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Full text of "Study of the transmission of heat through tile and concrete fireproofing"

Illiuoif> Lastttute 

of Technology 

UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 



AT 2 72 
Snow, C. A. 

Transmission of heat throguh 
tile and concrete 



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ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 
PAUL V.GALVIN LIBRARY 
35 WEST 33RD STREET 
CHICAGO. !L 60616 



A Stady 
of 

3BE TRMTSMISSIOl OF BEAT 
THEOUGH TILE ABD CONCRETE FIBEPEOOFIHG 

A THESIS 
Presented by C. A. Snow 
to the 

PEESIDEIT and FACULTY 

of 

ABMODR USTITUTE OF TECMOLOGT 

For the Degree of 

BACHELOR OF SCIEICE IE FIRE PEOTECTIOU EHGIEEBEIKG 

Having Completed the Prescribed Course of Study 
in Fire Protection Engineering. 

May 29, 191E. 







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PBEFACE -------------_---__ 1 

EQUIPiE]ffr __- __ ___ _____ 2 

Construction of Tile Blocks ----____-_ 2 

Construction of Concrete Blocks --__ _-__ 3 

Construction of Furnace -__--_______ 4 

Construction of thermocouples ---__-___ 5 

METHODS 6 

Calitration of thermocouples — ________ 6 

Bosition of the Blocks --_-_-__ — ___ e 

Position of Thermocouples - — ______ 7 

Procedure During Test -__--_-______ 8 

Headings ------_---__________ 9 

DISGUSSIOH OF EESIE.TS 10 

Condition of Blocks After Test ___io 

Discussion of Teraperature Curves -___-__ 12 

DISGUSSIOE OF PHYSICAL LAY/S 16 

Concluding Remarks.- ---________-_ 19 



ILLUSTBATIOUS AM) DATA. 



Plate 

1 - Furnace and Partition. 

E - Tile and Concrete Blocks. 

S - Tile block in partition after test 

4 - Dimensions of xile Blocks. 

5-9 Thermocouple calibration curves. 
10-15 Time temperature curves. 
16-17 Temperature depth curves. 



Data Sheets. 
1-lE Test data. 



2S476 



page 10. 1, 



Although considerable 
thought and attention has 
been given to the value of 
various materials as fire 
xet^r dents, and thorough 
tests have been made to 
ascertain their ability 
to resist destractlon by 
fire, only a small amount 
of work has been done to 
determine the amount of 
heat actually passing 
through the materials at 
the high temperatures which 
are found in burning buildings. 
It is the purpose of this 
thesis to establish, through 
experiment, a basis from which 
the transmission of heat 
through tile or concrete fire- 
proofing may be determined. 



Page Uo. 2, 



THE !CR4QSMISSI0H OF WAT 
SHROUGH TILE AH) COICHBTE FIBEFROOPIIG. 

EQTJIPMEIf T . 

Conatrxiotlon of Tile Blooks. 

The tlocka were made from tile alats, 
80 placed tb&t there was an air chamber hetveen. 
The slabs were about 17-1/2" long and 12-1/4" wide, 
none varying more than l/S" from the above measure- 
ments in either length or width, and were medium 
burned and rather porouB. The blocks were built up 
by placing shellacked wedge forms between each slab 
1-3/4" in from each aide on three sides, and filling 
in up to them on the three sides of the block, with 
concrete. This concrete was a 1 - 3 mixture, having 
one part portland cement to three parts 1/8" screened 
torpedo sand. It was re- enforced by two wire rods 
on the rear side, and one wire rod on each end of the 
block. The concrete extended from the wedge forms 
out a distance of 3-l/4", making a wall of concrete 
around the tile 1-1/E" thick, not including the con- 
crete between the slabs. This can readily be seen 
in figure Ho. 3, which is block So. 2 cut through 
the center after the test. 

The block was allowed to set for forty- 
eight hours before removing the wedge forms. The 
cells were then measured, and the block was butteredtp 
with concrete on the fourth, or fUont, side, leaving 
a space of about 1-1/2" for the Introduction of the 
thermocouples, as shown in Pig. 2. The block was then 
allowed to set for one week, at the end of which time 
it was placed in a drying kiln and kept at a tempera- 
ture of from 212 F.to 220 F.for sixty- six hours. The 
block was then ready for the test. 

All measurements for each tile block are 
given on plate lo. 4. The slab thicknesses given on 
plate Ho. 4 are the average of eight measurements 
taken on each slab just before being built into blocks. 



Page Eo. 3. 



She depth of cell measorementa given 
are the average of three measarementa taken with 
internal calipers Just hefore the block was buttered 
up, on the front side, and a zoeasurement taken after 
the teat when the block was parted centrally. (This 
latter measurement was taken on a line 6** from the 
right side of the cells, and 6-1/8" In from the 
buttered up face of the block. In all cases the 
latter measurement checked within l/ss" of the aver- 
age of the first three readings taken. !Che length 
of the cells was found to be 13-1/E" and the width 
9-I/2", making an area of tile section 128.25 square 
inches, straight through the block. lEhe concrete 
in the buttered up side, as shown in figure Ifo. 3, 
appears to enter the cells to a considerable depth 
but on close examination it was found that it oi^ly 
adhered to the tile slabs for an inch in, or less, 
the renBinder merely projecting into the cell but 
not touching the tile. 

Construction of Concrete Blocks. 



The concrete blocks were zoade in a mold 
or form, constructed aa follows:- The sides are each 
8" in height and 18" long. iUhe ends are 8" in hei^t 
and 12" long. The sides and ends overlap each other 
in such a way tliat a double joint is formed, making 
a water tight corner. They both have guide strips at 
their lower edges, which overlap the bottom of the 
mold and serve not only to keep the sides and ends 
in place, but they are staunch enough to prevent any 
warping of those parts. The bottom of the mold is 
made of heavy 2" planking through which six holes are 
drilled to allow for the placing of six 5/l6" drill 
rods. These holes are located on the circumference 
of a circle, 6" in diameter, having it a center in the 
center of the 12" x 18" face, and are each 3" apart. 
The drill rods project up through the bottom of the 
mold to heights of 7", 6", 5", 4", 3" and 2" from the 
bottom. This allows the thermocouples, which are 
placed in the holes thus made in the concrete, to 
penetrate into the block at distances of 1", 2", 3", 
4", 5" and 6" from the exposed face. The mold is 



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held together hy four hoards hinged at the corners aad 
brought up tightly by means of two ♦edges. The entiiB 
inside of the mold is heavily shellacked and the rods 
are thoroughly greased. 

A l~3-5 mixture was used in making the 
blocks. The sand used was torpedo bank sand, passing 
a l/s" screen, while the aggregate consisted of pebbles 
less than l/2" in diameter, together with some very 
coarse gravel. Enough water was added to make the 
mixture quite workable, then it was shoveled into the 
mold, tamped, and the top struck off even with the top 
of the mold. By following the above method in each 
case, each block resulted in being exactly the same 
in all respects, as the others. 

The concrete blocks were allowed to set 
for three weeks before they were dried out. During 
the first week of setting, they were wetted once each 
day. At the end of three weeks the blocks were placed 
in the drying kiln and kept at a temperature of from 
2120 F. to 220 F. It was the intention of the writer 
to dry each block for sixty-six hours, but the burner 
under the kiln was tampered with while blocks Ho. 1 
and Ho. 2 were being dried, and it was found out later 
on that they were only dried for a period of fifty-two 
hours. Block lo. 3, having been dried out at a differ- 
ent time, was given the full sixty-six hours of drying. 
The purpose of the drying was to drive out all of the 
uncombined water, and thus enable the test conditions 
to be accurately duplicated, which could not be done 
if varying quantities of water were contained within 
the concrete. 

