if so how? 

18. How are the pigs marked for future identification? 

19. Are private herd books in use? 

20. What kind of houses are most in use? 


For many years an important subject of discussion in 
the agricultural papers, and in farmers' institutes was, 
"How can we keep our boys and girls on the farm?" Vari- 
ous answers were given to the question, but naturally the 
most logical one was to give them an interest in the business. 
The real movement in this direction began about 1905 in 
the South, in the organization of boys' and girls' clubs for 
growing corn under conditions of competition. Dr. S. A. 
Knapp at this time was engaged in promoting co-operative 
work among southern farmers, especially in the gulf states, 
and he did much to interest the boys and girls in production. 
This work was championed by the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, and, in his annual report for 1913, Secre- 
ary of Agriculture Houston wrote as follows. 

"The present enrollment in this work amounts to 60,000 boys and 
girls, who are systematically organized into boys' corn clubs, girls' 
canning clubs, potato clubs, sugar beet clubs, vegetable garden clubs, 
etc. The average yield per acre of all the corn-club members report- 
ing this year was 74.5 bushels, with a net profit of $25.55 per acre; 
426 made 100 bushels or more, and 1,078 made over 60 bushels per 

The origin of boys' and girls' live-stock clubs may be 
said to date with the year 1910, when 59 boys in Caddo 
Parish, Louisiana, organized a pig club,* with the help of 
Mr. E. W. Jones, the superintendent of the rural schools of 
the county. This club was organized to do its work after 
the manner of the corn club, of which it was an outgrowth. 
The college of agriculture of the Louisiana State University 
took an active interest in the work, and promoted the organ- 
ization of other clubs in the state. From this initial effort 

*The boys' pig club work. W. F. Ward, U. S. Dept. of Agr. Report, 1915. 



has developed a remarkable interest all over the United 
States in organizing clubs to promote work with pigs, calves, 
sheep, rabbits, and poultry. In 1917 there were 10,000 
young people in poultry clubs in eight states, and 45,000 
pig-club members, while in 1920 there were 33,000 members 
of live-stock clubs in the northern and western states. 

The object of the live-stock club is to promote an inter- 
est in farm animals on the part of the boys and girls on the 

Figure 208. Shorthorn steer calf, Sunbeam and Ralph Peak of Illinois, who 
fed and showed him at the International. Photograph by Hildebrand. 

farm. Mr. W. F. Ward gives nine objects in forming pig 
clubs.* The ninth one, although given last, may be regarded 
as the most important. 

"To instill in the boys while young a love of animals which will re- 
sult in their taking more interest in farm life, and to furnish them at 
the same time some work which will in a practical way give an insight 
into the business side of farm life and incite in them a desire to struggle 
for and attain success." 

There are various other good reasons why boys in partic- 
ular should interest themselves in these live-stock clubs. 

*Boys' Pig Clubs, Farmers' Bulletin 566, December 31, 1913. 


The competitive side of the work demonstrates the value 
of good blood in farm animals and its relationship to profit- 
able production. Thus better breeding will be stimulated. 
The cost of production will teach the boy how to use the 
forage crops and concentrates of the farm to best advantage 
rather than purchase expensive feeds on the market. Boys 
through live-stock clubs study the breeds and compare them 
with grades and scrubs, thus becoming judges capable of 
measuring up values. In this same connection boys become 
interested in promoting certain breeds, thereby contributing 
to live-stock improvement. Live-stock clubs of necessity 
place a premium on proper management, involving breeding, 
feeding and sanitation, each of which is of vital importance 
in profitable production. During the late World War, when 
an appeal was made to the American stockmen to produce 
more meat, it was estimated that the 45,000 pig-club mem- 
bers produced about ten million pounds of dressed pork. 

The organization of live-stock clubs is comparatively 
simple. In 1915, Mr. W. H. Balis, in charge of Boj^s' Pig 
Clubs in Louisiana, wrote.* 

"The organization of a pig club consists simply in enrolling each 
boy and girl of the school who is willing to raise a pig and keep a record 
of how much the pig is fed, etc. Any teacher may do this and send the 
names to the parish demonstration agent, or if there is no parish agent, 
to the Junior Extension Department of the Louisiana State Univer- 
sity. Before sending the names to the club agent it is very important 
that the parents give their consent, as very few will be able to carry on 
the work unless the parents are willing to co-operate." 

Boys' and girls' live-stock clubs are now generally under 
the supervision of the extension service of our state agricul- 
tural colleges, in co-operation with the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. As a rule, county agricultural agents 
where such persons hold office, organize the clubs, and see 
that the work is properly started and supervised. Where 
there are no county agents, the work may be conducted by 
local clubs, supervised by volunteer leaders. Teachers in 
the rural schools, especially those teaching agricultural sub- 

*Organization of Boys' Pig Clubs, Circular No. 2, Louisiana State University. 



jects, usually 
take an active 
interest in pro- 
moting the 
clubs. It is rec- 
ommended that 
a simple form of 
organization be 
adopted by all 
clubs. It is 
customary to 
adopt a consti- 
tution and by-laws, and the following is offered as a sugges- 
tion in organizing clubs devoted to live-stock work. 

Figure 209. Newman Rosenberry, a county pig j:lub 

champion watching his pets. 
W. H. Palmer. 

jtograph from Prof. 



Article I. Name. The name of this organization shall be the .... 
Boys' and Girls' Club. 

Article II. Object. The object of this club shall be to promote 

interest in improved live stock, and more especially in , 

to instruct its members in selecting, feeding, and caring for these 
animals, and to cultivate a love for farm animals and greater interest 
in country life. 

Article III. Membership. Any boy or girl between the" age of 10 

and 18 years who will agree to secure at least one and 

care for it under the instructions of the club leader, may at any time 
become a member. 

Article IV. Officers. The officers shall be a president, vice presi- 
dent, secretary and treasurer. 

Article V. Meetings. An annual meeting shall be held on 

and special meetings may be called by the president at such time and 
place as he deems necessary. 

Article VI. Elections. The election of officers shall be held at the 
regular annual meeting, and such election shall be by ballot. 

Article VII. Amendments. The constitution may be amended by 
a two-thirds vote of the members present at the annual meeting, or at 
any special meeting where two weeks' notice has been given club mem- 
bers of proposed change in the constitution. 


Section 1. Duties and privileges. It shall be the duty of each 
member to co-operate as far as possible with fellow members in promot- 



ing the special work of the club, and to solicit desirable new members. 
Each member shall be entitled to one vote in the business meetings of 
the association. 

Section 2. Officers. The officers shall be elected to serve one 
year, or until their successors are elected, and shall perform such services 
as are ordinarily required by their positions. 

Section 3. President. The president shall preside at all meetings 
when present, and serve as the directing head of its activities. 

Section 4. Vice-President. The vice-president shall perform the 
duties of the president in his absence. 

Section 6. Secretary. The secretary shall keep a record of the 
proceedings of each meeting, and report on the same at the following 
meeting. The secretary shall act as correspondent in matters relating 
to the business of the club, and shall keep a roll of the membership. 

Section 6. Treasurer. The treasurer, to whom dues shall be paid, 
shall be the custodian of all funds and shall make an annual financial 
report, or otherwise at the request of the president. 

Section 7. Order of business, (a) Secretary's report of previous 
meeting, (b) Roll call, (c) Reports of committees, (d) Unfinished 
business, (e) New business, (f) Adjournment of business session, 
(g) Social session. 

The stand- 
ardization of 
club work was 

undertaken by 
the United 
States Depart- 
ment of Agricul- 
ture in 1915. It 
was thought de- 
sirable to or- 
ganize club 
members in 
groups, to be 
supervised by 
local leaders. In 
1918 an agree- 
ment was made between the United States Department of 
Agriculture and the several state club leaders, to provide 
for standard clubs, and as a result of this conference the fol- 
lowing organization requirements were adopted. 

Figure 210. Edward Bell, of Ohio, and his first prize calf 
in the calf club class, later grand champion in open class 
at Ohio State Fair, 1920. Photograph from Ohio State 


1. Each club shall have a membership of at least five working on 
the same project. 

2. There shall be a local club leader in charge during the club 

3. There shall be a local club organization with necessary officers 
and duties prescribed in a club constitution. 

4. There shall be a definite club program of work for the year. 

5. There shall be held at least six regular club meetings during the 
year. The secretary shall be required to keep definite records of these 
meetings and also of the progress of each member. 

6. A local exhibit shall be held annually by the club. 

7. There shall be a club demonstration team which must give at 
least one public demonstration in the home community. 

8. At least 60 per cent of the members must complete the farm 
or home demonstration and file a final report with the county or state 
club leader. 

9. A judging team shall be chosen by competition between the 

10. An achievement day program shall be held at the completion 
of the work. 

11. The club shall hold a membership in the farm bureau or other 
county extension organization. 

When the first four requirements have been met, a stand- 
ard club charter is issued. When all the requirements have 
been met for any one year, a seal of achievement is awarded. 

A county club committee organized to promote the organ- 
ization and welfare of the clubs is desirable. Such a com- 
mittee should consist of one person from each community 
or township of a county, and should be made up where pos- 
sible of men and women representing organizations interested 
in the boys and girls of the county. This general committee 
will, in co-operation with the county leader, select persons to 
serve as local community committees. This latter body 
need not have over five members, preferably representing 
various community clubs. It will be well also to have on 
this committee one each of the older boys and girls, especially 
if they have previously been club members. The commu- 
nity committee will decide upon the projects for the com- 
munity, and should meet in conference with the county 
leader or other person in charge, to plan the work. 

The activities of boys' and girls' clubs are developed in 
several directions. What probably appeals to young people 


most is the demonstration work, as seen in feeding and car- 
ing for animals, the exhibits of live stock, and the judging 
contests. Social events are also of importance, and an an- 
nual picnic is popular. Demonstrations of feeding live stock 
and competitive exhibits of animals are now commonly made 
by club members all over the United States. These exhibits, 
especially of cattle, pigs, and chickens, have become large 
and important parts of the live-stock shows at some of our 
local and state fairs. At the 1921 Iowa State Fair 416 pigs 
were shown by members of such clubs. Judging contests 
are very attractive to the boys and girls. In local commun- 
ity clubs contests are held to determine who the best three 
or four live-stock judges are, and these are appointed to 
participate in county club contests. The best team of three 
represents the county in a state-wide county contest at the 
college of agriculture. Demonstrations by club members at 
fairs are becoming popular, and are both interesting and in- 
structive. Such a demonstration may show the effects of 
certain feeds in producing meat or growth. One club at the 
1921 fair at Sioux City gave a fine demonstration of the com- 
position of a fleece of wool in scoured fiber, grease, and dirt, 
and showed how the fleece should be tied for market. 

Prizes for competition of club members or teams have 
greatly stimulated interest among the boys and girls. These 
prizes are widely different in character and value. As a 
general policy it is not desirable to offer cash prizes, unless 
the money is to be used for some specific educational pur- 
pose. Educational trips, such as visiting stock farms under 
proper supervision, and scholarships in agricultural schools 
or colleges, are most commendable. A local tour in the com- 
munity in which a club is centered, inspecting the stock on 
farms or the animals in charge of club members, is usually 
very attractive to all concerned. In 1921, a team of Texas 
club boys who had won the highest honors in the South 
judging live stock made a trip to Europe to visit stock farms, 



the prize in this case being their expenses on that trip. A 
prize greatly valued by large numbers of club members has 
been the payment of all necessary expenses of a trip to the 
state fair or to the college of agriculture. Each year at the 
Ohio State University the club boys and girls have contests 
in judging covering several days, at the end of which period 
the five scoring the highest number of points have been 
awarded special medals. Silver cups and banners are also 
desirable prizes, especially for competition between clubs. 

The benefits derived from the work of club members is 
far greater than might be thought possible. Certainly 

Figure 211. The Henry County, Ohio, Pig Club. Photograph from Exten- 
sion Service, Ohio State University. 

through these organizations has come a greatly increased 
interest in farm life, and this has resulted in the keeping of 
better live stock on many farms. As never before in the 
history of America, young boys and girls have become part- 
ners with their parents. During 1920, according to Messrs. 
C. B. Smith and G. E. Farrell,* 5,000 farmers were led to 
replace scrub pigs with pure-breds as a result of the pig-club 
work. Further, this same year 3,000 poultry-club members 
in the northern and western states introduced 38,000 pure- 
bred fowls on their home farms, culled 1,200 flocks, and 
raised 155,000 chickens. Thousands of pure-bred animals, 

*Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1920, p. 489. 


write Messrs. Smith and Farrell, have been introduced as a 
result of the club work with baby beeves, dairy animals, 
sheep, and swine. Some 33,000 club members are now en- 
gaged in such work in the northern and western states. Of 
174 entries by club members at the Iowa State Fair in the 
baby beef class, 121 were sold at auction and 2 by private 
sale. The 123 calves weighed 124,220 pounds and sold at 
an average price of $18.30 per hundred weight. Iowa State 
College purchased two of the calves for $650. During the 
year 1918 an appeal was made to increase our meat stocks. 
A special appeal was made to urban boys and girls to assist 
in this work,* because of the ease with which such clubs 
could be carried on under city conditions. As a result of 
this work, 26,322 rabbits and 331,072 chicks were raised, 
and club members reported gathering 133,564 dozens of 
eggs. The total estimated value of the food produced by 
the 37,723 members of 2,171 clubs raising rabbits and chick- 
ens was $402,238, a really remarkable showing. 

One fine feature of the club work is the development of 
community spirit and leadership among the boys and girls. 
Without question they are contributing much to the uplift 
of rural life which is now taking place. Club work also pro- 
motes co-operation in the best sense. Where young people 
thus co-operate, older ones are also influenced in the same 
direction. This result all comes through well directed, gen- 
erous leadership. In 1918 there were about 14,000 volunteer 
leaders who devoted themselves to promoting community 
welfare through these boys' and girls' clubs. Another im- 
portant result of club membership is that, in assuming per- 
sonal responsibility for things worth while, the boy or the 
girl obtains the reward that comes for things well done. 
To feed and care for an animal, and watch its growth and 
development, is a most beneficial sort of education. But if 
one is able to win a prize at the live-stock show, as a re- 
sult of this feed and care, the reward is even greater 

*Boys' and Girls' Club Work, 1918. Circular 66, U. S. Dept. of Agr 



1. When and where was the first boys' live-stock club started? 

2. How many members of live-stock clubs were there in 1920 in the 

northern and western states? 

3. What was Mr. Ward's ninth object in forming pig clubs? 

4. How are boys' and girls' clubs organized and supervised? 

5. What is the object of a club? 

6. What is meant by standardizing club work? 

7. Of whom should the membership of a county club committee 


8. What is the most popular form of club activities? 

9. What form of prizes is most desirable? 

10. How did club members help furnish food during the war? 


11. Make a community or similar map, giving locations of club 


12. If more than one club is in your township or county, ascertain 

which seems strongest in membership and the reason? 

13. Ascertain what projects are being carried out in clubs in your 


14. Learn if standard clubs are more efficient than any others. 

15. Compare rations fed by different boys and girls feeding the 

same kind of live stock. 

16. Write a report for publication of what you saw on a club trip. 




The origin of co-operative live-stock shippers' associa- 
tions has been generally credited to a community about 
Litchfield, in Meeker County, in south-central Minnesota, 
where it was organized in 1908. It has also been reported 
that this kind of an association was organized in Winnesheik 
County, Iowa, in 1892.* Wide-spread attention to the sub- 
ject of co-operative shipping of live stock dates from about 
1912, and was based upon the Minnesota work. Prof. W. H. 
Tomhave, then in Minnesota, who later removed to Pennsyl- 
vania State College, gave much publicity to this subject. In 
1916 the United States Department of Agriculture published 
Farmer's Bulletin 718 on "Co-operative Live-Stock Ship- 
ping Associations," and this undoubtedly greatly promoted 
such organizations. 

The plan of organizing co-operative shipping associations 
is comparatively simple. A group of men agree to co-op- 
erate in the marketing and selling of their live stock. A 
constitution and by-laws are framed to provide for officials 
to represent the management and to look after certain neces- 
sary details of organization. The constitution may briefly 
specify the name of the association, its business head- 
quarters, purpose, and management. It also provides for 
membership, officers, elections, amendments, and quorum. 
The by-laws set forth the vital details of business manage- 
ment. The officers usually consist of a president, vice- 
president, secretary, treasurer, and a board of directors. The 
latter, as a rule, appoint a manager whose business it is to 
look after the marketing of the live stock. The following 

*Harry R, O'Brien, The Country Gentleman, Nov. 15, 1919, 



by-laws, with slight change, are the ones suggested in 
Farmer's Bulletin 718, and without doubt these have been 
widely adopted by most associations. 


Article I. Delivery for shipping. The shipment of stock in this 
association shall be made regardless of membership, and the delivery of 
stock to the manager and the acceptance thereof by him binds the 
shipper to the rules and by-laws of the association. All who desire to 
ship stock with the association shall report to the manager the kind of 
stock, the number of each kind, and the approximate weight of each, 
when it is ready to be marketed. When a sufficient amount of live 
stock has been reported to be ready for shipment to make a full car-load, 
the manager shall order a car for making the shipment, and shall notify 
each party having stock listed, and state at what time the stock is to be 
delivered for loading. In case of non-delivery of stock listed for ship- 
ment, the consignor should be assessed for the loss to the association, 
and in event of his not paying the same, should be debarred from all 
future privileges. 

Article II. Section 1. Duties of the manager. The manager shall 
be at the yard on the day the shipment is to be made, unless he shall 
have secured a competent substitute, and shall receive all the stock, 
and weigh, mark and load the same on the car. He shall have charge 
of and direct the sale of all shipments, and receive all money therefor, 
and pay the same to the shippers, less his commission and all other 
expenses incurred in making the shipments, or when so directed send 
the money by mail to the shippers. He shall furnish a statement to 
every shipper, showing net weights, prices received, and expenses of 
shipment. He shall keep on file a complete statement of settlement, 
together with returns. from the commission firm selling the live stock 
for the association or from the purchaser of the stock. In a book kept 
for that purpose, he shall keep a record showing the number of cars 
shipped, and the amount of stock in such cars, during the year. He 
shall also keep an account of all disbursements and receipts for the as- 
sociation. At the annual meeting he shall furnish a detailed statement 
of all business done during the year. 

Section 2. Compensation of manager. The manager shall receive 

as compensation for his services the amount of cents per 

hundred pounds of stock sold by him, and no other compensation from 
the association, except that he shall have the right to charge for any 
outlay for materials needed in making partitions to separate the stock 
in the car and for bedding, said amount to be charged to the expense of 
the shipment for which it was incurred. In by-laws suggested by the 
Wisconsin University* we have the following on this subject: "The 
manager shall receive as compensation for his services (a) the sum of 
five cents a 100 pounds for cattle; seven cents a 100 pounds for hogs and 
ten cents a 100 pounds for sheep. Should there be two or more cars in 
said shipment, the rate on additional cars shall be three cents a 100 
pounds for cattle, three and one-half cents a 100 pounds for hogs, five 
cents a 100 pounds for sheep, or (B) a flat rate of six or seven cents a 100 
pounds on all classes of live stock; or (C) a certain amount on each car 

*Bulletin 314. Wisconsin Live-Stock Shippers' Association, August, 1920. 


($10.00 for the first car and $5.00 for each additional car is conceded to 
be fair), or (D) an amount for each day, as $6.00 for the time spent in 
taking in, loading or accompanying to market a shipment of livestock, 
and an amount, as $4.00, for time spent in doing office work." 

Section 3. Bond of manager. The manager shall furnish a satis- 
factory bond, which shall be approved by the board of directors. Said 
bond shall be for the faithful discharge of his duties. 

Article III. Section I. Sinking fund. There shall be deducted 
on every 100 pounds of weight of sheep and hogs three cents, and for 
every 100 pounds of live weight of cattle two cents, and the same shall 
be placed in the sinking fund, to be used for the paying of losses that 
may occur to any stock from the time it comes into the hands of the 
manager until final disposition of same is made. 

Section 2. Payment for losses. Any shipper whose stock has been 
damaged by injury while in the hands of the manager shall receive the 
full amount for the same as though the stock had not been injured, but 
shall be subject to the same ratio of expense on the shipment. The pay- 
ment of the damage shall be based on a statement made by the com- 
mission firm having charge of the shipment, or by the purchaser of the 
stock, which statement shall show the amount received for the injured 
animal and the amount in their opinion, it would have brought had it 
not been injured. This statement shall be the final basis for settlement. 
No damage shall be paid for an animal which was not in healthy condi- 
tion when received at the local yards by the manager. 

Article IV. Section 'l. Unhealthy stock. All stock which must 
be sold subject to inspection, except such as has been injured while in a 
healthy condition and in charge of the manager or any diseased animal, 
shall be received at the owner's risk, and he shall receive such payment 
therefor as is received by the commission firm less all expenses figured 
pro rata on the shipment. 

Ohio Farm Bureau live-stock shipping associations are 

organized as incorporated companies, although transacting 
their business much in general as is done by independent 
local associations. In this method a member of a county 
farm bureau is allowed one share of stock free of expense, 
but persons not members of the local bureau, to become 
stockholders, must pay $30.00. Persons not members of the 
farm bureau or of the shipping association pay a special sum, 
as, for example, 10 cents per 100 pounds, on all species of 
live stock marketed, which money is credited to the operat- 
ing fund. The sinking fund, which is used to pay operat- 
ing expenses, and for losses on live stock, is derived from 
such charges per 100 pounds live weight of cattle, hogs or 
sheep marketed, as the directors may determine.! The man- 
agers do all the prorating, while in the independent associa- 


tions it is done by commission firms or other salesmen. One 
great advantage in the Ohio method is that all the companies 
shipping under the farm bureau federation are assisted in 
time of trouble with transportation agencies, in securing im- 
portant legislation, etc., by the state federation officials. 
Late in 1921 there were about fifty county associations in 
Ohio working under the farm bureau federation. 

