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Full text of "A study of industrial arts in the elementary schools"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/studyofindustriaOOdodd 



mMUSCRIPT TnSSES 

TtepublitlMd thMM sui>ndtted tor th« Matter's &9gv— 
ar« d«poslt«d in th* Florida Sontham Collaga Library and ar« 
availabla for inapaotlon. Use of any thaaia ii liaitad by tha 
righta of tha author. Bibliographleal rafaranoaa aay ba Dotad« 
but pasaagaa nay not ba copiad unlaaa tha author has glran par« 
■iatioii. Cradit nust ba s^irem in aubsaquant wrlttan or rsub* 
liahad w>rk* 

A library trhioh borrows thia thaaia for uaa by ita 
oliantala is axoaotad to naka stira that tha borrovar ia owara 
of tlM aboTa matriotlons, 

Florida Southam Collaga* 



uMMUt nmmun 

••S»IIt:>0 JEnr«rl!^08 «ftl«XOn 



A STDDT OF IXDUSTKUL ABTS 

KJsuntKKT somois 



HOBT A. DODD 



8iiteltt«<i iB partial fttlilllMSt of th* 
r«qulr«MBti tor the d«gr*« of Ihttor of 
Art* in tho Ondoato Sthool of Florid* 
Sovthora Co Hag* 

Ausaat 194t 



8nA JAIKWaai' ^"^ A 



(wca .A lectin 



«fciT.«>X'? "St* Xr 'fltO Wife? «i »*9A 

«*«<« ; r fi'j s^.td&t: ■:■■ :: 



TIm pklietophy of the tlmmnbtry tmmohmr la ob* of 
•Boottragiag and retpootio^ ••lf*axpr«ssion« Shv r«ilii«a 
%lMt hor J«% i« aot that of produoing laioatrial art«« tat it 
la the taak of dero loping iBtollic«nt« approoiatiTo oonavawra 
of art. Sho tnidorataiuUi that far ao ra iaportaot than tho 
vork of indvatrial art itaalf ia irtiat tha «ork of art dooa 
for tha ehild* not only at the aoMiBt «han aa objoat ia fin- 
iahadt but ia tha genaral dovolopaMBt of a h»alt^« happy* 
intalligoBt aaBibar of aooiaty* 



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.«.ri 3:.t ittajitftj jaa OBsasr jxiosus: cur Ja Tt*«o -fvn tiu ,un; oi-.^i tol 



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AOPiOffLBIXaffilTS 

Th« writer wishes to •xpress hsr dssp apprMlatioa 
to Dr. Uvary, Professor Thoi^son, Knd Professor Springer for 
their sustained interest^ helpful gnidenee, end petlenee 
throttghout the oonrse of this study* 

AekDovledgment is gratefully asi^e to Dr« E, L* 
BobinaoB, Professor J, Taamiyn, snd others vho eontrihuted 
mtMh of the seterialt end the writer else eactettds slneere 
thanks to the lihx^rians who were so patient in helping te 
find reference aaterial* 



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Mm fAlvMt* to tlM •hlld« to tlM >e wwiu lty» and to tho t«MlMr* 
•f UMlvdlBg iMdu«trial a«t« 1b tho •IffMotwpy ••bMl mrrlvalim. 

Sp»olfl» Problwi 

IfaKt is tlM pvrpoM of ladu*tri«l arte in th» •!•- 
■Mrtary ourrlMlwtf It hat !>••& att«Hpt«d to i^ioaeh this 
pxoblMi in cnoh a Mumar «bat tha final raaulta vill b« balp- 
fal to tha toaohing profattloa* 

Othor problMM to b« eoaaiAorod ineludo tho al>ility 
of thi ehild ait varleua agaa* to aaqniya kamAadeo and ralatlvi 
•kill im« and to dari'va pleaaura tfom, tba diffarmt typaa of 
kmlamft* It akould ba diaao-mrad vhatiiar ar not tha ahild 
till ba battwr abla to «Bdar«ta&d aad aapa with hit omi an'virMiii^^ 
aaat vhila ha ia in tha praaaaa of aoqairiac a oi*aatiT» and 



. 1 • 

ffMtlMd vntentMkllag ef past aai pv«a«rt fttltttrM* 

S«-v«r«l poiBtf hky b««n brot^^ o«t la tldt work* 
StvdiM Md* iB tlw p«tt IndlMtc that vithia th« child 11«« th« 
fundftB«atftl iKHS* ^ er««t«, and tliat h» vlll iMm aor* Mully 
and «1^ acre plaarare tvom a oeaarvta approaah to a probl«a 
vhioh aill gifa this arvatl-ra urge •zpraaaioa* thaa ha will ffoa 
aa abatraot praaaatsatlon* Zt ••«■• probaJsIa that thi« praadaa 
•hottld b« partimlayXy apipliad to tiw ahild la •iMHKtacy 
sahooly who la still la tha pvooaaa of laaraiae tha pliyaioal 
raota of tha mirld about hia« aad «te la atill ia tba prooMa af 
parfoatlBg hi a am pi^tlaal ooordiaatloaa Ba aaads a ooaatrue- 
tlta oatlit far tha aetor aatlflty ahioh ia a pradooiaaat faa- 
tara of this ataga of hla davalapaMat* Ba haa aa iaqalriag idaA* 
but often laoka the axparleaaa aaaaaaayy to darlva satlafaotory 
■tiaulatlea fvma atoatfaat IdaM* -*>^--«m«a« 

Daliaitatioaa 

tlaaa tha atady of Induatrial arta ia alraady vail 

t -■ , - •■.., 

aitabliahad ia tha fiald of aaeeadary and highar aduoatioa* it 
aaa ooaaidarad daairabla to Halt thia raaaaroh to alwaastary 
aahoala. gradaa oaa through aix* Partlaular affert haa baaa aada 
to apply aoaalaaloaa raaohad to tha sahoola of Hlllaborough 



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AltkM^ Nacamh hu b««i ■»!•» aad sourM* of alriidsr 
plaoMdl aad Moftwd in Ma* ia«t«iia««« it would •••• that tlM 
iadttuitylAl art* »«ptt«t of •Iwntary •dwiMtlott has b4MR 
— gl w f dl iB rM«nt yMura* Thla it partloolftrly tmo with rM* 
f9t to org«als«d plMU of tMohlng whi«li vould oorrvlat* th« 
»Aim% with tlM otlMr ••«»•■ of atvdly* 

^ Pof lHl tion of T<rat 

iBdustrial mrtt, as eonaldorod in this thasla, havw 
iMaa dafln«4 as follow* t "As * subjeot for tKiuoatlv* parpo*«*« 
tadustrlal art* Is a study of the ohancas wad* by aaa la tha 
toram of natarlals to Inereasa thalr values* and of tha prob» 
Isa* of Ufa ralatad to thas* ehangai*"* 

Tha iBdustrial arts stty b* studiod aithar with a 
ganaral adaeatlonal purposa in aiad or in ordar t* danralop 
Bkill iB a partisular industry* Tha lattarM.YDaatlenal traia* 
iBg—of eoursa hss not baaa aoBSldarad la ralatloa t» tha *!•• 
■MBtary aohoal* 

Z% 1* al** aaeassary to aaha a distlBstieB bctwaaa 
iBdustrial art* aad tha flaa art*, alttovgh tha tae ar* raiy 
alaaaly alliad. fins art* aay ba aaid to ba aoBaanssd aalaly 



!• Fradariaic 8» Bonsar aad tela Ooffty MDaaaan* IBdustrial Art* 
fbr BlssMmtayy Bahaol*. p* S. 



XSsu&ti tc- ;i©;:-,i,'t'«' tat ^iHi^M aa^e^ ^ £.-■;£, f '■: 






« 4 • 



«ltli tlw orMtloA of iMttutgr vithffttt Mgwd t» tlM ««lU«3r mt tte 
objMft ar«*t«4« vhil* Inductrlftl Mrta«*>« primt^tilf oo»«enw4 
with th« erMtloB of usttfal oT» j»t»» <' I M m M r» tiuum i« appaiw 
•atly * f«aiiianrt«l uid vuil<«<»rMl dMir* for b«c«rtty of d««lsu 
Md 4Momtl«m to 1»« Kppll*d otvii to th« Most vaoful of ob;}«ot«,» 
vhiok »«MUi th*t at l«ft«t wao aeiMets of th« flwi «ytt aro m 
lat«fnil p^rk of th« Indhurtrl*! artt, 

Afftin« th« iadhMtrial «rt« Mftit b« dlatlagvlBhod from 
Mof^tioaa oeiiMnMA with th« px«diMtlon of Mnr iMtcrtftlt fxos « 
iriii«h ttt«fal obj««t« ftM and** 7hM« ooot^tlom «o«14 imolnd* 
Innting tnd fishing* «grl«altai«, alBinga trMiaportatlon und 
tnUto. 

Tbo ^ llMd fo r th» Study 
Corrolatlog induttrlal arts with tta* roguXar ooori* 
of study should aid th« ohlld im ••Toral ways* For •x»mpl%» 
•xparlMM* iB using tho aatorials of produotlon vill glv« him 
rudlawBtary kaowlodg* iriiith Mty proTld* him with a good basis 
for latsr study of mors dotailsd aspoots of tha art*--*, study 
«hi«h Hsy load to ths ohoios of a ponnaiumt oooupatlon. It nay 
at isast ansouraga ths pursuit of bobbiss vhlah will torn his 
ml»d toward hslpful* usaful ohannsls, and from iriilsh ha nay 
asquira ths happinsss and sta:biUty vhiA mould sealblns to halp 
him bsso m s a good altlssn* John Damsy ctatss« *Ths individual 



• # • 



tis*.:f ^Q viilii;^ miti ttf itKwn tt^oiiHtv vfuno^ to vnttane mdA ilbtiv 

iiitjnmtma ^UriMsu%fi wui^^tM iisj.-i3»\i.Ai^ «i.:.:-i«r .c ^ 

eo ;rtam. a^M Ims.1u 
iLlMtiVfjm tan \o motttiubcfin mI^ imtm j> 



6 . 



finds h«ppln«tt in doing vAuit th» natvjml and loeinl enTlronMiit 
damnds*'* Trva. m piur«ly phytionl ttnadpoint* praotlo*! pyoj«ott 
•hottld improf hit Mui«ular ooordination and potsatinl skill* 

Study of th« industrial arts should hslp hin asquire 
loumlsdg* through ezparisnoa, and at a paoa with his own evolvu 
tion« of how tha ^mrioos industries dsiralopad fron Tsry siopla 
origins and how thsy are now interwoTsn into tha ooa^lioatod 
fabria of society. In loaming tha mathods oaaployad by people 
of the past in aolTing their problsnw of oonTsrting raw oaterials 
into shelter* elething* and food* and the way their solutions 
have been deraloped and liq>rDYed upon up to the presMt dayj the 
pupil is not only adding to his store of knowledge but also is 
]i,««»fl4ng jasny praotioal appliuations of this knowledge. This 
study should aid hia In understanding his own relationship to 
nodem culture* and should give hia a rudisenbary insii^t into 
what will be his personal problsns of ohoosing* utiXlzing« and 
preserving his possessions. 

Johann Ask>s CoaeniuSf 17th Century educational 
writer* and so-ealled ""ather of nodem eduoation**'* fit*st oon* 
eluded that the eonstruotlT^ and destructive is^ulses in children 



t* #shn Dewey* Htg n sn Wature and Conduot . p. 297. 

S« Villiaa H* ^^uuioB an^' Isadora M. F^enn* Fiadajasntals of 

Industrial Arts and Yooational Eduoation« p» 1. 



••> 3 «» 



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f eaftelwMDf le vrvH mid o^ yitUji \;ijro &tia «i Xlv'V 

«;^ai tf^dgiuxi \tsiavdLbtn e i»1j1 vvis bXtforia ham «rxir^Coo CMftcME 
teit «^lsl/i^ t^lBooifo lo ftKoX<fc-'q X/Kio«n«»q Riff ttf XX iv ;^«dir 






. e • 



f IteBtioal and r«i«iM iiuiduw* dtarias th« p«riod of ord«r«4 
AeeuamlAtloB of kawl^dgo* Sinoo that tiM>« odaofttom in dlf- 
forost oouatrio* hasvm booa dortlopins induatrlftl «rt« timiaiim^.,^ 
•ithor M ft prmlimiamry to l«t«r imaatloMl t2«lalnf« or «• a 
woiwt of pro'vidiBg lolturv-tlBO ooovpatioa* Maid of roatoring 
iMWXy lott hMkloxmft arta* 

Tnm tiM rvtoasifb ooitd«(it«l« it noidd ••«» that la 
this aa »tgy offavta bar* b««£ oowMatrnt^d largaly wi tha 
taa^iag of iniaatilal arta b^aalag with tho aoran^ grada. 
It would aaaa tliat aoiM prayaratJLam would \m daalxabia* oflaawaiw 
aurata vlth tha aga aad da^valoiMant of tha ohilda baftva nora 
advaaaed ttudiaa in wunial tvaiaiac aad Imaa aaonoaaiea ara 
attaaptad. Too* thara atlll aadats tha prablm of thota afieaa 
aduoatiOB •tOM with tha al«M«tary gradaa* Thay vlll hara had 
littla or tm praatlaal ascporlaaoa with haaAarafta ahiah aay ba 
tha haiia af thair futura «aEiatanaa vwiaaa thay hava had aoaa 
aort of iaduatrial arta training in tha aXwaantary a^iool* 

la •oanatloB, thara doas taant to axiat a rary dafi- 
Bita aaad for aakiag a aoaerata approaoh to taaehiae a ahild ia 
hia aarly« foivatlva yaara* in ordar to gratify hli ooastrua* 
tlTa urga» aod to prapara him for futura davalofMant of highar 
akilla. 



• « 



' £ii £%«;t««i,>&« ,«a^ «£«&;;!' ••&/:'' .^;- L •.,?:.■■.:. - /.v>i •,.;..;: ■ 

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.;.--•<• wv^^i jJiitE \^.% .Mteft ^putfmsBKi* •««- jAj^xb' zwav unksanmo* 
«nj}& tWT * ^-bE* e^ NMM •»c>fc n«{;;r . ^irl 



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' ft*«*dtty la Coll— tiag Jfcta 6,'r«i, 

K Data vaad in this theal* ware •0Hpil«4 ttmk all atttlL* 

abla booka writtan on tha aubjaat by i^anognisod authoritl«a» froB 
ganramaant adnaatioiml bullatlnat parlodioala« aad natarial ob>» 
taload by writing to outstaadine aahoola irtiloh do inoluda InAua- 
trial arta in tha praaant ourrieuliai« eithar In trainiog taaohara 
or in aatual praatlaa in alaaantary sohoola* Aaong laforBatioa 
froB than ara praetioal laaaoa plana ^loh hare aotually boaa 
uaadj and tha raaulta obtainad fron euoh uaa* 

Souroaa of thia information ineludad (1) Southam 
Collaga Llbrayy* (2) Tha TaBq>a City Library, ata«« and (S) 
raaords of tha proaaadinga of the Tauqm Sohool Board of Publia 
Sahoola* 

Tha aaaonid atap in aaouring data was to oontaot and 
intarriaw induatrial arta atxperriaori* taaohara, and othara* 

Papila* taaohara* and adnaatora gara Taluabla infbmatioa* 

\ 

liathod of TraatlBK th» Data 
>i^v Tha data gathared froa booka and aagasinaa irara aat 
down in ootoa, and as the atruotura of tha thaaia pragraaaad, tha 
matarial was orgaalsad in outliaa fora and dna rafaranea aada la 
its souroe* In aoaa oaaaa* aooh aa reporting hiateriaal data* 
aaay authora vara atudiad aad apaalfia uaa oada of tha aoat ooa^ 
Plata or rapraaaBtati-ra rafaraaoaa* 



j^'^m^ss^t^^s. 



«?ic. fi8.f»f©*a« *«» <|ii|jiftiiit>i5«q' r*i''-'-'.-.nv'i £«<»l*jBe!lS« tfowKitwcoR 

««ta i*t»»K gm^ ^ ft«* ♦*•«« 

«i.f(J««! "Jo RtwjS Io(Mlfr8 msKB/t f^'^ ^t for wd* »• •fcwe^n 



• 8 • 



Th« InfonMtion g*iiM4 throvi^ p«rtoBAl l«t«rvl««i 
t&kMi down earefully «t th« tia* of th« lBt«rri«iv« SlsM 
this Kat^rlftX r»prei«iit«d a l&rg« portion of th« infoinBAtloa 
o^btainod about loofil drrolopaMit of tlM Indnttriftl arta^ it vat 
uaad to giT« a piotura of tha faota oonaamlBg tho growth of 
industrial arta in Tanpa* 



-So aSilvXt hM baan attaaptad to a^^roaah tha prabl«a of 
iiwluding indaatrial ark* in tha alamntary tahool ourrlaulqa 
in tuah nnanar that tha final insult* will ba kalpful to tba 
taashifig i^rofaacion* 

Sinoa tha •arantaanth oantury raaagnition of tha 1»> 
porbanaa of taaahing indnttrXal arta in tha poblia aahaala has 
baan da^raloping in variant aourtrlat. It haa baan eatabliahad 
that tha ohild loams laora roadlly and with graatar plaaaura 
ihrou^ a oonorata approaeh to a preblaMf and that through in* 
dnstrial arta» hia oraatiTa a«paaitiaa ntngr ba lad into naaful 
ohannalta 

Stndy of tha problan is liaitad to gradas ona through 
six. 