A view of one of the concrete blocks, show- 
ing the 12" X 18" face opposite the 12" I 18" face whidi 
is to be exposed, is shown in Fig. 4. 

Construction of Furnace . 

A rear view of the furnace used for these 
tests is shown in Fig. 1. The front or open face of 
the furnace contains an opening 33" wide and 35" high, 
measuring from the keystone of the arch to the base of 









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the opening. This base is 17" from the floor. 
The inner walls, hase and arch are made of the hest 
quality fire-hrick, cemented with a Portland cement 
mortar. The outer walls are made of pressed brick 
and an air space separates them from the inner walls. 

Four burners, which are in principal, larg 
Bunsen burners, enter each side of the fiirnace and 
aU. eight burners are directed against the back wall 
of the furnace. In this way an even, uniformly 
distributed heat reaches the front face of the open- 
ing. The arch which forms the top of the furnace 
contains five rather large openings which allows the 
gaseous products of combustion to escape. A blower, 
which is operated by a motor that can be run on a 
110 V. or 220 V. circuit, supplies the air to the bur- 
ners at a point just beyohd the gas control valves. 
A small hole in the right side of the furnace allows 
for the placing of the furnace thermocouple. 

Oon«truction of Thermocouples. 

Pour of the seven thermocouples used were 
made of platinum and iridium, while the other three 
vere made of copper and constantan. The platinum 
iridium couples were made of platinum and iridium 
wires, the terminals of which were welded in an 
electric arc. This comprised the hot junction which 
was always placed where the temperature measurement 
was desired. The wires passed from the hot junction 
through a porcelain tube, having two separate chambeas. 
Prom the porcelain tubes they ran through concentric 
asbestos tubes, one wire passing throu^ the center 
and the other through the space between the tubes. 
The wires were then soldered to copper leads, these 
joints being the cold junction which was kept in ice 
during the test. The copper constantan couples were 
made in the same way except that they could be welded 
with a blow pip© instead of the electric arc. 



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METHODS 

Calibration of Thermocoqplea . 

The melting points of copper, zlno, tin 
and loe were utilized In calibrating the platlniun 
Iridium couples. The material that Is to be used 
for calibrating Is placed In a crucible and placed 
In asirall electric furnace and melted. The hot 
junction of the thermocouple Is placed In the center 
of the molten metal, the cold junction Is placed In 
tubes which extend Into Ice, while the ends of the 
copper leads are connected to a galvanometer. The 
electric furnace Is then turned off and the metal 
la allowed to cool while readings are taken on the 
galvanometer. The point or temperature at which the 
metal begins to solidify is Indicated by a succession 
of constant readings on the galvanometer. The taking 
of readings is taken a little beyond this point to 
make certain that the true freezing or melting point 
has been obtained. The same method Is used with eacb 
metal. Eaowlng the melting points of each metal used 
and getting the corresponding galvanometer readings 
a calibration curve may be drawn for each thermocou- 
ple, plotting temperatures as ordinates and miltl- 
volts or galvanometer deflections as abscissa. 

The copper constantan couples are cali- 
brated in exactly the same way as the platinum 
iridium couples, except that the melting point of cop- 
per Is not utilized for obvious reasons. Copper con- 
stantan couples are not considered reliable for measue- 
Ing temperatures above 1000° F. so for all temperatuies 
above that the platinum iridium couples must be used. 

Position of the Blocks. 

Bach block that was tested was placed In 
the movable partition shown In Fig. 1. The opening 
In the brick partition was so located that where the 
partition was rolled into place In front of furnace 
the block was In the center of the furnace opening. 
In the tests on tile blocks the partition opening 
was made 16" high and 21" wide. This allowed about 
s/S" on the sides and bottom for asbestos packing 



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and about 3/4" at the top for the same. A rack vas 
made on the frame-work back of the partition to sup- 
port that part of the tile block extending beyond 
the brick-work of the partition. 

The tile block, after having been dried 
out, was placed in the partition with the side con- 
taining the openings uppermost. The space between 
the brick-work and the block was then thoroughly 
plugged up with asbestos fibre. In Fig. 5 one of the 
tile blocks Is shown In the partition placed as de- 
scribed above. Although this photograph was taken 
after the test, it shows the way the tile blocks were 
laid into the partition. Oare was taken to have the 
exposed face of the block in the same plane as the 
face of the partition. 

In the case of the concrete blocks the 
same method of placing the block in the partition was 
used, but the brick-work had to be rebuilt to accomo- 
date the smaller exposed face of these blocks. In 
figure 1 a concrete block is shown in place in the 
partition, and ready for the test. 

Position of !Phermooouples . 

The furnace thermocouple was so placed 
that when the movable partition was rolled into the 
position for testing its hot Junction was within 1/4" 
of the face of the block, being tested and at the cezt- 
ter of the exposed face. 

In the tile blocks the thermocouples were 
placed as follows:- Each couple was lowered to a 
depth of 6" in the cells and was placed against the 
face of the slab farthest away from the source of heet. 
This located the point of the couple l/8" away from 
the rear face of each cell. For example: the couple 
in cell ITo. 1 is at a distance of the thickness of 
the first slab, plus the depth of the cell minus l/8" 
from the exposed face of the block. !Ehe distance 
of each couple from the exposed face can be figured 
in a similar manner. After the couples were so 



Page lo. 8, 



placed, the openings through vhioh they were suspend- 
ed were plugged up with asbestos fibre, thus holding 
the coupled in place, and completely closing the 
cell. Due to the high temperatures which were anti- 
cipated and which did occur in cells ^os. 1, 2 and 
3, the platinum- iridium couples were used in these 
cells. Xhe copper-constantan couples were used in 
cells los. 4, 5 and 6, where the temperatures never 
were above 1000^ F. 

3!he holes made in the concrete blocks by 
the drill rods were l/32" larger in diameter than 
the porcelain tubes containing the couple wires. This 
gave a very close fit, making it unnecessary to do 
any filling with asbestos fibre. The depth of each 
hole was re-measured before inserting the couples in 
them, and they were all found to be accurate to l/64" 
of an inch. As previously stated, the holes were so 
made that the points of the couples were 1", 2" and 9 
4", 5" and 6" away from the exposed face. Platinum- 
iridium couples were used at the 1",2" and 3" depths 
and copper-constantan couples were used at the 4!*, 5" 
and 6" depths. 

In all tests each couple was so connected 
that it could be thrown into series with a galvanom- 
eter by a double throw, double pole, knife blade 
switch. 

Procedure During Test . 

The partition was first lined up so that 
it could be rolled within 1" of the open face of the 
furnace. A shield made of sheet iron backed up with 
asbestos paper was hooked on to the furnace so that £ 
covered the entire front face. The pilot lights were 
then lit and the blower started. The gas to the 
burners was then turned on and the furnace brought 
up to the required teniperature of the test. Cracked 
ice was placecl in the junction bottles and a zero, 
or the starting reading was taken. The furnace shield 
was then unhooked and removed and the partition rolled 
into place. The partition was jammed tight against 



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page ITo. 9. 



the furnace face "by means of long bars, and was kept 
there by means of wedge blocking. Hie furnace tem- 
perature was then regulated and maintained constant 
for four hours. Ihe ice in the junction bottles was 
replenished from time to time and all necessary obser- 
vations were made. 

The blocks were allowed to cool noroBlly after 
each four hour test , no water being thrown on 
them. 

Readings . 

Temperature readings were taken every 
three minutes for the first half hour, and every five 
minutes from then on to the end of the teat. The 
readings for the first half hour were taken closer 
together than those of the last three and a half hours 
in order to get more accurately the effect that any 
retained moisture might have on that part of the 
blocks near the exposed face, for the teniperature here 
rises very rapidly and the true shape of the curve, 
T^hieh is ploted from these readings, could not be 
obtained unless this were done. 