The manager of a co-operative live-stock shipping asso- 
ciation is largely responsible for the success of the organiza- 
tion. He should be strictly honest, have good judgment in 
business matters, possess a rather intimate knowledge of 
the live-stock market, and should be a seasoned judge of 
animals and their market values. Further, in view of the 
jealousy and friction so likely to occur among a group of 
people mutually engaged in business, he should be tactful 
and gracious in his dealings with others, thus harmonizing 
interests and making friends for the association. It is also 
an asset to have a manager of attractive personality, some- 
thing that is too often overlooked. The manager should 
visit the farms of members of the association, and, whenever 
desirable, offer suggestions that will result in improving the 
stock to be sold through the association. It will also be 
desirable for the manager to make occasional visits to the 
markers, that he may keep in touch with conditions there. 

The marking of stock of shipping associations is necessary, 
for in many cases car loads are made up of shipments from 
more than one person. Each shipper should have a number 
or some character by which his stock may be marked and so 
easily identified. There are several methods of marking. 
An old European custom is to clip Roman numerals 4 inches 
or so long in the hair on the rumps of cattle. This marking 
is easily done with either straight or curved blade scissors. 
Metal ear tags, on which numbers are stenciled, may be used 
for cattle, hogs, and sheep; but these are not entirely satis- 
factory, for the reason that the numbers, being small, can 


not always be easily read. Hogs are commonly marked with 
paint that is in striking contrast to the color of the animal. 
Stripes about an inch wide are made across the back with a 
common paint brush. A combination of different colors, 
with variations in arrangement and position on the animals, 
will allow for giving numerous lots of hogs marks by which 
they may be easily identified. "In many associations," ac- 

Figure 212. A method of marketing hogs. Note the marks on the back. Repro- 
duced from Bulletin 314 of the Wisconsin Experiment Station. 

cording to Farmer's Bulletin 718, "hogs are not marked, but 
those of each shipper are graded by the manager at the 
shipping point, and a record of sows, boars, and stags, sub- 
ject to dockage is kept. In this case the hogs are pooled at 
the market and shrinkage is prorated on the basis of weight. 
As a matter of protection to the owners, however, the mark- 
ing of hogs is strongly advocated; because, in case hogs of 
a certain mark show that they have been 'stuffed' before 


delivery or that they have shrunk excessively or there is a 
discrepancy in dockage, proper adjustments can be made." 
Sheep are commonly marked with washable paint, rather 
than ordinary oil paint, which injures the wool, and can not 
be scoured out. Combinations of colors and marks on top 
of head or back may be used, such as will allow for identify- 
ing ownership of many animals. 

Uniform grading of shipments of live stock is very desir- 
able, if possible. It is quite customary for hogs of the same 
grade, even though shipped by several parties, to be sold 
together as one lot, and the settlement afterwards prorated. 
This method reduces extra labor of weighing different lots. 

The sinking fund of the co-operative shipping associa- 
tion as set forth in the by-laws is for the purpose of paying 
for losses incurred while live stock is in the hands of the 
association. It is in the nature of an insurance fund. A 
common custom in creating this fund is to deduct two cents 
per 100 weight on cattle and 3 cents on hogs, sheep, and 
calves. There are exceptions to this plan, however, as, for 
example, a certain per cent of the proceeds of shipment 
may be charged, 2 per cent being a fair amount. 

The expense of co-operative shipping varies with the local 
conditions, the distance from the market, and the section of 
country where transportation takes place. Figures com- 
piled in Wisconsin* relating to seventy associations show 
home expenses, including manager's salary, labor, incidentals, 
and sinking fund contribution, to amount to $25 per car; 
the freight expense averaged $38 per car, while the terminal 
market charges show that for selling, commission, yardage, 
feed, and bedding, the average expense was $30 per car, or 
a total of $93. The Wisconsin authorities estimate the ex- 
pense of marketing a car load of live stock of that state to 
range from $50 to $150 or from 2J^ to 7J/2 per cent of the 
value of the live stock. The 1917 experience of 203 Minne- 
sota associations showed the cost of central market expenses 

*Bulletin 314, Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station. 



and freight to be $34.15 per car load, and home expenses 
>.50, a total per car of $50.65.* 


Live-Stock Shipping Association 

Member's Statement 

., 192_ 

Account of_ 

. O.. 

_R. F. D. 















Inclosed find check No.. 

for balance $_ 

Please ask about anything not understood. Complete statement of each shipment 
is on file. 


Figure 213. Sample of Member's Statement in a live-stock shipper's 

The advantages from selling live stock co-operatively are 
considerable. There is no expense for soliciting business, 
and the method does away with unnecessary stock buyers 
in a community, reducing the number to one paid employe. 
One of the main arguments in favor of co-operative market-- 
ing is the reduced cost of selling due to the fact that one per- 
son in a community represents the producers in this respect. 
Estimates from managers of 150 Wisconsin associations have 

*Farmer3* Co-operation in Minnesota 1913-17. Bulletin 184 Univ. of Minnesota. 


placed the savings in shipping from 20 cents to $2.50 per 
hundred weight, and from $15 to $250 a car. The great 
majority of estimates lie between $50 and $150 a car, and, 
on the basis of the lower figure, this estimate would indicate 
a saving of $1,500,000 a year to the members of the 150 
associations.* Mr. G. W. Hurlbert, of Iowa, in reporting 
on shipping associations in that state, f says it is estimated 
that in 1918 300 associations in Iowa shipped $75,000,000 
worth of live stock. "If," says Mr. Hurlbert, "the farmers 
saved only $0.25 to $0.85 per 100 pounds, the total saving 
would be around $2,500,000. The total business of all the 
live-stock shipping associations for 1918 is estimated at 
$500,000,000. That sum means that a total saving of about 
$10,000,000 was made by the farmers of the country in 
that year by the co-operative shipping of live stock." 

Another great advantage in co-operative shipping is the 
protective side of the sinking fund and reimbursement for 
animals that die or are injured enroute. Where under old 
conditions an animal might be nearly an entire loss to the 
shipper, by the co-operative method he is saved a large 
amount through the sinking fund. 

Members of co-operative associations are usually in 
closer touch with the market, and thus more familiar with 
comparative values than non-members. They check up on 
the manager and show an interest in results from the sales 
of others as well as themselves. 

A difficulty associated with co-operative marketing is 
holding the members together and supporting the organiza- 
tion. Prof. H. E. Erdman writes : 

"Not only do co-operators gain by collective sale, but non- 
co-operators as well usually obtain higher prices, since competi- 
tors are spurred on even to the extent, at times, of over- 
bidding. Here, in fact, is one of the biggest weaknessess of collective 
selling as well as of collective buying. It is very difficult to hold an 
association together for collective dealing when members see that non- 
members get as good rates as they, with no dues to pay. The real ques- 

*Bulletin 314 Wisconsin Agr. Exp. Station. 

t Hoards' Dairyman. December 5, 1919. 

Bulletin 342 Ohio Agr. Exp. Station. Organizations among Ohio Farmers. 


tion, however, is not whether farm prices are higher than before the 
introduction of collective selling, but rather whether collective selling 
provides selling service at lower rates than similar services would be 
performed under competition. The answer is usually yes, provided 
such selling is efficiently done." 


1. When the first live-stock shipping association was organized. 

2. Conditions of delivery for shipping. 

3. The duties of the manager. 

4. The compensation of the manager. 

5. Conditions under which losses are paid. 

6. How the Ohio federation system differs from the independent one. 

7. Methods of marking live stock for shipping. 

8. The expense of co-operative shipping. 

9. Financial sayings from co-operation. 

10. A weakness in the co-operative method. 


11. Compare the constitution and by-laws of different associations. 

12. Visit one or more local associations and study their work. 

13. Which is more satisfactory, settlements for losses through reg- 

ular dealers or through association management? 

14. What forms of marking are most popular locally? 

15. Interview ten patrons and ascertain their experiences. 

16. Is co-opejative shipping growing in favor locally or not? Why? 


A classification of domestic poultry includes a number of 
different kinds, each consisting of a group with its types 
and breeds. The following is a classification commonly 

1. Fowls and chickens 5. Pheasants. 

2. Turkeys. 6. Ducks. 

3. Guineas. 7. Geese. 

4. Peafowls. 8. Swans. 


The types of domestic fowls may be classified into four 
groups, namely: 

1. Egg-laying. 3. General-purpose. 

2. Meat. 4. Ornamental. 

For some time poultry students have discussed these 
types, but more especially three, which from a practical point 
of view are the only ones of interest to the farmer. These 
three are the laying, the meat, and the general-purpose fowls. 
Good examples of each of these types are common all over 
the country. The other three types are rarely raised on 
the farm, being the product of the fancier, who oftentimes 
has his poultry outfit on a town lot. The breeds are also 
sometimes divided into two classes, sitters and non-sitters, 
according to whether or not the hens have the desire to 
sit on and hatch a nest of eggs. 

The egg-laying type of fowl, according to Prof. H. R. 
Lewis,* should show a well balanced, deep, nearly rect- 
angular body, well developed in breast and abdomen. Great 

*Judging Fowls for egg production. Hints to Poultrymen, vol. 8, No. 2. New 
Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station. 1919. 



depth of body is especially desirable, but apparent depth 
must not be due to loose feathering, which is generally 
shown by an evidence of loose thigh feathers. Large cap- 
acity is essential, if a hen is to lay long and heavily. Such 
capacity is designated by a body that is deeper at the rear 
end of the keel than at the front end. The underline should 
be fairly straight and the back should be comparatively 
horizontal. Prominent breast development and evidence of 
a long keel are desirable qualities in a high-producing hen. 
The general body conformation of a heavy producer con- 

Figure 214. The egg-laying type of fowl. Photograph from Poultry Herald. 

forms very closely to a rectangle with pronounced angles 
rather than smooth curves. A male shows the same gen- 
eral characteristics as a female except that the abdomen is 
not so deep. Fowls of this type vary somewhat in size and 
weight as well as in flesh-producing capacity. The Leg- 
horns are small, the hens weighing around 3 pounds, and do 
not produce much meat on the body, while the Minorcas are 
larger, the hens weighing about 6J/2 pounds, and may carry 
a good amount of flesh when in best condition. The fowls 



of this type are of European ancestry and are usually 

known among poultry specialists as the Mediterranean breeds. 
The meat type of fowl 

is said to be comparable 

to the draft horse, beef 

cattle, mutton sheep, and 

the fat hog. It is squarely 

built, compact, thickly 

fleshed, wide of back and 

breast, and heavy of limb. 

Fowls of this type, when 

fat, have a carcass thickly 

covered with meat, and 

are especially valued for 

roasting. The hens, as a 

rule, are of sluggish dis- 
position and are inferior Figure 215 .-Meat-type of fowl. Photograph 

egg-producers. The meat- from Poultf y Herald - 

type fowls sometimes weigh 10 to 12 pounds. They are of 

Asiatic origin, and are 
represented by the Brah- 
ma, Cochin, and Lang- 
shan breeds. 

The general - purpose 
type of fowl, as might be 
supposed, is valued for 
both egg and meat pro- 
duction. This type is 
medium in size, has con- 
siderable fullness of breast 
and width of back, and 
fattens to advantage. In 
egg production some 

Figure 216. General-purpose type. A White general - purpose breeds 

have excellent records. 



Standard weights vary, but 7 pounds for the hens and 9 for 
the cocks are satisfactory. Fowls of the general-purpose 
type, as a rule, belong to the American breeds, of which 
the Plymouth Rock, Wyandotte, and Rhode Island Red are 
the most common examples. 

The breeds and varieties of fowls include a large num- 
ber of wide difference, ranging from the tiny Bantam to the 
large and heavy Brahma. The breed characters of form, as 
applied to head, body, and legs, are rather distinct in each 

case. The variety charac- 
teristics are usually shown 
in color of feathers, though 
there may be other special 
features, such as single or 
rose comb. The Ply mouth 
Rock, for example, in- 
cludes six varieties; name- 
ly, (1) barred, (2) white, 
(3) buff, (4) silver pencil- 
ed, (5) partridge, and (6) 
Columbian. The follow- 
ing very brief descriptions 
of some of the leading 
breeds in America, in- 

217. Barred Plymouth Rock cock- c l u de the more important 

erel, 1st prize at Indianapolis. Photograph ^ A 

from Poultry Herald. representatives of each. 

The Plymouth Rock originated in America, and is of 
medium size. The head is surmounted by a single, upright 
red comb, and the ear lobes and wattles are also red. The 
neck is broad, breast full and wide, back broad, and body 
compact. Beak, legs, toes, and skin should be yellow in 
color. This breed is hardy and matures early, furnishing 
excellent broilers when eight to twelve weeks old. The hens 
are moderate layers, the eggs being of a brown color. This 
is a sitting breed, and the hens make excellent mothers. 


The mature males weigh 9J/2, and the females 7J/2 pounds. 
Varieties of this breed differ only in color of feathers. 

The Wyandotte originated in America, and is of medium 
size, with a form very similar to the Plymouth Rock. These 
two breeds look very much alike when fowls of the same 
color are compared. The Wyandotte, however, should have 
an outline of form somewhat shorter and deeper in its lines 
than the Plymouth Rock. This breed has a rose comb in- 
stead of a single form, and 
red ear lobes and wattles. 
The legs are yellow. 
Wyandottes are excellent 
layers, but their eggs are 
of small size, brown in 
color. These fowls are 
valued for broiling and 
roasting, for their flesh 
is of fine grain and quality. 
The mature males have 
a standard weight of 8J/2 
pounds and the females 
6J/2 pounds. Wyandottes 
are extremely popular. 

The Rhode Island Red 
derives its name from the 
fact that it originated in Fl FiJst 
the state of Rhode Island. from ~ Poultry Success ' 
The American Standard of Perfection, in referring to these 
fowls, states that "their chief characteristics are: red color, 
oblong shape, compact form, and smooth surface plum- 
age." This is a medium-sized breed, mature males 
weighing 8J/6, and the females 6J/2 pounds. The comb 
is either single or rose in form, and of medium size. 
The shank and feet should be yellow or reddish horn in 
color. This breed has become quite popular on account 



Figure 219. White Orpington hen 
Photograph from Poultry Herald. 

of its merit as a table fowl and for egg production. The 

Rhode Island Red, however, is more or less criticized for 

lack of uniformity in plum- 
age color and excessive 
broodiness during the 
spring season. 

The Orpington was first 
developed in the town of 
Orpington, England, from 
which it receives its name. 
There is no great difference 
between this breed and the 
general-purpose American 
breeds, except that the 
Orpington is somewhat 
heavier, and has skin that 

is white with a tendency to pink tint, and black or flesh- 
colored legs. The comb 

may be of the single or 

rose form. The ear lobes 

are red. There are three 

varieties, white, black, 

and buff. The mature 

males weigh 10 and the 

females 8 pounds. The 

Orpington in recent 

years has become very 

popular, ranking high for 

table use and for egg 

production. Hens of this 

variety tend to be unrea- 
sonably broody. 

The Leghorn is a 

v ._ j .^f Tp,, .-._., Figure 220. A vigorous White Leghorn cock 

Dreed Ot European OH- | t Cornell University. Eleven of his 

rri rf;^>. Ud daughters averaged 197 eggs each in a year. 

gin, getting itS name Photograph from Dr. O. B. Kent. 



name from Leghorn, Italy. This is distinctly an egg-laying 
breed. The features of importance are large, single, or 
rose comb, the single comb on the hens drooping to one side. 
The head is small, the eye of good size, ear lobes white, 
comb and wattles red, and beak, legs, and skin yellow. The 
breast is prominent, though not very wide; the back of 
medium width and length, the feathers snugly laid to the 
body, and the tail carried at an angle of about 45 degrees. 
The Leghorn is very hardy and one of the most active breeds 
of fowl, rather small of size, and famous for egg production. 
The females are non - sitters. 
There are several varieties of Leg- 
horns, of which the white, brown, 
and buff are most common. 
Mature males weigh about 4 
pounds and females 3. This is 
one of the most common breeds 
kept on American farms; in fact, 
it is almost universally the one 
that is used especially for egg 
production on a large scale. 

The Minorca is an egg-laying, 
non-sitting breed, originating on 
the island of Minorca in the Med- 
iterranean sea. The following is quoted from the American 
Standard of Perfection: "They are distinguished by long 
bodies, very large combs, long full wattles, large white ear 
lobes, dark colored legs, and pinkish-white or flesh-colored 
skin. The Minorca head is carried rather high; the back is 
long and sloping; the tail is spread somewhat and only 
moderately elevated, being carried at an angle of 40 degrees 
from the horizontal. Their legs are firm, muscular, and set 
squarely under the long, powerful-looking bodies." There 
are both single and rose comb strains of this br.eed. Notable 
egg producers, the Minorcas rank as a close second to the 

ald - 



Leghorns and, furthermore, they are known as the breed 
producing the largest egg, which is white in color. 

The Light Brahma is of Asiatic origin, and has been 
known in America for many years. It is strictly of the meat 
type, and is the largest breed of fowls, the mature males 
weighing 12 pounds and the females 9J/2 pounds. The head 
is of medium size, with a small pea comb, medium-sized red 
wattles, and large red ear lobes. The breast is very broad 
and full, the back wide, the legs, toes, and skin yellow, and 

the shanks feathered. The neck, 
tail, and large wing feathers are 
black, and white striped with 
black, the other feathers being 
white. This breed is valued for 
roasting, but does not rate high 
in egg production. There is 
another variety called the Dark 
Brahma, but neither of these 
varieties is longer popular, and but 
few flocks are now kept, although 
they once were common. 

The Cochin is also an Asiatic 
breed, large in size, like the 
Brahma, a standard weight for 
males being 11 pounds and for 
females 9J/2 pounds. This is a deep-bodied, massive fowl, 
having a loose plumage with much downy fiber under- 
neath, which gives the entire body a fluffy appearance. 
The legs are heavily feathered. These fowls are valued for 
roasters rather than for egg production. There are four 
varieties of Cochins, buff, black, white, and partridge. 

The Langshan is a single-combed Asiatic breed, some- 
what smaller and more active than the Brahma or Cochin, 
and much more popular, both for meat and for egg produc- 
tion. There are two varieties, the black and the white. 

Figure 222. Light Brahma hen, 
Lady V, first at Chicago. Photo- 
graph from Poultry Herald. 


The males weigh 9J/2 pounds and the females 1Y^ pounds, at 
maturity. There is much fullness of breast, and the form 
is compact. The legs of the black variety are bluish colored, 
and slightly feathered. The comb, face, wattles, and ear 
lobes are bright red in color. 

There are many other breeds and varieties of fowls, 
but these are usually kept only in a small way by poultry 
fanciers and do not need attention here. 

The bantam may be a dwarf of some of the larger breeds 
or a distinct breed. Bantams are kept for ornamental pur- 
poses, and have no practical value. The weights naturally 
vary somewhat, but 26 ounces for mature males, and 22 
ounces for the females are standards. The Cochin and 
Brahma bantams weigh slightly more, 30 ounces for the 
male and 26 for the female. The bantams make very inter- 
esting pets for children. 


The turkey is a native of America and was unknown in 
Europe previous to 1624. The present domesticated turkey 
originated from the wild stock which once was found in 
large numbers in this country, and is yet found to a small 
extent in certain parts of Pennsylvania and the southern 
states. According to the Standard of Perfection of the 
American Poultry Association, the frame of the turkey 
should be large, the body deep, "with a broad, round, full 
breast that varies in prominence according to the variety." 
The head should be of good size, and the eyes bright and 
alert. The leg and shank bones should be large, straight, 
and well set. The carriage should be proud and erect. 
There are but few breeds of turkeys, and but one that may 
be regarded as common. 

The Bronze turkey is very large, and the feathers are 
bronze or brown black, with shadings of color. The stand- 
dard weight for an adult male is 36 pounds, and for the hen, 



20 pounds. This is the most common variety raised. 
The Narragansett turkey is of a metallic black color, 
with shadings to steel gray or approaching white. Mature 
cocks weigh about 30 pounds and hens 18 pounds. 

The White Holland turkey, as its name indicates, has a 
white plumage. The beard of the male, however, is a deep 
black in color. Mature cocks weigh about 28 pounds and 
hens 18 pounds. This is not as hardy a variety as the 

Bronze or Narragansett, 
but its flesh is highly re- 
garded, and it is the 
most domestic and easily 
controlled of all the 

The Bourbon Red 
turkey is a native of 
Bourbon county, Ken- 
tucky, and is supposed 
to have originated from 
what in early days in 
Kentucky was known as 
the wild yellow turkey. 
The neck, breast, back, 
body, and fluff of this 
breed are of a deep, 
brownish red. It has about the same weight as the Narra- 
gansett, the males weighing about 30 pounds and the hens 18. 


The Mallard, or common wild duck, is regarded as the 
parent stock, or ancestor, of all domestic ducks. This duck 
has a broad flat bill, small eye, good-sized head, long neck, 
full breast, long body, short tail, and short web-footed legs. 
The body has a dense covering of downy feathers, over which 
lies the feathery plumage. The thick plumage, which is 

Figure 223. A Bronze turkey, 
from Poultry Herald. 



characteristic of water fowl, is oiled by a natural secretion, 
which prevents water from penetrating among the feathers. 

Three types of ducks are recognized, meat, egg-laying, 
and ornamental. Those which best supply the needs of the 
table for meat are most in demand. 