Bata wara gatharad fvem all typaa of avaiXabla pvbli* 
oations and froH paraonal intarvlawai and wara orfaniaad and 
aoapilad with dna raforonea to aourea* 



• • 






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wil i(Btf<;9il^ *aA& bum timldmq » ot WM«tf«« »#w«Moe « tfgtf^Vii* 
4pf--Tafi.7 dflto B»rs«»r;5 »f fef^JtadtX •! fl»Xcfe«i<j Ml* %9 X^b$M 



GHAPT8W II 
aiOTOiy OF gPPSTHIAL AK8 IPDOATIOl 

Uad»y«t>Bdian; y>a|i*»i Probl<i 

Vo •rtabllBh a Inuils for uiid«r«t«nting th« problea 
of th« Ittdttttrial ftrta prognm in Taapa* and to d«t«rmi&« th« 
puxpoto of iBvlttdlnf; auoh « progztua in tho •Imnvtvry sehoel* 
it 9ttm» n«9««Mry to revic* tho gonoral hiotorloal doTolop- 
■mt of tho toaehlng of iaduitriftl orti* Tho tie botvoon th« 
past and tho prooont it oo oloso that ciaay of tho problosBO of 
tho past atill oociot* Honoo* thoro follorvo a maamrf of tho 
hlotory of Induatrlal arts oduoatlon* 



Hiatoi-y of Iteitttrlal Art s Bdaoatioii 

Ittdua trial arts and rooatloaal oduoatlon haTo 
oxistod in ono form or othor fbr many thousands 
of yeara*««» 

Tho young of priaitivo h«aaaity galnod their 
lifttiMmstalaiBs ski 11a and lOKmlodgo fms iKlta- 
tlon of their oldors* From tiao iiiMSsairlal thoro 
hao always boon industrial oduoatlon of somi kind 
soaasrhoro, vhothor in tho ho8io» in tho iAiop« in 
tho agrlottltural field, in Urn (xilld hall» in th« 
nonastory, or upon tho field of battlo* In latar 
oonturies when van booam aoro oiTilitod tho 
yoangor laomhors of the i:rloo wore taught tho 



II 

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- 10 



Uf*»*««t«iBliig (killt through tribal ri|^t« 
/ "«lo 7 and svraaoniet* At oiriUMtlon 
deValop»4« osrtaitt n«atb«r8 of th« oommlt/ 
^•gtti to r«iid«r «p«ol«lls«il tsrrioss lilni 
«lii'p«flt«r vork* vaaving, oobblicf, and b«l#* 
la^* At flrrt* boys I«iirB«d th« tradet ttrm 
thalr fath«r« or oth«r a«ab«ra of th« fteaily* 
lAt«r« yovmg p«opl« agr**d to vork for 
••▼eml year* for oartain IndiYiduala pro- 
vidad thay vould t«aoh than a trado* Thl« 
iTpa of iBdaacbarad apprantiaaahip ayatan «aa 
u<ad in i^igypt bafora tha Chrictian era* It 
pandttad tha youth a wldar ahoiaa of 'voaa* 
tioua thaa the fathar»«Bd-son apprentloaahip 
ayatMU Durixig tha Ulddla Agat tha Indaii* ^^ ^ 
turad apprwitleaahip aystan playad a vary 
l^perltant part in ^a araft guilda* With 
tha riaa of tha faotory 8yst«Bi« howavar* 
aana ^a daollna of tha inda n t ur ad apprMW 
tloa and tha oi^ft guild and tha gradual 
^^'^ riaa of our aDdam Industrial ara« 

Ihanwar thara has baan uork to de« prob> 
lass to aelra* diffioultias to oTaroo]M» 
froBtiar* to svibdua* thara has baan iadna* 
trial aduoatlon* It was tha original pro- 
jaat mathad* It has baan real aduaatlon* 
inTolving saaingf haaring^ doing, thinking* 
It uas only uhan tha frontlara had baas 
subduad and living baaaaa aasiar that tha 
popular aonoaptloa of tha idaal aduaatleii 
baaaaa tha aduaatlon of Idaas and raaordad 
aiqE>arianaaa« •"** -*••■* 

Tha problast of industrial arts and -voaa- 
tlonal aduoation in tha Dnitad Statas today 
T% tha saaa preblssM in a aora aoaplax 
satting than our anoastors ha-ro had to maat 
throU||^«t tha agas. Ha ara aonfroata4 ta« 
day with a highly orgaalsad sooiety In ahiah 
aany of tha praduats and aanrieas assantial 
to oraryday llTiag ara providad by akillad 

worksrs* 

MA ;>' 

Tha industrial soolaty of today is not only 



OjC • 



ia^^:- i^ukia OytmM %£its» paatMiwMiitU 

•of If a««irr»s ]b»alX«i««qr« t>s»ibjBW3 o# 4«|»<f 
^ittd bam ^tfilSMwi^ «]|ffihrj»»» .:^*t:ent tii^tameui^ 

•Krt it<w o* fctNWSJi 0iqm^q Timor, ^"im&nJ. 
tilfl .♦fijlfiv. w »*. . ■ ,, - ■.■- 

«jR»crtr ^© 4M»I«I» ««i)iW « A.-™..^ >. . ---T. 

j((;^lW ,«lkXliit ilun* «d» nit itJiq ^ijf#?<M|ai 
«tWV«WQrf MMcNYtf X«Mi*<i'^ •'(t^ ^0 **^ O**^ 

Imkmst •^ Hi* Mini wi» bu» m>kt 

• jmo XjHNd-atrftii^ nioi^iW! -ufo le MJhe 

»<fotq «aft a^ ^t^m mt»d tad «n»d& tw n— ifl l 



~M(rr tan •iiM iMtximhal U» 

^•t ■•#«tf8 iHl^i^ r rjolAMNlMI X4MM|i» 



- 11 - 



^" Mapl«K« b«t it it Mirtirtly •hfMcing *m t» 

tMhnologlMl d«T«lopM(at«* If «• «r« to cn- 
J07 tK* •oafbrtt and ettltur»l MrtiTiti«t of 
■od«m lif«« «e mutt b* ti«ln«d to r«nd«r 
mm» font of of fieirait Mrvi*** to that owr 
asdom industrial soeioty oan pro'rido us with 
m MMMtary ratum auffiaiaat to aatlsfy owr 
•aoaoaia and seeial naada*^ 

ffLon—r Adhwoataa^ o f Taaohiiy iBdmtrlal Ar tj i 
nuraa nan havo baaa prSaarlly rMponaibla for tiM 
trand toward toaehing tho handerafta aa an intagval part of 
fonal adttoatioa* Ona of thasa man* Johaaa Aaoa CoMmlva 
(1690»irro) • «aa tha orislMal advooata of tha «•• of haai* 



vark in tonml adaaatioAa bogiiming with tha Idndargartea* 
Tha Faaaophla Salieal at teroa Bstak in Bn^ary flnt haavA 
hia idaaa mi tha aaao ur a go awit of tha ooaatraoti«i wad da- 
ttntetifa isqmlaaa whiah ha oontidared oaa and iit» Mm»» ■• 
baliarad that kcovladga ahould ba aoquirad in a logiaal 
ordarad faahiem* and that ohildraa's aaatary of tha baaia 
prinalplaa af what goaa on in tha world about Hbmm. was 
oaaastial la order to foatar tha davalapaant of any partla* 
ular iaallnatloaa toward iaam aa— al oaeiqpatiaaa« 

Tha aaaoad nwnf a Swiai toaahar naiind Bainrlah 



1. WLlllaa B* Johnaott and Isadora M* Faaa» Ftadanantala of 

lnduatrla]L Arta and ▼ooatlonal Bduoatton , pp» JS^lA* 

2. Ibld. j p. I. 



- XI » 






•*, ■""-; htm 






P»atAleisi (174ft-X887) «ho b«e«iM kaovn mm the "F»th«? of 
Huniftl Tndalas* « aqphMiscd tbm ii^orfeano* of instruetlon 
through tho ob^««t awthod* i& aoooai^danw vith hit b«ll«f 
that «aqMri«>)««a *ud iaiprtsslozi* -vci^ Mi«aM»l to IdM Bwn» 
t&l d«*«lofM0at of th* ohild* Ho ad-vooatod AoquirlBg idMtt 
thmogh MBt* p*i*(NV%&o» t)m« biiMline tosvthor kaowloAgo and 
tho Ability to p«rfom« asd b^llo-fwd th« «la of •daeatioa t» 
b« th« natuyml* progroaalv* and ayttamatie dovalopmint of all 
the natural powers* 

Xha third Baa« Froebal (1788*1B68)\ thought aoiu. 
•truatioa aoti^tlM •heuld be «a|AMi«ii«d la the toheolc idiieh 
he eoMidered eheuld he ergaidsed at a alBiattsre of eooiety* 
He adveoated the play idea and haadeork aetivltiee la early 
edaeatiea* 

Other pioneers in advooatlng or pattiac late pra*» 
tiee the teaehiag of indastrial arts Inelude Martia Lather* 
the Svlss rmtttrmmr Seingli* August Beraaaa Praaeke of Ball** 
Arnold mgsnaa of Oottiiieeaa 8«ltserland*s statesaaa 
Sehvindlera Vietor Delia Tos of Ibseov* and Vllliaa Morris of 
Aielaad. 



9* Ute* Pi t . 



•. tt « 
to *mat0f" i>4t uf l im m m m t\ i<f r) jnhmiIa^wm 

auwfcJt JlBirtii-pOii i.-j'.rvjujc;^^.!:-* oil *Miri» t.uw ... -rrfjiefrmft tai 

«1NMli«2 tflihuaM idmiMU t#iMk Ii«i?K^«K&«i 1o 3«Mojt9»« adt 09>l& 
^lUlM lo citttfMV mmntM tMStfA ^IXanlnS tttcif^v'k «»lM« *rfi 

to «im<dt Miljiluilll bus «V0Mi«K to ««7 alXtQ nco^ei^ »itfi«li>f»l 






Both PinlMsd and SwsdMi r»«ogniMd th^ ii^i^aaM 
of waantLl ti«iBing inotruotion in tho oolwolc 1>eforo it was 
intmdwwd Ivto tho tlnlt«d 8tat««, In rinlaiid« Fz\3eb«l*a idoaa 
mtf put isfco MtioB by Ttao CysaMu** ^o '>'<^> appoiatod ia 18S8 
by «h« Swioioa Staporoy to roorsftniso tho priaftry •ohools« 
dfgaunm roooHnoniod tho toaohiag of jmaml tr«inlos with adhozw 
OBOO to tho oBlToroftl tdm of eduoatloa* 

Xb SwodoB Otto SalooDn bogtui training teaohors in 

bit Sloyd iBOtitttto at Boas in 187t« uador what i« oallod tho 

•wdloh Sloyd Syston, The word *Sloyd" is dori-rod fioB tho 

•vodii^ "ilojd" and ia tvanolatod by tho Bnglioh word "areeo^ 

^1oa"« •voden nado Banual training a part of hor oduoational 
« 

tyotoBi in 187S by oatabliohiog spooial aohoola oololy to toaoh 
Sloyd to granBar aohool ago pi^ila. Claosoo voro Ximitod to 
twonty pttpllt in ordor to allo« for indivldaal dlfforoBooa and 
iadltldaaliMd inatruotioB. A definite attoas^t t*as aado to re- 
tain tho interest of tho studonta; and projoeta wore gradated 

in tonas of dlffioulty* 

•ywieittl I 

?rogre«s was being sado in deitsorland and Franoo* 
and also in BBgland triiero Williaa Morris and Joha Auakin had 



6« Xbid«« p. 6* 



«•! « 






•4««m* frs«ar (ft. a>* rfgUkMi 

to#«fcrca MMr «^*»t'^*'! ^^^ xuhmbmi 

4«Mi««t tea A«AfMMi^iJ« fll •&«« yxivtf URT cimqin^ 



« in*— i1i^—iW>»fe 



>ft •% ,..t< 



- u- 

orlgiBftt«d th« "Art* and Cx^fta UD-f«Bvent'*« 

Ih« MmomJ. Lfcbor Motwa»Bt ^ n t h e Jty 8, k, 

Th« sanuAl labor no-wmont In th« V, 8. A* r««ult«4 
tram th« ra*lizatio& of the fact that th» Mirly ••hooX« «*rt 
lmd*quat« in that thay failed to foster the students* general 
de'veltopaent • 

Exhlbita atanming frou the iK>rk of Vietor Delia Yes 
And vaillatt Uerrls apnearin^ at the Philadelphia CentennlAl 
BRpoaitlen in 1676 firat had a tremendout Influeaoe on tfce 
teaehiag of praotioal art* in the public cohoola of the Waited 
States* 

Delia Vo«' authods of inatnetlon for larfe elataet 
■tlMilated in AsMrioa the idea of anal7slag the aeehaBle«l 
tradea into baaio tool pyooetsea aod e l e — n ta of ooBftrDetloa* 

The Sloyd Systea vat brought to Amerioa In 1880. la 
18M Oustaf lAraon eaae from Sweden to iotroduee Svediih tlejfd 
iA the boaton aoboola* 

In 1670 industrial drawing iv&s introdneed by law 

XxAo the itlaasaohxuietta publio sohoola. T^llowlni; tiM ^iladelphia 

Centennial* the St. Louia llanBal Training School ms eatab* 
t 
llahed. 



6« John 7* Freiae* ft c plerin^ the Banwl Art a , » p« $» 



» t^.v •• 



»*I W ii i W r<H fg«n.yto /w» ^tU" •» 



*f' i-^ •»'^' .i 

{Mi/ .'■' •r'- ■ y.i ' . • • u 

/q 0il& lit a>«a lcc<!;*»*Tiq ' 

Ai .UUSi al Ai*4- -.1*1.. ».t ^rj^iij-a wv* 

jb^o^a it«ib«*»*. sr -^xiwS «o^ mbip iton*! "^Ai^s^iiS --OM 

-jf,BtHtr> H/?» focrftS ^JtfllatT XiMBWil antral .*« •«# aX^. ^ 



• 



fc{?''»!J:X 



.8 ,c ,wtt^ ttnnm ifi^ IffffHfff «««^«^ '^ ^' 



. Ifi • 

S«&ool« Rloo sprvac up is ChlcMkco^ IniM^f aal 

7 
BAltlaoM* Durlac this period Aasrioar ld<mt of •duoatloa 

««r« d«T»leplAg In tho dlrootloa of jfra-rtdiii^ «t\id«iit pus* 

tloipatl«a in «!• w>»fc of th« w>rld* '^ «^'^ i^*iw.v 

I>r« ftmkl* of the K&i*ftchti««tt« Inttitnte of 
T«tfaology« Boston* and i/r, CalTia H* Woodvjiird or ^ashfngitoa 
aalveriity* 8t« Louit, vers ohiefly rMtpomilble fbr the 
early deTelopnent of aamial training in thie country* The 
latter educator reoosooended a syBtem of Annual training to 
begin in the kinders«rten and to oontimte throuf;h the hleh 
•olwol* 

Jeaea 2. Kuasell« Charles R« Kiohards* and 
Prederiek 9» Bonier vore laost Infloentlal in reooonendlne 
the enriohed study of handwork in the eleiaentary grados. 
this handHorlc they termed "induetrlal arts**. 

Other laportant developraents wore the fbundlns of 
Teaehers Collese of Colw&bla Uni'verslty, to train industrial 
teaehersf and the orgaBlsation of tarious trade aoheols and 
industrial eduoatien soeieties* 

iBdust rial art; s hat« passod through four stages in 
the Ouited 8tate«« nsEieXy, (1) 7hQ Russian or Abstract Stage* 

J', ' 

7. JbJ^,, p. IS* *?-a^.;.„ 



V 



♦ 3* «• 

... ■: CilSHKi ... 

^A£r£«(s&J.» eaa- ax x-ioa. ..'.,-.. ■.•- 

Rl aa:i^a iBiifi i-.- '..:: - »»i.Aq ovan E3-!.? iis-:^.. 



. 1«. 

(t) fit* iMdlCh BUjA Stag*, (8) Th* Arts Mtd Cnift« St«g«« 
*ad fli»lly« (4) Th« laductrlAl Stiiivl fh* lB*tatrlal 8tfts«« 
vhieh b«sMi «ft«r th* tun of th* t««nti«tli Mafeuxy* ttllX 
ihowt itt iaflvsBM in th* ivai^r high ••ho«l os^aiMtloas 
In tk* fblloving fo«r ocKatioii typM of ilivpt tl) Th« Ittligvr 
Flu* (8) fh« Oway PUm* (B) Am IhUMll Bftus* Plan* and 
(4) Hit Pittil»«n^ PUa.* • r-r**-' 

Hlftory of ladmtrtal Artt T— .ehlmc ia t&ma^ 

Author* ha,<w told of poriods in iridoh th9 ind«M» 

10 
trial art« dorolepasBt vat ratardad and aoMWhat diaoraditad* 

if aoaa* tha raaotion waa aald to ba dua to axtra'vaeant eUkias 

■ad* for tha work i^ioh vara not raalisad-wthat too aooh aaqpha* 

•it Wk» plaoad on trada training Mid not waou^ en tha ganaral 

•ida of tha pro(ra«^ Panaaaot growth ia almr and it aaawi 

thara ia alvaya a raaotion to a *booM" ataga* 

. , By 1900 nany of tha northam atataa had an orgaxk* 

iaad induatrial art* progm that inoludad handwork in arvary 

grada. Moat of tha aahoola had aoodnorking for boys and aaving 



•• 8« J« Taui^ and A. F. Miya* Contant and Ma^hod i£ Indui* 

t rial Arta * pp« S8i*S8* 
9* OaTid Wdda&« at al, toooyMtriMition o f Induatrial Art i 

Oonraaa . pp* 4-6» """*' 

10. Triaaa, ag, ait«t p* 19* 
11« 0, A. BanaatT TEntory of Indnatrial Arts, pp» SdOi^dl* 



• »x . 