The readings taken were in mill i -volts 
as represented by the deflection of the galvanometer 
needle. The deflection is due to the electro-motive 
force generated by the thermocouples. This electro- 
motive force is in proportion to the difference in 
temperature between the hot and cold junctions of the 
couples. If the cold junction is maintained at a 
constant temperature, it is obvious that the galvanom- 
eter reading depends on the temperature of the hot 
junction at the point where it is desired to measure 
the temperature. 

The temperature in degrees Fahrenheit , as 
shown on the data sheets opposite the milli-volt read- 
ing, was obtained in each case by referring to the 
calibration curve of that particular thermocouple. It 
was found that one and one-half minutes was needed to 
obtain all seven thermocouple readings at each three 
or five minute Interval. Kiis cannot be considered as 



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Page Uo. 10, 



instantaneous, but since the readings are relative 
this does not affect the value of the data in any way. 



DISOUSSIOH OP RESULTS 

Condition of Blocks After Test. 

Although this part of the suhject is not 
directly connected with the work at hand, it may he of 
interest to know the condition of each block after the 
teat, therefore this data is tabulated as follows: 

Tile Block Eo. 1. Test JSo. 1. 1300 o F. 



The concrete around slab Ho. 1 was heavily cracked 
and came off upon removal of block from partition. 
That part of the concrete which fell off could be 
quite readily broken with the hands. 

Slab lo J. heavily cracked and slightly separated down 
through the center. Shis slab could be broken up 
with the hands. It was a much lighter color than 
before the test. 

Slabs Hoa.2,3 and 4, lightly cracked across center. 

Slabs Hos.5,6 and 7, all sound. 

Tile Block Ho. 2 . Test Ho. 2. 1600 o F. 

This block was affected in the same manner as 
block Ho* 1, only the cracks in slabs Jiios. 1, 2, and 
3 were more severe. 

This block is shown in Fig. 5, as it was just after 
the test. The dark spots noticeable on the exposed 
face are due to rust from the iron re-enforoing wir© 
which were looped under the block in the process of 
building and were afterwards out off even with the 
surface. The heavy cracking referred to is plainly 
noticeable here. 

The cracking of the concrete in this block is notic©^ 
able in Fig. 3. 

Tile Block So. 2. Test Eo. 5. 1900 o F. 
All slabs were cracked, slabs Eos. 1 and 2 being 



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Page lo- 11, 



very hearily oracked. Slat Ho. 1 was in a crumfcly 
oonaitlon and much lighter in color. 

Conorete Blook ITo. 1» Test Uo. 4. 1500 Q F. 

The exposed face was covered with a network of very 
fine surface cracks, and was a "bluish grey in colon 
The concrete was discolored to a depth of 4-1/8" from 
exposed face. The color of the stones in the aggre- 
gate varied from a dark salmon red at the face (hav 
ing some red spots in the center due to iron oxide) 
to a light salmon color, having no "bright red spot 
in center to a depth of atout 3" from exposed face, 
and at 4" from exposed face, the stones were a dull 
"brownish red. 

The general coloring of the concrete was: 
Brownish grey to a depth of 1/2"^ 

Salmon red from l/E" to 1-3/4" in from exposed face 
Muddy grey from 1-3/4" to 3-3/4" " " " " 
Yellowish grey from 3-3/4"to 4'8" " " " 

A screw driver could be forced in to a depth of 
1/4" without pounding. 

Concrete Block go. 2. Test go. 5. 1600 F. 

Discolored to a depth of 4-7/8". 

Exposed face blue grey and covered with surface 
cracks. 

Coloring: 
Blue grey - s/S" in from exposed surface, 
light pink tinge - 3/8" to 1-3/8" in from exposed ffioe 
Muddy trown - 1-3/8" to 3-5/8" , " " , " " 
A Pink tinged with purple, 3-5/8" to 4-7/8" ^ " 

The remainder of the block was a little lighter 
grey than normal concrete. 

A screw driver could be forced into a depth of 1/2" 
without pounding. 



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Conorete Block Eo. g Test go. 6. 1900 OF. 

Atout 1" of exposed faoe came off near lower 
corners when 'block was removed from partition. 

Exposed face tlue grey in color and covered with 
fine surface cracks. 

Discolored to a depth of 5-3/4" 

Coloration: 
Yery dark grey - 1" in from surface. 
Purplish hrown - 1" to 2-1/4" in from surface 
Grey - 2-1/4" to 4-l/2" " " " 
Pinkish grey - 4-1/2" to 5-3/4" " " 

A screw driver could he forced in to a depth of 
1" without pounding. 

The foregoing coloring described was in every 
case very faint and the colors were in all cases 
only tints and not as vivid as the description 
might imply. 

Discussion of Tecrperature Curves . 

The curves plotted from the reading of the tests 
on tile will he considered first, and their significance 
discussed before dealing with those plotted from the 
readings of the tests on concrete. 

The readings of tests los. 1, 2 and S are plotted 
on plates Eos. 10, 11 and 12, respectively. Since these 
curves are ploted with time as the abscissae, the sKIpe 
of the curves shows the rate of change of temperature in 
the cells throughout the tests. The points as plotted 
were so close to each other that it seemed advisable 
not to strike a smooth curve through them, so they were 
connected to each other by straight lines, and in this 
way each curve is accurately defined. 

In each of these three sets of curves the effect 
of replenishing the supply of ice in the junction bot- 
tles is quite noticeable, especially where a consider- 
able length of time elapses between the periods where 



Page 13, 



fresh ice was added. It is obvious that this rise ia 
due to the greater difference in temperature "between 
the cold and hot junctions, which occurs when fresh 
lee is added. 

It will be noticed that the furnace tempera- 
ture curves rise and fall very steeply for about the 
first half hour. This could not be avoided because the 
placing of the partitions in position at the start, 
tended to make the furnace temperature drop and in bring 
ing it up again it always overshot the desired tempera- 
ture, so the resulting curve is very irregular. This, 
however, has practically no affect on the block curves, 
as the block is only at room temperature when placed 
in the test position, while the furnace temperature is 
very much higher. 

The irregularities of the curves having been 
explained, their general form may now be considered: 

All curves on plates los. 10, 11 and 12 continue to rise 
throughout the entire four hours. This indicates that 
equilibrium of the block temperatures is never reached. 
If equilibrium were reached, the quantity of heat pass- 
ing through the part of the block near the exposed face 
would be exactly equal to the heat going through another 
part of the block farther out from the furnace, otherwise 
equilibrium is impossible. This is evidence showing 
that most of the heat entering the blocks goes to raise 
the teinperature of the latter, only a small percentage 
passing through and being lost by radiation. If, how- 
ever, tests were made for a longer period of time, it 
is fair to assume that equilibrium would be established 
in a few more hours. The curves indicate that this wou3d 
be so, for they tend to become horizontal, which means 
that a constant temperature is being approached. If 
such a condition did obtain, all of the heat entering 
the blocks would be lost in radiation. 

The significance of the above will be shown 
farther on in this report. 

The readings of tests Eos. 4, 5 and 6 are 



Page M. 14. 



plotted on plates Uos. 13, 14 and 15 respectively. 
The same statement in regard to the furnace tempera- 
ture curves of the tile block applies to these con- 
crete hlock curves. 