The Pekin duck was brought to England from Pekin, 
China, in 1874. It is white in color and of large size, weigh- 
ing 7 to 9 pounds, and is the most popular duck for table 
use. The bill is orange-yellow in color, while the shanks 
and toes are reddish orange. The Pekin duck may be re- 

Figure 224. Pekin ducks on a Rhode Island farm. Photograph by Chas. X. 


garded as the universal favorite where duck culture is con- 
ducted on a large scale in the United States. 

The Aylesbury duck is white and much resembles the 
Pekin. The bill is flesh-colored, and the legs and feet are 
pale orange. The standard weight is the same as the Pekin. 
These ducks are more popular in England, where they have 
been bred many years, than they are in America. 

The Rouen duck is a breed that takes its name from a 
city in northern France, where it has long been bred. It is 
grayish in color, with dark shadings or black on head, neck, 



wings, and back. The bill is of greenish-yellow color, and 
the legs and feet orange with a green or brown shade. 

The Cayuga duck originated in Cayuga County, New 
York. It is greenish-black in color, except some of the large 
wing feathers, which are brown. The bill is black, and the 
legs preferably black, though slate color occurs. 

The Muscovy duck is a native of South America. In size 
it is very large, adult drakes weighing 10 pounds and females 

7 pounds. The body is long 
and broad, and is carried 
nearly horizontally. The 
head is rather long, and large 
with the male, and has large 
crest-like feathers, which the 
duck often raises when ex- 
cited. The head is partly 
bare of feathers, and the sides 
and top above the bill have 
rough wart-like coverings 
known as caruncles, which 
are red of color and rather 
conspicuous. The bill is 
pink or flesh-colored. Color- 
ed Muscovies have yellow to 
dark lead-colored legs, while 
those of the white variety 
are yellow. The plumage 
varies in color, but white or black-and-white are the 
favorite varieties. Ducks of this breed fly much more than 
others, and sometimes perch on elevated places. 

The Indian Runner duck is supposed to have originated 
in India. It is rather small, a standard weight being about 
4 pounds at maturity. The body, which is long and nar- 
row, is carried somewhat erect, after the style of the wild 
penguin. The popular color is fawn or gray and white. 

Figure 225. A "rapid growth" 
Pekin Duck eight weeks old. 
Reproduced by courtesy Cyphers 
Incubator Company. 



The claim is made that the young ducks at 6 weeks of age 
dress into broilers weighing 2J/2 to 3 pounds. This duck, 
however, is valued chiefly for egg production, a female 
occasionally laying as many as 200 eggs in a year. 


The domesticated breeds of geese have been developed 
from the wild breeds, but more especially the common Can- 
adian wild goose, which is often domesticated and kept in 
confinement. So common is this wild goose in confinement 
that it is standardized in the American Poultry Association 
Standard of Perfection. It has a black head with white 
stripe, a gray body, and adults weigh from 10 to 12 pounds. 
There are several breeds of importance. 

The Embden goose is of European origin. It is of 
medium size, adult ganders weighing about 20 pounds. The 

bill and legs are orange 
in color, and the plum- 
age is white. This is a 
very popular breed. 

The Toulouse goose 
gets its name from a 
city of that name in 
France. It is of large 
size, adults weighing 
about 25 pounds. The 
bill is pale orange and 
the legs a deep shade of 
that color. The plum- 
age is gray, with dark 
shadings about the neck, 

Figure 226. Toulouse geese. Photograph back, wingS, and breast, 
from Poultry Herald. & ' 

Most of our domestic 
flocks of commercial importance consist of these two breeds. 



1. What makes the six types of domestic fowls? 

2. Describe the egg-laying type of hen. 

3. What is the difference between a breed and a variety? 

4. Compare the Plymouth Rock and the Wyandotte. 

5. Compare the Light Brahma and the Leghorn. 

6. Name the place of origin of each of five breeds of fowls. 

7. Discuss the origin of the turkey. 

8. What are common features of different breeds of ducks? 

9. Compare the Pekin and Rouen ducks. 

10. What are some of the most striking characteristics of the Muscovy 



11. Give the names of five men keeping pure-bred poultry in your 

neighborhood, and the breeds they keep? 

12. Bring a small collection of eggs of different breeds to school? 

13. Interest local poultrymen to arrange a small poultry show for the 

benefit of the school? 

14. Weigh some specimens of live poultry of different breeds and 

report on the age and weight of each? 

15. Bring to school specimens of feathers showing breed colors? 


The poultry judge who understands his work must be 
familiar with many details. There is in this country an 


Figure 227. Diagram of the exterior of the fowl. Reproduced from Farmer's 
Bulletin 806, United States Department of Agriculture. 

organization known as the American Poultry Association 
This devotes much attention to the establishment of stand- 




ards of perfection for the various breeds and varieties of 
fowls, and provides rules and methods for judging fowls. A 
book published by the association, known as the "Standard 
of Perfection," is the American authority for judges and stu- 
dents to follow. No poultry show in which the breeds and 
varieties are exhibited could be properly conducted with- 
out the judge's being guided by this standard. No breed 
of fowls can be regarded as established until officially rec- 
ognized and described by the American Poultry Association. 

The parts of 
the fowl passed 
on by the judge 
have certain out- 
lines, colors, and 
other markings 
as applied to 
each breed. The 
feathers differ in 
size and form in 
a striking way, 
according to 
their location on 
the body. The 
illustration of a 
male bird on 
page 473 shows, 
through a num- 
bering system, the location of the parts and feathers. 

The head of the fowl is one of the striking breed features. 
It is topped with a comb, which is larger on the cocks than 
on the hens. A very common form is single, upright or 
lopped, the top being serrated, or separated into points sug- 
gesting the teeth of a saw. Leghorn and Plymouth Rock 
varieties have this form. The rose comb is wide and low, 
consisting of many knobs crowded together, the rear part 

Figure 228. White Leghorn cockerel showing single 
comb points. Photograph from Prof. F. S. Jacoby. 


tapering more or less to a smooth point. This comb occurs 

on Wyandottes, Minorcas, and other varieties. The pea 

comb is very small, and resembles three single combs dwarfed 

in size and crowded side by side, 

with the central one somewhat 

larger than the others. There are 

also V-shaped and strawberry 

combs, but these are not common. 

The ear lobes are usually small, 

and vary in color from red to 

white or bluish, according to 

breed. The wattles are usually 

red, and on the cock often hang 

below the bill in a conspicuous 

manner. The bill does not show the striking differences 

seen in the comb and wattles. Some breeds, like the Houdan 

and Polish, have crests, or clusters of feathers, which some- 
times largely hide the 
head proper from view 
and also often affect the 
sight of the birds. 

The feathers of the 
fowl differ in a remark- 
able way in size, form, 
and color. Even with 
varieties of one color, as, 
for example, white, the 
shades of this hue are 
made a subject of discus- 
sion by poultry experts. 
This difference also ap- 
plies to other solid colors. 
In case of fowls having 

more than one color-marking to the feather, there are barred 

feathers, as with the Plymouth Rock; penciled feathers, as 

Figure 230. Outstretched wing showing 
barred feathers of the Plymouth Rock. 
Photograph from Prof. F. S. Jacoby. 


with the Silver Penciled Wyandotte; laced feathers, as with 
the Golden Wyandotte; and still other markings, as striped, 
spangled, edged, etc. The color-markings of some birds are 
very beautiful. The correct color and form of the feather 
are of most interest to the fancier; yet the practical poultry- 
man little interested in this feature has been able to secure 
his favorite breed through patient breeding, development, 
and improvement by the so-called fancier. 

Methods of judging. The breeds and varieties of fowls 
are ordinarily judged by one of two methods, the score card 
or by comparison. In recent years utility classes have been 
exhibited at poultry shows, and this fact has introduced 
another phase of judging where egg production is an import- 
tant factor. The score-card method of judging has been 
generally used at poultry shows for many years. Its use, 
however, is not so common now as formerly. Poultry judges 
using the score card put down the number of points or frac- 
tion of a point cut, and adding these, deduct from 100, which 
gives the total score. In cutting for defects from J/ to 3 
points are recommended for certain deficiencies, and these 
are specified in the standard for the benefit of official judges. 
Judging by comparison is becoming common, and is more 
satisfactory than by score card, for the reasons already given 
in Chapter XIII. 

Instructions for judges of poultry include various points. 
Among these, weight receives considerable attention, and 
two points are usually deducted for each pound that the fowl 
falls short of the standard weight. Other things being equal, 
the one nearest standard weight is awarded the prize. To 
receive a first prize, a specimen must score 90 or more points, 
except cocks in parti-colored varieties, which are allowed 88 
points as a minimum. When young and old birds are in 
competition, other things being equal, the older ones are to 
be awarded the prizes. Ties often result in judging: When 
a tie occurs, if it can not be broken by other rules, then the 


specimen receiving the smallest total sum of cuts for shape 
shall be awarded the prize. 

The official score card of the American Poultry Associ- 
ation is here given : 

(Name of association here) 

(Date, month, days and year show is held) 



ENTRY No . . . . BAND No . . . . WEIGHT . . 


Weight or size 






Wattles and ear lobes . . 






Body and fluff 

Legs and toes 

fCrest and beard 

*Shortness of feather. . 




Total cuts. . . .Score. 


fApplies to crested breeds. *Applies to games and game bantams. 

This score card is intended for use in connection with the 
Standard of Perfection, which contains a detailed description 
of each variety of fowl. 


Disqualification in judging poultry is allowed for various 
reasons. The occurrence of feathers on the legs of what 
should be a smooth-legged breed; or of smooth legs when 
feathers should occur; irregular color of ear lobes and legs 
or of the plumage; web feet and excessive number of toes 
or too few toes; incorrect position of the comb, as, for ex- 
ample, lopping when it should be erect; absence of crest 
in crested varieties are examples of conditions which jus- 
tify disqualification. 

Judging fowls for utility has received special attention 
at poultry shows since about 1915. In the utility classes 
the birds are to be brought forward for show when at the 
height of egg production. This practice is not the case with 
ordinary exhibition birds, for they are shown just prior to 
beginning production, when in their finest plumage. Only 
standard-bred fowls are shown in each class, but in the 
utility group less consideration is given to plumage and 
more emphasis is paid to body form and evidence of egg 
production. A score card for utility judging was drawn up 
in November, 1919, at a conference of poultry specialists at 
Vineland, New Jersey, based on a careful study of 1,000 
yearling hens in the International Egg-Laying Contest. 

"In working out a production score card," writes Professor Harry R. 
Lewis*, the idea has not been to develop a score card which should be 
used in placing premiums at utility shows, but rather to develop numeri- 
cal values for the various sections of the bird, in order that utility judges 
and exhibitors may have a common working basis, that is, in order that 
the exhibitor in picking his birds may have a more or less accurate idea 
of what the judge is going to look for in determining the relative values 
which he will give the various sections and qualities. In working out 
the numerical values for the score card the perfect bird was recognized as 
100 per cent, which was allowed to be equivalent to a production of 300 
eggs. Numerical values for all sections were then so arranged that each 
per cent of value is equivalent to three eggs or, put differently, a cut of 
one point in any one section is equivalent to a cut of three eggs." 

The following score card for utility judging is based in 
principle on much of the work developed at the Cornell 
University judging school during 1918 and 1919. 

*Judging fowls for egg production, Hints to Poultrymen Vol. 8, No. 2, New 
Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, 1919. 



Egg produc- 

Parts scored Perfection tion value 

Body type (as seen in coop or on floor) 25 points 75 

Head and adjuncts 15 

Body conformation (as determined by handling) 30 

Handling quality 10 

Legs and toes 5 

Condition. ... .15 


Total for perfection 100 300 

The following discussion is given as explanatory of the application of 
the score card in utility judging. 


Perfect Score 25 Points, 75 Eggs 

A bird of good body is usually well-balanced in that the body itself 
must be deep, showing a nearly rectangular form, well developed in breast 
and abdomen. Great depth of body is especially desirable, but apparent 
depth must not be due to loose feathering, which is generally shown by 
an evidence of loose thigh feathers. Cochin and exhibition game type 
and feathering are usually associated with poor production. Large 
capacity is essential if a hen is to lay long and heavily. Such capacity is 
designated by a body that is deeper at the rear end of the keel than at 
the front end. The underline should be fairly straight and the back 
should be comparatively horizontal. Prominent breast development, 
with evidence of a long keel are desirable qualities in a high-producing 
hen. The general body conformation of a heavy producer conforms 
very closely to a rectangle with pronounced angles rather than smooth 
curves. A male shows the same general characteristics as a female except 
that the abdomen is not so deep. 

A small-capacity hen generally stands erect. The body is either very 
shallow and cut away at the breast and abdomen or, in the case of beefy 
individuals, the abdomen shows a pronounced sagging at the rear of the 
keel due to large accumulations of fat. Extremely poor producers 
frequently show a hump on the back. 


Perfect Score 15 Points, 45 Eggs 

One of the best indications in picking high layers is the fineness of the 
head. The head of the heavy producer is fine, showing a lean face, free 
from wrinkles and overhanging eyebrows. The wattles and ear lobes 
fit close to the head and are not loose and flabby. The face is clean cut, 
the eye is full, round and prominent, especially when seen from the front. 
An eye which gives a clean-cut wide-open appearane is desirable. The 
eyeball of the heavy producer is generally set in the rear of a large oval 
socket, showing considerable of the white eye membrance in front of the 
eyeball. The head of a heavy producer should be well balanced, being 
moderately deep and broad. The extremely fat, full head of the beefy 
bird and the long, thin pointed head of the low-vitality birds are both 
undesirable and should call for heavy cuts in this section. The low- 
producing bird generally shows a depressed eye with over-hanging 


eyebrows and wrinkled skin at the back of the eye. The extremely 
long sharp beak is usually possessed by the low producer, while the 
medium stout, well-curved beak is characteristic of the high producer. 


Perfect Score 30 Points, 90 Eggs 

When taken in the hands, a heavy producer will show, by the sense of 
touch, great depth of body, especially at the front and rear of the keel 
bone. The keel must be moderately straight, relatively long and carried 
well back. The space between the pelvic bones and the keel must be free 
from excessive accumulations of fat. Birds which are laying heavily 
can be readily detected by the development of the abdomen. Such birds 
will show pelvic arches which are widespread and a keel which is forced 
down away from the pelvic arches so as to give large capacity. 

The poor producer generally shows a shallow body especially at the 
front of the keel, a small shrunken abdomen, together with all evidences 
of small capacity. 


Perfect Score 10 Points, 30 Eggs 

The skin of the heavy-producing hen is thin, soft and pliable, es- 
pecially the skin on the abdomen must be thin and loose. The skin of 
the poor producer is generally thick, hard and rather coarse to the touch. 
The thin velvety skin is almost always associated with heavy ovarian 


Perfect Score 5 Points, 15 Eggs 

The shanks of a heavy producer are flat, pliable and smooth scaled. 
In hens at the end of their laying year, or pullets which have been laying 
heavily for some time, the shanks will be bleached out. The toes should 
be straight and the toenails show indication of proper activity. The 
shanks of the poor producer are usually round, hard and rather coarse 

[Perfect Score 15 Points, 45 Eggs 

A bird to be capable of highest sustained production must be first of 
all healthy. She must show vigor and activity and be well fleshed. Late 
molting in hens is desirable. Early molting and slow maturing, as 
shown by the primary feathers, should be cut severely. Late developing 
and late maturing usually indicate low production. In applying this 
section to hens, health and molting conditions should be given primary 
consideration. In applying this section to pullets health and maturity 
should be given primary consideration. 

Judging poultry products, such as dressed poultry and 
eggs, is becoming more and more necessary. The score card 
is not specially recommended for this purpose, the compara- 
tive method being very generally regarded as the most sat- 
isfactory. Referring to this point, one authority says : 


"In judging dressed poultry and eggs, the number of qualities or 
points to be considered is small; slight differences in quality do not make 
great differences in value, as in high-class birds, and degrees of quality 
are more readily appreciated. While score cards are sometimes used for 
judging dressed poultry and eggs, the number of sections into which a 
card may appropriately be divided is so small that there is little if any 
advantage in scoring, and if, to develop a system of scoring, many sec- 
tions are made, the process of judging is complicated when it should 
remain simple. The points to be considered are so few, and the values so 
apparent, that judgment of all is practically instantaneous. * * * 
The rational method of judging dressed poultry and eggs is to grade 
them according to market quality and value." 

The judging of eggs by score card has been attempted to 
some extent. An egg show, in which eggs were scored by 
the students, has been held annually at Purdue University. 
Two classes of eggs were provided, "fancy" and "commer- 
cial." The following score card and explanation of its use 
are well worth consideration: 


EXHIBITOR . . . . DATE . . 


ENTRY No . . 

. . CLASS . 


.WEIGHT. . . .Ozs. 

Features considered 




Size . . 




Uniformity of color. . . . 


Uniformity of size and shape 


Shell texture 


Condition of shells 


Quality (by testing) 
(a) Size air cell .... 


(b) Opaqueness 


Total points 




Explanation of Commercial Egg Score Card 

Size: Extras, 26 to 28 ounces. Firsts, 24 to 26 ounces. 
One point cut for each ounce over or under required weight 
in either class. 



Shape: % point allowed for each egg. 
Uniformity of color: If white, eggs should be all pure 
white and of the same shade. If brown, the color may be 
any shade, but the dozen should be uniformly the same 
color; % point allowed for each egg. 

Uniformity of size and shape: All eggs must be of same 
size and shape. }/% point allowed for each egg. 

Shell texture: Free from wrinkles, spots, cracks, and 
rough places; H point for each egg. 

Condition of shell: Free from dirt or stain, unwashed. 

Quality: Test with candles, (a) Air cell very small, 
about size of a dime, indicating freshness, (b) Egg must 
appear opaque, the yolk free from dark color, white thick, 
yolk barely visible. Large air cell, floating yolks or air cells 
are defects. Eggs must be fresh and sweet. 

Disqualifications: Cracked, broken, spots, musty rots, 
and germs or blood rings in any one egg will disqualify the 


1. The purpose and value of the Standard of Perfection? 

2. How the combs of fowls differ in form? 

3. In what way feathers differ in coloring? 

4. The method of making cuts in scoring poultry? 

5. How weight and size are graded by the judge? 

6. Two conditions that might cause disqualifications? 

7. The difference between utility and ordinary exhibition classes? 

8. On what basis the utility score card is constructed? 

9. Some of the features of a perfect head in the utility score? 

10. Why the commercial score card is not more used in judging poul- 

try products? 


11. Holding Saturday afternoon poultry judging contests. 

12. Collecting an exhibit of one breed for comparison at school. 

13. Scoring a number of hens in the utility class. 

14. Getting up a prize egg show, and judging by score card. 

15. Sorting over and studying a case of eggs loaned by the egg 

dealer or grocer. 


The relationship of form to function with fowls has re- 
ceived a great deal of attention in recent years. Careful 
study of egg production by individual fowls, as explained in 
chapter XL, demonstrates that the most productive layers 
possess certain characteristics which are associated with the 

4 .^i / r*> 
**/. :,{ ^;/> 


Figure 231. A culling demonstration by Prof. E. L. Dakan on an Ohio farm. 
Photograph from Ohio State University. 

laying habit. If one seeks egg production in a flock, it 
is very important to make practical application of this 
knowledge and cull out all birds that do not measure up to 
the desired standard or that are lacking in vitality. So 
important has this subject of culling out the undesirables 
become, that demonstrations on this subject have been held 
in many communities in the United States east of the 
Mississippi river, and hundreds of thousands of persons have 



profited thereby. In 1921 nearly all the 88 counties of Ohio 
had special culling demonstrations, 50,000 persons being in at- 
tendance. During the month of July 599 demonstrations were 
held in 32 counties, and 64,651 hens were handled, 23 per 
cent of which were culls. It was estimated by the Poultry 
Department of the Ohio State University that these culls 
that were removed from the flock, resulted in a saving of 
$11,766 to the flock owners. This Ohio experience is simply 
given as an example of the importance of this work. The 
following instructions for culling the flock, are based upon 
an excellent bulletin* prepared by Professor E. L. Dakan, a 
poultry specialist who has devoted much attention to this 

Indications of egg-producing capacity may be sought in 
several directions. In general these indications are shown 
in three ways: 

1. In color changes due to egg production. 

2. In body changes in fat and pelvic bones. 

3. The period of molting. 

A discussion of the above indications involves a number 
of special features which must be considered by themselves. 


A yellow pigment is more or less present in the hen, 
according to conditions. When not producing eggs, the 
hen lays up body fat. In the case of yellow-skinned fowls, 
this fat contains a yellow pigment which colors not only the 
body fat and skin, but also the legs, beak, eye ring, and to 
some extent the ear lobe. As soon as a hen begins to pro- 
duce eggs, this yellow pigment fades from the body and 
intensifies in the yolk of the egg. So long as a hen produces 
eggs the pigment is diverted to the yolk, none being deposited 
in the body, which is now bluish-white or pink in color. 
When laying is discontinued, the body once more takes on 
the yellow color. This process of fading follows a certain 

*Culling the poultry flock. By E. L. Dakan, Bulletin 13. vol. XV, 1919-20, 
Agricultural Extension Service, Ohio State University 


well defined course, always in the following order: first, the 
vent; second, the eye rings; third, the beak; and last, the 
shanks. The kind of feed used affects the length of the 
fading period in the hen, because the yellow pigment is 
derived from the grain and green feed that the hen eats. 
The fowl that has had yellow corn and plenty of green feed 
has a larger supply of yellow pigment stored in her body 
than the one fed on white corn with no green feed. Further, 
the greater the amount of yellow pigment stored up in the 
body, the longer the time required for the fowl to undergo 
the bleaching process. With these facts in mind it is possi- 
ble to select the hen that has been the continuous, consistent 
layer, as well as to determine those which have just begun 
to lay or have been poor layers. 