-4B»^e Oft iiesi ?»f*fltfs; rt- ^:i;ttca dd-f '.lo ^c«U«a CMl '^2 
Stuisva Ao* s^^ 'Id's auxTKmeov ojon ULco^ias sua- vio u'scm .o^jiva 









- 17 - 

ftad 'VMiTlag for th« sJLrUa ., ,» .. t . 

la 1907 T«BiMi*i first chop prognua «fts orgtmiMd at 
th* Robert S. Lm Sohool* ia th* fom cf art* and omfta* Oaly 
tbf ■•rmath aad alsMth grftda boyt vera pezsltted to partleip«t« 
im tte vorlc than. ZAtar« tha hi^ aahool hoj9 from othar aity 
•ahoola baeaa taklag iiMp wvk at Bobart £• Laa« 

Ovlng to tha aiiooaaa of tha induatrlal arts program 
ia thia iohael« vhan tha Blllaborcragli Coaaty Blgh Sohool «m 
araatad la 1911« It nai aqulppad with a vall-orgaaiaed ahop 
iduira tha vork ims aarriad oa ia aa i^to«date f^ahioa. Siaea 
that tlaa* arary high aahool mr^otmA la tha aousty haa offarad 
ao»B aort of iaduatrial arta prograB* «hiah» lika tha othar 
tuibjaeta in tha aurriaalm« aaa aatabliahad and at^portad by 
tha aenBty* 

Bowarar* iaduatrial arta ia ^Atm gradaa haa baaa 
aatlraly aaglaatad* Thara la oaly oaa alanantary aohool la tha 

tavKlgr vith thia Mntiwaaadad aubjaat offarad la tha aturrlauliau 

t ■» .■,• -J i ' ■ - 

Iaduatrial arta taaahlag haa baan tiia oaaaa of hold* 

lag ia tha hl^ aohools isaay of Taiqm'a boya nho otharvlaa aould 

hava dropped out* throu^ atliaulatlng thalr iateraat la tha 



12* InfOmatloa obtalaad froa Ootaity Sohool Board Reoords, and 
from Dr« K« L, aobart« aotiva prlnaipal aad avvaria* 
tsadaat of Hlllaborou^* 



.' 1 



» re - 

fN*i9l»*E' ■: -';*»''«! «*^*^ ''^**^ #i»*Ma di 

erf* r;S l«flfH»« r'^'tHNMW^e •«o tX«o •* *«»^"? *h*&»*lz^^ t^«wi#K« 
-Mart Ic aiiMMs jmC* «mm» wwt ii»ii{ttMi# w» 






- 18 • 

«»yk« 81b«« thla •uYij^ot tet pvorsd to b« of lo »a^ vmltt* 
in the high ••hoolf« thero la « «ld«apr««d f*«liiig tint tlit 
IttolvfioB of induttrlal «rt« la the clMivBtary ottrrlfvlwi 
wnmld MAlw * vorthrtblltt ooatrlbvtioB tward tho Mtisfaetory 
progMac of ottr ohlldron. 

As far bftok as the seTenteenth eentury* the iq^r- 



tasee of inoorpox^tlng aanual trainioe into the fanaal edaoa» 
tire ourrieulvai «a« reeognised* In the general grovth of th« 
iBdustrlal arts BOTeoent* there were four stages* the Sassiaa 
or Abstract* the Svedlah Sleyd« the Arts and Crafta* and the 
Industrial* 

A study of the general grovth of industrial arts is 
la^rtant to aohiere understanding of the present situation In 
Taapa» iritleh still poses sone of the proble&s of the past* 

Manual arts in the 0* S« k, grew out of the reallsa* 
tlen that edueation of the tloe failed to bring about the all- 
round derelepnent of the pupil. 

The derelopsent of aaehiae produotion reaulted In 
the disappearanoe of the traditional type of apprentieeshlp* 
vhloh in turn had supplanted the earlier father^to-son trainii^« 
vhen eertaln -roeations oaae to require aore skill* The wdem 
ftietery system was unable to train its workers as the aastera 



• 01 - 

Wild' 'i» iiii'wc*t3 i#^i^: 

.•»»*»•«* oiif t§ei^&t ttiKfi ••»•» ©^trf* » 9 «iH£ 

,*»»q tfif;^' "lO &• - »P*» •96oq iii;*» cio.?.l"' . 'atu-fT 

•i»*>li»<vc erf* 1:0 *iio wets •* t^ fO «rf* aL »*7« laoflAt 

mv&cw •tfl »£T.tim ••fat t 9ffi»c * -ia^na mOm 



. 19 . 

had doK« in th« huid«i«f% period, 

Th« shifting to the piibllo (ohool of the respoaal* 
hility of ty«<i« eduofttiom ma the no at prone uBe«d effeet of 
the iadustri*! eiuoation mormamnt durlnc ^^* flrtt deeade of 
the nineteMth eeatory* 

Manual trainliag has oontinued to grow in popular- 
fly in the public eehools 1»eeau«e it is batio to all trades^ 
yet i« not speelfie trade training* 

the development of industrial arts in Taapa is 
Tiswed as a rising and falling of interest in ^e subjeot« or 
a eontest between oonservatiTes and progressives. Vh«n nood* 
working was first introdueed into Tsopa high sehoolSa tha 
shop ooiurses began with whittling^ adraneing toward benah 
woedworldng in the higher grades* Sewing for the girls was 
begin, llttfsh iwproTSB^ffitt is apparent In the present prograa* 
sine* awst of the high schools ha-ve well»«qttlpped shops wlldi 
nodem fiaetures and nany types of work* 

Bowerer, there is only one elementary sehoel la th« 
eouBty irtiieh offers any type of handeraft* The sueecss of the 
industrial arts in the high sohools has led to the widespread 
belief that inelusion of suoh a progras in the elMwntary 
sahiMl would aalpe a WDrthvhile eeartirlbtttion toward the satis* 
fiaetory pregrwss of the pupils* »« aven msth^itmt V^ 



tuii ««i904f»fli dsirf «fniV «*»tt be^wft- (•!*«? ;ftwj« mw a«-^ 
Sim iXtig "li^ 'xo'i s«iWKi .kiyta-is t<»tLj..i.A «ii* jxi ^jta'j.wDO'Jsr 

l»adv^B«&2tr oA& ct"^ &el BiMi aXowiff* .3^ Jii - -^ 

-^^i-M IWW fffre/r,^- r.nr^.nH'hrisifili ■?' t limits Sff » «(«a fcIfir«W X3!^Tf»t 



^ .' ! ■* 4' **T«>- -•» 



!sW^ v*-* '^r:rt;^'i :. , ' --^ - 






IStttii 



CBilPTEX III 
OBJECTrVBS 



iMpoytant AIM "'" '^- *•' ' 

^' Throu^ rtudying th« &!»• of indvttrlAl arts tor th« 

lirlMMBtary frad«B« as adhrooat^d by laading authort and tMoh«n» 
tha follevliig Hat ef obj«etiT«8« in ordar of relatlTa lapeiw 
taBo«« has bean o<nq>llad by this authort 

9 e.^ j^ Laandng to ba usaful around tho hoaa* 

t. Laamli^ to plan and organisa a ;Job^*^ '■"**^ 

8* Laanslag habits of naataass and ordar, 

4* Laaming a hobby. 

8. Laaming to raeognisa aad appraeiat* 
***»* ^ good vorkMnship. '^^ 

*" "'^ "^'e. Making a projaat to talc« boat. 
sTAo^yi^ ' ^. ftcplorlng various fialds of an Indnt- 
.cf ^MfMliw; ^jyj^i natnra. 

8« Laaming tha baavl^ and Talua of aatura* 

*^^ Tha iBpertaaoa of tr«d« training as an aim for indns- 

trial arts for 9l«asnt»ry sohool pxqtils has baan mlaiaisad by 



'■'k-^Ml&% J.S H!»Me flit «»e io "^o jt-ftji ||ai9«ki;i:<>"^ «<^ 






- 21 - 

all th« ftHldaert ttit&l^d* aowvrwr* vh&l* th« gmd* achool lur- 
tettrlal ftrW pp ft gw i i Momot falfUl tht tMwd for tr«d« train- 
ins* 1^ <MMi provid* a baaia for further trainlne aleog thia 
Una* 

1« Laaming to ba uaafttl arownd tha hojna t Tha 
bena* of ooaraa* ia tha baaia unit la aooiaty and tha imedi- 
ata anrlroaaaot to i^ioh tha popil balonga and will alvaya ba» 
lang la aona ralationahip or other. Upon thia fuadaaantal 
ralatioaahip for tha aoat part dep«ida tha happiaaaa of tha 
ladlridttal. SBLa happlMaa« in tuni« dapanda Tipoa hia o«a uaa» 
falaaaa and iaporta&aa ia hia egyiroaaant* Tha only «ny raal 
happiaaaa aan ba aohiairad in tha hoaw la thraa^ nnlnaal aoop* 
aratlan and intareat, vith aaah Eianbar of tha faidly eoatrlb- 
atlag hia afaara aad vaaei^as dna raaogaltloa tharefor* 

la additiaa to anoouraglag oaeparatliMnaaa» iadaa« 
trial arta ia tha grada aohaola oauld taaah tha puplla hov to 
parfbm aaay 1»aka of raal valaa aro«ad tha ha«a* thaa aon-> 
l^batias ^ ^^ fMily valfara aad to tha indlfidual'a aanaa 
of uaafttlnaaa and inportanea* 

!• Laarnin|S to plan m^ organ! aa a ^ob i Moat 
authorltiaa a^ra* tdxat tha eraati-rt inpulaa of tha ohild 
•hould net ba mdaiwaatiaatad* IQiila thia eraativa urga 



ft^ If''»rf33 fO^vsys, ttiSt mtiitm «lMrv«i«r«K •ftvtJNrts vndfht* md/t Itm 

*tmlt 

. Xf^iatfi lii )o i*c£k«« <f|M» Ai :it»iiil tea «0l4^«i* 

e^ voii 9i.bgi% «& riM«d- Moot BlMMtoa •CmMS o^f^ «1 •<Ha i«H^ 

•«e9 8fff^# ^eeniff 9^ i^w^^ft ^alm taitn lo aato«^ ti>'* M<'^Ht*q 



•hffvlA^]^ HllfnMHi •■ »u«h tv plfy •• ycmnillr^ to prvvwrt 
\t» b«ii^ •tibor4iiMt«4 to pati;«ra-follo«lig* it !• tetirw 
abl« to guid* It ao that the pupil vill rwiliM th« iapor^ 
tutfl« of plazmiBg oonaootttlyoly oftoh «t«p to b« followod 
bofore he begins ftetuail work on hie project* He thould 
alco leArn the i^portanoe of orgaidcini; hie work* both la 
iBdlfldu»l jobs and in gvoup projeots* In grottp projects* 
eooperative orgsnisatlon should be atresaed* in order Ha^ 
the pupil vlll imderstand the neeessity for relatloc his 
own sot ions to the motions of the rest of the groop* 



I^aak^ng habits ef iis*tiMiss and ord yi 
Isbits estikblishsd in youth will siurviTe through adttl1du>od* 
Zf the prittoiplea of orderly and neat perfonMuaoe are inoul* 
osted in the eleaentary sohool pupil, thsy will be of Inesti* 
MAlt fslue to hla when the tiae ooaea for hia to take his 
pl«s« in industry* as well as in his own personal life* It 
is essential for the sake of effieieney to learn to awoid 
waste of tine and materials* Besponslbility for seeing that 
the pupil plans his job in ad-vanee in order to be sure that 
all the waterials are on hand and the tools availablef aaA 
ftor pxorldlng sug|<;e8tions for projeots so that no tias need 
be wasted between assignaents. falls of course upon the 
teaeher. Oood working positions to a-void uaaeeessary fatigue* 



Jfl«r«"i:f.- od- ».t«fi»»65t M» rMn *«^'* '''9W* *• ftwwRti'A «^ btvnd^ 

jl-X ., iW at s« ii.»w stt ,i^a«tel ftt •»«£< 

^■vw: :v^-,sws: n^,^ vr.. i..i£i..' -:;:y^. ♦K**Jtt»*wi tew •«t* t» •*»*« 



and mrte t*bX«a mmI tunouiidingt «• tv9 at peasibl* ffom olttt- 
tvr, tfaould be •noouragad. 

4. l 4MtfnlHg » hobby i Eatal-tiifal hobbi«a hmrm b««a 
fowid to b« on* of th« najor as««t« In aohirrlng personal hap« 
pin«M* By gl'vlng th« pupil «iqp«ri«no« vith orsasiMd proj«oti 
lA %k» aaay fields of Industrial arts* the sehools will be put- 
ting hla iobo oontaet with several or naiiy things iriiieh uKy be 
the souroe of a llfetiise ef luberestlng a«d perhaps profitable 
aetlvlties* He will learn frea what type of aetlirlty he «111 
be able to derive the nost pleasurei and «ill be Instroeted in 
the ftiiidaBeHtale vhieh he aaiet lean before beeoalag a naster 
ef the hebby or hobbles ehleh please hlai aost* 



*• I^iMurHing to reee^paj— ead apwrettlate Rood »orle> . 
■anshlpi There are aany reaseas for saqphaslslag this pelat* 
kM a oonsmor ef goeds as well as a prodneer* the student will 
need to kasw ehat eonstltuites good eerlOMUuhlp, This 1« esswu- 
tial from the standpoint ef his learelag to ehoese artloles js« 
«hl«h will be durable and attraeti-«e» and vill best serve the 
purposes fbr i^ieh he will need then* In addition* sueh studies 
as the preparation of food* probleaas of heating* lighting* Ten- 
illation and the disposal of waste* «to«* vlll have a direot 
effect en his health and his safety* as well as on his eoonoaie 



« ss •- 



"i'CiC aO-i'^ wi-X^'^^ 



>a ttssth. 



wfrirwft;.'! ^^P^? 



!»f 'fJlJI' 'iWWr WBS 






* ^o too ©d fc.:' Sawol 



...„ ^i.a»iH^tim r»'^-« :?-'^^ ^i^rSv^-. r^t ,f,!!tvti'q 



tfkv •.•* x^tvi*** 10 ew*" »^1« ^'^'"A * 









u - 



ooadltlea* A» a prodttocr* h« should b« ablo te j«dg« vli«%h»r 
hit prodtt«t vill ae^t aatitflMtorily th» us«t to vhieh it will 
b« pnt* FroM tlui atAndpolRt of good Korbaftnahlp, th«iw It 



Mtiafaotlon to b« obtained either from turning out an 
AttmetiTe and valuable Job| or In fumifhinf one's enriroB- 
■est as attraotlvely and effielently as possible* 

•• Making a prD;jeot to tatee he— « One of the pwtw 
posee of the study of tndnstrial arts is to Help the etttdent 
aehle-re a r«al interest in hie lanediate svrrotmdiaga* In 
this respeot it is desirable to enoourage hin to think of and 
te prednee ebjeets "Miieh eould be useful to haTo In hie own 
hoae» both to hia and to the other aaa3>ers of Hhm fnilly, 

7. BKplorln^ Tarious flelde of an induetrial as- 
turgi The pupil should be brought into oontaot with the oondi* 
tions under vhleh produots are made and distributed to that b« 
■ay ao5|uire a fundanontal knowledge of the fonotions and Beth» 
oda of industry. It is iaportant for hiM to kaam the problea<« 
relatlonahlpSf and interdependeneiea of the people and soelety* 

8« Learning the beauty and value of »tur» t While 
industrial arts is prinarily ooneemed with the ohanging aat 
utilising of natural aaterials to Inorease their value to wmxig 
the pupil urill learn to appreeiate the rav materials nature 






a* 






• S6 • 

supplies and how tho teauty of th«8» things aay b» brought out 
through induttrial »rt« in aueh thiai^s aa reoognising th« 
worth «nd th« beAoty of fine noodt, eto* 

In 0i»Bntlon« i^-ftmoortftnt ob;1»oti7a« of th« ttody 
ojT industrial arta In the elesaentary grades as ooapiled froa 
stateoents of leading authors and teachers are for the pupil 
to lofl^, %..>^f MP^I^^ around the hone« to plan and organise 
Jobs* to %e tt«At And orderly in his work« perhaps to aoquir* ft 
habby„ to rooogniae and aj^preoiate good mrliMaxuihlp* to wake ft 
projoet to tftke hoat* to ftxplorti yftrjl,Q\is £^^d« of an Indus* 
trial aaturst and to learn to appreelate the beauty and Talvw 
of nature* 

' ,, J)a\,the SkLsMurtary school, basis oan be mqf^lied for 

farther InteiuilirB training fbr trade* although trade training 
itself oannot be given to this age pupil* 



vWj^xaS' ^7- 



4tt '•» 



m^ttkaX Its 1« ehf*':** sicrrtav ini«\Xtj3t« <>* ^eTW* 9i(At^ w^ v«»t<«« 



-»'« -, ■? 



CEkFSm IV 
t «-,< pBLBCyiOM OF SULJ , .^i^Ti^ 

S«laotlon o f g«n»ral Sutjeot Matt or 

The fiolloiviDs 8«l«etlon of general subjeet natter 
Kaa 1»««a aade by this «riter« each subject representing a 
unit of vorlc to be tak^n vtp separately but to be worked to* 
Mthfr wi|h the other subjects taught in eaoh grada. 

laooagNndod for grades four* firet and six art 
Doodeorking* houaeheld eleotrieityf &«tal working* drawloga 
household seohanios. Introductory oarpentry« gardening* and 
projects in misoellaneous orafts« 

Beeoaaoodod for grades one through four speeifi* 
oally are projaots in paper oraft* pottery, and nodelling* 
Projects in veavieg are reoo£ir.ended for all sis grad«sf sew- 
ing fbr glrlsi and shop speoifieally for beys, but optional 
fbr girls. ^^^» ^* ••«• 

fhe reouiinder of this chapter will oe lirvite^^le 
a discussion of eaoh of theso subjects and the units to be 
ineluded under tkea. 



t«i**« ^(»«f,cfto» I«![«j«i;i lo ttci; . 

inm xti t)4i,. , • ...-.■^^ ( f)«»fc£'«fl«ro<Hifl 

«««»# teo&^na 3Ki:« il« tr^ b^teMBr- - > s> i i>i» w at fiMinn^i 



- 17 - 

Th* following imits Are auggAstikl vaAw tb» s^&arftl 
hMtdiae of wtcdvorlcingi 

1, Steall lt«gna "f furnltnwn Thoae nwy Inolud* 
doll's hrtusa and fumitura« play houso axid fui^ltura for vm9 
in the aohool r>eii« fufniture for tha seKoel library auoh aa 
•iapla tablet ar.d ohairs, oomer ahelTai, and projoots to 
take hoiae such as vhatnots* ete, 

*rr. —. ?• Coping taw projceta t Pupil* oould nalce bird 
houses and Tsrious types of toys* 

««^4, .' S« Whittling and oarvia gt ISatali and oaadla hol- 
derSf aahtmys, paper weif;ht8 and ornaments oaa be aade by 
these methods* 

4« Wood bumiw|; i This method oan be applied t© 
the oonstruetloB of useful artloles sueh as boelc onda« as 
well as for doooratlTs ob.jeot8* 

, .w 6* Toy repsirici; and toy saiJdLaic t Pro Joots in deg- 

rees of oompleaclty Tarylng with the ability and age of the 

pupil should bo pliainftd. 