The effect of adding new supplies of ice 
to the junction bottles is noticeable on these curves 
to about the same extent that it is on the tile block 
curves, and the explanation for it is the same. The 
concrete block curves, however, differ from the tile 
block ciurves in two respects, namely, the effect of 
moisture in the concrete blocks shows up in all three 
sets, and these curves are at a greater angle to the 
horizontal time azis during the last hour of each run 

This latter fact indicates that it would 
take a longer time for concrete to reach equilibrium 
temperatures than it would in the case of tile blocks 
It will be noticed that the effect of moisture in the 
curves of test ao. 6 on plate Ho. 15 is less pronounced 
than in the curves of tests ITos. 5 and 6. Probably 
the reason for this is that concrete block lo. 5 was 
^ied for fourteen hours longer than either of the 
other two concrete blocks. This change of direction 
pf the curves in the vicinity of 21E OF may not be due 
entirely to uncombined retained water, but it may be 
influenced somev/hat by the water of orystalization 
in the concrete itself. It is safe to say that ful!^ 
as much, and probably in all cases, more moisture 
will be found in the concrete used in building con- 
struction than was contained in any of the concrete 
blocks tested. 

By further comparison of these curves with 
the tile block curves, it will be noted that the fir* 
point ciirves are lower in concrete than the first cell 
curves in the tile tests, but that the curves of poinfe 
Eos. 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are higher than the curves of 
cells los. 2, S, 4, 5 and 6. It is not fair, however, 
to compare these curves in this way since the tile 
couples in the tile cells are all considerably farther 
away from the exposed face than those corresponding 
thereto in concrete blocks. 



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Page UO. 15. 



A ftirther basis of coinparison may be 
shown by the Curves on plates ]3'os. 16 and 17. These 
curves have distances from the exposed face as ab- 
scissae and temperature as the ordinates. The read- 
ings at the end of two and three-quarter hours were 
plotted on plate Uo. 16 for all six tests. This 
time was chosen because all conditions of furnace 
temperature were practically constant for a consider- 
able period before this time, and the concrete block 
curves had risen above the 24E °F region. The curves 
on plate Ho. 17 were made in the same manner as those 
on plate Ho. 16, except that the time was the end of 
four hours, instead of two and three-quarter hours. 
The reason for not plotting the curves of test Ho. 6 
was that the readings beyond two hours and fifty min- 
utes are not considered reliable as noted in the d4ta 
on data sheet lo* 12. 

In both of these sets it will be noted 
that for the same distances out from the exposed sur- 
faces, the concrete block curves show a lower tempera- 
ture than the tile block curves. However, the differ- 
bnce in construction of the two types of blocks and 
the detaining effect of moisture should be considered 
iefore drawing definite conclusions. This will be 
considered later in the report. 

The quantity of heat flowing by conduction 
from one plane to another, through any portion of 
material, depends on the difference of ten^jcrature 
between these two planes and upon the resistance to 
the heat flow. With the same temperature difference , 
if the resistance is high, only a small quantity of 
heat flows through; whereas if the resistance is low 
a large quantity of heat flows through. If the 
quantity of heat remains constant the teinperature 
difference must be large, if the resistance to the 
flow is high, and small if the resistance is low. \7hen 
the quantity of heat passing between any two planes 
parallel to the exposed face is the same, the tenqpera- 
ture difference between any two planes indicates the 
resistance which the material or space between the 
two planes offers to the flow of heat. 



-'iJJS 



Pag© lo . ]£ . 



For example, if the difference in tenipera- 
ture between, say 2" of concrete is high, it may be 
said that the resistance of concrete to the flow of 
heat is high. Thus it is possible to rely on the 
temperature differences, being a true indicator of high 
or low resistance to heat flow between any two planes 
which are parallel to the exposed face. (This con- 
dition of equal quantities of heat passing through 
all parts of the block is only obtained at equilibrium! 
therefore, the results obtained from the tests made 
at this time can be used to indicate the relative heat 
resistance of the two kinds of f ireproofing and not 
to obtain the absolute values of this heat resistance. 

In the preceding discussion the flow of heat 
by conduction only has been considered, but in the 
case of tile blocks the flow of heat by radiation is 
of prime importance, and is discussed in detail under 
"Physical Laws". It has generally been assumed that 
an air space was a very good heat insulator . This is 
only true at the lower temperatures. While heat does 
travel very slowly through the air by conduction, it 
leaps over the air space readily by radiation. Al- 
though this latter mode of heat propogation is common 
in nature, the laws governing it are not generally 
known and taken into consideration. 



DISCUSSION OF PHYSICAL LAWS . 

Ihe quantity of heat passing through a 
portion of solid block or partition by conduction de- 
pends on the difference between the teniperatures of 
the two planes limiting the portion of partition or 
block, but the quantity of heat that passes across 
the air spaces in tile blocks depends on the differ- 
ence of the fourth powers of the absolute temperatured 
of the surfaces enclosing the air spaces. It follows 
that in case the heat passes by conduction through a 
solid block, the amount of heat passing will remain 
the same so long as the difference in temperature of 
the two limiting planes remains constant, no matter 



page Eo, 17. 



what that temperature may be. On the other hand, 
the heat passing across an air space hy radiation 
increases very rapidly with the rising teinperature 
of the enclosing surfaces, although the difference 
in temperature may remain constant. 

The old law of raidation given by Isaac 
lewton, which stated that the heat radiated from a 
hot body to a cold surrounding body was proportional 
to the difference of their teiaperatures, has been 
proven faulty by Boltzmann and Stefan, who about 
twenty-five years ago demonstrated mathematically 
that from the principles of thermodynamics the fourth 
power law should hold exactly for an ideal black body. 

This law is eacpressed by the following 
equation: 
(1) H , C (QJ* - Tg*) 

Where H s the net heat exchanged between 
the hot and cold surface per 
unit of the hot surface per 
unit of time . 

Tl- the absolute temperature of the 
hot surface. 

!£= the absolute temperature of the 
colder surface. 

C = A constant depending on the units used. 

If H. is exjpressed in B.T.U per sq. ft. of 
the hot surface per minute and Ti and T2 ®^® express* 
in degrees Fahrenheit on the absolute scale, then 

C » 2.66 Z 10-"= ^^ 



190,000,000,000. 



The above constant is only good for black 
surfaces and the hot surface must not "see" anything 
but the colder surface. 



page Ho. 18 



For aarfsces not blaokeced this law must 
"he modified. As a brick surface does not radiate so 
much heat as a blackened surface, the net heat ex- 
change between two such surfaces is less than that 
ezehanged between blackened surfaces at the same 
teciperatures. Therefore in the case of tile faces, 
(which may be considered as radiating and absorbing 
heat in the same manner as brick) a co-efficient must 
be used in formula Ho. 1. IDhis co-efficient has been 
found to be about .5 at 700 oc absolute temperature. 

(8) H - .5 X G (Ti^ - !Dg4) 

If in the tests made on the tile blocks 
the teiqperatures of the faces enclosing each cell has 
been taken, the actual conductivity of the til^labs 
and the air spaces could be accurately figured and 
the amount of heat transmitted by each could be 
determined. Hiat the air space is less effective at 
high temperature than at low ones is known by makers 
of "thermos" bottles, who claim that such bottles 
keep liquids cold seventy-two hours and keep liquids 
hot only twenty- four. 

The law of heat by conduction is quite sim- 
ple and may be expressed as follows: 

c 



(3) H --4 (!ri-T2) 



Where H = the quantity of heat conducted per unjfc 
of area per unit of time. 

c = the conductivity of the material, which 
varies somewhat with the temperature. 

d = the distance between the two parts of the 
body 

IP]_= the teinperature of the hotter part 

Tq- the temperature of the colder part. 

The curves on plates Eos. 16 and Eo. 17 
seem to indicate that the conductivity of the material 
varies somewhat with the temperature, but since these 
temperatures are taken before equilibrium is established 



Page Ho. 19, 



it would not "be proper to say that this is proven 
ty those curves. 

KaoT7ing the surface area, the time, the 
temperatures, distances d^and c, H can "be easily found 
or knowing H, c can be readily found • All tut H and 
can he obtained from the data taken. A method of 
determining this "H", or quantity of heat transmitted 
would be to simply place an enclosed tank containing 
vrater at the unexposed face of the block, having an 
insulating covering on all sides, except that adjoin- 
ing the block and measuring the quantity and rise in 
teniperature of the water. 0?his is, of course, only 
true after equilibrium has been established. Hav- 
ing ^ISV as stated "c", or conductivity of the black 
material, could be readily calculated. 