The vent is the first part to lose the yellow color after 
egg production starts. This change is due to the fact that 
those parts of the body where the blood circulation is great- 
est fade first. A white or pink vent of a yellow-skinned bird 
indicates that she is laying. 

The eye rings, which are in the inner edge of the eye- 
lids, bleach out a little more slowly than the vent and, there- 
fore, bleached or white eye rings indicate a longer produc- 
tion than a bleached vent. 

The ear lobes on the white-lobed varieties bleach next 
and indicate a still longer period of production than a white 
vent and white eye rings. 

The color of the beak is lost before that of the shanks 
and thus a white beak indicates that the hen has been 
producing eggs for a month or six weeks. The color leaves 
the beak, beginning at its base, and gradually disappears, 
leaving the front part of the upper beak last. The lower beak 
bleaches faster than the upper. The lower beak should be 
used for oberservation when the upper is covered with black 
or horn, as with Plymouth Rocks and Rhode Island Reds. 



The shank color is the last to be affected, the yellow 
remaining in this part after it has disappeared elsewhere. 
For this reason we have here the surest indication of long 
continued production. It requires from four to five months 
for the shanks to bleach out after the hen begins to produce 
eggs. The color leaves the front of the shanks first and 
gradually fades from the scales on the back side as the length 
of the laying period increases. 

Figure 232. Rear view showing large vent and egg laying form on left, and 
small vent and meat form on right. Photograph from Dr. O. B. Kent. 

The following discussion of body changes is in the order 
that is usually followed in culling demonstrations. 

The vent of a laying hen is large, as is shown in figure 
232, and it is also open, moist, and soft, while that of a non- 
laying fowl is small, close, dry, and puckered. 



The comb of a laying hen is large, full, and bright in 
color, while the comb of a non-laying one is dry and com- 
paratively hard, often covered with scale, and is pale in color. 

The abdomen of a laying fowl has a fat covering that is 
soft and pliable, and feels much like an udder that has been 
partly milked. The skin is also soft and velvety. The 
abdomen of a non-laying hen is dry and hard. 

The pelvic, or pin, bones of a laying hen are straight 
and flexible, with 
very little or no 
fat around them. 
They are spread 
far enough to 
permit the pass- 
age of the egg. 
The spread var- 
ies with the in- 
dividual and the 
breed, and no 
definite measure- 
ment applies in 
this regard. In 
general, how- 
ever, a laying 
hen will show a 
spread between 
the pin bones of 
at least three 
fingers. Practice is necessary to determine just what spread 
indicates that the hen is laying, keeping in mind the fact 
that a hen that is laying will show a greater spread of pin 
bones than one not laying, and that the bones of a non-laying 
hen are thick, stiff, and blunt, with the ends bent in. 

The distance from the pelvic to keel bones of a laying 
hen is an important indication. A laying hen consumes 

Figure 233. A culling demonstration. Body depth is 
a measure of a hen's capacity to consume a large 
quantity of food and consequently produce a large 
number of eggs. The one on the left is a deep-bodied, 
high producer, the one on the right a shallow, round 
bodied scrub. Photograph from Prof. E. L. Dakan. 


more food than one that is not laying. A high egg-producer 
consumes more feed than a poor egg-producer. In order to 
consume and digest this feed the intestines of a laying hen 
are larger than of one not laying. When laying, the ovary 
and oviduct are greatly enlarged and require more room. 
To provide this extra space, the body increases in capacity 
or depth. This is noticeable by the increase in the distance 
from the pin bones to the end of the keel bone. The increase 
in size of the body cavity is secured by the dropping down 
of the keel bone. By measuring the distance from the pin 
bones to the keel bone an idea can be formed as to whether 
the hen is in laying condition or not. No definite measure- 
ment can be given that will fit all individual hens. As a 
general rule, a hen that measures less than three fingers wide 
of body depth, is not laying or is a poor layer, because such 
a hen lacks the capacity for handling a large amount of feed. 
The hen that shows the greater body depth may, as a rule, 
be selected as a good layer if in addition to this she exhibits 
the other marks of egg production. 

Most hens stop laying when they begin to molt. Since 
the molting period covers several weeks, it is advisable to 
sell the hens that molt early. It is a fact no longer disputed, 
that a hen, in order to make a high yearly record, must be 
a consistent layer. The early molting hen is not a consist- 
ent layer. She takes all the fall months as a vacation for 
changing her plumage. The consistent layer molts late and 
grows her new plumage rapidly. The time of the molt is 
the best indication of the last year's performance. The 
molting period may be a guide in culling all breeds and 
varieties, but is of special importance with such breeds as 
the Orpingtons and Minorcas that do not have the yellow 
skin. The hen that molts early, under normal conditions, 
will not lay as many winter eggs as the one that molts late. 
Neither will the early-molting fowl begin egg production 



earlier in the spring than the late-molting one. No definite 
date can be set as to early molting. As a general rule, how- 
ever, the first hens in the flock to molt should be sold, and 
the last to molt should be retained for breeding purposes. 
Hens may be caused to molt early if placed on starvation 
diet while laying heavily; by irregular feeding; by roosting 
in a house that is poorly ventilated, or in any way that tends 
to check egg production suddenly. Care should be taken 
not to let these undesirable conditions occur, otherwise a 
lower total egg production is quite likely to follow. If the 
pullets are hatched early, 
they will be laying early 
in the autumn, and thus 
egg production will be 
kept up. In an article 
on culling,* Professor H. 
C. Knandel of Pennsyl- 
vania State College 
touches still another side 
to the plumage question. "* r 

He says that during the 
fall months the condition 
of the plumage is the 
most noticeable indica- 
tion of production that 
applies to all breeds. The 
hen whose plumage ap- 
pears most soiled, whose tail and wing feathers are badly worn, 
is the hen that has been laying heavily. The early-molting 
hen during the late fall months appears very much dressed 
up in her new suit, but has not produced a quantity of eggs 
sufficient to pay her board bill. Hence the hen that is the 
good producer is too busy laying eggs to stop to molt, with 
the result that she does not shed her feathers and get ready 
to engage in egg production until late in the year. 

*The Truth about Culling. National Stockman and Farmer, Sept. 3, 1921. 

Figure 234. A hen in heavy moulting con- 
dition. Photograph from Prof. F. S. 



1. Why be influenced in your judgment by skin pigment? 

2. What is the effect of green food on the egg? 

3. Should the vent be yellow or white? large or small? 

4. How would you value the color of the beak? 

5. What kind of a comb would you seek? 

6. How should the fat covering on the abdomen feel? 

7. Should the pin bones be spread or close? 

8. What should be the distance from the pin bones to the keel? 

9. Would you select an early or late molting hen? Why? 

10. What hens should be sold first? 


11. Compare the general forms of birds you know to be good layers 

with those that are not. 

12. Feed two hens of the same breed, one corn, the other wheat, and 

notice the effect in pigment coloring. 

13. Compare the eye rings, ear lobes and beak color of ten hens, of the 

same breed. 

14. Examine the combs of laying and non-laying hens and note the 


15. Select two groups of fowls, one molting, one in full plumage, and 

measure the distance between pin bones and keel in each group. 


The egg is an object of much interest, for it is not only 
the source of the chicken itself, but also a most important 
source of income to the poultryman. If one is to handle 
the egg intelligently, one must know something of its com- 
position, of how the chick is developed within the shell, and 
of commercial differences and values. 

The parts of the egg of special interest are five: 

The shell, composed mostly of lime, and hard enough to 
enclose and protect the softer interior. 

Two tough membranes lying next within the shell. These 
separate at the large end, forming a small air sac, which is 
easily seen in hard-boiled eggs. 

The albumen, or, as it is commonly called, the white of 
the egg. This forms about 57 per cent of the egg and con- 
sists of much nitrogenous matter of a liquid, sticky, trans- 
parent character.. Boiling hardens, or coagulates, the white 
into a firm, white structure. 

The yolk, comprising about 33 per cent of the egg, is a 
round yellow sac, surrounded by the white. This is used 
for nourishing the young chick just before and after leaving 
the shell. The yolk is suspended midway in the white and 
kept in proper position by two albuminous cords. 

The blastoderm in the fresh-laid egg is seen as a white 
speck about one eighth of an inch in diameter on the upper 
side of the yolk. The blastoderm is the true egg and 
source of the chick in incubation. 

The fertile egg is one that will produce a chick under 
proper conditions of what is called incubation. The infertile 
or sterile egg can not be hatched, and so has no value in 



reproduction, although for food it has equal value with the 
fertile one. The fertility of the egg can not be determined 
except by incubation. After the egg has been under the 
hen for five to seven days, ordinarily one may easily tell 
whether it is fertile or infertile. If infertile, it will appear 
clear and show none of the changes subsequently described. 
The testing or candling of eggs is a simple process of 
looking through the egg with the aid of special light. One 

Figure 235. A home made egg candler. Reproduced from Farmers' Bulletin 
No. 1040, United States Department of Agriculture. 

may take a piece of common cardboard, one side of which is 
black, in which is cut an oval hole not quite as large as an 
egg. If the cardboard is held before a lighted lamp in a 
dark room, blackened side towards one, and an egg is held 
in the hole, the one that contains a chick will appear dark 
and opaque except at the larger end, while a sterile egg will 
be clear and show light. In the trade, where all eggs are 
examined before a light, this process is known as candling. 
Black lamp chimneys with holes in them are made for use 



in a small way; but, in the larger commercial trade, eggs are 
candled over sets of electric lights arranged for this purpose. 
The incubation of the egg of the hen occupies a period 
of 21 days. The following are some of the more important 
changes that take place during incubation. During the first 
twenty-four hours the blastoderm enlarges to about a half 
inch in size, within which the first stages of head and some 
other parts appear. During the second day the heart begins 
to beat and the blood to flow. By the end of the third day 
the veins and arteries are considerably developed, and the 
young chick turns on its left side. On the fourth day the 
wing folds, and the folds forming the legs appear. The beak 

Figure 236. The egg. Left egg dead germ; center, fertile egg on 7th day; 
right egg, infertile. Reproduced from Circular 99 of the California 
Agricultural Experiment Station. 

begins to form on the eighth day, and shows its horny shape 
on the twelfth. The entire shell except the air cell is occu- 
pied by the chick by the twelfth day. The feathers appear 
first on the eighth day, and by the thirteenth cover the body 
to the length of one fourth inch. At this time the nails of 
the feet appear. On the fourteenth day the chick changes 
its position and extends lengthwise, the beak reaching the 
inner shell membrane. The air cell has been gradually in- 
creasing in size, and by this time is much larger. From now 
on, the chick increases in development to the twenty-first 
day. The following interesting description of the hatching 
process is given by. Professor Lewis;* 

* Poultry Laboratory Guide, 1910. 


"When ready to come out, the chick raises its head and pierces the 
inner shell membrane, and immediately starts breathing the air in the 
chamber, which causes the pulmonary circulation to become active and 
the embryonic circulation to cease. The head is next raised into the air 
chamber, and the chick deals blows upon the shell, which, when often 
repeated in the same place, result in fracturing it. This process is re- 
peated until the shell is broken around about one third of the way from 
the large end. The chick then presses its head against the large end 
and its feet against the small end, and then by pushing is able to throw 
off the shell lid and make its exit." 

The incubator is a box-like device containing a space in 
which eggs may be incubated by means of artificial heat. 
The hatching of eggs by artificial incubation has been in 
operation for thousands of years, especially in Egypt and 

Figure 237. A pair of vigorous day-old chicks. Photograph from Prof. 
F. S. Jacoby. 

China. There are various designs of incubators made, rang- 
ing in size from those which contain but a few eggs up to 
those with a capacity for thousands. Incubators in use at 
the present time are heated by hot air from a kerosene 
lamp or by a hot-water system. The hot-air type is the one 
in more common use. The eggs, one layer deep, are placed 
in movable, wire-bottomed trays. The temperature of the 
incubator is regulated by the automatic action of an instru- 
ment called a thermostat, which is sensitive to heat changes. 
This instrument is set so as to reduce or increase automatic- 



ally the amount of incoming pure air. A thermometer 
within may be read through the glass front. Incubators 

should stand level, and a popular 
location in which to operate them 
is a dry cellar that will maintain 
a uniform temperature. 

The artificial process of incu- 
bation in the incubator requires 
one to look carefully after the 
following features of importance. 
These are location, temperature, 
ventilation, and moisture, and 

from Ohio State University. following disCUSSion of these fact- 

ors is abstracted from writings by Professor F.S. Jacoby,head 
of the Poultry Department at the Ohio State University.* 

The location of the incubator may have a decided influ- 
ence upon the number of chicks hatched. Heretofore the 
usual recommendation has been to locate the incubator in 
a cellar that maintains a more or less uniform temperature. 
With the improvement of the mechanical parts of the incu- 
bator, this reason for location is not so important as it used 
to be. The important point is pure air. The room, whether 
a cellar or not, should be so arranged that both the heavy 
gases near the floor and the light odors near the ceiling have 
a means of being dispelled. If the air in the room is impure, 
the air in the incubator will be even more so. The uni- 
formity of temperature in a cellar is a decided help in the 
operation of the incubator, but it is better to have a room 
with a variable temperature, if the air is purer thereby. The 
most satisfactory results are obtained in a room having a 
cement or dirt floor, with a temperature of 60 to 70 F. 

Temperature. The normal incubation temperature of 
hen eggs is 103 F. The position of the thermometer will 

*Artificial Incubation of Chickens, Bulletin 16, Vol. XV, Agricultural Extension 
Service, Ohio State University. 


determine the temperature at which the incubator should 
be operated. The thermometer may be arranged so that 
the bulb is in contact with the eggs or it may be hung above 
the eggs so that the bulb does not touch the top of the eggs. 
These two methods would each require a different reading 
to produce the correct temperature of the contents of the 
egg. When the bulb of the thermometer is in contact with 
one or two eggs and is on a level with the upper one fourth 
of the egg, the temperature should be 102 the first week, 
103 the second week, and 104 the third week. If the 
thermometer is hung so that the bottom of the bulb rests on 
the top of the egg, the readings should be 103 the first week, 
104 the second week, and 104^ the third week. With 
the thermometer suspended just above the eggs so that the 
tray can be removed without striking the thermometer, the 
temperature should be 103 the first week, 104 the second 
week and 105 the third week. 

The incubator thermometer should be tested at the be- 
ginning of each season by comparing the readings with those 
of a certified standard thermometer in warm water at 102, 
103, 104 and 105 F, and careful note made of all variations. 

Moisture and ventilation in the incubator are so closely 
associated that they can not be considered separately. 
Nearly all incubators have some provision for supplying 
moisture during incubation. The use of moisture permits 
greater ventilation during incubation without excessive evap- 
oration of the egg contents. The amount of ventilation will 
have a decided influence upon the quality and number of 
chicks hatched. The greatest amount of oxygen is needed 
from the 7th to the 20th day of incubation. The air in the 
incubator should always smell sweet. If it has any per- 
ceptible odor, there is not sufficient ventilation, and the eggs 
will not hatch as they should. The safest method of supply- 
ing moisture is by means of moisture pans located under 
the egg trays. The question of ventilation is automatically 


cared for in most incubators. Openings in the bottom, 
sides, or top permit fresh air to enter and impure air to pass 
out. If there are openings in the top of the machine, much 
more moisture must be supplied in the egg chamber, for 
there will be considerable moisture carried out of the machine 
with the warm air. If there are no openings in the top of 
the incubator, the moisture in the eggs will be conserved; 
but, in order to supply sufficient oxygen to the developing 
embryos, there must be a system of ventilation that will 
circulate the air inside the incubator so that the light odors 
as well as the heavy gases will be dispelled and replaced with 
a certain amount of fresh air. As a rule, the amount of 
ventilation should be increased as the hatch progresses. 
Late hatches require more ventilation than the earlier 
hatches. The best guide as to the moisture requirement is 
the egg itself. About two thirds of the egg content should 
be occupied by the embryo on the nineteenth day. If too 
much moisture is supplied and too little ventilation allowed, 
the chicks will hatch with considerable irregularity and will 
not dry off with a soft, smooth down. If proper ventilation 
and moisture conditions have prevailed, the chicks will hatch 
out with uniformity, with a clean, soft down. 

Turning and airing the eggs. Turning and airing the 
eggs is necessary for the production of strong, vigorous 
chicks. The hen on the nest turns the eggs with her feet 
several times a day. Turning insures an even development 
of the embryo and prevents any parts from adhering to the 
inside of the shell. The necessity for turning is apparent 
from the third to the eighteenth day of incubation; but, in 
those incubators that have automatic turning devices which 
permit the eggs to be turned without opening the machine, 
it may be desirable to turn the eggs from the second to the 
nineteenth day. There is no advantage in extending the 
time, if the machine must be opened and the egg tray re- 
moved in order to turn the eggs. Airing the eggs is a better 


expression than cooling, because it expresses more concisely 
the real value that accompanies cooling. It is the fresh 
oxygen that the eggs draw in as they cool that has a strength- 
ening effect upon the embryo. The usual period for airing 
is from the fifth to the eighteenth day. The eggs should be 
turned three times a day morning, noon, and afternoon. 
They should be aired once a day, preferably at noon. The 
length of the airing period will depend upon the develop- 
ment of the embryo and the temperature of the room in 
which the eggs are aired. It will vary from two to three 
minutes for eggs five days incubated early in the season, to 
forty-five minutes for eighteen-day eggs in the late spring or 
early summer. Turning by hand is undoubtedly more nearly 
perfect than any automatic egg turning device, and if done 
once a day in addition to the other turnings there will be a 
marked decrease in the number of crippled chicks. 

Care of incubator after the hatch. Remove all shells 
and unhatched eggs at the end of the twenty-second day. 
Chicks hatched after the twenty-second day will be too weak 
to prove worth raising. 

The incubator should be thoroughly cleaned and dis- 
infected after each hatch. Certain communicable diseases 
may be transmitted to the chicks through the medium of 
bits of egg shell and droppings, unless the trays are kept in 
a sanitary condition. Remove the trays and all portable 
parts from the interior of the machine. Scrub these as well 
as the inside of the machine with hot soapy water. Then 
drain and disinfect everything with a two per cent solution 
of creolin or zenoleum. Replace the trays, close the door 
of the incubator, light the lamp, and let the machine dry 
out. The fumes from the disinfectant will penetrate to all 
parts of the machine. If burlap is used on the nursery tray, 
use a clean burlap for each hatch. 

Eggs for incubation should be from vigorous, well-mated 
fowls, and not from what might be called mongrel stock. 



These eggs should be kept in a dry, cool atmosphere until 
placed under the hen or in the incubator. A place having 
a temperature of from 50 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit is re- 
garded as best. The eggs should be carefully handled, not 
being severely shaken nor cracked. It is a good plan to mark 
on each egg the date laid, and no eggs over 10 days old 
should be set. In making up settings, it is desirable to use 
those of uniform size, color, and condition. Hatchings will 
be likely to be more uniform if 
the eggs are of much the same 
age and condition of keep pre- 
vious to setting. 

The size and weight of eggs 
vary more than many suppose. 
Professor Lewis gives* some 
interesting figures about the 
size and weight of eggs of 
different breeds of fowls. The 
eggs of seven different breeds 
showed an average large circum- 
ference of 6.19 inches, a small cir- 
cumference of 5.27 inches, and an 
average weight of 1 pound, 8.05 
ounces per dozen. The eggs from 
the hens were slightly larger 
and weighed a trifle more than 
those from the pullets. A dozen 
Plymouth Rock eggs weighed 1 
pound, 11.2 ounces; the Leghorns ranking second at 
1 pound, 10.3 ounces. In a bulletin published by the 
Ohio State University, f it was shown that, in sorting 
over a case of eggs, a dozen of the largest ones weighed 
30^2 ounces, the medium-sized 26J/2 ounces, and the 
small ones 21 % ounces. On this basis it was figured 

*Poultry Laboratory Guide, 1910, p. 16. 
fThe Marketing of Eggs, April, 1911, p. 16. 

Figure 239. Leghorn and Min- 
orca eggs. Note the difference 
in size and weight per dozen. 
Ph9tograph from Ohio 

)hio State 



that a case of 30 dozens of large eggs would weigh 57 pounds, 
3 ounces, while the small ones would weigh but 40 pounds, 
12 ounces, an astonishing difference. The Leghorn naturally 
produces small eggs, and the Minorca large ones, and figures 
in the bulletin referred to give a weight of 22 ounces for a 
dozen of the former, and 27% ounces for the latter. The 
fact is, that, for the same price, a dozen large eggs furnish 
more actual nutriment than a dozen small ones. 

The color of the egg is due to 
a pigment, or coloring substance 
developed in the shell during the 
process of formation in the body 
of the hen. The color is either 
white or brown. Leghorn and 
Minorcas produce white eggs, 
and Brahmas and Plymouth 
Rocks, brown ones. Some buy- 
ers prefer the white color, and 
others the brown. Eggs of a 
chalk-white color, with a light 
yellow yolk, bring the best prices 
in New York City. This prefer- 
ence is merely a matter of fancy, 
because there is no difference in 
the food value. When fresh laid, 
the egg has a clear shell of a beautiful dull glaze, but with 
age and handling it becomes somewhat glossy or polished 
and often is soiled. 

The degree of freshness of the egg has much to do with 
its value on the common market. Prime fresh eggs, such 
as producers supply to private consumers, bring the highest 
price. In a commercial way, eggs are gathered from farmers 
by hucksters or are sold to country grocers by the produc- 
ers. They are placed in wooden cases holding 30 dozens and 
are shipped to the city dealers, by whom they are graded and 

Figure 240. A comparison of 
clean with dirty eggs. Photo- 
graph from Ohio State Uni- 



then placed on the market. Often the eggs are very poor, 
especially during the summer season. Eggs from stolen 
nests, dirty nests, from held-over 
stock, etc., find their way into 
the same case, and form a motley 
collection. The careful dealer 
sorts these, candles them, and 
tries to grade them before plac- 
ing them on the market. 