6* Ibod a—gyating and painting i Artieles aade 



b*ii(S ..2 »^ 

\{<f ejtjJiift 'Aii BMO V -i. bfT» f ' " ■ ■tip 



•H.r 7o o»J9 few \. ■^ ^* ■•*' 



i»fettt «»i«i^A t yl;>flia<i haa ya»OKi»<l » »oc^ 



I • o 



by th« pttplla oaa alto b« iMiiiit«d and dM»nilM»d by thmi or eld 
fomltur*, toys, «t«,« omi b« rvfinlilMd. Thlt gXft an •xevl* 
l«nt opportunity tot inoulofttlng in tho pwpii th« prlnoiplvs of 
food t«at«« 

How»hold Elootriolty 
The study of hovetitold eleetrieity lends Itself per>» 
tleularly tot 

l» The eonstruetion of bells md busserSj and trens* 
flowers « 

t. Repeiriiy eleetrieel applianeee i There is as^le 
seope for repeirls^ defeotife irons* toasters* oords* ete« 

■*■* 
8« Eleotrie solderinj; * 

Metal forking 
The elsswntary sehoel shop need not pvrehase eacpen- 
sivs tools for netal vork* but it is possible to proenre the 
equipnsnt neeessary for instruotion in the fundoBtentals* and to 
oonstruot properly eoae sis^le projeets int 

1* Art aetal . 

t« Tin ean oraft » 



* *,*«>«•»»**••<■. irv-AVm M,>. W.AW 






•a?.- 



•lE^ «w r » e<t q o* oMletor tt fS ^- , 



♦yv?», fw ftfg •< 



Art avtal and tin —n oraft *r« oloaaly alliadi and 
of n«arly squAl rwik in perfom«tto«* Bo'te ar« iBtet^99tinf 
ABd -vmlvnl)!* to the oourac of study* Tron netal nit^ bo oad* 
J|Mr«lry, plfttvi* tr»yi« "book •Bd«« o*ndl«ttioka« plaqtMi* 
boxM* paper knives* and toys* Ptipila will aoploy savins^ 
•olderlac« hameriog, betuliQi;, toollof;^ etohinc* punoh norkf 
tonLn^ and appliqud work* 

OnltB in Drwfla^ 
fhe fbl loving units in drmriog eould be worked 
into an industrial arts prognoi very «ellt 

1« jtaking ainpXe drawings* 

i» Klementary designs and deoorations* 

'• Blueprinting and making tewpXatef ^t 

4» Freehand a ketches * 

^2S.' 8« Ttoadiag and workini; drsariags * 

6, Cartoons * 

7, Posters* 

Through these units the popila should leam the 
fundaaental rules of draving and design* 



wdntCtaAJL 



M<^ otMX M0«ffi 9tHf^<i «fi^ •«!«« M(i^ l^ovA 



- 80 • 

1. i ":■ $ "?x5 ~ :r r;J it Eom»liold M«oh»qiot 

thidsr th« heftdlng of houMhold neehanloa* pup! It 
•ould lt«m TMoy things of -valtM to them tor use in the hetuit 

1* Rapairing houMhold •quipwwittt t Thla night is* 
olttd* ■•ndlBK ^fokan ftuniltar*, puttying *m1 rvpftiriag £!*••• 
fixing i«iklng fnna«t«» nnd oth«r fairly eoaB»n rapalr joba 
arotnd ^h* houa«« 



Z, Pnintlag aoraaPa« fanoeaj eta « 



f» BaBKling and rmmring aaraana * 

Carpantry 
▲n iBtroduotloa to oarpantry ahouXd ba gXfn la 
tha alaawntary gradas nadar tha follavine haadingat 

!• halting a balldlnp uadar eonatruotloa* 

,,•0,4 «,. 

t« Laamlng about diffarent tjpaa o* bnlldlng iaa» 
tarlala t Pvplla ahould laara tha typaa of aatariala and thalr 
uaaa In aoaatruotlon* auoh aa foundationa* walla* ata» 

> 4« Laaralng how bulldlaga ara daalicaa4« 

Oaita In Klaoallaaaaaa Grafta -^"'r^ii 

■uumv'i^ ijjl% haa baan found adrlaabla to iaeluda tha falla>«> 



•. 08 » 






^DSffit-i vj.rr I'-T fjerrx few/' • 



if.co;, t 



V! iM- ii*!*" ' 









tBittmnon TUBilfoa^. p^± 



•t 



M|pcuss> 






tt^fuossea jfTAv^'ui*. 



,fflelci-t'. ■-,..■. 



•^N 



falbHufi 'i ^* fv^r.^ -^ '''"•-' ' ^-v .■'■■■'.■ 






- 51 - 

%ng uaita und«r ndiovllansous orafta* ., „ , 

!• toathereraft ; Artlolvs vhioh oaa b« aad* of 
laathar ar* bill-foIdt« «oin pur««s« D«ltt, haxidbag«« blottar 
oom«r«t book (MT«r*« book laarkt, whiskbrsom holders, napkin 
hold«r«« pietura holdars* oonb and panoll «a*c«« and dog har> 
MS set aad laashes* 

S« Pro;1aeta In aXabaatar » 

S. Moldad ylar»l» t On* of tha prlBoipal uiaa 
aada of this aatarial la tha onnstruetlon of Jawaliy* 

*• ^p«y eraft t Xtaita on paper working might i»- 
ilvda inatruQtiona in ooloring and dyeing, uaaiuring* folding 
and outtingf weairing paper strips into nb^aots such as natt* 
hatSa piatura frases* baskets* eto« Paper taring* ovtttlng* 
and pasting are reeonnendad for initial training* Qraetinc 
eardSf holiday deoomtions* pointed nnixaal toya« and paper 
soaaie are suggested, ^tit** 

■■''^ "' S« BookblnJinj ;; Alb\aa« aorapbooka« and alaaa 

vorkbooka nay be useful iteaa to sake under thla ualt* 

•• Weaving I Objeeta whioh oan be noTaa ineluda 
baaketa* nata* traya* pioture fraaea« aaating* toy famlttu*a« 



"io 9h!>K «4 a** .'♦•ft-/ aoIs^J^A xt' 



"X-l- 



te ti»&rt» t^ittf. 5«i 



-■S-IXftf <rt» •t©.*(:t-«<»f 



^.rt«^-2Mf«' x«* t»niJ^Ao» t***"*^ ««rj*ola ^W%K^ ••#«« *«*«JMrf 



» fa - 

waste pap«r rwdcHitistiiit pothe Idlers, nnA fUlt* 

7, 3^ttery >n d aodsll lii g t Powd«P»d olay omn b« us4i4 
for s^<ks*<^ jiottmty, -rasM* ashtrftys* tMu>tile«« plates « bowls* 
•t««« without rirltt^. Busts, and othar daoorati'ra objaots, laay 

ba raodalled frrja olny, 

8. Pttppat^raakiBg t Tha hand«pttppat is easier '%e naka 
and to handle than the i«irienatt« type, but it is likaly that 
the older ohildran would prefer to work urith the n»rs Intrloate 
■arionette whiah is oparatad by fstrings* 



• • Other ^rojeots i These might inaluda dloraaii« aap- 
■akiD§« laatem slides* shadow plays* and soap oarring* 

Gardeniiy 
^^'^ik'y Gardening 1« a enbjeet freit which aoaeh oan be learned 

in miniatura projects, "" ' ' ijosaible for the olass to 

use a plot of ground et or near the sohool for a full>soale gal^- 
dea* the same prineiples will apply to a window-box or niaiatum 
garden. Units of iaportanoe under f^ardening aret 

!♦ Feleotirin p.ii'j prep ari nf. t he f; rotia d fo r planting i 

aoil •i;s'!-';dm. " ' '■ " ' ' '■'■ ' ^' ' " ' " * "" ■ " ' ^ 

Study should be laade of the various types of aoll« 

2« Figuring oost of seed* fertiliser^ and inaeetl- 



s« » 



••gr« hf"' .t^f>of'.T' 



«^Mr 



«tf»»ii«i"»-«**i , 



/■ ,,iBi:A-r ,^i9;ri'- 



U3 'if''"'- 



t^' 












r .1, 



■■fciMhciiiMiiiiiiwiiwinaiw "• ■ 






^ 



:0»/ 



n.ri'> 



*iT 10 ya ?■' 



■TOiy * «i»W 



t ^ldrtfe:. .) -. . f'ittg ,!3»ra g^^ :r 



ToepEi "lo »#lnO .fW; 



CL'.vn,''.. "iifjIfitS 






- SI . 



•idatt Th« •lass should l«am how to soloot tatd «m thosa 



8* Plaatine; the soodi and ^vli^ idio plMrti propor 
oaro , 

*♦ H^i^'tiP*! m^ aarlEatlng ragatablaa and flowari t 
fhla aould b« nada into a rmry praotioal projaot vhleh vould 
girm tha pwpiXa first-hand azparlazna* 

6« Salootlon and ears of tooXf t Pttpils should 
know how to aoleot tha oorreot gardaning tools for aaeh phasa 

'■t ■■'■ 1 "■ ■ 

of tha work* and how to oara for thssi proparly* 

Sawlag 
OsoMfa'A • 
nia rudlstants of hand-saving should baoowa a part of 

•Tsry glrl*s aarly training* Units arot 

1. Fundaaantal sawing stltohas i Sawing bags* taa 
towals« aproaa* and doll elothas ara good projaats for tha 
baglnnar. 

«« m 

1* M aadipg and daming t Siiq>la nathods of nanding 
and damii^ should ba Imught, as wall as tha ia^ortaBoa of 
prosqat rapalr to insura battar waar* 



«. {lii x 









•5lHt 






.S 



jjotin«« lo liUMn^te^ii. «i<piJ8 «Jpjfe«<^ ^ ^tbcm 



. 84 . 

i* Mbroidtry t SlaaMntary aabmldttry stitohM 
•hottld b« tftught* Th«y might b« utlllMd la d«oeMting th« 
•iMMBtery ••■iag pxoJ«Qtt» 

*• Slapld oroeheta dffwm irork^ aad knitting i 
Buuhnrk of thlt typ« fr^qutatly pro-r«a t j ct rww ly iat«i««t» 
iBg to girla of all ag«i« 

Tha trua art of haad saving i« in dangar of baacna* 
ing a lest ona unlaas tha goiK>oX« oan pro-rlda itisalation on 
tha part of young girla to angaga in this aatiri^ at laaat 
aa a raaraatian* 

STOMAlPr 

Oanaral aubjaota and apaoifio unita imdar thaai haTa 
baan aalaotad fbr tha alanantary gradaa* It haa baan aonaid* 
arad adriaabla by tha writer to iaoli^a the following nina 
sub jaota t 

!• 1fead«orkinc« 

i« Baaaaheld alaatrioity* 

S. Matal working, 

4« Drawing* 

S* Houaahold ■acAvaaioa* 

6« Carpentry. 

7a Miaaallanaoua arafta* 



% 

5.v«i< «Mb^ ^eJaw •#*«» el^l««<!» ta« B^^^^trf*** !«•»• 

ante jptJiwlirt •iiff «Ji/^^>»^ -^' — -• - V- 3Xrf*«^>^^^ «»«• 



- S5 - 

8p«oifl«all7 r*«oaBMBd*d for gradss on* throu^ four 
«*r« proje«tt in paper or«ft, pottsry* and Bwd«lllng (all usdar 
Mi<aallanaou» eraft» )j fbr gradas fbur through cix, th« r«aMdn> 
d*r of th« aubj««t«t and fbr all six gradaa^ wcMTinf. Shop i« 
rtMonBMndad for boya« but is optional for girls* 









i^ »»i«l «>'■:■ AOrj' 

of \y« a <r..lftu»« p4*; 



^^h^& ♦S 



i.ha*'.. not h^bmfsm^v 



■ri'. 



.. xk/% bi;..' »»«? • *^^'^ ^^ "^"^ 



-aon-ia -jK'if'.^r 



CHiPTBlT 

TIm fallowing su^«8tlona ar» bftsod on th« rmM—nh, 
•tudy* and panoiMl txjfrimnf of this «rit«r« 

Typ»t of T»>ohiin; itothodji. 

' iBteitrlftl arts any b* tanght alther in tho eiA«c» 
rooB along with oth«r uaita, or it aay 19« taught aaparataly in 
thtt shops* 

In th> Cla«siv>o» 

Ths olassrooB method is reoonMndvd for grades on* 
through thr««« Th« najorlty of authorities eonour in the 
opinion that oorrslation of handirork with other studies is ad» 
▼Isable. 

There is alaost unllaited opportunity for saoh eor- 
relation through the use of sand tables* oodel grooery stores* 
play houses* and aany other aetiTities* 

In Appsndiz k there is quoted an exeellent exaapl* 
of hov a olass plonio for the tA grade at Orr Sohoel* Chioago, 



3^0£-'... V'[::. 






,»OTO?^« I ^M ^O ••II •«$: ^A*** 

,«^»«iiiD ,iooil»9 -nO *» •*«» it •riJf -sat •'jxetq isaT* « weiJ ^« 



JlliaolB* vfts worksdl into tuoh * profnai« with th* rttultt 
olfttAlflMid th«r»fi«au •A^t. 4* 

In th» Shop 
The ihop Rwthod la reooamond«d ft>r th« gmd«s four 
through tlz* 

1? yp<« of Shop I Thar* hft« b«<m snteh diMuislon vf 
th« MMparfttlvs trIimi of th« tun typ«8 of «hop-~.tha unit 
•hop nod the goiMreil «hop* 3«for9 prooaodlng to «Y«luat« 
thMif It it d«Blrabl« to olmrify cotAotly what is meant by 
•aoh t«rB mm ui«d in this sttidy* 

Th« unit shop peraitt nork of only on* typ* t» b« 
dmw* fr 0X»mpl90 It wsuXd b« » shop with fiboilities 
•ith«r for mtftlworking* or for woodworking* but not for 
b«th« 

By general shop is nieaat a shop wherein several 
different types of work oan be oarried on, simultaneously or 
separately* The (rtMf Mist, however* always be equipped for 
a variety of aetivltiM* 

fhls study Indicates thst the general shop is the 
■ore prastloalf and that it is rsoeswsndtd ky a larger nuaber 



I* Villiaai H. Johnson, The Craft Teohnlques as an Integral 
^*3S!4'' Far t of feaehiai^ Mettied* (biioage ^uCTio Sohuexs' 
lulletin* pp. 34>89. 



-J- s3lbft»o«tq •Hotel' :<• 

%vl ica iJti jjuAiiiti'.- v let to ^ifijwiisvr 

« d^orf 

ite ii;;i6vo«ituRfiiMbt« «ac 2>«ziiao t-ii^ ;u6 ::(iotr to sv^np^ svnaT^i;^ 
•tiff tj; qttda ijirsaff*) <»d:r -^ncis ao-t j^^j^ tXiti 



M«VWMMM>4IMMtMWM||MW 



«a«Muiou 




. 88 . 

of •duMiton. It it* la fMt* tii« typ« of thsp in eonwn «••• 
.4^4 ^^iHiulpMBt aheiild be lueh that •••h aotlTlty (ma b« 
Mrrl«d OB «• a ooaiMtttlir* ualt* In th« ••parate anita th*r* 
•hould b* a Tarlety of proje«tt» All jMMb«ri of th« «lass 
should not b« r«quir*d to «oi4c on th« mim probl«M at a gi-wn 
ti»«« Aftar all tha alacs haa baaa started on soaa sivpla 
Introdttstory problssi* iadiTidual projeets should be ohosen. 
Instead of haTi&g eaeh pupil in the elass Mtka, for instane«» 
a footstool or table* it is adTlsable to hare eaeh child naica 
his ova seleetiea and do IndiTidual «ork« 

Osaoeratie prineiples should govern the eoaduet of 
the shop. It is taportaat that the teaeher is^ley merely 
Caidaaoe aad suggestioaSf rather thaa dietatioa. 



Type of lastruetioa 

The fb Hewing types of instraetlon ha-re been eonsido 
erad« and are era lasted below t 

^* ]£S!SSSS£.* K**ul^^ of ^1* study indioate that 
few or no leeturas should bo givea* Pupils will learn aora 
readily from doing things thauelYas aad from seeing then 
dona than they trill froa hearing about than* 

t» IndiTidaal Instruettoa i It has been ooneladed 
that a littla indiTidual iastruotion should be given to eaeh 



•» 0C — 

« Aw XwffJhrlftft]! odb htOt ssMmIM JNto sM 
^i;»^e« '(«X<p» t»if««»^ Mf# ttuit ihwHoqxt tti ^Z .qad* mif 






. S9 - 

piapll as hm starts hit proJ««t« and that hit work should b« 
ohtoktd and eoMumttd upon at logical iatanrals daslgnatad 
at tha tiaa of planning hit werk. 