The tile fireproofing as constructed, al- 
ways contains air spaces, so the conditions as they 
are in the experimental work should be considered 
comparable to those met with in actual construction. 
.Therefore, the curves on plates ^os. 16 and 17 may 
jbe considered as giving some evidence that concrete 
jfireproofing, when of the same thickness as tile 
fireproofing, will transmit less heat through it. 
It is the belief of the writer that, knowing the fore- 
going physical laws, and using the results of the te^ 
made as a basis, the transmission of heat through all 
types of tile and concrete fireproofing can be determined. 



rovoicr ei e 



Data Sheet Uo.l. 
4/13/18. 



TEST Ho.- 1. 



TILS B L G K Ho_^ l._ 



I Purnaoe 1 Cell 1 Cell z\ Cell sl Cell 4| Cell 5 I Cell 6 



Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple Coupl 
Eo. 120 »o. 114 10. Ill Ho. 113 Ho. 14 Ho. 6 Ho. 13 

,T. MVJ o7 MV.! Of I uv.l OF. I MV.I Op. I JW.l OP. 1 ITT. I °F. yv | Qg. | H OTES 




2B0|1205|1^5|445|. 201110 IJLO 70 40 62 | .41 61 .50 63 ^slightly 




55 131211310 12801 735 1 .88 1330 -80 115 .46 66 .39 59 .43 59^piaoed 






10 312 1310 510 



37 58 42 58 L/ice m 



Data Sheet Ho. 2 



TEST Uo. 1. 



4/13/12 



TILE BLOCK lo. 1. 



Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple 
Ho. lEO Ho. 114 Uo.lll 10.113 Bo. 14 I0.6 l\fo.l3 



^1 °y|M7 I °F MV Oy ml OF MV 0? MY ©F 



5 3J.Z 1310. 3.62 885. Ij88 

10 315 1320 3j66 890 X91 

15 310 1300 3.68 895 193 

2o 31o 13oo 3.72 9o4 2po 

25 3.I0 1300 3.78 910 2jo8 

30 510 1300 3.80 915 210 



35 2ai 13o7 ZBO 915 213 

40 3ai 1S07 Ci.85 920 218 

45 :^^2 1510 586 925 2^0 

50 3^1 i:>o7 3B9 93o 225 

55 3.11 1307 550 933 2.26 

3H. 511 15o7 396 94o 25o 



55& .70 280J1.48 131. .71 



80. .52 
80 .53 



560 .71 285 148 131 .71 80 .53 

565 .72 290 1.49 132 .72 80 .53 

585 .80 3o5 L80 151 .83 89 .68 

600 .82 315 1.92 I60 .90 93 ,7o 

6o4 .88 .530 2.00 165 .94 95 .70 



6I0 .90 335 210 171 1.00 99 .71 

620 .92 340 218 176 Lo2 loo -75 

624 .98 355 223 I80 Lo4 lol ,13 

630 1.00 360 2;i4 186 Ul I06 .76 

635 I.0I 365 2,39 189 U7 llo .78 

642 L08 385 2<5o 195 1Z2 113 .79 



5 311 15o7 398 946 2^2 647 Uo 39o 2^2 196 126 115 .78 

lo 310 1300 3.98 946 1233 65o y.o 39o 2.69 2o7 131 118 .8'2 

15 310 1300 400 950 ;239 658 112 395 2.78 21o 139 122 .86 

20 3lo 1300 Aol 963 2.4o 660 113 397 2j8o Ell 141 123 .83 

25 3.08 1298 406 959 2.43 668 117 4o5 296 221 1,45 1E6 .9o 

5o 3.08 1298 4p7 961 2.47 674 118 4o7 3.ol 225 1.49 129 .9o 



35 an 1307 4d8 963 2.49 678 1^0 41o 3.o9 229 L51 13o .93 

4o 31.0 1300 4d8 963 2.5o 680 12o 41o 32o 235 1^8 135 1.00 

45 310 1300 4p9 966 2j5o 680 121 415 323 237 I.60 137 l.oo 

5o 3.09 1299 410 968 2.53 685 125 425 3.4o 247 1.69 141 U-O 

55 aio 1300 411 970 257 693 1^9 43o 3.48 25o 1.71 142 Uo 

4B. 31o 1300 411 970 258 696 129 43o 35o, 251 171 142 l,o9 



TEST So. 2 



TILE BLOCK 50, 2. 



Data Sheet lo. 3. 
4/17/12 



Purnaoe Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 



Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple couple Couple 
3Jo. 120 No. 114 So. Ill HollS lo. 14 So. 6 So. 13 



T. LT. op, jjyi op. MV. op. JW. OR m.\ op. 2JV. opl uv. Op|N«>xcs. 



360 147a .10 70. .10 70. 

3 3.80 1535 .12 80 .10 70 

6 3?3 1580 .28 135 .10 70 

9 4P7 1622 .62 240 .11 76 

12 43.2 1640 1^0 400 0.3 85 

15 MiJiSED m: 

18 4a7 1657 1.97 575 2Z 120 

21 4^0 1668 2^2 627 .28 132 

24 417 1657 2.45 671 .35 160 

27 43.0 1634 2.76 730 .48 200 

30 395 1583 288 753 .53 215 



35 400 1600 312 800 .70 265 

40 401 1603 3.30 830 .83 305 

45 406 1620 3.48 862 IpO 347 

50 410 1634 3.70 900 114 385 

55 402 1606 383 922 L29 417 



.10 70. 

.10 70 

.10 70 

.10 70 

.10 70 



.10 70 

.10 70 

.10 70 

.11 76 

.12 80 



.14 90 
.18 100 
.20 108 

.23 120 
.30 140 



.47 68. .42 

.47 68 .43 

.47 68 .43 

.47 68 .44 

.48 69 .44 

.51 70 ,50 

.51 70 .50 

.52 71 .50 

.52 71 .51 

.53 72 :51 



.54 72 .51 

.57 75 .52 

.59 76 .52 

,62 78 .52 

.70 82 .62 



58. .46 

59 .47 

59 .47 

60 .48 
60 .48 

63 .55 

63 .55 

63 .56 

64 .57 
64 .57 



64 .57 

65 .57 
65 .57 
65 .56 
65 .60 



iKMralkrJlft1f'ftf!'iK:rHifllifckll<M4IB<;i:lliMi1H:}ili 



■■^■^^■^ 



10 4P5 1618 413 980 1^3 500 
15 4fX) 1600 4^1 995 1.72 520 
20 4p0 1600 450L010 1.84 545 



,44 190 .90 96 .59 69 .60 
.49 203 .98 101 J5« 69 .60 
.55 220 HI 110 j65 72 £1 



035 204 590 .68 260 131 122 .71 I 77 | ,63 



40 401 1603 4541051 219 620 
45 4£I0 1600 4.601060 230 643 



.73 275 U51 136 .76 80 .63 
.78 287 162 141 .79 81 .62 



62, 

63 
63 
64 
64 

[ice added 
69 to Junction v 
69 Bottles 
70 
71 
71 



71 
71 

71 (Ice added 
70 to Junction 

72 bottles 



72 floe added 
72 J to Junction 
72 I Bottles 



73 ^ 

73 ffce added 



TEST Ho . 2 



TILE BLOCK Ho. 2. 



Lat* Sheet Ho . 4. 
4/17/1? 



[ffurnace UeH i cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 



Couple Couple Couple Coiiple Couple Couple Couple 
Ho. 120 Ho. 114 Ho. Ill Ho. 113 Ho. 14 Ho. 6 Ho.lg. 