The grades of eggs on the 
market differ to a considerable 
extent, and in some places 
more than in others. Large 
markets like New York or Boston 
handle the most grades. Pro- 
fessor Philips gives the follow- 
ing classification as an ideal 
way to grade eggs:* 

Figure 241. Sorted vs. un- 
sorted eggs. Photograph from 
Ohio State University. 

Extras. Weigh 28-26 ozs. naturally and absolutely clean; fresh 
and sound. 

No. 1. Weigh 26-24 ozs., sound, fresh, and reasonably clean. 
No. 2. Shrunken or stale, washed, small, stained and dirty. 
No. 3. Checks cracked, but not leaking. 
No. 4. Rots. Incubator and decomposed eggs. 

New York quotation on eggs in November, 1921, showed the follow- 
ing grades and prices. 

California whites-Extra firsts 70c 

Extra firsts 58^-60c. 

First grade firsts 50-54c. 

Refrigerator firsts 

Refrigerator seconds 30c. 

The preservation of eggs during low prices, to sell when 
they are high, is a common practice. The egg easily spoils 
under a hot sun or in warm moist weather. Germs of rot 
develop rapidly in the egg at 55 degrees or higher, con- 
sequently it is desirable to keep them below this temperature 
until they can be used. In cold storage, it is preferred that 
a temperature of 34 degrees be maintained. 

*Bulletin No. 102, Kansas Experiment Station, p. 251. 


The use of common water glass (sodium silicate) for 

preserving eggs is now very generally recommended. This is a 

liquid that sells at a compara- 
tively low price. The preserving 
fluid is made by thoroughly mix- 
ing one quart of the water glass 
in nine quarts of water that has 
been boiled and cooled. Stone 
crocks or barrels make good 

Figure 242. A case of eggs receptacles for preservation. 
UnS h fr m hi State These should be well scalded 

before using, and then kept in a 

place where the temperature does not rise above 60 degrees. 

The best eggs for preservation are those laid in April, May, 

and early June. 


1. Describe the different parts of the egg. 

2. Explain the method of testing eggs. 

3. Describe the stage of incubation on the second, eighth, and 

twelfth days. 

4. Describe the methods by which the chick gets out of the egg. 

5. Why is moisture necessary during incubation? 

6. Describe the incubator. 

7. How should the egg for incubation be selected and cared for? 

8. Compare eggs for size and weight. 

9. Describe Professor Philips' ideal of market grades. 

10. Give method for preservation. 


11. Boil an egg hard for three minutes, and when cold separate into 

four parts shell, membrane, white and yolk. 

12. Test some eggs by candling, either from an egg case or from 

those being incubated. 

13. Fill a small incubator and keep^a daily record of its temperature for 

21 days. 

14. Go to a grocery and inspect a quantity of eggs, and report on 

what you saw as to size, shape, color, and condition. 

15. Find market grades and quotations on eggs in at least three 

markets. Make comparisons. 

16. Bring a sample dozen of your home eggs to school for inspection. 


The organs of digestion of the fowl perform their work 
and have the same influence on the food as do the stomach 
and intestines of animals. The form of these organs, how- 
ever, is peculiar to birds. They may be briefly described as 

The beak, a hard, horny part for breaking, tearing, pull- 
ing or picking up food. 

The mouth and tongue, within and back of the beak. 

The gullet, a tube which extends to 

The crop, which lies in front and at the base of the neck. 
Here the food accumulates and is somewhat softened by 
digestive fluids. 

The stomach, where food from the crop is mixed with the 
gastric juice. 

The gizzard, a tough muscular organ containing small 
particles of stone. Here the food is ground to a pulp, mixed 
with digestive fluid, and then moves on to 

The intestines, where the last stage of digestion takes 

The foods suitable for fowls vary widely in kind and 
character. In fact, farm poultry will eat almost anything 
that has any nutritive value. So adaptable are fowls to 
local conditions, that, as a rule, they are fed the cheapest 
and most common foods grown in the region in which they 
are kept. Very naturally, in America corn is most com- 
monly fed, with wheat or its by-products next in favor. In 
Japan, rice is the food generally used. The kind of food, 
however, should vary according to the age and condition of 
the birds, and the purpose for which they are kept. If for 




fattening, then a carbonaceous food is best; but, if for eggs, 
then that of a protein nature should be used. Protein foods 
recommended for fowls are meat scraps, fish meal, and milk 
of various forms. The common grains and cereal by- 










Figure 243. Anatomical chart of a fowl. Reproduced from Poultry Manual 
of the G. E. Conkey Co., Cleveland. 

products, such as corn, wheat, oats, bran, middlings, etc., 
supply the necessary carbohydrates. 


The appetite of fowls for different kinds of food is well 
worth observing. They eat grain or concentrated feed with 
great relish, and when in confinement this is the kind most 
used at regular feeding times. They are extremely fond of 
meat, table scraps, tender herbs and grass, and of insects, 
worms, etc. In fact, no one class of food seems most relished, 
and poultrymen generally agree that variety in the diet 
usually gives the best results, from both the health and the 
producing point of view. 

The special preparation of feed for fowls naturally de- 
pends upon conditions. Small particles are usually prefer- 
able to large ones. Wheat and other small grains are very 
satisfactory. Large grains like corn are best cracked or 
broken. Ground or pulverized feeds, singly or in mixture, 
are known as mashes. Where no water is used, this food is 
called dry mash; with water, a wet mash. Dry mash is a 
favorite in some places and not in others. Clover or alfalfa 
hay is often thrown into the yard, the fowls readily eating 
the leaves and delicate parts. Young chicks require fine, 
easily digested food, like oatmeal, cracked wheat, finely- 
granulated corn, chopped vegetables, etc. Skim milk also is 
a valuable food for growing chickens. 

Green food for fowls causes them to respond very rapidly 
in increased growth or egg production. When on a range 
of good grass no other green food need be provided, but dur- 
ing the winter season succulent food is most desirable. 
Coarse vegetables are often sliced or chopped into small 
pieces before feeding, although entire cabbages or roots may 
be hung in the house or fastened to nails on the walls, from 
which points they will be picked to pieces. In recent years 
sprouted oats have been used in a small way for feed, espe- 
cially for young chicks. The common plan is to make a 
wooden rack-like arrangement, to contain series of shallow 
pans. The desired amount of oats is put into a vessel 
and covered with warm water and let stand over night. 



Figure 244. Fowls eatin 
just above the head. J 
"Poultry Manual." 

; cabbage suspended 
eproduced from the 

The surplus water is then drained off and the oats are spread 
over the pans to a depth of one half to three fourths of an 
inch. The oats should then be placed in a room, preferably 
a basement or cellar, having a temperature of 60 to 65 de- 
grees. The oats should be sprinkled daily with tepid water, 

and, to provide drainage, 
the bottom of the pans 
should be perforated with 
small holes. In about 
ten days the sprouts will 
be ready to feed to the 
chickens, but they should 
be used sparingly in the 
first of the feeding. 

The amount of food 
necessary for fowls de- 
pends entirely upon their 
size, egg production, and kind of food fed. The best plan is 
to prepare standard mixtures, and feed as much as will be 
eaten with appetite. 

Regularity in feeding fowls is essential. On many farms 
the poultry must forage 
for themselves, but under 
proper conditions there 
should be special grain 
feeding morning and eve- 
ning. A dry mash is 
commonly kept in the 
house at all times. Other 
special feeds are also giv- 
en early in the morning, 
about noon, and just before the birds go to roost. Regularity 
of feeding also brings the fowls into intimate touch with the 
poultryman, and enables him to handle them and watch 
their condition to the best advantage. 

Figure 245. Oats sprouted in a pan. By 
courtesy Cypher's Incubator Company. 



Frequency of feeding fowls depends upon the age, con- 
dition, and purpose for which they are kept. Young chicks 
should be fed four or five times daily. The feeding of 
mature fowls varies among poult rymen, some feeding twice 
and others three times a day. If one has time to look after 
the stock in detail, three feeds a day for fowls in limited 
yards will give better results than will two. Most good 
poultrymen use what are called "hoppers" or "self-feeders." 
The hopper is a box-like arrangement containing more or 
less feed, from which the fowls can eat freely at any time. 

Figure 246 Forced feeding of fowls in England. 
Poultry Herald. 

Photograph by courtesy of 

Scattering grain in cut straw or floor litter is a good plan, 
for it keeps the fowls busy and ensures slow eating, both 
of which habits are desirable. Some persons feed a wet 
mash in the middle of the day, grain being used morning 
and night. Some prefer one method and some another. 

The effect of food on the quality of the egg is very notice- 
able in some cases. Foods of strong odor, such as onions, 
impart objectionable flavor to eggs. Corn gives an undesir- 


able yellow yolk, while most other grains produce less color. 
Green food and clover or alfalfa hay also furnish the high 
color to the egg so commonly seen when these foods are fed. 
Forced feeding of fowls may be done in two ways, one 
when the feeder simply gives the birds more feed than they 
need or would eat under natural conditions; the other being 
a special artificial feeding process known as cramming, 
whereby the crop is filled with food by the use of a machine, 
and the fowl fattened as rapidly as possible. Of course 
what would be a forced feeding of one fowl might not be of 
another, because of difference in capacity. 

On this subject of forced feeding Robinson says:* 
"Forced feeding is almost universal among poultrymen. All regular, 
good feeding is in a sense forced feeding. Even under natural conditions 
with opportunity to balance their own rations, full-fed poultry develop 
faster and better individually,but at the cost of shorter life and reduc- 
tion of vitality in the offspring. The poultryman's _ object is to get 
as much as possible out of the birds in the shortest possible time; that is, 
to market as soon as possible those destined primarily for the table, and 
to keep laying and breeding poultry only as long as they are highly 
productive. He forces by feeding, but not (intentionally) to the danger 
point, just as a careful horseman often drives his horse much faster and 
farther than the horse would go of its own accord, yet avoids over 

The use of mineral foods by fowls is even more important 
than with farm animals. Growth in proportion is really 
much greater with the fed fowl than the four-footed animal, 
while the production of eggs requires a considerable amount 
of mineral matter. The common supply of food docs not 
always furnish enough of the mineral substances, and espe- 
cially lime, to meet the needs of the fowl. This lack is par- 
ticularly true of the laying hen. Consequently some 
other material must be added, and green ground or broken 
burned bone, granulated dry bone, and finely broken stone 
are commonly used to meet this need. Ground or finely 
broken oyster shells have always been popular for laying 
hens. As to the exact needs of the body for mineral food, 
we do not know, but it may be assumed, as based on practice 
and the result secured with farm animals, that the mineral 

*Principles and Practice of Poultry Culture. 1911, page 213. 



substances play a part in nutrition. Robinson, however, 
believes that in "good feeding of mixed rations," under range 
conditions young birds get all the mineral elements they 
require, and adult birds all they need, except for producing 
egg shells. He does not 
think grit is necessary, 
and since 1902 has fed 
none to poultry, except 
in the first feeds of young 
ducks and geese. Gran- 
ulated charcoal is fre- 
quently used, being re- 
garded as valuable for 
correcting sour stomach 
and other forms of indi- 
gestion. Some poultrymen think charcoal is a blood purifier. 
Water for fowls should be clean and pure. Drinking 
fountains in which clean water may always be found are 

Figure 247. Cheaply made drinking foun- 
tains. These are jars filled with water and 
turned with mouths down in pans of water. 
Photograph from Ohio State University. 

Figure 248. A feed hopper and covered water pan at left. Photograph from 
Prof. F. S. Jacoby. 

commendable. Fowls are rather frequent drinkers, and 
should always have plenty of clean water available. In win- 


ter, care should be taken to see that water and not ice or 
snow is supplied. A flock of fifty hens will use from four 
to six quarts of water a day in ordinary weather conditions. 

Feeding rations for fowls naturally vary, some persons 
preferring one ration and some another. Most of these here 
given are easily secured or may be readily prepared, as the 
foods used in the combinations are grown over a wide extent 
of country. The rations given are quoted from reports, 
and so differ in total amounts and in statement of weights 
or parts. The common method, however, is to mix up a 
quantity of feed, and then use as much as the flock requires. 

The feeding of young chicks requires very careful atten- 
tion. The following is the general course of feeding recom- 
mended by the poultry department of the Ohio State Uni- 
versity. Milk should be the first food given. Either fine 
commercial chick feed or finely cracked corn and wheat 
should be given in the litter about five times daily, making 
sure the chicks have to scratch in the litter to get the grain. 
Plenty of exercise for the chicks is desirable. For the first 
week bran should be kept available in shallow pans all the 
time, as this is rich in mineral matter, is bulky, and serves 
as a mild laxative. As the chicks get older the grain feed- 
ing can gradually be reduced until only morning and even- 
ing scratch feeds are given. The following course of feed- 
ing is especially recommended for the various stages of 
development, using as much of the several mixtures as may 

be desirable. 

First week Second to eighth week 


50 Ibs. corn finely cracked 60 Ibs. corn finely cracked 

40 " wheat " " 40 Ibs. wheat " " 

10 " rolled oats MASH 

MASH 20 Ibs. bran 

Wheat bran 10 

Milk all time 10 


corn meal 

ground oats 

meat scraps or tankage* 

bone meal 

*Use milk in place of scrap or tankage, if available. 



Eighth week to maturity 

200 Ibs. cracked corn 200 Ibs. bran 

100 " oats or wheat 100 " middlings 

100 ' corn meal 

100 " ground oats 

75 " meat scrap 

5 " bone meal 

In addition to the above, it is desirable to feed young 
chicks sprouted oats, cabbage, mangels, beets or green grass, 
each of these to be fed in finely prepared form, as may be 
available. When on the range such food need not be pre- 
pared. Infertile eggs from the incubator, hard boiled and 
chopped up, make excellent feed for young chicks and they 
should always be fed rather than cast aside. 

Figure 249. The average amount of grain consumed by a laying hen in a 
year, producing 142 eggs. Photograph from U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 
Farmers' Bulletin No. 1040. 

Rations for egg production used in different sections of 
the United States, vary more or less, according to material 
available. The following rations are recommended by vari- 
ous authorities engaged in research work in feeding fowls. 
(By United States Department of Agriculture Farmers' Bulletin 1067) 

Ration No. 1 


16 Ibs. corn meal 1 Ib. cracked corn 

6M* " meat scrap 1 " wheat 





Ration No. 2 

2 Ibs. corn or barley meal 2 Ibs. cracked corn 
1 " bran 1 " oats 

1 " middlings 1 " wheat or barley 

1 " meat or fish scrap 

Ration No. 3 

3 Ibs. corn meal 2 Ibs. cracked corn 

1 " meat scrap 1 " oats 

Ration No. 4 

9 Ibs. corn meal 2 Ibs. cracked corn 

5 " middlings 1 " wheat 

4 " bran 1 " oats 

2 " cottonseed or gluten meal 1 " barley 
2 " meat scrap 

2 per cent bone meal 

(In Ohio at Ohio State University) 

100 Ibs. corn meal 100 Ibs. cracked or shelled corn 

100 ' wheat middlings 100 " wheat or oats 

100 " bran Green food, grits and oyster 
100 " oats shells 

100 " meat scraps or tankage 

Feed the grain mixture morning and afternoon in a deep 
litter of straw. Feed sparingly in the morning, but give 
the hens all they will eat in the afternoon. Feed the dry 
mash in a hopper which is open at all times. Keep grit and 
shell in open hoppers. Feed green food once a day. 
(In Minnesota, Bulletin 119, Minnesota station, page 153} 
A mash consisting of equal parts of finely ground corn, 
oats, or shorts, mixed with about 10 per cent of cooked 
meat, green cut bone, or beef scraps are mixed together dry. 
Then thoroughly mix with about one third this bulk of 
steeped clover leaves or finely cut clover, which has previ- 
ously been scalded. Another mixture, to be only slightly 
moistened with water, is the following: 

2 parts bran 1 part wheat shorts 

1 part ground corn 1 part ground oats 

1 part beef scraps 1-10 part charcoal 

(In North Carolina, Bulletin 211, North Carolina station, page 54.} 

In an experiment extending from December to May, dif- 
ferent rations were fed to pens of 10 hens each. The largest 


production of eggs and the least cost occurred in pens 14 
and 15, fed the following: 

4 parts corn meal 4 parts wheat bran 

2 parts meat meal 2 parts bone meal 

Cottonseed meal was used in three cases. Pens 20 and 
22, fed four parts each of corn meal, wheat bran, and cotton- 
seed meal, did very unequal work, one pen laying 225 eggs 
and the other 378. 

(In Kansas, Bulletin 164, Kansas station, page 290.) 
The following laying ration has been a success in feed- 
ing White Leghorns and White Plymouth Rocks. Between 
February 1 and November 1, 1909, one White Plymouth 
Rock produced 201 eggs and another 196, at a cost for feed 
of 90 cents each. The Leghorns averaged 166.1 eggs for the 
same nine months, at a slightly less cost. Following are 
the rations: 


10 parts wheat 6 parts wheat shorts 

10 parts corn 3 parts bran 

5 parts oats 6 parts corn meal 

5 parts beef scrap 
1 part alfalfa meal 

Fattening ration for fowls. Fowls to be fattened should 
be kept in a limited enclosure and given but little exercise, 
and fed a fattening ration. Specialists place chickens in 
crates and fatten them rapidly for three or four weeks. 
Professor Jackson, formerly of the Pennsylvania station, re- 
porting on fattening in Bulletin No. 107, says: 

"The common ration of corn meal is rarely as satisfactory as a 
combination of grains. An excellent mixture is equal parts of finely 
ground corn meal, buckwheat, and oats with the hulls removed. A 
ration of one to two parts corn meal, one part middlings and five per cent 
meat scrap may be used if it is not possible to secure the other grains. 
It is important, whatever grains are used, that they be finely ground. 
If this ration is mixed with sour milk, no animal food will be needed." 

It will be noticed that in all the above rations, corn, 
wheat, oats, and wheat bran or middlings are the standard 
foods used. Meat meal or beef scrap, skimmed milk, and 
clover or alfalfa, are always desirable. In the far West, 



Kafir corn or millet seed may be used to advantage. Where 
barley is commonly grown, this is to be recommended as a 
feed, and may be used in place of corn, if desired. 


1. Compare the crop and the gizzard. 

2. What kind of diet should be given a fowl? 

3. How often should poultry be fed? 

4. Explain the meaning of forced feeding, and when it is practiced. 

5. Why is mineral matter fed, and under what conditions? 

6. Under what conditions should water be supplied? 

7. Give the best method of feeding young chicks from the second to 

eighth week. 

8. Give two rations for laying hens used in different states, and the 

method of feeding. 

9. Name the five most common feeding stuffs used. 


10. Carefully examine the crop and digestive organs of a chicken. 

(a) When taken from a freshly-killed fowl. 

(b) Freeze a fowl solid in winter, and with a saw cut it in two 
lengthwise and somewhat on one side, to show the digestive 
organs in place. 

11. Make up two pens of hens, equal in number. Feed one lot a car- 

bonaceous food, like corn; the other a protein food, such as wheat. 
Give some green food, oyster shells, and grits. Keep a record of 
egg production, and after some weeks report to the school. 

12. Make up two pens of hens. Feed alike, except to give one pen 

oyster shells, and allow none to the other. Keep a record of the 
number and condition of the eggs, and report. 

13. Prepare what you believe to be a good ration of home-grown feeds 

for growing chickens, and bring a sample to school for inspection 
and criticism. 

14. Report on the rations fed by any two or more poultrymen in the 

community in which you live, 


The need of housing or shelter for fowls varies with the 
section of the country and the local conditions under which 
they are kept. While close housing is no longer needed to 
the extent formerly thought necessary, naturally more pro- 
tection is required in the colder sections than in the warmer. 
In winter, in New England, where the ground is usually 
covered with snow, shelter is a necessity; while in Texas, 
where snow rarely falls, less protection is required. 

The forms and styles of poultry houses differ widely, and 
no one kind is regarded as the best. A collection of photo- 
graphs or views of one thousand houses will show a very 
interesting variety of style and construction. Years ago 
buildings were often made of brick or stone, at great expense, 
and were very warm and almost air tight in winter. In 
recent years the construction is less expensive, and fresh air 
properly supplied is an important feature. 

Several types of poultry houses, each for a special pur- 
pose, are more or less in use in this country. These may be 
placed in the following classes: (a) Laying pen house, (b) 
fattening house, (c) brooder house, (d) colony house, (e) 
shelter coop. While plans and details of construction can 
not be given in the limited space of this volume, some sug- 
gestions of interest and value will be found in the follow- 
ing pages that may be well worth careful study. 