S* Pfonttration to tha firoup i Dsnonst ration 
to th« olass as a group is thought to bo tha bast prooadnra. 
Yhis should be doaa bafora indlTidtxal projeats ara und«i^> 
tak»a» with later oooasional instruotloa to tha group as a 
vhole to awiatain unity* 

4« OoMbination i A raasonabla» balanoad oonbina* 
tion of tha abo-ve swthods should ba sought* Any laeturing 
xiaaassary oould wall aeooapany the danonstratlon* and would 
haoosM aora affaotive through suah Boans* Indi vidua! i&« 
ttruotion thould follow tha dSMonst ration to the whole olaet, 
with oooasional later iuttruotions to tha gs^up* It should 
ba nsMSrisarad that it is highly desirable to SToid tr:^'ing to 
taaeh sore than the child w511 be able to 

Kotabooks and Written Work 

It is not considered helpful to require the keep* 
lug of notsibookSs although, of course* pupils nay keep th«a 
if thay so desire* 

Written work probably It of no Tulua in the thop 



• CB 



•smew aiid yiJUin^iq 1o ««ii^ erf^ #« 

^ III ■ I I I ■ I l» Will 

i>Xirgv tea «jiai.^jn;^aa«iM6 luti ^(iUMpK*o*# ^^•*' hiuf yi**«*(nw 
-ai XAoMTitiJiI «i«UMK 4»«« ilscio^s^ •Ti;^**)^^ ••sot •«q«»^ 

•i;»e2( si^i 4nJt.upi^'' ''^^ Ivlqlwi btn^bltaa^ too lit tl 
«4;t dl euiar cur '* TtfMfvtf j{fow a•!f.f^sRr 



oour««i and it is thought that no homm work thould bf ai«lgn«d« 
DiaoipliBq 



Th« natur* of shop work r«quir»a infon»I diaeiplinai 
Fr««dom of aoTWMBt and spaooh «hould ba peraittod to an crtant 
whioh doat not intarfara with work beinc Aona* Vaithar ahould 
it indioate laok of oontrol on tha taaohar's part« nor lack of 
raspaot for tha taaohar* 

Ottdar sttoh oonditiona* attaniion to the vorlcg oour> 
taay* and oooparation with otharc should be straitad* Tha chop 
provides an axoellent opportunity for tha pupil to learn how 
thasa factors aaka his working conditions nore plaasant whila 
at tha saiM tims* ha himself is baeoniag aoro aaturt* 

ZnfoxnatiOB 



Related information should bs utilicad in the shop 
program. 

On* of tha aost iapertant factors is eorrelatlon 
with other subjaats* It is vary halfTul to tha pupil if hf .. 
OSA be nada to saa all tha parts in raiatloa to tha whole of 
tha WBlt ha is studying* Far aasipla« in tha study of oolo. 
nial life, pupils n&ght raproduoa in tlieir netal or woodwork- 
ins shops artlolas oonnonly used in oolonial hosas* Through 



jbfi/guie i!ft:«(4i<»iS ••aofr ^tttsc/ ifi^w ri#i*? 9^«^'«)»^i ^on a»»o& K».ii-!w 
wvvoo «3[^c«r «>iii 0^ ti^iiamiiM ^9Moliiba*» Awn ^mlsaii 

,'■<■.■■ 



- 41 - 

-t^it th«7 oottld l«am both tha dlff«reno«« b«tnn««n and th« •!»» 
ilarltivi in Induatrial aotivitics of oolonial tinea and th<»M 
of the present* 

fh« pupil* a personal e3q»erl«iM«s oould be brought to 
bear upon the vfork he is doln^ in the shop, Stwh things as 
artioles to be used in personal f;iK>onlng oould be nade» or ob* 
jeots related to his partievlar hobbies and interests. 

IndiTidxials not direetly oonneeted with the elass 
but profloient in the fields being studied oould be asked to 
gire tallts and demonstrations to the elass* 

Teaehing Aids 

The ittolusiou of taaehing aids in the organisation 
of « program is very oftwi neglected* Hoverer^ they fom an 
important part in any course* i^ether speeial aentiea is ssade 
of than or no*. It is hop«4 that the «l(i« listed below will 
be a'TSilable and helpful to the grade sehool shop teaoher* 

t'i ■ glueprinta ; Blijwprints of the pr^5««** *** ^ 
aade shotild He provided for the use ot the «uplls« 