I. laV. OF. m. °F. m. °F, ^. °F, LIV. ®F. M. °F. liV. <^. 



5 399 1598.-179 1093.2.53 690. .92 330, 2JD4 168. .95 90. .62 73 /Bottle #2 

10 4bl 1603 4B1 1097 2.58 698 .98 340 215 174 1.00 94 .70 77 -.r" #1 & #3 

15 401 1603 486 1105 267 715 UOl 350 2^8 181 108 100 .71 78 

20 a99 1598 490 1111 270 720 102 353 245 191 HO 101 .71 78 

25 400 1600 491 1113 273 726 UD7 362 2.45 191 1;L7 105 .71 78 

gQ j,^r^ -1^ ,/^ ACT, -noo on, ly-XQ nm %r;rf p RT Tgft ISO io7 .71 78/106 Added 




50 401 1603 5L1 1148 298 770 127 411 3D1 223 146 122 .80 83 

.re Ar.rs Ter.n CT <2 T T KT -AAfN rr^FPi T ^iO A?>C) KOR P.2R 149 124 .80 83 




20 401 1603 522 1168 SX^ 810 149 451 3j57 254 1.78 142 .96 94 jBottles 
25 401 1603 5.37 1174 3.22 815 149 461 3.67 260 1B5 148 1X)7 101 




)lenty on 
round 



TEST HO. 3. 



TILE BLOCK Ho, 



Lta Sheet lo. S. 



Jurnaoel cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 



couple Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple 
10.' 120 HO. 114 Uo.lll so. 113 lo . 14 Ho. 6 HoOS 



440 1734. 10 

3 462 18C0 .20 



.10 70 10 70. .50 &9. .53 66. .52 66. 

in 7i: iO 70 .50 69 .53 66 .56 70 




80 89 .58 68 .60 72 juncxio 

|l5 4^5 1900 5:09 1144 1.77 530 .52 1 212 '.89 95 .61 70 .61 72 |Bottles 

1::^ >.r^r^ -,0.^r^ KT O IT KR TRft I^BRl ^01235 .97 100 .61 70 .61 72 

05 .62 71 .61 72 

10 .62 71 .61 72 




73 .61 72 Ice Junction 

74 .60 72 ^Bottle #2 



« E S rSo. 3 



Diata Sheet Trb.b: 



4/20/lE 



fILE BLOCKJfo.3 



yuraioe Cell 1 0©11 2 Cell S Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 



Couple Couple Couple Coxtple Couple Couple Couple 



Ho. 120 10.114 Ho. Ill 110.113 HO. 14 Ho. 6 



Ho. 13 



MT. oP. ICT. °P. M. 



m.\ ^. M7. ^'F. No-rE.s 



5.83 127a 2.7E 723. U4 383. 2^0 17X .89 88. .69 ^ 76. • ' 

5.89 1275 2iB0 739 120 40O 2;38 187 IpO 94 .70 77 

5.92 1281 2.88 752 125 410 2,46 192 105 98' .74 80 floe added 

556 1287 293 764 1^0 420 2.58 199 1X)9 100 .75 80 ito JUBCtloa 

6.02 1300 302 780 1,40 447 2.70 206 Ijll 101 .76 81\Bottle8 

6.08 1307 3.08 790 1.43 450 289 218 U3 102 .80 83 



40 491 1902 6.18 1321 3^1 813 1^2 471 3.20 234 1^1 113 .80 85 

45 451 1902 621 1328 3^5 820 154 480 2122 236 1.40 120 .80 83 

50 490 1900 6.23 1331 3^0 830 160 490 531 240 1.43 1^1 .80 83 flee added 

155 4.90 1900 6;28 1340 3j34 838 162 498 3.45 248 148 123 .81 83 Ito Juncticu 

3E 450 1900 6.31 1345 3.40 848 170 512 3.68 250 155 129 .89 89 Bottles 



5 490 1900 a36 1351 3.47 860 177 530 3.77 265 1£0 131 .90 90 
10 490 1900 659 1356 2^50 867 179 635 3j84 269 1£3 133 .92 91 
15 490 1900 6.40 1358 3i52 870 181 540 4P0 277 170 138 .92 91 floe added 



25 4.90 1900 a45 1366 3j62 890 192 562 4^2 290 1J38 149 100 97 iBottles 
«n Aon 1 or.ri c^aq t ctm •xca ann tqq kwk AA*i ann orn^ t kw m /-> t r><7 ^ 



35 490 1900 650 1375 3.71 902 200 580 4^50 304 203 160 HO 103 [Ice added 

40 490 1900 6.50 1375 3.73 905 202 584 460 310 20-0 163 112 104 /to Junotion 

45 491 1902 &52 1379 378 910 2j07 594 4^2 320 2^0 170 114 lOSlBottles 

50 490 1900 6£7 1384 3^0 920 ^1 602 491 327 2;32 177 127 113 

55 490 1900 6.59 1388 382 923 213 608 501 331 259 180 130 116 



lllSJSUslSmlSSmSS^ 




Data Sheet xTo. 7 
4/23/12 



COECRETE BLOCK Ho.l. 



Purnaoe cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 



•ouple couple / Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple 
Ho. 120 Ho* 113 So .114 Ho. Ill Ho. 14 Ho. 6 .Ho. 13 



I. MV. ^V. MV. OF. MV. 0?. M7. oy. mV. op. MV. op. MV, op. r*o-rE3 



SJLO 1300. .11 75. 

3 319 1333 .22 120 

6 3^3 1345 .55 220 

9 3X0 1300 .68 260 

12 3.06 1290 .84 308 

15 ^2 1308 .97 338 

18 SaO 1300 HI 377 

21 2^0 1337 1.30 420 

24 2^6 1235 1.47 457 

27 3P3 1281 158 485 



Hjiiai^aj" *»Taaw*tvMi*>M 



.11 75. 
.11 75 
.17 95 
28 132 
.41 177 
.50 206 
.53 215 
.58 227 
.61 238 
.63 242 



.11 75k .57 75. .54 56. .53 67. 

.11 75 .58 75 .56 67 .57 70 

.12 80 .58 75 .57 68 .59 71 

.13 85 .59 76 .57 68 .59 71 

J.8 100 £0 77 £7 68 .58 70 

.20 108 .62 78 .57 68 .57 70 floe added 

.22 120 ^7 80 .59 69 .56 69 Jto Junction 

.28 132 .75 86 .61' 70 .60 72 [Bottles 

.32 150 .87 87 .66 73 .60 72 

.38 168 .90 96 .70 75 .60 72 



40 312 1308 2j02 584 .83 305 

45 3;L0 1300 a20 622 .91 322 

50 310 1300 ^31 649 1,07 362 

55 3.23 1345 2.45 671 1.21 401 

TTT, 510 1300 2£0 700 143 450 



IRTSTSEKISIEVSfSII 



.54 217 1,45 132 .90 88 .70 77 

.61 237 1.70 147 100 94 .74 80 

.69 262 1.90 159 10.2 101 .81 83 

.75 280 ^43 190 1,25 110 .90 90 

.82 300 2.68 203 140 120 .97 95 



ltL'khmUte/ilAE'J^Ii%Vl'Jt'tkt:A:W^M:VMmihUuMM/MEaiUMM'Jtt(MKkMM^ 



10 5;L0 1300 2.77 732 1;68 509 .93 330 2.84 215 1^7 136 U-O 103 Jto Junction 

15 310 1300 a90 756 1,72 520 1,02 353 2^3 220 1,87 149 121 110 \Bottles 

20 3.05 1287 ^96 767 1,83 542 1.09 370 3.06 227 ^08 162 130 115 

25 312 1308 3j01 777 190 560 111 377 3^.8 231 250 176 1.40 121 

30 3.08 1298 309 793 1.98 575 119 393 326 237 253 190 1.50 128 

35 310 1300 313 800 2JD2 583 122 404 3J5G 240 2j52 195 161 134 

40 311 1305 320 812 2^10 602 1^8 417 320 233 2.70 200 1.70 140 floe added 

45 311 1305 324 820 213 610 1^1 423 318 232 2.75 204 130 147 to Junction 

50 2P.0 1300 330 830 222 627 1.40 447 326 237 2;97 217 ^02 l60 bottles 

55 310 1300 3134 836 227 636 1,43 450 3^3 242 3p2 220 213 167 

2a 310 1300 329 845 231 645 148 461 338 244 311 2261 223 | 173 



TEST lo. 4. 