The laying pen house is designed for the purpose of keep- 
ing fowls in confinement, in groups suitable for the best 
results. Yards or runs limit the range of the hens. These 
houses are permanent of location and, as a rule, are of sub- 
stantial construction. Formerly they were made with tight 



walls, had glass windows, and in winter the air within was 
kept at as comfortable a temperature as possible. Some- 
times these houses were lathed and plastered. Not much 
attention was given to ventilation. Houses of this sort are 
not built as much as formerly; and, if they are, cloth screens 
on the front or south side replace most of the glass, pure air 
being regarded as a necessity. In many cases, these houses 
have open front windows, except in the coldest winter 
weather, when the cloth screens are dropped. Laying pen 
houses are of different styles, a common one having a simple 
single-pitch shed roof, with a height of 6 or 7 feet at the 

Figure 250. A large laying house and yards. Photograph from Prof. F. S. 


south, and 4 or 5 feet at the rear. It is best to have the 
house of a depth that will allow sunshine to reach as near 
the back wall as possible. A depth of 14 feet and a width 
of 12 to 14 feet for each pen is a satisfactory size. One 
should allow 5 square feet for each bird in such a house. In 
a house of this sort the floor should be made of concrete in 
order to make it rat-proof and to keep it dry. This floor 
may be covered with cut straw or chaff, and be used in cold 
weather as a scratching shed. The walls should be tight 


enough to prevent drafts. The roosts may be placed just 
above a low platform at the rear or on one side, below which 
are the nests. In front, plenty of window space should be 
provided, which should be covered with poultry wire netting, 
and also have cotton cloth screens, to be dropped during very 
cold weather. Doors of standard size are usually placed at 
one or both ends of the house, with wire doors in the parti- 
tions, to allow passage through the various pens. In houses 
containing many pens, doors are sometimes provided to give 
entrance from the pens into the yards. 

The fattening house is a small structure containing crates 
in which fowls are fattened, arranged along each side of a 
passage way. The house is of simple construction, and 
has superior ventilation with inferior light, as fowls are best 
fattened under conditions of subdued light. Fattening 
crates are in tiers, with feeding trays in front of each, which 
with other conditions provide for the least amount of labor 
in caring for the birds. Houses of this kind are not com- 
mon on American farms, but are used especially by men who 
make a business of fattening fowls for market. 

A brooder is a device used in connection with the incu- 
bator, and is in a sense an artificial mother. The general 
plan of the brooder is that of a warm box or room, heated 
either by a small oil stove or a coal stove. The former pro- 
vides uniform warmth for from 100 to 200 chicks, and the 
latter for from 200 to 500. Within the brooder is what 
is called a ' 'hover." A circular plate or cover of more or 
less diameter, according to the size of the hover, is placed 
about ten inches above the floor. From the rim of this 
plate a cloth curtain extends to the floor. Pieces of cloth 
are also suspended from different parts of the underside of 
the cover to the floor. Here and there the cloth is slit so 
the chicks may freely pass through and find a warm protec- 
tion among the strips of cloth, comparable to being under the 
mother's wing. The small brooder house has but one hover, 


but the large houses, which are heated by coal stoves, may 
have several. The temperature under the bro'oder should 
be kept as nearly 100 F. as possible. A brooder house 
may be a simple box-like affair of one room 6 by 8 feet in 
size, with the hover in the back and a door and window in 
front. On large farms it may be of considerable size, con- 
taining a series of pens, in the end of each of which is a 
hover, warm air being supplied by a hot-water heating 
plant. The floor of the brooder should be covered with fine 
sand, if at all available. The brooder should have plenty 
of sunlight; it should be rat-proof; it should be roomy with 

Figure 251. A colony house at Ohio State University. Photograph from 
Prof. F. S. Jacoby. 

plenty of scratching space; good ventilation should prevail; 
and the temperature should be easily controlled. 

The colony house is a small, single-room building con- 
taining roosts and nests, and located in a yard or field. It 
is simple and cheap of construction, and is usually portable, 
so as to be easily moved from place to place. There is no 
one style of house; and structures are made of all kinds of 
material, ranging from piano boxes, at a total cost of $3 or 
$4 up to those made with care by a carpenter, costing $35 


or $40. A fairly good type of colony house has both a door 
and window in front, the latter being covered with wire 
screening, and with a curtain to be used for cold weather 
protection. A small window in one end, for both ventila- 
tion and light, and a wooden floor are also desirable features. 
Poultrymen having houses differing widely in style of con- 
struction and lighting seem to get equally good results from 
their fowls. Two strong arguments for the colony house 
are, that a floek of about the right size may be kept in a 
yard of suitable area; also the house may be shifted from 
time to time to new and clean soil conditions, thus provid- 
ing good, permanent sanitation. Colony houses may be 
hauled into grain fields after the harvest, where the fowls 
secure uncommonly good forage of grain and insects. 

Figure 246. A handy shelter coop and run. Reproduced from "Poultry 


The shelter coop is usually built for a hen and a brood 
of chickens. It varies much in construction. Common 
boxes 2 or 3 feet square, with slat or wire front; empty barrels, 
with a slat attachment at one end; and shelters of ter^t or A- 
shape are frequently seen. These coops should be made so 
as to enable the chicks to pass freely in and out, to give 
the hens dry and comfortable shelter, and to protect the 
chicks at night from rats and other vermin. 

The location and construction of the poultry house require 
careful thought, if the most satisfactory results are to be 


secured. A few suggestions, therefore, which are rather 
general in their application, are here given. 

The site of the poultry building should be where drainage 
is good and the soil naturally dry. Further, the elevation 
should be sufficient for a good circulation of .air. Under 
damp conditions throat or lung trouble is very likely to 
occur. In damp soil of a clayey or loamy nature, intestinal 
and other parasites that affect poultry breed more freely 
than elsewhere. A dry location promotes clean bodies and 
feet, which mean the production of clean eggs. 

The size of the poultry house should depend upon the 
number of fowls one wishes to keep. On most farms large 
flocks do not give as satisfactory returns as small ones. With 
a flock of 50, each bird should be allowed 5 square feet of 
room. With larger flocks not quite so much space per fowl 
will be required. One can obtain satisfactory returns with 
100 fowls of the smaller breeds in a house with 20 by 20 feet 
of floor space. If fowls are crowded, good results in egg 
production can not be expected. 

The width of the poultry house depends upon size of the 
flock. Under most conditions, a house 14 or 16 feet wide 
is ample for each pen. One should plan to use standard 
lengths of timber, so that as little waste as possible will 
occur in sawing. Poultry houses 20 feet wide are being 
constructed to-day quite generally by farmers with large 
flocks, this size being economical in cost of material, and 
providing a maximum of space for the same. 

The foundation of the poultry house should be of con- 
crete or stone, if intended for a permanent laying house. 
This foundation should be deep enough in the ground not to 
be affected by the action of frost, and should rise 6 to 12 
inches above the surface. The thickness of wall will depend 
on local conditions, ranging from 6 to 8 inches. Portable 
colony houses may be built on 4 x 4 runners. Halpin and 
Ocock, of Wisconsin University, recommend the use of 



"two small trees of some durable wood which may be flat- 
tened off on top and tapered off at both ends so as to make 
a satisfactory runner." 

The walls of the poultry houses are built of wood, brick, 
concrete, or stone. The most common method is to use 
2x4 studs nailed to 2 x 6 sills, over which matched siding 
is nailed horizontally. When well put together, this makes 
a wall free from drafts and very satisfactory. If rough 
boards are used, battens or strips should be tacked over 
any cracks. It is not desirable to place siding over the 








tfx ? 

6 "X4~ RunneR' U-A?'4 

Figure 252. Front elevation building plans of the Purdue Brooder Colony 
House. Reproduced from Extension Bulletin 52, Purdue University. 

studs on the inside, for in that case rats and mice will find a 
place for hiding. A wooden wall in winter is most satisfac- 
tory, as solid concrete or stone may be moist or frosty under 
some conditions. Concrete or brick walls that are partly 
hollow are preferable to the solid wall. 

The roof of the poultry house should be strong, simple, 
and comparatively inexpensive. A single-span or shed roof 
is most common and can be built with least cost. If the 
house is over 14 feet wide, the usual 2x4 rafters should be 



supported. A combination roof has a double pitch, having 
a short pitch in front and a long one behind. This type of 
roof is well suited to buildings wider than 14 feet, and gives 
a strong construction. A two-pitch, or gable-roof, house 
usually has rafters of the same length, coming to a ridge in 
the center. This gives a high center to the pen, hence a 
loss of heat, so that in winter the house is likely to be cold. 
A ceiling is sometimes built in such a house, and attic stor- 
age room thus provided. What is called the half -monitor 
roof has one long sweep of rafter for perhaps two thirds the 

Figure 253. End view Purdue Brooder Colony House. Reproduced from 
Extension Bulletin 52, Purdue University. 

width of the house. Below the high point of rafter a vertical 
wall is dropped sufficiently to allow a line of windows. From 
the bottom of the window sill, a shorter length of rafter 
gives the necessary front pitch to the roof. There are also 
houses with the fronts slanting to the ground, and others of 
wood that have roofs of the tent form, with no side walls in 
front or behind. A roof covering of rough boards and as- 
phalt or tarred composition paper of some sort gives good 



satisfaction. Wooden shingles in most localities are too ex- 
pensive, and in the colder sections shingle roofs are too 
drafty and cold in winter. 

The floor of the poultry house should be of concrete in 
the permanent house; but, in the colony house, one of 
matched flooring is best. Effort should be made to keep the 
floor dry, and to prevent the harboring of rats or other vermin. 

Partition material in the poultry house should usually be 
of wire netting. If the house is long, a close wooden or 

Figure 254. Interior of poultry house, showing trap nests. Reproduced from 
Circular 37, Purdue University. 

cloth partition at intervals is desirable, in order to strengthen 
the building, and also to prevent drafts. A house of six pens 
might have one solid central partition, and others of wire. 
The windows of the poultry house should be adjusted to 
local conditions. In the southern states, glass should be un- 
necessary. In the colder North, an arrangement by which 
one sliding glass window can be arranged in connection with 
cloth-screened openings will give the best satisfaction. The 


windows should have a covering of wire screening, with cur- 
tains that are to be used only in severe weather. Some 
men, in fact, keep permanent open fronts in their houses, 
never using glass or cloth screen, and do not believe that 
their birds suffer from cold at any time. 

Perches should be in the warmer part of the pen, free 
from drafts, and not high above the floor. The perches 
should be 12 inches apart, and not nearer the wall than 15 

Figure 255. Details of wall nests. From Extension Bulletin 57 of Purdue 

inches. They should be fastened together in a frame and 
hinged to the wall, being supported level with standards, 
or legs. It is a good plan to have a board platform a few 
inches below the perch, on which the droppings may be 
caught. The perches may be raised as desired, and the 
droppings removed. Perches of 2 x 4 pieces, on edge, with 
rounded corners are recommended. 


The nests should be against the wall, and be 12 or 14 
inches square, according to the size of fowl. Nests are some- 
times placed below the dropping board, the hens entering 
from the back and the eggs being removed from the front 
by means of a hinged door. These nests have the advan- 
tage of being rather dark, as hens under such conditions 
rarely eat their eggs. Open nests may be fastened to the 
side of the pen, if desired, a common method. Trap nests 
are used in many houses to-day. The principle of this nest 
is that, when the hen enters, she springs a trapdoor, and so 

Figure 256. A three-section trap nest, showing one section shut. Photograph 
from United States Dept. of Agriculture. 

is confined until released by the poultryman. Thus he 
knows just what hens lay each day, and makes a record of 
the same. Hens laying in trap nests usually are numbered 
with metal leg-bands. 

A dust bath in the poultry house is most important. The 
process of dusting is the method by which the bird keeps 
herself free from lice and similar pests. Many poultrymen 
have a corner of the pen arranged so that road dust, sifted 
coal ashes, or dry sand may be put there for dusting. A 
depth of 3 or 4 inches of dust enclosed by pieces of com- 
mon six-inch fencing boards will do. No poultry house 
should be without a dust bath, especially during the winter. 



1. Describe the important features of the laying house? 

2. Explain the purpose of the fattening house? 

3. Describe a hover and its use? 

4. Tell of the construction and value of the colony house? 

5. Compare a good and a bad site for poultry buildings? 

6. Figure out the size of house you might need, and tell why? 

7. Compare the single and the double-pitch roof? 

8. Discuss the subject of window covering? 

9. Instruct in the essentials of perch construction? 

10. Tell where to place the nests and the size they should be made? 


11. A picture of the poultry yard at home, showing buildings. 

12. A picture of the best poultry building you know of in the vicinity. 

13. A drawing showing cross-section construction of some poultry 

house of which you know. 

14. A report on the roost arrangement in different poultry buildings. 

15. A report on the locations of a few poultry yards on different farms. 

16. A statement of the number of farmers in the vicinity who keep 

chickens but have no special poultry houses for them. 


Poultry is not only universal on the farm, but frequently 
raised on the home lot in smaller villages and towns. Thus 
a large percentage of our population comes in intimate con- 
tact with poultry, but more especially with chickens. Un- 
fortunately many of these birds are given inferior care. 
They are kept in unsanitary pens, and, as a result, disease 
or various ailments affect them. Under such conditions 
comes a call for information as to the nature of the trouble 
and means of remedying it. This chapter, therefore, will 
discuss briefly the more common afflictions of poultry, with 
suggestions of preventive measures or curative treatment. 

Roup. This is a germ disease that affects the nose, 
mouth, or eye of chickens. In the nasal form there is a 
thin, watery, offensive discharge from the nostrils, which 
finally becomes thick and stops the nasal passage. In the 
mouth form, yellow or yellow-white patches and ulcers, 
similar to diphtheria, occur. In the eye form the membrane 
covering the front of the eye becomes inflamed, a 'watery, 
whitish fluid accumulates, and the eyelids stick together. 
The birds sneeze and throw off mucus, the appetite fails, 
diarrhea occurs, and there is marked weakness. In con- 
nection with each form, in order, comes catarrh and discharge 
of mucus; the formation of a membrane in the mouth and 
throat, similar to diphtheria; and inflammation of the eyes, 
and often destruction of the eyeball. 

It is of the greatest importance to provide sanitary 
quarters for fowls, to ward off this disease. Good ventila- 
tion should be provided in the poultry house, but no drafts 
should be permitted. It is important that the house be 



kept dry, and cleaned and disinfected daily. A 5 per cent 
solution of crude carbolic acid, mixed with whitewash is an 
excellent disinfectant, using 2 pounds of the acid to 5 gallons 
of the whitewash. A preventive measure used with success 
in recent years is the bacterin treatment, inoculating the 
fowls with a product made from the disease germs. This 
treatment makes the birds immune. 

For medical treatment of roup, stick silver nitrate is used 
for burning ulcers in the mouth, and, after the white matter 
of the eye is wiped off with absorbent cotton, the silver 
nitrate may be used here. The nasal passage may be washed 

out with a 20 per 

^ cent solution of 

common baking 
soda (sodium bicar- 
bonate), using 
either a medicine 
dropper or small 
syringe, forcing the 
fluid through the 
passage into the 

Figure 257. A hen sick with roup. Photograph HlOUth. This treat- 
from Ohio State University. , _ , 

ment may be fol- 
lowed with peroxide of hydrogen. The affected parts should 
then be cleaned with essential oils, of which the following is 
recommended by Dr. B. F. Kaupp:* Oil of thyme 1 dram, 
oil of eucalyptus 20 drops, oil of petrol 2 ounces. This 
treatment should be given three times daily. 

Fowl cholera is a germ disease, distributed by many 
agencies, as sick birds, water, wind, manure, insects, wild 
birds, etc. Cholera affects chickens, ducks, turkeys, geese, 
pigeons and wild birds, especially the buzzard. The germs 
exist under quite a wide range of conditions, and may live a 
long time. In protracted cases, writes Dr. Kaupp, "there 
is a noted loss of appetite, great prostration, staring feathers; 

*Poultry Diseases and Their Treatment, 1914. 


the bird mopes or sits around with tail and head down, giv- 
ing a so-called 'ball' appearance, the comb is dark, the gait 
swaying, and there is trembling, convulsions, thirst, and 
severe diarrhea, with passages of a greenish-yellow color. 
There is high fever and the bird rapidly becomes emaciated." 
Post mortem shows enlargements of liver, spleen and kid- 
neys, and unnatural dark color of these organs. The intes- 
tines are also inflamed, and may show hemorrhage. 

Preventive measures against cholera require absolute 
cleanliness, and the liberal use of disinfectants. Dr. Kaupp 
reports that inoculating with vaccine made from germs 
producing the disease has given excellent results.* 

Treatment of birds sick with cholera is not generally 
satisfactory, especially if the cases are bad, the best plan 
being to kill and burn the carcass. Sick birds should be 
isolated from the flock. It is a good plan to give the fowls 
antiseptic water, consisting of one teaspoonful of hydro- 
chloric acid in a quart of water, to which is also added 1 per 
cent of copper sulphate and potassium permanganate. 

Chicken pox is very closely related to roup, excepting 
that the face and comb are affected with scabby excrescences 
from the size of a pinhead to a pea. The same treatment 
should be given as for roup, and the affected parts should be 
bathed with antiseptics. 

White diarrhea is a bacterial disease of an infectious nature 
that affects chicks at from one to four days of age. The 
disease may come from an infected egg, or from other flocks. 
The symptoms of the disease usually appear before the 
chicks are ten days old. The chicks appear "droopy," do 
not eat well, the wings hang low, there is general weakness, 
the birds peep constantly, and a loose, somewhat sticky dis- 
charge comes from the bowels, which more or less pastes up 
the vent. A dead chick will appear very bloodless and thin, 
with crop and intestines empty or containing slimy material. 
There is no cure for this disease. It is of the first importance 

*Poultry Diseases and Their Treatment, 1914. 



that eggs for hatching come from a flock free from this 
malady. The disease may be detected by a blood test of 
egg-laying hens, and such tests are made by some of the state 
experiment stations. Proper sanitation of the incubator and 
chicken quarters is vitally necessary. The incubator should 
be kept in the dark until the chicks are removed to the 
brooder, thus in a measure preventing the chicks from pick- 
ing bits from the eggs. It is also wise to keep the chicks in 
small lots, thus restricting spread of the disease. Sour milk 
is highly recommended as a preventive of the disease. 
Tuberculosis of fowls, or what is known as avian tuber- 
culosis, has been 
known in the 
United States since 
1899, it being first 
reported in investi- 
gations at the 
Oregon Experiment 
Station. Since then 
it has been located 
in different parts 
of the country, and 
the disease seems to 
be becoming quite 
common. Tuber- 
culosis of fowls is 
much jthe same as 
that of humans, 
cattle, or swine, and 
affects the birds in 
like manner. There is emaciation, paleness of comb, wattles, 
and skin, oftentimes a persistent greenish diarrhea, lameness, 
and in the later stages the feathers become dry and ruffled, 
and the bird is weak and stands about, moving but little. A 
post mortem examination shows the liver more or less thickly 

Figure 258. The spleen (A) and liver (B) of a tuber- 
cular fowl. The white spots are nodules, or tuber- 
cles. Photograph from Ohio State University. 


covered with yellowish spots varying from very small size 
to as much as a half inch in diameter. The intestines are 
also often extensively covered with tubercles. In fact the 
disease in advanced stage affects all the internal organs, and 
even the skeleton itself. 

There is no remedy for this disease. All known affected 
birds should be killed and burned, and the poultry houses 
and yards be thoroughly disinfected. Whitewash should be 
freely used in the houses. As the disease is known to be 
transmitted through the eggs, care should be taken to see 
that eggs for setting, as well as purchased fowls, come from 
healthy flocks. If fowls roam among droppings from 
tubercular cattle or swine, the disease may be contracted. 

Gapes is a parasitic disease due to small worms attached 
to the inside of the windpipe. These worms increase and 
finally choke the chicken, which gapes for breath, hence the 
name. Unless the worms are removed, death may ensue. 
The female worm while in the windpipe produces many eggs, 
which are either sneezed out by the fowl or are swallowed 
and passed off in the droppings. In a few days, under favor- 
able conditions, these eggs hatch, and the young worms re- 
main alive in the soil a long time or may be picked up by 
the chickens and the trouble thus be continued. A common 
treatment recommended is to take a long horse hair and twist 
the ends together to make a loop. By holding the chick's head 
in one hand, the neck extended, the bill wide open, one may 
insert the hair loop down the windpipe about an inch, give 
it two or three turns, and then withdraw, in which event 
several worms will come out. It is recommended to dip 
the hair loop in a solution of creolin, one teaspoonful to a 
quart of water, before placing in the windpipe. Turpentine 
is also used in the same manner. This will destroy worms 
by contact. It is also suggested that the creolin solution 
may be sprayed in the throat with a common atomizer, which 
will kill the worms so that the chick may cough them up. 


Disinfectants should be liberally used about the poultry 
plant in order to ward off this parasite. 

Scaly leg, or scabies, is due to a parasite that develops 
on the legs of chickens and turkeys. The parasite gets 
under the scales on the legs and bites the tissue, causing an 
irritation and blistering. From these blisters when ruptured 
come the scales which appear in many instances as a thick 
coat or mass on the feet and legs. This condition is associ- 
ated with extreme itching of the parts, and birds may stop 
laying and die from the influence of the parasites. 

Scabies is easily destroyed. The scabby patches should 
be thoroughly soaked with suds made from tarred soap or 
other antiseptic soap. After removing the scales, the legs 
should be scrubbed with kerosene. 

If the roosts and droppingboards of the poultry house 
are from time to time thoroughly sprayed with kerosene, 
scaly legs will not be likely to cause trouble. 

Lice and mites among fowls cause much irritation and 
loss of condition. There are many forms of these external 
parasites, of which seven are common on chickens. These 
are known as body lice, head lice and feather lice. 

Body lice are most abundant under the wings and about 
the vent. These lice lay eggs in clusters on the web part of 
the feather close to the quill, mostly on the small, short 
feathers below the vent. The eggs hatch in about a week, 
and the lice reach full size in about 20 days. 

Feather lice, which are usually found on the feathers of 
the back or breast of mature fowls, even though common, 
are not so troublesome, as they feed on the feathers and 
scales along the quills. Both body and feather lice are easily 
gotten rid of, either by the use of sodium fluoride, a powder 
poisonous to poultry lice, applied among the feathers next 
to the skin, or by blue ointment about the vent, using a 
piece about the size of a pea. When sodium fluoride is used, 
"not more than 12 small pinches should be put on one fowl 


at a time, as too much is injurious."^ One pound of powdered 
sodium fluorid will treat 100 fowls. 