f^' patterns t Although sone eduoators oonsider 

~~~~~~" ed wp?* 

the use of patterns detrlsental tc the enoouragenent of initi- 
atiTe and originality, it is ocnslderod helpful to beginning 



x» « 



»i» ajjcijju iiftii f* •jW ai a«*oi^ '• -tow «iSJ aexjw •t9o<? 

»9Ml9 miff fi^iw b^-ia^isiox} ^iJMiiij Jot sia<.'»w!:T;j>flx 

fflftflia «J fro^iNTSfir laJostn lorf^iufv .•n»oo tsp ai 

.icMl9M^ 4o4t loeHo* •bJrts Mftf^ «i^ Xu^qle^t beta •X<fA(l«v« eef 



,«rf(Tr/r ttfJ ^c 09U 4ft& ^r*? I»»!;hrt«9 arf fcff.'orin t-bair 
btn^bttttoo ai 5^i ,x#li«risliio tea vrt^B 



. 41 . 

■ttidtiitf of thii ag« to have patt«ms «Tttll«bl«« 

9. Models: Wei Lflni shed »id«la of the different 
pvojeets should >>e on hand for the pi;q^ils to obsonrs* 

4. Wood flnlshts t It should be holpfol te th» 
ohildren for various types of finishes to he displayed in 
patMl fom. 

6* l lptien pietnres and slides t These Bsdia omi 
be smployed to give reliable InstruetioB* 

fl. Field trips I Well-organised field trips shoul4 
be TBSd* to industrial plants where infomation rnlative to the 
projeet being studied say be obtained* 

7. Library material i Aaiplo library Material 
should be available to fulfill roferenoe requirements* 



Handeraft* oorrolatod with other subjeots in the 
elassi«oa« ia reootamended for grades one through three. Shops 
are Moovmondod for grades four through six. 
^ The general shop* in eoosK^n use* is eoasidered swro 

praotioal and nore valuable than the unit shop for the reason 
that the fonter is oquippod with a variety of aotivities te be 



shxc 



nA^ of «v.i.t»l9i jlat •tttd i imHrftubnJf. 9t •bm *(f 

Btftavr »dst ic4 qoHa iiM» tii an uf«r untoa ma iMotituBtti 



> 4S « 

Mrri«d on ■ImultanAdusly or sepairfttely« while th« latter !• 
equipped for only one type of aotirlty, suoh a« oetfiXworkizic* 

MeE^em of the olass* whleh should be orB^ilsed ou 
deworetio line** chould teleot their o«n projeote* 

Cka^lDAtien type of Inttruotion it deiirable* with 
ainor enphasis on lectures and Individual initruotiouf and 
aajor ei^hasie on deaonstratlon to the whole olaee. 

Sotebooka« written woric and beaewDrk are of littl* 
or no vmlne In a shop oourae* 

The nature of shop work demands infomal disoipllne* 
alloving freedom of speech and iiDTs«ent within llaits whioh do 
not Interfere rrith the work, laek of oontrol on the part of 
the teaoher and laok of respect for him should not be implied* 
Attentlo n to the work and oourteous and oooperatlTe attitudes 
should be stressed* 

Related information whioh may be utilised iooludei 
eorrelatlon with other subjeets« personal axperienoes* and 
talks and denonstratlons from outsiders who have speolal lenowm 
ledge of the subjeet In question. 

Although often negl«oted« teaohlng aids aj*e most 
Important* The seven aids sugf,ested aret 

1« Blueprints 

t* Patterns 



* u - 



ni -::-i"'f erf# 



'- hm- 






,' I .j;;v .t-ti ./J"; .vi.-^ ^1' i>.-./A'"-i.'AA'. .' ■ 



= :; ", t * r^-- -v!1 






5. Models 

4, Wood fliili)Ma 

S* Motion plotur*fl aad slides 

6. Field trips 

7. JJLbTftry s»t«ri*l 






•yn'szimr^^tid t?M&t ««,3^ ■■■«?>:?'tiid "/vs^ t.-; 



'MSSs, 



OOTOSg OHOAHZATIOM ;. ., 

Th« problMn of how oftM « grftd* aohovl thop elasa 
•hould a»«t ordinarily is settled by th« school prinoipal MkA 
th« t«aoh«r8« Proa the results of tho study« this writer b«- 
lierea that classes should be held twioe a week* 

IwMCth o f Class Periods 

. .. .^^ . Agfiifta fioal detentiaatioR qi the length of th* 
flMIV periods wnst be left up to the adainittration and the 
iBStraetorsa HoweTer* if classes acet twice a week, it la 
recoasMMided that each period last sixty ainutec* This Is th« 
length of tiae prescribed by nost oourscs of study* 

grades to be Included 

The Industrial arts pivgraa should bo extended to 
include all grades froa the first throtifh the sixth* with 
assignnents to the groups according to their abilities* Th« 
fourth* fiftk and sixth grades should have an cleaentary shop 



prognou vhil* th« lammr gradei should be giY«a other iadwh* 
trial arts work. 

Typ« of ahop work to be given was diaeuised in de> 
tail in Ohnptera XT «ad T. It ■•ens edTieable to put here • 
brief •UBBMry of the type of hkndwork noat often reooRrtendeA 
«a lending itaelf parti eularly to eleaentary study. 

In thair other unite the ohildren will be leaminc 
•boot Tarioua phaaea of the three main typea of eeonoBQf mm 
doaoatie* toiwn* and netioBal. During the dosestie period the 
faaily utdt waa selfxauffieient* eonvertiag natttre*a produota 
to ita own naeda. The period of town eoenoaor waa the hand* 
eraft period* oharaoteriaed by the handieraftaaam'a direatly 
aerving the aonauBMr. The faotory eooaoay ia the baais of 
the eo^plioated atraoture of our preaent aeeiety. 

Under eaeh of theae eeoaomies handoraft oould be 
a>q»loyed in atudying the unite on preparation of fooda* naking 
of olo^ingj eraotion of aheltera« nakin^ and uae of utensila, 
and too la, and the keeping of reeorda. 

Soaa asaa^lea of hew theae night be utilised wuld 
be haring the elaaa pareh eom when atudylag Indiana* leading 



1« Xathariaa Bliaabeth Depp* The Plaee of Induatriea in 
Blaayntary Eduoation . pp. i4«66. 



at - 



mturfkat *»»«« jiavt<8 Brf feftfoff* uobtmn '*vnl •fit •.ft**' »rfl«3*^ 

,.«' \,i -u.ii^ 'to U' 
8^'tiyr-,o^-.', ffitaij-^.ftw t.fjl*»[£v:-; .TC/ ,*iTe»^r.^:v,^.»'C"M«s 8««f #.tmf T- 



tfiltntmtu 'i'i nan L< 



»■-«, Twu w»rr-» 



ftl DftH^SUfMlX to #9^''" 3r 

«3|b Pi»» n fil »« ■ ""Tfcjp ■ 

• WW"- 






• 4r • 

to lmt«r fltady of proparation of aodiora fi»od« with «^ph*8ia or 
hoAlth -fmluoo* 

PriBltlre ftrtiolos of clothiag (parhapt ^rosslog 
iBdiftB della) mlfht bo atade* uai&s tho tuw iaploMiBtc tho 
iBdiMU uaod* OBd «iiployiQc tho ooiio aatorlals. Tills iroald 
load to loarMiag ho* afOdom toxtilos have dcroloped and oould 
la-folTo tho atudy of and oxporimontatlon with dyo8« «oaylng« 
oto* 

Making Modola of Ixtdian and Eakivo houaot« log 
oabinOf oarly eattloo* oto*» holpo in tho study of aholtor. 
Pv^ila ihould loam what aatoriali are and vera aaed in build* 
iDg and how thoy are ooavsrted from raw materials to Itaber* 
brieka« ooaiont* and so on. 

Studying utonaili proTidoa an oxoollent opportvmltf 
for tho uao of olay« Pupils nay model utensils for the olass 
doll or play houso, or for use in nodol Tillages* Baskets iMiy 
be woToa* 

In oooQootion with the keeping of reoord8« pupils 
Kight begin by writing on elay tablets. Later they would leani 
hov paper is nado and usod. Papor' tearing* paper oittting and 
pmstingt aaklng posters and booklets would apply to this as 
veil as to MUiy other phases of handoraft work. 

The tools prinitlTo Bian laade oould be reproduoed by 



Tfifro:^»r''.7Cr< #«Te|l9r,':rN 'r* »»&«'"?(■)>?;:( affjiTSi'ti/ ^infvf'n^ll 

eja 8^rt? or \:*q<:.a :.:.i4<^ e^«l^od«i ««« ^.-Xo^'tiot,. ^lium ^^atantifi 



- 48 . 

tht ehildrvn and tM«d by th«a in making -varioua artlolct. 

8oa« othar typaa of aotlrlty aoat fraqoantly raa- 
MiMndad for tha youngar ahlld ara Biakinc wallpapar atanoila, 
aonttruoting aodal housaay atraata and fanaa on sand tablaa* 
and naking anlnala, toys or gaaaa* 

This typa of handoraft has an alnost unirarsal 
appaal for tha yovng ohlld* 

Should Shop Training jB a Baq ^ uiradT 

Tha atady indioatas that shop training ahould ba 
a raquirad subjaat for boys in tha fourth* fifth and sixth 
gradaa* Howarar^ proriaion should ba made to axao^t tha 
Tary aaall paraantaga who ara physioally or mantally us* 
suitad for tha typa of work thay would be required to do* 

Custoaarily the girls of the saaa grades hava 
either eooking or aewing while the boys are having their 
shop elass. This systaai of dividing the olaises has been In 
use for a long tiae and seems to apr|^jQ,i|rt^iVery well* How- 
•Tay« it should be reeuaibered that great -ralua is derived 
from shop training for girla* While aueh training should 
not be required of then, it certainly is advisable to make 
the study optional for girla* 



«jl-*- :^'T.■3S~• «f fibiJPT arf ^-rro'i* aolrlvmf t^ttt^^nmS ,%9banjn 
«el) o* i>»^ : >cf bXvoar ^•rf^ i'jow ^o •<jx* •/<* te' ' ui a 

-wrTT .rfj-w v-mr ;fj;o <i3ir o# acroai boa «>it jirjcf a rtf»^ e«e 
.I«^^ iitti^s elirflf *aX<sl} no? j|icrtol«v^ qocia corrt 



- 40 . 

Pfcylng for Material* 

It cMMa that th« b«st plan for MMtiag titpttasM 1« 
to h«To MMh boy pay tho approxlaato oost of hit projoot whwi 
ho takoa it ham», Sohool funds ahould provido aaterlala fbr 
piqtllt who oannet pay* 

This polioy ia In aooordanoo with aooeptod indus- 
trial oduoatlou idoaa and ourrout praotiooa, ainoo it is gon* 
orally boUofVod that tiio boys «ilX Xoern tho ooat and Taiua- 
tion of aiatorials nuoh bettor If thoy aro roqairod to pay for 
what thoy aak»» 

Grading 

Thoro has boon auoh 4isfttSiJkQI!i on gmiinn or rat. 
infi the Taluo of eaoh pupil's attaiansilt* It is gonorally 
eonsidored that monthly grades of pt^ils taking shop should 
bo bMf^i on tho following factors « 

^* lapyoToaont t Tho improTonont oaoh individual 
has aado during tho oourso of study should bo oonsidorod. 

%xm ^* Aooowplishasnt i Ho should bo gradod partially 

on what ho has aotually aoooaplishod during a glTon tiBO« 

l« J ^wlodK j S « The amount of knowledge ho has 
aoquirod should bo i|ir)Uj|Si^td« . ., 



«.» :<*»?» ■!«?** i.^iff #»»<* ♦!*!* ^•*t?i'- »«•*«« .tl 

, ., - -v.- «^■^ .•kf." r>-fc 

.Ijl'. '■.'*■■.'•' ■ . ■ ■ ■ ' 

-4MBf.' 

«<a«3 ai ;fi ••nisi ^taoivc^nq TwrrtKo Ikm iMilii: <r 



^srir "IXflft »f{:t a© fcet«<f »tf 



- 60 - 

4« B»havlor t This it«i would inalud* both hit ooa> 
4m«t la th« •!*•• and the •ffert h« hat put forth on hii norlle, 

^* Ortp^M^l^ty t DoTolopabont of orlglttAlity ud 
iaitlatlrs thould ba Inoludod. 

Toftohlnp Load „ ^^ ,1,, 

To okiataia a hi^h ctAzuLard of irork* the aost of f««« 
tlT* slM olaati ]«Bg«a froa twelv* to tmvxtymtif piipila. 
▲oMrding to Profaaaor J* TaBaarya , tha averai^a elass ooortaint 
ta«n^<-oaa pupila* 

RaooEsaandations nada in thia ohapter ara baaad on a 
•tttdy of tha vorka of all the loading aduoatora availabla* 

Although langth of the shop perioda and their fre- 
qoaney are left up to the adminlatratloa and the teaehera» t«e 
•iJEty-iid.&ute periods a veek are eonsidered desirable* 

The first, seoond and third grades ahould be given 
handworic in their olaasrooas, eoBmeBSurate with their abili» 
ties} and tha fourth, fifth and sixth grades ahould have shop 
aouraesa 



1. Professor J. Tanmaryn* Director of Industrial Arts Eduoa* 
tion« Hillsborough County* Florida* June 1948a 



Handwork i«eonwnd«d for the first thro* gmdM «m 
b*a«d on « study of ft»od, olothlng, «h«lt«r, utmtilt, tools, 

•nd r<H>ords, from th* p«at to ths prossnt. Suggastlons liw 
elttdsd the preparation of models; and the making of artiolea 
with priaitiTe toe la* 

Shop training ought to be required for boys in the 
fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. Those physieally or mentally 
unfit for this type of work should be exsBipted. 

Girls generally are offered eooldng or sawing, but 
shop work is of great ralue to thssi and should be optional. 

Sinoe it is ooamonly beliered thet boys -will learn 
the oost and raluation of materials mush better if they are re- 
quired to pay for what they jaake, it is suggested that eaoh boy 
pay the approximate oost of his projeet when ho takes It home. 
The school should pay for materials when the pupil is unaJsle to 

Pupils should be graded monthly on the Improvement 
aade, aeoomplisfament during the speoified period, loiowledg* 
aoqulred, oonduot in elass and effort put forth, and on his 
originality. 

The moat effective siee olass ranges from twelve to 
twenty-five, with twenty-one pupils in the average elass. 



• « 



IBS?* %iS^ '"■■"' '■^-'^'*''^ "N^fi E:i.t ■^ rf?: {iMfcKflttRSO**^ at'WWBWl 



.' * S ^5 iJ «-» jy V' ■«*- . 






mjWA ,iixv jax*^ ^-^-^" ^^^^^-^^^"^ • '■ ■'" e"^^--'* 

,.«,'.- rf,v.-,., *A:-^.+ tafnmr^zm «t ^i »a9f«^ ■=.'«!<* -tKi^w no^ v«q *i- t^-iU'p 

♦ -4" 



CHAPT8S Til 

gianiAHy AMD QoycLusiois 



This study has b««n an att«Kpt to «valuat« th« ia- 
portano* of industrial arts in t^e elementary tohool-^speolf* 
leallyf grades one thrE>ush slz~and to propoee a general pro* 
fvaa whloh night be adopted by Hillsborough County, Florida, 

Statements made are based upon literary researeh* 
pertonftl interviews* industrial arts BagatiBeSf bulletins* 
and doursea of study from other states* 

Tho renal ndor of idiis ohapter is devoted to a su»- 
■ary of the prineipal points mad* in the body of the thesis » 
and the ooneXasioas drawa therefroa. 

Sine* the serenteenth oenturyt MMtfaitien of th« 
iaportaaMi of teaehing industrial arts in the publio sehools 
has been dereleplDc in varioas oouatries* It has been estab- 
lished that a ehild learns fsr nore readily and with greater 
pleasure Idirough a eonerete approach to a prnblwei and that 



»*bf"»©r? < j» fed ^flsJtat lit* 

6^i,.-.... ;..:...-, • «; »-••■■■ ;ijW»««tf- 1o •waKhtoqatl 



• 61 * 

thfoofh Indtutrlal art«» hit fuBdfeMntal urg* to sraalMi it lad 
into uiefal •hMBMlc* 

It ia hopad that tha poiata oada la thii thaaia may 
1>a fovaad to ba of ^mlua to tha taaahiag pn>faaalo&* 

Pradoi-iok 0. Boxuar*a deficitlon of industrial arta 
ia eonaidarad tha batt* and la vidaly quotad \>y moat souroea« 
i»a«» "At a aubjaot for aduaativa purpoaaa* Induatrial arta is 
a atudy of tha ahaagaf aada by tama in tha foz^a of natoriala 
to ittoi«aa« thair raluaa* and of tha pi^)bloa« of life rtlatad 
to tbaaa oliangaa." 

Induatrial arts ia oloaaly alliad with fino art, 
but aay ba diatinguiahad from it by tlia faot that Indtistrial 
art it oonaamad with tha ara&tion of utility« vhila fina art 
ia oonaamad with tha oroation of baauty without rai^rd for 
utility, 

Hiatory of Induatrial Arts DaTalopwant 

A ganeral hiatorioal reriaw of induatrial arta «aa 
oonaidared naoaasary in ordar to undaratand tha praiant prob> 
laai ia Tampa, tlnaa aany of tha problana of the past ara atill 
apparent hare. 



1. Pradariak Q, Bonsar and Lola Coffay Uoaanan, Induatrial 
Arta fbr Elaaantary Sehoola * p« 6. 



M • 



.£E>.?3a!5'^mc sri^':^<».?r.;* «di ~' tu'Lipr 1o tcf a* bmnft •<! 

ISM ttvn vtf Jtft^mp xl«AI« «1 Imsa »&: 

6/ «:t^© i:«.S*»f'fcfft ,S(P<i!Ocnitr'? svl^ftflf-Hh*? t«?** ♦cHS^rfftW 

I>»i>«l'ef «1H Ho »; •lis !• 1>«B 4»«»/i«T ti- •>• 









• M 



Sittoa ths b«gloniB£ of Mmkliid. tb»v haa b««B 
fern of intaatrlAl arfea •duafttlon* Th* «arU«tt typ« of tuah 
•dttiMtioB «»■ f&tK«rwto*aeA tmlBing* whloh imi tuppluitod, «« 
ioeiaty b«Ma» aer* Mapltx and oertaJLa Tooationa oaiaa to d»- 
■anA a»ra aklll« by appraatiaaahip* Appraatloaahip. ia torn* 
«aa out-iaodad iriian tha aodara faatory ayatMm daralopad* 

A>haim ikaea Coaaniua was the fbuadar of tha nodam 
theory of Indaatrial aduaatlon aa an integral part of fbmal 
aduaatioa* Other plonaara raoocalaed tha laportaaaa of auOh 
training* Finland and Sweden inoorporatad handirork in thair 
pxd}lio aehoola before the United Statea nada any BOTe toward 
introduoioc aanual traininc eouraea. Zbchiblta at tha ]niila» 
dalphla Centennial were of priaary iaportanaa in aatabliahiuf 
the teaehing ot iaduatrial arta in publie aahaola here* 

Fear atagaa are aaid to ha^M davalapad in this . 
aount«y« th« Rviaaian ar Abatraat Stage* tha iiaadith Sleyd 
Stage* the Arta aad Crafta Stage* and tha Induatrial Stage* 
ahioh last began after the turn of the twentieth oentury and 
is still influential. 

7aiapa*s first shop pregrasi was organised in 1907* 
Sow erery high sehool in Blllsborough Country has a nodam 
industrial arts program* but the subjeot ia taught in not oaa 
af the elementary sohools* 



mtUiM •M S* vtMi^aet .«•«««» ^Uiarst UKumm a««w»i»<n*si 



im si ieisato* tk^id Vttm m^ 



m 55 •• 'c i 

A O0^^1ation was oad* of th« iaportant goals to b« 
■ouKht in tlM study of industrial arts in tha alsawntary gradac, 
M adVBoatad by Itading authors and teaohars* Thasa alma ara 
as follavst 

Laaming to ba usaful around tha baaa i Tha hoaa it 
tha baala unit in aoolaty to whiah tha pupil balangs* and happi- 
naas in his iaBaadlata axrrlrmaant is dapaniant upon his o«n usa- 
fulnaas and iaportanoa. Thosa attributaa oartainly uan ba a&>- 
haaaad by his ability to saka Norttaahila oontrlbutiona to tha 