Co H C R E T E B L X: K JIo. 1, 



■s^iM0- -^''it^'M'x-'.- ;w^v5.^?^'ii5:^>y '#ip 



a snee-u eo. 



4/23/lJ 



IITurnace [cell 1 [Cell 2 | Cell g| Cell 4[ cell 5 Cell 6 



Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple 
Ho. 120 KO. 113 No. 114 Do. Ill lo. 14 Ho. 6 ITo. 13 

J. MV. Or MV. op. M7. OF. M7. OF. M\r. OF. MV. OF. M7. op. t^o-r^s 



5 3JL0 1300. 342 852, 2.37 657. 1,51 469l 342 247. 3.23 233. 2J39 182 

10 3.09 1299 5.47 860 241 665 1.57 485 347 249 533 240 250 190 floe added 

15 310 1300 3.50 867 246 673 lj60 490 350 250 341 245 Z^9 195 to Junction 

20 309 1299 357 878 250 681 lj56 505 3^55 252 359 255 2.70 202 [Bottles 

25 310 1300 3.60 883 2.54 691 1.70 512 389 270 3.70 262 2.75 205 fllot Junotin 



■»> wnmw*vi*Mww.swMm»iiHims9*VM» 



'f^t*r^-mmiifr'mmiis9mr*xivmwi¥Anw^MMm!\9M£n*in»XitK-] 



35 Sll 1305 363 
40 310 1300 3.63 
45 310 1300 3^7 
50 217 1325 3.69 
55 312 1308 3.71 



890 2.61 703 1.77 530 510 335 350 276 278 208 removed, and 

890 2j64 710 IjBO 538 5.41 352 3fl9 281 282 211 drop of oily 

897 ^69 718 133 542 5j68 365 4p8 287 2^0 215 aubstanoe 

900 a71 722 L88 555 590 377 418 292 2?^ 219 oovoring it, 

903 2.75 730 190 560 6.07 386 427 300 307 225 thorougiay 



llWr^i:i*rir>Vi:iMK^Yi>yl'^KTiyaiy^»ll<.VKlE!Hgll«ttllWl»lKH¥!ltt 



5 310 1300 3.75 910 2B1 741 159 576 6,30 398 4.44 310 322 233 Ice Junction 

10 3.09 1299 3.80 920 2.82 742 1.99 576 659 440 4^1 320 338 243 fBottle #1 

15 309 1299 3.81 922 233 744 200 580 6.73 418 475 328 3.48 250 ^Bottle #2 

20 311 1305 332 924 2j85 747 2j04 590 6.99 430 432 332 352 252 

25 310 1300 3B6 928 2$1 760 2l09 600 710 436 491 339 359 257 f loe added 



ji¥^MVtf»n'-^j'^mml!Jf%m'-*wMlil*¥'lm/^^ 



35 3,08 1298 3S1 940 2.96 765 217 617 7.30 447 515 353 3.75 266 [Bottles 

40 313 1313 353 943 300 777 2.20 621 740 450 522 359 380 270 

45 310 1300 356 947 3.04 785 221 622 7.51 455 530 363 339 274 

50 310 1300 3.99 951 3P8 790 223 628 7j63 461 540 369 3.95 279 

55 311 1305 401 957 309 792 2.27 633 7.71 465 5.48 373 400 282 

4H. 309 1299 402 960 311 797 2^9 640 7.82 470 554 378 4^5 284 



!& E S T Bo. 5. 



Data Sheet Ko. ^. 
4/27/12 



_C_^0_H_C_R_E_T_E_ BLOCK _%._2j^ _ 



Burnaoe Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 



Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple 
HO. 120 Ko. 113 lo. 114 Ho .111 No. 14 Uo.6 Bo. 13 



3« MV. op. jjY op jjv. OF. M7. Off. M\r. OJ. M7. OF. Wl ^F. 



9 4J30 1700 .59 232 .23 120 .11 75 .51 70 .50 63 .48 64 

12 3S3 1580 .70 266 .43 185 .12 80 .51 70 .50 63 .48 64 

15 4D4 1612 .80 295 .52 212 18 100 .56 74 51 64 .48 64 

18 410 1630 89 318 .53 215 .22 120 .60 77 .62 65 .48 64 

21 4D0 1600 .99 341 .60 235 .30 140 .70 82 .53 65 .50 65 

24 3.99 1598 102 353 .62 240 ,36 160 .80 89 .56 67 .51 65 (Couple 113 

27 4D2 1606 120 400 .62 240 .42 180 3Z 98 .60 69 .52 66 #114-111 

ar^ yirvT 1 cr,-;: T rri Ki rr AT 9:^0 Afl POO 1 /1ft 1 Oft .64 72 .53 Af t-T <>'»'=.'' ">- 



l» yi>«Bi. T . i fc B ^.i.ii>i.fc ir 4Mr.<B g 4. l t»J^JMb r^iaMhltMhldkiM>/i^Jw;i»iW^ 



40 4D0 1600 220 642 .72 273 .59 232 1.98 162 .86 86 ^2 73 lioleS 
45 400 1600 2.49 680 £0 295 .68 260 2.72 207 100 94 ,70 77 
50 4JD1 1603 2^3 707 .83 305 .71 270 2.90 219 116 104 .80 83 



10 359 1598 513 800 167 505 .96 336 a91 220 1^0 143 158 lol 
15 359 1598 3.21 81.3 J,92 662 1.04 360 2^1 220 1;97 155 189 151 

^A. Ar^f, ir-r^n rrr^A^ oerATcciT KQ-Z 1 AQ rtrjn 9Qfi 9PP '!>:\ Ci T fiS P.lO 164 




RK5:- More time than usual was taloan to remove the aslbostos^and 
iron shield from the fuxiaace making it impossihle to talce 
the three minute reading, so bJ five minute reading was 
E. taken instead of the three and six minute readings. 



\ 



Data sheet Uo.io. 



TEST Ho . 6 



A/Z1/\2, 



QOirCRETB BLOCK Ho. 2 



ce Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Coll 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 



Couple Couple ~ Couple Couple Cottple Couple Couple 
Ho. 180 Ho. lis Ho. 114 Ho. Ill Ho. 14 Ho. 6 Ho. 13 



a?, MV. OF. jiy; Op, 



OF. MV, OF. KV. OF. I r«*o-rcs. 



5 3.99 1598. 3j35i 928. 2^8 
10 4G0 1600 3B9 935 2.71 
15 4D0 1600 3^92 940 2.79 
20 399 1598 3.95 945 2.82 
25 4.02 1606 3.99 951 239 
30 398 1596 4j31 . 958 295 
35 399 1598 4p6 965 300 
40 406 1620 4?-l 978 3i01 
45 413 1645 415 982 3.08 
50 420 1668 420 991 312 
55 410 1633 426 1001 316 
3H. 400 1600 431 1012 320 



958 295 



965 300 

978 3i01 

982 3.08 

991 312 



716, 1.70 512. 4t68 312. 3.28 236. 2fi2 210. 