Head lice are found on the heads of chickens of all ages, 
but especially young chicks. These lice may be killed by 
applying a drop of vaseline or melted lard to the top of the 
head, under the wings, and around the vent. Clean manage- 
ment and proper sanitation are safeguards against lice. 

Chicken mites are very small external parasites that differ 
from lice, in being blood suckers, living on the blood of the 
fowl. The mites hide in the cracks about the roosts and 
droppingboards much of the time, especially during the day, 
coming out at night and crawling on the birds. These pests 
are easily gotten rid of by the use of kerosene or whitewash 
about the interior of the poultry house. 

Stick-tight fleas are common on fowls in the southern 
and southwestern states. They locate in clusters on the 
comb and wattles and around the eyes. They breed in 
cracks in the poultry house, and among refuse material. 
Their attacks, if not prevented, may result in the death of 
young chickens, and will cause hens to stop laying. Treat- 
ment requires greasing the comb and wattles with a mixture 
of 1 part kerosene and 3 parts lard. Poultry buildings should 
be thoroughly sprayed with disinfectants or whitewashed. 

Crop-bound, or impaction of the crop, is due to swallow- 
ing substances too large or coarse to pass on into the stomach 
and gizzard. Small feathers, straw, roots, parings, etc. gen- 
erally cause the trouble. In a well developed case of crop- 
bound, it is recommended f to mix a teaspoonful each of 
castor oil and hot milk, and pour through the throat into 
the crop, followed with a gentle kneading of the crop with 
the fingers, and softening the mass, if possible, so that it will 
pass on through the digestive tract. Probably it will be 
wiser in most cases to destroy the affected bird. 

Bumble foot is a swelling on the bottom of the foot of 
fowls, which is comparable with a "stone bruise." It is 

*Lice, Mites and Cleanliness. Farmers' Bulletin 1110, U. S. Dep't. of Agr. 
fPoultry Manual. By F. L. Sewell, Ida E. Tilson and others. 1912. 


usually caused by jumping from roosts to hard floors. When 
the swelling reaches a certain stage, pus forms therein. At 
this stage the bottom of the foot should be opened, and the 
swelling drained, washed with sterilized water, and cleaned 
thoroughly with a weak solution of carbolic acid or tincture 
of iodine. The bird must then be kept on clean straw until, 
after further treatment, the foot has healed. Heavy fowls 
should not be compelled to fly from high roosts. 

Freezing of comb and wattles of fowls is not unusual in 
the colder latitudes. In severe cases death may follow the 
freezing. If the affected parts have not been thawed, they 
should be brought back to as near normal condition as pos- 
sible by rubbing with snow or cold water, and gradually 
thawing. After thawing, apply to the affected parts either 
vaseline, glycerine, or tincture of myrrh. 

Egg-eating by hens is a bad habit which is usually taken 
up by accident, due to a broken or frozen egg. In some 
instances a number of hens in a pen will become egg-eaters, 
and the habit will become serious. Eggs are not so readily 
eaten in a dark nest, so if the boxes are arranged so that the 
hens must enter from the back side, away from the light, 
the eggs will not be so visible and probably will not be eaten. 
Another preventive method is to cut off the sharp point of 
the beak, without cutting into the sensitive part. 

Cannibalism among chicks may become quite common, 
especially when they are confined in the brooder in large 
numbers. This is due to improper nutrition and overcrowd- 
ing. If the chicks do not get green stuff, such as sprouted 
oats, bugs, etc., they tend to pick at various objects, includ- 
ing their own kind. If blood starts, this satisfies the crav- 
ing for animal food, and they pick on the injured chick until 
it is killed and partly eaten. Sour milk, sprouted oats, 
chunks of green sod, and bits of meat, prevent this habit. 
Out door exercise each pleasant day is also highly desirable. 
Regarding overcrowding, it is recommended* to brood not 

*Baby Chick Troubles and Their Control. E. L. Dakan, Bulletin No. 5. 


more than 300 under one stove, with 200 a safer number. 
Leg weakness is quite common in early hatched flocks 
that are kept closely confined. While this trouble is not 
well understood, it is believed to be due to a lack in nutri- 
tion, possibly mineral matter. Under ideal management, 
with plenty of exercise and a liberal feed of bone meal, 
milk, and green food, leg weakness should not exist. 


1. What forms of roup are there, and how identified? 

2. How would you treat a case of roup? 

3. Describe an advanced stage of chicken cholera. 

4. Is treatment for cholera satisfactory? 

5. When and where was fowl tuberculosis first discovered in America? 

Is there a remedy for this disease? 

6. How would you treat a case of gapes? 

7. Describe the development of scaly leg. 

8. Where do body lice live on chickens, and how do they reproduce? 

9. How do mites get their nourishment? 

10. What leads a hen to the egg-eating habit? 


11. Try to trace the origin of a case of roup. 

12. Get a sick fowl and determine the trouble. 

13. If chickens with gapes are available, try spraying the throat with 

creolin solution in an atomizer and note result. 

14. Bring a case of scaly leg to the class. 

15. See how many forms of lice you can find among your own poultry. 

16. Survey the neighborhood and ascertain where poultry diseases 

occur, and how cases are treated. 



Dry matter and digestible nutrients in some common feeding stuffs. 

(Total pounds in 100 of feed.) 

Kind of feed. 








Corn, dent 






1: 10.4 

Corn, flint 






1: 9.9 

Corn meal or chop 






1: 11.1 

Corn and cob meal. . . . 






1: 11.8 

Gluten feed, high grade . 






1: 2.7 







1: 6.3 

Ground oats 






1: 6.4 

Wheat bran 

89 9 

12 5 

41 6 



1: 39 

Wheat middlings-flour . 






1: 4.0 

Wheat middlings, stand- 







1: 4.2 

Cotton seed 






1: 5.0 

Cotton-seed meal, choice 
Cotton-seed meal-good.. 






1: 1.1 
1: 1.4 

Cotton-seed hulls 







Linseed-meal old process 






1: 1.6 

Soy bean 






1: 1.8 

Tankage-Over 60% P. 
Corn fodder-green 






1: 0.5 
1: 13.7 

Corn stover, medium in 







1: 21.0 

Corn silage, mature .... 






1: 15.1 

Alfalfa, green 






1: 3.4 

Alfalfa, hay 






1: 3.9 

R?d clover hay 






1: 5.7 

Timothy hay 






1: 15.2 

Cow pea hay 






1: 2.7 

Mangel wurzcl 






1: 8.2 

Skim milk (separator) . 






1: 1.5 

* Note: The tables in the appendix are compiled from "Feeds and Feeding" 
by W. A. Henry and F. B. Morrison, 1917 edition , which volume contains stan- 
dard analyses of feeding stuffs and feeding. standards. 





The following table is made up from the modified Wolff- 
Lehman feeding standards, as arranged by Henry and Morri- 
son. The purpose of this table is to enable one to work out 
a few easy problems "in feeding. For example, if we assume 
one has a horse at light work, and is using feeds given in 
table A, then with the aid of table B, he should be able to 
figure out if the ration fed is supplying the animals' needs. 
The application of these tables is explained in Chapter IX. 


Per day 1,000 pounds live weight. 


Dry matter 




Dairy cows 
For maintenance 



To maintenance allowance add: 
For each Ib 2 5 per ct milk 

045-0 053 


For each Ib. 3.0 per ct. milk . . . 
For each Ib. 4.0 per ct. milk. . . 
For each Ib. 5.0 per ct. milk . . . 
Growing fattening steers 
250 pounds 







500 pounds 

23 9 

2 1 

15 8 

1:6 5 

800 pounds 
Fattening 2-yr. old steers on full feed 
First 50-60 days 





1:6.2 ' 


Third 50-60 days 
Horses at medium work 
Fattening lambs 
Weight 50-70 Ibs 




3 1-3.3 





Weight 90-110 Ibs 





Crowing fattening pigs 
Weight 50-100 Ibs 
Weight 100-150 Ibs 
^Weight 150 : 200 Ibs 
Brood sow with pigs . . . 








Types and Market Classes of Live Stock. H. W. Vaughan. 

Types and Breeds of Farm Animals. C. S. Plumb. 

Shorthorn Cattle. Alvin H. Sanders. 

History of Shorthorn Cattle. James Sinclair. 

The Story of the Herefords. Alvin H. Sanders. 

History of Aberdeen-Angus Cattle. MacDonald and Sinclair. 

The Guernsey Breed. Charles L. Hill. 

Cyclopedia of Farm Animals. Edited by L. H. Bailey. 

Dairy Cattle and Milk Production. C. H. Eckles. 

Dairy Cattle Feeding and Management. C. W. Larson. 

Productive Dairying. R. M. Washburn. 

Management of Dairy Plants. M. Mortenson. 

The Horse and its Relatives. R. Lydekker. 

A History of the Percheron Horse. Sanders and Dinsmore. 

Productive Horse Husbandry. Carl W. Gay. 

The Horse in Health and Disease. F. B. Hadley. 

Training and Breaking of Horses. M. W. Harper. 

The Horse Book. J. H. S. Johnstone. 

Swine in America. F. D. Coburn. 

Pork Production. William W. Smith. 

The Hog Book. H. C. Dawson. 

Productive Swine Husbandry. George E. Day. 

Productive Sheep Husbandry. W. C. Coffey. 

Sheep Farming in North America. John A. Craig. 

Sheep Farming in America. J. E. Wing. 

Sheep Management. Frank Kleinheinz. 

Modern Milk Goats. I. Richards. 

The Breeding of Animals. F. B. Mumford. 

Breeding of Farm Animals. M. W. Harper. 

Principles of Breeding. E. Davenport. 

Breeding of Farm Animals. F. R. Marshall. 

Principles and Practices of Judging Live Stock. C. W. Gay. 

Live Stock Judging and Selection. R. S. Curtis. 

Judging Farm Animals. C. S. Plumb. 

Feeds and Feeding. W. A. Henry and F. B. Morrison. 

Productive Feeding of Farm Animals. F. W. Woll. 

The Nutrition of Farm Animals. H. P. Armsby. 

Profitable Stock Feeding. H. R. Smith. 

Principles of Feeding Farm Animals. Sleeter Bull. 

The Feeding of Animals. W. H. Jordon. 

Feeding of Dairy Cattle. A. C. McCandlish. 

Common Diseases of Farm Animals. R. A. Craig. 

Practical Poultry Production. Lamon and Kinghorne. 

Poultry Production. W. A. Lippincott. 

Mating and Breeding Poultry. Lamon and Slocum. 

Principles and Practice of Poultry Culture. J. H. Robinson. 

Productive Poultry Husbandry. H. R. Lewis. 


Aberdeen-Angus cattle, 227. 
Accredited herds, 264. 
Acquaintance of breeders, 52. 
Action of horse, 171, 188, 194. 
Advertising, 61. 

of horse, 173. 

of pigs in relation to feeding, 

of sheep, 358. 

influence of age in beef pro- 
duction, 257. 

on growth of sheep, 368. 
on milk production, 303. 
Airing of eggs, 497. 
Albumen of egg, 491. 
Alfalfa, 108. 
American saddle horse, 148. 

trotter or pacer, 150. 
Amino acid, 77. 
Analyses, feeding table, 537. 
Analyzing feeding stuff, 84. 
Ancestral line of dam, 42. 
Ancestry in pedigree, 43. 
Angora goats, 353. 
Angus cattle, Aberdeen, 227. 

as a machine, 17. 

character, variation In, 28. 

form, study of, 138. 

relation to function, 125. 

type and its importance, 138. 

knowledge of, 142. 

and soil fertility, 16. 

buying immature, 127. 

community breeding of farm, 

composition of, 65. 

defects of, 127. 

first use of by man, 12. 

for clothing, 13. 

for food, 14. 

for labor, 14. 

in early days, 138. 

judging farm, 125. 

most prepotent, 22. 

natural interest in, 129. 
Ankle, cocked, 181. 
Anthrax, 226. 

Antiscorbutic vitamines. 71. 
Artificial selection, 30. 
Ash, mineral matter, 66. 

Ass, 161. 

community breeders, 63. 

cow-testing, 308. 

registry, 53. 
Aylesbury duck, 469. 
Ayrshire cattle, 281. 

Babcock text, 307. 
Bacon hog 

belly, 416. 

ham, 416. 

judging, 415. 

shoulder, 416. 

type, appearance, 417. 
hog, 415. 
score card, 415. 
Balanced ration, 90. 
Bantam, 467. 
Barley, 106, 120. 
Bates, Thomas, 219. 
Beak, fowl's, 485, 503. 
Bean, soy, 109. 
Bedding for swine, 431. 
baby, 249. 

bull, 247. 

calves, 247. 

cattle, breeds, 217. 

cows, feeding, breeding, 246. 

feeding, 245. 

form, 235. 

judging, 233, 243. 

production, 255. 

quality in, 238. 

score card for, 234. 

self-feeder for, 255. 

selling, 261. 

separate care, 262. 

type, 301. 

Belgian horse, 158. 
Belly, hogs, 412, 416. 
Belted, cattle, Dutch, 285. 
Benefits, club, 447. 
Berkshire swine, 390. 
Bermuda grass, 104. 
Big China swine, 392. 
Bile, 78. 

Black-faced Highland, 352. 
Black-leg, 264. 
Blanketing horses, 210. 
Blastoderm, 491. 





feeding, 425. 

removing tusks, 435. 

wild, 389. 
Body of carriage horse, 185. 

of dairy cow, 293. 

of hog, 410. 
Body lice, 532. 
Bog spavin, 178. 
Book, private flock, 381. 

swine herd, 436. 
Booth family, 219. 
Border Leicester sheep, 349. 
Bourbon Red turkey, 468. 
Boys' and girls' clubs, 440, 445. 
Brahma, light, 466. 
Bran, 119. 

Breaking colts, 212. 
Breast harness, 215. 
Breed cattle 

Hereford, 223. 

Holstein-Friesian, 274. 

Jersey, 269. 
Breed character, 36. 
Breed influence in beef produc- 
tion, 256. 

in feeding sheep, 369. 
Breed, special-purpose, 48. 
Breeders', acquaintance of, 52. 
Breeders' associations, 63. 
Breeders', suggestions to, 48. 


community, 57, 60, 62. 

growing cattle, 248. 

heredity in stock, 22. 

ideal in, 23. 

identification of stock, 54. 

method in, 59. 

beef cattle, 217. 

dairy cattle, 269. 

geese, 471. 

horses, 144. 

influence of in milk produc- 
tion, 302. 

in pork production, 421. 

literature of, 55. 

poultry, 459. 

sheep and goats, 333. 

stories of, 52. 

swine, 389. 
Bridle, 214. 
Brome grass, 103. 
Bronze turkey, 467. 
Brood mare, feeding, 201. 
Brood sow, feeding, 423. 
Brooder, 517. 
Brown Swiss cattle, 284. 

Bull, beef, 247. 

feeding dairy, 319. 

form, dairy, 290. 
Bumble foot, 533. 
Buying immature animals, 127. 
Byfleld swine, 392. 
By-laws, association, 451. 

club, 443. 
By-products of cereals, 116. 

Cake, cold-pressed cottonseed, 


Calculating rations, 93, 94, 95. 
Calf, feeding, 247, 311, 312. 
Calorie, 79. 
Calorimeter, 80. 
Canada field peas, 109. 
Candling eggs, 492. 
Cannibalism among chicks, 534. 
Cannon bone, 166, 193. 
Carbohydrates, 67, 70, 77. 
Care of cattle, 262. 
of horses, 208. 
of sheep, 379. 
of swine and pigs, 430. 
Carrots, 113. 

Aberdeen-Angus, 227. 
characteristics, 228. 
Ayrshire, 281. 

characteristics, 282. 
distribution, 284. 
milk, 283. 
beef breeds, 217. 
feeding-, 245. - 
quality, 238. 
score-card for, 234. 
self-feeder for, 259. 
selling margin in, 261. 
Brown Swiss, 284. 
dairy breeds, 269. 
breeding, 310. 
quality, 290. 
temperament, 290. 
Devon, 286. 
Dexter, 286. 
Dutch Belted, 285. 
feeding standards, 96, 245, 310. 
French Canadian, 285. 
Galloway, 231. 
growing breeding, 248. 

Guernsey, 278. 

characteristics, 279. 

distribution, 281. 

prices, 281. 
Hereford, 223. 

characteristics, 225. 

Polled, 226. 



Holstein-Friesian, 274. 
characteristics, 275. 
distribution, 278. 
milk, 276. 
prices, 278. 
Jersey, 269. 

characteristics, 270. 
milk, 272. 
prices, 273. 
judging- beef, 233. 
breeding beef, 243. 
dairy, 288, 291. 
Kerry, 285. 
Red Polled, 286. 
short-fed, 252. 
Shorthorn, 218. 

characteristics, 221. 
Wilk White, 217. 
Cereals, 104, 116. 
Character, knowledge of breed, 

. 36. 

variation in animal, 28. 
Characters, latent hereditary, 


peculiar, 26. 
selection of, 32. 
Charbon, 266. 
Cheshire swine, 402. 
Chester White, 397. 
Cheviot, 345. 
Chicken mites, 533. 
Chicken pox, 529. 
Cholera in fowls, 528. 

in hogs, 434. 
Chop feed, 200. 
Chyle, 78. 
Classification of live stock, 139, 

141, 333. 

of market wool, 327. 
Clipping horse, 209. 
Clothing, use of animals for, 13. 
Clover, red, 107. 

benefits, 447. 
boys' and girls', 440, 445. 
constitution. 443. 
county committee, 445. 
object of, 441. 
organization, 442. 
prizes for members, 446. 
standardization of work, 444. 
Clydesdale horse, 155. 
Cob meal, 118. 
Cochin, 466. 
Collar, 215. 

Colling, Charles and Robert, 218. 
Colony house, 518. 
Color markings, 24. 
Colt, breaking and training, 212. 

Colt's teeth, 173. 
Comb of fowl, 487. 
Combing wool, 327, 328. 
Composition of plants and ani- 
mals, 65, 69. 

Concentrates, 68, 115, 312. 
Constitution and by-laws, 443. 
Coop, shelter, 519. 
Co-operative marketing, 457. 
Co-operative shipping associa- 
tions, 450. 

Corn and cob meal, 118. 
Corn, Indian, 104, 116. 
Corn meal, 117. 
Cortex, wool, 323, 324. 
Cotswold, 349. 
Cotted fleece, 326. 
Cottonseed meal, 121. 
feed, 122. 
cake, 122. 

Coupling, horse, 168. 

body, dairy, 293. 
compared, 301. 
dairy form, 289. 
feeding, 313. 
food producer, 300. 
mammary development, 295. 
Cowpea, 109. 
Cows, feeding, 91, 246, 314, 318. 

score card for dairy, 291. 
Cow-testing associations, 308. 
Crack, quarter, 180. 

toe, 180. 

Crimp of wool, 324. 
Crop-bound, 533. 
Crop, fowls', 503. 
Cross-bred animals, 39. 
Croup, horse's, 169. 
Cruickshank, Amos, 220. 
Culling of herd, 32. 

of poultry, 483. 
Curb, 177. 

Dairy animal, size, 288. 
Dairy bull, feeding, 319. 

form, 290. 
Dairy calf, feeding milk, 311. 

feeding roughage, 311. 
Dairy Cattle 

body, 293. 

breeds, 269. 

feeding, 91, 96, 310, 312, 314. 

food producer, 300. 

judging, 288, 291. 

parts, 292, 299. 

score card, 291. 
Dam, line of, 42. 
Decision of the judge, 137. 



Defects in animals, 127. 
Delaine Merino, 335. 

score card, 363, 364. 
Delaine wools, 328. 
Density of fleece, 325. 
Devon cattle, 286. 
Dexter cattle, 286. 
Dextrose, 70. 
Diarrhoea, white, 529. 
Difficulty of co-operative mar- 
keting, 457. 

Digestible nutrients, 84. 
Digestion, process of, 74. 
Diseases and ailments of poul- 
try, 527. 
Distribution of 

Ayrshires, 284. 

Guernseys, 281. 

Holstein-Friesians, 278. 

Jerseys, 273. 

Shorthorns, 220. 
Docking sheep, 385. 
Domestic animals, a study of, 9. 
Domestic wools, 328. 
Dorset Horn sheep, 130, 344. 
Draft horse 

action, 194. 

appearance, 190. 

judging, 190. 

parts, 192, 194. 

score card, 192. 
Dropping sheep, 382. 
Dry cows, feed for, 318. 


Aylesbury, 469. 

Cayuga, 470. 

Indian Runner, 470 

Mallard, 468. 

Muscovy, 470. 

Pekin, 469. 

Rouen, 469. 

types, 469. 

Wild, 468. 

Duroc-Jersey swine, 395. 
Dust bath for poultry, 525. 
Dutch Belted cattle, 285. 

Ear lobes, fowls', 485. 

color, 500. 
fertile, 491. 
freshness, 500. 
incubation, 492. 
parts, 491. 
score card, 481. 

Egg-eating hens, 534. 

Egg-laying type, 459. 

Egg-producing capacity, 484. 

Egg production, ration, 511. 

body changes due to, 486. 

color changes due to, 484. 

influence of molt on, 488. 
incubation for, 498. 

market grades, 501. 

preservative for, 501. 

score card, 481. 

size and weight, 499. 

testing, 492. 

turning, airing, 497. 
Emden goose, 471. 
Energy value of food, 80. 

of feeding standards, 90 
Environment, 33. 
Epidermis wool, 323. 
Erepsin, 77. 
Ewe, feeding and caring for, 

Exercise for bull, 247. 

for sheep, 381. 

for swine, 431. 
Expense of advertising, 61. 

of co-operative shipping, 455. 
Eye rings, fowls', 485. 