fsadly vslfara* 

lltamini; te plan and org^nisa y ri e i Participation 
in planning and organisixig tha work in adranoa of bagiuning tht 
notual projaot will halp tha pnpil aava tisa and a-roid mstaful 
■istakas^vhiah will aat amly ai4 hia in sehool. but vill halp 
bin to parfbm any job ha nay held in tha fotura. 

I<aarning habits of naatnass and orday i Thasa habits* 
if attablishad painlasaly in youth* vill aurri-ra through adult* 
ho«A« naking tha pupil a»ra -valnabla to industry and aora suooaso* 
ful in oonduatittg his paraonal Ufa* 

Aoquiring a hobby ; Tha pupil should hars an opportu- 



4-Cy jOT. v;^^ 

Xxrtftir.wr &J«»-4a f'HJ Mdlit •ra* £iqi»^ tbt qlw* Itta *w»lmq l»at%M 
^XtflMB j^lgnrc-i.'^- »-' i^mr.-fl XXinr «di!^iiiit at \ »q •«MkM(f«tNit 11 



- ee - 

ni^ fpr mrw«ylag tha poaaibilitlM cf sMoiy fields* any on« or 
B»re of «hl«h atky beoon* • hobby ftor him whloh will b* th« 
•otirot of maoh interettlng and p«rh«pi profitable activitsr. 

L»ar«»ing to raeogplx and apprcolate good w&riaaac^ 
gtilp i Xhia <iuality is esasntial to hia a« a oonsvoMur of £oods« 
and as a futura oraftsman or produear* 

MaklBg a projaot to tal» hoat i It will help the 
student to aohiere a real interest in his surrotrndlngs and a 
eooperatlve attitude toward his hamm if he is allowed to loake 
sueh projects, ^^ a^jLutusMS ^ 

BiploriB^ various fields of an industrial nature i 
Through industrial arts the pupil should aoquire a fundamental 
knowledge of the functions and Hethod s of industry* and the 

problems and relatienthiiM of the people involTed* 

■ » — ■ .1 

I^estming to appreeiate the beauty and Talue of 
nature t Though industrial arts eonoems itself with the ohaag* 
ing of nature's produets* it presents ample opportunity fbr 
learning to appreeiate nature's beauty and its intrinsic iralve 
as well as its eonrerted valiie* 

Trade training is not to be eonsidered as an aia in 
eleaentary school education* although the industrial arts pre« 



**-'' I ,ii,«n rv I- -- - ^- < 



gnm will prtTite » aovoA fOuadUitlon for later tminiag. 

S»l<;«tlo» of Subject Matter 

Th« followiac ganaral tubjaeta and imita under thea« 
presented la ovtllne tota., were noat reprceentatlve of reee»> 
Mmdatlona mate by authorities on the subjeot* and of oourses 
iB aotoal u«e in other sohoolt* 

A« lecdwortdBg 

1* 9mll ItmaM of furniture 
^- 9* Coping aaw projeeta 

S» IhlttllnjE and earring 

4. Wood burning 

C. Toy repairing and naking 

•• Wood decorating and painting 
B* Heuartiald eleetrieity 

l» Hftllf and buzsert 

t* Trimifonaera 

!• Bapairing eleotrieal applian«es 

4* Kleetrie eoldering 
0, MetalwDfldMg 

U SkMt Mtal 

t« Tin ean oraft 

•• Sand B»lding 



t8 



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- 68 . 

9« lidtt in dwwjag 

!• Making aliqvle drmrlngt 

S» BltMftrt^ptlaf 

4« Fy««hMMi akstchitig 

6« RMuLLag and vorldLBg drawing* 
C* CMTteoaiac 

7. Skatohlac and drmviiig •■all projaota 
8« Poatara 

B« H» , ttaahoXd aaahantaa 

1. Rapairlng houaahald aquipaant 
S« i^iatine soraaiui, fanaas* ata* 
8* Banging and renDving aaraaaa 
4, Puttying and rapairiug glasa 

8. Fixing laaking faoaata 
i"* iBtrodttotpiry oarpantry unit 

I, Viaitlng building undar aonatraotion 
t« LMunnlflig about difi^arant typas of 

Imilding aaterial 
8. liaaming al>out building daaigna 
0. Miaoallanaoua orafta 
1 • Laathereraft 
£• Alabastar 



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- 89 - 

5. Voided pUstio 

4* Papor orftft 

I, BooKbindlag 

•• W««Tlag 

7. Pbtttry 

8« Papp«t-iMiklag 

■-^r^^- 9, DlenoMa 

10. Mft9 Mklag 

11, lAntttnx flildat 
12 • Soap oarrlBC 

U* Solontifie apparatus and nodalt 
B. flardening 

1* Salaotlac a&d preparing eromid* loamlng 

%yp«s of toil and tnltablo looatlent 
S. Pigiudng eost of teed* fartillMri, and 

iatMtleldae 
8* Planting toads and oarlni; for plante 
4* Eanrosting and narkoting -ragetablas and 

frolti 
8« Salaotlott and oar* of too It 

Ms thod of Taaohlng Industrial Arts 

Tao mthods of teaehing Industrial arts are reeo»> 
Bwnded for the eleaentary sehool, ClassrooB hand3K>rk« oorre- 



- 68 • 

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l«t«d vith oth«r studiet* !• *dTit«d for the grAd«« on* thi<«tM()i 
thrM* It !■ thoafht that pupila in grmd«s fbur through six 
ar« •uffiei«ntXy AdTAzuitd fcr alaplifled shop work, *• a prolim- 
iaary to later «dv«ao«d traiBiag* 

Of the tao type* of shop possible* the general shop 
vhioh Is in eoMoen use is oonsidered aere suitable* sinoe it is 
equipped fbr a fariety ef a«tlTities« to be earried on either 
separately or sianiltaneously* The handieap of the other type* 
the unit shop* is aore or less obvious when it la understood 
that this shop Is eqidpped for only one aetivity* 

There should be a variety of projeets available in 
oonseoutive units* Ueobers cf the elass should not be foreed 
to work on the ease projeet ux the sane time* and individuals 
should be given the privilege of exereising ehelee of the pro- 
jeot to be undertaiosD* Oeoeoratio prinoiples should govern 
the eonduet of the shop* with the teaoher aotiug nerely as an 
Adviser* not a dietator* 

Leoturvs are oonsidered the least desirable nethod 
of teaehing in the shop^ sinoe the pupils will loam far nore 
fros* first* seeing the work done* and then doing it thenselvss. 
There should be a dsnonst ration to the whole buneh before indi* 
vidual pfo^eets are undertaken* vith any leeturing noeessary to 
aeeo^^any this* Later* individual instrvMtion will be desir- 



.^iv '8Q% iv». / qorfit std* i-Jid* 

.. arf M:sadii vtastt 

flW •« ^X»i«w Sfll^^M tMlooei •li^ <t. i1« «dit lio tdortow Mlt 

^iai«^'».lii « :t«iY .Tiua ^iff:<ii 

•KOi •Mrt irUN»X tttW «£JtqV<I AfM «f 

*i:j>££^ ««o'i«c! aomc luoisa aura as aox^^m^Mt^s^Mi ■« »s dijjane «?e£iu. 



•tle» vit^ ohettkiBK of the -work at logiMl iaterralt deflgnattA 
at tha tija* cf plamdng aaeh proj«ft%« Thar* nay ha oaaaaioaal 
instraetlent to tha vhole trovj^ !■ orAar to saiBtaln t«ity« 

Iktaibeokif claee vrittas mrk, and hosamrk ara aoa^ 
•Idarad of Itttla or no Talus In a thap alaaa. 

Tha natura of shop nork dMNAds Infonail dlaolplina* 
irlth fraadoa af ipaaafe Mil aaynwt to an axtant uhloh dnea not 
IMMirfara «ith imiAi halt«g ^he* Dlaatpllna alfMiM not ba ao 
lax that it iupliaa loss of oovtrol on tha taatriiar** par%« aor 
laak of raspeot for hia* Points to be straaaad ara attantloa 
to the aorle* and aaurtaova and ooaperati^yia attlttttaa* 

•alatad Infanatlon lAilah ah««ld ba utilltad la aoiip< 
aaotlaa with ^a shop eocrsa iw^nld inaluda aarralAtlaB «ith 
athar atudiaa (irtiiah* for aauunpla* «i^t h# aahiairai through 
harlBg tha alaas vaka artlelaa vaad in aalaalal hoKet arhlla 
aolonSiil tlaaa ara batag itttiiad in other alataaa)t parional 
aaKpariaaaai aad AtBoaatratioac a&d talkt by paepla outaiAa «to 
alaaa who ara prafiaiaat in ^ta fialda mAar oonsidaratiott, 

Tha aftai^Baglaatad taaahing *id« ara rary laiwrtaat 
in tha orgatlaatioB of a pngfMi. Taaohlne aida nhioh ahottl4 
ba aT«ilftbla Inaluda bluaprlntat pattama, asdala^ «ood fi»- 
i<haa« aatioa piataraa and alidatt fi*!^ tripa* tanA library 
■fttarial* 



ft i^« i^fm *•!# l!tj f<«.*''*'^-s>jf*» ?**h* .('♦f'^'S 



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• tlrf* Ji^.-. ■ St ftfSJilo erf* jtOiVftti 

•HSU J><?VTjp »».r«»ri« ^ttrr^^s^ ,; -'^ fi'rt 



Courf Oriynlf tion 

Al«h««i)i flml d«t«nBliiation of -fete pr»bl«M of ««»• 
ter and loneth of thop elaaaoc murt bo lofb t^^ to tlio judeMnfc 
of tlM aMLaiatrotort oad iBatvttotort« rooulta of thlo rtiady la- 
aioftto that two alxtjMBlanto porlodi a «Mk »ro dttlrablo, 

A* has alroody boon aoafeloao4« it la thotieht that 
tho iaduatrial arta pyograa ahauld bo oartoadod to inolttie all 
gyadoa twom tho firat tlu«ttgh IAm alxth, with Iw^Wfiilc la th« 
aooaa for tho flrat thMM gmdoa, and ahop olaaaoa for 1^ 
othoM. 

tho ahop pros"* alroaiy has boon awwarisod. BmbA» 
work for tho ysmgor ohlldron aight bo baaod on tho throo 
porioda of ooow>B7i<>.dDaaatlo« to«a« and national — iiloylaf 
^mrloua typoa of aii4>lo handeraft unior oa^ of -Uioao oooaaaiot 
in tho atody of fbeda* elothing* aholtor* utoaaila. teola* and 
tho kooplng of rooorda. Suggoatod aotlTltloa inoludod aiaplo 
•ooklng and aawlag* tho naldBg of nodol ho«a«t« vlllagoa« and 
atroota* olajr wtoaailat and priaitiYO toola «hiOh oould bo 
vtlllaod in naking projoota* writing on olay ^blota« and tho 
vao of aany typoa of papor mrk, Svnh handoraft not only haa A 
nnlToraaX appoal for yoting ohlldron« but it alao prc-ridoa tdiam 
with a iioll-bala&ood baol;groimd for lator dotailod atniy of th» 
Induatrial arta« 



S9 . 



;^' #2 «!»«««.MmK(t ii»«if ypmnlM ami ftA 

' BB» *Ml«iA«T t ,ii.ti3m wist »3ai»^ '-^ '■<"■■ ■v»5-?*''« 

^^-f .fcJiWO» )*0|J!# llJt»*.t t .'MS»*W xHm *«»%'#1l*« 



B«y« in th» fbttrtti* fiftAi khA ilxth gradM should b« 
Mtttir»4 to talw ahof tninlaga •xwptlttg only 1^ mnll p«r- 
Mntaea j^yalonlly or mtftttelly unfit to do th« vortc* Althoni^ 
girl* havtt gtxMMlly takM eooking or Mving vhll* tho boys 
woro ha^lnc sxwp tiork* suoh o oenrso nouU be of (root ^ralno to 
thmtt and should bo optional* 

The boot plan Xbr usoting oxponsos appears to bo to 
have eaoh boy pay fOr his projoot vhmi ho tatoss it hono» in 
order to glTo hi» an understanding of the imluo of natorials, 
Sohool funds ohonld provido aaterials for pupils who oannot 

In the aoathly rating of shop ptq^ila« the faotors 
nidoh shotild bo takm into oonsidoration are the i^pro-vnont 
•aok yiqpil has aado| idiat ho has aoosaplishodt hew smoh know* 
lodgo ho has a«iquir«d| his ooninot and effort i and his original* 
Ity, 

Tho «»ot offooti'vo si so olaso ranges twm tMslvo to 
t«onty-flTs pvq>ils« with twenty -one in iihm aiwrago olass* 

C0WCLgSI0»8 

The oonolttsiens drawn froa this rosoaroh substantiate 
the theory that tiio oleaentary sohool ptq)il» his teaser* and 
his flnsowmtty, will benefit la nany ways from tho study of in- 



«4r UmA9 MftMTS iS^xU lot tti^ffi tOHmifi mH^ >fil 

0# «KJ «»l^ »X««q<JA «*W.C3«pR> SCeAd-^MMS TflTi J3Wl<i *8*d ndt 



- 64 



duatxlal *iiM« and it 1« rMoanmd^d that «& ors«aiMd indua- 
iHrtsX arta pvogitMi b« iaiittgurat«4 i« tiM firat six gmd** of 
tb« BiXlabove«|^ Qmnrtsy •ohooXa* 

<Hm of i^w dMdBMit olcHiMat* ia tho young ohild i« 
hla a*o««ai^ for aotor aoti'vlty« OhaaaoXlae ouoh aotirity 
ftloag guided and iatolligont path** with progrotsi-vo «t«p« d«-> 
■Igntd to mak)* aXlovmnoos for his inorMtingly finmr ooordina« 
tieat aad akilU* it nMMMxy if bi« «MrfiM aro to b« 
diraot«d toward eraating of hia a watura paraoa* oapabla of 
parfdndng tha taaka whioh will baaat hla en all aidaso Sa 
ia poaaaaaai of Ik fiiadaatantal urga to oraata* with hia brain* 
•artainly, bwt prlaarlly wl^ hia aa yat xodaTolopad haada. 
Tba first^gmda ^lild finda hinaalf in ralatiraly tha aaaa 
poaition aa waa prlaitiT* bmi with raapi» ot to hia koowladga 
of and ahlli^ to }um aijqpla toola ia a eraatiT* — nnar. Aa 
ha growa oldar« hia abilitiaa avolTa ia tha aana way mankizul'a 
abilitiaa hara awDlvadi he neada to ha aat at taaka irtiioh ara 
eonataatly baaoniBg no re ooaqslieatadj ooaraaaaumta with hia 
pi^aiaal and aantal prograaa* to prevent atagnatioa* Reaaarah 
haa proTed that the ahild aotually ean laam aore by doing 
thinga than he aaa by reading or hearing about than. Conorote 
•spariMiee ia neoesaary before he eaa graap abatraetioaa with 
any faeility* 



^,-. •■•.•:»ttj? i. ■ »*«< 



Jeota* 



Th»T9 art ■ftVQT d*«jlimbl« qualitlM whUik aa iudu*- 
trlal art* prognm t«Bd> to foa-i;«r iu tk* ihild* It 9Mo«v» 
ag«t indiyiduaJ. InltlatiT* and originality* i^ila •aphaaiKlns 
tha neceatity for oourtaay and oooparation with othara, Balp* 
lag in oXast projaota praparaa hia for an ■rtlaritaailng of tha 
•oisplioatad intardvpondanea of ail puepiaa ia the aooiaty o£ 
today* Ee gatt an iaaif^t into Hm atmotara of induatry aa 
It danrelepad ttom ita prindtiTa origl&>«throagh •iiq>la pre* 
jaata vith oorrolated atudy«*laading to aara ooapjlioatad pro* 

If t^a popila ia tha aarly gradaa are giTaa propar 
foundationa for later aork« oartainXy ttaoaa in tha fourth* 
Sixth gradaa vlll ba raady for aora adfaaoad work ahioh aan 
baat ba gtvan in the ahop* 

Tha awiMiiiilty will banefit froa an atesaatary 
aohool iaduatrial arta prograui whieh divarta energy vhiirik 
Might baaoaa daatroatira if left ungvidad* ta ahaaaala whioh 
anooaraf;e tha daTalopaa&t of uaafttl* h^ppy aitiaaaa* Ihaaa 
ahildren will baaoate the diaartainatinft aonaaBara* akillad 
eraftaaNi« and lntallir;e&t» ooiiaoiantious prodnaars 0:1 ahosx 
tha eoBBLunity toaorroar vill dapand* 

loo, induatrial arta tazula to atiaulata interest ia 
the hammt *^^ ia the aoquiaition of hobbiea vhioh provide happl* 



it- ■ 

.■■■ ■:. ■' .• !. ■ ■ ■ ••• '..•• ■ ,;.;;;?; a;/&'3j, 

•1 (7^ r-' .fas;.'' 

'iCq^r' ?/!jh;ir/; .loIrSii Ei,-,;';;'id "c::) ffc j'..fi:2 i'^ -jfljcvi 0;ttf 



• 6C ■> 

IMM« A oapabl^t ^ppy« siAturc «itisoa« vho ttadorstasdi th« 
intriMolss of 8oolety« oortaioly !• soro of an %•••% to iAm 
■iilMliUjl than the disgmntlod misfit «ho oan ooatribxtt* 
nothing to tho gsoertil irelfkrv* 

Tha taaoher at tho laatt Tdll derirv « gr««t d«*l 
of personal aatitfaotioa from oooing his elasoes naturo undar 
hit tutolaga* sad baooae oooporativo and ooastruotiro iadivid* 
uali* It should aaka hit teaohing Job far oasior «hon iMsona 
aro prosontod in tenas tho elass oan readily uadoratuid* 

Although Taapa has reoognisod tho iaportanoo of 
industrial arts ednoation in tho hlf^r gradoa« in tho light 
of this r«soaroh it soens that a progran for tho first six 
gradoa also should bo integrated into tho ourriouloa* Iho 
purposo of oloAontary sehool oduoatioa is to iapart gonoral 
knowledge and training whlsh will bo of equal raluo to all 
•tudoBts« If this aia is to bo aohiorod* surely industrial 
arts should bo an integral part of tho teaohing program* 

Tho writer hopes that this thoaia nay have oontri* 
biitod at least soao helpful suggostiona in olarifying tdio 
fu&otion of an industrial arts prograa and oralnating its ia- 
portanoo to the oloawntary sohool« 



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▲PPEIBIX A 

Th»r9 i« yvprodiMMd b«lov a oopy of aaitvriftl «m- 
floywd by a l(«««)Mr of th« Zk grad* in Chloago «hioh axanpli* 
fiM tiia •orralatien of handNork in a alaat prajaot* 

Chaptar v 
wSBiU A POBLXC PABK 

By Marjorio Raioh 
Orr Sahool Grade 2A 



ObJaatlTaa of tha Usdt 

A« To yrovlda altvations in uhl^ tha ohlldrm 
hara aonathlag to «ay and an opportunity ta 
aay it* 

B« to vidan ahildran*a intaraats. 



C« ta pMMBta tha natamtloB of Childran*a 
•aaial ratpo as aa ia nonal situationa. 

D« fo aaqtiaint thaa «1^ tha aaaraat aalglk* 
boilioed park* 

!• To daralop a working knowladga of tha naigh» 



X* Willii H. Jahnaaa^ Tha Om ft Ty^mi^aaa a« an Intaxyal Ptrt 
of Taaahii^ Mathod , Cliiaago ^^\i6 Sohoola Bullatin* ' 
pp« S4^9. 



■■'•ii:.- ;.i^. n^fi^ »m 



iOlAi) OUSRH A 






M 



borhoad tr«a»porfcatioa« 

F, To iaatilX ft sena* of oivio rvaponsiuility* 

8. To iMid ohildrvn to a» atppi-aeiation of aind 
a detira fbr certain )cnowl«dg« and skilla 
wuloh require £or nastcry* zoutin* or 
drill irork* (Th* thrae S't*) 

Mathod of Introduction 

During a olaes disousaion tha ohildreu ba^an to 
•paalc of thair luamar outinga. Eaoh told about 
what he mxiayA inoat at a piouia, vutil aatiuai* 
aoK raaili [vi'^ auah a p««k that aavaral young* 
stars suggestad that «• hare a pionia of our 
own. 

Organisation 

A. How tlM Projaat Wat I)aYaIopad 

1. Claaa. 

a« D).aou«3ion. 

b* Lattar writing. 

a. Oaaiding what aouaittaat war* naadad* 

B, IndiTlduala* 

1« Snggastad gastaa* 

!• Brought in pioturaa* 

S* laad ralated natarial* 

4. 9aTa oral eonpoaitions* 

0. OeMdttMa. "^MMiiPtt*^ 

1* Bautina fbr tha day* 

>• Lun«& (propar food). 

<• TnunaportatioB* 

4; Social nioatiaa to obsarta* 

•• Qawaa to play* 

()• What things to notioa* 



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T .tt 






•» 






!• Clasa. 

a* iifti* bookl»tt« tilling th« story of tlia 

trip or r« luted inoldvnt* (illustr*- 
tiont, ooapositloiWt and vritixag), 

b. Oav« th«ir own ii^rataiont of th« day 
through th« use of art aodiat paint* 
lag or olay andtllac. 

t. ladiTldiMla, 

a* Mada baanbaga to usa ia gaaaa* 