722 L73 522 499 328 537 241 230 208 

736 130 538 530 346 350 250 230 208 Ice junctin 

742 186 550 550 357 3^0 258 2.79 207 tBottle #2 

754 190 560 5.73 368 a77 267 236 213 *- •» ,?1 

766 1.98 575 598 380 350 276 238 215 



776 201 582 020 392 410 289 235 212 
778 2p4 590 6.32 400 415 292 232 210 
790 210 601 6.49 406 4^2 297 235 212 
798 2;L5 610 6.73 419 440 308 2.90 216 
802 2;L8 619 634 423 4.48 311 310 227 
811 220 622 697 430 453 315 320 232 



5 402 1606 437 1022 3.23 820 227 633 7J.3 439 467 322 322' 240 

10 400 1600 441 1030 2i26 823 230 643 750 446 474 329 3.40 245 

15 4P0 1600 4.44 1035 3J30 830 2^37 656 7.50 445 490 337 3.50 250 

20 400 1600 4.47 1040 3j32 853 239 660 7.62 461 5iD0 343 3.65 255 flee added 

25 400 1600 4j51 1048 335 840 242 667 7.78 472 50-1 351 3.62 260 to Junction 

30 400 1600 466 1053 340 850 2.45 671 7.95 477 530 362 380 270 Isottles 



35 4P0 1600 430 1060 3.45 856 2.50 601 813 485 5.45 372 3.90 275 

40 400 1600 4fil 1062 349 862 2^1 683 025 491 552 377 3.96 279 

45 399 1598 461 1062 3.50 866 2.57 693 8.40 499 5.70 387 408 287 

50 3S9 1598 462 1064 3.53 871 2.60 700 a53 504 5.77 390 4^.1 290 

55 4P0 1600 433 1068 3.57 878 232 704 838 511 539 399 4^a 294 

4H.4P0 1600 465 1070 330 882 235 710 880 518 594 401 423 298 



Data Sheet ITo. 11. 



5/6/lJ 



S £ S T So. 6 



COICEETE block Ho. E 



Fumaoe ooll 1 Cell S Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 



Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple 
Ho. 120 ^0, 113 Ho. 114 HO. Ill Ho. 14 Ho. 6 Ho. 13 



M7. op. 1C7. op. iiv. ©E M7. op. wr. ©P. M7. ©F. M. Op mot&s. 



' 400 I60a .20 

j8 4)53 1777 .42 

% 4B0 1865 .61 

9 5D0 1932 .80 

12 499 1928 U8 

16 500 1932 147 

18 5.00 1932 1-70 

21 5.02 1937 130 

24 499 1928 2P9 

27 459 1928 2^8 

30 496 1910 2.40 



35 494 1913 2.70 
40 490 1900 297 
46 490 1900 311 
50 431 1902 3^0 
65 490 1900 550 



lOa .20 lOa .20 10a .70 82. .69 74; .61 72 

180 .23 120 .21 110 ,72 84 .71 77 .63 73 

237 .27 130 .21 110 .71 83 .71 77 .66 76 

296 .33 152 .22 120 .71 83 .71 77 .65 76 

390 .66 220 .26 128 .75 86 .71 77 .6.8 76 

!457 .64 249 .30 141 .80 89 .73 78 .70 77 

512 .70 265 .35 160 .83 92 .74 78 .71 78 

660 .73 276 .40 175 .91 97 .76 79 .72 79 

598 .79 289 .47 193 100 101 .79 80 .72 79 

618 .88 317 .57 227 112 110 .80 81 .72 79 

662 100 346 .60 235 122 118 .87 86 .73 80 gee added 

720 112 378 .62 240 1.49 132 .99 93 .77 81 ^0 Junction 

736 140 447 .71 270 1^0 160 1^1 108 .90 90 Ibottles 

795 157 486 .80 295 212 172 1,47 123 ,98 96 

830 1.72 520 £8 316 2.40 189 1.85 148 106 100 

866 190 560 100 346 270 206 2.40 181 1^0 110 



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5 490 1900 3.71 903 ^1 603 110 373 2^07 227 272 201 1.40 121 

10 490 1900 3.87 931 2.23 630 120 400 3^0 240 2,75 204 152 130 

16 490 1900 395 945 233 650 127 512 350 260 2,76 205 1^0 133 

20 490 1900 405 965 2.43 670 1^2 423 ^70 260 2.76 205 1.76 142 

25 490 1900 4;L1 978 2^0 681 1.40 447 3B7 270 270 200 185 150 

r\ AQri n onn AtiA T nnn oc^t. nrnc 1 AQ ACA A'^<\ OQ* OQT i onQ Pin TfiR 



35 490 1900 4£i2 1013 2.71 722 1.54 480 452 305 2i88 211 225 174 
40 491 1902 4.40 1029 2.79 736 1.60 490 4.71 315 291 214 236 181 
46 490 1900 4.47 1040 2.87 750 1^5 501 495 328 298 218 2.49 189 



•IPVr'f4fiKl*ll 



IP'Tt*ifMT^Pryii^W«li*r'rlt?M'l^*f'lf.Tifll 



1 55 4?0 1900 467 1047 299 772 1.75 528 5^0 346 3.47 249 267 200 
t2H.490 1900 462 1065 3.05 786 180 536 5.42 362 369 261 2.70 202 



Sata Sheet So. 12. 



TEST Uo. 6 



b/^flZ 



COHCRETE BLOCK Ho. 



I Purnaoe cell 1 Cell £ I Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 



Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple Couple 
Uo. 120 Ho. 115 Ho. 114 Ho. Ill Ho. 14 Ho. 6 Ho. 13 



T. M7 OF. MY. Op. MV. OP. M7. op. MV. OP. M7. ©P. M7. Op. No-res 



5 490 190a 4.70 1077. 310 794. U85I55Q 5.58 360. 3.82 270. 2.80 208J Ice added 



15 490 1900 480 1095 3^8 

20 490 1900 406 1105 331 

25 490 1900 490 1112 32i5 

30 490 1900 493 1115 3.40 



40 492 1904 500 1130 3J50 

45 488 1895 5.06 1140 3.55 

50 488 1895 510 1146 3.60 

55 5D5 1950 525 1171 3.80 



828 2D0 580 6.23 394 440 308 325 236 (bottles 

832 204 590 6.45 404 452 314 353 242 

840 215 611 6j60 412 461 320 333 242 

850 220 622 680 421 476 527 547 249 [loe added 



866 229 640 715 439 5i}2 347 3j67 261 bottles 

875 2J3S 650 732 449 519 356 383 271 Oiled up 

882 a39 660 7.50 454 530 362 3^9 28GJfan Motor. 

920 a53 690 7.80 470 665 383 4^0 294\Blew 220 7. 



nmfWiyiln^vvMmma'Mmmmwinwmvm^ 



5 490 1900 528 1176 395 
10 490 1900 5j30 1180 4.00 
15 490 1900 532 1183 402 
20 498 1895 555 1189 4P4 
25 4J90 1900 537 1191 4j06 



945 2.72 725 845 500 610 410 457 316 °^ ^^° ^' 

954 2.77 734 8£7 507 653 423 4£5 320 Values 

960 2.81 740 8.70 512 645 430 476 327 obtained 

963 283 745 aSO 519 6J53 434 4jB2 331 beyond here 

966 2B5 748 a90 522 6j62 440 487 334 ere cot 



imiiWiiS»viv»^miawkwe^jw^Mmmtiiii^\W'^iya^ 



40 490 1900 550 1212 416 985 2J93 

45 490 1900 5150 1212 418 988 300 

50 490 1900 552 1215 4^1 992 3£)3 

55 490 1900 553 1218 422 996 305 

4H. 490 1900 552 1218 425 1000 3.08 



763 9J54 552 714 468 512 349 

777 9j55 558 7.23 472 518 351 

786 9.77 562 7^2 478 525 355 

788 9.88 569 7.41 481 552 360 

791L0.01 574 7.50 486 558 362 



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