Fads, 51. 
Farrowing, 430. 
Fat content, 307. 
Fattening fowls, 513. 

cattle, 249. 

lambs, 374. 

pigs, 425. 

sheep, 374. 

yearlings, 375. 
Fatty acids, 78. 
Feather lice, 532. 
Feathers, 475. 
Fecundity, 24. 
Feed lot, 260. 
Feed racks for sheep, 387. 

beef calves, 247, 313. 

beef cattle, 245, 246, 249. 

boar, 425. 

breeding stock, 370. 

brood sow, 424. 

dairy bull, 319. 

dairy calf, 311, 312. 

dairy cows, 91, 96, 310, 313. 

foal, 202. 

fowls, 503, 506, 508, 510. 

horse, 197, 198, 201, 203, 204. 

lambs, 371, 375. 

sheep, 367, 368, 369, 370, 373. 

steers, 250, 253. 

suckling pigs, 424, 425. 



swine, 418, 419, 420. 

yearlings, 251. 
Feeding analysis, 537. 
Feeding standards 

analyzing, 84. 

beef cattle, 245. 

calculating, 93. 

dairy cattle, 96. 

energy value, 90. 

selection of, 93. 

table of, 538. 

Wolff, 87. 

Wolff-Lehmann, 89, 368. 
chop, 200. 

concentrated, 115. 

cottonseed, 122. 

gluten, 118. 

hominy, 118. 

roughage, 100. 
Fiber of wool, 325. 
Fleas, stick-tight, 533. 
Fleece, 324. 
Flock book, 381. 
Foal, feeding, 202. 

animals as, 13, 

carbohydrates, 77. 

digestible nutrients in, 84. 

effect of on milk yield, 305. 
on egg quality, 507. 

energy value, 80. 

fat, 78. 

green for fowls, 505. 

heat value, 79. 

mineral, 78, 421, 508. 

palatability of, 81. 

plant as source of, 65. 

protein, 77. 

required, 86. 

Foot and mouth diseases, 265. 
Forage, 107. 

beef animal, 235. 

dairy bull, 290. 

dairy cow, 289. 

hog, 405. 

relation of to function, 125. 

study of, 138. 
Founder, 180. 

culling, 483. 

diseases, 527. 

feeding, 503. 

housing, 515. 

judging, 473. 

parts, 474. 

types and breeds, 459. 

Freezing comb and wattles, 534. 
French Canadian cattle, 285. 

Galloway cattle, 231. 
Gapes, 531. 
Geese, 471. 

Girls' and boys' clubs, 440, 445. 
Gizzard, 503. 
Glucose, 78. 
Gluten feed, 118. 
Glycerine, 78. 
Glycogen, 70. 
Goats, 353, 355. 
Grade animals, 39. 
Grades of stock, 140, 141. 
Grading live-stock shipments, 

wool, 327. 

Grain and roughage, 369. 
Grasses, 100, 104. 
Grease, yolk or, 326. 
Green animals, 127. 
Green food for fowls, 505. 
Grooming horses, 208. 
Grouping market live stock, 139. 

flock sheep, 379. 
Growing breeding cattle, 248. 

characteristics, 279. 

distribution, 281. 

milk, 280. 

prices. 281. 
Gullet, 50g. 

Haecker standards, 9L 

Ham, 416. 

Hampshire Down, 343. 

Harness, breast, 215. 

Hay, legumes, 107. 

Hays, pastures, etc., 100. 

Head lice, 532. 

Heat value, 79, 80. 

Heaves, 176. 

Hemorrhagic septicemia, 266. 

Hens, egg-eating, 534. 

score card, 479. 
Herd book, swine, 436. 
Herd record, private, 53. 
Herds, accredited, 264. 

advertising, 61. 
Hereditary characters, 26. 
Heredity, 21. 22. 
Herefords, 223. 

characteristics, 225. 

Polled, 226. 
bacon type, 415. 

cholera, 434. 

condition, 407. 



early forms, 390. 
form of, 405. 
lard type, 405. 
market types, 404. 
points, 408, 416. 
quality, 407. 
score card, 404, 405. 
size, 404. 
weight, 404. 

Wild, 389. 
Holding sheep, 356. 
Holland turkey, White, 468. 
Holstein-Friesians, 274. 

characteristics, 275. 

distribution, 278. 

milk, 276. 

prices, 278. 
Hominy feed, 118. 

action, 171, 188, 194. 

age, 173. 

American saddle, 148. 

appearance, carriage, 184. 
draft, 190. 

Arab, 146. 

Belgian, 158. 

blanketing, 210. 

breeds, 144. 

care, 208. 

clipping, 209. 

Clydesdale, 155. 

development of breeds, 146. 

disposition, 172. 

fattening, 204. 

feeding, 197, 204. 

growing, 208. 

harness, 214. 

judging, 183, 195. 

Percheron, 153. 

points, 164, 181. 

prehistoric, 144. 

quality, 172. 

salting, 206. 

score card, 185, 192. 

shire, 156. 

soundness, 175. 

Suffolk, 159. 

teeth, 174, 175. . 

Thoroughbred, 147. ' 

use, 197. 

watering, 205. 

work, 197. 

Hothouse lambs, 375. 

colony, 518. 

fattening, 517. 

floor, 523. 

foundation, 520. 

location, 519. 

partition material, 523, 

poultry, 515 . 

roof, 521. 

size, 420. 

styles, 515. 

swine, 437. 

walls, 521. 

windows, 523. 
Hulls, oat, 120. 
Hurdle, sheep, 386. 
Hydrochloric acid, 77. 

Ideal in breeding, 23. 
Identification of breeding stock, 


Immature animals, 127. 
Incubator, 494, 498. 
Incubation, 491, 498. 
Indian corn, 104, 116. 
Indian Runner, 470. 
Inheritance, 24. 
Intestines, 73, 503. 
Irish Grazier swine, 392. 

Jaw, horse's lower, 164. 
Jersey Red swine, 395. 

characteristics, 270. 

distribution, 273. 

prices, 273. 
Jowl of hog, 408. 
Judge, decision of, 137. 

capable, 128. 

bacon hog, 415. 

beef cattle, 233. 

breeding beef cattle, 243. 

comparative, 473. 

dairy cattle, 272, 288, 291. 

eggs, 481. 

farm animals, 125, 126. 

fowls, 473, 476. 478, 479. 

horses, 183, 190. 

lard-type hog, 413. 

sheep, 356, 361, 365. 

swine, 395, 404. 
Judgment of stockman, 126. 

Kemp, 326. 

Kentucky blue grass, 101. 
Kerry cattle, 285. 
Knitting wools, 327. 
Knowledge of breed characters, 

Labor, use of animals for, 14. 
Lactation, 303. 
Lactials, 78. 
Lactose, 70. 
Lambs, feeding, 371. 
rations for, 374. 



Laminitis, 180. 

Langshan, 4G6. 

Latent hereditary characters, 26. 

Laying pen, 515. 

Leg weakness, fowls', 535. 

Leghorn, 464. 

Legumes, 107. 

Leicester, 348. 

Lice, 532. 

Light Brahma, 466. 

Lincoln Sheep, 350. 

Linseed meal, 121. 

Literature on breeds, 55. 

Litters, marking, 435. 

Live stock 

associations, 452, 453. 

clubs, 440. 

commercial importance, 10. 

co-operative selling, 456. 

farming, 18. 

grading shipments, 455. 

judges, 126, 128. 

market classes, 139. 
Lump jaw, 264. 
Luster, 323. 

Machine, milking, 306. 
Maintenance ration, 87. 
Mallard duck, 468. 
Mammary development, 295. 
Manager, shipping, 453. 
Mangel-wurzel, 113. 
Margins, 261. 
Market grades of eggs, 501. 

of live stock, 139, 140. 
Market types, hogs, 404. 
Marketing sheep, 380. 

little pigs, 435. 

shipping stock, 453. 
Markings, color, 24. 
Meal, corn, 117. 

corn and cob, 118. 

cottonseed, 121. 

linseed, 121. 

meat, tankage, 122. 
Medulla wool, 323. 
Merino, 334. 

features, 336. 

score card, 363, 364. 

types, 335. 

Merit, 44, 50. 

Method in breeding, 59. 

in business, 53. 

in selection, 31. 
Middlings, wheat, 119. 
Milk, 123, 303, 304, 305. 
Milk fat, test, 307. 
Milk fever, 267. 
Milk goat, 354. 

Milk production, 24. 

factors influencing, 300, 304. 
Milk substitute, 312. 
Milk veins, 298. 
Milk wells, 299. 
Millet, 102. 

Mineral food for swine, 421. 
Mineral matter, 66, 78. 
Minorca, 465. 
Mites, 532, 533. 
Moisture in incubator, 496. 
Molt influence, 488. 
Mule, 161. 
Muscovy duck, 470. 
Mutton sheep, 359. 

Narragansett turkey, 468. 
Natural selection, 29. 
Navicular disease, 181. 
Nests, 524. 

Nodular disease, 384. 
Notes on animals, 136. 
Nutrients, 76, 81. 
Nutritive ratio, 81. 

Cats, 106, 120. 

Ohio farm bureau live-stocl; 

associations, 452. 
Orchard grass, 103. 
Organizing associations, 63, 450. 
Organs of digestion, fowls, 503. 
Origin domestic sheep, 333. 

live stock clubs, 440. 
Orpington, 464. 
Oxford Down, 341. 

Pace, movement, 171. 
Pacer, American, 150. 
Palatability, food, 81. 
Parasites, sheep, 383. 

swine, 431. 
Pastern, 167, 193. 
Pasture, 100, 318. 
Paved feed lot, 260. 
Peas, Canada field, 109. 

accuracy, 46. 

ancestry in, 43. 

bracket form of, 41. 

merit value, 38, 44. 

score card, 45. 

selection of, 36. 

Sophie's Bertha, 45. 

study of, 46. 

Villager, 42. 
Pekin duck, 469. 
Pelvic bones, 487. 
Pepsin, 77. 
Peptones, 77. 
Percheron horse, 153. 



Perches, 524. 

Persistence of heredity, 21. 
care at farrowing- in hot 
weather, 431. 

fattening, 425. 

feeding- young- breeding, 425. 
sucklings, 424. 

food, 419. 

grouping, 430. 

marketing litters, 435. 
Pin bones, 487. 
Pith, wool, 324. 

compared with animals, 72. 

composition of, 65. 

fat in, 68. 

mineral matter in, 66. 

protein in, 67. 

source of food, 65. 
Platform, swine feeding, 436. 
Plymouth Rock, 462. 
Points cut, 133. 

of the horse, 164. 

scale of, 129, 130. 
Poland-China swine, 392, 394. 
Poll, horse, 164. 
Polled cattle, Red, 286. 

Hereford, 226. 

Shorthorn, 223. 
Pork production, 418, 421. 

culling, 483. 

diseases, 527. 

disqualification in judging, 

feeding, 503. 

houses, 515. 

judge, 473, 476, 480. 

score card, 477. 

types and breeds, 459. 
Pox, chicken, 529. 
Prehistoric horse, 144. 
Premiums, 50. 
Prepotency, 22. 
Preservation of eggs, 501. 

Prices, 60. 

Guernseys, 281. 

Holstein-Friesian, 278. 

Jerseys, 273. 
Prizes, 446. 
Production, beef, 255, 258. 

milk, 24, 302, 303, 306. 

pork, 418. 
Protein, body, 70. 

in food, 77. 

in plant, 67. 
Proteoses, 77. 

Quality in cattle, 238, 258, 290. 

in hogs, 407. 

in horses, 172. 

in milk, 304. 
Quarter-crack, 180. 

Racks, sheep, 387. 
Rambouillet, 337, 338. 
Rams, feeding, care, 373. 
Rape, 112. 
Ratio, nutritive, 81. 
Ration, balanced, 90. 

calculating, 93-95. 

maintenance, 87. 

adjustment to standard, 98. 

dairy cows, 314. 

egg production, 511. 

fattening lambs, 371. 
fowls, 513. 

feeding fowlo, 510. 
Record, private herd, 53. 
Red clover, 107. 
Red Polled cattle, 286. 
Recltop, 103. 

Registry associations, 53. 
Respiration calorimeter, 80. 
Rhode Island Red, 463. 
Ringbone, 179. 
Roaring, 176. 
Romney Marsh, 352. 
Root crops, 113. 
Rot, foot, 265. 
Rouen duck, 469. 
Roughage, 68, 100, 253, 311, 369. 
Roup, 527. 
Russian swine, 392. 
Rutabagas, 113. 
Rye, 106, 121. 

Saanen goat, 355. 

Saddle, 216. 

Saddle horse, American, 148. 

Salt for dairy cattle, 320. 

Scabies, 532. 

Scale of points, use, 129. 

Dorset Horn, 130. 
Score card, 129. 

American Poultry Association, 

bacon-type hog, 415. 

beef cattle, 234. 

carriage horse, 185. 

commercial, 481. 

dairy cows, 291. 

Delaine Merino, 363. 

draft horse, 192. 

fat hog, 404, 405. 

fowls, 479. 



mutton type, 362. 

pedigree, 45. 

value of, 131, 133. 
Scoring 1 , figures in, 132. 
Screenings, wheat, 120. 
Selection, 29-35. 
Self-feeder, sheep, 377. 
Selling- co-operatively, 456. 
Selling margin, 261. 
Shank color, 486. 
Shearing, rules, 331. 


age, 358. 

Black-faced Highland, 332. 

care, 379. 

Cheviot, 345. 

classes, 333. 

Cotswold, 349. 

dipping, 382. 

docking, 385. 

Dorset Horn, 344. 

exercise, 381. 

fattening, 374. 

feed racks, 387. 

feeding, 367, 368, 369. 

grouping, 379. 

Hampshire Down, 343. 

how to study, 357. 

hurdle, 386. 

intestinal parasites, 383, 

judging, 356, 361, 365. 

Leicester, 348. 

Lincoln, 350. 

marking, 380. 

origin, 333. 

Oxford Down, 

Rambouillet, 337. 

Romney Marsh, 352. 

salting-', 376. 

scale of points, 130. 

score card, 362. 

shearing, 330. 

shelter, 381. 

Shropshire, 340. 

Southdown, 338. 

Suffolk, 347. 

Tunis, 347. 

water for, 377. 
Shelter for fowls, 515, 519. 

for sheep, 381. 

for swine, 437. 
Shetland pony, 160. 
Shipping associations, 450-455. 
Shire horse, 156. 
Short-fed cattle, 252. 
Shropshire, 340. 
Sidebone, 179. 
Silage, 110. 

Sinking fund, 455. 
Sire, pure-bred, 40. 
Site, poultry house, 520. 
Size, dairy animal, 288. 

eggs, 499. 

hog, 404. 

poultry house, 520. 
Small Yorkshire swine, 402. 
Soil fertility, 16. 
Sophie's Bertha pedigree, 45. 
Sores and wounds, 211. 
Sorghums, 106. 
Soundness of horse, 175. 

of wool fiber, 326. 
Southdown, 338. 
Sow, feeding brood, 423. 

care at farrowing, 430. 
Soy beans, 109. 
Spavin, 176. 

bog, 178. 
Speed, 25. 
Splint, 180. 

Spotted Poland-China, 394. 
Standards, feeding, 84, 86. 

adjustment of rations, 98. 

beef cattle, 245. 

dairy cattle, 91, 96, 310. 

modified Wolff-Lehmann, 88. 

selection of, 93. 

sheep, 367. 

Wolff tables, 87, 538. 
Steers, feeding roughage, 253. 
Stockman, judgment of, 126. 
Stomach, fowl, 508. 

capacity, 76. 
Stomach worms, 383. 
Structure wool, 322. 
Study of animal form, 138. 

domestic animals, 9. 

energy value, 90. 

local conditions, 51. 

pedigree, 46. 
Suckling pigs, 424. 
Sudan grass, 104. 
Suffolk horse, 159. 
Suffolk sheep, 347. 
Suggestions to breeders, 48. 
Summer feeding, steer, 250. 
Swede turnips, 113. 

bedding, 431. 

Berkshire, 39-0. 

breeds, 389. 

care, 430. 

Cheshire, 402. 

Chester White, 397. 

Duroc Jersey, 395. 

exercise, 431. 



feeding, 418, 420. 

platform, 436. 

requirements, 418. 

standards, 418. 
Hampshire, 399. 
herd book, 436. 
judging, 404. 
parasites, 431. 
Poland China, 392. 
quarters, 431, 437. 
Small White, 402. 
Tamworth, 402. 
tuberculosis, 435. 
water for, 423. 
Yorkshire, 400. 
Swiss Cattle, Brown, 284. 

Tamworth swine, 402. 
Tankage, 122. 
Tapeworm, 384. 
Teeswater cattle, 218. 
Teeth, horses', 173, 175. 

sheep, 358. 

Temperament, 25, 290. 
Temperature, incubator, 495. 
Testing association, cow, 308. 
Testing for milk fat, 307. 
Therm, 80. 

Thin-rind swine, 399. 
Thoroughbred horse, 147. 
Thoroughpin, 178. 
Thrush, 210. 
Timothy, 102. 
Toe-crack, 180. 
Toggenburg goat, 334. 
Tompkins family, 224. 
Toulouse goose, 471. 
Training the colt, 212. 
Trimming feet, sheep, 385. 
Trot, movement, 171. 
Trotter, American, 150. 
Trypsin, 77. 

Tuberculosis, 262, 435, 530. 
Tunis sheep, 347. 
Turkeys, 467, 468. 
Turning eggs, 497. 
Turnips, 113. 
Tusks, removing, 435. 
Type, animal, 138, 142. 

of foundation stock, 35. 

in beef production, 255. 
Types of poultry, 459. 

Udder, 295. 

Unproductive cow, 301. 
Use of 

animals for food, 13. 

figures in scoring, 132. 

horse, 197. 

scale of points, 129. 
water by animals, 81. 

for clothing, 13. 

for fertility, 16. 

for labor, 14. 

Value of grasses, 100. 

of pedigree, 44. 

of pure-bred sire, 40. 

of relative parts, 132. 

of score, 133. 

Variation in character, 28. 
Varieties of fowls, 462. 
Veins, milk, 298. 
Ventilation, incubator, 496. 
Villi, 28. 
Vitamines, 71. 

Warbles, 267. 
Water, 66. 

for dairy cow, 320. 

for fowls, 509. 

for horse, 205. 

for sheep, 377. 

for swine, 423. 

in animal body, 69. 

use of by animals, 81. 
Watson, Hugh, 227. 
Weathers, 375. 
Weight of hog, 404. 

of eggs, 499. 

of horse, 172. 

related to feeding, 420. 
Wells, milk, 299. 
Wheat, 106, 118. 

bran, 119. 

middlings, 119. 

screenings, 120. 
White cattle, Wild, 217. 
White diarrhoea, 529. 
White Holland turkey, 468. 
Wild boar, 389. 
Wild duck, 468. 
Winter lamb, 375. 
Wolff feeding standards, 87. 
Wolff-Lehmann standards, 

93, 368. 
carpet, 327. 

clothing, 327, 328. 

combing, 327, 328. 

commercial production, 322. 

cortex, 323, 324. 

crimp, 324. 

Delaine, 328. 

domestic, 328. 

epidermis, 323. 

features of, 324. 

INDEX 551 

fiber length, 325. Worms, stomach, 383. 

fineness of, 325. Wounds, horse, 211. 

grading of, 327. Wyandotte, 463. 

market classification, 327. 

medulla, 323. Yearlings, feeding, 251. 

pith, 324. Yellow pigment, 484. 

soundness of fiber, 326. Yolk, 491. 

territory, 328. Yolk, or grease, 326. 

trueness of fiber, 325. Yorkshire swine, 400. 

Work of horse, 197. Young breeders, 48. 



Published by 


By A. D. "WILSON, Sup't of Farmers' Institutes and Extension, 

Minnesota College of Agriculture, and C. W. WAR- 

BURTON, Agronomist, U. S. D. A. 

544 pages, 162 illustrations, cloth. $1.80 net. 

This book discusses the peculiarities of each of the various classes 
and varieties of farm crops, the handling of the soil, selections of seed, 
and general crop management. It covers the cereals, including corn, 
wheat, oats, rye, barley, etc.; forage crops, including hay grasses, clo- 
ver, alfalfa, cowpeas and other legumes; how to make good meadows 
and pastures, and the art of hay making, etc.; root crops; sugar crops; 
fibre crops, including cotton, flax, hemp; tobacco, potatoes, in fact 
evepy farm crop of any importance is discussed. The introductory 
chapters give the general classification of farm crops and their uses and 
relative importance, and review the subject of how plants grow. The 
concluding chapters discuss the theory and practice of crop rotation 
and weeds and their eradication. A list of supplementary references 
is given at the close of each chapter. The style is easy, subject matter 
well arranged and vital, and the book is of excellent mechanical 


By J. B. DAVIDSON, Professor of Agricultural Engineering, 
Iowa State College 

554 pages, 342 illustrations, cloth, $1.80 net. 

The subjects discussed are so applicable to the every-day work 
of the farm that the book will prove of great interest and value to 
those engaged in practical agriculture. The following subjects are 
given space according to their importance: Agricultural Surveying, 
Drainage, Irrigation, Road Construction, Farm Machinery, Farm Mo- 
tors. Farm Structures, Farm Sanitation, and Rope Work. Each chap- 
ter is followed by a set of questions for review and for thought pro- 
motion. Lists of references to best books and bulletins are included. 
Complete index. A splendid guide to the mechanics of the farm. 


^VERou *'' ON THE 

YC I 1 569