% b« Oellaatad pioturat and aada ladiTidoal 

•orapbooka • 
X« •• Mada ptqipata to uaa la atoryotalllas* 
4« MMa pottary after aaaing and baaoaiag 
iataraatad ia a huga alay pila an routa 
to ^M park* 

S* Ooamlttaaa* 

a* Mada a naighboziiood map. 
b« Mada plaaarda diaplayiag Itmohas* 
a* Vorksad oat tabla panonuao /Ti^* ahowiag 
tha parli^ tha lafooa* the bridge* the M» 
■iaiatratioB Buildiag* tha oonaervatory, 
and tha opea spaoaa with tablaa* banahat« 
traaa and ahniba* 

Am Taaohar* 

a* Jiaka a dioraaa of a winter pnufk aoana 

(later) ahowiag ehildraa faadiag tha birda 
to awakaa ehildren*8 interest in aeaaonal 
ahangaa ia ovw enriroBBeat* 

b« Mada aentreral piippeta for ahy ohildrMi to 
uaa ia talliag atorlaa* 



Edoaatioaal Oataoaaa of Dait 
▲• Soaial and CiTla. 



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^ 






f^tuc^ a* viiJiq v;«X« os^a « n i 



tS^ 


















* to - 



!• Baoh «hild it iMittlng to mNilisa hit plao* 
In tht world at aa indlridval vorkiag to- 
Kard hi* oim daalraa and at ona of a groi9 
workiag taward group Idaalt with a tanto of 
oivle raapo&iibllity that oolori artry aitu. 
ation. 

S» Baah ehild it growing in tha ability to 
ahoeaa tha batt ratponta to arary aritiag 
•ituation* 

a. Bofv ta traat palilia tn^loyaaa and e-t^ar 
woriBtra* 

B* Prapar baharior toward olaianatat* 

B« Fhyaiaal. 

1« Svary opportunity for tt rat ting haalth mlat 
if baing utilised* 

a* Otttdoor playu^frath air* 

b* Propar alothing* 

0* Proper food (lunek)* 

d« Cartful play* 

t* Safaty it baing ditauttad and pieturad* 

a* Crotting ttraatt* 

b. Obtarring traffie tignala* 

a. Riding in ttreet aars and antonobllat* 

Carafnl af windowa and doora-«ga«d brakaa* 
d« ?igilanoa againtt dattraatian by fir*. 

0. Craatita* 

1« Childran ara growing throu|^ psrtoaal axprai- 
•ion« 

a« Oral aaafotitioat are wora to tha paint. 
b« Vrittan aowpotitiona ara wall thought out 

and often practiaad. 
a* OonatmotiTa affortt ara planned* and 

tonatiaaa naka neaattary further ttudy* 
d« Eaoh a%taiqrt it leading to a oore apt and 

alaarar interpretation of the individual 



■I- G\' •* 












?TtfW 40 






• (4aMrX) 



►iwn^ 



3 ^(!#<»1«8 •* 



. .'nil ^cT fioJt^tot j^avb iN«£*}i 



.rff■.*f■s^tt5 «0 



"•aa 7 ■;;•««. ijMe'»i»'| Krv'ii'ii^l :r;i'?-"«-s5 f.'i* raf; 






■•/■ ,'H^ 



\.3Mz .':re J . 



.3 



. n • 



thov^t or ld«a« 



8« 9roi9 «q»r«taieBs ar* laodiflsd and isi- 
fliMiio«d by th« group, 

D* AoadMd«« 

1« XtMb«r lorka 

*■ liap ■ftkiag l«d to »tt &ppr««lctio& of 
•Ito «nd proportiMi m w«11 a« 
■•••••itatttd tho •oontlng of ^lookB aiUI 
th« use cf th« rulmr la laylac o«t a 
plftB* 

V b« Tht ooiurbraotlon of a rouai ioa* for th« 

Adainistration building was qulta a pus- 
BtM *1^« vBtll it «aa MfgM^cd that tha doma 
%«. leokad Ilka half aa orans* and tha oranga 
paal naa out la aaotiona. 

a* Soora aarking 1& gaaat naaaaaltatad addi- 
tion aud aubtraotloa drill* 

C* Baadiog and Phoniag. 

a. 

a» Tha projaot lad to a wider intaraat In all 
thiaga vhiah aauld ^ aatiaflad in part by 
hooka* aagaslnaa and papers* 

b« aaadiag aad phonloa baaaaa dasirabla 

•todlaa baaauBo tha ehildran began to rMU 
llaa thay '^•n ify to satlafaotion in tha 
book vorld* 

!• Writing and Spalling. 

a. Oroath in aooial relatlona lad to tha 
daaira for tha approval of and goad 

fei.lowahlp of eoapanlona* 

b* Letter writing and itory tailing 
HJ. !* neaaasitatad olaar, leglbla handwrlt* 

ing and proper spelling* 



■It my *^-^'ifi 



'^^W; fS 






*»#■ "left ft-w.-ii) .H.tf;f-"{ 4 1;-> attivtuntesioo 
fifig^ ..■.■' ',..';• F. '>;'■.- .^Kir. ..■ -.«>•••.< V f r * iv, • ..,;». 

• IlJtA - it iiiiA 

«£^ ■-:, ^'J'i •'K«)W '^.... ;^.V.<. 

..^i^>.>.4. dOA IMIfl^ivV aft 



•i^jfmdbfl': '.«£» is*-' 



t*-* Ui VAf-|(i.T 



- 71 - 

Bibliognqihy for ChlldFm*ai Ovn BMuUag 

A* fturkt or Ploaivi. 

BmiI Ufa S«oond Iteadtr* by 0. M* Martin. 

"A CMq)iitf^ Trip*, pp. 108*118. 

Bmt StorlM* by iRrjori* Bar^* 

'*Th« Zoo,** pp. U8«13S. 

Bl«<m Book T*o, by Blson-Oray. 

"Sow Tom Wsnt to tho Fklr," pp. 20-26. 

*Tli« l««r*8 Pioaioa'* pp. ei<»68« 

*Brl|^t Ifymt «Bd tko Aoorn*'* pp. T4-79. 

lag and Puff, by Harjerio Bardy. 

*foliiK to a PloBio,** pp. lOl-llO. 

B. ArlthMtlo. 

Iiaibor Sterioc, Book Otto. by Studobakar. 

"Aalaal Storloa,** pp. 10«100. 

••Tho CirwiB,** pp. 101-1401. 

Walk* aad Talk* in Bnalwrland, by Aaltb. 

**Plonie Topioa*** pp. It* 94, S9» 68» 61« 

«6. Tt, 78, 79, 84. 
"•taMt," pp. ZU 40, 70, 71, 108, 

0. Safoty. 

!•» Storiat, by Marjorla Bardy* 

"Tiut Roaeuo," pp# 110-117, 

•P»li««am," t>p, oft-M. 

PMt aad Story Priaar, by Suasalle. 

**(l»ixM5 to Sohool,** pp. 6S-64. 

''Bafafty Flrat," pp. 65. 

Child Story Flrat liaadar, by yraacom. 

*Tha PiroMB," pp. 118-118, 

**?!» PolloaBaB," pr>, 119-120, 

Blaoa Book Two, by Slaoa-Oray* 

*Ib« Baa Savod Sally," pp, 1K)0.206, 

'*Tha Yowa^ flraaan," pp. S06O-212. 

Maid nr»t Keador, \ry "H, T. Plaid. 

*Wm Bad Took Cara of Jaaa,** pp. 68-75, 

D« Baalth, 

My Baalth Bablta, by VhitooBJb-Boraridfa-Tovnsond, 



• )|T 



^.IbM^Jf ««• n^mmbl '^ttmsukl^.tn 






♦qrj "»oi^ 



':<tA aS 



•lit" 

>««e •rfT* 
.rj?T' .f tfooQ flr««XI 



. 7> - 



Sooiftl Soleao* Xwktom, by H» 8. Xaad* 

•My* BrowiU a««o«ry Stor«»" 

Tlftet «nc! Story ?ritMr, hy SutMllo* 

"*• Sloepy Towa," pp. 116-124. 

Mamj and Jenny Kabblt, by &«rl« 

"Qollig to Soho«l,* pp. 7*13, 

"Haby Babbitt,** pp« S8*d4« 

B. Iatur« Stoi^«8* 

Th« Sinking F»nMr« by Tippett. 

*Tr»M OB th« Fana«** p. 49* 

Th* S«aaona« pp. 75<-89. 

Bacy Boftd to Seadln^, Pirat, by C. J. Salth* 

*Th« Berth Wlxxda*' p. 7. 

"Tha L»af," pp. 9-11, 

"The 7r«e ^teana** pp. 83*86 • 

•The Baater UXy," pp. 107-12X. 

The Outdoor Playfiooae* by Edwarda aaA Shaman. 

f. Tranaportatioa. 

Johnny and Jaasy Babbit by Serl* 

"Ckilag to the Store*" pp. 71«81. 

•At tAie Fam," pp. 81-41. 

*Shatii««" pp. 82-66. 

Tales and Trarola* by Uartin. 

•Shopping for the Vialt," pp. 6-10, 

■The Trip," pp. 11-18. 

•The Pilot Boat*" pp. 26»S0. 

•The Big SJiip," pp. 31-40. 

•The Bua Trip," pp. 58-61, 

•Blisa Ann*i Ride*" pp. 86.93, 

•PMirie Stiseonera to AlrplaBea,* pp, 111»118, 

Sooial Soienae Reader* by H. S. Bead, 

•Ab Airplane Hide." 

Blaon Book Two* by Elaon-Oray. 

"The Red Tfagon," pp« 125-129, 

•AbnUMK lAaooln*" (eorared wages)* pp, 194-198. 

flood fines First Reader, by bryee-Hardy. 

•Dark Pony** pp. 27-88, 

PleXd Pi rat Eeader* by Field, 

•All Aboard** pp. 116-122, 

•llhat a Lame Boy Did*" pp, 131-189. 






•itil^.£cS .lb .0 Xii «;^H•xi^ »?. 



tv* « ^p5^ « -i' 






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. I-iW »q<( «♦! 



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. 74 - 



■eclAl S«l«Do« Bsadar. by H. S. E«ad» 

"A Stoi>y About Boats." 

K«v Stcriei* by itarjorie Hardy* 

"Tim Start," pp« 23-35 • 

"TakiBg the Train," pp« 36.62. 

"A Trip with th« laitasan," pp* 76.82. 

"Dowfc lOTO," (The "L"), pp. 91-104. 



APPHfDTX B 



-::-.:sk: 






B«M«r« Pr«d«rl«k &•« and Jiotaaui« LbI* Oof f^jr* ladiMtrial Arfet 
for Sloaagf ry S«hool< « lew Yorkt Ih« tiaosdl'lan CoBqpany« 

BoBMr* Frodariok &•« Induat^iRl Ayt«» Hor Torkt The Maoalllan 
OoBpaagr* 19S4« 

•&•§•!« Bog* #•« Art Aygrtoiattoft , Saw York: Stophsiis Day 

California Mata Currioulua Conaisaion* Toaohara * fltdda to Child 

Drra l ^ ifl la tha Intaraadiata^ a>a4aa« Saoraaaato^ 
daii'fontiai Tal'iil'onu.'a Statu IJopartaant nf Eduoatlon* 19S6« 

ehanry* Raya»iid« ttoEaral Laatheroraft » EIooniBctoa« Illiaoia) 
HaKaiglit and MoKaight, IS46« 

SaMao* ▼letoy» Craaiira Taaohing in Art » SoraBton« Pannsyl-vaniat 
Intamational 'taxtbook Coopaoy* 1S4$* 

I>a«ayt John and iSralyn* Our Sohopla of Toaiprrow , Hew Yorkt C. P» 
Owttoa and Coapaay* 192^. ' ' ' ' 

Davey* Joha« Racan Katura and Conduat* Saw York: Baary Holt and 
Oaapaagr* ^989 • 

Dobba» Blla Vlotorla* Priaary Haadiroylc . law Torki Tha Haeaillwi 
Coapaay* 1914* 

Ospp, Katharine Sllaabath* Ilw PXaoe of Indmtrtaa ^ EXoaantary 
EdoaatiM* Gnioago^ li'linoi*: f& 'IJnivarai'ty of Cliioago 
ff»9, 1910. 



J. ^,^^^„^^ 



y;-V9»j.Vl«B>t^ 



_„diU 



■i!l 












*<»« K ltiiWl|i lr il M l » I ^ IMil I* 



jAlfravI^a'fn*^ .ft'j'v.s'vaL *:' Trr!.rff,cs^ oTf:t,'no'i3 ^%o&9i<f ^MAraO 

*" ""' - t<sir«0 ban Mtfthrti 

>'? ?!all >^uf>ncO btia rnvt^A (umM. ^&tHt «t*"<A 



salty-- ,tu^-~iiir.^-rd rtmi^ *Mift9t9if MtOL ^»4€ia 



.-V. ^ 



i:>s"* si? «iJit9^Miii toivMf^/a »q<pa 






. 76 . 



9vMg«Mis» Aadr«w« Cr»»tiv» Jfwalry , Rcfw Torki BAi^«m And 
BrotlMrt Puailiahlag OnmMay* 1947, 



F«o]la« Illinois t Th» ifeunni Art 



in In*ajtrt*l Arti • 
Art«""Sr»««, 1940'» 



Bil«toB« ftMrniMl B«, T»aohimt thm laduatrial Arta* Paori*^ 
Zllinoiit Th« ikmMii ArtTT^at, 1946. 

rryklvndf T«nM C«« and LaB«rg«, Anmad J«« gww . f*! ^p ^od^ 
ypritii^. Bloeaington* Illiaoltt MoKnight an^ MoKnlgkt, 
1946* 

Origaby* )lKd*ly&« 8# w it TowrMlf < law Torkt Cheatar S. Elak 
Ooapany. laaorporatad^ 1946« 

Vjorth* HanHuOf Prinoiplaa of ^pdworidp^ . Paoria* II linoia i 
Tka Manual Arta Praaa,*T944, 

■ii(gar» Oarald 0*« Baoant Caraaj o ityiXptvaf in Oraat Britain. 
Landan* foglandt Jdlm Taranti Coolpany, Ltd«« 72 Charlotta 
Straat, 1946, 

Xeka« Marguaritat Arta and Crafta . law York* A. B« Bamaa and 
Co^panxt Inaorporatad, i94ii'« 

JolauMtt« Hillian H.a and Pana« Isadora M*« F< mdanantaila of Indua- 
trii^ Arta a nd Tooational Bduoation . CMoagot Tha 
Qoodhaarti>wi\laox bonpany* Inaorporatad, 1943* 

Krauaa* Halan K«« Bay>niaa for Aaariean Hoaaa an d Qardana. 
law Yerkt Tha MaaoaiTlan Company, 1947 • ' _"" ' 

Laa* Mwrry J«« and Doria« Tha Child and Hia Onrrioali»« larv 
Torki D. Applaten Cantiuy'Soapakay* itdO. 

MaHtunnr* Oaaar L«« Bggan» Oaorga W,« and Midfurry« Charlaa A., 
Taartdjy of Induatrial Arta ^ in tba Blaaantary Sohool . 
laar TorKr~Tha Maaadllan Co^>any« 1924» 

Manual Arta Confaranoa Coonittaa on Pablieation* Induatrial Arta 
in Modam Eduaation. Paoria, Illiaoiai Tha Muiual Arta ' 
Praaa. 1934. 

liahola* Floranoa vr«» Art for Yowig A— rioana. Faaria« IlliBolBt 



>la« Floranoa r*» Art for Yoim^ 
Tha Manual Arta Praaa* 'i942* 






9&&SPimi^ ... ^.,^.*J ^Vf-.'- 



Afj/'i Sf 



>••?. o '11 'rsjSa , i^foT 



«f.K > "^s ■:.__ ■.<i« bo* «*t rnsH •••^ 






•4%& tmoA 



- TT - 



Pftilsi* Tony* Cra ft*— n ^ * II Iitftmotion Bikndbook» Kev Torkt 
Sdu««tloi»i Materlftit* lno.» ld4S. 

PIftl8t*d« lAtxra !••• Bfcndwork and ita Plaea in Bart y Bduaatlen* 
Oxford t At tht CiLareiiilen Praia, 19 IS* 

Baynoldif B. Atwood* Co aiplato Book of apdem Crafta * CXav»> 
laad and law Tori:i T?i»'rld Pablialiifnf Coapany* 1946. 

Sargaat, Waltar, Pina and Induatrlal Arta in SXawantary Soheola t 
Boatona Oinn and Conparx:'! IbIs* 

Sal-Tidcac R. «•• and Frykliad, Yarn 0«, ftrlnaiplea of Trad a and 
l adnatrial Taaohlug* Paorla« Illlaoiat xka Maatial lAjrta ' 
^raaa, 1940« 

Shaa, Jelm 6aral4« Wpojbrork for Brarybedy< Seranton, Pannayl* 

Tanlat Zntamationa'l Ta]?Qkook Company* 1944* 

StaffaH* JuBa« Banderaft Inatraatlm Beak . Baa Torki Bdiiaa* 

tional liatarial«» Inota 1944. ' 

9truak» Thaodora ?•$ Craatiya Taaahia^, Znduatrial Arta and 
laaatlonal Bdaaatioa. 'Sum Vorki Joka Bilay and Soaat 
InoanK>ratad« 1916 • 

8truak« Thaodora F»« Fwmdationa of laduatrial Bdueatien* Baw 

York* John Wiley a^d Soiaa, Ineorporat«d« 19S0. 

VanMMt WilXlaa H„ Induatrial Art a Daalgna . Faorla, Illiaolai 
Tha Uaanal Arta i*ratt« 198S* "^ 

Bailing* Jane Batay* and Calkina, Charletta Ulait* Spaial and 

Indttatrial Stndlaa for ^ha SUaantary gradaa» ' PhiladaJphia i 
J, I^. lippinao^ boRpanya 19m« 

Billiaaa« Waltar Bollwua Induatrial Arta Hi ate ry» Seraston* 
Pwwaylvaniat Intemaiianal Taici'tiook OompMyj 1940 • 

Biaalaw* Laaa Loyd« Filaa i n Bvtainaaa and Induatriaa « Kaw Torkt 
Me6r«»-Bill Book Conpaay, inaox^ratad* 1947. 

Wiaal««t X<aoa Loyd« Tha I»t<^ratad Sfrtwol Arta Pragrw * Bav 
Tarkt Maftraw-Hill IBook Con^ny, IneorporaTaaTlSsd* 



TT ■» 












--T-r — ■'*• 



.w ;^.vi'«^*i6.e- r*»« :'^'^f-.-.- *!.:■. „ . ■■" etarfiWWfP .d&fflifi 



■ !i.;U*<,- 






«V#'^i 



*;225SI!2!i 5-. . . 'iff 



. 71 - 



^tt}tt A])T9ham» Industrial Arta HHt»ry « H«w Yorkt Xh* 



flovarTBMgt Publloat3.ona 

Bi»tuAaI tiurrey of fiduoation. Volume Z« 193i-1936« Chapter 1« 
"^iHt'eBentary^duoEtioti", 1930-1936. ."Jashington, D, C.i OoT- 
•nnent Printing Oft'ioe, 1940* 

Muoatlon Bulletin 2€» 1930, "Teachers' Guide to child derelop- 
■ent." WaahingSoa« D. c«i OoTermMnt Printing Of flee* 

Bdueatlott Bure«a« Bulletin 1917» no* £• '*nn»»ttie«dle basketry 
ia sohoola,'* tteehingtoa* i). C.t*" OoTermient Psintiag 
Office* 191T, 

MMation Bitreau* Bulletin 1926, nc. }A, "Cyelee of garden life 
AaA plaat life* aeries of projeet* in nature study for ele- 

nentary sohools*** Washitigton* D. C.t Qovermuent Printinc 
Offiee, 1926, 

Bducation Leaflet 51* "lbio« your sohool ohlld.** Washington* 
D, 'C«t Go-7en»0nt Printing Offiee* 1989* 

Muealfcton I<eaflet 62* "Knov your aodem eleasntary sohool." 
IlKsniBgton* D, C.i GoTeraaent Printing Offiee* 198fi» 

UueatioB Leaflet* Bulletin 1987, no. 34. "Industrial arts* it* 
iKterpretatioa in Asierieaa selioels*" flashincton* D. C.i 
Oo-rernnent Pristine Of floe* 1988. 



Idueatien OfflM, Bulletin 1946* m, i^* "How to build a unii 
uDrii." Washincten* t, H^t Oorensseat Pointing Offiee* 



ldu8atie» Paaphlet IT* "Industrial edueation seetion of the sur- 
r»f ei* tne BafTklo pi^lit seheolt." WashJnrton* D. C.t 
OoTensMBt Printing Offiee* 1981. 

Industrial Eduoation Olrsnlar 8. ^Organitation of instruotlenal 
material in iadiTidnal uaTts*" Washington, D, C.i GoTem* 
aent Printing Offiee* 1928* 



-flfoC !,0 *ll 



t^-- 



',:V«fi 









.umwtMM. 9tii$MatA 



i> :» _ .- ., „ 



■iS •?..» rf»--a. ..■' «., .vJJ 






^i^-i-' 



r r4,--.»rf>ST 



,00 [ ^'-t ;:»ja»fB;^'jnr!5i 



Jij|>S 



«^»8 






«ikOi«.t. ««•' 



. 7f •. 



I n|iu»tri»l Bdttpatlon Ciroular £, "Contribution of «orr««pond«n»»- 
lnstruoi:iOB mothods to lig^astrial •AuentiOB*" "^ahini^iif 
D. O.t Co-vrttmvt Printing Offio«, 1922, 

Indu«trial JBduoation Cjrettlar 12. "Problwis of org;«iu.satiott la 
indiutriAl •dtMAtiOBa" liiSu3iiaeton« D* C«i Oo-remmnit 

Printing Offlge, 1?22. 

IjBjdmtrlftl lidttoation Clr<uX>r ST* *^«l««a of tli* BMiual arti*" 

1lli««h'i'n^n, \jI» C: ' C'oVemnwnt Printing Offlw, 1927, 



▲ddy« Uarthft La** 'VQiat ii Good ChiidAnoe in the Elemontary Bduea» 
^^^f* MMMA^fuu VoluM 68, Mo. 7, ii*roh 1948, pp. 4S0- 

Bonnardst Alfrad J*» "^Art for Art's Sake." The Art Hews* Va« 
York« SWBMr 1943. 

Br«d»»ll« Kable, "Proa Depeadenoe to Independonoe**' Chi ld Ed tw 
oatlettj i January lt48« pp« S19-St4« "*'*' 

CaaQ>bell« Blanoh«« '*Flan fo r Outdoor Play •** Parenta Mft^afne j 
Chleago* Illiaaiai The Parent Inatitut** Ineorpo rated* 
July 1948. pp. 48-49. 

Chriaty* Slaer V.* "Derelepaant of Induatrial Arta in the 

Gineianatti Public Schools •** I^uatrial Arta and Voqational 
Bduoation Magaaina, Veluwe 8ttt V^* t« February V^l. 
MilimulBee* WiaoonaiAt Bruoe Publiahiag Company, pp. 46»5t« 

Oafraaoe* J, A.« **lA«n Without Crabj^raaa.** Tltnfr Oreweft Maw 
Yorkt Kllliam Preaa, July 1946. pp. 628^6S. 

Dletrieh, Oraee L.» and Eunnlout, C, W,, "Art Contenta ^Preferred 
by Priaary Uhlldraa.'* The Kleaea tar y Sohool Journal, 
Ohieago^ Illinoiat Thai varsity o'i Chieago Preaa« ^u'ly 1948. 
pp. 8fi7»5S9* 

Indas* Claude &., "Should Only Indltidual laatruetion bo UaedT" 
Indnatrial Ajfta and yoofttioaal Sdueatign Ma^tlne, Milwaukaa, 
WiaeonaiBi Bruee ruljiiahlB^ Company* y«ibruary 1941. 






''««i '■«>» 



,.:.^ai ,&6»i'ic jjjC^jVix'i'i iv- 






,aj-i-' 



we- . ■ , :i 












■i>-i 



.80 - 



Ttkj, B«rt3CFt B., "Bav to for th* Bandy iten." Ben«r Bom* <wd 
Card<na,» Dos Uoinea, Iov«i U»r«dith PublTsMng Corapeoy. 

larriiigton* S. L«« '*A Sohool Hobl)y Prngram.** Indua trial Arta 
tad Veaational Bd uoatlon Mfcgating , VoltoM Mj ko« V. 
Ui'lvauka*. WlaooaVlm TTruoa Put^iahing Conpamy, Ootobar 
1640. pp. S2-40. 

Hobbs, Harry J,, *^orklng with foola," Ar t a Craf%a.Bdtt»atl on, 
■Mr lork, 1944, 

Boimrd« Emuty, *'Oard«n Ollnlo.* B»tt«r Howa and Oardena ^ Dat 
Iiolnat« lovat Maredith Publiaking Conpanyc July 1949, 
pp, 1CU12, 

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